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3 1833 01150 7693 



ptstorg of t|e Juki] anb ^to^ttisl] ^fttkimnts 

Delaware River, 

Translated and Compiled from Original Manuscripts in the Office of the Secretary of 
State, at Albany, and in the Royal Archives, at Stockholm, 



Vol. XII. 



Dutch and Swedish Rule on the Delaware. 

Albany, Decemler 10, 1877. 

The downfall of the Dutch ai;thority in New York was perhaps inevitable. 
The colonizing impulse of the British Empire in the Seventeenth Century was so 
much greater than that of any other foreign power that in all human probability 
the unsurpassed harbor of New York and its tributaries were its natural and 
inevitable prey. The result, however, if it was inevitable, was precipitated by an 
incident of which history has taken little or no account, and which illustrates in a 
singular manner the difficulty attending any contemporaneous estimate of the relative 
influence and importance of historical causes. ^-Xof>X'lcJ 

Long before the English had made any direct claims upon the Hudson river 
or upon Manhattan Island, they had set up and were very tenacious of a paper 
title to the territory along the Delaware, then called the South river. The Dutch 
claimed the same territory by the right of prior possession, insisting that they 
built the first fort on the South river [Delaware] in 1598. 

The success of various commercial expeditions and notably that of Captain 
Hendrickson in 1614 in the ship "Eestless," the first ship ever built in the State of 
New York, and his reports from the Delaware and Schuylkil country, led to the 
formation of the celebrated Dutch West India Company, which was organized in 
1621 with jurisdiction over what was afterwards called New Netherlands, embracing 
all the country between the 38th and 45th degrees of North latitude. The object 
of this company was exclusively commercial, but it was soon discovered that to 
develop the trade of the country to its fullest extent it had need to be colonized. 
Efforts were thereupon made to settle the country with Europeans. 

In prosecution of their plans in 1623, they sent to the South river [Delaware] a 
number of emigrants under the direction of Cornelius Jacobsen, who having sailed 
up as far as Glocester Point, New Jersey, about four miles above the city of 
Philadelphia, landed near the mouth of Little Timber-creek, and built Fort Nassau, 

i^' Dutch and Swedish Rule on the Delaware. 

the head-quarters for the company's agency on the South river. There is little 
room for doubt that this was the hrst European settlement on the banks of that 

These efforts attracted the attention of the English and the British envoy at The 
Hague, Sir Dudley Carlton, was instructed to protest against what he pronounced 
a usurpation of English territory by the Dutch government. Here commenced the 
dispute between the then greatest commercial nations of the world, which was 
destined to gather force and importance until it should end in the utter extinction 
of the Dutch authority on this continent. 

It is possible that this catastrophe — if catastrophe it now deserves to be 
called — might have been averted but for an event which has attracted very little 
of the attention of historians and which seems to have furnished the flint if not 
the powder which produced the ultimate explosion. That was the attempt of the 
Swedish government to establish a colony under an Indian title on a part of this 
disputed territory. 

The documentary history of that enterprise and of its stormy relations with 
the Dutch government of New York constitutes the principal feature of the 
following pages. 

The romantic success of some of the Dutch, English and Spanish merchants 
in America had been brought to the attention of Gustavus Adolphus, at that 
time the most commanding figure in Europe, by William Usselinx, a native of 
Antwerp, a man of high rank and social position in Holland and one of the 
most prominent and influential originators of the Dutch West India Company. 

Usselinx laid before the King of the Swedes a plan for a trading company, 
which ultimately received his Majesty's approval and resulted in a royal edict on 
the 14th of June, 1626, establishing the "Swedish South Company." The first 
provision of this edict was : 

" That during the term of twelve years none of our subjects and inhabitants 
of all lands and territories shall be allowed to sell and, trade in anybody's but 
the company's name and behalf, south of the straits of Gibraltar to the countries 
of Africa, Asia, America, and Magellanica or Terra Australis, reckoning the coast 
of America up to the same latitude as the said straits, or 36 degrees ; nor to 
any country or island lying between Africa and America under the said latitudes, 
while the ships and goods of all who have dared to trade there without our 
and this company's consent and permission shall be confiscated and the ship owners 
who may have sent them there to trade shall be prosecuted." 

The stock holders of this company were authorized to elect as many directors 
as there should be hundred thousand dalars subscribed and this was to constitute 

Bictch and Swedish Rule on the Delaware. v 

its capital, the king himself being the largest individual stockholder as may be 
inferred from the thii-ty -first article of his edict which reads as follows : 

"In order to manifest the great pleasure which we have in the progress of 
this company we promise that we will subscribe and invest a sum of four hundred 
thousand dallers counting thirty-two round pieces to a daller, which we will risk 
for our own account dividing profit and loss with the other share holders." 

The expectations with which the minds of King Gustavus and many of his 
people were intoxicated, are manifest in the following paragraphs taken from the 
contract of the new company with its stockholders : 

Our own experiences further teach, that all the kingdoms, countries and cities, which 
flourish in power and wealth, have become rich and powerful by navigation, commerce, 
by creating all kinds of trades and especially thereby, that the inhabitants have discovered 
and taken new and formerly unknown countries : this can be proved by Spain and the 
United Provinces of the Netherlands, which are two especially good examples of it. 

It is almost incredible, what treasures, wealth, and advantages the Spaniards have 
already had and enjoyed from Africa, Asia and America during 130 years now ; it has 
gone so far, that the profits derived from America alone amount annually to 20 millions 
of Rixdalers or 300 times 100000 Swedish dalers,* being mostly pure profits and gains 
so for the King himself as for his subjects and consisting in gold, silver, quicksilver, 
pearls, emeralds, amber, cochineal, anil,-!- hides, sugar, ginger, tobacco, all kinds of spices, 
rosin and precious woods, without counting here several millions of ducats, of which the 
King, besides meeting other expenses, makes use for his servants and their salaries, for 
the Administration and Bishoprics, Prebends, Presidents and Councils, as well as other 
official positions, some of which are worth annually five to six, some eight or ten and a 
few hundred tliousands of Rixdalers. 

It is sufficiently known, what great riches the United Netherlands have obtained 
during 40 years, especially Holland, where the Brabant Flemings with great many 
WaUons established themselves. They soon brought there commerce and valuable 
manufactures and thereby filled the country with all kinds of trades and professions, so 
that the rent of a well arranged house is now higher, than formerly the purchase-price 
of the same. The products of the country are thereby also raised and increased in price 
three or four times, so that the inhabitants have become rich gradually and as it were 
sleeping. Aside from the private revenues and profits, the land has become so powerful, 
by closing the navigable waters and ports of the devastated and conquered country 
as well as by voyages to the East-Indies, Guinea and other distant places, that it has 
already been able to resist the King of Spain and defend and protect itself against his 
great power. 

This Kingdom of Sweden has until the present day lost or not shared in all the 
aforesaid profits and advantages, because its inhabitants were not willing to risk in 
anything extraordinary, unless remaining within their own boundaries, and thus they gave 
opportunity to the stranger from other countries to take the food from their mouths ; he 

*One Swedish daler = 50 cents. One Rixdaler=.73 ceuts.— Tr. 
t A shrub, from whose leaves and stalks indigo is m&Ae. — Webster. 

vi Dutch and Swedish Ride on the Delaware. 

buys the products of this country at an easy and low price and sells the imported goods 
very dear, while the Swedish people have, God be praised, not only as good an 
opportunity for trading, navigating and establishing all kinds of handicrafts, as any 
other nation in Europe may have : they even surpass others therein, for everything that 
is necessary for commerce, navigation, establishment of manufacture, viz., provisions, 
copper, steel, iron, timber and other wares, can be easier and better obtained in Sweden 
than in any other country and hence trade can be carried on with greater profit and 
advantage to Asia, Africa, America and Magellanica, than by Spain and the Netherlands. 

Aside from these and other general advantages, each order in society wUl derive a 
special benefit for itself. The nobility can thereby improve their incomes and revenues, 
increase their dignity and consequently promote themselves as well as their children and 
relations in the service and official positions of the state. 

Bishops and others of the clergy can expect the same. In the same way schools and 
churches will flourish through it and be sustained, and furthermore those who have 
learned something will be promoted to dignities and positions. Likewise the merchant 
can much improve his trade by the import and export of goods and can have himself made 
a Director and his sons clerks and agents of the Company. 

Farmers and others of the common order can have their great profits by trading, 
although they do not need to learn or understand it and alongside of it they will be 
able to sell their grain and whatever else they may have for sale, at high prices ; they 
must also consider this advantage, that H. R. Majesty, by increasing the revenues of 
the Kingdom, will obtain the means to engage and subsist more foreign troops, whereby 
his subjects are either altogether freed from conscription or at least it will be made much 
easier. Besides, when all sorts of manufactures are established, a child of eight or ten 
years will be able to earn so much, that the father can hire a soldier for it and may keep 
his sons, laborers and servants. 

King Gustavus did not live to realize any of his own or the stockholders' dreams of 
wealth from their enterprise ; and the charter, limited to twelve years, expired in 1637 
and before the company got into active operation. The king however, only a few days 
before the memorable battle, in which he lost his life, earnestly recommended Ms project 
to the Swedish people. The charter was promptly renewed by his daughter Christinna 
who succeeded him ; was approved by her Chancellor, Oxenstiern and an expedition was 
fitted out in the following year under the direction of Peter Minuit, who had also been 
a prominent officer of the Dutch West India Company as well as a Governor of New 
Netherlands, but who in consequence of some misunderstanding with the company had 
been discharged. Partly for employment and parly to revenge himself, he had placed 
his services at the disposal of the young queen of Sweden and doubtless furnished 
all that seemed then to be lacking for the entire success of the Swedish South 

According to Rodman professing to have the information from "Captain Israel 

Dutch and Swedish Rule on the Delaware. vii 

Helme," an old resident on the Delaware in 1675,* Minuit purchased from the Indians 
the land from the mouth of the river and Cape Henlopen to the Falls of the Delaware 
which almost the same day, eight years before had been bought by Samuel Godyn.f The 
arrival of Minuit and his companions did not long escape the notice of the Dutch nor 
could they have been many weeks in their new home before a protest from William 
"Kieft, Director General of Kew Netherland, residing on the Island of the Manhattas 
and in Fort Amsterdam," was addressed to Peter Minuit informing him that "the 
whole of the South river of New Netherland" had been "many years in the possession 
of the Dutch and secured to them above and below by forts, and sealed with their 
blood." He then goes on to say "Now as you intrude between our forts and begin 
to buUd a fort there to our disadvantage and prejudice, which shall never be suffered 
by us, and we are very certain that her Royal Majesty of Sweden has not given you 
any order to build fortresses along our rivers or along our coast. Therefore in 
case you proceed," etc. "we do hereby protest" etc. Minuit unfortunately for the 
company, died within a year or two after his arrival on the Delaware and before 
his work had matured. His colony was represented by the Dutch as so much 
discouraged as to entertain thoughts of returning to their own country, when a vessel 
arrived with the new governor, Peter Hollander and more colonists which revived 
their hopes. 

About the same time, that is between 1640-42, the English revived their pretensions 
and commenced a settlement on the Schuylkill river opposite Port Nassau which 
furnished occasion to the Director General and Council of New Netherland to 
resolve: "That it is our duty to drive these English from thence in the best 
possible manner" — and corresponding instructions were accordingly sent to their 
commissary at the South river. 

This attempt on the part of the English is presumed to have originated in 
New Haven. It failed and they were ultimately driven out by the Swedes. 
The latter rapidly encroached upon the trade of the Dutch with the Indians, 
and in 1643 built Port Elsenborgh near the mouth of the Salem-kil and practically 
closed the river for the Dutch at Port Nassau. They had already buUt Fort 
Christina on Christina creek, now Wilmington, Delaware, in 1638. 

The Dutch felt these encroachments upon their trade which had become of 
considerable importance, very severely. Some idea of the value of this South river 
traffic may be formed from the fact that two vessels leaving there in 1644 had a 

* See New York Colonial Manuscripts xx folio 62. 

t The deed of this purchase by Minuit was unfortunately destroyed together with a map of the country made by 
Marcus King by the fire of the Royal Palace at Stockholm in 1697. 

viii Dutch and Swedish Rule on the Delaware. 

cargo of 2,127 packages of beavers and 70,420 pounds of tobacco. The Dutch 
appeared for some time inexplicably patient under this diversion of their traflBc 
which was subsequently proved to be partly due to the infidelity of their commissary 
or agent at Fort Nassau who was removed from office in 1645 for corruption and 
neglect of duty, and partly to the unsettled boundary questions pending between 
them and the English which every year assumed increasing importance. At last 
however Governor Stuyvesant who had been named Governor of New Netherland 
in 1647 encouraged by the home government took the matter out of the hands of 
the local agents into his own. 

In the first place and to counteract the Swedish influence with the Minquas 
who had professed to be friendly to the Dutch, he destroyed the old Dutch settlement 
at Fort Nassau and established a new one on the other side of the river calling 
it Fort Casimir, to-day New Castle, Delaware. This was in 1651. 

In 1654 a new Governor of the Swedish colony named Rysingh was sent out 
with troops and colonists and in ascending the river to Fort Christina (Wilmington) 
surprised the Dutch garrison at Fort Casimir (New Castle), and took possession of 
it in the name of Queen Christina. 

This was a step of course not calculated to improve the relations between the 
two rival colonies. Tlie Dutch had not long to wait for their revenge. A Swedish 
ship called "The Shark," entered the Hudson river by mistake, was seized by 
Stuyvesant and confiscated, the captain being permitted to ransom her cargo. But 
the matter did not end here. 

When the news of the capture of Fort Casimir reached the West India Company 
at home they were greatly incensed and instructed Stuyvesant to take immediate 
steps for the utter extermination of the Swedes from the South river. In the 
following year an expedition was fitted out of which Stuyvesant took the command ; 
so overwhelmingly strong that when it arrived, the Swedes surrendered the Delaware 
territory to the invaders without a blow. 

From this time forth the history of the Swedish colonists forms a part of the 
history of the Dutch on the Delaware which was destined for the remaining 
comparatively brief period of its existence to be sufficiently occupied with its 
differences with the English colonists of Virginia and Massachusetts. The terms 
upon which the conquered Swedes were permitted to remain were not oppressive 
as we may gather from the following extract from a letter of the Directors to 
Stuyvesant on the 26'? May 1655 : 

Dutch and Swedish Rule on the Delaware. ix 

"We have informed your Honors sufficiently by indications in our last general letter, 
here enclosed, of our serious opinions and advices, how to treat the Swedes on the 
Southriver. We still retain and persist in these orders and directions, only we have, 
after previous deliberation, resolved, that, when your Honors shall have carried the 
expedition to a successful end, the land, upon vrhich Fort Christina stands, with a 
certain amount of garden land for the cultivation of tobacco shall be left to the people, 
as they seem to have bought it with the knowledge and consent of the Company, under 
the condition that the aforesaid Swedes shall consider themselves subjects of this State 
and the Company, this for j^our information and government : while we will not continue 
upon this point, we have yet desired to recommend most earnestly, that the utmost 
possible speed may be used in the execution of the expedition after the arrival of this 
man-of-war (arrived on the 13'." of August). 

It is difficult to ascertain with any precision the number of Swedes who 
participated in the colonial experiment at the South river. None of the reports which 
have been preserved — in the archives of this office at least — give their number ; 
nor does the number of passengers arriving in the ships seem to have constituted an 
item of sufficient importance to have been deemed worthy of chronicling in the 
official correspondence. A few years after the extinction of Swedish authority on 
the Delaware the Dutch commissary in charge — Beekman — reports the number of 
Swedes and Fins in the colony capable of bearing arms at 130. The fighting men 
of a country are commonly considered to represent one-fifth of its total population. 
Should that rule apply to this colony it would give a population of from six to 
seven hundred inhabitants for the Swedish villages near the mouth of the Schuylkil. 

The territory purchased by the Swedes from the Indians, and over which they 
claimed jurisdiction during their hour of brief authority on the Delaware, was 
most distinctly defined in the instructions sent Johan Prints, a lieutenant of cavalry 
who was appointed governor of New Sweden by Queen Christina on the 16th of 
August, 1642. He is described by De Vries in the journal of his travels "as 
weighing upwards of 400 pounds and drinking three drinks at every meal." These 
instructions, among other things say : 

"When (should it please Grod) the Governor arrives at New-Sweden, he is to take 
care that the boundaries of the country extend from the borders of the sea to Cape 
Henlopen, in returning southwest towards Godyn's Bay and thence towards the Great 
South River, as far as Minquas Kil [now Christina Creek] where is constructed Fort 
Christina [now Wilmington, Del.], and from there again towards the South River and 
the whole to a place, which the savages call Sankikan ; this is at the same time the 
boundary of New-Sweden. This district may be in length about 30 German miles [about 
120 English miles]." 

It does not appear that many of the Swedes returned to their native country 
after their surrender to the Dutch. They mostly remained on the Delaware in their 

X Didch and Sivedish Rule on the Delaware. 

villages above Wilmington and Tennackonk (now Tinicum, Pennsylvania), Upland, 
and Passayonk (now a part of Philadelphia), and aU trace of their nationality 
has long since disappeared. 

With the extinction of the Swedish authority the English grew only more 
impatient of their Dutch rivals in trade and more arrogant in their territorial 

Early in the spring of 1659 a conference of leading Englishmen was held at 
Bear's or Godfrey's island in Maryland to consider the best means of pressing 
their claims on the South river or Delaware territory. Soon after this meeting, 
and no doubt as a consequence of it, Colonel Nathaniel Utie, a member of the 
Maryland council, and five men in his suite presented themselves at New Castle 
claiming to be commissioned to take possession of the Delaware in the name and 
behalf of Lord Baltimore, alleging also that Governor Fendall of Maryland had 
received sunUar instructions. The Dutch officers in command at New Castle were 
frightened and so completely lost theu' head that, instead of arresting Utie and his 
companions, for which they had sufficient force, they sent messenger after messenger 
to Governor Stuyvesant in New York for military escort and protection. Their 
pusillanimous conduct received a deserved rebuke from Stuyvesant who sent a half 
military, half judicial commission to the South river to investigate and assist their 
compatriots if necessary; and another committee of two to Maryland to set matters 
right with Governor Fendall. Before his commission however reached the South 
river, Utie and his companions had disappeared and matters were patched up for 
a time between the two colonies by the judicious and conciliatory policy of 
Governor Stuyvesant. 

In the spring, however, of 1661 d'Hinojossa, the governor of the City's Colony 
on the South river, an indiscreet, bad man, by his arbitrary conduct put not only 
the peace, but the very existence of the Dutch colony in peril. He released some 
Indians who had murdered four Englishmen from Maryland. It was with the 
greatest difficulty the English could be prevented from declaring war upon the 
Indians. The governor of Maryland refused to compound the murder by accepting 
presents from them, and d'Hinojossa became so frightened by the probable 
consequences of his imprudence that he set to work and finally succeeded in 
concluding a peace between the Indians and the English, but without in the least 
improving the relations of the Dutch and English colonists. 

While these elements of dissension were festering on the South river the British title 
to the Delaware country had again been brought up for consideration in the council of 
Maryland. King Charles II had reaffirmed Lord Baltimore's patent and Governor 

Butch and Sivedish Rale on the Delaware. xi 

Calvert, Lord Baltimore's natural brother, had been sent to replace Governor Fendal 
with instructions " to prosecute Hs claim by all possible means." 

Obviously the time was not distant, when it was necessary that the question, 
whether the Dutch or the English were to prevail in America was to be decided. 

How the question was decided is best stated in the following correspondence 
between Governor Stuyvesant and "the Royal Commissioners," which took place 
only three years later : 

Letter from Governor Stuyvesant to the Royal Commission. 

New-Amsterdam, 29'" Aug. 1664. 
Right Hon'"^ Sirs. 

Whereas wee have reed intelligence that about 3 dayes since there arrived an 
English man of warr or ffriggott in the Bay of the North River belonging to the New- 
Netherlands and since that, three more are arrived, by what order or p'tence is yet 
unknowne to us and having reed various reports concerning their arrivall upon this 
Coast and not being apt to entertaine anything of p''judice intended against us, have by 
order of the Commander in Chiefe of y' N. Netherlands thought it convenient and 
requisite to send their Worships the bearers hereof (that is to say) the Worspf" John 
Declyer (De Meyer) one of the Cheife Councill, the Rev. John Megapolensis, Minister, 
Paulus Lendert van der Grist, Mayor of this town and have joined with them Mr. Sam. 
Megapolensis, Doctor in Fhj^sick, whom by these p''sents have appointed and ordered 
that w"" the utmost respect and civillity, they doe desire and entreate of the Commander 
in Cheife of the aforesaid Men of warr or Ifriggotts the intent and meaning of their approach 
and continuing in the harbor of Nayack, without giving any notice to us or first 
acquainting us w"" their designe, w'^'' action hath caused much admiration in us, having 
not reed any timely knowledge of the same w"" in respect to y* Government of the 
place, they ought and were oblieged to have done. Wherefore upon the consideracon 
aforesd It is desii-ed and entreated from the General of the aforesaid Men of warr as alsoe 
from our before deputed agents, whom we desire your Hono" civilly to treat and to give 
and render to them the occasion of your arrivall here upon the coast and you will give an 
opportunity (that after our hearty salutes & well wishes of your health) to pray etc. 

P. Stuyvesant. 
By Order etc 



Ansaver of Col. Nicholls. 
Right Worthy Sirs. 

I received a letter by some worthy persons intrusted by you bearing date the 
fl August desiring to know the intent of the approach of the English ffriggotts, in 
return of w'='' I think it fit to let you know, that his Majesty of Great Britain, whose 
right and title to these parts of America is unquestionable, well knowing how much it 

xii Dutch and Swedish Rale on the Delaivare. 

derogates from his Crowne and Dignitie to suffer any forraigners, how near so ever they 
be ally ed, to usurpe a dominion and w"'out his Majesty's Royall consent to inhabit in 
these or any other his Majesty's Territoryes, hath commanded me in his name to require a 
surrender of all such fforts, townes or places of strength which are now possessed by the 
Dutch under your Commands and in his Majesty's name I do demand the towne situate 
upon the island commonly knowne by the name of Manhattans with all the fforts thereunto 
belonging to be rendered unto his Majesty's obedience and protection into my hands. I 
am further commanded to assure you and every respective inhabitant of the Dutch 
nation that his Majesty, being tender of the effusion of Christian blood, doth by these 
p'sents confirme and secure to every man his estate, life and liberty, who shall readily 
submitt to his Government and all those, who shall oppose his Majesty's gracious intencons 
must expect all the miseryes of a war, which they bring upon themselves. 

I shall expect your answer by these gentlemen. Col. George Cartwright, one of his 
Majesty's Commissioners in America, Capt. Robert Needham,* Capt Edward Groves and 
Mr. Thomas Delavale, whom you will entertaine and treat with such civility etc. 
On board his Majesty's Your very humble servant 

Shipp, the Guyny, riding Rich. Nicolls. 

before Najack, f^"" Aug. 1664. 


My Lords. 

Your 1" letter unsigned of fg- August t together with that of this day signed 
according to fforme being the 1^.' of September have beene safely delivered into o"' hands 
by your Deputyes unto which wee shall say : 

That the rights of his Majesty of England unto any parte of America hereabout 
amongst the rest unto j" Colony of Virginia, Maryland or others in New-England, 
whether disputable or not, is that w''" for the p''sent, wee have no designe to debate 
upon. But that his Majesty hath an undisputable right to all the lands in the North parts 
of America is that which the Kings of France and Spain will disallow, as we absolutely 
do by virtue of a commission, given to me by my Lords the high and mighty States 
General to be Governor General over New Holland, the Isles of Cura9ao, Bonairo, Aruba 
with their appurtenances and dependencies bearing date 26'." July 1646, as also by virtue 
of a grant and commission given by my said Lords the high and mighty States General 
to y° West India Company in the year 1621 with as much power and as authentique, as 
his said Majesty of England hath given or can give to any Colony in America, as more 
fully appeares by the Patent and Commission of the said Lords, the States General, by 
them signed, registred and sealed w"* their great seale, which were shewed to your 
Deputyes, Colonel George Cartwright, Capt. Robert Needham, Capt. Edward Groves and 
Mr. Thomas Delavall, by which commission and patent together (to deal frankly with 
you) and by divers letters signed and sealed by our said Lords, the States General, 

* Commander of the " Guinea" man-of-war. 

t Col. Nicolls forgot to sign the preceding letter and sent it again with his signature and an apology the next day 
but one. 

Dutch and Swedish Rule on the Delaware. xiu 

directed to several p'"sons both English and Dutch, inhabiting the townes and villages on 
Long Island (which without doubt liave been produced before you by those inliabi ants), 
by which they are declared & acknowledged to be their subjects w'" expre-s command 
that they continue faithfuU unto them under penalty of incurring their utmost displeasure, 
w'='' makes it appeare more cleare than the Sun at noonday, that your first foundation, 
viz: (that the right and title of his Majesty of Great Britain to these parts of America is 
unquestionable) is absohitely denied. 

Moreover it is without dispute and acknowledged by all the world, that our 
predecesso" by virtue of the commission and patent of the said Lords, the States 
General, have w'^out controule and peaceably (the contrary never coming to our 
knowledge) enjoyed Fort Orange about 48 or 50 yeares, the Manhatans about 41 or 42 
yeares, the Southriver 40 yeares and the Freshwater River* about 36 yeares. Touching 
the second subject of your Ire (viz) "his Majesty hath commanded me in his name to 
require a surrender of all such fforts, townes or places of strength, which now are possessed 
by the Dutch under your command" wee shall answer, that wee are so confident of the 
discretion and equity of his Majesty of Great Britain, tliat in case his Majesty were 
informed of the truth, which is that the Dutch came not into these provinces by any 
violence, but by virtue of coumiission from my Lords, the States General first of all in the 
year 1614, 1615 and 1616 up the North river neare Fort Orange, where to hinder the 
invasions and massacres commonly committed by the savages, they built a little fort and 
after in the year 1622 and even to this p''sent time by virtue of commission and grant to 
the Governo™ of the W. I. Company and moreover in the year 1656 a grant to y'= Hon*"^' 
the Burgomasters of Amsterdam of the Southriver, in so much that by virtue of the 
abovesaid commission from the high and mighty States General given to the persons inter- 
ested as aforesaid and others, these provinces have been governed and consequently 
enjoyed, as also in regard to their first discovery, uninterrupted possession and purchase 
of the lands of the Princes, natives of the Country, and other private p''sons (though 
Gentiles) we make no doubt, that if his said Majesty of Great Britain were well informed 
of tiiese passages, he would be too judicious to grant such an order, principally in a 
time, when there is so straight a friendship and confederacy between our said Lords and 
Superiors, to trouble us in the demanding and summons of the places and ffortresses 
which were put into our hands with order to maintaine them in the name of the said Lords, 
the States General, as was made appeaie to your Deputies, under the names and seal of the 
said high and mighty States General dated 28'." July 1646. f 

Besides what has been mentioned there is little probability that his said Majesty of 
England (in regard the Articles of Peace are printed and were recommended to us to 
observe seriouslj'- and exactly and to cause them to be observed religiously in this 
country) would give order touching so dangerous a designe, being also so apparent that 
none other than my said Lords, the States General have any right to these provinces and 
consequently ought to command and maintaine theire subjects and in their absence wee, the 
Governor General, are oblieged to maintaine their rights & to repell and take vengeance 
of all threatenings, injustice, attempts or any force whatsoever, that shall be committed 
against theire faithfull subjects and inhabitants, it being a very considerable thing to 
afcont so mighty a state, although it were not against an ally and confederate. 

» Connecticut River. \ See N. Y. Col. History, "Vol. I, p. 177. 

xiv Dutch and Swedish Rale on the Delaware. 

Consequently if his said Majesty (as it is fit) were well informed of all that could be 
spoken upon this subject, he would not approve of what expressions were mentioned 
in your letter, which are, that you are commanded by his Majesty to demand in his 
name such places and ffortresses, as are in y* possession of y^ Dutch under my 
government, which as it appeares by my commission before mentioned was given me by 
my Lords, the States General and there is lesse ground in the express demand of my 
government, since all the world knows that about 3 years agone, some English ffrigotts 
being on the Coast of Africa, upon a pretended commission tliey did demand certaine 
places under the government of our said Lords, the States General, as Cape Vert, River 
de Gambo and all other places to them belonging, upon which our said Lords, the States 
General, by virtue of the Articles of Peace, having made appeare the said attempts to his 
Ma'y of England, they received a favorable answer, his said Majesty disallowing all such 
acts of hostility as might have been done and besides gave order that restitution should 
be made to the East India Company of whatsoever had been pillaged in the said River of 
Gambo and likewise restored them to their trade. Which makes us think it necessary, 
that a more express order should appeare unto us, as a sufiicient warrant for us towards 
my Lords, the high and mighty States General, since by virtue of our commission wee do 
in these provinces represent them, as belonging to them, and not to the King of Great 
Britain, except his said Majesty, on better grounds make it appear to our said Lords, 
the States Gen", against which they may defend themselves, as they shall think fit. 

To conclude wee cannot but declare unto you, though the Governors and Commissioners 
of his Majesty liatli divers times quarrelled with us about the bounds of the jurisdiction 
of the high and mighty the States General in these partes, yet they never questioned the 
jurisdiction itself. On the contrary in the yeare 1650 at Hartford and the last yeare at 
Boston they treated with us upon this subject, which is a sufficient proof that his Majesty 
has never been well informed of the equity of our cause, insomuch as wee cannot imagine 
in regard of the Articles of Peace between the Crown of England and the States Gen^ 
(under whom there are so many subjects in America as well as in Europe) that his Majesty 
of Great Britain would give a commission to molest and endamage the subjects of my said 
Lords the States Gen', especially such as ever since 50, 40 and the latest 36 yeares have 
quietly enjoyed their lands and countries, ffbrts and inheritances and lesse that his subjects 
would attempt any Acts of hostility against them and in case that you will act by force of 
Aj-mes, wee protest and declare in the name of oar said Lords, the States Gen), before God 
and men, that you will act an unjust violence and a breach of the Articles of Peace, so 
solemnly sworne, agreed upon and ratified by his Majesty of England and my Lords the 
States General. And the rather for that to prevent the shedding of blood in the month of 
February last, we treated with Capt. John Scott* (who reported that he had a commission 
from his Majesty) touching the limits of Long Island and concluded for the space of a 
yeare, that in the meanetime the businesse might be treated on between the King of Great 
Britain and my Lords the States General. And again at present for the hindrance and 
p^'ention of all differences and the spUling of innocent blood not only in these parts, but 
also in Europe, we offer unto you a treaty by our Deputyes, Mr. Cornelius van Ruyven, 
Secretary and Receiver of New-Holland, Cornelius Steenwyck, Burgomaster, Samuel 
Megapolensis Doctor of Physicke and Mr. James Cousseaa, heretofore SherifiE. 

• See for the agreement made with John Scott the 24tt February 1664, O'Callaghan's History of New-Netherland, II. 578. 

Dutch and Sivedish Rule on the Delaware. xv 

As toiicMng the threats in your conclusion we have nothing to answei , only that we 
fear nothing but what God shall lay upon us and we may as well be preserved by him 
with small forces,* as by a greate army, which makes us wish you all happiness etc. 
2^ Septbr New Style Your thrice humble etc 

1664. P. Stuyvesant 

Upon receipt of this letter Col. M icoUs gave orders to Capt. Hugh Hide, Commander 
of the English squadron "to prosecute his Majesty's claim and interest by all ways 
and means, as they (he and the other Captains) shall think most expedient for the 
speedy reducing of the Dutch under his Majesty's obedience." He also pressed the 
English ship William and Nicholas, Capt. Thomas Morley, then on the coast of New 
Netherland, into the King's service and directed the magistrates of Middleborough, 
Jamaica and Hempstead on Long Island to raise volunteers for the same purpose. 

These preparations of the English to commence active operations and the pressure 
brought to bear upon Stuyvesant by the municipality of New Amsterdam made him 
write another letter on the 4'." of September : 

My Lord 

Upon our Ire the day before yesterday and upon y* communication by word of 
mouth of our Deputyes touching the just rights and possession without dispute of my 
Lords the States General of the United Provinces, as also of our discovery of the news 
from Holland, which makes us not to doubt, but that the King of Great Britain and my 
Lords the States are at this hour agreed upon their limits, This had given us hope, 
my Lord, to avoyd all dispute, that you would have desisted from your designe or that at 
least have given time, that we might attend an answer from our Masters, from which 
expectation we have been frustrated by the report of our said Deputyes, who have 
assured us by word of mouth that you p''sist in your summons and letter of fj August 
upon which we have no other thing to answer, but that following the order of my Lords 
the States General, we are obliged to defend our placp, however in regard that we make 
no doubt, that upon your assault and our defence, there will be a great deal of blood 
spilt and besides, it is to be feared, greater difficulty may arise hereafter, wee have 
thought fitt to send unto you Mr. John de Decker, Councellor of State. Cornelius van 
Ruyven, Secretary and Receiver, Cornelius Steenwyck, Mayor and James Cousseau, 
Sheriff to the end of finding some means to hinder and prevent the spilling of innocent 
blood, which we esteeme, my Lord, not to be your intention, praying you that you will 
appoint a place and hour and send and cause your Deputyes to meete there with full 
commission to treat and seek out the means of a good accommodation and in the 
meanetime to cause all hostilities to cease, upon which after recommending you to the 
protection of God wee remaine, my Lord, 

Amsterdam Your etc 

4"' Septbr 1664 (N. Style) P. Stuyvesant. 

• Stuyvesant's forces in New-Netherlana numbered about 200 soldiers stationed in small detachments at New 
Amsterdam, Wiltwyck (Kingston), Fort Orange and on the Delaware. 

xvi Dutch and Siveclish Rule on the Delaware. 

Col. N'icolls' Answer. 
Eight Worthy Sir. 

In answer to yo" of y* 4'? of September new Style by the hands of John Decker, 
Conncellor of State, Cornelius van Ruyven, Secretary and Receiver, Cornelius Steenwyck, 
Burgomaster and James Cousseau, Sheriff, I doe thinke it once more agreeable to the 
King's intentions and my duty to his sti-ict commands to propose and receive all wayes 
and meanes of avoiding the effusion of Christian blood, of which sincere intention, I 
suppose you are already fully satisfied and shall have no cause to doubt it for the future, 
as also that I doe insist upon my first summons and message to you for a speedy 
surrender of the townes and fforts, now under your command, unto his Majesty's 
obedience and protection. You may easily beleive that in respect of greater difliculties, 
which are ready to attend you, I should willingly comply with your proposition to 
appoint Deputyes, place and time to treat of a good accommodation, but unles you had 
also given me to know, that by such a meeting you doe intend to treat upon articles of 
surrender, I do not see just cause to deferr the pursuance of his Majesty's commands, my 
first demand and my last answer of reducing your townes and fforts, to his Majesty's 
obedience, which why you call acts of hostillity I see no reason ; however since you have 
given yourselfe and messengers the new trouble, I shall also take this fresh occasion to 
assure you that I heartily wish health peace and prosperity to every inhabitant of your 
plantations and particularly to yourself as being 

Gravesend, Yours etc 

25'? Aug. 1664. Richard Nicolls. 

On the S')" of September Stuyvesant gave his consent to the articles of surrender 
agreed upon by the commissioners of both sides on the 6'.'' ; the consent of Col. 
NicoUs had been given at the "Camp before the Manhattans" on the very day of 
the agreement.* 

Before these articles were signed, the following commission to seize the Delaware 
Country was issued by the British Commissioners to Sir Robert Carr : 

Sept. 31 
Whereas wee are enformed that the Dutch have seated themselves at Delaware bay, 
on his Ma''' of great Brittaines territoryes without his knowledge and consent, and that 
they have fortifyed themselves there, and drawne a great trade thither, and being 
assured, that if they bee permitted to goe on, the gaininge of this place will bee of small 
advantage to his Ma% Wee his Ma'^''^" Commission", by vertue of his Ma""' Commission 
and instructions to us given, have advised and determined to endeavoT to bring that 
place, and all Strangers there-about in obedience to his Ma''^, And by these do order & 
Appoint that his Ma"''' ffrygotts, the Guinney and the William & Nicholas and all the 
Souldy"' which are not in the Fort, shall with what speed they conveniently can, goe 
thither, under the comand of S!' Robert Carr to reduce the same. Willing and 
commanding all officers at Sea and land and all souldy"' to obey the said Sr Robert Carr 

* The articles of surrender are published in Vol II p. 250 Col. History. 

Dutch and Swedish Rule on the Delaware. xm 

during this Expedition. Griven under o' hands & seales at the ffort in New Yorke upon 
the Isle of Manhatans the 3? day of Septemb. 1664. 

S. Maverick. 


G. Cartwright. 

Sir Robert Carr sailed at once in pursuance of his instructions. On arriving 
in front of the Dutch fort at New Castle he demanded its surrender. d'Hinojossa 
refused. "The Swedes were soon our friends" wrote Sir Robert to Colonel Nichols 
at New York. "Afterwards I had a parley with the Dutch burghers and the 
Governor. The burghers and townsmen after almost three days parley consented 
to my demands, but the Governor and soldiers altogether refused my propositions." 
The consequences of this refusal were two broad sides from the ships of the 
expedition, a storming of the fort, the plunder of the town, and the kUling of 
three and wounding of ten of the Dutch. The fort then capitulated, articles 
of agreement between Sir Robert Carr and the burghermasters were signed and 
delivered and with it in the year 1664 practically terminated the military power 
of the Dutch in America, a result which humanly speaking seems to be as directly 
attributable to the short lived commercial enterprise of the great Gustavus on the 
Delaware as to any other cause. 

The volume here submitted embraces the official correspondence in which the 
events of which I have here traced the outline are preserved. They are translated 
for the most part from the Dutch records in this office, by Mr. Berthold Fernow, 
who for the past two years has been the custodian of the historical archives of 
the State and who in addition to an admirable translation of these documents 
has enriched them vrith numerous important papers selected from other sources 
and with notes which the student of that period of our local history will find of 
incalculable value. 


Secretary of Slate. 

Table of Contents. 


Times of the First Settlements on tme Delaware until the Arrival of the Swedes. 

1624. Dec. 21. Warrant for William Ussling to establish a Company trading to America, etc. 

given by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. 

1625. Rules and by-laws of the Royal Swedish Trading Company, to do business in 

America, etc. 

1626. June 14. Charter of the Swedish South Company, granted by King Gustavus Adolphus. 
1628. Jan. 11. Order directing all subscribers to the Southland Company to pay up their shares. 

1630. July 31. Patent to Samuel Godyn for the land from Cape Hindlopen to the mouth of the 

Delaware (now parts of Kent and Sussex counties, Del.). 

1631. June 3. Patent to Samuel Godyn and Samuel Bloemmaert for Cape May County (N. J.). 


From the Arrival of the Swedes to the Taking of Fort Casimir (New-Castle) by 
THE New Swedish Governor Johan Rtsingh (1638 to Mat 30, 1654). 

1638. May 6. Protest of Director and Council against Peter Minuit, Commander of the Swedes, 

for intrusion at the South river (Delaware). 

1639. Feb. 3. The South river (Delaware) settlement considered as a good place to send 

malefactors in banishment to. 
1639. Mar. 22. Enumeration of the buildings erected for the W. I. Company at Fort Nassau on the 

South River. 
Return of Wouter van Twiller's property at Fort Nassau. 
Order regarding the trade to the Delaware river. 
Ordinance concerning tobacco, issued by Queen Christina of Sweden. 
Resolution to expel some English people from the Delaware, who had commenced a 

settlement on the Schuylkil (Philadelphia ?). 
Instructions sent to Jan Jansen van Upendam, the Commissary at Fort Nassau, in 

regard to the above Englishmen. 
Resolution to prevent the great injury done to the Indian trade at the Delaware 

by the English from New-Haven. 


Mar. 22. 


Mar. 31. 


Jan. 12. 


May 15. 


May 22. 


Aug. 28. 

XX Table of Contents. 

1642. Sept. 25. The English of Red Mountain (New-Haven) threaten to take reprisals on Dutch 

1645. July 21. Minute of Council. To engage certain soldiers for the exploration of the mines 

in the Delaware region. 
" Oct. 12. Jan Jansen van Ilpendam, Commissary at Fort Nassau, accused of fraud. Andriea 

Hudde appointed Commissary in his place. 
" Oct. 12. Minute of the receipt of gold ore, etc. Resolution to explore the mountain and 

bring back a quantity. 
" Oct. 23. Declaration of Sheriff Nicholas Coorn, that he has heard people say, the above mine 

belonged to the crown of Sweden. 

1646. Feb. 8. Proceedings against Jan Jansen van Ilpendam for fraud. 

" Sept. 21. Proceedings against Rev. Everardus Bogardus for certain transactions with the 

Swedish Governor at the Delaware. 
" Sept. 21. Patent to Abraham Planck (Verplanck) and three others for 100 morgens of land 

on the west side of Delaware river, opposite Vogelesant island. 
" Sept. 22. Brief but true report of the proceedings of Johannes Prints, Governor of the 

Swedes on the Delaware, by Andries Hudde. 

1647. June 25. Letter from Director Stuyvesant to Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts in regard 

to the English claims on the Delaware territory. 
" Aug. 17. Governor Winthrop's and the Commissioners of the United Colonies' answers to 

Director Stuyvesant. 
" Sept. 20. Proposition of the Director-General, whether Andries Hudde is to be continued as 

Commissary, and resolution to continue him. 
" Sept. 28. Charges of fraud raised against Hudde, and his appearance before the Council, 

demanding proofs of the charges. 

1648. Aug. 15. Order recalling Andries Hudde from the Delaware, that he may explain his accounts. 
" Sept. 9. Propositions of the Director-General in regard to a letter from the Swedish 

Governor and Hudde's accounts. 
" Sept. 25. Letter from Alexander Boyer, deputy-commissary at the Delaware, stating, that 

the Swedes had erected a strong house right in front of the Dutch Fort 

Beversrede and demanding assistance against further encroachments. 
" Nov. 4. Declaration of Alexander Boyer and others, that the Swedish lieutenant had shown 

them his orders, to resist by force any Dutch claim on the Schuylkil. 
" Nov. 5. Affidavit of Simon Root and others in regard to the destruction of their buildings 

on Mastmaker's hook in the Schuylkil by the Swedes. 
" Nov. 6. Affidavit of Adrian van Tienhoven and others corroborating the above. 
" Nov. 7. Protest of Andries Hudde, the Dutch Commissary at Fort Nassau, against Johan 

Prints, the Swedish Governor, for the above. 
" Nov. 9. Extract from a letter of Adrian van Tienhoven to Director Stuyvesant, urging him 

to visit the South river, in order to check the insolence of the Swedes. 

1649. Jan. 27. Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant, regarding the 

Swedes on the Delaware, the boundaries of the Colony towards Maryland, and 
the English claims of territory, now in Dutch possession. 

Table of Contents. xxi 

1649. April 9. Indian deed to Simon Root and others for a tract of land on the South river 

extending from Ramkokus kil to a kil on the south end of Tinnekonck Island 

(Burlington, N. J.). 
" May 30. Contract to build two houses for Simon Root (on the Delaware ?). 
" June 1. Letters from Govr. Eaton, etc., to Dir. Stuyvesant, vindicating the English right to 

the Delaware. 
" June 14. Resolution refusing a permit to Jacob Loper to trade on the Delaware, because he 

married a daughter of Cornelis Melyn. 
" July 2. Letters from Director Stuyvesant to Govr. Eaton of Newhaven, etc.; he is 

determined to maintain the Dutch title to the Delaware. 
" Oct. 20. Power of attorney from Jan Laurensen Appel to Lucas Eldertsen to collect moneys 

due his patron, Mr. Arnoldus Hardenburgh, at the South river. 
" Nov. 15. Ditto from Michiel Jansen to Johannes Geraerdy to collect money due him at the 


1650. Copies of sundry letters from Dir. Stuyvesant to the Commissary at the Delaware, 

dated from 1648 to August, 1650 ; apparently portion of a letter copy-book. 

1651. Apr. 21. Papers referring to trade regulations for the Delaware. 

" Apr. 21. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to the Governor of Massachusetts, regarding the 
English claims on the Delaware ; he has stopped a vessel and settlers from New- 
Haven going there. 

" May 12. Certified copy of a receipt of Isaac Allerton and others, agents for Augustyn 
Hermans for sundries delivered them by Governor John Prints, and power of 
attorney from Hermans to Isaac Allerton to collect his debt from the Swedish 

" May. Papers showing the commercial intercourse between New-Amsterdam and Delaware. 

1652. Apr. 4. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant: they are afraid of the 

consequences of Stuyvesant's proceedings on the Delaware and cannot approve 
the demolition of Fort Nassau. 

1653. Nov. 4. Extract from a letter of the same to the same: caution recommended in the 

dealings with the Swedes at the Delaware. 

1654. Mar. 16. Privileges granted to those, who purchase land in or trade to New-Sweden. 

" May 18. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant, concerning the late Swedish 
Governor Prints. 


FoRT Casimir {New-Castle) irr tbe hands of tbe Swedes and its Recapture by the 
Dure a. Complete overthrow of the Swedish Government on the Delaware {Mat, 
1654, TO September, 1655.) 

1654. Oct. 1. Pass for John Rysingh, Swedish Governor at the Delaware to come to New- 
" Oct. 16. Orders and papers respecting the Swedish ship " de Hay" and her cargo, seized at 
New-Amsterdam, in reprisal for the capture of Fort Casimir. 

Table of Contents. 

Oct. 27. Protest of the Swedish Factor, Hendrick van Elswyck, against the Director and 

Council for having seized the Swedish ship " de Hay," and answer to it. 
Nov. 16. Letter from the Directors to Petrus Stuyvesant ; seizure of Fort Casimir regretted ; 

Swedes to be expelled from the South river ; reinforcements for that purpose will 

be sent. 
Nov. 23. Extract from a letter of the same to the same ; a report on the title of the Dutch 

to the Delaware is required for the negotiations respecting the boundaries, now 

carried on in England ; the surrender of Fort Casimir is condemned ; Jean Paul 

Dec. 23. New Privileges granted to the Swedish American Company. 
Apr. 26. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant, regarding the intended 

expedition against the Swedes. 
May 24. Resolution of the Chamber of Amsterdam appointing Frederick de Coningh to the 

command of the ship-of-war " de Waegh " with instructions. 
May 26. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant stating conditions under which 

the Swedes, when conquered, may remain on the Delaware. 
May 28. Extract from a letter of the same to the same ; orders for the reduction of the 

Swedes on the Delaware. 
May 31. Extract from a letter of the same to the Council of New-Netherland on the same 

Aug. 16. Message from Dir. Stuyvesant (sick) to the Council empowering them with Capt. 

de Coninck of the "Waegh," to make all necessary arrangements for the 

expedition against the Swedes. 
Aug. Papers showing the preparations made for the above expedition, and precautions 

taken to surprise the Swedes unawares. 
Sept. Papers relating to the defeat of the Swedes on the Delaware; letters from 

Stuyvesant reporting the captures of Fort Casimir (New-Castle) and Fort 

Christina (Wilmington); oath of allegiance taken by the Swedes, etc. 
Oct. 19. Protest of Johan Rysingh, late Governor of New Sweden, against Stuyvesant, and 
Oct. 26. Stuyvesant's counter-protest. 
Nov. 1. Orders to several skippers, where, in Europe, to land the Swedish oflScers and 

their men. 


The Dutch West-India Company Sole Possessors of the Delaware Territory for 


THEIR Lands there to the City of Amsterdam, who Establishes a New Colony 
{September, 1655, to May, 1657). 

1655. Sept. 25. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant, as to the insincerity of the 
English regarding the boundary question ; trade between Boston and Delaware. 
" Nov. 29. Appointment of Jean Paul Jacquet as Vice-Director on the Delaware; his 
instructions and oath of office. 

Table of Contents. xxiii 

1655. Nov. 29. Petition of Jews of New-Amsterdam for permission to trade on the Delaware like 

other inhabitants, and order of the Council thereon. 
" Nov. 30. Order summoning Ensign Smith, provisional commander at the South river, to 
appear before the Council. 

1656. Jan. 25. Order authorizing Jan Teunissen, the carpenter, to save the Swedish yacht 

" Eendracht," ashore on Sandy-hook. 
" Feb. 15. Petition of Sergeant Lnycas Dirksen for his discharge and leave to settle on the 

Delaware ; granted. 
" Mar. 13. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant; expedition against the Swedes 

" Mar. 29. Papers relating to the commercial relations with the Delaware. 
" Mar. 29. A Swedish ship, " Mercurius," arrives at the Delaware with emigrants, orders are 

therefore issued, not to allow them to land, etc., but the ship may come to 

New-Amsterdam for supplies and then return to Europe. 
Patent to Tomas Broen for a plantation below Fort Casimir (New-Castle, Del.), 

containing 2,046 rods. 
" April 11. Petition of Hendrick Huyghen, supercargo of the Swedish ship " Mercurius," on 

behalf of the lately arrived Swedes, for leave to remain on the South river, and 

answer of the Council, peremptorily ordering them to leave. 
" April 12. Hendrick Huyghen appears before the Council and consents that the " Mercurius " 

and her passengers come to New-Amsterdam. 
" April 27. Order directing Ensign Smith to proceed with 12 to 16 soldiers overland to the 

Delaware and to report on the state of affairs there. 
" May 1. Opinions of the Director and Council on receipt of intelligence from the South 

river, that the Swedish ship " Mercurius " had ran past Fort Casimir and landed 

passengers and goods near Matinnekonk. 
" May 3. Bond of Hendrick Huyghen, that he will demean himself peaceably on the South 

river and obey the Dutch laws, while there. 
" May 3. Commission for Councillors de Sille and Cornelis van Tienhoven to proceed to the 

South river and investigate affairs there. 
" May 28. Petition of Frederick Barentsen, baker at Fort Casimir, for an increase of pay; 

June 14. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant: first intimation of the probable 

division and surrender of part of the Delaware Colony to the city of Amsterdam. 
July 11. Petition of Hendrick Huyghen in regard to the duties, which he is to pay on the 

cargo of the " Mercurius." 
July 31. Order to discharge a Fin and a Swede, lately arrived, from confinement on a charge 

of having given beer to the Indians. 
Aug. 3. Petition of Armgard Papegaay, daughter of Governor Prints, for certain lands at 

Printsdorp and Tinnakunck (Tinicum, Pa.) ; granted. 
Oct. 26. Order permitting Peter Laurens to carry his own goods to the Delaware, on 

condition of conveying some soldiers thither and bringing back a cargo of stones. 

xxiv Tahle of Contents. 

1666. Oct. 26. Order, Ijanishing Evertje Dirkx, a Swedish woman, to Long-Island or the South 
" Dec. 19. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; the negotiations regarding a 
division of the Delaware territory have resulted in the surrender of Fort Casimir 
(New Castle), and the land south of it to the City of Amsterdam ; the new 
Colony is to be called New-Amstel, and Jacob Alrichs is to be the City's 
representative there. 

1655-57. Minutes of the administration of Jean Paul Jacquet, Vice-Director at the Delaware, 

and his Council. 

1656. Articles and ordinances made and enacted by the Burgomasters of Amsterdam for 

the government of those, who will go to the new Colony in their service. 

1657. Mar. 12. Letters from Jacob Alrichs, Vice-Director of the new Colony on the Delaware, 

written on Long Island where his ship " Prins Mauritius " was wrecked ; he 

announces his arrival and requests assistance. 
" Apr. 12. Motion of the Fiscal for the confiscation of gunpowder and other articles brought 

by Lieut. d'Hinoyossa and order denying the motion. 
" Apr. 12. Deed to the Burgomasters of Amsterdam of Fort Casimir and the land thereunto 

belonging from the west side of the Christina creek to the mouth of the 

Delaware river. 
" Apr. 16. Order granting the request of Gerrit van Sweringen, supercargo of the " Prins 

Mauritius " to be discharged from the Company's service. 
" Apr. 17. Petition of Isaac Tynn, alias Pieriere, for a house and lot on the Delaware ; denied. 
" Mh.& Ap. Complaints against Vice-Director Jean Paul Jacquet and his subsequent removal 

from office. 
" Apr. 24. Resolution that Ensign Dirck Smith accompany Captain Marten Cregier and his 

detachment of the City of Amsterdam's soldiers as a guide on their march to the 

Delaware, and instructions for Ensign Smith ; Fort Christina henceforth called 



The Delaware Territory under Dual Government, being Divided into tbe Compant^s 


1657. Patents for lands near Fort Casimir (New-Castle, Del.), to Jan Deckhoff, Jan 

Andriessen, Jans Gaggen and Peter Lowrensen. 
" April 7. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; a chart of the South river is 

required ; a fresh lot of colonists and a minister are to be sent to Delaware. 
" May 1. Petition of some of the crew of the "Prins Mauritius" to have their goods released 

from attachment, and order thereon. 
" May 8, Jacob Alrichs to Dir. Stuyvesant, reporting the state of affairs in his new 


Table of Contents. xxr 

1657. May 26. The Directors to Stuyvesant (extract), regarding the seizure of the Swedish ship 

" de Hay," and the losses sustained by the Dutch by the capture of Fort Casimir 

" May & Ju. Proceedings of the Fiscal against Jean Paul Jacquet, late Vice-Director on the 

Delaware, for malfeasance in oflSce. 
" May 28. Jacob Alrichs to Dir. Stuyvesant ; condition of things ; Gerrit van Sweringen 

recommended for the position as Commissary. 
" May 28. The same to the same ; condition of the Fort ; the name of Christina changed into 

" June 12. Permit to the Swedes on the South river to form a village, where they think proper. 
" Aug. 10. Vice-Director Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant; he has engaged Andries Hudde in 

the service of the City's Colony. 
" Aug. 22, ) The same to the same ; he endeavors to get freights for the Manhattan ; and 
" Sept. 1. j enlarges upon business and trade prospects. 
" Sept. 2. The same to the same ; a Christian killed by Indians on his return from the 

Minquas country. 
" Sept. 15. The Directors to P. Stuyvesant (extract). A list and valuation of the property at 

Fort Casimir, surrendered to Dir. Alrichs is required; few of the company's 

people wish to go into the City's Colony. Complaints against Director Alrichs. 
" Sept. 16. Director Alrichs to P. Stuyvesant, requests, that a party of bricks and boards be 

sent to New Amstel from Fort Orange. 
" Oct. 28. The same to the same: is glad to hear, that the latter intends to visit the South 

river; he himself and family are sick; fevers prevail, etc. 
" Nov. 14. The same to the same: bricks and boards received from Fort Orange ; further 

supplies required. 
-658. Mar. 18. The same to the same : complains of Captain Cregier, in command of the city's 

soldiery; fugitives from Virginia come to New-Amstel. 
" Mar. 30. The same to the same: requires seed grain; describes the administration of justice 

previous to his arrival; difficulties with the military under Capt. Cregier; 

progress of the settlement. 
" April 20. Minute of Council approving the departure of the Director-General to the South river. 
" April 30. Petition of Joost Adriensen & Co. for leave to build a saw and grist mill at Turtle 

falls, on the South river, and order granting it. 
" May 8. Petition of the Swedish magistrates at Tinicum (Pa.) for certain privileges, and 

order thereon. Oath of allegiance taken by the Swedes. 
" May 15. Report of Director Stuyvesant on the affairs at the Delaware. 
« May 17. Vice-director Alrichs to Dir. Stuyvesant: apologizes for the poor reception given 

the Director-General on his recent visit. 
" May 20. The Directors to P. Stuyvesant (extract). The smuggling on the Delaware must 

be stopped. 
'• May 27. Secret resolution of the Amsterdam Chamber of the W. I. Company, that 

instructions be sent to Dir. Stuyvesant and Vice-Director Alrichs, not to allow 

any English people at the South river. 

rxvi Table of Contents. 

1658. June 3. Resolution of the Chamber of Amsterdam instructing Director and Council of N. 

Netherland to maintain and enforce the respect due to the States-General and 

the W. I. Company. 
" June 1. The Directors to P. Stuyvesant: the Horekil country to be purchased from the 

" June 19. The same to the same (extract): the ship "Guide Meulen " has received permission 

to sail directly to the Delaware, without touching at the Manhattans. 
" June 26. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant: cattle purchased on the gi-eat plains at 

Hempstead for the City's Colony on the Delaware. 
" July 30. William Beekman appointed Commissary of the West-India Company at the 

" Aug. 5. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; great scarcity of bread ; the horse 

mill not completed in consequence of the death of the carpenter; severe sickness 

among the settlers. 
" Aug. 17. Letter. The same to the same; bad condition of the cattle lately received from 

the Manhattans, etc. 
" Sept. 5. Letter. The same to the same; chimneys built of Fort Orange brick; severe 

epidemic ; surgeon dead and his assistant sick. 
" Oct. 7. Letter. The same to the same; progress of the epidemic; ai'rival of emigrants; 

their sufferings on the passage from Holland. 
" Nov. 18. Letter. The same to the same; scarcity of provisions; Rev. Mr. Welius ; death 

of Abraham Rynvelt, Commissary, and many others, particularly children. 
" Nov. 20. Letter. The same to the same ; orders to purchase the Horekil ; commissioners 


1659. Jan. 24. Letter. The same to the same; death of his wife; early winter; scarcity of 

" Feb. 13. Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant. They hope 

William Beekman will be a good officer and explain some customs regulations; 

Director Alrichs to be reminded of his duties towards the company ; they object 

to the appointment of Swedes to positions of trust at the Delaware. 
" Feb. 13. Letter. Directors of the W. I. Company to Jacob Alrichs; admonishing him to 

discountenance smuggling ; to have the company acknowledged in oaths taken 

by settlers, and to admit of appeals to the director and council at Manhattan. 
" Mar. 24. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; scarcity of provisions ; the 

Horekil; fast and prayer day. 
" May 14. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant; causes of the backwardness of the 

colony and of the scarcity of provisions; emigrants; failure of the harvest; great 

mortality; tile and brick kilns established; arrival of Mr. Beekman at Altona; 

answer to the charges contained in the letter of the Directors at Amsterdam of 

the 13th February; purchase of the Horekil; D'Hinoyossa commander there. 
" May 23. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; rumors that the English claim the 

Delaware river and country and are about to send persons to New Amstel with 

that view. 

Table of Contents. xxvii 

[June.] Indian deed for the Horekil (imperfect). 

June 14. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; purchase of the Horekil ; deed 
sent to the Manhattans. 

June 26. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; English coming to claim the country 

on the Delaware ; rumors that war is declared between Holland and England 

and that young Cromwell is poisoned and dead. 
July 23. Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant ; smuggling at the 

Delaware; purchase of the country between the Horekil (Deal, Del.), and 

Boompties hook (Bombay Hook). 

July 29. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; messengers sent to Maryland ; they 

visit Col. Utie ; claim of Lord Baltimore. 
Aug. 18. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; Gov. Feudal instructed to assert 

the right of Lord Baltimore ; panic among the Dutch on the Delaware. 
Sept. 4. Extract from a letter of Stuyvesant to the Director in Holland. The City's Colony 

on the Delaware is in a very deplorable condition ; the colonists desert at a 

fearful rate ; cause, the fear of an English invasion and Alrichs' great preciseness. 
Sept. 9. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; arrival of Col. Utie and suite from 

Maryland ; particulars of the interview. 
Sept. 9. Protest of Director Alrichs and council, Vice-Director Beekman and schepens of 

New-Amstel, against the pretensions of Lord Baltimore ; addressed to Col. Utie. 
Sept. 12. Letter. William Beeckman, Vice-Director at Altona, to Director Stuyvesant ; 

particulars of the transactions with Col. Utie. 
Sept. \1. Extract from a letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland on the same subject. 
Sept. 18. Extract from a letter of the same to the same. Emissaries of Lord Baltimore at 

New-Castle demand a surrender of the territory ; the disposition of the troops 

prevents an armed resistance. 
Sept. 20. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; dispatches sent overland to 

the Manhattans ; state of affairs on the Delaware. 
Sept. 21. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; fears entertained of the English ; 

dispatches sent overland. 
Sept. 21. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; dispatches sent to the 

Manhattans by sea; Alrichs and D'Hinoyossa greatly perplexed through fear of 

the English. 
Sept. 23. Letter. Director Stuyvesant to Messrs. Alrichs and Beeckman; he condemns their 

pusillanimous conduct towards Colonel Utie ; Secretary van Ruy ven and Captain 

Crieger sent to the South river ; Augustyn Heermans sent as commissioner to 

Sept. 22. Commission. Martin Crieger to be Captain of a military force sent to the Delaware. 
Sept. 23. Commission. Cornelis van Ruyven and Martin Crieger to be commissioners to 

regulate affairs at the Delaware. 
Sept. 23. Commission. Augustine Heermans and Resolved Waldron to be ambassadors to 


xiviii Table of Contents. 

1659. Sept. 28. Letter. Messrs. van Ruyven and Crieger to Director Alrichs announcing their 

arrival, and requesting his attendance at Altena ; on account of his sickness they 

wait on him at New Amstel. 
" Sept. 30. Letter. "William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; vindicates himself from the 

charges in regard to his treatment of Colonel Utie. 
" Sept. 30, Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; further vindication of his 

« Journal kept by Augustine Herrman of his embassy from the director-general and 

council of New Netherland to the governor and council of Maryland, in relation 

to the claim put forth by colonel Nathaniel Utie to the South river; September 

30 to October 21, 1659. 
" Oct. 1. Letter. Messrs. van Ruyven and Crieger to Director Alrichs and council, 

recommending them most seriously to complete and maintain a military force, 

and protesting against them, should any damage accrue through their neglect. 
" Oct. 14. Letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant. Decline of the City's Colony ; the Swedes 

not to be trusted. 
" Oct. 16. Letter. Director Alrichs and council to Messrs. van Ruyven and Crieger in answer 

to the above. 
" Fragment of the answer of Messrs. van Ruyven and Crieger to the above. 

" Nov. 8. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant, giving an account of the 

progress of affairs at the Delaware. 
" Dec. 3. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; Andries Hudde; horse mill. 
" Dec. 3. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; defends himself from the charge 

of shewing any disrespect to the W. L Company ; has been suffering from severe 

" Dec. 12. Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; charters the galiot New Amstel for 

a voyage to Curasao ; death of Rev. Mr. Welius. 

" Dec. 13. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; machinations in his 
government; burial of Rev. Mr. Welius; Mr. d'Hinoyossa about to go to 
Holland, by way of Virginia, with a remonstrance to the burgomasters ol 
Amsterdam ; suffering from severe illness. 

" Dec. 22. Extract from a letter of the Directors to the Dir.-Genl. and Council ; they regret 
the difficulties arisen on the Delaware ; the Colony will probably be returned to 
them by the Burgomasters. 

■" Dec. 26. Extract from a letter of P. Stuyvesant to the Directoi-s in Holland ; affairs on the 
Delaware : Heermans and Waldron's embassy to Maryland. 

1660. Jan. 14. Letter. WUliam Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; death of director Alrichs 

Mr. d'Hinoyossa, his successor ; inhabitants quitting New Amstel ; proposed tax 
on the Swedes ; disorders from the sale of strong drink to Indians and others ; 
Jan Juriaens Becker reads the sermon on Sundays ; asks that his eldest son be 
appointed a cadet ; Indians murdered. 
" Jan. 25. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; New Amstel affairs; Peter 
Alrichs, commander at the Horekil ; river open. 

Table of Contents. xxix 

Feb. 3. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; murderers of the Indians 

discovered; complaints against D'Hinoyossa; persecution of Cornells van Gezel. 
Mar. 1. Commission appointing William Beeckman and others to try and punish certain 

persons accused of having murdered an Indian on the Delaware. 
Mar. 1. Instructions to Fiscal de Sille, sent to the South river to persecute the murderers. 
Mar. 1. Proclamation protecting for 3 or 4 years against prosecution for debts such fugitives, 

as will return from Virginia and Maryland. 
Mar. 1. Instructions to Sergeant Andries Laurens, sent to the South river to enlist Swedes 

and Fins for the Esopus war. 
Mar. 15. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; presents made to the Indians; 

Andries Hudde robbed ; rumored arrival of Lord Baltimore in Maryland and his 

designs; requests permission to visit the Manhattans to put his two oldest boys 

to school. 
April 6. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; difficulties with the Swedes 

and Fins ; Miss Printz ; Mr. Henry Coursey of Maryland and brothers visit 

Altena in order to recover runaway servants ; Andries Hudde desires to go to 

Maryland as a brewer ; Swedes propose to form a village at Passayonck. 
April 12. Petition of Jan Gerritsen van Marcken for a writ of appeal against a judgment of 

the Court at New Amstel (New-Castle). 
April 12. Order on a petition of Mensje Andries, wife of Anthony Bryant, of Delaware, for 

relief against injustice. 
April 23. Extract from a letter of Director Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland; van 

Ruy ven's and Crieger's mission to the Delaware ; death of Director Alrichs ; the 

English intentions on the South river not given up. 
April 28. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; state of affairs on the 

Delaware; Upland; the Swedish clergyman fined for marrying a couple without 

publication of banns; difficulties with the Swedes and Fins; arrival of Capt. 

May 12. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; rumor, that the city's colony 

is to be transferred back to the W. I. Company ; vrant of a clergyman ; 

Passayunck ; Miss Printz. 
Appointment of commissioners to examine and report on the case of Jan Gerritsen 

van Marcken, appellant, against the Court of New-Castle. 
Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; Swedes not inclined to remove ; 

dissatisfaction in Maryland on account of the way Mr. Courcey has been treated 

by Mr. d'Hinoyossa ; open sale of liquors at New Amstel to Indians. 
Petition of Andries Hudde praying for some appointment on the South river. 
Appointment of Andries Hudde to be Clerk at Fort Christina (Wilmington, Del.). 
Judgment in the case of Gerritsen van Marcken against Sheriff Gerrit van 

Sweringen of New-Amstel (New-Castle, Del.). 
June 17. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; visit of the great sachem of 

the Minquas and other Indians ; Mr. Courcey's servants returned ; Menissincks 

emigrate to the country of the Minquas through fear of a certain Manitto. 
June 25. Extract from a letter of P. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland ; English 

encroachments cannot be counteracted by words. 











Table of Contents. 

June 30. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; d'Hinoyossa; sale of liquors to 

Indians; the church; arrival of Mr. Rendel Revel overland from Virginia; 

election of magistrates at New Amstel. 
July 3. Royal order to the Governor of Virginia, etc., to aid Lord Baltimore in 

maintaining his rights against Josiah Pendall. 
July 6. Contract. Cornells van Gezel to supply a certain quantity of clapboards at the 

Delaware, which the Dir.-Genl. undertakes to ship to Holland. 
July 24. Commission given by Lord Baltimore authorizing Capt. Jas. Neale to demand the 

surrender of the Delaware territory. 
July 27. Letter. William Beekman to Director Stuyvesant; soldiers desert to the Minquas; 

Horekil; negotiations with Maryland for the rendition of fugitives. 
Aug. 13. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; arrival at New Amstel of a 

vessel from the West Indies in distress ; efforts in Holland for the maintenance 

of the city's colony on the Delaware. 
Aug. 16. Resolution to send the yacht " The Sea Bear " to cruise for a Swedish privateer, 

reported off the coast. 
Aug. 20. Instructions to Ensign Smith for the above cruise. 
Aug. 20. Protest of Captain James Neal, agent of Lord Baltimore, Lord-Proprietary of 

Maryland, against the W. I. Company. 
Sept. 4. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; departure of sheriff van 

Sweringen and others from New Amstel for Holland. 
Sept. 20. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant. The Director-General 

slightly censured for his proceedings against the City's officers at New Amstel; 

Lord Baltimore's claims. 

Oct. 6. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland. He defends 
himself against the restrictions made in a former letter. Condition of affairs on 
the Delaware. D'Hinoyossa claims to have been appointed chief magistrate of 
the City's Colony. 

Oct. 8. Letter. Mattheus Capito to Director Stuyvesant; Mr. Beeckman visits the 
Manhattans ; complains of d'Hinoyossa, that he will not deliver up books and 
papers relating to the late Mr. Alrichs' estate. 

Nov. Complaint of William van Diemen's wife against Alexander d'Hinoyossa, director 

at New Amstel. 

Dec. 16. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; a bark cast ashore between 
Cape Hindlopen and Virgin bay and a three masted vessel wrecked off Barnegat; 
only one soul saved from the wreck, 

Dec. 9. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland. 
D'Hinoyossa's proceedings and bearing in New Amstel (New Castle) ; nothing 
heard of the English claims on the Delaware. 

Dec. 24. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant; the Burgomasters will very 
likely continue their colony ; proceedings against Sheriff van Sweeringen 

Table of Contents. ixxi 

1660. Dec. 24. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; d'llinoyossa appointed Director 

of the city's colony on the Delaware; Lord Baltimore's brother, governor of 
Maryland; Fendall recalled; Prince of Orange restored to all his hereditary 
honors; Admiral De Ruyter sent against the Turks. 

166L Jan. 14. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; Peter Alrichs; d'Hinoyossa's 
doings; robbery of the grave of an Indian chief at New Amstel ; wampum, 
duffles, etc., taken from it; Mrs. B. gives birth to a boy. 
" Feb. 5. Letter. William Beekman to Director Stuyvesant; arrival of capt. Woeler 
(Wheeler ?), a fugitive Quaker from Maryland ; manifests no respect to the 
Vice-Director, as such is contrary to his conscience; no such sect will be 
tolerated ; great excitement in Maryland between Protestants and Catholics ; 
many beheaded and several hanged and quartered in England; more than 1,000 
reformed ministers in prison there, because they will not conform to the catholic 
religion, etc. ; Fins emigrating to Maryland. 

(No date.) Letter. Augustin Heerman to vice-director Beeckman; his plantation on Bohemia 

river; is about settling a village thereabout; distance between the Bohemia 
and the Minquas Kil ; Englishmen murdered by Delaware Indians ; the English 
in treaty with the Susquehannocks; war imminent. 

1661. Mar. 21. Resolution to discharge the Swedish Sheriff on the Delaware and subsequent order 

to that effect. 
" April 1. Indictment of and proceedings against Tan Juriansen Becker for selling liquor to 

the Indians, and papers connected with his case. 
" May 27. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant, inclosing the above ; 

3 Englishmen and a Dutchman murdered by South river Indians on the 4th 

inst.; excitement in Maryland ; ill consequences of a war between the English 

and Indians. 
" May 31. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; negotiations between the 

governor of Maryland and the Minquas; the Minquas and Sinnecus at war; 

d'Hinoyossa promulgates his commission; Gregory van Dyck, Swedish sheriff, 

June 10. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; Sinnekees reported to have 
destroyed some plantations of Swedes and Fins in Maryland ; cause of the late 
murders by the South river Indians. 

July 10. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; four Englishmen from Virginia 
among the Mantaese Indians on the east side of the Delaware; the English of 
Maryland assist the Minquas in their war with the Sinnecus. 

July 21. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland. Maryland 
claims the south bank of the Delaware. Lord Baltimore's brother, Calvert, 
ordered to enforce the claim ; he (Stuyvesant) defends himself against the 
censures made for his proceedings in the case of Sheriff van Sweeringen. 

Aug. 7. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; war between the States- 
General and England imminent; reported marriage of Charles 11 and the Infanta 
of Portugal. 

Sept. 5. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; proceedings of d'Hinoyossa 
against Cornells van Gezel. 

jcxxii Table of Contents. 

1661. Sept. 9. Letter. 'William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; misunderstandings between 

him and d'Hinoyossa; proceedings against Van Gezel. 
" Sept. 17. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; negotiations for peace between 

Maryland and the Indians. 
" Sept. 21. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; elopement of Rev. Mr. Laer's 

wife with one Jacob Tongh, who is supposed to have followed the tracks 

of capt. Vuler (Wheeler ?) to Long island ; arrival of secretary Coursey, Mr. 

Beetman and Mr. Goldsmith from Maryland to New Amstel, to negotiate a peace 

with the Indians. 
" Oct. 26. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; Jacob Yongh ; delegates from 

Maryland visit Altona ; gov. Philip Calvert concludes a peace with the Delaware 

Indians ; small pox among the Minquaas ; Sinnecus on the war path ; overland 

trade with Maryland ; negroes ; Rev. Laers desires to marry again ; M. Jacquet ; 

Van Gezel, etc. 
" Nov. 8. Letter. William Beekman to Director Stuyvesant ; supplies received; Van Gezel • 

Rev. Laers. 
" Jan. 27. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; Maryland boundaries. 
" Feb. 1. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; Francis Crieger ; Jacob 

Tongh ; Rev. Laers (Laurentius Carolus), the Finnish priest, marries himself ; 

D'Hinoyossa; arrival of lord Baltimore's son in Maryland. 
'• Extract from the minutes of the court at New Amstel, 8th September, on a suit 

with Jean Paul Jacquet. 
" Order of the court of New Amstel to the curators of the estate of Elmerhuysen 

Kleyn, dated 6th Dec, to pay money to Jean Paul Jacquet, with petition of said 

Jacquet; other papers. 

1662. Extract from the minutes of the court of New Amstel, of 3d Jan., in the case of 

Reynier van Heist agst. Hendrick Kip and Abraham van Nas. 
" Feb. 7. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; arrival at New Amstel of the 

ship " Purmerland Kerck " with emigrants from Holland. 
" Feb. 20. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; affairs at New Amstel ; 

surgeons; Sinnekus at war with the Minquas ; Rev. ^gidius Luyck goes 

to Manhattans. 
" Feb. 22. Petition. Cornells Mourits, wife and others, legatees of Elmerhuysen Kleyn, 

for the appointment of persons to value and sell said estate, with sundry 

" Mar. 20. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; difficulties with Director 

Hinoyossa; Rev. Laers; negroes wanted; Abraham van Nas. 
" Mar. 22. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; conflict of jurisdiction between 

the authorities on the Delaware; Indians at Tinnekonck request that brandy be 

not sold to their people; extraordinary high tide. 
" April 14. Extract from the minutes of the court at Altona, in the case of the sheriff against 

Rev. Laers Carelsen; his recent marriage declared illegal. 
" April 30. Petition. Rev. Laurentiue Carolus for remission of a fine imposed on him, etc. 

Table of Contents. xxxiii 

1662. May 12. Letter. Becckman to Director Stuyvesant ; Peter Alrichs obtains a 

monopoly of the trade from Boomtie's hook to Cape Hinlopen ; Rev. Laer's 

case ; grist-mill at Turtle kil fall ; the old Swedish mill ; horse corn-mill at 

New Amstel. 

(No date.) Petition. John Staelcop, Luyckas Pietersen and Hans Block, proprietors of the 

grist mill at the falls of the Turtle kil, praying a grant of land adjoining thereto. 

1662. May 20, Letter. Andries Hudde to [Vice-Director Beeckman]; case of Thomas Broen, 

and how he was prevented settling at Mantaes hook below Fort Nassau (on 

the Delaware), by Governor Printz, who purchased said hook ; Swedish 

encroachments at the Schuylkil; beaver trade ; lands purchased by traders from 

the Indians; their names; their case recommended; sends copy of the following: 

1649. May 23. Letter. Director Stuyvesant to [Andries Hudde]; is astonished at the Swedes 

purchasing the land around Fort Nassau on the South river, and at the 

Schuylkil ; approves of the purchase of the land above the fort ; Thomas Broen 

and others permitted to purchase land above the fort from the natives ; design 

of the Swedes to intercept the Indian trade to Fort Orange ; approves proposition 

to purchase the country from Narratioon creek to Delaware bay (certified copy). 

1662. June 2. Extract from a letter of Director Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland; the new 

privileges granted to the City's Colony form a dangerous precedent. 

" June 6. Letter. Andries Hudde to [Stuyvesant] ; inquiring if he could not attach certain 

tobacco in Maryland belonging to Mr. d'Hinoyossa. 
" June 1. Return of Abraham van Nas to a summons which he served on Francis Cregier, 
Cornells Martensen, William Cornelissen Ryckevryer, Hendrick Kip and Fop 
Jansen Outhout, of New Amstel, who refused to appear and testify before 
Vice-Director Beeckman. 
" June 7. Declarations of Coraelis Martensen, Hendrick Kip, William Cornelisse Ryckevryer 
and Fop Janse Outhout, respecting certain language used by Alexander 
d'Hinoyossa in regard to Director Stuyvesant and those of Manhattans. 
" June 8. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; complaints against Mr. 

d'Hinoyossa ; communication of the above papers. 
" June 20. Letter. Alexander d'Hinoyossa to Vice-Director Beeckman; requesting the arrest 

of certain soldiers. 
" June 20. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Hinoyossa in answer, complying with the 

" June 20. Ante-mortem declaration of Harmen Hendricksen from Derventer, a soldier, as to 
the circumstances under which he had been shot by Sheriff Van Sweringen, in 
New Amstel. 
" June 21. Declarations of sundry soldiers respecting the shooting of Harmen Hendricksen 

" June 21. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; complains of Sheriff van 
Sweringen ; Fins removing to the city's colony ; their privileges ; death of 
Harmen Hendricksen abovementioned. 
" June 21. Notarial declaration of Caspar Luter and Hendrick Dyck, respecting the killing of 
Harmen Hendricks by Sheriff Van Sweringen. 

xxxir Table of Contents. 

1662. June 22. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant, with further information 

respecting the conduct of Sheriff vau Sweringen. 

" June 22. Declaration of Fop Jansen Outhout and others as to a statement made by Gerritt de 

Groot, court messenger at New Amstel, of the harmless conduct of the soldiers, 

when Sheriff Sweringen killed one of them. 

Complaint of the Fiscal against Gerrit van Sweringen, Sheriff of New- Amstel (New 

Castle) for manslaughter. 
Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland; the Maryland 

claims again referred to; complaints against the officers of the City's Colony. 
Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; requires that the attorney- 
general be sent to defend him. 
Examination of Thomas Forst and other soldiers touching certain proceedings of 

Sheriff Van Sweringen. 
Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant, transmitting an answer of 
Director d'Hinoyossa and council to the Vice-Director's protest against their 
encroachment on his jurisdiction. 
Answer of Director d'Hinoyossa, etc., aforesaid. 

Letter. J. de la Grange, councillor, to Director Stuyvesant ; failure of his efforts 
to reconcile Director Hinoyossa and Vice-Director Beeckman, with another letter 
from him on the same subject, dated New Amstel, 3d August. 
Return of Gerrit de Groot, court messenger, to a message sent by Vice-Director 

Beeckman to Director d'Hinoyossa, with the latter's answer. 
Evidence of Abraham van Nas, Hendrick Kip, jr., Francis Cregier, William Cornelia 
Rickenvryer and Foppe Jansen Outhout, respecting the conduct of Vice-Director 
Beeckman at Altena. 
Aug. 1. Counter-protest of Beekman against the delay caused by d'Hinoyossa and Council 

of New-Amstel in the murder-trial. 
Aug. 2. Declarations of Hendrick Kip, the younger, Jacob de Commer, surgeon and others 

as to Gerrit de Groot's statement. 
Aug. 2. Declaration of Hans Block and Gerrit Hendricksen Boogh that SherLfiE Sweringen 

regretted much, that he did not shoot the right man. 
Aug. 3. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant, vindicating himself from certain 

accusations of Director Hinoyossa, and transmitting affidavits. 
Aug. 3. Letter. William Claiborne, junior, to Director Stuyvesant, requesting that two 

runaway servants be apprehended and sent back. 
Aug. 1. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; suspension of Sheriff Van 

Sweringen ; further particulars of his case. 
Sept. 1. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; the books and records of the 
City's Colony on the Delaware, relative to Alrich's administration, are to be 
transferred to the authorities there. ■" 

Sept. 5. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland. Sheriff" van 
Sweringen kills a soldier and is protected by d'Hinoyossa; critical state of the 
City's Colony on the Delaware. 

July 11. 

July 15. 

July 28. 

July 29. 

July 30. 

July 29, 

July 30. 

July 31. 

July 31. 

Table of Contents. xxxt 

1662. Sept. 5. Letter. John Willemsen, councillor of New Amstel, to Vice-Director Beeckman 
informing him that a Dutchman had been shot by some Sinnekus and proposing 
to send an express to the Director-General. 
" Sept. 8. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant, with the preceding letter of 
Councillor Willemsen, and stating some circumstances respecting the above 

" Sept. 8. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant, informing him of a panic which 
prevails at the South river. 

" Sept. 14. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; further conjectures respecting 
those who committed the above murder. 

" Sept. 19. Declaration of Vice-Director Beeckman, that the land called Printsdorp, had been 
16 years in possession of governor Prints and his daughter, who still owns it, and 
that a tract of land between Maritgies hook and Upland Kill had been donated 
by Queen Christina to the father-in-law of Elias Hullengreen. 

" Sept. 20. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; the perpetrators of the late 
murder unknown; Director Hinoyossa about to go to Holland; intermittent fever, 

" Sept. 27. Letter. The same to the same, informing him of the arrival of some Englishmen 
from Virginia in pursuit of William Brown and three other servants; (Brown 
had been sold to a Swede by some Indians who Tiad taken him prisoner on the 

" Oct. 24. Letter. The same to the same; death of Mathew Bengson, deputy sheriff; a 
man-servant of Peter Alrichs (one of the above runaways) hung, afterwards 
beheaded and his head set on a stake at New Amstel, for resisting those, who 
had arrested him. 

" (Nov. 11). Letter. J. Willems, councillor, to Vice-Director Beeckman; departure of Hinoyossa 

and Van Sweringen for a conference with the Governor of Maryland at the house 

of Augustyn Heerman (Bohemia, Md.). 
" Nov. 24. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; return of d'Hinoyossa to New 

Amstel ; Lord Baltimore obtains a new patent, including the Delaware river ; 

another murder by Indians. 
" Nov. 27. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; death of councillor Willems 

at New Amstel. 
" Dec. 23. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; conference with some Minqna 

chiefs ; black Minquas ; projected war against the Sinnecus. 
1663. Jan. 8. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland. Report on 

the late Director Alrich's estate in Delaware ; arrogant bearing of d'Hinoyossa. 
" Feb. 1. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; further accusations against 

Hinoyossa ; nothing known of his negotiations with Gov. Calvert ; small pox 

among the Indians. 
" Mar. 26. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; Sheriff van Sweringen is 

discharged from prosecution for murder ; the entire Delaware territory is about to 

be transferred to the City of Amsterdam. 
" Mar. 29. Letter. Commissary Hendrick Huygen to " his cousin " Vice-Director Beeckman ; 

state of affairs at Tinnakonck and at Upland. 

cxvi TcCble of Contents. 

i63. April 1. Trial and sentence of banishment pronounced against Evert Hendrictsen, a Fin, at 

" April 16. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; D'Hinoyossa is recalled ; the 

actions of the Director-General and Council concerning the City's Colony 

" May 5. Invoice of goods sent to New Amstel (New Castle, Del.). 
" May 1 1. Petition of William Beeckman, Commissary at the South river, for a grant of land 

" May 29. Letter. Andries Hudde, secretary, to Director Stuyvesant; Sinnekes, 1600 strong, 

with wives and children marching on the Minquas, at the instigation of the 

English; fort Altena utterly defenseless. 
" June 6. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; Minquas blockaded in their 

fort by the Sinnecus, 800 sti'ong; battle; Sinnecus defeated; Sheriff Van Sweringen 

reinstated; the Burgomasters of Amsterdam in treaty for the whole of the country 

on the Delaware river; immigration; new Swedish clergyman. 
" June 23. Letter. William Beeckman to Secretary van Ruyven; Sinnecus retired to their 

own country. 
" June 24. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; small pox at Staten Island; 

murder of christians at Esopus; retreat of the Sinnecus; several of them recently 

taken by the Minquas. 
" June 28. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant. D'Hinoyossa arrives in 

" July 3. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; massacre at Esopus; Minquas 

threaten to follow the Sinnecus ; immigration ; Mr. Beeckman applies for 

employment elsewhere. 
" July 23. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; defenseless condition of the 

fort; Andries Hudde about to move to Maryland; two Englishmen murdered 

there by Sinnecus, as it is supposed. 
" July 25. Letter. William Beeckman to Secretary van Ruyven; state of affairs. 
" Aug. 4. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; arrival of settlers from 

Holland; Director d'Hinoyossa about to proceed thither. 
" Feb. 8. Resolution of the Amsterdam chamber of the W. L Company, consenting to the 

cession of the whole of the Delaware river to the city of Amsterdam. 
" J'y, Aug. Further concessions to the colony of the city of Amsterdam on the Delaware river. 
" Aug. 15. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; visit of Lord Baltimore {sic) 

and suite to New Amstel and Altena ; renews treaty of peace with the Indians ; 

settlement of the boundary proposed to him; he refers it to the old Lord 

" Sept. 1. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant; Esopus Indians visit the 

Minissinks at the head of the Delaware; Minquas carry presents to the 

Mohawks, who kill some of them ; will join the Senecas against the Minquas. 
" Sept. 9. Oath of office taken by Gerrit Cock, collector of customs at the city's colony on 

the Delaware river. 

Table of Contents. xxxvii 

1663. Sept. 10. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant. Reasons for ceding tlie 

whole of Delaware territory to the city of Amsterdam. 
" Sept. 13. Letter. Directors of the Amsterdam Chamber of the W. I. Company to Vice- 
Director Beeckman, notifying him of the cession of the Delaware river to the 

city of Amsterdam. 
" Sept. 27. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant. They convey the Delaware 

territory to the city of Amsterdam and expect a settlement of the boundary 

" Oct. 16. Extract from a letter of the same to the same. The Swedes suspected of designs 

on the Delaware territory. 
" Oct. 30. Extract from a letter of the same to the same on the movements of the Swedish 

" Nov. 15. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; Rev. Abelius Zetskoorn, 

Lutheran minister at New Amstel ; efforts to induce him to settle at Tinnecongh 

in the place of Dom° Laers ; death of Andries Hudde. 
" Dec. 5. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; return of Director d'Hinoyossa 

to New Amstel ; immigrants ; Delaware river ceded. 
" Dec. 6. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; d'Hinoyossa will not allow 

him to occupy his present quarters ; requests that other arrangements may be 

made ; will move to Maryland, if he be not continued in the public service. 
" Dec. 22. Deed, transferring to the Burgomasters of Amsterdam, in Holland, all the country 

on the Delaware. 
" Dec. 28. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; declines to remain at Altena 

under d'Hinoyossa ; repeats his intention of moving to Maryland, if the 

government require not his services. 

1664. Jan. 12. Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; attendance of the Swedes and 

Fins, who are informed of the Vice-Director's approaching departure ; refuse to 

swear allegiance to the new Director, etc., unless the privilege of trading with 

the Indians be continued ; d'Hinoyossa instructed to prevail on Mr. Beeckman to 

remain at the Delaware ; unsuccessful in his efforts. 
« April 26. Extract from a letter of Director Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland. The 

officers of the W. L Company will try to keep on a good footing with and assist 

the officers of the city's colony. 
" June 10. Extract from a letter of the same to the same. Complaints are made, that the 

city's officers monopolize the trade on the Delaware. 
" July 3. Order directing that merchants from the South river, who desire to trade at New 

Amsterdam, must obtain certificates of citizenships. 
" Aug. 4. Extract from a letter of Director Stuyvesant to the Directors. The Swedish 

expedition, under Admiral Zeehelm, prevented by storms to go to the Delaware. 

xjtxviii Tahle of Contents. 


The Delaware Territory a Dependency of tbe Province ot New York until the 
Arrival of Penn's Deputy and the Establishment of the Colony of Pennsylvania, 
September, 1664 to 1682. 

1664. Sept. 3. Instructions to Sir Robert Carr for the reducing of Delaware bay and settling the 

people there. 
" Sept. 3. Copy of Sir Robert Carr's commission to proceed to and reduce Delaware bay. 
" Oct. 24. Order for the return from Delaware bay of Sir Robert Carr, as his absence 

interferes with the business of the Commissioners, and another order directing 

Col. Richard Nicolls to go and take special care of the government of that 

1666. Mar. 20. Privileges granted to the Delaware river trade. 

" April 10. Letter from Gov. Nicolls to the Earl of Arlington, Secretary of State, asking that 

the grants made to Sir Robert Carr and others in Delaware be confirmed. 

1668. Feb. 15. Copy of a patent granted to Peter Alricks, of the island in the Delaware river, 

called Matiniconck ; conditions of above grant. 
" April 21. Resolutions and directions for the settlement of the government in Delaware. 
" June 8. Letter from Gov. Nicolls and Col. Francis Lovelace to Capt. Carr at New-Castle 

respecting difiiculties with the Indians there. 

1669. June 3. Instructions for Captain Stone in regard to the settlers, who may come from the 

Order, directing that the old Dutch patents in Delaware must be reconfirmed. 
Order for the arrest, in Delaware, of a Swede, calling himself the son of General 

Order permitting the Fins, etc., in Delaware, to take up land at Apoquemini. 
Order for the settlement of some families from Maryland at Apoquemini. 
Letter from Gov. Lovelace to Capt. John Carr and the magistrates of New- 
Castle, on the intended insurrection of the Long Swede (Coningsmarck). 
Oct. 19. Letter from Gov. Lovelace to Captain Carr, on Indian affairs in Delaware, and 

recommending the Long Finne to be carefully guarded. 
Nov. 22. Commission for the trial of the ringleaders in the insurrection in Delaware. 
Dec. 6. Foi-m of holding the court at the fort of New Castle, upon the Delaware river, for 

the trial of the Long Finne and about the late insurrection. 
Dec. 6. Minute of the trial of the Long Finne ; sentenced to be whipped, branded on the 

face and transported. 
List of the inhabitants, who were confederates with the Long Finne. 
Names of those, who were fined on account of the rebellion of the Long Finne, and 

the amount of the fines. 
Names of persons having demands against the Long Fin. 
Order concerning the insurrection in Delaware. 
Order for transporting the Long Finne to Barbados. 

















Table of Contents. xxxix 

16'/0. Mar. 24. Order extending the time for settling Chiepiessing on the Delaware river, granted 

to John Berry and company, three years. 

" April 13. Letter from Gov. Lovelace to Capt. Carr, informing him of Dom° Fabricius' 

intention to remove to Delaware, and recommending him to the Captain's 


Order confirming to Olle Olleson, Niels Nielsen, sen., and others, a former patent 

for land on Verdrietiges Hook (Trinity Hook), Del. 
Propositions made about the fortifications at Delaware, under the hands of Captain 

CaiT and the rest of the high court there. 
Council Minutes. The customs at the Horekil, Del., to be abolished. 
Order repealing an order concerning the customs duties at the Horekil, Del. 
Letter from Gov. Lovelace to Capt. Carr, urging economy in the public expenses 
in Delaware. 
1671. Feb. 24. Council Minutes on Delaware matters. 

Letter from Gov. Lovelace to the inhabitants of Delaware, recommending caution 

in their dealings with the Indians. 
Council Minute. Delaware affairs, viz. : Indian murders, settlement of Apoqueminy 

and Bombay Hook. 
Copy of an act, passed by the Assembly of Maryland, in regard to the forbidden 

importation of horses, etc., into that province. 
Council Minute. Horekil, Del., affairs, viz.: The purchase of the Horekil from the 

Indians, made by the Dutch, to be recorded. 
Propositions on behalf of the town of New Castle, in Delaware, from Mr. Tom. 
A query of Mr. Tom's to be resolved concerning the tenure of the land at Delaware. 
Proposals from Capt. Carr to the Governor and Council, touching the town of New- 
Castle and plantations in Delaware river. 
" June 14. Answer of the Governor and Council to the proposals from Capt. Carr. 
" June 14. Council Minute. Order regulating the distilling of liquor at New-Castle, Del., and 

concerning settlements at the Horekil. 
" Sept. 25. Council Minute. Indian murders at Matiniconck Island, Del. 
" Sept. Letter from Gov. Lovelace to Mr. Tom at the Delaware on Indian affairs. 

" Nov. T. Council Minute. The Indian murder at Matiniconck Island, Del. The season 
being unfavorable for a war against the Indians, the murderers must be punished 
by other meai3^. Orders for the safety of the inhabitants against Indian outrages. 
" Nov. 9. Letter frojn Gov. Lovelace to Captain Carr at New-Castle, chiding him for his 

remi^ness in the Indian murder case. 
" Nov. 13. Second placat concerning strangers going out of this government. 
(No date.) Account of such quit-rents as are due and payable by the several persons herein 

named in Delaware. 

1671. Mar. 9. Letter. Wm. Tom and Peter Alricks to Governor Lovelace, about the Indians. 

1672. Jan. 16. Permission given to Martin Hoofman, a member of the Lutheran Congregation of 

New York, to go to Delaware and collect money for a new church building. 


































xl Table of Contents. 

1672. Jan. 24. Order remitting any damage that might happen to the land at Chiepiesaing on the 
Delaware by its not being improved in time. 
April 6. Order to William Tom to render an account of the quit-rent, and commission 
appointing captain Walter Wharton a justice of the peace " in Delaware river 
and parts adjacent." 
April 27. Certificate of William Tom, Peter Alrick, Walter Wharton and Ed. Cantwell 
relative to the appearance of Mr. Jenkins, a surveyor, sent to Horekil from 
Maryland, under a pretended commission from Lord Baltimore. 
Order authorizing the inhabitants of Horekil, Del., to elect new officers. 
Minutes of council held at New York incorporating New Castle, Del.; proposals 
from capt. Edward Cantwell, of Delaware, about the Block house ; about selling 
liquor to Indians ; about quit-rents and runaways. 
Council Minute. Delaware affairs. 
Letter. Richard Perrot to Gov. Lovelace for a grant of land on the Horekil, 

Council Minute. A tax on liquor to be imposed at the Horekil, to make good the 

losses sustained by privateers. 
Letter from Gov. Lovelace to Gov. Phil. Calvert of Maryland, complaining of the 
lawless proceedings of Marylanders on the Horekil and asking for redress. 
Aug. Answer to the above propositions of Captain Cantwell, with instructions to publish 

the declaration of war against Holland. 
Sept. 27. Letter. John Carr to Gov. Lovelace about the affairs at the Horekil. 
Oct. 7. Letter from Gov. Lovelace to Capt. Carr at New Castle. He has reported the 
disturbances, created by Marylanders, to the Duke of Tork and orders that all 
further attempts of this kind be repelled by force. 
Dec. 10. Letter. Edmund Cantwell to Gov. Lovelace about the affairs at the Horekil. 
date.) The result and reasons of the magistrates of Delaware against declaring war against 

the Lidian murderers. 
. Jan. 27. Council Minute. Free trade on the Delaware above New-Castle permitted. 
April 14. Order for the administration of the Horekil precinct. 
Sept. 12. Privileges granted to the inhabitants of the South river (Delaware) ; jurisdiction of 

the several courts there. 
Sept. 19. Commission of Peter Alrichs as sheriff and commandant at the South river, his 

oath of office and instructions. 
Sept. 25. Order to administer the oath of allegiance to the inhabitants at the South river. 
Nov. 28. Appointment of magistrates for the Horekil. 
. Jan. 14. Proclamation sent to the South river on an invasion of those parts from Maryland. 
Feb. 16. Patent to Ephraim and Casparus Hermans, for a neck of land below New- 

Amstel (New-Castle) containing 250 morgens more or less. 
Mar. 1. Proceedings in court against Dom® Fabricius for having illegally married two 

April 18. Order refusing Dom' Fabricius permission to baptize. 

Table of Contents. xli 

1674. Nov. 2. Council Minute. The Municipal officers at the Delaware and elsewhere, who were 

in the service in July, 1673, reinstated, except Peter Alrichs, bailiff in Delaware, 

who offered his services to the Dutch. 
" Nov. 3. Letter from Gov. Andros to the Governor of Maryland, informing him that he 

has again taken possession of New York and Delaware. 
" Nov. 4. Order appointing Commissioners for Delaware. 
" Nov. 6. Commission authorizing Capt. Cantwell and William Tom to take possession of 

Fort New-Castle, Del. 
" Nov. Letter from Gov. Andros to the Commissaries at New-Castle and the other towns 

on the Delaware, covering an order by which the Commissaries in office at the 

time of the Dutch occupation in 1673 are reinstated. 
" Nov. 11. Order, authorizing Capt. Cantwell to administer the oath of allegiance to the 

Commissaries in Delaware. 

1675. Jan. Letter from Gov. Andros to Capt. Cantwell at New-Castle, informing him of his 

intention to visit Delaware in the spring and authorizing him to survey land 

and demand of the Indians satisfaction for the murder of Dr. Roades. 
" Jan. 11. Declaration. William Tom, plaintiff, Derick Albertson, defendant, relative to half 

of a lot of land where the mill stood ; claimed by the defendant under a transport 

from William Beeckman. 
" Feb. 5. Permit to Casparus Herrmans to occupy and possess a certain tract of land on the 

Delaware river between Arien's kil and Apoquemininck kil, being 250 morgeus, 

on condition that he obtain a patent therefor. 
" Mar. 27. Letter from Gov. Andros to Capt. Cantwell, regarding Indian affairs in Delaware. 
" April 23. Letter from Gov. Andros to Capt. Cantwell on Indian affairs in Delaware. 
" April 30. Letter from the same to the same, informing him tbat the several Indian tribes are 

at peace. 
" May. Commission for militia officers for Newcastle, Cranehook, Verdriete hook, Upland, 

Passayunck, Apoquemini and Horekill, in Delaware. 
(No date.) Petition. Jacobus Fabricius relative to a charge of riotous conduct brought against 

(No date.) Petition (not signed) for a grant of 4,000 acres of land above and below the falls 

on the Delaware, with the privilege of liberty of worship, calling a minister, 

holding court, etc. 
1675. May 8. List of persons, old and young, living at the Horekil, Del. 

Petition. Hermanus Wiltbank to the council, about Capt. Cantwell and charges 

made against him. 
" May 13. Conference between Governor Andros, the Magistrates at New Castle, Del. and the 

Indian sachems of New Jersey; renewal of the treaty of peace; S. Edsall, J. 

Helme and Lanse Cock, Israel Helme, interpreter. 
« May 15. Grant to Dr. John Des Jardins of a tract of land lying on Jones creek, in 

" May 15. Letter from Gov. Andros (at the Delaware) to Lord Baltimore, excusing himself 

for not being able to wait on his Lordship at St. Mary's. 

xlii Table of Contents. 

1675. June 1. Petition. Lutherans on the Delaware river, setting forth that in Dec, 1672, two 

congregations had been established, one above Verdritige hook, under Rev. Mr. 

Laers, the other below that point, under Rev. Jacobus Fabritius, and praying that 

the same be confirmed. 
" June 4. Order to construct two dykes or highways along certain marshy lands at New 

" June 4. Declaration of H. Block, John Moll and Derick Albuck, Magistrates of New Castle, 

respecting the opposition manifested in the church, by John Ogle and Rev. 

Jacobus Fabritius, to the above order. 
" June. Petition of the inhabitants of the district of New Castle relative to making two 

dykes or highways through the marsh belonging to Mr. Carr. 
" Reasons which led the Magistrates to make the order about the two dykes. 

" June 5. Remonstrance of inhabitants of New Castle against being compelled to repair one 

of the above dykes, it being private property. 
" June 5. Order thereupon; parties to obey the directions of the court on pain of paying 

double the expense of the work. 
" June 5. Letter. Tom, clerk of the court at New Castle, to Gov. Andros, 

representing the opposition offered to the construction of the dykes and 

requesting instructions. 
" June 14 and 23. Council Minute. The disturbances in Delaware. 
" Aug. 3. Survey of a tract of land lying near the Horekil for Randell Revell at Slater 

" July 26. Order summoning Dom" Jacobus Fabricius and John Ogle before the Governor 

to answer to the charge of having been implicated in the riot in Delaware. 
" July 28. Letter from Gov. Andros to Capt. Cantwell, on land-matters in Delaware. 
" Aug. 14. Remonstrance of the Swedes and Fins of Cranehook church, against Domine 

Fabricius being their minister. 
" Aug. 18. Letter. Magistrates to Gov. Andros, concerning Capt. Carr's meadow, the removing 

the block house, etc. 
" Sept. 15. Council Minute. Order suspending Magister Fabricius from ministerial functions; 

Delaware land matters ; order for the removal of the blockhouse at New-Castle. 

" Sept. 20. Minute of the purchase of two tracts of land by Gov. Andros for His Royal 

Highness from the Indian proprietors; one at the falls of the Delaware, the other 

at Musketoe cove, L. L 
" Sept. 22. Council Minute. Visit to the Governor by various Indians towards Delaware. 
" Dec. 5. Council Minute. Delaware affairs, viz.: the claims of Major Fenwick and others ; 

customs at New Castle. 
" Dec. 10. Letter from Gov. Andros to Capt. Cantwell on Indian affairs in Delaware and 

covering a letter to the Governor of Maryland on the Indian war. 
" April. List of land patents sent to Capt. Cantwell at Delaware. 

1676. May 3. Council Minute. Major Fenwick before the Council in regard to his claims in 


Table of Contents. xliii 

S^e. May 11. Letter. Capt. Cantwell to Gov. Andros, on the affairs at tlie Delaware. 

" July 13. Returns of survey of the following named tracts of land in Delaware; Maritie's 
Hook ; Groeningen ; Abraham's Delight ; Drumer's Neck ; The Good 
Neighborhood; Calton; Pimepakka, etc.; Point Pleasant; Quessinawominck; 

, . Teekquirassy ; Shakhamexunk ; Pimmerpakka ; Towocawonink; White Clay's 

creek; and a piece laid out for Peter Dalboe. Grantees for the 1st tract are, 
Charles Jansen, Otte Ranson, Otto Neilson, Hans Hopman, John Hendrickson 
and Hans Otteson; 2d, Peter Alrichs ; 3d, Abraham Enloes ; 4th, Maurice 
Daniel; 5th, Casparus Herman; 6th, John Barker; Vth, Michael Fredericks; 8th, 
Francis Walker and Dunk Williams; 10th, Peter Cock; 11th, Lawrentius Carolus; 
12th, Lawrence Cock, Erick Cock, Michael Neilson, Otto Ernest Cock, Gower 
Ramboe and Pieter Nielson; 1 7th, Peter Peterson and Gasper Fish; 18th, Erick 
Mallock, Otto Nielson and Christian Thomason; 19th, Peter Thomason. 

" Aug. 4. Council Minute. Order defining the powers of the Sheriff in Delaware ; the 
Susquehanna Indians in Delaware ; land matters in New Castle. 

" Aug. 11. Council Minute. Indian alarm in Delaware. 

" Aug. 11. Letter. Gov. Andros to Capt. Cantwell, relative to Indian affairs. 

" Aug. 27. Letter. Augustine Herrmans to Capt. Cantwell, relative to surveyor's fees in Mary- 
land and requesting him to arrest runaways. 

" Sept. 2. Certificate of Oly Joorson, Peter De Witt, John Barnson, Henry Johnson, Peter 

Matthiason of the right of way of Hans Block through land now owned by Capt. 

" Sept. 4. Certificate of Martin Garritson relative to Hans Block's right of way over Capt. 

Cantwell's land. 
" Sept. 16. Commission. Capt. John Collier to be Commander in Delaware and his 


" ] D ^* 16 [ Warrant for the commitment of Maj. John Fenwick. 

" Sept. 26. Nomination of magistrates for the Delaware river. 

" Sept. 27. Answers given to Capt. Cantwell's proposals about affairs on the Delaware river. 

" Sept. 27. Ordinance. Introducing the Duke's laws, establishing courts of justice and making 

various other rules for the government of the Delaware river. 
" Nov. 8. Memorial of John Moll, Henry Ward, William Tom and others, magistrates of New 

Castle, Del., to Gov. Andros, on municipal affairs. 
« Nov. 20. Minutes of a council held at New York in relation to Major John Fenwick's granting 

patents in New Jersey; patents issued by him not to be confirmed; Jean Paul 

Jaquet's complaint against John Fenwick; answers to the proposals of the 

magistrates of New Castle. 
" Nov. 23. Letter. Gov. Andros to the magistrates of New Castle relative to municipal 

affairs ; Major John Fenwick, &c. 
" Dec. 1. Copy of a patent granted by Gov. Andros to Daniel Whitley of a piece of land in 

Delaware, called the Grove, situated on St. John's creek, on the west side of the 

Delaware bay. 







Table of Contents. 

"Warrant summoning a court for the trial of Major Fenwick. 

Assignment by Samuel Edsall (of New York) to George Heatbcote, of England, 

mariner, of an island in the Delaware river. 
Letter. Secretary Nicolls to the magistrates at Horekil, relative to a piece of 
land granted to Wm. Plainer, and again granted to Randell Revell. 
Feb. 26. Letter. Helmer Wiltbank to Governor Andres; Lord Baltimore about to renew his 

claim; rebellion in Virginia. 
Mar. 19. Order of a special court at Horekil for the resurvey of the lands of John Stevens, 

purchased of William Willoughby and Robert Dicks. 
April 6. Order for the survey of 200 acres of land for Captain Israel Helm. 
April 6. Resolution in Council regarding the Susquehanna Indians. 

Extracts from letters of Gov. Andros to the commander and colleetor at New 
Castle, relative to vessels sailing up the Delaware river; dated Nov. 23, 1676 and 
April 6, 1677. 
May 1. Dimensions and bounds of Prime hook near the Horekil. 

May 11. Memorandum of a sale of land for Captain Nathl. Carr called by the name of 
Cruder's neck; bounds of the same; patent issued Oct. 23, 1667. 

May 14. Proceedings of the court held at Horekil on the petition of William Planer, 

relating to the above land. 
June 7. Order of the court at New Castle, relative to certain records delivered by William 

Tom, the former clerk. 
June 8. Letter. Magistrates to Governor Andros, relative to their municipal officers 

June 1 1. Letter. Helm. Wiltbank to Governor Andros, relative to certain lands surveyed by 

the surveyors of Maryland, which he alleges belong to Delaware. 
June 12. Letter. Captain John Collier to Governor Andros, relative to the records of that 

place kept by Wm. Tom ; war with France. 
June 23. Order concerning weights and measures to be used in Delaware. 
July 27. Charges preferred to the Governor by Walter Wharton against Capt. Cantwell, 

Commander in Delaware. 
Aug. 1. Letter. Edmund Cantwell to John Stevens, relative to the title of his land. 
Aug. 4. Council Minute. Thomas Olive and other passengers of the ship " Kent " ask for 
and receive permission to settle in West New Jersey, east of the Delaware river, 
as proprietors under indentures from the Duke of York to Lord John Berkeley 
and Sir George Carterett. 
Order concerning lands in Delaware. 

Commission of Capt. Christopher Billop as Commander in Delaware. 
Letter from Gov. Andros to the Justices in New Castle on the modus of administering 

Order for the relief of the owners of a mill on Christina Kil in Delaware, 
Letter. John Stevens to — , relative to his patent. 











Table of Contents. xlv 

Sept. 10. Letter. John Audrey to Governor Andros, dated from Horekil. 

Sept. 18. Letter. Helmer Wiltbank to Governor Andros, relative to the surveys made by 

Maryland in Delaware. 
[Oct. 10.] Letter from Gov. Andros to Capt. Billop, Commander at New Castle, informing 

him of his intention to go to England and reprimanding the Captain for certain 

actions ; West New Jersey is being settled by emigrants from England. 
Oct. 10. Letter from the same to the Magistrates of New Castle, Upland and Horekil, Del., 

communicating his early departure and recommending caution. 
Oct. 17. Letter from the same to the Commissioners for West Jersey in regard to the 

establishment of colonies there. 
Nov. 12. List of persons in the company at Delaware. 
Nov. 13. Petition. Court of Upland, by Israel Helm, Lawrence Cock, Morris Cock, Andries 

Benckson, Swen Lom, Ephraim and Caspar Herman and others, for grants of 

land on the west side of the Delaware river, near the falls. 
Nov. 13. Letter. Helm. Wiltbank, Edward Southrin and Alex. Molestine, magistrates of 

Horekil, to Gov. Andros relative to Edward Cantwell's erasing the names 

of Thomas Wellburne and William Anderson of Accomack county, Virginia, 

from a certificate of survey and putting in others, also the petition of Thos. 

Wellburne and William Anderson. 
Civil and military appointments for Horekil. 
List of the names of persons in New Castle and Horekil. 
Feb. Letter. Court at New Castle to Gov. Andros, relative to their mujicipal affairs. 

May 9. Depositions of Edmond Cantwell, justice Fop Outhout, Michael Baton and 

Reynier van th , in a court held at New Castle, relative to the conduct of 

John Fenwick at a meeting held on the east side of the Delaware river. 
May 11. Minutes of the council in New York relative to directions to Capt. C. Billopp, about 

sloops sailing up the Delaware and Capt. Cantwell's answer to the complaint 

of the magistrate of Horekil as to abuses in altering surveys. 
Feb. 25. Council Minute. Ship " Mary " from Liverpool, lying in the Delaware damaged 

by ice, with six or seven families of Quakers on board, to be sent to clear at 

New York. 
May 1. Council Minute. Sloops not to go up the Delaware river ; the " Mary " of Liverpool 

lands goods at New Salem ; Capt. Salisbury to be informed of the probability of 

war with France ; persons without passports to be considered suspicious. 
May 22. Order for the suspension of certain "alterations" begun to be made by Major 

John Fenwick, on the east side of Delaware river and that he cease acting 

there under his pretended authority. 
May 25. Letter. Secretary Nicolls to the court at New Castle, relative to the conduct of 

John Fenwick, etc. 
June 4, 5. Proceedings of a court held at New Castle against Walter Wharton, for marrying 

himself contr.ary to law, etc. 
June 18. Minute of council in relation to John Fenwick in Delaware ; concerning Mr. Tom's 


Table of Contents. 

Letter. The Council to the magistrates at New Castle, in relation to the matter of 

John Fenwick. 
Proceedings of the commander and justices, held in the town of New Castle, in 

relation to Major Fenwick. 
Letter. Magistrates to Capt. Matthias Nicolls and the rest of the Council, in 

relation to Major Fenwick's case and Mr. Tom's estate. 
Petition. John Hillyard to Gov. Andres, relative to the difficulty in relation to the 

land granted him on Delaware bay. 
Petition. George Merten in relation to his land on Delaware bay. 
Council Minute. Major Fenwick's case; he had been prosecuted for claiming a 

right to land in the colony independent of its government. 
Letter. Helmanus Wiltbank to Secretary Nicolls, relating to surveyors and 

Petition. Edward Southrin to Gov. Andros, relative to the abuse he has received 

from one John Avery, in the discharge of his duty as a magistrate. 
Commission. Capt. John Avery to be Justice at Horekil, Del. 
List of patents in the hands of Capt. Edward Cantwell, New Castle. 
Minute of the court at New Castle of sundry matters to be laid before Gov. 

Andros on his arrival from England and deputing Mr. Moll to submit the same. 
Names of persons at Salem, or Swamptown, where Major Fenwick settled. 
Letter from Gov. Andros to the Justices at New Castle, Del., on public affairs. 
Order regulating the payment of quitrents in Delaware. 
Commission for William Penton and others, to be Overseers at Elsenburgh, alias 

Salem or Swamptown, N. J. 
Oct. 28. Order directing the Justices at New Castle, Del., to prevent, that the inhabitants 

on the east side of the river be molested in the possession of their lands. 
Nov. 18. Order directing Capt. Cantwell to put Robert Stacy in possession of Mattiniconck 

Island, in Delaware. 
Nov. 18. Warrant for Capt. Cantwell and Ephraim Hermans to purchase from the Indians 

land near the Falls of the Delaware. 
Oct. Declaration of Henry Smith with regard to the charge of treason against Helmanus 

Wiltbank ; the charge was made by Dr. John Roades and William Prentice 

to Francis Jenkins, a justice in Maryland ; also as to Edward Southrin's 

conversation with the devil and as to Cors. Verhoof 's keeping false records. 
Petition. Andres Poulson relative to a grant of land in Apequameny creek, 

Delaware river, of which he is defrauded by Walter Wharton, surveyor. 
Nov. 14. Duplicate of the lease of Matiniconk island in Delaware river to Robert Stacy. 
Dec. 5. Petition. Thomas Olive and other inhabitants of Burlington, N. J., in favor of 

Henry Jacobs, tenant in possession of Matiniconk island. 
Blank patent for a piece of land in Delaware bay for Nathaniel Walker. 
Draft of a patent to Thomas Younk for a piece of land, called Popler Neck, on 

the west side of Delaware bay. 


1678. June 21. 

« July 


" July 


" July 


" July 


" Aug. 


" Sept. 


" Sept. 


" Oct. 


" Oct. 


" Oct. 




" Oct. 


" Oct. 


" Oct. 


Tahle of Contents. xlvii 

1679. Mar. 18. Petition. Arnlodus de La Grange relative to the island of Tinicum, in the 

Delaware river, purchased by his father from Armegart Prints. 
" Mar. 25. Receipt of Ephm. Herman to John Steevens for 25 bushels of wheat for quit-rent 

due for 1200 acres of land, called Content, lying in Duke creek, and for 1300 

acres, called London, lying in Little creek below Duke creek. 
" May 13. List of patents sent to Capt. Edmund Cantwell, which were refused to be signed. 
" May 14. Letter. Wm. Clark of Horekil, Del., to Gov. Andros relative to the settlement of 

that district. 
" May 19. Letter from Secr^ Nicolls to the Magistrates at New-Castle, explaining to them 

the Duke's Law and ordering a stop of proceedings against Dom" Laurentius 


" May 27. Confirmation by Gov. Andros of John to be clerk at Horekil. 

Petition. Jan Kipphaven for a piece of land at Horekil. 
" May 27. Petition. John Vyne to be sheriff of Horekil. 
" June 23. Petition, dated Burlington, signed by John Budd, John Miffin and others from 

Old England, for grants of land. 
" June 30. T-^etter. Luke Watson to Gov. Andros relative to the conduct of Capt. John 

Avery, a magistrate. 
" July 2. Warrant for Mr. Philipp Pocock, surveyor, to survey and assign some land at the 

Delaware for the destitute people, lately arrived from England. 
Letter. Secretary Nicolls to Capt. Cantwell, about lands at Delaware falls. 
Order of the court at Horekil on the petition of John Richardson, relating to 

some premises in the possession of John Stevens. 
Order of the magistrates of Horekil to John Vines, sheriff, to put John Richardson 

in possession of the premises claimed by John Stevens. 

Account of the remains of an adventure sent to the Delaware by James Grahame 

of New York. 
Order of the court at Horekil decreeing the possession of the said premises to 

John Stevens ; action of the magistrates thereon. 
Articles of agreement between John Stevens and Thomas Crumpton, for a piece of 

land on the west side of Delaware bay, near Duck creek. 
Letter. Secretary Nicolls to Capt. John Avery, relative to a tract of 680 acres of 
land which was laid out for Nathaniel Walker, at Horekil, and called Cedar 
Neck, surveyed by Cornelius Verhoof, to have certain swamp lands included in 
his patent. 
Sept 10. Letter. Edmund Cantwell to John Stevens, denying that he ever gave Thomas 
Phillips orders to grant warrants for land ; that he never gave John Richards a 
warrant for more than 300 acres. 
Sept. 18. Letter. Edmund Cantwell to Gov. Andros, giving an account of his interview 

with the Indians relative to a survey of lands above the falls on the Delaware. 
Sept. 25. Letter. John Avery relative to the 680 acres of land called Cedar Neck, at 
Horekil, laid out for Capt. Nathl. Walker. 















xlviii Table of Contents. 

1679. Sept. 30. Council Minute. Order, that Peter Tescliemaecker be ordained minister of the 

Gospel for New-Castle, Del. 

" Oct. 10. Letter. Secretary Nicolls to Capt. Cantwell relative to affairs on the Delaware. 

" Names of the magistrates of New Castle, Upland, Horekil and West New 


" Oct. 30. Order of court confirming to William Dickson a certain tract of land at St. Jones, 

" Nov. Memorandum of Ephraim Hermans for grants to Israel Helme, Otto Swanson and 

Laura Cock for 200 acres of land each. 
List of patents delivered to Jacobsen, Otto Paulsen, Arent Johnson, Paulus 

and Amelius Verking, Maurice Daniel, Bryan O'Malle, John Moll and others. 

1680. Feb. Declaration in ejectment in the case of John Stevens, plaintiff, and John Glover, 

defendant, John Glover vs. Griffith Jones, about a piece of land called Willing 
brook, and other pleadings and papers relating to the same land before the court 
at Horekil. 
« Bond of Thomas Crompton of Dorchester county, province of Maryland, and 

John Richardson of the same place, for the faithful performance of certain 
covenants contained in certain articles dated Aug. 18, 1676, affidavits and 
papers relating to the same matter, all produced and used in a court held at 

" Jan. 17. Letter. Ephraim Herman to Secretary Nicolls, relating to various matters in 
Delaware; patents; quakers; Dom' Tesschemaker. 

" Jan. 20. Letter. John Moll to Secretary Nicolls, on affairs in Delaware. 
" Feb. 6. Articles of agreement between John Steevens and Samuel Stiles, relative to a 
plantation on Ducke creek. 

" Feb. 20. Letter. Philip Pocock to Gov. Andros, stating that the inhabitants of Craneneck 
desired to have their lands, held under patents from the Dutch, surveyed and to 
have them confirmed by him. Gov. Andros. 

" April 12. Petition. Inhabitants of the new town, near the falls of the Delaware, called 
Crewcorne, against the sale of liquor to the Indians. 

" April 21. Memorandum of papers delivered to Wm. Biles, a member of the new court at 

the falls of the Delaware. 
" April 23. Census of the responsible housekeepers and their families residing at Cedar creek, 

Muther creek, St. Jones and Duck creek, Matinicum, Wicacoe, Passayunck, 

Kincesse, Calcoon hook, Tinnacum, Upland, Printsdorp, Newcastle, and other 

places on the Delaware river. 
" May 1. Warrant, authorizing Capt. John Collyer, Surveyor-General and Sub-Collector at 

the Delaware to arrest Captain Philipp Carterett. 
« May 21. Sundry entries respecting Upland, New-Castle and Burlington. 
" May 26. Letter. James Nevill to Gov. Andros, relative to the proceedings of sundry 

fugitives from Virginia, who pretended to belong to a wrecked Guineaman. 

Table of Contents. xiix 

1680. June 1. Minute of a grant to Ephraim Herman of 600 acres of land lying on the west side 

of Delaware river, near its mouth, between the land of Morris Listen and Duke 

Creek, formerly granted to John Morgan and John Denny, both deceased ; also 

of 600 acres to Lawrence Cock, on the west side of Delaware river and north 

side of Duke creek, formerly granted to John Ashman and Saml. Jackson. 
" June 8. Proceedings of a court held at Horekil in a suit between Walter Dickson, 

plaintiff, and Barnard Hodges, defendant, about the title to a tract of land on 

Jones creek. 
" June 8. Minute of a verdict for plaintiff at a court held at Horekil, in the case of Walter 

Dickinson, plaintiff, agst. Bernard Hodges, defendant, in relation to the title to 

a tract of land called Mulberry swamp, on St. Jones creek. 
Petition. Walter Dickinson relative to a tract of land, named Mulberry swamp, 

situated at St. Jones creek, formerly surveyed for Thomas Merritt. 
" June 23. Letter. Cornells Verhoofe to Gov. Andros, relative to the discharge of his duties 

as a surveyor. 
" June 26. Letter. Luke Watson, John Roades, John Kipphaven, Wm. Clark and , 

magistrates, to Gov. Andros, relative to a prison and court house, surveys and 

settling of land. 
" July 12. Letter. John Wright to Gov. Andros, for land at Chiepessing, near the falls of the 

" Aug. 1. Deposition of Francis Whitwell relative to Capt. Cantwell's giving him several 

blank warrants for land. 
" Aug. 25. Deposition of John Brinkloc relative to John Stevens' tract of land on Duke creek. 
Petition. Barnard Hodges for a rehearing of his claim to a tract of land of 400 

acres granted by the court of the Horekil. 
" Sept. 13. Complaint of sundry inhabitants of Crewcorne, on the Delaware, again«t Gilbert 

Wheeler, for selling rum to the Indians. 
" Sept. 14. Memorandum of public matters at the Horekil to be attended to. 
" Sept. 24. Council Minute. Delaware matters. 
" Oct. 4. Order, fixing the fees of the Sheriff in Delaware. 
" Oct. 4. Warrant, authorizing the survey and allotment of land in Delaware to J. 

Richardson and John Stevens. 
" Nov. 20. Letter. Francis Whitwell to Gov. Andros relative to a tract of land granted to him 

on Duke creek. 

1681. Mar. 3. Order, providing land at St. Jones, Del., for John Albertson Terheun and 

" June 21. Proclamation releasing the justices, etc., residing in the new Province of 

Pennsylvania from their allegiance to the Duke of York. 
" Aug. 15. Order, directing the Magistrates at Deale, alias Horekil, Del, to search for the 

records, retained by Cornells Verhoofe, the former clerk. 
" Aug. Letter from Commander Brockholes to the Magistrates at St. Jones, Del., allaying 

their fears of an attack by Lord Baltimore. 


1 Table of Contents. 

1681. Aug. 10. Letter. Francis Whitwell and John Hillyard, justices, to Captain Anthony 

Brockholls, asking protection against Lord Baltimore, who threatens to reduce 

" Nov. 19. Letter. Eph. Herman to Capt. Brockholls, about quit-rents ; the arrest of Abm. 

Man ; expected arrival of Wm. Penn, &c. 
" Dec. 27. Letter. Ephraim Herman to Capt. Brockholls ; arrival of Gov. Markham and 

immigrants for Pennsylvania; application to lay out the 12 miles above New 

Castle as mentioned in Penn's patent, &c. ; report that Delaware is granted to 

" Dec. 27. Petition of sundry inhabitants of the upper part of Horekil co., for the appointment 

of a court at St. Jones creek. 

1682. Jan. 26. Letter from Commander Brockholes to the Governor of Pennsylvania, requesting 

him to assist Ephraim Harman to collect quit-rents due for lands now under the 
jurisdiction of Pennsylvania. 
" Nov. 21. Order of Commander Brockholls and Council, acknowledging the grant of 
Delaware to William Penn, and authorizing John Moll and Ephraim Hermans 
to surrender the territory to him or his agents. 

First Period. 

Times of the First Settlements on the Dela^A;■a^e until the Arrival 
of the Swedes [ to 1638].* 

Warrant for William Ussling to establish a General Company foe 
Trade to Asia, Africa, America and Magellanica. Given at 
Stockholm, the 21^'' of December, 1624. 

We, Gustavus Adolphus, by the Grace of God King of Sweden, Gothland and 
the Wendes, Grand Duke of Finland, Duke of Esthonia and Dalecarlia, Lord of 
Tngermanland, etc., etc. 

Know j'e, that by a petition the honest and prudent William Ussling f has humbly 
shown and proved to Us, how a General Trading Company here from Our Kingdom of 
Sweden to Asia, Africa, America and Magellanica could be established for the considerable 
improvement of Our and the Crown's revenues and the great advantage and benefit of 
Our subjects, besides, that the said Ussling has also promised to Us and engaged himself, 
that he will organize this Company using the utmost of his diligence and power, while 
he cherishes the certain hope, that with God's gracious blessing and help it shall 
have a good beginning and progress as well as a favorable result and end. Such being 
the proposition, which he made. We have taken it into consideration and find it to be 
founded and based upon so good reasons, that We cannot disapprove of it nor do We 
see, but what it is sure, that if God will give success, it shall tend to the honor of His 
Holy Name, to Our and the State's welfare and the advancement and advantage of Our 
subjects. We have therefore graciously received and with pleasure approved of it and 
consented that the said Company be organized and established. And that it may be 
done so much easier and better and capital and a management may be got so much 
quicker, We have given to the said Ussling power and permission now and in future to 
raise, inscribe and accept in this Our Kingdom of Sweden and its dependent provinces 

* We have no other evidences of the time of the first settlement on the Delaware, than vchat is stated in the 
different reports, made during the controversies with England and Sweden regarding the proprietorship of this 
territory. One of these reports, which is printed at length in Vol. I, p. 149 of Colonial Documents, claims that the 
first fort on the Delaware was built by the Dutch Greenland Company in 1598. This was, however, not a permanent 
settlement nor does the above mentioned report claim it so, stating that it was only used as shelter for the winter. 
The first permanent fort and settlement was according to the "Remonstrance of New-Netherland " Col. Doc. Vol. 1 
p. 390 and "Memoirs of the English Encroachments" Vol. I p. 564, Fort Nassau, erected near the present site of 
Gloucester Point, N. J., in 1623. See also concerning this period General Index of Colonial Documents sub. lit. Fort 
Nassau on the South river, South or Delaware and New-Jersey. — B. F. 

t William Ussling or Usselincx was a merchant of Antwerp and one of the original projectors of the Dutch West- 
India Company, with which he was connected for several years, but becoming dissatisfied he left it. — B. F. 

2 Colonial Settlements on the Delcvxvare River. 

all those, who wish and desire to participate in the said Society or Company, not 
doubting, that Our faithful subjects, considering the advantages which they can have 
thereby both for themselves as well as their descendants in future, shall let themselves 
be found willing each according to his power and means to contribute something to and 
take a share in the said undertaking, which is with especial well-meaning directed and 
organized for the common welfare and everybody's advantage. We also command 
herewith to aU Our Governors, Lords-Lieutenants, Bailiffs, Crown-farmers, Mayors and 
Councillors as well as to all Our other officers, whom the abovementioued Ussling shall 
ask for assistance and encouragement, that they receive him in friendship {?ionom, 
handen rdckie) and as far as their positions require and admit, give him for the promotion 
of this work, what is needed, aid and help him, while he and everybody in his place here 
shall communicate more detailed information and advice about it. 

Given and signed in Our Royal Palace at Stockholm, the 21*' of December 1624-. 


Contract of the Royal Swedish Gekeral Trading Company to do 
BUSINESS IN Asia, Africa, America and Magellanica, also its 
Conditions and Rules. 
We the undersigned inform and make known to all, who shall receive, read or hear 
read this our open letter, that for the praise and honor of God's Divine Majesty, the 
Fatherland's and our neighbors' as well as our own benefit and good we have agreed and 
concluded to organize and establish here in this Kingdom of Sweden a General Trading 
Company to travel to and carry on commerce and business in all the countries, cities and 
places, where presumably any profit and advantage may be reaped, especially Asia, 
Afiica, America and Magellanica. We will also receive and accept into this Company 
and Society all those, who approve of this our design and desire to sign this our Contract, 
at the same time consenting to pay and subscribing an amount of money, no matter 
whether large or small. And whereas we do not doubt, that our intention and project 
will appear strange and odd to many : therefore we have concluded to make known the 
principal motives and causes, which led us to it, but only briefly and as far as it can be 
done now in haste, leaving the rest tUl a future, time when we will prove and explain in 
detail by a clear deduction the good reasons and information, upon which our project is 
founded and based. At first and in the beginning it must be well considered and weighed, 
that God Almighty in His incomprehensible wisdom and providence has so foreordained 
and arranged that all, which is necessary for the welfare and sustenance of mankind, is 
not found in one place, unless God has blessed with His gifts each country especially by 
itself; consequently what is wanting in one country abounds in the other and one country 
cannot do without the other, if the inhabitants were not to depend mutually upon each 
other. Hence they were induced to expose themselves to dangers at sea and on land, in the 
beginning going to well-known places, afterwards to unknown and new countries, which 
they have discovered and occupied with remarkably great advantage and profit, not only 
because people have trusted in, sought and found the one this the other that, but also 
becnuse on the other side that, which is there in abundance and superfluity is brought to 

J\''ew York Historical Records. 3 

and shared with the needy. It is therefore not strange, that through such navigation, 
trade and commerce, together with the intercourse, friendship and alliance originated 
thereby, one nation is made a participant in another's arts, manners and politics. 

Our own experiences further teach, that all the kingdoms, countries and cities, which 
flourish in power and wealth, have become rich and powerful by navigation, commerce, 
by creating all kinds of trades and especially thereby, that the inhabitants have discovered 
and taken new and formerly unknown countries : this can be proved by Spain and the 
United Provinces of the Netherlands, which are two especially good examples of it. 

It is almost incredible, what treasures, wealth, and advantages the Spaniards have 
already had and enjoyed from Africa, Asia and America during 130 years now; it has 
gone so far, that the profits derived fi'om America alone amount annually to 20 millions 
of Kixdalers or 300 times 100000 Swedish dalers,* being mostly pure profits and gains 
so for the King himself as for his subjects and consisting in gold, silver, quicksilver, 
pearls, emeralds, amber, cochineal, anil,"!- hides, sugar, ginger, tobacco, all kinds of spices, 
rosin and precious woods, without counting here several millions of ducats, of which the 
King, besides meeting other expenses, makes use for his servants and their salaries, for 
the Administration and Bishoprics, Prebends, Presidents and Councils, as well as other 
official positions, some of which are worth annually five to six, some eight or ten and a 
few hundred thousands of Rixdalers. 

It is sufficiently known, what great riches the United Netherlands have obtained 
during 40 years, especially Holland, where the Brabant Flemings with great many 
Wallons established themselves. They soon brought there commerce and valuable 
manufactures and thereby filled the country with all kinds of trades and professions, so 
that the rent of a well arranged house is now higher, than formerly the pui'chase-price 
of the same. The products of the country are thereby also raised and increased in price 
three or four times, so that the inhabitants have become rich gradually and as it were 
sleeping. Aside from the private revenues and profits, the land has become so powerful, 
by closing the navigable waters and ports of the devastated and conquered country 
as well as by voyages to the East-Indies, Guinea and other distant places, that it has 
already been able to resist the King of Spain and defend and protect itself against his 
great power. 

This Kingdom of Sweden has until the present day lost or not shared in all the 
aforesaid profits and advantages, because its inhabitants were not willing to risk in 
anything extraordinary, unless remaining within their own boundaries, and thus they gave 
opportunity to the stranger from other countries to take the food from their mouths ; he 
buys the products of this country at an easy and low price and sells the imported goods 
very dear, while the Swedish people have, God be praised, not only as good an 
opportunity for trading, navigating and establishing all kinds of handicrafts, as any 
other nation in Europe may have : they even surpass others therein, for everything that 
is necessary for commerce, navigation, establishment of manufacture, viz., provisions, 
copper, steel, iron, timber and other wares, can be easier and better obtained in Sweden 
than in any other country .and hence trade can be carried on with greater profit and 
advantage to Asia, Airica, America and Magellanica, than by Spain and the Netherlands 

* One Swedish daler = 50 cents. One Rixdaler = 75 cents. — Tr. 
t -A- shrub, from whose leaves and stalks Indigo is made. — TF«6ster. 

4 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Sweden has that special advantage over Spain, that the Spaniards must incur on all 
the merchandise, which is to be brought from the aforesaid country either to Sweden or to 
other places in Europe, more than 130 per cent expenses, while the Swedes could do it at 
only 30 per cent. Nevertheless, the profits derived by the Spaniards amount usually 
to 50 and 100 per cent and often more. The Spaniards are furthermore very much in 
need of the suitable people, for they employ for the voyages and at the aforesaid places 
only Spaniards and slaves, who cost much and besides die quickly on account of the 
miserable food and bad treatment. On the other side all kind of nationalities may be 
employed in Sweden without any fear and consequently a great number of people can be 
carried there, and this alone must be a source of profit and gain. 

There are many countries in the aforesaid four parts of the world, where commerce 
and trade are fi-ee and again nearly as many where no commerce from Europe is carried 
on. There are in America more than thousands of miles of country, where no Spaniard has 
as yet come, abounding in every thing and with as healthy a climate as any of the other 
countries, which the Spaniards possess and live in, where (aside from the goods imported 
there by the Spaniards and the rich gold and silver mines), fruit, oil, salt, rice, wool, 
cotton, cotton yarn, pita* silks, dyes, long pepper, as good as the East-Indian round 
pepper, fragrant soaps and woods, spices and other wares more may be obtained, besides 
which special products are found in each particular country, so that we pass over and 
do not mention here the East-Indies and specially Africa, where almost greater gains 
and profits can be had than in America. 

Sweden has no less an advantage over the Netherlands as well for the good investment 
of capital in provisions and the fitting out of ships, because the Dutch have to buy many 
products here in the Kingdom, also, because, as everybody knows. Eastern products may 
be bought cheaper and the others, which the Dutch get in Germany, as cheap as they 
buy them. Sweden has further another advantage of considerable importance ; the 
Netherlands are at war with Spain and many East-Indian nations, in preparing for 
which they must incur great expenses every year, risking at the same time to suffer 
damages from their enemies : the Swedes on the other side have nothing to fear from any 
enemy in the aforesaid country. All this sufficiently explains, how easily and with how 
large profits commerce and navigation to the abovementioned country may be begun and 
canied on from this Kingdom, not only in order to win a small annual interest after 
bringing some common goods into the country, but also to convert in a few years' time 
one daler into three or four and to recover the invested capital, for it can be proved, that 
the Hollanders have made four out of one before the war. 

As to the risks and dangers, they are much smaller, if one distributes his money in 
different ships and at different places, than if it is invested in immovable estates which 
are often alienated and taken away for some time by fire, bad harvests, war and invasion, 
as happens too often under such deplorable cii-cumstances, whereby many, both j)owerful 
and high personages and the common people have experienced great losses. Hence it can 
be easily seen, how improvidently they act, who collect and keep all their goods and 
property together in one place. 

* Bitumen or asphalt, the rtrra of the Greek, or perhaps a thread or yarn made from the fibres of the Agave 
plant ? The dictionaries have no such word as "pita." — B F. 

New York Historical Records. 5 

Whatever the gains and advantages accruing to the invested capital by the trade to 
the aforesaid places may be, not only has every one to expect a special profit and gain 
for himself, but also manifold other great advantages and benefits in general are crt-ated 
thereby. In the first place God's glory (which above all must be especially cared for and 
promoted) can be much increased thereby. His blessed word and holy gospel planted 
and spread among all kinds of people and many thousand souls be brought to the true 
knowledge and understanding of God, who until now have lived and still live in dreadful 
heathenish idolatry and great wickedness. Furthermore, this undertaking will also 
contribute to such a considerable extent to the service and advantage of H. R. Majesty 
and the Crown, that H. R. Majesty's income and revenues can be much improved and 
increased thereby, as it has been done in Spain and the Netherlands, without imposing 
any heavier taxes on the subjects. 

Thirdly, it adds also to the public welfare, as through it means are obtained, to 
inflict damage upon or make resistance against enemies, to conquer or compel them to 
favorable agreements and to deliver and free the country from the continued great 
burdens of war, which its inhabitants have to bear for their own and the whole state's 

Aside from these and other general advantages, each order in society will derive a 
special benefit for itself. The nobility can thereby improve their incomes and revenues, 
increase their dignity and consequently promote themselves as well as their children and 
relations in the service and official positions of the state. 

Bishops and others of the clergy can expect the same. In the same way schools and 
churches will flourish through it and be sustained, and furthermore those who have 
learned something will be promoted to dignities and positions. Likewise the merchant 
can much improve his trade by the import and export of goods and can have himself made 
a Director and his sons clerks and agents of the Company. 

Farmers and others of the common order can have their great profits by trading, 
although they do not need to learn or understand it and alongside of it they will be 
able to sell their grain and whatever else they may have for sale, at high prices ; they 
must also consider this advantage, that H. R. Majesty, by increasing the revenues of 
the Kingdom, will obtain the means to engage and subsist more foreign troops, whereby 
his subjects are either altogether freed from conscription or at least it will be made much 
easier. Besides, when all sorts of manufactures are established, a child of eight or ten 
years will be able to earn so much, that the father can hire a soldier for it and may keep 
his sons, laborers and servants. 

The above mentioned benefits and advantages (besides many others, which will be 
further explained at length, if necessary) will be brought forth by the trade and commerce, 
especially if it is carried on by a well constituted General Company. And that the good 
means, which God has graciously granted and given to the honor of His Name and the 
growth of His Church for His Royal Majesty's service, for the safety and welfare of the 
Kingdom and the general public, as well as for everybody's particular gains and well 
being, may not longer be neglected : Therefore we, the undersigned, have, in the name 
of the Holy Trinity and with its powerful help and assistance and with the gracious 
consent and permission of His Royal Majesty, our most gracious King and Lord, taken it 
upon us to begin this undertaking and get it in working order, whereto we have promised, 

6 Colonial Settlements on the Delaivare Paver. 

as we also now herewith promise and assure, to pay and contribute such an amount of 
money, as each one of us has subscribed. We have also good reason to believe, that, 
as H. R. Majesty has not only graciously approved of this our contemplated undertaking, 
but also provided us with favorable privileges and franchises and consented, that His 
Royal Majesty's hand shall be held over it, every sincere and pious man, be he of high 
or low degree, who cherishes the glory of God, loves his Lord and King and desires to 
promote the general welfare as well as his own, will help as far as his knowledge and 
means permit, that this laudable enterprise may have its beginning and progress, for 
nobody is so poor, as to bring forward his poverty as a pretext, that he is not well able 
to spare one daler or two during the time of four years, especially as no one pays his 
money for nothing, but may expect it back with large interest in due time. 

Therefore we give herewith permission and opportunity to participate in the aforesaid 
Company and Society to all natives and foreigners of whatever nation they may be, under 
the following conditions and rules. 

First, that this Company shall be in existence for twelve ensuing years, from the first 
of May 1625 to the first of May 1637. 

II. That those, who live and reside in Sweden and desire to participate in this 
Company shall inform us by the first of May (strangers and foreigners by the first of 
July), sign this written agreement and remit money, so that they then may be assured 
of a larger or smaller share. 

III. That the subscribed capital shall be paid in four years, every year one fourth. 

IV. Also to the end that the general stockholders maj^ be satisfied, that the 
management of so laudable a concern shall be entrusted to the hands of suitable and 
honorable men : Therefore after the first of May next coming as many Directors shall be 
elected from the number of the stockholders and by a majority of their votes, as hundreds 
of thoiTsand dalers are subscribed : these Directors shall serve during the six years next 
following ; then they shall retire from their position and the stockholders shall elect new 
Du-ectors, two-tliirds from the retuing Directors and the other third from the principal 
stockholders, repeating it thus every two years, as long as the Company exists. 

V. Nobody shall have any voice or choice or receive an annual account, except those, 
who from their own means have invested thousand dalers, nor shall any one be elected 
Director and principal shareholder, who has not subscribed two-thousand dalers for his 
own account. 

VI. If any state, city, company or private party of this or a foreign nationality should 
invest the sum of one hundred thousand dalers, then they or he may appoint a Director 
in their or his behalf and as many Directors as they have subscribed the aforesaid 

VII. The Directors shall receive provisionally and on account each an annual 
recompensation for their services of one thousand dalers. 

VIII. AU Directors shall have equal power and authority, without regard to any 
one's high birth, dignity and official position, which he may have outside the Company 
or by whomsoever he may be appointed. 

IX. Whoever desires to appoint two Directors for one hundred thousand dalers 
subscribed, may do so, but both together shall not have more than one voice and receive 
the pay of only one Dh-ector. 

Kew York Historical Records. 7 

X. When Directors are chosen, principal stockholders shall be elected in the same 
manner, who shall inspect the accounts every day and consult and deliberate with the 
Directors upon all important matters brought before them and likewise assist the Directors, 
when the arrived goods are being disposed of. 

XI. Every six years a general meeting for auditing the accounts shall be publicly 
convened, to which all shareholders shall be invited by published advertisements. 

XII. Cities, which have opportunities for shipping, fitting out of ships and commerce 
and desire to invest in this Company three hundi-ed thousand dalers, shall have in 
proportion to the invested capital the management of one department, Directors, full 
powers and authority and rights of disposal. 

As further evidence and proof, that we have thus resolved, agreed upon, approved 
and consented to the foregoing and will also keep and fulfill it firmly and steadfastly, 
we have with our own hands willingly and knowingly attested and confirmed this 
document. Stockholm, in the year 1625. 

Chaetee oe Pkivilege, wnicH the Mighty and Most Noble Peince and 
Lord, Gustavus Adolphus, King op Sweden, Gothland and the 
Wendes, Gkand Duke op Finland, Duke op Estiionia and Cabelia, 
Lord of Ingeemanland etc. has graciously given by letters- 
patent to the newly established Swedish South Company. 

"We, Gustavus Adolphus, by the Grace of God, King of Sweden, Gothland 
and the Wendes, Grand Duke of Finland, Duke in Esthouia and Carelia, Lord of 
Ingermanland etc. 

Know 'ye, that whereas We find that it will considerably add to the welfare of Our 
Kingdom and of Our subjects and that it is necessary, that the commerce, trades and 
navigation in Our lands and territories should grow, be increased and improved by 
all suitable means and whereas by the reports of experienced and trustworthy men We 
have received reliable and certain intelligence, that there are in Africa, America and 
Magellanica or terra Australis many rich countries and islands, of which some are 
inhabited by quiet and rather effeminate people, some by heathens and savages, some 
uninhabited and some as yet only imperfectly explored : with which said countries it 
will not only be possible to carry on an extraordinary large commerce from Our 
Kingdom, but it is also most likely, that the said people may likewise be made more 
civilized and taught morality and the Christian religion by the mutual intercourse and 
trade, therefore We have maturely considered and as far as in Our power concluded, 
that the advantages, profits and welfare of Our Kingdom and faithful subjects, besides 
the further propagation of the holy Gospel, will be much improved and increased by the 
discovery of new commercial relations and navigation. We have been so much more 
induced thereto, as We understand, that Our faithful subjects, many merchants as well 
as others are willing to promote it and ready to make large advances of money for it. 
In consideration thereof, after much deliberation and for weighty causes and reasons, 
which have made Us well disposed towards this useful and praiseworthy undertaking. 
We have resolved, desired and demanded, that the commerce and navigation to the 

8 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Elver. 

countries of Africa, Asia, America and Magellanica shall be begun and carried on, subject 
to the formerly stated conditions and rules by a powerful combination of inhabitants of 
Our Lands and territories and others, who may desire to take part in it and join. For 
this purpose a General Company shall be established, which by special favors We will 
firmly maintain and strengthen with Our help and assistance, granting it the proper 
permission and the following privileges. 


First, that during the time of twelve years none of Our subjects and inhabitants 
of Our lands and territories shall be allowed to sail and trade in anybody's, but the 
Company's name and behalf south of the Straits of Gibraltar to the countries of Africa, 
Asia, America and Magellanica or Ten-a Australis reckoning the coast of America up to 
the same latitude as the said Straits, of 36 degrees ; nor to any country or island, lying 
between Africa and America under the said latitudes, while the ships and goods of aU 
who have dared to trade there without Our and this Company's consent and permission 
shall be confiscated : and the shipowners, who may have sent them there to trade, shall 
be prosecuted : against those, who shall violate this rule, We will institute proceedings 
as against one, who transgresses Our laws and ordinances. 


The association shall commence on the first of May of next year, the 1627"' after the 
birth of Christ and continue during the following twelve years : during this time no one 
shaU be allowed to withdraw his invested capital nor shall new stockholders be admitted. 
But when towards the end, when the twelve years are about to expire, the shareholders 
conclude to ask Us, that the time of the charter be prolonged, then We promise, that We 
wUl extend it, if We can come to the conclusion, that it may be done in reason. 


Every year an account shall be rendered in presence of such shareholders, as have 
invested for their own account one thousand dalers. Every six years all the general 
accounts shall be closed and new ones opened. If (which God may prevent) it then 
should happen, that the profits are not so large or the results such as to justify the 
shareholders to resolve by a majority of votes, not to let the Company continue, it shall 
be dissolved and the funds divided. 


That the moneys, which are needed hereto may be collected so miich easier, every 
one shall be reminded and warned by public proclamations : that all inhabitants of this 
country must make their subscriptions between now and the first of March next, likewise 
those from other places beyond sea until the first of May next, be it for larger or smaller 
amounts : these siims must be paid in four years, each year one fourth. 


After the time for subscribing has passed, measures shall be taken for an election of 
Directors and as many Directors shall be chosen, as hundi'eds of thousand dalers shall be 
found to have been subscribed, unless some one sliould conclude to appoint for such a 

Kew York Historical Records. 9 

sum of hundred thousand dalers, which he has invested, two Directors, which he may 
do, but so that both together shall not receive more than one Dii-ector' s salary. 

The Directors shall be chosen by a majority of votes from the number of shareholders. 
Nobody shall be allowed to cast a vote at the election, unless he has subscribed for his 
own account one thousand dalers, likewise shall no one be chosen Director, unless he 
has subscribed for his own account two thousand dalers, which sum he shall have no 
right to dispose or divest himself of during the period of his official service. 

The first Directors shall serve during the six years following ; after this period has 
elapsed, they shall all be discharged and removed and then two-thirds shall again be 
elected out of the number of the out-going Directors by the shareholders and the 
remaining one-third shall be taken from the principal shareholders. This rule shaU thus 
be observed every two years, until the time of the charter has expired. 


All countries, cities, companies or single individuals, foreigners as weU as natives, 
who invest the sum of One hundred thousand dalers, are entitled to appoint a Director. 
To this end each nation shaU have a special contract, to appoint for the management of 
their moneys such persons, as they have the most confidence in : likewise every one, 
wht-n subscribing, may expressly state, under which nationality he desii-es to place his 
money : and the foreigners, who should desire to come into Our Kingdom and reside here, 
and who will invest five and twenty thousand dalers in this Company, shall enjoy the 
rights of citizens of the places, where they reside (in so far as they will not carry on any 
burghers-trade), they shall be free from all taxes and duties and at liberty to leave, when 
they please without paying to Us or the cities, where they have resided, any departing 
fee. Likewise their heirs or those, whom in their last wills they shall institute as tlieir 
heirs, may sell, take away and remove the inherited property, without any further tax or 
other toll being imposed, as before said. 


The Directors shall have equal power and authority, without regard to the office and 
dignity, with which they are clothed outside of the Company, or to the rank of the 
persons, who may have appointed them : they shall take a solemn oath, that they will 
faithfully and honestly perform the duties of their office, not endeavor to promote the 
interests of one shareholder more than those of another, as well as further the Company's 
interests in every respect, prevent losses and during their term of office not buy any kind 
of goods outside of the Company nor at any time either directly or indirectly sell or 
deliver any, 


The Directors shall have for their services a yearly remuneration and subsistance of 

one thousand dalers. 


10 Colonial Settlernerits on the Delaware River. 


If the Directors should have to travel for the Company, then they shall receive a 
daily allowance of six marks Swedish, besides what they pay out for the hire of horses, 
drivers and carriages. 


Bookkeepers, cashiers and clerks are to be paid out of the Company' s funds : the 
Directors of each department shall be answerable for theii- respective cashiers and 


If it should happen, that a Director of one or the other Department should get into 
such, a position, that he cannot execute his trust and any loss may be caused thereby, 
then it falls upon the department, which is under his management or to which he belongs 
or upon those, who especially may have appointed such a Director. The sums therefore, 
which the Directors have invested in the Company shall, for the greater insurance of their 
faithfulness, remain so invested. This refers also to all shareholders, who should 
become indebted to the Company, but it shall be so understood, as if the sums, which 
have been paid in from the tirst beginning, have been extinguished by assignment. 


The persons or the property of the Directors shall not be held liable or molested for 
what concerns the whole company ; but if there is somebody, who has any claim upon 
them, then he shall be obliged in such a case to sue them according to law. 


The moneys invested herein shall be free from confiscation and not be forfeited, even 
though it should happen (which God may prevent), that any misunderstanding or war 
should occur between Us and any King, Prince or Republic, whose subjects have joined 
this Company ; they may, like the inhabitants of Our Kingdom and all other shareholders, 
freely and frankly, without any hindrance or loss take out their capital and the accrued 



Any country or city, conveniently located for navigation and commerce, investing a 
sum of three hundred thousand dalers, shall have a separate department and the right 
to send out ships in proportion to the invested capital. 


Different countries and cities, which have subscribed the aforesaid sum, may unite 
their capital and have a separate department and shipping-rights, as often as their turn 
and the distribution comes, subject to their agreement. But the extraordinary expenses, 
which may arise from such distributions, shall fall upon the cities, which desire to enjoy 
this advantage and not upon the Company. 


All ships, about to sail, shall assemble in the port of Gottenburg and depart in 
company as a fleet, also upon their return come back to the same port, to discharge there 

Meio Yorlc Historical Records. 11 

such cargoes, as it may be serviceable to sell and to send away ; thence the ships shall 
then go to the places, from where they hail, as far as wind and weather peimit and it can 
be done without any considerable danger and loss to the Company. 


In case one or the other Department should receive or have on hand an abundance 
of goods, with which another Department is not provided, then the first shall be 
obliged to furnish them to the other, which is unprovided and further assist it, when they 
are sold. 


After the election of Directors and the establishment of Departments, as many 
supervising stockholders shall be appointed for each Department as the stockholders 
think necessary, who shall be instructed to inspect the accounts every day as well as 
deliberate with the Directors upon all matters of importance, also resolve whether the 
Company shall be continued or dissolved : also when the incoming cargoes and the profits 
on them shall be divided. Care must also be taken, that as far as possible in the selection 
and choice of supervising stockholders, directors, commissaries, officers, skippers, mates 
and others engaged into the Company's service, always those are especially and above 
all others considered and promoted, who hold the most shares in the Company. 


Departments shall have authority to transfer a Director from one Department to 
another and all the other Departments are especially obliged to have one Director in 
Gottenburg ; the separate Departments shall further transmit to each other, at least within 
two months after the departure of the ships, statements of the cost of fitting out the ships 
and of the cargoes, likewise every three months a statement of what each Department 
has sold. 


"Whenever it vrill be necessary to call together the Departments, to determine the 
voyages, where and how many ships shall be fitted out, the price to be placed on arriving 
goods and to audit accounts and other similar business, it shall be done, the first year, 
in the Department, which has invested the largest sum, then in that one, the capital of 
which exceeds that of the others and after that in the other Departments, the shares of 
which are the least. 


"When a meeting is to be held, twelve Directors shall appear from all Departments, 
to whom "We will add a thirteenth vote, so that all matters may be decided by a majority 
of votes ; each Department shall further send to the meeting as many persons, as in 
proportion they are interested in the capital, to wit : if any Department is interested 
in one half (of the capital) it shall delegate six persons, if in one third, four, if in 
one fourth, three and for one sixth two. All Departments must submit to what is decided 
by a majority of votes and nobody sliall dare to act otherwise. 

12 Colonial Settlements on the Belciwctre River. 


We have further granted and privileged this Company, as We herewith now do 
grant and privilege, tliat they shall not pay any higher duties than four percent on all 
goods and merchandises, which they import to or export from Our Kingdom and 
territories. When the aforesaid four percent are once paid on imported goods, the 
Company shall have permission to export and pass the said goods through Our customs' 
offices, as often as it may be necessary without paying further duties. They may also, 
under the same condition, fi-eely transport and remove all goods and merchandises 
imported by others and on which duty has been paid or they shall be duty-free, when the 
duties are paid within this country : provided however, that this Company shall do only 
a wholesale business and carry on no country-trade, to the prejudice and disadvantage 
of the privileges of Our citizens or cities. 


We take, besides all this, herewith this Company, as a ward, into Our protection, 
promising to defend and guard them with the power of Our Kingdom in their free 
commerce and navigation against all and everybody in special, who should hinder and 
damage them in their good and lawful undertaking ; and if any war should be made 
against them, We wUl come to theii- assistance and relief with as many men-of-war and 
soldiers, as the occasion may require and the circumstances of Our Kingdom will allow. 


We will likewise, in peace as well as in times of war, establish and have erected such 
forts and fortifications, as We shall find useful and necessary for the safety of the 
commerce and of the people, who went there, providing all the fortifications with 
ordnance, ammunition and troops ; wliicli troops AVe will pay and subsist without expense 
to the Company. 


All booty, taken by the Company from pirates and other enemies, shall be used for 
the defence and protection of the commerce and We or Our Admiral wUl make no claims 
upon it. But if any booty should be taken while Our ships-of-war are present, then the 
said booty shall be divided as follows : one part shall belong to Us, the other to the 
Company in proportion to the people, who were present, when the ships were taken. 

We will not take or have taken by any means from the Company's into Our or 
Our Kingdom's service any ship, ordnance, ammunition, money, goods or merchandises, 
unless it may be done with the free, thorough, joyous and unanimous consent and 
approval of the Company, its supervising stockholders and directors. 


This company shall have power, within the aforesaid limits and rules, to make in 
Our name alliances, treaties and agreements with Kings, Princes and Kepublics, people 
and inhabitants of the abovementioned countries, also to build cities, castles and forts, 
settle people in fertile countries as weU as in unsettled places, decide upon, make 

iN'ew York Historical Records. 13 

arrangements for and promote the population and settlements and carry into effect 
everything, which may be of service to Us, and of advantage and profit to the Company, 
but it is at the same time ordered, that they shall not commit or begin any hostilities 
with the people and inhabitants of the aforesaid countries nor against any nation in 
Europe, which may trade or have settlements at the aforesaid places : nor even against 
the subjects of the King of Spain, unless obliged to defend themselves, nor shall they 
trade at any place within the said King's jurisdiction, unless his subjects are inclined to 
allow and grant it. And We expressly forbid, that any of Our subjects shall undertake 
to act contrary to this order under such penalties and fines, as are imposed upon those, 
who transgress Our laws and disturb the public peace. 


But in case the members of Company are cheated under the appearance of friendship 
and badly treated in whatever manner or if any one should try to injure or hinder them 
in their free trade by force or fraud, then We give them full authority, consent and 
command to obtain an indemnification by all possible means and as quickly as feasible : 
they may also treat like pirates and declared enemies all, who want to damage them 
in their trade by force : they shall take, punish and proceed against them in the same 
manner, as it is usually done against all such disturbers of the public peace. 

In order to manifest the great pleasure, which We have in the progress of this 
Company, We promise that We will subscribe and invest a sum of four hundred 
thousand dalers, counting thirty-two round pieces * to a daler, which We will risk for 
Our Own account, dividing profit and loss with the other shareholders. 


As compensation for all these advantages, assistance, franchises and privileges We 
will take besides the aforesaid duty of four per cent and keep one fifth part of all the 
gold, silver, quicksilver and other minerals, which may be found in the mines and the 
tenth of the produce of the country : not including herein the goods and merchandises, 
which are handled by the Company nor the coined or uncoined gold and silver, which 
they have received in payment of their merchandises, and which, if imported, shall be 
duty-free. Besides this We do not wish to have the members of the Company burdened 
with any other taxes and imposts. 


Whereas William Usselinx, born in Amsterdam in Brabant, has spent most of his 
lifetime in discovering and exploring the advantages of the countries mentioned in this 
charter and is in possession of testimonials and certificates from the High Mighty Lords 
States-General of the United Netherlands and the Illustrious Prince, Maurice Prince of 
Orange (of Christian memory !) as well as from several now living historians of Our time, 
that he has been the most prominent originator and promoter, who through many years 
has assisted in the establishment of the West India Company in the United Netherlands 

* Swedish copper coin. — Tr. 

14 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

and has given to the said Lords States-General the most reliable information and whereas 
he has in the same manner made a good report of it to Us, so that We were well pleased 
with it, offering Us his services and that he will also further discover and impart to Us all 
the knowledge and information, which he has gathered in regard to the said commerce 
by long continued observations and experience : Therefore W^e have both for the services, 
which he has performed and hereafter shall perform for Us and also for the troubles, 
work and great expenses, which he has had, granted and conceded to him, that he shall 
receive and enjoy from this Company one per mille of all goods and merchandise, which 
are bought and sold in the Company, as long as the commerce under this charter to the 
aforesaid places continue, so that the managers of the Company shall be obliged to pay 
the said sum to him, his attorneys and heirs, as soon as the accounts for goods bought 
and sold can be made up. 

When this Company shall have been put in working order, a Council shall be 
established, which We will invest with proper authority, power and instructions to take 
care of military affaii-s, administer law and justice, make laws and ordinances and in 
case of war to see that it is begun for a just cause, carried on with caution and prudently 
concluded, also to recruit soldiers, to appoint Governors, Commanders and those, who 
shall administer law and justice, to build castles and forts as well as to decide upon and 
remove all diificulties and litigations, which may arise between the people, who go over, 
and the natives, or between the same and the Directors, likewise between the Departments 
and the shareholders ; finally to take care of and watch over everything, which concerns 
the State and its government. As these are matters mostly foreign to a merchant' s affiiirs, 
who has too much to do with trading, fitting out ships, keeping books and writing letters, 
as to look sufficiently after them, this Council shall take this burden from him. The said 
Council shall be chosen from the most prominent supervising shareholders and shall not 
in the least interfere with the commercial business nor the appointment of commissaries, 
skippers and other officers of the company ; but all these shall stand under the orders 
of the Dii-ectors, who must advise Us and Our Council at once of all news and 
communications, which they receive from foreign lands, so that We may know, how to 
arrange and direct Our affairs accordingly. The said Council shall decide everything by 
a majority of votes and there shall be as many members of it, as We shall find necessary, 
whom We wiU provide with the proper means of support. 


Any Prince, Republic, country, city or company, investing the sum of five hundred 
thousand dalers, shall have the right to appoint an agent and resident-manager, who 
may, on behalf of his principals, treat and communicate with Us in regard to all matters. 


We promise, that, when it should occur, that by and by the stockholders deem it 
advisable and expedient to petition Us in regard to any point, beneficial to the Company, 
which has been omitted here. We shall grant and concede it, if We can come to the 
conclusion, that it will be for the welfare of Our Kingdom and for the advantage and 
benefit of the commerce. 

Kew York Historical Records. 15 


These rights, privileges, franchises, benefits and exemptions, together with tlie 
abovementioned promised help and assistance, which with a full knowledge of the 
matter in all its bearings. We have granted, given and promised to the said Company, 
all these are now by virtue of this charter granted, promised to and vested in the 
members of the said Company so that they may enjoy them in security and without 
hindrance and injury : at the same time We now hereby command, that they shall be 
obeyed by aU Our authorities and inhabitants and that nobody shall undertake 
anything against them, neither directly nor indirectly and as little in as out of this 
country: any one found to act contrary to this order, shall be duly punished as a 
disturber of the peace of Our Kingdom and territories and a transgressor of our laws 
and commands. We promise besides all this, that We will assist and protect this 
Company in everything contained in this charter, in all treaties of peace and alliance and 
agreements with neighboring Kingdoms, States and Republics nor do or allow to be done 
any thing against it, which could tend to the diminution of theii- privileges. Therefore 
We order and command herewith expressly every Governor, Commander, Member of 
Council, Magistrate and inhabitant in Our Kingdom and country, that they allow the 
said Company and its Dii-ectors to . enjoy in safety these charter, privileges and grants 
and not do anything against it to harm or hinder it. And that nobody may excuse 
himself with ignorance. We have directed that this shall issue and be published in Our 
name and have, in further proof, signed this with Our hand and placed Our Royal seal 
under it. Given in Our Royal Palace at Stockholm in the one thousandth, six hundredth 
and six and twentieth year after the birth of God's Son, the 14th of June, 1626. 

GusTAvus Adolphus. 

Order, that all, who have subscribed to the Southland-Company, 
shall pat up their subscriptions without delay by the 1" of 


We, Gustavus Adolphus, by the Grace of God, King of Sweden, Gothland and the 
Wendes, Grand Duke of Finland, Duke in Esthonia and Carelia, Lord of Ingermanland etc. 

Know ye, that, whereas, for the best of Our Kingdom and Fatherland as weU as of 
Our faithful subjects. We have deigned to grant precious and valuable privileges to the 
Southern Commercial Company, to which Our faithful subjects as well as Ourselves have 
subscribed a considerable capital, so that its business might now be commenced and 
continued, if the money were paid at the times stated in the charter, therefore We for Our 
part will graciously consent, that Our share shall be paid in full and delivered to the 
Company's treasury and We command at the same time, that all those, who have 
subscribed either larger or smaller sums, of whatever rank they may be, shall remit their 
proportions, fallen due, without any further delay between to-day and the first of May 
next and nobody shall undertake to hesitate any longer, else he will be considered as 
indemnifying the Company for all delay and loss in proportion to his share and forfeit a 

It) Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

commission of one daler for each month, counting from the date, on which the first 
instalment ought to have been paid according to the tenor of the Charter. Every one 
and all have to govern themselves accordingly. 
Stockholm, the 11th of January, 1628. 

Patent to Samuel Godtn fob a tract of land on the Delaware 


We, Director and Council of New Netherland, residing on the Island of Manhattan 
at Fort Amsterdam, in the Jurisdiction of Tlieii- High Mightinesses the Lords 
States-General of the United Netherlands and the Incorporated West-India Company, 
Department of Amsterdam, attest and declare herewith, that this day, as underwritten, 
presented themselves and appeared before us Quesquaekous, Eesanques and Siconesius 
and inhabitants of their village, situate on the Southhook of the Southriver-bay, who 
declare of their own accord and deliberately, by special authority of their superiors and 
with the consent of the community there, that on the first day of the month of June of 
the last year 1629 and in consideration of a certain quantity of goods, which they 
acknowledge to have received and taken possession of to their fullest satisfaction before 
the passing hereof, they have transported, ceded, surrendered and conveyed as lawful, 
true and free possession, as they herewith transport, cede, surrender and convey to and 
for the behoof of the Noble, Honorable Samuel Godyn (who is absent and for whom we 
ex ofiicio, subject to usual reservation, accept it) to wit the land, belonging to them, 
situate on the South side of the aforesaid bay, called by us the bay of the Southriver, 
running along the same from Cape Hinlopen to the mouth of the South river aforesaid 
for about eight great mUes * and inland half a mile in width, reaching to a certain low 
place or valley, by which valley these limits can be distinguished with sufficient clearness, 
vnth all the appurtenances, rights, privileges, which belong to them in their aforesaid 
quality, constituting and delegating the said Honorable Samuel Godyn in their stead and 
place as real and actual owner thereof and at the same time giving full and irrevocable 
power, authority and special charge, that tamquam actor ei procurator in rem, suam 
ac propriam the aforesaid Noble Mr. Godyn or those, who hereafter may receive his 
property, may enter upon, peacefully settle, inhabit, use, keep, do with, trade and 
dispose of the said land, as his Honor would be allowed to do with his own land, acquired 
honestly and by lawful titles, without that they, the conveyors, shall have, reserve or 
keep in the least degree any particle of claim, right or privilege thereon, be it of 
ownership, authority or jurisdiction, but for the reasons as above they desist, give up, 
abandon and renounce herewith now and forever all the aforesaid, promising further not 
only to keep, fulfill and execute firmly, inviolately and ii-revocably until the day of 
judgment this their compact and what might hereafter be done on the authority thereof, 
but also to deliver the said tract of land and keep it free against everybody from claim, 
challenge and care, which anybody might intend to create ; all in good faith and without 

» One Dutch mile is equal to four geographical miles. 

Kew York Historical Records. 17 

deceit or fraud. In testimony whereof tliis has been attested with our usual signature 
with our seal appended.* 

Done on the Island of Manhattan, this 11"" of July, 1630. 

Patent to Samuel Godyn and Samuel Bloemmaert of the East-side 
OP Delaware river, now Cape Mat County, NEW-jERSEY.f 
We, Director and Council of New-Netherland, residing on the Island of Manhattan 
at Fort Amsterdam, under the jurisdiction of Their Noble High Mightinesses, the 
Lords-States-General of the United Netherlands and the Incorporated West-India 
Company, Department of Amsterdam, attest and declare herewith that to-day, date 
underwritten, appeared Peter Heyssen, skipper of the ship " Walvis," at present lying 
in the Southriver, and Gillis Hosset, commissary on the same, who declare, that on the 
f)'" day of May, last past, before them appeared personally, Sawowouwe, Wuoyt, 
Pemhake, Mekowetick, Techepewoya, Mathamek, Sacoock, Anehoopoen, Janqueno 
and Pokahake, lawful owners, proprietors and inhabitants of the east side of Goddyn'a 
East bay, called Cape de Maye, who for themselves in proportion of their own shares 
and for all the other owners in regard to their shares of the same land, declared of their 
own accord and deliberately in their said quality, to have transported, ceded and 
conveyed as lawful, unalienable and free property by virtue and title of sale and in 
consideration of a certain quantity of goods, which they, the conveyors, acknowledge in 
their said quality to have received and accepted before the passing of this contract, and 
they herewith transport, cede and convey, to and in behoof of the Noble Honorable 
Samuel Godyn and Samuel Bloemmaert (who are absent and for whom they had accepted 
the hereafter described land subject to the usual reservation) to wit: the eastside of 
Godyn' s bay or Cape de May, reaching 4 miles from the said Cajje towards the bay and 
4 miles along the coast southward and another 4 miles inland, being 16 square miles, 
with all interests, rights and privileges, which were vested in themselves in their aforesaid 
quality, constituting and delegating the aforesaid purchasers in their own stead as real 
and actual owners thereof and giving and surrendering at the same time to their Honors, 
full, absolute and irrevocable power, authority and special charge, that tamquam adores 
el procuratores in rem propriam the Noble Messrs. Godyn and Bloemmaert or those, 
who might hereafter receive their property, enter upon, possess in peace, inhabit, 
cultivate, keep, use, do with, trade and dispose of the aforedescribed land, as they would 
do with their own inherited lands and fiefs, without that they, the conveyors, shall have, 

* The purchases, upon which this and the following patent were granted, were made in consequence of and in 
accordance with the "Freedoms and Exemptions " Col. Doc. Vol. I, p. 96. In Holland Papers, Col. Doc. Vol. I, p. 43, 
the first patent is also given as issued to Godyn and Blommaert in partnership, but dated the 15th July. This is the 
only remnant of the documents of the West-India Company, which Mr. Broadhead found in Holland, the rest having 
been sold as waste paper in 1821.— B. F. 

t Both of these patents were issued by Peter Minuit as Director of New Netherland. He was recalled shortly 
afterwards and becoming discontented with the West-India Company or dismissed from their service (Bancroft II 
250) went to Sweden and offered his services to the Swedish South Company, organized by William Ussling. See 
Col. Doc. I, p. 588. 

18 Colonial Settlejnents on the .Delaware River. 

reserve or keep in the least degree any particle of claim, right or privilege thereon be it 
of ownership, authority or jurisdiction, but for the behali as aforesaid they herewith 
entirely and absolutely desist from, give up, abandon and renounce it now and forever, 
promising further not only to keep, fulfill and execute firmly, inviolately and ii-revocably 
in infinitum this, their contract and what might be done hereafter on the authority 
thereof, but also to deliver the said tract of land and keep it free against everybody, from 
any claim, challenge or incumbrance which anybody might intend to create ; as well as 
to have this sale and conveyance approved and confirmed by the remainder of the 
co-owners, for whom they are trustees ; all this under the obligations required by law, in 
good faith, without evil intent or deceit. In testimony whereof this has been confirmed 
by our usual signature and our seal appended thereto. Done on the aforesaid Island 
of Manhattan at Fort Amsterdam, the 3* of June A° 1631. 

Second Period. 

From the Arrival of the Swedes to the Taking of Fort Casimir 

(New-Castle) by the New Swedish Governor Johan 

Rysingh (1638 to May 30, 1654). 

Protest of Dieeotoe Kieft against the landing and settling op 
THE Swedes on the Delaware. 

I, William Kieft, Director-General of New-Netberland, residing on the Island of the 
Manhattes and in Fort Amsterdam, under the authority of their High Mightinesses the 
Lords States-General of the United Netherlands and the Incorporated West-India 
Company, Chamber at Amsterdam, make known to you Peter Minuit,* who style yourself 
Commander in the service of Her Royal Majesty of Sweden, that the whole Southriver 
of New-Netherland has been many years in our possession and secured by us above 
and below by forts and sealed with our blood, which even happened during your 
administration of New-Netherland and is weU known to you. Now, as you intrude 
between our forts and begin to build a fort there to our disadvantage and prejudice, which 
shall never be suffered by us and we are very certain, that her Royal Majesty of Sweden 
has not given you any order to buUd fortresses on our rivers or along our coasts, 

Therefore, in case you proceed with the erection of fortifications and cultivation of 
the soU and trade in peltries or in any wise attempt to do us injury, We do hereby 
protest against all damages, expenses and losses, together with all mishaps, bloodsheds 
and disturbances, which may arise in future time therefrom and that we shall maintain 
our jurisdiction in such manner, as we shall deem most expedient. Thus done [Thursday 
being the 6"" May, anno 1638.] 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

Appointment of Jan Pietersen as surgeon at the Southriver. 

[3* June 1688] Various promotions 
Jan Pietersen from Essendelf t earns as surgeon (barUer) at the Southriver fl 10. per 
month from July 10, 1638. 


♦ See foot note to the preceding paper. 

20 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

The Delaware as place oe banishment. Proceedings op the Fiscal 


A resolution of the council of New-Netherland given infra proves, that the Delaware Colony was continued to 
be used as place of banishment. The Swedes did the same, for In 1653 an individual, convicted at Abo, was sentenced 
to be sent to New Sweden, which sentence the Queen approved. — B. F. 

Thursday, being the 3* February 1639. 

Ulrich Leopoldt, fiscal pltff. against Gysbert Cornelissen Beyerlandt. 

Pltff. demands, that the defendant be sent to Fatherland and condemned, as 
quarrelsome persons usually are, who wound soldiers in the Fort, as Deft, has lately 
done in Fort Amsterdam. 

The Fiscal' s demand on and against Gysbert Cornelissen Beyerlandt having been 
seen and everything being maturely considered, he is condemned to work with the 
Company's Blacks, until the fii-st sloop shall sail for the Southriver, where he is to serve 
the Company & pay the wounded soldier fl 15, the surgeon fi 10 for his fee and the fiscal 
a fine of fl. 10. 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

Deposition of Gillis Pietersen van der Gouw, master carpenter 
relating to houses etc. built in different parts op the 
Government during the administration op Director Wouter 
VAN Twiller. 

This deposition and the following return were obtained during the investigation of Director van Twiller's 
administration, who had been charged with gross mismanagement of the Company's affairs. — B. F. 

This day, the 22* March XVI."' XXX. IX before me Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary 
in New Netherland on behalf of the General Incorporated West-India Company, appeared 
in presence of the underwritten witnesses, GUlis Pietersen van der Gouw, about 27 years 
old, at present master carpenter on the Island Manhatas, to me, the Secretary, known and 
has by true words in place and with promise of an oath if necessary and at the request of 
the Hon"'* Mr. WUliam Kieft, Director-General in New-Netherland testified, declared and 
attested, that it is true, that he, the affiant, during the administration of Wouter van 
Twiller, late Director here, has worked as journeyman-carpenter on all the works, on 
which he was employed and he the defendants knows, what buildings etc. have been 
constructed during the sojourn of Mr. van Twiller for the service of the Company on the 
Island Manhattans, at Fort Orange, at Port Nassau situated at the South and Fort Hope 
situated to the North in the Fresh river, to wit. 

At Fort Nassau, which was in decay A large house was built in Fort Nassau. 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

iN'ew York Historical Records. Si 

Eeturn of property belonging to Wouter van Twiller on Manhattan 
Island etc. and at Fort Nassau. 
This day, date underwritten, came and appeared personally the undersigned 
individuals (servants of the late Director Wouter van Twiller) and have jointly by 
true Christian words in place and with promise of a solemn oath testified, declared and 
attested, at the request of the Hon"''' Mr. William Kieft, Director-General, that each of 
them has as hereunder set forth, in hand or in charge the following property belonging 
to him, van Twiller : 

At Fort Hope and Fort Nassau. 

24 to 30 goats. 

3 Negroes, whom the late Director bought in the year 1636 from Captain Ax at 
40 fl. each and who, with the exception of a brief period, have been always in his 
private service. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam, this 22* day of March A°. 1639. 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

Thomas Hall 

This is the mark + of 

George Homs. 

Ordinance of the Director-General and Council of New Netherland, prohibiting the sale of firearms to Indians 
and requiring vessels sailing to or from the Southriver etc. to take out clearances, passed 31" March 1639, is published 
in " Laws and Ordinances of New-Netherland " page 18. 

Ordinance concerning tobacco. 

This privilege was reconfirmed in 1644, 1645 and 1647 and finally repealed in 1649 Cfr. v. Stiernman, Sammlinge 
af Kgl. Bref och Stadgar (Collection of Royal Orders and Decrees, Vol II) in the Royal Archives at Stockholm. 

We Christina etc. make hereby known, Whereas We see and understand, that this 
Our State and Kingdom is by one and the other, without order and judgment, being 
flooded with tobacco, a merchandise, which until some time ago has been unknown here 
and besides in itself is not very useful, but nevertheless is now bought and consumed by 
the common people to such an extent, that it has become an abuse and in a great measui-e 
brings great injury and poverty on many, and although it would not be unjust, if We 
as a careful Government were to forbid altogether the importation into Our Kingdom of 
the said tobacco and thereby in time prevent, that the means of Our faithful subjects 
further go out of the Kingdom for such an unnecessary commodity to their final 
considerable injury and loss of property, yet, because this general bad habit and great 
abuse are practised by almost everybody and because at present We consider it 
injudicious to prohibit and abolish it entirely ; Therefore We have been moved, to restrict 
it somewhat and adapt it to the circumstances of the times and the humor of the people 

22 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

and have consequently, after due consideration of the matter, resolved to place this trade 
into the hands of the South Company, established by Us, and privilege the same in regard 
to tobacco in so far, that the said South Company may hereafter and until We shall at 
some future time give them other orders, import and furnish as much tobacco as shall 
be needed and satisfy the demand of those, who prefer to have and use it and they shall 
likewise assist in preventing the abuse and enforce obedience to Our ordinances. We 
desire therefore herewith and have commanded it by this Oui- letters-patent as well as 
solemnly and earnestly forbidden all others, foreigners (of whatever nation they may 
be) and natives, not to undertake after to-day the importation by land or by water into 
Sweden, Finland or Ingermanland of any tobacco, in small nor in large quantity, under 
whatever pretext or name it may be done. And all those, who before this have imported 
any tobacco into this Kingdom and have it now here and in other cities for sale, shaU be 
bound and obliged to declare the same to the Departments for excising and take out for it 
a certificate of excise according to the rules, which will shortly be made public in regard 
to it. If any one acts against this or one or the other, whoever he may be, disregards it, 
undertakes and dares after the publication of this Our ordinance and its contents, to 
import secretly or openly any tobacco without paying duty and without the knowledge of 
the said South Company and to sell and dispose of it, either in wholesale or in retail and 
is discovered in it and lawfully convicted, he shall forfeit it (the tobacco) altogether and 
besides pay for the transgression of the law a fine of forty marks to be divided in thi-ee 
parts, one for Us and the Crown, the second for the Company and the third for him, who 
discovers the transgressor and convicts him : the tobacco to be divided in the same way 
as the fine. Hence We herevsdth with equal earnestness command and order all Our 
faithful subjects in Sweden, Finland and Ingermanland, as well as aU foreigners, who 
come to and trade in Our State and territories, that they shall wisely guard against losses 
and govern themselves accordingly : We command and order also Our Equerries and 
Privy Council, Our Governors, Burgomasters and City-Councils, especially Our Customs' 
officers to pay a steady and close attention and to see, that this Our order and edict shall 
be properly executed, kept inviolate and those, who trespass, be punished without 
regard to their persons, pursuant to the tenor of this Our ordinance and with as much 
severity, as can be inflicted on all and every one, under pain of Our rebuke and 
displeasure. Every one must strictly govern himself hereby. 
In witness whereof &* 

Stockholm, the 12th of January, 1641. 

Mathtas Soop, Jacobus de la Gaedie, Cael Gyldenhielm, 

Regent. Marshall of the Kingdom. Admiral of Sweden. 

Axel Oxenstieena, Gabeiel Oxenstieena, 

Chancellor of the Kingdom. Baron of Moreiy & Lindholm, 

Kquerry of the Kingdom. 

Mew Yot'k Historical Records. 


On the 15"^ May 1642 
Whereas we have certain information, that some Englishmen have presumed to come 
into our Southriver, obliquely opposite our fort Nassauw, where they settled down in the 
Schuylkil without commission from any potentate, which is a matter of evil consequence, 
disparaging their High Mightinesses and seriously injuring the West-India Company, 
as their trade, which they carry on in the Soutliriver, is thereby made unprofitable, 
Therefore we have resolved in our Council and concluded for the best advantage of said 
Company to expel the aforesaid English from the above-named Schuylkil in the quietest 
manner possible.* 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

Instructions to Jan Jansen van Ilpendam, Commissary at the 
Southriver for the expulsion of the English from the 

On the 22* May 1642 

Order, according to which Jan Jansen Ilpendam, Commissary in the Southriver 

of New-Netherland for the West-India Company, will have to regulate 


As soon as the sloops Real and S'. Martin shall have arrived there, he, Jan Jansen, 

shall have to repair with one or both the sloops to the Schuylkil ; if he judge it 

necessary, provided with as many soldiers, as he conveniently can carry away, before 

the place, of which the English quite recently have taken possession, go immediately 

ashore, demand the commission of said Englislimen and by what authority they have 

assumed to take away our right, grounds and trade and if they have no Royal 

commission, to settle down expressly within our limits or formal copy thereof, he shall 

*The English referred to in the above resolution were Capt. Turner's party who, as agent for New Haven, had 
made a large purchase of land on both sides of the Delaware Bay and River (See Trumbull's History of Connecticut 
vol. I p. 116), under authority of the following resolution of the General Court of New Haven Colony, taken from the 
New-Haven Court Records vol. 1 p. 46. 

A Gen' Courtt held att New Haven the 30"' of the 6' Mon: 1641 (August) 

Whereas there was a purchase made by some pticular psons of sundry plantatio' in Delaware Bay, att their owne 
charge, for the advancm' of publique good as in a way of trade so allso for the settling of churches and plantations 
in those pts, in combiuatio w'h this. And therevpon itt was propounded to the Genr" Courfe w'her plantations 
should be settled in Delaware Bay, in combinatio wth this towne yea or nay and vpon considerati5 and debate itt was 
assented vnto by the Court and exp'ssed by holding vp of hands 

So far as Captaine Turner hath reference to the civill state and imployed therein pvided thatt his place be supplied 
in his absence the Court hath given free liberty to him to goe to Delaware Bay for his owne advantage and the publique 
good in settling the aifayres thereof. 

It is ordered thatt those to whome the affaires of the towne is committed shall dispose of all the affayres of Delaware 
Bay, according to the intent of the agreement for combinatiO w'h this towne in settleing plantations and admitting 
planters to sitt down there 

24 Colojiial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

oblige tnem to depart immediately in peace, so that no blood may be shed and on refusing 
he shall secure their persons and remove them on board the sloops, so that they may be 
brought hither, taking further care to remain master, maintaining the reputation of their 
High : Might : and the Hon'"^ West-India Company and after the departure or removal of 
the English, he is to lay waste that place. He, Jan Jansen, shall be careful, that the 
English are not injm-ed in their personal effects, but that an inventory thereof be 
made in their presence. 

Thus done in Our Council in Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland. Date as above. 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 


WITHIN Dutch territory at the Southriver, by the English, 



Having seen the request of the Fiscal in regard to the serious loss, which the 
Hon"* Company is suffering by the English trading with the Indians and that within 
our limits and at the customary trading places, principally by one George Lamberton, 
residing at the Eed Mountain, notwithstanding we have most expressly protested against 
him ; Therefore we have resolved, not to permit it, unless he, George Lamberton, pay 
the Company's duties, whereunto the Fiscal is authorized to constrain him. (28'" August 

Whereas some words have passed between our people on the Southriver and Mr. 
Lammerton (who came witliin our limits there without commission and against our wUl) 
therefore we have avowed the act of our people and to that end have granted these unto 
Maryn Adriaensen, as we have understood that our people are threatened by those at the 
Red Mountain [New Haven] and we will have those therefore admonished, to whom these 
shall be shown, to let the bearer pass unmolested and if they have anything to say in the 
aforesaid matter, they will please avenge themselves on us, being at all times ready to 
answer to them for the act. (25"^ Septbr. 1642). 
(Translated by Dr. E, B. O'CaUaghan.) 

Protest op the Fiscal against Govert Loockermans' trading at the 
I, Cornells van der Hoykens, fiscal general of New-^Tfetherland, notify you, Govert 
Lockermans, that you shall not presume to trade with the Indians at the Company's 
customary trading post, where Commissary Jan Jansen Hpendam is accustomed to trade, 
situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland, or in case you will act or have acted 
contrary hereunto on this voyage, I protest against you for the loss and damages, which 
the Company shall have suft'ered thereby. (23* March 1644) 

J^ew Yoi'k Historical Records. 25 

Minute of Council. To engage certain soldiers for the exploration 


Whereas Governor Latour * has sent ns 7 soldiers, remainder of all his forces, and we 
io not know, what to do with them, yet nevertheless they must be supported, therefore 

Resolved, that they be taken into service, as we intend going to explore the mine and 
we shall have need of our men, more especially, as about forty soldiers are discharged 
and have departed for Holland, in expectation of the peace, which is not yet concluded. 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaglian.) 

Jan Jansen van Ilpendam, Commissary at Fort Nassau, accused of 


On the 4'" September 1645. 

Fiscal, plaintiff, against Jan Jansen Ilpendam, Commissary at Fort Nassau : for 
neglecting to perform his duties properly. 

Ordered, that the Fiscal furnish Defendant copy of his complaint. 
12"^ October 1645. 

The Fiscal, pltff. against Jan Jansen Ilpendam, dft. 

Having seen the Fiscal' s complaint against Jan Jansen for fraud committed by him 
in his office, also his accounts of many years, the declaration of the witnesses and Jan 
Jansen' s defence, it is, after mature consideration of the case, ordered that, Andries 
Hudde shall provisionally be sent to Fort Nassau to inquire of the Company's servants 
and others there respecting Deft? trade and to take an inventory of all his and the 
Company's property and to send hither, whatever is not required there and furthermore 
exercise command there as commissary until further orders. The Fiscal shall do the 
same here also and he, the Def-, shall likewise bring in his answer to the points proposed 
to him to-day. 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

Minute of the receipt of gold ore, etc. Resolution to explore the 
mountain and bring back a quantity. 
12"> October 1642. 

Whereas we have received from time to time from the Indians, after much trouble, 
expense and diligent search a few specimens of a certain mineral, which yielded gold 
and quicksilver, we have therefore considered it for the best advantage and profit of the 
Company to send thither thirty soldiers, with an officer, to examine the mountain where 
the specimens came from and to bring back with them, if possible, a quantity of specimens, f 
(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

* Governor of Acadia. 

t Specimens were actually obtained and twice sent to Holland, but both times the ships carrying them were lost 
at sea. See Col. Doc. I 280. — B. F. 

26 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Deposition in regard to a gold mine, looked for by the Dutch. 
Nicolaus Coorn, sheriff in the Colony of Renselaerswyck, certifies at the request of 
the Fiscal, that Jan Jansen Cuyper told the affiant in conversation, that being in a tavern, 
where there were many other persons, he heard in the course of various conversation, 
that Wilcock told a Swede the mine of gold, which the Dutch had been in search of, 
does not belong to the Dutch, but to the Crown of Sweden. All of which he, Nicolaus, 
declares to be true. 

Done the 23* Oct. 1645. 

W. KooRN, Sheriff of the 

Colony of RensellaerswycTc. 
To my knowledge. 

CoRNELis VAN TiENHOVEN, Secretary. 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

Proceedings against Jan Jansen van Ilpendam foe fraud. 
S'" February 1646 
Having seen the suit between the Fiscal Cornells van der Hoykens Pltff. against Jan 
Jansen Ilpendam, Commissary at Fort Nassau, Deft, the complaint, answer and sworn 
affidavits, from which it appears, that the Deft, has grossly vsronged the Company, both 
in giving more to the Indians, than the ordinary rate and in other instances specified in 
the complaint, affidavits and in his accounts, wherefore we cannot endure or approve his 
accounts & assume another's fault, Therefore having maturely considered the matter. We 
order, as We hereby direct, that said Deft, shall with all his papers and the Fiscal' s 
complaint be sent to Amsterdam by the first ship, to defend the case himself before the 
Lords Mayors. 

(Jan Jansen van Ilpendam died soon after, see N. Y. Col. MSS. vol. II p. 165.) 
(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

Order directing the Rev. Everard Bogardus to deliver to the 

Council a bill of exchange, given by the Swedish Governor 

at the Southriver for goods sold there by one Sandelyn 

contrary to law. 

Whereas the Hon*'^ Director-G-eneral and Council of New-Netherland have received 

certain information, that Jacob Evertsen Sandelyn, master of the ship ' ' Scotch 

Dutchman" has, without order and commission from the Incorporated West-India 

Company, Department of Amsterdam, come into the Southriver of New-Netherland 

with the aforesaid ship and there sold a parcel of duffel cloth and other goods to the 

Swedish Governor, for which he has received from said Governor a bUl of exchange 

amounting to the sum of 2500 guilders, which bill of exchange and letter of advice have 

J^eiv York Historical Recorxls. 27 

been handed by Laurens Laurensen from Vleckeren to Everardus Bogardus, minister 
here, to be transmitted to Holland and whereas this tends to the great prejudice of the 
Company and the serious injury of this country, We therefore hereby order said 
Bogardus to deliver up immediately into our hands the abovementioned bill handed him 
by Laurens Laurensen or to declare into whose hands he has delivered it. In default 
thereof said Bogardus shall be held responsible for all damages and losses, which the 
Hon"^ Company shall suffer hereby and be considered an accessory of those, who 
endeavour to defraud the Hon'"^ Company of its revenue and seek to ruin the country. 

Thus done in Council in Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 21=' September 
a" 1646. 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callagban.) 

Patent to Abraham Plank and three others for 100 morgens op 
land on the south river opposite vogelesant island.* 
We, WUliam Kieft, Director-General and Council on behalf of Their High Mightinesses 
the Lords States-General of the United Netherlands, His Highness of Orange and the Noble 
Lords-Directors of the Incorporated West-India Company, residing in New-Netherland, 
attest and declare herewith, that we have to-day, date underwritten, granted and given 
permission to Abraham Planck, Syraon Root, Jan Andriesen and Peter Harmensen, that 
they may establish themselves on the Southriver of New-Netherland and take possession 
of lands, situate on said river obliquely opposite to a little island, called 't Vogele Sant 
(Birds' sandbank) : of which lands they have permission to take as their property one 
hundred Morgens f of land, to establish there four bouweries or plantations and to cultivate 
them within a year from date or earlier, if possible, on pain of losing theii- rights thereto : 
on condition and stipulation, that the aforesaid persons or those who may hereafter obtain 
their interests, shall acknowledge the Noble Lords-Directors as their Lords and Masters 
under the sovereignity of their High : Might :, and further shall with their families submit 
to all such orders and privileges, as their Excellencies have already proclaimed or may 
proclaim hereafter, therefore we constitute the aforesaid Abraham Planck, Symon Root, 
Jan Andriesen and Peter Harmensen in our stead as real and actual possessors of the 
aforesaid one hundred morgens, giving them full power, authority and special direction, 
that they may enter upon, cultivate and make use of the aforesaid land, situate on the 
westside of the Southriver, as they would do with other inherited land and property, 
without that We, the grantors, in our aforesaid quality, shall have, reserve or keep in 
the least degree any particle of interest or authority in or over the aforesaid one hundi-ed 
morgens of land, but We desist from it, for the benefit of the aforesaid, now and forever, 
promising further to hold, fulfill and execute this conveyance fii-mly, inviolately and 
irrevocably, all subject to the obligations required by law. In testimony whereof this has 
been signed and confirmed by Us with the impression of Our seal in red wax appended. 

•Either Egg or Reedy Island. Acrelius in his " Beskrlfninge Nyea Sweriges" says in regard to this grant 
"these men never came here," but he is mistaken, for the first two were quite prominent in the local history, as the 
proceedings of the Court of Fort Cassimir will show. — B. F. 

f One morgen equal to about 2,900 square yards. 

28 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam. The aforesaid persons were promised, that, when they 
required in the future more land, than is stated above, it should be granted to them, 
provided that they shall build dwellinghouses on the land and lose theu- title to it, if they 
abandon it. It was signed Willem Kieft, below stood : By order of the Honorable 
Director Genei-al and Council of New-Netherland, Cornells van Tienhoven Secretary 

a brief, but true report oe the proceedings of johan prints,* 
Governor of the Swedish forces at the South-River of New- 
Netherland, also op the garrisons of the aforesaid Swedes, 

(This report was published by the N. T. Historical Society in Vol. I p. 429, N. S. of their Memoirs.) 
What regards the garrisons of the Swedes on the South-River of New-Netherland 
is as follows : 

At the entrance of this River three leagues up fi-om its mouth, on the east shore, is a 

* Johan Prints, a Lieutenant of Cavalry, had been appointed Governor of New-Sweden by Queen Christina on 
the IB"" of August, 1643. His instructions say: "When (should it please God) the Governor arrives at New-Sweden, 
he is to take care that the boundaries of the countiy extend from the borders of the sea to Cape Henlopen, in 
returning southwest towards Godyn's Bay and thence towards the Great South River, as far as Minquas Kil [now 
Christina Creek] where is constructed Fort Christina [now Wilmington, Del], and from there again towards the South 
Piiver and the whole to a place, which the savages call Sankikan ; this is at the same time the boundary of New-Sweden. 
This district may be in length about 30 German miles [about 120 English miles]. 

As the Dutch "West-India Company undoubtedly wishes to appropriate to itself the lands possessed by the 
EDglish and certainly also all the eastern part of the great Sout'iriver (especially as their fort or redoubt Nassau, now 
occupied by about twenty men, is not very far from the eastern side of this river); and since they make no pretensions 
to all the western part, of which the Swedes are in possession, imagining that through the erection of their Fort 
Nassau they have acquired and reserved the possession of the whole of said river and the country on both sides, for 
■which reason they have protested against Our Swedish subjects, and have never been willing to permit or grant them 
to ascend above Fort Nassau, the Governor will comport himself towards the Dutch Company with mildness and 
moderation. If however the Dutch, contrary to all hopes, show any hostile intentions, it would be very proper for 
him to be on his guard and repel force by force. — As to those Dutch, who have gone to New-Sweden and are there 
established under Swedish jurisdiction under Commandant Jost de Bogardt, the Governor must show them all good 
will, but being established to near to Fort Christina, he must remove them. 

The Governor must sell to the savages at lower prices, than the Dutch at Fort Nassau or the English, so as to 
disengage them by these means from the Dutch or English interest and make them favorable to the Swedes. 

He is to choose his place of residence, where most convenient and erect fortifications either at Cape Henlopen or 
James' Island [a part of Camden was formerly an island of this name, Mickle. See "Reminiscences of Gloucester" 
p. 85], which will completely command the river." 

The appointment was for three years, after which he may return, leaving a deputy in his place, or he may be 
reappointed. (Collection of Palmskold MSS. in the Library of the Academy at Upsala.) 

He sailed from Sweden with the ships " Fame " and " Stork " on the 16"" August 1643 and arrived before Fort 
Christina on the Delaware on the 15'" of February 1643 at 2 o'clock p. m (Campanius, p. 70). David Pietersen De 
Vries, " Ordnance-Master of Holland " and Co-patroon of Godyn and Blommaert in the Colony Swanendaal on the 
Delaware, in the Journal of his Travels describes " Captain Prints as weighing upwards of 400 pounds and drinking 
three drinks at every meal." — B. F. 

f This is the date of Andries Hudde's, the writer's of this report, arrival at the South-River, where he had been 
appointed Commissary IS" Oct. 1645. —B. F. 

iMew Yorh Historical Becovfls. 29 

fort called Elsenburgh,* usually garrisoned, by 12 men and one lieutenant, 4 guns, iron 
and brass, of 12 pounds iron (balls), 1 mortar {pots-Tiooft). This Fort is an earthwork 
and was ordered to be erected there by the aforesaid Johan Prints, shortly after his 
arrival in that river. By means of this fort, the abovementioned Printz holds the river 
locked for himself, so that all vessels, no matter to whom they belong or whence they 
come, are compelled to anchor there. This is the case even with those of the Hon. 
Company, for it frequently happened that yachts belonging to the Hon. Company coming 
from the Manhattans, which without anchoring wanted to go up to their place of 
destination and have been damaged by shot with great danger of losing some of their 
crew. They were then obliged to go up about 6 leagues from there in small boats to 
the aforesaid Printz for his consent to proceed farther, no distinction being made, 
whether they were English or Dutch and regardless of their commission. 

About 3 leagues farther up the river is another fort, called Kristina,-)- on the west 
side on a kil called the Minquase Kil, so named because it runs very near to the 
Minquase land. This fort lies a good half league in the Kil and is surrounded by 
marshy ground, except on the N. W. side, where it can be approached by land, and on 
the S. W. side, where the Kil runs. It is tolerably strong, but requires strengthening. 
This fort has no permanent garrison, but is pretty well provided and is the principal 
place of trade, where the Commissary also resides. Here too is the magazine for all the 
goods. This is the first fort built by the Swedes under command of one Peter Minwit in 
the year 1638, notwithstanding the Company had on the river sufficient garrisons, 
fortifications, men and ammunition of war, which it had had 14 years before this 
garrisoning by the Swedes. This Peter Minwit had served the Hon. Company as Director 
in this country. 

About 2 leagues farther up on the same side begin some plantations, continuing 
about 1 league, but there are only few houses and these scattering. They extend as far 
as Tinnekonck, J which is an island, and back from the river are surrounded by creeks and 
copses. Grovernor Johan Printz has his residence here. It had a sufficiently strong fort, 
made of hemlock beams laid one upon the other, but this fort with another standing 
near by was burned on the 5"* December 1645. Farther on, on the same side, to the 
Schuylkil, which is about 2 leagues, there are no plantations, nor any practicable, as 
there is nothing but thicket and this on low lands. 

As regards the Schu3^1kil, that is, the Hon. Company's purchased and possessed 
lands, he has destroyed the Hon. Company's timber and has built a fort at that place, on 
a very convenient island at the edge of the Kil. It is covered on the west side by 
another KU, and on the south, southeast and east side by copses and low lands. It lies 
about a gunshot in the Kil, on the south-side of it. Fine corn has been raised on this 
island. No damage can be done to the river by this fort, but the Kil can be controlled 
by it. The Kil is the only remaining avenue for the commerce with the Minquase, 
without which trade this river is of little value. 

A little farther, beyond this fort, runs a Kil extending to the forest (which place is 
sailed Kinsessing§ by the Indians). It has been a steady and permanent place of trade 

»0n or near Salem Creek, at Elsinburg Fort Point, Salem County, N. J.— B. F- 

\ Now Wilmington, Del. X Tinicum, Pa. § Near Upland, Pa. , on the Scbuylkil. 

30 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Eiver. 

for our people with the Miuquase, but has now been taken possession of by the Swedes 
with a blockhouse. Half a league farther through the woods, Governor Printz has built 
a mill on the Kil, which empties into the sea a little south of Matinnekonck, and a 
blockhouse beyond the Kil, right on the path of the Miuquase. This place is called by 
the Indians Kakarikonck. Thus there is no place open, to attract the said Minquase. 
In a like manner he has almost the monopoly of the trade with the River-Indians, as 
most of them go hunting this way and cannot get through, without passing this place. 

Regarding his force : It consists at the most of 80 to 90 men, freemen as well as 
servants, with whom he has to garrison aU his posts. The fortifications and garrisons of 
the Hon. Company are omitted here, as they are sufficiently known. 

In regard to the proceedings of the Swedes : 

On the 23*^ of June of the year 1646 a sloop having been sent to me with a cargo, 
which however belonged to private parties, I ordered the same to go in to the Schuylkil, 
to the bank to wait there for the Minquase. Arrived there (Jurriaen Blanck was 
supercargo of the sloop) they were immediately ordered to leave the Crown's territory. 
Notiiied hereof, I went there with four men, to see how matters stood. The same message 
was given to me. I requested, that they would please to inform their Governor, that this 
place had always been a trading post and that he would act with discretion nor give cause 
to contention. On the following day the preacher * was sent, who declared to me that he 
had orders, that, if the barck was in the Schuylkil, she should be obliged to leave it. I 
answered him, that I must first see the Governor's hand and seal forbidding the Company 
to trade with theii' goods at any place on this river, and requested further to act with 
discretion and that the alliance between their High Mightinesses and Her Royal Majesty 
should be taken into consideration, protesting besides against all damages and obstructions, 
that might follow this and similar acts. Whereupon the aforesaid Governor Johan Printz 
sent to me the Commissary Hendrick Huygen with two of his officers, viz. Carel Janssen, 
a Fin by birth, his bookkeeper and Gegory van Dyck, his quartermaster, a native of The 
Hague, who demanded my answers to some articles ; I requested an answer (I mean a 
copy), then I would answer him in writing. He told me, he had no orders to do it and 
dared not do so. So I answered him just as well by word of mouth, to deprive him of 
aU pretext, in the presence, on my side, of Sander Boyer, quartermaster, Fillip Gerraert 
and Jurriaen Blanck, freemen. This are the articles and answer, in short, as I cannot 
remember much more on account of their being read rapidly : 

Propositions, made by the hon"'^ Mr. Johan Printz, Governor for the Crown 
of Sweden on the S. R. of N. N. communicated by Hendrick Huygen, 
Commissary, a native of Cleef, Carel Janssen, bookkeeper, by birth a 
Fin, and Gregory van Dyck, quartermaster, born at the Hague, in 
presence on my side, of the above named persons. 

Art. 1 and 2. 
Question in regard to the Schuylkil. How is tlie ownership thereof known, what 
are and how far extend the limits of it ? 

♦Probably Jobn Carapanius (Holm), who had come to New-Sweden with Gov. Prints.— B. F. 

Mew Y'orh Historical Records. 31 

That the documents referring to the limits are deposited at the Manhattans and they 
mnst obtain full information there. 

Art. 3: 4: 5: 

Question, whether he has offended me or mine by words or deeds ? 

That he has left me or mine alone, but has offended the Company and consequently 
Their High Mightinesses, inasmuch as I had been told in his name, that he would drive 
me out of the KU by force. 

Art. 6 and 7. 
That the Governor had sent for the Minquase at the expense of the Crown and that, 
when they had come, I had let them be fetched out of the Schuylkil. 

That I have had the Sachems here in the spring of last year and incurred expenses 
on his account and had also made an agreement with him, that as soon as I had received 
goods, I either would send him a messenger, or if he heard it, he should come down. 

Art. 8. 
That I had ordered Jurriaen Blanck to force his way up with his bark and to fasten 
his bark on the bridge. 

That I have told him to run up, but that I knew nothing of compulsion. 

Art. 9: 
That without any cause given I had taken up arms and that I had answered to the 
interdict, that I should stay there and see, who would drive me away. 


That I had made no use of the arms, much less behaved hostilely or done an act of 
hostility, but rather sought to prevent such and so seek, saving the rights of my Lords 
and Masters 

But the matter did not rest here. On the first of July following he sent a 
communication to Jurriaen Blanck, of which here the copy : 

My good friend Jurriaen Planck. Her Royal Majesty's subjects complain to me 
again, that you remain here forcibly and against your commission and molest them, 
pretending that you are ordered to do so by Andi-ies Hudde, who has no authority 
whatever here iu Her Royal Majesty's affairs and territories Therefore you are now 
informed, that I give you hereby the friendly notice, that as soon as you have been made 
acquainted with this you must leave immediately and lie according to the tenor of your 
commission, with your trading in the Schuylkil, at the place where the sloops usually 
trade. This shall not be forbidden to you. Out of respect and friendship for your 
Commander and his commission, those under my command shall not be allowed to 
obstruct you by any acts of theirs, as long as you lie in the Schuylkil. But if you act 

32 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

contrary hereto and happen to contemn my admonition, which yon cannot reasonably 
gain say, your vessel and goods on it shall be confiscated to Her Koyal Majesty, in 
pursuance to Her Majesty's strict orders. Of this you may be freely assured, even 
though you were my own brother. I commend you to God. Dated Tinnekonck, this 
20'" June 1646 and was signed Johan Priutz. 

After this caution Jurriaen Blanck left, though not ordered by me, but for fear, that 
the vessel with the cargo might be taken and he being a private person would then have 
trouble to recover it {het naloopen sonde hebben). I could not give him any security, 
as the grounds of the matter between the Company and the Swedes are not known by me. 

I advised the Hon. Director Kieft of this event on the 12"" July, also of the means 
properly to continue the trade with the Minquase as the aforesaid Printz and his 
command endeavoured by every method to deprive the Company and their inhabitants 
of it. 

Meanwhile I had been ordered by a letter from the Hon. Du-. Kieft to make a search 
for some minerals and betook myself therefore to Sanghikans. I tried to get to the 
Great Falls, where according to the specimens, hope of good success was. Ifow it 
happened when I passed the first fall, I was stopped by a Sachem called Wirackehon, 
who asked me, where I wanted to go ? I answered, that I wanted to go upwards and he 
said to me, that I could not and as I desired to know why, he said finally after some 
talking, that the Swedish Governor had told one Meerkadt, a Sachem living near 
Tinnekonck Island, that we wanted to build a house by the Great Fall and that 250 men 
were to come by the expected ships, who would be sent here from the Manhattans and 
should kill the Indians from the lower end of the river to the upper, and troops laid into 
the house, which we intended to build up there, should stop the Upper Indians, that 
none might escape and as proof, that we would come up in a small vessel, to reconnoitre 
the place, and kill two Indians, to obtain a pretext ; but that he, Printz, would not 
allow it but drive us out of the river. Although I tried to proceed further by various 
devices, I was opposed and met each time with the above objections. Therefore I had 
to give it up. 

And whereas on the 7'." Septbr. following a letter was handed to me, by which I was 
strictly ordered, to buy some lands from the Indians lying on the west shore, distant 
about one league to the north of Fort Nassau, I took possession of the place on the 
8'.", erecting the arms of the Hon. Company : and as the owner was absent hunting, I liad 
to wait with the purchase until the 25* of the same month. Having concluded the 
purchase, the proprietor came with me in person and the Hon"'"' Company's arms being 
fixed to a pole, this was set in the ground on the extreme boundary. After having taken 
possession of it, some freemen made preparations to build there. About this time, being 
the 8'.'' of October, the Swedish Commissary, Huygen came from above, bringing with 
him the arms set up by me, which he, as he said, had taken down by order of his 
Governor. Whereupon divers words fell, among others about the gross impropriety 
committed by his quartermaster and other Swedes on the 30'." Septbr last contrary to 
all orders and after posting the guard, and that, moreover, in a guardhouse in defiance 
of all good admonition, which I had given him. I requested his Governor, to be 
pleased to remonstrate and inflict proper punishment for it, that it might be evident, that 
he had no share nor part in such a gross outrage, or in case of neglect, if such should 

JYew York Historical Records. 33 

occur agaiu, I sliould directly deal out such punishment, as is customary to inflict upon 
such disturbers. 

After this occurrence on the IG'" of the following month the subjoined protest was 
sent me by the abovementioned Johan Printz by two of his freemen, viz. Oloff Stille and 
Moens Slom ; whereof this is a copy : 

Mr. Andries Hudde. By this written exhortation I again remind you, as the 
royal Commissary Hendrick Huygen did verbally, that you will forthwith abstain and 
desist from the injuries, which you have been accustomed to commit against Her Royal 
Majesty in Sweden, my most gracious Queen, on Her Royal Majesty's lawful property, 
land and ground, without respect for H. R. Majesty's magnificence, reputation and 
dignity ; and to consider, how little it befits H. R. Majesty to suffer such gross outrage 
and w^hat great calamities may be expected as likely to arise therefrom. Secondly, how 
unwilling, as I think, your nation or superiors would be to come in conflict with Her 
Royal Majesty for such a trifle ; for you have not the slightest cause for these rude 
proceedings against Her Royal Majesty, especially now your secret and improper 
purchase of land from the Indians. You have made it perfectly evident, how lawful and 
just are the antiquity or ancient rights, to which you have appealed heretofore. It has 
been brought to light thereby, that you have as little right to the place, which you now 
own, as to the others here in this river, which you now lay a claim to, wherein you have 
never been molested by Her Royal Majesty or Her servants nor has it been attempted to 
supplant you in an unfair manner. Of all this I have wished to remind and write 
you for my own acquittance and exculpation from all subsequent disasters. Datum N". 
Gothenburg stil. vet. 1646. Beneath in the margin stood : The order to which you 
appeal may well be owing to incorrect information to your superior and would well 
become you, to give him a further correct and lucid report of these matters and relate 
to him a summary, as it at present stands here. 

It was signed Johan Printz. 

As I was obliged to go up (the river) the next day I was, upon my return, advised, 
that the Swedish Governor had forbidden his subjects to have any dealings with our 
people. This is usiial among declared enemies, but has no place among allies. Likewise 
it was reported to me that the Swede censured me, that I had sent him no answer to his 
protest ; I therefore drew up the subsequent protest and sent it to him on the 23* Octobr, 
by the quartermaster Sander Boeyer and two soldiers, viz : David Davitsen and Jacob 
Hendricksen. Copy thereof follows : 

Honorable, rigorous Sir, Mr. Johan Printz. 

Honorable Sir : In the evening of the 16'? of this month stil. nov. I received by Oloff 
Stille and Moens Slom a writing, dated the 30*? Septbr stil. vet., wherein your Honor 
warns me to desist from doing injuries, which I had done or committed to Her Royal 
Majesty' s lands, of which however I have been ignorant up to this time. If your Honor had 
condescended to point them out to me, I should have been found guilty, if I Lad not been 
willing to desist, as I do not know, that I have neglected any thing tending to the 
preservation of mutual good feeling, much less have committed any gross outrage. I 
did not purchase the lands secretly nor unfairly, unless your Honor calls secretly, what is 
not done with your Honor's knowledge. I have purchased it from the right owner. 


34 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Should he have sold it previously to your Honor, then he has cheated me infamously. 
The place, which we possess, we possess in right ownership and have had a just title 
to them, perhaps before the South River was heard of in Sweden. AVhether my Lord 
and Master has been informed incorrectly is not known to me, I myself have reported 
to him the matter in truth and justice and shall further do so again by the first 
opportunity which I have and send your Honor's letter along, to know besides, what he 
has to order and I to do. 

And whereas your Honor's Commissary coming down on the 8'." inst. did, in a hostile 
manner pull and tear down the arms, which I had set up on the pvrrchased land, uttering 
these threats : ,, Even were it the flag of His Highness, the Illustrious Prince of Orange, 
that was here, he would liave trampled it under foot," — besides many bloody menaces, 
which were from time to time reported to me and which can only tend to serious mischief ; 
And whereas this not only concerns my nation or superiors, but also the supreme 
authority of their High Mightinesses, the Noble Lords, the States General and of His 
Highness, the Hlustrious Prince of Orange and the Hon"'"' the Directors is affected 
thereby, Therefore am I imperatively constrained to send this to your Honor and at the 
same time protest before God and the World, as I do hereby protest, that I am guiltless of 
all mischiefs, difficulties, damages and losses, which may grow out of these proceedings, 
but that on the contrary I have done, promoted and endeavoured everything that could 
tend to good intercourse and mutual friendship, as I am bound to do consistently with 
my oath and honour. I expect the like from your Honor at least from the consideration, 
that we who are Christians, do not render ourselves an object of scoff to these Indian 
heathens. Believing which, I remain your Honor's affectionate friend 


In the South River of New-Netherland, 22* Octbr 1646. 

The quartermaster on his return reported, that, when he wished the Governor, who 
was standing before his door, a "good morning" and further had said : " I shall greet 
you on the part of the Commissary Hudde, who sends you this writing in answer to 
yours," he, Johan Printz, took it out of his hand and threw it to one of his men, who 
stood by him, saying: "There, take care of that." The other picked it up from the 
ground and took charge of it. The Governor moving forward to some Englishmen, 
arrived from New-England some time before, the quartermaster desired to speak to the 
Governor for an answer and notwithstanding he had come in becoming form, he was 
pushed out of doors, the Governor having taken a gun from the wall, as he could see, to 
shoot him, but he was kept within. 

Whereas the Governor Johan Printz not only does not omit to make us suspected 
by every means both by the Indians and the Christians, but even connives at the bad 
treatment of the Hon. Company's subjects, whether freemen or servants, yea, so that the 
same come home bleeding and bruised, as often has happened, by the Indians and 
especially by the Armewamese Indians on the 12'? of May '47 at noon, who tried to 
overrun us, although it was prevented by God's mercy and good information regarding 
their misunderstanding. Besides, he spreads the report everywhere, that the Company 
has nothing to say in this River : and that he had bought the land for the Swedish Crown, 
also the Minquase Land ; that the Company could not depend on or confirm their old or 
continuous ownership, that the Devil was the oldest proprietor of Hell, but that he might 

Jfew York Historical Records. 35 

even admit a younger one, as he himself declared on the S*" of June '47, sitting at his 
table, in presence of myself and my wife, with other vulgar expressions to the same 
effect. This he also makes manifest by actual deeds and especially by shutting up the 
River, so that no vessel can come up, except by his permission, even though the same 
may be provided with a respectable commission. By this he not only injures the freemen 
in their travels to a great extent and to their own excessive loss, but also scandalously 
detracts from the respect due to Their High Mightinesses, by esteeming as frivolous and 
of no account the legitimate commissions granted to the freemen by the Hon"''^ Governor, 
under authority of Their High Mightinesses, and although these freemen have repeatedly 
complained to me, I have not been able to help them, except by further remonstrating 
against it. Hence several freemen, lying here with their vessels came to me on the 2^ of 
July of the same year and requested me to draw up for them a petition to the Hon.*"^ the 
Governor Petrus Stuyvesant, praying for relief from their grievous injuries. I did so 
and transmitted it. Upon this petition I received on the 15'? of August a protest by the 
aforesaid Mr. P. Stuyvesant on that matter, which has been handed by me on the IT"" to 
Governor Prints and I received as answer, that it should be answered in writing. And 
as I was granted permission by the Hon*'^ Governor to come up, I arrived at the 
Manhattans on the first of December and handed to the vforesaid gentleman the written 
reply of Mr. Prints. 

Meanwhile the winter coming on, it happened to me in the spring, that on the evening 
of the 2* of April 1648 a vessel coming up from below under mainsail, without pennant 
or flag, I was in doubt, being unable to determine whence she came or what she was. 
Therefore I fired a shot across her bows {voor hem overscJiieten), but she proceeded on 
her course ; a second shot was fired, but no attention was paid to that either. Thereupon 
I (really) sent eight men after her, but as she had a fair wind and the weather was very 
thick and it was moreover very dark, they could not overtake her. It was ascertained, 
two or three days after, that it was the Swedisli bark, on the return of which I asked the 
skipper, why he passed the fort "without striking" {met doorgeschooten stcnget), 
without flag or pennant, whereby it could be told, who was his master, inasmuch 
as he had the same with him, as he now let them fly. He replied very scornfully, that, 
had he known, it would come in consideration, he would not have done it now either 
and henceforth would continue to do so, were it only as a mark of spite and derision 
Wherefore I gave him this subjoined writing to his Governor, of which this is a copy : 

Honorable, rigorous Mr. Johan Printz. -LX«_ .^J. *0 

Whereas your Honor's sloop sailed past here on the 3* inst. towards evening, striking 
[her colors] contrary to custom and without flying pennant or flag, whereby it could not 
be ascertained, who was its master, and in contradiction to your Honor's claim, as our 
vessels coming into the river, must stop before your fort, though they show sufficiently 
from where they came, that no injury may befal your and our side, and as it is to 
be feared that under such a pretence some other nation miglit pass to our prejudice : 
therefore I cannot sufficiently wonder, with what intention your Honor sent the vessel past 
here in such an irregular manner. According to my judgment and best understanding 
and considering, what in such a case might be done, when others come here without 
orders, this is not the proper way to maintain neighborly friendship, but gives cause t« 

36 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

amtual misunderstaridings. This I did not believe, wovild be intended. As I shall, in 
such case, not neglect, what is demanded for the maintenance of the evident respect due 
to Their High Mightinesses, His Highness the Prince and the rights of My Lord and 
Master, I request you therefore, that in future a different course be adopted, as a 
contrary conduct will compel me, should any difficulty arise, hereby to protest my 
innocence, the more so, as your Honor's officer on your Honor's sloop dared to hint, that 
he did so only through contempt and he will rue it, if henceforth he acts otherwise. 
Farewell. A. Hudde. 

Done at Fort Nassau, this 13'? April. 

As I received information throughout the whole winter that the Swede collected large 
numbers of hemlock logs and as a large quantity lay in the Schuylkil, I feared, that the 
Governor might really put up some buildings at the place, where now the vessels lie and 
trade ; and since these were driven before from Kinsessingh and with the exception of 
this place there is no access to the great forest to trade with the Minquase, whereby their 
trade is snatched from our people and this river would be of very little consideration, 
therefore, not daring to neglect it, I have written, as I had no orders to undertake 
anything for the preservation to the Govei'nor. Thereupon I received orders, that in 
case the Swede should come to build and settle on any new, unoccupied places, 1 should 
with all civility settle down beside him in the name of the Company. 

So it happened, that afterwards, on the 24')' of the same month, some Sachems of 
Passayonk came to me, who asked me, why I did not also buUd on the Schuylkill 
that the Swede had already some buildings there. I accordingly on the following day 
caused inquiry to be made and having received certain information of the Swede's 
further anticipation and especially of such places of importance, that I also immediately 
made preparation to settle alongside there ; so that on the 27'." following I went thither 
with the necessary tools and sent for the Sachems, to whom I stated that I now was 
come, to buUd on this place, which they had given me. Then they sent for the Swedes 
who lived there already and ordered them to depart informing them, that they had come 
in there in a sneaking way and that taken possession against their will ; that at present 
they had given it to me and that I should buUd there ; whereupon two of the principal 
chiefs, namely Mattehooven and Wissemenetto, themselves took and planted there the 
Prince's flag and ordered me to fire three shots in token of possession. This was done 
and there in presence of them all have I erected the house. 

Towards evening came the Swedish Commissary with 7 or 8 men and asked, under 
what orders I built there ? I answered, By order from my superior and the consent of 
the Indians. What concern that was of his 1 He asked further, Whether I could show 
any document, that I did it by superior authority and not at the desire of the fi-eemen ? 
I answered. Yes that I would give it to him, after he had first delivered to me a document, 
to show by what authority he demanded mine. Presently the Sachems said to 
Hendryck Huyggen and his companions, that they had sold the land to us and we 
should inhabit there. By what authority did they (the Swedes) build on the land or 
whether it was not enough that they had already taken possession of Matinnekonck, the 
Schuylkil, Kinsessingh, Kakarikom, Upland and the other places occupied by the Swedes, 
all which they had stolen from them ? That Minwit, now about 11 years ago had purchased 

New York Historical Records. 37 

no more than a small piece of land at Paghahacking, to plant some tobacco on it, 
the half of which they, the natives, should receive as an acknowledgement. Could 
they (pointing to the Swedes) by purchasing a piece of land on their arrival, take, in 
addition all that lay on the main, as they (the Swedes) had done and still do here on the 
river ? That it excited their wonder, that they (the Swedes) should prescribe laws to 
them, the native proprietors, that they should not do with their own, what they pleased ; 
that they (the Swedes) had first come only recently in the River and had already taken 
up and occupied so much of their land and that we (meaning us) had never taken away 
any land from them, althovagh we had intercourse here full 30 years. 

Thus I pushed forward the commenced work and had the house surrounded 
by palisades, because the Swede had destroyed the house heretofore, which the 
Hon*"' Company had formerly had in front of the Schuylkil and built a fort there and 
might also attempt to do the same thing here. Meanwhile it came to pass, that Moens 
Klingh, Lieutenant of the fort on the Schuylkil, approached in order with 24 men, fully 
armed with loaded guns and lighted matches and asked, whether we intended to prosecute 
the commenced work or whether we would let it rest ? To which I answered him : What 
has been begun, must be completed. Whereupon he ordered his men to lay aside their 
arms and each drawing an axe from his side, cut down the trees standing around and 
near the house, destroying also some fruits, which I had planted there. 

Hereupon arrived here on the 7'." of June, the Hon"'' Committee of the Council, 
viz. Mr. L. van Dincklage deputy and Mr. L. Montangie, councillor, to which 
Hon*"* Gentlemen the principal chiefs and lawful proprietors did on the 10'? of the 
same month, make a public conveyance of the Schuylkil and reconfirmed the purchase 
of the said Schuylkil and the adjoining lands, made by Arent Corsen, formerly 
Commissary here, whereof their Honors immediately have again taken public and 
legitimate possession.* 

After which the Hon"* Gentlemen sailed on the 16'.'' ditto vdth a proper suite to 
Tinnekonck, and were received here by Commissary Huygen and Lieutenant Papegay, 
who kept their Honors standing in the open air in the rain for about half an hour. 
After they were admitted to audience, their Honors among other things have protested 
against the above named Printz for the very illegal seizure of the Schuylkil, to which he 
promised to give a written answer before their departure. And as some freemen desired 
permission to build, they had places assigned to them by their Honors, where they 
should settle. Thereupon, on the 2^ of July following one Hans Jacobsen began to settle 
on the Schuylkil, which was prevented by the Swedes, the son of Gov. Prints having 
received orders to that effect, who wanted to compel the aforesaid Hans to tear down, 
what had already been put up and on the refusal of the abovenamed Hans did it himself 
s,nd burnt it, adding threats, that if he came back to build, he should carry away a drubbing. 

One Thomas Broen fared also in like manner. Having gone, on the 6'? ditto, to settle 
at N'ew-Hooven,t the place so named by your Honors, he was about three hours there, 
when Swedes came under the command of one Gregory van Dyck, quartermaster and 
pulled down, as before, what he had already erected there, warning him to leave that 
place or they would beat him off. So the matter stands at present. 

» N. T. Col. Doc. I. 593. t i. e. New-Farm. 

^^ Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

As in the meantime I was ordered to come to tlie Manhattans, I proceeded thither and 
aiTived there on the S'? of September. While there I made a report on the state of the 
South-River and further delivered in writing, what in my opinion was necessary thereto. 

At this time tidings came overland, that the Swede had erected a house in front of 
Fort Beversreede, whereby access to that fort was effectually closed. The winter 
approaching, I again took my departure on the 5'? of October, as also some freemen, to 
whom groundbriefs were issued, to build in the SchuylkU. After my arrival with them 
on the IS"' of October in the South River of New-Netherland, I was informed that the 
Swede seriously intended to go to the country of the Minquase, in violation of the 
contract that had been made. I therefore, to prevent such pretention and to show, that 
the contract was not broken by the Hon. Governor have sent the subjoined note to 
Hendi'ick Huj'gens, as a further remonstrance to his Governor. Copy : 

Worthy, most kind and good friend. 

First salutation and kind greeting. I have learned to my great regret on my arrival 
here, that our fugitives have taken up their abode in the Minquase country, truly contrary 
to the good intention of our Governor, who will not allow his subjects to undertake 
anything in violation of the contract, which has been made, but declares that it is to be 
vigorously enforced on his side ; and as it is certain that this has excited some suspicion 
in the mind of your Governor, I cannot avoid sending this to you for my exculpation, 
being assured that it will effect a change in your opinion. Farewell. 

And whereas the freemen have pursuant to their commission endeavored to make a 
settlement, one of the Swedish servants, named Peter Jochim has in the meanwhile, as 
the following shows, by way of contempt, forcibly torn off by night and broke through 
the palisades of Fort Reede, using great insolence as well by acts as by words. The 
freemen then set to work, so that they completed the erection on the 4')' of November, 
but the Swede again tore it down hacking with great violence the woodwork to pieces. 
I have sent a report of this proceeding to the Hon. Governor and as I liave no remedy 
against such acts but paper-weapons I have deemed it necessary to send the following 
protest to Mr. Johan Prints. Copy : 

Whereas by order and commission given by our Hon*'" Governor P. Stuyvesant to 
Symon Root, Pieter Harmensen, and Cornells Mauritsen to buUd on the Mastemaeckers 
Hoeck, Symon Root has, by virtue of his commission, commenced on the 4'" inst. to raise 
a house on the Mastemaeckers Hoeck. He, at the time, was prevented doing so by your 
Honor's agent with open violence on the part of your Honor's subjects, notwithstanding 
the friendly request of the gentlemen authorized by our Lords and Masters and a 
remonstrance, that so close allies ought not to encounter each other with force, but on the 
contrary act as becomes good allies and confederates, leaving it to our superiors to decide 
this matter. Upon this friendly footing your Honor's deputy was satisfied to leave the 
matter for the present, iintil he received further orders from your Honor. But with the 
rising of the sun your Honor's deputy came and notified the aforesaid employes, namely 
Alexander Boyer and Adriaen van Tienhoven that he had orders to destroy the work, 
that had been commenced ; which he forthwith accomplished, hacking and utterly 
destroying whatever had been begun there, accompanying the same with words of abuse 

J\''eiv York Historical Records. 39 

and contempt towards those, who were endeavoring to execute their Master's orders. 
Theee are proceedings, which truly can have no other tendency than to generate mutual 
bitterness and enmity, as they are quite opposed to good neighborhood, which we have 
on all occasions cultivated, abstaining from whatever might gire any cause of offense, 
although our good intentions have been frequently unfairly viewed and wrongly 

For all which insolence and disrespect of a legal commission, given by virtue and 
authority of Their High-Mightinesses, His Highness the Prince of Orange and our 
Lords-Superiors, and the breach of good mutual friendship we are compelled hereby 
to protest against your Honor before God and the World, as we are innocent of all 
difficulties, that will arise from such proceedings ; and we declare that we on our side, 
have no other object in view than what might conduce to the promotion of good 
friendship, whereunto I still pledge ourselves and shall be and remain your Honor's 
affectionate friend (Signed) A. Hudde. 

Done Fort STassou on the South River of New-Netherland this 7* November 1648. 

And notwithstanding this public violence, it is even so that the Swede in rendering 
as daily suspected by the Indians not only. * * 

(Caetera desunt.) 

Letter from Director Sttjtvesant to Governor WijsrTHROP of 
Massachusetts in regard to the English claims on the 
Delaware territory. 

To the Right worsh? John Winthrop Gouern'' of the Massachusetts att Boston 
in New-England. 

Honoured S'' 

The good report my predecess"' Gen" Will. Kieft hath given me of your noble worth 
Command these lines from me & in them my due regards to your worthy selfe. 

I suppose you have experimentallie fownd him a friend of peace & that all things 
might be friendlie Composed betwixt us in these pts of America, whose sollicitations & 
desires Concurring with myne owne reall & heartie inclinations, I shall be readie att all 
tymes & all occasions to make good, allways provided it may not intrench vppon the 
right of my Lords & Masters, the Estates-GeneraU or West Indie Company, whose 
indubitable right is to all that land betwixt that river called Conneticut & that by the 
English named Deleware. 

Yett notwithstanding you, aswell as wee are svbordinate vnder higher powers, to 
whom wee must giue accompt of our actions, I shall be boulde to propose to your wise 
Consideration that your selfe with other indifferent men of yo'' Countriemen there may 
be delegated & may be pleased to appoint tlie tyme & place where & when yourselfe & 
they will bee pleased to giue me a meeting, where wee may friendlie & Christianlie agitate 
Concerning past occasions & doe our best to reconcile the present & preuent all occasions 

40 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

of future Constestation, and that wee may prepare all things for our Lords & Masters the 
more easilie to determine. 

Fort New- Amsterdam 

in New-Netherland Yours in any office of loue 

June the 25'? 1647 P. Sttvesant. 

Minute of an interview between Director Stuyvesant and 
two minqtjas chiefs regarding swedish intrigues on the 
We, the undersigned, all understanding the language of the Minquaas, attest, testify 
and declare, in place and with promise of an oath, if need be, on the requisition of the 
honorable Director-General of New-Netheiiand, Curagao etc. in the presence of the said 
honorable General and the late Director William Kieft, that it is true and truthful, that 
this day being the 13"' July 1647, two chiefs of the Minquaas named Aquarichque and 
Quadickho, came to the house of his Honor aforesaid and in token and for the continuance 
of friendship and mutual trade gave a small present and declared in our presence, that 
the Commissary of Johan Prints, the Swedish Governor, residing at the Southriver of 
New-Netherland, had said to them, that he could sell them powder, lead and guns 
enough, but the Netherlanders, being poor tatterdemalions, could not do so. The above 
named chiefs said the Swedish Governor had informed them, that the Netherlanders were 
bad and the Swedes were good men. Said Governor had also asked permission of them 
to set up a tradinghouse in their country, which request they rejected and refused. All 
which we declare, we have heard from the aforesaid chiefs at the house of the 
hon"° General and offer to confirm this by our oath if necessary. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, this 13'" July A" 1647. 

This SR is the mark of 

Symon Roodt, made by himself. 
This is the mark -\- of 

Jan Andriessen, made by himself. 
Adriaen Dircksen Coen. 
To my knowledge 

Cornelius van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Mexv York Historical Records. 41 

Governor Winthrop's and the Commissioners op the United Colonies' 


To the much honoured ffriend Mr. Peter Sty vesant, GouernT Gener : of ye Ne. Netherld. 
Honoured Sr 

Yours by this gent : Leif* Baxter I rec* in a tyme of soe much bodilie weakness, as 
disabled me from intending any buisnes : and allthough it hath pleased the Lord to spare 
my lyfe, yett the Crazines of my head and feeblenes of my hand denies me Ubertie to 
write as I doe desire, either in congratulating your Comeing into these ptes or in tendring 
my respects to you, sutable to that Courtesie and good will you are pleased to hould 
forth not only to my selfe only, but also to all our nation, w* may iustlie oblige mee to 
indeauour the continuance of that amitie & Correspondencie w'^" hath begune betwixt 
your much honoured predecessT Generall Kieft & myselfe, which I hope (through the 
Lord's good providence) may tend to the welfare of both nations : yo"' letter comeing in a 
tyme when the Comission" were mett, I acquainted them with it as in duty I was bownd 
(the buisnes properlie concerning them) they doe readilie embrace yo"' friendlie motion 
concerning a meeting, that all former questions & differences concerning titles and 
iniuries etc? may either be neighbourlie Composed or put in such a way as may hopefullie 
tend thereunto & will to that end be ready, to giue you a meeting in tyme and place 

Boston, the 17th of August 1647 I rest 

St. vet. Att your service in all ffriendlie 

and neighbourlie offices 

John Winthrop. 

The Re-appointment of Andries Hudde as Commissary of the 
West-India Company on the South River. 
Propositions of the Director-General (Petrus Stuyvesant) to the Council, 
20'" Septbr 1647. 

gth rp^ propose, whether Andries Hudde shall continue in the Southriver or who else 
to send there, as it is highly necessary that a proper person be stationed there. 

(Signed) P. Stuyvesant. 

The Hon""' Director-General and Council having observed the fitness of Commissary 
Andries Hudde, have unanimously resolved and concluded to continue him in the service 
of the Honorable Incorporated West-India Company as Commissary at Fort Nassau on the 
Southriver of New-Netherland, for which Hudde shall be given the same allowance and 
wages as shall be allowed to the other Commissaries stationed at distant outlying posts. 

Done the 20"" Septbr, 1647 

(Signed) P. Stuyvesant, La Montangne, Brian Newton, A. Keyser. 

In the margin : Present the hon"'* General, Mr. Dincklage, Mr. La Montague, 
Lieutenant Nuton, Paulus Leendersen, Commissary Keyser. 

42 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Propositions submitted by the Hon"' Director-General to the Council in 
Session 28"" September a° 1647. 

Fourthly, as Commissary Hudde has returned in consequence of contrary winds and 
in his absence he was accused by Mr. Dincklage of unfaithfulness towards the Company, 
which if proved, unfitted him in my opinion for the charge on the Southriver. Meanwhile 
I ask for advice and proper affidavits, as we, agreeably to our duty, have already 
proposed to the CouncU, on the regular session-day, the 20'" instant, whether Commissary 
Hudde shoiild again be sent to the Southriver or another in his place ? and nothing was 
then alleged against bim ; he was, therefore, continued by a unanimous vote of all the 
Council. Neither was anything said against him at the following meeting being the 
Se"", when the previous resolution was reconsidered and signed. 

(Signed) P. Stutvesant. 

28"' Septbr. 1647. 

Andi'ies Hudde, Commissaiy for the Southriver, appeared in CouncU and demanded 
proof of Mr. Dincklage, wherein he had defrauded any person or whom he had robbed 
or where he had stolen any thing and what induced Mr. Dincklage to circulate such 
slanders against the abovenamed Hudde. 

Order recalling Hudde from the Southriver. 
In Council. The hon"''' Director-General having exhibited the accounts of Andries 
Hudde, Commissary at Fort Nassau, which are found to be obscure and not made out as 
clear as they ought to be, therefore it is resolved to order said Commissary to come hither 
overland and personally explain his accounts before the Director and CouncU. This 
15'" August a" 1648. 

Proposition submitted by the Hon"'' 

Director- General to the Council on 

the 9*" September 1648. 

First to read to the Council the letter 

received from the Swedish Governor and then 

to hear the report of Andries Hudde* 

2d. To decide thereupon what advice we 
had best give to the Lords Mayors for the 
promotion of the public interests and the 
prevention of further encroachments and 
usurpations, to which end our last drafted 
despatch to the Lords Mayors shaU be read 
by the Secretary 

3d. To resume the accounts of Commissary Commissary Adriaen Keyser and Cornelia 
Hudde. van Tienhoven, Secretary, are authorized to 

take up and resume Hudde' s accounts and 
make a report thereon to the Director and 

* For this report see page 28. 

Mew York Historical Records. 43 

Lettek from Alexander Boter, deputy-commissary at the Delaware, 



Honorable, Valiant, Wise and Prudent Noble Sir, Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director General 

I, your humble servant, since the departure of the Commissary Andries Hudde from 
this place for the Manhattans on the 3'* of Septbr cannot neglect advising your Honor 
agreeably to my humble bounden duty, in the Commissary's absence, that Mr. Jan 
Prints, the Swedish Goveror, has, by his order. Sir, caused to be erected on the IQ'."" of 
September, a house on the Schuylkil, right in front of our Fort Beversreede of about thirty 
to thirty-five feet length and about twenty feet wide and thus deprives us of the freedom 
of the Kil, so that our sloops, which come to an anchor there under the protection of 
the fort, can scarcely see our fort. Sir, I fii'mly believe that he has erected that building 
rather to insult our Lords and Masters, than in the expectation of deriving any profit from 
it himself ; for there, alongside of our fort, is room enough for the erection of twenty 
such houses. The rear gable of the house comes within about twelve feet of the gate of 
the fort, so that the house stands, as already stated, between the waterside and our fort. 

On the 21^' ditto arrived here the General {veltoverste) of the Minquase country vdth 
four of his people and 30 to 40 beavers, to learn whether no vessel had arrived here from 
the Manhattans with goods. As there is an abundance of peltries in their country at 
present, it makes them desire for these goods so much more. They are also much 
dissatisfied, that this Eiver is not steadily provided with cargoes by our people. The 
Swede has at present few goods, so that were cargoes here now, we should, doubtless, 
have a good trade with the Minquase. There have been killed by the Indians two men 
of the Swede, who had gone to the savages with 6 or 7 guns and some powder and lead, 
to trade the same there. We are expecting daily the Commissary Andi'ies Hudde as 
well as your Honor's favorable aid, as the cold winter is approaching and everything is 
needed here. At present I am lying here with 6 able-bodied men, who are still stout and 
healthy, in two forts. Closing herewith we pray that God Almighty may preserve your 
Honor in long continued health and prosper your Honor's administration. 

In Fort Nassau, the 25'^ September 1648. (Lower stood) I remain herewith your 
Honor's most humble servant and was signed 

Alexander Boyek. 

44 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Declakation op Alexandeb Boyer and otheks, that the Swedish 
lieutenant had shown them his oeders, to resist by force any 
Dutch claim on the Schuylkil. 

We, the undersigned declare and attest by Cliiistian words and on our conscience 
in place and under promise of an oath, if it should be needed, that it is the truth and 
nothing but the truth, that we have demanded from the Swedish Lieutenant his 
commission and orders, which he has shown us from his Governor, wherein it was 
expressly stated, that he should not allow any post or stake to be set in the ground and 
in case such were attempted to be done, to prevent us by friendly words or by force ; his 
instructions also being, to keep continually two men in the channel, to see, where we 
would build and not to let any building timber be landed. 
The 4"^ 9bre 1648, at Fort Beversreede. It was signed 

Alexander Boyer 
David Davitsen 
Adriaen van Tienhoven 


This is o. A/, the mark of Symon Root 
This is ^ tlie mark of Andries Luycassen 
Agrees with the original 

(Sign.) Cor. van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Affidavit of Simon Root and others in regard to the destruction 
of their buildings on Mastmaker's hook in the Schuylkil by 
THE Swedes. 
This day, as underwritten, at the request of Andries Huyden, Commissary in behalf 
of the Incorporated West-India Company, we the undersigned, as witnesses hereto 
requested, do, by Christian words and on our conscience in place and under promise of a 
solemn oath, if needed, attest and declare, that it is true and truthful, that Adriaen van 
Tienhoven, Sander Boyer and David Davitsen, employes of the above mentioned 
Company, have, by authority of Their High Mightinesses, the ISToble Sta,tes-General 
and the Illustrious Frince of Orange and the Incorporated West- India Company, most 
expressly ordered the Swedish Lieutenant to let us proceed with our buildings on the 
Mastemaeckers Hoeck, situate on the Schuylkil in the South River of New-Netherland, 
whereupon the Lieutenant answered, that he had nothing to do with our superiors and 
that he followed the orders of his Governor. He was then told by the above-named 
persons, that he would be the cause, if any mischief arose or blood were spilled. 
Whereupon the Lieutenant gave orders to his men, to demolish the house, which they 
have done and they have done it by force and taken it out of our hands in a hostile 
manner and torn it down. 

J^eiv Yorh Historical Records. 45 

All this is done without evil design or deceit on the S"' November A° 1648 at Severs 


Symom Root SB, his mark 

Which we too witness Jacob Olaesen P his mark 

Adriaen van Tienhoven Antoni Pieteksen <jP<; his mark 

Aletander Boyer - -^ 

David Davitsen. This is the mark ' 

Affidavit of Adrian van Tienhoven and others corroborating 
the above. 

This day, date underwritten, we the undersigned declare at tlie request of Andries 
Hudde, Commissary at the Southriver in behalf of the General Incorporated West India 
Company, that we have been at Fort Bevers[reede] on the 4'? of November and by 
command of the said Commissary and pursuant to authority given to Symon Root and 
companions by the Hon''"= General Petrus Stuyvesant have assisted in erecting a house 
on Mastemaeckers Hoeck. While at this work we were met by Swens Sheets, Lieutenant 
under the Crown of Sweden, having an order from his Governor Jan Prints, who forbade 
us and by open force prevented us doing it. But he desisted upon the friendly 
soUicitations of Adriaen van Tienhoven and Alexander Boyer irntil further information, 
which came from the aforesaid Hudde overnight. However, at sunrise on the 5'? inst. 
the abovenamed Lieutenant Swens Shoets has warned us, that he had positive order 
and charge from his Governor Jan Prints to tear down the erected work. Wherefore, 
stepping in line with the men under his command, they drew their side-arms and marched 
towards it. At this improper hostility, we, the undersigned, followed him. Coming to 
the place, where the commenced building stood the aforesaid Lieutenant has given order 
to his men to demolish the same in any way by force, notwithstanding the friendly 
request, made by us, as aforesaid, that he would desist (because, according to his own 
declaration. Their High Mightinesses were in conference with Her Majesty of Sweden.) 
He answered quickly, that he had order and commission from his Governor, not to allow 
a stick to be planted in the name of Their High Mightinesses, but to trample whatever 
had been raised under foot. Then they used immediately their swords as axes and threw 
it down and cut it in pieces, not heeding the order, which we showed from the Commissary 
aforesaid under authority of the commission of the abovementioned Hon. Mr. Petrus 
Stuyvesant and a protest besides before God and the World, that of all mischief and 
difficulty, which would follow thereupon, we and ours were innocent. The aforesaid 
Lieutenant Schoets answered : Commissary Hudde is a rascal and a rogue and he had 
nothing to do with our government, but he followed simply the orders from his Governor. 
Upon which infamous calumnies, the aforesaid quartermaster Boyer said to him, Schoete, 
thou must be thyself a rascal ; abuse no man or say it in his presence, he will himself 
answer, in how far this is justified. Then, notwithstanding, the abovenamed Schoete 
caught the aforesaid Boyer by the hair, but they were prevented coming to any further 

46 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Hiver. 

We, the Tindersigned, have done and passed upon all that is written above 
conscientiously without prejudice or simulation, solely because every one is bound 
to bear witness to the truth and we are ready, if necessary and thereto requu-ed, to 
confirm this under oatli. 

This done at Fort Nassau in the South river of New Netherland, on the 6th day of 
November, 1648. It was signed 

Adriaen van Tienhoven 
Alexandee Boyeb 
Davidt Davitsen 

This is the mark SR of Symon Koot. 
This is the mark y^, of Johannes 
Marcus made by himself ; 
This is the mark M 3-t of Harman 
Jansen made by himself. 

Agrees with the origmal. 

(sign.) CoE. VAN Tienhoven, Seer? 

Extract of a certain letter written at the South river of 
New-Netherland by Adriaen van Tienhoven, whereof the 
supersoeiption reads as follows : 

Honorable, wise and most prudent Sir. Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General 

of New-Netherland, Curragao and the Islands thereof, residing in Fort 

Amsterdam on the Island of Manhatans, and it was dated Q"" Novbr 1648 

at Fort Bevers Reede. 

It were desirable, that your Honor should resolve at once to come here in person, to 

see the condition of this River, for the Swedes do here, what they please. The house, 

which they have built at Bevers Reede, is the greatest insult, that could be offered, to 

Their Honors, the Directors of the General Incorporated West-India Company, for they 

have placed the house about 12 or 13 feet fi'om our pallisades and thereby deprived us of 

the sight of the water or Kil ; they have also occupied all the land around the fort, upon 

which they have planted Indian corn this year, so that we have not near the fort as much 

laud, that we can make a little garden in the spring. It is a shame, that they act thus. 

I trust that your Honor shall provide for it. Symon Root has begun to build his house, 

but it has again been violently and forcibly torn down by the Swedes ; we demanded 

the Swedish Lieutenant's order and charge and asked, upon whose order he did so. He 

showed us that of his Governor, in which it was said, that he should not allow a single 

stake to be set in the ground in the name of Tlieir High Mightinesses nor let any building 

timber be landed by our people. Therefore the buUding of Sjrmon Root and other 

friends must remain unfinished until , further order from your Honor. But your 

Honor wiU be further advised hereof by Andries Hudde, the Commissary. 

What regards the trade with the Indians on this river as well as the Minquase, it 
may go weU with us, so far as some of the chiefs have informed me ; but they say, we 

J\''eiv York Historical Records. 47 

must have by us a constant supply of goods, according to the enclosed memorandum. 
They all ask also for guns, powder and lead. In respect to the trade here, it is seriously 
injured, for we must give two fathoms of white and one of black wampum for one beaver, 
and one fathom of cloth for two beavers. Each fathom of wampum contains three ells, 
some -^ less ; so that in my opinion, it has been arranged somewhat too costly, for the 
Indians select the largest of them to trade. 

Agrees with the original letter written and dated as 
above and signed by Adi'iaen van Tienhoven. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam this 6"" Decbr. A" 1648 
New Fetherl. 

CoR. VAN Tienhoven, Seer. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stutvesant, 
regarding the swedes on the delaware, the boundaries op the 
Colony towards Maryland, and the English claims of territory, 
NOW IN Dutch possession, dated 27™ Jan. 1649. 
Your Honor complained over the heavy taxes on the tobacco, which might be 
produced in that country, and the hope of animating the people to its cultivation 
induces us to consent, that the tobacco raised in our possessions there shall henceforth 
not pay any more, than the tobacco coming from the Caribean Islands, to vpit 45 stivers * 
for the hundred, wherefrom your Honor may infer, that we desire to benefit these our 
possessions above all other places, seeing that this tobacco is worth so much more, than 
that which comes as merchantable from the Islands. We have been enabled to come the 
readier to this resolution because we learn, that the Swedes f do their best, to animate 
their subjects to a further ciiltivation of tobacco in those quarters and therefore have 
granted great liberties, even given a monopoly to them, so that nobody can bring tobacco 
into their kingdom without their consent under penalty of confiscation of all merchandises, 
with the view that also, no other products should be imported into Sweden, than what 
these monopolists should raise in Swedish Virginia : (and) under cover of this privilege 
some great persons have hidden themselves, as the report goes, especially his Excy. the 
Chancellor of the Kingdom and somebody else, residing in this country on behalf of the 
Crown, whose name we suppress for reasons. % In the expectation of great profits these 
good gentlemen have taken up some swindlers, who, contrary to their good intentions, do 
not endeavour to cultivate, but buy the produce in the English Virginias and bring it to 
Sweden under the name of their own harvest ; but when this swindle was discovered, they 
fell into disgrace and as we are informed by trustworthy persons, they were deserted by 
their principals and the Crown is said to have resolved upon a withdrawal of these 
privileges. If this should happen, then we have to expect little difficulty from that side, 
the less because these people are not of such a material and Cornells Melyn § is mixed up 
with it, which we doubt not in the least : any way we hope, that these people shaU run 

* One stiver = about 2 cents. — Webster. % Probably Harald Appleboom, the Swedish Resident at the 

t See note page — . — B. F. Hague. — B. F. 

§ See Col. Doc., Vol. I, p. 512. 

48 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

themselves down and think it therefore advisable, to arm ourselves vpith some patience 
sooner than make use of force against them, provided they do neither invade our 
jurisdiction insolently and because this matter can also be better arranged here : we shall 
only touch this point passingly, for should we take it up article for article of your 
Honor's letters, we would be obliged to repeat the case so often, that the reading of it 
would perhaps weary your Honor ; we find only necessary to say, that your Honor varies 
almost in all letters in regard to the boundary-disputes, for upon your Honor's arrival 
your Honor requested us to ask of their High Mightinesses, that the boundaries between 
the English nation and us might be fixed by the King or the Parliament of England, for 
our part from the Freshwater river on the North to the Prince Hendricxriver, alias 
Southriver inclusive. 

At another place your Honor says : from the Freshwater river on tlie North to Cape 
Hinloopen at the South. 

Still another time : from Cape Cot to Cape Hinloopen along this coast and all the 
rivers streams, territories and islands between the two. 

Now your Honor says in your last letter, that the Directors Wouter van Twiller and 
Willem Kieft did not claim our jurisdiction farther, than from the Southriver in the 
South to the Freshwaterriver in the North, wliich your Honor thinks it ought to be beyond 
question, because the country, the streams and rivers, situate between the two, are lined 
with our forts, but that in the protests against the English, your Honor pretended a little 
more, namely from Cape Malabare, called Cape Cot by our people, to Cape Hinloopen : 
yet your Honor says, that, if we might have the first mentioned in peace, it would be 
the best to be satisfied with it. 

Whether the English can make a claim of prior possession of the country from 
Canada to Cape Florida under a grant from King James and confirmed by Charles, we 
can hardly believe ; on the other side our grant extends much farther and if they think 
to have the consent of France and England, it has as yet not been shown to us and has 
to be further inquired into. 

We consider it very injurious for us, if the Swedes on the Southriver desire to plant a 
fort above Fort Orange, likewise for the Colony of Renselaerswyck and we think, it would 
be the best to come to an understanding in this regard with Brant van Slechtenhorst,* in 
order that under mutual advice it might be prevented as much as possible. 

Indian Deed to Simon Root and others fob a tract of land on the 
South river, extending from Ramkokus kil to a kil on the 
south end of Tinnekonck Island (BuRLiNaTON, N. J.). 

The words in [ ] are supplied by tlie translator. This document is very defective. 

I, the undersigned, Kickeeu-sickenom, hereby declare and certify that 

in presence of the below named witnesses and chiefs, of Hattowens and 

rKintakosy and Schinna chiefs] of the people there, I have transferred, surrendered made 

* Brant van Slechtenhorst was the agent of the van Rensselaers at Rensselaerswyck (now Albany, N. Y.). — B. F. 

Kew York Historical Records. 49 

over and [ceded, as I do hereby transfer, surrender make over] and cede for and in 

consideration of a certain party of goods, the receipt whereof into ray hands [before] 

I acknowledge herewith, certain parcels of land, situate in the 

South river of New-Netherland said river. It lies and extends 

from Ramkokes KU, northward and along to a KU, called W . antp , 

to the south end of an island, called Tinnekonck, which land is named honsicka and 

further from the said KiL up the river to right opposite of a Kil on the western bank, 

called JSTeeyeck, which is called Roophakesky and landwards about four leagues 

off or more or less, as the possessors shall deem necessary, including herein, the aforesaid 
Island Tinnekonck lying within these limits and bounds ; and that with all the action 
[title] and right, belongiog to me in quality aforesaid to tbe worthy Alexander Boyer, 
Symou Root, Peter Harm[ansen, David Davi]tsen, and Cornells Mouritsen constituting 
and substituting the said Alexander Boyer, Synien Root etc. in my [place and stead] and 
giving them real and actual possession thereof and full and irrevocable power, authority 
and [right] that, tamquam actor et procurator in rem suam ac propriam, they the said 
Alexander Boyer, Symen Root etc. [or whosoever] may hereafter obtain their act, 
peaceably possess, inhabit, use and hold the above mentioned land and dispose of it and 

do with it , as they might do with their own lands, acquired by legal titles, 

without I, the grantor, having or retaining a reserved title or authority in the least either 
of property, command or jurisdiction therein any more, but now and henceforth for ever 
desisting from it, giving up, surrendering and renouncing hereby the same, for the 
purpose aforesaid, [promising] this my deed and whatever may be done by virtue thereof 
for all time to hold fast, to observe and fulfill and also the parcels of land against every 
one to deliver and to hold free from all claims, challenge and incumbrances which may 
by any one set up thereto. Two originals of the same tenor are made hereof and 
bubscribed by the parties. Thus, without evU design and deceit, is this in testimony of 
the truth signed with our usual hand. 

Done in the South River of New-Netherland this 9'" day of April of the year sixteen 
hundred and forty-nine in the river on board of the yacht de Hollandsclie Tuyn (the 
Hollandish Garden) in front of Neejeck. St. Rom. 

These signed as The mark r- of Kickeesickenom, made 

vsdtnesses of the purchase with his /'j"~^.own hand, owner 
The mark ^ of Tomes Broen of the v abovementioned land. 

made by himself The mark of Hattowens, made 

The mark of ^Jan Andriesen with his (^ own hand ; Chief. 

made by himself The mark^^^yV^^of Kintakosy, a 

The mark p of Antony Petersen Chief, made with his own hand. 

made tP by himself The mark •^ of Schinna, a Chief, 

The mark; f of Johannes made by himself as witness. 


Marckusen > M made by himself 
The mark /^' of Harmen Jansen 

made by himself. 
The mark | B. of Jems Boecker, made by himself 
The mark of ^"^ Jan Duten, made by himseK. 

50 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Contract to build two houses, apparently at the Southriver or 

2 houses each 32 feet long, 18 do wide and 9 feet of a story ; breastwork 3 feet ; the 
wooden frame for a double chimney, with the 

6 outside and inside doors 

3 window-fi'ames 

1 transom window-frame 

1 circular window-frame 

Three partitions, according to circumstances 

The roof thereon to be covered with planks. 

Doors and windows, as proper. 

The contractor shall cut and trim the pine timber in the woods, about 200 paces from 
the place, where the house shall stand. 

The owner shall deliver the timber at his own expense on the ground, where the 
houses are to be erected. 

2 planked closets cut off from the square room. 
2 bedsteads. 

The proprietor shall pay the contractor sixty winterbeavers * for the aforesaid work, 
when it is completed ; he shall also convey the contractor, his partner and servant free to 
the place of building and furnish the contractor during the job food and drink, free of 
cost. When the work is done, the contractor with his man and servant shall depart for 
the Manhattans at their own expense. Being content herewith they have signed it. 

Manhatan the 30"" May 1649. 
This is the mark SR of Stmon Eoot. 

RiNiER Samensen 
Powelis Lenertsen van die Grist. 
In my presence : H. van Dyck. 

Letter from Dir. Stutvesant to Govr. Eaton, objection to an English 
Colony on the Delaware, which he claims for the Dutch. 

To the Eight Worsh" John Endecot, Esq GovernT of Boston 
Honoured S"' 

I suppose you are not ignorant of the passages of loueing & mutuall Correspondencie 
between yo'' predecess'' (of very worthy memorie) and my selfe & being desirous of the 
Continuation thereof with all fiiendlie and neighbourlie offices between your CoUonie 
& vs heere I could doe no lesse but present my respective and friendlie salutations vnto 
you & to Congratulate and reioyce that our neighbours there have Chosen soe worthy 
& prudent a successour & therefore doubt not but you will imitate soe faire a patterne as 
that of yo'' predecessour in yo"" indeauouring to maintaine all peacable waies of loue & 
amitye with your neighbours and shall therefore tender to your wise Consideration the 

* A beaver was valued at 8 guilders = $3.20 gold.— B. F. 

J^ew York Historical Records. 51 

generall rumour tliat runnes heere of yo' Countriemens * there to settle a considerable 
Company in the Southriver called De le ware baye, a place we not only pretend vnto, 
but haue lawfuU right vnto, by lawfull Commission from our States-Generall, and 
lawfull purchase from the natiues & therefore according to my order from them must 
indeauour to maintaine and hope (if anything should fall oute otherwise then they 
expect from me (in case they prosecute it) they will not impute vnto me as the beginner 
of any troubles heere, but theyre owne wilfulness, the which I thought good to giue you 
information of, desii-ing you will please to honour me vdth a line or two from yor selfe 
about it, I shall for present take my leaue and rest Sr 

Graveseud in Your humble servant 

New Netherlands June the Pet. Styvesant. 

Resolution BEFXJSiisrG a permit to Jacob Lopee to teade on the 
Delaware, becaxtse he married a daughter of Cornelis Melyn. 
The 14'" of June 1649. 

Jacob Loper presented a petition dated the 14'" June 1648 {sic!), wherein he requests 
permission to proceed to the Southriver of New-lSTetherland and sail there with the 
chartered sloop and goods, but whereas said Loper has married the daughter of Cornells 
Melyn and having regard to the dispatch of the Lords Mayors dated 27'" January 1649, 
the Director General is of opinion, that in accordance with the abovementioned dispatch, 
the request cannot be granted. f 

Mr. Dincklage is of opinion, that Loper s petition can be granted, provided he do 
nothing to the prejudice of the Company. 

La Montague has scruples in the case in consequence of the dispatch of the Lords 

Bryan Nuton idem. 

* Here (in Boston) arrived (In 1648) one Sir Edmund Plowaen, who had been in Virginia seven years. He came 
first with a patent of a county palatine in Delaware Bay, but wanting a pilot for that place, he went over to Virginia 
and there having lost the estate he brought over, he came hither to return to England for supply, intending to return 
and plant Delaware, if he could get sufficient strength to dispossess the Swedes. (Winthrop's Journal, vol. II, p. 325.) 

The author of " Vertoogh van Nieuw-Nederland " (Treatise on New-Netherland) published in 1650, says speaking 
of the Delaware Bay, "We cannot omit to state, that there has been here both in the time of Director Kieft and of 
General Stuyvesant a certain Englishman, giving his name as Sir Edward Plowden, and claiming the title of Earl 
Palatine of New Albion who pretended, that the land on the west side of the Northriver to Virginia was his, by gift 
of King James of England, but he said, he did not wish to have any strife with the Dutch, although he was very angry 
at the Swedish Governor Johan Prints, at the South river . . . He said, that wlien an opportunity should present 
Itself, he would go there and take possession of the river." Cfr. also Col. Doc, Vol. II, p. 92. N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll. 
Vol. Ill, p. 379, King's Address before N. J. Hist. Society in 1845. — B. F. 

f The Directors say of Melyn in the above cited letter " He is a man of bad report, who, as we are informed, 
leaves nothing untried, to hinder and injure us by machinations of the Swedish colony." 

52 Colonial Settlements on the Delawcvre Paver. 

Leti'ek from Governor Eaton of New Haven to Director Stutvesant : 


Honoured ST 

The Comission" Cannot but Conceive & Conclude, that the States you serue, will 
approue & Commend a Just Carnage and Correspondencie towards all the English 
CoUonies & Certainlie in such passes of righteousnes the State of England will direct & 
walke with them. We have formerlie protested against Mouns- Kielts iniurious Course 
att Deleware & else wli ere, as you haue bin informed. Our right there is well knowne 
(not only to the English) to the Dutch & Sweeds & Indians. Wee neuer claimed nor doe 
wee desire to posesse a foote of laud, to which you can shew any iust title, but we may 
neither lose nor let fall the English interest & claime in & to what we haue purchased & 
paid for in those ptes : had you bin pleased to haue met the CoTnission™ att Boston, 
these & other greiuances which (I neede not mynde you of) might haue been dulie 
debated and by such a refferrence as your selfe haue prevended Justlie issued. * * 

By yo''^ of the 26'!" of May I vnderstand, that the 10 p. cent: formerlie required and 
taken for goods imported is only for the present suspended, it may then be reimposed or 
increasd att j)leasure, which you know Cannot satisfie, that the hand erected for anchoring 
is downe by accident and shall be sett up noe more, but I desire, if you please, to be 
further certified wheather the English in theyre trading att the Manhataes and in theyre 
passing by to and from Deleware, Virginia etc"! may ex]3ect a full freedome. * * 

New Haven in New Engl. June the Yo""" in all oflices of love 

7* 1649 st : vet : Theo. Eaton. 

Director Stuyvesant's answer: he is determined to maintain the 
Dutch title to the Delaware. 
Sir: ^ 

Concerning yoT ptest against my predecessour MounsT Kieft, aboute some passages 
att the South river called Deleware, I doubt not but what he did, was vppon warrantable 
grounds, and made you a sufficient answere, but concerning our right there and of 
my intentions of maintaining it I haue allready written to the Gouernours of the 
Massachusetts and Plimmouth, who I suppose will acquaint the CoMssions with it. 

Whereas you write to me concerning yoV countriemens trading heere and passing to 
and from Virginia and Deleware etc. I have allready written and graunted as much as I 
can or dare doe vntill I haue further order from my Souereignes and Masters and am not 
to be responsible to any but them, nor regulated by any but them. 

Your assured ffriend 

July the 2^ (1649) st : nov : Pet. Styvesant. 

J^ew York Historical Records. 53 

This followeing letter was sent to Will. Beadfoed, Gouern^ op 
Worthy ST 

I cannot come nor be absent soe long from my gouernment our shipping theii 
Comeing from Holland my presence will be wanting to dispatch occasions, however I shall 
indeauour and desire all reall Corresijondeucie betwixt vs and shall therefore acquaint 
you with a generall rumour, that runnes heere of a Considerable Company of your 
Countriemen, that intends to settle at the South river, otherwise called De leware, a 
place we not only pretend vnto, but have lawfull right, by Commission from oT States, 
lawfull purchase from the natiues and a continued posession and for myne owne pte in 
duty am bownd to maintaine theii- right and shall be sorrye it may be Cause of hindering 
neighbourlie Correspondencie and may be a beginner of more greate sad and dangerous 
troubles to vs all : I shall therefore entreate you to acquaint the rest of tlie Commissioners 
with it and shall rest 

YoV very assured ffriend 

Pet. Sttvesant. 

Power of Attorney, given by Jan Lawrensen Appel to Luyoas 
Eldertsen, to collect money due at the Southriver to Mr. 

Aknoldus tan Hardenbergii. 

Before me, Jacob Hendricksen Kip, clerk, (in the absence of the Secretary) appointed 
by the Hon*"'' Dh-ector-General and Council of New-JSTetherland, appeared the worthy Jan 
Lawrensen Appel, as attorney of Mr. Arnoldus van Hardenbergh, who in the presence of 
the belownamed witnesses, declared, that he, in the best form to him possible, substitutes 
and empowers, as he does hereby substitute and empower, by virtue of his power of 
attorney, the worthy Luycas Eldertsen from Jeveren at present residing in the South river 
of New-Netherland, to ask, demand, collect and receive, in his, the principal's name, 
in the quality aforesaid, from Mr. Andries Hudde, Commissary in the service of the 
Hon*'" Company, residing at Fort Nassau, on the South Eiver aforesaid, the sum of two 
hundred and twenty-eight guilders, six stivers ; from Symon Root, trader there in the 
Southriver aforesaid the sum of three hundred and twenty-eight guilders and from David 
Davitsen the sum of two hundred and eighteen guilders, likewise from one Thomas Broen, 
also residing there, the sum of eighty-four guilders and 2 stivers, all payable in beaver, 
as appear by the annexed account and authentic note. On the receipt of which aforesaid 
sums, or any of them, by the abovenamed substitute, he may execute a discharge in form 
therefor, which shall be valid : he, Jan Lowrensen Appel, as attorney aforesaid, promising 
to hold and cause to be held valid, whatever shall be done and performed in the case 
aforesaid by the abovenamed Luycas Eldertsen, as his substitute ; provided nevertheless, 
that he, the substitute, remains bound to render an account of his receipts to him, Jan 

54 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Appel, or his principals. TMs is signed without fraud or deceit by him, Jan Appel, with 
the witnesses hereto invited this 20'" October 1649, in New- Amsterdam. 

Jan Loweensen Appel 
Fkanssoys Noxzet, witness 
Adeiaen van Tienhoven, witness 
To my knowledge, 

Jacob Kip, clerk. 

Power of Attorney, given by Michiel Jansen to Johannes Gekardt 
to collect money at the southrivee. 

Before me, Jacob Hendricksen Kip, clerk, in the absence of the Secretary, appointed 
by the Hon'"" Director- General and Council of New-Netherland, appeared the worthy 
Michael Jansen, an inhabitant here, who declared, that he constituted and empowered, 
as he does hereby, the worthy Johannes Gerardy merchant of the yacht named " the 
Swan," at present about to depart on a voyage to the Southriver of New-Netherland 
to ask, demand and receive in his name in the quality aforesaid from one Reynier 
Doemenicus, house-carpenter at present residing at the Southi-iver aforesaid the sum 
of seventy-five Carolus guilders, due to him, the principal, by the said Reynier, as 
appears by the accompanying note of hand ; on receipt of which aforesaid sum by Jan 
Gerardy, he shall execute a discharge in full and especially guarantee him against future 
claim ; he, Michael Jansen, promising to hold valid, what he, Jan Geraerdy, shall do and 
perform in the case aforesaid. He requests act thereof. 

Tluis done and the minute hereof in the record signed by Michael Jansen, tliis 
15"" November 1649, in New-Netherland 

MiCHGiEHL Jansen. 

(This power of attorney was recalled and Joost Teunissen substituted for Joliannes Gerardy.— Tr.) 
(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

Copies op sundry letters feom Die. Stuyvesant to the Commissary 

"Words in [ ] have been supplied by the translator. 

bearer of this. We will hope, that he'll [hasten] the proceedings, partly for 

the reasons, alleged in your letter, partly because the Swedish Governor receives no 
succor, nor has he to expect any for the present, as I have been informed trust worthily.* 

* Coll. Palmskold. MSS. in the Library of the University of Upsala " 1648, 20 January. The Governor in 
New-Sweden and his deputy Guamison (Jamieson) with all the other servants received orders to draw their salaries 
and Bubsistance from the duties on tobacco." The revenues from the tobacco excise under former edicts had not 
been very great and the South Company had been obliged to support their colony on the Delaware by the revenues, 
derived from other sources. The Company had not been very successful so far. — B. F. 

Mew York Historical Records. 55 

I have represented to Govert Loockermans the troublesomeness and discontent of the 
Minquas on account of the killing of the chief. He declares, that he has not killed him, 
but simply threatened, because the Sachem had wounded the skipper Anderies in the face 
with a pistol and that the Commissary Huygen was present, when the incident occurred. 
Your Honor will please to inquii-e diligently into the circumstances and the trutli of the 
matter and, should your Honor find Govert Loockermans guilty, to smooth the matter 
over [de saecJcen socJcen te maecJcen), that no occasion for fresh discontent may be given 
to the savages from our side. 

I have to thank you very much for the eel sent me and shall reciprocate for it iu due 
time. In accordance with y"' H" request, there comes herewith the carpenter Pieter 
Coornelissen. We'll hope and trust, that according to circumstances the utmost speed 
and assiduity will be used in the [erection] of the house. Recommending in tlie meantime 

to your Honor, that it may .... better than I also hope, that upon our arrival all the 

out [buildings] shall be in decent state to your Honor' s greater praise 

(Rest destroyed.) 

the ship Swol having been [sent]* to Newhaven, [they] think themselves on that account 

very much injured, as the bearer hereof can inform your Honor explicitly. Mr. Vasterick 
has arrived here from Fatherland a month or 6 weeks ago. Matters stand there well, 
God be praised ; they look forward to peace and already an armistice at sea has been 
proclaimed on the Spanish side, but it has not yet been ratified on our side. Their 
High Mightinesses send 20 ships of war and 6000 soldiers for an attack {oftensine) to Brazil, 
to be in the service and for the assistance of the "West-India Company. The Portugeese 

are still the masters in In the meantime has Colonel Sigismonde van 

Schoffen taken tlie Island of Taparico, in the Bay of All Saints (Bahia de todos los Santos) 
for the Company. He has fortified himself there and on the mainland with 2000 to 1600 
men and holds the Bay blockaded with 20 to 25 ships, and notwithstanding several 
sallies and assaults have been made upon him, he was at the time kept sufficiently in the 

The succor, which is expected from Portugal for the relief or retaking and to face 
us, will, I hope, serve the Company there for their . . . ; 

I have visited Fort Orange before autumn and found it, according to my judgment 

in a bad condition and 

(Rest of this page illegible or destroyed.) 

You may let Hans Jacobsen continue there in the service of the Company until some 
future opportunity and to avoid con[fusion]. In the spring I hope to find there the fort 
and other matters in proper shape. As to the Minquas chief, said to have been killed 
by blows, we cannot help it here ; only you are hereby ordered to prevent all mischief 
and troubles with the Minquas and other savages and if it is feasible to arrange with 
them for the death of the chief, according to their custom, by presents, before it is well 
inquired into and found true, which Govert Loockermans will have to deny . In the 
meantime you must take care not to get into troubles and quarrels with the Indians and 
pay attention to your [defences.] 

The salt eel has been received, for which I thank yr. Ilr. very much. 

* See Proceedings in Council N. Y. Col. MSS., Vol. IV, pp. 330 et subs. 

56 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Witli this comes also Pieter Coornelisaen, the carpenter, whom I send there at yr. 
Hrs. request. You can employ him there during this winter and let him repair the 
property of the Company, especially the house, so that, when I, God willing, shall come 
there in the spring, I may hud everything in good and [proper condition]. 

(Rest of tliis page illegible or destroyed.) 

to take an inventory in the presence of the owner and send it over here to us. We 

desire you to do this with diligence and by so doing this, you will satisfy us. 

Also if outside of our fort Nassau, either to the Swedes or elsewhere withm our 
limits, some traders should come without license, as mentioned above, you shall, if it 
can be done, as I have said, stop them or if not protest against them in due form and 
send us copy of the protest by first opportunity. 

We trust, that your Honor shall have shown diligence and application in repairing, 
with the assistance of the servants, who are there yet, the fort and buildings, wliich we 
recommend to your Honor very urgently and request to send back Pieter Coornelisseu 
by first opportunity as soon as the most necessary work there has been done by him, 
as we need him to finish the newly commenced warehouse here. My vrife sends you 

herevidth 4 to 5 , as she has nothing at present and I am to transmit to 

your Honor her further dutiful regards. Before this I have given yr. Hr. infonnation in 
regard to the [bearer] of this and recommend once more, to have the matters [amicably] 
an-anged, to [prevent] a further interruption of the trade and to get into no more trouble 
with the Indians. Farewell. The [letter] mentioned in [your last] has not been received 
by me, [send me] a copy of it. 

(Rest of this page, the beginning of a new letter is defective.) 

If the Governor Johan Prints ventures to further anticipate some places, your Honor 
shall very carefully and discreetly bear with it, and at all times mind not to give any 
occasion for complaints, but if he wanted again to fortify and build upon some places, 
you must immediately, on behalf of the Hon. Company erect a house, larger or smaller, 
according to the forces, you have there, near by, that it may be understood thereby, that 
such a place or places have belonged to us since many years. 

The ordered goods shall also be sent to your Honor by Govert Loockermans and the 
boards by Gerrit Vasterick, upon the receipt of which your Honor must, as much as you 
can, husband them and make them go as far as it shall be feasible. 

In regard to the petition of Jan 't Dyrsen and his companion you may, in Our name, 

release and discharge them fj-om the Company's service, provided 

that they go and live and settle there at theii- own expenses and gain their livelihood 

by agriculture or the best way they can, save that they shall bind themselves, always 
to acknowledge the Hon. Lord-Directors as their Lords and Patrons under the sovereignity 
of Their High Mightinesses, but in regard to this as well as to other matters yr. Hr. must 
consider, whether it is quite advisable at present, that two private persons should establish 
themselves there somewhere else ; if your Honor does not deem it advisable now, you can 
[bestow] upon the abovementioned petitioners a place for a house about the fort, [until] I 
comp there with God's assistance, which I hope shall be before long, but you must keep 
this my [intended] coming over a secret and not disclose it to anybody in the world, for 
potent reasons, which influence me thereto and bear upon it, as if your Honor had no 
advice whatever, much less knowledge of my coming ; by doing which, you will do well. 

J^ew York Historical Records. 57 

Symon Eoot, Peter Ebel and Claes Jansen have asked me for a deed of consent, to go 
into tlie Minquas country and to draw [advantage of] the trade and to remain there, since 
the Swedes do the [same] and try also to [alienate] the savages from us. Consequently 
I have, by a written deed and consent granted and permitted them to go into the Minquas 
land, under this reservation however, that if the Commissary Hendrick Huygen or some 
of the Swedes go to the Minquas country, than they might do it also, but if the Swede or 
any one in their behalf should not do it at all, then they too shall not [have permission 
to] go to the Minquas country. 

The goods, which your Honor has been pleased to send for me specially, will be 
speedily used for my benefit and advantage. 

I do not know the cause of the arrest of Hans Jacobsen, because there appears not a 
satisfactory evidence of the crime committed by him ; I am expecting these documents 
by one or the other ship or if there is an opportunity and the roads, which Claes de 
Ruyter and others are going now, are good, Hans Jacobsen may be himself the bearer 
thereof, coming hitherward with an Indian from Sanghikans. Your Honor are not to allow 
henceforth, that some Christians come hitherward from there overland, for reasons which 
we have. 

Jan 't Dyrsen, Tomes Proen and some others shall have their discharge in a short 
time, in the meantime they can surely as well for themselves, as for Symon Root their 
partner begin to make preparations for their building, to which I give them herewith 
liberty and permission nor shall you prevent them. 

April IT"^ 1648. 

Your Honor' s letter has been [handed] to me [by the] boy of Loockermans 

sent overland ; as answer to which these few lines shall serve. 

We have been pleased to hear, that your Honor has been using your assiduity and 
diligence in repairing the fort and hope to find the same in a reasonable state of defense. 
In regard to the other matters remaining there, as well the Swede, as the running to the 
Minquas country it must continue so for the time being. I intend after the disposition 
of the yacht " Swol," to travel there and come to your Honor overland, for which purpose 
I would need a River-Indian from the South and one or two Minquas, to serve us as 
guides ; it is therefore my request, that immediately after receipt of this you will send 
hitherward one of the most trusty South-River Indians with the Minquas, but so that the 
same do not know for what purpose ;' this can remain a secret to the rest of your people. 
The necessaries for me and the officers, who are to come with me, will be sent by the first 
ship of Vasterick, that sails there. Your Honor might inform the Indians and tell them 
that possibly a Dutchman or two might come there, that they indicate to and lead them 
the best and shortest route to Sanghikans, for which they shall be remunerated. 

In future Your Honor shall, in order not to put the Company to unnecessary 
expenses, not send the letters overland withoiit some great reason, but it may well be 
done by the vessels. 

Your Honor must recommend and order the basketmaker, to cut there as much osiei 
to make baskets or paniers with as he can get, as I shall need them. 

58 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Fdver. 

On the 27'!' April 1648. 

These [few lines] are to serve as information, .that if it pleases Gfod, to 

continue ns in the present health and this place in its well-being, that our departure from 
here to the South-River, overland and with about 30 persons, most likely more than less, 
will take place on the 10'.'' or ll'l* of May, if it so pleases God, unless your Honor bear 
or foresee any danger in it, which it will serve us to be timely informed of with the 
reasons thereof. And there are to be sent us two Minquas and two (?) River Indians, 
besides these, two or three of the cleverest Dutchmen your Honor has there, to give us 
information in regard to the roads and the journey, whom, if they have not been sent 
on the letter before this, it will answer to send speedily (and) without delay ; besides 
these your Honor's report and also a list of the things necessary to build quickly a 
proper and strong house on the other side of the river, as token of ownership. This 
for your Honor alone, without communicating it to anybody. The 6'." of the coming 
month of May being the first [Wednesday] in the same, shall be a general day of fasting 
and prayer throughout the government, which over we shall with God' s help begin our 
journey on the first favorable day, whereto God may grant his grace. 

We command only that the abovementioned day of fasting and prayer shall also be 
observed (there) according to the means of divine service, enjoyed by your Honor and 
that for our arrival there some vessels shall be ready at the desh-ed places. 

On the 26'" of May 1648. 
My last (letters) preceding this sent overland and by our Committee have been, I 
hope, handed to your Honor and proved our good opinion of you to that extent, that 
I deem it unnecessary to repeat the same in this letter, much less to recommend your 
Honour, so that this only serves to report the favorable state of affairs here, which we 
hope also of those regions. 

In the margin it is said: This must be on the 15"" Juue. 
On the 24'." of May 1648. 
We have been at sea in the sloop " Pr. Willem" together with Coornelis Jansen, the 
colonist, to sail for the South-River and have run in for the second time on account of 
calms and contrary winds. Therefore this sei-ves (to inform you) that the aforesaid yacht 
will go to sea again vrith the first favorable wind. I send on her two of the officers next 
to me (in command) Vice-Director van Dincklage and Mr. De la Montangie, with orders 
and command to transact the business there to the greatest benefit and advantage of the 
Hon"!" Company and as they are both unacquainted there, you are to inform them of 
everything and continue the work, commenced in the meantime. As quickly as your 
Honor is aware, that the abovementioned deputies have arrived in the Bay of the 
South-River, your Honor must order the yachts, present there, to escort the mentioned 
gentlemen of the CouncU in proper style and to sail down, to meet them, offering them 
as much respect as if I was present and it could be offered to mej whereby a signal service 
shall be done to the Hon"!'' Company and to us. I would have come myself, but on 
account of some inconveniences, which for reasons remain a secret, I have resolved to 
stay here and still hope, to pay a visit there to your Honor, should the season of the 
year allow it. 

J^ew York Historical Records. 59 

On the 28'." of May 1648. 

We imagine, that your Honor is astonished or anxious, and not without reason, 
about the delay and long retarding of our coming. The commissioned gentlemen of the 
Council, bearers of this, can inform you more amply as to the reasons and causes, it is 
nevertheless necessary that they remain a secret with them and you and be explained 
there in some other way, namely that some incidents have happened in the course 
of time and further that we wait, among others, for the ships, which we expect 

from the fatherland [in a short time] to support your Honor becomingly. 

The journey overland the officers and subordinates too difficult 

We thank our God, that it has not been undertaken. I have undertaken it twice by sea, 
but have been interrupted as often by contrary winds and run in behind Staten-Island 
the last time for fire-wood and water. I heard there, that the Northern Indians are 
gathering against us and our nation, on which account, I was, on my return here, asked 
and requested by the inhabitants, our good subjects, to defer this voyage at this time, at 
least [until] it was ascertained how this matter and its consequence might turn out, 
which having for high and weighty reasons been considered by us and our council, we 
have judged it necessary, that the affairs there, with your Honor on the S. River, should 
for the sake of the Company and the land in general, be properly adjusted and advanced. 
For this purpose we have commissioned our beloved and faithfid chief-officers and 
councillors Messrs L. van Dincklage and Mr. la Montangie, whom your Honor will have 
to receive and to honor as our own person, on behalf of the Lord Mayors, also to assist 
by advice and deed in everything, which might pertain to the benefit of the Company 
and the land generally, following the tenor of the instructions given to them, to which we 
refer, without enlarging upon them here, and they shall cast up accounts and acknowledge, 
as if they were rendered to us or for ourselves. 

Grovert Loockermans is suspected here by many of contraband dealings with the 
Indians in guns, powder and lead. The Swedish Governor Prints has before this been 
furious about it and complained. I do not know, how it is. If your Honor could get 
some certainty or hear about it there, it would not be amiss, that this were done 
secretly, as well at the Swedish Governor' s as elsewhere ; should there be any evidence 
thereof, I deem it necessary that it should be sent to me by first opportunity and 
himself, Govert Loockermans, with his sloop and goods be seized and his goods be 
taken in good and safe storage, until our further advice and prescriptions. But your 
Honor must proceed with secrecy and carefulness, as it is a matter of consequence, in 
which this city and the Company is highly interested. 

I desire to hear, how it stands with the merchandise, sent by Peter Coornelissen and 
what they have been traded for ; in case no beavers can be got for them, remain quite 
determined. As to suspicion of unfaithfulness to my promise, I request your Honor to 
do your duty and to recommend the things to Peter Coornelissen. We shaU prove 
ourselves grateful for it. 

In case the commissioned officers and your Honor deem it advisable, to make some 
small presents to the Sachems, we have at present no goods here and jou may import 
some ; but we have given order to our commissioners, to call upon the traders, either 
Govert Loockermans or Coornelis Coenraetsen for them. We shall take care to satisfy 

60 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

them, but everything must be obtained as cheap and reasonable, as the cause and the 
reputation will allow. 

On the IS'" June 1648. 

My last letters preceding this, sent overland and by our Committee, have been, I 
hope, handed to your Honor and proved our good opinion of you to that extent, that 
I deem it unnecessary to repeat the same in this letter, much less to recommend your 
Honor, so that this only serves to report the favorable state of affairs here, which we also 
hope of those regions. 

Our Secretary came yesterday from the North and informed us, that the young 
Brusten has been at the South River of New-Netherland, also that your Honor has 
entered a protest against him, we trust, by virtue of our order. Therefore, since the 
Swedish Governor has granted him, as to one of his own settlers a deed and commission 

to trade with Chr[istians and] savages so to extend his boundaries, 

which we judge to be a matter of evil consequences and not less of prejudice for our 
trade, but we trace no remedy for it unless boundary lines were established, so that 
I myself am at a loss, what to do or to omit : for if this continues, the trade which is 
already spoiled at the South-River, will still more be i-uined. Therefore, I judge it not 
improper, that your Honor with the commissioned gentlemen, should they still be there, 
or if not, you alone should meet Governor Prints in a civil [manner] and inquire, [whether] 

the matter was so and if you find that he has issued and a commission to deal 

with the natives, [to ask] if he himself does not deem the matter to be injurious to 
both him and us, as tending to the further ruin of the trade ; further, that you will 
inform us of his answer, mentioning to him on either an affirmative or negative answer, 
that we here might find cause therein, to grant the same deeds and commissions to 
all the English people, whereby without doubt the whole trade would be destroyed. 
We will not enlarge hereupon any further before your Honor's answer or the report of 
the Committee — 

I have given permission to the bearer of this, that he may go to our fort and fetch his 
master AUerton. The affair of Govert Loockeiinans is recommended to your Honor 
expressly, but, if the gentlemen of the council have departed, aU [must be done] secretly. 
Some accusations have been made here against him which we consider true under the 
circumstances of the case. 

Your Honor is therefore charged, to advise us, what peltries may be got there from 
his illicit trade. I have previously informed your Honor of our resolution concerning 
the sending there of merchandise and peltries, namely that aU those are liable to 
confiscation, of which there has been no declaration made, fi-om which place they have 
been exported. This your Honor will have to bear in mind and then to infonn us of the 
quantity of beavers, which every trader declares either for [himself] or for others. 

On the * * * 1648. 

This serves only [to inform your Honor] that two ships have arrived here from 

Fatherland one, called the " Pyn- Apple" for account of Mr. Hardenbargh and the other 

for Govert Loockermans : but the news are very few and in my opinion of no great use 

for our state. The peace between Spain and us has been concluded ; the articles of it^ 

Kew Yoj'k Historical Records. 61 

together with several covenants {covanten ?) shall be sent to you in a short time. I have 
had as yet little leisiire to peruse them myself. I desire to hear how the matters with 
our deputies have terminated, I expect to see them every day. We were informed of 
their arrival at the South-Kiver by a Mr. Lardt, also that they have been well received. 
I am in hope of a favorable issue. 

Concerning the affairs of Govert Loockermans, of which I have informed your Honor 
before this, I hope that you have kept it secret and informed yourself, how matters stand 
there against him. I had advised previously, that, if there was anything like conti-aband 
trading charged against him, he should remain under arrest with your Honor together 
with his goods and merchandise, in case I could not let him pass. However I will inform 
you of the whole in my very next letter — what quantities of beavers he has with him — 
so that we may govern us accordingly. 

In case your Honor [could do it] without impediment to the and service 

I should deem it of great service, if your Honor would visit us for a week or 14 days, 
[but] we leave that to your own good judgment. 

On the 26'? of August 1648. 

(Beginning of letter destroyed.) 

Concerning the proceedings of the Swedish Governor in regard to the continuation 
of the trade with powder and lead as well as to preventing, as your Honor informs us, 
our people from building or settling on the west side of the South-River, either on the 
Schuylkil or elsewhere on land, bought and paid for by the Company, I desire and 
expect your Honor to report explicitly and give satisfactory proof. In several [letters] 
to me, he excuses himself and complains of your Honor in several respects, among 
others about your Honor's haughty, unneighborly manner, — as that yr Hr. had ordered 
some beavers from savages or Indians with the intention of trying to get for them some 
contraband-merchandise, which having miscarried your Honor is reported to have said 
"the devil take them, who are with the Swedes" and so forth, which having been 
communicated by one party in a partial manner, will be considered with discretion. 
Nevertheless I deemed it necessary, to inform your Honor of it, as your Honor 
might make of a contradicting statement. 

We have to communicate to your Honor with regret and contrary to [our expectations], 

that many complaints are made against your Honor of bad payments and 

fraudulent delays, which make the council dissatisfied and fearful to send 

thither [goods] of the company 

(Tlie remainder of the page is lost.) 

of those, whom it was our duty to support. Nevertheless it is so still and this 

shall [not] induce us to act or serve otherwise, than whereto honor and oath oblige us. A 
deed of consent and security shall be delivered to the freemen, who have bought the land 
from the Indians or might buy any at a future time, provided that they submit, like 
other subjects, to the oath and allegiance of our Lords- Sovereigns and Patrons. 

Likewise we cannot but consider as good and expedient your Honor's last proposal, 
to buy the land from the Narraticonse Kil to the bay, for sale by the savages, thereby to 
anticipate others. But your Honor will please to take care, that in the transfer the 
proper minuteness be observed and that, this being done, it be described and signed by 

62 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

as [many] Sachems and witnesses, as your Honor [may obtain] somehow among the [free 
people] and Christians, who are not in the service of the Company. 

On the 26'." of May 1649. 

I have answered your Honor's favor of the 19'." of April before this. 
(The remainder is lost.) 

Youl- Honor will be provided with it by the bearer hereof. Sander Leendertsen is 

to deliver to your Honor 30 to 36 measures {schepeJ) of wheat. Should a greater quantity 
of either be necessary, you will to let us know, also what else is needed and we will 
accommodate your Honor and the servants to the best of our abilities. 

Your Honor desires permission to come here. In case no important difficulty should 
prevent, your Honor has our consent. About the time, when the trading has been done 
and the vessels return, I expect also Mr. Vice-Director Roodenburgh from the West-Indies 
with a large cargo of salt and wood. 

We conclude from your preceding letter that Claes de Ruyter has used his mouth 
rather freely at the Swedish Governor's against ourselves as well as against the 
Netherlandish nation. If your Honor could learn the truth either directly or by some 
one else, it would be an act of friendship for me. 

On the 28'." of June 1649. 
This serves no other purpose, than that, as Tomas Decies (?), master of the bark " De 
Barbary " has asked us for a commission, permitting him to trade at the South-River of 
New-Netherland and deal with Christians and Pagans, we have granted the same to him. 
You will therefore let him do his tradings freely and frankly without hindrance. 

arrives overland. The ships of Govert Loockermans and Ariaen Bloemert may be expected 
at any time. Likewise I expect then with them the yacht Swol with some people fi'om 
Curasao. I hope to find then [sufficient] people for your relief. I have previous to this 
enlarged upon what your Honor communicates in reference to the purchase of land : we 
are, as we said before, well pleased with it, as with something necessary and advantageous 
for the Company and the maintenance of our possession. In regard to the land below the 
fort, of which your Honor speaks, I have before this signified my consent, to buy the 
same for the Hon""' Company. If your Honor is of opinion, that it is as necessary, as 
the information says, I shall write through our Secretary to Thienhoven and to the 
skipper for Vasterick to the purpose, that they should assist your Honor to this end 
with goods. 

We are informed by several people coming from the North, English as well as 
of our own nation, that the English * are preparing 5 to 6 Ketches or vessels, to bring 
the South-River under English rule or to possess it as their own. For the present we 
have little means and power to prevent this ; if the sloop Swol were arrived from the 
West-Indies, which is expected, we would perhaps resolve to send the same to your 
Honor, to anticipate the occupation of the river, whereupon we await your Honor's 

* See the correspondence between Petrus Stuyvesant and the Governors of New-Haven and Pljonouth, on pages 
51 to 53. 

Kew York Historical Records. 63 

We are of the opinion, tliat if tliis nation came there once, they would not only 
alienate the river fi'om us and the Swede [forever], but that after it they would also make 
an attempt to get possession here of the Korth River between the colony and this place, 
would draw the trade in other channels and separate the Colony of Renselaerswyck from 
this place. We recommend therefore to your Honor to pay attention to all measures to 
prevent this and to advise us timely of your opinion, also, if your Honor deems it proper 
at this distance, to confer hereupon either in person or by letter with Governor Printz : 
provided however, that your Honor do not expose yourself in regard to our right of first 
and old possession : besides [all that] your Honor finds advisable for the prevention. 
You will please to inform us speedily [in regard] to the purchase of the land above in the 
river, also wlio the rightful owners are and what price they demand for it. 

If any chance permits, we shall endeavor to satisfy Mr. Augustyn. 

Your Honor will please to promote our old right and possession of the Schuylkil by 
all possible means with the natives, that it may not be forsaken by them or transferred 
to others, but in the contrary induce them to remain faithful to the agreement made with 
our committee. — I repeat my request again, that your Honor will please to inform 
yourself either personally or through others in regard to the opprobrious language of 
De Ruyter. I believe, that the bearer hereof, Marten Cruger, would be a proper person 
thereto and have said to him a word or two about it. 

We vnM take care, that, as far as our occupation, allow it, the grain shall henceforth 
be ground here, but must recommend to your Honor, to write about this and other 
requirements to the Commissary and admonish him to remind us of it. Stockings, shoes, 
shirts and linen are at present not to be had here, as Vasterick has brought with him 
little else, but merchandise for the trade. We must therefore wait for the expected 

On the 24'." of August Anno 1649. 

These few [lines] are to serve as safeconduct for Mr. Allerton, , which goes 

thither with our knowledge. [I have] no time to prolong it, because of some 

necessary business, which occurred in regard to Mr. Allerton' s departure, of 

which he can [inform] your Honor. It is further my fiiendly request, that your Honor 
will please to [endeavor], that we may get good and sufiicient proof of the supposed (?) 
language, which de Ruyter has used behind our [backs] before the Swedish Governor, 
with the circumstances of it. Also if possible, that your Honor endeavor to get an 
extract from the letter, which Melyn wrote to the Hon"'" Governor by Jan Lichtvoet in 
regard to his galiot. — The galiot of skipper Isack Abrahamsen has arrived here, brought 
up by the fiscal, whereby the skipper has perished. In the meantime it has been 
found, that the galiot has either de facto or pro forma been sold and transferred to 
English merchants in Boston, so that little claim is made upon it, unless we have been 
deceived by the Swedish Governor. A letter is also said to have been written by 
Melyn to him, in which they say among others this sentiment or words occur, to wit, 
that Melyn has written, "Punish the person and not my ship and cargo." If we had 
hereof an authenticated copy or a legal declaration, it would give us some light. Your 
Honor will please to bring this about, if possible. 

64 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

On the 4* of April A" 1650. 
Your Honor' s favor of the 22"! of March by a savage has been received. These few 
lines shall serve as answer. Above all your Honor will please to inform yourself from 

the English, in case they are still on the river, when they have left Barbadoes and 

whether they have not heard of the galiot of Adrian Bloemert, which sailed from here for 
Barbadoes in October or of our fleet, the Prince, saUed from here for that place about the 
middle of September. Respecting the state of the [river] no mention is made of the 
building, of the particulars of the progress, which it makes, all which I desire very much 
to hear. The latest news is, that Their High Mightinesses had accepted New-Netherland,* 
it is credible, that the rumor wiU not prove quite so good. We have entirely different 
advices by way of Vii'ginia, written to us under date of the 23* of October, whereby we 
are informed, that rather many may be deceived in the great opinion, which they have 
adopted to the disadyantage of the Company and that they, who have removed here 

from there, would already not only like to retui-n, but that there are some of the , 

who might be supplanted. However, time will show it. Our recommendation is as 
before, to dispatch everything for the greatest service and [advantage] of the Hon*"'' 
Incorporated West-India Company, saving the respect for Their High Mightinesses as 
our gracious Sovereigns. I have sent Commissary Keyser to the North for grain ; as soon 
as he returns or as some vessels come down from Fort Orange I shaU comply with your 
Honor's request and provide your Honor abundantly, if God gives some population to 
the river. — 

On the 29'!' of May 1650. 

The bearer of this letter was under sail, before I had been informed of his sudden 

departure ; nevertheless (I write) this in haste and therefore so much shorter, to give 

your Honor further instructions, by which to be govered. 

The ship " Prince WUlem," upon which the Hon"'^ Mr. Roodenburgh took passage, has 
safely arrived here, for which God be praised. No passengers came over in her : some 
might have been had on the island, if the ship had wanted to wait there about 2 or 3 months, 
which I believe, the Hon"'" Mr. Roodenburgh did not think advisable. Nevertheless 
we are given hope from the Fatherland, by their High Mightinesses of peopling 
New-Netherland, and especially the South-River, which has been taken in great 
consideration by Their Honors upon the remonstration made by your Honor to us. I 
communicate this to your Honor as to a faithful servant of the Hon"'" Company, to serve 
for your Honor's guidance, while [resisting] further [attacks] and usui-pations of the 

Hollanders, Swedes and [English] all prudence and carefulness, you shall [know] to 

take hold under form of protest. In the meantime you [must] keep my 

communication secret from the Swedish Governor and his favorites, to make him for 

the sale of more land 

We expect him to depart from here then with a ship and troops of the Honorable 
Company and in better condition, with the confidence, that aU shall turn out to the best 
of the Hon*"" Company and this country's progress, whereof the indications are good. 

* See Letter of Directors to Stuyvesant, 16'" Febr. 1650, N. Y. Col. MSS., Vol XI. f. 18 

New York Historical Records. 65 

No right-minded judge will pretend, that the propositions of the embassadors, of which 
a copy has been obtained by me from the Fatherland, were ever made for the benefit 
and advantage of the good inhabitants ; but on the contrary they are nothing else, than 
false libels, calumnies and slanders of the Hon*"* Lords-Directors and their officers. 
Govert Loockermans and his friends have acted as false hypocrites and deceivers towards 
me and the Hon*"* Company, God may forgive them. More about this in our next or 
upon our visit to you. 

I have charged the Commissary to provide your Honor with some hard-bread, oil 
and vinegar, also some fruit in case it is needed there and some peas. It is very hard to 
get corn here : we hope for a better growth with God's blessing : we shall provide your 
Honor in a short time with some commodities for the troops. Please to inform us in 
your first letter, if the salt has been gathered by the Swedes, what is the price and the 

On the 2V' of June 1650. 

Your favor of the 28"" of May has been handed to me in due time, to which these few 
lines are to serve as answer, as I am in a hurry. I cannot quite comprehend, what your 
Honor mentions in regard to the discontent of the English, for I am indeed not conscious 
that any troubles have occurred between [us] and the English or between the English and 
the [Swedes] nor when they happened, whether on the South-river or thereabouts or in 
Maryland or that neighborhood. I have fully examined the bearer of your Honor's 
favor about the matter, he however could give me no explanation, so that this matter 
[is referred back] for a fuller information. I wish your Honor could report to me more 

explicitly in regard to the affairs of Jan and Evert M It would have been well, 

if your Honor could have caught these smugglers, wherein the arrival of the vessels of 
the private traders certainly would have been of assistance, seeing that they are vastly 
damaged by such smuggling. They have been with their vessels near Cony Island 
and run thence to Boston. Jan Heyn has in the meantime been here under arrest, but 
he has been released upon bail. I wished your Honor could secretly inform yourself 
as to what quantity of merchandise they have brought to the Kiver and traded to the 
Swedes, also what quantities of beavers and other peltries they may have exported from 
there. But your Honor will do well to proceed herein carefully and secretly, through 
the second and thli-d hand, for otherwise the Swede would not be willing to babble. 

We are well pleased, with what your Honor has done regarding the building at 
Bevers Reede, since we well know the necessity of it and that it could not be otherwise 
for the present. The promised release of the troops will be considered with all diligence. 
The letters of the Hon*'^ Lords-Directors as well as of Secretary Thienhooven give us 
good hope of an increase of the population, also that some recruits, about 120 men, 
shall come with the ship of the Hon*'" Company for the release of the old servants. This 
done, we shall wait with anxiety, until a general release can be effected. By the 
"Falconier" we expect ampler information. Nevertheless, in case she should tarry any 
longer, I shall yet fulfill my promise, in so far that your Honor [may discharge] some 
and I will send your Honor others. [It might be] well, if your Honor, should there be 
some more [entitled to a discharge] could persuade them, to continue in the service of 
the Company for another winter here at the Manhattans or in the neighborhood, foi 

66 Colonial Settlements on the Delaivare River. 

the general discharge here cannot be expected before winter on account of the delay [in 
the arrival] of the Company' s ship 

Eegarding your Honor's fni-ther proposition to myself, [I have had] as yet no reason 
for dissatisfaction with your Honor's service, wherein if your Honor continues as I trust, I 
shall not fail to support your Honor against all false calumnies to the best of my means. 
We have had sufficient experience in our own person of the falsehoods with which many, 
who are called the best, [persecute] the Hon""^ Company and her most faithful servants, 
in order to take possession of it, if possible, in the future and tread it under foot. In 
the meantime is a good conscience better than one thousand witnesses and on the other 
side, there is no comfort in a good name, derived from the father, if the conscience 
gives different evidence. — 

Received on the 16'" July, 1650. 
My last has been (sent) by the supercargo of the galiot "S' Michiel," since when I 
have had no opportunity. In the meantime the ship the "Falconier" has arrived from 
the Fatherland and among other passengers Jacob Wolphertson and Jan Evertsen Boudt,* 
the worthy complainants, and with them a crowd of Scotch, Chinese f and small dealers 
and not more than 3 or four farmers. Time must show, what benefit to the land will 
accrue from these. A great infraction and trouble for the trade, (tending) to the 
neglect of the Christians and the advantage of the savage and barbarous people. The 
complainants have [entered] against the Hon"'" Company and her faithful servants a very 
'■'■passive''^ and unfounded [complaint] and therefore, God be praised, obtained little 
[more] than a letter of safe-guard, that they shall not be called to account for their 
[accusations], a sure proof [of their] bad conscience and ^^ passim'''' proceedings; as yet 
[I cannot] see anything else, than that these people come out of their [business] as wise 
as tlie cat out of England, having in the meantime with [their g]reat boasting deceived 
many good men, as [the result will] show. There are signs of a good beginning for the 
peopling of the South-River ; but as yet [none are coming], who are willing to take the 

plough into their hands the trade must first be ruined to the ground and then the 

despised business shall gradually come to honor. Meanwhile your Honor will have 
everything in readiness, to accommodate all those, who are willing to settle under the 
patronage of the Hon''"' Company, as well as it is possible, in order to encourage others. 
I cannot but infer from the letter of the hon"' Company, together with that of 
Secretary Thienhooven, that still another ship is to be expected from the Fatherland, by 
which the Hon'''^ Company promises to send troops : fearing in the meantime, that it might 
be delayed longer, I have nevertheless been willing to fulfiU my promise of discharging 
some of the old servants there, who, we trust, shaU still continue in the service 
here for another year or at least so long, until the expected men arrive from Patria. 
Your Honor will then please to send us the others in their place by first chance. AU 
three have promised into my hand, that they will obey your Honor also, which we 
hope. — Lately we have been informed, that some freemen and among others Symon Root 
have betaken themselves against your Honor's advice and consent to the Minquase 

*8ee Col. Hist., Vol. I, pp. 331, 258, 318, 340. 

t Petty traders, adding nothing to the population. Vide Holl. Doc. IV, p. 42, note 10. 

J^ew York Historical Records. 67 

country ; if this be so, you will give us information regarding it. We perceive from 
your Honor s advices, how dangerous this running about the country is and agree 
therefore, that your Honor shoiild prevent it as much as possible. 

I expect [at an early day] your Honor's written information in regard to the state of 
ailairs on the River and what hope there is to maintain the Company in her rights and 
to recover the boundaries of the SchuylkU from the Swedes. Adriaen R(eyniertsen) has 

received his discharge from the Fatherland of the year : he is at present busy 

to close his books and accounts. In case there are still some outstanding debts on the 
books [of the Company] which must be regulated you will please, to give notice by [the 
lirst] opportunity offering, that every one may receive his due. 

We hope, that your Honor shall satisfy him and free us, it being stated that a 
present of circa 40 beavers has been made by him ; but I wish, that not many such 
presents occurred; as they are not advantageous for the Hon"'" Company and disreputable 
to myself. Upon your Honor's note we have given him 3 good muskets, 12 lbs. of 
powder, 8 (lbs. of) lead, so that 1 trust, that the value of the beavers is about paid for : 
I know that the giving away of the muskets will earn blame for me and the Company, 
but it could not be helped this time : one of their statements was, that they were divided 
in two (parties) in the Minquase land, one half for the Swedes, he and others for us and 
our nation ; the other half could get from the Swedes, to theii- satisfa ction, accommodations 
of powder, muskets and lead, but they not from us ; they came therefore here, to make 
these presents to me, that they also might be provided therewith. This has given me 
a good opportunity, to request your Honor, to satisfy them. 

Received on the 6'." August, 1650. 

Since I have as yet not received an answer to my last letter, I find little material to 
lengthen this. I will however say. that the long expected Swedish ship has, as some say, 
stranded at Porto Rico, others (say), that it has been brought up and confiscated by the 

Spaniards. These last news have been brought here by Augustyn Harman Kerler 

(Curler), which I [consider] the most certain, [however] time must show, how the matter 

(Balance of page lost.) 
We must submit, to our shame, to the censure of our inferiors. 
We expect with the next letter also a list of the names of those, who are with your 

Honor in the service of the Hon"'^ Company, and of their salaries, to be transferred in 

good order into the new books. 

On the same day. 

The bearer of this, Jan Andriessen of Beren-Bach, known to your Honor and now 
lately arrived from the Fatherland in the " Falconier," intends to settle under the authority 
of the Hon'"^ Company at the South-River of New-lSTetherland and gain his subsistence 
like other freemen. Requesting hereto our order, that your Honor would indicate to 
him, according to circumstances, a place for a house and a garden, either in the 
neighborhood of the fort or on the Schuylkil subject to the state of affau-s, I will 
therefore hereby request and charge your Honor, to accommodate the bearer hereof in 

68 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

this and other matters, as much as possible, that not only he, but [also] others may be 
[induced] to people and settle the River and other territories of the Company. 

On the 9'? July, 1650. 

Bearer hereof, Cornells desires to establish himself as a freeman 

(Rest of page lost.) 

exteact from a letter of the directors in holland to director 
Peter Stuyvesant ; they are endeavoring to fix the boundaries 


It is further our intention to apply to the Queen of Sweden and try, whether we 
cannot determine the boundaries between us and the Swedes on the Southriver. Your 
Honor will, m the meantime, endeavor to maintain the rights of the Company lq all 
justice and equity. 

Papers referring to trade regulations for the Delaware. 

Whereas wee haue receiued order from the Right honourable the Lords Bewinthebbers 
of the West Indie Company, patrons & the right proprietours of this Province, called the 
.Yew-Netherlands, in the which all those lands & riuers are included, which by vs are 
called the Southriver & by the English Deleware baye not to pmit or suffer any whatsoeuer 
to trade or handle in any of theyre s? limitts, without lycence & payemt of the vsuall 
recognition, as our owne nation doe paye, wherevppon wee are bownd to giue order to 
our deputy there not to pmitt any whatsoeuer to trade either with Christians or natiues 
before such tyme as they shall shew Commissio" vnder the hand and seale of the 
s* West-Indie Company or theyi-e Gouern'' of this Puince, togeather with an inuoyce of 
all theyre goods by our ffiscael subscribed. This therefore may giue notice vnto you 

Mr. More, master of the Catch called the Sara & the merch? thereof that you may 

not hereafter plead ignorance, that in case you shall goe to trade in any of the s* precincts, 
without Commissio" of the s'? Company or our selues & the payemi of ye vsuall recognition 
as atfores* vppon your owne pill bee & blame not vs (if after soe faire a warning) for the 
maiating [i. e. maintaining] of our right and orders wee shall bee Constreined to take 
such Course in the attaching or supprising yoT s? vessell or goods as wee shall thinke 
meet & answerable to our Commissio. Fort Amsterdam, 21'? April [1651 ?] 

Mouns^ Hudde. 

You are hereby to take notice that whereas I vnderstand Mr. Evans intends to come 
to the South riuer to receiue somme debts due to him there I doe hereby require you to 
pmit him soe to doe without disturbance to himselfe or vessell, but that hee may follow 

Mew YotIc Historical Records. 69 

his occasions there peacablie, allwayes provided that incase the s'? Mr. Evans shall trade 
or handle either vs'ith Christians or natiues there hee hath promised to paye the recognition 
heere & to be accomptable in our ilort heere for what hee shall doe, therefore you are 
likewise ordered to pmit him if case shall soe bee, to lett him handle, trade or Commerce 
either with Christians or natiues peacablie & quietlie without molestatio or disturbance 
from any of our officers there. 

Letter from Die. Stutvesant to the Governor of Massachtjsetts, 
regarding the english claims on the delaware ; he has stopped 


Honoured S" 

The great desires that I had, for the maintaining of all loueing & neighbourlie 
Correspondencie with the seuerall respectiue English Jurisdictions was the greatest 
motiue that drew mee to meete the worthy Comissioners the last yeare att Hartford, 
that wee might not only indeauour to reconcile past differences if there were any, but 
likewise a settlement of a more ffriendlie & neerer vnion betwixt vs & amongst other 
matters some passages Concerning the South river (by you called Deleware bay) Came 
in question, betwixt those of the Collony of Newhauen & vs : wee claiming a right 
thereunto & those of Newhauen a old right to certaine pcells of land, but for myne 
owne pte not haueing warrant to put that before any other matter of right in these ptes 
of America dulie appertaining to ye H : M : the Estates Gener" of the vnited Belgicke 
Provinces & by them graunted to the Right hon : the Lords Bewinthebbers of the 
West-Indie Company to the arbitration or adiudgem^ of men, as matters were left vs, 
they were fownd and for myne owne pte did & doe heartilie desire that some speedy 
Course might be pitched vppon by the superiours of both nations in Europe for the 
absolute determining of that & other differences of limmitts betwixt vs heere in these 
ptes, that for the tyme to come there might not be any cause of warring betwixt vs 
or our posterities and in attendance thereunto haue earnestlie indeauoured by letters 
to my principalis that they would further the same & am crediblie informed that our 
Embassadour hath instructions from the H : M : to treate & agree with the state of Engl : 
aboute it, I then likewise declaring myselfe that I should be Constreined, in case any 
should attempt the sitting downe of any people there (vppon any pretence of right & as 

not dependent vppon the state of Holland) both by and otherwise to hinder them 

what I could, haueing order and instructions from my superiours soe to doe and did 
reallie beleue that those of Newhauen would haue rested satisfied with the equitie & 
weight of my propostion and declaration & not haue attempted any thing that waye 
vntill further order oute of Europe, but Contrarye to my hopes & expectations some 
weekes past those of the Collonye of ISTewhauen sent a vessell this waye to passe by 
our ffort with some 50 men or thereaboutes vnder the guidance or conduct of Robert 
Crane* & Leif Seely and others with orders & instructions fi-om them to settle 

*See Hazard's Hist. Coll. Vol. II, p. 195. 

70 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

downe in some ptes of the Sowth rraer and by vertue of an onsworne Commissio 
from the vnited Collonies to Capt. Xathaniell Turner, haiteing order likewise in 
theyre passing by to deliuer mee some letti? from Gouernr Eaton, wherein I had the 
first certaine true intel'ligence of theyre designe I confess hearing of it before (only) 
by common reporte. I could doe no lesse in relation to my duty to whom I serue, but 
hinder theyre further progresse and not pmit them to passe by, least I might iustlie 
incurre the displeasure of my principalis with the imputatio of vnfaithfulnes & 
Connivence, therefore I hope the honourded the Gouern' & magistrates of the honoured 
Collonie of the Massachusetts will not in any measure take offence or blame me for what 
I haue done, I haueing done it in obedience to Command to mee directed (from my 
principalis) not to pmit any further intrusion or anticipation vpjDon theyre rights & 
likewise haueing beforehand soe fairelie & ingenuouslie declared my resolution in that 
poynt : the tyme of theyre detention heere, I am sure they cannot saye, but theyi-e 
entertainemt was neighbourlie & ciuillie & soe much I haue thought good to acquaint 
you with, least any should wrongfullie traduce mee with vntrue assertions & whereas I 
vnderstand there are some there that intend to haue recourse vnto you either to giue you 
informatio of these passages or to require yo' ayde & asistance for the Carrieing on of 
theyre designe, I hope your integrities & wisdoms will serve (?) rather aduise them patientlie 
to wayte the resolutions & orders of both States oute of Europe then to imbroyle 
themselues & neighbours to the dangerous euents of sad Consequences, that may follow 
in case they shall still goe on with theyre intended designe & not afforde them any 
Countenance therein, being formerlie crediblie informed, when I was att Hartford that 
yourselues & the rest of the Generall Courtes of New Engl : had fully resolued that in 
case, they of New-Hauen should attempt the setling downe of the s? place & that thereby 
any warres or troubles should arise, you would leaue them to themselues, as not haueing 
your approbatio therein, the which I hope you will please still to continue that wee goe 
on in all neighbourlie & friendlie offices of loue one towards another in these ptes of 

[April 1651] 

Ceetified copy of a eeceipt for sundry goods delivered by Gov^ Printz 


Whereas we the undersigned agents have by authority of the Hon*"^ Governor John 
Prints and pursuant to his order and recommendation finally and conclusively purchased 
from Mr. Augustyn Heermans, merchant, residing at the Manhattans and to our full 
satisfaction have received divers merchandizes amounting to the sum of 158^ good 
merchantable winter-beavers and one guilder as appears by account and specification, 
therefore we in the name and on behalf of the Hon""' Governor aforesaid, oblige and 
pledge ourselves therefor and by virtue of the power and commission given to us, engage 
him to pay the said sum of 1581^ good merchantable winterbeavers and one guilder, 
punctually and without fail, to the aforesaid Augustyn Heermans or his order the next 

Jiew York Historical Records. 71 

month of May a" 1651, or in default thereof, when due, to make good all damages and 
losses, without exception and in good faith. This 14"' December 1650 on the Island of 
Manhattan, in New-Netherland. 

(Signed) Isaac Alleeton 


with JocHEM PiETEE KuTTER and 
Abeam Clock, witnesses. 
After due collation this foregoing note is found to agree with its original, signed 
and dated as aforesaid by me the appointed clerk with the undersigned witnesses, this 
12"" May a" 1651, Manhatans in New-Netherland. 

To my knowledge Guilliam Varlet. 

Jacob Kip, clerk. Jacob Jansen Huts. 

Power of Attorney of Augustyn Heermans, authorizing Isaac AUerton to 
collect the aforesaid beavers from Gov"' Prints. 

This day, date underwritten, before me Jacob Kip, (clerk) in the absence of the 
Secretary, appointed by the Hon''''= Director-General and Council of New-Netherland, 
appeared Mr. Augustyn Heermans, merchant here, who in the presence of the below 
named witnesses, declared, that he constituted and empowered, as he does hereby, Mr. 
Isaac Allerton, at present in the Southriver of New-Netherland, to ask, demand and 
receive from the Hon''''= Governor John Prints the sum of one hundred and fifty eight and 
one half good merchantable winter-beavers and one guilder, due to the said principal by 
his Honor according to the note annexed ; to execute a receipt in full therefor, which shall 
be valid, promising to hold as good and valid, whatever shall be done and performed in 
the case aforesaid by Mr. Isaac Allerton. 

Thus done and executed by the abovementioned principal in the presence of Mr. 
Giljaem Varlet and Jacob Jansen Huys as witnesses hereunto invited, who have signed 
this n the record with the principal, this 12"" May a" 1651, at New-Amsterdam in 

AuGUSTTsr Heermans. 



To my knowledge 

Jacob Kip, clerk. 

Jacob Jansen Hfts) 

Bond of Joost Teunissen van Norden, skipper, to sail directly to 

THE Southriver and thence to the Manhattans with his return 


I, the undersigned, hereby obligate myself, not to toi;ch, after I have sailed from this 

port for the Southriver in New-Netherland, at any other place nor to take in any more 

goods, than are entered on the Fiscal's list ; also not to unload them or allow them to be 

discharged or to be traded, nor any of them, after my safe arrival before and until I have 

72 Colonial SettlemeTits on the Delaware River. 

exhibited my clearance and the invoice of the goods, taken on board, to Andries Hudde, 
the Commissary there. Also, after having finished my trade at the Southriver, I shall 
not depart before I have entered my full return and traded peltries with the Commissary 
aforesaid and shall not alienate, land or send away any of them before and until I shall 
have exhibited a list and invoice thereof to the Hon*'® Director-General or his deputy 
here at the Manhatans. All without fraud and deceit on pain of forfeiting my ship 
and cargo of goods, or the just value thereof. 

Done Manhatan in New-Netherland, this 27"" May, 1651. In acknowledgment of the 
truth I have signed this with my own hand in the presence of the under-named witnesses. 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

Alike bond was given by Richard Smith, skipper of the yacht "Welcome" and still another given by Peters 
Talman, master of the bark "Dolphin." 

Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stutvesant : they are 


THE Delaware and cannot approve of the demolition of Fort 
Nassau. 4'" of April 1652. 

Your Honor's journey to the Southriver and what has passed there between the 
Swedes and your Honor, has taken us by surprise, as your Honor had not previously 
made any mention of this intention ; God grant, that what your Honor has done, may 
turn out for the best ; we cannot express our opinion of it, before we have not heard, how 
the complaints of the Swedish Governor will be received by the Queen ; we hope that 
the proofs of our previous possession will be accepted as sufficient ; but we see little 
probability or any opportunity to make here arrangements with the Swedes for settling 
the boundary-question ; nor can we say much, whether the demolition of Fort Nassau 
was a very prudent act, as indeed nobody could claim it and time must show whether 
the Swedes will understand so in regard to the erection of the new Fort, called Casemirus ; 
we are in the dark as to the reasons, why the fort has been given this name ; it must be 
guarded with care that it may not be surprised ; we do not know, whether it is very 
necessary to make any fortifications opposite to the Fort on the eastside of the river and 
must leave this to your Honor's discretion.* 

* * * * * * 

* The affairs of the West-India Company were not in a prosperous condition at this time ; the embarrassment 
having benn caused by the expedition to the Southriver last year, as is shown by a Minute of Council in N. Y. Col. 
MSS., Vo' V, fol. 54 (4'" August, 1653).— B. F. 

iMew York Historical Records. 

Extract from a letter of the same to the same : caution 

recommended in the dealings with the swedes at the 

Delaware. 4™ November 1653 

* * * * * * 

Your Honor must also be very cautious in the intercourse with the Swedes on the 

Southriver, (against the chief of whom your Honor complains,) as well in regard to the 

maintenance of the Company's privileges as by avoiding as much as possible to give 

them cause for complaints and dissatisfaction, as it is not very desirable to add to the 

number of the Company's enemies at this critical period ; * and regarding the request,t 

made by some of his subjects, for permission to move and settle among us, in case we 

would agree to protect them, we cannot see, why it should be refused and denied (unless 

your Honor's view of it goes farther, than we at present can observe) for it would indeed 

prevent an increase of population, which is nevertheless the life of a state and therefore 

should be promoted by all means. Hence the influx of free persons should not be 

impeded by obstacles, but much sooner be promoted by all resolute and honest means : 

and it is demanded by justice and equity, that to the extent of our power we protect and 

guard in all their rights those, who desire to and have submitted to our laws and customs, 

like others of our inhabitants. 

Privilege given to those, who purchase land or trade in 
New-Sweden or the West-Indies. Upsala, the 16™ March 

We Christina, by the Grace of Grod, Queen of Sweden, Gothland and the Wend^s, 
Grand Duchess of Finland, Duchess of Esthonia, Carelia, Bremen, Verden, Stettin, 
Pommerania, Casubia and the Wendes, Princess of Rugen, Lady of Ingermanland and 
Wismar make known, that, whereas it is partly Our Royal pleasure, that the lands, 
kingdoms and provinces, which We govern, may be, as far as possible, cultivated and 
settled and whereas also the lands, which We possess in the West-Indies, are of such 
an importance and quality, that it requires a greater cultivation and population and in 
order that those of Our subjects, who desire to settle in the said country, also called 
New-Sweden, and acknowledge Our sovereignty, or those of Our subjects who are living 
here in Sweden and its dependencies and intend to trade there, may the more be 
encouraged thereto and the country be improved and civilized by cultivation and 
navigation, commerce and manufactures. Therefore We have given Our consent and 

* The Directors aUude here evidently to the troubles and difficulties arising from the desire of the New-England 
people to get a foothold on the Delaware. See Hazard's Hist. Coll. Vol. II, pp. 231, 256-270.— B. F. 

t The affairs of the Swedish Colony were getting behindhand, because they had not received any succours for a 
long while, and many of the Swedes, left behind by Gov^ Prints, who had been recalled by an order, dated 12'" 
December, 1653 (Coll. PalmskSld Latinske Registra), made a request to Director Stuyvesant for permission to come 
under the jurisdiction and protection of the West-India Company. See N. Y. Col. Hist., Vol. I, pp. 590, 600.— B. F 


74 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

granted, as We herewitli by this Our letters-patent grant and give Our consent to tlie 
following privileges and francMses : 

First. Any one, who desires to purchase any land situate in New-Sweden either 
from the Company or from the savages, and who will acknowledge, like a subject, Our 
jurisdiction, shall enjoy for the land pui'cbased the privileges of allodial nobility 
{allodial Frelses fryhect) for himself and his heu-s, with perpetual possession, while 
they may be assured, that they shall either be included in the Company or retain 
outside of it the franchises above mentioned. 

Second. After having paid duties in Sweden or its dependencies all Our subjects 
coming to New- Sweden shall be free and exempt from all further duties and if they 
export anything from New-Sweden they shall only pay two per cent and are after 
that duty-free in the Kingdom of Sweden and its provinces ; they shall also have 
permission, if they desire it, to trade and traffic with the savages themselves. All shall 
govern themselves accordingly and We command especially Our Governor in the said 
New-Sweden, as well as Our Customs' Officers here in the Kingdom and its provinces, 
that they shall in no manner act contrary to this order, neither now nor in future. In 
witness whereof We have signed this with Our own hand and confirmed it by Our Seal, 

on the day as above. 


Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant, concerning 


We could not consent to the request made by your Honors in the private letter of 
the 7*? October 1653 to the effect that the duties, winch were imposed here on a certain 
quantity of beavers, should be returned to the former Swedish Governor Johan Prints : 
mostly because the said Prints has not carried out his intention to send the said beavers 
to Sweden by way of Amsterdam, but has sold them here, where he also received the 
money for it and put it out at interest for his own benefit ; so that the said beavers did 
not concern the Crown of Sweden, but him as a private person. 

We have indeed been greatly astonished that your Honors have shown yourselves 
so liberal, as your Honors cannot be ignorant of the Company's condition and how 

* The order, recalling Governor Prints, was issued, as stated above, on the 12'" December, 1653, but it is more 
than probable, that he had not waited for it, but had sailed before its and his successor's arrival, leaving the 
administration of the Colony in the charge of his son-in-law, Lieutenant Johan Papegoya. His successor, Johan 
Kysingh, was commissioned on the same day ; he received 1000 Rixdalers ($265.00) for traveling expenses and was 
appointed Commissary and Assistant Councillor of the General College of Commerce for New-Sweden at a salary of 
1300 speoiedalers ($1270.00), besides the special emoluments derived from the South-Company. (Coll. Palmskcild.) 
Bysingh, the new Governor, probably a native of the then Swedish, now Prussian province of Pommerania, had 
been an officer in the Swedish army during the 30 years' war ; during the seige of Chemnitz he had misbehaved and 
was cashiered by a court-martial. (Arfwedson, De Colonia Nova Suecia in America historiola.) The Queen gi-anted 
to him and his wife and their legitimate heirs " aa much land in New Sweden as he shall be able to cultivate with 20 
or 30 peasants;" but from a letter, written by Kysingh to Count Oxenstierna on the 11'" July, 1654, it appears, he had 
no wife, for he says, " praying your Excy. at the same time, to procure for me a good wife." (MSS. in the possession of 
the Am. Philosophical Society.) — B. F. 

Neiv Yorh Historical Records. 75 

difficult it is, to make its income there and in this country pay the expenses : we cannot 
omit therefore, to recommend herewith to your Honors, not to dispose so giddily of the 
said revenues, but rather to excuse such demands in the most suitable manner, so that 
nobody is hurt in his respect and authority nor any cause of trouble given. 

Extract from propositions made by the Director-General in vietv 

[Council — Minutes 30'" May, 1654.] 

Hence nothing seems to be left, but to consider, how for the sake of our and the 
nation's honor, we ourselves may defend us against siu'prises and massacres. To do 
this, unquestionably the following is required : 

1. Repairing the works and fortifications. 

2. Enlisting troops at a monthly salary, that in time of need they may be ordered 

about and assist the trainbands. 

3. Money and means to carry out the foregoing. 

4. Arms for the soldiers. Where to obtain the one and the other and how to carry 

it out, your Honors wUl please consider with us. 

1. It must be further considered in connection with this point, whether in order to 
garrison and well defend a place, which having been lost, the country and all will be 
lost, and which if held by succours, the whole country is saved, we should under the 
circumstances not abandon the other places and especially Fort Casimir * and draw hither 
the freemen on the Southriver and the small garrison there. 

2. Concerning the ship " Coninck Salomon," which has received nearly aU her cargo 
and is ready to sail, shall we let her depart or keep her here? Either plan has its 
difficulties and inconveniences. As to Fort Casimir our own opinion coincides with the 
general sentiment, that it is best, to order up the small garrison from there for the better 
defense of this place and to recommend the guarding of the Fort to the free men there ; 
but there occurs here the difficulty, whether the freemen, being few in numbers, wUl be 
willing or able to do it and shall not be in danger or at least fear to be massacred by the 
savages, which they already apprehend and therefore have, together with the servants of 
the Company, requested us for more troops and assistance, or else they would leave the 
river altogether. To withdraw all the troops, is equivalent to giving up absolutely the 
possession and to surrender that fine river to others. Then, if either by the conclusion 
of peace or by other means (which God knows best, whose hand is not closed for our 
help) no hostile invasion takes place, how shall we justify oui- abandoning it ? 


* New-Castle, Del. 

76 Colonial Settlements on the Delaivare River. 

Answer of the Council to the foregoing propositions. 

A° 1654 on the 2? of June in New-Amsterdam. 

As to the next proposition, whether Fort Casimir should be given up or not, also 
whether the ship "Coninck Salomon" should be allowed to depart or be retained here 
for some time yet, it is resolved, in consideration of the reasons given in detail in the 
aforesaid propositions, not to abandon Fort Casimir nor to call any of the troops from 

Pass for John Rysingh, Swedish Governor at the Delaware to 


On the first of October 1654. 

In case Mr. Johan Rysingh (at present Commander and Chief, on behalf of the 
Crown of Sweden, over its people on the Southriver) should like to come here at the 
request of Mr. Hendrick van Elswyck, the said high Crown's factor, in order to settle 
some unexpected differences, then this may assure the said Mr. Johan Rysingh that 
his noble Honor shall have and receive aU possible friendly reception, treatment and 
departure, without any hindrance, to his satisfaction for his Honor-' s own person and his 
suite with him, his property and vessels. Griven in aU haste under our usual signature 
and done at New- Amsterdam, this first day of October 1654 in New-Netherland. (It 
was signed) P. Stuyvesant. 

Orders and papers respecting the Swedish ship "de Hay"* and 
her cargo, seized at New-Amsterdam, in reprisal for the 
capture of Fort Casimir (New-Castle, Del.), f 

Whereas Mr. Hendryck van Elswyck, factor on behalf of the Crown of Sweden and 
the South Company in the aforesaid kingdom, by word of mouth requests permission to 
sell some hides (seized and detained in and with the ship "de Hay"), to which a good 
opportunity now offers, the Dii-ector-General and Council, the opinion of every one 
being asked, state in answer, that they never intended or designed and do not now 
intend or design anything else, but a neighborly correspondence, friendly intercourse and 
commerce with their neighbors ; therefore they may well permit, that the aforesaid Mr. 
Factor sell not only the mentioned hides, but also all other merchandises to his and his 
Honorable Master's advantage, provided that the proper proceeds be paid into the hands 
of the Hon*"" Attorney and Counsel of the Privileged West-India Company, Mr. Fiscal 
Thienhooven, untU such time, that proper restitution and lawful satisfaction be done and 
given to us, as thereto authorized by the aforesaid Hon'^'^ Company, for the surprise 
and capture of our Fort Casimir with all the ammunition of war, houses and effects 
*L e., The Shark. + See Col. Hist, Vol. I, pp. 601-105. 

J^ew Yorh Historical Records. 11 

belonging thereto, (made) by the hon"'" Mr. Johan Rysingh, present Commander in the 

Southriver for said high Crown, without any previous declaration of war or differences, 

it having been attacked and surprised on tire 30"^ of May last past and kept until to-day 

with all the private property and effects of our emplo3res and private subjects from the 

lion. Company and us, wherefore in return the Director-General and Council could not 

do less, than to seize and detain without damage the aforesaid ship and its cargo of 

merchandise, until, as said above, restitution and satisfaction has been given, in the 

meantime giving consent to the factor, as stated above, to promote with the cargo his 

lion. Masters' advantages, provided the proceeds be paid at full value into the hands of 

the said honorable Attorney and Counsel of the Company. Thus done at the meeting of 

the noble Director-General and high Council, held at New-Amsterdam in New-Netheiiand 

on the 15'." October 1654. (It was signed) 

P. Stutvesant. 

N. DE. SiLLE, 

La Montange, 


Resolution to detain the ship "de Hay." 

Whereas Mr. Johan Rysingh, at present on behalf of the Crown of Sweden 
Commander of the Swedish forces on the Southriver of JSTew-Netherland, on the 
30'? of May last past without having given us (as representatives of their noble 
High Mightinesses, the States-General of the United Netherlands and of the noble 
Lords-Dii-ectors of the General Privileged West-India Company) any previous summons 
or announcement of any differences or war, has surprised the Hon. Company' s Fort 
Casimir with all amtinition, buildings and other property thereto belonging, therefore 
in return we, Director-General and Council of New-Netherland could not do less, 
than to arrest, seize and detain a certain Swedish ship, called "de Hay," a small 
vessel of about 40 to 50 tons burthen, with the goods shipped in her, of which Mr. 
Hendrick van Elswyck from Lubeck, the aforesaid high Crown's factor, declares and 
institutes himself as factor and owner. This ship belonging, as the said factor has 
repeatedly declared before us, to the New-Swedish Company established in the aforesaid 
Kingdom of Sweden, accidentally came to this Northriver and arrived here on the 22* or 
23* of the last month of September and was seized by us on the 25'?' of the same 
month. After this ship and its cargo of goods had been brought up before this City, we, 
Director-General and Council, have told and proposed to the aforesaid factor, that, if he 
could arrange with the aforesaid Mr. Johan Rysingh for the restitution of our Fort 
Casimir with the effects thereto belonging, we on our side would be inclined to return 
the arrested ship with all in her and place her at his disposal and to observe at once all 
neighborly friendship, intercourse and commerce vnth him and the subjects of the Crown 
of Sweden ; the said Mr. Hendrick Elswyck, showing great good will for the one and 
the other, only asked for time to inform Mr. Johan Rysingh of it by letter and for our 
safe-conduct or passport for the said Mr. Rysingh or his deputies to come here for the 
settlement of the differences in question : this we have willingly and amicably granted 
and given to the said Mr. Elswyck at his request and have left in the meantime the 
aforesaid ship and cargo of goods, as they were, in the hands and under control of the 

78 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

aforesaid factor or liis deputy, taking away only the rudder and placing two servants of 
tlie Company with the ordinary ship's crew for the vessel's and property's greater safety ; 
and above this we gave permission to the said factor on his verbal request (as can be seen 
by our previous entry dated on the 15*? inst). to sell according to his wish, not only the 
goods, claimed as his own, but also all others according to the advantage of his Hon. 
Masters, but the proceeds thereof were to be paid and delivered into the hands of the 
Attorney and Counsel of the Company, the Hon'"° Fiscal Thienhooven, until such time, 
as the above demanded restitution of the Fort and other property of the Company shall 
have been made and effected according to justice and equity. In the meantime the said 
factor, having been called before the meeting yesterday, the 19'? inst., informed us, that 
Mr. Johan Rysingh was not inclined to come hither nor to send deputies nor to 
surrender the surprised Fort, therefore the aforesaid Director-General and Council 
consider it to be their duty and at the same time right, equitable and justihable, to take, 
detain and arrest the aforesaid ship and its cargo of goods under benefit of inventary 
(made) in presence of the factor himself or his attorney and two impartial witnesses, 
until such time, as they may receive further orders and letters regarding the one 
and the other from their superiors, to store the durable and perishable goods in the 
Hon"^'' Company's warehoiise, to let the perishable ones be sold either by the factor 
liimself according to his desire or in case of refusal publicly by the auctioneer to the 
highest bidder or to have them appraised by impartial men, as the factor thinks best ; 
in regard to the ship, to have the same appraised by impartial men and to let the said 
factor choose, whether he himself will leave two or more men of his people on board to 
take care of her or if he should refuse to send two men aboard to take her in charge at 
the expense of the interested parties, until restitution is made by either side and the 
differences are settled or further advices received ; giving, besides a copy hereof, for 
the benefit of the factor a receipt in due form for the inventary. Thus done at the 
meeting of the noble Director-General and high Council, held at New-Amsterdam in 
New-Netherland on the 20*? daj^ of October 1654. It was signed 

P. Stuyvesant, 


La Montagne, 

CoE : tan Thienhoven. 

Keio York Historical Records. 

Protest of Hendrick van Elswtck, Swedish factor, against the 
seizure, by the director and council, of the swedish ship 

Noble, Honorable Director-General of New-Netherland and all the Honorable 
Members of the High Council. 

Very Respected Grentlemen. 

Your noble Worship and your Honors know, that, when on the 12"' of Septbr. last I 

landed, either through the carelessness or perhaps wanton malice of my pilot, in this 
river of New-Netherland with the ship "Gulden Hay," entrusted to me by the Royal 
Swedish General Chamber of Commerce on behalf of the Honorable South-Company, 
I sent some of my people in a boat here to New- Amsterdam, as to our good friends 
and neighbors, to engage a pilot, who for a money-consideration would bring us to 
the Southriver. Arrived here my men, both born Swedes, were not only taken as 
prisoners to the guardhouse and I was fetched from the place, where I was, by the 
Hon"'* Vice-Commander with eight musqueteers and placed here into the house of 
Sergeant Daniel Litschoe, but the ship itself was also brought up from the Raritan's Kil 
by the Hon"'* Director-General, our flag hauled down and the ship continually occupied 
by soldiers and people. Now, although it is asserted, that his noble Honor Jan Rysingh, 
Director of the Government of New-Sweden had taken your Honors' pretended Fort 
Casimir and that therefor your Honors have seized this ship with its cargo, such a pretext 
lias no basis or foundation whatever, because the said Fort was erected in 1651 by his 
noble Honor, your Director-General, rather by overwhelming force, than with right 
and equity upon the territory of H. R. M. of Sweden, our most gracious Queen, the then 
Swedish Governor protesting against it, so that the aforesaid Hon"'* Governor Jan 
Rysingh has not taken it from your noble Honors, but has only re^Dossessed himself of 
what belongs to Her Royal Majesty of Sweden herself. It shall never be proved, that he 
has taken anything from these subjects to the value of one penny, but when the free 
settlers there desired to remain and took the oath of allegiance, every one has been 
protected in his possessions and, what is more, no one of all those, who lived there and 
wishes to remove again hither, has been detained by the Hon"'* Governor, but each one 
lias full liberty to depart with all his property, wherever he wishes. On the other side^ 
quite the reverse happens to me here ; not only the ship and cargo of my masters, but 
also my own private goods (which I have already sold and for which the money is ready) 
are withheld and taken away. Therefore no just, sensible man can find fault with us 
hereafter, if we were to do the same and go with the goods of private parties the same 
way, which the Hon"'* Director-General now shows us. I understand, that the ship and 
cargo of my honorable masters, is partly being appraised here by people, authorized by 
the Honorable Director-General and that this shall be continued ; I therefore declare 
herewith expressly, that I have not delivered or allowed to be delivered by my people to 
your Honors either the ship or any good or whatever it may be called from it, but that, 
I must at present submit against my will, to what is done or may be done hereafter, as I 
cannot prevent it : nor am I at all satisfied, on the behalf of my masters, with the 

80 Colonial Settlements on the Delaivare River. 

appraising, but consider the damage, which they receive and suffer through the seizure 
of the ship and cargo at present, for good and weighty reasons to be ten times as much as 
this ship and cargo is worth. I protest therefore herewith in optima forma against your 
Excellency and all the members of the High Council for all the damage and inconvenience, 
done hereby to my Lords and Masters and to be done hereafter, and remain, save my 
bounden duty towards my Lords and Masters, the Hon'''* Director-General's and 
Gentlemen of the High Council obedient servant 

(Signed) Hendriok van Elswtck, Factor 

of the Honorable South Company 

His Honor, the Notary, will please to deliver this protest to the Hon*'* General in 
presence of two witnesses and bring me a receipt therefor 

Dated New- Amsterdam in New-Netherland 17/ October A" 1654. 

Agrees with the original. 

(Signed) Cornelis van Rutven, 


Answer of Director Stuyvesant and Council to the preceding 
PROTEST or Hendrick van Elswyck, Swedish Factor. 

Answer to the foregoing protest. 

We answer to the unfounded protest of Mr. Elswyck, Factor for the Royal Swedish 
South Company, that although his Honor pretends, that he had made land in this river 
through the carelessness or wanton malice of his pUot and had sent his men "as to good 
friends and neighbors," we have as yet never perceived it in the acts of hostility of the 
Hon"'* Director Rysingh, who arrived with a semblance of friendship before our Fort 
Casimir on the Southriver of New-Netherland, tired two shots as salutes, then landed 
with tldrty men, who were received and welcomed as friends and neighbors by our 
commander and other officers, and then seeing the weakness of our garrison, treated the 
few soldiers of their High : Might : the Lords States-General and the West-India Company 
not as friends and neighbors of the Crown of Sweden, but disarmed them like open 
enemies, taking even their side-arms contrary to aU military usages, took possession in a 
hostile manner of Fort Casimir with all the amunition, houses, materials and other effects 
of the aforesaid West-India Company and still keeps it, diverted and released from their 
oath and allegiance some of our officers and almost all the free people, bound to us, as 
representatives of their Noble High : Might : the Lords States-General and the Lords 
Directors of the General Incorporated West-India Company, by their oath, duties and 
allegiance as subjects and has accepted them into the allegiance of the Swedish Crown, 
while for shortness' sake we pass over the damages, injuries, insults, hindrances and 
usurpation of the territories, streams, rivers, which we bought, paid and partly took 
possession of committed by the former officers of the aforesaid High Crown, etc?. The 
entering of the ship, not through the regular channel, a passage weU known to the pilot, 
but running through an unknown passage behind Staten Island, towards the Raritans 

J^eiv York Historical Records. 81 

Kil, these and many otlier occurrences do, indeed, not imply the arrival of friends and 
neighbors, but of spies and enemies. Therefore We, the Du-ector-General and Couucil 
of New-Netherland, bound by our oath and duty, to protect our property and retake, 
what has been taken from us, could do no less, than to secure us against such false 
friends, to prevent further damages ; yet we treated the honorable protestator and the 
native Swedes not as enemies and prisoners but as free neighbors and friends, lodging 
the Hon''^^ Factor in the best and most principal tavern of a sergeant of the trainbands, 
Daniel Litschoe, giving him liberty and license to go and to come, to converse and to 
trade, where and with whom he pleased, which can be proved by witnesses and by an 
affidavit here annexed under lit : B.* The passengers and ships crew without distinction 
of nationality (except former officers of the West-India Company) were left undisturbed 
in their oath and allegiance and according to the liberties of this Province allowed to 
remain or to depart, where they liked : the reasons and motives, why the ship "de Hay" 
has been seized by the Director-General and is still detained by Director and Council are 
shown in the resolution, of which a copy, here annexed under lit. C, is handed to the 
Hon*'* Factor. We have, in the meantime, granted to Factor Elswyck, upon his verbal 
request, a free and friendly pass for his superior, the Hon*'* Director Rysingh or his 
deputy, that he may come here for the adjustment of the several differences, as appears 
by the annexed document under lit. A. We further consented, that the said Honorable 
Factor should dispose of and sell the goods of his Lords and Masters and offered to 
return the ship and its cargo, provided the captured Fort Casimir and its contents should 
be given up to us : this is shown by the document under lit. C : and faUing this or in 
case of refusal, we would have the ship and cargo and all its appurtenances, untU further 
orders, guarded, inventaried, appraised and would sell it, deposit the proceeds and give 
him for it a receipt in due form, which we are still offering, as appears by the document 
under lit. C. and following ones. More, indeed, no neighbor can expect in such 

Your Honor alleges without reason whatever and quite mistakenly, that, as your 
Honor continues. Fort Casimir had been erected on Her Royal Majesty's territory and 
soil more by overwhelming force, than with right, for it can not be proved, neither now 
nor ever ; but it is true, that his Honor, Governor Jan Prins protested against it verbally 
and in writing, but he never showed nor proved any right, either by possession or by 
purchase or by donation, to the territory upon which Fort Casimir was built, while on 
the contrary we have offered to his said Honor, Mr. Prins, as we here again offer to the 
honorable protestator and all, whom this may concern (here in this country and not at 
the Hague or in Stockholm, which would be sJiowing a magpie upon a tree) to show and 
to prove by authentic documents and the testimony of impartial Christians and natives, 
still living, the undoubted right and title of their High : Might : the Lords States-General 
and the Lords-Directors to the territories on the Southriver, and this by virtue 
and the right of first discovery, eldest and first possession, sealed with the blood 
of our countrymen and guarded by several forts, both on the east and west side, 
below, above and in the middle of the river, and obtained by lawful purchase, donation 
and conveyance of several lands from the original owners, even of the territory, upon which 

* Not preserved among tbe records. 

82 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Fort Casimir stands ; yet we do not base our undoubted title to the whole Southriver 
alone and absolutely hereupon, but upon our original and first discovery and possession 
many years before any other Christian nation, the Swedes themselves not excepted, who 
in the year 1638 began to settle on this, our Southriver of New-Netherland, as can be 
learned thoroughly by the written answer sent to Governor Prints, a copy of which is 
here annexed under lit. E * ; this may therefore also serve as answer to the foregoing 
unreasonable protest, without making it necessary, to extend this reply farther on that 
head ; only that we feel sure, that Her R! Maj^ of Sweden has never been truly and 
correctly informed and told of the whole affaii- regarding the right of their High: 
Might : by vii-tue of eldest and first possession of the whole Southriver or the ownership, 
by the Lords-Directors of the larger part of the territory on said river both on the 
east and west side acquired from the lawful owners, the natives of this country, by 
purchase and donation at different times and places ; much less of the answers, which 
we have given to the Hon*'" Governor Prints' protests and therefore we do not blame 
Her said Royal Majesty, although H. M. may have given order and authority for the 
hostile attempt of Governor Rysingh in attacking and surprising our Fort Casimir and 
keeping the same with all ammunition, — which we do not believe of Her Royal Majesty's 
high wisdom and greater discretion. 

Therefore we protest herewith not against Her Royal Majesty's order and authority, 
but against Her officers and servants in this country, both former and present as well for 
misinformation as for insults, injuries, damages and hostile attacks formerly and now 
committed against their aforesaid Noble High : Might : and the Hon"'= Company's officers, 
especially the last hostile attempt of the Hon''"' Johan Rysingh in surprising and keeping 
the aforesaid Fort Casimir with all its buildings, ammunition, materials and other effects, 
disarming the Company's oflBcers and depriving them even of their sidearms, contrary 
to aU neighborly and military usages. It is not within our power to estimate the insults, 
injuries and damages sustained thereby, which might have turned out so much greater, 
more injurious and critical for the Incorporated West India Company, as the aforesaid 
Fort was surprised just at the time, when we and our nation were too weak and distressed, 
to offer resistance to two so powerful neighbors attacking and threatening us on both 
sides, t The Director-General and Council of New-Netherland declare themselves therefore 
innocent of all the inconveniences, misfortunes and bloodshed, which have been or 

* Missing. 

+ [New Haven Col. Records, Vol. II, 113:] 

"At a General Court held at Newhaven for the Jurisdiction July S"" 1654. 

Theophilus Eaton, Esq' GouernC 

Mr. Stephen Goodyeare, Dept Gou' 

Francis Newman ) 

Mr Samuell Eton ( 

Mr. Benja : Feiin — Milford 

Mr William Seete— Guildford. 

The Court considering the peace now concluded betwixt England and Holland, and that all acts of hostilities are 
to cease betwixt those two nations and so upon that ground the intended warr w" the Dutch here ceaseth also, did 

Mew York Historical Records. 83 

hereafter may be the consequence of such violation and interruption of all friendship and 
neighborliness by the present Governor Jan Rysingh and other officers of the General 
College of Commerce on behalf of the Koyal Swedish South-Company. We request the 
notary, Dirck van Schelluyne, and the accompanying vritnesses to communicate this in 
presence of the Hon'"^ Fiscal Cornells van Tienhoven as our ansv^er to the unreasonable 
protest of the Hon*'^ Factor Johan {sic .') Elswyck and as our counter-protest, to make 
him acquainted with it and give him and all, whom it may concern, a copy hereof 
authenticated in debita forma* 

Done at New-Amsterdam in New-Netherland on the 27'." October 1654. (It was 

P. Stutvesant, 


La Montagne, 

CoK. tan Tienhoven. 

resoltttion permitting hudde to act as surveyor on the 

A certain petition of Andries Hudde, in which he asks to be employed here, having 
been read at the Council-meeting, the following rescript was made. 

As at the present time there is no occasion for the petitioner's employment, he is 
provisionally permitted to exercise his former profession as surveyor within the province. 
If some other opportunity should offer, the petitioner' s renewed request shall be attended 
to. Thus done at the meeting on the 17'? December 1654. Present his Honor, the 
noble Director-General P. S., Mr. Nicasius de Sille, Mr. La Montagne and the Fiscal 

order that all those lawes and orders W" have bene made aboute stopping provisions, prohibbitting trade w" the 
Dutch etc* shall be now repealed. 

A letter was now by order of this Court sent to the Sweeds at Delaware Bay informing them of the proprietie 
w^" some in this colony have to large tracts of land on both sides of Delaware Bay & River, and desiring a 
neighbourly correspondence w"> them both in tradeing and planting there and an answer thereof etc." 

The answer of the Swedish Governor written in Latin under date 1" Aug. was read in Council on the 2« Novbr. 
1654. Commissioners of Hartford had also spoken to the Governor in reference to settling in Delaware, but little 
willingness to go there was expressed by inhabitants of Newhaven. A committee reported to that effect on the 
27'" Novbr. 1654 and finally it was settled, that Mr Samuel Eaton and Mr Francis Newman were to go, who on 
the 11'" Decbr. signified their assent. New Haven Town Rec. II, 158, 160. 

* The ship was not surrendered to the Swedes, but used by the Company for the Curagao trade under the name 
of "Diemen." (See N. T. Col. MSS., Vol. XII, fol. 66).— B. F. 

Third Period 

Fort Casimir (New-Castle) in the hands of the Swedes and its 

Recapture by the Dutch. Complete overthrow of the 

Swedish Government on the Delaware (May, 

1684, to September, 166S). 

Letter from the Directors to Petefs Sttttvesant : seizure of Fort 
Casimir regretted ; Swedes to be expelled from the South 
river ; reinforcements for that purpose will be sent. 16™ of 
November 1654. 

How very mucli we were startled by the infamous surrender of tlie Company's Fort 
on the Southriver and by the violent and hostile usurpation of the Swedes there, your 
Honor will have sufficiently learned from our general letter, sent herewith, in which to 
express further or in greater detail our serious opinion or intention we did not deem 
advisable, as the same must be kept as secret as possible : it is strictly speaking this, 
that above all your Honor must do your utmost to revenge this misfortune not only by 
restoring matters to their former condition, but also by driving the Swedes at the same 
time from the river, as they did us ; in such a manner however, that those of them, who 
should desire to come under our jurisdiction, may be allowed to do so, but we prefer, 
and this must be worked up with discretion, that they should not settle there, but at 
some other place in our territory, as we would like to see the river-district settled and 
cultivated by our own people, to which end in case oY success, which God may grant, 
all possible means should be contributed and used, either by animating such of our 
nation, who are willing to settle there, by some additional privileges or by some other 
means yet to be discovered ; and we believe for many reasons, that it is of special and 
great concern for the Company and the State, that they should at some future time 
enjoy a peaceful possession of the river. 

The ship "Koninck Salomon," which your Honor specially asks for for this 
expedition with the supplement of the promised assistance, is being prepared and cleared 
and we hope that, unless winter surprises us, we shall get it ready for sea before the 
winter ; but as this is as uncertain as its arrival there in the spring, whereas a hard 
and long winter might well make it fall and consequently little reliance can be placed 
upon it, therefore, fearing not without reason, that in the meantime the Swedes on that 
river might get assistance and re-inforcements, we have judged it highly advantageous 
and necessary to urge your Honor seriously and to command, that you should try to 
hire there and use for the carrying out of this expedition one or the other private ship 

86 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

or vessel (we think also the vessel now on the way, the " Swarte Arent",* a very suitable 
one hereto) and in case of refusal, which we trust will not occur, to compel finally 
the skippers or the owners to do it, whereas under such circumstances no excuses 
or private interests can be considered, as daily occurrences in this our State here prove 

As to the desired supplement of soldiers, we are by no means idle, but prove 
satisfactorily, that it concerns us very much, as the drum is beaten for it daily : hence 
we are in hopes, to send over a detachment of soldiers in the ship ' ' de groote Christoflfel,' ' 
also an arquebusier and two carpenters ; however, if we should not be so fortunate and 
get such a number of soldiers, as we would like to have, we are together with Lieutenant 
Newton of opinion, that your Honor has there about a strong enough force for it, 
especially if the said expedition is undertaken speedUy and before the Swedes are 
re-inforced, for your Honor need not fear any other enemies there, being in peace with 
the neighboring English, so that all the soldiers and the exempted, who in such cases are 
obliged thereto, can be used for it ; further all such free men, as should oifer themselves, 
or might be induced by some other means, could be engaged, as the trainbands of the 
City of New- Amsterdam are under these circumstances sufficient and strong enough, to 
guard the place in the meantime 

We forgot to say, that your Honor must use aU possible means, to get hold of 
Gerrit Bicker, the late Commander of the Company' s Fort on the aforesaid Southriver, 
whereas we cannot but conclude from the documents sent over and from verbal reports, 
that the same has conducted himself very faithlessly, even treacherously in the 
performance of his duties and it is therefore necessary, that he should be punished as 
an example for others, regardless of vindication ; likewise all those must be punished, 
who may have been concerned in it, which we hereby recommend most earnestly to 
your Honor. 


negotiations eespecting the boundaries, now carried on in 
England ; the surrender of Fort Casimir is condemned ; Jean 
Paul Jacquet. 23" Novbr. 1654. 

10. We hardly know, which astonished us more, the attempt of the (newly) 
arrived Swedish troops to make themselves masters of the Southriver and our Fort or 
the infamous surrender of the same by our commandant : as this cannot be tolerated, 
therefore other provisions must be made in due time, that no more damage is done us ; 
and in order that, if necessary, we here may also be enabled to prove the indecency of 
these proceedings and the violation of the so lawful possession of the Company, your 
Honor is dii-ected to send us by first opportunity not only authenticated copies of the 
conveyances and titles for the purchased lands on the said Southriver executed in the 

* Black Eagle. 

New York Historical Records. 87 

year 1 650, but also all such other authenticated documents and papers, as may be found 
necessary for the confirmation thereof * „ 

25. In the ship "de grote ChristoflTel " goes over as free man Jan Paulo Jacquet with 
his family and as he is unacquainted in that country and intends to devote himself there 
to farming, we have not been able nor wished to refuse him the desired recommendation, 
the more so, because he has served the Company in Brazil for many years : therefore we 
recommend your Honor to assist the same as much as possible, without disadvantage to 
the Company and after having indicated to him some suitable place to allot under the 
customary conditions as much land to him, as he may be able to cultivate. 

Privileges granted to the American Company. 
We Carl Gustaf &* make hereby known, that, whereas now some years ago several 
special resolutions, orders and edicts, concerning the importation of and trade in tobacco 
in this Kingdom, have been issued and proclaimed and whereas also lately, in the year 
1653 it has been resolved and ordered to abolish and suppress the tobacco-trade then 
privileged and conceded to certain stockholders and to let everybody, who desired, 
indulge in it freely and without hindrance, on account of the manifold complaints and 
charges, which are being received about it, yet, although tobacco considered by itself is a 
commodity, which could be missed without much loss, the incomprehensible craving for 
which every body should smother and suppress, so that We had good reasons, rather to 
contend against and hinder, than to allow and promote the importation of and trade in 
the same, as the prevailing bad habit and mis-use of it has grown to such an extent, that 
over the whole Kingdom it is almost generally bought and used by the common people, 
it appears to Us inexpedient, to destroy and abolish it thus totally and entirely and We 
have besides preferred to deliberate upon means and ways, how and by what measures 
this trade might, in the present situation of affairs, be dii-ected, managed and made useful 
to the best of the public and the state. Hence We have after sufficient consideration of 
important reasons and motives thought necessary and expedient to restrict the importation 
of and trade in tobacco, as hitherto licensed and authorized and to transfer and commission 
with it under certain rules and conditions the stockholders of the American Company, 
believing this to be an expedient and measure, by which We hope, that not only 
New-Sweden will for the present be saved, grow and increase, but also Our people receive 
so much better opportunities and chances to become familiar with the navigation and 
trade to America and to busy themselves with and carry on the same to their considerable 
profit and progress ; therefore We will herewith and by virtue of this Our letters-patent 
graciously invest and authorize the aforesaid American Company and its shareholders 
with such privileges, franchises and immunities, that nobody, whoever he may be, shall 
dare and undertake, much less have power, permission and consent, under no pretext 
and pretense whatever, to import or have imported here into the Kingdom, the 
Grandduchy of Finland, Carelia, Ingermanland, Gottland, Halland and Jempteland any 

* See Col. Hist., Vol. I, p. 556, aud followiug. 

88 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

tobacco, neither in large nor in small quantities, not secretly nor openly, not for sale nor for 
his own use, except only the American Company and its shareholders. Any one, who 
shaU after this be found to disobey and break this law with no matter how small and 
insignificant an amount up to twenty pounds and is taken injlagranti, shall, the first 
time, forfeit all the tobacco, which he has in his possession and which is found on his 
premises and besides pay a fine of forty marks in silver, the second time eighty marks 
and the thii-d time twice as much again and so on, as often as he may happen to be 
discovered and convicted. But if any one is discovered to have a larger quantity 
than twenty pounds, he shaU pay a fine of twenty Oere * silver for each pound and 
his goods shall be forfeited to the Company pursuant to the charter, which has been 
given and delivered. We order and command therefore Our Equerry and Privy 
Council, the Lord-Lieutenant here in Stockholm and the Governors-General, Governors, 
Administrator-General of the Customs, Burgomasters and City-Councils, Customs' 
Officers and Inspectors and others in authority and in Our service, whom this may in any 
way concern, that they shaU take especial care of this edict and not allow, that it be 
disobeyed and defeated, also to assist the aforesaid stockholders of the said Company 
and their agents and deputies, in everything, as much as all and every body in special 
is able to, which will further the proper execution of this Our order, under pain of 
Our rebuke and displeasure. Everybody shall entii-ely govern himself accordingly. In 
witness whereof &" 

Stockhohn, the 23'' of December 1654. 

Gael Gustaf. 


Extract from a letter of the Directors to the Council of New- 
Netherland regarding the intended expedition against the 

26'!" April 1655. 

We approve and cannot but remark with pleasure upon your Honors' prudence in and 
about the detention and seizure of the Swedish ship and her cargo ; we stated further in 
our last letter to the Director expressly, how your Honors ought to treat the Swedes on 
the Southriver and we shall explain it in greater detail hereafter in this letter ; we cannot 
however omit, to inform your Honors, that while occupied with the examination and 
scrutiny of the claim, which the Company has on said river, we have found not only 
sloven and bad copies and documents, but besides this they are also viciously and 
miserably written, so that in many places -it is impossible to understand the proper 
mjeaning ; especially so the documents, made there and sent us, of the transactions 
between the Director Stuyvesant and the Swedish Governor on that river in the year 

In our last letter directed to Director Stuyvesant in private and sent by the ships 
"de Swarte Arent" and "groote Christoffel" we have thoroughly explained our serious 

* 100 oere = 20| cents. 

iKew York Historical Records. 89 

desire and intentions, how to proceed against the Swedes on the Southriver and 
consequently we had hoped, that the expedition against them should already have been 
undertaken ; but having since learned by a letter of the said Director, written from 
Barbadoes on the 22'^ January a. c, of his departure from New-Netherland, we found 
ourselves disappointed in our expectations ; although this has quite startled us and 
given very little satisfaction, (seeing that this voyage was undertaken without oui- 
previous knowledge and apjjroval), we have nevertheless concluded not only to take up 
again the expedition in question, but also to undertake and carry it out with more 
assurance of success. We have now chartered for this purpose from the honorable 
Burgomasters and Council of this City one of their four largest and best ships, caUed 
"de Wagh," * armed with 36 pieces, which is now getting ready and will sail from here 
with more than 200 men in 12 to 14 days. As soon as the same shall have arrived, your 
Honors are hereby directed and authorized, to undertake immediately and as quick as 
possible, but with caution, this expedition and to carry it out with courage, even though 
Director Stuyvesant should not have returned from his voyage. In this case your 
Honors may open our aforesaid last letter directed to him in private, in order to learn 
too our ideas and intentions concerning it and govern yourselves accordingly ; but we 
strictly command to keep its contents a secret among your Honors' Board, as honor 
and oath demand it, and not divulge them, until the aforesaid expedition shall, with 
God's help, have been successfully carried out. As we have said above no delay and 
no sluggishness must be permitted, as we learn, that great preparations are being made 
in Sweden to assist their countrymen on the said Southriver. 

Resolution of the Chamber of Amsterdam appointing Frederick 


Extract from the register of resolutions, adopted by the Directors of the 
No. 32. West-India Company, Department at Amsterdam 

Die Lunae, the 24'." May 1655. 
It having been brought up for consideration, Resolved, that Frederick de Coninck, 
engaged as Caj^tain of the ship "de Waegh," shaU be ordered to proceed immediately 
on board of the said ship and as quickly as possible undertake with the help of God the 
voyage to New-Netherland, either on the direct route or by a roundabout way, as wind 
and weather permit. As soon as arrived there, he shall report to the Director-General 
and Council of the Company to show them his authority and ask and wait for orders, 
which he shall promptly and precisely obey. To this end an extract of this resolution 
BhaU be given to him, the Captain, in place of instructions. 

Agrees with the aforesaid register. 

In absence of the Attorney 

L. VAN Seventer. 

* I. e., The Balance. 

90 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Extract from a letteb of the Directors to Stutvesant stating 


We have informed your Honors sufficiently by indications in our last general letter, 
here enclosed, of our serious opinions and advices, how to treat the Swedes on the 
Southriver. We still retain and persist in these orders and dii-ections, only we have, 
after previous deliberation, resolved, that, when your Honors shall have carried the 
expedition to a successful ind, the land, upon which Fort Christina stands, with a 
certain amount of garden-land for the cultivation of tobacco shall be left to the people, 
as they seem to have bought it with the knowledge and consent of the Company, under 
the condition that the aforesaid Swedes shall consider themselves subjects of this State 
and the Company, this for your information and government : while we will not continue 
upon this point, we have yet desired to recommend most earnestly, that the utmost 
possible speed may be used in the execution of the expedition after the arrival of this 
man-of-war (arrived on the IS'? of August). 

Letter from the Directors to the Council of New-Netherland ; 


The 28'? of May 1655. 
Honorable, Prudent, Pious, Beloved, Faithful. 

After closing our general letter, we have considered the obstacles and difficulties, to 
which Director Stuyvesant might be subjected in his journey and have therefore 
concluded after previous deliberation to send your Honors herewith the duplicate of a 
certain private letter (in case the first one might be locked up and could not be got at) 
mentioned in our letter of the 24'? July 1653 : this letter shall not only be opened by 
your Honors, if Director Stuyvesant has not yet arrived there or should have died, but 
we charge and command also, that the orders given therein shall be carried out and 
obeyed by your Honors provisionally and until the return of the said Director, for we 
have found it thus to be necessary for the advantage of the Company and the State. 

We intend also to send your Honors herewith for our greater tranquillity and 
safety a copy of the letter (in case the original might be locked up) containing our orders 
for the undertaking and executing of the beforementioned expedition against the Swedes 
on the Southriver. This done, your Honors are authorized to open our letter dii-ected 
privately to Director Stuyvesant and sent by the ship " Bontekoe," * duplicate of which 
is here enclosed. 

Amsterdam 28'!" May 1655. 

*I. e.. The Brindled Cow. 

Kew York Historical Eecords. 91 


We have again received information from Stockholm iu regard to the progress made 
in the preparations there for the Southriver, which ought to make your Honors hasten so 
much more with the expedition in question and to get matters in such a condition, that 
the place may be strong enough to resist a new attack, which we recommend especially. 

Message from Die. Stuyvesant (sick) to the Council empovs^ering 

necessary arrangements for the expedition AGAINST THE SWEDES. 

16*!' of August [1655] 

As my indisposition, which has now already continued 12 or 13 days, does not admit 
of assisting at the very urgent business, which must be taken in hand effectively and 
speedily at the arrival of the ship "de Waagh" and of helping to continue, as we wish 
it fi-om our heart, to which must be added, that Councillor Lamoutagne three or four 
days ago has fallen sick and been taken by the general disease, so that he cannot appear 
in the meeting, yet the business must not suffer any delay, therefore Messrs Nicasius de 
Sille and Corn, van Thienhooven are required and at the same time hereby also specially 
qualified, authorized and directed, to progress to a speedy result everything, which their 
Honors may consider in any way necessary for the expedition, of which they know, and 
to assume as colleague the Honorable Valiant Frederick de Coninck, Captain of the said 
man-of-war "de Waagh" and freely to communicate with us at all occasions, to ask and 
demand, wherein they might need our advice and counsel. On the day as above 
Amsterdam in New-Netheiiand (It was signed) P. Stuyvesant (below stood) by order of 
the Hon"'^ Director-General of New-Netherland (and signed) Cornells van Ruyven, 

Papers showing the preparations made for the above expedition, 


Proclamation appointing a day of prayer and fasting, to invoke God' s blessing 
on the expedition against the Swedes. 
Honorable, Dear, Beloved Friends. 

Considering on one side the manifold favors and benefits, which God in His mercy 
has from time to time not only given to this just opening Province, but also continues to 
give, of which not the least proof has been the sudden and unexpected change of the 
feared war into an agreeable peace, granted us last year, since which time God's favours 
and benefits have not been wanting either for our departure or return, for the sailing or 

92 Colonial Settlements on the Delmvare River. 

coming in of several vessels and persons, vpherein the good inhabitants of this province 
generally were interested, and in addition the general blessings of God in progressing, 
continuing and strengthening not only the state at large, but also each particular 
individual, v^hich therefore ought to induce everybody to a dutiful observance and 
gratitude, as this is the right key to open for us the further treasures of God's mercies, 
favors and blessings and taking in consideration, on the other side, the resolution and 
order of the Chief Magistrates of this Province, to be carried out and obeyed for the 
service and better securing of this Province under God's mercy, for which therefore 
God's special blessing help and guidance must be asked with humble hearts and earnest 
prayers, The Du-ector-General and Council of this Province have above all thought it 
necessary, to order and appoint a general day of fasting, thanksgiving and prayer, which 
is to be kept everywhere within this province on next Wednesday, being the 25"" day of 
this month of August, on which day in the fore and afternoon you are to assemble, at 
the usual places, where God's word is preached, and after listening to it you are to praise 
and glorify the All-Good God for His general and special blessings, mercies and benefits, 
given formerly and which He continues to give to this Province and its good inhabitants, 
also to ask God with humble hearts, not only that He may continue them, but also (and 
this is the special purpose) to pray the Good God especially, that He will please to bless 
the intended expedition, undertaken solely for the better security and progress of this 
Province, to make it successful for the honor of His Name and let it have a desirable 
result, as without God and His divine blessing all undertakings, counsels and schemes 
are vain and to no purpose ; the servants of God' s word are therefore requested to adapt 
their texts, prayers and thanksgivings to this purpose and all subjects professing the 
Reformed religion are directed, to appear on the aforesaid day and time at the places, 
where God's word is usually taught, and there to praise and thank the Good God for 
received benefits and invoke His blessing on the country and its inhabitants generally 
and especially on the intended expedition, as well as that He may please to take into His 
merciful protection the Director-General, the CouncU and other high and low officers with 
their men and ships and bless their undertaking in such a manner, that all may turn out to 
the honor of His Holy Name, to the propagation of His Holy Gospel and the weKare of this 
Province and its good inhabitants. In order, that this shall be the better observed the 
Director-General and Council forbid all usual exercises on the aforesaid day, as ploughing, 
sowing, mowing, fishing, hunting and all amusements, as playing at tennis, ballplaying, 
drinking, carousing and selling liquor, under the penalty of an arbitrary punishment. 

This done at the meeting of the Hon'''* Director-General and Council, held at Fort 
Amsterdam in New-Netherland, on the day as above. 

(Signed) P. Stutvesawt, 

August 16, 1655. NiCASius de Sille. 

Call for volunteers for the expedition against the Swedes. 

Thursday, the 19'." of August. 

If some lovers of the flourishing, well-being and safety of this newly opened province 

of New-Netherland are willing and inclined to serve the Director-General and Council 

either for love or for a reasonable salary and board-money, they will please to address 

themselves to his Honor, the Noble Director- General himself or to one of the Honorable* 

JVew York Historical Records. 93 

Gentlemen of the Council and inform them. Director-General and Council promise hereby, 
that if any one (which God may prevent) should happen in attack or defense to loose a 
limb or to be maimed, the same shall receive for it a proper reward pursuant to the general 
order and charter of the Privileged West-India Company. On the day as above. (It was 

P. Stutvesant, 


Resolution to impress ships in the harbor for the expedition. 
As for the service of this province of New-Netherland the Hon'''* Director-General 
and Council, the Yaliant Captain Frederick de Coninck being present, have considered it 
necessary for several reasons, which induced their Honors thereto, friendly to ask some 
of the merchant-ships now here into the service of the country, that provided they 
receive proper compensation for it, tliey undertake with them the voyage in question 
pursuant to the orders and directions of the Noble Lords-Directors and perform it with 
the assistance of God, therefore, in case the skippers should refuse, it has been resolved 
by the meeting, to order the same to enter into the service of the country with their 
ships, ammunition, the people with them, provisions and implements, to be at the disposal 
of the Hon'"'= Director-General and Council to make a voyage to the Southriver of 
New-Netherland with the man-of-war "de Waagh," expressly sent for this expedition 
from Holland, and to remain there as long, as the Hon"'" Director-General and Council or 
their deputies shall consider, tliat they can be of service to their country. For this 
service due satisfaction sliall be given to the skippers or their owners at Amsterdam in 
Holland by the above said Hon"'" Du-ectors, the Lords and Patroons of New-Netherland. 

On the day as above. (It was signed) 

P. Stuyvesant, 


Appointment of a special commissary to the expedition. 
It was considered necessary by the meeting to engage and appoint a proper person 
as provisional Commissary to take care and supervise, that all ammunition and victuals 
needed for the intended expedition (which shall be communicated to him in a list by the 
Hon. Du-ector-General and Council) be ordered, shipped and properly taken care of; 
whereto Foppe Jansen has been judged fit, who appearing before the meeting accepted 
the same and promised with an oath into the hands of the Hon. Director-General to 
acquit himself diligently and faithfully of the aforesaid charge. On the day as above 
[19'." August 1655] 

Order on a petition of Edward Scarborough, who desires to sail to Vii'ginia. 
On Tuesday the 24'? of August. 
After reading before the Council the request of Edmund Scharburch * for permission 
to sail in his vessel with some purchased negroes from here to Virginia, it was decided, 
the opinion of every one having been asked : 

* A person of this name was Surveyor of Virginia at that time. Reg. Penns". Vol IV, p. 96. — B. F 

94 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

The request is granted, provided that the petitioner give bail to the amount of five 
thousand pounds sterling to enter the Southbay or the Southriver neither dii'ectly nor 
indirectly and that his people promise the same under oath nor to give anybody any 
information at sea or on land. Date as above. 

Before me, Cornelius van Ruyven, Secretary in the service of the General 
Incorporated West-India Company, apppeared Edmund Scarburgh, a resident of 
Hacco Macco in Vii'giiiia, who in the presence of the undersigned witnesses, promises, 
that he will not within four weeks from date either directly or indirectly enter the 
South bay and the Southriver or touch at any land within six mUes south or north 
thereof, much less saU into, anchor at or come into harbor at said Bay or River, except 
it happened, which God forbid, that he by God' s wind and weather were compelled to 
touch at the South Bay, in which case they shall not run in farther, than where they can 
save their lives, without sending any person from on board ashore, or allowing anyone 
to come aboard. Also, that during said time, neither he nor his crew will either directly 
or indirectly, by sea or by land, by the present or by any other barks or sloops nor even by 
any man in the world, furnish or give any intelligence to those in the aforesaid countries. 
For the observance of aU that is aforesaid he, Scarburch, becomes bound in the sum of 
five thousand pounds sterling to be paid to the West-India Company in case he or any 
of his men were hereafter found to have acted contrary hereunto ; submitting to all 
courts, tribunals and judges his person and property, present and future. For greater 
security and observance of what is stated above Mr. Thomas Willett * becomes baU and 
co-priiicipal in solidiim, that all that is aforesaid shall be observed and effected by 
Edmund Scarburch and his people, pledging to that end his person and property, and 
subjecting the same to aU courts, tribunals and judges. 

In testimony whereof the parties and witnesses have signed this at Amsterdam in 
New-Netherlaud the 24'\ August A". 1655. 

Edm. Scarburgh. 
Ths. Willett. 
This is the mark ^ of 

Claes Ptsen, as witness. 
This is the mark ^ of 

RoELOFF Caestense, made as witness. 
In my presence. 

CoRNELis VAN RuTVEN, Secretary. 

(Translated by Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan.) 

Order to Capt. Douwes to join the expedition with his ship " Love." 
Anna Douwes, skipper under God of the ship "deLiefde" is hereby ordered, 
pursuant to the resolution taken, to serve the country and the Company with the 

* Thomas Willett of New-Plymouth and of New- Amsterdam was a prominent merchant and shipowner, who 
carried on, it seems, an extensive business between the Dutch and English Colonies. He came to New- Amsterdam 
for the first time about 1644. When Stuyvesant had arrived to supercede Kieft, Governor Bradford of New-PljTnouth 
recommended Willett as his especial friend, who desired to continue the trade with the Dutch, which he had carried 
on for some time past. He seems to have been rather unscrupulous, if we may judge from his frequent appearance 
in Court charged with attempts to bribe officials etc., but was at the same time a good political friend of the Dutch. 
After the English had taken possession of New-Netherland he was one of the first Mayors of New-York (16C6). See 
N. T. Col. MSS. and General Entries, Vol. I.— B. F. 

J\''eiv York Historical Records. 95 

aforesaid ship and crew, commanded by him, in the intended expedition, provided that 
he shall therefore receive honest satisfaction and in case of loss of or damage to the ship 
by future accidents such remuneration as impartial men, understanding it, shall adjudge. 
And he is directed, to make and keep himself ready immediately iipon being shown this 
and to embark such crew, ammunition, provisions and materials, as may be sent to him 
about next Thursday. Date as above [Aug. 24'? 1655]. 

Order to captains of vessels in the harbor to furnish men, ammunition, etc. 
Whereas some skippers of the merchant- vessels lying here have been repeatedly 
asked, both kindly and earnestly, to serve the country in the coming expedition under 
such reasonable conditions, as in conscience they could agree upon with the Director- 
General and Council or as impartial experts should adjudge, to which conscientiously 
they could not be disposed, their reasons for refusal having been examined, although not 
quite acceptable, because they referred to some private profits, while Director-General 
and Council have hopes under God's guidance and help to bring the expedition to a good 
end with the means entrusted to them by God and their High Magistrates, if the said 
merchant-ships will each supply them with two men and theii- surplus of provisions and 
ammunition of war. Therefore it is resolved to communicate this to the skippers and at 
the same time, that they may take in their cargoes here, provided they remain here until 
after the result of the ex^jedition is known or be in readiness to get their despatch from the 
Southriver, whereas Director-General and Council consider it highly necessary, to give 
speedy information of the beginning and progress of the expedition in question to the 
Hon"° Magistrates in the Fatherland. Date as above. (It was signed) 

P. Stutvesant, 


Warrant to impress the above seamen, etc. 

3. Cornells van Tienhoven and Frederick de Coninck, Captain of the sliip "de 
Waegh" are hereby authorised and charged to proceed on board of the ships "de 
Bontecoe," "Bever" and " New- Amsterdam " and pursuant to the resolution, first to ask 
amicably and in case of refusal imperatively to command by virtue of these presents 
from each ship two men, 200 lbs of codfish, two or three small barrels of groats, one 
barrel of meat with one barrel of bacon and 300 lbs of bread, also as much powder as 
they conveniently could spare, leaving both order and receipt at the request of the 
skippers for their satisfaction. Dated as above [24'? August 1655]. 

Appointment of pilots for the expedition. 
It has been deemed necessary by the Hon*"" Director-General and Council of New- 
Netherland to engage some persons, who are well versed in and have pertinent knowledge 
of the banks, depths and shoals in as well as about the Southriver, to employ them as 
pilots, for which have been considered fit Wessel Gerritsen and Pieter Lourissen, as 
having both sailed to and from there for a long time; wliich persons having been 
summoned before the Council, they were made acquainted herewith and they engaged 

96 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

themselves to the Hon'"^ Director-General for the service of the Compauy and bargained 
each for 3 guilders * per day. Dated as above [28'^ August 1655]. 

Resolution to exempt the Jews from military service. 
28»? of August. 

The Captains and officers of the trainbands of tins City hav'ing asked the Dkector- 
General and Council, whether the Jewish people, who reside in this City, should also train 
and mount guard with the Citizens' bands, this was taken in consideration and deliberated 
npon : tirst the disgust and unwillingness of these trainbands to be fellow-soldiers with 
the aforesaid nation and to be on guard with them in the same guard house and on the 
other side, that the said nation was not admitted or counted among the citizens, as 
regards trainbands or common citizens' guards neither in the illustrious City of 
Amsterdam nor (to our knowledge) in any city in Netherland ; but in order that the said 
nation may honestly be taxed for their freedom in that respect, it is du-ected by the 
Director-General and Coiincil, to prevent further discontent, that the aforesaid nation 
shall, according to the usages of the renowned City of Amsterdam, remain exempt from 
the general training and guard duty, on condition that each male person over 16 and 
under 60 years contribute for the aforesaid freedom towards the relief of the general 
municipal taxes sixty- five stivers \ every month and the military council of the citizens is 
hereby authorized and charged to cany this into effect untU our further orders and to 
collect pursuant to the above the aforesaid contribution once in every month and in case 
of refusal to collect it by legal process. Thus done in Council at Fort Amsterdam, on 
the day as above. (It was signed) 


Charter of three sloops for the expedition. 
As it has been considered necessary by Director-General and Council, to hire for the 
carrying out of the expedition in question, besides the large vessels, some yachts, therefore 
the yachts of Willem Boutje, M. Abraham Staas and Arien Symensen have been judged 
proper for the expedition and these men having been summoned before the Council, they 
were informed hereof and have chartered their yachts to the Hon"" Director-General for 
the service of the Company in the coming expedition at 6 guilders per day, provided that 
the skippers must send with each yacht two men and one boy at their own expense. On 
the day as above [30'." Aug. 1655]. 

Charter of the French privateer " L' Esperance " for the expedition. 

31".' of August 

It has been considered necessary by the Director-General and Council for the better 

carrying out of the coming expedition, to engage besides the ships and yachts, which are 

already in the service, the French privateer lately arrived here, called "I'Esperance ;" in 

case the said galiot should experience any misfortune or damage through our orders, 

* Equal to |1.20 gold. f One stiver = 2 cents. 

iMew York, Historical Records. 97 

while making an attack or on the defense during the voyage and the well known 
expedition, Director-General and Council bind themselves hereby, to give to Capt. Jan 
Flamman proper satisfaction for it, according to the verdict of good experts. On the day 
as above. (It was signed) 

P. Sttjttesant, 


(Beneath stood) There are also in the said galiot two cannons with appurtenances 
and some cordage belonging to the two Captains of the galiot. 

How money was raised for the expenses of the expedition. 
Ult""' August. 

I, the undersigned, acknowledge hereby to have received fi-om Mr. Thomas Willeth 
fifteen hundred guilders in black and white wampum, to be repaid in merchandises to 
the satisfaction of said Willeth or ia beavers, under condition that he accept the beavers 
at nine guilders the piece, the merchandises at market-price. Date as above. 

The above obligation for fifteen hundred guilders has been given by the Hon"'® 
Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant in behalf of Mr. Willeth as his private debt and the 
wampum will be taken by the said Hon'''' General on the voyage to the Southriver, to 
be used for the service of the Company, if it should be needed, either for paying 
the soldiers, expenses, provisions or for presents to be made to the natives : therefore 
this is added to the obligation, that in case of mishap (which God may prevent), this 
Bum must go to the debit of the Company and be paid out of their Honors' property in 
this country, which we the undersigned attest. Date as above (signed) 

P. Sttjtvesant, 


Resolution to adjoin the Burgomasters to the Council during the Director's 

It having been taken in consideration by Director-General and Council at the meeting, 
how weakened the board would be, when the Hon*"'' General and Mr. de Sille should have 
left for the Southriver, as with God's assistance they intend to do, therefore it was 
resolved and concluded, that the Hon"'® Councillor La Montague and his Honor, the 
Fiscal van Tienhoven should unite with themselves in important matters Mr. Allard 
Antony, Burgomaster of the City and Mr. Martin Cregier, late Burgomaster and first 
Captain of the trainbands here. Date as above. 

98 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Papers eelating to the defeat of the Swedes on the Delaware ; 


(New-Castle) and Fort Christina (Wilmington) ; oath of 
allegiance taken by the swedes, etc. 

List of the Documents here inclosed. 
No. 1. Letter of the Gentlemen of the Council to G-eneral Petrus Stuyvesant at the 

South-River, wherein they give information of the difficulties, into which 

they got involved with the Indians, natives of these countries ; added to 

it is the answer of the Council to the General' s letter under No. 2. 
No. 2. Letter of the Hon^'^ General from the South-River, dated 12'? Septbr. 1655, 

wherein he communicates the surrender of Fort Casimir. 
No. 3. Capitulation or conditions, under which Fort Casimir has been surrendered 

to the Hon*"^ General Petrus Stuyvesant. 
No. 4. Letter of the Du-ector-General from the South-River, dated 29'." Septbr. 

1655 ; he communicates the taking of Fort Christina. 
No. 5. Capitulation or conditions, under which Fort Christina has been surrendered 

to the Hon"'* General. 
No. 6. Oath taken by the Swedes, who have remained at the South-River ; names 

of those, who have taken the oath. 

Letter from the Council to Stuyvesant ; Indians have attacked New-Amsterdam 
during his absence at the South-river. 
Honorable, Valiant, Prudent Sir : 
This express is dispatched to your Honor, to acquaint your Honor and the gentlemen 
of your Council with our sorrows, viz. : that in the morninghour of the 15*? inst. many 
armed savages came, consisting of Maquasas, Mahicanders, savages from the Upper and 
Lower North- River, from Paham' s * Land, northern savages and others. With intolerable 
impudence they forcibly entered the farmers' houses and offered great insult to Mr. 
Allerton, whereupon as much order as possible was formed, to secure the fort and a 
parley held with the chiefs of the council, who gave many and great good words. They 
went to their people on the shore, who towards evening, about 9 o. c, wounded 
Hendryck van Dyck, standing in his gardengate, with an arrow in the side, but not 
mortally and came very near cleaving Paulus Leendertz' head with an [axe], as he stood 
by his wife. It was then thought advisable to go to the Indian chiefs on the shore and 
ask, why they had not retired to Nut's Island f as promised. Arrived upon the shore, 
the savages rushed on our people and killed Jan de Visser, whereupon the Netherlanders 
returned the fire, driving the enemy into their canoes, of which there were 64 in number. 
The rest run away along the island and as soon as they were off land, they shot from 
their canoes killing Cornells van Dov (?) and wounding others and presently we saw the 
house on Harboken in flames. This done, whole Pavonia was immediately on fire and 
[now] everything there is burned and everybody killed except the family of Michiel 

• An Indian chief, see Col. Hist. Vol. I, p. 183. f Now Governor's Island. 

Kew York Historical Records. 99 

Hansen. On the Island they do nothmg but burn and fire. Nine hundred savages are 
in camp at the end of this island or thereabouts, having joined the others. As we are 
informed by Mr. Willit, we are to be attacked by them in a short time. God may give 
Tis prudence and courage. Mr. Willit reports, that the supreme chief of the Minquasas 
has been here conferring upon some topics with all the Indian chiefs and he believes, 
that the Swedes have bribed these savages and that throirgh Swedish influences these 
troubles have fallen upon us in your Honor's absence. God has delivered us last night 
from a general massacre, by the hastiness of the savages, who relied upon their superior 
numbers. We hope to defend us well. We might extend this farther, but shall leave it 
this time. 

We wish your Honor good success and have your Honor's order [to send] a yacht to 
an appointed place. We have, however, received no tidings either by letter or by savage, 
which, while we are here in difficulty ourselves, makes us fear, that your Honor might 
have met there with more resistance, than we expected. 

Sir: you will please take this letter into consideration and reflect, whether your 
Honor and the force [under your command] might not be more needed here than to 
subdue those places : it seems to us better, to protect one' s own house, than to gain one 
at a distance and loose the old property. We request a speedy answer, that we may 
know, how to act. 

Madame, your Honor's wife, with her whole famUy and all those, in whom your 
Honor and she are concerned, are weU. As the citizens are unwilling to guard other 
people's houses far from the Manhattans, we have, with her advice, hired 10 Frenchmen, 
to protect your Honor's bouwery on the Manhattans, subject to your Honor's pleasure. 
We'll keep as good watch as possible, and expect your Honor's speedy return, for 
to lie in the fort night and day with the citizens, has its difficulties, as they cannot 
be commanded like soldiers. As we have no more [to say], we'U commit your Honor and 
aU those with him to God' s protection and request your Honor to give our compliments 
to the Eev. Mr. Megapolensis and to warn him, to dread (such) a murderous design by 

, which was to be carried out there, unless the Attorney-General advised him 

of it before his departure and requested him, to bring it to your Honor's notice, 
opportunity offering ; but he did not think, it would be done here. We had much 
(more) to say, but not to grieve your Honor any more, we will be sUent, till another 
occasion, about the great murder of 100 men in 9 hours ; all the country-people are 
flying, except those from Amersfoort,* Midwout,t Breukelen and the English vUlages. 
There is a great deal of lamenting here, which we give your Honor to consider. We ask 
God, to take your Honor and all, whom you have with you, into His protection and 
bring you back speedily and in good health, for the consolation of the poor inhabitants. 
We would have saluted the other gentlemen, Messrs. SUle and Coninck with a few lines, 
but time does not aUow it. Closing with our compliments, we shall commend your Honor 
and Messrs. SUle and Coninck to God' s protection and remain 
12'? September. Youe Honor's Servants. 

God be praised and thanked. We have heard [with joyfulness] of your Honor's 
good success and [the taking] of Fort Casimir by an amicable arrangement without [loss] 

* Flatlands, L. I. f Flatbush, L. I. 

100 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Biver. 

or bloodshed : and useful, by the discouragement of the rest of the 

Swedes, to bring them the easier to a state of submission. We hope, that, before the 
arrival of this, yom- Honor may, by God's help, have brought it about, that all the 
Swedish troops on the South-River have yielded and surrendered Fort Christina. 

In the meantime, we see by your Honor's letter, that you intend to proceed slowly, 
partly to spare our troops, partly to receive our advice in regard to the point mentioned 
in your Honor' s letter. This shaU therefore serve as answer and our advice upon the 
[mooted] point is as follows : 

If Grod Almighty shoidd give into your Honor' s hands Fort Christina, to reduce [this 
fort], to strengthen and [garrison] Casimir and [to order] away from the South-River all 
the Swedes, especially aU those, who are [people of distinction] or from whom we might 
[expect trouble] in the futui-e, if they were allowed to remain, for no confidence can be 
placed in a conquered and vanquished people, when an emergency arises, as we have 
seen in [BrasU] and [illegible] 

Our advice would be, in case Fort Christina was given into your Honor's hands 
without bloodshed, to destroy the same as and let the Swedes remove from there. 

But, since God has wonderfully delivered us here from a general massacre by the 
savages and, on account of our manifold sins, has permitted the Indians to destroy many 
bouweries and kill the people, it would, in our opinion, be advisable for the preservation 
of the most important object and the consolation of the inhabitants, that your Honor would 
make speedily a provisional treaty with the Governor of the Swedes in regard to the fort 
and the land of Christina, on conditions as favorable for this state, as you may and as honor 
permits, and then come here by first opportunity with the ships and troops, to preserve 
what is left : all the other bouweries and places in the open country will be deserted, the 
corn and fodder for the cattle burned, the animals grown wild and it stands to fear, that 
other inconveniences may arise, so that we are afraid, that there will be great ti-ouble and 
suffering in the community and in case no provisions should come for the militia (about 

which we have already conferred with Messrs. Boudser and W ), they vdll receive 

very little. 

In respect to the desired advice, we cannot say [much] more for the present, but 
think, our sentiments will be sufficient to explain, what will serve the commonwealth best. 

Sir, we might write more, but are prevented by the continuous business, alarms and 
daily as well as nightly [interruptions] from all the oflicers and burghers ; so we shall 
stop and request your Honor earnestly to come speedily hitherward vsith the troops 
under your command (leaving a garrison at Casimir, but not more than necessary), for 
we and the citizens must aU stand [guard] and are harassed day and night with 
expeditions, watches, rounds and helping to save cattle and corn. All this we trust 
your Honor has seriously taken into consideration 

J^ew York Historical Records. 101 

No. 3. 

Letter from Stuyvesant to tlie Council, reporting the surrender of Fort Casimir. 
Honorable, Prudent and Very Wise Gentlemen. 

Last Sunday, a week ago to-day, after the sermon we took our departure ; next day 
about 3 o. c. p. m. we arrived off the bay of the South-River ; a calm and an unfavorable 
tide delayed our running up to it, then the following day we came to anchor before the 
place — the Swedish Fort Elsburgh ; there we mustered and divided our little force into five 
sections : on Friday in the morning we weighed anchor, wind and tide being favorable, 
passed about 8 or 9 o. c. Fort Casimir without show of hostility on either side and cast anchor 
in about a paterero' s shot distance from the above mentioned fort. We landed our troops 
instantly and sent Capt. Lieut. Smith with a drummer to the fort to demand restitution 
of our property. The commander requested delay, until he might have communicated 
witk Governor Rysingh ; his request was denied and in the meantime the passage to 
Christina occupied by 50 men detailed from our sections ; the commanding officer Sohuts 
was tlien, by a second message, requested and admonished under cover of our artillery, 
not to wait the attack of our troops, to prevent bloodshed and more calamities. In 
answer the commander desires to speak with us in person, which granted, he meets us 
in the valley about halfway between the fortresse and our incipient battery. He asked 
forthwith, that he might send an open letter, to be shown to us, to the Governor ; this 
demand was seriously denied and he retired in high dudgeon. Then the troops were 
marched up to the valley in full sight of the fort ; meanwhile our works were raised 
about a man' s height above the bushes and the fort summoned for the thii-d and last 
time ; they request very humbly a delay untU early next morning this was grantir'd, 
because this evening and the following night we could not finish our battery, so as to 
advance under its cover. Next morning the commanding officer came out and capitulated 
with us under the conditions, sent herewith, about midday our troops marched in and 
to-day we heard our first sermon and offered our imperfect thanks: God's hand and 
blessing have visibly been with us as well in the weather and good result as in making 
our adversaries lose courage ; therefore I request and command, that the Allgood God 
shall be thanked and praised not only on the regular days of service, but on a special 
day, to be fixed by your Honors and that further a pray be ofiered, that His Majesty will 
please to dwell further among lis with His aid and blessing. 

Yesterday, about noon, while the fort was being surrendered, the Factor Elswyck came 
from Fort Christina and asked in a friendly way and in the name of the Du'ector the cause 
of our coming and the orders of our superiors: to obtain and maintain our possessions, 
was our answer and he requested us to be satisfied with what we had accomplished, 
without advancing further upon the other Swedish fort, using at fii-st persuasive and 
friendly words, afterwards mingled with menaces, "hodie mihi, eras tibi" which were 
answered according to the state of the affairs : meanwhUe our little force wUl march on 
to-morrow or day after : it is my intention to proceed slowly with our trenches, partly to 
spare our troops, partly to have also your Honors' advice and opinions about the first and 
the last orders in the letter from the Mayors concerning that point, which will then be 
expected in the mail by the bearer of this : also, for your better information a copy of 
their special letter to me is sent herewith, which you will please compare with their last 

i02 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

general letter on this point and communicate us your advice thereon ; meanwhile I with 
Messrs Sille and Coninck shall do the best according to our best knowledge, wherewith 
closing I shall commit your Honor's to God's protection and shelter and remain 

Valiant, Prudent and Very Wise Gentlemen 
At Fort Casimir Your affectionate friend 

12"^ Septbr. 1655 Peteus Stuxvesant. 

About 30 Swedes have submitted to us and requested permission to go to the 
Manhattans, whom your Honor have to expect by first opportunity and to treat with 
all courtesy. I hope, that more will follow. 

No. 3. 

Capitulation or conditions, under which the Fort Casimir has been surrendered 
by Commander Swen Schoute into the hands of Director-General Petrus 

First. The Commanding officer shall be allowed to carry out of the Fort Casimir, 
whenever he pleases and he has the opportunity upon the arrival of Crown or private 
vessels, the small and large pieces of artillery of the Crown consisting, according to the 
statement of the Commander of four iron pieces of 14 pound irons (balls?) and five 
howitzers {schroot stucken) namely four small and one large one. 

Second. Twelve men, with full accoutrements and the banner of the Crown shall 
march out with the Commander as his body-guard, the rest only with their side-arms, 
save that the cannons and muskets belonging to the Crown shall be and remain at the 
disposal of tlie Commander, to carry them out of the fort or have them carried out, 
whenever the Commander has an opportunity thereto. 

Third The Commander shall not suffer any damage in his own movable goods [nor 
be prevented] to take them away or have them taken away, whenever he pleases, together 
with the property of all the officers. 

The commander hereby is held to place into the hands of General Stuyvesant Fort 
Casimir with all pieces and ammunition, material and other effects belonging to the 
General Incorporated West-India Company. 

Done, resolved and signed by the contracting parties the XI September anno XVI 
hundred fifty -five on board the Ship "the Waech" (the Balance) anchored near Fort 

(Signed) Petkus Stuyvesant. 

Swen Schuets, mami propria. 
ISTo. 4. 
Honorable, Prudent, Very Wise Gentlemen and Dear, Particular Friends. 

These few lines are, as the former, to serve (as cover) to the enclosed capitulation, 
entered into with the Governor of Fort Christina, which, if it pleases God, will be signed 
and take effect to-morrow. In regard to details, I refer you to the bearer, Sander 
Leneertsen, who will be expedited as quickly as possible in order to encourage somewhat 
your Honors, my sorrowing wife, chUdi-en and sisters and my sad and grieving subjects 
and to inform you of my intended speedy return in person with most of the troops, in 
the meantime asking God, that he may temper -n-ind and weather in such a way, that we, 
as your Honors request, may speedily return to your Honours and them ; which we request 
and firmly trust, that your Honors, my famUy and beloved community will ask of God with 

J^eic York Historical Records. 103 

due humility ; after whicli we have no doubt, but the Lord God will send me and them 
over in liaste, even though the Allgood God may have overshadowed our expedition, blessed 
by him in other respects, with sad troubles and afflictions, that he might teach us to moderate 
our triumphing and turn our joy into mourning; it was changed, as is easily imagined, when 
we learned yesterday afternoon by your Honors' sad letter of the grievous and sorrowful 
condition of my oppressed subjects. Honorable gentlemen ! if we had the wings of an 
eagle, we should have disdained our victories and ilown away from our obvious gains, to 
help and console our oppressed friends and subjects by our humble word and deed. As 
this is impossible, wind and weather not being favorable to make speed, we must have 
patience. In the meanwhile I send off this present yacht with instructions and orders, to 
do their best in rowing, sailing and drifting and exert theu- diligence, in order to assure 
your Honors and my subjects of my affection and speed : I further request and command 
the faithful citizens to obey with courage and unanimity the orders of your Honors 
and those, who have been made your Honors' colleagues during my absence, which, I 
hope, will be a short one, and to comply with them, as if I, myself, were present. 
I hope and trust firmly, that God, who can create light out of darkness, will turn aU to 
the best and that a joyful time will follow after this sad and bloody tragedy. I mean 
to say, God wUl give, that for this infamous murderous act He shall take a righteous 
revenge of the wild barbarians and afford us courage and opportunity to clear the land 
of them some time, either by force and the means entrusted to us by Him and our high 
superiors or through other distant natives, who have had no share in this massacre: 
which is enough said for the wise. 

Meanwhile I hope and trust, that with the arrival there of the ship "de Liefde" (the 
Love) by which some Swedish soldiers will have come and by the presence of the ship, 
not only the City of Amsterdam may be secured somewhat under God' s blessing, the 
burghers encouraged, the murderers checked, but also that your Honors may have got 
some courage and an opportunity, to assist the remaining outside-bouweries, provided it 
has not been done before. My advice is, that the ships present there be distributed on 
the North and East rivers for the better security of the City of New- Amsterdam, and 
although, in my last letter, I had ordered the speedy dispatching of skipper Anne 
Douwes, I find the same now unexpedient in regard to my return. Your Honors will 
diligently inquire, whether the Maquas have had a hand in this murderous act, and if 
not, as I hope, lay before them impressively the conditions of the peace, made formerly 
by their assistance and for which they became guarantees, besides the murders, which 
from time to time we have had to suffer in our nation, contrary to the treaty and among 
others the last cruel and murderous acts, furthermore what they think of them and 
whether it might not be possible, that we could get provoked by them and other 
arguments thereto necessary. No more for the present, as that after our cordial greetings 
I commend you to God's protection and shelter, besides my salutations to my wife, 
children, sisters and their families and compliments to your Honors and the Magistrates 
of New-Amsterdam and the citizens thereof, to whom your Honors shall read as much 
of this letter, as concerns them. In great haste in our field-quarters before Fort Christina 
about 8 o. c. on the evening of the 24'? September 1655. 

Your Honors' affectionate friend 

Petrus Stuyvesant. 

104 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

This in haste without copy and must therefore be kept. Some freemen are going 
over with Sander to help rowing the yacht ; we have given them orders, implicitly to 
obey the commands, which your Honors may consider necessary. 

No 5. 

Capitulation between the Honorable, Valiant Rigorous Mr. Johan Risingh, 

Governor of New-Sweden on one side and the Noble, Valiant Rigorous 

Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General of New-Netherland on the other 


First. All pieces of artillery, ammunition, materials, provisions and other effects, 

belonging to the High Crown of Sweden and the South Company and now in and about 

Fort Christina shall be and remain the property of the High Crown and the South 

Company and it shall be left to the pleasure of the Governor, to take them with him or to 

have them turned over to General Petrus Stuyvesant, on condition that the same, upon 

demand being made, shall be returned without delay. 

Governor Johan Risingh with all officers of high and low rank, ministers and soldiers 
shall march out with beating of drums, playing of fifes, flying banners, burning matches, 
musketballs in theu- mouths, hand and sidearms, first to "Timmer" Island, where the 
troops, after they shall have left the Fort, will be conveyed in safety and quartered in the 
houses there until the time, when the Governor shall leave with the ship "de Waech " 
(the Balance), which is to take and carry the said Governor and his people and goods as 
far as Sandpoint,* five miles outside of the Manhattans, in safety and security, at the 
utmost within the time of fourteen days ; meanwhile permission is given to Governor 
Risingh and Factor Elswyck with four or five sei-vants, to remain during that time in 
their quarters in the. Fort, to attend to their business. 

All writings, letters, documents and deeds of the High Crown of Sweden and the 
South Company or of private persons, found at Fort Christina shall remain untouched, 
without hinderance and visitation in the hands of the Governor and his people, to take 
them away, whenever they please. 

No officers, soldiers, ministers or freemen of the High Crown or the South Company 
shall be kept against their will, but they shall have permission to leave free and without 
hinderance with the Governor, as they please. 

All the Crown's or the South Company's high and low officials, officers and soldiers 
and freemen shall keep their own movable goods unhindered and undamaged. 

If some of the officials or freemen, desirous of leaving, cannot now get ready to go 
with the Governor and his people, they shall be granted the time of one year and six 
weeks, to dispose of their movable and immovable property, taking however, the proper 
oath of allegiance for the time, in which they remain here on the river. 

Kew YorTc Historical Records. 105 

If some of the Swedes or Fins are not willing to leave, then 'Governor Eisingh shall 
be at liberty to admonish them thereto and if upon his admonition, they are inclined to 
go with him, they shall not be kept or hindered by the General ; those, however, who 
remain then with their own free will and desire to gain their livelihood in this country, 
shall enjoy the privilege of the Augsburg Confession and (have) a person to instruct them 

Governor Johan Risingh, Factor Elswyck with the other high and officers, soldiers 
and freemen, who desire to leave now with their own movable property, shall have 
provided by the General a convenient ship, which shall receive them at the Sandpoint, 
when they arrive there by ship, and transport them to Texel and from there they wUl 
directly be taken by a caravel, galiot or another fit ship to Gothenburgh, free of expenses ; 
Governor Eisingh is responsible, that this galiot or ship will not be detained. 

If Governor Eisingh, Factor Elswyck or some of the officials of the high and esteemed 
Crown or the South Company should have contracted some debts in behalf of the Crown 
or the Company, then they shall not be arrested on account of them, within the 
jurisdiction of the General. 

Governor Eisingh has full liberty to inform himself, how the former Commander 
Schuts, the officers and others of his soldiers have behaved during the surrender of the 
fort on the Sandhouk. 

Provided, that the Governor undertakes to march the troops under his command out 
of Fort Christina on this day, the 15 of the month of September and to surrender it to 

the General. Done and signed on the 15 aforesaid of the year 1655 on the parade 

{■parool-plaets) between Fort Christina and the fieldquarters of the General.* 

P. Stuyvesant. 
Johan Eisingh, m. p. 

Director of New-Sweden 
Endorsed " Capitulation of Fort Christina." 

* For the Swedish account of their overthrow see Governor Risingh's report in N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll. N. S. 
Vol. I, pp. 443-448. As to the treatment of the Swedes afterwards we have only Swedish sources to gather 
information from. Acrelius (Beskrifninge Nyea Sweriges) says " The Swedes suffered great hardships from the 
Dutch. The flower of their troops was picked out and sent to New- Amsterdam; though under pretext of their free 
choice, the men were forcibly carried aboard the ships. The women were ill treated in their houses, the goods 
pillaged and the cattle killed. Those who refused allegiance were watched as suspicious. That this ill usage actually 
took place, is proved by certificates which Eisingh gave to the sufferers and some of which have been preserved in the 

One of the above mentioned certificates is a passport given by Bisingh to Nicholas Mattson, in which it is stated, 
that " The bearer, an honest faithful servant of the Crown, was brought on board of the enemy's vessel and endured 
for three weeks, with the other prisoners, contumelious insults. In the same time his house was plundered and 
his wife stripped of her very garments." (Records of Wicaco Church, "Gloria Dei" "Old Swedes Church" 
Philadelphia.)— B. F. 


106 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Secret abticles agbeed upon between Die. Stuyvesant and 


It is further agreed, that the skipper, with whom the Noble Gentleman, Governor 
Johan Risingh and Factor Elswyck will sail, shall be specially charged and ordered, 
to land the said Messrs. Risingh and Elswyck in person either in England or France and 
that the General shall advance to Mr. Johan Risingh either in cash or in bills of exchange 
the sum of 300 £ Flanders,* which said Governor Johan Risingh undertakes to pay back 
to the General or his order in cash or bills of exchange at Amsterdam six months after 
receipt of the sum abovementioned, mortgaging meanwhile for the aforesaid moneys an 
equivalent of the Crown's or the South Company's effects, to be left in the hands of the 
General against receipt, of which two copies, standing for one, are to be made and signed 
by both parties. On the 25 September 1655 on the place of parol between Fort Christina 

and the headquarters of General Petrus Stuyvesant. 

Johan Risingh, m. p. P. Stuyvesant. 

Call upon the Swedes to take the oath of allegiance to the 
All and every one who are inclined, [to take] of their own free wiU the oath of 
allegiance in the hands of Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant Director- General of New-Netherland 
and to live up to it, may remain as freemen at this Southriver of New-Netherland and 
gain their livelihood as good and free inhabitants ; on the other side those, who may have 
some scruples or conscientious fears regarding the oath of allegiance may leave this 
province of New-Netherland, after disposing of their private property to their best 
advantage and shall have free passage for their removal. 

Follows the oath. 
I, the undersigned, promise and swear in the presence of God, the All-knowing and 
Almighty that I will be loyal and faithful to the Noble High Mightinesses, the States- 
General of the United Netherlands and the Lords-Proprietors of the Incorporated West 
India Company, and their, the Masters' and Patroons' of this Province of New- 
Netherland, Director-General and Council, now appointed or to be appointed in future 
and not do any act of hostility, sedition or intelligence iu word or deed nor help to do it, 
but behave myself as an obedient and faithful subject, as long as I shall remain to Live 
on the Southriver. 

So help me God Almighty. This is the XJSJ mark of Jan Sohoffel. 

Jan Eckhoff. rpj^-g ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^-^^^^ Tomassen. 

CoNSTATOfus Gronenbergh. Limen Stidden. 

Habman f/ Janz. This is cfi, that of Lucas Petersen. 

♦ $720.00 gold. 

Mew York Historical Records. 107 

TnooMAS -/^ Bruyn. This ^ of Mathts Esselse. 

William Morris. This X of Moens Andkiesen. 

GosTAFFSEN Anies. This is that -^ of Martin Martensb. 

mu- ,--. -c /-. -n '^'^''^ ^ I I of Lambert Miohelsen-. 

This O of Oloff Franien-. -^ J k<. 

This is the mark ^^> of Baernt Jansen. 

This O of Oloff Franien. 

This 4> of Andries Jansen. ,„, ■ ■Jl e a T. 

rr,, . , , ^ „ -r T i"i^ '\>< of bAMUEL Petersen. 

This the mark -^fV of Jan Justen. f 

Stuyvesant's answer and counter-protest to complaints made by 
Governor Risingh. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of tlieir noble High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General 
of the United Netherlands, with the Lords-Dii'ectors of the Priv. West-India Company 
Director-General of New-Netherland, Caracas etc. informs you, Johan Risingh, who, as 
yonr Honor styles himself, late Director in New-Sweden for his highly reverenced Majesty 
in Sweden and the South Company : 

1. What your Honor says about the inventory. Besides the houses in Fort Christina, 
(there was) some property or materials, which had not been placed into our hands, but 
have been left in Fort Christina ; therefore we hereby inform your Honor and protest 
against being held to the restitution of any more effects or materials, than we have really 
received and signed for ; for besides that, we have (out of regard for the old alliance and 
union between the said High Crown of Sweden and their said High Might :) offered to 
your Honor Fort Christina, without having damaged the same in any manner or forced 
it with artillery ; to this end we had also delivered to your Honor, before your Honor 
left the same, the keys, nevertheless your Honor most improperly left and abandoned 
the same unattended and ungarrisoned ; hence all damages, suffered by the parties in 
interest, must be charged to you ; we however shall act and have the same taken under 
our protection and care by our commissioners and garrisons as much as possible, to such 
an extent and for so long a time, until the said High Crown of Sweden and the said High 
Mightinesses shall have settled the same and given us together other orders. 

In the second place we charge your Honor, that when your Honor landed in an 
intemperate manner last Sunday, you insulted us in our ofllcial position by many threats 
of going to prosecute us for everything and accusing us of breach of the stipulated 
capitulation, because we did not lodge and entertain your Honor and suite to your 
Honor's satisfaction, yet your Honor will not be able to prove by the capitulation, that 
we owe either to your Honor and his suite any entertainment in such manner, but only 
a passport and free transportation to some part of Europe, for which purpose your Honor 
and the people with you were lodged upon the most excellent ship "de Waegh" and 
decent board was provided with the Captain, until the merchant vessels, lying ready, 
should receive your Honor and his baggage ; your Honor and the people with you came 
ashore of your own free will and we do not see, that we are bound to any further 
entertainment by the conditions of the capitulation, except through courtesy and regard 
for your Honor's rank ; I have therefore repeatedly offered to your Honor in presence of 
respectable and reputable persons the accommodations and table of my residence and 

108 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

humble circumstances ; your Honor not appearing satisfied with this, I have quartered 
your Honor elsewhere, persuaded by others, in one of the most principal private houses 
of this City, where your Honor, in a passionate manner, threateniog, you would come to 
ravage and plunder this place, and with other unbecoming words and actions, harrassed 
the honest people of the house so, that for the sake of rest they left their own lodgings 
during the tune ; we might have given lawful reasons and causes by the production 
of the evidence of honest and trustworthy people, to induce your Honor to a proper form 
of defense and law for these, your Honor' s, usual threats, uttered before as well as now, 
against us, against this province and especially this city in an intemperate manner ; we 
abstain from it only out of respect for the said High Crown and your Honor' s relation to 
the same and this (letter) only points out, that the rumors of your Honor' s threats have 
reached the ears of the skippers and fellow passengers (with whom your Honor and 
people are to depart pursuant to tlie capitulation) and have made them circumspect and 
uneasy to embark your Honor and the suite and troops with you in so great numbers 
and take them along without due security for their ship and lading, indeed for fear of 
being troubled they are unwilling to land your Honor, agreeable to the secret and 
separate capitulation, made without the knowledge of your troops, in England or France, 
unless they meet accidentally an English or French ship in the channel or near the 
Capes. We have deemed it necessary to give your Honor timely information hereof by 
our Secretary and the below-named witnesses, in order that your Honor may not blame 
us, but only your unmeasured threats, if our order regarding the separate capitulation is 
not executed. Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-ISTetherland on the day as above [26'." 
Octbr.]. (It was signed) 

P. Stuyvesant. 

On the 28'." of the said month of October 1655 I, Cornells van Ruyven, Secretary of 
New-Netherland, have presented and read word for word the foregoing document to the 
aforesaid Mr. Johan Risingh, who resides at the house of the lieutenant of the citizens, 
Daniel Litschoe, in this city and have protested against him, as it is related in detail in 
the same document I have also given hia Honor a copy thereof and he answered. It is 
well, I shall reply to it. Thus done, presented and protested in Amsterdam in New- 
Netherland in the presence of Jan de Decker, Commissary of Fort Orange and of the 
Notary Du-ck van Schelluyne as witnesses. Signed on the day as above in truth thereof. 
(It was signed) Cornelis van Ruyven, Secretary, J. de Decker, D. v. Schelluyne. 

Governor Risingh's Answer. 

Royal Majesty's in Sweden most faithful servant and appointed Director of 
New-Sweden Johan Risingh answers you, Petrus Stuyvesant, Director- 
General of New-Netherland, Curasau, etc. 
I cannot b\it answer briefly to your Honors open letter, handed to me by three 
persons at my quarters yesterday. What has been stipulated in the capitulation, 
made between your Honor and myself in regard to the movable property, is evident 
from the first paragraph of it. According to its tenor it is not more than just, that 

New York Historical Records. 109 

your Honor should be held responsible for all, that was found in and outside of Fort 
Clulstina. The Chief of Artillery Johan Danielson has turned over some materials, 
implements of war etc. to those, whom your Honor commissioned thereto, and handed 
them the keys. If your Honor's Commissioners had not been satisfied with it, they 
should not have taken the keys nor have carried away, in the absence of my people, some 
of the things. At Tornaborg some of your Honor's people took away in an unbecoming 
manner the cordage and sails for a new ship, without asking for the keys of the 
magazine, going there by themselves and alone, breaking a board from the church and 
carrying away said cordage and sails. The old alliance and union between His Royal 
Majesty in Sweden and Their High Mightinesses the States-General of the United 
Netherlands, to which your Honor refers, has really been little respected by your Honor's 
invasion, siege and final taking of the lands and forts of my most gracious Lord and 
King in this part of the world ; I, for my part, can never believe, that their High 
Mightinesses, the States-General, have given your Honor orders to do so, for your Honor's 
troops have behaved here as if they were in the country of their bitterest enemy, as the 
plundering of Tornaborg, Uplandt, Finland, Princedorp and other places more clearly 
proves, not to speak of the defeds done about Fort Christina, where the females have 
partly been dragged out of their houses by force, whole buildings torn down, even hauled 
away, oxen, cows, pigs and other animals daily slaughtered in large numbers ; even the 
horses were not spared but shot wantonly, the plantations devastated and everything 
thereabouts treated in such a way, that our victuals have been mostly spoiled, carried 
away, or lost somehow. I have informed your Honor under date 16 Septbr, that I 

could not accept your Honor's offer, to again inhabit Fort Christina ; for the reasons 
of which I am only and solely responsible to His Royal Majesty in Sweden and the 
Hon. South Company. To the charge made by your Honor, that your troops had 
marched out of Fort Christina already before my departure and handed the keys to me 
and that I most unbecomingly left the same ungarrisoned and unprovided and therefore 
must answer for whatever damage may have resulted thereby, I have to answer directly, 
that not I, but your Honor left the fort bare and unprovided, as you ordered everything 
found there, to be carried away by your people ; even my own property and that of my 
people had mostly been carried already to the ship, before your Honor's men marched 
out towards evening of the 28th Septbr O. S. and left me and a few people, without 
means of defence, like sheep, to the wild barbarians. In truth, it cannot be proved, 
that any keys have been returned to me by your people, much less that I have received 
the same and I am astonished, that your Honor imputes such things to me ; but it is 
well, that you are not judge in this case and it is therefore indifferent, if your Honor 
says, that, what damages arose from the place being ungarrisoned, should be laid on my 
shoulders ; it is also ridiculous to hear, that another should be responsible, for what 
your Honor alone has caused : I submit the case to God and my Lord and King, who 
certainly wiU in time, according to his pleasure, inquire into the violence and iniquities 
done to His Majesty's lands and subjects. 

In regard to the other point, I deem it unnecessary to answer much, holding that, of 
which I am accused therein, not better than blasphemies. Before this, I have had 
intercourse with persons of high and low rank and have known well, thank God ! to treat 

110 Colojiial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

evGTj one with the respect due him, nor have I omitted it in this case : the manner, 
however, in which I have been used, I will leave to be mentioned at the proper time and 
place. The separate treaty, which your Honor calls the secret capitulation and which 
you pretend to have made with me without knowledge of my people, has not been made 
without, but with their knowledge and signed by your Honor in their presence on the 
place of parol and to keep it your Honor is bound and obliged, (if you do not wish to be 
accused in the future, of breaking your word of honor) ; I have no knowledge of what 
has been said in regard to my having uttered violent threats ; many things might be said 
behind the back of an honest man, without proof, if the evidence of opposing parties 
were admitted. I have requested in all justice, that according to the capitulation the 
troops, arrived here with me, should not be influenced any more, to remain here and 
that, conformable to our agreement, they ought to come with me in the same ship ; I 
find, however, that not only has the larger part of them been persuaded by great 
promises to remain here, but that also the few, who still desu-e to go with me, are 
distributed here and there into several vessels, in direct opposition to the capitulation 
and besides they cannot bring along the little property left to them. Therefore I 
herewith request your Honor once more that all my people may remove in the same 
ship with me, also, that everything stipulated by your Honor in the principal and special 
treaties may be kept faithfully and I assure your Honor hereby, that no offence shall be 
given by word or deed to any person on the ship or elsewhere on the journey, neither 
by me nor any of my people. 

Finally I protest to your Honor optima forma against all, that has been done to my 
most gracious Lord and King and to His Majesty's subjects by the invasion, beleaguering 
and taking of the whole Southriver of New- Sweden also in regard to the parcels, not 
mentioned in the inventory, as ships, vessels, cattle and other like things. Done 
Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 19 / October 1655. 

/29 JOHAN RlSINGH, m.p. 

Okders to several skippers, where, in Europe, to land the Swedish 
officers and their men. 
First of November. 
The skipper and merchant of the ship " de Beer" viz : Cornells Willemsen Beer and 
Jan Jansen Bestevaer are hereby ordered to land, agreeable to the capitulation, either 
in England or in France, as may be most convenient, the Hon"'* Johan Eisingh and Factor 
Elswyck, the rest of the Swedish troops on the Helder and to dii-ect the Commissary of 
the West India Company Pieter Claesen Croon to bring their goods and merchandises 
either provisionally ashore or into a galiot, to be sent according to the capitulation to 
Gottenburgh fi-ee of expense. Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland on the day 
as above. 

Note : an order of the above tenor was sent to the skipper of the ship ' ' de 
Bonte Coe." 

Kew York Historical Records. Ill 

Receipt of Governor Johan Risingh for money lent him to defray 
his travelling expenses. 

2* of November. 
I, the undersigned, hereby certify and declare, that I have requested the Worthy 
Cornells Jacobsen Steenwyck to pay to the Hon*'" Mr. Johan Risingh, pursuant to the 
capitulation, a draft of eight hundred guilders, for the payment of which with all interests 
and losses accruing by it, I, the undersigned, pledge and engage, besides the property 
left by the said Risingh in my hands, my own private property, movable and immovable, 
presently owned and which may come to me. In witness whereof I have signed this with 
my own hand. Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland on the day as above. (It 
was signed) 

P. Stuyvesant. 

I, the undersigned Johan Risingh hereby certify and declare, to have received, 
agreeable to the capitulation, from the Director-General of New-Netherland, Petrus 
Stuyvesant, two letters of exchange, one upon Thimoteus de Cruso, merchant at London, 
to the amount of one thousand guilders, the other upon Cornells Jacobsen Steenwyck 
for the sum of eight hundred guilders, together an amount of three hundred pounds 
Flemish, which having been duly paid, I hereby promise, to return and repay the said 
sum of three hundred pounds Flemish within six months after receipt, according to the 
capitulation, to the said Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant or his order, to wit, Abraham de Decker, 
receiver and bookkeeper of the Commissaries for the affairs of New-Netherland at 
Amsterdam pledging for this purpose, according to the capitulation, the property of the 
Swedish Crown and the South Company left in the hands of the said Mr. Petrus 
Stuyvesant against receipt empowering the said Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant to sell, in case of 
non-payment, as much of the property of tlie Illustrious Crown of Sweden and the 
South-Company as the aforesaid sum with interest and loss shall amount to in good 
Hollandish money here. Hereof two copies, binding for one, have been made in presence 
of the following witnesses, the first being paid, the second to be of no value. Done at 
New- Amsterdam in New-Netherland on the day as above (It was signed) Johan Risinge, 
Hendrick van Elswyck, as witness J. de Deckere. 

Fourth Period. 

The Dutch West-India Company sole Possessors of the Delaware 
Territory for some time, are then compelled, for financial 
Reasons, to surrender Part of their Lands there to the 
City of Amsterdam, who establishes a new- 
Colony (Septbr., 16§5, to May, 16B7). 

Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stutvesant, as to the 
insincerity of the english regarding the boundary question; 


We have heard nothing from the Agent of the Crown of Sweden here nor anything 
concerning that whole nation. We desire very much to learn what the force, lately sent 
over by ns, may have accomplished; in which direction we recommend to your Honors 
to report us everything pertinently and circiimstantially, so that we may be enabled to 
make a complete defense against anything that might be brought up before us, which is 
now apparently the sooner to be expected, because the same nation may have a so 
much higher opinion of itself, as their design against Poland seems to have been 

We cannot prevent it, that the English from Boston with their vessels provide the 
Swedes on the Southriver with victuals and other necessities, but it looks very strange, 
that people participate in it and consequently increase this trade, who are in our service 
and whom your Honors possibly trust too much; nevertheless, as the reports have by 
themselves come here from there, it must have been known there and therefore your 
Honors will do well to get some further information regarding it and to advise us of the 
results by the first opportunity. 

Appointment of Jean Paul Jacquet as Vice-Director on the 
Delaware; his instructions and oath of office. 
29'." of November 
Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of their JSToble High Mightinesses, the Lords 
States-Greneral of the United Netherlands and the Noble Lords-Directors of the General 
Priviledged West-India Company in the same, Director-Greneral of New-Netherland, 
Curasao, Bonayro, Aruba and the dependencies thereof, together with the honorable 

114 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Pdver. 

Members of the High Council to All, who shall see, read or hear read these presents, 
greeting : Whereas we needed, for the dii-ection and advancement of the affairs of the 
Hon"'* Company and our own on the Southriver of New-Netherland, a proper and 
qualified person, to command there in oui- absence and manage everything. Therefore, 
upon the good report and information given to us in regard to the person of Jean Paul 
Jacquet and trusting therefore to his piety, experience and fitness, we have engaged, 
commissioned and appointed the same, as we hereby engage, commission and appoint 
the aforesaid Jean Paul Jacquet to be our Vice-Director and Chief-Magistrate on the 
Southriver of New-Netherland as well as for the forts, territories and other places situate 
ujjon said river, to keep good order for the security of Fort Casimir and other places, 
already established or to be established and to give orders and have them observed in all 
matters concerning trade, policy, justice and military, also in regard to the soldiers, the 
ships' crews, free persons, high and subaltern officers of whatever position and rank 
they might be, who are there already or whom we may deem advisable to send there in 
future; to assist in his position of Vice-Director in the management and command of 
the places and to keep everything in good order for the service and welfare of the 
General Priviledged West-India Company, to administer law and justice to citizens as 
well as soldiers and to do further everything concerning his office and duties agreeable to 
the instruction now given and in future to be given, which a good and faithful 
Vice-Director is bound to do by the oath, which he is to take at our hands. This having 
been done, we order and command therefore hereby all and everybody, either servants of 
the Hon*"® Company or freemen living on the said river or who may afterwards come 
there, of what nation or position they may be, nobody excepted and especially also the 
present provisional Commander there, that in our absence they receive, acknowledge 
and respect, obey, the aforesaid Johan Paul Jacquet as our Vice-Director and Chief 
Magistrate and give all help, favor and assistance, as much as each may, whereas we 
thus have considered it advisable for the service of the "said Company and the 
advancement of this province. Thus done and given at our Council meeting held in 
Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland under date as above and confirmed with our seal 
here in red wax. 

Provisional instructions for Jean Paul Jacquet, Vice-Director on the Southriver 

of New-Netherland and the Commissaries joined to him. 


The abovementioned Jean Paul Jacquet is to have, in our absence, supreme command 

and authority over all officers, soldiers and freemen on the aforesaid river and the forts 

thereof, the first place and vote in all councilmeetings, wliich meetings shall be called 

only by order and direction of the Vice-Director ; in them he shall present all matters 

concerning the policy, justice, trade, privileges and royalties, the Company and its Noble 

Administration and conclude by a majority of votes and in case of a tie of votes he is to 

have a double vote. 

The Council shall be formed, besides the Vice-Director, by Andries Hudde, 
Elmerhuysen Cleyn and the two Sergeants, if the affair is purely military or concerning 
the Company properly, but if the affair is purely a civil one between freemen and the 

Jfeiv York Historical Becoi-ds. 115 

Company's servauts, then he shall take in place of the two sergeants two of the most 
suitable freemen, as the case may demand it. 

In this Council Andries Hudde, as Secretary and Surveyor, shall do the writing and 
pertinently annotate, register and book all matters, propositions, resolutions, complaints, 
defaults, arrests with the reasons thereof, also all judgments, sentences and decisions 
and with the Vice-Du-ector keep a good journal and daily record of what might happen 
there, what ships and yachts come there, what they bring, carry away and accomplish. 

In the Fort, in which the Vice-Director happens to be, the keys of the Fort and the 
magazine shall be committed to him ; he alone shall give the watch- word and have all 
general and special authority, command and power and the subordinate officers not more, 
than what is given them by the Vice- Director's order. 

He shall strictly observe and have observed the placards and ordinances made and 
published heretofore against the sale of brandy or strong drinks to the savages, regarding 
the robbing of gardens or plantations, the running about in the country, driaking on the 
Sabbath and profanation of the same. 

Nor shall he permit that the superior or subordinate officers of the Company nor the 
soldiers absent themselves from the Fort dui'ing the night without Ms special consent, 
nor that the free people, especially the Swedes, who have their usual habitation outside, 
remain inside without his knowledge and permission and he shall by no means suffer or 
allow, that Fort Casimir be frequented or visited too much either by them or by the 
savages ; he must especially observe this upon the arrival of strange ships, yachts and 


He must not suffer by any means, that ships or vessels go above or below Fort 
Casimir to carry on a trade or negotiations with the savages or Christians, but the same 
must be compelled, to remain before or near Fort Casimir and trade there or on the shore 
just below the Fort, for their greater security and to prevent mishaps. 


He shall keep in good order and discipline the servants of the Company, superintend 
their trainings and guard-duty and maintain Fort Casimir in a becoming state of defense, 
but if any of them shoiild request permission to plant, he may discharge some of them, 
even though their stipulated term has not expired, but imder the condition and 
subscribed written promise to help defend, if necessary, the Fort against all and every 
one, who may at a future time desire to attack the same : he shall also make all the 
freemen living around there now or who may come in future, give the same promise 
under oath and in case of refusal to promise it, he shall send the same (party) hither by 
the first opportunity offering or make him leave. 


In distributing land, he must above all take care, that villages {bijeenwooninge) be 
formed of at least 16 or 20 persons or families together and in order to prevent the 

116 Colonial Settlejyients on the Delaware River. 

immoderate desire for land he shall, in place of tithes, exact from each morgan of land 
provisionally 12 stivers * annually. 


To provide for the great expenses and costs already incurred for Fort Casimir and 
stUl to be incurred, he shall, following the laudable custom of our Fatherland and of this 
place, demand and have paid the tavernkeepers' excise in conformity to that, which is 
paid here, to wit : 

For a hogshead of french or rhenish wine . . . .* f ti 20. 

an anker of the same wine 11. 4. 

for an anker of brandy, Spanish wine or distilled water ii 7. — , 

for a ton of imported beer fl 6. — , 

for a ton of New-Netherland beer fl 4. — 

or a larger or smaller cask in proportion . — 

He shall also demand this excise from those, who drink in company or at drinking-bouts, 
but from those, who lay it up for home- use, he shall demand no excise until further 


He shall not grant building or farm lots on the edge of the valley of Fort Casimir, 
to wit between the Kil and the aforesaid Fort nor behind the Fort, but he shall reserve 
the land for reinforcements and outworks of the Fort ; likewise in order to favor more 
the concentrated settlements on the Southside of the Fort, he shall upon occasion clear 
a good street behind the houses already built and lay out the same in convenient order 
and lots of about 40 to 50 feet width and one hundred feet length, the street to be at 
least 4 to 5 rods vsdde. 


He must look well after the Swedes, who stUl are there ; if any of them might be 
found, who are not well affected towards the Hon''''' Company and our native country, 
he shall with all possible politeness make them leave, and if feasible send them hither, 
to prevent any more dissatisfaction. 


He shall try to have intercourse with the savages in all politeness, but in the 
meantime be on his guard against them and other foreign nations and not suffer that they 
or others come into the Fort armed or in great mrmbers, by no means let them stay there 
over night, which the inhabitants also ought to take to heart. That however the natives 
may not in the meantime remain under the blue sky and that not the least reason for 
complaints may be given to them, it might be useful, that the servants of the Company 
together with the free people made a house of bark outside of the Fort as lodgings for 
those Indians, who are not great Sachems. 


It is further strongly recommended to the Vice-Director to take and have taken at 
his first arrival, a proper inventory of the ammunition, materials, provisions and other 
effects of the Company and inquire of the present Commandant Dirck Smith, how the 
same have been managed since our departure and what has become of them, and to send 
us by the first chance offering a copy thereof and proper evidence. 

Thus done and given at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, on the day as above, 

* 34 cents gold. \ One florin = 40 cents. 

Kew Yorh Historical Records. 117 

To-day, the 8'? of December 1655 tlie following oath has been taken by Jean Paul 
Jacquet before the Honorable Director-General and Counsel : 

I promise and swear in the presence of Almighty God, that I will be obedient and 
faithful to their Noble High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General of the United 
Netherlands, to the Noble Lords-Directors of the Privileged West-India Company in the 
same and to their Director-General and Council of New-Netherland now appointed or in 
future to be appointed, that I will administer good law and justice, that I will maintain 
and advance as much as I can the Reformed religion, as the same is taught and preached 
here and in the Fatherland conform to God's word and the Synod of Dortrecht, that I 
wUl take care of the Fort and its safety to the best of my ability and further will, 
pursuant to the instructions already given to me or to be given in future, advance the 
service of the Company and the wellfare of the country, also do to the best of my abilities, 
what a good and faithful Vice-Director is bound to do. So help me God Almighty ! 

Petition of Abraham de Lucena and other Jews for permission 
TO trade on the Southriver, with votes op the Council and 
order thereon. 
29* November 1655. 
Copy. To tlie Honorable Worshipful Director-General and Council of New- 

Show with due reverence Abraham de Lucena, Salvador d' Andrada and Jacob Cohen 
for themselves and in the name of others of the Jewish nation, residing in this city, that, 
under date of the 15"^!' February A? 1655, they, the petitioners, have from the Hon"' 
Lords-Directors of the Incorporated West-India Company, Masters and Patroons of this 
Province received permission and consent, to travel, reside and trade here, like the other 
inhabitants and to enjoy the same liberties, which is proved by the document here annexed. 
They request therefore respectfully, that your Noble Worships will not prevent or hinder 
them herein, but will allow and consent, that, pursuant to their permit, they may, with 
other inhabitants of this Province, travel to and trade on the Southriver of New-Netherland, 
at Fort Orange and other places, situate within the jurisdiction of this Government of 
New-Netherland. So doing etc^ 

They shall remain Your Noble Worships' 
humble servants 

(Signed) Abraham de Lucena, 

Salvador Dandrada, 
Jacob Coen. 

After the foregoing petition had been read at the meeting of the Director-General 
and Council, it was resolved, that each of the members of the Council should give his 
opinion as to vrhat answer is to make to it. 

Opinion of the Honorable Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant. 
To answer, that the petition is to be denied for weighty reasons. 

118 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Opinion of the Honorable Nicasius de Sille. 
He says, that he does not like to act herein contrary to the orders of the 
Lords-Directors, but that at present, as they have put on board ship goods for the 
Southriver, permission might be given to them and further orders, in answer to the last 
letter sent to the Lords Directors, should be awaited. 

Opinion of the Honorable Lamontagne. 
To answer, that for weighty reasons the petition is denied. 

Opinion of the Honorable Cornells van Tienhoven, written by himself. 
Cornells van Tienhoven is of opinion, under correction, that to grant the petition of 
the Jews, for permission to go to the Southriver and Fort Orange, although the Noble 
Lords-Mayors had allowed this nation to live and trade in New-Netherland, would 
nevertheless be very injurious to the community and population of the said places and 
therefore the petition must be denied for the coming winter and ample report be made 
thereon to the Lord-Directors, also that for this time a young man of that nation may 
be allowed to go to the Southi'iver with some goods, without establishing thereby a 

Order directing Ensign^ Dirck Sjiith, Provisional Commander at the 
Southriver, to appear before the Council. 
Ultimo 9'"-'= 1655. 

Present at the meeting the Noble, Hon*''' Director-General, Petrus Stuyvesant, 

and the Honorable Members of the Council, Nicasius de SUle, Lamontagne, 

and the Fiscal Cornells van Tienhoven. 

It was resolved and considered necessary, to summon the present provisional 

Commander at the Southriver of New-Netheiiand, Dirck Smith, grave reasons inducing 

the Director-General and Council thereto. 

Done at the meeting, held at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, on the day as 

Order, authorizing Jan Teunissen, carpenter, to save the Swedish 


25'? January 1656. 

Before the Council appeared Jan Teunissen, carpenter, who offered, that he would 
save with God's assistance the Swedish yacht "Endracht" which, coming from the 
Southriver, was cast ashore by the storm outside of Sandy hook, provided, that the 
Director-General and Council would furnish him at their expense 4 to 6 men to assist 
him ; he demanded 200 guilders to be paid after the work was done, but, if he did not 
get her afloat again, he should not receive anything for his labor. . 

The question having been put, 200 guilders were promised to him, in case he should 
get the aforesaid yacht afloat, to assist him in which 4 to 6 men shall be provided for 
Mm at the expense of the Hon"'* Company. Date as above. 

J^ew York Historical Records. 119 

.Petition of Sergeant Lucas Diecksen for his dischakge and leave 

TO settle on the SoUTHEIVER ; GRANTED. 

15*? February 1656. 

Copy. To the Noble, Very Worshipful, Honorable Director-General and High 
Council of New-Netherland. 
Shows with humble reverence Luycas Dii'cksen, Sergeant in the service of the Hon"" 
Company here, that he, petitioner, has served the said Hon'''^ Company faithfully for a 
period of about four years and that he would like now to transport himself with his 
family to the Southriver of New-Netherland, to settle there, where he has bought a 
house. He requests therefore, that your Noble AVorships will kindlj^ please to discharge 
him from the service and consent to his removal thither, which doing etc* 

Your Noble, Honorable Worsliips' 
humble servant 

LuTCAS Diecksen. 
After the foregoing petition had been read and the question put, it was decided : 
fiat quod petitur. Date as above. 

Extract feom a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; expedition 


We will gladly approve of the expedition on the Southriver and of what has occurred 
and been done, as being substantially conform to our intentions ; only we would have 
preferred to see, that no such a formal capitulation had been made for the surrender of 
the Fort, but that all had been done in the same manner, as the Swedes have given us 
an example of in regard to Fort Casimir ; our reason for it is especially, that what is 
written and surrendered in copy can be preserved for a long time and appears sometimes 
at the most awkward moment, while on the other side the word or deed is lost from 
memory by the length of time or may be interpreted and smoothed over one way or the 
other, as the occasion seems to demand. But as in the above case it has already been 
done, we have only wished to make this remark as a rule, if in future similar situations 
might present themselves. The aforesaid Fort Casimir must be properly provided and 
armed by your Honors, but little attention need be paid to Fort Christina, where you will 
leave only 3 to 4 men to live there as garrison and to keep it in our possession, and you 
must try to make some private parties remain there. 

120 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Commercial relations with the Delaware. 
Permit for Captain Jacob to sail to the Soutliriver, on condition, that He clear 
his cargo. 
25'." March 1656. 
Before the Council appeared Jacob Kip, Hendrick Kip, Salomon Lachair, Peter de 
Jonge and demonstrated, that they had shipped several liquid articles besides other 
goods on board of the yacht of Captain Jacob, to transport them with the lirst good 
wind, as soon as the lading was completed, to the Southriver and whereas he has no vv 
completed his lading and the wind is favorable, but yet he pretends, that he must wait 
for some letters until next week, therefore they request, that the said Captain Jacob may 
be allowed to depart with his yacht and the cargo in her or else they shall be compelled 
to protest against him for the loss by leakage and otherwise, which they might sustain 
on their goods through the long delay contrary to promise. 

The Director-General and Council consent, that Captain Jacob may depart with his 
yacht and her cargo fi-om here to the Southriver of New-Netherland, provided he give a 
faithful account of his cargo to the Hon*"^ Fiscal. Date as above. 

A Swedish ship, "Merctjeicjs," arrives at the Delaware with 


29'? of March (1656). 

During the night from the 28'.'' to the 29'? of March, a letter from our Commandant 
on the Southriver, dated the 24'? of March, was received by the ketch of Mr. AUerton : 
from it we learn the arrival on that river of a Swedish ship, called the "Mercurius," 
having on board altogether 130 souls. 

After having read this letter it was considered and resolved, not to permit the landing 
of these Swedes there and to write to them, that they miglit either return to Sweden with 
their ship, or that if they liked to come hither with the said ship, a free passage here 
and back would be given to them to depart again unmolested, after they had provided 
themselves with the necessary victuals and commodities. Thus done at Fort Amsterdam 
in the night from the 28'? to the 29'? of March 1656. 

Present his Honor, the Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant, the Hon"'^ Mr. Nicasius 
de SDle, the Hon"'^ Mr. La Montague and the Hon"'* Fiscal Tienhoven. 

J\''ew York Historical Records. 121 

Ordeks to prevent a Swedish uprising. 
When the letter of the Commander ou the Sonthriver dated on the 17th of March was 
taken up again and it was understood that some of the Swedes, left there, were either 
troublesome or very dangerous, of whom among others the persons of Swen Scheute and 
Jacob Swenske were specified by name and it was said of the latter, that to the detriment 
of our state there he held secret intelligence with the savages, the dangerous consequences 
thereof having been deliberated and considered upon by us, we considered it necessary 
for the greater advantage of the Company and the safety of the aforesaid conquered 
Southriver to command and authorize the Vice-Director Jean Paul Jacquet to secure the 
aforesaid persons and thus to send them hither with the first vessel, to wit Capt. Jan 
Jacobsen's ; also to send for this purpose and to have the same better accomplished in 
case of opposition, a succor of 12 soldiers, who after having executed this business shall 
be sent back here either overland or with the said vessel and at the same time to direct 
and order the aforesaid Vice-Director and the Council adjoined to him, to take the usual 
oath of all the Swedes, who have heretofore not taken the oath of allegiance and send 
away by every opportunity those, who refuse or contravene against it. Thus done, 
resolved and decided on the day as above at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland. (It 
was signed) P. Stuyvesant, Nicasius de Sille, La Montague, Cor. van Tienhoven. 

Pass for the Swedish Ship "Mercurius" to come to New-Amsterdam 
for supplies and thence to sail for europe. 
30'^ March 1656. 

Whereas we, the Director-General and Council of New-Netherland, have been 
informed by letters from our Commander at the Southriver as well as from the Noble, 
Valiant Johan Papegaay of the arrival of a certain Swedish ship called " de Mercurius" 
with some Swedish families, who for grave reasons must not be allowed to land there, 
until further orders from our Honorable PrincijDals, and whereas we are advised and 
informed by the aforesaid letter of the said Johan Papegaay, that they are well inclined, 
to depart again with this, their said ship for the fatherland, which neither can nor ought 
to be prevented, but whereas it is shown by the aforesaid letter, that the said ship with 130 
souls has been long on the outward bound voyage and therefore miglit run short of 
provisions on the home voyage, unless it can be provided with fresh supplies : Therefore, 
we, Director-General and Council of ISTew-Netherland, having no other intentions, but to 
maintain the old union and friendship of the two nations and leaving the dispute 
regarding the claims on the aforesaid Southriver to the decision of our mutual Honorable 
Principals, give herevdth to the said ship "Mercurius" and the ofilcers, crew and 
passengers thereto belonging, absolute consent and free pass, to come at their pleasure 
here to this city of New-Amsterdam and to depart unmolested, as soon as they wish, and 
to provide themselves with such victuals and supplies as they need. Thus done and 
given under our usual seal and hand, on the day as above, at Port Amsterdam in New- 

(Signed) P. Stuyvesant, Nicasius de Sille, La Montagne, Cornells van Tienhoven. 

122 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Petition- of Hendrick Hutgiien-, supercabgo of the Swedish ship 
"Mercueius," on behalf of the lately arrived Swedes, for 
leave to remain on the South river, and answer of the Council, 
peremptorily ordering them to leave. 

Honorable, Very Worsliipf ul, Highly Respected General and All the Honorable 
Members of the Council of New-Xetheiiand. 

Whereas, according to my instruction, I was to discharge the cargo of goods and 
land some families and colonists in New-Sweden near or in Fort Christina, but coming 
into the River understood below, contrary to expectations, that all, which might have 
been called Swedish, troops, fort, ammunition, yachts, barges, animals and other movable 
property extant had been taken possession of by the officers of your Honorable Company 
or the Honorable General, pursuant to the capitulation, made concerning it between the 
Honorable General and the Commander Johan Rysingh, 

Upon which unexpected change I therefore resolved to ascertain the truth 
thereof and therefore went to Fort Casimir and having been informed of what 
had passed, (although I need not acknowledge any other, than our High Magistrates) 
and having asked for a friendly conference with the Commandant Jacquet and 
requested permission to pass without hindrance to our destination, to carry out what 
was mentioned above, he then answered me, that he had no orders from the 
Honorable General to allow it and desired to be informed of the Director-General's 
intention in writing, keeping me in arrest in the meantime against all reason, in my 
opinion, giving to understand and holding me as a traitor and enemy of his State, 
notwithstanding that I, to avoid giving further offence, had come in good faith to visit 
him. After this had happened I received an answer from the Honorable General, who 
denied me all means to carry out my instructions. His Noble Honor offered, that if I 
desired to come to New- Amsterdam in New-Netherland, I should have liberty there to 
discharge and take in a cargo, to victual the ship and trade and what further was 
required to expedite the voyage to the Fatherland and as the Honorable General also 
demanded, that the Colonists should be carried back, therefore I then resolved to make 
the journey overland and now respectfully request the Honorable Director-General and 
Council, that they wUl please to take in consideration, that, besides that the great 
expenses not only distress the good people, but the parents are also separated from 
their children, even the husband from his wife and they must altogether be deprived of 
their worship of God and live under a foreign nation, whose language and manners 
are not known to them, they were sent over for the peopling of New-Sweden and not 
to any otiier jurisdiction or nation, also that I with the families and Colonists and 
the ship's cargo may settle on some of the places abandoned by us, if they are still 
uninhabited or where it appears best to me under present circumstances, untU further 
orders and advices from the Fatherland leaving what has passed, as I have found it, until 
different disposition is made by the Principals, only that the people arrived with me 
may remain in this State and I may deal with them and trade according to the orders of 
my superiors. If this shall now be granted to me, 1 would ask for what the Honorable 

Kew York Historical Records. 123 

General offered, to wit, that the ship may be favored with a safe-conduct in order to 
victual here at this place ; I will also pledge myself with my person, while living on the 
Eiver, to keep up all proper friendship and intercourse and to assist in preventing all 
disturbances either from Indians or from Christians for the security of the subjects of 
either side, leaving what further concerns this matter to be settled by our respective 
Principals, the decision of whom I will await in patience and good coniidence. 
New- Amsterdam, 11'." of April 1656. (It was signed) 

Hendrick Huygen. 

Present in Council, the Noble Hon""' Director-General, Petrus Stuyvesant, 
the Hon"" gentlemen Nicasius de Sille, La Montague and Cornells van 
After consideration of the pi'ecediug written proposition or petition of Sr Hendrick 
Huygen the Du-ector-General and Council of New-Netherland find that (with exception of 
Ms presumption expressed in regard to Commander Jacquet "treating me as a traitor and 
enemy of his State," which the aforesaid Director- General and CouncU ignore) the 
written remonstrance or petition agrees in substance with the letter of Johan Papegaay 
dated 24*." of March, written to that effect from the Southriver and answered at large by 
their Honors on the following 29'." * to which resolution Director-General and Council are 
still adhering, namely, that theu- Honors, for reasons explained in detaU in the letter, 
cannot allow any ships, vessels, trading or landing of people on this river, excej)t such as 
come there with their order and commission, therefore the petitioner is hereby once more 
ordered to withdraw the ship "the Mercarius" with all the people belonging to it and 
is given the choice to do this himself and have it done according to his own orders and 
pleasure and leave this River and return where he pleases or if he should not accept this, 
Director-General and Council find themselves compelled to adopt other measures for the 
departure of the ship "Mercurius" and all others coming without their or their 
Principals' orders and commission. A prompt resolution and answer as to his choice is 
asked of the aforesaid petitioner, while Du-ector-General and Council, in case the above 
advice should not be followed, hold themselves not answerable for any damage and loss. 
Thus done at the Council-meeting held at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland on the day 
as above. (It was signed) 

P. Stuyvesant, 
Nicasius de Sille, 
La Montagne, 
CoE. VAN Tienhoven. 

Hendeick Huyghen appeaes befoee the Council and consents that 
the "Meecueius" and hee passengees come to New-Amsteedam. 
12'!' April. 
Before the Council appeared Hendrick Huygen and answered to the foregoing, our 
resolution and order of the 11'." inst., that he is willing and intends, on the safe-conduct 
for passing and repassing, to order his ship the "Mercurius" with the people and cargo 
on her to this place and to remain here in person, until her arrival and he requests further 
* Letter of John Papegay and the answer of the Council ai-e missing. — B. F. 

124 Colonial Settleinents on the Delaware Paver. 

an order to the Vice-Director there, that the said ship and people may be despatched aa 
quickly as possible, which having been considered by Director-General and Council it 
was, in order to avoid expenses, considered unnecessary to send, according to yesterday's 
proposition, the man-of-war the "Waagh" thither to bring or drive away the Swedish 
ship in question and they iind nothing else necessary and expedient, than to keep the 
man-of-war " de Waagh " here, until the arrival of the said Swedish ship. Thus done at 
Fort Amsterdam in N. Netherland, on the day as above. 

Oedee dieectino Ensign Smith to peoceed with 12 to 16 soldiers 


The Honorable Director-General and Council of N. Netherland, not having received as 
yet any answer to their letter, despatched by an express-messenger to the Vice-Director 
Jacquet on the Southriver on the 12'." inst. and being unable to satisfy themselves in regard 
to the long delay of the Swedish ship "Mercurius," nor knowing what the reasons for 
the tarrying there or the non-arrival here may be, to which are added many and varying 
reports, which some declare to have heard from savages, that some difficulties had arisen 
at the said Southriver between our people and the said Swedes or Indians, which as 
stated above having been further weighed and considered by the Honorable Du'ector- 
General and Council, they are of opinion, that the common welfare of the country and the 
special interests and service of the Hon''"' Company are greatly concerned in the good 
condition of the said Southriver and the departure of the said Swedish ship "Mercurius" 
with all the people brought there and resolve, in order to obtain perfect and true 
information of the state of affairs, to detail Ensign Smith and send him with 12 to 16 
armed men overland with instruction to send from the said river as quickly as possible by 
a savage or other-nase information, whether the ship "Mercurius " has left or not and how 
the other affairs of the Company there are getting on, with further orders that the Ensign 
return hither with his men with all speed according to the instruction given to the Ensign. 
On the day as above (28'.'' April 1656). (It was signed) 

P. Stuyvesant, 


La Montagne, 


Patent to Thomas Beoen for a plantation on the Delaware, 
described as follows : 
A plantation situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland below Fort Casamier, 
stretching to the eastside of Cornells Teunissen's and measuring on the southside 
eastwardly eighteen rods, on the eastside along Simon Leem's north-north-west one 
hundred and thirty-two rods and along Cornells Teunissen's south-south-east one hundred 
and thirty-two rods, together 2046 rods, under the express condition and obligation etc'. 
Done at Amsterdam in N". Netherland the 12'? of April A° 1656. 

Kew Yorh Historical Records. 125 

Opinions of the Director and Council on receipt of intelligence 


In the Name of the Lord. Amen. 
First of May 1656. 

Present in Council : the Hon"^ Director-General and the Hon*''= Councillors, 
Nicasius de Sille, La Montagne and Cornells van Tienhoven. 
After reading and re-reading the letters and declarations, received this day from the 
South-river by Andries Hudde, in regard to the critical state of affairs there, the 
following opinions were given on this subject. 

Opinion of the Hon''"= Director-General. 
As upon the unexpected advices from the Southriver time does not allow any delay 
or tarrying, it is my proposition and advice that the man-of-war, "de Waagh" be sent 
there, and with the said ship two gentlemen of the Council to inform themselves of the 
matter and redress it as far as possible to the greatest advantage and honor of the 
Company and the Dutch Nation. On the day as above. (Signed) 

P. Stutvesant. 
Opinion of the Hon'"^ Mr. Sille. 
Nicasius de Sille agrees with the opinion of the Hon""^ General, namely, that it is 
necessary, that the said ship be sent there with all possible speed; he is further willing, to 
go himself, if Director and Council should order it, provided that, in case any troubles 
should arise here, proper care be taken of his family in his absence. Done at Fort 
Amsterdam in N. Netherland on the day as above. (Signed) 

NicASiijs DE Sille. 

La Montagne agrees with the opinions of the Hon"'^ General and Mr. Sille in regard 
to the despatching of the ship " de Waagh," provided that orders be given, not to make a 
hostile attack on the Swedish ship, seeing that she has now landed her goods and people. 
On the day as above. (It was signed) 

La Montagne. 

Upon the information received to-day overland from the Southriver by the letters of 
Vice-Director Jacquet and the verbal report of Secretary Hudde, regarding the state of 
affairs of the Southriver and the behavior of the Swedes and savages there, also that the 
ship " Mercurius" had sailed up above Fort Casimir to Matinnekonck and landed goods, 
contrary to the Commandant's orders, from which certain great difBculties may be 
expected, as the man-of-war " de Waagh " still lies here, which had been especially sent 
for the Southriver expedition, therefore Cornells van Tienhoven advises upon the 
proposition of the Hon"^ General, tliat the said ship with the troops be sent to tlie 
Southriver, to bring the said ship "Mercurius" in the most proper manner possible to this 
place and by the most convenient means put a stop to and settle peacefully the other 
affair between the natives and our nation. Fii'st of May 1656. (It was signed) 


326 Colonial Settlements on the Belaware River. 

The motives and reasons, why the ship in question, the "Mercurius," did not agreeably 
to our expectations and the order of Commissary Hendrick Huygen come here, were taken 
in further consideration and the reports about it were heard from several passengers, as 
Master Isaac AUerton, Capt. Jan Jacobsen, Claes de Ruyter and other persons, among 
whom was Otto Grim, a soldier, and N. N. Swart, carpenter of the ship "de Waagh" 
all of whom unanimously declared (as far as they knew it), that the not coming here 
of the ship was not planned by the skipper or the ship's crew, but was caused by the 
obstruction of some Swedes and Fins, joined by some savages, coming on board with 
Pappegay and remaining on board in a large number, until the said ship had passed Fort 
Casimir ; the aforesaid deponents declared further, that it was sufficiently evident from 
the circumstances, that some of the principal men of the Swedes were at the bottom of it 
and that also most of the other Swedes, who had taken the oath of loyalty, had in their 
opinion been stirred up or misled. Anyway we can neither in the reports of others 
nor in the letter of Commissary Hendrick Huygen, who has always remained here and 
waited for the arrival of his ship, find any fault against himself or against the skipper 
and the ship' s officers, which therefore having been farther considered, as stated above, it 
is, according to our information deemed best and expedient, in order to prevent further 
damages, complaints and dissensions, to let Hendrick Huygen himself go with the 
Committee of the Hon*"' Council in the man-of-war and upon his promise to practice, as a 
subject of this State, faithful obedience and to promote as much as is in his power peace 
and harmony between the savages and the Christians, once more to renew and grant him 
a free pass and repass for himself and for his ship and goods, if he can do it without 
trouble and besides this (to carry on) trade and trafic here on the river subject to such 
regulations and privileges as others, be they subjects or strangers, enjoy or pay for and 
to direct, at his request, the gentlemen deputed thither and authorise them, as we 
hereby once more are doing, that they shall not only let him be benefitted by the contents 
hereof, but also assist him with word and deed against those, who contrary to his orders 
may have prevented and hindered the coming up of his ship and who in consequence 
may have inflicted damages on him in his cargo or the prevention of his voyage. Thus 
done, resolved, summed up and decreed in Fort Amsterdam, the 3d of May 1656. (It 
was signed) 

P. Stuyvesant. 


Bond of Hendrick Hutghen, that he will demean himself 
peaceably on the sodth river and obey the dutch laws, while 


I, the undersigned Hendrick Huygen from Cleeif, sent out by the South Company of 
Sweden, in the ship ' ' Mercurius ' ' as Commissary, not knowing before my arrival at the 
Southriver of N. Netherland of the changes, which had taken place there since my 
departure, promise by this my signature in place of oath, that with the safe-conduct 
granted to me by the Director-Greneral and Council I will in my trade and during my 
sojourn here, as well as on the Southriver, conduct and behave myself faithfully and 

JVew York Historical Records. 127 

obediently and submit to such orders and laws, as the subjects of New-lSTetherland or 
strange traders, frequenting this and other places of New-Netherland submit to, 
especially that I will by no means meddle in any quarrel between Christians and savages, 
much less instigate any, but rather try to settle all differences already arisen or in future 
to arise between Swedes, Dutch and savages and to remove them as far as is in my power 
and that I will not act or behave otherwise, than if I were a sworn subject of this State. 
As further security herefor I engage my person and my property, movables and 
immovables and place them at the disposition of all courts of justice. In witness whereof 
I have signed this at Amsterdam in New-Netherland the 3^ of May 1656. (It was signed) 

Hendrick Huygen. 

CoMMissioisr FOR Councillors de Sille akd Corxelitjs van Tieniioven 
TO proceed to the South river and investigate affairs there. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of the Noble High Might: the Lords States-General and 
the Noble Lords-Dii-ectors of the General Privileged West-India Company of the United 
Netherlands Director-General of New-Netherland, Curasao, Bonayro, Aruba and the 
territories depending thereon, together with the Honorable Council To All, who hear, see 
or read this, Greeting : Know ye, that upon the report and information given to us of the 
arrival at the Southriver of New-Netherland of the Swedish ship, called "de Mercurius" 
and of the increase of differences and animosities because of the said ship and its running 
up and past Fort Casimii- contrary to our express directions and orders, which difficulties, 
differences and dissensions between the savages, the Dutch and the Swedish nation, being 
there under oath of allegiance to us and in our jurisdiction, would soon make further 
inroads to the disadvantage of the said Lords-Dii-ectors and the good inhabitants there, 
We have, for information, inquiry, redress and removal thereof, authorized and deputed, 
as we hereby authorize and depute, our dear friends Nicasius de Sille, first Councillor in 
New-Netherland and Cornells van Tieuhoven, Councillor and Fiscal of the aforesaid 
province and Sheriff of the City of Amsterdam for the promotion and greater security 
thereof in such a manner, that, if their commission and warrant should be necessary or 
demanded, they may be fortified with full power, authority and special orders for the 
aforesaid purpose : Therefore by virtue of our commission from the aforesaid Noble 
Lords-Directors we give hereby to our said Deputies full power, authority and special 
orders after their arrival on the Southriver of New-Netherland to inquire, inform and 
investigate the motives and causes for not obeying our orders given in regard to the 
Swedish ship "Mercurius" as to leaving the said River and not to go above Fort 
Casimir, also the differences, jealousies and dissensions, created thereby, to quiet, settle 
and remove the same, whether they have arisen in the Dutch, Swedish or the Indian 
nation, or yet may arise ; to apprehend, relegate and send off the authors, instigators 
and ringleaders thereof, either with or against their will ; to order once more the ship in 
question to leave under the free pass given and in case of further opposition or contumacy 
to attack and drive it off or carry it hither and further to do, order and accomplish 
everything which they believe necessary for the greater safety of the said River, the Fort 

128 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

and good inhabitants thereof, while we promise hereby sincerely and in good faith to 
consider acceptable, settled and always binding, as if we had done it ourselves, all that 
shall have been done, accomplished and promised by our said Deputies in this quality 
and matter. 

Given at our Council, held at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, under our seal 
and usual signature, on the 3* of May 1656. 

Petition of Frederic Barentsen, baker at Fort Casimir for an 
increase of pay ; granted. 

Copy. To the Very Worshipful, Wise, Valiant, the Hon'''^ Petrus Stuyvesant, 

Sir. After offering the kindliest greetings it is the request of your Noble Worship' s 
most humble and obedient servant, to be informed what my salary here with thn 
commutation money for board, suitable for a baker, appointed to a fort, is to be. I have 
spoken here with their Honors, Mr. de Sille and the Fiscal Tienhoven and asked for an 
increase, but they did not allow me any more, than 12 florins per month and a private 
soldier's ration, which does not satisfy me ; but I shall be well satisfied, if the Noble 
Director-General wUl give me 16 florins per month and a Sergeant's ration. A favorable 
answer hereto awaiting I remain 

Your Noble Honorable Worship's 

F J This is the mark of 
Dated Frederic Barentsen from Oldenburg. 

Actum Casimir 
on the South river of 
New-Netherland, 28'!' May 1656. 

The foregoing petition having been received and read, it was answered, after the 
question was put : 

Fiat ut petitur, 27"^ June A? 1656. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant: first 
intimation of the probable division and surrender of part of 
THE Delaware Colony to the city of Amsterdam. 14™ June 

* * * -X- * * 

We are now still negotiating here with their Noble Worships the Lords-Burgomasters 
of this City in regard to the establishment of some colonies there, which negotiations, 
we think, will be soon brought to an end. We shall then, when the people sail, which 

Keiv York Historical Records. 129 

will greatly increase the population (of New-Netheiiand), give your Honors information 
of our further resolutions 

We are for the present satisfied with the appointment of Jean Paul Jacquet as 
Vice-Director of the Southriver and will hope and trust, that your Honors have taken 
the step after having previously ascertained, that his abilities are equal to his duties. 

Petition of Hewdrick Huyghen, to be informed what amount of 


Copy. JSToble, Honorable, Very Worshipful Dii'ector-General and Council of New- 

Hendrick Huyghen shows herewith with due reverence, that he has come here before 
this city with the ship "Mercurius" with the consent and permission of the Honorable 
General and his deputies, having been promised a civil treatment in regard to the duties of 
the West-India Company, as having arrived here by accident and against intention : the 
petitioner therefore requests to be informed, what amount of duties your Noble Worships 
expect him to pay, that he may arrange his affairs accordingly, and awaits your Honors' 

decision in margine. 

(Signed) Hendrick Huyghen. 

After the foregoing petition had been received and read, the question was put and 
the following decision made thereon : 

The petitioner is to pay as duty for the goods brought here 10 per cent, but whereas 
he remonstrates and complains, that some of the goods have been spoilt, we consent and 
allow him to pay in toto as duty for the goods, which he has proved by the invoices to 
have been brought over in the ship "Mercurius" and which amount to the sum of 
9709 florins 10 St.,* seven hundred and fifty florins. Done at Fort Amsterdam in 
New-Netherland, date as above (11*." July 1656). 

Order to discharge some persons from confinement, taken up on 


The Director-General and Council of New-JSTetherland, having seen the interrogatories 
of the Hon^'^ Fiscal de Sille in regard to the sale of beer to the savages and the answers 
made thereto by Dirck Michielsen, a Fin, and Cornells Martensen, a Swede, at present in 
confinement on the charge of having sold beer to the Indians, find therefrom and from 
other circumstances, that the aforesaid prisoners have done it ex ignoranticB, having only 
lately arrived, also that there were eleven of them, who drank only three vaens,t of 
which the savages got very little. The Fiscal is therefore directed to release them from 
confinement. Date as above (31°.' July 1656). 

* $3883.80. t One vaen = 4 piuts. — Tr. 


130 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Petition of Armgard Papegaay, daughter of G-oternor Prints, for 


Noble, Honorable Director-General of New-Netlierland. 

It is doubtless well known to the Hon""" General that our late Governor, my highly 
respected Lord and Father, had conveyed to him a piece of land for a bonwery, partly 
made by free men, who have returned to Sweden, partly cleared of the brush by his 
own orders and that, after he had cultivated the same for several years, it was granted to 
him by the King and also confirmed by Her present Royal Majesty. It has, however, 
not been cultivated for nearly 3 years and is overrun with young underwood, while the 
house standing on it has been still more ruined by the Indians ; therefore I have been 
induced, to have the same repaired and the land cultivated by three Fins. Now, whereas 
against my expectation I have been forbidden by the Honorable Commandant to continue 
in it, therefore I am compelled, to inform hereof the Honorable General with the humble 
prayer, that he will please in his graciousness and good will, as well as for the great 
friendship, which he had for my Lord and Father, to let me enjoy the same, upon which 
I firmly trust. Thus I pray once more, that my people at Printsdorp may remain 
unmolested and continue cultivating the soil and for greater security I may be granted by 
the Hon'''" General letters-patent for this place as well as for Tinnakunck. I hope, that 
this vsdll be acknowledged by my Lord and Father as an act of great friendship and be 
gratefully requited as far as possible, wherewith I commend the Honorable General to the 
protection and grace of the Almighty. (It was dated) Tinnakunck, 3* of August 1656. 
(Lower stood) The Honorable General' s humble (It was signed) 

Armgard Prints. 

The preceding petition having been taken up and read, after asking everybody's 
opinion the following decree was made : 

The petitioner receives permission, pursuant to the capitulation, to take possession 

and cultivate the lands of her Lord and Father at Printsdorp. Done at Amsterdam in 

N. Netherland the 28'? of August 1656. (It was signed) 

P. Stuyvesant. 

Order permitting Peter Laurens to caret his own goods to the 
Delaware, on condition op conveying some soldiers', baggage 


It was represented in Council, that the skippers demanded a very large sum of money 
for the transport of soldiers' goods, destined for the Southriver, and that Pieter Laurensen 
had offered to convey the soldiers' baggage there in the Company's yacht, if he could 
send there his own goods in the same vessel, while we with our men should in the 
meantime use his yacht for carrying stones &c^ It was resolved to agree to it. Date as 
above [26'." October 1656]. 

* The location of Printsdorp has not been detenninecl. Tradition places it on the southern end of Tinicum 
Island, Pa.— B. F. 

Kew York Historical Records. 131 

Okder banishing Eveetje Dircx, a Swedish woman, to the 
southrivek or long-island. 

As complaints have been made against Evertje Dircx, a Swedish woman, that she 
debauches the Company's negroes and other men and tliat she has been in bad repute for 
a long time already, therefore, in order not to involve her in a public scandal, she was 
told to transport herself within eight days from the Manhattans either to Long-Island or 
to the Southriver, wherever it might suit her best, without delay. Date as above [26'." 
October 1656]. 

Extract from a letter op the Directors to Stuyvesant ; the 
negotiations regarding a division of the delaware territory 


and the land south op it to the city of amsterdam ; the new 
Colony is to be called New-Amstel and Jacob Alrichs is to 
BE the City's representative there. 19 Decbr. 1656. 

"We have been in quite the same difficulty and alarm, as your Honors, regarding the 
maintenance and defense of the Southriver, recovered by us with so great expenses and 
therefore we were so much more ready and eager, to negotiate with their Noble Worships, 
the Lords-Burgomasters of this City for the establishment of colonies in New-Netherland ; 
and now at last we have agreed and made a contract with them, under the conditions, 
which your Honors may learn from the enclosed written and printed copies and by which 
people are invited to move to New-Netherland. The conditions being so reasonable and 
favorable, in order to increase and augment the population, we can hardly doubt their 
success, as besides we have seen already some effect of it in the thronging of people, as 
also the zeal for it shown by the City or their Commissioners and Directors, specially 
appointed, commissioned and engaged to send oflf the aforesaid people in one ship to the 
Southriver before winter, where they intend to plant their Colony, as will be further 
explained hereafter 

We can as yet not approve your Honors' intention, to favor the Sinneques savages, 
who have brought and traded there about 4000 pieces of beaver, with the erection of a 
trading-post near the former Colony of the Lord of Nederhorst,* because, as it seems, the 
trade with this nation will not be of great duration or consequence, the more so, as with 
the establishment and planting of the City's Colony on the Southriver occasion will be 
given to them, to come there with then peltries and carry on this trade at that place as 

being so much nearer and more convenient for them We 

were displeased to hear of the information, which your Honors had received there, that 
some Frenchmen with a Jesuit from Canada had come into the country of the aforesaid 
Sinneques and had already begun to erect a strong house, as the same can only tend 
to the disadvantage of our City and its inhabitants. However we have not yet thought 
*0n the Achter Col, between Elizabethport and Perth Amboy, N. J.— B. F. 

132 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

it advisable to come to a definite resolution in regard to this matter, as being premature 
and the afiair perhaps of small consequence, before we were not better informed of it, 
for which reason your Honors are directed, to inquire closely into it and make us a 
pertinent report of the result 

Whereas their Noble Worships, the Lords-Burgomasters, as mentioned above, intend 
to plant their Colony on the Southriver near Fort Casimir, now called New-Amstel and 
whereas, for the garrisoning and defending of the colonists going there and other free 
trades people (altogether about heads) they send there also a company of soldiers 

under Captain Marten Kryger, whom upon your Honors' good report we had recommended 
thereto, therefore we have deemed it necessary, not only to inform your Honors of it, 
but also to order hereby, that you, as being specially authorized thereto, deliver and 
convey in due form to the Honorable Mr. Jacob Alrichs, who comes over as Director and 
Commissary- Greneral of their Worships' Colony and whom your Honors wUl assist with 
advice and deed, the said Fort with the land around it, belonging to and acquired by us 
by purchase and conveyance, also all the ordnance and what might be left there in the 
said Fort on behalf of the Company : all this properly inventoried and receipted for by 
the said Director Alrichs, that in due time we may make use of it. 

What regards Fort Christina and New-Gothenburg or what we call Altena and the 
Island of Kattenburgh, your Honors will have to occupy them provisionally with 8 or 
10 soldiers each, as well for the safety of the Swedes, now our subjects, as to awe and 
make careful the natives and other nations and above all not to neglect giving us 
by the first opportunity your opinions, how and in which manner, matters might be best 
managed there. The remaining soldiers, taken out of Fort Casimir, shall be employed 
and placed by your Honors as it may be found necessary. 

The confidence, which we have of the progress and increase in population of this new 
Colony and of which we hope to see some signal proofs next spring, as according to all 
appearances many of the exiled Waldenses, who will be notified of it, will desire to go 
there, has induced us to resolve to direct your Honors hereby, that you try immediately, 
before it is done by any other nation, to acquire by purchase the country beginning at 
the South and up to the corner of the Northriver, to settle there these people and to 
secure and strengthen by such neighbors both parties. 

Many are of opinion, that upon the establishment of this Colony, some of our 
inhabitants there wdll be found quite willing to move into it, seeing the great advantages 
and the exemption from taxes during the first years ; as this point is well worth 
considering, it must be prevented by all imaginable means and the said Colony taken as 
an example herein as much as possible. And further all causes for complaints must be 
removed, which are being given to the people, if their goods are taxed in excess of the 
contract made here with them, which we understand has been done, even in regard to 
such goods, as are sent into our own district on the Southriver. We demand 
peremptorily, that this shall not be done henceforth. Also, when the goods are bought, 
if not extorted from them (we do not know, whether this is done for account of the 
Company, as the books are withheld from us) and they can get neither an accounting nor 
a liquidation, much less payment and especially if, for a word wrung from the people 
by oppression, their hands are pressed into their purses and a seal upon then- mouths 

iMew York Historical Records. 133 

We leave it to all sensible statesmen to judge, what connection there can be between 
such proceedings and a lawful administration 

As we understand, that their Honors, the Commissioners and Du-ector, appointed 
and commissioned for this Colony of the City in New-Netherland intend to come with 
theii" ship, called "Prints Manrits," to Fort New- Amsterdam, that they may with so much 
less trouble and expenses receive the goods and merchandises, shipped on account of the 
smallness of the said vessel in the ships "de Bever" and " Gelderse Bloom*," therefore 
we considered it proper, to order your Honors hereby, that you not only assist herein the 
said Director of the said Colon}^, but also help him in everything with advice and 
deed, despatch him in a short time and not prevent or delay him, as the said ship and 
cargo are not subject to any inspection whatever ; but arrived at its destination on the 
Southiiver, the goods shall be discharged in presence of the Commissary, appointed or to 
be appointed by your Honors for the service of the Company there and stored in the 
warehouse, pursuant to the tenor of articles 34 and 35 of the abovementioned printed 
conditions, agreeable to which the instructions of the said Commissaiy must be framed. 

As we have heard, that there lives on the boirwery of the late Mr. Werckhoven 
a certain party f, being well versed in engineering and surveying, who consequently might 
be of service to the said new Colony as well in laying out the lots chosen for the dwelling- 
houses of the colonists as in other ways, therefore your Honors will, upon request, 
persuade the said engineer thereto and let him go thither, to make a good beginning and 
location there 

We have forgotten to mention, that, when the ship "Prins Maurits " shall Ijave 
discharged her cargo at the Southriver and returned to the Manhattans, to get there a freight 
of tobacco, your Honors must assist as much as possible, which we desire to impress upon 
your Honors most earnestly, as the same will lighten somewhat the incurred expenses 
and give great satisfaction to their Worships the Lords-Burgomasters, who will thereby 
the more be instigated to take to heart the progress of their Colony, which cannot but 
tend to the maintenance and preservation of the whole territory of New-Netherland. 

Minutes of the administration of Jean Paul Jacquet, Yice-Directoe 
AT the Delaware, and his Council. 
In the Name of Almighty God. 

On the 18'." December 1655 appears Jean Paul Jaquet in his quality as Vice- 
Director, Andries Hudde, Elmerhuysen Cleyn, Gysbert Braey, sergeant, 
and Hans Hopman, sergeant. 
After reading the commission and instructions of the Hon. Vic<3-Director an inquiry 
is made as to certain accounts of the Commander Dirick Smit and it is thought best, to 
send the same to the Hon. Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant. 

* I. e., Flower of Guelderlfind. 

t Jacques Corteljou, who had been appointed about that time Surve.yor-General of the Province. He established 
the village of New Utrecht, L. I., on land of the van Werkhoven family, and was in English times Government 
Surveyor and a person of prominence. — B. F. 

134 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

Appears Commander Diiick Smit demanding a certain table and cupboard, wliich lie 
is said to have bought from the Constable John Staelcop ; this said Constable, heard 
hereon, declares, to have sold the articles to him and as after a satisfaction being offered 
to the said Dirick Smit for the table, to use it for the Vice-Director, he is not willing to 
give it up, it is delivered to him. 

Api^ears Swen Schoete and demands payment by Dirick Smit, the Commander, for 
10 schepels of rye, 6 schepels of peas and four heavy beams the price of each schepel 
of rye being 2J florins, for each schepel of peas 4 florins and for the aforesaid beams 
40 florins ; he declares that he has bought the beams from Claes, the Smith, and paid 40 
florins for tliem. 

He farther claims [as due him] from the Company 100 fl. for a smaU house standing 
behind the fort and called the ^'- BatstoofV (bathhouse). 

[The reply of Commander Dirick Smit is partly gone except:] 

concerning the peas, they have been lent to the Company and the beams orgroundtimbers 
have been used for the guardhouse. 

On the 20'^ December. 
Appears the Corporal Hendryck of Bielefeld [and states], that towards evening of 
the 19'." iast he has been at the hoirse of Harman Hansen and there, in the presence of 
Frederick Harmansen Adelborst and Harman Jansen, heard Swen Schoete say, that 
as soon as a Commander came, who was to his (Schoete' s) mind, he would reveal to him, 
where some things were concealed and buried in the fort ; which [declaration] he, 
Hendryck of Bielefeld promises to confirm by his oath at any time. 

Fredrick Harmansen being called, declares, that he has been at the house of Harman 
Jansen on the evening of the 19"" iust. and there heard Swen Schoete say, in the presence 
of Hendiick of Bielefeld, Fredrick Harmansen Breemer and Harman Jansen, that as soon 
as a Commander came to his (Schoete' s) liking, he would make known to him, what is still 
concealed in the fort and which would be to the Commander's benefit. This, as written 
above, the witness promises, if necessary and he be called upon, to confirm with his oath. 

Appears Frederick Harmansen upon citation and declares, that he has been at the 
house of Harman Jansen on the evening of the 19'° inst. and there heard Swen Schoete 
say, — in presence of Harmen Jansen, Heyndrick of Bielefeld and Frederick Harmansen, 
that there were some things still concealed in the fort and that, as soon as a Commander 
came, who would stand on his, Swen Schoete' s, side and with whom he could agree, he 
would reveal it to the same, but that if the same were willing not to do it, he could 
make no arrangement. The witness promises to confirm the above statement by his oath, 
if requu-ed. 

Appears Harman Jansen, being summoned and declares, that he has heard Swen 
Schoete say in his house, that some things Avere in the fort to its (the fort' s) advantage 
and that, when a Commander came to his (Swen Schoete' s) liking, he would make it 
known; which statement witness promises to confirm by his oath if necessary. 

J^ew Yorh Historical Records. 135 

Appears Swen Sclioete, fetched by the sergeant and informed of the foregoing 
declarations, answers, that he had simply spoken in jest and to ridicule Otto Grym, 
without knowing anything about tlie things or that they might be buried. 

After hearing the parties and his, Swen Schoete's answer, he was informed that, 
since we knew of the frequent and unbecoming [utterances], disseminated by him, Swen 
Schoete, against this State on tliis river, whicli have caused nothing but uneasiness and 
tumult in the community, (it was agreed that) we are compelled to pay some attention 
to this for the wellfare of the place and communicated as much to him, Swen Schoete, 
also that he shall remain here under arrest and keep himseK in readiness to be sent by 
the first vessel, with these and other documents, to the Hon. Director-General and High 
Council to defend himself. 

Elias Emmens delivers in person a petition, in which he requests permission to go 
to the Manhattans ; upon which he receives as answer, that if it had pleased the Vice- 
Director, to make a closer inquiry in his, the supplicant's, misdeeds, he would have had 
reason, to send him to the Manhattans as prisoner, he must therefore be satisfied tUl 
spring, when his petition will be taken up for further consideration. 

[An Ordinance imposing an Excise on Liquors at Fort Caslmir, for which see Laws of New-Nelherland, pp. 204 
and 205.] 

On the 25*'' December. 
The Hon'"'' Mr. Jacquet having examined the condition of the Port Casimir and not 
finding the same as he had expected, we declare, that we, the undersigned, have 
upon the request of the said gentleman, examined and found the fort to be decayed in 
its walls and batteries and that the same fort, if a good work is to be made of it, must 
be run up from the ground, whereas the out-work has already for the greater part fallen 
under foot and what is still standing must necessarily fall, because it is burst and 
distended (by water). The truth of which, as written above, the undersigned promise to 
confirm by oath any day. Done at Fort Casimir under date as above, to which end we 
have signed this with our usual sign-manual. — It was signed Elmerhuysen Cleyn, Dii-ck 
Smit, Gysbert Braey, Hans Hopman, A. Hudde. Below stood : To my knowledge, A. 
Hudde, Secretary. 

On the 22* of December. 

We, the undersigned, declare, that we have inspected the land, sowed and cultivated 
by order of Dirck Smit. It is far from as much, as has been reported by Dirck Smit, 
that he had sowed and Andries Hudde declares furthermore, that no four morgen of land 
have been sowed, including even several private lots, of which he has taken possession 
without order and upon Avhich no confidence can be placed. This having been done, 
agreed upon and signed by us in good faith, we are ready to confirm it by oath. It was 
signed : Gysbart Braey, Hans Hopman and Andries Hudde. 

On the 28'!' of December. 
Several Sachems of this river arrived in Fort Casimir and requested a hearing, to 
make some propositions. This was granted to them in the presence of the Hon"'* Vice- 
Director, Andries Hudde, Gysbert Braey, Elmerhuysen Cleyn, Sander Boyer and several 
others and their first proposition, after they had welcomed the Vice-Director, was 

136 Colonial Settlements on the Delaivare River. 


That some promises liad been made to them by the former Commander Dirck Smit in 
regard to the trade, that the prices should be raised. 

They were answered : 

That the Hon*"^ Vice-Director had only arrived lately and could not know, what had 
been done in this respect by his predecessors, but that there were some reasons, why we 
should live with them, as before, in good friendship and love and prevent, as far as it 
concerned him, all causes for trouble and dissatisfaction and that, if any thing might 
have been done through ignorance, they ought to tread it under foot as not done. This 
they accepted. 


They demanded, with great circumstantiality and ample volubility, changes in the 
trade, asking a piece of cloth for 2 deer and so forth of other merchandise in proportion. 

Whereupon the answer was : 

That his Master did not come, to make rules for this, but that eveiy one is at liberty, 
to act herein according to his pleasure and that every one could go, where his purse 
enabled him and the goods pleased him ; to which they assented. 


They requested, that, whereas it had rather been customary, to make some presents 
to the chiefs, it would be proper now in confirraation of the treaty. 

They were answered : 
and the scarcity of merchandise demonstrated by the Hon*'^ Vice-Director. He was, 
however, as well inclined to live with them in friendship, as mentioned before ; he should 
do, what the present circumstances permitted. They should [return] in three days, to 

hand [them] two or three 

On the 29*!^ ditto. 

The foregoing articles and propositions of the savages having been communicated 
to the community living at Fort Casimir, they received the same with satisfaction and 
assented willingly, upon the request of the Hon*"^ Vice-Director, each in accordance with 
his subscription, to the following subsidy, with the exception of Isaac Israel and Isaac 
Cardoso, who refused to give theii' consent and prepared to leave the river and give 
up their trade, than to assist, with other good inhabitants, in maintaining the peace of 
this high-way. 

What each has promised to contribute the following, to wit : 

By the Hon""' Comp f or 4 £ fl 58 • ,, — 

by Mr. Jacquet tl 14 10 — 

by Andries Hudde fl 10 10 — 

by Master Jacop fll3 ■ , , • — 

by Elmerhuysen Cleyn fl 14 10 — 

by Thomas Bruyn 9 • ,, — 

by William Maurits 9 ,, — 

by Jan Eeckhoft 9 ,, — 

by Cornells Maurits 13 ,, — 

Kew Yorh Historical Records. 137 

by Sander Boeyer 9 — 

by Harman Jansen 9 — 

by Jan Flamman 13 — 

by Jan Schaggen 9 — 

by Oloff Steurs 6 — 

by Laurens Bors 6 — 

by Mons Andiies 4 — 

In confirmation of the truth, that we have consented to the above subsidy, we have 
this with our hands and it was signed : Jan Flamman, the mark Jl of Jan Schaggen, 
the mark ^ of Ole Stenrs, self made, the mark of Lauwers Boers, self made, the mark 
of Mons Adriaensen seK made, Alexander Boeyer, the mark of Thomas Brons, self made, 
Jan Eeckhoft, Willem Maurits Cornells Maurits, the mark of Harman Jansen, made by 
himself, Paul Jaquet, A. Hudde, Jacop Crabbe, Elmerhuysen Cleyn. 

Appears Toms Broen, as father and guardian of his daughter, Jannetje Tomas and 
consents to the marriage between her and Willem Maurits here present and requests that 
their legal bans might be published ; the names being, of the bridegroom Willem Maurits, 
bachelor, fi-om Walle Schier, about 33 years old, of the bride Jannetje Tomas, spinster, 
born in New-Netherland, about 16 years old. Witness Stuyte Andries. 

On the 2* January 1656. 

Appeared before the Council several soldiers summoned on account of misconduct. 

Appears Ellas Roe. His declaration is without foundation, but is referred for the 
decision of the Hon"'' Vice-Director. 

Appears Engel Cornelissen Hoogenburgh ; his declaration is as before, but he asks 
for mercy, seeing that it has been done in a state of intoxication. 

Appears Sergeant Hans Hopman and deposes, that he came by order to Elmerhuysen 
to detail the corporal of the guard, Laurens Hansen, for guard-duty. The Pole Jurriaen 
Hanouw having in the meantime got into a dispute with the Sergeant, the Pole said "I 
will not be ordered by a provost,' ' whereupon the Sergeant getting vexed left the house, 
sword in hand. 

Appears Jurriaen Hanouw from Great Poland and deposes, that he asked Hans 
Hopman, in Fort Casimir, at the time of Dirck Smit, whether he was a Sergeant or a 
Provost. Meanwhile being on the 1'-' of January 1656 at Elmerhuysen' s, he, Hans 
Hopman, asked him, the Pole, whether he still stood by his words, whereupon the Pole 
answered " Yes." 

Appears Jan Swart Verlyden and declares that he has been at Jan Insten's in 
company of Ellas Emmes and Frederic Bitter. 

Declaration of Pieter Lauwerts, alias Leertouwer (Currier, Leather-dresser). 

He deposes, that the companions of Frederic Bitter brought him, upon his. Bitter's, 
orders, before the house of the gunner. Jan Insten further deposes, that he deplores, 
having brought his goods to a notary, he further declares that Elias Emmers has been 
together vrith him. Bitter and the carpenter Jan Swart in the evening and that they have 
been intoxicated. He says further that he does not know any more of the affair, which, 
if required, he is willing to confirm with his oath. In presence of Elmerhuysen Cleyn 

138 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

and Heynderick Harmens of Bilvelt, corporal, I have signed this in attestation of its truth 
with my hand. And it was signed : the mark © of Pieter Louwers, made by himself. 

On the 4'*' of January. 

Andiies Hudde was elected to the office of provisional Substitute, to bargain for 
and acknowledge all things and causes before the Hon''''^ Vice-Director and Council on 
the profits and ordinances, concerted by the Hon''"' Gentlemen present. 

Frederic Bitter appearing declares, that he knows of nothing and that it has been 
done in a state of intoxication. 

He further declares, that no officer nor anybody else has wronged him, but he thanks 
everybody ; however, that he has been seduced by Elias Emmens and that he regrets 
having been acquainted with Elias Emmens. 

Elias Emmens appearing, he is asked what excuses he has to make for such actions 
and that he has also induced others to run away and that it is sufficient for two other 
persons, named here, to make troubles among the savages, whereupon the savages had 
fired at them. 

The prisoner declares that he had nothing to do with a conspiracy, as far as he knows, 
and asserts, that he did not associate with any person. 

He declares, that, to his knowledge, he has not been among the Indians, nor does he 
know, that they have been fired upon. He asks for mercy for his misbehaviour and does 
not know, that there has been any difficulty with the savages. 

Appears Jan Swart and declares in reference to the above case, that the same has 
been occasioned by drunkenness. 

Appears Tymen Tiddens and asks for recovery of some goods taken by Elias 
Emmens, Hendrick Serjackes and Peter Jansen for a debt, arising from labour and 
amounting to the sum of 70 florins ; they had sold the same goods to Jan Schagge, viz : 

5 pigs at 10 fl 50 ,, ,, 

1 kettle 24 „ ,, 

1 tin pan 8 , , , , 

The abovenamed persons appearing, declare to have sold the abovementioned goods 
at their own risk. 

Jan Schagen appears, being summoned by Tymen Tiddens, and declares, that he has 
bought the aforesaid things fi'om the aforesaid soldiers and that, if he has to return the 
same, he demands recompensation for the feeding of the five pigs during the period of 
five weeks and the same costs 20 fl. 

Appears Tymen Tiddens, and is ordered, that he come to an agreement with Jan 
Schaggen and give an affidavit of the cure of some soldiers, done by Smit' s order. — 

Tymen Tiddens contra Ele Stirssen, demands twelve HoU. schepels of mais, for 
which he has delivered to him 25 lbs. of lead, Swedish weight. 

Ele Stiers appearing declares, that he has promised him as payment three Holland 
schepels and the balance in Swedish schepels, with which he then was satisfied. 

The parties were ordered to come to an agreement with each other and Ele promises 
to pay Tymen as first instalment two HoU. schepels. 

Andi-ies Tudden appears against Hermen Jansen and demands payment of 63J 

Keiv York Historical Records. 139 

guilders iinder a note of hand and lie, Herman Jansen, is ordered to pay the aforesaid 
snm to him. 

Jan Schaggen, upon appearing, is ordered to hold the goods of Tymen Tiddens for 
another fortnight and if no payment is forthcoming then, the goods are to be valued. 

On the 12'." of January. 

Frederic Bitter, prisoner, appears and is asked, if he had no knowledge of a 
conspiracy. He declares not to have any knowledge thereof and begs for mercy with the 
promise, that he will take care henceforth and bear himself well and honestly, whereupon 
after some remarks he is discharged under condition, that he shall henceforth take heed 
or that he will be paid for the old offense with the new one. 

Appears Elias Emmens. It was inquii-ed of him, whether he has no knowledge, 
that he has tried to run away and that he has attempted to incite others, he declares, No, 
and says that he was drunk and does not know, what he has done nor where he has been : 
this point having been considered and notice taken of his foregoing misconduct, he is 
ordered to stand sentry until the next ration day and not to leave the fort without order 
from the Hon'"'= Vice-Director. 

Secretary Andries Hudde received consent, upon his request, that all summonses 
must be reported to him, to keep a register thereof, and that the fees for each summons 
shall be 9 stivers, for the messenger 6 st. and for him, Hudde, 3 st. 

On the 19'." of January. 

There appear at the meeting of Council the free Swedes, who live upon the second 
point above Fort Casimir and request, that they may remain on the land and that they are 
not willing to change their place of inhabitation nor to build in the village, which is to 
be established, but they adhere to the promise made to them by the Hon*"^ Mr. Peter 
Stuyvesant, that they should resolve what to do after the expii'ation of a period of one 
year and 6 weeks, granted to them by the capitulation. 

The parties having been heard, their request has been granted, according to the 
capitulation and those, who are willing, shall have permission to live in the village, while 
those who cannot determine, shall after the expiration of the aforesaid time, be obliged 
to remove. 

Appears before the Councilmeetiug Swen Schoete and upon presentation of the 
charge made pursuant to the affidavit declares, that Ele and Grauw were reported to have 
said to Ehobne (1), that he should kiU the aforesaid Swen Schoete and the Lieutenant 
Elias and deposes not to know anything more of the matter. 

He, the depositor, declares, that he has demanded, by order of Jan Rysingh, the 
poortax-money from some people for the payment of laborers-wages ; he promises to 
show the order. 

Appears Jan Schaggen and demands justice in the matter of Tymen Tiddens. His 
request was granted and (ordered) that two impartial men should be appointed, to value 
the goods. There were appointed hereto Harman Jansen and Constantinus Grroenenborch 
and they were directed to deliver an act of their decision to the Vice-Director and 

140 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

Upon the request of Mattys Busaiiie lie received permission to read * the following 

As the person of Mattys Busaiue has been appointed and commissioned by the 
Honorable and Noble Du-ector-General Peter Stuyvesant as Court messenger in and about 
Fort Casimii- and its dependencies on the South-River of New-lSTetherland, it is decreed, 
that b}^ these the aforesaid Busaine is ordered to perform the aforesaid duty and we 
charge upon all and every one, to allow hira, Busaine, to perform the aforesaid duties of 
Court-Messenger without let or hindrance. 

On the 9'^ of February. 

The petition of Elias Emmens in regard to the sale of his lot having been considered, 
he is ordered to procure a title-deed within the time of three months, else he must desist 
from his claim. 

After consideration of the petition of Jacobus Crabbe in regard to a plantation on 
and near the Steenbackers Hoeck (brickmakers corner), the same is granted to him, but 
the place shall be (first) inspected, to ascertain where the same is. 

They declare themselves willing, to pay the duty on liquors, in obedience to the order 
of the Hon"'^ Peter Stuyvesant, provided that Willem shall deduct the delivered goods. 
It is represented to them, that pursuant to Mr. Stuyvesant' s order, they must get the 
payment for delivered goods at the Manhattans. They declare, that they cannot do this ; 
whereupon it was intimated to them, giving them time of 24 hours, that upon further 
refusal the order of his Honor sliaU be carried out. 

Robert Marthyn against Gunner Jan Jacobsen demands of him payment of 14 
guilders less 3 stivers. Jan, the Gunner, having been summoned, acknowledges the debt 
and is willing to pay, provided he deduct for having shot at him, at his arrival. 

The aforesaid Marthyn (?) is released of his debt, considering that the weather was 
severe and he could not weU be imprisoned for his satisfaction. 

Appears Swen Schoete and is asked, if pursuant to his promise he has the document 
of Jan Rysingh, that he should use the poortax-money for the payment of his debts. 
He declares, Yes and shows a receipt of Claes the Smith for received laborers-wages and 
declares that he has nothing else. 

On the 23'* of February. 

It was ordered in Council, that a Placat be published, that by the middle of March 
every one shall have enclosed his plantation and lot under a penalty of 6 guilders for all 
those, who shall be found having acted against this order. 

Further, that all those, who own goats, shall try to get a herdsman for the same or 
if failing herein, any damage happened to be done to the animals, the owners thereof 
shall be debarred from any claim for said damages. 

Appears Constantinus Groenenborch and petitions for the lot of Claes Jans, the 
carpenter, situate next to the lot of Reynier Dominicus on the North-side, before the first 
row. The same was granted to him. 

Jan Flamman appears in Council against Matty de Vogel and demands payment on 

* The original Butch reads " vorleenen " (to grant, to give) and appears to be a sUp of the pen for " voorlezen " 
or as it would also be written at that time " vorleezen " (to read over, to read aloud). — Tr. 

JVeiy York Historical Records. 141 

tkree different obligations, lie having one of Tomaa Broen and. Willem Mawrits in the 
amount of 515 lbs. of tobacco, one of Jan Schagger for 546 lbs. of tobacco and one of 
Moins Andi-ies for 206 lbs. of tobacco. 

Appears Matthys de Vogel and deposes, that Jan Schagger had paid, that Tomaa 
Bruyn was still in arrears for 115 lbs. and Moins Andriesen still owes the whole amount. 

Upon summons appears Tomas Bruyn and says, that he shall pay the whole amount, 
that is still due. 

Moens Andriesen appearing says, that he is quite willing to pay, but that on account 
of the unfavorable weather he cannot gather, but as soon as he can gather the tobacco, 
he is ready to pay in money. 

Jan Flamman appearing against Tomas Broen demands payment of 565 lbs. of 
tobacco originating in a debt, which Jan Staelcop owes to Tomas Broen for account of 
Jan Juriaensen. 

Tomas Broen declares, that he has received the tobacco and is ready [to give up] the 
same, provided it can be received as merchantable. 

The Hon"'' Vice-Director and Council having considered the demand of Jan Flamman 
and the response of Tomas Broen, have decreed to appoint two persons, to inspect the 
tobacco, viz. Moens Andiies and Harman Jansen Merten Rooseman — 

Appears Jan Swart, summoned before the Court by Jan Flamman and declares that, 
as soon as he can get money, he shall make a lawful payment and offers his ship's 
account, amounting to 40 fi. as security. 

Harman Jansen appearing against Jacob Crabbe demands payment for certain goats, 
amounting to 114 guilders. 

Jacob Crabbe appears and declares to be ready to pay, but that Andries Hudde had 
attached the sum of 35 guilders. 

And whereas Harman Jansen declares, that he is deprived of means and that he had 
sold the goats, to buy again a cow and that, if he had to lose the attached money, he 
would be debarred of his good project. 

The matter was considered and the Vice-Du'ector and Council direct, that Harman 
Jansen shall in the first place pay to the aforesaid Hudde the sum of 14 guilders and 
Jacob Crabbe is ordered to pay to him, Harman Jansen, 100 guilders. 

Swen Schoete appearing before the Council requests that he might have a discharge, 
for some goods, which he had delivered to the former commander Dirck Smit. 

The commander* is informed, that as the Vice-Director is unacquainted with the 
matter between him, Schoete, and the aforesaid Smit, he must adjust it with the aforesaid 

Appears before the Council Elias Guldengreis, and requests, that, as he lives in 
another man's house, from which he possibly may be obliged to remove, in which case he 
shall have no place to stay in, he, the petitioner, might have granted to him a piece of 
land under the fort, where he could erect a house and gain a living. The request of 
the petitioner was granted and the place shall be inspected. 

Appears Jan Justen and asks for permission to make a plantation on the Kil oi 
Christina. The petitioner's request is granted and he receives permission, to live there. 

[Here follows a Placat, for which see Laws of New-Netherland, pa^je 218.] 
* Commandant. Most likel}' meant " comparant " the appearing party, depositor. — B. P. 

142 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Pdve7\ 

On the 1".' of March 
Appears before the Council Robbert Martyn agamst Sander Boyer and demands 
payment for freight of goods, wife and children, brought over from the Manhattans to this 

place, for his, Sander Boyer' s, account to the amount of f. 67 ,, ,, 

for Gerrit van Campen 5 . , . 

Sander Boyer appearing before the Council declares to be quite willing to pay, but 
that he has nothing and that if he had anything, he would willingly give it, he says, that 
he has 20 guilders, which he can give him. 

It is ordered, that Sander Boyer shall pay within 8 daj^s or failing herein, that his 
goods shall be distrained. 

Robbert Martyn appearing against Willem Clasen demands payment for passage of 
him, Willem Clasen, his wife, children and goods, — three beavers. 

Willem Clasen, upon appearance, acknowledges the debt and says that he has paid 
one beaver. Willem Classen is directed to pay within eight days or failing herein his 
goods shall be distrained. 

Robbert Martyn appearing against Matthys Mattysen demands payment of fourteen 
guilders for liquors consumed. 

Matthys Mattysen appears and declares, that he is ready to pay in tobacco. 

On the ir." of March 1656. 

Before the Council appears Swen Schoete, summoned by Jacob Crabbe and requests 
an approval of the sale of house, lot, plantation and the crops on other lots. 

Swen Schoete says, that he has bought the aforesaid places of Otto' Greyn and 
Merten Rooseman according to bill of sale. 

The parties having been heard and the matter considered, it was decreed, that the 
house should be seized for the poor-tax-money, which Swen Schoete had levied from 
the community here, the purchase of the other places shall be approved, when the 
title-deeds have been delivered. As to the crops, sowed upon the lots of freemen by him, 
Swen Schoete, they are allowed to him, if no further charge comes up. 

Appears Louwerens Pieters, servant of Tomas, against Tomas Broen and complains, 
that Tomas Broen has beaten him without cause, so that he is not able to work. 

Tomas Broen appears and declares that he has beaten him, the plaintiff, for cause. 
Tomas Broen is directed, to provide Louwerens Pieters with victuals, until he shaU be 
fit to work and to bring in the meantime proof of his right. 

On the 29'? ditto. 

Isaack AUerton hands in a petition, by which he requests permission to get a balance 
of an account, which is due him from Mr. Johan Prints, out of his, Mr. Prints', goods, 
which are here on the place. 

The petitioner is du-ected to have patience, until tidings come from the Manhattans, 
as an order in this matter is expected. 

Jacobus Crabbe appears against Swen Schoete and demands payment of 103 guUders, 
which are due to him, the plaintiff, as balance of account. 

J^eio York Historical Records. 143 

Swen Schoete appearing refers the plaintiff to the Hon^.''= Yice-Director for the sum ot 
36 guilders. He promises to pay the balance in a month. 

Jacobus Crabbe appearing against Ellas Guldengrys demands payment of 44 guilders 
7^ stuyvers. 

Elias Gulengrys appears and acknowledges the debt and says, that he shall pay in a 
short time. He, Elias, is ordered to pay in 14 days. 

Before the Council appears Isaac AUerton against Harman Jansen and demands 
payment of 55 guilders. 

Harman Jansen, appearing, confesses the debt and refers the plaintiff to Jacop 

Isaac AUerton appearing against Elias Guldengres demands payment of 82 fl. 8. 

Elias Gulengrys appears and says, that he has paid to Isaac AUerton all but four 
beavers, for which he, the defendant, has referred him, the plaintiff, to Jan Ericksen. 

Plaintiff denies having received any money nor has he accepted the four beavers of 
Jan Ericksen. 

Defendant, Guldengreyl, is du-ected to bring proof of his words or he shall be held 
to pay in 14 days. 

The Hon*''' Vice-Dii-ector has purchased of Swen Schoete certain fields, sown in rye 
and barley upon a burnt clearing in the second row, and another piece above on the 
second row, it is wide two lots and still another piece of barley, sown on the plantation 
on the north side of the public road, for the sum of 36 guilders, to be paid in 

On the 13"^ of April. 

Isaack AUerton appears against Moins Adriaensen, Laers Boers, Ele Toersen, Lucas 
Pitersen and Elias Gulengreyl for debts, which he, the plaintiff, requests to have satisfied 

Moins Adriaensen, appearing, acknowledges the debt and intends to pay in the faU 
with tobacco. 

Isaac AUerton demands a mortgage on his cattle as security, wherewith Moens 
Andries agrees and the document is drawn up by the Secretary. 

Appears Laers Boers and says that he wiU pay in the fall, for which he is wilUng to 
give a certificate before the Secretary. 

Appears Ele Toersen and says, that he wiU pay in the fall and that at present he has 
no means. He promises to pay in tobacco. 

Lucas Pitersen and Elias Geulengrys appear and say the same. 

Reymck Gerritsen appearing against Mons Andriesen, he (Reymck) says, that he 
has summoned Moens Andriesen before the Court, because the Hon'"*' Vice Director had 
had him, the deponent, summoned. 

Appears (Reymck Gerrets) I mean Mons Andries and declares, that he has been at 
his, Reymck' s, house, where the house was full of savages and that he, Moens, has asked 
him, Reymck, whether he intended to sell strong liquor to the savages ; he, Reymck, 
answered. Yes, and said further to him, Moens, Is it money (as he, Moens, had received 
the liquor for the savages and j)resenting it to him Reymck) then throw it into the cap. 
Moens answered. You can count it. Moens asked further, whether he, Reymck, would 
lend a bottle to the savages to put the liquor in, he, Reymck, said, Yes if he, Moens, 
would be security for the bottle. 

144 Colonicd Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Reymck Gerrit declares, that he does not know anything else, but that he has sold the 
liquor to Moens Andriesen and that he has no knowledge of where the liquor went. The 
matter having been considered and the dangerousness of the action remarked upon, also 
that the same cannot well be allowed to pass unnoticed, it was judged proper, to seize 
his, Reymck Gerritsen's, property and sloop, until further directions shall have been 
made in regard to this matter. 

The Hon'''" Vice-Director communicates to the Council the following charge against 
Thomas Broen, present upon summons, viz : 

The Hon'"" Vice-Director shows, that on the 4'.'' of March of this year 1656 Thomas 
Broen did come to the house of Jan Schaggen and being sober, he did not only 
vilify my person, but also my position [and said,] that he would try to make my 
commission powerless, tinder which everything belongs and must be kept in good order 
and besides this raging he continues with threats of ruin, which would come with the 
threatened arrival here of the English nation, through whose arrival he hopes to be able 
to redress his pretended injuries. All this having a dangerous tendency, especially in 
these precarious times, I, to whom the care of this place has been intrusted, cannot let it 
pass without having it further considered. 

Tomas Broen appears at the summons of the Hon'''" Vice-Director and the communication 
of the aforesaid gentleman and the depositions of several persons in corroboration of 
his Honor's complaint are read to him. 

He, Tomas Broen, answers, that it is not true and the men must confirm their 
depositions with an oath. 

On the 22* of May. 

Whereas the hogs, belonging in and about Fort Casimir, do great damage in the 
Company's high [road], it has been deemed proper, to publish the following placat and 
affix it at the usiial place. 

[For the Ordinance, following here, see Laics of New-NetherlaM, page 22S.] 

The following resolutions and sentences have been passed and pronounced by the 
honorable Committee of the Council, Messrs. Nicasius de Sille and Cornells Thienhoven 
in absence of the appointed Council of this place, wherefor they have been placed here 
from memory. 

On the 24'^ of May. 

Jan Picolet, a native of Bruylet in France plaintifl" and Catrine Jans, born in Sweden 
defendant. The plaintiff appears before the Council, Mr. Nicasius Sille, Cornells van 
Thienhoven, Jan Jacquet and Frederik de Coninck being present, and requests in writing 
and verbally, that he might be discharged from his promise of marriage, made to the 
aforesaid Catryne Jans on the 24'^ of January 1656, pursuant to the contract, signed by 
the parties with the witnesses and that the same be declared null and void by the aforesaid 
Commissaries and the Vice-Director, for and on account of the following reasons, to wit : 
that he asked her, the defendant, with serious intention, upon honor and faith to be his wife, 
and that he did not know else, but that the same defendant was a virtuous girl. About a 
month after the making of the marriage contract, he asked her, whether she had ever had 
any connexion with any one in the world, whereupon she answered, No, and they would 
have been married, if a preacher had been at hand. Then everybody saw and remarked, 

Kew Yorlc Hlstoriccil Records. 145 

that his betrothed, here present, was pregnant. Hereupon he, as an honest man, took 
counsel and reasoned with himself, to keep himself and abstain from her, as he could not 
understand, that so evident signs of pregnancy could be seen on a virtuous woman in so 
short a time. And for the foregoing reasons, but contrary to his intention and former 
hopes, he is now not willing, to live with her in matrimony. 

The defendant appeared in person before the Council and answers, that she is willino' 
to live in matrimony with the plaintiff, provided he would live with her in friendship. 
She confesses : 

That, in the fall of 1655, she has been engaged to a soldier, Willem by name, 
serving on board the ship "De Waegli," and has had carnal conversation with the same 
at different times and places, whereby she became ijregnant and that she had never, 
neither before nor after the making of the marriage-contract, given any information of 
her act to Picolet, but that she regrets this her behavior very much. 

The Commissaries of the Director-General and Council, with the Vice-Dii-ector having 
heard the parties, as also considered the reasons and discussions pro et contra, find upon 
the petition of the plaintiff and answer of the defendant, that the plaintiff in his petition 
is supported by just principles, the more so the defendant, like an unchaste adulteress, 
has gone outside of her first betrothal, from which she had not been released, neither by 
the death of the bridegroom nor by other lawful reasons and has by her second betrothal 
deceived and seduced the plaintiff, contrary to the written law, and they give Jiidgment, that 
the aforesaid Picolet is released from his betrothal and marriage contract aforesaid and 
they declare the same null, ineffectual, of no value and as if the same had never been made, 
passed, written nor signed; we condemn the defendant, who is in the last stage of 
pregnancy, on which account the merited punishment is mitigated, to appear in Fort 
Casimir and there, before the Council, to release the plaintiff and with bent knees to ask 
the pardon of God and Justice and promise henceforth to behave as a virtuous woman, 
as is proper or if she is found contravening the defendant shall be corrected and 
punished, as may be found right according to the extent of the matter and the written 
law of our Fatherland. Thus done, in Council, at Fort Casimir in New-Netherland, date 
as above, and signed Nicasius de Sille, Cornells van Thienhoven, Jan Paul Jacquet. 

Copy of the abovementioned contract. 

To-day, date as below, appeared before me, A. Hudde, Secretary at Fort Casimir on 
the South-River, appointed by the Hon''''= Mr. Peter Stuy vesaut and High Council, residing 
at the Manhattans, in presence of the undersigned witnesses, the worthy Jan Picolet, 
a native of Bruylet in Prance with the maiden Catrina Jans, born in Elsenburgh 
in Sweden. Together and each for him or herself they have made, of their free, 
preconsidered and unbiased will and deliberate opinion, a promise of marriage, under 
the condition that on account of special reasons the marriage-solemnization should be 
delayed, until a preacher came here. And Jan Picolet promises faithfully to Catrine 
Jans to keep the aforesaid engagement unbroken, likewise Catrine Jans promises in the 
same manner to adhere steadily, firmly and inviolably to the promise of marriage made 
to Jan Picolet, to which end we, the engaged submit ourselves, each individually, to such 
punishment, as is ordered by law for convicted adulterers, if one of us or both should 
retract the foregoing promise or violate or break it. We bind us, for the vindication and 
satisfaction of justice to keep ourselves pure and undefiled in our engagement, until the 

]46 Colonial Settlemejits on the Belaivare Paver. 

complete consummation of the marriage, as decency and the laws of our magistrates 
require it. We declare, by signing this, that we, for further confirmation of this our 
foregoing promise, place our persons, goods, movable or immovable, now belonging or 
hereafter coming to us, all under the control of the pertinent laws. In attestation of the 
truth we have signed this without reservation or deceit. Done at Fort Casimir, this 
24'." of February of this Year 1656 on the South-River of New-Netherland. It was signed 
Jan Picolet, the mark 3 of Catrlne Jans, made by herself. Beneath stood : To our 
knowledge, present as witnesses : Martyn, Jan Flamman, Alexander Boyer, Willem 
Maurits, the mark H of Harmansen made by himself. By my commission A. Hudde. 


Constautinus Groenenborch petitions for the restitution of thirty beavers, which had 
been taken fi'om him in the year 1654 (?) by Heyndrick Huygen without cause or reason. 
The rescript on the petition was, that the petitioner was referred to the Court of Fort 
Casimii" and at the same time the said Court was dh-ected, to collect all necessary 
information, inquire and do justice. 

A petition of Mr. Isack Allerton claims to have a suit in law against the property 
of Jan Rysingh for arrears of money, which he, AUerton, claims as due. The decision 
is, that 

Whenever the petitioner shall have proved to the Court of Fort Casimir the truth of 
his claim, justice shall be done by the same, in accordance with the state of affairs. 

We promise hereby, that we will procure the discharge of Jan Jacops of Housem, 
gunner, left at Fort Casimir until the time, when our ship shall depart for the Fatherland, 
if ever circumstances permit. Given on board the ship " De Waegh" 12'!" October. 
Beneath stood Frederick de Coninck. 

The supplicant Jan Jacops requests to be heard on the foregoing promise. His 
petition for permission to go to Amsterdam by the ship "De Waegh" is granted, and at 
the same time the Vice-Director Jan Jaquet desired to compute his accounts, which are 
recommanded to be given to him, the more so as the place of constable shall be taken care 
of by Jacop Vis of Rotterdam, who is qualified for it and shall enjoy the same pay as the 
aforesaid Jan Jacops. Done in Council at Fort Casimir. 

On the 16'? of June. 

Before the Council appear, upon summons, Jan Picolet and Cateryne Jans, to whom 
is communicated and exhibited the sentence drawn up and passed by the Commissaries. 
The parties, giving each other the right hand, discharged one the other legally before the 
Council of the promise of marriage. 

Jan Eeckhoft appearing against Jan Flamman declares, that he has given Jan 
Flamman, who went last spring to the Manhattans, four beavers, to bring him gunbarrels 
and locks or if he could not get them, cloth and cheese. 

The defendant appeared and said, that he received four beavers, but on condition to 
bring, barrels, locks or powder ; he could not get any barrels or locks, he brought powder, 
but it was drowned, when the sloop stranded. 

The parties are ordered to bring proof of their assertions. 

Kcw Yorh Historical Records. 147 

Isack Israel appears against Jan Flamman and presents the following petition : 
To the Hon*'" Vice-Director and his Council residing in Fort Casimii-. 

Sheweth with due reverence the petitioner Isack Israel, that he, the petitioner, made 
an agreement with Captain Jan Flammau, to bring him, the petitioner, and his goods 
to the South-River ; that he, petitioner, promised to pay to him, Jan Flamman, one 
anker of brandy and satisiied him also before the departure ; that as he shipped two 
pieces of duffel more, than was agreed, he, the petitioner, had promised (to give) one 
beaver more and above the foregoing ; but that, as by great improvidence and in fair 
weather the bark stranded during the night and remained there for a considerable 
time, whereby they were compelled to unship all the goods from the same bark and to 
bring them ashore, during the time, they remained there, there was drank and eaten by 
the ship's crew as well as by passengers, of his, the petitioner's, (goods) one anker of 
brandy and fifteen pieces of cheese, likewise was his duffel much spoiled, as ia consequence 
of the stranding tents and sleeping places had been made of it. These damages can 
hardly be borne by me, even though the same had occurred through bad weather or 
other misfortune. It is estimated by me as follows : 

for one anker of brandy = 8 beavers il. 64 . . ■ . 

for 15 cheeses at 5 il. the piece 75 . . . 

for damage done to the duffel, as the same has 
been discolored by raia and sunshine and 
otherwise fl 200 . . 

Total amount fl 339 . . . 

If any one should be of opinion, that this damage was calculated too high, the 
petitioner promises one hundred guilders and more to him, who shall replace his goods 
at the valuation, which they had at the time of shipping at the Manhattans and while 
he would and must be well satisfied with the great loss of ship and goods, if the mishap 
had occurred by unavoidable necessity, yet as he is stUl asked for the beaver, which he 
promised for the two pieces of duffel, besides all damage and loss, which he has sustained, 
this quite unreasonable matter has induced him, the petitioner, to push his claim, 
therefore he, the petitioner, turns to your Honor and requests, that by your Honor he 
may be assisted and helped to his just and lawful claim, which doing etc? Was signed : 
Isaque Israel. 

The defendant answers, that he has no knowledge of the points in dispute ; he was 
lying in his bunk and according to the statement of Captain Martyu, there were still 
eighteen fathoms of water, when he went to lie down in his cabin. As regards the 
brandy, this was broached with the good and free will of the plaintiff, as the crew were 
wet and cold ; he said, "Drink as much as is necessary, if that is empty, you can get 
more ; the stuff is lost any way." As to the cheese, the plaintiff has dealt them out 
voluntarily to every one. 

Whereas from these verbal discussions no certainty can be had, it is ordered, that 
parties adduce proof of their assertions. 

148 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

On the 23* of June. 
Isack Israel against Jan Plamman. The plaintiff produces the following affidavit: 

To-day, date as below, appeared before me, A. Hudde, Secretary appointed by the 
Hon"'^ Lord and High Council, upon request of Isack Israel, the Worshipful Luycas Dircs 
snid Abraham Rycke. 

They declared together and each for himself and made afhdavit, as they do hereby, 
that it is true, that they, being on board the bark, called " de Fenix", between the 
14*? and 15'? of April towards daybreak, weather and wind being fair, run ashore and 
remained fast and that during the time, they sat there, one anker of bi-andy of the 
aforesaid Isack Israel was di'ank out and some cheeses eaten, but the number is not well 
known to them, as all drinkables and eatables were taken for the satisfaction of their 
wants, without regard as to whom they belonged. Likewise we know, that there were 
tents, to lay under and hammocks to lay in, made of his, Isack Israel's, duffels. They 
give as reason of theii- knowledge, that they, the affiants, have been on board of the bark 
during the time, which, as above written, we the undersigned declare to be true and 
truthful, and are willing to confirm, if necessary, with our oaths and have signed this in 
presence of the below-named witnesses. Done at Fort Cassimir this 16'? June 1656 in the 
S. R. of N. N. It was signed Abraham Reycke, Luyckas Dii-cs. On the margin stood : 
As witnesses, Jan Juriaensen, Jan Eckhoft. 

Having heard the arguments of the parties and their reasons pro and contra having 
been weU stated, we cannot but judge, that the matter must necessarily lead to a 
considerable increase of law-suits, which again will give rise to others. The parties are 
therefore advised to arrange the matter in friendship, but if they cannot agree, they shall 
address us again. 

Jan Eeckhoft appearing against Jan Flaman, the parties bring no other proof, but 
their own assertions and it was therefore proposed to the parties to arrange matters in 
friendship. This they accepted. 

Jacob Crabbe appears against Tymen Tiddens. The plaintiff demands payment of 
a certain account in the sum of 35 guilders 17 stivers. 

Defendant answers, that he has a counter-claim. 

The parties are ordered, first to make up their mutual accounts and if they could not 
agree then, to address themselves again to the Court. 

Jan Picolet appears against Jan Schagger. The plaintiff demands of defendant 
payment for a field-bed, which defendant ordered of plaintiff and which has been made. 

Defendant answers, that he did order a field-bed fi'om plaintiff and whereas plaintiff 
made the bed larger, than was the defendant's wish and consequently demanded more 
money, as he had agreed to pay, therefore defendant cannot consent to receive and pay 
for it. 

The parties are ordered to come to an agreement or if they cannot, the couch shaU be 

Constantinus Groenenborch asks by petition for a plantation, situate upon the second 
corner, formerly inhabited by one Gele Eyfgrauw. Proofs having been produced, his 
requests was therefore granted. 

Kew York Historical Records. 149 

On the 7*? of July 1656. 
Desiring to enter into matrimony Jacob Crabbe, bachelor, born in Amsterdam, and 
Q-eertruy Jacopsen from Immenes, widow of the late Roeloff de Haes, ask to have their 
matter attended to and declare besides, that they have no engagement with any body 
else. In the presence of Hendrick Kip and Dinna Rywerts as witnesses. 

On the 12'!' ditto. 

Jan Flaman appears before the Council against Thomas Bi'oen and produces a power 
of attorney of Jan Gerret, made by the constituant himself and besides a note of hand, 
dated the 30''' of March 1650, signed by him, Thomas Broen, for the amount of first 18 
beavers, then 30 guUders one stiver and then some goods to the amount of 6^ beavers. 

Thomas Broen declares to have had giins, but that he sent back to him, Gerrart, two 
of them by Jurriaen Blancke and that the other was stolen. It is superfluous to pay it. 
The wampum has been returned to him, Jan Gerret, by his, defendant's, wife about 14 
days after he had received it. It is not known to him, defendant, that he owes the six 
and one half beavers or that he has had any goods for that amount. 

Jan Flaman appears before the Council against the wife of Tobias Willeborgh and 
demands payment for a shirt, lost by her, the defendant, and for passage from the 
Manhattans hither, viz : 

for the shirt 14 . . 

for her passage and freight 16 . . 

30 . . 

The defendant says, that she has lost on the voyage, being wrecked with the bark, a 
chest containing four shirts, one coat of red duffel, one under waistcoat and a powder 
horn with copper mountings, valued by her, the defendant, at fl 28 . . 

Paid to plaintiff in money fl 4 . . 

from above fl 28 . . 

fl 82 . . 

The defendant is told, that the freight shall be set off against her lost goods ; in regard 
to the shirt, she is ordered to pay to plaintiff four guUders 15 stivers. 

Elmerhuysen Cleyn against Cornells Mauritsen, Willem Mauritsen and Constantinus 
Groenenborch. That, whereas he had been called into Fort Casimir on the 9'? inst, when 
he came there, there were some savages with beavers ; whereupon, as there was lack of 
duffels, he, plaintiff, had some goods fetched in and after having traded for the beavers, 
he went to his house. Coming there, he was assailed by the defendants before his, 
plaintiff's, door and upbraided, that he had not acted like a honest man and that he 
was not worthy to fill the office and WUIem Maurits had said, "Come, let us break into 
the house and carry out the beavers." 

On the 27'." ditto. 

Appears Geertruyt Jacops, widow of the late Mr. Roeloff de Haes, now betrothed to 
Jacob Crabbe and declares her intention of proving and assigning their father's inheritance 
to the children, left by him, Mr. de Haes and born in wedlock by her, Geertruyt Jacops, 

150 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

to wit Joannes de Haes, old about 10 years, Marrietje de Haes, old about 9 years and 
Annitje, old about 3 years and assigns herewith to each of the aforesaid children the 
sum of 6 carolus guilders, declaring at the same time upon her conscience, in place of 
an oath, that she, affiant, hereby satisfies the aforesaid children out of their father's 
inheritance and this declaration is made in presence and with the consent of her affianced 
husband Jacobus Crabbe and she, Geertruyt Jacops, has nominated, constituted and 
appointed and hereby constitutes and appoints as guardians of the aforesaid children 
the Wortliy Oloff Stevensen and Heudrick Kip, both burghers and inhabitants of the 

On the 2* of August 1656. 

Before the Council appeared Jacob Crabbe against Robert Martyn and complained, 
that he Robert Martyn had shot and kUled his, the plaintiff's, pig. Defendant answers, 
that fourteen days ago he entreated plaintiff to pen up his hogs, as the same did great 
damage to his corn. Plaintiff, upon being asked, what he wanted, answers "Payment 
for his pig." 

It was proposed to the xaarties, that plaintiff shall take the pig, as it is still living, 
but that if it should die, each one shall keep his action in law unprejudiced. 

Jan Plaman appearing against Alexander Boeyer hands up a bond of defendant for 
six and thirty guilders. 

Defendant answers, that he cannot pay, before the tobacco is ripe ; that he, the 
plaintiff, may do, what he will and if plaintiff will not wait so long, he may seize upon, 
what he has. 

Plaintiff receives permission, according to his promise, dated on the 1" of March, to 
put in an execution. 

Jan Picolet appears against Jan Schagger and demands payment for a field-bed, made 
for him, the defendant, which is valued at 24 glds. 

Defendant accepts the bed and plaintiff the payment. 

Before the Council appears Tymeu Tiddens against Jacob Crabbe. He complains, 
that defendant accosted him, the plaintiff, yesterday, when passing defendant's house 
and demanded payment for something. Plaintiff answered, that he should have a little 
patience. Defendant said "Whilst you have made your rascally account." Plaintiff 
answered " If I made a rascally account, then I must be a rascal." Defendant hereupon 
came out of his house, followed him, the plaintiff, and assulted and threw him to the 

Defendant says, it is not true. 

Plaintiff is ordered, to jarove his assertions. 

On the 5'!' ditto. 
Before the Council: Jacob Crabbe from Amsterdam and Geertruy Jacops from Immes, 
widow of the late Jan Roeloff de Haes, were authorized to enter legally into matrimony. 

On the 9'." ditto. 
The Hon"'' Vice-Director and his Council having considered the information, taken in 
reference to Niles Larsen by Mr. Laers, preacher and ecclesiastical deputy in matrimonial 
cases, are of opinion (to grant) a delay of three months, in order that during this time 

Kew York Histoidcal Records. 151 

further inquiry may be made at the Manhattans about a woman of bad repute, upon 
whose declaration consequently little confidence can be placed. It is therefore decided, 
that the same Niles Laersen's case may and ought to be promoted, whenever he, as 
before, shall have purged himself by an oath, that he has no connection, concerning this 
matter, with any one, but his present betrothed. 

On the H'!- ditto. 

Appeared in Fort Casimir upon summons, the persons, chosen by the Hon''''= General 
as deputy- sheriff and commissary to the Swedish population, to whom were read the 
conditions, made by the Hon"'' Commissaries, the instructions framed in Council and the 
commission sent by the Hon"'"' General, which was given and delivered to the deputy- 
sheriflf Gregory van Dyck. At the same time an ordinance in regard to the sale of 
strong drinks was read and then handed over to the deputy-sheriff, to be published 
among them. 

The Vice-Director made a contract with one Niles Matsen in regaid to the island 
near Chiistina ; he shall plant and sow there on half share, provided the Vice-Director 
furnishes him oxen, as agreed by the contract just made. 

Whereas the aforesaid Niles Matsen has had an ox of the Company before, for 
which he still owes payment, one eighth of the crop planted by him and amounting to 
120 paces, each pace holding 30 sheaves or yielding 2 Swedish schepels, which amounts 
for the ox to 30 Swedish schepels, therefore we order him, Niles Matsen, to deliver 
the same to the Hon*"^ Company at Fort Casimir or elsewhere pursuant to the order of 
the Hon"'* Vice-Director. 

The aforesaid Vice-Director made a contract with Pouwel Jansen for the land on the 
S. W. Side of Christina Kil, sloping toward the fort, for one-half of the crop according to 
the contract made. 

And whereas he, Pouwel Jansen, has sowed upon the land of his Honor, the affiant, for 
half share, that is one half for him and one half for the cattle, which he has used, of which 
he had one ox from the wife and one from the Company and whereas the crop, when mowed, 
was 57 paces, each pace at 2^ schepels, making a total of 142J schepels wheat and for one 
ox 85^ schepels, therefore he is ordered as above, to bring it up. 

Regarding the mill, it is left to the choice of the deputy sheriff and commissaries to 
put it up. 

Upon summons by Gregory van Dyck appears FUip Jansen on account of a robbery 
committed at Tinnekonck during the surrender of Port Casimir and other places on the 
South River. He answers, that he had suffered justice for it. 

The deputy-sheriff is directed to inform himseli well in regard to the shooting of the 
sister of Elias Gulengreyn's wife and to bring such information to the Vice-Director at the 
earliest opportunity. 

On the 21«? of September. 

Hans Hopman, the Sergeant, appears and complains, that on the 20'? of September in 
the evening, when he had received the orders from the Commandant and was bringing 
the same to Corporal Heyndrick van Bylvelt, who was tipsy and unfit to do guard duty, 
the Corporal said to him, he did not want to receive orders from a villain, drawing 
thereupon his sword, but he was prevented by Frederick the baker, so that he 

152 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

could not reacli the Sergeant with his sword. The Commandant then coming into the 
guardhouse, appeased the trouble ; the Corporal said to the Commandant, I shall receive 
orders from you without objection, but from no villain, whereupon lie, Heyndrick of 
Bylvelt hit him, the Sergeant, with the fist, he, the Sergeant, returned the blow with the 
cane. Signed Hans Hopman. 

Heyndi'ick of BUvelt appearing declares that he does not know anything of the 
accusation as written above. Signed Heyndrick Bylevelt. 

Appears Jan Emans, lancepesade * and declares, that the real cause for the trouble 
between Sergeant Hopman and Heyndrick of Bilevelt, the Corporal, is simply the 
instigation of Adam Onkelbarg, to help him in his cause. He further declares, that he 
does not know, that the Sergeant treated the Corporal badly. Signed Joannes Eymans. 

Cornells Meuritsen appears before the Council and complains against a soldier, Adam 
Onkelbach of Rouen, that the same had come into his house and stole from his house 
twenty-three cabbages, in the night between the 17'? and 18* inst. He, Cornells Maurits 
found, coming to the Fort into the quarters of the soldiers on the 19*? inst. this same 
Adam cutting the cabbage in a kettle, whereupon he went to the Commandant and 
entered a complaint against him. Signed Cornells Maurits. 

Cornells Maurits further complains that he came to the guardhouse on the 20'!' inst., 
to speak to a soldier. Adam Onkelbach, being a prisoner, said to him, that he, Cornells 
Maurits, was the cause of his, Adam's, sitting there and that he would pay him for it, as 
soon as he came out of prison or in some other way, if Cornells escaped him, saying 
further, that he, Cornells had lied to the Commandant, as all those, who said, that he had 
stolen the cabbages. Signed : Cornells Maurits. 

We, the undersigned, declare, that Adam Onkelbach, on the 19'? inst., deposed to 
the complaint of Cornells and upon the charge of the Commandant, that he, Onkelbagh, 
had stolen from the garden of Cornelis Mauritsen three cabbages ; that he, Onkelbagh, 
further questioned, what had become of the others, had said, You may look for them. 
The Commandant said further to him, Fellow, you are the one, who seduced the others. 
Adam answered, that that must be proved. The Hon"'*' Commandant then saying, that he 
most likely would make him talk differently and send him to the Fiscal, Adam 
answered. Do your best, send me away, do what you can. Signed : Hans Hopman, 
the mark of Tobias Willenborch made by himself, Cornelis Maurits. 

On the T^ of August Sergeant Grysbert declared in presence of the soldier Adam 
Onkelberg, that, the soldier speaking with the Sergeant about the plundering of the 
gardens, he, the Sergeant, said. You will get a charge of shot some time into your 
backside. Adam answered, We shall go with our guns : if they shoot at us, we will 
fire again and then attack them with our swords. The Sergeant said. That would 
bring you to the gallows. The aforesaid Adam answered. It may be so. I, the 
undersigned, declare the deposition written as above, to be true and truthful and am 
ready to confirm the same, if necessary, by my oath. Signed : Gysbert Brey. 

The prisoner Adam Onkelbach appears before the Council and the complaint of 
Cornelis Mauritsen having been communicated to him, he denies, that he has stolen the 
cabbage and during further discussions pro et contra aforesaid accusation said, The 
little thieves you hang, but the great ones, who use the Company for their own 

* An officer under the corporal, lance corporal. — B. F. 

JVew; York Historical Records. 153 

advantage are allowed to escape, and accused Hans Hopman, that he had sold a gun of 
the Company to the savages for 3^ beavers and that he will prove it by the whole 
company. Signed : Adam Onkelbach. 

Upon the second complaint of Cornells Maurits he Adam Onkelbach, declares, that 
he had said to Cornells Maurits, if he could prove it, that he had stolen his cabbages and 
that something might happen to him, but not, that he would pay him. Signed : Adam 

Upon the deposition of Sergeant Gysbert he declares, that the same is not true. 

On the 22" of September. 
Before the Council appears Jurriaen Hand from Point (1) in Great Poland, about 34 
years old and Engel Melis from near Gotteuberg in Sweden, about 40 years old and 
request that their bans might be proclaimed, so that they could enter into matrimony. 
There were present Moens Andries and Louwrens Bors. 

On the 25'" ejusdem. 

Several cadets and private soldiers came to Court and were asked, for what reason 
they would not obey the orders of Sergeant Hans. They answer, as the following 
deposition shows : 

Heyndrick of Bylvelt appears and says, that Hans Hopman has taken a musket 
before the gunner' s door and going with it into his house, he had a shooting-gun made of 
it, whereto Luycas Dirks has given him a fire-lock vsdth a pan. This is the same 
gun, which he has now in use, whereas he sold the gun, which he had from the Hon"'" 
Company, to the savages. Signed Hendrick Hermans. 

Frederick Barens, baker, appears and confirms the declaration of Heyndrick of 
Bylvelt and says further, that, when he, Hans Hopman, had the musket in his hand, he 
said. The barrel would suit me very well; that is a good barrel. He further declares, that 
Abraham Eycke has made up the barrel and cleaned it. Thus deposed and charged 
by Frederick Barents. Signed by the mark of Frederick Barents made by himself. 

Jan Jurriaen, farmer, confirms the declaration of Heyndrick of Bylvelt and assures 
it with oath. This is signed : Jan Jurriaen. 

Lewis Brunei declares, that he has seen, that Hans Hopman brought a musket into 
his house and that he said to Frederick the baker. The barrel pleases me well. He does 
not know anything more of a gun or anything else, which the abovementioned Brunei 
has confirmed with his oath and signed. The mark of Lewis Brunei. 

Marcus Harman deposes, that he has seen Hans Hopman taking a musket from the 
gunner's door and carrying the same into the house. He knows also, that he had made 
out of this same musket a shooting-gun, but he is unaware, that he, Hans Hopman 
should have sold a gun to the savages. He confirmed this with his oath and signed it. 
The mark of Marcus Harman made by himself. 

Frederick Lubberts, a soldier, comes forward and declares, that he knows, that Hans 
Hopman has sold to the savages a gun with a fire-lock for 3^ beavers. He does not know 
of any other matters and confirms this with his oath and signs it. The mark of Frederick 
Lubberts, made by himself. 

In Council resolved, that Sergeant Hans Hopman with the evidence taken and Adam 
Onkelbach, shall be sent in the ketch of Allerton to the Attorney-General at tht 

154 Colonial Settlejnents on the Delaware River. 

Manhattans, that their cases might be decided upon there. It was further decreed, that 
Hans and Onkelbach should be brought on board in chains, that they might not [injure] 
each other, whereas they are enemies. 

On the 25'? November.* 
Lawrence Pieters, bachelor, from Ley den about 23 years old, and Catrine Jans from 
Gottenburg, about 19 years old, desire to enter into matrimony. 

On the 11'." of October. 

Jan Eeckhoft appears and declares, that he sat drinking with Corporal Heyndrick of 
Bylvelt at Constantinus Groenenborch' s, but they did not quarrel and that having had 
enough he went home and laid down to sleep, that then the aforesaid Corporal came and 
wanted him, Eeckhoft, to come out of the house to drink, that he, Eeckhoft, refusing it, 
the aforesaid Corporal called him a rascal. Thereupon he got into a struggle with him ; 
there were present Gabriel de Haes and Jan Eymans, the cooper. 

Gabriel de Haes appears and deposes that he saw and heard, at the house of Jan 
Eeckhoft on the 10'? inst. that the Corporal Heyndrick of Bylvelt, being drunk, came to 
the house of Jan Eeckhoft, whom he wanted to wake up, to drink with him, that the 
wife of Jan Eeckhoft, saying " Let my husband sleep" pushed him at the same time out 
of the door, that he, Heyndrick of Bylvelt, being outside said " You shall drink with me 
or I will consider you a rascal : and a rascal you are, I consider you that." Hereupon 
he, Eeckhoft, getting up grasps his sword, while he, Bylvelt, standing outside, had his 
sword in his hand and tried to strike Jan Eeckhoft, but that, although he could have 
given it to him badly, as Jan Eeckhoft was still in the house, the blow struck the door ; 
that hereupon he, the deponent, shut the door, while Jan Eeckhoft went out by the other 
one, that they came to a hand to hand-fight. This I, the undersigned, declare to be the 
truth and am ready to confirm it, if necessary, with my oath. Signed Gabriel de Haes. 

Jan Eymans coming forward deposes, that he has been at the house of Jan Eeckhoft 
on the 10'." inst. He stood behind the house and cut hoppoles, when he saw Coi-poral 
Heyndrick of Bylevelt coming out of the house of the Frenchman and going to the house 
of Jan Eeckhoft, who was at home asleep. He wanted him to come out and speak Avith 
him. Upon Jan Eeckhoft' s wife saying " Let my husband alone and sleep," the Corporal 
went on saying "If he will not drink with me, I consider him a rascal." This I promise 
to confirm with my oath. Signed Jannes Emans. 

Appears Corporal Heyndrick of Bylvelt and declares, that he was on guard-duty 
yesterday and that going out, he passed the house of Constantinus and was asked in by 
Jan Eeckhoft, to drink with him ; but that he does not know having had any quarrel or 
words there, nor does he know, how the trouble, which he had with Jan Eeckhoft, has 
originated. Signed Heyndrick Hermans. 

On the S'." of November. 
The whole community appears, having been called together to the Fort. They were 
infonned, that it was necessary to nominate two proper persons as Tobacco-Inspectors 
and they are therefore requested to nominate four men, out of whom two shall be chosen 

* Quaere " 

New York Historical Records. 155 

and sworn by the Hon"'* Vice-Director. Hereupon the community proposed and nominated 
Thomas Bron, Jan Schaggen, Moens Andi-iesen and Constantinus Groeneubrugh. 

It was further communicated to the community, that it was very necessary to 
make a bridge over the Kil, running by the Fort, as the passage is impracticable and 
ought to be made practicable and as in some emergency occurring great difficulties would 
arise. They accepted to do this and the 12'? inst, being Monday, was set down for it. 

It was further proposed to the community, that every one should fence in his 
land, so that the difficulties and the damages to the fields, done heretofore, might be 
stopped and that they should nominate two persons for Overseers and Surveyors of 
Fences. They elected for these offices Hermen Jansen and Jan Eeckhoft. 

The community was further requested to cut some palisadoes for the fort, whereas 
for the common protection it is necessary to cover the fort with palisades on the outside. 
They accepted this unanimously. 

[Here follows an Ordinance regarding fences, for which see Laws of N. Netlierlands, page 266.] 

On the 29'." of November. 

Before the Council appears Jan Picolet against Tomas Broen and demands payment 
for a field-bed. Tomas Broen coming forward answers, that he has borrowed the bed, 
but did not buy it. 

The parties were directed, to come to an agreement or the defendant must bring 
further proof, that he only borrowed it. 

Willem Maurits appearing against Jan Picolet demands payment for some goods 
amounting to 14 guilders 8 stivers. 

Defendant coming forward, acknowledges the debt and promises to pay it. 

Jacob Crabbe appears against Jan Juriaensen and demands payment of 9 guilders 
16 stivers. 

Defendant is absent, sent out in the service of the Company. 

[Here follows an Ordinance regarding the Inspection of Tobacco for which see Lamis of N. Netherland, p. 267.] 

On the 18'." of December. 

Before the Council appeared Moens Andriesen and WUlem Maurits and took the 
following oath : 

We, the undersigned, promise and swear, that we shaU act to the best of our 
knowledge in inspecting tobacco, that we shall not allow ourselves to be seduced by any 
means or to be moved by presents, but do equal justice to the one as the other, the buyer 
as the seller. So help us God Almighty ! 

On the 25'." of December. 

Isack Allerton appears against Louwrens Pieters and demands eleven deer-skins as 
payment for linen, whereas he had sold it on three days' time and now already one 
month had passed. 

Defendant answers, that he has given a handful of powder and a bar of lead to a 
savage, for which he promised to bring deer-skins and whereas the savage did not come, 
he failed thereby in his promise, but he shall pay, as soon as the savage has returned. 

Before the Council appeared Lourens Piters against Tomas Broen and asks the 
reason, why he, defendant, had had attached his, plaintiff's, tobacco. 

156 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Defendant answers, that the tobacco was due him from plaintiff. 

Plaintiff demands wages for 3| months, during which he has served defendant. 

Parties are directed to adduce proof, as to what Lourens Pieters had bargained for 
with Tomas Broem as one year' s wages. 

Appears Abraham , summoned by the Commissary and the question 

is put to him, why he sent away his wine, without entering the same. Defendant says, 
that he can prove that it was brandy and that he did not know, that he must not send 
away goods without entering them. 

On the 24'!' of December. 
Laurens Pieters, bachelor from Lier and Catlyne Jans of Grottenburch in Sweden 
were confirmed in marriage after proclamation of bans on the previous Sundays. 

In the Name of God ! 

In the Year of Our Lord 1657. 

On the 8'!" day of January. 

Before the Council appeared Louwerens Pieters, being summoned and deposes, that 
on the 6'? inst. Saturday evening he came and made a complaint to the Commissary, that 
there were savages at his place, who di"ank beer obtained at Boertjen's. He found at his 
place five savage men, two women and a boy, who had fetched a water-pail of beer from 
Boertjens and drank it at his place, where he, deponent, his wife and Jan Tybout drank 
with them. When the first pail was emptied, he, deponent, went to Boertiens to 
buy a schepel of peas. In the meantime Boertjen's gu-1 came and got the pail, in 
which the savages had fetched the beer. Hereupon the savages took his, deponent's, 
pail and fetched more beer from Boertjens. Then deponent asked Boertjen's wife, "Are 
you drawing more beer for the savages", she answered, "Yes, but they shall not drink 
it at your house, they shall go fm-ther." Deponent went again home and found the 
savages intoxicated and insolent, whereupon he went to Boertien's and requested him, 
Boertjens, not to draw any more beer for the savages. Boertjens promised in the presence 
of Gabriel de Haes that he would give no more beer to the savages. When he, deponent, 
returned home, there came a savage with a third pailful of beer notwithstanding 
the promise which Boertien had given him, to draw no more for these same savages this 
evening. They had this beer in Boertjen's paU. Whereas the savages intended to drink 
there the whole night and stiU another savage had come, he, deponent was afraid of 
mischief, as he was alone with his wife in the house. He went to the fort and made the 
foregoing complaint to the Hon*'^ Commandant and remonstrated. This, as written above, 
he, deponent, is willing, if necessary to confirm with his oath and he has, in token of its 
truth, signed it with his hand. Signed : the ^ of Lauwerns Piters, made by himself. 

Jan Tibout comes forward and deposes that he was at Lauwerns Piters' house and 
saw, that there were five savages, three squaws, a big boy and a child drinking beer, 
which they had fetched from Boertiens, that they drank this out together and the savages 
after that fetched from Boertjens five pints of beer more, but he has not seen, that the 
savages were intoxicated. He declares, that he knows nothing more of the matter and is 
vrilling to confirm the above statement, if required, with his oath, and he has, in token 
of its truth, signed this with his hand. Signed : Jan Tibout. 

Jfew Yorh Historical Records. 157 

Otte Grien appears and declares, that lie was at the house of Cornells Mourits in 
the evening of the 6'." inst. and that he has seen and heard, that Louwers Piters came and 
requested Cornelis Mourits, not to give any more beer to the savages ; he declared 
further, that he saw, how the said Maurits drew some more beer and gave it to the 
savages, notwithstanding his great promises not to draw any more. I, the undersigned, 
declare the above statement to be true and am willing to confirm the same, if necessary, 
with my oath and have in token of its truth signed this with my own hand. Signed 
Otte Gfrein. 

Gabriel de Haes appears and declares, that he was at the house of Cornelis Woutersen 
(where he lodges) on the 6'? inst. and saw and heard, that Louwerns Piters came there 
and requested Cornelis Maurits not to sell any more beer to the savages ; he declares 
further, that he saw, how Cornelis Maurits sold after this five pints of beer more to the 
savages. I, the undersigned, declare the above to be true and am willing to confirm 
it, if required, with my oath. Signed : Gabriel de Haes. 

On the 10* of January. 

The whole community assembled, having been summoned, at Port Casimir and were 
informed, that tohereas some people do not hesitate to ruin the trade with the Indians, 
by running up the price of deerskins by more than one third, while most likely it will run 
up higher still to the great and excessive disadvantage of the poor community here, as 
the inhabitants, who must gain their living by their hands' work, have to pay more for 
the goods, as they can sell them to others and whereas this is as yet unimportant 
compared with what is to come, as when in the spring a trade in beavers should be 
opened in which case the community living here runs the risk of being entirely ruined 
and tohereas several complaints have already been made to the Hon"'* Commandant, 
though (except) the naming of persons, nobody has come yet, to be properly looked after 
in this respect, 

Therefore it is proposed to the community, that they shall, among themselves, fix a 
price by which henceforth the trade shall be governed and carried on and it is promised 
to them, that such directions, as they shall agree upon, shall with their help and 
supervision be promptly executed. 

Hereupon the community fixed upon the following order and promised by these, their 
signatures, on their honor and oath to obey it and they are to be considered perjured men, 
who should contravene against this order and to be deprived of trading for one year, for 
the second time (to be punished) according to orders, and for the third to be expelled 
altogether from the river, as it is fit for such men. Likewise they bind themselves 
herewith, each for himself, to report to those, to whom it was proper, whenever they 
had knowledge of such contraventions. 
The prices, which the Community established, are : 

For a merchantable beaver two strings of wampum, 

for a good bearskin, worth a beaver, two strings of wampum. 

for an elkskin, worth a beaver, two strings of wampum. 

otters accordingly. 

for a deerskia one hundred and twenty wampum, 

foxes, catamounts, racoons and other to be valued accordingly. 

158 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Thus done and agreed upon in Council at Fort Casimir on the 10'!" of January 1657. 
Signed : 

Jan Pauwel Jaquet, Andries Hudde, Isack Allerton, Zenen Willem Mauritsen, 
Alexander Boyer, the mark X" of Tomas Broen, made by himself, Gabriel de Haes, 
Jacob Crabbe, the mark /-/ of Harman Jansen, made by himself, Cornells Maurits, 
Heyndrick Egbert, Jan Haman, Constantinus Groenenborch, Isack Mera, Abraham 
Quyn, Jan Tibout, Harman Heyndricks, the mark ^ of Lau wrens Piters, made by 
himself, the mark ^ of Leendert Clasen, made by himself, Jan Eckhoft, Tymen 
Stiddens, Willem Claessen, the mark T/' of Jan Schaggen, made by himself, the mark 

i-j-i of Luycas Piters, made by himself, the mark X of Moens Andries, made by himself, 

the mark -fig of Ole Toersen, made by himself, the mark Q- of Mattison, made by 

himself, the mark x of Laers Boers, made by himself, Heyndrick Vryman, the mark 

>— < of Juriaen Joesen, made by himself, the mark of Cornells Teunissen, made by 
himself, Elmerhuysen Cleyn. 

On the same day. 

Cornelius Mauritsen appears before the Council upon summons and the information 
taken against him was read to him, besides the ordinance of the Hon"''^ General and high 
Council was shown to him. His answer having been heard, he was ordered to refrain 
fi'om selling liquors for six months ; the information received is to be sent to the Fiscal. 

[Here follows an Ordinance for the removal of Abuses in the Indian Trade at the South-River, for which see 
Laws of N. Netherlands p. 293.] 

On the 19'? ejusdem. 

Whereas Cornells Mauritsen at different times and very earnestly and submissively 
has petitioned for permission, to sell liquors again, complaining bitterly, that he has 
nothing to live upon and that without it he would have to suiler want with his wife and 
children, therefore, having considered this, on account of his infirmity and as he was the 
first caught contravening, he shall this time be pardoned, 

Provided, however, that he pay over for the poor 25 guilders and promise to take 
care against a recurrence, else, if the same should happen again, he should atone for the 
one as well as the other. 

Harman Jansen appears and is remonstrated with, that he has tapped beer without 
excise and without declaration, that he intended to tap it. 

Defendant has no other excuse, than that he had brewed half a vat of beer and as 
it was ratlier poor, he tried to sell it for 18 sflvers the " Vaen." * 

Defendant is ordered, in consideration, that this is his first fault and out of 
commiseration that he has nothing, to pay 25 guilders, a third for the poor, and to bring 
the excise for the beer. 

On the 31°.' of January. 

Before the CouncU appears Alexander Boyer against Jacobus Crabbe. Plaintiff 
shows, that he has sold to defendant a certain piece of land for the sum of two hundred 
and ten guilders, and delivered to him three hundred pounds of tobacco, amounting, the 

* Four quarts. — B. F. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 159 

pound at 5 stivers, together to two hundi-ed and eiglity-five guilders, whereas he, plaintiff, 
owes to defendant one thousand pounds of tobacco, which, the pound at 5 stivers, 
amount to two hundred and fifty guilders, he demands therefore from def the balance 
of 35 fl. 

Defendant answers, that according to contract plaintiff is held, to deliver 1000 lbs of 
tobacco at 6 stivers the pound and that he has received three hundred pounds, so that 
there are due yet seven hundred pounds at 5 stivers, making exactly two hundred and 
ten guilders. Therefore defendant does not know, what plaintiff wants. 

Parties are referred to arbitrators ; if these cannot make them agree, they are to 
hand in their opinion to the Hon*"* Council here. Isack AUerton and Elmerhuysen Cleyn 
were appointed arbitrators. 

Before the Council appears Cornells Maurits with Louwers Piters, prisoner and says, 
that prisoner has got at his house five and a half cans of beer and that shortly after some 
savages came to his, complainant's, house, who wanted to have the beer measured, 
pretending that they had not received full measure. He declares that he did not know, 
for whom the beer had been fetched. 

Prisoner declares that it is true, that he has fetched the beer for the savages and that 
the savages would not believe, that there was as much as they had given money for. 
The savages getting angry about it, placed the beer before the door and one Gerret Abel, 
who was in his, prisoner's, house, took the beer and brought it to Cornells Maurits. The 
case having been considered and found of evil consequences, which it was proper to 
punish as an example to others, whereas the practice of helping the savages to drinks 
and sell to them freely has prevailed here very much at one time, therefore it is decided, 
that the Hon"'^ Vice-Director and CouncU cannot let it pass without making an example 
of it and knowing the poverty of the prisoner, they condemn him, Louwerns Piters, to 
work for the Company for six weeks. 

Laurens Piters demands from Cornells Mourits wages for six days, whereas he had 
worked upon his land and Cornells Mouritsen had allowed him to sleep there, but has 
turned him away on account of this complaint. 

Defendant says, he does not know anything about money or working on the land. 

Defendant is ordered, to pay Lauwers Piters the wages for the work, done for him 
on his land. 

Whereupon Cornells Mourits with insulting and vehement expressions inveighed 
against the Council, saying, that he would not give it to him and that, if he must give 
it to him, he would administer him such a licking, that he should remember it. If the 
Commander wished to give him the land, he might take at once all that he had. Nobody 
could live here any more in peace, in two months he would go to the Manhattans, his 
conscience did not allow him to" pay the wages. 

He, Cornells Maurits, was then ordered not to leave the fort, before he had paid, but 
he received permission to go. 

Before the Council appears Isaac Allerton and produces three documents of the 
Court-Messenger relative to attachments, of which two belong to the jurisdiction of 
the Court at Tinnekonck ; he was therefore referred with these to that Court; in 
regard to the tobacco seized of Jan Staelcop, he is directed to bring proof of his real 

160 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

The applicant then delivered a petition of the following tenor. 
To the Honorable, Valiant Mr. Jan Paul Jaquet, Vice-Director at the South-River of N. 

Sheweth with due reverence Isack Allerton, that he, the supplicant, has been very much 
frustrated in his design by the long delay of his ketch and therefore is at a loss to buy 
his necessaries, the more so, as his means or a great part of them are outstanding among 
the people living on this river and have been unpaid for rather a long time, while he has 
not been able to recover them. Therefore he begs that your Honor will please to relieve 
him from this embarrassment with ten pounds of powder, as he needs it to buy his daily 
sustenance. He, the supplicant, promises, if it cannot be given to him on his account 
with the Company, to return it to your Honor or, if it so pleases your Honor to the Hon""' 

As regards the eight pounds of powder, which he, petitioner, has already received 
fi-om your Honor, he requests, that they may be balanced with the four schepels of salt, 
which he has delivered to your Honor. For these eight pounds of powder he, the 
petitioner, traded twenty-four deer for provision of his ketch. 

Whereas further he, the supplicant, has owing to him in the community a large 
amount of money, rather exceeding the sum of twelve thousand guilders, wliich has been 
due quite a long time, yea, by some now these eight years and whereas he, the supplicant, 
is growing old, having passed seventy years, whereby he shall be obliged to give up 
ti-avelling on account of his bodily infirmity and whereas it is proper, even christianlike, 
that he should at once bring order in his affairs, not to leave his wife and childi-en in a 
unreasonable state to their great distress and damage. 

Therefore he, petitioner, addresses himself to your Honor, as the only authority here, 
from whom right and justice may be asked, which he, petitioner, is also certain to find 
there, and requests your Honor quite submissively and humbly, that your Honor will 
please, to lend him a helping hand in his entirely just and equitable claims, that he, 
petitioner, may recover his own, wherewith he declares himself and signs Your Honor's 
very obedient servant. Signed Isack Allerton IS'." January 1657. 

In regard to the powder, it is decided that the Company's store cannot spare any 

In regard to the powder, i. e. the eight lbs, which he has received before these, which 
the petitioner asked to balance with certain four schepels of salt delivered to the Hon"* 
Commander, they must be satisfied with it. As to his further petition for assistance to 
help him recover his arrears, the petitioner receives the assurance, that, whereas the 
largest part of petitioner's claims fall under the jurisdiction of Tinnekonck, he will be 
assisted before that court as well as this as much as possible according to law. Present 
the Hon*"^ Vice-Director Jaquet, A. Hudde, Paulus Jansen, Sergeant Louwernsen Hansen, 
Captain des Armes. * 

On the 14'." of February. 

Isack Allerton has had seized by the Court-Messenger, subject to the decision of the 
Hon"'^ Council, the immovable property belonging to Peter Hermansen here on the River. 

Isack Masa appears against Jan Schaggen and demands leave to return a certain 

* Capitaine des Armes corresponding to Quartermaster-Sergeant. — B. F. 

Keiv York Historical Records. 161 

hogshead of tobacco, received from the aforesaid Jan Schaggen, which, according to the 
decision of the Inspector, Willem Mouritsen, is not merchantable. 

Defendant answers, that he has delivered the tobacco to plaintiff upon plaintiff's own 
inspection, saying that he did not need an Inspector for it, that he knew himself competent 
enough thereto. 

Plaintiff says, that defendant delivered to him the tobacco as being throughout like 
some lying on the top ; that it was found not to be so, and that about 8 or 10 days after 
the receipt he informed defendant in presence of Tomas Broen and Willem Mouritsen, 
that he did not want the tobacco, as it was not worth anything. 

Plaintiff is ordered to bring proof, that defendant delivered the tobacco upon his 
word as good. 

Leendert Claes appears against Abraham Quyn. Parties default through impotence, 
as the saying is. 

Louwerns Piters appears against Cornells Mouritsen. He is remonstrated with, why 
he does not pay plaintiff; defendant said, that he did not refuse, though it is true, that he 
has not earned six days' wages. Parties agreed in friendship, that defendant shall pay 
plaintiff 7 guilders. 

Isack AUerton appears against Ele Torsen and demands payment of sixty-four 
guilders, which defendant, on the 4'.'' of April last, promised to pay plaintiff in the fall. 

Defendant says, that he is responsible for the debt. 

Plaintiff demands security or mortgage. 

Defendant is ordered, to give to plaintiff a mortgage on his land and house, as he has 
no means nor does he know, how to pay the debt. 

Isack Allerton against Ele Ifgrouw demands payment of five beavers, according 
to bond. 

Defendant says that he will pay during the year, and promises to give 


Present, the Hon'"" Vice-Director Jaquet, Elmerhuysen Cleyn, Pauweles Jans, 
Sergeant, Andries Hudde. 

Upon summons appears Marten Rosemann and is asked by the Commander, whether 
he is a freeman. He answers. Yes. 

To whom the wine belonged, which he had declared? He answers, that he had 
received the same from Elmerhuysen for his pay and sold it for his own profit. 

Gabriel de Haes appears, having been called up by the Hon*'*' Commissary and is 
asked, what he knows. (He says) that the wife of Cornells Mourits called her husband 
and him, deponent, outside one evening, saying, Do you want to see a joke, and she, that 
is, Cornells Mourits' wife, said that she had seen out of doors on the street, that Marten 
Roseman sold wine to some savages, being in the cellar with the savages. This he, 
deponent, declares, to have happened as above truly (described) and is ready, to confirm 
the same, if required, by oath. 

Cornelis Mouritsen appears, called up as before and declares, that some time ago his 
wife called him out, saying. Do you want to see a trick, there is Marten in the cellar 
with a savage. He, deponent, upon coming out, looked into the cellar, but saw nobody 

162 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

there. He declares, that he has not heard, that his wife said, Marten had sold wine to 
the savages. This he promises, as the foregoing, to confirm, if required, with his oath. 

Defendant, Marten Roseman, is ordered to declare under oath, that he received the 
three ankers of liquor from Elmerhuysen on account of his wages and has sold it for his, 
defendant's, profit. 

Defendant refuses to take the oath. 

Whereas he. Marten Rooseman, refuses to take the oath, that he has bought the 
wine from Elmerhuysen and sold it for his own profit, therefore it is concluded that the 
wine belonged to Elmerhuysen and was sold for his profit. 

Present as before, except Elmerhuysen Cleyn. 
On the T'^ of March. 
Andries Hudde enters complaint against Tymen Tuddens, that defendant had slandered 
him, plaintiff, in that he had treated him, defendant, unjustly in measuring the land and 
that he had taken away his land. 

Defendant answers, that it was true and that he, Hudde, had wronged him. 

Decreed, that the land should be re-measured in presence of persons thereto 

Isacq Mara appears against Jan Schaggen and Moens Andries as "Disposant."* He 
requests, as before, leave to return the tobacco and that Moens Andries shall give 
evidence, how the tobacco was received. 

Moens Andries declares, that Jan Schaggen had said, when he delivered the tobacco, 
that he packed the tobacco according to sample shown and that it was as good below as 
on the top. 

Plaintiff is directed to produce affidavits of the Inspectors, how the tobacco was 
found to be whether that below was as that above. 

Leendert Claesen against Abraham Quyn. Plaintiff complains, that defendant has 
injured him in his good name, accusing him, plaintiff, that he has his, defendant's, cloth, 
which was stolen from him, defendant. 

Defendant appears and says, that to the best of his knowledge the cloth belonged to 
him, but that he had not called him a thief. 

Defendant is ordered, to make here before the Council a declaration, that he has 
nothing to say against plaintiff and he knows him as an honorable man. He is to pay 
a fine of six guilders for the poor and the costs of the suit. Defendant made the 
declaration before the Council. 

Harman Jansen appears upon summons by the Hon"'^ Commander, to whom was 
read the order and judgment dated the 19'." December ; he was advised to find means for 

Defendant answers, that he has nothing and that 

Articles and Ordinances, revised and enacted by the Right Honorable the Lords 
Burgomasters of the City of Amsterdam regarding the government of and emigration to 
New Netherland. 

[Vide Laws of New Netherland, p. 269 et seq.] 
•Quaere Inspector (of Tobacco)? See page 141. 

Mew York, Historical Records. 163 

Letters feom Jacob Alrichs, Vice-Directob of the new Colony on 
THE Delaware, written on LoNa Island where his ship "Prins 
Mauritius " was wrecked ; he announces his arrival and 

REQUESTS assistance. 

Honorable, Worshipful), Wise and Prudent Gentlemen ! 

Gentlemen ! Wliereas the Hon*'* Lords-Directors of the Privileged West India 
Company have granted permission and agreed, that the Hon*"" and Very Worshipful 
Lords-Burgomasters of the City of Amsterdam may plant a colony on the South-River of 
New-Netherland, whereupon the said Lords-Burgomasters considered and presented 
certain conditions to all those, who intend to betake themselves thither as colonists, as 
may be seen from the copy sent herewith, several persons desired under these conditions 
to go there and embarked in consequence at the expense of the aforesaid City in different 
vessels, viz : in the ship " Prins Maurits " about 112 persons, besides 16 of the crew, officers 
and saUors, then 33 souls in the ship " de Beer," 11 on the "Bever," and 11 on the 
"Gelderse Blom," aUtogether making 167 souls, who were to settle on the South-River 
and I, the undersigned, who was to have the direction of the colony in behalf of the 
aforesaid City, was to make my voyage to the Island of Manhattans in the ship "Prins 
Maurits, with letters, addresses and orders for your Honors " 

[Remainder of the page is torn off.] 

whereupon 1 embarked with 128 souls in number in the ship "Prins Maurits;" we had 
hoped and wished to reach the Manhattans, but unfortunately we stranded at a certain 
place, situate opposite Long Island, near a river, called by the savages, or the bearer of 
this, Sichtewach. The people have been saved and we hope to get most of the goods 
ashore, if it so pleases our Lord God, all this with great difficulties, troubles and labor, 
which is daily expended on it, to prevent further losses, in great cold and hard freezing. 
In the meantime I am here, with the aforesaid people, among whom are about 50 soldiers, 
under the Hon"'* Captain Marten Kryger and Lieutenant D'Hinoyossa, and moreover 
the other freemen, in great anxiety and I desire from my heart to get means or opportunity 
for help and assistance, to further carry out the design and undertaking of the Noble 
Lords-Directors and the Hon"'* and Very Worshipful Lords-Burgomasters. But, as the 
ship "Prins Maurits" has stranded here and is in a situation, as if it were upon its 
burial ground, I am obliged to ask for your Honor's good advice and help herein 

, [Remainder of page torn off.] 

except your Honor is sufficiently acquainted with this locality and could [advise] me in 
regard to it, what your Honor deems to be the best and most adviseable to do herein. 
Time, to detail this further, running short, I must conclude requesting, that the people 
arrived or about to arrive there by the "Bever," "Beer" and "Gelderse Blom," might, 
if you please, be accommodated in behalf and for account of the City of Amsterdam until 
further orders, according to opportunity, in the most suitable way and provided for as 
well as possible. In the meantime I expect your answer and a small vessel with a pilot 
and 3 or 4 other seamen, who know this plac« and are conversant with it, to see what could 

164 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

be gathered and saved yet. In closing I pray to God, to keep your Honors' in permanent 
health and prosperity and remain with cordial greetings and dutiful compliments 

Your Honors' affectionate 
On Long-Island friend and servant 

the 12'" Mch. 1657 J. Aleichs. 

To the Honorable, Worshipful, 

Wise and Prudent Gentlemen, 

the Hon'"^ Director-General 

and Council in New-Netherland at the Manhattans 

by two savages. 

Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Gentlemen. 

Gentlemen. Since the Hon''"^ General Stuyvesant has left here again for the Manhattans, 
the wind has by no means been favorable, for the yacht "de Eendracht" to take the sea 
or to sail : the lading or the room in the ship, to send anything thither, has mostly 
been anticipated by one or the other, and the skipper Dirck Claesen declares, that he 
has not more room, than for about 20 ankers, which have been shipped in her, being part 
of the goods, belonging to the City of Amsterdam and sent here according to the enclosed 
invoice. I request, that your Honors will please and have the unloading of the yacht 
strictly watched and noted down or registered, what goods, merchandises as well as 
victuals were brought over by her from here, (the same in future) because a great deal of 
the one and the other is missing. Therefore, what is done in this matter there, is an act of 
friendship for me and of great service to the City of Amsterdam. Just now Captain Jacob 
N". came in, from whom I learn that the ships the " Bever," " Gelderse Blom," and " Beer" 
have arrived there. About 50 to 55 souls arrived in these ships to settle on the South- 
River in the Colony of Amsterdam. Tour Honors will please, to assign them quarters 
and to provide them for a short time, as necessity requires it, with some victuals, until 
the provisions and goods can be sent from here, and further to have them shipped in a 
suitable good ship or other conveyance to bring them thence to the South-River. Hereof 
I expect advice, also what opportunities or most proper means might serve thereto 
and offer themselves now, in order to govern myself by them. Capt. Jacob [saUs] 
to-morrow or not later than the day after, if the weather remains dry and favorable 

[and will take] some barrels of flour, peas, groats, oU as well as and other 

things, according to convenience 

At the river Sichtawagh 

on Long-Island, 20'" March 1657. 

Gentlemen ! 
Day before yesterday, the 20'.", I have written at length by Ensign Smit, who left 
here in the Company's yacht "de Eendracht," to which I refer. I have since given a 
full cargo to the vessel of Capt. Jan Jacobs, by which this and the enclosed invoice 
are going ; they show what goods he has to deliver there, city property as weU as 
private. These can be received and stored there with the others in the Warehouse. I 

J{ew York Historical Records. 165 

expect this vessel with some other to return as speedily as possible. Closing I remain 
with dutiful compliments, salutations and commendations to the Lord 

Your Honors' affectionate 

Mend and servant 

J. Alrichs. 
On the broken land 
near Long Island 
the 22* of Mch. 1657. 

The skipper of the " Prins Maurits " importunes me, to go to your place and to hire 
or buy a vessel, which it is better to prevent and not allow by any means, in order not to 
injure the city, nor is to be supported. 

To the Honorable, Worshipful, 

Wise, Very Prudent Gentlemen, 

the Hon'''^ Director-General 

Petrus Stuyvesant and Council 

of New-Netherland at the Manhattans. 

per Yacht " Aventure." 

Motion- of the Fiscal for the confiscation of gunpowder and 


12*? AprU 1657, Thursday. 
Copy. To the Noble, Very Worshipful Honorable Director-General and Council of 
Whereas Alexander d'Hinoyossa, Lieutenant, has had brought out of the ship 
"Prins Mauritius" and placed on board the "Bever" here, two kegs of gunpowder 
with a barrel of rice and some Spanish wine, all of which has now been seized by the 
Fiscal, because one is contraband and the other appears on the skipper's clearance only 
as a barrel with provisions, so called, while it has been found to weigh over 300 lbs., 
besides the spices concealed in it and because no proof has, so far, been offered, whether 
they were admitted by invoice or by the Hon""" Lords-Directors, therefore the Fiscal is of 
opinion, that the seized articles must be contiscated in pursuance of the placats of the 
years 1645 and 1648 and that besides the fine fixed thereby must be paid. Done at Fort 
'Amsterdam, the 12'." of AprU 1657. 

(Signed) NicASius de Sille. 

The Honorable Director- General made the following decision on the foregoing 
request : 

The defendant pretends, that the seized goods have been shipped free of duty with 
the consent of the Hon""' Lords-Directors at Amsterdam and plaintiff is directed to 
release them provisionally and until further orders from the said Hon''''^ Lords-Directors, 
making a proper specification of quantity and quality and taking security for a future 
decision. Done at Fort Amsterdam, in New-Netherland, date aa above. 

166 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Deed to the Burgomasters op Amsterdam for Fort Casimir and the 


Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of Their Noble High Mightinesses, the Lords States- 
General of the United Netherlands and the Noble Lords-Directors of the Privileged 
West-India Company Director-General of New-Netherland, Curagao, Bonayro, Aruba 
and the dependencies thereof, together with the Honorable Council declare and testify 
hereby, that we have to-day, date underwritten (pursuant to the order and directions of 
the said Honorable Lords-Directors, dated 19'." of December 1656) transferred, ceded and 
conveyed, as we hereby cede, transfer and convey to the Hon"'*' Mr. Jacob Alrichs, on 
behalf of the Noble, Very Worshipful Lords Burgomasters and Governors of the City of 
Amsterdam Director and Commissary-General of their Colony on the Southriver of New- 
Netherland, Fort Casimir, now called New-Amstel, together with all the territory belonging 
thereto, agreeable to the first bill of sale and title-deed of the natives, dated 19'? July 1651, 
beginning on the Westside of Minquas or Christina Kil, called in the Indian language 
Suppeckongh, to the mouth of the bay or river called Boomptjes Hoeck, in the Indian 
language Canaresse, and so far to landu-ard as the boundaries of the Minquas' country, 
with all streams, kils, creeks, harbors, bays and outlines belonging thereto, of which 
territory with all its belongings and dependencies we hereby, in the name and on behalf 
of the Noble Lords-Directors and Patroons of this province, make cession and conveyance 
to the said Hon*''"' Mr. Jacob Alrichs in behalf of the Noble, Yery Worshipful Lords- 
Burgomasters and Governors of the City of Amsterdam, relinquishing all actual and real 
possession, ownership, claim and privilege and all this with and under such conditions, as 
have been fixed upon by the said Lords-Dii-ectors and the Noble, Very Worshipful Lords- 
Burgomasters and Governors of the City of Amsterdam, substituting and constituting 
therefore the said Mr. Jacob Alrichs in the aforesaid quality on behalf as stated above as 
owner in our place, without keeping in our aforesaid quality any claim or pretense and 
therefore promising to hold this conveyance as firmly binding and inviolable. In witness 
whereof this has been signed by us and confirmed with our usual signature. Done at 
Fort Amsterdam in N. Netherland, the 12'." of April 1657. 

P. Stuyvesant, 


Order granting the request of Gerrit van Sweeringen, supercargo 


THE Company's service. 

The petition of Gerrit van Swieringen, formerly supercargo of the ship " Prins 
Mourits" which was wrecked here, was received, in which he requests, to be discharged 
from the Hon"''^ Company's service, as he intends to make his living here. 

Having taken it in consideration, also that he can do no more duty on the stranded 
ship " Prins Mourits," it was decided, after the question had been put : fiat quod petitur. 
On the 16'? of April 1657. 

Mew York Historical Records. 1G7 

Petition of Isaac Tym for a house and lot on the Southriver ; 


ir." April 1657. 

Copy. To the Noble, Worshipful, Honorable Director-General and Council of the 
Shows with due reverence Isaac Tym, called Pieriere, that in the month of September 
of the year 1655 he, the petitioner, had been promised by the Noble, Worshipful, 
Honorable Director-General a certain house and lot, situate near Fort Casimir on the 
South-river, which had belonged to a man by the name of Gillis, and whereas he, the 
petitioner, desires to fulfill the condition, mentioned in the contract then made and here 
annexed, and is willing to take up his domicile there as early as possible, therefore he, 
the petitioner, addresses himself to your Noble Worships with the humble request to give 
Mm, the petitioner, a deed for the said lot in proper form, praying and requesting, that 
your Noble Worships will please to assent to this, the petitioner's, demand, with which I 

Your Noble Honorable Worships' 

Very humble and obedient 

Subject and Servant. 

After the foregoing petition had been received and read, the question was put and it 
was answered : 

Whereas the petitioner has neglected to take possession of and enter upon the house 
and lot, mentioned hereinabove, at the proper time and the Director-General and Council 
do not know, whether the same have already been conveyed to somebody else or not, 
therefore no decision can be given on the petitioner's request for the present. Done at 
Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, Date as above. 

Complaints against Vice-Director Jean Paul Jacquet and his 
subsequent removal from office. 

Complaint of Jan Schaggen against Commander Jacquet. 

Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Very Wise Director-General and Council. 
I humbly give information, that Commander Jacquet, after his arrival, called upon 
me in regard to the land, which I occupied, pretending that the Hon""' General had given 
the same land to him and I should move off and whereas I was sure, that the Hon'''^ 
General, while here, had allowed me to live on and cultivate the place and likewise Mr. 
Sille, while here, had confirmed the same to me, therefore I did not like to give credence 
to the Commander's saying, but adhered to what the Honorable General had said and 
was not willing to abandon the land, upon which I had expended my labor and sown 4 
schepels of rye, but I desired to remain unmolested and had to make a contract with him 

168 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

about planting tobacco, so that I should begin it for him, for which he would get me 
help and I should have my share under such conditions, as he would be pleased to grant. 
While carrying out this, I was not properly assisted with laborers, whereby half the crop 
was lost to the great disadvantage of my poor circumstances, for I have thus lost over 
1000 lbs. of tobacco, mostly because of the lack of room to store it, for which assistance 
was most necessary. After the tobacco had been handled in this manner and brought 
under cover, as it was and while I worked to sow yet some rye with 3 schepels for Jan 
Wyler, the owner of the land, whom I expected (0, the Commander again told me to 
leave and that the land was his; I referred him again to the Hon''''' General and Mr. SUla 
and told him, that he had no order to drive me away. He answered he cared the devil for 
Stuyvesant and Silla and was now here ; with sword in hand he di'ove me three times 
from my work into my house, so that I was compelled to suspend my work and leave 
the land in a bad plight ; I therefore called on Hudde to survey for me a piece of land, 
situate about there in the bush, when not more than 20 rods' breadth along the river 
were allotted to me and as I have nobody living near me, to whom it would have 
been disadvantageous, if I had asked for 100 even 1000 rods, supposed I was able to 
cultivate it, I asked the Commander to grant me 20 rods' breadth more, as I needed 
more land to plant tobacco and sow grain. He refused and would not allow it. 
It is therefore my respectful request and humble prayer, that your Noble Honors wUl 
please to consider my needy circumstances and by their graciousness and favor will let 
me enjoy satisfaction for my injuries and add to the breadth of 20 rods another 20 rods 
of land and provide me with a title thereof. I shall ever remain, as I now am (lower 
stood) Very Worshipful G-entlemen 

Your Noble Honors' humble servant 

(Signed) John Schaggen. 

Dated Southriver 
20'? of March, 1657. 

After reading the foregoing petition, the following declaration was sent to the 
petitioner for his information : 

This is to certify and to declare, that we, the undersigned, being on the Southriver 
of New-Netherland in the month of September 1655, have, out of consideration for the 
services and assistance given in the execution of the plans then designed, allotted, granted 
and given to Jan Schaggen, at his request, the plantation, upon which he, at that time, 
lived, worked and planted with the promise to issue to him a duly executed title and 
letters patent in due form at the proper time. 

Done Fort Amsterdam 21^' April 1657. 

P. Stuyvesant, 


Copy. To his Noble Honor, Mr. Jan Paul Jacquet, Vice-Director on the 

Protest of Mr. Southriver of New-Netherland. 

Allerton, the elder, 
against Com. Jacquet. 

Whereas Isaac Allerton, on account of a lawful and clear debt of Niels Larsen, which 
has now been already standing six years, had attached by the Court-messenger on the 

J^GW York Historical Records. 169 

4'." of December 1656 some tobacco, belonging to said Niels Larsen in partnership with 
Jan Staelcop and Pieter Schael and in the keeping of said Staelcop, that he might 
thus by due process of law obtain payment ; and (as) he had also asked of the 
Commander, where he had to make application for an order of attachment and summon 
the debtor and received as answer from your Honor: "I have first attached it, I have 
the devil of it, I want to have precedence " and whereas arrest was laid upon the same 
tobacco by Elmerhuysen also, I judged, that the matter ought to be brought before the 
Court, but found, that your Honor had had carried away by your soldiers a part of the 
tobacco, notwithstanding the order of arrest and although your Honor's claim is partly 
not clear, partly extorted, whereby a road is opened to great injustice and contempt of 
law and justice, which it is your Honor's duty to preserve and protect, for as soon as some 
Swedes or Fins saw, that such proceedings were introduced here by your Honor in person, 
they considered themselves encouraged by your Honor to try the same and carried away 
the balance of the tobacco, which had been left, whereby he, Allerton, is and remains 
deprived of his claim and (whereas) also, notwithstanding Jan Schaggen was granted by 
the Noble Hon"'^ General the land of Frans Smith and Jan Wilier, to occupy and use it 
until fiirther order, which was furthermore confirmed to said Shaggen by the Hon"'* Mr. 
de Sille, your Honor has not hesitated, violently and unjustly (violenter et iniqne) to 
drive the said Shaggen from the said land with great animosity and sword in hand and 
to make other people' s property your own, to despise in an improper manner the orders 
of his Noble Honor and to dispossess him, AUerton, of his lawful claims, which he had 
on the property of Frans Smith and Jan WhUler, as well as on the same land and 
elsewhere. By this damage and irregular proceedings he, Allerton, is compelled, nay, 
forced to protest herewith against your Honor for all damages, prejudice and loss, which 
he, Allerton, has suffered or may yet suffer on account of the foregoing and for which 
he will have recourse upon your Honor. For this purpose he, Allerton, has deemed it 
necessary, to serve this upon your Honor and deliver it into your hands. Dated Casimir, 
this 6*? of April 1657. (It was signed) Isaac Allerton, senior. 

Ex originali descripseram. 

(Signed) Johannis Risingh jr.* 

Further order to 
Commander Jacquet, 
by which he is 
removed from office. 

Honorable, Dear, Faithful Sii'. 
In our last letter through Mr. Alrichs your Honor's remaining there was left to 
your Honor's option. Since that so many complaints are referred to us and written 
remonstrations made of your delaying, if not refusing justice and lawful arrests, of 
collecting and executing on your own authority without previous legal proceedings your 
own pretended claims, of obstructing (and this by acts of violence) possession, cultivation 
and occupation of lands, granted by us to others and of many other unbecoming 
proceediDgs against different people, freemen as well as employes of the Company that 

* Not a son of Gov. Risingb, who was not married — B. F. 


Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

hearing of it, how much more telling it, grieves and afflicts us unto shame and although 
we had until now been in hopes, that the general complaints of all too hasty and 
unbecoming proceedings might, upon our serious admonition and warnings, have been 
avoided, removed or remedied, we are now again placed beyond hope in this regard, as 
the last written complaints of Jan Schaggen, Allerton and others are beyond correction, 
if not beyond defense. Therefore, we are, to our regret, compelled to inform your 
Honor, that you must purge and defend yourself against the same and meanwhile to 
suspend you provisionally from your office and (to command) that you transfer and deliver 
the property of the Company well inventoried to Andries Hudde, Jan Juriansen and the 
Sergeant Paulus Jansen taking a receipt, to be signed by them in duplicate, and to 
be sent to us, first the one and then the other, upon which we shall rely. We commend 
your Honor with our usual salutations to the protection and grace of Grod and remain 

Honorable, Dear, Faithful 
Done, at Your Honor' s affectionate 

Fort Amsterdam (Signed) P. Stuyvesant. 

in N. Netherland 
20'." of April 1657. 


David Wessels, pltff. contra Jean Paul Jacquet, late Commander on the 

Southiiver, def. 

To the Noble, Worshipful, Honorable Director-Greneral and Council of New-Netherland. 

On the side stood : The plaintiff asks satisfaction and indemnification for 

This to be handed damages and loss sustained by the tearing down of his house, 

to the parties for standing near Fort Casimir on the Southriver, done by the 

answer. Done defendant, the Commissary Jean Paul Jacquet, who used the 

Fort Amsterdam wood of the aforesaid house and made a barn with it near his 

in N. Netherland house, and as plaintiff maintains, that wrong has been done to 

6'? of June 1657. him by tearing down his house in his absence and it is not 

conformable to the rules of law, that anybody's property can be 

touched, taken and used for one's own behaU and as property, 

therefore he has come to the conclusion, that the defendant must 

be sentenced, to re-build the aforesaid house at his expense 

upon the lot on the Southriver and replace it in such condition, as 

it was in at the time of tearing it down according to the opinion 

of impartial men, or that the defendant pay to the plaintiff such 

a sum of money, as shall be adjudged by impartial men to be the 

cost of such a building, as the one torn down by the defendant 

or as your Noble Worships shall decide the case, asking in case 

of opposition for costs. I remain 

Your Honorable Worships very humble 
subject and servant 

(sign) David Wessels. 

Certified : 
Matheus de Voz, Notary Public. 

Further down stood : 
By order of the 
Hon*'^ Dir. Gen', 
of N. Netherland 
C. V. Ruyven, Secr^ 
Matheus de Voz 
Not. Public. 


J^ew York Historical Records. 17J 

Proceedings of the Fiscal against Jean Paul Jacquet, late Yice-Director on 

the Delaware, for malfeasance in office. 

Copy. To the Noble, Honorable Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General of New- 


Respectfully gives information Nicasius de SiUe, Fiscal, that before this and also 

yesterday several verbal and written complaints have been brought to him by the 

Commissioners, inhabitants, officers, soldiers and by the Swedish nation, aU being under 

your Honor's government, against Paul Jacquet, your Honor's late Commander on the 

Southriver, as having conducted himself very unbecomingly there in vexing the 

community, persecuting with violence the inhabitants, tyrannising over the soldiers, 

diminishing and destroying the Company' s property, all of which is contrary to your 

Honor' s orders ; therefore the Fiscal nomine officii requests, that your Honor wUl please 

to allow, that he may arrest the said Jacquet, attach his pay and property in order, that 

the damaged parties may thus recover their losses. Hereupon I await your Honor's 

favorable decision. Done the 23* of May 1657 at Amsterdam in New-Netherland. 

(Signed) Nicasius de Sille. 

Upon the foregoing request the following return was made by the Hon"'* Director- 
Greneral : 

The applicant is ordered to inform himself well regarding the complaints and in the 
meantime to place Jacquet himself under arrest in the Commissaries' office, in order to 
make up his accounts. Meanwhile he is to make a statement of the complaints against 
him and hand it in, to make further dispositions thereupon. Amsterdam, the 23" of 
May 1657. 

(Signed) P. Stuyvesant 

By order of the Hon"'® Director-General. 

(Signed) C. v. Rutven, Secretary. 

Copy. To the Noble, Very Worshipful, Honorable Director-General and High CouncU 

of New-Netherland. 
Noble, Very Worshipful Gentlemen. 

Whereas the Honorable Fiscal has been pleased to imprison me, the undersigned 
Jean Paul Jacquet, your Noble Honorable Worships' humble servant, and I do not know 
the reasons, why or wherefore and as I find myself very much inconvenienced thereby, 
therefore I humbly pray, that your Noble Honorable Worships will please to let me be 
provided with a copy of the Hon"'* Fiscal' s petition, upon which the arrest was granted, 
also of his Honor's accusation and charges, which his Honor pretends to have against 
me, that I may defend myself. Which doing 

Your Noble Honorable Worships' ; 

Amsterdam in humble servant 

N. Netherland Jean Paul Jacquet, 

24'." of May 1657. 

172 Colonial Settleniejits on the Delaware River. 

The Honorable Director-General gave the following decision to the foregoing request : 
It has already been ordered upon the petition of the Hon*'^ Fiscal as plaintiff and 
attorney, that a proper statement of the complaints be made, upon which the action 
having been brought, it wUl be delivered to the petitioner. In the meantime the Secretary 
van Ruyven is ordered to deliver to the petitioner a copy of the demanded request. 
Done at Amsterdam in N. Netherland, the 24'? of May 1657. 

The request of Jean Paul Jacquet was taken up, who asks, that the Hon*"" Fiscal 
may deliver him a copy of the complaints, which have been made against him and that 
Commissary van Brugge be ordered, to examine the accounts of his administration and 
that 6 or 8 schepels of wheat and one hundred guilders in money be delivered to him. 

The question having been put, it was decreed : 

The Hon''''' Fiscal is directed to deliver to Jean Paul Jacquet to-morrow a statement 
of the complaints against the same, besides the petitioner shall receive from the 
Commissary a "mudde" * of wheat and from the Receiver 50 to 60 guilders in cash. 

On the day as above. 

Before the Council appeared Jean Paul Jacquet and the statement of the complaints, 
made against the said Jacquet, was read to him. He asked, that a copy of it might be 
given to him, to answer it in writing. 

The Director-General and CouncU consent to his petition and direct the Fiscal to give 
him, Jacquet, a copy of the complaints to-day. Date as above (15'? June). 

18'? of June, Monday 

In Council at Fort Amsterdam, present his Noble Honor, Petrus Stuyvesant, 
the Hon''''' Councillors Nicasius de Sille and Pieter Tonneman. 

Jean Paul Jacquet, late Commander on the Southriver of New-Netherland, appears 
and is informed, that it is said, he had first violated the arrest, placed upon the tobacco 
of Niels Laarsen, which he denies, but says, that Jacob Swenske had first violated the 
arrest, as said Swenske had carried off his tobacco on the 21^.' of December and he, 
Jacquet, not before the 2? of January. Thereupon follows Gregory van Dyck, Sheriff of 
the Swedes on the Southriver of New-Netherland, who was present, and asks for a copy 
of what Jacquet brings forward against Jacob Swenske, which is granted. Date as 

The annexed writing of Jean Paul Jacquet, late Commander on the South-river, was 
taken up, which having been read, the Fiscal decided the rejection of Jean Paul Jacquet' s 
answer and that he be ordered to answer immediately to the statement given him and in 
default thereof, to go back to his old place of arrest, untU he shall have answered. 

The argument having been heard by the Director-General and the associate councillor 
Tonneman the demand of the Fiscal is agreed to and granted. Date as above. 

19'? of June. 

The defendant Jean Paul Jaquet denies the accusations brought against him and 
asserts, that they were mostly gotten up by party-spirit, upon which it was presumed, in 
favor of the petitioner, that some such may have crept in ; he is discharged from arrest 

* Four schepels. 

Kew York Historical Records. 173 

and given permission to depart for the Soiithriver of ISTew-Netlierland, after having given 
an account of his administration and delivered the records and other documents concerning 
the Company or his service, provided that he engage himself, to make his defense, upon 
further proofs, before the Hon"* Fiscal, who in the meantime is dii-ected to inform himself 
more closely regarding the charges, may they be for or against the defendant and to report 
the result either verbally or in writing at the meeting of the Du-ector-Greneral and Council. 
Date as above. 

Whereas Jean Paul Jaquet, late Commander on the Southriver of New-Netherland 
requests, that the accounts of his administration be examined, therefore the Commissary 
Carel van Brugge is hereby ordered, to make a beginning on Friday morning and examine 
the accounts of the said Jean Paul Jacquet and to continue with it, until he shall have 
balanced and liquidated the accounts with him and to make, in cases of dispute, a report 
thereof to us, the Director-Greneral and CouncU. Date as above (19*.'' June.) 

Jacob Aleichs to Die. Sttjtvesant, eepoeting the state of affairs in 

HIS NEW government. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir. 

Sir ! I thank you cordially herewith for the good treatment and friendship, which I 
have enjoyed and participated in throughout in your Honor's house and elsewhere and 
hope to have some opportunity, when I may in some way return it, which is my heart' s 
desire. Besides I have received since my arrival here, your Honor' s letter of the 20'.'' of 
April, where by I learn of the complaints and lamentations of Sieur Allerton and Schaggen, 
against and to the charge of Jaquet as appears from two different requests. I have 
heard and examined the matter and thus found, that there was more passion than 
reason (at the bottom) ; but I have made the parties so far agree, that the question with 
the other one (Allerton) is closed. Schaggen keeps the land, Jaquet shall gather the 
crop, the same with the garden produce, Schaggen is to pay for the fencing etc. As to 
the property of the Company, it has been turned over and inventoried by Jaquet and 
everything of any value has been received and marked, some necessary articles have 
been sent to Christina, others are shipped on board the ship "de Bever," to be taken to 

the Manhattans with 13 men. I have provided all the Company's people here with 

also the 13 men 

as I very much need some oxen and horses, to haul wood for the repau-ing of the fort, 
which is much decayed on the strandside and on other places in such a condition, that it 
requires a great deal of timber and as the animals will grow better on a place, to which 
they are accustomed, than upon one, to which they are strangers, and can better be 
attended to here and as they most likely will pay well, therefore the Company runs 
no risk to lose anything. For the most part they are lean and feeble, so that I must 
employ them alternately and with strict attention, not to prevent the cattle from growing 
and with great discretion. As to the cows, there are only two, which give mUk and 
little at that ; but whether it might be deemed profitable or disadvantageous, I would 

174 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

be -williiig to take these for my own account, subject to your Honor's taxation, whatever 
that might be and it would be an act of friendship for me, upon which I trust and confide. 
As cattle are extremely necessary here, they will not be exported fi-om here and it must 
be satisfactory to the State, that the animals needed remain here upon a valuation, which 
it might be reasonably proper to accept. Nothing has as yet beeu said of the pigs, which 
are few in number and wild 

to receive a barrel of flour 

in proper time, as youi- Honor choose and without its being a trouble, I shall then, with 
proper opportunity attain everything. There are some soldiers here, who have planted 

and settled as farmers, whom it would not do to transfer. If your Honor judge 

it advisable, I [would request] your Honor would please to dispose, if possible, of the 
enclosed petitions. Should there be anything here to be done for your Honor, please 
inform me of it by letter, I will do everything that can be done, willingly, as my duty 
and cordial affection demand it. In closing I will ask Grod to keep your Honor and my 
Lady, your Honor's wife, in continuous prosperity and health and remain 

Your Honor' s very grateful 
Fort New-Amstel. friend and servant 

8'" of May, 1657 J. Alkichs 

In haste. 

I trust, that in the affair of the late Commander here your Honor may form a better 
opinion as has been put forward by many and been believed. But experience shall 
contribute to the issue. 

Sieur Huygans and Ensign Smits received very willingly information respecting 
complaints of some Swedes, of which a number having been heard I found them of little 
Importance , 

Opportunity favorable, I request to give my dutiful compliments to Messrs SUla and 

To the Hon."' Worshipful, 

Wise and Very Prudent 

Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 

Director- General in New-Netherlands, 

residing at the Manhattans 

in Fort Amsterdam. 

New Yoj'k Historical Records. 175 

Eesolution that Ensign Dieck Smith accompany Captain Marten 
Cregiee and his detachment op the City of Amsterdam's soldiers 
as a guide on their march to the delaware, and instructions 
FOR Ensign Smith; Fort Christina henceforth called Altena. 
24'!' of April. 

"WTiereas Captain Marten Crieger requests, that our Ensign Dirck Smitli might go with 
"him and his troops as guide overland, because he, Smith, having travelled now two or 
three times overland, is acquainted with the road, it is therefore resolved, after 
consideration to admit of and grant his request, the more so, as we deem it proper and 
necessary, that the transfer and delivery, which Jacquet is to make of the Hon'"^ 
Company's property, should be made in presence of said Smith, as he. Smith, has turned 
over the same to him and knows, what property Jacquet received upon his arrival. 
Done at Fort Amsterdam, on the day as above. 

Instructions for Ensign Smith. 
According to the Resolution of yesterday he shall go overland with Capt. Marten 
Crieger and other troops of the City of Amsterdam as guide to the Southriver of New- 
Netherland and arrived there, sail down to Fort Casimir, now called ISfew-Amstel. 

Pursuant to the orders and directions given to the Commander Jacquet, he shall 
diligently and truly inform himself in regard to the property of the Hon. Company in 
the said Fort, especially the ammunition, materials and animals, how much there is 
found yet, how and where the rest has gone to. 

After a proper inventory of the abovementioned property has been taken in his and 
Mr. Hendrick Huygen's presence, he shall see that as much ammunition, materials of 
war and provisions be as speedily as possible, transferred and brought to Port Christina, 
now called Altena, as, to the best of their knowledge, they deem at the present time 
necessary and expedient for the service of the Hon. Company, among others double the 
number of hand and sidearms for 20 men and suitable materials in proportion. 

The aforesaid property in provisions, ammunition and war-materials, which shall 
have been brought over into Fort Altena, shall provisionally be left, against proper 
receipt, in the hands of ST Andries Hudde, Sergeant Paulus Jansen and Jan Juriaensen. 
The balance of the property shaU be shipped in the ship "de Bever" or else be left in 
charge of Mr. Jacob AMchs or his Commissary until further orders. 

The animals of the Company shall be brought over Christina KU and left in charge 
as before, until further orders. 

176 Colonial Settlevtents on the Delaivare River. 

After having accomplished the foregoing, lie shall return hither as speedily as possible 
with the remainder of the soldiers either in the ship "de Bever" or over land, only 16 
soldiers shall be left in Fort Altena with our said substitutes. 

He shall treat the Commander Jacquet with all courtesy and give him no cause 
whatever for complaints, but inquire kindly of him as well as of others after the property, 
which is missing from the inventory given, also after the animals and upon his return 
make us a good, faithfiil and true report. 

On the 25'." of AprU 1657. 

Fifth Period 

The Dela-ware Territory under Dual Government, being Divided 

into the Company's and the City's Colonies, until the 

Occupation by the English (16B7 to 1664). 

Patents for lands near Fort Casimir (New-Castle, Del.). 
Patent to Jacob de Hinse for two lots on the Delaware, described as follows : 
Two lots situate on the Soutbriver near Fort Casamier, one in tbe first row being tbe 
18'? in number and measuring in front sixty-two feet, rear fifty-six feet and on both sides 
three hundred feet ; the other lying in the second row, the 67*? in number, measuring in 
front fifty-sis feet, rear fifty-six feet and on both sides 300 feet, under express condition 
etc^ Done at Amsterdam in N. N"etherland,the 25'." August 1656. 

Patent to John Picolet for a parcel of land on the Delaware, described as 
follows : 
A parcel of land situate on the Southriver of New-lSTetherland, south of Fort Casimir 
near the brickmakers' point between the plantations of Philipp Jansen and Jacob Crabbe 
and measuring along the strand from the said Philipp Jansen' s land westwardly to the 
land of Jacob Crabbe twenty-eight rods, along the land of said Crabbe northwest 
sixty-six rods to the public road, along the public road to the land of PhUipp Jansen 
thirty rods, thence to the place of beginning south-east by south sixty-four rods, covering 
altogether three morgens and eighty-five rods, under express condition and obligation 
etc? Done Amsterdam in N. Netherland, the 1'.' September A'^ 1656. 

Patent to Philipp Jansen Ringo for a lot on the Delaware, described as 
follows : 
A lot for a house and garden situate on the Southriver below Fort Casimir above the 
brickmakers' point, south of Cornells Mouritsen, measuring in front on the strandside 
two hundi-ed and eighty-six feet wood-measure, along the land of the aforesaid Cornells 
Mouritsen five hundred and seventy-five feet like measure, in rear at the plantation along 
the public road two hundred and eighty-four feet and along the Southside six hundred 
and fifty feet, under express condition and obligation etc? Done at Amsterdam in N. 
Netherland, the 12'? September 1656. 

Patent to Constantinus Groenenburgh for a lot on the Delaware, described as 
follows : 
A lot for a house and garden, situate on the Southriver below Fort Casimir, being in 
number the twentieth and bounded on the south by the lot of Cornelis Mouritsen and on 

178 Colonial Settlejnents on the Delaware River. 

the north by the lot of Reynier Domenicus, measuring in front on the waterside sixty- 
three feet wood measure, in the rear on the public road fifty-six feet, on both sides 
three hundred and eight feet, under express condition and obligation etc? Done at 
Amsterdam in N. Netherland, the 13'? Septbr. 1656. 

Patent to Hans Albertsen from Brunswick of a lot in New-Castle, Del., 
described as follows : 
A lot for a house and garden, situate on the Southriver of New Netherland near 
Fort Casimir, in the second row, just behind Claes the Smith's, on the east side of the 
steeven field, on the west the lot of Roeloff de Haes, then on the north Roeloff de Haes' 
plantation, measuring fifty-six feet in front and rear and threehundred feet on both sides, 
under express condition and obligation etc? Done at Amsterdam in N. Netherland, the 
13* Septbr 1656. 

Patent to Jan Hendricksen van Struckhousen for a lot in New-Castle, Del., 
described as follows : 
A lot for a house and garden, situate on the Southriver near Fort Casimir, being in 
number the 35"^? in the second row, bounded on the north by the lot of Gerrit Jansen, on 
the south by the lot of Sander Boeyer, measuring in front and rear fifty-six feet Rhineland 
wood-measure, on both sides threehundred feet, under express condition and obligation 
etc? Done at Amsterdam in N. Netherland on the 22'? of September 1656. 

Patent to the widow of Roeloff de Haes for a plantation on the Delaware, 

described as follows : 

A plantation situate on the Southriver near Fort Casimir on the north side of the 

public road behind the lot of Jan Gerritsen, measuring northwardly 7 rods, on either side 

thirty-one rods and in the rear seven and one half rods, under express condition and 

obligation etc* Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 28'." October A°. 1656. 

Patent to the same for a lot in New-Castle Del., described as follows : 
A lot for a house and garden, situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland near Fort 
Casimir in the first row north of the public road and bounded on the south by Claes 
Pietersen, measuring in front on the strandside sixty two feet, in the rear sixty two feet 
and on either side three hundred feet, under express condition and obligation etc? Done 
at Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 28'.'' October 1656. 

Patent issued to Andries Hudde for a house and lot near Fort Casamier, 
Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of their Noble High Mightiness, the Lords States- 
General of the United Netherlands and the Right Honorable Lords-Directors of the 
Incorporated West-India Company Director-General of New-Netherland, Curasao, 
Bonayro, Aruba and dependencies thereof and the Right Honorable Council attest and 
declare, that to-day, date underwi-itten, we have granted and given to Andries Hudde a 
lot for a house and a garden, situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland near Fort 
Casamier being the 1 5'^ in number and bounded on the north by the lot of Jan Andriessen, 

Mew York Historical Records. 179 

on the south by the lot of Sander Fenix ; it measures on the road in front sixty-three 
feet Rhineland measure and on both sides threehundred feet, at the rear six and fifty 
feet, with express condition and obligations etc*. Done at Amsterdam in N. Netherland, 
the 30'!' Novbr. A". 1656. 

Patent to Alexander Boeyer for a plantation on the Delaware, described as 
follows : 
A plantation on the Southriver of New-Netherland, north of Fort Casamier on the 
hook between the first and the second valley at the southend of Frans Smith's, measuring 
along the river, from the angle of the vaUey to the land of the said Francois Smit, 
northeast by east to east, six and sixty rods, further along said Smit's wood, north- 
north-west i point west one hundred and three rods, further north northwest fifty rods, 
further to the valley southwest hundred rods, along the valley east southeast fifty rods, 
further west sixty rods, further east by south four and forty rods, further to the place of 
beginning, southeast by east three and fifty rods, two corners of vaUeys included, the 
whole covering about twenty-four morgens, under express condition and obligations etc' 
the 30'." November A? 1656. 

Patent to Luycas Dh-cksen for a lot on the Delaware near New-Castle, 
described as follows : 
A lot for a house and garden, situate on the Southriver near Fort Casimir, in the first 
row contiguous to the lots of Reyer Mol and Claes Pietersen Smith, measuring on the 
strand side two hundred and sixty feet woodmeasure, on either side three hundred feet 
and in the rear seventy feet like measure under express condition and obligation etc* 
Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 10'.'' February A? 1657. 

Patent to Ryer Lammersen Mol for a lot at New-Castle, Del. described as 

follows : 

A lot for a house and garden near Fort Casimir on the Southriver of New-Netherland, 

between the lots of Jan Eeckhoff and Pieter Lourussen, measuring in front sixty-four feet 

and on either side three hundred feet ; under express condition and obligation etc* 

Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland the 20'!' February A? 1657. 

Patent to Claes Pietersen for a lot at New-Castle, Del. described as follows : 
A lot for a house and garden situate near Fort Casimir on the Southriver of New- 
Netherland on the strand between the lots of Roeloff de Haes and Jan Schut, measuring 
in front and rear 62 feet and on either side 300 feet. Nota : the aforesaid lot was laid out 
and surveyed by order for the said Claes Pietersen or his heirs and assigns, on the 6'? 
Decbr. 1652 under express condition etc? Done at Amsterdam in N. Netherland the 
11'." April 1657. 

Patent to Barent Jansen van Swol for a lot at New Castle, Del. described as 
follows : 
A lot for a house and garden situate near Fort Casimir on the Southriver of New- 
Netherland, behind the first row of lots, between Elias Enimens and Marten Rosemont 

180 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

measuring in front and rear fifty four feet and on either side three hundred feet under 
express condition and obligation etc* Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 
20'." February, 1657. 

Patent to Pieter Hermens for a plantation near J!^ew-Castle, Del., described 
as follows : 
A plantation situate below Fort Casimir on the Southriver of New-Netherland east 
of Pieter Lourensen and west of Rosier Schot, measuring in front on the south side 
eighteen rods, on the east side 131 rods, on the north side 13 rods and on the west side 
130 rods, altogether two thousand and twenty-three rods under express condition and 
obligation etc* Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 24*'' February 1657. 

Patent to Pieter Harmense for a lot at New-Castle, Del. : 
A lot for a house and garden, situate near Fort Casimir on the Southriver of New- 
Netherland between Harmen Jansen and Reynier Dominicus, measuring in front sixty-two 
feet, in the rear fifty-four feet and on either side three hundred feet, under express 
condition and obligation etc* Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 24'." 
February 1657. 

• Patent to Pieter Louwerense for a plantation near Fort Casimu- (New-Castle), 
A plantation situate near Fort Casimir on the Southriver of New -Nether land 
measuring on the southside eighteen rods, on the eastside, along Cornells Theunissen' s 
one hundred and thirty two rods on the northside thii'teen rods, on the westside along 
Pieter Harmense one hundred and thirty rods, altogether two-thousand and thirty eight 
rods, iinder express condition and obligation etc? Done Amsterdam in N. Netherland, 
the 28'" Febr. 1657. 

Patent to Coruelys Steenwyck. 
A lot for a house and garden situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland near Fort 
Casimir, between the lots of Ariaen Jacobs and Hannen Pieterson in partnership and 
Ryer Mol, measuring in front, on the strand, sixty two feet woodmeasure, in the rear 
also sixty two feet and on either side threehundred feet, under express condition and 
obligation etc. Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 30'? (!) Febr^' 1657. 

Patent to Jan Gerritsen. 
A lot for a house and garden situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland near Fort 
Casimir in the second row, contiguous on the north to the highway, behind the lot of 
Roeloff de Haes, measuring in front and rear sixty-two feet and on either side threehundred 
feet, under express and obligation etc*. Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland on the 
30'." (!) February 1657. 

Patent to Reynier Dominicus for a lot at New-Castle, Del. 
A lot for a house and garden situate near Fort Cassimir on the Southriver of New- 
Netherland between Claes Jansen and Pieter Hermens, measuring in front sixty -four feet, 
in the rear fifty-eight feet and on either side threehundred feet, under express condition 
and obligation etc? Done Amsterdam in N. Netherland the 30'." (!) February 1657. 

Kew YotIc Historical Records. 181 

Patent to Pieter Ebel for a plautation near New-Castle, Del., described as 

follows : 

A plantation on the Soutliriver of New-Netherland near Port Casimir, contiguous on 

the south to Jan Eckhoff' s, and the north by the said fort, covering 4 morgens, under 

express condition and obligation etc. Done at Amsterdam in New Netherland, on the 

30'." (!) February a° 1657. 

Patent to Cornelys Steenwyck for a lot near New-Castle, Del. 
A lot for a house and garden situate on the Southriver of New-lSTetherland near 
Fort Casimir, between the lots of Ariaen Jacobs and Harmen Pietersen in partnership 
and Ryer Mol, measuring in front, on the strand, sixty two feet woodmeasure, in the 
rear also sixty two feet and on either side threeliundred feet, under express condition 
and obligation etc. Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 30'" (!) Febr^ 1657. 

Patent to Jan Gerritsen for a lot near Fort Casimir on the Delaware, described 
as follows : 
A lot for a house and garden situate on the Southriver of New Netherland near 
Fort Casimir in the second row, contiguous on the north to the highway, behind 
the lot of Roeloff de Haes, measuring in front and rear sixty-two feet and on either 
side three hundred feet, under express condition and obligation etc*. Done at Amsterdam 
in New-Netherlaud on the 30* (!) February 1657. 

Patent to Jacob Crabbe for a plantation near New Castle, Del., described as 

follows : 

A plantation, situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland below Fort Casimer, 

between the first valley and the land of Jan Picolet along the strand to the last hook, 

called the brickmakers' hook, thence to the hook of the valleys, extending northwest 

and southeast by south (the valley comprised therein, is under this land and 

measures four morgens, onehundred and thirty rods) west by south | point southerly 
five and seventy rods, thence along the valley northeast fifty rods, north northeast ten 
rods, north northwest fifty rods, westnorthwest ten rods, southwest by south twenty-five 
rods, northwest ^ point west fifteen rods, north by west fifteen rods, further into the 
woods northwest by west seventy-five rods to the plantation of Ritsert Schot, thence in 
the woods seventy rods northeast by east, along the plantation southeast by south one 
hundred and ten rods, thence along the land of Picolet aforesaid to the place of beginning, 
measuring altogether of firm land twelve morgens, one hundred and twenty rods and 
marshland as above four morgens, one hundred and thirty rods, making an aggregate 
of firm and marshland of sixteen morgens twohundred and fifty rods, under express 
condition and obligation etc''. Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the SO"" (!) 
February a°. 1657. 

Patent to Sander Leendertsen for a lot at New-Castle, Del. : 
A lot for a house and garden, situate at Fort Casimir on the Southriver of 
New-Netherland between Willem de Hit and Jan Andriesen, measuring in front and 
rear fifty-six feet and on either side threehundred feet, under express condition and 
obligation etc*. Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 1" of March 1657. 

182 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Patent to Willem Tailler for a lot at New-Castle, Del. : 
A lot for a house and garden near Fort Casimir on the Sonthriver of New-Netherland 
in the first row on the strand between Tomas Broen and Sander Leendertsen, measuring in 
fi'ont and rear 56 feet and on either side 300 feet, under express conditions etc. Amsterdam 
in N. Netherland 1 March 1657 

Patent to Jan Eeckhoff for a lot at New-Castle, Del., described as follows : 
A lot for a house and garden situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland near 
Fort Casimir, No 36 in the second row, behind the lot of Jan Andiiessen, measuring 
in front and rear fifty-six feet and on either side three hundi-ed feet, under 
express conditions and obligations etc. Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 
ir" June 1657. 

Patent to Jan Andriessen for a lot at New-Castle, Del. : 
A lot for a house and garden, situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland, near 
Fort Casimir, No. 15 in the first row, contiguous to and between the lots of Andries 
Hudde and Symon Leen, measuring in front or on the strandside sixty-two feet, in the 
rear fifty-six feet, on either side three hundred feet, under express condition and 
obligation etc. Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the l?"" June 1657. 

Patent to Jan S'Gaggen for a parcel of land near New- Castle, Del., described 
as follows : 
A parcel of land, situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland, above Fort Casimir 
on the first hook, it extends on the northeast side from the land, formerly owned by 
Sander Boyer, northeast to east along the strand sixty rods to the marsh, thence along 
the edge of the marsh as follows : northwest by north forty rods, north northwest 
sixty-five rods, east by north to east twenty-five rods, north by west twenty-six rods, 
east northeast thii-ty rods, north thu-ty-five rods, north by west forty-six rods, west by 
north to north one hundi-ed and twenty-eight rods, thence from the edge of the marsh 
into the woods south southwest by south one hundred and fourteen rods, thence through 
the woods to the place of beginning, together about 40 morgens under express condition 
and obligation etc. Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 20"' June 1657. 

Patent to Peter Laurensen for a lot at New-Castle, Del. : 
A lot situate on the Southriver of New-Netherland near Fort Casimir, now called 
New-Amstel northeast of the public road, being in number the fourth beginning from the 
fort on the side toward the strand measuring in front and rear sixty-two feet, on either 
side three hundred feet (Nota : the aforesaid lot had been granted to the said Pieter 
Lourensen in the year 1652, but as no patent was given him at the time, the same is 
issued to him now) under express condition and obligation etc. Done at Amsterdam in 
New-Netherland, the 3* Septbr 1657. 

Patent to Pieter Meyer for a parcel of land near Wilmington, Del., described 

as follows : 

A parcel of land, lying on the Southriver of New-Netherland near Fort Altena, 

extending westward from the said fort between the lands of Jan Staelcop and Paul 

Jansen, measuring along the land of Paul Jansen from the foot path north by west 

Jfeio York Historical Records. 183 

fhii-ty-seven rods, along the woods to Jan Staelcop's land twenty- nine rods west sonth 
west, thence to the footpath along Staelcop's land thirty-seven rods, thence east north 
east to the land of Paul Jansen along the footpath nineteen rods, also a lot for a house 
and garden, measuring on the street ten rods five feet, on the northnortheast side 
contiguous to Jan Staelcop's eleven rods seven feet, on the east side ten rods five feet, 
on the south southeast side next to the square of the fort ten rods four feet, under 
express condition and obligation etc. Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-lN'etherland, 
the IS"" September 1660. It was signed P. Stuyvesant. Below stood: by order of the 
Director-General and Council of New-Netherland, signed C. van Ruyven, Secretary. 

Patent to Paules Jansen for a parcel of land near Wilmington, Del. : 
A piece of land, lying on the Southriver of New-Netherland near Fort Altena, west 
of Jan Staelcop's land on the Kil, extending along said Staelcop's land forty-six rods 
and along the Kil forty rods, and thence from Jan Staelcop's land to a marsh ; it is quite 
square. Also, a lot for a house and garden situate near said Fort Altena, to the north of 
Jan Staelcop's lot, measuring on either side fourteen rods, eleven feet, in front and rear 
seven rods and four feet, under express condition and obligation etc. Done at Amsterdam 
in New-Netherland, the 7"^ of April a" 1661. 

Patent to Jacob van der Veer for a lot in Wilmington, Del. : 
A lot for a house and garden situate on the South river of New-Netherland near 
Fort Wilmington, measuring on the street or east side sixty feet, on the south along the 
square of said fort one hundred feet, on the west side, contiguous to a marsh sixty feet 
and on the north side along Tomas Bruyn's one hundred feet, under express condition 
and obligation etc*. Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland the 8"^ of April 1661. 

Extract from a Letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; a chart 
OF THE South river is required ; a fresh lot of colonists and a 


The plan of the Southriver, given by the Director-Greneral to Walewyn van der Veen, 
has been lost with other papers in the ship "de Otter," so that we expect a like draught 
on paper by the first chance from there, in order to use it 

The City of Amsterdom or its Commissioners and Directors, appointed for the man- 
agement of the South-Colony, have just now lying ready for sea the man-of-war "de 
Waegh," which will sail with several families and other free colonists in 3 or 4 weeks. 
A a preacher for the said Colony will also be sent and as the aforesaid City spares as 
yet no expenses, we would like to see that they should be encouraged by all possible 
assistance and that the said ship might be returned hither with a cargo of tobacco, in 
which we recommend your Honors earnestly to give them the most effective assistance. 

184 Colonial Settlements on the Delaivare River. 

Petition of some of the crew of the wrecked ship " Prins 
Maijrititjs," that freight belonging to them mat be released 
from attachment, and order thereon. 

To the Noble, Worshipful, Honorable Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General 
and the Honorable Gentlemen of the Council of New-Netherland. 
Show with due reverence Dirck Cornelissen Haen, mate, Jan Barentsen, first 
boatswain and Peter Cornelissen Mol, carpenter, lately of the stranded ship "Prins 
Mourits," that they, the petitioners, had taken with them, according to old customs, for 
their private use a little boatswain' s provisions, to improve their own poor compensations, 
namely a hogshead with cans, belonging to the mate, one with pots, belonging to the 
high-boatswain and 4 half hogsheads with French wine, belonging to the mate and 
carpenter in company. The aforesaid goods with others have been attached on account 
of some diiference between the Hon"!^ Mr. Jacob Alrichs and theh' skipper, Duxk 
Cornelissen Honingh and whereas the said difiference does not at all concern them, they, 
the jietitioners, respectfully request, that your Noble Worships will please to free the 
aforesaid goods from the attachment and that the same may be delivered to them in 
consideration of what is stated above, with which they remain 

Your Noble Worships' 

faithful servants 
(Signed) Dirck Cornelissen Haen, 

Jan Barentsen, 
Peter Cornelissen Mol. 

The Noble, Hon**'^ Director-General, Petrus Stuyvesant decided, as follows, on the 
foregoing petition : 

This is to be placed into the hands of the Hon''"' Fiscal de Sille, who is hereby 
authorized and directed to deliver, upon sight of this, to the petitioners the aforesaid 
two hogsheads with pots and cans, fi-om the warehouse and to inform himself, as law- 
officer, in regard to the wine, whether the matter is correctly stated, the more, as it is 
reported, that the skipper has declared in the court of this city, that the seized wine did 
not belong to him, but to the city of Amsterdam, given to him as part of his ship's 
provisions. H it is, as the skipper says, then the same must be sent to Mr. Alrichs, if 
on the other side, the statement of the petitioners has been found correct, that it is 
boatswain's goods, it is to be delivered to them. Date as above (1'.' May 1657). 

JVbif York Historical Records. 185 

The Directoes to Stuyvesant (extract), regarding the seizure of the 
Swedish ship "de Hay," and the Endeavors to Promote the 
Colony of New Amstel (New-Castle). 

26* of May 1657. 

We liave informed your Honors by our last letter of the 7"" of April, sent by the 
ships " Vogelsang * " and " Goude Meulen,* " that we should have the seized Swedish ship 
"de Hay" inspected and if it were found serviceable and seaworthy, send it back to 
your Honors well repaii-ed and provided, to be used as regular passage-boat between 
Curagao and New-Netherland ; this has been carried out and the said ship is so far 
caulked and repaired, that it will sail from here to Curagao in about 3 or 4 weeks. 

Although we recommended and directed most earnestly in our last letters, that your 
Honors should make all possible endeavors, that the ship ' ' de Waegh ' ' might come back 
from there with a cargo of tobacco, we have yet not been able to pass it over, without 
repeating it here again, as by such means and reliefs the Very Worshipful Burgomasters 
of this City are to be encouraged, to advance the progress of their Colony, in which we 
are much interested, as it cannot but tend to the advantage of the Company and 
consequently to the growth of the whole territory of New-Netherland. Your Honors 
must therefore use all possible diligence, that it may be enabled to arrive here with a 
cargo of tobacco as soon as possible and before winter 

We send herewith the invoices for the merchandises, shipped in the ship " de Waegh ' 
and belonging to the City and partly to free private parties, who go over. Your Honors 
wUl give instructions to the Company's Commissary residing at the Southriver, to receive 
from the aforesaid private parties the 4 per cent for duties. 

Jacob Alrichs to Dir. Stuyvesant ; condition of things ; Gerrit van 
Sweringen recommended for the position as Commissary. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir ! 

My last letter to your Honor was of the 13'!' inst. by skipper Lourens Cornelissen, 
by whom I sent from here the requested provisions. I hope they have safely arrived and 
been received by your Honor in good condition. 

This goes by the yacht of Michiel Taden, by which (I send) some peltries, as 
previously by the ship the "Bever" and the yacht "de Endt,t" sailed from here for the 
Manhattans, according to the note kept thereof and made without anybody's knowledge, 
the contents of which, if your Honor will use it in behalf of the Company, can be seen 
from the copy sent herewith. 

* I. e., Bird's Song and Golden Mill 1 1, e.. The Duck. 


186 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

I have, before this, requested your Honor for twelve schepels of spring-barley and 
six schepels of oats ; I expect also a small barrel of flour and if your Honor is weU 
provided there with wampum, I would like to have 300 to 400 guilders, besides one 
hundred good boards and if he has any more room, the vacant space in the yacht might 
be filled with a ton of lime or sundries. The aforesaid wampum is to be applied to the 

payment of Capt. Marten Kriger and other expenses to by 

other goods, whereby a special kindness [would be done] to me. Also, if some shij)a 
should have arrived there from [Fatherland] 

I have at once examined the places and nations around here and who are their chiefs 
and find there are twelve in number, named N. N. etc. I should like to make them a 
present or donation in memorj' of my arrival here ; will you please to inform me at once, 
whether your Honor is of opinion, that it ought to be given to them conjunctly or to each 
separately, also how much and what kind of money it is proper to give them jointly and 
what each individually. 

At the time of Capt. Marten Criger's departure from the Manhattans, a soldier, called 
Jan Andries of Riga, deserted to the English at the North and now, on the 14'Must., 
two other soldiers from here, Gerret Sj^echt and Thomas Bintgen by name, wiio had 
already been guilty of some misdemeanors on the island, where the ship stranded, and 
now again have behaved badly ; if these last two should come there or be discovered, 
please to arrest them or else to write by occasion to the Grovernor of the English about 
them and recommend these persons (each one has taken a musket) to be taken up, if 
discovered and to be sent by the first opportunity either to the Manhattans or here, 
which would still further oblige me. 

If your Honor might deem it proper, as there is no Commissary here, to take care of 
the Company's dues on arriving [and departing] goods, to give [the commission] thereto 
to the bearer, Gerrit van Sweeringen, it would be very convenient 

And if your Honor should grant the planks and some more than heretofore 
mentioned, could be sent over, the condescension, with which your Honor is pleased to 
treat me, would oblige me more and more, to deserve the same at aU occasions by deeds, 
at least by gratitude and all that is demanded by it. 

In closing I shall pray God, that he may keep you, Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise and Very Prudent Sir with my Lady, your Honor' s wife in continuous health and 
prosperity and remain with my and my wife' s dutiful regards 

Your Honor's 

willing friend and servant 
At Fort New-Amstel J. Aleiohs. 

28*!' May 1657. 
To the Hon'"^ General 

Jieiv York Historical Records. 187 

The same to the same ; conditiok op the Fort ; the name of Christina 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise and Prudent Sii- ! 

Sir ! Your Honor's letters of the 14'^ and 20'!^ of June last have been received by me. 
I learned from them, that the groats, vinegar and oil sent (by me) have been received 
from skipper Louwrens Cornelissen, which I was pleased to hear, I learned also with 
astonishment, that the former pilot of the ship "Prins Maurits" has left there so 
suddenly and silently; he was apparently persuaded thereto by the skipper Dirck 
Cornelissen Honing and embarked with him, to assist each other in the accounting for the 
loss of the ship. 

(Further) that your Honor has been pleased to take the trouble, and tried to induce 
the said skipper Honingh, in pursuance of my letter, to discharge the seized goods under 
bail and sell them to the best advantage of the interested parties and that he would not 
listen to it. It is his old custom, not to give way to reasoning. In my opinion, he could 
not do better or more advantageously, than it was represented to him and he was advised 
to do ; the future issue is to be expected on the other side (of the water). 

I have [spoken] with the Captain and Lieutenant in regard to the arrested goods, 
which still [are] there, and we think it advisable to [have them] sold there at public 

auction and to deposit the money for them in court to the 

In regard 

he has borrowed 

a half awme *) for the wants of his journey, which was given up only later, without 
its having been, by conjecture, set off against something of the kind or planks; he must 
have dreamt or thought of intending to do it, but it was not spoken of. The matter 
being however of little importance, the question is, has he concealed or delivered the 
value or price for it : that is easier asserted, than proved and it shall be answered, as it 
is proper. 

Regarding the issues to the Company's Officers, which are stiU continuing daily, 
but cannot reach by far or equal those on account of the expenses of the stranded 
ship, also the monthly wages of the soldiers and other advances, payments and 
distributions made for the maintenance of the City's Colony by your Honor's order, which 
makes already a considerable sum, in regard to these (matters) I beg to be excused for 
some time yet, I shall write upon it at some future opportunity. I received also the desired 
three hundred guilders in wampum, with which I paid Capt" Marten Kryger the money, 
which he had advanced, while at the Manhattans, on account of expenses for his soldiers. 
Likewise I received two pieces of red duffels, as desired, as I was not provided with red 
(duffel) and it is most asked for hj the savages. I intend to use them as soon as a 
favorable chance offers, to give part of it to the Chiefs, who have, as I understand, 
already asked for it 

who had made the inventory and had it signed without dispute or displeasure and though 

of course, it was at the time inconvenient to them and they had for the present enough to 

do for themselves, to prepare their lodgings, and as they asked me to provide them with the 

*A liquid measure of about 40 Engl, wine gallons. — B. F. 

188 Colonial Settlements on the Belaivare River. 

necessary materials thereto, which, finding to be my duty, I gave them all, they desired. 
Besides this, I have written about it in the most amicable manner to your Honor in my 
letter of the 13'." May just passed and requested and duly notified my inconveniences 
through the diminishing of my goods by the excessively heavy expenses, which I had to 
pay on account of the loss of the ship. Thereto comes, that in such a newly begun work, 
daily great burdens and expenses will occur quite unexpectedly, also that the fort and 
other (buildings) here are much decayed, so that there is no warehouse or other place, to 
store the provisions, etc., and protect them against rain and other damages ; the quarters, 
too, are too small, besides very leaky and very much out of repairs ; the ramparts and 
curtains in no way suitable, the platforms for the cannons unfit for use, the parapets so 
decayed, that one can pass over them as easily as through the inner gate itself, so that 
also an outer gate had to be made, to be somewhat in position of defense, mostly [against] 
the Swedes, who still [nourish] great hopes, to be re-instated 

five and twenty men to go to Christina, now Altena, at which place, it being also 
somewhat tumbled down, as no garrison has been there for quite a wliile, they were 
therefore embarrassed and in need of shelter for their persons and the small quantity of 
provisions; for these reasons, first considering their own inconvenience, they found work 
enough to provide for themselves. Having no use for the cattle and (not) being able to 
spare the time required for their attendance, they did not intend to charge themselves 
with it, much less have asked for it and consequently not the slightest refusal was 
made, but they requested me to provide the garrison there from time to time with bread, 
as well as now and then with some peas, oil and other such things, also nails, hinges, 
locks, boards etc. and all, what they must necessarily require : I never refused them 
(anything). I cannot imagine, what cause for dissatisfaction they coidd have therefore or 
why they could have brought written complaints about such transactions to your Honor. 
I am at present still of opinion, that I have by no means given them the least cause for 
offence or done anything against their wish and will. But what has been charged in 
the tale of Ensign Smith and Hendrick Huygen, to that I will say briefly in regard 
to the Ensign, he says sometimes more, than he understands and I have wished, that he 
would be present in my lodgings and use less words to the servants; I have, indeed, let all 
pass nor given him or to S' Huygen the least offence 

that was spoken freely 

as also, that I had threatened : that is not my wont and I know well, that they, who have 
occasion for something, must ask for it amicably (sooner) than demand it with boldness, 
to obtain the same. Nor could I have had it against (their) will and if they would not 
have done it willingly, it would have been left out of the inventory, except that some 
animals were placed upon it, which were in the possession of one or the other and never 
had been seen nor received by me. It is hence sufficiently evident, that this was not 
done against their wish nor held against their will ; but on the contrary it was not 
thought, that this would be taken so very ill, and I believe, it would have been done, 
had not some mischievous story-tellers meddled with it ; everything is still present and 
not given to strangers, nor in the least diminished or deteriorated, rather improved, nor 
anything lost or got away, as good care has been taken of it ; but since it had been done 

Mew York Historical Records. 189 

so before by the substitutes and trusty people, tliey could do no ill service to tlip 
Company, but on the contrary great service to the City by hauling V70od vfith a few 
animals, therefore this was not only passed over without intention of causing the least 
prejudice to the Company, but also approved for the above mentioned reasons. The 
same with the greater part of the ordnance : (of which likewise can be said, that it M'as 
held here against the order and their wish and vidll) which has simply been marked in 
the same manner and left here, because they knew not what to do with it. Therefore 
they can 

then I considered it further and conjectured, of what especial service it might be to me ; 
I also spoke with him about it and told him so, because there were here one serviceable 
and one unserviceable kettle ; thus he was very willing to take with him the one, that 
could be used and to leave the other, of which I could not make any use at all, at the 
place : I thought, that this was rather unreasonable, but believed, that it was his usual 
strange manner of acting and on account of something, granted to me by your Honor ; he 
would not leave anything, unless it could not be used. I noticed it in him also in other 
things, (for instance) that he placed on the inventory the windows in the houses and locks 
on the doors, whether there were any or not, if they only had been there, even the hinges on 
the doors of the gate, to which I did not wish to object, but by no means has a dispute 
occurred ; so it seems to me, since I had written amicably to your Honor about the 
animals, as well before as after their coming there and for above-said reasons had made 
a friendly request, that the contrary has been told by him and S' Huygen. It was not 
necessary, to pay so much attention to it and if Sr Huygen too were a peaceful man (he 
should [be] herein, even if a word had been said, which he might have construed 
differently, which was however not said nor anything in the least usurpated) it would 
have been proper to [turn] this not to the worst but to the best, for the avoidance of 


to bring up timber thereto 

curtains as well as the platform for the guns and what was required for the stockade, the 
gates, quarters, magazine, etc., the more so, as I heard and learned from Sr Huygen 
himself, at the time that I intended to hire a certain Swedish servant, who understands 
the language of the savages, for a year or more ; Huygens then said, the man ought not 
to be engaged in a binding manner, since he was still a soldier in the service of the Crown 
and if anything happened, he must have his liberty and not be under control. This has 
happened and hearing it at that occasion, deafness will be no excuse ; but if I got angry 
about it and perhaps gave it the worst instead of the best interpretation, then please forgive 
and excuse my wrong herein, likewise that which followed concerning this. I have done 
everything, I believe, for improvement and to the best, but am buried in work yet ; with 
all that, not to go into further details, I shall do, what I can and must leave undone what 
I cannot do and have no objection to make : although I requested for my private use the 
four cows, to serve for some refreshment, provided I could willingly receive them upon 
proper valuation, to be [paid] in cash to your Honor or order, of which the husbandman, 
who looks after them, takes \ of the [milk], for his [trouble] and labor and besides more 

than [is divided] among about 160 souls, among whom are many women 

who by an onerous [voyage ?] 

190 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

may be restituted, of which I think better be done in the same value, than in specie or we 
would expose ourselves here to danger and get without doubt in to a rather defenceless 
position. Nevertheless and in spite of all I have upon the publication of that, about 
which I have written, said or sent as answer, I shall give you no cause, to have trouble 
about it, the animals may be here or there, as you please, they can be taken altogether 
or half of them, all or a few, as your Honor deems it proper. Still I trust, although my first 
letter was not noticed by your Honor and the report has not deserved an answer, that your 
Honor, having heard now further details of the matter, will examine (it) with moderation 
and in the best manner for my relief, while I declare, not to have had a thought, that the 
least dissatisfaction was caused or had existed concerning it. In regard to the cattle, 
of which Huygen and other Swedes say, that it could have been had at the Manhattans 
or elsewhere, I beg to say referring to my distress, mentioned before, that those of which 
Sr Huygen speaks, were at such a price and so on, that it was like getting bacon out of 
a bog ; to order them from the Manhattans, too, would have cost too much ; I have as 
yet no vessel to get it from the Virginias 

so have I heard those from Altena themselves say and remark, that they have 

had no inconvenience on account of the animals nor been troubled at all and refer to what 
has been reported concerning it. 

I have also been very glad to learn, that pursuant to my request 2000 lbs of bacon 
have been bought there and are in the store-house until opportunity or ships. 

I further heard, that the ships "deDraatvat" and " de Vogelesaugh " have safely 
arrived and that no letter for me has come by them ; I am astonished, that in the 
beginning of such a work an opportunity to write or to advise anything, should be 
allowed to pass. I will hope, that something may come yet by the " Goude Molen." I 
understand however, that your Honor has news from Mr. van Beek, that the ship " De 
Waegh" with a galiot was being cleared. God give, that they may arrive soon in safety. 

Since I understand, that there are rumors afloat, as if the people here (received) too 
small rations and consequently had to suffer great distress and hunger, [I send herewith] 
the list of rations, as they are given out, not only to the male population, but likewise to 
soldiers' wives, even to their maid-servants and children 

Noble, Honorable . 
Discreet, High- . . . 



Permit to the Swedes on the South eiver to form a village, 

WHERE they think PROPER. 

12'? of June 1657. 

The credentials and instructions, dated the 20'? of May last past and given by the 

Swedish nation on the Southriver of New-Netherland to Gregorius van Dyck, Sheriff of 

the same nation on the said river, were received and having been read, the said SherifE 

was admitted, his communication and proposition heard and taken in consideration, 

Kew York Historical Records. 191 

The request for permission to establish villages was not only granted, but it was also 
judged necessary, that the same should be done forthwith : therefore the said Sheriff 
and the Commissaries, appointed there, are not only authorized and qualified, but also 
ordered and directed to concentrate their houses and dwellings and henceforth to erect 
them in shape of a village or villages either at Upland, Passayonck, Finland, Kinghsessing, 
on the " Verdrietige hoeck*" or at such places as by them may be considered suitable, 
under condition, that previous notice be given to the Director- General and Council, in 
case they should choose some other places, than those specified above. 

Upon the request to have for their Court a man, who should attend to the duties of 
Court-messenger and provost, for which the Sheriff proposes one Jurgen, the Fin on the 
Crooked Kil, Director-G-eneral and Council agree and consent that the above-named 
person may provisionally be employed for it, provided that he, opportunity offering, 
come hither, to present himself to the Director-General and Council, when a salary shall 
be allowed him. 

In regard to the complaints of the injured farmers against Jean Paul Jacquet, the 
Fiscal has been directed to gather information and make a written report of the result 
to the Director-General and Council, when according to the exigency of the cases they 
will be disposed of. 

As to the request regarding the animals, it is decided, that, as there are only few at 
present, the same can as yet not be given out on half shares. Done at Fort Amsterdam 
in JSTew-Netherland, the 12'." of June, 1657. 

Petition OP Abbe Claesen for payment of an account due by tue 
Swedish Company. 

Copy. To the Koble, Very Worshipful, Honorable Petrus Stuyvesant, Director - 

General of New-Netherland. 
Noble, Very Worshipful Sir. 

Abbe Claesen humbly requests, that his enclosed account, amounting to 377 guilders, 
may be paid him out of the property, which the Hon*"* Mr. Risingh has left here ; 
considering, that the petitioner stands in great need of it, as he has nothing else to live 
on in his old age and is not able to work as formerly to gain his living because of the 
lameness of one of his hands ; wherewith he remains 

Your Noble Worship' s humble servant 

this is the ^ mark, made by the aforesaid 
Abbe Claesen. 

* Trinity Hook, Pa. 

192 Colonial Settlements on the Delwivare Pdver. 

Follows the enclosed account : 

Debet Abbe Claesen, late Skipper Credit 

His salary from the South Swedish 
Company, for wliich after closing 

After the departure of Governor 
Jan Prints, by Commander Jan 
Papegaay, on account, to settle... f 6G 
Received after his departure from 
Governor Johan Rysingh in two 

sums f 133 

Rest as par balance f 877 


accounts with Governor Jan Prints 
and Hendrick Huygen, he contracted 
on the first of September 1653 as 
skipper at 24 gldrs the month, in 
which service he continued until 
the first of Septbr. 1655, 24 months 
at 24 fl fl 576 

It is also my humble request to the Noble Hon'"^ Director-General and High Council 
of New-Netherland, that their Honorable Worships will be pleased to let him have and 
be paid, out of the property left here by Governor Rysingh, on behalf of the South 
Company the balance of his account to the amount of 377 guilders, as I do not know 
anything to the contrary, but that the aforesaid Abbe Claesen has conducted himself as 
an honest and faitliful man in his position until the end of his service and that, after the 
departure of Governor Rysingh he has tried to earn his living by working and thereby 
has injured one of his hands, on which account he can only with difficulty earn his daily 
bread. Amsterdam in New-Netherland, 14'" June 1657. 

(Signed) Hendrick HtJYGEisr. 

The petition of Abbe Claasen and the annexed account, signed by Sr Hendrick 
Huygen, former Commissary of the Swedish nation on the Southriver were taken up, 
from which it appears, that there was due him from the Swedish Company a balance of 
877 guilders, which the petitioner as well as the said Sr Hendrick Huygen ask, to have 
satisfied and paid out of the property of the Swedish Company, left here. The poverty 
of the man having been taken in consideration, it was resolved, after putting the question, 
to direct the Receiver, that he satisfy his demand according to the state of the Treasury, 
and give notice of it to the Commissary, that in due time it may be charged against the 
said Swedish property. Date as above (15'.'' June). 

P. Stuyvesant, 


Vice-Director Alrichs to Director Stutvesant ; he has engaged 
Andries Hudde for the service op the City's Colony. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir-. 

Sir. Your Honor' s favor, dated 8? July, has been duly received by me, from which I 
was glad to learn your condescension to A. Hudde, in regard to his marrying again, to 
which he suddenly had made up his mind. At first he was somewhat displeased, that 
others were joined to him in the commission and that after all Jie should be set aside, 
since a note came here, that his orders were not to be obeyed, but all were to be referred 

JVezf York Historical Records. 193 

to the sergeant and writer (clerk). Upon that occasion and at his own demand I 
recommended to your Honor his request for discharge and as he is an old officer, also a 
householder and landowner here, I have let him go provisionallj^ over into the City' s 
service when discharged from the Company' s service, in the same capacity, as the one 
which he held before, for the same salary, boardwages and in the same capacity, on 
condition that he also attend to and look after the undershrievalty as provisional 
substitute, for the incidental emoluments, without charge to my principals, unless an 
other disposition should be made by the Honorable Lords-Burgomasters. 

The two soldiers, viz. Henrick Willemsen and Jacob Bagyn, sent thither, have not 

yet settled theii- accounts. I have inquired for their matrasses, blankets, shirt and 

but I find that they have not left [anything] beliind, except debts in the tavern, which 
[are] to be paid yet Two others, who are to come in their place 

The six hundred barrels of bacon to weigh 1233 

but they send from time to time men and merchandise to the Minquaas' country under 
the pretense, that all relating to trade was contained in their liberties and permitted. 
Consequently a short time ago one Sander Boyer and Lourens Hansen, Captain des Armes, 
from Christina, now Altena, have been there, to trade for others, their principals. But 
Lourens Hansen did not return, having been cruelly killed by a savage and robbed of 
the wampum and others things, which he had vsdth him. Afterwards a Minquaas savage 
with some other savages came here into the Colony, who commands in the fort nearest 
here in the Minquaas' country, and brought some wampum and other things, which 
they had taken from the savage there, who had perpetrated the crime. As they desired 
to leave it in my hands, I deemed it well to consign the same wampum and other things 
in their presence before witnesses and well sealed to the charge of A. Hudde ad opus jus 
hdbenti, with the view, that in the meantime your Honor might be notified of it. As the 
articles brought here had been taken from the late Lourens Hansen and as he was at 
Fort Altena in your Honor's service and garrison, I await your Honor's disposition or 
order according to your Honor's judgment. 

We long here very much for the arrival of the ship "De Waegh," as we are getting 
short of one and the other article, but hope, that in eight or fourteen days at the highest, 

I will pray to God, after my sincere greetings to 

my Lady, your Honor's wife, to keep you, Honorable, Prudent, Wise Sir, in continuous 

health and prosperity. 

Your Honor' s obedient and 

dutiful servant 
(10'^ Aug, 1657.) J- Alrichs. 

With this comes over Cors Jansen, late butler, who has been rather free-handed in 
the magazine and was removed on that account; his salary has been declared forfeited to 
the City and he banished the Colony for 3 times seven years. 

Your Honor's favor of the first inst. has been duly received, but I cannot answer it 
through lack of time; I shall only mention, that a note from the Hon"'^ Lords-Directors 
dated the lO'? April, has come to hand, whereby their Honors inform me, that 15 or 16 

194 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

days after the date of said note the " Waegh" and a new galiot should sail from there 
hitherward, that many families, colonists and free tradesmen would come with them, 
between 2 and 300 souls : I long for their arrival with anxiety and wish, they were here. 
Fui'ther, among others, your Honor's cautious and well founded advice has been 
considered and adopted, to provide myself against the winter with some grain, peas, 
bacon and meat, which I could get there for merchandise : everything considered, I 
deem it not unadvisable (as the supply is getting low) to request your Honor, to buy 

for me there, 2000 lbs of rye-flour or grain, if it cannot be had ground, but rather 

1000 lbs of good meat and 1000 lbs of bacon and 100 schepels of peas, to be 

paid by the first goods to come (as their Honors write, they send me) 

The accounts of H. Willems 

and Bagyn go herewith. 
To the Honorable, Noble, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant 
Director-General of New-Netherland, 
CuraQao, Aruba, etc. 
residing at the Manhattans 
in the Fort New- Amsterdam 
By Mr. Lourens 
whom Grod may keep. 

The same to the same ; he endeavors to get freights for the 
Manhattans and enlarges upon business and trade prospects. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

My last to your Honor was of the (10'?) inst. by the yacht of Michiel Tade, to which 
I refer. I had asked by it for some provisions ; this may however be delayed for some 
time until I vsrite again, let only the balance of the pork be sent first. For yesterday 
morning there arrived here, well and in safety, God be praised and thanked, the ship 
" De Waegh " and the galiot, " Nieuwe Amstel," although the ship " de Waegh " has been 
in great danger at or near the coast of Cape Henlopen, where it was tossed hard and much 
and great concern and anxiety were felt by the people on it. It is recommended to 
dispatch the same ship, "de Waegh" from the coast of New-Netherland as speedily as 
possible, if it is feasible by the middle of September, even if it should not come 
with more than half a cargo. We have no storehouse ready yet, to store the goods, so that 
this time will be mostly required for the unloading. And whereas there are here about 
50 or 60 tons of wood for staves, got ready by private persons, who would like to have 
it forwarded, therefore after having unloaded the galiot "Nieuwe Amstel" I shall 
immediately send her over to your Honor, hoping for a few cargoes of tobacco, from 
merchants, who might be willing to send it in her 


22? Aug. 1657. In haste 

Mew York Historical Records. 195 

To the Noble, Honorable, Worsliipful, 

Wise, Very Prudent and Discreet 

His Honor Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 

Director-General of New-Netherland, 

Curasao, Bonaire etc. residing at the Manhattans in the fort New- Amsterdam. 

By the yacht with Mr. Lourens, whom God may guard. 

In absence of the Hon"''' General to 

the Hon"" Mr. Nicasius 

Silla, first councillor and fiscal 


New- Amsterdam. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir. 

Sir. Your Honor's favors of the 20'?, 21=' and 22* have been handed to me by Capt. 
Jean Flaman. (And) after arrival of the ship "de Waegh" and the galiot "Nieune 
Amstel," I have first had the galiot discharged, to send the same to the Manhattans and 
address her to your Honor, in case there was some tobacco in store, which the merchants 
or owners were willing or had resolved to forward by the ship "de Waegh" to 
Amsterdam, then to represent to them as is herewith represented, that any one might 
ship his tobacco or other merchandise in the aforesaid galiot, of which the skipper is Jacob 
Jansen Huss (who is well acquainted with these coasts and waters), that he is to sign 
the bills of lading for all, that he shall receive and take there as freight to deliver it here 
as quick as possible again to the aforementioned ship "de Waegh," without anybody 
paying anything for freightage for the bringing it over in the galiot. In regard to the 
[freight] of the ship "de Waegh," to bring the tobacco or other goods to Amsterdam 
one guilder per barrel 

the aforesaid galiot is sent besides the ship "de Waegh" in the hope of finding another 
cargo of tobacco at the Manhattans and to bring this also to the "Waegh" at the 
Sandpoint, where then all the bills of lading can be signed by Capt. H. de Raeth of the 
ship "De Waegh." 

But in case the merchants or freighters of the "Waegh" should make so many 
difficulties in regard to the risk, to send anything to the South, that they by no means 
would agree, to send the tobacco hither in the galiot, then I would have to allow and 
think proper, that the galiot, after having been loaded, wait for the ship "De Waegh" 
at the Sandpoint, to turn over to her directly upon her arrival the cargo, instantly make 
another trip to the Manhattans and as speedily as possible bring it to the "Waegh," 
that she may make sail from this coast at the latest on the last of this month, to proceed 
on her voyage to Amsterdam, which has been imperatively ordered by my principals, 
the Lords-Mayors and been charged and commanded to me very earnestly. 

In answer to your Honor's letters, handed to me by Capt. Flaman I beg to say, that 
so far I have not heard yet of any fugitives from Virginia, I shall spare no pains to 
discover them and shaU have them well watched and inform your Honor as quickly as 
possible to make inquiry, whether they 

196 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Fdver. 

and to supply in the best way feasible and to the greatest advantage and profit of my 
principals, will [be] serviceable and expected. 

The missing and expected letters from the Fatherland, arrived by the "Waegh" 
have been recommended to the respective skippers and other private persons, who came 
over and I directed to deliver them to their addresses by this opportunity and the 
departure of the galiot from here to the Manhattans. I would further friendly request, 
that your Honor be pleased to inform me at once of the lowest and last price of bread, I 
mean, of rye-liour, bacon, meat, peas and butter ; in the meantime I shall have prepared 
some empty casks, to send them immediately over by the galiot, I have duffels and linen 
cloth and divers other merchandise to pay for the provisions. In regard to the getting 
animals, please assist me with your advice, where they might be had for the lowest price 
and to the greatest advantage of the Hon'''® Lords-Mayors : I think from Virginia and it 
is possible, that [I may send] Capt. Kryger (he is rather inclined to go there) overland to 
make a trial or experiment 


1=.' of Septbr. 1657. 

Since Sr Cornells Hogeboom, a brickmaker, has arrived here and his son and brother's 
son are living at Fort Orange or on the road at Mrs. Hulters, therefore he goes there to 
visit the same and to speak (with them), also to see, if he can persuade them to come 
with him to this place. It seems to me, that before this I have spoken of them and that 
your Honor also has written them a note and advised that they should remove hither, if 
it be so or otherwise, if your Honor can give a note to ST Hogeboom, to the effect, that 
his son and his brother' s son might come here with him, it would be an act of special 
kindness to him and of great service to the City or this Colony. I expect your Honor' s 
great favor hereto. Committing you to God with salutations as above. 

Your Honor' s faithful 

friend and servant 

J. Alrichs. 
To the Noble, Honorable, 
Worshipful, Wise, 
Prudent, Discreet 
Mr. Petrus [Stuyvesant] Dii-ector 

In absence of the Hon''" General to be handed to the Hon''''= Fiscal SiUa. 
p. Galiot New-Amstel. 


Kexv York Historical Records. 197 

The same to the same ; a Christian killed by Indians on his return 
from the minquas coitntry. 

Sii- ! After closing my letter to your Honor of to-day, I received (one from your 
Honor) tlu-ough Meyndert Doedesen, who sailed from there with some planks for Sr Jac 
Visch and (being driven) by a storm past the Bay to Virginia, landed there, from where 
he directly arrived here overland. I learn from the aforesaid letter, that your Honor 
intends to send the frigate of a French Captain to Curagao and would lilie to have some 
good seamen, who could be hired for it. I have inquired everywhere here, by what means 
your Honor might be served herein, but cannot find any person or people, who are 
inclined to go. Nevertheless, I shall inquire further to-morrow and afterwards, which is 
now not feasible on account of Little time, and inform your Honor of what occurs. 

I have spoken with Meyndert Doedesen about acquiring some animals, but find his 
answers contradicting and speaking of excessive prices, which they demand for it, so 
that I do not know, what to think 

and nevertheless, I am of opinion, that they considered it properly and therefore should 
consider it better, that that is conformable to reason. 

I have written already of the killing of a Christian by a savage, while coming 
hither from the Minquas country, to which I refer. Closing I remain, with cordial 
salutations and commendations to God's Almighty protection. 
New-Amstel Your Honor's obedient and 

2? yeptbr. 1657. faithful servant 

J. Alrichs. 
To the Hon*'^ General Stuyvesant 

at the Manhattans 

in Fort Amsterdam. 

The Directors to P. Stuyvesant (extract). A list and valuation 
OF the property at Fort Casimir, surrendered to Dir. Alrichs 


City's Colony. Complaints against Director Alrichs. 15™ of 
September 1657. 

The transmitted inventory of the Company's property, viz. ammunition of war, 
gunner's implements, camp-equipage, cattle and so forth, which were delivered with 
Fort Casimir (now New-Amstel) to the Honorable Mr. Jacob Alrichs, Director of the 
City's Colony there, is not made, we find, as it ought to be, because the aforesaid effects 
have not been prized, even no money-value is given for them, nor is the weight of each 
bronce or iron cannon specified, so that we here can make no use of it nor ask payment 

198 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

on it and therefore we desire to recommend to your Honors to have it done there speedily 
and to send it over here by the first opportunity. 

We hope to see it continued, that as hitherto so few of our inhabitants have offered 
to go to the Colony of this City on the Southriver, but if it should happen, we see no 
reasons to prevent it by force and counteract it, not even if those (should desire to go), 
whom the Company carried over or may carry over at our expense ; it is understood 
however, that before their departure they must pay the advanced sums, which the 
Company may have to receive for their sea-passage or other disbursements. We shaU not 
inquire, because it does not concern us, what reasons or instructions the said Director 
Alrichs has had to refuse it to the colonists, whom he brought over, and others. 

The complaints, which have already been made to your Honors by our people on the 
Southriver, that the said Director Alrichs detained there and used, quite improperly and 
against our wish, the Company's cattle and negroes, will be obviated by us through a 
pertinent order as soon as it is proved satisfactorily. Your Honors will thoroughly 
inform yourselves of it and likewise we will also dispose of the smuggling possibly 
carried on by the City's ships going there, although we acknowledge, that this might 
more easily be investigated there by the Commissary, provisionally to be appointed 
thereto by your Honors, who would have to reside on behalf of the Company at Fort 
New-Amstel, to be on hand and present at the arrival of ships, and not at Fort Altena, 
the garrisoning of which can be done properly by 15 to 16 soldiers, commanded by a 
corporal or at the highest by a sergeant. Your Honors now can form an idea, that we 
have another opinion in regard to the management and government of this place, than 
your Honors, which will be communicated to j^our Honors in due time. 

DiEEOTOR Alrichs to P. Stuyvesant, requests, that a party op 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir. 

Late last night your Honor's favor of the 9'" inst. was handed to me by a savage, 
from which I learn, that my last of the 2? inst. has been duly delivered by skipper Jacob 
Jansen Huyssen. I had advised and proposed by it, that, in case some merchants or 
dealers there were inclined, to freight the galiot, Jac. Jansen Huysen master, now there, 
with tobacco or other merchandise and send her back here (to have the freight taken 
over into the ship " De Waegh") that this (should be done) without the concerned having 
occasion to pay any freight or expenses for lading and bringing over by the galiot ; but 
if they made difficulties, on account of the risk to run from there to this place, that 
then the aforesaid galiot with her freight might await there the arrival of the ship "De 
Waegh," to deliver the same to her and if she could take more freight, make another 
trip very speedily to the Manhattans, about which I refer myself to the above mentioned 
letter. The ship "De Waegh" is now unloaded and yesterday the last stone has been 

Keiv York Historical Records. 199 

received out of lier, and she is to begin to-morrow, Monday, to take in some wood and tlie 
weather continuing favorable, it is presumed that it will all be done this week and that 
at the latest in eight or nine days, being the 23* or 24'? inst. she will sail from here for the 
Sandpoint, to take there the rest of her cargo, which Capt. de Raet estimates at one 
hundred and fifty barrels or perhaps a little more : therefore I wish, that the galiot would 
be ready and at hand, to take it in directly, that the ship "De Waegh" might sail at 
the latest on the last of the month with the other ships there bound for Fatherland. 
Everything necessary for this dispatch is done here by me and the Captain and others ; in 
like manner I trust, that your Honor will by no means fail there, whereupon I rely fully, 
as your Honor has at the same time to depend upon it and recommend all possible 
dispatch ; I have had another letter for my direction, wherein the time of sailing or 
dispatching the ship has been deferred for a fortnight, which I take to mean the last of 
the month (and) whereby I am ordered peremptorily to promote it as much as feasible 
and possible, which shall also be done by me. 

As to sending the galiot to Fort Orange, it would be very useful and necessary 
according to your Honor' s information, but I should like first to have it prepared and 
used for dispatching the ship "De Waegh," unless your Honor were of opinion, that 
she would not be delayed thereby or kept by some means, for we need bricks here very 
much, at least for the chimneys, and otherwise, and some boards, to make the houses 
tight and I have no objection, that she were loaded with bricks and boards, to wit, as 
many thousands of bricks as she can conveniently take in with three or four hundred 
boards : I refer that to your Honor's discretion and commend you to God with cordial 
greetings. In New-Amstel, the 16'" Septbr 1657. 

Your Honor' s obedient 

friend and servant 

J. Aleichs 
Capt. de Raet sailed last night 
up this river as far as the Schuylkill, 
from where he is expected 
back to-day or to-morrow. I shall 
write more about the animals in 
my next. I notice, that my provisions 
i. e. peas, meat, bacon etc. will not last, 
thro' the winter, therefore I shall be 
obliged, to provide myself 
with them in the best way. 
In haste. 

To the Noble, Honorable, 
Worshipful, Wise, 
Prudent and Very Discreet 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
General in New-Netherland, 
Curagao etc, residing at the 
Manhattans in Fort New- Amsterdam. 
By a savage. 

200 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Fdvcr. 

The same to the same : is glad to hear, that the lattee ustte^tds to 
VISIT THE South eiveb ; he himself axd family are sick ; fevers 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Prudent, Very Discreet Sir. 

Sir ! Lately, on the first of this month, the ship " De Waegh" left her© and I learnt 
afterwards, that on Thursday, the fourth, she went out of the Bay to sea with a favorable 
wind, therefore I hope that she arrived there at the Sandpoint on the 5'." or at the latest 
on Saturday, the 6'?, and has been dispatched by your Honor with the lading of tobacco, 
speedily and in the shortest time, without any delay, of which I very much long to have 

On Saturday, the 6'.", I sent from here another messenger (to wit a savage) over land 
with several letters, which I hope, have reached there in time before the departure of the 
" Waegh" and are gone in the said ship to Fatherland, although now I am somewhat 
doubtful, because the savage has not been heard from again, although he promised 
solemnly and sincerely to be back here in eight or nine days and about three times eight 
days have passed ; which causes suspicion. 

In accordance with your Honor' s advice I have decided, that the galiot may make a 

trip to Fort Orange for bricks and boards. I understand from letters received 

from your Honor, that the yacht [has gone] there and that your Honor [expects] her 
return, also intends to come here with her, which visit of your Honor I expect with 
pleasui-e. In the meantime, I had here given the order, that a piece of duifels, 4 or 5 (?) 
with some grey cloth and linen should be sent by the "Waegh," this has after all 
been forgotten through the writing of letters, but it shall come by the first yacht or 
opportunity : (also because during and since that time I have been very unwell and 
have suffered a hard shock, likewise my wife, who is still very weak, together with some 
3 or 4 of my housepeople, for a fever or other disease prevails here very much, so 
that hardly a family is free from it, although nobody has died yet). In the meantime I 
request of your Honor, that you will please to accommodate them as much as possible, 
that everything may progress, whereby special kindness would be done to me. 

I further expect to be informed of the lowest price of cake (?), ryeflour, peas, meat, 
bacon, butter as well as what the price of animals is there. Capt. Kryger has been to 
Virginia, through whom, on his return, I received information, that in fourteen days or 
three weeks, some of the English would come to arrange for a few lots of animals. 
Meanwhile Meyndert Doeders, Jan Abrahams and a third man, arrived here with about 
40 cows, which being here, although they held them very high in price, and notwithstanding 
they threatened ([incited] apparently by mischiefmakers) to take them to Virginia (: about 

which I could not feel indifferently :) 

and there is no bull for them, I have, for reasons, agreed to pay for them at the rate of 
125 to 130 guilders each in merchandise ; this has been done and I have taken about 30 
heads more at option, to which we or all others, to whom they have been issued, have 
now (the first claim) ; but it is late in the season to try and find parties for high prices 
and besides we are altogether busy to do as much as possible. 

I further learn, that a horsemUl is ready there, which it was decided to bring here, 
if the owner of it had not died ; and whereas we are without sufficient breadstuffs, 

Mew York Historical Records. 2U1 

also unable to grind corn and other grains, besides doing many more things which 
necessarily must be done, I therefore would wish, that your Honor be pleased and take the 
trouble, to ascertain at once the lowest price and, if it is any way reasonable, to inform 
me of it. I intend, to send back the galiot directly, when she comes here again, with what 
shall be required for paying this and other things. With many cordial salutations to your 
Honor and my Lady, I commend your Honor and family to God's Ahnighty protection 
and remain 

Your Honor' e obedient 
Fort New-Amstel and faithful servant 

29'? Octbr. 1657. J. Alrichs. 

Since (writing) the foregoing I have [tried] in several ways, as for instance by 
dispatching first Capt. Flaman, to go to the Horekil, to release the English, who were 
shipwrecked there with two boats, but he, Flaman, has come back, without having 
accomplished anything on account of the loss of an anchor ; I then have sent Michiel 

there, who, after an absence of 14 days ransomed the remaining Englishmen from 

the Indians and brought them here together , to the number of 14. Advising 

herewith your Honor of it, I have immediately sent a notification or information to 
the Hon*''= Mr. Samuel Matthies, Grovernor of Vii'ginia, and [requested] to be advised 
speedily by a letter or order, how or what his Honor would wish to have done in this 
matter, adding my offer, that in all such or similar cases or others, (being informed) of 
Ms pleasure and demand in all equitable and feasible matters here, I am willing to serve 
hia Honor to the utmost of my power. 1 expect the answer to it every day. Surgeon 
Ludekens is also here with his wife, who say, they have friends at the Manhattans, to 
pay the expenses and clothing, since they are bare and deprived of everything. If it 
is so, that there is anything to be expected from there, I would like your Honor would 
please to give information of it by letter. Date as above. 

To the Noble, Honorable 
Worshipful, Wise, 
Very Discreet 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General of New-Netherland, 
Curagao etc, residing at the 
Manhattans in Fort Amsterdam 
By a savage. 

The same to the same ; bkicks and boards received prom Fort Orange; 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

Sir: On the 7*." inst. your Honor's favor reached me by the Galiot, in which were 
also brought over a party of bricks, made at Fort Orange and ordered thence, besides 250 
boards etc. 

I regret extremely, that the ship "De Waegh" has sailed so late from there and that 
the crew has dawdled so long and behaved so unbecomingly, partly because of the 

202 Colonial Settlernents on the Delaware River. 

opinions of the Lords-Mayors. She is a ship, which has cost about 4000 guilders the 
month, therefore not as much will be left of the freight, as it perhaps looks ; besides 
through her coming there more has happened, than I like. I recommend and dutifully 
request, to shorten or prevent such proceedings, that the growth of discontent or trouble 
may be damped or taken away. 

The six hogsheads of peas sent with six barrels of meat and salt have been delivered 
to the Commissary in Fort Altena ; the same asks for 7 or eight thousand bricks, which 
he needs and which shall be issued to him, with all I can contribute to their wants and 
to your Honor' s service, as it has already been done from time to time. I intend to have 
the galiot discharged of the bricks and all and re-ballasted in 2 or 3 days, to send her 

again to your Honor, in order to get some more provisions for fear, 

that it must also be taken in consideration, that all here must be 

bought in beavers, which it is hard to get and mostly in a for goods 

which I have not, whereby they are placed too high in price and therefore I 

must do, what I can. 

Your Honor may also expect the relieved garrison on her, whereas I offered it to the 
Commissary and Sergeant, who sent to ask for some other vessel and promised, that the 
galiot should be discharged quickly and be again dispatched there as speedUy as possible. 

For the present I need 8 or 10 barrels of bacon, 3 or four thousand lbs. of wheat-flour, 
30 schepels of gray peas, 20 sch. of barley, also 100 schepels of good oats for the horses, 
as I am but scantily provided with forage for the animals during the winter and have 
received about 70 heads of cattle from Virginia. I am going to send by the galiot some 
25 to 30 empty casks, as well as for the supply and payment of the foregoing, some cloth 
linen, duffels and blankets. Regarding your Honor's proposition, to send the galiot to 
Curasao for a month or three and considering, that it will be of no little service to get here 
a dozen or two of young mares and moreover what your Honor wanted to ship and lade in 
her, [I believe] that this could be done without prejudice, provided that the value of the 
horses or some few heads of cattle, also the freight for what is shipped going and 
returning, shall be subject to the taxation and restriction of the Lords-Mayors. We 
have to consider, on the other side, that we may be suited with these without difficulty 
or delay in agreement or condition, whereupon [expecting] speedily your Honor's letter 
of advice, I close commending your Honor to God's protection with sincere salutations 
and remain 

New-Amstel Your Honor' s obedient 

14'.'^ Novbr. 1657. and faithful servant 

J. Alrichs. 
To the Noble, Honorable, 
Worshipful, Wise, 
Very Prudent Mr. 
Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General of New-Netherland, 
Curagao etc. Residing 
at the Manhattans 
in Fort Amsterdam 

By '*!•= B.'"'«;b»o'", which God may guide. 

Mew York Historical Records. 203 

A Copy of the foregoing letter, to which is added, as follows: 

The above is a copy of my last by the " Roseboom," Reynier de Vries skipper 

day, that the same may not 

this now by the galiot 

not much else in the short time 

have to write, therefore I refer mostly to it, requesting 

only, that besides the above specified provisions three or four hundi-ed pounds of butter 
[be sent] which I calculate with the bricks and boards will come close to about 2000 
guilders, besides what the above amounts to and I shall if, upon balancing our accounts 
against each other, it is against me satisfy your Honor properly. I send now some goods 
according to enclosed invoice. The wide linen sells here for 7 schellings * the el f and 
sometimes more, the narrow Sf schellings, the cloth no 1 & 2 for 9 guilders, no 3 for 8 
guilder, wide duffels for 4 guilders, narrow 3^ the el, blankets for 14 guilders ; besides 300 
guilders in wampum, loaned to me by your Honor, which with great many other kindnesses 
received I shall now and all times gratefully remember. This makes together fully 4000 
guilders, which we shall find in account vnth the others, furthermore groats, oil and 
vinegar were sent before this to your Honor and the garrison at Altena has, since my 
arrival, been provided with bread and other victuals and materials and it was further 
promised to bear some of the expenses of the repairing of tlie house there, likewise to 
Henr. Huygen, who spoke to me of about fourhundred guilders. In short, I shall do all, 
that is possible and acknowledge the friendship and good disposition of your Honor. 
Closing herewith with sincere salutations to your Honor and Lady, I commend your 
Honor to God' s Almighty protection and remain 

Your Honor' s obedient ; 

New-Anistel and faithful friend and servant 

20'? Nov. 1657. J- Alkichs. 

Please to inform me what the cargo will about bring or is worth according to your 
Honor' s opinion. The goods are packed in [a box] marked with the seal of A[msterdam], 

2 other pieces of wide [I wish you Honor] would send me a note in answer 

about the horsemill and whether anything is to be paid 

Capt. Kryger requests very instantly to have his discharge, which appears strange to me 
and I am considering what to do. 

To the Noble, Honorable, 
Worshipful, Wise, Prudent, 
Very Discreet Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General in New-Netherland 
and over Curasao, Bonairer, etc. 
residing at the Manhattans 
in Amsterdam 

Per the the galiot New-Amstel, which God may guide. 
With a box and besides 4 packages of duffels. 

■ One old Holland schelling — 12 cents gold. — B. F. f About 2 feet. — B. F. 

204 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

The same to the same : complaixs of Captain- Ceegier, in command 
OF the city's soldiery; fugitives from Virginia come to New- 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sii- : 

I am so suddenly and unexpectedly given to understand, that bearer of this intends 
to go thither by land, that I have no time left to answer your Honor's letters, sent 
to me by the Galiot and the ketch of MonsT Allerton, your Honor shall receive the 
answer by the galiot, which could get out of the kil, where she wintered, only three 
or four days ago. She lies now at Fort Altena, to take in the walnutwood, which 
your Honor has had cut there and goes from there to Tinnekonk, to fetch some ryestraw 
(which they could not thresh before this) for the animals here and returned here, she 
will be immediately dispatched to the Manhattans, to get some springwheat and barley 
for seedcorn, of each of which I should like to have forty or fifty schepels of good grain 
as well as a last of rye or wheat-flour, unless a ship from Fatherland for this place has 
arrived, in that case I would not wish the flour, also in case most of it must be paid 
in beavers, which are hard to get here and therefore I am afraid, I may be embarrassed 
on that score for none or only few come to trade in them. Moreover, in regard 
to the goods, which I [sent] by the galiot, your Honor has written me about the 

price which have been estimated so low, that 

the greater advantage of the City 

bought by your Honor. 

Also some to skipper Jacob Jansen Huys, master of the galiot New-Amstel for about 
thi'ee-hundred boards from Fort Orange, which I needed here extremely for carpenterwork 
in the store-house and for a dwellinghouse for the Commissary, also the house in the 
Fort, in which I live, which has been raised one third for a chamber and a garret ; 
all this could not have been done conveniently without the boards. I have also 
been obliged to make a new guard-house, as the old one could not be used and 
was entii'ely decayed. Altogether, the winter has been passed under difficulties and 
carpentering, without that the most necessary has been done for want of carjDenters, 
because the City has not engaged or sent one and private people had work for themselves, 
besides that the one after the other engages them to work, which I dare not interfere 

with Capt. Kryger has again asked for his discharge from the service, after the 

return of the galiot, by which also came the Lieutenant. I have given him as answer, 
that, as the Hon*"^ General, your Honor, had been written to and informed of it, it was 
best, that the Captain should await his discharge from Fatherland and that I wished, that 
he would please to acquiesce in tliis. Meanwhile he has, at different times, when I 

requested his Honor [to come and see me] in order to speak about and other 

matters refused, mostly to Hinoyossa and Rynevelt to 

go to him in his house communicate much other things 

about the purchase of the animals about the sending the 

galiot to Curasao and others more, but he excused himself from it and refused to give an 
answer to it ; I would, however, have delayed with pleasure, what concerns his discharge. 

Kew York Historical Records. 205 

until the letter of the Lords-Mayors (had arrived) from Fatherland, but he left me no 
rest by any means, partly through the preacher, then also by his Lieutenant and further 
by the schepens, Messrs. Elmerhuyseu and Rademacher, so that I have been compelled, 
to come to the conclusion ; of which request and what follows a copy is herewith sent 
to your Honor. Time does not allow to report it now with more details and it would be 
troublesome to importune your Honor more with it. I wiU briefly add relative to the 
English from Vii'ginia, who ran away from there and stranded at Cape Hinlopen, 
whereupon a messenger was sent to your Honor by the Hon''''^ Governor, likewise as your 
Honor wrote to me in consequence, to inquire into the matter and to place them under 
guard : I have done my duty, to get them from the savages, ransoming, clothing and 
feeding them and contributing everything, among others also to a certain David Ludekens, 
whom with his wife, they being naked and needy, I have again fitted out and heljDed with 
garments ; he afterwards run away from here stealthily, without paying anything and I 
have received a letter from him from the Manhattans, where he is living somewhere 

he promises at least to [pay] a part of it such 

landlopers as he is, are not that the Governor. 

has also written and asked to be sent back 

in the interest 

of the City I request, that he be directly arrested and sent to the Hon'''" Governor of 
Virginia by first chance, in order to satisfy his Honor ; I have promised it and I depend 
upon it. 

It is reported here, that three ships have arrived there from Fatherland ; if there are 
any news, please to communicate them to me by first chance per terra or mare and 
whether anything has been heard of the City's ships or whether one of them has sailed 
with the others. Closing herewith I remain with sincere salutations from me and my 
wife to your Honor and your Lady commending you to God's Almighty protection 
New-Amstel Your Honor' s very obedient 

18'." March, 1658. and affectionate servant 

J. Aleichs. 

The same to the same : kequibes seed grain ; describes the 
administration op justice previous to his arrival ; difficulties 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Prudent, Very Discreet Sir. 

Sir : My last was of date of the 18'." of March, which I had intended to send, but as 
the dispatching of it came somewhat unexpectedly, so has it been given up as speedily and 
the trip deferred, therefore it comes here inclosed. I can moreover answer your Honor's 
favor of the 17'." of December, 1657, received by the galiot, to which I beg to say in 
reference to the merchandises, sent from here for the payment of the provisions and other 
things, that it seems that the prices there are much lower than here and that the valuation 
of them, as your Honor has had them estimated by impartial men, is somewhat short ; but 
I wHl not add anything in regard to the linen and other things, as I leave all that to youi 

206 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Honor's discretion and judgment and shall consider all, that has been done herein, as 
being well done, whereas I know and trust, that your Honor will help to arrange everything 
for the best of this Colony and that the goods of the City shall be sold to the greatest 
profit and the purchase of the other necessaries be made at the lowest price. Likewise I 
find that the transmitted provisions have been bought at fair prices and I have received 
them all in good order. I request now, that the desired 50 schepels of winter, I mean, 
spring wheat and 50 schepels of summer barley may be sent, also some cakes, about three 

or four hundred pounds, also two thousand pounds meat, if it 

can be had at fair prices 

of the Captain, 

I have therein in regard to his discharge, but he 

would not rest, until an answer was received to it, as wUl (be seen) from the enclosed 
request and apostil : he is now satisfied and I hope, that all will go well and he may 
enjoy his contentment : (there are) many petty quarrels and misunderstandings, if they 
are viewed in reality and truth, as he now keeps it up again somewhat with another, 
but all not worth repeating and spoiling the paper with and it would be vexatious to 
hear and report them to those, whom they concern and I do not wish that my pen 
make the beginning, whereas a long story is connected with it, which is of little 
importance, but I will say in a few words, that upon my arrival here, I found the 
government here to consist and be attended to by the Vice-Director or Commander, sitting 
over military delinquents with military j^ersons and over civilians with citizens as ordered 
by your Honor, to whom I upon my arrival represented and showed the changes, which 
were to be taken in consideration afterwards. They agreed, that in the customary way, 
as said before, citizens belonged under civil administration, as the City' s conditions, too, 
recommended it. I have made objections, the persons etc. appointed and nominated ]ij 
your Honor not opposing, but agreeing with the City's intentions and propositions, 
therefore I let them [act as judges] provisionally, only over little civil [cases] with which 
the Council is overcrowded 

giving and expediting the sentences for crimes, 

committed by soldiers, is understood by them, that it only concerned a soldier and that 
the Commissary had nothing to do with it. I agreed with them on this point and then 
we three sat as judges, but many and excessive licentious acts were committed by the 
soldiers, which were then let oif with lenient punishment and the smallest fine was charged 
back to me from that side, which ought not to have been done ; that I was a tyrant over 
the soldiers, when I sometimes admonished them, that the square of the fort should be 
swept and cleaned on Sundays ; 1 received then as answer, given by the Corporal, in the 
presence of many, that order must be issued from higher authority ; I told the Captain 
of it, who excused the soldiers. I went 3 or 4 times for 3 or 4 miles into the country, 
to see it surveyed and took 2 or 3 soldiers with me, without their being ordered by 
the Sergeant or Corporal ; this has been taken so iU and exaggerated so much that I 
command the soldiers, that it cannot be told and whenever I have them to work for me I 
pay one daler * the day, as we have together resolved, that the soldiers should be paid 

* About 2 guilders = 70 cents. — Tr. 

Kew York Historical Records. 207 

for labor by tlie day. After tliis I have never wanted to take soldiers with me, even 
though I went to Port Christina or Tinnekonk ; it is done to prevent their displeasure 

and to consider it, he refused my offer 

[Marginal note : which in cases or occasions of urgency would have had very bad consequences, as he could not 
know beforehand, what I had to say or of what importance the case might be and what would have to be done. I 
have been in the fort by day and by night, without being able to give any order to the soldiers, (so he has ordered, 
which is unreasonable). He would have no guards posted on the ramparts during the winter, neither by day nor 
during the night, of which he did neither inform me nor the Lieutenant, nor would he order any guards to be placed 
there ; this was not without danger for me and others ; this has been changed since his discharge, so that now two 
soldiers are on guard on the ramparts at night and one during the day in the fort. All this and much more was not 
observed by the Captain] 

and thought it not worth while to act upon it, nor would he give proper answers to those, 
whom I sent to him ; also the Lieutenant and the Commissary themselves must attest, 
that I have humbled myself before him in most and the smallest matters and offered, yea 
requested through them, that we should understand each other in all reasonableness ; 
he refused it to them and me ; I do not know what induced him to say or it has 
escaped him accidentally, that he could easily get more salary and higher rank or that 
it was offered to him or something similar, so that he therefore thought very little of 
this place. 

As to the distribution of the farm lots to each, I have hardly found room thereto, so 
that I had to take them, as they are reported in the decision on the request of Jacob 
Elders. After that I referred the surveying of the lots to Hudde, who is half a surveyor, 
with Fabryk Spelen, now deceased, who, as I at first, had it done by drawing lots for the 
lands to be given out. Finally he presented with much urgency a request, which has been 
considered, resolved and decided with the Lieutenant and Commissary, as appears from 
the same. He sent us his thanks through A. Hudde, who delivered it to his Honor. I 
shall close here with it, in order not to trouble your Honor with such shabby matters. 
Nevertheless, I [find] it proper, now, that it is so, 

Referring to the prices of some needed provisions, which are not in the store-house, is 
too difficult to state a fixed and fair price for them, and it will be easier done, when we 
get a greater abundance of stores, which so far are very scarce, besides that there are also 
many losses caused to my great regret the death of animals. 

I have communicated to the Lieutenant and Commissary the transmitted ordinances 
and other matters and done what is proper, except in regard to the advertisement ; * in 
regard to that I send enclosed herewith a document concerning it, which informs 
everybody there, who has any mortgages on or transfers of any lots, grounds, houses or 
lands, situate here, that he has to exhibit such papers to the Secretary here within three 
months' time. I have delivered the barrel of pork, weighing 189 lbs. net, to Commissary 
Rekter for the garrison of Altena, as your Honor has desired it. I have offered the 
desired linen, which was to be delivered to Hendric Huygen, but he did not need it, 
therefore this remains stUl on hand. 

* This refers to an ordinance, annulling all fraudulent sales of mortgaged lands on the Southriver, for which see 
Laws of Ncw-Nctherland, p. 331.— B. F. 

208 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

There arrived here, thanks be to God ! day before yesterday, Wednesday the 27'?", 
the " Gouden Sonne," * a large ship witli [passengers] and merchandises 

I very respectfully request, that it may please your Honor to do me the kindness and 
friendship and pay Joannis de Peijster for the two pieces of red duffels, for which the 
same has contracted with your Honor. 

I would also see with pleasure, that your Honor would make a settlement with 
skipper Jacob Jansen Huys, from whom I bought some Fort Orange boards for the 
carpenterwork in the storehouse and the buildings in the fort, because they have not yet 
begun the trade in beavers and I would not Like to give anybody cause for complaining, 
that he had not promptly received his pay, except for the reason of not being able, as 
one is prevented to give, when very little comes of it during the time of trading. 

I have also to pay the Attorney Schelluyn for salary, earned by him in the suit 
against Dirck Cornelissen Heunich, skipper of the ship Prins Maurits, but it seems, 
that the expenses ought to be paid out of the deposited sum, the proceeds of the sale 
of the goods, unless your Honor understood, that we should not consider this. I 
have also been written to by my principals, that the aforesaid deposit may be taken 
up by the aforesaid Dii-ck Cornelissen Heunich or his order, which serves for our 
directions, and to inform of it your Honor, as I find myself ordered ; only to deduct, 
what has been paid on account to the said Attorney by the Hon""^ Burgomaster Allard 

I learn from your Honor' s letter, dated the 28'? of January, arrived with the ketch of 
AUerton, concerning the sending the galiot [to Curasao], to which I was inclined 

to fetch (it) to and from the Manhattans for the benefit of 

the inhabitants of this Colony, so that now, after having held a consultation about it 
with the Hon*"' Councillor, I find that I cannot consent to let the galiot make a voyage 
to Curagao. 

The prescribed day of fasting, prayer and thanksgiving has been observed here on 
the 13'? of March, also on tlie following day with a sermon, to celebrate it, by the preacher 
Melius, who, for that purpose was fetched to Altena by the Commissary : which was done. 

I am however afraid of the scarcity of provisions here, therefore please to buy at the 
first opportunity one hundred schepels of white peas and one hundred schepels of gray 
peas, which I would like to have from time to time, as there is room in the galiot and 
without causing delay on account of it, likewise one or two tons of flour with two 
or three hundred pounds of butter. Please return barley or wheat, as his Honor 
pleases, for the received mill, which was loaned by the Hon'"° Burgomaster Oloff 

Pieces of black walnut are also shipped in the galiot by the Commissary of 

the garrison in Fort Altena, which have been cut about there or ordered by him to be cut. 
In case your Honor desu-es more of it in future, the galiot going there has usually plenty 
room for your Honor' s service. Closing herewith I will pray to God, with my dutif uj 

* The Golden Sun. 

iN'ew York Historical Records. 


respects and cordial salutations, to keep your Honor, Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Prudent Sir, in continuous health and prosperity. In New Amste'l, the (30*) of 
March 1658. 

Your Honor's obedient 

I send herewith the weight of 
the bacon and meat [sent] 

and received by the 

given me according 

5 casks of fresh meat & 

6 casks of bacon with 

2 other casks of meat, which 
were taken into the galiot from 
a ketch, without weighing. 

Also a letter of the Hon'*'^ 
Commissioners and Directors. 

If a ship has sailed please . . . 

and faithful servant 

J. Alkicds. 

To the Noble, Honorable, 
Worshipful, Wise and 
Very Prudent Mr. 
Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General of New-Netherland, 
Curasao, Bonaire, Aruba, etc. 
residing in New-Netherland, 
that is to say on the Manhattans 

in New- Amsterdam. 

Minute of Council approving the departure of the Director- 
General TO THE South river. 
20'? of April (1658). 

In Council the Noble Hon"" Director- General proposes and offers for consideration 
the necessary redress of the Hon*'" Company's aifairs on the South-river of New- 
Netherland and the arrangements needed which ought to be made there, that the rights 
of the Company there might be properly maintained and taken care of, especially in 
collecting and receiving the customs on goods imported as well as exported, as last 
year and again now he himself has been advised by letters fi-om qualified parties there, 
who are weU intentioned towards the Hon"'" Company, of the great frauds and 
encroachments, which the Company has to suffer there in the customs, as a great quantity 
of peltries have been shipped, but not cleared, as they ought to ; for which reason now 
complaints are made by the merchants here and also on the Southriver, who pay the 
Hon"'" Company's dues, that they cannot compete with their goods against those, on which 

210 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

no import-duties are paid ; further, that several of the inhabitants of the Colony of 
New-Amstel have requested, as appears by their letter, to be allowed to move into the 
district of the Hon*"' Company near Fort Altena and establish plantations there ; all these 
matters, as well as some necessary arrangements to be made among and regarding the 
Swedes, cannot well be attended to by a letter, therefore it was deemed necessary by the 
Noble Hon"'* Director-General, to go there himself with one of the gentlemen of the Council 
either across country or by sea, as it may be most convenient, to give directions for the 
good and necessary settlement of the foregoing and other affairs of the Company there. 
After serious consideration and deliberation by Director-General and Council of the 
proposition of the Hon"^" Director-General and of the written and verbal reports, which 
are now and then made in regard to the Company's affairs on the Southriver by different 
persons, Director-General and Council conclude, that the journey of the Hon*'*' General to 
the Southriver is necessary and that, as far as Director-General and Council are able to 
comprehend and foresee it, it will be for the special service and advantage of the Company, 
as well as the peace and greater harmony of its subjects there. In view hereof Director- 
General and Council unanimously judge expedient the immediate departure of the Hon^'^ 
General and his return thence as quick after having accomplished everything, as may be 
possible and it is resolved, that Mr. Pieter Tonneman go there with his Honor, the 
Director-General. Done at a meeting of Director- General and Council, the 20'? of AprO 


P. Stuyvesant, 


Pieter Tonneman, 
J. DE Deckeee, 1658. 

Petition of Joost Andriaensen & Co. fob leave to build a saw and 
GRIST mill at Turtle falls, on the South river, and order 


To the Noble, Honorable Director-General of New-Netherland, etc. 

Show with due reverence Joost Adriaensen and companions, that they are willing to 
erect a saw and grist-mill below the Turtle' s falls, for which the place and some land 
belonging to it has been granted to them by the provisional Commissary of the Hon'''® 
W. I. Company subject to your Honor's approval ; therefore the petitioners respectfully 
ask, that your Honor will please to approve the same and issue letters-patent for it. 

WMch doing etc. etc. 

(Signed) Joost Adriaensen and Comp. 

the 30'!" of April 1658. 

The following decision was made by the Hon*'^ General, in presence of the Hon"'® Mr. 
Tonneman at the Southriver, on the foregoing petition : 

The request is granted, provided that they shall not ask more for the grinding of 
grain, than is paid at the Hon*'" Company's gristmill. On the 6'? of May 1658. 

JVew York Historical Records. 211 

Petition op the Swedish magistrates at Tinicum (Pa.) for certain 


THE Swedes. 

Copy. The Sheriff and Members of the CouncU humbly request of the Noble, 
Honorable General, now here present, a favorable decision on the 
subjoined petition : 

1. That we may be provided with proper instructions, to perform equitably the 
duties entrusted to us. 

2. That for their execution we may have a Court-messenger. 

3. When it is necessary, that we may have free access to the Commander at Fort 
Altena, to get assistance from the soldiers in cases of emergency. 

4. That an order be made, that nobody shall leave these boundaries without 
knowledge of the magistrates, much less, that the servant-man or woman of one, when 
they leave or run away without their master's or mistress' permission, shall be concealed 
by the other. Tinnakungk, 8'? of May 1658. (It was signed) 

The Hon*"^ General's humble subjects 

Gregorius van Dyck, Olofl Stire, Matys Hanson, Pieter Rambo, Pieter Kaik. 

The foregoing written petition having been taken up, it was found to be a just 
demand ; therefore the petitioners are herewith promised and assured, that upon the first 
opportunity a proper instruction shall be sent to them, to make use of in the course of 
their administration of justice and for the better execution of their duties, as far as 

On the second point it was deemed necessary, that for making summons, arrests and 
the carrying out of sentences, the Sheriff and Commissaries be supported and served by 
a provost, who as Court-messenger shall at the same time serve summons jDursuant to the 
instruction, to be sent there by the first opportunity offering. 

Upon the third it was decided and at the same time orders given to the provisional 
Commissary, that, if the Commissaries should consider it necessary and the Sheriff ask 
it, he shall assist him in the execution of his duties and support and aid him with the 
Hon'^'^Company's military. 

In regard to the fourth and last point, an order was before this issued by a placat 
of the Director-General and Council, of which a copy shall be sent to the petitioners by 
the first opportunity ; in the meantime it is decided and ordered, that nobody shall be 
allowed to leave without previous knowledge of the Commissaries and further that 
thereto, as it is proper, the consent of the Director-General and Council shall first be 
asked and obtained, signed by their Secretary, as it is customary in the province of 
New-Netherland and if some one of the Swedish nation should wish to leave or already 
have left the district, the Sheriff is hereby ordered and directed to serve the same with an 
order to return and in case of refusal to proceed against him either by arrest or by 
detention, as it may be required and to give a written report of the proceedings to the 
Director-General and Council in due time. 

Finally and for the present lastly, whereas for the maintenance of the above- 
mentioned necessary arrangements, that is the salaries of the Sheriff, Commissaries 

212 Colonial Settlernents on the Delaware River. 

provost and other officers of higher and lower grade, as well as for other public concerns, 
by and by some subsidies shall be needed, it is recommended to the Sheriff and 
Commissaries to think and examine, where the same can be found and raised to the least 
burden of the Swedish nation, our good and faithful subjects, to whom we hereby assure 
and promise our favour and aU possible assistance, as if they were our own nation, 
pursuant to the oath, made before or still to be taken by those, who may not have 
taken it. 

Follows the oath, taken by the Swedish nation, on the Southriver : 
We promise and swear in the presence of Almighty God, that we will be and remain 
loyal and faithful to their Noble High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General of the 
United Netherlands, the Noble Lords-Directors of the General Privileged West-India 
Company, also to their Honorable Du-ector- General, already appointed or in future to be 
appointed ; that we will obey and respect and honor them, as it becomes honest and 
good subjects, as long as we continue in this province of New-Netherland. 
So truly help us God Almighty ! 

Report of Dikectok Stutvesant on the affairs at the Delaware. 
15'? of May 1658 Wednesday. 

In Council present the Hon''"' Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant, the Hon*"'" 

Members of the Council Nicasius de Sille, Pieter Tonueman, and J. de 


His Honor, the Director-General having returned to the Manhattans from the 

Southriver on Monday, the 15'." inst, about noon, reports: that his Honor has found 

many things at the Southriver not in such a condition, as they ought to be, especially 

regarding the smuggling and frauds in the Company's customs, duties on goods, sent 

there fi-om Holland, as there were many goods, not stamped with the Hon"'* Company's 

mark, discharged from the last arrived ships, without anything having been done about 

it, further that from the ship " de Waagh " a case with guns had been unloaded, shipped 

by the brother of Domine Welius, which muskets have been distributed there to the 

community by Mr. Alrichs. 

2. That it has appeared very strange to his Honor, that the oath, which Mr. Alrichs 
administered to new-comers, entirely omitted mention of the Lords-Directors and the 
Director-General and Council of New-Netherland ; after the Hon'''* General had spoken 
to him about it, Mr. Alrichs promised to alter it and requested, that no mention be made 
of it to the Lords-Burgomasters. 

3. That one Van der As, as well as one N. Ringh had complained about a sentence 
pronounced against them, while they intended to appeal and asking the Secretary there, 
to take notice of the appeal, this was refused by the Secretary. 

4. That the Swedish nation had asked, after taking the oath, that it might be allowed 
and granted them, not to be obliged to take sides, if any troubles should arise between 
the Crown of Sweden and our State at home ; which was agreed to by the Hon"'* General, 

Kew York Historical Records. 213 

Further that his Honor had laid out near Fort Altena some lots, the single ones at 
30 feet, the double ones at 60 feet breadth, and one hundred feet deep, under condition, 
that on the double ones two dwellings should be built and if the first owners or occupants 
of the aforesaid lots should fail to build on them, they shall by order of Director-General 
and Council be transferred to others, who are more ready to build, provided that the 
first owners may demand one hundred guilders and not more for fencing and other 
expenditures thereon. 

There have also been chosen ofiicers of the Swedish nation on the Southriver 

Captain : Swens Schoete 
Lieutenant : Andries d'Albo 
Ensign : Jacob Swenske 

Thus reported by the Hon'''° Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant to the Council at 
Fort Amsterdam on the 15'." of May 1658. 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

Sir: I hope that after your Honor's departure from here, the home-journey has 
been comfortable and speedy and that your Honor's family has been found in good 
health. I further respectfully ask and trust, that your Honor will please to excuse and 
think well of the poor reception and small entertainment, to which we, in our inconvenient 
position and against our will, could not contribute any more, requesting your Honor to 
please and take the good heart and will for the deed ; when we are more and better in 
position here, we shall consider it our duty and obligation, to accomplish more. 

Moreover a Swede, who has accompanied your Honor on the journey, has reported 
to me, that your Honor had been informed, that a ship had arrived from Curasao. I 
request, if any letters or anything directed to me have come, to let them get here at once 
by occasion, that I may answer to the letters. 

If the ship "de Wasbleek" has, as I hope, arrived, that the goods sent in her to 
divers parties of this place be forwarded at once by the galiot or otherwise, according 
to each owner' s order and shipped to be brought hither : there is also a case for me ; 
what there is demanded for average on it, please to settle for me, I shall pay it with 
thanks. The freight was agreed upon 

of the galiot a last or two of flour against proper payment, might be in store and your 
Honor found it advisable, to send a vessel to this place and elsewhere, then I would 
wish, that the usual rate be fixed upon the freight at the lowest price. 

Please let the Hon''''' Secretary van Ruyven know, that the proclamation and 
ordinances, sent here for a few years hitherto and published for the direction and as laws 
or orders of this country, are to be sent now to the Commissary Rynevelt. 

In regard to cattle : if , as I discussed it with your Honor, 5 or 6 pairs of good 

214 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

draught-oxen could be bought at fair prices, they are to be sent over by land or water, 
as your Honor deems fit. 

If the ship "de Wasbleek" has arrived, we shall rejoice after much longing, because 
several people here expect goods by her. 

Of the departure of any vessels from there for Fatherland, if it should happen before 
the middle of June, please to inform me by an express messenger over land or by the 
first chance by water, to govern myself accordingly. 

I send herewith empty casks for the flour and peas, to rise them at leisure, as 

they are required. 

Pierre Crosson's account shall be sent at once, as soon as the Commissary has 
returned home. 

Jan van der Bosch goes over, to repair clocks and watches or 

your Honor may please to order to be done and to 

that end two or three months' time 

granted to remain there. 

The wife of Sergeant goes also over 

Closing I ask God, to bless your Honor' s government, Noble, Honorable, Wise, Prudent 
Sir and to continue your Honor and family in continuous health and prosperity and remain 
Wew-Amstel Your Honor's obedient and very 

17*? of May 1658 faithful servant 

J. Alrichs. 
To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Very Prudent Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director- General of New-Netherland, 
Curasao, Bonaire, Aruba etc residing 
at Fort Amsterdam 

on the Manhattans. 
By skipper Jacob Jansen Huys, 
whom God may guide. 

The Directors to P. Stuyvesant (extract). The smuggling on the 
Delaware must be stopped. 20™ Mat 1658. 

The smuggling, carried on, as your Honors presume, among the Colonists and other 
trades people, who have come over in the ships of the City, cannot better nor more 
properly be stopped and looked after, according to our opinion, than by the Commissary, 
who on behalf of the Company resides or should reside in the City's Colony and who, we 
think, must necessarily have also the rank of Auditor and consequently share in all 
arrested and confiscated goods, according to custom, to animate and encourage him in his 
duties : hereby, we trust, the smuggling wiU be greatly prevented and stopped, especially 
if an honest and clever person is appointed to it : your Honors are hereby authorize^ to 
look about for one and give him such instructions as shall be necessary. 

New York Historical Records. 215 

Extract feom the register of secret resolutions, taken b? the 


Amsterdam, on 

Monday, the 27*.'^ of May 1658. 

By the letters received by the Hon''''' Commissioners and Directors of the City's Colony 
at the Sonth-River of New-Netherland it has been found, that two boats with fourteen 
Englishmen came to the neighborhood of Cape Hinlopen, who there were attacked by the 
savages and again ransomed by Director Alrichs and who arrived in the City's Colony 
and were sheltered there, on which account it is to be feared, in case the same English 
came there to remain or to increase in numbers, that the nation, which at present, though 
without sufficient reasons lays claim upon the South- River or neighboring territory, may 
try to intrude there and by one chance or the other, usurpate the said places, as it has 
been done on the side of New-England : therefore it has been found good and agreed, 
that to prevent this, the Director-General Stuyvesant shall be written to, to endeavor, 
take care and instruct Director Alrichs, that the said persons, who are called fugitives, 
as they have left (Virginia) without the consent and written passport of their Governor 
in Virginia, be sent back again or if they should be free people, to get rid of them in 
the most proper and convenient manner (without however giving them offense) and 
never and under no circumstances to receive again any one of the English nation, much 
less give them inducements for their coming. 

Agrees with the aforesaid secret 

S. van Seventer. 

The Directors to P. Stuyvesant : the Horekil country to be 


Since our last of the 20'? of last month, sent by the ship " de Moesman," of which 
we enclose a copy, the Honorable Commissioners for the management of the City's Colony 
in New-Netherland have informed us, that their Noble Worships, the Lords-Burgomasters 
were desirous of acquiring the country, situate on the bay of the Southriver on its western 
side (where for the safety of incoming ships some buoys ought to be placed as danger 
signals) and called the Horekil. They request us therefore, that the aforesaid tract of 
land from Cape Henlopen to the Boomtiens Hoeck should be purchased by our orders 
and then be conveyed to their Director there, as they intend to place there a suitable 
fortification for the protection of those places. As we have thought, that this will be of 
advantage to the Company and their possessions there, we have resolved to order and 
direct your Honors hereby, to acquire the aforesaid country immediately and without 
delay and to purchase it from the lawful owners, if it should not have been done before, 
under properly executed deeds and then to re-convey it there to the Director of the said 
Colony. No time is to be lost herein, but speed is necessary in order to anticipate thereby 
other nations, especially our English neighbors, whom we suspect of having cast their 

216 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

eyes upon these places, for we have heard, that lately two boats with English people 
from Virginia have been at Cape Henlopen ; they stranded there, however, and were 
taken prisoners by the savages, but were ransomed again by the said Director Alrichs, 
as they pretended to be fugitives, perhaps to free their Governor from the suspicion, that 
he had any knowledge of it. And as we understand also, that the said Director Alrichs 
has consented to the coming over from there of some English families and as we cannot 
expect anything good from this nation, considering their insufferable proceedings in the 
past (not only their invasion of our indisputable territories and possessions at the North, 
but also the arrogant audaciousness and faithlessness of those even, who are under our 
jurisdiction and allegiance), we cannot omit to recommend hereby to your Honors most 
earnestly, not only to inform yourselves thoroughly of the number of the English families 
arrived there, but also to communicate in a friendly way to the said Director Alrichs the 
dangerous consequences of this affair, agreeably to the enclosed extract of our resolutions 
and then to report to us in regard to the one and the other, so that we may know, what 
occurs in this direction from time to time and may do, what we deem necessary. 

The same to the same (extract): the ship "Gtjlde Metjlen" has 
received permission to sail directly to the delaware, without 
touching at the manhattans. 19''.° of june 1658. 

As Barent Jochemsen, skipper of the ship "De Guide Meulen" (mostly freighted 
on behalf of this City to carry over colonists and other free people) intends to go directly 
from here to the Southriver and therefore has asked for our permission thereto, we have 
not been wUling to refuse it this time for reasons, so that in case he should not first call 
with his ship at the Manhattans, as the clause of the contract, made with such private 
skippers, directs, he shall not therefore be molested or troubled there, which we desire 
to communicate to your Honors for your government. 

Jacob Alrichs to Director Stutvesant : cattle purchased on the 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

Upon the return of the Hon*'° Commissary and the preacher I learned with pleasure 
of your Honor's good journey from here, but heard also from them, that your Honor 
has been again from home and gone to the Esopus on account of a murder by the 
savages, committed against one of the Christians there ; I hope, that through your 
Honor's order and arrival there such proceedings were so aiTanged, that they were 
stopped in their bad undertaking and that no more tumults, uproars or sedition will be 
stirred up by the savages, which the good God may give. 

Kew York Historical Records. 217 

I have further heard from the Hon*''' Commissary, that your Honor has bought with 
him for account of the City on the great plain before Hemstede 12 heads of oxen and two 
more at option, all for 1500 guUders, further from Michael Jansen two di'aught-oxen, 
six cows with 7 calves, three oxen of three years, one bull of 3 years, three heifers of 2 
years, one two-years old ox, 4 yearlings, to wit 2 bullocks and two heifers, altogether 19 
heads of cattle and 7 calves for 1330 guilders and that your Honor would advance tliis 
sum for account of the City, on condition, that upon arrival of the first ship, it should be 
paid back properly with merchandises at a reasonable price, which shall be done 
promptly. I send therefore for the purpose of getting the aforesaid animals and 

drive them here overland Jean .' holte and Pr. Enloos, who could [find] 

and hu-e there a guide knowing the road to [this place], either a savage or a [reliable 

white man], who is suitable and then one or two more and not more than 

is necessary to bring the said cattle to this place. [As] the calves may 

not well be [diiven this long] distance, they could be sent over in the galiot of skipper 
Jacob, about which your Honor will please to give orders according to judgment. We 
have besides occasion for many things, one hundred schepels of wheat or rye flour or 
perhaps one hirndred and fifty, as with fifty more it can not be too much and as there 
is mostly wheat there and the difference in price is small, I expect wheat flour, of course 
as much as can conveniently be ground and in case the galiot should have to wait long or 
for several days for the grinding, part may be sent unground, because we shall now soon 
have a horsemill ready. I have lately sent by a savage (about three weeks ago) letters 
over land, to be forwarded to the Lords-Mayors in Fatherland, I hope they got there safely 
and have been given to one of the departing skippers for delivery, also that the letters 
to Mr. Beck have gone to Curasao ; it would be agreeable to me to hear of it. The ship 
" de vergulde Sonne " lies here ready to sail and will leave to-morrow. Closing herewith 
Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir, I will ask God to keep yoior 
Honor and Lady with the children in his Almighty protection and preserve (you) in 
long-during health. In New-Amstel, the 26'." June 1658. 

Your Honor's obedient and 
faithful servant 
Please to inform or J. Albichs. 

advise me by a note, 
how matters stand 
with the ship "de Was- 
bleek," whether she has 
arrived in safety 

Sir : I should not wonder, if on account of haste and manyfold occupations I had 
omitted in this foregoing letter to submit to your Honor' s decision anything in regard 
to the issue of building lots and grounds, also farmlands and animals, also concerning 
the high prices of the commodities, which are given out here. 

In regard to the distributions of lots : first at the time of my arrival, about eight days 

218 Colonial Settlements on the Delawctre River. 

or more passed, before I could make progress in it, because there was scarcely one lot, 
whicli could be disposed of, as one or the other or more laid claim to it ; for further 
reasons and difficulties I refer to the decision on the petition of Jacob Elders, sent 
herewith, and henceforth they were distributed by drawing lots. Upon the arrival of 
the ship "De "Waegh" I let Fabryk Spelen, now deceased, and Hudde give out all by 
lottery also. Upon and since my arrival Lieutenant Jniosa has been present at the 
distribution and the drawings, and now at the arrival of the ship "de Sonne" the 
distribution and disposition of the lots has been also referred to him, the Secretary and 
Schepen Kademan and accepted by him. Hudde with a work -master, called Briant has 
last June surveyed for all and every one, colonists, soldiers and officers, as much as each 
has asked and signed for : (evidence, each man's signature in my keeping). And now 
the men who wanted one hundred morgens ; they were granted without the least objection 

the people to keep and handle them and there are not many here, 

nobody hardly had made a house to live in and many are still engaged with it, because 
there were only 4 or hardly 5 carpenters here, whom I mostly have been obliged to engage 
and they were at the best bunglers or men of little capacity, who had to spend twice 
as much time at their work, and then it is nothing especially good ; those who have no 
means, must do the work alone and meet with disappointment and besides it takes a long 
time. Sickness and hot fevers prevailing here have kept us back badly and made many 
pining. There was no stable nor hay ready ; yet, when some English cattle came from 
Vii'ginia, they have been bought contrary to my intention and judgement ; when I asked 
advice of the Captain, he would not say anything about it, neither declare himself nor 
come, except I sent the Lieutenant and the Commissary there, he would not listen nor 
give an answer. Likewise in many more cases, as the not guarding and securing the fort, 
I have been obliged to abide with it and done so for peace's sake : it is vdth all that not 
excusable, but I had to suffer, that is to say, to let it pass, that he spoke of me 
disrespectfully and called me names etc. In regard to the high charges for goods from 
the storehouse : they are given and charged to the soldiers against theii" monthly pay at 
such prices as has been fixed by the Lords-Mayors, and the colonists and other free 
people [do not pay] a stiver [less] 

God keep you. 

Your Honor' s obedient 

J. Aleichs. 
To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Yery Prudent Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General in New-Netherland, 
Curasao, Bonaire, Aruba etc. 
residing at the Manhattans 
in Amsterdam in New- 

Per galiot New-Amstel, Jacob Jansen Huys, skipper, whom God may protect. 

Xew York Historical Records. 219 

William Beekman appointed Commissary op the West-Inoia 
Company at the Delaware. 30™ of July. 

Whereas the service of the Company urgently requires, that a suitable person be 
engaged and sent as Commissary to the Southriver, and considering the qualifications and 
good conduct of S' Willem Beeckman, a citizen and old inhabitant here, the same is 
engaged, commissioned and appointed as such, for which the same salary and emoluments 
is allowed him, as the former Commissary, Jacquet, has received there, to wit fifty 
guilders per month and 200 guilders annually for commutation of rations. It is resolved, 
to send the same there with the proper commission and instruction by the first suitable 
opportunity. Date as above, 

28'." of October, Monday, 1658. 
Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of their Noble High-Mightinesses, the Lords States- 
General of the United Netherlands and the Lords-Directors of the Incorporated West 
India Company, Director-General of New-Netherland, Cura(;ao, Bonayro, Aruba and the 
dependencies thereof, with the Honorable Council, to All, who shall read or hear this read 
Greeting : Whereas, for the administration and promotion of the affairs of the Hon*"* 
Company and ours on the Southriver of New-Netherland and the dependencies thereof, 
we needed a capable and experienced man, to command there, in our absence, as 
Commissary and Vice-Director and order every thing to the greatest advantage and 
benefit of the Company, therefore, trusting to the ability, piety and experience of Willem 
Beeckman, late Scheepen and Elder of the city of Amsterdam in New-Netherland, we 
have commissioned and appointed the same, as we hereby commission and appoint him 
our Commissary and Vice-Director, in our absence there to attend to the safety of the 
country, fort, military and free men, being already there on behalf of the Hon*"'" Company 
or to be sent thither hereafter and to keep and make, in our name, good order, to 
administer law and justice to citizens and soldiers under his orders, to the best of his 
knowledge, to do further everything for the service of the aforesaid Incorporated W. I. 
Company, which according to the duties of his office under the instructions given to him or 
hereafter to be given a good and faithful Commissary and Vice-Director is bound to do and 
all this under the oath of fidelity, to be taken before us. Which having been taken, 
we desire, direct and order all and everybody, whom this concerns, either officers of the 
Company or free men, especially the present provisional Commissary to receive, to 
acknowledge, to respect and to obey the said Willem Beeckman as our Commissary and 
Vice-Director and each, as far as he is concerned, to show him all favor and give him all 
help and assistance in the execution of his duties, whereas we have thus considered 
it necessary for the service of the Company and the advancement of this province. Thus 
done and given at the meeting of the Hon"'* Director-General and Council of New- 
Netherland, held at Fort Amsterdam, the XXVIII S""'' xvi'= lviii. 

By a majority of votes, such a salary and commutation of rations is allowed to the 
said Willem Beeckman for his future services, as the former Commissary Jean Paul 
Jacquet has had pursuant to the resolution made on the 30'" of July. Date as above 

220 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

On the 28'.'' day of October 1658 the following oath was taken by Willem Beekman 
before the Noble Hon*'" Director General in Council. 

I promise and swear in the presence of Almighty God, that I will be true and faithful 
to their Noble High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General of the United Netherlands, 
the Noble Lords-Directors of the Incorporated West-India Company and their Dh-ector- 
General and Council for New-Netherland, now appointed or hereafter to be appointed, that 
I will administer true law and justice, that I will maintain and as much as is in my power 
promote the Reformed religion, as the same is taught and preached in the Fatherland and 
here, conform to God's word and the Synod of Dortrecht, that I will take care, to the 
best of my ability, of the safety of the place and further, according to the instructions 
now given or hereafter to be given will promote the service of the Company and the 
welfare of the land and do, to the utmost of my powers, what a good and faithful 
Commissary and Vice-Director ought to do. So help me God Almighty. 

In my presence 

C. V. RuYVEKT, Secretary 

Instructions for Willem Beeckman, Commissary and Vice-Director 


Arrived at the Southriver he shall for the present, as the Company has not reserved 
a house or a lot in the Colony, and provisionally take his quarters in the buildings in 
Fort Altena, but since he must reside frequently in or near New-Amstel, especially upon 
the arrival and discharging of ships, he shall on the first opportunity look about for a 
suitable room or house there and try to rent the same for the term of one year at a 
reasonable price, to be charged to the Company. 


Upon the arrival of City' s or other ships, yachts or vessels, of whatever nation they 
may be, he shall endeavour always to be at or near Fort New-Amstel in time and before 
their landing or at least before their breaking cargo, that he may closely watch the cargo 
and the unloading and by no means is he to allow, that any merchandises or goods shall 
be unloaded or put on board the ships or loaded, unless they have been previously 
inspected by him and he is satisfied, that the lawful dues thereon have been paid in the 
Fatherland or are to be paid here at the Custom's oflice of the Company, so that the 
Company may not be defrauded of her revenues. 

In order that this may be carried out more effectively and all smuggling prevented, 
he shall place a guard of the Hon""' Company' s military either under his own command 
or under a sergeant or other suitable officer of the Company on board of such ships, 
barks or yachts, while they discharge and load. 

Upon discovery and seizure of any contraband goods, he shall seize or arrest them in 
the quality of Auditor, conform to the published placats of the Director-General and 

Kew YoTh Historical Records. 221 

Council of New-Netherland and provisionally, until further orders, institute legal 
proceedings against the smugglers and contraliandists before the City's Director and 
Council there, for whose judgment and sentence he shall wait. If thereby he shall find 
himself slighted as regards the privileges and monopolies of the Company and its supreme 
representatives here (whom he must always sustain with respect in the highest regard), 
in such a case he shall have permission to appeal, as it is proper, from the sentence 

From all smuggled and confiscated goods and merchandises, discovered, seized and 
proceeded against by his industry and diligence as well of the mulcts and fines imposed 
he shaU have and enjoy his proper share and part agreeable to the judgment and 
discretion of the Director-General and Council : to this end he shall keep the smuggled 
and confiscated goods in safe storage until such time and opportunity, that he can send 
them here or according to circumstances give advice and information thereof to the 
Director-General and Council. 

He shall further have at the said Southriver of New-Netherland, except in the district 
of the Colony of New-Amstel, provisionally highest authority over the Hon"'^ Company's 
officers (who under all possible circumstances shall assist him in carrying out this 
instruction), also over the free men of whatever nation they may be ; he shall keep the 
former in good order and discipline and maintain and exercise among the others good 
law and justice to the best of his knowledge, as well in civil as in military cases, also in 
criminal cases of minor degree and this pursuant to the instructions formerly given either 
to the former Commissary or to the Swedish nation, as far as they are concerned in the 
legal action. These instructions wiU be amplified according to circumstances and on 
his further advice, as the situation may require it, until which time he shall for the 
present employ for the administration of justice the Sheriif and Commissaries appointed 
before this for the Swedish nation. 

Whereas the Noble Lords-Directors have been pleased upon the further request of 
the Commissioners to enlarge the Colony of the City of Amsterdam and grant to it the land 
from Boompjes Hoeck southward to Cape Henlopen and in consequence have authorized 
and ordered us to acquire the aforesaid territory by purchase from the lawful owners, 
he is especially recommended and directed to inform himself, with the advice and 
knowledge of Mr. Jacob Alrichs, or whomever he may want to qualify thereto, who are 
the lawful owners of the aforesaid territory and to hear, what their claims and demands 
for the same may be, and, if he finds them reasonable, to make an agreement with them 
or else make a report to us about it ; if, however, the said Mr. Ali'ichs should be inclined 
and have an opportunity to build some fortifications or erect some buildings near Cape 
Henlopen or on the HorekU before winter, then he is specially authorized and directed 
to buy the land necessary thereto, for which proper letters-patent will be issued upon 
a detailed report of its extent and situation. 

Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Immediately upon liis arrival there, he shall make a correct inventory of all the 
Hon*"^ Company's property and send it here by the first opportunity. 

He shaU send over by first chance a correct list of the cattle and horses, left there by 
the Swedish officers upon their departure, (stating) what number there has been and 
what has become of them. 

He shall also examine as closely as possible the quantity and quality of the ordnance 
in Fort New-Amstel, especially its weight or caliber, also the other materials, received 
and taken from the Company by Mr. Jacob Alrichs for the use of the City of Amsterdam 
and report thereon to us by the first opportunity offering. Thus done and given at Fort 
Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 28* of Octbr. 1658. 

Letter. Jacob Aleichs to Director Stutvesant ; great scarcity 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Prudent Very Discreet Sir : 

Sir : I am glad and gratified at your Honor's good and desii-able achievements at the 
Esopus and return home in good health, but I learn with regret, that at the Manhattans 
your Honor has been visited by chills and fever ; I hope, that the Lord God may have 
delivered your Honor again from it and given you your former health and strength, 
which I shall be glad to hear by the next chance. 

I learn further, that your Honor mentions, that grain (cannot be had) there for 
merchandise, but at least half must be paid in beavers. I hope and trust, that your 
Honor will arrange this about the paying in beavers and oblige me or the City herein, as 
there are here but few or no beavers to be traded, as everybody sufficiently knows. 
Hence I rely upon your Honor' s disposition in this matter. 

The arrival of skipper Jacob with the galiot is earnestly desired, since he has had at 
different times good and favorable winds and the horsemill not having been finished on 
account of Christian Barents' death, we are very much embarrassed here for breadstuff 
or flour ; therefore we expect his speedy return every hour, as we also desire, that the 
ship " de vergulde Meulen " had arrived in safety. 

The cattle, [brought over] by Jan and Pr. Eenloos for this Colony has arrived 

here on the 2* inst. after a comfortable journey, if [we except] that 

some of the animals have been crippled Brantie the soldier is also [returned] 

A general feverlike disease has raged here again for some time and it is 
prevailing much among the inhabitants. The Lord please to take us into his merciful 
protection and relieve many weak people from it. I, too, have been ill for some days, 
but am now, thanks to God, a little better. Closing herewith. Noble, Honorable, 

J\''6W York Historical Records. 223 

Worsliipful, Wise, Pradent Sir, I commend your Honor and family with cordial 
salutations to God's Almighty protection. In New-Amstel, the 6'!" of August 

Your Honor's obedient and 

faithful servant 

J. Alkiohs. 
To Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
General in New-Netherland, Curagao etc. 
residing at the Manhattans 

Per skipper Jacob, whom God may guide. 

Letter. The same to the same ; bad condition of the cattle lately 
received from the manhattans, etc. 

Noble, Honorable, "Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

My last to your Honor was by Capt. Jan Jacobsen, wherein was also mentioned the 
arrival of the animals and also the two soldiers, Evert Brantsen and Peter Paulus, who 
are to be continued here in service in place of the two, who were sent there last year. 
Bearer hereof (is) skipper Jacob, who goes there to bring over some goods, arrived in 
the "Moesman." * I have been sorry and aggrieved to hear the complaints of their 
laziness and unwillingness in the service, also of those, who brought over the cattle ; 
excessive costs and troubles have been made, besides many beasts have arrived here 
lame through the long drive, they must still be daily bandaged and cured, except those, 
which I have been obliged to slaughter from necessity and fear, that they would grow 
worse. As to the beavers sent by me to Thomas Hall, they came from Capt. Cryger and 
through his son Frans were brought to my house for payment of freight on goods arrived 
from Holland by the " Sonne;" I had to receive them provisionally under condition that 
I might again give them away to others. Before this I had requested Kriger, that he 
would please to pay them to skipper Jacob [for the] boards [brought over], but 

had offered four guilders in wampum for the piece and that Francis, Capt. Kriger' s son, 
had said, that the beavers, offered to Capt. Jacob were not worth to be sent to Holland; 
it seems to me, that, if this is so, such action stands little to reason, because he owed 
good merchandise or at least saleable (I mean) the forcing it upon a man and then the 
valuing it in wampum and saying at the same time, that they were not worth to be sent 
to Holland; for when somebody helps me to troubles, ingratitude and impaired credit 
then it behooves not, to add insult to it. But it is necessary in many occasions to have 

If the ship "de Meulen" has arrived there and been discharged, it is evident, that 
the passengers once gone a-shore, cannot be brought together again without difficulty; 
therefore, I would request, that your Honor be pleased to order in such cases that the 

* I. e. The Marauder. 

224 Colonial Settleinents on the Delaware River. 

same should directly go from the ship or otherwise over into the galiot, to be brought 
here immediately, provided provisions for them be received from the ship, whereby a 
service will be done to the City and friendship to me. 

The [widow] of Christian Barents will be by your Honor ; 

the widow goes on her there; Your Honor will please [to assist] her 

in matters might happen there, with offer a helping hand 

and her affairs and recommend her to the Hon*'^ Orphanmasters 

The crew of the galiot are rather troublesome and tumultuous also somewhat 
displeased with the skipper and mate and unwilling to do their duty ; I would have 
known, what course to take, but they brought forward as pretext, that the rations as 
agreed to by the Company or the City, were not sufficient for them, so that therefore out 
of regard to this (: to have no clamor and complaints about the food become loud to the 
prejudice of this Colony :) first a sufficiency was given and the rest has been pacified 
for this time. If nevertheless they should behave unreasonably and improperly there, as 
it is likely, whereas they do not agree very well with the skipper and do not obey him, 
then please, assist the skipper and punish the evil-minded and prevent that by staying 
from the galiot or desiring to leave they may be encouraged in their bad intentions to the 
disadvantage of the City. Relying thereupon I'll ask God, 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir, to keep your Honor in 

continuous health and prosperity. In New-Amstel, the 

ir? of August 1658. 

Your Honor's obedient 

and faithful servant 

J. Alrichs. 
To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
General of New-Netherland, 
Curasao, Bonaire, Aruba, etc. 
residing in Fort Amsterdam in N. Netherland 

By which God may guide. 

Lettee. The same to the same ; chimneys built of Foet Oeange 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

Your Honor's favor of the 21'.' last has been duly received. Having seen and learned 
by it, what was sufiiciently and frequently perceived at every occasion by your Honor's 
affectionate kindness towards us, I respectfully request and trust, that your Honor will 
in no way diminish it, especially in regard to the payment in beavers, because there are 
but few or none to be had here, as I have written before this several times ; I therefore 
ask, that your Honor will please to excuse the impossibility. I request, that your Honor 
will have the enclosed order for Fort Orange brick filled ; I have given them out mostly 

Kew York Historical Records. 225 

to the inLabitants to make chimneys, also between 7 @ 8 thousands for the building or the 
mason- y in Fort Altena, which your Honor will please to consider in the best light. 

'ji'he ship " de Gulden Meulen" is expected with much longing and is looked foi 
every hour, especially in our present circumstances, which are made very uncomforable 
by a hot intermittent fever and other sickness, with which the greater part of these 
inhabitants is burdened and kept down, besides also that our barber (surgeon) died and 
another, who is well acquainted [with the profession] is quite sick 

In regard to the widow of Christian B(arents), as she desired beyond measure to 
go there and requested it within three days after her husband's burial by word of 
mouth and by writing, also that the property, which he left behind, might be sold 
immediately, all of which has been agreed to and permitted at her repeated instances 
or demands and arranged for the best of the heii's, so that they have been benefitted 
more than usually by some presents or words of consolation, as your Honor will have 
seen from the transmitted letters and account and sale of the property, therefore there 
is no cause given to the aforesaid widow to complain, but I only advised or proposed 
to her, that it would be for her best to remain in possession, she should be assisted in 
completing the mill, with the income of which through the grist she would be able to 
diminish the expenses and live decently and abu.ndantly with her children on the surplus, 
besides that she had yet 3 or 4 good cows with sheep and hogs, which also could help 
her to maintain her family, she and her children should have remained on and in her and 
the father's estate, which was in good condition here, wherein the widow with the 
children could have continued reputably and in (good) position to much advantage : but 
she would not listen to advice 

that she was to be restricted in her inclinations and wellbeing, which I shall never think of, 
much less do. This God may grant and give and I will also ask him to take your Honor 
and us with our families in his Almighty care and protection, remaining 
Kew-Amstel Your Honor's ever obedient 

the 5'? of September and faithful servant 

A" 1658. J. Alrichs. 

To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
General of New Netherland, Curasao etc. 
residing in Fort Amsterdam. 

By Capt. Jacobsen 

226 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Letter. The same to the same ; progress of the epidemic ; arrival 
or emigrants ; their sufferings on the passage from holland. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Yery Prudent Sir. 

Your Honor's last letter has come to hand, whereupon this briefly serves as answer : 
respecting the beavers, delivered to your Honor by Th. Hal, over which, on account of 
their bad quality, complaint has been made to your Honor, I have (: this only for my 
excuse :) reported, what for, to wit for freight on goods from Holland and by which well 
known person the same were brought into my house (after having before been assigned to 
skipper Jacob Jansen and by him refused), and laid down and that T have been obliged 
to receive them in the confidence and hope, that I should get off without loss and troubles : 
°t is quite true that this does not concern your Honor and I do not seek to quarrel with 
anybody, not even with that well known person, whereas what has passed between us 
has been put into the book of oblivion and shall remain there. 

In regard to Mr Jansen, who estimates the payment or value of the beavers 
extraordinarily ; I have trusted and have had no other tliought, as many are traded here, 
to wit one beaver counts for eight guilders or lacking these to pay ten guilders in good 
wampum or merchandise at prices as they sell here. The cows are quite small, some 
lean or else without mUk, so that nobody wants them on haK share. The lot of 
M!' Jansen has been received here, consisting of .... animals and 7 calves, besides 2 

[heifers] being together, large and small for the payment of these please 

to arrange in the most advantageous way as I shall be gratified. 

The complaints appear strange to me, as when he [arrived] here he 

showed a letter from Mr. Sille gave notice by a written 

declaration, that he neither could nor desired to continue in his service and he being thus 
half and half without employ, but still an old servant, who has much knowledge of this 
place and river, I have, to avail myself of it to some extent, requested and obtained from 
your Honor his discharge, when the same was engaged and continued in his charge and 
former salary. 

Herewith I send some merchandises for the received animals, please to credit the 
account for as much as they can be disposed of to the best advantage. They are packed 
and marked as on the margin and according to invoice, sent herewith. What is due to 
me or my principals from Marcus Barents, soldier, who left there A? 1657, also from 
Jan Cornells de Ryke, gone there from Fort Altena, further Pierre Crossen, whom your 
Honor desired for his service with the proposition, that, what he owed to the City, should 
be settled, likewise also from a certain servant girl Geesien, whose board and passage 
money was accepted by your Honor, of all this specifications and detailed accounts 
shall be sent directly, as soon as the Hon"'* Commissary is again on his legs and 

Jan Jouriaens, the Commissary in Fort Altena, has again de novo demanded eight 
thousand bricks for necessary buildings there, which I have partly already delivered to 

him and shall give him. The carpenters, too, [speak] of a payment for their [labor] 

wages, twohundred guilders paid on account 

Kew York, Historical Records. 22'/ 
. .... I shall willingly contribute 

a bm-ning and violent fever 

raged badly almost 

all people here but few old ones have 

died, but rather many young children, who could not endure it ; we have also had our 
turn with six of us, but, God be praised, I myself did not lie long. The members of 
the Council Messrs. Hinijossa and Rynevelt, as well as the Sheriff and all the Schepens 
have most of them had a long sickness and are mostly still a-bed, but I hope, it will take 
a turn to the better, as the disease now begins to subside and the good God may 
please to take it away entirely and keep it from us. 

The ship "de Meulen " arrived here the latter part of last month with one hundred 
and eight souls, of whom through misfortune, long duration of the voyage and other 
troubles as well as of the ship's crew etc. 10 or 11 persons died on board and since they 
landed, three more. On account of the great number of people, they have been in great 
distress and want of water nor could they do any cooking for several days so that, as by 
many contrary winds they happened to be near here, they were obliged to seek a port 
and run in here, which made us very glad, notwithstanding that many eaters vidth little 
provisions came on her. (" De Bruynvisch " * was to sail with her or on the next day, I 
hope, she has arrived there in safety.) It is rather inconvenient to me, that your Honor is 
pleased to withdraw from the providing of the necessary victuals for this place ; I wished, 
I might enjoy the former accommodation, more so to remedy the present scarcity and other 
imminent difficulties, as well as for the aforesaid 

Mr. Alexander d' Hinijossa goes on her there, in order [to deliver] to your Honor 

some commissions, letters, copies (?) and with your Honor' s 

approbation is accomplished and arranged, shall be considered as being weU done. 

The ship "De Meulen" has discharged the City's freight, except some bricks, vsdth 
which they are now busy, she shall have a return freight to the amount of six hundred 
guUders; as soon as the bricks are unloaded, she goes directly there. 
Closing herewith, I ask God, 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir, with our dutiful salutations 
to keep your Honor and Lady in continuous health and prosperity and remain 
New-Amstel Your Honor' s obedient and 

the T^ Oct. 1658. faithf al servant 

J. Alrichs. 
To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent Mr. (Petrus Stuy vesant). 
General of New-Netherland, Cura9ao etc. residing 
in Fort Amsterdam. 

By a friend, whom God may guide. 

* I. e. The Porpoise. 

228 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Letter. The same to the same ; scarcity of provisions ; Rev. Mr. 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir. 

Sir: Your Honor's favor of the 31°' last has been duly received, from which I saw, 
that the goods have been valued for the payment of some purchased animals by good 
men; it is somewhat less, than they are sold here usually and at the lowest price, by 
which prices I had at first to regulate myself, because there is so little trade here, that 
one does not know, how mez-chandises stand in price against beavers or are taken in 
settlement, but whereas a common course and style of merchandises is adopted there, I 
must acquiesce in what is done and trust, that it has been done equitably. I should have 
wished, that my principals had sent a greater assortment and better goods, as the present 
necessity requires them ; I have not received one el of duffels, that is wide duffels, which 
is very inconvenient, as without duffels it is hard to get deer-meat or maize from the 
savages. Over one hundred souls have also arrived now, without that provisions have 
been sent with them, which causes here rather some scarcity and inconvenience. It is 
rather diflBcult to provide for many mouths, when one has but little stores, one hardly 
dares to think of it and I am ashamed to speak of it or to ask again your Honor, to 
send some necessaries of grain, which is very much needed here, also a lot of peas and 
some bacon. If it is iu any way feasible, please to remember us on this occasion and 
provide us with as much of these provisions, as can be spared somehow, whereby a 
service will be done to the City and a special kindness to me. 

The accounts of shall be made ready shortly 

his continued sickness The desired boards 

Beekman is 

The order for the day of prayer was communicated to Rev. Weelius, who will make 
his sermon accordingly in the next week, so as to observe the same here also. 

We would necessarily require a few pieces of duffels for the purchase of land, for 
without having them, and they are not to be had here from anybody, one should hardly 
dare to speak of it, because one would thereby show an inability, besides that it would 
not give any respect or esteem, if in winter-time we came out without duffels to negotiate 
something of importance, so that hereby we are already somewhat hindered. It has 
been made a rule, for the prevention of the smuggling, which is much carried on upon 
the arrival of ships, to post 3 or 4 soldiers upon them, but as they remain here a month 
and longer, they can hardly be charged with the maintenance of so many men and it 
depends mostly upon the care of the same. But if your Honor would please to consider, 
whether it were of more advantage, that two soldiers from Altena and one of the men 
here should watch together, it would add opportunity and chance, to inquire into the 
matter a little more and also to have a better supervision of it, which your Honor will 
have to direct in the most expedient way. 

With regard to sending the galiot to Curasao, if your Honor has no other employ 
for her, although we are here in need of salt and horses, it will nevertheless have to be 
deferred vsdthout further advice or occasion. 

J^ew York Historical Records. 229 

The 11 3i ellen of Osnaburgli linen, desired by your Honor 

placed at the price there 

[I have] sent herewith some mustard seed 

The former Commissary Abraham van Rynevelt died on the 28'" of last month ; he 
has, by his testament, made over the property which he left behind, to Commissary G. 
van Sweeringen. If there is anything due to your Honor for disbursements, please to 
send over the account to claim it. 

Also Anthony Rademan went to his rest, so that the generally prevailing bad 
sickness has taken away here already some respectable people and others, but mostly 
young persons and children, besides many are still pining and low and can only slowly 
regain their former health and strength. 

We require here the presence of Jan van der Bosch, the soldier, who formerly 
cleaned the arms here, which now during the long time of his absence have become ve*y 
rusty and to keep them from further damage, the same cannot be spared ; on account ot 
which your Honor wHl please to order, that he come hither by tlie first chance. Relying 
hereupon I remain with cordial greetings and dutiful regards to your Honor and Lady, 
whom I further commend to God's Almighty protection, 
New Amstel Your Honor's obedient 

the 18"" November and faithful servant 

A? 1658 J. Aleichs. 

In case salt has arrived there 

please to provide us with 

about 25 schepels. Date ut supra. 

To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent Sir, 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General 
of New-Netherland, Curasao, Bonaire, 
Aruba etc. residing at the Manhattans 
at Fort New- Amsterdam. 

By whom God may protect. 

Letter. The same to the same ; oedeks to puechase the Horekil ; 
commissionees appointed. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

On the resolution or contract made with each other and agreed to by the Lords- 
Directors and the City in regard to the territory on the Horekil, to add the same 
to this Colony, whereof the Lords-Principals respectively gave notice as well to 
your Honor there as to this place and whereupon followed, that your Honor issued 
an order, to enjoy the benefit of it, also an order was passed to this effect to your 

230 Colonial Settlements on the I>ela,ware River. 

Honor's Commissary, Mr. Beekman, to purchase the aforesaid land with another 
person, who was to be qualified thereto from this side (he being Mr. Hinojossa), I 
have instructed the two respective Commissioners about it, to begin the journey thither 
and make a calculation, what they would require for the purchase and they made 
the proposition, that they would require thereto a party of duffels, also coats for the 
savages, kettles, looking-glasses, knives, corals, trumpets, etc., of which the principal 
part cannot be Lad here, at least not for money or wares, nor did now the ship "de 
Meulen" bring for the City's account any wide duffels, nor have any of the other 
things been sent. Consequently difficulties arise and their journey thither would be in 
vain without their bringing such things with them, the more so, because it is winter, so 
that now negotiations, if of any importance, cannot well be begun or done, especially 
with that nation, unless they have them. In my opinion it is [advisable] to accomplish 
the purchase the sooner the better, for (then) we [have not to fear, that we shall] be 
frustrated by anybody on account of delay, therefore your Honor will please [to 
consider] whether it would not be advantageous 

that what is most necessary thereto might be sent from there, while at the same time 

the aforesaid Commissioners both are of opinion, that this is extremely necessary and 

advantageous, in order that by the first opportunity steps may be taken towards the 

negotiation. It was further considered necessary by them, to respectfully request this 

of your Honor, whereupon decision and such effects, as your Honor deems useful, are 

expected by the galiot. Closing herewith I'll ask Grod to keep your Honor and family 

in long-during health and prosperity and remain 

New-Amstel Youi* Honor's obedient and 

the 20'!" 9"" faithful servant 

A° 1658. J. Alrichs. 

It is said here, that the sailors 
of the galiot dare to receive from 
private parties goods, as casks 
and packages to bring them to 
the Manhattans in 

their own name, whereby the City is 
deprived of the freight. I do not 
know, what they intend further 
with the smuggling. The truth 
can be ascertained at the dis- 
charging by those, who have the 

To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent Sir. 
The Hon"'^ Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General of New-Netherland, 
Curagao, Bonaii-e, Aruba etc. residing 
at Fort Amsterdam in N. Netherland. 
By a (savage). 

J^ew YorJc Historical Records. 231 

Letter. The same to the same ; death of his wife ; early winter ; 
scarcity of provisions. 

Noble, Honorable, Woi'shipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

Sir : My last to your Honor were of the 18'? and 20'? of 9"" and 10'? X*"-"* of last year, 
to which I refer, mostly of difficulties and troubles but a misfortune, as is commonly 
said, comes seldom alone. Almighty God has been pleased to visit me with a great 
loss and to let an affliction come over me, which distresses me exceedingly ; it is the 
death of my beloved and dear wife, who on the 6'." inst. very piously went to rest in the 
Lord, nevertheless such a parting falls very heavily upon me, the Lord may be pleased 
to provide for it and assist me with his grace. 

This early and long-lasting winter came over us unexpectedly and has continued 
with many inconveniences, which become more burdensome from day to day ; the 
continuous rains have prevented the gathering of winter- fodder for the stock, the general 
sickness has struck us down so much and continued (so long), that all the labors of the 
house and fann have been at a stillstand for many months, which in the beginning is very 
detrimental and hard to overcome. The arrival of the ship "De Meulen" was on the 
27th of September, very late, with over one hundred souls, without provisions, little 
freight, no wide duffels, to enable us to buy maize or deer-meat, no peltries to purchase 

some other necessaries the winter so sudden, that nothing 

can be got from the South that the little grain but much 

rotten frost could not be threshed. Therefore there is a scarcity and lack 

of everything and for this reason I request very respectfully and friendly, that ii it is 
possible your Honor please to take charge of it and provide us somewhat with grain, 
peas and bacon, as quickly as possible, even if it be at first only a moderate quantity, 
until the season and the weather are more favorable and settled, when this coast may be 
navigated with less danger, namely one or two lasts of wheat, I would prefer it ground, 
but if not ready or if it could not be done in a short time, rather not ground than to be 
obliged to wait, one hundred skepel of peas and one thousand pounds of bacon, not to 
make too great a load ; if no vessel is ready, your Honor will please to arrange it to the 
best, that it may be done as quickly as it is any way possible, upon which I rely. 

I further request, that the soldier Jan van der Bosch, who before this went there 
from here, may again be sent back to keep the arms, which we have here yet, from utter 
and entire destruction there is no suitable place provided for them, on which account it 
is so much eaten by rust, that it needs cleaning. Herewith 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir, I'll ask God to keep your 
Honor in prosperous administration and long-during health and remain always 
New-Amstel, Your Honor's obedient and 

the 24'? January faithful servant 

1658. J. Aleichs. 

To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir: The Hon'"^ Mr. Petrus 
Stuyvesant, Director General of New-Netherland, Curasao, Bonayro, Aruba, etc 
residing at Fort Amsterdam in N. N* 

♦Missing.— B. F. 

232 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors iit Holland to Stuyvesant 
They hope William Beekman will be a good officer and explain' 


OF Swedes to positions of trust at the Delaware. IS'^ of 
February 1659. 

We will hope, that the choice of William Beeckman made by your Honors for the 
position of Commissary and Auditor in the City's Colony on the Southriver, may be a 
good one and of advantage for the Company and therefore will continue the same in this 
place for the present. We do not quite understand the difficulty, which your Honors 
apprehend in consequence, that the Court of the Colony should interpret it, as if all 
smuggled and confiscated goods, condemned by their judgment upon the complaint of 
the said Auditor, ought to be and remain seized for the benefit of said Colony ; for it is a 
question beyond dispute and foundation, that by such smuggling not the Colony, but the 
Company is defrauded, to the prerogatives and privileges of which it therefore belongs 
and for the benefit of which such confiscations must be made especially, aside from many 
other reasons, which might be brought forward for it, but are omitted on account of 
prolixity. If nevertheless the aforesaid Colony should incline to take such a course, then 
it must be stopped by the j^roper measures and it must be urged upon and recommended to 
Director Alrichs not to do anything to the injury of the Company's rights, but to maintain 
them ; nor do we mean, that the appeals, made from there to your Honor' s bench, should 
be prevented by either direct or indirect means and we cannot doubt but that the same 
Director Alrichs is willing to keep the Company unmolested by just complaints in this 
direction and has, according to his promise made to the Hon"'^ Director Stuyvesant, already 
corrected the oath, administered to the inhabitants of the Colony, in which no mention 
is made of the Company. We have not been pleased to learn this and it cannot be 
allowed. We shall write about all these points to Director Alrichs himself and remind 
him of his duty, as your Honors shall see from the enclosed copy of the letter, while you 
are directed to admonish the same from time to time to the performance of his duties and 
especially, that he offer the proper assistance to Willem Beeckman, who is residing there 
for the Company as Commissary and Auditor and that he support him, as the reasons 
and justice of the case may demand it 

It is not necessary, to send now the weight of the bronze and iron cannons, nor the 
valuation of the remaining ammunition, camp equipage, and animals, transferred with 
Fort Casimir (now New-Amstel) to Director Alrichs, as we have agreed on that point 
perfectly with the Honorable Burgomasters and Administrators here, who are now the 
owners of it all. This is for your Honor's information, while we in future shall not 
forget to send over the prices of the ammunition and camp-equipage shipped there, that 
you may be better posted for all occasions and distributions 

We have no objections to the arrangements made by his Honor (the Director-General) 
on the Southriver, except the appointment of Swedish officers for that nation, upon which 

Kew York Historical Records. 233 

no reliance whatever can be placed : this is inferable not only from their previous actions, 
but also now from their request to the same Dii'ector, asking, that upon arrival of any 
Swedish succour they might remain neutral, indeed an unheard of and bold proposition 
by subjects bound to this State and the Company by their oaths, who thereby clearly 
show the sentiments nursed in their hearts. We have therefore been so much more 
astonished, as it would have been much better to disarm the whole nation there, than to 
provide them in such manner with officers and hand them the weapons, which they will 
know well how to use against us not only upon the arrival of the slightest Swedish succor, 
but also on other occasions : it is therefore necessary, that, to prevent it, this mistake 
must be redressed and principally not only the aforesaid Swedish officers discharged and 
replaced by others of our nation, but also the time and opportunity taken advantage of, 
to disarm them altogether upon the least mark of presumption ; further, their Sheriff and 
their Commissaries, who are also of their nation, must serve out their term and then, 
or in case of previous death their places must be filled again by men of our nationality, 
that they may be deprived so much more effectively of the means of conspiration and 
confederation and so much sooner be found out. It would therefore be useful for this 
purpose, to separate them from each other and prevent their concentrated settlements, 
or rather to put them scattered among our people, where they will be less to fear. Your 
Honors can hereby understand, how very important we consider this matter and you are 
consequently most earnestly recommended and ordered, to carry out and execute our 
above opinions and intentions with all carefulness as in our judgement the Company and 
this State are highly concerned in it 

Letter. Directoks of the W. I. Company to Jacob Alrichs ; 


Honorable, Prudent, Dear and Faithful Sir ! 

Although the Director-General and Council of ISTew-Netherland have not informed 
us, we have still seen from some enclosures, which came with the latest letters from there, 
that in the Colony on the South-river, of which the direction on behalf of the City has 
been confided and entrusted to your Honor, some things are practiced, by which the 
Company is considerably prejudiced and wronged, in regard to her authority, 
prerogatives and duties which are especially her own and belong to her, namely 

1. That not only the smuggling was connived at, but that it was also allowed to 
introduce contraband goods, whereas against such law-breakers no proceedings were 
taken, as ought to have been done ; deduction is made from a certain seized case of guns, 
which have been distributed by your Honor among the community, without any further 
consideration and without consulting the interest of the Company, for whose benefit this 
confiscation nevertheless ought to have been converted in any case, it being one of their 

234 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

prerogatives and. privileges ; the aforesaid Company and not the Colony has been 
despoiled hereby. 

2? That an oath is administered to the persons arriving in the Colony, from which 
the Company and her representatives in that country are excluded and 

3? That the appeals, which the inhabitants of the aforesaid Colony come to make to 
the aforesaid Administration or the Director- General and Council of New-Netherland 
are prevented and delayed by indirect means, whereas the Secretary of the aforesaid 
Colony refused to record them, as among others has been done to one Van der As and 
Nicholaus Deringh. 

And whereas the foregoing points are in direct opposition to the contract, into which 
the Very Worshipful Lords-Burgomasters and Magistrates of this City have entered with 
the West-India Company for the Colony to be established, therefore we have been the 
more astonished, as from the document may be clearly seen, that the Company reserved 
to herself the special authority and patroonship and consequently the aforesaid Colony 
cannot be considered anything else, than a subaltern Colony, standing under the aforesaid 
West- India Company, as also the aforesaid Very Worshipful Magistrates of this City 
apprehend, the same and will therefore not countenance such infractions. For that 
reason we have thought of addressing ourselves to them, that the necessai^y order in 
regard to this should be issued by their Worships, considering however that the same 
being informed hereof might conceive dissatisfaction with your Honor's person, we 
have herewith preferred to delay it and will first call your Honor's attention to it and 
admonish you, to remedy such infractions in time and henceforth to acknowledge the 
Company and her representatives in that country properly and to maintain them and have 
them maintained in theu' prerogatives and privileges and therefore you will not omit, to 
assist and lend a helping hand to the Commissary and Auditor, who resides there on 
behalf of the Company, whenever it is proper and justice and the nature of the case 
require and bring it with them. Whereupon we rely and in the meantime. Honorable, 
Wise, Dear and Faithful Sir, we commend your Honor to God's protection and remain 

Your good friends 
Amsterdam The Directors of the West India Company 

13'." Febr? 1659. Department of Amsterdam. 


Jacob Pergens mp. 
To the Honorable, Wise, Dear, Faithful 
Mr. Jacob Alrichs, Director in the Colony on the 
South River in New-Netherland. 

p "der Otter," which God may guide. 
No. 4. 

J\''eiv York Historical Records. 235 

Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; scaecitt of 
PROVISIONS ; the Horekil ; fast and prayek day. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise and Very Prudent Sir- : 

Sir : In my previous letters of the 18^" 2'^ of last year and of the 24*!' of January and 
13*? March* of this year I have from utmost necessity represented and given information 
to your Honor of our great difficulty in regai-d to the lack of provisions, which as before 
is still giving us much anxiety and although I had trusted and hoped, that in time 
of need and just now (I should get help), so that I have let the galiot at your 
Honor's request and writing, sent to me about it, for the service of your Honor's 
inhabitants there, with and under special propositions and promises of the lessees, to 
provide or furnish me by the said vessel with some victuals on account of the rent, 
nevertheless by the early arrival and long duration of the winter it has been retarded or 
delayed, nor has anything of it come now by a lately arrived vessel, which causes us here 
more difficulties and incommodes exceedingly, therefore it has been considered necessary 
and judged expedient, that for this matter as well as for the promotion of what concerns 
the Horekil, Mr. Hinojossa should go over by land, on which occasion I would once 
more respectfully request and ask your Honor herewith, to lend us, as far as possible, 
a helping hand in the aforesaid [difficulty] and to let us further enjoy your Honor's good 

disposition, to which we trust Michiel Carreman I have your 

Honor' s [letter] received only on the 27'? 

by a savage overland 

an order for a general day of fasting and prayer which we shall hold and celebrate here 

on the day fixed for it, that is next Wednesday. I should have wished, if it had not 

been against the advantage of your Honor there, that another and better chance of a 

vessel, in place of the galiot, could have been made use of. But Almighty God may 

dwell with us in His grace and blessing and help us by such means, as the same shall 

please to afford us in His wisdom. Closing I commend your Honor to His protection and 


New-Amstel Your Honor's ever obedient 

the 29'." of March 1659. and faithful servant 

J. Alrichs. 

To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 

Wise, Very Prudent Sir 

The Honorable Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 

General in New-Netherland, Cura(;ao, 

Bonaire, Aruba etc residing 

at Amsterdam in New-Netherland. 

By whom God may guide. 

* This letter of the IS'" of March is missing. — B. P. 

236 Colonial Settlements on the Belaivare Paver. 

Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stutvesant ; causes of the 
backwardness of the colony and of the scarcity of provisions; 
emigrants ; failure of the harvest ; great mortality ; tile and 


AT Amsterdam of the 13™ February ; purchase of the Horekil ; 
D'HiNOYOssA commander there. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

Sir : Upon the arrival and return home of Mr. Hinojossa your Honor's letter of the 
30'.'' of April a. c. has been duly handed to me and whereas his Honor was commissioned 
there for the purchase of provisions and to help arrange all other matters concerning this 
place and which might happen there, therefore I have heard the report of him, also about 
the difficulty to get victuals and their scarcity there, which is also mentioned in your 
Honor's letter, but the reasons, why we have had such a scarcity of provisions, I have 
communicated to your Honor several times: your Honor knows, that new countries 
cannot be brought in order or perfect cultivation in such a short time, as we have 
been here. I have found, that of all the few Netherlanders, who were settled here upon 
our arrival, have as yet in our time, not gathered one skepel of grain. Those, who came 
with and after us, have not done much more nor could they contribute anything, as the 
time in the first year was consumed with the erection of their houses and making gardens, 
in the small compass of which gardening each had so much work with the clearing of it 
as well as with the building and hauling together the materials, that the summer passed 
without bringing much seed into the ground. Besides that the general sickness, which 
has now (prevailed) during two consecutive years and the unstable weather caused 
much delay in everything. [When the privilege], to draw victuals and other necessaries 
from the City's storehouse came to cease, a great [anxiety], yea often an unexpected 

came over the people and they were very embarrassed and [in want], 

the more so as tlje great sickness, which has swallowed much good and blood, has 
raged from year to year here as well as all over this province and brought a great 
decline to the agriculture and everything else. Further, more than one hundred souls 
came over with the ship "de Meulen" very late and shortly before this sanie winter, 
besides those in the spring of last year, being according to the list sent about five- 
hundred souls ( : without bringing any provisions with them :) we went bravely out of 
our calculations, even though we received a small cargo of about three thousand guilders 
for the purchase of victuals. The sliip "de Meulen" came late, the harvest could 
not be gathered on account of the bad year, the little grain belonging to the Swedes, 
which was not drowned by the heavy rains and had not sprouted again through the great 
moisture, has also been so dear, that we had to buy it at high prices, equally to pork 
from a bird's nest, when they wanted it themselves. Not yet being able to go to 
Virginia or to the North, our granary and larder and trust has been only at the 
Manhattans, where the galiot was sent, which was frozen in there by the early winter and 
as we had not much here and could not get anything elsewhere, it caused distress among 
many of the inhabitants, although the rations [promised] to Colonists for the first year 

J\''ew Yorh Historical Records. 237 

were issued and distributed, as well as to the [servants of tlie City] and military persons ; 
it was a little less [large], because [we had to save] after the arrival of the aforesaid [one 
hundred persons]. We had also arranged with the Hon''"' Governor of the Virginias, by 

exchange of letters about [the fugitives (?) ] that we should get some 

provisions from there, whereupon followed, that his Noble Honor carried his good 
disposition into execution, freighted his yacht (which Emme Obbes sailed formerly in 
Brasil) now called the Brigantine, with provisions of bacon, meat, Indian corn etc. and 
sent it hither, but to our misfortune the skipper of her acted faithlessly and stole 
away with the yacht, being so victualled, to go a privateering and look out for a good 
prize, as is said here by diiferent reports, any way it has happened to us, as is commonly 
said, a misfortune comes seldom alone. To fill the measure, in the course of time a cruel 
and very long during winter surprised us too, so that no vessel could be used, so the 
sickness of the summer and the cold in the vrinter took away the greater part of the year 
and prevented also, that much work could be done. Sickness and death too have pressed 
us so hard, that a great number of men, also many animals died during the said time. 
AVe will ask God and hope that our sins may cease, then the chastisements may perhaps 
also diminish, which we desire from our hearts. 

I understood further, that the merchandises desired for the purchase of the Horekil 
have been sent now, of which I am glad, but that there are no guns among them, because 
they cannot be got at the Manhattans, on which account your Honor directs to supply 
these from the smuggled guns out of the ship " de Waegh," which were seized by me, 
I would willingly have done so, if it had been possible, but as these same guns had been 
lying in the storehouse a long time after the seizure and the case had become rather wet 
and principally, because many of the (newly) arrived Colonists had no arms and had to 
be equipped, so in our meeting we deliberated upon it and came to the conclusion, to 
open the case, which was done in the presence of Messrs. d'Hinojossa and Rynevelt ; 
therein were found five and tliu"ty small guns with copper-belts, which were said to have 
cost three guilders five stivers the piece in Holland, and it was ordered, that they should 
be delivered to Anthony Eademan, the Ensign, to distribute them to the citizens, who 
had no gun ; then it happened that many of the muskets, when used the first time, blew 
up, burst and became useless ; I have written this in detail to the Directors, of whom 
several are at the same time Directors of the Company, with the addition that he, who 
should make a claim for these guns, ought to be referred to the Fiscal and because in 
such a manner they had been needed here, the City's account with the Hon"''' Company 
can be charged for them, also if it was desired to begin a law-suit on their account, that 
it could be done, because he, to whom they were directed, is known. 

As to that your Honor had expected a specification, what merchandises were required 
for the purchase of the land, thereupon I answer, that I am quite ignorant of it, 
because I have never dealt with the savages in such a case and whereas land has been 
bought fi'om the natives by your Honor at diiferent times, therefore your Honor has more 
experience and knowledge of it, to which I refer myself. 

In regard to the four men-servants of Cornelis Herperts de Jager, who established in 
the country near here a brick-kiln and employed 4 jaersons at it ; one of them, Peter 

by name, had come from Fort Orange as a brick-maker and was married to a 

woman, who came from Amsterdam and with him owed a large sum to the City, he had 

238 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

committed wicked crimes of theft of small cattle, as sheep, also of the City' s weapons 
from the former Ensign of the Citizens and had stolen several other things, for which he 
was publicly flogged and banished this town or place, but allowed to do his work outside 
ill the country, to earn his living and get out of his debts. This one has been the leader 
and he stirred up the others under this or that pretext ; they have together taken away 
four good muskets and other goods belonging to their master and thus run away to the 
Manhattans. Mr. d'Hinojossa, when he was commissioned there to (get) provisions and 
execute other things, has had also an order, to arrest the run-aways and send them here 
in chains. Their aforesaid master says, that he treated them well and provided everything 
properly and according to circumstances, that all his work had to be stopped on this 
account and will be suspended to his great prejudice and irreparable loss, as the best 
time now in the spring will be lost. One of them, Tom me Jouwes by name, has come 
back and returned to his master's employ, without making any difficulty. We hear, 
that Peter, the brickmaker, has broken jail there and that the two others are there and 
would have liked to remain, provided that the interested party would bring his suit there at 
the Manhattans, which takes away much time and expenses. Therefore it is respectfully 
requested by the aforesaid Jager, as well as by me, that the said two men-servants should 
be sent back here by the first vessel for the aforesaid purj^ose, to serve out their time 
with their master. I heard further, that the said servants had brought forward as 
their defence, that they could not earn more than 30 stivers per day and that on the other 
side board was very dear. Your honor surely knew, that they were Jager' s servants and 
coi;ld not earn a day's wages with anyone else and that they had their board with 
their master, so that they have not served me a single day and could not do it ; it is 
true, that before this thirty stivers extra-pay was given by me and the Hon"'"^ Captain 
and Lieutenant to the soldiers who worked for the City, over and above their wages and 
rations, but other workmen were paid, 2, 2^, 3 and even 4 guilders the day, according to 
how it was here agreed upon and earned and nothing has ever been done by them at such 
work, wherefore it is not proper, that such falsehoods should be taken up from that side 
and be recorded in the rolls or notes to the disregard of myself and this place, which I 
respectfully request to consider in future and not allow to be done any more. 

Kespecting the passes of bargemen and skippers, who sometimes come here in yachts 
and go again there, in regard to which youi' Honor mentions, that a report has been received 
from the Commissary, that the passes of yachts coming here are kept and that the masters 
are not willing to let them be searched, it is so, that the first barquier, who arrived here 
this year, was Michiel Carreman, who after having come in during the night showed 
me, following the old custom, his pass early in the morning and it was received by me. 
In the afternoon, the Hon*"" Mr. Beekman having come from Altena, the Commissary 
came saying to me in the presence of several other people ,, You must give me the pass, 
because the Hon"'^ Mr. Beekman has come, who is our chief" and such like, which 
appeared strange to me and I said in answer "You are pleased to (be courteous), we 
reside here too, Mr. Beekman can find the pass here or it shall be sent to him directly," 
which was also done immediately, without my taking the time to have it copied, I 
sent the same by or with my servant to the aforesaid Mr. Beekman, so that he had not 
to wait for it for a quarter of an hour. If this short time has caused any inconvenience, 
please not to take it ill, it was only caused by Carreman' s unreasonable conduct. 

J^ew York Histoinccil Records. 239 

Carreman said, lie had this and that from me and setting his sail he went again towards 
the Manliattans, as he said, wliich we could not prevent here, as we had no vessel, then 
having sailed some time, he however dropped anchor towards evening and his intoxication 
being over, he came up slowly on the next day and lamented, that he had been drunk. 
In the future I shall watch against such occurrences and accidents, as I do now, 
so as to suffer no more insults. We have moreover been obliged, to hire Carreman' s 
yacht, but when he sailed, he did not give me a proper list ; therefore I wrote about it to 
Mr. Hinojossa, who requested the Hon*"" Fiscal to attend to the discharging there at the 
Manhattans. Returned here, he has been with me once in four days, to let me see 
only, that he was here. To avoid dissatisfaction, I did not dare to ask him for his pass 
nor after his cargo. Hence I now have understood from different parties, that he had to 
promise in writing there, that he would deliver his pass to nobody else, but Mr. Beekmaii, 
so I let his Honor alone with it, to prevent trouble, as your Honor can hear and learn by 
asking from the skippers of barks or yachts, who return there. Private vessels have 
often been here eight or ten hours, before Mr. Beekman came ; in the meantime many 
inconveniences happen by not being able to inquire after the cargo, the days of 
anchorage pass, the cargo cannot be discharged, we do not get the letters before and 
until it suits the skipper, even from vessels freighted for account of the Q'liy, whicli 
makes it very injurious and inconvenient, as it happened to us from the same Carreman, 
to whom I have to pay 260 guilders the month, he keeping for himself his cabin and 
forecastle. Therefore I very respectfully request, that your Honor would please to 
inform me of the order already established or which may be yet established there, that 
I can govern myself accordingly. 

I am not only ignorant of it, but it is also against my wish and will, that the barquiers 
and others sailing in yachts are unwilling and refuse, to submit themselves to proper 
search and I regret, that it should be charged to me. He who accuses me or informs 
against me, that I am the cause of it, does it from malicious wickedness and for fear of 
too much work or other motives, because he wUl not make a proper search, whereas in 
case of a skipper' s unwillingness or the least resistance more force or an armed sergeant 
and soldiers could be employed, as the former Commissary did it and if his Honor has no 
soldier with him here, it need not cost him two words, which can be done with one ; I 
shall assist his Honor with soldiers or sheriff and servants, 1 am obliged to it by 
my oath, but would wish that your Honor would believe and trust that I shall not 
omit to do in any case for the service of the Hon*'^ Company as much as is possible, 
as I have bound myself of my own free will to do it and would gladly devote 
myself to their Honor' s service more and more, if only chance would offer and I shall 
therefore hope, that your Honor for once shall please to believe, that I need no 
exhortations, to do what I do with pleasure ; I have never refused assistance even to 
the lowest, who is here on behalf of the Company, in which with all respect I shall try 
to continue. 

In regard to the proclamation of a day of fasting and prayer sent here, to be published 
on the 2? of April of this year, I handed the same just as it was sent by your Honor to 
the Secretary to be copied as proper and in the manner, in which copies are made and 
ordered to give it to the Preacher here to be announced at the fixed time. The Preacher 
always keeps the copy in his charge, from which can be seen, what the same directs and 

240 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

how it was given to his Reverence ; consequently every thing has been done and 
performed, as custom and order require it ; I send therefore the Secretary' s declaration 
concerning this herewith under No. 1. 

As regards the letter written by the Hon"'' Lords-Directors about the smuggled 
muskets, the oath of the citizens here as well as the refusal to record the appeals and 
that they were denied by the Secretary in an indirect way, thereupon I shall say at first 
for my excuse, that when the ship " De Waegh" arrived here and moreover at the 
ariival of all ships, I charged, the Commissary (besides and above the supervision of 
those appointed by your Honor), that at the discharge of goods coming from the 
ship, he should pay close and sharp attention and in order to do it effectively 
observe therein this method, that the super-cargo should examine all the boats and 
vessels, in which the goods were brought from the ship to the pier or the bridge and 
that he should upon every trip or time specify with date and day upon a qaarto 
leaf of paper or even more, if it was necessary, what pieces came in the said boats 
or vessels, distinguish them well, whether it was a chest, a case, a cask, or a package etc., 
the names on each cask or package clearly defined and if a name was wanting to make 
another distinction by the volume of the said pieces, so that he should measure with the 
foot-measure the width, height and length and note it down, to know the sooner what it 
is, for otherwise if he notes down only a chest or a case, that is sometimes 1^ or 2 feet 
and sometimes 4 or 5 feet long. Because at first I could not get this to work, I have been 
obliged to apply myself to and was at or about it early and late, so it happened by accident 
at the unloading of a certain case, which by the heaviness of the contents caused the 
boards or planks to give way at the sides so much, that by looking very close, it was 
possible to discern, what was in it. Learning it was contraband, I ordered to have it 
brought into the storehouse with the instruction not to let it go out from there without 
my consent or knowledge. Immediately finding out to whom it was sent, I was directly 
and continually asked about and for it and tliis and that excuse was given, I heard them all 
and answered little and was therefore judged unkind, I answered perhaps, that it was not 
in my power, to do anytliing herein and I should let the matter rest, notwithstanding 
that I was often much molested by those, who daily had their feet under my table, 
likewise many hard words and so on passed about it [as I told] the Hon''"' General last 
year at the time of his visit, when he was staying at my house ; the muskets have been 
seized by me, notice of it was sent to the Hon'""= General, the Noble Lords-Directors and 
my Lords and Masters and the guns kept ad opus jus habentis ; now, to keep the 
muskets from being damaged and to use them in an emergency in behalf of the City, this 
was here proposed to the Council or the meeting and it was deliberated and resolved, as 
related above, and everything done, what was required for the service and the honor. 
If I should have wished to stoop to connivance, a table-companion, to whom one is 
favorably disposed, might well have obtained anything, but I would not tolerate the 
least herein or see through the fingers ; with all that I am now through misunderstanding 
or malicious information unjustly accused ; if the seizure was done unjustly I promise, that 
herein I shall do no more wrong ; he who smuggled it, is dissatisfied, he, who had a claim 
to the seized goods, is hardly satisfied, that I pretended anything before the seizure. I 
understand very well, that it should be brought up in dispute. Such an office does not 
suit me, I shall not solicit the post of searcher or inspector. If I have committed 

Kew York Historical Records. 241 

an error here, I shall willingly submit to a transmitted judgment. Surely, I wanted to act 
herein for the best of the Company. 

What concerns the oath of the citizens, the West-India Company was at first named 
also in the formula, but the Ensign and other officers as well as the citizens 
themselves said, that they had come upon the conditions, presented by the City, and 
considered only the City as their Patron. I sustain them in their opinion, but consider 
the matter of [too delicate a nature] or unexpedient [to give my opinion], holding as 
Their High Mightinesses [are the Masters] of the country from whom all lesser [persons] 
derive their qualifications, that [it would be better] to wait for a further approval 
or disapproval, to observe and follow then the orders of the Hon'"'= Principals, as I had 
talked it over with the Hon'"'= General, that I should send the form of the oath to the 

Fatherland, which was done on the day of June 1658 by the ship "de Sonne," but 

as yet I have not received a decision concerning it. Nevertheless, not to make any 
delay on that account, the Noble General will please to direct in this matter and send 
a form, by which the oath shall be taken properly. I shall attend to it strictly and 

Now I have only to speak or bring forward my excuse about the invented 
slander, that the appeal to the Hon^'^ Director-General and Council for New-Netherland 
has been prevented by indirect means and that the Secretary has refused to make a record 
of them and that this had happened to one Van Nas and Nicolaus de Ringh, which 
appeared to me, to the gentlemen of the Council as well as to the schepens here very 
strange and astonishing, because such thing has never been thought of, much less ever 
been done or happened. The said persons were summoned before our meeting to account 
for it and have declared, to give evidence of the truth, that neither of them has ever had 
such a law-suit here, from which an appeal could be taken and that they do not know, 
that anybody here has ever refused to record an appeal, as is made evident by the 
enclosed statement of questions and answers signed by them respectively, to which I 
respectfully [refer] under No. 2. The officers of this place are thus themselves 
suspected, blamed and turned out [of the service by their Superiors] and a price [set 
upon slander of them] so that he may [be ruined] by it, who cannot run. And I am 
sorry, that the malevolence of the people in this country [is so great]. I cannot help it, 
that the people in this country lie and deceive so and thereby trouble and impose upon 
your Honor, the Hon*"'^ Council and the Hon*"* Lords-Directors. Please also not to 
believe everything so quickly and prevent the shadow of many vexations. Here is 
enough to be put in order, as your Honor well may imagine and know, so that it is not 
necessary to seek for more work or commotion. Abbreviating herewith I will only 
briefly add : 

That the Hon'"^ Mr. Beekman, coming here, has taken to Fort Altena as 
soldiers there several men-servants of Colonists, notwithstanding that they were in 
debt here, whereby he deprives their masters and this place. It was proposed 
to his Honor, that he should be pleased to take on this occasion the five soldiers 
and another one, whom he employs elsewhere, to the Horekil and then these same 
soldiers might remain there or perhaps go over into the City's service against 
those, who will be found willing herein, if there is any one yet, who can be 
spared and to whom his wish may be easily granted. As they say, the soldiers 

242 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

there do no guard nor other military duties and ours would rather be there than 
here ; now too there are more needed here ; I send twenty under the Hon"" 
Capt-Lieut. Hinojossa to the HorekH, for the purchase of which place Mr. Beekman 
and the said Hinojossa (who remains there in command) are going there. God 
may grant a good journey and success. Wheremth closing I will ask the Almighty to 
keep your Honor in lasting health and prosperity and bless you with a successful 
administration, remaining 

Your Honor's obedient 
New-Amstel and faithful servant 

the 14"' May 1659. J. Alkichs. 

Letter. Jacob Aleiohs to Dieectok Stutvesant ; eumoes that 
THE English claim the Delaware river and country and 


Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

Your Noble Honor' s favor of the 28'? last has been duly received by me, to which it 
was necessary and I had to answer more, but in view of the nature of the matters, I shall 
let it pass and remain as it is. 

Since my last to your Honor Mr. Beekman and Mr. Hinojossa went to the Horekil 
on the 23* of last month ; I received a note on the 30'?, that they had safely arrived 
there and had sent out a savage for the chiefs of that country there, that they 
should come down, to make an agreement with them ; since which I have not heard 
from them nor had further news ; therefore I expect with desire to hear from them 

I hear at present some strange rumors, as if the English pretended, that this river or 
land by right belonged to them ; that they would certainly send two persons here, to 
demand this place and take possession of it, with whom some mischievous persons 
would unite, to assist in accomplishing it, the more so as there are people here, who boast 
that they have seen or read letters, written fi-om Virginia to the Swedes, that they should 
remain here, as a free Colony under the English, of which so much is spoken, that I by 
no means can let it pass by [unnoticed] and without informing your Honor immediately. 
And [I request] as I have here only 10 or 15 soldiers, since about 20 went to the 
Horekil, that therefore more might (be sent) or that your Honor in person would come 
here (if the first would be considered serviceable or expedient or on the other side, if 
your Honor's business could somehow admit of it) As regards me, you need not make 
any difficulty, because I am alone and have not to care for wife, children or any one else, 
only for the common welfare, for my Principals and also for the Hon*'^ Company, that 
they in their affliction might not suffer the least damage or decrease, therefore I judge 
this, as I said before, to be necessary and advantageous, whereupon I shall respectfully 
expect your Honor's orders, resolution or direction by the first chance, either a letter 

Mew York Historical Records. 243 

by express over land or otherwise, as occasion may oflEer and yo^^r Honor shall be 

pleased to direct as necessary, wherewith closing I remain with dutiful regards and 


New-Amstel Your Honor' s obedient 

the 23*. of May 1659. and faithful servant 

To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent Sir 
The Noble Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General in New-Netherland, 
Curasao, Bonayre, Aruba, etc. residing 
at Amsterdam in New-Netherland 

By the yacht of Michiel Taden, God may guide her. 

J. Aleiohs. 

Bill op sale of the land between Cape Henlopen and Boomtjes 
Hook, given by the Indians to Mr. Beekman and Lieut. 
d'Hinojossa for the W. I. Company, on the 7™ June, 1659. 

(Too defective, to be readable. — B. F.) 

Ijetter. Jacob Aleichs to Director Stuyvesant ; purchase of the 
Horekil; deed sent to the Manhattans. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir. 

My last to your Honor was of the 7"' * by skipper Michael Taden. I hope it arrived 
safely and has been received by your Honor. I reported in it, that Messrs. Beekman 
and Hinojossa were absent at the HorekU, to make a contract for the lands there. This 
has been done according to the bill of sale, which will be sent to your Honor by Mr. 
Beekman and to which I refer. I request now that according to the desire of my 
principals I may get a transfer of it made in due form (as also of the other lands of this 
Colony) ; also that I may get a duplicat of the said transfer, sealed and signed like the 
original on parchment or fransijn if possible, to send the same to the Lords-Mayors in 

In my former letter I have omitted or forgotten, on account of much business, to 
inform your Honor of the return of the galiot, which on her outward-bound voyage 
suffered a great deal from bad weather, storm and danger, so that the ropes are all much 
injured and broken and she has lost her power or strength. In the meantime I have had 
about 800 guilders charged to my account for freight by Michiel Carreman, besides other 
charges, which I must carry for it. 

* Missing. — B. F. 

244 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

What regards the unfavorable rumors concerning this place, they mostly continue still, 
also that some preparations are made in the Virginias to visit us. If reason and justice 
may prevail, then I cannot understand, that the case would [offer any difficulty] ; your 

Honor has perhaps, besides received other and further [information] about it, 

therefore I refer all concerning it respectfully to your Honor, but if they should desire to 
use force [of arms] to rob and plunder, then I think this place in the present time too 
weak ; there is little courage on accoiint of the two years' sickness, the bad summer, the 
hard winter, scarcity of provisions, without little assistance or a ship being sent here, the 
more so as I am ordered and commanded by letters from my Hon*"'" Principals, to equip 
another place besides this one and have it fortified and garrisoned, which cannot be 
begun or done without great expenses, towards which a small cargo, as that, which reached 
me in "de Meulen," will not go very far, furthermore, while all provisions have to be 
bought dearer and at much higher prices, than formerly : I am therefore obliged to 
purchase, because of the deficiency of victuals, maize at six guilders the skepel, which 
takes away much. In the meantime I must be patient, until the Ruler of all shall be 
pleased to grant us some relief or better deliverance, commending your Honor, with my 
dutiful regards, to God's gracious protection. 

I have still something to settle with Barents Jochems, skipper of " de Meulen," about 
which I have written to Secretary van Ruyven. If he cannot arrange matters with him, 
please assist him in equity, — which wiU obUge me more and more. I remain 
New-Amstel Your Honor' s obedient 

the 14'." of June and faithful servant 

A? D. 1659. J. Alkichs. 

To the Noble, Honorable, 
Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General in New-Netherland, 
Curasao, Bonaire, Aruba etc. residing 
at Fort Amsterdam 
in New-Netherland. 

By the Galiot, which God may guide. 

Jfew Yorh Historical Records. 245 

Letter. Jacoo Aleichs to Director Stuyvesant ; English coming to 
claim the country on the delaware; rumors that war is 
declared between holland and england and that young 
Cromwell is poisoned and dead. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir. 

Sir : Lately, on the T^ and 14*J' inst. I wrote to your Honor about what is said here, 
that the English of Virginia have the intention, to visit us here in one way or the other 
about the ownership, possession and administration of these places, which, it is said, are 
claimed by them : what may be expected therefrom, time will further reveal. It is 
therefore to be considered, whether it is not expedient, to send Commissioners there, to 
learn, that we may begin with understanding, what there is in it or how true it is and as 
I find it difficult to do anything in such a matter, no step shall be taken nor anything 
done without further order, advice and opinion of your Noble Honor. I rather had 
expected a note or a rescript upon my former letter concerning this, but have as yet not 
heard anything, although after the arrival of Michiel Taden, a yacht, upon which Philipp 
Jansen sails, has arrived here from there. Our strength and situation here are precarious 
and since no ship has arrived here the resolution or courage is in proportion. Perhaps 
your Noble Honor has [received] there further news and surer informations, because 
vessels from [Virginia] arrive there daily, wherefore I respectfully request your 
Honor [will act] according to judgment and necessity or better still, if your Honor's 
business might somehow allow it, I would see with pleasure your Honor' s coming over 
in person, to arrange then in this matter, what would be found the most expedient and 
advantageous for the public welfare. Herewith 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir, I will ask God to keep 
your Honor in lasting health and prosperity, remaining 
New-Amstel Your Honor' s obedient 

Sef of June and faithful servant 

A" 1659. J. Aleichs. 

The people, coming from 
Virginia, or from Bear's or 
Godtfridt' s Island confirm the 
above said, that they will 
come over shortly, that there 
is war between England and 
Holland, that young Cromwell 
has been poisoned and is dead. 
To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent Sir, 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant Director-General 
over New-Netherland, Curasao, Bonaire, Aruba, etc. , 
residing at the Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland. 

By the yacht Prints Mauritz, which God may guide. 

246 Colonial Settlements oji the Delaware River. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

After closing my letter of to-day a certain person came from Bear's or Godtfridt's 
Island and brought as news, what has mostly been told in my letter of to-day, that the 
leading men of the country were assembled about it, but nothing else could be ascertained, 
the more so, because some of the inhabitants were instructed to keep at hand and ready, 
indications at the same time with to go thither : therefore it is respectfully requested, that 
j-our Honor will decide in reference hereto without delay, what your Honor considers 
most proper and let it be done, with deed or advice, as speedily as possible, so as your 
Honor deems it most advisable. Herewith my salutations and recommendation to God. 
In New Amstel, the 26'." June, 1659. 

Your Honor's obedient 

and obliged servant 

J. Alrichs. 
To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent Sir, 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General 
over New-Netherland, Curasao, 
Bonaire, Aruba etc. residing 

at the Fort 

Amsterdam in 


By the yacht of M?Carreman. 

Extract from a letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland ; 
smuggling at the delaware ; purchase op the country between 


23° OF July 1659. 
We have sent your Noble Worships' private letter to Mr. Jacob Alrichs in due time. 
What answer and excuses he makes regarding the smuggled muskets, the oath as 
administered and other points your Noble Worships can infer from the enclosed copies of 
letters, exchanged between the Director-General and the said Mr. Alrichs on this subject 
and will at once learn thereby, what orders were given to the Commissary Willem 
Beeckmann as well in regard to the surrender of the smuggled muskets as to the purchase 
of the country situate between the HorekU and the Boompjes Hoeck. The results 
thereof shaU be communicated to your Honors by the next opportunity ; we have 
meanwhile not omitted, to recommend to and request Mr. Jacob Alrichs, that he assist 
the Commissary Beeckman in everything concerning the Hon^'' Company and to direct 
the Commissary Beeckman to keep on a good and friendly footing with Mr. Alrichs nor 
can we doubt but that Commissary Beekman, who is a person of peaceful character, will 
do so, even though Mr. Alrichs seems to evince some dissatisfaction on account of the 
passes and lists of goods, sent there, being directed to the said Commissary and vice versa 

J^ew York Historical Records. 247 

on account of his despatching and the passes to this place ; as evidence see the enclosed 
These jealousies are, we hope, removed by the Director-General's last letter to both 

We have good reason to believe with your Noble Worships, that neither the Swedes 
nor the English, who live under our jurisdiction or outside of it, have a great affection 
for this State and the same might likewise be supposed and sustained from us, in case we 
should be conquered, from which the good God may save us, but how to prevent and 
improve it. Right Worshipful Gentlemen, 7ioc opus hoc labor est. We have thought the 
most suitable would be a lenient method of governing them and proceeding with them, 
to win their hearts and divert their thoughts from a hard and tyrannical form of 
government and considering this we granted to the Swedish nation, at their request, some 
officers, that in time of necessity, against the savages and other enemies, in case of 
defense, they might keep order, but we gave them no written document or commission, 
much less were any arms distributed among them. If your Hon'"'= Worships should not 
consider this advisable, we shall according to your Hon*"^ Worships' orders correct and 
abolish it as far as possible agreeable to cii'cumstances and occasion. 

Letter. Jacob Aleichs to Directoe Stuyvesakt ; messengees sent 
TO Maryland ; thet visit Col. Utie ; claim of Lord Baltimore. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

Your Honor's favor of the 15*? of July, present month, has been duly received, from 
which I understand by rescript, what your Noble Honor and Council think there of the 
rumors and pretenses of the English from Virginia in regard to their supposed ownership 
of these places. The consideration in regard to this South-River is, that their coming 
here will make at least concern and commotion ; that they will come, is considered sure. 
Since my last to your Honor it has been decided here, to request the Governor of Maryland 
by a letter written to him by one of the Hon""' Schepens here to send back or deliver some 
run-away soldiers or fugitives, but whereas the name and residence of the said Governor 
was not known to us, it was deemed well, to communicate the letter to the Hon*'" Colonel 
Jud* residing on Bear's Island, because his Honor is the principal among the 12 members 
of the Council there, requesting, that the aforesaid letter might be sent, with his Honor's 
recommendation, to its address, which was acceded to ; but his Honor declared during 
the conversation, that he had in his house the commission, to proceed bither, because new 
letters and orders had come from Lord Balthus Moor, that the territory from such to 
such a degree, belonging to him, should be visited and according to circumstances be 
brought and kept under his jurisdiction, he having not the least intention, to abandon his 
desire, because , 

to expect from the English, time will show ; it will at the least be injurious, if they come 
with any force, to which no resistance can be made by tliis river or here. Therefore please 

248 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

to consider such means and directions, as shall be deemed expedient and necessary, in 
behalf of the Hon''"' Company and this City. Herewith I shall ask God 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir to keep your Honor and 
family in lasting prosperity and health and remain 

New-Amstel Your Honor' s obedient and 

the 29'? July 1659. faithful servant 

J. Alrichs. 
To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent, Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 

General in New-Netherland, Curasao, Bonaire, Aruba etc. residing 
at Amsterdam 
in New-Netherland. 
By a savage. 

Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stuyvesant ; Gov. Fendal 


among the Dutch on the Delaware. 

Noble, Honoi-able, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir. 

My last to your Honor was by Michiel Carreman, but of somewhat earlier date than 
his departure from here, because this same letter was destined to go overland with a 
letter, I mean to say a savage, which did* not succeed, therefore the same is now sent by 
the aforesaid yacht. We have heard here since, that it is said to be certain, that Mr. 
Fendel, who is now on behalf of Lord Balthus Moor (residing in Old England) Governor 
of Maryland, has strict orders to make a close inquiry and invesgation concerning 
the limits and jurisdiction in his district in these latitudes and in case they are 
in somebody' s possession, to notify the same of it, summon to surrender it and do his 
further duties according to his power and the cu-cumstances of the case. This having 
now become public, has caused such fright and disturbance among most of the inhabitants, 
that thereby all work has been stopped and every one endeavours to fly, to remove and 
look out for getting away in safety, the more, because all the vessels on this river now 
will not, we observe, admit of any supervision or inspection but by Mr. Beekman, so 
that the concealing or removing can at least be prevented. It occurs also, that some ask 
for passports to go by the vessels, pretending that they wish to purchase provisions at 
the Manhattans, but being there, they do not return, but sail with the ships for 
Fatherland, as now lately one Wouter Clasen Schaep, a carpenter, about 50 years old, 
is said to have gone from there to the great detriment and concern of the City, also 

Henrick Assnerus is gone, who for his annual work there might 

Ploetgoet, carpenter, comes passport, Abraham van Nas 

and wife, also Hendric 

I respectfully request, that these persons should be watched and sent back here in the 
galiot, to prevent damage and detriment, which through bad seasons, death and 

J\^eiv York HistoTical Records. 


continuous sickness and pining have pressed us here hard enough, besides we are now 
more and more weakened by this or that loss, also because we have to give now two 
garrisons instead of one, because the five or six persons engaged by Mr. Beekman stUl 
continue in his employ, to avoid disturbances, as he desires to keep them. If your 
Honor could spare eight or ten good soldiers, to strengthen our garrison, it would be 
agreeable to me, about which I expect a note for information. Herewith I'll ask Grod, 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir, to bless your Honor in health 
and keep you in lasting prosperity, remaining 

Kew-Amstel Your Honor's obedient 

IS'" August 1659 

To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 
Wise, Very Prudent and Discreet 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, General 
in New-Netherland, Curasao, Bonaire, 
Aruba etc. residing 

at the Fort 
Amsterdam in 

per Graliot, which God may guide. 

and faithful servant 

J. Aleiohs. 

Extract feom a letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland. 
The City's Colony on the Delaware is in a very deplorable 


Fort Amsterdam, 4^= of Septbe. 1659. 

The City's afl'airs on the Southriver are in a very deplorable and low state. It is to 
be feared, that, if no other and better order is introduced, it wUl be ruined altogether ; 
it would be too long and tedious, to report all the complaints brought from there, nor 
can all be received (as true) ; but it is certainly true, that the people begin to run away 
in numbers, as for instance, while I write this, there arrives from there an English ketch, 
which went there with some provisions from Boston three weeks ago; the skipper of it, a 
wellknown and trustworthy man, says that during his stay of 14 days at the Southriver 
about 50 persons, among them whole families, run away from there to Virginia and 
Maryland. It is said (these are the general complaints and rumors of it spread here and 
elsewhere), that one of the causes for the running away to Virginia is the too great 
preciseness of Mr. Alrichs, who refuses pass-ports to this place to the people, even to 
those, who offer to pay their passage and boardmoney or to give security for it; they 
would othervsdse prefer to remain with and among their own countrymen, than go among 
. Our own experiences seem to confirm this probability, as his Honor has at 

250 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

different times pursued and demanded back persons who came over to this place and 
he would not be satistied with security nor payment, even though I myself addi-essed him 
about it and advised him not to be so rigid. Seeing now its ruinous consequences I 
have deemed it advisable (at least till your Hon"'^ Worships' further advice and order) 
not to be so strict on oiir side in returning those, who might come over, as there 
is greater hope that the City will get paid sooner or later by those, who remain 
within this jurisdiction and province, than by those, who are forced, by not being 
received here, to desert to strangers : I shall expect by the next opportunity your Hon''^° 
Worships' advice, to govern ourselves accordingly. 

Your Honorable Worships will be able to form an idea from the enclosed copies of 
letters passed between me and Mr. Alrichs (marked No. 5 among the enclosures) of the 
rumors and the fear sprung fi'om them, that the English from Kent, Maryland and a 
part of Virginia might make an attempt on the Southriver, also of our opinion about it ; 
time must show, what will follow ; for the present there is no other probability possible, 
than that Lord Baltimore may have ordered and written to his Governor in Maryland to 
investigate, how far the boundaries of his patent reach ; yet, we are not quite without 
fear and suspicion, that if the alliance between Sweden and England and the difficulties 
with our State should continue long, something may not be done, under the Swedish flag 
and name, against our State, which the good God may prevent, as under such 
circumstances we would be too weak, to assist our people there and keep this place 
properly garrisoned. We hope and do not doubt, that your Hon"* Worships will take 
care of your own interests and provide us with timely help and orders. 

Letter. Jacob Aleichs to Director Stuyvesant ; arrival of Col. 
Utie and suite from Maryland ; particulars of the interview. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

We have to our great regret before this at different times troubled your Honor with 
letters (full) of anxieties and fears of the English, which have now and then been dragged 
along in such a way and to that length, that it sometimes appeared like a dark cloud, 
ready to vanish again ; nevertheless it now appears again concerning the province 
of Maryland. Six persons arrived here last Saturday, at about eight o. c. in the 
evening with 4 fugitives, wlio came in their company, of whom 3 were arrested, the 
4'." escaped. The six persons are the Hon*"^ Colonel Utie, his brother, his cousin, a 
major, Jacob de Vrint and a servant. On Wednesday he demanded an interview, which 
was granted and having come in, he was asked for his commission ; thereupon he showed 
his instruction, which he said served for both warrant and instruction ; copy of it is sent 
herewith ; it is rather unusual and sharp, although what he added in words, was pervaded 
with still more sharpness and so much so, that it was unbearable, he demanded our 
immediate answer or declaration of Yes or No, else he would be obliged to use other 
means, of which bloodshed he should consider himself not guilty, he had full 
authority, would not admit of any delay neither could there be a more favorable 

New Yorh Historical Records. 251 

period, to execute their plans, as tliey miglit now dispose of the land to a number 
of tobacco-planters. It appears that they are intently bent upon the execution of 

this project, as becomes further evident from his answer or protest 

cadets and drummers, the citizens are few and disinclined to fight, because 

the City has broken and curtailed the conditions and to say it briefly, it is impossible 
to hold out here without further assistance or relief, which upon receipt of this 
ought to be sent citissime, without the least delay. I hope, that the galiot is still 
there, which it would serve to dispatch immediately, without tarrying or lingering. If 
your Honor's situation would allow of your coming over in person, it might be necessary 
and useful. We shall have no rest with them, unless your Honor with wonted discretion 
and circumspection makes such disposition, as your Honor's wise advice shaU suggest. 
Please then not to let us come to grief or be ruined on this occasion ; therefore all shall 
be left to your Honor's wonted good management, whUe we expect in patience such 
assistance, as your Honor judges necessary and expedient to redress the matter : we are 
living at their mercy, therefore please to have everything properly considered, wherewith 
I wUl ask God, 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Yery Prudent Sir and commend your Honor 
with sincere greetings to the protection of the Almighty, remaining 
New-Amstel Your Honor's obedient 

O'.** September and faithful servant 

1659. J. Alrichs. 

Since I wrote the above letter, we further conversed together, chiefly however with 
regard to his Master's warrant and instruction, when it occurred, that I proposed, that a 
certain time might yet be allowed, in which I could notify the Director-General of this 
event. No more than three weeks were allowed for it 

Your aflCectionate and obliged 

J. Alrichs. 
To the Noble, Honorable, 
Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent 

Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General in New-Netherland, Curasao, 
Bonaire, Aruba etc. residing 
in Fort Amsterdam 
in New-Netherland. 

By a savage. 

Protest of Director Alrichs and Council, Vice Director Beekman and Schepens of New-Amstel against the 
pretensions of Lord Baltimore ; addressed to Col. Nathaniel Utie (Published in N. T. Col. ffistory 11, p. 73, from 
Holland Documents XVI. 117). 

252 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Letter. William Beeckman, Vice-Director at Altena, to Director 
Stuyvesant ; particulars of the transactions with Col. Utie. 

Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

On the 9'." inst. at night I with Mr. ALrichs sent a savage to your Honor ; for fear 
that he might not find his way there, we send another ; we would have liked, for greater 
safety's sake, to have sent a soldier along, but whereas 8 or 10 days ago rumors were 
brought by savages, that the Christians upon Staten-Island and in Gamoenepaw * are again 
troubled by the savages, we did not like to venture it. Sir, it is so, that on the 6'? inst. 
in the evening Colonel Nathaniel Utie with his suite, altogether 7 in number, arrived 
at New-Amstel. On the 8'^ he demanded an interview, which was granted to his 
Honor dii'ectly. I was pressingly asked by Mr. Alrichs to be present at the meeting with 
his Honor in order to hear the demands and propositions of the Colonel, he saying at the 
same time, that I had more to defend on behalf of the Company, than his Honor, as the 
City of Amsterdam had her guarantee from the Hon"'* Company for any loss, as their 
Honors had sold and transferred unincumbered land. 

The Colonel first delivered a letter to Mr. Alrichs and upon our request a copy of 
his instructions, further, he uttered and declared by word of mouth his oi'ders, (which 
he had from the Governor of Maryland,) informing us, that the country settled and 
held in possession by us here at the South-River, was under Lord Baltemoor's 
jurisdiction and therefore he ordered us to remove immediately or to declare ourselves 
subjects of this Mr. Baltemoor and if we would not decide upon it willingly, he should 
hold himself innocent of the harmless blood, which might be spilt hereby. We 
answered, that this appeared very strange to us, because we had had possession 
of this place for so many years, under a privilege granted by the States-General to the 
Hon"'^ Directors of the West-India Company. His Honor said, he did not know anything 
about it, it belonged to Lord Baltemoor and was granted to His Lordship by King James 
and re-afiirmed by King Charles and lately the grant was renewed and allowed by the 
Parliament, about 2 years ago, to the 40'? degree and he repeated, that if we did not 
comply, he must excuse himself for the innocent blood ; for Lord Baltemoor had power, 
to make war and peace again without consulting anybody, and he said further, "It is 
now our opportunity, for your people are mostly all run away and those, whom you have 
yet, will not assist you, therefore we must take advantage of our chance now, while you 
are weak ; this is also for us the most opportune season of the whole year, because now 
most of the tobacco is harvested and we demand positively an answer, let it be as you 
please" (as if he wanted to say, it is all the same to me). We answered, that it was 
not in our power to decide that, but that this had to be done by our Lords-Principals 
in England and Holland. He said, that he had nothing at all to do with that ; we answered 
further, that we had already referred (the case) to the Hon*"" Director-General of New- 
Nether land, under whose government we were placed ; he was willing to admit that 
and desired to know, what (time) we should require thereto, we answered three weeks, 
whereupon the Colonel said "I have no order, to grant a delay, for we must take 
advantage of our opportunity," but finally he granted the time. 

* Communipaw, N. J. 

Kew York Historical Records. 253 

On the 9'!" inst. we asked his Honor again to tlie Fort, to give him a written answer ; 
the Colonel repeated his demand and directed me in particular, because he had learned, 
that I was Commandant at Christina, that I too must remove, as I was also within the 
40'? degree. I answered, that if his Honor had anything to say to me, he would please 
and come to the place, where my residence is, to which he replied "I consider to be 
sufficient, what I have ordered here." 

The documents, delivered from either side, are sent to your Honor by Mr. Alrichs ; 
we expect your Hon'''^ Worship's order and assistance with all possible speed and desire 
from our hearts your Honor's personal presence here. Closing I'll ask God to preserve 
Your Honor in lasting health and prosperous administration, remaining always 
Altena, 12*? Sept. Your Honor's faithful servant 

1659. WiLii. Beekman-. 

Honorable General ! Last week Abraham Eskels, soldier, run away from us so that 
we have now only 13 men, besides the Sergeant. I wish to have represented to your 
Honor the necessity of socks, shoes and other things. 

Honorable General ! 

On the 9'.'' inst I dispatched a savage from here, on the 12'? also Abraham van Nas, and 
Sander Boeyer, who were to go with a savage from above ; but the said van Nas and 
Boeyer came back again after an absence of eight days, without having accomplished 
anything ; they could not bring the enclosed letters over nor forward them from above 
by a savage. If the first savage has, as I hope, reached there, then we rely, next to God, 
upon relief, we are sorely threatened by the English ; they have said, that they would 
come in 12 days after their departure and would, being here, await the answer of the 
Hon'"^ General. It is said, that 500 men are already under orders, how true it is, time 
will better show. They left here on the 11"" inst. The letter to Josias Fendall is 
dated on the 8'? of April, it must be 8"" of July. Closing I remain with regards and 
commendations to God, In New-Amstel, the 20"" Septbr. 1659. 

I send now again 7 men with a savage, to get through and send the letters forward. 
If the first has not been delivered, I shall hardly be able to do it again. 

Your Honor' s obedient 

and faithful servant 

J. Alrichs. 
To the Honorable General 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant 

at Fort Amsterdam 
in New-lSTetherland. 

By a friend, whom God may guide. 

254 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

Extract from a letter of Stutvesant to the Directors in Holland 
ON the same subject. Fort Amsterdam, IT'^ Septbr. 1659. 

We mentioned in our last letter the deplorable and bad state of affairs in the City's 
Colony on the Southriver, caused by the desertion and removal of the Colonists to Mary- 
land, Virginia and other places, which increases daily in such a manner, that hardly 30 
families remain ; besides this the City' s soldiers, sent out with the Colony, who numbered 
at first 50 men, have melted down to one half, of which two-thirds are placed at the 
Horekil and not without fear and danger of being sooner or later massacred by the cruel 
savages ; hence there remain in and near New-Amstel not more than 8 or 10 soldiers and 
very few free people. Your Hon"'^ Worships wUl learn the further details from the out- 
going passengers, among others from one Nicholas de Ringh, who goes over m this ship, 
while I desii-e to inform your Hon"''^ Worships and through your Worships the Hon"'* 
Commissioners beforehand by this report to make timely arrangements, before, to the 
further discredit of the City as weU as the Company greater calamities occur either by 
an invasion of the Swedes or English or by an attack of the savages. 

Extract from a letter of the same to the same. Emissaries of Lord 

Baltimore at New-Castle demand a surrender op the territory ; 

the disposition of the troops prevents an armed resistance. 

Fort Amsterdam, 18™ Septbr. 1659. 


After the letters and enclosures, sent by " de Bever " were closed yesterday afternoon 

and the skipper had taken his leave, we received very early this morning the enclosed 

from the Southriver, from which your Hon"'" Worships can infer the bad situation of the 

Colony and learn among others of the frivolous demand, the imperfect authority of the 

claimants, who ought to be sooner considered spies and agitators of the community, than 

duly qualified envoys. We are astonished at the great shortsightedness of Mr. Ah-ichs, 

who suffered the aforesaid persons to inquire into and spy out during 4 or 5 days the 

condition of the Fort, the sentiments of the Colonists, the weakness of the garrison and 

then on the fifth day gave them an audience on such a frivolous demand and pretended 

instructions without stating date or place or by whose order, government, prince or state 

they were anthoi-ized hereto, their base answers being also without date, while the letters 

of Mr. Alrichs make it appear, what orders are given for the maintenance of the City's 

soldiers and the management of powder and lead and other war-materials, to be used in 

time of need ; aU this your Hon"'" Worships in your usual wisdom will learn yourselves. 

It would have been better, according to our opinion, under correction, not to listen to that 

frivolously pretended instruction or to have it apparently taken and sent here, to bring 

their demand before the supreme authority as it ought to be done and have the justice of 

it examined there. Quod factum, infectum fieri nequidt. 

J\^6W York Historical Records. 255 

Although our present situation, because of the restlessness and the daily varying 
rumors in regard to the savages and also to the menaces of those of the North, at 
Wappinch's Kil and near Fort Orange, which certainly ought to make us very 
circumspect, hardly allows to send any relief there, because our troops are already 
scattered to wit : 60 men at Esopns upon the bad reports (from there), 15 or 16, pursuant 
to orders, at Altena, 15 or 16 at Fort Orange, 8 or 10 at the end of this island in a newly 
begun village, Haerlem, much needed there, 5 or 6 according to orders on Staten-Island, 
so that only about 50 remain here and they of the worst kind : nevertheless, we have 
resolved to dispatch there by the first opportunity in 3 or 4 days, wind and weather 
permitting, 50 to 60 men, one half at the expense of the Company, 25 or 30 at the charge 
of the City, to be enlisted under the command of Captain Crieger ; with him goes from 
our Council Secretary van Euyven and I hope, that the few, who, as Alrichs says, have 
remained, but will not fight, may be induced to return to their duties by the great 
affection, which the Colonists have formerly had for the said Captain. If this should 
turn out, as we hope, then we are confident that either the English, among whom are 
many of the fugitive Colonists, upon whose instigation and advice we believe most of 
these proceedings have been undertaken, shall relinquish the intended work, seeing the 
unity of our people or that our people shall be strong enough to be a match for 
them. The result will be communicated to your Hon""' Worships in due time. We 
desire once more to warn and request your Hon*'^ Worships, to take a timely care of your 
own interests by sending recruits, powder, lead, matches and other ammunition, so that, 
menaced in this manner from both sides, no more damage and misfortunes may befal us : 
above all your Hon"'^ Worships and upon your Honors' recommendation the Hon"'" 
Commissioners for the management of the City's [Colony] will please to send a lot of 
merchandises, to meet the great and extraordinary expenses incurred in their and the 
Company's behalf, as it is else impossible to keep up our credit and ourselves out of 

Letter. William Beekman to Director Stutvesant ; dispatches sent 
overland to the manhattans ; state of affairs on the delaware. 

Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Very Prudent Sir : 

Sir : On the 12*? inst., to make sure of our preceding letter sent by Mr. Alrichs on 
the 9'? with a savage, Sander Boeyer and van Nas were dispatched to inform your Honor 
of what occurred between us and the English ; but this Boyer and van Nas returned to 
New-Amstel last night, saying that the savages at Meggeckessou * had dissuaded them 
from it, as the Raritans had fled for fear of those from the Manhattans. Therefore Mr. 
Alrichs sent for me and we have together come to the conclusion (the more, because we 
have no certainty, that the savage got on) that the Sheriff Gerrit van Sweeringen should be 
despatched with 9 or 10 men overland, in all possible speed, with whom I send two soldiers. 

Sir ! Two days ago a man and an Englishman arrived here again ; this one offered 
to hire out here, the other has lived last summer at New-Amstel. They say, that upon 
the return home of Col. Juty, 500 men were directed to keep themselves in readiness 

* Trenton Falls — B. F. 

256 Colonial Settlements on the Delaivare Pdver. 

until further orders, but we can hardly believe it. It is said also, that some of them will 
be here again in a short time, to await our orders and directions from the Manhattans. 

Sir ! Last Monday I sent one of our soldiers, who speaks English and has been 
there several times and lived at Bijcker's in Virginia, with an anker of sack there, to 
learn all under this pretext and whether any preparations were made ; the said Claes de 
Witt or this soldier was there too, when the Colonel left his house for this place ; I expect 
him back here to-morrow or the day after. 

On the 16'? inst. I asked Sheriff van Dyck and the Commissary, urgently by letter 
that 8 or 10 men fi-om their nation might be sent to me for the security of Fort Altena, until 
I had received relief from the Manhattans ; I have hitherto received no answer at all. 

Very Worshipful Sir ! I shall expect your Honor' s orders and assistance in aU possible 
speed, in the meantime use all precaution ; I await furthermore some means of subsistence, 
also stockings, shoes, shirts, wampum and some garments, as the winter approaches. 

Sir ! Yesterday Capt. Jan Jacops arrived here and I learned with sorrow from my 
wife, that your Honor has had a severe sickness, but is now through God's grace 
recovering rapidly. God Almighty may grant your Honor strength and the former 
health with long life ! 

I am now, God be praised ! tolerably well again but have had fever during the 
last 7 or 8 days. I hope, that I now have overcome this climate. 

I understand also, that your Honor is dissatisfied with my transmitted accounts, as 
well for the amounts as otherwise. I declare, that I have done nothing, but what great 
necessity required ; I have indeed done no building, only carried out your Honor's 
directions ; what other carpenters have received, has mostly been drawn from the Swedes. 
I have got again with the last sent duif els during the summer into an unavoidable advance 
as for maize, bread stuii to provision the Fort and some other necessaries. I respectfully 
request, that your Honor will send me 3 to 400 guilders, for I have for once deprived 
myself of everything. Closing I'll commend your Honor to the grace and protection of 
God with wishes for a long life and prosperous administration and remain with cordial 
regards and thanks for all your Honor' s kindness, shown to my wife, 


Your Honor's very affectionate friend 
Altena, the 20'." 7"" and faithful servant 

1659, in the South River. Wilh. Beeckman. 

My dutiful regards to the General's Lady. 

(In margine:) Sir ! I request to send me 3 or 4 pieces of iron, that we may also have 

some upon inquiry, as there is sometimes a demand for it. 

To the Noble, Honorable, 

Very Worshipful, Wise, 

Very Prudent Sir Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 

Director-General of New Netherland, 

Curasao etc. residing 

at Fort Amsterdam 

on the Manhattans. 

JVeiy York Historical Records. 257 

Letter. Jacob Alrichs to Director Stxitvesant ; fears entertained 
OF the English ; dispatches sent overland. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 

I wrote by a savage, on the 9'? inst. who, I hope, got through, but I fear and have 
no assurance and as I dare not rely upon it I wrote again on the 12'" inst. by Abraham 
van Nas and Sander Boeyer, but they came back again, after having been out eight 
days, without having delivered the letter, declaring that it could not be done, therefore I 
then got ready 5 of the citizens, 2 soldiers from here and 2 soldiers from Altena and a 
savage, together 10 persons, to go overland and deliver the returned letters, but the 
abundant rumors of divers tidings, that the roads are unsafe (are such) that savages 
as well as Christians are afraid, to undertake the journey and pass over the road, so that 
I could not make any progress and all has entirely miscarried. Therefore I was compelled 
to hire expressly the yacht of Capt. Jacobs and send it there, so that we may know, that 
your Honor has received sure information of our difficulties here and to do herein what 
your Honor deems necessary and expedient. I had to hire her for going and returning 
at 200 guilders, with 4 or 5 days at anchor there. If the galiot sails from there, please to 
employ her as much as is required. We trust, next to God, that a good relief will come; 
the English have gone from here so long ago, that we are not sure of the time nor can we 
trust them in the least. We desire hence with anxiety your Honor's disposition and 
arrangement of this matter. And I'll ask God 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir to bless your Honor' g 
administration and [keep] your Honor with his [Lady in lasting] health and prosperity. 
New-Amstel [Your Honor's obedient and 

the 21" Septbr. faithful servant 

A? 1659. J. Alrichs]. 

To the Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, 

Wise, Very Prudent Sir, 

Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, General 

in New-Netherland, Curagao, Bonaire, 

Aruba, etc., residing 

at Fort Amsterdam in 

p. Express with the yacht Aventuyr, which God may guide. 

Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Letter. William Beeokman to Director Stuyvesant ; dispatches 
SENT TO the Manhattans bt sea; Aleichs and D'Hinotossa 


Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Very Wise Sir. 

I was yesterday morning called for by Mr. Alriclis, to dispatch another letter to 
your Honor and it was concluded, to send 10 men overland, as it is asserted here, that 
the roads are very unsafe whereupon I returned immediately to Altena to despatch 2 
soldiers and a letter to your Honor to which I now refer, and sent the same before evening 
to New-Amstel. But Mr. Alrichs had changed his mind and sent back to me the soldiers 
to-day, who arrived at Altena about one hour before evening and informed me, that Mr. 
Alrichs had hired the yacht of Capt. Jacops and she was to sail before night ; I stepped 
directly into the canoe and went there. Nearing New-Amstel van Nas and Andersen 
(others ?) met me, who told me, that Mr. Aliichs had changed his resolution, because he 
could not spare so many men from the Colony. Coming to Mr. Alrichs he gave as reason 
for changing the safety, as the undertaking is considered very unsafe. 

Sir! I remark, that Messrs. AMchs and d'Hinojossa are very much disturbed and 
afraid of the English and they fancy, that they will come shortly and surprise them. I 
cannot imagine this at all, for Maryland is not of such a capacity, to keep large 
garrisons. The more I think of the affair, the less difficulty can I find, but we cannot 
know, what arrogant people may do. . But we shall wait for your Honor' s wonted good 
advice and orders and fulfill the same with all diligence according to duty and oath. 

I have not heard yet from our Sheriff van Dyck and the Commissary. I am of 
opinion, that if anything came upon us (which God may prevent), they would be more 
cumbersome than useful. 

I wish further to hold recommended to your Honor the necessaries mentioned in my 
former (letter). Breaking off herewith I'll recommend your Honor and dear family to 
the protection of the Almighty and wishing a lasting health and prosperous administration 
I remain 

Noble, Very Worshipful Sir, 

Your Honor's ever very affectionate 
New-Amstel and faithful servant 

21'.' T"" 1659. WiLH. Beeckman. 

To the Noble, Honorable, Very 
Worshipful, Wise Very Prudent Sir 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General 
in New-Netherland, Curac^ao etc. residing 

at Fort Amsterdam 

in New-Netherland. 

J^eiv Yorh Historical Records. 259 

Letter. Dikector Stuyvesant to Messrs. Aleichs and Beeckman ; 
HE Condemns their Pusillanimous Conduct towards Colonel 
Utie ; Secretary van Ruyven and Captain Crieger sent to the 
South river; Augustyn Heermans sent as Commissioner to 

Jacob Alriclis and the Vice-Dii-ector 

"William Beeckman in regard to the 

following, given to us by the Hon"'" General. 

To Messrs. Jacob Alrichs and William Beeckman. 

Honorable, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet Gentlemen. 

With no less sorrow, than astonishment have I seen from the last sent letters and 
their enclosures the frivolous demand of Nathaniel Utie and your Honors' not less frivolous, 
stupid answer and further proceedings with him upon an instruction so frivolously 
made up without day or place, when and where signed or by whose authority and 
order given, much more that your Honors have allowed the said Utie to sow his seditious 
and mutinous seed among the community there for 4 or 5 days, without asldng him for 
reasons and qualification of his coming there, granting him actually, but only on the 
fifth day after his arrival, an interview upon his request and promising in writing, signed 
by the full council, to give a further and better answer to his trifling demand within the 
time of three weeks and all that upon his threatening utterances, without showing, by 
a writing or document, by whom he had been authorized thereto. Forsooth, it shows of 
bad reflection and discouragement assenting to the demand made, giving at least to the 
demanding party great ardor and courage, while he rather deserved to be arrested as a 
spy and sent hither, than to be listened to with such a frivolously made up instruction 
and without warrant ; therefore to deprive the aforesaid spy of all hope, we are compelled 
by the proceedmgs had and your Honors' letters, as well for redress of the one as for the 
proper maintenance of the other to commission and send there the bearers of this, our 
dear, beloved and faithful Sr Cornells van Ruyven, Secretary and Capt. Marten Crieger, 
present Burgomaster of this City to arrange everything according to the warrant and 
instruction given them and besides these, under the command of Capt. Crieger such 
military force, as the country's situation for the present time can hardly miss. Requesting 
herewith to receive, respect and treat the said our Commissioners as our Own person and 
to give them in the carrying out of their instruction all help and obedience, upon which 
we rely, we'll with cordial greetings commend your Honors to God's protection and care 
and remain 

Amsterdam in Your Honors' affectionate friend 

New-Netherland P. Stuyvesant. 

the 23? Septbr 1659. 

Having found the situation of affairs here as is related hereafter in letter No. 15, we 
sent St Augustin Heermans and companion to Maryland. 

260 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Fuver. 

Commission. Maetin Ceieger to be Captain of a military force 
sent to the delaware. 
Warrant for 
Capt. Martin 

Kj-ieger. Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of Their High Mightinesses, the States- 

General of the United Netherlands and the Lords-Directors of the General Incorporated 
West-India Company, Director-General of New-Netherland, Curasao, Bonayro, Aruba 
and dependencies and the Gentlemen of the Council to aU, who shall read this or hear 
it read Greeting : 

Know ye, whereas we have for the guarding and protection of the Company' s as well 
as of the Colony's of the City of Amsterdam property on the South-River in N. JST. 
directly resolved to make ready and dispatch a certain number of soldiers, to command 
whom in our absence we were obliged (to appoint) a fit and brave man, Therefore trusting 
from our own experience upon the fitness, knowledge and faithfulness of the Valiant 
Marten Crieger, Burgomaster of the City of Amsterdam in New-Netheiiand, we 
commissioned, engaged and appointed the same, as we engage and appoint him hereby, as 
Captain of the aforesaid troops and of all others, who may be found at the South-River 
in New-Netherland or shall be engaged. We order and dh-ect therefore aU upper and 
lower officers and soldiers to acknowledge, to respect and to obey the aforesaid Marten 
Crieger as their Captain, whereby our good intention shall be carried out. 

Thus done and given under our usual signmanual and signature. 

In Amsterdam in N. Netherland, the 22* September A° 1659. (Was signed) 

P. Stuyvesant. 


Commission. Cornelis van Ruyven and Martin Crieger to be 
commissioners to regulate affairs at the delaware. 
The warrant for 
Secretary van Ruyven 
& Capt. Marten Crieger 
going with the reliefparty 
to the South-River. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of Their High Mightinesses, the States-General of the 
United Netherlands and the Honorable Lords-Directors of the General Privileged West- 
India Company, Director-General of New-Netherland, Curasao Bonayro, Aruba and 
dependencies, together with the Members of the Council to All those, who shaU read this 
or hear it read Greeting 

Know ye, that upon the unexpected advices sent to us overland by Mr. Jacob Alrichs 
and S? William Beeckman we commission, authorize and despatch for the redress, 
maintenance and protection of the Hon"'^ Company' s as well as of the Colony' s of the 
City of Amsterdam affairs herewith our beloved, faithful ST Cornelis van Ruyven, 
Secretary, Captain Marten Creiger, first Burgomaster of this City, to put in order 
the policy and protection of these places, according to the instructions, already given to 

Keiv York Historical Records. 2G1 

them or hereafter to be given, upon more detailed and better report as far as possible and 
promptly, commanding and summoning hereby all and everybody, to whom this is shown 
or whom it in any way concerns, to receive, to respect and to treat our aforesaid 
Commissioners Sr Cornells van Ruyven and Marten Crieger in the execution thereof, as 
what they are qualified by this instruction, and what further might concern the affairs of 

the Company and the service of the Colony, to show all 

favors and assistance as it is proper. 

Thus done and given under our hand and seal in Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, 
the 2:3-! September 1659. 

P. Stuyvesant. 

Commission. Augustine Heeemans and Resolved Waldeon to be 
Delegates to Maeyland. 

Petrus St^^yvesant, on behalf of Their High-Mightinesses, the States-General of the 
United Netherlands, also the Lords-Directors of the Privileged West-India Company, 
Director-General of New-Netherland, Bonayro, Aruba and dependencies with the 
Members of the Council to All those, who shall read this or hear it read. Greeting 

Know ye, that we have commissioned, qualified and authorized, as we hereby 
commission qualify and authorize S'^ Augustine Heermans and Resolved Waldron to 
address themselves as our faitliful envoys to the Honorable Mr. Josias Fendall, Governor 
of Maryland and after delivering a copy hereof and our letter to demand from his Honor 
in a friendly and neighborly way the restitution and return of such freemen and servants, 
as have from time to time and especially since one year fled there from the Colony of the 
Lords-Magistrates of the City of Amsterdam and consequently from this province on 
account of debts and for other reasons and who, is reported, mostly sojourn in his Honor's 
government ; and having done this to assure his Honor in our behalf, that for the 
preservation of good justice and neighborly duty we shall do the same with those, who 
might desert to us from his or other neighboring governments. Also on the contrary, if 
his Honor might make any exceptions, delay or procrastination to this neighborly 
representation and necessary matter, to give notice and make known at once to his 
Honor, the Council and all those, whom it in any way might concern, that we. Lege talionis 
shall be compelled to announce and grant liberty, leave, free access and recess to all 
planters, servants, bondmen and negroes included, who shall or may desert to us from 
his Government now or in future. 

Secondly, our aforesaid Commissioners and Envoys are directed, to represent to the 
said Honorable Governor and his Council, what has passed in regard to the presumptuous 
coming to the aforesaid Colony of New-Amstel of one Colonel Nathaniel Utie, who tried 
to subdue it and to induce the subjects of Their High Mightinesses, the inhabitants of said 
Colony, to sedition and revolt against their lawful government and own nation, further 
did not exhibit any legal document, order or qualification from any state, prince, 
parliament or government, only a manufactured paper in form of instruction without 
time or place, where or when written nor signed by order of any state, prince, 
parliament or government, demanding and threatening in case of refusal to bleed the 

262 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

aforesaid Fort and Colony of New-Amstel, adding thereto, tliat lie should take and 
invade the said fort by force of troops hostilely within three weeks' time, if the same was 
not surrendered willingly, which directly contradicts the 2?, 3?, le'? and the last article 
of the Confederation and Articles of Peace made between the Republics of England and 
of the Netherlands in the year 1654. 

And whereas in the aforesaid manufactured instruction, delivered by the said Col. 
ifathaniel Utie to the Honorable Director and Council of the above mentioned Colony 
of New-Amstel, we cannot infer nor recognize any higher authority for such 
seditious incitement or seduction of the subjects from their lawful masters and own 
nation, much less for the demanding and threatening of those places, to which our 
indisputable right can be proved and shown by a patent granted by Their High 
Mightinesses the States-General to the Honorable Lords-Dii-ectors of the Privileged West- 
India Company, further by bills of sale and transfer-documents from the natives and 
possession of nearly forty years, which then being so, this occurence is contrary to the 
law of nations, contrary to the abovementioned Articles of Peace made and hitherto kept 
sacredly, and according to which the judicature and decision of all questionable matters, 
if any came to originate and arise between the two nations, must first and before all be 
referred, according to the last article of the Treaty of Peace, therefore our aforesaid 
Commissioners are specially authorized and directed to ask by virtue of the said Articles 
of Peace from the said Honorable Governor and his Council, right and justice against 
the said Colonel Nathaniel Utie with compensation of the expenses, already had through 
his frivolous demand and bloody threats had in the preservation of our right to the 
territory on the South -River. 

Further desii'ing by this our letters-patent that the abovesaid, our Commissioners 
Augustine Heermans and Resolveerd Waldi'on may be received, heard and given perfect 
credit, according to the Laws of Nations, as our faithful Delegates while we promise, 
to ratify, approve and acknowledge as true, what shall be done and performed under this 
warrant, as if the same was done by ourselves. Thus done and given under our usual 
seal and signature, at Amsterdam in New-Netherland, on the 23'? day of September, 
a? 1659. 

Letter. Messrs. van Ruyven- and Crieger to Director Alrichs, 
annoulsrcing their arrival and requesting his attendance at 



No. 9. A letter from the Commissioners of the Hon'"^ General and Council of 
New-Netherland to Mr. Jacob Aliichs, by which they notify him of their 
Honorable, Wise, Prudent Sir : 
Your Honor's letter of the 9'? inst., sent overland by a savage, was handed to the 
Honorable General on the 18'? inst. and although the present dangerous situation, in 
which the Director-General and Council together with the whole country find themselves 

Jieiv Yorh Historical Records. 263 

now on account of the savage barbarians, did not admit of missing any military, 
nevertheless, upon your Honor' s serious and urgent letter and request for relief of troops, 
provisions and powder and that your Honor had there not more than eight private soldiers, 
two cadets and one sergeant and furthermore that the Citizens were few in number and 
not inclined to fight, because (so says your Honor) the City had broken and curtailed the 
conditions, further that your Honor was living at the mercy of some threatening neighbors, 
(whose claims and demands in the first place are frivolous), it was on the same day by 
the aforesaid Hon'''® General and Council concluded and resolved (to show your Honor 
and the whole world, how much they are concerned for the safety of this South-River, 
which has now been in possession of the Privileged West-India Company more 
than 36 years) to send me hither with a succor of about 60 men under the military 
command of the valiant Captain Marten Creiger, which then, after the resolution 
being made, has been carried out so quickly and taken so to heart, that in less than 
three days all was made ready, which is required for such an expedition, whereupon 
we embarked and set sail from the Manhattans in three vessels on the 23 ? inst. and have 
arrived here on this day, of which we give herewith notice to your Honor, in order, that 
your Honor, upon receipt hereof, may please to come in person to us in the Fort Alteua 
or send some authorized person, provided that he be a man of proper knowledge and 
qualification, to help us deliberate and settle such directions and means, as shall be 
judged necessary and useful for the maintenance and defence of this excellent South- 
River and especially of the Colony of New-Amstel. Whereupon commending your 
Honor with cordial salutations to the protection of God we remain 
Honorable, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet Sir, 

Your Honor' s affectionate friends 

and servants (was signed) 

c. v. ruyven. 

Marten Ckiegek. 
Done in the South-River 
of New-Netherland on 
board the yacht " de 
Zee-Bears" under 
sail between Fort New- 
Amstel and Altena 
the 26'" Septbr. 1659. 

Lower stood : 
Whereas before closing and sending off this letter Lieutenant d'Hinojossa with other 
persons came to our boat and we understood from them of yonr Honor' s indisposition, 
therefore we have resolved to come to anchor before Fort New-Amstel and call ourselves 
upon your Honor. 

Your Honor" s affectionate friends 

(it was signed) 


264 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Lettee. William Beeckman to Dieectok Stutvesant ; vindicates 
himself feom the chaeges in eegard to his treatment of colonel 

Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir. 

Sir: I received with pleasure on the 28*" inst in the morning your Honor's 
Commissioners with a goodly number of soldiers, who are acceptable here. 

I learnt further from their Honors, that your Honor has experienced some 
improvement; may Grod Almighty grant to your Honor further strength and lasting 

We have received by Mr. van Kuyven a letter from your Honor's own hand, 
directed to Mr. Alrichs and myself, from which we see your Honor' s dissatisfaction, that 
we have not arrested Colonel Utie. Sir ! I was very much inclined thereto and proposed 
the same once or twice to Mr. Alrichs and Hynojossa, but before Utie's arrival ; which 
was entirely slighted by their assertion, that great mishap would arise therefrom, also 
a riot of the citizens, who were already against their Honors, so that we acted in the 
matter as the circumstances of the time and the desolate state of this place allowed it, for 
we needed delay in this matter. 

Sir ! Since my last by the yacht of Capt. Jacobs we have not received any certain 
news from the English ; our soldier, whom I had sent there, says, that the planters are 
very dissatisfied with this exploit and that the Colonel had gone down, to give the 
Governor a report of his adventures here. I hope, that through your Honor' s commission 
it will be effected, to refer this matter to our Lords-Principals in the Fatherland. 

I received only yesterday morning answer from Sheriff van Dyck and the Commissary 
upon my request, made on the 16"' inst, to send 8 or 10 men for better securing our Fort; 
they excuse themselves from it and say, that your Honor had told them through Hendrick 
Huygen, that they should not stir in case of war, but only assist us against the savages ; I 
gave the letter to Mr. van Ruyven. 

Closing I will commend your Honor and dear family to the gracious protection of 
God and remain with sincere salutations and wishes for a long life and prosperous 

Noble, Very Worshipful, Very Prudent Sir. 
New-Amstel Your Honor's ever affectionate 

on the last day of 7''" and faithful servant 

1659. WiLH. Beeckman. 

To the Noble, Honorable, Very 

Worshipful, Very Prudent, Wise Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General 

in New-Netherland, Curasao etc. residing 

at Fort Amsterdam 

on the Manhattans. 

New York Historical Eecorcls. 265 

Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; further 
vindication of his conduct. 

Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Very Valiant Sir. 

Sir. I forgot in my haste to answer in my letter, what your Honor says, that we 
granted the Colonel an interview only on the fifth day, or Wednesday ; I cannot 
remember, that I had written that, but knew well that it was Monday. I wish further to 
say for my excuse, that Mr. Alrichs did not send me a copy of the letter, which was sent 
to his Honor by the Governor of Maryland. I reminded his Honor several times of it, as 
Lieutenant Hynojossa and van Sweeringen have declared to Mr. van Ruyven, for they 
were also of my opinion, that it was necessary ; so that it appeared quite strange 
to me, that it was not done. In truth, a great mistake, not to inform your Honor of 
such an infamous letter. Breaking off I commend your Honor to the protection of God 
and wish you more and more strength, lasting health and a desii-able administration 
and remain, Sir, 

New-Amstel Your Honor' s faithful servant 

on the last day of Wilh. Beeckman. 

Septbr. 1659. 

To the Noble, Honorable, 
Very Worshipful, Wise, 
Very Prudent, Valiant Sir, 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General of New-Netherland, 
Cm-a^ao, etc., residing 

at Port Amsterdam 

on the Manhattans. 

Journal kept by Augustine Herrman of his embassy from the 


30 TO October 21, 1659. 

[Printed in Vol. II Col. History, p. 88.] 


Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Letter. Messrs. van Ruyven and Crieger to Directob Alrichs and 
council, recommending them most seriously to complete and 
maintain a military force and protesting- against them, should 
any damage accrue through their neglect. 

Exhibit of the Commissioners 
Secr'^ van Ruyven & Marten Crieger 
to Mr. Jacob Alrichs, seriously & 
friendly recommending to him, 
to complete and maintain 
the military, sent with him by 

the City and to think of his de- To the Hon*'* Mr. Jacob 

fense aside from the Company etc., Alrichs, Director of 

whereas the country's danger re- the Colony New-Amstel 

quired the speedy return of the mi- on the South River of 

litary brought there. New-Netherland and Council. 

Honorable Gentlemen. 

That the Hon*'* Director-G-eneral and Council of New-Netherland are very much 
concerned and anxious for the safety and welfare of this place, your Honors themselves 
can sufficiently infer from the sending here of such a considerable succor of troops, 
provisions and ammunition of war. But, that the dangerous situation, in which the 
aforesaid Hon"'* Director-G-eneral and Council and the whole country find themselves on 
account of the wild barbarians, did not admit of doing without their military, but 
required most urgently to send it back speedily, of this we have reminded your Honors, 
in writing upon our first arrival, also verbally on the same day in full meeting (after 
the reading of our instruction, and since at different other times, each time very 
circumstantially ; and therefore it was most urgently and earnestly recommended to his 
Honor, to rally, complete and maintain the military force, sent along by the City, to 50 
men, but we find to our great concern, that all our urgent and earnest recommendations 
added to persuasive reasoning and inductions, have had no other result, than words 
without consequence, that the utmost best should be done, to enlist as many troops as 
possible, but we are yet to be told what utmost best, what endeavors, what zeal has 
been applied and whether a foot has been stirred by the City's oflBcers. It has been 
announced to everybody by the beat of drums, but nobody came. You knew well 
enough beforehand, that in such a manner you would not get any one of the inhabitants, 
because almost all, as well as the lew soldiers, who still continue in the service of the 
City, are very much displeased with the administration of this Colony and are dissatisfied 
for reasons, best known to your Honors. For the present we shall not investigate them 
strictly. You ought to have tried to animate and induce the men by offers of fair and 
favorable conditions and promises of having decent wages, as it is customary in our 
Fatherland and elsewhere in such pressing needs. This is still very urgently recommended 
to your Honors, but what excuse could be made, why the soldiers from the HorekU 
have not been summoned according to the promise made to us on the last day of September 

iMew York Historical Records. 267 

or why tliey do not come up ; it is indeed a very absurd and unreasonable thing, tliat the 
Director-General and Council should deprive their own places, which are of much more 
importance, of the necessary military and send it hither as relief and that your Honors 
do not summon your own soldiers, nor increase (their numbers) by one man, but employ 
16 or 18 men only as garrison of one or two houses (apparently built more for private 
design, than for the good of the country). 

The Director-General and Council have therefore, as we said above, sufficiently done 
their duty and obligation. The matters at the Esopus with the savage barbarians having 
turned out against expectation (as your Honor can learn more in detail from the letter of 
the Hon""* General and Council received yesterday and communicated to your Honors and 
that to all appearances we sliall have a general war with the savages), the country' s need 
and situation require urgently the speedy return of the military brought here, which we 
therefore shall carry out according to the orders and directions of the Honorable General 
as quickly as possible, of which we now inform your Honors herewith, in order that your 
Honors may still during our stay here attend to your own defense. Your Honors must 
be well aware, that the Noble, Very Worshipful Lords-Burgomasters and Magistrates 
of the City of Amsterdam had sent here 50 soldiers for the protection of tliis Colony 
and Fort New Amstel. It was your Honor's duty, to keep them complete; if it 
had been done before with those, who on account of indigence or debts run away, 
to strengthen our neighbors (now, as it seems, enemies) and weaken yourselves and 
this province, these troubles and excessive costs would most likely not have been placed 
upon the Company or your Honors. Your Honors are therefore once more hereby 
charged most earnestly (what we have done so repeatedly) and directed to rally and 
complete the military sent here ; if your Honors do it not immediately or try to do it, 
we shall be obliged to raise a protest against your Honors, by virtue of our position, as 
we do hereby, that your Honors are the cause of the damage and losses, which this 
Colony and its inhabitants and in consequence the whole Province of New-Netherland 
may suffer by the not gathering and recruiting of the said military force and shall 
report the same in due time, where and how our Honorable Principals may resolve. 

This serves further, to inform your Honors, that we had intended to enlist for the 
supplementing of the City's military some of the Colonists as soldiers (who, as we have 
well remarked, are not inclined to go into the service of the City, while on the contrary 
many of them have themselves offered their services to. the Company), but herein we find 
many obstacles. First, they say unanimously, that as long as Capt. Marten Creiger 
remains here, they are willing to help defend this place with him to the last man, but 
when he leaves, that they then must have permission to go also, whereas they are not 
inclined to remain under the command of the City's officers. We thought to have 
obviated this obstacle with the Colonists by consenting that they might remove with 
Capt. Marten to the Manhattans and by leaving to your Honor in their- places as many 
soldiers, so that your Honor would in this way have got soldiers and we still had brouglit 
home the number, brought away (as our orders expressly require), but here again new 
difficulties occurred ; first, with the soldiers, it having become known upon one or the 
other occasion, that apparently we would leave here some of the soldiers brought over 
and they having heard this, they have said positively, according to the declaration of the 
Sergeant, that they would not remain here under the command of the City' s officer? 

268 Colonial SettleDieiits on the Delawaj'O Fdver. 

(such a bad name lias this place, that the whole river will hardly be able to wash it off 
and God may grant, that it may remain here and that it may not be proclaimed aloud in 
the Fatherland to the disadvantage of the whole province) adding thereto, If they order 
us to remain here against our will, they will make vUlains and deserters of us, as we 
do not want to remain here, except under the command of the Company's ofBcers. 
Concerning the freemen, whereas we have now found ourselves by experience, that 
(notwithstanding they declared their distress and that they could not succeed here and 
would bind themselves by oath, not to leave the province before your Honors had received 
satisfaction for their debts) your Honors constrain them to remain here, (which is indeed 
too slavish and too odious for free people and in our opinion cannot agree with the 
intentions of the Noble, Very Worshipful Magistrates of the City of Amsterdam), we 
are cautious and afraid to have anj'thing to do with engaging them, in order not 
to give your Honors cause for complaints, that we or the Hon'""' Director-General 
and Council of New-Netherland had done or practiced anything, even the least to the 
detriment or weakening of this Colony, whereas we cordially desire its prosperity and 
good progress, as much our own. Your Honors will most likely answer to this point, 
that this is an absolute untruth, because your Honors now give permission to all and 
everybody, to remove to the Manhattans, provided that they first and above all pay 
theti- arrears to the City. Several people of the poor community can tell this story 
too, but they' U add to it " When we stUl had so much left, that we could pay our 
passage, we offered it to his Honor, Mr. Alrichs, and begged with folded hands, 
that he might be pleased to receive it for our debt, but his Honor would not grant it 
and said, that we were bound to remain here four years and now we have consumed our 
little property in times of great hunger, grief, misery and distress and have nothing to 
pay, now his Honor says. Pay first and then clear out. ' ' Honorable Gentlemen ! the 
complaints, brought forward on this point, are innumerable. If your Honors wUl please 
to make use of our advice, then it would, under correction, mitigate somewhat the bad 
reputation and free your Honors from much blame, if you were to permit those, who 
cannot make their way here, to remove to the Manhattans, provided that, if able, they 
gave security for their indebtedness to the City, if not, that they promised with a solemn 
oath, not to leave this province, except with your Honors' knowledge and before they 
had paid their debts, for what advantage can this place expect from such people, 
if they are forced to remain here. You can, indeed you must not let them perish by 
hunger, anxiety, cold and troubles, (although there are significant rumors afloat, that 
several people here have died from hunger.) That does not agree with the duties of a 
Christian, therefore you surely must provide them then with the needed necessaries and 
clothing for the cold winter, whereby they daily increase tbeii- debt more and more, 
and finally cause a so much greater loss to the City : in regard to this matter, it must also 
be considered, that there is stUl some hope and likelihood, that the City, some 
time or the other, may receive her indemnification from those, who remove 
to the Manhattans, but that on the contrary, if these people can desert in their 
discouragement and impatience from here to the Virginias or Maryland, there is no hope 
of ever seeing a stiver from them ; it were desirable, if for wishes there were room here, that 
your Honors had permitted aU those, who run away from here to Virgiuia or Maryland, 
to remove to the Manhattans ; if this had been done, the Hon"'' Magistrates of the City 

Keiv York Historical Records. i^69 

of Amsterdam would in the first place not have been deprived of the advanced moneys 
and the said persons, vpho ere long will be bond-slaves of the English, would still have 
retained their liberty and above that we would, in all likelihood, not have to bear these 
excessive expenses and troubles, whereas, it is presumed, and according to our opinion 
quite justly and with great probability, that the deserters from tliis place have animated 
the Governor of Maryland to the well-known enormous proceedings and given him great 
inducements. Against our intention, we have been somewhat long in discussing this 
point, but only to prove to your Honors and all those, to whom this may be shown, that 
in our opinion no profit, but loss and detriment accrue to this Colony, if the people are 
forced to remain here against their wish. 

On the subject of engaging the Colonists we shall say only, that in case your Honors 
agree with us, we will engage (because they are not inclined to go into the service of the 
City) 10 or 12 Colonists and let them come with us to the Manhattans ; we will leave here 
in their places as many soldiers and place them provisionally (to meet their exception, 
that they will not serve under the City's officers) in Fort Altena under the command of 
the Hon''''' Vice-Director Willem Beeckman and besides these also a garrison of 20 men for 
the protection and defense of the said Fort with express orders and directions, that he 
shall employ for the service of this Colony and Fort New-Amstel and send hither upon 
your Honors' command as many soldiers, as we shall take Colonists from here ; upon 
which proposition we shall expect your Honors' positive answer, as our time here is short. 

In the letters received yesterday from the Hon""^ Director-General, his Honor 
considers it necessary, if we should be drawn into a general war with the savages, (which 
his Honor says, is apparently to fear,) that information of it be sent to the Fatherland 
before winter ; for which purpose there is for the present no other chance, than with the 
galiot. Pursuant to the letter of the aforesaid Honorable General we ask your Honors, 
whether your Honors would let her be used for this purpose, provided that another good 
vessel be lent to your Honors in the place of the galiot during her voyage. We await 
your Honors' answers hereupon. 

We intended to close this letter herewith, but find ourselves compelled by our 
position and duty to add the following for the maintenance of the Sovereignty and 
Authority of the Hon'''*' Privileged West-India Company. Your Honors will doubtless 
remember, that Secretary van Ruy ven reported to your Honors last Saturday, the 4'." inst. , 
the unexpected answer given to Capt. Marten Crieger by your Honors' sergeant. 
However to recall the matter to your Honors' memory, which, though small, is still one of 
great and evil consequences, I consider it necessary to repeat the same here. It occurred 
thus, that Capt. Crieger (as we have the habit of putting in order and cleaning Fort 
Amsterdam on Saturdays) directed some of the soldiers, brought with us, to put in order 
and clean one-half of this Fort New-Amstel, which was done immediately. And that 
every one might do something, the said Captain ordered your Honors' Sergeant Bernard 
Sterdeur to clean the other half of the Fort with his men. " I am forbidden by Mr. Alrichs 
and Lieutenant d'Hinojossa to obey any other command, but theirs" was the answer, 
which sounded to us like an extraordinary bassoon ringing in our ears ; we then 
addressed ourselves directly to Mr. Alrichs in the presence of the Hon''''' Hinojossa with 
the declaration, that this astonished us very much, the more so, because his Honor was 
sufficiently aware from our credentials and instructions, with what authority we (though 

270 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Wiver. 

unworthy) were clothed and we were therefore desirous to know, whether this was done 
with his Honor's knowledge. Having heard his Honor's answer to it, we found it to be 
more than true, as his Honor with the said d'Hinojossa tried to maintain, that the City's 
sei-vants were not obliged, according to theii- oath, to obey any other, but the orders of 
the City's officers, Mr. Hinojossa adding, that nobody could command him or the 
City's soldiers or he must first resign his commission and some other words to that effect, 
too long to repeat here and although we apprehended that against such an aflTront and the 
disobedience of our command a protest ought to be entered in due form, yet, considering 
tliat this would bring with it more animosities, which it is always, but especially in this 
dangerous tunes, well to avoid as much as possible, we overlooked it for the time being, 
but looking closer into the case and thinking about it, we find this to be an offspring, 
generated by the well-known oath, in which the Hon"'*' Lords-Du'ectors of the Privileged 
West- India Company and theii- supreme Government are excluded and left out. We 
wish hereby to recommend to your Honors seriously and urgently to change this said 
oath (according to the order and directions given upon this subject by the Hon'"' Lords- 
Directors and the Hon'''' Director-General and Council of K'ew-JS^etherland) and have it 
administered, as it ought to be, not only to their Noble High Mightinesses, the States- 
General of the United Netherlands, the Hon"'' Very Worshipful Lords-Mayors and 

(The remainder of this letter is missing, also the beginning of the following, addressed apparently to Director 
Stuyvesant :) 

Your Hon*" Worship will please excuse me for my prolixity. It is to 

give your Hon**'' Worship a better explanation of the state of aflEairs here. Before I close 
here, I request most earnestly, that your Worship will please to let us know as quick as 
possible, the circumstances of the affair with the savages at the Esopus as well as 
elsewhere, that we may make use of it here, occasion offering. Closing herewith 1 
commend your Honorable Worship, of whose good health I hope to hear by the next 
chance, to God's gracious protection and remain in the meantime with cordial greetings. 

Honorable, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet Sir, 
Done at Fort Your Honorable Worship's 

New-Amstel on the affectionate servant 

South-Kiver, the ■ C. v. RuYVEisr. 

1" Octbr. A? 1659. Marten Crieger. 


Kew York Historical Records. 271 

Letter of the Directors ik Holland to the Director-General and 
Council of New-Netherland. Decline of the City's Colony: 
THE Swedes not to be trusted. 

Honorable, Prudent, Dear and Faithful ! 

After having closed and sent our last of the 9* instant to the Texel, the ship "de 
Moesman" arrived here, by which we received your Honors' letter of the 4'.'' of last 
month. We shall briefly and in few words answer it, referring the rest to the next 
opportunity, and say that we regretted very much to hear of the deplorable state of the 
City's Colony on the Southriver and especially of the desertion of the people there to 
Virginia and other neighboring districts of the English ; these are indeed symptoms, 
which threaten a total ruin of the Colony, without a hope of receiving the least revenue 
from the expenses laid out on it. It does not only inflict losses upon the founders of 
this Colony, but also sensibly injures this State generally, as the same is thereby brought 
into great disrepute with those neighbors. Now, as these desertions seem to be caused 
by the too great preciseness of Director Alrichs, who would not allow people to remove 
from there to the Manhattans, notwithstanding that the same offered to pay their debts 
to the City or to give security for it, therefore your Honors must try to dissuade him 
from this course, as quickly as possible, and in earnest terms make him understand the 
pernicious consequences and results of it and his Honor, governing himself by the present 
critical condition, would do better to allow even the insolvent debtors, to remove to the 
Manhattans, provided he receive from them a proper bond for what their debts may be 
found to be, for by such means the satisfaction of the debts wall not be placed beyond 
hope, which is done, when they can settle outside of the Company's jurisdiction. If 
however the aforesaid Director should persist in his opinion and in future should again 
demand (the return of) people, who have moved from the Colony to the Manhattans, then 
your Honors wall do well, not to surrender them against their will, which, as we perceive, 
your Honors intended to do. It would also be of good service, if those, who removed to 
Virginia and other places in the neighborhood, were pursuaded (to return) anyway, if it 
can be done ; whereto your Honors may use such means, as shall be found proper and 

We cannot refute the suspicions and doubts arisen in regard to the Swedish nation, 
settled on the Southriver, and that the English may very likely intend to undertake 
something against us there under the Swedish flag and name, the less so, because your 
Honors have, (although with no bad intentions) apparently given them the weapons into 
their hands, not only by forming them into a militia-company, but also by placing them 
under the command of officers of their own nationality, whereas they rather ought to have 
been separated and scattered among our people, as we have explained at length to 
your Honors by our letter of the 13'? of February of this year. We stiU persist in our 
opinion and therefore recommend to your Honors to carry it into effect without delay, 
before they can get any advantage over us with the assistance of our neighbors. 

Amsterdam The Directors of the West- 

14*? of Octbr 1659. India Company, etc. 

272 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Letter. Director Alrichs and council to Messrs. van Ruyven and 
Crieger in answer to the above. 

and No. 4. 

submissive (?) answer To tlie Hon""= Messrs. Cornelis 

of Director Jacob Alrichs van Rnyven and Marten 

to the Exhibit of the Com Krieger, Commissioners of 

missioners of the Hon!'"= the Hon"''' Director-General 

General and Council, as of New-Netherland etc. 
given before under No. 24. 
Honorable Gentlemen. 

That the Noble Very Worshipful Lords-Burgomasters of the City of Amsterdam 
are very much interested and concerned in the welfare, prosperity and re-estciblisTivient 
of the Hon'"^ Prmileged West-India Comjmny, your Honors themselves can infer 
sufficiently by their sending hither such a large ship as the " Waegh," Capt. Conninck, 
with troops, provisions and ammunitions of war, in the year 1655, whereby this river 
was again recovered to the Hon"'* West-India Company and later, after the favorable 
contract had been made by the Hon'"<= Company with the aforesaid Noble Lords-Magistrates, 
by theii- sending in so few years so many people, ships etc., spending so much money for 
the establishment of this Colony of New-Amstel. By this occasion the Manhattans and 
surrounding jplcices have now, since 2 or 3 years, increased so nmch in population and 
commerce, as before they did not in 30 years. It is not unusual therefore, that 
upon the request made by this Administration and by the Hon"'" Vice-Director 
Willem Beeckman the Hon""= Director-General and Council of New-Netherland consider 
it their bounden duty to resist the English nation, who try to act in a hostile manner and 
to bring under their rule the district of the Hon"'" West-India Company and this Colony 
and territory situate upon this river ; for the Hon"'" Privil. West-India Company or her 
officials in her behalf are hound to protect us, as well as other Colonies and villages, for 
our Lords-Principals, as well as each private person, pay duties and other taxes on 
account of their merchandises and shipping-business for such protection. Therefore it 
appears strange to us, that we are reproached with the earnest recommendations and 
exhortations, made verbally and in writing, at all times, hours and occasions, to complete 
and maintain the City's troop of 40 or 50 men, sent over with us, and with sharp reproofs 
for not promoting it in such a manner, as your Honors are proposing, to wit : with 
doubled wages and superabundance of money to purchase the soldiers, as your Honors 
maintain, that loe ought and. are hound to do, adding thereto, that your Honors had 
learned the causes, and taken them for granted {although they loere deceitful) with these 
words : "for you knew very well before, that you would not get anybody, because all the 
inhabitants and the few soldiers, who still continue in the City's service are displeased with 
the Administration of this Colony and are dissatisfied, for reasons which your Honors know 
best." Hereupon this may serve as answer : that your Honors could have no knowledge 
of the wrongly assumed dissatisfaction and discord, unless your Honors had given 
inducements and chances to receive information of unfounded complaints, verbal as 
well as written ones and had listened willingly to all tales (and took pleasure in it) 

iN'ew York Historical Records. 273 

to collect and send, loithotd our hnoioledge or understanding, to the Hon^^ Director- 
General Stuyvesant all, that might be to our disparagement, lies or truths, to be charged 
against this Administration. In regard to these doings, We say, tJiat your Honors have 
not considered your duties, but we shall report there, where it is proper, the complaints 
and protests about all the losses, expenses, damages and troubles, among the inhabitants, 
which your Honors have occasioned and made in this and other matters to be spoken of 
liereafter. Your Honors say well, that it is our duty, to keep the 40 or 50 men of militia, 
sent over with us, complete, but do not prove it in any way. We therefore deny it 
positively as well for the above given reasons, as for the following : First, that this has 
never been recommended nor ordered to us by our Lords-Principals ; secondly, that we 
brought no other military force with us, than /or tJie defence against the savages and 
for the administration of justice, but not against our English or Swedish neighbors, for 
our Lords-Principals made a contract with the Honorable West-India Company for a free 
country or place, upon which nobody had a demand or claim. Yes, we Tinoio it for sure 
to he the opinion of our Lords-Patroons, that the military should not meddle, when a 
certain number of citizens should he in this Colony able to protect themselves; that for 
that reason the Hon''^'' W. I. Company is bound to protect us against all supposed friends 
and yet enemies and we have to demand, incase of non-protection, satisfaction for all 
damages and losses suffered. Your Honors say also, that it is um-easonable, that the 
Hon"" Director-General and Council should protect this place and bare their own, of much 
greater importance, of the necessary military. We answer, that this place is not less in 
need of protection than your Honors' place, than others, which the Company has in 
New-Netherland or, if your Honors refer only to this Colony, that your Honors had no 
orders, there is nevertheless the Fort Altena further up the river, the Company's place. 
If the Company or its officers think, that this does not need any protection or assistance, 
then we too must do without the same and if this Colony is our and not your place and 
we must protect ourselves, then it is strange, that with a company of soldiers you 
march into our Fort so freely, loithout leave, knowledge or information of the Director, 
and being inside taTie all commands and directions upon you, as, to command our 
soldiers, to go to and from the guard, to issue the order {of the day) or parole, sending 
it to the Director simply by a Sergeant, yes, to wisJi to take also the Jceys of tlie 
Fort, if we had yielded to this demand, and that besides you do everything without the 
knowledge or information of the Director, to whom nevertheless everything is entrusted 
by his Lords and Masters, according to warrant and instruction, even contrary to the letter 
of the Hon"'" General, addressed to the Director and to the Vice-Director Willem 
Beeckman, and contrary to your Honor's own letter, handed to us at your Honors' 
arrival. With all that, however, it ought to be understood that, should more military be 
required for the protection of this river, it would in any case be the proper business of the 
Company to procure the same or at least as much of it as the City, for the Company' s 
districts from Altena to Mekkeksjouw are about twice as large as the district of the 
City's of Amsterdam Colony. Eeferring to the Fort at the HorekU or Sikonesse 
(notwithstanding that it does not concern yr Honors and we are not bound to give 
reasons) your Honors make use of these words : Apparently built more for private 
designs, than for the good of the country. We demand hereby further explanation 
and interpretation of these words, for it will not do to blurt out every thing bad and 

274 Colonial Settlevients on the Delaware Illver. 

to make honest people suspected by their Masters and Principals without foundation 
and reason, the more so as your Honors very well know, that this was only done upon 
the order of the Hon'"'= Principals. Therefore we demand satisfaction for this and all the 
aforesaid enormities, committed against us or, failing this, we enter our protest, as we 
have already done before. 

Further, whereas your Honors have been pleased to protest upon your Honors' 
no matter how unfounded supposition, in regard to the not completing the City's 
troop of 40 or 50 men, we say, that we could not do else, but what we have done till 
now, nor that we know to have 'promUcd the re-call of the garrison from the HoreTcil, 
as your Honors say, but only of a few men, according to your Honors' advice, who 
were really ordered up, but afterwards remained for some reason there. It would be 
difficult, to buy, following your Honor's proposition, the soldics by double wages, as we 
have thereto not the slightest order from our Masters ; but we maiiitain, as we have said 
before, that the Company is bound to protect us and in the same manner, as your 
Honors have protested against us on account of the not completing the 40 or 50 men of 
militia, so we protest in case of non-protection, on behalf of our Lords-Patroons and 
all interested private parties for all the damages and losses already suffered and which 
toe may hereafter suffer and we shall report the same at the proper time and place, if 
we are vanquished by the English or brought under their subjection. We will for 
reasons omit to discuss the further allegations, that the soldiers do not wish to be 
commanded by the City's, but only by the Company's officers and the propositions 
to settle it this way or the other, but if it is considered necessary, we shall answer them 
in detail. It may well be, that some soldiers, enlisted from this Colony, preferred to 
serve under the Company's officers to serving under the City's officers, to escape their 
debts in that manner, whereas it is promised to them, that they sball be brought away 
unmolested. We cannot change what your Honors have resolved for the garrisoning of 
Fort Altena, as with the little force, which we have here and those recalled from the 
Horekil {tohich place we leave upon the absolute order of the Ilo?i*" Director -General 
and Council ) we shall help to defend to the best of our abilities this place and Colony 
against the English. 

That your Honors say amongst others "See, such a bad name has this place, that 
the whole river will hardly be able to wash it off and God may grant, that it remain here 
and may not be proclaimed aloud in the Fatherland to the disadvantage of the whole 
province" these are your Honors' words, whereto we answer: God grant, that those, 
who desire such a thing and moreover appeal to God's name for it, should reflect, if 
they are not themselves the originators of such clamors. For by whom else are the 
godless lies proclaimed to the detriment of this Administration and place, than by 
those, who 'pump the citizens and the soldiers and exhort them to petitions about 
the grievances, which they suppose to have against their lawful authority or in 
our own presence defend them in unjust cases and counsel others, that they should 
try to be relieved from judgments, given 4: or 5 months before. Upon which advice 
given, they then first reduce to writing for every one all the foul lies, of which before not 
one thought and then receive them with 2^romises to help them and decide to send 
all to the Manhattans to the Hon'"' Director -General and so on to Holland, 
without giving us the least Information of it ; it is also said that such and similar papers 

Js''ew York Historical Records. 275 

have been sent to the Fatherland by the ships which lately sailed. By such doings, 
citizens as well as soldiers despise themselves their lawful authorities and refer to such 
and such gentlemen, w7io give tliein advice and occasion to mutiny against their 
superiors, of which so much occurs daUy, that it must be complained of to God. This 
therefore in answer, t7iat such people^ s doings sJiall not less be proclaimed in the 
Fatherland and also much less shall they be loashed off by the sea, than the before told 
wrongs shall want to be washed off by this river. 

We supposed, that the English, {apparently) our real enemies, had caused us 
troubles, but on the contrary, we now find, that we shall need more assistance, against 
our supposed friends, in order to restore tranquility, than we had summoned from the 
Manhattans against our reputed enemies. For they came, as it seemed, as enemies, 
against whom one is always on guard and they had Lss influence upon the mind of the 
common people ; but these, come as friends, hav ' oeen trusted entirely and in everything 
and were received by the common man without fear, as who would receive his words 
according to appearances but not according to the truth, the more so when he was 
listened to and agreed to with all affability in every thing bad, as well as good 
and his part taken therein, means by which the seed of strife was sown into their 
minds, which has brought forth nothing but aversion, contempt and insubordination 
against theii- proper authorities and in consequence wUl cause nothing else, than 
the total ruin of this Colony and its inhabitants. What your Honors assert about the 
Colonists^ remaining here in the country four years, thereupon {we say) that your 
Honors gave an answer for ourselves ; that is unnecessary, for we do not know yet, that 
any one else shaU remove from this Colony, except by the order of our Masters. Besides 
there have never been more than two, who offered payment, that they might remove, 
whereupon it was at that time resolved by the CouucU, that nobody should remove to 
the Fatherland, except for weighty reasons, (which they had not) And it is evident, that, 
had it been granted them, they would not have been ready with thek money, not one of 
them. To advance the passage, board and subsistance for one year to them and then, 
when the year is over to let them go and the City be deprived thereby of its advance, 
that suits neither us nor our Masters. As it has been found and only lately clearly 
proved to your Honors by one Wouter Schaep, who earned a good sum in the City's 
service every week, as long as he was here and who received leave for the Manhattans to 
purchase some provisions and go and return. He went to the Fatherland in the ship 
"De Trouw" with a passport from the Hon^''' General himself, according to the own 
declaration of the Hon"" Mr. Marten Krieger. Besides that, the people being there at 
the Manhattans have every occasion and chance, to desert to the English in the North, it is 
also much easier (to get) to the Virginias, than from here, of which the Hon""' West-India 
Company has had sufficient proofs 3 or 4 years ago. But if it is so sure, that the City 
wUl have no loss to expect from their removing to the Manhattans, then the Hon"" Wtst- 
Tndia Company OJ- the Hon"" Genera^ can, according to your Honors' proposition, simply 
become security for the remaining of such people, who can go there under bail or by 
default of bail under promise and oath not to remove out of the province before having 
paid. For if it is thereby secured for the City, it must be still more secure for the Hon^"' 
Company. And such bailbonds would not be strange, if the Company gave them, 
xohereas their Honors' districts would be populated by it. In this case no ear 

276 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

was open for it, but it was endeavored to place the City iy sucli counsels in a 
difficult position only. That we will not allow any one to remove, without 
before paying or giving security is indeed not so slavelike and odious for free 
people, as your Honors describe it, but conform to Divine, Tiuman and natural 
laics, for to which has one more claim than to be secured for loaned money, especially 
if one has to demand it fi'om his enemies, as we find by experience those mostly to be, 
who have done and are still doing to the City of Amsterdam and the Administration here, 
for their benevolence, so much ill by their venomous tongues and pens, as no declared 
enemy could or would do. We answer, to your Honors' statement that the complaints 
over misery, poverty and distress, caused by our not allowing the people to remove 
during the four years without having paid before, are innumerable, that our reasons and 
motives, not to let anyone remove in any other way than this, are still more innumerable. 
Your Honors may also know, that all complaints are not to be believed {nevertheless they 
haveheen fully belietediy your Honors and tJie 2Jeople have been defended therein), even 
were there ever so many ; for if on the other side they could be relied upon and were true, 
then we might show your Honors" whole books of complaints made from time to time against 
the Administration at the Manhattans and by us never accepted as true. (As to) your 
Honors' advice about preventing, that the people should not get poorer and more indebted 
and also that they die not of hunger, according to the rumors (so say your Honors), which 
have bfcen, as it seems, accepted as truths by your Honors, for your Honors say, that 
this did not agree with the duties of a Christian, and the representation of fui'ther 
inconveniencies, which would be caused thereby, thereto may serve as answer, that, as long 
as the matter or such accusations have not been proved, also your Honors' advice given 
in reference to it, cannot be carried out and that such infamous complaints, disseminated 
against this Administration and the City of Amsterdam shall not be proved, neither now 
nor in eternity, for they are surely nothing else, than calumniations and blasphemies, for 
which the informers, who utter the same to your Honors, ought to be punished and not 
listened to in such a manner, much less the same be received as truths : and this would 
agree with the duties of a Christian (as your Honors say), while we now, on the contrary, 
from your Honors' way of writing and daily discourses must infer, for your Honors say 
it loudly, tJiat we ouglit to treat the people better, to Jceep them here, and similar 
expressions, placing the Administration altogether in the wrong. Indeed, a strange way 
of doing. Yes, surely your Honors have seen several times, how badly the people 
succeeded in one and the other case, where they believed to be quite right in their 
complaints, as your Honors have among others sufficiently noticed and seen on the first 
day of your Honor' arrival in the case of one Jan Theunis, who had so much to say, but 
when he was examined had to confess, that he had been paid by the City at every occasion 
and could not complain, being nevertheless afterwards so impudent, that he was not 
ashamed to say in your Honors' presence, that he was not bound to help defend this 
place, but that this was the soldiers' business : notwithstanding this, he was asked to 
enlist as soldier and we would give him work for a year at 4 guilders daily, provided that 
he should receive his ration and 2 guilders daily and attend to the guard and the balance 
should remain to reduce his debt : that are truly good conditions, nevertheless he refused 
them positively, moreover afterwards he offered himself to your Honors as soldier for the 
service of the Hon**'' W. I. Comp. in order to get thus to the Manhattans ; from which it 

J^ew York Historical Records. 277 

appears, that lie is not inclined to pay the City, but only intends to defraud it. Thus it 
would be found with all and every one of the Colonists, whenever they are met and 
persuaded with arguments. 

And supposed, that all complaints were true and it were not the fault of the common 
people, then the difBculty must still lie somewhere else, than with the City or her officers, 
according to all appearances with the country itself, for the people have, one more, the 
other less, drawn from the warehouse for each family 3, 4, 5, 6 and 700 to 800 guilders in so 
short a time, if they could not get along with that and get so far, that they now could 
help themselves, than the City of Amsterdam can complain, that she has been misled in 
such a manner, to spend so much money on a country and that she does not see any other 
benefit from it. 

This could be strengthened and confirmed by your Honors' counsel, that because 
there is no work here or nothing to earn and therefore they cannot get along here, 
we ought to let the people remove to the Manhattans, for otherwise, according to 
your Honors' assertions, they would get into further misery and more indebted 
to the City. Well, what kind of a country is this then? Accordingly it is in 
our opinion better for the City to gixe up such a dad place, the sooner the better. 
But no, we look at it differently, as it is also in reality ; there is work to be had here 
and wages to earn, as it has been always and stUl is and they can support themselves 
by labor here as well as at the Manhattans. But as it was said before, it is the fault of 
the people, who are not willing. This can be somewhat proved by the fact, that not 
even fuel is to be had, although 12 guilders are offered for one hundred pieces, and also 
hereby : that as long as the Colony has been in existence, nothing else has been wanting 
but industrious people, who could never be got, as is known indisputably to every 
one. But in order not to accuse the few good and active men, it ought to be observed, 
that God Almighty has continually visited and punished the whole of New-Netherland, 
but especially this Colony, since it was established, with different plagues, as excessive 
winds and superabundant rains, whereby bad harvests of every kind of necessaries of 
life for the people as well as of fodder for the cattle and consequently great dearness of 
the one and the other were caused ; then came diseases, sickness and maladies of violent 
and pestilential fevers and other weakening illness, by which many died. Probably most 
all inhabitants of New-Netherland have been visited by them, yet none so much and so 
heavily as our people here, as is well known and also can be proved by the proclamations 
of days of fast and prayer, made in regard to them from time to time. And this too 
caused us more difficulties, than to other old inhabitants, who apparently could better 
endure haid times : for this Colony has been oppressed and crushed by the aforesaid 
hardships, like a little willow in its beginning and sprouting. Therefore if any one, who 
has been industrious and active and has been kept down by the aforesaid hardships and 
has consequently reason to complain, wants to remove to the Manhattans, for these 
reasons he may be assured, that they have to expect there too, if it pleases God, the 
same, which befel them here, since we understand, that many new-comers have been 
assisted by the Poormasters, having been already subjected to the aforesaid difficulties. 

Further it deserves to be considered, that, when now lately a good beginning of 
agriculture showed itself, tlie threatening and alldestroying %oar followed, which 
stopped and overturned everything. We had hoped, that this would he set rigJd hy the 

278 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Paver. 

coming of your Honors and the relief hrougM over, but we find, on the contrary, that 
it has brought us more troubles, than the English did. 

That it is further objected for the excuse of the rascals and knaves, who against 
honor and oath deserted for their own ruin, that we ought to have indulged such villains 
in their evil intentions and consented to ecerything without reason or cause, that does 
not conform to common sense, right and justice, for such an action would not be more or 
less, than to place the rabble in office and depose the master. 

We leave it then to the judgment of all right-thinking minds, whether we have really- 
deserved to be accused of bad administration and of having caused losses and damages 
to our Lords-Principals and to the Hon''''= West-India Company, as your Honors so 
sharply are doing it. 

A few years ago, those from New- England liave made preparations to invade this 
riter, but when they tried to pass by tJie Manhattans, to come hither, the same were 
restrained and prevented by the Jcnowledge and power of the Hon^'" General, as is 
generally known. 

The Governor of Maryland, also, requested of the English in New-England last year 
assistance, to take this river, which was denied and refused, according to j'our Honor's 
declaration, because the said Governor is a Papist. 

So that it is evident therefrom, that the attempts and intentions of the English, to 
take this river are nothing new, but have been contemplated by them already a long time. 
Hence the enormous proceedings, committed by the English, lately here present, have 
not been caused by the deserters, as it is tried to impute to us to our blame, since it was 
deliberated upon by the English nearly seven months, according to their own 

The proposition to engage 10 or 12 Colonists and employ them at the Manhattans in 
place of as many soldiers, to be left at Fort Altena, for the reason that they do not want 
to be commanded by the City's officers, we judge to be not more than a pretext, to get 
away from here and thus to be freed from their debts and defraud the City, as your 
Honors themselves leave heard two or tJiree p)ersons declare in our presence, that this was 
their special object ; but if they are so extremely necessary for tJie service of the country, 
they may be engaged pursuant to the proposition, provided that they jDay their debts to 
the City before or at least give sulficient security. 

We think, under correction, in regard to the request of the Hon""" General to dispatch 
the Galiot to the Fatherland for advice, that there are good chances by way of Virginia 
to send letters speedily and safely by the ships, which go to Amsterdam or Rotterdam, 
or perhaps by way of New-England ; secondly, that, at this season of the year, it is very 
dangerous to let the Galiot make such a voyage ; thirdly, we take in consideration, 
whether the Galiot, which is a pretty large vessel and easily defended, can be spared 
during this conjuncture ; fourthly and lastly, supposed that the Galiot is sent to the 
Fatherland, we are afraid, that, whereas the term of service of the seamen expii-es about 
the spring, she might very likely remain in the Fatherland, whereby we then would be 
deprived of her. 

That Sergeant Bernard Stordeur was forbidden to obej^ any other command but 
the Director's and the Captain-Lieutenant's, has been done for the reason, that, when 
Captain Marten Krieger wanted to enter this Fort with his compauj^, of which even 

Xew York Historical Records. 279 

the Director had not yet been informed, for he knew not else, than that he shoiild 
take his quarters, as promised, in the Citizens' guard house, he commanded the 
Sergeant to open the gate of the Fort, which the Sergeant did not dare to do, but lie 
reported it to his Captain-Lieutenant, who upon learning it brought the information 
to the Director. In the meantime the Captain once more gave the same order as 
before, so that the Sergeant had to open without as yet having orders from those, whom 
before and up to that time he knew as his commanders, only upon the improper 
command of tTie Captain, who immediately came into the gate with his men. Also, 
because afterwards he has given orders to the Sergeant in respect to the guard, lilceiolse 
Tie relieved and countermanded our sentries, all without orders or du-ections from the 
Director, even without given the least notice of it, so that we have been obliged, to order 
the Sergeant not to obey any other command, as said above, wherehy certainly no wrong 
was done nor is it a daughter of the oath, ordered by the Very Worshipful Lords- 
Burgomasters, but a son of reason and justice. 

In regard to the oath, which is reqiiired by your Honors, we have no objection to it 
and in case we had not yet taken an oath and this one was laid before us by the Lords- 
Principals, we should take the same. But whereas we [took an oath, which] is good and 
does not clash with the proposed oath, therefore we think this second oath, which 
[presumes] the first to be bad, unnecessary, the more so as we sent to the Hon'"'^ Directors 
and Commissaries (among whom were at the time two Directors of the West-India 
Company) the form of the oath according to the instructions made by the City of 
Amsterdam through the Hon'"'* Sheriff and Schepen and received as answer : that the same 
was as it ought to be. Therefore we think it very strange, that your Honors give us such 
a sharp notification about it, as that all, loJio refused to taJce the oath devised by your 
Honors, should for thioith be brought on board a ship and sent to the Fatherland. 

Honorable Gentlemen, this is what we have deemed proper to give your Honors in 
answer to your Honors' deductions, delivered to us on the 9'? inst. It has become a 
little longer than we lilie, because so many causes for displeasure were given us. 
Therefore we commend herewith your Honors after cordial salutations, to God' s protection 
and remain 

Your Honors' obedient friends 

Done at Fort J. Alrichs. 

New-Amstel on the 

South River of By order of the Hon""' Director 
New-Netherland and Members of the Council 

this 16'^ Oct. 1659. 

CoRNELis VAN Gezel as Secretary. 

280 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Faver. 


therein taken a pleasure to collect all, that might be injurious, falsehoods or truths and 
send it thus to the Dii-ector-General without your Honoi's' knowledge, that in regard to this 
we have not considered our duties, on which account your Honors complain and protest 
against us, further, that we marched with a company into your Fort so inconsiderately 
(so you call it) without leave, knowledge or information, assumed supreme command, 
ordered the soldiers to and from the guard, issued the order of the day or parole, even 
would have taken the keys of the Fort, if you had been willing to let them go (as your 
Honors say) ; that we are the cause of the misery of this place being proclaimed in Holland 
(your Honors say) ; by whom besides, is your question, the most godless lies against this 
Administration are proclaimed, but by those, who pump the burghers and soldiers and incite 
them to petitions about their grievances, which they suppose to have against their lawful 
authorities or defend them in our own presence in unjust cases, also advise others, that 
they should try to be relieved from sentences passed 4 or 5 months ago : whereupon they 
write down many falsehoods, which are received by us with promises of help and to 
decide upon them, sending the whole to the Manhatans to the Director-General and thus 
on to Holland, whereby the soldiers and citizens (learn to) despise their superiors, giving 
them cause to mutiny against their authority. Your Honors continue with calumnies 
and say, we thought, that the English, apparently our real enemies, had brought anxiety 
over us, but now we find on the contrary, that we need more succour against our 
supposed friends, in order to restore peace, than we have asked for from the Manhatans 
against our before-mentioned enemies. Further that we have given ear and assent to the 
common people in everything with great affability and taken their parts, by means of 
which the seed of strife has been sown into their minds, which has brought forth nothing 
but aversion, contempt and mutiny against their superiors and consequently will only 
cause the total ruin of this Colony and its inhabitants and that we brought here more 
trouble, than the English have done and so forth. These are your Honors' own 

Now, that we begin to see and understand your Honors' manner of j^roceeding, these 
accusations do not at all appear strange to us, for how should we, who are officers of and 
have devoted ourselves entirely to the service of the Hon"'" Company go scot-fi-ee, where 
your Honors dare so roughly treat with unwashed hands our Lords and Masters, 
yea, what is more, that your Honors dare to accuse your own employers, the Honorable 
Very Worshipful Lords-Mayors of the City of Amsterdam, that they have not kept their 
promised conditions, but have broken and curtailed them etc. according to 3'our Honors' 
own letter to the Hon*"' Director-General and Council of New-Netherland, dispatched on 
the 9'." SeiJtember. But it seems that, now when your Honors observe that this Colony 
will be ruined and lost, in case no timely provision is made, you would like to charge the 
cause of it to the Hon*'" Company or the Hon*'" Director-General and Council or their 
subordinate officers ; we must confess, that we have been disappointed in our opinion and 
that we trusted more to your Honors' discretion, at least, that your Honors would not 
have gone beyond the bounds of truth, but we find the reverse, whereas your Honors 

Kew York Historical Records. 281 

ventured to call up matters and throw tliem into our faces and accuse us, which in 
Eternity never could be proved, because we never thought, much less practiced them. 
Your Honors' actions make us also presume, that many of the complaints, which have been 
referred to us by this and that one about your Honors' improper treatment, are not 
altogether without foundation, as your Honors have till now tried to make us believe : 
as your Honors ventured to accuse us so shamefully with things, which we never thought 
of, your Honors will have less difficulty to deny the matters, brought forward by this 
and that one to your charge. The accusations made by your Honors against us in 
great and lengthy detail, we find to consist in the following points : 

First, that we are the cause of the bad feeling between your Honors and the good 

2? that we have given them cause to mutiny against their superiors. 

3? Your Honors declare us enemies [by using] the expression supposed friends, 
against [whom you] say, you need more assistance, than [against] the English, because 
they have [caused] more anxiety. 

4'." that consequently we are the cause of the total ruin and loss of this Colony and 
its inhabitants. 

We protest in the presence of the All-Knowing God, who knows our thoughts, that 
these are nothing but falsehoods and calumnies and accusations to impute to us that, of 
which your Honors will be the cause in a short time, (if there is no provision made in 
season). We consider us therefore affronted, insulted and derided and slandered in the 
highest degree and (as soon as the situation of the county shall admit it), we shall proceed 
or have proceedings instituted against your Honors in such a manner, as shall be found 
proper for the example of others. 

But before we leave off herewith, we shall show by your Honors' own words and if 
your Honors' shall deny these, by your Honors' own letters and writings, how abusively 
your Honors charge us with being the cause of the bad feeling, arisen between your 
Honors and the good inhabitants. 

The principal reasons, which your Honors give, that we are the cause of the existing 
bad feeling, are these : that we have given inducements, that many unfounded complaints 
have been referred to us and that we have taken a pleasure therein and have given a 
willing ear and assent to the common people in everything and with great affability and 
have incited them to make requests about their grievances and advised them, to try and 
be relieved from sentences, passed 4 or 5 months ago, whereupon many foul falsehoods 
have been reduced to writing and received by us with promises to help them, sending all 
this to the Hon*'" Director-General and thence to Holland etc., this, your Honors say, has 
caused the bad feeling. 

282 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant, giving an 
account of the progress of affairs at the delaware. 

Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir ! 

I hope your Honor is in good disposition and health. Sir, on the 3'* inst. I was 
requested by the Hon''''= Mr. Alrichs to come with our Sergeant to his Honors' court-martial, 
because he found himself quite weak and was opposed to the Lieutenant and Sergeant. 
Having taken a seat with Mr. Alrichs, Sr Jaquet, Monsr Crato, our Sergeant and Corporal 
Marten Cleynschmidt, Mr. Hinojossa made complaint, that one Samuel, a corporal, 
whUe very drunk did not obey his order to go into arrest, because he had beaten his own 
wife, whereupon the Lieutenant struck him vqth his ratan, Samuel tore the same from his 
hand, the Lieutenant then drew his sword and struck him with the flat side of it and drove 
him with the assistance of the Sergeant into the guardhouse. The Lieutenant said, that he 
abused him meanwhile very much. After he had presented this complaint he affirmed 
the same by oath, without this having been requested. The Sheriff van Sweeringen, 
confirming the words of the Lieutenant, only differed regarding the expression : The 
Devil shall take him, who will put me in chains. D' Hinojossa said, that he had said: 
The Devil shall take him, who orders me to be chained. The sheriff, further, took his 
oath too without request or order, upon which he then made the demand, that he 
should be shot. Mr. Alrichs ordered the delinquent to be brought up. In the 
meantime I asked, whether there were no witnesses in this case. Four interrogatories 
were exhibited, (held with) four persons, who had been sworn, before they were 
examined. Their declarations, especially the third one, were not material, but they 
say, that he was not wUling to go into arrest and that he kept hold of the cane. The 
delinquent then came up, he was informed of the charge and the conclusion of the Sheriff 
by the Secretary, biit they were not read as they were written, whereupon he answered : 
I have not used any strong drink, since we went to the Horekil and have, to my great 
regret, been quite upset : I do not know anything and ask for a merciful punishment, 
if I have misbehaved. After he had again been taken out, I asked, if he had opposed 
any officers previously, Mr. Alrichs said. No. His Honor further representing, that 
the evil-doers must be punished, brought forward 3 points from the abovetold charge, 
which deserved death, reminded us of God's commands and proposing to us to take an 
oath, that we should administer strict justice according to conscience, he turned towards 
me with uplifted finger, whereupon I answered, that I did not think his Honor authorized 
to renew my oath taken before the Hon"^'" Director-General ; if he had no confidence in 
that, his Honor might then do his business without me, at the same time getting up and 
departing forthwith for Altena. 

Last night the wife of the delinquent came to me, saying that her husband had been 
condemned last Wednesday or the 5'." inst. to be banished the Colony for 6 months, but 
that as yet he was kept in chains and that now another resolution bad been taken to send 
him with three men to the Horekil, about which she was very grieved. 

Mr. Alrichs with his Council has asked me twice, whether I had no orders, that I 
should come upon his demand to assist them, when necessity required, with our whole 
garrison from Altena. I answered, No, but with 10 or 12 men. I shall await your Hon*'" 
Worship's orders in this respect. 

J\''eiv York Historical Records. 283 

I have at present 5 sick persons, I am afraid, that the baker shall not get 

Coming back to Altena with our Sergeant from the aforesaid court-martial I found 
most of our soldiers intoxicated. I was told, that Jan Becker has at different occasions 
offered liquor to the fellows upon their accounts, which I have forbidden. Yesterday, 
an hour after evening the neighbors of Jan Juriaensen came and complained of the great 
noise made by drunken savages. The Sergeant having been sent there with three men, 
found six, who were quite drunk, near Jan Juriaensen' s house; they made attempts 
to resist, so that they could not be brought to the guardhouse and run into the bushes ; 
about an hour later they quietly returned to the house and stole from Sander Boyer 2 
blankets from his bed and the Hon''''= Company's musket. I shall endeavor to recover 

There is at present none of the Swedes here at this place, who has liquor, so that 
it must surely be the di-ink of Jan Juriaensen, by which the savages are (made) so 

A thu-d or 7 persons of our garrison live outside of tlie Fort, they are married 

Sir ! I must break off and refer to my last letter by the Hon'''* Commissioners.* I 
shall herewith commend your Honor to the protection of God and remain with cordial 
salutations and wishes for a happy New- 'Year, continued good health and prosperous 

Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful Sir, 
Altena Your Honor' s ever 

the 8^" Novbr. 1659. faithful servant 


Letter. William Beeckman to Dieector Stutvesant ; Andries 
HuDDE ; horse mill. 

Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Very Prudent Sir : 

Your Noble Honor' s favor by the Galiot has been received by me on the 24 inst. I 
shall answer the same by the said Galiot, which is to sail in 4 or 5 days. This is therefore 
only to inform you, that I have met Andries Hudde, who will go up dii-ectly and engages 
to forward this immediately to your Honor. 

Mr. Alrichs consents to lend the Galiot to your Honor for the service of the Hon*"' 
Company. He says, that he does not neea a yacht for the present : if your Honor 
has to send anything, it can be done by private parties, he will pay freight like 

As to my horse-mill, I have no more the disposal of it, as I sold the same to Mr. 
Hinojossa last August ; I have informed him of your Very Worshipful Honor's request ; 
he says, he will give an answer, when th >. Galiot sails. 

♦Missing. — B. F. 

284 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware River. 

Closing I commend your Honor to the protection of God with wishes for a 
continuous health and a prosperous administration and remain with cordial 


Your Honor' s ever affectionate 

New-Amstel and faithful servant 

the 3"? Decbr. 1659. Wilh. Beecqman. 

To the Noble, Honorable, 
Very Worshipful, Wise, Prudent, 
Very Discreet, Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-G-eneral of New-Netherland, 
Cura9ao etc. residing 

at Amsterdam 

in New-Netherland. 

By a savage. 

Letter. Jacob Aleichs to Director Stuyvesant ; defends himself 


To the Hon. M^ Stuyvesant. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Very Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 


From the letter of the 18'? last per Galiot it seems, that your Honor apprehends by 
the report of the Commissioners and also by the documents and memorials, submitted to 
your Honor, that we had offended the Hon*"* West- India Company, which is not only 
contrary to our good will, for we have always desired to do all the services for it and to 
defend its honor and reputation at all occasions, but we should also, if necessary, be able 
to show, that we have done the same during the negotiations here with your Honor's 
Commissioners and if your Honor is in reality acquainted with all, that has passed here, 
for your Honor has mostly only heard one side, then we believe, that your Honor will 
judge it unnecessary, that anything ought to be brought forward as answer for the 
maintenance of the reputation of the Hon*"' West-India Company, as we have never 
harbored the least thought to their Honors' disadvantage, according to our oath and due 

[reverence] contrary, if therefore can 

prove disrespect, contempt Rulers and 

Mayors of the City of Amsterdam your Honor's Commissioners have acted here. 

We thank your Honor respectfully for the wheat and peas sent us and shall expect 
with great desire the bacon and the balance of the peas, if possible by the fii'st or quickest 
possible opportunity. 

As to the Galiot, it is accorded to your Honor and the Hon"'* Company, although we 
think, that we ought to get a higher freight for her, than was agreed upon in the last 
charter-party ; as it is, we do, nevertheless, not desire to increase it out of respect for the 

Kexv York Historical Records. 285 

Hon"'* Company, provided that the hire begin three days after the Galiot has discharged 
there. Further what is ready there of the goods to be sent hither, may come over in a 
private vessel and in case a vessel was required here, your Honor shall have timely notice 
of it and a request will be made for it. 

The reason why I have not written before this, was my great indisposition, but I am 
now, God be thanked, a little better. Concluding herewith with respectful salutations I 
commend [your Honor and all] friends to God's all-powerful protection and remain 
New-Amstel Your Honor's obedient and 

3* Decbr. 1659. humble servant 

J. Aleichs. 
To the Noble, Honorable, 
Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General of New-Netherlaud etc. 
residing at Fort New-Amsterdam. 

Lettee. Jacob Aleicjis to Dieectoe Stuyvesant ; chaetees the 


Me. Welius. 
Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Very Prudent Sir : 
Our last was of the 3* inst. overland whereby your Honor's letter of the IS'? of last 
month was partly answered. I received also the duffels, blankets and linen and they will 
be counted with the provisions towards the reduction of the Galiot' s freight, only the 
linen was not at all demanded. The Galiot shall be chartered, manned, equipped and 
provisioned as she is at present, for the time of three months, to begin 2 or 3 days after 
she has arrived at the Mannathans, to make a voyage to and from the island of Curasao 
without touching anywhere else and the charter-party shall expire, when she has again 
arrived before New- Amsterdam and shall have discharged, at the longest 8 or 10 days after 
arrival. The freighter shall pay for her each month five hundred guilders in beavers or 
merchandises at beaver-valuation. The duffels, blankets, linen and peas, already received 
and those which, pursuant to your Honor' s letter, are yet to be sent stand credi ted for 
the payment of the hire. The freighter likewise is to defray the expenses [of the ship], 

provide victuals for the [skipper and] the crew and to the skipper 

discretion. We understand that are two 

fugitives Jacobus and Jan 

time of 6 

months after expiration 


earn, what he is indebted for, above that, which is due to him ; he was brought there to 
the Mannathans against order by Karreman instead of to the Horekil. The other 

286 Colonial Settlements on the Delaware Fuver. 

thought to get away silently in the yacht of Karreman, but he was apprehended and 
placed into prison, from which he escaped and run away. Therefore we respectfully 
request, that these two men may be returned to us at our expense. Also for information, 
that Domine Welius died here, to all our grief and regret, on the 9'? inst., after a sickness 
of a few days. 

I send herewith the declaration of Hunnoysa regarding the question raised by 
Reindert Jansen Hoorn about the draft, to give your Honor some information, how leaky 
at the bottom the affair is. Wherewith I commend your Honor with his wife to God's 
protection and with greetings remain 

New-Amstel Your Honor's obedient 

this IS'."" Decbr. 1659. and humble servant 

J. Alrichs. 

To the Noble, Honorable, 
Worshipful, Wise and Very Prudent 
Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director-General of New-Netherland, etc., 
residing at Fort New- Amsterdam. 

By the Galiot New-Amstel, which God may guide. 

Letter. William Beeckman to Director Stuyvesant ; machinations 
IN his government ; burial of Rev. Mr. Welius ; Mr. d'Hinoyossa 
about to go to Holland, by way of Virginia, with a remonstrance 
to the burgomasters op Amsterdam; suffering from severe 

Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Wise, Prudent, Very Discreet Sir. 

On the 3* inst. I sent advice to your Hon*'" Worship by Andries Hudde, who was 
on his way to Meggeckosjou and promised me to send over the said letter by a 
savage. As to what your Worship suggests in regard to those, who were disposed 
to go away with Karreman, they have all come back together and two of them went 
to Maryland. It is said, that they have met Mr. Moor and are now most at the 
Manhatans. Jan Scholten and Jan Tomissen have been imprisoned in some dark 
dungeon, when they were placed in there. Lieutenant Hinojossa called out : There 
they sit now, let them now go to van Ruyven for assistance ; we are the masters here 
and do what we please ; we will teach them to run away ; they have examined them 
and many others and inquired, whether they were not advised by van Ruyven and Capt. 
Crieger to go to the Manhatans and whether they were inclined to it, before the Hon'''° 
Commissioners came here. Reynier van Heyst was also asked this question, they presented 
him, as it were, the halberd, that he might stumble. It appears also, that they look 
for some poison against your Worship's Hon*"" Commissioners among the community. 
Michiel Carman runs great danger, as I am informed : his wife has had their goods 
brought secretly to some trusty people ; they call him an embezzler, altogether they 

J^eiv Yorlc Historical Records. 287 

the people bravely. The Sheriff and Commissary proposed at the regular 

meeting on the 26'? of last month, that I should make a list and tax each family 
of the Swedish and Finnish nation with 5 or 6 guilders or as much as was needed 
during the year for the necessaries expenditures and costs ; these would, according to 
my calculation, amount to about 400 guilders. I have answere