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974.7 M. L 







3 1833 01150 7719 



Colonial History 

State of New York, 

Vol. XIV — Old Series. 
Vol. Ill — Nevv^ Series. 











nio^p^cof- -'A J '(^ /)lap Case., 

Translated, Compiled and Edited fronn the Original Records in the Office of the 

Secretary of State and the State Library, under direction of the 

Honbie JOSEPH B. CARR, Secretary of State, 




Hon. and Corr. Memiser of the Penna, New York, Virginia and Buffalo Historical Societies. 

1^, ^^Jj^. 



Table of Contents. 


From the first recorded Dutch Patent to the Occupation of the Province hy the English- 


1630. Aug. . Indian Deed to Kilian van Renselaer for a Tract of Land on the Nortli 

river (Manor of Renselaerwyck) 1 

" Nov. . Lidian Deed to Kilian van Renselaer for land on the "West Side of the 

Hudson's River 2 

1636. June 16. Indian Deed to Jacobus van Corlear for a Flat on Long Island, called 

Sewanhacky 2 

" June 16. Indian Deed for Land on Long Island 3 

•' July 16. Indian Deed for Land on Long Island 3 

" July 16. Indian Deed for Governor's Island, N. Y. Harbor 4 

" July 16. Indian Deed for a Tract of Land on Long Island (Wallabout, Brooklyn, 

U. S. Marine Hospital) 4 

" July 16. Indian Deed for two Islands in Hellegat, Tenkenas (Ward's Island) and 

Minnahanonck (Blackwell's Island) 5 

1638. Apr. 8. Council Minutes. Appointment to the Council of Johannes La Montague; 

Cattle on the Company's Bowerys 5 

" A]n-. 15. Ordinance prohibiting the fur trade by private parties and containing 

sundry police regulations 6 

" Apr. 19. Lease of two lots in New Amsterdam 6 

" Apr. 22. Lease of the Company's Bowery No. 1 on Manhattan Island 7 

" Apr. 22. Order in Council granting "Wouter van Twiller the use of lands on Red 

Hook, L. 1 7 

" May 14. Lease of the Bowery called "Walensteyn 7 

" June . Appointment of various Officers of the Government 8 

" June 24. Order regarding the granting of Patents 10 

" July 8. Resolution to retain Rev. Bogardns as Minister of the Gospel 10 

" Jidy 8. Inventory of the Effects and Goods at Achtervelt belonging to Andries 

Hudde and Wolfert Gerritsen 10 

" July 9. Agreement for the Cultivation of a Tobacco plantation on Manhattan 

Island 11 

July 20. Patent for a Tract of Land in Harlem, N. Y H 

ii lahle of Cmitents. 


1638. July 22. Mortgage on Achtervelt, L. I., given by Andries Hadde to Rev. Everardus 

Bogardiis 12 

" July 22. Deed for Land on Long Island 12 

" July 22. Patent for Land on Manhattan Island (Ninth Ward New York City) 13 

July 26. Deed for Land at Aehtevelt, L. 1 13 

" Aug. 1. Indian Deed for Land on Long Island (Bushwick) 14 

" Aug. 1. Patent for a House and Land on Manhattan Island 14 

1639. Jan. 15. Indian Deed for Land on Long Island (Queens Co.) 15 

" Mar. 22. Deposition concerning the Buildings erected in different Places in New 

Netherland during Dir. van Twiller's Administration 16 

" Mar. 22. Eeturn of the Ships built and repaired in New Netherland during Wouter 

van Twiller's Administration 17 

" Mar. 22. Deposition concerning the Erection of Fort Amsterdam and other Work 

done by the Company's Negroes 18 

Return of Wouter van Twillers Property in New Netherland 18 

Statement concerning the Cattle on the Co' Six Boweries 18 

Deed for a Bowery near Fort Amsterdam 20 

Deed for a Plantation at Gowanus, L. 1 20 

Lease of Bowery No. 3 on Manhattan IsP 21 

Lease of Bowery No. 5 (10*'' Ward N. Y. City) 22 

Deed for a Plantation on Manhattan Island 23 

Declaration as to the number of fruit trees on the plantation sold by 

Anthony Jansen to Parent Dircksen 24 

Deed for certain property at Achtervelt, L. 1 24 

Form of an Oath taken by the Englishmen on and about Manhattan 

Island with their signatures 24 

Contract to build a House and commence a Plantation near Beutel Bay, 

Manhattan Island 25 

Permit to Governor Underhill and a few Families to reside in New 

Netherland 26 

Lease of Bowery No. 6, Manhattan Island 26 

Patent for Land at Deutel (Turtle) Bay Manhattan Island 26 

Patent for Land at Saphorackar (South Part of Brooklyn) 27 

1640. Feb. 3. Deed for a Plantation near Saponickan (Ninth Ward, N. Y. City) 27 

Resolution to purchase Lands on Norwalk River 28 

Instructions to Secretary van Tienhoven to proceed against certain Eng- 
lishmen on Long Island and minutes of his proceedings 28 

Resolution to set free the above Englishmen on conditions that they depart 

from N. Nethd 30 

Patent for Land on Long Island, near Merechkawikingh (Red Hook^ 12* 

Ward of Brooklyn) 31 

Patent for Land on Long Island near Rinnegaconk (Brooklyn) 32 

Resolutions to Send soldiers to bring the Ixidians on L. I. to terms 32 

Order concerning an alleged fugitive servant from Maryland 32 

Deed for Part of a Plantation near Deutel bay 33 















































Table of Contents. iii 

16il. Apr. 11. Kesolution of the chamber of W. I. Company, at Amsterdam, referring 
to the commissions for New Netherland, a petition of "W outer van 
Twiller to be allowed to dispose of lands in that country which he had 
purchased from the Indians, and had caused to be improved, the aliena- 
tion whereof the authorities in New Netherland were ordered not to 

permit 33 

" May 29. Patent for Land on Long Island next to Rennegaconck (Brooklyn) 34 

" May 29. Patent for Land on Long Island, adjoining the foregoing 34 

" June 6. Resolution to send soldiers to Fort Hope and curb the insolence of the 

English there 34 

" Sept. 7. Patent for Land on Long Island near Rinnegaconck Kil (Brooklyn, south 

side of Williamsburgh Line) 35 

" Nov. 30. Lease of Wouter van Twiller's Plantation at Saponickan 35 

1642. Jan. 16. Lease of a plantation on Long Island 36 

" Mar. 26. Bill of Sale and Conveyance of a House and Land at the mouth of the 

Fresh Water Kil (N. Y. City, 4"- Ward) 36 

" Patent for Land on the Mespacht kil, L. I. (Newtown) 37 

" Mar. 2S. Patent for a large Tract of Land on Long Island (Newtown, L. I.) 38 

" Apr. 5. Patent for Land on Long Island (Gowanus) 39 

" May 24. Release by tl\e Directors of the W. I. Company at Amsterdam, to Wouter 
van TwiUer of the rent and sixth sheaf which he was bound to pay for 

the lease of the Company's bowery, on the island of Manhattan 39 

" July 9. Minutes of the attendance on the Council of Delegates from Hartford to 

negotiate for the surrender of Fort Hope and conditions offered to them. 40 

" Aug. 28. Resolution to prevent the Injury done to the Indian Trade by Englishmen 41 

" Nov. 14. Patent for Land on Long Island (Brooklyn Fifth Ward) 41 

" Dec. 11. Appointment of an English Secretary 41 

1648. Jan. 24. Deed for a House and Garden, together with the Ferry on Long Island. . 42 

" May 6. Inventory of the personal property of the Widow Bronck at Emaus 42 

" Mar. 4. Proclamation of Peace with the Indians of L. 1 44 

" May 27. Patent for Laud on Long Island (Gravesend and New Utrecht) 45 

" June 14. Lease of La Montague's Bowery Vredendael (Harlem) and Inventory of 

the Effects there : 45 

" June 17. Patent for Land on Long Island at Merechkawick (Twelfth Ward Brook- 

lyn) 47 

" June 22. Patent for Red Hook (Brooklyn L. I.) 48 

" July 3. Patent for Land at Mespath Kil, L. 1 48 

" July 3. Patent for Land near the Long Island. Ferry (U. S. Navy Yard, City Park 

and Part of Fifth Ward, Brooklyn) 48 

" July 6. Patent for Land on Long Island (Greenpoint, Seventeenth Ward, Brook- 
lyn) 49 

" July 13. Patent for Land on Long Island (Newtown) 49 

«' July 28. Patent for Land on Long Island (Newtown, Eastside of Dutch Kills) 50 

" Dec. 1. Patent for Land on Long Island (Seventh Ward Brooklyn) 50 

" Oct. 13. Declarations concerning depredations on Long Island 51 

iv Table of Contents. 


1643. May 21. Court Proceedings against A. Van Der Donck SherifE of Eenselaerwyck 

for Encroachment on the Privileges of the Company 50 

1644. Jan. 5. Protest by Director & Council against the Fiscal for neglect of duty .... 52 
" Mar. 9, July 9 and March, 1645. Declarations concerning the destruction of 

Jochem Petersen Kuyter's house by Indians 53 

" Mar. 18. Protest of the Fiscal of N. N. against building a Fort on Beren Island 

and Counter-protest of the Quartermaster of Renselaersteyn 53 

" Mar. 18. Papers relating to the quarrel between the Government and the Patroon 

of Penselaerwyck 53 

" Apr. 15. Minute of the appearance in Council of the Sachem of Matinnekonck, L. 

I. to sue for peace 53 

" May 24. Patent for Coney Island, L. I. (as it then was) 53 

" SvXj 7. Declaration concerning Sir Edmund Pleydeu's ownership of a bark 58 

" Oct. 6. Court Proceedings, Damages asked against Nicolaes Coorn for firing on 

Loockerman's vessel, when passing Beeren Island 59 

1645. Mar. 23. Council Minute, that Rev. E. Bogardus refused to receive an admonition 

in writing sent him by Dir. Kieft 59 

" May 25. Resolutions to employ a Long Island Sachem against hostile Indians 60 

" July to Sept. Patents for Land on Long Island (Brooklyn) 60 

" Patents and Indian Deeds for Land on Long Island 62-69 

1646. — ■ Summons to the Rev. E. Bogardus to appear before the Council and 

answer charges against him, and further proceedings 69 

" Sept. 6. Lease of a Bowery near the Narrows on L. 1 73 

" Nov. 22. Contract. Jan Teuuissen Schout of Breukelen, to cut and convey to the 
Ferry, timber for a house for Serjeant Doman, and to erect the 
same 74 

1647. Jan. Lease of a House and Land at Brooklyn, L. 1 75 

" May 2. Letter from the Directors in Holland to Dir. Stuyvesant ; minerals sent 

to Holland; peace with the Indians; New Amsterdam; English 

allowed to settle in New Netherland; iron Mine on Staten Island; 

English trading house near Fort Orange 76 

" July 3. Deed for laud on the north end of the plains of Amesfoort (Flatlands,) 

L. 1 78 

" Aug. 16. Deed for a house and plantation in Flushing, L. 1 79 

" Aug. 23. Resolution to send Secretary van Tienhoven to Hemstead, to inquire into 

the truth of a report of Indian troubles there 79 

" Sept. 28. Propositions made by Dir. Stuyvesant concerning James Forrester, who 

claims Long Island for the Earl of Sterling, and Proceedings in Council 

thereon 79 

" Nov. 6. Council Minute on the Absconding of the Commissary at Fort Orange and 

appointment of a new Commissary 81 

1648. Jan. 12. Resolution to take down the Mill on Governors Island 81 

" Feb. 1. Order of Council on an Application of the Town of Flushing for a 

Minister 82 

Table of Contents. 



1648. Apr. 7. Letter from the Directors in Holland to Peter Stuyvesant; the ehip 

" Princess" lost with Dir. Kieft and D° Bogardus on Board; lenient 

policy towards the Indians recommended; trade with South America ; 

church matters ; Governor Forrester of Long Island 82 

" May 19. Letter from the Prince of Orange to Director Stuyvesant, informing him 

that Cornelis Melyn and Jochem Pietersen Kuyter had received peraiis- 

sion to return to New Netherland and ordering the Director not to 

molest them 87 

" Aug. 1. Proposals made by Dir. Stuyvesant on the subject of smuggling guns, 

manslaughter at Fort Orange etc, and Resolutions of Council thereupon, 88 
" July 23. ) Resolutions to summon the Chief Officer of the Colony of Rensselaer- 

" Aug. 10. ) wyck to answer certain charges and answer to the charges 89 

" Aug. 11. Resolution to permit the erection of stone houses within the walls of Fort 

Orange 92 

" Aug. 23. Resolutions to oppose Slechtenhorst's continued encroachment at Fort 

Orange 93 

" Sept. 10. Resolution to send a small Military force to Fort Orange to oppose the 

encroachments of the Colony of Renselaerswyck 93 

" Sept. 28. Declaration concerning the Trade with Eastern Indians 94 

" Sept. & Oct. Copies of two protests by Brant van Sleehtenhorst against Director 

Stuyvesant 94 

" Oct. 31. Mandamus to Brant van Sleehtenhorst to appear before the Director and 

Council to answer such complaints as will be made against him 99 

" Nov. 2. Order. Carel van Brugge, Commissary of Fort Orange, to proceed with 

the repairs of that fort and to demolish all buildings within cannon shot 

of the fort 101 

1649. Jan. 27. Letter from the Directors to Peter Stuyvesant : censured for meddling in 

Kieft's affairs; English claims; Rensselaerswyck and Fort Orange; 
Fiscal van Dyck's complaints ; preachers ; iron mines 102 

" Feb. 21. Resolution to summon the English towns on Long Island to send delegates 

to New Amsterdam, and consider of an embassy to Fatherland 109 

" Feb. 26. Letter from Thomas Tapping, Rich'^. Gildersleeve and other deputies to 
Director Stuyvesant, promising to send an answer to his proposals and 
Stuy vesant's reply 109 

" Mar. 4. Resolution. To grant the farmers on the island of Manhattan free pas- 
turage between Schepmoes' plantation and bouwery No. 1 110 

" Mar. 4. Minute. Of a meeting of the Council and burgher officers in the fort, on 
the subject of a journal written by Adriaen van der Donck ; his impris- 
onment ; protest of Mr. Van Dincklage 110 

" Mar. 4. Resolution. To call a general convention, to consist of two deputies from 
each of the Colonies in New Netherland, to consider the sending of a 
delegation to Holland ; votes thereupon 112 

" Mar. 5. Appointment. Commissioners to investigate the case of Adriaen van der 

Donck 112 

vi Table of Contents. 

16i9. Mar. 6. Resolution. On petition of A., van der Donck, that he remain imprisoned 

imtil the above commissioners report 112 

" Mar. 8. Votes of the Council, on the director-general asking their opinion whether 
he should read a writing he had drawn up, to a regular meeting of the 
commanality 113 

" Mar. 15. Proposal. Of Director Stuyvesant, to compel Mr. van der Donck to 
prove certain statements contained in his journal, or to recall them, and 
not to appear in court, or among the nine men, until he do one or the 
other ; with the votes of the Council on the order , 113 

" May 9. Minute of a visit of the director-general to rev. Mr. Backerius, to forbid 

him to read, or to allow to be read, any political writings in the Church, 114 

" June 2. Lease of a tract of land on Long Island for 20 years 115 

" July 6. Permit to rev. Johannes Backerius, Minister of New Amsterdam, to resign 

his office and retm-n to Holland 115 

" Aug. 2. Resolution. To retain and engage rev. Joannes Megapolensis as minister 

of the Church at New Amsterdam 116 

" Sept. 18. Letter from Robert Husted and others of Greenwich to Dir. Stuyvesant. . 116 

1650. Feb. 1 6. Letter from the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant : Rev. Megapolensis : 

schoolmaster sent out : remonstrance from New Netherland : Melyn's 
and Yan Twiller's intrigues: free navigation of the North river; abuses 
in land granting : boundaries 117 

" Apr. 20. Letter from the same to the same : Result of the remonstrance from New 
Netherland : Rev. Megapolensis' tract on confession : Schoolnaaster : 
Boimdaries : Emigration 122 

" July 2-i. Letter from the same to the same : the New Netherland delegates : alarm 
of the Amsterdam Chamber : emigration : Pavonia : Melyn : Van der 
Donck 125 

" Sept. 22. Letter from the same to the Same : Goods smuggled into New Netherland 

by way of Virginia : Meljm returns to New Netherland 127 

" Sevei-al orders agreed vppon by and with consent and approbation of the 

inhabitants of Gravesend att severall tymes 128 

1651. Jan. 29. Letter of George Baxter to Dir. Stuyvesant with the above, requesting him 

not to appoint the magistrate lately nominated 130 

" Mar. 21. Letter from the Directors to the same : they send letters to the people of 
New Netherland, warning them against the late delegates : Melyn's 
unfounded reports : abuses in land grants : pretensions of van Rensse- 
laer's agents, etc. . . . -. 131 

" Mar. 22. Deed of land at Mespath kil 137 

" Apr. 26. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : Secretary Tienhoven Returns to 

New Netherland 138 

" July 11. Deed of a plantation on Long Island 140 

" July 11. Deed of a bouwery on Long Island 141 

" Aug. 24. Letter of Sheriff Underbill of Flushing, L. L, to Director Stuyvesant : the 
Director to be sued by an English inhabitant of Hempstead in the Courts 
of New England 143 

Table of Contents. vii 


1651. Aug. 31. Deed for land and cattle on Long Island 143 

" Aug. 31. Lease of a bonwery, on the south side of Hans Hansen's bouwery, called 

in Indian Rinnegackonck 144 

" Nov. 15. Letter from the Director- General to the Nine Men on the condition of the 

Fort and the necessity to protect it against stray hogs and cattle 145 

1652. Jan. 4. Deed of a lot of land, house and barn on the shore of Long Island, near 

the Ferry 146 

" Jan. 4. Deed of a lot of land on Long Island, together with a house and lot in 

Breuckelen 147 

" Jan. 4. Deed of a lot of land on the west Hook of Rcchkewiek on the East river, 148 
" Jan. 24. Council Minutes. Permission granted to Abr. Do la Noy to retail all sorts 

of wines 149 

" Jan. 24. Council Minutes. Proclamation annulling certain ordinances of the au- 
thorities of Rensselaerswyck 149 

" Jan. 29. Proclamation anuulling certain grants of land made by the authorities of 

the Colony Rensselaerwyck 150 

" Jan. 29. Order concerning Jan Jansen from S' Obyn 151 

" Jan. 29. Deed of 20 morgens of Land on the shore of Long Island J 51 

1651. Sept. 25. Letter from Parent van Slechtenhorst to the Court of Rensselaerswyck 

sent to the Directoi'-General and Council protesting against certain of 
their proceedings 152 

1652. Jan. 29. Council Minutes. Resolution, calling on the Court of Rensselaerswyck to 

explain certain obscurities in their foregoing decision 154 

" Jan. 30. Council Minutes. Appointment of Members of the Board of Nine Men, 155 

" Jan. 30. Ordinance Regulating the business of the windmill 155 

" Feb. 12. Council Minutes. Resolution on a petition of the Nine Men, that no hogs 
be shot on the wall of the Fort and that the Fort be surrounded by pal- 

lisades ; church property; Surgeons ; Anabaptists 155 

" Feb. 13. Representation made by the Directors of the Amsterdam Chamber of the 
W. I. Company to the Burgomasters of Amsterdam on various points 
regarding the Province of New Netherland and Resolution of the Mu- 
nicipality thereon 156 

" Feb. 25. Letter from Deputy-Governor Goodyear of New Haven to Director Stuy- 

vesant on trade between the Colonies 158 

" Feb. 13. Affidavit of Michael Bargein, that Cornells Melyn landed contraband 
goods at Staten Island, where he fortified his house and maintained a 

guard of Raritan Indians 159 

" Feb. 14. Affidavit of the Rev. Wilhelmus Grasmeer, that Cornelis Melyn incited the 

Nayack and other Indians against Dir. Stuyvesant, etc 160 

" Mar. 5. Ordinance prohibiting the erection of buddings ^vithin 600 paces of Fort 

Orange 161 

Form of a Contract for the Importation of Negro Slaves from Africa, 

prescribed by the Director of the W. I. Company 162 

" Mar. 7. Deed of 15 Morgens of land on the East river (Brooklyn) 163 

Tahle of Contents. 

Mar. 21. Resolution authorizing some members of the Council to communicate with 

the Nine Men and investigate a slanderous charge against the Director- 
General 163 

Mar. 27. Proposition of the Director-General to dismiss the Fiscal Hendrick van 

Dyck, submitted to and approved by the Council 161 

Apr. . Patent to Francis Soliel and Francis Grion, alias La Capelle, of 50 Mor- 

gens of land at Mespath kil, with the valley adjoining 1 G5 

Apr. 4. Letters from the Directors in Holland to Stuy vesant ; they have written to 
the colonists in New Netherland ; proclamation against traffic in powder, 
etc. ; New Amsterdam incorporated ; a New-Netherland bureau is to be 
established, to check the abuses in land granting ; conflicts arise between 
the purchases of Earon van der Capelle and van Werckhoven ; war be- 
tween the Mohawks and Canada Indians ; Rev''^ Drisius and Grasmeer, 165 

Feb. & Mar. Minutes of the Classis of Amsterdam 174 

Apr. 4. Letter of the Directors of the W. I. Company to the Inhabitants of the 
Manhattans: concessions made: emigration; orphans; African slave- 
trade 1 75 

Apr. 4. Letter from the same to the Magistrates of Hempstead and Gravesend : on 

similar topics 176 

Apr. 8. Deposition of Thomas Foster and others regarding Dir. Stuyvesant's ac- 
tion at Flushing, L. 1 177 

Apr. 15. Proceedings in Court. Action in land matters 177 

Apr. 17. Letter from the Director in Holland to Stuyvesant: he is not to obey the 

order of recall by the States-General 178 

Apr. 18. Letter from the same to same : Gerard Smith Nicholas and Joost van 

Beeck send emigrants to New Netherland, to whom land is to be given, 178 

Apr. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to Gov' Endicott : the war between England 
and Holland : intended visit to meet the Commissioners of the United 
Colonies 179 

Apr. Letter from the same to Governor Eaton of New Haven Colony : peace 
in America to be maintained notwithstanding the war in Europe: New 
England people trading at the Manhattans 179 

Mar. to May. Resolutions of the Amsterdam Department, W. I. Company, granting 

lands on Manhattans and Long Island, etc 179 

May 10. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant in regard to the grant of Hog's 

Island 182 

May 10. Letter from the same to the same inclosing copies of the foregoing resolu- 
tions and papers in the case of David Provoost 182 

June 17. Letter from the Director-General Stuyvesant to the Council on a Claim 

now made by the Indians for payment of certain lands at Flatbush. . . . 183 

July 19. Letter from Stephen Goodyear to Dir. Stuyvesant on general affairs 184 

July 19. Ordinance reducing the Duty on Furs 184 

Aug. 4. Notice to the Public Creditors as to the mode of paying their claims .... 185 

Aug. 6. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : the Boundary question : Indians 
to be employed in case New England should begin hostilities ; Fortifica- 
tions ; Letter box for New Netherland 185 

Tahle of Contents. ix 


1652. Sept. 2. Petition of Brant van Sleclitenhorst for liis release from confinement and 

Resolution granting tlie request 187 

" Sept. 16. Bond given by Director Stnyvesant to the Merchants of Amsterdam for 

12000 guilders to be remitted in specie 188 

" Oct. 1. Order in Council granting to Hendrick Gricksen van Lynime one piece of 

land on Long Island and to Jacob Corlaer another 1 88 

" Nov. 4. Court proceedings concerning Land on Mespatli Kil, L. I 188 

" Nomination of Magistrates for Newtown, L. 1 189 

" Nov. & Dec. Resolution of the Amsterdam Department of the W. I. Company au- 
thorizing the dispatch of a private vessel to New Netherland 189 

" Nov. & Dec. Indian Deeds for New Utrecht, L. 1., and the land called Nayeck, L. I., 

to Cornells van Werckhoven 190 

" Dec. 9. Protest of Johannes van Rensselaer against Director Stuyvesant with re- 
gard to his proceedings against the Colony of Rensselaerwyck 191 

" Dec. 13. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant ; "War with England ; Abuses in 
granting Lands; Settlement of Nyack, L. I. ; Whale and Cod fisheries 
to be encouraged 192 

1653. Jan. 27. Council Minutes. Appointment of Clerk to the Municipality of New 

Amsteiniani 196 

Feb. 18. Council Minute. Resolution concerning farm servants, brewing and the 

pubhc scales 196 

Feb. 26. Council Minutes. Order empowering the Sheriff of Gravesend to prose- 
cute certain cases before the Court of that place. Resolution to put up 
a weighhouse. Church matters 196 

Mar. 13. Resolution on rumors of war, that certain measures of defense be adopted, 197 

Mar. 13. Resolution of the Burgomasters and Scheepens concerning the defense of 

New Amsterdam 198 

Mar. 15. Propositions of the Burgomasters and Schepens in regard to the present 

crisis 199 

Mar. 17. Resolution of the Council approving of the foregoing propositions 200 

Mar. 21. Council Minutes. Resolutions concerning the pallisades around Fort Am- 
sterdam and the export of wines and liquors 201 

Apr. 20. Resolution to fortify New Amsterdam and send Conunissioners to Vir- 
ginia 201 

May 7. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant recommending Johan de Hueter, 
who takes out to New Netherland a number of people for Renselaers- 
wyck 202 

May 12. Joint Resolution of Director and Council of New Netherland and the 
Magistrates of New Amsterdam to provide for the fortifying of the 
City 202 

May ^20. Coimcil Minute. Resolution on a petition of the Master of the ship 

" Elbing " praying for leave to sail 204 

May 26. Petition of Adrian van der Donck for permission to return to New 

Netherland 204 

Table of Contents. 


May 30. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to the Governor of Virginia recommending 

Augustin Herman 205 

May 30. Council Minutes. Orders regarding tlie erection of a redoubt at Fort 

Orange and the scarcity of grain there 205 

June 6. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : European News : Regulations for 
granting lands : Kenselaerswyck : Increase of cattle to be encouraged : 
Slave trade to N. N., etc., etc 206 

July 24. Extract of a Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant: appointment of 

provincial officers : Van der Donck's Description of New Netherland . . 211 

Aug. 18. Letter from the same to the same : the relations with the New England 

people 213 

Sept. 15. Eesolution of the "West India Company to encourage privateering 214 

Nov. 4. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : Negotiations with the Burgomas- 
ters for aid 215 

Nov. 24. Council Minute. Appointment of deputies to attend a convention of 

delegates from the nearest Colonies 218 

Nov. 25. Petition of the Burgomasters and Schepens of Amsterdam for an order 
transferring to them the excise on beer and wine with the minute of the 
appearance before the above magistrates of the principal citizens con- 
senting to contribute to the expenses of the City 219 

Nov. 25. Answer of the Director-General and Council to the foregoing request .... 221 

Nov. 22-24.Eemonstrance of the Merchants of New Amsterdam against the Ordinance 

fixing the rates of import duties, passed on the 19'*' of November, 1653, 221 

Nov. 25. Answer to the foregoing by the Director and Council 223 

Nov. 27. Journal of the Proceedings of the Delegates called together by the order 

of Novbr 24, at the City Hall in New Amsterdam 223 

Nov. 28. Remonstrance of a Committee of Merchants, containing explanations called 

for on the 25"' of November 225 

Nov. 28. Resolution to put up the ship " King Salomon " for freight hence to 
Fatherland or if it cannot be obtained here to send her to Virginia for 
tobacco 225 

Nov. 29. Request of the Burgomastei-s and Shepens to summon delegates from all 

the Dutch towns and villages 226 

Dec. 3. Remarks on and answer to the foregoing request and enclosures 227 

Dec. 8. Letter from the Magistrates of New Amsterdam to the Inhabitants of 
Midwout, inviting to send two delegates to a convention to be held in 
the City Hall 230 

Dec. 11. Appointment of Magistrates for the town of Hemsteede 230 

Dec. 11. Remonstrance of the Colonies and Villages in New Netherland 230 

Dec. 12. Resolution of the Council directing the Convention to furnish each mem- 
ber of the Coimcil with a copy of the Remonstrance 231 

Dec. 12. Letter from the Magistrates of New Amsterdam to the Director and Coun- 
cil in answer to the foregoing Resolution 231 

Dec. 12. Resolution of the Council, declaring the Assembly illegal, protesting against 

it and ordering it to disperse 232 

Table of Contents. xi 

Deductions made liy the Director-General and Council regarding the re- 
monstrance of the 11'" of December signed by the Burgomasters and 
Schepens of this City and some Englishmen 233 

Dec. 13. Resolution appointing a Commander for the Expedition against Priva- 
teers 237 

Dec. 13. Petition of the Convention for an answer to their Remonstrance 237 

Dec. 14. Peremptory order to the several Delegates of the Convention to disperse 

and not to meet again under pain of arbitrary correction 238 

Dec. 1-4. Council Minutes. Consideration of the last request made by the so-called 

Delegates 239 

Dec. IG. Letter from the Director-General to the Inhabitants of Brooklyn, New- 
town and Flatbush, informing them that the English privateers artf again 
liovering about and warning them not to send delegates to any meetiiig 
in New Amsterdam 240 

Dec. 16. Commission of Rev. Samuel Drisius as Diplomatic Agent to be sent to 

Virginia 241 

Dec. 24. Answer of the Director-General and Council to the Remonstrance of the 
Mei-chants' Committee of November 28'" concerning the new Trade- 
Regulations 242 

Dec. 24. Ordinance relating to Marriages 243 

Jan. 20. Letter from Petrus Stuyvesant and the Council to the Magistrates of 

Gravesend with the above Ordinance 243 

Jan. 27. Petition from the Burgomasters and Schepens of New Amsterdam for the 
privilege of nominating a double number, from which their successors 
might be selected and Answer of the Director and Council denying the 
request 244 

Jan. 28. Ordinance regulating the import-duties on duffels and other Indian goods, 

wine, beer, etc 245 

Feb. 10. Order to the Magistrates of Gravesend concerning the publication of bans 

and the solemnization of marriages 245 

Feb. 10. Letter from the Director and Council to the Magistrates of Gravesend sent 

with the foregoing order 245 

Feb. 10. Order directing the Court messenger to demand from George Baxter, 

former Secretary for English affairs, all official papers, etc 246 

Feb. 19. Petition of the Burgomasters, etc., of New Amsterdam for authority to 

impose certain duties for purposes of a municipal revenue 247 

Feb. 19. Petition of the same, requesting to be informed what measures had been 

taken to suppress robberies by English privateers 248 

Feb. 23. Answers of the Director-General and Council to the foi-egoing petition . . 248 

Feb. 26. Answer of the Director-General and Council to a remonstrance of the 
Burgomasters, etc., complaining that an interdict had been issued without 
their knowledge against plucking the goose, etc 249 

Mar. 12. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : Ordinances vetoed and approved : 

Renselaerswyck : Landgrants : Church affairs : Reveniies 250 

Mar. 31. Order directing the Magistrates of Gravesend to produce their charter in 

proof of certain assertions made by them 253 

xii Table of Contents. 

1654. Apr. 8. Ordinance against Pirates and Vagabonds and requiring strangers to report 

and give an account of themselves 254 

" Apr. 8. Ordinance of the District Court at Breuckelen, etc., for the better defense 

of the Dutch towns on Long Island 254 

" Apr. 8. Commission appointing Secretaiy van Tienhoven and Burgomaster Cregier 

to go as envoys to the Governor of New Haven 254 

" Apr. 9. Order directing a resident of Breuckelen to leave the country for refus- 
ing to serve as Magistrate 255 

" Apr. 14. Passport for the Envoys to New Haven 256 

" Apr. 14. Order on a petition of the authorities at Fort Orange, relating to limits of 
jurisdiction, lands granted to the Patroon and appointment of Magis- 
trates 256 

" Apr. 16. Letter from the Director-General, etc., to John Baptist van Rensselaer and 
the Magistrates of Eensselaerswyck calling on them to run the boundai-y 

line of their Colony 257 

Decision given upon a petition of Adrien Jansen from Leyden, residing at 

Fort Orange, for permission to build and keep an inn 258 

Answer to a petition of the authorities of Fort Oi-ange concerning the 

limits of the Fort, sale of liquor and salaries of the Magistrates 258 

Letter from J. B. van Rensselaer and the Magistrates of Rensselaerswjx'k 

to the Director-General, etc., in answer to their letter of April 16"'. . . . 259 
Council Minute. Appointment of Commissioners to lay out land on Long 

Island 260 

Letter from the Directors in Holland to Director Stuy vesant 260 

Abstract of a Letter from the Burgomasters and Schepeus of New Am- 
sterdam (to the Directors of the "W. I. Comp.) without date 265 

Letter from the Directors at Amsterdam to the municipal officers of New 

Amsterdam 266 

Proposals submitted to the Coimeil by the Director-General on having 
received information of the arrival at Boston of several English men-of- 
war, designed against New Netherland 267 

Resolution of the Council to postpone the consideration of these proposals. 268 

Order concerning the salary of the ministers of the gospel 268 

Part of a lease of the Ferry from a Committee of the Council to Egbert 

van Borsum ferryman 269 

June 2. Resolutions adopted concerning the proposals made by the Director-Gen- 
eral on the 30'" May 269 

June 8. Letter from the Director-General to the Burgomasters etc. of New-Am- 
sterdam urging thera to repair the fortifications, pay the minister's 

salary, etc 271 

June 13. Council Minute. Plans of the English ; renewed preparations for defense. 272 
June 13. Propositions made by the Hon'''* Director-General and High Council to 
their Worships the Burgomasters and Schepens of this City of New- 
Amsterdam, which were dehvered to them in writing 273 



















Table of Contents. xiii 

1654. Jnne 13. Pledge submitted by the Director-General to tbe Burgomasters etc. engaging 
themselves to contribute to the public defense, which they decline to 
sign 274 

" June 13. Order on a petition of Surgeon Yarrevanger for medicines 274 

" Juno 13. Resolution to repair the Fortifications and provide for the expenses by 

duties on exported goods 274 

" June 14. Order directing all Sheriffs etc to engage laborers for the work on the for- 
tifications 275 

" June 15. Letter from merchants of New-Amsterdam to the Director etc approving 
of the tole above mentioned and offering the revenues of New-Amster- 
dam as a pledge for the repayment 276 

" June 15. Council Minute. Appointment of Carsten Jervensen as Commander of 

the yacht " Haen ; " News of Peace with England received 277 

" June 16. Appointment of Persons to superintend the workmen on the Fortifications. 278 

" July 1. Ordinance regulating the Ferry at the Manhattans 278 

" July 2. Resolution to summon the Magistrates of Gravesend and Middleburgh to 
give an account of certain secret meetings in their villages and of rumors 
of a Dutch conspiracy to murder the English 278 

" July 7. Ordinance against removing property from the City of New-Amsterdam 
during the present panic and forbidding the return to the City, after the 
panic has subsided, of all, who may have removed 279 

" July 11. Ordinance against circulating false reports and concerning people who have 

removed from the City 279 

"■ July 11. Ordinance to prevent injury to the fortifications 280 

" July 21. Appointment of Jacques Corteljou as Sheriff of New-Amsterdam and 

minutes, stating his refusal of the appointment 280 

" July 30. Extract from a Letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant; Emigration to New 

Netherland " 280 

" July 21. Resolution not to inquire into the past conduct of the Burgomasters etc., 
but to summon them before the Council and after having admonished 
them give them the letters from the home-authorities 280 

" July 21. Petition of Merchants lately arrived from Holland for permission to dis- 
charge their cargoes paying the old duties and answer thereto, remitting 
one-fourth of the duty 281 

" Aug. 2. Order directing the Burgomasters etc to send in a return of the revenues 

and expenditures of the City's Excise 282 

" Aug. 10. Extract from the Resolutions of the Burgomasters and Schepens of the 

City of New- Amsterdam (concerning a public loan and a tax on land). . 283 

" Aug. 10. Ordinance regulating the public weigh-house and scales 284 

" Aug. 13. Resolution of the Director and Council to resume the Tavernkeepers' Ex- 
cise and to farm it out to the highest bidder 284 

" Aug. 15. The Case of John Gray (Crij) of Middleburgh (Newton L. I.) 284 

" Aug. 20. Ordinance regulating the duties of the Provoost 2S7 

" Aug. 24. Resolution to postpone the collection of the tenth and to impose a tax on 

land and cattle 287 

Table of Contents. 


Ordinance imposing a tax on cattle and land 288 

Ordinance against selling strong liquors to Indians, passed Angnst 28"" 1654. 288 
Letter from the Burgomasters and Sehepens to the Director and Council ; 
salaries of the minister and church officers and the military ; City-sheriflE ; 

taxes 288 

Council Minute. The Magistrates of Midwout (Flatbush) are authorized 

to levy a tax 290 

Letter from Director-Stuy vesant to Lady Moody at Gravesend in regard to 

the appointment of commissioners to settle certain boundary disputes. . 290 
Decree declaring unlawful and void the marriage of Johannes van Beecq 

and Maria Yerleth, married by a farmer in Connecticut 291 

Answer of the Director-Genei:al and Council to the letter of the Burgo- 
masters etc dated August 31, referring it to the home authorities 291 

Order on a petition from the Court of Midwout and Amersfoort respect- 
ing church matters 294 

Letter from the Director and Council to the (Governor and Council of 
Connecticut ?) complaining of encroachments on Long Island and in 

Westchester County 295 

Order granting permission to Andries Har^jerts to buy an island and 

piece of land opposite Fort Orange ... 296 

Resolution to hire Isaac Allerton's house for the purjjose of lodging the 

children sent from the Poorhousc in Amsterdam 296 

Nomination and appointment of Magistrates for Hempstead, L. 1 296 

Letter from the Director to the Magistrates of Hempstead, recommending 

the nomination of a third Magistrate to be sent in 297 

Nov. 18. Ordinance obliging the Inhabitants of Fort Orange audBeverwyck to take 

out a permit when removing or laying beer and wines 297 

Nov. 14. Letter from Sheriff Morris of Gravesend to Dir. Stuy vesant 297 

Oct. 28. ) Proposals from the Court of Fort Orange and Beverwyck with the answers 

Nov. 18. ) of the Director and Council 298 

Nov. 23. Council Minute. Resolution respecting the Town officers of Gravesend . . 299 
Nov. 23. Letter from the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant : Taxes and Revenues 

Rensselaerwyck : Boundaries and the Treaty of Hartford : Negro Slaves. 300 
Nov. 23. Remonstrance of the Sehepens of New-Amsterdam against being deprived 

of the revenue from the City Excise 305 

Nov. 24. Deed of a house, bam, and 25 morgens of land in Flatbush, otherwise 

called Midwout, L. 1 306 

Nov. 25. Resolutions to let the City Excise to the highest bidder, also the Excise of 

the Ferry, Breucklen, Midwout and adjacent places 306 

Nov. 25. Order authorizing the Inhabitants of Mespacht to banish one Joseph Fow- 
ler from their village 307 

Nov. 26. Agreement between P. L. van der Grift and partners and the Director and 
Council for the charter of the ship " de gulden Hay," to bo sent to the 
West Indies 307 


, 24. 




















IhUe of Contents. 



1654. Dec. 8. Council Mimite. Proceedings of the Council sitting with the Burgomas- 

ters and Schepens, on being informed of the Director's intention to visit 
Curacao 309 

" Dec. 17. Council Minute. Resolution thanking Allard Anthony for services ren- 
dered as agent in Holland and voting him a reward 310 

" Dec. 17. Appointments and promotions in the Enrgher Companies of New-Amster- 
dam 310 

" Dec. 17. Appointment of Commissioners for building a church and parsonage at 

Midwout 310 

" Dec. 31. Ordinance against the breaking off or stealing of fences, clapboards etc. . 311 

1655. Jan. 27. Council Minutes. Rumors of an intended invasion of Long Island by the 

United New England Colonies : Commissioners ordered to visit the new 

settlement at Oyster Bay 311 

" Feb. 9. Council Minute. Domine Polhemius asks for pecuniary assistance. Aid 

asked for building a church at Midwout, L. 1 311 

" Mar. 2. Council Minute. Report of Domine Megapolensis on tlie building of a 

church in Midwout, L. 1 312 

" Mar. IG. . Council Minutes. Commissioners appointed to settle some differences in 

the English Towns on Long Island 312 

" Mar. 23. Council Minute. Loyal Inhabitants of Gravesend asking that the town 

election be postponed 313 

" Apr. 2. Protest against certain parties, settled without authority at Matinneconck, 

L. 1 313 

" Apr. 8. Order on a petition of the Court of Brooklyn for leave to send a nomina- 
tion for Magistrates 314 

" Apr. 26. Letter from the Directors in Holland to Stuy vesant : Taxes and the Refusal 

of the People to be taxed without their consent : Jews : Revenues : 

Fort on Long Island : Boundaries 315 

" Apr. 29. Deed of a house and parcel of land in the village of Breuckelen 318 

" May 6. Petition of the Clerk of the Courts of Breuckelen, Midwout and Ames- 

foort for an allowance for his troubles and order establishing a tariff of 

fees 319 

" May 13. Order on a Petition of Gregory Dexter, an Englishman, desiring to settle 

on Long Island 320 

" May 21. Deed of Lot No. 27, in the village of Gravesend, L. 1 320 

" May 22. Deed for 25 morgens of land, situate on the west side of the \allage of 

Midwout, L. 1 321 

" May 26. Letter from the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant : Children from the 

Orphan Asylum : Boundaries: Disturbances on Long Island 321 

" May 26. Letter from the Directors to the Municipality of New-Amsterdam and the 

Magistrates of other Towns in New NetherlaTid : Taxes on Land, Houses 

etc imposed 324 

" May 27. Letter from the Burgomasters of Amsterdam to Stuyvesant : Boys and 

Girls from the Almshouses sent to New Netherland 325 

xvi Tahle of Contents. 


1655. June 3. Council Minute on the application of the Overseers of the Poor in regard 

to their land on Long Island 326 

" June 15. Order on a Petition of the Magistrates of Midwout and Amesfoort for 

assistance in maintaining their minister 327 

" June 17. Deed of 25 moi-gens of land in Mespath kil, L. 1 327 

" June 18. Resolution of Council to notify Lady Moody and the inhabitants of Graves- 
end to send in a nomination for Magistrates 327 

" July 10. Contract to superintend the Bouwery and cattle of Director Stuyvesant, at 

Amersfoort 328 

" July 12. Lease of a bou wery at Midwout, L. 1 328 

" July 19. Council Minute. The Magistracy of Gravesend. Letter from Lady Moody 
and Remonstrance against her nominees by the Dutch inhabitants of 

Gravesend 329 

" Aug. 31. Lease of a bouwery and stock at Amesfoort, (annulled) 330 

" Sep. 10. Deed of a house and plantation on Long Island, adjoining Ilellgate 331 

" Sep. 25. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : Boundaries and the Treaty of 
Hartford ; no more Grants of Colonies to Patroons ; Trade with Bos- 
ton ; Postal Facilities ; Emigrants 331 

" Oct. 12. Lease of a plantation on Mespath kill 335 

" Oct. 12. Mortgage. George Baxter, of his house and bouwer}', at Gravesend, L. I. 
and all his property, movable and immovable, as security that he will 
remain in the room in the City Hall, in which he is confined, until dis- 
charged (not signed) 335 

" Oct. 16. Order for the security of Amersfoort and the bay 336 

1656. Jan. 15. Order on a petition of the Clergy against Conventicles and Preaching by 

unqualified persons at Newtown, L. 1 336 

" Feb. 15. Petition of the Magistrates of Midwont and Amesfoort to take up a col- 
lection for the support of their minister 337 

" Feb. 15. Petition of Jacob Luby for discharge from the military service and per- 
mission to settle at Arnhem, L. 1 337 

" Feb. 25. Petition of the Magistrates of Brooklyn, that the minister of Midwout 

preach alternately in Brooklyn 338 

" Feb. 29. Petition of the Inhabitants of Mespath Kill for a survey of the village of 

Arnhem 339 

" Mar. 10 Petition of Robert Jackson, Daniel Denton and others of Ilemsted for the 

" & 21. grant of a certain tract of land, purchased by them from the Indians, 

" called Conorasset " (Jamaica, L. I.) and Council Minute granting it. . 339 

" Mar. 13. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : Jews to have some privileges; 

Indian raid of New-Amsterdam ; Hartford Treaty ; Emigration 340 

" Mar. 25. Council Minute. Nomination and appointment of Sheriff and Magistrates 

for Flushing and for Gravesend 343 

" Mar. 28. Council Minute. Nominations and appointment of Magistrates for Mid- 
wout, Amesfoort and Breuckelen 344 

" Mar. 28. Petition of the Magistrates of Breuckelen for an order obliging proprietors 

of vacant lots to build thereon and Order of the Council to that effect. 345 

Table of Contents. xvii 

1656. Mar. 28. Council Minute. Application from the Magistrates of Midwout for assist- 
ance to pay tlieir minister and answer of the Council 345 

" Mar. 30. Nomination of Magistrates for the Town of Middleborough, L. 1 340 

" Apr. 3. Resolution of the Directors of the W. I. Co., Dept. of Amsterdam, con- 
cerning a ship from Medembhck sent to Curasao with Negro Slaves . . . 346 
" Apr. 4. Council Minutes. Appointment of Magistrates for Middleburgh (New- 
town L. I.) Eesolntion to offer for sale the house and lot called the Old 
Chni-ch, on the East river, New Amsterdam. Petition of Sarah Joresey, 
first born Christian daughter in New Netherland for a piece of land on 

L. I. and Order of the Council 346 

" Apr, 4. Conncil MiTiutes. Lands to be divided between Middleborgh and Arnhem, 
L. I. ; Cannons for Gravesend ; Magistrates of Fort Orange ; Anthony 

Jansen 347 

" May 14. Letter from John Tilton, Clerk of the Town of Gravesend, to Stuyvesant, 848 

« May 27. Patent for lot in Brooklyn, L. 1 349 

" May 26. | Ordinance of the Magistrates of Midwout and Aniesfoort, for the safety 

" Jnne 3. ) of their villages 350 

" June 14. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : Trade between Virginia and 

New Netherland prohibited: Jews: Lutherans: Public Records 350 

" June 27. Ordinance for the Payment of the Tenths 353 

" June 27. Ordinance providing for the Clearance of Vessels and for the Entry of 

Goods subject to Export Duties 354 

" June 20. Resolution, that the Directors and Council proceed to Gravesend for the 

settlement of boundary quarrels there 354 

" June 24. Judgment in the case between Gravesend and Anthony Jansen and others, 354 
" June 20. Papers regarding the dispute between the Director-General and the Pa- 

troon of Rensselaerswyck as to the privileges of the latter 355 

" Ji'ly 6. Instructions for the Tithe Commissioners of Long Island 360 

" July 6. Order on a complaint against Gravesend 360 

" July 19. Report of the Commissioners on the Boundaries between Gravesend and 

Anthony Jansen and Order of Council 361 

" July 29. Letter from the Town-Clerk of Flushing to Stuyvesant 361 

" July Letter from the Town of Hempstead to Stuyvesant 362 

" -A-Ug. 11. Ordinance renewing and amending the Ordhiance against the Importa- 
tion of Articles of Contraband 363 

Aug. 21. Patent for Land in Mespath, L. 1 363 

" Aug. 21. Judgment in a Case of the Town of Gravesend against Anthony Jansen 

for Trespass 364 

" Aug. 23. Order for a Resurvey of the Boundaries of Jansen's and Pennoyer's 

Patent 365 

" Aug. 24. Ordinance explaining the Ordinance of August 11"", so far as the anchor- 
age grounds in the Port of New Amsterdam are concerned 366 

" Aug. 25. Patent for Land on Long Island 366 

" Sept. 6. Ordinance regulating the Fees payable at the Custom-IIouse and Public 

Store at New Amsterdam 366 

xviii Table of Contents. 

» Page. 

1656. Sept. 22. Report of tlie Commissioners appointed to inquire into some Differences 

between inhabitants of Middleburgh (Newtown), L. 1 366 

" Sept. 26. Council Minute. The Magistrates of Brooklyn and other Long Island 
Villages ask, that Measures be adopted to pacify the Indians in their 
Vicinity 368 

" Sept. 30. Council Minute. Indians of Masepingh, L. I., voluntarily return goods 

stolen by Sicketawacb (L. I.) Indians 369 

" Nov. Sentence of William Ilallett of Flushing for allo%ving Baptist Conventi- 
cles in his House and of William Wickendam for officiating as Minister 
of the Gospel at Flushing 369 

" Dec. 14. Letter from D° Polhemius to Dir. Stuyvesant, complaining that his House 

is not inhabitable 370 

" Dec. 19. Extract from a letter of the Directors to Stuyvesant: Settlers to dwell in 
Villages ; Delegations to New England ; Tenths ; Eenselaerswyck ; 
Revenues ; Frenchmen among the Indians 371 

" Dec. 21. Letter from Dir. Stuyvesant to the Magistrates of Midwont about the 

Minister's House 376 

" Dec. 21. Appointment of Magistrates for Hempstead, L. 1 376 

" Dec. 21. Petition of Domine Polhemus for an Advance of his Salary to enable him 

to pay for a Parcel of Land 377 

" Dec. 21. Petition of William Hallett for Eemission of the Sentence of Banish- 
ment ; granted 377 

" Dec. 28. Patent for Land near Mespath Kil, L. 1 378 

1657. Jan. 15. Petition of Edward Jessup of Middlebourgh for Mill-Rights 378 

" Jan. 16. Petition of the Magistrates of Amesfoort, praying Confirmation of an 

Assessment for the Minister's Salary ; granted 378 

" Jan. 16. Petition of the Magistrates of Midwout for Power to make an Assessment 

to pay their Minister, to farm the Excise, etc., and Order thereon 379 

" Jan. 16. Petition of the Magistrates of Brooklyn against the Assessment for the 

Minister's Salary and objecting to the Appointment of Rev. Polhemius, 380 
*' Jan. 16. Petition of Jaques Corteljou for Permission to plant a Village on Long 

Island (New Utrecht) 382 

" ■ Jan. Letter of the Magistrates of Brooklyn to the Director and Council about 

the Salary of their Minister 382 

" Jan. 16. Petition of Inhabitants of Middleborough (Newtown), L. I., about the 

House built for their Pastor. Order of the Director thereon 383 

" Jan. 16. Letter from Inhabitants of Oysterbay to Stuyvesant, concerning the Title 

to that Part of Long Island 384 

" Jan. 26. Commission from the Town of Flushing, L. I., to procure redress against 

encroachments by the Town of Hemstead 384 

" Feb. 7. ) Ordinance of the Court of Brooklyn imposing a Tax to pay the Minister's 

" Feb. 13. ) Salary, with names of the Inhabitants 385 

" Mar. 12. Petition of Merchants trading to New Netherland concerning Duties on 

Imported Goods ." 385 

" Apr. 7. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant ; Currency ; Rensselaerswyck ; 

Negroes ; Cultivation of Silkworms ; Lutherans 386 






















Table of Contents. xix 


1657. Apr. 17. Council Minute. A marketday appointed for Brooklyn 390 

Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : New Members of the Council. . 390 
Insti-uctioiis for the Director and Council in New Netherland for the ad- 
ministration of the Company's finances 392 

Patent for Land on Long Island (Flatlands) 393 

Indian Deed for Staten Island 393 

Letter from Director Stuyvesant to the Town of Hempstead : Tenths ... 395 
Letter from the Town Clerk of Rustdorp (Jamaica), L. I., to Director 
Stuyvesant complaining against the Magistrates of Hempstead and 

Order thereon in Council 395 

Letter from the Town of Hempstead to Stuyvesant 396 

Patent for Land on Long Island 396 

Patent for Land on Long Island (New Utrecht) 397 

Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant ; LaMontagne, Vice-Director at 

Fort Orange ; Smuggling ; Tenths ; French Privateers ; Eecords 397 

Dec. 22. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant; Smugghng ; Wampum ; Duties; 

Rensselaerswyck and Taxes ; Johan de Decker 399 

Dec. Letter from the Town Clerk of Hempstead on behalf of the People, pray- 
ing for redress, &c 402 

Dec. 27. Eemonstrance of the Inhabitants of Flushing, L. I., against the Law against 
Quakers and subsequent Proceedings by the Government against them 

and others favoring Quakers 402 

Letter from Win. Lawrence of Flushing, L. I., to the Director-General, 

in regard to holding the Court at Flushing and Council Minute thereon, 408 
Letter from Edward Hart to the Director and Council asking to be re- 
leased and pardoned and Council Minute thereon 408 

Sentence of Tobias Feaks, Schout of Flushing 409 

Petition of the Magistrates of Midwout (Flatbush, L. I.), as to the Dispo- 
sition be made of the Churchland and Order of Council thereon 410 

Letter from the Town Clerk of Hemsted to Stuyvesant : Troubles with 

the Indians. S^ 411 

Order on a Petition of D° Polhemius, Minister at Midwout, L. I., concern- 
ing his salaiy 412 

Council Minute. School ordered to be closed 412 

Council Minute. Survey of Land in Dispute near Middleborgh, L. I., 
and order thereon ; Schoolmaster ; Magistrates for Midwout and Ames- 

foort 412 

Mar. 4. Ordinance for establishing a new Village (Harlem) at the End of Manhat- 
tan Island 413 

Mar. 19. Ordinance to prevent Fraud in the Shipping of Tobacco 413 

Mar. 25. Patent for Land at Mespath, L. 1 413 

Mar. 26. Ordinance for the better Government of the Town of Flushing 413 

Mar. 26. Council Minute. The School of Jacobus van Corlear ; Magistrates for 

Brooklyn 413 

















Table of Contents. 

April 2. Sentence of the Persons, who refused to contribute to the salary of Domine 

Polhemius 414 

April 7. Letter from Father Simon Le Moyne, S. I. to Director Stujvesant, trans- 
mitting a letter from the Marquis de Dailleboat, Govenior of Canada. . 415 
April 11. Ordinance against cutting Sods or dredging Oystershells on Manhattan 

Island within certain limits 415 

April 16. Ordinance relating to Import and Export Duties 416 

May 11. Confirmation by the Indians of the Sale of Hempstead in 1643 416 

May 20. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : Currency ; English Intrigues on 

Long Island; Lutherans; Latin School ; Ministers; Smnggling 417 

May 28. Resolution concerning the Ferry to Long Island 421 

June 7. Extract from a Letter of the Directors to Stuy vesant : Lutherans and the 

Formulary of Baptism 421 

July 2. Council Minute. Agreement with Gravesend for the Tenths 421 

July 2. Letter from Stuyvesant and the Council to the Vice-Director of Fort 

Orange concerning the Tenths of Rensselaerswyck 422 

July 4. Council Minute. Magistrates for Gravesend, L. 1 422 

July 8. Petition of Peter Tonneman for pay for his services as Schont and Secretary 

of Brooklyn, L. 1 423 

July 30. Council Minute. Magistrates for JSTewtown, L. I. 424 

Aug. 13. Council Minute. Land Matters concerning New Utrecht, L. I. ; School.. 423 
July and Aug. Court Proceedings concerning the Right of Way in Middleborgh, 

(Newtown) L. 1 424 

Oct. 4. Patent for Land in Brooklyn, L. 1 425 

Nov. 27. Council Minute. Letter from the Town Clerk of Hempstead to Dir. 

Stuyvesant ; Appointment of Magistrates for Hempstead, L. 1 425 

Nov. 19. Summons to several persons at Hempstead, to answer a complaint of the 

Farmer of the Excise 426 

Feb. 13. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant: Smuggling; Currency; Tobacco; 
Salaries of Olficers ; Duties ; Salt declared a Monopoly ; Fort on Oyster 

Bay ; Latin School ; Privileges of the City of New Amsterdam 427 

Feb. 20. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : Children from the Almsehouse 

sent to New Netherland 434 

April 21. Council Minute. Magistrates for Gravesend appointed 434 

April 21. Patents for Land on Long Island 435 

April 25. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : Rensselaerswyck : Latin School ; 

Staten Island ; Code of Procedure 435 

April 10. Resolution of the Amsterdam Department of the W. I. Company appoint- 
ing a Latin Schoolmaster for New Amsterdam 437 

May 23. Patent for Land in Flatland, L. 1 437 

July 23. Letter from Director Stuyvesant and the Council to the Directors in 
Holland : CuiTency ; New England and the Treaty of Hartford ; Public 

Accounts ; Rensselaerswyck ; Latin School ; Fort A msterdam 438 

Sept. 4. Letter from Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland : Sick ; Decline of 

Trade at Fort Orange ; Emigration 444 

Tahle of Contents. xxi 


1659. Sept. 17. Extract from a Letter of Stuj'vesaiit to the Directors : Latin School ; 

Medicinal Seeds wanted 445 

Letter from Stuyvesant to tlie Directors : Direct Trade with France 445 

Resolution of the Amsterdam Department, W. I. Co., concerning mail 

facihties 446 

Letter from the General Court of Massachusetts, tlirough Secretary Rawson, 

to Director Stuyvesant, claiming part of the territory of New Netherland 446 
Petition of the Minister and Churchwardens of Midwout for material to 

paint their Church 447 

Letter from tlie Directors to Stuyvesant ; Import Duties ; Blockhouse at 

Oysterbay; Revenues; Rensselaerswyck ; Latin Schoolmaster 448 

Extract from a letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland : Proposals 

from New England ; an English Frigate at New Amsterdam ; Finances 

and Trade 453 

1660. Jan. 16. Petition for Land in New Utreciit, Long Island 455 

Petition for Land on Long Island and Leave to settle a Town " beyond 

the Hills by the South Sea," (Jamaica, L. I.), and Order of Council 
granting it 456 

Ordinance for the Establishment of "Villages 456 

Council Minute. Commissioner appointed to have Brooklyn and New 
Utrecht surveyed and enclosed. Petition and Orders concerning New 
Utrecht 457 

Ordinance for the better preservation of the pallisades around Midwout 
and Amesfoort, L. 1 457 

Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant ; Postal arrangements ; Curacao 
and Slave Trade 458 

Letter from Governor Winthrop of New Haven to Director Stuyvesant in 
regard to the English Frigate at New Haven 459 

Letter from Director Stuyvesant to the Magistrates of Hemstead, sum- 
moning them to New Amsterdam 460 

Petition of the Inhabitants of Gravesend for the appointment of a Clergy- 
man and answer thereto 460 

Letter from the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant: Clergymen and 
Church aifairs ; SherifE of New Amsterdam 461 

Commission of Peter Tonneman as Schout of New Amsterdam and his 
Instructions 462 

Letter from Director Stuyvesant to the General Court of Massachnsetts, 
vindicating the Dutch title to New Netherland and the Hudson river . . 465 

Letter from Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland: Staten Island ; Block- 
house at Oysterbay; Auctioneers' Fees ; Domine Polhemns ; Currency 
and foreign Trade 467 

Orders of Council on Petitions to be relieved from the Operations of the 
Ordinance for the Establishment of Villages, passed Febr. 9, 1660. . . . 472 

Council Minute. Appointment of Magistrates for Long Island Towns. 
New Plantations near Brooklyn. Church at Midwout 473 





































xxii Tahle of Contents. 


1660. May 25. Council Minute. Hemsted and the Indians 474 

" June 2. Ordinance providing for the safe Transmission of Letters to Holland 474 

" June 25. Letter from Director Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland ; Postal Ar- 
rangements; English Encroachments; Sheriff of Brooklyn; Currency. 475 

" July 5 ) Council Minute: Magistrates for Middleborgh, (Newtown, L. I) appointed; 

" to Aug. 30. ) Land matters in Amesfoort ; Church matters in Brooklyn 477 

" Aug. 20. Patent for Laud in Flatlands, L. 1 479 

" Sep. 2. Council Minute. Conference with Long Island Lidians 480 

" Sep. 20. Letter from the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant : Blockhouse at Oys- 
ter bay ; Currency ; Negro Slaves 480 

" Sep. 30. Council Minute. The Church at Midwout, L. 1 482 

" Oct. 19. Patent for Land in Brooklyn, L. 1 482 

1 Letters from Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland : Political Condition 
" Oct. 6. I of the New England Colonies; Kevenues; Trade; Currency; English 
" Dec. 9. [ Villages on Long Island without Preachers ; Plan and Sketch of New 

J Amsterdam ; Manufacture of Pott and Pearl Ashes 483 

" Dec. 24. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant : Boundaries ; Ministers for the 
English Villages on Long Island ; English Settlers in New Netherland ; 
Churchbell for Brooklyn Staten Island 486 

1661. Jan. 8. Council Minute. Proceedings against Quakers at Jamaica, L. I. Land at 

Flatbush 490 

" Jan. 29. Patent for Land in Flatland, L. 1 494 

" Feb, & Mar. Council Minute. The formation of a new village on Long Island, (Brooklyn) 494 
" Feb. 18. Council Minute. The Inhabitants of Newtown, L. I. petitiown that they 

may use tlie Minister' s house and glebe for school purposes 496 

" Feb. 25. Letter from John Hicks to Director Stuyvesant concerning the Magistracy 

of Hempstead and Stuyvesant's Answer 497 

" Mar. 21. Council Minute. Appointment of Magistrates for Brooklyn and for 

Gravesend 498 

" Mar. 31. Ordinances erecting Courts of Justice in Bushwick and in Flatbush and 

Flatlands, L. 1 498 

" Apr. & May. Council Minute. Salt Meadows at Mespathkil, Gj'sbert's Island ; Church 

at Midwout New Arnhem ; Excise on L. 1 498 

" June. Council Minutes. Long Island Land Matters 501 

" July 4. I Council Minutes. A Court Messenger for Brooklyn, who is also to act as 
" July 6. I Schoolmaster, Sexton, Bellringer &c ; Collection of the Tenths in Brook- 
lyn and Neighborhood 502 

'■' July 21. Extract from a Letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors : Blockhouse at Oys- 
ter bay ; Boundaries with the English ; Lord Sterling's Claim on Long 

Island 503 

" Aug. 21. Council Minute. A Petition for Permission to sell Gysbert's Island denied. 504 
" Aiig. 21. Copies of some Orders and Resolutions of the Towne of Jamaica from 

1656 to 1660 504 

" Sep. 24. Extract f i-om a Letter of Director Stuyvesant to the Directors in Holland : 
Eeports of English Designs on New Netherland ; Long Island granted 
to Captain Scott 506 

Table of Contents. xxiii 


1662. Jan. 12. Council Minute. Disputes about Land at Matinicock and Gravesend, L. I 507 
" Jan. 27. Extract from a Lettei" of the Directors to Stuyvesant ; Blockhouse at Oys. 

ter bay ; Lord Sterling's Claim to Long Island 508 

" Feb. to Jnly. Council Minutes. Long Island Matters 509 

" July 15. Extract from a Letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors : John Scott's Patent 

for Long Island 515 

" Aug. & Sep. Council Minutes. New Utrecht and Nyack, L. I. Quakers in Flushing. 515 

" Nov. 10-13. Letters relating to the Annexation of Long Island to Connecticut 516 

" Dec. 6. Letter from the Directors to Stuyvesant: Saltworks on Coney Island ... . 518 
" Dec. 28. Council Minutes. Bush wick Affairs 519 

1663. Jan. 4. Council Minutes. Church Affairs in Midwout, L. I. Magistrates for New 

Utrecht 520 

" Jan. 8. Extract from a Letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors : Long Island annexed 

to Connecticut 520 

" Jan. to Apr. Council Minutes. Magistrates appointed for Long Island Towns. Land 

granted and Land matters on Long Island. Ferry to Long Island 521 

" Apr. 16. ) Extract from Letters of the Directors to Stuyvesant : Proceedings of Con- 

" May 14r. ) necticut on Long Island ; Fortifications; Huguenots; Quakers 525 

" May to Council Minutes. A new Hamlet near Wallabout ; Church at Amesfoort ; 

Volunteers for the Esopus "War ; Tithes ; English Intrigues on Long 

Island 527 

" Nov. 5 & 15. Letters from Director Stuyvesant to the Governor and Council of Connec- 
ticut about the Claims of the latter 538 

1664. Jan. & Feb. Council Minutes. Conference with Long Island Indians; Appointment 

of Magistrates ; Mill at Bush wick ; Offices of Record established on 

Long Island 540 

" Feb. 14. Ordinance for the Recording of Deeds and Mortgages in Brooklyn, Flat- 
bush, Flatlands and New Utrecht 542 

" Jan. & Feb. Patents for Land on Long Island 543 

" Feb. 24. Agreement between the Dutch Commissioners and John Scott 544 

" Mar. 10. Certificate of the Eemoval of some Englishmen from Schouts bay in 1640. 545 
" Mar. 20. Council Minute. Appointment of Magistrates for Long Island Towns . . 545 
f' Apr. 26. Extract from a Letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors: Fortifications on 

Long and Staten Island; John Scott, and the English on Long Island. . 546 

" May 26. Council Minutes. Mill on Hoggs Island ; Gowanus Bay ; Tenths 547 

" June 10. Extract from Letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors: Encroachments by 

Connecticut; Eiiect of the States-General's Letters in Long Island. . . . 548 
" July 17. Petition of the Reverend Henry Selyns for his dismissal from the churches 

at Brooklyn and the Bouwery 549 

" Aug. 4. Extract from a Letter of Stuyvesant to the Directors : Imprisonment of 

John Scott ; Long Island and the English 551 

" Aug. 24. License to recruit Soldiers on Long Island against the Dutch 655 

" Aug. 29. Letter from Col. Nicolls to Capt. Young about such Long Island people as 

have taken up arms against the Dutch 655 

Table of Contents. 


Tlie Province under English Rule, from the Surrender by the Dutch to the Establishment 
of Counties. 166M. — 1681. 
' ^ ^ Page. 

1664. Sep. 11. Passport for Capt. Jolm Scott, feareing arrest from Connecticut 557 

" Sep. 15. A warrant for Mr. Govert Loocqnermans cum Socijs, concerning Oyster 

Bay on Long Island 557 

" Sep. 24. A warrant for the arbitration of the Differences between Gravesend and 

New Utrecht 558 

" Oct. 7. A Warr' concerning M'' Govert Loocquermans buisnesse at Oyster Bay in 

Long Island 558 

'•' Oct. 7. Articles of Agreement made with Deputies from Albany after the reduc- 
tion of the Province 559 

" Oct. 20. Proceedings to ascertain the title to certain lands at Oyster Bay, L. I . . . . 560 

" Nov. 30. Commissioners appointed to collect the Taxes on L. 1 561 

" Dec. 1. Letter to the Commissioners Concerning the boundary with Connecticut . . 561 
" Dec. 12. Order to the Magistrates of Gravesend to send in a statement of their 

difference With Thomas Applegate 562 

" Dec. 24. Appointment of officers for Flushing 562 

1665. Jan. 2. Letter from the Governor to the Inhabitants of Jamaica, L. 1 562 

" Jan. IS. Order summoning the Magistrates of Flushing and Jamaica 563 

" Jan. 18. Order concerning Jamaica & Andrew Messenger 563 

" Feb. The Governo" Lre to y' Inhabitants of Long Island, touching a Gen"" 

Meeting of Deputys at Hempsteed 564 

" Feb. 3. The Governo" Lre to the Dutch Magistrates touching y" Gen"" Meeting 

at Hempsteed 565 

" Mar. The jSTames of the Deputyes met at the Gen"" Meeting at Hempstead, 

w"' his Highness' Depu"' Governo"' March 1^' 1664 and Proceedings of 

the Meeting 565 

" Mar. Order concerning Shelter Island 566 

" Mar. A Letter Written by Order of y'^ Govern'' to the Constable of Flushing . . 566 

" Apr. 22. Appointment of a Surveyor of Customs for Long Island 566 

" June 24. Letter from Col. ISTicolls to Gov' Winthrop of Connecticutt 567 

" June 24. Letters to the Governors of Massachusetts and Plymouth 567 

" June 22. A L" of advice from y^ Governo'^ to the Inhabitants of Long Island 568 

" Aug. 7. A Lycence for ffishing 569 

" Aug. 9. A License Granted to Mr. Kobert Jackson 569 

" Aug. 23 & Sept. 19. Licenses to purchase Land from the Indians 569 

" Sept. 20. Licence to trade with the Indians 570 

" Sept. 27. A Warrant to y° Constables & Overseers of Brook -land 570 

" Sept. 28. Proceedings in a suit about the title of Horse-Neck, L. 1 570 

" Dec. 28. A L'^ from y' Governo'' to the Constables and Overseers of fflatlands 

concerning their MeadoM' Groimd 573 

1666. Feb. 26. A special Warrant directed to the higli Sheriff'^ for th' collection of the 

Couutrey Assessments 573 











Table of Oontenta. xxv 

1666. Feb. 27. An Order directed to y^ Higli Sheriffe to give notice to y" Justices and 
other Offic''" to attend the Sessions held at Jamaica y" li"" March 1665, 

for the North Kidiug 573 

" Mar. 21. The Governo''' Letter to the Constable & Overseers of Oyster Bay 574 

" Mar. 27. A Letter sent by Order of the Governo'' to the Constable and Overseers of 

Seatalcott in behalf of M'' Rich Smith of ISTesaquak" 575 

" Mar. 27. The Governo" Lre to the Justices of the North Riding, touching a Sessions 

House and Prison 575 

A L" sent to M"' Smith of Nesaquanke 576 

An Agreement made befor" the Governo'', betweene the Offic" of tlie 

Towne of Seatalcott, and Richard Smith of Nesaquank" 576 

A Lre sent to Cap' Underbill about Taxes 576 

The Governo" Lre to y° High Sheriffe, Cap' Topping, and M"' John Mul- 
ford, touching y^ Inhabitants of South-hampton East Hamton and South- 
hold 577 

A Warrant sent to M"' Hicks, the Justic^ of Peae'= of Hemsteed 578 

A Letter written by the Governo" Order to M'^ Wells, y" High Sheriffe. . 578 

A Lre Written to y« Constable of Southhold 579 

A Letter sent from the Governo'' unto M'' Wm. Wells, Cap' Topping, etc., 

touching the Inhabitants of Southhampton 579 

May 3. A Speciall Warrant for the rehearing of the Caus** between" the Inhabitants 

of Huntington and Cap' Ceely 580 

A Letter from y'^ Governo'' Sent unto M'' John Underbill 580 

The Governo''" Letter to Capt. Topping 581 

A Lre written by the Governo'' to M'' Jonas Wood, to meet M'^ Nicolls & 

M'' Wells at Seatalcott 582 

The Governo''" Lre to M'' Wm. Wells, to meett M' Nicolls and M' Wood 

at Seatalcott etc 582 

A Warrant to the Office''" of Southhold for to make a Rat" for the snmeof 

7"* 3" expended by their Deputys at Hempsteed 583 

A Warrant to the Justices of y" East Riding of Yorkshire to cause all 
persons of the said Riding to keep an Agreemen' made betweene y" 

Inhabit" thereof and the Indyans 583 

A Letter Written to y" Magistrates of the Towne of Hempsteed 583 

A Warrant to the High SherifEe requiring him to Send into y" Secretaryes 

Offic" the Yaluagon of the Estates in the North and West Ridings 584 

A Warrant Empowering y" Sheriffe to Levy the ffines imposed by Law on 

such as refuse to serve as Constable 584 

The Governo''" Lycence to the Inhabitants of New Towne 584 

A Letter from the Governo'' to M'' Jacques Contilleau 585 

A Letter from y" Governo'^ to the severall Justices of the Peace on Long 
Island, intimating y" Intelligence rec'd of the approach of some Enemies 

Shipps 585 

A Letter written to y" Overseers of y" respective Townes following con- 
cerning the Valuation of their Estates 585 









June 16. 
June 16. 

June 16. 
























Tahle of Contents. 

A Letter written to y^ Inhabitants of fflat Lands, toucliing the difEerence 

between them, & y" Inhabi'" of fflat Bush 586 

A letter written to the Inhabitants of fflat Bush touching the difEerence 

between'' them, and fflat Lauds 586 

A Warrant directed to M" Jacques Coutillean, or any others concerned in 
Pennoyers Land, to mak* out tlieire Rights and Title thereunto at y^ 

Assizes 587 

A "Warrant sent to the Constables and Overseers of Huntington 587 

A Letter written by the Governo"' to y^ ConstabP and Overseers at Hemp- 
steed 587 

Lawsuit between Gravesend and Flatbush, L. 1 588 

Orders on the Claim of the Indians against Hemstead 589 

A speciall Warrant to the High Sheriffe to make seizure of any Estate 

belonging to Capt. Scott 590 

A Letter to the High Sheriffe 590 

A Letter written to y® Constable and Overseers of Huntington 591 

A Letter written by the Governo' to the Constable and Overseers of 

ffiushing, concerning Thomas Hicks, &c 591 

Jan. 1. A Warrant Empowering the Justices of the North Eiding, to make a Raf* 

and a Levy, for the Building of a Sessions House and Prison 591 

A Letter written to the Constables and Overseers of Oyster Bay 592 

Jan. 8. A Letter written to y° Constable and Overseers of Hempsteed 592 

Feb. 7. A Warrant to the Constable &c of New Towne to pay their proporgon of 

the Purchase of Sellers Necke to y* Inhabit'" of Jamaica 593 

Feb. 20. A Letter to the Justice of the Peace Constable &c at Huntington 593 

Mar. 1. Mr. Anthony Waters assurance to the Inhabit" of Breucklyn, on behalf'^ 

of the Towne of Jamaica of their proporgon of Sellers Neck 593 

Mar. 7. An Agreement made before the Governor betweeno Capt. John Tucker 
on the behalf of the towne of Brookhaven, & M' Richard Smith of 

Mesaquake 594 

A License grannted to Cap' Tucker to purchase Land of the Indyans .... 594 

A Letter to Hempsteed 595 

A Letter to Capt. Underliill 595 

A Licence to Mr. William Wells High Sheriffe to Trade with the Indyans 

at the East end of the Island 596 

A Letter to Cap' Underbill at Oyster bay 596 

A Letter from the Governor to Mr. Wells 596 

A Speciall Warr' to the High Sheriffe to make a Rate of one halfe penny 

P pound for this yeare 1667 597 

A Speciale Warrant to the Officei-^ of fflushing 597 

A List of those Persons of fflushing who this day presented themselves to 
the Governo', & gave in their names to be ready to serve his Ma'^ under 

his bono" Command upon all occasions 598 

Aug. 12. A Letter from the Governo' to M. Cornhill about fflushing, directed to 

liim, the Constable & overseers 598 


















Table of Contents. xxvii 


1667. Sept. 17. Order directing the Towns of Sovitliarapton and Southold, to appear be- 

fore the Court of Assize with proof of their land titles 599 

" Oct. 1. A Letter written to y" Magistrates of Oyster Bay 599 

" Nov. 1. Trial of the Case between Southampton and Southold 600 

" Nov. 8. Order concerning the levy of Taxes on L. 1 602 

" Nov. 6. A Warrant to the Inhabitants of Marshpath Kills, to appeare before the 

Governor 603 

" Dec. 11. An Order to decide the difference about Round Island 603 

" Dec. 11. Order concerning Kound Island, East river. By y'^ Goveruo'' 604 

1668. Feb. 19. The Governo''" Warr', Sent to y" ConstabP and Overseers of each Towne 

in y" West Riding, about y' Payment of their Proportions, towards y'^ 

Sessions House 604 

" Mar. 2. A Warrant sent to the Constable and overseers of fHushing 605 

" Apr. 1. An Ord'' Concerning the Whales w"'in Sea-Talkatt bounds 605 

" Apr. 6. An Order to the Constables and Overseers of Hempsteed Concerning 

Joseph Carpenter 606 

" May 27. A Confirmation of the Agreem' made w*'^ Montanket Indyans at the 

Assizes 1665 etc in anulling any Agreem' w"' C. Scott 606 

" June 3. Memorandnm Concerning land at Hempstead 606 

" Sept. 10. An Orde'' for the absence of one Man in each family on Robert Williams 

Plantation 607 

" Oct. 10. A Commission appointing Cap" Salisbury Capt" of a troop of horse on 

Long Island 607 

" Oct. 12. An Order heretofore graunted to the Towne of Seatalcott about tlie 

Whales at the South suspended vpon the Petigon of Joseph Raynor . . . 607 
" Oct. 13. A Warrant authorizing Capt" Salisbmy to take the subscriptions of all 

such persons as voluntarily List themselves in his troop 608 

*' Oct. 15. An Order for Thomas Chatfield to receive Custome for all Goods exported 

or imported to and from Easthamptom 608 

" Oct. 15. A Lycence graunted to John Cooper of Southton to dispose of SO"*^ of 
Powd"' yearly to such Indians as are assisting to him in his designe of 

killing Whales 608 

'' Oct. 29. A Letter from the Governo'' to the Constables and Overseers of Hemp- 
stead for the constituting a Militia there 609 

An Ord'' concerning the Raising the Troops of Volunteers 609 

Another Lre to Encourage the Raising of the said Troops 610 

An Order for Adam Brower of Broucklyn do grinde for all persons w'" 

out Excepgon or Distinction 610 

The Gouerno" Lre to M"' James Minisf of East Hampton 610 

Liberty Graunted to the Inhabitaants of Gravesend to goe on w"" their 

fence or ditching ■ 612 

To Mr. Wells High Sheriffe &c 612 

An Order for the Indians to Appear at next Sessions to testify their 
Knowled int Rich. Smith and y= Inhabitants of Huntington 613 















xxviii Tahle of Contents. 


1668. Dec. 10. An Ord'' for the Snmoning in person at the next Co''t of Sessions in the 

East Riding of Yorkshire to make proof of a title of land for tlie in- 
habitants of Huntington 613 

" Dec. 15. A Letter from the Gonerno"' to y^ Constable & Overseers of Seatalcott. . . 614 
" Dec. 17. Lycence graunted to Thomas Lamberts of Bedford to seU bear wyne & 

othe"' Liquors 614 

1669. Jan. 4. Lycence graunted to Kobt Hollis tap strong drinke & Liquors, «fe a pro- 

hibigon for any other to tapp there 614 

" Feb. 10. A Lre from y'= Governo'' to y° Inhabitants of Hempsteed 615 

" Mar. 15. A Lre from y^ Governo'' to y^ Inhabitants of Huntington 615 

" Mar. 15. An Ord' for two persons to be empowered to regulate som= differences in 

y" Towne of Breucklyn 616 

" Mar. 15. An Ord"' for Mr. Matthias NicoUs & Mr. Cornelys van Euyven to heare & 

issue y* difference amongst y'= Inhabitants of Breucklyn 616 

" Mar. 24. The Governours Letter to y'' Inhabitants of Killingworth and Matiniconk, 616 

" Mar. 1. The Governo^'' Lre to M' Mulford 617 

" Mar. 1. The Governo" Commission to M'' Matthias ISMcoll Seer. M'' W" Wells & 
M"' John Mulford to make inquiry into & take ord'' about y'' vessell w'"" 

suffered Shiprack at y" East End of Long Island 617 

" Mar. 23. The Governo''^ Warrant to Charles Glover & John Gifford to search & trye 

Wheth"' y'= Ship run on Shoare on Long Island may be p''served 618 

" Mar. 25. Instructions for M' W"" Backer 618 

" Mar. 25. An Ord'' to y^ Justices of y" Peace, Constables Overseers of Montaukett 

or who this may concerne 619 

" Mar. 27. A confirmagon from y" Governo'' of what proceedings were done in y° 
cause betweene M'' ffrancis Doughty of New Towne & M' Jn" Hicks 

Cap'' Jn° Vnderhill & William Lawrence &c 619 

" Apr. 1. The Governo'^' Lre to y^ Justices of y° Peace Constable & Overseers of 

Hempstead concerning y® Horse Kace 620 

" Apr. 9. A Lre to y"^ Constable & Overseers of New Towne 620 

" May 27. Order dii'ecting the Magistrates of Hemstead to show cause why the Gov- 
ernor should not issue a Patent making the settlement of Killingworth . 

independent of Hemstead 621 

" June 8. Order concerning Hemstead and Matiniconk bounds 621 

" June 21. A Warr't to the Constable and Overseers of New Towne 621 

" June 21. Court Proceedings : Land near Coney Island in dispute 622 

" June 28. Council Minute. Dispute about boundaries between Bushwick & New- 
town, L. 1 623 

" July 5. Memorandum Concerning a Settlement to be Made by John Terry and 

others in Hemstead bounds 623 

" JTil.y 5. Letters about a rumoured Indian Outbreak 624 

" July 13. A Confirmagon from y* Governo'' of y*^ sentence & Jiidgm' of y" Co" of 

Admiralty Concerning y^ Ship y" John & Lucy 625 

" Aug. 23. The Governo''' Judgm* & determination concerning y^ Land in question 

betweene y^ Inhabitants of Gravesend & Francis Browne 626 

Table of Contents. xxix 

1669. Oct. 12. An order for y° Constables upon Long Island to make a rate for this 

p''sent yeare 1669 626 

" Oct. 13. Letter from the Governor in regard to the Lutherans 626 

" Nov. 3. The Indians of Montauketts Acknowledgm'' of this Governo'' to be their 

. Sachem 627 

1640. Apr. 17. A Patent graunted from James fforrest &c to severall persons &c 627 

1641. Oct. 20. Governor Winthrop's Judgment of y" p'ceding Wryting 628 

1669. Nov. 3 & 4. Trial in the Court of Assizes of L. I. Land titles 629 

" Nov. 4. Order concerning the building of a Courthouse at Jamaica, L. 1 630 

" Feb. 2. Order on petitions from Long Island Towns 631 

" An Answ' to ye Petigon of ye Severall Townes 632 

1670. Mar. 7. A Graunte to ifrancis Bruyn & Company y° sole liberty of fishing for & 

taking of Porpoises in y^ Bay 633 

'> Mar. & Apr. Orders concerning Roads on L. I 634 

" The Report of Capt" Manning & Jaques Cortillean about y" meadow in 

dispute betweene y° Towne of Grauesend & Francis Browne 634 

" Apr. 13. An Order to y^ Constables & Overseers of Gravesend concerning making 

good of 3'* Fences there " 635 

" Apr. 20. Liberty graunted to y° Inhabitants of Midwout als Flatbush to purchase 

Land of y* Indians 635 

" May 14. Council Minute. Affairs at Martin's Vineyard, Connecticut Bounds .... 635 
" May 16. Letter from the Gov"' to Mr. Mayhew Concerning the tenure of land at 

Martin's Vineyard 636 

" May 16. Notice given to all Persons Concerned in y^ Laud called Martyns Vineyard 

to appeare in New Yorke 637 

" June 8. Some Rules to be observed & Inquiryes to be made at y" Co" of Sessions 

to be held at Jamaica 637 

" Instructions for John Layton Subcollecto'' of South-hampton & y'^ places 

there adjacent on Long Island 637 

" June 28. A Graunt iinto Jolm Williams for a New Patent for y* Isle of Man als 

Nomans land 638 

« July 8-13. Settlement at Matineconke 638 

" Aug 10. A Graunt from y* Governor to Mr. Isaack Bedlow tliat his Island called 

Love Island shall be a priviledged place 639 

" Aug. 22. A Passport for Tackpouh an Indian Sachem w"" forty Indians to visit his 

friends y* North Indians 639 

" Oct. 6. Trial of a Suit between Nesaquake and Huntington, L. I 640 

" Oct. 24. Letter of the Governor about the Militia on Long Lsland 643 

" Dec. 1. Council Minute. Bormdaries of Nesaquake, L. I., Domine's Hook and 

Seatalcott, L. 1 644 

IfiVl' T ^'^' [ Council Minute. Indian titles for land on L. I. Indian whalers, etc 645 

" A Lre to y* Inhabitants of Huntington 649 

1671. Jan. 15. The Governo" Lre to Mr. John Mulford, Mr. Thomas James & Mr. Jere- 

miah Conckling at East Hampton 650 

XXX Table of Contents. 


1671. Jan. 19. Ord^ Concerning D° Paulinus. (Polhemius.) 6.50 

" Feb. 8-9. Orders and Correspondence concerning Indian Land at the East End of 

L. I 650 

" Feb. 24. Council Minutes. Gravesend Business. Flushing Lands 653 

" The Governo" Lre to y"* Inhabitants of Southton 653 

" Mar. 8. C. M. The Domines House at Brooklyn. Patent for Southampton and 

Southold. Differences between Thomas Terry and Hempstead 654 

" July 11. Liberty given to Mr. Paine & Mr. Terry to purchase y" Matinicock Lands 

of y** Indians, held soe long in dispute 655 

" Aug. 9. Lre from y" Governo" to Major Mason at Now"'" in New England 656 

" Oct. 6. The Case of Hempstead and the Matinecock Indians 656 

" Oct. 7. Order Concerning the Boundaries of Nesaquake and Huntington 657 

" Nov. 9. A Proclamation enjoyning all psons that have been Inhabitants here six 
Months, having a minde to Transporte themselves for Carolina, or any 
his Ma"^^ New Plantagons to enter their Names at y^ Secretaryes Office 

in time, & take thence their Pass-portes 658 

" Nov. 9. Lyst of y'^ Persons who have passes to goe for Porte Royall in Carolina in 
the Ships Blessing, Charles & I'hffinix ; All bearing Date about y" 17"", 
IS"', 19'" & 20"^ dayesof November 1671, y* Ships setting sayle p'sently 

after 658 

" Nov. 28. Order regulating the terms of the Courts of Sessions on L. 1 659 

" Dec. 5. Council Miniates. Differences between the Town of Gravesend and Francis 

de Bruyne, Brooklyn Lands, Newtown Bounds. New-Utrecht 659 

1672. Feb. 24. Memorials for Cap' Manning (at his goeing to y** Sessions in y^ East Kideing 

of Yorkshire) 661 

" Apr. 23. A Letf to Majo"' Gen^" Leverett at Boston 662 

" May 9. An Answer from Majo'' Gen''" Leverett to a Letter sent him from y'' Gov- 
ernor of N. Yorke bearing Date April y« 23" 1672 662 

" May 28. Lre from y'' Governo'^ to y^ Com"" for y° Indyan Affayres at y^ East End of 

Long Island 663 

" May 2. An Ord' about Whales 664 

" May 4. Liberty given to Mr. Cornliill & Mr. Doughty to sell Liquo" & Powder to 

ludyans who are helpfull in y** 'Whale fishing designe 664 

" May 12. Lre from y* Governo' & Councill of the Massachusetts to his Hono"" Coll : 

ffraucis Lovelace 664 

" May 17. Council Minutes and Orders relating to Whale fishing on Long Island, 

Bushwick and Newtown Bounds 665 

" May 30. Lre from y* Governo' to Cap' Young & the rest of y" Commission'" at y' 

East End of Long Island, about sending Assistance to fortify &c 666 

" June 10. Council Minutes. Long Island Affairs 667 

" June 26. Letter from Gov' Lovelace to the Gov of ConnecticTitt 668 

" July 1. Brooklyn Feriy ; Newtown and Bushwick Bounds 669 

" July 4. An Ord' in answ' to y^ Inhabitants Petigon of Mantinicock about their 

Commonage 670 

Table of Contents. 



1672. July 4. An Ord"' for Eegulating y" Abuse of Selling Liquo''" by y* small Measure, 

us'd by some at Soutliton 670 

" July 8. An Ord"" for Cap' Silvester about y* unruly Indyans at Shelter Island .... 671 
" Jwly 8. Lycenco given to Cap' Silvester to Purchase some Necks of Land on Long 

Island 671 

" July Letter to S'' Jn° Heyden K. Governo'' of his Ma'*""" Island Bormoodos .... 671 

" July 28. Letter from y" Governo'' to y" Offic" of y" Militia upon Long Island 672 

" Aug. 2. An Ord' about y° Lymitts of Hempstead & Oyster-Bay 672 

" Aug. 8. The Governo" Answer to y'' Letter of the Massachusetts, by Mr. Paine. . 673 

" Sept. 6. Council Minutes. Huntington & Nesaquake 674 

" Oct. 15. Certaine Priviledges Consented unto, & granted to the Troop of Horse at 

y° East end of Long Island under y" Command of Cap' Jn° Young .... 674 

" Nov. 20-28. Orders relating to "Whaling on L. 1 675 

" Nov. 20-28. Letters to Cap'. Jno. Howell 675 

" Dec. 5. A new Order concerning tlie Boundaries of Nesaquake and Huntington, 676 

1673. Feb. 17. An Ord"' on behalfe of Mr. Terry about the Matinicock Land, &c 677 

" Apr. 19-24. Orders relating to "Whaling on L. 1 678 

" May 15. Postal Arrangement. Beacons. New SheriflEe for the East Biding (L. I.) 

Wampum 679 

1674. Nov. 30. Petition from Inhabitants of Hemstead to Gov' Andros for a Minister. . . . 680 
" Nov. 26. An Order about the Townes of Seatalcott and Huntington to attend 

Jamaica Sessions 680 

" Dec. 4. Council Minutes. Towns of Eastern Long Island refuse to acknowledge 

the authority of the Governor of New York 681 

1676. Jan. 8. CM. A fishing Company proposed. Newtown etc. "Whales 685 

" Mar. 31. A "Warrant for Mr. "William Shackerly to lay the Boeuyes at Sandy Point, 686 
" Apr. 7. C. M. Payment of Taxes remitted to the Towns on the East end of L. I. 

Gravesend affairs 687 

" Apr. 16. A "Warrant to Capt. Salisbury about the Settlement of the Militia on Long 

Island &c 687 

" Apr. 28. C. M. Nantuckett Business 688 

" May & June. Council Minutes and Correspondence concerning the Boundary Line 

between New York and Connecticut, the Indians, "Wampum &c 688 

" Aug. 5. C. M. Indians Complain not to have been paid for the Land of Hemp- 
stead Town 696 

" Sept. 10. The L. I. Indians and the "War in Connecticut 696 

" Sept. 18. A Letter sent to Southton and Seatalcott 697 

'• Sept. 18. The Governo'"'' Letter to Mr. "Woodhull, sent by the Indyan 698 

" Sept. 28. CM. Indian Population of Nantuckett and Martins Vineyard 699 

" Oct. 5. Letters to Governor Andros on Indian Affairs 699 

" Oct. 7. An Ord' Prohibiting Trading w'" Indyans 700 

« Oct. 10. A Letter Written to the Dep'i' Governo"' of Conecticutt 701 

" Oct. 12. C M. Seers' Nicolls charged with falsification of the Records; Trade 

Rivalries ; Huntington ; Indians 701 

" Oct. 19. Orders concerning Fortifications on L. 1 704 

Table of Contents. 

1675. Oct. 20. Letter from Secretary Nicolls to the Constables of severall L. I. Towns. . 704 

Council Minutes. Indian Affairs 705 

Lett' to Mr. Baker of East-Hampton 706 

Council Minutes. Indian Claims on Hempstead ; Whaling ; Hempstead 

Bounds 706 

Letter from Thomas Topping to Secretary Nicolls about Taxes 707 

Petition for Leave to employ L. I. Indians in Whaling 708 

A Speciall Warrant sent to Huntington to demand the Indyans Armes of 

Kockaway and Seaquatlake, who are to Kintecoy there 709 

Letf to the Governor of Rhoad Irland 710 

Letter from the Governor of Ehode Island to the Governor of Massachusetts, 711 
C. M. Aspersions made in a Boston paper against New York to be refuted. 

Correspondence with R. I., L. I. Indians 711 

Articles of Corporation for a fishing Company 711 

An Ord' for all Indyans on Long Island to bee disarmed, in this juncture 

of y" Warr, & that none ramble from place to place &c 712 

The Governo" Ord' to M'' Topping Concerning M"' James & W Baker. . 712 
Petition of the Magistrates of Huntington reflecting upon the Court of 

Assizes 713 

Answer to the Peticon of Some Whalers at East-Hampton 715 

Correspondence and Council Minutes concerning the Pequod War and L. 

I . Indians 715 

Apr. 10. C. M. Connecticut Agents inquire, What part the N. Y. Indians took in 

the Indian War 716 

Apr. 17. Council Minutes. Indian Affaires 717 

Apr. 27. Instructions and Warrant of Directions, for Capt. Anthony Brockholes and 

Capt. John Coliers going to Long Island 718 

May — . CM. Rhode Island Refugees; Hempstead Lands ; Matinicock Indians ; 

the Pequod War ; Wholers 719 

Letter from Gov. Andros to the Gov. of Massachusetts 721 

Letter Written to the Justices of the East Riding, sent by Capt. Salisbury, 722 

Letters and Orders concerning Southampton and Southold 722 

Rates of Towns in Suffolk County 725 

Protest of Hempstead against a Settlement on Cow and Great Necks, L. I. 

and the Results of it 725 

An Order for John Coopers Fishing at Meacocks &c., near South-Hamton, 727 
1677. Jan. 16. An Order to the Magistrates and Officers of the severall Townes on Long 

Island, to permit distressed People, to settle amongst them 727 

Council Minutes. Indians and Hemstead 728 

An Order to M"' Richard Woodhull, concerning a new way on Long Island, 729 
C. M. The Governour of N. Y. accused by Connecticut as being at the 

bottom of the late Indian Trouble 730 

Warrant authorizing a Search for Sea Coal on L. I 730 

License to practice Surgery on L. 1 730 








■— • 



Nov. 18. 









































Table of Conte7it8. xxxiii 


1677. Oct. 4. Proposalls from the Constables of y" East & North Ridings to the Gov' & 

C" of Assizes 73O 

" Oct. — . Licenses to purchase Indian Lands, etc 731 

" Nov. 10. Liberty granted to Mr. Rich"' Woodhull Mr. Sam" Edsall <fec to ffish about 

Seatalcott &c 732 

" Nov. 5. Council Minutes. Indian Affairs 733 

1678. Mar. 18. Council Minutes. Long Island Towns to cut stockades for Fort James ; 

Huntington and their Clergymen ; Rockaway Indians ; Mihtia on L. I. ; 

"Whalehshing at Southampton ; Boundaries of Jamaica and Flushing. . 734: 

" Mar. 25. Letter from Thomas Townsend to Commander Brockliolls 733 

" May 30. An Order authorizing the erection of a mill at Southt"" and Letter to Jus- 
tice Topping on the same subject 734 

" Sept. 24. Tax Lists of Easthamptou and of Newtown, L. 1 736 

1679. F eb. 17. Letter to Justice Cornwell asking for Land on Hempstead Neck 740 

" May 19. Permission to build a mill 742 

" May 21. Order to the townes on the west side of L. I. to choose a Clarke 742 

Letter to Southampton 742 

1680. Jan. 3. Order for the collection of money for Algerian captives, etc 743 

" Jan. — . Council Minute. New Letts; Cornbury; Madnans Neck; Ministers 

House at Flatbush 743 

" Feb. and Mar. Letters from William Haviland to William Dyre 747 

" Feb. 11 & 12. Orders relating to lands on L. 1 748 

1679. Dec. 10. Resolutions of L. I. Courts of Sessions 748 

1680. Mar. 18. Council Minute. Flushing affairs 749 

" -A-ug. 3. Petition of Jamaica for Remission of a Fine 752 

" Sept. 4. Petition of Quakers for the same 752 

" Sept. — . Dispute between Flatbush and Flatlands about their Boundary 753 

" Nov. 29. Order to elect a Constable for Shelter Island 756 

" Dec. — . Council Minute and Correspondence concerning L. I. Indians 756 

" . Accounts of L. I. Taxes 758 

1681. Jan. — . Settlement of Cow Neck 761 

" Sept. 27. Order to prevent disorderly Meetings on L. 1 762 

" Nov. 7. Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Capt. Young, etc 762 

1682. May — . Correspondence with Connecticut about the Boundary 763 

" June 1. Letter from Capt. Brockolls to Justice Wood 765 

" Aug. — . Order & Correspondence about Pirates 765 

" Aug. 7. Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Justice Betts 767 

" Aug. 27. Letter from Capt. Brockholls to the Gov. of R. 1 768 

" Aug. 24. Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Justice Josiyne 768 

" Aug. 28. Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Magistrates of Martin's Vineyard 769 

1683. May 10. Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Francis Skinner 769 

" May 31. Letter from Capt. Brockholls to Gov. of Canada 769 

" Sept. 13. Council Minute. Election of Delegates to the Gen' Ass''' ordered; 

Trade ; Coin 770 

" Oct. 1. Council Minute. Indian affairs ; Canada ; L. I. ; Hemstead 771 

First Period, 

From the first recorded Dutch Patents to the occupation of the 
Province by the English. 

(1630 to 1664. ) 

Indian Deed to Kilian van Renselaer for a Tract of Land on the North river (Manor of 
Renselaeewtck) . 

Whereas Bastiaen Jansen Crol, Commissary at Fort Orange, when here at the Manhaias, 
mentioned to the Hon*"'^ Council of this place: that the land situate near Fort Orange conld not 
be purchased from the owners thereof this present year and although it was done afterwards, it was 
sold by the Virginians only for as long a time as he, Crol, should continue to live at the Fort ; and 
whereas, Wolphert Gerritsen who had also been directed by the Noble Lords Principals to inform 
them of the situation there, asked him, Crol, expressly, what information he should give to the 
Noble Lords and he answered, that there was no chance or means to obtain any land this year, 
repeating the same several times, according to the deposition made by the said Wol/phert Oerritsen : 
and whereas, it has happened afterwards, that Gillis Hosset sailing up the river came on the 27"> of 
July 1 63 1* to the place, where Jan Jansen Meyns camped with men to cut timber for the ship, there 
came also by accident Cottamack, Nawanemit, Ahantsene, Sagishwa, Kanamoach, owners and pro- 
prietors of their respective parcels of land, sti-etching along the river, north and south, from the 
Fort to a httlc south of Moenemines Castle, belonging to the said owners jointly and conjunctly 
and the land belonging to the said Naswanemit in particular called Gesmesseeck situate on the east 
side from opposite Castle Island to the said Fort, also from Petanock the mill creek northward 
to Negagonse about 3 leagues distance and when the said Gillis Hosset came and pi-oposed to the same 
owners of the said land that they should sell, convey and transfer their respecti\'e parcels of 
land, the same declared in presence of Jan Jansen Meyns, Wolfert Gerritsen and Jan Tyssen, 
trumpeter, that they were willing to sell, transfer, cede and convey their respective pieces of land, as on 
the 6"" of August following before us Director and Council in New Netherland, residing on the 
Island of the Manahatas at Fort Amsterdam under the jurisdiction of their High Mightinesses, 
the Lords States Genera! of the United Netherlands and the Privileged West India Company, 
Department of Amsterdam., they voluntarily and advisedly for a certain quantity of goods, which 
they acknowledge to have been paid to and received hj them before the passing of this act, by 
virtue and under the name of a bargain, transfer, cede and convey hereby to and for the behoof of 

* So in the original. 

2 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Mr. Killiaen van lienselaer, in whose absence we accept the same ex officio under the usual stipu- 
lations, to wit : the respective parcels of land, here above specified with tlie trees, appendencies 
and dependencies thereto belonging, also all the actions, rights, and privileges vested in them 
jointly and individually and constitute and put in their place, stead, rights, real and actual posses- 
sion thereof the said Mr. lienselaer, giving also perfect, absolute and irrevocable power, authority 
and special charge, tamquam actor et procurator iti rem suam ac propriarn to the said Mr. 
Renselaer or who hereafter may obtain his action to enter upon the said land in peace, hold, culti- 
vate, occupy, use and do therewith etc etc etc 

Done on tlie aforesaid Island the Manaliatas in Fort Amsterdam, on the day and year above 
written. [0'" of Aug. 1030.] 

Indian Deed to Kilian van Renselaer for land on the West Side of the Hudson's Rivee. 

"We, Director and Council of New Netherland etc testify and declare hereby, that to-day 
date underwritten, before us ajjpeared Peter Minuit, Director, Bastian Jansen Crol, Commissary 
and Dirch Cornelissen Duyster, Under Commissary at Fort Orange, and declared, that on the 
18"' of April last past personally appeared before them Paepschhene, Kemptas, Nanaucontamhat 
and SicTceposem, lawful owners and proprietors of the land called Sanhagag, situate on the west 
side of the North river stretching in length from a little above Beeren Island the river upwards 
to Smaks Island and in width two days' journey land inwards, for themselves and for the other 
co-proprietors of the same land, which thoj in their aforesaid quality voluntarily and advisedly 
declared to have transferred, ceded and delivered, as they herewith transfer, cede and deliver as 
lawful, inalienable and free possession by virtue and title of sale for a certain quantity of 
merchandise, which they, the grantors, in their aforesaid quality acknowledge to have received before 
the passing hereof ; to and for the behoof of Jlr. Kilian van Renselaer (absent) for whom they 
accept it under the usual stipulations, to wit : as to the aforesaid land with aU the actions, rights 
and privileges thereto belonging to them, the grantors in their quality aforesaid, they, the 
grantors, constitute and substitute the grantee in their place, stead, real and actual possession and 
at the same time give his Honor full and absolute power and charge, tainqimm procurator in rem 
propriam to enter upon, peaceably possess, occupy, cultivate, use and do with it, he or whoever 
may after him obtain his actions, as ho would do with his own and other lawfully acquired 
lauds etc etc. 

Done on the aforesaid Island, the Manahatas, at Fort Amsterdam. [Novbr 1630]. 

Indian Deed to Jacobus v^vn Coeleak foe a Flat on Long Island, called Sewanhacky. 

We, Director and Council of New Netherland, residing upon the Island of Manahatas in 
Fort Amsterdam under the jurisdiction of their High: Might: the States General of the United 
Netherlands and the Privileged West India Company, Department of Amsterdam, testify and 
declare herewith, that to-day, date underwritten, before us personally appeared Tenkirauw, 
Ketamau, Ararijhan, Asvachkou, SuarinJcehinh, Wappittavoachlcenis, Ehetyl as owners, in 
presence of Penhawis, Cakapeteyno, as chiefs over the districts and declare, voluntarily and 

Neio York Historical Records. 3 

advisedly bj special order of the rulers and with consent of the community there, for and in 
consideration of certain merchandise, which they acknowledge to have received into their liands and 
possession to their full satisfaction and contentment before the passing hereof, to have ti'ansferred, 
ceded, delivered and conveyed in lawful, true and free possession, as they herewith transfer, cede, 
deliver and convey to and for the behoof of Jacobus van Corlear the middlemost of the three 
flats belonging to them called Castuteeuw, situate on the Island by them called Sewanhaclcy, 
between the bay of the North river and the East river of Hew Netherland, stretching in length 
from a certain kil coming from the sea almost north to the woods and in width from a certain 
valley eastwards also into the woods and that with all the action, rights and privileges, which 
they, in their aforesaid quality, have thereunto, constituting and substituting the said Corlear in 
their places, stead, real and actual possession etc etc. 

Done on the Island, the Manahatas, this 16"' of June A° 1636. 


A. HuDDE, Jacob Bentyl, Claes v. Elslant. 

Indian Deed fok Land on Long Island. 

We, Director and Council of New Netlierland etc etc., herewith testify and declare, that 
to-day, date underwritten before us personally appeared TenMrau, Ketamau, Aharikan, 
Awachkouio, Warinckeyinck, Wajyjnttawaokenis, Ehetyl as owners Pemawys, Kakaspetteno 
being jjresent as chiefs of the district and declai'ed, that voluntarily and advisedly, by special order 
of the rulers and with consent of tlie community, for certain ■ merchandise, which they 
acknowledge to have received into their liands and power to their full satisfaction and content- 
ment before the passing hereof, they have transferred, ceded, surrendered and conveyed as lawful, 
true and free possession, as they herewith transfer, cede, surrender and convey to and for the 
behoof of Andries Hadde and Wolphert Gerritsen the westernmost of the flats called Kestateuw 
belonging to them on the Island called Sewanhacky between the bay of the North river and the 
East river of New Netherlands stretching in length from a certain kil coming from the sea almost 
north into the woods and in width from a certain valley, included, almost west also into the 
woods, with all action, rights and privileges etc etc. 

Done on the Island Manahatas this 16"" of June 1636. W. V. Twillek 

Jacobus van Coelaek, Jacus Bentyl, Claes van Elslant. 

Indian Deed foe Land on Long Island. 

We, Director and Council of New Netherland etc, herewith testify and declare, that to-day 
date underwritten personally before us appeared Tenkirauw, Ketamau., Ararikan, Awachkouv) 
Warri7ickehinck, Wappittawackenis, Ehetil, as owners, Penhawis, Kakapeteyno being present 
as chiefs of the district and declare, that voluntarily and advisedly, by special order of the rulers 
and with consent of the community, for certain goods, which they acknowledge to have received 

4 Early Colonial Settlements. 

into tlieir hands and power to their full satisfaction and contentment before the passing hereof, 
thej have transferred, ceded, surrendered and conveyed as lawful, true and free possession, as 
they herewith transfer, cede, surrender and convey to and for the behoof of TT^. v. Twiller, 
Director General of New Netherlands the easternmost of the three flats, to them belonging, 
called Casteteuio situate on the island, by them called Sewanhacking between the bay of the 
North river and the East river of New Netherland, stretching in length from a certain kil 
coming from the sea almost north into the woods and in width from a certain valley eastward 
also into the woods, with all the action, rights and privileges etc etc. 
Done on the Idaiid 2Ianahatas, this 16"" of July 1636, 

Jacobus van Coeleae, A. Hddde, Jacus Bentyl, Claes van Eslant. 

Indian Deed fok Goveenok's Island, N. Y. Haeboe. 

We, Director and Council of New Netherland etc, herewith testify and declare, that 
to-day, date underwritten, before us personally appeared Cacapeteyno and Pewihas as owners and 
declared, that voluntarily and advisedly, by special order of the rulers and with consent of the 
community at Keshaechquereren, for certain goods, which they acknowledge to have received 
into their hands and power to their full contentment and satisfaction, they have transferred 
ceded, surrendered and conveyed as lawful, true and free possession, as they herewith transfer, 
cede, surrender and convey to and for the behoof of Wouter van Twiller, Director General of 
New Netherland, the Nut Island, in the Indian tongue called Pagganok, situate opposite the 
Island of the Manahates between the North and East rivers of New Netherland, with all the 
action, rights and privileges. 

Done upon the Island Manahatas, this IG"" of Jime 1637. 

Jacob van Coelaee, Andeies Eudde, Jacus Bentyl, Claes van Elslant. 

Indian Deed foe a Teact of Land on Long Island (Wallabout, Beooklyn, U. S. 
Marine Hospital). 

We, Director General and Council of New Netherland, etc etc, testifj' and declare, that on 
the date underwritten personally appeared before us Eakapetteyno, Peioiehaas, as o\TOers of this 
district, and declared that voluntarily and advisedly, by special order of the rulei-s and Avith 
consent of the community there, for and in consideration of a lot of merchandise, which they 
acknowledge to have received into their hands and power to their full satisfaction and contentment 
before the passing hereof, they have transferred, ceded, surrendered and conveyed as lawful, true 
and free possession, as they herewith transfer, cede, surrender and convey to and for the behoof 
of George Rapalje a certain piece of land, called Rinnegackonck, situate upon the Long Islands 
south of the Island, the Manahatas, containing morgens and reaching from a kil to the 

woods, south and east to a certain copse, where the loater runs over the stones, with all the 
action, rights and privileges etc etc. 

Done on the Island Manahatas, this 16"' of June 1637. W. v. Twiller. 


(Patent issued June 17, 1643 van Elslant. 

for 167 morgens 406 rods.) 

New York Historical Records. 5 

Indian Deed for two Islands in Hellegat : Tenkenas (Wakd's Island) and Minnahanonok 
(Blaokwell's Island). 

We, Director and Council of Nexo Netherland etc, testify and declare, that this day, date 
underwritten, personally appeared hefore us Seyseys and Numers, both chiefs of Maryclikenwi- 
hingli* and declared, that voluntarily and advisedly, by special order of the rulers and with 
consent of the community there, for certain goods, which they acknowledge to have received into 
their hands and power to their full satisfaction and contentment before the passing hereof, they 
have transferred, ceded, surrendered and conveyed as lawful, true and free possession, as they 
herewith transfer, cede, surrender and convey to and for the behoof of Wouter van Twiller, 
Director General of New ISTetherland, the two islands, situate in the Ilellcgat, of which the 
larger is called Tenkenas and the smaller Minnahanonch, Ijnng to the west of the larger, with 
all the action, n'ghts and privileges, etc etc. 

Done on the Island Manaliatas, this IG"' of July 1637. 

Jacob van Cohlaek, Jacds Benteyl, Claes van Elslant. 

Council Minutes. Appointment to the Council of Johannes La Montagne; Cattle on 
THE Company's Bowep.ies. 

Anno 1638, the eighth of April at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland. 


His Honor, Director Kieft, and the Council taking into consideration the small number of 
members of the Council, have deemed it necessary to select another proper, experienced person 
to add to the Board and observing the fitness of Dr. Johannes Montagne., we liave 
engaged the said Montagns as Civil {politique ) Councillor of New Netherland at 35 fl per 
month, commencing this day. 

Agreeably to a certain document produced by his Honor, the late Director Wouter van 
Twiller, it is resolved and concluded, that the cattle on Bowery No. If shall remain at the disposal 
of said van Twiller on condition of their not being removed from the Manhates. The present 
Director shall take an inventory of said cattle referring the main issue in question to their Noble 
Honors, the Directors of the West India Company, Department of Amsterdam. 

The farmers of Boweries No. 4, 5 and 6 are allowed to remove their animals from the said 
Boweries, the more so as heretofore others have received permission to remove cattle from the 
Manhates, the same privilege could not be refused to these people, as they remain within the 
jurisdiction of the Manhates and cattle may be had here. 
Thursday the 15'" April. 

On petition of Jacoh Planch, Sheriff of the Colony of Mr. Renselaer, called Renselaerwyck, 
concerning the removal of some horses to the said Colony : whereas heretofore many animals have 

* Brooklyn, L. I. 

t Now 17th Ward, New York City. 

6 Early Colonial Settlements. 

been carried off from the Island of Manholes and as only upon the Bowery of the former Director 
Twiller there are some animals, while the other five Boweries are wholly destitute and bare of 
cattle, therefore the Hon"'' Director and Council, after mature deliberation, deny Jaoob Plancks 
petition, allowing him only to carry away some goats. 

Ordinance PROHiBnrNO the fdu trade bt peivate parties and containing sundry police 
REGULATIONS. Passed April 15 1638. 

(See Laws of New Netherland, page 10.) 

Lease of two lots in New Amsterdam given by Director Kieft to Jan Damen. 

This day, date underwritten, before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary here in Wew 
Netherland on behaK of the General Privileged West India Company, Department of Amsterdam, 
appeared the Honorable, Wise and Prudent Mr. Williain Kieft, Director General of New 
Netherland on the one part, and Jaii Damen on the other part, and mutually agreed and 
contracted about the hire of two lots of land, to wit : the Honorable Director has leased and does 
hereby let to Jan Damen abovenaraed, who also acknowledges to have hired, two parcels of land, 
the larger one of which has heretofore been cultivated by the JSTegroes and is situate on the east 
side of the road, to the north of the said Jan Damen's^ south of the esplanade of the Fort and 
east of Philip^} de Truy and the smaller situate to the north of the Company's garden and on the 
south of said Jan Damen, extending from the road to the river. Jan Damen shall cultivate, 
sow or plant the aforesaid land six consecutive years, also be bound to convey twice all his manure 
on said land and do all this at his own cost, for which his Honor, the Director, shall receive as 
rent half the produce, which God the Lord shall grant on the aforesaid two lots of land every 
year, whether standing on the field in sheaves or as they may agree. It is also especially agreed, 
that said Director shall maintain and keep tight the fences now put up around it and furnish to 
Jan Damen two laborers fourteen days during the harvest to be paid for their day's work by the 
Company and fed by Jan Damen; likewise if the Company think proper to plant a vineyard or 
gardens in the low place, the lessee shall be bound to allow it and have nothing to say ; with 
the express promise, that after the expiration of the abovewritten six years, the lessee, his childi-en 
or heirs shall remain in possession of the two aforesaid lots of land and be preferred before others 
(if the Company shall not have need of the said land for their own use) on such conditions as 
shall then be imposed. For all which stipulations the siid parties pledge their respective persons 
and goods, movable and immovable, present and future, without any exception, submitting to the 
Court of the Province of Holland and all other Court, Judges and Justices, all in good faith without 
reservation or deceit. In testimony two copies of the same tenor are made hereof and signed by 
parties resjjcctively. 

Done at Fort Amstsrdayn in Netu Netherland, the IQ"" of April A° 1638 

New York Historical Records. 7 

Lease to Wouter van Twillee of the Company's Bowery No. 1 on Manhattan Island. 

This day, date underwritten, before me, Cormlis van Tienhoven, Secretary etc., appeared 
the Honorable, Wise and Prudent Mr. William Kieft, Director General of New Netherlands on 
the one part and his Honor, Mr. Woxiter van Twiller, late Director, on the other part, who in all 
amity and friendship agreed and covenanted about the hire of the Bowery No. 1, belonging to the 
Noble Directors of the Priv. "West India Company, Department of Amsterdam, to wit: his 
Honor, Director Kieft, has leased and hereby does let to the Hon''''' Mr. Wouter van TwUler, 
who acknowledges to have rented, the aforesaid Bowery for the term of three consecutive years 
to begin on the first of May iV 163S and ending on the first of May A° 16il for the sum of two 
hundred and fifty Carolus guilders to be paid yearly, together with an equal sixth part of the 
produce, with which God shall bless the field, whether standing on the field in sheaves or as then 
shall be agreed on to receive it ; under condition that the Hon'''* Mr. Twiller shall be bound at 
the expiration of the said three years to sow again the said Bowery and in the meantime to keep 
the land in proper order; for all which the said parties pledge their respective persons and 
properties, real and personal, present and future, without any exception, submitting to the 
Provincial Court of Holland and all other Courts, Judges and Justices, all in good faith, without 
reservation or deceit. In testimony two copies of the same are made hereof and signed by both 
parties with their own hands. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherlands the 22'' day of April 1638. 

William Kieft. 


Order in Council geantino Woutek van Twillee the use of lands on IIed Hook, L. I. 

Thursday, the 22" day of April 1638. 

The htte Director Twiller applying for tlie Red IIool\ situate south of Nid Island*, to make 
use of the same, as may seem advisable; his request is granted, on condition, that he sliall surrender 
the land, when the Company has need of it. 

Lease by Baeent Diecksen to Coenelis Jacobsen and beothee of the Bowery called 
W alensteyn.** 

Tills day, date underwritten, before me Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of New 
Netherlaiid, in the presence of the undersigned witnesses ajjpeared Barent Dircl'sen, baker, on 
the one part, and Cornelis Jacobsen, of MartensdyTf, the elder and Cornelis Jacobsen his brother, 
on the other part, who in all amity and friendship agreed and covenanted about the hire of the 
Bowery called Walensteyn. Tims, Barent Direl'sen aforesaid has leased and hereby does lease 
to Cornelis Jacobsen the elder and Cornelis Jacobsen the younger, who also acknowledge to have 

* Governor's Island, N. T. Harbor. 
** Harlem 

8 Early Colonial Settlements. 

rented, the siiid Bowery for a term of six consecutive years under the following conditions: 
First, Barent Dircksen sliall be bound to deliver to the lessees four uiilch cows, two heifers, one 
heifer calf, three bull calves, one mare and two stallions, a yearling sow, two wagons, a new and 
serviceable harrow and jjlough and further every thing now to be found upon the Bowery ; for 
which the lessees shall pay to the lessor every year 150 pounds of butter, one haK before, the other 
after the harvest, also 50 sehepels of grain, either wheat, rye, barley or such grain as they can 
spare to the satisfaction of the lessor, it being well understood, that whatever increase of the said 
animals may be had during the said years shall be divided into two equal halves for the lessor 
and tlie lessees. 

The lessor shall also deliver to the lessees three old sows, seven little boars and one young 
sow, for which the lessees shall pay whatever impartial men may deem just and should any of 
the present stock of animals die without any neglect on the part of the lessees, the lessor shall 
bear the loss. After the expiration of the aforesaid sis years the lessees shall be bound to 
surrender to the lessor the land, buildings and number of cattle in the same condition as now 
received ; it being well understood, that if unfortunately the house should be burned down by 
either hostile Indians or others and not by tlie negligence of the lessees, the lessor shall stand the 
risk of the incendiary. Also, the land sliall be properly planted and cleared, all as before, and 
neither the lessor nor the lessees shall be at liberty during the said six years to sell any of the 
milch cows, neither young nor old, but they make take to themselves the steers and oxen every 
three years and if Jan Oornelissen of Rotterdam should return here from the Fatherland, the 
lessees shall be bound to deliver to said Jan Cornelhsen according to his selection one of the 
cows then in the stable with a heifer calf and in case the lessor needs a horse and wagon either 
to haul firewood for himself or for other purposes, the lessees shall be obliged to let him have the 
same, provided it be not to the prejudice of tlie cultivation of the farm. The lessor shall be 
allowed to remain in his house until he has found another suitable dwelling. In testimony and 
in token of the trnth these presents are signed by the parties respectively and two copies of 
the same tenor have been made hereof. 

Done on the Island Manhates, at Fort Amderdam this 14"" of May 1638. 

This is the mark V of Tp:unis Jansen This is the mark p of Barent Diecksen aforesd. 

sailmaker, witness. This is the mark r^ of Coknelis Jacobsen 

Claes van Elslant, witness the younger of Mertensdyck. 

This is the mark ^ — ^ of Coenelis 
Jacobsen the elder as co-principal. 

Appointment and Peomotion of vaeious Officeks of the Government. 

The Ilon^'" Director and Council observing the ability of Cornells van Tienhoven, Keeper 
of the Book of Monthly wages up to the 1"^ of April, have appointed him Secretary and Keeper of 
the Book of Monthly Wages @ 36 ii. per month, and M. iiOO annually for board money, 
commencing the 1^' of April A° 1638. 

New York Historical Records. 9 

Hendrick Pietersen, mason, served as Master Mason, since tlie 10'" of May A.° 1638, as liis 
engagement had expired, fl. 20. a month and fl. 100 board money. 

Hendrick Gerritsen, an apprentice, has man's wages since 20"" of May A° 1638. 

Peter Pietersen from Amsterdam is engaged as a man on 20"' of May A° 1638 @ 8 fl. per 

Laurens Lourensen from Amsterdam is engaged as a man on the 20"' of May A° 1638. @fl. 8 
a month 

Glaes van £lslant, Commissary of provisions, was engaged on tlie 1"' of April A° 1638, by the 
non*"'^ Director and Council @ 36 fl. p month, as the term of his engagement lias expired, 
particularly on account of the certainty we have of his ability and fitness for his charge and of 
the good satisfaction he has given us. 

Jan Jansen, gimner, is engaged on 15"* of May 1638 @ fl. 16 a mouth, as gunner in Fort 

Jan Dirchsen from Bremen as assistant gunner is engaged on 7"' of May 1638 @ fl. 10 ])er 

Thomas Walraven is engaged as carpenter, since 1" of August 1638 @ fl. 18 per month and 
fl. 100 yearly board money. 

Jacob Stoffelsen^s wages are increased by the Hon'''" Director and Council, on the IS"" of May 
A° 1638, to fl. 30 per month as his term of service is expired, and there is no fltter person to be 
had here for overseer of laborers, inasmuch as he has been diligent and faithful in all works 
confided to him in the service of the Company. 

Jan Pietersen from Essendelft earns as surgeon (harhier), at the South River fl. 10 P 
month since 10'" of July 1638. 

Adriaen Dirchsen from Maersen is engaged as assistant at Fort Orange, as he fluently 
speaks the Mohawk language, and thoroughly understands the trade there ; @ 12 fl. per month and 
fl. 100 for board from the 15'" of July A° 1638. [Translated by Dr. E. C. O'Callaghan.] 

On tlie 24'" of June 1638. 

Whereas the Master house-carpenter is departing for Fatherland and there are here but 
few carpenters fit to succeed in his place, and we observing the fitness of Oillis Pietersen 
van de Gouw, have engaged him as Master carpenter @ 36 fl. per month, since P' of June 
A° 1638. 

Nicolaes Goorn is engaged as serjeant @ fl. 18 per month and fl. 100 board money, since 
] .5th of September A° 1638, as it is necessary to have one to drill the soldiers in the proper use 
of arms. 

Juriaen Rodolf is engaged as serjeant in Goorn's place @ fl. 18 per month and fl. 100 
board money, since 7'" of December A° 1638. 

Dirck Sti])el for quartermaster at said Fort, is engaged @ fl. 10 per month since 15'" of July 

On the 24'" of June 1638. 

(Translated by Dr. E. C. O'Callaghan.) 

Order regarding the granting of Patents. 

Divers freemen request, by petition to the Council, conveyance of the lands which they are 
cultivating at present. The request of the Petitioners is granted on condition that they shall, 

10 Early Colonial Settlements. 

after the expiration of ten years from the commencement of their plantation, annually pay to the 
Company the Tenth of all the produce which God shall bestow on the land. Also, in futm-e, for 
a house and garden a couple of capons yearly. 

Resolution to retain Rev. Bogaedtjs as Minister of the Gospel. 
On Thursday, being the 8"" of July. 

In Council presented a certain petition by Eoerardus Bogardus, wherein he requests leave 
to depart for Fathei'land, to defend himself against Lubbert van DincTdage. 

We have deemed it necessary to retain the Minister here, so that the church of God may 
increase more and more every day. 

Ina'entoet of the Effects and Goods at Achteevelt belonging to Andeies Hudde and 


Three milch cows One gelding of four years 

One heifer, two years old One new wagon and ap- 

One do , one year old pnrtenances 

Two old oxen One wheelplough and 

One young do appurtenances 

One young calf One iron harrow 

Two old mares Some farm tools required 

One yearling do for the Bowery 

One stallion, three years old 

One house surrounded by long round palisades ; the house is 26 feet long, 22 feet wide and 

40 feet deep with the roof covered above and all around with planks, two garrets one above the 

other and a small chamber on the side with an outlet on the side. 
One barn, 40 feet long, 18 wide and 24 high with the roof. 
One Bergh*, with five posts, long 40 feet. 
About 16 morgens of laud sown with summer and winter grain. 
A garden planted with a number of fruit trees. 
A yawl with appurtenances. 
Thus done and found on the aforesaid Bowery, called Achtermlt, situate upon Long Islands 

this 9'" of July A" 1638. 

* A shed consisting of a movable roof set on posts, upon wliicU it slides up or down, to shelter hay or grain 
against rain and snow. — B. F. 

New YovTc Historical Records. 11 

Ageeement fob the Cultivation of a Tobaccoplantation on Manhattan Island. 

Conditions and stipulations agreed to between 
Andries Hudde and Uans Hansen Nonnan, 
on the 9"" day of July A° 1638, as follows: 

First, the said Andries Hudde shall by the first opportunity of ships from Holland send 
hither to Hans Hansen aforesaid six or eight persons with implements required for the cultivation 
of tobacco. 

Hans Hansen shall be bound to place the said persons upon the flatlaud on the Island of the 
Manhates behind Corlears laud. 

Hudde shall bear the expense of the transportation and of engaging them and shall send the 
vouchers for these expenses with them. 

Hans Hansen shall also be bomid to furnish as many dwellings and tobacco houses, as the 
time may permit ; further to put to work the persons, who shall come from the Fatherland, for 
the profit of both of them. Hans Hansen shall also have authority over them in Hiidde's 
absence withoiit interference by anybody else. He shall further bear and repay one half of the 
expenses, incurred by said Hudde. In like manner he must provide such supply of victuals, as 
shall be necessary for so many persons, on condition that Andries Hudde shall likewise repay one 
half of the expenses incurred here by Hans Hansen. 

Mons. Hudde shall also be bouud to pay Hans Hansen for his industry whatever impartial 
men shall deem to be just. 

Likewise Hudde shall not be allowed to demand from said Hans Hansen any rent for the 
land, but shall assist in every way with the means, which he has here, if he does not require them 
and is not prevented and all this until Hudde's return, when further arrangements shall be made. 
For what is above written parties pledge their persons and property real and personal, present and 
future, submitting to the Provincial Court of Holland' and all other Courts, Judges and Justices, 
all in good faith, without reservation or deceit. In testimony whereof we have signed this with 
our usual signature. 

Thus done at Fort Amsterdain m New Netherland, the 10'" of July A" 1638. 

A. Hudde. 
This is the mark "T" of Hans Hansen afores*. 

Patent for a Tract of Land in Harlem N. Y.* 

We, Director and Council of New Netherland etc etc. herewith testify and declare, that by 
virtue of the Freedoms and Exemptions granted to Patroons, Masters and Private Persons on the 
7"" of June 1629 we have granted, transferred, ceded and conveyed as lawful, true and free 
possession, as we herewith transfer, cede, surrender and convey to and for the behoof of Andries 
Hidde a piece of land containing one hundred morgens, situate upon the northeast end of the 
Island, the Manahatas, behind Corler''s land, on the condition that he and his successors shall 
acknowledge the aforesaid Lords Directors as their masters and patroons and pay, after the end of 

* This tract, originally in the possession of Henry de Forest (d. 1637), came by the marriage of his widow with 
Andries Hudde into the possession of tlie latter. Its Indian name Muscota means a flat and it was later known as 
Montagnie-s Flat, now as that part of if. T. City lying between 109'" and 134"' St„ Harlem Creek qn the East and the 
Heights on the West.— B. P. 

12 Early Colonial Settlements. 

ten years commencing with the occupation or cultivation of the lands, which he owns, the just 
tenth part of the produce, given to the land by God and from this time forth for the house and 
lot deliver annually at Christmas to the Director a brace of capons ; constituting and substituting 
the aforesaid Hudde in our place, stead, real and actual possession thereof and at the same time 
giving him full and irrevocable power, authority and special charge, tamquam actor et procurator 
in rem suam ao propriam, that the said land by the said Hudde or who thereafter may obtain his 
interest may be entered upon, peaceably settled, occupied, cultivated, held, used and also therewith 
and thereof be done, bargained and disposed of, as he would do with his own lands acquired by 
legal titles, without they, the grantors, in their said quality, thereto having or reserving any part, 
action or ownership, other than before recited, but for the behoof aforesaid now and forever 
wholly and lastingly desisting, renouncing and withdrawing by these presents and moreover 
promising this their conveyance forever firmly, inviolably and irrevocably to maintain, carry out 
and fulfil all under the rules of the law, without reservation or deceit and in good faith. In 
testimony whereof we have confirmed this by our usual signature and our seal. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland on the Manahatas, this 20"" of July A° 1638. 


Mortgage on Achteevelt, L. I., given by Andeies Hudde to Ret. Eveeaedus Bogaedus. 

To-day, date underwritten, before me, Cornells van Tlenhoven, Secretary of New Netherlands 
appeared Andries Hudde, formerly Commissary of store goods here in New Netherlands who 
voluntarily acknowledged to be well and truly indebted for the sum of six hundred Carolus 
guilders of Holland, arising out of a certain bond given by the said Hudde to Everardus Bogardus 
preacher in this place, on the first of July 1637, which sum the said Hudde promises truly and 
faithfully to deliver and pay free of costs and charges and without any gainsay into the hands of 
said Bogardus / pledging to that end all his property, as well his buildings and animals as otherwise, 
which the deponent may have here in New Netherland and at present located in the district of 
Achtevelt, placing him, Bogardus, as he hereby does, in possession of the effects aforesaid and 
finally and wholly conveying and transferring to him the property aforesaid to him, Andries 
Hudde, belonging and that to the amount of the above said sum. For all which the deponent 
pledges his person and property, real and personal, present and future, without any exception, 
submitting to the Provincial Court of Holland, in all good faith is this confirmed by deponent's 
usual signature. 

Done upon the Island Manhates, this 22'' of July 1638. 

A. Hudde. 

Deed foe Land on Long Island. 

To-day, the 22* of July 1638, before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of New 
Netherland, appeared Jacobus van Corlaer, who declared that he wholly and finally renounced 

New YovTc Histai^ical Records. 13 

the claim and action, ■which the deponent has npon and against the flat,* situate upon Long Island 
to the west of the most easterly of the three called Gashuteyie, and at the same time lierehy 
transfers the said flat to Mr. Wouter van Twiller, former Director of New Netherlands putting 
him in his own place, stead, real and actual possession thereof and giving him full and irrevocable 
power, authority and special commission to dispose of the land aforesaid, as he would do with his own 
lands acquired by just and lawful titles and at the same time holding and delivering said land free 
from all suits and challenge to be instituted by any person thereon. All in good faith, without 
reservation or deceit. In testimony whereof, these presents are confirmed by deponent's usual 

Jacobus van Coelaee. 

Patent foe Land on Manhattan Island (Ninth Ward New Yoek Crry). 

We, Director and Council of New Netherland etc., testify and declare herewith, that, by 
virtue of the Freedoms and Exemptions granted to Patroons, Masters and Private Persons on the 
7"" of June 1629, we have granted, transferred, ceded, surrendered and conveyed as lawful, true 
and free possession, as we herewith transfer, cede, surrender and convey to and for the behoof of 
'Wouter van Twiller, Director General of New Netherland, a piece of land containing one 
hundred morgens, situate near Sapokanickan, bounded on the North by the Strand road and by 
Jan from Rotterdam and on the west by the plantations of the same and of Edward FiscocTc and 
so far into the woods as to make one hundred morgens, provided, that all such roads and footpaths, 
as are now running through said land, shall for ever remain there for the use of the inhabitants; 
under condition that he and his successors shall acknowledge said Lords Directors as his sovereign 
Lords and Patroons and after the expiration of ten years, beginning with the occupation and 
cultivation of the land he owns, pay a just tenth part of the produce, with which God shall bless it and 
from this time forth for the house and lot deliver yearly at Christmas to the Director a brace of 
capons; constituting and substituting in our place, stead, real and actual possession the saidTF.i)a«. 
Twiller, etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland. 

Deed foe Land at Aohtevelt, L. I. 

To-day, date underwritten, before me, \_Oornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Nether- 
lands appeared Andries Hiidde and acknowledged to be well and truly indebted to Oerrit 
Wolferisen-f for the sum of two and fifty guilders of Holland, also of my just half share in the 
district of Achtevelt I have given to Gerrit Wolfertsen fifty morgens of land and hereby I convey 

* See Indian Deeds on pages 2^. 

** By the above deed W. van Twiller became proprietor of the middle as well as the eastern flat. In 1640 orders 
came from Amsterdam not to permit the transfer of any property, purchased by van Twiller from the Indians and an 
Ordinance of July 1, 165a annulled the grant of these t%vo flats to Van Twiller and of the third called the Bay or 
Amesfoort, to Hudde and GerriUen. The latter grant was however ratified Aug. 22, 1658.— B. F. 

t Van Couwenhoven. 

14 Early Colonial Settlements. 

and transfer to him tlie said land, renouncing all claim, which deponent has upon it and promising 
to hold valid, whatever he may do with tJie aforesaid land, for which the said Andries Iludde 
pledges his person and estate, real and personal, none excepted, all in good faith. 
This done upon the Island Manhates, this 26"" of July 1638. 


Indian Deed fok Land on Long Island (Bdshwiok). 

We, Director and Council of New Netherland etc., testify and declare, that to-day, date 
underwritten, personally appeared before us Kakapoteyno, Menqueuw and Suwirau, chiefs of 
Keshaechquerem., in presence of the undersigned witnesses and declared, that voluntarily and 
advisedly with consent of the community, for and in consideration of eight fathoms of duffels, 
eight strings of wampum, twelve kettles, eight chip-axes and eight hatchets and some knives, 
beads and awls, which they acknowledge to have received into their hands and power to their full 
satisfaction and contentment before the passing hereof, they have transferred, ceded, surrendered 
and conveyed as lawful, true and free possession, as they herewith transfer, cede, surrender and 
convey to and for the behoof of the Noble Lords Directors of the General Privileged "West India 
Company, Department of Amsterdam, a certain piece of land lying on the Long Island, south 
of Manhates Island, reaching in length from the plantation of George Rapaljee (called 
Rinnegachonch^) a good league and a half to the Mespaeohtes** and in width from the East river 
about one league to the copses of the same Mespaechtes, with all the action, rights, privileges, 
thereunto belonging, constituting and substituting the said Lords Directors etc etc. 

Done on the Island Manhates in IFort Amsterdam this first of August A° 1638. 


In my presence 


Patent foe a House and Land on Manhattan Island to Thomas Sandees. 

To-day, date underwritten, before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Nether- 
land, personally appeared the Honorable, Wise and Prudent Mr. William Kieft, Director 
General of New Netherland, on the one part, and Thomas Sanders of , smith, on the 

other part, who agreed and covenanted together about the purchase of the house formerly occupied 
by Evert and five and twenty morgens of land, adjoining it, under the following 

conditions and stipulations : 

First, his Honor, Director Kieft aforesaid, sells as he hereby does, to Thomas Sanders, who 
also acknowledges to have bought, the aforedescribed house and land for the sum of 450 Carolus 
guilders at 20 st. the piece, payable in three installments. Thomas Sanders promises to deliver 
and pay the first installment into the hands of the said Director or of who might succeed in his 

* Wallabout Bay. 
** Maspelh Kil. 

New Yoi'h Historical Records. 15 

place oil the first of January 1639, the second on the same day 164:0 and the third and last on the 
first of January 1641 ; under the express condition, that Thomas Sanders shall submit to all such 
taxes and levies, as the Company has already imposed and ordered or may in the future impose 
and he promises to pay all dues, as other free people are obliged to pay under the same condition, 
to begin for his plantation on the first of April 1638. 

His Honor, the Director aforesaid, conveys and transfers also on behalf of the W. I. Company 
the aforesaid 25 morgons of land to and for the behoof of said Thomas Sanders or his successors, 
to peaceably occupy, use hold and dispose of, as he would do witli the lands acquired by just and 
lawful title, without reserving or retaining for himself as conveyor in his quality aforesaid any 
action, part or property in it, but relinquishing it all. 

Not dated, but the preceding document bears tlie date of July 30, and the succeeding Oct. 19, 1638. 

Indian Deed for La^d on Long Island (Qcteens Co.). 

We, Director and Council of New Nethedand etc., testify and declare, that to-day, date 
underwritten, personally appeared before us Mechowodt, chief Sachem of Marossepinck, Sintsinck 
(also called Schouts hay) and its dependencies and declared, that voluntarily and advisedly, with 
the consent of Plscamoo, his cousin, Watteioochkeouw, Kachjwher, Ketachquawars, co-o\vners 
of the aforesaid land, for and in consideration of a party of merchandise, which they acknowledge 
to have received into their hands and power to their full satisfaction and contentment before 
the passing hereof, they had transferred, ceded, surrendered and conveyed as lawful, true and free 
possession, as they herewith transfer, cede, surrender and convey to and for the behoof of the 
Noble Lords Directors of the General Privileged West India Company, Department of Amsterdam, 
all his, the grantor's, patrimonial lands and the jurisdiction thereof, situate upon the Lo7Uj Island, 
called in the Indian tongue Suanhackey, reaching in length along the southside of said island 
from Rechouwhacky to Sicketeuwhacky and from said Sicketeuwhaohy in width to Martin 
OerritserCs bay and thence in length westwardly along the East river to the kil of the Flats, with 
all the action, rights and privileges thereunto to him, Mechowot, or to any of his heirs belonging, 
constituting in his place, stead, real and actual possession of the foredescribed land and its 
dependencies the said Lords or who hereafter may obtain their interest, to enter upon, possess in 
peace, occupy, cultivate and do and dispose therewith and thereof, as they would do with their 
own justly and lawfully acquired lands, without they, the grantors, having, reserving or retaining 
in the least any part of or authority over it, bat all to the behoof aforesaid ; under the express 
condition, that he, Mechowot, may be allowed, with his people and friends, to remain upon the 
aforesaid land, plant corn, fish, hunt and make a living there as well as they can, while he himself 
and his people place themselves under the protection of the said Lords, who will grant to them all 
possible assistance and favor by their representative in this country. In testimony whereof and 
of the truth these presents have been signed by the witnesses, called upon to do so, who were 
present at the sale. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in Neio Nethorland, the 15"^ of January 1639. 

David Pietteesen de Veies 
Maueits Jansen as witness. 
In my presence 

Coenelis van Tienhoven, Seer''. 

16 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Deposition coNCEiixiNo the Buildings erected in different Places in New Netherland 
DURING Die. van Twillek's Administration. 

To-day, the 22"'^ of March 1639 before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary in Neio 
Netherland on behalf of the General Privileged West India Company in presence of the under- 
signed witnesses appeared Gillis Pietersen van der Gouw, about 27 years old, at present master 
housecarpenter on the Island Manhatans, to me, the Secretary, well known, and by true words, in 
place and with pro.nise of an oath if required, at the instance of his Honor Willem Eieft, Director 
General of Ifew Netherland, testifies, declares and deposes, that it is true, that he, deponent, 
during the administration of 'Wouter van Twiller, formerly Director here, has worked as journey- 
man carpenter on all the works, on which he was employed and he, deponent, knows, what houses 
and other buildings have been erected for the service of the Company during Mr. van Twiner's 
time on the Island Manhatans, at Fort Orange^ Fort Nassau in the South and Fort Hope in the 
North on the Fresh River * to wit : 

Ou Manhates Island. 

In Fort Amsterdam the guardhouse with lattice work and a roof were made. 

A small house for the soldiers to live in. 

A large cellar was dug and built up with stones to the level of the ground and beams across 
to lay planks on for the floor of the house. 

On the Island outside of the Fort. 

A new bakery. 

A small house for the midwife. 

A goathouse standing behind the Five Houses. 

The church with a house and stable behind it.f 

The smith's, corporal's and cooper's house, which had been raised, was completed and covered 
with pan tiles. 

The large shed, where the sloop and yachts are built, and the sailmakers' loft above-. 

At the Bowery No. 1, a very good barn, dwelling house, boathouse and brewery covered with 

The house upon Mr. Twiller's plantation. 

In the commander's house, standing in the Fort, much has been broken and repaired. 

The saw and grist mills have been at divers times provided with axes and arms and other 
requisites, were always provided when necessary. 

Much work has been done at Corlaer's Bowery. 

Likewise at la Montagne's. 

The house of Jan Evertsen was built at Pavonia. 

The house of Cornelis van Yorst at Pavonia was built. 

** The house belonging to the former Director on the Island of Hellegat.** 

Fort Amsterdam was built up with platfoi-ms for the guns in the Fort. 

The house of Tyinen Jansen \ for which Wouter van 

The house of Domine Bogardus j Twiller must account. 

The house of Wolphert Oerritsen, standmg in the Bay, was built by the (Co') carpenters. 

* Connecticut River. 

f On the North side of Pearl street, between Whitehall and Broad streets. 

*f Afterwards, in 1651, sold to Dir. Stuymsant. The house stood adjoining the grounds of St. Mark's church. 

** These words are crossed out in the original. 

New Yai'h Historical Recm'ih. 1 7 

In Fort Orange lie has had made : 

111 said Fort he had made by Birch Cornelissen from Wenween a handsome, large house 
with a flat roof and lattice work. 

Also eight small houses for the soldiers. 

At Fort JVassau, which was in decay he had built the large house in Fort Nassau. 

Fort Hope in the North he caused to be built. 

All which the deponent declares to be true and according to his best knowledge of the 
buildings, constructed by order of the late Director. He cannot name any other and this is done 
by him without any simulation or regard of person, but only to testify to the truth. Done in 
Fort Amsterdam in New Netherlands date as above. Gillis I^ietersen, Maurits Jcmsen as 
witness, Wyhrant Pietersen as witness. 

Return of the Ships built A2id eepaieed in New Netherland dttring Woutee van 
Twillek's Administeation. 

Before me, Gornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Netherland, appeared in presence of 
the undersigned witnesses Tymen Jansen, ship carpenter, about 36 years old, and with true 
Christian words in stead and under promise of a solemn oath, if necessary, at the request of his 
Honor, Director General Kieft, declared, testified and deposed, that it is perfectly true, that he, 
deponent, during the administration [of Mr. van Twilhr] has worked as ship's carpenter and has 
been engaged on all old and new work, which Mr. Twiller ordered to be made, to wit : 

A° 1633 the ship '■'■ Southerch" repaired and provided with new knees. 

Otlier carpenters have long worked on the ship " Hope of Groeningen and Omlanden^ 

The yacht '■'■Hope'''' captured A" 1632 by said van Twiller was entirely rebuilt and planked 
up higher. 

The yacht " Prins WilUm " has been built. 

The yacht " Amsterdam^'' almost finished. 

A large open boat. 

In the yacht " Wesel " an orlop and caboose were made. 

In the yacht " Yreede " the same. 

The boat " OmwaV at Fort Orange. 

The yacht with a mizzen sold to Barent Dircksen. 

The wood cutters' boat. 

Divers farmboats and skiffs were sold to various parties. 

Also many boats and yawls made for the sloops. 

Moreover the carpenters constantly repaired and caulked the old craft. 

All of which he, deponent, declares to be true and to have testified and deposed at the aforesaid 
request to the best of his knowledge without regard of persons but only in the interest of truth. 
Done at Fort Amsterdam this 22"^ of March A° 1639. 

"Wybeant Pietersen ) as 

This is the mark j- of Maurits Jansen \ w 

Tymen Jansen. ^^ 

18 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Deposition conceening the Erection of Foet Amsterdam and otuee "Work done bt the 
Company's Negroes. 

Before me, Cornells van T'ienhove7i, Secretary of JVew Netherlands appeared Jacob Stoffelsen 
from Zuricksee* and in the presence of the undersigned witnesses at the request of his Honor 
Willem Kieft, Director on behalf of the Privileged West India Company in New Netherlands 
testitied, declared and deposed, that it is true and truthful, tiiat during the administration of the 
jjQijbie ^;\[ouiQr van Twiller, formerly Director here, he, the deponent, has been steadily employed 
in the Co's service as overseer over the negroes belonging to the Company with the said negroes 
m huilAmg Fort Amsterdam, \{h.\c\\ yf&B completed in the year 1635, also in cutting building 
timber and firewood for the Large House as well as tlie guardhouse, splitting palisades, clearing 
land, burning lime and helping to bring in the Company's grain in harvest time, together with 
ma!iy other labors, which we have done with the negroes. All this deponent declares to be true 
and that he has done so in the interest of truth, to which eveiybody is bound to testify, esjiecially 
being requested thereto. 

Thus done at Fort Amsterdam, this 22" of March 1639. 

This is the mark q 1 of Jacob Stoffelsen afores*. 

Wybeant Pieteesen '/ ., 

Maurits Jansen \ "' ^^itnesses. 

Eeturn of Wouter van TwiLLEES Property in New Netheeland. 

To-day, date underwritten, personally appeared the undersigned persons (servants of the 
former Director Wouter van TtoUler) and jointly with true Christian words, in stead and with 
promise of an oath, testified, declared and deposed in presence of the undersigned witnesses and 
at the request of his Honor, Director General Willem Kieft, that they have each of them, as 
hereunder set forth, in their hands or charge the following property belonging to him van 

On Bowery No. 1, where Aert Tonnisen is farmer. 
4 mares 1 heifer 

1 stallion 1 do of this year. 

1 gelding 11 oxen 

10 cows 1 steer 

Also the implements on the Bowery. 

Two islands in the Hellegat on the larger one of which** Barent Jansen is farmer ; the larger 
island contains about 100 morgens of land, the other about 60 morgens. 
1 dwellinghouse 1 mare 

3 milch cows 1 stallion 

3 bull calves. 

» Late of Zurich. ** Ward's Island. 

New Yorh Historical Reconls. 19 

On N'ut Island, containing about 80 morgens a house of which the frame was raised and so it 

21 pairs of goats. 
On Bowery No. 3* 

3 milch cows 3 bull calves. 

A tobacco plantation near SapohaniJcan** on the North river with palisades around it. 
A dwelling house in good order, where George Iloms and ThorrMs Hall live in. 
A tobaccohouse. 

At Fort Hope and Fort Nassau. 
21 to 30 pairs of goats. 

3 negroes, whom the late Director bought from Captain Ax at fl 40 the piece A° 1636 and 
who have always, with exception of a brief space, worked in his private service. 

All which we, the deponents, declare to be true and to be done by us, because everybody is 
bound to bear testimony to the truth, especially when called upon. 
Done in Fort Amsterdam, this 22'' of March 1639. 

Thomas Hall. This is the mark J, of George Homs. 

Statement conceening the Cattle on the Company's six Boweeiks. 

Where and how the animals on the six 
Boweries on Manhates Islaiid have 
been disposed of. 

One mare of Bowery No. 4 sold to Jan Evertsen. 

One ditto of No. 4 to Cornells van Vorst. 

Two ditto of No. 5 sold to Jacob van Gorier. 

One ditto of No 6 ) ^^ Anthony Jansen from Salee. 

One stallion of N o. 6 j ^ 

One mare of No. 1, Wouter van Twiner's Bowery sold by him to Jan Evertsen. 

It is not known, whether said Twiller delivered the second mare, which he was bound to 
deliver or not. 

Four mares of Nos. 2 and 3 were sent to Fort Orange into the Colony of Mr. Renselacr, who 
is still indebted to the Company for them according to the late Director Twiller''s memorandum. 

Two cows of No. 4 to Cornells van Vorst. 

Two from No. 6 sent to Mr. Renselaer's Colony. 

Four ditto from Nos. 2 and 3 sent to the same Colony. 

Two ditto of No. 5 were killed in 3linuifs time. 

Two cows of No. 6, van Txoiller's Bowery ; it is not known whether he has delivered them 
to the Company. 

* Afterward called BylewU's Bowery containing about 80 acres around the junction of Houston and First streets ; 
it was situate behind Jacob van Corler's plantation on the East River. 

** The name of an Indian village near the present Gansevoort Str., Jf. T. City; Van TicUler's plantation of about 
200 acres was principally in the present 9"" ward.— B. F. 

20 Early Colonial Settlements. 

All the other animals from Boweries Nos. 2 and 3 have been carried to Renselaerwych Colony. 

As to the sheep of Bowery No. 5 the late Director Twiller has bought one half of them from 
Barent Dirchsen and took the other lialf in liquidation of a debt, which said Barent owed to the 
Company, (so he says) ; they were sent to Mr. Benselaer'' s Colony. 

The foregoing is what is known about the aforesaid animals. 

Deed fok a Boweet neae Foet Amsteedam. 

This day, the 7"" May A° 1G39, before me, Comelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Nether- 
lands, came and appeared in their proper persons, Anthony Jansen from Yees, of the one part, 
and Barent Dircksen baker, of the other part, and acknowledged in the presence of the under- 
signed witnesses, to have agreed and contracted in amity and friendship about the purchase of the 
Bowery hitherto occupied by Anthony Jansen, situate near Fort Amsterdam, bounded westerly 
by Rendric Jansen, tailor, and eastward by Philip de Truy, on the conditions and terms here 

First said Anthony Jansen shall deliver, as he now is doing to Barent Dircksen aforesaid, 
who also acknowledges to have bought and this day received from said Anthony the land as it is 
sowed and fenced, the house and barn, together with all that is fastened by earth and nail, except 
the cherry, peach and all other trees standing on said land, which said Anthony reserves for 
himself and ■will remove at a more seasonable time, one stallion of two years, one ditto of one year, 
1 wagon, plough, and one harrow with wooden teeth. 

For all which Barent Dircksen shall pay to said Anthony Jansen the sura of fifteen hundred 
and seventy guilders to be paid in two consecutive years ; immediately after the receipt of what is 
aforesaid, he Barent Dircksen shall pay to said Anthony Jansen, or his order, one just fourth 
part of the above mentioned money, and 6 months after the date hereof the second fourth part, 
and sc on, one fourth part every half year until the last payment inclusive. 

For all which parties pledge their persons and properties, movable and immovable, present 
and future without any exception under bond as prescribed by law, without reservation or deceit. 
Hereof are two copies made of the same tenor and signed by parties. 

Done on the day and date aforesaid. 

This is the —L- mark of Anthony Jansen abovenamed. 

This is the p mark of Baeent Diecksen. 

This is the —^ mark of Henetc Haemsen. 


CoKNELis VAN TiENHovEN, Secretary 

Deed foe a Plantation neak Gowanus, L. I. 

In the manner and under the tertns set forth before me, Comelis van Tienhoven, Secretary 
in New Netherland, and tlie undersigned witnesses Thomas Bescher on the one part and Cornelia 

New YarJc Historical Records. 21 

Lamlersen Cool on the other part agreed and covenanted for the purcliase of the plantation, formerly 
occupied by Jan of Rotterdam and afterward by him, TJwinas Besclier, situate on the Long 
Island near Gowanus, stretching southward to a certain kil or little low bushes, on which side 
Willem Adriaensen, the cooper, lies contiguous and on the north side Glaes Cornelissen Swits, 
stretching lengthwise into the woods, for all of which Cornelia Lanibertsen Cool shall pay at once 
to Thomas Besclier the sum of 300 Carolus guilders, at 20 st. the guilder. From this time forth 
Thomas Bescher, the seller, conveys and transfers to the said Cornells Lamhertsen Cool his aforesaid 
plantation and renounces all claims and pretensions which he, the seller, may have upon the said 
plantation, delivering the same free from all demand, challenge and incumbrance, that may be set 
up to it by any one and the purchaser may further dispose of the said land, as he would do with 
his own land acquired by just and la^vful titles, without the grantor reserving or retaining any claim 
or pretension in the least either of ownership, authority or otherwise, but renouncing everything to 
the behoof as aforesaid and disclaiming all exceptions. For all which i)arties pledge their respective 
persons and estate, real and personal, none excepted, under submission to all Courts, Judges and 
Justices, all in good faith without reservation or deceit : this has been signed by us in presence of 
the underwritten witnesses. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherlands this l?"" of May 1639. 

MAUErrs Jansen Thomas Beeche 

as witness This is the mark -^ of Coenelis Lambeetsen Cool. 

CoRNELis VAN TiENHOVEN, Secretary. 

Lease of Boweby No. 3 on Manhattan Island (Tenth Waed N. Y. City). 

On this day, date underwritten, before me, Cornelis Van Tienhoven, Secretary in New 
Netherlands appeared the Honorable Mr. William Kie/t, director general in New Netherland of 
the one part, and Leendert Arentsen, of the other side, both of whom acknowledge in the presence 
of the underwritten witnesses to have agreed and contracted about the hire of the following cattle 
on the condition and terms underwritten : 

The Hon''"' Mr. William Eieft aforesaid delivers to the abovenamed Leendert Arentsen, 
who also acknowledges to have received on the 1 stallion of six years, 1 mare of 6 

years and 1 mare of two years ; also three cows, whereof 1 is with calf, one heifer of one year and 
one heifer calf. 

For which aforesaid cattle Leendert Arentsen shall pay annually to the Hon''''' Director 
General aforesaid, or whosoever may hereafter succeed in his place, 30 lbs of good butter for each 
cow, and half the increase at the end of the lease. Provided always that the Hon"''" Director or 
his agent shall have first drawn out the number of cattle that is now delivered to said Leendert in 
such condition as he now hath received them, and the balance of the animals that will be procreated 
shall be divided half and half. 

In this lease is also included the Bowery No. 3 heretofore occupied by Peter Bylevelt, and it 
commences the and terminates a" being 

six consecutive years, for which Leendert Arentsen shall pay annually to the Hon'''" Director 

23 Early Colonial Settlements. 

afoi'esaid or the Company's agent the just half of all the grain which God the Lord shall grant 
to the ground, either in the field in sheaves, or as men shall find most advantageous for the 

The above named Leendert Arentsen hereby promising to use all industry and diligence to 
cultivate, sow and till the land, and not to attend exclusively to the increasing of the aforesaid 
cattle, so that the Company may not be frustrated in their expectation of annually receiving a 
good quantity of grain. And whenever he, Leendert Arentsen uses due diligence towards the 
cattle and the cultivation of the land, then shall be annually paid and given to him by the Hon''''^ 
Director aforesaid or whomsoever sliall succeed to his place, fifty Carolus guilders in cash for the 
support of servant-men. Leendert shall cultivate the aforesaid Bowery and keep the land fenced 
at his own expense, without making any claim at the end of the six years aforesaid, but all shall 
belong to the Company in free property. 

For all which parties pledge their persons and properties, moveable and immoveable present 
and future, without any exception under submission to all courts, judges and Justices ; all in good 
faith without guile or deceit is this signed by the parties this 18 May 1639 in Fort Amsterdam, 
in New Netherland. 

This is the NVt>- mark of 
Lendeet ""^^ Aeentsen, aforesaid. 

The Bmoery mentioned in the above Lease contained seventy-eight acres (-'JO morgens). It was situated behind 
Corlears plantation at Oorle.ars Hook on tlie East River and was patented to Leendert Arentsen 19 October 1G45. 
It seems to liave been subsequently a part of the De Lineey farm. (See note on p. 19.) 

Lease of Bowery No. 5 on Maj^hattaij Island (Tenth Waed New Yokk City). 

This day, date underwritten, before me, Gornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary in Neio Nether- 
lands, appeared the Honorable Mr. William Kieft, director general of New Netherland of the 
one part and Hendrick Harma.nscn of the other part, and in the presence of the underwritten 
witnesses, acknowledged to have agreed and contracted about the hire of [Bowery] No. 5 heretofore 
occupied by Mr. Jacob van Curler, and of the underwritten cattle for the term of six consecutive 
years, which Bowery and cattle are the property of the Hon''''' Directors of tlic West India 
Company, chamber at Amsterdam. 

The Hon''''' William Jvieft, director general, leases to IJendrich Harinensen the Boweiy 
No. 5, with the dependencies thereof for the term of six successive years commencing the first of 
May A° 1639 and ending the first of May A° 1645. 

Hendrick Harmansen shall pay annually to the Hon''''' Director above named or the Company's 
agent, as rent of the aforesaid Bowery, the just half of all grains with which God shall bless the 
land, in such manner as may be considered advantageous for the Company. The said Jlendrick 
Harmansen very expressly jiromises to cultivate or cause to be cultivated the land with all 
diligence and industry and not attend exclusively to the increase of the cattle, but diligently till 
the ground which is the Company's object herein; therefore whenever it is observed and 
remarked that the cultivation of the soil is taken diligently and earnestly in hand, Hendrick 
Harmensen shall be annually paid on behalf of the Company, fifty guilders as servants wages. 

The Hon""' Director delivers to said Hendric Harmansen three young mileli cows, one 

New York Historical Records. 23 

yearling heifer, and one bull calf, one mare one year old and one marc of two years, with one 
old mare which alone, exclusive of the other cattle, is at the Company's risk. 

The above named Ilendrio shall pay annually to the Company thirty pounds of good butter 
for every cow, and the said Ilendrio Harinansen shall have the use and benefit of tlie aforesaid 
cattle six consecutive years. At the expiration of six years the Hon''''' Director, or the Company's 
agent shall first take away the number of cattle in such condition as now delivered, and then 
further the remaining cattle which will be procreated from the aforesaid animals shall be divided 
half and half. 

For the preceding, parties pledge tlieir persons and properties, movable and immovable, 
present and future, without any exception, under penalty prescribed by law. In witness and 
testimony of the truth tliis is signed by parties in presence of the witnesses hereunto invited; all 
in good faith without guile or deceit. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam this 18 May 1639, in New Netherland. 

This is the a mark of 
Hendeic a Haemansen. 

[The above Bowery contained somewhat over 50 acres. It was situate east of the Bowery and north of Division 

Deed foe a Plantation on Manhattan Island. 

Before me Cornelis van Tienhoven Secretary in New Netherland, appeared Barent Dirclsen, 
baker, Gerrit Jansen from Oldenburch and Yolclcert Evertsen,- who acknowledge in presence of 
the underwritten witnesses to have agreed and contracted for the purchase of the plantation 
heretofore occupied by said Barent DircJcsen bounded Southerly by the plantation of Mr. Fiscock, 
and Nortberly by Mr. Lesley. 

First, Barent Dircksen sells the aforesaid tobacco plantation and its dependencies, together 
with 4 pickaxes, 1 spade, 2 axes and one copper kettle, two stallions, one colt, the half whereof 
belongs to Barent Dircksen, for the sum of eleven hundred and eighty-two guilders which with 
one hundred and twenty guilders of an old debt, amounts to the sum of tliirteen hundred and 
two guilders, reckoned at 20 stivers the guilder ; which aforesaid sum the purchasers promise to 
pay into the hands of the seller, or his order, as followeth: The first installment of three 
hundred guilders in six months from the date hereof, and thenceforth every year, two hundi-ed 
guilders, to the last payment inclusive. For all whicli, parties pledge their persons and properties, 
the purchasers for the payment, and the seller for the freedom of the aforesaid plantation ; 
each his person and property, real and personal, present and future, without any exception 
submitting under bond, all according to law. Done in Fort Amsterdam this IS"" of May 1639 in 
New Netherland. 

This is the X "^a^'^ of GEERrr Jansen from Olderburgh. 

This is the / mark of Volkeet Evertsen. 

24 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Declaration as to the number of feuit trees on the plantation sold by Anthony Jansen 
TO Baeent Diecksen. 

On the 7"" June, A° 1639, I, Tienhoven Secretary, and Anthony Jansen from Salee went and, 
beliind the house which said Anthony sold to Barent Dircksen, found twelve apple trees, 40 
peach and 73 cherry trees, 26 sage plants and 15 vines. 

Ady 18 June A° 1639 done in Fort Amsterdam, by me 

Coenelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Deed foe ceetain peopeety at Achtervelt, L. I. 

This day, date underwritten, before me Cornelis van Tienhoven, secretary of N'ew Netherland, 
came and appeared personally Mr. Andries Hudde of the one part, and Wolphert Gerritsen of 
the other part, and in the presence of the underwritten witnesses acknowledged to have amicably 
and in a friendly manner covenanted and agreed about the Bowery called Achtervelt situate ou 
Long Island, belonging conjointly to him Hudde and Wolphert Gerritsen in manner as foUows : 
First, Monsieur Hudde, abovenamed, renounces all action and claim which he has to the house, 
barrack,baru, garden, together with whatever is fastened by earth and nail, and all other dependencies 
belonging to said bowery, except the cattle actually on the bowery aforesaid, it being understood 
that Wolj^hcrt Gerritsen shall keep and in free property possess a mare which was brought 
from Fatherland by Jacob Wolphertsen. 

Also, the land which belongs to the abovementioned bowery of Achtervelt, and the remaining 
cattle except the mare aforesaid, shall be the property half and half, as heretofore of Mr. Hudde 
and said Wolphert Gerritsen, which house, barrack, barn, garden and the ground wliereon they 
stand the aforesaid Hudde wholly conveys to him Wolphert Gerritsen as he doth hereby transport 
the same, completely renouncing the same from this time forth for ever ; and the abovenamed 
Wolphert Gerritsen or anyone on his behalf shall be at liberty to dispose thereof as he might do 
with any other his legally acquired property. This is signed by the respective parties all in 
good faith. 

Done this 2'^ August A" 1639 in Fort Amsterdam. 

A. Hudde. 

Hans Kieesteat, Hans Schippue, witnesses. 

FoEM OF Oath taken by the Englishmen on and about Manhattan Island with theie 


You swear to be true and faithful to the High and Mighty Lords the States, his Highness of 
Orange and the Hon"'' Director and Council of New Netherland ; to follow wherever he, the 
Director, or any member of the Council leads : loyally to give instant notice of any treason and 
injury to the country that may come to your knowledge ; to assist, support and protect by all 
means in your power, with your life and property the inhabitants thereof against all public 
enemies so truly help you God. 

New Yorh Historical Hecorck. 25 

The following are the signatures of all the Englishmen who have subscribed the form of the 
Oath as set forth on the other side. 

This is the -X mark ffeancis Lastley. 

of Geoegk Homs. m, . . ^, n-7 , , 

This IS the / mark of 

KroHAED Beudenell. Edwaed Wilson. 

Abeaham Lewmat. This is the \^ mark of 

William Willemsen. 

This is the A/K' mark of John Hobson. 

[August 1639.] JouN Hathaway. 



This day, date underwritten, before me Oornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary in New Nether- 
land, appeared George Horns of the one part, and Thomas Hal of the other part, who jointly 
declared that they intended to make a plantation and build a house near Deutel hay on the island 
of Manliaies, and in the presence of the undersigned witnesses, have agreed in manner as 
followeth : 

That they shall jointl}^ bear all the expenses of the building, wages of laborers, and of all 
implements wliicli they shall need for the plantation : also that all the gain proceeding either from 
the plantation or from all other purchases and sales whether they will be made by the one or the 
other, shall be shared half and half, both profit and loss. 

Under express condition and stipulation that whenever either George Homs or Thomas 
Hall abovenamed departs for England or Holland, or if they happen to have any difference 
or quarrel with each other, the plantation, house, the land belonging to the plantation, 
whether cleared or not, shall be valued and divided by two impartial men chosen by them for that 
purpose, and the one who may design to remain in New Netherland, and not depart for Holland 
or England shall retain the plantation, house, land and further all dependencies for such sum as 
another would be willing to pay therefor, and be preferred in all. In testimony and token of the 
truth, these presents are signed. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland this 7"" September 1639. 

This is -f- the mark of Geoege Homs. 
Thomas Hall, Maurits Jansen. To my 
knowledge, Coenelis van Tienhoven Secretary. 

26 Early Colonial Settlements. 

PERinr TO GovEKNOR Underhill and a few Families to reside in New Netherland. 

On the 8'" SejyUmler. 

"Whereas Governor Underhill, who resides toward the Korth requests permission to dwell 
with some families here under our protection, on condition of enjoying such Freedoms as the 
other inhabitants residing here, said UnderhilUs request is granted, provided that he and the 
people accompanying him shall take the oath of allegiance to their High Mightenesses the Lords 
States General and his Highness of Orange. 

Lease or Bowery No. 6, MLiNiiATTAN Island. 

This day, date underwritten, before me Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary, in presence of 
the underwritten witnesses, appeared the Hon''" Mr. William Kieft, director general for the 
Incorporated West India Company of the one part, and Abraham Pietersen Gorier, of the other 
part, who acknowledged to have amicably agreed and contracted about the hire of the Bowery No, 
6 heretofore cultivated by Wolphert Gerritsen, situate on tlie Island Manhate, belonging to the 
Hon"'' Directoi-sof the General lucoi-ponited West India Company, in manner and on terms here- 
under written. 

The Hon'"''' Director delivers to Abraham Pietersen the abovenamed Bowery and the land 
thereunto belonging. Also, two mares and one stallion, three milch cows, one heifer and one 
heifer calf, which Bowery and cattle aforesaid, Abraham Pietersen acknowledges to have received 
from the above named hands, who, too, shall retain what is aforesaid on lease for twenty consecutive 
years, commencing and ending 

for which Abraham Pietersen, or whosoever may receive his action shall pay an annual rent to 
the lIon"= Director aforesaid of forty-tive skepels of rye. and ninety pounds of butter, under 
express condition that the increase which shall, by God's blessing be procreated from the above 
mentioned cattle, shall be shared and divided every four years, provided that the Bowery shall 
remain stocked with as many cattle as the Director now delivers. At the expiration of the twenty 
years Abraham Pietersen shall surrender back the Bowery in such form as he now receives tlie 
same, both buildings and cattle, it being well understood that the cattle are to be restored of the 
same quality as are now supplied hira. In witness and token of the truth this is signed by parties 
without guile or deceit. Done in Fort Amsterdam this. 

Patent for Land at Deutel (Turtle) Bay Manhattan Island.* 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council of New Nelherland, etc herewith testify 
and declare, that to-day, date underwritten, we have granted to George Horns and Thomas Hal, 
tobacco-planters in partnership, a certain piece of land, situate upon the Island Manhatans, 
reaching in width from Deittel bay along the East river to the kil of Schspmoes where the beach- 
tree lies across the water and in length from tlie said river directly into the woods for the same 
distance as along the water, one hundred rods of thirteen feet each : under the express condition 

* Between 47"' & 52'' Str, the East River & 2'^ Avenue. 

Neio York Historical Jiccords. 27 

and stipulation, that George Horns and Thomas Ilal or wlio hereafter by virtue of tliis document 
may obtain their interest, shall acl<nowk»dge the Noble Lords Directors as their Lords and Patroons 
under the sovereignty of their High: Might: the Lords States General and obey their Director 
and Council here in everything, as it is the duty of all good inhabitants, submitting further to all 
such imposts and taxes, as by the said authorities are already or may be ordered ; constituting 
therefore the said George Horns and Thomas Hal in our stead, real and actual possession of the 
said piece of land, giving them full and irrevocable power, to enter upon, cultivate, occupy and 
use the said parcel of land, as they would with other, their patrimonial lands and goods, without 
we, the grantors, in our quality aforesaid reserving or retaining in the least any part of or authority 
over the property, but for the behoof as aforesaid desisting, renouncing and withdrawing now and 
forever herewith and promising to maintain, fulfil and execute this conveyance firmly, inviolably 
and irrevocably, all according to the rules of law and to further confirm this it has been by us 
signed and sealed with our seal. 

Done the IS"" of November A° 1631) at i^or;; yl?;isfe/'(ia;/i. Copy hereof has been given to 
said George Horns and Thomas Hal, which was signed : 

WlI.I.EM IviE?'T. 

By Order of the Director and C<nincil. 

CoKNELis VAN TiENuovEx Secr''. 

Patent for Land at Saphoeackam (South Part of Brooklyn). 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council on behalf of their High: Might: the Lords- 
States General of the United Provinces, his Highness of Orange and the Noble Lords Directors 
of the Privileged West India Company, residing in New Netherlands herewith testify and declare, 
that to-day, date underwritten, we have granted to Thomas Bescher, tobacco planter, a certain 
piece of land, situate upon the Long Island on the strand of the North river bay near Saphoralcan, 
stretching in width along the strand from the eanebrake three hundred paces of three feet each 
and in length the same distance across towards the woods into the copse, with the express condition 
and stipulation, that Thomas Bescher etc etc 

Done at Fort Amsterdam inNew Netherlands this 28"^ of Novbr 1639. 

Willem Kieft. 
By order of Director and Council. 


Deed for a plantation near Saponickan (Nnnrn Ward, N. T. Crrr). 

Before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary in Neio Netherlands appeared Hendric 
Pietersen from Wescl, who in the presence of the undersigned witness, acknowledged to have 
conveyed and transported in full and free property unto Adriaen Pietersen from Alcl-maer, 
his present plantation situate against the Reed valley beyond SappoTcanican on the island of 

28 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Manhate, and that with the house aiitl all this is fastened by earth and nail, surrendering to the 
behoof as aforesaid for now and for ever all ownership or command which he Hendric Pletersen 
may claim to the aforesaid plantation, to wit, so broad along the shore as his land is wide, and the 
valley of like breadth. In testimony and token of the truth is this signed. 
Done this 3'^ Februrry A° 1640. 

Hendkick Pieteesen. 

This is the 0\^ of Hendeic Pieteesen, mason. 

Maurits Jansen, witness. 
To my knowledge, Coknelis van Tienhoven 


RESOLtmoN TO purchase Lands on Noewalk Rivee. 

On Thursday, hein^ the 19"^ of Aj>ril [1640J. 

In council, resolved and concluded to maintain the charter granted by their High Mightinesses 
to the Hon*"'" West India Company in these parts of New Wetherland, and to send Gomel! s van 
Tienhoven, Secretary, to the Archipelago,* in order to purchase the adjacent lands there ; to set 
up the arms of the Lords States General ; to take the Indians under our protection, and to prevent 
any other nation committing any usurpation on our limits and incroaching further on our territory 

Instoitction to Secretary van Tienhoven to proceed against certain Engmsitmen on Long 
Island and minutes of his proceedings. {See Col. Doc. II, 145 et seg.) 

May 13, 1640. We the Director and Council residing in Neio Netherland, for the High and 
Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands, his Highness of Orange, and the Hon*''^ 
Directors of the Incorporated West India Company, having express orders and command from 
the said Lords to purchase in their name, from the Inhabitants of these parts, all such Lands as 
we think best adapted for agriculture and the support of all sorts of cattle, 

Therefore, Pursuant to the order of our sovereign Lords, we have purchased from the great 
Chief or Sachem, named Penhawlts, all the Lands left as an inheritance to him by his ancestors, 
situate on Long Island within the limits of New Netherland, \vith all such action and rights as 
he in anywise may have claim to, according to the Deed of Sale and the conveyance thereof 
existing ; which aforesaid Penhaioits, after some foreign nation had settled on the aforesaid 
lands, about Sohouts hay, has notified us that some interlopers or vagabonds have come on the 
lands which we have purchased from him, and have begun there to build houses, cut down trees 
and to perform other work, and that said vagabonds have cut down the arms of Their High 
Mightinesses there. 

* Now called Xuvwidk Idands. 

Nexo YorJc Historical Records. 29 

In order to obtain good and correct report and assurance of what is aforesaid, Jacobus van 
Curler, commissary of provisions, was sent thither witli tlie yacht Prince William, who, on 
reaching the place where tlie arms of the High and Mighty Lords States were set up, has fonnd 
tlie same broken off, and, in tlie place where the said Arms had been nailed to the tree, a Fool's 
head had been carved. 

All which appeared strange to us, being a case of crimen laesae tnajestatis and tending to the great 
disparagement of their High Mightinesses' Sovereignty. We have, therefore, after mature 
deliberation, resolved on the thirteenth of May, A° IG-tO, to send thither Secretary CorneUs van 
Tienhoven and (25) soldiers, to whom we have also given the following instruction, hereunder 
inserted : 

Whereas we have certain information that some foreign nation has come to Martin Gerrit- 
seii's and Sohoufs hay on Long Island, being the lands of the Hon"'' West India Company, under 
the dominion of the Higli and Mighty Lords States General, and there tore down the Arms of the 
Lords States General, and begun a settlement there and to cultivate the soil : Therefore, we send 
yon, Secretary Cornells van Tienhoven, the deputy sheriff with the sergeant and twenty-three 
soldiers thither to ascertain the circumstances of the case, and you shall regulate yourself as 
follows : 

You shall endeavor to arrive there unawares ; in our opinion it will be best at break of day 
and there surround the English and prevent any recourse being had to force of arms; and forth- 
with inquire who removed the Arms, and demand of them who authorized them to do so, and 
oblige them to come hither to vindicate themselves. If they refuse, you shall employ force for 
the purpose, bind them and bring them hither, taking an inventory of their property, also writing 
down correctly all that occurs there, and you may happen to do, preventing likewise, the soldiers 
from committing any irregularity. In case the Indians have taken away the Arras, and the English 
are innocent thereof, and are willing voluntarily to dejmrt in your presence, it would be advisable 
to permit them to do so, without any commotion, but in such case, the chiefs of the Indians must 
be brought along as prisoners, and under all circumstances it will be also necessary that you take 
the Indians with you. If it should happen that the English have been reinforced by so many 
new comers ( which we do not anticipate) that you will not be strong enough for them, you 
shall make an emphatic protest against them, then sign it and come back. Above all things, take 
care that no blood be spilt. 

Thus done in our Council the 13"> of May, A° 1640. 

On the 14"" May, A° 1640 the Secretary and (25) soldiers marched out of Fort Amsterdam, 
with the abovewritten instruction, and on the 15"" at break of day, arrived at the place where the 
English had taken up their residence, where they found one house already built by them and another 

First, they were asked : What they were doing there ; by what power, or by whose authority 
they presumed to settle on soil purchased by us ; they were asked to show their commission. 

Eight men (one woman and little child) made answer : It was their intention to plant there, 
and that they were authorized to do so by a Scotchman* who had gone with their commission to 
the Red Mountain {New Haven). 

* James Forrester (Forrest, Farrett) acting under the following patent given to Earl of Sterling by tbe Plymouth 
Company in 16o5 : To all xpian people unto whome this pnts shall come Tub Cocncell for the affaires of Newe 
England send Greetinge in our Lord God everlasting Wueueas our late Sov'aigne Lord Kinge James of blessed 
memory by his Highnes Letters Patents under the Great Seale of England bearinge Date att Westminister the 
Third daye of November in the Eighteenth yeare of his Ma"" Raigne over his Highnes Realme of England for the 

30 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Secondly, they were asked : Why did they throw down their High Mightinesses' Arms, and 
set up a fool's face in their stead ? 

To which some answered : The Arms were cnt down by a person who was not then present. 
Others answered : Such was done in their presence by order of a Scotchman, and he who did it 
was at lied Mountain. 

Hereupon six men were brought to the Fort, leaving two men, one woman and a child there, 
to take care of their goods. Tliey arrived on the 15"" of May. 

Resolution to set free the above Engltshmkn on condition that tiiet depaet from New 


On Saturday, heivg the 19"' of Maij. 

Resolved in Council, inasmuch as these six Englishmen who were brought along are found Not 
guilty of having torn down tlie Arms of tlie Lords States, to discharge them from confinement 
and to set them at liberty, on condition that ihey promise to depart forthwith from our territory 

consideracons in the said Letters Patents expressed and declared hatli absolutely given graunted and confirmed unto 
the said Counsell and theire Successors for ever, all the Land of Xewe England in America Ij-iuge and beinge in 
breadth from fortie degrees of Nortlierly latitude from the Equinoctiall Lvne to fortie eight degrees of the said 
Northerly latitude inclusivelie and in length of and within all the breadth aforesaid throughout the maine Land 
from Sea to Sea Together alsoe with all the Firme Lands soyles grounds havons ports rivers waters fishings mynea 
and mineralls as well Royall mynes of gold and silver as other mynes and niineralls pretious stones quarries and all 
and singuler other comodities jurisdiccons Royalties previledges francbeses and preheminences both within 
the said Tracte of land uppon the Maine and alsoe witliin the Islands and Seas adjoyninge (as by our said Letters 
Patents amongst divers other things therein conteyned more att large it doth and may appeare) NoWE Knowe all 
men by theia pnts that the said Councell of Newe England in America beinge assembled in publique Courte 
accordinge to an Acte made and agreed uppon the third day of February last past before the date of theis pnts for 
divers good causes and consideracons them hereunto especially moveinge Have given graunted aliened bargayned 
and sold And in and by theis pnts doo for them and theire Successors give grauut alien bargaine sell and confirme 
unto the Right Honorable William Lord Alexander his heires and assigues All that part of the maine Land of Newe 
England aforesaid beginuinge from a certaine place called or knowne by the name of Saint Croix next adjoyninge 
to Newe Scotland in America aforesaid and from thence extendinge alonge the Sea Coast unto a certaine place called 
Pemaquid and soe upp the River thereof to the furthest head of the same as it . . endeth Northwards extendinge 
from thence att the Nearest unto the River of Kiuebequi and soe upwards alonge by the sliortest course which tendeth 
unto the River of Canada from henceforth to be called and knowne by the name of the Countie of Canada And 
alsoe all that Island or Islands heretofore comonly called by the several! name or names of Matowa or Longe Island 
and hereafter to be called be the name of the Isle of Starlinge scituate lyinge ande being to the Westward of Cape 
Codd or the Narohigansets within the latitude of Fortie or Fortie one degrees or thereabouts abuttinge uppon the 
Maine land betweene the two Rivers there knowne by the severall names of Concctecutt and Hud.sons Kiver and 
conteyninge in length from East to West the whole length of the Sea Coast there betweene the said two Rivers 
Together with all and singuler havons harbours creekes and Islands imbayd and all Islands and Iletts lyinge within 
Five leagues distance of the maine beinge opposite and abuttinge uppon the premisses or any part thereof not formerly 
lawfully graunted to any by speciall name And all mynes mineralls quarries soyles and woods marishes rivers 
waters lakes fishinge hawkinge huntinge and fowlinge and all other Royalties Jurisdiccons priviledges prehemi- 
nences proffitts comodities and hereditaments whatsoever with all and singuler theire and every of theire 
appurten'nces And together alsoe with all Rents reserved and the benefitt of all profitts due to them the said 
Counsell and theire Successors witli power of Judicature in all causes and matters whatsoever as well criminall as 
Ca.pitaU and Civile ariseinge or which may hereafter arise within the limitts bounds and precincts aforesaid to be 

Neio Yorh Historical Records. 81 

and uot retiirn to it daring their lives, without the express consent of the Director, whereof they 
shall be obliged to sign an act. 

"Whereas we, Jol Sears, George Wilbi, John Farington, Philip Cartelin, Nathaniel 
Cartelandt, William Ilarker, have within a few days, come to settle on territory belonging to 
their High Mightinesses the Lords States General, without knowing the same, being deceived by 
Mr. Foret, a Scotchman, therefore the Hon''''' Director General of New Netherland has had us 
removed thence and requires us immediately to break up and depart beyond the limits of the 
Hon''''^ Incorporated West India Company, which we are bound to do, and promise on our faith 
and honor forthwith to set about without fail, on pain of being punished as perverse usurpers, to 
which end we submit ourselves not only to this, but to all other courts in the world. 

In testimony of the truth and in good faith we have subscribed this with our own hands in 
Fort Amsterdam in New Netherlands the IQ"" May, A" 1640. 

(Signed) Job Seyrs. 

Ge(jrge Welbe. 

John Faeinc/ion. 

Philip Cartelandt. 

Nataniel Caktelandt. 

William Harker. 

Patent for Land on Long Island, ne^r Mereciikawikingh (Red Hook, 12"" Ward of 


We, Willem Kieft, Director General aud Council of New Netherland etc testify and declare 
herewith, that to-day, date underwritten, we have given and granted to Frerich Luhbersen a certain 
piece of land upon tlie L<mg Island near Merechhaw'ikingh about Werpos* reaching in breadth 
from the kil and valley that come from Gouwanes K. W. by N. and from the strand on the East 
exercised and executed accordinge to tlie La was of England as neere as may be by the said William Lord Alexander 
his heires or assignes or his or theire Deputies Lieutenants Judges Stewards or Officers tliereunto by him or them 
assigned deputed or appointed from time to time with all other priviledges francheses liberties iraunities escheates 
and casualties thereof arriseinge or which shall or may hereafter arise within the said Limitts and precints with all 
the interest right title clairao anddemaund whatsoever which tlie said Counsell and theire Successors nowe of right 
have or ough' to have or claime or may have or acquire hereafter iu or to the said porcon of Lands or Islands or any 
the premisses and in as free ample large and beneficiall manner to all intents constructions aud purposes whatsoever 
as the said Councell by vertue of his Ma'''^' said Letters Patents may or cann grauut the same Saveinge and allwayes 
reserving unto the said Counsell and theire Successors power to receave heare and determine all aud singular appeale 
and appeales of every person and persons whatsoever dwellinge or inhabitinge within the said Territories and Islands 
or any part thereof soe grauuted as aforesaid of and from all Judgements and Sentences whatsoever given within 
the said Lands and Territories aforesaid To HAVE AND TO Holds all and singuler the Lands and premisses above by 
theis puts graunted (excepte before excepted) with all and all manner of pro.*fitts comodities and hereditaments 
whatsoever within the Lands and premisses aforesaid or to the said Lands Islands and premisses or any of them in any 
wise beloDginge or apperteyninge unto the said William Lord Alexander his heires or assignes To the only proper 
use and behoofe of him the said William Lord Alexander his heires and assignes for ever To be holden of the said 
Counsell and theire Successors per Gladium Comitatus (that is tosay by findeiuge foure able men conveniently armed 
and arrayed for the warre to attend uppon the Governor of Newe England for the publeque Service within fourteene 
dayes after any warninge given or Yeildinoe and payinge unto the said Counsell and theire Successors for ever one 
filt part of all the Oars of the mynes of gold and silver which shalbe had possessed or obteyned within the limitts or 
precincts aforesaid for all Rents Services duetiea and demaunds whatsoever due unto the said Co .... theire 
Successors from any plantacon within the precincts aforesaid The same to be delivered unto his Ma'''' Receiver or 

Deputie or Deputies assigned to the use of his Ma"" his heires and Successors from time to time 

the Lands precincts and Territories of Newe England aforesaid Given aid 

Cour Seale the two and twentith day of Aprill in the eleventh yeare of the Raigne 

of our so — (British State Papers [Col. Series], Vol. 8, No. 5G.) 

* In the present tenth Ward of Brooklyn L. I. 

32 Early Colonial Settlements. 

river S. E. by E. seventeen hundred paces of three feet each and in length from the head of 
the aforesaid kil ]S^. E. by E. and S. W. by W. to the Red Hook ; under the express condition, 
that if the savages shall voluntarily give up the maize land in the aforesaid piece, Fredric Lubhersen 
shall be allowed to enter upon it in the width and extent of it, without anybody preventing him ; 
on the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in Wew Netherlands the 27'" of May A° 1640 stilo novo. 


By Order etc. 


Patent foe Land on Long Island neae Einnegaconk (Beooklyn). 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council etc., testify and declare herewith, that in 
the year 1638 we ha\e granted to Abraham liyken a certain piece of land situate upon the Long 
Island opposite Rlnnegaconck, where Oysbert Ityheri's is on one side and the highway running 
from the kil into the woods east north east and west south west and Hans Hansens on the same 
highway is on the other, containing along the kil in proper width five hundred paces, to which 
aforedeseribed parcel of land is added a third part of the meadow lying close behind the land of 
George Rapaelje and Gysbert Ryken, under express condition and stipulations etc etc. 

Doue in Fort Amsterdam iu New Netlierland, the S"' of Aui^ust A" 16iO. 

Resolutions to Send soldiers to being the Indians on L. I. to teems. August 9"" 1640. 

Whereas, sometime since, the Arms of the High and Mighty Lords States General were set 
up at Martin Gerritsen's lay on Long Island and the inhabitants of the aforesaid Bay removed 
said Arms and in jjlace thereof set up a Fool's head, We have, thei-efore, resolved to send a 
sloop with soldiers tliither to bring said Indians mider our obedience and contribution. 

Oedee concerning an alleged fugitive servant feom Maryland. 

Whereas Peter Draper has come hither commissioned by Governor Leonard Calvert of 
Maryland to search for some run away servants, one of whom is Edioard Griffins, who has 
appeared before us here, acknowledging that he did indeed run away from Maryland ; saying, 
next, that he had no master in Maryland; that Captain Claher^^ his master, was in Virginia. This 
he also proves by Henry Pennimjton dwelling at Hackemac, who hatli taken his oath thereto, 
stating that said Griffins was no servant, but a prisoner in Maryland, without knowing whether 
he, Griffins, while a prisoner there, had voluntarily bound himself a servant to any person, but 
he, Henry Pennington, well knows that he was Captain Claver's servant in Virginia. 

Nexo Yorh Historical Records. 33 

Therefore we have ordered that said Peter Draper shall agree with the abovenaraed Griffins 
for his freedom, and said Draper shall be bound to give good security that said Griffins shall not 
be molested by Captain Claher, or anyother person, who may exhibit his articles of indeutui-e, and 
shall remain undisturbed. Dated 27"^ August, in Fort Amsterdam in Hfew Netherlam,d. 

Deed fob Paet of a Plantation near Deutel (Tfetle) bat. 

On the sixth of September anno 1640, before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, secretary in New 
Netherlands in presence of the underwritten witnesses, appeared Thomas Hal who acknowledges 
to have sold to George Horns the half of the house and plantation situate by the Deutel hay, who also 
acknowledges to have bought the abovenamed plantation in manner and on the conditions under- 

Thomas Hal sells to George Homs the just half of the house, plantation and all the 
dependencies thereof, together with the furniture therein, except a boat, gun and dog which 
Ihomas Hal reserves and shall be at liberty to take away, but nothing else. 

Provided that Thomas Hal shall pay and defray half the expense of making the house tight 
and round as well as the roof of the house. For which aforesaid half of the plantation etc. aforesaid 
George Homs promises to pay to Thomas Hal, or his order, the sum of sixteen hundred pounds of 
tobacco payable from the crop which George shall make A° 16il, and the tobacco at present on 
the field remains to pay their joint debts. In like manner, Thomas shall be at liberty to eat, 
drink, sleep at, go and come to the house of said Homs abovenamed, and that at the expense of the 
abovenamed Homs, until George Homs shall have paid the sixteen hundred pounds of tobacco 
aforesaid, or give sufficient security for said payment. When George Homs pays or gives security, 
Thomas Hal must depart and be no longer at the charge of the purchaser. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam this 21'' September A° 1640. 

Thomas Hall. 
This is the --^ mark of George Homs. 

This is the J\, :f mark of JsTJELiEN Hendeicksen. 
Witness mey Tno: Willett. 

To my knowledge Coenelis van Tienhoven Secretary. 
George Homs has paid to D'' Kieft 1600 pounds of tobacco. 

Eesolution of the Amsteedam chajvibee of the W. I. Company, eefeerino to the commis- 
sioners FOE New Netheeland, a petition of Woutee van Twillee to be allowed to 
dispose of lands in that cottntkt, which he had puechased from the Indians and had 


Copy. Extract from the Kegister of the Resolutions of the Directors of the West India 
Company, Chamber oi Amsterdam, Thm-sday the 11"" April 1641. 

5 I. Vande Ven, notary. 

34 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Wauter van Tioiller having understood by a letter of Director Kieft, that the Company had 
ordered him, the Director, not to allow the property which tlie abovenamed van Tioiller had left 
in N'ew Netherland to be alienated without authority being granted to that effect by this Company,* 
requests that such authority be granted, so that he may dispose thereof at his pleasure ; also, 
approN'al of the purchased lands which he bought from the Indians with the knowledge and consent 
of the Council, for the maintenance of his cattle and the advancement of jjopidation, and has 
since his departure from New Netherlands caused houses to be erected thereon, after he had 
previously offered them to some free persons, as appears by the affidavit, who dare not venture 
their cattle on the premises, through fear that they might be killed by the Indians. 

Referred to the commissioners of New Netherland. 

Beneath was : Agrees with the aforesaid Register (Signed) Gysbeet Rudolphj. 

Patent for Land on Long Island next to Rennegaconck (Beookltn). 

"We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council etc., herewith testify and declare, that 
to-day, date underwritten, we have granted to Jan Montfoort a certain parcel of land situate upon 
the Long Island next to Renegakonc, bounded east and west by Peter Montfoort and reaching 
in width three hundred and fifty paces into the woods ; with express condition and stipulation 
etc etc. 

Done this 29"" of May A° 16il at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland. 

Patent fob Land on Long Island, adjoining the foeegoing 

"We, Willem Niift, Director General and Council etc., herewith testily and declare, that 
to-day date underwritten, we have granted to Peter Montfoort a, cevtaia piece of land situate upon 
the Zong Island, reaching from Jan Montfoorts land to that of Peter,\ the Italian, in width 
three hundred paces and thus right into the wood, uuder the express condition and stipulation 
etc etc. 

Done this SO"* of May A° 1641 at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland. 

Resolution to send soldiees to Foet Hope and cueb the insolence of the English theee. 
On Thursday, being the C"" of June A° 1641. 

Whereas the English of the Fresh River** of New Netherland greatly troulile and harass our 
people there, not being satisfied with usurping and cultivating the lands which we purchased, paid 
for and took possession of, and, in addition, come in the night and sow grain in the land which 

* See p. 13. 
f Alberto, a Venetian ancestor of tlie AUiuriis and Bttrtis families. — B. F. ** Connecticut River. 

New YorTc Historical Records. 35 

our people plow, and haul off to their Jiouses the grass our people mow, if our people plow, they 
come with cudgels and mattocks and barbarously treat them ; our peas, though standing, they cut 
down and plant Indian corn \\\ the stead ; they take our horses, cows and hogs by force and 
allow some of them to die of hunger ; they cut in pieces the ropes of our plow and throw the latter 
into the river, and block up our house with palisades so that it is with diiEculty people can go out 
of it ou the land side, 

All which being considered by us, and as it tends to the injury and disparagement of our 
Sovereign and the Hon'''" "West India Company, whose right and authority we are bound to 
maintain, therefore, we have resolved to send thither Docf Johannes La Montague, member 
of the Council of Nexo Netherland, with 50 soldiers and some sloops, in order to fortify our 
House the Hope* thei'e, and prevent the repetition of siich hostility as the English have wickedly 
committed against our people, and maintain our right and territory. 


Patent foe Land on Long Island near Einnegaconck Kil (Brooklyn, south side of 


We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council of New Netherland etc, declare herewith, 
that to-day, date underwritten, we have granted to Lanibert Ruyhertsen Mol a certain parcel of 
land, situate upon the Long Lsland on the East Liwer of New Netherland near the kil of 
Hinnegaconck, formerly occupied by Cornells Jacohsen Stillen, containing five and twenty 
morgens, bounded on the north by Hans Hansen's, the line between the two parcels in the whole 
width being marked by the mark of the W. I. Company on a tree ; on the north it reaches to the 
East river ; with the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done the 7"'of September A° 1641 at Fort Amsterdam. 

Signed : W. Kieft. 

Below stood : By order of the Hon''''^ Director and Council. 


with the original, to which was attached a seal in red wax. 


Lease of Wouter van Twillee's Plantation at Saponickan. 

This day, date underwritten, before me, Comelis van Tienhoven, appointed Secretary in iV^eio 
Netherland for the General Incorporated West India Company, appeared the Hon''''' William 
Kieft, Director General, of the one part, and Thomas HaU of the other part, who acknowledged 
to have agreed and contracted about the hire of the plantation occupied to date by said HaU 
situate about Sapohanikan on the Island of Manhattan belonging to the late Director Wouter 
van Twiller on the conditions and terms underwritten to wit : 

The Hon""' Director Kieft aforesaid leases in the name and on the part of Mr. Twiller the 
said plantation to said Thomas Hall, who acknowledges to have hired the same with two Negroes 
for five consecutive years, on condition that he, the Lessee, shall cause to be built on the said 
plantation at his own expense a barn fifty feet long, and as good as the Domine's, which barn shall 

* Hartford, Conn. 

36 Early Colonial Settlements. 

belong at tlie end of the five years to the abovenamed Twiller or him who may obtain his right, 
on condition that one hundred guilders and the nails necessary for the barn shall be given to him 
towards the construction, the lease commencing on the first of January, A° 1642, and ending the 
first of January A° 1647, for which he, Thomas Hall shall pay annually as rent of the aforesaid 
plantation and Negroes, seven hundred and fifty pounds of well inspected Tobacco ; but in case 
one or both the Negroes should happen to die during the lease the Lessee shall receive a deduction 
for them according to arbitration. In testimony and token of the truth, this is signed by the 
respective parties this 30 November A° 1641, in Fort Amsterdam, Neio Netherland. And said 
Lessee promises to clear in the aforesaid five years on said plantation as mucli land as possible. 

William Kieft. 
Thomas Hall. 
To my knowledge. 



Lease of a plai^tation on Long Island. 

Before me Cornelis van Tienhoven resident secretary in Neio Netherland for the General 
Incorporated West India Company, appeared Mr. John Underhill who acknowledged in presence 
of the underwritten witnesses, to have leased from Mr. Andries Hudde his present house and 
plantation situate on the Flatland near Eeskaechqueren on the condition and terms underwritten, 
to wit : 

Mr. John Onderhil shall have the use of the house and tobacco house and may cultivate the 
land which is fenced and unf enced for two consecutive years, beginning the first of May A° 1 642 and 
ending tlie first of May 1644, or if it suit said Onderhil to take possession before the first of May 
next the term of the lease shall commence whenever he shall take possession and terminate 
precisely two years afterwards. For all which the abovenamed Mr. John Onderhil shall pay as 
rent yearly to the abovenamed Mr. Hudde, or his agent, two hundred lbs. of well cured tobacco. 
For all which he, the lessee, pledges his person and property, movable and immovable, present 
and future under submission to the court of Holland and Westfriesland and all other courts and 
judges, all without fraud. The Lessor further promises to leave to the Lessee, during the lease, 
the full possession and use of his house and tobacco house and of the land belonging to him, without 
in anywise obstructing him, unless he be necessitated to build elsewhere another house, that is to 
say, outside of the present fenced land. Done the 16"" of Jan^ 1642 in Fort Amsterdam, New 

John Vndkehill. 

A. HuDDE. To my knowledge. 

Adeian van Tienuoven, witness. Ooe. v. Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Bill of Sale and Conveyance of a House and Land at the mouth of the Feesh Water 
KiL (New Yoek, Foueth Waed). 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council etc., declare herewith, that we have sold 

New Yorh Historical Records. 37 

to Govcrt Loockmans and Cornells Leendersen a house situate upon the East river of New 
Netherland on the Island Manhatans, togetlier with the land belonging thereto, as the same is 
enclosed by David Provoost ; which enclosure begins at the kil, where the Fresh Water* empties 
into the said East river to the land of Oornelis van Tienhoveti, whose palisades reach from the 
long Highway to the East river, as may be seen by the marks put up by hitn bordering on the 
aforesaid land from the enclosure to the big tree, which is the mark of division between Philipp 
de Tray's and Tienhoven^s land, the said Philipp' s palisades reaching from this tree north east 
by east and east north east between both to Bestsvaer's copse and whereas there has been of old 
between the land, which we sell to Oovert Loockmans and Gornelis Leendersen, and the bowery of 
Coriielis van Tienlioven a wagon road, running to the great Highway, it is expressly ordered, that 
as long as Govert Loockmans and Cornells Leendersen have not fenced in the purchased land 
against cattle, Cornells van Tlenhoven or who hereafter may obtain his action shall have permission 
to use this old road outside of his palisades with wagons and horses and when the land has been 
properly secured by Loockmans and Cornells Leendersen, (which condition they must maintain) 
the wagon road shall be exactly where now TienhoverCs palisades stand, whereto Loockmans and 
Cornells Leendersen aforesaid shall give one half of the land required for the width of the road 
and likewise Cornells van Tienhoven shall give one half thereto ; the said road shall be used by 
them as neighbors indiscriminately as often as they please, it being intended only as an outlet to 
the long Highway from their lands, without being a thoroughfare, but belonging to them as tlieir 
property ; with the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

At Fort Amsterdam in N. N. the 26*" of March A° 16i2. 


By order of the Director and Council. 


Patent foe Land on the Mespacht kil, neae L. I. (Newtown). 

We, Willem Kleft, Director General and Council etc., declare, that to-day, date underwritten, 
we have granted to Tymen Jansen a certain piece of land situate and bordering with the valley 
upon the eastside of Mespatchls Kil of the East river behind Pomlnles Hook, which is divided 
from the said piece of land by a valley and kil ; the said valley beginning at the kil and the tree 
standing upon the point towards the small kil in width five hundred paces, north northeast from 
the kil and tree aforesaid to another tree marked also with the Company's mark, where Burger 
Jorissen has his land ; the said land reaching from the last mentioned tree to the kil, dividing the 
point of Richard Briidnell from this piece, east south east to the tree marked there ; on condition, 
that Tymen Jansen shall possess and use the valleys enclosing his land in rear and front and 
divided by kils, it being understood the valleys on the long and the broad side ; all this under the 
express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done 1642 at Fort Amsterdam, 

Willem Kieft 
By order etc. 


* Later called the CoUect, a pond between the present Crosby and Mulberry Duane and Lispenard streets, which 
emptied into a small bay of the East river, now filled up, just south of Chatham Str. (the Great Highway). 

38 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Patent for a large Tract of Land on Long Island (Newtown, L. I.) 

[Tlie original is in Latin.] 

"We, William Kieft, Director General and Council of New Netherland etc., make known to all 
who shall see these letters patent that we have given and granted, as we herewith give and grant 
to Francis Doughty and companions, their assigns and heirs in real, actual and perpetual posses- 
sion a certain piece of land, with pastures and whatever else it includes, situate upon the Long 
Island of this Province, contaming six thousand six hundred and sixty-six acres Holland measure 
or thereabouts, geographically enclosed between four straight lines, each two thousand Dutch 
perches long, of which the first begins at the east corner of Hans Hansen's meadow dividing by 
the course of the creek the marsh into two equal parts and extends to the plantation of Richard 
Brudnall and thence northeast passing through the middle of the fresh marsh to the small creek 
bounding the southern part of Henry Agricola's {Henry the Farmer's) land, then following it 
to its mouth: the second line beginning here bends towards the southeast following the seashore 
to another small creek, then along tlie course thereof from its mouth to where you come to the 
eastern extremity of the same marsh (where the said creek arises), thence it bends southeast, until 
it has reached the distance of two thousand Dutch perches; the third beginning at the end of the 
last tends more westwardly and is of equal length with the former ; finally the fourth starting 
from the last point deflects to the northwest and closes the square at the abovenaraed easterly 
point of Hans Hansen^s meadow, at which corner a stone is to be erected later for the 
greater certainty of the limits : 

"With power to build on the aforesaid land a village or callages, a church or churches, to 
exercise the Reformed Christian religion, which they profess, and ecclesiastical discipline ; also to 
legally administer high, middle and low jurisdiction ; to decide civil suits for sums not exceding 
fifty Holland guilders, while in criminal cases their sentence of fines up to the same sum shall be 
final and without appeal ; in other civil as well as criminal suits of greater import to pronounce 
the final sentence, which by appeal may be referred to the supreme court of N'eio Netherland, and 
execute such sentence and finally to exercise all rights conferred upon the said jurisdiction with 
further power of nominating and presenting to the Director of Neio Netherland, some of their 
community, that from their number suitable persons may be selected for the civil and judicial 
administration ; with the right of Inmting, hawking, fishing and trading and the immunities 
granted or to be granted to the colonists of this Province, none excepted. 

Wherefore the said F. Doughty and his companions their assigns and heirs are bound as long 
as they shall remain in possession of the aforesaid land to acknowledge the said Lords Directors 
as their Masters and Patroons, to pay after the lapse of ten years the tenth part of the produce of the 
fields, whether cultivated with the plough, the hoe or otherwise (orchards and gardens not exceed- 
ing one acre Holland measure excepted). Finally to use the Dutch standard and no other and to 
avoid confusion not to make use in selling or purchasing of any other than Dutch weights, ell and 
other Dutch measures. 

All of which under the aforesaid conditions we promise to observe inviolably and bind our 
successors to the strict observance thereof by virtue of the commission granted to us by his High- 
ness the Prince of Orange Governor of the United Belgic Provinces and High Admiral. In 
testimony whereof we have signed these Letters patent with our own hand and have caused them 

New York Historical Records. 39 

to be countersigned by the Secretary of New Netherland and the seal of Neio Netherland to be 

Done at Fart Amsterdam on Manhattans Island in N. N. March 28"^ A° 1642. 


By order etc 


Patent for Land on Long Island (Gowanus). 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council etc., herewith declare and testify, that 
to-day, date underwritten, we have granted to Cm'nelis Lamhertsen Cool a certain piece of land 
situate upon the Long Island, called Oouwanes, reaching in width from the wagon road, running 
through said land, and Jan Petersen's land lying along the river to a certain copse, where William 
AdriaenserCs land is next ; whereas this land lias formerly been occupied by Jan van Rotterdam 
and Thomas Beets it is expressly stipulated, that the paths running over this piece of land shall 
remain open ; in addition to this piece a part of the meadow, situate near the valley of Anthony 
Jansen from Salee, containing 28 morgens, is granted to Cornells Lamlertsen ; all with the 
condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done the S"" of April 1642 at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. 

Signed: Willem Kieft. 

By order of the Hon"^ Director and Council. 


Kelease by the Directoes of the W. I. Company at Amsterdam, to Woutee van Twillee 
of the rent and sixth sheaf which he was bound to pay for the lease of the 
Company's boweey, on the island of Manhattan. 

The Directors of the Incorporated West India Company Department of Am.sterdam have 
granted and allowed, and do hereby grant and allow, to Wouter vaii Twiller, late Director in New 
Netherland, that the said va^i Twiller shall not have to pay to the Company the sixth sheaf as the 
stipulated rent of the Company's bowery situate on the Island of Manhattans in New Netherland 
at present occupied by and leased to him for the term of eight consecutive years, commencing the 
first of May 1638, and ending with the occupation on the first May, 1616 ; the planted lands, the 
first of September 1615, and the meadow lands, the middle of November, 1645, when the said 
bowery shall return and be delivered up to the Company, and the Lessee shall during the lease 
keep the house, barrack and barn in good and proper repair and so deliver it at the end of the 

40 Early Colonial Settlements. 

term. Furtliennore, lie may dispose at his pleasure of his cattle, movables,* negroes and all 
whatsoever belongs to the above named van Twiller. 
Done in Amsterdam the 24"' May 1642. 

Chaeles Looten. 
J. Kaeynciioieck. 
Elias de Kaeb. 
Beneath was : These two copies agree with the Original documents, which I, notary public 
residing at Amsterdam attest, and in testimony thereof, have affixed hereunto ray notarial 
signature, this xiii Sept^ 1647 (Signed) I. van deveee. Not: pub: A° 1647, xiii Q"" mo. 

After due collation, this is found to agree with the authentic copy, by us underwritten, in the 
absence of the secretary. 

Jacob Kip, clerk 151?. 


Adeian van Tienhoven, witness. 

Minutes of the attendance on the Council of Delegates feom Haetfoed to negotiate 



This day the 10"" July A° 1642 before ns the Director and Council of New 
Netherlands appeared Master Weytinge and Master Hill deputies of the Governor and 
Council of Hartford situate in the Fresh Eiver of New Netherland, authorized by credentials, 
who after proper audience have declared that they are sent to treat with us respect- 
ing the differences which exist between us and them, in regard to the possession of a certain tract 
of land situate on the aforesaid river, which they maintain is theirs, requesting to have peaceable 
and quiet possession thereof; whereunto we have answered: said land was Anno 1633 by us 
purchased from the right owners and paid for, as appears by the deed of purchase thereof existing, 
whereof also possession was taken in same year, and a fortillcation built, provided with a garrison 
and munitions of war, before any Christians had been in the abovenamed River, as we have shown 
them by divers authentic documents, requesting of the aforesaid deputies that we may occupy and 
cultivate our purchased and paid for lands in peace and quietness, or that they would acknowledge 
for sovereign Lords the High and Mighty Lords States General and his Highness of Orange and 
pay the quit rent for the possession of said land. Which they the deputies have provisionally 
accepted, and asked for time to show it to their Governor and Council of Hartford aforesaid, as 
we have allowed them according to the conditions likewise given to them. Thus done in Council 
on the day and year aforesaid. 

Conditions offered by the Director General and Council of New Netherland to Mess" Weytingh 
and Hill delegates from the Hon""= Council of Hartford. (The original is in Latin.) 

They are to pay annually for our land at Hartford to the High and Mighty Lords States General 
of the Belgic Provinces or to their agents the tenth part of the produce of the lands, whether by 
the plough, the spade, or other manner of implement ; orchards, kitchen gardens not exceeding a 

* Meubelen, " In our Netherland tongue Meiibeleti does not include all movables, but only what is considered 
household furniture and implements or instruments, and not money." (Wassenaer.) 

Neio Yorlc Historical Records. 41 

Dutch acre excepted, or in place of the tenths a quit rent to be hereafter fixed, so long as they 
shall be possessors of said land. Done in Fort Amsterdam in New Neiherland the 9"* of July 
Anno Chri. 1642. 

Resolution to prevent the Injury done to the Indian Trade by Englishmen. 

2S*'' of August (164:2) Having seen the request of tlie Fiscal in respect to the serious loss 
which the IIon^''° Company is snfferhig by tlie English in prosecuting trade with the Indians, and 
that within our limits and customary trading places, principally by one George Liviberton, residing 
at the Red Mountain, notwithstanding we most expressly have protested against him, we have 
resolved not to permit it unless he George Lamberton pay the Company's duty whereunto 
the Fiscal is authorized to constrain him. 

Patent for Land on Long Island (Brooklyn, Fifth Ward). 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council of New Netherland etc, herewith testify 
and declare, that to-day, date underwritten we liave granted to Olaes Coj'nelissen Schouw a certain 
piece of land lying upon Long Island opposite Manhattans Island between the Ferry and 
Andnes Hudde, where his land is nearest, stretching from Ruddis land along the river one 
hundred and two rods, into the woods S. E. by S. five and seventy rods and S. S. E. five and 
seventy rods, S. by W. thirty rods and along the land of Andries Hudde aforesaid IST. W. one 
hundred three and seventy rods to the strand, containing sixteen morgens and one hundred five 
and sixty rods ; under the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done the 14"" of November A° 1642 at Fort Amsterdam in New Neiherland. 

Wlllem Kieft. 

By order etc Cornelis van Tienhoven, Seer. 

Appointment of an English Secretary. 

On the 11"' of December 1642. 

Having noticed the great number of EngUsh who come daily to reside here under us, and 
that there are numerous law suits and their consequences occurring for which we have great need 
of a person who can write English and has some experience in law cases, in order to be able to 
assist us therein and to write letters here and there. Therefore we provisionally appoint 
Baxter to the aforesaid office, for which he shall receive yearly fl. 250 as wages. 

42 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Deed foe a House and Gaeden, togethee with the Feeet on Long Island.* 

In the year of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, one thousand, six hundred and forty-three, 
the 21"" of January, before me Gormlis van Tienhoven, admitte'd Secretary in New Netherland 
for the General Incorporated West India Company, appeared Cornelis Dircksen Hoochlandt, of 
the one part and William Tomassen, pilot on the yacht the Pauwe {Peacock), of the other part, 
who in the presence of the underwritten witnesses, declared to have amicably agreed and contracted 
together in manner and terms underwritten. 

Cornelis Dircksen sells to the abovenamed William Tomassen his house and garden together 
with all that is fastened by earth and nail, situate on Long Island, and 16 @ 17 morgens of land 
adjoining with all its dependencies, together with the Ferry for his, Cornelis's, remaining 
time, subject to the approbation of the Hon''''' Director, and in case the Director will not please 
to give the Ferry to the purchaser, he, the purchaser, shall, nevertheless, adhere to the purchase 
of the house and dependencies thereof ; the abovenamed William Tomassen also acknowledges 
to have purchased the house as aforesaid. For all wliich the purchaser promises to pay to the 
abovenamed Cornelis Dircksen the sum of Twenty three hundred guilders, cash or wares to the 
satisfaction of the vendor, he, the vendor being bound immediately to make delivery and give a deed. 
For all which, parties respectively pledge their persons and properties ; movable and immovable, 
present and future, submitting to that end to all courts, tribunals and judges. But delivery 
[cannot be demanded before the payment] of the abovenamed sum. In testimony and proof of 
the truth, this is signed by parties and by the witnesses hereunto invited, requesting that record be 
made hereof in foj-m. All without fraud. 

Done the 24"" of January A" 1643, in Fort Amsterdam in New Neth&rland, at the house of 
Jan Snediger. 


Wellell Tohanssen. 
"WiLLEM Kostee, witness. 
Gaeeeyt Dykcksen Blaw, witness. 
To my knowledge 

CoENELis VAN TiENHOVEN, Secretary. 


Inventory of the Goods and effects found at the house of Feuntije Jeuriaens, widow of the 
the late Jonas Bronck, residing at Emaios. 
Books : 
1 Bible in folio. 
Calvin's Institutes, folio. 

Schultetus dominicalia. 
Moleneri praxis, quarto. 
1 German bible, quarto. 
Mirror of the Sea {Secspiegd) folio. 

* The Ferry bouse stood about, where the Fulton Ferry house stands now. 

New York Hiatoncal liecords. 


I Luther's Psalter. 
Sledaiii, f'ulio. 

Danish Clironicle, quarto. 

Dauisli Law-book, idem. 

Lutlier's whole catechism. 

The Praise of Christ, quarto. (7 Lqf Cristi.) 

The four ends of Death. {de vier Uyterste van ae doot.) Two Treasuries, small folio. 

Petri Ajjiani. 

Danish Child's Book. 

A book called. Forty Pictures of Death, by Symon Golaert. 

Biblical Stories. 

Danish Calendar. 

Survey (or View) of the Great Navigation (7 GesicM der Grooten Seevaei'ts).* 

A parcel of eighteen old printed pamphlets by divers authors, both Dutch and Danish. 

17 manuscript books, which are old. 

II Pictures, big and little. 
3 guns. 

1 musket. 

1 with silver mounting. 

1 Japanese cutlass. 

1 Dagger, with silver mounting. 

1 black satin suit. 

1 old quilted satin doublet. 

2 old grogram suits. 

1 blue damask woollen shirt. 

2 hats. 

1 black cloth mantle, and 1 gold signet ring. 
1 old mantle of colored cloth. 

6 old shirts. 
19 pewter plates. 
12 ditto large and small. 

7 silver spoons. 
1 silver cup. 
1 silver saltcellar. 

1 ditto little bowl, 
i tankards with silver chains. 

2 mirrors; 1 with an ebony, and the other a gilt 5 old empty corn casks, 

frame. 1 suit of black cloth. 

6 little alabaster plates. 1 pair of gloves. 

3 iron pots. 3 copper kettles. 

2 carpenter's axes. 

3 " adzes, and some other carpenter's 

3 beds and G pairs of sheets. 

4 pairs of pillows. 
4 table cloths. 

16 or 17 napkins. 

1 small brewing kettle. 

8 half barrels. 

1 half vat. 

3 tubs. 

1 hogshead. 

1 churn. 

3 milk pails old and new. 

4 muds (a vessel containing four bushels). 

* Calvin's famous work : Chriatianae religionis institutio. BulUnger, Henry, minister of the Kef. Church at 
Zurich in 1556 wrote Perfectio Christianorum and other religious books. Schultetus, John, born 1595, a celebrated 
surgeon of Ulni. Molinier, E., Moral and Practical Discourses. Sleidanus, Jo., author of History of the Reformation 
and other works. 

44 Early Colonial Settlements. 

1 ditto skimmer. 3 yearling heifers 

1 extensioa table. 4 bull calves of this year. 

1 chest containing sundry parcels. Hogs, number unknown running in the woods. 

A few panes of window glass. 6 skepels of wheat. 1 ^ 

• , , J. ,j . „. ,.^ ,. I bowed on the 

A lot of old iron. 66 ditto ot rye. i , . , 

1 stone house covered with tiles. 3 ditto of winter barley, f , , , i 

11, >T 1 1 ,• cleared land. 

1 barn. 7 skepels of peas. J 

1 tobacco house. 1 ox plough ) ^.^^^ appurtenances. 

2 barricks. (Bergen.)* 1 foot plough. ) 
2 five year old mares. 1 iron harrow. 
1 six year old stallion. 1 block wagon. 
1 two year old ditto. 2 sickles. 

1 yearling stallion. 2 new scythes. 

2 mares of one year. 1 old ditto. 

5 milch cows. 23 new axes. 

1 two year old cow. 4 old ditto. 

2 yoke of oxen. 2 hoes. 
1 bull. 

All of which is found and inventoried at the house aforesaid by Feuntje Jeuriaens above- 
named, and Peter BroncTc, in the presence of Everardus Bogardus, Minister, and Mr. Jochim 
Pietersen Kuyter both guardians of the aboveuamed Feuntje Jeuriaensen hereunto invited 
and chosen the 6"" May A" 1643, in New Netherland at the house aforesaid. 

Feuntie ieteiaens. 
Petee Beonck. 
e. boghaedus. 
J. p. KurTEE. 
To my knowledge 

CoENELis TAN TiENHOVEN, Secretary. 

Pkoclamation of Peace with the Indians of L. I. 
On the 4"- March 1643. 

Whereas we are suffering at present great injury from these heathens, and many of the 
inhabitants are not certain of their lives and property, which doubtless has befallen us on account 
of our manifold sins, It is therefore resolved by the Council here that a General Fast and day of 
Prayer shall be observed on next "Wednesday, being the fourth of March, for which every one can 
prepare, to the end that we, with hearty sorrow and earnest prayer, may move God to mercy, and 
that He will not suffer His holy name to be prophaned by these heathens on account of onr sins. 

Whereas some troubles and misunderstandings have arisen between the Indians of Long 
Island and our nation, whereby on both sides blood has been shed, houses destroyed and bm-ned, 

* See note on page 10. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 45 

cattle slaughtered and the Indians maize plundered. Therefore between us and them, who now 
already resort under the great chief Pennaiuitz, a peace has been concluded and all injuries are 
forgotten and forgiven, all our good inhabitants are, then, hereby ordered and commanded, as we 
do hereby order and command them, to observe said peace in every respect, and in no wise to 
injure any of those Indians who inhabit Long Island, unless they commit some hostility against 
our people. In such case, everyone is at liberty to defend himself. To which end the Indians 
are also charged not to come with arms near our people. All this on pain of arbitrary correction, 
to be punished as breakers of the public peace. Thus done and published in Fort Amsterdam 
the 25"" March A" 16i3, new style. 

Patent fou Land on Long Island (Geavesend and New Uteecht). 

"We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council of New NetJierland etc., herewith testify 
and declare, that on the first of August 1639 we have given and granted to Anthony Jansen of 
Salee one hundred morgens of land lying on the bay of the North river upon Lon/j Island 
opposite Coney Island, stretching along the shore two hundred and fiftj^-three rods, N. N. W., 
from the shore about N. E. by E. two hundred and thirty-si.x rods, again along a bluff one hundred 
and twenty -four rods about S. E., S. W. by W., twenty-four rods, S. fifty-four rods, further to the 
strand S. "W". by W. one hundred and seventy-four rods, with some points of land lying on the 
south side, containing eighty-seven morgens, forty-nine and one-half rods, also a point of land 
stretching southward from the house, surrounded on three sides by meadows, reaching S. W. by 
W. seventy-two rods, S. E. by S. ninety rods being an oblong with some protruding points 
containing twelve morgens five hundred fifty and one-half rods, under the express condition and 
stipulation etc etc 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. this 27"" of May 1 643. 

Willem Kieft. 
By order etc Coknelis van Tienhoven Seer. 

Lease of La Montagne's Boweet Veedendael (Haelem) and Inventoet of the Effects 


This day, date underwritten, before me Cornelis van Tienhoven, secretary of New Netherland, 
appeared Mr. La Montague, Councillor of New Netherland of the one part, and Bout Francen 
from Naerden, of the other part, who acknowledge to have amicably agreed and contracted 
together about the hire of the bowery called Yredendael, situate on the Island of Manhattan, on 
the conditions and terms imderwritten. 

Mr. La Montagne leases the abovenamed bowery to Bout Fransen aforesaid, who also 
acknowledges to have rented the said bowery for the term of three consecutive years commencing 
from the date hereof and ending the li"" of June A° 1646, with which bowery Mr. La Montagne 
delivers all that is specified hereinafter according to the inventory. In regard to the cattle 

46 Early Colonial Settlements. 

mentioned in the inventory, the Lessee shall restore them to the Lessor, on the expiration of the 
lease in such number and condition as now received, and then tlie increase which shall be produced 
by God's blessing from said cattle, is to be divided half and half, it being well understood that 
the Lessor shall first withdraw his number. The Lessee shall, during the aforesaid lease keep in 
proper repair the house, lergh* and barn together with everything that is delivered with the 
bowery, and surrender it again to the proprietor, at the end of the term, in the same condition as 
now received. The Lessee shall also be bound, during the lease, to cultivate the land diligently, 
and at the expiration of the term, to deliver it back properly fenced, when thirteen morgens of it 
must be sowed, as he now receives it, to wit, with rye, barley and peas. Bout Fransen shall 
likewise be bound to pay strict attention to the orchard, so that the trees belonging to the 
proprietor, may not be destroyed by cattle or otherwise. Parties shall, during the lease, share in 
common the risk of the death of the cattle, and if any die, tlie loss must be made good from the 
increase, so that the capital stock may remain complete. 

The Lessee shall annually pay for said bowery and cattle as rent fifty skepels of r^^e, sixteen 
skepels of barley, and ten skepels of peas ; for each cow shall be paid tlie first year, twenty 
pounds of good butter ; the second and third year twenty-five pounds of butter for each animal 
as rent. 

For the performance and assiirance of all the aforesaid Wessel Eversen constitutes himself 
as bail and principal, and specially for the sum of three hundred and fifty Carolfts guilders 
advanced by Mr. La Montague to the Lessee which must be paid within one year from date, the 
same being for the wages of a servant man, board and security for the first year's rent ; the 
servant's wages amount to one hundred guilders ; to which end the above named Bout Fra7isen 
and Vessel Eversen, each as principal submit to all courts, tribunals and judges, placing vmder the 
control thereof their persons and properties, movable and immovable, present and future, without 
any exception. 

Thus done and contracted on the bowery Vredendael, and it is, therefore, signed by parties, 
the bail and the witnesses hereunto invited and by me the secrecary in the record, the fourteenth 
day of June A° 10i3, on the Island of Manhattan in New Netherland. 

La Montaqne. 
Bout Frans. 

This is the -^ "^ mark of 

Wessel Eveesen, bail. 


CoENELis Piters, witness. 

Inventory of the goods and effects delivered by Mr. La Montagne to Bout transen for the 
behoof of the bouvvery Vredendael. 

The farm hoiise, barn and hergh of four posts, 1 six year old stallion. 

cookhouse and hog pen. 1 six year old mare. 

1 boat with 2 oars. 1 stallion colt from 1 to 2 years. 

1 wagon, nearly new. 1 female foal of ten weeks. 

1 serviceable foot plough with appurtenances. 3 milch cows. 

1 " iron harrow. 1 heifer of 14 months. 

New YorTc Historical Records. 


1 yearling bull. 

4 sows ; 1 boar of 1 to 2 years. 

1 new brewing kettle containing a hogshead. 

1 three pronged fork. 

1 two pronged fork. 

rope line for 2 horses. 

1 winnowing fan. 

1 peck measure shod with iron. 

1 iron bound churn. 

2 milk pails. 
1 butter tub. 

1 new vessel containing one \ hogshead 
1 water pail. 
1 oak chest. 

3 good scythes with their handles. 
3 sickles, good and bad. 


3 pickaxes 1 an English. 
1 cross cut saw. 

4 ii-on wedges. 

1 buttermilk tub. 

1 half barrel with a brass cock. 

1 herring barrel. 

4 rings for scythes. 

4 rings for sickles. 

4 billhooks. 

2 weeding hooks. 

2 new axes. 

1 curry comb ; 1 iron ladle to molt load. 

1 iron spade to dig with. 

1 pewter tankard ; 1 pewter cup. 

1 large pewter bowl. 

1 " platter. 

1 copper kettle. 

1 grindstone. 

1 wheelbarrow. 

1 25 rung ladder. 

2 millstones, clean and picked. 
1 screw for the barrick. 

1 auger. 

1 carpenter's adze. 
1 pruning knife. 
1 hand saw. 

1 funnel. 

2 bits. 

2 iron rings for a wooden mallet. 

1 gun. 

1 iron bar \\ feet long. 

All which aforesaid I, Bout Franoen, acknowledge to have received from Mr. La Montague^ 
promising to deliver them back to the abovenamed La Montague in the like condition on the 
expiration of our contract, or in defaidt the value or what is as good. 

Bout Fransen. 
CoENELis PiETEES, witness. 
To my knowledge 


Mr. La Montangne discharges and releases Bout Francen from the aforesaid contract and 
his brother-in-law from the bail bond. Said Bout Francen has delivered the bowery back to 
Mr. Montague 27'" Sept. 1G43. 

La Montagne. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island at Meeechkaavick (Twelfth Waed Brooklyn). 

We, Wilhm Kieft, Director General and Council of Ifew Netherland etc., herewith testify 
and declare, that to-day, date underwritten, we have given and granted to Peter Caesar* the 
Italian a certain piece of land for a tobacco plantation, lying in the bight of Merechkawick, where 
Peter Montfort has his land on the east and Michael Piecet on the west, stretching along the 

Peter Caesar Alberto of Venice, Italy, ancestors of tlie Alburtis and BuHis families. 

48 Early Colonial Settlements. 

valley fifty-seven rods and along the land of Peter Montfort southward into the woods two 
hundred and seventy rods, containing four and twenty morgens four hundred and fifty rods, with 
express condition and stipulation, that the said Caesar Alberto etc etc 
Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. iT". June IT"" 1643. 


By Order etc Coenelis van Tienhoven, Secy. 

On the first of May A° 1C47 220 rods of land adjoining the above described piece the same 
in length and width were granted to Peter Caesar, provided it does not work prejudice to his 
neighbors. Signed the same day by Willem Kieft. By Order etc Coenelis van Tienhoven, 

Patent fob Red Hook (Brooklyn L. I.) 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council of New Netherland etc., hereby testify 
and declare, that to-day, date underwritten, we have given and granted to Wouter van Twiller, 
late Director in Neio Netherland, a piece of land called the Ped Hook, situate on the North river, 
with express condition and stipulation etc etc 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. the 22'' of June 1G43 new style. 

Willem Kieft. 

By order etc Coenelis van Tienhoven, Seer. 

Patent foe Land at Mespatii Kil, L. I 

We, Wilhm Kieft, Director General and Council etc herewith testify and declare, that 
to-day, date underwritten, we have given and granted to Burger Jorissen a certain piece of land 
lying at Mespachtes Kil on the eastside, stretching along Tymen Jansen's land one hundred and 
sixty-five rods, along the valley eighty-five rods with a point of land near the valley of twenty 
rods and along the valley one hundred rods with a point of land stretching eastwardly sixty-five 
rods and thence to the head of the valley, which bounds this land, seventy-eight rods ; the width 
fronting the valley is eighty-five rods ; containing twenty-nine morgens five hundred and sixty-six 
rods : under the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N N. the Z^ of July 1643. 

Willem Kieft. 

By order etc Coenelis van Tienhoven, Seer''. 

Patent foe Land near the Long Island Feeet (U. S. Na-v^ Yaed, Cfty Paek and Paet 
OF Fifih Waed, Beooklyn). 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council etc, hei-ewith make known, that to-day, 

New York Historical Records. 49 

date underwritten, we have given and granted to Jacob Wolphertsen a piece of land situate upon 
Long Island on the Ea^t river, where the hind of Cornelis Dirksen, the Ferryman, is the next 
to the west, stretching from the said Ferryman's land E. by S. along the river fifty-six rods and 
along the same towards the woods S. by E. 132 rods with a width back in the woods of forty 
rods and on the east side N. by W. 120 rods, containing 10 morgens and 48 rods : with the 
express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. the 3'' of July 1G43. 


By Order etc Coenelis van Tienhoven, Seer''. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Gtkeenpoint, Seventeenth Ward, Brooklyn). 

"We, Willem Kie/t, Director General and Council etc, herewith testify and declare, that 
to-day, date underwritten, we have given and granted to George Baxter a piece of land for a 
plantation containing five and twenty morgens, situate upon Long Island behind the kil of Dir^k 
the Norman, stretching along the valley fifty rods and on the side of Dirch the Norman's land 
towards the woods one hundi-ed and fifty rods and back in the woods it is wide one hundred and 
fifty rods and thence along the side of Jan, the Swede's land to the bend of a valley ; with express 
condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. the G"" of July 1643. 

"Willem Kieft. 

By Order etc Coenelis van Tienuoven, Seer''. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Newtown). 

"We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council etc. herewith testify and declare, that 
to-day, date underwritten, we have given and granted to Tymen Jansen a piece of land situate 
on Long Island behind Peter the Chimney sweep about S. "W. from the land of Burger 
Jorrissen and touching with the south point the point of Jan Platneus (Flatnose) ;* stretching 
along Burger's land S. S. E. from one valley to the other 165 rods with some promontories in 
form of a half sickle of fifteen rods and again to Burger'' s land, being the first starting place 147 
rods N. by W. containing together with a similar triangular hook 22 morgens 324 rods 
including a valley stretching around this land, not mentioned here ; with the express condition 
and stipulation etc etc 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 13'" of July 1643. 

Willem Kieft. 

By Order of etc, Coenelis van Tienhoven, Seer. 

(The land covered by this patent is apparently identical with the one described on page 37.) 
* His real name was Jan Jansen from Ditmarseii in Holsteiii, progenitor of the Ditmara family. — B. F. 

50 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Xewiown, Eaststoe of Dutch Kills). 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council of New Netherland etc. herewith testify 
and declare, that to day, date underwritten, we have given and granted to liichard Brutnel a 
piece of land situate w^on Long Island, stretching along the limits of Mister Doutey N. N. E. 
one hundred and twenty-three rods, thence to the kil N. W. and JST. W. by W. 195 rods and 
along the kil with different courses on account of several points of land mostly in the shape 
of a half moon 353 rods containing -±9 morgens 131 rods ; with the express condition and 
stipulation etc etc 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N., the 28'" of July 16-i3. 

"Willem Kieft. 

By Order etc Coknelis van Tienhoven, Sec". 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Seventh Waed Beooklyn). 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council etc. herewith testify and declare, that 
to-day, date underwritten, we have given and granted to Jaii Montfort a piece of land situate on 
the bay of MereGhkawick between the land of Joris Rapalje on the east side and the land of 
Peter Montfort on the westside, stretching along the valley 88 rods and along the land of said 
George Rapahje S. towards and into the woods 210 rods and in width back in the woods 88 
rods and near the valley northward to the valley 210 rods containing all together 28 morgens; 
with the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. the first of December 161:3. 

Willem Kieft 

By Order etc Coenelis van Tienhoven Sec'. 

In the year IGi? one hundred and ninety rods in the rear of the foregoing piece of land along the whole length 
of it and in proportionate width, were granted to the widow of Jan Moatforl provided it work no prejudice to the 
neighbors. On the first of May 1647 it was signed at New Amsterdam by Willem Kieft and below stood By Ordei 
etc C. VAN Tienhoven, Secry. 

CotJET Peoceedings against a. Van Dee Donck Sheriff of Renselaeewtck foe Enceoach- 


On the 21 May 1643. 

Cornelis van der Hoykens, fiscal general New Netherlands Pltf ags't Adriaen van der 
DoncTc, sheriff of Renselaerswyck, Deft. In the case of an attack on the privileges of this country. 

Having seen tlie summons served on said Verdonck on the requisition of the Fiscal of New 
Netherland to appear personally before us in six weeks after tlie receipt of said summons, and the 
defendant having been called three times, and not appearing, therefore we have allowed a default 

Ne%o YorTc Historical Records. ' 51 

against him and ordered that said Verdonck shall be again siininioued to appear personally b-jforu 
us within four weeks from this date, to defend liis case. 

"Whereas Adriaen van der Donck, sheriff of Renselaerwyck lias on the 9"" November 
1642 seized some goods on the bark of the Patroon of said Colony from Fort Amsterdam belong- 
ing to Jan L'lurensen, the duty on which was paid in Holland, wliieh goods the said Jan 
Laurensen had put on board of said bark to be discharged at Fort Orange and delivered to his 
partner residing there, as appears by affidavit of March 5 1643, for which cause Verdonck had been 
summoned by the Fiscal General of New Netherland to appear personally before the Director 
and Council of Neio Netherland, to answer for the attack and excess committed on the justice 
and privileges of New Netherland, on wiiich summons default for failure of appearance was 
granted ; he is summoned formally in addition the second and third time. Therefore we the 
Directors and Council having heard the complaint and requisition of the Fiscal, taking into 
consideration the consequence of the case, have declared the abovenamed Verdonck in contumacy 
and rebel against justice and therefore have condemned him to restore the goods seized by him, or 
the value thereof according to the invoice of the complainant, witli damage thereon estimated at 
fifty guilders, I mean GO guilders, and in addition to pay a fine of one hundred guilders and the 
cost of suit, hereby commanding liim not, and forbidding even more, to do such an act on pain of 
losing his office and being arbitrarily punished. 

Thus done in Council in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland the S"' of October A° 1643. 

Declarations concerning depredations on Long Island. 

Before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, secretary of New Netherland, a^^es.YeA tlie underwritten 
witnesses, who, at the request of Anthony Jansen from Salee, attest, testify and declare in place 
and with promise of a solemn oath, that it is true and truthful that about noon yesterday the crew 
of the Seven Stars and the privateers went together on the land of Anthony Jansen from Scdee 
situate in the Bay, who, as an Englishman, sailing in one of the said ships, said, took 
from there fully 200 pumpkins. The witnesses asked. What were they doing there? They 
answered. We are in search of the hogs on Coney Island ; if we find the hogs, we shall take them 
all away with us. Thereupon the deponents rejjlied. Those who are running there are Lady 
Moody^s hogs. We shall not then go there, said the Seven Stars' crew. 

Done the 13'" October 1643. 

This is the rp mark of 


This is the ^ mark of AirBEOsius Lonen. 
This is the ~f~ mark of Eitscheet Stout. 

We the undersigned attest that there is not on board the frigate La Garce more than one- 
half barrel of cabbage, being about 20 @ 30 heads therein ; among these are small cabbages not 

52 Early Colonial Settlements. 

bigger than a fist, and about seventy pumpkins and a few turnips, sixteen fowls for the Seven 
Stars and her crew, without having injured or taken any other animals. 

This is the mark (^ of Philip Jansen. 
This V* is the mark of Abraham Jansen. 

By me Stmeon Hobbins. 

Aet Leendeesen, pilot of La Garce. 

Protest by Dieectoe & Council against the Fiscal foe neglect of duty. 

"We, William Kieft, Director General and the Council of New Netherland, to you Cornelis 
van dcr floykens, fiscal and schout of New Netherland. 

Many complaints are daily heard of thefts, robberies, killing of hogs and goats 
and other excesses, and they are increasing every day more and more ; yea, will from all appearance, 
shortly culminate in public plundering and highway robbery, and it is moreover to be feared tliat 
people will miu-der one "another, and all this because no delinquents are arrested, prosecuted, or 
punished. Here also, from time to time, divers Ordinances are published to prevent such scandals 
as much as possible, but inasmuch as no effort is made to put the laws in execution, so all disorders 
have full swing. Judgment has, likewise, been pronounced and orders issued to receive the 
Company's duties; these also have remained unexecuted. Moreover, divers people have died and 
been killed by the Indians, of wliose property no due inventory has been made, nor their estate 
regulated. And whereas all these matters appertain to your office, and the fault lies exclusively 
at your door, and the commonalty, meanwhile, generally complain that they are put off" by words 
and, further, that no result follows, and that you throw the blame on the Dii-ector, on the ground 
that you have no people to assist you. 

Therefore you are, hereby commanded to obey in all particulars your instructions, as you are 
in duty bound to do, so that justice may not wholly fall into decay. And in order that you may 
have no excuse that you have not suflicient force to assist you, we assure you, as we have formerly 
repeatedly done, that the Director and Council and all the soldiers are ready to support you ; 
moreover, you will have, furthermore, your deputy Sheriff and the Provost with all the negroes 
at your command ; and if you remain in default. We protest against all damages, mischiefs, losses 
and injuries which may happen in consequence, because we are innocent thereof, and shall thereon 
resolve accordingly as we deem proper. 

[We, also, have assurance that you have atrociously defamed the Director at carousals or 
at the guard house, saying that he is a rascal, a tliief; that he is drinking every day with 
Mr. La Montague and then shuts his room tight ; that he steals the Company's beavers and 
sends them over ; that he buys a great deal and does not enter all on his account ; that he has 
ruined the country, and that the Director would now wish you to save it ; that you well know 
who buy the hides, &c. with many other calumnies which yon, by your oath, should punisli. 
Therefore we require that you prove all this, or that you suffer the punishment thereto assigned.] 

Note. -The paragraph within [ ] is cancelled in the Dutch Record. 

N&w Yorh Historical Records. 53 

The Fiscal gave for answer that he has from time to time, done his best, and has performed 
his duty to tlie best of his ability, 5"' of January, 1641. 

Tlie Director aud Council reply that the general complaiut shows the reverse, and protest as 

Thus done in the presence — 

Declarations conoeening the destbtictiox of Jochem Petersen Kutter's house by Indiai^s. 

This day, the 9"' of March A° 1641, before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of New 
Netherland, appeared the iinderwritten persons, who, each for himself, at the request of Jochim 
Pletersen Kwjter, attest, testify and declare, in place and with promise of a solemn oath if need 
be and thereunto required, that their declaration is true. 

Cornells Cornelissen from Utrecht, aged 22 years, declares that he stood sentry on the night of the 
5"' of March in front of the house of the said Jochim Pietersen* being about two honrs before da3',near 
the corn rick, about fifty paces from the barn, when he, the deponent, saw a burning arrow, the flame 
whereof was as blue as the flame from sulphur, coming about twenty paces from the house, between 
the dunghill and the cherry door, which arrow fell on the thatch of the house and in consequence 
of the violent wind the house was immediately wrapped in flames. He immediately heard the 
report of a gun in the same quarter that the arrow came from. The house was burned to the 
ground. Also, that the English soldiers during the burning would not come out of the cellar, 
where they were sleeping, and remained therein till the house was destroyed. Wherefore they 
obtained no help from the English. 

Jan Hageman, aged twenty-two years, declares that during the fire the English soldiers did 
not come out of the cellar to afford any assistance, before and until Jochim Pletersen' s house was 
burned down to the ground. 

Peter Jansen^ aged twenty-four years, declares that during the time Jochim Pletersen^ house 
was burning, the English soldiers did not come out of the cellar where they were sleeping, until the 
house was entirely burned to the ground. 

Jacob Lamhersen, from Hllversom, aged about twenty years, declares at the request aforesaid, 
that on the S"' of March last, about two hours before day, he going the rounds about Mr. Jochim 
Pietersen! s house, on turning around saw a burning arrow, tlie flame whereof was blue as the 
flame of sulphur, coming between the dunghill and the cherry door, which burning arrow fell on 
the ridge of Jochim Pletersen! s house that was burned to the ground in consequence of the violent 
wind and the raging flame. Whilst the house was on fire, he, the deponent, heard the report of a 
gun which they suspected was fired by the Indians whom they heard in the morning yet yelling 
and shooting. During the aforesaid fire, the English soldiers remained in the cellar without 
offering any assistance. 

Dlrck Gerritsen, aged twenty years, declares that the English soldiers did not come out of the 

* Jochim Pietersen Kuyter's farm of about 400 acres at Schonrtkiii, or as lie called it Zegendael (Vale of Blessing) 
may be located along tlie Harlem River from about 133"» to US"" Streets, reaching back land inward to 5"= and S"" 

54 Early Colonial Settlements. 

cellar so long as the aboveinentioned house was on fire, and he, the deponent, narrowly escaped 
with his life through the raging fire. 

All which they, the deponents, each in particular for himself, offer to confirm on oath, 
declaring that they do this to bear testimony to the truth, to no man's prejudice or wrong. 

Done on the day and in the year abovewritten in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland. 

Before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary in New Netherland, appeared Philip 
Dormiere, aged about thirty-four years, John Detton, aged twenty-six years, Thomas Conine and 
Harry Williams, all soldiers, who, at the request of the Hon'"''' Mr. William Kieft, Director 
General of New Netherland, attest, testify and declare in place and with promise of an oath if 
necessary, that before the expedition to Stamford took place, Jochem Pietersen, at whose place 
we were in garrison, sent us to the Manhattans saying that he had no further need of us, 
wherefore we went to the fort and reported the matter to the Director. All which tlie deponents 
declare to bo true. 

Done the S"' of July A° 1644 in Fort Amsterdam in Neio Netherland. 


This affidavit is This is tlie mark -^M of 

confirmed on oath Thomas Coninc. 

at the hands of the John Detpen. 

Fiscal. This is the mark y^ of 

Heney Willems. 

Jan Eversen Bout, aged about forty-four years, and Claes Jansen baker, aged about thirty-six 
years testify at the request of Mr. William Kieft,T>iYectov General of Neio Netherland^\\\ the presence 
of the Fiscal, tliat on the 7"" of March last we heard an Indian named Ponhes, say in the Indian 
language, which we perfectly understood, of his own free will, that the Indians, our enemies, did 
not burn Jochem Pietersen's house, and that he never heard any Indians say so, who, when they 
had done any mischief, he said, boasted of it, but that nothing else was better known among the 
Indians than that the Dutch themselves had burnt the aforesaid house, and removed through 
fear of being killed there. All which the deponents * * * * 

Before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of Nevj Netherland, appeared PonJies, an 
Indian of 2farechkawirch, who was with the Indians, our enemies, during the war, and who volun- 
tarily on the 7"' March declared in his own tongue, in the presence of Jan Eversen Bout, Frederic 
Lubbersen and Cors Pietersen inhabitants here, before the Fiscal, which statement and declara- 
tion of the aforesaid Indian the abovenamed persons declare fully to understand. Therefore they, 
the deponents, declare, that on the 7"" of March last, they heard the Indian's statement who said, 
that the Indians, our enemies, did not set Jochem Pietersen^s house on fire, the rather as they 
inquired among themselves who might have done it, and as the Indians when they commit any 
villainous deed, boast thereof, thinking they have done a good and great deed, they cannot 
understand that Indians should have burned the house. All which the deponents declare to have 
heard from the Indians in the Indian language, offering to confirm the same. 

Done in Fort Am.stei-dam in Neiv Netherland, the 9"" of March 1045. 

New York Historical Records. 55 

The deponents refused to sign in the presence of tlie Council and undersigned witnesses in 
whose presence they acknowledged to have heard the aforesaid fron the Indian. Done as above- 

PniLLiPE D0 Try AX. 
WiLLEM Bredenbent, undcr Sheriff. 
Daniel Kaggen. 

In my presence who also understand the Indian language, and have likewise heard the same 
from the Indians. 



Protest of the Fiscal of N. N". against buildixg a Fort on Beren Island and Counter- 
protest OF THE Quartermaster op Eenselaersteyn. 

I, CorneUs van der Hoykeiis, fiscal of New Netherlands To you, Nicolaes Coorn, quarter- 
master for Mr. van lienselaer in his Colony : 

Whereas I am certainly informed that you design, and Jiave received orders from the Hoti^''"' 
Patroon to establish yourself with your men on Beren Idand, three (Dutch) miles below lort 
Oramje, and to erect a Fort there, for which purpose you have also brought cannon to plant them 
thereon, and as this expressly conflicts with the Freedoms granted to the Patroons, inasmuch as 
a Colony cannot extend more than four miles along one bank, or two miles on each side of a river, 
as appears by Article 5 ; and whereas Beren Island is fully two miles and more beyond the limits 
of the Colony, and to erect a fortress there which can command the river and shut off d^ort 
Orange tends to the ruin of the Company and the dimimition of their rights, therefore I 
request to know what power and order you have for this from the Lords Directors, and in default 
thereof, I most expressly forbid you to erect or construct any fortifications outside the limits of 
the Colony of Henselaerswyck^ and if, notwithstanding, you proceed, I protest against all damages, 
injuries and losses which may arise herefrom, the same to be recovered from you or whom it may 

I, Nicolas Coorn, qiiartermaster of Renselaerssteyn for the Hon'"'^ Kiliaen van Renselaer 
hereditary commander of the Colony on this North River of New Netherland under the supreme 
jurisdiction of the High & Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherland and the 
Incorporated West India Company, and as his vice commander in his place, notify you, CorneUs 
van der Hoykens, fiscal of Nev) Netherland, that you shall not attempt to hinder me, to frustrate 
the projected design on Beeren Island-, or to offer any molestation, as the Higli & Mighty Lords States 
General and the Incorporated West India Company have granted him, the Patroon, the perpetual 
and hereditary right to enlarge, fortify and strengthen his said Colony, over which, should 
anything wrong occur, you, CorneUs van der Hoykens, fiscal, shall have to look out, and in case 
of damage, I, Nicolaes Coorn aforesaid, do protest that the acts done to me are to be debated and 
settled by the Lords Directors and the Hon'''^ Patroon, inasmuch as tlie undertaking is intended to 
prevent the canker of freemen from entering his Colony. 

Nicolaes Koren. 
David Provoost, witness. 
Oloff Stevensen, witness. 

56 Early Colonial Settlements. 

The Fiscal Cornells van der Hoijkens persists in his interdict and protests as before. 
Done Manhatans the IS"" of March 1644 in New Netheiiand. 


Tu my knowledge 



Papees relating to the quaeeel between the Goveenment and the Pateoon of Eense- 


I, Peter Wynkoop, supercai-go on the ship called The Arms of Renselaerwyck over the 
goods laden therein and on behalf of the Hon'''^ Patroon Kiliaen van Henselaer, do protest against 
Mr. Cornelis van der Iloykens fiscal, for the injury and violence perpetrated on me, in discharg- 
ing the ship, as if the Patroon aforesaid must be affronted, which tends exceedingly to the 
shame, reproach and damage of the Hon''''* Patroon who is the oldest Patriot of the country. I 
assert that people ought to unload and confiscate such ships as come here without commission and 
drive their trade ; and as this brings New Netlierland and its officers into disrepute, but not so a 
Patroon who so greatly advanced his Colonie and New Netherlands as I maintain, then do I, 
Peter Wynkoop, once more protest against you van der Hoykens, fiscal, and demand from the 
Hon*''* Director and Council in New Neiherland satisfaction for the loss and for the force 
committed in unloading the ship The Arms of Renselaersioyck. 

Done Ifanlmttans this IS"" of March A° 1644. 

The fiscal answers : He had obeyed orders and his Instruction and had used no force. 


YsEBEANT Clasen, botli wituesscs. 
To my knowledge, 



Minute of the appeaeance in Council of the Sachem of Matinnekonck, L. I. to sue foe 


15'" April 1644. 

Appeared in Council Gauwaroioe, sachem of Matinnekonck, who acting for the adjoining 
villages of Indians, viz. : Matinnekonck, Marospinc and Siketeuhacky, requested to have peace 
and to plant in the abovenamed villages, which we grant them, provided they will not attempt to 
injure any of ours, and will not suffer the Indians of Reclionliacky, The Bay and Marechkaioieek 
among them and will keep themselves separated from them, and that this shall be told to their 
Sachems on the Plain near Mr. FordhamU s ; in case they are overtaken and killed among those or 
any of our enemies by the Dutch, we shall be held guiltless thereof. Wlierewith the Chief 
Ganwarowe is very well satisfied, and for confirmation a present is given to him. 

New York Historical Records. 57 

Patent for Coney Island, L. I. (as it then was).* 

We, WUlein Eieft, Director General and Council of N. iY. etc herewith testify and declare, 
that to-day, date underwritten, we have given and granted to Gyshert op Dyck, the whole Coney 
Island, situate on the east side of the bay running into the North river, with the valleys thereto 
belonging; on condition that in case it should be deemed necessary or advisable the Company 
reserves the riglit to establish fisheries upon the said Coney Island where most suitable ; also a 
piece of landf situate near Coney Hook stretching N. E. from Coney Hook, it lies with its S. E. 
point to or near tlie seashore and on its west side a kil comes in on the east side of Coney Ilooh, 
from this'kil E. forty-nine rods, E. by S. two hundred and forty rods, S. S. W. half point W. one 
hundred and thirty rods, W. a little N. two hundred and twenty-five rods, N. by W. to the place 
of beginning one hundred rods, containing together forty-three morgens five hundred and fifty- 
one rods; with the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fot^t Amsterdam in N. N. the 24'" of May 16i4. 


By Order etc Coenelis van Tienhoven, Seer. 

Declaeation conceening Sir Edmund Pletden's owneeship of a baek. 

I, Peter Jansen from ant, aged about 22 years, testify at the request of Mr. Moor 

that he being in the year 1643 in the river named Roppehanich, in Virginia, heard one Mr. 
Middeller, say, that the bark now belonging to Peter Loawerensen and Mr. Thochmorten, then 
navigated by said Middeller was the property of Sir Edmund Pleyden, kniglit, to vrit, the half of 
the bark and two hogsheads of fiour freighted in said bark for account of the said Knight ; the 
affiant offering to confirm the same on oath. 

Done the 7'" of July 1644. 

Petee Jajstsen. 

At the request of Govert LoooJcmans, the underwritten witnesses, to wit : Cors Pietersen 
aged about thirty-three years, Harman Arentsen from 5/'e?;ie?i., aged 38 years, Cornelis Mauritsen 
Bout, aged 27 years, William Pietersen, aged 20 years, Johannes Verhrugge, aged about 20 years, 
Harman Douwesen aged 26 years, Harmen Bastiaensen, aged 25 years, Jacob Jansen, aged 23 years, 
and Elbert Elbertsen,&g&A 24 years, jointly and each for himself, attest, testify and place and 
with promise of a solemn oath, if need be, that it is true and truthful that Govert Loockmans in 

* Coney Island in the days of this patent was considerably smaller, than now ; its north shore along the " Ditch" 
connecting Oravesend Bay and Hubbard's Creek measured 30 chains, its southshore 90 cha. along the Ocean and from 
the point on Pine Island Inlet to the entrance of the " Ditch " into the Bay not quite 40 chs. 

f Afterwards called Oysbert's or Johnson's Island, now the part of Coney Island nearest to Oravesend. 


58 Early Colonial Settlements. 

company with the deponents, sailed from Fort Orange in the yacht Good Hope. Passing by Beeren 
Island, where Nicolaes Coorn is keeping his residence in the name of tlie Patroon Rensdaer, the 
abovenamed iV^ico^aes foorn. cried out to <?owe/'<Zooci'7raa?i.'?, sailing past, Strike! Who answered, 
for whom shall I strike ? Coorn thereto replied : For the stapleright of Renselaerswyck. To which 
the abovenamed Oovert LoocTcmans answered : I strike for no man save the Prince of Orange 
and the Lords to whom I am subject. Whereupon Nicolaes Coorn immediately fired a cannon. 
The first shot went through tlie mainsail, and cut one of the shrouds, a halyard and a gasket ; the 
second shot with ball, missed ; the third shot, fired by an Indian from a gun loaded with ball, 
passed through the Princess flag about a foot above the head of the abovenamed Loockmans who 
was holding the flag in his hand. Not^vithstanding all this, Loockmans sailed down and pursued 
his voyage without firing back or making use of other force. All which we, the undersigned 
deponents declare to have thus happened in fact, and to be trne, offering to confirm this by oath ; 
also that this is done by us in order to bear testimony to the truth, to the prejudice, wrong, hate 
or favor of no man in particular. 

Done on board the yacht Tlie Good Hope lying in the roadstead in front of Fort Amsterdam 
in New Netherland the 5'" of July, 16M. 

This is the — ^ mark of Cobs Pieteesen, abovenamed. 
This is the 'jO^ mark of Haemak Aeentsen 
This is the ~^t.^ mark of Coknelis MAUErrsEN bout. 

Harmajst DonuES. 
Haemon Bastiajens. 
Jacob Jansen. 
Jan Veebeughen. 
Elbeet Elbeetsen. 


To my knowledge. 

CoENELis TAN TiENHOvsN, Secretary. 

Before me Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Netherland, appeared Ishrant Claesen, 
aged 4-i years, Lvhhert Jansen, aged 43 years and Jan Tomassen, aged about 40 years, who 
jointly and each for himself, at the request of Nicolaes Coorn, officer in Renselaerswyck, attest, 
testify and declare in place and with promise of an oath, if necessary, that it is true that Govert 
Loockmans, sailing sometime ago from above past Beren Island, Nicolaes Coorn had a shot 
fired with loose powder as a warning. Govert sailing on, Nicolaes Coorn aforesaid hailed and 
said : Strike ! To which Govert made answer ; For whom shall I strike ? Nicolaes Coorn said : 
For the right of Renselaerswyck. Govert spoke : I strike for no man but the Prince, and him 
whom I serve. Then Ccorn let fly a shot after the bark. Govert Loockmans cried : 
Fire you dogs: may the Devil take you ! Then Oflicer Coorn fired a shot which passed through 
the sail. All which the afiiants offer to confirm. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland, the T"" of October 1644. 


JSFetv York Historical Records. 59 

CouET Proceedings, Damages asked against Kicolaes Coorn for firing on Loockman's 


6"" of October 1644 in Fort Amsterdam. 

William de Key Pltff. ag'st. 
Nicolaes Coorn, Deft. 

Because Coorn being appointed officer on Beren Islam,d by Mr. Renselaer shot at and disabled 
Loochman^s vessel with canon. 

Defendant says he was authorized so to do by Patroon Renselaer. 

Ordered that Coorn shall prove his words to-morrow. 

8'" of October, 1644. 

William de Key, attorney of Oovert Loockmans, Pltff. ag'st Nicolaes Coorn, sheriff in 
Renslaersvnjck, Deft. 

Deft, having damaged by shot tlie sloop of Loochmans, wherefore the Fiscal assumes the 
case for the government of Weiv Nether-land. 

Having seen the affidavits which were made and confirmed on oath on the requisition of the 
Pltff. and the affidavit of Deft, with the Fiscal's conclusion, taking cognizance of the protest and 
prohibition made by said Fiscal to the Deft. We, therefore, condemn Deft, to pay the damage 
he did with shot to the Pltii's sloop, said damage to be assessed by two arbitrators to be chosen 
for that purpose, forbidding him to repeat the act on pain of bodily pimishment, and he shall 
within ten months produce the approbation of his Patroon confirmed by superior authoritj^ and 
in default thereof further proceedings shall be taken on the Fiscal's complaint, and in the meanwhile 
he, the Deft, must not depart from the limits of New Netherland, 

Council Minute, that Hev. E. Bogaedus refused to receive an admonition in wEiriNG 


23^'^ March 1645. 

The Hon'''^ Director William Kieft has, by approval of the Council, sent an admonition 
in writing, dated 23 March to the minister Bogardus, which he would not receive or open, and 
the paper is returned by the court messenger. 

60 Early Colonial Settlev^enU. 

Kesoltjitons to employ a Long Island Sachem against hostile Indians. 

This day, being the 2i"' of May 16i5, came here a chief named Witaneywen, sachem of 
Mochgonnekonc, situate on Long Island, with forty-seven armed Indians, who offered their 
services to the government, wliereupon the Du-ector convened these underwritten persons : Fiscal 
van der Roykens, Mens' la Montagne, Captain Onderhil, Ensign de Leuw, Commissaries Oloff 
Stevensen and Gyshert Ojxlych, and of the Selectmen Jan Eversen and Jacob Stoffelsen, when 
said sachem submitted his proposal, and it is resolved that he shall embark in one of the Company" 
sloops, and sail to the place where he is to land his spies to discover the enemy ; tliey are to report 
the enemy's whereabouts, and he shall then endeavor to beat them with all his force, and after the 
work is performed, he is to return here and he shall be rewaj-ded as he deserves. The Director is 
to provide them with the necessary rations in the sloop, etc. 

Before us the Director and Council of New Netherland appeared Wittaneymen, sachem of 
Mochgonnekonck, declaring to be empowered by his brethren, named as follows, to wit : liochkouw, 
the greatest sachem of Cotsjewaminclc, Mamawichtouw, sachem of Catsjeyick, Weyrinteynlch, 
sachem of Mirrachtauhacky, and said, as well in his own name as in that of his brethren 
aforesaid, that they had taken under their protection the villages named, Ouheywlchkingh, 
Sichteyhacky, Slcketauyhacky, Nisinckgueghacky, at which place the Matinnekonck now 
reside, and lieckonJiucky,M\(ii requested to walk in a firm bond of friendship witii us and promised 
that the Christians should experience at the hands of his people, or of those abovenamed villages, 
nothing but every kindness, and as a proof of their good disposition, they offered to go against 
our enemies, which he has done, and brought a head and hands of the enemy, and has agreed 
with us to aid our people from henceforth against the Indians our enemies, which we have accepted. 
In ratification of this treaty, we have given a present to the abovenamed chiefs, with promise 
not to molest them so long as he and the abovenamed villages remain in their duty, but to show 
them all possible friendship. In testimony of the truth the original is signed by tis, confirmed l5y 
our seal and handed to the chief, the said seal being pendant thereto, the 2J"' of May, 1645, in 
Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherland. 

Patents for Land on Long Island (Beookltn). 

We, Willem Kieft, Director General and Council etc. herewith testify and declare, tliat 
to-day, date underwritten, we have given and granted to Jan Eversen Bout a piece of land at 
Ilarechkavnck on the kil of Gouvanes, maize land as well as woodland ; joining the easternmost 
end of Huych Aertsen and the westernmost end of Gerrit Wolphertsen it stretches along the said 
Gerrit Wolphertsenh land into the woods N. E. by N". one hundred and sixty-five rods, with a 
width in the woods S. E. to the land of Iltcych Aertsen ninety-six rods, along the said Hiiyeh 
AertserHs land to the maize land fifty-five rods S. W. and S "W. by W., thence to the valley S. 
W. a little S. one hundred and thirty-seven rods thence to the place of beginning along the vnlloy 
(with some points of land) laid down in a paralinie (?) both places of Jan Eversen as well as of 

New Yorh Historical Records. 61 

Jacob Stojj-elseii containing togetlier twenty-eight inorgens two linndred and seventy-one rods ; 
with the express condition and stipnlation etc etc 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in iV. JSf. this 6"" of July 1645. 


By Order etc. C. van Tienooven, Seer. 

We, Willem Kieft etc etc. have given and granted to Claes Jansen from Naerden a piece of 
land lying about S. by E. somewhat E. opposite to the Fort on Long Island and bounded S. W. 
and S. E. by Frerick Lubhersen and N. E. by Jan Manje it stretches along said Jan Manjis 
land from the strand S. E. \ point one hundred and eighty rods, S. E. fifty rods south of the hill 
S. W. by W. and "W. S. W. eighty rods, again through the woods along the land of said Frerich 
JM. W. by N. one hundred and eighteen rods and again fifty rods N. "W. by W., then along the 
strand seventy-four rods, containing altogether twenty-one morgens two hundred rods ; with the 
express condition and stijjulation etc etc 

Done in Fort Amsterdam in N. If. the 30"' of Septbr 1645. 

We, Willem Kieft etc etc., have given and granted to Henry Breser a piece of land lying on 
the East river between the land of Cornelis Dirchsen, the Ferryman, S. by E. from the strand up 
one hundred and thirty-two rods, E. a little S. forty-five rods to the maize land, then through the 
maize land to the valley one hundred and nine rods, along the valley N. E. by N. twenty rods, 
then again towards the woods next to Jan Detten's land W. N. W. to the woods and through 
tliem next to Frerick Luhherseii's to the East river N. by W. one hundred and twenty rods, along 
the shore to the place of beginning fifty-six rods, containing sixteen morgens four hundred and 
sixty-eight rods, with express condition and stipulation etc. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam in N. N. this 4"' of Septbr 1645. 

Patent for Land on Long Island (Brooklyn). 

We, Willem Kieft, etc etc, have given and granted to Frerick Lid)hersc7i a piece of land 
situate upon tlie East river between tlie land of Henry Bresen and Edward Fisoock, stretching along 
Jacob Wolphertsen\s or now Bresen^s land N. W. by W. one hundred and twenty rods, in width 
back in the woods E. by N. fifty-nine rods, again to the strand IS^. and W. by W. one Imndred 
and thirty-four rods, along the strand W. by S. \ S. seventy-eight rods, containing fifteen morgens 
fifty-two rods, with the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam, in xV. N. this 4'" of Septbr 1645. 

62 Early Colonial Setthmevts. 

Patent foe lais^d on Long Island (Williamsb'gh) . 

We, WUlem Kieft, etc etc have given and granted to Claes Garstensen land for a plantation, 
situate upon the Long Island behind Jan the Swede's stretcliing along the river two liiindred and 
seventeen rods, beginning at the half hook inclusive and towards the woods S. S. W. one liundred 
and eiglity rods, then S. forty-five rods, W. by S. fifty-one rods and thence to the river N. W. one 
hundred rods, containing twenty-nine raorgens five hundred and fifty-three rods in addition to 
which one-half of the valley on the kil is also granted to him ; with the express condition and 
stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in iV. ^V., the 5"= of Septbr 1645. 

Patent for Laxb on Long Island (Newtown). 

We, WUlem Kieft, etc etc have given and granted to Jurien Tradel who has married the 
widow of Hendrioh Harmensen a piece of land situate upon Longlsland, E. of the Hellegat, and 
W. of the great bay, opposite three islands called the three BrotJiers, it being the westernmost hook 
of the said piece of land, the easterly point of the said bay, and reaches from the strand along a 
thicket S. by W. two hundred and sixteen rods to a large fresh valley, along said valley to a fresh 
water kil, which divides the land of Mr. Douthey from this parcel, then along the kil to the bay 
and along the shore of the river to the place of beginning, containing by measurement sixty-nine 
morgens one hundred and eighty-three rods ; eight morgens of the aforesaid fresh meadow belong 
to this parcel, also a small island nearly W, of the house ; with express condition and stipulation 
etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. the 5"' of Septbr 1645. 

Indian Deed for Land on Long Island (Southern Part of Kings Countt). 

We, WUlem Kieft, Director General and Council of New Netlierland, testify and declare 
lierewith, that to-day, date underwritten, personally before us appeared Seysey, chief, Sepinto, 
Ponitaranaohyyne, chiefs and owners of the lands between the Coney Island to Gouwanes 
along the North river and froni Coney Island along the seashore to Wcyvdtsprittner and thence 
North by West and North Nortli West to Gouwanes aforesaid, who declared, that with consent 
and approval of the other Indians, for and in consideration of a certain quantity of merchandise, 
which they acknowledge to have received to their satisfaction and contentment before the passing 
hereof, they have transferred, ceded, surrendered and conveyed in true, free and lawful possession 
to and for the behoof of the Noble Lords Director of the Priv. W. I. Company, Department of 

New Yorh Historical Records. 63 

Amsterdam, the before described parcel of land situate Tipon Zon(/ Idaml, with all the action 
riglits and privileges etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland, the 10"" of September A° 1645. 
The mark • '^ ^ of Willem Kieft. 

PoNiTAKANACHGYNE made La Montagne. 

by himself. 

The mark ■<; ^ of Setset. The mark -— ===^ of Sipento 

made by liimself. made by liimself. 

Oloff Stevensen. 

To my knowledge, 


Patent fob Land on Long Island (Bkooelyn). 

We, WilUm Kieft, etc etc, have given and granted to A^idries Iludde a piece of land upon 
Long Island, almost opposite the Fort, touching S. W. the land of Jan Manje and S. or in the 
rear the maize laud of Frerick Lvhhersen and bounding on the East side the land of Claes 
Coriielissen Meatelaer, in front along the strand from the land of said Meutelaer to the land of 
said Manje S. W. by S. seventy-two rods, along the land of Manje to the aforesaid maizeland S. 
S. E. and S. by E. between both two hundred and forty-five rods, then through the woods to the 
laud of Meutelaer aforesaid and the place of beginning N. W. one hundred and fifty-six rods, 
containing twenty -seven morgens two liuudred and fifty-six rods; with the express condition and 
stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N., the IS"" of Septbr 1645. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Newto\vn). 

"We, Willem. Kieft, etc etc have given and granted to Peter Andriessen a piece of land lying 
on tbe East river opposite Hog's Island, E. of Domines Hook, stretching from the river to the 
valley of Jochem Pietersen along tlie land of Hendrick Pietersen S. E. by E. one hundred and 
sixty-five rods, then through the woods, through and along the valley to the land of Jan Platneuss 
(Flatnose) N. E. two hundred and twenty-five rods, along said Platneus' land W. N". AV. to 
the river two hundred and thirteen rods, along the river two hundred and thirty-five rods with 
points of land and small bends of the river to the computation according to which the plantation 
of Jan of Harlem, bought by Peter Andriesen has been measured, containing seventy-four 
morgens three hundred and twenty-seven rods ; with the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam in JV. JV. the IQ"" of October 161:5. 

Patent for Land on Long Island. 
We, Willem Kieft etc etc, have given and granted to Edward Marrel a piece of land lying on 

64 Early Colonial Settlements. 

the east end of Cornelis Jacobsen's and on the west end of Corlaer's plantation, stretching from 
the strand up through a meadow, belonging to Cornelis Jacohseti's land, N. by E. seventj'-six rods, 
from Cornelis' aforesaid to the plantation of Corlaer E. by N. and E. seventy rods, along the 
diggings of said Corlaer to the strand of tlie East river S. by W. -J N. one hundred and twenty 
roJs, containing eleven morgens two hundred rods, with tlie express condition and stipulation etc. 
Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N., the SS*" of October 1645. 

Patent for Land on Long Island (Parts of Geavesend and New Uteecht). 

"We, Willem Kieft etc etc, have given and granted to Robert Pinoyer a piece of land on 
Long Island between the properties of Anthony Jansen and Mylady Moody, stretching along 
the strand of said Anthony from the meadow, N. N". "W. 45 rods, N. by W". 30 rods, N. N. E. and 
JSf . by E. 45 rods, then through the woods to said Mylady Moody's E. S. E. and S. E. by E. 
between both 275 rods along the land of said Mylady S. S. W. 225 rods to the meadow, thence 
along the meadow with some curves to the said Anthony Jansen's laud, coutaiuiiij 89 morgens 
442 rods, with express condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 29'" of November 1645. 

Patents for Land on Long Island (Beookltn). 

We, Wille7)i Kieft etc etc have given and granted to Gor^ielis Dirchsen the FeiTy man, apiece 
of land, maize and woodland, lying upon Long Island, behind the land formerly surveyed for him 
and l>etween the land of Henry Breser and another parcel, stretching along said Henry's meadow 
to the aforesaid parcel and then thiough the woods and maize land to the ditch of Claes Cornelissen 
Meutelaer W. by N. and W. N. W. between both one hundred and seventy -two rods, in width 
back into the woods to the said Henry's land N. E. by E. fifty-nine rods, then to the maizeland E. a 
little S. forty-five rods, then through the maizeland to tlio meadow S. E. by E. one hundred and 
nine rods containing twelve morgens one hundred and fifty-seven rods, with the express condition 
and stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N., the 12"^ of December 1645. 

We, Willem, Kieft, etc etc have given and gi-anted to Peter Cornelissen, carpenter, a piece 
of land lying at MarechJiawich, as well maize as woodland, stretching northward to Cornelis 
Dirchsen's the Ferrymans and southeast to Joris Dircksen's ; it goes along the said Ferryman's 
from the meadow through the maize and woodland to the bounds of Claes Cornelissen W. by N. 
and N. N. W. between both one hundred and seventy -two rods, back in the woods along the ditch 
of Andries Hudde S. by W. one hundred and thirty-eight rods further E. S. E. and S. E. by E. 
between both thirty-one rods, along the said Joris' land through the wood and maize land to the 
meadow E. N. E. and N. E. by E. one himdred and seventy-eight rods, along the meadow twenty- 

New Yorlc Historical Records. 65 

five rods to the place of beginning, containing twenty-seven morgons three hundred and nineteen 
rods ; with the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. the S"" of February 1646. 

We, Willem Kieft etc etc, have given and granted to William Cornelissen a piece of land 
containing twenty-five morgens, situate upon Long Island in the bay of Marechkawiok with a 
meadow of the width of the said piece, with the express condition and stipulation etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam the 19'" of February 1646. 

We, Willem Kieft, etc etc, have given and granted to Huych Aertsen from Hosim (?) a piece 
of land at Marechkawlch near the valley of the Gouwanes kil, maize land as well as woodland, 
bounded S. E. by the land of Jan Eversen, along the valley E. 68 rods, S. E. 30 rods, further 
over the maizeland to the woods N. E. by E. 85 rods N. E. by N. 60 rods, with a width in the 
woods to the land of said Jan Eversen N. E. 87 rods, again to the maizeiand along said Jan 
EverserCs S. W. and S. W. by W. 55 rods, through the maize land to the place of beginning S. 
W. a little S. 130 rods containing 19 morgens 105 rods ; with the express condition and stipulation 
etc etc. Another parcel of land has been granted to him, so that his property contains according 
to the surveyors measurement with the above parcel of 19 morgens, about 29 morgens. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam in N. N. 

Willem Kieft. 

By Order Coknelis van Tienhoven, Seers' 

We, Willem Kieft etc etc, have given and granted to Joris DircTcsen a piece of land, wood 
end maizeland, at Marechkawick, IST. W. of the land of Peter Cornelissen, stretching along said 
Peter Cornelissen into the woods W. S. W. and S. W. by W. 187 rods, through the woods E. S. 
E. and S. E. by E. between both 150 rods, thence to the value through the wood and maizeland N. 
E. 66 rods to the maizeland and 80 rods N. E. by IST. more to the valley and along the valley to 
the place of boginning 35 rods, containing 18 morgens 501 rods, with the express condition and 
stipulation etc. 

Done in Fort Amsterdam, the 23* of March 1646. 

Willem Kieft. 

By Order etc. Coenelis van Tienhoven, Seers' 

We, Willem. Kieft etc etc have given and granted to Reyer Lamhertsen a piece of land 
lying on the East hook of the Bay of Marechkawick and stretching along the shore of the East 

66 Early Colonial Settlements. 

river N. N. E. a little E. 135 rods, thence into tlie woods S. E. by E. 100 rods N. E. by N. 50 
rods and 150 rods S. E. by S., with a width back in the woods S. 80 rods, again to the strand at 
the place of beginning N. W. by W. a little W. 316 rods, containing 57 morgans 339 rods ; with 
the express condition etc etc. 

Dated at Fort Amsterdam, the 23'* of March 1646. 

Patent for .u* Island in the East Rivee. 

We, Willem Kleft etc etc have given and granted to Captain Jan Onderldl a small island, 
formerly called Meatelaers Idand, separated fi-om Long Island by two kills, containing about 50 
moro-ens besides the meadows, which are granted to said Onderhil with said small island, with the 
express condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 14"" of May 164G. 

Patent foe Land on Luncj Island (Geeenpoint). 

We, WilUm K'left etc etc, have given and granted to Adam Matt a piece of woodland for a 
plantation containing 25 morgens, situate on the west side of the Kil of Mesjjachtes upon the 
point nearly opposite the plantation of Richard Brudnel with the express condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 23*^ of August 16-46. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Canaeisse). 

We, Willem' Kieft etc etc. have given and granted to George Baxter and Richard CTofwith 
their associates a certain tract of land situate on the Southside of Long Island called Canarise with 
all the meadows thereto belonging, with express condition etc etc. 

In testimony whereof this has been signed by us and confirmed with our seal hereto affixed 
this 21"- of January 1647 at N'ew Amsterdam. 

This tract begins at a certain crosspath from the corner of a meadow, half of which belongs 
to Wolphert Gerrit ; the path leads to Corlaers Flat and thence E. and N. as far as a fresh water 
kil runs E. of Canarise thence straight to the sea. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Beookltn). 

We, Willem Kieft etc etc have given and granted to Gerritt Wolphertsen a piece of lano at 
Recklceweck, maize as well as woodland near the valley of the GouioanesY^ between the lands of 
Jacob Stoffdsen and Frerich Lubbersen, stretching from the aforesaid valley to and into the 
woods along said Frericks land to the land of Andries Hudde N. E. by N. a little jST. 148 rods, 
then through the woods to the land of said Jacob Stoffelsen S. E. by E. 80 rods, along said JacoVs 

New York Historical Records. 67 

land to the said valley S. W. a little W. 165 rods, along the valley to the place of beginning 60 
rods with a small point of land, containing altogether 19 morgens 341 rods, with express 
condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, the ll"" of March 1647. 

Patent for Land on Long Island. 

We, Willem Kieft, etc etc have given and granted to Volckert Eversev, a piece of land 
behind the land of Jacus Bentyn ou Long Island, stretching from the meadow or kil S. E. by E. 
90 rods S. E. 135 rods, S. S. E. 36, in width in the woods W. S. W. 90 rods to a valley, AV. N. W. 
136 rods and along the valley almost N. 200 rods, including a meadow lying within Uiis parcel of 
an area of 2^ to 3 morgens, containing altogether 49 morgens 155 rods, with the expi'ess 
condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam the ll"" of March 1647. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Geeenpoint). 

"We Willem Kieft etc etc have given and granted to Gornelis Willemsen a piece of land on 
the Kil of Mespachtes opposite Richard Brudnel, stretching in length from the hook 1S2 rods, 
towards the woods 100 rods, again to the hook or bend of the hook to near the land of Thomas 
Fiscock his brother-in-law, 90 rods, containing 22 morgens 136 rods with express condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam the 12"' of March 1647. 

Patent fok Land on Long Island (Beookltn). 

We, Willem Kieft etc etc have given and granted to Gornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary 
here, a piece of land situate in the allotment of Breukelen, formerly called Marechkawich, on 
Long Island, of the same extent as it was surveyed by the surveyor Andries Hiidde for Jan 
Aertsen of Utrecht according to his book ; which Jan Aertsen having failed to improve his land 
pursuant to the laws, we have given his lot to the said Tienhoven, with express condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 15"" of March 1647. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Newtown). 

We, Willem Kieft etc etc have given and granted to Jan Jansen from Ditmarsen a 
plantation lying South of Pieters the chimney sweep and stretching from a copse along said 
chimneysweep's land E. S. E. and S. E. by E. 135 rods to the meadow, along the meadow 117 

68 Early Colonial Settlements. 

rods, S. by E. and S. S. "W. a little W. sixty rods, W. JST. W. a little N. thirty-four rods, N. N. W. 
forty-five rods, N. N. W. a little AV. fifty-seven rods, N. by "W. forty-six rods, W. S. W. eighty- 
five rods, N. E. by E. one hundred and nineteen rods to the place of beginning with some points 
of land, containing twenty-nine morgens, three hundred and sixty-two rods with express 
condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort AmsUrdam, the 23^ of March 1G47. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Williamsbdegh). 

"We, Willem Kieft etc etc, have given and granted to Jan Pietersen from Amsterdam a 
small piece of land lying on Long Island, which comes out upon the river between Reyer 
Lamhertsen and Class the ISTorman, containing according to the survey four morgens, with the 
express condition, that he, Jan Pietersen JSorsin, etc etc. 

Done at Port Amsterdam, the 29"" of March 1017. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Bushwick). 

We, Willem Kieft etc etc. have given and granted to Hans Hansen a piece of land situate 
upon Zonff Island at the Kil of George Rapalje stretching from his house N. E. by E. to Lamhert 
Iluyhertscru s plantation, then along tlie kil of Jan the Swede following the old marks to the Kil 
of MesjMchtes along the copse, then it divides the land of DircTc Volclcertsen, which he bought 
from Wilcoch, from Henry Sattifs land containing two hundred morgens, with express 
condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 30"" of March 1647. 

Patent foe Land on Long Island. 

We, Willem Kieft etc etc have given and granted to Jan Haes, who has married the widow 
of Edward Fisoock deceased, a piece of land lying on the western hook of Rechhewich on the 
East river, stretching from the land of Frerick Lithhertsen E. S. E. and S. E. by E. to the meadow 
eighty rods, and along the meadow N. E. one hundred and twenty-six rods with some curves and 
bends, further IST. by E. forty-five rods, N. N. W. thirty rods, W. by N. eighty rods, W. and W. 
S. sixty-seven rods, along the land of Frerick Lubhertsen S. and S.byE. one hundred and thirty- 
four rods containing tliirty-eight morgens four hiindred and eighty-five rods, with the express 
condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 2'' of April 1647. 

New York Historical Records. 69 

Patent foe Land on Long Island (Williamsburgh). 

We, Willem Kieft etc etc have given and granted to Jan Forhus a piece of land Ijnfng on the kil 
of Dirok tlie Norman on the East river, formerly in the occupation of Claes Carstensen, George 
Baxter and David A)idrlesen containing sixty-five morgens, as may be seen by the marks, with 
the meadow thereto belonging ; with the express condition etc etc. 

Done at Fort Amsterdam, the 15 of May 1647. 

Summons to the Eev. E. Booardus to appeaji before the Council and answer charges 
against him, and further proceedings. 

In the name of the Lord, Amen. Anno 16i6 in New Netherland. 

The Hon*'" Director and Council to the Reverend Eoerardus Bogardm, minister here. 

Although we were informed of your proceedings in the time of the Hon''''= Wouter van 
Tuoiller, the former Director, and were also warned to be on our guard, yet were we unwilling to 
pay any attention thereto, believing that no man who preached the Word of the Lord would so 
far forget himself, notwithstanding we have letters in your own hand, among others, one dated 
17"" June 1634, wherein you do not appear to be moved by the spirit of the Lord, but on the 
contrary by a feeling unbecoming heathens, let alone Christians, much less a preacher of the 
Gospel. Yow there berate your magistrate, placed over you by God, as a child of the Devil, an 
incarnate villain, whose buck goats are better than he, and promise him that you would so pitch 
into him from the pulpit on the following Sunday, that both you and his bulwarks would tremble. 
And many other such like insults, which we refrain from mentioning, out of the respect we 
entertain for that gentleman. 

You have indulged no less in scattei-ing abuse during our administration. 
Scarcely a person in the entire land have you spared ; not even your own wife, or her sistei', 
particularly when you were in good company and jolly. Still mixing up your human passion 
with the chain of truth, wliich has continued from time to time you associated with the greatest 
criminals in the country, taking their part and defending them. You refused to obey the order 
to administer the Sacrament of the Lord and did not dare to partake of it yourself. And in order 
that you may not plead ignorance, a few out of many instances shall be cited for you, as follows : 

On the 25"" of September 1639, having celebrated the Lord's supper, observing afterwards 
in the evening a bright fire in the Director's house, whilst you were at Jacob van Curler's, being 
thoroughly drunk, you grossly abused the Director and Joohim Pletersen, with whom you were 
angry, because the Director had asked something of you for said Joohim Pietersen which you 
refused. (See affidavit in our possession.) 

Since that time many acts have been committed by you, which no clergyman would think of 
doing. In the hope that you would at least demean yourself in your office in a christianlike 
manner, we have overlooked those things until March 1643, when one Maryn Adriaensen came 
into the Director's room with predetermined purpose to murder him. He was prevented and put 
in irons. Taking up the criminal's cause, you drew up his writings and defended him. 
He, notwithstanding, was sent to Holland in chains against your will. Whereupon you 
fulminated terribly for about fourteen days and desecrated even the pulpit by your passion. In 
what manner you conducted yourself every evening during this time is known to your immediate 
neighbors. Finally, you made up friends wdth the Director, and things became quiet. 

70 Early Colonial Settlements. 

la the year 1644, one Laurens Conielissen being here — a man who committed perjury ; once 
openly took a false oath and was guilty of theft — lie immediately found a patron in yon, because 
he bespattered the Director with lies and you were daily making good cheer with him. In the 
summer of the same year, when minister Do^othey administered the Lord's Supper in the morning, 
you came drunk into the pulpit in the afternoon ; also on the Friday before Christmas of the same 
year, when you preached the sermon calling to repentance. 

In the beginning of the year 1645, being at supper at the Fiscal's where you arrived drunk, 
you commenced as is your custom, to scold your deacons and the Secretary, abusing among the 
rest deacon Olqff Stevensen as a thief, although he did not utter an ill word against you ; 
whereupon the Director, being present, suggested to you in a kind manner, that it was not the 
place to use such language. As you did not desist, the Director finally said, that when you were 
drunk, you did nothing but abuse, and that you had been drunk on Friday when you went into the 
pulpit ; tliat it did not become a minister to lead such a life, and to give scandal to the worthy 

Some days after, the Director not being able to attend church in consequence of indisposition, 
to wit on the 22'^ January 1645, you abused him violently from the puljoit, saying "What else are 
the greatest in the land but vessels of wrath and fountains of evil, etc. Men aim at nothing but to 
rob one another of his property, to dismiss, banish and transport." For this reason the Director 
absented himself from chm'ch, in order to avoid greater scandal; as he will maintain that he never 
coveted any man's property, or took it away, or acted unjustly, or banished any one who had not 
deserved three times severer j)unishment. Whomever he dismissed was discharged because such was 
his prerogative, and he will vindicate his act in the proper quarter. It is none of your business. 

On the 21^' March 1645, being at a wedding feast at Adam Brouwer''s and pretty drunk, you 
commenced scolding the Fiscal and Secretary then present, censuring also the Director not a little, 
giving as your reason that he had called your wife a whore, though he said there that it was not 
true and that he never entertained STich a thought, and it never could be proved. Wherefore on the 
23'''' March, we being moved by motives of mercy, and on account of the respect attached to your 
office instead of prosecuting you, sent you a Christian admonition imder seal, which you twice 
refused to receive. (See Report of the Messenger.) 

You administered the Lord's supper at Easter and Whitsuntide without partaking of it 
yourself, setting yourself as a partisan ; assuming that the Director had sent the Yoncker* and one 
lottho, meaning Lysbet the midwife, to you in order to seek a reconciliation, but that you would 
think twice before making peace with him ; using similiar language also to the Yoncker and 
Anthony de Tlooges, as shall appear by credible witnesses. At the making of the peace, many 
words and means were used to break it off. Good effect was expected from the order which was 
sent to you to offer np prayers to the Lord, i>ut instead of a prayer, people heard an 
invective, the tendency whereof was of dangerous consequences. Peace being 
concluded with the Indians, an extract from the order of the Lords States was sent 
to your Reverence, to return thanks to God on the 6"" of September therefor. Your 
Reverence preached well aiid gave a good sermon, but throughout not a word was uttered 
about the peace, and though the day was appointed specially for that purpose, you offered no 
thanks to God for it, as the other clergymen who dwell within our limits have done with great 
zeal. By this, people can estimate your disposition toward the Company, by whom you are paid, 
and the welfare of the country; which disposition is also manifested by favoring those who 

* Adrian van der Donck. 

New YorJc Historical Records. ^1 

have grossly defrauded and injured the Company; the conventicles and gatherings held and still 
daily continued in reference thereto. 

On the 22'' of December, you said iniblicly, in the course of the sermon on repentance, that 
you have frequently administered the Lord's supper, Avithout partaking of it yourself, and wislied 
that those who are the cause of the trouble were dismissed, and when families are visited, they 
cannot give a reason, why they absent themselves. Tour bad tongue is, in our opinion, the sole cause, 
and your stifEneckedness, and those who encourage you in your evil course,the cause of its continuance. 
We know no one but only you who has refused to make peace. When you make a visitation 
you do not enquire the reason, or are unwilling to ask it. We hold that men are bound to give a 
j-eason for such absence if it be demanded. 

On the 24"* of the same month, you remarked in yom- sermon, that in Africa, in consequence 
of the excessive heat, different wild animals copulate together, whereby many monsters are 
generated. But in this temperate climate, you knew not, you said, whence these monsters of men 
proceeded. They are the mighty but they ought to be made unniighty, who have many fathers 
and place their trust in the arm of the flesh, and not in the Lord. 

Children can tell to whom you here allude. These and many sunilar sermons which you 
have often preached, have obliged us to remain away from church. 

Seeing that all this tends to the general ruin of the land, both in ecclesiastical and civil 
matters, to the disparagement of authority which your Reverence is bound by duty and also by 
your oath to support ; to the stirring up of mutiny among the people, already split into factioiis ; 
to schism and contention in the church, created by novel and unheard of customs, and to rendering 
us contemptible in the eyes of our neighbors, which things cannot bo tolerated, when justice is 
accustomed to be maintained, therefore our bounden duty obliges us to provide therein, and by 
virtue of our commission from their High Mightinesses, his Highness, and the Lords Directors of 
the Incorporated West India Company, to proceed against you formally ; and in order that the 
same may be done more regularly,- we have commanded that a copy of this our Acte be delivered 
to you, to be answered in foiirteen days, protesting that your Reverence shall be treated in as 
Christian and civil a manner as our conscience and the Avelfare of Church and State will permit. 
The 2" of January 1646. 

1646, 4"" of January. 

We have seen the writing dated third January last sent us by Everardus Bogardus 
through the messenger, and found it futile and absurd and not an answer to the extract dated 
2'' of Jan'' 1646, sent to said Bogardus. It is therefore ordered that said Bogardus shall give a 
pertinent answer to the contents of said extract, either affirmatively or negatively within the time 
therein mentioned, on pain of being prosecuted in court as a rebel and contumacious. 

Thus done in Council at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland on the above date. 

On the IS"' of January. 

We have seen a certain writing of Dom"* Bogardus sent us by the messenger, full of vain 
subterfuge, calumny, insirlt and profanation of God's holy word, to the disparagement of justice 
and his lawful superior, which he uses, as is his custom, to vent his passion and to cover up the 
truth, and is in no wise an answer to our charges and order sent him on the g'' and 4"" of January 
last. Therefore we order him a second time to answer it formally within 14 days either negatively 
or affirmatively on pain as above. 

72 Early Colonial Settlements. 

On the first of February A° 1646. 

Having seen the sLinderous writing of Dom'= Bogardufi jrjurporting to be an answer to our 
charges, wherein he affirms some, and denies other points thereof, and demands proof. 
Ordered that the Fiscal shall give said Bogardus satisfaction as his party 

On the S'" of March, 1646. 

Having seen the answer of Everardus Bogardus, minister, dated 8"* of March, Ordered, if he 
has anything more to allege either against the witnesses or otherwise in the remainder of the 
suit, that he produce it within eight days, and at the same time specify the reason which the 
Hon"" Director and Council gave him for abusing them from the chair of truth, and refusing to 
obey their order ; in default whereof the suit shall be proceeded with to proof, notwithstanding 
his subterfuges. The S"" of March 1646. 

Whereas Dom" Bogardus has not yet answered the papers sent to him on the S"" February, 
he is hereby ordered to answer them by the next Coiirt day, and show cause why he has 
calumniated the Magistrate from the Chair of Truth, and in his writing. 

Having seen the writing dated the 15"' March 1646 sent by the messenger from Everardus 
Bogardus, minister, it is for the second time ordered that Deft, shall declare at the next session 
whether he has any more objections agamst the evidence and other points of the suit, and any 
other cause why he has calumniated the Director and Council in the Chair of Truth, and 
neglected then- order. In default, the suit shall be despatched. 

Everardus Bogardus, minister, has delivered in Court an answer to the resolution of the 
IS"" of March and previous dates, wherein he declares that he will not at present proceed further 
or deeper in the case, or with the evidence or remainder of the suit ; and whereas, he Bogardus 
has challenged the Director and Council as judges, although we, by virtue of the commission 
granted us by their High Mightinesses, his Highness, and the Hon" ^ Lords Dheetors, are fully 
qualified to decide the case, as it concerns our office and the authority of om- superiors vested in 
us. Yet in order to obviate all occasion of scandal, we are willing to place om- claim in the hands 
of impartial jl^dges of the reformed religion, such as Domine Johannes Megapolensis, Mr. 
Douthey, both ministers, and two or three impartial members of this Province, provided Bogardus 
shall submit his case, as we do, to their judgment, and that he, in the meanwhile, shall not 
privately or publicly, directly or indirectly, by abuse or calumny offend the Director and Council, 
and if, meanwhile another Director and other Councillors arrive here, we are content to place the 
matter in their hands. On which he is ordered to communicate his resolution on the 12"' April 

Dated 22'^ of March 1646 in Council in New Amsterdam. 

12 April Anno 1646. 

Having seen the answer of Everardus Bogardus, minister, dated the 12"" of April, delivered in 
writing, whereby he refuses the civil offer made him on the 22'' of March last by the Director and 
Council, to submit the suit against him to two Reformed ministers and some impartial members of 
this country, but appeals to the coming of a new Director and Council, and whereas it is uncertain 
what time a new Director will arrive, we cannot consequently neglect putting a stop to the 
disorder and scandals which have prevailed hitherto, but are resolved to proceed with the suit, we 
therefore order that an answer to his last writing delivered to us shall be sent to him, D" Bogardus, 

New Yorh Historical Records. 73 

within eight days, to be by him replied to for the last time on the 26"' of this month, in default 
whereof the case shall be decided. 

ll"" of June. 

Whereas Oloff Stevensen, deacon and commissary of cargoes and the store, has presented a 
petition to us wherein he requests that foiir arbitrators may be named by us who might decide tlie 
difficulty which he has with Doiu" Everardus Bogardus, minister here to which said Bogardus 
also consents, (see his writing delivered to us by him, Oloff) Therefore we do not object so to 
do, and hereby nominate Dom^ MegapoUnsis, Mr. de Hoogcs, Yoncker Adriaen Yerdonck and 
Laurens van Heusden, commissary, whom we amicably request, authorize and empower to decide 
and settle the aforesaid question as far as in their power lies, reserving the action which the Fiscal 
may have against Olqff Stevensen. 

Thus done in Fort Amsterdam the 11"' June A" 1646. 

The Hon"*" Director and Council to you, Reverend Bogardus, minister here. 

Although the offer we have made your Reverence to submit our case to arbitration, as you 
have requested, sufficiently proves the justice of our proceedings and the inclination we have for 
peace, as your refusal establishes the contrary, nevertheless the respect we bear the dignity of the 
ministry, and the desire for your Reverence's welfare prompt ouce more to seek it, seeing the 
opportunity that now presents itself on the part of those whom we had nominated thereto ; From 
the ministers, Dom" Johannes Megajpolensis and Mr. Douthey, and such other impartial members 
as you yourself will be willing to select ; protesting in case of refusal that we shall proceed to 
judgment. And in order that we may with more fervour pray God in the midst of the 
congregation that He would dispose you and our hearts to a Christian concord, we request Dom° 
Megapolejisis may preach next Sunday, as has been always his custom, and being hei-e make us 
partakers of the gifts with which God has blessed him. Your Reverence will please to gratify us 
so far in this matter as that we may hear him on that occasion. Relying hereon, and not doubting 
that yoiir Reverence will have any objection to it seeing the justice of our request, we shall await 
your Reverence's immediate answer thereto, and on the preceding matter next Thursday, being 
the 14'" June. 

Lease of a Bowery near the Narrows on L. I. 

Before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Netherlands appeared Anthony 
Jansen from Salee, who in the presence of the witnesses here underwritten declared and 
acknowledged that he leased his bouwery situate below the narrows {door de hooften) on Long 
Island, to Edmund Adley, who also acknowledged to have hired it for the term of four conse- 
cutive years, commencing on the 2'' of last September and ending on the 2'^ September 1650. 
Anthony Jansen shall also be bound to have built a house fit to live in, and the Lessee* shall 
cause the arable land to be enclosed once for all with posts and rails, which fence Edmund 
remains boimd to deliver back, on the expiration of the four years as good (at least tight) as it 
now will be delivered, and the Lessee promises to keep the house and fence in repair at his own 

* Evidently a mistake for " Lessor." 

74 Early Colonial Settlements. 

expense during the lease. The Lessee shall annually pay as rent of the aforesaid Bowery, cattle 
and implements which Anthony now delivers, the sum of two hundred guilders the first year, and 
two hundred and fifty guilders every year the three succeeding years, with five pounds of butter 
annually. Tlie other property which Anthony Jansen now delivers, as per the subjoined inventory 
Adley is bound to restore at the end of tlie lease, when the number of the cattle that the Lessee* 
now delivers shall first of all be deducted, and then the increase shall be divided half and half 
between the Lessor and the Lessee. It is also expressly stipulated that the risk of the cattle shared 
be shared in common both l)y tlie Lessor and Lessee during the lease, and if any of the cattle 
liappen to die, the loss must first of all be made good from the increase. 
(Remainder of Mss. destroyed.) 

Liventory of the property, implements and cattle delivered by Anthony Jansen, lessor, to 
Edmund Adley, lessee, who acknowledges to have received the same, and promises to deliver 
them on the expiration of the lease, as appears by the preceding contract, to wit: 

1 stallion 12 years old ; 1 stallion of 3 years. 

1 mare of 4 years. Edmund shall allow one stallion colt and two bull calves, at the end of 
the four years, tliough the colt may be grown, and the bull calves, oxen ; because Anthony receives 
so little butter; of which colt and calves the Lessee runs no risk, unless the animals be lost through 
the Lessee's negligence. 

Two cows in good condition. 

Two new plows and appurtenances. 

1 wagon and appurtenances. 

One harrow with iron teeth ; 2 spades ; 2 scythes ; 2 siths and hasps. 

1 handsaw ; one iron sledge ; 1 iron maul ; 1 churn and fixtures. 

One axe ; one cream pot ; two pails ; one handmill ; one fan ; one pitchfork ; three forks ; 
one three pronged fork ; three horse collars with one long rope, being a fore and aft trace. 

One carpenter's adze ; one ditto axe; 1 sickle; Ihook; one auger; one long gun. 

Anthony promises to furnish as much seed corn as lie can. 

In testimony this is signed by parties the 6"" of September 1646. JVew Netherland. 

This is the .^^ mark of Edman Adley, made by himself. 

This is the Aj mark of Anthony Jansen van Zalee, made by himself. 


Adkiaen van Tienhoven, witness. 
To my knowledge. 




Gerrit Douman, Serjeant, and Jan Tonissen, Schout of Breuckelen, have this day agreed and 
contracted in manner as follows, to wit : Jan Tonisen promises to cut at Breuckelen, or 

* Evidently a mistake for " 

New Yorh Histoi'ical Records. 75 

wherever he can best, the following timber, and to jDroperly hew and deliver the same out of the 
woods near the ferryman on the strand ; the timber for a house forty feet long, seven beams three 
posts to each beam, the cross timbers twenty-two feet long extending four feet througii, four 
window frames, three door frames, one little window in the garret, all shingles to the peak of the 
roof, to be spHt ones ; The cross timbers shall be cut square of ten and seven inches. All which 
timber being brought to the strand on the other side, Douman remains bound to have the same 
hauled and carried to the work at his own expense. When the aforesaid timber shall be brought 
there, Jan Teunessen shall raise the woodwork and cap, but Douman shall furnish the nails ; 
For all which Oerrit Douman promises to pay, for account of the Company, to Jan Teunessen 
for labor when the job is completed, the sum of sixty-fi\-e guilders, Jan Teunessen promises to 
deliver on the strand all the timber in the month of April next, and to raise it as soon as Douman 
shall have hauled and brought it to the work. In testimony this is signed by parties the 22* 
November 1G46 in Neiu Amsterdam,, New Netherland. Jan Teunissen. Gerrit Doman. To 
my knowledge Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Lease of a house and lot of land at Bebukelen on Long Island. 

This day date underwritten, Crigler Pisher and Garrit Seers have, in the presence of the 
underwritten Avitnesses, leased from Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Netherland, a 
piece of land of such dimensions as it may be, situate at J^reuckelen on Long Island, for 
the term of four consecutive years which shall begin on the first of August A° 1047 
and terminate on the first of August 1651, during which aforesaid time the Lessees shall 
not have to pay any rent, but be free ; only if in the meanwhile any acknowledgment 
must be made to the authorities, the Lessees shall be bound to pay it. In compensation 
for being permitted to cultivate the land rent free, the Lessees promise to thoroughly clear the 
maizeland in the abovementioned lot within the term of four years aforesaid, so that the plough 
can run over the whole of it and it can be ploughed. Should there be any stones so large that two 
men cannot move them, the Lessees may let them lie ; but they must remove the small stones from 
the land. The Lessees are bound to cut, burn and remove from the land within the time 
aforesaid, all the trees which are standing on Tienhcmen^s clearance, also in consideration 
for not paying any rent ; but they shall be at liberty to leave the stumps. For which they 
shall receive, at the end of the four years, from TienJioven or whomsoever may obtain his interest, 
one hundred Carolus guilders over and above the exemption from rent and fi-ee dwelling. The 
Lessees shall at their own expense maintain and fix the post and rail fence that is now set up or 
shall be erected by order of the Schepens, whether in front, in the rear, or at the sides, and at the 
termination of the lease deliver the same back in a good defensive condition against cattle, which 
(fence) shall be the property of the Lessor, without demanding any thing for it. They shall 
properly occupy the house according to their circumstances and keep it weather tight during tlie 
lease, and at the end thereof sm-render it in a tight condition, and in case the house, thro' the 
neglect or inattention of the Lessees should be destroyed by fire, the Lessees shall be bound to 
repair the damage, but they shall not be held responsible if such occur from enemies or other 
mischance, provided they have previously defended the house with their other neighbors according 
to their ability. The Lessees shall not be at liberty to sublet the place to any person, much less to 

76 Early Colonial Settlements. 

remove away from it without tlie consent of the Lessor ; and in case it be found that the Lessees 
have, in any manner, violated this their contract, the Lessor shall have power to institute his action 
tlierefor against them, the Lessees. 

Thus done in good faith and hereof two copies are made of the like tenor, the 26"' of January 
1647, in Fort Amsterdam in Ne^o Netherland. 

This is the /W mark of Cuicjiee Pishek made by himself. 

Gerrtt Serdts. 
Gysbert op Dyck. 
Jacob Hendkicksen Kir. 


CoENELis VAN TiENHovEN 38 principal and Secreta^5^ 

Letters from the Directors in Holland to Die. Stuyvesant ; minerals sent to Holland ; 
PEACE with the Indians ; New Amsterdam; English allowed to settle in New 
Netherland; iron mine on Staten Island; English trading house neae Fort Oeange. 

By the ship " de Jager " skipper . . Thomassen, we have duly received your letters of 
the 22"^ of September 1646 with divers documents and specimens of minerals. In accordance with 
the said letter and accompanying list we find copies of your Honor's last letter, dated 25"' of Novem- 
ber 1645, sent hither by the special messenger Arent Corssen, who until this day has not appeared 
nor have we been able to hear from him in England, although we sent letters to Plymouth, where 
the ship belonged, before it sailed from .... We apprehend therefore, that the said ship 
has met with mishap on the way. 

Having meanwhile received the copies, we shall answer their contents point for point, if necessary 
and state, that we were especially glad that not only peace has been made with the savages there, 
but also that it will probably be lasting and firm ; as however the bad disposition of these savages 
has before this shown them to be deceitful, we on our side will always have to keep a watchful 
eye on them and their doings and therefore [every occasion to re-open the war must be avoided 
and all injuries presented]. AVe would have been pleased, if the conditions or articles of the said 
peace (which we trust have been made in writing) had been sent over and we exj^ect them now at 
the return of the former Director Kieft. 

We were not less rejoiced to hear, that there are signs of progress, that some villages are 
springing up and that fine buildings are being erected around Fort New-Amsterdam. We trust 
your Honors' administration will have the tendency to promote all such undertakings, we on our side 
shall not fail to manage matters with that view, so that our conquests may be brought in such a 
flourishing state, that at last we can reap the long e.x|3ected benefits therefrom. 

Concerning the request of the Englishmen for permission to come and settle among us, on 
which your Honors await our decision, we have not found any very great objections, to allow them 
for the present to come in in reasonable numbers, but the appointment of the Magistrates must 
absolutely be left to our Director, at least in the same way as it is done among our own people 
and according to the established regulation. 

The specimens of New Netherland minerals, sent over, have been examined, but, we are told 
no metal has been found in them ; we can nevertheless only deem it advisable, to order the 
continuation of the search for minerals by your Honors and wish to know, what kind of mineral 

New Y(yi'h Historical Records. 77 

may be obtained from the greatest depth especially, we desire also a description of the place, where 
it is found. We expect also more information about the iron mine on Staten Island and in the 
meantime we shall endeavor, as we have already been doing, to find and send over people, who 
understand how to assay ores and to judge of their value. 

We see, that the English from Vii'ginia and New England have found their way to Curasao 
and ventm-ed to go there with their products. Although this has been of great assistance to the 
peoople of Cv^ra^ao in their time of need, yet we hope, especially now, tliat with your Honor 
arrival there the causes for it shall be removed. We ought to prevent the continuation of this 
intercourse, because it destroys all the cattle (?) and caxises the horses to be exported for the benefit 
and use of strangers, or else the facilities, which the Company does not enjoy, should be taken 
advantage of and turned to its service. We would therefore recommend to admit individuals of 
this nation on payment of certain taxes, to bo determined by the state of affairs there. We should 
like to have your Honor's opinion on this matter. 

Tiius far we have considered it necessary to reply to the above mentioned copy of the letter, 
dated the 25"" of November 1645. We come now to the second letter of the 22'' of September 1C46 
which begins with the smuggling, which the ships from here are enabled and contrive to carry on 
at their arrival in New Netherlands because of the opportunities offered there during the sail up the 
river before reaching Fort Amsterdam, for which they usually take the night, in order to discharge 
on the way up their contraband goods. We understand perfectly well, how it can be and is done. 
Your Honor must consider, whether we cannot get people to go on board of these ships when they 
make the land, who could watch with the supercargo, until the ship conies to anchor before Fort 
Amsterdam. Your Honor must also do everything and endeavor by all possible means to put a 
stop to this defraudations. 

Further information ought to be gathered about the English tradinghouse* ten leagues from 
Fort Orange, also concerning the right, claimed by the savages, to sell the ground to the English ; 
for it is within our boundaries and we must prevent their locating there by all means, which yoiir 
Honor does not consider too dangerous, to involve us in a war with the English. Their doings and 
arrangements must be carefully watched in the meantime and invasions or trespasses by them as 
well as by others must be prevented, if possible. 

We shall look out for Symon Jansen from Dwrgerdam, who has again been over there without 
our knowledge or consent and expect your Honor will send any new evidences against him, 
brought forward in the meantime. 

We have seen that more negroes could be a'lvantageously employed and sold there than the 
ship " Tamandare^'' has brought. We shall take care, that in future a greater niunber of negroes 
be taken there. We shall also endeavor to send a veterinary surgeon, who understands the 
treatment of horses. 

As to the matters, relating to the church, which Director Ki€,ft has not managed to our 
satisfaction, we shall wait for your Honor's report thereon, before putting them in order. 

Not finding anything else to rejjly to, we come upon general remarks. We notice principally, 
that Director Kieft has ordered the duties on beavers and other goods, sent here from New 
Netherland, to be paid there against our wishes. The consignees of the ship '■^ Jager" arrived 
from there last year, have informed us and proved, that they have not been able to sell beavers 
here at the same price, as Director Kieft had appraised them for export duty, under which 
appraisement 1274 fl. 1 6 st. more had been paid for duty, than according to their contract, which 

* Springfield, Mass. 

78 Early Colonial Settlement. 

stipulates for their return-freight a duty of eight per centum, they ought to have paid. After due 
consideration, we could not well refuse to refund this amount, but as the mistake had not been 
committed here, but in New Neiherland and we did not know, what other charges may have been 
made against this lot, we promised to the said consignees to write to your Honor as we herewith 
do, that what has been paid there in excess shall be refunded to their agent or factor, after the 
matter has been duly examined. 

AYe have made a new contract with the same consignees, a copy* of which we send your 
Honor herewith. It stipulates, that they shall pay the duties on their return cargoes on arrival 
here. Your Honor will be governed thereby. 

Enclosed is a list* of free men going over in this ship ; the purpose and intentions of each 
man going there are stated opposite to his name. We had intended to let these people sign the 
covenant on the same paper, but finding that nearly all of them go as "Scots" and not meaning 
to remain there, we considered it advisable, to let them sign there before your Honor, when they 
take the oath of allegiance as faithful subjects. As to those, who shall return, we see no reason 
why tliey should be bound by an oath or constrained any more, than the free men going to Brazil. 

Jan Willemsen and Ja/i Wyffrinch, who pretend to be experts in minei-als and assayers, also 
to have knowledge of mining, have received permission to go to Neio NetKerland under the 
conditions stated in the annexed copy.* You will give them board and lodgings, also the use of 
the sloop for such a period, as stated therein, subject to the exigencies of the Company's service. 

The bills for the freight of this ship ^^ Falconeer" are enclosed. 

Deed for land on the noetu end of tue plains of Ameesfooet ("Flatlands,) L. I. 

Tills day, date underwritten, before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, secretary of New Neiherland 
appeared Wolphert Gerritsen who sells to Teunis CorneUssen a piece of land containing fiftj^-two 
morgens, situate on Loncj Island at the north end of the flat of Amersvoort, which aforesaid fifty - 
morgens Teunis CorneUssen also acknowledges to have purchased from Wolphert Gerritsen for the 
sum of five hundred guilders, payable fifty guilders on next All Saints day, one hundred 
and fifty guilders on All Saints day A° 1618 ; one hundred and fifty guilders on All Saints day, A° 
1649; one hundred and fifty guilders, being the last pa-VTnent on All Saints day A° 1650. The 
abo venamed Woljyhert Gerritsen promises to deliver to the purchaser a proper and formal deed of said 
parcel of land ; the purchaser promises, on receipt of the deed, to tender and pay to the vendor 
the purchase money aforesaid, free of costs and charges, without contradiction or exceptions on 
the day it is due. For security and performance of what is aforesaid, parties pledge their 
respective persons and properties, movable and immovable, ]5resent and future, without any 
exception, submitting the same to all courts and judges. In testimony this is signed by parties 
the 3'* of July, A° 1647. 

This is the ^7{ mark of Wolj^/ieri Gerritsen, made by hmiself. 
This is the -©f-—^^— 4©- mark of Teunis Cornelis, made l)y himself. 

To my knowledge. 

Coenelis vAiT Teenhoven, 

* Missing. — B. F. 

New YorTi Historical Records. 79 

Deed foe a house ajjd plaijtation in Flushing, L. I. 

I, Thomas Robertson have sold to George Wolsey a house and plantation standing and situate 
in Flushing and the main bounds are to be seen in the book of the ToAvn of Flashing; together 
with all the grain that is now on it and everything that is fastened by earth and nail, for the sum 
of one hundred and thirty guilders which is now paid me. Wherefore I convey in tnie and real 
property the said land and house to said Wolsey or his successors. In token of the truth this is 
signed by Thomas Robertson in the presence of t/a?i.Z>a?ne»!. as witness, the 16"' of August A° 1647, 
in Fort Arasterdam in Wew Netherland. 

This is the '^' mark of Thomas Robertson made by himself. 

J. VlNJE. 

Resolution to send Skceetart van Tienhoven to Hemstead, to inquire into the teuth of 


23'' of August, A° 1647. 

This day appeared in Council certain deputies from the village of Hemsteade, situate on Long 
Island, who report verbally and in writing, that they had been assuredly informed by two Indians 
(one named Adam) that Mayawetinnemin, or as he is now called, Antinome, son of the chief 
Mecohgawodt, had by wampum invited, and thereby excited some Indians to war against the Dutch 
and English, and that it is certain that the Indians were resolved to kill the English at Heemsteede, 
undor this government, in the field when they were harvesting their grain and hay, and then cut 
off their entire village, to which wicked plot the Chief of Catsjajock and his brethi-en at the East 
end of Long Island had agreed. And whereas this is a matter of very great importance, and we 
very much suspect that this report is invented by the English, as they have long coveted the 
abovenamed Antinonvfs land, it is unanimously resolved to send Secretary van Tienhoven, who 
understands the Indian language, witJi one or two of those of Heemsteede, equally conversant with 
tlie Indian tongue, to the east end of Long Island in a sloop, to enquire of the Chief and his brethren, 
who were always friends of, and offered their service to our nation, whether the above report 
be tnie or not, and the reason which induced them to undertake such mischief against us. It is, 
also, resolved and concluded that the said chief of Catsjajock and his brethren shall be presented 
with three cloth coats and some trifles in the name of the Hon''''^ Company, with an offer of our 
friendship, which the late Director William Kieft had formerly promised them, Avhen peace was 
concluded. All which being done and investigated, this matter shall be disposed of as the 
exigency and circumstances of the case shall demand. 

Thus done the 23* of August A° 1647, in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland. 

(Signed) P. Stutvesandt, L. van Dinoklage, La Montagne, Beiant Noton, Paulus 
Leendees van die Geift 

PEOPosrnoNS made bt Die. Stuyvesant oonokkning claims upon Long Island made by the 
Earl of Steeling, and Peoceedings of Council theeeon. 

Proposition submitted by the Hon''''' Director General to the Council in session the 28"" of 
September, A" 1647. 

80 Early Colonial Settlements. 

On the day before yesterday, I was informed by Mr. Harch, Sheriff of ]^lushing, that a 
certain Scotchman named Forrester XxndL come there to i''i{t^sAiw^ with commission to take possession 
as Governor of Long Island and of all the Islands situate within live miles there abouts ; that this 
Forrester had spent two nights at Heemsteede and one night at Flushing, with our vassals and 
subjects there, where he had exhibited his commission. He came here on his way to Gravesend 
and Amersfoort there to exhibit his commission to the English residing under our allegiance and 
government, whence nothing else than mischief is to be expected, and further encroachment on 
the Company's lands, which were granted them by charter from their High Mightinesses, our 
Sovereigns. We have demanded his commission and order of this said new Governor, and asked 
by what authority he came within our limits ? To which he gave for answer, that he came here 
to demand my commission and authority. Wherefore I had him taken into custody, and on the 
next day had him placed under arrest at the City Tavern at the Company's expense, and having 
obtained his commission found one with an old seal depending, but not signed with any name, 
and, besides, a power of attorney signed by the Parliament, and nothing more. The further 
question is, What shall be done with said pretended Governor I Thirdly, that the commissioners 
please to make a final disposition of the criminals in prison, particularly Picquet. 

(Signed) P. Stuyvesant. 

28'" September A° 1647. 

The proposition of the Hon'''" Director General respecting the pretended Governor of Long 
Island and the neighboring Islands, being heard in Council, it was unanimously considered highly 
necessary by the Hon"" Director General and Council to hear the abovenamed pretended Governor, 
named i^orr-esfe;', personally in Council, in presence of two or three imj^artial witnesses, and to 
examine his commission in order to ascertain by whose authority he, Forrester, lays claim to the 
government of Long Island and the Islands situate there abouts. 

(Signed) P. Stui'vesandt, L. van Dincklaghe, La Montagne, Beian Newton, Paulus 
Leendeksen van dek Geist, a. Keysee. 

Andrew Forrester, born at a place called Dundee in Scotland appeared in council, in the 
presence of Oarel van Brugge, Adrlaen van derDonoh and Philip Oeraerdy, impartial witnesses, 
all understanding the English language, when being asked : Who had given him commission to 
take possession of Long Island and the neighboring Islands as Governor, and where said 
commission was? Said Forrester exhibited a large parchment, fully written in form as a 
commission, to which hung an old broken seal ; having no name subscribed, nor any place 
designated where the com mission was issued; also, a power of attorney signed hy Mary Steerlings. 

The Hon*"'" Director and Council asked said Forrester why the Commission was not duly 
signed? To which he gave for answer, it was not necessary and that the seal alone was 

Said Forrester is further asked, if he had no other, or better commission than the one he now 
produced, and what authority had he to demand tbe General's commission ? To which he gave 
for answer, he had no other commission at present, and therefore could not produce any other. 

Said Forrester is also asked in Council, if their High Mightinesses' ambassador had said in 
England, that he, on behalf of the Lords States, resigned those parts of Wew Netherland ; 
Andrew Forrester answers, such had 'oeen said in the lifetime of Mylord Steerlings. 

In Council in Fort Amsterdam, Present: The Hon"" Director General, Mr. Dincklage, 

New Yorh Historical Mecords. 81 

Mr. La Montague, Lieutenant Nuton, Paulus Lecndersen, and Commissary de Keyser, all that 
is material in regard to the commission and claim of Andrew Forrester, the pretended Governor 
of Long Island etc., being after matm-e deliberation well weighed and considered. 

First, seeing an unsigned written jDarchment in form of a commission, from which depended 
a broken old seal. 

Secondly, that said Forrester bad exhibited on Long Island, to the English residing under the 
allegiance and obedience of the Lords States, bis commission, and thus induced the simple farmer 
to believe many things, whence further difficulties in this jurisdiction are to be feared and expected ; 
in order to prevent such and similar mischiefs, it is unanimously resolved and concluded in Council, 
for the sake of our Sovereign's reputation, the Company's interest, and the prosperity of our nation in 
these parts, to send the pretended Governor a prisoner to Holland by the ship. The Falconer, to 
vindicate his commission to their High Mightinesses. 

(Signed) P. Stutvesandt, L. van Dincklaghe, La Montagne, Beian Ndton, Paulus 
Leendeesen van dee Gkist and A. Keysee. 

Council Minute on the Absconding of the Commissary at Foet Orange and appointment 
of a new Commissary. 

Whereas the Commissary of Fort Orange, (which is a place that the Hon''''^ Lords Directors are 
greatly interested in, in regard to the extension both of their limits and the trade,) has absconded 
from there, upon a report of a certain infamous and scandalous crime which 'twas said, he had 
committed, and therefore said place is vacant and it is highly necessary that it be again supplied 
with a good, honest and suitable person. Therefore the Hon'"'^ General requests the members of the 
Council, that each or them would please to give his voice and vote for whom in this country he 
thinks to be the fittest for said charge, in the interest and for the advantage of the Hon''"' 

The Hon'''° Director General votes that Michael Jansen shall be offered the Commissaryship 
of Fort Orange, and if he refuse such offer, then to send thither Caret van Brugge late commissary 
at Gurai^ao, and in case he refuse, said Van Brugge must quit the Company's service. 

Kesolution to take down the Mill on Governor's Island. 
Anno 1648 in Fort Amsterdam in Ifew Netherland. 

Eesolved in Council that it is most advantageous and profitable for the Lords Directors that all 
the effects which the late Director Kieft returned by inventory and had loaned to divers 
persons, shall be again called in for the use of the Hon''''' Company ; should any portion of them 
not be on hand or forth coming, those who have them shall be made to pay for them. This 12"" 
of Jan'' Anno 1648. 

The Hon''''' Director General and Council having seen, that the confiscated sloop formerly 
commanded by Seger Tonissen, dec'*, lies here ashore, and decays more and more, and is also 
greatly out of repair and would cost considerable before it could be made seaworthy again ; having, 

82 Early Colonial Settlements. 

likewise considered the little service this little sloop could render the Hon"* Company, it is jndged 
to be for the best advantage of the Hon''"' Company to sell said sloop publicly to the liighest bidder. 
This 12'" of JauJ- A° 1648. 

Whereas the sawmill on Nut Island is wholly decayed and in ruin, and to all appearance 
cannot be repaired by the carpenters now here, and the ironwork belonging to it is daily 
diminishing, therefore it is considered most advantageous for the Hoq"" "West India Company and 
unanimously resolved in Council to take said mill to pieces, if possible or otherwise to burn it in 
order to save the iron which shall be used for the best advantage of the Hon"'* Company. Thus 
done and resolved in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherlands in Council, the 12'" of January, 

Okder of Council on an Application of the Town of Flushing foe a Minister. 
On the first of February 1648. 

William Earck, Sheriff at Flushing, and his associates appeared in Council and request that 
the Hon"'* Director General and Council would favor them with a pious, learned and 
reformed minister, and then order that each inhabitant should contribute to such godly work 
according to his ability, and that an end be put to the present differences in a manner, that shall 
promote peace, quietness and unanimity in said town, and that they jointly may live under the 
protection of their High Mightinesses, his Highness of Orange, the Hon"* Lords Directors, and the 
present administration here. 

Thomas Sael, John Laurence and William Turner, the opposite party, thereto delegated by 
the remainder of their side, request the same as the sheriff and his associates abovementioned have 

The above parties having been heard in Council and the justness of their request being 
seen, the Hon"'* Director General and Council resolve to enact such order on their application 
and request as shall be found to promote peace, union and tranquillity both in ecclesiastical and 
civil affairs. 

Lettek fkom the Directoes in Holland to Petee Stuyvesant ; the ship " Princess " lost 
wrpH Die. Kieft and D° Bogardcs on Board ; lenient policy towards the Indians 
eecommended ; teade with South America ; church matters ; Governor Foeeester of 
Long Island. 

Duplicat. 1648 April 7'" 

Honorable, Dear and Faithful Friends. 

By the ship " fZe Valckenier " we have duly received two of your letters, the last dated the 
G"" of October of last year, the first having no date, the originals of which had been sent bj' the 
ship " The Princess." We notice by your last letter, that this ship had left your coast about the 

New York Historical Records. 83 

16"^ of August, but we did not receive your letters, sent by the same, as it was wrecked in the 
Channel on the 27"' of Septbr and 81 souls, men, women and children were lost, among them the 
former Director WiUla>/i JTlefi, D". Bogardm and Fiscal van der Hoyokeiis ; of her cargo 
nothing has been saved except a lot of peltries, part of which has been stolen and what floated on 
the strand has been sold for 2sh. 6d. the piece and later for Ish. English money. The skipper 
remained there skulking about so long, that it created suspicion ; it seems, that thieves are always 
connected with such misfortunes ; the Lord may comfort the sufferers. 

We see that in a like manner, as mishap has befallen this ship on her return, your Honor on 
going out has met with adversity, having lost by sickness 16 to 18 men and that your Honor 
arrived, God be praised, before Fort Amsterdnm on the 11"' of May with the ships " Groote 
Gerret,'^ " Swol " and " de Kadt^'' the first of which your Honor has sent to Boston in the English 
Virginia with a cargo of salt and the other two to the West Indies on an adventure. How very 
inojjportune the mishap of the " Princess" has come, especially as regards your request, 
will be stated hereafter, we shall first reply to your report on the state of our conquests, 
in which you complain, that the people are grown very wild and loose in their morals. It seems 
to have principally been caused by the weakness of the late Director and the neglect of his duties 
by the preacher. "We expect your Honor will amend all this, hut a tree grown too high and too 
luxuriantly, miost he trimmed carefully and hent hy a tender hand, giving it a good shape. The 
native inhabitants of our conquests have shown the necessity to govern them with mildness ; 
former wars, which we would have tried to avoid, have also given us that impression. Although 
we know, that these tribes have become conscious of their strength by using it and consequently, 
we believe, more anxious to provide themselves with muskets, powder and lead, for which tliey 
ask under pretense of hunting and which we know to be only a mere pretense, yet we perceive 
them to be so extremely eager, that we fear, they would rather begin a new war against us, than 
be entirely deprived of these articles. Considering that in our present situation a war is wholly 
unadvisable, we think it is best, to supply the tribes very sparingly, but directly by the Company's 
oSicers without the intervention of any private parties. This must be strictly carried out, also 
that no traders be allowed to come trading on that coast under authority from other Departments, 
excepting that of Amsterdam. "We have learned that a frigate from Medenhlick has arrived 
there, a ship called ^'■Hercules" Cornelis Cfaasse?i x^woo, skipper, and have been properly astonished, 
that you should have entered into negotiations with such cheats and smugglers, especially as you 
must have known, that none of the other Departments has been willing to contribute for the 
suppoi-t of New-Netherland and that in consequence that coast has been reserved for the Depart- 
ment of Amsterdam. It is therefore our express wish not to grant the privilege of trading there 
to any one in the world, unless they come with a permit from this Department and that if a trader 
comes without our permit, you confiscate and hold his goods until further orders from us. 

It is true, that people are busy at the Hague before tlieir High : Might: to bring about a 
general reform for all the colonies of this Company and New Netherland will not be forgotten ; 
a provisional resolution has already been passed, that all colonists there shall be allowed to ship 
their own products, as flour, fishes, meat, bacon, peas, beans and everything else in their own or 
chartered bottoms to Brazil and Angola, that the ships returning may take freight from Brazil, 
but those coming back from Angola are to bring negroes to be employed in farming. This 
resolution will show your Honor, that we too have the right to send a ship to Angola with an 
assortment of provisions and bring back negroes. Your Honor will therefore please to take 
quickly advantage of it with the provisions, which you report to have in abundance. 

84 Early Colonial Settlements. 

When shall your Honor receive payment for the two ships sold, the " Swoll" and the 
" Tamarandef" The low price leads us to surmise that these ships were pretty well worn out and 
by your Honor considered uuiit to be used in the service of the Company. We could not, under the 
circumstances, expect to employ them with great advantage to us, for we can now seek our fortune 
only against the treacherous Portuguese, since the peace with Spain has been arranged and signed, 
waiting only for the consent of the King, of which no doubt is entertained. We expect to hear 
what the ships, sent out by youi- Honor, have done in the meantime. 

Your Honor gives conflicting repoits on the trade there, saying in one place, that private 
individuals ruin the trade and in another, that you believe the open and free trade to be the best 
for increasing tlie population, which in time must be followed by greater consumption. It lias 
been and still is the usual argument in our Department, that the trade should be open to everybody, 
but your Honor complains, that this freedom is abused by many, who go sevei'al nules into tiie 
interior to meet the savages bringing down peltries and thus run up the prices of the goods and 
your Honor thei-efore thinks, it would be better to establish a trading place, where all peltries 
should be offered for sale. We on our side consider this dangerous, for it would bring the savages 
again into our midst and be only a new form of restricted trade. If the Comjjany were in the 
condition to establish there a large magazine, such as you propose, tlien we might as you suggest 
make a trial, but at present we are so situated, that we must remain satisfied with the export 
duties, to which you must pay particular attention, that the Company be not a loser by 

You complain of the order, issued here, that the duties on beavers shall henceforth be paid 
here without considering, that we shall liave no returns from tlie cargoes sent oiit. You have 
besides sold there two ships and a lot of logwood at 11 fl, for which the owners here have received 
12 fl or there aboiit, so that tliey make a good profit considering the high prices asked for the 
goods, which they bring there, as stated by you. 

We regret exceedingly, that we are not able to dispatch the desired shijj with its freight as 
quickly as you I'equested, as for tlie above stated reasons the equipment and many other necessary 
matters must be deferred until the general reform, which is being considered, shall have been 
agreed upon; the Lord grant, that it may be to the satisfaction of all interested. 

We were sorry to learn of the great disorder, wliich yoiu- Honor has found there in chirrch 
matters, principally caused by D° Bogardus. The proverb " Where the shepherd errs, the sheep go 
CLstray " fitly appHes to this case. He -with others has been relieved from rendering his account, 
while in the meantime the church remains in a troubled state and unprovided, although your 
Honor has provisionally allowed D° Backer, formerly preacher at Curasao, to remain there some 
time. As he, however, had previously received his letter dimissory from the Classis, he cannot 
be held there against his will. We shall look out here for a man fit to attend to the church there. 
Your Honor believes, that the congregation would be well satisfied with D°. Megapolensis, 
preacher at Rensselasrvnjck, without stating, whether he can obtain his letter of dismissal from 
there without trouble, also whether he cannot work there with as good results, as in the church at 
Neio Amsterdam. We expect to receive on this point a more detailed report in your next, 
according to which we shall act. It must also be considered, that this plan cannot be well carried 
out without the consent of the Colonists. 

The erection of a church building has really been necessary, but we notice also that it has been 
very expensive : the Colony cannot yet bear such expenses. 

Your Honor reports to have found general reveniies for the defraying of the public expenses, 

New Yorh Historical Records. 85 

referring to the resolution of Septbr 25, 1647 and desiring us to approve it. Hitherto we have 
discovered neither the resohition nor the revenues, so that we suppose, these means have been 
appropriated by some secret resohitions or omitted to be sent. 

We have been very much surprised, that somebody has dared to style himself there the new 
Governor of Long Island, saying that he, Forrester, had authority from Maria Sterlinch. We 
have been unable to discover that she had been empowered by either England or Scotland, to 
give such authority, much less to invade our territory. We can only presume, that this man is a 
notorious cheat and approve therefore your action in stopping his evil designs, but it is very 
doubtful, whether it would not have been better, to have sent him to the English Virginias 
instead of sending him hither, the more so as the " Valokenier" touched in an English port, where 
not only the pretended Grovernor, but also the prisoner Michiel Picquet* escaped. It did not 
matter much, unless the first had foimd or obtained assistance there ; we do not think he did, for 
as yet we have not heard any complaints about this matter, nor do we exactly know before whom 
he might make his complaint, for as you say, he had no commission from the King or from 
Parliament. We do not suppose, he will ever obtain one, at least not against our Government ; 
for reasons which we will give in detail. As to the other man, we do not know, Avhether the 
Magistrates Iiere would have confirmed at your request a sentence passed on the other side. We 
cannot determine, whether sentence passed over there in such manner would be executed by our 
judges here and therefore do not consider it advisable, to make any more experiments of this kind, 
which endanger the authority of your judiciary, but we believe it safer, to punish all delinquents 
there as the respective cases may require. 

Some complainants have made their appearance here with petitions to their High : Might : 
especially Oornelis Melyn, Jochem Pietersen and others, who declare themselves aggrieved by 
their sentences. We suspect these people have been prompted by the Fiscal van DycJc, who 
perhaps imagines, he has friends here. We have never expected any other evidence from this 
person, than the one given now, although we could not be upset by him. Cornells Melyn is well 
known to us and we shall understand, how to refute his complaint. It is to be regretted, that 
people have become so intimate with such fellows, when they ought to have given a good example 
to others. 

We must confess, that long ago an occasion ought to have been found, to determine the 
boundary-lines between the English, the Swedes and ourselves. We have had before now a better 
chance, as far the line between us and the English is concerned. Through their diplomatic agent 
at the Hague they asked for it and it could liave been done easily, for the King was then in full 
possession of his authority. Now we do not know, what form the negotiations concerning the 
boundaries ought to take and how to obtain a favorable decision and we are therefore considering 
a request to their High : Might : for a manifesto placing the territory, claimed by them, under 
our control ; then, we are confident, neither the English nor the Swedes will try to claim or usurp 
it. We notice, that even our villages are mostly inhabited by English people, who in some places 
have had the assurance to elect Magistrates on their own authority ; we consider this rather a 
dangerous precedent, yet we suppose, that only mild measures can induce them to give up this 
plan of self-government, for it seems, these people living there will not endure a harsh government. 

Tom- Honor suggests, that this nation should be admitted to the small private trade at 

Curasao, except in wood and salt. As this, however, is directly contrary to the charter and the 

opinions of the other Departments, we cannot give our consent to it, before we have learned, what 

* Sentenced to perpetual banishment from New Netherland and to 18 years' imprisonment at hard labor in tlio 

workhouse at Amsterdam, for threatening to kill Director Stuywmnt. (N. Y. Col. MSS. IV, 342.) 

86 Early Colonial Settlements. 

the bearings of the regulations, now under consideration, will be. The general reforms, to be 
introduced on your side, will also for some time have to be shaped by them, the more so, as we 
do not know, whether the coast wiU remain under the direction of this Department alone or 
whether it will be governed by all the Departments. That is also the reason, why we cannot 
decide on your Honor's request for an increase of salary and for the transfer of a bowery, stocked 
with two horses, six cows and two negro boys, the price to be determined by arbitrators, for which 
you had authorized Director Kleft to make an agreement with us; at present this cannot be done 
for the above stated reasons. 

The bearer hereof Wm. Thomassen, skipper of the " Yalekenier " and Peter Cornelissen 
Oostelych, master of the " Pynappel" who takes out the duplicate of this letter have received 
assorted cargoes from private parties. Their departure has been publicly announced, as is done 
with all ships sailing to other ports. This is the first voyage, which these vessels make to your 
side and therefore we deem it very necessary, that your Honor should watch the unloading of 
them and keep a sharp lookout, that the Company may not be defrauded of their revenues and all 
smuggling be prevented. 

We send you a list of all the free men, whom we have given permission to go over on each 
ship, if some more, besides these, should be discovered you will institute proceedings against the 
ships, conform to the contract entered with the owners, copies of which and of what further 
has taken place here concerning these ships are enclosed. 

We enclose the invoices of the cargoes of both ships. 

Through the loss of the " Princess " we are deprived of several ships' journals, for instance 
of that of the " Swoll " and several others, which you may have there. Tou will therefore please 
to send us by the first opportunity the journals and everything required to make up and verify 
the accounts of the persons, who have reached here as well as of the lost ones, whose friends are 
overrunning us every day. 

Tour Honor will no doubt have received information before receiving this letter of the 
misfortune, which has befallen our ship '■'■ de Groote Gerret-' \ nevertheless we have deemed it 
advisable, to send you a copy of the letter, received from the skipper, Jelmer Thomassen. We 
have no opportunity here to send him the desired relief and therefore recommend to your Honor 
to employ all possible means for securing the said ship and rescuing the crew, if it has not already 
been done. 

We have given permission to Teunige Juriaensen, who goes over with a large family, to take 
with her 12 guns, 50 lbs. of powder and as much lead for the defense of her family in time of need ; 
but as we acted in this instance only with great reluctance and at the urgent solicitation of the said 
woman, we would advise your Honor to keep an eye not only upon the aforesaid arms, but also 
upon the arms of our inhabitants there and to order reviews or musters in the country, to see 
whether they have not made a profitable trade in arms, instead of keeping them for defense. 

Some letters from private parties to our officers in Curasao have from time to time been 
brought to our office; we see no other way, than to send them herewith to be forwarded by the 
first ship. 

We are negotiating with Jan van Hardenhurgh about the four cases of duffels and as we 
lack time, the ships being ready to sail, to come to a conclusive arrangement, we have provisionally 
agreed, that to offset his claim about the said foiir cases he shall pay no duty nor convoy-fees, for 
the goods, sent over by these ships, nor for the return-consignments, which he may receive by the 
same ships. The one and the other is to be charged to his account against the abovementioned 

New Ymh Historical Records. 87 

claim, therefore you must send us a statement of the goods, which his hrothor Arnout van 
Hardenburgh may consign to him. 

"We have engaged the supercargo for the '^ Pynappel", Cornells Greesen, under the conditions, 
as per enclosed copy, and paid him 20 fl on account of his salary to be earned, the balance, which 
will not amount to much, may be paid to him there. 

Commending you herewith to God's protection we remain, 

Honorable Dear and Faithful Sir, 
Your Honor's true friends 
The Directors of the West India Company 
Department of Amsterdam. 
A7nsterd<i7n, J. Specx. 

April T"" 1648. David van Baekle. 

Concerning the case of Mans'' van Twiller the Council has come to no decision yet ; your 
Honor will therefore leave the payment of his claims in statu quo. 

J. Specx. 

David van Baerle. 

Letter from the Prince of Orange to Director Stftvesant, iNFORMnsra him that Cornelis 
Melyn and Jochem Pieteesen Kuyter had received permission to return to New 
Netherland and ordering the Director not to molest them. 

The Prince of Orange. 

Honorable, Prudent, Discreet, Dear Sir. 

You will receive by the bearers hereof Jochem Pietersen Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn., tlae 
commands, which their High : Might : the States General have concluded to issue to you, directing 
you to allow these men to enjoy their property there free and unmolested by virtue of the 
provisional appeal, granted to them by their High: Might: with the clause suspending the 
sentence passed over them by you on the 25"' of July 1647. 

Although I do not doubt, that you will obey and respect these orders, yet I desire hereby 
to admonish you very earnestly and advise you expressly, that you allow these men to enjoy 
quietly and without contradiction the result of the resolution passed by their High : Might : 

Herewith etc 
At the Graven^ Hague, Your very good friend 

May 19'" 1648. W. d' Orange. 

To the Honorable 
Prudent, Discreet, Our 
Dear and Special Friend 
Petrus Stuyvesant 

Director of New Netherland. 

88 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Peoposals made by Die. Sttjyvesant on the subject of smuggling guns, manslaughtee at 
FoET Oeange etc, and Eesolutions of Council theeeupon. 

Propositions submitted by 
the Hon"'" Director General in 

AVhereas it is seen by expe- 
rience that nothing is done 
by the Fiscal to obtain a de- 
cision as to what is to be 
done with the guns, about 
in number, obtained 
from both the ships and 
still remaining in the Council 
Chamber; in case no fm-ther 
claim is brought against the 
ships on that account, we are 
of opinion that the guns at 
least are liable to confiscation. 

2"* Regarding the 13 guns 
and 13 bullet moulds and some 
other articles marked M. wliich 
are seized, not appearing on 
the invoice of goods taken on 

3"^ The purchased cloth 
which still lies in the Council 
Chamber, and is found longer 
than is entered on the invoice. 

4"" In regard to the homi- 
cide, whilst I was at F&rt 
Orange, and the wounding of 
the gunner by Simon Court- 
hrant, a soldier, who ran away 
before my departure, and since 
skulks at Mespachtes without 
the Fiscal making any enquiry 
for, or prosecuting him, to the 
blame and scandal of the court. 

S"" The petition of the 
free traders in favor of the con- 
victed Jacob Reynsen and 
Schermerhoorn, that their sen- 
tence of banishment may be 

Finally, the case of Egbert 

Resolved in Council. To 
pay for the guns belonging to 
the sailors what they cost in 
Holland, and to restore their 
guns to those domiciliated here 
as settled burghers, on condi- 
tion that his gun must be 
produced to the Council, when- 
ever the Bui'gher intends to 

Resolved, according to 
agreement, to pay 100 per cent 
as per the Company's invoice. 

Resolved that the fugitive 
shall be summoned by beat of 

New Yorh Historical Records. 89 

van Borsum, who being still 

tlie Company's sworn servant 

and master of the yacht Prince 

William, in violation of his 

honor and trust, has pur- 
chased guns and powder from 

the smugglers at NewKamn and 

carried them or caused them 

to be conveyed past this place 

to Fort Orange. 

On these live foregoing 

propositions especially, a final 

conclusion is neuessary. 
(Signed) P. Stoyvesant, 
first of August A" 1648. 

The petition of respectable Burghers residing in this city, New Amsterdam,, having been read 
in Council, and the petition and conduct of Jacob Reynsen and Jacoh Jansen Schermerhoorn 
in regard to a certain sentence of banishment recently imposed on them for trading in contraband 
wares considered, the Hon'''"^ Director General and Council of New Netherland have graciously 
revoked the banishment of said Jacob Reynsen and Schsrmerhoorn, and declare them from this 
time and henceforth capable of going, coming and returning here, as is permitted to all other 
honest people. 

Thus done in Fort Amsterdam, the first of August A° 1648. Present, the General, Mr. 
DiNCKLAGE, La Montaqne, B. Nuton, p. Leendeesen and Adeian Keysee. 

Kesolutions to smoiON the Chief Officek of the Colony of Rensselaekwtck to ajsswee 


The Horf'" Director General having produced in Council the charges exhibited to and made 
against Brant van Slechtenhorst, chief officer in the Colony of Renselaersioyck, and the counter- 
charges and protest of said Slechtenhorst, dated SS"" of July, A° 1648, it is therefore resolved and 
concluded in Council to authorize the Fiscal to cause said Slechtenhorst to be summoned to appear 
here before the Hon" " Director and Council and hear the said Fiscal's demand against him. This 
lO^-of August AM 648. 

Abraham Wtllemsen appeared in Council, declared and acknowledged that being with Egbert 
van Borsum at Newhaven in the North in the year 1647, he in company with Egbert van Borsum 
bought there iroxn KUnckert, the chief boatswain and from the cook, all sailing on the ship St. 
Beninjo, Cornells Claesen Snoy, master, 50 guns {snaphanen,) four kegs of powder, two kegs of 
shot, which he declares to be true. This 10"" August A° 1648, New Amsterdam. Present : The 
Hon''''^ General, Mr. Dincklage, La Montagne, B. Nuton and Adeien d' Keysee. 

Complaints exhibited to the Chief Officer of the Colony of Renselaerswych. 

We judge and declare that the granting of Patents and the buildingon grounds about the Com- 
pany's fortress Orange, without the knowledge and consent of our Sovereigns' representative, tend 

90 Early Colonial Settlements. 

to the disparagement of the authority of our Sovereigns, their issued commission, an infraction and 
diminution of their granted charter, a notable weakening of the Fort aforesaid in time of defense 
and necessary resistance, and therefore opposed to all military and defensive order. Wherefore 
we request in virtue of our commission, the Commandant and Court of the said Colony to desist 
and refrain from such building within a cannon shot from the Fort, until further order and 
advice from our Sovereigns, or Superiors, or to produce to us, special consent and authority signed 
by our Sovereigns or Superiors aforesaid, there beiug, either above or below equally suitable, 
yea better building spots. 

That no new ordinances touching the sovereign authority, general commerce and tne public 
welfare such as the farming of the trade, attaching the grain and masts and other property belonging 
to the servants and vassals of the Company, be made or published without the advice and 
ratification of the representative of their High Mightinesses and our Superiors. 


Without abridging authority or right of the Colonists, or of their Court in attachments and 
lawsuits, we demand that attachments levied on the property of the Company's servants or vassals 
be prosecuted within a reasonable time, where they ought to be prosecuted, so that the interested 
party, be he servant, or vassal, may turn the property to his profit without serious loss and lapse 
of time. 


We are informed, and it has been certainly laid before us in form of complaint that 
Commander *S'('fcAfe;iAo/'.9< endeavors to force and to make the inhabitants of the Colony to promise 
that the defendants will not appeal from his and his Court's judgment and sentence to the supreme 
and general Court of New Netheiiand, which we consider to be a high crime against, and 
conflicting not only with our Nethedand practice, but also with the granted Freedoms and 
Exemptions of this Province, by the 20"" article whereof all inhabitants are allowed to appeal to 
the Commander and Council of New Netherland from all judgments given by the Court of the 
Patroons exceeding in amount the sum of Fifty Carolus guilders. 

In order to prevent the aforesaid unfoimded rule, and to give the good inhabitants of the 
Province the benefit of regular and just judgments, whereon, in conjunction with pure religion, 
depend the peace, happiness and prosperity of the country in general and the inhabitants in 
particular, We shall willingly leave to the Courts their proper authority and jurisdiction, saving 
that for the better promotion of justice, a report and review of the affairs and proceedings of the 
Colony, be annually rendered to us and our adjoined Council, the commissioned representatives 
of our Sovereign home government, pursuant to articles 20 and 28 of the New Netherland 


Whereas in contempt of our office, with which we are invested by commission from their 

Neto Yorh Historical Records. 91 

Higli Mightinesses, Commander Slechtenhm'st in the presence of us and many others asserts, and 
by actions affirms that he is not subject to us and our government — in contradiction not only of 
our general commission granted by superior authority, but also of the Freedoms and Exemptions 
of Patroons, article 28 whereof lays down, that " all Colonists shall be obliged to transmit, at least 
once in every twelve months, an exact report of their lands and Colonies to the Commander and 
Council there'' — by which indecent assault upon the reputation of our official character, and, in our 
person, the dignity of our Lords Directors are seriously defamed and insulted : Therefore we, 
to obviate hereafter all altercation and misunderstanding, first, desire and demand proof of, and 
authority for this pretension under the signature of their High Mightinesses, or of some of tlie 
Directors at the Chamber at Amsterdam, which being exhibited and seen, we shall respect 
Commander Slechtenhorst agreeably to his commission ; suppress the aforesaid complaints, and 
honor and obey the further order of our gracious Sovereigns and Lords Directors ; or in default 
thereof we remain bound by oath and honor to maintain our previous commission, to protest 
against the Commander for contumacy and disobedience committed in our person against the 
authority and commission of their High Miglitinesses, our sovereigns. Meanwhile, we remain 
disposed and prepared to promote the welfare of the Colony in general and of the inhabitants in 
particular, and to afford them whatever aid they stand in need of. 

Done in Fort Ormige this 23'''^ July, 1648, subscribed : 
Tour affectionate Friend and Governor, 

P. Sttti'vesant. 

Agrees with the Original which I attest, 

A. DE HooGES, Secretary. 

Beneath was written : 

We the undersigned hei-eby certify and declare that, by order of the Hon'''^ General 
abovementioned, we have communicated and most truly read the foregoing complaints to 
Commander Slechtenhorst and his Council, where, besides himself, Mr. Anthony de Hooges only 
was present, and gave him a copy thereof on the above day. In acknowledgment of the truth 
this is signed with our own hands. 

(Signed) Caeel van Beuggk. 

Jan Labatie. 

Agrees with the copy written by Brant van Slechtenhorst himself. 

CoK. VAN TiENHovEN, Secretary. 

Answer of Brant van Slechtenhorst, chief officer of the Colony of lienselaerswicl',iot\\Gaboye 
written complaint. 

"Whereas General Petrus Stuyvesant, whom at divers times heretofore I have informed that 
I was heartily inclined to live with his Honor in all friendship and neighborhood, as becomes 
Christians, and to show him all honor and respect, as far as oath and honor would permit, has on 
the 20"" and 21^' of July of this year verbally communicated and afterwards on the 23'' ditto caused 
to be delivered in writing to me. Brant van Slechtenhorst, divers complaints wherein the 
Patroon's right is, in my opinion, somewhat injuriously affected and curtailed, and whicli tend to 
the great prejudice of our said Patroon, Therefore did T, on the 21" inst., in presence of several 
persons, say to the General ; You complain without reason ; I have more reason to complain on 
behalf of the Patroon, as namely: Last year the Director caused a prohibition to be posted up, 
nearly of the same tenor as that handed to me in writing on the 23'^ of July by the officers. 

92 Early Colonial Settlements. 


First. The Hon''''' General lias proclaimed a day of prayer throughout this Colony, 
contrary to the ancient order and custom, as if his Ilonor were proprietor of the Patroon's Colony. 


The inhabitants of the Fort came into the Patroon's Colony and cut the best timber and 
firewood in the forest, without notifying an\'one, as if it were their own. 

Said inhabitants and those of the Manhatans rove by water and by land not only through 
the entire Colonic but even in the Patroon's woods, and have Indians on hand trading publicly as 
brokers, as if the Colony were their own, without once notifying the Patroon, or his agent, or 
paying any duty. 

On the border of the moat of the Fort or trading post, stood for a few years undisturbed the 
trading house of the Patroon, to whom as proprietor still belongs that very ground and all around 
the Fort, and who has been in quiet possession thereof for long years and still occupies it. Yet 
now comes General Petrus Stuyvesant, and attempts by improper means to prevent the infant 
Patroon from improving or building on his own ground, which is situate over five hundred paces from 
the Fort or trading post, between both which points there are still at present eight houses standing on 
the Patroon's soil ; threatening forcibly to batter down the aforesaid buildings ; striving thus to be 
his own judge in what regards the infant Patroon's property — -which is neither proper nor 
consistent with reason — and in the matter of erecting pig-pens and the use of courtyards and 
gardens on the Patroon's ground around the Fort. 

Therefore do I, in my qiiality, assert and protest before God and the High and Mighty Lord 
States General, our Gracious Sovereigns in Fatherland, and the Lords of this Colony, that I am 
obstructed in the execution of my duty and oSice, and I do protest on oath against all the illegal 
proceedings, as well as for all costs, damages and losses already incurred, or which the Patroon may 
hereafter suffer hereby. Done in the Colony of Eenselaerswyck this 28"' of July A° 1648. Signed 
B. VAN Sleohtenhorst, director of the Colony aforesaid. A. de Hooges, witness. 

Below stood : Agrees with the copy written by Brant van Slechtenhobst, This 10*'' of 
August 1648. New A. 

Resolution to PEEinT the erection of Stone hodses within the walls of Fort Orange. 

Whereas the Fortress Orange, situate up the North River of Nexo Netherla.nd, near the 
Colony of Renselaerswyck, was almost entirely washed away by the high water last winter, and it is 
highly necessary that it be repaired, in order to maintain the Hon'"''' Company's limits and 
jurisdiction; and wliereas the present condition both of the Company and of ourselves here, does 
not permit us to make the required repairs, much less to complete them, Therefore the Hon^' " 
Director General and Council for reasons and considerations aforesaid, have resolved and concluded. 

N^ew Yorh Historical Records. 93 

that it would be most advantageous and least expensive for the said Company to permit some 
respectable inhabitants of New Netherland to build at their own expense houses in said Fort 
against the wall, run up with stone 12 feet high, especially as the Hon'"''' Mr. Kieft, the late 
Director, and the Council had long ago permitted some to do the same thing. It is also resolved 
that the ground shall at all times remain the property of the Company, and that those who will 
build in the fort, shall not own more than the buildings, or be able to sell more than the same, 
whereunto the Company shall enjoy the preemption right. 

Thus done and resolved in Council in Foi't Amsterdam in New Netherlands the ll"" of August 
A° le-iS. Present : The Hon^''° Director General, Mr. Dincklage, La Montagne, Bkian Nuton, 
Paulus Leendeesen and Adeiaen Keysee. 

Eesolutions to oppose Slechtenhoest's continued enceoachment at Foet Okange. 

The Director General laid before the Council a despatch from Commissary van Brugge, who 
reports that Commander Sleohtenhorst, contrary to the notice given him, proceeds with the building 
under the Company's Fort Orange; [Resolved] that he pull down the same, and if SlecMenhorst 
offers opposition, that he. Van B., shall send word, when more men will be sent from here to his 
assistance. This 23* of August A° 16J-8. Present: the Hon"* Director, Mr, Dincexage, La Montagne, 
Beian Nuton aud Paulus Leendeesen. 

Resolution to send a small miliiaet foece to Foet Oeange to oppose the enceoachments 
OF THE Colony of Renselaeeswyck. 

The Director General laid before the Council a letter from Commissary Van Brugge dated 
the 4"" of September, concerning Commander Slechtenhorst of the Colony of Renselaerswyck, who 
contrary to onr directions and orders continues to erect a building near and under Fort Orange, 
within a pistol shot. 

Resolved, therefore, that four to six soldiers be sent to the Commissary, for the assistance and 
the better execution of his orders to demolish the house with the smallest loss to the owners, and 
in case Commander Slechtenhorst offer opposition, Carel va7i Brugge shall arrest him in the most 
civil manner, and detain him so long in confinement, until he deUver to the Commissary copy of his 
commission and instruction, with a declaration that he, the Commander, has no other commission 
and instruction than those he will then have exhibited. 

Thus done the lO'" of September 1648. 
Present : The Hon'"'' Director General, L. van Dincklage, La Montagne, Beiak Nuton, Paulus 

94 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Declaration concerning the Teade with Eastern Indians. 

Before me, Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of Neio Netherlands appeared Andries 
Luycassen, aged fifty-three years and Cornells Mauritsen Bout, aged thirty-three years and Jan 
Jansen from St. Obyn, aged twenty-seven years, who at the request of Mr. Covert LoocJcmans, 
attest, testify and declare, in place and with promise of an oath if necessary, that it is true and 
truthful that they have been in the months of October, November etc. A° 1 647, with {rouer^ 
Loockmans and his bark along the North coast from New Amsterdam to Pahehetoch, Crommcgou," 
and New Haven, during which voyage aforesaid they neither saw, nor heard, nor even knew that 
Covert Looekmans himself, or any of his crew had directly or indirectly traded or bartered with 
or to the Indians there or elsewhere any powder, lead or guns, except that he, Loockmans, made 
a present of about a pound of powder to the chief Rochhou in the Cromm.egou and purchased two 
geese in the Crommegou and half a deer at Pahatoc with powder, without having given to, or 
exchanged with the Indians anything else to our knowledge. The affiants declare this to be true 
and offer to confirm this on oath if necessary and required. 

Thus done the 28"' of September A° 1648 in New Amsterdam, New Netherland. 

This is the >^f- mark of Andries Lutcassen. 


This is the t^ mark of Jan Jansen fi-om St. Obtn, made by himself. 

To my knowledge Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Copies of two protests bt Brant van Slechtenhoest against director Stuttesant. 

Whereas the Hon'''^ General Petrus Stuyvesant has again on the 4"" of September 1648, 
through his Hon'''^ Yice Commander Carl van Brugge and Mr. Labhatie, served a notice on me, 
I answer thereto : That in Fatherland, which with this constitutes but one Province, no notice 
can be given, much less can it be put in execution, except with the previous consent and advice of 
the sheriff, or the court at the place there, on pain of nullity and arbitrary correction, as I myself, 
on the IS"" of May last, informed Mr. van Brugge respecting a notice to be removed from the 
gate. Also, that the Secretaries sign all judgments and not the High Sheriffs, and the notification 
can much less be admitted, inasmuch as the first complaints of 23^'' of July of this year, state 
" within the range of a small cannon shot," and now on the 4"' of September, on one and the same 
question, " within a musket shot ;" which is wholly in contradiction the one with the other. To 
this must be added, that the Ilon*'^ General suffers whole streets full of houses close under Fort 
New Amsterdam. Now, if the IIon'''° General or his Hon*"'" Councillors can show me a conti-ary 
commission from their High Miglitinesses, our Sovereigns, and the Lords Proprietors of this Colony, 
my liege masters, I will in all things obey it, but failing such exhibit and proof, I am by office and 
honor bound and obliged to obey my aforementioned commission and orders. It likewise seems 
surprising to me that the General should endeavor to use the power vested in and intrusted to 
him, against us and in our person against our young infant Patroon, whereas he ought to live 

* Gardiner's Bay at tlie East end of Long Island. 

Neiv Yorh Hldoncal Records. 95 

also as a Christian neighbor, and employ proper military force against yonr and our enemies ; 
the rather as, heretofore, not only have protests been simply made against this, but it 
has been complained of to their High Mightinesses, our gracious Sovereigns, whom the General 
also acknowledges to be his Sovereigns, and his Honor also intend to complain to their Noble 
Highnesses. Therefore, it is not becoming to employ such means, more especially as, on exami- 
nation of the subject by their said High Mightinesses, no disposition has yet been made of it, 
and the site of the house in controversy, is situate about 500 paces from the Fort, beyond the 
range of a musket ball, and a small house belonging to the same lot has stood there previous to 
our difference and to this date as well as ten other houses in the same quarter. 

A great deal is said about false and mendacious protests. I hope to show the contrary hereafter 
before impartial judges ; therefore I here also protest against you. Consequently, I protest a 
second time, in the quality aforesaid, First, that those who ought to be my good friends and 
neighbors, according to their previoiis letters prevent me from performing my duty and executing my 
orders; and this I do before God and the High and Mighty Lords States General, our Sovereigns 
and the Lords Proprietors of this Colony, and at the same time ag.iinst all damages and losses, 
mischiefs and disturbances arising, or that hereafter might be suffered herefrom. 

Done Itenselaerwycli this 8"' of September A° 1648. 


After collating this is found to agree with the signed and dated original by me Jacob Kip, 
deputy (in the absence) of the Secretary, before and in the presence of witnesses hei-eunto 
invited, this 30"' October A° 1648, in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland. 

The Hon''''' General Petrus Stioyvesant uttered heretofore on the 21" of September 1618, 
and again for the fourth time, of the 23'' of the same month a verbal insinuation or 
threat, by his Vice Commander Mr. Carel van Brugge and Mr. Labbatie, who assisted 
by an armed soldier, dared of their own authority, without asking previous permission, as is 
customary, to burst suddenly, not only into the Patroon's jurisdiction but even into the Patroon's 
house, without any commission or orders, nor exhibiting a written copy, which was demanded of 
them and declared-That they would demolish and pull down the house and building of Jan Toinassen 
and Hem Jansen, the smith, and that the General had -sent, for that purpose, in his sloop, divers 
soldiers and sailors, to accomplish the above exploit. 

Tiiis pretended objectionable building is situate beyond the five hundred and fifty paces, as 
the Vice Commander had, on the date aforesaid, himself acknowledged, and is plainly beyond the 
range of a musket shot, and even out of sight of the Fort or trading house, according to the Hon. 
General's own previous claim, dated 29"" of August last, and this is again stated in his last 
letter transmitted by the soldiers, wherein it was demanded only that we should abandon the 
supervision of the Fort and the jurisdiction thereof as that had, up to this time, been provisionally 
permitted contrary to order and authority. 

That an entire hamlet had been allowed to be built close under the aforesaid house. That the 
Patroon's house and court should constitute one district ; as the Vice Commander at divers 
times and lastly on the 23'' instant, represented. 

Thus, the objectionable house was not any obstruction in the least, but the ten houses which 
stand to the North between the two except on the west side ; and besides that, the Patroon's woods, 
not a stone's throw off, on the West, Southwest and Northwest of the Trading house are not meddled 
with, though a hostile attack would come principally from that quarter. Hence it is notorious, 
that all proceeds from passion. The same is the case on the East ; for the said block house had not 

96 Early Colonial Settlements. 

heretofore, nor yet has any opening or prospect except what is visible lialf a league up and down 
the river. So that it is a farfetched objection, void of reason and foundation, and as much justified 
as Cousin Gysbert who, as we read in Esop's Fables, stood at a cascade on a high hill and drank, 
and then complained of a sheep who stood in the stream below, that she roiled the water. 
It is therefore beyond dispute that a difficulty is created where none exists. The ITon'''^ General 
apparently listens to some Ijang busybodies, who seek rather to foment trouble and discord 
between Christian neighbors, than to promote peace and concord, which, indeed, is the truth. 

It is declared that buildings should not be erected so close to the Fort, as the latter is thereby 
obstructed in time of necessary defense; and, as heretofore in the Articles of Complaint 
{Gravamina), "the Fortress is seriously weakened in time of defence and necessary resistance." 

So far as regards the renowned Fortress, men can go in and out of it by night as well as by 
day. Slechtenhorst has now been more than half a year in the Colony, and the nearest neighbor 
to the Fort, but he never has been able to discover one person carrying a sword, musket or jjike, 
nor has he heard or seen a drum beat, except when the General himself came there last July with 

Therefore we cannot understand or perceive, whereby or wherewith such defense can be 
made. But there are valiant soldiers, when they are armed with ax and gun, to cut down the 
best and nearest timber in the Patroon's woods, and to shoot the game and steal the stone belonging 
to the Patroon. ' Tis wonderful that the General should take such needless trouble about the 
Patroon's Colony and worry himself about his buildings, whilst his Honor tolerates a number of 
streets full of buildings within thirty paces of Fort Manhatan where his government is, and does 
not first apply a remedy there ; more especially' as the General himself writes under date of 29"' of 
May 1618, that he is already expecting a war with the English, which God avert ! It must, 
moreover, be remarked in addition, that the ten houses have stood many years, and still continue 
between the two,* in peaceable and undisturbed possession on the Patroon's own ground. Of 
these, the last small house and garden are on the border and extend up to the low groundf of the 
Trading House, and also remain in undisturbed occupancy on one and the same spot where, in fact, 
the Patroon's own Trading House formerly stood. Besides this, I hope and trust that the Hon'''* 
General and his Council are not so prejudiced against Slechtenhorst but that they will legally 
show whether their jurisdiction is more extensive and greater than that of their predecessors, 
especially as it is a well known and established maxim in law, that he who will have, must first 
and foremost prove his right, and having fully estabhshed it, it shall never more be questioned, 
but on the contrary. 

Thus, legal means are employed to eject a person from his ancient and just possession and 
occupation, but no violence or armed force, which have been used here, for this cannot and may not 
be tolerated in any land of justice, and is wholly contrary to the free laws of our dear Fatherland, 
to which laws every one in this country is individually bound by oath to render obedience. 

In like manner, at one and the same time, have the three persons demanded of Slechtenhorst 
to show them his commission, or a copy of it, and on his refusal proceeded to summon him, 
Slechtenhorst, in the name of the Fiscal, to appear at the Manhatans within three weeks. 

To this Slechtenhorst repeatedly answered, that he should take no notice of such improper 
compulsory laws, much less of the summons, before and until they should first furnish a copy of 

* The Fort and the Patroon's Trading House. 
"^ Moat of the Fort ? 

New York Historical Records. 97 

all the papers, as is customary according to practice and order, and protested against all the 
aforesaid illegal notifications. This copy having been refused, he made further 
answer : Had the General desired, or expressed the shghtest request to see SlechienhorsC s 
commission during the six weeks the latter was within his government, yea, in his very 
quarters, he would most cheerfully have exhibited, and is still willing to show to his Honor and to 
his councillors, as our Christian neighbors and friends which they ought to be, not only his 
commission and orders, but even the plan of the settlement itself. But reflecting 
that the Hon'"' ^ Patroon had been hivested by their High Mightinesses the States General, our 
gracious Sovereigns, and the liege Lords of the Colony, with high and low jui'isdiction within 
his possession and granted territory, he would seriously prejudice not only their High Mightinesses, 
but also the Patroon in his acquired right and possession, were he, Slechtenhorst^ now in his quality 
and being within his own jurisdiction to exhibit, in consequence of such improper measures, his 
commission before he had received orders to that effect from his gracious Sovereigns and his 
superiors. As already repeatedly stated, it would indeed have been a violation of his honor and 
oath were he, to the prejudice of the aforesaid Patroon, to surrender so childishly and rashly, the 
immunities obtained from their High Mightinesses, which are entrusted to him. But all the 
aforesaid is as well founded as in the first gravamina. 

On the second and following points : viz, the arrest of the grain and masts. 

Cannot a person execute a civil attachment against his own grain and masts on his own soil 
and within his own jurisdiction ; on property afloat and moving on land, as happened in the case 
of Jacob Jansen Hap on the 6"" of June 16i8, who, on his own authority, cut down two large 
pine trees for masts in the Patroon's woods, and brought them down to the waterside and on the 
8"" of said month, notwithstanding the attachment, made them fast to the vessel and towed them 
to the ManJiatans. And this still is set forth and stated in the aforesaid gra/vainina, although 
not the slightest complaint has been made to us on the subject. What consistency is there in this ? 
It is in truth a weak and unheard of complaint. But one sees easily a mote in his neighbor's eye 
and does not perceive a beam in his own. Therefore no attention can be paid to all the erroneous, 
illegal, indecent, violent nullities, much less to the summons and citation of the Fiscal, 
inasmuch as we have not been furnished by the citation with any written information, much less 
a copy of either one or the other, but such has been refused us. Neither can we notice the 
writing handed us on the 2P' of September by the armed soldier, as the citation does not mention 
any day, date or year ; less so, as the last summons conflicts by essential errors, with the second, 
as has heretofore been sufliciently demonstrated, whereto we refer. 

In addition to this, it happened that on the evening of the 21"' of September, whilst 
Slechtenhorst and his fellow councillor, Andries de Vos, were walking together in tlie public 
streets, without speaking a word to any one, they were saluted with curses and swearing by the 
Holy name of God, by the soldiers that were sent up, who sought to pick a quarrel and make a 
disturbance, saying : "Why do not people wish them Good evening ? In consequence of this 
insolence and insult complaint also was made, that the people were deprived of the free use of the 
public streets, so that through the arrival and threats of the soldiers and sailors, and their 
declaration that the aforesaid building should be puUed down and demolished, not only the 
Colonists but the Indians themselves were in a great uproar and much excited and embittered 
against your Honor, and said : If Wooden Leg* to whom we have given a present for it, should 
now come and pull down our house, where we when needed and in the winter season proposed to 
* The Indians' name for Director Stuyvesant. 

98 Early Colonial Settlements. 

sleep under cover, as tlie Lords can now fully perceive by article 9 of the propositions of the 
Indians themselves, it was not to be endured, and the farmer Treaty is manifestly broken. 
Accordingly, in truth, some Indians on the 21" of September, and even before that, previous to 
the indecent verbal summons of the Vice Commander, of Lahhatie and the soldier, did come to 
him, Slechtenhorst, and asked for guns and offered to assist Slcchtenhornt on all occasions, 
and added, that they would also give him a place in their Mohawh country. So that more 
friendship was oilered by the Indians and heathen than by those who are of the same religion and 
subjects of the same sovereignty, and who are, moreover, bound by office and oath to assist our 
Colonists in all need and difficulty, as already repeatedly stated. Therefore, the Hon'''' General 
and his Hon'''' Councillors may rest well assured, (though, we may add, it is in nowise our opinion 
or intention), that even were they to send, instead of seven or eight, all their soldiers besides the 
sailors from the Mankatans they would not be feared, which God forbid. 

On the 4"" of October when the Indians were on their way home they heard the soldiers fire 
several times. Whereupon the Indians returned and asked : If Wooden Leg's dogs were again 
carrying off any thing ? So that Slechtenhorst had four times more trouble and apprehension to 
manage the Indians than his own party, and had to accost them with civil words and to tell them 
that they were misinformed, and that the houses should continue standing, and thus I pacified 
them. As all the Christians are absolutely in the power of the Indians, particularly if Christians 
joined them as might easily happen here, every one who has arrived at the years of maturity and 
is conversant with the affairs of dear Fatherland can readily compute what consequences, what 
bloodshed would have followed such extreme and rash proceedings — -what ruin not only of the 
Colony, the Trading House and the Manhatans but all the Christians in this country, which has 
cost dear Fatherland heretofore so much blood, trouble and expense before it was brought under 
the obedience of their High Mightinesses the States General. "We shall wait with patience to see 
whether these foregoing indecent, yea violent attacks and the proceedings on which depended life 
and property will be pleasing and acceptable to their High Mightinesses the States General, our 
gracious Sovereigns, and the Lords Proprietors of this Colony. 

It is also a strange and unheard of proceeding that any one of his own authority, should come, 
sword in hand, into another's jurisdiction to serve a civil notice or summons, and that -without the 
previous consent of the Sheriff or Court there. Hence, it is to be manifestly concluded that he 
intends to accomplish everything by force. This is further to be inferred from the fact that the 
sloop was employed fourteen days, with soldiers and sailors in that expedition, and must travel a 
distance of seventy-two leagues, to and fro, in the winter. We have moreover, most emphatically, 
at divers times protested against it on the ground of nullity, as we do not admit, and as we have 
not recognized such improper, compulsory notices. Slechtenhorst has heretofore treated Verbrugge, 
on account of his Lord and master, courteously and respectfully, in order to i-emove a notice 
which was posted up in his jurisdiction (as is previously more fully mentioned), and at the same 
time told him that not only are the acts of those persons who serve such and similar notices nuU 
and void, but they themselves will be arrested and condemned to bread and water for five or six 
days, indeed have been publicly pilloried, and that by small cities in a Province where the 
right of appeal lay from the aforesaid cities ; indeed, such happened to messengers of States 
that were Sovereigns of the Province, so that the States and Courts have written in a most friendly 
manner to their small cities to release those messengers. Such improper notices being a contempt 
and disrespect not only towards the Court or Patroon, but also our gracious Sovereigns, whose 
place we occupy here, 'tis the rule when now a notice of a Court or the States of the Province to 
its inferior cities is given to a sworn messenger, he must first and foremost ask consent and 

New Yorh Historical Records. 99 

assistance from the officer of the latter place, who then gives him written permission (Fiat 
imsimiatio) on the margin of the paper to serve the notice, which written notice or order the 
messenger must then take to the City Marshal who then serves the summons in the first instance 
verbally and in writing on the party and then makes a return to the messenger. This is a legal 
notification or summons, but otherwise it is null. 

Your Honor applies to me unjustly the epithet, Defamer, which is given to a person who 
either fraudulently or forcibly robs another of what belongs to him. He whom that does not 
concern need not assume it, and I shall still maintain that the young Patroon should not be wronged 
by your indecent, insufferable, most violent attack through a letter without either day, date or year, 
which is all too notorious, and conclusively established by sweeping letters and actions. The truth, 
therefore, does not require any witnesses, as the contrary shall in due time appear manifest before 
impartial judges; so that the above epithet, though too gross, is endured, and I, therefore, protest 
against it, whilst those who, according to previous letters, ought to be our good friends and 
Christian neighbors, prevent me from performing my duty and executing my orders within my 
Patroon's jurisdiction, without being able to show me commission or command to the contrary, as 
already stated. This is more especially the case as ten lots are already engaged, and not only myself 
and the Patroon, but other respectable persons are thereby obstructed and damaged and will be 
prevented from erecting additional buildings solely by reason of your proceedings, which have no 
fomidation in right or reason. 

Therefore the aforesaid Slechtenhorst in his quality aforesaid protests for the third and 
fourth time agaifist all the aforesaid nullities and against notorious force and violence, and that 
before Almighty (xod and to the Honorable, High and Mighty Lords States General, our gracious 
Sovereigns and liege Lords of this Colony, and at the same time against all hindrances, damages, 
losses and mischiefs which have been caused, or may hereafter happen to be created hereby. 

Done in the Colony of Renselaerwyck on the 20"' of October, Anno 1648. 

(Signed) B. V. Slechtenhorst, Director of the Colonic aforesaid. 

After due collation this is found to agree with the original, signed and dated as above, by me 
Jacob Kip assistant secretary, in the secretary's absence, in the presence of, and before witnesses 
hereunto invited, this 30"" of October 1648, in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland. 

Mandamus to Beant van Slechtenhoest to appear befoee the Director and Council to 
answer such complaints as will be made against him. 

What complaint we, as Sheriff and Fiscal of Mew Netherlands have against Brant van 
Slechtenhorst Sheriff in the Colony of Henselaerswyck, he shall hear and see when he appears on 
our issued summons before such judges as are thereto qualified by their High Mightinesses and the 
Hon'''"' Directors, whose province it is to decide whether the summons be legal and correct or not, 
the trespasses and injuries respecting which it was issued being previously exhibited and proved. 
And we assert that we are not obliged to summon Sheriff Slechtenhorst where he holds his domicil, 
much less before the court of Renselaerswyck where the accused party is himself plaintiff and judge, 
and no other magistrate besides him, qualified thereto by commission of their High Mightinesses, or 
by commission from the Patroon, except Anthony de Hoges, the secretary, who, in like manner. 

100 Early Colonial Settlements. 

cannot be \vitness and judge. It is sufficiently admitted that the Judges and Councillors appointed 
and qualified by the Patroon, have long since become dependent on and subservient to this officer, 
and therefore there exists no proper com-t of Justice, neither are any judgments pronounced before 
such court, acceptable and valid wherein their High Sheriff or Director is, himself a party, plaintiff 
and judge, or at least where he had only one qualified councillor with him. "We will not enter 
into a discussion here respecting the Commandant's assumption, that the Colony has high and low 
jurisdiction ; but we assert, conformably to the Exemptions, that the high jurisdiction in New 
Netherlands belongs to the Company, and that the Colony is subordinate thereto. 

Whether the notice or summons was made in writing or verbally, is, in our opinion not so 
much the question as, was it served ? This was done once, twice and three times by the Comjjany's 
Commissary in Fort Orange, in the presence of two credible witnesses, and the Commandant's 
exception is purely frivolous, since in Fatherland it is not customary that any summons should 
be made in writing, but only verbally by the sworn messenger, and the Commandant herein 
contradicts liimseK, inasmuch as, at the close of his nullities, he himself writes that he received the 
notice on the 28"" of September, through his door. 

It is a flimsy misrepresentation (to say that whenever any summons and notices are served, 
the defendant is inforjned why he is summoned and subpoenaed ; this is in no place the practice ; 
and no copy of a notice can be furnished to the defendant, because the summons before all Com-ts 
is made verbally ; and whenever the defendant appears and a written complaint is lodged in Court* 
against him by the prosecutor, then it depends on the pleasure of the Judges to grant the defendant 
a postponement in order to answer in writing the written complaint. 

That the summons and notice is served in Fatherland by a sworn messenger, and of the same 
jurisdiction, and with the previous knowledge of the Sheriff is, in part, correct and well known. 
But that docs not apply in this ease, because the Commandant, who is defendant, is himself, as we 
have seen, Sheriff, Judge, and Court Messenger, and up to this time we are not informed of any 
other Sheriff, Judge or Court Messenger than the defendant himseK. What, then, can be more 
preposterous, or more unprecedented in a Judge on the Bench, than to have a person summoned 
before himself, or by himself, and to try him, himself \ The Director General and Council will 
have to justify, and their resolutions will doubtless explain the purpose for which the soldiers were 
sent. We will say, however, that it is a barefaced falsehood to state that they were sent by us 
to serve a written or verbal notice. As regards the alleged insult — that three armed and hostile 
persons burst into the Patroon's house — those who perpetrated the insolence shall have to answer 
for it. But it appears to be a false accusation, inasmuch as it appears by the witnesses, that 
Commissary Yan Brugge, by whom the notice was served, knocked respectfully at the door and 
was admitted by the defendant's daughter, when he, according to orders, requested copy of Yan 
Slechtenhorst' s commission ; the same having been refused, he summoned him properly to repair to 
the Manhatans to vindicate his refusal, as the Commandant admits in another missive. Hence it 
is evident that the defendant well knew in part what he was summoned and subpoenaed for. From 
all this, it is manifest and notorious that all the exceptions taken to the legality of the service of 
the summons are null and not worthy of consideration. Besides that, accordmg to law, it is not 
the province of a defendant, but of the Judges to declare a summons legal or illegal, so that it 
follows from all this, according to all law, that the Sheriff, the defendant, is to be apprehended as 
contumacious, and the exhibited complaint prosecuted. As to the defendants complaints of the 
length of the voyage and of the inconvenience of the \vinter weather, both these are nothing else 

* VierscTiaer — a criminal Court. 

New York Historical Records. 101 

than frivolous excuses for delay, because his futile answer will show when the summons was served 
and the date of his reply of uon acceptance, at which time the vessels sailed up and down the river, 
some twice, some three times, and made very pleasant voyages. 

But in order to exempt ourselves from all charges of precipitancy and harshness, the rather as 
winter is now approaching, we have, with the knowledge and approbation of the Director General 
and Council (salva actione litis) granted the defendant a delay iintil the spring when the first 
vessel will be coming down. Wherefore, iu order that he may not set up any further pretext for 
delay, or exception, we hereby summon him de novo, in writing and verbally, through Commissary 
Yan Brugge, to appear on the first Court-day in the month of April, which will then be, God 
granting life and time, Tuesday the fourth of the aforesaid month, before the Director General 
and Council of New Netherlands his competent judges, and before them to hear and make answer 
to such accusation and complaint as we, in our quality of Sheriff and Fiscal, shall officially and as 
in duty bound institute against him. 

Done Manhattans this last of October, 1648. 

Oedee. Caeel van Beugge, CoinvnssAEY of Foet Geange, to peoceed with the eepairs of 


"Whereas by divers letters from our Commissary Van Brugge, the testimony of others, and 
personal reports of inhabitants of the Colony, we are informed of the improper proceedings which 
Commander Van Slechtenhorst usurps and commits not only over his own inhabitants, in violation 
of law and the granted Exemptions, as he forbids them on pain of the heaviest tine to appeal from 
his court, but also against even the Company's servants and vassals, to the disparagement of the 
charter granted to their High Mightinesses and infraction and nullification of the Freedoms granted 
to the Patroons, in blinding and blockading the Company's fortress by divers buildings, ploughing 
the ancient gardens and fields situate at the dry moat of the fort and heretofore always made use 
of by the Commissaries, chiefly endeavoring to prevent, so far as lies in his power, the necessary 
reparation of " the Fortress," as he himself sneeringly styles it, because it can be entered by night 
as well as by day, being severely damaged in the latter part of last winter by the extraordinary 
high water inundation. As it required, for that reason, necessary repairs, we therefore ordered 
and commanded our Commissary there not only to repair it, but to put it in a proper state of 
defense, to wit: to surmount it with a wall of stone instead of timber, so as to obviate the annual 
expense and repairs. This being already begun. Commander Slechtenhorst forbade the quarrying 
of stone and the cutting of timber and firewood needed by the fort, within the limits of the Colony 
contrary to a former and obsolete prohibition, and the farmers and inhabitants to cart them, all 
according to the tenor of his ordinance, without the knowledge or consent of us and the Council 
of New Netherland, and yet not designating how wide the limits of the Colony extended, or to 
point out where the Company may cut its wood or take the stone. This was never before done 
by any chief officer of the Colony or tolerated by any Directors and Council, our predecessors, as 
it tended not only to the palpable belittling of their authority and general commission, but 
especially to the violation, infraction and nidlification of the Incorporated West India Company's 
supreme jurisdiction, which extends as well over the Colony of Renselaerswyck as over others ; 
if this be tolerated, other Colonies such as Heemstede, Flushing, Gravesend &c would be expecting 

102 Early Colonial Settlements. 

more. Carrying out this principle, the Hon''' ' Company are finally deprived of firewood and timber 
necessary for ships, churches, forts and other buildings, or become obliged to beg these from 
their vassals and subjects, and what is worse and more to be apprehended, must purchase them at 
the highest price, and consequently through our inability we degrade and convert their high into 
low jurisdiction, contrary to the charter of their High Mightinesses, and infringe on the Company's 
prerogatives. Being bound by commission and oath to maintain both, We, therefore, do hereby 
authoi'ize and earnestly command our Commissaiy to proceed with the repairs of the Fortress, and 
to that intent and service to cause timber to be cut, stone to be quarried in and hauled from the 
mountains, cliffs and plains in any part of New Netherland where it may be most convenient for 
him or the Company, except only the Boweries and plantations which are already fenced and 
cultivated, or may be hereafter fenced or cultivated, within which he or any of the Company's 
vassals shall not be at liberty to cut timber or quarry stone, unless with previous knowledge of the 
proprietor or occupant; and in case the jealousy of the Commander may constrain the inhabitants 
of the Colony, and hinder them from lending a helping hand to the work with their horses and 
wagons, we order our Commissary to have a wagon made for himself, and to use therefor the 
horses of Mr. Jonas Branch, now on the bowery of Gorier against whom the Company has a just 
claim in consequence of an honest debt ; this, however, is to be with the previous knowledge of 
the reverend Dom^ Megajyolensis, his agent and attorney, and an account is to be kept of what 
they cart and earn each day in the Company's service. And we also, in like manner, authorize 
and charge the Commissary especially to maintain the Company's high jurisdiction, ancient and 
previous use of the gardens and lands situate under the Fort, and not to cede the smallest iota 
tliereof, unless the Commander exhibit to him, according to our previous demand, later and other 
order and commission from their aforesaid High Mightinesses, our Sovereigns, the Lords Directors, 
our superiors and Patroons, authentic copy whereof he sliall transmit to us, so that we may then 
otherwise order. Finally, in order to maintain the jurisdiction of the Fort, the resolution we last 
sent for the removal of the houses built within musket or small cannon shot shall be peremptorily 
executed if not already obeyed. Thus done in Council in Foi't Amsterdam in New Netherland, 
the 2'* of November A° 1648. 

Lettee feom the Dieectors to Petee sttjtvesant : censuee foe meddling m Kieft's affaies 
English claims; Rensselaeeswyck and Foet Oeange; Fiscal van Dyck's complaints; 
pkeachees; ieon mines. 

January 27"" 16-49. Honorable, Worthy, Pious, Dear 

and Faithful Sir : 

Our last letter to your Honor was dated on the 10*'' of April of last year, by which we 
informed you of everything necessary. 

We have in the meantime received by diflEerent channels many letters and documents or any 
way the duplicates of the documents, which have been lost by the wrecking of the " Princesse " 
and although we see now, that many of the letters have been completely answered by our aforesaid 
letter, we yet find in some of the more important ones points, which require a reply from us. 

New YorJc Historical Records. 103 

Before we proceed however, it will be necessary to specify the letters, which have reached us 
to wit : 

In 1646, Octbr. 15 and 16 on board the " Princesse" then in port at Barbadoes. 

1647, January 15, from Curasao. 

Two letters without date of day or year arrived by way of the English Virginias. 

A letter dated August 4"' 1648. 

Another without date concerning only your Honor's private affairs. 

Two letters of 2'* and 23'* of September of last year. 

Further the following letters from Lucas Rodenborch at Curafao, dated respectively June S"* 
and Septbr 2"* 1647, April 6"" and May 5"> 1648. 

A letter of March 22'* 1648 from Jan Galeart, schoolmaster at Curafao. 

One of Septbr 6"" 1648 from Carel van Brugge at Fort Orange. 

Three letters from D° BacJcerius, dated August 7"" and Septbr 2'' and 22'' 1648. 

One from Fiscal Hendrich van DycJc of Septbr i'*" 1648. 

Besides reading all the abovementioned letters we have also taken up the minutes of matters, 
which have happened there and examined the books ; we shall communicate the result to your 
Honor in due time. 

Although you complain, that we have not promptly and thoroughly replied to your former 
letters, we can only find some unimportant matters, which we tacitly passed over, because we lacked 
sufficient information, to come to a decision concerning them : for instance, you liad asked for our 
approval concerning the confiscated ship '■^Liefde ", Huylert van Ree master, but we had not received 
either the proper information nor the report of the proceedings, which only reached us now. We 
can only agree with you, that it was confiscated for good reasons, but at the same time we cannot 
approve, that the goods, after having been inventoried by you, were not sold at public auction, 
that their value was not announced and the required three summons of the Fiscal were not 
published : all this could have been done in better shape on shore, than to pass such a sentence on 
board of the ship. Now the owners sue us for it, demanding an indemnification of 10,000 fl and 
they will undoubtedly avail themselves of the abovestated arguments, but we have not yet seen 
their complaint in writing. What is alleged in this case, may also brought up against us 
concerning the embargoed ship St. Betiinio. Nobody has as yet taken any steps in this matter, but 
we are already involved in a formal proceeding about the ship with its freight of hides and tobacco, 
the former owner of which has come here now to claim these goods, asserting that he is a resident 
burgher of this place: this, we believe, can be reasonably said of his mother, but he himself has 
lived about fifteen years in Spain, as we understand. He comjjlains bittei'ly, that he and the other 
prisoners have not been treated according to the Company's instructions, but that the whole crew 
has been sent adrift in one boat. Time will show, whether tlie arguments against it will appear 
plausible to the judges, meanwhile we are in a quandary and surprised by such proceedings, 
especially as we notice, that they have begun in Curafao to dispose of some of these goods without 
process of law, then only one summons was published before you contracted with several merchants 
for a large quantity of hides. You have also approved of the plunder of a quantity of pearls and 
reals of 8 ; though the plunderers will represent it as a trifle, their assertions do not agree with 
the supercargo's accounts, much less with the demands of the parties in interest. We also find 
that this capture was made on the 15"" of April 1648 and brought in on the 23'', but to our very 
great surprise, you have only published one summons concerning this prize from that day until the 
23'' of Septbr, the date of your last letter and we cannot learn, what legal jjroceedings you have 

104 Early Colonial Settlements. 

instituted. This case is nevertheless of great importance and you might have known that we 
would be called upon for explanations. But what surprises us most in this matter is, that you have 
not sent us a list of the cargo and that you say not a word in your various letters about the 2000 
lbs. of Maracaiho tobacco shipped in this caravel, nor that you have received them and at what 
price they were sold. 

This tobacco could be sold here at present for 811 the pound and it is in our opinion not a 
matter of so little importance, as to be passed over in silence. It is therefore of the greatest 
importance, that you should send us by the very first opportunity a list of the whole cargo and all 
the documents relating to the confiscation, although we doubt, whether these latter will be 
according to the laws of this country, where no bench of judges has as yet confiscated a ship or 
merchandise to be kept by them after an arbitrary division and appraisement. Everything is here 
sold publicly, which we observe has also been the custom there formerly and was done in the case 
of the confiscated ship " St. Peter^^ although even then not all the formalities were observed, for 
we find in the report of the sale, that 30 pieces of dufEels, delivered hj Johannes van Hardenhurgh 
to the Clerk of the Company's Warehouse were appraised at 54 st. the ell, wJiile Hardenhurgh has 
proved by certificates, that 24 pieces of the same dufEels were sold there at the same time at 4fl the 
ell. When we made a provisional settlement with him in this matter, we directed you what to do 
in it, but you have nevertheless deemed it proper to re-open the case by sending us the declaration of 
Simon Pietersen Pas, as if we had not received it before or not paid any attention to its contents. 
We have only to say to this, that it had been duly examined in regard to everything having 
reference to this case and that we found necessary to settle on the already stated condition of it 
offsetting his claim against the import and export duties here, so that you need have no dealings 
with his brother there. 

Your Honor has meddled with several affairs of your predecessor, which you had better have 
left alone, for before your departure you must have fully understood the dissatisfaction 
created in the Board by several acts of his administration, especially by the war with the savages, 
by his deficient and slovenly accounts of the Company's property and by the many uncalled for 
debts, which, we believe, he has contracted at the account of the Company. We think, it would 
have been better, to let him or his friends take the responsibility for these matters. The war, 
which it would have been wiser not to undertake, was over before your arrival ; the debts arising 
out of the drafts, made by him, you have taken upon yourseK by your signature, but we do not 
recollect that we ever directed you to do it, much less tliat you should concern yourself about the 
debts made by him at the expense of this Department ; for it must be remembered that this person 
had been engaged by the Assembly of the XIX and that at that time an agreement between all 
the Departments existed, that all expenses should be defrayed out of the common fund. We cannot 
imagine therefore, what reason induced you to assume these debts for our account. Tour Honor 
will soon learn how dangerous it is to meddle with other people's business, as already premonitory 
rumors are spreading here, that you have interfered in a sentence passed by him against Jochim 
Pietersen and Cornells Melyn. We will not dispute whether they had not deserved it, but it 
would have been better, to let the dead man defend it, than to see, that upon a simple request 
their High : Might : accede so much to these people as to summon your Honor to defend this 
sentence either in person or by attorney. The first of the two is considered by many here an 
honest man and they are surprised to see him so intimate with Gomelis Melyn, who has always 
had a bad reputation and who, as we understand, will do everything to create trouble and mischief 
for us on the side towards the Swedish Colony. We shall have to say more on this subject, when we 

New Yorh Historical Records. 105 

come to the definition of tlie boundaries and will for the present continue to state our grievance, 
concerning the heavy burdens, laid upon us on account of Curasao and New Netherland, of which 
the latter has the reputation of being in a position to support itself, but also of having the capacity 
to share the superabundance of its production with other nations, especially with our other conquests. 
Tet we find in your Honor's letters many complaints of various deficiencies and wants, as if you 
were lacking there provisions or means of subsistence, while we can prove by the annexed memorial 
and calculation, that you must have received since your arrival there in values, money and goods 
about 170 to 180 thousand florins. If this one territory were to cost so much, then we would be 
compelled to resolve, that it injured the Company more than tlie same was benefitted by it. "We 
desire therefore, that by the first opportunity a complete statement of the revenues and expenditures, 
as specified in the memorial, be sent to us. Undoubtedly the erection of the church or what was 
needed to complete it and the repairs of the fortifications have cost something, but that cannot be 
so great a part of the aforesaid sum. 

"We cannot understand, why your Honor has begun to erect a storehouse 100 feet long by 19 
feet in width, for we do not know, what it could be iised for. It is true, you proposed, that the 
Company should open a salesroom there provided with all kinds of goods and you pointed out several 
measures for that purpose, for instance, to compel all private people to deliver the merchandises, 
which they import there, into the salesroom against a fair profit of 60 to 70 percent. You are also of 
opinion, that a price for beaver-skins ought to be fixed, above which nobody should be allowed 
to purchase any and you add, that nobody ought to be allowed to trade, who is not willing to 
engage himself to remain there 3 or -1 years ; that nobody shall have permission to sell at retail, 
except under the same condition, nor sail on the river in any kind of craft, except the burghers 
settled there, having real property of 3000 to 4000 fl. value. 

We learn further, that you have taken the liberty to inspect some of the private warehouses 
with the intention of finding contraband goods and examining their books, which in our opinion are 
matters of grave consequences and altogether contrary to the laws of free trade, which the rules 
of this Department granted to all merchants ; because the Department is as yet too weak to keep 
the trade to itself and must for the present be satisfied with the tolls. We do not mean to say, 
that we do not wish to see the Company in such a condition as to prevent all the trade of these 
private hucksters according to your intentions, but for the foregoing reasons we find these plans 
as yet impracticable. Your Honor must therefore teuaporize in all these matters until a better 
opportunity offers. 

We are surprised, that your Honor has made alterations in the tariff for exported furs, receiving 
for beavers, otters, bear and moose skins 15 st a piece, and for deerskins 5 st. , while formerly 8 
pet were taken. We believe it is better to keep the old rates and cannot consent to a change of 
all these resolutions without knowledge of the Assenably of the XIX. Besides, it is not advisable, 
to burden these goods with more taxes than formerly, especially as beavers, which used to sell for 
8 to 9 fl. are sold now according to their quality for 6, 7 and 8 fl. 

At this time it is imj^racticable to make an agreement with the English liere or in England 
concerning the boundaries, for we cannot discover, that any one is authorized thereto. The King 
is detained at Windsor and kept a prisoner by the army under General i^ai?^a« and his Lieutenant 
Cromwell, who to some extent have quartered their men upon the City of London, many of the 

* See page 47 Vol. XII Col. History. 


106 Early Colonial Settlements. 

members of Parliament are prisoners or have left, the Prince of Wales and the DuJce of York 
have taken refuge here, so that it seems tliat everything is turned bottom upwards in that Kingdom 
and that efforts are made to establish another form of government. Maj the Lord protect the 
people against danger. These are in brief the reasons, which we already gave in our former letters, why 
we cannot satisfy your Honor's repeated demands in this direction and we know therefore of no better 
remedy for the present, than that you must try to live in harmony with our English and Swedish 
neighbors, the moi'e so, as in your own opinion, the English are much too powerful for us and it 
is not advisable that we should be involved into a war, of which we have, may God help us, 
ouoiigh now with the Portuguese in Brazil and in other countries, without reaping any advantage, 
especially since this faithless people have been with 13 ships at Loando St. Paulo, forcibly taking 
this territory of Angola from us. We consider it necessary to communicate these news to you, 
that you may not send ships thither and we fear, that they have also visited the Island of St. 
Thomas, but as the Director of that Colony had received information of this expedition, he may 
have been on his guard, and we hope, able to resist their attack. These treacherous proceedings 
annoy their High : Might : very much and they are at present engaged in deliberating, how they 
shall resent these affronts : they will not lack an opportunity, if God heljjs us. 

Concerning your Honor's repeated complaints of the old claims of Brant van Slechtenhorst 
we shall confer with the owners of Rensselaer swyck, but we find, that they do not agree among 
themselves, as the heirs of Van Rensselaer intend to keep for themselves the Patroonship, 
notwithstanding the contracts prove, that they have partners, who jointly have borne the expenses 
and now complain, that they have never received an account of the management. We have come 
to the conclusion, that Brant van Slechtenhorst is a man of malicious character, that being also 
the opinion expressed by people, who have lived under him in the Colony. We shall confer about 
this with Mr. Wouter van Twiller, also about his private claims, and shall send your Honor our 
further resolutions as quickly as possible. Meanwhile we must urge you to keep up with our 
neighbors the friendliest intercourse. 

In going over tliis matter, we are reminded that the wife of Abraham Staats, formerly a 
resident of RensselaersvujcJc, has informed us, that with your Honor's consent she had built a 
house in Fort Orange and she now asks this Department for a confirmatory order, which as far 
as we know has never been done ; but whereas she adds to her request, that she may enjoy such 
privileges, as we shall grant to our subjects, we do not know, what she may intend by this special 
request and can give herein no other order, than that she shall be treated with the same fairness, as 
all other good and honest citizens of the Fort. You believe, that inhabitants of Renselaerswych 
erect houses too near the walls of the Fort, intending to defy us, and that the outlook from the 
Fort must not be obstructed, at least in cannonshot range ; you further state, they have more 
convenient lots along the river to build houses on, than so close to the Fort ; the other side asserts, 
that they are compelled to do it, in order to be prepared for an attack by the savages. You will 
therefore well consider these reasons and take care, that while neither the one nor the other suffers 
by encroachments upon his territory, the settlers are accommodated as far as possible. 

The many complaints against the Fiscal Hendrich van DycJc are very numerous to us. 
Although this man had been recommended to us very highly, we have yet been not without fear, 
that complaints would be made to us, as we had heard some bad reports before his departure. On 
the contrary, yom- complaints are confirmed by various witnesses, Mr. DlncTdagen alone holding 
back, so that we are astonished at his hesitating to bear witness to the truth. 

Nevj Yorlc Historical Records. 107 

This same Fiscal cliarges in his letter of the 4'" of September, that from tlie first hour of liis 
departure your Honor had forbidden him the Council chamber and that he has not been properly 
supported in his duties, sending as proofs for the truth of his charges declarations of as he says 
trustworthy parties concerning his proper and decent behavior. These people are however 
imknown to us and whereas we notice, tliat his misbehaviors have often been forgiven, on 
promises of reforming, we desire to learn, that he is now living up to his promises ; but if he should 
again forget himself and commit such excesses, that your Honor and the Council consider Ins 
mode of living to attract obloquy and himself unable or unwilling to serve the Company well, then 
you must collect all necessary information against him, that we may give everybody concerned 
sufKcient reasons for his dismissal. 

The request of D° Bmkerus, made in several of his letters, has been approved as reasonable 
by the Classis and we were therefore obliged to grant it. We should have been more inconven- 
ienced by it, if we had not entertained the hope, that perhaps the preacher from liensselaerswych, 
D° Megapolensis, could be persuaded by fair offers to remain there a few years longer. We consent 
to it very ^villingly on account of the good character given him by your Honor. It is true, his 
wife has arrived here, it being the intention, that he should soon follow her and it seems, that his 
presence in person is required here for the liquidation of an estate, in which he appears to be mucli 
interested ; nevertheless we have held tiresome conferences with his wife and it seems, that she 
could be persuaded to return thither to her husband, if she were assured, that she would not incur 
his displeasure. After having overcome his objections we hope to induce her to consent to our 
plan and we shall then consider his salary, whicli we expect to make satisfactory to him. You will 
therefore on receipt of this letter try to persuade him, to comply with the requirements of God's 
church and his community, the more so, as it is to be feared, that we may not be able for some 
time to provide this church with a minister : this measure is therefore the most advisable. 

We shall also look out now for a good school teacher and gather information concerning the 
man living in Rarlem, whom you propose. 

Your Honor's appointment of Roeloff Jansen as Keceiver-General at a yearly salary of 480 fl. 
without rations induces us to believe, that you must have a good knowledge of his honesty : on 
that understanding we approve of it herewith, although in our straitened circumstances all possible 
retrenchments should be made, for which reason we have here discharged all subaltern officers and 
we believe from information received, that there too are more than enough officers ; all unnecessary 
officers shoiild therefore be discharged, we cannot afford to keep them. 

Although it is without precedent, that this Department has ever been godfather of any 
children, having when invited always refused it for certain good reasons, yet the Board grants 
herewith your Honor's request, expecting to be informed of the child's name to have it properly 
registered, that the Company, when in a better financial condition, may be reminded to reciprocate 
this honor by a keepsake. Meanwhile we shall pray to God, that He may let grow up this child 
boi'n in New Netherland to His glory and to his parents' happiness. 

We must acknowledge, that letters of exchange gone to protest do not add to the Company's 
reputation ; nor would it look anj'^ better to accept them, when no payment can follow. We have 
said above, that we believe you to have enough funds of the Company on hand, that we might 
remain undisturbed. Besides this the owners of the ship " Wapen van Nieuw Nederlandt " call 
upon us for the sum of 10123 fl 15 st. for goods delivered at Gurafao in the year 1646 ; we find 
however in the letters of Lucas Rodeiihiireh, that these goods and provisions were received under 
condition to be paid for in salt and horses and that they, at the time, received a lot of salt, we 

108 Early Colonial Settlements. 

believe, we can satisfy tliem by paying them in these values. We are sorry, that their ship has 
been lost and therefore add in our answer, that they may send for the salt by another opportunity. 

We have learned of the precarious situation of the Island of Curasao with great regret, the 
more so, as we have no chance of sending the provisions, i-equired by your Honor ; we have tried 
to freight a ship, but could find nobody willing to undertake the voyage upon so uncertain results, 
while we considered it unadvisable to charter a ship by the month, as you propose. If we had 
been sure, that a full ship's cargo of wood was ready on the Island, then we might have contracted 
for it, but we observe that a great mortality has j^revailed there and fear, that but little wood has 
been cut. We would therefore have had but a losing freight, which at present is not at all 
convenient. We also consider it quite unadvisable to send more people to the Island, for that 
would only increase our expenses and the products of the Island do not pay for the outlay. There 
are enough good people on the Island, we think, to defend it and we shall take good care of its 
interests, when our solicitations concerning the great reform shall have been fiaally acted upon 
by their High : Might : which we hope will be done shortly. 

The loss of the ship " de Groote Gerrit " has much inconvenienced your Honor in carrying 
out your plans, for besides not making a profitable venture with it heavy outlays have become 
necessary, which are made still more burdensome, because the country is not provided with the 
necessaries to equip a vessel on account of the lacking funds. 

We cannot sufficiently express our surprise, that upon the report of one Jan Sliiyter, who 
says, he has been a prisoner of the Spaniards at St. Martin, no searcli has been made for the gold 
mine, which he says, has been discovered upon the Island on the mountain, where our quarters 
have been. He asserts that the mineral is so rich, that 10 pounds of ore will yield 3 pounds of 
pure metal. We see that your Honor is very much grieved by the loss of the specimen sent by 
the ship " Princesse,^'' since lost ; but we do not know, whether that specimen came from this 
mountain, to which attention ought to be paid. We do not think, that the ironmine is of any 
benefit to us. 

Your Council minutes of December S"* 1647 informs us, that you have published an order, 
according to which all Englishmen, coming for some reason from New-Haven to take refuge 
among us, are to be protected, because the Grovernor has refused to surrender to your Honor 
William WesterMiysen and Samuel Godenhuysen, who had deserted to New-England. This 
proceeding appears to us very hazardous at this critical time and the matter must be treated with 
great prudence, especially as according to your own opinion, this nation is much too strong for us. 
We must therefore guard against a strife with them. 

You think, that if lOOOOfl. in small coins could be sent there, it might be advisable to drive 
the wampum gradually out of the country, but your own judgment must tell you, that in our 
present financial situation it cannot be done, the more so as we are much troubled by our inability 
to supply the provisions, which you so urgently call for. If we do not receive the proceeds from 
the sale of hides, we shall be obliged, to leave your requisition unfilled. 

Eecurring to your letter directed to the Commissaries of New Netherlands we find it to be 
only a repetition of your general letter and can therefore not understand, what its purpose is, 
except that you believe, your complaints are not taken into as serious consideration by the 
Department, as they deserve. Your Honor may rest assured, that they are treated always with 
great care and seriousness ; it is not the good will, that is wanting on our side, but the means, as 
repeatedly stated above. We send herewith the following papers : 

The invoice of the goods sent by the ship " Prins WilheUn." 

New Yoi'h Historical Records. 109 

Copy of the contract and bailbond made and given for the voyage of the said ship for your 
Honor's information. 

We are surprised, that contrary to our orders and to the contracts made witli Messrs. Wouter 
van Tiviller, Jan van Hardenhergh and others you have made them pay 10 percent duty on 
goods sent hither, that being for every 100 fl. two more than the said contracts stipulate for. We 
have refunded this overcharge here but the matter is in itself of no small importance, that you 
receive the duties on merchandise sent here at your own discretion, when they ought to be paid 
here and that you made the aforesaid parties pay them. Tliis must cease in future and we desire 
expressly, that you shall keep to the contracts and obey the orders received or to be received from 
us. Relying hereupon we are 

Honorable, Worthy, Pious, Dear and 
Faithful Sir, whom we commend to 
God's protection 
Amsterdam, Your Honor's Friends 

the 27'-'> of January, 1649. The Directors of the Priv. W. I. Company 

Department of Amsterdam 
Jacob Pekgens m. p. 
S. Ryckaeet. 

Eesolution to sinviMON THE English towns on Long Island to send delegates to New 
Amstekdam, to consider of an embassy to Fatheeland. 

Whereas the select men here have at divers times by petitions requested to have a delegation 
sent to Fatherland to address our superiors on some weighty matters ; and whereas the English 
villages on Long Islatvd, which are subject to their High Mightinesses, ought also according to 
our best judgment be consulted on this important matter, so that they may not hereafter 
plead any ignorance, it is resolved in Council to invite them by letter for the appointed day. 

Thus done and approved. Present : The Hon"^ General, The Vice, La Montagne. Beian 
Nuton, Paulus Leendeksen, This 21" of February [1649]. 

Lettee feom Thomas Tapping, Rich''. Gildeksleeve and other deputies to Dieectoe 
Stutvesant, PEOMismo to send an answer to his peoposals and Stuyves ant's eeply. 

Noble Sir. 

May it please you to vnderstand, that we have Received yours by hand of youre Deputed 
and authorized agents viz your Secretary and Ensigne vnto whose relations wee have and doe 
according to your request give Credence and w"' all conuenient speed indevred to acquaint our 
Neighbors w"" your pleasure declared chiefly in the Instructions you sent by them for our 
Consideration, who incontinently mad choyce of 5 of us to conferr w"" your aforesaid agents : 
further that so the might have the more light after serious consideration to returae a plenarie 

110 Ea/rly Colonial Settlements. 

answer vnto you some grounds were given vnto your ag" and you may please to vnderstand that 
wee are not so well versed in such maters of high Gouernuient as to give a present resolution 
besides some of our Neighbors are absent whose advise wee desire to Concure w"' vs at whose 
return wee shall w"* conuenient speed indevor it ; so w"" due respects and thankful acknowledgment 
of your well wishings and well indeuors for our good we Humbly take leave and Eest. 
Hemstede ffeb. 26 : 4-9 Your servants 

Tho. Tapping 
To our honered Gouernor Cii Panco 

Petee Stuyvesant, Director Kicard Gildkesleeve. 

General of the Province Henry Peesall. 

New Netherlands Gurafoo Jonas Wood. 

these present. 

Gent : Tour letter by M^ Whitehead I rec*. and what declaration yo' deputys made you att 
theyi-e retume I know not, only this they neuer presented vnto mee any procuraties, from your 
ownes and did not see your instructions : for what myne owne hae done, if according to my 
instructions by them to you presented, the Coppie whereof was lefte with you, but this sure I am 
it was with a sincere heart to all your good, that I presented them and therefore haueing discharged 
my duty, I shall with God's assistance in euery respect act and doe for you and all vnder my 
gouerment, as much as shall lye in my power for your publique good, for present and future tyme 
and had you wrote soe much toe me att first I should have been contented and soe proceeded that 
you need not haue troubled yourselves soe much, soe with my loving salutations to you I rest. 

ffort New Amsterdam 

March the 20"" (49). Your loving ffeiend. 

Resolution. To geaj^t the faemees on the island of MAifiiATrAi^ feee past 
Schepmoes' plantation and bouweey No. 1. 

The farmers on the Island Manhattan requesting by petition a free pasturage on the Island 
Manhattan between the plantation of Schepmoes and the fence of the Great Bouwery No. 1, the 
petitioners' request is provisionally granted, and that no new plantations shall be made or granted 
between said fencing. [March i"" 1649.] 

Minute. Of a meeting of the Council and buegher officers in the fort, on the subject 



On the 4"^ of March A° 1649, met and appeared, on the invitation of the Hon"' Director General, 

New York Historical Records. Ill 

in the parlor at Fort Amsterdam, Mr. Dinchlage, Fiscal Van Dyck, La Montague, Brian 
Nutoii, Ensign Baxter, Paulas Leendersen, Commissary Keyser, Serjeant Litschoe. 

Next, the Burgher officers : Jacob Couwenhoven, Captain ; Martin Crigier, lieutenant ; 
Philip Oeraerdy, Peter Cock, Serjeants ; Borger Jorisen, Augustyn Heerman, ensigns ; by whom 
the following in a joint hoard and meeting was concluded and did occur. 

Mr. Luhbert van Dinchlage protests in Council against the IIon'''° Director, for that he has 
heretofore done, and still does many things without his previous knowledge ; also for imprisoning 
Adriaen van der Donck without letting him know it. 

Thus protested, Present all the above named officers and Burghers. 

At the Council aforesaid was read the part of Adriaen van der DoncTis Journal in which Yan 
der Donck writes, that he has heard Mr. Dincklage say at Melyn\s house, that he had violated liis 
oath in the case, and that things do not go smoothly in Holland, and that among the States there 
are also who are perjured. 

Mr. Dincklage denies having ever expressed what Van der Donck has stated in his Journal 
against their High Mightinesses and demands proof thereof. 

Mr. Dincklage demands copy of a written by Verdonok, and taken out of Michael Ja7is€n''s 
house by the Director without his, Dincklagevb s knowledge; against wliich he protests also. 

The Director gives for answer, that it will be furnished to him Dincklage, at the proper time 
when the ships shall sail for Holland, and that for cause he cannot have a copy, as it contains 
things which must first be proved. This i"" of March, Present the abovenamed Councillors and 

Votes and advice of the council and burghers respecting a jom-nal written by Adriaen van 
der Donck. 

The i'" of March A° 1649. 

Yotes of the Hon'''"* Councillors and of the Burghers respecting the Journal written by 
Adriaen van der Donck. 

Mr. Dincklage is of opinion that Adriaen van der Donck shall be heard touching the writing 
and provisionally be released on bail. 

La Montague advises that Yerdonck be heard according to law. 

Brian Nuton is of opinion that Verdonck shall be heard in his prison. 

Paulus Leendersen is of opinion that Adriaen van der Donck shall be examined by commis- 
sioners in jail. 

Commissary Keyser is of opinion that Vam, der Donck ought to be brought here and then 


Jacoh Wol-phertsen says this matter does not concern him, and therefore he ought to be 
excused from voting. 

Martin Crigier says, that Van der Donck ought to be heard in confinement. 

George Baxter, ensign, ditto. 

Angustyn Heerman says, as Van der Donck is a member of the board of Nine Men, ho 
cannot advise in the case. 

Serjeant Litscho thinks that Verdonok ought to remain in prison until he be examined. 

112 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Jan Evertsen Bout says, as Van der Donck is a bnrgher, he ought to be treated as such. 

Philip Geraerdy says, as Van der Donck has earned, so must he be paid. 

Peter Cock, says that Van der Donck shall remain confined until examined, as he > 

Borger Jorissen says ditto to Peter Cock. 

The Hon'"'" Director General is of opinion that for the removal of all difiEerences and disputes, 
it would be requisite, to summon two deputies from each Colony and Town in New Netherland to 
deliberate on the highly necessary delegation for the best of the country in general. 

Mr. Dinoklaghe says, he wiU not meddle with the matter, and thinks that men ought to wait 
until the Lords States shall have given an order. 

Resolution. To call a general convention, to consist of two deputies from each of the 
Colonies in New Netheeland, to consider the sending of a delegation to Holland; 
votes thereupon. 

Fiscal Van Dyck thinks it advisable to summon two @ three persons from the circumjacent 
English and other towns, to assist with those of the Manhatans in deciding what is best for tlie 
public in regard to the delegation to Fatherland. 

La Montagne, ditto. 

Brian Nuton, ditto. 

George Baxter, ditto. 

Adriaen Keyser, ditto. 

Paulus Leendersen, ditto. 

Daniel Litschoe, ditto. 

Martin Crigier, ditto. 

Augustyn Heerman refers it to the Board of Nine Men. 

Philip Geraerdy and Peter Cock agree in opinion with the Fiscal as above. 

Appointstent. Commissioners to investigate the case of Adriaen van der Donck. 

Paulus Leendersen and Adrian d' Keyser are ordered and appointed Commissioners to 
e.xamine into the case of Adriaen van der Donck, and that in the presence of the Fiscal, on the 
5"" of March A° 1649, in New Amsterdam in New Netherland. 

Eesolution. On petition of A. van der Donck, that he remain imprisoned until the 

ABOVE commissioners REPORT. 

The 6"^ of March A° 1649. 

In Council is presented a certain petition of Adriaen can der Donck, on which the Director 
and Council have caused the following apostil to be made : Petitioner is ordered by plurality of 

New Yorh HisUyrical Records. 113 

votes, to remain in prison until he be examined, and answer to the interrogatories, pursuant to 
the resolution of March 4"" A° 16i9 in New Amsterdam in New Netherlcund. 

Votes of the Council, on the dikeotor-general askiso their opinion, whether he should 
bead a weiting he had drawn up to a regular meeting of tue commonality. 

On the 8"" of March. 

The Hon"'' Director General produces in Council and exhibits to the members a writing ; 
after reading it to them, he inquired their opinion whether said writing should not be read to the 
entire commonality when met. 

Mr. Dincklage refuses to express an opinion thereon. Fiscal van Dyck advises that it is well 
and advisable that it be read to the commonalty. 

La Montague, ditto. 

Brian Nuton, ditto. 

Adriaen Keyser, Commissary, ditto. 

Paulus Leendersen, ditto. 

Proposal. Of Director Stutvesant, to compel Adrian van dek Donck to prove certain 
statements contained in his journal, ob to recall them, and not to appear in court, 
or among the nine men, until he do one or the other ; with the votes of the council 
on the order. 

Proposition submitted in writing by the Hon*''' Director to the ordinary Councillors and other 
officers, the 15"> of March A» 1649. 

The ordinary Councillors and other superior and inferior officers are aware that wo, by virtue 
of our office and commission, have quite recently caused one Adriaen van der Donck to be 
guarded in his usual residence or confinemeut,* on account of a slanderous writing drawn up in 
the form of a Journal, and found at the house of MicJiaslJansen, wherein he has grossly slandered 
not only some superior and inferior officers, but also their High Mightinesses themselves, or at 
least many among the Lords States are suspected and accused of perjury; as appears by the 
original thereof. 

Authentic extracts of which having been read by the Commissioners to the aforesaid Vam, der 
Donck and a categorical answer demanded, the said Yan der Donck responded in contempt of the 
court, in a dubious, or at least in an immaterial manner, nevertheless affirming in plain and 
distinct words the injurious and defamatory accusation partly expressed by him in writing to me, 
and partly read to others out of the Journal, tending to the special defamation both of our 
Sovereigns and the Councillors sent hither, to the maintenance of whose most illustrious renown 
we are pledged by our commission and the Laws oi Netherland and by honor, oath and conscience 

* QiJBelinge — Debtor's Prison. 


114 Eai'ly Colonial Settlements. 

Therefore ray opinion in regard to tlie equivocal deposition that has been taken is, that the 
deponent be ordered and constrained to prove and establish or to revoke what he has injuriously 
written or spoken against the Hon'''"= Lords States and officers here; and in the meanwhile, until 
further information, that he absent himself from our Council and the Assembly of the elected 
Select Men {gemeents manneii). On which points, besides this, we also request the written 
opinions of the other Councillors and officers, hereby excusing and holding myself guiltless of the 
charge which may be brought against me, either here or hereafter, that I knew of the defamation 
and injury of my Sovereigns, and did not punish or notice them. Done Manhatans. (Signed) 

P. Stutvesant. 

Votes on the proposition of the Hon"^ Director given by the Hon''''' Councillors, dated 15"= 
of March A" 1649. 

Lvhheri van Dinchlage, the Vice Director, says he will not have any thing to do with the 
Director's proposition ; refuses to sign. 

Hendrioh van Dych, fiscal, is of opinion, that Yan der Donck shall not appear at the board 
of the Director and Council, or at the Assembly of the Nine men until he shall have proved the 
writing drawn up in the form of a Journal. (Signed) II. van Dyck, fiscal. 

La Montague is of opinion that Verdonck shall not appear in the session of the Council until 
the decision of the suit. (Signed) La Montagne. Brian Nuton votes like La Montague. 
(Signed) Brian Newton. Adriaen Eeyser, Commissary, votes as the Fiscal has done. (Signed) 
A. Ketser. Paulus Leendersen, naval storekeeper, votes and in the case of Verdonck is of the 
same opinion as the Fiscal. (Signed) Paulus Leendeetsen van de Grift. 

Director and Council have by plurality of votes decided that Adriaen van der Donck shall 
not attend the session of the Council or the Assembly of the Select Men when they meet, until he 
shall have duly verified what he has written in defamation of the Hon'''" States and of the officers 
and Councillors here. This IS"" of March A° 1649. New Amsterdam. 

Minute of a visit of the director-general to rev. Me. Backerius, to forbid him to read, 


This day underwritten the Director General went in ]>erson to the house of the minister 
Backerius, and there, in his capacity as Director, told the minister not to read himself, or have 
read by any of the Church officers, from the pulpit or elsewhere in the churcli, at the request of 
any of the inhabitants, any writing, petition, or proposal having relation to the municipal or general 
government, whether generally or in particular, before and until such writing shall be signed by 
the Director himself, or by the Secretary, by order of the Director and Council ; but this is not to 
apply to ecclesiastical afEairs which are left at the full disposal of said minister and consistory. 
Therein he shall be at liberty to order agreeably to church ordinances and the duty of a godly 
minister, wherein said Director General offers him aU aid and assistance as far as this concerns him 
as Chief Magistrate of the country. 

This done in the presence of Councillor La Montagne and Secretary Tienhoven. this 8"= of 
May, 1649. 

New Yoi'Tc Historical Records. 115 

Lease, of a teact of land on Long Island foe 20 teaes. 

Before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of Ifew Netherland, appeared Jochem Colder 
of the one part, and Birch Holgersten, of the other part, who in the presence of the undernamed 
-witnesses, acknowledged and declared that they had in all love and friendship mutually entered 
into and concluded a certain contract in regard to the lease of a certaia tract of land on the condition 
hereuntowritten : 

Dirch Rol^ersUn leases to Jochem Colder a certain lot of land situate on Long Island, 
together with the land heretofore leased by him Dirch to Jochem Colder, for the term of twenty 
consecutive years, commencing Anno 1651 and ending Anno 1671. The Lessee shall have the land 
rent free for the first six years, and during the other fourteen following years shall pay, annually, 
for the use of said land, which big and little he shall cultivate and improve as he thinks proper, 
the sum of one hundred and fifty guilders in such pay as shall then be current. All the expenses 
that the Lessee shall incur in building, fencing and whatever else is necessary shall be at the charge 
of the Lessee, who shall make such improvements as he will think fit ; and if it happen that he, 
the Lessee should die, it is stipulated that the Lessor shall not eject the wife or descendants from 
the land against their will. The fences and any other improvements, of what nature soever they 
may be made by the Lessee, shall at the termination of the twenty years, belong to the Lessor, his 
heirs and descendants in full propriety without disbursing anything therefor. 

For further security and the performance of this contract, parties pledge their respective 
persons and properties, submitting to that end to all Courts and Judges. 

In testimony this is signed by the pai-ties with Jam, Nagel and Peter Jansen Noorman ■ 
hereunto subscribed, this 2'' of June A" 1649, New Amsterdam. 

This is the ^L- mark of Dieck Holgeesen made by himself. 
This is the p^ mark of Jochem Caldeb made by himself. 
This is the p f mark of Petee Jansen, witness, made by himself. 

Peemit to kev. Johannes Backeeius, Ministee of New Amsteedam, to eesign his office 
and eettjen to Holland. 

Johannes Backerius, minister in this city New Amsterdam, appeared before the Council and 
requested his dismission, in order that he vaa.j retvivn to Fatherla7id; therefore the Hon''''^ Director 
General and Council having considered the urgent request, cannot refuse said Backerius his 
dismission ; the said Director General and Council have accordingly granted him leave to depart 
for Fatherland. 

This e'" of July, 1649. 

11-6 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Resolution. To eetain akd engage eev. Joannes Megapolensis as ministee of the Chusch 
AT New Amsteedam. 

Whereas Domine Johannes Bacherius on his urgent petition, and, as he declares with the consent 
of the Classis, wherein the despatches of the Hon''''' Directors concur, has received from us license 
and dismission, in order to depart with the first ships for Fatherland, and in the meanwhile this 
congregation would remain destitute of spiritual nourishment, namely the preaching of the Holy 
Gospel and the lawful participation of the Blessed Sacrament, Therefore we, the Director and 
Council wishing to promote as far as we are able, the honor of God, the welfare and salvation of 
men, cannot consent that this congregation ought or can remain bereft of a pastor. Wherefoi-Oj 
on the instructions from the Hon''''= Lords Directors, we have resolved, as we do hereby resolve, 
earnestly and urgently to solicit and entreat the Keverend Dom° Johannes Megapolensis, late 
minister in Renselaerstoych, who having obtained his dismission there, is now here and prepared 
to depart with the first ships for Fatherland, and seriously and urgently to inquire if he could not 
be induced by persuasive reasons, for the honor of God, the advancement of his church, and the 
salvation of men to supply here the service of the Word and the administration of the 
Holy Sacrament. His reverence has, as we are already informed, no weighty reasons to decline our 
invitation. Meanwhile the extreme need of the church work imperatively demands, that at least 
one clergyman remaia in this province among the Dutch people, both for this capital and 
Rensclaer's Colony, were it only for administering Baptism to the children who are commonly 
presented here every Sunday at the Manhatans for baptism alone, sometimes one, sometimes 2, 
yea even 3 and 4 together. Therefore, we excusing his reasons, cannot accept them at this time, 
but do hereby resolve, if possible, to endeavor to retain him Uam,da vi et quasi nolens volens, and 
we shall try to justify him to the best of our ability both to the reverend Classis and the Patroon 
from whom he has already received his dismission and settlement of account. Such we resolve, 
to be most necessary for the honor of God, the service of his church, and the salvation of the 

Thus done in our Council this 2* of August, present : The Hon''''^ Director General Petrus 
Stuyvesant, L. van DincMage, H. van Dyck, La Montagne, and Brian Nuton. 


Kight honorable : we the inhabitants of greenwieh doe make bould to present your honors 
with A few lins and to informe you with our state and condition as f olloweth : our neyghbors of 
Standford hath allways desired and indevord to depoppolate this plase of grenwich and to leave 
it without inhabitans that so the prophit may redoime to themselves as might be proved by divers 
instances : and now they lay howld upon a new ocasion as we aprehend, for such an end M'. 
Feke being returned Agayn from old England; they make use of his wekenes and sillines to 
wring the land out of M'. Ralletts hands and they stand redy as we think to gayne a grant from 
your honor for such A thing. But we hoope your honor will seriously consider before they 
drawe forth such a request from you : we can not see that M'. Feke have any right to it although 
he Joyned in the purches, yet the former governor protested agaynst them and sent the vandrager* 
and souldiers and required them to submit to the goverment or Avoyde the plase. M". Feke 
allways withstood it wherupon when the governor required their answer the Captain and Mrs. 

* Ensign. 

New Ya)'h Historical Records. 117 

Feke submitted to them : slie having full power of his estate : whereupon the governor judging 
him nnfite to dispose A plantation, gave the land to Mrs. Feke as her own for inheritance to 
dispose of as she plesed and she liave disposed of the land hithertoe and have given out lots in her 
own name, Mr. Feke never contridecting it to this day : this therefore is our request to your honor 
to mayntayn Mr. Ballets right Agaynst them and in his right ours, we having our land from her. 
If your honor Conceive Mr. Feke should be payd for the purches, Mr. Ilallet is willing to be 
countable to him for it : * * hous and that little land he improveth Mr. Hallet will keep 
* * * eldest Sonne and will lay some more land to it : as for Mr. Feke * * * together 
According to tJie Council of Ifew England and doe not * * * his own right, whos Counsell 
we have ground to thinke according to * * Custom will tend to the subversion of this plase 
for it is Grenwich, which they thirst for : nayther would they sett satisfied with that : might 
they obtayn their desires : we question not but many things might be brought to your honor 
which will never be proved : but we rest upon your honors wisdom and faythfuUnes, that you will 
regard none of them : they persuaded Mr. Feke all so to take all the state from Mrs. Hallet as we 
beer : not withstanding he have by writing given her halfe : your honor have established Mr. 
Ilallet beer and we hoope you wiU mayntayn his right : we have told you above what they long 
for and soe being Assured your honor will doe more and beter than we can dictat we rest from 

new stille. Yours in what we may 

September 18, 1649. Egbert Heusted. 

EicnABD Ckabb. 
Thomas Sheewood. 
John Coo. 

Lettee feom the Dieeotors in Holland to Stuyvesant : Rev. Megapolensis : schoolmastee 
SENT out: eemonsteance feom New Netherland: Melyn's and Van Twiller's intrigues: 


Honorable, Virtuous, Faithful Friend. 

We wrote you last on the 28"' of January 1649, when we fully expressed our opinion on all 
necessary points and since that time the ships " Prince Willem " and " Valckenier" have arrived 
here on the i"" of October last, by which we received two letters without date, probably of the 10^'' 
of August, because the letter to their High : Might : received by the same ships, bore that date. 
We have besides received your letter of the 23'* of the same month with enclosures and documents, 
meant to support the judgments entered there against several prizes and seized vessels : their 
owners here and others have much to say about them, the first on account of their losses, the others 
we think instigated by party spirit, for they are the deputies from Ifew Netherlands of whom more 

We will briefly state in regard to the first class of complainants, that the owners of the " Liefdi'' 
trouble us a great deal by their demands of 10,000 fl : this suit looks very bad for us, because the 
owners have many friends. 

118 Early Colonial Settlements. 

The owners of the ship " Beninio" who have been silent so far, begin to stir now, taking the 
hint from tlie aforesaid deputies ; but this shall not trouble us much. 

The case of the seized hides has been arranged by mutual agreement, so that we need not say 
anything on this point. Nor is a further inquiry about HardenburgN a duffels required, as we 
have compromised the matter with him, but we shall have to say more about Arnokhis van 
Hardenhergh himself. So far we have referred to matters, on which we have expressed our 
opinion in former letter with sufficient length, namely that in cases of confiscation everything 
must be done not only according to instructions but also with great caution, and we deem it 
necessary to remind you of this admonition : for, although we have not yet heard any complaints 
concerning the capture of the ship " Jonge Prince van Denemarcke " and the two Spanish caravels, 
we have no doubt, that the owners of the first are busy collecting evidence ; they will receive 
powerful assistance from people here, who we believe have a share in the ship. "We cannot but 
find from all the affidavits and documents, that the Commissary Tielman Willcens has used every 
means to defraud the Company, while the treaty lately made between the Crown of Denmarck 
and this country will encourage these people to prosecute this matter eagerly. The same may be 
said of the owners of the two Spanish caravels, the capture of one of which in your opinion might 
be contested, as having taken place at the time, when the peace with Spain had been already 
concluded. "We have found it advisable therefore not to break the cargo of the said three ships, 
until we see, whether it is reclaimed. 

"We note, that some goods have been carried off by Captain Blauvelt, sailing under commission 
from William. Kieft, which should be prosecuted either by you or here by us : we have not yet 
heard of them and observe as far as the wages and debts should have to be paid oiit of the pi-oceeds 
of the cargo and the " Prince of Denmark^'' that according to the Commissary's calculations the 
proceeds do not amount to so much : but that is notour opinion, for if there exist sufficient reasons 
for the confiscation of the ship and her cargo, the creditors, who have provided the ship with some 
goods, cannot be considered, much less can the sailors demand their wages : we mean such of the 
crew, as are of this country ; you will see by the ship's roll and the affidavits, that there are only 
very few foreigners among them and that they apparently will set up the plea, that they were 
engaged here and did not know, where the ship was to go, which they first learned from the articles 
of enrolment at Gluckstadt; then they would have willingly received their discharges, only they 
had been paid a month's wages in advance and could not refund the money. This is quite a 
flimsy argument, for some declare they had been charged not to tell, by whom and whereto they 
had been engaged ; it must therefore be presumed, that they were regular smugglers. 

Speaking of these confiscations we are i-eminded, that the Department of the Maeze wrote to 
us aboiit the necessity of sending the articles of peace to Director Podenhergh at Curagao, as 
complaints had been made to them, that the Director was still sending out cruisers against the 
Spaniards ; we have no doubt, that as he has been with you for some time, yoii have given him the 
proper orders or instructions as to what to do in time of peace. We think, some ships from the 
Maeze or from the other Departments may touch at the island, for they believe to have received 
correct information, that the Director has got ready a large quantity of logwood, which he intends 
to hold there to secure his salary : we can scarcely credit this report, but be it as it may, we desire 
you to warn him by the first opportunity against selling, alienating or in any way disposing of the 
wood already cut or hereafter to be cut without an express order from the Department of 
Amsterdam, for the island is subject to their control only. "We hope to find means in a short 

New Yoi'lc Historical Mecords. 119 

time, to give him space in a ship, in which to send the wood for the account of this Department 
and he may rest assured, that he shall be fully paid. 

It is not at all strange, that the owners of the ship "New Netherlands complain bitterly of their 
loss, considering they lose not only everything brought to Curasao, amounting to 10123 fl, but 
also their ship : we see however, that by the special agreement made with you, by which we find 
ourselves bound, they were to repay themselves in salt and horses. Only a short time ago we 
offered the owners the privilege of procuring salt and horses to the above named amount and think, 
they might be as well pleased with it, as we intended them to be. 

When we send a ship to the island, we shall if possible provide the soldiers with socks, shoes 
and linen as you recommend, while we rely upon you to furnish provisions for them * * * 

We are astonished, that you deny having received the statement of 170 to 180 thousand 
guilders, which you have collected there in cash for the Company's account. We are quite sure, 
that this statement has been sent twice, but even if it had not been, you have nevertheless received 
the money, besides what has been collected since. To repair the possible oversight we send you 
herewith another copy and expect your accounts, that we may see how the revenues have been 
employed. You say, that we ought to assume everything to be worth only about half its value, but 
we cannot agree to that, for we have made our calculations according to your own advices of sales and 
expenditures and as money is there more worth than here, we might be quite justified to add this 
difference to our statement : we leave however everytliing as it is until we receive your accounts. 
The recommendation of the Rev. D° Megapolensis has in so far been attended by us, that we have 
paid to his wife 600 fl as six months' salary : as to how she has been treated by the heirs of van 
Renselaer on account of his services in their district, and which he will learn from his wife, we 
prefer to say nothing about it. 

At your request we have engaged a schoolmaster, who is to serve also as comforter of the sick. 
He is considered as an honest and pious man and will come over by the first chance. Your 
transaction with Vastrich about the case of 36 muskets, entered into without our knowledge or 
approbation, appears very strange to us, the more so as you say, that you forgot to write about it, 
although it was of great importance and we fear, that for the sake of profit you have allowed 
yourself to be misled by people, whom you trusted and who now will abuse your confidence to 
your and our disadvantage. The same may be said in regard to the bowery taken up by you for 
your own accoiint, as you may learn from the enclosed papers. We are pleased to see, that our 
resolution to diminish the tax on tobacco encourages its cultivation and we think, that the people 
in general will feel still more encouraged, as soon as our plans made at the Hague shall have been 
approved by their High : Might :, which we expect confidently, for we have proposed all possible 
means to encourage the people to colonize and cultivate the land, as you may see by the enclosed 

Mons. de La Montagne^s petition has excited our sympathies, but we cannot see how wo can 
dispose of it with justice because of the remonstrance of the deputies from Ifeio Netherland, of 
which we shall have to say a few words. If we were to i-elate all the intrigues set to work here 
by the said deputies Cornelis Melyn and Wouter van Twiller, to rob the Company of the land so 
dearly bought with money and blood, we should either have not time enough or our memory 
would shrink from the task: we refer therefore to the enclosures, which will show you their 
falsehood partly and point out their principal arguments for your information. We cannot 
however go on without renewing the warning, which we found necessary to give you some time 
ago : first concerning the defense of the late Director's administration, secondly, about the many 

120 Early Colonial Settlements. 

different placats aud ordinances issued in the beginning of your own administration, of which some 
could not have been enforced, we believe, without great trouble and danger. It might be said with 
good reason in regard to the iirst point, need not have so much minded the calumnies of 
CorneUs Melyn and Jochem Pietersen Cuyter against Director Kieft, as to endanger your own 
reputation, especially as it had taken place before your time and could tlierefore be referred to us 
here. But we will not dispute the correctness of your judgment, as we desire only to say, that 
sometimes a careful consideration and prudence may prevent great troubles. As to the placats 
and resolutions, which are dangerous to carry out occasionally, we will only speak of what we have 
once before warned you about, namely the inspection of the merchants' books. Hardenbergh has 
formerly already complained of it and now this point is again urged by the insinuations of the said 
deputies, who distinctly assert in their remonstrance, that orders had been published, in which you 
direct, that the merchants should at all times lay their books before you and the Council : we must 
say, that this is not customary anywhere in Christendom, nor should it be so. We have as yet 
received no copy of such an ordinance and shall therefore not consider it any further, except what 
you admit yourself regarding Arnoldus van Hardenhergli, in whose case you acted on sufficient 
information of fraud committed in the measure of duffels sold to divers parties. This and similar 
cases will be the cause of a great deal of discussion, which we shall communicate to you 

Your apprehensions concerning Domine Backerus, the preacher, have, as you expected, been 
verified. He has made common cause with the complainants, come from your parts, silly people — 
at least the majority of them^who have been badly misled by a few seditious persons, like 
Gomelis Mdyn, Adrian van der Donck and some others. These men seem to leave nothing 
untried, to upset every kind of government, pretending that they suffered under too heavy a yoke. 
Wouter van Twiller confirms them in this opinion and aims at the command of the whole North 
river : he admits publicly, that he does not intend to allow any one to navigate the river for the 
purpose of trade and says, he will resist any one coming there or to Rensselaerswyok maintaining 
besides, that Fort Orange is built upon the soil of Rensselaerswyok and that therefore the Company 
has no right to let houses be built or private parties trade there. He forgets, that this fort was 
erected fifteen years before Rensselaerswyck was ever mentioned, that it has been always garrisoned 
by the Company's men and that a tradinghouse has been kept there for the account of the Company 
until the year 1644:. The trade in peltries was exclusively reserved until then for the Company 
and it should remain so, were the Company in the condition to keep their storehouses well provided 
with the right goods: we hope that in good time we shall find means, to exclude from this trade 
all these impertinent fellows; we are justified in using our right, which this ungrateful customer, 
who so to say has sucked his welfare from the breasts of the Company, now tries to abuse. The 
traders generally have already complained to us and ask in the enclosed document to be maintained 
in their trade. 

"We apprehend from their warnings, that Wouter van Twiller may have once more the 
audacity to obstruct the navigation of the North river by force : if he uses force to interfere with 
the trade and thus defies the rights and jurisdiction of the Company, we desire j'ou forcibly, but 
cautiously to resist his unfounded claims. Should he plant any guns near the river, as he has 
done once before, then you are to remove and store them until further orders. In behalf of 
Rensselaerswyck he has asked permission to take on board of his ship 600 lbs. of powder and 600 
lbs. of lead, which we denied, fearing he might make a bad use of it. We shall send you by first 
chance some powder and lead, not to attack any one with it, but to use it in defending the rights 

Ne\o Yorh Historical Records. 121 

of the Company, which we notice many endeavor to curtail. Keep a sharp eye on the ship of 
Wouter van Twiller and if you find anything on board, not stated in our general invoice or 
shipped without the Company's consent, take charge of everything and let the Fiscal proceed 
against it in due form. 

We find, we have been misled, in giving permission to Augustin Hermans to ship 400 pieces 
of oak timber in a vessel, which was first to sail to the Oaribean Islands, thence to English 
Virginia and finally to come to New Netherland. If we had then known this man as well as 
we do now, we would not have given him this permission, for we must conclude, that liis 
intentions are fraudulent. You must watch therefore his trade and cargoes, that the Company 
may not be defrauded of dues. 

Secretary TienJioven will undoubtedly give you a detailed account of how Cornelis Melyn 
and his companion have tried here to affront the Company and you and how we have prevented 
it. But we cannot omit to state briefly, that these deputies, who came with credentials and other 
papers addressed to the Department of Amsterdam, kept them back for 9 or 10 weeks and first 
turned to the States-General in the expectation their i-equest would be granted there without 
knowledge of the Directors. N"ot succeeding there, they delivered, for decency's sake, their 
letters through Cornelis Melyn in private to Mr. Fergens, without asking us for a reply. They 
addressed themselves then to the Diet of Gelderland, where they again belched forth their torrent 
of calumnies ; if we did not restrain their absurdities, they would canse us a great deal of trouble. 
Formerly New Netherland was never spoken of and now heaven and earth seem to be stirred up 
by it and every one tries to be the first in selecting the best pieces there. It seems Wouter van 
Twiller has attempted to prevent this and with that view secured for himself warrants for more 
land than he ever intended to cultivate or settle, going even so far, that he claimed land patented 
already to othei's, as in the case of the Cats Kil, all patents for which had been granted to Cornelis 
Anthony van der Slyck. We are astonished, that this man, having a good claim to it, has not 
sooner come forward to defend it and under the circumstances he ought to be assisted : we think 
it however advisable to give possession to neither one nor the other at present, nor to convey any 
land to any one until further orders, for we are engaged in framing an entirely different form of 
exemptions and finding, that some people have grossly abused the good intentions of their High : 
Might : and the Directors by taking up large tracts of land, as for instance Wouter van Tioyler, 
who took the whole of Nut Island and Hellgate without either planting or building on the former 
during the whole time, that he was bound to do so, we intend to assert, that theii- rights have 
lapsed and that the said colonies have reverted to us. 

Inform us correctly, how it is on Staten Island, as far as Cornelis Melyn is concerned. This 
individual tries to gather here a large following, but we doubt very much whether he will 

You say that the late Director has granted patents for four or five boweries across the Fresh 
Water, and that you cannot find, that any advantage accrued therefrom for the Company ; that 
further the settlers are heavily indebted to and great enemies of the Company ; this matter must 
be examined into, but we do not intend to disturb any one in his rights because of our own 
troubles ; we repeat only, that in a new country, with only a small population minor matters must 
be overlooked ; a tree grown wild must be bent gradually and with gentle hand. In the same 
manner, as some people endeavor to invade our property there, the attempt is made in other 
quarters : the Lampsens of Zeeland occupy the Island of St. Martin and lately one of them came 

122 Early Colonial Settlements. 

to the Hague intending to ask their High : Might : to convey the island to them as their property ; 
learning however that the affairs of New Netherland were then being discussed, they left again 
without taking any steps. 

You will be informed by Secretary Thienhoven in regard to the lawsuit against Melyn and to 
him we refer 3'ou. 

"We have learned with regret of the troubles and difficulties, which some Christians have had 
with the savages, especially as we are not in a condition to take revenge : we judge therefore, that 
you have done well to arrange this matter by the most gentle means. 

We do not think it advisable to consider at present yom- request of erecting a redoubt opposite 
Statin Island, nor the case of the soldier, whom Cornelis Melyn has debauched and who is still 
upon that island : we prefer to leave these matters, until the deliberations at the Hague have been 

We have before now expressed to you our opinion on the question of the boundaries between 
the English, the Swedes and us and do not as yet see a chance, to treat about it properly here or in 
England. We had therefore recommended to you, to make if possible a provisional settlement of 
the boundaries subject to the approval of the higher authorities on either side. You said then, 
the English themselves had pomted out such a measure and as we cannot think of a better expedient, 
we hope the gentlemen of the government may hit upon something better, to obtain which no 
exertions are spared. We commend you, Honorable, Worthy, Faithful, to the protection of God 
and remain 

Amsterdam, Your good friends 

this 16"' of February The Du-ectors of the W. I. Company 

A" 1650. Department of Amsterdam. 

Jacob Peegens 
Jehan Eate. 

Letter from the Directors to Stutvesant : Resui-t of the remonstrance from New 
Netherland : Rev. Megapolensis' tract on confession : Schoolmaster : Boundakies : 

1650, April 20"". Honorable, Worthy, Pious, Faithful. 

Our last letters were of the 16"" of February and 2-i"' of March ; in the former we told you, 
how the deputies, who had come here from New Netherland, by all imaginable means, many of 
which were to work indirectly, had known to give to their propositions such an appearance, that a 
number of mature minds liave been deceived. Their undertaking then, assuming a look of 
danger for your reputation, the interest of the Company and especially this Department of 
Amsterdam, we were compelled to communicate with the Magistrates of this city, who have in so 
far countenanced our complaints, that they showed themselves inclined, to uphold our privileges. 
Very likely a great explosion would have heen the result, if it had not been prevented by the 
careful management of the hon''''' Deputies from their High: Might:, who have discovered 
means, by which they expect to satisfy provisionally either side. A copy of their resolves goes 
herewith ; you may judge by it, how much trouble we have had and how dangerous it is to draw 

Neio York Historical Recoi'ds. 123 

upon yourself the wrath of a growing community. "We must suppose, that you have trusted too 
much to some of these ringleaders or become too intimate with them : now, that their ingratitude 
and treachery have come to light, you must still act with the cunning of a fox and treat tliem in 
regard to the past conform with the abovementioned resolutions, to prevent that a new mistake 
may not make matters worse, than the first one did and that we may not be troubled any more by 
such contemptuous bickerings, the more so, as the Company is already sufficiently embarrassed. 

The hon"^ Deputies are still engaged in deliberating on suitable means to add to the prosperity 
and population of the country. As soon as a written memorandum of their propositions has been 
delivered to us, we shall express our opinions and send you copies of either in order to learn, what 
you may have to say about it. 

The case of Cornelis Melyn has as yet been tried on side-issues only, although your attorney 
has taken divers steps, by petitions, to keep it alive. It seems, he is not ready or intends to tire 
us out; meanwhile wo doubt not, but you have procured, as we advised you, more convincing 
documents, for we must confess, that the evidence, brought over by your attorney, is rather shaky : 
the saying is, that a good case requires good help. Having thus far repeated in substance what we 
had written you before, we will brieiiy answer your last two letters of the Si"" of November and lO**" 
of December of last year, the main points of which have been already answered by our abovementioned 
letters, to-wit your request, that we should decide about the bouweries, which had been disposed 
of, especially the one, which you yourself desire to have. As yet we cannot say anything else 
about it, than what we have already said and to repeat our reasons. The same must be repeated 
in regard to the prize cargo, captured by Capt. Blauvelt, for we do not all intend to burden 
ourselves with such intricate cases, as we have our hands full to maintain our lawful claims : 
although we have directed to keep the goods in safe storage for the benefit of those, to whom they 
may be adjudicated, we learn, that sailors and soldiers at the Manhattans have sold to divers parties 
Cochenille Silvestre'* at shamefully low prices ; you will therefore please to investigate, whence it 
came, for this matter gives food for various thoughts. 

The wife of D° Megapolensis will tell you herself, what satisfaction we have given her at your 
request : we shall consult with the deputed brethren of the reverend Classis in regard to the printing 
of the Dominie's manuscript on Confessionf and inform you of their opinion. 

The schoolmaster,** for whom you asked, goes out with this ship : God grant, that he may 
confirm the good character, which he has borne here, and continue for a long time in the edification 
of the youths. 

We expect to provide you by the first opportunity with materials to equip the yachts, " New 
Swol " and " Liefde " now laid up, and if possible with the required sailors : meanwhile we hope 
to learn of the fulfillment of yoiir promise, to send us a good cargo of timber by the ship " Prins 
Willem " .• it would raise our spirits, for it vexes us to be frequently told, that we derive no 
advantages from the country, that the province is only a burden upon our shoulders and that 
therefore the Company would do better to abandon it. That are the arguments of the men, who 
have tried to dispossess us of the country by intrigues. 

"VVe are astonished at the dangerous delivery of the Erenchman Euy Ponterel in the Belle- 
court. It has never been our intention to take him from the Indians against their will and you 

* See Raynal Hist. Philos. des 3 Indes III 397 

f The full title of this work was " Examination and Confession for the benefit of those, who are inclined to 
approach the Lord's Table. " B. F. 

* * WiUem Verstius, who taught school in JYew Amsterdam till 1655, when he resigned to return to Holland. 

124 Early Colonial Settlements. 

will find that we ordered quite the contrary, directing that the savages should be paid for him SOOfl 
without running any risk. We have not yet heard from his friends, how well pleased they are 
with his delivery. 

A surgeon, Mr. Hans Kierstede, troubles us here a good deal : he tells us, that one Jacob 
Molenaer, who now serves the Company there as surgeon, is iuclined to leave our service and as 
he Eierstede, has also served under the Company a long time and as far as we know faithfully, we 
are willing, that you should listen to his requests, if matters are, as he s&ys, and if in your opinion 
his services are required by the Company, he may take the place of surgeon. We observe however, 
that every ship takes over many people of all kinds of professions and therefore we are in doubt, 
whether the Company should engage such servants, especially as we ought to avoid all unnecessary 

The letter from the English of Boston, dated the 6"" of August 1649 and your answer of the 
2* of Septbr. take away the hope, raised by your previous letters, of having the boundaries 
provisionally settled, which this nation seems to have proposed first. These letters give quite a 
different aspect to the case; we find in them threats, to which we fear the instigations of Oornelis 
Melyn have not been the least cause : the unnecessary trade in muskets, which you made with 
Vasterich entirely without our knowledge and consent had also something to do with it : we have 
been much abused on account of the latter transaction, although done without our knowledge, and 
we were not a little surprised by it. The excuses, which you make, are very flimsy and have not 
been accepted by this board ; you can therefore judge, how you have compromised your reputation 
by this transaction, the more so as now it is followed by complaints and threats from our English 
neighbors, which must strengthen the case of our adversaries, if they get wind of it. If in 
consequence of such acts we should have trouble with the English, the deputies of their High : 
Might : would be very much displeased, especially as the deputies from New Netherland have 
spared no effort, to persuade them, that you may be, with your precise proceedings, the cause of an 
eventual rupture with the English. We are however inclined to believe the contrary although the 
resolve of the English, to make war iipon the Wappinger Indians causes us much anxiety. If 
these Indians should be driven away, then the English would thus by occupying their lands have 
a chance to cut Rensselaer swyck oil from us ; they might further become masters of the whole 
North river and with it of the fm- trade. There are already a number of competitors for that 
trade here ; WouUr van Twiller and his friends especially pretend, that they alone ought to be 
privileged, to carry on this trade, although the Company has always maintained this right, to exclude 
every body from this trade at any time : we would do it now, if we only could discover how. 

We had hoped, that you would make a provisional arrangement with our neighbors to settle 
the boundaries, for we cannot see any chance, to treat with that nation here, for nobody appears to 
have authority to do it. The King has left his kingdom and as yet nobody has been willing to 
enter into correspondence with the present government of England : a commissioner from the 
Province of Holland is now on the point of going to England; time will show, what he may 

Many free people are coming over in this ship, the " Yalc'kenier^'' and we hope, that a greater 
number shall follow by every vessel. As people here encourage each other with the prospect of 
becoming mighty lords there, if inclined to work, it may have a good result. Meanwhile you wiU 
please to accommodate and assist the arriving free men as much as possible. 

New Ywh Historical Reem-ds. 125 

"We enclose the lists of passengers and the invoices of the cargo of the " Valckenier." 
Examine everything closely, that the Company may not be defrauded. 
Herewith etc etc. 

Your good friends 
Amsterdam Tlie Directors of the W. I. Comp. 

the 15*" of April 1650. Department of Amsterdam 

Jehan Eate, p. S. Scheulenbokch. 


Letter from the Directors to Sttjtvesant ; the New Netherland delegates ; alarm of 
THE Amsterdam Chamber; emigration; Pavonia; Melyn ; Van der Donck. 

1650 July 24'". Honorable, Worshipful, Pious, Faithful. 

Our last letter, dated the 15"" of April, and sent by the " Valckenier,^^ will have informed 
you of the vexation caused to us by the delegates from Ifew Netherland and their party, who 
although occasionally appearing to grow weary of their solicitations, yet have frequently instigated 
by, we do not know, whom, made new requests. We presume, however, it has been done by 
people, who wish to avoid paying the tolls due to the Company and the sequel of their solicitations 
will prove this. These delegates and their followers have first assumed the bearing of farmers 
and as if their intentions were only to promote the increase of population and agriculture. All 
their remonstrances show that, but now these farmers have suddenly been transformed into merchants 
and the}"^ endeavor by all kinds of means to persuade their High : Might : , that the customs duties 
cannot be borne by the community. They had already imposed upon the good nature of some of 
the gentlemen, when we, observing it, communicated with the Magistrates of this city, who, being 
at the Hague, declared, that the decision in this matter rested solely with the Department of 
Amsterdam, entrusted with the management of these aifairs. "When the petitioners saw, that 
they could not carry out their plan either in Gelderland nor at the Hague, they threw away the 
mask, declared themselves as merchants, who had freighted the ship ^'' Fortuijn," which takes out 
this letter, and requested our board, that their cargo intended for agricultural use should be 
exempted from duty. This was granted, but when the invoices were produced and the goods 
brought to the warehouse, they were found to be mostly real merchandise, for which we demanded 
duty. They refused to pay it, pretending that every thing should go free , they brought forward 
as an argument, that if they were to export cattle from here, they would pay no duty on it and 
that they intended to invest tiie proceeds of the sale of these goods in cattle there, which amounted 
to the same (as if they had exported cattle), without taking into consideration the profit on these 
goods. As they saw, that no credit was given to their frivolous assertions, they had recourse to 
scolding and calumnies, as the enclosed copy of tlieir request will tell you. They carried off their 
goods and threatened to use otlier means, which they did in addressing themselves to the Mayors 
of this City, who again referred them to tlie Directors of this Department. We think, they will 
not brag about the reply, which they received ; when they perceived, that all their efforts had been 
in vain, they applied to us in a different manner requesting some favor or at least a reduction of 
the duties on the merchandise, mentioned in the enclosed list. We have in so far granted it, that 

126 Early Colonial Settlements. 

we have declared free everything apparently necessary for agricultural pursuits. You will please 
to pay attention, that the interest of the Company does not suffer beyond our good intentions, 
wlien the goods are discharged. Many free people have taken passage on these two ships, the 
'■'■ Fortuyn^^ and the '■^ Jaager^'' as per enclosed lists; we desire, that you may allot to each 
according to his capacities and family sufficient quantities of land, where they choose, but not on 
land reserved by the Exemptions for the Company, as for instance at Pavonia, which the Company 
bought in for certain reasons. It looks, as if many people will come over by every ship and as we 
cannot but presume, that the welfare of the country depends on the population, we desire, that 
you shall accommodate all newcomers as well as possible and above all govern the people with 
the utmost caution and leniency, for you have now learned by experience, how too much vehemence 
may draw xipon you the hatred of the peoj^le. 

We have had a good deal of trouble, to put these things again into order and are of opinion, 
that it is better to forgive and forget everything now, than to seek revenge, provided these men 
will henceforth behave like honest inhabitants and subjects of the Company ; if they do not, we 
have by no means the intention of diminishing your powers in the administration of justice. 

Upon your and Director Rodenherghs request we send you by these vessels accoutrements, 
clothing and other requisites for soldiers in New Netherland and Curasao as per annexed invoice. 
Please to manage it well, so that we may reap the fruit which we have a right to hope for. 
According to advices from Dir. Hodenlergh of the 26"" of March we may expect, that a 
large quantity of wood has been collected there and that it shall be brought here by the ship 
" Hoope,'''' sent there for that purpose. It is also our intention to j^rovide not only Neio Netherland 
but also the Island with everything required nor have we been wanting good will to do it, but we 
have been expecting for some time past some returns from your side, having for that purpose sent 
you several statements of the sums, paid you for account of the Company, amounting to a 
considerable total. We have already requested you several times for detailed accounts and 
remittances and repeat our request hei-ewith. We have observed, that some people try to trade 
over this route to New England and the English Virginias much to our dislike, for we fear, that 
we shall suffer loss thereby ; nevertheless some important reasons have induced us to give 
permission to the ship " Jaager " to take goods for Boston, which are specified in the enclosed 
list. Ton must look out sharp, that we are not defrauded by these intrigues and communicate to 
us your opinion, how we can prevent smuggling in all such cases. 

We desire very much to discover some way, in which we might make aiTangements with the 
English regarding the boundaries : we informed you already of the obstacles, which we had met, 
and as yet nothing further has been done in tliis matter, than that Mr. Gerrit Schalpli Pietersen 
has been sent by our government to the Parliament of England, charged among others, as far as 
we can learn, to bring up this boundary question for discussion and learn, whether they are inclined 
to treat about it with our government. We shall inform you in due time of what may be done, 
meanwhile we recommend you to keep up all possible good correspondence with our neighbors. 

The supercargo of the ship " Fortuyn" is Francis Deckers, a cousin of Mr. van der Hoolch, 
member of the States-General for the Province of TTlrecht and also member of the committee of 
their High : Might : for all matters concerning the W. I. Company and especially Nexo Netherland. 
As he is a man very well inclined towards the W. I. Company, we cannot refuse his request, that 
his cousin should be supercargo of the ship for the outward voyage only and that you should 
appoint him there to any position under the Company, which may become vacant and for which 
he is fitted. We consent to his appointment, for we desire to captivate this man's favor by aU 

New York Historical Records. 127 

means, especially as this joung man is of a distinguished family and has the reputation of being a 
very proper and pious person, which compels us to recommend him so higlily, and ought to serve 
you for your rule. 

As supercargo of the ship " Jaager " goes out War'ner Fransen, who has faithfully served the 
Company for a long period. He comes to New Netherland with wife and children intending to 
seek his fortune there and has requested us, to be given command of one of our yachts, when a 
vacancy occurred, thinking that he could serve the Company well, as he knows all the harbors, bays 
and rivers there. After due consideration we have resolved to grant his request, when a chance 
offers and you think, it is for the advantage of the Company, but you are not to make any positive 
agreement as to his wages, until we have approved of it. 

The suit about the ship '•'■Jonge Prince of Denmarh^'' is being pushed very hard bv the 
interested parties. Although the documentary evidence, furnished by you, seems clearly to prove 
it, that they wore smugglers, for the majority of the crew were natives of Holland, our adversaries 
nevertheless maintain, that neither ship nor cargo can bo confiscated on that account and that the 
Company can make no further claim, than to take off the crew and thus frustrate the voyage. They 
also allege, that we cannot prove, that the freight was owned here entirely or in part : the 
documents are not quite clear on that point and we fear, we shall have considerable bother about 
it, especially as the King of Denmark is concerned in it, which, as he is now an ally of our nation, 
must bear on our case. We have before now repeatedly warned you, to j)roeeed very cautiously 
in matters of confiscation and to furnish us the necessary documents, for the complaints are always 
made here and if the evidence is not quite clear, then we are the losers. 

Secretary Tienhoven will inform you from the Hague regarding the case of Cornells Melyn 
and we refer you to him, but we cannot omit to tell you, that on the 30"" of June this person has 
managed to procure from the hon*"'" Deputies their High : Might' : safe conduct and passport, 
which, as you will see, protects him against being molested in his possessions. You will have to 
conform to it, unless you should receive other orders by the ship "Fortuyn,^'' which apparently will 
not follow so soon, for Van der Donch and Melyn are again refusing the payment of duties on 
their goods, notwithstanding they had before submitted to our decision. When they saw, that they 
could not gain their point in every thing, they became again so presumptuous, that they pretend 
not to owe any duty. We shall this day confer with the Magistrates of this City, and inform you 
of their decision by the first opportunity. 

Herewith we commend you to God's protection etc etc. 

Your good friends : 

Amsterdami The Directors of the W. I. Comp. 

July 24"' 1650. Dept. of AmsUrdam, 

p. schulenboech. 
Isaac van Beeck. 

Letter feom the Directors to Stittvesant : Goods smuggled into New Netherland by way 
OF Virginia: Melyn returns to New Netiierland. 

A° 1650, 22'' Septbr. Faithful, Honorable, Valorous, Pious, Dear. 

Our last lettei-s to you were dated 24"' of July by the " Jaager " and 6"" of August by the 

128 Early Colonial Settlements. 

" New Netherland Fortuyn''^ : in the former we communicated to jou what had been done in the 
case of Adrian Van der Donck and Cornells Melyn and that these two would like to avoid paying 
all duties to the Company : in the second we said, we would advise you of what might further be 
done in this matter. It stands now thus : nothing has occurred until to-day, but we learn 
unexpectedly of other intrigues, namely that many goods, destined for New Netherland, are daily 
shipped in vessels sailing to Virginia with passes granted by the Greneral W. I. Company, as the 
single invoice here enclosed, of the ship " Grauwe Buys ", Jan Jansen Bestevaer skipper, will 
show you. The ship sails under charter from this Department to Virginia, but we have no doubt, 
that all or at least the greater part of her cargo will be sold in New Netherland and in this manner 
the Company will be cheated out of their dues on the New Netherland goods ; by a close inspection 
of all barks, sloops and small craft coming from Virginia to New Netherland you should be able 
to prevent such practices and we therefore earnestly charge you to make all possible efEorts, 
also to urge the Fiscal and the Ships-Inspector that they must rigidly examine all vessels coming 
there from Virginia or other places and proceed rigorously against all smugglers or other people 
who defraud the Company of their dues. We believe this to be an effectual way to stop their 
practices and shall send you the invoices of all the ships going to Virginia, to enable you to act 

Cornelis Melyn returned to New Netherland in the ship " FortuynI\ protected by the 
safe-conduct, which their High: Might: gavehimthathemaylive there immolested during the time, 
that his law suit here remains undecided : you must not interfere with him, as long as he comports 
himself quietly, but leave him in the peaceful possession of his land. Should the fellow however 
again make trouble, then you may proceed against him according to law ; take care to procure in 
all lawsixits or cases of contiscation sufficient documentary evidence to sustain you here. Relying 
thereupon we commend you to God's protection etc etc. 

Your good friends 

Amsterdam The Directors of the W. I. Comp. 

Septbr. 22'^ 1650. Dept. of Amsterdam 

p. schulenboech. 
Isaac van Beeck. 


The first inhabitants agree togeather att Amesfort that they would fence in a certaine quantitee 
of Land to Conteine eight and twentie shares, the s** land to be fenced with post and raile in one 
Common fence and to haue it compleated by a certaine daye by them agreed v-ppon, vppon the 
penaltie of forfeiting as much to the rest as the s** fence might come vnto; otherwise if they had 
notbynne bownd in such a penaltie the halfe of them might haue left off and then the burthen had 
bynne to heauy for y' rest and they would haue lost theyre yeares labour, the fences not being 
compleated, all sortes of Cattle would liave distroyed what they sowed or planted. 

The s'^ eight and twentie shares were di\dded by lott : and every one inioyned to build and 

New York Historical Records. 129 

inhabit in the towne by a daye agreed vppon for the mutual strengthning of one another, for the 
peace with the Indians being new, and rawe there was still foares of they re vprising to wan-e. 

It was likewise ordered that noe man should sell awaye his lott, vntil such tyme as hee had 
built a habitable house vppon it, otherwise men might haue taken vpp grownd only to sell to 
aduantage & the towne neuer the more populated. 

It was likewise agreed & ordered, that none of the inhabitants should sell tlieyre lotts to any 
whatsoeuer, biit tirst to propound it to the towne in generall & in case the towne would notbuye 
then hee to haue libertie to sell to any, vnlesse hee were notoriouslie detected for an infamous 
person or a disturber of the common peace. 

It was likewise agreed & ordered, y' none of the s* inhabitants should purchase or ingrosse 
two lotts to himselfe for his owne proper vse, but each lott to bee distinct & apart. 

It was likewise agreed and ordered, that the fEences should be made sufficient to keepe out any 
tame Cattle of what nature or qualitie soeuer, that might tresspasse. 

It was likewise ordered that for any trees y' any of y' inhabitants should fall neare vnto any 
fence, whereby any cattle should Come over the s* ffence to the trespassing of any man the s"* 
tree should be immediatelie removed or the owner to l^aye the dammaqe & likewise for any trees 
the wind should Downe by any mans fence, the owner of the fence immediately to remove them 
vppon the penaltie of payeing 3 gild"" it being a maine thing for the preservation of the fruits of 
the field and loue amongst neighbours. 

It was therefore ordered that the men should at severall tymes as they thought fitting view 
all the fences and when they found defects to giue warning to the neighbours to make upp theyre 
fences according to order ; the which if not immediatelie done, then the p''ties defailing to paye 
five gild" the first tyme, they were Complained of, six gild" the second & soe increasing a gild', 
untill such tyme as theyre fences were Compleated & the s* thre men to be paid for theyre 

It was likewise ordered, that whosoever should improve soe much of his s* lott in planting it 
as that any tree or trees of his neighbour or neighbours next adiacing & who hath not soe fullie 
improved theyre grounds, whereby preiudice may redound by the shade of the tree, the p'tie 
preiudiced should giue information thereof to his neighbours requesting them to fall down theyre 
trees, the which if he refused the p'tie preiudiced might fall them himselfe & to be paid two 
stivers a foote by the owner of the s'' ground for all y° trees hee should fall thereon, when the 
owner of the s'' ground should make vse of it. 

It was likewise ordered that whosoeuer should kill foxes or wolfes within the Jurisdiction of 
the towne should haue for every fox two gild"" & for every wolfe thre gild" to be p"' them by the 
rest of the inhabitants by rate. 

Howses being like to be fired in the winter tyme by means of the greate fires then kept, 
whereby the whole towne might be vndone. 

It was therefore ordered & agreed that each man should make a ladder of twentie foote long 
by a tyme prefixed and in case he did not then to paye two gilders ten stivers p week for all the 
tyme he is without one. 

It was likewise ordered that whosoeuer did fall any timber trees, he was to take them awaye in 
two moneths tyme, unless hee had either squared or boulted them oute otherwise it might be lawfuU 
and free for any man to take them, the reason being that some men failed a greate many timber 
trees to make vse of in smoeing them & selling them to othe? places, when the inhabitants might 
want necessary timber for building. 

130 Early Colonial Settlements. 

It was likewise ordered, that each man should vppon his owne charge prouide Compleate 
armes & to haue 1 lb of powder 2 lbs lead or biilletts all wayes by them vppou the peiialtie of 
payeing what the officers of the towne thought fitting. 

Letter of George Baxter to Dir. Stuyvesant with the above, requesting him not to 


Honoured S^ 

According to your order, I have here sent you the Coppie of these orders, that were most 
materiall in our setling this place & you may please to vnderstand y' according to our Custome 
the townsenien haue made a new election, being without Judgment or reason, but according to theyre 
owne dispositions & affections for according to our English piouerb birds of a feather will flye 
togeather & such as care not to bo regulated by gouern' either Chiefe men like themselves, that 
tiiey may have the more libertie to breake oute into all disorder or such they know they may 
trample vnder foote : amongst the small number wee haue there was no lesse than ten proposed 
in theyre votes, they being almost of as many Judgm'^ severall opiniones in their choice as they 
were in theyre Judgerae'" about the sewan, the which we had never issued, if I had not vsed 
another waye, but now such as it is you haue it herewith sent. 

I shall onlie humblie propose to yo' Consideratio, that by o' pattent wee are bound to choose 
the ablest, wisest and discreetest amongst us and of the which you are to be the judge, not they 
& for myne owne p'° & some others wee cannot approue of the Choice of some of them, my 
reasons being it is a great dishonour to gouerm' & to your owne p'son to haue an vndeseruing 
or an vnworthy man represent your place, it is likewise a great reproach to them of honourable 
respect lieere and others in this towne, to have men of small or noe abilities in any respect to sett 
as it were in yo^ place in the seate of Justice, to whom they must then give more respect than 
they deserue, besides wee shall bee the moeke & laughing stocke of our fellow townes. I shall 
therefore humblie request you, that when they are presented vnto you, you will demand of them 
wheather the towne have attended the rule in theyre patt'. in the choice of theyre men. 2'''. if 
they haue or had anything to object against those they had made choice of for soe long tyme, that 
you might doe them right, if not wherefore they were remoued and other men putt in thejTe 
places, you hauing experimentallie found that they haue kept the towne in peace and quiett 
without any disturbance to yourself & Courte, therefore vntill you are satisfied in those poynts 
you may please to put them of to another tyme, for after this rate the most undeseruing men may 
be chosen in place to the trouble & undoeing of honest men of good estate, for theyre lives & 
Conversations I have nothing to obiect, only theyre want of abilities to p'form the trust reposer 
in them. I take leaue & rest. 

Jan. the 9"\ 1651. Yo"' humble servant to Command. 

Geo. Baxter. 

New York Historical Records. 131 

Lettee feom the Directors to Stdyvesant: they send letters to the people of New 
Netherland, warning them against the late delegates : Meltn's unfounded reports : 
abuses in land grants: pretensions of van Rensselaer's agents etc. 

March 21, 1651. Honorable, "Worthy, Pious, Faithful. 

Since our last letters of August 15"' and July 21"' we have duly received your favors of the 
15'" and 21:"- of August, 7'\ 9"' and 12"' of September of last year by the galliots " St. Peter " and 
"<y<. Michael''^ and the ships " Valco?iier ^' and " Gi'of van Holland''' : the latter was long in 
corning and had been thouglit lost by many, but at last, thanks be to God, arrived safely. We 
find all your letters filled with complaints of various kind, some against persons, who should give 
no cause for complaint, as they are sworn servants of the Company. Your principal grievances are 
however against the returned delegates, who we observe, not only trespass upon our leniency, but 
also try to abuse the good intentions of their High : Might :. We had hoped, that these men 
would follow the advice of their Higli : Might: to live peacefully and quietly, but we are informed, 
not only, we regret to say, by your letters, but also by other trustworthy people, lately arrived 
here, that these men endeavor by all sorts of underliand means to stir up the good community and 
subjects against the Company and her officers and to lead them from their duties, hoping in tliis 
way, if possible, to deprive the Company and her officers of their privileges, prerogatives and 
authority. By virtue of our office and considering the interest of the many widows and orphans 
concerned we cannot remain indifferent to it any longer and have been compelled to warn in the 
enclosed letters not only our community, but also that of our English neighbors, to be on their 
gviard against these perturbers of the public peace and not to assist them in their evil proceedings. 
We intrust these letters to you only on the understanding, that you will always act with caution 
and moderation. If you should perceive, that the aforesaid men and all others are inclined to do 
their duty, then you must forget the past and consider it not happened ; this will be in conformity 
with the good intentions of their High : Miglit :, who granted a safe-conduct only to prevent, that 
they should not be molested on account of the complaints made by them here ; it has never been 
nor is it now our intention, that they should be molested, if we could only see, that henceforth 
these men as in duty bound will behave peacefully and respectfully, as we expect to hear that 
they are doing. We consider it therefore necessary to tell you, that only -with regret and 
compelled by weighty reasons, wc have issued the proclamation to our good subjects in the form 
as enclosed. 

We observe also, that some officers, sworn into the service of the Company, do not conduct 
themselves in many cases, as their position and oath require. We desire to warn these herewith, 
that, although we have overlooked their errors for some time, we are by no means ignorant of their 
acts and behavior and that, unless tliey pay more attention to their honor or oath in the future, 
than they have done hitherto, we shall be compelled to take such measures in regard to them, as 
are usually employed against unfit or ungrateful servants. We have to say this, because matters 
have come under our notice for which they can make no excuse and which we cannot tolerate. 

The impudence of some people there, especially of Cornelis Meli/n, more than astonish us; 
they dare to misuse the name of their High : Might : so far as to pretend the Colony should be 
divided into seven provinces, a royal fort built upon the point of Staten Island, where all vessels 
must come to anchor before sailing up to the Manhattans, and other similar falsehoods. We have 
never heard of these and other dreams, so that you need not trouble yourself about them nor take 
any notice of them, if you should hear of them from anybody else, than ourselves. 

132 Early Colonial Settlements. 

We observe that many people do not scruple, to take jjossession, under this pretext, of all the 
best land there without formality and witliout determination by survey, as if the Company and its 
officei-s had notliing to say about it and had been robbed or deprived of their prerogatives ; we 
have therefore to direct you herewith, not to grant land to any one without his acknowledging 
properly tlie authority of the W. I. Company and you will especially take care, that henceforth 
not more land is granted to people, than what in your opinion after a thorough examination of 
their means they will be able and intend shortly to populate, cultivate and bring into a good state 
of tillage. Several instance's prove, that by non-observance of these rules many parcels of land 
are now claimed as property held for years, although very few improvements in regard to settling, 
cultivating, tilling or planting have been made. Thus we see it in Cornells Melyn's, Wouter van 
Twillei-^s a.nd others' cases; Melyn owning an island, 7 or 8 leagues long, of which only eight 
morgens of land are under plough. Wouter van Twiller is not only not satisfied with adding 
Hellgate to Nooten Island, but he also endeavors to get possession and make himself master of the 
Catskil, in addition to which he has stretched oiit his hand for the two flats on Long Island, called 
Twyler^s and Corler's flats, containing together 1600 to 2000 morgens. 

Wolfert Gerritsen and Andries Iludde have done the same ; they took possession of about 
1800 morgens on the same island, while they cannot settle the fiftieth part of it: this is quite 
against our intentions, for many valuable pieces of land might be claimed as property (with great 
prerogatives) in such manner and the land itself would remain unpeopled. We direct you therefore 
expressly not to allow or grant any more land to anybody except under the conditions stated above 
and keeping Long Island (which we believe to be the most important and best piece) for the 
Company, to be divided upon occasion for tlie accommodation of farmers and planters, until a rule 
shall have been made as to how much land shall be allotted to each colonist.* 

We are astonished beyond measure to liear, that your deputy, DincJdage, has made common 
cause with these in^^aders, especially with Govert Lockerrnans or others, who have bought much 
land from the Raritans on the Kil opposite Staten Island, without considering in whose name 
they are to obtain a conveyance from their High : Might : without the knowledge of the Company, 
we cannot believe it and intend to resist it with all proper means, as far as we are concerned.* 

A good deal more might be said about these matters, but we will defer it until a better 
opportunity or refer you to the verbal report of Secretary van Tienhoven, who, we think, has been 
detained here long enough for his own inconvenience out of consideration for some evil-minded 
disturbers of the public peace. We have on our part judged it advisable to give him permission 
to return to Nev} Netherland and he will inform you by word of mouth, wliat has been and is 
daily being done here in regard to New Netlierland matters. No doubt you will derive from it 
so much satisfaction, that you will no longer ask for your recall, for you will learn from all the 
circumstances, that we make all possible endeavors to maintain not only the prerogatives of the 
Company, but also your administration and authority. 

We have before now given orders, that upon such occurrences, as you complain of, especially 
the creating of uproar on the streets or elsewhere by people, who ought to know better, full 
documentary evidence should be sent to us. We wish, it had been done in your last letters and do 
not believe for certain good reasons, that you had no reliable witnesses, the more so, as you say, 
that these proceedings are not approved by the majority of the community. Our belief in this is 
confirmed by the testimony of the English people living within our boundaries. 

* See. Vol. XIII pp. 37 and 38. 

New Yoi-h Historical Records. 133 

We are anxious to learn, liow you have been treated by our English neighbors in regard to 
the boundary question. It seems to be best to live with them in neigliborly friendship and 
correspondence, as we have great hopes, that the envoys from this goveriinient, who will shortly 
leave for England., will settle the question satisfactorily with the English authorities, a matter which 
it is said, has been especially recommended to them. 

It is further our intention to apply to the Queen of Sweden and try, whether we cannot 
determine tlie boundaries between us and the Swedes on the South river. You must in the 
meantime endeavor to maintain the rights of the Company in all justice and equity, but we 
recommend at the same time to act at all occasions with such discretion and circumspection that 
complaints, disputes and breaches of friendship with oxir allies be avoided. 

We can take no farther notice of Brant van Slechtenhorsf s remonstrances, than to receive 
the information of the taking possession of the Katskll, which had been conveyed to others long 
before he took possession of it and we have so far not been able to discover, by what right he or 
his principals lay claim to this property, for they have never applied to the Company for it in due 
form. Nor can we understand, how the colonists of Rentselaerswyck could take possession of 
Beeren Islatid, afterwards called Rentselaers Steyn, and go so far as to invest this place with the 
right of staple demanding from every one, except the Company, a toll of 5 per cent on his goods 
and growing so impudent, that they finally asserted. Fort Orange was built on their territory and 
they would not permit anybody to take his residence in the fort, even though the Company had 
given their consent, and engage in the furtrade. 

We have only this to say to them in reply: the fort had been built by the Company many 
years before the said colonists selected the territory for their colony ; we have therefore already 
directed you, to protect the rights of the inhabitants of our fort and confirm herewith our former 
orders, adding further, that you must resist by all proper means and if necessary by force the 
attempts of all daring to levy taxes or imposts in any river, island or port within the Company's 
jurisdiction to the injury of the public in general or individual traders. We are resolved never 
to grant to any colonist such privileges and jurisdiction, as these people erroneously imagine to 

It is astonishing, that the aforesaid delegates dare to spread the report in the community 
that the Company owned no other soil in Ifew Netherlands than Manhattans Island, while it 
can be clearly proved, that they have bought vast tracts of land on South river, the Fresh river, 
Long Island and many other places in the neighborhood. These men are therefore grossly 
deceiving people and try only to dispossess, if possible, the Company ; but we hope to balk 

'Tis true, that the Notary Jan van de Yenne has made several applications for a large tract 
of land, which you think might be granted to him without much prejudice to our interests: we 
would have no objection to grant his request, if he would only desist from his extravagant demand 
of highest and lowest jurisdiction, which we deem inconvenient and are still determined to reserve 
for the Company: but we are willing to give everybody as much land as he shall need. Many 
people are again going over in the ships now ready to sail, wiio intend to settle there and you 
must accommodate eacli according to iiis position and the number of souls with liim, consulting 
your own discretion and the requirements of their families, for it is our aim to promote the increase of 
population there by all means. You will also accommodate the Honorable Hendrick van der 
Capelle with favorably located lands, as far as he is inclined to take possession of and cultivate and 
people any land there, which he seemB to intend judging from his letters: we desire very much 

134 Early Colonial Settlements. 

that such wealtliy people might take a fancy for that country. We regret, that we cannot fully 
comply with the request of Mons. LaMnntmigie, although we are willing, upon your recommenda- 
tion, to grant as much, as the condition of the Company admits. Under these circumstances we 
thought it advisable, that you should be directed to encourage him in the continuance of his duties 
and not to molest him for the present on account of what he owes to the Company, further also to 
increase his yearly salary from 150 to 200 fl and to favor him, subject to our approval, with any 
office, becoming vacant, for which you think him fit. 

We cannot say anything about the copies called for by Domine Megapolensis, except that we 
delivered to the reverend Classis the manuscript of his "Examination or Confession for the benefit 
of those, who are inclined to approach the Lord's Table," that it may be printed : although we 
have called upon the reverend brethren several times, we have as yet received no other reply, as 
that they would take this matter into serious consideration. Meanwhile the Almighty has been 
pleased to remove D° Kesselerus, a member of the commission, from this vale of misery ; this is 
likely to retard the matter somewhat, but we shall not cease to push it. This department has 
resolved to release you from your private engagement with D°. Megapolensis and to charge itself 
with his yearly salary, hoping that with the Lord's blessing these lands will shortly be in so 
fiourishing a condition, that all the expenses for them may be paid out of their revenues and tliat 
in time also a part of the moneys disl)ursed by us may be refunded. With this view we recommend 
you seriously to make all possible efforts in collecting old debts due to the Company and the 
tithes from such pieces of land, which are now subject to them ; so that we may be relieved from 
the municipal expenses. 

We think a distinction should be made between the bouweries owned on the land of the 
Company and improved before occupation by the present owners and those taken up in the 
wilderness : we leave that to your discretion, for not possessing the proper information we cannot 
well make an equitable discrimination. Some mercliants believe, that the duties upon beavers are 
too high, the merchantable beaver being rated there at S fl ; they have therefore asked for a 
reduction to 6 fl, to which we cannot consent, as most of the beavers, arrived in the last ships, have 
sold for lOfl a piece or thereabouts. We find besides that large quantities are being smuggled in. 
The same is done with goods for your market and we have come to the conclusion, that the Fiscal 
either connives with the defrauders or is not careful enough : we are led to use the former 
expression, because we learn from common reports, that he is altogether too intimate with the 
traders, especially in places, which onr servants and principal officers should not frequent. If any 
complaint should be made on account of what we just have said, we are prepared to give a plain 
answer, on which 3'ou maj- rely, and if the Secretary and the Notary find no other chances to certify 
to complaints, then there can be no difficulty. 

It is not all strange, that passengers arriving there complain of too high passage rates, but we 
cannot help it at this time, although we have made efforts, even threatened tiie skippers not to 
allow them a commission, unless they would take passengers at seven stivers per day for board. 
It was all in vain and we have been obliged to make an agreement with skipper JBlommaert for 
the transport of the soldiei's and train-personal, coming herewith, at 8 stivers per day. We shall 
speak of these men again farther on. 

We are surprised, that you amuse yourself with protests and counterprotests against the 
municipal officers concerning matters of so little importance as for instance the pews and seats in 
the church and as we trust, that the church is large enough to place every one according to his 

New York Historical liecm-ds. 135 

rank, it appears to us, that such trifles do not deserve so much attention especially in these 
troublesome times. 

We were sorry to hear, that the Maques had invaded the territory of the French in Canada and 
captured 8 or 9 Christians, for whoin they are said to demand a large ransom or they would cruelly 
torture them, which excited your compassion : that is quite proper for all Christians, but every one 
is bound to take care of himself and his own people. You know, that some time ago men of this 
nation were ransomed at the expense of the Company and by contributions of the community, for 
wliich we have never been repaid. We think now, that when the complaints reach France, they 
will take care of their own countrymen. 

So far it has been beyond our means to comply with your request to send you a large amount 
of money in small coin for the benefit of the public and it is equally impracticable to compel the 
traders, agreeably to your second proposition, to pay the duty of 8 p. ct. in cash and thus bring 
small coin to New Netherland : they make now every effort to free themselves from all burdens, 
at least from the greater part of the customs and Wouter van Twiller with his set encourage them 
not a little, trying to persuade them, that modifications will be made, because everybody is unwilling 
to employ his ships in this trade or to bring his goods into our warehouses. We do not know upon 
what grounds these assertions are made and doiibt not, these people will soon find out, how they 
have been deceived, especially when van Twiller attempts to carry out his intention of making 
himself master of the whole Northrivcr trade. We know that he has laid his plans for this for 
some time past, seeing that he introduced the right of staple on Beeren Island, now by them called 
Rensselaersteyn as mentioned above ; but we do not at all intend to tolerate that : everybody shall 
have free and unmolested navigation on this river and trade at our Fort Orange, claimed by 
them to be erected on their territory. Who ever heard a more impudent assertion ! This matter 
makes us averse, to grant to any one in the future such unlimited colony and jurisdiction, although 
we are at all times willing, to allot to every applicant as much land as they will populate and 
cultivate, as we have already said. Although we have once before written about the Island of 
Curasao, that, if we should have no revenues whatever from there, it might be advisable to abandon 
it, instead of holding it any longer in hope of unexpected returns ; we did not mean to say, that 
we had come to that resolution, but used it only as an example. The enclosed contract, made with 
a Jew, Jan de lllau, will prove to you the contrary. lie intends to bring a considerable number 
of people tliere, to settle and cultivate, as he pretends, the land, but we begin to suspect, that he 
and his associates have quite another project in view, namely to trade from tliere to the West 
Indies and the Main. Be that as it may, we are willing to make the experiment and you must 
therefore charge Director Rodenhorch to accommodate him within proper limits and in conformity 
with the conditions of his contract. You propose to go to the Island and make the experiment 
yourself, believing that you can make the round trip in four or five months and you desire us to 
direct, who shall meanwhile take your place : our answer is, that we consider such an expedition 
quite unadvisable in these tumultuous times, for many free people are going over with every ship, 
who will require your assistance in every respect. 

We are, in the meantime, anxiously expecting the ship "iZop^" with a good freight of 
logwood, the more so as we are informed by good authority, that a large quantity of this article was 
ready for shipment on the Island : we do not understand however, for what reason it has been 
kept tliere so long. Had such a cargo arrived here in time or had we at least been sure of its 
coming, then we could have complied with your request to freight a large ship, which in such 
uncertainty we could not dare to undertake : now it tends to our prejudice and to the inconvenience 

136 Early Colonial Settlements. 

of tlie people there for whom we could have provided better. We have also found, that you have 
liad so)ne wood brou<{ht to New Neth^iiand, which was sold there and the same has been done 
with the CocheiiUle Silvester, caj^tured by Captain Blauvelt : all this is directly contrary to our 
orders. We gave our reasons before and that should have been sufficient, to jjrevent you from 
placing us in danger of unnecessary lawsuits. It is true, that as yet no inquiry has been made 
about it, apparently because the people do not know, what has become of their property, but time 
will show, what the consequences may be. 

Although you are of opinion, that the ships " Liefde " " St. Benino " and " Jonge Pnnce " 
were lawfully and properly confiscated, we are nevertheless called to account about it and some of 
the lawsuits are apparently going against us. We see in the documentary evidence sent us, that 
the Fiscal did not formulate his complaint correctly and did not accompany it with sufficient proofs. 
He must be more careful in the future ; he also ought to have investigated, what had become of 
the embezzled pieces of camlet, sold at such scandalous prices. We urge you to do it, but we 
intended also, that you should admonish the Fiscal to do his duty. 

You persist in asking for equipments and accoutrements, promising upon their receipt to send 
us in the spring by the ship '' Prins Wille7n''' a cargo of logwood. We have done as much in 
this regard, as we could, and are now expecting the ship : in the hope of the early arrival we exert 
ourselves again to send you by her next voyage soldiers, train-personal, ammunition and other 
necessaries conform to the enclosed list, intending that, as you promised, their pay should be 
defrayed out of the customs revenues. 

All this must satisfy you, how deeply we are interested in JVew Netherlaiul and your own 
reputation ; we postpone much, that is important, in order to benefit that country — and expect from 
you a corresponding interest and care : we hope to receive by the next ship a specimen of the 
indigo, which you expected to obtain from a man on Sander Leenarti ship. Time must show the 
result. The plan, made last year, to send thither 300 to 400 boys and girls from some orphanages, 
will not be carried out, being found to offer too many inconveniences. ISTo more correspondence 
is therefore required on this subject. 

Jelrner Thomassen, late Captain of the yacht " New Swoll " has presented to us for payment 
your bond for 1000 fl., dated 20"" of August 1619, given for purchased cordage under promise, that 
it should be paid out of the first lot of logwood sent over here. We had never heard of it and 
have therefore been obliged to refer the man back to you, as we have no doubt, that you will fiud 
means to satisfy him either out of the customs revenues or otherwise. We should have been able 
to pay off some smaller creditors by balancing their claims against the duties on goods shipped by 
the vessels now about to sail, but for reasons mentioned before this mode did not only appear 
dangerous to us, but was also impracticable this time on account of the great expenses caused by 
the soldiers, the amuiunition etc., which had all to be paid in cash. We have been compelled to 
allow skipper Blommaert, that he may deduct from tlie duties, payable by him, the cost of subsistence 
of 10 men for 90 days to be calculated according to the contract made with him. The aforesaid 
soldiers while making the passage are to be under the command of Captain Fijn, who goes o\'er 
with wife and children to settle there. The Company owes him as balance of pay 200 fl, for which 
he has troubled us a good deal ; if it had been feasible, we would have paid him, but now, as he 
takes with him a small cargo, we have allowed him to offset the above amount against the duties 
payable on his return cargo there. This transaction must be kept a secret, that we may not be 
troubled too much by others. The Captain is to receive, for taking the command of the soldiers, 

New York Historical Records. 137 

free subsistence during the passage for himself and must deliver them immediatelj' upon arrival 
there to whomever you may detail. 

We think it might be proper, wlien this ship coines into the liarbor, to bring the garrison then 
present down to the strand, where the new arrived soldiers are to land and thence march them as 
one command in good order back to the fort : you need not feel bound by this suggestion, if you 
think some otlier way more advisable. 

The books sent over tell us partly, how much you have expended, but they give us no 
information whatever of the amounts and values, which you have received, although we have 
frequently called for it and are still demanding it. We find also that the accounts of equipments 
are missing, that many accounts are not settled and other things. You will liquidate every item 
as far as possible and send over your accounts, that we may make our balance. 

For certain reasons, it is true, we have as yet not deemed it expedient to give you a definite 
answer in regard to tlie bouwery, which you are using. This has not been done, because we grudge 
you the place preferring others, but because we thought, you understood our intentions, also because 
we were ignorant of the value and location of it, in regard to which we have now received some 
information. We have now fully agreed on this subject with Jan Jansen Damen, acting in yoiir 
behalf, as you will see by the contract of sale sent over with Jan Claessen Darneji. 

Peter Gahri annoys us here with a draft, drawn by you on the Company for about 500 fl, 
which he wants paid ; Govert Lockermans too, as husband of the widow of Dirck Gornelissen from 
Wensveen, importunes us for an account of fl 861.9. 8, originating out of goods delivered, work 
done and other sources. As we are however quite ignorant of the transactions, the draft as well 
as the account of Wensveen, and as we have observed, that in his account and others items of 
monthly wages, pay due to laborers, debts and credits of free people are entered, which do not agree 
witli tlie book of monthly wages, in which all such accounts are recorded, we have judged it best 
to decline paying it and you must arrange matters with these and other persons, as well as you can, 
remembering that the account of Dirck Gornelissen from Wensveen has been credited with the 
amount of 165 fl 6st., an item found open in the book of monthly wages to the credit of another 
man. In paying tliis account you will deduct therefrom this sum. 

The bookkeepers of monthly wages have discovered that one Jan Jansen from Jlpendam, 
formerly Commissary at the Southriver closed his accounts in 1615 (Secretary Tienhoven informs 
us, that he was deposed and is dead now) while in the books of following years he is charged in one 
item with 288 fl and in another with 21 fl. These entries appear rather strange and create 
dissatisfaction among his creditors here, who ask for a settlement, while we do not know, whence 
tliese debts ai-ise. You will please to give us an explanation by first chance, that these people here 
may get satisfaction. 

Closing herewith, we commend yon etc etc. 

Amsterdam, The Directors of the Priv. W. I. Comp. 

2P' Marcli 1651. Department of Amsterdam 

David van Baeten. 
j. p. scuulenboech. 

Deed of twentt-two moegens of land of Mespath kil. 

Before me, Jacob Kip,\ni\\c absence of the Secretary appointed by the Hon''''= Director 

138 Early Colonial Settlements. 

General and Council of New Netherlands appeared Dirck Holgersen, an inhabitant here, who 
declared that he sold and conveyed, as he does hereby, to Peter Hudcle and Abraham Jansen, in 
company, a certain parcel of laud situate on Mespachtes Kil opposite Richard Bridnuls, formerly 
the property of one Cornelis Willernsen, containing according to the ground brief, twenty-two 
inorgens, one hundred and thirty-six rods; which land he, the grantor, conveys to the said Peter 
JIudde and Abraham Jansen, in company, in one, true, free and right ownership, therefore 
renouncing the right and property had thereto, with authority to enter on, cultivate and use the 
said land free and unmolested, on condition that the reservation mentioned in tlie ground brief in 
regard to the acknowledgment of the Lords and Patroons of this country be complied with ; placing 
the said Peter Iludde and Abram Jansen in his stead, real and actual possession of the land 
aforesaid, and renouncing all pretension thereto henceforth and for ever he promises to hold 
fast and inviolable this his deed and conveyance under bond as by law provided. 

In testimony I have signed this with the witnesses, this 22'* of March, A° 1651, New Amsterdam 
in New Netherland. 

This is the }-~l-j mark of Dieck Holgersen made by himself. 

Jacob Jansen Huts, witness. 

Gereit Jansen, witness. 

To my knowledge Jacob Kip, Clerk. 

This day this 28"" of March A° 1651, the Hon"'' Petrus Stuyvesant and Council of New 
Netherland approved this foregoing proof of the purchase of the land mentioned, and accordingly 
the conveyance above executed by Dirck Holgersenm. isLVor oi Peter Iludde and Abraham Jansen 
is held valid. 

In testimony this is signed by the Hon"^ Director General; dated as above, Manhatan in 
New Netherland. 

P. Stuttesant. 

Le'iter from the Directors to Sttitvesant : Secretary Tienhoven Retijens to New 


1651 26'" April. Valiant, Honorable, Pious, Dear, Faithful. 

Our last letters to you were to be sent by the " Bontehm" and " Hoff van Cleef'' on the 
21" and 22"' of last month, but as the former with a full cargo sailed rather suddenly before the 
appointed time and before the supercargo with the Company's letters had come on board, we send 
them now with the ship " Gelderse Bloom," hoping that either she or the '■'■ Hoff van Cleef'' may 
arrive there before the " ^ow^e^we" which has no lists of invoices. You will do well to follow 
the directions given in the aforesaid letters and in om- private letters to you and your deputy 
Dincklage, for we strive to insure harmony, prosperity and an increase of the population of New 
Netherland. Every day the prospects improve. TJie bearer hereof Cornelis van Tienhoven, 
who returns in his former quality of Secretary will inform you of what has further been done 
here in the negotiations or rather arrival of the envoys from England, in regard to tlie boundary 
question with the Parliamentary Committee and also about the complaints; so we need not go 
into detail. 

New Yo7'h Historical Records. 139 

Tbe said Cornells van Tienhoven has requested us for permission to purchase a bouwery in 
New Netherland belonging to the Company and containing about 14 to 16 morgens, together 
with meadowland, a farmhouse 50 feet long and 22 feet deep, a haystack, two mares, a stallion 
and a negro, now used by Thomas Hal, whose lease is said to expire the coming smnmer. "We 
were ignorant not only of the value of the place, but also of all its circumstances, whether such a 
sale would be to the prejudice or advantage of the Company ; therefore we thought it more 
advisable to communicate with you, that you may send iis a full report by next chance and we 
may thereupon consent to the Secretary's request. You will do well therefore not to enter into a 
new contract with Thoinas Hal, but to await our answer to your letter and act accordingly. 

We have engaged here as bookkeeper in Neio Netherland Johannes Dychnan, our fonner 
first clerk, at a salary of 30fl per month exclusive of subsistence money, whom we recommend to 
you most earnestly, that if there is at present any vacancy or at some future time you may 
remember to advance him to such a position as you may believe him fit for considering his past 
services, behavior and knowledge. 

In order to increase the population of New Netherland and to promote the trade to it we 
have resolved that henceforth you shall demand upon all goods which are properly merchandise, 
coming to New Netherland from En^Tjlish Virginia or New England, a duty of 16 per cent, and 
that all goods sent there from New Netherland shall pass free duty, so that the practice of 
some people, who ship their goods to New England and then enter them in New Netherland 
under the lower tariff, may be stopped and no prejudice be done to the merchants who ship their 
goods directly from here to New Netherland. 

The proposition made by you in your beforementioned letter, to increase the duties on goods 
sent to Virginia to equal those of New Netherland and thus divert the trade from the former, 
has been found impracticable, — for all Departments of the Company being empowered to issue 
commissions to sail to English Virginia, it would be to their prejudice and to the advantage of the 
Department of Amsterdam and they would not consent to it. You have therefore to act according 
to the above order, directing 16 per cent, to be demanded on goods coming from English Virginia, 
and you will further please to inform us by the next opportunity of your opinion and the result 
or success of it. 

The mother of Teunis Andriessen of Amsterdam, who sailed from here as first gunner in the 
ship "Swol^' on the 9"^ of September 1643, closed his accounts in the books of Gurafao March 
SO"" 1647 and then went to New Netherland, where he is said to have died as mate of the yacht 
" Lief lie," has since three years overrun and soUicited us for the balance of her son's wages, which 
we could not give her, not having the books here. You will therefore keep in mind to send us 
at an early opportunity copies of this and all other ships accounts, that we may be in condition to 
comply with the reasonable requests of these people and obtain information concerning two items 
in the account of David Promost, one of 329 fl, the other of 59 fl, which we have mentioned to 
Secretary Thienhoven. Herewith etc 

Amsterdam, Your good friends 

the 26"" of April The Directors of the W. I. Comp. 

1651. Department of Amsterdam. 

JouAN LE Thoe. 
Isaac van Beeck. 

140 Early Colonial Settlements. 

To the Honorable, Yigorous, Wise, Prudent, Discreet 
Petrus Stuyvesant, Director General in 
New Netherland. 

Honorable, Vigorous, Pious, Dear, Faitliful. 

Secretary Cornells van Thienhoven reported to us, that shortly before coming away from 
there he had been appointed by you and the Council to the place of Eoeloff de Eaase, the former 
receiver of the Company's revenues and of the tithes, import and export duties etc : considering 
his long faithful services, we have confirmed this ajipoiutment until further orders from this 
Department, increasing his salary by 2^ per cent for the additional troubles in this office. 

We know from experience, that on many lands in New Netherland tlie tithes called for by 
the contracts have been unpaid for several years and that on account of the last insurrection of the 
savages the non-j^ayment has been connived at and excused : as the people have now been in 
peaceful possession of their lands for about 6 years, they should not be unwilling to pay up and 
you must take care to have the collections made at first in such a lenient manner, as you may 
think best for the avoidance of any trouble and discontent. Advise us of what you do and how 
you succeed, that we may then consider, what should be done. Eelying hereupon we commend 
you etc. 

Amsterdam, Your good friends 

the 26'" of April The Directors of the W. I. Comp. 

1651. Department of Amsterdam. 


Isaac van Beeck. 
To the Honorable, etc Petms Stuyvesant 

Director General in Neio Netherland. 

Deed of a plantation on Long Island. 

Before me, Jacob Eip, appointed clerk here, appeared Lewis Papelyon, of the one part and 
Joris Stevensen from Wingen, on the other part, who declared in the presence of the undernamed 
witnesses, to have agreed and contracted about the piu-chase of a certain just half of a plantation 
situate on Long Island south of Peter Schoorsteenveger, on the underwritten condition, to wit : 

Lewis Papelyon sells to Joris Stevensen aforesaid, who also acknowledges to have bought, 
the just half of the abovenamed plantation, formerly cultivated by Jan Jansen from Ditmersen,* 
according to the ground brief thereof, and the deed thereof executed on this day to the behoof of 
the Vendor and Gysbert Arentsen, with the just half of all that is sowed, of the buildings and 
all standing thereupon belonging to the vendor in partnership with Gysbert Arentsen, for the sum 
of eight hundred and fifty guilders to be paid down, after the sale and conveyance are approved 
by the Hon''''" Council, in good reals of eight computed at three guilders a piece. Wherefore, the 
vendor hereby transports and conveys the precise half of said land with its appendages, as they 
belong to hiin, to the said Joris Stevensen, or his successors, renouncing all action, right and 
property had thei'eto, and places the said Joris Stevensen, in his stead real and actual possession of 

* A district io Holstein. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 141 

the above mentioned land with the appendages thereof ; Therefore parties promise this their 
purchase and deed to hold and cause to be held, to observe and execute firmly and inviolably, all 
under bond according to law. 

In testimony this is signed by parties and witnesses this 11"" of July A° 1651, New Amsterdam 
in New Netherland. 

This is the/Cu- mark of Lewis Papeljon, made by himself. 

This is the >--/-/mark of Jokis Stevensen, made by himself. 

This is ti N mark of Gysbert Akentsen, made as witness. 

Andreas Hopffa. 

To my knowledge, Jacob Kip, Clerk. 
This date 11"' of July 1651, the foregoing deed was, in the absence of the Hon'''^ Director 
General fully approved by the Hon''''' Council. In testimony signed, dated as above. New 

La Montagne. 

H. Van Dyck, fiscal. 

Deed of a bouwert on Long Island. 

Before me, Jacob Rendricksen Kip, in the absence of the Secretary, appointed by the Hon*'* 
Director General and Council of New Netherland, appeared Aeltie Douwesen, widow of Jan 
Jansen from Ditmarsen, assisted by her present bridegroom. Tenuis Jorisen van der Veeren, and 
Gysbert Aerentsen from Bullick with Lewis Papelijon, a native of St. Martin, who declared 
that they had agreed and covenanted together about the purchase of certain lands, to wit : 

Aeltie Douwesen, assisted by her present bridegroom abovenained, sells by virtue of the 
groundbrief granted by the Hou*"'* Director General and Council of New Netherland, on the 23'' 
of March 1647, to her abovenamed husband Jan Jansen, deceased, her bouwery or plantation, 
situate on Long Island, near the plantation of Peter Sohoorsteenveger (chimney-sweeper) and that 
as good and as bad, as large and as small as belongs to her, the vendor, according to the ground- 
brief thereof on record, under the above date, to Gysbert Arentsen from Bullick and Lewis 
Pajyelyonivom. St. J/ar^m aforesaid, who also acknowledge to have purchased the above mentioned 
bouwery or plantation for the sum of two hundred and fifty Carolus guilders, payable in three 
installments, to wit, one hundred guilders down, and one hundred guilders next New Year's 1651, 
and the remaining fifty guilders in June 1651, in current pay, when the vendor shall be bound to 
give the purchaser aforesaid a proper deed of the said land ; they, the appearers, declaring that 
they will fulfill this their contract in all its parts. Wherefore, the vendor, for the delivery and 
the purchasers, for the payment thereof, pledge their persons and property, movable and immovable, 
submitting the same to all courts, tribunals and judges. 

142 Early Colonial Settlements. 

In testimony this is signed by parties respectively, aud witnesses this S"" of Jananry 1650 on 
the Island of Manhattan in New Netherland. 

This is the C^^;?^'"^ mark of Aeltie 
DouwESEN, made by herself. 
This is the f^ mark of Teunis 
JoRiSEN, made l^ by himself. 
This is the A mark of Gtsbeet Aeentsen, 
made by himself. 
This is the I q mark of Lewis Papelton, 

made by himself. 
Adkiaen van Tienhoven, witness 
Claes van Elslant, witness. 

To my knowledge 

Jacob Kip, appointed clerk. 

Before me, Jacob Kip appointed clerk here, appeared Teunis Jorisen vander F'^^re, husband 
and guardian oi Aeltie Douwesen,]iite widow of Jan. /anse n irom D it maer sen, who in the presence 
of the undernamed witnesses, declared that they transferred and conveyed as they do hereby, to 
Gyshert Arentsen from Bullick and Lewis Papelyon, in company, a certain plantation situate on 
Long Island, south of Peter Schoorsteenveger, as large and small as appears by the ground brief 
granted by Director Kieft to Jan Jansen from Ditmersen under date SS** of March 1647, in one, 
true, free, right ownership, with renunciation of all action, right and property had thereto, and 
acknowledges to be fully satisfied and paid the purchase money agreed upon therefor, according 
to the bill of sale ; therefore placing the abovenaraed Gyshert Arentsen and Lewis Papelyonm his 
stead, real and actual possession, aud promises to guarantee the same against all challenge and 
pretension to be set up thereto by any oue in the world, reserving only the acknowledgment of 
the Hon""'* Lords Patroons mentioned in the ground brief; therefore promising this hia conveyance 
to hold, observe and execute firmly and inviolably, under bond according to law. 

In testimony this is signed by the principal and grantor, with the witnesses, this 11"" of July, 
A° 1651, New Amsterdam. 

This is the —P mark of Teunis 
JoEisEN made by ^ himseK. 

ToMAS Fredeeicksen ) ., „ 

Andreas Hopffa ( ^*"^''^'- 
To my knowledge 

Jacob Kip, clerk. 

On the date hereof, ll"" of July 1651, this foregoing deed and conveyance was, in the absence 
of the Ilon'^''' Director General, fully approved and ratified by the Hon'''^ Council of New 
Netherland, by order of the Hon"^ Director General. In testimony signed, dated as above. 
New Amsterdam. 

La Montagne. 

II. van Dyck. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 143 

Letter from Sheriff Underiiill of Flushing, L. I., to Director Stutvesant : the Director 
TO be sued by an English inhabitant of Hempstead in the Courts of New England. 

Most noble Generall. 

Thovias Lawrence being at Netohaven was vnder arrest by Jonas Woode, who exclaimed 
against your worship that hee coulde haue noe iustice of you and would prosecute you in new 
England at the Commission Courte ; Mr. Eaton writes to mee for evidence that the money attached 
in the hands of Thomas Lawrence due to Jonas was by order from yourselfe and soe to remaine 
untill the saide Jo?ias came hither to answer such particulars as shoulde bee laide to his charge. I 
sent my deposition that by order from your worship the money was attached and that I questioned 
not but at your returne from the Southriver they might receiue better satisfaction in case you iudged 
it nieete to giue them an account, this Jurisdiction not being subordinate to theirs, matters in 
difference falleing out here not among them wee haue alsoe sent you inclosed the list of the names 
of the people according to your order : also the examination of the unfortunate death of Nicholas 
Bully, thus commending you to the protection of almightie god I rest and remaine yours to 

fflushing this 24'* of 

August 1651. John Underbill. 

To tlie Riglite Worshipp' Peter St^cyvesant Esquire, Governor Generall of this Province at his 
house in the fforte New Amsterdam these present. 

Deed foe land and cattle on Long Island. 

This day, this 29"' of August A° 1651 before me, Jacob Kip, appointed clerk by the Hon'''* 
Director General and Council of New Netherland appeared Henry Breser, of the one part and 
Sieur Cornells d' Potter of the other part, who in the presence of the undernamed witnesses, declared 
that they had agreed and contracted together about the purchase of certain lands and cattle on the 
conditions underwritten to wit : 

Henry Breser sells to Sieur Coi'nelis de Potter, who also acknowledges to have bought a certain 
piece of land situate on Long Lsland at the East River, between the land of Cornelis Dirclcsen 
Hoochlunt ax\A Frederich Luhhersen, as large and as small as appears by the ground-briefs dated 4"' 
of Sept. 1645 and 9"" of June 1646 , granted by the Hon*'" Director General William Kieft, deceased, 
to the behoof of Henry Breser, with all whatsoever the vendor has thereon and is belonging to hinij 
together with thirty-five and one-half (sic) goats, consisting of milch, buck and gelded goats, which 
the purchaser now takes at his risk and hazard, likewise, two milch cows and one calf which are at 
John Morris's at Gra/vesend, and are to be delivered to the purchaser on Amsterdam Fair,* 

* An ordinance of 1641 ordered a cattle fair to be held at New Amsterdam each year ou the 15"" of October and a 
fair for hogs on the 1" of November. Stuyvesant established by Ordinance of 1648 a weekly market each Monday 
and an annual free market to be held for 10 consecutive days bRginuing ou St. Bartholomew's Day, (August 24""). 
From 1656 the weekly market was held between what are now Whitehall and Moore streets, N. Y. In 1658 two cattle 
fairs were established, one for lean cattle during the whole mouth of May, tlie other for fat cattle from the SO" of 
October to the last of November, during which several periods, no stranger in the City could be arrested or 
tried.— B. F. 

144 Early Colonial Settlements. 

according to contract ; and that for the sum of eleven hundred and twenty -five guilders, payable one 
half in Rix dollars, or Reals of Eight, computed at three guilders a piece, the other half in choice 
wampum, or merchantable wares at the seller's option, all prompt pay ; the ownership, claim and 
possession of which lands and cattle the vendor hereby surrenders henceforth forever to the behoof 
of the abovenamed Mr. Oornelis de Potter, or his assigns, promising to guarantee the same against 
all challenge and claim that any in the world will bring against it. And parties promise this their 
agreement, purchase and conveyance firmly and irrefragably to hold, observe and execute, under 
bond of all laws and judges. 

In testimony this is signed by parties and witnesses, dated as above. Manhatan, New 

This is the ^ mark of Henry Beesee 
abovenamed, made by himself. 


Tobias Remm. 
This is the j 1 [ ™^^^ ^^ 
TTaemen Hansen, made by himself. 

To my knowledge, Jacob Ejp, Clerk. 
On this 3P' of August 1651, this foregoing deed and conveyance is approved by the Director 
General and Council of Nev} Netherland. 

In testimony signed by the Hon*"" President, New Amsterdam. 

P. Stutvesant. 


Lease of a BomvERT on the south sroE of Hans Hansen's boitwert, called in Indian 


To-day, tliis 31" of August 1651, before me, Jacob Kijy, appointed clerk here, appeared 
jRemmert Jansen of the one part, and Barent Jansen Bat and Hendrick Dirchsen in partnership, 
of the other part, who in the presence of the undernamed witnesses, declared that they had, in an 
amicable and friendly manner, agreed and contracted together about the hire of a certain bouwery. 
on the conditions under written, to wit : 

Rem Jansen leases to Barent Jansen Bat and Hendrick Dirchsen, in partnership, who also 
acknowledge to have rented a certain bouwery lying and situate on the south side of Ila7is Hansen^ s 
bouwery, called in Indian, RinnegacJconcJc, for the term of four years, commencing on the first 
September of this year and ending on the first of September 1655 ; on which bouwery the Lessor 
has already had built and will yet build a house and bergh, and is to deliver two horses, one mare 
and one gelding, each five years old ; two milch cows and one heifer of two years ; two sows which the 
Lessor shall send from Fort Orarige. The Lessees shall annually pay as butter rent for each cow, 
16 pounds of butter, and for each horse annually 15 skepels of hard grain, either rye, wheat 
or barley ; which cattle the Lessees acknowledge to have received on condition that each shall 
receive half the increase, and the risk of death shall be in common ; and if it happen that an}' of 
the aforesaid cattle come to die, the capital stock shall be completed again from the increase at the 
termination of the Lease, when it shall be divided and distributed. The Lessor, moreover, delivers 

New Y(»'h Historical Records. 145 

to the Lessees -mth the bouwery one plougli and what belongs to it, and half the land enclosed 
complete with posts and rails, which the Lessees promise to deliver enclosed as they now receive it 
at the expiration of the lease, and they shall join the land together which now lies in two parts; 
and the Lessees may, if they consider it for theu- interest, place two or three tobacco planters, 
at their pleasiu'e on the land. 

For all which the Lessees, jointly and severally, promise and pledge themselves to pay annually 
as rent in addition to what is aforesaid, the sum of one hundred and fifty Carolus guilders, payable 
in the produce of the land at current rates here, or in such pay as they can receive for such 
produce. The Lessees shall, at the termination of the lease, deliver up the land which they now 
receive xmsowed, and the aforesaid house and everything in the same condition as now received. 
Parties promise this their agreement firm and irrefragable to hold, observe and execute, all under 
bond of all laws. 

In testimony this is signed by parties with the witnesses ; date as above. Manhatan, New 
ish Tansen van Teveeen. 

This is the ^ mark of Baeent Jansen Bai., made by himself. 
This is the mark !^l *^f Hendeick Diecksen, made by himself. 

OlOFF StETENSEN, ) txt-j. 

Gakeit Janskn, 'J Witnesses. 

To my knowledge, Jacob Kip, Clerk. 

Letter feom the Dieectoe Geneeal to the Nine Men on the condition of the Foet and 


Worthy and Dear Friends. 

"We have several times informed yon individually as well as in the meeting of your Board of the 
orders and instructions from their High : Might : and from the Lords Directors, our patroons, 
concerning the repairing of the Fort New Amsterdam. Having made several fruitless represen- 
tations to the late Board and asked their assistance in vain, I begun the highly uecessary and very 
urgent work with the few negroes and servants of the Company. During the last two summers 
of 1650 and 51 I have made tolerable progress considering the small numbers of laborers and 
would have enclosed the Fort all round and put it in good shape, if for the Company's and the 
country's service, my and the Company's servants had not been ol^liged to go to the South river 
and remain there the greater part of last summer in order to build there a new Fort for the better 
maintenance of the Company's rights and the defense of our territory. In the meantime, we 
regret to say, the newly erected work has through neglect of our proclamation and orders been 
destroyed and trampled down by horses, cows and hogs, as may be seen daily to our shame and 
reproach. "We have spoken to you or some of you several times of the vexation and disgust, 
caused by finding our new works, erected without the community's help, rooted up, trampled 
down and destroyed by the community's hogs, cows and horses, thus losing the advantage of our 
hard and diligent labor. 

146 Early Colonial Settlements. 

It is true, that the negligence and connivance of the Fiscal has caused this, as he did not 
enforce or execute our twice or thrice renewed proclamations. "We are therefore compelled to 
leave the Fort, to our shame and the detriment of this place, as we found it and to suspend all 
work on it or to execute and enforce our orders and proclamations, now already three or four 
times published and affixed, namely to impound the horses, cows and hogs, henceforth found on 
the Fort and confiscate them for the benefit of the Hon"'' Company. Otherwise it is impossible 
to keep the newly repaired Fort in good order and to do, what has yet to be done. Before taking 
such extreme measures, at the risk of being blamed for it, and to prevent all excuses of ignorance 
and all reproaches, we have thought best for our own sake, first to inform the Board of Nine Men 
of our intentions and to warn through them the community, which has paid no attention to our 
former orders, against the impending losses, for it is disreputable for this place, dangerous for the 
inhabitants generally in time of need and for ourselves disgraceful and unbearable, to see the Fort 
demolished, our good intentions and hard labor frustrated and wantonly trampled under foot. 
Awaiting here upon the written answer of your Board I am and remain 

"Worthy and Dear Friends, 
New Amsterdam, Yom* well-affected friend 

in N. N., Novbr 15, 1G51. P. Stuyvesant. 

Deed of a lot of laud house and baen os the shoee of Long Island, neae the Feret. 

This day, this fourth of January, Anno 1652, before me, Andries Johannis Christman 
appointed by the Hon'*''' Director General and Council of Nevj) Netherlands appeared Gornelis 
Dirricksen, ferryman, of the one part, and Sr. Cornelis de Potter of the other part, who in the 
presence of the undernamed witnesses, declared that they had agreed and contracted together about 
the purchase of a certain piece of land on the condition underwritten : 

Cornelis Dirricksen sells to Sr. Cornelis de Potter, who also hereby acknowledges to have 
bought a certain piece of land surveyed and situate near the Ferry on Lo7ig Island, adjoining 
He7iry Breser, granted to him by the Hon'''^ Director General William Kieft, as appears by the 
groundbrief, dated 28"' of April 1G43, and now surveyed by Claes van Elslandt on the 7"" of 
November 1651, being in breadth on the shore or north side 39 rods, thence ranges from the shore 
towards the wood as far as the marked tree, being the east side 63 rods, back again towards the 
shoi'e, being the west side, 76 rods. The surveyed piece of land lies in a triangle, containing 
altogether 2 morgens, 67^ rods, together with a house, bam and all depending thereon, as appears 
by the fence now standing; and all this for the sum of two thousand guilders, good, current 
wampum ; and it is expressly stipulated that the aforesaid sima shall be paid in four installments, 
to wit : The first installment shall be paid down ; the second installment on the first of May 1652, 
the third installment on the first of May, 1653, and the fourth and last installment on the first of 
May, 1654 ; so that the aforesaid two thousand guilders shall be then fully paid -without any 
exception. The vendor hereby surrenders the right and claim of ownership, to the abovenamed 
lands and buildings to the behoof of Sr. Cornelis de Potter or whomsoever obtains his action, 
henceforth and forever ; promising to guarantee all this against all challenge and pretension which 
any one in the world may set up thereto. And parties engage this their agreement, purchase and 

JSFew Ywlc Historical Records. 147 

conveyance to hold firm and binding, the same to observe and execute under bond of all Coiu'ts 
and Judges. 

In testimony this is signed by parties, with the Fiscal, Renrious Van Dyck and Claes 
van Jilslant, witnesses invited herein. Date as above. 


Quod attestor, H. van Dyck. 
Claes van Elslant. 
To my knowledge, 

Andries Johannis Cheistman, Clerk. 
On the 29 of January, 1652 the annexed deed and conveyance was approved by the Hon'''^ 
Director General and Council of Neio Netherland. 

In testimony signed by the Hon'''^ Dii-ector President, N. Amsterdam. Fiat transfer. 

P. Stutvesant. 

Deed of a lot of land on Long Island, together with a norsE and lot in Beeuckelen. 

This day, this fourth of January A° 1652, before me Andries Johannis Ghristman, appointed 
by the Hon''''^ Director General and Council of New Netherland, appeared Cornelis Dirricltsen 
ferryman, of the one part and Sr. Cornelis de Potter, of the other part, who in the presence of 
the undernamed witnesses, declared that they have agreed and contracted together about the 
purchase of a certain parcel of land on the condition underwritten : 

Cornelis DirricTcsen sells to Sr. Cornelis de Potter, who also acknowledges to have purchased, 
a certain parcel of land situate on Long Island, in the rear of the land granted him in 1643 by the 
Hon'"''' Director General William Kieft, dec'* as appears by the groundbrief ; further lying 
between the land of Harry Breser and another parcel of land, runs along said Henry's valley up 
to the aforesaid parcel and thence through the wood and maizeland to the line of Claes Mutelaar 
"West by North and W. N. W. between both, 172 rods, and further 80 large and small as it appears 
by the groundbrief dated 12"^ of September 1645, granted by Director William Kieft, dec"* to the 
behoof of Cornelis DirricTcsen ; is broad in the rear at the wood to said Henry'' s, N. E. by N. 59 
rods, thence towards the maizeland E. thence southerly, 45 rods, theiice* through the maizeland to 
the valley S. E. by E. 109 rods, containing in all 12 morgens 157 rods; together with a certain 
house standing in BreucTden next to Peter Cornelissenh lot, with such lot as is surveyed for, and 
belongs to it; the whole for the sura of one thousand four hundred and fifty guilders in good 
current wampum payable in six installments to wit: on the next six consecutive May-days, and the 
first just sixth part shall be paid on the first of May 1652, and so forth from year to year, until the 
sum aforesaid shall be paid to the Vendor, allowing, nevertheless, no longer delay for the complete 
payment of the aforesaid siim than the first of May, 1657. 

The Vendor hereby surrenders all right and claim of ownership in the abovementioned land 
and house to the behoof of Sr. de Potter aforesaid or his assign, henceforth and forever, promising 
to guarantee the same against all challenge and pretension to be set up thereto by any one in the 

* The words underlined are supplied from the Patent, which is dated IS"- of December 1645. 

148 Early Colonial Settlements. 

world. Parties engage this their agreement, purcliase and conveyance to hold firm and binding 
to observe and execute the same under bond of all Courts and Judges. 

In testimony tliis is signed by parties with the Hon'"'' Fiscal and Glaes van Elslant as witnesses 
herein invited. Done i"" of January 1652. 


Kogatus : H. van Dtck. 

Claes van Elslant. 
To my knowledge 

Andeies JoHAimis Cheistman, Clerk. 

On the 29"' of January, A° 1652 the above agreement and conveyance in approved by the 
Hon''''' Director General and Council of Mew Netherland. 

In testimony signed by the IIou''''= Director President New Amsterdam. Fiat transfer. 

P. Stutvesant, vidit. 

Deed of a lot of land on the west IIook of Eechkewiok on the East eivee. 

This day, the fourth of January Anno 1652, before me Andries Johan^ Ghristman appointed 
by the Hon''''= Director General and Council of New Netherlaiid, appeared Jan Haes of the one 
part and Sr. Cornells de Potter, of the other part, who in the presence of the undernamed 
witnesses, declared that they have agreed and contracted together about the purchase of a certain 
parcel of land on the condition underwi'itten : 

Jan Ilaes sells to Sr. Cornelis de Potter, who also hereby acknowledges to have purchased, 
a certain parcel of land situate at the west hook of Eechkewick on the East Eiver, running from 
Frederick Lubhertsen's land east south east and southeast by east to the valley, eighty rods, and 
further so large and small as appears by the groundbrief dated 2'' of April 1647, granted by the 
Hon''''' Director William Kieft, dec'', to the behoof of Jan de Haes, with all the vendor has 
thereon belonging to him, for the sum of nine hundred guilders down in good current wampum. 
The Vendor hereby surrenders said right and claim of ownership to the above lands to the behoof 
of Sr. Cornells de Potter or his assign henceforth and for ever, promising the same to guaranty 
against all challenge and pretension to be made by any one in the world thereto. Parties engage 
this their agreement, purchase and conveyance to hold firm and binding, to observe and execute 
the same under bond of all Courts and Judges. 

In testimony this is [signed] by parties. Done as above. 

This is the mark of Jan 

Haes, made by himself. 


Kogatus : H. van Dtck. 

Claes van Elslant. 
To my knowledge, Andeies Joh^ Christman, clerk. 

On the 29"" of January A° 1652, the annexed deed and conveyance is approved by the Hon*'* 
Director General and Council of New Netherland. 

In testimony this is signed by the Hon'''° Director Stuyvesant. Fiat transfer. 

New Yorh Historical Mecords. 149 

Council Minutes. Pebmission granted to Abe. De la Not to retail all sorts of wines. 

January 24:"" 1652. The Hon''''= Director General and Council having read the petition of 
ATyram de la Noy for permission to sell all sorts of wines by the small measure, 

They grant petitioner's request and resolve to lease to him the city tavern for the benefit of 
the Hon'*''' Company. 

Council Minutes. Proclamation annulling certain ordinances of the AUTnoRiTiES of 

The Director General and Council of Wew Netherlands to all who may read this or hear it 
read Greeting: 

Whereas we have several times been informed by the late Commissary, Charles van Bugge, 
as well as by his successor Johannes Dijckmann and whereas other private complaints have been 
made over the impertinent, unbearable and unchristianlike tyranny of the present Commander or 
as he styles himself Director of the Colony of Rensselaerswyoh Brandt Arisen van Slechtenhorst 
in refusing permission to and forbidding the officers of the Hon''''= Company as well as other good 
and faithful subjects at Fart Orange to cut in the open woods fuel for their use and subsistence, 
exciept in a certain thicket, where the wood can only be obtained with great inconvenience and 
the roads are almost impassable during the winter, or anyway very miserable and troublesome, 

Whereas we are further informed, that he has forbidden, under tlu-eats of high penalty, the 
farmers and working people owning wagons and horses to cart fire-wood for the servants of the 
Hon*'' Company or inhabitants of the said fort, thus compelhng both, the officers and subjects of 
the Hon''"^ Company, to carry the fuel begged from him on their shoulders in slavish trouble and 
dependence through thick and thin, ice and snow for the amusement of this overbearing Commander 
and his merciless associates and to the disregard, nay, contempt of the Hon'''' Company, their 
officers and good subjects; 

Whereas the said Commander and some of his subaltern officers have so far forgotten the 
teachings of Christ and their neighborly duties, as to insolently answer the last request of our 
Commissary and inhabitants of the said Fort on the ll"" of January of this year as follows: 

" Nevertheless desiring to show ourselves more accommodating and modest, than some other 
"people, we shall allow the people of the Fort and the Colonists the accommodation of fire-wood 
"provided everybody make application to the Director or the associates according to the Ordinance 
" lut only under this reserve and condition, while his Honor is willing and agrees, that the 
"people of the Fort may cut down during the winter the aforesaid thicket or have it cut down at 
"their expense. Signed: hy order of the Court of Rensselaersioyck Anthony de Ilooge, 

which satisfactorily proves both the prohibition forbidding the cutting of fire-wood and the 
unbearable tyranny, compelling the inhabitants of the Fort, who desire to cut firewood, as necessary 
to them in winter as bread, to clear away the underwood and brush or have it done at their 
expense, which neither the officers nor the free and good subjects of the Hon'''' Company are 
bound to do, 

150 Early Colonicd Settlements. 

Therefore, in order to obviate the manifold complaints against the aforesaid unchristianlike 
and i;nneighborly tyranny and desiring to maintain the officers of the Company and inhabitants of 
the Fort, as well as other free snbjects in what the Hon^''° Company and the exemptions of New 
Netherland have granted them, which heretofore has never been refused to them by other 

"We herewith annul and repeal by this, our Proclamation, everything concerning this matter 
published heretofore by the Commander Brant Arise van Slechtenhorst without our knowledge, 
nay, against our orders and directions, and grant to the officers of the Hon'"''' Company and free 
inhabitants of Fort Orange, that they like the Colonists of the Colony may cut, haul or let haul 
and use for their benefit all the needed fii-ewood and building timber in the unfenced and public 
woods, only they must avoid cutting the said fuel or timber within the bounds of any fenced-in 
bouwery, garden or plantation, unless they have permission from its owner or his representative. 
We further permit herewith and request all farmers and working people to acconnnodate and 
serve the inhabitants of the Fort and of the Colony in carting out the cut fuel and timber against 
reasonable wages, annulling and making void all contracts, ordinances and oaths made or taken in 
this matter, as unchristian, unneighborly and unla\vful, promising by this Proclamation signed by 
us and sealed with our usual seal, to indemnify and keep free from persecution and damages all 
inhabitants and colonists against all attempts, intentions and executions, which in this matter the 
Commander Slechtenhorst or his associates may undertake to carry out and directing oui- aforesaid 
Commissary to publish this Proclamation in Fort Orange and to request the Commander and 
Council of the Colony of liensselaerswyck to publish it in the Colony or in case of refusal to publish 
and affix it himself in the Colony, that nobody may be able to plead ignorance. Thus done and 
resolved at our meeting in New Amsterdam, the 24"' of January, Anno 1652. 

P. Stuyvesai^t. 

H. VAN Dyck. 

La Montagne. 

Beian Newton. 



Whereas we are informed, that, notwithstanding our several warnings, summons and interdicts, 
directed during the time of our Commissary Charles van Brugge in the years 1649 and 1650 to 
the Commander Brant Artse van Slechtenhorst and his associates in the Colony of Ren^selaerswych, 
for them to erect new buildings under the wall of the Hon'''^ Company's Fort Orange or nearer to 
it, than a musket shot's range, unless it can be proved, that they do it by order of the Hon'''' 
Company or other high authority or unless they have special permission, our above said earnest 
warnings, protests, directions and orders have not only been disregarded, but absolutely despised 
and disobeyed by siirveying, selling and giving away several parcels of land and the erection by 
private parties of several houses on the North and West side of the said Fort, shutting the same 
in and blocking up the passage to it ; 

Whereas we are further informed by the present Commissary DycTcman, that they have again 
laid out lots, still nearer and closer to the said Fort and distributed and sold them to several private 

New York Historical Records. 151 

parties to be built on, without regard to the warning, protest and order, entered and issued against 
their proceeding by our Commissary under high authority, which must tend to disregard of the 
Government of this Province, to the destruction of the Hon'''= Company's privileges, prerogatives 
and titles and especially to a shutting in and blocking up of the said Fort, located there and 
fortified before Mr. Rensselaer obtained the land for a Colony and consequently before a house of 
his Colony stood there. 

Therefore we. Director General and Council of New Netherlands authorized by the commission 
and instructions given by their High Might : the Lords States-General, our sovereigns and by the 
Noble Lords-Directors of the Privileged West India Company, as masters and patroons of New 
Netherland and by virtue of the same bound to maintain their rights and privileges as well as 
good order and justice, find ourselves compelled, to annul and make void by this our resolution 
and proclamation, all allotments, cessions or sales of land laying within 600 paces or about 250 
Ehineland rods from the Fort, which land we. Director General and Council, declare, until 
otherwise directed by the Hon*''" Company, to be the liberty of the Fort, to be used by its garrison 
and inhabitants, who however, be they servants of the Hon'''^ Company or free men shall not be 
allowed to build on the land so as to weaken, shut in or block up the Fort, but only to use it for 
gardens, plantations, surrounded by low pallisades, and low and light summer houses, which can 
be easily moved or taken down, provided they have first informed us and received our consent and 
that the Director and Council shall have discretion to remove them, when necessary. We warn 
and direct therefore everybody, who shall have or may become possessed of any parcel of land 
within the aforesaid limits of the Fort either by purchase, lease or cession from the said Commander 
Slechtenhorst or his associates before or after the publication of the Proclamation, not to enter 
upon it, much less to fence it in or build upon it in any shape or manner under high penalty and 
destruction of the building. Let everybody take warning. 

Thus done and resolved at our meeting at New Amsterdam, the 29"" of January 1652. 

Oedek conceening Jan Jansen from S' Obyn. 

On the 29"' of January. 

The Director General and Council having read the petition of Jan Jansen from -S'' Obyn, direct 
that he shall satisfy the Fiscal according to the sentence jiassed this week and order further, that 
he deliver to the Fiscal an authenticated copy of the bond of indemnity, which Brant van 
Slechtenhorst has issued to him on account of tjie removal and detention of his person. 

Deed of 20 morgens of Land on the shoee of Long Island. 

This day, this twenty-ninth of January, Anno 1652, before me Andries Johannis Christman, 
appointed by the Hon'''^ Director General and Council of New Netherland,^)Y'^a,r&A. Peter Linde, 
of the one part, and Barent Jansen of the other part, who, in the presence of the undernamed 
witnesses declared that they had agreed an<] contracted together about the purchase of a certain 
parcel of land on the condition underwritten : 

152 Early Colonial 

Peter Linih having sold to Barent Jansen, who also acknowledges to have purcliased and 
paid for a certain parcel of land containing twenty morgens, running about southeast one hundred 
and ninety rods towards the woods near Sassian's maize land, along the edge of said maize land 
fifty rods, back towards the shore two hundred and twenty rods, about north north-west somewhat 
northerly, and along the shore seventy rods ; which aforesaid land is situate on Long Island, 
between Andries Hudde and Claes Jansen Ruyter's (lands) ; and further, as large and small as 
appears by the ground brief granted under date September 11 1642, by the Hon"^ Director 
William Kieft dec"" to the behoof of Peter Linde. 

The Vendor hereby surrenders all right and claim of ownership in the above named land to 
the behoof of the above named Barent Jansen, or his assign henceforth and forever, promising to 
guarantee the same from all challenge and pretension to be set up thereto by any one in the world. 
Parties engage this their agreement, purchase and conveyance to hold firm and binding, the same 
to observe and execute under bond of all Courts and Judges. 

Signed with Joohem Beeckman and Abraham Hycken as witnesses hereto invited. Dated as 
above, Manhatan in Neio Netherland. 

Petee Ltkde. 

This is the ff ^ mark of Baeent Jansent, 

made by himself. 

This is the -J- mark of Abraham Rtcken, 

signed by himself. 

To my knowledge, 

Andeies Joh' Cheistman, Clerk. 

On the 29"" of January A° 1652, is this deed and conveyance approved by the Hon'''^ 
Director General and Council of New Netherland, and in testimony signed by the Hon'''^ 
Du'ector General President. Amsterdam. 


Copy of a Letter sent by Brant Arise van Slechtenhorst to his Honor, the Director General 
and Council. 

To the Honorable Court of the Colony of Bensselaerswyck : 

Respectfully shows Brant van Slechtenhorst, Director of the said Colony, that a few days ago 
he received a judgment passed by the court at the Manhatans against Jan Jansen S^ Obijn, 
condemning him to a fine of two hundred and fifty guilders, because he had carried me from the 
Manhatans to this Colony. It is quite unlieard of, that an inoffensive skipper, a regular freighter, 
plpng his trade for the honest sustenance of himself and family, who so far has never injured nor 
obstructed the authorities or any body else, [should be punished], while the necessity of my 

New York Historical Records. 153 

departure by that opportunity was proved not only by me, but also by the authorities here in their 
letters and requests. 

"Where has it ever been heard or seen, that in a law-abiding country among Christian neighbors 
of the same religious belief and under the same sovereignty, such proceedings are instituted against 
anybody, as against the said Dii-ector, who by his position is not only commissioned and quahfied, 
but was also called upon by General Stuyvesant in his letter of Febnuary 18"' 1651 to give his 
advice for the common welfare in important land matters! I say, it is unheard, that such a person 
should be arrested and detained a long time without examination or subsequent issue, for the 
Director, notwithstanding his position, has been kept in arrest from the first of May until August, 
without having once been examined, although he entered a written protest and complained against 
it nor could he obtain justice, much less a discharge although he requested to be relieved of such 
uimecessary and fruitless vexation ; all this has been shown and clearly proved to the Court of the 
aforesaid Colony. 

"Wlien the aforesaid van Slechtenhorst in his stated quality came to the Manhatans they 
summoned him on the first of May simply by a messenger without legal form or citation and when 
he appeared the Court suddenly and unexpectedly passed the sentences against him, which directly 
contradict each other and held him so long as a prisoner, that he [has lost] all legal claims to his 
person and position. In due time it shall also be proved, by impartial judges, that of his goods 
more were confiscated to pay for the fees of the arrest, which were very small, than necessary. 
Would a person [be punished] in the Fatherland, be he ferryman or skipper, for carrying a 
man, of whom theretofore he had no knowledge or of whom nobody had told him, that he was 
detained by order of the Court contrary to the ordinances ? But some receive impressions in their 
dreams, which they seem to utter in their daily deeds either with or against the laws of our 
country; Such unheard of and unbearable proceedings as against Slechtenhorst in his quality and 
against others, may well in time ruin this blessed and fruitful country or bring it to a sorry condition 
and turn the laws into public nuisances, Avliich God forbid. 

Therefore the said Director ex-officio protests and appeals against all these vexations and 
injuries, inflicted upon the said Slechtenhorst in his aforesaid quality, also against what has been 
done to Jan Jansen the skipper and Jacob Jans Stol without law or right and contrary to the 
privileges of the Colony. He complains before God Almighty to their Noble High : Might: the States 
General, our gracious sovereigns and lieges and to the Lords Patroons and Directors of the said 
Colony over this open violence and compulsion, he complains further of the five soldiers and five 
boatmen sent by Mr. Stuyvesant in the Company's sloop in 1648 and kept in the Colony and Fort 
for 14 days his own letter and the threats uttered against van Slechtenhorst at different times, 
ordering him not to continue with the erection of buildings and settlements on the Lords Patroons' 
own territory, or he, Stuyvesant, would cause the buildings to be torn down and then he incited 
13 or 14 low fellows from the Fort, who were ready and armed for a fight, which however 
Slechtenhorst and his people prevented. When they could not obtain their object, they invented 
pretexts and summoned Slechtenhorst three times to the Manhatas, making the following charge : 
" Wliat the charge of our Magistrates and the Fiscal of New Netherlands are against Brant van 
"Slechtenhorst, Magistrate in the Colony of Rensselaer swych, he will hear and see, when he appears 
" before the Court in obedience to this summons." Slechtenhorst answered to this summons, that 
if the Magistrates and the Fiscal of New Netherland have any claims upon him, as a private person 
or in his oflicial capacity, they might * * ** ****** 

and call for him at his place of residence. These useless citations and vexations of like sort were 

154 Early Colonial Settlements. 

repeated daily and the aforesaid Director protests once more against all losses and prejudice already 
suffered or which he may have to suffer hereafter also against all the harm and injury, done to him 
personally and in his official capacity, all cum expensis and the said Director as such offers as 
security for the foregoing actions in appeal all the property belonging to and claimed by the Patroons 
from the Hon''''' Company, also the horses and grain delivered to Mr. Petrus Stuyvesant himself 
from the Colony and requests to give a like security, to execute the sentence hereafter under the 
foregoing appeal. Done at the Colony of Rensselaer swyck, the 25"" of Septbr 1651. 

P. V. Slechtenhokst, Director of the said Colony. 

As to the detention of the Hon''''' Director, whereas some members of this Court, the principals 
of the Colony of Eensselaerswych, had been arrested in the time of the Hon'''" Director General 
William Kie/t, which his Honor not only maintained, that they were not subject to arrest, but 
also the release of his Honor followed, affirming, that the Colony was accountable for them, the 
Court of this Colony declares, that the same decision should hold good now as before. Done at 
the meeting, this 25'" Septbr 1651. 

Teste A. de Hooges, Secretary. 

Dirrick van Schelluyne, Notary Public, declares herewith, that the foregoing letter, directed 
to the Court messenger Claes van Elslandt, has been in his charge until the 27"" day of this month 
of January 1652, without having at any time previous been called for or sent off. Neio Amsterdam, 
Jan'' 29, 1652. 

D. V. Schelluyne, Not. Public. 


To day, the 29"" of January a closed letter was delivered by the Court messenger, which on 
ojjening proved to be a petition, drawn up and signed in the Colony of Rensselaerswyck by Brant 
van Slechtenli^rst, Director of the said Colony, on the 25"" of Septbr 1651 and directed to the 
Hon"'" Court of Rensselaersioyck, with the said Court's decision written on the margin as follows : 
(see above). 

After due examination and upon voting the above decision was found ambiguous and obscure 
and the Director General and Council therefore resolved to direct the Court of the Colony as they 
do herewith, to free their decision from all obscurities and explain themselves clearlj-. 

1. By giving the names of the principals of the Colony, arrested during the time of Director 

2. By stating in whose name and why the arrest was made. 

3. By stating, whether the Court declares null and void the arrest of van Slechtenhorst for 
disobedience and contempt of the order given by the Director General and Council of New 
Netherland, from which arrest Slechtenhorst stealthily escaped and which declaration seems to be 
expressed in their decision. 

A categorical answer is requested. 

New Yo7'h Historical Becords. 155 

Council Minutes. Appointment of Membeks of the Board of Nine Men. 

Tuesday, the 30'" of January 1652, at Fort Neio Amsterdam present the Director-General 
P. Stuyvesant, Eendrich va?i Bi/ck, Fiscal,. Mr. La Montague and Briom Newton. 

The commonalty having made their nomination and submitted it to us, the following have 
been confirmed. 

Jochem Pietersen Kuyper 
Paulus Leendertsen {van der Grist). 
Peter Qornelissen. 
The 2" of February 1652 the same 
Jodhem Pietersen. 
Paulus Leendertsen. 

Peter Cornelissen Molenaer have taken the oath of allegiance before the Director General 
and Council of New Netherland. 

Oedinance Kegulating the business of the windmill. 
(See Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland, page 123.) 

Council Minutes. Kesolution on a PETmoN of the Nine Men, that no hogs be shot 
on the wall of the foet and that the foet be subkoundkd by palli8ades ; chuech 
peopeett; Suegeons; Anabaptists. 

Monday, the 12'" of February 1652 at Fort Amsterdam, present the Director General, La 
Montague and Brian Newton. 

The Board of Nine Men came into the Council chamber and requested the presiding officer, 
that the Hon'"''' Council would please to forbid the shooting of hogs on the walls of the Fort and 
tliat for this reason the Fort be enclosed with stakes or in some other convenient way. 

The Director General consents to the request of the Commonalty and promises to have the 
necessary posts cut and hewed by his own servants or negroes, the community to bear the expenses 
of putting up the pallisades and enclosing the Fort. 

The Deacons of the church request by a petition that the money due for the purchased land 
may be set off against the Hon"'" Company to the amount of 1850fl. 

The Council decree : fiat the offset. 

The surgeons petition, that nobody else, but they shall be allowed to shave, to which 

The Director and Council reply, that shaving is properly not in the province of the surgeons, 
but is only an appendix to their calling, that nobody can be prevented to please himself in this 

156 Early Colonial Settlements. 

matter or to serve anybody else for friendship's sake, out of courtesy and without receiving payment 
for it or keeping a shop to do it in, wliich is hereby expressly forbidden. 

As to the other request this regulation concerning surgeons and the public health is made. 

"Whereas we are informed, that last summer two- or three grave mistakes have been made by 
the inexperience of some ships' barbers, 

Therefore Director and Council order herewith that such ships' barbers shall not dress any 
wounds, bleed or prescribe for any one on land, without the knowledge and special request of the 
above petitioners or at least Doctor La Montague. 

Domine Johannes Megapolensis requests, that Amia Smits, an Anabaptist, should be restrained 
from using slanderous and calumniating expressions against God's word and his servants. 

The Director General and Coimcil direct, that Anna Smits shall appear on the following 
"Wednesday at the school of David Provoost, where the Nine Men usually meet and that the 
Director and Council together with the complainant and the consistory shall assemble there also, 
to hear what the said Anna Smits has to say against the teachings of the complainant. 

Adrian van Tienhoven, Sainuel Megajwlensis and Jan de la Montagne request pemiission 
to erect a pew in the church of this place, which 

The General and Council resolve to take into consideration. 

Representatton made by the Dieectoes of the Amsterdam Chamber of the W. I. Compamt 
TO the Burgomasters of Amsterdam on various points regakding the Pbovinoe of New 
Netherland and Resolution of the Municipality thereon. 

To the "Very Worshipful Gentlemen, their Honors the Burgomasters and Regents of this 
City of Amsterdam. 

Show with due reverence the Directors of the Privileged West India Company, Department 
of Amsterdam, that by the blessing of God the country, called New Netherlands has in a short 
time increased in population, cultivation and commerce and that it will continue thus to increase 
on account of its favorable situation. The Directors endeavor by every means not only to promote 
agriculture and trade, but also to take care of the administration of the country and the undisturbed 
peace of its inhabitants, in regard to which several things have occurred, which they are at a loss, 
without the wise coimsel of your Worships, to decide on, viz : 

The communities under the jurisdiction of the Company, Dutcli as well as English, complain 
in all their letters of the impudence of the savages, wlio during the last year or eighteen months 
liave murdered some persons, captured some children and stolen a number of animals, all under 
pretex-t, that we had no right to resist them, whereas they had been informed by the deputies of 
the complainants, who were here from N^w Netherland last year, that the Supreme Government 
here had ordered, our officers there should not begin any war against them, as it had been done 
previously, when with armed hand the Company had compelled these barbarians to live honestly 
and in peace, which peace they have broken by their aforesaid deeds. 

Neio Yorlc, Historical Recwds. 157 

The English people outside of the Province of New Motherland, laboring under the same 
difficulties as our inhabitants, have proposed to make with our Director a league, to help each other 
in time of need or trouble and whereas they are much stronger in numbers than our people, they 
propose to bring into the field two men against one from our side provided that they also have a 
double voice in deciding on the legality or illegality of injuries done or war to be commenced. 

A committee of their High : Might : have last year provided with safe-guards all the indecent 
complainants, who came here from Weio Netherlands and relying thereon they now, on their 
return there, believe themselves authorized to commit all kinds of disorders by instigating 
evil-minded persons against the Director and the Company's officers. 

The Vice-Director, Luhhert van Dincklage, countenances these quarrelsome fellows as much 
as possible ; therefore the Directors had decided to recall him by the last ships, that he might 
answer for his actions. But before our letters reached there, he had gone to Staten Island and 
joined Gornelis Melyn, the principal actor in these strifes and quarrels, who notwithstanding the 
protests of the Directors was last year provided with " surete de corps " and allowed to return 
there. Upon the Island they have established a government according to their own notion, also a 
judicial com-t : we prefer to be silent on the point, xmder whose direction and authority this is 

The honorable committee of their High ; Might : have sent without knowledge of the 
Directors as Notary Public to New Netherland one Dirch van ScheJluyn, who there calls himself 
authorized by their High : Might : and as such a movement is directly against the orders of the 
Company, the Directors feel themselves much aggrieved by it. 

The said honorable committee of their High: Might: have appointed as Captain of the train 
bands in New Amsterdam one Jacob van Oouxoenhoven, one of the deputies, who last year came 
hither as complainants without cause : we say without cause, as according to the last letters 
received, both the aforesaid communities have had no knowledge of it and in fact protest against 
their action. 

The inhabitants of New Netherland say, that if the government here could be persuaded to 
abolish the duty on tobacco grown there, the people would be encouraged to raise more of it, as 
the soil there is better adapted to it than in the Garibean Islands ; they think, that by such a step 
not only the greater part of the English and French trade to these islands could be secured for us, 
but also that even the EngUsh of Virginia would send their return freights of tobacco mostly by 
way of New Netherland. 

It must be considered, that in Zeeland and we believe also in. some other provinces except 
Holland tobacco is not subjected to the impost of the tobacco duty and it may be presumed, that, 
even if the produce of New Netherland were exempted, the tax upon tobacco could still be 
farmed out, as now only a small quantity comes from there. 

The said Directors find themselves very much embarrassed and inconvenienced by the colonies 
granted in former times with too extensive privileges and exemtions, which have made their 
owners so overweening, that some of them went so far in misusing their privileges as to believe, that 
they could prevent and forbid inhabitants of New Netherland to trade within their colonies; this 
is contrary to the law of nature, especially as understood in this country and by this people. 

Whereas most of the preceding facts are considered to be of such nature, that the Directors 
as a body cannot resolve or give orders thereon, 

Therefore they very respectfully request your honorable Worships' wise counsel and advice 
and thus doing etc. 

158 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Delivered the 13"> day of February 1652. 

This matter lias been considered in a conference held with the following members of the 
Council on the li"" day of February 1652, Messrs. Spiegel, Van Iloorn and Blaeuw. 
The Council of this city has thereupon resolved as follows on the 15"" : 

Extract from the Resolutions of the Senate of the City of Amsterdam. 
February 15'>' 1652. 

A committee of the Council having been appointed to examine a representation made by the 
Directors of the W. I. Co., wherein they ask for the honorable Council's decision and advice, as 
to what to do in regard to some difficulties, which they complain, they encounter in the adminis- 
tration of New Netherland and the said committee having reported their remarks thereon, 

Eesolved to advise the Directors as follows: First. The officers of the Company in New 
Netherland must resist with all proper force and means the violence and invasions of the savages, 
who, they say, have for some time past murdered their subjects, captured children and stolen 
cattle and for this purpose they may enter into and make a league in such maimer, as they deem 
most beneficial for their own safety and reputation. 

Tlie committee are of opinion, that no deputy of their High : Might : has the right to grant 
safe-guards, by which evil-minded persons, as mentioned in the remonstrance of the Directors, 
might gain an advantage over them and nnder the cover of which they can withdraw themselves 
from the allegiance and jurisdiction of the Company : it is contrary to the charter, which places 
the management of the Company's affairs in general into the hands of the Assembly of the XIX, 
while that of New Netherland, by resolution of the XIX, has been entrusted to the Depai-tment 
of Amsterdam; therefore, notwithstanding a safe-guard has been granted, proceedings, as 
authorized by law, may there be instituted against Dinchlagen, Gornelis Melyn, Dirch va/n 
Sahelluyne, Jacob van Couwenhoven and all others, who either avail themselves of these safe- 
guards or else do not comply with the rules and orders of the Company : should such proceedings 
be deemed improper, then the aforesaid persons shall be sent over here as prisoners {jpede 
Ugato), if they do not come willingly, to be examined and to answer for their actions : 

The Council, being specially inclined to promote the colonization of New Netherland, would 
learn with great pleasure, that their Noble High : Might : are willing to exempt tobacco, at least 
that grown in New Netherland and coming thence, from the duty and tax of the farmer and 
finally : 

The Lords-Burgomasters or their representatives at the Hague will assist with their good 
offices and all possible means the Directors of the West India Company, Department of Amsterdam, 
in their efforts to uphold their charter and in the consideration of the preceding points and will 
advocate their cause before the Sujjreme Government. 

Gerard Hulst. 

Letter from Deputy-Governor Goodyear of New Haven to Director Stuyvesant on trade 

between the Colonies. 
Honored S'. 

My last was to desire you that my loving ffriend Mr. Isack Alerton might not suffer for any 

JSfeto Yoj'h Historical Records. 159 

Curtisie liee hath shewed to vs in the Bargine of the Shipp wherin hee stands Ingaged. I hope 
that small matter that yet Remaynes vnpayd being abonte 400. 0. o'' guild" you will see Just Cause 
to alow for the vse of my shipp. Alsoe therein I haue desired you to consider of gunns hee bought 
at an excessive Rate & prouisions bought for the men which Come in the shipp vnto all which I 
referr you to my former letter.* — 

Now theese are to aquaint you that you"' Secretary aquainting mee w"" a desire you had of 
some prouisions (and my owne desire being to settle a trade w"" you if I might upon a Just & 
equall way of dealing) If you please to write a few lynes of what you desire I hope I shall furnish 
you w"' such a quantity as shall amount to what is by Ensigne Briant propounded or w"'in a 100' 
of it ; only I desire you to send for what you shall want as speedily as you may ; & the tyme of yon 
paym' in Coats or skins Beau" at Mr. Briants prise by him propounded. It will answer my 
occasions any time before the first of August next ; S", I hope if you & I doe once Enter to deale 
each w"" other that wee may doe pleasure to on & anosher ; I should have made a voyadge to you 
for to haue procured a discharge to Mr. Alerton, but that I have many occasions heare that Requier 
my presents. Thus with my loue & reall respects to yourselfe & wife I Rest in haste 

Newhaven, You'' very ilriend to my power 

25'" ffebr 1651 (1652). Stephen Goodyeaee. 

To the wTull Peter Stmjvesant theese p''sent. 
at Manhattes. 

AFFroAvrr of Michael Bergier, that Cornelis Meltn laitoed contraband goods at Staten 
Island, where he fortified his house and maintained a guabd of Raeitan Indians. 

To-day, the 8"" of February in the year sixteen hundred and fifty-two, before me Henrich 
Schaeff, Notary Public admitted by the Court of Holland and residing at Amsterdam, and 
before the subscribed witnesses appeared Michiel Bergier of Angouleme, about 22 years old, a 
servant of Yonher Johan van Waveren, late Schepen of this City, who in true words, instead of 
an oath, at the request of the Lords Directors of the West India Company here testifies, declares 
and deposes : It is true, that in the summer of the year 1650, he, the witness, was engaged by 
Cornells Melyn, a freeman of New Netherlands as his servant ; that in the month of August of 
the same year he sailed with him in the ship " Nieuwnederlantse Fortuyn,''' skipper Daniel 
Michielsen ; that after remaining a long time in England they arrived in the * * * of the 
said year at the Red Island under the jurisdiction of New England, where the said Melyn 
purchased some provisions of little importance selling a part of the freight, as brandy, duffels and 
other goods to the English ; that from there they sailed in the same ship to Staten Island, where 
he landed secretly at night and the tide not serving a number of kegs with powder and blocks of 
lead, weighing 150 pounds the block, also a chest with muskets, which he, the affiant, had himself 
cleaned and put in order. That the Director of New Netherlands Peter Stuyvesant, having been 
informed thereof, some time later ordered the said ship to be attached and brought up to Manhattans 
Island, where proceedings towards its confiscation were instituted ; he, the affiant, has understood, 
that in the end it was confiscated. He further declares, that the said Cornells Melyn was eeveral 

* Not preserved. — B. P. 

160 Early Colonial Settlements. 

times legally summoned to appear, but he refused and did not obey the summons and that fearing 
he might be arrested for his refractoriness and for his aforesaid misdemeanors, he provided and 
strengthened himself upon Staten Island, where he resides with 117 to 118 Raritan and Southern 
Indians each armed with a musket, to defend him against the Director. He deposes further from 
his own knowledge, that by order and direction of the said Cornelis Melyn he, the affiant, with 
said Indians remained in the woods for several days and offers, after the foregoing deposition had 
been read to him to confirm it under oath in the pi-esence of Yonker Nicolas van Waveren and 
Jan van Wyck, both residing in this City, who had been requested to act as witnesses and who 
with deponent and me, the Notary, have signed the record hereof: quod attestor. (Signed) H. 
ScHAEFF, not. publ. 

Follows the act of verification : 

We the Burgomasters and Administrators of the City of Amsterdam certify to all whom it 
concerns, that Michael Bergier of Angouleme about 22 years old has ajspeared before us upon a 
summons to testify to the truth at the request of the Directors of the W. I. Company and that 
being duly sworn he declared, deposed and said, that the foregoing afiidavit, read to him by the 
Secretary, was true and he persisted in this declaration, so help him God Almighty ! 

In witness whereof the seal of this city has been hereto aflixed the 13"" day of February 1652. 

(Seal) (Signed) Gekajkd Hulst. 

AFFiDAvrr OF THE Rev. "Wilhelmtjs Grasmeee, that Coenelis Melyn iNcriED the Nataok 


To-day, the 14"" day of February A° 1652 appeared before me Hendrick Schaeff, Notary 
Public admitted by the Court of Holland and residing at Amsterdam, and before the undersigned 
witnesses the Rev. Wilhelmus Grasmeer, lately a mii\ister of the gospel in Neio Netherland, 
whence he returned last November in the ship " Hoff van Cheff^'' who being in this city, deposes 
and says at the request of the Directors of the Priv. "West India Company, that a long time after 
Cornelis Melyn, a freeman of New Netherland, whom witness knows well, had arrived in New 
Netherland I'D. "CixQ ship '■'■ Nieu Nederlantsche Fortuyn" on her last voyage, he, witness, had 
heard the Manhattans Indians of New Netherland, living at Nayack, a place on Long Island 
directly opposite Staten Island, frequently say, that the said Cornelis Melyn had made them 
believe and declared to them, Director Petrus Stuyvesant would, as soon as he had built a wall 
around Foi't Amsterdam, come to kill them, namely the savages, whereupon the said savages fled 
and came armed to Gravesend, which belongs under the jurisdictien of the aforesaid Company ; 
there relying iipon their arms they were guilty of many misdemeanors and using force insulted and 
injured the inhabitants by beating and kicking them. Being interrogated by the inhabitants, why 
they did so, they answered, because Cornelis Melynlmd told them, that Director Stuyvesant wonld 
come to kill them ; this, witness says, he heard from the inhabitants and knows, that on account 
of it they made complaint to the said Director and Council of the insolence, turbulence and attacks 
of the savages, requesting to be protected against them. He, witness, knew this from hearing 
and seeing it every day, being then in New Amsterdam, also that many savages of different tribes, 
Raritans as well as Manhattans, have come several times to his, witness', hoiise, also into the kouse 
of the aforesaid Director, in fact into every house on Manhattan Island and said, what he, witness, 

New York Historical Heccrds. 161 

himself heard several times, that the aforesaid Melyn had bribed the savages to corae and murder 
the Director. In consequence of this and of other threats the Council resolved, that the Director 
sliould not go out of the city of Mew Amsterdam unless accompanied by four armed men, which this 
witness has seen done daily up to the time of his departure and believes is still done. He declares 
further, that he knows very well, that the said Melyn has several times been duly summoned to 
appear before the Director and Council and to testify regarding the abuses and smuggling practised 
on the last voyage of the aforesaid ship, which summons lie always refused to obey and he did not 
appear. Witness offers to confirm the foregoing if necessary under oath. 

Done at Amsterdam m presence of Eryn Pietersen van Seventer and Jan Mast, citizens, as 

Heney Schaeff, Not. Public. 


Wednesday, the 5'" of March 1652. 

The Director General and Council of New Netherland to all, who shall see, read or hear this 
read Greeting: 

Know ye, that we have before now several times informed and warned tlie Commander at 
the Colony of Rensslaerswych, not to shut in and obstruct the Hon'''^ Company's Fort Orange 
with new buildings and houses, whereas the said Fort's liberty is generally estimated to be 600 
geometrical paces* or 1200 steps, about a peterero shot distance. This order and warning has 
been communicated to the said Commander and to the Court of the Colony on the 23'' of July 1618 
by his Honor, the Director-General as well orally as in writing with this verbal request, as stated in 
the written propositions, not to allow the erection of any more new buildings within the liberty 
of the said Fort, unless he, the Commander, had previously obtained and could exhibit a special 
order or at least consent either from their High : Might :, our sovereigns, or from tlie Lords 
Directors of the Priv. W. I. Company as masters and owners of tlie Province of New Netherland: 
for outside of the said limits of the Fort's liberty above and below the Fort there are lots and 
places, more suitable for building purposes. Although these orders have been several times 
communicated to the said Commander by our respective Commissaries and by our letters, he has 
paid no attention to them, yet for the sake of accommodation and neighborly intercourse between 
the Fort and the dwellings of the Colony and in order to be in a better position to assist each 
other in time of need, we allowed ourselves to yield to the request of respectable and peaceful 
inhabitants so far, as to suspend provisionally after an ocular inspection until further orders from 
the Lords Directors their right to said limits, reserving the right to pull down the houses, if 
hereafter necessity demanded or the Hon'"'' Directors ordered such proceedings. The aforesaid 
Commander not being satisfied with that, ha,s propria autoritaie, without recognizing any higher 
prerogative in this Province, gradually begun to distribute the lots nearer to the Fort not only on 
a quit-rent, but, we are informed by good authority, also in fee simple, which is an absolute sale ; 
so that for the maintenance of the privileges of the Fort and of the Hon'''"' Company and their 

* A geometrical pace — 5 feet. Encycl. 

162 Early Colonial Settlements. 

jurisdiction and authority in this Province, we were finally compelled and obliged to defend and 
publicly proclaim their right and the limits of the Fort. This proclamation having been 
communicated to the said Commander, with an order and directions to publish the same in the 
Colony; he, to the disparagement of ourselves and our offi;ial position, of the high and sovereign 
authority of our Fatherland which we represent here and to the special affront of the Lords- 
Directors, the Patroons of this Province, most insultingly and indecently dared to tear it out of 
the hands of the Clerk or Assistant and to throw the seal of the Province on the gi-ound. 

The said Commander having by this insult and affront offered to the Supreme Government 
violated all neighborly obligations and our previous accommodating moderation, provisionally not 
to enforce the claim to the limits of the Fort's liberty until further orders were received from the 
Lords Directors, we are now by that unwarranted action and their derisive proclamation induced 
and constrained to revoke our previous favor and to direct our Commissary, as we herewith order 
him, not to permit any building or frame of a house to be erected either West or North West of 
the Fort within 600 geometrical paces of five feet each or 250 Eliineland rods, about the range of a 
cannon shot and that no one may hereafter plead ignorance, we command our Commissary, after 
having posted and published this, to erect or cause to be erected North, South and West of the 
Fort a post marked with the IIon^''= Company's mark at the distance aforesaid, as determining the 
provisional jurisdiction of the said Fort. 

Thus done and enacted, saving the claim of the Fisc to proceed on and against the Commander 

and others for this and other misdemeanors committed by them, in our Council this 5"" of March 


P. Stdtvesant. 

Form of a Contract foe the Iitpoetation of Neoeo Slaves feom Africa, pbescribed by tjie 

DiEECTOES of the W. I. CoMPANT. 

To-day the undersigned Director and Council of Ifew Netherlands authorized thereto by a 
resolution of the Department of Amsterdam, parties of the first part, and the owners of the ship 
whereof is commander, measuring about tuns, pai'ties of the second 

part, have agreed and contracted, that the aforesaid skipper shall receive a license and the necessary 
docmnents enabling him to trade for slaves on the coast of Africa and to make such other bargains 
as he shall deem to their best advantage : he shall further return to the Manhattans with the said 
slaves and such other freight, provided however, that the above licence shall not authorize him to 
trade on the Gold Coast and that he shall not come any further West than Ardre or at most 
Popo* under penalty of forfeiting the said ship and its cargo. The Director and CouncU shall be 
allowed to put a supercargo on board of the said ship, (whom the skipper shall be held to treat as 
cabin-passenger) and if necessary to administer a pertinent oath to the crew. For this consent and 
license the said owners promise to pay promptly upon the return of the said ship and before its 
freight is unloaded, to the said Director and Council fifteen guilders for each negro as duty without 
exception or computation, binding therefor their persons and property under renunciation of the 
benefit ordinis divlsionis et excusionis, as having full knowledge thereof. 

Done at Mew Amsterdajn this 

* Both in the present Kingdom of Dahomey. — B. F. 

New YorTc Historical Records. 163 

Deed of 15 Moegens of land on the East eivee, (Brooklyn). 

This day, date underwritten, before me, Andreas Johannes Chnstman, clerk, appointed by 
the Hon''"' Director and Council of New Netherlands appeared Jacob Leendersen, attorney of his 
lather-in-law, Frederick Lubbertsen, of the one part, and Jan Hendricksen Stelman, of the other 
part, who acknowledged in the presence of the undernamed witnesses [that they had agreed] abont 
the sale of a certain parcel of land situate on the East Eiver, between the lands of Harry Breser 
and Edward Wiscock, containing fifteen morgens, fifty-two rods, as appears by the ground brief 
thereof, signed by the Hon''''^ William Kieft, late Director, dated the fourth of September, A° 
1645,* for the sum of four hundred and fifty guilders. 

The Vendor hereby surrenders all right and claim of ownership to the above mentioned lands 
to and for the behoof of Jan Ilendrick Stelman, or his assigns, henceforth for ever. The vendor 
Jacob Leendersen, promises to guarantee the same against all challenge and pretension that may be set 
up thereto by any one in the world, parties promising this their bargain, contract and 
conveyance to hold inviolable, and to observe and execute the same. All under bond as by law 

In testimony, this is signed in the record by parties, with the witnesses hereunto invited, this 
7"" of March A° 165ii in New Avisterdain in New Netherland. 

Jacob Leendersen van der Grist. 
Jan Hendryoksen Stelman. 
Adrian van Tienhoven, witness. 
Patjlus Schreek, witness. 
Fiat transfer. 

Furthermore, we on the part of the Company, do hereby ordain the ratification of the sale. 

P. SnjrTESAifT. 

Eesolution authorizing some members of THE Council to communicate with the Nine Men 
and investigate a slanderous charge against the Director General. 

The Hon''' = Councillors La Montagne and Captain Nuton are hereby requested and authorized 
to present themselves in company with Secretary van Tienhoven at the meeting of the Nine Men 
{Gemeens inannen) of this city, and to communicate and read to them our written propositions 
placed in the hands of the abovementioned Secretary ; to hear and write down, or cause to be 
written their opinions thereon ; also, if the Hon'''^ Councillors consider it necessary, to compare 
the contrary opinions and to dispose matters for the best advantage of the public. The aforesaid 
Hon'''' Councillors are particularly requested, in the presence of the Nine Men, or of a committee 
of their Board, to examine and to hear Francis Fyn late Captain, and Andries Cristman, clerk, 
touching the calumnious language, the defamation and slander uttered, as we are informed, at the 
house of Captain Fijn in our absence against our person and'dignity. Which doing etc. 

New Amsterdam the 21'' March A" 1652. 

P. Stutvesant. 

* See tlie patent on page 61 , ante . 

164 Early Colonial 

Peoposition of the Dieector General to dismiss the Fiscal Hendeick van Dyck, 
submitted to and approved by the councuil. 

Without mentioning the various misbehaviors of the Fiscal van Dych, of which he has made 
himself guilty, by connivance, negligence and general failing to do Lis duty, he has now had the 
audacity, to insult, calumniate and scold us and the Hon''''' Council repeatedly, as his own confession 
and the evidence of trustworthy witnesses proves, especially his own petitions of July 4"", 1647 
and September 1651, the petition of the Hon*"'^ Council of 1648, all of which we have patiently borne 
and overlooked on his promise of reforming. Nevertheless, he has again been pleased to insult, 
calumniate and scold the writer hereof at the house of Captain Franfois Yyn, calling him in the 
presence of Yyn, his wife, the nurse and Andries Christman, "Scoundrel, Murderer, Tyrant, Hound, 
Baby " and other like names. Although we have a different opinion of ourselves and because so far 
respectable people never held us in such an estimation or were persuaded to believe it of us, yet 
as such insults and calumnies have been uttered repeatedly behind our back and in our presence 
we cannot bear it any longer, without causing our good name and reputation to be suspected. "We 
are therefore compelled for the sake of the Hon^'° Company's, our subjects' and our own honor 
to suspend the said Fiscal Hendrick van Dyck from his office and duties, until further orders 
from the Lords Directors shall have been received and in the meantime to communicate tliis to 
your Honors for approval or for the Fiscal's defence, as your Honors may deem best for our honor 
and the public welfare. 

New Amsterdam, the 27'" of March 1652. 

After the Director General Petrus Stuyvesant had read the foregoing to the Council and the 
Nine Men, they declared, that they could not produce anything to prove the innocence of the 
Fiscal and saw no reason, why he should not be suspended. New Amsterdam, 28'" of March 

La Montagne. 

Brian Newton. 

David Peovoost. 

WiLn. Beekman. 

PomvELis Leendertsen van der Grift. 
Teste CoRNELis van Tienhoven. 

The Fiscal Hend/riek van Dyck came before the Council, where the Hon"'^ Director General 
informed him that he, Hendrick van Dyck, was reported to have wounded the Director General 
in his reputation, which he herewith expressly denies and protesting against his suspension 
requested a copy of these proceedings. March 28"" 1652. 

The Director General has suspended the Fiscal and charges him not to meddle any more in 
the Company's affairs. The Secretary is directed to give him copies of the letter, which he, van 
Dyck, calls a pasquil, and of the above proposition of the Director General, made in regard to 
the letter to the Hon'''^ Council and the Board of Nine Men. 

New Yorh Historical Records. \ 65 

Patent to Feancis Soleil and Francis Grion, alias La Capelle, of 50 Morgens of land 


Petrus Stuyvesant, Director General, and the Council residing in New Netherland for tlie High 
and Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands, his Highness of Orange, the Hoii'''^ 
Directors of the General Incorporated West India Company, hereby acknowledge and declare that 
we have on this day, date underwritten, given and granted unto Francis Soillel and Frans Grion 
dit La Cappel a plantation containing fifty morgens situate on Mespachtes Ml, with the valley 
thereunto belonging, on the express condition and stipulation that the abovenamed Francis SoilUl 
and Frans G-rion and their assigns shall acknowledge the Hon'''^ Directors as their Lords and 
Patroons, under the sovereignty of their High Mightinesses the Lords States General of the 
United Netherlands, and obey their Director and Council as good inhabitants are bound to do, and 
further submit themselves to all such customs and taxes as are already imposed or may be imposed by 
their Honors. Therefore constituting the abovenamed Francis Soillel and Frans Grion, or their 
assigns in our stead real and actual possession of the aforesaid plantation and valley, hereby giving 
them full power and authority and special command to enter on, occupy, cultivate and make use 
of the land and valley aforesaid as they might do with other their patrimonial lands and effects, 
we, the grantors, in quality as aforesaid, desisting from all henceforth for ever ; further promising 
this conveyance firm, inviolable and irrevocable to hold, observe and execute, under bond as by 
law provided. 

In testimony this is by us signed and sealed with our seal the April A" 1652 in New 

Amsterdam in New Netherland. 


COLONISTS IN New Netherland; proclamation against traffic m powdee etc; New 
Amsterdam incorporated ; a New-Netherland bureau is to be established, to check 


Capelle and van Weeckhoven ; wae between the Mohawks and Canada Indians ; Eev'^^ 
Deisius and Grasmeee. 

1652, 4'" April. 

Honorable, "Worshipful, Pious, Dear, Faithful. 

Our last letters were dated the 21", 22* and 26*'' of March of last year, in which we wrote as 
much as was then necessary ; in the meantime we have duly received your letters of the 26"'-27"' 
of November 1650 by way of English Virginia and of the 21"', 29"" and 30"' of September of 
last year by the ships " Geldersche Blom " " Bonte Koe " and " het Hoff van Cleeff^^ " Kayser 
Carl" a,nd " St. Jfichiel'" ; we received besides several documents and papers, which we shall 
answer as briefly and as much to the point as possible. The satisfaction given to the people of 
our own as well as of the English nation by our address to them has decided us to continue this 
measure by the present ships, besides copying the aforesaid addresses, which might be unnecessary, 
if some unruly spirits did not try to persuade the community that these letters were not written 
by the whole board, but only by some of the Directors : therefore the duplicates are signed by all 

106 Early Colonial Settlements. 

tlie Directors, now in office, so that the coinrannity and our good inhabitants may see and learn, 
what the intentions of these false and mutinous fellows are. We have no doubt, that we shall be 
amply able to crush their malicious undertaking. The same community will feel still more 
assured of our good intentions, when they have learned of our favorable decisions upon divers 
requests made by them. 

They complain bitterly of the improper trade in powder, lead and guns carried on there by 
private parties. To prevent this as far as possible, we send herewith a printed placat with the 
execution of which the Fiscal is strictly charged. 

From our secret resolution, which we entrust herewith to the Honorable General, regarding 
the vexations by the savages, of which the inhabitants complain and to which they are exposed 
through the instigations of evil-minded persons, who make the savages believe, that we are not 
allowed to punish them for their illdoings, your Honor will perceive, that if necessary, in an 
emergency a league may be made with our English neighbors, that thereby the insolence and 
mischief -doing of the barbarians can be held in check ; we cannot however consent, to give them 
a preponderance in the council, for we consider that dangerous. 

We consent to their request to abolish the duty of 8 per cent upon tobacco raised there ; we 
are besides petitioning the government, that when the duties are again farmed out, the toU upon 
New Netherland tobacco may be left out : that would be a great advantage to the planters there 
and to promote such plantations still more, we consent herewith upon the request of the inhabitants 
there, that they may, in their own ships, fetch from the coast of Africa as many negroes, as they 
shall require for the cultivation of the soil under the enclosed conditions and regulations. There 
remains now only to grant their request concerning the freighting of one or two ships for their 
own account, regard being had to their obligations to and engagements with our colleagues 
Edward Man and Isaac van Beech ; they have of course in view the profits to accrue by such 
freighting from the return cargoes and the transport of many people, which for some years past 
private traders have been enjoying. Our answer must be, that at present many difficulties present 
themselves to this plan ; notwithstanding we had already undertaken to freight a ship of 200 lasts, 
armed with 20 guns, for which we had offered 8000 guilders and would even have given a little 
higher price, when the following happened. 

We were first summoned by the Burgomasters, who offered us 150 boys and girls from the 
orphan asylums, willing to be carried to New Netherland, at 30 guilders passage money per head 
or 8 stivers per day for board ; the said gentlemen had already made an order that all private 
freighters should carry over indigent passengers at this rate and this is the reason, why so many 
people are coming over in these ships. We had made provisional arrangements with some skippers 
for the passage of the young persons, also agreed with the Burgomasters upon the conditions under 
which the children were to be placed with good masters, namely they were to be bound out for 
the terra of 4 years and to receive besides the necessary food 50 to 60 guilders annually for 
clothing or as much more as you might obtain for them ; if the girls should marry with your 
consent before the expiration of their time of service, they were to become free, and if after 
having served their time they eoutinue to remain in their masters' services, they may do so upon 
such conditions, as they may themselves make, while to those, who desired to remain free, 25 
morgens of land each were to be allotted or as much as they were willing to cultivate. These 
conditions were approved by the Burgomasters and pleased many of the young people and we 
believed, that the community there would have gained their point by these means, but when we 
thought we were quite sure of it, it happened that the ships of the English Parliament, eommis- 

New YorJc Historical Records. 167 

sioned with letters of reprisal against the inhabitants of this country, captured about 60 of our 
merchantmen, among other the ship ^' Kayser CareV on her way from New Netherland. These 
proceedings have greatly surprised our government and in consequence three envoys were sent to 
England in the hope to effect a discontinuation of these robberies ; but contrary to all expectations, 
during the time of these negotiations the Parliament's ships took near the Caribean Islands and 
Barbadoes 25 or 2G ships, mostly belonging to this country. Their crews were received here so 
ill, that now preparations are being made to equip 150 vessels, which will shortly go to sea to recover 
in this manner the damages already suffered. You may guess yourselves, what the consequences 
will be. We have related all this in detail partly to warn you, to be on your guard, partly that 
you may judge why the abovementioned freighting cannot be carried out, for it does not look as 
if many goods will be sent to New Nethei-land this year, because a large quantity of merchandise 
sent over last year has remained unsold and also because of the abovementioned reasons and fears. 
We must therefore expect, that our revenues from import dues will be very small ; yet we see the 
price of the commodities required by you, rise considerably ; but to show you, how deeply we are 
interested in that country, you will And, that your demands have been almost completely satisfied 
by the coming ships, even as far as sending seamen and soldiers, among whom there are a few 
entered on the muster-roll, enlisted as soldiers for one year from their arrival there, but to engage 
afterwards in agriculture, which was originally their business. We have made no objections to 
this, because we can send others ia their places next year. You can now judge, how we have to 
exert ourselves, almost beyond our means, to make New Netherland a flourishing country and to 
enjoy at last after so great an outlay some fruits of our labor. We have expected for some time 
return cargoes of beaverskins and logwood, which you have led us to expect, for you informed us, 
that you were busy collecting a quantity of beavers, but we have heard nothing about it since : 
such return cargoes must henceforward be sent, else we shall be compelled and necessitated to 
refuse sending you so liberal supplies. 

It is true, we had directed Vice-Director Rodenburgh not to allow any logwood to be shipped 
from the Island, because we had intended to dispatch a ship for the purpose of fetching a cargo 
from there, as we had no doubt, that he would have taken care to have a full load ready by the 
arrival of the bearer hereof, Adrian Bloemmaert, whose ship " Ae< Hoff van Cleeff^'' we have 
chartered by the month according to the enclosed charterparty. The said Director must also be 
advised that some of our officers, among them one Jan Jansen van Hussen, have had the audacity 
of giving or selling a quantity of logwood to some skippers, toucliiug at Bonayro, as the enclosed 
invoices show ; we are further informed by good authority, that the said Director is carrying on quite 
an extensive trade in horses to the Carihean Islands ; the consequences of these proceedmgs 
must be, that in a few years the islands of OuraQao and Aruba will be entirely destitute of 
animals to the very great inconvenience and loss of the Company. We are by no means pleased, 
because we have as yet received neither from the said places nor from you a statement of the prizes 
captured and ships sold nor of the proceeds of the merchandise sent there, although we have called 
for them several times. That has been partly the reason of our sending out a book-keeper, that such 
excuses as want of assistance or unfamiliarity with the books should be made impossible, with 
which now the clerk Carl van Bruggen excuses himself : we have no doubt, however, that with 
the first ships coming thence we shall receive, according to his promise, a correct balance-sheet, so 
that we can make the proper entries. 

We have for this reason established here a special bureau for New- Netherland matters and it 
is therefore necessary, that we should receive by first opportunity accurate registers of all lands. 

168 Early Colonial Settlements. 

bouweries and houses, let out on lease by the Company, with the rents and conditions, under 
which they are rented ; and as the Exenitious show, that the island of Manhattans is always to be 
reserved for the Company, while we have reason to believe, that some lands and lots have been 
given to private parties without our knowledge, we require a detailed information concerning it, 
for it has the appearance, that with God's help we shall have there a large population in a short 
time; we must therefore keep good order, that every one may find a suitable place and that the 
land may be divided with more equality, than formerly', when everybody took, what pleased him 
best without knowledge or consent of the Directors or their officers as we find it now in the cases 
of Wouter van Tiuiller, Olfert Gerritsen,* Lubhert van DincJclage, Jacob Wolphertsen* and 
others, who have taken and purchased many tracts of land from the savages without our consent 
or knowledge. We consider this very intolerable and therefore deem it necessary, that your Honor 
should warn everybody by public advertisement, not to buy or take possession of any land without 
knowledge and approval of the Company and its officers, also dissolve all such contracts of purchase 
made heretofore, under the condition, that the buyers shall be reimbursed for their out-lays and 
the title vested in the Company. All this with the understanding, that we are and will be willing, 
to grant as much land to everybody, as he will undertake to cultivate and populate, but we do not 
intend to give away the land with unlimited boundaries, as formerly, especially not whole islands, 
of which one was given to Cornells Melyn, who upon 8 leagues of country has only settled 5 or 6 
living beings. His title has consequently lapsed since a good while and it would have been proper, 
that it should have been taken from him some time ago and given to people who would have better 
fulfilled their engagements. It seems now, that Baron Ilendrich and Alexander van der Capelle 
have negotiated with this fellow and bought from him one half of the island without previously 
informing us ; Baron Ilendrich van der Capelle declares besides, that he had given orders to buy 
for his account the land of the NieuwesincTc and Raritans back of Staten Island, which as we did 
not know it we had granted to the Hon'''' Cornelis van Werckhoven, who goes there with a goodly 
number of souls, to take possession, as j'our Honors may learn from the commission, which we 
gave him. If this gentleman is interested in the affairs of New-Netherland and especially in the 
welfare of the Company, as we hope he is, then he may become an instrument, by which many 
l)eople could be drawn thither, although we wish, that we could have refused the grant of such a 
colony, for we agree with your Honors and consider such grants very inconvenient for the Com- 
pany, but we could not refuse it to this man, who is a member of the Government, because we did 
not like to appear as being opposed to the influx of population ; here again in this grant we meet 
the inconveniences mentioned above, for Baron van der Capelle claims to have been proprietor of 
these lands for a year or eighteen months ; we must say to it, that we have had no knowledge of 
it and that they must come to an agreement among themselves ; these are the consequences of the 
attempt to establish a government within a government. 

If you had sent D'mclclagen to us, this would not have had happened and it could have been 
prevented in a rational way, considering he resigned his office without giving an account ; we are 
therefore imable to understand, that any salary is due to him, and we rather think, that he was 
resolved to leave the Company's service imder some disingenuous pretext, already in the year 
1650, when he pressed in so outrageous a manner to have his salary paid in full, with wliich he was not 
satisfied, but he had to stir up the soldiers also. We have so far overlooked many insolent acts 
of some unruly spirits, hoping that our benevolence and leniency might put them to shame, but 
as we see that urbanity does not help us, wo must rely upon God, the law and nature and we 

* Van Couwenlioven. 

New York Historical Records. 169 

charge and direct yon therefore herewith, that, if you discover some separate gatherings, 
conventicles or machinations against the government of our state or country, you proceed against 
such niahgnant conspirators according to their deeds, considering however that we desire by no 
means cause or reason to be given to any one for complaints that he is prosecuted to gratify 
private passions. For all that we have not failed to learn by experience, that many of the evil- 
doers take shelter under this pretext and although we know it to be unfounded, yet we 
have decided upon your proposition and in order to stop the general talk and gabble, that a court 
of judicature shall be established there, similar as far as possible to the court of this city ; we send 
you for this purpose printed copies relating to judicial courts and government. For the present 
we believe it will be sufficient to elect one schout, two biu'gomasters and five schepens ;* further 
that all sentences may be carried in appeal to the High Council for final judgment. In choosing the 
aforesaid officers care must be taken to select honest and respectable men, whom we hope jow will 
find among the burghers ; we desire that preference shall be given to persons of our nationality, 
which we think will be most satisfactory to the burghers and inhabitants. We also agree with 
your proposition to establish there a public school and believe a beginning might be made with 
one schoolmaster (liypodidasculunx), who could be engaged at a yearly salary of 200 to 250 
guilders. We recommend for this position Jan de la Montagnie, whom we have provisionally 
appointed to it and you may use the building of the City Tavern, if you find it suitable. 

We do not see by what means we can prevent the trade in lump wampum, as long as the 
fiscal will not discharge his duties faithfully, and we are afraid, that you too have not discovered 
the proper way, when you increased the value of money 25 per cent in order to bring small specie 
into the country, of which we believe a quantity will go over in these ships : you will thus soon 
learn the result of your resolution. General experience however has demonstrated, that the 
increase of the value of money has usually been the ruin of the country and its population ; we 
consider therefore this a matter of dangerous import and find it very unadvisable to have passed 
this resolution without our knowledge. 

As to the trade with Boston a,nd Virginia we have already before now given you our opinion 
and still believe, that it would prejudice our privileges : we therefore consider it necessary, that 
all merchandise coming that way into our territories pny the same duties as that coming directly 
from this country. We are convinced, that the Verbruggens and others carry on a contraband 
traffic by various means ; we here are not in a position to prevent it, but closer attention should be 
paid there at the unloading of their cargoes ; that is the duty of the fiscal and he must discharge 
it more faithfully or else we will be compelled to take other measures. The same Yerhruggens 
and many others complain, that you have raised the duty on merchantable beavers to 15 st. the 
beaver, of which we found the proof in the invoices ; they claim therefore, that what you have 
received too much should be refunded by an ofF-set against the duties : we could not refuse that, 
for our intention and express order was, that you should not demand more than 8 per cent for 
every merchantable skin, the beaver skin being valued at 8 guilders and we repeat herewith our 
order, that we may not get into new difficulties with the merchants every time. 

We cannot understand, where the great danger lies, which you apprehend from our commission 
given to the ship " WaterhonV : it differs somewhat from the commissions given to other ships, 
which are chartered for the voyage out and back, while the " Waterhont " was chartered only for 
the voyage out with license to try its luck upon its outward arrival in finding an advantageous 

* There are two copies of this letter, sent by diflferent ships. In one of these the words " one schout " are 
stricken out. — Ed. 

170 Early Colonial Settlements. 

return cargo : the same perniissiou will now be given to the " Hoff van Cleeff" unless we should 
freight her for Guragao iiud the neighboring islands, as stated above, so that we could not sec any 
danger in this, but rather in the neglect to obtain letters of reprisal, as all other skippers have 
done : especially as he has since been fortunate enough to come across and capture a sugar ship, 
which you and your council have declared confiscated by formal judgment, distributing the cargo 
of this prize, as if the skipper had received a commission in due form. We must therefore tell 
you, that the capture was made for the benefit of the Company and not in behalf of the skipper 
and the shipowners : the whole cargo of sugar ought to have been consigned to us, so that we 
could dispose of it according to the rights and privileges of the Company against the Portuguese. 
H'ow we have to submit to many calumnies on that account and defend several suits : among 
others the owners and after them the underwriters have attached the sugar, asserting that as the 
skipper had no proper authority to make reprisals, he should be punished as a pirate and so on. 
We have already a good deal of trouble about it and do not know, what the result will be, for we 
observe, that these people still have their friends, especially because the loss of the insurance falls 
upon citizens and inhabitants here. We also judge so, because Johannes Dychman and other 
passengers attract but little attention with their complaint, that they had received too small a 
share in the partition, although they could make no claim for any share, until the judgment was 
definitely confirmed here. Anyway we find, they received more, than was due to them. We 
notice further, that the whole case has been sadly mismanaged, many articles have been stolen, 
especially all the loaf-sugar ; some tobacco, silverware and gold coins : eight chests were kept back 
to defray the expenses, which is a great deal, and a large quantity for presents and similar 
purposes : this causes many complaints and others are made on account of the ship " Neu 
Nederlantsche Fortuijn^'' skipper Daniel Machielsen ; although it is now proved by all the 
documentary evidence, that this ship and its cargo were confiscated legally and for good reasons, 
we shall yet have some trouble about it, because some people had shares in it, who will not 
understand, that a ship, being a dead instrument, can sin ; but we believe, that these people will 
suffer themselves to be enlightened on this point. This, however, is our least trouble: but we observe, 
that the fiscal neglected to seize the contraband goods, upon which the right of confiscation is 
based and if we had not been more alert here to obtain clear proof, that the munition of war was 
part of the cargo, as you may see from the enclosed invoices, the documents sent by you would 
hardly have stood the test, for some of the declarations of the mate and crew are contradictory 
and we are very much astonished, that the necessary information concerning these proceedings 
and confiscation is not given more intelligently. We consider also the sentence very intricate, as it 
declares ship and cargo liable to confiscation excepting the property of the crew and passengers 
and what has been duly cleared and that this may be proved by the bills of lading. Now we find, 
that by public auction a lot of goods has been sold there, amounting according to a list sent us to 
fl 7352.2, and we are told, that these goods were regular merchandise, not subject to confiscation, 
but not a word is said about the disposal of this money, whether it was held in trust for those who 
have a right to it or what became of it. Although no invoice of these goods has been produced, 
you could have seen from the bills of lading and lists sent you, that they were duly cleared here, 
and the duty paid for them, therefore, even if the custom house clearances had been wanting, 
these goods could not be subject to confiscation, because it often happens here, that quantities of 
merchandise shipped hence are covered only by a simple bill of lading. In this case we need not 
enter into a dispute, for the clearances were produced here and we send you duly authenticated 
copies herewith. That they have not been shown to you is the fault of Allard Anihotii/'s timidity, 

New Yoi'h Historical Records. 171 

to whom these goods were consigned and who therefore should have claimed them; but evil-minded 
persons frightened him by saying, that his own goods, shipped to him free of duty, would be 
challenged. The owners have now requested the restitution of the aforesaid money and we see 
no reason whatever, why it should be refused ; we trust, that it has been kept there in consignment 
and good care and it must be paid over to the owners : as we have also good reason to say, that 
the whole matter has not been sufficiently explained to us, so we have still more to say about the 
proceedings concerning the ship, of which not a word has been said, whether it is to be used in 
the Company's service or what has been done with it : we have been told by strangers, that it was 
sold for 113200 and sent with provisions to Curasao or the Caribean Islands, a proceeding, which 
makes us suspicious. This ship is now claimed by Baron Hendrick van der (Japelle and his 
partners, who assert the ship could not bo liable for the misconduct of Cornells Melijn : we say 
that Melyn has been condemned as agent and in behalf of the skipper, that before sentence was 
pronounced sufficient bail was given, that his real estate has been attaclied for it and that they are 
fully justified in proceeding against and claiming the money received for the ship. But here again 
we have no evidence of how much it has been sold for or what has become of the money ; if the 
skipper has received it, then he is i-esponsible for it to his owners : you will observe and take 
notice, that we require much clearer proofs not only in this case, but also in some preceding cases 
of confiscation, which caused us nothing but great trouble : we should not be exposed to it. 

We are quite concerned in regard to the request of the Canada savages, who have become 
involved into a war with the Maquaes and resolved to go into the country of the latter ; to 
do so they would require permission to cross over the North river and have already asked it from 
your Honor. We consider a consent to their request very dangerous, for we must fear to get into 
trouble with the savages, the more so for the reasons mentioned above ; it is therefore our opinion, 
that it is best, to refuse siich a passage politely. 

We cannot sufficiently express our astonishment at the insolence and boldness of Brant van 
Sleohtenhorst in undertaking to deprive some people of their gardens, made by them around Fort 
Orange. We can only say to it, that we desire our authority in the neighborhood of this fort to be 
maintained in every way as far as a cannon shot and if he has injured any citizen within these 
limits or ruined anything, then he must repair it and pay for the damage. From what we can 
learn here, the owners of the Colony of Rensselaersioych have here come to an agreement and will 
probably send over another manager, but we doubt, whether they will easily get rid of Slechtenhorst, 
for it is said here, that he demands from the owners 14000 to 15000 guilders; we know not, how 
true it may be. 

Wouter van Twijler is again very troublesome about the payment of his accounts for 
provisions delivered to the forts there ; we could not think of a better expedient in regard to him, 
tlian to tell him, we would direct you to liquidate the accounts there with his agent and we hope, 
that when he shall account for the tithes from his colony, he will be obliged to pay us. You do 
well, to manage the collection of the tenth as discreetly as possible : we have no doubt, however, 
that the citizens and inhabitants will notice the leniency, with which we act towards them and 
considering the great expenses, which we have every day, will submit willingly. 

As we have reasons to hope, that a large number of people will go over, we recommend to 
you most urgently to see after the cultivation of every product of the soil and the laying in of 
provisions, necessary for the subsistence of the people, also to issue orders regarding the disorderly 
and untimely slaughtermg of cattle, so that the emigrants may find a proper supply of victuals. 

We are wondering, that so few sheep are found there, for we believe the country is suitable 

172 Early Colonial Settlements. 

for raising them and are led to think, that little attention is paid to them or that they are killed too 
soon : you will know better, what the reasons are. 

"We receive here frequent warnings concerning the exportation of horses from Curasao and 
Aruha to i\\Q CarU>ean Islands ; you will therefore warn JRodenburgh by every opportunity to 
take heed or else we shall be forced to adopt other measures. 

You tliink, we have done well in treating -with Jean Dillan about establishing a colony at 
Curasao ; we have now granted a like privilege to a Portuguese, Joseph Nunes de Fanseca, alias 
David Ifassi, agreeable to the here-enclosed patent, who is preparing to go there with a large 
number of people. Time must show, whether we shall succeed well with this nation : they are a 
crafty and generally treacherous people, in whom therefore not too much confidence must be 

The contract projected by Justus van de Yenne has surprised us very much and we consider 
ourselves very fortunate, because it has fallen into your hands : it will show you, how such persons 
try to deal with the Company : we must oppose such contracts by all available means and therefore 
consider it necessary to purchase from the savages or natives as much land as can be obtained and 
thereby prevent all such dangerous dealings by private parties. 

Tour journey to the South Hirer and what has passed there between the Swedes and you, 
has surprised us, as you had not previously mentioned this intention ; God grant that what you 
have done may turn out for the best ; we cannot express our opinion of it, before we have not 
heard, how the complaints of the Swedish Governor will be received by the Queen : we hope that 
the proofs of our jirevious possession will be accepted as sufficient : but we see little probability nor 
any opportunity to make here arrangements with the Swedes for settling the boxmdary question : nor 
can we say much, whether the demolition of Fort JVassau was a very prudent act, as indeed 
nobody could claim it and time must show, whether the Swedes will so understand it in regard to 
the erection of the new Fort, called Casemirus ; we are in the dark as to the reasons, why the 
fort has been given this name ; it must be guarded with care, that it may not be taken by surprise : 
we do not know, whether it is very necessary to make any fortifications opposite to the Fort on the 
east side of the river and must leave tliis to your discretion, but in connection with this matter we 
also must warn you to take good care, that no strongholds be erected upon some islands near the 
Manhattans by people, who liave had the audacity of instigating the savages against us : you will 
inquire into this matter closely and finding it confirmed as true proceed against these people as 
their acts deserve ; we charge you however to use the utmost discretion in all your proceedings, so 
that you may answer for them to everybody. 

We have no objections to the provisional agreement with the English about the boundaries 
and the envoys, who have gone to England, have been instructed to come to an agreement about 
it with tlie government there, if possible ; but the relations between England and this country are 
by no means pleasant; God grant they may not- result in extreme measures. Under these 
circumstances it is absolutely necessary, that you be well on your guard, for we fear, the English 
of New England may pick a quaiTcl with us : we hope for the best and that, even if England and 
our government should have a misunderstanding, they will not refer to this question. "We judge 
it would be advisable to make with them some kind of provisional agreement in form of a league 
against all nations, who might intend to do harm to or attack either of us there ; it must provide 
in one clause for a vote upon all resolutions. To obviate this and other unavoidable difficulties we 
deemed it necessary, to send you again by this ship some soldiers and ammunition according to the 
enclosed statement. "We have learned with pleasure, that the fort at New Amsterdam is in good 

New Yorh Historical Records. 173 

condition ; should it require any repairs, you must see to them without delay ; the same rule applies 
to the other forts, especially Fort Orange. 

There comes on board the ship " Romeyn " as supercargo a person by name of Frederick 
Alkes, who has been schoolmaster at Hoorn ; he writes a good hand, but we know little else about 
him ; he is recommended by a man of quality and requested, that he might be allowed to remain 
there, if he liked the country. This board gave him such permission, although it is somewhat 
against our common custom ; but sometimes we cannot well refuse such demands and if his habits • 
are as good as his penmanship and a schoolmaster is wanted, then you might consider him, but let 
him first be thoroughly tested, for we have noticed, that the climate over there does not improve 
people's characters, especially when the heads of the administration do not set a good example to 
the community. We hear a number of complaints from people coming thence against the Fiscal and 
about his drunkenness and other things : should he continue on this path, we would feel compelled 
to act as we shall think fit. 

As Vice-Director Lucas HodeiibiirgJi complains bitterly over the loss of the barge, which they 
used in the trade to Artiba and Bonairo and in consequence of which he has no vessel whatever, we 
had tried to have a sloop built here of sufiicient size, -with a deck ; but upon consultation with the 
skipper Adrian Blommart and others, who say, that it could be done there with less trouble and 
expense, for it would cost much to bring this sloop over, we have concluded, that you should have 
such a sloop or any other vessel, considered by you suitable for the above purpose, made ready 
there, taking what is necessary for it from the present shipment. 

At your urgent request for another preacher, whom you desire, if possible, able to preach in 
the English language, we have made every effort and at last as if sent by the Lord Domine Samiiel 
Dries, a bachelor of about 40 years, has made his appearance, who on account of the perturbances 
in England^ where he had been preaching and was born of Dutch parents,* has retreated from there. 
He has the reputation of being a very pious man and possessed of great gifts, is able to preach in 
both languages, English and Dutch and if necessary even in French. He is said to be of a very 
peaceful disposition and agreeable conversation, so that we are confident, the community will be 
pleased with him and that he will be a great instrument for the propagation of God's holy word 
and glory, also a fit assistant to the old gentleman, D" Megapolensis. We have allowed him a 
salary of fl 100 per month and fl 250 a year for subsistence and as he is unmarried, we have thought, 
it might not be inconvenient, if he boarded with Johan de la Ilontagnie ; but we do not wish to 
press such an arrangement upon either and propose it only from pure affection. 

As you now will have learned, that we do our very best to promote the spiritual and temporal 
welfare of New Neiherland, we urge you most earnestly to use all proper and suitable measures 
in endeavoring to find means for defraying a part of all these extraordinary expenses : we think the 
commmiity, whom we try to accommodate in every thing, should make an effort to assist their 
ministers and supply their wants, for if everything were to remain upon our shoulders, we might 
at last find the burden too heavy. 

Upon your recommendation we had an eye upon D" Grasmeer, but found his affairs with the 
reverend Synod so far from being settled, that he cannot sail this year: it is true, the charges 
against him have been satisfactorily disposed of by the Classis of Alckmaer. but the Synod had to 
approve of this decision and it will not sit until next August : then the time to sail this year will have 
the good man is much inconvenienced by it, but it is considered best for him on all sides that 

* Tlieae words are omitted in the copy of this letter, above referred. — B. F. 

174 Early Colonial Settlements. 

he should submit in everything to the ordinances of the church of this country and as God is a 
God of order, we doubt not that he will take care of him and aD pious people. 

"We enclose an account of a lot of logwood, part of which one Jan Jansen Iluyssen has sold 
at Bonairo, another part he has given as a present to skippers and others : Lucas liodenlurgh 
must be sharply written to about this matter and the seller must be called upon for the amounts, 
which he received for it. 

We alluded above to the contest about to arise between Baron Hendrick van der Capelle and 
Cornells van Werckhoven concerning the territory of the Nieuesinck and Raritans ; this matter 
has gone so fiir already, that they have entered written protests against each others ; the Honorable 
Mr. Werckhoven has addressed himself to us and requested, that he should be supported in the 
privileges granted by us, which we shall find ourselves obliged to sustain as far as possible, that so 
improper purchases of land from the savages may henceforth be prevented ; the said Werckhoven 
has also petitioned their High : Might: for the above reasons and we expect to see now shortly, 
what rules shall be established in these matters. 

Undoubtedly much trouble will again arise out of this matter and the evil-minded -will 
endeavor to throw the blame for all the disorder upon the Directors, notwithstanding that we have 
in this case clear proof, that some of the law-makers are the cause of it. Time must show, what 
the result will be. 

Honorable, "Worshipful, etc. 

The Directors of the "W. I. Company 

Amsterdam, Department of Amsterda?n 

the 4"^ of April 1652. David tan Baerle. 

Jacob Peegens. 

Minutes of the Classis of Amsteedam.* 

Meeting of Feb. 26, 1652. 

Rev. John Rulitius in the chair. 

Rev. Samuel Drisius presented himself. He was formerly pastor in England, but educated 
hy German parents and in the German tongue. He declared his readiness to be employed as 
minister in New Netherland. Inasmuch as the Lords Directors greatly desired a minister, who, 
besides the Dutch, could also preach in English, it was resolved that next Monday a trial should 
be made as to his German {Dutch) pronunciation. Subsequently, further negotiations could be 
held with his Reverence. 

Meeting of March 11, 1652. 

Rev. Matthias Musruis in the chair. 

In accordance with the previous resolution, a trial was made last Monday of the gifts bestowed 
by God on Rev. Samuel Driesch for preaching in Dutch. These were found not only sufficient, 
but to the great satisfaction of the brethren, were very agreeable and edifying : His Reverence is 
considered to be a very desirable person to serve the Church of God in New Netherland. He 
has also declared his willingness to go, and as two vessels are about to sail, it is found necessarj' to 
call a meeting of Classis for next Monday, March 18'". 

* From "Aynsterdam Correspondence " in the Library of the Seminary of the Reformed Church in AmeHca, New 
Brunswick, iV. J., kindly furniahed by Rev. K T. Corwin, of Millstone, If. J. 

New YorTc Historical Mecords. 1 To 

Letter of the DraECTOES of the W. I. Company to the Inhabitants of the Manhattans : 


To the Commonalty at the Manathans. 

Honest, Pious, Dear, Faithful. 

"We wrote you last on the 22'' of March of last year and send you copy of that letter herewith, 
that you may fully assure yourselves of our good intentions regarding your community and the 
country there ; the more so, as we were much surprised to learn by your letter of the 29"' of 
September, that so evil-minded persons are to be found there, who have the impudence to say, these 
letters were written by a few of the Directors, because they are signed only' by two. We now tell 
you, that this has always been the custom of this board ; yet to convince you still more and to 
stop the lying tongues of those treacherous mutineers, these copies will be signed by all tlie 
Directors now in office, also this letter ; we warn you however, that it will not be done in future 
and you most give us full credence to all letters arriving there signed by two Directors, as if they 
were signed by all, for the above stated reason. 

In answer to yonr requests concerning divers matters, we will briefly say, that we endeavor 
always to help with the best of our abilities in carrying out any reasonable proposition. Above 
all be assured, that we direct herewith the hon'*''' Director and Council not to collect henceforth 
the duty of 8 per cent on tobacco grown there ; we are further busy here soliciting the supreme 
government, that the import duty here upon tobacco grown in New Netherland may also 
be abolished, which would be a gi-eat benefit for the planters there : we shall in due time inform 
you, what success we have had with our solicitations. We try to discover means by which to 
prevent the usurious trade carried on there to the disadvantage of the community, but for want of 
sufficient means it is as yet impossible to break it up entirely : still with these ships as large a quantity 
of provisions are sent to liis Honor the Director, for the benefit of the community as our funds 
allowed us to purchase here : we intend to continue making such shipments. 

As to your request, that one or two ships miglit be chartered for account of your community 
in order to provide yourselves in this way with farm-laborers and other young people to be 
employed in cultivating the land ; we ca^ only presume, that it is the intention of the community 
to enjoy by those means the benefits, now reaped by private parties and shipowners from the 
passiige and subsistence money paid by people going to New Netherland, who are now charged 
fl 50 per head ; this has kept back many, who could not bear the expense and to obviate it the 
hon''''' Regents of this city have made an order, that all persons of small means shall be carried over 
by the skippers for fl 30 : many have taken advantage of this order and go over in these ships. 
Pursuant to your plan we had already tried to charter oae or two ships and offered fl SOOO for the 
charter of one of 200 lasts; but as the provisioning of 100 to 150 persons, taking passage, would 
cost a large sum, which made us as somewhat uneasy on your account, we feared, that your hopes 
of profits would not be realized in that way; especially as something has occurred here between 
England and our government, which has brought them both into hostile position to each other ; 
so that everybody began to be careful and it was apparent that but very small cargoes of 
merchandise would be shipped across the ocean. Besides another proposition was made by the city, 
offering to turn over to us 150 boys and gii'ls from the poor-houses to be taken to New Netherland 
free of expense, provided we would apprentice them there to good masters for four years, during 
which time they were to receive clothing and board or if they chose fl 60 annually for clothing 

176 Early Colonial Settlements. 

themselves. In this manner we thought your request might be fulfilled in the safest and most 
expedient way, but the reasons, why this plan cannot be carried out fully, will be explained to you 
by his Honor, the Director. In order that you may be still more convinced of our good will 
txjwards your community, we consent, that you may send ships to the coast of Angola and Africa 
to fetch thence as many negroes as you will require for agricultural purposes, subject to the 
conditions and rules sent herewith to the Director. We consign to him also some ammunition, 
powder, lead and other things, directing him to sell at a fair price to the burghers and community 
as umch, as each shall need for his defense, for we are resolved to stop if possible the unlimited 
contraband trade in these goods carried on by private parties and thus to protect our good 
inhabitants against violence and molestation : we know very well that there is a number of restless 
mutineers who not satisfied with trying to mislead the community there, are also stirring up an 
agitation liere in the name of the community. Yom* letters and protests liowever will be sufficient 
to put them to shame. We trust the good community will on their side always persist in doing 
then- duty towards their patroons, as we on our side shall at all times be willing to let the 
community rule in everything reasonable and maintain them in everything lawful, as you can 
ascertain without liarboring any doubt from the orders sent herewith to the Director and 

Meanwhile we send you our greeting etc. 

Amsterdam, i"" of April 1652. 

Leitek from the same to the Magistrates of Hempstead and Gravesend: on similab 


Honorable, Pious, Dear, Faithful. 

Our last letter to you was written on the 22^ of March of last year, since which time we have 
received yours of the 25"" of September 1651. We have learned by it of your continued 
complaints against the illicit trade with powder and lead, by which private parties provide the 
savages in too great an abundance, so that grown insolent the latter cause much vexation to our 
good inhabitants by stealing their cattle and also murdering some persons named by his Honor, 
the Director. We can only presume, that such boldness is the result of the misdemeanors of some 
mutineers, belonging to onr nation, who appear to persuade these savages, that their evil deeds 
will not be punished : the government here and especially the Directors of this Company have 
quite a different intention ; therefore we think it necessary to assure you, that we are giving such 
orders in regard to the one and the other matter, as to make you feel, that your complaints have 
touched our hearts. We send for this purpose herewith placats directed against those, to whom 
yon refer in your first complaint, for we do not wish that any private parties shall bring there any 
powder or lead or other kind of ammunition under the penalty stated in the placat : we shall 
send every year to the Director such a quantity of it, as we shall consider necessary to be used by 
our inhabitants for their defense or in hunting and herewith we order him to provide you with 
what you require. 

As to the second point, secret instructions are sent to the Director and Council for their 
government in an emergency : if therefore any trouble befal you or violence be done to you, the 

New TorJc Historical Recoi^ds. 177 

way of complaint is open to you and you will learn by experience, that these barbarians will find 
themselves deceived by treacherous information. We would have liked to accommodate you agreeably 
to your request to charter here some ships, for account of your community, for the transport to New 
Netherland of farm laborers or young fellows, fit to be employed in farm or other work ; but as 
we can only infer from this request, that by these means you desire to enjoy the profits etc. 
(From here this letter is a copy of the preceding.) 

Deposition of Thomas Foster and others regarding Die. Stutvesant's action at Flushing, 

L. I. 

April the 8"" 1652. 

The deposition of Thomas Foster, Stephen Hudson and Tsaeh Bohye taken before the 
Maiestrates oifflushhig is that they comming into the meeting at Hempstead heard the Governor 
say that the towne had not made a legall choice and that all that they had done since Captaine 
Tapping went away hee looked at it to bee as noething and wished them to make a new choice and 
hee would confirme them this is the full scope of what was written soe nere as wee can remember. 

John Underhlll. 
Thomas Chandler (?) 
EoBART Tekri. 

Proceedings in Coilrt. Action ln land matters. 
April 15, 1652. 

Ahraham Verplanck pltff against DircTc Teunissen the Norman deft. 

The PlfE demands to know, why Deft, burns lime upon his, plaintiff's, land instead of 
cultivating it, as he had engaged to do, for through the burning of lime the soil is impoverished 
and not improved as the conditions of the lease require ; furthermore the plaintiff was to be 
benefitted by the increase of cultivated land, that is the fourth part. 

The Deft, replies, that he has sown 7 sehepels of winter grain, but no summer grain for want 
of horses. 

The Court of Nine Men decide, that Plff. shall be allowed to take the fourth part of the 
burned lime and that it is to be his fourth of the increase. 

178 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Letter fkom the Directors in Holland to Stuyvesant: he is not yet to obey the order 
OF eecall issued by the States-Geneeal. 

Valiant, Honorable, Pious, Dear, Faithful. 

Their High : Might : only just now, when the private ships are ready at the Texel to start 
with the first good wind for Neio Netherland, sent us their letter and the resolution, passed 
already the 17"" of last month, by which they summon you to appear without delay, to make a 
report on the territory of New Netherland and the boundary question between the English and us 
there.* We consider it proper and necessary to send you copies of them herewith : as the above 
resolution was passed without the knowledge of this Department or of the Asenibly of the XIX, 
further without any communication having been made to the deputies of the several Departments 
at the Uagiie, and as it is contrary to the charter, granted to the Company by their High : Might : 
according to which such matters must be referred to the Assembly of the XIX, therefore we direct 
you not to proceed on your voyage hither with too much haste, but wait until you have further 
advices from us. 

Meanwhile we hope and trust to remove the erroneous impression made upon their High : 
Might : by incorrect information and to succeed in having the resolution rescinded. 

The above had been penned, when Mr. Pergens returned from the Hague, where he had 
hastened to prevent if possible your recall : he reports, that he had spoken about it with many 
members of the Assembly of their High : Might : and had so far succeeded, that their Honors, the 
Burgomasters Graaff and vayi Swieten with six or seven members of the States of Holland had 
appeared before their High : Might : at 9 o'c' yesterday morning and had called uj) the resolution 
adopted by their High : Might : on the 27"" of April, which having been read, the States of 
Holland protested against it and it was agreed, that it must first be brought up in the Assembly 
of Holland : we received also by express a letter, that it was resolved to keep back the above 
mentioned documents. 

Herewith etc. 

Your good friends 

Amsterdam, The Directors of the West India Company 

the 17"* of April 1652. Department of Amsterdam 

Jacob Peegens, J. Ryckaeet. 

Ilerewitli copy of tlie cargolists of the ship " Hofd van Cleef" for your guidance. 

Lettee from the same to same: Geeaed Smith, Nicholas and Joost xxs Beeck send 


Honorable, Valiant, Pious, Dear, Faithful. 

Our general letter to you had been Avritten and closed, when upon their request, we granted 
to S" Gerard Smith, Nicholas and Joost van. Beek that their agents in New Netherland might 
choose as much land, as they may be capable to cultivate with the people, whom they are now 

* See the Resolution of the States General N. Y. Col. Doc. I, 471. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 179 

sending over : we have granted them also one or two good lots upon the Manhattans and have 
thought lit to advise you hereof, recommonding and desiring you to assist the abovenamed 
persons or their agents as much as possible, subject to the conditions and rules of the Exemptions 
and the ordinances of the Company. 
Herewith etc. 
Amsterdam, The Directors of the W. I. Comp. 

the 18'" of April 1652. Department of Amsterdam. 

David vau Baerle, J. Eyckaeet. 
To Petrus Stuyvesant, Director in Mew Netherland. 

Letter from Dir. Sttttvesant to Gov' Endioott : the war between England and Holland : 


Honored S'. 

Since my last vnto you I have heard the sad newes of differences tliat haue or are like to arise 
betwixt the states of our natiue countries what the Lord's will is therein wheather for punish"" to 
our or both nations, his good pleasure must be obeyd & we must thereunto patientlie submit, yet 
I must acknowledge that I am trulie grived & afflicted that either debate or warre should arise 
betwixt them not only in reguarde of that long & antient vnion of loue and peace they haue for 
many yeares maintained & observed betwixt each other, but that through theyre sides religion will 
become wounded & the gospell schandalised to the reioycing & triumphing of the ennemies 
thereof who will vpon all occasions be ready to adde fuell to the fire : yet S"', if publique warre 
should arise betwixt o' natiues for myne owne p''te I doe not only desire but shall vnfainedly 
indeavour that all loue friendship & neighbourlie Compliance may be duly observed betwixt us in 
these p''tes of the world & for that end shall vpon all occasions be ready to attend all due 
meanes that may therevnto conduce & to that purpose haue forraerlie written vnto ye worthie 
Gouernour Brad,forde with my intentions of meeting with the Commission" att Plimmouth had 
Conueniencie serued of the w'^" I suppose the said Gouern' hath fuly acquainted all y'^ Commissio"" 
togeather with the reasons tliat moue me therevnto As first our ioynt p'fession of our ffaith in 
our Lord Jesus Christ not differing in fundamentalls. 

2''' the malice of the natiues who would be glad to see vs att variance heere in these p'tes that 
thereby they might haue occasion and opportunitie to worke mischief to either. 

3''' the greate seperation & distance from our natiue Countries being here settled in a vast 
wilderness & left as it were to ourselues amongst multitudes of barbarians & of whose ffriendship 
or p''forming Couenant there is as little hope as dependancie : the w'*" (to me) calls for a more 
nearer vnion of loue & friendship betwixt vs y' are in these remote p'ts, the w* I haue often 
written soe now againe for the discharging of that Christian duty I ought to p''form towards 
my Christian neighbours, I reallie prfesse my readynes & willingnes therevnto in all affairs of loue 
& for that I vnderstand by one Jo : ye Sailmaker of your intentions of writing to me concerning 
a eertaine man suspected to be guilty of murder & that he should be in our Jurisdiction, beleave 
me S"' neither he nor anj' other raalefactour or fugitive shall haue either p''tection or Countenance 

180 Early Colonial Settlements. 

heere & if I may but receiiie a line or two from yourselfe to that effect I shall send him or i 
other to you there to receiue theyre tryeall, Soe S'' with my due respects I rest. 

Y' louing friend & seruant. 

Letter from the same to Governor Eaton of New Haven Colony : peace in America to 


THE Manhattans. 
Honoured S'' 

The Command of my principals & Complying with myne owne desires for the preseruatio 
of all ffriendlie & neighbourlie respects with your nation in these p'tes of America although it 
hath pleased God that sad differences are arisen vp betwixt them in Europe, which in his good 
tyme I hope will be issued with as much loue and vnion betwixt them as f ormerlie ; I hope and 
desire that your wisdom & integritie will Center in the same ends of loue & peace betwixt vs ; 
& for y' I understand of late order made amongst you for the prohibitio of transportatio of 
prvisios allthough diners there are indebted vnto our merch" to pay in the same specie, & some 
of ours being indebted iil the like to some of yours there & the w"'*' may cause some obstruction 
of mutuall trade betwixt vs & thereby that loue & peace & friendlie Compliance which I desire 
to hould with you my neighbours cannot be so well maintained & cherished as I desire it might 
be ; I hope your wisdom will soe farre take it into consideration that vppon a true knowledge of 
friendlie neighbourlie intendments the s'^ order may be soe moderated that euery one of either 
side may have theyre due rights & for the further p'motio & settlement of our affaires in these 
p'tes on a fast and friendlie foundatio of loue I have written to y" Gouern' Endicott concerning 
my intentio' either of Coraeing myself or sending my Delegates to treate with the Commissioners, 
in the interim as I will & haue by my letters of p''tection giuen to diuerse of yo' Countriemen 
that they should passe repasse trade & Comerce amongst vs without molestatio or disturbance & 
have full benefit of law for y' recouerie of any of theyre debtes they shall make here : soe I hope 
& desire you will please to doe the like. 

To Gouern' Eaton. 

Eesolutions of the Amsterdam Depaetment, W. I. Company, granting land on Manhattans 
AND Long Island, etc. 

Extracts from the Register of Resolutions 
passed by the Directors of the "W. I. Comp. Dept. of 
Monday, March 4"" 1652. 

It has been decided upon the request of Jacob BaseUer to grant to him five hundred morgens 
of land on Long Island on condition that he convey thither twenty persons in the course of a 

New Yorh Historical Records. 181 

Thursday, April 18"> 1652. 

On the request of S'° Oerard Smith, Nicolas and Joost van Beech the decision is, that 
petitioners shall be allowed to select either themselves or through their agents as much and such 
land in New Netherlands as they shall be able to cultivate, also one or two good lots on the 
Manhattans, to build houses and the Director there shall be written to, to assist the aforesaid 
petitioners and all others as they require it, subject to the conditions of the Exemptions and the 
rules of the Company already in force or hereafter to be made. 

Thursday, April 25'"' 1652. 

The petition of Olaes Jansen Backer was read, in which he asks for a grant of the land formerly 
in the occupation of Jan van Rotterdam deceased, which partly by his death, partly through his 
indebtedness to the Company, has escheated ; that he may enter upon, cultivate and own it as a free 
man. A vote having been taken, it was resolved, that, whereas the Directors liave no knowledge 
of the location of this piece of land, the Director and Council of New Netherland shall be 
authorized, to grant to Claes Jansen Backer the piece of land, if it has not in the meantime been 
sold or given to some one else, and lie is to pay what is due to the Company or not less than what 
the piece is appraised at, as they sliall deem proper. 

Monday, the SO"- of April 1652. 

Marcus Hendrick Vogelsang, ship carpenter, intending to emigrate to New Netherland 
requests that as much space maybe granted to him in the most convenient locality on Manhattans 
Island as he may require for erecting a shipyard and dock and a house. The vote having been 
taken, it was decided to direct the Director to accommodate him in a convenient locality. 

Thursday, May 2^ 1652. 

Upon the petition of Hendrick Frederick Mansvelt stepfather of Francis Fyn, it has been 
resolved, to write to the Director and Council of New Netherland, that if no great loss or damage 
is caused to the Company by giving away Varckens {Hogs) Island, the same may be granted to 
Francis Fyn and if for the above stated reasons they decide to keep it, they are to allot and give 
him elsewhere land fit for farming. 

Friday, May 10'" 1652. 

The owners of the ships ^' Iluijs van Breda'''' ^ccA'-'- Hof van Gleef^'' appearing before the 
Board represented, that they had agreed with some other persons the freight of some goods 
shipped to New Netlierland should be paid in beavers, at 8 fl a piece or in silver coin, and that they 
now understand. Director Stuyvesant and Council had fixed the value of a piece of eight at three 
guilders and therefore many hght pieces of eight, which it is forbidden to circulate here, had been 
shipped there. If they were to recei\e their payment in such pieces, they would lose fifty per 
cent and therefore request, that some remedial measure be taken. It was resolved, to instruct the 
Director and Council to act in this matter with the necessary equity. 

182 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Lettee from the Dikectoes to Stuytesant inclosing copies of the foeeooino kesolutions 


10'" of May 1052. 

Honorable, Valiant, Pious, Dear and Faithful. 

This serves as cover to the enclosed copies from our Resolutions, which will inform you of 
what concessions we have made to several persons ; you will govern yourselves accordingly. We 
send with it a statement drawn up by the bookkeeper of monthly wages, who requires further 
elucidation upon several points ; also a statement concerning the matter of David Provoost ; the 
documents belonging to it have been given to the supercargo Vincent Piekes : you will do well to 
settle this matter on the basis of these papers as it should be done and to report to us by the returning 
ships, that we may keep the people, who have long solicited relief, from making complaints. We 
suspect, that the papers sent us are not carefully collated by the officers of the Company, for in the 
last documents many and gross mistakes have been discovered ; this ought to be corrected. We 
enclose also a list of the Company's servants, who have embarked and who are, contrary to our 
intentions and former advices to you, mostly soldiers, because on account of the extensive naval 
preparations of the country no sailors could be obtained; we hope it will be better next year. 

Herewith etc etc. 

The Directors of the West India Company 

Amsterdam, May 10"* 1652. Department of Amsterdam 


To the Director and Council in New Netherland. 

Letter feom the Directors to Stutyesant in regard to the geant of Hog's Island. 

Honorable, Valiant, Pious, Dear, Faithful. 

By our last letter of the 4"" of April last past sent by the ship " St. Michiel^'' which sailed 
about three weeks ago we advised you in regard to the grant of Yarckens {Hogs) Island* to Francis 
Fyn and trust that you have received it long before this reaches you. Since that time we have 
obtained some, but no correct information concerning this island and are told, that it would be 
particularly useful for the Company in the imminent or any future differences with the English 
being adapted for fortifications to be built thereon to defend our places. As Hendrick 
Frederick Mansvelt insists upon the grant of the island to his son-in-law Francis Fyn, we have 
thought fit, as you may learn from the enclosed copy of the resolution, to refer the matter to the 
Director and Council and trust, that you will have an eye upon the interests of the Company and 
the shareholders and inform us of your opinion. 

Herewith etc. 

The Directors of the W. I. Company 

Amsterdam, Department of Amsterdam 

the 10"" of May 1652. Isaack van Beeck. 

E. S. Sohulenboech, 

To Dir. P. Stuyvesant in New Netherland. 

* Later called Mannings Island, now Black-well's Island. B. F. 

New York Historical Records. 183 

Lettee feom the Dieectok Geneeal Stutvesant to the Cottnoil on a Claim now made 
BY THE Indians foe payment of oeetain lands at Flatbush. 

Honorable G-entlemen of tlae Council. 

On Thursday of last week came to me demanding payment for the 

land promised by him to the savages 

500 guilders, without giving us sufficient proof ... of the land and how much of 

it is wilderness and waste 

should have the sum, on which account my superiors, the Hon'''° Lords-Directors took exception 
and demanded more proof. 

Jan Snediger has been pleased to address us in a most unmannnerly way, saying among others, 
that upon me and mine should [fall] the losses and damages, hereafter [caused] by the natives. 
These words were shouted so loud, that every one could hear them, which is derogatory not only 
to our person, but also to our official position and not willing to submit to such insult, we have 
been compelled to inform your Honors of the occurrence and call for your advice and assistance. 

As to the matter itself, your Honors know, that shortly before the last murder said Jan 
Snediger came to me and reported in presence of the Rev* Dr. Megapolensls, that some savages 
had come to see him demanding payment for the land at the Flat Busk but the discussions had 
about it, our propositions and the consequences resulting from it cannot be known to you. They 
can be brought under two heads as follows : 1. Is it expedient and advantageous, to uphold the 
savages in their unmannerly and impudent demand so far, as to buy and pay again upon their 
threats, the lands which previously they have of their own good will sold, given, ceded and 
received payment for and which partly have been occupied since ? 

2. Would it not lead to serious consequences, if it can be proved, that there is in the midst 
of the purchased land some, which has not been bought, (although we are not quite convinced of 
it) or what would be the consequences at this conjuncture, if we gave a small gratification to the 
savages or would their ignoble and insatiable avarice not take advantage of it and consider it as 
an inducement, to murder more Christians, imagining them to be faint-hearted and threatening a 
massacre, that later on they may again obtain money and goods for another piece of wild and 
waste land ? Concerning these points I was somewhat in doubt, whether the savages had a better 
claim to the wild and waste bush, upon which God and nature had grown trees, than any other 
Christian people and what proof and assurance could be produced, that the savages had a better 
right and title to this parcel of land, than other savages, even than the greatest Sachem or chief, who 
a long time ago had sold, given and ceded the whole piece of land and its dependencies to the 
former officers of the Hon*"'" Company and received according to the declaration of the late 
Director and Council satisfactory payment for it in goods. 

Nevertheless and notwithstanding it was improper and contrary to all reason and equity, we 
have agreed for the sake of preventing blame and new troubles to allow the said Jan Snediger, 
that he may secretly give or promise to the savages a gratification and make a report to us, that 
we might refund it in time, but we never thought, much less absolutely directed to promise for so 
small a piece of land so large a sum at the expense of the Company or of our own funds, especially 
not on so uncertain conditions and terms. To have in the future a better defence before the 
aforesaid Lords-Directors and to prevent any blame of negligence falling upon us, we refer this 
purchase to your Honors' knowledge and discretion, that a proper resolution may be drawn up 
concerning it. 

New Amsterdam, June 17, 1652. 

184 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Lettee FEoai Stephen Goodteae to Die. Sttjtvesant on geneeal affaiks. 

19"" July 1652 Newhaven. 

Honored and much 
Esteemed S'. 

You" of the 25"' ditto is come to hand, whereby I understand of you' willingnes 
to trade w^'' mee for such Commodityes & prouisions as thease partes afEorde, which I cannot but 
acknowlidge with thankfulnes & shall I hope answer you' desire to my utmost. I haue at present 
sent you aboute what quantity e of flesh you haue desired Being 11 barrels of Pork & 13 barrels 
of Beefe which they have perused soe farr as they conceiued needfull & alsoe wayd some of them 
being all full & well packet yet differ in theare wayte. I haue sett them at that prise by the 
Barrell which Ensyne Briantt hath placed in his note given to you' Secretary, & truly S' I dare 
Beefe 3 sh. 6d.l say that 10b. will not be advanced in 100b. at that prise; I haue alsoe sent what 
Porke4-15. j niault was Reddy being. 32 bushels & haue apoynted you' vessell to take at 
Milford 2000 of Brend* I would haue laded alsoe wheate & peas but they Informed they 
would not lade it with the other things at present ; soe that you' other things shalbee Eeddy 
w"" in 1-i days. S' I hope Beu" may Come to you' hand to satisfie fully that parcell being no 
greate quantie & I hope hereafter to bee more fitt to take comodityes then at present S' ffor you' 
Motion for 100 lbs in wampum although I haue a quantity by mee yet it is not such as you 
desire but I am to-morrow to goe up to Harford wheare I expect to Receiue 150 lbs & if it 
bee such as may sute you' desires, I will send it vnto you by the first operturnity. S' 
you Informe that you Respitt the perfecting of ou' account vntill wee meete which I hope 
willbe to mutiall satisfaction & that loue and equitie will appeare vpon both parties, only I 
would haue desired that Mr. Alerton might haue been disingaged who hath preest mee very 
ernestly about it & saith hee is not willing to haue monementto lye out to such a valew in his ould 
age ; I hope sir it might bee noe detriment to you' selfe & of greate satisfaction to him & nemtisie 
to my selfe. Thus with my Reale loue to you' selfe & Lady I commit you both to God & Rest 

You'* to Vse Stephen Good teaee. 

To the wPfuU & h^'honnored 

ffrind Peter Stevensant 

Gouern' Generall 

of the Dutch Plantations 

in America These 

at Manhattoes. 

Oedinance eeducing the Duty on Ftjes. 
(See Laws and Ordinances of New Nethsrland p 135) 

New Yorh Historical Records. 185 

Notice to the Public Ckeditoes as to the mode of paying theie claims. 

Whereas the Director General and Council of Neiu Netherland find themselves in behalf of 
the Hon'''^ Company and this Province greatly troubled and hampered by some debts, shown by 
the last made statement and arising partly out of the great expenses incurred last year at the 
Southriver, which debts might be set off against and paid by the import duties, and 

Whereas the Director General and Council would then find themselves deprived of all means, 
to procure the very necessary commodities and winter provision for the garrison and other servants 
of the Hon"*' Company. 

Therefore the Director General and Council have decided and resolved, deeming it best for 
the maintenance of this Province and the subsistence of the garrison (to keep the same quietly 
and without mutiny under command), that they will offset one-half of the claims of the largest 
public creditors against the duties to be paid by them and issue for the other half a debenture 
payable, with God's help, in the coming year, or receivable for duties or if it is desired for the 8 p. 
ct. duty on Virginia tobacco imposed in the Fatherland. 

Thus done in Council of Director General and Council of New Netherlands i"* Aug. 1652. 

Letter feom the Directors to Stuyvesant : the Boundary question : Indians to be employed 
IN CASE New England should begin hostilities ; Fortifications ; Letter box for New 

A° 1652, 6"" August. To the Director and Council in New Netherland. 

Honorable et™. 

Our last letters sent you by the ships '^ Hoof van Cleef" " Huys van Breda,'''' " GeMsrse 
Blom" and "<S''. Michiel" which sailed at different times, were dated 4"" and 8"" of April and 7"", 
10'" and 17'" of May of this year 1652 replying to your letters of the 2P', 22" and 30'" of 
September 1650, which came by way of Viy'ginia and 21^', 29'" and 30'" of September 1651 sent 
direct by the returning ships. Among others we wrote you in the aforesaid letter of April 4'", 
what we deemed would be most expedient to do in regard to the question of the boundaries with 
New England and that we had recommended this matter most urgently to their Exc''^' the 
Ambassadors going from this State to England. From the enclosed extract, of which we hope 
the original has long ago reached you and which we only send in surplus, you will learn 
this. The matter now stands thus, that while we had hopes this government would come to an 
agreement with the "Republic of England, we were disappointed in our expectations, for notwith- 
standing all honest and fair representations the said Republic has, even while our Ambassadors 
were still there, not hesitated to embargo all ships from whatever place they might come, to take 
the crews from many, who ignorant of any trouble entered their ports, and to keep them to the 
greatest detriment of this country, not allowing even the men-of-war of this government coming 
from Brasil to depart. As our Ambassadors upon their complaints to Parliament could obtain no 
redress, but were kept in suspense by idle talk, their High Mightinesses have recalled them and 
since their return, the formidable preparations and equipments, especially by our government 
made it appear, as if finally war would be declared, the more so as Admiral Tromp with a fleet of 

186 Early Colonial Settlements. 

about 100 sails has been seea in the JSTorth, where the English Admiral Blake had also gone. The 
Lord oui- God grant a happy result and humihate the haughty spirit of the English. This not only 
unexpected but also undesired ruptm-e with the English has given occasion to some New Netherland 
merchants here to request, that we should send a despatch boat to you and the community there 
to give information of these new troubles. Deliberating with them we have agreed, that they 
should freight a fast sailing galiot on condition that they should remunerate themselves for the 
voyage by the fees for freight and duties on the goods taken by the said galiot and coming back in 
the returning ships, each in proportion to his share of the cargo. 

Although we have no doubt, that pursuant to our previous letters, you will have entered into 
a league with the New England people or arranged for a closer union with them and that in 
consequence we shall have nothing to fear from the New England people, we have nevertheless 
deemed it prudent, under the cii'cumstances, to recommend to you most urgently, that you arm all 
freemen, soldiers and sailors and fit them for defense, give them proper officers, appoint places of 
rendez-vous, provide them with ammunition, put the fortifications at New Amsterdam, Orange 
and Casimir in a good state of defense, to which end we send you for your better protection such 
war material as the enclosed invoices and lists will show. You must not trust the English there 
and keep an eye upon them, that you may not be deceived by their* sinister machinations under a 
pretext of probity, as we have been here. If it should happen, which we will not hope, that the 
New England people take up this matter and try to injure you and our good inhabitants, then we 
consider it proper and necessary, that you should make use of the Indians who as we learn do not 
like the English, and devise such measures, that you live there afterwards with as much safety as 
possible ; we suppose, that it will be safest to let all merchants and inhabitants bring their property 
into the fort as far as feasible and accommodate them in kindness, in order to induce them to 
remain there and not to return here and thus depopulate the country. It will further be necessary, 
to surround the villages, at least the larger ones, with palisades and breastworks, that they may 
resist a sudden attack. 

Private parties frequently give their letters to this or that sailor or free merchant, which letters 
to their great disadvantage are often lost through neglect, remaining forgotten in the boxes or 
because one or the other removes to another place ; for their better accommodation we have had a 
box huug up at the New Warehouse , where we now hold our meetings, into which every one may 
place his letters at any time to be dispatched by the first ship sailing. We deem it advisable to 
inform you hereof, that the same may be done in Neio-Netherland and that the letters put into a 
bag for greater security be sent here to us, to be delivered upon arrival to those to whom they 
belong and who usually come to the Warehouse ; they will then not be obliged to hunt U]) the 
persons entrusted ■with letters and run after them. 

During these times of trouble with the English it may be easily happen, that some ill-meaning 
Englishman residing here or other persons despatch letters to New- Netherland and eiideavor to 
excite your English inhabitants against you and the community. We think it therefore advisable, 
that you should examine the skipper of the galiot and his people under oath and demand from 
them all letters entrusted to them and that you inspect all letters going herewith, opening all such, 
which you deem suspicious, so that in despatching this galiot we may not carry a snake in our own 
bosom and bring letters to people, who are against us to our damage. 

One Hugo Claessen comes out on this ship ; he has served the Company as supercargo and has 
now been engaged by us as captain or overseer of the Company's saltworks at Bonairo and of 
the felling and hewing of logwood and its further cultivation at fl. 20 monthly ; also Jan van der 

New York Historical Records. 187 

Hulst, a carpenter, engaged at fl 6 a month to go with the said Claessen to Bonairo. As at 
present it cannot be done here, you will provide them, as far as in your power, with implements 
and what else may be necessary. 

With which etc'' etc'' the C"" of August 1652 in Amsterdam. 

Petition of Beant van SLEOHTroNiioEST fob his release feom confutement and Resolction 


The petition of Brant van SlecJitenJiorst. With duo reverence shows Brant van Slechienhorst, 
Director of the Colony of Rensselaersioyck, that he and his colleagues in the said Colony have 
repeatedly and very urgently requested, that the petitioner may be released from the arrest, in which 
he has now been held since the 18"" of April last, and that he may receive permission to return to 
the Colony, to attend to the Patroon's urgent business in the Colony ; to all these requests no 
attention has been paid and as in the meantime by the arrival of the ships from Fatherland the 
situation has been changed in so far, that the Lords Patroons have consented to the petitioner's 
request, to discharge him from tlie service of the Colony and to appoint somebody as his successor, 
whom it is necessary to inform of the situation and state of the (Colony and as this can only be done 
by the petitioner and as further the Colony has been deprived for such a length of time of the service 
of its Director and nothing can be done without the Director, which tends to the great disadvantage 
and loss of the Colony and of the Lords Patroons, 

Therefore he has resolved, in order to prevent further loss and damage, to address yom* 
Honors very respectfully once more and to request, in consideration of the foregoing and that 
(under submission) the unimportant actions of private parties ought not obstruct the service of the 
Colony, that your Honors will please to allow the petitioner to proceed to the Colony for the 
aforesaid purposes, while he promises to return here inmiediately upon your Honors' orders and 
offers as secm-ity his own person and property. Awaiting a favorable reply to his petition he 

Septbr 2, 1652. Your Honors' willing servant 

B. van Slechtenhoest. 

The Dii'ector General and Council of New Netherland have already before now replied to the 
petitioner's request, also informed the Court of the Colony by letter in May last, that if they or 
the petitioner give sufficient security for the appearance of the petitioner upon a summons of the 
Fiscal, the petitioner shall be free to return to the Colony for the purpose of attending to his and his 
superiors' business. In the meantime some of his adversaries have obtained a definitive sentence 
against him in contumacy and demand proper security for their satisfaction, which if the petitioner 
gives in behalf of the parties according to law, his request is once more granted under the 
aforementioned condition of procuring bail for his appearance upon the demand and summons of 
the Fiscal. 

(Another petition of Brant van Slechienhorst of the 9"" of September for his release was 
answered by a re:ference to the above reply to his fii'st petition.) 

188 Early Colonial Settlements, 

Bond given by Dieectoe Stutvesant to the Meechants of Amsteedam eoe 12000 guildees 
to be eemitted in specie. 

Before us, the undersigned members of the Council of New Netherland appeared the Valiant, 
Honorable and Rigorous Director General of New Netherland who declared to have hypothecated, 
pledged and engaged, as lie herewith hj-pothecates, pledges and engages with oui- knowledge to 

Messrs. , merchants at Amsterdam, eitlier jointly or individually, all his movable and 

immovable property, which he now owns or may become possessed of hereafter, by whatever 
name it might be called, bouweries, lands, buildings, rents and salary to the amount of twelve 
thousand guilders, until the first installment of the capital including expenses and interest sliall 
have been refunded to the said Merchants or their order, on condition that the said Merchants 
shall remit and send by the first opportunitj' covered by good insurance, of which his Honor 
engages to pay the premium, the sum of 12 thousand guilders, as above, in specie, either shillings 
or double stuyvers. Septbr 16'", 1652. 

P. Stuyvesant. 
LaMontagne, Beian Newton. 

The Hon"* Lords Directors wiU please to take notice, that in case the condition of their funds 
does not admit of such a remittance, we have written privately to Messrs. Gerard Smith, Joost 
and Nicolas van Beech with theii- approval. 

Oedee in Council geanting to Hendeick Geicksen van Ltmme one piece of land on Long 
Island and to Jacob Coelaee anothee. 

Meeting of the Council, October 1°', 1652. 
* * * * 

Before the Council appeared Hendrick Grichsen van Lymme, who petitioned for a piece of 
land situate on the Eastside of Joris Rappallus'' meadow. It was gi'anted to him on the condition, 
that it had not been given to somebody else. 

Meeting of the Council, October Y, 1652. 

At the request of Jacob Corlaer for a piece of land in the village of 3Rdwout, the Coimcil 
has granted it to him on the condition, that he shall improve and cultivate it, as other farmers do. 


Samuel Tou plff agt. DircTc van Schelluyne deft, in regard to the award made by arbitrators 

for a certain piece of land situate at Mispachts Kil and belonging to the heirs of Richard Beert. 

Both parties being present, the plaintiff demanded payment according to the award made by 

New York Historical Records. 189 

Thomas Hall and Thomas Stevens as arbitrators on the 27"" of May, amounting to 510 guilders, 
as offset for the use of the said land and the beneiit enjoyed by Samuel Tou subject to the approval 
of his Honor the Director General and Council. 

The Director and Council, after considering the report of the arbitrators in this case, authorize 
the said arbitrators to estimate and value the rent for the use of the land and to offset it against 
the improvements made by Samuel Tou or in case the said arbitrators could not agree, they shall 
appraise the buildings and fences on the said land, as they find them standing now and then equalize 
the cost of the improvements against the use of the land and the rent. Novbr 4, 1652. 

Nomination and Appointment of Magistrates foe Mbddlebokqh (Newtown) L. I. 

Mr. Coe, Thomas Hazard, 

Mr. Oildersleave, Edward Jesopp, 

Mr. Wood, William Herck, 

The Director General and Council confirm of the foregoing nomination as Magistrates : 
Thomas Hazard, Mr. Coe and Mr. Oildersleave. 

Resolution of the Amsterdam Department of the "W. I. Company authorizino the 
dispatch of a private vessel to New Netherland. 

Extract from the Register of Resolutions 
passed by the Directors of the West India 
Company, Department of Amsterdam. 

Dies Lunae, IS"" of November 1652. 

As to the request of Gillis Verlrugge (& Co, made to this board, it has been decided to grant 
the same and to allow them to freight and dispatch to New Netherland an advice yacht or galiot 
at their expense on condition, that they may take goods on the outward bound voyage to the 
amount of fonr to five tliousand florins and on the home voyage to the amount of eight to ten 
thousand florins without paying duty thereon and that for all other goods above the said amounts 
shipped in the said vessel either by them or other parties the usual duties must be paid : further 
that the Company shall have the right to send in the said ship on the outward bound voyage as 
freight such goods as may be thought fit. 

Satueni, 7"" of December 1652. 

The resolution passed on the IS*"" of November last in regard to the dispatching of a ship to 
New Netherland by Gillis Verhrugge cfe Go was taken up again and it was decided, that the words 
in said resolution "without paying duty" shall be understood so as to mean customs duties and 
convoy fees due to the Company. 

190 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Indian Deeds for New Uteecht, L. I., and the land called Nateck, L. I., to Coknelis 


To-day the 22'^ of November 1652, the Honorable Mr. Cornelis van Werckhoven, has made 
over in full, and tlie Indians called Seiseu and Mattano, chiefs and owners, have received for 
themselves and as delegates of their friends and all other claimants to their entire satisfaction and 
accepted from the said Mr. IKercMoye/i in presence of Claes C^jsrsferts, their interpreter and attorney 
in this matter the following merchandise, to wit : six shirts, two pairs of shoes, six pairs of socks, six 
axes, six hatchets, six knives, two scissors, six cans, in full and satisfactory payment for the land 
' lying Eastward of the Worth River at the Heads, as the same has previously heen hough, 
in hehaJf of the Hon^^' Company and for which payment was tojje made yet; the saia 
land stretching from hehind Mr. Paului land, calUd Gouwanis, across the hills to 
MechawaniencTc, lying on the South East side of Amersfoort and thence past Oravesend 
to the sea following the marlcs on the trees / including all the land, hills, woods and 
forests, valleys. Mils, rivers and other waters, going Southviard to the Bay and through 
the Bay into the sea; and the aforesaid Indians do not reserve to themselves, their 
fellowowners, their successors and descendants any, not even the least, claim or right upon the 
said land and its dependencies, but solemnly renounce now and forever in behalf of the said Mr. 
Werckhoven all rights, title, interest and ownership and cede the same herewith promising not to 
do nor allow to be done anything against this deed of sale, which has been executed and passed in 
good faith at New Amsterdam, Manhattans, in New Netherland and was signed by the Indians 
and Claes Carstens in the presence of myself, Dirch van Schelluyne, a Notary public admitted to 
practice by their High : Might: the Lords States General YQ^\<^mg?iX Nevj Amsterdam xn New 
Netherland and of YonTter Arent van Hattem, Jan Vinge and Nicholas Gouwert as witnesses, 
who signed tiie original hereof deposited with me together with the Indians and Claes Carstens. 
Agrees with the original. 

D. V. ScHELLiTTNE, Not. public 1652. 

To-day the 1" day of December 1652 the underwritten Indians Mattano, Mattaveno and 
Cossihan consent for themselves and as attorneys for all other inhabitants and supposed owners 
of the lands now come into the possession of Mr. van Werckhoven by the foregoing act, and agree 
with the said Mr. van Werckhoven, that they, the Indians, shall receive from his Honor six 
coats, six kettles, six axes, six hatciiets, six small looking glasses, twelve knives and twelve cans 
on condition, that they, the Indians, and their descendants remove immediately from the land now 
occupied by them, called Naieck and never return to live in the limits of the district as described 
in the foregoing act nor ever make any claim upon it. Done at New Amsterdam, in New 
Netherland in the presence of the undersigned Notary public and Jam, Vinie, who has herein 
acted as interpreter for the Indians, and of Thomas Roechtsen as witness. Signed the mark of 
the Indian Mattano, the mark of the Indian Mattaveno, the mark of the Indian Cossikan, G. van 
Werckhoven, Jan Vinge, Tliomas Roechtsen and D. van Schelluyne Not. publ. Below stood : 
Agi-ees with the original signed by me D. v. Schelluyne Not. publ. 1652. 

New York HisUyi'ical Records. 191 

Peotest of Johannes van Rensselaer against Director Stutvesant with regard to his 


To-day, the ninth of December 1652, T, Joost van de Ven, Notary public admitted by the 
Honorable Court of Holland and by the Woishipf ul Magistrates of the City of Amsterdam, residing 
in this city, have proceeded in behalf of iiis Honor, Johannes van Rensselaer, Patroon of the Colony 
called HensselaerswycJc and situate upon the North River of New Netherland, and in behalf of 
his Co-Directors with the belownamed witnesses to the meeting of the Lords Dii-ectors of the 
Privileged West India Company, presided over by Paulas Timmerman, while his Honor, the 
Burgomaster Frank van der Veer, Mr. Albert Pater, presiding Schepen and many other Directors 
were also present and there I have made the following protest : 

Whereas your Director Stuyvesant, residing on the Manhattans in New Netherland, has, 
with the assistance of a number of armed soldiers, dared to come into the Colony of liensselaerswych 
and there commanded to haul down the flag of his Honor, the Patroon, and Co-Directors, inflicting 
insuflerable outrages and insults and using force notwithstanding all fair requests and protests, 

Whereas he has ordered by placat to cut wood in and carry it out of the forests, belonging to 
the aforesaid Patroon and Directors, without recognizing the rights of or asking permission from 
the Patroon and Directors or from their Director and Council, but executing his order by force. 

Whereas he published and afiixed a placat, stating that the jurisdiction and ownership of the 
soil at a distance of one hundred and fifty Rhineland rods all around the Fort Orange belonged 
to the Company and he took from the Colony not only the jurisdiction and the soil, but also 
released the persons, living there as the Colony's subjects, from the oath to the Colony and made 
them swear allegiance to the Company ; robbed the Colony of its land and gave it out against 
quitrent and made arrangements to transform the people of the Colony into the Company's 
subjects ; stirred them up and caused them to dispute their contracts and their duties to their 
Lord and Master and the other owners of the Colony, 

Whereas he has released from his oath to the Patroon and other Directors anew Schout arrived 
at the Manhattans on the way to the Colony and compelled him to take a new oath to the 
Company, thus making him the Company's subject. 

Whereas he has demanded, that the lists, minutes, judgments, resolutions and lawsuits of the 
Colony should be communicated to him. 

Whereas he or upon his order Commissary Johannes Dyckman of Fort Orange has entered 
forcibly, aided by soldiers with loaded muskets, burning fuses and open patis, the house of the 
Director of the Colony, caused the bell to be rung, and read and published divers orders, placats 
and threats. 

Whereas above all he has dared with eight armed soldiers to arrest the Director of the Colony, 
Brant van Slechtenhorst, within the Colony's own jurisdiction, taken him then to Fort Orange, 
sent him guarded by four soldiers down the river and kept him in prison at the Manhattans, 

Whereas he has in every respect and everywhere invaded the rights and privileges, jurisdiction 
and soil of the Colony, robbing it of property and men, against all reasons or divine and human 

And whereas your Director Stuyvesant declares, that he continued in his office there merely 
from the consideration and expectation, that before leaving he might have ruined the Colon}', 

All which never heard of attempts and proceedings liaviug been reported to the Patroon 
Johannes van Rensselaer and the Co-Directors with all the documentary evidences, 

Now Therefore, I, the Notary, and my witnesses demand of you, the Lords Directors of the 

192 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Privileged "West India Company, whether as a corporate body or iudi\rLduaUy you have given your 
Director Stuyvesant any order or authority to commit such attempts and illegal excesses in part or 
all together. 

And I protest not only against such use of force, violent attempts, damages and losses resulting 
therefrom to our jurisdiction, pre-eminences, rights and privileges as well as to our lands and estates, 
injuries, insults and affronts, to which we have already been subjected or may hereafter have to 
submit, in order to institute proceedings and recover damages for the same, where and in what 
manner we may determine and we protest against everything, against which for the maintenance 
of our right and privileges we ought to protest in our own and our colonists' behalf; but we also 
request under the benefit of this protest, that you issue an order by the ship now going thither for 
the restitution and return of everything as it was before and that you command and charge your 
Director to desist from all attempts and recall his placats and if you believe to have any claim, 
that you j^roceed therein legally befoi-e your and our judges, to whom we have before now 
complained of your Director's proceedings and where the suit is still undecided. 

We request also your definitive answer upon every point and in case witliin twice twenty-four 
hours you have not answered, then your claimants wUl be compelled to make then- complaint against 
the said acts of violence, where they shall think most fit. 

Hereupon the President Paulus Timmerman representing the meeting and acting as spokesman, 
said to me, the N'otary, that they desired a copy and that the Directors would write to then- Director 
Stuy-oesant in regard to the matter and that they had no intention to prejudice any one's rights. 

Done at Amsterdam in the pi'esence of Dirck Danokertsen and Daniel van Ominers 2s, 

Pro copia quod attestor. 

J. VAN DE Ven, Notary Pubhc. 

Lettee from the Dieectoes to Stuyvesant : War with England ; Abuses in granting 
Lands; Settlement of Nyack, L. I.: Whale and Cod fisheries to be encoueaged. 

A" 1652, 13"- of December. 

Honorable, Vahant, Pious, Dear and Faithful ! 

Our last letter to you was sent by the small ship "J rana," which was, God help it, captured by 
the English. It was dated the 6"' of August and in it we not only informed you of the 
present state of affairs with the English here, advising you what to do there, but we sent with it 
also a goodly supply of war material, of which you were to make use in case of need, as you may 
learn from the enclosed copy. Since that time the ships " Romayn^'' " Huys van Breda " and 
" Gelderse Bloom " have, praise be to God, safely arrived here and we received by them several 
letters, muniments and otlier documents sent by you. Time being short, because the sMp, which 
is to bring you this quickly to inform you of the war with England., is already chartered, 
we cannot get our answers ready, so that you will now receive only a partial reply ; 
you may expect a full one with the next ship, also some soldiers and sailors, if they are to be had ; 
the soldiers on the same conditions, as those lately sent, by whom you can supply in due time the 

Neto York Historical Records. 193 

place of the old soldiers, enlisted in New Netherland and without doubt receiving extraordinarily 
high pay ; discharging these you must encourage them to settle there. 

Last year we would have liked to send you some seamen and one or two ships carpenters, but 
notwithstanding all our efforts, we could not engage any on account of the extraordinary preparar 
tions for war made here ; we did not lack the good will and have no doubt, that it will bo better 
now and that we can engage some, when the ships are being made ready to sail for New 

Yon will please to forward the enclosure to Director RodenhorcK by the next ship and to 
write him, not to fell any more logwood trees or allow any to be exported except for the Company's 
account, for we observe that the Colonist Jean de Ulan and his companions do not intend, as 
they said, to cultivate the land and plant tobacco, indigo, cotton and other staples, but simply to 
clear it of the logwood and trade with it and horses to the Oaribean Islands ; we wish, he had not 
been so much encouraged herein and that he had not received permission to freight the ship " St 
Joris" Joris Jansen skipper, with horses, for henceforth we desire, that no more horses shall be 
exported from Buenairo, Curasao and Aruba, but that they shall remain there to be used in time 
in our province of New Netherland. "We notice and receive daily information, that the best 
horses have been taken from the Islands and that in the end there will oidy be left there a lot of 
broken down animals ; on that account we shall not grant any more colonies there. 

By the next ship we shall send you the desired placats concerning the building lots on the 
Manhattans near the fort or in the city of Amsterdam already granted, as well as the uncultivated 
lands, that you may govern yourselves accordingly, and see that the latter be cultivated. It has 
never been our intention, nor is it now, that through our mere consent, given to every one, who 
desii-es to emigrate there, in proportion to his family, any one should become owner of one or two 
hundred or more morgans of ground and then leave it uncultivated, thereby preventing others, to 
whom the land would be convenient and who now must acquire it at an enhanced price. The land 
asked for must be entered upon within 3 years, the people called for by the conditions brought 
there within the limited time and hand put to the plough or by default it must return to us 
for the accommodation of others. 

Your Honor has misunderstood our intentions in regard to the Colonies of the Honorable vam, 
Werckhoven, whose two grants for colonies your Honor supposes to extend 20 miles in a straight 
line, or your Honor has not i-ead the Exemptions carefully, for all colonists are not to receive 
more, than four miles on one side of a navigable river or two miles on each side. His Honor van 
Werckhoven had his choice and could have taken the lands, but as he has not done it, has given it 
up and gone to Nyack, one half of the same place is granted to him, that he may settle there and 
act for his best. We shall henceforth not grant any more colonies, as we see that the people 
demand such extensive tracts. 

"We are greatly surprised, that contrary to our former directions and against oiir orders you 
have raised the value of the money in New Netherland and especially that you have asked some 
private parties here for 25 to 30 thousand guilders in Holland shillings and double stivers. We 
are not at all pleased with it, for we are by no means so reduced, that our officials should solicit 
credit for us and engage our territories for it. If anything is to be done here, then you will apply 
to us and to nobody else, we will attend to the matter in due time. 

In accordance with your requests we shall pay strict attention to the invoices ; you must do 
the same and not handle them in so slovenly a manner as the last ones, of which copies are 
enclosed ; for in many instances there is no other way to learn, whether the duties have been paid 

1 94 Early Colonial Settlements. 

by certain parties and when tliey come for their merchandise and are called upon to pay up they 
be^in to lament and protest, that they have paid the duties to you, of which there is no evidence. 
A lot of merchandise has arrived here not entered in the manifests or specified in such a manner, 
that its obscurity occasions a good deal of trouble between us and the consignees, as you may see 
by the enclosed extract. 

The merchants here complain bitterly over the internal duty of four stivers imposed there in 
addition to the 8 per cent on each merchantable beaver. We are surprised at it, because we had 
ordered you not to exact more than 8 per cent and to return the balance to those from whom you 
had received fifteen stivers ; even though Director Kieffs actions as well in giving away several 
bouweries as in charging fifteen stivers for each beaver are in several instances quoted by you as 
precedents, they have never been approved by us, nor are they now, and it is better to proceed in 
this matter with modesty, that commerce, just at present threatened by many dangers, may not 
be discoui-aged and people disgusted with it, which apparently would cause a depopulation of the 
country and deprive us of the means to bring emigrants over there. We shall inform you of our 
views, by which you are to govern your actions, by the next ship. 

The lawsuit about the sugar prize " Nostre Slgnore de los Remedlos " captured by the 
" Waterhont " has been brought to an end and we have triumphed. In similar cases in the future 
you must be very carefiU to gather the most reliable information as to where the ship has been 
loaded, by what signores either of the refineries or of the sugar mills and take the greatest care 
with the papers and invoices, which are of the utmost importance to us. The cargoes often belong 
to Portugueses, who owe the Company large sums and from whom we can demand them with 
good reasons. 

We have been wondering, that the confiscated ship " Nieuw Nederlantsche Fortuyn" has 
been sent hither by way of English Virginia, although you must have well known, that Baron 
van der Capellen has a large interest in her ; he has now attached her by a mandamus and hauled 
her up. A lawsuit is now pending about her at the Hague, which seemingly will not be concluded 
in a short time and which is pushed to the utmost by the said gentleman, who does not look at 
the expenses. The points involved are of little weight, but the expenses and loss of time will be 
felt heavily : all this might have been prevented, for you might have foreseen it and had suflicient 
knowledge of the whole case not to let her come here, when you could send her elsewhere. With 
the ship goods belonging to Garret van de Voorde, Peter JIaecl; Isaac Melyn and Ghristophel 
van Gangel,-wevQ confiscated, although the duties to the Company had been paid, invoices for 
them had been given and entered in the manifest : by your proceedings you have brought down 
upon the Company and yourself the hatred of a number of people and any amount of slander and 
opprobrium. Neither you nor any other judge can be blamed, if after having jjassed sentence and 
then receiving contrary evidence they make a change in their sentence ; that happens here and at the 
Hague every day and there can be no doubt, that if anybody's goods are entered in the ship's 
manifest and he can prove it, he may reclaim his property, when the merchandise of the skippers 
or consignees are confiscated : that is the rule wherever in Christendom ships sail. The Directors 
direct therefore, that you return the same goods and are not at all pleased, that it was not done 
last year upon their order and that in the first instance you have not deposited the money in court, 
for the loss or not producing of the bill of lading gives no right to confiscate. 

We have been pleased to learn, that so far you have not had any troubles with the English 
there and hope you will not have any, but use all honest and fair means to continue the former 
harmony and keep up your commercial relations, especially with Virginia. That will most likely 

New York Historical Records. 195 

make the Manhattans flourish and increase in population ; this increase will necessitate the fitting 
out of more ships and people friendly to the country will have better accommodations, when they 
proceed thither. Yet you must not allow yourself to be misled and deceived and therefore 
strengthen and i-epair your forts as well as possible and keep always an eye open, that you may be 
on guard and in time of need use such means as God and nature has given you. 

As you desire a good farrier as much needed, we will do our best to find one and send him to 
you in the next ship. 

Our attention having been called to some letters, formerly written to us by the late Director 
Kieft, we find, that he considers the sturgeon and codfishing there very important and that sturgeon 
may be caught there in such quantities, that the manufacture of caviar* might be carried on as in 
Moscowy. If this is true, it would be of great importance and miglit lead to an extensive trade 
there in fishcaviar and other goods. You will please to give us information aud if there is any 
chance, endeavor to encourage proper parties, that commerce may be promoted in every respect. 
We understand, that the whalefishery might at some seasons of the year be carried on ; if it can 
be done profitably, it would be very desirable as adding to commerce and might encourage many 
people, to seek their fortune in New Netherland. 

Private parties tell us, that many mulberry trees are growing tliere and that a large numljer 
of them might be planted for the cultivation of silkworms. You will please to report hereon and 
on all the preceding speculations about the welfare of the country, for we hope that out of them 
we may gatiier something to bring advantages and profit for the Company and the country. 

"We enclose a copy of the insinuation, made to us in behalf of Jan van Benselaer, Colonist of 
Eenselaerswyck by the Kotary van de Venne, which will tell you, what charges are made against 
you. You must proceed in such matters with caution and save us here from all difficulties as much 
as possible. Pursuant to the answer given by ns we expect from you within a short time further 
report and reply, also a statement of receipts and expenses, sales of skins, ships, logwood etc* made 
during your administration : yon will continue this reports by tlie Company's officers every year, 
that we may be posted in and give information about our doings there. 

Herewith, Honorable etc*, we recommend you to God's protection and remain 

Amsterdam, Your good friend 

13"" of December 1652. The Directors of the "West India Company 

Department of Amsterdam 
Paultjs Timmeeman 
Jacob Peegens. 

Herewith also goes a copy of our resolutions concerning the dispatch of the ship " Elbingh ' 
for your government. 

By order of the same 

L. VAN Seventer 1652. 

See Pallas, Voyages and Paolo Giovio de'Pesci Bomani. B, P. 

196 Early Oohnial Settlements. 

Council Minutes. Appoixtment of Cleek to the Munioipality of New Amsterdam 
January 27"" 1653. 

Jacob Kip is engaged and authorized to serve as Secretary or Clerk to the Burgomasters and 
Sehepens of New Amsterdam, at a yearly salary of 350 fl or hundred rixdalers, to begin on the 
next first of February and he is promised the appointment to another good office and salary, if the 
Lords Directors should send another man for the place. 

Council Minute. Resolution concerning farm-servants, brewing and the public scales 
February 18«' 1653. 

* * * * 

Resolved, that the ordinances concerning farm-servants and the brewing and malting of hard 
grain be published and posted. 

It was pi'oposed to put up public scales, as requested by the Burgomasters and Schepen, but 
no result has been arrived at. 

Council Minutes. Order empowering the Sheriff of Geavesend to prosecute certain 
cases before the Couet of that place. Resolution to put up a weighhouse. Church 

Meeting of the Council February 26"^ 1633. 

Present his Honor, the Director-General, LaMontagne, Bryan Newton, Fiscal Tienhoven. 

On the request of Ridiarcl Gihbons, Sheriff of Grawsend. 

The Director-General and Council having seen and read the propositions made by the SheriflE 
of Oravesend agree to them and consent, that the said SheriflE may prosecute every person 
concerned by the said propositions before the Magistrates of Oravesend according to law, allowing, 
however, that any party thinking himself wronged by the sentence of the Magistrates may appeal 
to the Director-General and Council of New Netherland. 

On the written request of the Hon''''' Burgomasters and Schepen of the City of Neio Amsterdam 
Director-General and Council resolve, that a weighhouse shall be built and that an ordinance shall 
be considered, when the weighhouse has been erected. They are to procure weights and measures 
like those of Amsterdam and all other weights and measures in this province shall be regulated 
by them in conformity with former ordinances and resolution made and published in regard to 
this matter. Copies of them shall be given to the Burgomasters and Sehepens, that in the 
meantime they may direct the Schout to regulate, weigh or measure all weights, yard and other 
measures accordingly and stamp them with a mark determined by the Burgomasters and Sehepens 

New York Historical Records. 197 

As to the propositions of the Orphanraasters, although the provident care of the Burgomasters 
and Schepens is praiseworthy and the Director-General and Council highly approve of it, it is to 
be considered, that there is more required to place the orphan-asylum upon the same footing as 
that of Amsterdam, than the weakness and youth of this only budding city can at present afford. 
It is meanwhile necessary to take care, according to God's words, of the widows and orphans and 
therefore the Director- General and Council resolve, that the deacons, as orphan masters, shall have 
an eye to the widows and orphans, to report to the Burgomasters and Schepens and through them 
if necessary to the Director-General aud Council, when special curators should be appointed for 
some widows and orphans or their property. Then the Burgomasters and Schepens or if necessary 
the Director-General and Council sliall give such orders and appoint such curators, as the case may 
require, the curators to be responsible to the Burgomasters and Schepens, and when the latter 
learn, that good care is not taken of the Avidows, orphans or their property, they shall summon the 
curators and call them to account for their negligence. 

The Hon'''= Director-General produced at the meeting of the Council in Fort Amsterdam 
and read letters, dated August 16 and September 13, from the Lords-Directors of the Priv. W. I. 
Comp. Dept. of Amsterdam, wherein at length the Hon""' Director-General and Council are 
informed of the present state of affairs in Europe between the Netherlands and England and 
some orders sent with these letters are fully explained. In consequence, after having duly 
weighed and considered the said letters and orders, the Director-General and Council deliberately 
resolve, deeming it best for tliis Province of New Nethedand and its inhabitants, to send letters 
to our neighbors of New England and Virginia, assuring them of our and our principals good 
disposition towai-ds them with an offer of neighborly correspondence, trade navigation and other 
friendly intercourse, as we liave had it heretofore. Adi ut supra. 

Kesolution on rumors of war, that certain meastjkes of defense be adopted. 

General Meeting of the Director-General and Council of New Netherland and the Burgo- 
masters and Schepens except Mr. Martin Gregier, who is absent, on the IS"" of March 1653. 

After having read the letters from the Lords-Directors and the latest news from New England, 
regarding their preparations there, of which we do not yet know whether they are made for defense 
or aggression, it has unanimously been resolved : 

First, that the trainbands of this city shall keep full corporal's guards during the night at 
such places, as the Director-General and Council with the abovenamed Magistrates shall designate 
and they are to begin immediately by placing above all a guard at the City's Tavern now the 
Council Hall.* Second, that it is deemed very necessary, to complete and strengthen first and 
above all the Fort New Amsterdam. Third, as the Fort New Amsterdam cannot hold all 
inhabitants nor protect all the houses and buildings of this City, it is deemed necessary to inclose 
the greater part of the City with upright pallisades and a small rampart, behind which in case of 
necessity the inhabitants can retreat and defend as well as possible their persons and property 
against an attack. At present it is considered impossible, to enclose in the same way with 
pallisades and parapets pursuant to the good intentions of the Lords-Directors, the villages, the 

* This building stood on Coenties Slip, facing the East river. See Valentine's Manual. 

198 Early Colonial Settlements. 

inhabitants of which live far from each other, nor is it quite well feasible to protect and defend 
them in such a manner against hostile attacks. It is therefore resolved, to concentrate on such 
an occasion the forces of New Netherland and hold and protect only one place. Fourth, it is 
resolved to take into consideration our pecuniary means, by which the foregoing and what else is 
necessary for a better defense might be carried into effect. The Director-Greneral, Council and 
Magistrates will deliver their respective opinions on this point to-morrow, to draw from them a 
conclusive resolution. Fifth, it is resolved, to direct the skipper Jan Jansen Visscher privately to 
prepare his sails, load his ordnance and make the ship clear for all emergencies and that in case he 
should require further protection during the night or in the daytime, it shall be sent to him. 
Done on the date as above and resumed on the li"" of March 1653. 

P. Stuyvesant 
La Montagne 
Brian Newton 


Aeent VAN Hattem 


Peter Wolfeetsen 
Maximilianus van Gheel 
Allakd Anthony. 


(New Amsterdam Records, Vol. I.) 

Thursday afternoon March 13"^ 1653. Burgomaster Arent van Hattem, P. L. van der 
Grift, Wilh. BeecTcman, Allard Anthony, M. van Geele, and P. Wolfertsen, Schepens met at 
Fort Amsterdam, Burgomaster Martin Cregier being absent. 

After deliberating on the propositions made in the forenoon they resolved 

1. The trainbands are already put on duty, but the 
Director-Genl. and Council are requested to furnish 
them with light and fuel. 

2. We agree, that the Manhatans should be pro^nded 
with pallisades and breastworks. 

3. That the Fort shall then be placed in a state of 

4. That four or five thousand guilders shall be paid 
into the City's Treasury to pay for the aforesaid 
necessary works. This sum shall hereafter be levied 

Neio Yo7'h Historical Mecords. 


List of those, who are 
defenses of this City. 

on the people of New Netherland according to a 
valuation of the property. 
5. They declare this to be very urgent. 

This done at the meeting in Fort Amsterdam as 

contribute provisionally the following sums for the repairs of the 

Mr. WercJchoven 


Nicolas Boodt 


Johannes van Beech 


Isaack Foreest 


Johannes Pr. Verhrugge 


Abram Geenes 


Joha7ines Gillesen Verbrugge 


Jacob Steendam 


Johannes d^Peyster 


Antony Clasen 


Cm'nelis van Steenwyck 


Jan Jansen d^Jongh 


Oovert Loockermans 


Borger Joris 


Olof Stevensen 


Jan Finge 


Jacob van Couwenhoven 


Arent van Hattem 


Jacob SchelUncx 


Martin Krigier 


Peter Prins 


Paulus Leendertsen 


Anthony van Hardenbergh 


Wilh Beeckman 


Johannes Nefius 


P. van Couwenhoven 


Oulyan W Wys 


Maxim, van Geel 


Peter Buys 


Allard Anthony 


Adrian and Johannes Keyser 


Abram de la Nay 


Paulus Schrich 


Daniel Litschoe 


Jacob Gerritsen StrycTcer 


Philipp Geraerdy 


Francois Fyn 


Egbert van Borsum 


Matewis de Yos 


Hendrich Kijp 


Adrian Blornmaert 


Evert Tesselaers Commis 



Jacob Backer 


Propositions of the Burgomasters and Schepens in eegaed to the present c: 

The Burgomasters and Schepens of this city, Martin Cregier, who is absent, excepted, i 
and demonstrate upon the propositions made on the IS"" March 1653. 

First, whether it is not necessary, to enclose above all the greater part of this City of Neio 
Amsterdam in the most convenient manner withpallisades, and after this has been done as speedily 
as possible to put the Fort Nem Amsterdam into a good shape for defense, to serve as a place of 
retreat? They offer for the accomplishment hereof to provide the sum of 4, 5 or 6 thousand 
guilders, to be collected from the community interested in it after the completion of the work. 

The said Burgomasters and Schepens further propose to the Director-General and Council, 

200 Early Colonial Settlements. 

whether it is not necessary, to send besides the already dispatched letters some special agents to the 
respective Colonies of New England, our neighbors, whose Commissioners, so the report goes, are 
to meet on the next first of April. They could obtain a speedier and more decisive answer to the 
aforesaid letters and could offer them personally good and favorable conditions for a continuation 
of our former neighborly friendship, mutual correspondence and commerce ; they might also 
ascertain, how far they are interested in the unexpected differences and the European war, broken 
out between their High : Might : and the present government of England. This done and enacted 
at New Amsterdam, March 15, 1653. 


Petee "Wolfertsex 
Maximillvnus van Gheel 
Allakd Anthony. 

Eesolution of the Director- Geneeal and CorNciL appeoving of the foeegoing PEOPOsmoNS. 

The Director-General and Council of New Netherlands having read and considered the 
propositions of the Burgomasters and Schepens of the City of New Amsterdam, in which they 
submit that above all the greater part of this City should be strengthened and enclosed with 
pallisades and the Fort be placed in a proper state of defense, offering to contribute 5 to 6 thousand 
guilders — accept the propositions and the offer, even though in some respects they do not agree 
with the directions of the Lords Patroons and tlie resolution adopted yesterday. They consent 
therefore for the sake of peace and harmony, that the proposed and called-for enclosure shall first 
be made properly and the defences constructed etc. and the work shall be contracted for and 
undertaken under the orders and directions of the Director General and Council or their deputies 
and the Burgomasters and Schepens or their deputies, the Director-General and Council appointing 
herewith out of their number as such deputy, the first Councillor Mons. La Montague, who is to 
promote this work with the deputies from the Magistrates. 

As to the further proposition to send agents to our neighbors of New England, although the 
letters sent to the respective Colonies of Boston and Plijmugen should be suificient for the purpose, 
yet, as no definite answers have been received so far, Director-General and Council 
agree with the proposition of the Burgomasters and Schepens and consent to send 
properly accredited agents to the respective Colonies. The credentials and instructions signed and 
given by the Director General and Council shall be submitted to the Burgomasters and Schepens 
as soon as they are written; the Director and Council will consider who is to be entrusted with the 

Done in Council by the Director-General and Council of New Netherland, March 14, 1653. 

March 17, 1653. 

Meeting of the Director-General and Council of New Netherland and the Burgomaster van 
Ilattem and Schepens of this City. 

It is resolved, on reconsidering the ordei-s and resolutions of March l-i"" about sending agents 

New York Historical Records. 201 

to the New England Colonies, that they shall be maintained and executed without any alteration, 
except that the mission shall be delayed for a while, to wait till an answer has been received to 
the letters from the Director-General and Council to the Governors of New England and till time 
and circumstances should require the immediate departure of the agents on their errand. 

Council Minutes. Eesolutions concerning the pallisades aeound Fort Amsterdasi and 

TUE export of wines AND LIQUORS. 

At the session of the 21" of March 1653 the Director-General reported, that the late Nine 
Men had been negligent in enclosing the Fort with pallisades or stakes, to which work the 
community had voluntarily contributed a considerable sum and whereas the said work has as 3'et 
not been begun, much less been completed, it is resolved that the parties, who manage the work 
and are entrusted with it shall be warned, to hasten the work, pursuant to former instructions, 
around the Foi-t, that it might not be rained by hogs and that the portion already put up might 
be preserved. 

Whereas all kinds of wine — Spanish and French wines, brandy and other distilled waters — ■ 
are daily exported from this City by many of the skippers, while the tavern keepers here have to 
pay the usual and proper import duties or excise, the Director-General and Council have resolved 
and herewith order for the better maintenance of their necessary garrison, that henceforth nobody 
shall be allowed to export from this City, neither by water nor by land, any wine or liquor, unless 
the same has been duly reported at the Company's public office and the excise has been paid for 
each anker of Spanish wine — , for each anker of French wine — , for each anker of brandy and 
distilled water — . This excise and duty must be paid by the [exporter] and if it shall be found, 
that some merchants, traders or other inhabitants have sent off any wine, without being able to 
produce the proper excise receipt, they shall make good the loss sustained thereby by the Lords 
Patroons and besides pay a fine. The fiscal is to pay proper attention hereto and proceed against 
all disobeying this order according to law. 

Eesolution to fortify New Ajisterdam and bend Commissioners to Yirginia. 
Council Meeting of April 20, 1653. 

First it is decided upon hearing the unexpected rumors, that the citizens without exception 
shall work on the constructions, undertaken jointly for the defense of this City, by immediately 
digging a ditch from the East river to the North river, 4 to 5 feet deep and 11 to 12 feet wide at 
the top sloping in a little towards the bottom. 

Second, the carpenters shall be urged to prepare jointly the stakes and rails. 

Third, the soldiers and other servants of the Company with the free negroes, no one excepted, 
shall complete the work on the Fort by making a parapet and the farmers are to be summoned to 
haul the pieces of turf. 

Fourth, the sawyers shall immediately begin to saw planks of four inches' thickness for gun 
carriages and platforms. 

202 Early Colonial Settlements. 

It is further i-esolved, that Commissionei-s shall be sent to Virginia, who must endeavour 
to obtain a boatload of salt for the use of the inhabitants here. The Fiscal van Tienhoven is 
appointed on behalf of the Hon*'^ Company and the Burgomasters and Schepens are called upon, 
to nominate a member of their Board to join him, which they will consider at their next session 
and then give an answer. 

Letter feom the Directoes to Stuyvesa^^t eecommending Johan De Hm.TEE, who takes out 
TO New Netheeland a number of people foe Renselaeeswyck. 

A° 1653, the 7'" of May. 

Honorable, Vigorous, Pious, Dear and Faithful. 

In the ship " Graft" goes over Mr. Johan De Ilulter* partner in the Colony of lienselaerswyck, 
and his family who takes with him a goodly number of free people, among them some artisans, 
especially a very good brickmaker, and many others mentioned in detail in the list, to settle either 
in the said Colony or elsewhere and assist in the cultivation of the soil there. As it is not yet 
quite decided, where he may begin and as he may settle on Manhattans Islamd, where 
we believe it would be best, we have deemed it proper and just upon his request for a 
recommendation, because not known there, to direct you to favor him as far as possible without 
prejudice to the Company's interests and kindly assist him in everything ; and if he should conclude 
to remain upon Manhattans o\- Long Island to allot for him so suitable a place, as liis circumstances 
and the fitness of it for a brickyard require. Hereupon relyiug etc etc. 

The Directors of the W. I. Co. 

Amsterdam, Edward Man. 

the 7'" of May 1653. A. Patee. 

To Directeur Stuyvesant in Wew Netherland. 

Jorar Eesolution of Dieectoe aito Council of New Netherland and the Magistrates of 
New Amsterdam to provide for the FOETiFYmG of the City. 

Upon the written and verbal propositions made by the Hon"^ Director-General to the Council, 
the Burgomasters and the Schepens jointly, the said Director-General and Council and the 
Magistrates of this City, resolved. 

That according to tlie former resolution of the 15"" of March first and above all the City of 
New-Amsterdam shall be enclosed all around by joint work and placed in a proper state of defense, 
to arrest and beat off a sudden attack and that then the Fort be taken in hand and repaired. 

In order to do this in the best and speediest manner it is further resolved by the Director 

* Johan de Hulter was the son-in-law of Johannes de Laet, one of the Directors of the W. I. Co. and author of 
two works on America. — B. F. 

New York Historical Recoi'ds. 203 

General and Council, that the citizens and inhabitants, together with the mechanics and laborers 
sliall generally assist either in person or if they can afford it by other suitable substitutes and not 
stop work until it is comjjleted and in such a state of defense that the good inhabitants 
of this City with their wives, children and property may be protected against a sudden assault 
and incursion, which God in his grace may prevent. 

And that the wiiole work may be done and performed in better manner and order and that 
the said Director-General and Council and the Burgomasters and Schepens may have a better 
supervision of its being done well and properly, it is resolved and decided, that we go to work 
with squads, namely that one-fourth part of all the inhabitants, either burghers, merchants, 
farmers or sailors and skippers, either already liere or who may come hereafter, shall be employed 
on the said work for three consecutive days, as they shall be directed and ordered by the said 
Director-General and Council, Burgomasters and Schepens either jointly or individually under 
penalty of 25 Carolus guilders to be imposed on those, who for the first time oppose the orders and 
resolutions made in joint session of the Director-General and Council and the Magistrates and do 
not obey generally or individually the commands of one of tlie said Council or Magistrates ; if any one 
is unwilling and disobedient a second time, he shall lose his rights as burgher and if upon a third 
summons he remains obstinate and unwilling, he shall be punished arbitrarily and banished from 
the Province. 

To prevent excuses and dissatisfaction, it is further resolved, that the Director-General, the Mem- 
bers of the Council and the said Magistrates shall not only be and remainthe managers of the work, 
but also each of them shall according to his means send at liis own expense a man to work, the 
same order to apply to the siibordinate officers of the Hon"= Company none excepted and the free 
negroes, who with their fourth part shall go to work upon their section of the aforesaid work and 
continue until it is completed, subject to like penalties as above. 

Concerning the first, second and third point it is further resolved, that no sliips, barges nor any 
person whatever shall be allowed to leave within tlie time of 14 days or three weeks, when the 
Director-General and his Council and the Magistrates hope to have completed the said work and 
made it defensible, provided it is commenced and continued with courage and zeal. In case it is 
completed sooner, the Director-General and Council will issue another order concerning the earlier 
departure of ships, barges and persons. 

Thus done and enacted in joint session with the Burgomasters and Schepens by the Director- 
General and Council at New Amsterdam the 12"" of May 1653. 

P. Sttttvesaut 
La Montagne 
Briak Newton 
Cor. van Tienhoven 
Arent van Hattem 
P. L. VAN DIE Grift 
WiLH Beeckman 


Maximilianus van Gheel 
Allard Anthony. 

204 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Council Minute. RESOLirnoN on a petition of the Mastek of the ship " Elbing " pbaying 

FOK leave to sail 

May 20'" 1653. 

Petition of Jan Jmisen Visscher. 

With due reverence Jan Janse^i Visscher, skipper and supercargo of the ship " Elhing" 
anchored before this City, shows that he, the petitioner, has taken aboard his cargo, that the invoices 
are signed, that he has provided himself with water and fuel and is quite ready to sail any day with 
the first fair wind, which God shall send, from here directly to the Fatherland and whereas he 
requires your Hon^"= "Worships previous special consent and permission thereto, he petitions your 
Hon*"" Worships will please to give hun this consent and permission, by issuing to him the proper 
clearance papers. Thus doing etc. 


The petitioner's request has been partly answered eight days ago, since which time petitioner 
has continued to take in freight ; even on the day when he submitted to us his last petition has he 
taken on board several hogsheads of tobacco and cases of peltry ; the Director-General and Council 
are further informed, that some peltries are being packed to-day, to be shipped and that therefore 
the bills are not ready yet : when these are ready and signed and the duties paid or offset, the 
petitioner shall not be delayed more than 8 or 10 days to his or his owners' loss. If after the expiration 
of this time, it should be found necessary for the service of this Province to detain the petitioner's 
ship still longer then the Director-General and Council on behalf of this Province engage to pay 
or cause to be paid in Fatherland the promised wages for all the days, the ship is thus detained, 
according to the decision and arbitration of the Commissioners appointed for this purpose in 

Petition of Adrian van dee Donck foe peemission to eetukn to New Netheeland. 

The Honorable Directors of the Privileged 
West India Company, Dept. of Amsterdam. 

[May 26"', 1653.] 

Humbly requests the undersigned Adrian van der Donck consent and passport of the Board 
to go to New Netherland, offering to resign the commission given him formerly either as President 
of the community or as its delegate and promising, that after his ai-rival in New Netherland and 
sojourn there he will not accept any office, whatever it might be, but will live quietly and peaceably 
in his private character as common inhabitant, submitting to the orders and commands of the 
Company or of their Director. Which doing etc. 

Adrian van der Donck. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 205 

Letter from Die. Stuyvesaut to the Goveenok of Vikginia eecommending Augustin Herman. 
Honored S'. 

This day fourtlinight ower Agents went out, but through Contrarie winds and weather 
brought them bake againe to ower Sorrow, and as wee doe feare to y' greate hinderance in other 
waighty affayres, in the meane thym one off ower Subjects here by naiu(i Augustine Heermans 
desired these few lines in recommendation for to obtayno your Hon" ayde and Justice iff need 
should require against Mr. Edw. Scarhurgh his debtor, for some quantitie off tobacco, the witch 
the least yeare was arrested vnder Master Scarburghs hande, by one Charles Gabry, merchant off 
Amsterdam, it is soo that the said Gahry lefft here his attorney, videlicet Paulns Leendersten, 
the witch is now Satisfyed in what his principall could demante, as by the discharge vnder the sayde 
Paulus Leendersten hand may appeare. I doe therefore request in the behalfe off the s"'. Mr. 
Augustine Herrman, that hee accordinge to Justice may obtaine what is due unto him, what 
Courtesie or Sernice you please to Comand mee you shall fynde mee readyo in all lawful! 
possibilitie, to bee Wew Amsterdam 30"^ May, A° 1863. 

Y" Honnors Seru', 

P. Stuyvesant. 

To the Honored Ritchard Bennet esquier and Govern' off Virginia. 

Kecordatum Tricesimo die January 1654. 

Teste Edm. Mathews cler. Comit. North'™ Virginia. 

Council Minutes. Oedees eegaeding the erection of a redoubt at Foet Oeange and 
THE scAEcmr of geain theee. 

May 28 1653. 

The Director-General and Council of Neio Netlierland after having heard the detailed report 
of the deputies of the two Courts, to wit Mr. Arent van Curler from the Court of the Colony 
and Rutgert Jacohsen in behalf of Fort Orange and the village of Beaverioyok and having 
examined the letters previously sent concerning the disputes, which to our regret have arisen 
between the Courts on one side and the officers of the trainbands on the other, 

Order herewith, that the resolution adopted by both the Courts on the last of April and 
ratified and approved by us some time ago shall be carried out and therefore the inhabitants of the 
Fort and the village are herewith charged and commanded to assist the people of the Colony, 
after the Fort shall have been thoroughly repaired, in completing the redoubt or blockhouse, in 
conformity with said resolution. In default thereof, proceedings shall be instituted against all 
who refuse to obey. Thus done the 28"' of May 1653. 

The Director-General and Council of New Netherland having further considered the present 
scarcity of breadstuffs, resolve, not only to write once more to and direct the authorities of Fort 
Orange and of the Colony of Rensslaerswyck strictly to observe and execute the former 
ordinances concerning the malting, brewing and unnecessary baking, but also to direct and 
authorize them to appoint out of tlieir number two or more persons, who shall visit the burghers 
and tenants, especially the bakers and brewers and see, how much bread corn every one of them 

206 Early Colonial Settlements. 

lias in store and all the inhabitants of the two districts are commanded, not only to give a full 
and satisfactory information to the Magistrates or their deputies, but also to give to them a 
complete account and proof of where they send the grain to or how they consume it themselves. 
Thus done and enacted by the Director-General and Council of New Amsterdam the SO*"" of 
May 1653. 

Leiter from the Directors to Stutvesant : E0eopean ITews : Regulations for ORAXTmo 
LANDS : Renselaeeswyck : Increase of cattle to be encouraged : Slave trade to N. N. 


1653, June 6">. 

Honorable, Worshipful, Pious, Dear and Faithful. 

Our last to you was dated the 13'" of December 1652 by the ship called " Elbing^^ and was 
sent alone and suddenly with the quantity of ammunition, of which a list is here enclosed, to 
inform you of the English war ; by the same letter we could only partly answer your letters and 
accompanying documents of the ll"" and 20"" of September 1652 received by the ships "^omeyre," 
'■'■ Ruys te B reda^^ and '■'■ G elder se Blom'''' and as since, God be praised, the little ship "*§■);. 
Michael " has safely arrived here, by which we received your letter of the 19"" of November 
following, we shall answer now this and the unanswered points in the former as briefly and 
substantially as possible. 

Your endeavors, although resultless, to obtain from the community there some subsidy for the 
maintenance of the administration, the military and the church have our approval ; but we cannot 
as yet agree to your opinion in regard to this matter, that such measures must necessarily be 
introduced by our express order and direction, nor do we consider it advisable to adopt this plan at 
the present time, although the Company ought to have some relief and assistance in this matter ; 
but the difficulties which at present arise are apparent to us and must be well considered. We have 
resolved to direct you herewith, that if the community there cannot be persuaded to make voluntary 
contributions (which you must continuously try to obtain by all possible and gentle means), this 
measure must not be introduced against their will and pleasure, to prevent disturbances in so 
honorably opening a territory during these dangerous and troubled times. 

We have seen, that upon the petition of people from Fort Orange as well as from the Colony 
of Renselaerswych you have been obliged to close your eyes in regard to the placat about contraband 
goods ; you will do well to do that seldom and to take good care, that by such connivance not a 
larger quantity of ammunition is sold to the savages, than each requires for provisioning his household 
and for gaining his livelihood, that this savage and barbarous people may not at some future day take 
up and turn these weapons against us, with more than too many of which, as we regret to learn, they 
have already been supplied by smugglers and evil minded persons. Strict attention must therefore 
be paid to this and the Fiscal directed to visit and examine arriving ships and cargoes and to 
prosecute such smugglers and illegal dealers strictly in accordance with the aforesaid placats without 

We have been also of the opinion, that the best and safest way at this period is to stand upon 

New York Historical Records. 207 

your own right and defend it and have therefore urged you in our letter of the G"' of August 1G52 
(of which we enclose a copy) to arm all free men, soldiers and sailors and put the fortification into 
a good state of defense, which will now be of still greater importance, because the disagreements 
between the two republics have resulted in open war. Notwithstanding this you must not fail to 
use all honorable and imaginable means for the maintenance and continuation of the correspondence 
and commerce with the people of Virginia and Nmo England. The Company shall in the 
meantime as far as able persevere in sending a commensurate number of people and soldiers, of 
whom we regret not to be able at present to send such a number, as we had desired, for neitlier 
soldiers, nor sailors nor even carpenters can be engaged because of the continued preparations and 
equipments of ships and people to be sent to sea by this state against the English ; we have 
therefore not failed in our duty herein, nor in procuring the goods and merchandise needed there 
so much, with which the ships now leaving have been provided only very sparingly ; they could 
not receive a full cargo partly because private dealers are discouraged by the present dangers at sea, 
partly because they are afraid, that our aiEiirs there with the English neighbors may be subjected 
to a change ; especially as in England Parliament has again been dissolved and General Cromwell 
has established provisionally another form of government, as you may learn by the enclosed printed 

Concerning the placats drawn up and sent over by j'ou in regard to the neglect in cultivating 
and redeeming land and in erecting houses on the lots granted within the limits of New 
Amsterdam, we have told you in our last letter of the IS**" of December 1652 (of which a copy 
goes herewith) and we repeat now : it has never been our intention, that our general and 
simple consent, given to all going there according to the size of their family, should make 
tliem owners of one or two hundred morgens of land, without entering upon and cultivating it in 
the prescribed time nor have we any other intention in regard to the lots, which remain in and 
about the city of New Amsterdam, without being occupied. "We have therefore caused the said 
placats to be printed here after examining and slightly correcting them and shall send them to you 
herewith to be published and affixed there. In order that the first of them may have better effect 
and bear fruit, we have finally concluded to make in your draft no other correction, than only, that 
the quit-rent or the annual payment of 12 stivers for each morgen shall become due a year after 
the land has first been ploughed or otherwise put to use, as you will see by the pi'inted copy. 

"We have also examined the placat concerning the illegal purchase of land without the knowledge 
of the Company, which you have already published and affixed there ; we would have preferred, 
that you had not particularized the names of the persons and had been careful to prevent all 
difficulties and questions from the Company's calumniators here ; the enclosed printed copy will 
show you, what corrections we have made in this placat and we recommend to you most earnestly 
the execution of this as well as of the other two placats. 

Your proceedings and provisional order in and about Fort Orart^e, after examining the 
documents etc., sent by you for this purpose, have our approval ; we only desire to recommend to 
yoii herewith, that you charge the chief officers and the court at said Fort not to give to the people 
of the Colony of Eenselaerswych any occasion for displeasure or complaint, but rather to keep on 
a good footing with them and to do everything necessary for friendship and peace with their 
neighbors, without prejudicing the .Company's rights. 

We have also been pleased to see, that you have not extended the limits of the Colony of 
Renselaerswijeh any further, than the Freedon^s and Exemptions admit and as to the farms, which 
may fall outside the fixed limits of the said Colony, we are of opinion that the same ought to be 

208 Early Colonial Settlements. 

granted by jiroper patents in the name of the Company and left in the possession of the present 
occupants under such conditions and yearly taxes, as are made with and imposed upon other Colony 
owners and private individuals, without however dra^ving them into the patroonship of the aforesaid 
Colony or extending the same to their extent. 

"We recommend to you most earnestly the breeding of cattle and therefore the slaughtering of 
the same, especially of young cows and other young cattle, must be prevented as much as possible ; 
and if, in order to increase the number of cattle in the country, some private individuals could be 
found, who are willing to purchase some animals in Hispaniola or other jjarts of the ^Yest Indies 
and import them there, the Company would approve of it and consider it a desirable measure to 
promote agriculture. As we have also learned, that many sheep are dying there, we wish you to 
consider, whether salt might not be used there as a remedy against the diseases and distempers of 
the sheep . it must be placed in large lumps all over the pastures, as it is done in many other 

We are informed here by good authority that large quantities of peltries might be secured 
tliere from the Canadian savages, if these tribes could come without danger and without being 
obliged to take a circuitous route to Fort Orange and lienselaerswycJc. But they are constantly 
molested by their neighbors, the Maquas, with whom they are at war almost incessantly and this 
it is said is the canse, why the Canadian savages, fearing the danger and the troubles of a southern 
trip, sell their peltries to the French and other nations trading there, so that the Company and 
their people are deprived of all this trade. We wish therefore to suggest to you whether it would 
not be for the advantage and service of the Company to establisli a trading post 18 or 20 leagues 
above Foi't Orange and make it the staple of the fur-trade : it would be, we believe, no small 
matter for the Company and we expect your opinion of it by the lirst opportunity. 

Upon your request in favor of the Honorable van Werckhoven we have decided, that if he 
requires more land, which he is able to cultivate, he shall be accommodated. 

The recommendation, which we gave to Frederick AlcTcer, the supercargo, and otliers which 
we may give must not be considered any further by you, than the service of the Company requires. 

As we have said in our last to you, it has surprised us, that against our previous orders you 
exact four stivers for quit- rent besides the 8 per cent from each merchantable beaver; we stated 
then among other reasons the difficulties likely to arise from that measure, especially the decline 
of both commerce and population, because by the decrease of the former we should be deprived 
of the means to carry people over there. We have therefore resolved to order and direct you 
herewith expressly, not to demand henceforth more than 8 per cent, for beavers, leaving merchants 
tha choice, whether to pay it in kind or in full weighted silver coin according to Dutch valuation; 
partly and principally to prevent complaints from dealers and not to discourage them during these 
dangerous times, partly to draw coin from here into that province. 

We have seen, that you have granted there, subject to our approval, three extraordinary 
monopolies to some private parties, namely one to estabhsh an asliery, one to make tiles and bricks 
and the third to put up salt works ; we do not only completely disapprove of granting such 
monopolies, but we are also of opinion and desire, that you shall not grant any others henceforth, 
because we believe it to be very pernicious and impracticable especially in a new country, which 
begins only to develop, and must be peopled and made prosperous by general benefits and liberties 
to be granted to everybody, who desires to settle there with this or that profession or handicraft : 
that encourages people to remove thither, while on the contrary they are deterred and consequently 
aU trades and business banished, if such monopolies and privileges are given only to a few favored 

New York Historical Records. 209 

private individuals, the advancement of whose interests must not be purchased at the expense of 
the general welfare. As the promotion of the latter depends mostly upon the growth of a country, 
we have concluded to recommend to you to act in this matter always on such theories, that 
increase of population, advancement of agriculture and advantages to the common welfare may 
result from it ; then the Company too may at last reap some long expected benefits from this 
territory purchased so dearly. 

You can well understand, that we are not idle here, but that our thoughts are constantly 
engaged to discover means for the promotion of agriculture and the advantage of the inhabitants 
there generally and for that purpose we have already asked the government here and are repeating 
our demand now for the abolition of the tax on tobacco grown there, which you may communicate 
to the delegates of the inhabitants and expect the result in due time. 

We can judge very well, that it would be advantageous to the Company, if no ships from here 
were allowed to go directly to Virginia, New England, etc., but to our deep regret there is very 
little chance of preventing it, because the other Departments can give such permission to 
private ships pursuant to the rules made herein with the approval of their High : Might :. We shall 
nevertheless try to find, if possible, an expedient, the success of which you shall hear in due time. 

We would have granted very willingly yoiir and the community's request to have a farrier sent 
over, but notwithstanding all our endeavors in this respect we have as yet not been able to find a 
suitable and experienced person and we believe therefore, that this class of people have already gone 
to sea and under the flag of Admiral Tromp. You must do the best you can in this matter for 
the present with the assistance of such material as you may find there. 

We are well fleased with the method and orders, inaugurated and issued in the granting of 
furloughs to and discharges of soldiers under so well defined conditions and believe it will prove 
a proper measure to have at hand an always ready and well disciplined hody of men. In 
engaging soldiers here we shall try to follow your rules and in order better to govern ourselves 
accordingly in the future, we most urgently recommend to you to send us annually a complete list 
of the soldiers and others, whom from time to time you may discharge there, partly that their 
places may be filled up again from here, partly to suspend the annual payment of the salary for two 
months, which might be advanced and paid here on their account to their friends and attorneys 
to the loss of the Company. 

In consideration of the weakness in numbers of your Council in these troubled times, we have 
resolved to increase the number by another fit and experienced Councillor and as among others 
Nicasius Silla has presented himself for the office, experienced both in law and war, of whose 
life and knowledge we have received the best testimony, we have engaged him for our service as 
first Councillor of the Director at a salary of one hundred guilders per month, commutation money 
for board included, as you will learn in detail by our ship " Koninch Salomon.''^ 

For special reasons we have also resolved, that you shall let the increase of Councillor La 
Montague's salary to fifty guilders per month and two hundred guilders yearly for board begin so 
much earlier and from such a date, that his debts to the Company may be balanced and liquidated 
by it ; we trust this will make him continue in his duties with still greater zeal and take the 
Company's interest still more to heart. 

We have made an agreement with some merchants here and allowed them to sail with two or 

three ships to the coast of Africa to trade for slaves and carry them thence to the West Indies 

and the neighboring islands ; as we expect, that one or the other of these ships may come to New 

Netherla/nd to sell their slaves to the inhabitants there, we desire and require, that in that case 


210 Early Colonial Settlernents. 

you demand no recognition from tliem, but assist them in every proper way to clear away all 
obstacles, which might impede the progress of agriculture. This for your information and 
subsequent action. 

The former Director Wouter van Twiller has suggested to the Board, whether it would not 
be advisable to make some alterations in the clearances, given by the Company to ships sailing to 
New Netherlaiul, especially to put in the place of 45 stivers as duty on Virginian tobacco 20 stivers 
for one hundred pounds or two guilders for the cask, partly to draw most of the tobacco from 
Virginia by way of New Netherlands which would be a great advantage to the inhabitants there, 
partly because he. Van Twiller, considers it impossible, that the ships can continue to sail from 
here to New Netherland in competition -svith those sailing directly from here to Virginia and 
New England and paying only 10 guilders per last. Although we have declined his proposal, 
we have nevertherless concluded to apprise you of it, that we may have your opinion by the first 

We enclose a sealed secret letter, which we direct you to keep in a special place and which 
must not be opened or read, unless Director Stuyvesant should die there (which God forbid). In 
that case our orders and intentions expressed therein shall be read and we desire, that then they 
shall provisionally and until our further orders be carried out and obeyed. 

We called upon you some time ago for information concerning the accomit of monthly wages 
earned by a certain Jaii Jansen van Ilpendain, formerly Commissary there, but ai-e surprised not 
to have received any answer yet. A memorandum of the matter and account is therefore here 
again enclosed, upon which you will take such order, that by the first opportunity we may receive 
a distinct explanation and statement of this matter, as well as of the case of one Francis DecJcersen, 
supercargo of the ship " Niew Nederlantsche FortuynP 

Copies here enclosed of two petitions presented by Adrian van der Donck will inform you 
of their tenor and demands : in regard to the first, we can well understand, that it is founded in 
reason, for it would be very expensive and inconvenient for the people, who take over farm hands 
and girls, if these servants should leave their service, whenever it pleases them and before their 
time has expired, without first indemnifying their masters or having other good and sufiicient 
reasons. We must act in such matters very cautiously and give such orders, that neither the people 
are hampered nor the masters or their servants have cause for complaints. As to the six guns, 
which the said van der Doncli sent there in 1651, if the case stands as related and the guns were 
not smuggled ; but imported with the consent of the Company, they should be returned to him. 

Concerning the second petition in relation to the piece of land or poor meadow of about 30 to 
40 morgens near the Saeghll*, we have deemed it advisable to write you and order not to allow any 
one to trespass upon said meadow nor occupy it before you shall have examined this case and if you 
find that he, vaii der Donck, has purchased the said meadow from the natives with the consent and 
knowledge of the Director and Council there and it does not prejudice or infringe upon the 
Company's rights, then, Ave are of opinion, this piece of land or meadow should be left to him under 
the same conditions as grants are made to other inhabitants pursuant to and conform with the 


Also the ship " Geld^rse Blom " belonging to or freighted by Wouter van TwilUr, while tied 
up here, had surreptitiously received on board a number of kegs of powder, the inspectors of the 
customs presuming their contraband character have seized them, as the ship was going out from 

* Nepperhan Creek in the city of Tonkers. 

New YorJc Historical Records. 211 

the Texel, so that the ownere liave suffered no small loss ; but Woxitervan Twiller pleads ignorance 
and the skipper with his mate have eaten the cheese. There are undoubtedly on board of thisehip 
still other contraband goods and we deem it therefore advisable to inform you hereof, that you request 
and direct the Fiscal to be very strict in his examination, when the ship arrives and is being 
discharged, that such smugglers may be proceeded with and punished according to the placats as an 
example for others. 

Herewith etc. 
Amsterdam, The Directors of the W. I. Company 

the 6'" of June, 1653. Dept. of Amsterdam, 

A. Patek. 
Edwaed Mann. 

The enclosures go in the Company's ship " Koninoh Salomon.^ 

To the Director and Council in J^ew Netlierland. 


OFFICERS : Van der Donck's Description of New Nethekland. 
(The first part of this letter is a duplicate of the letter of June 6"> 1653 p. 206.) 

The good testimony and reports presented to us concerning the character, fitness and experience 
of Cornells van Reuven, coming over with this ship, have induced us to resolve, to take him into 
our service as Secretary of your Board at a monthly salary of 36 fl and 200 fl yearly for subsistence. 
We trust, that you will derive advantages from his service. As to Carel van Brugge, appointed 
by you to this office provisionally, you may let him again attend to his former duties as Commissary 
or assign to him such as you think him best fitted for. 

We have concluded to order and direct you herewith, that in case after the unloading of our 
ship " Coninck Salomon " a cargo of tobacco could be obtained there, the same be placed on board 
and the ship sent back here with all possible speed ; if not, which we hope will not be, you must 
quickly send the said ship to Curasao to take in there a cargo of wood and salt and thence let it 
come directly to this country by the northern route, if the season of the year permit, with special 
orders to keep as close to the northern coast as possible in order to be exposed to the least extent 
to the dangers of capture by the English. You will give to all ships sailing from there the same 
orders in future and as long as the war between this nation and theirs last. 

Whereas Master* Adrian van der Donck has presented to our Board two petitions, namely 
that having received his degree at law l)y the University of Leyden and been admitted to the bar 
by the Court of Holland he may be permitted to practice as attorney and counsellor in New 
Netherland and further to be allowed to examine the documents and papei-s in the Secretary's 
office there to complete his already begun Description of New Netherland ; we have resolved on 
the first to allow, that according to the usages of this country he may practice there as advocate by 
assisting every one, who desires it, with his advice, but as to pleading in Court, we cannot observe, 
that for the present it is proper to allow, because we do not know, whether there is somebody 

* A title given to every one, who has taken his degree as Advocate at the University. — B. F. 

212 Early Colonial Settlements. 

there of sufficient ability and the necessary qualification, (wlio before being admitted to practice 
there, must report to you or as the case may be to us) to act and plead against the said van der 
Donch. You will do in this matter, what you shall consider to be the best for the country and 
its inliabitants. 

Concerning the second point we have resolved to refer the said van der Donch to you, that 
you may let him have such documents and papers, as may be thought of service to him in 
completing his history ; but as this is a difficult matter and requires consideration, we wish to 
recommend to you, to be herein so cautious that the Companys own weapons may not be used 
against us and we be drawn into new troubles and quarrels. 

For the sake of greater security and for your guidance we have resolved to notify yon again 
herewith, that the pay of the soldiers, sent over now in this ship as well as last year for our service, 
shall not begin before their arrival there ; therefore a soldiers accounts must not begin before that day 
and tlie first entries to his debit must be, besides the two months pay received here in advance, for 
the arms given him fl 13. 18 st. and for the strawbed and sea-chest together fl 2.15. The account 
of the men, who take or have taken with them their wives and children, must likewise be charged 
for the board and fare of the latter, which the Company pays for these women and children sailing 
in private vessels or else they must provide for it in some other way. 

Above all care must be taken, that in the accounts and books of monthly wages proper entries 
are made of the debts contracted here by the soldiers and others befoi-e their departure (which 
the enclosed list shows in detail) as in their liquidation we pay here every year to the creditors the 
pay for two months, which is also paid every year to the wives, left behind here by men entering 
our service. Therefore, when you discharge them you must at the final settlement and payment 
retain at least as many times a two months pay besides the two months wages received here, the 
arms, bed etc as they have lieen years in the service of the Company ; nor must you omit to send 
ns yearly a correct statement of those, whom you may discharge from time to time, as we have 
already told you, that the Company may not suffer loss. 

We have fm-ther to say in connection with the foregoing, that the books of monthly wages 
cause us here a great deal of trouble and examinations, because many items in several accounts 
are cancelled and credited, which refer to the journals, while we have received neither these nor 
the ledgers : we are therefore unable to see clearly and distinctly, whether these credited items 
have their proper counter entry, unless the books of wages are examined from beginning to end, 
item for item, to discover whether the charge has been made. You will therefore take care and 
give order, that henceforth the books, accounts and vouchers are sent to us in due time, that the 
Company may be protected against loss and the people concerned not detained. 

From complaints addressed to us we have learned that of the merchandise taken over by one 
Cornelis Pyl lately in the ship " H off van Cleeff" five pieces of kersey have been confiscated by 
the Fiscal there, because it was not entered in our invoice : as however this omission was caused 
by a clerical error, which the documents entrusted to our skipper Cornelis Conraetsen 
now coming over will prove to you, we have deemed it advisable to notify you thereof, that the 
aforesaid five pieces of kersey may be returned to the said skipper or his attorney and further 
complaints avoided. 

We have already stated that the ship " Hqf vaii Cleeff^'' had safely arrived from Curasao 
at Rochelle, but now we learn to our sorrow, that on her way to this place she has been taken 
by the English close by here, so that we are deprived and robbed of the profits, which we might 
have made on her return cargo ; it would have been of considerable assistance, as her cargo of salt 

New York Historical Records. 213 

would have sold well, for the price of salt is very high now and it was coming to a good market. 

Amsterdam, The Directors of the W. I. Company 

the 24'" of July 1653. Department of Amsterdam 

- Isaac van Beeck 

J. Rtokaekt. 

Letter feom the Dieectoks to Stutvesant : the relations with the New England people. 
1653 18'" of Aug. 

Honorable, Worshipful, Pious, Dear and Faithful. 

Sieur Allard Anthony appeared here to-day commissioned and sent by you in the ship 
" ElbingK " which arrived with several other ships from divers quarters in the Sound. We received 
from him your letter and accompanying papers, dated the S'" of June of the present year from 
which among others we learn to our regret of the danger apparently threatening our province there 
from the English neighbors on frivolous and treacherous pretext, used by them to cover their 
intentions. As our ship " Comnch Salomon,'" by which we have given you detailed advices, is 
now ready at the Texel to go to sea at a moment's notice and we have therefore no time to say much 
more on this subject, which we would like to see dispatched by the said ship ; we shall only say 
in answer to your last received letter, tliat you may rest assured, we shall endeavor and solicit 
especially the Lords Mayors and Rulers of this city, submitting all pertinent arguments, to assist 
and supply the places of so much importance to us with the things most urgently needed there. 
We trust, that in the meantinae after having been duly warned now you will be very cautious and on 
your guard and that you have put everything in good shape and state of defense so that if that 
nation has any hostile intentions upon our possessions and makes any attempt upon them, (for 
which we must not give them any pretext) j'ou may be able to resist them. We expect it however 
the less, although very much inflated with pride just now, because they must have learned of the 
losses sustained by the English here in the last terrible seafight with our fleet, in which they lost 
about 20 of their strongest and best ships, so that at last they were compelled to fly. It was a 
great victory for our country, which would have been celebrated with the greatest rejoicings, if 
the life of our valiant Admiral Tromp, of laudable memory, might have been spared. May the 
good God awaken another like him and protect this country and our territory there against further 

Herewith etc etc. 
Amsterdam, The Directors of the W. I. Company 

this 18'" of August, 1653. Dept. of Amsterdam. 

David van Baeele. 

To the Director and Council in New Netherland. Abe. Welmeedoep. 

Letters from Italy report, our Consul at Alleppo had written, that our people in the East 
Indies had taken two English ships on their way home, valued at about twenty tons of gold. 

214 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Resolution of the West India Company to encoubage PEivATEERmG. 

Extract from the Eegister of Eesolutions adopted by the 
No. 25. Committee of the Directors of the West India Company 

representing the Assembly of the XIX at the Hague. 

Monday, the 15"' of September 1653. 

The Committee appointed to consider the ninth section of the Description concerning the 
privateering or sailing with letters of marque have made their report on this matter, which says, 
that the rules adopted for this business in 1646 should remain in force, but in order to animate and 
encourage everybody at this time to equip a ship or ships for the spohation of the Portuguese, 
consent might be given, that, besides the reduction of the duties granted in 1652, provisionally and 
imtil further orders the following alterations be made. 


All captured goods may be secured and stored in a neutral warehouse, of which the government 
and the interested parties or their agent shall each have a key. 

After sentence has been pronounced by the court in Brasil, the goods shall be sold in hke 
manner as now by agents of the said government, provided, that some one of the interested parties 
or their agent may be present 

The moneys for the captured prizes shall be received as usual and pursuant to old customs, 
provided that the interested parties or their agent shall be satisfied promptly and their share paid 
to them, shortly after the receipt of the said moneys. 

All captured goods, which the purchasers shall wish to sendelsewheie, maybe shipped in such 
the interested parties deem advisable, but only to the fatherland and not elsewhere, unless 
the government in Brasil upon occasion gives other directions. 

Only the negroes captured in prizes coming from the sea may be sent with the knowledge of 
the government in Brasil to such places, as the purchasers choose. 

The duties now received by the Company for all prize goods captured and specified in the 
aforesaid rules (negroes included) shall be reduced to 10 p. cent, and nothing more, the export upon 
order remaining as before. 

A vote having been taken, it was unanimously resolved to adopt these articles and allow every 
one to act according to these rules and the gentlemen of the Committee received the thanks for 
their exertions. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 216 

Letter from the Directors to Stityvesant : Negotiations with the Burgomasters foe aid. 
November 4'" 1653. 

Honorable, "Worsliipful, Pious, Dear and Faithful. 

Although this ship the " Vaerwel " takes the course to New Netherland by way of Brasil 
and Curasao and therefore most likely will arrive late, we have neither been able not willing to 
omit informing you of what has occurred here since our last letters of the 24"' of July, coj^y of 
which we shall send by the first and better opportunity, and of the IS"" of August sent by the 
"Oelderse BlovC and our ship "'■ Coninck Salomon ; " especially regarding our request for assistance 
required for those places. We will also reply, as far as shall be considered necessary at present, 
to your last two letters of the 7"" of January 1653 and 5"' of June following. 

First concerning the request for aid and the reason, why as yet we can write about it with 
so little detail, it has not been neglect or lack of zeal on our part, but solely the very important 
affairs of state, which engage at present also this city especially, so that almost continually one 
or the other of the Burgomasters has been absent as delegate here or there ; then came the illness 
of the Honorable Burgomaster Witsen, so that the worshipful board being not full, we 
deemed it unadvisable to present our request until 6 or 8 days ago, when we handed the 
Burgomasters a certain remonstrance drawn up by us regarding this matter with some documents 
on the same subject. Nothing of interest has so far resulted from it, notwithstanding that we 
have importuned one or the other of their Worships by constant solicitations, but we have learned 
from them at least so much, that the present condition of the city will probably not permit to 
incur expenses or make advances without some assurance or without something tangible, from 
which they could repay themselves. We have thereupon requested that a committee of the 
Council be appointed to confer with us on this matter, and to hear our propositions : we are now 
anxiously waiting for that committee and hope, we shall give them full satisfaction. Anyway, as 
far as the condition of the Company can or may admit, we shall do our best and exert the power, 
which the Company still has : upon that you may rely and you may also believe, that we are 
deeply interested in it, because we desire very much the preservation and safety of that territory, 
opened with so great expenses, and its inhabitants. Meanwhile we have begun to provide 
ourselves with arms and ammunition of war and have already gathered 170 muskets, carbines and 
firelocks to arm the soldiers going thither. We shall not cease to continue in our preparations 
and care and we trust, that you likewise are very cautious and marke the best use of the means and 
power given to you first and now by God and nature, so that the haughty and intolerable English 
nation may not get the better of us through our bad management and carelessness. 

We are now coming to the reply to your two beforementioned letters, first of that of January 
7"" 1653, in which you say, that our people there live in great fear because the advantages gained 
in Parliament over our government are zealously magnified. We may well believe it, although 
it is sure, that the same are made ten times greater, than they are in reality ; but it is in the 
nature of haughty people and generally the characteristic of that nation and therefore their tales 
should not be believed so readily or accepted as correct. We think their boastfulness and 
haughtiness will be considerably diminished now, because they have accomplished nothing or at 
least very little during the year and specially because the great loss, which the English have 
sustained in the last terrible engagement at sea against our fleet, causes considerable decline and 
dissatisfaction with their new usurping government. As to the union, said to have been made by 
them with the Swedish crown, we have as yet seen no sign or result from it, much less, that they 

216 Early Colonial Settlements. 

have joined their forces to blockade tlie Sound ; the Englisli furthermore came out of the before- 
mentioned sea fight in so disabled a condition, losing besides twenty of their best and strongest 
ships, that they have not beeo able to recover as yet and go to sea again. 

You must also be very eautioas in the intercourse with the Swedes on the South river (against 
whose chief you complain), as well in maintaining the Company's privileges as in avoiding if 
possible to give them cause for complaints and dissatisfaction : for it is not advisable to increase the 
numbers of the Company's enemies at this critical period. Concerning the request made by some 
of his subjects for permission to come and settle among us, if we will engage to protect them, we 
see no reason, why it should be refused and denied, (unless your view goes farther, than we at 
present can observe), for it would indeed prevent an increase of population, which is nevertheless 
the life of a state and therefore should be promoted by all means. Hence the influx of free people 
should not be impeded, but rather encouraged by resolute and honest measures ; justice and equity 
then demand, that to the extent of our power we protect and guard all, who are wilKng and have 
submitted to our laws and customs, like our other inhabitants. 

You extol the conditions and the offer, according to which some English famiHes shall be 
admitted there to establish a new village or settlement near and opposite the village of Flushing 
who with the village of MiddelhurgK* are willing to the same conditions and offer. You present 
the matter as a proper measure, which would place the country and the administration in a firmer 
and safer position, but unfortunately we take a different view, because the people of Hemstead a.nA 
Flushing have actually not only not prevented the raising of the Parhament's flag by some English 
freebooter, but also permitted it to be done ; an example, which induces us not to trust to any of 
that nation residing under our jurisdiction. Their immigrating and having favors granted to them 
must therefore be restricted henceforth, that we may not nom-isli sei-pents in our bosom, who finally 
might devour our hearts. You will act accordingly. 

"We have learned with sorrow and surprise from your last letter of the 5"" of June of this year 
(as we already mentioned in ours of the IS"-"" of August, copy of which we enclose) what frivolous 
and false charges the people of New England have brought up against us only to cover their evil 
intentions with the appearance of justice and right: they follow herein the example of their 
principals, whose government is built up on the same grounds and foundation. Upon hearing the 
rumors from New England they have magnified these false reports, apparently started at their own 
instigation and have forged and published in London the most shameless and lying libel, which the 
devil in hell could not have produced, under the title " The second Amboyna Tragedy or truthful 
Account etc." "We have cause'd a translationf to be made of it and send you a copy of it 
herewith, so that you may see yourself the strategic measures emplo^-ed by that nation in order not 
only to irritate against us their own people, but also to bring down upon us the whole world. You 
must therefore proceed with great caution, for we cannot expect the least good from that nation at 

The crops, which had been raised, have, we hope, been safely harvested and although we can 
hardly believe, that the people of New England would have the audacity to blockade and besiege 
lis there, which you apprehend most, the grain and other victuals must not be consumed 
lavishly at this time ; we are told, that the Colony of HenselaersioycTc use their grain to brew strong 
beer etc., and you have done well and acted with due caution by giving them a timely warning. 
As by prohibiting the trade with New England no more meat or bacon can be drawn from the 
North, which you fear will cause a scarcity of these provisions, therefore we have at this time 

* Newtown, L. I. f See O'Callaghan, Hist, of New Netherland, II. 571. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 217 

to affix handbills proclaiming, that all, who will send victuals to New Netherlands shall 
pay no duties on them ; that will encourage merchants to ship them. 

We are waiting with much anxiety to hear of the return and the proceedings of our 
commissioners. Fiscal van Tienhoven and the Burgomaster-elect Arent van Hattem, who were 
sent by you to the Virginias partly to obtain some provisions, partly to ask for a continuation of 
the correspondence, peace andcommerce, to which the Governor and inhabitants of these places are 
very well inclined, as you say ; we were glad to learn it, because we esteem their friendship very 
highly as well on account of the commercial intercourse, as because, as we said before, we must 
make no more enemies there and therefore we must also employ all honest and equitable means to 
continue with them upon the old footing of intercourse and friendship. Do not cease in the 
meantime to watch them, nor show your weakness and do not trust them, because at present very 
little reliance can be placed upon them. 

We are very much astonished and surprised by your proposition and request, that the 
intei'ested parties, as Gerrit van de Voorde and his partners, might be satisfied and paid here for 
the merchandise confiscated by you and sold there ; the more so as our former letters must have 
convinced you, how little satisfaction these proceedings and confiscations have given us : you 
ought also to have known, that the condition and funds of the Company here do not permit it. 
There is little chance to settle the matter by an offset against the duties, and it woiild besides be 
a very slow way, as the people at least are sending only small cargoes to New Netherland and on 
the othe-r side the Company should not be deprived of their small revenue in this country. In the 
meantime these people, here receive in consequence of this sending from pillar to post and delay 
injuring their interest, just cause for complaints, which you might have prevented by keeping in 
deposit the moneys received for the confiscated goods, especially as the confiscation was made for so 
poor a reason, viz : not showing the bill of lading, while the goods were nevertheless entered in 
the invoice. Tou might have foreseen, that a claim for restitution would be made and in the 
future you must act with more caution and use all means to satisfy these parties there one way or 
the other and make such arrangements with them, that no more chances to complain may be given 
to them or to others. 

The good character, which you give to the slvipper Jan Jamen de Vischer has been already 
taken into consideration by us and would in due time most hkely have been acted upon, if we had 
been able to speak with him, but we are at present prevented from doing so, because he is a 
prisoner in England^ having had the misfortune, when returning with his ship from Norway to 
get separated from the rest of the fleet and to meet an English privateer, a frigate mounting 
34 to 36 guns, which sunk his ship after a fight of 5 to 6 hours' duration and took the skipper and 
the crew to England as prisoners ; this is, alas ! already the third ship coming from that quarter, 
which has thus been lost to the owners. The merchants trading to that country are undoubtedly 
much aggrieved, but we hope, that they and we shall have our revenge some time or that the 
differences between our and that nation shall be adjusted, strong signs of which now reappear, as 
this government has again sent two commissioners to England. Time will show what they shall 

After a committee of the worshipful Council of this city, to wit Messrs. Valckenier, Blauw, 
Tulp and Dronchelaer, had been appointed upon our petition to the Burgomasters (as already 
mentioned) to confer with us concerning the security to be provided by us for the payment of the 
succor asked and required for our places, we have last Wednesday met these gentlemen, to which 
■we believe we did not only give every satisfaction, but they also felt the importance of the matter, 

218 Early Colonial Settlements. 

as far as we can judge, to be so great that we neither will nor can doubt of their making a good 
and favorable report to the Burgomasters and Council. It is therefore to be expected, that some 
assistance shall be sent hence with God's help this year yet, which most likely will reach there 
before this letter, as the ship is going by way of Brasil and Curasao. You may rely upon it and 
keep your eyes open in the meantime, that no misfortune befal us there. 

The XIX of all the departments are still assembled at the Hague and engaged in reforming 
the government of Brasil, to send there new superior officers and to recall the old ones, who have 
been there over the time for which they were engaged. There is also some talk about the 
establishment of a general accounting department to sit at the Hague, which we hope will bring 
the departments more into harmony and induce them to mind the interests of the Company with 
more care and zeal. The hope for reform in Brasil is at present favorable: if some agreement or 
peace is made with the English, we shall apparently receive a considerable succor for Brasil and 
the other possessions of the Company to dampen the haughty spirit of the Portuguese and bring 
Dutcli Brasil with part of Portuguese Brasil under the government and jui-isdiction of the 

The government in England is ai present very odd. Late advices from there state, that 
Parliament has resolved and ordered all Roman Catholics to contribute two-thirds of then- revenues 
for the expenses of the war ; also that all apprentices shall again wear blue caps. 

They had also ordered, that in future all marriages shall not be performed by a preacher in 
church, but by justices of the peace and this order was to take effect on the 1"' of November 1653, 
but it has been suspended. Notliwithstanding all their thieving and robbing, confiscating of land 
and goods, selling of the King's lands and houses and the propei'ty of bishops, deacons and 
ecclesiastical institutions there is a great scarcity of money, so that Parliament is very busy to find 
means : the people are getting tu-ed of it and are slow in giving : all kinds of pretexts are invented 
to blacken the Dutch infamously and stir up the English against them only to make them ready 
to contribute ; sensible men may know, whether such a government can exist long. 

We have said above, that last Wednesday we have conferred with the committee of the 
worshipful Council of this city concerning the security for the required assistance ; they have made 
such a report to the worshipful board yesterday, that it has thereon adopted a very favorable and 
salutary resolution in behalf of strengthening that province (which they begin to consider oi 
importance) so that we are not mistaken in our opinion, as stated above, and you may therefore 
expect by the first suitable opportunity the desired provisions and succor. 

Herewith etc. 
Amsterdam, The Directors of W. I. Company 

the 4"" of November 1G53. Dept. ol Amsterdam. 

A. Patee. 
Jacob Pekgens. 

To the Du-ector and Council in New Ndherland. 

Council Minute. Appointment of deputies to attend a convention of delegates feom the 
NEAREST Colonies. 

Whereas, several complaints have been made to us concerning the incursions and robberies of 
a certain Thomas Baxter, a fugitive from this Province, and his companions, by which among 

New Yorh Historical Records. 219 

others Joohim Pietersen Cuyter, Willem Rarck and others have siaffered and especially the secret 
and thievish abduction of 10 or 12 horses from the village of Amesfoort, and 

"Whei-eas, we cannot but be incensed at this and other robberies and incursions committed by 
the said Thomas Baxter and his accomplices and complained of by the damaged inhabitants, 

Therefore we have resolved, to send letters to and summon from each of the nearest subordinate 
Colonies two deputies, who are to meet at the City hall in this City and to whom we think advisable 
to join two respected members of our High Council, to wit the Hon'''° Mr. Johan la Montague 
and Mr. Cornelis van Werckhoven, authorized to make in our name the proposition and further 
to deliberate with the other delegates for the reputation and greater security of the country and 
its good inhabitants upon some eHective remedies and means to prevent and stop these incursions, 
of which deliberations they will give us a report with all speed. 

New Amsterdam^ Novbr 24, 1653. 

P. Stuttesant. 

Petition of the Buegomastees aito Schepens of Amsteedam foe an oedee teansfeeeing to 


To the Yery "Worshipful, their Honors the Director Genei'al and Council of New Netherland. 

Show with due reverence the Board of Burgomasters and Schepens of the City of New 

Whereas the Hon'''^ Director-General on the 11"" Novbr last past verbally granted to this 
Board, that the excise of wine and beer, which is now being paid to the Hon''''= Company's office, 
shall be paid to their Board from and after the 1" of November, whereupon the Magistrates of 
this City called together some of the principal burghers and inhabitants to inform them thereof 

Whereas they have no ready money on hand now, but are nevertheless called upon for it, 

Therefore the Magistrates asked them, whether they would be willing to subject themselves 
to all the general taxes, which we might decide to impose in behalf of the city, to which they 
unanimously consented, as shown by the annexed copy of their act, and 

Whereas further we have as yet not received any official document relating to the excise, 
notwithstanding our repeated requests to the Hon''"' Director-General and Council, 

We once more respectfully request to be furnished an official act relating to the excise on 
wine and beer, as paid at the Hon'''° Company's office (excepting the export to Fort Orange), the 
more so as we have informed the community of it and will be held in contempt and scorned by 
everybody, if we fail to obtain it. If hereafter, our petition not being granted, some misfortunes 
should happen, which God may avert, the aforesaid Magistrates declare themselves not responsible 
for the same and further, that they cannot exist without money and to their regret must see all 
the work already done go to destruction and ruin ; wherefore they request a favorable decision 

220 Eai-ly Colonial Settlements. 

and the document. Thus done and enacted at the session of the Burgomasters and Schepens, this 
25'" of November 1653 at the City Hall of New Amsterdam. 

By order of the Burgomasters and Schepens, 

Jacob Kip, Secretary. 

Copy of the enclosiu'e in the foregoing petition. 

Tuesday, Novbr 11, 1653. 

Present at the meeting in the City Hall of Ilew Amsterdam. 

Their Honors Arent van Hattem and Martin Cregier, Bm-gomasters, Paidtis LeeTidertsen 
van die Grift, Pieter Wolfertsen van Couwenhomn and Wilhelm BeecTcman, Schepens. 

Some of the most influential burghers and inhabitants of this City having been lawfully 
summoned, the following appeared : 

Johannis van Beecq, Pieter Cock, Jan J. Sohepmoes, Jan J. Kuyper, Peter Caspersen van 
Naerden, Class Bordingh, Francois Fyn, Jan J. de Jongh, Jacob Steendam, Conrad ten Eych, 
Hans Kierstede, Isaac de Forest, Dirck ScheUuyne, Ilendrick Kip, Lamhert Iluyhertsen Mol, 
Peter Cornelissen van der Veer, Ahram La Noy, Jan Lawrensen Appel, Govert Loockermans^ 
Johannis Petersen Yerlruggen, Daniel Litschoe, Jacob van Couivenhoven and Oloff Stevenson, 
To whom the said Hon'''^ Burgomasters and Schepens propose, that, whereas they have 
asked the community to provide means for paying the public expenses and keeping in repair the 
works and were answered, if the Hon"* Director-General will allow the excise to be paid to the 
treasury of the City and for the City's benefit, they would willingly contribute, therefore the 
Burgomasters and Schepens declare, that they have obtained the consent of the Hon''''' Director- 
General to have henceforth the excise on wine and beer paid into the office of the Burgomasters 
and Schepens for the benefit of this City, But as for the present no ready money is on hand and 
yet is much needed during these dangerous times and therefore some general taxes should be 
considered, the aforesaid Magistrates ask the community, whether they will submit to such 
ordinances and taxes, as the Magistrates may consider proper and necessary for the government of 
this City. They all answered " Yes" and promised to obey the Hon''''' Magistrates in everything, 
as good inhabitants are in duty bound to do confirming it with their signatures. Done as above 
at New Amsterdam m Neio Netherland- 

Ilendrick Hendricksen Kip, Isaac de Foreest, Peter Cornelissen van Veer, 

Jan J. Schepmoes Jacob Steendam, Abraham La Noy, 

Govert Loockermans, Jan J. de Jongh, Johannis van Beecq, 

Lambert Huybertsen Mol, Conrad ten Eyck, Peter Gasper sen, 

Francois Fyn, Peter Cock, his mark, Claes Bordingh, 

Jan Lawrensen Appel, D. van ScheUuyne, Jan J. Kuyper, 

Jacob va/ti Couwenhoven, Johannis de Peyster, Joh, Petersen Verbruggen. 

Agrees with the Original 

Jacob Kipp, Secretary. 

Nev) York Historical Records. 221 

Answer of the Dieectoe-Geneeax aihj Council to the foregoing bequest. 

The Director-General and Council stand by their verbal promise given upon the proposition 
and reciprocal promise of the Burgomasters and Schepens on the 11"' inst, to wit, that the Director- 
General and Council shall provisionally and subject to the approval of the Lords-Directors cede 
and grant to the Burgomasters and Schepens the collection of the common excise on wine and 
beer, consumed within this City, provided that the Burgomasters and Schepens, according to their 
promise and instruction, fumisli means for tlie maintenance of the public works in tlie City and 
the subsistence of the ecclesiastical and political officers [of the Company] and that the excise shall 
be publicly let to the highest bidder according to the custom of the Fatherland. 

New Amsterdam, Novbr 25"" 1653. 

By order of the Director-General and Council. 



Remonstkance of the Merchants of New Amsterdam against the Ordinance fixing the 
bates of import duties, passed on the 19"" of november 1653.* 

To the Noble, Very Worshipful, their Honors 
the Director-General and Council of New 

Noble, Very Worshipful Gentlemen. 

Yoiir Noble Worships have been pleased to publish on the 20"" of this month of November 
an ordinance, containing regulations for the sale of and trade in goods imported here from the 
Fatherland or hereafter to be imported, similar to which an ordinance was passed and promulgated 
in September last. Your Noble Worships have also been pleased to call together on the same day 
some of the principal merchants and traders of this City of New Amderdam, in order to commu- 
nicate to them the aforesaid ordinance and recommend its execution. The said merchants deemed 
it then advisable to deliberate with others and to submit their opinion on this matter in writing 
to your Noble Worships, after having first communicated the same to the Hon'"'^ Burgomasters 
and Schepens, the lawful authority of this community. Thereupon the merchants and traders 
generally (with all the respect and obedience, which they all acknowledge to owe to their superiors 
and will at all times prove, when called upon in reason and justice) declare, that after having 
considered and examined among each others the matter they are of opinion, the said ordinances 
and regulations can be introduced and carried out here only with very great loss, damage and 
decrease of the commerce, which with submission should rather be animated and favored with 
liberal privileges and exemptions, than burdened and hampered with captious limitations. For as 
to the price fixed upon some goods, and the permission to ask 120 p. cent profit on others, upon 
which no price is set, from the purchasers, the said merchants believe that they cannot well do 
business in that way, as the great and sometimes excessive leakage of liquid goods and the perishable 

* See Laws and Ordinances^f N. N. page 149. 

222 Early Colonial Settlements. 

nature of dry goods lias already notoriously caused and will always cause such losses to each of the 
merchants, that if they are compelled by the enforcement of the said ordinances (which they hope 
will not be done) to sell their stock accordingly, they would scarcely get a return of their first 
cost, much less a cent per cent profit. The heavy export and import duties paid here and in the 
Fatherland, the charges for convoy and direction, the heavy freight bills and premiums for 
assurance, interest on capital invested in merchandise added to the dangers of leakage and decay 
make the first cost of goods delivered here more than 70 or 80 p. ct. higher than abroad. The 
said merchants therefore respectfully request, that your Noble 'Worships will please to 
suspend the enforcement of the aforesaid ordinances, as they cannot conform to them without 
great loss to themselves or their principals and to allow them to sell according to the usages of the 
Fatherland and other countries, where commerce has a free course, their goods at such prices, as 
they think just and reasonable considering the conjunctures of the time, the first cost and 
expenses. In case of refusal they are, with due reverence, resolved, to keep their goods until the 
return of better times rather than to sell them at a loss or at least small profit. But as they 
understand and are informed, that the intention of your Noble Worships in and the motive for 
passing and publishing the aforesaid ordinances were principally, that the community and the 
burghers of this City might be properly supplied \vith such goods as they needed for the wants of 
their bodies, to wit socks, shoes, linen and such other necessary articles, they herewith unanimously 
declare, each for himself, that it is by no means their intention to overcharge any burgher or 
inhabitant in the sale of necessary clothing or to demand unfair prices, but that they will act 
towards them in the sale and delivery of goods like honest traders and good fellow-citizens, so that 
no one of the community shall have occasion to complain. Awaiting your Noble Worships 
favorable decision, they remain Honorable Gentlemen 

New Amsterdam Your Noble Worships 

Novbr 22", 1653. Obedient servants. 

The Burgomasters and Johannis van Beech. 

Schepens of -Neio Amster- Johannis Nevius. 

dam having seen the fore- P. Cornelissen van der Veer. 

going petition of the mer- Jacob de Weert. 

chants of this city to the Jan Laurensen Appel. 

Director-General and Coun- Johannes van Brugge. 

cil, advise, before giving Anthony van Ilardenburgh. 

their opinion on it, to sus- Jacob Visch. 

pend a decision and delay Jacob van Leeuwen. 

an answer until they have Abram Nichel. 

had a conference with their Pieter SchaffbancTc. 

Honors. Jacob Jacobs. 

New Amsterdam in N. Dirch Glaesen Boot. 

N. Novbr 24, 1653. Jan Withart. 

Arent van Hattem. Johannis de Peyster. 

Marten Krigier. Govert Loockermans. 

P. L. Yan der Grut. Eeynier Eycke. 

W. Beeckman. Robert Vastrich. 

P. Wolfeetsen. J. V. T. Wilier. 

Jacobus Backer. 
Rend/r. van der Vin. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 223 

Answer to the foregoing bt the Director and Council. 

When last Friday the petitioners were summoned to appear in person before the Council, the 
Director-General and Council directed them to prove specifically the leakage and produce substantial 
reasons why they could not sell their goods for the prices fixed by the ordinance and whether 120 
pet. above the first cost of necessary goods, little or not all subject to decay, was not sufficient at 
the present time. As no attention has been paid to this order in the present petition the Director- 
General and High Council direct the petitioners once more to show specifically and prove in 
regard to which goods they find themselves mostly injured and how they have mostly suffered 
from losses and leakages, also on what goods they cannot afford to charge an advance of 120 pet. 
Thus done in Council, present the Hon""'^ Director-General, Mr. Nicaslus de S'Me, Mr. 
Werchhoven, Mr. La Montague, Fiscal Cornelis van Tienhoven, at Fort New Amsterdam in New 
Netherlands Novbr 25, 1653. 

By order of the Director-General and High 
Cornelis vaji Eutven 


Journal of the Proceedings of the Delegates called together bt the order of Novbr 
24, AT the City Hall in New Amsterdam. 

On the 26"" of November 1G53 the following named delegates from the High Council of New 
Netherlands Mr. J. La Montague and Mr. WercTihoven met at the City Hall with the delegates 
from the Board of Bui'gomasters and Schepens of this City of Neio Amsterdam, Martin Krigier 
and Paulus Leenderisen van der Grift, the delegates from the village of Gravesend, George 
Baxter and Sergeant Iluyhert, from the village of Vlissingen,* John Ricks and Tobias Peeks, 
from the village of New Town, Mr. Coo and Gootman ILasert. 

Messrs. La Montague and Werckhoven propose verbally and in writing, that the respective 
delegates should express their opinion how and by what means the robberies can be stopped. 

Ensign George Baxter and all the other Enlish delegates asked, whom Mr. Werckhoven 
represented and upon his answer, that he was sent as a delegate from the High Council, they said, 
they would have nothing to do with him and did not acknowledge him as a member of the Council 
nor would they allow, that the Director-General or his deputy should preside, as he could not 
protect them. 

The English delegates sent a written reply to the Hon'''^ Director-General of the following 
tenor, that, if the Director representing the Priv. W. I. Company will not protect us, we shall be 

* Flushing. 

224 Early Colonial Settlements. 

compelled to prevent our raia and destruction and it is therefore our opinion, that we need not 
pay to him any more taxes and duties, but they promised to remain faithful to the Lords States 
General and the Hon'''* Company offering the delegates from the Burgomasters and the Schepens 
of this City to enter into a Urm alliance with them, to which the delegates gave no answer but 

The delegates of the City of Neio Amsterdam summoned before the Hon^'" Director-General 
reported to the Council the foregoing, to which his Honor said, the answer was a prompt one, 
but he had no objection that the Burgomasters and Schepens should make a union with them, 
only, as they could not out-vote them, he intended to grant at the next election a court of justice 
to the people of Amesfoort, Breiickelen and Midwout, so that at all future occasions there might 
be with the votes of Fo7't Orange and the others a sufficient number against them. In the 
afternoon the aforesaid delegates met again at the same place. 


C. -'an Werckhoven tes-"i Messrs. Za Monto^ne and Werckhoven submitted an answer in writing 

tifies.that he has heard I ^^.^^^^ ^j^^ jjon'''* Director-General, wherein he expresses his willingness to 
and understood what \ . . . , , , 

was transacted verbally i Protect his people according to his commission with the power and means, 
so far. J entrusted to him by God and his superiors, [which the English delegates 

said was not quite satisfactory, for Joehem Pietersen, William Harck and others have already 
been robbed and the Director-General has as yet done very little to protect others against these 
robberies, therefore we must defend ourselves, for if his Honor cannot deliver us from 16 or 17 
men, what could he do against more]. 

La M ta n te tifie to '^^^^ meeting resolved to assemble again on the morning of the next day, 
the correctness thus far P^i*^^ t'^^ ^•'^<^^P*^°" "^f -'''^^^^''^- -^* ^^"'^^6'"^^^'^ WfifcMoven and Consider 
what should be done. 
On the 27"" of November at 9 o'c' a. m. all the aforesaid delegates met again with the 
exception of Cornells van Werckhoven and La Montague. 

The English delegates asked unanimously of Martin Crigier and Panhis Leendertsen, the 
delegates from the Burgomasters and Scheepens of this City, whether they would live with them 
in peace like brothers and friends ; they were answered " Yes, but no firm alliance could be made 
with them, before the Hon*'" Director-General, the High Council and all the adjacent districts 
and villages had not been informed of it." The English delegates answered, if the Burgomasters 
and Schepens would not join them and the Hon*"'* Director does not protect them, they would 
form a union on Long Island among each others. The City delegates then replied, it would be 
better to write about it to the Lords-Directors and they promised that meanwhile they would keep 
them well-informed of and assist them against robbers and other disasters of that kind to the best 
of their abilities and live with them as their friends. But in regard to the letter to be written to 
the Lords-Directors the City's delegates requested to hear the advice of the villages of Amesfoort, 
Breuckelen, Midwout and on Staten Island, as at this season of the year, when the ships are ready 
to sail, they coidd not wait for the advice and opinion of the people at F&rt Orange, 

New Yorh Historical Records. 225 

liensselaerswych and tlie South river. Hereupon it was unanimously resolved to come together 
again from the respective places on the 10'^'' of December next in order to write to the Lords 
Directors and then the meeting separated. 

Done this 27"" of Novbr 1653, at New Amsterdam in New Netherland. 

Martin Ckioier, 


Resolution to put up the ship " King Salomon '' for freight henoe to Fatherland or if 
rr cannot be obtained here to send her to Virginia foe tobacco. 

Whereas the Noble Lords Directors of the Priv. W". I. Company have sent thither the ship 
" Coninck Salomon^'' Cornells Conradsen van Campen, master, with directions and order to return 
the said ship speedily either with a good cargo from here to the best advantage and profit of the 
Company or in default thereof to send her to Curafao for a cargo of salt and wood, 

Therefore the Director-General and Council on the information of several reports and letters, 
brought by skippers from Virginia, that there is a large quantity of tobacco in Virginia, which for 
want of ships cannot be exported and in consideration thereof, resolve for the service and 
advantage of the said Hou''''= Company, to put up the said ship here for freight of tobacco and 
other goods and thus to learn, what freight might be obtained here; if a full cargo cannot be had 
here let her make a voyage to Smithes Island on the North Cape of the Bay of Virginia near 
Haccomacco, where it is said a sufiicient quantity of tobacco lies ready for shipment and thence 
have her return here with God's help, where she may take in the engaged freight, which in the 
meantune has been made ready. 

Thus done and resolved at the meeting held by the Director-General at New Amsterdam in 
N. N., Novbr 28, 1653. 

Remonstrance of a Commtitee of Merchants, containing explanations called for on the 
25"" of November. 

To the Noble, Very "Worshipful, their Honors the 
Director-General and Council of Neio Netherland. 

Noble Very Worshipful Gentlemen. 

Whereas by your Hon''''^ Worships' decision upon the request, made in the name and on 
behalf of the merchants and traders of this place on the 22* inst., they were directed to specify 
and prove through which goods and merchandises they had suffered the greatest losses and how 
the most average and leakage had occurred, also which goods and merchandises they could not 
afford to sell here with an advance of 120 per cent, at the present time. 

Therefore the said merchants and traders have empowered and deputed us, the subscribers to 
report to your Hon" " Worships as we herewith do. 

First, that a merchant is not well able to give specified proofs, how his goods have been 

226 Early Colonial Settlements. 

damaged and depreciated by leakage, decay, average or otherwise, for a too careful investigation 
and research wonld be required, which without creating great confusion in the trade cannot be 
made ; but, we say it with due respect, the notoriety of excessive losses by leakage and otherwise 
should be sufficient to prevent the enforcement of such rules and limitations for the commerce, as 
your Hon'''" Worships have already been pleased to make and publish. 

Second, even if the respective merchants had proved each in his line, through which goods 
the greatest loss had been incurred, then, we again say it with due respect, his proof should not 
have led to the estabhshment of rules, which are to be in force not only for the present and 
concern a few merchants, who have suffered losses, but also for the future and effect the 
merchants generally. For if they, who had lost more should have permission to sell their goods 
at a higher price, than they, who had lost less, a great confusion would be caused in the trade and 
the merchants would necessarily be made suspicious and uneasy in the expectation of being at all 
times and occasions examined concerning tlie sale of their goods. Besides, each merchant would 
have to be provided in this case wdth a special document and order, by which to govern himself 
and farther such orders or rules are not in particular in any of the places under the jurisdiction 
their High : Might : the States General of the United Netherlands^ but each merchant oi- salesman 
has a free disposition of his wares. Your Hon''''' Worships and the whole world know to how 
great a wealth and increase of commerce, and we persist therefore for ourselves and in behalf as 
above in repeating our former request, having resolved, in case of refusal, to hold the goods which 
we now have here and not to order any more, for we cannot believe, that to enforce the said 
ordinances will tend to the advantage of the country or city, to the benefit of the citizens and 
inhabitants or to the increase of commerce, but only to the benefit and enriching of those persons, 
who are already or may be authorized to carry out the rules. 

New Amsterdam in New Netherlands the 28"" Novbr 1653. 

J. V. Beeck, Cobnehs van dbk Veen, Jan Laueeensen Appel, J. van Beugge, Coenelis 

Request of the Buegosiastees and Schepens to summon delegates feom all the Dutch 
towns and villages. 

To their Noble Worshipful Honors, the Director 
General and Council of New Netherland. 

The present Burgomasters and Schepens of the City of New Amsterdam, show with due 
respect : 

Whereas the report made by our delegates Martin Crigier and Paulvs Leendertsen van der 
Grift to this Board concerning what the convention of the delegates from your Worshipful Honors 
our Board and the English villages have finally resolved on the 27"" of Novbr., the motives of 
which can be related to your Honors, namely, that on the 10*'' of next month delegates from all the 
English and Dutch towns and villages should meet, to report to the Noble Lords-Directors, as 
masters and patrons of this Province, the present state of the country here. 

Therefore we, the Burgomasters and Schepens of this City fully comprehending the necessity 
of this step, make the friendly request to your Worshipful Honors to smumon delegates from the 

New York Historical Becords. 227 

respective Dutch towns and settlements to appear on the said day and make such a remonstrance 
to the Lords-Directors for the peace and welfare of the country, as in their opinion they shall 
consider advised. In expectation of your Worshipful Honors' favorable decision etc. 
Done at Neio Amstey'dam, Novbr 29, 1653. 

Aeent van Hattem. 

Maetin Crigier. 

P. L. van dee Geiet. 

W. Beeckman. 


Remarks on and answee to the foregoing request and enclosures. 

Forasmuch the Director-General and Council have as yet no reason to believe, but that the 
petitioners according to their repeated verbal declaration and earnest protestations have no other 
aim, than a due respect and obedience to the Hon'"'' Company, as Lords and Patroons and to the 
authorities appointed by them, as well as a proper interest in the special welfare, peace and 
harmony of this country, community and city, the Director-General and Council have in consid- 
eration of these declarations and protestations given mature thought to their exhibit. Before 
however giving a definite answer on the main point the Director-General and Council feel in duty 
bound for their own justification and for the better information and instruction of the petitioners 
as well as for the maintenance of the Hon'''" Company's privileges and the authority of its officers 
to make some remarks on the enclosure dated Novbr 27, 1653 and signed Martin Crigier and P. 
L. van der Grift, with marginal notes by Cornelis van Werchhoven and LaMontagne. 

First, that the Ensign George Baxter and all the English delegates would not acknowledge Mr. 
Werclchoven as delegate from the Director-General and Council. The reasons herefor should 
have been given, whether incompetence or misbehavior was alleged. That the said Baxter and 
the English delegates would not allow, that either the Director-General or his deputy should 
preside or have a vote : the Director-General and Coiincil call upon the petitioners and every 
body else to consider, whether this does iiot border \ipon revolt, absolutely infringing upon and 
vilifying the supreme authority of the Director-General and Council under the commission given and 
entrusted to them by their High : Might : the Lords States-General and the Privileged West 
India Company. 

As to the second point, that said Baxter and the English delegates say in a written proposition 
the Director-General representing the Priv. W. I. Company would not protect them the Director 
General and Council declare this to be a false, forged and base calumny and call upon the 
petitioners themselves to testify, whether the Director- General and Council have not three times 
with the assistance of faithful and loving subjects sent out yachts and soldiers against the robbers 
and had soldiers scour the country two or three times, for which purpose the leaders had been 
duly appointed. 

In regard to the third it is true, that the delegates of the Director-General and Council* upon 
summons appeared and that after some debating the Director and Council verbally informed the 
said delegates, they were well satisfied and pleased that for the sake of peace the delegates from 

* This should be " Burgomasters and Schepens," see above. 

228 Early Colonial Settlements. 

the City should continue to live with the English delegates from the adjacent villages in unity 
and harmony, giving the most liberal interpretation to the meaning of these words, but it was by 
no means the intention of the Director-General aud Coimcil, that subjects, bound to the authority 
of the Government by their oath and duty to allegiance and obedience, should be allowed to enter 
with each other into a defensive and offensive alliance without the knowledge or order of their 
Government and their Council, much less, that subjects should infringe the Governor's authoritj^, 
vilify the commission received fi'om our superiors, insult, by publicly refusing to acknowledge 
them, the deputies appointed by the Director-General and Council imder the said commission and 
above all pass any resolutions without their knowledge, as the aforesaid exhibit proves to have 
been done on the MG"" and ST"" of November. 

To the fourth point, that the English delegates declare unsatisfactory the wi-itten answer of 
the Director-General and Council, stating their readiness to protect their subjects with the means, 
given them by God and their superiors and therefore must defend themselves and consider 
themselves as not owing any duties to the Director-General — the Dii-ector and Council shall 
report the animus, expressed in these declarations, to the Lords-Patroons and refer it to the 
judgment of impartial parties ; while they say here only, that as JJltra posse nemo obligatur, the 
law of nature teaches us, force may be repelled by force and everybody has the right to defend and pro- 
tect himself in a lawful manner: but their statement that t/bcAgOTT'^efeAfe;!, Williain Ilarcksen and 
others have been robbed without anything having been done, the Director-General and Council 
declare to be false and calumnious for on account of these robberies of Jochetn Pietersen and the 
theft of horses immediately after the return of the Director-General from Fort Orange three 
yachts under Paulus Leendertsen and a landforce of about 60 men under the command of Captain 
Crigier were sent out in pursuance of the resolutions and appointments passed and made for this 
purpose. If they add, that these persons cannot be protected, it must also be considered, that the 
said persons and many others, have, contrary to the general order of the Companj' and the 
warnings of the Director-General and Council, settled separately far from villages, hamlets or 
neighbors. Even if the Director-General and Council had or were to engage at the expense of 
the Company or of the Province of New Neiherland hundreds of soldiers it would nevertheless 
be impossible to protect these separate settlers against robbers and thieves, who come either under 
the cloak of friendship or are not recognized and receive hospitable accommodations even by some 
English people, as the sufferers have stated. The Fatherland too is not without instances of such 
robberies, committed on separately hving peoj^le, but really faithful and peaceful subjects have 
never taken that for an occasion to calumniate the Government of our Fatherland as unwilling or 
unable to protect them, much less pretended not to owe any duty to their duly appointed 
authorities, as the English delegates without hesitation say in the second and fourth paragraph of 
the annexed document. 

Fifth. The answer given to the English by the delegates from this City, according to their 
own statements, on the 27"" of November in regard to the proposed alliance and reported likewise . 
in the signed declaration among the annexed documents is not so much disapproved of, as 
Burgomaster Martin Crigier and Schepen Paidus Leendertsen have verbally and in detail given 
the reasons and motives for it, earnestly protesting that it was given for the sake of peace and 
without intention to prejudice thereby the authority and reputation of the Lords-Patroons or their 
officers or to advise and demand anything, which might lead to their own or other people's damage, 
disadvantage or prejudice. 

Concerning further the request of the Burgomasters aud Schepens, that the Director-General 

Neio YorJc Historical Records. 229 

and Council would consent to and approve of the summons of some people from the respective 
Dutch towns and villages, to meet with them the delegates from the adjacent English villages and 
then to draw up for the country's peace and welfare such a report to the Lords Patroons as shall 
be deemed necessary, the following order is made : 


Altliough the Director-General and Council might adduce weighty reasons and have already 
3'esterday at the meeting of the full Board verbally impressed them upon some of the Burgomasters 
and Schepens, why this fashion of gathering and individual remonstrations without consulting the 
Director-Genei'al and Council should be discountenanced and although they have had a painful 
experience of the jealousies, troubles and quarrels arising therefrom during the time of the late 
Director Kieft and also of the present Director-General, which are, God may better it, not yet 
laid by, yet, having no greater desire than the safety, weKare and progress of the country, the 
peace and harmony of all the inhabitants, without regard to nationality, among each other and in 
order to prevent a charge being made before God and the Lords-Patroons of too great precision 
in enforcing their authority, orders and instructions, 

The Director-General and Council direct upon the request of the Burgomasters and Schepens, 
that in presence of deputies of the High Council they may with delegates of the respective colonies 
and districts in iVew) Netherland, &vit\iov\zQi}i thereto and properly instructed by their constituencies, 
after due consideration of the country's present dangerous situation draw up a remonstrance, 
addressed to the Lords-Patroons, concerning the country's needs and circumstances, save that the 
resolutions and acts adopted by the last provisional General Assembly to the shame of its members, 
shall not be prejudiced nor infringed upon except by unanimous consent. 

Done and enacted in the meeting at Fort Amsterdam, December 3'*, 1653. 

P. Stuyvesant. 

N". DE SiLLE. 

La Montagne. 


CoE. VAN Tien H OVEN. 
By order of the Director-General and Council. 

CoE. VAN RuYVEN, Secr''. 

"We, the undersigned, delegated by the Director-General and Council to hear the advice of 
the delegates from this City and the English villages, how and by what means the English robbers 
and pirates might be attacked and further robberies prevented, declare herewith to have Iiad 
no knowledge of, much less consented to a separate remonstrance, as the above request expresses 
it, because having been refused on the 26"', we were not called on the ST^*", nor were we present 
at the meeting;. Date as above. C. v, Weeckhoven, La Montagne. 

230 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Letter feom the Magistrates of New Amsteed^vm to the Inhabitants of Midwout, inviting 


Dear Friends. 

As the Board of Burgomasters and Schepens of this City have resolved with the knowledge 
of the Hon'''^ Director-General upon calling for two delegates from each of the adjacent villages, 
to wit Amersfoort, Breuckelen and Midwout to write jointly to the Lords-Patroons concerning 
the situation of the country, we request herewith our friends in the village of Midwout speedily 
to select two delegates and to send them to this place to-morrow, the O"" inst. provided with the 
necessary credentials and directing them to report at the City Hall. JRelying hereon we remain, 

New Amsterdam Your affectionate friends, 

Decbr 8, 1653. By Order of the Burgomasters and Schepens 

Jacob Kip, Secretary. 

To the Honorable 

Dear and Good Friends 

the Inhabitants of 

the village of Midwout. 

Appointment of Magistrates foe the town of Hemsteede. 

To-day, date as below the nomination for Magistrates of the village of Heemstede on 
Long Island in this Province of New Netherlands dated Decembers"*, 1653 was submitted to the 
Hon'"''' Director-General and Council. According to the privileges granted to the said village a 
double number had been nominated, from which the General and Council were to make their 
selection. After mature dehberation and for the sake of unity and peace among the inhabitants 
of said village they for the present selected and appointed as Magistrates of the village of 
IIem,sted-e Mr. Stiokland, Mr. Wasiorn and Mr. Gilderslietf, who are to administer law and justice 
in the said village to the best of their knowledge and information in accordance with their 
privileges and the laws of New Netherland. Hereupon the above said Magistrates took the oath 
before the Hon*"'" Director-General and Council. 

The newly elected and qualified Magistrates are hereby authorized to call to their assistance 
in cases of absence or important actions, coming up before them, two or three capable persons out 
of the community or the former Magistrates, residing in the said village. 

Thus done at the meeting of the Director-General and High Council held at J^ort Amsterdam 
the ll"- of December 1653. 

By order of the Director-General and High Council. 


Remonsteakcb of the Colonies and Villages in New Netheeland. 
(Sue Vol. I, page 550, N. Y. Col. Doc.) 

New Yorh Histm-ical Records. 231 

Resolution of the Council DiREOTDja the CoNVEN-noN to furnish each membeb of the 
Council with a copy of the Remonstrance. 

Friday, December 12'" 1653. 

Having received to-day a certain written translation, directed "to tlie Very Worsliipful 
Honorable Gentlemen, the Director-General and Council of New Neiherland on behalf of Their 
High : Might : the Lords States General of the United Netherlands., a humble remonstrance and 
request of the Colonies and Villages in the Province of New Netherland " and beginning with 
the words "Humbly sheweth" and closing with "Done at New Amsterdam, this 11'" of Decem- 
ber 1653," signed ' Tour Honors humble servants, Arent van Hattem, Martin Crigier, P. L. 
van der Grift, WUUm Beeckman, P. Wolfertsen, George Baxter, J. Hulhert, John Hick, Tobias 
Feeck, Robert Coo, Thomas Hasart, WiUia7n Wasboni, John Sennis, Thomas Spyser, Elbert 
Elbertsen, Frederik Lubbertsen, Paidus van der Beecq, Thomas Pintewodt, Jan Stryker.'' 

And the remonstrants in conclusion requesting an answer to every point, but the meaniu"- of 
some points being either obscure or badly translated : 

The members of the Council request to be provided each with a copy of the remonstrance to 
deliberate on it and give afterwards a well considered answer. 

Done at the meeting of Director-General and Coimcil, date as above. 

P. Stutyesant. 


La Montagne. 
C. VAN Werckhoven. 
Cor. van Tienhoven. 
By order 

C. VAN RuYYEN Secr''. 

Letter from the Magistrates of New Amsterdam to the Director and Council in 
answer to the foregoing resolution. 

To the Very "Worshipful Honorable 
Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General 
and the Honorable High Council of 
New Netherland. 

The Burgomasters and Schepens of this City together with the respective delegates from the 
villages of Gravesend, Vlissingen, Middleburgh, Heemsteede, Amesfoort, Breuckelen and Midwout 
have seen the answer of the Hon"" Director-General and Council to the remonstrance delivered 
yesterday to the Hon"'^ Director-General, asking that on account of some obscure or badly trans- 
lated passages in the remonstrance a copy thereof be given to each member of the Council. The 
said Assembly replies thereto, that they have submitted the original, of which his Honor the 
Director-General may give copies to the Council if he pleases and they request once more to know 
whether the Hon'"''' Director-General and High Council will condescend to give a definite answer 

232 Early Colonial 

upon each point or not, for the delegates are here at great expenses and wish to know, how to 
govern themselves. In expectation of your Hon"'" AVorships' speedy answer we remain 
New Amsterdam, Tour Hon"'" Worships 

Decbr 12, 1653. Humble servants 

Aeent vau Hattkm. Maktin Crioiee. 
Geoege Baxtee. John Hick 

The above have signed in the name of the 

Jacob Kip, Secr^. 

Eesolution of the Cottncil, declaeing the Assembly illegal, peotesttng against it and 
oedeeing it to dispeese. 

The Director-General and Council are ignorant of any delegates from the respective villages, 
the more as Midwout, Amesfoort and Breucklen have no court or jurisdiction and consequently 
no authority to send delegates. As to the other villages, the Director-General and Council declare 
the present gathering illegal, for it annulled and acted contrary to the resolutions passed by the 
provisional Assembly as well as the order and decision made by the Director-General and Council 
at the request of the Burgomasters and Schepens on the 3* inst. The Director-General and 
Council find themselves therefore compelled for the protection of the rights of the Lords-Patroons 
and their deputies to protest against the present gathering, as they herewith do. As to the 
remonstrance itself, the Director-General and Council do not know, whether the original or a copy 
thereof have been submitted to them ; the document shows and proves, that it is a translation and 
the Director-General and Council further state, that they do not feel bound to give a definitive 
answer to a private and obscurely styled remonstrance of a few unqualified delegates assuming 
the rights and privileges of the whole. 

The Director-General and Council therefore charge and order the aforesaid so-called delegates 
not to address either them or anybody else under such name and title ; but if the Burgomasters 
and Schepens of this City or the Magistrates and delegates of the villages have each for their 
respective places to make remonstrances or requests, then they shall notify thereof the Director- 
General and Council, who will give them an answer and such satisfaction, as the circumstances 
and the case may require. 

The Director-General and Council direct the Fiscal to communicate this resolution to the 
petitioners, that they may not plead ignorance. 

New Amsterdam in New Netherlands December 12, 1653. 

Peteus Stutvesant. 
NicAsius de Sille. 
La Montagne. 
C. VAK Weeckhoven. 

New Yorh Historical Records. 233 

Deductions made by the Dieectok-Genekal and Council regaedino the Hemonstrance of 
THE ll"" of December signed by the Buegomastees and Schepens op tuis City and some 

The first word "translation" presupposes, that the document was originally drawn up in 
another language, which is confirmed by the style and tenor. The cleverness of Burgomasters 
and Schepens may be inferred herefrom, when a stranger or Englishman must prescribe, what 
they should remonstrate and demand. 

In the preamble the remonstrants ignore the Lords-Directors, but seemingly correct this 
oversight afterwards, when tJiey say, they acknowledge them as their masters and patrons. How 
far they do this, may be gathered from what follows. 

The superscription " Humble Remonstrance of the Colonies and Villages in this New 
Netherland Province " has been very improperly used in such general terms. The first and oldest 
Colon}', Manhattan Island, reserved as a Colony for the Lords-Directors, tlie Colonies of 
Rensselaerswych and of Staten-Idand, the districts of Beverswyck and the Southriver have no 
knowledge of such a remonstrance and must be considered too cautious, than to sign, wliat an 
Englishman projects, as if no head among the Netherlands people was clever or capable enough, 
to draw up a request to the Director-General and Council. 

In the preamble they acknowledge '■'' a paternal GovemTnent, which God and Nature have 
established." What the remonstrants or signers mean to say herewith, the Director-General and 
Council do not know and it is doubtful whether the projector George Baxter himself understands 
it. But leaving the preamble pro ut jacet, they continue " we conceive our privileges to he the 
same, consistent with those of the Netherlands, heing a member of that state not a conquered 
country." We will leave it to the judgment of your Hon*"'" Worships and impartial parties, 
whether the remonstrants do not go too far herein ; if it were so, then they could undoubtedly 
claim the privilege of the other Provinces and Cities of Netherland to send deputies to the 
sessions of their High : Might : and other assemblies. They themselves however contradict this 
proposition immediately in tlie following, where they truthfully state, that " they had settled here 
under a mutual covenant and contract between themselves and the Lords Patroons" ;\i the 
remonstrants live up to it and carry it out, as behooves good subjects, then no differences or 
questions shall arise. 

By adding ^^ with the consent of the natives, from whom we purchased the soil with our own 
money, etc." they state an absolute untruth. Not one of all the signers can say, much less prove, 
that he has bought or paid for a foot of land of the natives according to the orders and directions 
of the Lords-Directors and subsequent ordinances, published by the Director-General and Coimcil. 
Nor can any private party purchase land from the natives without the consent of the Director- 
General and Council. 

" Expecting enlargement thereof," namely of the privileges. It ought to be remembered, 
that the Englishmen, wlio are the authors of and leaders in these iniiovations, enjoy more 
privileges, than the Exemptions of New-Netherland grant to any Hollander. 

Observe, that here again the remonstrants absolutely ignore the Lords-Directors as their 
masters and patrons and forget the contract made with them : they pretend to be one body with 
Netherland under the administration of their High: Might: rejecting all laws and orders not 
emanating from their High : Might :. 
The following are the points : 

The Director-General and Council do not know, what the remonstrants mean by an ^'■arbitrary 

234 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Government " and having called before tbeni the Burgomasters and Schepens and the greater part 
of the signers and asked them, what they understood by an " arbitrary Govertiment" they 
received no answer, much less could it be stated by them, that the present Government in charge 
here was arbitrary or absolute and why " it is contrdry to the first intentions and genuine 
principles of every well regulated country." Supposing the present administration to be 
arbitrary, as they ajiprehend, the remonstrants have no cause either to vilify and fear or to accuse 
on that account the Government and the Lords-Directors, for they have themselves admitted, as 
stated above, that by their mutual covenant and contract they voluntarily submitted to such a 
Government, promising under oath to acknowledge and obey it. They must prove, that it is 
different and more arbitrary now, than at the time of Mr. Kieft, when the English remonstrants 
came here ; they must also prove, that by \'irtue of any law or laws made by the present 
administration contrary to the laws of our Fatherland, anybody has suffered in regard to his 
property or body. The Director-General and Council believe, that by virtue of their commission 
it is their duty, to make laws, that is ordinances and rules, regarding police, commerce, military 
and the preservation of the country, suitable to the circumstances of this Province, and that 
the remonstrants as subjects are bound to obey them. Bad morals produce good laws, says the 
proverb ; hence it is not the desire, self-complacency, and pleasure to rule of the Director-General 
and Council, but the disorders, bad will and disposition of many of the subjects, which cause the 
issuing of new laws ; but the Director-General and Council are not aware of having made laws 
contrary to the laws of our Fatherland. Besides it is well known as a matter of fact, that 
ordinances and rules concerning the whole country have always been made with the advice and 
approval of duly qualified delegates from the country. The privileges enjoyed by the English 
remonstrants may be learned from their altogether too liberal patent, which they make to cover 
more, than its contents allow. The authority of the Burgomasters and Schepens is defined in their 
Instructions and the privileges of the other signers are stated in their deeds. 
The second point. 

God may grant, that the English and some of the Dutch may not give occasion to a new 
fearful war witli the natives, either by showing too much fear of them or by cheating them or by 
making them believe among others stories about the price of a morgen of land among the English 
and Dutch, from which the natives then draw the conclusion, that they formerly sold theii- land 
too cheap and show dissatisfaction, pretending not to have received full value. But the positive 
assertion and allegation of the remonstrants that murders had been committed by the savages 
under pretense of not having been paid for their land, is made entirely without foundation and in 
bad faith. In case the remonstrants were inclined to make a truthful statemeiit'about this matter 
or to investigate it, they would find, that the three murders lately committed on Staten-Island by 
the savages have been perpetrated for the reason, that l/.elyn is a sorcerer, as the natives say, that 
he has poisoned them, sold bad powder and arms to them and so forth, that therefore the Indians 
from the South had all sworn to kill him and all the people on Staten-Island. If we take the 
assertion of the remonstrants, that the murders had been committed under the pretext of not 
having been paid for the land, and compare it with their statement in the preamble, that they 
themselves had bought the land from the savages, then we must ask, have they, as purchasers, 
remained in default witli the payment and have they by such nonpayment given cause for this 

To (■onsider how and by what means to protect the inhabitants against such murders l)v the 
savages and the robberies by English pirates, was the purpose of the Director-General in calling 

jS'ew York Histoi'ical Records. 235 

together some English delegates, but by giving no answer upon the latter point and refusing to 
acknowledge the authority of the deputies fi-om the High Council the English sufficiently showed, 
that they were not inclined to do anything against their own nation or t!ie authority of Parliament 
for their protection by lawful means. It is not necessary to go further into this. 
The third point. 

The English do not only enjoy the right of nominating their own Magistrates, but some of 
them also usurp the election and appointment of such Magistrates, as they please, without regard 
to their religion. Some, especially the people of Gravesend, elect libertines and Anabaptists, 
which is decidedly against the laws of the Netherlands. 

Tlie Magistrates of New Amsterdam, only elected and appointed last year and not yet fully 
a year in office, have for the present not the right of nomination, the same having been withheld 
by the Director-General and Council for good and sufficient reasons, until the Lords-Directors 
shall have given orders to the contrary. The Director-General and Council hope to give the 
Patroons in due time good and satisfactory reasons, why they withheld the right of choice and 
nomination. But if it is to be made a rule, that tlie selection and nomination shall be left to the 
people generally, whom it most concerns, then every one would want for Magistrate a man of his 
own stamp, for instance a thief would choose for Magistrate a thief and a dishonest man, a drunk- 
ard, a smuggler etc their likes, in order to commit felonies and frauds with so much more freedom. 
Besides it is untrue, that any Magistrates have been appointed against the laws of Netherland or 
against the wish of the people. This point therefore requires to be proved. The Magistrates 
of New Amsterdam, before being installed and taking the oath in the presence of the Director- 
General, were each by name and surname and by his office proclaimed from the front of the 
Council Chamber and the community was called upon to express their objections. The same is 
usually done by the Director-General and Council at the installation of other, military officers, if 
a Captain, Lieutenant or Ensign, before the whole Company, if a Sergeant or subordinate 
officer before the section. Therefore what the remonstrants allege on this point is brought forward 
abusively and in bad faith. 

It appears very strange, that the remonstrants endeavor to deprive the Lords-Directors, being 
the absolute masters and owners of this Province, of the right, that every Lord and Patroon in the 
Fatherland exercises on his manor and the smaller Patroons in this country pretend and usurp for 
their colonies, namely the right of appointing their own Sheriiis, Secretaries, Clerks and Delegates, 
as is done for instance in the Colony of Eensselaersivyck or Staten Island and even in the village 
of Oravesend. 

The fourth point. 

Whether the ordinances, rules and orders heretofore made by the Director-General and Council 
ought to be in force, the English remonstrants may learn from tlieir patents, the Burgomasters and 
Schepens from their Instructions, directing them to maintain and observe, according to their 
promise under oath, all ordinances of the Director-General and Council. Besides they and all 
new comers are by their covenant and contract with the Directors compelled and bound to obey 
the Director-General and Council as representatives of the Company and to submit to all orders 
and laws already made or hereafter to be made, as the groundbriefs expressly stipulate it. 
The fifth point. 

The fifth point is denied absolutely. The contrary is proved by an ordinance passed by the 
Director-General and Council last year with the knowledge of the Lords-Directors, by which the 
inhabitants arc expressly admonished and warned not to buy lands from the natives nor to settle 

236 Early Culonial Settlements. 

thereon without a conveyance and deed from the Director-General and Council, and if somebody 
was in possession of such land, he was to ask for and obtain a deed within half a year under penalty 
of forfeiting his claim. Concerning this matter the signers and remonstrants from ^mer«/'oo7'^, 
viz. Elhert Elhertsen and Thomas Sjjyser must be charged with wilful calumniation, for they have 
usurped their lands for several years back without having a conveyance or title deed and continue 
their illegal possession without paying tithes, although they and some others in the same village 
have held the laud for 15 or 20 years. 

It is not true, that general patents had been promised to the inhabitants of Middleburgh and 
Midwout. The contrary can be proved by living witnesses and by the written conditions, now 
deposited in the Secretary's office under which lands were allotted and taken possession of in the said 
village . If they have not tlieir individual title deeds, they may come and call for them ; they will 
not be carried home to anybody. 
The sixth point. 

" Quantities of land have ieen given away to some person or persons " in the form of Colonies : 
to Baron JVederhorst, van Rensselaer, van der Capelle, Werckfioven, de Halter, Melyn and others. 
The Director-General and Council do not know, wliom the remonstrants mean by '■'•some person or 
persons," as nothing lias been granted except upon the order or with the consent of our Lords- 
Directors, who, we tliink, are not bound to explain their reasons to their subjects. If these lands 
are not populated and improved by the said patentees in conformity with the granted exemptions, 
then it depends upon the discretion of the Lords-Directors to dispose of them as they please. In 
this case the remonstrants forget to consider their own position and to i-eflect that Hemsteede, 
Vlissingen and Gravesend claim a much larger territory, which they leave uncultivated and unsettled 
to the prejudice of the common property or the little of it, which they have improved during the 
last ten years. ISTow that the time is at hand for collecting the Company's dues, they throw, as the 
proverb says, a cat into the yarn. It isclearly evident from their pretensions and round-about answer 
not to owe any duties to the Company, because the Directors could not or would not protect them, 
that they propose a union with some malignant opponents and project a new form of Government, 
as may be seen by the report of the Burgomasters and Schepens. The same tendency is clearly 
manifested by their remonstrance and time will show what else is concealed under it. It seems 
wonderfully strange, that the Burgomasters and Schepens of this City should at this precarious 
time join in a plot with a nation, which they and everybody else suspect and which only a short 
time ago they called untrustworthy, which had no good intentions and if anything happened 
would immediately declare itself for the North and to which other still more villainous deeds were 
imputed passed over for briefness' sake and we close with the words : Quid magis mutdbile 

What they say in conclusion requires an explanation. Satisfaction to the country can neither 
be demanded nor given, unless it is proved, that the country in general or the inhabitants in 
particular have suffered, and secret claims and losses cannot be adjusted as long as they remain 

New Yorlc Historical Records. 237 

Kesolution appoentinq Mk. La Montagne to command an expedition against privateers, 


"Whereas new reports have been brought in and complaints made by inhabitants of tliis 
Province, that the English pirates Baxter and others have returned to the waters of this 
jurisdiction and hover around Flushing or thereabout on Long Island and 

Whereas it is to be feared, that as before these pirates or robbers may commit some hostilities 
either by water or on land against the persons or the property of the inhabitants of this Province, 

Therefore, wishing to protect their subjects, according to their official oath and duty, with the 
power and means entrusted to them by God and their superior authority. 

The Director-General and Council have resolved to appoint and authorize the Hon'"''' Mr. 
Jean de La Montagne, Councillor of New-Netherland, as they herewith appoint and authorize 
him to pursue, attack and capture the said pirates, how and whenever he may bo able to do it, by 
water or on land, giving him further power and authority to join to himself and command thereto 
for this purpose from the officers of this Company or the free inhabitants all such persons as he 
believes suitable and fit for the expedition. 

Done at N ew- Amsterdam in New Netherlands December 13, 1653. 

P. Stittvesant. 


C. VAN Weeckhoven. 
Petition of the Convention for an answee to theie Kemonsteance. 

To the Noble Honorable Director-General 
and Council of New-Netherland. 

On the ll"* of this month the Delegates from the respective villages of Gravesend, YUssingen 
Middleburgh, Heemsteede, Amersfoort, Breuckelen and Midwout and the deputies of the 
Burgomasters and Schepens of this City, convened at the City Hall submitted to your Hon*"'' 
Worships a Remonstrance and Request, to which they received the following day as answer a 
demand for copies, that a well considered reply might be given. The said Convention made on 
the same day an answer in wi-iting, whereupon the Hon'''' Director-General and Council were 
pleased, instead of giving a decision upon their request, to charge the Convention with illegality, 
because of a pretended lack of jurisdiction of the villages of Midwout, Amersfoort and Breuchelen, 
which in consequence could not send properly qualified delegates; and to protest against the 
Convention. This appears strange, for the said villages were written to by the Burgomasters and 
Schepens only with the knowledge and consent of the Hon""'^ Director-General and Council ; 
besides their Convention had no other aim, than the service and protection of the country, the 
maintenance and preservation of the freedoms, privileges and property of its inhabitants, but not 
an unlawful usurpation of the authority of the said Hon"" Director-General and Council; on the 
contrary their intention was to prevent illegal proceedings, while the laws of Nature give to all 
men the right to gather for the welfare and protection of their freedom and property. 

The Delegates, convened as above stated, respectfully request with the Burgomasters and 
Schepens, that your Hon'"''' Worships will please after having declared lawful the aforesaid 
Convention, to answer the points submitted in their Remonstrance, while they are willing to 
admit with due respect to their meetings and allow to share in and advise upon all business, which 
may come up, all such persons as your Hon"^ Worships may decide to depute. 

238 Earhj Colonial Settlements. 

In case of refusal, which they hope will not be given, they would find themselves compelled 
to protest against your Hon""'^ Worships for all the inconveniences, wliicli have befallen or mny 
befall the country in general or particular and they intend to apply to their High : Might : tlie 
Lords States-General as their Sovereigns and to the Priv. W. I. Company as their Patroons in 
order to submit to them a Remonstrance on such matters, as they believe are required for the 
service and the welfare of the country. 

Done Deceinber 13"" Your ITon"' Worships' 

1653 at New Amsterdam. humble servants 

Arent vam, Hattem,, Martin Crigier, 

P. L. van der Grift, W. Beeckman, 

Pieter Wolferiien, Geo. Baxter, 

Robert Coo, Elbert Elbertsen, 

Thomas Hassard, John Hicks, 

Thomas Sjncer, Paulus van der £eecq, 

Frederick Lubbertsen, Thomas Swartioout, 

J. Hxibbard, John Strycker. 

Tobias Peaks, 
After comparing the above copy with the original I have found the same to agree. 
Neio Amsterdam, D. van Schellutne, 

Decbr 13, 1653. Not. Publ. 

Peeemptoky Oedee to the seveeal Delegates of the ConventiOiN' to dispeese and not to 
meet again dndee pain of aebitraet coeeection. 

The remonstrants are once more and now for the last time referred to the former answer and 
the express order given by the Director-General and Council and delivered and communicated to 
the remonstrants by the Fiscal, not to address the Director-Genej-al and Council any more under 
the name and style of " General Assembly " or Delegates of the Land, for tlie pretended 
Convention is not only charged, but actually declared to be illegal, as it has not been convened 
either by order or with consent of the Director-General and Council. 

We, the Director-General and Council, therefore order you, Arent van Hattem, Martin 
Crigier, P. L. van der Grift, With. Beeckman, Peter Wolfertsen, George Baxter, Robert Coo, 
Elbert Elbertsen, Thomas Hassard, John Hicks, Thomas Spicer, Paulus van der Beecq, 
Frederick: Lubbertsen, Thomas Swartwout, Jas. Hubbard, John Stryker, Tobias Peaks not to 
assemble any more in such a form and manner, but to separate on sight hereof under pain of our 
extreme displeasure and arliitrary correction. 

Done and enacted at the meeting of the Director-General and Council at New Amsterdam in 
New Netherland, December li, 1653. 

By order of the Director-General and High Council, 



Neio York Historical Records. 239 

Council Minutes. Consideration of the last request ilade by the so-called Delegates 
ON THE 13"' of December 1653. 

The Director-General and Council consider, that their last reply and order of yesterday, 
communicated to the remonstrants by the Fiscal, has been quite sufficient and should have been 
obeyed by them as it behooves good subjects and that they should not have submitted another 
address under the name and style of " Convention." But as the remonstrants have nevertheless 
deemed it advisable, to make another request, to the abusive and false statements of which the 
Director-General and Council are compelled to answer, they first understand it to be their duty 
not to excuse anybody, but to judge. Therefore they have declared the gathering illegal, not only 
because the settlements of Breuckleii, Midwout and Amersfoort had no jurisdiction, as the 
remonstrants abusively allege, but also because the Director- General and Council have declared 
and do declare the present gathering unlawful and nothing but a conventicle for having assumed the 
name of Delegates from the Province of New Netherlands which they are not, as has been said 
before, and for not having been called together or convened by tlie Director-General and Council. 
By virtue of their commission they assert, that nobody in this country is authorized to convene a 
General Assembly, excej^t they, who represent their High : Might : and the Noble Lords- 

Not less abusive is what the remonstrants add, that the aforesaid villages have been invited 
by the Burgomasters and Schepens with the knowledge of the Director-General. That may bo, 
but it was certainly not done with his consent and approval. In the same sense the present 
conventicle has assembled with the knowledge of the Director-General and Council, because the 
Burgomasters and Schepens and the English delegates from the villages of Gravesend, Middle- 
hurgksindi Vlissingen, having met at the house of Pieter Wolfertsen, on the 2Y"' of November last. 
Burgomaster Crlgier and Ensign George Baxter invited the Director-General and some members 
of the Council to a luncheon, when the Burgomasters, Schepens and English Delegates by their 
mouthpiece or speaker announced in the most insulting manner possible to the Director-General 
and Councillors present, that on the lO"" day of the next month they would come together, the 
Director might do what he pleases and pi-event what he could. If this is called pi-evious knowledge, 
then indeed the delegates from the aforesaid villages have been summoned by the Burgomasters 
and Schepens with the knowledge of the Director-General and Council, who however assert that 
it is the duty of the Hon'"''' Director-General as president and not of the Burgomasters and 
Schepens to convoke a General Assembly and to summons delegates from the respective Colonies 
and villages. 

The point, that the law of Nature gives to all rnen the right to gather for the loelfare and 
protection of their freedom, requires proof or rather explanation. The Director- General and 
Council think, that the authorities are appointed for these purposes, but not all men generally, for 
that would create confusion. The Lords-Directors resolved for this reason with the knowledge 
and consent of their High: Might: to appoint the Director-General and Council, giving them 
ample authority for the preservation and protection of the privileges, freedom and property of the 
Company and the good inhabitants and if necessary for the convocation of an Assembly of their 
subjects, but this authority was not conferred on the Burgomasters and Schepens, much less to all 
men. If any of the remonstrants believes himself personally or his Colony or village injured or 
damaged concerning privileges, freedom or property, upon a decent remonstrance and proper 
evidence thereof the Director-General and Council are bound and willing to maintain to the best 
of their ability and knowledge everybody in his property, rights, privileges and exemptions. But 

240 Early Colonial Settlements. 

the Director-General and Council are obliged to oppose such manners and waj's of assembling and 
such injuries, insults and affronts offered to the Government and to mete out punishment to the 
authors and leaders thereof in due time, unless a satisfactory reparation be made. 

As to the request itself " the Delegates^'' etc. 

The answer is, that for the reasons, stated above repeatedly the Director-General and Council 
cannot declare the pretended Assembly to be lawful nor can they further reply in detail to a 
remonstrance submitted in this manner. 

That the remonstrants then add, " they are willing to admit with due respect to their meetings 
and allow to share in and advise i;pon all business, which may come up, all such persons eto^'' and 
further continuing with a threat of intending to protest incase of refusal against all etc shows an 
animus creating great misgivings in the minds of the Director-General and Council, but they 
shall leave that for the present to God and their superiors. They only say, that tliey are better 
informed concerning their authority, commission and instructions, than the remonstrants and that 
they also believe not to require the good will or the permission of subjects, how, when and under 
what circumstances to appear in any Assembly, for they arepro tempore autliorized and qualified 
by God and their sovereign government, to propose and to direct all public business conform to 
their commission and instructions, but not to assist at and advise upon the affairs of a self-created, 
unlawful gathering. 

In conclusion the Director-General and Council prevent nobody to write to our Sovereigns or 
to the Nol)le Lords-Directors, as long as he keeps within the bounds of due respect and truth, but 
they tliink the remonstrants have no authority to write as Eepresentatives of this Province and 
therefore the remonstrants are once more and for the last time referred to the last decision and 
commanded to hold no more meetings. 

Letter from the DmEcroR-GENERAL to the iNHAErrANi'S of Brooextn, Newtown aud 
Flatbush, informing them that the English privateers are again hovering about and 


Copy of an open letter with which the Secretary 
was sent to Brexicltelen, Amersfoort and Midwout, 
to read it to the inhabitants there. 

Dear and good friends : We find it necessary to inform you, that we received last night news 
of Baxter's and some privateers intending again some expedition or the other. A¥e 
have consequently been out with some soldiers during the night and have found the farmers 
around here in good order and on their guard. "We recommend the same to you. 

We are further informed, that the Burgomasters and Schepens of this City have in our name 
invited delegates from yonr villages and told you that it had been done with our consent and 
approval. We declare hereby, that it was not so and therefore require and direct you not to allow 
such delegates to convene again or come here, especially during this crisis, because it can only be 

Nexo York Historical Mecords. 241 

to your disadvantage and injury. We have deemed it advisable, to inform you hereof by our 
Secretary and remain in the meantime 

Amsterdam in M. N. Tour affectionate friends 

Decbr 16, 1653. the Director-General and Council of N. N. 

Petbus Stuyvesant. 
with the original, 
CoENELis VAN RuYVEN, Secretary. 

CoJunssioN OF Rev. Samttel Deisius as Diplomatic Agent to be sent to Verginia. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of their Noble High Mightinesses the Lords-States-General of 
the United Netherlands and the Noble Lords-Directors of the Privileged West India Company 
Director-General of New Netherland, Curasao, Bo7iayro, Ar aba and dependencies with the High 

To all who may read this or hear it read Greeting : 

Know ye, that for the purpose of promoting a general peace and the welfare of both nations 
we have in May last past deputed, commissioned and sent our extraordinary agents, the Hon'''^ 
Cornells van Tienhoven, Councillor and Fiscal of Nev) Netherland and Arent van Ilattem, 
Burgomaster of this City, to the Very Honorable Richard Bennett, Governor and Captain General 
of Virginia and his Council of State, in order to covenant and conclude with them a close and 
firm alliance, correspondence and commerce between their and this our Government without 
regard to the nndesired and unexpected bloody differences, arisen to our great regret between 
their and our nation in Europe, as their commissions and credentials have further informed the 
said Honorable Governor and Council. However the said Honorable Governor and the 
Council of State in Virginia found themselves at that time unauthorized, to give a conclusive 
answer to the propositions made by our then agents, before they, as they honestly and frankly 
stated in their reply, had first submitted them to and advised thereupon with their superiors, the 
Government of England, which they intended and agreed to do by the first opportunity. If this 
has been done agreeably to their sincere intention, we trust, that the said Honorable Governor and 
Council of State shall have received some time ago an answer from their superiors or may be in 
daily expectation of it. 

Therefore the Director-General and Coimcil of New Netherland have resolved, for the 
promotion of so laudable an object as the continuation of peace, increase of commerce and 
cultivation of correspondence between such old friends, neighbors and co-religionists living in such 
distant countries, to send once more an authorized and suitable person thither, to remind the said 
Honorable Governor and Council of Virginia of our former good intentions, which we still have 
and our propositions and to learn their reply. We have hereto requested, also authorized and 
commissioned the Reverend and Yery Learned Mr. Samuel Driesius, Minister of the Gospel in 
the City of New Amsterdam and fully relying upon his ability, wisdom and experience we have 
directed him, as by this our open letter and commission we direct and empower him, to go to 
Virginia and address himself there to the said Honorable Governor Richard Bennett and his 
Council in order to receive in his quality as our embassador from the said Governor and Council 
an answer to our former propositions and to learn what reply was given by their superiors 

242 Early Colonial Settlements. 

upon the matter submitted. If the said Honorable Governor and Council should not yet 
have received it, then he is to propose and ask for a provisional continuation of the commerce and 
intercourse between the two places, a free pass or safeguard signed by the Hon''''^ Governor for 
some of our merchants and their yachts, to pay and collect debts among inhabitants of Virginia, 
as we on our side have given and are still willing to give passes to come and go to the ships and 
yachts coming to us from Virginia. All this to be only provisionally, until on either side we 
shall have received orders to the contrary from our superiors and countermanded the provisional 
passes, of which such ships and yachts might be iuformed six or eight days before hand, that thus 
private losses, general injury and further differences between nation and nation might be prevented. 
If this cannot be obtained, then he shall ask for a free pass for one ship to bring back our envoy 
free and unmolested by the Parliament ships. 

"We further promise by this our open letter and commission to ratify and carry out all that 
may be covenanted and concluded in this matter between the said Honorable Governor, his 
Council and our present envoy Domine Sainuel Drisius. 

Done at N'ew Amsterdam in New Netherlands the IS"" of December 1653. 

P. Stutvesakt. 

By order 



Answer of the Dieeotoe-General and Council to the Eemonsteance of the Merchants' 
Committee of November 28"^ concerning the new Trade-Regulations. 

The supplicants might justly be referred to tlie former decisions given by the Director-General 
and Council to their first request of the 22* of November 1653 and piu-suant to its tenor once more 
be directed, to sliow cause, why 100 to 120 pet are not sufficient advance upon goods and 
merchandises imported here from the Fatherland, agreeably to the pubHslied orders, considered and 
made not only by the Director-General and Council alone, but also by the Deputies of the 
respective Dutch Colonies and districts of this Province, without wliose knowledge and advice the 
orders and rules cannot nor ought to be countermanded or annulled. But in consideration of 
the present juncture the Director- General and Council have ordered their Fiscal to use all possible 
moderation, until the aforesaid order has been communicated to the Lords-Directors and their 
ratification thereof has been obtained or until the Director- General and Council with the said 
Deputies of the respective Dutch Colonies and districts shall have given other directions and the 
matter has been further considered. 

Adi 24 Xber 1653. 

By order of the Director-General and Council. 



New York Historical Records. 

Ordinance relating to Marriages. 
(See Laws and Ordinances of New Netherlands p. 152). 

Letter from Petrus Stuyvesant and the Council to the Magistrates of Gravesend with 
the above Ordinance. 

"Worthy and dear friends. 

I received in due time your letter of the IS"" inst. sent to me by the Fiscal, which has been 
communicated to the High Council. We have been very much astonished, that you arrogate to 
yourself the publication of marriage-proclamations within your village without our or the 
Council's knowledge, in cases where both parties live beyond the jurisdiction of your village. As 
to the allegation, made by you, that the person is a freeman of your village, he is the same in the 
City of Amsterdam and here in this City and for this reason must the marriage-proclamation be 
reported and published here as well as there according to the customs of our Fatherland. "We 
do not deny, that matrimony is ruled by divine and by human laws, but they who enter upon 
this state must do it according to these divine and human laws, with the consent or knowledge of 
their parents, tutors or guardians and then notify thereof the Commissary, appointed by higher 
authority, at the place where they reside or where they have previously been living during the 
last year. Your final request, that we should send you a copy of the order and power of attorney, 
which his father has given us concerning this son, is not complied with, as we do not think 
ourselves bound to do it, considering yours being a subordinate jurisdiction and subject to us ; 
besides the father would be displeased and it would be unreasonable in us, to communicate to 
others, what an honest and prominent man has written to us in a detailed letter. 

Thus much in answer to your open letter. This further serves as cover of the enclosed order 
and resolution made by us and the Council, which you must promptly obey, not because we wish 
to prevent the marriage, but that according to divine and human laws and ordinances they may 
be put in practice, proclaimed and affixed, at the proper place and without infraction of anybody's 

Relying thereupon we commend you with cordial greetings to God's protection and remain 

New A mstei'dam, 

January 20, 1654. Your well-affected friend and Governor 

P. Stuyvesant. 

* A majority of the early settlers of New York hailing from Ouilderland, the laws of that Province in regard to 
marriages naturally prevailed. In Ouelderland a marriage was void, if the express consent of the father, or if dead 
of the mother had not heen obtained for the marriage of a son. With regard to daughters the law was still more 
rigorous ; even a marriage, entered into by a girl with parental consent, did not emancipate her from parental 
authority, if she was still under age at her husband's death : she had to place herself again under the gurdianship 
of her father or mother. Neither were parents obliged to give before a Court of Justice any reasons in case they 
refused consent. This law had its foundation in the Codex Justinianus. — B. F. 

244 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Petition from the Buegomastees and Schepens of New Amsterdam for the peivilege of 


To the Yery Worshipful, Noble, Honorable 
Director-General and High Council of 

Neio Netherland 

Show with due respect and humility the present Burgomasters and Schepens of this City of 
New Amsterdam : 

Whereas the petitioners have now served this City of New Amsterdam in their aforesaid 
capacity for one year pursuant to the instructions given by your Hon'"''' Worships and the election 
is now before the door, they very submissively request, that your Hon''''' Worships wDl be pleased 
to consent, tliat a double number may be nominated by the aforesaid Burgomasters and ScheiJens, 
from which the proper number of new Burgomasters and Schepens could be chosen and commis- 
sioned by j'our Hon'''" Worships, so that the Board would be complete. Also, that your Hon'''° 
Worships will please to take into their wise consideration, what salary the Burgomasters and 
Schepens should have for their service ; if this is decided, the means could be collected with other 
taxes from the community. lu expectation of your Hon'''<' Worships favorable disj)osition we 

New Amsterdam Your Hon'''" Worships 

in Neiu Netherland Obedient servants 

Jan'' 27j 1654. Aeent van Hattem, Martin Ceegiee, 

P. Leendertsen van dee Geift, Wilh. Beeckman, 
Pietee Wolfeetsen. 

Anno 1654. Januaet 28"' at New Amsteedam. 

The Director-General and Council have taken into consideration the request of the Burgo- 
masters and Schepens and for weighty reasons have resolved and decided, to refuse and delay the 
application concerning the nomination and to continue in office the present Burgomasters and 
Schepens for the sake of peace and harmony during another year and only to appoint to the vacant 
positions two other honest and capable men, having selected for this purpose Jochem Pietersen 
Kuyter and Oloff Stevensen Cortlandt. 

As to the other request, taking in consideration the troubles and anxieties with the loss of 
time and private expenses of the Burgomasters and Schepens, in their official positions, being 
mostly men who have to provide for their famihes either by trade, agriculture or manual labor, 
the Director-General and Council consent to it and agree, that the Burgomasters shall henceforth 
draw, according to their petition, from the City's revenues and have as salary the sum of three 
hundred and fifty guilders annually and the Schepens two hundred and fifty guilders. 

Enacted at the session of the Director-General and Council of New Netherland held at New 
Amsterdam on the day and year as above. 

P. Stut-'vesant. 
Nioasius de Sille, C. van Weeckhoven, 
La Montagne, Coenelis van Tienhoybn. 

New York Historical Records. 245 

Ordinance eegulating the import-duties on dctffels and other Indian goods, wine, beer, eto 
PASSED January 28"", published July 2'', 1654. 

(See Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland, p. 153.) 

Order to the Magistrates of Gbavesend concerning the publication of bans and the 
solemnization of marriages. 

The Director-General and Council of New Netherland to all who shall see this Greeting. 

Know ye, that they have commissioned, authorized and directed, as they herewith commission, 
authorize and direct the sworn Court messenger Klaes van Elslandt, the elder, to proceed on 
receipt hereof to the village of Gravesend and to insinuate to and inform the Magistrates there, 
tliut they must not undertake to publish and afBx any marriage proclamation or bans, much less 
confirm any marriage among persons, of whom the man or the woman, groom or bride, are not 
residents or have not lived within the jurisdiction of their village during the last year, unless there 
has been first exhibited to them a proof or document, signed either by a Magistrate or a beadle or 
a Commissary thereto qualified by the Supreme Government, that such persons have conformed 
to the laws, ordinances and rules of Netherland., which must be observed here and have had their 
intention proclaimed without interference during three consecutive weeks at the place, where 
both or one of them are residents or have lived during the last year. If the said Magistrates should 
continue to act contrary to this insinuation and our former express prohibition and contrary to 
all general and special edicts, ordinances and rules prescribed by the civil laws of our Fatherland 
as well as by Imperial statutes, then the Director-General and Council declare for the 
present such a manner of marrying unlawful, as contrary to all civil and political laws and 
ordinances, in force here, in our Fatherland and among all our Christian neighbors. 
New Amsterdam, in N. N P. Stuyvesant. 

Febr'' 10, 1654. Nicasius de Sille. C. van Werokhoven. 

La Montagne. 

Letter from the Director and Council to the Magistrates of Gravesend sent with the 
foregoing order. 

"Worthy Friends. 

On the 19"' of January we made a certain order and resolution and in the shape of a mandamus 
sent it to you with a letter from the Director-General by a private party ; in consequence we do 
not know, whether the order contained in our aforesaid resolution has been obeyed and carried 
out pursuant to its good intentions and purport. According to the verbal reports of people 
specially interested therein and judging from your last letter of the 22'^ of January, directed to 
the Hon'''^ Director-General personally in answer to his letter, you seem not to have well under- 
stood our meaning and intention and on that account not to feel bound nor inclined to carry 
it out, because in your opinion it is contrary to your patent and privileges, an infraction of which 
we by no means intend. 

246 Early Colonial Settlements. 

We have therefore conchided to send you by an officer, namely our sworn Courtmessenger, 
our further resohition and insinuation, renewing the former and instructing you, how to publish 
marriage proclamations of persons, of whom one or both are residents of and have 
lived daring the last year in another place, village or jurisdiction. It is contrary to and ofEends 
all political and civil laws, not only of Netherland and other adjoining countries and provinces, 
but also against all customs and iisages of this province and even of New England, who all 
unanimously agree and concur, that they who desire to enter the state of matrimony must give notice 
of their bans and proclaim their intended marriage and have them published on three consecutive 
days of prayer or of court-session, not in another jurisdiction, but in the jurisdiction, place or village, 
where they both are residents and have lived the last year, and if the pei-sons desiring the publi- 
cation of their bans are residents of different villages, places or districts, such bans must be 
published in both places and a proof or evidence of no lawful let or hindrance existing must be 
produced to the Magistrates or beadles at the place, where after the publication of the bans they 
wish to be married, otherwise they cannot be confirmed in the married state without committing 
an unlawful act. 

"We have considered it necessary to inform you hereof, that you may not violate through 
ignorance the political laws, ordinances and customs of our Fatherland and this country. Kelying 
hereupon wo commend you with our greetings to God's protection and remain, 
Amsterdam in N. N. Worthy Friends 

Febr^ 10, 1654. Your well-affected Director-General 

and Council oi New Netherland. 
P. Stuyvesant 


La Montagne Cok. van Tienhoven. 

Oeder directing the Coctet messenger to demand from George Baxter, former Seceetaey 
for English affairs, all offiolal papers etc. 

The Director-General and Council direct their Courtmessenger Claes van Elslandt to demand 
from Ensign Oeorge Baxter, at the time of the arrival and in the beginning of the administi'ation 
of the present Director-General Secretary for English affairs, all such originals, copies or minutes 
of letters and other documents as have been passed between the Director-General and the 
Governors of the neighboring Colonies of New England and Virginia, also especially the 
protocols or copies of the patents of the adjacent English Colonies of Heemstede, Vlissitigen and 
Oravesend, which the said Baxter has in his deposit. 
New Amsterdam 

Febr'' 10, 1654:. P. STUYVESAJfT. 


La Montagne. 

New Yorlc Historical Records. 247 

Petition of the Buegomastees etc of New Amsteedam foe authoeitt to impose oeetain 


To the Noble, Very "Worshipful, Honorable 
Director-General and Council of New Netherland. 

Show with due respect and humility the Burgomasters and Schepens of this City of New 

Whereas they need some money for repairing the fortificatious of the City, for paying some 
debts and for other expenses absolutely necessary, they request your Hon'''^ Worships for an 
order, authorizing them to impose provisionally for the benefit of this city, the following duties, 
namely that there be paid 


On all merchandise, coming in and going out, two percent on each vessel, be it small or large, 
ten stuyvers annually per last.* 

Citizens' Excise. 


For each ton of good beer 20 stuyvers. 

For each ton of small beer 6 stuyvers. 

For each anker of brandy, Spanish wine 

or distilled water 1 fl 10 stuyvers. 

French wine and other wines of the same value half as much. 

Water Excise. 

On goods shipped to places within this Province 

For each anker of wine 6 stuyvers. 

For each ton of beer 6 stuyvers. 

On wines and beer going out of this Province the foregoing Citizens' Excise, for greater or 
smaller quantities in proportion. 


And that all this may be carried out properly and without fraud, the Burgomasters and 
Schepens request, that two sworn beer porters be appointed. In expectation of your Hon''''' 
Worships order we remain 

Enacted at the session Tour Hon'''^ Worships 

in the City Hall at humble servants 

New Amsterdam Aeent van Hattem 

Febr" 19 1654. By order of the Burgomasters and 

Schepens of New Amsterdam 

Jacob Kip, Secretary. 

* Of two tuns. 

248 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Petition of the same, requesting to be ineoemed what measures had been taken to 
suppress robberies by english privateers. 

To the Noble, Very Worshipful, Honorable, 

Director-General and High Council of 

New Netherland. 

Show with due respect and humility the Burgomasters and Schepens of this City of New 

Whereas in our last session on the lO"" of February in the presence of the Hon''''^ Director- 
General Petrus Stuyvesant some verbal propositions were made, to consider measures by which 
the robberies by the English privateers might be suppressed ; which propositions the Hon'''* 
General promised to communicate to the High Council, 

Therefore tlie Burgomaster and Schepens request once more to know, what resolutions have 
been adopted by the Director-General and Council concerning this matter, for we think, that it 
should be attended to with all possible promptness. 

In expectation of your Hon*"'^ Worships' answer we remain 

Your Hon""'^ Worships' 
Enacted etc humble servants 

Febr'' 19 1654 Arknt van Hattem. 

By order etc 

Jacob Kip, Seer''. 

Answers of the Director-General and Council to the foregoing petitions. 

The Director-General and Council consent herewith, that the Burgomasters and Schepens may 
levy the proposed Citizens' Excise on wines, brandy, distilled waters and beer consumed within 
this city on the same terms and conditions, as the receipt of the Tavernkeepers' Excise has formerly 
been granted to them according to our edict of the SS"' of Novbr, 1653. 

The request for two per cent on all incoming goods, for 10 stuy vers per last of each small 
and large vessel and for a water-excise on all outgoing merchandise is denied by the Director- 
General and Council, because these duties concern the country at large and not a particular city or 

The demand for the appointment of two sworn beerporters is referred, until further satisfactory 
information as to how and in what way two beerporters shall be able to accommodate and be of 
benefit to the citizens, how two beerporters shall bring the beer from outside or to the country 
people, also whether a brewer outside of the City shall not be allowed to transport his own brew 
on his own cart, sled or waggon. 

Thus done at the meeting held by the Director-General and High Council at New Amsterdam 
in New Netherland, Febr'' 23, 1654. 

P. Stuyvesant. 
N. DE Sille. C. van Werckhoven. 
La Montagne. Cornelis van Tienhoven. 

New Yoi'h Historical Records. 249 

The Director-General reported to the Couueil the verbal proposition, made in his presence 
by the Burgomasters and Schepens, to enlist for the purpose of suppressing the robberies by 
English privateers forty men at the expense of the respective colonies, villages and homesteads, 
costing about 1600 guilders per month, and if the money can be raised with the consent of the 
respective villages, the Director-General and Council will by virtue of their commissions proceed 
with the enrollment. 

Thus enacted by the Director-General and Council, at New Amsterdam., Febr>' 23 1654. 

P. Stuyvesant. 


La Montagne. Cok. van Tienhoven. 

Answer of the Dieectok-General and Council to a eemonsteance of the Burgomastees 
etc, complaining that an interdict had been issued without theie knowledge against 
plucking the goose etc. 

The Hon'''' Director-General reported to the Council, that both the Burgomasters and the 
greater number of the Schepens had appeared before him on the 25"" iust., stating their complaint, 
that the Director-General and Council had issued without their knowledge an interdict and 
forbidden some farm servants to pluck the goose at the Bacchanal on the eve of Ash "Wednesday. 
The Director-General and Council had been actuated by certain reasons ; besides it has never been 
the custom in this country during their time and is considered entirely frivolous, needless and 
disreputable by subjects and neighbors, to celebrate such heathenish and popish festivals and to 
introduce such bad customs into this country, even though, as the Burgomasters and Schepens 
pretend, it may be tolerated in some places of our Fatherland or be winked at. The order 
forbidding it has been communicated to the farm servants by the Court messenger Glaes van 
Elslandt on the day before the deed, but nevertheless they disobeyed it in contempt of the 
Government, whereupon some of the malefactors were summoned before the Director-General 
and Council by their Fiscal, to be heard on the charge against them and punished according to 
law. Two or three of them, who comported themselves very insolently and improperly by 
threatening, cursing, vilifying and ridiculing their superiors in presence and in the hearing of the 
Director-General and Council, were committed to prison. This the Burgomasters and Schepens 
considered a great infraction of their authority, because the Director-General and Council had 
done it without their consent and knowledge, as if without advice, consent or knowledge of the 
Burgomasters and Schepens no order could be given or rule established or a rabble be forbidden 
to celebrate Bacchanals and as if, without the knowledge and consent of a subordinate Court of 
Justice all persons disobeying a Christian and decent order could not be punished. 

As the Director-General and Council understand their position, authority and instructions 
better than other people, they inform herewith the Burgomasters and Schepens, that tlie establish- 
ment of a subordinate Court of Justice under the name and title either of " Schout, Burgomasters 
and Schepens " or of " Commissaries " does in no way infringe upon or diminish the power and 
authority of the Director-General and Council to pass ordinances or issue interdicts, especially 
if they are for tlie glory of God, the weKare of the inhabitants or the prevention of sin, vice, 
corruption and mishaps and the correction, fine or punishment according to law of those, who 
wantonly disobey them. 

250 Early Colonial Settlements. 

The authority of " Schout, Burgomasters and Schepens " and why they have been appointed 
is sufficiently shown in the instructions given to them. They must stick to this and continue so, 
without troubling henceforth the Director-General personally and inconvenience him on account 
of some orders, rules, fines or punishments against and of offenders made and published by him 
pursuant to a previous resolution of the Director-General and Council. But if the Schout, 
Burgomasters and Schepens or the Commissaries are asked by a subject or subjects to mediate and 
intercede for the modification of an interdict, order or punishment decreed against one or another 
by the Director-General and Council, then the Burgomasters and Schepens or Commissaries of 
this City and of other subaltern Courts may by respectful request remonstrate and inform the 
Director-General and Council of their own grievances and of those of other subjects, giving their 
reasons for it, whereupon the Director-General shall give such decisions, either renewing or 
mitigating their orders, as justice and the nature of the case may require it. 

Thus done at the meeting of the Director-General and Council held at New Amsterdam in 
New Netherland, February 26"" lOo-i. 

P. Stuttesant. 


La Montagne. 

Letter from the Directors to STiri'VESANT : Ordinances vetoed and approved : Renselaees- 
WYCK : Landgrants : Church affairs : Hevenues. 

Honorable, Worsliipful, Pious, Dear, Faithful. 

Our last general letter to you was of the 24"" of July 1653, sent in the ^^ Gelderse Blom," and 
in our ship " Goninck Salomon^'' by which we answered several of your letters, namely of the 14"" 
and 20''' of September and 19"* of November 1652, while later on the i"" of November 1653 we 
answered yours of the 7"" of January and 5"" of June of the same year. But as the ship 
" Vaerwel,^'' which was to sail for New Netherland by way of Brasil and Curasao, could not make 
this voyage on account of the mishap occurred to it at the Texel, the aforesaid letter and enclosures 
could only be sent by this ship ; for brevity's sake we refer to their contents in so far as they do 
not contradict this letter. In the meantime, God be praised, the ships " Graft " and '■'■ Harringvat " 
have arrived at Rochelle, by which we received your letter of the 6"" of October 1653, to which 
we shall now reply as briefly and substantially, as the time may permit. 

Your endeavors made to continue the friendship and commerce with the people of Virgi7iia have 
pleased us very much and we recommend, that you make the same efforts in the future with these and 
your other neighbors. We have no doubt, that meanwhile the ships of the Parliament, stationed 
on that coast and preventing the trade with our people, shall already or at least before the arrival 
of this letter have received different orders from their superiors in England, between whom and 
the commissioners of our government an alliance and treaty of peace has been agreed upon, subject 
to the approval of their High : Might : the States-General. This ratification given with the general 
consent of the Provinces has been sent to the commissioners in England a few days ago, so that 

New Yorh Historical Records. 251 

we have deemed it unnecessary to send off the succor demanded for your places, not wishing to 
create unnecessary expenses, although we had obtained it froui the government of this city, as you 
may learn from our said letter of the 4"' of November here enclosed. 

The resolutions adopted by you at the general meeting appear to us very strange and 
surprising and still more surprising is their publications without our knowledge or approbation. In 
the first place you proclaim, that all traders shall henceforth not sell their goods, except Indian 
goods, at a higher advance than one hundred per cent above the price stated in the invoices without 
adding thereto the freight, duties and other charges. An order indeed as impracticable, as highly 
injurious for the State, for it is a sure means not only to banish all trade and at the same time 
deprive the Company to a large extent of their revenues here and in New Netherlands but also to 
prevent an increase of population and cultivation, for who does not know, that the expectation of 
gain is the greatest spur for people to go there, as experience has sufficiently taught, while on the 
other side the fear of moderate and uncertain profits discoui-ages and keeps them at home, as 
would certainly be the case, if they came there with their cargoes under these circumstances. For 
they would be in great danger, that their goods might be taken away from them, upon which the 
heaviest expenses are incurred, as freight, duties, fees for the convoys etc amounting to sixty and 
more per cent, besides insurance and the dangers of the sea : it is easily seen, what would be the 
merchant's profit. "We could adduce other and more powerful reasons, however as we believe, that 
commerce does not admit of the least constraint or limitation, but must be entirely free, as it is 
among all other nations and countries, we consider it unnecessary and we do not doubt that the 
high prices will cease and disappear in time, when trade increases and everything is imported there 
in abundance. 

Equally impracticable is your second order, having its source in the first, to wit the lowering 
and fixing the jiay of the journeymen carpenters, masons etc and the price of provisions, bread, 
beer and wine. We cannot doubt, that your own experience will have taught you the impossibility 
of carrying it out, for such an order can only give rise to great dissatisfaction and troubles, as well 
among the journeymen, whom you have rated indiscriminately at a certain day's pay, one 
however being cheaper at thirty than the other at twenty stivers a day, as among the inn and 
tavernkeepers, and other traders. To prevent this in the future, we have resolved to command, 
that you shall act strictly in accordance with the laudable customs and ordinances of this city (sent 
you heretofore), at least in so far as the nature and condition of the country and its inhabitants 
may admit.* 

The order given by you not to use any good grain in baking or brewing appears to us, 
under the present circumstances, to be cautious and well conceived and we would also consider it 
advisable on similar occasions of need to make close and secret investigations as to what quantities 
of grain may be in private hands there, that you may so much better govern your actions. 

We think it would be useful to take some good and practicable measures concerning the 
freight charges of skippers, who carry goods into the interior and we recommend to you therefore 
to consider this point in such a manner, that it will be to the advantage and accommodation of 
the inhabitants. 

Tou have agreed upon a placat, that no trader shall sell or take into the interior any of his 
goods by retail, unless he engages to remain in the country there, owning a decent house or 

* The laws mentioned in tke preceding passages were enacted by the Assembly of the deputies from the different 
towns of New Netherland held in September 1653, but they are not among our records, nor have we the Minutes of 
the Assembly. They appear to have been sent to Amsterdam,. — B. F. 

252 Early Colonial Settlements. 

bouwery, four consecutive years. We can well understand, that the traders going there and 
returning again with their barter bring little profit to the inhabitants, but the remedy proposed 
by you to prevent it is in our opinion as impracticable, as the preceding, principally in the infancy 
of a newly opened country, whose growth must be promoted rather by encouraging and unlimited 
privileges, than by prohibitions and restrictions, for to constrain people to engage in building 
houses or in farming, who have often neither the means nor the inclination to do it, is repugnant, 
and to compel them to remain, servile and slavish. However to benefit the inhabitants as much 
as possible we have thought it would be convenient and less dangerous for the increase of the 
country to prepare and pass the following order, to wit : that henceforth no traders coming there 
shall be allowed to sell or take into the interiors any goods as abovesaid, unless they keep a public 
shop there : by this measm-e not only the barterings to a large extent will be prevented, but these 
traders will also be compelled to contribute to the ordinary and extraordinary taxes, which onr 
inhabitants now pay. You will therefore act accordingly and before we leave this subject let us 
warn you against passing, much less publishing hereafter any more such or similar orders or rules, 
before having consulted our opinion in regard to them, for that we consider necessary for the 
interest of the Companj' and this government. 

We are not pleased with the assertion of the authorities of the Colony of Renselaerswyck, 
that even in time of need and war they are not obliged to assist ; we consider it entirely unfounded, 
unreasonable and unfair, for ixnder such circumstances, nobody, whatever privileges and exemptions 
he may have obtained, should be spared or excused, as the daily occurrences in our country here 
now sufliciently teach us. What further concerns the running expenses for salaries of the civil, 
ecclesiastical and military officers, the maintaining of the fortifications erected and remaining for 
the support and protection of the community, it is only Just and J^air, that, as the royalties and 
revenues of the Company there are not sufficient, the inhabitants help in hearing the expenses, as 
it is done in all other well governed countries and cities. 

We are at present engaged in examining the question whether tithes should be exacted from 
the Colony of Benselaerswyck, so that you may expect our opinion concerning it by the first 
opportunity : but as van Twiller and others pretend, that some more land has been granted there, 
which is not yet subject to tithes, we have deemed it necessary to direct and recommend to you, 
that you cause the Secretary, (we hope Tienhoven has the fullest information on this subject), to 
make an examination and send us speedily a correct and detailed statement of the parcels of land, 
granted there from time to time since the beginning with a specification of the conditions, that we 
may so much better and surer govern ourselves accordingly. 

We have decided absolutely to deny the request made by some of our inhabitants, adherents 
of the Augsburg confession, for a preacher and free exercise of their religion, pm-suant to the 
custom hitherto observed by us and the East India Company, on account of the consequences 
arising therefrom, and we recommend to you also not to receive any similar petitions, but rather 
to turn them o£E in the most civil and least offensive way and to employ all possible but moderate 
means in order to induce them to listen and finally join the Reformed church and thus live Ln greater 
love and harmony among themselves. 

We have been pleased to see the zeal of several of our inhabitants of a new village on Long 
Island for the Reformed religion and that it may not cool, we have resolved upon their represen- 
tation to contribute in the beginning 600 fl yearly and are looking about here for a fit and pious 
teacher or minister : we have also notified the reverend Classis here, so that you and the people 
may expect him by the first opportunity. We are hereby reminded, that now and then complaints 

New Yorh HistoiHcal Recoi'ds. 253 

are made to us of the inconveniences and troubles, to which Doraines Johannis Megapolensis and 
Samuel Drisius are unreasonably exposed there by the irregular and scanty payment of their 
respective salaries. "We are astonished to hear, that even the former has to claim an arrear of 
several thousand guilders, although you had made a special agreement with him, that his salary 
should be paid there, while the other has been sent to you on the same condition : as this has 
always been your proposition, based upon so good and fair reasons, and was really necessary, as 
stated before, it surprises us, that you take no better care to place these men above want. To 
prevent this in future, we deem it requisite to charge you herewith and seriously recommend, that 
you satisfy the demands of these persons as best you can there, so that no further complaints are 
made to us. 

We should have stopped here and closed our letter, if we were not frequently embarrassed 
by not having the general and special account books ; we have mentioned this in our previous 
letters and as we cannot wait any longer, being kept entirely ignorant and blindfolded in regard 
to the expenses and revenues of the Company tliere, because to our great astonishment no books 
of account have been sent over for several years, we have considered it highly necessary to charge 
and command most earnestly, that you send over speedily by the first ship not only the missing 
books and accounts, but henceforth also cause to be made a correct and detailed statement of the 
expenses and revenues, entered there from time to time to be sent to us promptly and without 
delay every year, that we may act accordingly. 

"With the ships sailing from here to Neio Netherland (this sails from Roohelle) we intend to 
send you a detachment of soldiers, ammunition of war and other necessaries urgently needed there 
and as three are already loading and two or three are reported to intend taking freight for New 
Netherland, you may expect all very soon. 

Meanwhile etc etc Your good friends 

Amsterdam, the 12"" of March 1654. The Directors of the W. I. Comp. 

Dept. of Amsterdam. 
To the Director and Council J. Rtckaeets. Ab". Wilmeedanck. 

in New Netherland. General letter. 

Oedee directing the Magistkates of Geavesend to peoduce theie chaetee in peoof of 
cektadf as6eeti0ns made by them. 

Ultimo March, 1654 at Nevj Amsterdam. 

The Magistrates and inhabitants of Gravesend having written a certain letter to the Hon''''' 
Director-General, the following answer was sent to them : 

It is resolved regarding the within letter, that the Magistrates and inhabitants of Oravesend 
must prove by their patent or at least by an authenticated copy thereof their right, both to 
nominate and elect their Magistrates and to continue them in office during their own pleasure. 

Enacted at the session of the Director-General and Council, on the date as above. 

254 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Ordinance against Pirates and Vagabonds and requiring strangers to kkpdrt and give 
AN account of themselves. Passed April 8, 165i. 

(Laws and Ordinances of New Netherlands p. 155.) 

Ordinance of the District Court at Breuckelen etc., for the better defense of the 
Dutch towns on Long Island, approved April 8, 1G54. 

(Sec Laws and Ordinances of New Netherlands p. 159.) 

Commission appointing Secret^uiy van Tieniioven and Burgomaster Cregier to go as envoys 
TO THE Governor of New Haven. 

Anno 1654, New Amsterdam, on the 8"' of April. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of their Noble High : Might : the Lords States General of the 
United Netherlands and of the Noble Lords-Directors of the Priv. West India Company, Director 
General of New Netherland, Curafoo, Bonayro, Arula and dependencies, with the Uonorable 
Council, to all who shall read this or hear it read Greeting : 

Know ye, that in pursuance of the directions of our principals we have only endeavored and 
aimed at, as we still are aiming at a continuation of our former intercourse, commerce and peace 
with our Christian neighbors and co-religionists without regard to any unexpected diferences and 
deporable misunderstandings between our respective Governments in Europe. For this reason we 
have already a long time ago addi-essed several friendly missives to the neighboring Governors, 
but meanwhile some rovers and pirates have turned up, — we do not know under what authority, 
or whose commission, who during last summer have uttered threats and committed several hostile 
acts, invasions and attacks upon the gooil inhabitants in the country, Dutch as well as English, on 
land and sea, robbing and plundering WilUain Harck and Jochim Petersen Kuyter, stealthily 
taking away a vessel belonging to John Tohyn, stealing and leading off 9 or 10 horses from the 
village of Amersfoort on Long Island and 3 or 4 negroes sent out to recapture and bring back 
some fugitive negroes. Having suffered these and other hostilities at the hands of the said robbers 
and pirates not only last year, but also again quite recently in the person of ^Yillia>n JIarcl; when 
they added many threats of fire and massacre to be inflicted upon other good inhabitants of this 

We, the Director-General and Council, believe ourselves compelled by our official position and 
its duties, upon the repeated complaints of our good subjects, to prevent them by all honest and 
admissible means, as far as we can and to protect our good subjects against all such rovers, pirates 
and thieves. 

Tlierefore the Director-General and Coimcil have resolved to have them ^Jursued, attacked and 
captured either on land or on water, as well by means of power, entrusted to us by God and our 
Sovereigns, as by the weapons and own defensive means of our good subjects, without however 
being inclined or intending to give thereby to our Christian neighbors any cause for offense, much 
less to commit any hostilities against them. 

Neio YorTc Historical Records. 255 

In order to inform and assure hereof the neighboring Governors, Lieutenant-Governors and 
Magistrates, we have considered it necessary and advisable to appoint and send as envoys to our 
next neiglibor, tlie Hon'''^ Theo;philus Eton, Governor of New- Haven, the Councillor and Fiscal 
of New Nethevland Mr. Cornelis van Tienhoven and Mr. Martin Cregier, Burgomaster and 
Captain of one of the Citizens' Companies of this City of New Amsterdam, who are to inform and 
advise the said Hon'''= Governor and his Council, as well as all, whom it may concern, of our real 
and sincere intentions in equipping and making ready some yachts for the protection of the 
commerce on the rivers and waters between us and our neighbors and in commanding our good 
subjects, Dutch and English, to keep order and good watch and be ready for all emergencies. All this 
is intended for and aims at the protection of our good inhabitants in the open country without any 
thought of doing injury or damage to or molesting, much less committing any acts of hostility 
against our neighbors. If it should happen that in the pursuit of these robbers and pirates some 
of our far off living subjects or of our neighbors might be damaged in their cattle, houses or 
vessels, which we will not hope and against which we have given strict orders, then we engage 
oui'selves to give prompt and just satisfaction therefor, as soon as we are informed of it. 

Eegarding the capture and detention of one Thomas Baxter, formerly the leader and captain 
of these robbers and pirates, in whose name and pretended authority the above related robberies 
and thefts were conunitted partly by himself, partly by his accomplices, our aforesaid deputies are 
especially authorized and directed to inform the said Hon''''^ Governor of it and ask for his wise 
counsel and aid as to how the stolen property may be recovered, also to speak with him concerning 
the abduction of Captain Cregier' s negroes protected by a safe-conduct of the said Honorable 
Governor and kidnapped within his own jurisdiction. They are further to consult with his Honor 
concerning the flight and recapture of a certain Jan de Jongk and finally to propose and ask for a 
continuation of the former intercourse, commerce and neighborly friendship. 

We, the Director-General and Council promise herewith to approve, confirm and ratify all that 
in this respect shall have been done, covenanted and contracted by our deputies, the Hon'''^ 
Cornelis van Tienhoven and Martin Cregier. 

Given at om- meeting at New Amsterdam, this 8"' of April 1654. 

P. Stuyvksant. 
NioAsms DE SiLLE, LaMontagne. C. \an Webckhoven. 

Okdek directing a resident of Breugkelen to leave the country, for refusing to serve 

AS Magistrate. 

Anno 1654, April 9"", Neio Amstei^dam. 

Whereas Jan Eversen Boot, an inhabitant and owner of real estate in Breuckelen, on Long 
Island, has at the election of Schepens in the village of Breuckelen also been elected Schepen 
by the Director-General and Council, which office he refused to accept, saying he would rather 
remove to Holland, than undertake such duties, whereupon at the time the Director-General 
replied " If you will not accept to serve as Schepen for the welfare of the village of Breuckelen 
with others, your fellow-residents, then you must prepare yourself to sail in the ship " Khig 
Solomon" for Holland agreeably to your own utterance," 

256 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Therefore tlie Hon^'° Director-General and High Council, in consideration of the obstinacy 
of the said Jan Eversen Bout and the subsequent disorders, which could arise therefrom, have 
dii-ected their Fiscal Cornells van Tienhoven, to inform the said Jan Eversen by the Sheriff 
David Provoost, that he must leave. 
Thus done etc. 

P. Stuyvesant. 
N. DE SiLLE, La Montagne, C. van "Wekckhoven. 

Passport for the Envoys to New Haven. 

The bearers hereof, namely the Hon'"'*' Cornells van Tienhoven, Councillor and Fiscal of New 
Netherland and his Honor Martin Gregier, Burgomaster and Captain in the trainbands of this 
City, are deputed and commissioned by the Director-General and Council of Neio Netlverland to 
go as Agents in behalf of this Province to the Hon'''" Governor Theophilus Eton at New Haven 
and so much farther as the occasion may require. Therefore all Christian Governors, Lieutenant- 
Governors and Magistrates of the neighboring Colonies are hereby requested, to receive and 
acknowledge the above said parties as such, and to allow them to go and come according to the 
laws of nation with the yacht and the persons under their command and their property, which we 
promise under similar circumstances to do also. 
Done at New Amsterdam,^ li"" April 1654, 

Order on a petition of the authorities at Fort Orange, relating to limits of jurisdiction, 


The following decision was given ujjon a petition sent to the Director-General and Council 
by the Commissary and Magistrates of Fort Orange and Beverwiok Village dated the 16"" 
March 1654. 

As to the first point the Director-General and Council resolve, that in due time the Noble 
Lords-Directors shall be communicated with, in order to hear their advice. In the meantime 
permission is given, that the Court of the Colony shall have jurisdiction, as heretofore and until 
further orders from the Fatherland have been received, within the limits of Fort Orange and 
Beverwyck Tillage, except that they shall not issue summons or make arrests within these limits, 
unless they have first asked for permission to enter upon the territory, and then their duties shall 
be performed by the regular Court messenger of Fort Orange and Beverwyck Village. 

The Director-General and Council consider the second, third, fourth and fifth points reasonable 
and proper; pertinent orders and documents shall be made for this purpose in due time and sent 
to the Court. 

Concerning the sixth point, it is the opinion of tlie Director-General and Council, that the 
lands granted to the Patroon or Patroons under the Exemptions must remain at their disposal 
until further orders from the Lords-Directors. The Director-General and Council refuse therefore 

New York Historical Recoi'ds. 257 

to reply thereto, until tlic boundaries of the Colony shall have been determined eitlicr by the 
decision of the authorities in the Colony or by an order of the Director General and Council 
pursuant to the instructions of the Lords Directors. It is therefore considered advisable to serve 
on and communicate to the Hon'''" Commander Rensselaer and the Magistrates of the Colony a 
written summons to this effect by the Connnissary Dykman and two Magistrates. 

7"'. To complete the inferior Court of Justice foi- Fort Oraiuje and Bevenvyck Village, 
Sander Leendersen, Pieter Uartijens and Frans Bareiitsoi are hereby selected out of the names 
sent and confirmed. 

Thus enacted etc.. April 14'-'' IGoi. 

Letter feom the Dieectoe-General etc to Joun Baptist van Rensselaer and the 
Magistrates of Eensselaerswyck calling on tuem to run the boundary line of their 

Your Honors cannot be ignorant of the fact, that the Director-General and Council of New 
Neiherland have in the beginning of April 1052 insinuated in Meriting to the tlien Commander of 
the Colony of Rensselaerswyck, Brant Arisen van SlecJdenhorst, and his Council or Co-Magistrates 
and given them the choice of selecting the starting point of the boundaries of the Colony, in order 
that in future the differences about meum et tuum and the quarrels, which in consequence of it 
had arisen between the officers and inhabitants of Fort Orange and the people of the said Colony, 
might be avoided. According to the Exemptions the Patroons had received a grant of four 
leagues on one side or two miles on each side of the North river, where navigable. The choice 
thereof and the determination of the starting point going either southward or northward along the 
river were left to the pleasure and discretion of the aforesaid Commander and to his Co-Magistrates 
appointed by the Hon''''= Patroon and the Directors of the said Colony, to which the warning was 
added, that, if the Commander and his Council should refuse the fair offer of the Director-General 
and Council or neglect to make the selection, the Director-General and Comicil would be 
compelled by their official position and duty and for the aforesaid reasons, to determine the 
boundaries of the Colony according to the Exemptions. To this written request and very fair 
offer the said Slechtenhorst and his Council replied in writing, that they were not authorized to 
act in that matter by their superiors ; the Director-General and Council then deemed it advisable 
to delay the settling of the boundaries until further advice from the superiors of eitlier side should 
have been received. As now the Commander Slechtenhorst and the present chief-othcer of the 
Colony have had two years' time, to communicate thereon, however unnecessarily, with their 
principals and receive the wanting authority and the Director-General and Council do not know 
what your Honors may have written on the point in question to their principals or what their 
reply may have been, while the long delay admits of a presupposed disinclination and unwilling- 
ness to accept the offer of making the choice themselves, therefore the Director-General and 
Council find themselves compelled, as stated above, to determine the boundaries, the more so, aa 
they have been expressly directed to do it by the instructions of the noble Lords-Directors of the 
Privileged "West-India Company in two letters received since. 

But desiring to avoid for ourselves and our principals all reproaches and blame, the selection 
is once more left to your Honors, to begin and determine the boundaries of the Colony, belonging 

258 Early Colonial Settlements. 

to your Honors' principals, pursuant to the Exemptions, either four leagues on one side, or two 
on either side along the river, not including the territory of Fort Orange, as your Honors 
may conclude and consider for the best of their principals ; else in case of refusal or disinclination 
to accept this offer, your Honors shall have no cause to plead ignorance or any exceptions, if we, 
pursuant to the authority given us from our superiors, should legally select the starting point and 
determine the boundaries of the Colony, belonging to your Honors' principals, pursuant to the 
Exemptions and dispose of the lands beyond these boundaries, as the public welfare and the serdce 
of the Company might require it. Expecting tirst your Honors' prompt and definitive answer etc. 

P. Stuyvesant. 
Fort New- Amsterdam Nicasius de Sille, La Montagnk, Cok. van Tienhoven. 

April 16, 165 Jr. 

Decision given upon a petition of Adrian Jansen from Leyden, residing at Fort Orange, 
for permission to build a_nd keep an inn. 

Pursuant to a former resolution of the Director-General and Council no new houses were to 
be erected between the Kils, whereby the Fort might bo obstructed, but liaving considered the 
request of the petitioner and the necessity of having accommodations for travellers and strangers, 
the Director-General and Council consent herewith, that the petitioner may erect close to the 
pallisades of Thomas Jansen a house suitable for an ordinary and lodging-house for travellers, 
provided however that the said house shall always be used by the petitiouer or his heirs and assigns 
according to the true intent and meaning of his petition and not be turned into a common beer 
house and drinking place, but only as a regular inn and hostelry for travellers. 

Thus enacted etc.. New Amsterdam April 30, 1654. 

P. Stuyvesant. 


La Montagne. 

Answer to a petition of the authorfties of Fort Orange concerning the limits of the 
Fort, sale of liquor and salaries of the Magistrates. 

Anno 1654, April 30"" at New Amsterdam. 

The following answer was given to a petition from the Commissary and Magistrates of Fort 
Orange and Beverwyck Village, sent to the Director-General and Council under date of March 
l?"" 1654 and now on file in the Secretary's office.* 

The first matter is left by the Director-General and Council to the discretion of the Court, 
but the Commissary and the Magistrates should take proper measures and guard against 
smuggling. The Director-General and Council beheve it would be advisable, to let the Clerk or 
the Court messenger keep an account of and receive excise money for a year or six months so that 
it might be ascertained, how much comes in from the excise, and the letting of it be regulated 

* Not preserved. 

New Yorh Histmncal Records. 259 

somewhat accordingly. The Commissary aud Magistrates are further hereby authorized to make, 
publish and execute such orders aud tines against smugglers and smuggling, as the circumstances 
shall require. 

After due examination of the second point the Director-General and Council order, that until 
further advice and until the boundaries of the Colony are determined no wine, beer or distilled 
waters shall be given out, tapped or sold at retail within one thousand rods around the Fort, 
without due notice having been given and the usual Tappers' Excise paid on it to the Commissary 
and Magistrates of the said Fort, or to those who may have been authorized by them. 

Concerning the third point the Director-General and Council directed theii- Fiscal to 
republish the Ordinances about the bakers and to punish those who disobey the same accordingly. 

To the fourth point : a number of schepels shall be ordered by the first sailing vessel. 

To the last : in consideration of the troubles, the loss of time and the private expenses, which 
the Magistrates have to bear, they being mostly men, who earn their living either by farming or 
by trade or as mechanics, the Director-General and Council consent, that the Magistrates may 
receive and enjoy out of the revenues, levied upon the inhabitants of Fort Orange and Beverwyck 
a salary of 150 fl annually. 

Thus done etc. 

Leti'eb from J. B. VAN Rensselaer and the Magistrates of Rensselaeeswtck to the 
Dikector-Geneeal etc. in answer to their letter of April 16"". 

We answer to the summons of the 16"' of April 1654 read and exliibited to the Court of 
Rensselaerswyck by Mr. Johannes Dyckman, assisted by Rutgert Jacobsen and Jacob Schermer- 
horn, on the SO"" of the same month, as follows : 

"We have written to our Lords-Principals concerning the first summons of the Hon*"'^ Director- 
General and Council dated April 1652, but have received no answer, which we expect shortly. 
About the last letter on the question of determining the boundaries, in which we are taxed with 
disinclination, we have also written to our principals for their instructions. 

As the matter now stands, we refer to and claim the benefit of the 26"" article of the 
Exemptions of New Netherland ; but wishing to avoid any cause for differences during these 
troublesome and dangerous times, and considering that no man can be judge in his own case, we state 
to your Hon''''' Worships, the Director-General and Council of New Netherland, herewith, that 
we are willing to submit the dispute about the boundaries to the decision and findings of our 
principals on either side in the Fatherland, which we believe can be done with propriety. By 
such means we, who are only a small number, shall be enabled to live in peace and harmony with 
the others in this country. 

Enacted at the meeting of the Court for the Colony of lieiisselaerswych, the 2^ of May 1654. 

Jan Baptist van Rensselaer 


Arent van Curler, Johan van Twiller. 
Cornelis van N"es, G. Swart, Court Officer. 
Ill my presence, Anthony de Hoooe, Secretary. 

260 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Council Minute. ApporNTiiENT of Commissioners to lay out land on Long Island. 

Several petitions from inhabitants of M'uhoout, Middelhorgh and Mespacht having been 
submitted to the Director-General and Council, asking for an allotment of their hay-land, the 
Director-General and Council have resolved, to direct Commissioners to go and inspect this land 
and to allot to everybody his share. As such Commissioners are hereby appointed, commissioned 
and authorized Mr. Nicasius de Sille, La Montague and Cornelis van TienJwven, who will allot 
if possible to every 25 morgens of arable land eight morgens of meadow. 

Thus done etc., at New Amsterdam May 13, 1654r. 

Lettee feom the Dieectoes in Holland to Dieectoe Stuyvesant : Refusal of the People 
TO conteebute to the public Expenses ; Embassy to Yieginia ; Rensselaeeswycx • Convention 
or 1653 ; Geavesend ; Peace. 

Honorable, Prudent, Pious, Dear, Faithful. 

Our last general letter to you, dated IS^*" of March last, was sent by the ship " SP' Maria^'' 
sailing for New Netherland from Bochelle : a copy of it is here inclosed. We have since received 
on the 4"' of April your letter of the 3* of January last by the ship " Gelderse Blom,^'' which we 
shall answer as far as necessary, adding thereto the matters, which we consider called for by 
present circumstances. 

It is in itself unreasonable and therefore surprises us greatly, that the community there would 
not consent to assist in bearing the necessary expenses, without considering, that they are not only 
in duty bound to do it, but that also the present situation should compel them to it, even if they 
were not obliged. We can therefore not omit to recommend this matter to you most earnestly, 
that the community, our inhabitants, be held to make the necessary and proper contributions. 
You must use for this purpose the most lenient measures with discretion and dexterity, but so that 
the persons, who cannot be persuaded by mildness, be taken in hand with proper compulsory 
measures. We shall provide you from here with as many soldiers and necessaries, as we can ; you 
will see that in the enclosed lists. 

We are mucli pleased with your decree ordering commissioners to go to the Governor and 
Council of Virginia and hope, that it will have a good result ; the principal reason for our 
hopefulness is, that the dissensions between the present government of England and ours will 
soon come to satisfactory end, of which we expect to give further information before the departure 
of this ship. 

We trust, you have had good i-easons for not publishing, but keeping in abeyance the printed 
copies of the placats concerning lands and lots and shall for the present leave the matter so ; biit 
what we have directed in regard to the determination of the boundaries of the Colony of 
Eensselaerswyck ought not, we think, be delayed any longer, but executed, as our proposition 
was based upon equity and the privileges. Your question, whether the land outside of the Colony 
should be offered to the Patroons or to the Co-Directors, we believe answers itself, for if the persons 
"mentioned desire to cultivate the land under the general privilege admitting everybody, then no 
reason exists to refuse them, but on the other side, if they want to hold the said land as Patroons 

Neio York Historical Records. 261 

and therefore join it to their colony to which it does not belong, tlien tlicir demand cannot be 
granted. We are pleased to see, that the people of Fort Orange and of the said Colony live in 
good friendship and intercourse and if in this or in any other direction the life and behavior of the 
Gouiinissary Dychnan give offence, then you must again and for the last time give hiin a warning 
and recommend that he attend to his duties and the service of the Company, in default whereof 
you are hereby specially and expressly authorized to discharge and immediately summon him 
away from there. 

We enclose a placat for promoting the breeding of cattle, which you shall not only publish 
and affix, but also take care, that it is obeyed and executed. It will be a great help to you, if, as 
we recommend, you take a census of the number of animals in each colony, previous notice 
liaving been given, and keep a register, so that you may learn on occasion, where 'the missing 
animals have gone to. 

We confess that the description of the condition of the country about Fort Orange, which we 
have received, is different from yours; therefore we give up our opinion and agree to your 
proposal to erect a small fort or even only a small redoubt or blockhouse on the long Island* ; 
the reasons given by you are weighty and pressing, so that we think it is not necessary to urge 
you any more, but shall only add, that posts with the arms of their High : Might : and of the 
Company should also be placed at other places, the ownershij) of which it is necessary to maintain. 

The internal duty of four stivers for each beaver imposed by you has caused us here much 
trouble and we have tried to satisfy the interested dealers here in different ways, even by reducing 
the import duties from 16 to 12 per cent., but they insisted upon a full restitution, to which we 
had to consent. This must teach to you to keep within the terms of our engagements and treat 
people according to what is due to them, not according to what you require. On the other side, 
considering tliat you should not be deprived of this revenue, especially as the expenses will be 
somewhat increased now, we have informed the said traders, conform to the agreement made with 
tliem that henceforth they must pay the four stivers for each beaver, and intend to reduce the 
import duties from 16 to 12 per cent, next year, that the commerce may not be burdened too 
much. For the present we have kept the former charges, to obtain from their surplus funds 
enough to repay the unadvisedly exacted four stivers ; only as far as tobacco from the Virginias is 
concerned, we have made a reduction from 45 to 30 stivers a hundi-ed weight, while the 20 st. on 
JVew Netherland tobacco remain as before. 

We do not know, Avhether you have sufficient reasons to be so suspicious of ylf?Wa» Van der 
Donoh, as all the charges against him are based upon nothing but suspicions and presumptions ; 
however we shall not take his part, and only say, that as we have heretofore recommended him to 
you on condition of his good behavior, we intend also, that he be reprimanded and punished, if 
contrary to his promise he should misdemean himself. On the other side we hope, that your 
suspicions of him are to be imputed more to the unfavorable conjimcture of the times, than to his 
presence there. 

We have already written j^ou our opinion on the resolutions adopted by the general meeting 
of delegates and we hold it still. We have been amazed by the proceedings of the delegates from 
some colonies and villages, especially because in the whole remonstrance we cannot find anything, 
that could have given them a reason for complaining of some wrong • but from their conclusion 
and accompanying protestations it may be conjectured, that the whole thing consists only of 

* Long Island near New York or Long Island, also called Mahicandera Island, opposite Bethlehem, Albany Co. ? 
See Vol. SIII,p. 193. 

262 Early Colonial Settlements. 

forged pretexts for an imminent factious sedition ; we tliink, that you should have proceeded 
rigorously against the ringleaders of this work, and not to have meddled with it so far, as to 
answer protests by counter protests and then let it pass without further notice : for as it is highly 
arrogant for inhabitants to protest against their government, so do the authorities prostitute their 
office, when they protest against their subjects without punishing them according to the situation 
and exigencies of the ease. Although the relations between this country and England give rise 
to hope, that also the differences over there shall be settled, we cliarge you nevertheless 
to mete out due punishment for what has passed, so that in future others may not be led tbe 
same way. 

The attorney, Mr. Francois Le Blexiw, has been informed by us, that he need not calculate 
upon sailing this season. He will be able to draw his own conclusions from that and from what 
has happened to him here and report accordingly to his employers, that we are not at all pleased 
with such commissions : we inform hereof the Burgomasters and Scliepens of Ne^i> Amsterdam by 
this opportunity. The parties just mentioned have submitted to us in a special letter several 
requests, upon which we have resolved point for point as follows : 

First, as they complain of too much limited and strict instructions, we decide, that they shall 
write down and deliver to you the points, in which they desire an amplification or moderation. 

Second, that henceforth the office of Schout of New Amsterdam shall be separated from that 
of Fiscal and the duties be perfornied by one jjerson ; we cannot omit here to inform you of our 
intention, which is that provisionally we continue Cornells van Tienhovcn in the office of Fiscal 
and as to the Sellout's office you must engage a fit and honest man, as whom we now propose 
Jochem Pietersen Kuyter. We charge you especially to take care, that in the instructions to be 
drawn up for this Schout the jurisdiction of the Fiscal and of the Schout are separately defined 
to prevent all conflicts from this source. The said Burgomasters and Scliepens have also 
requested that the election or at least the nomination of the Schout may be given to them, but 
we have refused that, because here in this country all Lords of Manors {jxirticuliere Heeren) 
reserve such patronage to themselves. 

Third, we have allowed the Burgomasters and Scliepens to levy again a small excise and 
imposts to meet necessary expenditures, unless you had any objections against it, of which we wish 
to be informed to examine them. But we have not consented to what the Burgomasters and 
Sehepens add, that they should be freed from the maintenance of the Company's officers out of the 
excise already imposed. 

Fourth, we have decided, that a seal for the City of New Amsterdam shall be made and sent 

Fifth, that the said Burgomasters and Scliepens shall have the right of recording conveyances, 
deeds and mortgages of houses and lots within the said city, but not outside of its limits, it being 
understood however, that this does not deprive you of the power heretofore given to dispose of 
lots already granted, but not occupied, and that the Burgomasters and Sehepens are in duty bound 
to give you upon demand an account of all conveyances, deeds and mortgages recorded before 

Sixth, we have not granted their request, made to us, to be furnished a sufficient quantity of 
ammunition of war for the defence of the city, but we have told them, that all such articles shall 
be directed to you to be distributed where necessary. 

Lastly and seventh, we have granted and allowed, that the house, in which the Burgomasters 
and Sehepens meet, .shall be given to the city to be approjiriated to its use and the carrying on of 

New Yorh Historical Hecoi'ds. 263 

its business ; for we cannot see, that it matters whether this house belongs to the Company or to 
the City in commonalty, provided, as we intend it, that no private party shall base any claim 
hereon, nor shall it be alienated or mortgaged. 

Concluding hei'e what we have resolved upon the letter of the Burgomasters and Schepens, 
we shall only add, that we send enclosed a copy of the letter written by the delegates from 
Oravesend and dated December 27"' last and direct you to inform yourself concerning the persons, 
who signed it* and to arm and prepare yourself immediately for the exemplary punishment of 
the mutinous. Wo have this before us as our chiefest aim besides the preservation of the country 
in sending off the present succor. 

Some complaints have been made here to us, that there is no proper regulation, or at least that 
it is not observed, regarding weights and measures. "We have therefore directed, that some 
weights used in this city, also a j-ard and other measures, shall be sent over from here to be kept 
there in the City Hall {Eaet Huys) and we desire you to take care, that the goods and 
merchandise be sold or traded according to the measures and weights and that delinrpients be duly 

For the maintenance of the commerce and correspondence between you and Curasao we have 
resolved to look out for a ship of 70 to 80 lasts and expect to send it by the first opportunity. 

On the request of Gillis Verbrugge and Comp. we have passed the enclosed resolution on 
the IS"" of November 1652 : we cannot learn otherwise, than that, although a second copy of it 
was sent to you, it had no effect. At the urgent request of the interested parties we cannot refuse 
to direct you again to govern yourselves pursuant to its contents, also to order, that Gerret van der 
Voorde and companions receive satisfaction for their claim without neglect for any reason or 
pretense whatever ; for we desire, that in this and similar cases you shall not hunt up excuses, but 
carry out with precision not by words, but by deeds, the orders given by us. 

We could not grant the request made by you in a private letter of the 7"" of October 1653 to 
the effect, that the duties levied here upon a certain quantity of beavers should be repaid to the 
former Swedish Governor Johan Prints ; mostly because the said Prints has not carried out his 
intention to send the beavers to Sweden by way of Arnsterdcmn, but has sold them here, where ho 
also received the money for them and put it out at interest for his own benefit ; so that the 
beavers did not concern the crown of Sweden, but him privately. We have been greatly 
astonished, that you have shown yourselves so liberal, as you cannot be ignorant of the Company's 
condition and how difficult it is to make its revenues here and there meet the expenses ; we cannot 
omit therefore to recommend, that you do not dispose so giddily of the said revenues, but rather 
deny such requests in the most polite manner, so that nobody is hurt in his respect and authority 
and no cause for trouble given. 

By the loss of the ship " Hqft van Kleeff^'' captured by the English, we find ourselves 
deprived of the books of monthly wages and other documents and papers sent over in it from 
New Neiherland as well as from Curasao. As this loss causes us here many and great 
difficulties on account of some people, with whom without the books we cannot settle and who 
cannot be satisfied, therefore we direct you once more most urgently to send us the aforesaid books 
and other documents, now already called for several times, as quickly as possible, that we may 
receive the desired information and get rid of these people without further difficulties. 

We gave an order in our letter of the 21"' of July 1653, that the pay of the soldiers, then 

* See N. Y. Col. Doc. 11-158. 

264 Early Colonial Settlements. 

going over in the " Gelderse Blom " and in our ship " Conninck Solomon " sliould be hooked and 
begin upon their arrival out; but as since we have passed another resolution, to wit, that their pay 
should begin -with the sailing of the ships from here according to tlie old usage, we have thought 
it necessary to inform you thereof, that it may be changed in the books there and the order be put 
in practice by you concerning as well the soldiers coming with this ship, as those, who may be 
sent over hereafter, unless you receive orders to the contrary. 

The long expected peace between the present government of England and the United 
Provinces of Neiherland has at least been solemnly concluded on the 15*'' of April and has also 
been ratiiied by both sides and published ; as you may see by the enclosed original printed articles 
hostilities shall cease on the 14"" of this month new style, so that the damages done by one side to 
the otlier after that date shall be repaid and indemnified without process of law, which you will 
see by the proclamation of the peace following the said articles. You are therefore especially 
ordered and commanded to govern yourself strictly in accordance with the tenor thereof, that no 
cause for new complaints may be given. 
Herewith etc etc. 

Your good friends 
Amsterdam, The Directors of the West India Company, 

the 18"" of May 1654:. Department of Ainsterdam. 

Abe. Wilmeedonxs. 

Isaac van Beeck. 
To the Director-General and Council in N. N. 

If it should happen, that some Portuguese ships are brought up there by pirate ships or by 
privateers, sailing under charter and commission of the Company, then you are to receive from the 
returns and net proceeds 10 p. c. as recognition and further act in pursuance of the enclosed 
extract from the resolutions, adopted by the delegates of the respective departments at the Hague 
the 15"" of September 1653, until we shall have informed you of our further orders and resolutions, 
which cannot be done now on account of lack of time ; you may expect them however with the 
ships the '' Peerehooin " and " Gelderse BlomP 

By order of the Directors. 

A. B. DE Decker, junior. 


As the growth and prosperity of yonder state depends principally upon the population and 
the cultivation of the soil, we are constantly busy to invent measures, which might serve for their 
promotion. We intend for this purpose, (which has also the favorable endorsement of the 
Burgomasters of this city,) to send you in the aforesaid two ships now i-eady for sea a party of 
boys and girls from the Orphan Asylum here, making first a trial with 50 persons. You may 
expect with them also a quantity of pi'ovisions, that they shall not immediately burden the 
storehouse. While you see our zeal in increasing the population, you must constantly think of 
promoting the cultivation of the soil, that on all occasions you need not rely on others, but may 
have recourse to your own resources. How much depends on this and how much you can rely in 
such cases on your English neighbors, you have sufficiently learned this last time. As we further 

Neto Yorh Historical Recm-ds. 265 

understand, that our inhabitants, engaged there in fanning, apply themselves mostly to the 
planting of tobacco, thereby neglecting the cultivation of grain, we have considered it highly 
necessary, not only to remind you, but also to recommend to you to keep such farmers to their 
duty and obligations and make arrangements with them, that a certain part of their land, either 
already under cultivation or to be cultivated hereafter, is sown in grain. When this is done, our 
province there will by and by become stronger and its population will increase* 

Herewith go for the present five casks of meat for the soldiers now coming, also some clothing 
for them according to invoice, which you will distribute with such advance on their pay as has 
been heretofore given them. 

Dated as above. By order of the Directors. 

A. ^. DE Decker, junior. 

Abstract of a Letter feom the Burgomasters and Schepens of New Amsterdam (to the 
Directors of the W. I. Comp.) without date. 

They write, that their instructions are too limited and strict, that they are not able to govern 
the municipality with ease according to the instructions and request that they may receive others 
from here not so restricted, but agreeing as nearly as possible with the form of government in 
this City of Amsterdam, whereupon they are awaiting an answer. 

They request also, that they may be allowed to elect their Schout or at least to nominate a 
double number ; that the Fiscal ThienJioven is now officiating as Schout, but as little to the 
satisfaction of the citizens who have submitted a petition on this matter, as with respect for them. 

That a distinction be made in the jurisdiction of the Fiscal on behalf of the Company and of 
the Schout as well in civil as in criminal causes. 

That the Director has allowed them an excise on beer and wines, but only on condition of 
maintaining therewith the political and ecclesiastical ofiicers, which is impossible, as it will pay 
only one third of their expenses, while they have also to contribute their share to the maintenance 
of the fortifications. They request therefore, that this excise may be given to them without 
limitation and that they be authorized to levy a new impost (to which the community is said to 
agree, as shown by enclosure No. 5) such as on stamped paper &c, also to lease the ferry from 
there to BrooUyn for the purpose of fii-st obtaining funds to repay the loan of about 9000 il. 
expended in making the outworks and fortifications. 

* Extract from a Letter op the Directors to STtrrvESANT : the bots and girls sent from the Orphan 
Asylum, July 7, 1654. 

The enclosed list will show you, what provisions are sent over for the boys and girls sent from the Orphan 
Asylum here, with whom you now may make an experiment. We recommend to you most seriously to take good 
care of them and place them with good masters or give them such employment elsewhere, as will tend to their and 
the country's best advantage. We leave it to your experience and deliberation. 

266 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Also that they be anthorized to pass conveyances and deeds of houses and lots sold within 
the City and its liberties, also mortgages, and that to this end a seal for the City may be sent 
to them, distinct from the seal of the Province. 

That in these dangerous times a good quantity of ammunition of war may be sent to them, 
among which some muskets of 3^ feet in length to be distributed in time of need among the 

They say in conclusion, as they have no property belonging to the municipality, but meet in 
a house owned by the Company, they request that it may be given them as a present or subject 
to a fair valuation. 

Letter from the Dekectoes at Amsterdam to the municipal officers of New Amsterdam 

1654, IS'" of May. 

Honorable, Worshipful, Pious, Dear and Faithful. 

You may ascertain our resolutions upon the points, submitted by you lately, from 
the enclosed extract, which we have decided to send you as answer with the command, that 
you are to act pursuant to its tenor as far as it concerns you ; we cannot let this occasion pass 
without informing you, that it has appeared strange to us, that you or some of you have allowed 
yom-selves to be instigated by some evil minded persons so as not only to help arranging without 
order a meeting, but also to present remonstrances, which we think were at this time very much 
out of place, although it is represented diiierently. We write more in detail on this subject to the 
Director-General and Council, who will communicate with you in due time ; meanwhile we 
recommend and charge you to behave quietly and peacefully, to obey the authorities placed over 
you and by no means join with the English or other private parties in holding conventicles, either 
for the sake of deliberating affairs of state, which is not your business, or, which is still worse, to 
make changes in the province and its government. We have wished to warn you and give you 
advice, before we make other dispositions. Eelying hereon, that you will act according to your 
duty and conscience we close commending you to the protection of God. 

Your good friends 
Amsterdam The Directors of the W. I. Comp. 

the 18"" of May 1654. Dep' of Amsterdam 

Abr. Wilmerdonxs. 

Edwabd Man. 
To the Burgomasters and Schepens of New Amsterdam. 

New York Historical Records. 267 

Peoposals submitted to the Council by the Dieeotor-Genkeal on having eeceived 
information of the arrival at boston of several english menof-wae, designed against 
New-Netherland, May 30, 1654. 


For a day or two rumors have been current, which were confirmed last evening in detail by 
Mr. Isaac Allertoii, that 10 or 12 days ago six ships arrived at Boston from Old England, namely 
two merchantmen and four men-of-war of the Parliament or the present Government of England, 
liaving on board Colonel Sussex, Captain Leverett and Captain Hull and a number of soldiers on 
each vessel, also ammunition and engineers' implements. Mr. Allerton declared not to know, 
whether tliey were intended to be used against ns or against the French, for the instructions had 
not yet been opened and were not to be opened, until ten days after their arrival at Boston. 
According to our calculations this must have been done yesterday or the day before, but we cannot 
and shall not know their tenor and correct meaning, until the blow is struck and then it will be too 
late. The continuation of Captain Leverett, the losses suffered at the hands of and the deeds 
committed by Captain Hull last year and the repeatedly received information, that they had both 
gone to Old England last fall with the view of soliciting and obtaining ample authority to proceed 
against this Province and its inhabitants prognosticate no good, but warn us to be on our guard and 
while trusting in God to consider all possible means of defense. 

How to do it to the best advantage of our and the Nation's honor and the most effective 
protection of this place and its inhabitants, is the occasion of calling this meeting, which will have 
to consider this among other matters. Upon this point we shall first give your Honors our 
impressions, when we should like to hear your opinions, in order to come finally to unanimous and 
responsible conclusions. 

First, we and your Honors have to take for granted the weakness and inability of the train 
bands, to man and defend the works liere, although they are in good shape, without the aid or 
assistance of the country people ; much less can assistance be given in that case to the country 
places, be they forts, villages or liomesteads nor can we together resist an enemy. 

Second, the experience, which we had last year, when we requested the country people of our 
own nationality and they were reluctant to bring their grain to this City for the greater safety of 
the place and the Fort ; also, when the expedition of the trainbands against the privateers was made 
and they were requested to take their places in helping to guard this City and to man the works, 
to which they were opposed : all this predisposes us to fear, that in case of the coming of a 
considerable hostile force none or only few of the country people, even our own Nation, will 
contribute to the protection of this City and come to our help, but that in hope of retaining 
possession of their property, they will not stir a foot. 

The English, living among and under us, would we believe, enter into a plot with our enemies, 
they being of the same nationality, to our great disadvantage : especially the people of Gravesend, 
of which we have seen and heard unfortunately already some proofs. 

Therefore nothing remains, but to consider how we may, for our own and the Nation's honor, 
protect ourselves for some time against a surprise and massacre : to do this the following is 
required without doubt : 

1. Kepairing the fortifications. 

2. The enlistment of soldiers under pay, that in an emergency they may be held in better 
discipline and assist the trainbands. 

3. Money and means to cany out the preceding. 

268 Early Colonial Settlements. 

4. Arms for the enlisted soldiers. Where they are to be obtained and how we must go to 
work, your Honors will please to advise me. 

1. It must further be well considered, whether for the purpose of garrisoning and better 
defending one place, which if lost tlie country and all is lost, and if held with sufficient succor the 
land also is held, it is not better to give up other places, especially Fort Casimir and to draw the 
free people and the small garrisons on the Soutli river to this place. 

2. As to the ship " Coninclc Solomon" now almost laden and ready to sail, shall we let her 
depart or retain lier here ? The one as well the other measure requires to be considered and has 
its dangers. 

Concerning Fort Casimir our opinion should coincide with the general feeling, that it is best for 
the greater protection of this place to call hither the few soldiers from there and to recommend the 
guarding of the Fort to the free men. But here we meet with the objection, whether the free 
men, being few in numbers, will or can do it and may not be in danger of or at least fear being 
massacred by the savages, which they already apprehend, having therefore, together -with the 
Company's servants, asked us for more soldiers and assistance, else they would be obliged to leave 
the river. To call away all the people from there, is tantamount to an absolute desertion and 
surrender of the fine river to others. And if by the conclusion of a treaty of peace or by other 
means (God will know the best, his hand is always open for our assistance) the enemy does not 
attack us, how shall we answer for this desertion. 

There are several opinions pro and contra the retaining of the ship " Coninck Salomon." To 
let her sail would be of the greatest profit both for the Company and for the merchants, but then 
the Government will have to bear the brunt of the displeasures and clamors of the whole 
community ; experienced gunners, marksmen and sailors, to be employed about the ordnance on 
the walls will be wanted and we will have to do vrithout 1600 to 1700 lbs of gxin powder less, of 
which we have not much now, while besides many people will want to leave by tliis ship. Thus 
read and delivered on the date as above. 

Hesohjtion of thk Council to postpone the consideration of these pkoposai-s. 
New Amsterdam, May 30'" IGS-i. 

At the direction of the Hon'''' Director-General appeared before the meeting of Director- 
General and Coimcil with the Deputies from the Magistracy of this City of Neio Amstei'dam, the 
Schout and Magistrates of the respective villages of Breuchelen, Midwout and Gravesend, to 
whom, pursuant to resolution, the present rumors were communicated. They were then kindly 
requested to assist first in repairing and afterwards, if needed, in defending the works of this City 
and the Fort and to give a definite sincere and plain answer and opinion : the Magistrates 
demanded time till next Monday to take the written proposition into consideration. 

Dated as above. 

Oedee concerning the salary of the ministees of the gospel. 

The Fiscal is directed and ordered, to remind and inform the Burgomasters and Sehepens, 
that the preachers have petitioned us for their past due salaries and whereas, since the Burgomasters 

New Yorh Historical Records. 2G9 

and Soliepens are collecting the Excise, the salary for half a year has become due, that therefore the 
Burgomasters and Schepens will please to provide for the payment of these salaries, according to 
promise, out of these revenues. 

Thus done etc., New Amsterdam, June 1, 1654. 

Part of a lease of the Feery from a Committee of the Council to Egbert van Borsum, 


[Fragment] .... to treat equitably, and in order that the Ferryman may the better 
pursue his business, it is granted him on the part of the Hon''''^ Company, that for a time he shall 
have the use of the Ferry house standing on Long Island, providing he keep it in necessary repair 
at his own expense; the Committee on the part of the Hon''"' Director General and Council 
promising to give the Ferryman all proper support in regard to his business.* 

In testimony this is signed by both sides, without fraud or deceit, this 1^' of June A° 1654 in 
New Amsterdam in New Netherland. 


This is the A\j mark of Egbert van Borsum made by himself. 

In my presence. 

C. V. EuTVEN, Secret'y. 

Resolutions adopted concerning the proposals made by the Director-General on the 

30'" May. 

New Amsterdam, June 2'', 1654. 

The verbal and written propositions made by the Hon'''^ Director-General having been heard 
and well considered and a debate having been had upon what further concerns these matters, we, 
the undersigned Director-General and Council of New Netherland have unanimously come to the 
conclusion, thatthe community of this City is too weak to repair and strengthen alone and at 
their expense the works, made by them last year for the defense of this City and its inhabitants ; 
that they much less are able to man the repaired works in case of an attack and when an emergency 
requires it defend them against a considerable hostile force ; and although former experiences lead 
us to fear, that the country people, notwithstanding their belonging to our nation, will do little 
for the repairs of the fortifications, hoping to remain in possession of their property, if they do not 
take up arms against our neighbors of New England and that they will still less come to this City 
to assist in its defense in time of need, yet, for various reasons, which in time may be given in 
detail, we consider it at present quite unadvisable to compel the country-people thereto by 
peremptory orders. 

But in order to avoid all reproaches of negligence and carelessness and to deprive them of all 
excuses in ease of refusal, we have unanimousl}' resolved to summon the Magistrates of the villages of 

• See Ordinance regulating tbe Ferry at the Manhattans, passed July 1, 1654, lu Laws of N. N., p. 163. 

270 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Breuckden, Midwout and Amesfoort and to inform them in the very plainest words of the received 
news and rumors, also to prove to them the necessity of repairing tlie fortifications of this City 
and further to persuade them in a polite manner to come to their defense in time of need and 
assist the citizens. We resolved further, that in case of refusal, which is presupposed and feared, 
their arms should be taken up in some suitable way, especially those, which had been given or 
loaned out of the Hon"'' Company's arsenal. 

As to the English villages, it has been sufficiently proved by their utterances and actions, that 
although under oath of allegiance to us, they would fight rather against, than for us and therefore 
the Director-General and Council have unanimously concluded to pass them in silence and not to 
call \ipon them either for the repairs or for the defense, that we may not ourselves drag the Trojan 
horse within our walls. With the assistance of God, who will bless our small force and means, 
we will do our best and be constantly and carefully on our guard leaving the final result to God, 
whose arm is never fatigued by more or less help. In the meantime all possible means must be 
used, which he has been pleased to give and shall give us hereafter, first in rejjairiiig the Fort 
and providing it with gabions and pallisades, to finish the part begun at the Gracht (moat), then 
in endeavoring to enlist, as quickly as possible, against monthly pay some soldiers, at least 60 or 70 
men, if we can obtain them without noise or beat of drum. And whereas money is required for 
repairing, keeping and finishing the fortifications, also for paying and subsisting the soldiers, now 
in the service and to be enlisted, who must be paid weekly, because on account of the scarcity of 
provisions and the small quantities thereof in store, the soldiers and workmen shall henceforth be 
obliged to board themselves or buy their provisions, that something may be kept in store for a 
possible siege and whereas the greatest difficulty at present is to replenish the low funds of the 
treasury it is necessary to provide promptly for some money. 

Therefore we are compelled first to lay hand on and use the beavers or money received for freight 
by the skipper Cornells Coenraetsen from the passengers and for the cargo brought over and further 
to try to negotiate among the best intentioned merchants and traders a loan for account of the 
Hon*'^ Company, for the greater security of which loan the Director-General hypothecates his 
credit and property, belonging to him here and in the Fatherland, provided, that if the country can 
be protected or remain in peace and undisturbed, which we hope and pray, the Good and Almighty 
God may grant, means shall be considered and measures taken, by which the loan to the Hon'"^ 
Company, negotiated on the credit and property of the Director-General, is to be taken up and 
paid. Under these circumstances we, the undersigned Director-General and Council, have not 
been able to find a better expedient or measure aside from the diities on merch(S.ndise, than to 
impose an honest and fair tax upon the real property, as land, houses or lots and milch cows or 
draught oxen as follows : 

On each morgen of land, held in possession for one year and more 10 stuyvers annually. 

On each house or lot within this City, or in Fort Orange or in Beverwyclc Village according 
to its size and situation one to one and one half beavers, gardens and orchards, belonging to 
persons, who have to pay 10 st. per morgen, excepted. 

On each head of cattle over three years old, one guilder annually, one half to be paid about 
the time of the Amsterdam fair next coming, the other half in the ensuing month of May. 

Out of these moneys the loan shall be repaid. 

As to the following propositions, whether to abandon Fort Casimir or not and whether the 
ship " Coninch Salomon^' shall be allowed to sail or be retained here for some time, it is resolved 
in consideration of the reasons given in detail in the aforesaid propositions, that Fort Casimir 

New York Historical Recwds. 271 

shall not be abandoned* nor shall the garrison be called np from there at present. It has further 
been found necessary to retain the ship " Coninck Salomon " for the greater safety and satisfaction 
of the good inhabitants of this City, until we have further and more accurate information from 
the North, concerning the aforementioned rumors or until a ship with news comes from the 

Thus done etc., Ifew Ainstmdam June 2*, 1654. 

P. Sttjyvesant. 
NicAsnjs DE SiLLE, C. VAN Weeckhoven, La Montagne. 

Council Minute modifying part of the Resolutions of June 2'', 1654. 

Eesolved that, what has been said in this resolution (of June 2, 1654) concerning the tax to 
be levied on cattle and the 10 stuyvers per morgen, which by a later resolution of August 24"" 
have been increased to 20 st. per morgen, shall be considered provisionally, subject to the approval 
of the Lords-Patroons, as redeeming the tithes, for reasons given in detail in the resolution. By 
tlie same resolution the one hundredth penny was to be levied on the houses and lots of this City 
and other villages, where no land tax is paid, which by virtue of the last resolution on this matter 
is hereby repealed and declared void. 

Thus done etc New- Amsterdam, September 2'^, 1655. 

P. Stuyvesant. 


La Montagne, Coen. van Tienhoven. 

Lettee feom the Dieectok-Geneeal to the Buegomastees etc. of New-Amsterdam urging 


To the Worshipful Burgomasters and 
Sc;hepens of New Amsterdam. 

As soon as I had received and heard the news and rumors brought from the North in regard 
to the arrival of Captain Leverett with four Parliament's ships and soldiers and although his 
intentions and the accuracy of the news were unknown to us, I came in person to your Worships' 
meeting the next day, informed you of the news, reminded you of our precarious situation and 
recommanded to consider means of defense and resistance in case it should happen, that he might 
be visited by our neighbors, as the rumors say. As yet we have not been able to learn, that 
anything has been done by your Worships for the defense of this City or the repairing of the 
fortifications, but your Worships seem to have but away all anxiety upon an idle rumor of peace. 

Today we take God and our consciences, your Worships and other reputable citizens as 
witnesses, that we have now and before this repeatedly reminded your Worships of the precarious 
situation and requested to think of assistance and means. Tour Worships' word and promise- 
were good enough and influenced by them we let your Worships have provisionally the Tavern 

* The Swedes had in the meantime solved this question, by taking Fort Casimir by surprise on the 30th May. 
See Vol. XII, p. 76.- B. F. 

272 Early Colonial Settlements. 

keepers' Excise on the distinct promise, tliat your Worships would then provide means and take 
care, that the ministers of the gospel should be paid their salaries. Besides this, we gave your 
Worships our ammunition, material and engineers' tools, you promising to pay for them or return 
them, which we now need ourselves, so that we cannot go on with the repairs of the fortifications, 
as the circumstances require. It must further bo feared, that in case of an attack, the outer works 
not having been properly repaired, our own ordnance, taken to the outer works last year against 
our wishes and advice and thereby increasing our difficulties instead of adding to our safety, may 
be turned against us. 

We repeat therefore our request, that, if the outer works cannot be repaired and made 
defensible, as your Worships state, the ordnance be brought back from there and taken to a place, 
where if it can be of no use, it can neither do damage to the Fort, which with God's help we 
intend to defend and protect for the honor of our Nation so long, as God shall give us his blessing 
for the undertaking. 

I further demand that pursuant to your duty and promise the small arms and engineers' tools, 
which we loaned, be returned or paid for, that we may enlist and arm some more soldiers for the 
better defense of this Government, with which we are entrusted, and the Fort. I also demand, 
that the preachers be paid their past due salaries from the time, when your Worships have 
collected the Tavernkeepers' Excise granted provisionally to your Worships under that condition. 

We rely hereupon and in case of non-compliance with our requests we shall hold ourselves 
blameless before God and the world for all possible disasters, which may befal us and our good 
subjects, remaining 

New Amsterdam, Tour Worships' well-meaning friend 

June 8"" 1654. P. Stutvesant. 

Council Menhte. Plans of the English ; renewed peepaeations foe defense. 

We have again heard yesterday some probable sounding rumors and news, told by an 
Englishman to several of our subjects, among others to Govert Loockermans, Pieter Wolfertsen, 
Jacob van Couwenhooven and Jacques Corteljou, tutor to Mr. van Werckhooven'' s son, who 
reported the same to us, to wit, that the English at the North recruit soldiers, giving 25 to 30 
guilders per month and that three large ships were to come into the Bay or to the Cape to cut off 
our retreat ; also that soldiers in boats should land near Hellegat, preceded by a ketch to demand 
the surrender of the Fort and offer us many good conditions ; that the country people on Long 
Island should remain in possession of their property without molestation ; in view of which the 
Englishman had advised Pieter Wolfei^tsen to take whatever property he wished to preserve and 
keep over to Long Island, where he thought, it would be safest, — all this has been told by the 
Englishman with woeful face and tears in his eyes, so all the men report, while he requested that 
his name might not be mentioned promising to inform the Hon''"'^ Director-General and Council 
by day or night whenever he had obtained further news. 

Although some of these news are unimportant and unfounded, we the Director-General and 
Council nevertheless believe, that we ought not be caught napping or neglecting anything. We 
consider it our duty to make immediately all preparations for the defense and protection of this 
City and especially of the Fort, which it is in our power to make, in the following manner : 

New YorJc Historical Records. 273 

First, it is considered absolutely necessary, that besides the repairing and strengthening of the 
Fort the old moat be deepened and gabions set up there, after which the City Tavern must be 
fortified with breastworks and ramparts, on which 2 or 3 light pieces of artillery can be planted. 
As to the outer works, made last year, which not only we, but also everybody else thought, it was 
impossible to man and defend with so few soldiers, unless all the country people came in, which 
we are assured they will not do, we have decided, that the cannons taken there last year must be 
brought away, that they may not be turned and used upon us, the more so as the works, especially 
the angles are completely destroyed and no repairs are made because, as the Burgomasters and 
pretend, it is impossible for the small number of citizens to do anything without the 
of the country-people and even if repaired it would be impossible to defend them, unless 
as was said above the farmers come in. Hence it is necessary to fortify a smaller portion and to 
hear hereupon the opinion of the Burgomasters and Schepens, asking them to give a prompt and 
definite answer, whether they will assist with the community and help defending this place for 
the honor of our Nation, as long as God shall please to give us his blessing. 

Thus done etc., New Amsterdam, June IS"", 1664. 

P. Stuyvesaih'. 


La Montagne, Cor. van Tienhoven. 

Propositions made by the Hon'''° Direotok-General and High Council to their Worships 
the Buegomasters and Schepens of this City of New-Amstekdam, which were delivered 

TO THEM m writing. 


The Burgomasters and Scbe- The first question is, whether the Burgomasters and Schepens are 
pens answer to the 1st point = resolved and willing, even though the country people should not come, 
'^''Tn^'^'to'^'thefr ^ mtllfs Tn *° '^*^^P "^ Strengthening, maintaining and defending to the last for the 
strengUien'ing aTd defending ^lonor of our Nation and Sovereigns these places specially, to wit first 
this City of N. A. the whole City, that becoming too much the smaller fortified part of it 

and finally the Fort. We, the Director-General and Council, by our signatures hereto affixed 
promise and solemnly swear before God to do it. So help us God Almighty. 

They agree on the 2d point. "Whereas the Director-General and Council find the proposition 
It^^fanVol" wUhi::re7:Z repeatedly made by the Burgomasters and Schepens, that the country 
diction of this Court is found people should also take a hand m repairmg, putting up and defending 
tobeunwilliug, they will assist the fortifications, to be just and equitable, therefore the Director- 
to the best of their power in General and Council are inclined to order it by a public mandamus, as 
compelling him which it is the t^e farmers may iudge for themselves, that it is only just and fair to 
duty of other Courts under , „ ^ ■, . . , . ^. . j ■ j 

your Honors' authority to do ^^^Ip in fortifying and repairing this City m return for the services and 
also. expeditions rendered and made 3 or 4 times last year by the community 

in behalf of the country people ; the more so, as such assistance is as much for their own safety 
and freedom, as for the safety and freedom of the community. If however it should happen, that 
the country people remain obstinate and refuse, which the Director-General and Council hope will 
not be the case with all, will the Burgomasters and Schepens help to punish all who disobey, 
according to law? 

274 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Thirdly. They will use all Finally, will they, with the Director-General and Council, begin to 
poaaiblediligenceandmeaDsto ^^ ^^^^ punctually next Monday and persuade and induce the 

goto worli, after having passed .^ ^.. _,.'' . ^, " ^ j ,, 

good aud proper resolutions as Community of this City, as far as they can, to do the same, 
to the mode of repairing the Thus done etc., at New Amsterdam, June IS"", 1654. 


Thus done at the ipeeting, 

held in the City- Hall of New 

Amsterdam, June 13, 1654. 

Arent van Hattem. 

By order of Burgomasters 

and Schepens. 

Jacob Kip, Secretary . 

Pledge submitted bt the Dikector-General to the Buegomasteks etc., engaging themselves 
TO contribute to the public defense, which they decline to sign. 

"We, the Burgomasters and Schepens are fully aware of and understand the necessity of thinking 
of and providing for some general measures, by which the expenses, already incurred or hereafter 
to be incurred for the defense and maintenance of this and other cities, places, forts and of the 
Province, might be defrayed and paid. 

Therefore we declare, that whenever the Director-General and Council shall deem the time to 
have come, we will contribute our share, like other good and faithful subjects, to the best of our 
means and circumstances with the other inhabitants of this Province. 

Done at New Amsterdam, June 13, 1654. 

The foregoing pledge was given at the meeting of the Director-General and Council by the 
Burgomasters and most of the Schepens, but they refused to sign it, because, as they said, their 
Boai-d was not complete. 

Order on a petition of Surgeon Varrevanger for medicines. 

Jacob Hendrickserb Varrevanger showed by his petition, that the term of his engagement had 
expired some time ago and that for some years past he had imported at his own expense from 
Holland all his medicines. He requests therefore, that some compensation may be given to him 
for the use of his medicaments. After due consideration the Director-General and Council direct, 
that the Commissary shall credit to the said Mr. Jacob 12 11 per month, from the 1" of July 1652, 
in his account for use of his medicines and to increase his salary. 

Thus done etc., New Amsterdam, June 13, 1654. 

Resolution to repair the Fortifications and provide for the expenses by duties on 
exported goods. 

In consideration of the rumors and the dangers, by which this Province and specially its capital 
New Amsterdam, is threatened, the Director-General and Council have deemed it highly necessai-y, 

New YorTc Historical Recwds. 275 

to deliberate upon all possible means of resistance, for tlie protection of this City and the Fort, and 
to fortify for this purpose, besides the works erected last year, othei' places in the City, erecting 
some inner works, to retreat behind, if necessity should demand, that we should give up the larger 
outer works either because we and our subjects are too weak to man them or if the enemy should 
press too hard and overpower us. 

As the Director-General and Council know by experience, that the good inhabitants of this 
City cannot bear the heavy burdens and do the work, unless receiving fair compensation for tlie 
same, navigation and all other means of earning their living being shut off, and that the country 
people, who number the most, can hardly be called from their plantations without considerable 
loss of time and disadvantage, therefore the Director-General and Council with the Burgomasters 
and Schepens have judged it most suitable, to do the work by day laborers. This requires 
however some ready money and therefore the Director-General and Council are compelled to 
impose for the better defense of this place for this year a toll of one tenth on all the goods and 
merchandises, which shall be sent to the Fatherland during this summer or to retain its value. 
The Director-General and Council promise in regard to the return of or payment for this tenth 
and for the insurance of the creditors, that if the tenth has not been returned or paid within a 
year, its value shall be set off against the regular duties here and in the Fatherland, for which the 
Director-General and Council engage themselves as securities besides pledging the property of the 
Hon*"'^ Company. 

Thus done etc at Ifew Amsterdam, June 13, 1654. 

P. Stutvesant. 


La Montagne, Cok. van Tienhoven. 

Oedek dikecting all Sheeiffs etc to engage laboeees foe the woek on the foktifications. 

The Director-General and High Council have taken into serious consideration the daily 
rumors of danger, by which this Province and especially this our capital and residence, the City of 
New Amsterdam and its Fort, is, if not threatened, at least warned. They deem it therefore 
their duty, to advise upon all possible measures and carry them immediately into effect, by whicli 
this City and Fort might be defended and kept against an attack of the enemy for the honor of 
our Nation and Sovereigns. 

Under these circumstances the Director-General and Council have found it absolutely 
necessary, not only to repair the works erected last year, but also after repairing and strengthening 
the Fort to build some new inner lines of fortifications, so that one may be protected by the 
other and if necessary we can retreat from one to tlie other. This should be done the sooner the 
better and to do it diggers and laborers are required. 

"We therefore call upon and command hereby all Schouts, Burgomasters, Schepens 
Commissaries and Magistrates of the inferior Courts in this Province, upon sight and publication 
hereof to use aU diligence and to hire or command out of every village, colony or hamlet 
some good diggers and laborers to come each provided with a spade and an axe promptly on 
Tuesday next to this City of New-Amsterdam, where they are to help making and repairing such 
works, as the Director-General and Council or their deputies shall direct, under the condition that 

276 Early Colonial Settlements. 

the laborers shall receive two guilders a day in grain, beavers or wampum to be paid weekly. 
Any one, who has been called upon or commanded by his respective Magistrate and does not 
report promptly or refuses to come shall be fined for each day of his absence (sickness and 
feebleness excepted) One pound Flemish. 

Thus done and enacted by the Director-General and High Council at Our Kesidence, New- 
Amsterdam in New Netherland June 14, 1654. 

P. Sttjtvesant. 


La Montagne, Cok. van Thienhoven. 

Letter from merchants of New-Amsterdam to the Dieector etc approving of the toll 
above mentioned and offering the revenues of New-Amsterdam as a pledge foe the 

To the Noble Very Worshipful Director-General 
and High Council of New Netherland. 

Noble, Very Worshipful Gentlemen. 

The distressing rumors of danger threatening this Province and especially this capital of 
New-Amsterdam have troubled us now for some time and after your Hon"'' Worships had 
demonstrated to us verbally and in writing their good and earnest intentions of making all 
possible resistance and defense at your Hon'''' Worships' meeting, on the IS"" inst. where the 
Burgomasters and Schepens of this City were present, we have examined the matter to the best 
of our ability and assure yom- Hon'''* Woi'ships now, remembering the good example given us by 
our forefathers in what they did in time of need for the defense and protection of their 
Fatherland and themselves, that we are quite willing to do the same, and venture our lives and 

We have learned by the aforesaid written resolutions of your Hon''"' Worships, that the 
Du-ector-General and High Comicil have found themselves compelled to appropriate and levy for 
the better defense of this place during one year only the tenth of all goods and merchandises, to 
be exported to the Fatherland during this summer, or its value. 

1. Considering the premises and acknowledging that there is pericvlum in mora, we agi-ee, 
as far as we are concerned, with your Hon''''' Worships' aforesaid resolution, under this restriction 
and reservation however, that the moneys and goods, which we have advanced for the repairs of 
the fortifications and the tenth levied as above on goods and merchandises to be shipped this 
summer, shaU be promptly repaid and returned within a year pursuant to your Hon'''* Worships' 

2. We are further quite satisfied with your Hon''''' Worships' promise of paying or refunding 
either by a setting off against the duties or otherwise, as we do not fear, that your Hon'''* 
Worships, seeing our willingness, \vill disappoint us. 

3. We cannot accept your Hon''''' Worships' further offer of security, by reimbursement 
through the duties paid in Holland, but we expect in place of it from your Hon'''* Worships and 
the said Burgomasters and Schepens a special bond and mortgage on the revenues and income of 
this City, as already fixed or hereafter to be fixed. 

New York Historical Records. 277 

4. In order, that the moneys, obtained by the before stated measures, may be properly used, 
we beg leave herewith to remind your Hon*'"' Worships and request for the sake of preventing all 
possible obloquy, that the aforesaid Hon"' Bui-gomasters and Schepens may be allowed to 
nominate six able members of this community, from whom three are to be elected by your Hon"' "^ 
Worships to control the expenditure and distribution of the said moneys subject to the orders of 
your Hon''''= Worships and their Honors the Burgomasters and Scliepens. 

If it should happen, that peace has been made between Holland and England, which with 
God's help we hope to learn by the next ships, we request that the above stated tenth may not be 

New Amsterdam in Your Hon"° Worships' 

Nev) Netherlands June IS"" 1654. faithful subjects. 

Oloff Stevenson, Goveet Lockeemans, 


jAjf WriTHAET, Johannes tan Beugii, 




Council Minute. Appointment of Caesten Jeevensen as Commandee of the yacht " Haen : " 
News of Peace with England eeceived 

Anno 1654, June 15'", at New-Amsterdam. 

Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of their Noble High: Might: the Lords-States-General of the 
United Netherlands and of the Noble Lords-Directors of the Priv. West India Company, Director- 
General of Neio-Netherland, Curasao, Bonayro, Ariiha and dependencies to all who read this or 
hear it read Greeting. 

Know ye, that for the purpose of promoting the intercourse and commerce between these 
districts entnisted to our government and other neighboring countries we have decided to equip 
and to send from here directly to Curasao Island, the yacht called " de IlaenP Kequiring 
hereto above all a capable and experienced man, to command and sail the said yacht as skipper 
and principal and having received a good report of the knowledge of Carsten Jervensen of 
Amsterdam, who formerly has served us as mate on the ship " Prins WilUm " greatly to our 
satisfaction, we have for the present appointed and commissioned, as we herewith appoint and 
commission him as skipper and principal of the yacht " de Haen " with the instruction and order 
to ship such a crew and take on board such ammunition of war as necessary, giving ns a detailed 
list thereof; so manned and provided he will sail from here directly for the Island of Curafao 
and thence return here, without touching, unless compelled by necessity, at any other islands or 
places and committing any acts of hostility on his way out and back against other ships or vessels, 
those of the English nation not excepted, for we have been informed by good authority that the 
differences arisen in Europe between the two nations have been arranged and compromised ; if 
attacked however, he will defend himself as well as he can. 

Therefore we command to all our subjects and request all neighbors, Governor-Generals and 

278 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Captains to recognize and receive the said Carsten Jervensen according to this his commission 
and not to hinder or delay him, his ship's crew and freight on his voyage to and from Curasao, 
but rather to give him assistance and favor him, if necessary and if he requests it, which assistance 
and favor we shall willingly acknowledge and reciprocate, when an opportunity offers. 

Given under our hand and seal this 16"" of June 1654 at New Amsterdam, in New Netherland. 

Appointment of Persons to supeeintend the "Wobkmen on the Fortifications. 
Anno 1654 June 16"" at New Amsterdam. 

Whereas in consideration of the current rumors the Director-General and Council have 
resolved, to secure this place promptly and speedily by erecting some necessary new lines of 
breastworks, as well as by repairing the old ones of the Fort and in the City and whereas for this 
purpose some workmen have been summoned and engaged, who must necessarily be strictly 
superintended, that by laziness we may not be defrauded of a day's wages, therefore the Director- 
General and Council authorize, appoint and commission hereby as overseers and work-masters of the 
fortifications in the Fort the Hon''' ^ Mr. Nicasms de Sille, Councillor, and Sieur Arentvan Eattem, 

for the works in the City of New Amsterdam, Mr. La Montague, Councillor, Captain Martin 
Gregier, Burgomaster, and Paulus Leendertsen, Schepen, 

as overseer and workmaster of the carpenters Pieter Wolfertsen, Schepen, 

as overseer of the wood cutters and the party cutting brush for the gabions, William, 
Beeckman, Schepen. 

as treasurers Oloff Stevensen, Schepen, and Cornells van liuyven, Secretaiy. 

All workmen are directed and commanded to obey the aforesaid overseers individually and 
jointly and to carry out with due carefulness and diligence the work assigned to them by the said 
overseers and workmasters. The wages earned by them wil be settled every Wednesday and 
Saturday afternoon and upon exhibiting the certificates from the overseers, the workmen will 
receive our warrants on the treasurers for their pay. 

Given at New Amsterdam, in New Netherland June le"" 1654. 

Ordinance regulating the Ferry at the Manhattans, passed July 1, 1654. 
(See Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland p. 162.) 

Resolution to summon the Magistrates of Gravesend and Middelbuegh to give an Account 
of certain secret meetings in their villages and of rumors of a dutch conspieaoy to 


Anno 1654, July 2'', at Neiv Amsterdam. 

We have been informed, that several meetings have been held on the 28"" and 29"" of June 
in the village of Gravesend by some Englishmen, numbering about 50, among whom were some 

New York Historical Records. 279 

privateersinen from the North, the rest being English subjects of this Province from the villages of 
Gravesend, Heemstede and Middelhurgh and that these people had the intention of capturing the 
ship " Coninck Salomon " and then to sail with her to Virginia. We have also been informed, 
that some of the Magistrates of (rravesend have again spread the report, that some Frenchmen and 
savages bad been hired, instigated or bribed by us to plunder and kill the Englishmen residing 
among us and that upon hearing this rumor a meeting had been held day before yesterday, the 
last of June at Middelhirgh by all the inhabitants, at which great confusion had reigned, some 
desiring, as they insinuated and even plainly stated, to be beforehand and make the beginning by 
falling upon the French and Dutch, before they could make an attempt ; to which is added the 
report, that the people of Gravesend had sent a letter to Boston, where the Assembly of the Colony 
is now in session, by a certain Richard Pantem, the tenor of which letter is unknown, but the 
parties bringing these news suppose, that the people at the Noi-th are informed by it, the affair had 
now been cleared up and we had instigated and bribed the savages to kill all the English. 

Although we do not know, how truthful these reports are, except that they go to show, the 
said meetings at Gravesend and Middelhurgh had been held, without proving tlieir object and 
although these reports ought to be fully investigated and adequate punishment meted out, yet 
considering the present situation and our own weakness, as well as the fact, that the Englishmen 
living among and imder us only wait for and desire some occasion, by which we might give them 
cause to begin making troubles or war against us, we have found it to the best advantage of the 
country and resolved for our better justification to close our eyes at present and desist from an all 
too strict examination : further to summon the Magistrates of the two villages, first those of 
Middelhurgh, afterwards the Magistrates of Gravesend, and when they have appeared, to 
communicate the matter to them as a current rumor, asking them what they know about it and to 
govern ourselves accordingly. 

Thus done etc., New Amsterdam July 2, 1654. 

P. Stutvesant. 


La Montagne, Cok. van Tienhoven 

Ordinance agauist removing Property from the City of New-Amsterdam DURmo the 
PRESENT Panic and forbidding the Return to the City, after the Panic has subsided, of 

ALL, who may have REMOVED, PASSED JuLY 7"" 1654. 

(See Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland, p. 166.) 

Ordinance against circulating false Reports and concerning People, who have removed 
FROM the City, passed July 11, 1654. 

(See L. and 0. of A^. N. p. 168.) 

280 Early Colonial Settlements. 

Oedinauce to peevent Injury to the Fortifications, passed July 11, 1654. 
(See L. and O. of N. N. p. 170.) 

Appointment of Jacques Coeteljou as Sheriff of New Amsteedam and minutes, stating 
HIS refusal of the appointment. 

Pursuant to the ordere and instructions sent by the Noble Lords-Directors to the Director- 
General and Council of New Nethedand as well as to the Burgomasters and Schepens of this City 
concerning the ai^pointment of a Schout, independent of the Fiscal's office, for their subaltern 
Court, the Director-General and Council have, in consideration of the good reputation and 
knowledge of Mr. Jacobus Corteljou, late tutor to the son of the Hon'''^ Mr. van WercTchoven, 
unanimously engaged and appointed him to this office under the instructions already given or 
hereafter to be given. 

Thus done etc New A7nsterdam, July 21, 1654, the Hon''"'= General and all members of the 
High Council present. 

N. B. Whereas Jacques Corteljou finds himself aggrieved by the instructions