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Colonial History 

State of New York. 

Vol. XIII — Old Series. 
Vol. II — New Series. 








Hudson and Mohawk Rivers 


FROM 1630 TO 1684. 



Translated, Compiled and Edited from the Original Records in the Office of the 

Secretary of State, at Albany, and other sources, under direction 

of the Honbie JOSEPH B. CARR, Secretary of State, 



Ho.N. Member Penn^ Historical Society. 




EiRLHmiElimS i TEE ElllISi RlfER M W lililS, 


Albany, October 1, 1881. ) 

Oeiginallt organized for purely commercial purposes, then drawn into warlike pursuits by 
the political events of the Thirty Years' War, the Dutch "West India Company thought little of 
its property m America as a colony, and took no pains to develop its internal resources by settling 
this large territory and encouraging the cultivation of its virgin soU. The close of the war with 
Spain compelled the Company to bestow more attention upon New Netherlaud and to make up, 
if possible, fur lost time. Internal and economical considerations did not alone urge the Company 
in this direction ; the interest which the States- General suddenly took in the aifairs of New 
Netherland and the earnestness with which they insisted upon the adoption of some practical 
plan to direct and encourage a sound and moral emigration, insuring a permanent settlement of 
the territory, caused the managers of the Company to pei-ceive tliat their influence would be dan- 
gerously compromised, if something was not done to develop more actively the resources of the fine 
and fertile province committed to their charge. 

As a result of their deliberations on this point, the directors of the "West India Company 
presented, in August, 1638, to the States-General, " Articles and Conditions drawn up and con- 
cluded by the Amsterdam Chamber, on whicli the respective places and countries 

in New Netherland shall henceforth be traded to, frequented and settled " * 

This plan was evidently too diffuse in some of its clauses to satisfy the States-General, nor did the 
"New Project," \ submitted by the Patroons in opposition to and curtailing the privileges of the 
Company, m^et with any more favor. The object of the Patroons had l>een at first, when they 
obtained their privileges in 1629, rather a participation in the Indian trade than the colonization 
of the country ; their new plan was to divide the province into manors for a privileged class, to 
the exclusion of the hardy and industrious pioneer and sturdy and independent yeoman. 

The objections raised by the States-General to either plan led to a joint meeting of delegates 
from the States and the Company, who agreed upon a more satisfactory solution of the whole 

* See N. Y. Col. Hist. Vol. I, p. 110. t Ibidem, p. 

iv Early Settlements on the Hudson River and the Indians. 

question. The inonoi^olj of tlie trade to New ISfetlierlaiid, hitherto enjoyed exchisivelj hy the 
"West India Company, was aboHshed and the commerce in and to the province as well as the 
cnltivation of its soil tin-own open to everybody, whether denizen or foreigner, who chose to con- 
form to certain rules and restrictions.* 

New Netherland soon began to reap the benefits of this salutary resolution. The policy of 
the Company having become more liberal, they extended their liberality also to financial matters 
and encouraged emigrant farmers by many pecuniary advantages ; in consequence we see the labor- 
ers leave their native country, where, under the most favorable circmnstances, they could only be 
tenants, to seek new freehold homes in the province on the Hudson ; we see wealthy individuals 
induced to settle in New Netherland with their famihes and a large following of tenants ; and we 
find the population increase by families from Virginia and New England, who left the latter 
colony " to escape the insupportable government of New England," or the former to pursue at 
the Manhattans the cultivation of the tobacco plant, with which they had become familiar during 
their respective terms of service in Virginia. 

Every settler \',as allowed to make his home where he pleased or where he thought he could 
plant his crops to the best advantage, subject to one rule, invariably insisted upon, the great 
importance of which in its relations to the future existence of our present State, and perhaps of 
the United States, has never been sufficiently considered. I mean the rule by which no man 
could settle upon Indian lands, unless the Indian title was first extinguished in a manner satis- 
factory to the Indian proprietors. Following natm-al advantages of soil, location, market and per- 
sonal safety, the settlers chose at first the neighborhood of the two larger places on the Hudson, 
New Amsterdam and Fort Orange, and spread across the Fresh "Water into -what is now West- 
chester county, or over into New Jersey, Long and Staten Islands, or sat down south of Albany. 
Keeping as near the banks of the Hudson as possible, they finally struck the fertile valley of tlie 
Esopus. The absence of the Indian deeds given to the first comers prevents fixing the exact date 
of the first settlement of Kingston, which more than a century later was to be the native place of 
our present State Govermnent. The earliest patent for land in Ulster county on record is dated 
September 25, 1656 ; it mentions, however, the lands of other people, who were then already 
settled there. It is true that the Dutch had built a fort on the Esopus as early as IGIS,-!" and that 
therefore we have no record of the Indian deed (our records beginning only in 1630) ; but if the 
country around this fort had been settled, the people had been driven off by the destructive Indian 
wars of 1644-45. Other evidences, brought to light in this volume, show that some farmers, 
attracted by the richness of the soil, had commenced a small settlement there in 1653, after pur- 
chasing the land from the Indians. Their fate and the troubles of their successors ai"e described 
in the documents contained in this volume; we must admire the tenacity and sturdy courage with 

* See N. T. Col. Hist. Vol. I, p. 119. 

t " II y a plus de cinquante aus qu'elle est en possession des Forts Orange et Esope ; les uns et les autres avec 
les terres et pais, qui en dependent." States-General to Sir George Downing, February, 1665. — Col. Hist. 
Vol. n, p. 325. 

Early Settlements on the Hudson Rive)- and the Indians. v 

which this haiicit'ul of Dutchmen hold on to thu laiul, wliich they knew to be tlieirs by every right 
and law, and we can only congratulate ourselves, as citizens of the State of New York and of the 
United States, that the first white men with whom the Indians of this section of the American 
continent had tu deal were the upright, sturdy, even if slow and phlegmatic, Dutch. 

Property in the soil being in all civilized countries the first evidence of settlement, the Editor 
has endeavored to collect all such evidences in the shape of Indian deeds, to be found in the State 
and other official records and thereby hopes to assist the authors of local histories, who must una- 
voidably begin by showing how the title to the soil passed from the Indians through the Govern- 
ment to individuals. Records of public offices are our most reliable authority for History, which 
cannot be written, if it is to be of any instructive value, without being based upon authentic evi- 
dence ; with it it is easy to trace the organization of counties, towns and villages, the sources of their 
fii-st population and the nomenclature of their localities. 

A glance at the map of the United States shows that the Hudson river and its tributaries 
form the most important waterway in the country. Portages of short distance brought the 
traveler in olden times to the waters of the great lakes, if he was bound west, or to Lake Cham- 
plain and the St. Lawrence if on a northern tour. The Hudson was the key of the continent 
for all coming from the east ; its possession meant supremacy over all the surrounding lands. The 
Dutch, the first white people who came to this region, found it inhabited by five Indian tribes, 
which from their language, general customs and traditions, seemed to be more closely connected 
with each other than tlie neighboring tribes. They had entered into a confederation and in a 
rude way anticipated our federal republic ; having possession of the very key to this continent 
they had become the masters of a large portion of it and ruled the tribes from Maine to the Mis 
sissippi and as far south as Georgia. The Jesuit fathers, who went among them as missionaries, 
called them the most enlightened Indians with whom they had come in contact, but also the most 
intractable. They were cannibals, often eating their captured enemies after having first subjected 
them to the most fiendish torture. The most athletic, the keenest witted and most bloody of all 
the tribes, that the first settlers of New York should have made a lodgment among them and at 
all times remained undisturbed is one of the curious facts of history, the bearings of which upon 
the subsequent history of this country has never sufficiently attracted the attention of historians, yet 
it is worthy of being esteemed most important. When contemplating the nature and results of the 
relations established between the two races, we see a condition of affairs no less startling than 
different from that in the neighboring New England colonies. The Puritans were involved in 
ceaseless Indian wars and stood more than once upon the brink of utter aimihilation ; the Dutch, 
living at the door of the powerful Five Nations, could always count upon the friendship of their 
Indian neighbors. The secret by which they insured this friendship was that they simply treated 
the Indian as a human being, as a man. Tolerant in religion themselves they did not interfere 
with his crude worship ; honest in all their dealings with him they kept good faith and took noth- 
ing from him except by purchase. Rule 26 of the " Freedoms and Exemptions granted by the 
West India Company to all Patroons, Masters or private Persons who will plant colonies in New 

vi Early Settlements on the Hudson River and the Indians. 

Netberland, adopted June 7, 1629, says: 'Whosoever shall settle any colony out of the limits of 
Manhattan Island shall be obliged to satisfy the Indians for the land they shall settle upon.' " 
The numerous Indian deeds in this volume go to show how this rule was, as I stated above, always 
strictly enforced, and the tradition of the purchase of Manhattan Island proves that even at their 
first coming the Dutch had no intention of acquiring the land they coveted by any other means 
than by purchase. 

It is needless to refer to the Massachusetts statute of 1633, which confirmed to the Indians 
the little patches of land around their wigwams, where they raised their corn and beans, and 
declared the rest the property of the whites on the authority of chapter 1, Genesis, " and the 
invitation of the Indians." It is further needless to speculate on the consetpiences if a like policy 
had been adopted by the Dutch, for the result of the policy pursued by them , based upon Chris- 
tian virtue, commercial morality and the true ethics of ci\'ilization, is enjoyed by ns every day as 
citizens of the State of New York and of the Ujiited States. The English, after the conquest 
of 166i, followed in the footsteps of the Dutch in their treatment <A the Indians, either because 
they acknowledged it to be the best policy or influenced by the preponderating Dutch element, 
who were still the majority of the population of the province. During the century of contention 
with France the friendship of the Five Nations, in possession of the great moimtain barrier 
between Canada and the upper Hudson, turned the scale and counterbalanced the great advan- 
tages which lay on the side of France. But for this, the whole course of our histoiy might have 
been changed. New York might now belong to France and the other States might still be 
colonies of England. 

Not all the Indians of the province, however, shared the Mohawks' feelings toward the 
Dutch, as the documents relating to the settlement of our present Ulster county, now first pub- 
lished, will show. The tribes along the Hudson below Albany, although treated by the Dutch 
like the Mohawks, remained hostile and had to be completely dispersed to insure for the settlement 
on the Esopus the safety and security necessary for its development. Many instances will be 
found in this volume showing how the j^owerful five nations appreciated the treatment Ijy the 

For reasons made obvious by the size of this volume the Editor has not been able to show 
the results of the Dutch and early English policy in the subsequent troubles with the French of 
Canada, and the volume closes therefore with the law dividing the province into counties, enacted 
by the first General Assembly of the Province of New York, the meeting of which on the 17th 
of October, 16S3, was the result of the principle, often asserted by the Dutch in their controver- 
sies with their Governors, of " No Taxation without Representation." It was the first victory 
of Liberty over Absolutism, which New York has to record. 


Seci'etary of State. 

Table of Contents. 

Fi'om the first recorded Dutch Patent to the Occupation of the Province by the English. 



1630. July 12. Patent for Hoboken, N. J 1 

" Aug. 10. Patent for Staten Island 2 

" Nov. 22. Patent for Ahasimus (Jersey City) and Aressick Island 2 

1 638. May 1 . Deed to Abr. Is. Verplanck for Land at Paulus Hook, N.J 3 

" Jwly 20. Lease of the Company's Farm at Pavonia, N. J 3 

1639. Mar. 12. Lease of the Company's Bouwery at Hoboken, N. J 4 

" July 21. Lease of Bronkx Land in Westchester county 5 

" Aug. 3. Indian Deed for the Land called Keskeskick (Westchester county) 5 

" Sep. 15. Eesolution to exact from the Indians a Tribute in Maize, etc 6 

No date. Patent for part of Staten Island 6 

161:0. Jan. 7. Lease of Land on Staten Island 7 

" July 16. Council Minute. Hostile Acts of the Raritan Indians since the Peace of 

1634 7 

1641. June 6. Council Minute. Conditions under which a Party of English People may 

come and settle in N. Netherland 8 

Ordinance offering a Reward for the Heads of Raritan Indians 8 

Release by Com. Melyn of his Tenant from his Contract to live on Staten 

Island 8 

Resolutions to build a Redoubt on Staten Island 9 

1642. April 7. Declaration concerning what occurred at Arraeperal in the Indian War. . 9 

Court Proceedings 9 

Council Minute. Settlement in Westchester Co 10 

1643. Feb. 25. Council Minute. Indian War 10 

Coimcil Minute setting forth the necessity of the resolution to enlist a 

number of planters " in order to put a bit into the mouth of the 

heathens " 11 

Declaration concerning the attemjrt upon Dir. Kieft's life 12 

Report of the attempts made on the life of Director Kieft hy the leaders 

of the expedition against the Indians 12 

Peace made between the Dutch and the Indians on the Lower Hudson ... 14 
Declaration respecting the circumstances under which Dirck Straatemaker 

and his wife were killed by the Indians 14 








' 7. 

















Table of Contents. 

Extract from a letter of Arent van Curler at Eensselaerswyck to the 

Patroon in Holland. Report of a journey to the Mohawks 15 

Patent to John Throckmorton for land at Yrelandt (Tlirogmorton's Neck, 

Westchester county) 15 

Council Minute. Request of the Eight Men, that Jan Damen be expelled 

from their board. Resolution to i"enew the war against the hostile 

Indians 16 

Declaration of some soldiers respecting the attack by Indians on the Colony 

" behind the Col." 16 

Report that the Colony "behind the Col.'' has been destroyed by the 

Indians 17 

Council Minute. Arrival of River Indians at Stamford to sue for peace 

with the Dutch 17 

Articles of Peace, concluded in presence of the Mohawks between the 

Dutch and the River Indians 18 

Council Minut^ A Proclamation to be issued for a day of general 

thanksgiving on account of the peace with the Indians 19 

Resolution to explore a mine in the Raritan country and to raise some 

cannons sunk by the Indians in the river " behind the Col." 19 

Patent to Jacob Jacobsen Roy for Constable's Hook (N. J.) 19 

Patent to Thomas Coornel for land on the Bronkx river (Westchester Co.). 20 
Patent to Cornelis Antonissen van der Slyck and associates for the land of 

Katskil 20 

" Dec. Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Petrus Stuyvesant. 

Peace with the Indians made by Kieft ; iron mine on Staten Island. 

English trading house near Fort Orange 21 

1647. Mar. 25. Patent to Claes Carstensen the Norman for land in New Jersey 21 

" May 10. Patent to Egbert Woutersen for land at Communipaw (N. J.) 22 

" May 11. Patent to Maryn Adriaensen for lard at Weehawken (N. J.) 22 

" June 17. Declaration of Commissary Boghardt and others respecting an attack by 

the Raritans 22 

1648. Apr. 3. Extract from a letter of Director Stuyvesant to Gov. Winthrop at Boston ; 

vindicates himself against the accusations of having tried to incite the 

Moliawks against the English . . 23 

" Apr. 8. Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Dir. Stuyvesant ; a 

lenient policy towai*d the Indians recommended 23 

1649. July 14. Indian Deed for part of Westchester county 24 

Propositions made by the Indians living on the North river above Man- 
hattan Island and Stuyvesant's answer 25 

1650. Jan. 14. Lease of land on the Katskil 26 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to, Dir. Stuyvesant; the 

grant of the Catskil Lands 26 

Indian Deed for Schodack 26 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Dir. Stuyvesant ; fears 
entertained that a war between the English and the Wappinger Indians 
might be fatal to the Colonies on the North river 27 


June 16. 


July 6. 


Sep. 15. 


Oct. 30. 


Nov. 3. 


Apr. 16. 


Aug. 30. 


Aug. 31. 


Aug. 31. 


June 26. 


Aug. 22. 








Table of Contents. ix 


1651. Mar. 21. Extract from n letter of the same to tlie same ; luiul i^raiits on tlic Raritan, 

Kil van Col and Catskil ; free navigation of the North river ; Baron van 

der Capelle's Colony ; Mohawks invade Canada 27 

" Nov. 7. Entry by Cornelis van Werckhoven for two Colonies, one at Tappaen, the 

other at the Nevesing and grant of the same 29 

1652. Feb. 13. Extract from a representation made by the Directors of the "W". I. Com- 

pany on the situation of New Netherland concerning Indian aiiairs, etc. 29 

" Feb. 15. Answer to the foregoing 30 

" Mar. 5. Letter from Baron van der Capellen to Cornelis van Werckhoven, inform- 
ing him that he had purchased the Raritan country 31 

" Mar. 18. Letter from Cornelis van Werckhoven to (?) entering a caveat against the 

grant of the Earitan country to Baron van der Capellen 31 

No date. Answer of Cornelis van Werckhoven to Baron van der Capellen's letter . . 32 
" Apr. 4. Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Dir Stuyvesant ; a 
New Netheriand bureau is to be established to check the abuses in land 
granting ; conflicts arising out of the purchases of Baron van der Capel- 
len and van Werckhoven ; war between the Mohawks and Canada Indians 33 

" Sept. 20. Ordinance against runners in the Mohawk and Seneca countries 34 

" Dec. 13. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; Van Werckhoven 
declines the Colony on the Karitan and at Tappan and settles at Nyack, 
L.I 34 

1653. June 6. Extract from a letter of the same to the same ; the war between the Mo- 

hawks and the Canada Indians ; the establishment of a trading house 20 
Dutch miles north of Albany reconnnended to attract the Canadian fur 
trade 35 

1654. Feb. 25. Resolution to provide the Mohawks with powder and lead, lest they apply 

therefor to the English 35 

" June 16. Patent to Dirck Ziecken for land at Communipaw 36 

" -A-Ug. 28. Ordinance against furnishing liquor to Indians 35 

" Nov. 5. Resolution ordering the Fiscal to forbid certain Englishmen to settle at 

Vreedland (Westchester county) 36 

" Nov. 27. Patents for land at Pavonia (N. J.) and at Communipaw 37 

1655. Apr. 19. Protest against Thomas Pell for settling on lands belonging to the Dutch 

at Vreeland (Westchester) with notice to quit 38 

" June 21. Order to publish at Fort Orange an ordinance against ranners among the 

Indians 39 

" Oct. 8. (28 ?) Letter from Inhabitants of Gravesend to the Director and Council, 

stating that they are threatened by Indians from the main 39 

" Oct. 8. Declaration as to the hostility of the Indians 41 

" Oct. 9. Minute and votes of the Council on the action to be taken regarding the 

foregoing 41 

" Oct. 11. Resohition forbidding the sailing of the vessels in port and departure of 

able-bodied passengers during the present crisis 43 

" Oct. 12. Miniite of the attendance of Jacob van Curler and Jacob Sillisakes with 

the Magistrates of Gravesend 43 

X Table of Contents. 


1655. Oct. 12. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Oapt. Bryan Newton, waming him to be 

on the lookout for Indians -13 

" Oct. 13. Council Minute of the appearance in Council of Stephen Necker, who with 
5 others had been taken prisoner by the Indians and is sent for a ran- 
som , 44 

" Oct. 13. Message brought from the Indians at Paulus Hook, that the prisoners will 

be released in two days 44 

" Oct. 13. Resolution not to pay the ransom, demanded by the Indians 45 

" Oct. 16. Ordinance against persons going into the country in small parties 45 

" Oct. 16. Order for the safety of Amesfoort and the Bay 45 

" Oct. 16. Letter to Capt. Post, ordering him to inquire, what the Indians propose to 

do with their prisoners 45 

" Oct. 18. Ordinance forbidding all persons going across the river or communicating 

with the Indians 46 

Minute of the return of 14 prisoners by Pennekeek, chief of Hackensack. 46 
Instructions given to Capt. Adrian Post to obtain the release of the prison- 
ers still in the hands of the Indians 46 

Letter of inhabitants of Gravesend, L. I., praying for j)rotection against 

the Indians 47 

Message of the Indians sent with some prisoners and answer thereto with 

the return message of the Indians 48 

Remonstrance of the Director-General and Council of New-Netherland to 
the States-General, exposing the bad conduct of the barbarous Indians 

towards the Dutch 49 

Propositions submitted by Dir. Stuyvesant to the Council on a war with 

the Indians and the oj^inions of the Council 51 

Propositions made by the Indians of Long Island requesting a continuance 
of the peace with their tribe 58 

1656. Jan. 18. Questions submitted by the Director to the Council on excluding Indians 
from the settlements and answers of the Council 58 

Paj)er read by Dir. Stuyvesant to the Council containing information on 
the causes of the late difficulties with the Indians and advice given thereon 
by the Council , 59 

Petition of Michiel Jansen for a lot in the City, all his property (at Pavo- 
nia) having lately been destroyed by the Indians ; granted 61 

Order directing Capt. de Coninck to capture the leading Englishmen of 
"Westchester and his instructions 62 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant; they 
regret the damages inflicted by the Indian raid and give du-ections for 
the relief of the sufferers 63 

Order respecting the prisoners taken at Westchester 63 

Application of the Fiscal, recapitulating Pell's intnision at Westchester &c 
and requesting that he be ordered to quit 64 

Petition of Thomas Wheeler and others of Westchester, submitting to the 
Dutch Government and asking for certain privileges, which are granted. 65 

Commission for Thomas Wheeler to be Chief Magistrate at Westchester. . QQ 











Nov. 10. 



































Table of Contents. xi 


1656. Mar. 16. Order for the clischargo of Capt. E. Pauton and others of Westchester on 

condition that they lea\'c the country or find security for their good 
behavior 67 

Order on an application of J^icolas Yerleth for leave to remove the frame 
of a house from Hoboken ; denied on account of the Indian difficulties 67 

Indictment and sentence of Sander Toursen and wife for selling liquor to 
the Indians 67 

Order for a contribution of cloth from the merchants to ransom the pris- 
oners, still held by the Indians 68 

Ordinance against lodging Indians in New Amsterdam 68 

Resolution to give private notice to certain parties to leave the country, 
because suspected of selling liquor to the Indians ; rescinded 69 

Ordinance renewing the order for the formation of villages and against 
admitting armed Indians into cities, villages and hoiises 69 

Patent to Christoffel Davids for a tract of land in the Esopus (N. W. of 
Kingston, Ulster county) 69 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant; they 
accuse the former Fiscals van Tienlioven and van Dyck of being the 
cause of the last Indian massacre 70 

1657. Mar. 27. Petition of Johanna de Laet, widow of Johan de Hulter, for letters-patent 

to land purchased from the Indians at the Esopus by her late husband 

and the patent for it * 1 

Resolution of the Magistrates of Fort Orange and Beverwyck permitting 

the inhabitants to employ Indian brokers for one year 72 

Propositions of the three Mohawk Castles to renew the old Covenant 

chain, etc., and answers thereto <2 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant; the 

prisoners in the hands of the Indians to be demanded from them in the 

name of the States- General; a block-house to be built at the Esopus. . . 73 

Affidavit of Jan Gillisen Kock in regard to cattle at Catskil 74 

List of the farmers, men, women and children sent to Staten Island since 

May, 1650, by Baron van der CapeUen '^'^ 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant ; Indian 

affairs ; the Colony on Staten Island T'S 

1658. Jan. 29. Court Proceedings. Cornells Teunissen against Jacob Jansen StoU for 
excise on slaughtered cattle, involving a question of the jurisdiction of 
Esopus ' " 

Letter from Jacob Jansen StoU of Esopus to Du-. Stuyvesant with a cargo 
of wheat ' " 

Letter of Thomas Chamljers at the Esopus to the same ; demands assist- 
ance, as the Indians have murdered some settlers at Esopus 77 

Letter from Andries van der Sluys and other inliabitants of the Esopus 
to the same, confirming the foregoing letter '8 

Letter from Thomas Chambers and others at the Esopus to the Coimcil 
complaining again of the Indians and asking for assistance ; population 
and produce of Esopus * ° 























xii Tahle of Contents. 


1658. May 2(). Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant ; Indian 

affairs ; emigrants and soldiers 80 

" May 28. Eesolution that tlie Director-General proceed to the Esopus 80 

" May 31. Agreement made by the settlers in the Esopus to remove their dwellings 

and form a village 81 

" June 30. Journal of Director Stuy vesant's visit to the Esopus 81 

" July 11. Certificate that Harmen Jacobsen, alias Bamboes was shot by an Indian at 

the Esopus 87 

" Aug. 8. Letter from Sergeant Loureus at the Esopus to Dir. Stuyvesant ; the 

Indians renew their insolence ; a supply of ammunition is needed 88 

" Aug. 13. Minute of tlie Council of Fort Orange. Appearance in Court of fifteen 

Mohawk sachems with a French prisoner, whom they desire to return to 

the Governor of Trois Rivieres, and action of the Court 88 

" Aug. 26. Letter from Sergeant Lourens to Dir. Stuyvesant ; faihu-e of the crops in 

the Esopus ; movements of the Indians '. 89 

" Sept. 3. Complaint against Christopher Davids, an Englishman, for spreading a 

false report among the Highland Indians 90 

" Sept. 28. Letter from Andries van der Sluys, at the Esopus, to Dir. Stuyvesant, 

asking to be appointed schoolmaster at Esopus 91 

" Sept. 28. Letter from Sergt. Lourens, at the Esopus, to Dir. Stuyvesant ; the bridge 

swept away ; failure of the oats crop ; the Director's farm 91 

" Oct. 8. Minutes of the Court at Fort Orange. Mohawks come to inquire for the 

Frenchman, whom they hrought in two months before ; desire to go to 

Canada and make a peace with the French 92 

" Oct. 9. Minute of the Directoi-'s departure for the Esopus 93 

" Oct. 15. Proposals made to the Esopus Indians and their answers 93 

" Oct. 18. Instructions for Ensign Dirck Smith, commander at the Esopus 95 

" Oct. 28. Letter of Jacob Jansen Stoll, at the Esopus, to Dir. Stuyvesant; the 

Indians do not surrender the land according to agreement 96 

" Oct. 29. Letter from the same to tlie same ; the Indians have made a conveyance 

of the land as agreed and ask for a present 96 

1659. Feb. 13. Extract from a letter of the Directoi-s in Holland to Stuyvesant; they 

approve of the proceedings at the Esopus and will send clergymen 98 

" Apr. 5. Coiirt Proceedings at Fort Orange. Action about a bi'idge at Esopus ... . 98 
" Apr. 25. Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant in regard 

to copper mines in the Nevesingh and a crystal mountain in the Katskils, 99 
" May 24. Letter from Sergt. Lourens to Dir. Stuyvesant on affairs at the Esopus. . . 99 
" July 23. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland; 

nothing is known of a copper mine in the Nevesinghs 100 

" Aug. 4. Letter from Sergt. Lourens to Dir. Stnyvesant; the Indians are dissatisfied, 

and the crops had to be cut under an ai'med guard 100 

" Aug. 4. Minute of the Court of Fort Orange. Arrival of Major-General Haw- 
thorn and Captain John Pinchon, proposing to take up land east of 

Wappingers creek 101 

" Aug. 11. Letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to Sergt. Lorn-ens at the Esopus; Eev. Dr. 

Bloem proceeds thither to take charge of the congregation 101 

Ihhle of Contents. xiii 


1659. Aug. 11. Letter from the same to Sergt. Lourcns at the Esopus ; rev. Mr. Megapo- 

leiisis proceeds tliither ; increased vigilance recommended 102 

" Aug. 17. Proposals of the Esopus Indians and the answers of the Dutch thereto.. . 102 

" Aug. 17. Petition of inhabitants of the Esopus requesting, that the Rev. Mr. Bloem 

be appointed their minister 103 

No date. Statement regarding the fears of the people at the Esopus and their 

reasons for it 104 

" Aug. 21. Letter from Sergt. Lourens to Dir. Stuyvesant ; Indian news and request 

for supplies 105 

" Sept. 1. Letter from the same to the same ; the Esopus Indians are preparing for 

war 105 

" Sept. 4. Proposals made by the Esopus Indians • 106 

" Sept. 4. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland ; a 
settlement on Wappingers kil recommended ; Indian murders and causes 
thereof ; reinforcements sent to the Esopus 107 

" Sept. 6. ) Minutes of the Court at Fort Orange. Propositions made by the Mohawks, 

" Sept. 16. ) and action thereon 108 

'' Sept. 17. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland ; no 
news from the Esopus, but reinforcements have been sent there ; equip- 
ments for cavalry required ; Rev. Harmanus Bloem to go to the Esopus ; 
settlement on "Wappingers kil again urged 110 

" Sept. 17. Letter from Jacob Jansen Stoll, at the Esopus, to Dir. Stuyvesant: all 

quiet on the Esopus Ill 

" Sept. 24. Final answer given to the Mohawks at tlieir first Castle Kaghnuwaga. ... 112 

" Sept. 27. Order, given by the Court at Fort Orange, that no oflFense shall be given 

to the Indians under severe penalties 114 

" Sept. 22. ) Letter from Ensign Smith to Dir. Stuyvesant, enclosing a report of the ris- 

" Sept. 29. ) ing of the Esopus Indians and of a colhsion with them; war is declared 114 

" Sept. 26. Letter from Yice-Director Lamontagne at Fort Orange to Stuyvesant with 

particular's of the troubles at the Esopus 115 

" Sept. 29. Letter from Jacob Jansen Stoll and others at the Esopus to Stuyvesant re- 
porting the late conflict with the Indians 116 

" No date. Declaration made by inhabitants and soldiers at the Esopus, that Ensign 

Smith did not order an attack on the Indians 117 

" Sept. 29. Letter from Ensign Smith at Esopus to Vice-Director La Montagne at Fort 

Orange ; progress of the war with the Indians 117 

" No date. Letter from inhabitants of the Esopus to Dir. Stuyvesant ; the settlers are 

besieged in the Fort; no blame can be attached to Ensign Smith 118 

" Oct. 3. Letter from Sergt. Lowrens to the same, written while a prisoner among 

the Indians 119 

" No date. Declaration of certain Katskil Indians as to the origin of the collision with 

the Indians at the Esopus 119 

" Oct. 9. Extract from a Letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant ; Melyn 
surrenders the patroonship of Staten Island ; no new colonies to be 
established in New-Netherland 121 

" Oct. 19. Propositions made by the Mohawks to the Court of Fort Orange 122 

xiv Table of Contents. 


1659. Oot. 20. Letter from Ensign Smith at the Esopus to Dii\ Stuyvesant ; progress of 

affairs 122 

" Oct. 21. Letter from Vice-Director La Moutagne at Eort Orange to Ensign Smith ; 
Mohawlc and Mohigan delegates are sent to the Esopus to arrange an 
armistice 123 

" Oct. 29. Extract from a Letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland ; bad 
condition of the country ; siege of Esopus ; failure to raise volunteers ; 
Stuyvesant at the Esopus with reinforcements 123 

" Nov. 1. Letter from Ensign Smith to Dir. Stuyvesant ; an armistice concluded with 

the Indians at the Esopus 126 

" Nov. 13. Letter from the same to Vice-Director La Montagne at Fort Orange ; pro- 
gress of affairs at the Esopus 127 

" Nov. 18. Court minutes of Fort Orange. On the situation with the Esopus Li- 

dians 127 

" Dec. 11. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant (in his own hand) to Ensign Smith at the Eso- 
pus ; instructions for the treatment of the Indians 128 

" Dec. 17. Letter from Ensign Smith to Dir. Stuyvesant ; reports on the state of affairs 

at the Esopus 129 

" Dec. 22. Extract from a Letter of the Directors in Holland to Dir. Stuyvesant; 
English settlements on the North river must be prevented ; Rev. Har- 
manus Bloem retiirns to New-Netherland 129 

" Dec. 26. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland ; atti- 
tude of the savages at the Esopus 130 

" Dec. 28. Letter from Ensign Smith to Mr. La Montagne at Fort Orange on affaii's at 

the Esopus 131 

" Dec. 28. Letter from the same to Dir. Stuyvesant on the same subject 132 

1660. Jan. 16. Letter from Abraham Staas of Beverwyck to Dir. Stuyvesant ; disposition 

of the Esopus Indians ; the Mohawks promise to make peace with the 

Canada Indians 132 

" Jan. 16. Letter from Vice-Director La Montagne at Fort Orange to the same report- 
ing progress of the affairs at the Esopus 133 

" Jan. 19. Letter from Ensign Smith to the same; ague prevalent at the Esopus; 

heavy snow storms 134 

" Jan. 29. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to (Ensign Smith) at the Esopus recommend- 
ing caution and civility towards the Indians 134 

" Feb. 5. Letter from Ensign Smith to Vice-Director La Montagne ; condition of 

affairs at his post ; strength of his garrison 135 

] Proposals of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Council regarding the measures to be 
adoj^ted against the hostile Indians at the Esopus and answers of the 

Council 135 

Resolution to declare war against the Esopus Indians 142 

Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Vice-Du-ector at Curasao ; 
regarding negroes, who are to be sent from there to the Manhattans and 

might be employed against the Indians 142 

Feb. 24. Letter from Ensign Smith to Vice-Dir. La Montagne ; affairs at the Eso- 
pus 143 









Table of Contents. xv 

1660. Feb. 25. Petition of Nicolas Varleth for the use of the Company's yacht for a voy- 
age to Virginia and Resolution to grant the petition and send an offi- 
cer in it to Virginia to enlist soldiei's 144 

" Feb. 25. Proclamation appointing a day of general fasting and prayer on account of 

the Indian troubles 144 

" Feb. 27. Commission of Nicolas Varleth and Bryan Newton as envoys to Virginia 

and their instructions 145 

" Mar. 6. Treaty of Peace renewed with Long Island, Staten-Ieland and New Jer- 
sey Indians 147 

" Mar. 9. Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Dir. Stuyvesant ; the 
Esopus Indians must be punished ; no English settlement near Fort 
Orange can be permitted 149 

" Mar. 15. Minute of the appearance in Council of the Chief of the Wappings, sent 

by the Esopns to make peace with the Dutch 150 

" Mar. 15. Commission providing for the administration of public affairs during the 

Director's absence at the Esopus 151 

" Mar. IS. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant in the Esopus to Secretary van Euyven ; the 

Esopus Indians have been attacked and defeated 151 

" Mar. 22. Letter from Secretary van Ruyven to the villages near New- Amsterdam, 

warning them against suii^rises by Indians 152 

" Mar. 25. Proclamation of war against the Esopus Indians 152 

" Mar. 29. Muster roll of the Company at the Esopus 153 

" Mar. 29. Letter from Ensign Smith to Dir. Stuyvesant; affairs at the Esopus 154 

" Mar. 29. Letter from the Directors in Holland to Dir. Stuyvesant ; Rev. Harmanus 

Bloem goes to take charge of the church at Esopus 155 

" Apr. 1. Resolutions adopted by the Court of Rensselaerwyck during the Esopus 

troubles 155 

" Apr. 5. Letter from Ensign Smith to Dir. Stuyvesant ; the Esopus Indians are 

growing very insolent 156 

" Apr. 9. Letter from the same to Secr'y van Ruyven ; sku-mish with the Indians. 157 

" Apr. 16. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; Roeloff Swartwout 

appointed Sheriff at the Esopus ; Rev. Bloem 158 

" Apr. 15. Commission and lustriictions for the new Sheriff at the Esopus 158 

" Apr. 12. Order directing the people li\'ing scattered throughout the country, to form 

hamlets and villages 160 

" Apr. 15. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Ensign Smith at the Esopus; the attack on 

the Indians approved and reinforcements sent 160 

'• Apr. 15. Letter from the same to Vice-Dir. La Montague at Fort Orange ; informa- 
tion requested whether other Indians are in league with the Esopus. . . . 161 

" Apr. 21. Letter from the Magistrates at Fort Orange to Ensign Smith at the Esopus, 
with proposals made by Katskil and Moliigan Indians in regard to the 
Esopus 161 

" Apr. 21. Extract from a Letter of Du-. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland ; the 
English project of a settlement on the North river ; report on the Eso- 
pus war , 162 

Table of Contents. 

1660. Apr. 24. Letter from Ensign Smith to Dir. Stuyvesant; all quiet on the Esopus; 

negotiations with the Indians 164 

Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Ensign Smith with directions for the nego- 
tiations with and treatment of the Indians 165 

Instructions for Claes de Ruyter, sent to the Esopus to negotiate with the 
Indians 165 

Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Ensign Smith ; state of affairs ; the agri- 
cultural importance of Esopus 166 

Conference between the Director-General and his Council and the Chiefs 
of the "New Jersey, Westchester, etc. tribes. Peace concluded with the 
"Wrappings 166 

Conference between Dir. Stuyvesant and three chiefs of the Mohicans con- 
cerning a peace with the Esopus Indians 168 

Eesolution in Council to transj)ort to Cura9ao all but two or three of the 
lately captured Esopus Indians 169 

Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Ensign Smith at the Esopus ; desires to 
treat directly with the Esopus Indians ; hostilities against them to be 
renewed, if they do not seem willing to sue for peace 169 

Letter from Ensign Smith to Du-. Stuyvesant ; a raid made on an Indian 
village and its result 170 

Conference between the Director-General and the Chiefs of Hackensack 
and Haverstraw. An armistice is granted to the Esopus Indians 171 

Commission for Claes de Kuyter to accompany the Chiefs to Esopus to 
receive the proposals of the Indians there and his instructions 172 

Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Ensign Smith, directing him to cease hos- 
tilities, if the Esopus Indians are willing to make peace 174 

Letter from Ensign Smith to Dir. Stuyvesant, with the particulars of a 
conference held with the Esopus Indians 174 

Resolution in Council, that the Director proceed to the Esopus and eon- 
elude a peace wath the Indians 174 

Letter from Vice-Dir. La Montague, at Fort Orange, to StTiyvesant ; In- 
dian brokers ; Mohawks and Senecas cut off a French fort 175 

Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Ensign Smith respecting affairs at the Esopus 175 

Extract from a letter of tlie Director and Council to the Directors in Hol- 
land ; they defend their course against the Indians and object to the 

appointment of a sheriff at the Esoj)us 176 

" June 29. Petition of Dirck Jansen and another for payment of hii'e for their sloop, 

used for the public service at Esopus and order thereon 177 

" June 29. Order for the transportation to CuraQao of the captured Indians 178 

" July 5. Appointment of Martin Cregier and Oloff Stevenson van Cortland to 

accompany the Director to the Esopus 178 

" July 5. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Yice-Director at Cura9ao, 

regarding the Indians sent there 179 

" July 15. Treaty of peace concluded with the Esopus Indians 179 

" July 26. Extract from a letter of the Council to the Directors in Holland communi- 
cating the conclusion of the peace at the Esopus 181 



























Jime 21. 

June 15. 

June 18. 
June 25. 

Table of Contents. xvii 


1660. Aug. 5. Minute of the retiu-n of tlie Director and party from the Esopus and 

Journal of the Director, inchiding report of a 181 

" July 25. Conference held at Fort Orange between the Director-General and the 

Senecas 181 

" Aug. 17. Lease of a farm at Claverack (Columbia county) 186 

" Sept. 2. Petition of Rev. Hermanns Bloem and Kev. Henricus Selynus for an 
allowance for board wjiile delayed on the way to their destination, resp. 
the Esopus and Brooklyn 186 

" Sept. 20. Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Dir. Stuyvesant ; 
news of the peace with the Esopus received with pleasure ; are aston- 
ished at the objections to Swartwout's appointment as sheriff at the 
Esopus 187 

« Sept. 23. ) . . 

" SpDt 30 ) "stations for payment for losses and expenses during the Indian troubles. 188 

" Oct. 6. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland ; Rev. 

Bloem in charge at Esopus; Sergt. Lourens returns to Holland well 

recommended 189 

" Nov. 27. Report of Dir. Stuyvesant's visit to Esopus and Fort Orange 189 

" Dec. 9. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland; 

fears are entertained that the peace with the Esopus Indians will not be 

of long duration 190 

" Dec. 13. Letter from Sergt. Christian Nyssen, at the Esopus, to Dh-. Stuyvesant on 

the state of affairs at the Esopus 190 

1661 Jan. 22. Proposals made by the chiefs of the Mohawks at Fort Orange 191 

" Jan. 29. Letter from the Magistrates at Fort Oi-ange to Dir. Stuyvesant ; peace 

negotiations among the Indians 191 

" Jan. 25. Indian deed for an island in the Esopus 192 

" Feb. 2. Deposition in regard to the division of land at the Esopns in 1651 192 

" Feb. 8. Indian deed for an island in Hudson's river opposite Bethlehem (Albany 

county) 193 

" Feb. 15. (0. s.) Letter from John Stickland, at Huntington, L. I., to , 

requesting him to ascertain, whether the place called Achter CviU be 

open to settlement 193 

" Mar. 4. Contract between inhabitants of Esopns and Rev. H. Bloem 191 

" Mar. 25. Ordinance of the Court of Rensselaerswyck forbidding the trading with 

Indians in the woods 194 

" Apr. 16. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Vice-Director at Cura9ao, 

recalling the Lidian prisoners sent there 194 

" Apr. 29. Letter from John Stickland, of Huntington, L. I., to Capt. Brian Newton, 

inquiring whether the country on the Achter Cull is open for settlement 195 

" May 2. Allotment and distribution of lots in the Esopus 195 

" May 5. Appointment of Magistrates for the Esopus settlement 196 

" May 16. Instructions for the Court of Justice at Wiltwyck 196 

" May 16. Petition of Roeloff Swartwout to be appointed sheriJQE for the Esopns 

settlement 199 

xviii Table of Contents. 


1661. May 23. His commission as sheriff 199 

" May 23. CouBcil Minute. Cornelis Melyn refuses to surrender the soil of Staten 

Island to the W. I. Company 200 

" Jime 14. Letter from Sheriff Swartwout to Dir. Stuyvesant acknowledging the 

receipt of the instructions and asking for copies of ordinances 201 

" June 15. Muster-roll of the Company at the Esopus ^ . 201 

" June 16. Report of Claes de Euyter on the result of his visit to the Esopus Indians, 202 
" June 18. Letter from Arent van Curler, at Eensselaerswyck, to Dir. Stuyvesant, 
requesting authority to purchase and settle a great flat hack of Fort 

Orange (Schenectady), and order granting the request 202 

" Jime 24. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant and Council to the Commissaries at Fort 
Orange in answer to a remonstrance against the settlement of the great 

Mohawk flat (Schenectady) 203 

" July 21. Extract from a letter of the same to the Directors in Holland ; the Esopus 
and other Indians suspected of evil designs ; the militia question dis- 
cussed; Swartwout, Sheriff of Esopus; condition of Staten Island 204 

" Aug. 22. Petition of Peter Billon and other recently arrived emigrants for land on 

Staten Island 206 

" Aug. 27. Report on the state of feeling among the Katskil and Esopus Indians. . . . 207 
" Sept. 5. Commission of Tieleman van Vleek as Sheriff of Bergen (N. J.) ....... . 207 

" Sept. 5. Ordinance erecting a Court of Justice at Bergen (N. J.) 208 

" Nov, 8. Letter from Matthew Gilbert of Milford, Conn., to Dir. Stuyvesant, in the 
name of a company in ISTew England, who desire to settle at Achter Cull, 
and Propositions agreed upon in hehalf of the company to be submitted 

to Dir. Stuyvesant 208 

" Nov. 28. Answer of Dir. Stuyvesant and Council to the foi'egoing 210 

" Nov. 12. Ordinance imposing a land tax at Esopus to defray the expenses of build- 
ing a house for the minister 211 

" Nov. 18. Ordinance for the observance of the Sabbath, prevention of fires, etc., at 

Esopus 211 

" Nov. 22. Ordinance for the construction of a new road in the Esopus 211 

" Nov. 24. Ordinance for the speedy collection of arrears due on the house and salary 

of the minister at Esopus 211 

" Nov. 15. Account of the excise in Wiltwyck 212 

" Nov. 19. Extract from a letter of Yice-Dir. La Montague, at Fort Oi-ange, to Stuy- 
vesant, regarding bricks purchased for and sent to Domiue Bloem at 

Esopus 212 

" Nov. 25. Ordinance directing the fencing and improving of the lands and lots at 

the Esopus 213 

No date. Names of persons who supphed wheat at the Esopus, and list of those 

who subscribed for the support of the preacher 213 

" Dec. 22. Order on a petition of the ferryman between Bergen (N. J.) and the 

Manhattans, for the establishment of rates of ferriage 214 

" Dee. 22. Petition of the inhabitants of Bergen (N. J.) for additional land and order 

thereon 214 

Table of Contents. xix 


1662. Jan. 5. Com"t Proceedings. Judgment in a suit for expenses incurred in canying 

dispatches daring the late Esopns war 215 

" Jan. 12. Letter from the magistrates at Fort Orange to Dir. Stuyvesant ; the grant 

made to Arent van Curler of the Great Flat on the Mohawk 215 

" Feb. 12. Ordinance of the Court of Bergen (N. J.) for the construction of a public 

well in the village 216 

" Mar. 11. Further answer of Dir. Stuyvesant to the proposals of Gilbert and others 
of ]^ew Haven, stating the conditions on which they may settle at 

Achter Cull, with a private letter to Mr. Eobert Treat 216 

" Mar. 30. Warrant empowering the Hackensack chiefs to seize any brandy found in 
their country and bring it with the persons selling it to New Amster- 
dam 218 

" Apr. 6. Petition of Arent van Curler for a sm-vey of the Great Flat on the Mohawk, 219 
" Apr. 6. Petition of Philipp Pieterse Schuyler and others for leave to plant a new 

village at the Great Esopus 219 

" May 4. Lease of lot No. 4 in the new village at the Esopus 220 

" May 30. Further answer to the proposals of the New Haven Company concerning 

the settlement on the Achter Cull 221 

" June 15. Minute of Council, rejecting the petition of Jurian Teunissen to keep a 

tavern at Esopus 222 

" June 29. Petition of Sergt. Nyssen, at the Esopus, for an increase of pay 222 

" July 15. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland on 

the militia cjuestion ; threats of the Esopus Indians 223 

" July 24. Coimcil Minute. Letters received from the Governors of Massachusetts 
and Nova Scotia complaining of an attack made by the Mohawks on one 

of the English trading posts 224 

" Aug. 1. A copy of propositions made unto the Macpias by Thomas Gardner and 
Nathl. Walker, of Penobscott Fort, and a true relation of the Maques 

coming to Penobscott Fort, and what they did 224 

" Aug. 5. Ordinances regulating the trade with the Indians 227 

" Aug. 16. Letter from Sheriff Swartwout at the Esopus to Dir. Stuyvesant concern- 
ing a recent alarm at the Esopus and its cause 227 

" Sept. 5. Letter from the same to the same; afEairs at the Esopus; evils arising from 

the unlimited sale of liquor to Indians .' 228 

No date, Kevenue and Expenditures of the Village of Wiltwyck, including the build- 
ing of the Minister's house ; list of the lots newly laid out and of the 

old lots 229 

" Sept. 26. Contract to do farm work at Schenectady 231 

" Oct. 16. Appointment of Magistrates for the village of Bergen 231 

" Oct. 16. Ordinance against the burning of straw and other refuse combustibles in 

Wiltwyck 231 

" Oct. 11. Petition of the Magistrates of Wiltwyck for a supply of powder and lead 231 
" Nov. 27. Ordinance against selling grain at the Esopus by the unstamped measure . 232 
" Nov. 27. Ordinance against receiving in pawn arms, clothing, etc., belonging to 

soldiers stationed at Wiltwyck 232 

" Nov. 27. Ordinance against making openings in the paUisades around Wiltwyck. . . 232 

XX Table of Contents. 


1662. No date. Petition of the Magistrates of Bergen (N. J.) asking to be provided with 

a clergyman with lists of those, who will contribute to his support. . . . 232 
" Dec. 28. Petition of inhabitants of Bergen (N. J.) and Communijjaw against fencing 

in certain lauds and order thereon 234 

" Dec. 28. Summons to the Sheriff and Magistrates of Bergen (N. J.) to answer a 

complaint made by the ferryman 234 

1663. Jan. 4. Order for the survey of a certain tract of land in dispute at Bergen 235 

" Jan. 4. Order in the case of the Ferryman of Bergen against the Magistrates .... 235 
" Jan. 15. Letter from Thomas Chambers and other militia officers of Wiltwj'ck to 

Dir. Stuyvesant, complaining that the Magistrates had pulled down an 
Ordinance for the regulation of the militia enclosing the Ordinance. . . . 235 

" Jan. 24. Letter from the Magistrates of Wiltwyck to Dir. Stuyvesant ; danger of 
selling liquor to tlie Indians ; the new village ; reasons for disapproving 
the foregoing ordinance 237 

" Mar. — . Nomination of Magistrates for Wiltwyck 238 

" Mar. 30. Ordinance passed by the Director-General, while at the Esopus, for the per- 
fecting of titles to land at Wiltwyck and for the more speedy settlement 
of the place \ 239 

" Mar. 26. Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant ; they ap- 
prove of the proposed English Colony at Achter Cull ; war between the 
Mohawks and the English ; necessity of acquiring the Mohawk country ; 
immense beaver trade of the Senecas 239 

" Apr. 5. Appointment of officers for Wiltwyck 240 

" Apr. 5. Deed to Hendrick Cornelissen for land on the Esopus 240 

" Mar. 31. Petition of Cornelis Barentsen Slecht for a grant of certain lands at the 

Esopus and order thereon 241 

'• Mar. 7. Petition of the Overseers of the New Village on the Esopus, praying that 
measures be adopted to pacify the Indians • and a military force be sent 
for their protection 242 

" Mar. 23. Like petition of the Owners of the New Village, praying also for the 

right of way through Wiltwyck 243 

" May 10. Order in Council on the foregoing petitions 243 

" May 9. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to (Vice-Dir. La Montagne) at Fort Orange ; 
a sm-veyor goes to survey and lay out lots on the Great Mohawk Flat 
(Schenectady) ; a pledge to be signed by the settlers before tliey can 
obtain land 244 

" May 19. Extract from a letter of Vice-Dir. La Montagne to Dir. Stuyvesant; the 

settlers on the Great Mohawk Flat refuse to sign the pledge 244 

" June 10. Letter from the Magistrates at Wiltwyck to Dir. Stuyvesant ; massacre at 

the Esopus ; the village destroyed 245 

List of the soldiers and settlers killed, wounded and missing on the 7th 
June, 1663 245 

" June 11. Petition of Christ. Davids for permission to re-enter on land on the Esopus, 

from which he had been driven by tlie Indians 247 

" June 12. Circular-letter to the towns around New- Amsterdam notifying them of the 

Esopus massacre 248 

Table of Contents. xxi 

1663. June 14. Instructions for the military and civil ofRcei's at Wiltwj'ck 249 

Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to the Magistrates at Fort Orange ; affairs at 
the Esopus 249 

Letter from the Magistrates of Wiltwyck to Dir. Stuyvesant ; report on 

the progress of affairs 251 

Resolution in Council to make war against the Esopus and employ the 
Mohawks to recover the prisoners . . 251 

Ordinance against carrying on any Indian trade at Schenectady 253 

Petitions of the settlers at Schenectady for permission to cultivate their 
lands and order thereon 253 

Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Yice-Dir. La Montague at Fort Orange ; 
means adopted for the release of the captured people 254 

Instructions for Councillor Johan de Decker sent to Fort Orange on pub- 
lic business 255 

Report of the Magistrates at Wiltwyck on the massacre by the Indians . . 256 

Letter from the Magistrates at Fort Orange to Dir. Stuyvesant ; little pros- 
pect for the release of the prisoners 258 

Letter from Yice-Dir. La Montague to the same; the defenceless condition 
of Fort Orange 258 

Letter from the Magistrates of Wiltwyck to the Owners of the New Vil- 
lage ; state of affairs there 258 

Minute of the Director-General's visit to Hempstead endeavoring to enlist 
Englishmen against the Indians 259 

Proclamation calling out volunteers for the war against the Esopus Indians 259 

Letter from Councillor de Decker at Beverwyck to Dir. Stuyvesant ; efforts 
for the release of the prisoners at the Esopus 260 

Proposals made to the Chiefs of Hackensack and Staten-Island and their 
answers 261 

Notice that the Esopus Indians are on the war path and warning all people 
to be on their guard . 263 

Letter from the Owners of the New Village on the Esopus to Dir. Stuy- 
vesant, respecting the loss of their cattle 263 

Letter from Vice-Dir. La Montague at Fort Orange to Dir. Stuyvesant ; 
repairs of the fort delayed ; efforts to recover the Christian prisoners ; new 
fort at Greenbush 264 

Letter from Councillor de Decker at Fort Orange to the same ; the Christian 
prisoners; complaints against the Esopus Magistrates 265 

Letter from Robert Treat of Milford, Conn., to the same in regard to the 
proposed settlement on the Kil van Kol 266 

Letter from Sec'y Capito at Wiltwyck to the same ; his wife killed and 
burned with all his property ; requests a supply of clothing 267 

Letter from Councillor de Decker to the same ; information respecting the 
prisoners ; no volunteers obtainable at Fort Orange 268 

Appointment of military officers for Bergen and Communipaw 268 

Commission of Martin Cregier to be Captain-Lieutenant and Commander 
of the Forces, with his instructions for the war against the Esopus Indians 268 

June 14. 

June 15. 

June 16. 

June 16. 

June 18. 

June 18. 

June 19. 

June 19. 

June 20. 

June 23. 

Jiine 23. 

June 23. 

June 23. 

June 25. 

June 26. 

June 27. 

June 27. 

June 28. 

June 29. 

June 29. 

June 29. 

June 29. 

June 29. 

June 30. 

June 30. 

xxii Table of Contents. 

1663. Jiily 3. Report of Lieut. Couwenhoven and others of tLeii- ill success in raising 

volunteers on Long Island 270 

" July 4. Letter from tbe military officers at Bergen to Dir. Stuyvesaut ; erpress 

their willingness to furnish their quota 271 

" July 4. Information given by Eachel La Montagne van Imborgh, late a prisoner 

among the Esopus Indians 271 

•' July 5- Letter from Capt. Cregier to Dir. Sti;yvesant ; reports his ari'ival at the 

Esopus ; escape of Mrs. van Imborgh 272 

No date. Report of the Indians sent to negotiate with the Esopus tribe (beginning 

lost) 273 

" July 5. Minute of the Court of Wiltwyck in regard to the preceding report 275 

" July 9. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to the authorities at Fort Orange ; the Kats- 

kil Indians must not harbor any Esopus 275 

" July 10. Conference between Stuyvesant and the Sachems of the River and Staten 

Island tribes 276 

" July 12. Oi'dinance for the arrest of hostile Indians 277 

" July 12. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to the Magistrates at Fort Orange; he offers 

to pay a reward for the release of the Christian prisoners 277 

" July 12. Letter from the same to Councillor de Decker ; Serg't Nyssen promoted 
for his successful attack on the Indians ; peace with the Indians around 

Manhattans 278 

" July 20. Extract from a letter of the same to the Vice-Director at Cura9ao ; the war 
against the Esopus Indians and the resources of the country ; assistance 

in merchandise required from CuraQao 279 

Minute of Council. The offer of Eastern Indians to march against the 

Esopus accepted 280 

Proposals of the Hackensack Indians to sell their lands on the Kil van 
KuU ; efforts of the Esopus Indians to engage the Minisinghs on their 

side 280 

Concessions to be granted to the Englishmen who desire to settle on the 

Kil van Kul, and letter to that effect to Robert Treat, of Milford, Conn., 281 
Council Minute. The chief of the Wiechquaeskeks reports a rumor that 

the Esopus Indians are coming 282 

Letter from Joh. La Montagne and Jer. van Rensselaer, at Fort Orange, to 
Dir. Stuyvesant ; they defend themselves against the charge of refusing 

volunteers ; efforts for the release of the prisoners 283 

Part of a letter fronr Dir. Stuyvesant to Caj)t. Cregiei", at the Esopus ; the 

Indians to be unrelentingly pursued 284 

Instructions for Secr'y van Ruyven, sent to the Esopus on public business, 284 
Letter from Capt. Cregier, at the Esopus, to Dir. Stuyvesant; reports an 
attack on an Indian village ; Indian allies and Long Island volunteers 

return home 286 

Minute of a Council of War held at Wiltwyck on the proposed operations 

against the Indians 287 

Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Capt. Cregier; directions to save the 
harvest at the Esopus 287 



















Table of Contents. xxiii 

1663. Ang. 9.. Instructions for Lieut, van Couwenhoven, sent to renew the peace with 

the Wappings and to procure the release of the prisoners 288 

" Aug. 13. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Lieut, van Couwenhoven, at Wappings 

kil ; further instructions 289 

" Aug. 1-1. Letter from the same to Capt. Cregior, at Wiltwyck ; further instructions, 289 
" Aug. 15. Conference with the Minissingli Indians on the renewal of the peace. . . . 289 
" Aug. 27. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Lieut, van Couwenhoven, at the Wappings 

kil ; no individual Indian to be released or exchanged 290 

" Aug. 27. Letter fi-om the authorities at Fort Orange to Dir. Stuyvesant on Indian 

affairs 291 

" Aug. 29. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant and Council to Capt. Cregier, comments on 

and instructions for the Esopus campaign 292 

" Aug. 30. Council Minute. Information given concerning an intended massacre of 

the whites on the North river, and in regard to the prisoners among the 

Esopus 291 

" Aug. 30. Information given by Oratam, chief of Hackensack, about the Esopus 

Indians 291 

" Aug. 30. Order directing the surveyor to lay out land at Bergen {N. J.) 291 

" Sept. 10. Council Minute. Information brought by an Indian of the defeat of the 

Esopus and the recapture of the prisoners 291 

" Sept. 13. Letter from the Council to Capt. Cregier; the victory over the Esopus 

Indians won by him ; reinforcements sent 295 

" Sept. 20. Proposals of the Marsepinghs (L. I.) Indians and answers thereto 295 

" Sept. 21. Letter from the Council to Capt. Cregier, at the Esopus, with reinforce- 
ments 296 

" Sept. 21. Letter from the same to the Magistrates at Fort Orange; Indian affairs. . 296 
" Sept. 21. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant, at Boston, to the Vice-Director at Cura9ao, 

with details of the defeat of the Esopus 297 

" Sept. 26. Minute of proceedings at Fort Orange, with the Mohawks, regarding Col. 

Temple's remonstrance against their making war on the Indians in his 

government (Nova Scotia) 297 

" Oct. 2. Letter from the Magistrates at Fort Orange transmitting the minutes to 

Dir. Stiiyvesant 298 

" Oct. 15. Council Minute. Intelligence received that the Indians were about to 

attack the Dutch at Hoboken, etc 299 

" Oct. 16. Instructions for Lieut, van Couwenhoven to ascertain and prevent the 

movements of the River Indians 300 

" Oct, 16. Instructions for Mr. Yerbraack and Sergt. van der Bosch, sent with Lieut. 

van Couwenhoven 301 

" Oct. 21. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Lieut, van Couwenhoven ; instructions for 

exchange of prisoners with the Indians 302 

" Nov. 7. Letter from the same to Capt. Cregier ; the peace with the Wappinghs 

just made violated by them .' 302 

" Nov. 15. Ordinance for the better security and settlement of Bergen, N. J *303 

" Nov. 15. Minute of Council. Permission given to North river Indians to fish near 

Harlem 303 

xxiv Table of Contents. 


1663. Nov. 15. Letter from Vice-Dir. La Montagne to Dir. Stuyvesant ; repairs of the 

Fort Orange ; flight of the Mohegans 303 

Nov. 19. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesaut to Capt. Cregier ; the Wappings have not 

broken the peace ; Capt. C. ordered to the Manhattans 304 

Nov. 21. Instructions for Lieut, van Couwenhoven to ascertain the disposition of 

the Esopus and Wapping Indians toward a peace 304 

Nov. 21. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to the Magistrates at Wiltwyck ; collections 

for the church and for the poor ; siiperintendence of intestates' estates, 306 

Nov. 21. Letter from the same to the Consistory of Wiltwyck ; they are not to inter- 
fere in matters concerning intestates' estates. ... 307 

Nov. 24. Letter from Vice-Dir. La Montagne to Dir. Stuyvesant ; letters received 

from Col. Temple and Genl. Pinchon ; the Mohawks on the warpath . . 307 

July 28. Message of the Indians of Agawam to the Dutch and answer to it by the 

Mohawk chief Adogodquo 308 

Oct. 10 

-NT c^r, 1 Conference with the Katskil Indians and Mohawks at Fort Orange 309 

Nov. 23. ) ° 

Dec. 3. Answer of Kev. Harm. Blom to Du-. Stuy vesant's letter concerning clerical 

affairs at Wiltwyck 311 

Dec. 6. Instructions given to Martin Cregier and Govert Loockermans for the 

purchase of the Nevesingh country 311 

Dec. 8. Complaint against people of Wiltwyck for driving from tlie village to the 

Redoubt without a convoy 312 

Dec. 8. Petition for a lot near the Mill-gate at Wiltwyck, and order thereon 313 

Dec. 10. Council Minute. The Esopus and Wappings are coming to conclude a 

treaty of peace 314 

Dec. 6 - 11. Journal of a voyage to the Nevesinghs by Capt. Cregier 314 

Dec. 12. Agreement made by the Nevesingh Indians to sell their lands to the Dutch, 316 
Dec. 12. Letters from the Magistrates at Wiltwyck to Dir. Stuyvesant on general 

matters and the quarrel with the church 317 

Dec. 17. Petition of the Schout and Magistrate of Bergen that Engelbert Steen- 

huysen shall perform his contract as school master; ordered accordingly, 318 
Dec. 19. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to the Magistrates at Wiltwj-ck ; he censures 

them for their insolent letter of the 12th ; the Sheriff suspended and 

removal of the Magistrates threatened 319 

Dec. 19. Letter from the same to Sergt. Nyssen, censuring him for disobedience of 

orders 320 

Dec. 28. ) Conference with the chiefs of Hackensack and Staten Island respecting a 

Dec. 29. ) continuance of the armistice with the Esopus 321 

Dec. 29. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Capt. Cregier ; armistice with the Esopus, 323 

Journal of the Esopus war, by Captain Martin Cregier 323 

1664. Jan. 4. Letter from Ensign Niessen, at the Esopus, to Dir. Stuyvesant ; departnre 

of Capt. Cregier ; great sickness prevailing 354 

" Jan. 8. Letter from Yice-Dir. La Montagne and Jer. van Eensselaer to the same ; 

the Mohawks' expedition into Maine 355 

" Jan. 11. Letter from Ensign Niessen to the same; the sickness at the Esopus 

increases 355 

Table of Contents. xxv 

1664. Jan. 21. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Conrts at Fort Orange and 

Kensselaerswyek ; the Mohawks' losses in Maine ; the dispersing of the 

Esopus Indians 356 

" Jan. 28. Ordinance establishing a Court of Justice for Staten Island 356 

" Jan. 28. Council Minute. A redoubt to be constructed at the Newesinghs 356 

" Feb. 14. Petition of Eoeloff Swartwout to be reinstated as Sheriff of the Esopus, 

and order granting it 357 

" Feb. 16. Council Minute. A Tappaan Indian's complaint against Jacob van 

Couwenhoven; the ISTevesinghs lands and the English 358 

" Feb. 18. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to the Magistrates of Wiltwyck ; Swartwout 

reinstated as Sheriff ; recall of the military ; Indian affairs 358 

" Feb. 18. Letter from the same to Ensign Niessen ; orders to send down soldiers ; 

Indian affairs 359 

" Feb. 21. Council Minute. Samuel Edsal's men at Bergen; JS'oortwyck on the 

North river 359 

" Feb. 21. Petition for the confirmation of certain rules, made by the Overseers for 

the erection of a block-hoiise at Bergen, N. J., and answer of the Coun- 
cil 360 

" Feb. 23. ) Conference with the Hackensack and Staten Island chiefs and Miuissink 

" Mar. 6. ) Indians 361 

" Mar. 17. Order granting a piece of land outside of the village of Bergen 362 

" Mar. 17. Commission for Balthazar Bayard to be Clerk of the Court at Bergen 363 

" Mar. 23. Report made by P. W. van Couwenhoven of information respecting 

intrigues of the English with the Esopus and Wapping Indians 363 

" Mar. 25. Conference with North river Indians and the chief of Hackensack 364 

" Mar. 26. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Ensign Niessen and the Magistrates of 

Wiltwyck ; Indian affairs 365 

" Mar. 27. Letter from Ensign Niessen to Dir. Stuyvesant ; all quiet on the Esopus, 366 

" Apr. 3. Appointment of Magistrates for Wiltwyck 366 

" Apr. 5. Patent for a piece of land at Ahasimus, N. J 366 

" Apr. 17. Order on a petition of Sander Lendertsen Glen and others for a survey of 

land at Schenectady 367 

" Apr. 21. Instructions for the Clerk of the Court of Wiltwyck 367 

" Apr. 21. Letter from Ensign Niessen to Dir. Stuyvesant reporting the visit of an 

Englishman at Wiltwyck, who said the English would possess New 

Netherland in six or eight weeks 368 

" Apr. 25. Petition of Thomas Chambers and Gysbert van Imborgh, delegates, asking 

for amendments to the charter of Wiltwyck, and answer to it 369 

" Apr. 25. Petition of Paulus and Jan van der Hyden concerning an estate at the 

Esopus and order thereon , 370 

" Apr. 26. Conference with Hackensack Indians about the murder of a Dutchman, 

committed by a Wapping Indian 371 

" Apr. 26. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland ; the 

result of the Esopus war ; importance of the fur trade 372 

xxvi Table of Contents. 

1664. May 6. Letter from Rev. Hermanus Bloem to Dir. Stuy vesant, asking in the name 
of the Consistory that the 7th of June be annually observed as a day of 

thanksgiving at the Esopus 373 

' May 13. Lease of land at Schenectady 374 

" May 15. Articles of the peace made with the Esopus Indians 375 

' May — . Letter from Dir. Stuy vesant to the authorities at Fort Orange ; transmits 
the articles of peace concluded with the Esopus Indians ; the new -cal- 
lage at Esopus ; Schenectady 382 

'■ May 17. Conferences with the Mohawks at Fort Orange 378 

Journal of John Dareth and Jacob Loockermans, sent to negotiate a treaty 

of peace between the Mohawks and Northern Indians 380 

'■ May 20. Order directing the sm-veyor to lay out lands at Schenectady 383 

" May 29. Grant of a piece of land at Bergen, N. J , 383 

" May 31. Proclamation for a day of thanksgiving on account of the peace with the ■ 

Esopus Indians , 383 

" June 9. Extract from a letter of Rev. Henricus Selyns to the Classis of Amsterdam ; 

lack of ministers ; sad state of affairs in New Netherland 384 

" June 23. Extract from the minutes of the Classis of Amsterdam 381 

" July 4. Commission of William Beekman as Commissary at the Esopus, and his 

instructions 385 

" July 8. Proposal of one of the Esopus sachems to have provisions sent to their 

country beyond Haverstraw 386 

" July 10. Petition of Philipp Pieterse Schuyler and Goose Gerretsen van Schayck 

for leave to purchase from the Mohegaiis the Halfmoon ; granted 387 

" July 10. Petition of Thomas Powel and others for leave to purchase from the 

Indians a piece of land between Kinderhook and Neutenhook ; granted, 388 

" July 1 2. Conference with the Mohawks at Fort Orange 389 

" July 17. Ordinance for the more careful navigation of the North river by sloop 

captains 389 

" July 24. Council Minute. The Mohawks complain against the Northern Indians, 390 
" Aug. 4. Extract from a letter of Dir. Stuyvesant to the Du-eccors in Holland ; the 

intrigues of the English among the Indians 390 

" Aug. 17. Extract from a letter of the Council to the same ; the Indian wars 390 

" Aug. 14. Letter from Rev. Samuel Drisius to the Classis of Amsterdam ; state of 

the Reformed Church 391 

" Aug. 22. Petition of the inhabitants of Westchester to the English commissioners, 391 

" Aug. 27. Information of English intrigues with the Esopus Indians 392 

" Aug. 29. Order directing the commander at the Esopus to bring down his soldiers, 

as the English fleet is at Nyack, L. 1 392 

Letter from Rev. Samuel Drisius to the Classis of Amsterdam ; the sur- 
render of the province to the English 392 

Table of Contents. xxvii 


The Province under English Rule, from the Surrender by the Duteh to the Establishment 

of Counties. I664- 1684. 


1664. Oct. 17. ■ License to purchase Indian lands at the Nevesinks; a warrant to William 

Goulding, etc 395 

No date. Order directing the Magistrates of Bei-gen, N. J., to receive and quarter a 

garrison of soldiers 395 

1665. Mar. 30. Permission to purchase Indian lands given to Phil. Pieterse Schuyler (the 

Halfmoon) 395 

" Apr. 1. Like permission given to Joh. Chite and Jan Hendr. Bruyn (Claverack). . 396 

" Apr. 8. Patent for the land at the Nevesinks, iST. J 396 

" Apr. 20. Indian deed for Caniskek (Athens, Greene county) 397 

" Apr. 30. Order concerning the settlement at the Nevesinks 398 

" May 6. Indian deed for land near Kinderhook 399 

" Oct. 7. An agreement made between Governor Nicholls and the Esopus Indians. . 399 
" Dec. 28. Letter from Gov. Nicholls to the inhabitants of Westchester concerning the 

limits of their town 402 

1666. Apr. 29. Indian deed for land in Westchester county (Town of Harrison) 402 

" July 3. Letter from Secretary Nicolls to Thomas Pell concerning his land in 

Westchester 403 

" July 7. Letter from the same to the constable and overseers of Westchester about 

the division of land 404 

" July 14. Order forbidding the same to molest the inhabitants of the Ten Farms 

about the meadow ground 404 

" Sept. 17. Letter from Secr'y JSTicolls to Capt. Broadhead on behalf of Mathew Blan- 

chard of Esopus 404 

" Oct. 18. Extract from the minutes of the Chassis of Amsterdam 405 

" Dec. 11. Deed from Capt. Phil. Carteret and others to Daniel Pierce and others for 

the land between the Raritan and Pawake rivers, N. J 405 

1667. Apr. — . Papers relating to the Esopus mutiny 406 

" Sept. 7. Wan-ant authorizing the inhabitants of Staten Island to elect civil oiEcers, 415 

1668. Apr. 8. Grant of land at the Esopus 416 

" Aug. 27. Extract from the minutes of the Amsterdam Classis 416 

" Aug. 27. Certificate in favor of Domine Megapolensis 416 

" Sept. 3. Letter from Secr'y Nicolls to Ph. P. Schuyler regarding land at Hurley.. 417 

" Sept. 5. Order concerning land claims at the Esopus 417 

" Sept. 25. Order about the watch at the Esopus 417 

" Sept. 26. The Governor's answer to certain desires expressed by the -inliabitants of 

the Esopus 418 

" Sept. 26. List of persons who are to have land at the Esopus 418 

" Sept. 26. Order for cutting Palisades at the Esopus 419 

" Sept. 26. Order concerning the settlement of Marbletown 419 

" Sept. 26. List of persons willing to settle at Marbletown 419 

" Sept. 26. Instructions for the civil authorities at the Esopus 420 

TaMe of Contents. 


Order concerning travel on Sundays 420 

Order concerning tlie settlement of Marbletown 420 

Council Minute. Dispute between Harlem and John Archer about land, 421 

Order concerning the settlement of Marbletown 421 

Order concerning tlie taxes in West and Eastehester ; 422 

Letter from the Governor to the military at the Esopus 422 

Order concerning the taxes of Eastehester 422 

Letter from the Governor to the magistrates at Esopus 423 

Letter from Domine Megapolensis to the Classis of Amsterdam 423 

License to establish a colony at Spuyten Duyvel 424 

Order concerning the militia on Staten Island 424 

Letter from Gov. Lovelace to the Governor of Bermuda concerning immi- 
gration, with conditions for new settlers 424 

Order proliibiting the trade with Lidians at Schenectady 426 

Letter from the Governor to Sergeant Berisf ord at the Esopus 426 

Letter from the same to Henry Pawling at Esopus 427 

Letter from the same to the magistrates at Albany 427 

Letter from Secr'y Nicolls to the same 428 

Council Minute. Esopus affairs. ... ,. 428 

Commission to several persons appointed to regulate matters at the Esopus, 

and their instructions 428 

Proceedings of the commissioners 430 

Peport of the commissioners 436 

Letters from the Governor to the Magistrates at Albany 439 

Letters from the same to the Governor of Massachusetts 439 

Letters from the same to the Magistrates at Albany 440 

Building license given to T. C. de Witt of Esopus 440 

Order concerning the building of a bridge across Harlem river 441 

Letter from the Governor relating to the purchase of Lidian lands on 

Staten Island 441 

Mar. 11. Letter from the same to W. Beeckman and others at Kingston concerning 

the new village 442 

Mar. 17. Commission to Capt. Dudley Lovelace and others for surveying and laying 

out lots at the Esopus, with their instructions and proceedings 443 

Council Minute. Staten Island matters 452 

Indian deed for Staten Island 455 

Order prohibiting the sale of lands granted to soldiers at the Esopus 457 

Council Minute. Trade of New England people with Indians at Albany, 458 

Order for a survey of Staten Island 458 

1671. July 12. Order concerning the traffic on the North river to Kingston 458 

Proceedings in the (N. Y.) Mayor's court; differences between Harlem 

and Fordham 459 

Orders for the regulation of civil and military affairs at the Esopus 459 

Council Minute. Purchase of Indian lands in Westchester county 460 

XX vm 

1668. Oct. 






" Nov. 


" Nov. 


« Nov. 


" Dec. 


1669. Feb. 










" June 




" July 


" July 


" July 




" Sept. 


" Sept. 


" Sept. 








1670. Jan. 


" Jan. 




" ■ Feb. 




















Table of Contents. xxix 


Letter from the Governor and Counoil to Capt. James Carteret 4-61 

Capt. James Carteret's answer 462 

Council Minute. Commission for Indian affairs 463 

Instructions for Capt. De Lavall, etc., on going to Albany 464 

Agreement between the inhabitants of Schenectady and the four Mohawk 

castles 464 

Order for a survey of Staten Island 466 

Council Minutes. Trade at Schenectady 466 

Letter from Gov. Lovelace to Capt. James Carterett, of New Jersey 466 

Another letter from the same to the same 467 

Order erecting Fox Hall, near Kingston, into a Manor 468 

Letter from the Governor to Capt. James Carterett 468 

Letter from King Charles II to John Berr}', Deputy-Governor of New 

Jersey 469 

Council Minutes. Trade at Schenectady ; taxes at the Esopus 469 

License to build a warehouse on the strand at Kingston 470 

Order establishing a Court of Justice at Fordhani 471 

Council Minutes. N ew Jersey matters 471 

Council Minutes. English laws introduced at the Esopus 471 

Letter from King Charles II to Geo. Philipp Carterett, of New Jersey . . 472 
Order allowing Elizabethtown, etc., in New Jersey, to send delegates to 

surrender their places to the Dutch 473 

Privileges gi-anted to the several towns in New Jersey 474 

Council Minute. Submission of East and Westchester with extent of the 

jurisdiction of their courts 474 

Order on a petition from the Esopus for the government of that District, 475 

Appointment of Magistrates for the Village behind the Coll 475 

Renewal of the peace with the Hackensack Indians 476 

Census of the several towns in New Jersey 476 

Council Minute. Mohawk chiefs on a visit to New York ; Schenectady 

affairs 477 

Sept. 29. Order to the Magistrates in the Nevesinks in regard to approaching 

ships, etc 477 

Oct. 14. Letter from Gov. Colve to John Ogden, at Elizabeth, N. J., on Indian 

affairs and Gov. Carterett's property 477 

1674. Mar. S. Orders in Council. Indian lands in New Jersey and trade to the Esopus, 478 

Council Minutes. Middletown, N. J. ; Secaucus Island, N. J 478 

Propositions made by the Mohawks to Gov. Colve, and his answers 479 

Letter from Gov. Colve to Isaac Grevenraedt, Sheriff of Esopus, directing 

the surrender of that place to the English 481 

Order to attach the estate of Gov. Lovelace on Staten Island 481 

Petition to purchase Indian lands at Catskil, and order granting it 481 

1675. Jan. 11. Letter from Gov. Andros to the inhabitants of Hurley and Marbleton . . . 482 

Letter from the same to the inhabitants of Kingston 482 

Indian deed for land in Greene county 482 


June 11. 


June 14. 


June 24. 


June 16. 


July 3. 


July 22. 


Sept. 6. 


Sept. 18. 


Oct. 13. 


Oct. 16. 


Oct. 22. 


Dee. 9. 


Jan. 27. 


Mar. 19. 


Apr. 20. 


May 15. 


June 12. 


June 13. 


Aug. 12. 


Aug. 18. 


Aug. 21. 


Sept. 1. 


Sept. 1. 


Sept. 13. 


Sept. 14. 


Sept. 18. 



















XXX Table of Contents. 


1675. Feb. IS. Order for keeping the court at Fordliam 483 

" Apr. 16. Council Minute. Indian affairs 483 

" Apr. 19. Letter from Gov. Andros to the authorities at Albany 483 

" Apr. 24. Letter from Gov. Andros to Capt. Chambers and Geo. Hall at Kingston, 484 

" Sept. 26. Proclamation about the Indians and making of block houses 484 

" Aug. 5. Council Minutes. Encouragement of immigration to Staten Island 485 

" -ATig- 30- Instructions for tho Commissaries of Schenectady 485 

No date. Opinion of council concerning Col. Xicolls' patents for land in New Jersey 

and Indian purchases 486 

" Sept. 12. Assessment-roll of "Wegt and Eastchester 488 

" Oct. 13. Order concerning the public debt at the Esopus 489 

" Oct. 15. Council Minutes. Purchase of Indian lands at Schenectady ; Schenectady, 489 

" Oct. 19. Letter from Gov. Andros to the authorities at the Esopus 490 

" Oct. 21. Letter from Gov. Andros to the Governor of Maryland 491 

" Oct, 24. Council Minutes. Indian affairs ; Esopus 491 

" Nov. 8. Petition of inhabitants of Yonkers, desiring to be excused from joining 

Fordham in case of an Indian invasion, and order thereon 492 

1676. Jan. 6. Letter from Gov. Andros to the Magistrates at Esopus 493 

" Feb. 26. Council Minutes. Westchester Indians ; Indian wars 493 

" Mar. 4. Order directing the pursuit of King Phihpp and other North Indians . . . 494 
" Mar. 29. Council Minutes. Examination of "Westchester lodians as to their inten- 
tion to join King Philipp 494 

" Apr. 10. Order concerning the scattered farms at Hurley and Marbleton. 495 

" Apr. 14. Council Minute. Westchester Indians before the Council 495 

" Apr. 27. Comicil Minute. Connecticut Indians before the Council 496 

" May 29. Council Minute. Indian affairs (Mohawks and Senecas) ... 496 

" June 2. Council Minute. Susquehanna Indians before the council 497 

" July 25. Council Minute. Westchesterlndiansclaimpaymentfor the Yonkers land, 498 

" Aug. 4. Council Minute. The authority of the Sheriff at Esopus defined , 498 

" Aug. 8. Council Minute. Indians report a meditated invasion by the French 498 

" Aug. 10. Council Minute. Mohawks report on Canada and Northern Indians .... 499 

" Aug. 11. Commission to establish a Court of Justice at Schenectady 500 

" Sept. 8. Council Minutes. Indian affairs 501 

" Sept. 19. Letter from Secr'y Nicolls to the authorities of Westchester 501 

" Oct. 11. Council Minutes. Indian affairs , 501 

" Oct. and ) 

„ \ List of presents given to Indian scouts in the employ of the government, 502 

1677. Mar. 12. Council Minutes. Enlargement of Kingston; Indians; Indian lands at 

Esopus ; French pi-etensions 502 

" Mar. 14. Proclamation regulating the Indian trade and navigation on the Hudson, 503 
" Mar. 28. Order in Council. Mohawks to desist from making war on Eastern 

Indians , „ 504 

" Apr. 27. Council Minutes. Conference with Esopus Indians 504 

" May 26. Indian deed for New Paltz, Ulster county 506 

" June 6. Council Minutes. The war of the Mohawks and Senecas against Mary- 
land 507 

June 11. 















Table of Contents. xxxi 


1677. June 11. Council Minutes. Mohawks on the warpath 508 

Proceedings on the claim of New Jersey to have a port of entry 50S 

Letter fi-oni Gov. Andros to the Magistrates of Albany 509 

Council Minutes. Indian affairs 510 

Conference between the Oueidas and Col. Coursey, agent of Maryland ... 510 
Letter from John Pynchon, of Springfield, Mass., to Capt. Salisbury on 

Indian troubles 511 

Regulation for the Esopus militia, and order concerning quitrents 512 

Letter from Gov. Leverett, of Boston, to the Mohawk sachems, warning 

them not to injin-e the friendly Indians of his colony 513 

" Oct. 22. Extract from the minutes of the Court of Schenectady in reference to the 

purchase of land on the Mohawk river 514- 

Licence granted to Lewis Dubois and others for a new settlement at Esopus, 515 
Order for the purchase of Indian lands in Westchester county 515 

1678. Jan. 1. Indian deed for land at Claverack , 515 

Letter from Secr'y Nicolls to the Magistrates at Albany 516 

Letter from John Talcott of Hartford to Capt. Salisbury on Indian affairs 516 
Letter from Commander Brockholls to Gov. Leete of Connecticutt on In- 
dian business 518 

Note directing the Surveyor to lay out land on Staten Island 518 

Letter from Richard Woodhull of Seatalcott to Secr'y Nicolls on a rumored 

combination between the French and Indians , . 519 

Indian Deed for land in Columbia county 519 

Letter from Capt. Salisbury at Albany to Commander Brockholls. Mo- 
hawks going to war 519 

June 27. Letter from the same to the same. Mohawks retm-n with Natick Indian 

prisoners 520 

Letter from the same to the same. The Mohawks have burned most of 

then- prisoners 520 

Orders and Instructions to the Agents of Massachusetts sent on a mission 

to the Mohawks 521 

Commission of the Massachusetts Agents 523 

Letter from Father Biiiyas, S. J., at Tionnontoguin to Capt. Salisbury on 

Indian affairs and from the latter to Capt. Brockholls 523 

Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Capt. Salisbury at Albany. Indians. . . . 524 

Letter from John Pynchon at Springfield to Capt. Salisbury 525 

Letter from Capt. Salisbury to Comm'r Brockholls on Indian affairs 526 

Letter from the same to the same . . . .' 527 

Letter from Comm'r Brockholls to Capt. Salisbury 527 

Answer of the Mohawks to the Propositions of the Massachusetts Agents 528 

Letter from Comm'r Brockholls to Capt. Salisbury 529 

Letters from Capt. Salisbury to Sec'y Nicolls and Connuander Brockholls 531 

Council Minutes. French influences among the Mohawks 531 

Council Minutes. Schenectady affairs 532 

Letters from Gov. Andros to the Magistrates of Albany and Schenectady 533 
Indian Deed for Land in Ulster county 533 



















Jime 24. 


































Apr. 11. 


May 23. 


June 4. 


June 18. 


July 31. 


Aug. 8. 


Dec. 9. 


Jan. 7. 


Mar. 8. 


Mar. 14. 


Mar. 21. 

Mar. 23. 

Mar. 23. 

Apr. 5-7. 

No date. 

Apr. 30. 

Table of Contents. 


Petition for leave to purchase Indian Lands in Ulster county 634 

Regulations for the trade on Hudson's river 534 

Letter from Thomas Chambers to Gov. Andros 534 

Letter from Gov. Andros to Gov. Carterett of N. J 535 

Letter from Secr'y Nicolls to Mrs. Billop on Staten Island 535 

Council Minutes. Reception of Agents from Yirginia 536 

Letter from Gov. Andros to Capt. Salisbury 536 

Council Minutes. Indians declared free and not slaves 537 

Council Minutes. Bridge over Spuyten Duyvel 538 

Letter from Gov. Andros to Phil. Carterett 638 

Declaration of Gov. Andros setting forth the illegality of Capt. Carte- 

rett's acts in N. J 639 

Mar. 15. Letter from Sec'y Nicolls to Capt. Sanford ■with the foregoing Proclama- 
tion and inviting him to N. T 540 

Extract from the Concessions to New Jersey 540 

> Council Minutes. New Jersey affairs 541 

Order for an election of delegates for Middleton, N. J 541 

Particulars of Gov. Andros' Visit to Capt. Carterett in Elizabeth Town, N. J 542 

Petition of the inhabitants of Esopus for a Minister of the Gospel 543 

A Special Warrant to summon Deputy Governor Berry of N. J. before 

the Council 544 

" June 25. Connnission to the Justices of the Peace of Shrewsbury, etc. N. J. to hold 

Courts of Sessions , . . 545 

. . Abstracts of Indian Deeds 545 

1680. Nov. 12. Petition of Robert Livingston to purchase Indian lands (Livingston Ma- 
nor, Columbia county) , 646 

" Dec. 1. Petition of Fred. Philipps to purchase Indian lands in Westchester Co. . 546 
" Dec. 1. List of Persons applying for land on Staten-Islaud 546 

" ' A 1 «' I I'^tt®^^ from Capt. Brockliolls to Capt. Carterett 548 

" May 14. Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Sir John Werden concerning the New 

Jersey title 549 

" May 14. Letter from the same to Governor Andros (in England) on the same subject. 549 
" July 26. ) Letters from the same to Capt. Carterett refusing to acknowledge the lat- 

" July 30. i ter's authority in New Jersey 650 

" Julj' 30. Letter from the same to Sir John Werden on the claim to New Jersey . . . 551 

" Sept. 12. Propositions made by the Minissink Indians and the answer tliereto 551 

" Nov. 10. Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Capt. Delavall on affairs at the Esopus. . . 552 

1682. Jan. 12. Letter from the same to the same on the same subject 552 

" Jan. 12. License given to Jacob Rutgers to purchase Indian lands at the Esopus. . 553 
" Jan. 28. A Proclamation renewing a former Proclamation regulating the Trade with 

Indians 553 

" Feb. 3. License to purchase Indian lands on the East side of Hudson's river given 

to Cornells van Bursum 554 

" Mar. 9. Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Capt. Delavall on Esopus affairs 554 

Table of Contents. xxxiii 


16S2. Mar. 29. Letter from tlie same to the Commissaries at Albany on tlie relations be- 
tween the New York Indians and Maryland 555 

Letter from the same to Lord Baltimore and Council on the same subject. 555 

Letter from the same to the Commissaries at Albany 556 

Resolution of a Town Meeting on Staten Island 556 

Letter from the Maryland Commissioners to Commander Brockholls 557 

Letter from the same to the same 557 

Letter from Cornelius van Dyck to the same 558 

Letter from Commander Brockholls to Lord Baltimore 559 

Letter from the same to the Commissaries of Albany 560 

Letter from the same to the Maryland Agents at Albany 560 

Letter from the same to the Maryland Agents at Albany 560 

Letter from the same to the Commissaries of Albany 561 

Letter from the same to the Maryland Agents at Albany 562 

Letter from Commander Brockholls to Gov. Carterett 563 

Letter from Commander Brockholls to Lord Baltimore 563 

Letter from Commander Brockholls to Lord Baltimore 563 

Letter from Commander Brockholls to the Magistrates of Albany 564 

Letter from Commander Brockholls to the Magistrates of Esopus 564 

Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Lord Baltimore 565 

Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Lord Baltimore 565 

1683. Jan. 3. Contract to sell land on Hudson's river (Columbia coimty) " 566 

Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Capt. Chambers at Kingston 566 

Petition of inhabitants of Staten-Island against being forced to contribute 

to the siipport of a Minister . . 567 

Letters from Justice Stillwell of Staten-Island to Secr'y West in relation 

to the foregoing 567 

License given to purchase Indian lands (Dutchess county) 569 

Letter from Capt. Broeldiolls to Capt. Chambers at Kingston 569 

Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Capt! G. Baxter at Albany 570 

Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Mr. Samuel Groome of New Jersey 570 

Quitclaim for the land called Pooghkepesingh 571 

Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Capt. Chambers 571 

Abstracts of Indian Deeds for Land at Niskayuna, Catskil, Livingston Ma- 
nor, Saratoga 572 

Indian Deed of Gift of land near Schenectady 573 

List of the estates in "Westchester subject to the public rates 573 

Nov. 1. An Act to divide the Province into Shires and Counties 574 

Appendix. Extracts from a Letter of Father Jogues, S. J., to the Pro- 
vincial of the Jesuits in Paris 575 



June 10. 

June 19. 

June 24. 

June 25. 

June 26. 

June 30. 

June 30. 

June 30. 








— . 











Nov. 27. 








19. 1 


24. ) 

Feb. 28. 













First Period 

From the first recorded Dutch Patent to the Occupation of the 
Province by the English. 

(1630 to 1664. ) 

Patent for IIoboken, N. J., granted to Miciiiel Paattw. 

"We, Director and Council of New-Netherland, residing on the Island of Manahaias and at 
the Fort Amsterdam under the authority of their High : Might : the Lords States-General of the 
United Netherlands and the Incorporated West India Conipan}-, Department of Amsterdam, do 
liereby testify and declare, that on this day, date underwritten, appeared before us personally 
Arromeauw, TehwapjM and SacTcwomech, inhabitants and joint owners of the land, called Hobo- 
can HacMngh, lying opposite the aforesaid Island of Manahatas, who both for themsel\-es and 
pro rata for the other joint owners declared, that for and in consideration of a certain quantity ot 
merchandise, which they herewith acknowledge to have received to their full satisfaction before 
the passing of this act, they have sold, transported, ceded and delivered as true and lawful free- 
hold, as they herewith according to a bill of sale and contract, transfer, cede, convey and deliver 
to and for the benefit of the Hon''''^ Mr. Michiel Paauw* in whose absence we receive it ex officio 
under the usual conditions, the aforesaid land by lis called Hohocan Hackingh extending on the 
south side to Ahasinius, eastwards along the River Mauritius and on the west side surrounded 
by lowlands, which sufficiently designates the boundary of this land with rights and jurisdiction, 
belonging to them individually or collectively, or which they might derive hereafter, constituting 
and subrogating the aforesaid Hon'''" Mr. Paauio, in their stead and place, giving him actual and 
real possession thereof, as well as complete and irrevocable authority and special power, that he, 
the aforesaid Hon''''' Mr. Paauw tamquam, actor et procurator in rem suatn ac propriam or his 
heirs and successors may take possession of the aforesaid land, live on it in peace, inhabit, own 
and use it, also do with it, trade it o£E or dispose of it, as his Honor would do with his own law- 
fully obtained lands and dominions, without that they, the conveying party, shall have or retain 
the least pretension, right, power or authority either concerning ownership or sovereignty, but 
herewith they desist, abandon, withdraw and renounce, in behalf as aforesaid now and forever 
totally and finallv, promising further not only to fulfil in ijerpetuum^ firmly and safely, inviolably 
and irrevocably, this their conveyance and transfer and what may be done by its authority, but also 
to deliver the said land and to keep it free from all claims, pretensions, suits, challenges and troubles, 

* Lord of Achtienhoven in Holland, Co-Patroon of New-Netherland and one of the Diiectors of the W . I. 
Co.— Ed. 

2 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

all under the obligations of the laws referring hereto, a liona fide sine fraude. In testimony 
whereof we have affirmed this with our signatm-e and affixed our seal thereunto. Done on the 
Island of Manahatas in Fort Amsterdam the 12"" of July in the j-ear 1630. 

Patent for Staten Island, granted to Michael Paauw. 

We, Director and Council in N"ew-]N"etherland, residing on the Island of Manhattan under 
authority of Their High Mightinesses, the States-General of the United Netherlands and the 
Privileged West India Company, Department of Amsterdam, testify and declare herewith, that 
to-day, date as below, personally appeared Krahorat, Tanieliap, Totemackwemama, Wieromies, 
Siearewach, Sackweweio, Wissijyoach, Saheinsios or the young one, inhabitants, owners and in- 
lieritors of the island called by us Staten- Island, on the west side of HameVs Neck* who declare 
that for a certain lot of merchandise, delivered to and received by them before the 2)assing of this 
act, they have sold, transferred, ceded and delivered as true and lawful freehold, as they herewith 
according to a bill of sale and contract, transfer, cede, convey and deliver to and for the benefit of 
the IIoii'''^ Mr. Ifichiel Paauio, in whose absence wc receive it ex officio under the usual conditions, 
the aforesaid land with its forest, appendencies and dependencies, rights and jurisdiction, belong- 
ing to them individually or collectivel}', or which they might derive hereafter, constituting and 
subrogating the aforesaid Hon'"''^ Mr. Paauw, in their stead and place, giving him actual and real 
possession thereof, as well as complete and irrevocable authority and special power, that he, the 
aforesaid Ilon''^'^ Mr. Paauw may take possession of the aforesaid land, live on it in peace, inhabit, 
own and use it, also do with it, trade it o£E or dispose of it, as his Honor, like anybody else, would 
do with his own lawfully obtained lands and dominions, without that they, the conveying party, 
shall have or retain the least pretension, right, power or authority either concerning ownership or 
sovereignty, but herewith they desist, abandon, withdraw and renounce, in behalf as aforesaid now 
and forever totally and finally, promising further not only to fulfil in perpetiitim, firmly and safely, 
inviolably and irrevocably, this their conveyance and transfer and what may be done by its authority, 
but also to deliver the said land and to keep it free from all claims, pretensions, suits, challenges 
and troubles either against the aforesaid Wissipoack, when he has reached his majority, or against 
other claimants, all under the obligations of the laws referring hereto, a bona fide sine fraude. 
In testimony whereof we have affirmed this with our signature and affixed our seal thereunto. 
Done on the Island of Manahatas in Fort Amsterdam the 10"' of August in the year 1630. 

Patent to the same for the Tract of Land called Ahasimus and the Island 
OF Aressick (New Jersey). 

We, Director and Council of New-Netherland etc. etc. testify and declare herewith, that on 
this day personally appeared before us Ackitoauw and Aiarouio, Virginians, inhabitants and 
co-owners of the land called Ahasimus and the little island A7'essick, who for themselves and in 
proportion for the other proprietors, Winym, Matskath, and Camoins declare in their said capacity 
of owners, that for a certain lot of merchandise, which they acknowledge to have received and 

* The Narrows, called "Ilamels Hoofden " after Henrick Hamol, one of the Patroous of N. N. 

JS'ew Yorlc Historical Hecoi-ds. 3 

acce]3ted to their satisfaction before the passing of this act, they have sokl, transferred, ceded and 
conveyed by a certain deed and contract of sale, as they herewith transfer, cede and convey to and 
for the benefit of the Ilon""^ Mr. MlcMel Paauw, in whoso absence we ex officio receive it nnder 
the usual stipulations the aforesaid tract Ahasimus and Aressich, called by us the Whore Hook, 
stretching along the river Mauritius and the Island of Manahatas on the East side, Uobokan Ilack- 
incjh on the North, surrounded by swamps, which serve as distinct boundary lines and that with 
all rights, titles etc. Dated jSTovbr. 22'' 1630. 

Deed feoii Director Kieft to Abr. Isaacsen Planck (Veeplajstck) for Paultts 

Hook (N. J.) 

This day, date underwritten, before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of I^ew-Nether- 
land, appeared the Honorable, Wise and Prudent Mr. Kieft Director-General of New-Netherland 
of the one part and Abraham Isaacsen Planck of the other part and mutually agreed and con- 
tracted for the purchase of a certain parcel of land, called Pouwels Hook, situate westward of the 
Island ManJiates and eastward of AJiasimus, extending from the North river into the valley, which 
runs around it there, which land Mr. Kieft has sold to Abraham Planch, who also acknowledges 
to have bought the aforesaid land for the sum of five hundred and fifty guilders, the guilder at 
20 stivers, which sum the aforesaid Abraham Isaacsen Planck promises to pay to the Hon''''' Mr. 
Kieft or his order, in three instalments, the first at the Fair A° 1638, the second A" 1639 and the 
third and last instalment at the Fair A" 1640 ; and in case he remains in default of payment, 
Jacob Albertsen Planck, Sheriff in the Colony of Rensselearswyck, substitutes himself as bail and 
principal for the purchaser, promising to pay the aforesaid 450 fl. free of costs and charges ; For 
all of which aforesaid the purchaser and bondsman pledge their persons and property, real and per- 
sonal, present and future, without exception, submitting to the Provincial Court of Holland and 
to all other Courts, Judges and Justices and in acknowledgment and token of the truth, these 
presents are signed by the parties respectively. 

Thus done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. the first day of May 1638. 

Jacob Planck, Abeam Planck. 

Lease of the Company's Farm at Pavonia (N". J.) to Jan Eveetsen Bout. 

This day the 20"' July 1638, before me, Cornelis van Tienltoven, Secretary of ISTew-Nether- 
land, appeared the Hon"'* "Wise and Prudent Mr. William Kieft, Director-General of New 
Netherland, of the one • and Jan Evertsen Pout, of the other part, who amicably agreed and 
contracted for the lease of the Bouwery hitherto occupied by the abovenamed Jan Evertsen, 
situated at Pavonia and belonging to the Noble Lords-Directors of the Priv. W. I. Company 
(Dep' of Amsterdam), in whose name and behalf Mr. Kieft has leased the abovenamed Bouwery 
to Ja7i Evertsen, who also acknowledges to have hired it, on the following conditions and terms : 

First : Jan Evertsen shall have the use of the house, land and everything belonging thereto 
on the Bouwery for six consecutive years from the date hereof and during this time he shall be 
bound to keep in order the buildings and appurtenances of the Bouwery at his own expense, with- 
out laj'ing claim therefor to anything at the expiration of the said six years. 

4 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

The said Jan Evertsen shall deliver yearly during the term of his lease to the said Mr. Kieft 
or his successor the fourth part of the crop, whether of corn or of other produce, with which God 
shall favor the soil, also every year two tuns of strong beer and twelve capons, free of expense. 
For all of which the parties pledge their respective persons and property etc. 
Done in Fort Amsterdam on the day and year above written. 

Jan "Eveetsen Bout. 
Maueits Jansen, witness. 

Lease of the Company's Bouweey at IIobooken to IIendeick Coenelissen van 


This day, date underwritten, before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary in New-Nether- 
land on behalf of the Priv. W. I. Company appeared the Honorable and Prudent Mr. William 
Rieft, Director-General in New-JS^etherland, of the one part, and Hendrick Cornelissen van Vorst* 
of the other part, who acknowledged in presence of the nmdersigned witnesses to have mutually 
agreed and amicably contracted for the lease of the Bouwery, situate at IIobooken, "until now occu- 
pied by the said Hendrick Cornelissen and belonging to the Noble Lords-Directors of the Priv. 
W. I. Companj^ Dep' of Amsterdam, in whose name and behalf the Hon*"" Director Kieft leases 
the said Bouwery to Hendrick Cornelissen aforesaid, who also acknowledges having hired the 
same on the following terms and conditions : 

Hendrick Cornelissen van Yorst shall for the period of twenty consecutive years from the 
date hereof use, cultivate and plant the said Bouwery and make further during the years of his 
lease such disposition of the land and the buildings thereon and everything ajupertaming to it, as 
a good and faithful tenant ought to make. 

The tenant shall cause to be erected on the Bouwery a barn and all other necessary buildings 
at his own expense, the Company delivering to him 4000 bricks to build the chimney. All these 
buildings shall belong to the Company at the expiration of the lease, without the tenant having 
any claim or title to them. 

It is further exjiressly agreed, that the lessee or any of his descendants shall be preferred at 
the end of this lease to others, if the said Bouwery be sold or again let. 

The said Hendrick van Vorst shall pay during the years of his lease to the said Hon''''' Mr. 
Kieft or the representative of the Company every year the fourth part of the crop, with which 
God may bless the land, either in sheaves upon the field or as it may be deemed most advantageous, 
and twelve capons. 

The lessee shall surrender the land unsown, as he now receives it. 

For all of which the parties ])ledge their respective persons and property etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, this 12"' of March 1639. 

WiLLEM Kieft 
It is further IIeyndeick Cornelissen van Yorst 

agreed, that TJlrich Leepolt 

the lease shall Maurtts Jansen as witness, 

begin on the 1'^' 
of January 1640. 

* Cornells van Vovst bad been the manager of Michiol Pauw's (see above) plantations, initil they were bought in 
liy the Company. See De Vries Voyages. — Ed. 

New YorTc Historical Records. 5 

Lease of land in Westchester County. 

Before me, Cornells van Ticnliomn, Secretary in New-Netlierland and the undersigned wit- 
nesses appeared Sr Jonas Bronch, of the one part and Pleter Andriessen and Laurens Duyts of 
the other part, who amicably agreed and contracted as follows : 

First : SV Bronck shall show to the said parties a certain piece of land, belonging to him, 
situate on the mainland opposite to the flats of the Manhates / on which said piece of land they 
shall have permission to plant tobacco and maize, on the condition, that they shall be obliged to 
break new land every two years for the planting of tobacco and maize and changing the place, the 
land, upon which they have planted to remain at the disposal of said ST Bronck. They shall 
also be bound to surrender the land, eveiy time they change, made ready for planting corn and 
ploughing. They shall have the use of the said land for three consecutive years, during which 
time the said St Bronck shall make no other claim upon them, than for the land, which Pieter 
Andriessen and Laurens Duyts by their labor shall have cleared, who on their side shall be obliged 
to fultill the above conditions. If Pieter Andriessen and Laurens Duyts demand within a year 
from said ST Bronck 2 horses and 2 cows on the conditions, on which at present the Company 
gives them to freemen, the said Bronck shall deliver the animals to them, if he can spare them. 

Pieter Andriessen and Laurens Duyts further pledge their persons and property, movable and 
immovable, present and future, nothing excepted, for the payment of what ST Bronck has advanced 
to them for board on the ship " "de Brant van Troge?i" amounting to 121 fl 16 st, of which I-'ieter 
Andriessen is to pay fl 81.4 and ZffiW7'e?wZ>w2/tefl 40.12. They promise to pay the aforesaid sums 
by the first ready means, either in tobacco or otherwise and in acknowledgment and token of truth 
they have signed this respectively. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam the 21^' July 1639. 

This is the mark * 1 of Laueens Duyts 

PiETEK Andriessen. 

MAUErrs Janse, witness. 

Indian Deed for a Tract of Land, called Keskeskick, BEnmD the Kjl which 


This day, date as below, appeared before me Cornells van TlenJwven, Secretary in New- 
Wetherland, Tequemet, Pechgawac, Pachamlens^ owners of Kekesklck, who in presence of the 
undersigned witnesses voluntarily and deliberately declare, that in consideration of a certain lot 
of merchandise, which they acknowledge to have received and accepted before the passing of this 
act, they have transferred, ceded, conveyed and made over as a true and lawful freehold, as they 
herewith transfer, cede, convey and make over to and for the benefit of the General Incorporated 
West India Company a piece of land, situate opposite to the flat on the Island of Manhattan, 
called Keskeskick, stretching lengthwise along the Kil, which runs behind the Island of Manhat- 
tan mostly East and West and beginning at the head of the said Kil and running to opposite of 

6 Colonial Settlements on tlie Hudson Hiver. 

the high hill by the flat, namely by the Great Kil, with all rights titles etc. etc. Done at Fort 
Amsterdam^ the S** of August 1639. 

(Signed) Coenelis van dee IIoylen 

David Pieteesen de \i^EiES 
as witnesses. 
In my presence 

CoKNELis VAN TiENHovEN, Secrctaiy. 


September 15"" (1639) 

"Whereas the Company has to bear heavy expenses both for the erection of fortification and 
the maintenance of soldiers and sailors, Therefore we have resolved to levy some contributions 
either in peltries, maize or wampum from the Indians residing hereabout, whom we have hitherto 
protected against their enemies and if there be any tribe, Avho will not willingly consent to con- 
tribute, we shall endeavor to induce them to do so by the most suitable means. 

Patent geanted to Coenelis Melyn foe Staten-Island, excepting as much 


"We, William Kieft, Director-General and the Council of JSTew-Xetherland etc. etc. 

Make known, that this day, date as below, we have conceded and granted, as we herewith 
concede and grant (under authority of an edict, issued by the Ilon*''^ Lords Directors on the — day 
of July 1640) to Cornelis Melyn the whole of Staten-Islajid, situate in the Bay of tlie North river 
of New-Netlierland, except as much land as is necessary for a bouwery, which had been granted 
by us, the Director-General and Council before the publication of the abovesaid edict, to David 
Pietersen de Yries* from Hoorn, and of which land David Pietersen de Yries has already taken 
possession ; with the express condition, that he, Cor7ielis Melyn, or his successors shall acknowl- 
edge the Hon''"' Lords-Directors as his supreme authority under the sovereignty of Their Iligh : 
Might : the States-General and obey here their Director-General and Council, as good inhabitants 
are bound to do ; provided that he, Melyn, or his successors submit to and acknowledge in 
every respect all such burdens and taxes, as have been already or may hereafter be imposed by the 
Lords-Directors according to the Exemptions of Neio-Neiherland. We constitute therefore the 
aforesaid Cornelis Melyn in the place and power, that we had before over the land, giving him 
actual and real possession of it and full power, authority and special permission to enter upon, 
cultivate, inhabit and use the aforesaid Staten- Island, as he would do with his other inherited 
lands and effects, without reser\nng or retaining for us any claim or pretension thereon. (No date.) 

* David de Vries had undertaken to make this settlement in company with and at the request of Frederick de 
Vrics, Secretary of tlie City of Amsterdam, and one of the Directors of tlie W. I. Company. He began work ou 
the 5th of January, 1639. See De Vries Voyages. — Ed. 

New Yorh Historical Hecords. 7 

Lease of Land on Staten-Island. 

Before me, Cornelis van Ticnhoven, Secretary of Weui-N'etherland, appeared Thomas Smith, 
who ill presence of the undersigned witnesses acknowledged to liave hired from David Pietersen 
de Vnes a plantation and buildings on Staten-Island for the time of six consecutive years, to wit 
from the 1*' of January 1640 to the first of January 1646, for which Thomas Smith is to pay to 
David Pietersen or his successors as rent 150 pounds of good, cured tobacco yearly. If Mr. Smith 
or any one in his behalf should improve the buildings now on the plantation or erect new ones, 
David Pietersen shall be held to receive them at the expiration of the said six years at the valu- 
ation of good and impartial men and pay the said Smith for them accordingly. 

Done this T"" of January 1640 at Fort Amsterdam. 

The said Smith shall cleai- as much laud as is necessary for 2000 pallisades. 

Thomas Smtthe 
Abeam Planck 

"Witnesses -, . t, 

I Abraham Jtage. 

In my presence 

Coenelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Council Minute setting foeth sundry hostile acts of the Earitan Indians 
since the peace of 1634. 
The le"" of July 1640. 

Whereas the Indians, li\nng in the Raretangh have before now shown themselves very hostile, 
even to the shedding of our blood, notwithstanding a treaty of peace was made with them A" 
1634, under which we continued to trade with them by sending a sloop there every spring and 
whereas in the spring of this year 1640 they have tried to capture our sloop, manned by only three 
men, kiU the crew and plunder the cargo, which by the gracious help of God has happily been 
prevented, as the crew was able to drive the savages from the sloop with the loss of a canoe only, 
and whereas they came then to Staten-Island killing some of the Company's pigs and plundering 
the negro's house, 

Therefore, desiring satisfaction herefor, we have informed them, to come here and indemnify 
ns, but they only laughed at our demand. 

And whereas this is a matter of great importance as well for the reputation of the States- 
General as for the respect and interest of the Hon"^ Company and the safety of our own lives and 
our cattle, 

Therefore it is resolved, to send thither 50 soldiers and 20 sailors under the Secretary and the 
Sergeant with orders to attack them, cut down their corn and bring as many prisoners, as they 
can, unless they will come willingly to an agreement and make reparation. 

Done in Council at Fort Amsterdam, July 16'" 1640. 

Ordinance offering a reward for the heads of Earitan Indians passed 

July 4, 1641. 

(See Laws & Ordinances of New Netherland, p. 28.) 

8 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Eelease by Coenelis Meltk of Joris Dircksen from nis contract to live 
ON Staten-Island. 

Before me, Carnelis van Tienlwven, Secretary of New-Netherland appeared in presence of 
the undersigned witnesses, the worthy Cornells 2felyn, who declares to have set free from the 
obhgations of a contract made in the City of Amsterdam Jorls Dircksen, annulHng said contract 
at the same time for the following reasons : 

First, because a short time before the arrival here of the said CornelisMelyn and Joris Dirck- 
sen some farmers upon Staten-Island had been killed by the savages, which had frightened the 
wife of Jorls Dircksen so much, that she will not live upon the Island now, Secondly, because 
his wages are so small, that he cannot afford to keep house on Staten-Island and on Manhattan 

Under the express condition and obligation, that neither Joris Dircksen nor any member of 
his fomily shall remove to the jurisdiction of a foreign nation, but he shall endeavor to earn his 
living under the jurisdiction of the Ilon'''^ Company and if he leaves here, he must go directly to 
the Fatherland in a ship of the Company, for all which Jorls Dircksen pledges his person and 
property, movable and immovable, present and future, submitting to all Courts and Judges. 

Done this IS"" of August 1640. 

Coenelis Meltn. 

(A like release was given to another of Melyn's hired farmers Francis Jansen for the same reason.) 

Council Minute. Conditions undek wnicn A party of English people mat 


Thursday, the 6'" of June 1641. 

"Whereas a good number of respectable English people with their preacher have petitioned for 
permission to settle here and live among us, asking that the conditions might be communicated to 
them, therefore we have resolved to send them the following terms : 

First they will be obliged to take the oath of allegiance to their Iligh Might : the States and 
to the W. I. Company, under whose protection they are to live here. 

2. They shall have free exercise of their religion. 

3. As to their political government, if they desire a Magistrate, they may nominate three or 
more of their ablest men, from whose number the Governor of Neio-Netherland will select him, 
who is to be their Magistrate, having final jurisdiction in all civil cases up to forty guilders, cases 
for higher amounts may be appealed to the Governor and Council of New-Netherland and criminal 
jurisdiction up to (i. e. not including) capital punishment. 

4. Tliey shall not build fortifications without permission. 

5. The land shall be allotted to tliem as their property without expense, they shall use it for 
ten years without paying taxes and at the end of these ten years they shall pay the tenth. 

6. They shall have free fishing and hunting and be allowed to trade subject to the privileges 
of New-Netlierland. 

7. They will be obliged to use the mcasui-es and weights of the coimtry. 

Neto Yorh Historical Records. 


Resolution to consteuct a Redoubt on Staten-Island. 
Thursday, the IS"" September 16^1. 

Wtereas a sliort time ago some of our people on Stateri-IsJ and have heen murdered by the 

Therefore, to prevent further mishaps and to protect the people still living there, we have 
judged it very advisable and proper to erect upon the said Island a smaU redoubt at as small an 
expense as possible. 

Declaration of Willia^i Feedeeicksen and others of what occureed at 
Aemeperal during the Indian wae. 

Before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary in JSl ew-J^etherland for the "W". I. Company, 
appeared at the request of ToJAas Teunissen, the undernamed, who declared and attested in place 
and under promise of an oath if needs be, that what follows is true : 

William Fredericksen, 22 years old, Jan Backer . . years old, Gerritt Jansen, 23 years old 
and Hendrick Jansen Caiffanger, . . years old, declared that when they came with the company 
of soldiers to the Kil called Armepperahin, they marched across with the advance guard, but that 
the Ensign halted with his men fully an hour and a half, notwithstanding that they called out 
often enough, March on ! 'Tis time ! They marched on after the Ensign and his men had crossed 
the Kil and coming to a certain thicket, Tobias Teimissen said to the Ensign and all the other 
soldiers : " Men, remain here, I shall go up to the huts and return to you ; if not, go towards the 
strand, I shall give you a signal ; then you can come up." 

All of which the deponents declare to be thus in fact &c. 

Done the T^ April 1642. 

The mark 


of WiLLEii Frederick. The mark 


of IIendeic Caeffangee 

Jan Backer 
The mark .A^ of GEERrr Jansen 

To my knowledge 

C . VAN Tienhoven, Seers'. 

CouET Proceedings. Coenelis Meltn against Johannes Winkelman, agent 
of Baron Nedeehoest, about certain eights on Staten-Island, June 26, 1642. 
Cornells Melyn-^\S.. ag' Johannes 'Winkelman deft. The pLff. demands by virtue of a contract 
made with the Lord of Nederhorst* at Amsterdam, that del', show his authority for coming last 
winter to him on Staten-Island with his people and cattle, stating that he came to fulfill the con- 
tract, a copy of which he had received ; and why he left again and established an other colony 
behind the Col, without asking advice as bound to do by the contract. 

The deft, answers, that he had come to this countiy by order and on behalf of Meyndert 
Meyndertsen, whose servant he is and for whom he has established a colony behind the Col as 
directed and by virtue of the patent granted to his master by the Lords-Directors and exhibited to 
the Hon''"' Director here. 

The parties are deferred, until further information has been received as to by whose orders 
the defendant has come. 

* Gerard van Reede, Lord of Nederhorst, etc. See Col. Hist. Vol. IT, p. 516.— Ed. 

10 ■ Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Council Mlnute. Permission given to Me. Theockmoeten and his associates 
to settle within 3 leagues feom the manhattans. 
The 2'' October 1642. 

AVhereas Mr. Throehnorten* with liis associates desires to settle under the jurisdiction of their 
High : Might : the States with 35 families and to live in peace, provided they bo allowed to enjoy 
the same privileges as other subjects and to freely exercise their religion, 

Therefore after having read the said Mr. Throekmorten'' s petition and considered the desires 
of the Hon"' Coinpany wc have seen, that the granting of the said request does not tend to the 
disadvantage of this country, especially as the English are to establish themselves about 3 leagues 
from us. 

Resolution to assist aeeivikg settlees. 

The 30'" of October 1642. 

In Council among other matters the proposition of the Fiscal and its consequences were con- 
sidered and it has been resolved, that it is necessary, to assist people coming over, for otherwise 
the country would come to nought and the people would remain in a pitiable state. "We trust 
that the Lords-Directors will be well pleased with this resolve, considering that the welfare of the 
country depends on it and the Hon"'' Company shall sufEer no loss, except that the advanced 
moneys will beai- no interest for a short time. 

Resolution and oeder to attack the Indians behind Coelaer's Hook and 

Pavonia (N. J.) 

Whereas the good inhabitants here have been obliged to reside hitherto on their property 
■with great fear and cultivate their land with anxiety through dread of the savages, who now and 
then have murdered some of our people in a cowardly manner, without cause and whereas we can- 
not with kindness, obtain any satisfaction for the bloodshed, therefore it is resolved, to take up the 
arms and defend our just cause, that we may live here in peace, trusting that God will bless our 
resolution, especially as the community itself on the 22'^ of February 1643 demanded to have the 
same done. 

Therefore we hereby authorize and empower Maryn Adriaensen at his request to make with 
his men an expedition against the ])arty of savages encamped behind Curler's Hook** or plantation 
and to act towards them, as they shall deem proper according to the circumstances. Done the 
25"" of February 1643. 

Sergeant Rodolff is hereby commanded and authorized to conduct and order this troop of 
soldiers over to Pavonia, there to destroy all the Indians encamped behind Jan Euertwns, but to 
spare the women and children as much as possible, endeavoring to capture the same. He will 

* John Tbrockmorton, who hiid left JIassachusetts with Eoger "Williams and 35 others on account of religious 
persecutions. Throgg's Neck derives its name from him. — Ed. 
♦* On Manhattan Island. — Ed. 

New YorTc Historical Records. 11 

there be alile to judge of the situation, how he can attack them. Hans Steen goes with hira for 
this purpose, as he knows wliere the camp of the savages is and lie shall consult with the said Hans 
Steen and all the cadets. The expedition must be made during this night and caution is neces- 
sary. May God grant you further success. The 25"" February 1G43. 

Council Minxtte SEirmo forth the necessftt of the Resolution, to enlist a 
NUMBER of Planters "in order to put a bit into the mouth of the 

The 27"" of February. 

Whereas the mischieviousness of the Heathens living here around us has reached such a 
degree since 2 or 3 years, notwithstanding all the friendship and kindness shown them continually, 
even more than could be done to Christians, taking them under our protection, when pursued by 
their enemies and whereas their malice has steadily increased, so that after wantonly killing many 
goats, hogs, cows and horses they have shed Christian blood and murdered at different tunes seven 
innocent men, always pretending friendship towards us, in consequence of which none of our good 
inhabitants here in the country can live in his house with any safety, much less work in his field, 
and whereas we have made endeavors, to have the murderers delivered to us, which was only 
knocking at a deaf man's door, while their insolence increased. 

Therefore it had been unanimously resolved, to send last year a detachment of soldiers and 
free men against these savages, to see whether by such means satisfaction for the blood could be ob- 
tained. They missed the savages on account of the darkness of the night, nevertheless they were 
frightened by it and asked for peace on condition of delivering the murderer of Class Rademaker 
to us. This was agreed to, but nothing followed, on the contrary they continued in their wicked- 
ness, shooting down in the Colony behind the Col one Gerrit van Vorst, who was sitting upon his 
house roofing it and killing an Englishman, who was in their village, but they did not surrender 
or punish the murderer in any way. They even imagined, we had come here to be their slaves. 
Finally they have come in troops of 50 to 100 within half a league from the Fort here and oppo- 
site to Pavonla, there being every reason to suspect them of intending a general massacre, as they 
had indeed boasted and as it formerly did occur in Virginia and elsewhere. God would not suffer 
such wickedness to go on for any length of time, he has awakened the community to justice and 
the revenge of Christian blood. With this resolve some deputies in the name of all have submit- 
ted a request, to be allowed to carry out the revenge, as God had evidently given them into our 
hands. And although fearing to bring trouble over the land, we set before them the difficult 
situation, especially of the houses far out in the country and inhabited by only few people, which 
it would be necessary to abandon, as we have no forces to garrison them all with soldiers, and other 
weighty reasons, they nevertheless made their request so urgently, saying " If we would not con- 
sent, the blood would be on our heads," that we were compelled to give our consent and to assist 
them with our soldiers, who on the one side have killed a good number, as the freemen on the 
other. A party of savages, who escaped, have now made attacks upon our houses on all sides, 
burned four of them with the ^cattle and killed about ten Christians, having further designs upon 
the remainder, which we have promptly provided with our soldiers and sailors. This has partly 
checked them and prevented many difficulties. But not having enough soldiers to garrison all 
houses and considering the great danger, which threatens the country, it has been resolved to en- 

12 Colonial Settlements on tlie Hudson River. 

ga^e for one or two months as many planters, as there are on hand here to save their land or put 
a bit into the mouth of tlie Heathens, so that we may live in peace, especially as the planters all 
desire to remove to the North not seeing any chance to plant here. "We have no doubt, that in 
the meantime God's mercy shall help us to a peace, according to our wishes. Our population being 
scattered here 10 leagues East and West and 7 leagues North and South, it was impossible to pro- 
tect all these places, mostly in the forest, without having more soldiers than we have hitherto had. 

Declaeation of Eobeet Pennoyek conceentng ait attempt on the life of 
Die. Kieft made by Maeyn Adeiaensen. 

Before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of Wew-Netlierland, appeared Robert Pertr 
noyer, 25 years old, who, at the request of Cornells van der Uoghins, Fiscal, certified, testified and 
declared, as he hereby does, in place and with promise of a solemn oath if necessary and thereto 
requested, that it is true, that on the 21'' of March, being Saturday, he heard Lishet Tysen say in 
the tavern, (after having asked her twice, what ailed her) : " Robert, my husband will kill the 
Commander, go and catch him." Thereupon he, the deponent, immediately set out; finding 
Maryn Adriaensen in the Director's chamber, a loaded and cocked pistol in his hand, he, the de- 
ponent, tore Maryn Adriaensen'' s sword from his side and threw it on the Director's bed. All of 
which he, the deponent, declares to be true and truthful, stating that this is deposed by him to 
bear testimony of the truth, to no person's injury or prejudice, as everyone is bound to do, when 

• Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 22'' March A° 1613 in New-Netherl.and. 
The deponent has this 
day confirmed it under The mark +i of Robeet Pennoyee. 


To my knowledge 

CoENELis VAN TiENHOvEN, Secretary. 


Mai^jn Adriansen^* a resident of this place and formerly one of the freebooters and sailors 
of Compaan having at different times behaved very insolently, as in endeavoring to force his 
way on board of the Company's ship, when ships arrive, accosting the Director three times with 
an imbearable arrogance and abusing his good will and affection for the community, it has at last 
reached such a degree, that the said 3{aryn in the afternoon of the 21'' March 1613 came under 
the pretext, that some of the people had called him " murderer " and had reproached him for Ijeing 
the cause of the damages, now committed l)y the Indians in the country, because he M'ith some others 
had signed the request for.pcrmission to have the Cliristian blood revenged, shed by the Indians 
so cowardly and of which his Honor now disavowed the responsibility and shifted all on the 
BignerH of the request, which was not true however. Leaving his house in a rage with a sword and 

* Van tie Veere, first settled at Rensselacrswyck iri 1C31. — Ed. 

Neto Yorh Historical Itecords. 1 3 

a loaded and cocked pistol lie came to the house of the Director, and went to his bedroom. Point- 
ing his pistol at the Director, to shoot him he said " What devilish lies have you been telling of 
me? " Mons' LaMontmjne being at the time with the Director, caught the pan with such quick- 
ness, that the cock snapped on his finger preventing thus through God's mercy, this atrocious design. 
Meanwhile the Fiscal and several others had come into the chamber, who disarmed Maryn and 
took him to prison. About an hour later Jacob Stangh, a servant of Maryn, and Jan Tlarmansen 
from Lemmet, each armed with a musket and a pistol, came, to the Fort, where the Director was 
walking up and down. He was informed of their coming and retreated to his house, which he 
barely had entered, when Jacob Stangh fired at him, so that two bullets passed through the door 
into the wall. The sentry before the door immediately fired at Jacob Stangh and killed him, God 
having in his mercy saved a second time within an hour and a half the Director and tlie community 
fi-om a dreadful murder. Shortly after this fearful event about 25 persons, residents of the Maiv- 
Jiattans, among them some of Ifaryri's accomplices, appeared at the door of the Director ; advised 
to delegate a few of their number, to present their petition, they sent four men to the Director 
to ask pardon for the criminal, to which the answer was given, that the Director would be 
satisfied, to leave the matter in the hands of the community, who should decide according 
to their conscience ; they might choose some men for this purjjose (as may be seen by their 
petition, marked No. — ). But instead of communicating with the community, numbering more 
than 500 men, they showed it only to the 25 or 30 men, who immediately demanded the freedom 
of the prisoner. This having been refused for good reasons, they elected eight men, of whom one 
had been convicted of a crime, who without having been presented to the Council for confirma- 
tion, promptly pronounced sentence, that the criminal should pay 500 fl and be set free on con- 
dition of remaining away from the Manhattans for three months. "When they submitted this 
sentence to lis, we represented to them, that it was impossible that they had judged with a clear 
conscience, according to our answer, as they had acted without having heard the complaint of the 
assaidted party, the motion of the Fiscal, the confession of the criminal, the depositions of witnesses 
and other matters necessary in such proceedings ; that this case was of too great importance to be 
figured out on the fingers (as the saying is). We admonished them to consider the matter more 
deliberately and we would furnish them all the evidence. Instead however of correcting their 
hasty action, they were satisfied with arguing some points in the Director's complaint, which were 
explicit enough to be understood, and traversing the motion of the Fiscal, written by himself with 
other disputes, as may be seen under No. — . We were at last compelled for tlie sake of maintain- 
ing the respect due to Justice, as being the foundation of a republic, to take the case in our own 
hands and to reinforce the Council, numbering only two members in criminal cases, by some promi- 
nent men from the community, as we have always done in important cases. But we could find 
nobody willing to assist us and in order to avoid the charge of being moved by passion, having 
through God's mercy sufficient power to cany out a just sentence, we were compelled to send the 
criminal with all the papers to Holland, to await there his trial, I mean sentence, as the Courts may 
decide. Done in Council at Fort Amsterdam, the 28"' of March A" 1643. 

(See N. Y. Col. Hist. Vol. I, pp. 194, et scq.> 

14 Colonial Settlements on the HndHon Hiver. 

Peace made between the Ddtch and the Indians on the lower Hudson. 

The 22" of April 1G43. 

Between William Kieft, Director-General and the Council of Neio-Netherland of the one side, 
and Oratamin, Sachem of the savages living at Achkinkes hacky* who declared himself commis- 
sioned by the savages of Tappaen, Bechgawawanc, Kichtawanc\ and Sintsinck, of the other side 
a firm peace was concluded to-day in the following terms : 

All injuries done by the aforesaid tribes to the Dutch or by the Dutch to them shall hence- 
forth be forever forgotten and forgiven. 

They promise mutually not to molest each other any more in the future, but if the Indians 
learn, that any tribe not mentioned now, had evil intentions upon the Christians, they will faith- 
full}' forewarn them and not admit such within their limits. 

For the confirmation and ratification of this treaty presents were mutually given. 

We pray God, that this peace may be kept unbroken by the savages. 

Declaration respeotino the circumstances, ufrDER which Dirck Straatemaker 


"We, the undersigned Sergeant, Cadet and soldiers, declare and testify at the request of the 

Fiscal Coriielis van Hoykens, that on the of February ] 643 (in the morning after having 

attacked according to orders a party of savages behind Egbert Woutersen''s) DircJc Straatemaker, 
his wife and some Englishmen came to the place, where the dead were lying, to steal corn or some- 
thing else. We declare with promise to confirm our statement by a solemn oath, that we have 
warned the said Straatemaker and his wife and said to tliem " Go to j'our house," whereupon the 
said Dirck answered " We are not in danger ; even if there were one hundred savages, they would 
do me no harm." The witnesses then moved awa}', going according to their instructions to EgherHs 
house. Arrived there they heard cries and the Sergeant ordered some soldiers to go there, who 
found the said Dirck wounded (he finally died of his wounds) and his wife dead. They rescued 
the Englishmen, who had only one gun among them. 

Thomas WillettX declares, that the said Dirck was asked " Why did you not come with us 
when we warned you " and that he answered " I miglit have escaped, but I would not leave my 
poor wife." 

All of which the witnesses declare to be true. Done the IS"" of May 1643 in Kew-Nethcr- 

This is the mark ^P of 


Tuo. WiLLETT JuRiAEN EoDOLFF, Sergeant. 

Pierre Pia 

* Haokensack, N. J. t Sleepy Hollow. \ See Vol. XII, p. 94 n. — 

jSfew Yorh Historical Jiecords. 15 

Extract from a Letter of Arent van Corlaer (Curler), Director of the 
Colony of Rensselaeeswyck, to the Patroon in Holland, June 16"' 1643. 

(From the Van Rensselaer Papers.) 
I have been in the Maquas country last year with Lcibatie* and Jacob Jansen of Am-sterdain, 
■where three Frenchmen are kept as prisoners ; among them a Jesuit,! ^ "^ery learned man, whom 
they had treated very badly by cutting off his fingers and thumbs. I brought presents there and 
asked, that we should live as good neighbors and that they should do no harm to either the colon- 
ists or their cattle, to all of which the savages of all the three castles gratefully agreed. We were 
entertained there very well and very kindly. We had to wait before each castle for about a 
quarter of an hour, that the savages could make ready and receive us with many salute-shots from 
their muskets. They were extremely glad, that I had come there. Some men were immediately 
ordered to go out hunting and they brought home very fine turkeys. After thoroughly examin- 
ing their castle, I called together all the chiefs of the three castles and advised them to release the 
French prisoners, but without success, for they refused it in a fine speech, saying " We shall show 
you every kindness in our power, but on this subject you must be silent. Besides you know well, 
how they treat our people, when they fall into their hands." Had we reached there tliree or four 
days later, they would have been burnt. I offered them as ransom for the Frenchmen about 
600 fl in goods, to which all the Colony was to contribute, but they would not accept them. We 
induced them however to promise not to kill them, but to carry them back to their country. The 
Frenchmen ran screaming after us and besought us to do all in our power for their delivery from 
the barbarians. But there was no chance for it. On my return, they gave me an escort of 10 or 
12 armed men, who conducted us home. Within half a day's journey from the Colony lies the 
most beautiful land on the Mohawk river, that eye ever saw ; full a day's journey long and mostly 
contiguous the one to the other. But it is impossible to reach there in a boat on account of the 
strong current and at the same time because of its shallowness ; but I think it could be reached by 
wagons. Two of these Frenchmen, of whom the Jesuit was one, were at my house last May. 
They expressed their hope that means could be found to procure their release. As soon as the 
Indians return from hunting, I shall endeavor to obtain their freedom. 

Patent to John Throckmorton for Land at Vreland (Throgmoeton's Neck, 
Westchester Co.) 

We, William Kieft, Director General and the Council of New-Neiherland etc etc, 

Testify and declare herewith, that this day, date as below, we have conceded and granted to 

Jan Trockmorton a parcel of land, (which is a part of Yreland) stretching along the East river of 

New-N etherland for one half of a league beginning at the Point and bounded on one side by a 

small river and on the other by a great Kil, which river and kil run together at high-water sur- 

* Jean Labadie (Labbadie, Lebatie), carpenter, a native of France, whence he emigrated to N. N. previous to 
1634, was subsequently Commissary under the Patroon and still later under the Company at Fort Orange. He 
acted on many occasions as Indian interpreter. — Ed. 

t See Appendix A. 

16 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

rounding the aforesaid parcel of land, as is shown by the map thereof, made and deposited by the 
surveyor, under tlie express condition and stipulation, that he, Jan Troclcmorton or his successors, 
shall acknowledge as his Masters and Patroons the Noble Lords-Directors of the Privileged West- 
India Company under the sovereignty of Their High : Might : the States-General and obey tlieir 
Dh-ector and Council, as is the duty of a good inhabitant, provided also, that the said Jan Trock- 
morton and his company submit to all burdens and taxes, which have been or may hereafter be 
imposed by the Lords-Directors. It is further expressly stipulated, that the said Jan Trochinorton 
shall according to his promise settle as many families upon the said land as may conveniently be 
done, And we constitute the said Jan Ti-ocJcmorton and his company etc etc. 
Done at Fort Amsterdam, July 6, 1643. 


from theik boaed. resolution to eenew the war against the hostile 
Indians, those of Long-Island excepted. 

The 15'" of September 1643. 

Before the Council came Jochim Piter sen* Barent Dirchsen, Abraham Pitersen, Isaac Aller- 
ton,\ Thcmias Hale,\ Gerrit Woljyhertsen^ and Cornelis Melyn, chosen by the community, who 
requested that Jan Dam,en, who had been elected with them by the inhabitants, should remain 
away from their meetings, because Jan Damen had signed a certain request in the name of the 

Jan Damen protests against the aforesaid persons. 

In Council, the aforesaid seven persons each casting his vote, it is resolved, to commence war 
against the savages, who are hostile to us, either by force or by stratagem, leaving the Long-Island 
savages in peace, as long as thej^ commit no acts of hostility. 

It was also resolved, if any of the Long-Island savages could be persuaded, to secure the heads 
of the murderers, to employ them for that work. 

The Select Men consent, that as many men should be engaged from among the free people 
as possible. 

These men are to report every Saturday afternoon, to consult on necessary measures ; if five 
are present, their resolutions or enactments shall be valid. 


THE Col " (Newark Bat) by the Indians. 

Before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary in New-Netherland for the Priv. W. I. Com- 
pany, appeared Jan Warrensen, 20 years old, and Hans Nelisen, 30 years old, both soldiers in the 
service of the said Company, who at the request of Mr. Johannes Winhelman and Cornelis Jansen 
Coeleni attest, testify and declare in place and with promise of a solemn oath if needs be and thereto 
requested, that it is true and truthful, that they, the affiants, were commanded by the Hon"'" Di- 

*Kuyter. t See Col. Eist. Vol. XII, p. 160. J Hall, see Vol. I, p. 431. § Van Couwenhoven. 
II Sec N. Y. Col. Hist. Vol. I, p. 103. IT The present family name is Cool.— Ed. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 1 7 

rector William Kieft to defend the Colony " behind the Ciy?," their strength being five soldiers ; 
that a very fierce attack was made on the house by the savages in the night between the l?"" and 
IS"' of September. We, the aiSants, numbering five soldiers, five boys and a man belonging in 
the Colony defended ourselves, until the savages had fired the house, in which we were obliged to 
defend ourselves, over our heads, then we had to leave the house on account of the heat and we 
barely succeeded in saving om-selves in a canoe, bringing with us of all the property there only 
our arms. All of which they declare to be true, offering to confirm it by their oath. 
Done the 30"" October 1643 at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland. 


This is the mark ^J of Jan "Waeeensen. 
Hajss Nielissen. 

In my presence 


Eepoet OF Peter Cock and Roeloff Jansen Haes, that the Colony on the 
Col has been destkoted bt the Indians, who still are swarming around 
there and burn everything and slay everybody. 

Before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of Wew-Netherland, appeared Pieter Cock, 
30 years old and Itoeloff Jansen, 20 years old, well known to me, the Secretary, who at the request 
of Cornells Jansen Coelen declare and testify, promising to confirm their attestation by a solemn 
oath, if so required, that after the Colony behind the Col had been burnt by the savages, it was 
impossible to go there by land or by water to examine the place and its condition, because of 
the great number of savages, who burn and slay whatever they can lay hold of in the woods, on 
the Kil or elsewhere. This the deponents declare to be correct and true etc. 

Done the Z^ of November 1643 at Fort Amsterdam. 

This r"^ Y is the mark of Pieter Kock. 

Roeloff Jansen Haes. 
In my presence 

Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secr^. 

Council Mintjte. Aeeival of Eiyer-Indians at Stamford, to sue for peace 
WITH the Dutch. 

"Whereas Mamarramack, Wapgaurin, chiefs of KichtawancTc, Mongochkonnome, Pajypena- 
haroio of Wiquaeskeck"^ and Nochjpeem, together with the Wajypinck\ have come to Stamford ask- 
ing Capt. Onderhil to apply to the Governor of New-Netherland for peace and have promised 
now and forever not to do any harm to either people, cattle, houses or anything else within the 
territory of Nexo-N eiherland, also that they will not come upon Manhatans Island, as long as 
we Dutch are at war with others heathens, unless in one canoe as far as Fort Amsterdam, and 
whereas they likewise promise to do their best in looking up Pacham, 

* In Westchester County. f In Dutchess County. 


18 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson B,voer. 

Therefore we promise not to molest them, if the aforesaid chiefs and the people with them 
observe the foregoing and they may cultivate then- lands in peace, as far as we are concerned. In 
confirmation hereof, some of their prisoners are returned to them. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland this sixth of April (1644). 

Aeticles of Peace concluded m peesence of the Mohawks between the Dutch 


To-day, the SO"" of August 1645, came to the Fort Amsterdam before the Director and 
Council in presence of the whole community these Sachems or chiefs of the savages in their own 
behalf and as attorneys for the neighboring chiefs, to wit Oratamy, chief of Achkinhehachy, 
Sesekemu and Willem, chiefs of Tappaens and liechgawawanck, Pacham, Penneheck, having 
been here yesterday and having given them power to act for him, who also answer for the men of 
Onamy and their neighbors, Magauwetinnemin for the tribe of Marechhawieck, JVayeck* and 
their neighbors, also personally Aej)jen,\ speaking for the Wapj/inck, Wiquaeskecks, Sintsings 
and Kiclitawanghs. 

1. They agree to and conclude a firm, inviolable peace with us, which they promise, as we 
ourselves, to keep and never to break. 

2. If it should happen, which God prevent, that any difficulty should arise between them and 
us, no war shall be begun on that account, but the}' shall come to our Governor and we to their 
Sachems with the complaint and if any one should have been killed or murdered, the slayer shall 
be promptly brought to justice. A friendly intercourse shall be kept up between them and us. 

3. They shall not come armed upon the Island of Manhatans to the houses of the Christians. 
We will neither come with guns to them except in company of a savage, who may warn them. 

4. "WTiereas there is still an English girl among them, whom they promised to bring to the 
English at Stamford, they again promise to do so and if she is not brought there, they will bring 
her here and we are to pay them the ransom, promised by the English. 

"We promise to have the foregoing strictly observed throughout New-Netherland. 

Thus done in the Fort under the blue canopy of heaven in presence of the Council of New- 
Netherland and the whole community called together, also in presence of the Maquas ambassa- 
dors, who have been asked to come to these negotiations of peace as mediators and Cornelis 
Antonissen their interpreter and co-mediator in this matter. Date as above. The original was 
signed by the marks of Sisiadego, Claes Norman, Oratamin, Aurange Sesekcnnis, Willem of 
Tappaen and by William Kieft, La Montague, the mark of Jacob Stoffelscn, Jan Onderhil, 
Francis Bouthey, Geo. Baxter, Richard Smith, Gyshert Opdyc, the mark of Aepjen, Sachem of 
the Mahikandcrs, Jan Ever sen Bout, Oloff Stevenson, Cornelis van Hoyckens, the mark of 
Cornelia Tonissen. 

To my knowledge Cornelis van Tienhoven, 

* On Long Island. t A chief of the Mohegans. 

New York Historical Records. 19 

Council MmuTE. Peoclamation to be issued okdeeing a Day of Thanksgiving 


The 31" August (1645). 

It has been resolved in Council, to issue a proclamation for a day of general thanksgiving, 
which shall take place on the 6"" of September next in all the Dutch and English churches within 
the limits of New-Netherlayid. The proclamation reads as follows : 

As it has pleased the Almighty God in his infinite mercy and clemency in addition to many 
previous blessings, to allow us to obtain the long desired peace with the savages, we have found it 
necessary to announce it to all the people of New-Netherland, in order that in all places, where 
Dutch and English churches are established, the Almighty God may be specially thanked, lauded 
and blessed next "Wednesday, the G"' of September, the text taken to be appropriate and the 
sermon applicable thereto. You will please to announce this matter to the congregation next 
Sunday, that they may know it. 


The 31»t of August (1645). 

Having received from savages some specimens of mineral, which we think valuable, and being 
informed by the savages, that the mountaiu, from which they had brought the specimens, is situ- 
ate inland near the Haretang, we have considered it best, most advantageous and profitable for 
the W. I. Company to use all diligence to discover the said mine and when found and it is valuable, 
it is resolved to take possession thereof for the said Hon''"' Company and build a Fort there. 

Whereas further in the Colony of Meijndert Meyndertsen van Keeren " behind the Col " 
some ii'on work and ordnance has been sunk in the river by the savages, it is resolved to fish for 
it, if possible and bring it to the Manhattans. 

Patent geanted to Jacob Jacobsen Koy foe the Teact of Land called Con- 
stable's Hook on the Kil van Col (New-Jeesey). 

We, William Kieft, Director-General and the Council of Neio-Netherland etc etc. 

Testify and declare herewith, that this day, date as below, we have conceded and granted to 
Jacob Jacohsen Roy a parcel of land, called ConstapeVs Hooh, situate on the mainland and sepa- 
rated from Statei\r Island by the Kil van Col., covering an area of one himdred and fifty morgens 
according to the surveyor's map, with the express condition and stipulation etc, etc 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, 164 

20 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Patent to Thomas Cooenel of a Piece of Land on the Beonkx eiver ("Westchesteb Co.) 

"We, William Kieft, Director-General and the Council of New-Netherland etc etc 

Testify and declare herewith, that this day, date as below, we have conceded and granted to 

Thomas Com-nel, a piece of land on the East river beginning at the Kil of Bronkx Land, running 

E. S. E. along the river and stretching about half a Dutch mile from the river to a small kil 

beyond the valley, running back of this land, with the express condition and stipulation etc etc 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 26"" of June 16-i6. 

Patent to Coenelis Antonissen van dee Slyck and Company foe the land of 
TCatstctt,, on the eivee ]\lAUErrnjs. 

"We, William Kieft, Director-General in New-Netherland for Their High: Might: the 
Lords States-General of the United Netherlands, His Highness the Prinfee of Orange and the 
Noble Lords-Directors of the Incorporated "West-India Company, to All, who shall see or hear 
this. Greeting : "Whereas Cornells Antonissen of Breucklen appeared before ns and requested 
permission for himself and companions to have and possess in free ownership the land of Katshil, 
situate on the Mauritius river for the purpose of establishing a colony there with his companions, 
which he promises to do subject to the Freedoms and Exemptions of New-Netherland ; Therefore, 
considering the great service, done to this country by the aforesaid Cornelis Antonissen in helping 
to establish peace and to ransom the captives, also that such notable services should not remain 
without reward, we, the Director and Council, have conceded and granted to the said Cornelis 
Antonissen the aforesaid land of the Katskil, to establish there a colony within the prescribed 
time subject to the orders already made or to be made in I'egard to it by our Noble Masters. 
Therefore we cede and convey, in our aforesaid quality, the said land to the said Cornelis 
Antonissen as real, free and perpetuous possession, giving him full power, authority and direct 
charge, to enter upon, cultivate, inhabit and use the said land in the same manner, as he would 
do with his own inherited land and goods, without that we, the conveyors in our aforesaid quality, 
shall have, keep or reserve the least part, interest or authority in or over it, but desisting for the 
behalf as aforesaid from evei-y thing now and forever, promising also to hold this conveyance as 
firmly binding, inviolable and irrevocable, to fulfill and execute it, as bound by existing laws, 
without deceit or falsehood. We have signed it and confirmed it by appending our seal impressed 
in red wax. Actum Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 22'' of August in the Year of our 
Lord and Saviour 164G. (Signed) Willera Kieft. (Below stood) By order of the Honorable 
Director-General and Comieil of New-Netherland, Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Neto Yorh Historical Recwds. 21 

Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stutvesant: Peace wtth the 
Indians established by Kieft ; iron mine on Staten-Island ; English trading 
house near Fort Orange. (December 16-1:6 or early in 1647.) 

* * * * * * 

Glad to hear "We Were especially glad to learn, that not only peace lias been made ■with the 

been made savagcs there, but also that it will probably be lasting and firm ; but as the bad dispo- 
age3. sition of the said savages has before this shown them to be deceitful, we on our side 

will have to keep always a watchful eye on them and their doings and therefore [every occasion to 
re-open the war must be avoided and all damages prevented]. "We would have liked it, if the 
conditions or articles of the said peace, (which we believe to have been made in writing) had been 

sent over to us and expect them now at the return home of the former Director Kieft. 

The specimens of New-Netherlamd minerals, sent over, have been examined, but, we are told, 
no metal has been found in them ; we can nevertheless only deem it advisable, to order the con- 
tinuation of the search for minerals by your Honor and wish to know, what kind of metal and 
this from the innennost, that is the greatest depth, can be obtained ; we desire also a description 
of the place, where it is found. "We expect also more information concerning the iron mine on 
Staten- Island, while in the meantime we shall endeavor, as we are already doing, to find and 
send over people, who understand how to try ores and to judge of their value. 

* * * * * * 

Tour Honor ought to gather further information about the English trading-house 10 leagues 
from Fort Orange* also regarding the right, which the savages claim to have possessed in selling 
the ground to the English, for it is within our jurisdiction and we must prevent their locating 
there by all possible means, which your Honor does not consider too dangerous, so as not to become 
involved into a war with the English. Their doings and an-angements must be carefully watched 
in the meantime and invasions or trespasses by them as well as by others must be prevented 
and hindered, if possible. 

Patent to Claes Carstensen the Norman of a Piece of Land in New-Jersey, 


"We, WilUain Kieft, the Director-General and Council of N ew- N etherland etc, etc. 

Testify and declare herewith, that this day, date as below, we have conceded and granted to 
Claes Carstensen the Norman a piece of land, that formerly had been gi-anted to Barent Jansen, 
deceased, situate on the West side of the North river next to Dirck the Streetpaver's land, stretch- 
ing from a wood on the N. N. "W. along a small kil to the river on the S. S. E. along the valley 
to the Paver's land, N. E. by E. of the Paver's kil, the wood N. N. W. all covering fifty morgens. 
with the express condition etc etc. 

Fort Amsterdam, the 25"' of March 1647. 

* Van der Donck, in his " Vcrtoogh (Description)" alludes to this place as follows: " The English of New 
Haven have a trading post on the east or south-cast side of Magdalen Island (a little below Redhook, Dutchess 
county), not more than 6 Dutch miles from the North river. * * It is erected with no other view, than to 
encroach on the whole trade on the river or destroy it altogether." The Governor of New Haven Colony denied 
in a letter to Kieft, that his people had come nearer to the Hudson, than Paugassett river (now Derby, Conn.). 
The above refers probably to Springfield settled by Massachusetts people about 1635. — Ed. 

22 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Patent to Egbert "Wouteesen of a Piece of Land, called by the Indl^ns 


"We, William Eleft, Director-General and the Council of New-N'etherland etc etc. 

Testify and declare herewith that this day, date as below, we have conceded and granted to 
Egbert Woutersen a piece of land, called by the Indians Apopcalyck situate on the other side of 
the North river, West from the Manhatans and stretching along the river from Dirck the Paver's 
kil to the Gemoenepaw or Jan Evertsen's kit, N. E. by E. and S. W. by W. to the kil, running 
between the woods and the valley and reaching "W. N. W. to the woods, with the express con- 
dition etc etc. 

At Fort Amsterdam, the lO'" of May 16-i7. 

Patent to Maryn Adeiaensen of a Piece of Land, called Awiehaken (Wee- 

hawken, n. j.) 

We, William Kieft, Director-General and the Council of Ifew-Netherland etc etc. 

Testify and declare herewith^ that this day, date as below, we have conceded and granted to 
Maryn Adriaensen a piece of land, called Awiehak^eii, situate on the West side of the North 
river, bounded on the South by the Hohoken kil and running thence northward to the next kil 
and towards the woods with the same breadth altogether fifty morgens of land, with the express 
condition etc etc. 

At Fort Amsterdain, the ll"* of May 1647. 

Declaration of Commissary Boghaed and others eespectino an attack by 
the Earitan Indians. 

We, the undersigned, attest, testify and declare in place and with promise of a solemn oath if 
necessary, that we, being in the Company's service in the year 16-40, were at the request of the 
savages, called the Earitans, sent by the Hon"'" Director Eieft to trade. Arrived at the usual 
trading place in the yacht " de Vreede " these Earitans in stead of sliowing the customary friend- 
ship and trading with our people, began to scoff, brought on squirrels, offering to sell them to 
Cars Eitersen and at the same time slapped his face with them. They came on board with a 
quantity of martens, all were armed with axes, swords and other weapons ; we were therefore com- 
pelled by the narrowness of the Kil to push lower down, where we run aground. The EaHtans^ 
all of them stout fellows, seeing this, followed in canoes, came over, lifted the kedge and running 
alongside on each side of the yacht tried to tow us back to the aforesaid place, annoying us very 
much, which put us on our guard and made us look to our arms. The Earitans wanted to com- 
pel us to bring them to the shore, but we refused and said " You have canoes, row yourselves 
ashore in them." Finally seeing us on our guard, they dared not make any further attempt. 
They carried off our canoe against our will and we could not recover it, there being too many 
present. Then and at the right moment God sent a violent storm of wind, thunder and hailstones, 
whereby we got away, which, although the Kil is very narrow, they could not prevent with their 

New York Historical Records. 23 

arrows coming from both sides. We, the affiants, at the request of the Ilon'''^ William Kief I, 
attest tliis to be true, offering to contu-m it under oath. Fort Amsterdam in New-Neiherlamd, this 
IT"" July 1647. 
In my presence • Haeman M. Boghakde, Commissary 


The mark *J "^ of Goes Piteesen, made by himself. 

Extract from a letter of Director Stdtvesant to Governor Winthrop at 
Boston : vindicates himself against the accusations of having tried to 
iNcrrE the Mohawks against the English. (S"" of April 1648.) 

I am on myne owne pte trulie griued that my reall intentions of mutuall amitie and good will 
are for present (by tlieire misconstruing my actions and some unkinde passages) in parte obstructed 
and being likewise wounded in my reputation in a high degree by theyre scandalous reportes raised 
and Credit given to them of my indeauours to raise the Mohocke Indians against the English 
there, it being soe farre from the rules and principles of Christianitie and Charitie, soe much as to 
haue a thought thereof, much more to put in practise such a diuihsh and wicked deuice ; but 
according to my bownden duty to God and my neighbour, att my being att our fort of Aurania* 
I reallie indeauoured to establish a firme peace, not only betwixt the Mohocks and all the Indians 
there & us here (but likewise as I then declared myselfe to them) betwixt them and my brethi'en 
the English and Ffrench, w"" was for present well accepted of them. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Director Stutvesant : 


We shall first reply to your Honor's report on the condition of our territory there, in which 
you complain that the soldiers are very disorderly and without discipline. It looks as if the slack- 
ness of the late Director and the neglect of duty by the preacher have been the cause of it and 
we expect your Honor will redress it, even as a tree, which has been growing some time and has 
run wild, must be pruned with great care and bent with a tender hand, to be brought into a good 
shape ; it is especially said of the native inhabitants of these territories, that they must be governed 
with kindness and the former wars incline us to believe it ; we would have preferred to avoid 
these wars, for we notice, that the savages have thereby come to a knowledge of their strength and 
they are consequently very anxious to provide themselves with guns, powder and lead ; they ask 
for them to be used for hunting purposes, but we presume that is only a pretext. We remark how- 
ever, that they are so bent upon it, that we must apprehend, they would rather begin a new war 

* Fort Orange (Albany). 

24 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

against ns, than to be entirely deprived of it and considering, that under our present circiunstanees 
a war would be utterly unadvisable, we would think it best to provide these people, but sparingly, 
we mean by the Company's officers, without giving such a permission to any private parties. 

Indian Deed fok Westchester County, Easteen Half. 

This day, date as below, appeared before the Hon*'^ Director-General and Council Megtegich- 
hama, Oteijochjue and Wegtakaohkey, lawful owners of the lands lying on the East side of the 
North river of New-Netherland, called Wiequaeskech stretching in breadth through a wood to a 
kil called Seweyruc,^ dividing it at the East river by a North and South line from Greenwich on a 
kil called KecKkawes.\ This land between the two kils runs to the middle of the woods between 
the North and East rivers, so that the westerly half remains to the abovesaid proprietoi's and the 
other easterly half is divided from it by a line drawn North and South through the centre of the 
wood. The aforesaid owners acknowledge in the presence of the chief Seijseychhhnus and all 
their other friends and blood relations to have sold the said parcel of land to the Noble Petrus 
Stuyvesant, Directoi'-General of Ifew-Ifetheriand, in consideration of a certain lot of merchandise, 
which they acknowledge to have received and accepted before the passing of this act, namely 6 
fathoms of duffels, 6 strings of wampum, 6 kettles, 6 axes, 6 addices, 10 knives, some iron, corals, 
one gun, 2 staves of lead, 2 lbs of powder, 1 coat of duffels. 

Therefore the aforesaid owners of the said land transfer, cede and convey it to the said 
Director-General and his successors as a true and lawful property, renouncing for themselves and 
their descendants now and forever all claims thereupon and resigning herewith all rights and juris- 
diction, delivering it to the said Ilon'''^ General and his successors, who may do with it as they 
please, without being molested by them, the sellers or any one of them. It is further agreed, that 
the "Western half may be bought for the same amount as above, when the Director-General desires 
to pay for it, and they, the sellers, promise to sell the part still in their possession on the North 
river for that price and not to sell to anybody without informing the Director-General. They 
further promise to maintain and uphold this contract firmly and inviolably and sign it in presence 
of their chief the 14"' of July 1649 at New-Amsterdam in Nnc-Netherland. 

This is the mai-k '>L|>. |l of Megtegickhama 
This is the mark ^^^^ 

of Pomi>AiiAN. This is the mark (X\6/i. of Wegtakachkey 

This is the mark /*-''-^l,/*i»<_ made by the chief 

Seoseychkimus as witness. 
* Byrams river. f Maharnes river, Conn. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 25 

Propositions made by the Chiefs of the savages living in the neighborhood of 
THE Manhattans, namely Seysegechkemus, Oratamin, Willem of Tappaen and 
Pennekes from "behind the Col" hst the Council chamber at Fort Amster- 
dam in presence of D? Johannes Megapolensis, minister of Hensselaerswyck, 
Arent van Curler and Johannes van Twiller. 


Ptmneliccl:, the Cliief " behind the Col " made a speech in the Indian tongue, "which was 
translated and said, the Southern Minquas had asked them to live in friendship with the 
Dutch, whicli they were willing to do and for that purpose they had brought a present to the 
Hou"'^ Director. 

2. An Indian of Mechgachlcamic had involuntarily or unknowingly lately done mischief at 
Paulus Hook, which they requested us to excuse. 

3. Pennekeck said the tribe called JRaritanoos, formerly living at Wiquaeskeck had no chief, 
therefore he spoke for them, who would also like to be our friends and sent through him their 
greetings to the Hon'"'^ General. Throws 3 beavers to the ground as a present. 

i Meijterma, the Chief of Neyick, was included with his people into this agreement and 

would be, like them, our friends. They throw 3 beavers down. 

5. He speaks for the tribe of Remahenonc as for the above with a like present. 

6. Pennekeck threw down 2 beavers declaring in the name of all, that their heart was sincere 
and that they desire to live in friendship with us, forgetting on either side, what was past. 

T. Pennekeck said : " I wish you could see my heart, then you would be sure, that my words 

are sincere and true." He threw down two beavers, saying That is my confirmation. 

8. The Hon*'* Director had in former times desired to speak with them ; it was done now and 
they had shown their good intentions ; they are now waiting to see, what he would do, laying 
down two beavers. 

9. Pennekeck said, although the Hon*'" General could not understand them, they did not 
doubt his good intentions. 

10. In conclusion Pennekeck said : It is the wish of the Minquas, that we and 3'ou should be 
and remain friends, we are ready for it. 

The Hon"'* Director-General first expressed his thanks to the chiefs, that they had come to 
visit him with offers of neighborly friendship, and he then told them that he was pleased to hear 
such a request. He promised, that nothing whatever should be wanting on our part and that he 
was willing to live with them in mutual friendship and intercourse. No cause for complamts 
should be given and if somebody injured them, they should themselves report it to the Director, 
in order that they should receive justice in accordance with the case. In token of his good will 
he accepted their presents on the foregoing propositions with thanks and in due time he would 
return the compliment. 

A small present worth about 20 guilders was then given to the common savages and some 
tobacco and a gun to the chief Oratamin, and so the savages departed well pleased. 
(July 19'" 1649.) 

26 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Lease of Land on the Katskil by Brant van Slechtenhoest to Jan Diecksen. 

This day, the 14"" day of January, Anno 1650, Jan Dircksen from Bremen has leased and 

rented from Director Brant van Shohtenhorst* and the Commissaries, the old maizeland on the 

north side of KatsMl, to wit the tract of land, where the squaw, who is chief of Katskil resides, 

for the term of six yeai's on the following conditions : 


The lessee further engages to read on every Lord's or other Holiday for his Christian neigh- 
bors the holy Gospel or a sermon out of a homily, if it can he procm-ed and to sing one or more 
psalms before and after the Christian prayers according to the custom of the Reformed Chm-ch. 

Indian deed foe Schodack. 
(From the Van Rensselaer Papers.) 

1650 March IS"". I the undersigned Vanemenheeten acknowledge to liave sold to Jacob 
Jansen a piece of land on the large Island, also called by the Dutch Aepjes (little Ape's) Island, 
with a small piece on the east side of a little kil, for which I have asked 4^ pieces of cloth, two 
handfuls of powder, one axe and 2f more. 

Signed f O, ~T/\\^ this is the mark of 

Agrees with the Original in the Colony of Eensselaerswyek, May 14, 1664. 

D. van Schellutne. 

■, Extract feom a lettee of the Dikectors to Petrus Stuyvesant: the geajstt 


Formerly* the name of New-NetJierland was seldom mentioned and now heaven and earth 
are, as it seems, moved by it and every one wishes to be the first to select the best part of it. 
Wouier van Ttoiller appears to have tried to prevent this and has therefore provided himself with 
more allotments, than he ever intended to cultivate or populate ; he has had even the impudence, 
to enter upon land, which had been granted by letters patent to others, for instance the Catskil, 
which was covered by the patent issued to Cornelis Antony van der Slijck : we are wondering 
therefore, that this man, who has a good claim to it, has not objected before now and he must be 
maintained in it. We deem it however best, that possession should be given to neither. 


* Director of Van Rensselaer's Colony since Nov. 10, 1646. 

t Before Cornelis Mclyn, Wouter van TwUler and others had begun then- intrigues against Stuyvesant and the 
W. I. Company. — Ed. 

Neio Yorh Historical Records. 27 

Extract from a letter of the same to the same: fears are entertained, 


TO THE North river Colonies, lo'* April 1650. 

We look with anxiety uj)on the resolution of the English to begin a war with the savages, 
ualled Wap2)in<js, for if these are driven out of their country, the former would, by occupying 
the conquered land, have a good opportunity to separate Hensselaerswyck from us and would then 
also become masters of the whole North river and with it of the fur trade.* There are already a 
number of competitors here for that trade ; Wouter van Twiller and his companions especially 
pretend, that they alone ought to have the monopoly of it. As the Company has so far reserved 
to themselves the right to exclude all others for all times from this trade, we would do it now, if 
we only could think of the proper means. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors to Petrus Stutvesant : land grants 


Baron van der Capelle's colony ; Mohawks invade Canada. Sl'^' March 1651. 

We observe that many people do not scruple, to take possession of all the best land there, 
without formality and without determination by survey, as if the Company and its officers had 
nothing to say about it and had been robbed or dejirived of their prerogatives ; we have there- 
fore thought it necessary to direct your Honor herewith, not to grant land to any one without his 
acknowledging properly the authority of the W. I. Company and your Honor will especially take 
care that henceforth not more land is granted to people, than what in your opinion after a thorough 
examination of their means they will be able and intend shortly to populate, cultivate and bring 
into a good state of tillage. Several instances prove, that by non-observance of these rules many 
pieces are now claimed as property of many years' standing, although very few improvements 
in regard to settling, cultivating, tilling or planting have been made. Thus we see it in Cornells 
Melyn's, Wouter vaji Twiller'' s and others' cases ; Melyn owning an island of 7 or 8 leagues' 
length,f of which only eight raorgens of land are under plough. And Wouter van Twiller is 
not only not satisfied with adding Ilellgate\ to Nooten Idand,% but he endeavors also to get pos- 
session and make himself master of the C'atskil, in addition to which he has stretched out his 
hand for tlie two flats on Long-Island, one called Twyler''s and the other Corler''s flat, containing 
together 1600 to 2000 raorgens. 

Wolfert Gerritsen\ and Andries Hudde have done the same ; they took possession of about 
1800 morgens on the same island, while they cannot settle the fiftieth part of it : this is quite 
against our intentions, for many valuable pieces of land might be claimed as property (with great 
prerogatives) in such manner and the land itself would remain unpeopled. We direct your Honor 

* The importance of the North river fur trade is shown by an entry in Vol. A. Mortgages in County Clerk's 
Office, AHjany, which tells us, tliat 40940 beaver and otter skins were shipped from Albany in the time from 
the 20th June to 27th September 1657.— Ed. 

t Staten-Island, granted to Melyn in 1642. — Ed. 

\ Two Islands in Hellgate were patented to W. v. Tw. in July 1637. § N. 1 Governors I. patented June, 1637. 

II Van Couwenhoven. 

28 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

therefore expressly not to allow or grant any more land to anybody, except under the conditions 
stated above, and to keep Long-Islmul, (which we believe to be the most important and best piece) 
for the Company, to divide it upon occasion for the accommodation of farmers and planters, mitil 
a rule shall be made, as to how much land shall be surveyed for each colonist. 

AVe are astonished beyond measure to hear, that your Deputy, DincMage, has made common 
cause with these invaders, especially with Oovert Lockermans or others, who have bought much 
land from the Raritans on the Kil opposite Staten- Island, without considering in whose name 
they are to get a conveyance from their High: Might :, without knowledge of the Company; 
we cannot believe it and intend to resist it with all proper means, as far as we are concerned. 

Brant van Slechtenhorsf s remonstrances receive no more consideration from us, than to notify 

us in regard to the taking possession of the Katshil., which had been conveyed to others long 

before he took possession of it and we liave so far not been able to discover, by what right he or 

his principals lay claim to this property, for they have never asked the Company for it in proper 



'T is true, that the Notary Jan van de Yenne has made several applications to have a large 
tract of land, which your Honor thinks might be granted to him without any great prejudice to 
our interests : we would hke to consent to his request, if he only would desist from his extravagant 
demand of highest and lowest jurisdiction, which we deem inconvenient and are still resolved to 
keep for the Company by all proper means ; but we ai'e willing to grant to everybody as much 
land, as he sliall need. Many people are again going over in the ships now ready to sail, who 
intend to settle there and you nuist accommodate each according to his position and the number 
of souls with him, consulting your own discretion and the requirements of their families, for it 
is our aim to promote the increase of population there by all means. You will also accommo- 
date the Honorable Ilendrick van der Capelle* with favorably located lands, as far as he is in- 
clined to take possession of and cidtivate and people any land there, which he seems to intend 
judging from his letters : for we desire very much, that so wealthy people might take a fancy 
to these lands. 


We were very sorry to hear, that the 3Laqi(aes savages had invaded the territory of the 
French in Canada and captured 8 or 9 Christians, for whom they are said to have demanded a large 
ransom or they would cruelly torture them, which excited your Honor's compassion. That is the 
duty of all Christians, but every one is bound to care for himself and his own people ; yonr Honor 
cannot be ignorant, that some time ago men of this nation ha\e been ransomed at the expense of 
the Company and by the contributions of the community, for which we have never been repaid ; 
so that we think, that when the complaints reach France, they will take care of their own 

* Sec N. Y. Col. Hist. Vol. II, p. 517 note. 

Js'etv Yoi'h Historical Meconh. 29 

Entry by Coenelis vak Werckiioven at the Chamber of Amsterdam for 
TWO colonies, one at the Nevesing and the other at Tappan and grant 


To-day, the 7"" of November of the Year One Thousand Six Hundred & Fifty-One appeared 
at the oftice of the West-India Company at Amsterdajn the Honorable Cornells van Wercl'hi)ven, 
Councillor of the Municipality and Ex-Schepen of the City of Utrecht, who declared himself 
Patroon of two colonies, which he intends to establish in JVe^o-JVetherland, one beginning at the 
Nevesinck and stretching northward to near the colony of the Lord of Ned^rhorst, the other 
beginning at Taj>pan and stretching northward through the Il'tgJdands, both subject to the con- 
ditions and conform to the rules, lately made by the Company and delivered to their High : Might : 
for approval, or such other privileges and exemtions, as may be granted hereafter by the aforesaid 
Company with the knowledge of their High : Might : . The aforesaid Honorable van WercA'hoven 
promised to act in everything properly and for the service of the Company, while his Honor re- 
ceives on the part of the Company a promise of every help, favor and assistance possible, in wit- 
ness whereof this record has been made on the day and in the year as above. 

The Directors of the Incorporated West-India Company, Department of Amsterdam, to All, 
who shall see this or hear it read, Greeting ! 

Know ye, that they have consented and authorised, as they herewith consent and authorise 
his Honor Cornelia van Werckiioven, Councillor of the Municipality and Ex-Schepen of the City 
of Utrecht, that he may, as Patroon, establish a Colony in Neyo-Netherla,nd, beginning at the 
^evesinch and stretching northward to near the Colony of the Lord of Nederlwrst, all subject 
to the conditions and conform to the rules, lately made by the Company and submitted to their 
High : Might : the Lords-States-General for approval, or all such other privileges and exemtions, 
as may hereafter be granted by the said Company with the knowledge and approval of their 
High : Might : . They order, charge and request therefore every one, whom this may in any way 
concern, not to hinder his said Honor, Cornells van Werckhoven, herein, but to help, favor and 
assist him, when necessary, whereas thus it has been decided to be for the benefit of the Company. 

Thus done at the meeting in Amsterdam, the T"" November 1651. 

The same for a Colony beginning at Tappan, near the Colony of van Nederhorst and stretch- 
ing northward through the Highlands. 

Extract from a representation made by the Directors of the Amsterdam 
Department of the W. I. Company to the Bdrgomasters and Regents of 
Amsterdam: on the situation of New-Netiierland regabdino Indian affairs, 


Tb the Noble, Very Worshipful, Their Honors the Burgomasters and Regents of the 
City oi Amsterdam. 

Show with due reverence the Directors of the Incorporated West-India Company, Department 
of Am^stcrdam, that the country, called uVew-jVetharldnd, has by God's blessing greatly increased 
in population, cultivation and trade during the last short period and that it will apparently con- 

30 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River, 

tinue so on account of its suitableness, to wliich the Directors contribute all their efforts in making 
proper arrangements for the progress of agriculture and trade, as well as for the government and 
peace of its inhabitants. Several matters have been met with herein, which we are at a loss to 
decide or issue orders about without the wise counsel of your "Worships : namely the following 
points : 

The communities of both the Neiherlanders and the English in the jurisdiction of the Com 
pany complain in all their letters of the insolence of the savages, who since a year or a year and a 
half have murdered several people, carried away some children and stolen many animals, all under 
the pretext, that we are forbidden to oppose them, as they claim to have been informed by the 
bearers of the complaints from New-Netherland, who were here last year ; that the gentlemen of 
the Supreme Government here had expressly commanded not to begin a strife with them under 
any consideration, as it had been done formerly, when these barbarians were brought to reason 
and quieted and compelled by the troops of the Comjiany to make peace, which they now -saolate 
as stated above. 

The English of the Province of New-England have felt the same inconveniences as our in- 
habitants and have proposed, to form an alliance with our Director, in form of a guarranteed 
league {ligue garantie\ to assist each other in times of need or trouble. As they are much stronger 
in numbers of soldiers, than our subjects, they offer to bring into the field two men for one of 
ours, provided that they shall also have a double voice in judging the legality or illegality of and re- 
solving upon aggressive war. 

The Deputies of their High : Might : have provided last year all the indecent complainants, 
who came here from New-Netherland, with safe-conducts upon their return : these men mean now, 
under this pretext, to do all kind of mischief by inciting some evil-minded persons against the Di- 
rectors and officers of the Company. 

The Vice-Director, Luhhert van DtncMagen, patronises these quarrelsome fellows as much as 
possible and the Directors have therefore found it advisable, to summon him home by the last ships, 
to answer for his conduct ; but before our letters had reached there, he had retreated to Staten- 
Island and joined one Cornells 3Ielyn, who is the most principal author of the factiousness and 

mutinies They have established a government to their own liking on this island, 

also a court, but we prefer to keep silent, instead of saying, under whose direction and authority. 
* * * * * * , 

Submitted 13'" February 1652. 

Extract from the answer to the foregoing. 
The 15"" February 1652. 

The Committee of the Council, appointed to examine the remonstrance of the Directors of 
the West-India Company, by which they ask for the decision and advice of this Worshipful, Hon- 
orable Council, as to how they shall act in certain difficult matters, M'hich they complain to have 
cnconntered in the management of JVcw-Wetherlafid, have resolved, after tlie said Directors have 
given an explanation of their remarks, to advise as follows, first 

That the ofiicers of the Company in New-NetKcrland shall be allowed, to resist witli all 
proper force and means the violence and invasion of the savages, who, as they complain, have for. 

JSfew Yo}'lc Historical Records. 31 

some time past killed several of their subjects, carried away children and stolen many animals and 
they have further permission, to establish and conclude for this purpose a ligue garantie in such a 
manner, as they niay judge to be best for their safety and reputation. 




Arriving at Utrecht from G^ielderland I received a letter from Z. van Seventer, chief-clerk 
of the West-India Company, dated the ll"" of March, and with it an extract from a letter written 
by Baron Ilendrich van der Capelle to your Worship and the Honorable Edward May, which 
said that his Noble Ilonor asserted to have bought the Raritan from the natives of the country, 
(while this place has been granted and surrendered by your Hon*'" Worships to me as a colony). 
I request therefore to be informed whether I am to look out for another colony. 

But I cannot omit to address myself to your Worship in regard to it and to request with great 
respect, that I may be sustained in the privileges of a colony, which has been granted to me, 
since no previous purchase has taken place and only the priority of grant is claimed and even if it 
were the case, which it is not, that a previous purchase had been made, his Noble Honor would 
not be able to maintain his claim, for his Noble Honor himself declares, that he has given di- 
rections to buy the Raritan and believes or thinks, that it is already purchased. This is not cer- 
tain, while on the other side I have given directions two years ago, to buy that district for me and 
have also received letters and information from there, which I will show to your Noble Worship, 
that the same has been purchased for me from and paid for to the lawful owners and natives of 
the country, as I stated to your Worships in my reqiiest for the grant, and I cannot believe, that, 
even though they are savages, they will sell a piece of property twice, but rather think, that some 
persons have made his Noble Honor believe, that tliis was a good piece of land, most convenient 
for his purposes, and have therefore acted in this manner to oust me. But I trust, that the Very 
Worshipful Lords-Directors will uphold me iu the grant given by them, in which your Worship 
will please to support my interest, to have my privileges contirmed, for I shall not cede nor sur- 
render my claim to Baron van der Capelle. His Noble Honor has himself written to me, to 
which I answered as your Worship may see by the enclosure. Commending your Worship with 
my very dutifid respects to the protection of the Almighty I remain, as ever. 

Utrecht, J/- March. Your Worship's obedient servant 


Letter from Baron van der Capelle to Cornelis van Weeckhoven, infoem- 


Copy of a letter from Baron van der 
Capelle to the Hon*"'" WercTch(yoen. 
I learned from the Directors of the West-India Company, when I passed through Amsterdam 
on the fl^ of this month, that your Honor had selected two colonies in the country of the Nevesinck 

33 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

and Ear Hans savages, the native proprietors of tliat district, near Staten-Island ; as I have bought 
from the same natives and proprietors some land near Staten-Island on the mainland a long time 
ago, to add to the safety of that island, I informed the Lords-Directors thereof, as soon as I heard 
tiie above and wish to communicate it also to your Honor, that no trespass may be committed on 
my territory, bought from and paid for to tlie lawful proprietors. 

I know, that your Honor will not do anything to my prejudice, for the sake of our long and 
intimate friendship, and therefore trust, that your Honor will, upon receipt of this information, 
select two other colonies not on the land, bought by me, but at another place, for the extent of 
New-NetKerland is very great and just as good soil may be found at other places, as in the afore- 
said Nevesinck or Maritans coimtry near Staten-Island. 

Therefore our correspondence about this matter ought to contribute to a better and more 
useful promotion of the colonies, which we both intend to establish, and to the advancement of the 
cultivation of the soil and population of the country for the benefit of the Company and the service 
of our common country : I expect for these reasons a definitive answer and advice, whether your 
Honor will undertake the journey in the spring notwithstanding the present warlike preparations 
and reprisals of the English Republic. 


Henk. van der Capelle toe Rtssel. 


Copy of the answer of the Honorable Wcrch- 
hoven to Baron van der Caj)elle. 

I have to state in answer to yoiir Noble Honor's letter, dated at Zutphen the -^-^ " "^ary > that 
no colonies have been granted to me by the Directors of the West-India Company, the soil of 
which had been previously to their knowledge been purchased by others from the natives of the 
country, altliough, even it were so, such a claim could not be admitted or have preference, but only 
the age and priority of the grant, issued for such a colony : if this is to prevail and liave force, 
then I too have given orders two years ago to purchase the liaritan Ivil and the land contiguous 
to it for my benefit from the native and lawful proprietors of the country : I have received letters 
and communications, that the same has been bought for me and paid for some time ago, also taken 
possession of, as I can show to your Noble Honor. I had been informed, that your Noble Honor 
had purchased a bay and land on Long-Island, as well as the land of the Nevesinck from the Sand- 
point to the Nevesinck bay, but not farther, else I would have extended my limits farther into the 
Nevesinck, but I did not do it, because I did not wish to give your Noble Honor the least cause 
of offense or inflict damage and therefore I request most respectfully to leave me too in undis- 
turbed possession of the land, purchased by and granted to me, and not to interfere, for I -would 
not like to give up the privileges of my colony. With further offers of my services etc" 


New Yorh Historical Records. 33 

Extract from a letter of the Dieectoes to Stuyvesant : a New-Netiieeland 
bureau is to be established, to check the abuses in land granting ; con- 

Werckhoven ; war between the Mohawks and Canada Indians. 4"^ of 
April 1652. 
***** * 

From our secret resolution, which we entrust lierewith to the Honorable General, regarding 
the vexations by the savages, of which the inhabitants complain and to which they are e.xjjosed 
through the instigations of evil-minded persons, who make the savages believe, that we are not 
allowed to punish them for their illdoings, your Honor will perceive, that if necessary, in an 
emergency a league may be made with our English neighbors, that thereby the insolence and mis- 
chief doing of the barbarians can be held in check ; we cannot however consent, to give them 
a preponderance in the council, for we consider tliat dangerous. 


We have established here a special bureau for New-JVetherland matters and it is therefore 
necessary, that we should receive by first opportunity accurate registers of all lands, bouwei-ies and 
houses, let out on lease by the Company, with the rents and conditions, under which they are 
rented and as the Exemtions show, that the island of Manhattans is always to be reserved for the 
Company, while we have reason to believe, that some lands and lots have been given to private 
parties mthout our knowledge, we require a detailed information concerning it, for it has the 
appearance, that with God's help we shall have there a large population in a short time ; we must 
therefore keep good order, that every one may find a suitable place and that the land may be 
divided with more equality, than formerly, when everybody took, what pleased him best without 
knowledge or consent of the directors or their officers, as we find it now in the cases of Wouter 
van Twiller, OJfert Gerritseji* Lubhert vaii Dincklage, Jacob Wolj)hertse7i* and others, who have 
taken and purchased many tracts of land from the savages without our consent or knowledge. 
We consider this very intolerable and therefore deem it necessary, that your Honor should warn 
everybody by public advertisement, not to buy or take possession of any land without knowledge 
and approval of the Company and its officers, also dissolve all such contracts of purchase, made 
heretofore, under the condition, that the buyers shall be reimbursed for their out-lays and the title 
vested in the Company. All this with the understanding, that we are and will be willing, to grant 
as much land to everybody, as he will undertake to cultivate and populate, but we do not intend 
to give away the land with unlimited boundaries, as formerly, especially not whole islands, of 
which one was given to Cornells JMelyn, who upon 8 leagues of country has only settled 5 or 6 
living beings. His title has consequently lapsed since a good while and it would have been proper, 
that it should have been taken from him some time ago and given to people, who would have better 
fulfilled their engagements. It seems now, that Baron Hendrick and Alexander van der Capelle 
have negotiated with this fellow and bought from him one half of the island without previously in- 
forming us ; Baron Hendrick van der Capelle declares besides, that he had given orders to buy 
for his account the land of the Nieuxoesinck and Raritans back of Staten-Island, which as we did 
not know it we had granted to the Hon'''^ Cornelis van Werckhoven, who goes there with a goodly 
number of souls, to take possession, as yom- Honors may learn from the commission, which we 
gave him. If this gentleman i-s interested in the affairs of Nexo-Netherland and especially in the 

* Yau Couwenhoven. 

34 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

welfare of the Company, as we hope he is, then he may become an instrument, by which many 
people could be drawn thither, although we wish, that we could have refused the gi*ant of such a 
colony, for we agree with your Honors and consider such grants very inconvenient for the Com- 
pany, but we could not refuse it to this man, who is a member of the Government, because we did 
not like to appear as being opposed to the influx of population ; here again in this grant we meet 
the inconveniences mentioned above, for Baron van der Capelle claims to have been proprietor of 
these lands for a year or eighteen months ; we must say to it, that we have had no knowledge of 
it and that they miist come to an agreement among themselves : these are the consequences of the 
attempt to establish a government within a government. 

"We are quite concerned in regard to the request of the Canada savages, who have become 
involved into a war with the Maquaes and resolved to go into the country of the latter, to 
do so they would require permission to cross over the North river and have already asked it from 
your Honor. We consider a consent to their request very dangerous, for we must fear to get into 
trouble with the savages, the more so for the reasons mentioned above ; it is therefore our opinion, 
that it is best, to refuse such a passage politely. 

* * * * ■ * * 

We alluded above to the contest about to arise between Baron Hendrich van der Capelle and 
Cornelis van Werchhoven concerning the territory of the Nieuesinck and Raritans ; this matter 
has gone so far already, that they have entered written protests against each others ; the Honorable 
Mr. Werclclwven has addressed himself to us and requested, that he should be supported in the 
privileges granted by us, which we shall find ourselves obliged to sustain as far as possible, that so 
improper purchases of land from the savages may henceforth be prevented ; the said y^ercMiOven 
has also petitioned their High : Might : for the above reasons and we expect to see now shortly, 
what rules shall be established in these matters. 


Septbr 20, 1652. 
(See Laws of New-Netherland, p. 137.) 

Extract feom a letter of the Dieectoes to Stuyvesant: Vah Weeckhoven 


Nyack, L. I.. 13'" Decbe. 1653. 
Your Honor has misunderstood our intentions in regard to the Colonies of the Honorable waw 
Werckhoven, wliose two grants for colonies your Honor supposes to extend 20 miles in a straight 
line, or your Honor has not read the Exemptions carefully, for all colonists are not to receive 
more, than four miles on one side of a navigable river or two miles on each side. His Honor van 
Werclhoven had his choice and could have taken the lands, but as he has not done it, has given it 

New Yorh Historical Records. 35 

up and gone to NyacTc, one half of the same phace is granted to him, that he may settle there and 
act for his best. We sliall henceforth not grant any more colonies, as we see that the people de- 
maud such extensive tracts. 




Dutch miles north of Albany, recommended to ATTEAcr the Canadlan fue- 
TEADE. 6"^ June 1653. 

We are informed here by good authority, that great quantities of peltries might be secured 
there from the Canadian savages, in case these tribes could come to Fort Oraruje without danger 
and without having to make a circuitous route to Fort Orange and the Colony of Rensselearswych. 
But they are constantly molested by their neighbors, the Maquaes, with whom they are at M-ar 
almost continually and this is said to be the reason, why these Canadian savages, fearing the 
dangers and troubles of a southern trip, sell their peltries to the French and other nations, which 
trade there, so that the Company and her people are deprived of all this trade. We wish there- 
fore to suggest to your Honor, whether it would not be of advantage and service for the Company, 
to establish a trading-house, IS or 20 leagues above Fort Orange and make it the staple of this 
fur-trade. It would be, as we believe, no small matter for the Company and we expect your 
Honor's opinion on this point by first opportunity. 

We have decided upon your Honor's request in favor of the Honorable van Werclchaven, 
that in case he needs more land, which he is able to cultivate, the Company shall accommodate 

Resolution to peovide the Mohawks with a modeeate amount or powder and 
lead, lest tiiey apply theeefoe to the English. 

The Hon*"'^ Director-General and Council have been informed and advised of the scarcity 
of powder and lead among the Maquaas nation and of the incessant demands, which they con- 
sequently make on the inhabitants of the Fort Orange, the village of Beaverwych and the people 
of the Colony, and have further considered, that, if the aforesaid ammunition were entirely and 
suddenly denied to the said nation, the good inhabitants of the aforesaid village and places might 
have to suffer some mishap or at least that thereby the whole trade might be divej-ted and that 
the aforesaid nation might ask for the ammunition from the English, our neighbors, and obtain it 
there, a circumstance which in this dangerous situation would bring more and greater misfortune 
on this province. As the aforesaid Maquaas are now our good friends, who, obliged by want 
of the said ammunition to look for it among our neighbors, from whom they also can get a 
larger quantity of wampum for their beavers, have already received large gifts and presents from 
the English, in order to attract their trade, and as the consequence of this would likely be, that with 
the loss of their trade, we would also lose the friendship of the Maquaas and hence heap more 
misfortunes upon us and our nation. 

36 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Therefore We the undersigned Director- andCoiincil of New-Netherland have thought 
and deemed it proper and highly necessary, pursuant to the order and direction of the Hon'"''^ 
Company, to accommodate the aforesaid nation with a moderate trade in ammunition, to wit, 
powder and lead and to have the same sold to them for the present time through the agency of 
Rtdgert Jacohsen* co delegate of Fort Orange and the village of Beaverwyok, but as sparingly 
and secretly as possible, for reasons and motives, which in time, if it is necessary and required, 
shall be communicated to the Hon''''' Lords Directors of the Incorporated West-India Company. 
Thus done and decreed by the Hon'''^ Director-General and High Council of New-Netherland 
the 25"" February 1654- in Fort Amsterdam. It was signed : P. Stuyvesant, Nicasius de Stille 
and La Montague. 

Patent to Derck Ziecken fok a piece of land at Communipaw (N. J.). 

Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of their Noble High : Might : the Lord States-General of the 
United Netherlands and of the Noble Lords-Directors of the Priv. West-India Company Director- 
General of New-Netherland, Curacao and the Islands thereof, with the Hon""' Council declare, 
that we have to-day, date underwritten, granted and conveyed to Dirok Zieclien a parcel of land 
situate across the North river near Gemoenepaen, beginning at the boundaries of Claes the 
Norman's land, at a kil coming from the woods and stretching to the Company's land, divided 
therefrom also by a kil coming from the woods. The land runs along the valley N. E. by N. and 
S. W. by S. and is wide along this valley or strand 300 rods, back in the woods also wide 300 rods 
reaching into the woods N. W. and S. E. 100 rods. With the express conditions etc etc. Done 
at Amsterdam, in New-Netherland, the 16"" of June 165i. 

An Okdinance against FciENisHiNCr LiQuoE TO Indians. Passed 28"' August 1654. 
(See Laws of New-Netherland, p. 182.) 

Resolution oedeeing the Fiscal to forbid certain Englishmen settling at 
Yreedtland (Westchester Co.). 

It is resolved in Council : 

Whereas some Englishmen begin to settle and establish a village far within our boundaries 
upon the lands bought and paid for by us a long time ago at Vreedland, the law-officer of the 
Hon"''' Company, Fiscal Cornells van Tienhoven shall issue an interdict, ordering them to desist 
from further proceedings and to remove. 

Done at New-Amsterdam, November 5"' 1054. 

* Van Schocndcrwort. 

JSfeiv Yorh Historical Records. 37 

Patent to Michiel Jansen fob land at Pavonia (N. J.). 

Petrus Stuyvesant etc. witli the Hon"'' Council declare, that we have to-day, date underwrit- 
ten, granted and conveyed to Michiel Jansen a parcel of land, situate at Pavonia^ back of his own 
land, SO rods wide running N. E. ; into the woods on the N. "W. 200 rods in length along the 
land of Claes Jansen Backer, thence N. E. 80 rods, altogether 26-^ morgens. "With the express 
conditions etc etc. Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. the 27"" of Novbr 1654. 

Patent to Claes Jansen Backer fob land at Pavonxa. 

Petrus Stuyvesant etc. with the Hon''''' Council declare, that we have to-day, date nnder- 
written, given and granted to Claes Jansen Backer a parcel of land, situate at Pavonia, back of 
the land of Claes Pietersen Cos, running N. E. for 120 rods, N. W. into the woods 200 rods, wide 
in the rear 120 rods, altogether 40 morgens. With the express conditions etc. etc. Done at Fort 
Amsterda7n, this 27"" Novbr 1654. 

Patents issued for lands in New Jersey on the 4"" and 5"' of December 1654. 

To Jan Cornelissen Buys a piece of land across the North river between Gemoenejpaen and 
Kil van Col, running all the river or bay S. W. 60 rods, width in tlie woods in the rear 60 rods 
stretching into the "Woods N. N. "W". 250 rods on either side, together 25 morgens. Decbr 4"" 

To Jan LuUbo'tsen* a piece of land across the North river between Gemoenepaen and the Kil 
van Kol, running along the river or bay S. "W. 80 rods, width in the woods in the rear 80 rods, 
stretching into the woods N. N. "W. for 187|- rods on either side, together 25 morgens. Decbr 
5"' 1654. 

To Jan Gerritsen van Immen a piece of land between Gemoenepaen and the Kil von Kol, 
running along tlie river or bay S. "W. for 40 rods back in the woods 40 rods wide, stretching into 
the woods N. N. "W. for 375 rods on either side, together 25 morgens. Decbr 5"" 1654. 

To Jan Cornelissen Schoenmaecker a piece of land between Gemoenepaen and the Kil van 
Kol running S. W. along the river or bay for 40 rods back in the woods 40 rods wide and stretch- 
ing into the woods N. N. "W. for 375 rods on either side, together 25 morgens. Decbr 5"" 1654. 

To Gerrit Pietersen a piece of land between Gemoenepaen and the Kil van Kol, running S. 
"W. along the river or bay for 40 rods, wide in the woods at the rear 40 rods, stretching into the 
woods N. N. "W. for 375 rods on either side, together 25 morgens. Decbr 5"" 1654. 

To Lubhert Gysbertsen a piece of land on the other side of the North river, between Jan 
Vinge on the North side and Jan Cornelissen Buys on the South side, nnining along the river 

* Appointed Clerk of the Company Sept. 8, 1054, licensed to keep school in New Amsterdam Aug. 13, 1658, 
Commissioner to fortify Bergen in 1663. — B. F. 

38 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

S. "W. by "W; for 90 rods, -width in the rear in the woods 90 rods, stretching into the woods N. 
N. "W. for 333^ rods on either side, together 50 morgens. Decbr 5, 1654. 

To Gyshert Luhhertsen a piece of land between Gemoenejpaen and the Kil van Kol, running 
S. "W. along the river or bay for 40 rods, wide at the rear in the woods 40 rods, stretching into the 
woods N. N. "VV. for 375 rods on either side, together 25 morgens. Decbr 5, 1654. 

To Hendrick Jamsen van Schalckwyck a piece of land between Gemoenepaen and the Kil 
van Kol running along the river or bay S. W. for 40 rods, wide at the rear in the woods 40 rods, 
stretching into the woods N. N. "W". 375 rods on either side, together 25 morgens. Decbr 5, 1654. 

To Jan Cornelissen Cvynnen a piece of land between Gemoenepaen and the Kil van Kol, 
running along the river or bay S. W. 40 rods, wide at the rear in the woods 40 rods, stretching 
into the woods N. N. W. 375 rods on either side, together 25 morgens. Dec. 5, 1654. 

{Jan Cornelissen Crynnen being dead, the same land was patented to Isaac de Foreest 
April 17, 1664, who proved to have purchased it from the original grantee.) 

Pkotest against Thomas Pell foe settling on lands belonging to the Dutch 

WITH notice to quit. 

19"" April 1655. 

Cornells van Tienhoven, by virtue of his commission as Fiscal for the Province of JVeio 
Netherland and Attorney for its authority and jurisdiction, etc etc 

To you, Thomas Pell or whom else it may concern. 

Having been directed to proceed to and upon the lands of Vreedlandt, taken possession of 
during the time of the late Hon''''' Director-General Kieft and bought from and paid for to the 
actual owners and proprietors, natives of this country', as the Book of Deeds and their signatures 
prove, I inform and warn you and all, whom it may concern, herewith, that you and your associ- 
ates have not only settled ujjou lands, bought many years ago by the Dutch nation and occupied 
by the late Hon''"' Director Kieft by virtue of the title deeds, but that you also occupy it by 
usurpation, contrary to the agreement made at Hartford and to the peace concluded between the 
two nations in Europe, against the will and consent of the Director-General and High Council of 

Therefore, I, the Fiscal, give you and all, whom it may concern, this public notice in the name, 
and on behalf of their Noble High: Might: the States General and the Lords Director of the 
Priv. W. I. Company by the bearer hereof, Glaes van Elslandt, Court Messenger, chosen and 
appointed to execute this errand, to warn you not to proceed witli building, clearing, pasturing 
cattle or cutting hay or whatever else may be necessary for the cultivation of the soil upon tlie 
aforesaid purchased and long possessed lands contrary to the agreement made at JIartford and to 
remove within fifteen days after the service of this notice from the lands witliin the jurisdiction of 
Kew Netherland with your people, servants or bound slaves, furniture, cattle, implements and 
everything brought there by you or yours as your property, under the penalty, that if you or any 
of you shall be found after the date aforesaid to have acted contrarily, of being prosecuted, you 
and all whom it may concern, according to law. In the meantime I protest against all damage, 

New Yorh Historical Records. 39 

injury, miscliief and trouble, which througli your actions may arise, wliile wo declare before God 
and the World to be innocent thereof. 

Done at Amsterdam in New Netlierland on the date as above. 

Whereas the present situation does not permit, that the Fiscal of N. Netherland should servo 
the foregoing notice and protest in person, therefore the Court Messenger, Claes van Elsland, is 
authorized to do it. Done at Amsterdam in JV. JY. date as above. 

Order on the representation of the Magistrates of Fort Orange, to pub- 

Monday the 1'' of June 1655. 


In regard to the running into the woods, to draw out the savages with their beavers and the 
subsequent inconveniences, which might arise therefrom, the Commissary and the delegates of the 
(aforesaid) Fort {Orange) and of Beaverswijck shall have permission, to frame, conclude, publish, 
affix and execute in our name such a placard, as they, being on the spot, shall find most proper aud 
necessary for the best of the community and the prevention of evil. 

Letter from mHAuiTANTS of Gravesend to the Director and Council, stating 


Copy. S"-* September 1655. 

Honorable, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet Gentlemen, the Honorable Director-General 
and High Council of Nexo-Netherland, Greeting! 

Your Worships. We have here daily strange reports from Hemsteede, Neiotown and else- 
■where, to the effect, that the savages intend to pick out the Duteh from among the English in 
order to destroy them, demanding of the English at Gravesend, that they should separate from 
us, so that they might not be in the same danger of blood and good. Last night, when we were 
all under arms, a letter was read to us to the same effect, of which we send herewith a copy to 
your Honors, and we have great many other reports, too long to repeat, but all tending to make us 
remove from here, as we have been publicly admonished by Tilton\ and the Magistrates, that it 
were best for us and the preservation of our lives, if we separated from them and moved to the 
Manhattans, by which means the English would also remain safe ; if we would not remove, they 
would nevertheless do their best for us : we think this a poor consolation, if the savages should 
come : it is also reported, that the Indians of the North and of the neighboring places make great 
preparations to carry out their plans quickly, so that they urgently request, we should separate 
from them to save our lives and that as speedily as possible : these incessant solicitations have made 
us perplexed and surprised, as we do not know, what to do and what not or to whom we shall 

* This is a clerical error in the Original. It ought to be either 28th or 8th Octbr. — Ed. 
t Clerk of the village of Gravesend. 

40 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

listen, except, after God Almighty, to your honorable Worships, who, we trust, will assist us with 
their wisdom and power, as the present necessity requires it, since, as it seems, the water is already 
up to our lips and, if we once leave here, Long-Island is no longer inhabited by Dutch people. 
Therefore we presume, it rests with your Honors to see, what our situation is, which we cannot 
understand ; for they are abroad day and night, on foot and on horseback, from one to the other, 
whence your Worships can in your Honors' wisdom conceive, what we may have to expect. Tester- 
day T'dton and the Sheriff of Newtown came, to-day they went away again together. If your 
Honors resolve to save Long-Island and us, a moderate force could do here much or at least 
enough, but if your Honors wished to have us near the Fort, then hands and feet alone could not 
get our food or that of our wives and children and it woidd be necessary, to send a well-armed 
vessel to Antony Ja/nsenH s place, in order to take aboard as much provisions and other things as 
possible; we'll leave to your Honors' wisdom and discretion a matter, which we trust will 
thereby be looked after to the best, and we expect your Honors' advice and orders, according to 
which we shall govern ourselves, in the meantime we are and remain your honorable Worships 
subjects (signed) Jacobus vajj Cobler, Jan Tomassen, Hdtbeet Jansen Stoock, Jacob Hellekas, 

LtTYCAS VAN DEE LiPHOKST, Baeent Babtes, the mark •-+-» of Hendeick Coenelissen, the mark ^~\ 
of Jan Jacobsen, the mark f of Willem Willemsen, the mark 12 of Coenelis Beeckeman 
(dated) Gravesend adi ut supra. 

Westchester, 27"' September 1655. 
Respected friends. After my respects presented unto you I am sensible of your feares & it 
is not without grounds I feare to use the Best meanes as in my power shall not be wantinge in 
mee to you for 3'our preservation to speake with the Indians. We know not how the bearer 
hereof can further inform you. But if you send a messenger about Saturday with your mynde I 
thinke our Saggamaker will be hear, but if you doe not, my true indeaver shall be used for j-our 
safetye and my weake advise to you at present iff you intend your preservation &alsoe the Dutch 
that are amongst, iff they meane to saue theyre Liues, there must be meanes used for them to 
Retourne to theyr owne contriemen for safeguard ; for this I fully understand that the Indians 
will pich them out of every English towne upon the Hand & in New-England, it is a trouble to 
our Saggamaker, that there is soe many Dutch with you, for feare the should wrong you in killing 
of them, soe desiring the Lord to protect you I rest 

was subscrybed Tho : Wielee. 

The Indians intend 
noe wrong to the En- 
glish, if they assist 
not the Dutch with 
men or provision. 

New York Hiatorical Records. 41 

Declaeaiion as to the hostility of the Indians. 
8'" September 1655. 

Jo>>ej)h Safford and Thomas Bead, residing at Mespadts JvU,'^' testify that they were tins day 
informed by Joseph Fouler, Goetman Beets, Samuel Touw and his son William Bead, that some 
inhabitants of Gravesend had been at Westchester and that the sachems of the savages had been 
there at Lieutenant Wheeler's and that they would send to the English villages on Long-Islands 
to deliver and place in their hands Thomas Nuton, Henry Nuton, and Edward Jesop, because 
they had assisted the Dutch in the Fort during that night, when the savages here did so much 
Iiarm, while the savages had forbidden the English to bring any provisions or fuel to the Ma7i- 
hatans and intended to burn their huts and houses, in case the English would help the Dutch with 
fuel and provisions. They declare, that this is true and are willing to confirm under oath, that 
they have it thus from the above named persons. Date as above and signed Joseph Safford ; the 

mark "^ of Tomas Reedt (Beneath stood). This was written in the presence of Mr. Lamontagne 
and the Burgomaster Mr. Allard Anthony, in whose presence the affiants took the oath adminis- 
tered by the Fiscal. Date as above, and signed : Lamontagne and Allaed Antony. 

Minute and votes of the Council on the action to be taken eegakding the 

9'" October. 

Present in Council the Hon*"' Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant, the Hon"'" Councillor 
Lamo7itagn6 the Hon''''' Fiscal Tienhoven, M.!: Allard Antony and Mr. Oloff Stevenso7i,^w:go- 
masters and Mr. Johannes Nevius, ex- Alderman of this city. 

The above letter, received last night from the Dutch of Gravesend,, having been read and 
opinions pro et contra having been expressed in the Couucil, it was resolved, that each member 
should express his opinion separatel}', as to what action ought to be taken. 

Opinions given by the gentlemen themselves or dictated by them. 

The Hon''"' Director-General thinks, that it would not be bad, if Messrs. Montagne and Al- 
lard Antony went to Gravesend as a committee to find out, how matters stood and to sound the 
feelings there. 

Mr. Lamontagi\ie advises. 

That 20 or 25 men ought to be sent to .the village of Gravesend to assist the Dutch. 

Advice of Fiscal Tienhoven, written by himself. 
After the letter, written in English from Westchester to the people of Gramesend and sent by 
some of them to the Director and Council together with a letter and request for assistance, advice 
and orders, had been read in the Council, whereupon the Council expressed opinions pro et contra, 
Cornelis van Tienhoven advises, that for pregnant reasons no soldiers should be sent to the village 
aforesaid for the present, but at first to try mediation and summon some of the magistrates by a 
friendly letter, to appear as soon as jjossible before the Council here in the Fort, then show them 
the letter from Westchester, remind them of their proper honor, oath and duties and recommend 

* On Long Island. 

42 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

to the Dutch to niaiutaiii a firm stand at Gravesend and not to leave their home without necessity. 
Date as above and signed, Cornelis van Tienhoven. 

Advice of Mr. Allard Antony, written by himself. 
Having heard the Hon"'" Director-General's proposition regarding the letter, arrived from 
Gravesend, to send two delegates to them, my advice is, that it is only necessary to write to the 
magistrates of Gravesend, that they should appoint two of their number to come here to the 
Hon"'" General with two of the Dutch nation and that, as we had understood, they had received 
a letter of advice from Lieutenant Wheeler of Westchester to communicate the same to the Hon"'" 
Director-General and Council. Date as above, signed 

Allaed Antony. 
Advice of the Hon"'" Bm-gomaster Olqff' Stevenson* : 

That two delegates ought to be sent there, in order to find out, how matters stand, for if only 
two are summoned from there, probably no complete information could be obtained. 
Advice of Mr. Johannes Nevius, written by himself. 
My advice is, to write a letter to the people of Gravesend, that they send us two delegates 
with two Dutchmen, who are well informed of the daily rumors current there, then to inquire as 
well as possible into tlie truth of these and this as soon as feasible, as the present situation does not 
admit of a long delay ; then we can, in accordance with circumstances, resolve upon the best means 
to prevent further harm and for the best of the country. Date as above, signed 

Joannes Nevius. 

It having been resolved by a majority of votes, to write regarding the foregoing to the people 
of Gravesend, the following letter was sent to them to-day, both in Dutch and in English. 

"Worshipful, Dear and Faitliful. 

AVe have received last night a certain letter from the Dutch in the village of Gravesend, 
in which they inform us of their fears of being surprised by the barbarous savages in these dan- 
gerous times, which fears seena to be the result of a certain letter, said to be written by Lieutenant 
Thomas Wheeler of Westcliester to your worshipful Council, advising the English and Dutch to 
separate from each other. Altliough we do not know, whether it is so or not, we consider the 
proposition of separation, based only on reports or a simple letter, quite unfounded and unadvised, 
therefore we write herewith as well to the Dutch people as to you, that you remain together and 
keep together good watch and be on the look-out : if you should believe some soldiers required for 
greater safety, we shall not fail to send them to your assistance, as the circumstances will permit ; 
now, however, this letter is to request, that you will delegate two of the magistrates and send 
them hither, to arrange with us regarding the present critical situation of the village and to give 
us a more detailed report on the common rumors and the letter of Thomas Wlieeler and whereas 
it is Sunday to-morrow, we shall expect your delegates next Monday relying upon which M-e com- 
mend you to God's protection and remain 

Your good friends 
Date as above The Director-General and Council of Wew-Netherland. 

(signed) P. Stuyvesant. 

The letter was directed : To the Worshipful, Dear and Faithful, the Magistrates and Com- 
munity of the village of Gravesend. 

* Van Cortlandt. 

JSfew Yurh Jlidorical Records. 43 

On the IS"" of October 1655 two delegates from the magistrates, Will. WilleJcens and Will. 
Boune appeared before the Council in pursuance of the request of the foregoing letter and thanked 
the Director-General for his offer and will give information, as soon as they hear of danger and 
then state what thej require. Date as above. 


ll'" October. 

The present critical situation of the country having been taken into consideration bj' the 
Director-General and Council, they have, in the presence of the Burgomasters and Scheepen of 
this City, resolved for weighty reasons not to let the homeward bound ships, now ready to sail, 
depart, before the man-of-war " De Waagh^'' which is expected every day, has arrived : regarding 
the passengers, who to the number of 60 or thereabouts have given notice, that they will leave 
with the aforesaid ships, it has been unanimously resolved for the greater safety of the country, 
not to allow any passenger, able to carry arras, to leave for the present, unless God shall give a 
change for the better. Date as above and signed P. Sttjyvesant, Lamontagne, Cob, van Tien- 
HovEN, Oloff Stevenson, Joannes Nevius, Jacob Stkyckee, J. Vinge. 

Minute of the attendance of Jacob van Coeler and Jacob Silliakes with the 


12'" October. 

This day appeared before us, pursuant to summons, Jacob van Corler and Jacoh Sillialces 
with the magistrates of Gravesend / after their request had been heard, tlie Director-General and 
Council decided, that whenever the magistrates and inhabitants of the village of Gravesend should 
hear of or suspect any greater danger, than the present one and give information thereof to the 
Director-General and Council, succor of soldiers shall be sent to them, as circumstances will per- 
mit, in accordance with the letter of the Director-General, written to them on the 9"" inst. Date 
as above in Fort Amsterdam in New-NetJierland. 

Lettee feom DiEECTOE Stutvesant TO Capt. Bryant Nuton, warning him to 

BE on the look-out FOE InDIANS. 

Capt" Brian Nukin. This is to inform you, that 3 or 4 canoes with savages have been seen 
near the Hellegat on Loiig-Island, who have taken Pieter, the chimney-sweep, prisoner ; therefore 
you will have to be on your guard and keep your men close together and whereas I have been in- 
formed, that the free people, contrary to my order, do not remain together, but that every 
one runs here and there to his own plantation, you must once more and this the last time 
warn them, that they take care and keep together according to my order or that I shall be obliged, 
to take other measures herein. You are hereby especially directed to keep your soldiers together 

44 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

and keep a good watch. Farewell. Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherlani , IS"" October 

The letter was du-ected: To the Valiant, Pious Brian Nuton, Captain-Lieutenant, at present 
at Amesfoort. 

A letter of the same tenor was also sent to Sergeant Nicolas Velthuysen, now at Midwout. 

Minute of the appeaeance before the Council of Stephen Neckee, who had 


13'" October. 

Stephen Neclier appeared before the CouncU and reported that Peter, the chimney-sweep with 
five others, of whom he was one, had sailed to the aforesaid chimney-sweep's plantation to fetch 
some animals from there ; after they had been there about half an hour they were attacked by 
about 30 savages, he does not know of what nation, who took them all prisoners ; four of them 
had been wounded and he with Cornelia Mourissen (afterwards shot in the back with an arrow, 
which has been cut out by the barber) have been sent here by the savages, to ask for their ran- 
som the following articles, which the savages had marked with notches on a stick : 

20 coats of cloth 40 knives 

20 handfuls of powder 10 pairs of shoes 

10 bars of lead 10 pairs of socks 

10 kettles 10 addices 

2 muskets 10 hatchets 

3 swords 20 tobacco-pipes. 
20 strings of wampiim 

Minute of a message brought from the Indians at Paulus Hook, that the 
prisoners will be released in two days. 
13"" October. 

Peter CocTc, who conducted Captain Post* and others to Paulus Hook, reports that the In- 
dians had told him, the prisoners shall all be here in two days, come over, then you will see it. 
Also, that the savages are not satisfied, that Captain Post had not come over at the fixed time and 
that they say, you Dutch people lie so much, that you cannot be trusted. Date as above. 

* Captain Adrian Post, his wife, five children and servants were captured in the attack by the Indians on New 
Amsterdam and the other settlements Sept. 15, 1655. See Col. Hist. Vol. XII, pp. 98, etc. Post settled after- 
wards in Bergen, N. J. — Ed. 

New Yorh Historical Reccyrds. 45 

Resolution not to pat thk eansom, demanded by the Indians. 
IS"" October. 

It having been considered in Council, whether the ransom demanded by the savages should 
be paid for the four persons, who have been taken prisoners by the Indians to-day and for others, 
who might yet be captured, when they, like the former, without knowledge, even contrary to 
orders of the Director-General and Council go to distant and lonely places, it was after some de- 
bating pro et contra resolved, concluded and decided in the negative, because, as soon as the other 
savages, who have 73 of our people as prisoners, would hear, that so much has been paid for 4 
they would demand a considerable sum, and for other pregnant reasons to be brought forward in 
due time. Date as above. 

(See Laws of New-Netherland, p. 198.) 


16'" October 1655. 

"Whereas this day appeared before us with Captain-Lieutenant Brian Nuton, Elbert Elherisen, 
Marten Jansen, and Albert Albertsen, all inhabitants of the village of Amesfoo7% who report tliat 
some of their townsmen have removed and others in the village are unwilling to work with them 
and help carry the general burden of the village in keeping up the guard, therefore the Director- 
General and Council having taken it into consideration, it is concluded and resolved, that the ab. 
sentees, who have their houses on the aforesaid Bay, as well as those, who are present, must help 
carry and contribute to the general burdens of the village and its safety, as well in maintaining the 
military garrisoned there as safe-guard as in watching and patroling with the others. The Di- 
rector-General and Council further ordered, that the absentees must keep for each bouwery at least 
one stout man, properly provided -with musket and side-arms and that until further orders, each 
bouwery shall provide two soldiers with sufficient provisions for their board and in case of refusal, 
the above said Captain-Lieutenant Brian Nuton, EJhert Elbertsen and Marten Jansen are ordered 
and authorized to hire a man for each bouwery and to put the soldiers in board with some one at 
the charge and expenses of those who disobey or refuse ; the Director-General and Council being 
responsible, at the expense of the refusing parties, for the just and lawful expenses, subject to the 
decision of two impartial men. Thus done at Fort Amsterdam in Neio-Netherland date as above, 
(signed) P. Stuyvesant, Lamontagne, C. van Tibnhoven. 

Lettee to Capt. Post, oedeeing him to inquiee what the Indians peopose to 
DO with theie peisonees. 

Captain Post. Whereas the savages often impose upon us by displaying the flag and lure xis 
over the river for trivial matters, which makes our people tired to ci-oss and re-cross, without get- 

46 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

ting an answer from them in regard to our prisoners, therefore your Worship or somebody else, 
■who knows the Indian language, must ask the Sachem Pemiekeck, Oratany and others, what they 
really mean and intend and whether they will return the prisoners or not and when and that they 
must not cause any further delay or lie to us. Done at Amsterdam in New-Neiherland date 
as above (16'" Oct. 1655). 

Ordinance foebidding all persons going across the eivee oe commtinicating 
WITH THE Indians, without a pass, passed Octbe 18, 1655. 

(See Laws of New-Netherland, p. 200.) 

Minute of the eetuen of l-i prisoners (men, women and children) by Pen- 
nekeck, chief of Achkinkeshakt. 

Monday, the IS'" of October 1655. 

Whereas the chief of the Indians of Achhinkeshahj* by name Pennekeck has sent yesterday 
the 17"" October, with Captain Post, one of the prisoners, fourteen Dutch people, men, women 
and children, to the Hon"'" Director-General as a token of his good heart and intention and said 
chief requested, that the Hon''''' Director-General would show his kindheartedness by sending 
some powder and lead, 

The Director-General and Council finding the request of Penneckek oi importance and having 
considered the present situation of affairs, have resolved and concluded, to send him, as a reward 
and token of affection two Indians, taken prisoners by our people, although not of liis nation and 
to give him some powder and lead, hoping by these means to get the other Christians in a friendly 
manner and at the same time to inform him, that when all the Christian prisoners have been re- 
turned to us, he shall be rewarded courteously. Thus done in Council of the Hon""' Director- 
■ General and Council, date as above (signed) P. Stdyvesant, Lamontagne, Cob. van Tienhoven. 

Instructions to Capt" Adrian Pt)ST to obtain the release of the prisoners, 


18'" October 1055. 

Instructions giving to Captain Adriaen Post by the Hon"'" Director-General and Council of 

Whereas the said Captain Adriaen Post brought us yesterday 13 or 14 of our Christian 
prisoners, who had been surrendered to him by the Sachem Pennekeck, with the message that he 
thus showed to the Director-General his kind heart and affection and expected in return by the 
Director-General's favor and friendship some powder and lead, therefore the aforesaid Captain 
Post is authorized and directed, to cross over again and answer the said Sachem in our name, as 
follows : 

* Hackensack, N. J. 

New York Historical Records. 47 

That we thank Pennelceck and the other Sachems, wlio are with him, for their kindhearted- 
iiess and affection, which they have shown in retunung the prisoners, whom they had, and that 
we, in proof of our friendship and good intentions send and give to them, in order to return them 
again, each to his people, two captured Indians, whom, although they are not of his nation, one 
being a Wappiiuj and tiie other from Esojnis or Waerinnewmujh, Pennekech must nevertheless 
accept as a token of our good heart and affection, and that he must do his hest, that we may again 
get the captured Dutch or Swaneclces* who are in his or other Sachems' possession. 

He shall further tell Pennekeck, that it is not customary with us to pay nor to accept pay- 
ment for prisoners, but to return them in friendship, as we do with these two prisoners, and that we 
likewise expect from him, that he will give something to the poor prisoners, who have suffered 
much from cold and inconvenience and much damage, as we have done to their prisoners, so that 
they bear us no more ill-will, and therefore we would not send "any powder and lead for the prison- 
ers, which Pennekeck sent us yesterday, except a little for the chief Pennekeck and the other 
chiefs in proof of our good will and that only, that they might exert themselves with the other 
Sachems, to get the other prisoners and that he would tell, where our other prisoners are and when 
they will return. 

Also that, when we shall have got our other prisoners, we are willing to give as token of our 
affection, some powder and lead to the Sachems and shall expect them in return to show their friend- 
ship and good will by presents, when our prisoners are surrendered. 

Whereas many false stories are carried back and forward by Dutchmen, who cross over with- 
out being sent by us, he shall tell Pennekeck and the other chiefs, that we have forbidden any one 
of the Dutch people to cross over as long as the negotiations last, excejjt Captain Post or those, 

who bring with them this token '■'^^^.•' made by the Director-General's hand and that he shall 
not believe others. 

Fourthly, he shall say to Pennekeck, that we also have forbidden, that, in case messengers 
come over from him, no people shall be on the river bank, except such as we have sent and that 
if he send messengers, he must not send bad men or ragarauiBns, but a Sachem or chief, whom the 
Director-General may believe and that he shall have liberty to come and return. Done at Fort 
Amsterdam in New-Netherlcmd, date as above. 

Letter of inhabitants of Geavesend, L. I. pbaying fok protection against tue Indians. 

20'" October 1655. 

Honorable General. 
"We are at present surrounded here by Indians, of M-hom some have been permitted by the 
English to come in. They say, ihe English never give them anything to drink, they will have 
nothing to do with them ; it may well be, that our turn will come soon, at the latest to-night. 
We ask for speedy assistance, for tlie English allow the savages to go in and out ; the blow will 
undoubtedly fall on our heads. We are confident, that since they are without restraint, no assist- 
ance will be given to us, so that we all, with wives and children, are very anxious and request 

* "Schwonnack," Indian word signifying "people of the salt water" because the Dutch had come over the 
sea. — Ed. 

48 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

tlierefore respectfnlh', young as well as old people, to send us speedy help, (lower stood) In the 
name of all (signed) Jacob Swart, Jan Tomassen, the mark + of Antoijy Jansen, Laueis 
Jansex, the mark P.E. of Pieter Ebel, J. van Curler. 

The Hou"'" Director-General and Council having seen and considered the aforesaid request, 
resolved to succor the inhabitants of Gravesend as far as possible with twenty men and to direct 
them to secure the safest place. Date as above, New-Amsterdam (signed) P. Stutvesant, La- 


Message of the Indians bent with some prisoners and answer thereto. 

21^' October 1655. 

Some powder and lead for 28 of our prisoners having been brought over to the Indians by 
Adriaen Post and Claes Jansen Ruyter, accompanied by Pieter Wolphertsen, pursuant to the reso- 
lution of the IQ"" October, they return this day and bring the said 28 prisoners according to the 
promise made by the Indians ; and report, that the Sachem Pennekeck had directed them to tell 
the Hon'''^ Director-General, that Claes Jansen de Ruyter nmst return again to-day and bring with 
him a quantity of goods, as powder, lead, duffels, guns, wampum etc^ to ransom the prisoners, who 
were still among them, 20 to 2J: persons, else he would go with them into the interior. It was 
resolved, to send the aforesaid persons over again and to ask how much they would take for the 
whole batch of prisoners or for each single one. Date as above. 

Answer of the Indians to the foregoing. 

26'" October 1655. 

To-day, the 26"" of October, Captain Adriaen Post and Claes Jansen de Ruyter came over 
from Paulus Hook and reported, that they had had a conference there with the chief of Achkin- 
keshaky and his people and other savages of Mochgeychkonk. They declared on their word of 
honor to the Council and related, that the said chief Pennekeck had, in the name of the otlier 
savages, directed tiiem to tell and request the Hon''"' Director-General, that, if his Honor would 
be pleased to send him and his people 75 pounds of powder and 40 bars of lead in three kegs, either 
as ransom or as present, they would immediately surrender the 28 prisoners. 

The Hon''''' Director-General and Council and the Burgomasters of this City having heard the 
report of the aforesaid persons and having further seriously considered the inconvenience of the 
captured Christians, whose imprisonment rather ties our hands, they have with common advice 
and consent resolved (liowever unwilling), for the sake of the prisoners' preservation and in the 
hope to recover them and the balance of the prisoners, to give to the savages the demanded lead 
and powder as ransom for the captives, as no other means can at present be discovered to recover 
them, and the more so, as they are scattered here and there among the Indians in the distant in- 
terior and to prove to them our sincere good-will, it is resolved to send them as a present 25 pounds 
of powder and 10 staves of lead over and above the ransom. Date as above : present were the 
Noble Director-General, the Hon'''^ Lamontagne and the Hon'"^ Fiscal Tienhoven. 

Neto YorTi Historical Records. 49 

Eemonstbance of the Dieector-Geneeal Airt) Council of New-Netheeland to 

TOWAEDS THE DuTCH. 3] OcT 1655. 

To tlieir Noble High-Mightinesses, the Honorable States-General of the United Netherlands. 

"We remonstrate with due reverence and profound humility, also as far as we know in all 
sincerity and truth, in the name of and for all your Noble High-Mightinesses' subjects, who through 
God's providence, under authority and protection of your Noble High : Might : and with the 
knowledge and consent of the Hon'''* Lords-Directors have transported themselves hither and set- 
tled in this Province of New-Netherland., a country not much differing from our Fatherland in 
regard to climate and fertility, in which your Noble High-Might^ : subjects can easily gain their 
livelihood. They have done so for a time and would be able to do so in future, with the evident 
prospect of producing a great many and different good fruits and merchandises, in case your Noble 
High Might^ subjects could be and remain somewhat safe against the molestations, annoyances and 
murders committed by tlie barbarous natives, from whom we have, from time to time, suffered 
much insult by the killing of our cattle and the murdering of persons, with the particulars of 
which, referring to past times, we will not trouble your Noble High : Might :, in order not to 
make the report too long and to interrupt your Noble High : Might' : constant attention to more 
important and grave matters. We shall only state briefl}', that after a war had been waged during 
one or two years by various barbarous Indian tribes against the Netherlandish nation, subjects of 
your Noble High : Might :, the lawfulness or unlawfulness of which we will not discuss to any 
one's discredit, in the year 1045 a firm and inviolable peace was finally made with the afore- 
said natives on the conditions here annexed. Since that time the aforesaid Indian tribes have, 
without cause having been given, as far as we know, not only killed and destroyed many animals, 
as cows, horses and hogs, belonging to your Noble High Might' : subjects, but have also horribly 
murdered ten persons, first Simon Waliiujen* in the second year after the peace was made, in 
1651 the wife of Jan Pietersen on Long-Island, in 1652 four persons on this island of Manhat- 
tan, a year later again ihree persons on Staten-Island and last year Jochem P ietersenKuyter in 
his own house, whereupon the Chief Magistrate of this province demanded the murderers, but 
they were always refused, at least they never appeared. These infractions of the treaty made by 
them have always been passed over by the said Magistrate for the sake of peace and for the best 
of the country and the people and without show of hostility or revenge. It has further happened, 
that on the 15"' of September last past, (while the Director-General had proceeded, pursuant to 
orders and directions of the Lords-Directors, Patroons of this country, with the few soldiers of this 
Province, to the South river, to resent the injuries and affronts inflicted by the Swedes and to re- 
duce that river again to the jurisdiction of this Province, for the success of which expedition, 
blessed be God, we are truly thankful), fourteen days after the General's departure at a very early 
hour of the morning 64 canoes full of savages arrived in the neighborhood of this City of New- 
Amsterdam, who, almost before any one had risen from bed, spread over this City and during the 
day offered and committed in many houses and to many citizens insults, whicli to particularize 
would lengthen this humble petition too much. Their Sachems or chiefs were then summoned 
before the Council and gave good words and promises to depart before evening, but they remained, 
the Lord only knows with what intentions : in the meantime the good citizens, already uneasy on 
account of the insults suffered during the day, became very circumspect and, afraid of further mis- 

* Van dor Bilt, came to Rensselaerswyck in 1636. 

50 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson Hiver. 

chief, strengthened their guards bj order of the remaining members of the Council and other 
officers during the following night. However, about eight o'clock one Paulus Leendertsen^ was 
threatened, according to liis declaration, with a hatchet and tlie former Fiscal van Dyck was wounded 
by an arrow within this City, whereupon a great outcry and noise was made and some of the citi- 
zens began to shoot at the savages and a few were killed on either side. Shortly afterwards and 
dm-ing the whole night following a fearful fire and massacre was committed by the aforesaid 
savages, so that in tliree days' time about 50 Christians were killed and murdered, more than one 
hundred, mostly women and children, captured, of whom -we afterwards ransomed 60 to 70 with 
great expense, the rest being still in their hands, 28 bouweries and some plantations and about 
twelve to fifteen thousand schepels of grain burned, 500 to 600 heads of cattle either killed or 
taken by the barbarians ; anyway. Noble Lords, your Noble High Might' : subjects and humble 
petitioners have suffered tlirough these barbarous Indians a damage of more than two hundred 
thousand guilders and more than 200 persons, besides those, who were killed or are still in 
captivity, have lost their possessions and having nothing left to procure food and clothing for 
themselves and their families must be a charge upon this City alone. Finally, the country 
in general has gone backward so much, that it will not be in the same flourishing state for 
several years, that it was in six weeks ago. To this the fear must be added, which most of the 
inhabitants entertain (and not without reason) to be again surprised so unexpectedly, in case no 
steps are taken to prevent so general a massacre and so great a loss. It makes them and many 
others circumspect and timid to go again into the open country. It is besides impossible, unless 
they receive assistance from others, hence we have only to expect, in consequence of the failure of 
cultivation and harvests, poverty, want, famine and a final total ruin of the countrj^ We, your 
Noble High Might^ : subjects and petitioners very humbly and respectfully submit this dismal and 
doleful state of affairs and ask herewith for help and advice, how we shall act towards these bar- 
barous tribes in regard to the aforesaid and other murders, affronts and enormous damages. We 
are very much disinclined, to enter without your Noble "Worships' knowledge, advice and assist- 
ance into an open war, which, if, besides God's help, no assistance and succor is sent from our 
dear Fatherland, it would be, humanly speaking, impossible to carry on and bring to a de- 
sirable result. We have considered all this thoroughly, also the present critical situation of the 
Lords-Directors of the Priv. West-India Company, who are unable to send us such a relief and so 
soon, according to your Noble High : Might' : advice, as the present general distress and circum- 
stances of the country may require, and we find ourselves compelled to have recourse to your 
Noble High : Might : with the knowledge and approbation of the Lords-Directors the Patroons 
of this Province and to ask, besides the good advice of our Lords-Patroons, with great respect for 
the wise counsel and effectual assistance of your Noble High : Might : ; with this assistance, we 
hope to subdue under God's guidance the barbarous tribes and to inhabit the country in peace. 
We, your Noble High : Might : petitioners have commimicated tlie details to the Lords-Directors 
and omitted them liere for brevity's sake, in order not to trouble your Noble High : Might :, 
busy with more important affairs. Awaiting your Noble Lordships' wise counsel and assistance 
with humility and patience your Noble Lordships' petitioners and subjects shall pray the Almighty 
God for your Noble Lordships' lasting success and prosperity, etc. 

♦Van die Grift. 

JSfeiv York Historical Records. 51 

Simple and true narrative of the bad treatment, wliich the Dutch nation received from the 
barbarous natives during our times, presented in form of a petition to the Honorable, Prudent 
and Yery Worshipful, the Lords-Burgomastera and Council of the City of Amsterdam. 
(This address is the same as the foregoing, mutatis mutandis.) 

Simple and truthful report of the bad treatment, which the Dutch nation received from the 
barbarous natives during our times, presented in shape of a petition to the Noble Honorable, 
Prudent and Very "Worshipful the Lords- Directors of the West-India Company, Department of 

(This address, too, is the same as the two foregoing, mutatis mutandis, except tlie latter part, which reads as 
follows) : ^ 

We have considered all this thoroughly, also the present situation of your hon'''"' Worships, 
which is too precarious to send us such a relief, as the present general distress and circumstances 
of the country require and have concluded (in order to avoid exceptions being taken on account 
of neglecting to report to the higher authorities) to send first and above all this humble petition 
to your lion""' Worships and besides, but with your Honors knowledge and approbation, to their 
.noble High: Might: and the worshipful Magistrates of the City of Amsterdam or else your 
Honors must instruct there our deputy, Cornells Jacobsen Ste^enioyck in regard to the succor, with 
which, under God's guidance and help, we hope to subdue the aforesaid barbarous nations and to 
possess afterwards the country in peace and without fear from them. We require (with due sub- 
mission to your Honors' wise judgment) 3000 to 4000 good soldiers, one-half with match locks 
{vuerroers), the other half with iiiut-locks (snaphaen-^oers) of 3^ feet length and (a calibre of) 16 
balls to the pound and not more, who after having helped us to attain our ends, are willing to settle 
in the country and increase the population ; besides these a supply, to the value of 30 to 40000 guild- 
ers, of needed commodities for clothing and feeding the military : also some very much needed am- 
munition according to the annexed list. Very worshipful Gentlemen and Patrons, we, your Honors 
subjects and petitioners, pray humbly, that this our respectful remonstrance and petition may be 
taken into serious consideration by your Honors and favorably recommended to others, so that we 
may speedily get good advice and help from your Honors or somebody else, before more misfortune 
can befal your Honor's subjects either here or at the now conquered South river. Your Honors 
will thereby bring us and all other subjects of your Honors under obligation continually to pray 
for your Honors' success and prosperity and to remain 

Honorable, Prudent, Yery Worshipful 
Gentlemen, Your Honors' 
humble subjects. 


The differences of opinion, which we now and then encounter to our great alarm, in regard 
to the distressing situation of the country, to which it has been reduced b/ the last unfortunate 
rencontres between our nation and the Indians, each discoursing about it according to his opinion, 
if not passion, the one for peace, the other for war, have compelled me to make to j'our Honors 
the following propositions in writing, as it is impossible to serve these so antagonistic masters or 
to please both parties, differing so much, and to request your wise opinions also in writing thereon. 

52 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

First : Whether it is lawful and we can justify going to war with the natives, because of the 
last occurrences between our nation and tlie Indians. 

Second : Whether, if the war is justifiable, it is timely just now ; if not when. 

Third : "Whether, supposed, that the war is thought to be justifiable and timely, it can be 
brought to a desirable end with the forces, which we now have, without endangering considerably 
the country in general. 

We earnestly request the honorable members of the Council for their written opinion on the 
foregoing proposition, given either collectively or each for himself ; the latter would be prefer- 
able, to avoid one-sidedness. We on our side shall not fail to lay our opinion on the table beside 
those of your Honors, so that our Lords-Superiors in the Fatherland may so much the better be 
informed in regard to the state of affairs here and we arrive at a salutary resolution. 

The fourth point has been omitted in its regular order, to wit : What is to be done regarding 
the Indians, if a war is deferred for some time and until further orders from the Fatherland, either 
because of its unla\vfulness or its untimehness or our impotence, 

first in regard to the losses sustained, 

second about the captives, still in the hands of the Wiequasheck and Highland Indians. 

After this was read as above to the Council a copy of it was handed to each member. Date 
as above, in New-Netherland (signed) 

P. Stuyvesant. 

Opinions of the Dieector-Geneeai. and members of the CoinsrciL on the fore- 

Advice of the JS'oble Cirector-General on the foregoing propositions. 

We agree on the first point witli the general opinion, that the Indians, upon their first arrival 
here, had no other intentions, than to fight the Indians on the East end of Long-Island, inferable 
from various indications, too long and 4oo manifold to follow up here, and that careless watching 
and all too hasty inconsiderateness of some hotheaded individuals diverted the Indians and gave 
them a cause for the distressing subsequent actions and excessive damages. Nevertheless, consid- 
ering the sauciness of the Indians, which is unbearable and the ransom which we have had to give 
for our captured countrymen and which made them undoubtedly very eager, to act the same 
tragedy over again at a future time, it is in my opinion very necessary, that their sauciness should 
be somewhat repressed and curbed, not directly however by declaring and beginning an open war, 
but by some strict orders, the disobedience to which would make the punishment more lawful and 
justifiable. What orders it is necessary to consider, will follow under the last head. 

The second point is partly answered with the first and I think (under correction), that, although 
the war may be lawful and justifiable, which I will not absolutely contradict, the present is not 
the time for it ; many reasons might be adduced herefor, which we will pass over at present for 
the sake of briefness and not to cause any more unpleasant feelings and dissensions. But I have 
to observe in a few words that the proposition made by one or the other, to capture some Indians 
in order to exchange them for our captive Christians, is in our opinion too dangerous for the present 
and impracticable besides. I say too dangerous, because new occasion might thereby be given to 

J^ew York Historical Records. 53 

the savage tribes either to murder tlie captives or to carry them off furtlier inland, without leaving 
us hoj)e to ransom them and I value the blood of one captured Ciiristian more than luO Indians. 
It is impracticable, because the remainder of the captives are not with one nation or tribe of In- 
dians, but are scattered here and there, and of the nations or tribes, with whom the prisoners are 
but few come here or none at all ; on the other side, it appears to me as dishonest and impractica- 
ble to seize and keep as prisoners Indians of one tribe, to exchange them for prisoners in the hands 
of another tribe. We have also been sufficiently taught by the experience of the last war, that our 
side having many and various Indian prisoners never could ransom one Ciiristian for them, not 
even while negotiating for and concluding the last made treaty of peace, but that we have had to 
ransom our prisoners separately. I refer for proof to the declarations of the old inhabitants, who 
have been here before my time. 

As to the third point, whether, in case the war is considered both lawful and timely, we are 
powerful enough, humanly speaking, in our present state of affairs, to carry it on and bring it to a 
desirable end, the opinions will not agree without unpleasant feelings and hence I shall, for the 
sake of harmony, refer to the eonchisive remonstrance, sent by the last ships to the higher and 
lower authorities of our Fatherland, by which we asked besides assistance and succor their advice 
and wise counsel regarding the lawfulness of a war with the Indians and for this reason we are at 
present imqualified to begin an aggressive war, unless we desire to subject us to the reproach of 
inconsideratencss, in asking for both advice and assistance and then, before they are received, fol- 
lowing without reflection our own caprices ; therefore, even though no other reasons could be 
adduced, I cannot advise an aggressive war for some time. 

As to the fourth point, omitted in the regular order and therefore the last of the jjrojjositions : 
What is to be done with the Indians at present as well in regard to the damages sustained as to 
the prisoners, my advice is this. 

First, to begin at the fountain-head, there is no doubt, that common sins are the causes of 
common punishments: it is therefore our duty and besides necessary, that conmion, private and 
public, sins, as drunkenness, profanation of the Lord's Kame and Sabbath, swearing in public and 
in private, done even by children on the streets, meetings of sectarians and other irregularities be 
forbidden by the renewal of good orders and placats, to be promptly executed and by the issue and 
strict observance of new orders, to prevent as much as possible sucli occurrences. 

That from henceforward no separate bouweries or jjantations shall be made, but that the 
out-lying farmers shall be compelled to draw together their deserted houses and henceforth no one 
be allowed to settle in the open country, except in clusters of at least 10, 12 or 16 families living 
close together, according to the plan to be resolved upon by the Director-General and Council or 
their deputies, suitable to the condition of the country and the place and that it shall be ordered, 
that henceforward nobody is allowed to live on the separate places, which have been either burned 
or deserted. 

Thirdly, that on the occasion of forming new villages and hamlets a blockhouse shall be made 
of logs for a refuge and the safety of the inhabitants. 

Fourthly, I think it would be of service to erect such blockhouses, on the first opportunity 
offering, in sight of the Indians, one near AchkinkeshaTcy and another near Wiequaeskeck, where 
the best and most fertile land is, to dislodge the Indians from there or keep them under better con- 
trol and in case of war to get at them quicker and easier. 

Fifthly, to forbid by strict orders and placats, to be rigidly enforced against those who disobey 

That no Indian, coming to any place, village or hut, shall be allowed to remain there over 

54: Culonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

night, except in a special place, to be fixed upon for that purpose according to the localities of the 


That no Indian with any kind of arms shall be allowed to come into any place or hamlet on 
the penalty of being seized and forfeiting the arms, which he has with him. 

That nobody shall sell to any Indian any strong drink on the penalty of corporal punishment 
and that, to find the party disobeying this rule the easier, the drunken Indian shall be apprehended 
and kept in prison, until he shall have told, from whom he has received the liquor 

Sixthly, I am of opinion in regard to the captives, that it is necessary to get them back by the 
friendliest means, even if it were by giving some contraband articles as presents and Mhen they 
have been recovered, then to publish and execute the abovementioned orders, but not before. 

Seventhly, we ouo-ht to endeavour with all possible smoothness to balk the Indians in the use 
of their guns and ammunition ; to accomplish which, it is, as I believe, necessary, to prohibit gen- 
erally, that anybody should trade and negotiate with the Indians except upon a certain place, to be 
determined upon, and further to forbid, that any gun or locksmith shall repair any lock or make 
a new one, except upon the showing of a note with our seal, in which the name, for whom, is 
stated and that then the gun shall be marked or branded and a record kept of them. 

(Signed) P. Stutvesant. 

27"' Novbr. Answer to the propositions, submitted by the Woble Honorable Director-General 
Petrus Stuyoesant to their Honors, the High Council on the 10"" November 1655, 
read at the meeting in Fort Amsterdam and delivered. 

It is answered to the first point, that, if the Avar is considered justifiable, the question is, 
whether we have forces enough to attack them, leaving behind the necessary garrisons. If this is 
answered in the affirmative, then it must be begun with a warning to and advice of the principal 
inhabitants of all our villages and colonies in this province or the answer to our general letter, sent 
to our superiors, must be awaited. 

He says to the second point, that he has answered the second by the first. 

On the third point he says, that if it has to be undertaken soon, without waiting for the afore- 
said answer, we must first provide for everything and be sure of it ; then we must await the issue. 

He says in regard to the last point, that, if the war with the Indians is brought to a close, 
first the natives must be forbidden not only this island but also the city and especially the fort and 
all inhabitants must be interdicted to give them lodgings and, by penalty of the gallows, to sell or 
give them brandy, but that a trading place should be appointed for them, the Indians, outside or in 
the outskirts of the citj', where it may be considered most suitable : that the soldiers' quarters in 
our fort Amste?'dam must be finished speedily, also the gates provided with locks, and other means 
of securing it and other requisites, as victuals, ammunition of war for the defense and maintenance 
in case of misfortunes, which might befall us, must be stored in it : and that our Christian captives 
jnust be demanded from the Indians or if refused so many of their nation must be captured, as we 
shall find necessary to redeem our people. Done at Amsterdam in New-Netherland on the day 
as above, (signed) NicAsrus de Sille. 

New York Historical Records. 63 

Opinion on the proposition of the Noble Honorable Director-General, submitted to 
the Council on the 10'" Novbr. 1655. 

My opinion is, that it is impossible, to judge from the last rencontre between us and the 
natives, whether a war between us and them is lawful or unlawful, because it is necessary to know 
first, whether they were the cause of it or not. The affair must be judged by their previous 
actions, for supposed, that they have had no bad intentions in this matter, having nevertheless laid 
themselves open to suspicion and given occasion for the rencontre, they will always be considered 
the instigators and aggressors and hence the " causa movens " of the same. First the unseason- 
able gathering here of 1900 savages, without our knowledge and consent, of whom nearly 800 were 
already here, to attack, contrary to their usual manner, 50 or 60 ; was it not sufficient to create sus- 
picion of their bad intentions? And did not their insufferable insolence, shown by breaking into 
Mr. Allertori's house and beating some of our citizens in their own houses increase that suspicion ? 
Then, was not their remaining here contrary to their promise and the murder, which they tried to 
commit after the mounting of the guard on the person of Captain Paulus Leendertsen, proof 
enough, to impute bad intentions to them ? And all the citizens (to whom the guarding of the 
fort was entrusted) were they not in duty bound, to give assistance to every citizen, who called 
"murder" and "help" (because they were not put there only to guard the fort, but to protect 
from there the whole place), or coming up and finding the same citizen wounded in the breast -with 
an arrow, was it not their duty, to run up to the Indians and examine their bearing and finding 
them armed and with guns, had they no occasion to resist them ? But why do we try, to argue 
so accurately upoTi the lawfulness of a war between us and the savages fi-om the last rencontre, 
seeing that they have given a just and sufficient cause, aye, even more than sufficient cause before the 
conflict by murdering ten of our people at different times, without having been willing to give 
us any satisfaction, contrary to the peace made between them and us; during the same conflict, by 
murdering so many people, men, women and children, by taking so many prisoners, by burning so 
many bouweries and plantations and by destroying so many animals contrary to the articles of 
peace, especially demanded by them, which say that in case by any accident any of our people or 
of theirs should be killed, no war should be begun against each other, but before and until satis- 
faction and accommodation had been demanded, and the same had been refused, the war against 
them should not be considered just, especially not against those of Ahasimus, Hachkinkeshal'y, 
Tappan and others, who were all in this engagement and did the most damage to our people and 
committed the fearful cruelty of murdering seven men and a woman, whom they killed in cold 
blood (contrary to their promise, confirmed by an oath, never before taken by them, to wit : God, 
who is above, shall revenge it on us, if we do not keep our promise). But of what advantage are 
these investigations to us, since we have not the power to cai-ry on the war, were the same lawful 
or even necessary. 

To the second article : as we have no power to carry on the war, it is not the time for it now ; 
when we shall have received the means, then the time for it will have come. 

Not having the means, as I believe, to carry on the war, the country in general should not be 
placed in danger by it. 

To the fourth article : as we have no means to make war, the necessary consequence is, that 
we must keep quiet, until we get them, and do not trust in the meantime the Indians too much ; 
as to what we shall do with the Indians concerning the sustained losses, I do not know of 

56 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

any advice, because they cannot be recovered either by war or by peace. As to the captives, ex- 
perience has taught us, that they must be ransomed. 

(signed) Lamontagne. 

Opinion on the propositions, submitted by the Noble Honorable Director-General 
Petrus Stuyvesant at the meeting of the lO"' Novbr 1655 and read to the Council. 

To the first point : After a general peace had been concluded with the natives in August 
16i5, the peace and the articles of the treaty have been infringed and broken as follows : 


First in killing 14 Christians since August 1645 (up to 15"^ Septbr 1655) at different places 
and at various times, for which we have never been able to get justice done, much less satisfaction, 
notwithstanding we asked for it in accordance with the treaty, but on the contrary they have fooled 
us with lies and false reports, as is well known to the Hon"'^ Director-General, the Council, the 
inhabitants of this country and our neighbors. 


The Indians have violated and broken the treaty of peace in an outrageous manner in this 
city on the 15"" of September last, as follows : 

1. In that they landed very early on the rivershore within the city-walls from 64 canoes about 
500 men, all in arms, without having given previous notice of it, and that the}', immediately upon 
their arrival, almost before any citizens were at hand, ran in large crowds of armed men through 
the streets, breaking forcibly into the house of Mr. Allerton, bursting off the lock of the door, 
threatening and beating the people ; that they noisily searched the house under the pretext of 
looking for Northern Indians, as tiiey did in many houses in this city, until upon the complaints 
of the inhabitants, and to avoid further troubles, they were driven from the High Street to the 
banks of the North river, where their canoes laid and they had landed in the morning. 

The chiefs or sachems of the savages, belonging to different tribes, were friendly asked by the 
Council to appear at the Council-chamber in the fort, which they did : there they were asked by 
the members of the Council then present, in the presence of the Burgomasters, Schepens, citi- 
zens and military officers for the reasons of their coming thus armed and without liaving given 
previous notice, also why they and their people attacked and molested the citizens in such a man- 
ner by breaking locks, bursting in doors, pushing the people and searching liouses, which no 
Netherlander may do without order and authorization from his superiors : the members of the 
Council, then present, with the aforesaid officers of the citizens requested, that for our and their 
own greater safety and to prevent mischief and trouble the savages should remove themselves from 
this island to Noten- Island* before sunset, which they promised and then took their departure. 

Instead of leaving, as they had promised, they were joined in the evening by 200 armed 
savages more, they shot after guard-mounting Hendrick van Dyck, the foi-mer Fiscal, with an 
arrow into the breast and threatened to kill Paxdus Leendertsen, Captain of the train-bands, with 
an arrow. Upon these and other occurrences the cry was raised " Murder, murder, the savages 
kill the Dutch " ; by this dismal cry the citizens, standing under arms in the fort, to keep 
good watch, were thrown rather into confusion and hastened without any order through the 
gates and over the walls, so that they came in conflict with the savages, who were prepared, on the 

* Now Governor's Island. 

Nexo York Hlstorkal Records. 57 

strand. Two Dutclimeu were killed and three wounded, three savao-es remained dead on the 
strand, where they were found (afterwards). After this rencontre had taken place the savages 
■went over the river and elsewhere and burned during the night many houses, murdered and cap- 
tured Christians, killed cattle and a few days later cleared Staten- Island of people and houses, 
which too is contrary to the articles of peace, made in the year 1645, whereby it was expressly 
stipulated, that if reciprocally on one or the other side one or more persons had been killed or 
murdered, no general war should therefore immediately be begun, but that the injured party should 
make its complaints to the chiefs or magistrates of those, who had committed the deed, so that then 
justice might be meted out to the malefactors, according to circumstances. 

This point has been sacredly iipheld by the Netherlanders, although li Christians had been 
murdered before the 15"" of September and notwithstanding that the contract had been violated 
and broken in all these cases by the Indians, in killing people 'and cattle and stealing goods, while 
we were never able to get justice done. 

Having considered all this conscientiously the Fiscal is of opinion, that it is and must be neces- 
sary, just and righteous to make war on the Indians for the breaking of the treaty and their fearful 

To the 2''. 

It would be just and necessary (subject to correction), to pnnish the savages with God's bless- 
ing by force of arms and subdue them, because we have instances in our neighbors, living to the 
east and south from us, that they could not remain safe, before and until the Indian tribes were not 
reduced and brought to submission. 

Now as to the time, the season to inflict punishment on these barbarians would be in the months 
of December, January, February and March, but to take this step would, in my judgment, not be 
advisable, until we have received special authority thereto from our superiors and in the meantime 
we must dissemble, though it be unpleasant, and if possible not spare some small presents, in order 
to bring the savages to a truce, without making an absolute compact, and help the captives. 

To the Z^. 

The war against the savages, just according to the law of nations and not the less necessary 
for the safety of New-Netherland must be deferred, that in the meantime the villages may be 
prepared and placed on a defensive footing, also that we may wait for the answer from Holland 
to the letters and petitions sent there, together with the demanded succor, necessary for it. With- 
out the latter I do not think, that the just war could, humanly speaking, be brought to a de- 
sirable end. 

To the 7'". 
My advice on this last article is given under the 3*, to which I refer. On the li*** of Novem- 
ber, at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherlomd^ a" 1655 (signed) Coknelis van Tienhoven, De- 
livered the 29'" Novbr 1655. 

58 Colonial kiattlements on tlie Hudson River. 

Proposition made by the Indiai^s of Long-Island, eequesting a continuance 


27th JS'ovember 1655. 

To-day appeared before the Noble Hon*'* Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant and the Lien- 
tenant of the train-bands, Peter Woljphertsen, understanding the Indian language, seven Indians 
from Lmig-Island, among whom one Adam, who spoke very good English and six others with 
him, who made the following statement both in English and in Indian : 

1. That they have been sent by the chief of Marsepain, called Tachpwusaan, alias Meautin- 
nemin, to offer us his friendship and to say that formerly, during the times of the Hon''"' Kieft, a 
war had been waged between their nation and ours and that there were people killed on either 
side, on theirs and on ours, but that this must be mutually forgiven and forgotten. 

2. They further declare, that in the former differences between their Sachem and our nation 
and between them and the Indians of the Narricanses, the present Sachem's father, called the 
" One-eyed ", when beaten by our nation in the abovementioned war, had directed and ordered 
his son, now called Tachpausaan to make peace with the Dutch and the Indians from Narrican- 
ses and to keep it and that he should forget for the future what had happened and that he must 
not for this reason shed any more blood in future. The present Sachem has obeyed this, his 
father's, order and has done no damage to the Dutch people since the last war, not even to the 
value of a dog and he is still of intention thus to continue. 

He declares also, that his chief has been on bad terms and at war since almost 1-2 years with 
the savages, who have since and again now done so much injury to our nation and although this 
nation considers the chief only little and not bigger than a fist, he nevertheless feels sure, that he 
will be strong enough for them, but that until now he has been sitting as with a hanging head, he 
hopes however, we shall soon see now, what he shall do against these savages and he further says, 
that his Sachem did not yet declare, he would assist us against the savages, who did us the last 
damage, but that we should see it directly and that his chief does not nor will say or promise any 
thing else, but that he will show and prove it directly. 

He further presents a small box with wampum, which, he says, have been sent by his Sachem 
Tachpausaan and the chiefs on the east end of Long-Island with the request to accept it as a 
token of their friendship and to assure us, that whenever we needed their Sachem or his people, 
we had to summon them only, they would be ready at all times. 

He further states, that the Indians of the North, that is those living back of Onckeway and 
Stamford towards the Fresh river, had been in company of these Indians, when they made the 
last onslaught on us, but that none of the Long-Island Indians had been with them. Date as 

Questions submitted by the Dikector-Geneeal to the Council on 
EXCLUDING Indians from the settlements and answers. 

The G'" point was agreed 6. Whether it is not advisable and necessary, to 

to as necessary, but it order by placat, that no Indian shall be allowed to 

New Yurie Historical Records. 


was resolved to delay its 
being carried out. 

It is judged, to dispose 
of this seventh point by 
a placat. 

It was resolved on the 8"" point, to 
direct the magistrates of each village, 
to make iuquii'iesin private, what arms 
the people in their jurisdiction had 
and to report thereon to the high 

come to any bouwery or plantation, except 3 or 4 Sa- 
chems (?) without arms and that nobody shall give 
them lodgings for the night nor carry on any trade, 
neither directly nor indirectly, with them except upon 
certain specified places. 

7. Whether it is not advisable, that no guns should 
be either directly or indirectly mended or repaired in 
tlie open country nor withiu this city, unless upon, 
showing a written consent, which stated the name of 
the owner. 

8. Whether it is not necessary, to make a general 
monthly muster of all men, able to bear arms, in 
each village or hamlet, to find out how they are 
armed and to take a list of them, in order to prevent 
the selling or destroying of the arms. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland. 
Date as above (IS"- Jan^ 1656). 

Paper eead by Dieectok Stutvesant to the Council, containing information 


26"" January. 

To-day the following letter was 
read by the Noble Hon*'" Di- 
rector-General to the Council at 
the meeting in Fort Am,sterdam. 

I informed yonr honors partly by word of mouth, that on the 22'' inst. I had a visit from a 
Mr. Weyls, formerly a resideiit of Stamford, now sclioolmaster at OncTceway, who among other 
reports of news from Europe told me in presence of Z>° Drisius and 'Will^m HarcJie, that he had 
had in his house lately an Indian from Wiequaeskeck, who was a good friend of Yaiider Donch 
and had tended his cows *for a time ; he thought, his name was Joseph and he spoke pretty good 
English, anyway so much that he could understand him. He had talked with this Indian about 
the late troubles between his and our nations and these were the details : 

First, why they had killed and captured so many Dutchmen % 

Second, why they do not return the captured Dutchmen and whether they are not afraid, that 
the Dutch will again attack them ? 

Third, what they and their neighbors intended to do with the captives ? 

He answered to the first, that they had not been the first cause or that they did not begin 
and that they were afraid, the Dutch would not forget it, and they comprehend, why the Dutch 
kept so quiet. 

As to the captives, they were a burden to them, for they had to feed them, but they retained 
them, as they knew well and expected, that, as long as the prisoners were with them, the Dutch 
would not trouble them and they were resolved, to have the prisoners ransomed in the spring or 

60 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

to offer them to the Dutch. To the question, whether they would then make peace with the 
Dutch, the Indian answered the Dutch would not keep the peace and that therefore they did not 
intend to ask for peace nor to make it. Asked, what they would do against the Dutch, who were 
so strong and it being impossible to kill all or drive them out of their strong positions, he said, 
they knew that well, therefore they would not visit them in their castles nor make war upon 
them, but they would hide in small parties in the underwood, to surprise any one, who came out, 
hinder them in planting and kill their cattle, when it came into the woods, until they finally 
would have no more food and so forth ; the aforesaid Wyles thought it his duty as neighbor, to 
inform us hereof. 

He stated in regard to the massacre and unlucky engagement, that the matter had been 
received by the Commissioners and other principal persons of New-England with great and heart- 
felt [regret] and that it was their opinion, they were, considering their neighborhood, close union 
and the congruity of the divine service of the two nations in duty bound, to assist us against the 
barbarous tribes, if they were requested and many were astonished, that we thus passed over the 
affair, disregarding the Christian nations. 

He said also, he had heard to his regret, that many here believed, the people of New-England 
had had something to do with it, with the intention to get under that pretext possession of Long- 
Island or the new plantation at Westchester : he affirmed with great confidence, that to favor such 
belief was unneighborly and unchristianlike, that they were so far from it, that they did not want 
more of Long-Island, than what was agreed to in the treaty made at Hartford and they them- 
selves did not approve of the action of Mr. Pel in establishing a village upon somebody else's 
territory. He thought, this was now broken up, because Mr. Pel was drowned or as is supposed 
shipwrecked with his vessel and property. This is the substance of his statement to me, made in 
the presence of the aforesaid D" Drisius and William Ilarck, which I have thought necessary to 
communicate to your Honors and to have inserted, with your knowledge, into the minutes, also to 
recommend it to your Honors' further consideration, to which I must add, that, as your Honors 
know, some savages, about 30 in number, have [plundered] the yacht '■'■ Endracht''\ stranded on 
the Sandpaint, and robbed the sailors under threats, although they did not hurt them, of their 
property, which has caused me, to prevent further mischief and bloodshed, to take away the sailors 
and the things, easiest to transport, from the stranded yacht and to abandon the yacht, until better 
times and oj^portuuity. I stop here and impress it upon your Honors' mind, whether it would not 
be well, to remove also the small garrison on Staten^Island, which has no more protection, but 
much less than the sailors on the yacht, before something like, what I spoke of before, if not 
worse may happen to them and to order Captain Post, to proceed with his cattle and the few 
soldiers with him to Nayeeck and join the troops of Mr. Werckhoven, where a suitable refuge of 
stockades has been made, snfiicient to defend it with Boldiers against an attack by the Indians. 
Date as above. (26'" January 1656). 

Advice of the Honorable meivdjers of the High Council, Nicasitts de Sille, 
Lamontagne, and Coenelis van Tienhoven, given to the foregoing. 

The High Council advise on the proposition of the Hon"'" General, that, whereas Captain 
Post is mostly camping out with his soldiers on Staten-Island under the blue sky, during this cold 
winter, without having provided any stronghold, protection or means of defense for himself, his 

Neio Yorli Historical Hecords. 61 

people and the soldiers and considering tlic conflict and tlie plnnder of tlie yacht on the Sand-point, 
which mishap, yea even worse might befal Post and his jjeople, we believe, Captain Post should 
be directed to move himself, his people and the soldiers together with his patron's* cattle to Long- 
Island to Mr. WerckKoveii^s place, where they have means of defense, stables for the animals and 
lodgings for the men, maintaining however his master's right to Staten- Island and if Captain Post 
will not follow this direction, for the prevention of mnrder or other misfortune, the Director-Gen- 
eral and Council shall withdraw the soldiers and shall not be responsible in case of mishap for 
anything, that may happen on Staten- Island. Done at Port Atnsterdam in New-Netherland, on 
the day as above (26"' January 1656) (Signed) Nicasius de Sille, Lamontagne, Coenelis tan 


PETrrioN OF Michael Jansen foe a lot in the city, all his peopeett having 


To the Noble, Worshipful Director-General Petrus 
Stuyvesant and the Eight Honorable Council of 
New-Neth erland. 

Shows with great humility and due respect Michiel Jansen, farmer and former resident here, 
that during the last unexpected disastrous conflict with the Indian natives of this country he was 
bereft not only of what he had earned here with God's blessing during a period of 17 years, but 
also of all, what he, the petitioner, had brought to this country and what had been sent to him. 
All of which has been cruelly burned or taken away by the aforesaid Indians, so that he, the peti- 
tioner, has now no means in this world, to live on with his wife and six children, but as he desires 
to gain a living, like the other inhabitants of this place, by doing something or another, wherefor 
he first needs besides God's blessing your Honorable Worships' good favor, he, the petitioner, 
therefore addresses himself respectfully to your Honorable Worships praying that in consideration 
of tlie above stated facts }'our Honorable Worships will favor him with a lot within the city next 
to Abraham Clock, 30 to 36 feet wide, whereas the same would be very useful to him, the peti- 
tioner, for what he intends to undertake for the maintenance of his family ; which doing etc shall 
remain as ever Your Honorable Worships' obedient subject (signed) Machiel Jansen. 

The foregoing petition was read at the meeting and after having put the question, the follow- 
ing decision was made. 

The petitioner is granted a small lot within this city, next to Ahralmm Martensen Clock, 
measuring in front and rear 26 to 27 feet and as long as the lot of the said Ahrm Clock, provided 
that the petitioner shall fence the aforesaid lot on the side toward the strand in the same manner 
as the fencing has been begim on the city-gate. Done at the meeting in Fort Amsterdam in N. 
N., date as above. Below stood : The above order was annulled for some reasons on the 15"" Feb- 
ruary 1656 and another lot granted to him. 

* B;iron van der Capelle toe Ryssell. 

62 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. ^ 

Order directing Captain de Coninck to capture the leading Englishmen of 
Vreedland (Westchester), and his instructions. 

6"' March (1656). 

The orders of the Lords-Directors and their letters of the 23* Oct 1654, 26"» April and 26"' 
May 1655 show and the Director-General and Council have been reliably informed, that the Eng- 
lish in the village, by them called Westchester, situate upon the Vreedland about 2 leagues from 
this City, not only harbor fugitives and robbers, preying on this Province, but that also, as can be 
proved by the copy of a certain letter, their chief officer Lieutenant Wheeler has been in commu- 
nication with the barbarians at or about the time of our last dreadful rencontre with them. 

It has therefore been resolved for the welfare and advantage of the counti-y and for the main- 
tenance of the right of the Lords-Directors against such usurpers, to take up the said Englishmen, 
or at least their leaders in the most secret and civil way, to make the rest remove with their mov- 
able property and to commit the execution hereof to the valiant Captain Frederic de Coninck, 
Capt. Lieutenant Brian Nuton and with them to the Fiscal Cornelis van Tienhoven, who is to 
serve his protest in this case and have some fugitives and thieves arrested. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Neiherland, date as above. 

P. Stuyvesant, 
N. de Sille, La Montagne, Corn, van Tienhoven. 

7'* March. Instructions for the Valiant Capt. Frederic de Coninck, Capt. Lieut. 

Brian Nuton and the Fiscal Cornelis van Tienhoven commissioned 
in pursuance of the Resolution of the Hon"'" Director-General and 
Council of the G"" of March 1656 to go to Westchester and execute 
their orders. 


They are to proceed to-night with the detailed detachment of soldiers to Vreedland and after 
having taken possession of the houses of the Englishmen, settled there upon the Hon"'" Company's 
ground, direct them to remove with all their movable property and cattle. 

If the English do not immediately prepare to break up and leave, they are to make them leave 
willingly or unwillingly and if some of them should offer resistance by shooting or otherwise, they 
are to meet force by force and proceed against the usurpers as against enemies, in accordance with 
the orders from the Lords-Directors. 

The houses are to be demolished, with the exception of 3 or 4 for shelter of the goods and 
soldiers ; the principal fugitives and criminals, who have fled there, are to be sent here as soon 
as possible. 

They may leave if they think fit, some of the less prominent men to watch the goods and 
command them to remove with all their property and cattle within 3 days, at the risk of being 
proceeded against according to law. 

They are to ])revent all thieving, plundering and similar doings, as much as possible and for- 
bid it to their soldiers. 

New Yorlc Historical Records. 63 

If tlaey meet savages, which is not expected, they must either act on the defensive or attack 
them, as the situation may require it. 

Done in Council at Fort Ainsterdam in N. N. on the day as above. 

P. Stuyvesant, 


Oedee eespecting the Prisonees taken at "Westchester. 
14'" March (1656) 

Concerning the English prisoners, lately brought down from Yreedland out of the village, 
by them called Westchester and imprisoned on board of the ship '^DeWaagh^\ it is unanimously 
agreed and resolved, that all, who have formerly been under this Government and had sworn 
obedience and who have run away either on account of debts or for other reasons or against whom 
the Fiscal as public prosecutor believes to have any charge, shall be placed in close confinement by 
the said Fiscal, who is hereby authorized thereto and who shall proceed against them according to 
law. As to the others, who have come from New-England or elsewhere, misled by either Mr. 
Pell or somebody else, and have settled within the agreed boundaries and against whom the Fiscal 
has no other charge, these are to be detained in civil arrest at the City Hall or elsewhere imtil 
further examination and order. The people, who have remained in the said village, are to be 
warned, that they must remove. 

Thus done in Council at Firrt Amsterdam in N. N. date as above. 

P. Stuyvesant, 


Extract from a letter of the Directoes to the Director-General and Cohn- 



The only thing which has greatly disturbed and vexed us in your Honors' last letter, is the 
sad misfortune, which befell us unexpectedly from the natives ; the considerations, which arise 
therefrom, are whether to make some arrangement with tliem or revenge the bloodshed and 
inflicted damages in a proper manner ; we can as yet come to no final conclusion about the one or 
the other. The first would be best adapted to the present condition of the Company, while the 
other is the safest and most necessary, so that we may not be subject to sucli unlucky events in future, 
whenever the desires and rapaciousness of the savages call for it. We shall communicate the 
whole matter to the Government of these States and ask them also for the needed succor, of which 
we shall give further iirformation to your Honors in due time. Meanwhile we would recommend 
your Honors to bring your affairs provisionally to such a condition, that not only the poor pris- 
oners may be ransomed in a suitable manner and returned to their families, but also such precau- 
tions may be taken at every instance, that such disasters are not to be feared in the future. Your 

64 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Honors are on the spot there and better inJbrmed of everything, than we, who cannot jndge so 
well of the particular circumstances and consequently cannot give advice from here. Your Hon- 
ors' proposition, made for the security of the people in the open country, to settle in close neigh- 
borhood and provide their settlements with some means of defence, suiiicient at least against an 
attack, is not extravagant, we think, and it would seem to be quite advisable, to make a provisional 
treaty, that the savages must keep away from the places, where our people have settled, but above 
all you ought to insist upon restitution of the stolen booty and extorted ransom, for else it must 
be feared, that the savages will be induced to take hold of the opportunity at the first pretended 
unlucky event ; we leave it to your Honors' own consideration, what steps might be taken for this 
pnrjjose towards an offensive alliance with the English, for which plans have been made before. 

As to the requested subsidy for the suffering and impoverished people, for which your Honors 
propose the hundredth penny of the real estate tax, which we have since changed to the twentieth 
penny on the houses and the tenth on the plantations and bouweries, which remained intact, we 
are satisfied, that the aforesaid revenue may provisionally be used therefor this year and shall like- 
wise exert ourselves and see, whether something can be obtained for the rehef of these poor people 
besides the succor, which we ask from the City. 

To prevent as much as possible all chances, that the savages may be provided with arms by 
our people, to their own damage, we have resolved upon your Honors' proposal, that the passen- 
gers and free men, who may henceforth go to New-Netherland, shall be obliged from now to take 
with them a matchlock in place of a flintlock, as may be seen by their passports. 

Application of the Fiscal, EECAprrrrLATiNG Pell's diteusion at Westchester 


March IS*"-, 1656. 

To the Noble Hon"'" Director-General and Council of New-Netherland. 

Not only your Honors but everybody else living in this Province know, that many years ago 
the land called VreeJland has been settled by several persons under patents from your Honors' 
predecessor and peacefully occupied under this Government until the war of 16't3. Now one Mr. 
Pell, a resident of Onckeway in New- England, has against Christian law and custom dared lately 
to repurchase these lands from the same natives, from whom years ago they were bought and paid 
for through your Honors, as the Book of Deeds shows, and to enter upon them in his own name 
and live there contrary to the settlement of the boundaries agreed upon with the United Colonies 
of New-England in 1650 and without your Honors' knowledge or consent. Against this usurpa- 
tion the Fiscal has protested ex officio in the name and on behalf of his superiors, but notwith- 
standing this protest duly served. Lieutenant Wheller, who commands there as chief officer, remains 
there with the rest of his associates and continues to build and plant, receiving and sheltering 
several fugitives, vagabonds and thieves, who on account of their bad behavior had to fly. There- 
upon your Honorable Worships, following the instructions and orders of the Lords-Directors and 
in order to maintain the agreement of Hartford, have resolved, to dislodge the said Wheller and 
his people by a troop of soldiers. These persons met, according to your Honors' declaration of the 
H:"" March, the Hon""' General, there present with the rest of the soldiers, they had drawn up in 
line under arms and showed themselves unwilling to remove, saying the land belonged to them. 

JS'e^v Yoric Historical liecords. 65 

Thereupon the siiid Englishmen were deprived of their arms and 23 of them were brought as 
prisoners on board of the ship '' de WaaijW^ on tlie same day, while a few with the women and 
children were left behind, to take care of their goods. 

The Fiscal therefore requests, that your Honors will please to send the Courtniessenger with 
one or two of the oldest men to Vreedlandt, who are to warn the remaining Englishmen, that they 
must remove and take away everything brought there by them, at the risk of being proceeded 
against according to law, if they do not obey ; also that the aforesaid Lieut. W/ieller and his com- 
panions pay, before being released, the expenses incurred by your Honors through their acts and 
disobedience in coming hither in boats and with armed men and further that they sign an act, 
promising never again to come and live, build, plant, sow or mow without your Honors' consent 
and special order upon our Lords' land, situate at Vreedlandt, which they have lately called West- 
chester, or upon any other land within the boundaries, agreed upon at Hartford, under penalty of 
suffering corporal j)unishnient according to the exigencies of the case, if found to have disobeyed. 

The above written application and motion of the Fiscal, as plaintiff and attorney, against the 
imprisoned Englishmen, arrested lately at Yreedland, by them called WestcJtester, having been read 
and considered together with the humble remonstrance of their wives here annexed and taking 
into consideration the dangerous situation and the inclemency of the winter, We, the Director- 
General and Council of New-N etherland, have resolved for these and other weighty reasons, to 
release the English prisoners, after they have pronaised under oath and by their signatures, to 
remove from the lands of Yreedland and out of this Province with their property and cattle within 
six weeks and not to come back in to this jurisdiction, without our special consent. After having 
sworn to and subscribed this, the Fiscal is authorized and directed to release these Englishmen, 
against whom he, as public prosecutor, has no other charge than that of usui-pation, as soon as 
they have satisfied him for the expenses incurred, to be estimated by impartial men, and this shall 
be his sufficient warrant. As to the fugitives or other criminals, also those who refuse to sign the 
aforesaid promise, they must be apprehended according to the resolution of yesterday and be pro- 
ceeded against according to law. 

Thus done in Council held at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland date as above. 

P. Stuyvesant. 


La Montagne. 

Petition of Thomas "Wheeler and othee settlers of Wkstchester, submit- 
ting TO THE Government of New Nktherland and asking for certain 
privileges, which are granted. 

Honoured S' with the Rest of your honoured Court, the Gouernour and Court to the New 

Ma}' you be pleased to take in to your Consideration the humble request of your pore and 
humbell petisinors that wheras it doth appeare that you make claim to the plase where we ware to 
bee the writ of the hye and myghtic States of the Netherlands, wee whose names are underwritten 
are willing to submit ourselves unto the government of the said Netherlands soe Long as we Con- 
tinow within theyr Jurisdiction provided that wee may injoy our Liberties in chusing our ofisers 

66 Colonial Settlements on the Had>ion River. 

for the administration of such Lawes as may be maid for tlie good of our tounship, which wee now 
inhabit as alsoe wee may haue our amies Eeatored according to your promise, which ware taken 
from us : Avhereby wee may be abell to attend ourselves from such as may uniustlie a salt us and 
to make such Lawes and orders as may be for the particular good and welfare of the said phace 
not beino- Kepugnant to the Generale Lawes and to distribute our Landes unto the inhabitans none 
admitted according to first proposition as Lj'ckewyse to Eeseve such inhabitans as may be com- 
fortabell to us in particklar and the good of the generall as far as we are abell to judge. March 
16, 56. 
Thomas H Neuman: John Broundish: 

Thomas "Wueelee: Ebmod Cajjiff: Edwaet "Waters: 

EoBBERT Basset : Nickxis Hill : Samuell Babet : 

Isayh Gillbeet : "William v.^^.^ Benfull : "William "Wakd. 

J OHN Roes : John \/\ Yennet : 

Eobeet EoEs : Egbert ^'tMeakee: 

Obodiah Gllbeet : 
The Director-General and Council of New-NetKerland having read and considered the fore- 
going petition, grant to the petitioners, that upon taking the oath of allegiance they may remain 
as good subjects of this Province and live at the place called Yreedland, under such conditions and 
patents, as other free people in the villages of Middelhorch, Breukehn, Midwout and Amesfoort 
enjoy ; they shall also have the right of nominating a double number for officers and magistrates 
for the better govermnent of the said village of Yreedland, whose selection and confirmation is 
reserved to the Director-General and Council, conform to the general orders. Thus done in 
Council held at Fort Amsterdam in jSf. N. date as above. 

P. Stotvesant, 
NicAsius de Sille, 
La Montagne, 
CoENELis van Tienhoven. 

CoMivnssioN FOR Thomas "Wheeler, to be Chief Magistrate at Vreedland (Westchestee). 

"Whereas Lieutenant Thomas Wheeler and some of his associates have lodged and settled 
themselves upon the land, called by our Principals Yreedland, and have voluntarily submitted to 
the Government of Neto-Netherland as good subjects and whereas care must be taken of the 
administration of justice and good order observed in all cases, while the act of their privileges is 
being drawn up and until it is definitely ascertained, who will remain there and who intends to 

Therefore the Hon'''* Director-General and Council of New-Netherland have appointed and 
commissioned the said Lieutenant Thomas Wheeler as chief magistrate there to represent the 
Hon'"''' General and to see, that cverytliing is done justly and fairly and if anybody should disobey 
liim he is to have liim arrested and send him hither, to receive condign punishment as an example 
to others and all tliis till further order. 

■ Amsterdam, in New-Netherland March 16^'' 1656. 

P. Stutvesant. 

Ntw York Historical Records. 67 

Oedeb for the niscHAEGB OF Capt. KicnAED Panton and others of Veeedland 
(Westchestee) on condition that they leave the country oe being security 
FOE their good behavtoe. 

March 25. Saturday (1656.) 

The Director-General and Council of New-Neiherlcmd have read the answers given in their 
examination by the Fiscal Cornelis van Tienhoven by Capt. Richard Panton, WilUavn EUt, Black 
llarchand, Jan Gray and Rogier Whealer, all Englishmen, detained for having taken up arms 
against the Hon''''^ Director-General and his command at Yreedland on [the Id"" inst], and having 
heard the report of the Commissaries directed to be present at this examination, the Director-Gen- 
eral and Council resolve, in consideration of their surrendering on our promise of good treatment, 
to forget their former misdemeanor and to release tlie said prisoners from arrest, ordering them to 
remove out of the lioundaries and jurisdiction of New-Netherland, unless some of the inhabitants 
of the village desire to be their bondsmen and give bail for tlieir good behavior. 

Thus done in Council at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. on the dav as above. 


28 March (1656) 

Before the Council appeared Nicliolas Varleth and requested permission to remove the frame 
of a house, standing at Ilohoochen, which he had sold to Michiel Jansen for 230 11., and asked for 
6 or 8 soldiers for defense or protection, which having been taken in consideration, several diffi- 
culties presented themselves, which might arise therefrom and which were suggested to him, 
among others that upon meeting with savages our men might come to words with them and from 
the words to blows, whereby the whole country and all the savages would again get excited, the 
more so, as the savages pretended, according to his own statement, that the said house barring the 
nails, belonged to them and that our time had not come yet, as tlie savages still lield in captivity 
about 20 of our children, further that an order from Holland regarding this matter was expected 
everyday and several other reasons, which if they did not satisfy him, he is directed to make his 
application in writing. Date as above. 

Indictment and sentence of Sandee Totjesen and wife foe selling liquoe to the Indians. 

Copy. To the Right Honorable Director-General 

and Council of New-NeiherlaTid. 

On the 4"' of March last past two Indians of 3Iochgeychkonkh were arrested, who were 
exceedingly drunk and run about on the streets here and into the Fort with a great deal of noise. 
These Indians declared of their own free will, after having been in prison one day, that they had 

68 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

received the strong liquor from Samder Toursen and his wife, adding thereto, that, in proof of tlie 
truth of what they stated, some black wampum laying at the end of a certain chest, would be found 
near the bedstead, which belonged to them and had been given to Sander, to buy more brandy for 
it upon another occasion. Tlie deposition of Jan Gerritsen van Immen miist be added, who says, 
that he has seen the wife of Sa?ider Toursen run in and out of the tavern with a calabash and 
carry the same out of the garden, which opens on the strand, to the savages, who run along 
the strand very intoxicated and whereas we have, as in duty bound, made great endeavors to get 
more information, yet Sander Toursen and his wife remain obstinate in their denial, the Fiscal 
requests, that for the maintenance of justice and as an example for other dealers in brandy, these 
two persons be publicly placed on the pillory and banished the country, so that liquor dealers, 
selling to the Indians, on seeing the punishment, may be on their guard and mischief be prevented. 
Dated the 2'' April A° 1656 (signed) Coenelis van Tienhoven. 

The foregoing complaint of the Honorable Fiscal Comelis van Tienhoven, preferi-ed ex officio 
against Sander Toursen and his wife, having been seen, read and deliberated upon by the Director- 
General and Council of New-Netherland and it being further considered, that several persons 
greatly suspect, notwithstanding their obstinate denial, that Sander Toursen and his wife have 
sold liquor to the savages, besides, that the Indian prisoners have, of their free will, declared, they 
had received the brandy from Toursen and his wife and the proof, which they had offered in veri- 
fication of their statement, has been found correct. The Director-General and Council aforesaid 
have banished, as they herewith do, the said Sander Toursen and his wife and condemned them 
to be sent to the Fatherland b}^ the ship "(ielTaa^A" now here ready to sail, as an example for 
others, who sell brandy to the savages. Thus done, at our meeting held at Fort Amsterdam in 
New-JSetherland. Date as above. 


12'" April (1656). 

The report of those, authorized to make a collection for the children still in captivity among 
the barbarians, has been received and as for their ransom (besides what has been already col- 
lected or given from the lion. Company's and the Poor funds, consisting in wampum) some pieces 
of duffels ai-e required and necessary and not to be had for wampum. Therefore it is ordered, that 
for supplementing it the merchants are hereby required and requested in the name and for the sake 
of the poor prisoners, to deliver each one, either as charity for the poor prisoners or else for our 
account, to the bearers hereof one piece of cloth. Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, 
date as above. (Signed) P. Stuyvesant, Nicasits de Sille, LaMontagne, Cok. van Tienhoven. 

Oedinance of the Director-Geneeal and Council of New-Netherland against 
lodging Indians in New-Amstekdam. Passed May 29, 1656. 

(Sec Laws of New Netherlaud, p. 228 ■) 

New York Historical Records. 60 

Resolution to give privatk notice to Jan Diecksen and his wife to quit the 
country, thet being suspected of furnishing liquor to the indians and 
another resolution to suspend the first one. 

Saturday, A? 1656, the 1"' of July. 

Present at the meeting in Fort Amsterdam in JVew-Netherland the Right Honorable Di- 
rector-General Petrus Stuyvesant, the Honorable Councillors JY^icasius de Sille and J. La Mon- 
tagne and the Worshipful Burgomasters of this City of Amsterdam, Allard Anthony and Oloff 
Stevenson Cortlandt. 

Whereas a deplorable experience shows and has shown for some time past, that many savages 
run, while drunk, on the streets without that it has been possible so far, to discover with certainty, 
where they get the liquor contrary to the strict orders and further that the savages are told many 
things by evilminded people and imposed upon, as among others, that the Director-General and 
Council had sent for five hundred men, that they could not get any soldiers, that nobody would 
come hither and many similar stories, the parties spreading which cannot be discovered, and 
whereas many and almost general complaints and suspicions point to one Jan Dircksen and his 
wife, whose house the savages frequent uncommonly much and have done so some time, the Di- 
rector-General and Council have decided, with the advice of the Burgomasters, (judging it would 
be better, that the interests of one, as the lesser part, should suffer for the best of peace and safety 
and to stop the talk of the people) that the aforesaid Jan Dircksen and his wife should be pri- 
vately informed and directed to leave by the first ship. Thus done at the meeting in the year and 
on the day as above. (Signed) P. Stuyvesant, Nicasius de Sille, J. La Montagne. 

Upon the intercession of the Burgomasters of this City and the requests of the preachere and 
for other reasons, it has been resolved, to suspend tlie foregoing resolution and to reprimand and 
warn the person to be on his guard. Thus done at Fort Amsterdam in Neio-Netherland, the 3* 
of August A? 1656. Present the Honorable Director-General and the Honorable Councillors 
jVicasius de Sille and J. La Montagne. 

Ordinance of the Director-General and Council of New-Netherland re 
newtng the Ordinances for the formation of villages and against admit 

(See Laws of New-Netherland, p. 234.) 

Patent to Cheistoffel Davids for a tract of land in the Esopus (Ulster Co.) 

Petrus Stuyvesant etc with the Hon''"' Council declare, that we have to-day, date underwrit- 
ten, given and granted to Christoffel Davids a parcel of land, measuring 36 morgens, situate about 
a league inland from the North river in the Esojnis, on the west side of the Great Kil, opposite te 
the land of Thomas Ohamhers, running S. W. and N. E. halfway to a small pond (binnewatev) 

70 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

on the border of a valley, which divides this parcel ^iid the land of the Hon"^ Johan de Eulter, 
dec*., with as much hayland (meadow) as shall pro rata be allowed to the other bouweries. Under 
the express condition etc etc. Done at Fort Amsterdam in Neio-Nethedand, the 25"" of Septem- 
ber 1656. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stutvesant and Cotincil : 


The reasons, which your Honors bring forward in so many words to vindicate and excuse the 
former Fiscal van Tienhoven* cannot by any means make ns retreat from our former position, 
Dissatisfaction of ^o take wliich we were not prompted by light and unimportant reasons : we do 
ors over the 'rea-" not think it necessary to repeat them all, eithei- to discuss them or to hear him 
sons for the ex.-ui- defended, as we are confident, that the charges are true. Whoever considers only 
van Tienhoven. his last transaction with the savages, will find, that with clouded brains, filled with 
liquor, he was a prime cause of this dreadful massacre. Anyway, he might have prevented it to 
a great extent by caution and good management, either in warning the people in the country or 
Why he ought not by rendering some slight assistance; your Honors ought to know this better, than 
to be exculpated. we and we are therefore Very mucli astonished, that your Honors shield him in 
such a manner, with which we are not at all satisfied and shall be still less so, if the same Tien- 
Great displeasure, hoven should aaaiu be employed by your Honors in one or the other service there 

if he should again . f . • ] i 

be employed. against our ctrict instruction and order. 

Fiscal van Dyk has As far as we can learn from the transmitted papers and verbal reports of 

Uon for'the^ate Other private parties, also the former Fiscal va7i DyJc\ has laid the first founda- 
massacre. tion for this dreadful massacre and given the most offence, by killing one of the 

squaws for taking some peaches or other fruits from his garden. If this is true, then we wonder, 
that no more mention is made of it and that he has not been brought to iustice 

If true, he is to . ^ . 

suffer according to as a murderer : we deem it necessary to remind your Honors of it and recommend 


it seriously to your attention. 


No opportunity to Although we are still inclined to revenge the disaster, brought upon us by 

fortune 'bn>i™ht ^^^® savages, by the use of arms, our situation does not yet admit of giving any 
about by the assistance by sending troops and other required necessaries. We trust however, 

that the arrival of the City's ship and troops at the South river shall strike these 
tribes with awe and that consequently it will be easier to keep them in submission. Tour Honors 
must try to remain in the meantime on the former footing with them and deprive them, as far as 
They approve of possible, of all chauces to injure our people there. We are well pleased with the 
concerning settL o^der issued by your Honors in that respect, also with the placat in regard to the 
ments which is to concentration of the scattered farms, provided, that it only affect the erection of 

affect only the i -i i. 

erection of new new Duildiugs and not such parties, as have already built their houses, for we do 
buildings. jjq(. consider it just to compel these to move. In the meantime we are very 

* Cornelis van Ticnhovcn, the Fiscal or Attorney-General of ITew-Netherland had been charged with irregu- 
larities already in A|)nl 1655, the complaints against him and his brother Adrian, Collector of the Revenues, in- 
creased so, that in March 1050 the Comijany dismissed him; when called upon to render his accounts, he ab- 
sconded in Novbr. 1650. — B. F. 

t He had been removed by Stuyvesant in March 1653, for slandering the Director.— B. P. 

New Yoi'k Historkal liecords. 71 

anxious to htar, how the deputation, to be sent by your Honors to the meeting of the Legishiture 
'They desire to of the Emjltsh, to make an offensive alliance with this nation, has succeeded ; we 

hear of the result trust, that your Honors will have proceeded in this matter with such discretion 

of the deputation t-ii i*(?i r^ • ^ • 

to the English As- ^nd caution, that the authority or tlie supreme (jovernment or this country has 
^^■"'''y- not been compromised. 


Petition of Johanna de Laet, widow of Johak de Hultee foe lettees patent 


To the Noble, "Worshipful, their Honors 
the Director-General and Council oINew- 

Shows with due reverence Johanna de JIulter, widow of the late Johan de Hulter, that her, 
the petitioner's deceased husband petitioned your Honorable Worships on the 5"" of November 
165-t for letters-patent in proper shape for tlie land, which he had bought with the consent of your 
Honorable Worships from the natives, who declared themselves to be the lawful ownei's of the 
same, and paid for with goods, whereupon your Honorable Worships were pleased to decree and 
to order, that the bill of sale and conveyance should be exhibited to your Honorable Worships and 
properly recorded, when letters-patent in the usual form would be issued and granted, as may be 
seen by the register of your Honorable Worships' resolutions of the aforesaid date.* As since 
that the Lord has taken out of the world the husband of your Hon**'* Worships' petitioner, leaving 
her as an afflicted widow with four fatherless children in this vale of tears, she is now compelled 
to turn to your Honorable Worships with the humble petition, that your Honorable Worships 
will please to favor her with letters-patent for the land bought by her deceased husband with the 
knowledge and consent of your Honorable Worships, so that your Hon''"' Worships' petitioner and 
her young children may have some hope, to reap evenings and mornings some advantage of the 
great and excessive expenses and labors, which her late husband has had with it in rather an 
excessive manner. The bill of sale and conveyance, demanded by your Plon*"'* AVorships, are 
hereunto annexed and I respectfully request, that after they have been recorded, they may be 
returned to your Hon*"'" Worships' petitioner, which doing etc. 

(Below stood) Your Honorable Worshijjs' humble servant (and it was signed) Johanna de 

The following decision was given on the foregoing petition, after the question had been put. 

Fiat quod petitur according to the decision given to petitioner's husband on the 5"' 9'""' l(35i. 
Dated the 27'" of March 1657. • 

. Patent to Johanna de Laet, widow of Johan de Hultee, foe 500 moegens of 

LAND on the EsOPUS. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of their High Mightinesses the Lords States-General of the 
United Netherlands and the Noble Lords-Directors of the Incorj^orated West-India Company Di- 

* The Council-Minutes of that time make no mention of the petition of Johan de Hulter. — B. F. 

72 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

rector-General of New-NetKerland, Curacao, Bonayro, Aruha and its dependencies, together with 
the Honorable Council testify and declare, that to-day, date underwritten, we have granted to' 
Mrs. Johanna de Laet, widow and remaining possessor of the late Johan de Rulter's estate, a 
parcel of land at the Esoj)us, containing altogether in arable lands, meadows and woodland five- 
hundred morgens, contiguous on the northside to the land of Thomas Chambers and Christoffel 
Davits, where the boundary is formed by a large Kil and it is further divided at the north from 
the land, on which Juriaen van Westj)halen lives now by a small Kil, under express conditions 
and reservations etc. 

Done at New-Amsterdam in New-Netherland, on the 27"" of March A° 1657. 

Resolution or the Magistrates of Fort Orange and Beterwyck, permitting 


The magistrates of Fort Orange and of the village of Beverwyck etc.", having been informed 
of the complaints made by the community concerning the trade with the savages, in which they 
state to be much interested, because they have been forbidden by placat to employ brokers, resolve 
to satisfy the community and consent, that they may employ Indian brokers for the trade during 
this year. Actum Fort Orange, the 6"" June A" 1057. 

Propositions of the three Mohawk Castles, to renew the old covenajsti' chain 
and answer thereto. 

The 16*'' of June A° 1657 the Sachems of the three Castles of the Mohawks sent to the Hon. 
Mr. Lamontagne, the Vice-Director, a chief, called Sasiadego, who requested in the name of the 
same Sachems, that they should be heard the same day, whereupon the Vice-Dii-ector called the 
Court together. 

The three Sachems of the three Maquaes Castles appeared before the Court and made the fol- 
lowing propositions, after going through the usual ceremonies : 

First. They request us, as old friends, that we should accommodate them with a few horses, 
to haul pallisades out of the woods for the repairing of their Castle and that we should protect 
their wives and children here in the village, in case they should go to war with the Sinnehes. 
They present on this proposition a string of wampum, worth fl 16.12. 

Second. They ask, because all three Castles belong to the same tribe and they are bound to 
help each other in time of need, which can be done only with difficulty, if they cannot warn one 
the other of their distress, that we might assist each of the Castles with a cannon and that the 
same should be brought by horses from here to the flats, a distance of 8 miles. They present 
another string of wampum, valued at fl. 16.9, on this proposition. 

Third. They state, that they have called on us in passing through on their way to the Mahi- 
kanders, to renew the old friendship between us and thein, giving thereupon a third string of 
wampum, worth fl. 13.10. 

On the 22'^ of Jmie 1657 the Sachems or Chiefs of the Maquaes Castles appeared again and 
asked the Court for the answer to the propositions, made by them on the 16"' of this month. The 
Court gave the following answer to their requests. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 73 

The answer to tlie first proposition, eoneerniiig the horses, was, tliat they had no liorses of 
their own, but if they wish to pay for them, then the Court will see to induce some of the inhab- 
itants to help them. As to the receiving here of their wives and children, in case of war with the 
Sinnckens, they are ready to do it for the sake of om- old friendship, but we hope it will not be 

The answer to the second proposition, concerning the request for cannons, was, that the can- 
nons did not belong to them (the Court), but to their Chief, who had given them for their own 
defense, so that they cannot give them away nor lend them witliout his consent, but they will 
write about it to the Director-General and await his answer. 

The answer to the third proposition, concerning the renewal of the old friendship between us 
and them, was, that we are ready to maintain and thank them for the friendly opinions, which 
they have expressed. 


* * e * K * 


It is difficult to understand the unbearable boldness of the savage and barbarian tribes there 

in demanding and insisting upon so large a ransom for 4 or 5 Christian children, captured by them 

They do not ap- at the time of the last surprise and massacre and although we would be glad to 

prove of paying a ^^^ them released and would contribute our share to it, we have as yet not been 

large ransom for ^ ' «^ 

captured children able to approve, that these barbarous tribes should be humored in their dishonest 
to the °'*'^°° "" proposals ; and that only on account of the consequences and results of the case, 
consequences. as, having their appetite whetted thereby, they would often i-epeat these practices. 

Your Honors must therefore make an experiment and send some delegates to the said tribes to 
To demand the demand the aforesaid children in the name of Their High Might : the Lords-States 

prisoners by dele- „ i i i -trr tt*-i t ' c iici -i 

gates. General and the vVest-lndia Company and it necessary to ask tor them with great 

threats, perhaps they migiit be persuaded thereby ; we shall expect to hear the result of it by the 
first opportunity. 


We do not deny, that the erection of a wooden blockhouse or of a little fort on the extreme 
The erection of a boundaries against New-England would be advantageous for determining our 
wooden block- Hmits or that a redoubt at the Esopus for the defense and protection of our inhab- 

house on theboun- ■' ^ 

daries with New- itauts there would be not only useful, but also necessary, as we have recommended 
England and at the j^ before to-dav to vour Honors and especially the first : however, that we should 

Esopus 19 cousid- J J r^ ^ j ^ ^' 

ered necessary. assist your Honors in it, the bad condition of our finances in this country would 

permit as little as your Honors' own scarcity of funds ; the treasury there ought to be in a better 
condition now, considering that the debts contracted before by your Honors for an unexpected 
emergency, have undoubtedly been paid, so that, as soon as your Honors shall have sent over 
the remitted 4 p. ct. and consequently also the 8 p. ct. retour recognition, we shall not fail, to 

74 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson liiver. 

invest them here and supply your Honors in return not only with the required commodities, 
but also with some soldiers and more mechanics, who are needed for the garrisoning and erecting 
of the aforesaid places and strongholds. Meanwhile we intend and shall give our orders accord- 
ingly, to provide and send to your Honors the one or the other, as far our means and the situation 
permit, by the ships, wliich are to sail from here before winter. 

Affidavit of Jan Gillisen Kock in kegard to Cattle at Catskil. 

Before me Johannes Lamontagne, Commissary of Fort Oi^ange, the village of Beverwycknnd 

dependencies appeared Jan GilUsen Kock, who declares, that while on board the yacht of Evert 

Pels on the last of October he had heard, that Jan van Breemen had gone to the farmers at 

Katskil for fodder for the cattle on board of the yacht of the said Evert Pels and that he had said, 

he could not obtain any fodder for the animals, six in number, because the kil was dry and he had 

then taken two men, to wit the farmer from his bouwery and Gerrit Segersen, to drive the cattle 

overland to Fort Orange ; whereupon Tryntie Juriansen asked of the said Jan van Bremen, 

whether no fodder could be brought there overland or in carts, to which Jan van Bremen had 

answered, " the Devil may carry it overland " and he had said further to Tryntie Juriansen : 

"Before we let the animals starve, wo better drive them overland to Fort Orange" The aforesaid 

Tryntie Juriansen then remarked : '• Is there no danger for the cattle from the savages " and 

Jan van Bremen answered " For one guilder I will run all the risk." They then landed the 

cattle from the yacht and the animals ran away and could not be found. He certifies this to be 

the truth and will if necessary coutirm it by his oath. Actum at Fort Orange, the 7"" Novbr A. 

D. 1657 in presence of 

J. Peovoost 

Gillisen Kock. 

Nathaniel Pieteesen. 

List of the faemers, men, women, children, male and female servants sent 


New-Nethekland in West-India since May 1650. 
And of those who were alive aftee the dreadful and bloody massacre by 

THE savages in SEPTEMBER 1655. 

1. Captain Aclr'uun Post with his wife, five children, one male and one female servant, is still 
on the Island. 

2. Hendrick Swerinck with his wife, two children and a man-servant, is at the ManJiatans. 

3. Paul Erchs with his wife, a child and a man-servant, is at Foil Orange. 

4. Hendrick MarcelUs with his wife, two children and a man-servant, is at Fort Orange. 

5. Jan Aertsen van Heerde with his wife and eiglit children lives at the Manhatans. 

6. Aelhert Giiyssebertsen van Heerde with his wife, four children and a man servant, is at Fort 

7. The wife of Aerent van Hengel, now married to one Severyn, with three children, lives at 
the 3fanhatans. He has stepped into the contract of Aerent van Hengel, whose widow has a son 
doing all kind of fann labor. 

New Yurh Historical Records. 75 

8. The wife of Jan van Oldenzeel, called Elsken, married to a basketmaker, with three children 
lives on Long Inland. 

9. The wife of Jan Wesselinck, married to an Englishman wlio is a carter, lives with Iier three 
children at the Manhatans. 

10. Gylart, the servant of the late farmer Jan Wesselinck lives at Mespackkil. 

11. The wife of the basketmaker (?), engaged at Zutphen, named Ilermhen, lives with two child- 
ren at Fort Orange. She is married to a carpenter. 

12. Three children of Corporal Gerrit Jansen van Steenwycl', who have been brouglit at his 
Excy's expense. 

13. Wi/noit, servant to the late Sans Berenisen of Osenhrugge, was taken North by Mehjn, but 
has returned and learns ship carpentering. 

14. Also a boy of Berene Driessen from Oostenengh lives on LongJsland with a farmer. 

15. The smith van Steenderen, called the crooked smith lives at Breuckel, opposite the Manhatans. 
There are all together sixty-two living souls. This has been reported at Zutphen on the i-^ 

November 1657 by the wife of Captain Adriaen Post and by the farmer Jan Aerentsen van 

Extract from a letter of the Directors to Director- General and Council of 
New-Netherland; Indian Affairs; the colont on Staten-Island. 22'' De- 
cember 1657. 

"What diKtarbed us most in your Honors' letter was the information, that tlie savages continue 
in their old boldness, threats and insolence and have only lately murdered three Christians and as 
we have come to the conclusion, that this should not be submitted to any longer, but ought to be 
resisted, therefore and to carry it out so much better we are about to send yotir Honors herewith 
1000 lbs. of powder and a detachment of about 50 soldiers, who, added to those, whom your Hon- 
ors have there already, ought to be sufficient, to attack one or the other of the dangerous tribes or 
the most principal of our enemies, especially if use is made of the assistance of the savages, who 
are our friends and allies, which we understand the Long-Island savages to be. Although your 
Honors are better informed concerning these matters, than we, yet we must earnestly recommend, 
to handle this affair with the utmost caution and choose the most convenient time for it, that our 
good success may serve as an exampel to make other tribes more circumspect and easier to be kept 
in check. We consider it therefore also especiall}' necessary, that henceforth the said savage tribes 
be not indulged in such liberties and freedoms, as tliey have now there and at the llanfuittans, 
for they are only emboldened by it and made to respect our people still less, wlio, to gain an 
advantage in trade one over the other, caress and cajole them, even have armed them to their own 


We have seen, that Lvhhert van DinMagc, attorney of Baron Hendrick van der Capellen has 
bought there, for accoimt of the same, from the natives or savages the Staten-Lsland, without giv- 
ing any information either to us here or to your Honors, which astonished and puzzled us very 
much, as it is a matter, which infringes upon the prerogatives of the Company, to whom alone it 

76 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson liiver. 

is and must be reserved and as such proceedings neither can nor ought to be allowed in any shajie, 
we have deemed it highly necessary, to direct your Honors herewith to annul the conveyance 
made for it and to have the respective chiefs, savages and owners make a new conveyance to your 
Honors in behalf of the Company, under condition that the same goods shall be paid for it, as have 
been stipulated at the sale and as may be learned from the enclosed bill of sale : and then your 
Honors may grant to the said Mr. van der Capelle or his attorney as much of the land there, as 
ho may be entitled to, under the same conditions as it is granted and conveyed to others : this 
until we shall give other orders. 


As his Honor has informed ns, that the majority of his people, sent there at his expense, have 
since the last massacre removed from the Island and are now living here and there in places under 
the Company's jurisdiction, according to the enclosed list and as he therefore requests us to 
assist him in getting the people back into his service, agreeably to their duty, therefore we desire 
to recommend herewith to your Honors to give him or his attorney every possiblt- assistance, pro- 
vided it goes no farther, than what reason and equity demand, so that his Honor might be satis- 
fied by it. 

Action foe Debt. Coknelis Teunissen against Jacob Jansen Stoll foe ex- 
cise ON slaughteeed cattle, involving a question of the jueisdiction or 
(Taken from Volume A of Mortgages in the County Clerk's office at Albany.) 

29"' January 16.5S. 

Cornells Teunissen, plaintiff, contra Jacob Jansen StoUe, defendant. The plaintiff asserts, 

that, as he has rented the excise on slaughtered cattle, the people of Esopus and KatsTcil must also 

pay the said excise. 

The Defendant answers, tliat tlie inhabitants of Esopus are exempted from every excise for 

the time of 4 years more, pursuant to the "Exemptions of New-Netherland'''' but in case they 

ought to pay the excise, the proceeds should be used for the benefit of their place, according to the 

orders of the Director-General and Council of New-Netherland, 
The Court refers the 
matter to His Hon'"'' 
Worship the Director- 
General and Council. 

Lettee of Jacob Jansen Stoll to Dieector Stuyvesant with a cargo of 
No. 43. 

Honorable General Pieter Stuyvesant ! 

Your letter has been received. It is all right about Harman Jacdhsen, as far as I am con- 
cerned, that I owe him one hundred guilders, to wit the wheat at three guilders per schepel and 
not otherwise (nothing else) and whereas he refers to Frederic Flipsen, that I should pay him the 

New Yorh Historical Records. 77 

same sum, viz. one hundred guilders, I am always ready to deliver it at the rate of tliree guilders. 
As to the rest, I do not kuow anything about it. 

Sir! I send herewith in your Honor's yacht fifty schepels of wheat and also one hundred 
sehei^els of oats. Please excuse me this time ; I have done the best I could, as I have some more 
\\heat to thresh, besides I have got a little behindhand through the last flight and I try to liquidate 
my debts with the help of God Almighty, so that I shall easily send your Honor some grain in a 
month or six weeks, but not now, for we have had already too many guests in our granary {al 
vry lichters aen hoort). Besides, Sir, please not to take it amiss, if I ask, whether the people of 
JFort Orange have leave to sell openly brandy and distilled waters to the savages, the barbarous 
people, as we, not only I, but all the inhabitants of the Great Soopis see them daily drinking, 
while they say, that they get it from there ; no good can come from it, but it must tend to the ruin 
of the whole country. They have also caused great inconveniences to Jacob Andriesen on the 
Strand, while they were intoxicated. Closing herewith and commending your Honor to the pro- 
tection of the Almighty, who may grant good health and a long life to your Honor and your Hon- 
or's family, Amen ! I am and remain 

Your Honor's faithful servant and subject 
On the 12"" of April A" 1658. Jacob Jansen Stoll. 

To the Honorable, "Wise and 
Very Rigorous, His Honor 
Pieter St^iyvesant 
General for the Privileged 
West-India Company 
at the Manhatans in 
Foi't Amsterdam. 

Letter of Thomas Chambers to Director Stuyvesant : demands assistance, as 
THE Indians have murdered some of the settlers at Esopus. 

Very Noble General, Petrus Stuyvesant and Honorable Gentlemen of the Council of Ifew- 
Netherland. Greeting I 

To-day, the first of May 1658 great trouble has arisen here through the fearful intoxication of 
the cruel barbarians and I myself with one Pieter Dircksen and Hendrick Cornelissen came 
to-day to the tennis-court and saw that the savages had an ancre of brandy lying under a tree and 
have tasted myself, that it was pure brandy and according to all appearances they got madly intoxi- 
cated and about dusk they fired at and killed Ilarmen Jacopsen, who was standing on the yacht of 
Willen Moer, and during the night they set fire to the house of Jacop Adrijansen, so that the 
people were compelled to fly ; therefore I request, that we should receive assistance of troops, that 
■we may make some stronghold for our defence; as we have been driven away once before and 
expelled from our property and it begins anew now, therefore, as long as we are under the juris- 
diction of the Hon''''' West-India Company, it is proper, that we should ask your Honor for assist- 
ance, so that this fine country might be retained and we remain in our property, for this Aesopus 
is a place, which if well peopled could feed the whole of New-Netherland and it would be, so to 
say, a sin, which could be avoided, if we should have to leave such splendid country : hence we do 
not doubt, but your Honor will assist us speedily and I have informed myself among the savages. 

78 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

who or which savage had killed the aforesaid Harmen and they liave promised to deliver the 
said savage in bonds to myself and I shall then send him to your Honor, but please to be careful 
and not begin the war too suddenly, so that we may first have a stronghold for our defence and 
as there is a good chance here, to inflict great damages to the savages, we hope your Honor will 
(juickly assist us and not desert us in our need, for we here are also Christian people and it is 
everybody's duty to give help in time of distress. Closing herewith, I commend your Honor 
with many good wishes to the protection of God Almighty and am and remain 

Your Excy's servant 
Great Aesopus Thomas Chambeks. 

the S"" of May An" 1658. 

To the Noble Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant 

and the Hon"'" Gentlemen of the Council 

of New-Netherland in the City of 

Letter from Andries van der Sluys and other iNHAsrrANTS or Esopcs to Di- 
rector Stuv\t;sant confirming the foregoing letter. 

The Noble Honorable Petrus Stuyvesant is hereby informed, that the savages have used vio- 
lence at the house of Jacob Adrijansen on the first of May 1658, whereby I, Andries van der 
Sluys, living in the family of the said Jacqp, was compelled to fly with the said Jacop, his wife 
and children to the yacht of Willem Martensen, Ifoer towards evening, after the savages had killed 
Harmen Jacopsen on the yacht of said Moer and towards midnight they sat fire to the house and 
on the morning of the 2'' of May we and the yacht of Louwrens Louivrensen left the Kil and 
remained at its mouth and transferred the body of the aforesaid deceased Harmon Jacopsen to the 
yacht of the said Louwrens, that he should take it with him to the Mannathans. We, the under- 
signed, declare all this to be true and truthful and promise to confirm it under oath and have 
therefore signed it with our own hands. 

Actum ; 2 : May : An" 1658 Great Aesopus. 

Andries Yander Sluts 
Willem Maktensen Fuers (?) 
Harmen Harmensen Gansevort 
Jacob Adrijaensen 
The mark of — J. Dikrick Hendeicksen. 

Letter from Thomas Chambers and others to the CotTiciL op New-Nethee- 


Honorable, Wise, Rigorous Gentlemen. 
Loyal Gentlemen ! This is to inform your Honors, that we have received yoiu- Honoi-s' letter 
of the 4"" of May and that we are pleased to Icam of your Honors' anxiety and great affection for 

New York Historical Records. 79 

us. "We now have to report, that, although we have done our best to ajjprehend the murderer, 
we are mockingly refused by the barbarians and as to the seller of the brandy the savages refer 
us to no one, but to many, now Peter then Paulus. But it is evident, that not only for the sake 
of selling their stock of beavers they all keep near Fort Orange, whei-e as the make of the brandy- 
keg proves, the coopers have hardly sufficient time, to supply the demand by these people. The 
savages have, as we previously communicated to your Honors, set fire to the cowshed, the pigsty 
and then the dwellinghouse of Jacoj) Adrijaensen and not being satisfied compelled us here, to 
plough for them, taking upon refusal a fire-brand and holding it under the roofs of the houses, 
to set fire to them ; they use great violence every day, which we are not capable to relate to your 
Honors, and derisively say, that if they kill a Christian or more, they can pay for it in wampum 
and we have so far been obliged to carry out their wishes ; further, your Honors are well acquainted 
with this fine country and know, that there are 990 schepels of seed-grain in the ground, that 
our dwellinghouses and furniture are here also and that between GO and 70 Christian people live 
here and attend divine service on all the proper days and that we maintain our reader at our own 
expense : therefore we believe, that your Honors would regret sincerely, if so many innocent 
souls should be so wretchedly murdered and driven away by the cruel barbarians and it looks very 
much like it, (which the Good and Almighty God may prevent). We hope, your Honors will 
consider, that it is useless to cover the well, after the calf has been drowned ; for the common 
rabble of the savages do not pay any attention to their chiefs now and the latter have no more 
authority over them and we are obliged to remain in our houses, as the savages would immedi- 
ately attack us, as soon as we began to stir about, and set everything on fire, so that we are in such 
a distress, that we dare not turn about or move. Therefore we most humbly request your Honors, 
our faithful Mastei-s, for help and a succor of about 40 to 50 men. Christ did not desei-t us, but 
assisted and saved us and gave his own blood for us, Christ has gathered us in one sheepsfold, 
therefore let us not desert each other, but rather help each other to alleviate our sufferings and if 
it may please your Honors, our faithful Masters, let some of the Honorable Council come here 
quickly with the desired assistance, (but arrived here at the strand, please to keep the men quiet 
and close to the bank and inform us of the arrival) and take a look at the situation here and if it 
does not seem advisable to your Honors and worth the trouble and expense, then we leave all at 
your Honors' discretion. While we expect your Honors' speedy assistance we commend the Hon- 
orable Council of New-Netherlan,cl to the protection of God Almighty and remain 

The Honorable Council's of New-Netherland obedient faithful servants 
Great Aesop us Jacob Jansen Stoll 

the 18"" of May Thomas Chambers 

An° 1658 CoKNELis Barentsen Slecht 

The mark ''y )/- of Pieter Diecksen 

The mark ^y of Jan Broeesen 
Jan Jansen 
Andries van der Sluys 

To the Wise. Prudent, then present 

Rigorous Gentlemen, 

the Council of Neio-Netherland 

in the City of Amsterdam 

by the yacht oi Jan Coppen, which God may guide. 

80 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 


Indian affairs ; emigeants and soldiees. 20''° May 1658. 

Although we have in our last etter sufficiently explained to your Honors our opinions and 
intentions concerning the unbearable conduct and insolence of the savages, we shall nevertheless 
add, to make them still clearer, that we are by no means willing, that these commotions, robberies 
and violent proceedings of the barbarous tribes should be submitted to any longer, they must be 
Ordered, not to Suppressed by all possible means ; for it is impossible, to make them desist, as long 
submit any longer ^s they perceive, that we concede everything to their threats and let them pass 

to the insolence of -iii i -i e ^ i i rrii 

the savage but to unnoticed and do not dare to punish any one ot them, who may have oiiended our 
resent and resist it. people. And when sucli offenders and malefactors should have fled and are de- 
manded from their tribe, but refused, then we think to have reasons enough and the time to have 
come for immediate revenge and a forcible attack on such a tribe, so that for once we may be ena- 
bled by such an example to keep others in check. Without it we consider it to be absolutely 
impossible and in case your Honors should think themselves not sufficiently strong to carry out 
this plan with the soldiery now there, althougli we believe they are sufficient, then your Honors 
might employ for assistance such free men, as may offer themselves, and of well-affected savages, our 
allies, as many as your Honors may judge advisable for a safe result. We would furtlier direct 
and recommend in this regard not to let pass the best and most suitable time and to undertake 
and carry out the plan with caution, provided that good arrangements have first been made for 
the people in the open country to be secured as much as possible and protected against surprises, 
which your Honors being there on the spot will know better how to do, than we could say. 

Resolution, that the Directoe-Geneeal peooeed to the Esopus. 
28"' May A" 1658, Tuesday, Fort Amsterdam in N. Nd. 

Present at the meeting the Honorable Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant and the Hon"'" 
Councillors, Nicaslus de Sille, Pwter Tonneman and Johan de Deckere. 

The Director-General and Council of New-Netherland took up and seriously considered the 
letters of the 2'' and 18"' inst, received from the Esopus, by the first of which they were informed, 
that the savages had killed one Uarmen Jacohsen alias Bamhoes, liad set fire to two houses and 
behaved and acted very insolently and wantonly ; by the second that the savages were continuing 
in their unbearable boldness, forcing our people living there to plough for them and threatening, 
in case of refusal, with the firebrands in their hands, to fire the houses, calling them dogs and 
heaping upon them other such unbearable treatment, M-ith which the verbal reports of people, 
coining from there, agree and on account of which the inhabitants of the Esopus, numbering about 
60 to 70 souls, ask for military assistance. After having considered this request, it was resolved, 
that the Honorable Director-General should go there forthwith, taking 50 or 60 soldiers with him 
as liis bndy-guard, in order to make such arrangements, as he shall find necessary and the best ad- 
vantage of the Company, this province and its inhabitants shall require. Date as above. 

Hew YurJc Historical litcurda. 81 

Ageeemknt made bt the Settlers of Esopus to eemove theie dwellings and form a tillage. 


We, the undersigned, all inhabitants of the Aesopus, having from time to time experienced 
very distressing calamities and felt and discovered, to our loss, the unreliable and unbearable au- 
dacity of the savage barbarous natives, how unsafe it is to trust to their promises, how dangerous 
and full of anxiety to live at separate places away from each other among so faithless and mis- 
chievous tribes, have resolved (upon the proposition and promise made by the Director-General, 
the Hon"'* Petrus Stuyvesant, that he will give us a safe-guard and further help and assist us in 
future emergencies) and deemed it necessary for the greater safety of our wives and children, to 
pull down our scattered habitations in the most convenient manner immediately after signing this 
agreement and to move close to each other to the place indicated by the non"'" General, to inclose 
the place with palisades of proper length with the assistance provided thereto by the Hon''"' Gen- 
eral, so that we may protect ourselves and our property by such means, to which the All-Good God 
may give His blessing, against a sudden attack of the savages ; while we bind ourselves, after im- 
ploring God and His divine blessing on all lawful means, to carry out directly imanimously and 
without opposition the foregoing agreement and to accomplish it as quick as possible under a pen- 
alty of one thousand guilders* to be paid for the benefit of the settlement by him, who should 
hereafter make any opposition by word or deed. To insure this still more, we have signed this 
agreement ^vith our own hands in presence of the Hon"'" Director-General and S^ Goovert Loock- 
ermans on board of the ship '■^Steele Amsterdam "f in N ew-Netherland. Done the last of May 
An" 1658. 

It is signed : Jacob Jansen Stoll 

Thomas Chambees 
Present: Coenelis Baeentsen Slecht 

P. Stuyvesant "Willem Jansen 

Oovert Loockerman. Pietee Diecksen 

Jan Jansen 
Jan Beoeesen 
DiECK Hendeicksen Geaaff 
Jan Lootman. 

Jouenal of Dieectoe Stfyvesant's visit to the Esopus. 

Verbal and written report made by his Excellency, 
General Petrus Stuyvesant concerning the occur- 
rences and the affairs at the Es&pus. 

In conformity with the resolution we left in the private yachts on the 28"" of May and arrived 
safely at the Kil or river of the Esopus on the 29"". In order to avoid making any commotion 
among the savages, either by astonishing them by the sight of so many soldiers or by making them 
flee, before we had spoken with them, fearing also that during or before theii" flight they might 

* $400.00. t I. e., the City of Amsterdam. 


82 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

inflict some more harm upon the small number of Christians, I had given orders to the accompa- 
nying yachts which carried most of the soldiers before arrival at the said Kil, to follow separately 
at a distance and not to anchor near me before night-fall and not to show upon deck any soldieis 
or at least as few as possible. While we thus led in the yacht of Master Ahram Staats, ill luck 
would have it, that in entering the Kil at low water we run aground. Meanwhile we sent S'' Go- 
vert Loockermans with the barge ashore, opposite to the two little houses of the savages standing 
near the bank of the Kil, to invite 2 or 3 savages on board and despatch one or two others inland 
for the farmers, to regulate my conduct by the knowledge of their present condition. When he 
came back he brought with him two savages and with them came Thomas Chamhers and the Pre- 
centor (voorleeser) Andries van der Sluys, induced to come down to the river by the longing for 
help and the good south wind, to look out for the requested and e.xpected relief. Their report and 
complaints agreed substantially with the letters previously sent to the Hon*"'" Council ; they added 
that the boldness and threats were still continuing and that they (i. e. the Indians) had since killed 
two sows, being with pigs, of Jacob Jansen Uaj) near his lot. It would be too long, if it were 
possible, to repeat all the particulars, because they were given verbally, not in writing, and are 
therefore not all remembered. But a further detailing is unnecessary, because, as I said before, 
they agreed substantially with tlie letters previously sent. 

I persuaded the savages, brought along by S"' LoocJcennans, by a little present to go inland to 
their Sachems or chiefs and inform them of my arrival, which was not to do them or the savages 
in general any harm, but to inquire into the causes and who was guilty or not guilty of the quar- 
rels, murders and incendiarism : they were therefore to tell the Sachems and savages in the neigh- 
borhood, that they need not be afraid, but that they should come to meet me and speak with me 
at the house of Jacoi Jansen Stoll the following day or the day after, no harm should be done to 
tliem or theirs : they agreed to do it and left after some further talk together with the aforesaid 
two Christians, viz. Thomas Chamhers and Yan der Sluys. The other yachts arrived in the mean- 
time towards evening and passed by us, who were sitting aground. I ordered the Captain-Lieu- 
tenant to land the soldiers with the least possible noise, without beating the drum, to keep them 
well together and after having landed them, to send for me and the peojile on my yacht : this was 
done by sunset : we marched on the same evening to the bouwery of Thomas Chambers, being the 
nearest, and remained there for the night. On the morning of the SO"", Ascension-day, we marched 
to the bouwery of Jacob Jansen Stall, which is the nearest to most of the habitations and planta- 
tions of the savages, where we had appointed to meet the Sachems and where on Sundays and the 
other usual feasts the scriptures are read. After this had been done on that day in the forenoon, 
the inhabitants, who had assembled there, were directed either to remain or to return in the after- 
noon, that they might report for our better information everything concerning the reasons of 
their request for assistance and hear from us, what they and we were to do. 

When they had assembled in the afternoon, pursuant to orders, I stated to them, what they 
saw, namely that at their urgent and repeated requests I had come M'ith the soldiers, numbering 60 
men, and asked, what in their opinion was now best to do for the welfare of the country generally 
and for their own greater safety, adding in a few words, that I did not think the present time was 
favorable, to involve the whole country in a general war on account of the murder, the burning 
of two small houses and the other complaints about threats, that before now massacres, incen- 
diary fires, sustained losses, injuries and insults had given us much more reason for immediate 
revenge, which nevertheless we had for prudence's sake deferred to a better time and chance 
and that, as they knew themselves, now, m summer, with the jyrospect of a good harvest before 
us, it was not the jyroper season, to malce lad worse, least of all by giving room so hastily to a 

New Yvrh Historical Records. 83 

hlind fear / that on the other side they also knew very well, it was not in our power to protect 
them and other out-lying farmers, as long as tliey lived separately here and tlicre and insisted upon 
it contrary to the orders of the Company and our well-meant exhortations. They answered, that 
they had no objections to make, but they were now situated so, tliat they had spent all they were 
worth on their lands, houses and cattle and that they would be poor, indigent and ruined men, if 
they were now again, as 2 or 3 years ago, obliged to leave their property. This would be tlie 
unavoidable consequence, if they could get no assistance and protection against the savages. I 
told them then, that no protection was possible, as long as they lived so separate from each other, 
that it would therefore be for their best and add to their own safety, in fact absolutely necessary, 
as I thought, that they should either immediately move together at a suitable place, where I could 
and would help and assist them with a few soldiers until further arrangements are made, or retreat 
to the Manhattans or Fort Orange witli their wives, children, cattle and most easily moved prop- 
erty, so as to prevent further massacres and mischiefs ; else, if they could not make up their minds 
to either, but preferred to continue in such a precarious situation, they should not disturb us in 
futui-e with their reproaches and complaints. Each proposition was discussed, but it would be too 
tedious to repeat the debates in detail. 

Every one thought it nnadvisable and too dangerous to remain in their present condition with- 
out the assistance and succor of troops ; the prospect of a good harvest, so close at hand, the only 
means, with wliich they are to clothe and feed themselves and their families during the coming 
winter, would not admit of abandoning so suitable and fertile lands and of throwing themselves 
and their families thereby into the most abject poverty. 

The necessity of a concentrated settlement was conceded, although discussion ran liigh regard- 
ing this point as well as on account of the time, harvest being so near at hand and it being therefore 
thought impossible to transplant houses, barns and sheds before it, as on account of the place, 
where the settlement was to be made, for every one proposed his own place as being most con- 
veniently located ; to this must be added, that they were to help in inclosing the settlement with 
palisades, which, they apprehended, could not be done before harvest-time. Therefore they pro- 
posed and requested very urgently, that the soldiers, whom I had brought up, might remain 
there till after the harvest, which we considered unadvisable for many reasons and therefore re- 
fused peremptorily, insisting upon it, as I did not want to lose time, that they should make up 
their minds without further delay in regard to one of the abovestated propositions and in order to 
encourage them to take the safest and most advantageous step, I promised them, to remain there 
and assist with my soldiers, until the place for the settlement was inclosed witli palisades, provided 
they went to work inmiediately before taking up anything else and carried it out, whereupon they 
finally desired time for consideration until the next day, M'hich I granted. 

On the next day, which was the last of May, the aforesaid inhabitants of Esopns brought as 
answer, that they had agreed imanimously and come to the conclusion to make a combined settle- 
ment, to acquiesce cheerfully and faithfully regarding the spot and arrangements, which we were 
to indicate and prescribe, and they signed immediately the inclosed agreement ; the place was 
inspected and staked out the same forenoon. 

I have forgotten to mention at the proper place, that some savages, but only few, about 12 or 
15, made their appearance at the house of Jacob Jnnsen Stoll yesterday, but there were only two 
Sachems or chiefs among them ; they said, that the other Sacliems and savages could not come 
before the next day and that some were \'ery much frightened and hardly dared to appear, because 
there were so many soldiers here and the report was, that many more were to follow. After I 
had given them verbal promises and assured them, that no harm should happen to them, they be- 

84 Colonial Settlemenls on the Hudson River. 

came a little more clieerfnl and satisfied and promised to communicate it to the other savages the 
same evening, in consequence of whicli about 50 savages, but few women and children among 
tliem, presented themselves at the house of the aforesaid Jacob Jansen in the afternoon. After 
they had gathered under a tree outside of the enclosure and about a stone's throw from the hedge, 
I went to them and as soon as we liad sat down, they began according to their customs a long 
speech through their spokesman, which consisted, as the inhabitants iutei-preted it to me, in the 
relation of occurrences, whicli had happened before my time, especially of the war waged between 
them and our nation in Mr. Kieffs time, how many of their people had then been killed, 
which they had put away and forgotten and great many other things having no reference to the 
matter in hand. We answered, as was proper, that all this had taken place before my time and 
therefore did not concern me, that they and the other savages had drawn the war upon themsel ves 
by killing several Christians, the particulars of which we would not repeat, because, when the 
peace was made, they had been forgotten and put away by us, (this is one of their customary ex- 
pressions on such occasions) ; I had them asked by the interpreter, whether since the peace was 
made, or since my coming and remaining here, the least harm had been done to them or theirs : 
as they kej^t a profound silence, I stated to them through Jacob Jansen Stall and upbraided tlieni 
for the murders, injuries and insults, which I then could remember and which they and other 
savages had committed against our people during my administration, adding thereto finally what 
was still in everybody's memoiy, their latest proceedings in the J^sopns, to discover the truth and 
the authors of which had induced me to come to the Ksojnos this time, without as yet having any 
desii-e to begin a general war, to punish or do harm and evil to any one, who was innocent of it, 
if the murderer would bo surrendered and the damages for the burned houses paid. To con- 
vince them hereof still more, I added, that we had not asked them, but they us, to come and settle 
on the Esoj)us, that we did not own one foot of their land, for which we had not paid nor did 
we desire to own it, unless it was paid for. I closed with the question, why then did they commit 
such murders, burned the houses, killed the hogs and did other injuries and continually threatened 
the inhabitants of the Eiopus. For their vindication they had little to say, which was to the point, 
they hung their heads and looked upon the ground ; finally one of the Sachems stood up and said 
in reply, that the Dutch sold the " hoisson ", that is brandy, to the savages and were consequently 
the cause, that the savages then became cacheus, that is crazy, mad or drunk and then com- 
mitted outrages ; that they, the chiefs, could not keep in bounds the young men, who then were 
spoiling for fight ; that the murder had not been committed by one of their tribe, but b}' a 
Newesinh savage, who was now living at Haverstroo or about there ; that the savage, who set 
fire to the houses, had run away and would henceforth not be permitted to cultivate his land. 
As far as they were concerned, they had done no evil, they were not angry nor did they desire 
or intend to fight, but they had no control over the young men. I told them hereupon, that if 
any of the young men present had a great desire to fight, they might come forward now, I would 
match man with man, or twenty against thirty, yes even forty, that it was now the proper time 
for it, but it was not well done to plague, threaten and injure the farmers, their women and chil- 
dren, who could not fight : if they did not cease doing so in future, then we might find ourselves 
compelled, to lay in return hands upon old and young, women and children, and try to recover 
the damages, which we had suffered, without regard to person : we could partly and easily do that 
now by killing them, capturing their wives and children, and destroying their com and beans ; 
I would not do it because I had told them and promised, that I would do no harm to them 
now, but I hoped that they would indemnify the owner for the burning of his houses, arrest and 
surrender the murderer, if he came again to them and do no more evil in future. In closing 


I Tlirlilocli/ioiise 

i The (hi/r/i ,(■' l>i/iri/ir/p/f//r 

■1 T/ir Mi/iislrr.s- llniiy,- 

■{■ Tlic i><irl xrpanitrd .( fortified 

Tlie Stockade 

TheJIonxi- where thf (kiirr/wr i.t entertained 
7. 7 The Town &(tte.i 
SM llie ff/ites to the scpmate fortified fiiirl 

!> The House where die first Srneitr of the Steite of 
J^'nvTnrk silt ui ft 7? 

New Yorh Historical Records. 85 

the conference I stated and informed them of my decision, that to prevent further harm being 
done to my people or brandy being sold to them, all my people should move to one place and live 
close by each other ; that it would be the best, if they were to sell me the whole country of the 
Esopus and move inland or to some other place ; that it was not good, that they lived so near to 
the Sioa7inekus, that is white men or Dutch, so that the cattle and hogs of the latter could not run 
any more into the cornfields of the savages and be killed by them and similar reasonings after the 
customs of the savages to the same purjiose, namely, that they ought to sell me all the land in that 
vicinity, as they had previously offered and asked us to do, which they took in further considera- 
tion, as the day was sinking and so we separated. 

On the first of June we viewed and marked out the place for the settlement ; tlie savages 
came in the afternoon and their chiefs asked again through Jacob Jansen Stoll and Thomas Cham- 
hers, that I would not begin a war with them on account of the late occurrences, they promised 
not to do so again, as it had been done, while they were drunk and requested the aboveinentioned 
men to speak a good word for them to me. I went to the savages with the aforesaid savages, 
when they reported this, and they offered me a small present of about 6 or 7 strings of wampum 
making thereby these two requests : 

First, that they were heartily ashamed as well because of what had happened, but still more 
because I had challenged their young men and they had not dared to fight and that therefore they 
requested, not to say anything about it to others. 

Second, that they put away now all malice and evil intentions and would do no harm to any- 
body hereafter. 

I ordered to give them in return a present of two coats and two pieces of duffel, together 
about four yards, and told them, that I too had put away my anger against their tribe in general, 
but that the savage, who had killed the man, must be surrendered and that full satisfaction and 
indemnification must be given to the man, whose houses were burned. 

They answered in regard to the first demand, that it was impossible, because he was a strange 
savage, who did not live among them, but was roving about the country. 

Concerning the second demand, namely, the payment for the fire, they thought, that it should 
not be asked from the tribe in general, but from the party, who had done it and was now a deserter 
and dared not return ; as he had a house and land on the bank of the Kil and had planted there some 
Indian com, they thought, that, if he did not return, this property ought to be attached ; finally, 
however, they said, that satisfaction stiould be given for it. 

Before separating I stated again to them, that it was my will, that my people should live close 
to each other for the reasons given before and that we had never taken nor would ever take any- 
body's land, therefore I asked them again to sell me the land, where the settlement was to be 
formed, which they promised to do. 

On Monday, the S"* of June, in the morning I began with all the inhabitants and the soldiers 
of my command to dig out the moat, to cut palisadoes and haul them up in waggons. The spot 
marked out for the settlement has a circumference of about 210 rods* and is well adapted bv 
nature for defensive purposes. At the proper time when necessity requires it, it can be snrrouiidLd 
by water on three sides and it may be enlarged according to the conveniences and the requirements 
of the present and of future inhabitants, as the inclosed plan will show.f 

On the 4"" of June I went to work again with all hands, inhabitants and soldiers. For the 
sake of carrying on the work with better order and greater speed I directed a party of soldiers 

* One Dutch rod is equal to 12 feet. 

t Missing, the Editor has substituted for it a copy of a map of Kingston, published in 1695. 

86 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

under Sergeant Christian and some experienced woodcutters to go into the •woods and to help 
load the palisades on the waggons, of which there were 6 or 7 ; the others I divided again into two 
parties of 20 men each, under Captain-Lieutenant Newton resp. Sergeant Andries Lourcnsen, 
who were to sharpen the palisades at one end and put them up ; the inhabitants, who were able to 
do it, were set to digging the moat and continued, as long as the weather and rain permitted. 

Towards evening about 40 or 50 savages came to where we were at work, so that I ordered six 
men from each squad to look after their arms. After the working had been stopped the}- asked 
to speak to me and stated, that they had agreed to give me the land, which I had desired to buy 
and on which the settlement was being made, to grease my feet, because 1 had made such a long 
journey to come and see them : at the same time they repeated their former promises, that they 
would put away all their evil intentions and that in future none of them would do any harm to 
the Dutch, but that they would go hand in hand and arm in arm with them, meaning thereby, 
that they would live like brothers. I answered them becomingly, that we would do the same, if 
they lived up to their promises. 

On the 5"" and C"* we continued our work and the Company's yacht arrived. As I found my- 
self in need of several necessaries, especially gunpowder, of which we had not more, than what 
was in tlie measures or bandoleers, nor had the yacht received more than two pounds for its own 
use, and as we were much in need of a few live and six inches planks for building a guardhouse 
and some carpenters to help us at our work first and then to assist the inhabitants in erecting their 
dwellinghouses, after the enclosure had been made, I concluded, in order to promote the one and 
the other, to go as quickly as possible on the Company's yacht to Fort Orange and was still more 
forced and encouraged to go by a good south-east wind, which blew all Thursday morning, and by 
a drizzling cold rain, which promised little prospect of progress for our work on that day. 

On the morning of the 7"" I arrived at Fort Orange, to the surprise of everybody. 

The yacht did not arrive before the S"", the tide running down so fast, and I shipped on her 
for account of the Company 160 hemlock boards, 100 five and six inch, iron pins and an anker of 
brandj' for the people working at the Fsopus, as none had been put aboard or sent to me nor had 
I any for my own private use. 

On the 9"" was Pentecost. 

On the afternoon of the 10"^ I left again after divine service and pass over for brevity's sake 
and for other reasons what happened there, as it has no relation to this subject. 

I arrived again at the Fsopus in the afternoon of the 12"" and found everybody at his work 
and two sides completed. The wet and changeable weather had hindered the workers, as they 
unanimously declared. 

On the 13"", 14"" and 15"" we were busy making the east-side and Fredrick PhiUipsen erected 
with the help of Claes de Ruyt^r and Thomas Chamhers in the north-east corner of the enclosure 
a guardhouse for the soldiers, 23 feet long and 16 feet wide, made of boards, M'hicli had been cut 
during my absence. 

The 16"' was Sunday and after divine service I inspected with the inhabitants the land on the 
Esopus, which had not been purchased as yet, and found it suitable for about 50 bouweries. 

On the 17"" and 18"" I had palisades put up on the northside. This was harder work, because 
this side could not be made as straight as the others, which the plan will show. 

Four carpenters came also on the IS"", engaged by Mrs. dc Hulter to remove her house, barns 
and sheds and on the 19"" three more, whom I had asked and engaged at Fort Orange to make a 
bridge over the Kil. They were also to help the others remove their buildings, for which they 
had asked me before my departure for Fort Orange. 

New Yorh Historical Hecords. 87 

Further, as tlie inhabitants were still hauling palisades with their waggons and horses and 
therefore not yet ready to employ the cai-penters immediately and as I had given them a promise 
at J^ort Oratiffi', that they should be employed immediately or else receive free return transporta- 
tion and daily wages besides, therefore I resolved to have them score some timber for a small house 
or barn at my own expense ; the ridge of it was to lie on two beams and the people, who could 
not move their houses so quickly, were at first to be lodged there and afterwards I tliought to use 
it according to circumstances as waggonshed or stable for horses and cows, for I had long intended 
to begin the cultivation of my bouweries in the Esopus, incited thereto by the fertility of the soil, 
but prevented so far by the audacity of the savages and because tlie people were so scattered. The 
last objection ha\-ing now been removed and thereby, as I hoped, also the first one, I toolc the 
aforesaid resolution principally to encoiu-age the good inhabitants, by hazarding my own property 
together with theirs, to make the settlement and cultivate the ground and to fulfill my former 
promise, although I was not obliged to do it at present nor would be in a year or two and there- 
fore the building is made as small and plain as possible, for I thought more of employing the car- 
penters, who had come there at my request, and of the convenience of the people, than of my own 
advantage. When the timber had been scored and brought to the sjiot, my carpenter and others 
told me, that it would make only a little difEerence in the costs, if I had a small barn of 5 or 6 
crossbeams made, in case the ridge was laid on two beams, as I said before : I referred the carpen- 
ter's work to the opinion of my carpenter, Fredrick Philipsen. 

About noon of the 20"" the sides of the stockade were completed and it was only necessary, 
to stop up a few apertures, where roots of trees had been in the ground : this was accomplished in 
good time on that day. 

We might have inarched on the 21^' or 22'', but the wind was unfavorable and I let the men 
rest ; some helped in breaking down and removing the houses of Thomas Chambers and Jacob 
Jansen Sloll and put up six crossbeams for their barns. 

Towards evening of the 24"" it began to clear up in the northeast and I ordered the Captain- 
Lieutenant to march off with 36 men, leaving 2-t men under Sergeant Andries Lourensen in the 
guardhouse; before departing myself I had some of the Sachems, who live near there, informed 
of my departure, but that I could easily return ; I reminded them, that, pursuant to their promises, 
they must leave the inhabitants in peace : the inhabitants would have liked to keep 8 or 10 soldiers 
more, but I did not consider it necessary, if they would only be on their guard, for they count 
themselves 30 fighting men, besides the 25 soldiers and 7 or 8 carpenters, who too are well-armed: 
they are therefore, in my opinion, perfectly able to protect themselves. 

On the 25"", about noon, we left the Kil, the wind being fair and the soldiers embarked on 
the Company's yacht ; we were two days coming down and arrived at the Manhattans on the 
28"'. The Lord be praised for His mercy and blessings on the successful execution of a matter, 
which every almost approved, as being necessary and honorable to our nation. 

Thus done and delivered at the meeting of the Council at Fort Amsterdam, in N. Netherlands 
the last of Jime A° 1658. 

Ceettficate, that Haemen Jacobsen alias Bamboes was shot by an Indian at 


(ll'" July 1658) 

The Director-General and Council of New-Netherland certify and declare hereby at the 

88 Colonial /Settlements on the Hudson River. 

request of Marretje Pieters, widow of S' Harmen Jacohsen alias Baniboes, that it is true and 
correct, that the said Harmen Jacohsen, her late husband, was iu the beginning of May last past, 
while standing in a yacht, which lay off the Esopus on the Northriver about 18 miles from this 
place, accidentally shot by a drunken Indian or savage, who stood on the shore opposite the yacht, 
that he died immediately after and was brought here and buried a few days after. In testimony 
whereof we have signed this and confirmed it with the impress of our seal. Date as above. 

Letter from Sergeant Louwrens at Esopus to Director Stutvesant: the In- 

Honorable General, Petrus Stuyvesant, Greeting ! 

May it please your Honor to send me quickly orders, hj which I can govern myself, because 
the savages here are becoming very arrogant and spiteful and have already killed a fine mare of 
Jacob Janseji's ; they are very angry that your Honor had challenged twenty of their men to fight 
against us and those, who have now returned from the beaverhunt, say, that, if they had been here, 
they would have accepted the challenge ; they talk about it a great deal every day and to-day 
about 500 savages are assembled ; their number is constantly increasing, God only knows, what 
their intentions are : but the Almighty will vouchsafe us what shall be for our safety : I therefore 
ask, that your Excy. will please to send quickly orders, for Thomas {Chambers) and all the people 
from over the Kil have not yet come into the Fort with their dwellings and I cannot well compel 
them. I pray, that your Excy. will please to send orders about it as quickly as possible, for I am 
of opinion, that it is necessary, that we should all be together and further, that the Hon''''' General 
will please to provide us as quickly as possible with a much needed supply of ammunition, upon 
which I rely and commending your Excy. to the protection of the All-High, I am and remain 
Great Aesopus Your Excy's obedient and 

the 8"" of August faithful servant 

An" 1658. Andbies Louwrens. 

To the Worshipful 

Rigorous, His Honor 

Petrus Stuyvesant 

in the City of Amsterdam. 

Minute of the Council fob Fort Orange. Appeabance ra court of 15 Mo- 
hawk Sachems ^vith a French prisoner, whom they desire to return to 
the Governor of Tbois Rivieres. 

(Albany City Records.) 
Present Lamontagne Extraordinary Session 

Pieter Ilartgers held at Fort Orange on the 

Jan Tomassen 13"" day of August 1658. 

Francoys Boon 
Adrian Gerritsen 
Dirch Janssen Croon. 

Before the Court appeared the eldest Sachems of the Maquas, 15 in number, who brought 

Ne%o YorTc Historical Records. 89 

with them a Frenchman, Louis Parraget by name : they declared, that tliey desired to surrender 
him with two other prisoners to the French Governor at Trois Rivieres in Canada in exchange 
for six of their people, who had been taken prisoners by the French and tliat they were willing to 
make a general peace with the French, asking for this purpose, that we might assist them by lend- 
ing them one of our men, who could talk French. 

The Court answered to this request, they were glad, that they desired to return the French 
prisoners and they hoped, that they (the Maquas) also would get back their people, but they did 
not know whether anybody could be found here, who would undertake such a journey. 

The aforesaid Maquas replied hereto, that at the time of the war against the savages they had 
gone down to the Manhattans and had done their best to preserve peace, therefore we too were 
in duty bound to do the same for them, while they promise to exert themselves in future as medi. 
ators between us and other savages. 

The Court thereupon summoned immediately the crier and had it proclaimed, that if anybody 
would undertake such a journey, he should receive for his troubles one hundred guilders. Pursu- 
ant to this proclamation Hetulrick Martensen offered his services to the Court, which pleased the 
savages very much and they expressed their joy by all kinds of gestures. 

The aforesaid Ilendrick Martensen was despatched on the 16"' inst. to Canada with the Ma- 
quas, who promised to bring him back in 40 days. The following letter was given him : 

A Monsieur 

Monsieur De la Poterie, Gouverneur 

des Trois Rivieres 

En la Nouvelle France. 

The Indians, which our people call Maquas and yoiir people call Trroquoys, have come 
here bringing with them a Frenchman, called Louys Paraget, whom (as they have told ns) they 
desire with two others to bring back there and surrender to you in exchange for six of their peo- 
ple, whom you hold as prisoners : at the same time they desire to make a general peace with all 
the Indians in your country and as they dare not do it of their own accord, they have asked me 
instantly to assist them with somebody, who knows the French language, to make use of him for 
that purpose : I could not very well refuse it for fear of preventing or spoiling the chances of so 
laudable an object. This is the reason, why I have sent this soldier, the bearer hereof, Henry 
Martin by name, to serve them in this matter according to his ability. I hope your Lordship will 
iind acceptable what I have done ; it results only from good intentions and affection. In the 
meantime I remain with my dutiful salutations 
Foi^t Orange IS"" Aug A° 1658. Your very humble and obedient servant 

La Montagne. 

Lettke fbom Seegeant Andkies LotJwRENs TO Director Stuyvesant: failuke 

(The first nine lines are gone.) 

The harvest turns out a very poor one, so that Thomas, Jacob and companion ha\'e brought 
in only about one half of their wheat, while Comelis Slecht has not gathered anything yet : it 


Colonial Settlements on the Hndson River. 

must therefore be feared, as the grain begins to grow on the field through the continuous rain 
(God may prevent it), that only little grain shall be won this year. Concerning the gathering of 
the savages, they separated about two or three days after I sent the last letter. It is rumored 
among them, that they would return in a day or two aud go to war with the 2Iorahicanders, but 
God only knows, what will come of it. On the 2P' of August two Maquaes Sachems came here, 
but I cannot yet hear, what their intentions were; the soldiers here are still in good spirits and 
health, except Gerrit van Canipen. Herewith closing I commend your Excy. and family after 
sincere salutations to the protection of the Almighty and remain 
Great Aesopus, 

the 26"* of August Your Excy's faithful and 

An° 1G58. obedient servant 

Andries Lodwrensen. 
To the Noble, AYorshipful "Wise, Prudent, Rigorous His Honor Petrus Stuyvesant Director-Gen- 
eral of N. Netherlands Curacao, Bonayro and dependencies, residing in the City of N. Am- 

Complaint against Chris. Davidsen, a native of Englaito, for spreading a 

(Albany City Records). 

Extraordinary Session 
held at I^ort Orange on 
The Hon'"^ Comjnaxjder Pltif. against the 3* of September A" 1658. 

Christoffel Davidsen, Deft. 

Plaintiff says, that an .affidavit, made at the Esopus, has been handed to him, according to 
which Defendant came from the Manhatans in the yacht of Euert Pels and, when they were in 
the Highlands, said to two savages, who had come on board, that the Sachem, meaning the Hon""' 
General, had killed at the Manhatans 4 savages and tiiat he would come to the Esopus during 
the following night and break the necks of all the savages there, whereupon the savages of the 
Esopus took some Christians prisoners and committed a great deal of mischief. The Hon*"" 
Plaintiff asks therefore, that Defendant be examined by an interrogatory. 

Interrogatory held with Christoffel Davidsen at 
the requisition of the Hon'"'"' Commander in pres- 
ence of the Commissaries of the District. 
1. 1. 

How old and where were you born ? 

Whether, coming from the Manhatans and 
while in the Highlands, he had not called out 
or said, that the Dutch had killed many sava- 
ges at the Manhatans in the night of the 23'' 
of August and would come to the Esopus dur- 
ing the following night, to break the necks of 
the savages there. 

Answer : 42 years and born in England, 

Answer : No, but that he had said to the sav- 
ages, who came on board : I do not know any- 
thing about it. 

New Yoi'k Historical Records. 91 

Defendant pleads not guilty and produces two affidavits, one from Henderich van Dych and 
one from Dirck Jansen, a skipper, who attest, that, while they were in the Highlands, two sava- 
ges came on board, who asked Cbristoffel Davids, whether the Sachem would come and kill all 
tlie savages in the Esoj>us and the Highlands and Christoffel Davids answered : I know nothing 
about it. 

Lettek from Andriks van der Sluys to the Director requesting to be ap- 

Honorable General Petrus Stuyvesant. 

The object of these few lines is to request your Excy. most humbly, that your Excy. will 
please to inform me, whether your Excy. has not been informed in regard to the office of pre- 
centor, which was given to me by the Noble Lords-Directors of the Privileged West-India Com- 
pany, as your Excellency saw and read in the extract. I need the said position very much to 
support myself, my wife and child with decenc}', whereas the present prospect is very bad and 
besides I have suffered great loss here on the strand during the last troubles, which brings us 
3-oung people much behindhand. The inhabitants here would like to keep me in the office, to 
proclaim the Lord's gospel according to my ability and catechise the children and teach them read- 
ing and writing : but because the Hon"" General has spoken with them about a preacher, therefore 
they dare not or cannot engage me for several years. I request therefore most humbly and sub- 
missively, that the Hon"'" General will please to assist me in one way or the other, that I may 
honorably make my way through the world by these means and with God's assistance ; awaiting 
hereupon your Excy' favorable reply in as short a time as possible and commending your Excy. 
after sincere salutations to the protection of the Almighty I am and remain 
Great Esopus Your Excy'' faithful and obedient servant 

the 28'" September Andries van der Sluys. 

An" 1658. 

To His Noble Honor, 
the Director-General 

Petrus Stuyvesant 
residing in the 

City of N. Amsterdam. 
by a friend. 

Letter from Sergeant Andries Loowrens at Esopus to Director Stuyvesant: 


Honorable General Petrtis Stuyvesant. 

This serves as answer to your Excellency's last letter of the 23'' of September. The bridge 
has been swept away with the exception of one beam, so that it cannot be repaired and the 
farmers say, that it will not suit them to begin making a new one before winter. 

I cannot inform your Excy. for what pui-pose the savages brought the wampum to the Chris- 
tians, except in giving the statement, which they have made. 

92 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

I have spoken with Jacob Jansen and Thomas Chambers about the feeding of the horses ; 
they answered, that they could accommodate your Excy. with long fodder, but they have no oats 
whatever, as the worm has destroyed it and they have not harvested any oats. If your Excy. is 
satisfied with it, then please to send up the horses. 

As to Jurryen We^tfalen, he thinks, he will come down by the first opportunity and see, 
whether he can agree M-ith your Excy. about the rent of the farm here, but that the oxen would 
be of no service to him at present ; he will speak about it more in detail with your Excellency. 

Please to inform me by the first chance, how it shall be held ^vith the barn, for it stands just 
as at the time, when your Excy. left here. I have got people to mow reeds and Jurryen Westfa- 
len is willing to put up the roof ; the reed-cutters demand 30 stivers for mowing the marsh : I 
expect your Excy" orders in this regard as soon as possible. 

The Hon'"'' General will also please to remember our provisions, also bricks for the guard- 
house, for a chimney is much needed. Closing herewith I commend 3'our Excy. to the protection 
of the Almighty and am and remain 

Great Aesopus, Your Excy' faithful and obedient servant, 

the 28"" September in the name of 

An" 1658. Andeies Louwrensen. 

Minutes of the Court at Fort Orange. Attendance of the Mohawks to 
inquire for the frenchman, whom they had brought on the 13™ of au- 

(Albany City Records.) 
Present Commissary Lamontagne Extraordinary Session held at 

Jan Tomassen. Fort Orange on the S'"" of Oc- 

Fieter Ilartgers tober An" 1658. 

Adriaen Gerritsen. 

Before the Court appeared the Sachems of the three Maquas Castles with Saciadego as 
speaker and they made the following requests : 

First, that we should tell them, whether we knew, where the Frenchman was now, who 
came here with them the last time. 

Second, whether we knew, that they had not killed that Frenchman. 

Third. They asked, that we should write to the Governor of Canada, that they had not 
killed that Frenchman. 

Fourth. Whether Commissary La Montague would not go with them to Canada to make 
their peace with the French. 

The Court answered to these questions or propositions, first, they did not know where that 
Frenchman was now. 

Second, that they had not heard, they had killed him. 

Third, they were willing to write to that effect. 

To the fourth proposition : that the Commissary had been appointed to look after this place 
and therefore could not leave it without consent of the Great Sachem. 

Hereupon they asked, that we would provide them with a man, who understood French and 

New YotTc Historical Records. 93 

also with a letter to the Governor of Canada. This was promised to them and Jacob Begyn, a 
soldier, offered immediately his services. He went with them on the 9"" inst. and took a letter to 
that effect. 

Minute of the Dieectoe-Geneeal's depaetuee for the Esopus. (His second visrr theke) 

(9'" October 1658) 

To-day, the Honorable Director-General Petrtis Stuyvesant left with about 50 men for the 
Esopits, to see whether the Indians had made good the losses caused by them, according to their 
promises, given when the Honorable General was there the last time. Date as above. 

Peoposals made to the Esopds Indians and theie answees. 
1658, 15«' October. 

On the IS"" October we called up and there appeared at the house of Thomas Chamhers, a 
resident at the Esopui^, several Sachems or chiefs of the savages, namely Pajypequahen, Preuwa- 
mackan aiid Nachchamatt. to whom the following propositions were made in the presence of Cap- 
tain Martyn Cregier, Schepen Pieter WoljyJiertsen, Pieter Cornelissen van der Veen, Augustyn 
Ileermans and others : 

First, whether they were authorized and willing to execute, what they should agree upon in 
behalf of the other chiefs of this place, called Eso_pus, with the Director-General, the Sachem and 
chief of all the Dutch. ; to which they answered, tliat, what they did and promised, would be car- 
ried out. 

2*. They were then asked, what were the names of the other chiefs of the Esopus, for whom 
they answered, so that we might know, with which and how many chiefs we made the compact. 
Sewackenaem, Caelcop, Pemirawachgink, Juhoeron were named. 

3. Then the affronts and injuries, which they had done to our Christiiins, were again repre- 
sented to them, as it had been done in the month of May, to wit : that they or their tribe had 
killed two horses of the widow Hulter. 

That about a year or eighteen mouths ago they had wounded with a hatchet one .Jacob Adri- 
aensen on the head, while in his own house, in consequence of which he is still blind on one eye 
and they had also mortally wounded his little child. 

That since the spring they had burned his house and plundered his goods, also killed a Dutch- 
]nan on one of the sloops. 

That they had stolen and taken with them from the aforesaid burned house some duffels and 
shirts of Adriaen van der Sluys. 

That they had compelled the farmers, namely Cornells Barentscn Sl^cht, to plough their land 
for corn and had threatened to burn his house, in case he should refuse, taking a firebrand for that 
purpose and running up under the roof to fire the barn. 

That they had extorted at different times new payments from the Dutch, who had bought 
land from them and had paid for it according to the bill of sale and had inflicted many more threats, 
affronts and damages upon our nation, which have been the cause, that the people have been obliged 

94 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

to pull down their houses and to move close together and that the Director-General has been forced 
to inclose this place by palisades with great labor and expenses and to send and keep here so many 

That since they have killed again, contrary to their promise, a horse and several hogs, belonging 
to Jacob Ilajo, for all which losses and damages caused by them, proper satisfaction is demanded 
or else we shall be compelled to look for it and time was given them to consult about it until to- 
morrow, provided they would promise to give an answer to-morrow ; if they did not do this, but 
were to flee, they would give us cause to think and believe, that they did not wish to give xis satis- 
faction and therefore intended mischief. 

First, the land from the Esopus so far as I have viewed it, is demanded for the expenses and 
troubles incurred by the Director-General in coming here and establishing this fort, also because 
the farmers have had to pull down their houses. 

For Hulter's horses we demand, that they should be satisfied with the payment once made 
for the land and not trouble his widow again about another payment. 

They shall give within one year one hundred strings of wampum for the house of Jacob J^eus, 
for the killing of Jacob Janserus horse 50 strings of wampum. 

For Andries van der Sluys forty strings. 

After the aforesaid propositions and demands had been stated to the said chiefs, they tried to 
avail themselves of many subterfuges and told a long tale of what had happened long years ago, 
before our time, in and before the last war, when, as they said, they had suffered great losses and 
had lost many of their friends in the wars; for which they had received no satisfaction, but now 
one ought to be balanced with the other and people ought to live in friendship ; they added hereto 
by their interpreter, that the demands had surprised them and they asked for time to consult with 
others of their friends and fellow-chiefs who were out hunting, before they could give an answer ; 
this was absolutely refused, as in their reply to the foregoing second proposition they had abso- 
lutely declared themselves to be qualified and authorized for what they should contract and transact 
with us ; we therefore persisted in the demands made by us and in the last proposition to wit, that 
they should promptly answer now and declare themselves, whether they would give us proper 
satisfaction or not, the answer to which was only Yes or No ; wliereupon after many discussions 
they requested to consult over night, promising to come again the next day ; this was granted to 

On the 16"", at about one or two o'clock in the afternoon, they stated, according to promise, 
through Jacob Jansen Stoll and Thomas Chambers, both residents at the Esopus, that they were 
inclined to peace and friendship, they would give also fair satisfaction, but our demands -were too 
great and they are badly provided with wampum ; they offer first, in compensation for the killing 
of Widow Hult^rs horses, to desist from their claims for payment as to one half of the land, 
whereupon we informed them by the said interpreters, that the offer concerned only the Widow 
Hulter, that neither I nor the other parties in interest were satisfied with it ; when this had been 
comnmnicated to them, they repeated, that they had no wampum, but if the demanded large tract 
of land would satisfy me, they -would give and convey it to me : I had them answered upon this 
last offer, that it would satisfy me, but that the three other interested parties, namely Jacob Jansen 
Stol, Jacob A7idriesen and Andries van. der Slwjs did not receive any satisfaction nor compensa- 
tion by it and therefore I had them asked a third time, whether, as they said, they had now no 
wampum, they would not satisfy the aforesaid persons hereafter, that then I should be satisfied 
and talk and treat with them about the continuation of our friendship, whereupon they stated the 
following according to their custom. 

New York Historical Records. 95 

1" As to the land of the Widow Hulter, they surrendered it to nie for the killing of her two 
horses and would not demand any further payment for it. 

2^ They give a beaver and say, that it was sent here by the Southern Indians for the purpose, 
that they should not begin a war with the Dutch, but live in friendship with them, which they 
were inclined to do. 

3* They say, that the Minquaes will come into our land in the summer and when they see, 
that there is everywhere peace between the Dutch and the savages, then they will come with all 
their beavers to StuyvesanV s land to trade there and with nobody else ; they give a beaver. 

4"' They say, that the Minquaes had told them, the Dutch measured tlie powder by snuff- 
boxes, they would be very glad, if it were measured to them by the handful, they would then bring 
many beavers ; they give a beaver. 

S"" They say, the Minquaes had told tliem, you are our subjects and have to submit to us or 
hide yourselves, as we also have to submit to the Dutch or hide ; why will you fight against the 
Dutch ? they give a beaver. 

6"" They give a string of wampum, saying, that the Minqimes and the S'mnekes of the first 
castle say, they would like to have powder and lead from the Dutch to shoot deer with and trade 
these to the Dutch. 

T"" They give a short string of wampum, saying, that they desire to inform me, that a horse 
of Jacob Jansen Stall has been in their corn-field and has damaged two plantings and a boy came 
and has killed it, for which they gave to Jacob Jansen 70 strings of wampum, but they do not 
give this small string on that account, only that the soldiers should leave them in peace, \vlien they 
come to this place and not beat them. 

■ As the foregoing statement made by them did not agree with that, which they had first made 
to the interpreters Jacob Jansen Hap and Thomas Chambers and had asked, I should be informed 
of, I asked them througli the said interpreters, whether they intended to satisfy me thereby and 
whether it was this, which they had first offered tlirough the interpreters regarding the land ; 
whereupon they answered, that one of their fellow<'hiefs, called Poenap, the greatest landowner, 
had gone to Fort Orange and that Caelcop, who had been here with them yesterday, had not come 
now, they could therefore do nothing herein, but would come again with the said chief to-morrow 
morning and give a conclusive answer, which although I thouglit to be a subterfuge only, to gain 
time either until my departure or until the arrival of other savages, yet to give them full measure, 
I allowed them this delay until to-morrow, notwithstanding that the wind was favorable and my 
departure necessary. 

As the savages did not come on the IS"" according to their promise, I asked Jacob Jansen Ilap 
and Marten Metselaer (the mason) whether they would not go to the houses of the savages to recon- 
noitre, whether they were there still and then to ask what conclusion they had come to, whether 
they would give satisfaction or not. They returned about noon and brought as answer, that the 
said chiefs had made game of them and had plainly said, they had no intention of giving satisfac- 
tion, as they considered what they had done of no consequence. Therefore I judged it best for the 
present to depart as soon as possible and to leave there imtil further resolutions and order the ensign 
Dirck Smith with 50 men and the following instructions. 

Instructions for Ensign Dirck Smith 
First. He shall join to the old garrison 25 men from the military brought up here, so that 
they will number 50 men and he is to have the supreme command and authority over them until 
our further orders and give out the countersign and put and keep everything in good order. 

96 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson Hiver. 

Second. "With the assistance of the inhabitants he shall iininediatelj make secure the inclosed 
place, mount a proper guard at the two gates and the guardhouse in daytime as well as at night, 
not allow any savage to pass through except upon permission of Jacob Jansen StoU and Thomas 

Third. Until further resolution and order he shall not act hostilely against the savages, unless 
they begin first and harm the Christians, in which case he, with the advice of the said Stoll and 
Chambers and the assistance of the inhabitants, shall attack defensively, apprehend, resist and 
pursue the savages, as the occasion may require always being well on his guard and lookout, to 
keep this place garrisoned by some men. 

Fourth. The jjloughing and sowing shall proceed and be kept up as far as possible and for the 
present only when a guard of about 20 or 25 men under the command of a sergeant can be given, 
according to the decision of the inhabitants each on his own land or all working together, to pro- 
tect them against the hostilities of the savages ; the inhabitants besides must take their arms with 
them, that in case of attack they may make a better stand against the savages. 

Fifth and last. He shall, except during the ploughing and sowing, keep his men as close to- 
gether as possible, without granting leave to one to run here and to the other there or detaching 
them. Thus given until further resolution and order at the Esopus, the IS"" of October, 1658. 

Letter of Jacob Jansen Stoll to Director Stuyvesant ; the Indians do not 
surrender the land according to agreement. 

Honorable, Wise and Very Valiant Sir, Mr. Pctrus Stuyvesant, Greeting! I have at present 
nothing to write to your Honor, except that the savages promise us daily with a good deal of talk, 
that they will come from day to day and give us their decision and it does not go further. Now, 
on the 2S"' October, they have promised me to be here at noon and announce us their intentions ; 
as Monsieur Montanie was here at the Kil and we did not think it worth while to detain the 
sloops any longer, because they lie so much to us, we shall not wait for a sloop, but send down a 
canoe to inform your Honor as soon as we have been informed by them. We trust, that pursuant 
to orders, they will finally give up the land, of which your Honor knows. In the haste I know 
at present nothing more to write to your Honor, except to recommend your Honor to God's 
mercy and to send my sincere greetings, remaining 

Your Honor's faithful servant and subject 
Actum Great Esopus Jacob Jansen Stoll. 

the 2S"' October A" 1658. 

To the Honorable, Wise and Very Valiant, his Honor Petrus Stuyvesant, General for the 
Privileged West-India Company, at Manatans in the Fort Amsterdam 

Letter from the same to the same: the Indians have made a conveyance of 
the tract of land, as agreed and ask for a return-present. 

Honorable, Wise and Very Valiant Sir, Petrus Stuyvesant, Greeting ! 
Whereas on the 28"' of October of the present year the Soopu^s Sachems or right owners of a 

New Yorh Historical Records. 97 

certain piece oi land, whic^li your Honor well knows of, namely the largo tract spoken of by your 
Honor, came to my house and have given one half of it as a present to me in reconipensation of what 
they liave done, saying they hoped, that now they need fear notliing and the soldiers would lay 
down their arms and live as good friends ought, and that it is not always their fault but also the 
fault of those, who sold intoxicating liquors to them, further that they were ashamed now befoi'e 
other savages, who might upbraid them, that they had given away their land to the Dutch for 
fear and saying on tiie other side, that they had now satisfied the General and would discover by 
this grand present, what the heart of our Sachem said, whether he would not make some presents 
to them in return, whereby they could see, that there were no more doubts or dangers for them 
and when this was done, they should make a present of land to him, as it is an established custom 
with them ; that should then be a sign of solid peace and they would do all possible favors to us, 
either in bringing a good trade in beavers or otherwise, whereby they could be of service to us, 
but we should endeavor to be provided with everything; they would go to hunt many beavers in 
the spring or during the winter and would then pass by Fort Orange and come with their trade 
to us. 

And that we should not lie to them, but that they might firmly rely on our word, as our Sa- 
chems may now firmly trust to them and shall see, tliat after this time we shall do no more harm 
to the Dutch neither to their cattle nor otherwise, therefore the land shall be given as a present to 
the Honorable General in proof hereof, under the condition, that they request and would like to 
see, that it should soon be inhabited, so that they might be supplied with everything, not in the 
manner, in which as they say, the late Johan De Hulter did it, who fenced in the land and then 
let it lie unused ; they do not like that, but desire to have it inhabited so that many Dutch may 
come here ; they could see that we try to live in friendship ; they said, they liked to see the 
ploughs work and no soldiers. 

Further, Honorable General, we ought. Christian like, give them some presents in return, as 
they make such fine promises, which could be done easily. The proverb says, " a child's hand is 
soon filled" ; your Honor could also easily fill their hands, upon wliich they sincerely rely and say 
as before, they will see thereby your Honor's good heart and be assured, that your Honor forgives 
their misconduct and says "quits". "\Ve therefore replied to them, that they should have some- 
thing either next spring or during this fall and otherwise the last mistake may be worse than the 

Then we went, three of us, to the land and on the 29"" had them show us, how much and which 
parts they intended to keep for themselves; there are some plantations, but of little value; it is a 
matter of one or two pieces of cloth, then they will surrender the whole piece and remove. Closing 
herewith I commend your Honor to the protection of the Almighty remaining Your Honor's 
faithfid servant and subject 

Great Soopus Jacob Jansen Stoll. 

29'" October A" 1658. 

All this talking has been done with dry lips. Your Honor may imagine, how zealously we 
have sat here with these kings, but we hope, your Honor will remember his servants and give us 
something good for our lungs, which we could apply ourselves, if we had it. 

Jacob Jansen Stoll 
Thomas Chambers. 
Done as above Derck Smidt, Ensign. 


98 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant and his 

council; they approve of the proceedings at the ESOPIJS AND WILL SEND 

"We are well pleased with the commissioning of the Director-General to the Esopus to curb 
They are well ^'^^ boldness of the savages and with his proceedings there, for the drawing to- 

pieased with the gether of the inhabitants is the safest and best way for their protection and defense 
ceeding"'arthe ™ ^"*^ therefore it must be done at all occasions and in all settlements of outlying 
Esopus. farmers in the open country, as we also think, like your Honors, that it is more 

reputable and safer to employ, in case of a punishment to be inflicted on this or other tribes, the 
help of your own subjects as well as the assistance of some allied savages. The matter is left 
altogether to your Honors to do on such occasions, the best and safest and at the proper time. 


The report made by the Director in his aforesaid letter in regard to the bad condition of the 
public church-service in the open country on account of the lack of preachers and that the same 
troubles may take place in the villages there, has been so conceived by us, that we have considered 
his proposition to be well founded and of importance and therefore intend to look out here for two 
suitable and pious candidates, who shall be sent there in due time and occasion. Arrived there, 
they are to be placed by your Honors, where they may be of service and needed. But as the Com- 
pany's treasury and revenues are consumed and diminished by such charges, your Honors must 
arrange to have them paid in the most convenient manner by the community, as we told your 
Honors several times before. 

Action about a Bridge at Esopus. Court- Minutes of Fort Orange, April 5^° 1659. 
Coriielis Woutersen ag' Mrs. Johanna de Laet, wife of Jeronimus Elibingh. 

Plaintiff demands payment of fi 275 for making the bridge at the Esopus, for which Defend- 
ant has promised to pay and offers to prove it by Geert Ilendricksen and Jan Barentsen, whose 
testimony he produces. 

Philijyp Pieterse Schuyler, as attorney of Defendant, requests to have the case adjourned 
until the return of Defendant and her husband. 

The Court having heard the witnesses and read their testimony, from which it appears, that 
Defendant has been talking with Plaintiff in regard to the bridge, and not knowing, whether a 
later contract may not have been made between the parties, consents to adjourn the case, until 
Defendant or her husband should next come up here, without prejudice to the claims and rights 
of either party. 

New Yorh Historical liecai-ds. 99 

Extract from a letter of tite Directors in Holland to Stutvesant ; in re- 

Catskils. 25'''' April 1659. 

We liave lately been shown a small piece of mineral, which is said to have come from New- 
NetJierland and which we found to be good and pure copper, so that we have thought it worth 
while to hear Claes de liuyter about it, a person who showed that he was not ignorant of it and 
consequently demonstrated, that a copper-mine was said to be in the N'evesinJcs, also that there 
was lying between the Manhattans and the South-river a crystal mountain, of which he says he 
brought several specimens, as your Honors will be able to hear from him in detail, as he at least 
is going over again. Your Honors are therefore earnestly desired, to inform 3'ourselves well hereof 
and send us, if possible, samples of the one or the other by the first ship, to ascertain here their 
quality and worth, as we are sure that the population there will increase upon the discovery of 
such minerals and in consequence also the country will so much sooner gain in prosperity and 

Gerrit Jansen Kuyjper and Abel de Wolf have also requested us, that such lands and min- 
erals might be granted to them (as we conceive situate near the £sojous Kil in and about the high 
Catskil Mountains), as may be allotted to them there by Gerrit Baancker and Ilarmen Yedders. 
And as the aforesaid petition is not unreasonable but just and equitable, therefore we have resolved 
to direct your Honors herewith and to recommend that the said lands and minerals be vested in 
these parties, as they shall show and elect, provided however that they are not owned and held by 
anybody else, and this imder such conditions and obligations as they are now made there by the 
Company and by which they have to govern themselves. 

Letier from Sergeant Andries Laurensen to Director Stuyvesant on affairs at the Esopus. 

Laus Deo semper. 

I beg to inform his Honor, the General, by these few lines, that I have received the goods 
on the 20"" of May, 2 barrels of meat, one barrel of bacon, 50 pounds of powder, 915 bullets, 
11 musket-matches, 4 ells of duffels and the weights, C kettles, and the corn, when measured, was 
found to be 29J. I have heard from A7idries van der Sluys and Jacob Jansen Stoll, that your 
Honor had promised some presents to the Indians, that the Indians are said to murmur on tliat 
account. I have heard on Ascension day, that the aforesaid persons have left, that the savages 
intend to build a fort on the land, which they have given to your Honor, God knows, whether it 
is true. Geonje Westphal does his best to plough the land and fence it ; I have lent him 69 pounds 
of bacon, as he needed provisions. The oats are in the ground, all which your Honor has sent, 
the spring-wheat came too late and the land is fenced nearly all the way round, the ploughing con- 
tinues, since your Honor has sent the oxen. The oxen, in which your Honor is privately inter- 
ested, draw well. He has sold his cows by order of your Honor. I have delivered the iron and 
ropes, which your Honor had sent. No more at present, except to commend your Honor to the 
protection of the Almighty God. Sighatum Aesopus, the Si"" May Anno 1659. 

Your Honor's servant Andreis Ladrens. 

100 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson -River. 

Extract feom a letter of the Dieectob- General and Council to the Direct- 
ors m Holland ; nothing is known of a Coppermine m the Neveblnghs, bdt 


We learn with astonishment from your Ilonors' letter of tlie report made there by Claes de 
Ruyter, of a Coppermine in the Newesinghs and of the request of Gerrit Jansen Kuyper and Abel 
de Wolff 2i% neither before nor since any communications in this regard have been made to us nor 
any petition been presented : if it should be done hereafter, your Honors' orders in this respect 
will be obeyed. The shortness of time, the distance of the places, the inconveniences of the season, 
for the land is now everywhere covered with high bushes, which make the passage impracticable 
at this season of the year, prevent for the present to get some samples of the minerals, agreeably 
to your Honors' orders and to send them to your Honors by these ships. We shall have better 
time and opportunity to look for them either late in the fall or early next spring, when the woods 
and the hills are burned over and cleared of brushes, and if the good God gives us life we shall 
then not fail to make inquiries and send your Honors samples of the discovered minerals. 

Letter of Sergeant Andeies Laurensen to Director Stuyvesant ; he reports 
THE Indians are dissatisfied and the crops have to be cut under an armed 


Honorable, Yaliant and Worshipful Sir ! 
Honorable Peter Stuyvesant, Greeting ! 

These hasty lines are to inform your Honor, what the savages intended to do with us, as on 
the 29"" of July A° 1659 we were warned by a certain 3Iaquaes, called Amit^os, to be on our 
guard, because, he said, the savages about here were looking out for us, as it was close to harvest- 
time, they intended to murder us ; also from another side, a certain southern savage said the same 
and we, having been warned, keep together good watch ; besides we have heard from Claes de 
Ruyter' s own mouth, that he stated in presence of Jacoh Jansen StoU, that he had been advised 
at Little Soopus not to come in here, because the savages intended to go to war. We therefore 
decided and have resolved with the farmers, to mow and bring in the corn all together. After a 
genei-al consent had been given hereto, Cornells Slecht and Willem Jansen went to their own fields 
and barns and broke the resolution without gi'ving notice to anybody and consider their treachery 
to be nothing and not worth mentioning, but Jacob Jansen^ s people, Thomas Sianiher {Chambers), 
Pieter DircTcsen and Jurgen Westval help each other ; to them I have given a detail of soldiers as 
guard in the country, until your Honor, the General, shall come here himself, for we were told by 
Claes de Ruyter that we may expect your Honor soon. I commend your Honor in haste to the 
protection of the Almighty and remain your Honor's faithful servant by name 
Great Soopus, 4"" Aug 1659. Andries Loirissen. 

To the Honorable, Wise and Very Valiant Sir, the Honorable General Petrus Stuyvesant at 

Fort New-Amsterdam 

New York Historical Records, 101 

Minutes of the Court of Fokt Orange. Arrival of Major General Will- 
iam Hawthorn and Captain John Plnchon, proposing to take tip land East 
^ of Wappingers Creek. 

On the 4"' August [1659] appeared at Fort Orange before the Commissary and Magistrates 
Major-Geueral William Hawthorn and Capt. John Pinclwn who declare to have come here from 
Hartford, to open friendship and correspondence with us, also to supply this place with cattle and 
that they had found a convenient place, to facilitate it., at a village five Dutch miles from the 
JVorth river East of the Wappingers Kil. They intend to establish themselves at this place, if it 
is not within our jurisdiction and if they would be allowed free passage by the said Kil to the 
Northriver. AVe answered to their proposition after having thanked them for their offer of 
friendly intercourse, that we had here onlj' subordinate jurisdiction under the Director-General 
and Council of New-Netherland and therefore had no authority to give them a consent or permis- 
sion, which properly had to come from the Director-General and Council, to which they assented. 

Letter of Director Stuyvesant to Sergt. Laurensen at the Esopus ; rev. Mr. 
Megapolensis proceeds thfthek ; increased vigilance recommended. 

Honorable, Valiant Sir ! 

Your Honor's letter of the 4"' instant has been duly received on the 6"', but has remained 
unanswered because I intended to come to the Esopus myself, on the following day, which mv 
indisposition has so far prevented, as I have had since that time daily violent fever, which still 

As to the rumors, which your Honor mentions, we have since learned from passengers, who 
came from above, that everything is as yet quiet there and that they were only sensational rumors 
and reports, which God may grant ! meanwhile your Honor is strictly charged and recommended 
to be well on your guard under all circumstances, as if they were true, and to watch by night and 
by day, to hold together the soldiers, as well those who have been there before, as the 15 who 
were sent up from here last Saturday and to recommend in our name to the inhabitants, that they 
shall scatter as little as possible and be well on their guard with your Honor and the soldiers. — In 
case your Honor should discover any probabilities in the rumors or signs, that the savages might 
attempt sometliing, your Honor will communicate it to the bearers hereof, the reverend D*" Mega- 
polensis and Ensign Dirck Smith, upon receipt of whose report and opinion such orders shall 
be given, as will be found to be needed : wherewith closing we will commend your Honor to the 
protection of God and remain 

Honorable, Valiant Sir 

Your Honor's affectionate 
Amsterdam in 

New-j^etherland, P. Stuyvesant 

the ll'" August A» 1659. 

102 . Colonial Settlements on the Hridson River. 

Letter of Director Stuyvesant to Sergeant Lourissen and others at the 
Esopus ; Kev. D° Bloem proceeds thither to take charge of the congrega- 


Honored, Dear and Beloved Friends 

According to the promise, -n-hich I made, I have informed the Lords-Directors last year of 
vour just demand, to have there a good, orthodox and pions preacher, which their Honors did not 
less judge proper and necessary and tliey resolved thereupon, to inquire for some suitable and pions 
candidates and send tlicni here. As in the meantime, the rumor spread of the lack of preachers 
in the open country here, D° Jlarinanus Bloem, a candidate, resolved to make a voyage hither 
and inspect the condition of affairs and he arrived here by the ship " de Otter ", bringing with 
him very good testimonials from several ministers concerning his life and good qualities for preach- 
ing ; during his stay here he has several times publicly preached God's Word, as well in this city 
as in the villages of Brooklyn and Midwout, to the great satisfaction and pleasure of his hearers, 
so that some of tlie neighboring villages have made several requests, to have him as their minister, 
l>ut considering tliat these neighboring villages can go to church to one or the other place near by 
and have the benefit of partaking of the sacraments, while on the other side you can get to hear 
God's Word and partake of the sacraments only with great difficulties and troubles, I have per- 
suaded the said D" Blom to make a trip to the Esopus with me, as I intended to visit you before 
the sailing of the lately departed homeward bound ships, but being prevented by the great mass 
of our business and the time for the Lord's Supper coming on in the meantime, I resolved to par- 
take of it myself, so that it was finally decided to leave here next Thursday, but Homo proponit, 
Deus dispanit ; since that time I \\a,ve suffered almost daily from a %iolent fever, which still con- 
tinues, so that my indisposition does not allow me to go from home now. But in order not to 
delay so important a matter but to let it have progress, I have resolved, to request our reverend 
D'' Megapolensis, the bearer hereof, to conduct the said D' Blom thither and inform you of our 
wishes in this regard. You will now hear yourselves the said D" Blom preach. If you are satis- 
fied with his gifts (and we do not doubt, but he will please yon) you may take hold of this chance, 
which will not offer again apparently in some years, to ask iiis Reverence to be your minister and 
notify us of it by letter, also how much you will contribute yearly for his maintenance, which you 
will have to raise from the inhabitants in due time in the best and most convenient manner. Re- 
lying hereon we commend j'ou all, with cordial salutations, to God's merciful protection and remain 

Honored, Dear and Beloved Friends 
Actum Fort Amsterdam Your affectionate friend, 

in New-NetKerland 
the [11^''] August A" 1G59. 

Pkoi'osai.s made by the Esopus Indians and the answers of the Dutch thereto. 

On the 17"' of August, Sunday- in the even- Answers made by us, through Jacob Jansen and 
ing, at the Esopus. Thomas Chambers in presence of all of us. 
1. The Sachems stated, that they had no evil in- AVe answered in general, that we should re- 
tentions towards us and tliat there was no truth port their statement to the Hon. General and 
in the reports made to us. that the Hon"''' General has long ago desired and 

New York Historical Records. 103 

2. Tliey had patiently borne the blows, which intended to come here, but that ho fell sick on 
each of us had often given them. the day before his departure ; therefore it was 

3. X^iey had quietly suffered, that our people delayed, but as soon as his Honor was well again, 
had taken away from them i com heaps. he will make the journey with God's help. 

4. The Sachems showed 17 staves of wood, with 
which they signified, that our people had at dif- 
ferent places wrongfully beaten and injured their 

5. The Sachems said also, that they were very 
willing to keep in peace with us and would pre- 
fer to submit to many things, that they also ex- 
pected, the Honorable General would fulfill his (Endorsed) 

promise as to presents, for as long as that was Heport made by Domine {^MegapolenslsfA^ 

not done, thej' could not imagine, that the Gen- upon his return from Fort Orange and the Eso- 

eral intended sincerely to remain in peace with pus. 

them. 1659. 

Petition of inhabitants of Esopus, eequesting that the Rev. Mr. Bloem be 
aprointed theie minister. 

To their Noble Yery Worshipful Honors, 
the Hon'"'"' Du-ector-General and Council 
of New-Netherlmid, 

Show with due humility the inhabitants of the place, called the Esopus, that on the 17th of 
August the Rev. Harrnanus Bhem has preached at the place of the petitioners in the fore and 
afternoon, which has satisfied the petitioners very well and they wish sincerely, that they could 
obtain him for their duly authorized minister. They request therefore respectfully, that j'our 
jjQj^bie "Woi-gliips ^vill please, to consider this matter and effect, that he may be appointed here 
by the proper authority, while we promise to treat him decently and in order that his Reverence 
shall be able to sustain himself and be more encouraged in his work we have all resolved (subject to 
your Hon*'" "Worships' approval) to make a good bouwery for him, provide it with a house, barns, 
cows and other cattle as proper, to tend the land, which your Hon*"'" Worships shall please to allot 
to him, plough it and bring the whole in good order, so that he may cultivate it himself or hire it 
out advantageously, as long as he shall fill the position of preacher here, but in case he should 
leave or die, then this bouwery shall always remain for the support of the minister, then being 
here, and as the number of the petitioners is as yet very small and the establishing of sucli a bouw- 
ery will be troublesome and costly for them, may the petitioners therefore be granted, that all 
who hereafter come to take possession of lands and bouweries here shall also contribute pro rata 
to the obligations of the present petitioners, who must now incur these expenses. We await a 
favorable decision hereon. 
Esopus, the 17'" of August 1659. 


•^^ Thomas Chambers. 

- mark Jueiaen — -^ Bestvaal's mark 

104 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Jan "xT y Beokesen's Jacob J«. Jansen Stoutknboegh's 

Jan Jansen 

DmcK ^4*' Heneichsen ETeneick ^ Coenelissen'8 mark 

Matihys;?^ Roloffsen Pietee -^\^-^ Diecksen's mark 

Aelbeet j4, Goebeetsen Coenelis Baeentsen Slecht. 

Statement kegaeding the feaes of the people at Esopus and theie eeasons 
FOE rr; they ask foe a little bell feom Foet Oeange and bequest a visit 
FEOM Die. Stuyvesant. 

The inhabitants of the Esopus fear, that the savages have evil intentions, their suspicions hav- 
ing been roused by the causes given here. Their suspicions were caused: 

1. By tlie departure of a young savage, who worked for Clapboard* 

2. By a Maquaas. 

3. By a southern savage, who told them, that the Esojnis s;ivages intended to murder the 

4. Claes de Huyter says, that he has been warned by the Wa2jpi7igs or Iliyhland savages not 
to go to the Esopus, because etc *. 

5. Kit Davidsen says, that he was warned, the Esopus savages would beat the Dutch, that 
he understood it perfectly, that the Indians meant them. 

That General Stuyoesant had not kept his promise of giving them presents, as he had prom- 
ised. That some complaints had been made, but that his Honor General Stuyvesant had promised 
to come himself, to complete the conclusion of a permanent peace ; as this has not yet been done, 
they cannot believe, that it was really intended, but to keep it in suspense and then all at once 
attack them unexpectedly. 

2. They complain, that their corn-pits were robbed by the Dutch last winter and some bea- 
verskins were taken. 

3. That Boertsen had badly beaten an Indian and pointing a knife to his breast had threat- 
ened to kill him. 

It had been agreed, in pursuance of "an order from the Hon''"' General Stuyvesant, to assist 
each other during the harvest and help in hoeing the corn and that for the protection of the inhab- 
itants and laborers some soldiers should go with the laborers to the field to protect them, but some 
of tliem separated themselves immediately after the resolution and agreement had been made. 

The laborers, who earn high wages there, still refuse to join in an expedition or to do guard- 
duty and all this falls on the shoulders of the few inhabitants. 

It is necessary, that some men were appointed, also a messenger, to hold some kind of a court, 
that everybody, no matter who, could be made to go along. 

Tliey desire, that an order be given regarding the thatch-roofs of houses, in which people live 
and make fire without chimneys. , 

♦ Clajiboard was a uicknamc givcu to Thomas Chambers. — Ed. 

JSfeto Yorh Historical Records. 105 

That they might have tlie little bell from Fort Orange. 

That they might have a drum, because there are now 40 soldiers tliere, besides the iuliabitants. 

2 or three little pieces for a present to the Indiaus. 

The Sergeant talked also of intending to make a redoubt near the guardhouse ; if the IIou""^ 
General consented, they would make it of sods. 

Montagnw asks for some muskets fuses. 

Jurriaen Bestvaal would like to have 2 or 3 more cows, a dwellinghouse and a farmhand. 

The inhabitants of Ksopus desire the Iion'"'= General to come there, that some more lots may 
be surveyed, as there are several people, who would like to cultivate the land, but they have no 
lots. Likewise the people of Fort Orange desire the Hon''''' General to come there, to settle some 

Leti-ek OF Sergeant Andeies Laurensen to Director Stuyvesant ; Indian news 


Honorable, Wise and Yery Discreet Sir ! 
Honorable General Pieter Stuyvesant, Greeting ! 

These few words are to inform your Honor only, that the savages are rather quiet at present 
I trust, their hasty undertaking has been postponed : furtlier, Cit Davits continues in his old 
tricks of selling liquor and tattling, as I with other persons have found a drunken savage there, 
called PoeM«/?, on Tuesday, being the IS"" of August of the present year; then, your Honor, 
please to think of us with victuals, meat or bacon, as it is all consumed and the farmers are them- 
selves as badly off as possible. Herewitli goes a soldier, Gerrit Velser, who has poor health. 
Closing I remain Your Honor's faithful servant by the name of 

Actum Great Esoj}us Andries Loorissen. 

2P' August A° 1659. 
In haste. 

To the Honorable, Wise and Yery Yaliant Sir His Honor, General Peter Stuyvesant at 

Fort N. Amsterdam 
on the Manhatans. 

Letter from the same to the same : the Esopus Indians are preparing for w.ui. 

Honorable, Wise and Yery Valiant Sir! 
Honorable General Pieter Stuyvesant, Greeting ! 

Whereas we have heard from Mr. Abram Stoats on the 29"" August, that the savages had 
killed some people at Mespat there, therefore I inform your Honor by these few lines (as the skip- 
per would not wait), that the savages keep all away from us, but they prepare themselves evidently 
for a war, for we have been informed by a certain savage here, that the savages are making bows 
and arrows day and night. However we cannot learn, what their intentions are ; we were further 
advised by Cit, that the Sachem Caelcop had said to him, he should move away from the strand 

106 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

for the savages, not only the barebacks but also the Sachems had resolved, to beat ns. How ranch 
truth is in this, God knows. Please send us some bacon or meat for the soldiers. 

In haste. 
Closing I commend your Honor to the protection of the Almighty and am and remain 

Your Honor's faithful servant in the name of 
Actum, Great Esopus Andries Loukissen. 

1". Septbr 1659. 

To the Honorable, Wise and Very Valiant Sir, His Honor General Pieter Stuyvesant 

at iV(?t« Amsterdam 
on the Manahataes. 

Peoposals made by the Esopus Indians. 

The Esopus Indians, numbering about 9C, small and large all told, made the following ]>ropo- 
sitions on the l"" of September. 

First ; that on the 3'' of September they had been together at one of their savage houses and 
only deliljerated upon good things, as they now proved coming with women and children and 
without arms, so that we might not have any suspicion of them. 

Second, that two Mingaes Sachems, Sinnekens and southern Indians had been with them and 
had advised, that they should reconcile themselves again with the Christians, for wlii(;h pui-posc 
they had now come : they had also said, they should be ashamed to act so towards the Christians. 

Third, three years ago last fall they had been at the Manliatans, then they came here to the 
Esopus, but they did not injin-e any one of the Dxiteh nor did any other liarm and they let the 
Christians return to their possessions and shortly after they made an everlasting compact M'itli the 
Christians and the ^laquaes and to confirm it, they locked their arms together with iron chains 
and said, who shall first break this, he shall be made war against in common. 

Fourth, that they altogether willing to be peaceful and had no more evil intentions, people 
may go to work now, as one fire is burning between us and we may go to sleep on either side 
with safety and that formerly many news reports had come from other savages, that the Dutch 
would come to kill them, and then this and that, but that now they would not listen to such talk. 

Fifth, that they cannot understand, why the Fort had been made here ; that it would have 
been better, if every one had remained on his bouwery, for then we Christians would have been 
enabled to harvest our corn better, while now it is spoiled and the horses would have brought 
home more in one da^', than what now has been cari-ied off by the water. 

Sixth, that they have been wondering, why we do not plough ; they had suspected us of evil 
intentions, but we should commence ploughing, whereas we need not fear an}' harm from them 
and that tliey are not very well pleased, because they can not use the path, wliich formei-ly run 
through the guardhouse-grounds; that it was lucky, that the soldiers had beaten just a Sachem or 
some others, for using that path, for if it had been barebacks,* they \\o\\\A have lustily fought for it. 

Seventh, they say, that JaroVs liorses and hogs had destroyed a whole plantation and they 
guess, that, when they drove out the animals, the horse, which Jacob lost, nmst have fallen on a 
stump, for if it had been shot with a bullet or an arrow, the bullet or arrow-stick would have been 
found and they say, it died from the cutting open. 

* Young warriors, 

N(w Yoric Historicul Records. 107 

Eighth, they brought wampum for the horse and acknowledged, that they liad killed it ; 40 
strings of white wampum. 

Ninth, they bring wampum for Jacob Jansen^s hogs and acknowledge, they had killed them 
too ; 10 strings. 

Tenth, Wampum for capturing our four Christians ; 3 strings. 

Eleventh, Wampum, that we should declare ourselves satisfied ; 5 strings. 

Twelfth, Wampum, that the soldiers shall not beat them any more ; 5 strings.' 

Twelfth,* Wampum, that the Dutch shall pay the savages, who have worked for them ; 5 

And we have answered, that we could not do anything, but that all would be arranged prop- 
erly, when his Honor, the General, came. Your Honor will please, to send also an order, what 
we shall do with the wampum. 

Extract from a letter of Director Stuyvesant and Council to the Direct- 
ors IN Holland : a settlement on Wappinger's Kil recommended : Indian 
murders and causes thereof : reinforcements sent to Esopus. 4:'"^ Septem- 
ber 1659. 

* * * * * * + 

We consider of greater importance, what we heard from J^ort Orange lately, that is, that in 
the latter part of July some Englishmen from Boston arrived there, among them two of position 
and distinction according to their commission ; they inquired for a fortnight or 3 weeks after the 
territory between the two places and having spied the land along the North river under pretext of 
investigating and looking up, how and where the lines and limits of their Colony or Province may 
terminate, they came finally, as they say, to Fort Orange. After the usual compliments, they 
made among others a proposition, that they were willing and intended to make a village or settle- 
ment at the end of the Wappinger'' s Kill. This Kil has its source some leagues inland to the east- 
ward and empties into the North river above the Highlands, above 13 or 14 leagues from this ])lace. 
According to the reports there are good and fertile lands on either side of it and whereas there is 
no other way to it than along this North river, the aforesaid Englishmen proposed and requested 
to have unmolested passage up to and down from it. Your Honors may easily infer, in your usual 
sagacity, what the consequences hereof would be, that is, to get into our beaver-trade with their 
wampum and divert tiie trade ; we can very well imagine, that your Honors' advice and order will 
be, to resist their undertaking by all means and prevent it if possible. Right Honorable Gentle- 
men, there will be no M-ant of our inclination to do so, while however the power may be wanting, 
if they undertake it in earnest and will continue or hold it forcibly. Many hounds are the hare's 
death. I can hardly imagine the latter, at least as long as the state of affairs in England under 
the last changes is so uncertain, but it is undoubtedly to be feared, that they may send some colo- 
nists with cattle there overland, to crawl along in time and finally obtain their end ; your Honors 
are most likely of opinion, to oust and drive away the colonist, who should settle there ; this would 
be feasible at first, if it remained so and they had no followers; in our opinion the best and safest 
plan would be to forestall the English, by peopling and settling the lands with some good and 

» So ju the original. — Ed. t For the preceding see Vol. XII Col. Doc., p. 349. — Ed. 

108 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

clever farmers, abont 25 to 30 families and to assist these witli a guard of 20 to 25 soldiers for two 
or three years for their protectious against the barbarians, who are thereabout somewiiat strong 
and bold. That this might be carried out the sooner and with greater celerity and siifety, your 
Honors will please, if jwssible, to cause, that some homeless I'oJish, Lithuanian, Prussian, Jut- 
Mndish or Flemish farmers (who, as we trust, are soon antl easily to be found during this Eastern 
and Northern war) may be sent over by the tirst shijjs. We shall on our side endeavor to provide 
them with cattle and necessary provisions and other means and in order that these people may not 
be delayed upon their arrival here, I hope, if it pleases God to give me life and sufficient health, 
to go there during the coming autumn, view the land and buy it from the savages and at the same 
time look up an opportunity, to make the settlement defendable, which with the blessing of God 
will increase and not only will promote civilization and bring safety to the yachts and passengere 
travelling up and down the I'iver, but will also cause mistrust and terror among the bai'barians or 

Without wishing to excuse the foregoing* cruel deeds of the savages, we shall meanwhile not 
fail to revenge them in due time and are already endeavoring to discover with perfect certainty, 
what savages and from which tribe have committed this last murder (at Mespat Kil, L. I.) : to 
take revenge for it at the proper time with your Honors' advice and approval ; this must not be 
undertaken too rashly or too soon and therefore we shall await your Honors' advice, partly for the 
aforestated reasons, that the separate living people, of whom there is a considerable number, cannot 
now remove so suddenly their corn and winter fodder for tlieir cattle, which they have gathered 
up near their houses and if they remain in their scattered dwellings, cannot be protected ; 

Partly because we are informed by verbal and written reports from the Esojnts (as your Hon- 
ors may see from the enclosed copies of the letters) that the affairs with the savages there are not 
in the best and safest condition. Already a month ago, we have sent 15 men there as reinforce- 
ment for the garrison of 22 or 23 men stationed there ; but as we have been verbally warned of a 
larger gathering of the savages up to the number of 500 (to which daily more are added), we con- 
sider it advisable to send there 10 or 12 men more by the first opportunity; we hope and have no 
doul)t, but assisted l)y tlie inhabitants and with God's blessing these will be able to defend the 
place, in case the savages should make any attempt against it, as is firmly believed, which I how- 
ever trust will not come to pass, at least not before they have harvested their corn. 1 hope in the 
meantime to prevent if possible the mischief and war, should the good God please to give me 
health. Our military meanwhile is and remains too scattered to make any aggressive beginning 
in regard to the above stated affairs before better times and chances appear. 

PitoPosmoNs OF THE Mohawks. ^riNUTEs of tuk Court of Fort Orange, Septbr fi, ir>5i>. 

Present J. Lamontagne. Extraordinary Session held by both 

Jeremiaa van Rensselaer. the Courts to hear the j>ropositions 

* In the fort'goiti;; paia<jraplis two murilers, committod I).v the Indians, are rei)orteil. The cause of the mur- 
ders is indicated to have been tlie distance of the dwellings of the murdered persons. — Ed. 

New York Ilidorical Records. 1 00 

Arent van Curler. of the Maquaes this 6"" of Septem- 

Francis Boon. ber 1659. 

DivcTc Jansen Croon. 

Andries Jlerherttsen. 

Sander LenderUen. 

Jan Yerheeck and all 

the late magistrates. 

1. They say, they had made tlie journey, to treat with ns in friendship and give a string of 

2. They say, that tliey and other savages do not Hke to see their tribe drink so much liquor 
and give two beavers. 

3. They say, we have been agreed here, that we had made an alliance ; the Dutch say, we are 
brothers and joined togetlier with chains, but that lasts only as long as M'e have beavers, after 
that no attention is paid to ns, but it shall always be, as if we needed each other. They give two 

4. The alliance made in the country, who can break it ? Let ns at all times keep together 
what has been made one. They give two beavers. 

5. We have to expect our enemies, the French, and if we drink too much, we cannot fight ; 
we request therefore not to sell any brandy to our people, but to put the bung in our casks. They 
give two beavers. 

6. When we go away now, we shall take with us a good deal of brandy and after that no 
more, for we will burn our kegs ; but although we propose that now, it will not be carried out. 
Therefore when the savages come into the country with brandy, we shall come to the chiefs of the 
Dutch and tell them, who has sold the brandy to them. They give a string of wampum. 

7. The Dutch must leave off their wickedness and not beat them as much, as they have 
done. They give one beaver. 

8. We desire, that the smiths should repair our things, even when our people have no money, 
or let them have much or little wampum. They give a beaver and a string of wampum. 

9. We request, that the gunmakers shall dispatch making the guns and not let us wait so long 
and lose time. They give a beaver and a string of wampum. 

10. When M'e come from the country and the muskets are all repaired, we have no powder, 
you must therefore give us some powder and when the enemy comes, j'ou must be willing to help 
us ; you are too timorous, but send us 50 or 60 men for assistance. They give two beavers. 

11. He has two sons, taken prisoners by the French and held a long time. We trust, that 
the}' will bo released and request, that the Dutch will send for them, we shall be very willing to 
do the same for you. They give two beavers. 

12. Look at the French and see what they are doing for their savages, when they are in dis- 
tress. Do tlie same for us and help us repairing our castles. They give a coat of beaverskins. 

13. Come to us with 30 men and with horses to choj) wood, cany it to our castles and assist 
us in repairing them and the Dutch can carry their wood-sleds into the country. They give a 
beavercoat and a beaverskin. 

14. When any one of us dies and one of the Dutch should be his companion, it was his 
duty to give to the friends of the deceased one or two pieces of linen. They give a beaver. 

15. It is not necessary, that you should make us now presents in return. Tliey give a beaver. 
Action taken on the proposition of the Mohawks and answer gi\'eu to them on the S"" of Sep- 

110 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson liivei'. 

The Court resolved and decided, that a provisional answer should be given to the Maquaes to 
the effect, that no doubt has arisen in regard to the brotiierhood between the Dutch and the JMa- 
qua^s, agreed upon many years ago and that it should always be maintained and the chain remain 

2. We expect here every day Mr. Stuyvesant, to confer with you and we shall let you know, 
when he arrives or some of the Dutch Sachems will come to you. 

Then 50 tl in wampum were given to the Maquaes. 

Further action of the Magistrates of Fort Orange on the Mohawks' propositions, Septbr 16, 

Court Minutes. 

"Whereas their Honors have been gathered here on the 6"" mst. to listen to the propositions, 
which tlie eliiefs of the Maquaes had to make, and having heard them, gave a provisional answer 
to the said Maquaes on the 8"" to the effect, that a conclusive answer should be given upon the 
arrival here of his Honor, the General, and whereas they were afterwards informed to their great 
sorrow, that the General could not come on account of ill-health and sickness, 
Therefore their Honors have for the sake of peace and the well-being of the country decided, to 
depute some members of the Ilon''''^ Court to make a further alliance with the said Maqyaes, to 
thaidi them for their old and continued friendship, shown to our nation and further to give them 
a fair and proper answer to their propositions and to bring them at the same time a present of tl 

in wampum, 75 lbs of powder, 100 lbs of lead, 15 axes and 2 beavers worth of knives. Mr. 
Jeremias van liensselaer, Francis Boon, Dirck Jansen Croon, Andries Ilerhertsen, Mr. Arent 
van Curler, Adrian Gcrritsen, Jan Tomassen, Volckert Jansen, Philipp Pietersen and Johannes 
Provoost offered voluntarily to go as dejjuties. 

Extract from a letter of Stdyvesant to the Directors in Holland: no news 
from the esopus, but reinforcements have been sent there ; eqcipments for 


• URGED. 17'" Septbr 1059. 
Since our last we have liail no news from the JSsopus ; 5 or 6 days ago we sent some men 
under command of Ensign Dirck Smith there with three light ciinnons and some other ammuni- 
tion of war. We believe and trust, tliat it shall be nothing hut an Indian bravado, nevertheless 
these and other rumors make the out-lying farmers circumspect and not without reason timid and 
jilacc them on their guard; tliey have therefore requested us through their magistrates to be pro- 
vided with sonre powder, lead and small arms, also a drum for eaeli village, to call together the 
inhabitants at night or in case of mischief. We have provided them with the tii-stmentioned arti- 
cles, as far as our stores permitted, giving each village ;10, 40 or 50 pounds of powder and lead 
and some muskets to those, who needed them under i)romiso to pay for them with grain, the small 
arms fo be returned, when asked for ; whereas our stores jiave been considerably diminished hereby 
and through the daily consumption, we respectfully request your Hoimrs to su]>ply us soon, that 
we may accommodate the villages with a goodly quantity of powder, lead and fuses, also a dozi'ii 
of drums, which may l)e put one into the otlier to reduce the freight. 

New Yorh Historical Records. HI 

Should jour Honors deem it advisable, to attack the savages on account of the present and 
repeated murders, we have previously asked thereto for some cavalry saddles and pistols to organize 
a little troop of horsemen on Long- and on this island, which would be of great service and very 
much needed, to keep the two places free from Indians; your Honors sent pistols before this, 25 
to 30 common saddles are herewith respectfully asked for. 

Your Honors inform us in their favor of the 13"" February, received by "(?<? Trouw''\ among 
others, that for the promotion of divine service in the country your Honors had resolved and already 
issued orders to send over 2 or 3 God-fearing and suitable candidates. Upon the strength of that 
rumor one Uarmanus Bloem of Amsterdam has now proceeded hither, persuaded and advised 
thereto, as his Reverence says, by some preachers of the aforesaid city ; he has preached here as 
well as in the country to the satisfaction of his hearers, so much so that we have been petitioned 
in regard to him, to have him as their minister, as your Honors may see by the enclosure N" 4; 
under the circumstances, as your Honors are the Lords and Patroons in general and consequently 
this matter concerns the Classis, we did not wish to meddle any further in this matter, except to 
recommend the said D" Uarmanus Bloem to your Honors and to request, partly on his account 
as he has been candidate for a long time, partly for the sake of the inhabitants of the Esopus, 
that your Honors will please to look upon him with favor. We hope and trust from the short 
conversation had with him, that he will be for many a good leader to salvation and should your 
Honors indeed send beside him, 2 or 3 God-fearing candidates more, even though only at a salary 
of 5 or 600 guilders, we trust, nay, we may assure your Honors, that the balance up to 10, 11 or 12 
hundred guildei's will be raised here by the parishes, one contributing less, the other more, accord- 
ing to the ability of the villages. 

We asked in our last of the 4"' of September to send over some farmers, to make a village or 
settlement on the Wappimjhshil next spring and gave the reasons for it in detail in that letter. 
We shall accommodate these farmers to the best of our abilities, but we would require thereto above 
all some ploughshares, sickles, scythes and other farming implements, which are very scarce here 
and hard to be obtained, and then at pawnbrokers' prices. Your Honors are respectfully reminded 
and requested to send with the farmers the above and other necessary farming implements. 

Lettee from Jacob Jansen Stoll at tue Esopus to Director Stuyvesant: all 



Your Honor's favor has been duly received by the Ensign and his soldiers, with whose 
coming we were well pleased. We hope further, that the Almighty God will please to give health 
to your Honor and remove our anxiety, if it would tend to j-our Honor's salvation ; may the Al- 
mighty grant your Honor, what will be beneficial to your Honor ; but I hope to hear with great 
joy of your Honor's good health. What regards the savages, they are very quiet, but we do not 
know, what intentions the Almighty has concerning us. 

I send further to your Honor 3 muds* of wheat; I would have provided your Honor with 
more, but as I have no time now, the skipper desiring to sail immediately, I have to pay my com- 

* One mud is equal to 4 schepels^G bushels. — Ed. 

112 Colonial Settlements on tJie Hudson River. 

plimeuts to your Honor with these few lines and the seed-wheat ; also your Honor's further com- 
niiinds and orders shall, if God grants me life and liealth, be projjerly carried ont, until tlie last 
drop of blood lias been spent for and to tlie honor of tlie Incorporated Company, whereupon your 
Honor may lirmJy rely, as if your Honor were present in person. 

I am your Honor's faithful servant 

Jacob Jansex Stoll. 

The Honorable General will please to provide me with a piece of good linen for shirts, which 
I need : I shall paj- your Honor in good wheat. 

Jacob Jansen Stoll. 
This by the yacht 
Actum Great Emj>us, the 17"" Septbr. 1659. 

To the Honorable, Wise and Very Valiant, His Honor General Peter Stxtyvesant. 

Final Answer given to the Mohawks at their first Castle Kaghnuwage in 


1. Brotliers, we have come here onlj' to renew our old friendship and brotherhood and you must 
tell it to your children ; our cliildren will always be able to learn it from the contents of our writ- 
ings, which we leave behind us, for they remain while we die. From them they will always see, 
how we have lived in friendship with our brothers. Brothers, we could not bring any cloth, for 
we could not get men to carry it ; but friendsiiip cannot be bought for merchandise, our heart has 
always been good and is still so and if that is of no value to you, then we come not to buv friend- 
ship, even if the land was full of merchandise and beavers. Three boxes of wampum were given 
to them. 

2. Brothers, sixteen j-ears have now passed, since we made the first treaty of friendship and brother- 
hood between you and all the Dutch, whom then we joined together with an iron chain. Since 
that time it has not been broken either by us or by our brothers and we have no f&ir that it will 
be broken by either side, we will therefore not speak of it any more, but we will all be and remain, 
as if we had lain under one heart and in grateful remembrance of our brotherhood we give you 
now two boxes of wampum. 

3. Brothers, 18 days ago you were with us and made your propositions to the Dutch, your 
brothers, we did not give you a conclusive answer then, as we expected Mr. Stuyvesant and prom- 
ised to inform you, when Mr. Stuyvesant should come. But as he has fallen very sick, he cannot 
come for the present and we now tell you, brothers, that what we shall say, wo say with the au- 
thority of Mr. Stuyvesant, all the other chiefs and of all the Dutch and their children. Wc give 
the brothers as a present and as a token of truth two boxes of wampum. 

4. Brotliers, we now say for once and for all times in our own behalf and in behalf of all the Dutch, 
now in the country or who may yet come and of all the cliildren, as we cannot come here every- 
day, the roads being very bad to go over, that you henceforth must have no doubt of our always 
remaining brothers and whenever some tribe or other savages, whoever they might he, should 
come to incite you and s;iy, tiie Dutch are going to war against you, do not listen to it or believe 
it, but tell them, tlii'y lie, and we shall say the same; the brothers shall say of you tlie same thing 
an<l shall not believe any prattlers ; we are not going to war against you nor leave you in distress, 
if we are able to help you, but we cannot compel our smiths and gunmakers to repair the muskets 

New Yo7'h Historical Records. 113 

of our brothers without receiving pay for it, as they must earn a living for their wives and chil- 
dren, who would otlierwise perish from hunger; or they would remove from our country, if they 
received no wampum for their work and then we and our brothers would be very much embar- 
rassed. We give you hereon two boxes of wampum as a present. 

5. Brothers, 18 days ago you requested us not to sell brandy to your people and to bung our casks. 
Brothers, do not allow your people to come to us for brandy, none shall be sold to them ; but only 
two days ago we have met 20 to 30 little kegs on the road, all going to obtain brandy ; our chiefs 
are very angry, because the Dutch sell brandy to your people and always forbid it to our people, 
now you forbid it to your people and if you desire lis to take away from your people the brandy 
and the kegs, then say so now before all these people, but if we do it afterwards, you, brothers, 
must not be angry. They were given two boxes of wampum. 

G. Brothers, we give you now as a present this powder and lead, which you must well take care 
of, so that, if you want to attack your enemies, you may use it and divide it among your 3'oung 
men, with which we give 75 lbs of powder and 100 lbs of lead. 

7. Brothers, we see that you are very busy cutting wood to build your fort. You had requested 
us for horses to haul it out, but that is impossible to do with horses, for the hills are too high and 
steep and the Dutch cannot carry it out, because they have become weiik from their march to this 
place, as you may see by looking at our people ; how should they now be able to carry pallisades? 
But as the brothers sometimes break their axes in cutting wood, we give you herewith a present 
of fifteen axes. 

8. Brothers, as some of your people, also of the MaMcanders and Sinnehus occasioiialy kill our 
horses, cows, pigs or goats, we request you, brothers, to forbid your people doing it and we give 
you two beavers' worth of knives. 

All the foregoing propositions having been made the same were courteously accepted by the 
chiefs and all the people standing around, also that the brandy kegs should be taken from them. 

As we had made our propositions, a letter was handed to us by the negro-servant of Mr. La 
Montagne, expressly sent after us by his Honour. We learned from the letter, that some mischief 
and fighting lias taken place between our people and the Esopus savages ; we immediately com- 
municated the news to the chiefs and the people around us, who listened to it with great astonish- 
ment and said, they were very glad and we had very well done, by making it known so promptly, 
because, when now the Esopus or other River savages should come to them with presents and ask 
for assistance, to fight against us, they would kick them and say. You beasts, you pigs, get away 
from here, we will have nothing to do with you. 

After having attended to this matter, we requested the Maquaes to I'elease froin captivity 
their eight French prisoners and to bring them back to their country. They answered, that they 
must first deliberate about it with their Castles, that done, they would inform us by two or three 
of their chiefs. They complain bitterly of the Frenchmen, because the French do not keep the 
peace made with them, but French savages attack them, whenever they are out hunting and thrash 
them, because parties of disguised Frenchmen are always among them. 

We were further informed by a French prisoner, that the wreck of a small vessel was said to 
have been found on the island at the mouth of Canada, of a sloop rowing there with 6 or 8 men 
and the Frenchmen said and insisted, that it had been the bark of Jan Peree. This for informa- 

We received also a package with letters, brought by a Maquaes of the third Castle from Trois 
Rivieres. It was directed to Mr. Jacob de Hinson, who being present, we opened the package 

114 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

and found in it 3 or 4 letters to the Captain of a bark, said to have sailed from Canada for the 
Manhatiu/M, also a letter to his Honour, the General, vkich npon a uuanijuoud resolution was 
also opened to learn, whether its contents might be of service to us on tliis occasion, as it was writ- 
ten by the Jesuit Si>/i07i LeMoyne. We hope, his Honour the General will not be angry, for we 
have done it for the public service and the best of the community. 

Order That no offence shall be given to the Inbians under severe penalty. 
Fort Orange Court-Mintjtes, Sept 27, 1659. 

Their Honours the Commissary and tlie Magistrates of Fort Orange and Beverwyck Village, 
having received several complaints against the insolence and injuries done to the savages by beat- 
ing and throwing of stones, which must tend to a dangerous ending, forbid herewith, in order to 
prevent and forestal any mishap during these dangerous times, all residents within their jurisdic- 
tion to molest any savage, of whatever tribe he may be, under pain of arbitrary correction. Thus 
done at the session of the Hon**'" Court for Fort Orange and Beverwyck village, at Fort Orange, 
the 27'" of September 1659. 

Letter from Ensign Smith to Director Stutvesant enclosing a report of the 
rising of the esopus indians and of a collision between tuem and the set- 
tlers ; war is declared. 

Honorable, Wise and Very Valiant Sir, 
Honorable General Pieter Stuyvesant Greeting ! 

Your Honor's favor of the IS"" has been duly received, but whereas some trouble has arisen 
here, I request the inhabitants to give further information, who, it seems, have immediately hired 
a yacht, to give your Honor a detailed report of it ; although I shall always obey your Honor, your 
Honor will please to answer me by the bearer hereof, that I may govern myself accordingly. I 
remain Your Plonor's faithful servant and subject 

Actum G-reat Sopez Dikck Smitii. 

22" Septbr 1659. 

To the Honorable, Wise and Very Valiant, His Honor, General Pieter Stuyvesant at 

N. Ainsterdam. 

To the Honorable Director General Pieter Stuyvesant. 

I, Dirck Smith, Ensign of the Company, beg to inform your Honor, that. I have not refused 
to obey your Honor's orders, but have executed them in every way and respect and after receiving 
the Hon*"'"' General's letter on the 2()"' I prepared myself to leave here witji eigiiteen men for the 
Manhattans. The iidial^itants kept me on account of a commotion among the savages and thei-e 
were no yachts here, except tlie one, by which I received your Honor's letter and which sailed up 
the river. As on the 20"' at night between ten and eleven some savages raised a great noise and 
yelling under tlie fort, whereupon Pirck de Goyer, Marten Ilofman and Gdlis de Xecker alarmed 
me and the guard, I comniaudi'd the Sergeant to take 9 or 10 men and directed him togo out by 
one of the gates and return by the other one and not to molest anybody, but to see, what was to 
l)e (lone ; the Sergeant sent a man back to me, saying that a crowd of savages was there and Jacob 
Janseii Stall came to the guard, saying: I will go, give me four or live men ; he thereupon took 

New York Historical Mccords. 115 

four or five men, namely Jacob Jatuen van Stoutenbu7'gh, Tomes Iliggens, Gisehert Philtjts, 
Eoert Pelts, Jan Artsen, Berent Ilermsen ; His Honor, the General, may at any time inquire of 
these inhabitants, whether I have given any other command, as to shoot, fight or boat, but the one 
to see, what mischief was brewing there outside of the Fort. After their return, I asked them, 
who had ordered them to fire and they said, the savages had shot first and Jacob Jansen abusing 
the Ensign violently, said: We wanted to slap their mouths, for the dogs have vexed us long 
enough and Jacob Jansen said, I know very well what orders I had from the Hon"'" General and 
how they have sat here all in the Fort for eight days and could not get out, for they lie in the 
bushes all around and how they have skirmished against them during twice twenty-four hours and 
they have fired with innumerable brand-arrows into the grain stacks and the barn, the barn of 
Hap being however covered with planks the eoi-n was, God be praised ! saved, but they killed the 
horses and cattle, of the Hon*'* General's three, of Evert Pelts' three, of Tomas Clabherfis* four 
and at the date of this letter we have got back one prisoner, who run away from them. I have 
asked this returned captive, Harmen Hendrichsen, how strong they may have been, he said in 
answer to me, that they must have counted over four hundred and thought that our prisoners were 
all still alive and how badly they were off, for they had to lie every day under the blue sky, as 
they had long intended this; if we had not had some cannons here, not one of us, large or small, 
should have escaped. 

On the 20"" inst. when I received orders from the Hon""' General to come down with so 
many men, Jacob Jansen and Thomas (Jlabbert went to the Strand and hired one of the yachts, 
which were to go up the river, to make their report to the Hon"''' General and after having dis- 
patched their letter they wanted to go back to the Fort, numbering together 13 able-bodied men, 
the Sergeant with five men, Thomas Clabbert, Jacob Hob, a carpenter, Abraham by name, Pieter 
Dircks and his man, Eoert Pelts'' boy, I^wies, the Frenchman. At the tennis-court near the 
strand they allowed themselves to be taken prisoners. Thomas Clabbert was exchanged for a 
savage, and a soldier came back, who run away during the night: and ten are still in captivity 
and they have actually declared war and do not want to know anything of peace, as the inhabit- 
ants can testify. We have still an Indian prisoner and so far, thanks to God, no one else has been 
wounded but two and Buertiei son is killed. The ■wounded have recovered rapidly. I cannot 
write any more for the time is too short. His Honor La Montagnie has sent Kit Davit with a 
Maq^ias Indian irom Eort Orange, to hear how matters stand here and will assist us, if your 
Honor approves. I have been ready to come with my men at any time, but no yachts have been 
liere. I remain Your Honoi''s servant till death 


To the Noble Honorable Director General Petrtis Stuyvesant this is to be given. 
Anno 1659 the 29'" Septbr, 


Letter from Vice-Director La Montagnie at Fort Orange (Albany) to Di- 
rector Stuyvesant with particulaks of the troubles at the Esopus. 

Copy of a letter from the honWe Honorable, Valiant, Worshipful Gentlemen. 

La Montagnie in which he com- 
municates the unfortunate state Gentlemen. I regret sincerely, that I have to inform your Hon- 
of aflEairs at the Esopus. ors of the dreadful occurrence, which has taken place at the Esopus 

* Chambers. 

116 Colonial Settlements on the HuJtion River. 

last Suiulay the 21" iiist. about two o'clock in the afternoon, Avhcu of tliirtecn well-armed men 
one was killed, one mortally wounded and eleven taken prisoners, to wit the Sergeant of the Fort, 
Thomas Chamhers, Jacob Jansen Slol, badly wounded, Ahraham Vonhorgh, two farmers men, six 
soldiers and Leivies the Frenchman killed. I cannot write your Honors all the particulars this 
time, considering a north wind just begins to blow and I cannot detain the yachts here, to inform 
your Honoi-s of what is necess;iry. I expect to-morrow the men sent from here to the Maqunas, 
who went there with considerable presents. Captain Ahraham Staets shall leave here immediately 
after their arrival and inform your hon''"' "Worships as well by his journal as liy letters, what has 
occurred here. lu the meantime your Hon''"' Worships ought not to allow any weak parties to 
land at the Esopuskil, for the savages are there with more than four hundred well-armed men and 
have taken possession of Kit Davits house, where they keep a good watch and a look-out. I shall 
inform your Hon'''" Worships by ray next letter according to my promise and as in duty bound. 
Meanwhile I remain 

Your Honorable Worships most humble and obedient servant 

(signed) La Montagnie. 
Fort Orange 
26'" Septbr 1659. 

I have previously asked your Hon'''* Worships for a ban-el of powder and 7 boxes of fuses, 
which I hope to receive from your Honors soon, as they are much needed here. We have a suffi- 
cient quantity of lead. 

Letter from Jacob Jansen Stoll, Thomas Ch^vmbers and Evert Pelts to Di- 
rector Stuyvesant reporting the late conflict with the Indians. 

Honorable, AVise, Very Discreet Sir. 

By these few lines we intend only to inform your Honor, that on the 18"" of September 1659 
we or the Ensign received a certain letter from the Hon''''' General, by wliich we learned that the 
Hon""' General directed the Ensign to get ready with IS men as quickly as possible and leave for 
the Manatans. However on the 21" of September 1659 at about 10 or 11 o.'c. p. m. the inhalv 
itaiits heard a great commotion among the savages and as the state of the savages is somewhat 
alarming the Ensign ordered and directed Sergeant Amlries Lourissen to go outside with 8 or 10 
men and to see, what the matter was. Meanwhile Jacob Jansen Stoll had come with his gun to 
the guardhouse, although he was undressed to go to bed, and with him all the inhabitants and as 
the Sergeant had sent back a soldier, to receive further instructions the Ensign said, that some 
more men should go out, whereupon Jacob Jansen replied. Please let me go, which having been 
done was thus reported to the Sergeant by the soldier and the Ensign ordered, that we should try 
to get the savages here into the Fort, because they made such terrible noise outside. Then the 
afore.said Sergeant and Jacob Jansen Stoll went out to the savages, the savages perceiving them 
fired immediately at them, we replied, one savage, who had helped himself freely to brandy was 
killed by the Sergeant, another was captured. Wc have since been warned, that they will roast 
and burn the soldiei-s pursuant to orders. 

Therefore, your Honor, wc iidiabitants have concluded to inform your Honor as sjwedily as 
](iissible of the cruel uprising of the savages, to address ourselves in a friendly manner to your 
Hum ir witii the rcipH'st, not to reduce our garrison in this ]irecarious state of alTairs, but we hujie 

New Yovh Historical Hecords. 117 

it will be increased and whereas it has pleased God, to visit the Hon''''' General with sickness, we 
will on our side not fail in either giving advice or naaking pallisades, whicli are necessary for this 
settlement ; we hope however, that God Almighty will not leave your Honor, our highly honored 
Master, in this condition. In haste — Closing herewith we commend your Honor to the protec- 
tion of the Almighty and are your Honor's faithful subjects and servants. In the names of all 
the inhabitants of Great Esopus, in whose presence this is signed. 

Jacob Jansen Stoll 
TuoMAs Chambees 
Evert Pels 
The mark of Pietee Dirckskn ■ 'X/ y made by 
In my presence 

Andeies Loueissen. 
Done G-reat Esopus, the 29'" Septbr 1659. 


Smith did not oedee an attack on the Indians. 

"We, inhabitants and soldiers, who have been out with the Sergeant and with Jacob Jansen 
Stoll, desire to declare and attest, at the request of our Ensign, that the Ensign did give us no 
order to fight or to beat, of which we will bear witness and testimony, especially Jacob Jansen 
Sfoutenborgh, Tomes Hlggens, Gisehert Philipsen, Evert Pelts, Jan Artsen, Berent Ilermensen, 
all inhabitants and also the following soldiers, Martin IJofman, Gillis de Necker, Abel DircTcsen, 
Dirck Hendricksen, Michael Vreeg, Jooris Metser who have all been with the Sergeant and Jacob 
Jansen Stoll. 

•^ the mark of Jan Aetsen Smtt 

-^ the mark of Jacob Jansen Stoutenboeg 
t^ the mark of Tomes Higgens 

Gysbeet Phillipsen van Yelthdtsen 
-J— the mark of Beeent Heemensen 
1-^ the mark of Gillis de Neckee 

Abel Diecks 
2^ Makges Heemens 

^ the mark of Jores Metser 

Maeten Hoffman 

Machgiel Ferch 
\ H 2 the mark of Dirck Hendricksen. 

Letter from Ensign Smith at Esopus to Vice-Director La Montagnie at Fort 
Orange; progress of the war wfth the Indians. 

To the Honorable Mr. de La Montagne. I inform your Honor, that I shall willingly obey 

118 Colonial S^ttleiTient^.an, the Hudson River. 

tlie Hon'''"' General's order in every respect and that I have received a letter from his Honor the 
General on the 20"' 7^'", to come up and I have been ready to leave with my men, when the inhab- 
itants, little and big, all who were here, prevented me by prayers and a report of the General (?) 
and as Jacob JaiutnJStoll and Tomes Clabhert had been on the strand and had heard, that the 
yachts had gone up the river, they overtook one of the yachts and hired it without my Icnowledge, 
so that I could not go along with my men. Whereas his Ilonor the General is very angry here- 
with, therefore I request your Honor, Mr. La Montagnie, to write, if the hon*'" Mr. llontagnie 
will please. These people, numbering 18 or 19 men, went to the strand guarded by a detachment 
of eiglit soldiers under tlia Sergeant's command, altogether 17 or 18 persons, able-bodied men, to 
dispatch the letter to the Ilon"'^ General. Coming back toward the Fort they let themselves be 
taken prisoners, without making any resistance, to wit Jacob Jansen, Tomes Cldbberi, a carpenter, 
Pieter Hillehrantsen, Pieter de Buer, the boy of Evert Pelts and the Sergeant with 6 soldiers ; 
the rascally savages have long had this in their mind. It has been done through the liquor, that 
comes here to the Esopus from Fort Orange, for we. are very badly off at present, obliged to be 
under arms da}' and night and there have been here so many savages of all sorts and we have skir- 
mished with them continually for twice twenty-four hours, for they have opeidy declared us war 
and will not hear of any peace. The grain is all safe yet, but great damage has been done to the 
cattle and horses ; God be praised not more than two men have been wounded and one killed. 
We cannot tell, how many wounded and killed the savages have had for they attacked us fiercely. 
Jacob HaFs house was fired by brand-arrows and it burned down and they fired nxunberless brand- 
arrows into the cornheap and the barn, but the Lord has protected it. May God grant us delivery. 
Herewith I commend you to God's protection. Written on the 29"" Septbr Anno 1659. 

Your Honor's ser\'ant 

. DiKCK Smit. 
I have order and direction from the Honorable General, to send off Jxit J)avids. His Honor 
Im Montagnie must be guided by his own pleasure and opinion. 

, Letter. F^M Co^tNELis -I^^ENTSEN Slecht and other inhabitants of Esopus to 


Does your Honor, Pctrus Stuyvesant, Director-General of Ncw-Netherland, know, that we 
are in great danger to be sui-prised by the savages at any hour, for they have kept us in the Fort 
full eight days, so that nobody dares to go out, and they make great endeavors to fire the Fort. 
Jacob Janseri's house has been burned down, but his grainstack and barn have been saved by us 
with great trouble and danger and there are already taken and still kept as prisoners among the 
savages eleven men, five soldiers with the Sergeant and Jacob Jansen with four others and Loowies 
has been killed with ray son Jan. Therefore we sincerely request your Ilonor, that you please to 
leave the Ensign here with us, for if he had not been here, wo would all have been murdered anil 
the Ensign has given no orders to create this mischief, but I believe, that it was brought about by 
nobody else, but by Jacob Jansen and the Sergeant ; therefore we sincerely ask your Ilonor, that 
you will plejise to assist us, for else it is impossible to hold out here. Three of your Honor's 
horses have also been killed, which were shot below the Fort and eleven belonging to other farmere, 
also several. co\vs and 1 might write more of the situation, here, but your Honor shall hejir it soon. 

Nexo Yorh Historical liecords. 1 1 i> 

I beg of your Honor not to think ill of iny writing, if I slionld not have shown you the projwr 
respect, please receive it in good part. No more in regard to this, than to commend you to God'B 
grace and to greet you sincerely. 


Jan Jansen 
tliis is the mark ^v '^^ J-^^ Bkoeksen 
this is the mark ^^ of Wil'm Jansen 
this is the mark ^^ of IIeyndrick Coenelis 
this is the mark — e of Jukian "Wesi-val 
this is the mark ^/W of Mati's Roeloffsen 
this is the mark -4— of Dieck de Geaeff 
this the mark -f. of Jacob Stoutenbdegh 
Paulus Juecksen 
Jan Aeesen 

this is the mark -+?' of Baeent Heemens. 

This letter is to be delivered to the Honorable Gentleman, to wit His Honor the Director 
General of New-Netherland, Petrus Stuyvesant, 
at the Manatis. 

Lettee feom Seegeant Andeies Loueissen to Dieectoe Stutvesaijt. (October 3" 1659) 

Copy of a letter, written by the captured Sergeant Andries Lourissen, to the Hon"^ General 
at the instance of two £sopus savages. 

Honorable General ! I inform youT Honor by this savage, that matters at the Esapus are in 
ai bad condition ; it is besieged by 500 to 600 savages, so that nobody can go in or near it. I am a 
prisoner with 9 men, Jacob Jansen is dead with 3 others. If Esopus receives no assistance, I am 
afraid, it will have no good end. Our people have taken one prisoner of them. 

Your Honor's servant 

Andeies Laueens, Sergeant. 
Received the 12'" Oetbr 1659, 
Sunday before noon, but 
the savage said, he had been 
on the road for 9 nights. 

Declaeation of ceetaxn Catskil Indians, as to the oeigin of the collision with 
THE Indians at the Esopus, dieected to Vice-Dieectoe La Montagnie bdt 
without date. 

Booy alias Esquasicame, Ma^hach Nemeno alias 
Maechschapet, Catskil Indiana, make the fol- 
lowing declaration and explanation of the iirst 
exploit and its consequences at the Esopi's. 
They say, first, that the Esopus savages, eight in number had broken off corn-ears for Thomas 

120 Colonial Settlements on tlie Hudson River. 

CJiamhers, there had been nine of them, but one went away and they were at work until towards 
evening; then the savages said, " Come, give us brandy now,"' whereupon Thomas replied, " When it 
is dark." The evening having come, he gave a large bottle with brandy to the savages and the 
savages said, "We thank you, that you have given us so much brandy." Then the savages spoke to 
each other, " Come let us go to the liquor-house and drink there our brandy," but the savage, who is 
now a prisoner in the Fort said, " No, let us remain near the little Kil and make a fire there." 

They then went to a place at no great distance from the Fort and there the eight sat down to 
drink. These eight savages drank there until about midnight, then the brandy came to an end 
and they begun to yell, being drunk. Said one to another, " We have still some wampum to buy 
more brandy." The savage, wlio was killed, went towards Thomas Chambers' house, to fetch more 
brandy. When he came to Thomas Chamhers he said, " I have no more brandy," whereupon Thomas 
answered, " I have given you all I had." The savage then said to himself, " I'll go and see, whether I 
caimot get brandy from the soldiers." The savage went up to a soldier with the bottle under his gar- 
ment, askino- the soldier, " Have you any brandy," whereupon the soldier said, " Yes, I have brandy" 
and the savage replied, " Here is wampum, give me brandy for it." Said the soldier, "No, what is 
wampum, what shall I do with it " and he asked, " Where is your kettle" ; the savage answered, " I 
have no kettle but I have a bottle under my cloak." Said the soldier, " Give it to me," and he 
filled it, without receiving anything for it and the savage said, " I am very much obliged to you " 
and caressed him and went away. Outside of the gate a soldier met him, who asked, " Comrade, 
where will you drink your brandy," to which the savage replied, "Close by, near the little Kil" ; 
the savage went on and came to the other savages, who were lying about crying and he said to them, 
"Why do you cry, I have brought brandy." Thereupon they rejoiced and began to laugh and clap 
their hands. They asked him, " Have you given all the wampum for it " and the savage answered, 
"No, it, namely the brandy has been given to me." Said the others, "That is very good" and 
they drank lustily out of the bottle, because they had no goblet or laddie. In the meantime, when 
the bottle had been passed around once, the savages began to quarrel, among others one or two 
savages who were present and had no cause to fight said to each other, "I will go away, I am too 
small to fight against them." So these two went away and si.x savages remained drinking ; there 
was however one drunken savage, who twice fired oft' his gun charged witli powder only ; they 
beo-an ao-ain to drink and there was a savage, who M'as n<it quite so intoxicated and he said, "Come, 
let us go away, I feel it in my body, that we shall be killed." Said the other five, " You are crazy, 
who should kill us." Then the savage, who is now a prisoner, said, " We would not kill the Dutch ; 
we have done them no harm, why, then, should they kill us and we have nothing to fear from 
other savages." " Yes, said the other savage, that is true, but I am nevertheless so heavy-hearted." 
So they continued drinking until the bottle had passed twice, when the aforesaid savage said again, 
" Come, let us go, we shall surely be killed, may it come from whatever side it pleases, my heart is 
full of fears." 

Then this anxious savage did not want to drink any more brandy, went off and hid his goods 
at a little distance, then coming back he drank once more, M'hen they heard the bushes crackle, as 
the Dutch came there, without knowing who it was. 

Then this savage went away and said, " Come, let us go, for else we shall be killed " and the 
other ran away and the rest laid down together, whereupon the Dutch came and all of them fired 
into them and shot one savage in the head and captured another. One savage was moving about 
intoxicated, whereupon the Dutch fired at him continually taking nearly his dress from his body ; 
then they surrounded him and wanted to take him prisoner, the savage called out, " Come kill 
lue, I am not afraid" : the Dutch crowded around him and began to tattle among themselves, but 

Nefio YorTc Historical Rtconh. 121 

meanwhile the savage escaped, then the Dutch looked all over and conld not find the savage : then 
the Dutch ran up to the tire and found there a drunken savage asleep, whom they cut into the 
head with a sword or hanger, but the savage jumped up and ran away a little distance and the 
Dutch ran then back to the Fort. 

Thomas Chambers is free again, five have been cut in the head with a hatchet, one lias been 
shot dead, the Sergeant is still living with two others. 

Fighting continued for seven days, night and morning. 

This is to be given to the Honorable La Montaynie at Fort Orange. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors I^^ Holland to Stutvesai^t : Melyn 

LISHED IN New-Netherland; van dek Capellen dead. 

The 9'" of October 1659. 

Honorable, Prudent, Dear and Faithful. 

B3' the ship " r/tf Trouw''^* arrived here in safety on the ll"" of last month, we have duly re- 
ceived your letters with enclosures. Although we had deferred answering it to the next opportu- 
nity, yet as among other passengers of the ship " de Liefde "f , going by way of Curacao., Cornells 
Melyn comes over in her, we thought it especially necessary to inform you herewith of the agree- 
ment, made with him by us for the surrender of the patroonship over the colony of Staten- Island., 
which he has reconveyed to the Company under such conditions, as you may learn from the an- 
nexed copy of the contract. We desire and wish, that its contents be strictly followed and that all 
former charges and animosities, whatever they may liave been, shall not only be buried in eternal 
oblivion, but also be entirely banished from everybody's thoughts ; also that all possible and fair 
assistance be given to him and his people, especially in the restitution of the money, at least as 
far as the Company's funds can afford, for certain houses and lots of his sold there under execu- 
tion in behalf of Daniel Michielsen, formerly master of the ship '■'■Nieiu-Nederlandsche Fortuyn ":]: 
and in all other matters and respects : for we have found it necessary and best for the Company's 

You will further learn from this contract, that by revoking these privileges, given formerly, 
M-e express our intention not to allow henceforth the establishment of new colonies in that country 
upon such a footing ; for they are very disadvantageous to the Company. Although Baron van 
der Capellen, who lately died, had assumed the title of Patroon of Staten- Island, we see little dif- 
ficulties in that, because his Honor had never been authorized thereto : for there is no reason and 
it is entirely without precedent, to sustain his position on the private agreement made and entered 
into here with Cornelis Melyn, who is now involved in a lawsuit about it with the heirs of the 
Baron, or on a second purchase of the said island, which his Honor is said to have made later from 
the savages. Especially the latter event makes it initenable on account of the consequences for 
the Company. If therefore bis Honor's heir should happen to follow his example in assuming the 
same title, no long connivance can be allowed, but it must be prevented and resisted by proper 
and discreet means, offering him and promising as much land upon the said Island, as under the 
general rules he may be able to settle. 

* I. e. tlie Faith. t I. e. the Love. J I. e. New-Netherland Fortune. 


122 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Peopositions made by Mohawk Sachems. 

Present Extraordinaiy Session held at 

J. LaMontagne Fort Orange, the 19*" of Oe- 

Jeremias van Rensselaer tober 1659, to hear some prop- 

Francis Boon ositions to be made by two Ma- 

Andries Herhertsen quaes Sachems, wlio are sent 

Dirck Jansen Croon by and speak for all of them. 

Sander Leendertsen 
Jan Verheeck 
Arent van Curler 
Volckert Jansen. 

1. They say, it is very wrong, that the Dutch scold the savages so much without regard to 
tribe, and that they call them " dogs " and " rascals " and they say even now, " You too are an 
Esopus dog." They give a string of wampum. 

2. They request, that the Dutch shall do no harm to any Maquaes, Mahicander or Katshil 
savages, but that they live with them as brothers. 

3. They have advised with their four Castles on account of the fighting between the Dutch 
and the Esopus savages and inquire, whether we intend to go to war against the Esojnis or whether 
we here would keep cpiiet, for all their Sachems leave the decision about the war to us and desire 
an answer. They give a string of wampum. 

4. You say, you have no war and that you will have none against savages. The savages are 
very angry on that account, why do you say it, for you and the Manhattan people are one. The 
Esopus might come now or next spring and kill the people on the out-lying places, what would 
you then do, you have no common sense. They demanded back the strings of wampnm and 
despatched a Mahikander Sachem to the Esopus, to bring here the Christian prisoners and the 
Esopus chiefs, directing their messenger to give the three strings of wampum in the name of the 
Maquaes, that the Esopus savages should do no harm to the Dutch up here and down at the 
Jvatskil and release the Christian prisoners or else to proclaim war. 

Leiter from Ensign Dirck SMrrii to Director Stuyvesant; progress of affairs 

AT THE Esopus. 

This is one of the papers, stolen from the files and returned JIarch 22d, 1877, one month after the publica- 
tion of the list of stolen documents. — Ed. 

Honorable, Worshipful, Wise and Prudent Sir, Honorable Director-General of New-Nether- 
land, Petrus Stuyvesant. 

I beg to inform your Excellency herewith that on the evening of the JJO"" S*"" I have received 
by savages a letter dated the 13"' inst., the contents of which I have well understood. As to the 
Highland Indians, they numbered 110, as the Sachems said themselves at Thomas Siamhers' house. 
They say also, that the Esopus savages must deliberate 3 days more, before they can give a defi- 
nite answer ; we expect also upon the statement of these savages, to get back our prisoners in 3 
days, if they keep their promise, but we cannot rely on it with safety. On the 13'" we have 
spoken with some savages here under the Fort, who called out to us, they would come upon us 

New York Historical Records. 123 

with 400 men to fight. Regarding ourselves, we endeavor to keep good watch and good order. 
In regard to Mr. LaMontagnie, I have had no news since his Honor's departure ; tliese savages 
inform us also, that the Esojyus still live on their plantations and we do not go out with any soldiers 
or other people. There is as yet no chance for tilling the land, for the fanners do not like to 
endanger their horses and we do not now know any more to write to your Excy., except that we 
are all in good health, which we hope is also the case with your Excy. and remain 

Your Excy's humble servant 
Actum Esojnts Dieck SMixn. 

the 20 8''" 1659. 

To the Honorable General 
Petrus Stuyvesant 

at the Manhatans. 

Letter from Vice-Director La Montagne at Fort Orange to Ensigx SMrrn ; 
Mohawk and Mohican delegates are sent to Esopus to arrange an ar- 

Sir Ensign ! These two chiefs of the Maqriaas and one chief of the Mahikanders go to the 
Esopus, to ransom the captive Christians and make arrangements for an armistice, therefore your 
Honor will not molest the savages, as long as the negotiations last, but be upon your guard and 
do not trust the savages. Meanwhile write us, what has occurred there since the departure of the 
Hon""" General, to advise him thereof. 

Your Honor's good friend and servant 
At Fort Orange (signed) 

21'' October A° 1659. La Montagne, Commissary 

at Fort Orange. 

On the 4i-^ of November another letter of the same tenor as above was sent to the said Ensign 
at the Esopus by a Sachem of the Mahikanders called Nitamoret. 


Extract from a letter of Director Stdtvesant to the Directors in Holland : 


Stuyvesant proceeds with reinforcements to the Esopus ; siege raised. 

Honorable, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet 

Gentlemen ! The very precarious and dangerous condition of the countiy, which is so, that 
according to the judgment of the most sensible and best minded people it has not been more dan- 
gerous for years compels me to lay it before your Honors and inform you of it by a circuitous 
route over New-England as well as over Virginia, hoping that one or the other letter may reach 
your Honors before the sailing of the summer ships — 

324 Colonial Settlements on the Hiuhon River. 

That your Honors may speedily send such succor and assistance, as your Honors, in their 
usual wisdom, providence and knowledge, shall consider necessary for the maintenance and pro- 
tection of this weak province and its inhabitants. 

The circuitous route and consequent insecurity of transmission do not admit a particularization 
of the present situation and distress of the country. The enclosures will however give your Hon- 
ors some explanations in regard to it. 

On the 22'' or 23'' of September we received by an expressly hired yacht from the inhabitants 
of the Esopus, the letter marked A, by which your Honors will learn the inconsiderate beginning 
and from the letter marked B the sad consequences. I myself did not imagine from the first let- 
ter, that the savages could be so well prepared, to resent the rash undertaking so quickly and wrote 
to Mr. LamoJitagne, to settle the matter and bring it to an end, the more so, because, being about 
to send 60 men besides the officer to the support of the Southrlver and keeping here only six or 
seven sick and unfit men, we found ourseh'es unprepared for a war M'ith the savages. The coun- 
try-people, made circumspect and frightened by the murder of four Christians, the unexpected 
rencontre in the Esopus during the night from the 20'" to the 21'*' of September and other bad 
rumors, and fearing a new surprise and massacre began soon to flee everywhere, leave their houses, 
the corn just brought in and their cattle, even those living in the western villages on Long-Island 
and on tlie bouweries on this island. I myself not believing the distress so great tried by showing 
myself and riding about (notwithstanding my bad health made it difficult and troublesome) to 
encourage the country-people to remain and to strengthen their villages : this resulted by means 
of my personal presence in their taking courage and going to work and so far it has remained so, 
thanks to God ! On the 29"' of September I rode to Breuckelen, Midwout and Amesfoort and 
after having made some arrangements there, I received on my return late in the evening the letter 
marked B, from which your Honors may learn the result of the inconsiderate action committed 
the night before against some drunken savages. These woeful news came very unexpected to me 
and were so much more distressing, as we were unprovided with soldiery, to assist the garrison at 
the Esopus as quickly as they desired and their bad situation required, in which we have however 
not failed to do our dutj', as is shown in my answer to that letter, marked C. 

On the following day, the 30"' of September, I called together the Burgomasters, Schepen 
and the Captains of the trainbands and stated to them the distressed condition of the Esopus and 
that succor and relief were necessarily i-equired, which for the present could not be given except 
with the assistance of the citizens. They were unanimous in their advice and opinion, that by 
beating the drum a sufficient number of men could be got for the service or as volunteers, if the 
savages, who might be captured, were declared prizes. Although this advice did not coincide with 
my ideas, because it was an unsafe, or at least slow way and because there was great danger in 
waiting, the Esopus people being then attacked and besieged already during 9 or 10 days and at 
least 8 or 10 days more would pass, before we could be there with the relief, yet they prevailed 
with their unanimous advice. The captains of the citizens undertook to incite each as many of 
his men as possible, two days were spent in this maimer to enlist men, but few or none, any way 
not more than 6 or 8 made their appearance, who wished or better said dared to be employed to 
I'elieve the oppressed people at the Esopus. Such a terror and fear had taken hold of the citizens, 
much more than of the country-people. Meanwhile Lieutenant Neuton was sent to the English 
and Dxi,tcK villages : I myself called together the six soldiers of New-Haerlem, 3 from Staten- 
Mand, the train-men down to the clerks in our offices inclusive, to whom I joined four of my house- 

JSfeio Yorh Historical Records. 125 

servants, three from my bonwery, 5 or 6 newly enlisted men, making up a company of 36 men. 
The enlistments by beat of drum and the encouraging of volunteers thus went on slowly and in 
the meantime I was from every side well posted and informed of the unwillingness of the citizens, 
who encouraged and instigated each other not to let themselves be employed for the expedition to 
the Esojiris, while the most inconsiderate ones even dared to say, that they were bound only to 
defend their own place, that no citizen could be compelled, to place liis body and life in danger 
against barbarous savages. These and similar reports and talks made me very angry, anxious and 
liopeless, to get a sufficient number of men in this manner, therefore I convened the magistrates 
and captains of the trainbands the same evening, reminded them as before of the danger of delay 
and that the case required haste and progress : I told them, I had 36 to 40 men, soldiers as well 
as train-men ready and hoped that 20 or 30 Englishmen would join from the villages, therefore I 
directed them to assemble under arms the three companies of citizens early next dav, tliat I might 
inform them of my resolution and demand, which was, first to try, by reminding tliem of their 
honor and duty, who would step out as volunteer and join those, who were assembled there and 
ready ; then, if this should not succeed, as I hoped, to detail one of the three companies by lot and 
to punish those, who opposed, according to their merits. After some discussions they acquiesced 
in my proposition. On the following da}', the 3'' of October, the three companies of citizens were 
called out under arms and after reminding them of their honor and duty and how they would wish 
to receive assistance and relief I said. If any volunteers, men of honor and courage, are willing and 
I'esolved to go with me (although I am as yet weak from my sickness) either for monthly pay or 
of their own free will and assist the besieged at the Esopus, and relieve them with God's help, 
they could step forward and join the officers and train-men of the Company ; but few came for- 
ward, not more than 24 or 25 men, which number was thought to be insufficient. Therefore one 
of the 3 companies was immediately detailed by lot and the one, upon which the lot fell, was 
ordered to be ready for embarcation the next Sunday after divine service, under a penalty of 50 
guilders ; but if anybody was fiiinthearted or afraid, then he might find a substitute or be free 
upon payment of the fine, provided he declared himself on the spot. A sense of honor and shame 
compelled all to be silent. Meanwhile some provisions, ammunition and other necessaries were 
brought on board of the yachts on that day and the following Saturday. On Sunday evening 
after the last sermon the aforesaid company of citizens, numbering about one hundred, embarked 
with the few officers and clerks and train-men, to whom came late in the evening 24 or 26 English- 
men and hardly as many savages from Long- Island^ our friends, who embarked the next morning. 
We sailed on the 6'" Monday about noon, the wind not being quite favorable at first, arrived off 
the Esopus Kil on the 10"", when the contrary wind and tide did not allow us to run into the Kil 
and land at the usual place. We had to land about a quarter of a mile below the Kil in order not 
to lose any time and not to show any discouragement. The men got ashore at about noon and 
marched immediately up to the settlement, — a march of about one hour and a half from the strand 
— -a day and a half before the savages had left, after having made continual attacks and assaults 
upon the settlement the previous night ; our people had had one man killed and 5 or 6 wounded, 
the number of the killed and wounded among the savages is as yet not known. The savages had 
besieged and surrounded the place during 23 days, fired with brand-arrows one dwelling-house 
and four grain stacks. After thanking the Lord and providing the place with powder, lead, medi- 
cines and other necessaries we left again with the citizens, the Englishmen and the savages the 
next d.ay towards evening, seeing no advantage could be gained from a pursuit of the savages, who 
had been gone now 2 or 2J days, because the land on the Esojnis was inundated and covered with 
nearly 5 feet of water in consequence of a heavy rain, which fell about the time, -when the savages 

126 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

left. How far and where the Esopus savages had retired during the time of 3 or 4 days, may be 
seen from the postscript to the letter marked — . 

Right honorable Gentlemen ! Against my intention I have enlarged greatly in this report, 
especially on the circumstances attending to the assembling of the men, only to inform your Hon- 
ors with perfect truth, how difficult it would be to get any courageous men out of the community 
here and how dangerous it is for an officer, who has some regard for his oath, honor and duty, to 
go into the field with such men. I am almost ashamed to write, that at our departure, while the 
whole company of citizens could not be embarked all at once and half of it or more had to wait, 
until the first were on board, the sentries and outposts created an alarm by discharging their pieces 
2 or 3 times at the noise, made by a dog, as we found afterwards, whereupon many of the citizens 
took to the water, before they had seen any enemy. I tell this here only, that your Honors may 
form a correct idea of the present distress and situation of the country and may not allow the main- 
tenance and protection of the country to depend on the body of citizens. 

* * » * * * 

We wrote your Honors detailedly in our letter of the 4"' of September of the pretexts of some 
English emissaries, to begin a village or settlement on this Northriver near the Wappinglis Kil ; 
we have since been further informed, (as your Honors may see by the enclosure marked AA, 
which is a letter from the General Committee of the 4 English Colonies* and our short provisional 
reply), that their aim goes farther, as they intend to settle above, near or back of Eort Orange, 
without doubt to ruin and cut o£E our beaver-trade, as they have done, now 23 or 24 j'ears ago, at 
the house, the Hojye on the Eresh river. * * * * 


(This letter was sent to the Directors under corcr to Mr. Edward Man, merchant at Amsterdam.) 

Letter from Ensign Smith to Director Stuyvesant ; an armistice concluded 
WITH THE Esopus Indians. 

The first of November 1659, at the Esopus. 

Noble, Worshipful, Wise and Prudent Sir . 
Honorable Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant. 

I beg to inform your Excy. herewith, that I received a letter from the Hon'''* Mr. Lamontagne 
on the 26"" of October by two Mahikanders. We learned from this letter, that your Excy. had 
written to Mr. Lmnontagne, we should make an armistice with the savages, if possible, which 
directions his Honor gave us. The two aforesaid savages brought with them 2 small strings of 
wampum from the Maquaas, one string from the Mahikanders, also from the Katskils 5 fathoms 
of wampum as an offering of peace and armistice with the Esopus savages. The aforesaid savages 
brought with them also an offering to the Esopus savages, to make them agree to an armistice with 
us and the two Mahikanders have been with the Esopus for 5 days and on the first of this month 
they came back to us and brought witii them 2 prisoners, a soldier and a free man. The soldier's 
name is Pieter Lamertzen and that of the free man Peter Hillebrantzen and some Sachems came 

* See Records of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, Vol. IV, Part 1, p. 395, and Records of Plymouth Colony, 
Acts of the Commissioners of the United Colonies of New England, Vol. X, p. 230. — Ed. 

New Ywh Historical Records. 127 

wUlh tJie prisoners. The Sachems came at the instance of the Ma<piaas, Mahihanders and Kats- 
kils, to ask us for an arrnistice, to which we agreed for as long a time as it shall please the Hon'''" 
General. Tlien tlie savages told us, that we might till our lands and sow again and do every- 
thing, as we had done it before this. But we are nevertheless on our guard and expect the lion'"''' 
General, as do also the savages. Herewith closing 1 commend your Excy. to the protection of the 

Your Excy's humble servant 

DiRCK Smith, Ensign. 
To His Noble Honor 

Petrus Stuyvesant 

at the Manathans. 

(Ensign Smith wrote a letter of the same tenor to Vice-Director Lamontague at Fort Orange (Albany) on the 
same day, for which see N. Y. Col. MSS., Vol. XIII, f. 53.) 

Letter from Ensign Smith to Vice-Director Lamontagne at Fort Orange: 
progress of affairs at e^opos. 

The 13'" November 1659 

Honorable Worshipful Sir. 
Honorable Director Lamontagne ! 

I beg to inform your Honor herewith, that I have received a letter dated the 2P' of last 
month, as well as that I have received to-day a letter dated by your Honor the 10"" of November, 
l)ut the bearer hereof, Nietonnoret, Sachem of the Mahikanders, would then not wait so long, that 
^ve could write to your Honor, but he engaged another savage to carry the letters the next day, 
but the savage never came to fetch tlie letters and we hehave ourselves as friends hut they show 
tliemselves as rascals ; it is true, we have got back 2 prisoners, but they keep the boy yet and have 
killed all the others ; it is true, we have made an armistice with them, hut none of the pnncipal 
Sachems have heen present. We respectfully request, that a yacht may come here and that she 
fire 3 or 4 signal shots, when we will come to the strand with a guard. We have been twice on 
the strand with soldiers, but did not discover any 3'^aclits, which astonishes us much and I request 
your Honor, that His Honor the General may be informed of this letter and v^e wish, it were other- 
wise, than what our condition now is. Closing I commend your Honor to God's protection. 

Your Honor's humble servant 

DiRCK Schmidt, Ensign 
To the Honorable Mr. Lamontagne 
Commander at 

Fort Orange. 

Minutes of the Court of Fort Orange. Extraordinary Session Novbr 18^" 
1659 TO consider a letter, received from the Director-General. 

The Hon'''* Members of both the Courts met to consider a letter from the Hon""^ Gen- 
eral to the Courts dated the 12"' 9""", in which the General speaks of retaining the Esopus savages. 

128 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

About this matter we are still uncertain. As to speaking with the Katskils and Mahicanders, vre 
have come to the conclusion after due deliberation, that it is not necessary, as we do not know, 
whether his Honor the General shall be able to carry out his plan, pursuant to his letter, for in 
case the General could come to the desired agreement with the savages, as he writes, then it would 
be unnecessary to exehide the Esojpus savages from the llahihanders and Katskils at this time. 
But as soon as we learu, that any fighting has been going on at the Esopus, we shall speak with 
the said savages. 

By order of both the Courts. 

Johannes Peovoost, Clerk. 

Letter from Dikector Stutvesant (in his own HANDWErriNo) to Ensign Smith 
AT the.Esopus: instructions for the treatment of the Indians and orders 
to capture if possible 12 OR 15 OF them and keep them as hostages. 

Monsieur Ensign. 

As the bearer, Derek StniJ,t, intends yet to make the trip to the Esoj)us, although it is uncer- 
tain, whether the weather will permit the voyage, we did not like to lose the opportunity to send 
you directions for the officers of the Company and the freemen, all according to the enclosed list, 
besides to recommend to you, what you have been told by the Honorable Director, namely to treat 
the savages as fair as possible until a better opportunity comes and to trade with them now and 
then for maize and venison, when they come themselves and desire it * * ? and to give them 
some goods in return ; but meanwhile you must be well on your guard and not allow the savages 
to see or get information of the strength of the garrison ; you must therefore not let them come 
farther into the fort, than Thomas Chambers'' house between the pallisades and allow them as little 
communication and conversation with the free people, as in any way possible and if it should hap- 
pen, that some should remain in Thomas Chambers'' house on account of bad weather, in such a 
case you must remain there yourself and place there some other competent person, who understands 
the language of the savages, so that no conversation can be held between the savages and our 
people without your knowledge. 

As to the order, left with you at the departure of the Hon'''* General, to keep some savages in 
the fort, we still wish it carried into effect, but agreeable to the verbal instructions you must pro- 
ceed herein with caution, when you can persuade 12, 15 or 20 together to come, for it would not 
be worth while to begin with some 5 or 6. 

We would further consider it advisable, not to carry out this project, until the river is open 
again, unless it should suit you to make immediately on the evening after the capture of the savages 
a sally and attack the nearest village of the savages : we must defer herein to your own discretion. 
We hope to send you, as soon as the river opens, some more troops for assistance. You must 
above all keep this order secret and promote as much as possible the threshing of the grain for the 
11"> December 1659. 

New Yoi-h HistoiHcal Records. 129 

Letter EEOJt Ensign Ssiitii to Director Stuyvesant; reports the progress of 


The 1?" X*"'% from the Esopus. 

Noble, Worshipful, "Wise and Prudent Sir! 
Honorable Director-General of New-Netherland. 

I beg to inform your Excy., that we have had a talk with the savages on the 12"' and 14'" 
inst. and we reproached them for not coming to his Honor, the General, when your Honor was 
here. Whereupon they answered, they were afraid of his Honor and dare not come near his 
Honor and the savages make great promises now, that they would like to be friends with us and 
do harm to no one and we too gave them good words and treated them friendly : they promised to 
bring us maize in exchange for cloth, but they did not come. I have received 3 letters from your 
Honor and a fourth, which I shall do my best to send to Fort Orange. I have read the contents 
of the letter marlced DC and will keep it safe, as directed, if your Honor will trust me and I hope, 
it will go. Regarding the letter about the wheat, which is due to your Honor for the cloth, I 
shall forward as much as possible. I send your Honor the probable measure (? loop-radeii). I 
have received 1 piece of linen from skipper Dirck Vetsen with some buttons and •! kettles, and 
the Honorable General will please to excuse me, as we have no time to M'rite more, for the yacht 
must depart directly and I wish a happy New-Year to the Hon''"' General and your Excy"* whole 

Your servant 

Dirck Smidt, Ensign. 

In regard to the remaining bags, of which the Hon"''^ Secretary writes, I have made inquiries, 
but could learn nothing of theni nor what had become of them : but I shall continue to do my best. 

To the Honorable Director-General 
Petnis Sttoyvesajit 

at the Manatlians. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Director Stittvesant : 
English settlements on the Northriver must be prevented : Rev. Harmanus 
Bloem returns to New-Netherland. 22" Decbr. 1659 received 5^" April 1660. 

Thus far in answer to your Honors' first letter of the 23* of July ; we now come to the sub- 
sequent letters of the 4"" 16'" and 17'" September, in which the principal topic is the distressing 
condition and decline of the City's Colony* ; as we have replied to this in our last, we shall pass 
it over here and come to the one, which follows, that is the inclination of and the efforts made by 
the English^ to form a settlement on the Northr'wer near the Wappinghskil ; we judge the reasons 
To prevent the En- and difficulties, Stated by your Honors regarding this, worth consideration; also 
fandson"the''North ^^^'^ advice, to anticipate this nation: therefore their coming in and settling 
river. must above all be prevented and hindered by whatever means it can be done with- 


New Amstel, now New-Castle, Del. See Col. Doc., Vol. XII. — Ed. 

130 Colonial Settlements on the Hudaon River. 

out difficulty, as there is no other passage to that place, than along the Northriver. The English 
government here in this country is, we believe, not in a position to care for or trouble itself about 
N. B. such affairs and illegal usurjjations in foreign countries, we are nevertheless glad to 

hear of your Honors' intention to buy the land in that neighborhood in order to make our right 
indisputable and thus to avoid all further cavilling as much as possible, for they often make won- 
derful claims elsewhere, which cause here great troubles and dissatisfaction. "We shall not rest in 
the meantime, but make efforts, to get some farmers, (for whose accommodation farming implements 
are going over now) towards spring, for which we shall also call upon the Polish nobleman Lodeni 
Bachio'* and others for help and assistance, that hencefortli the expenses, which the Company 
incurs in bringing over such people, may become a source of profit. "We intend also to look about 
for some young fellows of 15, 16 or more years, whom we shall not be afraid of sending over at a 
monthly salary of 4 guilders, trusting tliat they will be in demand and may be employed in pro- 
moting agriculture. In tiiat case the masters, who shall hire them, must refund to the Company 
the sums advanced for the passage and handsel of the boys, farmers and farm laborers. Close 
attention must be paid to tlieir conduct and work : the indolent must be compelled to work, for it 
is at least their duty to repay by their labor the sums advanced to them. You will make such 
regulations in this matter, as yon will deem best for the welfare of the Company and the com- 

We have heard with deep regret, that the savages have again murdered six Christians there : 
Separate habita- as this Can Only be prevented by the concentration of the separate dwellings, the 
,tgj people must, necessarily, be compelled to submit to it as a measure, founded upon 

sound political reasons and adopted for the benefit and preservation of the community. Meanwhile 
you must endeavor to obtain possession of the murderers or at least of some members of their tribe, 
which, we think, would serve to get hold of the others by means of threats : or else you must 
Murders ot Chris- punisli the iunoccnt, in the hope of checking these barbarous tribes. You ought 

lians not to be . , , i r /-n • • i • ■ i 

compounded, but xmdcr no circumstanccs settle such murders or Christians by composition, but 
the murderers or rather take the chance to fall upon them tooth and nail. For this purpose we 

others of the tribe . • i i i • i i n , • • n i i i 

to be punished. provide you With the desired saddles and ammunition ot war, as the enclosed 
invoices show, so that you ma}'^ make use of them upon this or other occasions. 
D» Biom engaged. At your Ilonors' recommendation we have engaged here D" Ilarmanus Blom 

who now goes there as preacher at a yearly salary of 600 guilders, the balance up to 1000 or 1200 
guilders, which is to be raised by the community, must not be counted and paid to him by them, 
but by your Honors, as chief-magistrates, for reasons, Avhich your Honors will easily comprehend ; 
the proper manner, in which tliis is to be carried out, is left to your Honors' judgment. 

Extract feom a letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland : A-rrrrnDE 


-» -:;- « * * * 

In regard to matters with the savages here and at the Esopus : they have done little since 

* The war carried on successfully at this period by King Frederic of Denmark, with the assistance of the 
Dutch, against Charles Gustavus of Sweden and Poland, seems to have brought the Dutch into closer connection 
with Poland and put this notion into the heads of the Directors. — Ed. 

jSfew Yorh Historical Records. 131 

our last, apparently and without doubt hindered and kept back by the unfavorableness of the win- 
ter ; they cannot be trusted however, which makes us keep on our guard, draw in the separate 
dwellings and surround tiie distant Dutch, villages with pallisades ; we have not been able to come 
to a conference with tlie Esopus savages, as is shown by the written report of the Hon"'" Director- 
General under letter H. Meanwhile other savages, who are at present our apjjarent friends, inform 
and warn us, that the Esopus are decidedly bent on war ; they solicit urgently help and alliance 
from other tribes ; the separate bouweries of the Colony of Renselaerswyck and the imminent lack 
of bread stuif, in case it should be destroyed or fired, before the grain was threshed, compel us to 
abstain from hostilities against the Esopus savages and their allies for the present and to await a 
better and more suitable time, which your Honors may find in detail in the aforesaid written report 
and the copy of a letter on this subject sent by the Hon'''^ General to the authorities of Eort 
Orange and the Colony of Renselaerswyck, here annexed under lit. I. On- c more we request 
your Honors respectfully, to consider quickly and timely their own interests, the preservation of 
the country and the safety and welfare of the inhabitants and send us over such orders and means, 
as the enclosed list calls for or as your Honors shall deem necessary and serviceable in their wonted 
wisdom and far-seeing observation. There is no question, that if the countryman in a new country 
cannot plough, sow and harvest without being molested, or the citizen and trader may not travel 
unhindered on streams and ri\'ers, they will both leave and transport themselves to such a govern- 
ment and dwelling places, where they shall be better protected. 

Letter from Ensign Smith to Director Lamontagne on affairs at Esofus. 

The 28''' X"" 1659, at Esopus. 

Noble, Worshipful, "Wise ana Prudent, 
Honorable Mr. De Lamontagne. 

I beg to inform your Honor, that his Honor the General has Deen here on the 28"" of Novem- 
ber and that he has taken away the grain which had been threshed and he went off on the 3d X''". 
On the 16"' X'""' a yacht from the Manathans arrived here, by which I received several letters 
from the Hon*''' General, also a letter to the Court of Fort Orange, which I could not dispatch 
sooner than by the bearer hereof: and after the departure of the yacht several savages have been 
here and they brought with them 2 deer and 2 or 3 turkeys, for which we traded with them and 
we treated them friendly and his Honor the General desired to have a letter sent to your Honor, 
but I had no chance to forward it and I have received your Honor's letter on the 27"' X''" and 
understand, that your Honor's letter was to be sent to the Menates, but after the departure of the 
Hon'"'' General nothing of importance has occurred here, of which I could make a special report to 
his Honor, except that 7 or 8 savages have been here. We remain however watchful, as we have 
been before. I wish a happy New- Year to your Honor and whole family and remain 

Your Honor's faithful servant 
To His Honor DutcK Smith, Ensign. 

Mr. De Lamontagne 
Connnander at 
Eort Oranqe. 

132 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Letter fkom the same to Director Stuyvesant, on affairs at Esopus. 
The 2S"' X"" 1659, at ^sojms. 

Noble, Honorable, Wise and Prudent Sir, 
Honorable Director-General of Beio-NetJierland. 

I beg to inform yonr Excy, that I received to-day by a Maquaas a letter from the Hon*'* 
Montague at Fort Orange and that I have forwarded the letter, destined for the Court at Fort 
Orange, by the same Maquaas. I further inform your Honor of the condition of Fsojms. After 
the departure of the last yacht of D'^rck Schmidt on the IS"* or 19"' X''"', we have talked with the 
savages and they promised to come again to supply us with meat and corn, which they did the 
next day with 2 deer and 2 or 3 turkeys. Our people bought them for wampum and traded one 
turkey for a small box full of powder, upon which they insisted eagerly, apparently to disco^'er, 
whetlier we were well intentioned or not and when they had received the small box of powder they 
said, we were now good, and promised to come henceforth every day with Indian corn, but they staid 
away and forgot to return and the savages still live at their places and we hope by the help of God 
Almighty to lead them with good words and inducements until the proper occasion, which the 
spring will indicate with God's help and I and my men are still thrifty and in good health and I 
expect the gi-ain, of which your Honor has written ; I shall do ray best to get it together for j'our 
Honor's cloth. As to the missing bags, I have got back three of them and shall look about for 
the rest. I do not know to write any more to j^our Honor this time, but to wish a happy New- 
Year to your Excy. and the whole family and remain 

Your Excellency's humble servant 

DiECK Smit, Ensign. 

To the Nolile, "Worshipful, Wise and Prudent, His Honor Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-Gen- 
eral of New-Netherland at the Manathans. 

Letter from Abraham Staas of Beaverwyck (Albany) to Director Stuyvesant : 
DisposmoN OF the Esopds Indians; the Mohawks promise to make peace with 
the Canada Indians. 

Honorable, Valiant Sir. 

Sir! Besides wishing happiness, prosperity and good success in the New- Year, these few lines 
are only to inform you, that since the departure of the last yachts nothing special has occurred, 
which is worth while the writing, except that the Esopus savages keep very cpyet now, but some 
well-known Mahikanders say, that they do so, in order to carry out their intentions so much 
better and are watching for the chance of a surprise, when the Dut^h will not expect it and then 
to kill every body, whom they can. They have also stated to the aforesaid Mahikanders in plain 
words, that they would not allow the Dutch to live any longer on the Esopus, only one house on 
the bank of tlie Kil close to the river for their own convenience, to get some necessaries for their 
own use. The Maquaes keep away from the Esopus savages at present, they have not been there 
at all and say, that they mostly go out to catch beavers. It is also asserted, that the Slnnehes are 

New Yorh HUtorical Records. l;^3 

at war with the Minquaes and River Indians at the South.* As to the coming of the French, 
whom the Maquaes have expected so long, it is again all quiet now. They say, they will bring 
back to Canada the French prisoners in the sj)ring and then make a solid peace witli the French. 
We are all in good health for which God the Almighty be praised and thanked for His mercy. 
We hope from the bottom of our hearts to hear the same in regard to your Hon'^'" Worship, which 
would please us very sincerely. Closing herewith T commend your Hon''''^ Worship and family to 
the protection of the Almighty with our cordial greetings. 

I am and remain Your Honor's humble subject and very obedient 
Seaverwych Abeam Staas. 

16'" January A° 1660. 

To the Honorable, Valiant, Rigorous His Honor Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General of N. 
Netherland, Curacao and the islands thereof at Fort Amsterdam. 

Letter from Vice-Director Lamontagne at Fort Orange (Albany) to Director 
Stuyvesant : reporting progress of the affairs at Esopus. 

Honorable, "\"aliant and Worshipful Sir. 

It having been reported by several savages that the Dutch on the Fsopus had attacked the 
Fsqpus savages, killed and captured many of them, among whom three Sachems, I was induced, 
(in order to ascertain the truth) to send a Maquaes there on the 23 X*"" last past, with a letter to 
the Ensign. This savage arrived here on the S*" instant, bringing an answer from the said Ensign, 
which is here inclosed, as well as the copy of my letter. The said savage brought among other 
letters one from the Hon*"' General, directed to both the courts, which I communicated to them 
immediately. After they had read it, they were greatly astonished on account of the rascality of 
\X\Q Maquaes, called Adoquatho, who was sent by them to j'our Honor; but they presume that 
the interpreter, whom your Honor employed at the Esopus, could not understand this savage quite 
well and that, as it is very probable, the Maquaes had told him, what he had said here, to cause 
a continuation of the alliance, namely, that the Maquaas and the Dutch were brothers and bound 
by one chain since a long time : if this chain were broken, they would all be very much distressed 
and weep like children. Hearing however that the said savage has arrived here or in the Maquaas 
country, we shall examine him in regard to this matter, as your Honor will see by the answers of 
the two courts, here enclosed. 

We hear so far nothing bad of the savages, they behave themselves more civil and modest, 
than they have done formerly. Expecting your Honor's answer I remain 

Your Hon"'" Worship's humble 
At Fort Orange and obedient servant 

16"" January A" 1660. Lamontagne. 

To the Honorable, Valiant and Worshipful, His Honor Petrus Stuyvesant Director-Gen' and 
Council of iV. Netherland at Foi't Amsterdam. 

* See Vol. XII. 

134 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Letter from Ensign Smh'h at Esopus to Director Stuyvesant: ague preva- 
lent: HEAVY snow-storms. 

The 19'" of January 1660, at Eaopus. 

. Noble, "Worshipful, "Wise and Prudent Sir. 
Honorable Director-General of New-Netherland, 
Petrus Stuyvesani. 
I beg to inform your Excy. that on the SS"" of December a Maq^iam from Fort Orange sent 
by his Honor Lamontagne has been here, to whom I have given the letter, intended for the magis- 
trates there, and I have also given him a letter, intended for the Hon'''* General, but I believe, 
that your Honor shall receive the one by this savage first and I have received no letter by this 
savage from his Honor Montagne. So much snow has fallen at present, that we cannot make the 
savages travel. Once a while a savage comes here, but they bring nothing and we treat them with 
gi-eat kindness, as well as we can. As to our people, they are in fairly good health, only fever 
begins to trouble them here and there and the Ensign has also the fever and Cadet Ilendrick Tett- 
nissen from Suytloh died of a severe rupture on the 4"' of January and I do not know to write 
anything special this time, than to commend your Excy. and his whole family to the Lord and we 
remain constantly on our guard as we have done formerly, for the savages hereabout cannot be 
trusted and I remain your Excy's faithful servant 

DiRCK SMrr, Ensign. 

To the Noble, Worshipful, Wise and Prudent His Honor the Director-General of New-Neth- 
erland Petrus Stuyvesani at the 



Honorable, Valiant Sir: 

Your favors of the 28"' of December and 19"" of January have been duly received on the 26"" 
inst. through the savage, who brings this. As since our last of the ll"" December no or only 
slight changes have taken place here and on the Esopus., therefore we refer to our former letter 
and repeat again the orders, which we then gave you, namely, to be as civil and outwai'dly kind as 
possible towards the savages and to accommodate them occasionally with goods in exchange for 
maize and venison, when they come to ask for it, even now and then (to deprive them of all sus- 
picions) with half a pound or a pound of powder and some lead, but you must be, above all, upon 
your guard and not allow the savages to see or get information of the strength of the garrison. 

As to the further orders, given you before this, to inveigle some savages into the fort, when 
occasion offers and keep them there, that must be carried out with special caution. I consider it 
expedient, not to attempt it sooner, than when the sloops begin again to sail and when we can assist 
you from here with men, provisions and ammunition of war, unless, as I said in my former letter, 
you believe yourselves sufficiently strong, to make, directly after taking them, an attack on the 
nearest village of the savages, M'hicli we must leave to your own discretion. 

We hope and wish, that at the receipt of this letter you and your men will again be fresh and 

New York Historical Records. 135 

in good liealth, nieaiiwliile we coiiiniend you all to the protection of God and remain with our 

Honorable, Valiant Sir, 
29"* January 1660. Your affectionate friends. 

Lettkk from Ensign Smith at Esopus to Vice-Dieector Lamontagne at Fort 
Orange (Albany) : condition of affaiks at his post : his garrison 70 men. 

The 5'" of February 1660, at Esopus. 

Honorable, Worshipful and Prudent Sir. 

Honorable Mr. DehiTnontagne. I inform your Honor, that this savage an-ived here from the 
Manathcs on the 4"" inst. and he has brought me a letter from the Hon"'" General. I could not 
omit to inform your Honor by this opportunity, that everything here has remained in the state, in 
which it was before and now and then a few savages come here, but we do not trust them far nor 
they us and we show them much kindness, as directed by the General. I speak fair to them, that 
they shall bring us some venison or maize, but they bring us little and our storehouse is not well 
provided with bacon and meat for 70 men, but we hope, that with a change of the weather we 
shall receive sufficient victuals. I do not know of anything more to write to your Honor this time, 
except that we are constantly on our guard as formerly and commend your Honor to the protection 
of the Almighty and remain your Honor's 

Humble servant 

DiRCK Smitt Ensign. 

To the Honorable, Woi"shipful, Wise and Prudent His Honor Delariiontagiie, Commander at 
Fort Orange. 

Proposals of Director Stuyvesant kespecting the measures to be adopted 
against the hostile Indians at the Esopus and answers of the Council to 

Propositions made to the Honorable 
Council and the Burgomasters of this 
Honorable Gentlemen. 

Nobody, unless he be a stranger or a new arrival in New-Netherland, can be ignorant of the 
injuries, massacres and murders, which the savage barbarians, natives of this country, have from 
time to time committed and inflicted, contrary to the treaty of peace made and several times 
renewed and their fair promises, upon the Dutch Colonists and inhabitants of this newly opened 
province, not to mention the murders in the time of the Honorable Mr. Kieft and the dreadful 
massacre in our time in the year 1655, during which about 50 to 60 were slaughtered and killed 
mostly in cold blood, besides that about one hundred souls were taken prisoners, whom we had to 
ransom from the barbarians' hands at a high price. 

More than 20 Christians have been unexpectedly killed at different times and places in and 
about their houses and isolated dwellings during the twelve years of our administration. 

136 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

It is too dreadful and unbearable for a nation; loving honor and liberty and delivered by the 
blessing of God from Spanish tyranny and inc^uisition ; Your Honors are aware of what has passed 
and been done to the inhabitants of the Etsopus by the barbarians and it is therefore unnecessary, 
as it is still fresh in your memories, to trouble your Honors with details, while in my present prop- 
ositions I have no intention to demonstrate by a tedious relation what has passed, how we have 
fallen into this abyss but how we may get out of it with the least expense and the most honor, 
how for the greater safety of our good inhabitants, honor to our nation and the public welfare 
such murders and massacres may in future be prevented as much as possible, for which I first desire 
your Honors' good advice and then faithful assistance. 

The boldness of the Esopus Indians, first in capturing 12 or 13 well-armed farmers and sol- 
diei's, in the actual siege of and attack on the well-pallisadoed settlement, the fearful murder of 
the greater part of the aforesaid 'jjrisoners, contrary to promises and after receiving and keeping 
the offered ransom, is, with submission to better reason and Aviser judgment, too ignominious and 
unbearable for an honor and liberty loving nation and it is therefore my opinion, in consideration 
.of the suffered injuries and the restoration of the almost ruined Batavian reputation (as one sav- 
age considers himself now as good as two Dutchmen) and on accoimt of the fertility of the lands 
(directly ready for the plough without roding of trees or bushes and settled with 2 or 3 villages, 
each of 20 to 24 families, which according to the convenience of the place are able and capable 
each to produce every year as much grain, as all the Dutch and English villages in New-Netlt/- 
erland together are as yet able to produce) that it is necessary to make war on the Esopus Indians, 
using all imaginable means to get the advantage of them and to kaxxj it on against them as vigor- 
ously as possible; when, with what forces and means, thereto my propositions demand your Hon- 
ors' consent or better advice and judgment. 

After calling iipon God for his assistance and blessing, and confessing our sins, which are the 
causes of all general punishments and obstacles to all desirable results, the following considerations 
and means would be necessarily required thereto. 

We are credibly informed by verbal and written reports of the continued sinister and deceitful 
intention of the aforesaid Esopus barbarians to make peace with us and to be in readiness for a 
blow and attack our people unexpectedly, when they are in their fields, while some even dare to 
say, they would have no Dutch on the Esopus, except one house on the bank of the Kil, to provide 
them with the necessary commodities. 

As violence is encountered by violence, so cunning may be opposed by cunning and the enemy, 
desiring to make only a pretended peace, may be diverted, allured and entrapped with so much 
more justice, as we have painful proofs of their deceit and credible reports of their falseness and 
of the miirders committed by them imder the pretext of peace. 

I beHeve, submitting however to wiser judgment and better information, that a diversion is 
necessary and under cover of it an expedition, which must be entrusted to but few, whether suc- 
cessful or not ; then we nmst make war and carry it on first against the Esopus tribe alone in their 
dwelling places and wherever they may retreat to. 

To begin this, according to human ideas the sooner the better, with God's help and blessing, 
140 to 150 resolute men, soldiers as well as volunteers, would be required and necessary for the 
first attack, besides 20 to 30 to remain in the settlements. The greatest difficulty is, where to get 
these from. 

It is true, the Hon''''' Company has in its service in this province about 200 men and more, but 
your Honors know well, that they are scattered here and there according to the situation and the 
unavoidable demands of the country, so thr.t we cannot get together, ]iere and at the Esopus, more 

Neto Yorh Historical liecurJs. 137 

than 120 men and although -we could make up the number for the expedition against the Jll'oj?us 
Indians, it is, in raj judgment, considering late trials, not advisable thus to deprive at once this 
and other places of their garrisons, so that upon one or the other occasion we would have no sol- 
diers immediately ready. The troubles and difficulties, M'liich we have had to get some men for 
the relief of our people on the Esojyus, when the Hon''"' Company's soldiers had been sent to the 
Southriver, are of a late date and well known to your Honors all, which relief would been given 
easier, sooner and with less trouble, if we had had a moderate number of soldiers at hand. 

For this reason it is necessary, to prevent in future such inconveniences, that these principal 
places, at least this island remain garrisoned by 50 or 60 soldiers, so that in case of a disastrous 
rencontre, fresh succor might be sent to the Esojjus or in case of more and other savages rising, the 
villages on Long-Idcuid and elsewhere might speedily be succored, before the country and the 
fields are deserted to the great disadvantage of the inhabitants. Therefore I believe it is necessary, 
to enlist, if possible, GO or 70 soldiers more, without distinction as to nationality, at least for the 
time and until we receive assistance from the Fatherland by fresh recruits, for it is, according to 
my poor judgment, best and most expedient, to resent the affronts, done to us, by making with all 
possible force and means an aggressive war first against the Esojpus Indians and afterwards against 
those who may have assisted or countenanced them. 

To restore the almost ruined glory of the Dutch nation, to hope for an early success by force 
of arms and freedom for the open coimtry, instead of ruining ourselves, burdened for the sake 
of defense with so much soldiery and expecting and waiting for an vmcertain improvement of 
savage barbarous tribes, not fettered by any form of government or laws or divine service. 

That all this might be continued and carried out with some expectation of success, the fol- 
lowing propositions are referred to your Honors' better judgment and information. 
1. Not to engage ourselves too far, before we do not see a prospect of success against the Esojnis 
savages and are assisted from the Fatherland. My advice would be to overlook the suffered inju- 
ries, especially the murders lately committed at MespatJikil and to keep the savages about here 
as quiet as possible and to renew the peace with them upon as fair and conciliatory conditions as 
possible, until they give the slightest provocation. It is notorious and everybody knows from 
experience that the murders and massacres committed on Christians in this vicinity fi'oni time to 
time have been the result of the isolated habitations and have never happened, where 10 or 13 
persons have dwelt together in a kind of village, which to prevent as much as possible in future, 
it is necessary to renew and execute the well-intentioned order of the Lords-Directors and the 
placat, resulting therefrom, of the Director-General and Council, to discountenance all separate 
liabitations and farm-buildings as well on Loncj-lsland as at other places, to exhort and if possible 
give some assistance to these people and encourage them to live together in villages or form new 
settlements on the most suitable and best places and secure the same, further to prohibit by post- 
ers and warn the Indians, that they must in future not come into or near such villages with their 
arms, under penalty of losing them. 

3. It cannot be doubted, that, if the farmer should be compelled to leave his village and fields or 
run considerable risk to have his horses and cattle killed in the open country, which cannot be 
kept in the stables and witliin the villages during the summer, very pernicious inconveniences, as 
poverty, famine and finally desolation and complete abandoning would be the consequences. To 
prevent this as far as possible, it is not only necessary to keep the beforementioned reserve-detach- 
ment of about 60 to 70 soldiers here and in the neighborhood, besides those, who are required for an 
aggressive war on the Esopus, but also to have a mounted guard, to patrol and make rounds on this 

138 ' Colonial SettleTnents on the Hudson Hiver. 

and on Long-Island, in the neighborhood of the villages and settlements now and then for the, if 
possible, better j)rotection of the animals and laborers, who have to plough, sow, mow and work 
outside of the villages every day ; the following propositions may answer, to execute this so mucli 
better and with the least inconvenience. 

We must consider, that as long as the state of the open country is so unsafe and as many will 
be comjielled to leave their habitations and fields, the inhabitants of the villages and hamlets as 
well as of pallisadoed settlements will be very unwilling, many even unable to raise the tithes now 
due, of whicii as yet very little has been paid and very little may be expected for the present : also 
■whether (in order to have ready in an emergency, besides the before required force as foundation, 
some more troops, footsoldiers as well as horsemen) we shall propose to the magistrates and inhab- 
itants of the villages an exemption from tithes for a period of 5 or 6 years, provided that each 
keep in readiness 6, 8 or 10 men, according to their situation, subject to the command of the 
Director-General and Council, either for attack or for defense, as the necessity and the situation of 
the country may require, even if we had to promise them proper pay in case of an aggressive war 
and relief and indemnification according to the articles of war, if the service in the active troops 
was prolonged. 

5. Whereas the mounted service, necessary for the abovementioned reasons, but also more expens- 
ive, requires more incentive and encouragement, I am of opinion, that it is necessary to keep with 
the foot-militia, a few horsemen, at first 12, 16 or 18, and in order to incite others, to establish a 
general stable and provide this during the winter with fodder and 25 schepels of oats for each 
horse, the balance at the charge of those who desire to keep there a good and suitable horse, to be 
used in the public service, if necessity required it : if such a horse be shot in an attack from our 
side, one-half of its loss shall be borne by the commonwealth, the other half by the owner, in whose 
option it shall be, to do service in person, to put another suitable person on it or to let one be 
chosen by the Director-General and Council, on condition that during an aggressive expedition he 
shall draw pay like the regular horsemen of the lion""' Company. Done at Fort Amsterdam in 
New-jSietherland, the 9"" February A° 1660. 

The foregoing propositions were read in the meeting of the Honorable Council and the Bur- 
gomasters of this City by the Right Plonorable Director-General and a copy thereof was handed 
to each of them, that they might deliver their advice upon them at the next meeting or sooner. 
Date as above. 

Answer of the Honorable Nicasius de Sille 
12"' February 1660. to the propositions of the Eight Hon""' Di- 

rector-General, written by himself. 

On the first proposition de Sille agrees with the opinion of the Hon''"' General, adding how- 
ever that no mention ought to be made of it, before we shall have heard the result of Oncques' 

As to the second, he thinks well of it and the sooner the better, that nobody of the scattered 
settlers shall be indulged, but they must be constrained and if necessary assisted to pull down. 

On the third de Sille also agrees with the hon"'" General, but he thinks it is necessary, to keep 
here 100 or more soldiers, so that, in case an alai-m was caused here or there in one or the other vil- 
lage, each place might be assisted with some soldiers ; he thinks it further advisable, to bring together 
a file of horsemen under the command of a good corporal and horseman, to live in or near the 
stable, to watch it and that good fodder is provided at the Company's or the country's e.vpense, of 
which they would have to take good care as well as of the arms and that these might be enlisted 
and employed not only as horsemen, but also as dragoons. 

Neio Yorh Historical Records. 139 

Regarding the fourth, he ■would not find it advisable to remit the tithes for a period, but to 
farm them out and to buy with tue proceeds as niucii corn and long fodder or at least short fodder, 
as it will pay foi', for the horsemen may Mell be told, where to make hay, as there-are about here 
on Long-Island sufficient public meadows and I think, that, if we were to rely on the farmers, 
they would in ease of need or danger do their best to bring away with their own people and horses 
their own property and save their wives and children, instead of defending their villages. 

To the 5"' d^ Sille says, that the cavalry stable must have nothing in common with the stable 
of the volunteers, for then some might think, that the cavalry-men must serve them as servants, 
feed their horses better and take better care of them, than of others, they would spare also their 
own horses and ride every day and overexert the cavalry horses and ruin and break their horse- 
equipments, from whence often quarrels and squabbles would arise. 

The stable of the volunteers must also have a good superintendent, as above said, but no con- 
nexion with the cavalry-stable and then they must be employed, as the Hon''''^ General says. 

The riders or dragoons must be enlisted for cadet's pay and they must go, one fourth of them 
every four days, into the stable, not only to mount guard there for 2i hours, but also to clean all 
the horses and the stable and provide them with water and feed. 

As to the recruiting, to get more men, it seems necessary, that the Swedish sergeant should 
be dispatched by the first opportunity, to go to the Swedish quarter on the Southriver and enlist 
there as many Swedes and Finns, as he can get for our service, for those, who are not fit for sol- 
diers, are fit for peasants and it would cause a reduction of the Swedish quarter, while it would 
strengthen us here.* 

It seems to me further, that, when the report of enlistments being made becomes known among 
the people, a tax of the 40"" penny for assistance of the recruiting and maintenance of the levies 
could easily be levied, also a tax on cattle for the time until a firm peace is made between the bar- 
barians and our nation. Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, date as above. 

NicAsius DE Sille, 


The propositions, made by the Honorable Director-General verbally and in writing in the 
meeting of the 9"" inst. have been seriously considered by me, the undersigned, and I find them 
to contain in substance : 

First, a short relation of the injuries, naassacres and murders conmiitted by the cruel barbarous 
natives against our nation, whereby the legality of making Mar on the Fsojpus Indians, if it is so 
concluded by a majority of votes, is established. 

2* Causes and reasons, why it is necessary to make war on the Fsojnis Indians, of which as 
the most prominent is mentioned, to resent the suffered injuries, then, to restore the almost ruined 
Batavian reputation and further to obtain peaceful possession of the land. 

Thirdly, some propositions as to when to begin, with what forces, how to get the latter and 
how to govern ourselves in regard to the other savages etc''. 

Whereupon, before I give my opinion on the principal point, I consider it necessary, to say 
something by the way on the first, although our advice is requested only regai-ding the second and 
third point. 

I admit willingly, that the injuries, affronts and massacres, committed from time to time by 
these cruel barbarians are imbearable for an honor and liberty loving nation, but, since only the 
question of making war on the Esojnis savages has been raised, I think it is necessary, because we 

* See Vol. XII, p. 297. 

140 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

are at all times responsible to their High Mightinesses, the Lords-States-General and onr Loi'ds- 
Principals, to investigate strictly, not whether the Indians in general, hut whether the Esopus Indi- 
ans have given ns sufficient and legal causes for the war, for we could not justify a wish to punish 
the Esojms Indians for deeds, committed by others. It is said in the propositions, that the boldness 
of the Esopus savages is unbearable (as indeed it is) first in taking prisoners 12 or 13 -well-armed 
farmers and soldiers, in attacking the settlements and further in cruelly executing as they did, most 
of the aforesaid prisoners, but the cause for these their actions has been omitted, to wit, that the 
people there very thoughtlessly and without having any lawful reason for it at the time, attacked 
some of them with an armed force, killed one and took others prisoners. It is true, that the reply 
to this might be, that they therefore ought not have captured so many men, attacked the settle- 
ments and executed the prisoners so cruelly, but to this again it can be sustained for their side and 
with gofid reason, that they could not but presume and know, whether this was not a general design 
of all the inhabitants at the Esopus to kill all the savages ; that they therefore have endeavored to 
inflict all possible damage on their enemies. But, it may be said, besides this, the savages have 
given us still other reasons, namely, by shooting Ilarmen Bamnboes, so that he died shortly after- 
wards, by killing saveral animals and other affronts. What regards the wounding of Harmen 
Ba7nboes, we are told, that it was done by a savage, who does not live among them, but goes here 
and there, yet when the Honorable Director-General went with a party of soldiers to the Esopus 
in May 1658, to demand of them the murderer and at the same time a compensation for the suffered 
damages, the aforesaid savages knew how to make excuses as to the impossibility of apprehending 
the murderer, because he did not live among them, but they promised to make compensation for 
the damage done in burning two little houses and it was further promised on our side, to live with 
them like brothers, as is clearly shown by the report of the Honorable General, dated nlt° June 
1658 and delivered in Council. Since that time not they, but our people have very rashly broken 
the compact ; this I have thought necessary, to remind your Honors of, that above all a close 
inquiry and consideration may be had, whether the above stated causes are sufficient, to base thereon 
the legality of a war, so that if tlie result should be a different one from what we picture it in our 
minds, we may not be justly blamed for having thoughtlessly invoh'cd ourselves into an illegal war. 

Since the condition of the country does at present not admit of making war, as I shall show 
subsequently with more detail, I think, under correction, that it is best to persist on the i-esolution 
adopted on the 26'-'' Octbr last past, namely to try once more to keep the open question and Avar 
in the background and in suspense, yet in order to check and bridle somewhat the savages' bold- 
ness, to make strict arrangements and a compact with them, which if they break, the war and the 
punishment will be so much more justifiable and lawful. Thus far in answer to the first point, 
what follows is meant as an opinion on the second. 

Although the war against the Esopus Indians may be lawful and justifiable (which I do not 
contradict absolutely), I believe, that the present condition of the country does not allow, to create 
a greater loss for the sake of resenting a lesser one. Reasonableness is not always admitted, when 
choosing what appears good. Other savage tribes have certainly given us before this by previous 
massacres and burnings sufficient reasons for prompt revenge, which nevertheless has been deferred 
to better times and opportunities for our advantage ; that now our condition does not adinit it, can 
be inferred, I believe, from the following : 

Your Honors know the pretenses and the right, which our neighbors of Maryland believe to 
have on the Company's indisputable lands on the South river and that they persist in their opin- 
ions, notwithstanding, that your Honors' deputies have demonstrated the contrary to them verb- 
ally and in writing. Your Honors also know what our neighljors on the North have tried and 

Neto Yorh Historical Recards. 141 

will doubtless still further endeavor and attempt to obtain. These cannot wish for a better oppor- 
tunity, if we arc involved into a war with the Indians, to invade, the one on the South river, the 
other on the JYortk river, the territories of the Hon'''" Company ; besides, no reliance can be placed 
on the neighboring savages, who are not bound by any government or laws (even though the peace 
with them might be renewed) and it must be taken into consideration, that though they may not 
openly declare themselves our enemies, they will yet assist each other secretly as much as possible, 
for which instigation from outside will doubtless not be wanting. The answer to this could be, 
that we must guard and provide against all this by recruiting soldiers : this would serve our repu- 
tation, but where shall we get so many men, since in my opinion we require for this purpose not 
only 60 or 70 men, besides the soldiers, M'ho are already in the service, but at least one hundred 
to 150 more: the Honorable Director-General has had an experience of the difficulty of getting 
men here, as not six persons presented themselves in the most pressing necessity for assistance of 
the besieged inhabitants of Esopus, notwithstanding that the drum was beaten for several days. 

I believe, that, humanly speaking, it is impossible to resent the suffered injuries without the 
aforesaid military and, in case of uprisings among other savages or anticipations by our neighbors, 
to be able to resist them and therefore it is decidedly unadvisable to begin anything without it, so 
that we may not instead of restoring the glory of our nation and of obtaining peaceful possession 
of the Esoptis territory, lose them altogether. If however it is decided that the condition of the 
country allows it and that we have sufficient strength to begin the war, then, I think, it ought not 
be commenced before the month of August or September, for the following reasons : 

First, that we may then be able to destroy their corn for the next winter, which we could not 
do if we commence now, because they will doubtless send their women and children inland to one 
or the other unknown nook to plant corn there and gather winter provisions for them. 

Second, because we have at present very little or no provisions on hand for the subsistence of 
so many soldiers, much less to assist either the people from outside, who without doubt will come 
in here from their isolated plantations in great numbers, or our good inhabitants here, who may 
run short of provisions and there is little hope of receiving a quantity of provisions within the 
next time, as the neighbors have little to spare on account of the good market, which they find at 
Barbadoes and other islands. It must be further considered, that our people will not sow much 
and consequently will harvest little, if we begin the war so suddenly, which would by its continu- 
ation create great distress and famine ; therefore it is best to postpone it, until we are supj^lied with 
the required provisions and other necessaries. 

3'"'^ It is not advisable to begin, according to my opinion, until the newly surveyed villages 
and hamlets have been properly fenced in and put in a state of defense, as directed, that the poor 
out-lying farmers may not become the prey of the cruel barbarians. 

4thiy jj]j(j lastly, I think it best to begin in the aforesaid months of August or September not 
only because of the destruction of their corn, as above mentioned, but also because, the winter 
being then at hand, they can be discovered more easily in the woods during the winter by their 
fires or their foot-tracks in the snow, while on the other side during the summer they can subsist 
and so conceal themselves in the tangled shrubs and underwoods, that they are almost indiscover- 
able for our people and nevertheless have a great advantage over us by surprising us unexpectedly 
from hollows and bushes. 

"Whereas, further, we have in our last letter to the Lords-Principals asked for their assistance 
and help, also orders and advice, it is, I think, necessary to wait with an aggressive war, imtil we 
get an answer, unless we desire to lay ourselves open to the reproach of rashness in asking for help 
and advice and meanwhile following our own mind, before it could come. 

142 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Therefore, in order to answer your Honor briefly, my advice (under submission) would be 
according to the aforesaid, that out of consideration for the present condition of the country we 
should try once more to put a stop to the disputes now raised and to tlie war, make a safe and 
bindino- comj^act with the savages and if they again should break this, then to attack them with 
all our might — 

In the meantime directly to disapprove of all separate habitations and farmbuildings and to 
assist and promote the establishment of hamlets as much as possible, either by lending negroes or 
carting out pallisades and further to take care, that 10 or 12 hundred schepels of bread corn and 
other victuals in proportion are continually kept in store either by the Hon'''* Company or the City 
and that all prepartions necessary for a war or a powerful expedition against the savages be made, 
above all to enlist secretly as many soldiers as Ave may get somehow, so that we are immediately 
ready if they should again break the new compact ; but if the said savages are not willing to make 
such a compact, then to make necessitj^ a virtue, enlist and send to the Esopus as many men as 
can be spared here to protect the settlements and the fields as best they can, until the demanded 
succor and further orders shall have been received from the Fatherland. Regarding the proposition 
of the Hon''''' General, to propose to the magistrates an exemption from tithes for 5 or 6 years on 
condition that they should then keep some men ready for the orders of the Director-General and 
Council, also conceruing the other proposition, to keep some horees in readiness and build a com- 
mon stable, I agree with the opinion of the Honorable General, because I consider these measures, 
especially the last, necessary not only in times of war, but also in times of peace. Done at Fort 
Amsterdam in Mew-Netherland the 12'" Feb'^ A" 1660. 

C. V. Rdyven. 

Resolution to declare war against the Esopus Indians, to be commenced in 
THE fall and meanwhile to enlist men. 
12"' Febr. 

Present in Council the Hon'"'" Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant, Mr. Nicasius de Sille and 
the two burgomasters of this city. The foregoing opinions were read and the worshipful burgo- 
masters asked, whether they had also given their opinions in writing ; to which they answered 
excusing themselves, that they had no authority to do so. They were told, that having been 
requested to do it by the Director-General and Council was suflicient authority. Finally after 
many debates pro et contra it was decided by a plurality of votes, that the war was unavoidable, 
but that, on account of the present embarrassments and weakness it should not be begun against 
the Esopus Indians before the fall and to enlist in the meantime a number of men up to 100 and 
more, if they could be procured, without distinction of nationality either from Virginia or from the 
North. Date as above. 

Extract from a letter of Director Stuyvesant to the Vice-Director at Cura- 
cao ; eeoardino negroes, who are to be sent from there to the Manhattans 


February 1660. 
The negi-oes, whom the Lurds-Directors ordered to send hither, must be clever and strong 
men so that tliey can immediately be put to ^vork here at the Fort or at other places, also if they 

New York Historical Hecoi'ds. 14;J 

are fit for it, in tlie war against the wild barbarians eitlier to pursue tliem, when they run away or 
else to carry the soldiers' baggage, for it is quite evident, that in order to possess this country in 
peace and revenge the frequent affronts and murders we shall be forced into a lawful offensive 
war against them. An important service would be done to the Company, to us and to the country, 
if among the expected negroes some experienced men, who have been some time in Curacao, were 
sent to ns. 


For the greater security and protection of the outlj'ing fanners in the country, we have found 
it necessary, to engage some mounted men ; we therefore need for the service of the Company and 
of this territory some good and well trained liorses, strong stallions or geldings, the latter being 
preferable as of greater service to ns. We expect them with their equipments, that is the saddles 
and bridles, which are used there on the horses, by the galiot as soon as possible and in such a 
number, as can be conveniently shipped; among them three or four good mares; all for account 
of the Company. 


On account of the troubles witli the savages we shall be obliged to recruit and reinforce with 
over 150 freemen and the necessai-y horsemen our large garrison, which we must maintain against 
them, numbering now about 200 men, if with God's help and blessing we desire to attack the 
savages and protect the farmers in the country. To carry out this, we need funds ; if your Hon- 
or's treasury is well provided, then your Honor is requested to accommodate us with 12 to 1500 
pieces of eight for account of the Company either by the galiot or by next opportunity. 

Letter fkoji Ensign Sihth at Esopus to Diekctoe Montagne ; affairs at the Esopus. 

The 24"> of February 1660, at Esopus. 

Honoi'able, Worshipful, Wise and Prudent Sir, Mr. Delamontagne. I inform your Honor 
lierewith, that Jacobus Theunusen arrived here on the 19"" inst. to ransom the boy of Evert Pels, 
in which he does not seem to have been successful, as Jacobus has been here four days and four 
nights and the savages have kept him day for day and he lias been on the I'oad to the savages, but 
he could not get through on account of the deep snow and they promised every day to come to ns 
and they say, the boy has a wife there and the wife is with child, who will not let him go and lie 
will not leave her, as they say and as the snow is deep now, he dared not wait any longer. I wish, 
lie had not come here to make such a difficult journey for nothing, but I trust to the help of God 
Almighty, that I shall get him in due time. Therefore your Honor ought not to incur any more 
expenses, for I shall not attend to it, as the savages here cannot be trusted and we ha^■e already 
done a great deal for the boy and they have promised us daily to bring the boy. That has been 
going on for about a month, but we are waiting for the same, that they are waiting for, only we 
shall be on our guard and if they bring the boy, I have still some cloth and wampum to ransom 
him, which I shall not fail to do and I with all my men are still well and in good condition, the 
Lord be praised. Hoping that it is the same with your Honor and your Honor's whole family I 
shall close and commend your Honor to the protection of God Almighty and remain your Honor's 

To the Honorable Mr. Delamontagne Derck Smit, Ensign. 

Commander at Fm't Orange 
this to hand. 

144 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson liivei: 


Petition of Nicholas Varleth fob the use of the Company's yacht for a voy- 
age TO Virginia 4nd Resolution to hire the yacht to Me. Yarleth and send 


To the Noble, Right Honorable, Very 
"Worshipful Director-Geueral and High 
Council of New-Netherland. 

Shows with great respect and humble reverence Nicolaes Varleth, Commissary in the service 
of jour Right Honorable Worsliips, that he, the petitioner, is interested deeply in the (estate of 
the) lately deceased Governor of Virginia and whereas he, the petitioner, is exceedingly anxious 
to go there in person and he can attend to it best during the j^resent season of winter, therefore he, 
the petitioner, very respectfully requests, that your Right Honorable Worships will please to con- 
sent to it, and whereas no suitable ship is now here present or to be had for his use on the voyage 
there anji back, therefore he, the petitioner, also requests, that your Right Honorable Worships 
will please to grant or hire thereto the Hon*"'^ Company's yacht under such conditions, as may be 
agreed upon with j'onr Right Plonorable Worships. If he, the petitioner, might be of any service 
in Virginia to your Worships, he will endeavor zealously to do it to the satisfaction and pursuant 
to your Hon'"'^ Worships' instructions. Expecting hereon yonr Hon'''* Worships' favorable decision 
I remain 

Your Right Honorable Worships' humble servant 

N. Vaelet. 
25'" February. (1660) 

Whereas we have at j^resont little to do for the Hon*"'* Company's yacht and yachts can always 
be had here for hire for any extraordinary occasions, it is resolved, to let the yacht to the petitioner 
and to demand for it a reasonable hire, certainly not less tlian six guilders for each day. 

The petitioner, Nicolaes Varleth, was summoned before the Council and the yacht was let to 
him for six guilders per day, the rent to begin on the day of his departure from here and to end, 
when she arrives here again and has discharged her cargo under the express condition and obliga- 
tion, that he shall give free passage both ways to the Captain-Lieutenant, who is to go to Virginia 
to see, whether ho can engage some soldiers there and that if the said Captain-Lieutenant should 
get some men there, he shall take as many aboard, as he conveniently can, without charging any- 
thing to the Company for it, but he shall not be obliged to wait longer than one day or two (after 
he has informed the Lieutenant, that he is ready to sail). The petitioner accepted the yacht under 
these conditions. Done at I'ort Amsterdam in New-Netliedand. Date as above. 

Proclamation ai'i-oin-hng a day of general fasting and prayer. 

Respected, Dear, Faithful ! 

Whereas it has pleased the Almighty God, the just judge of heaven and the whole earth, to 
visit us, or at least many of us, justly for our sins, the cause of all punishments, with hot fevers, 
heavy colds, giddiness of the head and many other diseases, the province in general with threatened 
invasions and attacks by our neighbors on the territories, streams and rivers, long possessed by us, 
with rumors of war and its immediate consequences, murder and arson by the savage barbarous 

Neiv Yorh Hifitorical Records. 145 

natives coniinilted liere as well as principally on our friends, countrymen and fellow-inliaLitants on 
the Esopus, which though the righteous but not less merciful God has mitigated and so directed, 
that it did not happen, against our expectation, in the worst manner and according to the evil 
intentions of the barbarians and has made it cease for the present desiring doubtless our penitence 
and turning away from our crying and God irritating sins, as the abominable desecration of His 
Sabbath and His Name by swearing and cursing, our indifference and negligence regarding His 
service, our drunkenness, feasting, voluptuousness, adultery, deception and other heinous sins, which 
prevail among us to our shame before Christian neighbors and barbarous natives, from which if we 
do not turn away, we can only expect, that like others we shall perish and that not the tower of 
Siloa but the wrath* of God will fall upon us from heaven and envelop us in flames for our gi-eater 
punishment, if we do not change to prevent one and obtain the other from the All-Good God, 
Therefore, the Director-General and Council have thought necessary to appoint and proclaim for 
this purpose a day of general fasting and prayer, which shall be kept throughout this pro\'ince on 
"Wednesday before Easter, being the 24"' of March, and all inhabitants of this province, officers as 
well as subjects are hereby directed to ajipear on the aforesaid day in the churches or where God's 
word is xisually preached and taught, and after listening to God's Holy Words to call with humble 
and contrite hearts solemnly upon the name of the Lord, to pray and beseech Him that His divine 
Majesty may please, to turn aside His righteous visitations and well-deserved punishments which 
our crying and dreadful sins have brought upon us, and to make them cease, to continue the peace 
and good correspondence between us and our neighbors, to take us and this newly opened province 
into his fatherly protection and to maintain it against the practices of these barbarous natives and 
all evil-minded ])eople, who attempt its niin and destruction, to bless the fruits of the earth with 
early and late rains and above all to allow the fear and knowledge of His Name and hate of our 
own sins to grow and to increase among ns, principally also that His Divine Majesty will please 
to favor the authorities of this country with understanding, wisdom, discretion and godliness, that 
they may contemplate, resolve and courageously carry out what may be useful for the welfare of 
the country and the wellbeing of its good inhabitants. That this may be done and executed so 
much better, the Director-General and Council forbid during divine service on the aforesaid day 
of general fasting and prayer all exercises of playing tenuis or ball, hunting, fishing, driving, j^lough- 
ing, sowing, mowing, all illicit amusements as dicing and hard drinking under the penalty formerly 
imposed thereon and the servants of God's holy word within this our Government are requested, 
to adapt their sermons and prayers accordingly. Thus done at the meeting of the Right Honor- 
able Director-General and Council, held at Fort Amsterdam in N. Netherland, the 23'' of Feb- 
ruary A» 1660. 

Commission of Nicolas Vaeleth and Bryan Newton as envoys to ViEomiA, to 


IN Virginia. Also their Instructions. 

Petrus Stuyvesatit, on behalf of their Noble High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General of 
the United Netherlands and the Noble Lords-Dii-ectors of the Incoqjorated West-India Company, 

* In the original ; " (?e tooren van Siloa, maer de toorne Oodts", a play of words, which cannot bo rendered 
into English. — Ed. 


146 Colonial Settlements on the Hudso^i River. 

Depai'tment of Amsterdam, Director-General of New-NetJierland, Curagao, Bonayro, Aruha and 
its dependencies, together with the Honorable Council, To all, who shall see this or hear it read 
Greeting. Know ye, that now as before actuated by a sincere and upright affection and desirous, 
for the prosperity and welfare of our mutual subjects, to continue with the government and admin 
istration of our neighbors in Virginia in good neighborly coiTespondence, peace, union and com- 
merce, "We have, upon the sad and unexpected decease of the Honorable /Samuel Mathews, late 
Governor of Virginia, deemed it best for the public service, to commission, qualify and send thither 
as our representatives, as We herewith commission, qualify, authorize and send Our very dear and 
faithful Sieurs JVicolaes Varleih, Commissary in the service of the aforesaid Lords-Directors here, 
and Bryan Newton, Captain-Lieutenant of Our Company, to address themselves as Our trusty 
envoys to the Right Honorable Lieutenant-Governor, President and Council of Virginia and after 
condoling the death of the aforesaid late Honorable Governor Samuel Mathews to renew not only 
the former old friendshi]), correspondence and neighborly intimacy, but also to propose a closer 
union, offensive and defensive, against the barbarous Indian natives, the enemies of both our nations, 
some further and surer footing in regard to commerce and trade, on the basis, which Our mutual 
Govei-nments and their subjects in Europe enjoy, besides this to request pennission and consent 
(whicli is especially recommended to Our Captain-Lieutenant) to enlist there a detachment of 25 to 
30 free men as soldiers, for the reinforcement of Our Company. We request by this Our Commis- 
sion and credentials that the afoi-esaid, Our beloved faithful Nicolaes Varleth and Bryan Newton 
and their servants and baggage may not only be received, heard and believed in this capacity but 
also granted and given, according to the laws of nations, free and unmolested passage and repas 
sage, while We promise to ratif}', approve and value what Our aforesaid envoys may do, contract, 
negotiate and resolve upon with the Honorable Lieutenant-Governor, President and Councilof Vir- 
ginia, as if it had been done and resolved upon by Ourselves. Thus done and given under Our 
usual signature and seal, at Fort Amsterdam, in N. Netherland the 27"" of February A° 1660. 

Instructions for S"^ Nicolaes Varleih and Captain-Lieutenant Brian Nuton. 
First to touch at Kychetan and salute Colonel Cldborn and learn from him, to whom you 
will have to address yourselves now, the Honorable Governor being dead, to get a speedy answer, 
also to request his advice, counsel and help for the greater security of the yacht. 

Having been informed by Colonel Claborn, to whom to address yourselves, and having deliv- 
ered the credentials to such person, you will request a speedy dispatch, as the service of the country 
and of the Company demand it. 


Having received an answer and consent to engage some men there, which is especially recom- 
mended to the Captain-Lieutenant, you will try to get good and resolute men and among them as 
many Scots as possible, bearing in mind not to engage more, than you have a chance to bring 
with you in the Company's yacht and the yacht of Beyntje or any other vessel lying ready or 
which could follow within a very short time and altogether not more than 25 or 30. 

If during the meeting of the Council or the enlistment of the men after the business has been 
transacted some time is to spare or if you have to wait for one or the otlier, you might cross over 
to Maryland, if feasible without too nuieli loss of time or danger and inquire, as secretly as pos- 
sible, whether any preparations against puf people on the South river arc being made there. 

JS'ew Yorh Jlidorical JRecords. 147 

In proposing and negotiating a closer correspondence, an offensive and defensive alliance 
against the barbarians, in case tlie Government of Virginia inclines to it, you will not conclude it 
absolutely and iinally, only subject to approbation and revision by either side, to be exchanged 
within six weeks and the following must be borne in mind regarding it : 

I. In case of an aggressive war the lawfulness and approbation of the war. 

II. Not to demand nor promise more succor, than wliat the condition of either country may be 
able to spare, one hundred good resolute men certain, fifty more according to the situation of affairs, 
subject to the judgment of the party sending it. 

III. The demanded succor to be as long as the necessity and condition of the party, demanding it, 
requires, under oath to and in the pay of this party and to be commanded by no higher officer than 
a Captain-Lieutenant and subaltern officers of their own nationality, but when they are in another 
government, to obey, after having taken the oath, the orders of such a Captain, Major or Colonel, 
as that government may see fit. 

IIII. The demanded succor shall not be kept alone in the field by either side, but with them if not 
more, at least not less, of the succored nation. 


You will propose with all possible persuasive reasons a mutual correspondence and unmolested 
commerce and traffic, back and forwards, of the yachts, as both nations enjoy them in the Father- 
land, with goods and wares from their own countries and places. 

In case upon the death of the Governor no other has been chosen in his place and the Council 
might therefore make delay or take exceptions or if the Council will not meet for a long time, for 
which you may not wait more than 8 or 10 days, you will take leave in proper form and request, 
(if you see any inclination and hope for the aforesaid closer union and correspondence) to ap]5oint 
a more convenient time towards the fall. 


Finally in order to accomplish everything better, if you should learn, that S^ Heermans, who 
is weU acquainted with the Encjliah tongue, is still in Virginia and about there, then you will send 
for him and let him serve you with his assistance and tongue. 

Thus done at Fort Amsterdam in New-Nethevland, the first of March 1660. 

Teeatt of pkace renewed with the chiefs of Maesepingh and Rechkawick 
(Queens County) Hackinkasaky (Hackensack, N. J.) the Highlands, Najeck 
(Ntack), Staten Island, Eumachenanck (IIaveesteaw) and Wiechquaeskeck 
(Westchester County). 

To day, the 6"" of March 1660 appeared at the 
City-Hall before the Honorable Director-General 
in presence of the Council and the Burgomasters 
of this City the following Sachems or chiefs of 
the savages in this neighborhood, to-wit : 

Meautinnemin, alias Tapousagh, chief of Marsepingh and Rechkawyck, 

148 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Oratam, chief of Hackinkasacky for himself and the chief of the Hujlilands, 

Mettano, former chief of Najeck, now chief of Staten-Island, 

Cori'usp'm, brother and representative of the chief Rumachenanck alias Haverstroo, 

Achkhongh, one of the chiefs or coimcillors of Wiechquaeskeck. 

The aforesaid chiefs were asked, why the other chiefs and especially the chief of the Wap- 
pings had not come with them, whereupon Oratamy, chief of the Hackinkasacky, answered that 
the chief of the Wappmgs did not come, because he had no dispute with us and that the chief of 
the Wappings inter-preted the return of the child and the presents made to him for it so, as if at 
that time the treaty of peace had been renewed and consolidated and that he and they altogether 
were willing to continue the peace formerly concluded. 

Whereupon they were answered through the interpreters Claes de Ruyter, Claes de Norman 
and Waeringh, an Indian understanding and speaking the Dutch and Indian languages, 

That we, too, are willing to continue in peace with them and the Wappr?igs under the foUow- 

ins: conditions : 


That Meautinnemin, alias Tapousagh, chief of Marsepingh should be included, because neither 
he nor his people had ever done much harm to the Dutch and if it should happen, that any harm 
was done to him or his people, it should be considered as having been done to us. 

This having been said to them, they answered that they were well satisfied with it and that 
they jointly promise to keep the peace, but that they did not speak for the Indians oi Esopus nor 
for the Raretanys, with whom they declared, they would have nothing to do. 


To prevent, that no more mishaps or murders should in futiu-e take place between our people 
and them, no Indian should come with his arms into our fort or villages, but they nmst deliver 
them at the gate or at the first house of the village or settlement, to which they came and they 
would be returned to them, when they left. They answered, that this was very good. 


Since it has been noticed, that some Dutchmen surround and press hard and occasionally 

inconvcTiience the savages, who come here to market with peltries, fish and other wares, they shall, 

to prevent this, come henceforth to no other places, than to near the former beaver-path and to the 

neck {hoold) near the weigh-house, except if coming with firewood, with which they may go, where 

they please. Suitable houses shall be built at the aforesaid places. They were well pleased with 



That henceforth no war should be commenced for any private action, but if a Dutchman sliould 

happen to kill an Indian he shall again be punished with death and if an Indian happened to kill 

a Dutchman he should be delivered to the Dutch and also be punished with death and if any cattle 

are killed, they shall be paid for with double their price. 


In order that the peace may be the better kept, all the savages, comprised in this treaty, shall 

be held to assist in hunting and surrendering a murderer, if such a murderer, be he a Dutchman 

or a savage, should fly and run away after having committed the murder. The foregoing 4"' and 

5"" points having been comnumicated to them, they declared themselves perfectly satisfied with it. 

Whereas our descendants for many years can see and know what we now talk over with them 

New Yorh Historical Records. 14i) 

and conclude, wliieh their descendants cannot do, because they can neither read nor write, it would 
be good and necessary, that they leave some of their children with us to be educated. 

They answered hereto, that they would leave one child here immediately, which they had with 
them, and would bring more upon some other oc^ision. 

After the foregoing had been agreed upon with them to their satisfaction, they were asked, 
whether they had anything more to say, whereupon they answered with a counter-question, why 
Sauwenaro was not also present, whereas he was also a chief and their friend. They were told, 
that on account of some charges made against him, he had been imprisoned, but that he should be 
brought and released, if the Sachems Tapousagh, Oratam and Mattano and the others would 
engage themselves, that he or his people should do no more harm to us or to ours or in case 
it should happen, that they would then deliver the evil-doer into our hands, to which they all 
answered : Yes. 

Sauwenar was brought up and informed of the foregoing, whereupon he answered that he 
was glad, that the peace was renewed, that his heart would henceforth be that of a Dutchman and 
he would live with them like a brother. Thus they left satisfied and the Sachems engaged them- 
selves, to inform all their savages and it was made known to the neighboring villages by the firing 
of a cannon. Done at Amsterdam in N. Netherlaml, date as above. 

Extract feom a letter of toe Dieectoes in Holland to Dieectoe Stdyvesant: 
Esopus Indians must be punished : no English settlement can be peemitted 
NEAE FoET Oeange. 9^'' Maecii 1660. 

After we had written so far, the ship ^^ Spheramundi'''' arrived here, by which we received 
your Honor's letters of the 29"' of October and 26"' of December of last year with enclosures ; in 
About the Esopiia them our attention in the first place is called to the sad and unexpected occurrence 
savages. at the Esojcius, between the savages and our people there, which we fear and are 

also told by other people has been caused and begun by our men. This is really unbearable, con- 
sidering that innocent parties are mostly suffering thereby and lose often their lives and property, 
as it was seen in the previous general massacre b}' the savages, of which too our people were more 
than the cause, especially the late Fiscal van Dych. And as such deeds and petulancy by our 
people, originating in licentiousness and intoxication, must not be connived at any longer, your 
Honors will thoroughly inform themselves in this regard and if any one is found guilty, punish 
him as an example for others according to the exigency of the case : not that we thereby excuse the 
action of the savages or consider ourselves satisfied with it, not at all, for we understand perfectly 
well, that these and other injui-ies, which we have suffered, must necessarily be resented and 
avenged on this barbarous Esopris tribe, from which neither the Company nor the inhabitants 
derive the least profit or advantages. For this reason we have been willing to provide your Hon- 
ors with the required ammunition of war and other implements by this and other ships, now ready 
to sail. "We send besides such a number of soldiers, as we have already engaged or as still may be 
engaged, while your Honors must watch for the best time and opportunity to carry it out. To do 
this with the least danger and tlie greatest safety, we submit to your Honors' consideration, whether 
the Maquas and other friendly savages there could not be persuaded and instigated against the 
Esojnis savages, to punish them through these and humble and reduce them, either through the 

150 Colonial Settlemeats on the Hudson River. 

aforesaid friendly savages alone, or by joining our men to tliem, as your Honors may judge it best 
and safest. 

As to the intentions of some Englishmen, who proposed to settle not only on the North river 
near WappingliH Kil, but even above or back of Fort Orange., in order to ruin and cut off so much 
Concerning the easier our beavertrade, the reasons and the instance, quoted by yom- Honors as to 
usurpation of the j^| ,j^anQgi. i,^ vvhicli WO fared with that nation on the Fresh river, ai'e so forcible 

English above Fort ' 

Orange. and w'ell-founded that not the slightest encroachment or possession by them in 

this direction must be allowed there. And if this has been done in any other way and without 
our knowledge, then your Honors must immediately dislodge such unlawful usurpers and if neces- 
sary proceed against them by force, as we are very sensitive on this point in consequence of the 
former experience. Your Honors must in the same manner oppose tlie Maryland people, if they 
iihould want to settle on the South river within our boundaries, first notifying and warning them, 
tliat they abstain from such usurpation and it they pay no attention to it, then prevent them by 
nction as before, for the Company's right to that river is indisputable, as well by virtue of first 
possession as by purcliase of the lands from the natives and lawful owners themselves. To check 
and prevent such usurpers the better, we have resoh'ed that the ship " ^S^^. Johii ", which will come 
there from Curagao, shall be employed in place of the little vessel " Dwmen " ; it is, as we have 
wi-itten your Honors before, very suitable and therefore your Honors can make good use of it on 
such an occasion. ***** 

Minute of the appearance of Coetheos chief waeeioe of the Wappings, sent 
BY the Esopus Indians to make peace with the Ddtch. 
15"' March 1660. 

Present in Council at Fart Amsterdam, the 
Honorable Director-General, Mr. La Mon- 
tague, Pieter Wolphertsen and does do Ruy- 
ter as interpreter. 

Coetheos, chief warrior of the Wajjpings, made his appearance and said he was sent by the 
chiefs of Esopus, namely by 

Kaelcop (Baldhead) 

Pcgh Peghquanoch 



to inform the Right Honorable Director-General, that they had been in great fear last winter, lest 
the Dutch should come to make war against them, but since they did not come and because the 
Dutch had made peace with all the other savages, they too desired to make peace and t\\ej had 
wampum and bearskins ready to bring here, so that the Dutch and the saviiges at theFsopus might 
again be at liberty to plant ; they would have come hci-e themselves, but they were afraid. 

The answer to the foregoing was, that we were quite willing to make peace with them, but 
that we had learned, the Esopus Indians had said, that they would make only a mock-peace with 
us and when the Dutch on the Esopus least expected it, they would sur|)rise and kill them ; what 
security shall we have, that they will keep the peace, if we make it with them ? 

New York Historical Records. 151 

He said, tliat lie too had lieard this of the Esopus Indians, hut only the harcbacks say it, who 
arc opposed to make peace, hut that the chiefs especially Kaelcop and Pemmyrawcch arc very 
willing to make a peace with the Dutch, that they would also persuade and induce the barebacks, 
low or bad savages. 

When again asked, what security we should have for the keeping of the peace, as the bare- 
backs desired war, he made no answer to the point and he was finally told, that if the chiefs of 
Esopus wished to make peace, they must come here themselves. Being informed hereof, he said 
in answer as before, that they were afraid : after taking this proposition into consideration he was 
told, that, if they did not dare to come here, the Director-General would go there at an early day, 
that they then could state, what they had to say : this he undertook to communicate to the chiefs 
of the Esopus savages. Amsterdam in N. JV. the IS"" March 1660. 

Commission providing foe tue administration of public affairs during the Di- 
eectoe-Geneeax's absence at the Esopus. 

Wliereas the interests of the Hon*"'" Company and of the country urgently require, that I 
should go to the Esopus and be absent for a short time and whereas during my absence some una- 
voidable incidents might happen, either in the civil administration or in the employ of the Hon''"' 
Company's military, therefore during my and the Fiscal's absence, the administration of civil affairs 
is hereby entrusted to Secretary van Iiuyve7i, tho Burgomasters Capt. Cregier and Oloff Stevenson, 
the management and command of the military is absolutely committed to Capt. Marten Cregier, 
after having advised with the aforesaid gentlemen and for this purpose all upper and under officers 
are hereby ordered, to obey, during our absence, his orders and commands and to follow him, as if 
we were personally present, as we deem this necessary for the service of the Company and arc well 
satisfied, with what during my absence shall be transacted and done for the public welfare by the 
aforesaid officials. Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. Netherland the 15"' March 1660. 

Letter feom Peteus Stutvesant to Secretary van Ruyven. The Esopus In- 

Honorable Sir. 

On account of contrary wind wc have not been able to make the Esopus before Thursday 
evening. We fired immediately a shot and received an answer from the fort, but to my great 
astonishment and not less anxiety no men came out of it. Of this we learned the cause and reason 
only the next day, namely that the ensign with 40 men was out on an expedition ; about 3 miles 
inland he came upon a house with about 60 savages, who made no resistance, but started to fly ; 
they saw the ensign and his troop too early, but nevertheless 3 or 4 have been killed on the flight. 

Our people saw 3 being carried off ; the evening did not permit a pursuit of the fleeing savages ; 
they have burned a large quantity of Indian corn, bearmeat, bearskins and the house, of which we 
thought necessary to inform your Honor and have therefore expressly dispatched the yacht of 

152 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Tfwmassen, in wliieli are sent well secured 12 prisoners of the principal ninners and ringleaders. 
I hope to follow in a short time, meanwhile your Honor will please to put the out lying settlers 
on their guard and to keep good watch, in case I should go directly to the Kats Kil, to drive the 
murderers from there. 

I would else have come down at once with one of these yachts. My love to my wife and 
children, tide and time forbid my writing to them and to lengthen this, wherewith I recommend 
your Honor with my respects to God's safekeeping and protection and remain 
On board the Your Honor's affectionate 

yacht "(?e Haen''^ friend 

Friday, the 18"" P. SxuTVESAjfT. 

March 1660 

Let the free and the Company's 
negroes keep good watch on my bonwery. 

Monsieur Cornelis van Euyven Secretary and the present Council at Amsterdam, N. N. 

Letter of Secretary van Ruyven to the out settlements, warning them against surprise. 

The foregoing letter of the Honorable Director-General having been received and read the 
surrounding villages have been immediately informed by the following letter of the state of affairs 
at the Ew])us. 

Good friends. 

This is to inform you, that onr people liave captured a party of Esopus Indians last Thurs- 
day and made a sortie against them. You are therefore earnestly recommended and directed, to 
be on your guard and keep a good watch continually, that you may not be surprised and attacked 
by the barbarians. Trusting you will do this I commit you with my salutations to God's protec- 
tion and remain 

Amsterdam in W. N. • Your affectionate friend 

22" March A° 1660. C. v. Ruvven. 

Proclamation of war against the Esopus Indians. 

Whereas Director-General and Council of New-Netherland, after having suffered many mas- 
sacres, affronts and unbearable injuries committed from time to time by the Esopus Indians, find 
themselves compelled, for the sake of maintaining and protecting their subjects, to begin a war, 
offensive and defensive, against the aforesaid Esopus savages and their supporters, the good inhab- 
itants of this province arc herewith informed of it, that everybody may be on his guard and keep 
good watch, travel cautiously and in company on roads, streams and rivers, especially are all skip- 
pers and shipmasters hereby warned, directed and ordered not to sail up or down the North river 
e.xcept in company of three or at least two yachts, well and properly manned each with at least six 
able men under the penalty formerly fixed. Everybody is warned of the danger. 
Done at Fort Orange, the 25"' of March 1660. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 


Muster-roll of the Comi-any at the Esopcs. 

On tlio 28"" of Marcli Ifil^O, on tlie Esopus tlu;re were in Netherland'ush service in tiie com- 
pany of his iSoble llunur, tlie Diructor-Generul. 

went to the 2lannihes 
went to the Jlanat/ws 
by order of the Hon. 
General, because 
lie was wounded. 

went to J^ort Orango 

gone to the Manaihes 


Dirck Schm.itt, Ensign 

Paulu^ Jansen, Sergeant 

Cristiaen Nis-sen, Sergeant 

Paulus Cristiaens, Druninier 

Jan Piersscn, Corporal 

Jonas liimtzaio, Corporal 

Godfried Chuts, Corporal. 

Vrhanus die Graeff, Corporal 

Noel lieyss, Lancepesade 

Joris Metzer, Lancepesade 

Marcus Jantzen, Lancepesade 

Jellis Buttein, Lancepesade. 

Jacob Buirhans. 

Jelliss die Needier, Cadet 

Domini cus Siebrantz 

Carrel Garret 

Fransois die Gardous. 

Jan Laquire 

Marten Warners 

Marten Jfarmsen, mason 

Adam Bremen. 

MarcxiS Harmsen 

Jacob van Campen 

Fransois Hey 

Gernt Ahelhn 

Pieter Lambertz. 

Abell DercTisen. 

Michiel Verrie. 

Jan Joris 

Adrian van Puinhercken 

Walraett die Mont 

Jacob Meloen 

Perck Hendricks 

Andries Hansen 

Perck die Goyer 

Jochem Hendricks 

Valentyii Claessen 

Caspar Lauter 

Coenraedt Ham 

Berent Jansen from Oldenbiirg 

Joris Esias van Acker 

154 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Willem Croeger 
gone to the Manathes Jan Graeffs 

Jan from Amersfoort 
Tomas Tomassen 
Paulus Tomassen 
Jacob Daniels 
Gerrit van Campen 
Jan Jurryaens Steenman 
Marcus Hoemoett. 
Adriaen Varnier 
Jan Ji/io, Englishman 
Knuitt Mauritz. 
Wolfgangk Kasten 
Jan van den Buss 
Pieter Wessels 

Herman Ilendricks van Bamefelt 
Hendrick Laurensen 
Paul Laurens. 
Cornelis Hogelandt 
Willem van Vredeid)orgh 
Anthony Carrll 
Tennis Vaegt 
AWert Goefers 
Mathias Roeloffs, Constable 
Jan Arisen, Smith 
Jan Loottman, Baker 
Jan Broersen fioiii Husum 
The following have come from Fort Orange 

Jacob Toennissen from Naerden 
Michael Verbruggen from Leuwaeren 
Jan Karstensen from Husum, 
Peter Bruin from Rensborgh 
Jan Pietersen from Guilyck 
Jan Wybes from Harlingen 
Cuelis Brantsen from Nykerk 
Huibert Jansen from Prang 
Paulus Paxdsen from Amersfoort. 
This one was enlisted on the SO^*" of March 

Derek Willemsen from Schalckwyck. 

Letter from Ensign Smith at the Esopus to Director Stuyvesant: affairs at the Esopus. 

The 29'" of March 1660, at the Esopxis. 
i"^oble, Worshipful, Wise and Prudent Sir. Honorable Director-General. I beg to inform 
your Honor, that Tomas Schambers has j-et 300 schepels of wlieat for tlie service of the garrison 

New Yorlc Histoi-ical Records. 155 

in Esojms and at the house of Cornellis Bernizcn Schlegt with his farmhands also 300 schepels, 
on condition, that tlie laborers shall have for each sehepel which they deliver 3 guilders in beaver, 
the beaver at 8 guilders ; concerning the 100 schepels, which your Honor took from me and which 
the Hon"'* Secretary had bought from me, I thought, these too were purchased for the Company. 
No savages have been here imtil now and I humbly request your Honor, that j'our Honor will 
please to provide me by first opportunity with bacon, ineat and peas, shirts, socks and shoes for the 
men and our garrison consists now of 73 good soldiers according to the muster-roll and I shall not 
detain this skipper, as your Honor directed : I do not know to write anything more to your Honor 
and remain Your Excy° servant 

Derck Smft, Ensign. 
To the Noble, Worshipful Wise and Prudent the Honorable Director-General, Petrxis Stuy- 
vesant at the Manailies. 

Leiter from the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant. Rev. Haemantjs Blom 


The 29"" March 1660. 

Honorable, Prudent, Beloved, Faithful. 

We forgot in our last letter, a copy of which is here enclosed, to mention the engagement 
here of another preacher, besides D" Blom (who has been married here), called D° Ilenricus Selyns 
under the same s;dary and conditions ; they both go over in the ship " de Bever ", the first to take 
chai'ge of the ministry at the Esopus, the other in the viUage of Breuckelen. To carry on the 
service some books are sent over, which your Honors will hand to them, besides the small psalters, 
prayers and catechisms, to be distributed and used as proper under the community in each respective 
place for teaching. Closing herewith, as the time does not permit to write more. Honorable, Pru- 
dent, Beloved, Faithful, we commend your Honors to the protection of God. 
Amsterdam By order of the Lords-Directors of 

29"" March 1660. the W. I. Company, Dep' of Amsterdam 

To the Director-General and Council of New-Netherland 

Received by "c^ vergulde Bever'''' ari-ived 11"" June 1660. 

Resolutions aikjpted by the Coitet of Rensselaeeswyck during the Esopus troutsles. 

Rens. Manor Papers. 
April 1" 1660. 

Whereas on the last day of March and this first day of April several reports have been made 
to us, that the Esopus intend to attack the country people on their bouweries, lying within the juris- 
diction of the Colony of Rensselaerswyck, either by firing their buildings or by killing and taking 
prisoners the people, who might have remained on the bouweries. 

Therefore their Honors of this Court wishing not to neglect any possible preparations, direct 
that one shall warn the other by firing three signal shots, which must be repeated quickly by who- 

156 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

ever hears them, that also the next neighbor may be informed and no other shooting shall be done, 
unless and before the colonists have been warned, that some of them have been attacked or annoyed 
by the savages. 

Everybody whom this resolution concerns, is hereby warned not to take it upon himself to 
fire shots, unless necessity requires, on a penalty of 25 Carolus guilders for those, who shall disobey 
this our well meant order. 

Everybody is further warned and directed to post during the night one or if possible two sen- 
tinels, who, when necessary, shall warn the neighbors by the three signal shots. 

The Court wishing to prevent harm being done as much as possible, have resolved that at 

present and provisionally, a watchman shall be placed on duty during the night in the settlement 

at the Green Bush, that the signal of three shots may be more easily heard, if fired at any of the 

bouweries below. As chief officers of the watch we appoint our colleague Cornelis van Nes, Evert 

Pels and Thomas Coninck, corporal. 

Thus done etc 

By order of the IIon'''° Court 

Present D- V. Ham el. Seer''. 

J. van Jiensselaei' 

A. van Curler 

C. van Nes 

C. T. van Breuckeler 
T. Spitsbergen 

G. Swart, Sheriff 

D. V. Ilamel, Seer''. 

LErrER FEoii Ensign Smith ai' Esopus to Director Stuyvesant: the Indians 


Noble, "Worshipful, Wise and Prudent Sir. 

Honorable Director-General and Council of New-Netherland, I beg to inform your Excy. 
herewith, that we have asked the savages very civilly to return the arms and the wampum, which 
they had taken from our men ; wo have expected them patiently from one day to the other, as 
they delaj-ed and promised us from day to day to bring it, but now we hear, that it is only trickery 
and that they try to delay us, as yesterday afternoon we have conferred with them the whole after- 
noon and had a parley, for they kept themselves in two parties on the other side of the Kil, so 
that the evening surprised us and the last answer, which we received, was, that we might hang the 
captive savages and they challenged us to fight, which creates anxiety and uneasiness among our 
farmers, to contiinie with their tillage and out-of-door labors. We shall nevertheless do our best, 
to continue with it near the Fort here, but if it should happen, that we have an opportunity to 
attack them once, we have no doubt but we shall bo successful and we shall then be more at ease 
with our out of-door work. We have also made an estimate of our grain here, but as we now find, 
that we must compel the savages by force and many men might be sent here by your Honor's 
order, we shall require much : however what your Honor decides in this regard, shall be willingly 
obeyed, for it lies here at your Honor's service and shall not be diminished. We send yonr Honor 
one hundred schepels of oats by skipper Bnrtdt ; we have received by the same skipper meat and 
bacon, of which 1008 lbs. were issued as rations for this month on the 3'* of April. 1 have received 

New Yorh Historical Records. 157 

the 38 sclicpels of wheat from Widow StoLscn and as to the balance, due your Honor, I t^liall (h) 
my best. No more this time, only I wish your Honor good health and connneud your Honor to 
the j)rotection of the Almighty and remain your Honor's faithful servant 
Actum ^sopus, the 5th of April 1660 

.Derck Swrrr, Ensign. 

To the Noble, Worshipful His Honor the Director-Gen' and Council of New-Netherland at 
the Manathans. 

Letter from the same to Secretary van Rotven : sKiEMisn with the Indians. 

Honorable, Worshipful and Prudent Sir, Secretary Cornells van liuyven. I beg to inform 
your Honor, that I have received from Mathias Roeloffs' wife here 20 schepels of wheat for your 
Honor and from skipper Vlodder or out of his yacht 145 schepels of spring-wheat, of which Jur- 
ryen WestphaUn, your Honor's fanner has received 50 schepels, Cornelis Barentsen Schlegt also 
50 schepels, the widow Jacob Jansen Sloll and Jaxdb Stoutenhurgh together 45 schepels. I have 
also received 47 schepels and 3 pecks of peas, of which I gave 21 schepels to 84 men, each 1 peck. 

1 have further received from Vlodder'' s yacht 3 barrels of meat, together 825 lbs. and 2 barrels of 
bacon, weighing 400 lbs, of which we have issued as rations 1008 lbs, and 2 boxes with matches. 
From the yacht of Dirck Jansen I have also received the spices, which your Honor sent me ; they 
are very acceptable and will be used to advantage. On the 4"' inst. some savages have been before 
the Fort here, who bragged much and we paid them in return with good words, we thought to get 
back from them the muskets and swords, which they had taken from our men, also the cloth and 
wampum, but they tried to entrap us with treachery, on account however of our watchfulness they 
could not carry out their deviltry. This went on until evening and when they left us, they called 
out to us, that we might hang our prisoners and they would fight us and come back in the morning. 
Then I resolved to lie during the night in ambush with 45 men, I and the sergeant with me, about 

2 or 3 shots distance frona the Fort. We did so, but were discovered by them, whereupon we made 
a sortie against them and took one of them prisoner and they had some killed and wounded, but we 
do not know how many and we pursued them a long distance, about one hour, but we have, God 
be praised, not a single man killed or wounded, but of 4 horses 3 have been killed under the men, 
who rode them and some of our muskets have been injured by their bullets and they keep their 
noses now from the Fort and we intend to continue now our ploughing and sowing from day to 
day, to carry out the Hon"'* General's order, which with God's help shall not be delayed. I do 
not know of anything more important to write your Honor this time, except to commend your 
Honor and the whole to the protection of the Almighty and remain in everything, which I can do, 
your Honor's willing servant 

Act. JEsopus, the 9'" of April 1660. Dieck Smitt, Ensign. 

To the Worshipful and Prudent the Honorable Secretary Cornelis van Buyven at Fort Am- 
sterdam, Manalhans. 

158 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant: they 
have appointed roeloff swartwout, sheriff at esopus and grant extension 


iMus Ebbing ; Rev. Blom and the question of baptism. 16'"' of April 166U. 

By the ship " de guide Bevcr ", hy which we sent 3'ou a duplicate of our hist letter, we iuforincd 
your Honors briefly, but especially, that besides the two preachers, D" Blom and Seli/ns, also some 
books were sent over, which were to be given to them, to make use of for the ])ublic service; this 
must be strictly adhered to : before their departure we had sounded both tlie aforesaid preachers 
Formulary of bap- if regard to the old formulary of baptism and whether their Reverences might 
'^''""- have some doubts as to using it, to which they answered negatively, as being indif- 

ferent to it and they both engaged themselves to make nse of it in the exercise of their clerical 
duties. ***-»** 


One Roeloff Swartlwut, who now comes over %vith some 3'oung men and farmers, to settle at 
the Esopus and engage in agriculture, has petitioned us here for the office of Sheriff at that plaice 
and although it is premature in our opinion, we have granted the aforesaid request to encourage 
the man and proinote justice, as soon as a court is establislied and have engaged him in this quality 
provisionally on tlie usual emoluments and such further salary as may bo granted him in due time 
subject to our approval ; this for your Honors' information and go\'ernment. 

Jeronhnus Ehhiiuj and his wife, the widow of the Hon'''" Johan de Hulter have informed us, 
that his predecessor, lier late liusband, had bought a piece of land on the Esopus and erected on 
it buildings and barns, which were pulled down, wiien the habitations were drawn together and a 
part of the land was taken into the fortifications there, whereby they suffered a great loss. They 
request therefore, that they may not be subject to the general order and that the time be extended 
and especially, that they may have two years, in which to cultivate the said piece of land. We 
have consented to their request for the reasons adduced above, so that the aforesaid general order, 
concerning the cultivation of laud shall have no effect as far as these people are concerued. 

Commission and instruchons of Roeloff Swartwout, appointed Sheriff at Esopus. 

The Directors of the Incorporated "West-India Company, Department of Amsterdam, being 
especially directed and authorized to manage the affairs of New- Netherlands make known, that 
whereas it is necessary for the promotion of justice in the village on the Esopus that a suitable 
person perform the duties of a provisional Sheriff, for which one Roeloff Swartwout has been 
propo.sed to us, who has been in that country a long time, therefore, jilaeing confidence in tlie 
capability, piety and fitness of the said Roeloff Swartwout we have provisionally appointed nnd 
commissioned, as we herewith appoint and commission him Sheriff in the aforesaid village on tlio 
Esopus, giving him full power, order and authority to occupy this position in the said place and 
in that district, to attend to and perfi)rm the duties according to the usages of the Sheriffs here in 
the country and the instructions, given him or which may in future be given, to bring to trial all. 

]>few YorTc Historical liecoi-ds. 159 

■who obstnict and break political, civil and criminal laws, ordinances and placats and sue all delin- 
quents in the said village and its jurisdiction according to his aforesaid instructions and to have 
them conformably mulcted, executed and punished by the punishment set forth therein, to demand, 
that upon his order and complaint all criminal matters and abuses shall be settled and abated and 
all sentences be executed speedily and veithout delay and to do further in this regard, what a good 
and faithful Sheriff is in duty bound to do, on the oath, taken by liim. We command therefore 
all Burgomasters, Schepens and inhabitants within the jurisdiction of the aforesaid village to 
acknowledge and respect the aforesaid Roeloff Swartwout as our officer and Sheriff as aforesaid 
and if asked, to give him all necessary and possible assistance in the performance of his duties, for 
we have found this to be necessary for the service of the Company and the promotion of justice. 
Done at the meeting of the Directors at Amsterdam^ this fifteenth of April A° 1060 (signed) Ja- 
cob Pekgens (Below stood) By order of the same (Signed) C. van Seventee. 

Instructions for Roeloff Swartwout, who goes as provisional 
Sheriff to the village on the Esoj>us in New-Netherlatid, by 
which he will govern himself. 

He shall have no other office, than that of Sheriff. 

And he shall take rank of the Burgomasters and Schepens and sit in their meeting, when it 
is a judicial one, as president, also to exhort the culprits, sentenced by the court, before sentence 
is passed on behalf of the magistrates. 

He shall publish and execute in conformity with their contents all decisions regarding the 
excise, the village and other subjects with the knowledge of the Director and the assistance of two 
members of the court. 

Also take good care that the village is kept free from unruly people and peddlars. 

Also that no whorehouses, whoremongers or similar bad houses are permitted in the place. 

To this end (and to prevent all kind of licentiousness and violence) the Sheriff must endeavor 
always to be at hand and his employes must continually go through the place and be found in 
churches, on the market place and other places, where people congregate. 

He shall be obliged to make or have made all arrests and then examine the prisoner without 
delay, at least within four days after the arrest, to avoid great expenses and within four days there- 
after bring hmi to trial and proceed against him according to law. 

Also bring up all culprits for execution, without favoring any one except by decision or advice 
of the court. 

He shall make his list of persons, who are summoned to appear before the court, in con- 
formity with the Sheriffs roll of Amsterdam, made the 27"" of April 1656. 

For all these services he shall receive one half of all civil fines, which are paid in during the 
term of his service according to the statutes of the ^-illage, either under sentence or by composition, 
except such as concern ordinances made or to be made in regard to taxes. 

He shall also have and receive one half of all fees for tax- and courtnotices and one third of 
everything that falls to the village in criminal cases, also such salary as in time may be allowed him. 

But he shall not be allowed to receive any presents either directly or indirectly by somebody 
else, which is forbidden by law. 

He shall further uphold the Director and Council, as well as the Burgomasters and Schepens, 
when they come to be elected, in their respect. 

And he shall take before the Director and Council the oath specified below, which shall remain 
in force for the period of four consecutive years, after expiration of which the office of Sheriff shall 

160 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

be abolished, unless the Directors may have thought fit before to abolish it or extend the time. 
Done at Amsterdam^ the 15"" of April A° 1660 (Signed) Jacob Peegens. (Below stood) By oi-der 
of the same (Signed) 0. van Seventee. 

Oedee dieecting the people living rcatteeed theoughout the countey, to form 
hamlets and villages. 
12"' April, Monday 

Present in Council at Fort Ainsterdam, the Honorable Director-General P. St-uyvesant and 
Mr. Nicasius de Side. 

The under-sheriff Resdlveert Waldron and Court messenger Claes van Ehlant ai-e directed 
to warn once more the outlying settlers, each separately and to order them in the name of Director- 
General and Council, that in accordance with the orders, formerly issued and communicated to 
them, they must abandon their isolated places within a given time and move into the settlements, 
under the penalty stated in the orders, because the Director-General and Council have again 
decided it best for the country and highly necessary for the safety of the inhabitants. Thus done 
at Fort Amsterdam in H. Netherlands the 12"' of April A° 1660. 

Lettee feom Dieectoe Stuyvesant to Ensign Smith at Esopus : the attack on 
THE Indians on the 4'"' Apeil appeoved and eeinfoecements sent. 

Honorable, Valiant Sir. 

We received by the yacht of DircTc Smith your favor of the 5"" of April, from which we 
learned of your expedition against the savages, which, (although you suffered no loss and did them 
also little damage) we still approve and you must continue these proceedings cautiously, when they 
return in such manner, especially after the ploughing and sowing has been done, the accelerating 
of which we urge upon you most earnestly and that this, the one and the other, may be done with 
more order and safety, we shall send you herewith 25 to 26 soldiers, among whom are two volun- 
teers, according to the enclosed list, besides also some provisions, among them an anker of brandy 
and one of strong water, to be issued according to your discretion to those who may need it and 
are sick. 

As to the 3 horses, killed in the last affair, their owners shall receive a proper and fair indem- 
nification or be supplied in time with others in their place. 

You must by occasion inquire from the prisoners, where the women and children of the sava- 
ges keep themselves, also what savages of other tribes give assistance to the Esojnis and furnish 
us as far as possible with the names of these savages and give us at every occasion pertinent infor- 
mation and report. 

If you should require still more seed-corn and there is time enough to get it into the ground, 
please to inform me by the first opportunity. No more for the present. I commend you to God's 
protection with my greetings 
On the 15"' April 16G0. Your affectionate friend. 

P. S. 


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New York Historical Records. 101 

Letier of thk s.vme to Vice-Dikector Lamontagne at Fort Orange (Albany): 


Honorable, Beloved, Faithful. 

"VVe are verj much astonished, that since our departure from thence we have not received one 
word of information from jou in regard to the state of affairs there, whether the savages in your 
iieighborliood are peaceful and do not molest the out-lying farmers. We expect to hear of this 
by the first opportunity now, also to receive the list of the newly engaged soldiers, who have been 
sent thence to the Aesojnis, and what and how much each received as enlistment-bounty. 

Tour Honor will please to inquire if possible, but cautiously, at every opportunity, whether 
the Mah'tkander and CatsJcill Indians do not assist the Esojnis and if possible, discover the opinions 
of the runners, that we may make use of it in due time ; your Honor must also, at all occasions, 
admonish the Sachems of the Mahihanders and Catsh'dls to come oftener and remind them of 
what has been proposed to them and what they promised us, to wit, that they would not favor the 
Esopus savages and would not allow them to remain among them nor give them any assistance. 

Herewith goes the letter of confirmation for the Commissaries, wJio with your Honor are to 
attend to the public welfare and the administration of justice in the place for the following year, 
of which your Honor will make use at the proper time ; wherewith etc. 
On the 15'" of April 16G0. 

Letter from the Magistrates of Fort Orange and Renselaerswyck to Ensign 
Smith at Esopus, with proposals made by Catskil and Mahikan Indians in 
regard to the Esopus. 

Monsieur Ensign. 

Your Honor may judge from the inclosed propositions, made by the Katsk'd and MaJulcander 
savages, what the chances are to make peace with the Esopus, especially as we hear only good-will 
expressed by the Mahihanders and the savages in this neighborhood. And whereas the Mahi- 
Jcanders go thither themselves, to bring the matter to a favorable end and fear that being witli the 
Esopus savages and communicating with them they might be captured or killed in a fight or other- 
wise, therefore they have asked us for tliis letter of safe conduct and requested also, that j-our 
Honor will please to defer any further hostilities until orders from his Excy. the Director-General, 
with whom too they are to confer in this matter and closing herewith we wish to commend your 
Honor to God's protection and remain your Honor's 
Actum, Eort Orange Obedient Friends 

this 21"' April 1660. La Montagne 

After closing this we Francoy's Boon, Jeremias van Rensselaer 

have resolved to write to the Hon. General A. van Curler 

by the next sloop, as the savages are afraid Jan Yorbaeck, Sander Conraedt. 

of going to the MoAfihattans. 


162 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Propositions made by the Chiefs of the KaiskUs, 
in the name and on behalf of the Ewjjus Chiefs 
and in presence of some Mahikan Chiefs. 

They say and offer to surrender the whole Esojnis and the lands on and along the Kil alto- 
gether and to abstain from and leave it. 

Also to make restitution of everything, which they may have taken from your people, wam- 
pum, clotli, cutlasses, ploughs and other articles. 

Also to surrender against ransom the imfortunate Christians and reconcile them with wampum. 

They request, that you should on the other hand release and deliver the captured £sopus sav- 

Finally they ask for a firm and permanent peace for all times. 
Done this 21st of April 1660 

at jFort Orange. 

Propositions made by the Maldkander and Katskil Chiefs for themselves. 

They sa}', that they are very well inclined to peace and request that Mr. Stuyvesant will make 
peace with the £sopus savages ; they offer to make a large present of wampum to Mr. Stuyvesant 
as token of their gratitude. 

They request also, that this may quickly be written to Mi\ Stuyvesant and to the Esapus, 
that an armistice may be made there imtil Mr. Stuyvesatifs answer comes, and that in the ujean- 
time the Katskil savages may have free access to the Esapus. 

Extract from a letfek of Director Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland: 
THE English project of a settlement on the Northriveb between Fort Or- 
ange AND Wappingh Kil : report on the Esopus war etc. 21^^ April 1660. 

« * » * * * 

Concerning the people of New-En(jlaiul : although we have not received a written answer to 
our imperative i-efusal of free passage along the North, river, yet, we hear from passengers and 
skippers, lately arrived from Boston, that they persist in their intention to form a colony, with or 
against our will, not far from the North river between Eort Orange and the Wappinghs Kil and 
will again ask through two commissioners free passage there and our permission. In obedience 
to your Honors' order, for the sake of our own roj^utation ami the public welfare we shall not onl}- 
refuse, but also offer all possible impediments and resistance and prefer rather to be driven out by 
force, than to suffer shipwreck of our honor and oath by intentional forbearance ; the subsequent 
occurrences shall be communicated to your Honors in due time. Meanwhile we request your 
Honors as before for the sake of your own ititerests and the welfare of this country and its good 
inhabitants to give us in good tiuie such assistance in troops, ammunition and goods, as your 
Honors may think, we need in the dangerous situation of the country and not to put any hope in 
tiie weakness of the English government in Europe, and its disposition to meddle in affairs here ; 
New-England does not need her interference and assistance in this matter, for she is conscious, 
that her power ovefbalances ours ten times and it is to be apprehended, that they will in this mat- 
ter make an attempt so much sooner, as the}"^ see and trust that during the present monstrous con- 

New Yorh Ilidorical Recorih. ]()3 

ditioii of tlio EiKjlifilh government no countermanding order ^vi^ be issued from that side: but wo 
will willingly submit our speculations to wiser judgments and hope tlio best. 

* * * -X- * * 

The distressing situation of the country had compelled us, before wc received your Honors' 
peremptory order, to draw the out-lying farmers together in settlements, to be at once delivered, 
as far as possible, from murders of single persons, as your Honors may see from the enclosed 
placat* No. 5, which is now daily carried out. We could wish, that the before reported single 
murder had remained the only one, but your Honors will have learned with regret from our last 
letters and enclosures or may learn from the here enclosed duplicates, that it has not been the case. 
Irritated patience and our owii good reputation have forced us to an active revenge and war against 
the E'sopus Indians, the success of which so far gives us hope of a favorable final result under 
God's gracious help and blessing: we captured by a stratagem 14 or 15 of their most prominent 
men ; two or three sallies have since been made against them ; the expeditions of our military 
would have better results and the barbarians would be sooner conquered if they stood firm : how- 
ever none of all the expeditions was quite without a result, if the reports of other savages can be 
relied upon, which we do, because it is confirmed from various sides ; they are said to be willing 
now, to lay their heads into our laps, to which we are as yet not willing to agree nor shall we soon 
accept it, in order to give a sharp lesson to others, unless the apprehended and threatened invasion 
of so-called Christian neighborsf places us in a different situation. As soon as we have done 
with these with God's help aud blessing and if no other inconveniences arise, we intend to pay a 
visit to the N^eu.ioesinh and Rarltan tribes, among whom most of the perpetrators of all the single 
murders keep themselves, should they persist in refusing to surrender the well-known murderers ; 
meanwhile we pray God for a successful result and your Honors for all possible and much-needed 

From the enclosure No. 8, your Honors may infer and can consider and weigh in j-our far- 
seeing wisdom the continued claims, requests and projects of the Entjlish from Boston or the 
Massachusetts Colony, which although they were answered to the best of our ability and informa- 
tion regarding the matter and will also be resisted and defended by us, as far as we are able, still, 
as we explained to your Honors above, as their power is ten times greater than ours, we shall 
hardly be able, speaking humanly, to hinder them in their project, if it is taken up in good earnest, 
which we and many others presume — will be done, unless we receive withotit delay and loss of 
time from your Honors assistance and help in the shape of troops and means: our former letter 
via Neio-England recites our necessities. 

-» -X -X- * * « 

Our beloved, faithful Nicholas Yarletli and Capt. Lieutenant Bryan Newton '" * arrived 
here 2 or 3 days ago. "Wliat tlicj" accomplished and the answer of that Government {ofVin/inia) 
your Honors will find in their letter and the resolution marked No. 9 of the enclosures, also the 
reasons, why they could not allow us to recruit men there for a reinforcement of our company. 

* * * * a * 

* This is an Ordinance for the establishment of villages, p.assed February 9th, 1G60, for which see " Laws of 
New-Netherland," p. 368.— Ed. 

t Not only tlie English of the New-England Provinces set up claims on parts of New-Netherland, but also 
Maryland under Lord Baltimore tried to get possession of some of the Dutch territory on the Delaware about 
this time. See Col. Doc., Vol. XII, p. 347.— B. F. 

164 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson Mivei: 

Leiter from Ensign Smith at Esopus to Directok-Stuyvksant : all quiet : nego- 
tiations WITH the Indians. 

Noble, Worshipful, "Wise and Prudent Sir. 

Honorable Director-General and Council of New-Netherland. I inform your Honors here- 
with, that I have received tlie goods and your Honors' letter on the 23'' of April, also that on the 
ll"" inst. 3 Mirvckquas savages arrived here, who asked to make peace with us on behalf of the 
Esopus and they brought us 11 fathoms of wampum out of their own means, as a present, they 
said, because they came as strangers to talk with us : as it is not in our power to make peace 
with them and we do not know, how your Honor intends to act in this matter, we have given them 
in return 3 coats of duffels and they promised to come back the next day with muskets and the 
swords, also the wampum, which they had formerly taken from us and to bring with them the 
Sachems of the Esopus and they have been here twice again, but all they ask for, is onlj' peace 
and I have directed them to your Honor at the Manuthans and I will further inform your Honor, 
that on the G"" of this month, when we had the last engagement with the savages, 3 of them were 
killed, 2 badly wounded and one taken prisoner, but now they keep their noses at a good distance 
from the fort and do not molest us and we continue daily with our agricultural pursuits, so tliat 
your Honor's farmer has now about 40 schepels of spring-wheat in the ground. As to the black 
horse of Thomas Schambers, your Honor will get it by this same yacht and I shall not detain the 
skipper, but urge him to depart as soon as possible. 

Concerning the erection of your Honor's house, wiiich the carpenter is to build, I shall assist 
the carpenter, as your Honor desires to have it done and as he had made the agreement with your 
Honor, but as we have had bad weather for some time and we are helping now in the ploughing, 
we shall still do our best, that the timber is brought to the work, but one MicJiiel Verrie, who is 
about to go to tlie Manathans and get married with your Honor's consent and who was to help, 
has promised me to return by the first yacht, whereupon I have given him permission to go and 
get married and when he comes back, the work shall be continued with all diligence. I do not 
know of anything else to write your Honor tliis time and commend your Honor to the protection 
of the Almighty and remain your Honor's humble servant 
Act. Aesopus, the Si'-'' April 1660. Derck Smitt, Ensign. 

To the Noble, Very Worshipful, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet, the Honorable Director- 
General and Council of New-Netherland, 

at Fort Amsterdam 
in N. NetTierland. 

Sir ! I inform your Honor, that after writing the foregoing a Katsl'il Sachem, called Kecssi- 
eniueij, arrived here with a letter of the Hon*" Delamontagne from Fort Orange, whicli I send 
herevvitli to your Honor and the aforesaid Keessie Weij goes to the Esopus Sachems to make them 
come together and then he was to go to the Hon"'" General, to make a permanent peace and tiiey 
offer to the Hon'''" Genei-al all the Esojnis country and propose to return everything, muskets, 
cutlasses, clotli and wampum and make large presents besides and tiiey call only for peace, peace 
and await your Honor's mercy. Closing herewith I remain your Honor's humble servant 
Act. Aesopus, S-t"" April Dekcjc Smiti, Ensign. 

To the Noble, Worshipful, Wise and Prudent His Honor, the Director-General of Neio-Neth- 
erland Manathans.. 

Neio York Historical Records. 1G5 

Le'itek from Director Stuyvesant to (Ensign Smith) : with directions yov. the 


Honorable, Valiant. 

You may infer from the enclosed instruction, for what purpose Claes Jansen liiiyter, the 
bearer hereof, is sent thither; if you can get the better of the ^Esopus savages upon his or other 
reliable information and report (but after Claes de Rxt)jter''s departure), then you are hereby com- 
manded and directed to do it at the first favorable occasion, which offers, in quietness and with all 
possible safety, especially if you have any hopes, to get a great advantage over them. We leave 
this M'ith God's help and blessing to yonr pleasure and discretion. 

If some ^'Esopus Sachems or savages should come with the bearer, Claes de Ruyter, to you to 
ask for an armistice, then you will treat them friendly and say, that the peace must be concluded 
here, that you can only do, what you have been ordered by xis and if then the chiefs desired it, you 
must let them go and come unmolested, but if they are willing to come to the 21anhathans with 
Claes de Riujter, then you must not prevent them, but rather give them one of the Council as a 
proper safeguard on the yacht. 

At the request of Jurian (?) Helm, made to ns, we have given him j)ermission to bring 20 or 
25 schepels bread corn from the Aesopus. 


If the bearer hereof, Claes Jansen liuyter, should be necessary for the better execution and 
promotion of the exploit, then yon may join him to your present force either as guide or in another 
May 5, 1C60 

Instkuctions fok Claes de Kuyter, sent to the Esopus to negotiate with the Indians. 

Instrnctions for Claes de Jiuyter 

lie shall go aboard of the Company's yacht and proceed with it to the Esojnis ; if he meets 
any savages on his way there, he is to tell them, we had been informed, that the Minquas, Mahy- 
cander and other Sachems asked for peace with the Aesopus savages and that he is therefore sent 
to speak with the chiefs of that tribe ; if the savages should say, that they were going to the Man- 
hattans, then he shall answer, that it was good, but he wished, they had come to meet him and go 
first with him to the Aesopus chiefs and to hear, what they had to say and whether they them- 
selves asked also for peace ; by such means or under such pretexts he shall try to find out from 
the savages, M-here the Aesopus chiefs and savages are and whether there was no chance to have a 
talk with them and hear from their own mouth, that the Aesopus savages asked unanimously for 
peace and he is further to state, that if they did not demand it unanimously, they need not speak 
of peace. By snch pretexts and under promise of a small present he sliall try to find a savage, to 
bring him to the Aesopus savages, if he considers it advisable and safe for hiniself ; else, if possible, 
he is to inquire and find out, where the Aesopxis savages are and make thereof as full a report as 
possible to Ensign Derek Smitt, but to nobody else at the Aesopus, after which he shall depart 

If some of the Aesopus Sachems desire to go with him to the Ensign, he shall tell them, that 
that would be useless and that the Ensign can only do, what he is ordered. 

166 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

If however the Aesopus Sachems should wish to go witli him to the Manhattans, to sue for 
peace here, then lie shall not refuse it, but lie shall not allow more than 2 or 3 of them come in 
the Company's yacht and make all possible haste in his going and returning. 
The 5'" of May 1660. 

Letter from the same to the same: state of affairs: the agricultural im- 


'Noble, Worsliipful, Wise and Prudent Sir. Honorable Director-General of New-Nethei'land. 
I have to inform your Honor, that I have dul}' received the letters by Claes de Ruyter on the 7"" 
iust. On the S"^"" of May I have been on the strand with a few men and had Claes de Ruyter 
ferried over, to go to the savages and speak with them and as he was detained a long time I 
returned with my men to the fort and he came to me in the fort during the evening and reported, 
that the savages would come to me the next day, but nobody came, except one savage ; therefore 
he went witli this savage again to the strand on the ll"" and this one savage went thence, to fetch 
the Sachems, but he returned the same evening and brought no Sachem with him, which aston- 
ished me very much. Then I went down to the strand on the 12"*, to dispatch the yacht, for I had 
seen, that the yacht could do no good for the service of the Compan}', for since Claes de Ituyter 
had spoken to the savages, we have not been able to lay hands on a savage, while we could do it 
before. We stopped it however on account of our sowing and ploughing in conformity to the 
order of the Hon'"''' General and if we can reajj any benefits from this place, we shall not neglect 
to do it and the skipper of the yacht sliall give a full verbal report of the atfairs to your Honor. 

I have to inform your Honor in regard to the spring-corn, wliich we sowed, that Thomas 
Siambers has 100 schepels of barley and peas in the ground and Jurryaen Westphalen, your Hon- 
or's farmer, has in the ground 100 schepels of spring-wheat and barley, as well as peas and oats 
and Cornells Barentsen Schlegt 50 schepels of s]iring- wheat, nine of peas and a few of barley and 
the Widow Stol 45 schepels of spring-wheat, 12 schepels of barley and four of peas, so that alto- 
gether 320 schepels of spring-grain have been sowed ; Thomas Schambcrs has alco sowed 75 sche- 
pels of winter-wheat and Cornells Barentsen Schlegt 20 schepels of winter-wheat and it has come 
up nicely in the fields and we shall not be hindered in the ploughing and continue with it every 
day, as your Honor's orders direct, but I cannot write your Honor with certainty, where the sava- 
ges keep themselves. Written in haste on board of the yacht, the 12"' of May 16G0 

Derck Smut, Ensign. 

To the Noble, Worshipful, Wise and Pnident 

His Honor the Director-General of 

New-Netherland, at the Manathans. 

Conference between the Director-General and Council ano the chiefs of 
Hackinkasacky (N. J.), Na,iack (Ntack), Wiechquaeskeck (Westchester Co), 
Haverstraw and the Wappinos. Peace concluded with the AVappings. 
IS'" May. 

Present the Honorable Dircetor-Gcnei'al Petrus Stuyvesant, ]\[r. JVlcasins de Sllle, Mr. 
Allard Anthony, Burgomaster and Oloff Stevensen, ex-Burgomaster. 

New Yorli Jlistorical liecorda. 107 

To-d.aj appeared in the Council chamber 
Oraktm, chief of Hackinkfsacky, 

Mattano, hite chief of JVajack, now living on Siaien-Idand, 
Sauwenaro, chief of Wiechqnatskecl:, 

Corruspin, brother and representative of the chief of Ilaverstroo, 
Kessachauw, one of the chiefs of the Wappingi^. 

They propose and say throngh the Indian interpreter Waerhen, that the Wajpjpi.ngs have deter- 
mined among each other not to injure the Dutch to the extent of a straw. 

2. That the abovenientioned chief of the Wajypings has been sent by the Esopus Indians to 
ask for peace for them and to say, that they will not make war any more. 

3. He says on behalf of the aforesaid chief of the Wappings, that five of the captured savages 
and a squaw are of the Wapping tribe and of his savages. 

4. He says, that when before this the peace was renewed with the otlicr abovenamed Sachems, 
the chief of the Wappings was not here and he comes therefore now and says, that he, like the 
others, accepts the continuation of the peace, as aforesaid, and promises to keep it. 

The answer given to the first and the last propositions, covering the same ground, namely the 
continuation of the peace and that they would not do us any more harm, was, that they may rest 
assured, that we neither would injure them and that it was well, that he, who had not been here 
before at the renewal of the peace, had come himself and confirmed what had been previously 
transacted with the other savages on the 6"' of March, 

He was told on the 2'' point, regarding the request for peace by the Esopus Indians, 

I. Whereas no Esopus chiefs have come, how shall we know, that the Esopus Indians make 
this request through him. 

II. That the Esopus chiefs had before this frequently declared to us, they, the chiefs, were 
quite willing to continue in peace with us, but that the young people always wanted to fight and 
they, as chiefs, had no command or power to punish the barebacks and yoimg people and we see 
no occasion and safety in making peace with the chiefs only ; therefore it would first be necessary, 
that he first and above all informed the Esopus Indians, old and young. Sachems and barebacks, 
hereof and if they altogether desire peace, they nnist come themselves. 

To the third proposition, regarding his statement that five of the prisoners and a squaw were 
of tlie Wapping tribe and of his people 
The following answer was given. 

1. That we are not aware of it ; the Maquaas chief, who was with us and the aforesaid sava- 
ges, when they were captured, says and declares, that they are all Esopus Indians. 

2. Supposing, that, as he says, they are Wajypings, we did not bring them from the Wapping 
country, but from the Esopus. What have his people to run to our enemies and help them ? We 
have warned beforehand all the tribes as far as the JIahicanders, Maquaas and Menissinges sava- 
ges, to keep their people out of the Esopus and that we consider and keep as our enemies all whom 
we find or catch there. 

Tliat nevertheless, as proof of the affection which we have for the Wappi7igs, we would give 
the squaw to the Sachem of the Wajpings as a present on the condition, that he should command 
all his savages not to trouble themselves with the affairs of the Esopus nor to come there nor let 
the Esopus savages come to them. Whereupon he accepted the squaw. Done at Eort Amst&f- 
dam in N. Neiherland, on the day as above. 

168 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 


Si'* May. 

Present the Houorable Director-General, Claes de Ruyter and Jan Darech as interpreters. 

To-day appeared in the Council chamber three Mohican chiefs, namely 
Eskuvias alias Aepje7i (Little Ape) 
Appamet and 

Whereas it was stated, that they came as envoys, they were asked, whether they came for 
themselves or in the name of others. 

They answered in substance, that they came in the name of the Esopus Sachems to ask for 
peace, because they were no longer willing to make war, but wished to live as friends and that 
tliey would leave the Esopus altogether and convey it to the Dutch. 

They were asked, what security they brought with them or could show, that the Sachems 
desire peace and that we must also know, whether the savages generally wanted peace too and 
would not go to war any more, because the Sachems had declared, that they cannot punish them, 
but must let them do as they please. 

The Sachem Acpje put down two strings of wampum, saying, that is as security, that tlie 
Sachem, barebacks, young and old, squaws and men desire peace and ask for it ; putting down two 
more strings he said, that this was as security, that they were sent to make peace. The strings of 
wampum were taken up and they were answered, we believed willingly, that they had been sent 
and had come, but that no peace can nor shall be made, before and until the Sachems of the Eso- 
pus came themselves here or at least to Eort Orange, to consider the conditions of the peace. 

They put down again two strings and requested, that the Indian prisoners should be released. 

The aforesaid two strings were handed back to them with the answer, that we ^^•ould not 
accept them, as we did not intend to release the aforesaid prisoners. 

They offered twelve strings again asking that the prisoners should be released. The same 
answer as before was given and the strings returned to them. 

Whereupon they inquired, what we would do with the said prisoners. 

The answer was the question, what they liad done with our prisoners. 

After the said three chiefs had spoken to each other for a while, one of them laid down a string 
of wampum before the Honorable General's feet, saying, that they requested, we should not carry 
the war fartlier than to the Esopus^- tlie answer was: As long as they kept quiet and lived in 
peace with us, we would do the same and not make war against them. They put down another 
string of wampum, saying, that we must not be angry with them, if it should happen, that the 
Esopus savages were to injure or capture some Dutchmen along the river and near Eort Orange. 
The answer was, that as our friends tliey should prevent tliis as much as possible and if they should 
receive any information of it, they must warn our people ; if tliey did that, there would be no 
reason to feel angry with them. The}' again put down a string, sa^-ing that thereby they cast 
away the remembrance of the refusal of their present, which they had offered for the captive 
savages and that they had no ill feeling on tliat account. 

Giving still another string, they requested that the Sachems or chiefs of Esopus should accord- 
ing to promise, have a safe conduct to Eort Orange, on which the aforesaid string was accepted. 

They were further told, that we were willing to live with them as friends and brothers, (as 

New Yorh IFisiorical Jieconh. 169 

with tlic other neighboring savages), provided that they kept quiet and would have nothing to do 
with the Esopus Indians, whereupon tlie following presents were given thein in return : 
3 blankets at 11 guilders fl 33 3 axes 3 knives 

3 pieces togetlier 2} ell duffels 7.4 3 pair of socks 

6 small kettles each a pound of powder 

Nota: the eight strings of wampum, given by them, were found upon counting to amount to 

in light money fl 13S.5 wliich is in heavy money fl 92.3.5. 

For this the cash book of the Receiver Ruyoen has been duly debited on the 26'" of Maj'. 
Done at Fort Amsterdam in jV. Netherlands on the day as above. 

Resolotion to tkanspoet to Curacao all bct two or tukee of the lately cap- 
tured Esopus Indians. 
May 25, 16C0. 

It is quite evident from the propositions and the talk of the savages, that we shall not obtain 
a firm and stable peace with the K»o])U8 savages, unless the captured Esopus Indians (of whom 
the eleven here and the others still in prison at the Esopus are all bold and hardhearted fellows and 
the most inconsiderate of the tribe) are released or they are deprived of all hope ever to get them 
back and they are forced to a solid peace by force of arms (with God's blessing). Having consid- 
ered this, after several serious deliberations it has been unanimously decided, that to release them, 
would not only tend to create disregard and contempt of our nation among neighbors as well as 
our own subjects, but also the neighboring barbarians and especially the Esojnis savages would 
glory iu it, as if they inspired such great awe to our people, that we were afraid to rouse their 
anger and that we had no courage, to treat, according to their merits and as an example for others, 
the prisoners, among whom there are some, who have dared to miirder our people, captured by 
them, in cool blood and with imheard cruelty. Hence, we have for the abovestated and other 
reasons judged it to be best, to send the aforesaid Indian captives to Curacao by the fii-st good 
opportunity and at the expense of the Company, to be employed there or at Bonayro with the 
negroes in the service of the Company and to keep here only two or three of the aforesaid cap- 
tives, who have murdered our prisoners in cool blood, and to punish them at the proper time in 
such a manner, as shall be decided upon, in the meantime to continue a defensive and offensive war 
against the Esopus savages and inflict all possible harm upon them, until such time, that we can 
obtain a peace with them on favorable conditions. Amsterdavi in N. Nether^land, on the day 
as above. 

Letter from Director Stuyvesant to Ensign Sjoth at the Esopus : Mohican 
chiefs sent back from the manhattans to esopus, as the dibector desires 


Honorable, Valiant. 
Since our last letter and your answer to the same we have not heard anything in regard to 
the state of affairs at the Esopus, which has rather made us resolve to send the Company's yacht 

170 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

to tlie ^Esopus, to carry up tlie Mahicander chiefs, who have been here to ask for peace with the 
^Esopus Indians. We have as yet not been able to come to a conchision, because they demand 
the i-elease of the captured savages : in the meantime we have referred tliem back to the ^sopus 
Sacliems, to tell them, that if they wanted peace, they must ask us personally either here or at 
Fort Orange, where we would send a representative in that case. You will therefore allow these 
Mahicander chiefs to go and come unmolested, also the Aesopus chiefs and savages, as long as the 
Mahicanders are with them ; but as soon as these have left and bid good-bye to you, then you are 
strictly charged to annoy and harrass, as before, in every manner the Aesopus savages and all 
those, who may come to them or are with them ; if you should require thereto now or hereafter a 
gi-eater number of soldiers or any ammunition of war, then yon will inform us ; we shall not fail, 
to assist you according to our means. Nineteen soldiers were sent us from the Fatherland by the 
last ship " de Moesman " and a greater number, up to one hundred men, is expected by the next 
shi])s ; may the good God bless our just cause and grant us a good and desirable success ! We are 
informed, that soldiers as well as freemen are altogether too confident and run out in small parties 
now and then and dare to go on the strand, as if there was no danger or no more savages : we warn 
and command you therefore, to prevent and stop it and to allow no small parties of men to go out, 
but to attack at every possible occasion with the greatest caution and courage, beat and pursue the 
Aesojnis savages as far as shall seem advisable to you and not to trouble yourself about any armis- 
tice, unless you receive from here or from Fort Orange express orders thereto. 

Six soldiers are going up for the better protection of the Company's yacht and as safeguard 
for the Mahikander chiefs; you may keep them there, if necessary or send down in their places 
some disabled or sick men, but do not leave the yacht without proper protection during her stay 
The 25"' of May 1660. 

Letter from Ensign Smith to Director Stuyvesant ; he reports a raid on ax 
Indian village on the Esopus and its result. 

The 30^'' of May 1660, at the Aesopus. 

Noble, Worshipful, Wise and Prudent Sir, 

Honorable Director-General of Neio-Netherland. I have to inform your Excy., that I have 
received the letter and the provisions sent by your Honor in the yacht, conform to the invoice. 
But as Claes de Ruyter came to the Aesopus in the morning and as we did not know of his arrival, 
we had marched out, 75 men strong, an hour before daylight, to make a visit to the savages and 
took along one of the savages captured here, to get good information, where the savages might 
keep themselves. Thus I came with my men to the second valley on Kit Davietsen^s river, on 
which this valley is situated and there I discovered some savages, who were planting and also fish- 
ing. We did our best to get through there, but it M'as not possible on account of the high water; 
then we retreated very quietly, so that not one got wind of our presence, and returned to the fort 
on Saturday morning, where, on making known our predicament and that they were at such a 
queer place, where we could not get at them, I was instantly informed by the wife of Juryen 
Wcstphalen, that there was a passage, but about 3 hours' march farther up in the aforesaid valley. 
We resolved then to undertake it again immediately and took our road according to the infonna- 
tion of tiie aforesaid wcjniau and got tlu'uugli and found their houses, but they discovered us 

New Yoih lliafoi ical Iiecoids. 171 

through the barking of their dogs and fled qnietlj' into tlio woods, without a shot having been 
fired by us or by them and we got only one gun in the house and while looking for a canoe, to 
cross over the Kil, we found the canoe, in which tlie old Premaeker had fished : this Premaeker 
is the oldest Saehein of the Aesopus savages and father to our jirisoner Pissguartas. As he was a 
very old man and spoke in arrogant words to our men, saying " What are you doing here, you 
dogs " and aimed his gun at us, we took away his gun and six knives and a hatchet and as it was 
a great distance we could not take \\\m along and therefore gave him a whack with his own hatchet. 
About noon on Sunday we reached the fort again, but on our march here some savages leaped out 
of the bushes and fired a few shots at our rearguard and wounded one of them, but pursued by 
our men they retreated immediately into the thickness of the bushes and because the bushes are 
now green and full of foliage, they go there now out of their houses and live everywhere in the 
woods, for they have found out, that we pursue them, and they stay in bo place and we shall not 
give them any rest, if we hear, where they keep themselves now and begin to plant, but shall again 
pay them a visit, if possible. Concerning the ploughing and sowing, it is all done now and yes- 
terday, Saturday, the last grain has been worked into the ground, so that now neai'ly all the land 
is sowed; we have continually given them forty men as safeguard while tilling. Before the arri- 
val of Claes de Ruyter I have tried diligently to attract the savages and to outwit them with 
flattery, but since he and Jacob Toennissen have been with the savages, we have not seen one of 
them, for none has been here in the fort, except a mute one, who coming with some Highland 
savages, our friends whom we did not dare to molest, brought some fishes. As to powder and 
lead, we are not yet in want of it, but socks, shoes and shirts are much needed by the soldiers. 
The gunner was engaged at 16 guilders per month on tlie 15"" of October 1659; as he was not 
satisfied with his pay and as I can spare him, I have discharged him on the IS"" of May. Closing 
I commend your Excy. to the protection of the Almighty and remain your Excy's. faithful servant 

Dip.cK Smitt, Ensign 

To the Noble, "Worshipful, Wise and Prudent, the Honorable Director-General of New-Neth- 
erlamJ, Petrus Stuyvesant at the Manathans. 

Conference between the Director-General and Council and the chiefs of 
Hackensack and Haverstkaav. An armistice is granted to the Esopus In- 

3" June (1660) 

Present in Council, the Right Honorable Director-General, Petrus Stuyvesant and Mr. Nica- 
sius de Sille. 

At the meeting appeared 

Oratamy, chief of Hacliinkesack and 

Curruppin, chief of Haverstroo with some other savages. 

1. The chief Oratamy says, that during the last rencontre at the Esopus 4 or 6 days ago, when 
only the chief Preumaecker was killed, about 20 Esopus savages were together, who all wished 
to live in peace. 

2. He says, that the Esopus chief Seuioackenamo, who was with them at Gemoenepa and on Sta- 
ten-Island yesterday, was very sad upon hearing of the death of the aforesaid chief Preumaecker 

172 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

and that lie suddenly departed thereupon, whereas he did not know now what to do or not to do, 
but he had left in haste in order to see, M'hether he could quiet the savages and would come back 
in 10 or 12 days. 

3. He states, that the aforesaid chief Seuwaclienamo had told him and the chiefs hereabout, that 
just before he came here he had spoken with the soldiers, that is the fighting savages, who camp 
by themselves and had asked them, what they desired ; thej' had answered : We do not want to 
fight any more ; then he had spoken Avith the women about what tlicy thought best ; they had 
answered, that we may peacefully plant the land and live in peace : then he had gone to the unex- 
perienced young men, who camp alone upon another place, to ask them, what they thought and 
they had said, to make peace with the Dutch and that they would not kill a pig nor a chicken. 

After the foregoing propositions had been answered to the effect, that we too were inclined 
to make peace, the chief Oratamy replied, that he thought it strange then, that our people had 
only lately made an expedition against the savages and killed the chief Preumaecker. He was 
told, it was our way, to do our best as long as we had no firm peace, whereupon he requested that 
there might be an armistice on both sides during the negotiations for jieace. We answered him, 
that, if he would go there himself with our interjjreter Claes de Ruyter or send somebody in his 
name, to hear, whether the Esopxts Indians were minded as they said, we would send him and 
them in the Company's yacht and keep an armistice until their return. He accepted immediately 
to do this, saying, he would now see himself, whether the Esopus savages were well disposed. 
Done at Fort Amsterdain in N. Nethcrland on the day as above. 

Commission foe Claes de Kuyter to accompany the chiefs to Esopcs to keceive 


Whereas several tribes of savages, among others especially the Mahicanders, the Wapjnngs 
land those of Ilnckinkesacky, JIaverstroo and Staten-Islaiid have at different times made proposi- 
tions and tried to intercede for and in the name of the Esopus savages, asking for peace or at least 
an armistice for the same, which has been denied by us, although not absolutely, while we as yet 
have neither agreed to it, but have deferred it from time to tune on the grounds, that we could 
not know, whether the Esopus savages desired it themselves and were disposed for peace, as long 
as some of their Sachems did not personally appear before us and submitted to us some security 
and reasonable conditions in this regard, whereupon the aforesaid solicitants every time stated to 
ns, that the Esopus Sachems did not dare to appear here in person, that they had been on the road 
once or twice, but had each time returned for fear, 

Whereas among others Oratam chief of IlacMnkesacJiy, Corruspln, chief of Ilaverstroo with 
two of his officers appeared to-day before the Council and declared that a few days ago one of the 
Esopus chiefs, by name Seuwackenamoo had come to theni and left again yesterday, expressly sent, 
as he stated, by the other chiefs and savages of Esopus to sue for peace, who had told to the said 
Oratam that he had first sjjoken with the Wauwapiesjes that is soldiers or fighting savages, wlio 
camp by themselves and had unanimously declared, that they did not wish to fight any more ; that 
he then had gone to the women and young children camping at another place and had asked them, 
what they thought about it and how they were disposed ; they had called for peace and that they 
might peacefully plant their corn ; then the aforesaid Esopus chief had gone to the young fellows, 
who did the most harm and had asked them, whetlier they wanted peace and they liad answered, 

New Yorh Historical Records. 173 

that henceforth they would not kill a pig, not even a chicken and that he then had conic to thcin 
to state this and to request peace, whereas he had heard in the meantime, that in the expedition of 
our men, while he was away, the greatest and oldest chief Preumaecker had been killed and he 
did not know consequently, what to do, therefore he returned suddenly overland, but had said, if 
the Esopus savages were still resolved to make peace, as before, he would come back to them in 
10 or 12 days and 

Whereas the aforesaid Oratain, chief of HacklnJcesacli/, and Curru/pjJin, chief of Ilaverstt'oo, 
now request, that we will put a stop to our fighting for such a time and direct our soldiers at the 
Esopus to make no more expeditions against the savages, so that in the meantime a good peace 
might be concluded, 

Therefore, after due consideration of the propositions and the condition of the season, the 
country beginning to grow thick with busheS to the considerable advantage of the savages and 
disadvantage of our people and having further considered, that if we should refuse suddenly the 
various applications, we might arouse many more enemies. We have for these and some other 
reasons of importance judged it best to reply to the aforesaid solicitants, that, if they would go 
themselves or send somebody in their name with our interpreter Claes Jansen Ruyter to the 
Esopus savages, to hear whether they are so disposed, as they say, we would send him and them 
thither in a yacht and keep the armistice until their return and whereas they immediately accepted 
this without conditions, to which the aforesaid chiefs added, that they would now see themselves, 
whether the Esopus savages were well-disposed, therefore we have thought it best for the Com- 
pany and the good inhabitants of this province, the time for tillage being at hand, and advisable 
to let Claes Jansen Ruyter go thither with the savages, to hear the propositions of the Esopus 
Sachems and savages, to answer conform to the following instructions and to promise an armistice. 
Done at Eort Amsterdam in If. Netlierland, the 3* June A° 1660. 

Instructions for Claes Jansen Rxiyter. 

He shall proceed with Oratam,, chief of IlackinTcesacky, Corruspin, chief of Haverstroo or 
their messengers to the Esopus Sachems and savages and inform himself there, whether they are 
so disposed, as the chiefs of the Mahicanders, of the Highlands, Haverstroo, HacMnkesacky and 
others had stated, to wit : to make peace. 

If they show any inclination thereto, he shall tell them from us, that we are quite willing to 
make peace with them, but only upon good and safe conditions. 

That the prisoners, whom we have and who must be counted as dead, shall remain in caj> 
tivity for greater security's sake, while he may give them hope, that, if they keep the peace well, 
they or at least some of them may be returned. 

That they must repay the muskets, wampum, duffels and other goods, which they had received 
for our prisoners, whom they nevertheless had murdered. 

That they shoidd leave the Esopus or remove a considerable distance from our people, to pre- 
vent mischiefs and that if any of their people should hereafter do any harm, they must repair it 
immediately, or else the war will begin again. 

And if he finds them well disposed toward peace under the above conditions, he shall send us 
information of it and direct the Ensign upon sight hereof and until further orders not to commit 
any hostilities or midertake any expedition against the savages. Amsterdam in N. N^etherland, 
the Z^ June. 

174 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River, 

Letter from Director Stuyvesant to Ensign Dirck Smith, directing him to 


Honorable, Valiant Sir ! 

You will learn from his instructions for what purpose Claes de Ruyter has been sent to the 
Esopus. In case the savages are inclined to make peace on the proposed conditions, you will dis- 
continue hostilities and expeditions against them until further orders, but keep constantly good 
watch and be well on your guard. 

As to the request, made by you in your last letter of the SO'*" May, for socks, shoes, shirts etc for 
the garrison there, we expect a large quantity by the ship " de Bever ", which is looked for daily ; 
as soon as she has arrived, we shall provide you with these and other necessaries, with which etc". 
Fort Amsterdam, in N. Netherlands 
the 3^ June 1660. 

Letter from Ensign Dirck Smith to the Director and Council, with particu- 

12"' June. 

Honorable, Worshipful, "Wise and Prudent Gentlemen, Honorable Director-General and Coun- 
cil of New-NetJierland. 

I inform your Honors herewith, that we have duly received your Honors' letter, dated the 3'' 
June, through Claes de Ruyter. Pursuant to j'our Honors' orders we have called upon the Esopiis 
savages to-day and have heard their statement and they avowed, that they had all requested the 
Sachems to make peace with us and that they came now themselves to us for this purpose under 
the blue sky to despatch it. 

Secondly, that they with all their soldiers, their women and children were sincerely disposed 
for it and they were glad, that it had proceeded so far. 

Thirdly, they promise, that neither they nor their children shall do any harm to us or to our 
animals, much less commit any thefts or mischiefs. 

Then we proposed to them all what your Honors ordered in the letter written to us, to all of 
which they assented and were satisfied with, but they requested, that a small piece of land might 
be granted to them for their habitations and plantations and that at a great distance. 

They requested also, that your Honor should come here by the first opportunity, bringing 
along a good interpreter, who understands their language well, as whom they name one called 
Waerhen in order then to conclude with your Lordship a firm, inviolable and eternal peace ; then 
all the neighboring Sachems shall appear together at this place, to make the peace so much faster 
and surer. Herewith commending your Honor to the protection of the Almighty, I am 

Your Honorable Worships' humble servant 
Esopus, the 12"" June 1660. Derck Smitt, Ensign. 

Resolution that the Director proceed to the Esopus and conclude a peace 
with the Indians. 
2P' June. 

The foregoing letter having been opened and read it was resolved, that the IIoi\orable Director- 
General should go there, as soon as the ship " de Tronw " has sailed, in order to conclude, if pos- 
sible, a peace on the formerly proposed conditions. Date as above. 

New Yorh Historical liecords. 175 

Letter from Vice D'r. La Montagne at Fort Orange to Dik. Stuyve6ant and 
Council ; Indian brokers ; Mohawks and Senegas cut off a French fort. 

Honorable, Valliant aud Worsliipful Gentlemen. 

Having left you, gentlemen, ou the 14"" of May last I arrived here Friday the 21" of the same 
month at night, since which time I have had no opportunity, nor even leisure to answer the objec- 
tions made by Mr. van Rmjven to my accounts. On the Monday following my return my wife's 
sister was by an accident mortally (as we then thought) wounded, Tuesday the Commissaries 
met to dispose of more than forty cases and a petition by the principal traders of this place was 
handed in against the placat issued by his Honor the Director-General and Council and since 
republished annually, that only Indian brokers should be admitted to carry on the trade. After 
the bench had taken this into consideration, it was ordered to call the whole community into the 
fort, to learn their opinion on this matter. They assembled on "Wednesday and having been heard 
individually they expressed a different opinion, viz that it would be better, to give the enormous 
amount of brokerage, which went now yearly into the pockets of the Indian brokers — about fifty 
thousand guilders — to Dutchmen. As this opinion went directly against the request of the peti- 
tioners, the latter, increased to twenty-five altogether, presented "Wednesday a second petition, 
repeating their former demands. Friday the other, small traders, also presented a petition signed 
by fifty -four persons and now they began to scold and call each other bad names and threats were 
littered: Saturday the Court was convened to deliberate how to settle this matter, in which the 
parties were so bitter and hostile against each other : the Court could not come to any conclusion 
and on that account was adjourned over till Monday, when the Court, having assembled, decided 
to deny the petitions of either party and ordered that in accordance with the placat neither Dutch. 
nor Indian brokers should be employed during the trading under a penalty of 300 guilders and 
suspension from their pursuits for the time of two months. 

Since that time I have been obliged to go into the woods with soldiers to prevent mishaps 
and to see that the ordinances are observed. It comes very hard upon me, as I have no deput}- 
sheriff, and it has gone so far, that I must frequently remain over night in the woods : that is the 
reason, why I have until now been unable to answer the objections to my accounts and to bring or 
send them : they will be brought down by me or by Johannes Provost in the next sloops. 

Nothing new concerning the savages has happened here, except that the Maquas and Sinnc- 
kus, six hundred strong, have attacked a fort, defended by seventeen Frenchmen and one hundred 
savages : they overpowered the garrison and put them all to death with the exception of two 
Frenchmen and twenty savages, whom they carried as prisoners back to their fort ; they have lost 
fourteen killed ; nineteen were wounded. Hoping shortly to have the pleasure of seeing you or 
sending you my regards through Johannes Provost I remain meanwhile 
Fort Orange Your Honors' obedient servant 

15 June 1660. La Montagne 

Letter from Directoe Stuyvesant to Ensign Smith, respecting affairs at Esopus. 

Honorable, Valiant Sir. 
I have with pleasure learned by your last letter that the Esopus savages desire peace ; before 
we come to confirm it, we judge it advisable and also necessary, that the two savages, who are still 

176 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson Rivei'. 

kept as prisoners at the Aesojms, be first sent down and the sooner the better, which you will carry 
out upon sight of this, after the yacht shall have been unloaded and you will despatch the sailing 
of the yacht as much as possible. Claes de Ruyter shall in the meantime remain there, until I 
come, to have the Sachems and other Aesapus savages ready at my arrival. No more at present ; 
I commend you to God's protection and am etc. 
Amsterdam, 18'" June 1660. 

Extracts from a letter of the Director and Council of New-Netherland to 
THE Directors in Holland ; defending their course against the Indians ajstd 


Dated 25^« June 1660. 
■ji- * * * * * 

It is only rumored, that during the distressing occurrences and unexpected conflicts with the 
savages on the Esopiis as well in the last general massacre some acts have been committed by our 
nation, either prematurely or rashly, which had been better left undone, but in investigating the 
matter thoroughly, sufficient proof could not be found to punish, as an example for others, this or 
that act as tlie cause of these massacres. We have informed your Honors before this in detail 
regarding the general massacre and could enlarge on the occurrences at the Esopxis, which however 
at present time does not permit and it would also be unnecessary, as we have, in our former letter 
of the 29"" Octbr., reported the circumstances, origin and progress of it in detail, to which, if we 
have given any cause, we are not aware of it ; the barbarous tortures, which they suffered at the 
hands of the savages, overbalance their deserved punishment and it is therefore not necessary to 
make further inquiries, as to how they and we have fallen into the ditch, but it would be better to 
think of means how to get out of it and fill it up. If concerning the subject of the Esopxis, you 
would take up again our letters of A" '58 and '59, the vexation, threats and aff'ronts, inflicted from 
time to time upon our nation by the Elsopus savages would become apparent. Et tandem pati- 
entia laesu jit furor, therefore we have not failed to resent and resist them as far as possible with 
the force and means, entrusted to us by God and by your Honors and thus far we have abundant 
cause to thank the All-Good God for His blessing and the good results, of which more below or 
in the next letter. 

What your Honors recommend on this subject to our consideration, namely to punish, reduce 
and subdue the Esopus Indians through the Maquas or other friendly savages, that has often been 
thought of by us and we have tried to make the experiment, but we find the thing partly unsafe, 
because they are all savages and the word and promise of one cannot be believed any more, than 
that of the other, partly dangerous, especially and more so if we were to attempt it with the 
Ma<pi,as, than with other savages, for they are a self-exulting, arrogant and bold tribe, made too 
haughty through their continuous victories and advantages, which they have gained over the 
French themselves and French Indians in Canada', if we were to ask them hereto and they 
obtained and gained the desired result, they would exalt themselves and belittle us so much more 
among the other tribes and in case we should not reward them according to their avidity and appetite 
and did not continually stand there open-handed, we would constantly hear ourselves upbraided and 
would have to fear an attack, if we contradicted them. For these and many other considerations 
It is best, to stand as far as possible on our own feet and to pray the good God for a happ\' result; 
He has so far blessed our work, that the Esopus Indians have themselves and through neighboring 

]^ew YorTc Historical Recorih. 177 

tribes asked for peace several times, to which we have, for reasons shown in the enclosure No. , 
so far iitisented that an armistice has been granted. Your Honors will be informed of the further 
issue by our next letter. 


"We have been very much astonished by the appointment to and the delivery of the Sheriff's 
place at the Esopus to one lioeloff Swartwout, as well because of his minority as on account of his 
unfitness for the place, especially, when a court shall be needed there, which, as your Honors say, 
is as yet premature, as there is for the present no court of justice there and it does not appear, 
that one shall be there in a long while for want of inhabitants, fit to sit on the bench, 

Anyway, if in the course of time this should occur a man of greater age, capacity and esteem 
is required to take the Sheriff's place ; it must be one, who at the same time is able to attend there 
to the duties of Commissary for the Company. 

The sequel of your Honors' letter informs us of the concession and grant made to Jeronimus 
Ebbingh, who married the widow oi Johan de Hulter, that contrary to the general order he may 
leave his land untilled for two years. Regarding his petition, we hav^e to say that it will not only 
cause a great delay in the cultivation and settlement, but your Honors have also been deceived 
and mis-informed, as well concerning the extent and location of the land, as that one part of the 
same land was comprised or brought within the fortifications ; the contrary can be made as clear 
as daylight. As to your Honors' extension of time, if it should go into effect, then not one bouw- 
ery can during that period be made within the fortified settlement to the great inconvenience of 
the farmers, who came over in this ship, and of others who might desire to settle there, whereas 
otherwise the lands would have been taken by them at a reasonable price, to wit 10 or 12 guilders 
per morgen, the same for which they offered their land here at their departure leaving verbal orders 
and powers of attorney behind in regard to them, to convey them for that price to others, who 
should like them : this would have been done already, if the war with the savages had not delayed : 
12, 13 or 14 good bouweries can be made out of this land and the houses may be placed in and 
near the settlements for the greater security of all. It would be very expensive and inconvenient 
for the Company to begin a new village at a distance of a mile or one and a half miles, before this 
first one was properly established, but in order to sustain your Honors' concession, as far as the 
situation will permit and to guard as much as possible the owners against losses and complaints, we 
shall treat with them in this regard with all possible amity and friendship, either by buying the 
land from them at the aforesaid price or else, which is equally good, but somewhat remote to leave 
them in their places, that, when in the course of two or three years a new village should be estab- 
lished, they might be cultivated or conveyed to others according to their wish. 

Petition of Dieck Jansen and Loueens Lourensen fob payment of hike foe 


To the Noble, Very Worshipful Honorable Director- 
General and Council of New-NetJierland. 

Show with humble reverence Dirck Jansen and Laurens Laurensen, skippers of the yacht 
"<Ze Arent''\ that they, the petitioners, being with the same near the Em])us last year, with the 

178 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

intention of continuing their voyage to Fort Orange, Jacob Ilap deceased, and Thomas Chamhera 
came on board there with letters to your noble Worships, complaining of the great inconveniences, 
created there by the savages and demanding of them, that, as the welfare of the country was deeply 
involved, they should quickly return and deliver the letters, which they did and they brought 
down at the same time two soldiers; that they were quickly dispatched by your Noble Worships 
to the £!soj>us, which they executed also, and that they have been in service with their yacht for 
ten days and have had to make the trips, without taking in any cargo to their great loss and 
whereas the farmers are not willing now, to pay them for the aforesaid service, saying that it 
should be done by the country or by your Noi^le Worships, therefore they are compelled to address 
themselves to your Noble Worships and respectfully request, that your Noble Worships will please 
to order that their aforesaid services and the transportation of the two soldiers be paid with such a 
sura, as your Noble Worships shall deem equitable and fair ; doing which etc^. 

Your Noble Worships obedient servants 


DiRCK Jansen. 

The question having been put, the following decision was rendered : 

Before we can dispose hereof, the petitioners nmst prove, that they have been hired by ■the 
chief-officer there C)r upon his orders, else they must apply to them, M'ho have engaged them. On 
the 29'" of June A" 1660. 

Oedee foe the teanspoetation of the captueed Esopds Indians to Cueacao 


29'" June. 

Whereas a resolution was passed on the 25'" of May, to send the captured Esopus Indians to 
Curagao, for which an opportunity presents itself now, as Nicolae^ VarUth and Jacob Backer 
intend to let their ship soon depart for Ouraqao, therefore it is resolved to make a contract with 
them for the passage of the said savages, for which the Hon"'° Nicasius de Sille and Secretary 
Cornelis van Huyven are hereby specially authorized. Date as above. 

In pursuance of the foregoing resolution the Honorable Nicasius de Sille and Secretary Cor- 
nelis van Ruyven agreed in presence of the Hon'"^ General with S' Varleth and Jacob Baclcer, 
that for each savage should be paid as fare thirty-six guilders beaver value here or thirty guilders 
in silver or goods at current prices at Curcgao. Date as above 

Appointment of Maeten Ceegiee and Oloff Stevenson van Coetland, to ac- 

5'" July, Monday. 

Present in Council the Honorable Director-General, Pttrus Stuyvesant and Mr. Nicasius de 

Pursuant to the former resolution of the 21" of Juno and the promise made to the Esop^is 
savages, to make a peace with them upon the conditions proposed to them by the intei-jireter Claes 
Jansen de Ruyter and accepted by them according to a letter of Ensign Dirck Smith and the 

New York Historical Hecords. 179 

%-erbal report of the aaid interpreter, requesting only that the Hon'''" Director-General should him- 
self come with a good interpreter to conclude the peace and to let them have a small piece of land 
at a great distance, which they might plant and after due consideration thereof and reflection upon 
the importance of the matter and weakness of the board of Director-General and Council, they 
have unanimously decided and resolved, to send thither with the Honorable Director-General, one 
of the active Burgomasters and a former Burgomaster of this City, namely the Worshipful Marten 
Cregier and Oloff Stevenson, van Cortlandt, to assist the Hon'''"' Director-General in any difficulty 
with their advice and counsel. Thus done at the meeting in Fort Amst"^ in N. Netherland on 
the day as above. 

P. Stuyvesant. 

Extract from a lktter of Director Stuyvesant to the Vice-Director at Cn- 



* * 4f * * * 

I said in my last letter, that we were at open war with the savages of the Esopus, which the 
good God has thus directed and blessed that the barbarians, seeing no other way out of it, have 
solicited peace through nearly all the surrounding savages, offering all their lands for their depre- 
dations and leaving for greater security thereof the prisoners, taken since, in our hands, who are 
sent to the number of 10 or 11 by this vessel to your Honor, to be in safer keeping there on the 
Island and to be employed with the negroes in the Company's service until further advice. 

Hope is held out to the other savages, that if they keep their word in maintaining the peace, 
they may perhaps get back some of their transported friends ; as I am about to leave to conclude 
the solicited peace, I find little material and less time to enlarge this, therefore in closing etc. 

Treaty of peace, concluded with the Esopus Indians on the 15^" July 1660. 

Articles of peace, made at the request of the below named 
chiefs of the savages between the Hon. Petrus Stuyvesant^ 
Director-General of New-Netherland and the Sachems or 

Names of the chiefs, who asked chiefs of the Indians of the Esopus. 

for peace in the name of the 

Esopus savages and in whose , „ , .... . , . , i i, , ,, ... 

^, All hostilities on either side shall cease and all acts and iniu- 

presence the peace was con- . r „ , , , , r • , . , . , 

, , , ries shall be forgotten and iorgiven by either side, 

eluded : o e j 


Of the Maquas : . ' . , . „ . 

A 1 I • 1 Ihe ILsopus savages promise to convey, as mdemnmcation, 

Adognmnoakque , , /• .. t~v V, i ,■ i • ,■ i r- 

TTT , , to the aforesaid Director-General all the territory ot the A«£>jtws 
w othesaQiiaCi^ 

^ , and to remove to a distance from there, without ever returning 

again to plant. 

Of the Mohicans: 3. 

Esk^iyas, alias A&pye They promise further to pay to the said Director-General in 

Amp^imet return for the ransom, taken for the captured Christians, 500 


Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Catskil : 


Minqiias : 
On derishochq ue 

Wapj)ings : 

Of Ilackinkesachy : 

Of Staten-Island • 

The following are the names 

of the Esopus Sachems, with 

whom the treaty was made : 





schepels of Indian corn, one half during the next fall, when the 
corn is ripe, the other half or its value during the fall next fol- 

The Esopus savages promise to keep this treaty inviolable, 
not to kill horses, cattle, hogs nor even a chicken or if it should 
happen to be done, then the chiefs undertake to pay for it and 
in case of refusal one of them shall be kept in prison or imder 
arrest until the loss has been paid or made good, while on the 
other side the Director-General promises, that the Dutch neither 
shall be permitted to do any harm to them. 

If the Dutch should kill a savage or the savages a Dutchman, 
war shall not be immediately commenced again for that reason, 
but a complaint shall be made and the murderers shall be deliv- 
ered to be punished, as they deserve. 

The Esopus savages shall not come armed to the Dutch planta- 
tions, houses and habitations, but without arms they may go, 
come and trade as before. 

Whereas the last war was caused by drunken people, no savage 
shall be allowed to drink brandy or strong liquor in or near the 
Dutch plantations, houses or settlements, but he must go with it 
to his land or to some distant place in the woods. 

Included in this peace shall be all, not only the aforemen- 
tioned tribes of savages, but also all others, who are in friend- 
ship with the Director-General, among others especially the chief 
of Long- Island, Taj)ousagh and all his savages ; if any act of 
hostility should be committed against these, the Director-Gen- 
eral would consider it his duty, to assist them. 

The aforesaid chiefs, as mediators and advocates of the Esopus 
tribe, remain bondsmen and engage themselves, to have this 
treaty kept inviolate and in case the Esopus Indians should 
break the peace, now concluded, they undertake altogether to 
assist the Dutch to subdue the Esopus savages. 

On the foregoing conditions the said Director-General offered 
first to the aforesaid mediators and they accepted eacli a piece 
of cloth and to the chiefs of the Esopus savages 3 of their cap- 
tives and each a piece of cloth. 
Thus done and concluded at the settlement on the Esopus, under the blue sky, in presence of 
the Hon. Marten Cregier, Burgomaster of the City oi Amsterdam in Nexo- Netherlands Oloff Ste- 

Neto York Historical Records. 181 

venson Cortland, ex-Burgomaster, Arent van Curler, deputy of the Colony of Renselaerswyck 
and many people of the Esapus, both Christians and Indians, the 15"' July 1660. 

, P. Stuyvesant Marten Cregier 

Oloff Stevenson A. van Curler. 

Endorsements on the foregoing : 

5"' of August. 

After the report of the Hon*''" Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant, concerning the occurren- 
ces at (the Esoj)us), had been heard and read in Council, the same was duly thanked, on the day 
as above. 

The peace at the Esoptis having been concluded, the Director-General and his party left for 
Fort Orange and what has passed there, worth writing down, has been recorded hereafter. This 
pro inemoria. 

Extract from a letter of the Council of New-Netherland to the Directors 
IN Holland, communicating the conclusion of the peace with the Esopus 
Indians. 26.^" July 1660. 

In onr last preceding letter it has been stated, that the Esopus savages as well themselves as 
through other neighboring tribes, had several times applied to us for peace and that an armistice 
had been granted; since that time the Director-General has proceeded thither and after many 
debates finally a peace lias been concluded with them, at the request and intercession of the Ma- 
quaas, Minquaas, Mohicans, and other chiefs, the conditions of which are in substance as follows : 

All former acts are forgiven and forgotten. 

The country for 2 or 3 miles on either side of the Esopus Kil is given to us for reparation of 
the damages. 

For the ransom, which they took for our prisoners, whom they nevertheless killed, they are 
to pay 500 schepels of Indian corn or their value. 

No animal, small or large, is to be injured, much less killed, else they must immediately give 
prompt satisfaction or go to prison, until the damage is made good. 

No war is hereafter to be commenced for the sake of private quarrels, but the murderers are 
to be punished by either side to the satisfaction of the injured party. 

They are not to come armed into our places nor on our land. 

They are not to drink wine or other strong drinks in the neighborhood of our houses or 

The mediators are security for the concluded treaty. 

Minute of the return of the Director- General and party from the Esopus 


The Hon. Director-General, accompanied by the Burgomasters Marten Cregier and Olof 
Stevenson, who had left, pursuant to a former resolution of the 5"' of July, on the 7"' of the same 

182 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

month, arrived here again on the 31" and delivered the following report, entered nnder date of 
the 5"' of August. This pro rnemoria. 

Journal and adventures of the Hon**'" Birector 
on the journey to the Esopus. 

On the 7"" of July we left pursuant to the resolution and on the 9"", Friday, the chief of the 
Highlaiuls came aboard ; through him we sent two of his savages to the Esopus, to inform the 
savages of our coming. 

The 11"" of July, Sunday, we arrived at the Esopus and sent again some Savages to the Eso- 
pus savages and informed them of our arrival and that if they desired to talk with us, they should 
come the sooner the better. 

12"" do; savages again sent out; they sent word, that they should come to-morrow, Tuesday. 

IS"" do ; no Sachem has been heard from, but 10 common savages came, who said, the Esopus 
Sachems would not come on that day, but perhaps to-morrow or may be, they would not come at 
all ; nevertheless we sent again a savage to them. 

14*" do ; when up to noon no Esojms Sachem nor any news from them had been heard from 
we called before us the chiefs of the Alaquaas, 3 in number, the chiefs of the Mahicanders, also 
3 in number, the chief of the Wapjnngs and the chief of Ilackinghsachin, also one of the deputies 
from Staten- Island and made the following statement to them : 

First, that they all knew very well, that we had given no cause for the war between us and 
the Esopus savages, but that, after their having killed one of our people and burned 2 or 3 houses 
the year before, we had nevertheless forgiven it and renewed the peace promising each other, that 
henceforth no war should be begun, even though a man might be killed, but that the murderer 
should be surrendered and punished. 

The Esopus savages have nevertheless, now about 10 months ago, taken prisoners some of 
our people, fired some of our houses, besieged and attacked this place on the Esopus and making 
us believe during the siege, that they desired to make peace and would let us ransom the prisonere 
ftnd the ransom for our captives being ready and brought before the gate, tiie Esopus savages 
took it away by force, kept our prisoners, and afterwards shamefully killed them, whereby we 
were compelled to begin this war. 

However, at the request of all the savages, who are our friends and who solicited peace for the 
Esopus savages, at the intercession of our friends, the Maquaas, Mahicandey's, Highlanders, Min- 
quaas, Catskils and others we have made an armistice with the Esopus savages, who thereupon 
were very glad and requested of our soldiers, stationed at the Esopus, that we should come ourselves 
to the Esopus to conclude a firm peace. Having come and brought some of our friends, to make 
a firm peace in their presence, the Esopus savages stay away, without once coming to us or speak- 
ing of peace. 

I had the aforesaid chiefs informed, that they all could see now, that it was not our fault, but 
that the Esopus savages were trifling with us as well as with them. 

And as it did not suit us, to remain here long waiting for an uncertainty and as further the 
Maqnaas and other chiefs were tired waiting and would like to leave as much as we, I requested 
them all to take notice thereof and to inform all otlier chiefs and savages, our friends, of it and to 
tell them not to trouble themselves any more about the Esopus savages nor to let them live among 

Yet to give them full measure, I had them informed, that we should wait till evening and if 
they did not come then, we would leave during the night. 

New Yorlc Historical Records. 183 

Towards evening of the li"" of July four of the Eaopus chiefs, to wit Kalcop, Seewackaenarao, 
JVesAa/u'waa and Pamijyrawach appeared at the gate of the settlement of Esopus. 

In presence of the below named chiefs of the Maquaas, MinquoMs, Mahicanders, Catskils, 
Wappin^s, Ilackinkeaackinyhs, and the representatives from JVaJack and Ilaveratroo one of the 
Jlinquaas chief, called Onderlshoghque took the word in the name of the others. His first propo- 
sition was in substance as follows : that the Esopus savages had come to them, the Minquaae, 
complaining, they were engaged in such a terrible war with the Dutch / to which the answer was 
made, You have first done or commenced it, it is your fault, therefore we cannot give you any 
assistance upon j-our complaint but we will, as far as is in our power, solicit peace for you and 
help to promote it ; for the present, made by the Esopus savages when asking for help, he has 
now brought in return a present towards the peace, which he asks for them ; he says, that if they 
could not obtain it, the Esopus savages would return home crying. 

We answered him upon the foregoing statement through our interpreter, that not only the 
Jlinquas but also the Mahicanders, Maquas, Catskils, Highlanders, JIackinghsacks and other 
surrounding friendly tribes had asked for peace for the Esopus savages and that out of regard for 
the requests made by our friends, we were quite willing to treat with the Esopiis, if we could feel 
assured of peace; after this had been represented to them once or twice, the Maquaas, Minquaas 
and other beforementioned chiefs were asked, whether they would be bail, that the Esopus Indi- 
ans should not again begin, as they have done now. 

Whereupon the Macquaa chief Adoghwatque proposed and said to the Esopus savages : The 
whole country is now assembled on your account, (who have always quarrelled and begun war,) 
to solicit peace for j'ou and to conclude it. If this shall have been made, do not begin again 
for your lives, for if you begin again and do not heed us, we shall most surely not intercede for 
you another time. The Minquaas chief took up the word and admonished the Esopus savages in 
the same manner, that they must not begin again nor that they should kill any horses or cattle 
nor that they should steal anything, but they must buy or earn it and live with the Dutch like 

After a little consultation and talking among each others the Minquaas chief continued his 
proposition to the Esopus savages: You harm us Minquaas and the Macquaas every time; it is 
not your land, but it is oure, therefore do not begin it again, but throw down the hatchet and 
trample it into the ground, that the hatchet may never again he taken up. He gives thereupon 
a string of white wampum. 

The aforesaid Macquaes taking the word spoke to our Dutch people of the Esopus and 
admonished them in his manner, that they too should not begin again and that they should not 
box the ears of the Esopus Indians and then ridicule them ; thereupon he took the hatchet out of 
the hands of the Esopus savages, threw it down and trampled it into the ground, saying Now 
they shall not begin again for their lives. 

The Esopus savages continued then : Now, we have let the hatchet be taken from us and 
trampled into the ground, we shall not take it up again in eternity. 

After the foregoing discussion we answered the Esopiis savages through our interpreter, that 
we were willing, at the request, made in their behalf by all the aforesaid chiefs, our friends, to 
conclude a treaty of peace with them on the conditions previously communicated to them by our 
interpreter Claes de liuyter, to wit: 

1. That they must return all the muskets, wampum, duffels and other goods, given by our 
people for om- prisoners and taken by them, notwithstanding which they shamefully murdered 
the prisoners afterwards. 

184 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

2. To compensate for the damages done to us and that the peace may be kept better, they 
must remove from the lands on the Esopus to some distance and convey the land to us, without 
being allowed to plant there again. 

3. They should, not do any harm either by killing hogs or otherwise ; if any harm should 
happen to be done by somebody, they must pay for it immediately and if they did not, then some 
one of them is to be arrested until the payment is made. 

Fourthly and lastly, the other chiefs of the Macquaas, Mahikdnders, Mincqxiaas and other 
tribes shall be bail, that the corn will be delivered and that they do not begin again and if they 
should default, that then they shall help us to whip the Esopus savages. 

Fifthly, not only we, but all other savages, our friends shall be included in this treaty and 
among others especially those of Long-Island, to wit the chief Tapusagk with his savages of 
Iteckowacky , Marsepyn and Canaresse. 

The aforesaid having been accepted by them, the peace with the Esopus Indians was concluded 
under the following stipulations. 

Conference held at Foet Orange (Albany) between the Director-General 
AND the Senegas. 
Present the Hon. Director- 
General and the gentlemen Propositions made to us by the 
of the two courts here. Sinneekes at Fo7-t Orange, the 

25"' July A" 1660. 

They say in the beginning, that it is now some years past, since they have been at the Mam,- 
liatans and brought presents there, without having received any return for it, not even a pipeful! 
of tobacco, whereupon they give three beavers. 

Secondly, they say that, a year or two ago, they requested, that they should receive a blanket 
and a piece of cloth for one beaver, to which they got no other answer, than that we would tell 
them, when the ships came ; whereupon they give three beavers. 

Thirdly, we have only a little request to make to you and yet what we ask for is, as if M^e run 
against a stone ; they give thereupon three beavers. 

Fourthly, they say, when we were at the Manhatans we have concluded our friendship with 
a chain and united each others and this is now for a renewal of it, giving three beavers. 

Fifthly, they say, let us have one mind and if you make a request to us, we shall listen to 
you, whereupon they give three beavers. 

Sixthly, they say, we are now engaged in a great war and cannot obtain either powder or lead 
or else we must have beavers and a good soldier ought to have powder and lead instead of nothing ; 
they give thereupon three beavers. 

7"". They say, we thank you, that we now receive everything as a present, caps, socks, shoes, 
shirts, cloth, whereupon they give two beavers. 

S"*. They say, now number of Sinnekes shall again come and request, that they may barter 
their beavers at pleasure and that they may not be locked up by the Dutch, but that they may go 
with their beavers where they please, without being beating, when they want their beavers to go 
to another place to trade ; they give three beavers. 

9"". They say, you have taken us and the Macquaas and Mahikanders with you to the peace 
conference at the Esopus, now you should return the captured Esopus savages; they give two 
small beavers. 

New Yoj'h Historical Records. 185 

2Qth_ ■^g jjj.g very well pleased, that 3'ou have made peace with the Esopus, we have soiiie- 
tiines to make use of the road, it is very good, that brothers live in peace. 

11"'. They say, you are the chief of the whole country, to whom we all look up and we have 
asked a piece of cloth for one beaver, 50 hands full of wampum for one beaver, and 30 hands full 
of powder for one beaver, but you have been sleeping until now and therefore we now wake you 
up again ; they give three beavers. 

j2th_ They say, we must work hard to fetch the beavers through the enemy's country, there- 
fore we ask, that we may obtain much powder and lead, for if the enemies overpower us, where 
shall we then catch the beavers ; they give two beavers. 

IS"". They say, they ask, that henceforth it shall be fixed, that they shall receive 30 hands 
full of black wampum for one beaver ; they give thereupon 2 beavers. 

li"". They say, that they request, they may get from now 60 hands full of white wampum 
for one beaver and give thereupon 2 beavers. 

IS"". They say, when we are sometimes in a trader's house and wish to go to another's to buy 
goods, which suit them, then we get a good beating, so that we do not know where our eyes are 
and that ought not to be, each ought to go where he pleases and where the goods suit him best ; 
they give hereupon 2 beavers. 

IG"". They say, we have now asked that the Dutch shall not beat us any more, you must now 
forbid the Dutch to do it, so that we may smoke tobacco in peace ; buy 3'ourselves now tobacco for 
two beavers then you can smoke it and consider everything well ; we intend to come with all the 
chiefs next year and hear it all ; this is now only to wake you up, but then we will speak to you 
plainly ; they give thereupon 2 beavers. 

IT"*. They say, the Dutch send so many brokers into the woods from one house, that they do 
not know, where to go with tlieir beavers, each ought to have something ; they, that is the brokers, 
drag one, that he does not know, which M'ay to go ; this ought not to be permitted, but each house 
ought to have something ; they give thereupon one beaver. 

18"". They say, the French savages are to come to the Cahoos to the Mahikanders, wherefor 
they lament very much ; now as you are boimd to them by a chain, you too ought to be sorry ; 
they give 1 beaver. 

IG"". They request, that the Director-General should warn all the Dutch, not to beat the 
Indians any more, else the Diitch will say, we do not know anything about it and that we with 
our beavers may go where we like without being beaten ; they give thereupon 1 beaver. 

Answers to the propositions made 
by the Sinnecus chiefs. Dated 26"' 
July A" 1660. 

l"' proposition answered : It is true, our brothers have been at the Manhatans 2 or 3 years ago 
and made a treaty of friendship with us, which we shall always maintain, as we have done so far 
and always will and because the tobacco was forgotten at that time, we give them now a roll of 
tobacco, that, when they return to their country, they may remember their friendship and keep it 
as firmly, as if they were bound to us by a chain. 

2. "We have made peace with the Mopus at the request of our brothers, the Macquaas, MahiJcan- 
ders and other friends, so that we and they may freely and safely use the roads and rivers and we 
give you the hatchets, which we now lock up and you are charged not to kill any horses or cattle, 
when you go away from here. 

186 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

3. Our brothers, the Sinnekus, have tlianked us, because we have made peace with the Esopus ; 
we now request them, that they too should make and keep peace with the Macquaas, so that we 
may also use the roads to them freely and safely, as both our brothers do here. 

4. As our brothers complain, that they cannot get enough powder, we give them now a keg full 
of powder, but they must not use it against our brothers, the Macquaas, only against their distant 
enemies, where they have to bring the beavers from. 

5. The brothers complain, that their beavers are locked up, when they come into the houses; we 
have forbidden our people to do so three days ago and the brothers may go with their beavers, 
where they please. 

6. Brothers, if any Dutchman beats you, come to the Sachems and make a complaint or if any- 
body of the Dutch keeps or locks up your beavers, they will see that you get them back. 

7. Brothers, it is well, that everybody goes now with his beavers, where he likes, and no brokers 
shall henceforth be sent, but everybody may go with his beavers, where he likes and you are there- 
fore directed not to listen to any broker, but strike them on the head, so that one cannot see, 
where his eyes stand. 

8. The Dutch cannot consent to what the brothers request, that we should give so much cloth or 
wampum for one beaver, as it has to come a great distance over the sea. 

Lease of a Farm at Claverak. 
(Fort Orange Records. Vol. Notarial Papers, 16G0-1676.) 

This IT"" day of August 1660 appeared before me, Dirck van Schelluyne, Notary Public etc 
Mr. Abraham Staats, merchant at Beverwyck, party of the first part, and Christoffel Davids and 
Hendrick Eets, farmers, parties of the second part. The said Staats declares to have let and the 
said Davids and Eets to have rented from him a certain bouwery, belonging to the lessor, situate 
and lying at the Claverak for the term of three consecutive years, beginning on the next first of 
October and to end the last of September 1663. ******** 

Kent 150 fl a year during the first two years and 200 fl the third year. * * * 

PExmoN OF Rev. Hermanos Blom and Rev. Heneicus Seltnus foe an allow- 

Thursday, 2'' September (1660) 

Present in Council the Hon''"' Director-General Petrus Stuyvcsant, Messires Nicasius de 

Sille and Johan de Deckere, Councillors. 

To the Right Honorable Director-General 
and Council of New-Netherland. 

"Whereas we, the undersigned, have left home in the service and employ of the Right Honor- 
able Lords-Directors of the Incorporated West-Lidia Company, Department of Amsterdam, to 
preach the Holy Gospel and by God's grace have safely arrived in New-Netherland, but could 

New Yoi'h Hiatoiical liecords. 187 

not be immediately forwarded to our places (to wit Esopus and Brooklyn, where wc were ordered 
by their Lordships to take charge of the divine service and propagate the knowledge of God) 
except upon a proper and solemn order of your Honorable Worships and have especially at the 
Manhatans, where we took up our provisional residence, waited with sincere desire for the time 
and opportunity of being forwarded and introduced into the service of the church, Therefore we, 
the petitioners, request with all respect and due reverence, that your lion''''' Worships will please 
to take upon themselves the payment of our expenses for board and lodgings, according to the 
laudable instructions given by the Hon"" Assembly of the XIX and delivered to us, the petitioners, 
with new signatures by the Lords-Directors, reading: Artie. XV the preachers etc*. 

By doing this, your Hon"'" Worships will oblige the petitioners and animate them in their 
service of the Word, in the meantime they hope for a favorable resolution and i-emain 

Your Honorable Worships' 

faithful servants 
(signed) Heemanus Blom 
Pastor at Esopus 
Henricus Seltns 
Pastor at Breuckelen 

The foregoing petition having been received and read, the following decision was made : 

For as long a time as the petitioners have been here at this place from their arrival until this 
day one beaver per week shall be allowed to them for board and lodgings. Date as above. 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Petrus Stuyvesant; 
they have received the news of the peace on thf, esopus with pleasure, 
on account of the consequent revival of agriculture and are astonished 


Esopus. 20" Septbr 1660 
We have been pleased and gratified to hear of the good success, which your Honors have had 
against the Esopus Indians, as it is in our opinion a matter of great importance. For, if the wings 
of this barbarous nation could be clipped in such a manner, that they are kept without the power 
and danger of doing harm, then, it is certain, that the cultivation of the soil shall be undertaken 
with greater zeal and better result and shall increase directly more and more. And, while, as we 
have said before, we trust, that your Honors shall not be disturbed by the English neighbors and 
consequently shall have the hands free in that direction, yet your Honors ought not to neglect to 
pursue and bring to a successful end the results gained from the said Esopus Indians, so that then 
the Newesinks and Raritans tribes may be taken in hand with so much more safety and brought 
to reasonable terms or perhaps be reduced and made undangerous. 


We are glad, that the Eisopus savages have asked and solicited jjeace as well directly as through 
others, as it is a sign, that their courage indeed failed them and we had grown more awe-inspiring 
Esopus. to them. The motives, which caused your Honors to grant them first an armis- 

tice, are not without foundation and as a peace was to be the final consequence, we will hope that 

188 Colonial Settlements on the Hvdaon River. 

the same shall be kept by them and shall be firm and permanent. Your Honors should have the 
hands free in that direction, to resist the English usurpations, in case they should contrary to our 
expectations carry them out. 

"We have more reason to be astonished over the rejection of and objection to our choice, made 
Roeioff Swart- o^ the person of Roeloff Swartwout as Sheriff on the Esopxis, than your Honors 

wout. have had in regard to his having been chosen, in which as we have had sufficient 

judgment, we also believe to possess power and authority, to have our orders and commands strictly 
obeyed and we desire this especially in this case, unless much can be said of the said Swartwouf s 
life, for in other respects he is old enough to be fit and if there were any deficiency herein, then 
he has time to outgrow it, as he cannot execute his duties as long as there is no court of justice 
established there, which will not be the case yet for some time as your Honors say yourselves. 

When we had answered your Honors' letter so far and as far as we thought necessary, the 
ship called " S'^ Catherina " arrived here and with it a letter from the Council, dated 26"" July, 
in which we find nothing but the substance of the conditions of peace entered into and made with 
the Esopus savages ; we can therefore only say in regard to it, we hope and wish, that it will and 
may tend to the welfare of the country and its inliabitants. 


(23" Septbr 10.60) 

The petition of Marritje Huyherts, wife of Tomas Huggens was taken up and read, who 
demonstrated, that during the defense against the Esojms savages she had loaned a horse to Ser- 
geant Christian Niesen by order of the Ensign, for the service of the Company; this horse having 
been killed by the savages, she asks for payment for it. 

Everybody's opinion having been asked, it was answered: 

Before a decision is given hereon, the petitioner must prove, that the horse belonged to her 
alone and after that has been done, she must have it appraised by impartial men, not according to 
what it was worth at the purchase, but at the time and under the circumstances, when it was 
Jdlled in the service of the country. Date as above. 

Petition of Surgeon Gysbert van Imboech for Payment of his bill for attend- 

(SO"- Septbr 1660) 

Copy. To the Right Hon"'" Director-General 

and the Hon"'" Council of New-Neth- 

Shows with due reverence Geysben van Imhurch, surgeon at Fort Orange, that a short time 
ago during the war with the Esopus Indians lie, the petitioner, has treated one Dominicus, a sol- 

Neto Yorh Historical Recoi-ds. 189 

dier of the Ilon'''^ West-India Comjjany, who was brought to Fort Orange by the Hon'''" Director- 
General himself on account of bis severe wounds, he having eighteen different wounds and 
whereas he, the petitioner, cannot be credited by the lion"'* Receiver for the amount of his fees 
the sura of which is 80 fl. in beavers according to the account rendered, without your non"" Wor- 
shij)s' order, therefore lie requests with all respect, that j'our Hon'''° Worehips will please to direct 
his Honor, the Receiver, to credit him, the petitioner, for the amount of his fees either on the 
account of his former patient or that of the Hon"'" Company, as your Hon'''" Worships may 
decide, so that in due time he may have the benefit of it; not doubting which he remains 

Tour Hon"'" Worships obedient servant 

(signed) Gysbert van Imborch. 

The foregoing petition was taken up and read and after everybody's opinion had been asked, 
it was decided, as follows : 

Fifty guilders in beavers are allowed to the petitioner on account of the Company for curing 
the aforesaid person. Date as above. 

Extract from a letter of the Director and Coukcil to the Directors in Hol- 
land : Rev. Blom has been put in charge of his church : Serg''. Andries Lou- 
rensen returns to holland well recommended. 6'" octbr 1660. 


The two preachers, lately arrived here, D° Blom, and Selyns have been put each in his place, 
in accordance with your Honors' orders and their nomination. 


The former Sergeant Andries Laurens, who goes over in the ship " Kyckcnhooin ", has re- 
quested us for a letter of recommendation, that the balance of the monthly pay due him, 94 guild- 
ers, might be paid to him by your Honors in silver-money (as he said, he had no other money for 
his travelling expenses). Considering his good services at all occasions, in war and in peace, we 
could not refuse his request. We would therefore respectfully ask your Honors to accommodate 
him in this matter. 

Report of Director Stutvesant's visit to Esopus and Fort Orange. 

9"- November (1660) 

It was stated at the meeting by the Hon'''" Director-General, Petrus Shiyvesant, that his 
Honor intended, to go from here to the Esopus to morrow if the weather was favorable, to accel- 
erate the threshing of a quantity of grain for the Company and make arrangements for completing 
the redoubt there, preparing the dwelling of the preacher etc. Date as above. 

On the lO"" November his Honor sailed in the yacht of Ylodder and returned here on the 27"" 
reporting in substance as follows : 

First, that there was little hope at the Esopus to get from there a quantity of grain before 
the winter, because the fanners there had as yet threshed nothing or only a little. 

190 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Second, that this had made his Honor resolve to take a trip to Fort Orange, to see whether 
they had more in store there, but that on account of the sudden frost he had not been able to get 
more than 150 schepels. 

Third, that his Honor had also met there some of the Macquaas chiefs, who said, it was their 
intention to make an expedition with a number of men against the Kinnebeck Indians in a short 
time, upon which statement his Honor had proposed to them, in consequence of the request pre- 
viously made to us by his Honor, the Governor of Boston,, rather to try and make peace with' each 
other etc and that he had finally persuaded them so far, that they promised first to speak about it 
with the other chiefs, before they started. On the 27"" Novbr. 1660. 

Extract from a letter of the Director and Codncil to the Directors in Hol- 

not last long. 9'"' December 1660. 

Matters here are in a reasonably quiet condition as well in regard to the barbarians as to the 
neio-hbors, at least we neither hear nor learn of any troubles, though some people believe, that the 
Esopus savages will keep the peace no lounger, than until they see a decided advantage: against 
this we keep good watch and an eye on the sail ; they are quite bold and saucy in their talk and 
have as yet not delivered the promised corn ; the Sachems plead in excuse, that on account of the 
war they could plant little or nothing ; which stands to reason and therefore we have less insisted 
upon it. 

We have not yet attended to the Newesinks Indians, because the Sachems and the greater 
part of these savages make the excuse, not to have had any knowledge of the murder and at the 
same time show the impossibility of apprehending and surrendering the delinquents, without plac- 
ing themselves in danger of being massacred by their relations. They have asked several times 
and also made presents, that the matter should be adjusted and forgotten this time, which we have 
so far refused for good reasons and have insisted, that they should surrender the murderers or at 
least some of them, while we take in consideration the uncertainty of the result and that the war 
would be very injurious to the newly commenced plantation and through fresh complaints would 
delay the increase of population : we hesitate therefore to give them fresh causes for it and to 
compel them by force of arms to an act of probable impossibility. 

Letter from Sergeant Christian Ntssen to Director STurvESAin' on the state 


Noble, Very Worshipful, Wise and Prudent, Honorable Director-General. 

I inform your Honor herewith, that I have duly received on the 12 X'" by Willem Moer, the 
skipper, the goods sent to me and that the roof of the house on the strand is ready, my quarters 
have also been prepared, as they ought to be and as your Honor ordered it. I would have sent 
your Honor some wheat, but a sutficient quantity had not yet been threshed, but I shall send a 

JS'ew York Historical Records. lyl 

party of it by the first opportunity. I coinuiend your Honor to the protection of the Almighty. 
In haste 

Your Honorable Worships' most 
Esopu.% 1660 obedient servant 

the 13"' X"". Cheistiak Nyssen. 

Council Minutes. Indian Conference at Fort Orange. 

Proposals made by the chiefs of the Maquas in 
presence of both the Courts, this 22" day of 
January A" 1661, at Fort Orange. 

They say first, that they have travelled over the whole country and have also been in the Sin- 
nekus country and they intend at present to go to the Southriver, to bring presents there and in 
passing here, they give us notice of their passage and of their intention to go through the Esojpus, 
because the Esopus savages had said, that when the Maquas would go to the Southriver and would 
pass there, they would kill them : they mean to show hereby, that they do not fear the Esopus 
savages and present two fathoms of wampum. 

Second. They will not call upon the Esopus savages in passing there, because the latter have 
said, the Maquas were the cause, why they had lost so many men in the war against the Dutch. 
They present a belt of wampum. 

They say finally, that the chain, by which they and the Dutch are held together in brotherly 
friendship, shall not be broken by them and they thank the Hon''''^ General for the cloth, which he 
gave them, when he was here. They say, that they came too late into the country, their people 
were already out on their expedition and like madmen did not want to return. Hereupon they 
present a belt of wampum. 

The members of both the Courts thank the Maquas for the continuation of their good feel- 
ings and for having called in passing ; they present them with 5 pounds of powder, 5 staves of 
lead, a dozen of knives, some awls and a roll of tobacco. 

Letter from the Magistrates of Fort Orange to Director Stuyvesant; 

PEACE negotiations AMONG THE InDIANS. 

Honorable, Valiant and Worshipful Gentlemen. 

The report brought by several savages of the Highland and Northern tribes concerning the 
mortality at and around the Manhatans has created such a fear here, that we could get the bearer 
hereof only with difficulty, to send him down according to the yearly custom. He comes therefore 
so late. 

The chiefs of the Maquas put in an appearance here on the 22'' inst. and made some proposals 
in presence of both the courts, of which a copy is sent herewith. Your Honors will sec by it, 
what must be done to mediate between them and the Northern savages, to bring about an armis- 
tice or peace. We have tried to induce them to make one or the other, but their answer was, that 
their children cried, because they had not revenged such treachery. 

192 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

The aforesaid Maquas go South with considerable presents, to make peace between the Min- 
quas and the Sinnekus, pursuant to the wishes of the Hon"'" General. 

No change in the affairs here has taken place, which it is worth while to report. The savages 
keep quiet on all sides, but the Esopus savages are in danger of being attacked by the Maquas, if 
they do not keep their tongues in check. That would do us no harm. We close herewith and 
commend your Honors to the protection of the Almighty, while we remain 

Your Honorable Worships' 
I^ort Orange, hmnble servants 

29"' January, A° 1661. La Montagne 

Andeies Hekbeets 
EuTGEE Jacobs 
Feanz Barentz Pastook 
Ehveet Jansen Wendel 

Indian Deed for an Island in the Esopus. 

(Fort Orange Records. "Vol. Notarial Papers, 1660-1676.) 

This 25"' of January 1661 Yolckert Jansen and Jan Thomasen acknowledged and declared 
to have made an agreement with the Indians called Syme, Capachik and Nachanan, acting for 
themselves and for their blood relations and co-proprietors, in regard to the sale of one half or of 
as much as they still have a right and title too in an island lying Eastwards in the Kil by afore- 
aid Volckert Jansen^ s and Jan Thomasen! s bouwery, including the little island near by, called by 
the Indians Nanoseck and by the Dutch Little Cupper'' s Island, etc. etc. 

Deposition in regard to the Division of Land at the Esopus in 1654. 

This 2'' of FeV 1661, appeared before me Dirck van Sehelhiyne Notary Public etc. Jan 
Verbeeck and Francis Pietersen carpenter, who at the request of Evert Pets declared it true and 
well known, that they had both been present, Avhen in the spring of 1654 Evert Pels and the late 
Jacob Jansen Stoll divided the land, bought by them together from the Indians at the Eopus and 
as by the survey it was foimd that Jacob Jansen Stoll had received 7 or 8 morgens more than said 
Pels, Jacob Jansen said he would request the Director-General Stuyvesant and try to obtain in 
place of it as much land more from the Indians for said Pels, where it was most convenient for 
his lot. Thus done etc. 

G. SwARTT Jan Verbeeck 

Jan Dieoksen van Beemen Frans Pietersen 

D V. ScHELLUYNE, Notary Public, 1661. 

Nexo Yoj-h Historical liecords. 


Indiak deed foe an Island in Hudson's eiver, opposite BExnLEUEM, caxled 
Long or Mahicander's Island. 

Before me, Johannes La Montague, appointed by the Hon''''' Director-General and Conncil 
of JVew-NetJierland as Vice-Director and Commissary of J^ort Orange and the village of Beuer- 
wych, three savages and a squaw appeared, to wit : Machsapeen alias Macsac/i Niemanau, Sanse- 
wanou, Pamenseen and the squaw Nipapoa, who are together owners of the island called Pucho- 
nahellich, and declared in presence of Aepjen and JVita.morit, both Sachems of the 3[ahicam.ders, 
that they have sold, ceded and conveyed, as they herewith sell, cede and convey as real and actual 
property to and in behalf of Andries Herhertsen and Ruiger Jacohsen, inhabitants of the village of 
Beverwyck, the aforesaid island Pachonahellick, situate in this river opposite Betldelietn and called 
Long or Mahicander'' s Island by the Butch, together with all the rights and privileges, which they 
possess, in consideration for a certain sum paid to them in goods, which they, the sellers, acknowl- 
edge to have received to their satisfaction. This done in the village of Beverwyck in presence of 
Gerrit Bancher and Johannes Proovost, called as witnesses, this S"* day of Fe1iruary A" 1661. 

It was signed : This cT^z/w-v— is the mark of Macsach Nieilinou, this ' __ is the mark 
of Sansewanou, this is the mark i/\/\/\^ of Pamenseen, this the mark j I of Nipapoa, this -f of 
Aepjen, this !?; of Nitamoeit, Geerit Banckeb, Johannes Provoost. 

Agrees with the original. 
A Patent for the T To my knowledge 

above was issued 
on the 10'" March 1661. 

Nota : For the above island the following was paid. 

6 rugs 

10 coats of duffel 

a 30 pounds kettle 

60 strings of wampum 

10 hatchets 

8 adzes 

z guns 

12 lbs of powder 

30 lbs lead 

3 dozen knives 

12 cans of brandy 

1 half barrel of beer. 

La Montagne, Commissary 
at Fort Orange. 

10 pounds of 

Letter from John Stickland to , requesting him to ascertain, 

whether the place called Achtee Cull be open to settlement, etc. 

"Worthy Sir : After my due respects p''sented vnto you these few lines are to request a keind- 
ness of you, taking you to be my spetial frend and know no other like yourself to intrust in such 
a case as this : that you woulde be pleased to take the first and moste sutable oppertunity to speake 
with the honered gouernor deziring him to resolue in these parteculars first, whither or no that 
place vpon the mayne land, which is called Arther Cull bee free from any ingagements : secondly 
if free, then whither or no he will be plesed to grant it to a company of honest men that may de- 
ziere to sit doune ther to make a plantasion vnder his gouemment and that you would be pleased 
hauing so done to return an answer by the first, which we shall waight for, and hauing incorage- 

1^4 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson Itlve?: 

meat we shall forthwith adres oursehies to treate further with him aboute the matter thus not 
doubting of your faithf ullues herin I take leaue and rest yours to couiaude John Stwklin : From 
Huntington February 1 5"" 1660 : {old style) 

Lett me intreate you to send the answer to Samuevell Mathies at Rusdorpe, that it maye be 
conveied to me in safety : and that you woulde be pleased that it may be kept seerit houever itgoe. 
(In another handwriting) . S' if you Can w'*" Convenience I would intreate you to send me an answer by 
y" bearer of this, all convenient speede being requisite. 


Rev. Hekmanus Bloem. 

The undersigned inhabitants of tlie settlement at the place, called Esopus, promise to give our 
reverend minister Hermanus Bloem as salary for the first year (which salary has commenced with 
his arrival here on the 5"' of September 1660) the sum of seven hundred guilders in corn, at 
beaver valuation, in case his farm should fail and we promise further to put the farm in good 
order according to contract, as soon as the land has been allotted and to raise that sum at the latest 
for the coming farming season. This we, the imdersigned, promise faithfully and truly to do. 
^'hus done, the 4'" of March 1661. 

Thomas Chambers. 


The mark r£. of Gteetrdt Andeies. 


Alaeedt Heymensen Roose. 
The mark ^ of Juriaen Westvael. 

Oedinanoe of the Dieectoe and Council of Renselaeeswyck forbidding the 
teading with Indians in the woods. Passed 25"* March 1661 and appeoved 
25"' Apeil 1661. 

(See Laws of New-Netherland, p. 394.) 

Exteact feom a lettee of Dieectoe Stuyvesant to the Vipe-Director at Cu- 

16"' Apeil 1661. 
As the Esopus savages have kept quiet and behaved well since the peace lately made, they sug- 
gest, that we would still more oblige them and show our good will and favor, if we would release 
now and then one of their transported friends. Your Honor will therefore please to send two of 
them, of the better sort, liither by this or the first opportimity hereafter and with proper ti-eatment 
give them hope, that if they behave well the others too shall be released and sent back iu due time. 

New Yorh Historical litcords. 19!") 

Leti'ek from John Stickland to (Brian Newton) asking whether the country 
on the achter cull 18 open for settlement. 

■Worthy Sir. After my due respects p''sented vnto you these few lines ar to iutreate a courtesi 
of you, that you woulde be plcsed to speake with the honored gouernor and lorde Stevenson, to 
know of him, if that place which is called Arthor Coll be free to be disposed of and whither or no 
he will giue incoragement to a Company of the inglish nasion there to settle themselues, if vpon a 
vew made they shall take satisfaction and when 3'ou know his minde herin, that you would be 
pleased to return me a few words in answer by this bearer Samevell Matthews and accordingly my 
self with sum other frends, who haue an I that waye will address ourselues : I shall trubble you 
no fudder at p''seut, but to intreate to pardon my bowldnes and so rest your loving frend to comand 
John. StiHarid from huntington April 29 : 1661 : 

The foregoing request, made to Captain-Lieutenant Brian Nut07i, was handed in and com- 
municated by him to his Honor, the Director-General, who produced the same to the Council. 
After due consideration it was resolved, to reply to the said Captain-Lieutenant, that he might in- 
form the petitioners, that they could safely come to view the piece of land in question and if it 
suited them, further orders would be given on their request and propositions. 2* June 1661. 

Allotment and distribution of lots in the Esopus. 

Whereas his Honor, the Director-General, has been informed by several letters, that different 
persons had come to the Esopus to build there and are now only waiting to have proper places 
assigned, therefore his Honor and retinue proceeded thither in the galiot Neio-Avistel on tlie 26"' 
of April and returned on the 5"' of May, after having enlarged tlie settlement and allotted and 
distributed parcels of land to different parties imder the following conditions : 

The lots were distributed by lot under the condition, that every one enclose its breadth on 
the outside with good, stout and suitable pallisades. As the cross lots have a length of 14 rods on 
the outside, which is too much to bear for one person, whose parcel might by lot fall on the border 
of the garden, therefore the said 14 rods shall be enclosed by the owners of the four cross lots 
together, each marking 3|- rods. 

Subject to the foregoing condition the following persons drew lots : 
Kept open No. 1 Willem Jansen 8 

Hendrick Martensen 2 Pieter van Haelen 9" 

Uarmen Hendrick 3 Matthys Boeleffs 10 

Jan Jansen from Amesfoort 4 Jan Will£mse 11 

Jacob Barentsen 5 Anthony C7'eupel 12 

Jan Lootrnan 6 Gerrit Jansen van Campen 13' 

Ja^ob Joosten 7 

After the enlargement of the settlement had been completed, his Honor gave the following 
notice, which was then published and affi.xed, to the inhabitants of the Esopus and those who 
claim any land there. 


All Inhabitants of the settlement on the Esopus now called WiltwycTc and all others, who 
have or claim to have land in that vicinity are hereby commanded and directed, to have their cul- 

196 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

tivated and uncultivated land surveyed by tlie sworn surveyor within the time of six months, also 
to liave it marked and divided by proper signs and to ask and receive upon showing a certificate 
of survey, signed by the surveyor, a proper deed and j^roof of ownership under penalty of confis- 
cation, so that the rest of the land, which might not be covered by the deeds after the survey, may 
be distributed by Director- General and Council of New-Netherland for tlie accommodation of 
others, as it is proper ; let every body be warned against loss and subsequent complaint. Done in 
the village of Wiltwych, this 2" May 1661. 

Appointment of magistrates for Wiltwyck and thfjr oath ; a house fob the 


Whereas the settlement in the Esopus increases daily, it has been considered necessary to 
establish there a small bench of justice, as Commissaries of which his Honor, the General, has 
chosen Evert Pels, Cornelis Barentsen Slecht and Albert Heymanse Hoose, who took the follow- 
ing oath as Commissaries : 

We promise and swear in the presence of the Almighty and Everpresent God, that we will be 
true and faithful to the Director-General and Council, now in office or hereafter to be appointed, 
under the authority of Their High : Might : the Lords States-General, and the Lords-Directors of 
the Incorporated West-India Company, Department of Amsterdam, as our Masters and Patroons, 
that we will hold them and their orders in great respect and obey them, that we will administer 
good law and justice to the best of our knowledge, prevent all mutiny, strife and disorder and 
assist in preventing them by all our power, that we will maintain and exercise the Reformed 
church service and no other, obey the instructions received or hereafter to be received and finally 
do everything, which good and faitliful magistrates are bound to do. So help us God Almighty ! 

After the preceding had been aceomi^lished, his Honor, the General, gave also some orders 
concerning the erection of the preacher's house, which done his Honor left speedily, as he had 
received information of the arrival of two ships from Fatherland and returned to this place, as 
before mentioned, on the S"" of May. 

Instruction for the Court of Justice in Wiltwtck. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, in behalf of the High and Mighty Lords, the States-General of the United 
Netherlands, and the Lords-Directors of the Privileged West-India Company, Director-General of 
New-Netherland, Curacao, Aruha, and Bonayro and dependencies, together with the High Coun- 
cil, To all who shall see, or hear this read. Greeting. Be it known, that their Honors, hoping and 
wishing nothing else but the prosperity and welfare of their good inhabitants generally, and par- 
ticularly that of the residents in the village of Wiltwyck, situated in the Esopus ; and desiring 
that this may be effected and preserved with more love, peace and harmony, and to show to each 
inhabitant of the aforesaid village, and prove by deed its eiiects ; so is it, that the aforesaid Director- 
General and Council, considering the increased population of said village, resolve to favor its inhab- 
itants with a subaltern court of justice, and to organize it as far as possible, and the situation of 
the country will permit, in conformity with the customs of the city of Amsterdam in IToUand, 
but so, that from all judgments an appeal may be made to the Director-General and Council in 
New-Netherland, who shall reserve the power to give their final decision. 

New Yorh Ilistorical Hecords. 197 

It is, therefore, necessary, so tliat everything may be effected with dne order and respect, that 
there be chosen as judges, honest, intelligent persons possessing real estate, peaceable men, good 
subjects to their Lords and Patroons, and the high administratiou appointed by them in this coun- 
try, professors of the Reformed religion, as it is now preached in the United Netherlandish churches, 
in confoniiity to the word of God, and the orders of the synod of Dordrecht ; which conrt of jus- 
tice for the present time, till otherwise shall be ordained by the aforesaid Lords- Patroons in their 
authorized administration, shall consist of a Sheriff, being in loco, who shall summon in the name 
of the Director-General and Council, the appointed Schepens, and preside at their meeting ; and 
with him three Schepens, who for the present time and ensuing year, beginning with the last of 
May next, are elected by the Director-General and Council aforesaid, and confirmed after they 
shall have taken their oath. Evert Pels, Cornells Barentsen Sleght, and Elhert Heymans lioose. 
Before whom all cases relative to the police, security and peace of the inhabitants of Esopus, so 
too all suits between man and man, shall be brought, heard, examined and determined by delini- 
tive judgment, to the amount of fifty guilders and below it, without appeal. But on higher sums 
it shall be left to the discretion of the aggrieved to appeal to the Director-General and Council 
aforesaid, provided that he enters the appeal in due time, and procures bail for the prosecution and 
expenses of the law-suit, according to law. 

If there be a disparity of votes and opinions on any occurrent affairs, then the minority shall 
coincide with the majority without contradiction. But it is permitted to those who adopt another 
opinion or advice, to have their sentiments and advice registered on the roll or protocol. But they 
shall by no means publish out of court their advice, or communicate the same to the parties, under 
arbitrary correction, at the discretion of the bench. 

The Sheriff shall, in conformity to the first article, preside at the meeting, collect the votes, 
and act as secretary till further orders, or until the population is increased. But, whenever he 
shall either act for himself, or in behalf of the rights of the Lords-Patroons, or in behalf of justice 
in the place of the Attorney-General, in all such cases he shall leave his seat, and absent himself 
from the bench, and in such cases he shall not have an advisory, much less a casting vote. In all 
such cases, one of the oldest Schepens shall preside in his place. 

Wliat in the aforesaid article is decreed with regard to the Sheriff shall take place, in a similar 
manner, with respect to the Schepens, whenever, in the aforesaid court, any cases or questions 
might occur between them as parties or others, nearly allied in blood to the appointed Schepens, 
as when a brother, a brother-in-law, or a cousin is concerned, viz. : in the first and right line. 

All inhabitants of the Esopus are, till further orders, either from the Lords-Patroons, or their 
higher magistrates, subjected and may be summoned before the aforesaid Sheriff and Commissa- 
ries, who shall hold their court, in the village aforesaid, every fortnight — harvest time excepted 
— unless necessity or occasion might otherwise require. 

To procure the good inhabitants oiWiltwyck a civil and easy administration of justice, the 
Sheriff as President, and the Schepens of this court, shall, for the better conveniency of parties, 
appear at the appointed day and place, on the fine of twenty stivers, to be disposed of by the col- 
lege, when they shall have been informed by the court messenger, qualified for that pui-pose by 
the Director-General and Council, at least twenty-four hours, of the sessions of the court, and 
double this sum for the President, except by sickness or absence. If they arrive too late, or after 
the stated hour, the penalty shall be six stivers. 

No extraordinary sessions shall, at the expenses and burdeTis of the parties, be called, except 
at the request of both parties, with submission to the costs, in case of the loss of the suit ; which 
costs shall previously be secured by the solieitant or plaintiff, viz. : for each Schepeu, fifteen stivers; 

198 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

for the President, three guilders ; besides a provision for the clerk, yet to be appointed, the court 
messenger, and other necessary costs, agreeably to law. 

All criminal cases shall be directly referred to the Director-General and Council in Neio-Neih- 
erlandi provided that the court remains obliged to apprehend, arrest, detain and imprison the 
delinquents till they have a proper opportunity to transport them with safety before the supreme 
magistrate of the land, while in the meantime, they are holden to take good and correct informa- 
tions with regard to the committed crime, at the expense of the criminal, or in behalf of the Attor- 
ney-General, and transmit these together with the delinquent. 

Lesser crimes, as quarrels, injuries, scolding, kicking, beating, threatenings, simply drawing a 
knife or sword, without assault or bloodshed, are left to the judicature and decision of the aforesaid 
court, in which cases the Sheriff may act as plaintiff before said court, with reservation of the 
clause of appeal, if the condemned feel himself aggrieved by the decision of said court. 

All criminals and delinquents guilty of wounding, bloodshed, fornication, adultery, public and 
notorious thefts, robberies, smuggling or contraband, blasphemy, violating God's holy name and 
religion, injuring and slandering the Supreme Magistrates, or their representatives, shall, with the 
informations, aflidavits and witnesses, be referred to the Director-General and Council of Neia- 

Should the situation of affairs be such that the President aind Schepens deem it advisable for 
the security and peace of the inhabitants, during the absence of the Director-General and Council, 
for the greater advantage and peace of the village and court aforesaid, to issue in said district any 
orders, respecting public roads, enclosure of lands, gardens or orchards, and further, what might 
concern the country and agriculture ; so, too, relative to the building of churches, schools, and 
other similar public works ; as well as the means from which, and in what manner, these shall be 
regulated, they are authorized to bring their considerations on such subjects in writing, support 
these by argument, and deliver them to the Director-General and Council, to be, if deemed nsoful 
and necessary, confirmed, approved and commanded by the Director-General and Conucil. 

The aforesaid Sheriff and Schepens shall further take care, and are obliged to see the laws of 
our Fatherland, and the ordinances and placards of the Director-General and Council, already pulv 
lished, or which may be published, in future, carefully executed and kept in strict observance, and 
not to jjermit that, under any pretext, anything shall be done contrary thereto, but that the trans- 
gressor shall be prosecuted according to law. 

The aforesaid Sheriff and court are not permitted to enact any ordinances, placards or similar 
acts, or publish and affix these, except by previous consent of the Director-General and Council. 

The Sheriff and Schepens shall further take care and be holden, to assist the Noble Lords- 
Directors, as Lords and Patroons of this New-Netherland province, under the sovereignty of the 
High and Mighty Lords the States-General of the United Provinces, and to aid to maintain them 
in their high jurisdiction, rights, domains, and all their other pre-eminences. 

Whereas, it is customary in onr Fatherland and other well regulated governments, that annu- 
ally some change takes place in the magistracy, so that some new ones are appointed, and some are 
continued to inform the newly appointed, so shall the Schepens, now confirmed, pay due attention 
to the conversation, conduct and abilities of honest and decent persons, inhabitants of their respect- 
ive village, to inform the Director-General and Council, about the time of tlie next election, as to 
who might be sufficiently qualified to be then elected by the Director-General and Council. Done, 
and given by the Director-General and Council, at their meeting in Fort Amsterdam, in New- 
Netherland, this IG"- day of May, 1661. 

New York Jlisioi'ioal Mecords. 199 


To the Worshipful, Vahant and Rigorous, the 
Right Honorable Director-General and High 
Council of New-Netherland. 

I, lioeloff Swartwout, request very respectfully their Noble Honors, the Worshipful Director- 
General and High Council of J^e%o-Netherland, while I submit myself as a subject to your Honors' 
wise government, that whereas the Hon'''" Director-General has been pleased to favor and provide 
us hert in Wiltioyck with a lower Court of Justice for the safety of the pious inhabitants and pun- 
ishment of evil-doers, so that we may now live in freedom and peace, your Hon'''^ Worships of 
the High Council, not excepting the Right Honorable Director-General, or all your Hon""" Wor- 
ships together will please to consider me worthy to serve here in the capacity of Schout and I 
produce herewith the recommendation from the Lords-Directors of the Incorporated West-India 
Company, my Lords and Masters, submitting obediently to your Hon''''^ Worships' order and asking 
herewith for a short marginal decision. 

Thus by me, your Hou"''^ Worships' humble and obedient servant 
Actum Wiltwyck, Roeloff Swaetwout. 

the 16'" May, Anno 1661. In haste 

To the Valiant, Wise, Very Learned Governor-General and the High Council of New-Neth- 
erland, at New-Ainsterdam. 

Commission of Roeloff Swartwodt as Shekiff of Wiltwyck. 
23 May. 

The foregoing letter of Roeloff Swartwout was opened and read in Council, in which he sub- 
stantially requests to be appointed and installed as Schout for the Esopus. Although Director- 
General and Council do not deem the said Swartwout a fit person for that office for several reasons, 
yet taking up again the order and directions of the Noble Lords-Directors, dated the . . . , 
they have appointed and installed the same as provisional Schout ou the £sqpus and have given 
him the following commission: 

The Director-General and Council of New-Netherland to All, who shall see this or hear it 
read Greeting. Know ye, that in conformity with directions of the Noble Lords-Directors of the 
Incorporated West-India Company, Department of Amsterdam, we have appointed and installed, 
as we herewith appoint and instal Roeloff Swartwout as provisional Schout in the village of Wilt- 
wyck on the Esopus, to serve there in the capacity of Schout in accordance with this Commission 
and the Instructions, already given to him or hereafter to be given, as a good and faithful Schout 
is bound to do. We therefore command and charge all and everybody, to acknowledge the said 
Roeloff Swartvjout as such and to afford and give him any help and assistance, when called upon, 
in the performance of his duties. Date as above. 

200 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Council Minute. Coenelis Melyn's refusal to sureendee the soil of Staten- 


Carnelis Melyn was summoned and appeared before the Council. He was asked, upon taking 
up the contract made between the Lords-Directors and the said Melyn regarding Staten- Island on 
the 13"' June 1659, whether he had in his care any records or documents concerning said island 
and whether he was willing to deliver the same to the Director-General and Council, agreeable to 
the said contract and further to transfer the said island for the behalf of the Incorporated West- 
India Company, Department of Amsterdam, except the land, houses and lots, which he has now 
or may enter upon hereafter, on the aforesaid island, pursuant to said contract. 

The said Cornells Melyn answers substantially, that he is willing to deliver the said records 
and documents in his care to the Director-General and Council and does so directly, by handing 
over the papers specified below and declaring, that he has no others concerning the aforesaid island. 
He says in regard to transferring and conveying tlie said island to the Hon''''' Incorporated West- 
India Company, excepted the land, houses and lots, which he has there etc'', that it has never been 
intended by him, but only that he should give up, surrender, convey, cede and transfer all com- 
mand, authority, jurisdiction, pre-eminence, prerogatives etc", which belonged to him in his capacity 
as Patroon of the said island : he requests however, that a new deed of ownership for the said 
island may be issued to him, as he has surrendered the deed given hira for it by Mr. Kieft. 

It was replied, that, if it had been the intention to leave him in possession of the whole island, 
it would seem not to have been necessary, to make the condition, that he should have and keep for 
himself and his heirs as free allodial property the lands, houses and lots, which he has on the 
aforesaid island and has used and cultivated heretofore or which he may want to enter upon etc" ; 
further, if the whole island belonged to him, what had the Lords-Directors bouglit then from the 
heirs of Baron van der Capellen, who have now re-transferred their share to the Hon''''' Company. 

Cornells Melyn acknowledged then, that he had made over one third of the said island to 
Baron van der Capelle, but that he had still great claims on the island, as far as tiie other two 
thirds were concerned he did not intend to resign his title to them, but it looked as if the Hon'"'" 
Lords-Directors had understood it so. 

The aforesaid Cornells Melyn was then informed that he was charged for his own passage 
and that of the servants, whom he had brought over, like all others, who come over at the expense 
of the Company, as it says in the abovementioned contract, that he and his family shall be brought 
over at the expense of the Company according to present custom, which means that the advanced 
fare shall be refunded here in due time. Melyn contended, that he and the Lords-Directors also 
had understood it to mean, that he and his people were to be brought over free this time, without 
refunding the advanced fare, and that, as he was granted exemption from duties on goods valued 
at 1000 guilders and has not brought so much from Holland, he may deduct the remainder here 
in paying the duties. 

It was resolved after divers discussions pro et contra, to send a copy hereof to the Noble 
Lords-Directors and not to proceed any further in this matter, until a better explanation of the 
aforesaid contract has been received from the Lords-Directors. Date as above. (23'' of May 1661.) 

The papers, which Cornells Melyn surrendered as concerning Staten- Island, were : 

A petition of Cornells Melyn to the Noble Lords-Directors and their reply to it, by which 
he receives consent to establish a Colony on Staten-Island and is acknowledged as its Patroon, 
dated 3* July 1640. 

Another petition of the said Melyn to the Lords- Directors, of the 18"" February 16-11, sub- 

Neio Yoi'h Historical Records. 201 

mitted after his release, having been taken a prisoner by the Dunkirlcers, in which lie requests 
permission, to go to New-Netherland with his wife, children, servants and some animals in the 
Company's ships. 

Two extracts from the Resolutions of the Lords Directors, dated IS"* and 25"" February IGil, 
which renew the consent formerly given. 

A title deed, which is the conveyance of Staten-Island to Cornelis Mehjn, issued in pursuance 
of the aforesaid consent and signed by the IIou''" General Wille7n Kieft, dated 19"' June 1642. 

Letter from Koeloff Swartwout, Sheriff, in the name of the Magistrates of 


To the Honorable and Valiant Director-General. 

"We of the Court have received on the 9"" of June your Honor's letter, inclosing our instruc- 
tions and orders ; the Schout has also shown us the document, which your Honor has sent to him 
and henceforth we consider him our Schout and officer, as directed by your Honor and the High 
Court or as will be directed. 

This village is at present in a good condition, only when Claes de Ruyter came here, we do 
not know on what errand, on the 13'^'' of this month of June about nightfall, about 120 savages 
came into the village and as tricks were played on them by firing off the guns of the dischai-ged 
soldiers some of them were found to be unfit for defense, we deemed it necessary immediately to 
put some burghers on guard for the night for our security ; else we hear nothing, but that every- 
thing is well with the Indians. 

"We further learn, that your Honor has forbidden us in the instructions, to make in our capac- 
ity as Commissaries any ordinances, placards or orders, we therefore request, that your Honor 
will please to send us by first opportunity some placai-ds, especially concerning drunkenness and 
others, which your Honor will please to send for the public welfare. Lastly my salutations and 
be everybody commended to God's mercy. 

Actum, 1-1"' June In the name of the Commissaries 

iAWiltwyck^ A" 1661. by me, your Honor's obedient servant 

To his Valiant Honor. Koeloff Swarfwout. 

Pieter Sttiyvesant 

at Fort Amsterdam. 


List of the garrison on the Esopus, now called Wiltwyck, the IS"" June 1661. 

Christian Niessen, at present Commander 
Jan Pierssen, Corporal 
Jonas Rantzou, Corporal 
IlendricTc from Utrecht 

202 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Hendrick the Rider 

Hendrick Cornelissen 

Hendrick Martensen 

Andries Noorman 

Gerrit AheUy, Cadet 

Conraet Hayra, private soldier, desires his discharge. • . ■ 

Paulus Thomassen 

Gerrit van Campen 

Cornelis Hinssendorp These have been discharged : 

Frederick Claessen Marten Harinsen, Cadet 

Jacob Melone Jan the Brabanter, Cadet 

Christian Andriesen Marten Warners, Cadet 

Pieter Jellissen Thomas Thomassen, Cadet 

Adriaen Vornier Jellis Bottien, Lance-pesade 

Jan Hamelton Pieter van Halen, Cadet 

Joannis Leblein Andries Barentz, private soldier 

Ja7i Westhuysen Jan Broersen 

Arriaen Yorbert Michiel Yerbrugge 

Jan Gerritsen Paulus Paulsen 

Jacob Biirhannsen These ask for their discharge : 

Jan Lootman Joris Metzer, Scotchman (?) 

Andries Booatz desires to remain in the service, while Wihn Croeger, Scotchman (^) 
Hendrick Cornelissen desires to be discharged iu his stead. they are both here 


Claes Jansen Ruyter, who had been sent out to the Esopus to ascertain, how the Esopus 
savages behaved, reports, that they will not allow him to come to their village, but that some came 
to meet him, who among other speeches said, that they had forgotten, wliat had passed during the 
war, but they wanted their captured friends back, to see whether the heart of the Dutch was good 
and they requested, that the savages, who had been recalled from Curacao, might be delivered at 
their arrival to Oratatn. Done at Fort Amsterdam in New-I^etherland, 16'" June 1601. 

Letter from Arent van Curler to Director Stutvesant, requesting authority 


Very Worshipful Sir. 
When I was last at the Manhatans, I spoke to your Honor about some friends, wlio are very 
anxious to acquire and cultivate with your Honor's approbation and knowledge the Great Flat, 
which your Honor knows ; there are already 6 or 8 families inclined to it. Your Honor consented 
then and promised me a document from your Honor, which was to assist in the purchase of these 
lands, but nothing came of it on account of the daily occupation of your Honor, so that your Honor 

New Yorh Historical Records. 2 0.'] 

promised to send it to me. As I fear, that tlie daily business of your Honor's administration may 
have driven it out of your Honor's memory and as the way is opened now and the savages are 
quite willing to give it up for a small price, especially on account of the poor trade, which turns 
out very bad, therefore the parties desiring to acquire it have resolved to send the bearer hereof, 
Philipp Hendricksen Brouioer, as express messenger, to remind your Hon'''* Worship of it, for 
it is high time (if 3-our Hon**'" Worship should please to give consent), that they provide them- 
selves in due time with hay and food for their cattle and also make a road there. Your Honor 
will please not to be in doubt about the population, as it is done here mostly by the poorer people, 
and least of all that one piece of bread shall be eaten, before the next is earned. It would there- 
fore be better to look out in time for getting there in a good manner, for afterwards it may be too 
late. I do no doubt, as your Hon''''' Worship is also fond of farming, that your Honor will with 
your Honor's inborn urbanity consent to the fair request of these people. They are quite willing 
to furnish the money for the purchase of the said lands out of their own pockets, until it shall be 
decided otherwise by your Honor. Closing herewith I pray your Honor's decision will please to be 
favorable to these people in their good intention, as far as possible and conclude by commending 
your Honor to the grace of God, wishing a happy, long and prosperous administration while 1 
shall always be and remain. 

Sir, Your Honor's most humble servant 

Hens. Henselaersioych, 

IS'" June 1661. . A. van Cuklek. 

P. S. If your Honor should need 3 or 4 muds of oats for feed for your Honor's horses, please 
to give me an order and I shall send your Honor some of my own. 

Your Honor's servant 

A. v. CUELEE. 

23'^ June. 

Received and read the foregoing letter from S'' Arent van Gorier, dated the 18th inst., con- 
taining in substance a request made as well for himself as in the name of some others, to have 
permission for the cultivation of a certain great plain, lying back of Fort Orar^ge inland, and con- 
sent for the purchase of the same fi-om the lawful owners and the establishing of a settlement 
there. After due consideration Director-General and Council gave their consent and granted the 
request, provided that the lands, which the petitioners desire to buy from the lawful owners, be 
transported and conveyed in usual manner to Director-General and Council aforesaid, as repre- 
sentatives of theii" Worships, the Lords-Directore of the Incorporated West-India Company : what- 
ever the petitioners pay out to the lawful owners for the aforesaid lands, shall be refunded to 
them in due time or balanced against the tithes. 

Done at the meeting held in Fort Amsterdam \n New-Netherland, the 23'* of June 1661. 

Lettee feom Dieectoe and Council to the Commissaries at Foet Orange in an- 

ON THE Geeat Mohawk flat (Schenectady). 

Honorable, Beloved, Faithful. 
Your Honors' letter of the 12"' inst. has been duly received by ns on the 24"" : we find therein 
little worth answering, except what your Honors mention only with one word regarding the dam- 

204 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson Itiver. 

age, which might be done to Beverioyck, if the settlement on the wellknown Great Plain near the 
Mohwiok country should be undertaken and we are astonished by what follows, that the reasons 
given to you cannot be repeated and that they must be deferred until the arrival of the Director- 
General, who as yet is not sm-e, when he will come. "We think, that they can better be given in 
writing, than by word of mouth ; this was also proposed before now to several persons of your 
Honors' board, who made oral propositions especially concerning this matter. Your Ilonors may 
easily imagine, that written propositions are better discussed and defended than oral ones and 
your Honors are therefore once more requested to communicate to us in writing by next chance 
the presupposed damages and grievances, in order that such a change or a continuation may be 
ordered with so much more equity, as then shall appear to be for the best of the public welfare. 

Honorable, Beloved, Faithful. 
This serves only as invoice for the accompanying 100 lbs. of powder and the enclosed pla- 
cards, which your Honors must publish on receipt thereof and affix properly ; the merchants must 
also be informed, that they have either to come down themselves, or direct somebody, to see the 
cases and packages opened, which they send away, so that the Company may not be defrauded of 
the duties any longer. With cordial salutations we commend your Honors to God's protection 
and remain, 

Fort Amsterdam Honorable, Beloved, Faithful, 

in New-Netherland Your Honors' affectionate friends 

the 24:'" June 1661. The Director-General and Council of N. iV. 

Extract feom a Lktter of Stutvesant to the Dieectoes in Hollajs'd : he 


July 1661. 
We have informed your Honors in detail by our last letter of last year, what the result of the 
war with the JS^-opus savages had been and under what conditions a peace had been concluded 
with them. Although the aforesaid Esopus, as well as the Raritan and Nevesinck savages have 
since that time kept cpiiet, we are nevertheless not without fears and anxiety, that when they see 
an opportunity tliey will take advantage of it to strike a blow and revenge themselves; we are, 
indeed, almost constantly warned against them by other savages and are made very uneasy and 
circumspect ; we have nevertheless found ourselves obliged (as well by your Honors' urgent re- 
commendations and absolute ordei's, as by our own inability to maintain so many soldiers without 
a subsidy from Fatherland) to discharge a large number of them, God grant that it may turn out 
to the best and without danger : the proverb says " Necessity has no law " and " Who obeys 
orders, does well," therefore we hold ourselves blameless, if in consequence of the dismissal, as 
ordered by your Honors and necessitated by our situation, some unexpected mishap slioukl befal 
your Honors' territory and its inhabitants. In the meantime we shall not fail to make all possible 
efforts to protect the same with the power and means, which God and your Honors have eiitrusted 
to and left us. 

New Yorlc Historical Records. 205 

"We might reply miach to the motives and reasons, whieli your Ilonors quote (to wit, that in 
time of necessity, soldiers might be enlisted here for a short time, as the Frencli and English 
nation always have done, who never employed or maintained military in the estaijlishment of their 
colonies), but will not do it to avoid unpleasant feelings and reproaches, while with your Honors' 
permission we will state briefly in regard to the first, that the deplorable experiences have shown 
us as well in the rencontres with the English as with the savages, that no or at least very few 
soldiei-s can be enlisted and taken into service here in an emergency. As to the second point, 
namely, that the French and English Colonies are maintained without military, it is well known, 
that these nations are exempted from all duties and taxes to foreign masters and that they are 
their own masters here in this country, they elect here their own chiefs, magistrates and what de- 
pends thereon, settle their own taxes and are in consequence subject to being impressed here as 
well as in their home countries, a proceeding which is not allowed by the Netlierlandish people 
nor by your Honors' subjects, who have said regarding this matter and repeatedly say, the Com- 
pany has engaged itself by the Exemptions to protect us and receives for it the export aiid import 
duties and the excise. Aside from this the afoi'esaid the English and French colonies are continued 
and populated by their own nation and countrymen and consequently bound together more firmly 
and united, while your Honors' colonies in New-Nethei-land are only gradually and slowly peopled 
by the scrapings of all sorts of nationalities (few excepted), who consequently have the least in- 
terest in the welfare and maintenance of the commonwealth. In short, the English are too much 
for us and the natives by their numbers and power. Experience shows, what the French colony 
in Canada will come to through the absence of military. The French pi-isoners, brought away 
by the Maquas savages from under their forts every year, and occasionally ransomed by our 
people, declare unanimously, that if the French receive no assistance by soldiers from France, 
they will shortly be obliged to leave the country ; the gracious God may grant, that the Maquas 
will not begin with us, after they have destroyed and finished with the French. As far as we are 
concerned, we wish sincerely, that we could govern and maintain your Honors' territories without 
fear and military. 

The second point which your Honors recommend us concerning the discharge of the soldiers, 
who have served their time, is to animate them to remain here and to give them for that pui'pose 
some good and suitable lands. We do not fail to do our duty in one or the other direction by 
ofiiering them full payment, but on the other side nobody can be kept here against his will and 
wish or be paid here, the more so as the major part of them reply, " We have not learned any 
trade nor farming, the sword must earn us our subsistence, if not here, then we must look for our 
fortune elsewhere ; " hence some discharged soldiers, enlisted in the Fatherland, will come back by 
this ship. 


Far be it from us. Most Worshipful Gentlemen, to slight your Honors' authority and to 
disapprove the choice, made by your Honors, of Roeloff Swartwout for Schoiit at t\\e Esoj}us ; 
we have only delayed his installation until a fit opportunity should offer and the arrival of your 
Honors' further orders, for we mistrusted his capabilities and kept the place vacant so far. In 
pursuance of your Honors' special request he is now appointed and we leave the result to his be- 
havior and suitableness. 


"We found in your Honors' last letter and the enclosures belongmg to it the contract made 
with the heirs of the late Frederick van der Capelle to Ryssel concerning his claims on Staten- 
Island and your Honors' order to deliver in due form to his attorne}' all buildings, implements, 

206 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

cattle etc. Summoned before lis the attorney of the Late Baron, one Adriaen Post, said and de- 
clared, that all the houses had been burned during the well-known affair with the savages Anno 
1655 and that no other property had been left, except a few heads of cattle, which he himself had 
hunted up after having been released from captivity. Most of these have died and a few have 
been sold by him for means to maintain his wife and children. "We shall upon occasion inquire 
further into the truth and the details and inform your Honors as in duty bound. But we meet 
here a new and unexpected claim upon this island made by Cornelis Melyn, who pretends, that 
although he has sold to your Honors the title and privileges as Patroon of the island, he has not 
disposed of the land itself, so that the said Melyn claims, as your Honors will see by the enclosed 
extract from our minutes, to be owner of two-thirds of the land on Siaten- Island, besides the 
claims, which he has on the other third against the heirs. This is the reason, why these suitable 
lands are not settled and cultivated and they will be settled and cultivated only slowly, as long as 
the aforesaid Melyn makes claims to be owner of either the whole or part of it. What he says 
regarding the money advanced by your Honors to him and his farmservants, your Honors will see 
by the aforesaid extract from our resolutions and we await your Honors' explanation as well for 
the one as the other. 

The widow of Dirck Smith, the late Ensign, who died to our great regret towards the end 
of last 3'ear, comes over by one of these ships. She requested our recommendation and interces- 
sion with your Honors, that she might receive her late husband's monthly pay there. Consider- 
ing the good and faithful services of the deceased, especially during the last affair with the savages, 
we could not refuse to the widow, to request your Honors respectfully to favor her with as quick 
a dispatch as possible. 

PETrrioN OF Peter Billou, Claude le Maptre and others, all recently ar- 

The 22'^ August (1661), Monday. 

Present in Council the Honorable Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant and the Hon''"' mem 
bers of the Council Nicasius de Sille and Johan de DecTcere. 

Before the Council appeared Pieter Billou and Walrm'<€n Luten, wlio stated for themselves 
as well as for some other persons, arrived by the last ships, that the locality of Staten-Island suited 
them well and they requested therefore, that some of the lands on the said Staten-Island might 
be allotted and given them as property for farm-land, meadow and pastures and that lots for houses 
and gardens might be laid out at a convenient place. 

The Director-General and Council heard the petition and after taking it in consideration, 
they resolved to look up a convenient place on Statei\rlsland and lay it out for a village. Date 
as above. 

The persons, who asked for lots on Staten-Island, are, besides Pieter BiUou and Valrave 
Luten, Harmen Bartels, Jacob Salomons, Jan Claesen, Johannes Christofels, Glaude U Metre, 
Andries Jemands, Thys Barentsen from Leerdam, Ryck Ilendriclcs, Gerrit Mannaai, Myndert 
Coerten, Gerrit Cornelissen, Teunis Cornelissen, Capt. Post, Gooert Loocquermans, Jan Jacobsen 
from Reenen, Wynant Pieters, Paulus Dirck from Luxemhourg. 

New Yorh Historical liecords. 207 

Report of the State of Feeling among the Catskil and Esopus Indians. 

(Not signed, but in the haudwriting of Roeloli Swartwout, the Sheriff at Esopus.) 

Noble, Very Worshipful, High Council, 
Honorable Director-General and Presi- 
dent of the High Council in the City of 
New-AmsUrdain in New-lVetherland. 

Whereas to day, the 27"" of August, a letter from the High Council was received by the 
Schout and the Commissaries, the matter was taken in hand and to heart, after learning its con- 
tents, and we are still engaged with it as mucli as possible. The Maquas, who has been to the Cats- 
kil with C'laes de Ruyter and seems to keep faith with us, has been afterwards requested to go to 
the Esopus savages and inform himself of it, they pretended not to know anything about it, finally 
being pushed to get information, the Maquas reported to us, that a Catskil savage, who had for 
wife an Esopus squaw, travelled with an Esopus boy from the Esopus savages to the Catskils / 
on the road they came across some horses and the Catskil savage is said to have offered his gun to 
the Esopus boy and said, " Kill one of the Dutchmen's horses," and when the boy refused, the 
CatskU savage said, " What are these Dutch dogs to me, I am not afraid to kill one of their horses." 

Commission of TiELEiiAJSf vajst Vleeck to be Sheriff of Beegen (N. J.) 

The 5"" of September 1661. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, in behalf of their High : Might : the Lords States- General of theUnited 
Netherlands and the Noble Lords-Directors of the Privileged West India Company Director- 
General of New-Netherland, Curacao, Aruha, Bonayro and dependencies with the Honorable 
Council Greeting: 

Know ye, Wliereas for the promotion of justice in the village of Bergen, situate on the west 
side of the North Piver of New-Netherland a suitable person is required, to attend there to the 
duties of the Schout's office, for which place one Tieleman van Yleeck, Notary public in this city, 
has been proposed. Therefore we have, confiding in his ability, piety and good parts appointed 
and commissioned, as we hereby appoint and commission the same to be Schout of the aforesaid 
village, to hold, have charge of and serve in the said ofiice at the aforesaid place and the district 
thereof, pm-suant to the instructions, which he has already received or may hereafter receive, to 
bring to justice accordingly all breakers of all political, civil and criminal laws, ordinances and 
placards, to fine, execute and punish them with the punishments ex]3ressed therein, to demand 
that upon his direction and accusation all criminal matters and abuses shall be corrected and 
abated and all sentences speedily and without delay be executed and to do further, what a 
good and faithful Schout is bound to do in this I'egard, on the oath taken by him. We charge 
therefore the Schepens and inhabitants in the district of the aforesaid village to acknowledge the 
said Tieleman van Yleeck as our officer and Schout, as aforesaid, and to give and cause to be given 
to him, upon request, all necessary and possible assistance in the discharge of his duties, for we 
have concluded, that this is necessary for the service of the Hon*'^ Company and the promotion of 
justice. Thus done at the meeting of the Noble Director-General and Council, held at Fort Am- 
sterdam in New-Netherland, the 5"" of September A" 1661. 

208' Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Okdinajjce erecting a Court of Justice in Bergen, N. J. 
(See Laws of New-Nether!and, p. 403.) 

Letter from Mathew Gilbert to the Director-General, informing him that 


To the much honored Gouerno' of the New-Netherlands humble salutations. 

Seeing it hath pleased God to order it in his p'uidence, that a companie of Considerable per- 
sons, that Came into N. E., that they might serue God w"" a pure Conscience and enjoy such 
liberties and priueledges both Civill and Ecclesiasticall, as might best aduantage vnto, and strengthen 
them in the end and worke aforesaid, w* also thorough the mercy of God they hauve enjoyed for 
more then seuentie yeares together and the Lord hauing blessed them w*"" posterities so that their 
numbers are increased and they being desirous to p'uide for their posterities, so as their outward 
comfortable subsistance and their soulles welfare might in the use of sutable means thorough the 
blessing of the almightie be attained, In order hereunto they haue appointed some to view some 
adjacent parts of this Amerrican wildernes, who haue bin Curteously & encom-ageingly enter- 
tained by Y Hono'', w'*" the Companie doeth acknowledge w"" all thankfullnes — And haue now 
sent some of our honor'^'* trusties and well beloved friends, to wit, M'' Benjamin ffen, 'W Robert 
Treatt, MJ Lawes & Deacon Gun in the name of the Committee empowred by the Companie and 
in y'= behalf of the Companie to treat and Conclude as they shall see cause with your hono'' or 
whom it shall eoncerne About the tearmes upon w* they may be encouraged to begin to plant and 
so from time to time as they are able to proceed yearly by some of themselues and by some of 
their posteritie or their friends that may hereafter desire to joine w"" them for the enlargm' of the 
Kingdom of Christ Jesus in the Congregationall way and all other meanes of Comfort in subord- 
ination heervnto. And seeing that this Designe if sutably encouraged may hopefully be more for 
the glory of God and benefit & welfare of the D^iteh nation In Amerrica and the hono"' of their 
principalis in Europe then any yet hath bin by planters vnder their shaddow in these parts. The 
Companie doeth therfore desire that neither any queries or p'^positigns made by our hono"''^ messen- 
gers betrusted and Instructed might be in the least measure greiuous or offensiuo to your hono'' or 
any Intrest w"" you, for we are true men and noe spies, but to p'uide good righteous and honest 
things for o'selues posterities and friends like minded : As we haue alreadie for many yeares en- 
joyed and are come by these our messengers to you And therfore in order to p''posaUs wee desire 
that w"'out offense wee may haue as plaine and cleare an answer as may be to these following en- 
quiries and p''positions. 

ffrom Milford Dated the 8"" of Mathew Gilberte in the name of 

November 1661. In New England. the Coraittee impouered by the 


N^ew Yorh Historical Records. 209 

Peopositioxs agreed upon by the Committee in the name & BEnAi.FE of the 


Netheelands by those, whose names are subscribed. 

1. That if a Church or Churches of English shall be planted in the place p'pounded they may be 
allowed by the Authoritie of the high and mighty Lords & States General of the United P'uinces 
in the Netherlands in Europe And w"" the app'bation of the Bewindhebbers of the West India 
Companie to enjoy all such powers priuiledgcs and liberties in the Congregationall way as they 
haue enjoyed them in New- England aboue twentie yeares paste without any disturbance Impedini' 
or Imjjositions of any other formes, orders or customes to be obserued by them'; And that therein 
they be Allowed and Ajjproued churches by some publique testimonie vpon Record. 

2. That if the English Churches planted vnder the Dutch Gowernement shall consent to conso- 
ciate together for mutuall helpfullues : They may be allowed by the Authoi-ity & with the appro- 
bation aforesaid soe to doe and to call a synod and therein to establish by common consent such 
orders according to scripture as may be requisite for the suppressing of haeresies, schismes and false 
worships and for the establishm' of truth w"" peace in those English churches. And that the 
Gouernor & Courts at JVew-Amsterdam shall protect the said English churches and Synnods from 
any that oppose them or be Injurious to them. 

3. The English planters doe desire that they may haue libertie and power by y" Authority & 
w"" y"" approbation aforesaid to haue the ordering of all Judicature and of all their civill affaires 
within themselves, to chuse their owne magistrates and all other officers and Constitute and keep 
Courts and make all such lawes and orders as they shall find most sutable to their condition and 
weKare in that place And that all persons, planters and others, for the time they are amongst them 
w"'in their p''cincts, shall be bound to acquiesce in all their lawes, orders, sentences and appoint- 
m" of any of their owne Court or Courts and officers determinately according to such orders and 
lawes as are or shall be from time to time agreed vpon & enacted by them and unto their senten- 
ces made & verdicts declared without apj)eales to any other Authority or jurisdiction. This power 
the English in Amerrica within New-England have had and exercised in all causes by the graunt 
of the late King of England, Charles the First, as is to be seen in his Majesties letters pattent 
aboue twentie years together. And it is much more necessary that they haue it vnder the Dutch 
(whose lawes they know not nor vnderstand their language and the way and manner of their ex- 
erciseing this their sole power). "We purpose according to the fundamentalls receiued in New 
Hauen Collonie w'^'' are in print to be seen (or the Most of them) so far as wc shall finde it will 
alike suite Christ's ends and our conditions there. 

4. That all the lands agreed for, be clearly and vndeniably purchassed of the Indians by an 
Athentik lustrum' or lustrum'^ and that wee may haue one of them in our Custody and that the 
hands of those Indians that haue y° naturall and ciuill right be subscribed and soe owned by them 
In the p'sence of English Duch and Indians as lawfully bought and sould and that then these 
lands shall be made y° p''p' Inheritance of the English Planters and their posteritie for euer bj' 
the Authoritie and pow' w"" the approbation aforesaid according to all p'sent and future ordere, 
graunts and agreem'' or deuisions of all such lands so bought as shall be made by the English alone 
amongst themselues by p'sous Intrusted and empowred by them for such afaires. 

5. That noe Inhabitants be put vpon vs by the Duch but that we have the sole power of dispose- 
ing our lands and entertaineing or rejecting all Inhabitants according to agreem'^ that shall from 
time to time be made amongst ourselues, 



Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

6. That tlie English Planters in the aforesaid places by Authoritie and w"' approbation afore- 
saide may haue equall liberties of tradeing with the Duck in all resjiucts, they payeing all lawfull 
dues and custonies as the Duch doe or w"" any other whom so euer. 

7. Our humble desire is that the p'mises being graunted by those in Uolland or to whom the 
Pattent and power of such graunts appertaineth, may be declared and ratified by an Authenticall 
Instrum* signed and sealed by the Pattentees in Enrope, if it remaines witli tliem And that a 
coppie of it so signed sealed and Authentically Attested may be procured for the English Planted 
vnder the Duch to be by them kept among their publique Records for y" benefitt of Posteritie. 
Dated this 8"" of November 1661 Beniasiin ffex 
ffrom Milford in New Eyigland. Kobeet TREAxr 

Rich: Lawe 
Jaspek Gun. 

Answer of the Directoe-Geneeal and Council to the foeegoing propositions. 

Extract ontli of the Recordes and Resolu- 
tions of the Lord Director-General and 
Counsels of the N. Nederlarids, taken in 
their Court vppon 
Monday, the 28"' of Novemb' 1661; 

The Director Generall and Counsells off the iV^. Netherlands haveing perused the Commis- 
sione and Propositions, produced by Benjamin Fenne, Robert treat. Hitch : Lawe and Jasper 
Gun, Deputies of a greather Conipanic English People, propoundinge vppon Certaine terines to 
be admitted as Inhabbittens and subjects vnder this Govcrnement, Doe judge the matters off a 
hevier Consernement as to give soo full and satisfactory answer vppon Every pertieull, 

Nevertheless, Consideringe the abovementioned Deputies are very desirous to obtaine any 
Answer for to Relate vnto their principals, is Resolved to give this followeinge provisionate An- 
swer : 

Because there is no difference in the fundamental poincts of the "Worship of God betwixt tliese 
and the Churches of New England, as onely in the Ruelinge of the same 

The Director Generall and Counsell doe make noo Difficulte to give way & Consent vnto the 
twoe first Propositions, because in our natyff Country, alsoo here was never practised restraint of 
Conscience. In the meane tyme wee wish & hope that by a neerer meetinge and Conference be- 
tween oure & theire Ministers further Obstructions in this poinct shall be remocved and that all 
Lovinge Vnity shall be observed. 

Uppon the Thirth Proposition vnto the petitioners shall be graunted in the waye of Magis- 
trature. Judicature and Sivill affaires, all such power, Authoritie, Priveledge and Liberty as all 
other townes & Collonies of N. Netherland have obtained, to wit, the Komination off theire owne 
Magistrates within herselfes yearely in a dabble Number to be present vnto the Director Generall 
and Counsell for to be Elected out of the same the Magistrates for that yeare and to Contirme 
them, the which shall be qualified with sufficiant power tt authority for to make and to see appro- 
bated and confirmed by the Director-Generall & Counsell all such Ordinances as they shall finde 
good for the benifitt of theire townes or plantations, Accordinge to the same to doc Right it 
Justice, the Appelle beinge Reserved vnto the high Court, in Conformite of the Generall Order 
and E.xemptions graunted vnto all the Inhabitans of the N. Netherlands. 

New Yorh Hi dor ical Records. 211 

Tlic fourth it Sixt propositions were granted. 

Conseriiinge the fifte proposition, none of the Townes in the N. Netherlands are troubled 
with Inhabitanee, tlie which doe not Lyke her or her Magistrates, beinge reserved that they doe 
not adniitt any Inhabitanee without approbation and acknowledgement of the Dirocf Generall & 
Counsell and give their oath for the AfRrinatioii of Fidellyty. Thus enacted in the Fortres named 
Amsterdam att the Court kept by the Lord Director Generall & Counsell of the N. Netherlands, 
a dij ut supra. 


P. Stdyvesant. 
Agreed with the foresaid Recordes. 
Subscryved C v. Ruyven Secretary. 
Translated by me 

Salomon La Chaie, Notary pub. 

His Honor, the Councillor Johan de Dechere refused to give his opinion on the foregoing 
propositions of the Emjlish Committee, because the said propositions were addressed only to the 
Hon^"' Director-General of New Netherland and not to the Noble Director-General and the Hon- 
orable Council, as it ought to have been done. A dij ut supra. 

Ordinance of the Dieector-General imposing a land tax at Esopus to de- 

(See Laws of New-Netherland, pages 413 and 448.) 

Ordinance foe the obseevance of the Sabbath, peeyention of fires, con- 

(Ibidem page 415.) 


(Ibidem page 420.) 


(Ibidem page 421.) 


Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Account of the excise in the village of Wiltwvck, with the names of those who paid it. 

Excise of the wine and beer, recorded in the vil- 


lage of Wiltwyck since the 24"" 

9"" 1661. 




1. Uendrick Jochems 

fi. 75-7 


1. Pieter Hillebrantz 



1. Aelbert Gyssbertz 



2. Jacob BurJians 

71 14 


2. Gerrit Forcken 



2. Walraeff du Mont 



2. Jan Barentz Timmerman 



3. Barent Gerritzen 



3. Gritiez Westerkamps 



3. Jam Jansen Brabander 



3. Jan Lamhertz 



3. Joannes Leblein 



4. Jan Barentz Snyder 



4. Michiel Verhruggen 



4. Jan Pierssen 



4. Wouter AeThertz 



4. Thomas Swartwout 



4. Pieter van Halen 



4. dejonge Gesellen 



4. Theunis Vooeht 



5. Cornells Barentz Slecht 

70 7 


5. Arent Jacobs 



5. Aelbert Heimans 



6. Mathies Capita 



6. Dirck Ariaens 



6. Hendrick Cornelissen 



6. t7a«, Barentz Backer 



6. Dom. Herm. Blom 


7. Juriaen Westphalen 


7. Matthies Roeloffs 


7. Michiel Verre 


7. t/ffiTi t)a74 Bremen 


8. Gertruyd Andriesen 


8. e7a«, ^(ST-teew /Swi^ 


8. Cornelis Jansen, sawyer 


8. TFiZwi Jansen 


8. Pieter Bruyn 


fl 670. 8 

441. 7 

fl 1111.15 


Dirck Wilmssen 
Evert Pehen 
Thomas Chambertz 
Sohout Swartwout 
Hendrick Hendrix 
does Pietersen 
Pieter Martensen 
Sergeant Christiaen 
Andries Barentz 
Jonas Eantzou 
Ariaen Huyberts 
Cornelis Brantz 
Maryken Huygen 
Tiarck Claesen 
Pieter the miller 
Kerst Kerstensen 
Bart Siebrantz 
Gerrit van Campen 
Uuybrecht Bruyn 
Hendrick Jansen JLooman 
Arent Pietersen Tack 
Matthies Pr^incen 
Wilm Jansen Stoll 
Jan du Parcq 
Wilm van Vredeiiborg 
Marten Harmsen 
Gyssbert Gyssbertzen 
Matthies Blanciau 
Lewis Dubo 
Pieter Jellissen 

f 9 




















fl 441 7 

To the 15 9"" incl. 

New Yorh Historical Ilecords. 213 

Extract from a letter of Vice Director La Montagne to Stuyvksant, re- 
garding BRICKS purchased FOR AND SENT TO DojIINE BloM AT EsOPUS. FoRT 

Orange, lO"" November 1661. 
* * * * * * 

la pursuance of your Honor's order I have called upon Anderies Ilerhcrtsen, the Constable, 
for 5000 bricks ; he stated, that he had none and could not get any, so that I have been obliged 
to purchase them to fill your Honor's order : I bought 3000 from Master Jacoh de Ilince at 10 
guilders in beaver the thousand, which lions'" Cousseau was to take for himself to the Manhatans ; 
I have given a receipt for these bricks and bought 3000 more from Jan Verheech for 22 guilders 
in wampum to be paid here, which lieyndert Pietersen was to take to the Manhatans ; I ha\e 
sent these 6000 bricks to Dom" Blom together with a letter to the same by Jan van Bremen. 

Ordinance of the Director General directing the fencing and improving of 
THE Lands and Lots at Esopus. November 25"' 1661. 

(See Laws of New Netherland, p. 387.*) 

Names of persons who supplied wheat at the Esopus. 

Received wheat from the following persons and shipped it in the yacht of Flodder. 
Received from Sergeant Christian Nisen 29 schepel of wheat 

from Thomas Ghatribers • 70 

from Cornells Slecht 30 

from Jacoh Hap 28 

List of those who have bubscribed for the support of the preacher Haemanus Bloom. 

Thomas Siamher (Chambers) il 100 

Jacob Jansen Stoll 100 

Cornelis Slecht 50 

Willem Jansen 50 

Jacoh Jansen Stoutenhergh 50 

Jan de Brabander ^ 15 

Juriaen Westvael 50 

Pieter Dircksen 60 

Dirck de Goier 20 

Hendrick Sewantryger 20 

* The date there is erroneously given as 1660, but Stuyvesant was not at the Esopus in November, 1660, and 
this ordinance was made simultaneously with the preceding ones on page 211. — Ed. 

21-1: Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Matys 20 

Marten Harmensen 25 

Jan de Backer 12 

Jan Broerisen 15 

Wilhm Jansen 30 

AUtert G&iiertsen 20 

fl 637 

Order on a petition of Willem Jansen, ferryman between Eergen and the 
Manhatans, for the establishment of rates of ferriage. 

Thursday, the 22'* of December (16G1.) 

Present in Council his Honor the Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant and the Hon''' ° Coun- 
cillors Nioasius de Sille and Johan de Deckere. 

The petition of WiUem, Jansen was taken up and read, which substantially states that the 
Sellout and Schepeus of the village of Bergen had given him a provisional permission to work a 
ferry between Bergen and the Island of Manhatans. He requests, that their Honors, the Di- 
rector-General and Council will please to ratify it and to order, what he shall ask for ferriage. 

It is answered. 

The petitioner is referred back to the Schout and Committee of Schepens of the village of 
Bergen., who are hereby authorized, to enter into a provisional agreement concerning the ferriage 
with the petitioner to the best advantage of the inhabitants of said village and until further orders. 
Date as above. 

Petition of the inhabitants of Bergen for additional land. 

The 22'* of December. 

The petition of Tielma/n van VleecTc, Harmen Smeeman and Casper Steimits, proprietors of 
land in the village of Bergen, was taken up and read, in which they demonstrated, that their 
bouweries in the said village cannot be larger than 10 or 12 morgens and they request therefore, 
that a corner of land, situate back towards the woodland, about 8 or 9 morgens, might be given 
and granted to them, so that with the help thereof they may make convenient bouweries. 

It is answered, 

As the statement of the petitioners is correct, the surveyor is authorized to survey the desired 
piece of land for the petitioners and to make a pertinent report to the Director-General and 
OouncU. Date as above. 

New York Historical Records. 215 

Judgment in a suit of Dirck Jansen of Oldenburg against Thomas Chambeks, 
foe expenses incueked in caeeyino dispatches during the late war with 
THE Esopus Indians. 

Dirck Jansen from Oldenhurgh, plaintifi" against Thomas Hal, attorney for Thomas 
Chambers, defendant. 
January 5, 1662. 

The plaintiff states, that he has shown to their Honors, the Director- General and Council on 
the 29"' of June 1660, that he was sent by Thomas Chamhers and Jacob Hap hither with letters 
from the Esopus, as the emergency and condition of the country, arising from the troubles with 
the savages, required it and that he was sent back by the Hon''"' Director-General with orders. 
He requested, that he may receive a fair compensation for it, whereupon at that time he was sub- 
stantially told, tliat the petitioner must make it appear, that he had been employed by the chief 
officer there or upon his order, else he must apply to them, who had engaged him. 

And whereas the defendant, in his aforesaid quality, had undertaken to carry out the orders 
of their Honors, the Director-General and Council, concerning this matter for account of Thomas 
Chambers, therefore the plaintiff believes, that defendant ought to be condemned to pay him, 
plaintiff, for the journe^^s made six bevers. 

The defendant answers, that the journeys were made for the service of the country and main- 
tains, that they must therefore be paid out of the public funds, any way not by Thomas Chambers 
alone, as Jacob Hap had given orders about it as well as Thomas Chambers. 

The reply hereto was, that then this ought to have been done with the knowledge of the offi- 
cer there and not upon his own authority. 

The defendant answered, that the situation undoubtedly did not allow it, else it would most 
likely have been done. 

The Director-General and Council heard the parties and after considering again the petition 
made by plaintiff and his partners on the 29"" June 1660 and tlieir answer, both recorded in the 
Register of Resolutions of that date, they condemn the defendant in his aforesaid quality of agent 
to pay to plaintiff three beavers or the value thereof, without prejudice to any claim, which he 
believes to have upon the widow or heii-s of the above mentioned Jacob Hap. The balance of 
three beavers are to be paid for reasons to the plaintiff by the Company. Date as above. 

Letter from the Magistrates at Albany to Director Sjuyvesant ; the grant 



Honorable, Valiant and Worshipful Gentlemen. 

These two savages are dispatched according to custom, to keep up the communication between 
the two places during the winter. We salute your Worships by them and wish a happy and 
blessed New-Year, prosperity to your Worships' administration and health to your Worships' per- 
sons, may it so be for the honor of God, the welfare of the country and our souls and sahation 

We have been expecting the Hon'''* Director-General during last autumn, according to reports 
of several people and had resolved to speak to bis Honor about the document given to S' Arent 

216 Colunial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

van Curler regarding the great Flat, lying between this place and the Maqxias eountiy, which was 
granted to S'' Curler, but whereas his Honor, the Director-General, did not come here and the 
interests of this place cannot well be explained in a letter, we shall leave it till the arrival of the 
Hon""' Director-General, who, we hope, will come here next spring. 

No change has occurred here during the winter, which it is worth while to write, everything 
is in good order, wherewith closing we coumieud your Worships to the protection of the Almighty 
and remain 

Your Hon''"' Worships' obedient 
Fort Orange, servants 

12"' January A" 16G2. La Montagne 


Feanz Barents Hastcoeen 
Evert J ansen Wendel 
Abeam Staats 

Philipp Pietersen Schuylee 
Adriaen Geeeetsen. 

Ordinance of the Court of Bergen for the construction of a public well in 
THE village, passed 28'"' January 1662, ratified 12'"' Febe''. 

(See Laws of New-Netherland, p. 424.) 

Purthee answer of THE Dieector-General and Council to the peoposals of 
Messrs. Fenn and others, of New PIaven Colony, stating the conditions, 
on which they may settle a town on acutek cull. 

John Gregorie, arrived here yesterday from 
New-Migland, requested further answer to 
the propositions of some Englishmen, which 
are recorded in the Register of Resolutions 
under date of 28'" November 1661. The fol- 
lowing answer was given to him : 

Worthj' and Lovinge friendes 

Wee doe Conceave, that our Scriptuall answer more largly declared by words of mouth and 
mutnall discourses are such as possybely can be Expected and as is Answcrabel to our Superiore 
in Europe : it is known (Honnor and thancks be given for it to the BountifuU God), that there is 
no at the Least difFerency In the fondamentall points off Religion, the differency in Churches 
orders and gouvernment so small that wee doe not stick at it, therefore have left and leave it still 
to the freedom off your owne Consiences. 

In Civil matters which doe not Schruppel the Consicncy, It is a Common Proverb, in Strainge 
places, we may finde, but must make noe Lawes ; Conferringe our Common Practis in matters of 
Civil Justice with your Printed orders we find soo little difference, that it wil not hinder the 
buissenis in hand, only the Appeale and Confirmation of Magistrates out a dubbel Number (: as a 
token of an acknowledgement to a higher authority :) must be Referred to the Gouverneur General 

New York Historical Records. 217 

& Counsel in tyme beeinge ; but if tlie summe wheereof a party may appeale & the Feynes before 
he may Appeale (beinge Coiuinouly hundert gilders and the feynes twee Pound Sterlinge) to j'oiir 
judgement is to Smal both may be exalted to a heyer Summe. 

The Confirmation of Magistrates out a dubbel Number is in several Respects requisit & need- 
ful, more for the good of the township, as for the Authority of the Government ; the Reasons 
Shortenes Sake, wee shal deferre to more Convenient tyme & Place, the Common practis of the 
Govern our & Counsel before they proceed to the Election & Confirmation of the New Magistrates 
is to advyse with the deputy of the old Magistrates presentinge the nominations before them, 
which the most fitted men are for that office, wliereout in part the premisses may be deducted. 

These twoe poincts beinge amongst your Propositions the Principals, whereabouts at the last 
meetiuge the diflerancy (to our Remembrance) was left &, the Bearer your Present messenger ife 
agent John Gregorie beinge not further Instructed, wee shall breake off for the Present, only wee 
thought it meete for the Furthei-ance of the matters in hand to acquaint yow & those it may Con- 
serne with the oath of Fidellity which in the first place all Inhabitants, secondly all Magistrates 
and military officers, every one in his place are to doe, Soe after our love & Respects wee shal Rest 
Amsterdam in the N. Netherlands Your Lovingo friend, 

this 11"^ of March 1662. 

A Coppie of the Oath of Fidelity to be done 
and Subskrybet by those that are to Come and 
to Settel vnder the Governement of the Prov- 
ince of the N. Nethiirlands. 

Wee doe in the Presence of the Almighty God heereby acknowledge, declare and sweare, 
that wee shal be true and faithful vnto the high & mighty Lords the States Generals of the Vnited 
Belgicq Provinces, the Right Honnourable the Lords Bewinthebbers of the West-India Comp?, 
theire Governour & Counsel in tyme Beinge all fittinge & due obediance accordinge as other 
Inhabitants of this Province in duty are Bound to doe ; that wee shal not acknowledge any other 
Prince or State to have dominion over vs, Soo longe as wee shal live and Continue in this theyre 
Province and Jurisdiction off the N. Netherlands. 

Soo help my (or vs) the God Almighty. 

Oath for Magistrates. 

I, N. N., doe wel & truely sweare in the Presence of the Almighty and Everlivinge God to 
be true & faithful to the high and mighty Lords the States Generals of the Vnited Belgicq Prov- 
inces, the Right Honnourable the Lords Be-^inthebbers of the West-India Comp?, their Governour 
General & Counsel in tyme Beinge, that I as Choosen and Confirmed Magistrate for the towne of 
N. N. shal maintaine the true & Protestant Religion, soo as the same accordinge to the word of 
God is declared and in this Province is Professed, that I shal vse my best and vtmost Endeavor 
for the Supression off Mutinis, Sedition, Conspiraces or Invasion whatsoever I shal heare, may be 
Prejudical to the abovementioned high & mighty & honnourable Lords & their Government here 
Established, as also to the welfare of this Province in general as to the Particular Towne, whereof 
I was Chosen ; that I accordinge to my best Skil as one of the Magistrates Chosen by the afore- 
said Towne Shal vse & Exercyse good and Equal Administration of Justice, without favour or 
affection, hatred or malicy to the Persons or Partys, and not be a Counselar in Privat in any Cause 
dependinge before mee — , 

Soo help me God Almighty. 

218 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Oath for Military Officers iu the Townships. 

I, N. N., Captain, Leiftennant, Eynsen, Sergiant & all the Compagnie before this Present 
Coulers, doe well & truely Sweare in the Presence of the Almighty and Everliveinge God, that 
we shal be trne & faithful to the high & mighty Lords the States Generals of the Vnited Belgicq 
Provinces, the honuourable Loi-ds the Bewinthebbers of the "West-India Comp? & their Gouver- 
neur & Government heere Established, that we Shal Shew them and alsoo our Subalterne Magis- 
trates al due Kespects and obediance not Bearingh any Armes against them in wath Kespeet 

soever — 

So help my (or vs) God Almighty. 

Here follows a private letter of his Honor, the Director-General, sent concerning the forego- 
ing matter to Mr. Eobbert Triatt. 

Worthy and Loveinge Friend. 

By Mr. John Gregorie was our answer to the Compagnie in general and therefore sent open, 
■where out may be deducted, that all the Points of your propositions where graunted, Except the 
Appeale, Election and Confirmation of Magistrates, from the first wee kan not declaine, the 
Reasons of the other wheerefore it iu a dubbel Number ought to be Presented to a heyer Author- 
ity ware to my opinion soo just and waithy that I see noe Reasons how to Answer the denyal, 
notwithstandinge if any to the Contrary Can be brought forth, which may give more Light and 
Satisfaction to our Court after due Examination, I wil and shal by al possible meanes endeavor 
both heere and if need Requires by our Superiors in Europa, that the Corapanie in that point and 
in Sum other grevances may obtaine al Reasonable Satisfaction : I hope not, that such a smal dif- 
ference wil Cut off the buissinis in hand, therefore I shal Request you wil Be Pleased to send me 
word by the Bearer, your & the ConipS final Resolution, that we in Buyinge and disposiiige of 
that trackt of Land may order our Occasions as the Present tyme for the Common good of this 
Provincy shal offer, so after my love & respects I shal Rest 

Your lovinge friend. 
Post Schript. 

The Bearer Dirch Johns desyred my a letter of addres in the behalfe of his Cause, depend- 
ingh before the Governour & Court of New-Haven Jurisdiction, my Request is yow will be 
pleased to be helpfull vnto him, if Securitie should be Required, for his goods Layinge vnder 
Arrest, if yow wil be Pleased to become his Security for itt, these shal oblidge me to save yow 
harmles, so after my love I Rest as before. — 
Amsterdam in the N. Neth-erlands 
this 13'" of March 1662. 

Waeeant empowering Oeatam, chief of Hackingkeshackt, and Mattano, an- 

Whereas Oratam, chief of Jlachinghesahy, and other savages have complained several times, 
that many selfish people dare not only to sell brandy to the savages in this city, but also to carry 
whole ankers of it into their country and peddle it out there, from which, if it is not prevented iu 
time, many troubles will arise, therefore the Director-General and Council of N ew- Netherlands 
not knowing for the present a better way to stop it, authorise the said chief together with the Sa- 

Hew York liidorical Recorch. 219 

diem 2rattenoticTc, to seize the brandy brouglit into their conntry for sale and those offering to sell 
it and bring them here, that they may be punished as an example to others. 

This is the document, given to the Sachems pursuant to the foregoing resolution : 

The chiefs Oratam. and Mattano are hereby authorized, to seize the brandy brought into their 
country for sale, together with those, who bring it and conduct them hither. Done at Fort Am- 
sterdam in N. NetJierland, the 30'" of March 1662. 

PETmoN OF Aeent van Curlee for a survey of the great Flat behind Fort 
Orange (Schenectady). 
The 6'" of April (1662.) 

To the Noble, Very Worshipful, his Honor the 
Director-General and the Honorable Council of 

Shows with due reverence Arent van Curler, that he cum, suis (and his friends) had received 
permission by a certain resolution of their Honors the Director-General and Council of Neio-Neth- 
erland, dated the 23'' of June 1661, to buy from the lawful owners the lands on the well known 
Great Flat, situate behind Fort Orange inland and whereas by virtue thereof the said lands were 
bought by the petitioner cum suis and are now owned by them and whereas the same are also 
busy now erecting houses, mills and other buildings and whereas petitioner cu7n suis wish to cul- 
tivate and sow some of these lands during this season, which cannot well be done, unless tiie said 
lands are surveyed, therefore the petitioner request in his and his friends' name, that yom* Hon'''^ 
Worships will please to authorize the surveyor Jacques Corteljouw that he survey and partition 
the land and that he proceed thither now with the petitioner. Awaiting hereupon your Hon''''' 
Worships' favorable decision, he remains etc etc. 

Your Hon''''' Worships' servant 

Arent van Curler. 

The foregoing petition was taken up and read and the following reply was given : 

Before the village is laid out and formed, as desired, the persons, who intend to go there as 
settlers must be of a sufficient number, at least twenty families, and must report their names to the 
Secretary of the Director-General and Council. They must engage themselves and promise, not 
to carry on any trade with the savages under whatever name or pretext it might be, neither dii-ectly 
nor indirectly. Date as above. 

PETrriON OF Philipp Pietersen Schuyler and others foe leave to plant a vil- 
lage AT THE Great Esopus. 

To the Noble, Worshipful, his Honor the 
Director-General and the Honorable Coun 
cil of New-Netherland. 

Show with all respect Philipp Pietersen Schuyler, VolcJcert Jansen and Goosen Gerrltsen 
van Schaick, together with Jan Thomas and Andries Herhertsen, inhabitants of the village of 

220 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

BeverwycJc rear Fort Orange, that it is evident that the prosperity of this province of New-Neth- 
erland rests principally on agricultnre and commerce ; therefore the petitioners are very desirous 
to establish ■with many more people a new village at the Great Esopus, where a great deal of 
uncultivated land lies and the petitioners and other people are very willing and resolved, to begin 
farming in earnest and continue in it ; they address tliemselves therefore to your Hon'"'^ Worships 
with their humble request, that your Hon"'^ Worships will please for the benefit of the province 
to order a survey for a new village and farmlands on the Great Esopus, in the most convenient 
locality, which may be found and to have it laid out in as many lots as the area of the land may 
admit and whereas the abovenamed petitioners are the first undertakers and settlers, to enter upon 
and cultivate the aforesaid lands on the Esopus, they respectfully request, that your Hon"'* Wor- 
ships will please to give and grant to each of them forty to fifty morgens of land, at and near the 
spot, where the new village on the Esoptis shall be laid out : the petitioners promise, each for 
himself, to enter upon their allotted lands immediately, to fence, plough, sow it, to build on the 
lots "in the village houses, barns etc" and to furnish the cattle, necessary for such bouweries ; that 
the petitioners may also receive title-deeds in dehita forma for the lands and house lots, which 
doing etc they remain 

Your Hou'''^ Worships Very obedient servants 


GoosEN Geeeitsen 
Andeies IIekbertsen. 
The 6'" of April (1662). 

Aiter the foregoing request had been taken up and read, it was i-esolved, to lay out a new 
settlement on the Esopus and to accommodate the petitioners, as much as occasion shall permit. 
Date as above. 

Lease of Lot ISTo. 4 in the New Village at the Esoptts. 
(Fort Orange Records. Vol. Notarial Papers, 1660-1676.) 

This 4"" of May 1662 appeared before me Dirok van Schelluyne, Notary Public etc. Jan 
Thomassen and Volckert Jansen, partners, parties of the first part and Gerritt Tooche and Jan 
Gerritsen of Oldenlnirg, farmers and partners, as parties of the second part. The said Jan Thom- 
assen and Yolckert acknowledge to have let and Gerritt Toocke and Jan Gerritsen to have rented 
the lessors' lot of land No. 4, situate at the Esopus in the newly opened village, known to the les- 
sees, under the following conditions : 

The lessees are to enter upon, use and cultivate the said land from now to the first of May 
1663 without paying rent therefor. 

The lessors promise to furnish to the lessees during this season as much oats for seed, as the 
lessees can conveniently sow upon the land, on condition that the same quantity of oats shall be 
returned to the lessors at the end of the terra of rent. 

The lessors shall deliver to the lessees free of charge at the landing of the Esopnis one hun- 
dred boards to build a convenient house, which house, barn, stacks, fences around the land, made 
for their convenience, are to belong at the end of the term to the lessors according to a valuation 
by impartial parties, likewise a bridge, which must be built over the Ivil running by the land. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 231 

In accordance witli such valuation the price shall be refunded to the lessees, wlio however shall be 
held to pay the full price of the above said boards at the end of their term. 

The lessors also give now to the lessees the below stated animals to be used during their term, 
viz. three mares and one gelding, a stallion and a young stallion, two cows, two heifers, two sows 
with pigs, two young boars, six hens and a rooster. The lessees shall keep all these animals on 
half share of the increase according to the custom of the country. 

The lessors will supply the lessees with the following implements, a plow and a cart with all 
things belonging to it except a plow-chain, to be furnished by the lessees, who shall return these 
implements in good order at the end of their term. 

The lessees shall have the use of the said land, horses and other animals for the time of four 
consecutive years, beginning on the 1" of May 1GC3 and ending on the last of April 1667. 

The lessees promise to pay as rent during the said four years 450 fl a year in beavers at 8 fl 
or in grain at the market price beaver valuation or else in wampum, calculating a beaver at IH fl, 
payments to be made each year and not to run from one year to another. 

At the end of their term the lessees shall have the preference before others in case the land 
is to be let again and if they are willing to pay as much as others. 

All expenses and costs, arising on account of the village during the term of this lease, also the 
working on and repairing of the fortifications shall fall on the lessees. Etc. etc. 
Jeremitts van Rensselaer \ ^j^-^ggggg Jan Thomassen 

Abram Staats ) Volckeet Jansen 

Geerit Tockkn 
The mark -K of Jan GEERrrsEN 
of Oldenberg. 
D. V. ScHELLUYNE, Notary Public 1662. 

Like leases are made by Philipp Pieterse Schuijler owner of lots 1 and 5 with Barent Har- 
Tnense, Septbr SG"" 1662, by Goosen Gerritsen, owner of lot 3, with Pieter Helbrantse, Octbr 21, 
1662 and Novbr 17, 1664, by Ja7i Tamassen and Volckert Jansen, as owners of lot 5 (bought from 
Ph. P. Schuyler ?) with Gerrit Toocke and Jan Gerritsen, Febr^ 9, 1663, also for lot No 5 at 
Schenectady by Willem Tailler with Claes Frederickse van Petten and Isaac Cornelise June 16, 


Gregoet of New-Haven concerning the settlement on Achter Cull. 
30"" May (1662) 

At the house of his Honor, the Director-General, present the Director-General and the Coun- 
cillors, Messrs. Nicasitos de Sille, JLa-Montagne and Johan de Peckere. 

Vppon the propositions made by the English deputies Bohhert Triatt, Philip]) Groues and 
John Gregoi'y the Gouernour & Counsel of the N. Netherlands doe stil Remaine by that answer 
as formerly in Schriptis was given and Sent vnto them and for further Explanation of Sum par- 
ticulars, which they thincke to be doubtfull, this presents may serve. 

First Conserninge the twoe former Propositions about the Churches orders and government 
wee Referre that vnto themselves, that they not any way shal lie molested therein and iff need 
should Require that advyce should be taken with Sum English Ministers or Churches within these 

222 Colonial Settlements on tlte Hudson Hiver. 

Province of the N. Netlierlands that shall be left to theyre owne liberty, But in Case iff a Synode 
therevnto most be Kequiered the approbation and Consent of the Governour and Counsel then 

Conserninge the Third Proposition the Governour & Counsel doe give Consent that the afore- 
said English Nation beinge setlet vnder this government shal have power by the most vote of the 
Churches members, to nominate their owne Magistrates in such a quantity as they shall thinck 
most meete and needfull for their towue or Townes, which Magistrates with the freemen shal be 
Impoured, to make such Lawes and Ordinances, as occasion slial require, which lawes and ordi- 
nances after Examination beinge found not oppugnant to the general Lawes of the Vnited Belgieh 
and tiiis Provinces shal by the Governour & Counsel be Ratified and Confinned vnto them, only 
the Governour & Counsel doe Reserve the Appeale of Criminel and Civil Sentences above the 
Sum of fifty pound Sterlinge, without Reformation or appeale to that Sum, for all such Inhabitans 
as therevnto shal Subschrybe and y'' Confirmation of the Magistrates out of dubbel Number jearly 
to be presented vnto them, out of which dubbel Number with advyce or Communication of the 
old Magistrates or their deputies the foUowinge Magistrates by the Governour & Counsel then 
beinge shal be Confirmed. 

Conserninge the further propositions, they are by these presents graunted. Actum in Foi't 
Amsterdarn iu New-Netherland, the 30"' of May 1662. 

Minute of Council, kejecting the petition of Jueiaen Teunissen to keep a 


June 15, 1662. 

The petition of Juriaen Teunissen was taken up and read, who requested permission to live 
and keep a tavern at the mouth of the Esopus Kil, at the northside of it, where his foster father 
Kit Davitsen had formerly lived 

Whereas this would tend to debauch the soldiers and other inhabitants there and whereas it 
is also to be feared, that strong liquor might be sold there to the savages 

Therefore it is decreed : 

The request is denied for pregnant reasons. Date as above. 

Petition or Sergeant Christian Niessen at the Esopus for an increase of pat. 

To the Noble, Worshipful Director-General 
and the Honorable Council oi New-Netheiiand. 

Shows with all due reverence Christian Niessen^ chief sergeant in the service of your Hon*"'* 
Worships, that I have had charge in this quality for some time of the garrison at the Esopus and 
find that my pay is not suflicient for my subsistence, to attend duly to my position and therefore 
I request, that your Hon'"''' Worships will please to consider, that I need a little higher pay and I 
do not doubt, that after your Hon'''* Worships have taken it into consideration, they will favor me 
with higher pay. Which doing I remain 

Yonr Hon''''' Worships' servant 

Christian Niebsen. 

New Yorh Hisloricvl Records. 223 

The Director-General and Council considered the expenses, which the petitioner must now 
and then necessarily incur in the discharge of his duties and as the same have been attended to 
with great diligence and vigilance since his appointment, it is decided, 

That the petitioner shall henceforth receive 20 guilders monthly pay. Date as above (29"' 
June 1G62). 

Extract feom a letter of Director Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland : 
ON the militia question ; TUREATS OF Esopus Indians. 15'" July 1662. 
To avoid your Honors' displeasure we hardly dare to write anything fiu'ther in reply to wliat 
your Honors say about discharging of more soldiers and that the inhabitants are bound to defend 
themselves, after what we have formerly in detail explained regarding this, but we must remark 
with submission to your Honors' wiser judgment, that if your Honors persist absolutely upon this 
principle, namely total abolition of .the military and reliance on the inhabitants alone for the 
offensive and defensive maintenance of this territory, it must not only be feared, but may undoubt- 
edly be expected, that it will come to as bad an end with this acquisition as with others. As to 
that the inhabitants are bound, to defend themselves, nature and necessity compel everybody to 
do it and further (as your Honors continue) that at extraordinary occasions they must bear uncom- 
mon imposed burdens and be subject to the guarding of their own and other frontier places, in 
that we agree with your Honors. We promise ourselves and in behalf of their subjects to your 
Honors, that they will not be found unwilling to do their best herein according to their powers, 
when necessity and the circumstances require, that the military pursue the barbarians : our former 
letter on this subject intimated only the reluctance and unwillingness of the inhabitants, to attack 
the savages in the open field, and in relieving or bringing help to other outside places : we do 
not remember, without desiring to contradict your Honors' better information, that citizens and 
inhabitants in the Fatherland were held or compelled to it. It is desirable and would cause us 
less anxiety, if this your Honors' territory could be governed and maintained without military, at 
least with less, than we are keeping now, but it must be presumed, that the parties have little 
dealings or interests in this country, who inform and report to your Honors otherwise, and that 
they care less for the keeping or loss of it. Your Honors have seen from the list sent over last 
year, how many soldiers remained then in the service and how they were distributed, namely pur- 
suant to your Honors' former order 10 or 12 at Fort Orange, 12 to 14 at Fort Altena on the South 
river, indeed few enough in our poor opinion considering the multitude of barbarians, who visit 
the distant places dayly, 25 men at the Fsoj>us, whom we have reinforced while writing this by 6 
or 8 men fi"om the garrison here, on account of warnings from other savages, that the Esopus sav- 
ages had threatened to attack some of our people there during seeding time in revenge for the 
savages sent to Curacao, 6 men on Staten- Island for the safety of the few inhabitants there, the 
balance of about 70 to 80 remain for the reasons, given in our former letter, here in gan-ison : 
some of these have been discliarged since and several more will be sent home discharged by the 
ships, now about to sail, so that not more than 60 or 70 remain here in garrison as a reserve troop 
for any arising emergencies ; all together they do not number over one hundred and twenty five 
military persons. We leave it to a farther seeing judgment, whether this present distribution of 
soldiere or sometimes agreable to circumstances a still greater scattering (especially when the 
potash maker shall come to get the number, promised to him, from this garrison) is not more a 
bravado, than a necessity. If your Honors had from your own experience a perception of the 

224 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson liiver. 

interests, losses, sudden attacks, unexpected murders, manslaughters, different incendiary fires, hap- 
pened to the inhabitants before and during our time, as we, your Honors' faithful othcers and good 
inhabitants have experienced them and if your Honors knew, that the wild barbarians have so far 
only been held somewhat in check by the dread of the few soldiers, then we trust, that your Hon- 
ors would with us deem it better for this their territory and its inhabitants, to think of some con- 
venient means, whereby for their greater security a larger number of soldiers could be maintained, 
than to reduce and discharge the small number at a greater risk. Twenty five men more or less 
will not make the public treasury richer or poorer by „ fl, which if drawn and collected from the 
peojile will add little to the taxes, considering that the same ■will give us respect and advantage in 
times of need. Anyway 7 years ago, when the reduction of the Swedish forts on the Southriver 
was undertaken a great deal of damage by fire and otherwise on Staten-Island, at Gemoenepa and 
elsewhere could have been prevented, if 25 or 30 enlisted soldiers had then remained in garrison 
here. We will not go farther in these inferences, but rather await your Honors' further delibera- 
tions and orders, to be governed by them. 

Your Honors' orders and instructions regarding the pretensions of Melyn are strictly obeyed. 
It must be presumed, that the lands, formerlj^ cultivated by him, will remain abandoned, as since 
he has been driven from them now 7 years ago, he has not troubled himself about the land. We 
hardly believe, that for the present he will again take possession of them, for he has taken up his 
residence at New Haven in New-England for a few years past, where he still lives. 

MiNDTE OF Council on the eeceipt of lettees feom John Endicott, Governor 
OF Massachusetts and Thomas Bredon, Governor of Nova Scotia complain- 

Two letters were read in Council, one from the Governor of Boston, John Endecott, dated 
the 27"" of June, the other from the Governor of Nova Scotia, T. Breedont, dated 30"* June last, 
wherein they state, that the Maquas have been there in May last and plundered one of their trad- 
inghouses, killing also a number of Indians and cattle, contrary to the treaty of peace made be- 
tween the Maquas and the Northern savages at Fort Orange last year. They request in substance, 
that we assist their agents Capt. Gardner and Walker to get satisfaction for the sustained damages 
and that the peace between the said Maquas and the Northern savages be renewed. It was 

To contribute everything to accomplish this and to carry it out. Date as above (24"' July 

A Copt of Propositions Made vnto the Maques August the 1'* 1662. By 
Thomas Gardner & Nathaniell Walker with the Answers to the same 


1. Q. The first Proposition made vnto the Maques was wheather the English had not always bin 
theyre frinds which had more Espeshaly Apered in three pirticulars. 

New York Historical Hecoi'ds. 225 

first wlieather that thes Thirty or forty yeares past the English had not bin thcyr friuds not 
wronging them any way. 

secondly theyr frindship had Appeared in deniall the ffrench A passage through the English 
Country to light with the Maques 

thirdly it had Appeared in laboring to make A Pease for the Mowhohs with Northern In- 
dianes not helping the Northern Indiaues though the Maques wares with them wear to the Eng- 
lishes great Lose. 

An. The Maques or Mohoks Answer was it was tiiie the English had so bin theyr frinds as 

2. Q. The second Proposition made vnto the Maquas was why they did then so breake the Pease 
with the Northern Indianes that was made for them by the English After the Indian was rune 
away, that Came to make Pease and that the sayed Pease wase made at the Englishes Cost. 

2. An. To this they Answer it was fals theyr was no pease made for the Indianes at All but the 
pease wase made with the English & that they had good ground to war with the Northern In- 
dianes ; who at two severall times had helped the Canide Indianes : that by theyr meanes thay 
had lost near 100 men & that som of the Dutch should tell them thay might fall vpon the North- 
ern Indianes Notwithstanding the former Pease, the Dxitch in the meane time denieing the same 
& Afirming as by theyr Records was made to Apeare that ther was an absolute & firm pease with 
the English in behalf of the Northern Indianes made the last year hear at Eartt Orange att A 
Solemn meeting with the names of Severall men to the same that wear Comanders at Fortt Orange. 

Vnto this Answer of the Maques the Dutch reply is farther that likewise the Maques sayed 
the English had betrayed the Northern Indians into theyr hands because they had killed ther 
Cattle & that the English brought them to the fortt, which was A truth, the Maques had so 

3. Q. The third Proposition was why thay did take the Northern Indianes vnder the Protection 
& Comand of Penobscott fortt itt being Contrary to the former peace & Contrary to the Customes 
of Nationes & very Predgidishall to the English 

An. To this Nothing is Answered butt as before they wear ther Enymies & thay had ocasion so 
to doe. 

4. Q. The fourth proposition was why thay did so falsly and Perfidiously breake the pease with 
the English at Neagers house & at Penobscott fortt most Solemnly made & giufts being both 
given by them & requited by the English, yet Imeadeately that thay killed the Englishes Cattell 
& Robed the Abouesayed house to the value of 400 lb Sterlinge & afterwards they Biult a strong 
Fortt by Neagers house tarieing ther A fortnight which we supose wase for nothing else but to 
surprise the English Coming for ther goods. 

4. Ans. To this they Answer, it is true they killed some Cattell, though not so many as we say 
it being dun by youths & because the Cattell did Run so wildly when they ran after the other In- 
dians & that it was but A smale mater that which they did Usually to the Dutch & for wrong dun 
to the house they p''ferred a p^'cell of wampum denieing ther was so much goods as we sayed ther 
was, it likewise being dun by youths and if the English would not so be satisfied they could not 
helpe it. 

5. Q. A 5"" query was why they did threttn to Cutt of the English that live Eastwards in the 
fall of the year vnder the Notion of French men. 

5. An. Theyr Answer was it was false thay did not so thretten the English for our men wear in 

226 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

theyr hands & thay had power to have killed them if thay had hirx freneh, but thay had jealousies 

we vfe&Y frenck it was true and our bands were Vike freneh mens bands. 

6. Q. To A 6"' query which was wheather thay would now Returne the prisoners that wear by 

them taken of the Northern Indianes & giue the Northern Indianes satisfaktion for those thay 

had killed it being Contraiy to Articles of Peace made the last year 

6. An. Theyr Answer was we should then bring these men of theyrs the Northern Indianes had 

killed both heartofor and now of late and that the Prisoners wear giuen by them to theyre frinds 

who formerly had lost theyr frinds by the wares. 

These Abouesayed things being thus propounded & thus Answered the Indianes Brake of in 
A Snufe & went and told in the towne we weare no better then Hogges & that thay Cared not 
for the English & if thay ■would not now manifest theyr satisfektion in thre weaks time they would 
set vpon the outmost plantations of Connitiqett & burns them and that thay would go ten or 12 
men in A Company fiering remote houses & destroy what thay could. These things being dun in 
the forenone. 

The Aftemoone we meett Agayne the Dutch Gouernor hauing propounded this to them in 
the Morning wheather they would Kefrayne from fighting with the Northern Indianes vntil the 
Spring next year that some Northern Indianes might be brought to make Pease with them ; theyr 
Answer was thay would ; we Considering of All things tooke hold of this opertimity to preuent 
theyr present Incurtiones &. to gayne time to proceed farther with them. Therefore we made 
them this 3 folde Reply, first that we had Considered of theyr Answers to the former pirticulers 
& theyr Peage proferred in satisfaction & that •we should one & the other to the Gouernors of the 

Secondly we had Considered of theyr Resolution not to fight with the Northern Indianes till 
some might Com to Conclude A peace the which Resolution wo liked well & therefore gaue them 
A parsell of Peage. 

Thirdly we told them it was our desier, thay shoidd do theyre best to let vs haue the prison- 
ers thay had in hold and therfore to Ineoridge them hearin we gaue them Another p'sell of Peage. 
The Mohohes liked very well this present & told vs thay would performe the first and do theyr 
best to performe the last 

That this is A true relation we ar witnesses whose Names are vnderwritten. 

Thomas Gardner. 
Nath. "Walker. 

A True relation of the Maques Coming to Penobscott ffortt and what 


The last of Aprill one Thousand sixe hundred sixty twoe the Maques Came to Neagew house 
belonging to the sayed flFort & sent thre men before them to tell the English that the Maqxies 
theyr frinds wear Coming and desiered to Trade with them but whilst thay wear Speaking About 
two hundred & sixty men of them had Incompassed the house pulling downe the fence, entered 
into the sayed house & filled it fuU of men : thear being but fowar English men in the house (& 
then as the three men thay sent) so now these desier Trade with the English & promis that thay 
would do them no harme nor theyr goods or Cat tell & gave vnto the Truke Master fowar or fiue 
girdles of Peage, telling him that thay weare theyr Asured frinds & After A fayer Trade of what 
thay desired Contrary to theyr former promises Compeled the Truke Master to go downe the 

New Yorh Historical liecords. 227 

River witli them, the tliree men then left in the iiouse fearing to stay when theyr Master was 
Caried Away in the Niglit thouglit to hauo Come downe to tlie fortt to haue Informed vs of tlieyr 
Coming but wear surprised by tlie way of the Maques & kept thre dayes prisoners. 

The Tliird of May sixty two the sayed Maques Came to P'enobscott fortt bring the Aboue- 
sayed fowar men and setting them vpon a Roke in the Riuer it being in the twilight in the morn- 
ing whilst thay themselues went and surprised the Indianes that wear vnder the Protection of 
sayed fortt and wear Com ther to Trade which wear to the Number of one hundred men women 
and Children and haueing Ended theyr biusnes About the Indianes in theyr surprissall : thay Came 
and desiered Trade of vs as thay had done Aboue at the house : haueing before sent home our 
men thay had taken prisoners: Thoug with great discord About them Amongst themselues. 

Now although we well know thay had broken the pease made the last yeare at Fortt Orange 
by the Duches helpe we ouerlooked the same & knowing that we could not recouer the prisoners 
thay had taken & that All our goods vp the Riuer was at theyr dispose thought it not fitt to ofend 
them Anye waye but to preserue the sayed house & Tradeing goods & therfore According to the 
Maqueses desier we Traded with them for prouision & goods in frindly maner the Maqnes Sagi- 
mores in the mene time promising great frindship to vs and glueing vs a present of Moose Skins 
& Peage & we in requitall gaue the Maques the valine in Cloth Bread & pruenes, fflower & Pease 
& Corne, Butt in most fallse & Perfidious maner thay no sooner went of the fortt in Pease but 
Killed ten of our Cattell that wear of sight of the fortt & went vp the Riuer & Robed our house 
of All wase in it to the valine of 400 lbs & Builtt A strong ifortt in A quarter of A mile of the 
sayed house & Tarid ther A forttnight as we suppose by what had pased before to surprise our 
men when thay should Come vp to fetch our goods. 

This is a true relation by me Thomas Gardner 

Edward Nay lor, Truke 
(5'" August 1662.) Master at the house. 

Ordinances regulating the Trade with the Indians, passed 5"^ August 1662. 
(See Laws of New-Netherland, pages 425-6.) 

Letter from Roeloff Swartwout, Schout at Wiltwyck, to Director Stutvesant 
concerning a recent alarm at the esopus and its cause. 

To their Honors the Noble Director- 
General and the High Council of the 
City of New-Amsterdomi. 

I report to your Hon*"'' Worships by this my letter, that on the 11"" of August one of YolcTcert 
Jansen^s horses has been found dead in the M-oods, about half an hour's way into them, just back 
of the newly made fort. I rode there on horseback with two Commissaries and eight or ten inhabit- 
ants on the IS"", turned the dead horse over and found, that it was shot with a bullet in or near 
the heart. It created great consternation among the inhabitants, for it is presumed, that the sav- 
ages have done it. We had thought of making a verbal report of it to his Honorable, the Director- 
General, but as the wind was not favorable, we had to give it up. The Maqua was here to ask 

228 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

me for his piece of cloth and as no cloth can be obtained here, I hardly could pacify the Maqua. 
I told him that it would come from the Manliatans by the first opportunity. , 

The Schout and Commissaries request, that your Hon"'" Worships will please to send one 
hundred pounds of gunpowder and two hundred pounds of lead, we shall pay for it in time. 
Wiltwyck, Your Honorable Worships always 

16'''' August obedient and faithful servant 


In haste 
To the Valiant, the Noble Director- General and the Hon"'^ High Council of Fort and City 

Lettek fkom the same to the sasie ; affairs at the Esopus ; evils arising from 


To the Noble, Very Worshipful 
his Honor the Director-General 
and the High Council. 

Tour Honors' servant Roeloff Swartwout reports in behalf of his Magistrates and in their 
absence from this place with the assistance of some inhabitants. 

We could not omit to inform your Hon''"' "Worships, that the situation here is such, that if no 
precautions are taken we are in great danger of drawing upon us a new war. The cause wiU be 
the selling of liquor to the savages, \vhich, God better it ! begins to increase, notwithstanding that I, 
your Honors' servant, do my best as well by watching day and night as sometimes with the assist- 
ance of the Commissaries and good will of many citizens, who try to prevent it with all their 
power, but the experience of stricter inquiries has proved, that we are nevertheless often imposed 
upon, we as well as the Sergeant of the garrison here, for it is well known and customary, that 
soldiers are called upon for assistance, when it is necessary, upon whom we rely and trust, but we 
are very much deceived by them, they even say upon being questioned 

* * * (iUegible) * * * 

to sell liquor ; others with the small still of Jacobsen Backer are of the devil, who has taken hold 
of several soldiers not much to the advantage of the inhabitants. 

Jonas Rantsou has taken special liberties, after he had been examined by the Court in the 
presence of the citizens' military counsel and the Magistrates to show cause, whereas your Honors' 
servant had seen him, Hantsou, come out of a citizen's house, where some beavers were traded that 
evening for brandy ; we could get no information from him. Rantsou went the same night or early 
next morning without permission of the Magistrates in company of a dumb* savage to the newly 
made village of the savages, to trade among them ; he took with him some few little things, men- 
tioned below. When they came to the fort of the savages, the dumb savage went in first, a little 
while later Rantsou was conducted into the fort by a savage and arrived inside, he was asked, 
whence he came ; he answered that he came from Wiltwyck and during the night 

he wanted to leave of the savages , believing 

that he had come there to spy upon them, in consequence of what several southern Indians had 
reported to them, that his Honor, the General, was angry and would come with two hundred 

♦ One who could not talk Dutch. — Ed. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 229 

soldiers to make war upon them and this seemed to confirm it. The savages strengthened their 
fort immediately and put a good breastwork around it ; they also sent out three messengers, one 
to the Highlands, another to the MinisincJis and a third to the Catskils, with the latter one was 
sent to go further to the Mahicanders, to inform them all that the matters were, as before stated 
and that they had put more reliance into the negotiations, which the savages had had with the 
Director-General at the house of D° Blom, when the peace was renewed and a present promised 
to them to be given next year. Rantsou was again asked by the savages on the next day whence 
he had came and he answered, that he had come from the Fort at Wiltwyck. He was once more 
asked on the third day, from where he had come and said, that he had come from the new village 
and after having found him willing to testify, they let him go and quickly sent a savage after him 
to get information from us, whether we had sent him, but as soon as Rantsou arrived home, after 
having been absent six days, he was immediately arrested by the Magistrates. The savage messen- 
ger informed us, that he had had as large a package of things as one man can carry ; in it were 
two pieces of cloth, gunpowder and lead, with a roll of tobacco and pipes and according to the 
savage's statement he has received for it some beavers and other skins and some wampum. They 
had intended to keep him a prisoner until spring. Another savage said in going by, to Jam the 
smith, whom he met in the woods, that Rantsou had been killed, when he came there with brandy. 
We do not know by whom he was sent and I despair, that anything will be done in this matter. 
The greatest mischief, which we have to ex-pect herefrom, is caused by the contraband-traders, 
who try to swallow up this place and sell a pint of brandy for a schepel of wheat. 

* * * * * (a sheet missing) 

By close examinations of the boy by the Esopus Sachems this has been brought to light. The 
Esopus savages are still busy to get at the truth and we do not know, what the evidence of the 
other savage will be. In the meantime it is said of them, that the Esopus and Katskil savages 
will each pay one half. The Esopus have informed us through the Maquas, that they are willing 
to give ten strings of wampum, but that they are innocent of killing the horse. The opinion of 
the Sellout and Commissaries is, that we are confident, the Esopus savages have done it and we do 
our best to bring it out. As soon as we have further details, we shall take the first opportunity 
to inform your Honors. 

May the Triune God keep you in his protection. 
Wiltivyck, Written in the name of the Schout and 

5"" Septr 1662. • Commissaries, which certifies 


The piece of cloth, promised to the Maquas by the Hon''''^ General, has been given to him 
and he was very well satisfied with it. Another piece was promised to him for his further trouble. 

In haste. 

Kevenue and Expenditure of the village of Wiltwyck, including the build- 
ing OF the minister's house. 

Income of Wiltwyck Village. The outlays for the Minister's house. 

From 525 morgens. Bricks, tiles, lime, boards, wainscoting, slat- 

The land pays fl 2.10 st. per morgen in gen- ing, iron, hinges, locks and nails 

eral, which computed gives a total of fl 1313.10 coin and every thing required for it 

The house lots, not paying land tax, in wampum 680. 5. 

have brought in in coin 958.13. 


Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

in wampum 
in coin 

272 fl 

In Coin 

The excise on wine and beer, farmed out, has 
fetched so far, that is to the 31" Novbr. 

In wampum 

In coin 

The revenue is altogether 
Remains a balance of 


2117.16. 6 

All reduced to coin 
Paid for wages of the carpenters and masons, 
hod carrier, for freight of bricks, 
tiles, boards to this place, 

in wampum 1387.5. 

in coin 570. 

Reduced to coin 
Board for the carpenters, masons and the hod 
carrier altogether 
in coin 
Total in wampum fl 2067.10 

Total in coin 1973.13 

The wampum reduced and added to the 
coin makes it t 


Besides the above there must be paid to the Court Messenger, for the making and keeping in 
repair of the gates, to Juriaen Westvael for hire of the house of D° Hermanns Blom, who lived 
in his upper room, 80 florins. 

No 1 Hendrich Jochemsen 

2 Hendrick Martensen 

3 Harmen Hendricksen 
Jan Jansen Timmerman 
Jacob Barentsen 
Jam de Backer 
Jacob Joosten 

8 Willem Jansen 

9 Pieter van Alen 

10 Mathys Roeloffsen 

11 Jacob Boerhans 

12 Gerrit van Campen 

13 Anthony Cruepel 

14 Albert Oerretsen 

15 Meerten Oysbert 

16 Dirck Adriaen 

List of the lots newly laid out. 

No 17 Mathys Capita 

18 Jan Lammersen 

19 Carsten de Noorman 

20 Barent Gerretsen 

21 the Churchyard 

22 Jan Barensen 

24 Albert Heymansen 

25 Juriaen Westvael 

26 Nicolaes Willem Stuyvesant 

27 Albert Gysbertsen 

28 Tjerick Claesen 

29 Aert Jacobsen 

30 Jan Schoon 

31 Aert Pietersen Tach. 

List of the old lots, before the place was laid out. 


1 Thomas Chambers 

2 Evert Pels 

3 Balthasa/r Laser Stuyvesant 

4 Preacher's house and lot 

5 Mrs. de Hulter 

6 Jacob Map's little bouwery 

7 Jacob Map's second bouwery 

8 Henry Zeewant ryger (Wampuramaker) 

No 9 Andries the Weaver 

10 Jan the Brabanter 

11 Jan Brouwersen 

12 Michiel the first 

13 Michiel Verre 

14 Jan the Smith 

15 Andries van der Sluys 

16 house and lot of Gertrey Hansen, lying 

opposite to Nos. 6 and 7. 

New York Historical liecords. 231 

Contract to do faem woek at ScnENECTADT. 

(Fort Orange Records. Vol. Notarial Papers, 16G0-1676.) 

This 26**" of September 1662 Jan Barentsen Wemp and Ifartm Mouvei^ensen engaged Ilen- 
dnk Arentsen, sugarbaker, to serve them in cultivating, ploughing, sowing, mowing, thrashing, 
winnowing, chopping wood and every thing else connected with it, also in doing all other duties, 
which may be assigned to him at their bouwery, lying at Schenechtede, which Ilendrik well knows, 
for the time of one year beginning on this day. Jan Barentsen Wemp and Martin Mouverenseri 
promise to pay him for his services 300 fl in beavers at 8 fl the beaver or else in grain or other 
merchandise at beaver value, deliverable to said Hendrick here at the " Fuyck " or to his order. 
Jam, Barentsen binds himself personally for the payment of the aforesaid hire, as if it were a per- 
sonal debt. Date as above at Colony Rensselaerswyck. 

The mark A^^ of Mahten Meuverensen The mark I R An of Jan Barentsen Wemp 

Hendeik Arentsen. 

Appointment of Magistrates for the Village of Bergen. 

16"^ October 1662, Monday 

Present in Council their Honors, the Director-General Stuyvesant and Mr. Johan de Deckere. 

The nominations made and delivered by the Schout and Schepens of the village of Bergen 
were received with the request, that the Director-General and Council will please to select from 
them the Schepens for the said village for the coming year. 

The Director-General and Council have therefore selected and confirmed as Schepens for the 
said village Engelbert Steenhiiysen, Gerrit Gerritsen and Casjyer Steinmets is continued as first 
Schepen. Done at Fort Amsterdam. Date as above. 

Ordinance against the burning of straw and other refuse combustibles in 
the Village of Wiltwtck, passed 16"" October 1662. 

(See Laws of New-Netherland, page 430.) 

Petftion of the Magistrates of "Wiltwtck foe a supply of powder and lead. 

To their Honors, the Noble Director-General 
and High Council of New-Netherland. 

The Schout and Commissaries of the village of Wiltwyek request, tliat their Hon"'" Worships 
will please to send by the bearer hereof, Albert Hymansen Roose one hundred pounds of powder 
and two hundred pounds of lead, because we have only little of it on hand in case the times and 
necessity should require it, for we find that the citizens have none, because there is none to be had 

232 Colonial Settlements on the Hitdson River. 

here and if we should receive this supply, we will pay for it specially. In expectation of which 
we remain 

Wiltwyclc, Your Honors' obedient servants 
ll"" Octbr 1662. The Schout and Commissaries. 

That this is done in the name of the Commissaries attest your Honors undersigned obedient 
and faitliful servants Roeloff Swaetwout 

Alerdt Hetmansen Roose. 

PASSED 27'^" NOVEMBEE 1662. 

(See Laws of New-Netherland, p. 431.) 


(Ibidem, page 432.) 

Ordinance against making openings in the palisades at Wiltwyck, passed 27''° 

November 1662. 

(Ibidem, page 433.) 

Petition of the Magistrates of Beegen, asking to be peovided with a cleegyman. 

To the Noble, Yery Worsliipful, his Honor, the Director-General and the Honorable Council 
of New-Netherland. 

Show with due reverence the Schepens of the village of Bergen, that having observed and 
considered the fatherly direction and care of your Hon''''^ Worships in erecting churches and school- 
houses, they request, that they may have a God fearing man and preacher, to be an example to 
and teach the fear of God in the community of Bergen and its jurisdiction. The Scliepens have 
found it advisable, each for himself, to propose it, to learn what every man would be willing to 
pay yearly of his free will, affection and love for God's holy and blessed word, to liave a good 
teacher, till such a time, when the Noble Lords-Directors of the Incorporated West-India Com- 
pany shall begin, according to the custom of the country, to levy tithes. After the Schepens had 
made these propositions, the below named persons have vohmtarily declared, that tlie}^ will give a 
yearly contribution ; the sum to be paid by such voluntary offerings may be calculated at 417 
guilders in wampum, but there are among these people some, who have expressed themselves will- 
ing to do more according to their abilities if God our Lord would bless them and increase their 
prosperity ; among the others, who stated no sum, there are some very willing, some very dull, 

New Yorh Historical Records. 


those, who are willing, are the majority and declare, that when a preacher comes, they too would 
do their best according to their circumstances, like the others. Whereas the petitioners do not 
know, whether the people of Haersimons* come under this jurisdiction ; therefore the petitioners 
cannot report, what they would do, but the Schepens find it advisable and very necessary, that the 
village be provided with a preacher and submit to the mature consideration and decision of your 
jjQjjbie Worships, that it might be notified to the Noble Lords-Directors, our Patroons, by the next 
ships. Your Hon''''' Worships know, with what courage the village of Bergen has been established 
by the community and that the same has maintained itself at great expense to the inhabitants, with- 
out any trouble to the Lords-Directors. The community is therefore of opinion, that their Noble 
Honors should take that into consideration and therefore assist the village of Bergen so much 
readier according to their discretion and to send one over for one or two years at their expense ; 
during that time the land will with God's help have increased in value, so that then that which 
the good hearted community will liberally give, can be taken for assistance. Awaiting your 
Hon*"^ Worships' decision hereon the petitioners remain 

Your Noble, Honorable Worships' humble servants 

Tielraan van Neeck 
Machghyel Jansen 
Herman Smedman 
Casper Steinmets. 

List of the voluntary contributors, 

Tielman van Neeck 
Michielsen Jansen 
Harmen Smedema/n 
Casper Steinmets 
Jan Schulten 
Michiele Teunissen 
Jan Luhhersen 
Dirck Qerritsen 
Jacob Leendertsen 
Jan the Englishman 
Paulus Pietersen 
Willem Jansen 
Joost van Linden 
Adrian Post 

with the sum promised by each. 

fl 50 Pouwe Sarmens 

25 Jacob Sergiant 

25 Arent Louwrens 

25 Jan Cornelis 

25 Jan Cornelis d'' ryeck 

6 Thomas the cooper 

6 Cornelis Abrahams 

20 Claes Pietersen Cos of Gemoenepa 

25 Evert Coertsen 

6 Dirck Classen 

25 Jan Loserechi 

10 Gerrit Qerritsen 

10 Cla£s Arentsen 




fl 417 

List of those, who are willing, but give no specified sum, keeping it at their discretion. 

Lourens Andries 

Claesje Teunissen, the widow of Romein 

Refused have 
Tyes Lubbersen, Hendrick 
Jansen Spyer, Frerick the cobbler. 

Jan Swaen 
Hendrick Teunissen 
Dirck Teunissen 
Engelbert Steenhuysen 
Widow Pieter Rudolphsen 
Harmen Edwards 
Nicholas Varlet 

* Ahasimus. 


234 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Petition of Inhabitants of Bergen and Comunipaw against fencing in cer- 
tain LANDS and order THEEEON. 

To the Noble, Very Worshipful their 
Honor, the Director-General and Coun- 
cil of New-Netherland. 

Show with due reverence the inhabitants of the villages of Bergen and Gemoenepa, that they, 
the petitioners, have seen, that the Sellout van Vleeck, Caspar Steinmets and Harmen Smeeman 
have fenced in a parcel of highland, situate at the south end of the village enclosure, in the best 
part of the pasture, which they appropriate to themselves : it is also said, that Mr. Nicholas Var- 
leth desires a piece of highland, situate at the north of the aforesaid village back of Hohoocken, 
which, if it is done, would tend to the ruin and destruction of this village, because they would be 
entirely deprived of an outlet for their cattle and nothing but a marshy underwood would remain 
to them, where already three or four animals have been smothered ; hence there would hardly be any 
pasture left for the draught beasts, for the Mincqkaghoue people are also fencing in their land, 
so that this village will be enclosed in a fence all round. They therefore respectfully request, that 
your Hon'''^ Worships will please to make some provision and guard the common interests of the 
aforesaid village and of Gevioenepa. Awaiting hereupon your Hon'''^ Worships' favorable decision 

(Signed) Adolph Haedenbrooch, Adeiaen Hendrick, Adriaen Post, La0eens Andeiessen, 
DiECK Geeeitsen, 'A-r the mark of Dieck Te0nissen, Maghiel Jansen, Jan Scholten, Tomas 
Feedeeicks, Douwe Haemensen, j^^.T! the mark of Hendrick Teunnissen, -p- the mark of 
Paulus Pietersen, Harmen de Vos, ^j^ the mark of Jan Lubbeesen, p the mark of Egh- 
beet Sandees, Baeeent Lott, /\ tlie mark of Claes Coeesen, Cheistiaen Pietersen, C the 
mark of Jan Swach, Jan Coenelissen, Engelbeet STEENHtrrsEN. 

It was answered : 

The petitioners or a committee of them shall appear with Tielman van Vleeck, Casper Stein- 
mets and Hannen Smeeman, mentioned in the foregoing petitions, personally before the Director- 
General and Council. Date as above (28"' Decbr 1662.) 

Summons of the Sheriff and Magistrates of Beegen to answer a complaint 


28'" December 1662. 

W hereas Willem Jansen, ferryman at Bergen over the Worth River, has informed us in a pe- 
tition among other points, that Tielman van Vleeck the Sellout and Engelbert Steenkuysen, Com- 
missary in the aforesaid village, had told the community there, that every inhabitant of the place 
could keep a barge and ferry over whom he pleased, therefore the said van Vleeck and Steenkuy- 
sen are hereby ordered and directed to appear before their Honors, the Director-General and 
Council of New-Netherland, on next Court-day, to give an account of their action. Date as above. 

JVew York Historical Records. ■ 235 

Order for the survey of a certain tract of land in dispute at Bergen. 

4"' January 1663. 

Pursuant to the appointment made the 28"" of December 1662 at the request of some inhabit- 
ants of the village of Bergen, Michlel Jansen, Adriaen Post and Jan Scholten made their ap- 
pearance as deputies of the said viUage on one side and Tielman van Vleeck, Caspar Steinmets 
and Harman Smeeman on the other side. 

The said deputies state, tliat it would cause great damage to their village, if the other party 
continued with the fencing in of the high ground in question, granted to them 22'^ X*" 1661. 

The aforesaid van Vleech and Company maintained on the other side, that no obstacle what- 
ever could arise therefrom to the said village. 

After hearing the parties, it was ordered, that the piece of land in dispute, granted to the said 
van Vleeck upon his petition by the order of the 22'' December 1661, should be surveyed and that 
the surveyor shall make a report of its situation and area to their Ilonors, the Director-General 
and Council. After that directions will be given upon the petition. Date as above. 

Order m the case of "Willem Jansen, the Bergen ferryman, against the 
ScHouT VAN Vleeck. 

Pursuant to the order of the 28"" Decbr. Willem Jansen, ferryman at Bergen, appeared on 
one side and the Schout van Vleeck and Engelhert Steenhuysen on the other ; the said ferryman 
stating in his complaint, that the Schout van Vleeck and Engelbert Steenhuysen had given per- 
mission to all and every one of the inhabitants there to carry over goods for others etc. 

"Whereupon the said Schout and his companion answered, that they had not done it without 
reason, as the ferryman had refused to carry over. 

The ferryman says, that he left nobody behind, except those who would not pay him etc. 

After hearing the parties, the Schout was directed to assist the ferryman, that he may obtain 
the ferriage earned by him and if he should forget himself and act unbecomingly, to report it to 
the Director-General and Council, who will then issue such orders, as occasion may require. Date 
as above (i"" January 1663). 

Letter from Thomas Chambers and other militia officers to Director Stuy- 


Noble, Honorable, Very "Worshipful, "Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet Gentlemen, Honor- 
able Director-General and Council of New-Netherland. 

We, the undersigned militia officers of the village of WiltioycJc respectfully report to your 
Hon*'" Worships, that on the SO''' of May of last year we have been appointed officers of the militia 
by the president of the Court for this village. Evert Pels, in the name of Director-General and 
Council of New-Netherland, not knowing, whether this appointment was approved by the Director- 
General and Council. After the savages have had several gatherings here with their kinte keying. 

236 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

while we did not know, what they might attempt, we have not dared to omit calling together the 
people on the 1^' of January of this year and tried to keep good order to the best of our knowl- 
edge ; we send herewith a copy of an ordinance passed by the militia officers, which we published 
on the following day, the S"*. The Court here has been pleased to pull down the published ordi- 
nance on the Q'"" without our knowledge and we do not know for what reason, but they have sum- 
moned us on that account on the IS"" and we appeared, requesting them, that they would please 
to put up again our ordinance. This they refused to do and we can therefore not carry out our 
plan, to make use of it in time of need. The consequence is, that some people begin to banter 
and say, that we publish ordinances to be pulled down by the Court. Therefore we respectfully 
request your Hon''"^ Worships to be sustained in this matter, else we shall not be able in time of 
need to acquit ourselves of our duties. Awaiting your Hon*'^ Worships' further orders we remain 
Actum in Your Noble, Honorable Worships' humble servants 

Wiltwyck Village, Thomas Chambers 

this IS"" of January 1663. Hendrick Jochemseji 

Cornells Barentsen Slecht 

The mark y^ of Pieter Jacohsen. 

To the Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Wise, Prudent, Very Discreet, their Honors, 
the Director-General and Council of N ew-Netherland at Fort Amsterdam in New- 
Paid. N eilierland. 

Okdinance to be observed in time of need, made by the officers of the trainband. 

1. Whoever appears for training at the appointed place of gathering without proper side and 
handarms, powder and lead, shall be fined and pay the first time twelve guilders, the second time 
double that sum and the third time he shall be punished according to the judgment of the Court- 
martial. Everybody must be provided with at least ten charges of powder and lead in the car- 
tridgebox besides his full side and handarms. 


Whoever does not appear unless excused or comes too late, shall pay a fine of two guilders ; 
who remains away from contumacy or willfuUness, without sufficient excuse, shall be fined and 
corrected arbitrarily by the Courtmartial in addition to the above fine of two guilders. 

Sergeants, Corporals and Lancepesades, who are too late or remain away, shall pay a double 


In case of alarm or fire the members of the Captain's squad shall assemble at the place near 
JBarent Gerritsen, the brandy distiller, the members of the Lieutenant's squad near the wheel- 
wright's Albert Cysbertsen, the third squad under Sergeant Pieter Jacobsen Molenaer at Hen- 
drick Jochemsen^s, under a penalty of five and twenty guilders. 

All officers are forbidden to exchange with others, every one must appear personally under a 
penalty of four and twenty guilders. 

New York Historical Records. 237 

It is ordered, that every one, who mounts guard or reports at the place of rendezvous, must 
have his own side and handarnis, under penalty of confiscation of the arms, which he may have 
borrowed from another and he shall besides pay a fine of twelve guilders. 

Nobody shall in being relieved from or mounting gnard or marching, be allowed to load his 
musket with ball, wadding or paper, nor to discharge it at any window, gable or weathervane 
under a penalty of six guilders and reparation of the damage done ; but in discharging their mus- 
kets, they shall raise it above man's height under a like penalty, to prevent thus all mishap. 

If an^'body desires to remove from here to do his business elsewhere, either at the Manhatans, 
Fort Orange or some other place, he shall uotity the Mustermaster of his departure, under a pen- 
alty of twenty-five stivers. 


Nobody shall be allowed to mount guard or appear at the rendezvous, while intoxicated, and 
having reported nobody shall curse or swear or profane God's holy name and sacraments, under a 
penalty of twenty-five guilders. 

Thus enacted at the meeting of the Citizens' Council of War in the Village of Wiltwyck, the 
first day of January Anno 1663. (Signed) Thomas Chambers, Hendrich </ochemsen, the mark 
^? of Pleter Jacohsen, Cornells Barentsen Slecht. 

This was also published. 

Evei'ybod}' is hereby informed, that muskets, powder and lead may be bought at Wouter the 
baker's and further, if no more is to be had at Wouter the baker's, people may come to the officiers 
of the trainband, who will inform them, where they may buy it for money. Done at Wiltwyck^ 
the ^^ of January 1663. 

(Signed) By order of the officers of 
the trainbands of Wiltwyck Village 

Matheus Capito, Mustermaster. 

Lettee from the Magistrates of Wiltwyck to Directoe Stdtvesant ; dastgee 
OF selling liquok to the Indians ; the new village ; seasons fob disappeoving 


To the Noble, Vei-y Worshipful High 
Council of the City oi Amsterdam in 

Show with proper salutations and wishes for every bodily and spiritual blessing both the 
Commissaries of the village of Wiltwyck the good order and well being of this village so far. 
The Almighty, the God of us all, may grant peace to this country, but it is to be feared, that 
unless provisions are made for it, especially at this place, the abuse carried on here in the sale of 
liquor to the savages will prevent it, for it has come quite in vogue now at the new village, so 
that the savages have thrown each other into the fire and upon the report of it we inquired and 

238 " '/Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

found at the house of Loweys Dubo, a "Walloon living in the new village, half an anker of distilled 
water, which had not been reported at this place and had been made by his father Mathew 
Blanchart. For the reasons given before the court confiscated it, because some mischief might 
result from it. We request, that your Hon"''^ "Worships will please to assist us, that we may obtain 
some ordera for the welfare of this country, so that, if some one from the new village should 
happen to purchase some wine or strong liquor, he is to declare and pay the duties for it to the 
Receiver Jacob Boerhans, for the liquor distilled here is not to the taste of the savages, which is 
for the advantage^of the savages and to the loss of the country and although the citizens do not 
pay any attention, nevertheless through the declaration it can be ascertained, what liquors are 
removed and whereto. It is the further request to know, whether those, who are caught selling 
liquor to the savages, shall be sent to the High Council in charge of his Honor the Fiscal or 
whether this court may sentence them to the pecuniary tine, as fixed by law ; if so please to send 
the placards regarding it. 

A pint of smuggled brandy has been sold here for a schepel of wheat to and among them to 
the great disadvantage of the inhabitants. We hope, that herein also some arrangements will 
be made, one or two inns would be quite sufficient and application ought first to be made to the 
court to find out the fitness of the person. 

The trainband has been under arms on New-Years Day and they were well entertained by 
some citizens, but everything went well. Then the officers met in Council of "War and made some 
ordinances for the regulation of the trainband containing ten articles, which they published by 
affixing it without acknowledging the authority of any magistrate. The Magistrates therefore had 
the placard pulled down on the S"", to review them, and they saw in the eighth section, that no 
one shall mount guard with a borrowed musket, else he shall forfeit it and pay a fine of 12 
guilders. "We, the Commissaries of WilhoycJc, disapprove this abuse of making ordinances and 
request your Hon*"' "Worships' advice. Closing herewith we wish to your "V^ery "Worshipful High 
Council a happy and peaceful New- Year and remain 

Your Hon"'* "Worships' obedient 
Actum Wiltwyck, servants 

the 24''' of January, The Commissaries of Wiltwyck, 

Anno 1663. Evekt Pels 

Tjeeck Classen de "Witt. 

This is the mark +^ of Albeet 
"Which attests your Hon*"" Worships 
always obedient servant 


To the Valiant, Honorable High Council at their office in New-ATnsterdam in New-Nether- 

Nomination and appointment of Magistrates foe Wiltwttck. 

Conform to the ordinances and common custom, the Commissaries of the village of Wiltwyck 
proposed at the election the below-named inhabitants of this village 

Thomas Chambers Jan Aersen Smit 

Mr. Gysbert van Imbrogh Cornelis Barentsen Slecht. 

New York Historical Records. 239 

The Commissaries await liereupon a short rescript from his Honor, tlie Director-General and 


Your Hon''"' Worsliips 

Actum Wiltwyck, faithful servants 

the . . March A" 1663. Evert Pels 

Alaerdt Heymansen 

TjERCK Classen de Witt 

This is the mark ^ of 

Albert Gysbertsen 

Witness: Roeloff Swartwout. 

MnsruTE of Director Stutvesant's visit at the Esopus. 

His Honor the Director-General left here for the Esopus on the 22'' of Marcli and returned 
on the 3'' of April. His Honor published there the following : 

Ordinance for the perfecting of titles to land at Wiltwyck and for the 
more speedy settlement of the same. 

(See Laws of New-Netherland, page 437.) 

Extract from a letter of the Directors in Holland to Director Stuyves- 
ant ; they approve of the proposed English Colony on the Achter Cull : 


of the acquisition of the mohawk country ; immense beaver trade of the 

Senecas. (26"" Maech 1663.) 
Thus far in answer to the two letters, signed by the Director-General and Council and we 
come now to Director Stuyvesanfs private letter, wherein we note above all the requests, made by 
some of the English neighbors, for permission to settle in considerable numbers under the Com- 
pany's jurisdiction back of Staten- Island on the Maritan^s Kil ; we have likewise seen from the 
enclosures, what your Honors have answered. We are well pleased with it, considering especially, 
that it will serve us as a strong outpost against the Raritan and Nevesinh savages. We could 
have wished therefore, that the project had been carried out and every effort to have it continued 
must be made. As we understand the matter, the principal obstacle was the appeal in criminal 
and capital cases, as adultery, fornication and similar offenses, which they punish according to the 
law and word of God ; we do not object so much against this principle, although the laws of our 
Fatherland close their eyes to them, as against giving them absolute disposition of all criminal 
cases without appeal to us, which right we do not like to surrender entirely ; however, in case 
the coming in and settling at the aforesaid place by these people is of such an importance to our 
nation there, then we would allow, to facilitate the matter, that in such offenses, where extra- 
ordinary proceedings are taken and where consequently the crime is confessed, the appeal be 
waived, but this cannot be allowed in cases of ordinary proceedings and where the testimony makes 

240 Colonial Settlements on the Hvdson Hiver. 

it dubious and uncertain, as your Honors will easily perceive ; besides that their laws in punishing 
such offenses are against the maxims of our Fatherland and s/wuld therefore only he practised 
among their own people and not 07i such of ours, who should happen to settle among them. Your 
Honors will do well to insist upon this point in further negotiations with them, but only so far, 
that the project may not he hindered in its progress. Your Honors are therefore hereby author- 
ized to treat upon this matter with the English people in such a manner, as shall be found most 
advantageous for the welfare of this State and its inhabitants. 

The dissatisfaction of our English neighbors in New -England and Nova Scotia with the 
Maquaes savages and the consequences likely to arise therefrom, in case they should attack each 
other and the Maquaes should be vanquished, together with the speculations on such events, arc 
well understood by us and we can therefore easily fall in with your Plonors' advice and opinions, 
which consist principally in that we ought to try to persuade the Maquaes by all possible means, 
that they give the English the satisfaction, demanded by them, even though some goods and mer- 
chandises must be sacrificed for it, provided that by such an occasion the Maquaes country could 
be acquired for and conveyed as property to the Company, whereby the English and other neigh- 
bors could be prevented and estopped from the great beaver trade, which our people carry on 
there with the Sinnehus savages. If the dissatisfaction and the probability of aggressive move- 
ments between the English and the savages continue, which we do not believe, anyway not hope, 
your Honors must carry this out and these lines may serve as rules. 

Appointment of Magistrates for "Wiltwtck. 
S'l" of April 1663, Thursday. 

Present in Council the Hon*'*' Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant and Councillors Nicasius 
de Sille and Johan de Deckere. 

The Director-General and Council took up and read the nomination made and sent in by the 
Schout and Commissaries of the village of WiltwycTc on the Esopus and from the nominees 
selected and confirmed as Commissioners there 
T7wmas Chambers 
Gysbert van Imhurgh 
Actum at Fort Amsterdam, in New-Netherland. Date as above. 

Deed to Hendrick Cornelissen from Holstein for land at Esopus. 

Petriis Stuyvesant, Director-General of New-Netherland etc etc. and the Council testify and 
declare, that we have on this day, date underwritten, given and granted to Hendrick Cornelissen 
from Holstein, a piece of land situate at the Esopus in the village of Wiltwyck, bounded on the 
East by the Kil, on the "West and South by the meadows lying under the village, containing in 
these bounds between the Kil and the meadows two morgens and five hundred and sixty rods. 
Under the express condition, that he, Hendrick Cornelissen, or his heii-s and assigns shall acknowl- 

New Yorh Historical Itecords. 241 

edge the aforesaid Lords-Directors as his Masters and Patrons under the sovereignty of their High: 
Might : the Lords States-General of the United Netherlands and obey their Director-General and 
Council here in every respect, as it is the duty of all good inhabitants; also that he further shall 
agree to pay after the expiration of ten 3'ears from the date hereof a tithe for the benefit of the 
LordsPatroons and such other taxes and imposts, as shall be deemed necessary to levy upon all 
inhabitants for the revenues of the country. We constitute the said ITendrich Cornelissen here- 
with as the real and actual owner of the aforesaid parcel of land in our stead and place and give 
him full power, authority and special charge, to cultivate, take possession and make use of the 
said parcel, as he would do with his other lawful property, without retaining for us, in our quality 
as aforesaid, any claim or pretense thereon, but relincpiishing the same for ever, promising further 
to keep this conveyance inviolably and to carry it out according to law and equity and sign it with- 
out subterfuge or reservation, affixing thereto our seal in red wax. Actum J^hrt Amsterdam in 
N. Netherland April 25''' 1G63. 

P. Stuyvesant. 
By order: C. v. Ruyven, Seer''. 

Herewith we grant to Hendrick Cornelissen from Holsteiu or his heirs and assigns besides 
the laud granted and given in the foregoing patent and on the same conditions another small par- 
cel of land situate at the Esopus contiguous to the parcel described above containing together with 
the swamp, meadow etc about six morgens. 

Fort Amsterdam in N. JSetherland, the 7"' 9'"' 1663. 

P. Stuyvesant. 
Py order : C. v. Euyven, Seer''. 


To the Noble, Honorable, Yery Worship- 
ful, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet, 
their Honors the Director-General and 
Council of New- Netherland. 

Humbly shows with due reverence the undersigned Cornells Barentsen Slechi, an inhabitant 
of the village of Wiltwyck, that your Hon"'" Worships have graciously granted and given me last 
autumn a certain parcel of land at the JE'soj^us, Ij'ing near the New Dorp (new village)*, which said 
piece of land is really good soil, but too far for my convenience and as we are now old people, we 
would prefer living near to the church, the more so as my wife is the midwife for the village of 
Wiltwyck. I therefore humbly and respectfully request, that yom- Hon''''' Worships will graciously 
give and grant me as my own the remainder of the lands, which are laid out for Thomas Cham- 
bers to complete his number of acres out of the land, formerly bought by me from the savages, 
for which I have been obliged to pay the tax to build the minister's house : a little piece of land 
is lying close to it, called in the savage tongue Wichquanis. I would like to get during the year 
out of this remainder of the land, bought by me, my subsistence for next winter by breaking and 

* Now Hurley. — Ed. 

242 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

cultivating it and from the other piece of land, called Wichquanis, the hay and fodder for my 
cattle. If your Hon'''^ Woi'ships should be pleased to grant me for the benefit and advantage of 
my children the aforesaid piece of land lying near the new village on the Esojjus, then I would 
accept it gratefully, while I have no doubt, that your Hon"'^ "Worships will please to grant me the 
foregoing petition, whereupon awaiting your Hon''"^ Worships' decision I remain 
Actum Wilttoyck, Your Honorable Worships' servant, 

this 31°' of March 1663. Cornelis Baeentsen Slecht. 

The foregoing petition was taken up and read and after the question had been put, it was 

That disposition shall be made of the aforesaid land, as requested in the petition, after the 
same has been surveyed and a report niade by the surveyor. Actum at Fort Amsterdam in New- 
Netherland, the 12"' of April 1663. 

Taking up again the preceding order, it was decided to direct Thomas Chambers and he is 
hereby directed, not to take possession of or use the land, j^etitioned for by petitioner, without 
our special order and consent. On the 19"* of April 1663. 

Petition of the Overseers of the new village on the Esopus, praying that 


To the Noble, Honorable, Very Worship- 
ful Director-General and Council of Wew- 

Show with great humility your Hon'''^ Worships' petitioners, the Overseers lately appointed 
by his Honor, the Director-General, for the early fencing and enclosing of the newly made village 
and lands on the Esopus, the progress of which they, as interested parties, desire sincerely and 
would like to see promoted, that they have repeatedly considered the threats of the savages, who 
say, that they are willing to allow the erection of buildings, but that no fortification must be made, 
which, if it should be done, would show that we had evil intentions ; these barbarians say also, 
that the second large piece of land was not included in the treaty of peace made with them in the 
year 1660 and they will therefore not allow, that we should plough and sow it nor that our cattle 
and horses shall pasture upon it, before they are not paid for it. Your Hon"'^ Worships' petition- 
ers are therefore compelled to address themselves to your Hon'''® Worships and to petition them 
most humbly, that your Hon"'' Worships will, as before this in the cases of Wiltwyck, New-Har- 
lem, New- Utrecht and other places of less dangerous location and less consequence, also graciously 
please to assist this new place and village with a few soldiers and ammunition of war, at least un- 
til the settlement has been put into a proper state of defense and inhabited by a good number of 
people. We also request, that the gifts promised last autumn, when his Honor the Director- 
General and the Secretary were here, may be given to the savages and that they receive some 
satisfaction for the second large tract of land, so that your Hon"'" Worships' humble petitioners 
and faithful subjects may remain without fear and molestations from tliese barbarous people and 
with some assurance for the peaceful, undisturbed and unhindered continuation of the work just 

Nexo YorTc. Historical Records. • 243 

begun, for if rumors and warnings may be believed, it would be too anxious, if not too dangerous 
an undertaking for your Hon""' Worships' humble petitioners and faithful subjects to continue and 
advance their work otherwise. Awaiting hereupon your Hon"''" Worships' favorable decision we 
are and remain bound to pray to God for your Hon"'" Worships' good health and praiseworthy 
administration and rest 

Your Honorable Worships' 
Actum WiUwyck, humble petitioners and faith- 

the 7"" of April f ul servants 

A" 1663. Alaerdt Heysiansen Roose 

Jan Joosten 
The mark ^ of 

Jan Geeeetsen. 

Petition of the peopetetoes of the new village to the same effect as the 
preceding and for free passage to the new village through wiltwyck, 
which the latter now effuse. 

This petition is word for word the same as the preceding, except the following addition at the close : 

We also request, whereas there is no convenient place in the settlement to cultivate garden- 
fruits, the fields being too far and inconvenient, that to each of the petitioners a convenient lot 
may be granted for a garden in the lowland on the Kil, also that they may pass and repass free 
and unmolested, without hindrance or obstacle with their cattle, baggage, wine, beer and other 
effects to and from the strand tlu"ough the village of Wiltwyck, for the Wiltwych people have 
already dared to make a search in the aforesaid new village. Awaiting hereupon your Hon"''^ 
Worships' favorable decision etc" as above. 

Beverwyck, Tour Hon"'* Worships humble 

the XXMI April petitioners and faithful servants. 

A° 1663. VoLCKEET Jansen* 

Philipp Pieteesen Schutlee. 

Jan Thomas. 


The 10"^ of May 1663. 

The foregoing petitions were taken up in Council and read and it was resolved, that to pre- 
serve the peace a considerable present shoiild be made to the Esopus savages at the first oppor- 
tunity, to wit, three or four pieces of duffels, some muskets, powder, lead and some mercer's or 
Nurembergh wares. Actum at Fort Amsterdam in New-Neiherland on the 10'" of May A° 1663. 

P. Stutvesant. 

NicAsius de Sille. 

* Douw. ■ t Van Schaick. 

244 Colonial Settlements on tlie Hudson River. 

Letper from Director Stuyvesant to (Vice-Dieector La Montagne at Fort 


hawk Flat (Schenectady) ; a pledge to be signed by settlers, before they 
can obtain lots. 

Honorable, Dear, Faithful Sir. 

Tour Honor's favor without date has been duly received by us and we have seen from it, 
how far the proceedings against the fugitive delinquent Andries Herhertsen have progressed. 
Yoiir Honor will please to send over hj first chance the ofScer's complaint and the proofs and 
documents relating to it, that we may make use of it and decide upon according to the circum- 
stances of the case, as it shall be found necessary. 

Tour Honor will learn from the enclosed extract, who has been selected and confirmed by us 
as Commissaries there for the ensuing year in place of the outgoing ofBcers. 

Tour Honor is hei-eby authorized to discharge the outgoing Commissaries with proper 
acknowledgments for their past services and to instal the new ones after they have taken the oath 
and to inform the citizens thereof. 

The enclosed ordinances must be published by your Honor immediately after receiving them 
and affixed at the usual place, so that nobody may have reason to plead ignorance in this regard. 

Upon the request of some friends there the sworn surveyor Jacques Gorteljou comes up now, 
to survey and lay out the well known Great Flat, but as we have been informed fi-om another side, 
that a few new beginners have taken the liberty to sell strong liquor to the savages there, contrary 
to our express order of the O"" of April 1662, which we again send herewith for your Honor's 
information and observation, we have directed the said Corteljou, not to survey any land for any 
one, unless he signs previously in presence of the Commissary and two deputies the enclosed 
pledge ; the pledge signed and a report thereof made by your Honor to the surveyor, the same 
shall survey and lay out the land. 9"" May 1603. 

"We, the undersigned proprietors of land on the Flat, called promise here- 
with that we shall have no dealings with the savages, whatever name they may have, on the said 
Flat or thereabouts nor will we permit them under any pretext soever, neither directly nor indi- 
rectly, under penalty, that, if we or one of us should hereafter happen to forget this our promise, 
we shall pay as fine without any resistance whatever the first time fifty beavers, the second time 
one hundred and the third time forfeit the land allotted to and obtained by us on the aforesaid 
Flat. This we attest by our signatures at Fort Orange the Anno 1663. 

Extract from a letter op Vice-Director La Montagne to Director Stuyve- 
sant ; the settlers on the Great Flat (Schenectady) refuse to sign the 
ABOVE pledge. 19^" May 1663. 
As to the proprietors of land on the Great Flat, we sent upon receipt of the aforesaid letter 
an express messenger thither, to warn them of the surveyor's arrival and that they must come to 
Fort, pursuant to your Hon"'" "Worship's order, to sign the pledge. They refused this and 
sent a written answer, which we send herewith and to which we refer. 

New Yoi'h Historical Ilecorth. 245 

Letter feom the Magistrates at "Wiltwyck to Director Stdyvesant ; massacre 
AT the Esopus ; the village destroyed. 

Noble, Honorable, Very "Worshipful, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet Gentlemen. 

Tour Hon*'® Worships' favor of the 30"' of May last has been duly received by us on the d**" 
of June and we have according to your Hon"''^ Worships' order contained therein, informed the 
Sachems of your Hon*'" Worships' opinion on the 5"". On the 7"" following an unexpected, sud- 
den attack was made by them and pitiful, lamentable murders and arson has been committed by 
them against us. They took a good time to strike, for the village was almost bared of men, who 
were pursuing their necessary occupations in the fields. They have burned 12 dwelling-houses in 
our village, murdered 18 persons, men, women and children and carried away as prisoners 10 pei- 
sons more. The new village has been burned to the ground and its inhabitants are mostly taken 
prisoners or killed, only a few of them have come safely to this place, so that we find about 65 
persons to be missing in general, either killed or captured, besides these 9 persons in our villasre 
are severely wounded. We are compelled to inform your Hon"'" Worships hereof, your Hon'''" 
Worships may judge in what misery and need we are. We doubt not, your Honors' utmost pity 
shall be extended to us and we will speedily be succored by soldiers, with ammunition and cloth- 
ing, for the inhabitants have been mostly robbed of it and are almost naked in consequence of the 
fire and the robberies. Kelying hereupon we will in the meantime do our duty for the preserva- 
tion of ourselves. We commend your Honors to God's protection and remain 

Your Honorable Worships' obedient and faithful servants 
Actum in Wiltwych, Tjerck Classen de Witt. 

this lO**" of June 1663. Thomas Chambers 

Gysbert van Imbrogh. 


your Honors' faithful Schout. 

List of the soldiers and settlers, killed, wounded or taken prisoners by the 
Indians at Wiltwyck on the 7"" of June 1663. 

Barent Gerretsen murdered in front of his house. 

Jan Alberts " in his house. 

Lichten Dirrieh " on the farm. 

Willem Jansen Seha " before his door. 

Willem Jansen Hap " in Pieter van UaeVs house. 

Jan the Smith " in his house. 

Uendrick Jansen Looman " on the farm. 
Thomas Chamher^ negro " on the farm. 

Hey Olferts " in the gunner's house. 

Uendrick Martensen on the farm. 

Dominicus in Jan Alberts' bouse. 

Christiaen Andriesen on the street. 

246 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Lichten DirrecT^s wife burnt, with her lost fruit, behind Barent GerritserCs house. 
Mattys Capito's wife killed and burnt in the house. 
Jan Alhertseti's wife, big with child, killed in front of her house. 
Pieter van HaeVs wife shot and burnt in her house. 

Jan Alberts^ little girl murdered with her mother. 
Willem Sap's child burnt alive in the house. 

Taken Prisoners. 
Master Gysberfs wife. Hester Douwes. 
Sara the daughter of Hester Douwes. 
Grietje, Dommelaer's wife. 
Femme^e, sister of Hilletje, being recently married to Joost Ariaens. 

Tjerck Claessen de Wiifs oldest daughter. 
Dommelaer's child. 
Ariaen Gerritsen^s daughter. 
Two little boys of Mattys Roeloffsen. 

Killed in the New Village : 
Marten Harniensen found dead and stript naked behind the wagon. 
Jacques Tyssen beside Barents house. 
Derrick Ariaensen shot on his horse. 

Taken prisoners : 
Jan Gerritsen on Volckerfs bouwery. 

Women. Children. 

Of Louwis du hois 1 3 

Of Mattheu hlanchan 2 

Of Antoni drupel 1 1 

Of Lamhert Huyhertsen 1 3 

Of Marten Harmensen 1 4 

Of Jan Joosten 1 2 

Of Barent Harmensen 1 1 

Of Grietje Westercamp 1 3 

Of Jan Barents 1 1 

Of Michiel Ferre 2 

Of Henderich Jochems 1 

Of Henderich Martensen 1 

Of Albert Heymans 2 

Women 8 Ch'n 26 

Neto Yoi'h Historical Records. 


Houses burnt in Wiltwyck. 

Of Michiel Ferre. . . . 

Of Willem Hap 

Of Maitys Roeloffsen 
Of Albert Gerretsc7i . 
Of Lichten Dirrick. . 

1 Of Hans Carolusen 1 

1 Of Pleier van Ilael 1 

1 Of Jacob Boerhans 2 

1 Of Barent Gerretsen 2 

1 Of Mattys 1 

Houses 12 
The new village is entirely destroyed except a new uncovered barn, one rick and a little stack 
of reed. 

Wounded in WiUwych 

shot in the woods. 

" in his house. 

" in front of his house. 

" in front of his house. 

" in front of his house. 

" in the house of Aert Pietersen Tack. 
Henderich the Director-General's servant in the street in front of Aert Jacohsen. 
Paulus the Noorman in the street. 

Thomas Charabers 
Henderich Jochemsen 
MicJiiel Ferre 
Albert Gerretsen 
Andries Barents 
Jan dto parck 

PETmoN OF Cheistophee DAvros foe peemission to ee-entee on land on the Eso- 


Monday, the 11"> of June 1663. 

Present in Council his Honor, the Director-General Petrus Stnyvesant and tlie Honorable 

Councillors Nicasius de Sille and Johan de Deckere. 

To the Noble, Very Worshipful, the Hon 
orable Director-General and Council of 

Shows with great reverence Christoffel Pavids, that the Commissary and Vice-Director Jo- 
hannes Dyckman granted to petitioner in the year 1653 a parcel of land measuring about five or 
six morgens, situate on the Esopus and that this grant was approved by your Hon""^ Worships, 
as may be seen by the records. This parcel of land has been inhabited and cultivated until the 
time, when the savages began their war against the Christians ; then petitioner's dwelling on the 
said land was burned by the savages and he was compelled to fly with wife and children, to save 
their lives, and to abandon everything: since that time he has very poorly subsisted himself and 
family on a sterile, scantj"- place in a barkhouse and whereas petitioner cannot support and pro- 
vide lor his family there, he addresses himself to your Hon'"'^ Worships with the humble request, 
that your Hon""' Worships will out of commiseration allow and grant to petitioner to take again 
possession of the aforesaid piece of land, to inhabit, cultivate and plant it and that a title-deed foi 
the same may be issued to petitioner in communi forma., doing wliicli he remains etc 

Your Hon""' Worships' humble servant 
In my husband's name 

Maeia Meeetens. 

248 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Tlie foregoing petition liaving Leen read and the question put, it was ordered, 
That petitioner lias to govern himself according to the judgment pronounced against him on 
the 9"" June 1659. Date as above. 


Worthy good friends. 

We have just been informed by a letter from the Esopus, that the savages have suddenly 
attacked our people there, burnt some houses and killed and captured a number of people. You 
are therefore hereby requested and directed to be on your guard and to keep good watch, not 
doubting which I remain . 

Fort Amsterdam in N. N. Your friend 

the 12'" of June 1663. C. v. Rutven. 

A letter of the foregoing contents has been sent to all the neighboring villages. 

Worthy, good friends. 

This is to inform you, that according to trustworthy reports the neighboring savages have had 
no part in the Esopus affair, but they desire to continue in peace with us, upon which we thor- 
oughly rely, because they have been already scared by the Sitmekus, who long ago have threat- 
ened to make war upon them and therefore they will not draw two enemies upon themselves at the 
same time. Hence we cannot believe, that they will molest us, but in the meantime we will 
nevertheless recommend you to be on your guard and keep good watch. If you do this, you need 
not fear, with God's assistance, any danger from their side. For greater safety we send herewith 
two soldiers and commending you to God's protection we remain with greetings 
Actum Eort Amsterdam Your good friends 

in Nexo-Neiherland, the Nicasius de Sille 

IS"" June 1663. C. v. Euyven. 

The foregoing letter was sent to the people on Staten-Island. 

Instruction for the Magistrates and militaet officers at Wiltwyck. 

Provisional orders, by which the Commissaries, the officers of the trainband and the Com- 
mander of the military have to govern themselves. 

First they shall keep on a good footing with each other and live in harmony and take no steps, 
except sanctioned by the majority and if time allows it, recorded in the book. 

Whatever they decide upon by a majority of votes, the community shall be held to carry out 
promptly, recusant parties shall be arrested immediately and either be punished or sent off by next 


They shall immediately with the assistance of the community and the Company's officers 
repair the palisades around this stronghold and close all gates, except the two sally-ports and the 

Neto York Historical liceords. 249 

They imist not go far off into the woods in snuiU parties, but take good care, that of the few 
people left no more are killed or taken prisoners. 

"Whenever they decide, to send out a party either to look for and save their cattle or to con- 
vey something to the strand, it is left to their own discretion [how to do it], but a few men on 
horseback must always keep near them, so that they may capture some savages, but until further 
orders and succor are received, in no ease must they leave the high woods or the open field and 
go into some underwood, narrow passages or defiles, even though they might see or hear there 
some savages, that they may not be deceived and taken in by an ambush or ti-eachery of the savages. 


In order to induce the freemen as well as the servants of the Company to do their duty, they 
are hereby promised, that as soon as delivered from this trouble, they shall receive a fair compen- 
sation, to be decided by impartial men, for the horses, which might be killed in the military service 
or in an attack ; all free people, who may have been wounded or maimed in an aggressive attack 
or in the defense of this place shall be cured at the public expense and in case of mutilation receive 
such relief, as if they were Company's servants. 

Until further orders the following persons are hereby appointed to deliberate and decide upon 
what has been stated above and what else may be necessary, namely the Commander of the mili- 
tary company, Christiaen Niessen, Thomas Chambers, one of tiie Commissaries and Captain of 
the trainband, further the Schout and the three Commissaries together with the Lieutenant of the 
trainband UendriGk Jochemsen. Whatever these may decide upon and project and carry out for 
the welfare of the community shall be considered by us, that it was well and maturely weighed 
and considered and resolved upon and carried out either unanimously or by majority of voices. 
The inhabitants are hereby commanded and directed to obey them and execute their orders. Thus 
done in- haste at the village of Wiltwyeh the 14"' of June 1663. 

P. Stutyvesant. 

At the request of the Court his Honor the Director-General has consented, tliat Jlatheus 
Capita may serve as Secretary here and directed us to record it. 

In presence of the Commissaries 

Witness Roeloff Swaetwout. 

Letter from Director Stuyvesant to the Magistrates at Fort Orange ; 


Honorable, Dear, Faithful Friends. 

The murderous deeds committed by the barbarians on so many men, women and children 

at the Esojni'S, they having killed, wounded and captured about six or eight and seventy persons 

according to the list handed to bearer, was first communicated to me by your Honors' messenger, 

for the previously dispatched three yachts have missed me coming up in the night from Tuesday 


250 Colonial Settlements on tJie Hudson River. 

to Wednesday. I arrived in the village of Wiltwyck at about G o'clock and after having issued 
some orders suitable to the time and circumstances and seeing that I could do nothing for the 
service or advantage of the community or of the place, I resolved with some of our friends there 
to come and visit your Honors, to see whether the forty-five captured women and children 
cannot be ransomed with the assistance of either the Maquas or the Sinnekus. It was my fixed 
intention to go up river only for this purpose, but when I came to the strand I did not find 
there the yacht of Claes Bordingh nor that of Claes Tyssen, which I had sent off upon my 
arrival at the Esopus after Claes Bordingh, who had sailed from the Manhatans about an liour 
or an hour and a half after me, and was still missing much to our fear, as he had only a small 
crew, who might have run away. This not only made me resolve, but in fact compelled me to 
give up my intention of visiting your Honors, to make some arrangements there, and deliberate 
the best means with our friends ; in going down the river .... Long reach upon Claes 

Bordingh .... the fourth tide having now run down this 

increased my cares and anxieties regarding a surprise, whereto in the meantime came my very 
uneasy thoughts that the first three yachts having missed me and bringing the pitiful tidings to 
the Manhatans, M'ould throw everything into dismay there and cause much anxiety and care for 
the yacht, its cargo and the small crew, which I had with me and whereas the necessary relief 
for the afflicted people on the Esopus must have been on its way from the Manhatans and as 
according to the report of your Honor's messenger, many volunteers, who to the number of 50 
or 60 had offered themselves were by your Honors' measures prevented and held back from 
assisting their friends at the Esopus, therefore I was the more obliged to change my first plan 
and to go with Claes Tyssen^s yacht and some of the men, sent by your Honors, to the Man- 
hatans, to make there arrangements as well for relief as for protection. This letter is only to 
inform your Honors hereof and to recomniend further very earnestly, that your Honors will 
do everything possible to induce the 2£aquas and Senecas to help us get the poor women and 
children out of the hands of the barbarians. For this purpose we send your Honors the articles 
of the peace made with the Esopas sa.vs.g&5, which they have broken so murderously and villain- 
ously. Your Honors must further have as good a care of the safety of those places and the 
surrounding bouweries as possible and as we are informed, that Fort Orange is bared of soldiers 
and destitute of proper means of defense and hard to rejjair, we would consider it advisable, that 
the Company's stonebuilding only be fortified and all miserable huts be broken off with the least 
expense and the greatest sj^eed, which we leave to your Honors' better experience and discretion. 
Your Honors will have been taught, I trust, by the example of the Esopus not to rely on any 
savage and not to let them come into their houses in large numbers, much less provide them with 
strong liquor or ammunition of war, except for saving and ransoming the captive women and 
children, for which end every possible exertion must be made. Henceforth no yacht must sail up 
or down the river by itself, unless well manned, to prevent possible surprises or at least troubles 
and they must on their up and down voyages call at the Esopus, to get news now and then, by 
which we may govern ourselves. Your Honors will send there one hundred pounds of fine gun 
powder by the first sailing yacht, I have pi-ovided them pretty well with coarse powder and lead ; 
this is written in haste on board the Jersman's yacht and as I have no time to copy it or have 
it copied, your Honors are requested to send down a copy hereof by first chance, that we may 
make use of it, when necessary and with my cordial greetings I commend your Honors to the 
protection of the All-good God. 

Actum 15"' June 1663. Your affectionate friend 

in the Lons; reach P. Stuyvesant. 

Neiv York Historical Jiecords. 251 

As I liavo left one half of the 6 soldiers, sent down, at the Exopus and taken the other three 
to protect Claes 2'yi<se)is yacht, your Honors are hereby authorized to enlist others for the main- 
tenance of justice and the safety of the place, if they can be engaged at a fair monthly pay. 

To the Honorable Members of the Courts for the village of Beaverwyck and Colony 

Letter from the Magistrates at Wiltwyck to Director Stuyvesant ; report 
. on the progress of affairs. 

Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet Gentlemen, Hon- 
orable Director-General and Council of New-Neiherland. 

Your Hon*'* Worships' favor of the lo"" of June has been received by the undersigned to- 
day and we have well understood its contents, which we shall carry out as far as possible with the 
Lord's help. We send herewith according to your Hon*'* Worships' order the desired three copies, 
informing your Hon*''" Worships further, that we have lost to-day Michiel Ferre, one of the 
wonnded, and yesterday a soldier has been M^ounded near the redoubt, while fetching water; 
otherwise we are still in the same situation, except that the savages rove all around the fort and 
show themselves occasionally. We request humbly and earnestly, that your Hon*"'" Worships will 
remember, to send saddles and bridles, pistols and saddle bags, because they can be of great 
service to us. We thank your Hon'''* Worships for the present assistance and trust that j'our 
Hon*'* Worships will continue in their help by further succor, that we may above all harvest our 
grain with safety, if the Lord God will let the same prosper on our fields and take care of it and 
that we may carry on farming in greater peace after the pursuit and defeat of the savages, which, 
we trust in God, will be done. In the meantime we shall do our best, as the opportunity for it 
may offer remaining 

Your Honorable Worships' 
Actum at WilticycJi, humble and very obedient servants, 

the le"" of June 1663. The mark ,A of Albert Gtsbertsen. 

Tjeeck Classen de Witt 
• Thomas Chambers 

Present Hoeluff Swartwout, Gtsbert van Imbeough 

Christian Niessen 
Hendrick Jochemsen. 

Resolution to make war on the Esopus Indians and to employ the Mohawks 
in the recovery of the captive women and children. 

The Director-General and Council of New-JVetherland repeatedly and seriously considered 
the bad situation of the country, caused by the treacherous attack upon and massacre of the 
inhabitants of the village of Wiltwyck and of the new settlement in that neighborhood by the 
Esopus savages. 

252 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

The following important points connected with this subject came up for discussion, viz. : 
whether to resent the injuries immediately by force of arms, which was thought necessary for the 
reputation of the country and of the Christian nations, but the Director-General and Council found 
their hands bound, because about 45 captured women and children and one man were prisoners 
among the barbarians ; or whether and how to get these prisoners first out of their hands, whether 
it should be a direct attack, which could not be made and carried out so quickly and secretly, 
that the barbarians would not receive information of it and then without doubt they would 
murder all their prisoners to the extreme sorrow of the parents and kindred and consequent blame 
of the Director-General and Council, unless they first made attempts and endeavors to release 
them by ransom. Concerning the ransoming them from the barbarians, it had to be considered, 
that it could not be effected without great presents and an excessive ransom and doubtless not 
without stipulating for a thu-d or fourth uncertain peace, each time broken by the savages and 
dishonest men and it was to be feared that the new peace would also be broken again under this 
or that trumped up pretext. 

After having discussed all these points 2)ro et contra, the Director-General and Council re- 
solve for the safety of the country and its good inhabitants, not to make peace with the deceitful 
and treacherous nation, but to revenge with the help and blessing of God these and all former 
injuries by force of arms, to enlist the earlier the better for that purpose here and elsewhere, 
wherever they can be got, as many soldiers as shall be found necessary and required ; to request 
in the meantime the Maquaes to release and ransom our unhappy captives, if by offering to theni 
a suitable present they might get the said prisoners out of the hands of the Esopus savages and to 
advise the husbands, parents and relations of the abovementioned women and children, that each 
of them do his best to ransom his people without knowledge of the Director-General and Council 
and all will be assisted secretly with some merchandises. Actum Fm't Amsterdam in New- 
■Heiherland, the IT'" of June 1663. 

Appointment of Commissionees to foetift Communipaw. 

Monday, the IS'" of June 1663. 

Present in Council their Honors Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant and Councillor Nicasius 
de Sille. 

They listened to the verbal request of Harmen Smeeman, Nicholas Backer and Fytje Har- 
vnetis, Widow of Michiel Jansen, to enclose in consideration of these dangerous times their settle- 
ment at Gemoenepa with long palisades for the safety of their houses and barns and that for this 
purpose one as well as the other should be compelled to contribute pro i-ata. The Director-Gen- 
eral and Council praise and approve the request and appoint herewith as commissioners to hasten 
this necessary work Gerrit Gerritnen, Harmen Smeeman and J)irch Claesen, ordering and em- 
powering them, to compel every inhabitant to contribute, as they shall judge it equitable and in 
proportion to the area and location of the lands and lots. Date as above. 

Neto Yorh Historical liecords. . 253 

Okdinance against cakuyino on any Indian trade at Schenectady, passed IS"' June 1GG3. 
(Laws of N. Netherlaud, p. 443.) 



Arent van Curlaer communicated and read to tlie unaersigned proprietors of land at Scha- 
nectade on the IS"" of May 1663 the order of their Honors, the Director-General and Council of 
New-Netherland, dated the 7'" of that month, and proposed to them, that they sign a pledge, 
added to that resolution, which had heen communicated and a copy whereof had been given to him 
by the Hon"'" Vice-Director La Montague and the Commissaries. The nndei-signed proprietors 
unanimously agree and are willing to obey the Hon"'^ Company and the authorities of New- 
Netherland in every respect, like others, their subjects and vassals, to paj'^ the taxes and duties 
and not to do nor attempt anything against the published ordinances and placards of their said 
Honors, the Director-General and Council ; we trust and do not doubt, that your Hon*'' Worships 
shall treat us not less nor otherwise nor impose any other duties, than upon other inhabitants of 
this province. We feel assured that your Hon*"® Worships will be convinced, that in consequence 
of their resolution of the 23'* June 1661 we bought the land with our own money for behalf of 
the Company (to be repaid at a convenient time), took possession of it with great expenses, erected 
buildings on it and provided it with horses and cattle and if neveitheless ti °! proprietors are to be 
treated in a different manner or with less consideration, than other inhabitants, then all their work 
has been done to no purpose and they are themselves completely ruined, which God may 'beware 
them of! We request very instantly, that your Hon'''* Worships will please to allow us to culti- 
vate and till the land in our possession, as your Hon'"'^ Worships have already given a patent to 
Jan Barentsen Wemj) and Jacques N. JV. without such an obligation or burthen, as proposed in 
the aforesaid pledge. Finally, whereas the surveyor is here now, but has no order to survey the 
land, unless this pledge is signed, we request, that the surveyor be authorized, to survey the land 
in order to prevent differences and disputes among us, else we shall be compelled to help our- 
selves, as best we can. Date as above. (Signed) A. van Cuelaer, Philipp Hendricksen, 
Sander Leendertsen Glen, the mark of Simon Volckertsen, Pietee Sogemacklie, the mark 
of Teunis Coenelissen, the mark of Maeten Coenelissen, Willem Teller, Geeeet Banckee, 
Bastian de Wintee authorized to sign in the name of Cateletn, the widow of Arent Andeie- 
SEN, Pietee Jacobsen Boesboom, Pieter Danielsen van Olinda, the mark of Jan Baeentsen 
Wemp, the mark of Jacques Coenelis. 

After having received and read the foregoing petition, the following decision was made : 

As some of the ]ietitioiiers pretend not to have anything else in view, than agricultural pur- 
suits, they are allowed, to cultivate the said Flat. We would not have given peiTnission other- 
vdse on account of the perils, which are likel}' to arise there, if trade with the barbarians were 
allowed and tolerated at such a distant place and whereas we have already been authoritatively 
informed, that some people hare dared and are daily taking the liberty to trade there with the 

254 Colonial Settlernents on the Hudson River. 

savages, tlierefore the Director-General and Council adhere to their order, made at the request of 
the petitioners on the 6"" of April 1662, for they do not intend, to establish one place, to ruin 
thereby another or even the whole country, and Director-General and Council refer tlierefore to the 
ordinances made regarding this matter. Thus done in Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 
18'" of June A" 1663. 

Letter feom Director Stityvesant to Vice-Dieector Lamontagne at Fort 
Orange; means adopted for the release op the captured people. 

Honorable, Dear, Faithful Sir. 
Your Honor was informed by my last hasty and therefore badly written letter of the terrible 
condition of our people at the Esopus, especially of the women and children in captivity, whose 
release and ransoming out of the wild barbarians' hands we not only pray and demand of our good 
Lord, but would also like to see accomplished and promoted by all conducive means. We have 
deemed it necessary for that purpose, not only to recommend it most earnestly to your Honors by 
the foregoing letter, but also to depute for its better promotion from our Council the Hon''''' Johan 
de Deckers, who with your Honors or what we tliink still better with two deputies from each 
Court shall do his best towards it, push the matter and accomplish further, what we have recom- 
mended to his Honor per memorandum, given him in writing. We have no doubt, that your 
Honors will allow him to make use of your Honors' aid and advice, relying upon which we com- 
mend your Honors to God's gracious protection and remain with cordial salutations 

Honorable, Dear, J'aithful Friends 
ig"" June 1663. Your affectionate Friend. 

To both the Courts of the village of Bevenoyck and Colony of Renselaerswyck. 


I mentioned in my last, leaving it to your Honors' discretion, tlie repairing of Fort Orange 
or its destruction, to enclose the Company's stonehouse as a place of retreat with less expense and 
for the greater security. I still leave it to your Honors, but we desire to recommend and direct 
our deputy to send us by first opportunity 8 or 4 of the lightest cannons, to use them at distant 
outlying places here, where they are much needed. 
Date as above. Your Honors' affectionate friend. 

Honorable Gentlemen. 
These few lines are simply to say, what was forgotten in tlie preceding letter, namely, that 
yachts, coming down from above, must touch at the Esoj)us, to get news from there, under a 
penalty of 50 guilders. Done at Fort Amsterdam in JS ew-Netherland, the IQ"' of June 1663. 
To the .... at Fort Orange. 

New Yoi'Tc Historical litcords. 255 

Instructions for Councillor Johan de Decker, sent to Fort Orange on public business. 

Memorandiini foa his Honor, Johan de 
Deckere, Councillor of Neio-Netherland, 
commissioned by the Director-General 
and Council to make a journey to Fort 
■ 1. 

With the advice and knowledge of the Commissary La lloniagne and the deputies of the 
two Courts he is to try in pursuance of our former letters, whether the release of the captured 
Christians can be brought about through the Maqiiaes, but if possible without making engage- 
ments for a new peace with the treacherous Ksopus savages or promising to give the least presents 
on behalf of the Director-General and Council, except to the Maouues or Sinnekus after deliver- 
ance of the pi'isoiiers. 


To inquire of both Courts what number either of volunteers or perhaps for continued service 
might be obtained in the village of Bevenoijck or the Colony of Renselaerswyck, if the oppor- 
tunity should come, to make an expedition against the Esojpus savages. 

If he can get a dozen resolute men for that purpose, his Honor is authorized and qualified 
hereby to engage them at the usual pay of 8 or 10 guilders per month at the usual rate of 16 
pieces of wampum for a stiver, to provide them with the necessary weapons and , send or bring 
them to the Esopus. 


If the release of the prisoners, either of all of them or the greater part, cannot be effected by 
either the Maquaes nor Senecas, he shall with the aforesaid ad\ice try to induce the Maquaes or 
Senecas to capture some of the Esopus savages and surrender them to us, that we may recover 
our prisoners, or at least a few of them by these means, on condition that they receive for each 
prisoner such a present, as his Honor shall agree upon in presence and through the mediation of 
the aforesaid deputies from the Courts. 


To get as much information as possible, either through the Maquaes or through the Senecas, 
of the situation and condition of the prisoners as of the strength of the Esopus savages, the loca- 
tion of their forts etc". 


To consider with the aforesaid Courts or the deputies therefrom, as his Honor shall deem ad- 
visable, whether 10 or 12 faithful Maquaes would be willing to enter the service of the Director- 
General and Council for 2 or 3 months and make an expedition with our men against the Esopus 
savages, to get some prisoners by these means. 


To report and give information as quickly and exact as possible upon every occasion as well 
of his doings, as of the state of affairs at the Esopus and what our people there may require. 

Finally to request the Courts, or with help of the deputies of the same, some merchant to ad- 

256 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson liiver. 

vance a sum of three or four thousand guilders, half in goods, haK in wampum, cither in form of 
a loan or perhaps at a fair rate of interest, if it cannot be returned within a year, for which the 
Director-General and Council ofi'er to give as security not only the Company's property, but also 
their own private ones. Actum Fort Amsterdam in New-JS etherland, the 19'^ of June A° 1663. 

Report of the Magistrates at Wiltwyck on the massacre coMMrnED by the Indians. 

Noble, Honorable, Worshipful, AVise, Prudent and very Discreet. 

We, your Honors' faithful subjects have to report, pursuant to the order of the R' Hon''"' 
Director-General, in the form of a Journal, that in obedience to his Honor's order, received 
on the 30^'' of May last, we caused the Indian Sachems to be notified on the 5"" of June, to be 
prepared to expect the arrival of the E' Hon*''^ Director-General, to receive the promised 
presents, and to renew the peace. This notification was communicated to them through Capt. 
Thomas Chamiers, to which they answered — " If peace were to be renewed with them, the 
Hon*''^ Dii-ector-General should, with some unarmed persons, sit with them in the open field, 
without the gate, as it was their own custom to meet unarmed when renewing peace or in other 
negotiations." But, unmindful of the preceding statement, they surprised and attacked us between 
the hours of 11 and 12 o'clock in the forenoon on Thursday the 7"" instant ; entering in bands 
through all the gates, they divided and scattered themselves among all the houses and dwellings 
in a friendly manner, having with them a little maize and some few beans to sell to. our inhabit- 
ants, by which means they kept them within their houses, and thus went from place to place as 
spies to discover our strength in men. And after they had been about a short quarter of an hour 
within this place, some people on horseback rushed through the Mill gate from the New Village, 
crying out — " The Indians have destroyed the New Village !" And with these words, the Indi- 
ans here in this Village immediately fired a shot and made a general attack on our village from 
the rear, murdering our people in their houses with their axes and tomahawks and firing on them 
with guns and pistols ; they seized whatever women and children they could catch and carried 
them prisoners outside the gates, plundered the houses and set the village on fire to windward, it 
blowing at the time from the South. The remaining Indians commanded all the streets, firing 
from the corner houses which they occupied and through the curtains outside along the highways, 
so that some of our inhabitants, on their way to their houses to get their arms, were wounded and 
slain. When the flames were at their height the wind changed to the west, were it not for which 
the fire would have been much more destructive. So rapidly and silently did Murder do his work 
that those in different parts of the village were not aware of it until those who had been wounded 
happened to meet each other, in which way the most of the others also had warning. The greater 
portion of our men were abroad at their field labors, and but few in the village. Near the mill 
gate were Albert Gysbertsen with two servants, and Tjerck Claesen de Wit • at the Sheriff's he him- 
self Mdth two carpenters, two clerks and one thresher ; at Cornelius Barentsen Sleghfs, himself 
and his son ; at the Doraine's, himself and two carpenters and one labouring man ; at the guard 
house, a few soldiers ; at the gate towards the river, Menderick Jochemsen and Jacoh, the Brewer ; 
but Henderick Jochemsen was very severely wounded in his house by two shots at an early hour. 
By these aforesaid men, most of whom had neither guns nor side arms, were the Indians, through 
God's mercy, chased and put to fiight on the alarm being given by the Sheriff'. Capt. Thomxis 
Chambers, who was wounded on coming in from without, issued immediate orders (with the Sheriff 

New YorJc Historical Mecoi'ds. 257 

and Commissaries,) to secure the gates ; to clear the gun and to drive ont the savages, vcho were 
still about half an hour in the village aiming at their persons, which was accordingly done. The 
burning of the houses, the murder and caiuying off of women and children is here omitted, as these 
have been already comnmnicated to your Honors on the 10"" June. After these few men had 
been collected against the barbarians, by degrees the others arrived who, it has been stated were 
abroad at their iield labors, and we found ourselves when mustered in the evening, including those 
from the new village who took refuge amongst ns, in number 69 efficient men, both qualified and 
unqualified. The biu-nt palisades were immediately replaced by new ones, and the people distrib- 
uted, during the night, along the bastions and curtains to keep watch. 

On the 10"" inst., 10 horsemen were commanded to ride down to the Eedoubt and to examine 
its condition. They returned with word that the soldiei-s at the Eedoubt had not seen any Indi- 
ans. They brought also with them the Sergeant, who had gone the preceding morning to the 
Eedoubt and as he heard on his return of the mischief committed by the Indians in the village, 
he went back to the Eedoubt and staid there. In addition to the Sergeant they brought the men, 
who had fled from the new village. 

On the IB"", towards evening. Sergeant Christiaen j}^iessen went with a troop of soldiers, sent 
us by your Honoi's, being 42 men, and three wagons, to the Eedoubt, with letters for the Man- 
hafans, addressed to your Honors, and to bring up ammunition from the Eedoubt. On their 
retm-n, the Indians made an attempt at the first hill to take the ammunition from these troops. 
The Sergeant having divided his men into separate bodies, evinced great courage against the Indi- 
ans, skirmishing with them from the first to past the second hill and defending the wagons so 
well that they arrived in safety in the village. He had, however, one killed and six wounded. 
The dead man was brought in next morning, having been stripped naked, and having had his 
right hand cut off by the Indians. Some of the Indians were also killed, but the number of these 
is not known. This skirmishing having been heard in the village, a reinforcement of horse and 
foot was unmediately ordered oiit, but before they arrived the Indians had been put to flight by 
the above named Sergeant. 

This, your Honors, is what we have deemed necessary to commxmicate to you in the 
form of a jom-nal as to how and in what manner the Indians have acted towards us and we towards 
them in the preceding circiimstances. And we humbly and respectfully request your Honors to 
be pleased to send ns hither for the wounded by the earliest opportunity some prunes and linen 
with some wine to strengthen them, and whatever else not obtainable here your Honors may think 
proper; also, carabines, cutlasses and gun flints and we request that the carabines may be snap- 
haunce, as the people here are but little conversant with the use of the arquebuse (v-i/er roer) / 
also some spurs for the horsemen. In addition to this also some reinforcements in men inasmuch 
as harvest will commence in about l-t days from date. Herewith ending we commend your Hon- 
ors to God's fatherly care and protection. Done, Wiltwych this 20" June 1663. 


the mark of ,JL, Albert Gtsbeetsen, 

TiEEECK Classen DEWnr, 
Thomas Chambers, 
Gysbert Yan Imbroch, 
Christiaen Ntssen, 
Hendrick Jochemsen. 


258 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Letter from the Magistrates at Fort Orange to Director Stdtvesant ; lit- 

Honorable, Valiant Petrus Stuyvesomt, Director-General of New-Netherland. 

Your Honor's letter of the 15"" inst. has been received by us on the 20"^ ; we will say in an- 
swer, that we shall do our best for the release of the unhappy captives on the Esojnos, but we see 
little prospect for it at present, because it is rumored, that the Maquaes are hard pressed and sur- 
rounded by their enemies. 

Your Honor will please to inform us, who the volunteers are said to have been, whom we 
have prevented from helping tiie Esopus people, then we shall answer in detail, trusting in the 
meantime, that your Honor will believe our principles to be only friendly and brotherly according 
to our sincere and plain judgment. 

Pursuant to your Honor's order we send herewith a copy of your Honor's aforesaid letter. 
May God in the meantime give to your Honor and the Hon'''" Councillors permanent health and 
prosperous administration, with which we remain 

Your Honor's obedient friends and servants 
Done at Fort Orange, La Montagne 

the SS"" of June A° 1663. J. V. Renselaeb 

By order of the Courts of Beverwyvk Village 
, and the Colony of Renselaerswyck. 

Johannes Provoost, Clerk. 
D. V. ScHELLUTNE, Secretary 

of the (Jolony of Reriselaerswyck. 
To his Honor, the Valiant and Noble Director-General Petrus Stuyvesant oi New-Netherland. 

Letter from Vice-Director Lamontagne to the same ; the defenceless con- 

Honorable, Valiant and Worshipful Sir. 

Whereas your Honor's letter to the two Courts mentions the disabled and defenceless con- 
dition of Fort Orange, which is indeed a fact ; it ought to be repaired and put in a proper condition 
in a short time. The Courts did not say anything of it in their letter, yet they have with me 
concluded to let the old houses and huts stand and merely to repair the angles at the least ex- 
pense and with the greatest speed, for it would hardly be convenient to everybody to pull down 
their houses now and to remove ; it would also be disadvantageous for the Hon''''' Company, as 
the people would have to be bought off, while my hands, with which it would have to be done, are 
closed to my great regret : hereto comes the people's scoffing at the Hon'''* Company on account 
of the fort, which cannot be borne any longer. I have tlierefore undertaken to make a beginning, 
as the posts and the outside covering are ready and the burghers offered to turn out daily 8 or 10 
men, but plancks for the platforms and sills with rails for anchors, spikes and especially two car- 
penters are still needed. As I have all this not at hand, I hope Your Honor and the Council will 
come to my assistance and provide the money, to pay for the aforesaid articles and feel assured, 
that I for my part shaU keep good and faithful account and supervision of the whole. I commend 

New York Historical Hecoi'ds. 259 

herewith your Honor to tlie protection of God, who may gi-ant your Honor strength in this un- 
happy time and a prosperous administration, remainmg meanwhile 

Fort Oraiuje Your Honor's humhle and 

23'' June 1663. obedient servant 

La Montagne. 
To the Honorable, Valiant and Worshipful Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General of New- 

Letter from the AUTHOErriEs at "Wiltwtck to Jan Tomassen anb others, 


Honorable, Good Friends. 

Your letter of the 20"' June has been handed to us and we understand its contents well. 
Our answer is, that the horses, belonging to you, had to be taken by us out of the enemy's very 
hands with great danger ; we require them now with our own for our defense and have some of 
them already under the saddle. Your request is therefore refused for the present and if you 
are not satisfied with it, then we inform you, that the horses, used for our defense, which may 
have been shot or killed by the enemies in an attack, shall be paid for according to the appraise- 
ment of impartial men, pursuant to an order given us by his Honor, the Director-General. We 
consent to let the cows go and shall endeavor in your behalf to convey them to the strand, for we 
do not deem it advisable to send them to you overland, not wishing to drive them again into the 
enemies' hands. In the meantime we thank you for your kind care and intentions for our captives 
and do not doubt, that you will further do your best for their release. Closing herewith with 
many greetings we commend you to God's protection. 

Actum at WiltwycJc, By order of the Court and the 

this 23" June A° 1663. Council o^ War at Wiltwych 

(Signed) Matheus Capito, Secretary. 

To the Honorable and Yery Discreet Jan Tmnassen, Yolckert Jansen, Cornells Wynkoap 
and partners at Beverwyck. 

Extract from a imniTE of the Director-General's visit to Hempstead 23'' June 1663. 

* « * * -:■:• * 

To induce some of the English to take part in the expedition to the Esopus, the Director- 
General promised them free plunder and all the savages, whom they could capture ; this was pro- 
claimed by a handbill. 

Proclamation calling out volunteers for the war against the Esopus Indians. 

Whereas the Director-Genei-al and Council of New-Neiherland, after having suffered many 
massacres, affronts and unbearable injuries, committed by the Esopus savages* from time to time, 

* The English proclamation calls them " Warynawoncks." 

260 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

are compelled for the maintenance and protection of their good inhabitants to begin an offensive 
and defensive war against the said Esojnts savages, therefore all inhabitants of this province, 
Dutch as well as English, are hereby informed, that all, who are willing and resolved to assist in 
this necessary and honorable affair and to take np arms against the said Esojpus savages for a year 
or a year and a half or longer, until the same shall be destroyed with the help of God or all those, 
who will send one of their farm laborers or ser\'ants, able to carry arms, in their places, shall have 
and enjoy above the usual soldier's pay : 

1. Free plundering and all the barbarians, who are captured. 

2. Exemjition from tithes for 6 years and those, who are not yet subject to tithes, shall enjoy 
the same exemptions, when they become subject thereto, of which a document shall be issued to 
them for their assurance. 

3. If somebody should be hurt or wounded, he shall be properly treated by the surgeon with 
good remedies and such persons, as may be maimed or deprived of their health in the service 
of the Hon'''* Company shall have the following indemuiticatious : 

for the loss of the right arm fl 800 

« " " of the left arm " 500 

" " " of a leg " 450 

" " " of both legs " 800 

" " " of an eye " 300 

" " " of both eyes " 900 

" " " of the right hand " 600 

" " " of both hands " 1000 

« " « of the left hand " 400 

If any of the citizens or inhabitants of this or other places within this government are 
inclined to go themselves or to send somebody in their places, they shall further be exempted 
for the time of one year : 

From guardmounting, firewatch and chimney-tax and besides that the owners of bouweries 
shall be exempted from tithes for 6 years ; those, who have no bouweries now shall enjoy this 
exemption besides the 10 years commonly allowed, whenever they should go into the country and 
establish bouweries, for which they shall receive a proper warrant. Thus done at Fort Ainster- 
dam in New-Netherlcmid. the 25"" of June A° 1663. 

Letter from Councillob de Decker to Dieectok Stutvesant; efforts for the 
release of the prisoners at the esopus. 

I arrived at the Esnpus at break of day on Thursday the 21^* inst and landed immediately. 
I ordered a soldier of the Redoubt to fire a shot with a blank cartridge as signal for the garrison 
of Wiltwycl; that they should come and convey me thither and after waiting about an hour and 
a half I let him fire another shot, but understanding in the meantime from the Corporal that 
since Saturday he had received no information nor tidings and had seen not a single man ; after 
having waited about half an hour after the second shot, while the wind was very favorable and I 
did not like to delay the yachts and retard my own voyage, I came to the resolution to march on 
with five men to Wiltioyok, I myself carrying a musket. Arriving there, the people were aston- 

New York Historical Records, 261 

ished, when they saw nie with such a small force and when I had learned, what had happened 
and in how great a danger I and my companions had been, then I saw no reason to be astonished, 
but rather to be glad and grateful to God. 

Your Honor will see bj' the enclosure and judge of the attack and what a pitiful result it 
would have had, if it was cai-ried out so well, as they had intended it, but the Almighty has ruled 

I enclose also Hantsou's answers, although not quite pertinent. 

I had the two Courts together yesterday, but could not obtain upon Za Montagne's proposi- 
tion the selection of deputies, which caused the usual and apprehended confusion. Finally they 
resolved to send Jacques the Mestis savage, to the Maquas country to fetch some of the Sachems 
and as he was not at home and could not be found, they got the savage, called Smith's Jan, who pre- 
sented himself and offered his services, saying, that he felt himself driven to it by his conscience, 
to go with a Dutchman, 2 or 3 savages and a Mahikander to the Esopus, to ask for the prisoners 
first on the gromid of conscience ; if that did not avail anything, then with threats and after that 
to wring the prisoners from them by war. The Dutchman, who went with him is Jan Dirck, 
who offered himself voluntarily for the expedition ; the directions, given to him, will be. seen by 
your Honor in the enclosures ; we wish and pray to God for a good success. 

Some Catskil savages came here to-day in the name of the Esopus savages with the intima- 
tion, that the Dutch at this place should keep quiet, else all the houses on this side of the Sagerskil 
would be burned. 

I send herewith a list of medicaments, required by the soldiers' surgeon at the Esopus for 
the prisoners, I mean the wounded. 

The quartermaster-sergeant requests some smith's utensils and the Commandant some cara- 
bines, short bandeliers, pistols and holsters, all of which I wish to recommend to your Honor's 

On accoTint of the good wind the yachts' people and others are so pressing, that I can find no 
time to copy this nor to refine it nor to add some more details. I shall therefore close and 

Beverwyck, Your Honor's affectionate servant 

the 26«'' June 1663. J. de Deckeee. 

Proposals communicated to the Sachems of Hackensack and Staten-Island wixn 


27"" June. Propositions made to Oratamin, Sachem 

or chief of Hackinkesaky and Mattanoa, 
Sachem of Nayeck and Staten-Island the 
27"" Jime 1663. 

1st proposition, that they had been called hither on account of the difficulties with the Esopiis 
savages to prevent misunderstanding in the future and to ask them, how they were inclined ; as 
to our side, we were inclined to keep the' peace, made with them, if they too were willing. 

They answered, it is well and they too on their side are willing to keep the peace. 

2d. It is necessary, in order to uphold and keep the peace between them and us, that they 
should have no intercourse whatever with the Esopus savages, that they allow none of their people 

262 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

to go amoug them nor Esopus savages to come here, for oue or the other would be cause for a war 
between them and us. 

They answer and promise, that they will not meddle with the war, they promise also, that 
they will not allow any Esopus savage to hide among them and if any of their people should run 
to the Esopus, that they will not receive him again among them. 

3d. Whereas we are now at war with the Esopus savages and we and our people, living in 
the villages, can hardly tell, which are Esopus and which other savages, especially if they come 
armed, therefore we inform them herewith, that we have given orders in all our villages, not to 
trust any armed savage nor to allow any armed savage to come into their places, that they may not 
be suddenly attacked and killed, as it happened at the Esopus, but to be on their guard at all times 
and not to trust an armed savage. They must therefore warn all their savages and all their and 
our friends, not to come with arms into our villages and houses, that no difBculties may arise and 
likewise we \vill not allow any of our people to come armed into their settlements, unless one or 
two men were sent ahead to say, why they come and where they want to go. 

They answei", that it is very good and that they wiU comply with it, but they want to come 
to this place with their muskets, to have them repaired. 

4th. Whereas we have now renewed the old peace and they have promised not to have any 
intercourse with the Esopus savages, we now request of them, whether they could not get one or 
two Esop>us savages and surrender them to us, to employ them as guides ; we are not only willing 
to give them a present for them, but promise also not to kill them nor do them any harm, but to 
return them, when the war is over. 

They undertake to inform and show us, where some Esopus savages may be found. 

5th. That we are good friends not only of them, but also of all other savages surrounding us 
and that we are quite willing to keep the peace with these too, if they will not assist our enemies, 
the Esopus savages. They are therefore requested herewith to tell us, who has helped the Esopus 
savages in this plot and further to please and inform tis, whether they knew of any tribe of sav- 
ages, willing to help them. 

They answer, that they do as yet not know, who will join the Esopus savages, but they will 
tell and inform us as soon as they have heard. 

In confirmation and proof, that we are their friends, each of the Sachems received for the 
trouble, which they have taken to come hither upon our call, the following articles : 
a piece of cloth for a coat a shirt 

a small piece a knife 

The other savages, who had come with them, 5 in numbers, were given each a small piece of 
cloth, a shirt and a knife, with the request to inform the other tribes, their friends, that they too 
should send their Sachems hither to renew the peace. 

After the foregoing was over, Oratam said, he was very glad, that we would keep quiet here 
and that the war would only be made at the Esop^is ; he had not a single spark in his heart, that 
was bad and thus they left the Council chamber. Actum at Eart Amsterdam in New-NetKerlcmd 
on the day as above. 

New York Historical Records. 263 

Notice, that the Esopus Indians are on a war-expedition and warning all peo- 

27'" June 

Dear, Good Friends. 
These few lines are to inform you, that we have just been told by the savages, our friends, 
that about 20 to 25 Esopus savages have left their fort 3 or -4 days ago, with the intentions, as the 
savages say, to come down here and get prisoners or kill some Dutchmen. You are therefore 
warned to be cautious in going into the fields or along the roads, that is always in company and 
well armed according to the published orders. If further news are received, they shall be com- 
municated to you in due time, wherewith after our salutations we commend you to God's protec- 
tion etc. 

Letter from Volckert Jai^sen and others to Director Stfyvesant, respecting 


Noble, Very Worshipful, Honorable Director-General and Council of New-Netherland. 

We, your Hon*"'" Worships' undersigned humble subjects are very distressed on account of the 
loss of our goods and .blood on the Esoj)us, which has brought us nearly to the door of ruin, anyway 
has done us great damage, considering that we cannot recover it in years without God's blessing. 
We cannot restore to our farmers the horses and cattle to continue our farming at the Esopus, 
except some old cows, of which IS in number, young and old, arrived here yesterday at great 
expense and danger ; three of them belonging to the late Jan. Barentsen Wernp and we do not 
know, what else is missing, except that the Hon""' Com-t at Wiltwyclc has written us a letter on the 
23* inst, of which a copy is enclosed, in which among others it says : "We inform you, that the 
horses, used for our defense, which may have been shot or killed by the enemies in an attack, shall 
be paid for by the Hon'''^ Company according to the appraisement of impartial men, pursuant to 
an order given us by his Honor, the Director-General." 

Your Hon"'* Worship may well conceive, that we need our property much more now, than at 
the time, when we sent it for the purpose of carrying on our farms there. Our affections are, as 
your Hon"''* Worship may perceive, for our distressed friends at the Esopus, but we hope not to 
suffer any more troubles and losses, since among others the harm done to our horses under the 
saddle and otherwise, as we are informed, can give us little advantage in the appraisement ; besides 
that we cannot submit to it and wait for the scant remuneration by the Company. We trust 
therefore, that your Hon"''' Worship will not tax and trouble us any more, at least not now, in our 
distress and losses, for we can indeed bear no more. We could have wished, that your Hon''''' 
Worship would have satisiied the savages in time, as we humbly requested last April in the peti- 
tion sent by Pieter Jacobsen Marius to your Hon"''' Worship, concerning the claims of the savages 
at the Esopus and their threats ; then our good and blood would have been saved. God save us 
from further harm and troubles and we hope, that next to God your Hon"'" Worship will take 
good care to prevent further destruction and bloodshed. Expecting to receive your Hon"" 

264 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Worship's favorable reply by first opportunity, we coniiueud your Hon''''' "Worship in the mean- 
time to God's grace and remain 

Your Hon''"' Worship's hmnble 
Beverwyck, subjects 

the 28"' June 1663. Volckeet Jansen 

Jan Thomassen 
Philipp Pieteesen Schuylek 
GoosEN Gaeeetsen 


Letter feom Yice-Dieeotoe Lamontagne at Foet Oeange to Dieectoe Stuy- 


Honorable, Valiant, Worshipful Sir. 

Since my last of the QS*", by which I informed your Honor of my intention to begin the re- 
pairs of the fort at the four corners and to take advantage of the good will of the burghers, who 
were willing to assist, trusting, that some friends would help me with money, necessary for the 
work, which would not cost much more than 500 guilders, Mr. de Decker has come here to the 
meeting of the two Courts and declared, that lie has no orders, to decide in such a matter or to 
procure money for such a purpose, therefore I have been obliged to let the occasion pass by, in 
which the fort could have been put into as good a state of defense, as it has ever been during my 
time, at least against the attack of some savages and I could have done it in 8 days. 

On the 26"', when both the Courts were together to consider with Mr. Decker upon suitable 
means for the release of the prisoners at the Esopus and I had sent for that purpose for AJcus, 
the savage, to dispatch him to the Maquas country and induce them to come here, thei-e arrived 
suddenly Smits Ja7i, a chief of the said Maqiias, with three others of his people and two Mohicans, 
whom I had asked by the Maquas Sassiadego eight days ago, to come here and by Jan Dareth 
and Aepien, chief of the Mohicans, to induce them thereto. They went on their journey the 
same day in good spirits, that they would recover the prisoners and they sailed in Claes Bor- 
dingKs yacht on the 27"' together with Jan Dareth. We shall know shortly, what they have 
accomplished in the matter. 

The ordnance, for which your Honor calls, is ready, at your Honor's pleasure, but I have no 
men to put it aboard a vessel nor money to pay the laborers. I pray, your Honor will consider, 
that there are not more than eight pieces on the foiir corners and one 12 pounder, which has never 
been mounted in my time. Mr. Rensselaer claims three of these pieces and demands them imme- 
diately, to place them at the Green Bush in a little fort or fortification, which they build there 
and if your Honor takes four from the balance, not more than two would be left to us. It is true, 
there are yet three light pieces, which the Commissaries had brought in from Mr. Bensselaer^s 
place in the year 1656 and placed on the church : these, the Commissaries say, his Honor had 
given to them to use in the defense of the planck enclosure. I dare not take these away from 
there, without his Honor's express order. 

While I write this, four yachts have sailed past the fort, to whom Mr. Decker had told me 
not to give a pass, before he had spoken with me ; in the meantime he has given them passes with- 

New Yorh Historieal Records. 265 

out my knowing of their departure. I do not know, whetlier they are to touch at the Esopus or 
not ; tliey left behind also this my letter, written in great haste. Closing herewith I commend 
your Hon''''' Worship to the protection of the Almighty and remain meanwhile 

Your Honor's humble and 
Fort Orange, obedient servant 

the 29"' June 1663. La Montagne. 

The Maquaes have just now 
cut off two fingers of an Esopus 
savage and keep him here at the 
house of Jem Mangelse7i in the 
Colony : it is a sign of bad feeling 
against them. 

To the Honorable, Valiant and Worshipful Petrus Stuyvesa/nt Director-General of New-Neth- 

Letter from Councillor de Decker to Director Stutyesant ; the Christian 


Esopus magistrates. 

I had forgotten in my last letter by Claes Bordingh, written in great haste and amid much 
noise, that some friends here had dispatched Christoffel Damits to the Esopus savages on the 20"" 
inst., to learn and see, whether he could not get Mons'' La Montagues daughter and some other 
prisoners out of the hands of the barbarians. He took his way directly through the country and 
strayed from the right road at a Kil about 4 leagues from Wiltwych inland, when the friends 
hearing of his intention advised against his proceeding further for peace, as they say, that the 
rascals may keep him also ; he is consequently returned here yesterday, without accomplishing 
anything and without having met a savage on the road. We are in the meantime waiting here 
and hoping for a good result of the expedition of Jan Daret and the savages with him and there- 
fore the Messieurs judge it most advisable and best, to delay my sojourn here until his return, to 
which I am obliged to consent, as I have hardly carried out one half of the designs of my com- 

I find the calumnious and injurious reports, which your Honor knows well as having heard 
them and by reports, that I had persuaded your Honor not to make the voyage to the Esopus and 
on the other side, that I was the cause of the discharge of the soldiers, are carried hither and 
thither ; some people accept them as true, although not in their exorbitant extent, others not ; 
meanwhile it looks suspicious to me, as I have been shown by a friend here a letter from a certain 
friend tliere, saying among others, that I was much blamed and scolded at the Manhatans and 
running much danger, in case more misfortunes should happen to spring up. Whereas I have 
had as little to do with the delay of your Honor's journey to the Esopus, as my child in Holland 
and with the discharge of the soldiers as much as your Honor and others of the Council and whereas 
nevertheless the contrary is believed by the majority and the most ignorant and therefore worst 
canaille, whereby the person of John de Dechere is placed and exposed as m colluvione rerum 
contumelie, therefore circumstances compel me to believe, that the source of these infamous reports 

266 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

is to be found in the midst of onr Board, for how conld people think and speak the same, as has 
been thought and spoken of there ? unless one or the other member of the Boai-d had divulged it 
and done it with palpable honorability, to make out himself pure and white and me foul and black. 
Truly it is the act of dull and cowardly souls, which strive more for vain and unstable glory and 
the applause of the jjopulace, than for the solid consolation of a good conscience before God and 
themselves. Therefore I request your Honor once more, to inform all the world in one way or 
the other, as I have asked by word of mouth and in writing, that I had nothing to do with the 
first and with the second not more, than you yourself and others about there. 

Your Honor will show thereby, that your Honor has not been in favor of these calumnies 
and insulting rumors and besides do an act of distributive justice. Otherwise I should feel obliged, 
to keep away and absent myself from the meetings and the public affairs connected therewith and 
furtlier give a satisfactory explanation of it to my Masters by the first oj)portunity. 

Pliilipp Pietersen Schuyler, Jan Tomas, Goosen Gerritsen, Volohert Jansen and Cornells 
Wijnlvop have complained to me, that the Schout and Commissaries at the Esojyus have refused 
to give up their horses with the cattle, which latter arrived here yesterday in the barge, making 
difficulties under the pretext stated and mentioned in the enclosure. I remark, that the com- 
plainants or at least some of them are very much dissatisfied, they have therefore requested me to 
write about it to your Honor and to send the enclosure ; as far as I am concerned, I am of opinion, 
that every one ought to be master of his own property, any way, that the Commissaries had no 
authority to undertake retaining the horses, unless they were ordered to do so by your Honor, 
which however I doubt. Although I explained to them the conditions proposed by your Honor 
to the inhabitants of Wiltwi/ch concerning the loss and wounding of their horses in military ser- 
vice, which might befal them and must be expected, they nevertheless demanded to have their 
horses here at home ; Wynlcooj) said besides, that he would be satisfied, if he could get of his six 
horses only the three mares. It is my opinion therefore that these people ought to be satisfied 
and trusting that your Honor will make the proper arrangements I close on account of the urgency 
of the skippers, while I remain with cordial greetings 

Beverwych, Your Honor's obedient 

the 29'" June 1663. J. De Deckere. 

His Honor Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General of Neio-JS'etherland at the Manhatans. 

Letter from Robert Treat of Milford, Conn, to Director Stuyvesant in 


After my humble p'sentation of many thanks to yo' Lo'''' for all yo^ former expressions of 
you' Lone and kindnesse doe sende greetings : And being thereby encouraged to p'sent you w"" 
these leines intreating so much fauo'' of yo' Lo**" when yo' leisure wil by the first p'mit and if you 
se cause any longer and further to encourage the companie or such of them as haue been waiteing 
for M' Winthrops coming to put to an end all p'tended claims to y'^ lands vnder treatie w"" 
yo'selfe & Hono^'* Counsell that o' neighbo" thereby seemed to hinder and obstruct y'' matter what 
they could. And also to hear what encourageing answers or returnes you may haue Receaued 
from yo'' Lo'"' in Holland after which they haue been and are still muclj waiteing to see if you 
haue receaued any further liberty and power to encourage And will be pleased to let them 
vnderstand the same, w'ch if they may obtaine this request of you they wil acquaint one another 

New York rival liecordn. 267 

therew*"" & promise to returue vou and answer vpon what teannes they will pi'oceed if they do at 
all speedily Aud whether or noe it is uot within your couipasse to graunt them free liberty as 
vnder your Authority & Province payeing all dues & duties as sliall be agreed vpon they may 
not be a free people of theraselues to act subordinately for themselues both in all Civill & Ecle- 
siasticall Respects And not further at present to trouble saucing my humble desire to pardon my 
boldnes and obruptnes and to fauo'' me with an answer heerto by this bearer Jo. Alsup and to 
take leaue to subscribe myselfe 

As I am your loucing freind to Connnand 
Milford, y" 29"' June 1663. in what I may 

lioBEET TeeATT. 

Letter from Matheits Capito, Secretary at Wiltwtck to Director Stuyve- 
sant; uis wife killed and burned with all his effects; requests a supply 

OF clothing. 

Noble, Honorable, Yery "Worshipful, Wise, Prudent and Very Discreet Gentlemen. 

Gentlemen Whereas I, your Hon'"''^ "Worships' humble petitioner, have also been brought to 
ruin during these late troubles in the village of Wiltwyck, caused by the savages, not having lost 
only my dear wife, who was killed by the barbarians and then burned with the house, to which 
they set fire, but in the same fire also all my movable effects, that nothing else is left to me, but 
my honest name. Now, as I need during my further life for covering my body and keeping it 
clean some linen and cloth, which at present cannot be obtained here and which even if it were 
to be had here, I cannot pay for, therefore I am compelled to turn to your Hon'''° "Worships with 
my humble and respectful petition, that your Hon"''* Worships, in pity of my distressed circum- 
stances and misery, will please to assist me and provide me with low-priced clothing, to wit, some 
cheap, plain cloth for a suit of clothes and what is needed for it, two or three store-shirts or linen 
to make them, one or one and a half els of linen for handkerchiefs and nightcaps, a blanket and 
enough coarse linen for a straw tick and a pillow, two pair of Icelandish socks and a pair of shoes 
and charge these goods according to their prices to my account ; I promise to make it good to 
your Hou*''" Worships, as soon as I can and as with God's blessing I shall have again prospered 
somewhat. Not doubting I expect to receive them by the first opportunity, because my needy 
circumstances require them. Closing with ni}^ greetings I commend your Hon""'" Worships to the 
Almighty's protection, wishing and praying sincere!)', that the good God will save your Hon'"'^ 
Worships and us all from all such and similar misfortunes and troubles, while I remain 
Actum at Wiltwyclc, Your Hon'"'' Worships humble 

the 29"" Jime 1663. subject and obedient servant 

Matheus Capito m. p. 

To the Noble, Honorable. Yery Worshipful, Wise Prudent and Yery Discreet Director- 
General and Council of New-Netherland at Fort Atristerdam in New-Netherland. 

268 Colonial Settlements on tlie Hudson River. 

Lettek feom Councillor de Decker to Director Stutvesant ; information 



If we might rely on uncertain and vague rumors, then our prisoners have been distributed 
and scattered and there since the last attack at the Esopus. Anyway Mons' Gorlaer reported to 
nie yesterday, that he had learned from a savage, who had been peddling brandy towards the 
Uatskils, that he had seen and spoken with deaf Hester, her child and two or three other women ; 
he had advised Hester to try and escape, while the savages lay intoxicated, but that she had had 
fears and did not dare to do it. The same savage was willing to go again on the same errand to 
the Catskils with the daughter of the said Hester, who lives here, persuaded thereto by the 
promise of a musket and some trifles, if he should endeavor and try to carry away and bring 
hither mother and daughter, after having made the savages drunk. Time will show, what will be 
the result of the undertaking. 

There is little prospect here, to enlist a dozen soldiers or to obtain volunteers, and your Honor 
must therefore not rely much upon it. De 2>resentibus non de futuris gaudet ecclesia. Closing 
with hearty greetings I remain. 

Beverwyck, Your Honor's affectionate friend 

29"" June 1663. J. de Deckbre. 


To His Honor, Petriis Stuyvesant Director- General of New-Neiherland at the Manhatans. 

Appointment of MiLrrAEY officers foe Beegen and Gemoenepa. 
30'" June. 

The Director- General and Council of New-Netherland selected from the nominees proposed 
by the Sehout and Schepens of the village of Bergen and its neighborhood and contirmed for the 
village of Bergen 

Adriaen Post as Ensign 
Jam, Swaen as Sergeant 
for Gemoenepa as Sergeants 
Harmen Smeeman 
Gerrit Gerritsen 
Actum at Port Amsterdam. Date as above. 

Commission of Martin Ceeqiek to be Captain-Lieutenant and Commandee of the forces. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, in behalf of their High : Might : the Lords States-General of the United 
Netherlands and the Lords-Directors of the Incorporated "West-India Company, Director-General 
of New-Netlierland and the Honorable Council Greeting ! 

Whereas we have deemed it necessary for the greater security and protection of this province 
and its good inhabitants, to engage and keep in service besides the old soldiers a considerable 
number of uew ones, for which we required a good and experienced person, to command under 
the orders and in the absence of the aforesaid Hon'"'^ Director and Captain-General Petrm Stuy- 
vesant as Captain-Lieutenant over his company and all other military officers, therefore relying 

New York Historical Records. 269 

upon tlie piety, fitness and the good management of Marten Crieger, Burgomaster of this city, 
who has ah-eady served tlie Hon''"^ Company under our directions in several other military capaci- 
ties and whose services have well pleased us, we have engaged, appointed and commissioned the 
said Marten Crieger, as we hereby engage, appoint and commission him as Captain Lieutenant over 
all our military, to command the same agreeably to the instructions already given or hereafter to 
be given, to drill, to march them up and down and have them commanded, drilled and marched 
up and down by other, his subaltern officers, as the situation and circumstances of affairs shall 
require it for the best of the Company and the greater safety of the country ; and to do further 
in our absence everything, which a good, pious and faithful Captain-Lieutenant is in duty bound 
to do, conform to the oath to be taken in our presence. After he has taken the same we summon, 
order and command herewith all and everybody, whom this concerns, and especially all our officers 
and private soldiers to respect, accept, acknowledge and obey the said Marten Crieger as our 
Captain-Lieutenant, each in his position and rank, because we have thus deemed it necessary for 
the benefit of the Hon'^'^ Company, the better protection of the country and the better employment 
of the military'. Thus done and given at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland, the 30"" of June 

Capt. -Lieut. Cregier took the following oath • 

I promise and swear, to be faithful and true to their Noble High : Might :, the Lords States- 
General of the United Netherlands, to the Noble Lords-Director of the Incorporated West-Lidia 
Company and their Hon''"' Director-General and Council, to serve them honestly and piously, as 
it behooves a good, pious and faithful Captain-Lieutenant to. So help me God Almighty- ! 

Nota : The foregoing oath was also taken by the Lieutenants Pieter Wolphertsenvan Couwen- 
hoven and Nicolas iStillewil. 

Instbuotions roR Captain Ceegiee. 

Provisional instructions for the Captain- 
Lieutenant, Marten Crieger and the Coun- 
cil of War. 
The Council of War shall be composed of the said Captain-Lieutenant, Lieutenant Nicolas 
Stillewel, Pieter Wolphertsen, Captain-Lieutenant of a detachment of natives and volunteers, the 
oldest Sergeant Christian Niessen and to their decision are left all matters of war as well in send- 
ing out parties as concerning the expedition in general, which are to be decided by plurality of 
votes and in case of a tie, Captain-Lieutenant Crieger shall east a double vote. 

If one or two members of the said Council should happen to be absent, it is left to the dis- 
cretion of the Captain-Lieutenant to associate with himself such persons, as he may think most 
able and fit. 


It is also left to the discretion of the Captain-Lieutenant and Council to associate with them- 
selves in grave and unexpected events some persons, selected either from the magistrates of Wilt- 
wych village or other civil officers, whom the Captain-Lieutenant and Council shall judge most fit. 

270 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Whereas the Director-General and Council have as yet no certain and sufBeient reports and 
knowledge, what assistance by other tribes the Esopus savages may have received and what their 
strength may be in their fort and also in the field, they can hardly give any further orders, how 
and with what forces the savages must be attacked. They leave it therefore to the better and 
surer experience of the said Captain-Lieutenant and Council, but the Director-General and Council 
are in the meantime of opinion, that, if the savages should make, resistance iu their fort, as their 
intention is said to be, they must not be attacked and fought with less troops, than they them- 
selves are reported and thought to have inside, so that we may not be compelled to give it up with 
losses and without having accomplished anything. 

For the benefit of the Christian captives and in order to gain as much time as possible, they 
may hold parleys with the Kmpus savages, also make an armistice for as long a time, as they shall 
think best for the public welfare and the Christian prisoners, but they must iu no case enter upon 
peace-negotiations without special order of the Director-General and Council. 


It is further left absolutely to the discretion of the Captain-Lieutenant and his Council of 
War to act, if an opportunity should present itself, that with good information they might make a 
successful attempt on the fort of the savages, perhaps by a surprise or if they have reason to hope, 
that they wUl become masters of it. 


The aforesaid Council is finally directed, to use all possible precautions in sending out parties 
for the protection of the coming harvest and the cattle, to send out as frequently and in as good 
order and with all precautious as many parties, as they may think fit and as circumstances require, 
especially if no general attack is made on our fort ; by every chance, which presents itself, they 
must report in detail to the Director-General and Council, what has taken place and Avhat else is 
required and necessary. Thus done at Fort Amsterdam in New- Netherlands the SO"" of June 

Report of Lieutenant Cotjwenhoven and others of their ill success in rais- 

Before the Council appeared Pieter 'Wolphcrtsen van Coinoenhoven, Nicolas Stillioell and 
Saviuel Fdsal, who had been to the English villages He7nsteede, Vlissingen, Middlehorgh and 
Bustdorp, to see, whether there were some volunteers willing to take part in an expedition to the 
Esopus in the lion""" Company's service. Tliey report, that in the beginning some men showed 
themselves willing, but that they were persuaded by some of the Magistrates and other persons to 
remain and not to march out, so that they could not accomplish anything; not more than 5 or 6 
men will come down from the aforesaid villages. (3" July 1663.) 

Christian Jacdbsen Wolf son, declares, that he has heard, Witloch and James Grover, inhabit- 
tants of Gravesend on Long-Island, had written to and been personally in several English villages 

New YorTc Hutorical Iiecvr<h. 271 

under this government, to dissuade the inhabitants from marching to the E^opus. Thns it was 
reported and declared in our presence at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland the S** of July 

P. Stuyvesant. 


Letter feom the MrLiTART officees at Bergen to the Director-General ex- 

The Council of War of the village of Bergen in JSfew-Netlierland inform his Hon''"' Worship, 
the Director-General, that they have received his non""* Worship's letter and learned his request, 
by which the Council of War find themselves heavily taxed, to contribute some soldiers notwith- 
standing the weakness of the village, for tliey think, under correction, that it too requires assist- 
ance, considering the dangerous location. 

However, that your Hon''"' Worship may know the affection of the community on this side 
and learn of its existence, the Council has read your Hon*'" AVorship's letter to the community and 
encouraged some as much as possible, as the following list shows ; but only under such condition, 
that, if our village is in need, we shall receive assistance from your Hon''"' Worship and the other 
villages, upon which the request has been carried out, with the understanding, that the volunteers 
are not to go any farther, than the neighboring villages, if they are in need and attacked and ex- 
pressly excluding the Esopus and that the volunteers be provided with good arms as promised, 
upon which a man may i"ely for his safety in such an adventure, the same to be delivered here 
either in the oiBcer's or the Lieutenant's house and to be kept ready for every occasion, when 
your Hon'''^ Worship shall need these men. We commend your Hon"'" Worship to the protection 
of God. 

Thus done at Bergen in New-Netherland, the •t"' July 1663 in the meeting of the Council 
of War. 

List of volunteers. 
Arendt Lawrensen Evert Gerritsen Kesolution of the 

Elias Jansen At Oemoenepa. Council of War 

Pieter Hasselt Joost van der Linde of Bergen village 

Claes Argansen Comelis L^dibersen. in N. N. 

Jan Uagell Tielman van Yleeck, Seer''. 

Information furnished by Rachel La Montagne, wife of Gysbert van Imborgh, 
late a prisoner among the esopus indians. 

Information given on the 4"" of July 1663 at Wildwyck by Rachel, the wife of Mr. Gysbert 
va/n Imh&rgh, who has been a prisoner among the Esopus Indians, according to the instructions 
given to Sieur Ja7i Daret from Fort Orange by Johan de Deckere. 

To the first question, in what direction the fort of the savages was lying from Wiltwyck, she 
says, towards the south at a distance of about 8 hours' march. 

272 Colonial Settlements on tlie Hudson Mwer. 

To the second, the road there is a good footpath and it is possible to get by wagon in about 
one or two hours from WiUwyck to theii- fort, tliere are only one or two bad hills on the road. 

Thirdly : on the road there 3 or i little creeks will be found, about one or two hours' march 
from their fort, the creeks are almost dry and easily crossed, the largest is 5 or 6 paces wide. 

Fourthly : their fort is situated at the foot of a hill and leans on to it on one side, on the 
other sides the land is flat, a creek washing one corner of the fort. 

Fifthly : the fort is fortified with palisades on the creek side and all around ; the palisades 
could easily be pulled out ; the creek is not deep near the fort and at 3 or 4 places there are rocks 
in it, so that it is easy to get across ; the creek is as wide, as the creek near Ehhingh^s land. 

Sixth : there is a good view of the surrounding country from the fort. 

Seventh : the fort is large, a little larger than the fort at Fort Orange, where his Honor, Mr. 
La Montague lives ; it has two rows of palisades put up like chevaux-de-frise, through wliich it is 
easy to pass ; they are putting up a third row of palisades close to each other, with port holes like 
those in WiUwyck / the fort has two gates, one to the south, the other to the north. 

Eighth : ten dwellings are in the fort and she has not seen more, than about 30 men, who 
guard the fort and she says further, that they were in great anxiety about their wives and children 
and that they lodge them outside or the fort during the night, sometimes with the prisoners, when 
a startling rumor reaches them and they do not rely much on escape. 

Lastly: (illegible). 

Letter from Captain Cregier to Director Stutvesant ; reports his akrival at 


Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, "Wise, Prudent, Very Discreet Sir. 

I arrived here at the Esopus near the Eedoubt with the yachts on'the 4"' July and sent imme- 
diately 40 men up to WiUwyck to get wagons ; they returned about one hour after noon with 9 
wagons, we have loaded on them, as much as we could and towards evening I and my detach- 
ment and the wagons arrived at WiUwyck. I found the people here in low spirits, but upon my 
arrival their courage revived, for the day before my arrival they had sent three barges with cattle, 
about 100 heads, to Fort Orange and everything is wanting here ; the soldiers here have received 
their last ration ; nor have I found any hard bread, for it was consumed before they had arrived 
with the yachts ; what I have brought with me will hardly be sufficient for a month, including 
the troops brought along by me and those found here ; hence your Honor will please, to provide 
these troops in times with victuals and ammunition, of which I send herewith a specification. I 
have had no rencontre either in landing at the Fsopus nor in marching up, but during the dis- 
charging and landing of the troops 3 savages could at all times be seen on a hill and while we 
marched into WiUwyck the sentry saw also two savages ; for this reason I place some men in 
ambush during the night at some convenient time, to try whether we cannot obtain some prisoners. 
"We are now busy to bring our goods up from the strand to the Fsopus. When I arrived at the 
Fsopus, I found there the Maquaes, who had been to see the Fsoj)us savages about the prisoners, 
but they brought no one witli them, except Mr. Gysberfs wife ; the savages and Mr. Oyslert's 
wife had been examined by the Magistrates here, the day before my arrival, as to her adventures ; 
the Magistrates are sending the result of the examination to your Honor ; as the Maquaes and 
Mr. Gyshert's wife say, the savages have never more than 30 men in the fort, but they are always 

New YorTc Historical Records. 273 

out on expeditions ; I shall try to verify this, as far as possible. Mr. Oysberfs wife says, the 
savages were busy putting up a third row of palisades around their fort and that they had also 
made a breastwork for the protection of their watering place, but they were nevertheless afraid of 
the Dutch, so that they had taken all the prisoners out of the fort into the mountains during several 
nights and had them guarded together with their wives and children and old men, only the men, 
able to bear arms, remaining in tlie fort to guard it. A Maquaes chief, who brought away Mr. 
Gysberfs wife, says, when he returns to the Maquaes fort, he shall ask the other chiefs, whether 
they will go with 40 savages to the Esopus savages and carry off the prisoners by force. I am of 
opinion, that we are able to take the fort of the savages, but as they bring the prisoners immedi- 
ately into the mountains upon rumors and for fear, that the Dutch are coming, and leave only a 
few savages in the fort, who, when they see us, will take to their heels, so that we could not 
accomplish anything, therefore I propose, to await first the arrival of Pieter Wolphertsen and his 
savages and to see, what they can do or to wait for the result of the Maquaes' attempt for the 
recovery of the prisoners. I expect hereon your Honor's order and shall in the meantime do my 
best, to inflict as many injuries to them in the woods, as we can. I am not able to send your 
Honor a complete list at present, for I have now too much to do to bring the goods np from the 
strand, but I will say, that we number here about 130 men bearing arms, all counted except the 
negroes, nine of them are wounded and six are at the Redoubt and there are about 9 or 10 among 
them, who cannot march out, so that we cannot bring much more than 100 men bearing arms into 
the field. Your Honor will please to take care, that the ordered goods be sent by the first oppor- 
tunity, for we cannot get anything here, it must all be brought from the Manhatans. I would 
prefer bacon instead of meat, for it is better for expeditions, reconnoitering parties and ambus- 
cades ; nothing or only little can be ground here on account of little water ; hence all the grain 
must be groiind at the Manhatans and packed in good barrels, for the cooper had not looked well 
after the baiTels, which I brought away ; the middle hoop must be better secured with nails. 
Closing with my cordial salutations I commend your Honorable Worships to God's protection. 
Actum Wiltwyck, Your Honorable Worships' 

the S"" July 1663. obedient and faithful servant 

Martin Ceegiee. 
To the Noble, Honorable, Very Worshipful, Wise, Prudent and Yery Discreet, the Director- 
General and Council of New-Netherland at Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland. 

Report of the Indians sent to negotiate with those of the Esopus (beginning lost). 

they said, " where is the cloth, powder, lead and black wampum " and " no more than five bun- 
dles of wampum?" and they refused the present, holding the Dutch not better than dogs and 
would not hear one of them. 

Towards evening CunacTcquaeese said to the Esopus savages. Shall I not even bring a child 
to my masters, having so many presents and having made such a long journey, and he offered 
again the cloth, which had been given him as a present by the Court here, together with his own 
strings of wampum, whereupon the Esopus Sachems went all to sleep, except one, called Pami- 
rawachginck, who had Mr. Gysiert van lmbo)'gh''s wife as prisoner ; he touched his hand and took 

274 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

the present, putting it away he said, I shall not keep a bead of this wampum, I shall have to 
distribute it among the mischiefmakers, to satisfy them. 


After they had given to him the wampum, he consented, that they should take with them 
next morning the captured woman, whereupon they requested permission to take another prisoner, 
but it was refused. 


Next morning, at daybreak, the Sachem had left and he asked, where is she, whom I have 
ransomed? The other savages then wanted to return the presents to him, but he said, Do you 
mean to fool us ? If we had our arms with us, we would take her by force, for you have accepted 
the presents and our custom is to keep a promise after having accepted a present. 

He says further, that both of them had as much to do with the Esopus savages for two days, 
as it was possible in the above matter. 


He says further, that they were willing to keep at peace with the people of Catslcil, of Fort 

Orange and the Mahicanders and Maquas, but not by any means with the Esopus people, against 

whom they would make war with fire and sword to the last man and they add, that if the Esojnis 

people do not leave the place and abandon the land, they will drive them out by fire and sword. 


They are weak now and have only a small castle, but they will spread from the Esopus to the 
Manhatans, if the Christians do not obey their commands, whereupon they gave to them, the 
Maquaes, a present of some wampum, to grease their feet, if they might hurt them against a 
stone on theii* journey and thanked them for their troubles. 


< To prevent the bringing in of the harvest, they are said to lie in small detachments on all 
roads and paths. Shall they be asked by our Masters for an armistice, to gather the crops and 
shall the land then be deserted or purchased again from them in the presence of other tribes, as it 
has been done before ? 


Smits Jan said especially this : If the Dutch will not abandon the Esopus nor make peace 
with the Esojnis savages, what then about the release of the prisoners ? for he himself neither saw 
nor knew any better means, than to go with 44 Maquaes, there being 44 prisoners still in their 
hands, to the castle of the Esopus savages and thus to get each a prisoner and bring him away. 

Jan Daeeth, interpreter. 

Agrees with the original, as recorded by the Schout, Commissaries and Council of War at 
Wiltwyck, which attests 

Mati'heus Capito, Secretary. 

New Yorlc Historical Records. 275 


On tlie 5"' of July Sieur Jan Daret came to the Magistrates here at WiUioi/ck and stated that 
the Ma<iuaes had forgotten to say in tlieir report as to the best way to release the prisoners in a 
sensible manner, that the Esopus savages had told them, they cared not so much for the captured 
savages, as for the payment for the large tract of land, called the New Village, but if the sum to 
pay it should be brought there by the Maquaes or somebody else, they would liberate the prison- 
ers and return them. 

The Commissary Thomas Chainbers engages himself, to refute promptly all the propositions 
which the Esojpiis have made to the Maquaes and Mahicanders, if it should be required by any 

Agrees with the minute, taken at the meet- 
ing of the Schout, Commissaries and Council 
of War, which is attested by 

Mattheus Capito, Secretary. 

Letter from Director Stuyvesant to the authorities at Fort Orange; the 
Catskil Indians must not harbor any Esopus Indians. 

Honorable, Prudent and Very Discreet Gentlemen. 

I am informed and told by good authority, that some JEsojjus savages, especially women and 
children are staying in and near the Catsklls and liave also planted corn there, which would be 
very easy to destroy. The officers of our military force have therefore requested our orders to do 
it, but, although we consider it necessary, yet to add to the strength of our just cause also with 
the Catskil savages, who set themselves up if not as our declared enemies, at least as protectors of 
our enemies, and to keep free from blame and evil report, we have resolved first to inform your 
Honors of it requesting, that your Honors will tell the Maquaes and Catskil savages in our behalf, 
not to suffer any Esopus savages among themselves, because we shall bo obliged to liunt them up, 
wherever we may find them and as it is difficult to distinguish one tribe from the other on such 
an occasion we wish to clear us hereby beforehand, if during the search for and seizure of the 
Esopus some Catskil or other savages should be attacked. Meanwhile your Honors may give such 
information and warnings to the fanners in the coimtry, as your Honors should deem proper. 

the 9"' July 1663. 

To the Courts of Fort Orange and the Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

276 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

Pkoposals made to Sachems of the River ajvd Staten-Island Indians and 

theib answers. 

On the lO"- of July the following chiefs 
came summoned by Oratam, the chief of 
HacJcinkesaky, pursuant to the conditions 
made with him on the 27"" of May, to wit : 
Sauwenaare, chief of Wiechquaeskeck, Met- 
seivackos, chief of Kichtaioangh, alias 
Sleeper's haven. Here follows the proposi- 
tion made to them and what they answered 
in the presence of Oratami, the chief of 
kingkesacky, Waerhen Kastangh and several 
other savages, Sara Kiersteede acting as 

1. That now about 14 days ago there had been summoned by us and had also come, the chief 
of Staten- Island, Matteno, and the chief of Achkingkesaky, Oratam, who had renewed the peace 
with us and upon that occasion we had requested them to inform, to warn or to ask the other 
Sachems, that they too should come here and declare, what their opinion was in regard to the 
troubles with the Esojpus savages and whether they would continue the peace with us, so that we 
might know our friends to distinguish them from our enemies. 

They answered hereupon, that they agreed with Oratam and Matteno and that, what OrOj- 
tam and Matteno had said and promised was as much, as if they themselves had said and promised 
it. They say, that they too are willing to continue at peace with us. 

2. That the peace may be kept well, it is necessary, that they should pay no attention what- 
ever to the Esopus savages, that they should not allow any of their people to go to them or to the 
Esopus, that our people could not distinguish the savages and that we should take all the savages 
found there as enemies, that they must not allow any Esojnis savage to come among them, for 
that would be a cause of war between us and them. 

They promise in regard to the second point, that they will not trouble themselves with the 
Esopus savages and say, if some of their people should go to the Esopus savages, they will not 
receive them again. 

3. They are informed, that we have charged all the farmers in the open country, not to trust 
any savage, coming with arms, nor to let him come into their places, so that they may not be 
unexpectedly surprised, as it has happened at the Esopus ; they must therefore warn all their 
savages and all their friends, not to come armed to our villages ; nobody from our side shall come 
with arms to their settlements, without giving them previous notice and stating, where he 
wanted to go. 

They answered hereupon, that they would act accordingly. 

4. Whether they know, what allies the Esopus savages have and who has helped them in 
this attack. 

Oratam answers, that ho has not heard yet, that other savages held with the Esopus, except 
the Menessinghs. 

As a sign of our good heart imd in confirmation of the renewed peace a coat, a piece of 
cloth, a shirt and a knife was given to each of the chiefs of luchtawangh and Wiechquaeskeck ; 

New Yorh Hidorical Records. 277 

the eleven savages, who had accompanied them inchiding Oratam, the chief of Tlachinghesahj, 
in whose presence the proposals were made, received 
Each a piece of cloth and a knife. 

They received these presents thankfully and the aforesaid chiefs were once more warned and 
requested, to communicate to their savages, that they must not go to the Esopus nor allow an 
Enopus to hide among them, for it is our intention, to pursue them, wherever they could be found, 
even if it were way off in the Maquaes' country. 

They promise not to allow any savage to hide among them. 

After this had taken place, the chiefs complained, that the Dutch sold so much brandy to 
the savages, that they even carried it into their country. 

They were told, that we tried to prevent it as miich as possible, but that we could not very 
well discover it, because the savages would not tell us, from whom they bought and who brought 
it into their country, also that we had authorized Oratam, the chief of JIackinkesacky, a long time 
ago, to arrest the Dutchmen, who came into their country to peddle brandy. 

Their reply hereto was, that they were cheated by the Dutch, who say, his Honor, the Gen- 
eral, was informed of it and had given his consent; tlva.t Pietet' Wolphertsen had been in their 
country and showed them a letter, saying, it was written therein, that he might go into their 
country to sell brandy, that he had been there and taken away with him a large quantity (heele 
nootas) of wampum, whereby their savages were entirely empoverished, for they always wanted 
it again, if they had had a taste of it. 

We listened to thorn and took it into consideration and then authorized the savages, to an'est 
all the Dutchmen, who brought brandy into their country and to bring them here in fetters. 
We promised, that they should have a piece of cloth for a coat besides the brandy, which such 
persons sliould carry, and he, who brought in the first, should have two pieces. Thus done at 
Fort Amsterdam in New-Netherland in the Council-chamber. Date as above. 

(Laws of New Netherland, p. 444.) 

Letter from Director Stuyvesant to the Magistrates at Fort Orange; he 


Honorable, Dear, Faithful Friends. 

Your Honors' favor of the 23* June has been received by us in due time, wherein M'e 
found little requiring an answer, except your Honors' request to be informed, who the volunteers 
are said to have been, whom your Honors were reported to have prevented from going to the 
assistance of the Esopus people and who has told vis so. The names have not been given to us, 
but the fact, that many, who offered their services as volunteers, have been prevented by your 
Honors, has been reported to us not only by tlie men, hired and placed by your Honors upon Claes 
TyseiiJs yacht, but also since by many others, so that we would not lack proof, if the cabbage 
was worth the soup. We shall let the matter rest here, as far as we are concerned and say only 

278 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

about it, that if jour Honors should happen to get into similar troubles there, against which the 
Only good God may protect you as he has done until now, your Honors would wish to see 
assistance come the sooner the better ; the golden lesson of Christ requires, Do as thou wilt be 

The efforts made bj' your Honors in the speedy dispatch to the Esopus of Jan Darett, 
Smits Jan and some other Maquas to release the captive Christians from the hands of the Esopus 
have pleased us very much, notwithstanding that so little has been accomplished by them. We 
must infer therefrom, that as little reliance can be placed iipon this as upon other tribes of bar- 
barians; we desire heartily to receive assurance and proof of the result oi' Smits JarCs proposi- 
tion, to go with 44 Maquaes to the Esopus fort, to take each a prisoner by the hand and carry 
him off, even if we had to promise a considerable present, say one hundred guilders or more for 
each Christian prisoner, small or large, returned in that way. Your Honors must use all possible 
means to bring this about, but, as we have stated before, without engaging us in any way for a 
peace or an armistice with the Esopiis or any of their adherers and accomplices. 

Although we have provided our Captain-Lieutenant Kryger with a considerable quantity of 
gunpowder, when he left here, we are now however informed by him, that the same is a little 
too coarse and not quite suitable for muskets and flintlocks. Your Honors are therefore requested, 
to order for us 2 or 300 lbs. of good, fine musket powder, which we engage to return as soon as 
we receive any by the next ships from the Fatherland. Please send it to our aforesaid Capf.- 
Lieutenant, wherewith etc''. 
the 12th July 1663. 

To both the Courts of Fort Orange and of the Colony of lienselaerswyek. ' 

Letter from Director Stutvesant to Councillor de Deckbre at Fort Orange ; 
Sergeant Niessen promoted for his successful attack on the Indians ; peace 
with the Indians around the Manhatans. 

Honorable, Prudent and Yery Discreet Sir. 

Your Honor's favors of the 26"" and QQ"" June with their respective enclosures have been 
received by us in due time. "We learned from them among others with especial pleasure and grate- 
fulness to the good God the successful attack made by our people under the command of Sergeant 
Niessen on the barbarians. For the encouragement of others and of himself we have given him 
the ensign's place. 

We are well satisfied with the expedition of Jan Darett and Smits Jan with some other 
Maquaes to the Esopus savages, although we must regret, that they have accomplished so little. 
Meanwhile we are very eager to learn, what has been the result of the second proposition of the 
aforesaid Srnits Jan to go there with 44 Maquaes and take each a prisoner by the hand. It is 
desirable, that the captured Christians should be released in this manner, even if we had to promise 
a considerable reward up to one hundred guilders or more for each Christian captive, either young 
or old ; all possible endeavors must be made, without however engaging us in any way towards 
the Esopus for the slightest hope of peace or armistice. We see by your Honor's letter of the 
29"" June, that since the last attack, made by our people upon the Eopi^is, the captured Christians 
have been scattered here and there among the others tribes, as deaf Hester and her child among 

N&w York Historical Mecords. 279 

the Oatskil savages, a probable proof, that one or the other tribe has had a hand in the execrable 
deed and nuist be considered and treated as enemies and it must be further presumed that neither 
the Esopus nor their allies will make much resistance in their forts, notwithstanding their boast- 
ings, but that they will disperse in small detachments here and there among other tribes. We 
recommend and trust to your Honor's circumspection to gather as secret and exact infoi'niation in 
regard to the one and the other as possible and to report the result to Captain-Lieutenant Knjger, 
that he may make use of it upon occasion. 

The shortness of time and necessary business do not allow us to arrange every thing as we 
desire and as it ought to be done, especially what your Honor complains of in regard to the former 
and still daily occurring affronts and injuries done to your Honor by this or that unreasonable and 
evilminded person. Tour Honor will meanwhile please to feel assured and trust, that we shall 
not leave your Honor nor anybody else without support in due time and place, much less that for 
our own defense we shall refuse to testify to the truth concerning your Honor's innocence in pre- 
venting the pretended present to the barbarians and in the discharging of the military ; but it is 
well to remember here, that a word in season is like a silver apple in a golden peel. 

More important matters and at present the urgent requests of the yachts people for permission 
to sail prevent me to write to our friends Philipp Jr'ietersen, Volckert Jansen and company con- 
cerning your Honor's and their request for their horses and cattle, which are not nor have been 
detained there by any order of ours, if they are not already sent or delivered as we hope, for 
Capt. -Lieut. Martyn Kryger reports, that on the day before his arrival there, about one hundred 
heads of cattle and horses had gone in three barges from the Enojnis to Fort Orange. We agree 
with your Honor's opinion, that everybody ought to be and remain master of his own. 

Willem Bogardus reports upon his return, that the farmer of the excise there had about one 
thousand guilders on hand and had offered to send them down with him, but that your Honor had 
received the money and kept it until your Honor should come here ; this has astonished om* 
Receiver van Ruyven very much ; in some necessary matters, especially the enlisting of soldiers 
he is somewhat in arrears, anyway he has been compelled to boi-row wampum for the time being 
and beavei-s, at 16 guilders for a beavei-, which, if he had had that sum, he might have avoided 
up to that amount. Tour Honor is earnestly recommended to send down the same and what 
other amounts may be on hand there. 

We have renewed the peace with the savages around here; if the heart is as good as the 
mouth, then we may hope for a good result. Affairs in the Fatherland are in statu quo prius. 
No more herewith after our salutations than to commend your Honor to God's grace. 
12"' July A" 1663. 

To the Honorable, Prudent and Very Discreet, his Honor Johan de Deckere, Member of the 
High Council of New-Netherla.nd, at present at Beverwyck. 

Extract from a letter of Director Stdtvesant to the Vice-Director at 



Through the treachery of the Esojyus savages and their adlierents we are again involved into 
an offensive and defensive war against them ; it is more properly speaking a defensive war for the 

280 Colonial Settlements on the Hudson River. 

protection atid security of the apparently good crops, which so far have not suffered the least dam- 
age, thanks to the good God, but it is also an aggressive war, for we have already attacked them 
once or twice, whenever we could find them. The safety of the country and the desire to subdue 
by legitimate means and with God's help and blessing this false and barbarous tribe once for all, 
have compelled us to engage a considerable number of soldiers, in fact many more, than the 
country can support in its present condition and the state of its revenues ; we are consequently 
obliged to request of and recommend to your Honor, that your Ilonor think of all possible means 
to send us at the earliest convenience the required and ordered negroes, salt, horses and other mer- 
chantable goods, which your Honor may judge advantageous and suitable, whereby a considerable 
service will be done both to the Hon''"' Company and their conquests here. 

MmnTE OF Council. Acceptance of the offer of Eastern Indians to march 


20"' July 1663. 

Seventeen savages came into the Fort, who stated, that they lived on the East end of Long- 
Island, and offered their services to go also into the fight against the Esopus savages. The offer 
was accepted and they were asked, when they would come ; they answered, that they would first 
wait for news, how matters stood at the Esopus. Adij ut supra. 

Proposal of the Hackensack Indians to sell their lands on the Kil van Kul ; 
efforts of the Esopus Indians to engage the Menessinghs on their side. 

On the 20"' of July Oratam chief of 
Ackinckesalty and WaerJien van Couwe 
and the interpreter, Sara Kiersteede, 
appeared in the Council Chamber at 
Fort Amsterdam. 

He says, he has come to bring an answer to the propositions made by his Honor, the General, 
namely, whether the savages would sell us the hook of land behind the Kil van Kol etc., to which 
he answers, that most of the young men of the tribe are out hunting, so that he has not been able 
to speak with them, but he has talked with the old warriors, who say, that they would not like to 
sell, preferring to keep a portion of it to plant, for they dare not go further inland for fear of 
being robbed by their enemies. He says further, that there is land enough both for us and for 
them divided by the Kil and that it is as good as the land on the Esopus. 

It was resolved, to inspect the aforesaid land at the first convenient time. 

The said Oratam made also a long report, that the Esopus savages had tried to involve the 
Menissinghs into the war with the Dutch, but the Menissinghs had refused etc. He says the 
present chiefs of the Esopus are Pemyrawech, Seweckenamo, Wajperononck, Caelcop, Neshahewe. 
Date as above. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 281 

Concessions to be granted to the Englishmen, who desire to settle on the Kil van Kol. 

The foregoing* letter of Mr. Robert Treat was read and thereupon tlie propositions, made bv 
him and some other Englislt, neighbors and recorded here in the register of Resohitioiis the 28"' 
November 1661, were taken up again. Pursuant to the letter of the Lords-Directors the follow- 
ing answer was given to the propositions : 

The twoe first propositions were absolutely granted. 
Vppon the 3* proposition 

1. "We doe graunt by these presents the English Townes shall have the Choyee off theire owne 
Magistrates in quality and number as they See most expedient for the Towne or Townes benefit 
and welfare only that the Chosen Magistrates annually shal be presented before the Gouernour 
and Counsel for to be Confirmed by them and to Reuue the Oath ofE Magestracy. 

2. They Shall have Consent & power to keepe Court or Courts and to make such Orders and 
Lawes as they shal fynde most sutable to the Condition & Welfare off that place, only that the 
Lawes and orders, made for the better administration off justice shal be presented vnto the Gov- 
ernour and Councell and beinge found to Concure with the holy Schripture shall be Confirmed 
vnto them and alsoo Standinge Lawes to be observed by all persons and Planters for the tyme 
they are and Live amongst them. 

3. Conserninge the appeels it is hereby graunted and Confirmed, that all Capitall sentences 
wherein the partys are Convinced by owne Confession, Shal be put in Execution by the Court or 
Courts with out appeel, but in dark & dubious matters, especially in Wich craft such Sentences 
off Death shal not be put in E.xecution, as with approbation oft the Governo"" General & Counsel 
in tyme beinge. 

4. In Civill matters and qilestions all persons, planters & other Lihabitants shall accquesse in the 
Lawes, orders, Sentences and appointments off theire owne Court or Courts officers to the valine 
off hundred poimds vlaems without appeel. 

The 4"' point is absolutely graunted. 

The S"" point, noe Inhabitants shall be put or send in their Townes, w""" doe not lyke her or 
her Magistrates, beinge Reserved that they doe not admit any Inhabitants without approbation 
and acknowledgment off the Governo'' & Counsell and have given theire oath oflf fidelity. 

The 6"' point is absolutely graunted and accepted. 
Vppon the T"" propositions. 

The former propositions and What thereunto is Belonginge beinge Concluded, the graimts 
& Conditions thereoff Shall by a publicq Instrument Charter or pattent be Confirmed vnto them, 
by the Governour & Counsel subscrybed and sealed. 

Here follows the answer of the Hon'''* General to the preceding letter of Mr. Robert Treat : 

Lovingh frinde, Mstr Treatt. 

Jours off 29 Juny send bee Mstr Alsop I haue receaued the 18 off July Niew style. In an- 
swer whereoff I kan and sal say thatt wie haue receaued from our lords and Masters in Ilolland a 
ful and satisfactory Answer and consent to al wich haue beene done and agitated in the treatie stil 
vTider hand and withal thyre advys hoe far to condescent att the points & questions the wych thatt 

♦ See the letter on page 266. — Ed. 

282 Colonial Settlevieiits on the Hudson River. 

they miglifr te better bee examined conned over and vnderstanded, we have tought meet to copie 
them from word to word, soo as they in wreytings were delivered and presented vnto vs 
by you and the rest of the Compagnie and haue sett in the Margine our Clare and catecoricall answer 
to each off them, wych beeingh Communycated to your Compagnie wee sal bee the bearer iff pos- 
sible or else wyth the first opportunytie expect the Compagnys answer and resolution weyther they 
are intend to proceed wyth the treatie iff thatt wee may order our occasions thereunto, soo after 
my services I sal rest. 
20'" July 1663. 

Minute of Council. Attendance of the chief of the Wiechquaeskeck In- 

26"' July, Thursday. 

Sauwekaro, Sachem of WiechquaesquecJc, came of his own accord with his brother and said 
he was warned by a Wappingh savage that the Esopus savages would come down with 40 to 50 
men in about 5 or 6 days, to kill them and the Dutch of JVew Haerlem, Hasimxus, Hoboocken, 
Gemoenepa and the new village. He says also, that therefore he has come to take refuge with his 
people near New-Ilaerlem, he gives notice of it and why they come, so that the people of Neio- 
Haerlem may not get frightened. He says further, that he has warned the inhabitants of New- 
Haerlem and requests that we give notice to the people on the other side of it and on the General's 

He says in regard to the two prisoners captured by our men at the Esojnis, that they are 
Wappinghs and that the chief of the Wappinghs has been to see him on their account, being ver}' 
distressed and that he is now gone to J^ort Orange to talk over the matter with the Sachems there, 
how to get back his prisoners ; if he did not succeed there the chief of the Wappinghs would come 
here to us. 

Asked concerning his statement, that 40 or 50 Esopus were coming down here, how strong 
the Esopus really were and who would guard their fort, he answered, that they numbered only SO 
warriors, that they had abandoned their fort, so that nobody was in it, but they keep here and 
there in the woods in such dense underwood, that it was hardly possible to look or creep through. 
Upon the question, whether he did not know or had not heard, where our prisoners were, he said, 
I won't lie, what I say is the truth, I have not heard anything of the Dutch captives. 

Asked, whether he had heard, what the Maquaes chiefs had accomplished, he said only, that 
three Maqriaes had fetched the daughter of La Montague and brought her home, but, he says, the 
chief of the Wappinghs went with presents to the Mahicanders to get information of the Dutch 
prisoners ; when he returns, he will hear where they are and he will inform me of it. Date as 

New Yorh Historical Records. 283 

Letter from Yice-Director La Montagne and Jeremias v^vn Rensselaer to 
Director Stdyvesant ; they defend themselves against the charge of re- 

Honorable, Valiant, Very "Worshipful Director-General and Council of New-Netherland. 

Your Hon''''' Worships' letter of the 12"' of this month of July has been received by us on 
the 20"" and having read it, we beg to state in reply, that we have examined before our meeting 
and in presence of Mr. de Decker one Storm Alhertsen, who with others had gone aboard of Claes 
Tyseii's yacht, destined for the Esopus, without our order and from his statement we have learned, 
that it is not worth the trouble to concern ourselves about the accusation of having prevented 
volunteers from helping at the Esoj>us ; we refer to the report of Mr. de Decker and to a personal 
interview in due time, so that we too leave the soup with the cabbage. God and we ourselves 
know best, how gladly we would see our neighbors and friends helped and what efforts we are 
making in this direction and we are pleased by the satisfaction expressed by your Hon"'" Wor- 
ships : we wish, that we could accomplish more, but we have to consider besides the golden lesson 
of Christ, that we, who live here quietly surrounded by heathens and barbarians without being 
able to get assistance from anybody, except God, in times of need, which God may keep from us, 
are obliged first to take care of our own houses and especially not to get involved in quarrels 
and troubles. 

Concerning the enlistment of soldiers, authorized by Mr. ds Decker, we refer to his report. 

The proposition of Smits Jan to go with 44 Maquaes and release and bring away the prison- 
ers appeared to us too dangerous, first because he was tipsy at the time and coming in to our meet- 
ing made the offer without knowledge of the older fellow-chiefs of the Maquaes, second, when he 
returned hei-e with S'' Jan Dareih and had got the daughter of Mr. La Montagne {Rachel) by 
stealth and thought the reward for it and for his troubles was given by Mr. de Decker in place of 
what he had taken with him as present to the Esopus to get speech of them about the release of 
the prisoners, he answered as Mr. de Decker knows, to whom we refer ; thirdly, when Jan Darcth 
retiu-ned, he said that he had reported to Mr. ds Decker, what happened to meet him, to whom we 
again refer. As to the required 2 or 300 pounds of fine gunpowder, we hope that your Hon'''*' Wor- 
ships shall receive some with the arrival of the next ships from the Fatherland, ■^herewith after 
cordial greetings we commend your Hon''''' Worships to God's grace and remain. 

Tom- Hon'"'" Worships' affectionate 
Fort Orange, friends 

the 28'" July A" 1663. La Montagne 

Jeremias van Rensselar. 

By order of the Honorable Courts of Fort Orange and the Colony of Rensselaerswyck. 

J. Provoost. Clerk, D. v. Schelluyne, Secretary 
of the Colony. 

284 Colonial Settlements on the Hudeon lliver. 

Part of a letter feom Dieectob Stuyvesant to Capt, Ceegiee ; the Esopus 
to be txneelentingly puesued ; mischiefmakees to be punished. 

(The begiuuiiig of this letter is missiug.) 

give them no rest, but the}' must be pursued and attacked upon every information received, as 
much as possible, which we leave to yom- circumspection and prudence. 

Your journal and other reports inform us of the unwillingness and bad beliavior of some farm- 
ers, even of such, of whom M-e had never expected it ; M'e see among others, that one Tjerck Claes- 
sende Witt\\AS, refused to furnisli his horses and wagon, to haul up the provisions and ammunition 
sent there, also that one Albert Ileyviansen Roose has uttered and spolien several unsufferable 
and tlireatening words against the Council of War and the Magistrates, he has even threatened to 
shoot the two arrested savages, if they are released and set free by the Council of War or the 
Commissaries. Tou would have done well either to punish such unwilling and mischiefmaking 
people exemplarily there or to send them down innuediately after the deed and we recommend 
you to do this, in case such unbearable threats and refusals shoidd be made again ; the two Marse- 
pingh savages, sent down here, complain to us, that the captured squaw and three children ha\'e 
been taken away from them unjustly and contrary to promise and have been exchanged for cap- 
tured Christians ; altliough the matter in itself is praiseM'ortliy and becoming, it is nevertheless 
said, that for this and other reasons they have become dissatisfied and have already expressed a 
desire to i-eturu home. As we presume, that their stay there, if not of all of them, at least of 
the greater part is necessary and advantageous, even if only for the purpose of assisting to hunt 
up the scattered Esopus, for they know more about it than any one of us, thei'efore we would 
like to see them persuaded by some presents to remain there so long and go on expeditions with 
our soldiers, until some others are sent in their places. To accomplish this, we have resolved to 
send our Secretary, the bearer hereof, to your place to deliberate with you and the Council of 
War about this and some other questions and to report speedily to us. His Honor has been 
recommended among others, first to advise with you specially, as it is not evident, that the Esopus, 
having abandoned their present fort or being driven out of it, are making another stronghold, 
whether the Company's negros and a few soldiers coidd not be spared for the better protection of 
the people in tlie open country, whom to assist gives us great trouble, the more so as some savages 
have several tunes warned them and us, that Esopus savages have been seen in this neighborhood. 
Wherewith etc 
Adij 30"' July 1663. 

Instructions for Secretary vom 
Rtiyven, to serve him as a me- 
30"' July. 

Arrived at the village of Wiltinyck he is to inquire closely into the state of affairs, as to the 
strength of the Esopus savages, who are their allies, where they keep themselves at present, 
where their corn cribs are and where their plantations, whether some of them are not with or 
without Christian prisoners among the Katskil, Iligliland or Menissingh savages or among some 
Other tribes 3 he is also to make inqun-ies, liow and in what way these may be attacked and when 

New YorJc Ilidorkul lie-cords. 28") 

he has any, even the least hope of a success, to instigate and encourage in our name the ofiiccis 
as much as possible to make quick and secret expeditions against theui. 


To consider with the said officers of the troops, when it is best and most convenient, either 
before or after our harvest, to destroy the corn plantations of the savages. According to the 
information, which we have so far heard and received, we would deem it proper, to defer the cut- 
ting down of the corn until after the whole harvest has been gathered or at least the greater 
jjart of it, unless they should com