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Entered, according to the Act -of Congren, in the year 1845, 

By Xka a Blanohard, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of 




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The work here offered, contains, it is believed, the ' 
first separate and regular treatise which has been pub- 
lished in this country on the kindred subjects, the Dog, 
Game, and the Gun ; a portion being devoted to diseases 
of the Dog, — an animal which, for sagacity and useful- 
ness combined, deserves to stand alongside of the Horse, 
in the front rank of domestic animals, if we con- 
sider how much of healthful and pleasant recreation, as 
weir as security of property, we owe to his docility and 
vigilance, — virtues which have won for him affection 
and praise from illustrious men in all ages. For if 
Argus" died of joy at the return of Ulysses, did not a 
Boatswain" equally rejoice in the friendship of Byron 7 
Had not Cowper his " Beau" for a companion, and has 
not Scott immortalized the name of Maida ? and, coming 


down to yet later times, and to men no less distinguished, 
who, it may be asked, has redd that delightful book, 
" The Life of Lord Chancellor Eldon," can fail to be 
struck with its numerous anecdotes, illustrative of his 
amiable fondness for dogs ? How interesting his simple 
story of the loss, and of the curious incidents connected 
with the recovery of " Pincher 1'* for whom he offered a 
reward of five pounds sterling, and ** would sooner have 
lost a thousand pounds, than to have lost him in that 
way !" And then, how affecting the story of his beloved 
son in his last moments, calling him back to his bedside 
to say, — " Father, you will take care of poor Pincher ^^ — 
for whom, it finally appears, the Lord Chancellor in his 
will bequeathed as follows: — " To my favourite dog an 
annuity of eight poun4s, during life, to provide food for 
the said dog." 

Where, in a word, let us ask, has man been found, in 
the depths of the wilderness, or in cities ** proud with 
spires and turrets crowned," that the dog was not at 
his side, all instinct with devotion to him and his family, 
and ready to expose his life in their defence 7 Snuffing ^ 
the loafer in the tainted breeze, and wakeful to the most 
stealthy approaches of the midnight robber, he gives 
instant warning to his master to come on ; while, with 
all his native ferocity and recklessness of danger, he 
flies himself at the felon's throat? Shame, shame ! then, 
let us cry, on the man, if man he may be called, who 
can bear, unmoved, to see a friend so faithful, a servant 


SO submissive^ falling an untimely victim to disease, 
i;i^itbout wishing to know by what appliance he may be 
relieved ! And yet how often do we see highJlured and 
valuable dogs devoured by mange, or broken dowp by 
distemper, when a single dose of appropriate medicine, 
as herein prescribed, would relieve and restore them ! 

The author has aimed to make this work complete 
and acceptable, by the addition of brief instructions and 
maxims for breeding, feeding, and breaking dogs of the 
few families most in use in our country,-^such as the 
Pointer, Setter, Fox-Hound, the Water-Dog, the Terri^, 
and the Shepherd's Dog. These hints are taken from the 
writings of himself or friends, in the early volumes of 
the Turf Register^ a fountain from which he felt at liberty 
to draw the more freely as' it was opened by himself; 
while he as freely admits how much it has been im- 
proved in the keeping of its present Editor, commonly' 
yclep'd " The Tall Son of York." 

The spirited sketches of the nature and habits of the 
Pheasant, Quail or Partridge, the Woodcock, Grouse, 
and Snipe, were furnished for another purpose by the 
accomplished head of the Toppgraphical Bureau, Col. 
A., and we hope he will excuse us for thus using them, 
and for making this public acknowledgment of our ap- 
preciation of the merits and good taste of what he con- 
sidered trifles thrown off to fill up an idle hour. 

In turning over, once more, the leaves of that old 
volume, and associating, as only the editor can do, the 



real name and character of the various writers, with 
their anonymous contributions» what pleasing, though 
sometimes mournful, reminiscences are awakened. Six- 
teen years have made sad havoc in the ranks of friends 
and coadjutors, as distinguished for learning, scholarship, 
wit, honour and all gentlemanly qualities, as ever volun- 
teered to help along a new and doubtful literary enter- 

When one thinks of the various fortune and fate of 
those who then sent each his mite to the common feast ; 
how time has destroyed some and scattered those whom 
it has spared, .it brings to remembrance, the answer of 
the ** old man*^ to the congratulations of the Princess of 
Abyssinia, on the pleasures which an evening walk must 
give to a man of his age and learning. ** Lady," an- 
swered he, " let the gay and the vigorous exgect plea- 
sure in their excursions, it is enough that age can obtain 
ease ; to me the world has lost its novelty : I look round 
and see what I remember to have seen in happier days. 
I rest against a tree, and consider that in the same shade 
I once disputed upon the annual overflow of the Nile, 
with a friend who is now silent in the grave. I cast my 
eyes upwards, fix them on the changing moon, and think 
with pain on the vicissitudes of life." 



Breeding, Feeding, and Lodging, - - - ■ - - 17 


The Pointer and Setter - - - - - - . - ^ 


The Newfoundland and Cheaapeake Bay Water-Dog - - 82 


Fox-Hounds and Pox-Hunting . - . - - - 42 


The Shepherd's Dog 47 

The Terrier ..-----.--- 63 

The Land Spaniel or Springer - 68 



Maxims for Sportsmen ..-.I..73 

Maxims in Fo>>Hanting 74 

Technical Terms with which it becomes all Sportsmen to be 

fiimiliar '- 74 

Shot 75 

A Useful Recipe, for Sportsmen and all others, to render 
Boots and Shoes Water-proof, and make them last 
until the wearer gets tired of them - ... 76 

Habits of Game Birds 78 






Habits of Partridgq»-Good Shooting, &c. - - - - 83 


American Hare— -(Lepus Americanus) - - - - 87 

• TheSquixrel' - - - 83 

Hints to Shooters 98 


Proportions of Powder and Shot 101 



Toling for Ducks 103 


* . 

211 coirra»T». 

Form of a Sportsman's Journal 105 

The Fox (C. Vulpes) ---..-- 106 

Ruffed Grouse, or Pheasant 112 




The Quail or Partridge - - - - - - - 116 

Interesting Particular in the Natural History of the Quail - 120 

Woodcock (Soolopax Minor) - - - - - - 125 

Crrouse-Shootlng - 129 

The Snipe, (Scolopax Gallinago) 134 


OOimBNTS. . Xlll 



CompreorioD of the Brain 137 

Rabies — Madness 140 



Diseases of the Ears 146 

Eraption aroand the Edge of the Ear - - - - 146 

Canker on the edge of the Ear 147 

Effiision beneath the skin of the Ear 15Q 

Canker within the Ear 151 


The Diseasee of the Eyes - 196 

Ulceration of the Eyelid 106 

Enlargement ofthe third Eyelid 157 

Weeping fVom the Eye • - 158 

Fistula Lacrymalis -^ 159 

Inflammation of the Eye - ^ 160 

Cataract 161 

GutU Serena -^ - 162 

Drop^oftheEye * - . - 163 

Protnuioo of the Eye 168 

Extirpation of the Eye .. ^ .... 165 

Films in the Eye ........ 165 

chapteb: xxvl 


The Tongue 167 


The Teeth - . . , 169 


Inflammationof the Membrane of the Nose • «. - - 173 



Inflammation of the Glands, and of the Cellular Substance 

beneath the Throat - - - . * . - 174 

Phlegmonous Swelling of the Throat - - •- - 174 

Encysted Tumour of the Throat 175 

Enlargement of the Thyroid Glands— Bronchocele - - 175 

Scirrhous Tumours of the Teats 177 

Cancerous Ulcers 180 

Cancer in the Vagina -...,... 181 

Cancer in the Ear 182 

Adipose Tumours about the Teats . - , - - • 182 

Encysted TumourS;Of the Teats 183 

Warts 184 


comnnm* -g^. 



Goiigli— Aflthnia ...,. ^ . . . 289 
Cold and Cough -* 137 

Distemper --•«..... iqq 

Pita — Locked Jaw— Paiiy 197 


► .■... 

Inflammation of the Lungs 201 

Poisons— Worms ---.*.... 203 


Colic— Inflammation of the Bowels— Diarrhcear— Protrusion 

ofthe Rectum— Piles 207 


s ♦ 

DiseaseTof the Genentiye Organs,. - .* • - - 211 

PtrtaritioOy 214 

Diseases of the Skin, 219 

Sprains, ••..-•.••• 224 




Recall the traveller, whose altered form ' 

Has borne the buffet of the mountain storm ; 

And who will first his fond impatience meet? 

His faithful dog* *s already at his feet ! 

Yes ; though the porter spuili him from the door, 

Though all that knew him know his face no more, 

His faithful dog shall tell his joy to each 

With that mute eloquence which passeth speech. 


Dogs, in common with all domestic animals, reqaire 
crossing after the second generation. This is the more 
necessary in the case of domesticated animals, because, 
otherwise, the work of procreation would often be efiected 
by those pf inferior physical and spiritual endowments, 
and degeneracy would naturally follow; an evil less 
apt to oc6ur among animals in their wild state, because 
there the favours of .the'female are fought for with mortfil 
fierceness, and are generally, engrossed by the most 
spirited and powerful. Hence no striking and general 


18 THB DOO. 

deterioration takes place. The Hob, the bear, the wolf^ 
the tiger, and the deer, are the same now, in colour, 
form, size and vigour, that they have ever been. The 
male which this year establishes and monopolises, each 
to himself, his harem, or his particular mate, by sheer 
superiority of courage and strength combined, is gene- 
rally obliged to yield his envied privileges, the ensuing 
season, to others who follow him, in the vigour of youth, 
with higher physical capacity; so that nature herself 
provides against too much breeding ^* in and in^* and 
the deteriorating consequences of incestuous intercourse ! 
But where animals have come under subjection to social 
uses, and the art of man, it becomes necessary to manage 
the business of procreation with the greatest skill, having 
the strictest reference to those finer qualities in the parent 
which it is desired shall predominate in the progeny. It 
was great tact and perseverance in this department 
which, in England, won enviable renown for BakeWell, 
Ellman, and the Collingses, and other eminent breeders 
of sheep and cattle. The following hints on the breeding 
and feeding of dogs were derived by the Editor, chiefly 
from his late lamented friend. Doctor Smith, of the U. 
S. A., the accomplished authority elsewhere relied on 
and referred to. 

. In- crossing, difference of form should be carefully 
observed. Colour is of little consequence, if we except 
the ease with which the eye can detect one more than 
another in covered grounds ; and hence, for field sports, 
white should predominate when it is practicable. The 
pups of a well trained slut, and one that has been 
hunted during the greater part of gestation, are,— cee^ens 
paribus^ — better than others. A deep sympathy exists 
between the parent and her offspring, and, although to 


US mysterious, yet nature speaks intelligibly; and \9e 
should not be indifferent to her adnnoojtions. Care should 
be taken to prevent, especially in the first iseason of 
sexual passion, any dog of inferior, or different blood, 
from having access to the slut. An extraordinary case 
of what is, we believe, termed swperfmtation^ once oc- 
curred with a beautiful coach-dog slut, Annette, sent to 
the editor by the late much esteemed Gorham Parsons, 
of Byfield, (then of Brighton, Mass.) Her virgin em- 
braces were yielded to the stealthy solicitations of a 
large coarsely formed white dog, with black ears ; and, 
in every succeeding litter, though all else were like her- 
self, and her paramour, Lubin; to wit : leopardlike, 
beautifully spotted, there was always one pup marked 
with his black ears, and otherwise resembling the beastly 
dog to which she was first, accidentally prostituted. It 
was also remarked by Mr. Parsons that, in every litter 
of the dam of these dogs there was one born deaf. 

A more remarkable instance of the effect of imagina- 
tion, and the passion of love, with dogs, is related by the 
late Doctor Hugh Smith of England. As he was travel- 
ling from Midhurst into Hampshire, the dogs, as usual, 
in country places, ran out barking as he was passing 
through the village; and amongst them he observed a 
little ugly cur that was particularly eager to ingr^iate 
himself with a setter bitch that accompanied him. 
While stopping to water his horse, he remarked how 
amorous the cur continued, and how courteous the setter 
continued to her admirer. Provoked to see a creature 
of Dido's high blood so obsequious to such mean ad- 
dresses, the Doctor drew one of his pistols, and shot the 
cur. He then had the bitch carried on horseback for 
several miles. From that day, however, she lost her 

20 THB DOO. 

appetite ; ate little or nothing ; had no inclination to go 
abroad with her master, or to attend to his call; but 
seemed to pine like a creature in love, and express sen- 
sible concern for the loss of her gallant. Partridge 
season came : but Dido had no nosa Sometime after 
she waq put to a setter of great excellence, which had, 
with great difficulty, been procured for the purpose ; yet 
not a puppy did Dido bring forth which was not the 
picture and colour of the cur that the Doctor had, many 
months before destroyed ; and, in many subsequent litters 
Dido never produced a whelp that was not exactly simi- 
lar to the unfortunate cur already mentioned. 

When selecting a pup consult the form. If the father 
be esteemed the better of the two parents, choose after 
his points even should the cdaur resemble the mother, 
and vice versa. 

It is taken for granted that no reflecting sportsman 
will rear a dog, whose pedigree he has not full assur- 
ance was perfectly free from qU impurity; but, whether 
Pointer or Setter, the blood should be exclusively ctm- 
fined to tkeir respective cltMSses^ devoid of any mixture, 
or cross, the one with the other ! When a choice has 
been made, remove the pup from the soon as 
it will lap milk freely. This will prevent infantine 
disease of the skin, so readily induced by numbers com- 
bating together in a crowded and too frequently a dirty 
kennel. I have many times, says Dr. S., seen blotches 
contracted from this cause, which were difficult to re- 
move, and some of them uiti mating in mange. 

Food and Lodging. — These contributejargely to future 
health and usefulness. Vegetable food should prepon- 
derate until an age is acquired when the dog is to take 
the field. After three months a small quantity of well- 


boiled fresh meat, once a day, will generally prevent 
worms. But a solid meat diet will create plethora, a 
bountiful source of membranous diseases of the mouth 
and nose, mange, distemper and madness. Boiled Indian 
corn meal is the best, apd cheapest vegetable we can 
use. Bones are destructive to the teeth, and contain 
little nutriment. I have, (then 1831,) two Pointers, now 
ten years of age. One of them was given me when 
five years old. The other I reared myself. The given 
dog has no teeth above the gums : the other has a full 
and perfect set. This great advantage has been obtained 
by a proper attention to the selection of his food. After 
mature age (fifteen months), a generous daily allowance 
of beef, boiled with vegetables, (potatoes, beans and 
cabbage,) will be advisable. These articles, always 
at command, are cheap and wholesome; and will be 
eaten freely. They keep the baaiels soluble, prevent 
worms, prolapsi and piles. On days of sporting,, a little 
raw meat before " going out" will be better than a full 
meal of the usual aliments. Full feeding, after the exer- 
cises of ^the day, will never be omitted by a just master. 
Mutton, for obvious reasons, should never be given to 
any dog, even if it could be procured free of cost 

An ample, weather-proof board house, having a mov- 
able top, with hay, straw or shavings, as a bed, should 
constitute the only lodging. Even during cold weather 
sleeping in dwelling houses, or any approach to fires, 
must be prohibited. The bed litter should be renewed 
frequently, and the kennel whitewashed within and with- 
out, quarterly. 

No man deserves to have a good dog who will not be 
mindful of his comfort as well as his health. A good 

22 THE DOG. 

substantial kennel may be built at a very trifling expense; 
large enough for as many dogs, as any gentleman in 
this country ought to keep — even for five or six couple 
of hounds. The rules laid down by Somerville, as to 
situation and exposure for the kennel are worthy of 

** Upon some little eminence erect, f 
And fronting to the raddy dawn ; its courts 
On either hand, wide opening to receive 
The suns all cheering beams, wlien mild he shines 
And gilds the mountain tops.** 

And again he says — 

^ 0*er all let cleanliness preside, no scraps 
Bestrew the pavement, and no half-pick'd bones 
To kindle fierce debate, or to disgust 
That nicer sense, on which the sportsman*s h<^ 
And all his future triumphs must depend.** 

I knew, adds Doctor S., a noble^ well-trained Pointer 
destroyed in his fourth year by permitting him to lay on 
a hearth rug, before a fire, during the winter. Early 
in March he was on the marshes, after snipe ; and by 
reason of his tenderness, contracted a regular intermit- 
tent, which continued till midsummer. Under one of 
the paroxysms he was pursued and slain as a mad dog, 
by ruffians who were unworthy to clean his kennel ; and 
that too in spite of benevolent and earnest protestations 
of his innocence by a friendly neighbour. 

There is a strong tendency in the skins of all young 
dogs to disease, requiring particular counteracting atten- 
tions; the most certain of which consist in ablution 
with warm soap suds, followed by the use of a fine 
comb. This washing and combing, often repeated, 
during the first six months, is attended with astonishing 


benefits, which continue through life. During this early 
period no personal familiarities are required, beyond an 
occasional caress. 

The period of gestation with the bitch is sixty-three 
days ; and her pups are whelped and remain blind ten 
days. The question has been mpch mooted ^mong 
naturalists whether the wolf is^ or is not, the original 
type of the canis familiarise x>r domestic dog. It is not 
the design of these mere notes to go into a discussion of 
that question. 



** See how the welLtaoj^ht Setter leads the wty, 
The scent grows warm ; he stops ; he springs the prey ; 
The flattering coveys from the stobble rise. 
And on swift wing divide the soanding skies. 
The scattering lead pursues the certain sight; 
And death, in thonder, overtakes their flight" 

Sporting books and journals abound in essays and in- 
structions on the training and use of these high-spirited 
and intellectual branches of the canine family. We shall 
adopt, chiefly, in what we are about to say of them the 
advice and maxims of a friend, who begins with suggest- 
ing, that for a well-bred dog, (and no true sportsman will 
knowingly, trouble himself with any other,) the only 
breaking necessary, in the beginning, is to make him 
obey. After that his education is to be acquired by 
exercise in the field ; and, of this, the Pointer, and yet 
more the Setter and the Fox hound, cannot well have 
too much. 

The very first lesson to be taught a young dog, and 
what should be deemed a sine qtta non, is absolute pro- 
hibition against springing up and resting the feet against 
the person. Much perseverance and patience will be 
required to prevent this bad habit, and yet preserve. 

THs FoiinrBR Ajn> sbtter. 25 

between master and dog, a proper degree of kindness 
and respect. But, patience will do it, in every case, and 
the result will save to both, much serious vexation. 

The young dog is generally taught to fetch ; and this 
113 most easily done at from six to ten months old ; and, 
in some cases, even much sooner* Some sportsmen, 
however, prefer to omit this lesson in their instructions ; 
contending that by being taught to fetch dead game, be 
becomes apt to ^ break shoU^^ and flush the remaining 

We should, however, prefer to have hiqti taught to 
fetch ; and the plan recommended is to cover a bone 
with a cloth, which prevents him from biting it, while 
it retains a scent which enables him to find, and induces 
him to take hold of it. Then, by throwing it from you, 
he begins to play with and fetch it ; and this may be 
eventually taught as a lesson, and enforced as a duty. 
You may now proceed to command him to fetch dead 
birds, without the danger of his mouthing them, as is 
generally the case when they are taught to fetch a soft 
substance. The pointing of a j dead bird is not deemed, 

The best way to teach a dog to '* come in" and 
which may be done in a few lessons, is to attach to his 
collar a cord of about twenty feet, which prevents him 
from running away, and which he should be induced to 
attempt, to prove to him the difficulty of escape, and 
break him to come in under the whip ; at the same time 
studying his disposition, and chastising him in modera- 
tion. When a dog is thus far broken the greatest diffi- 
culty is over. His education is to be finished in the field 
by killing game over him. 

The most simple words are to be used; and, as on 

26 TBI DOO. 

ship-board, as few as possible. Such as "hie away," 
when desired to go on. " Take care," *' gently," " softly 
boy," when he seems excited, and too eager on the scent. 
" Toho," in a strong full voice, when he is on a point, as 
a caution to him to be steady. And, when far off, hold 
up the hand ; and, in case he flushes his bird, he should 
be sharply spoken to, or slightly whipped* " Hold up," 
when the dog is raking, or running with his nose to the 
ground, on a soent The dog which carries his head 
highest will always find the most game, to say nothing 
of finding it in the handsomest style. 

" Down charge" for him to lie down, wherever he is, 
when the gun is discharged. Strict obedience in this is 
absolutely required. " Hie fetch^* is the command to 
look for the dead bird. " To heel" when you would 
have the dog walk behind you; and, finally, the words 
"come in" when he is near; or a whistle when at a 

Instant attention to a call or whistle should be en- 
grafted on his very nature, so that the slightest indif- 
ference to it should be deemed an audacity and receive 
commensurate punishment. 

A dog should be taught to hunt to the right and left, 
and to quarter his ground, by a wave of the hand in the 
direction you wish him to go ; and generally be hunted 
against the wind ; but a well-bred dog will generally do 
so without any intimation from his master. 

If when birds are found, any change of situation is 
made by the finding dog, it is certain that the birds are 
on foot ; and any advance at that juncture will be prema- 
ture. A few moments'patience at that time will enable 
the whole quarry to be embodied, procuring a fine flush. 
The birds in their flight from this position, thus brought 


together, will be more compact, take a similar direction 
to cover ; and more of them can, consequently be re- 
covered in a shorter space of time. At the moment of 
rise, as the object is not quantity, but sport, select a single 
bird for the first shot, and the nearest after that for the 
second barrel. As soon as the firing ceases apply the 
call instantly, and exclaim, with determined energy, 
*'down chaise;" and, without moving, calmly reload. 
If there is any motion it must be exclusively to enforce 
the command of down charge. A glance of the eye 
will discover whither the covey have taken refuge. 

It is a maxim in hunting never to allow a dog to run 
ahead of another in a point, but either make him backp 
or come in to heel Besides the danger Of flushing your 
game, it would be permitting an unfair advantage to be 
taken of the dog doing his duty in the lead, of both 
which a dog of nice sensibility will show himself to be 

It happened, some years since, that a party was out, 
near Old Point Comfort, in Virginia, with a fine Pointer 
, belonging to Mr. A-^ — . A small Terrier had accom- 
panied them, and whenever the Pointer would take his 
stand, the Terrier would rush by him, and put up the 
birdsw Repeating this vexatious, ungentlemanly conduct 
several times, the Pointer was seen to grow impatient. 
, At last, having found another bevy, as the Terrier at- 
tennpted to pass him, the Pointer seized him, and placing 
his fore paws on him, held him fast, growling to keep 
him quiet, and maintaining his point until the sportsmen 
cannc up. 

Always carry a whip, but riever get in a passion ! 
Without a whip a great many faults are passed over 
that otherwise would have been corrected ; and the dog, 

28 TBB BOO. 

at last, becomes absolutely vicious. Some think it not 
"v^rong for a dog to chase a vxmnded bird^ when desired 
to fetch, provided he is in command. But the better 
way is to shoot tlie bird again. A dog should never be 
allowed to hunt out of hearing, or, unless near you, to 
cross a fence. 

This is esteemed, for common field sport, in this 
country, the only breaking necessary for a well-bred 
dog ; and none should be trained, as aforesaid, whose 
pedigree is not as clear, and free from spot, aa that of 
Sir Archy himself. 

Some dogs show no great disposition to hunt till three 
or four years old. The late Doctor Smith, as keen and 
accomplished a sportsman as ever pulled a trigger, and 
from whom we derived in totidem verbis^ most of these 
hints, told us that he once had a dog four years old, who 
never pointed till he was past two, and at four was the 
most promising dog he ever owned. 

It Caches that much patience should be used, and 
much time taken, before we abandon to his bad habits, 
a dog of good family ; just as many a father has lost a 
noble son by no,t bearing a little longer with his indiscre- 
tions. Then it is that a kind mother's intense affection 
sometimes steps in to plead for, $tnd if need be, like the 
king of birds, " offering their own lives in their youngs' 

Men differ in their tastes about dogs as well as about 
wine, and other things. Some prefer the Pointer; 
others the Setter. The difference between them is 
thus briefly described by good authority. The Pointer 
and the Setter, though used for the same purpose, offer 
individually a very different object for contemplation, 
either as l^egards their external appearance, or their 


mode of questing game. The Setter is fleeter than the 
Pointer ; and, as his feet are small and much protected 
by hair, he has a decided advantage on hard ground, or 
in frosty weather. But, at the commencement of the 
shooting season, when the weather is oppressively hot, 
he suffers more from thirst than the Pointer, arising, no 
doubt, from his long, thick, and warm coat of hair, 
which, though extremely convenient in cold weather, 
nevertheless exposes this generous animal to great in- 
convenience during the intense heat of the month of 
August, particularly on mountains where water is seldom 
to be met with. On the whole the Setter is a hardy, 
high-spirited animal ; but he is often found troublesome 
to bretik, and can only be kept steady by incessant prac- 
tice; backed, but too frequently by severe correction. 
For those who follow the diversion very ardently, the 
Setter will generally be found a valuable acquisition; 
but those who enjoy the fascinating amusement only oc- 
casionally, will find more satisfaction in the more steady 
and better regulated temper and exertions of the Pointer. 

We may add here again, the remarks of the late S. B. 
Smith, M. D., of the United States Army, who gave de- 
cided preference to the Pointer. " I have noticed a fault 
of a generic character, and consequently irremediable, 
in Setters. It is an inability to run long, in hot weather, 
without free access to water. This, taken in conjunc- 
tion with his difficult temper, determined me in favor of 
the Pointer." 

To illustrate the sagacity of both of those superb speci- 
mens of the canine race, as well as the interesting and 
beautiful, not to say intellectual character of their per- 
formance, we must take room to record the following 



anecdotes, related to the writer by a friend, and duly 
registered at the time. ^ 

In hunting after grouse, in New Jersey, rather late in 
the season, when birds are difficult to find, we had two 
Setters in the field. It was observecl that one would cast 
off and range wide in the field ; while the other kept 
within range of the first, and nearer to the sportsnnen. 
After an hour or two, the outranging dog would come 
in, and the other would cast off and range wide, while 
the first hunted near; and this alternate changing of posi- 
tion, and ranging close or wide, was maintained by the 
dogs for the greater part of the day, of their own con- 
sideration and instill^, without signal from their master. 
At last, towards evening, their industry and sagacity 
were rewarded by the outer j|pg's striking the trail of a 
small pack, which was immediately observed by the 
inner dog, who closed upon the other; and both dogs, 
after a beautiful trail upon their bellies, side by side, for 
nearly a quarter of a mile, as the birds kept moving, 
brought up upon a fine set, and left the rest of the duty 
to the sportsmen. 

In another instance, but with different dogs, the birds 
could not be made to stop, but kept rapidly travelling 
before the dogs as ihey frequently do late in the season. 
After a long and ineffectual trail in this way, one of the 
dogs, a remarkably fine Pointer, cast himself off from 
the rest, and making a wide range over the plain, whirled, 
and came up in front of the birds. This manoeuvre 
had its desired effect The birds stopped; the other 
dogs soon closed, and the birds were on a squat between 
them, all the dogs on h point. The sportsmen coming 
up soon, the birds were flushed, and ample work made 
with the pack. For brilliant actions like these. Bona- 


parte was wont to knight his generals on the field of 
battle, as for instance, Davoust on the field of Wagram. 
But one of the most extraordinary evidences of the 
reasoning power of dogs, happened as we have been 
credibly informed with a pointer dog, property of Mr. 
Peyton Randolph, of Virginia. Under his master's 
orders, when a hare was shot in the field, he would take 
charge of it and deliver it over honestly and faithfully as 
directed to the cook ; but, he would then retire out of 
view, and seize the first opportunity, in the absence of 
the cook, to steM iU and go off and bury it, for his own 
use, at a convenient season. ' 


let cavillers deny 

That brutes have reason ; sure *tis something more : 
'Tis Heaven directs, and stratagems inspire, 
Beyond the short extent of human thought" 



There is yet another dog, which, in these sketches* 
brief and imperfect as they are, should not be overlooked, 
as his whole life is one of devotion to the will and plea- 
sure of his rnaster. We allude to the Newfoundland; 
or, to speak with stricter reference to the kind of dog 
in common use at the prefient day, the Chesapeake Bay 
watevrdog. The original Newfoundland, has gotten to 
be much mixed in blood, by carelessness in breeding ; 
yet much remains which is uniformly characteristic of 
the original stock, in respect of figure, size, colour and 
texture of coat. Hence the choice specimens of the 
water-dog, as he is yet to be found on the waters of the 
Chesapeake, in promptness to attempt, and vigour to 
execute all the purposes for which Providence designed 
him, are fully equal to every emergency. As to their 
stock, besides the best of them being still red, or black, 
there are other reasons for assuming that those most 
esteemed have descended from, and still partake dis* 
tinctly of the blood and traits of a pair of these colours, 
brought directly, male and female, from Newfoundland 
to Maryland, nearly forty years ago. Of that importa- 
. tion we are glad to have it in our power to preserve the 
following authentic memoir, furnished, at our instance, 


by the importer Mmself^ a gentleman who possebses, a^ 
all bis friends know, an instinctive fondness for good 
dogs, and good deeds! 

** Bakimore, Maryland, 

January 7th, 1845. 

** Mt dear Sir, — ^In the fall of 1807 I was on board 
of the ship Canton, belonging to my uncle, the late Hugh 
Thompson, of Baltimore, when we fell in, at sea, near 
the termination of a very heavy equinoctial gale, with 
an English brig in a sinking condition, and took off the 
crew. The brig was loaded with cod-fish, and was 
bound to Poole, in England, from Newfoundland* I 
.boarded her, in command of a boat from the Canton, 
which was sent to take off the English crew, the brig's 
own boats having been all swept away, and her crew 
in a state of intoxication. I found on board of her two 
Newfoondland pups, male and female, which I saved, 
and subsequently, on our landing the English crew at 
Norfolk, our own destination being Baltimore, I pur- 
chased these two pups of the English captain for a 
guinea apiece. Being bound again to sea, I gave the 
dog pup, which was called Sailor, to Mr. John Mercer, 
of West River; and the slut pup, which was called 
Canton^ to Doctor James Stewart, of Sparrow's Point. 
The history which the English captain gave me of these 
pups was, that the owner of his brig was extensively 
engaged in the Newfoundland trade, and had directed 
his correspondent to select and send him a pair of pups 
of the roost approved Newfoundland breed,, but of dif- 
ferent families, and that the pair I purchased of him 
were selected under this order. The dog was of a dingy 


84 nivocu 

red colour; and the slut black. They were not large; 
their hair was short, but very thick*coated; they had 
dew claws. Both attained great reputation as water- 
dogs. They were most sagacious in* every thing ; par- 
ticularly so in all duties connected with duck-shoUing, 
Governor Lloyd exchanged a merino ram for the dog, 
at the time of the merino fever, when such rams were 
selling for many hundfed dollars, and took him over to 
his estate on the eastern shore of Maryland, where his 
progeny were well known for many years aftbr ; and 
may still be known there, and on the western shore, as 
the Saihr breed. The slut remained at Sparrow's Point 
till her death, and her progeny were and are still well 
known, through Patapsco Neck, on the Gunpowder, and 
•up the bay, amongst the duck-shooters, as unsurpassed 
for their purposes. I have heard both Doctor Stewart 
and Mr. Mercer relate most extraordinary instances of 
the sagacity and performance of both dog and slut, and 
would refer you to their friends for such particulars as I 
-am unable, at this distance of time, to recollect with 
isufBcient accuracy to repeat. 

" Yours, in haste, 

** George Law." 

*On inquiry since the date of the above, of Mr. Mercer, 
-and of Dr. J. Stewart, it is ascertained of the former, who 
owned Sai'for, that *« he was of fine size and figure — 
lofty in his carriage, and built for strength and activity; 
remarkably muscular and broad across the hips aad 
breast; h«ad large, but not out of proportion; muzzle 
rather longer than is common with that race of dogs; 
his colour a dingy red, with some white on the face and 


breast; his coat short and smooth^ but uncommonly thicks 
and more Uke a coarse /ter than hair ; tail full, with loqg 
hair, and always carried very high. His eyes were 
very peculiar : they were so light as to have almost an 
unnatural appearance, something resembling what is 
termed a wall eye, in a horse ; and it is remarkable, that 
in a visit which I made to the Eastern Shore, nearly 
twenty years after he was sent thqre, in a sloop which 
had been sent expressly for him, to West River, by Go- 
vernor Lloyd, I saw many of his descendants who were 
marked with this peculiarity." 

Does it not seem to be characteristic of the best water- 
dogs, that like the eagle and the owl, the lion and the 
cat, and other birds and beasts of prey, whose condition 
and habits require extraordinary powers of vision, as 
does the dog when swimming in pursuit of ducks at a 
great distance, that they should have eyes of a yellow, 
or at least of an uncommon, not black colour ? 

In consideration of his uncommon sagacity, the good 
deeds he performed, and the good blood he transmitted. 
Sailor yet well deserves to have his burial-spot, if to be 
found, distinguished by the epitaph prepared by Lord 
Chancellor Eldon for his favourite dog Caesar. With an 
alteration of a few words, it might well have been said 
for him,— 

You who wander hither. 

Pass not unheeded 

This spot, where poor Sailor 

Is deposited. 

He was horn of Newfoundland parents ; 

His vigilance daring many years 

Was the safeguard of Cedar Point. 

His talents and manners were long 

The amusement and delight 

Of those who resorted to it. 

95 THS DOG* 


or hit anriMken IMelitjrk 

Of lufl cordial ■llaefament 
To his muter and his fiunily, 

A jost conception cannot 

Be conyeyed by language. 

Or fermed bal by thoee 
Who intimately knew him.*' 

Were old Varnell (the trusted servant and duck- 
shooter of that venerable and high-spirited patriot, Doctor 
J. Stewart,) still alive, he could relate many most extra- 
ordinary feats performed by Canton^ at Sparrow's Point 
She surpassed her species generally in unrivaHed devo- 
tion to the water, and to the sport of ducking, as carried 
on by the old Doctor's coloured man, Varnell, with his 
murderous smvd gun! Her patience and endurance 
of fatigue were almost incredible, and her performances 
would be best illustrated by taking down from the old 
Doctor, and others, who remember them, the facts of 
her fights with wounded swans, after pursuing them in 
the water for miles. Also her extraordinary pursuit of 
wounded ducks, amongst rotten and floating ice, and 
sometimes in fogs and darkness. On one occasion she 
brought out 22 or 23 ducks, all killed or wounded by 
Varnell at a single shot A good deal of time was lost in 
pursuing these wounded ducks, and at the close of this 
pursuit, it being then dark, Varnell gave up the slut as 
lost, so many hours had she been engaged in bringing 
out her game ; but after Varnell had sorrowfully turned 
his face homewards, she overtook him with one or two 
ducks in her mouth; and the old Doctor remembers 
hearing Varnell say, that at one time, when she was 
most fatigued, she climbed oh a cake of floating ice, and 
after resting herself on it, she renewed her pursuit of 
the ducks. 


nn mwromnuuLicD* 97 

One of the most knowing dogs of this breed, belonging 
to a favourite servant, who being carpenter and duck- 
shooter for his master, Mr. Fielding Lewis, on James 
River, deserves to be mentioned, though we regret not 
to have his name. His owner could at any time send 
him home from the woods for any tool in his ^ chest." 
He would give him the key and tell him to go home 
and bring his sawf for instance. The carpenter's wife 
would open the chest and the dog pick out and carry 
the tool he was sent for. He would even go home at 
command, and take from the corner a '' chunk of fire,'' 
when he could pull out one that he could carry without 
burning himself, and practised that duty commonly, until 
Mr. Lewis saw him one day going with it on a path 
which had led through the barn-yard, and so forbid him 
ever being ordered again on that hazardous service. 

The best living specimen of her stock, probably, is 
Drake, a sorrel-coloured dog, with yellow eyes, now 
aged, the property of Mr. Harrison, of Baltimore, and 
pronounced by Mr. Thorndike, high authority in such 
cases, the best dog he ever saw. The portrait at the 
head of this sketch is said to represent his form. All 
advantage should be taken, while yet he lives, to pre- 
serve his blood, when subjects worthy of his embraces 
can be found. 

In their descendants, even to the present remote gene- 
ration, the fine qualities of the original pair are conspi- 
cuously preserved, in spite of occasional stains of inferior 
blood. As public morals are influenced by forms of 
government, and the principles and manners of men in 
high authority ; and the coat of wool-bearing animals is 
affected by food and climate, so bcal wanU and circuni' 
stances will modify the breeds of dogs* And no theatre, 

39 TBI DOG. 

it will be admitted, can excel that of the Chesapeake 
and its noble tributaries, for the developement of the high 
qualities of the water-dog. He of Newfoundland, trans- 
ported there, finds himself, as it were, in his native 

It is, by the by, but an act of justice to all that tide- 
water portion of Virginia and Maryland,-— the cradle of 
stll the sons to whom they owe their ancient renown,— 
to protest, en passant, that while no district on the habit- 
able globe excels it for excellence and variety of natural 
productions, whether of fruit or vegetable, fish or fowl, 
our naturalists have, for the most part, passed it by as if 
it were a desert waste, or lagoon, exhaling the malaria 
of the Pontine marshes. Even our birds, whether of 
land or water, of brilliant plumage or melodious song, 
that claim our rivers and forests as their native home, 
or favourite resort, attaining therein their highest per- 
fection, have been either overlooked, or, if described, 
associated with other localities, in themselves less attrac- 
tive and bountiful, and far less congenial to these charm- 
ing inhabitants of our woods and waters. But, to return 
to the water-dog. There is one now (Leo) at MaxwelPs 
Point, on the Gunpowder River* in Maryland, a descen- 
dant of Sailor, through a slut pup of his, (given'to Mr. 
Ricketts' father by Doctor A. Thomas,) who deserves to 
be named as a noble specimen of his tribe; for, he can 
''swim as far, dive as deep, stay down as long, and 
come up as dry," as any dog in all Newfoundland. Lieo 
is the property, — we should rather say, the companion 
and friend, — of Mr. Ricketts "of that ilk;" himself 
every inch a sportsman, one who, as to every game-bird 
that " nature hath taught to dip its wing in water,** 
knows where to find, how to kill, and, what's more, how 


io code and eat it as a gentleman should I But it's of his 
dog we' would be speaking. Leo stands in height from 20 
to 22 inches ; black, with a small white spot in his breast, 
and a little white on each foot; his eyes, again, yelbw! 
His form is something after the model of the Setter, 
without his feathery tail, or the smooth one of the 
Pointer; not so deep in the chest as the Setter; but 
rounder in his body, and larger in the neck y ^with his 
ear smaller, and more set up, and the tips of them turn- 
ing down. His hair not exactly long, yet further from 
being short; with a woolly under-jacket to protect his 
skin from the water; for he has often tP make his way 
through the ice. Such is the personnel of I^ioo — a dog 

** Whose honest heart is still his master's own, 
Who labours, fights, lives, breathes for him alone.' 


Many anecdotes might be related in proof of his rea- 
soning powers ; but we have room only to add, in general 
terms, that he comes fully up to the line of his duty. Of 
how few bipeds can we say as much? When ducks are 
passing over he takes his stand with his master, his fore 
feet resting on the blind, and, still as a mouse, he watches 
not the gun, nor any thing but the game as it approaches; 
and listening to hear the shot strike, the moment a duck 
is seen to falter in its flight, as it falls, the good dog 
plunges in the river like a ball from a cannon, and, 
from whatever distance, brings the duck and lays it at 
the feet of his master. He has been known to bring out 
as many as three at a time; and has the sagacity^ when 
some are only crippled, and in danger of being lost, to 
give to them first a finishing grip, leaving such as are 
stone dead to be secured at leisure. When a duck dives 
to escape him, it is curious to see how he will stand 

40 na Doo. 

erect, head and shoulders oat of water, watching in all 
directions for its reappearance. Soch are the offices, 
sach the achievements of the high-bred water-dog of tte 
Chesapeake Bay, and the noble estuaries that commingle 
in its bosom. 

On breaking the water-dog, little need be said ; for, 
like Dogberry's reading and writing, his edacation 
** comes by nature.'' In his infancy he may be taught 
to bring a glove and lay it down at your ftet as be 
should do ; and, by practice, the comprehension and ful- 
filment of his various duties will soon follow. He wiH 
be found, with judicious encouragement and exercise of 
authority, more docile than a child. They have been 
known, at four months old, to fetch a duck ; but, lest the 
constitution be impaired, he should not be put too early 
at hard service. 

As to MaxwelPs Point! there is some consolation in 
knowing that in this wide world of ours, abounding so 
much — in debt and cold water, — there is yet one point of 
land lefl where gentlemen can meet gentlemen, to go forth 
at early dawn, with each his fine " stub" or " wire twist" 
John or Jo.M anton, of inch calibre, and four feet three 
inches in the barrel ; and if among them any dispute 
happen about ttkose duck it iSf a challenge is passed, and 
promptly accepted, to meet and settle all differences 
across the table that afternoon, with implements that^ 
though they go off with a pap^ serve only, for the mo- 
ment, to raise the spirits of the parties, and do no 
damage that is not soon cured with a few doses of 
J6hnston's Sherry, or Doctor Lee's ** ether Mad." 

P. S. How to cook a canvasS'back.^^Teike it, as soon 
afler the *' leaden messenger^* brings it down, as possible, 

TBE NBWF01Tin>LA2rD« 41 

even ^hile it is yet warm, if it can be so, and cook it in a 
<* tin kitchen/' turning and basting it frequently with a 
gravy, composed in the bottom of the oven, with a little 
water and a grain of salt, and its own drippings. The 
fire should be a brisk one, (hickory the best,) so that it 
may be done "to a turn" in twenty-five, or at most 
thirty minutes. Serve it up immediately, in its own 
gravy, with a dish of nice, well-boiled (and then fried) 
milk-white hominy; and then, if it may so happen, with 
Cadwallader's old " butler" at your elbow, if such fare 
do not 

** Raze out the written troables of the brain,** 

and dispose the partaker " to love his neighbour as him- 
self," and thank Providence for all his bounties, 

** Oh bear him to some distant shore, 
Some solitary oell. 
Where none bat savage monsten roar, 
Where bve ne'er deigns to dwelL** 

In the midst of such temptations, even the incompar- 
able Willard, of the City Hotel, who never was known 
to forget any thing, might be excused for — forgetting 



"For my own put, I intend to hont twice a week, dorinif my stay 
with Sir Refer ; and shall prescribe the moderate nse of this exercise to 
all my coontiy friends, as the best physic fiv mending a bad constito* 
tion, and preserving a good one.**-7SracTAioa. 

Of all the field sports the chase may be r^arded as 
the most magnificent; and we suppose it may be seen in 
its most perfect style at M eltoit Mowbrat, in England ; 
whether we refer to the dashing scarlet and the beauti- 
ful green uniform of the hunt, — the reckless daring of 
the rider, — the high form and finish of the hunter, — ^the 
practised skill of the huntsman* — the number and tip-top 
condition of his pack, — or, lastly, to the fine open coun- 
try for the line of chase. All combine to display the 
athletic manly form, physical capacity and game spirit 
of man, horse and dog, to the greatest possible advan- 
tage, making the most splendid exhibition of rural enjoy- 
ment that the imagination can conceive, or the heart of 
man enjoy. How it is, we cannot so easily describe ; but 
there is certainly, as the Frenchman says, a je ne scai 
quoi of excitement, a sort of hallucination, about the 
chase^ that borders on madness, delightful madness I be- 
ginning with the mount, kindling as you ride to cover, 

TOR tcft-nomm. 49 

fairly taking fire at the first challenge, when some well- 
known old truth-teller strikes the trail, and swelling as 
the cry increases, truly to a " whirlwind of. emotion f* 
\vhen, at last, it tells you " the game is up," and Rey- 
nard is ** tally ho'd" as he slyly breaks cover down the 
"wind ; the fit of ecstacy sometimes remaining on, until, 
peradventure, without a check, the echoing horn almost 
too soon announces " the death r But we dare not trust 
imagination, memory, or pen upon the subject. A few 
practical suggestions is all that is permitted us. The 
reader is not to consider us as here making any preten- 
sions to a regular work on the natural history and varie- 
ties of the fox-hound, or his peculiar game. 

Long after Shakspeare's time, his description of Hip- 
politas's dogs, their music and style of action, was still 
applicable to the fox-hound then in use. 

** My hounds are bred oot of the Spartan kind. 
So flew'd, BO eanded ; and their heads are hung 
With ears that sweep away the morniDg dew ; 
Crook-kneed, and dewlapped like Thessalian bulls. 
Slow in pursuit, but matched in month like bells. 
Each under each ; a cry more tuneable 
Was never halloo'd to, nor cheer'd with horn, 
In Crete, in Sparta, nor in Thessaly.** 

Then it took the old short-legged Talbot hound a 
whole day to kill his game. Reynard was worried 
down, rather than run into, as now. But we are not 
sure that in this case, more than in some others, change 
is synonymous with improvement. The modem hound, 
of shorter ear, and higher form, and chopping note, may 
be said to *'put the issue oii a brush," running with a 
speed that could not be followed, had not a correspond- 
ing ehange been effected in the hunter by the infusion of 

44 m 

more bhod. Instead of dwelling, as formerly, at everjr 
loss, and circling backward, to make it off, the pack, 
spreading, forward at the instant, like the ribs of a lady's 
fan, and moving all ahead, ** hit it off*' again almost 
before it is lost, keeping the chase always afoot Thus 
the most gallant fox is sometimes blown and heart-broken, 
in the very burst, without one chance to rest, and roll, 
and listen and recruit, in hope of escape from his ruth- 
less pursuers. 

Advanced as England is in science, in art, and in 
arms, the accomplishments of the well-bred Englishman 
are no where more conspicuous than in his enjoyment of 
field sports, and the magnificence of all the appointments 
thereunto appertaining. But the elegant leisure of the 
aristocratic sportsman of that monarchy, with their ex* 
pensive and perfect fixtures and conveniences, are not to 
be realized or expected in our own " hard-fisted demo- 
cracy.'' Prudence prescribes, and necessity enforces 
more simple and economical arrangements for every 

. species of field amusement; and to that consideration we 
must conform in these brief practical hints for American 

I The first thing to be attended to with young dogs of 
all kinds is, to make them know their names weU^ and to 
answer to them, before training } and for this they should 
be rewarded. After hounds have learned to follow, they 
should be coupled, and led often out among sheep, and 
carefully taught that of all things a sheep is the most 
sacredf too much so even to be looked at I '< A cat may 
look upon a king ;'' but a dog must never look at a sheep; 
for, if he once tastes of its blood, like a married man (as 
it is said) who once goes astray, there will always be 
danger on that point, as long as your dogs can wag a 


ta^. Bring up yoiur dog> as well as your child, in the 
-way it diould walk. Young hotmds wiU be more tract- 
able and attentive if often taken out by people who are 
<m foot. They should always be ** entered" or broken 
at their own game. If broken, as some break them, to 
harei^ it imposes the necessity of breaking them over 
again, just as chiklren, foolishly indulged, and sometimes 
even encouraged, in speaking ungrammatically, and 
otherwise behaving naughtily, require to be untaught 
and reinstructed, the former often proving the more dif- 
ficult task of the twa 

Close attention to shape is as necessary in the hound 
as in the hunter, to insure both speed and lastingness 
proportioned to the work which an old red fox is sure to 
cut out for them. ^ Let his legs," says fieckford, ** be 
straight as arrows ; bis feet round, and not too large ; 
his chest deep, and back broad ; his head small ; his neck 
thin ; his tail thick and brushy ; if he carries it well, so 
much the better." A small head is more comely, but we 
should not object to a large head in a hound, especially 
in that part of it where the power of smell is located. 

If, in company with an oM hound or two to teach 
them, fox cubs could be turned out to young dogs, it 
would materially advance their education. Having been, 
in this way, blooded to their true game, it will afterwards 
be more difficult to repress than excite their ardour. 
Every means of encouragement should be used in the 
early stages of the training of the fox-hound ; and punish- 
ment should not be administered till after they have made 
some progress, for fear of nipping a good plant in the 
bud. In flogging, the voice should be used at the same 
time, to indicate and impress deeply on his mind the 
nature of the offence committed, as << ware rabbit,"-— 


** ware sheep/' so that whenever he sees hare or sheep, 
the lash may ever be associated iq his recollectioa with 
the sight of them, or the sound of the same words. 

*^Beckfor€Ps Thoughts on Hunting" contains more 
ample instructions, and may be recommended as tho 
first and best prose work on the subject. Every gentle- 
man sportsman, and lover of high-bred dogs, (as all such 
sportsmen are,) is supposed to be familiar with Gay's 
poem on ^' Rural Sports," and Somerville's on the 
** Chase." Both are well adapted to beguile a day of 
dirty weather, and to form, perhapSi the best substitute 
for, — if any thing on the " earth beneath" can be com- 
pared with, — the thing itself, when, mounted on a sure 
and gallant steed, fond, like his master, of the chase, and 
carrying him firmly at the stern of the pack, all well to- 
gether, with heads up, and tails down, they are running 
now, after occasional losses, in breathless and almost 
mute assurance of victory I 

What LfOrd Chatham once said of a battle, is particu- 
larly applicable to a good fox chase. It should be sharp^ 
shorty and decisive. Hence, in view of the uncleared 
and difficult country over which the chase lies for the 
most part, in our country, the gray fox gives us the 
best sport. One thing should be borne in mind, that care 
should be taken in breaking in young dogs, and with all 
dogs, in the commencement of the season, to choose a 
good scent-lying day, and be careful of all circumstances 
which may contribute to insure *a taste of blood. Thus 
a stimulus is given, the effect of which will be enjoyed 
throughout the season. As in some other undertakings, 
confidence goes a long way towards insuring a success- 
ful issue to the enterprise. 


THE shepherd's DOO. 

The extension of sheep husbandry which is going on 
in the United States, and the importance of his services 
therein, bid fair to place the Shepherd's dog very soon 
in the front rank for real utility in the public estimation* 
It may, in fact, be aiSirmed that this branch of rural 
industry cannot be pursued with complete success without 
his aid — especially in all that part of our country, to wit: 
the mountain ranges, from Maryland to Georgia, which 
nature may be said to have designed for our national 
sheep pastures, and which must be so appropriated, when 
their peculiar advantages for that important object shall 
have gotten to be more generally understood. 

Of this breed of dogs there are several varieties, few 
specimens of which have been imported. The Pyre- 
nean, or^t. Bernard's dog, is one of great size, immense 
strength, and indomitable courage. He accompanies 
the large merino flocks of Spain in their annual migra- 
tions to the mountains, protecting them from the nume- 
rous wolves with which the Pyrenees abound. Two 
individuals (unfortunately both males), splendid speci- 
mens of that breed, were sent to the writer of these 
sketches* by that spotless patriot, and illustrious friend of 

48 TBM DOG, 

our country, Geiteral Lafatbtte ; recommended by 
him, from personal experience, as being of inestimable 
value to wool-growers in all regions exposed to the de- 
predations of wolves and sheep-killing dogs. With a 
view to this agricultural necessity of our country, the 
author of this work has ventured to put in requisition, 
for the procurement of another pair, the kind offices 
of 6. W. Lafatette, who, with all his other virtues 
and purity of character, inherits, also, in all its force, 
his honoured father's devoted and generous attachment 
to America. 

The Pyrenean, or St Bernard dogs, sent by General 
Lafayette, were white,. with a large portion of light 
brown colour. There are said to be two breeds of the 
Pyrenean, as well as of the Newfoundland :-— one wiUi 
longer, the other with shorter hair. Both are trained, 
in the winter time, to " carry a basket with some food 
and wine ; and thus equipped, they sally forth from the 
Hospice of St. Bernard's, and other passes, in search of 
travellers who may have lost their way, or fallen beneath 
the snows of the preceding night They are followed 
by the monks devoted to that service of humanity ; and, 
every winter, several lives are saved by their united 

But the true shepherd's dog, most in use, and best 
adapted to the common care of sheep, and all the duties 
connected with that business — except that of protection 
from wolves — ^is a much smaller animal, seldom two feet 
high. From General Lafayette, on another occasion, 
we received a pair that were perfectly black ; with head 
and nose sharp and pointed, and with a manner and 
countenance indicating uncommon alertness and intelli- 
gence. They were placed the day of their arrival, for 

THE 8HBPHBII0'b DOO. , 40 

gafe keepings in a kennel at Green Mount, near Baltimore; 
escaped the same. day, and, though advertised, with all 
the notable circumstances of their importation, were 
never recovered. In Great Britain, and particularly in 
Scotland, the colours af the shepherd's dog are more 
mixed with shades of red and brown ; or black dogs« 
with sharp ears, turning down at the tips. The Scotch 
breed is, probably, the one best suited to our purpose, 
where there are no wolves; and where there are, it 
should be accompanied by the large dog of the St. Ber- 
nard's breed, whose instinct prompts him, as we learn 
from a gentleman who has had good opportunities to 
judge, to remain constantly, both night and day, with 
the sheep ; and whether the master be present or not, 
.they always remain on duty; and the shepherd, with 
the utmok confidence, leaves them, for many hours to- 
gether, in sole Custody of the flock. At such times, woe 
be to the prowling wolf, or sneaking dog, that comes in 
their way. He i9< torn to pieces with the utmost fero- 
city. With man be is more gentle, though he, if a 
stranger, is not permitted to get within reach of their 

The sheep dog, in natural power of intellect^ is said 
to be not inferior to the Newfoundland ; whiie long 
training, from generation to generation, to more compli- 
cated and important duties, has engrafted on his cha- 
racter the highest degree of canine sagacity, vigilance 
and patience. Hence '* we see in his conduct an instinc- 
tive impulse of order, and of care, which are strongly 
impressed upon the sedate and self-possessed expression 
of his countenance." We have witnessed with astonish- 
ment, says a writer of authority on this subject, "with 
what rapidity, after a few words, or a sign of his master, 


50 THS ]M>0. 

a dog of this breed would fly over a vast surface of open 
country, single out^ drive together, and bring up a par- 
ticular class of sheep from among a large flock, and 
lead them to our feet All this was efi*ected without 
confusion, in a few minutes, and without the least vio- 

The portrait here prefixed is supposed to represent 
well a specimen of the Scotch collie dog, (already re- 
commended,) one of which may be seen at " Hereford 
HcJl" near Albany, in the possession of that eminent and 
liberal cultivator, Mr* Sotham,vfhose dog, it is said in 
the " Cultivator," where his likeness may be seen, will 
perform about all that is attributed to any of the species. 
We r^ret that it is not in our power to give his name ; 
And that we were not favoured with an introduction to 
ihim on a late interesting and agreeable visit to his hos- 
Ipitable master. 

We have been told by General J. T. Mason, who has 
been much in Mexico, and by Col. Pendleton, late 
Charge d' Affaires of the United States in Chili, that it is 
the practice in both Chili and Mexico, to take the pup 
intended to have the care of the sheep, before his eyes 
are yet open, and put him to be suckled, and so subsisted 
on the milk of the ewe. 

Of the employment of the Mastifi", also, and his effi- 
cient agency in the care of sheep, in Spain, we have, 
since writing the preceding, been favoured by a friend 
with the following sketch, going to show that he there 
efiectually takes the place, and performs the oflices we 
have assigned to the Pyrenean or St. Bernard dog. 
Their temper and character would seem to be almost 

*<* The Mastifi*, in Spain, where, in my opinion, its race 


has been most improved, is large, the fore and hind feet 
very strong, the hair short, and the head a little pointed^ 
With an iron collar around his neck, having pointed 
nails in it, he is enabled to hunt and kill the wolf. The 
Spaniards consider this race of dogs the most useful, the 
most noble, and the most courageous of any other. He 
never loses his self-possession, nor forgets the voice of 
his master, to whom he is always very obedient He is 
principally employed in tending the herds of cattle, and, 
more particularly, the flocks of sheep. Two shepherds, 
with one ass, and two dogs, are strong enough to mind 
a flock of 1000 sheep, and to walk five miles a day when 
travelling from the north to the south of Spain. They 
make known to the shepherds those which are tired. 
They drive back to the flock those that go astray ; give 
notice when any are delivered of young, that the shep- 
herds may have the lamb put on the ass ; and watch that 
no dangerous animals approach the flock. At night the 
shepherds form a ring, by means of stakes driven in the 
ground, and ropes passing from one to the other, into 
which the flock is driven ; the dogs wiitching that the 
sheep be not stolen, by constantly walking round the 


** They are very friendly and faithful to their masters. 
They are very fond of accompanying them when they 
go on horseback, keeping always a gun-shot ahead, and, 
by barking, giving them notice of any danger, and re- 
turning to the side of the horse to defend them. He eats 
very plentifully, of every thing, and is considered indis- 
pensable to those who economize personal labour on 
large estates, one dog being considered equalto two men 
for guarding the flock." 

Puppies, or dogs already trained, can be had, via 

Havana and Santander. I hadt in 1888, a male and 
female already trained and grown. The female d^ of 
the great heat, without leaving any breed ; the dog wa9 
the best watoh«dog I have ever knowo* 

I believe the expenses, as far as Havana, would not 
be less than 870 or $90 ; coming vuid^r a bill af lading 
as merchandise. M* MarUnez del Campo tells me, he 
hi^s an uncle in Spain, who is a great sbeep^raiser ; and 
that in a letter he had from him some time ago, i^peafc* 
ipg of his farm , and flocks, and loss of she^, that the 
greatest stress was laid on the fact of his having hmt n:r 
dfigB ; that waia, he considered^ tJiie sum total pf his mis- 

There is a atoi:y related of an £ngli9h Mastiff (which 
had been, crossed with the stag and blood bpuod), who 
in the reign of Queen EUjsabetbfi^when.LQrd^uckhurst 
was ambassador at the court of Charles IX., — alone and 
unassisted, successiviely engaged a bear, a leopard, and 
a lion ; and pulled them all down* The cplour of the 
Sngliah Mastiff is usually a, deeper or lighter buff, with 
dark muzzle and ears. . Qoe, ,the property of the 23d 
regiment, measured 29^ inches in height at the shoulder. 
<' The care of these dogs in watching, is well known ; 
and the cool attention thpy h^ve evinced in walking by 
the side of a nightly thief-r-forbidding his laying his 
hands upon any article, yet ahstainiqg from dpipg hii^ 
any bodily harm* and suffering his escape over thp walls, . 
is sufficiently ^Uesled.^' 

Scott testifies to the utility of thi9 4Qg;in Scotland* 
and gives, a touching picture of his fidelity, where, in 
Marmion, he paints the awful snow-storm, b(e(ginning, the 
reader may remember, with the liqes — 

' THB SmPilBAl>*8 DOG. ^^ 

<*tfbtti red htth let the beaadeii •no. 
Through heavy vaponn, dark and don; 
When the tired pkraghman, dry and warm. 
Hears, half asleep, the rising storm, 
Harling the hail and sleeted rain. 
Against the eawaieiit*8 tinkling pane: 
The sounds that drive wiU deer and fia 
To shelter in the brake and rocks, 
Are warnings which the shepherd ask 
To disnfial' dangerods task.** 

Driven abroad to face the tempest and to save bis 
fldck» the shepherd is made to call, not on the tired 
{donghtnan, nor the lordly owner^ for assiie^nce ; rather 
in his faithiul dogs he pots his trust, 


* Whistting, tad cheering them to aid, 
Aroond his back, he wreathes his pUid;** 

and when at last he is overwhelmed by the violence of 
the storm, and sinks to perish in the snow, the fine pic* 
ture, with a pencil ever true to nature, is finished with a 
sketch of ** poor Yarrow," as he 

" Crouches upon his master*s breast, 
And licks his cheek to break his rest** 

Opulent men, especially if farmers, ought to import, 
at once, the genuine Mastitflf, the Pyrenean and the com- 
mon Shepherd's dog, and other animals likely to be use- 
ful to the country. In the lifetime of General STfiPHEiir 
Vait Reftsbllabr, and the late Robert OuvEft, a hint 
From any respected quartier was all that was necessary, 
and the order was* given, cost what it might. Not for 
their own, but for the benefit of society, the examples 
of sneh men should be held up for universal admiration. 

54 ma pock 

and their memories be cherished gratefully and for 
ever. What more honourable disposition can be made, 
with a portion of his means, by him who is blessed 
with abundance? The best sort of benefactor is he 
who adds one more to our stock of good fruits, vege- 
tables, or domestic ibwls or animals. Why does not 
some one, possessing the facilities for doing it, import 
the Mexican domesticated pheasant? and the barn-door 
fowl from China, which Mr. Gushing says is nearly as 
large as our turkey 1 

Professing only to give brief sketches of the charac- 
teristics and uses of the several breeds of dogs referred 
to, we had closed what w£ had to say of the one devoted 
to the purposes of the shepherd, when, fortunately re- 
ceiving, by the kindness of the editor, the third volume 
of that valuable journal, the American Agriculturist, we 
there found the following communication. It confirms, 
if confirmation had been needed, what had been said of 
the manner of rearing the Shepherd's dog in South Ame- 
rica, besides giving interesting details in proof of the 
prodigious sagacity and great value of that particula 

We extract the following information from the work 
mentioned. " . 

'' Although Mr. Kendall and some other writers have 
described this wonderful animal as a cross of the New- 
foundland dog, such, I think, cannot be the fact; on the 
contrary, I have no doubt he is a genuine descendant of 
the Alpine Mastiff, or more properly, Spanish shepherd- 
dpg introduced by them at the time of the conquest. He 
is only to be found in the sheep-raising districts of New 
Mexico. The other Mexican dogs, which number more 
than a thousand to one of these noble animals, are the 

THE 8BBPHBSl>'fl DOG. 66 

results of a cross of every thing under the sun having 
any affinity to the canine race, and even of a still nobler 
class of animals, if Mexican stories are to be credited* 
It is believed in Mexico, that the countless mongrels of 
that country owe their origin to the assistance of the 
various kinds of wolves, mountain cats, lynxes, and to 
almost if not every four-footed class of carnivorous 
animals. Be this as it may, those who have not seen 
them can believe as much as they like ; but eye-witnesses 
ean assert, that there never was a country blessed with 
a greater and more abundant variety of miserable, snarl* 
ing, cowardly packs, than the mongrel dogs of Mexico. 
That country of a surety would be the plague-spot of 
this beautiful world, were it not for the redeeming cha- 
racter of the truly noble shepherd-dog, endowed as it is 
with almost human intellect I have often thought, when 
observing the sagacity of this animal, that if very many 
of the human race possessed one half of the powers of 
inductive reasoning which seems to be the gift of this 
animal, that it would be far better for themselves and 
for their fellow-creatures. 

^' The peouliar education of these dogs is one of the 
most important and interesting steps pursued by the 
shepherd. His method is to select from a multitude of 
pups a few of the healthiest and finest-looking, and to 
put them to a sucking ewe, first depriving her of her 
own lamb. By force, as well as from a natural desire 
she has to be relieved of the contents of her udder, she 
soon learns to look upon the little interlopers with all the 
affection she would manifest for her own natural off- 
spring. For the first few days the pups are kept in the 
hut, the ewe suckling them morning and evening only ; 
but gradually, asi she becomes accustomed to their sight. 

she is allowed to run in a small enclosare "with them, 
until she becomes so perfectly familiar with their appear- 
ance as to take the entire charge of them. After this 
th^y are folded with the whole flock for a fortnight or 
so; they then run about during the day with the flock, 
which after a while becomes so accustomed to them, as 
to be able to distinguish them from •oth^ dogs — eren 
from those of the same litter which have not been nursed 
among them. The shepherds usually allow the slut to 
keep one of a litter for her own particular benefit ; the 
balance are generally destroyed. 

''After the pups are weaned, they never leave the 
particular drove among which they have been reared. 
Not even the voice of their master can entice them be- 
yond sight of the flock ; neither hunger nor thirst can do 
it I have been credibly informed of an instancy where 
a single dog having charge of a small flock of sheep 
was allowed to wander with them about the mountains, 
while the shepherd returned to his village for a few days, 
having perfect confidence in the ability of his dog to 
look after the flock during his absence, but with a strange 
want of foresight as to the provision of the dog for his 
food. Upon his return to the flock, he found it several 
miles from where left, but an the road leading to the m7« 
lage, and the poor faithful animal in the agonies of death, 
dying of starvation^ even in the midst of pknty ; yet the 
flock had not been harmed by him. A reciprocal afiec- 
tion exists between them which may put to blush many 
of the human family. The poor dog recognised them 
only as brothers and dearly-loved friends; he was ready 
at all times to lay down his life for them ; to attack not 
only wolves and mountain-cats, with the confidence of 
victory, but even the bear, when there could be no hope. 

TBB 8RBPB£mi>*8 DOG* 67 


Of late years» when the shepherds of New Mexico hav6 
suffered so much from Indian marauders, instances have 
frequently occurred where the dog has not hesitated to 
attack his human foes, and although transfixed with 
arrows, bis indomitable courage and faithfulness have 
been such as to compel his assailants to pin him to the 
earth with spears, and hold him there until despatched 
with stones. 

•* In the above instancie the starvifig dog could have 
helped himself to one of his KtOe brother Iambs, or could 
have deserted the idieep, and very soon have reached 
the settlements where there was food for him. But 
faithful even unto death, he would neither leave nor 
molest them, but followed the promptings of his instinct 
to lead into the settlement ; their unconsciousness of hts 
wants, and slow motions in travelling were too mtich for 
his exhausted strength. 

"These shepherds are very nomadic in character. 
They are constantly moving about, their camp-equipage 
consisting merely of a kettle and bag of meal ; their 
lodges are made in a few minutes, of branches, &c., 
thrown against cross*sticks. They very seldom go out 
in the daytime with their flocks, intrusting them entirely 
to their dogs, which faithfully return them at night, never 
permitting any straggling behind or lost. Sometimes 
different flocks are brought into the same neighbourhood, 
owing to scarcity of grass, when the wonderful instincts 
of the shepherd's dogs are most beautifully displayed ; 
and to my Astonishment, who have been an eye-witness 
of such scenes, if two flocks approach within a few 
yards of each other, their respective protectors will 
place themselves in the space between them, and as is 
very naturally the case, if any adventurous sheep should 

56 THB OOO. 

endeavour to cross over to visit her neighbours, her dog 
protector kindly but firmly leads her back, and as it 
sometimes happens, if many make a rush and succeed 
in joining the other flock, the dogs under whose charge 
they are, go over and bring them all out, but strange to 
say, under such circumstances they are never opposed by 
the other dogs* They approach the strange sheep only 
to prevent their own from leaving the flock, though they 
ofier no assistance in expelling the other sheep. But 
they never permit sheep not under canine protection, nor 
dogsi not in charge of sheep, to approach them. Even 
the same dogs which are so freely permitted to enter 
their flocks in search of their own are driven away with 
ignominy if they presume to approach them without that 
laudable object in view. 

'' Many anecdotes could be related of the wonderful 
instinct of these dogs. I very much doubt if there are 
Shepherd dogs in any other part of the world except 
Spain, equal to those of New Mexico in value. The 
famed Scotch and English dogs sink into insignificance 
by the side of them. Their superiority may be owing 
to the peculiar mode of rearing them, but they are cer* 
tainly very noble animals, naturally of large size, and 
highly deserving to be introduced into the United States. 
A pair of them will easily kill a wolf, and flocks under 
their care need not fear any common enemy to be found 
in our country." 

In the same volume, honourable mention is. made of a 
tailless breed of dogs employed in the care of sheep and 
cattle in England. We take room for the following 
extract, to impress as far as possible, on the mind of 
American farmers, the important aid to be derived from 
dogs of the proper blood, in extending our sheep-hus- 

bandry, hoping that when their value shall have been 
realized, measures will be taken by our legislatures to 
diminish the number of base sheep-killing curs, with 
which every part of the country is infested. 

i* Speaking of dogs, I think the Shepherd's dog the 
most valuable of his species, certainly for the farmer. 
Our dog Jack, a thorough-bred Scotch collie, has been 
worth $100 a year in managing our small flock of sheepi 
usually about 700 in number. He has saved us more 
than that in time in running after them. After sheep 
have been once broken in by, and become used to the 
dog, it is but little trouble to manage them ; one man 
and the dog will do more than five men in driving, yard- 
ing^ &c« Let any man once possess a good dog, he will 
never do without one again. 

** The sagacity of the Shepherd's dog is wonderful ; 
and if I had not seen so much myself, I could hardly 
credit all we read about them. It is but a few days 
since I was reading in a Scotch paper a wonderful 
performance of otie of these collie dogs. It seems the 
master of the bitch purchased at a fair some 80 sheep, 
and having occasion to stay a day longer, sent them 
forward and directed his faithful collie to drive them 
home, a distance^ of about 17 miles. The poor bitch 
when a few miles on the road dropped two whelps ; but 
faithful to her charge, she drove the sheep on a mile or 
two farther — ^then allowing them to stop, she returned 
for her pups, which she carried some two miles in ad- 
vance of the sheep, and thus she continued to do, alter- 
nately carrying her own young ones, and taking charge 
of the flock, till she reached home. The manner of her 
acting on this occasion was gathered by the shepherd 
from various persons who had observed her on the road. 

M ms t>oo« 

On reaching home and delivering her charge, it was 
found that the two pups were dead. In this extremity' 
the instinct of the poor brute was yet more teinarkablei 
for, going immediately to a rabbit brae in the vicinity, 
iihe dog out of the earth two youtag rabbits, which she 
deposited on some istraw in a barn, and continued t6 
suckle them for some time, until thfey were unluckily 
kiHed by one of the farm tenants. It should be mention- 
ed that the next day she set off to the place where sh6 
left her master, whom she met returning when about 13 
miles from home. 

" The anecdotes of their sagacity are innumerable, 
and truly wonderful. 

^ I purchased a bitch of the idiUess sp^cie^^ known a^ 
the English drover dog, in Smithfield market, some twd 
years ago. That species is much used upon the downs, 
and are a larger and fleeter dog than the collie. We 
raised two litters from her, got by Jack, and I think the 
cross win make a very valuable dog for all the purposes 
of the farmer. They learn easily, are very active, and 
so far they fully answer our expectations. 

" A neighbour to whom we gave a bitch of the first 
fitter would tell her to go into such a lot, and see if there 
Were any stray cattle there ; and she would go over the 
field, and if there were any there, detect them and drive 
them down to the house; He kept his cattle in the lot, 
and it was full 80 rods from the house. The dog was 
not then a year old. We had one of the same littef 
which we learned to go after cows so well, that we had 
only to tell him it was time to bring the cows, and he 
would set off for them from any part of the farm, and 
bring them into the yard as well as a boy. 1 think they 
would be invaluable to a farmer on the prairies. After 
raising two litters, we sent the bitch to Illinois. I hope 

THE 8HW«£B|>^8 DOG* 61 

&rmers wiU take more paio» in geUiog tfie Shepherd 
4Qg. There is no difficalty in training. Our old one- 
ve obtained when a pup, and trained him without any 
troqble, aijid without the help of another dog* Any maa 
who baa patience^ and any dog knowledge at all, can 
train one' of thia breed to do all that be can desire of a, 

About thirty ye^r& ago, Mr. Baudury, of Delaware, had 
the Spanish Shepherd's dog, which he thus described : 

^ The dog you inquire after is three times as large as 
the Shepherd's dog described by Bufibp, but is endowed 
wUh the same good qualities: immense strength and 
great mildofsss ia his u^ual deportment, though ferocious 
towards other dogs. I can say, without exaggeration, 
that ^t le&st twenty dogs have been killed in my barn- 
yard, or on 9)y farm, by my dog MorUague. 

** I annex a picture of Montague, with his dimensions : 
three feet eleven inches from his eyes to the root of his 
tail, and two feet eight inches high over the shoulders. 
He is a fide animal, entirely white^ I prefer that colour 
in recollection of the story of old Jacob. In fact I had 
formerly a black dog, and many of my lambs were born 
black. Since I have Montague and his mother, I have 
very few black lambs. 

'< The natural instinct of this animal is to ^uard your 
sheep against wolves and dogs. No other training is 
required, but to keep them constantly with your flock, 
the moment they are from the litter, until they are 

Referring to this variety of the Shepherd's dog, G. W. 
Lafayette says, in a letter of the 31st of December, to 
the author of these sketches : — " It will be easy, my dear 
friend, to send you two good Shepherd's dogs, but very 

03 TBB BOO. 

difScult to induce a shepherd to quit his village to go to 
the United States. French people, born in the country, in 
a certain position, are rather unenterprising, not having 
yet arrived at the point of venturing to emigrate, even 
where their interest would prompt them. To persuade 
one of our shepherds to go abroad, would require a 
pecuniary consideration out of proportion to any ser- 
vices that he could render, aiid even then I would not 
answer, that after arriving in America, he would npt 
become homesick and wish to get back to France. But 
if you wish to have dogs, it is very easy to send you at 
the same time instructions, with their names, and parti- 
cular destination when in use — ^for in general they are 
disciplined to guard the flock, one near at hand and the 
other far off, and I can assure, you they will learn the 
English language in much less time than their masters 
would require to be taught a few words of it*' Thus 
the sheep-growing interest is in a way to owe an impor- 
tant boon to one whose name is associated with all that 
is most glorious and conservative in the history of the 
country and the principles of the government, such at 
least as his father fought and bled to establish. 



Widely distributed and well known as this dog is, it 
would appear a strange omission to say nothing of him 
in a work intended for the use of all who have owner- 
ship or management of stables and horses, with which 
the Terrier is so generally and usefully associated. 

In England a Terrier is usually an attendant of Fox- 
hounds, and is employed to pursue the fox when he takes 
to earth. The huntsman is enabled to form an opinion 
of .the distance he will have to dig, by the sound of the 
Terrier's yoiqe, when he comes near the game. They 
are, every where, active enemies of vermin of every 
sort, but most particularly useful in raUkiUing. Billt, 
the celebrated English Bull Terrier, was stated to have 
killed 100 rats, in seven and a half minutes. Genuine 
Terriers are distinguished by no exclusive colour; but 
are divided into the smoothf and mire-haired^ or Scotch 
Terrier. In moral temperament they are most remark- 
able for vivacity, and a courage that quails not in the 
presence of a supe'rior force. On the contrary, like 
small men, they are very irascible and quick to take 

64 THS DOO. 

offence, even where none is intended ; nor are they at all 
inferior to the most accomplished race of dogs in natural 
sagacity, not to say cunning. Mr. Adair, an Irish gen- 
tleman, resident of Baltimore, had one that would steal 
into his master's chamber, and repose on the middle of 
his bed, until he heard his footstep approaching, when he 
would quietly slip down behind the bed ; and there, oa 
the floor, pretend that he had been sleeping all the time. 
That he is very revengeful of injury, and knows how to 
form alliances for the purpose of retaliation^ was illus- 
trated in a remarkable manner, by a well-authenticated 
anecdote, related by Mr. Hope, of a gentleman in Eng- 
land ; who, being fond of exercise, used to go on horse- 
back from Staffordshire to London, allowing his faithful 
Terrier to follow him ; and, for safety, while in town, 
leaving him always in the care of his landlady. On one. 
occasion, calling for his dog, the landlady aj^ared with 
a doleful countenance, saying, ** Alas, sir, your Terrier 
is lost 1 Our great bouse dog and he had a quarrel, and: 
the poor terrier was so worried and bit before we could 
part them, that I thought he could never have got the 
better of it* He, however, crawled out of the yard, and 
no one saw him for almost a week. He then returned, 
and brought with him another dog, bigger by far than 
our house dog ; and they both together fell on our great 
dog, and bit him so unmercifully that he has scarcely 
since been able to go about the yard, or eat his nseat. 
Your dog and his companion then disappeared, and have 
never since been seen at St Albans." On the gentle- 
man's arrival at Whitmore, he found his little Terrier ; 
and, on inquiry into the circumstances, was informed 
that he had been at Whitmore, and had coaxed away 


the great dog, which it seems had, in consequence, fol- 
lowed him tQ St. Albans, where they completely avenged 
the outrage committed on the Terrier. 

Though in general opposed to all avoidable mutilation 
of domestic animals, as being for the most part unsightly 
in its effects, and sometimes extremely cruel, we con- 
fess we are in favour of cutting off a portion of the tail, 
and circumcising the ears of the Terrier. If done at a 
very early age, it soon cures, and gives him, ever after, 
a more blood-like and knowing look, better suited to his 
vivacious temper and the nature of his duties, which 
demand extraordinary sharpness and rapidity of sight 
and action.. Terriers .often make excellent squirrel dogs, 
a sport, by the bye, which deserves more space in sport- 
ing annals than it has ever yet received. Who that has 
been " raised in the country," has not stored away 
among youthful recollections many scenes in squirrel, 
and hare, and raccoon, and 'possum hunting, to which 
memory likes to revert, and which he would delight, 
were it possible, to go back and re-enjoy. 

It is well with the Terrier, while very young, not ta 
let him encounter and be severely bitten by large Nor- 
way rats, — well-bred dogs have been spoiled by it. It 
is with dogs, as with other animals in this country,-— 
there is too much reluctance to pay well for such as are 
of high blood. In England a thorough-bred stallion 
dog will command more for his services than a thorough- 
bred horse in Pennsylvania, and other parts of this 
country. Those who desire to keep every animal up to 
the highest mark of excellence, ought to encourage, by 
willingness to give liberal prices, establishments for 
breeding them. 


An afiecting instance of the sagacity of this breed of 
dogs is presented in the following scrap t^ken from a 
late English paper, th^ Kentish Gazette. 

** On Tuesday evening last, Mr. Alfred Watts, the 
foreman of Mr. White, brickmaker, at Erith, went from 
home in company with his wife, and left her at the 
Plough at North^end with his brother, whilst he pro* 
ceeded across the fields to inspect some repairs at a 
cottage. In about an hour after his departure, his dog, 
a small Scotch terrier, which had accompanied him, re- 
turned to the Plough, jumped up into the lap of his mis* 
tress, pawed her about, and whined piteously* She at 
first took no particular notice of the animal, but pushed 
him from her. He then caught hold of her clothes^ 
pulled at them repeatedly, and continued to whine in* 
cessantly. He endeavoured also in a similar ^ay to 
attract the attention of the brother. At last all present 
noticed his importunate anxiety, and the wife then said 
she was convinced something had happened to her bus* 
ba,nd. The brother and the wife, with several others, 
went out and folbwed the dog, who led them through 
the darkness of the night, which was very great, to the 
top of a precipice nearly fifty feet deep ; and standing 
on the bank, held his head over, and howled in a most 
distressing manner. They were convinced that the poor 
man had fallen over, and, having gone round to the 
bottom of the pit, they found him lying under the spot 
pointed out by the dog quite dead, and weltering in his 
blood, having fallen upon his head. It was clear that 
from the darkness of the night he had mistaken the 
direction, there being no defined path, and by deviating 
about twenty yards, had walked over the precipice. The 


deceased, who was perfectly sober at the time, was a 
steady and industrious man, and was much respected, in 
the village. He has left a family of three children. An 
inquest was held on Thursday, when a verdict of * acci- 
dental death' was recorded." 



This docile and beautiful species of the canine family 
is rarely found of genuine blood in our country, and 
where found, is kept more as a pet and parlour-com- 
panion for the lady, than as one of usefulness to the 
master of the house. We are persuaded that for j^^- 
sant and woodcock shooting, they deserve to be brought 
into more general use and esteem. The genuine sort is, 
or was, some years since, to be found at Carrollton Hall, 
descended from a stock given by the Duke of Welling- 
ton to Lady Wellesley, the accomplished granddaughter 
of Carroll of Carrollton. Mr. Keyworth, of Washing- 
ton, D. C, has the breed also, in its purity. 

'< This name is generally applied to the springer, or 
small land spaniel, as the term setter is to the large land 
spaniel. There is a great variety of this beautiful little 
animal, all of which, however, are remarkable for their 
cheerful activity. They are not calculated for an exten- 
sive range, and are, therefore, very rarely used except 
for beating covers, in the pursuit of the pheasant or 
woodcock, and they give notice of their approach to the 
object by a sort of whimper, which increases to a bark 
as the game springs. They are affectionate and docile, 
and easily broken or trained : in fact, their whole system 


of education consists of nothing more than merely to 
keep them tolerably close to the sportsman; since, if 
they are suffered to ramble out of gun-shot, the game 
rises at too great a distance, the object is thus defeated 
which they were intended to promote, and a mortifica- 
tion, much better felt than can be described, must in- 
evitably ensue. Their beauty and affectionate disposi- 
tion will always excite attention ; but they are, after all, 
perhaps better calculated for coursing than the fowling- 
piece, as they may be usefully employed in driving a 
hare from a copse or thicket, while a pointer, or particu- 
larly^ a setter, will answer all the purposes of pheasant 
or woodcock shooting. However, if sporting on a grand 
scale, and the utmost pinnacle of perfection, are the ob- 
jects to be attained, let dogs be kept for the moors or 
grouse alone, others for the partridge, and the pheasant 
and woodcock consigned to the small land spaniel or 

** See how with emuktive zeal they etrive ! 
Thread the loose aedgre, and through the thicket drive ! 
No babbling voice the bosom falsely warms, 
Or swells the panting heart with vain alarms, 
Till all at once their choral tongnes proclaim ^ 

The secret refuge of the lurking game. 
Swift ia their course, no lengthen^ warnings now 
Space to collect the scatterM thoughts allow ; 
No wary pointer shows with cautious eyes, 
Where from his russet couch the bird shall rise : 
Perhaps light running o*er the mossy ground, 
His devious steps your sanguine hopes confound ; 
Or, by the tangled branches hid from sight, 
Sadden he tries his onezpeeted flight 
Soon as the ready dogs their quarry spring, 
And swift he spreads his variegated wing, 
CeasM is their cry ; with silent look they wait 
Till the loud gun decides the event of fate; 

70 ^ en Do«i 

Nor, if U» iboti an tfarown with enii^ aim. 
And proodlj soan away the QDWoonded fame. 
Win the ataanch train pumie him aa he flies 
With naeieaa speed, and onaTailiiif cries. 
No open view Mikmg the ep cum ber M fieU, 
To the Bobl aim wiO tiwM» miH ^■■♦■"■^ yields 
Bot the nice cireumstanoe wiI^oft demand. 
The quiekest eyesight and the readiest hand ; 
Swift as he rises from the thorny hrake, 
With inslaiil glaaee the fleetaog nar Jk to take^ 
And with piompi arm the transient moment anmp 
"Mid the dim gloom of interrening trees. 
His gaudy plumage, when the male disj&ys 
In hright Inzurianee to the solar rays, . 
Arrest with hasty shot his whirrinf speedy 
And see unbUmM the shining Tictim hleed; 
But wh«i the hen to thy discerning yiew, 
Her sober pinion spreads of duskier hue. 
The attendant keeper's prudent warning hear. 
And span the oflbpring of the futoce year. 


** The interesting little dog now under consideration is 
a favourite in most countries ; and has occasionally been 
much caressed by royalty itself. The chief order of Den- 
marky now called .the order of the Elephant, was insti- 
tuted in memory of a spaniel called Wildbratf which had 
showed attachment to the monarch when deserted by 
his subjects. The motto to the order is, ^ WUdbrai was 

** (Dharles II. was generally accompanied to the council 
by a favourite spaniel, and a particular strain of the 
spaniel breed is still distinguished by the name of this 
monarch. His successor, James IL, manifested a similar 
attachment ; and it is reported of him by Bishop Burnet, 
that being once in danger from a storm at sea, and 
obliged to quit the ship to save his life, he vocife- 

TBS vfxmvL. 71 

rated most impatiently--^' Save the dogs and Colonel 
Churchill !' 

^ There is a'circumstance noticed in early English his- 
tory, which seems to prove that one of the landings of the 
Danes in England was occasioned by the sagacity and 
affection of a spaniel. Lodebrock, of the blood r6yal of 
Denmark, and fathei^ of Humbar and Hubba, being in 
a boat with his hawks and his dog, was unexpectedly 
driven on the coast of Norfolk by a storm, where, being 
discovered and suspected as a spy, he was brought to 
Edmund, at that time king of the East Angles. He made 
himself known to Edmund, who treated him with kind- 
ness, and with whom he soon became a great favourite, 
particularly on account of his skill and dexterity in the 
chase. The king's falconer became jealous of this atten* 
tion, waylaid Lodebrock, murdered him, and concealed 
the body among some bushes. He was very soon missed 
at court, and the king manifested great impatience to 
know what was become of him ; when his dog, who had 
stayed in the wood by the corpse of his master till famine 
forced him thence, came and fawned oh the king, and 
enticed him to follow him. The body was found, and 
the murderer ultimately discovered. As a punishment 
for so atrocious a crime, he was placed alone in Liode- 
brock's boat, and committed to the mercy of the sea, 
which, it seems, bore him to the shore which Lodebrock 
had quitted. The boat was recognised, and the assassin, 
to avoid the punishment which awaited him, said that 
Lodebrock had been put to death by order of Edmund; 
which exasperated the Danes so much, that they deter- 
mined on the invasion of England. 

** The gamekeeper of the Rev. Mr. Corsellis was con- 
stantly attended by a spaniel, which he had reared ; and 

72 THS DOG* 

the faithful animal would leave him neither night nor 
day. Wherever old Daniel appeared, Dash was to be 
seen ; and the dog was of great service to his master in 
his nocturnal perambulations. The game, at that season, 
the dog did not regard in the least, though no spaniel 
was more active in this respect in the daytime. But at 
night, if a strange foot had entered any of the covers, 
Dash, by a significant whine, informed his master of the 
circumstance; and many poachers were captured in 
consequence of this singular intelligence. After sooie 
years, old Daniel was seized with a disease which pro* 
duced a consumption, and ended in death. During the 
progress of this fatal disorder, while old Daniel was able 
to crawl about. Dash regularly attended him ; and when 
at length the old man was confined to his bed, the dog 
took his station at the foot of it. When death relieved the 
old man from his sufierings, the dog refused to quit the 
body, but lay upon the bed by the side of it. For some 
time the animal would ts^ke no food ; and, although after 
the burial, he was taken to the hall and caressed as much 
as possible, yet he took every opportunity of creeping 
back to the room in the cottage where his old master 
breathed his last, where he would continue for hours; 
from thence he daily visited the grave, and, at the end 
of fourteen days, the animal died, having absolutely 
pined away. 



Never let your dog have a will of his own ; but im- 
press upon him, from the first, that your command is to 
be the rule of his actions; and never allow him to 
ramble about the neighbourhood, alone, or at the risk 
of falling into bad company, — " Evil communications,** 

Never take the field without your whip. It is the only 
legitimate weapon of punishment, and the sight of it 
may, in many instances, save the skin of your pupil. 
But never fight in a passion. He that would have a 
cake out of the wheat must ^* bide the grinding." 

Never pass a blunder unnoticed, nor a fault unpunish- 
ed ; nevertheless, " love mercy." Keep your pupil down, 
under lecture, till you are friends again ; then hey on 1 

Never permit a race after a hare. Therefore never 
be tempted to shoot at one which rises before your dog. 
In case of necessity, shoot her in her seat. 

Never head your dog, nor let him trifle his time behind 
you ; but keep him ahead in his beat, and go hand in 
hand with him up to his point. 

Never hunt a dog when he is tired down, lest he be- 

74 Tm DOG. 

come a dealer in false points, and lose his gallantry of 

Do not sufier your dog to ramble when going to, or 
returning from the field ; but keep him strictly to your 
heel It is not in the way of business. 


When your hounds are at fault let not a word be 
said — let such as follow them ignorantly and unworthily, 
says Beckford, stand all aloof. Procvl^ procul este 

When your fox is found, keep cod and let your dogs 
get well settled on the scent, qyi bene cepit, habet 

In case of a loss, always give the .hounds time to 
make their own cast. It's a rare case that justifies 
lifting hounds. 

When hounds are in want of blood, wait for a good 
day, no matter how long, go early, choose a good quiet 
morning, and throw off where they are likely to find, 
and then kill if possible ! 



A brace of Pointers or Setters. 
A couple of Spaniels. 
A coufde of Fox-hounds. 
Three and a half couple, {not seven hounds.) 
A brace of Grouse. 
' A pack of Grouse. 

MAXIMS ]jf FOX ^eirriirG. 75 

A brace of Partridges. 

A })race and a half, {not three Partridges.) 

To raise or spring Partridges. 

A brace of Pheasants. 

A pack of Pheasants. 

A couple of Woodcockisi. 

To spring a Snipe. 

A mng of Plover. 

A pair— ^couple-^a brace* 

A covey of Partridges. 
A pair is two united by nature ; «. e.^ a pair of rabbits* 
A couple^ by an occasional chain, as a cou[de of hounds. 
A bracCf by a noose, or tie, as a brace of partridges.^-^ 
A pair is a male ^nd female ; a couple two individual 
companions. A brace is twoi at least, or three, tied to- 
gether by sportsmen. , 


The following is an exact statement of the number of 
pdlets contained in an ounce of shot of the following 

• • contains 58 pellets. 
































































From experiment of its efficacy we can recommend, 
above all we have ever tried, the following Recipe to 
prevent boots and shoes from taking in water, and to 
make them last. 

The following extract from Col. Maarone^s " Season- 
able Hints,'' appeared in the Mechanic's Magazine, dated 
February 5, 1838. 

After stating the utility of sheepskin clothing for per- 
sons whose employment renders it necessary that they 
should be much oub of doors, he says, — " I will not con- 
clude without inviting the attention of your readers to a 
cheap and easy method of preserving their feet from 
wet, and their boots from wear. I have only had three 
pair of boots for six years, and will want none for six 
years to come. The reason is that I treat them in the 
following manner : — I put a pound of tallow, and a pound 
of rosin into a pot on the fire ; when melted and mixed, 
I warm the boots, and apply the hot stuff with a painter's 
brush, until neither the soles nor the upper leather will 
suck in any more. If it is desired that the boots shall 
immediately take a polish, dissolve an ounce of bees-wax 
to an ounce of spirits of turpentine, to which add a tea- 
spoonful of lampblack. A day or two after the boots 
have been treated with the tallow and rosin, rub over 
them the wax and turpentine, but not before the fire- 
Thus the exterior will have a coat of wax alone, and 


shine like a mirror. Tallow* or any other grease^^be* 
comes rancid and rots the stitching, as well as the leather; 
but the rosin gives it an antiseptic quality which pre- 
serves the whole. Boots or shoes should be so large as 
to admit of wearing in them cork soles. Qork is so bad 
a conductor of heat, that with it in the boots, the feet 
are always warm on the coldest stone floor.'* 

^ / . "' 


/ < 






4 / 

/ . ' ^- 

J--'^''-\ /■-■''='-' '', " ' ' 



Mr. Castor, of Philadelphia, one of the most ac- 
complished sportsmen on paper, or in the field which it 
has been our good luck to know, makes the following 

'< As before premised, the reader will please recollect 
that the views of the writer are confined to the States 
designated, and as he presumes difference of climate and 
other causes must have an effect on game as well as 
other animals, would respectfully request some of your 
many capable and intelligent northern and southisrn cor- 
respondents to favour us with their observations on this 
subject . 

*' The partridge with us is rarely an object of sport 
until October, though it sometimes happens that early 
broods will be found pretty well grown early in Sep- 
tember; and on the other hand, we find many more 
scarcely fledged in the month of October. As a rule, 
however, by which all are to be governed, the first of 
the month may be properly considered as the earliest 
day of the season, and the last day of December its 
termination. The birds themselves would seem to regu- 
late its end ; for after that time they are rarely to be 
found except in woods and very thick coverts or cripples; 


HABITS or GAm vaa>B. 79 

affi)rdii)g but little opportunity to the dog, or amusement 
to the shooter. 

** The woodcock is the earliest game bird we ])ave, and 
about which there is more difference of opinion among 
sportsmen as to season than perhaps any other. Some 
think the 20tfa of June the commencement, and I find the 
author of the American Shooter's Manual names the 
first day of July $ both I think premature, and agree with 
several of my sporting friends whom I have consulted, 
that if shot ctt aU in the summer^ it would be better to 
postpone the sport until the middle of July ; by that time 
the birds become better grown, and acquire more of the 
true game flavour* If, however, gentlemen could re- 
strain their inclination for this sport until autumn,- when 
the birds shall have taken to the woods, and when one 
will nearly outweigh two killed in June or July, they 
would find birds more abundant, and less fatiguing to 
get at. I should remark that the laws of New Jersey 
fix upon the first day of July to commence the season. < 

" The pheasant, as we call him here,— partridge of the 
Northern States, — may be shot on the first of September, 
but it would be better to make their season to correspond 
wiUi the partridge or quail, as he is called there and 
elsewhere, inasmuch as it frequently happens that in 
hunting the pheasant early in the fall, you will come 
upon those birds in an unfit state for the bag, and never- 
theless, sometimes be unable to resist the temptation of 
giving them a cmck^ thereby setting a bad example to 
young shooters, and fiimishing the irregular sportsman 
with an excuse, in your example, to continue in the de- 
testable practice. 

" Rail-shooting ought not to commence before the 
middle of September, and for one excellent reason, viz. : 


they are entirely useless for any known purpose, being 
so wretchedly bare, that none but a connoisseur in bone 
eating, would think of troubling the cook with their 
n»iserable carcasses. Notwithstanding tliis fact» I am 
sorry to say, that some gentlemen of our city who are 
certainly well informed in all that pertains to genteel 
sporting, are terribly guilty of destroying these poor little 
birds by wholesale long before that period, for no other 
purpose that I can imagine, unless to have a convenient 
opportunity to examine minutely their anatomical struc- 
ture, or to boast of the quantity of crime they may have 

<' Grouse-shooting is regulated by the laws of New 
Jersey to commence on the first day of October, and to 
end with the last day of December; for the infraction of 
which considerable penalties are imposed. Nevertheless, 
as one of your correspondents, Mr. * J. B. D.' of Phila- 
delphia, a ten years grouse-shooter, tells you he has been 
in the hs^bit of doing, many are shot by persons equally 
reckless of the laws of the land and of sporting propriety 
with himself, even in the month of August, and, perhaps, 
if the truth were told, before that time. It is to me no 
great wonder that he found No. 5 or 6 shot (provided he 
ever saw a wild grouse), would answer his purpose at 
that season, with birds half fledged, half grown, and as 
tame as chickens. For my own part, I have found early 
in October, that No. 3 was quite light enough, and should 
not doubt but that lower numbers would be advantage- 
ously used in November or December.* Independently 

* Mr. ** J. B. D." has put himself lit issae with the author of the 
American Shooter's Manual, in relation to the proper shot to be used for 
l^ouse. I leave that for him to settle. I can only say, that so far as 
my own experience goes, which is limited, no shot less than Na 4 can 


of the violation of natural and statute law, other con- 
siderations should prevent the gentleman-sportsman from 
shooting these birds out of season. In the first place, 
they furnish comparatively but little diversion, and by 
breaking and destroyirig the packs at that time, the 
sport is diminished when the proper season arrives. And. 
secondly, you are deprived of the satisfaction of bring- 
ing home your game as a treat for your family and 
friends, in any other than a putrid state. And again, 
what can be more degrading to a true sportsman, or a 
gentleman, than to be obliged to be on the alert whilst 
out shooting, for fear of encountering an informer, and 
to sneak home at night with his gun, dogs^ game, and 
self, all concealed in a covered wagon, to prevent de- 
tection by the officers of the state, whose laws he has 
been violating? 

"Deer-shooting. There is a wide difference in the 
legal enactments of the States of Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey on the subject of this species of game ; in the 
former, the first of August commences, and the last day 
of December terminates the season ; whilst in the latter, 
the season does not begin until the first of October, and 
ends as in Pennsylvania. From my own experience, 
and the better opinion of others, the first of September 
would be the most proper time to commence this sport. 
The laws of New Jersey too much circumscribe this 
amusement, inasmuch as the rutting season commences 
in December, at which time the bucks are of little value; 

be used advantageously, even in September. And the most experi' 

enced all use lower numbers. Samuel A s, of Mount Holly, who 

has killed more grouse than perhaps Mr. J. B. D., the author of the 
Manual, and myself, ever saw, uses No. 1, and single B. 


62 HABm OF QAMM "BntlNI. 


and by the laws of Pennsylvania the deer is permitted 
to be killed before the fawns are sufficiently grown. 

*' The importance of an established rule in relation to 
this matter cannot be doubted ; and when there are no 
laws to regulate this practice, nothing but example can 
produce any effect We think that it behooves every 
real sportsman to refrain from doing any act which he 
would wish to be kept secret ; and although there may 
be some speciousness in the excuse, that * if I don't kill 
the birds now others will ;* still, two wrongs can never 
make a right, and it is much better to refrain from the 
commission of an impropriety than to join others, whose 
only apology is the example you have set before them." 



" To the sportsman, I think nothing ought to be more 
interesting* and certainly nothing^ is more necessary, 
than a knowledge of the natural history and habits of 
the animal which he hunts. Of these, then, the common 
partridge claims the first consideration. 

" These interesting birds break the covey (or pair off, 
as we more commonly express it), in the months of April 
and May, and when the spring is very early, as soon as 
March. They lay from twelve to fifteen eggs, and 
these generally in the months of June and July. The 
time of incubation is about the same number of days. 
Its nest is beautifully and judiciously built; generally 
under a hedge of grass, the rails of a fence, or by the 
side of an old stump. Its shape is a recumbent cone, 
opening to the horizon, and so well and closely con- 
structed as to protect it on all sides from the weather. 
The early strength and activity of the chicks are re- 
markable. They generally move off the first day, and 
very often you will find the young with a part of the 
shell stilfattached. 

"The hunting season commences with us about the 
first of November. Earlier than this, a number of them 
are found unfledged, and it affords but poor amusement 


to the genuine sportsman to take them in this helpless 

" Their daily habits, times of feeding, of resting, the 
fields and places which they prefer, are also interesting. 

** They leave their huddle (the mode of collecting, or 
huddling at night, has interest: they all form an exact 
ring, or circle, with their tails pointing directly to the 
centre ; and, of course, their bodies and heads coming 
out as radii, in which situation, they are prepared for any 
alarm), soon after the first dawn of day, and never with- 
out the most cheering little noise, (which seems to be 
general amongst them,) as if congratulating each other 
on the light of the new day. When these salutations are 
over, they run off feeding, (apparently the happiest crea- 
tures in the world,) and continue until about midday, 
when they again <:ollect, roll themselves in the dirt, or 
sit about in the grass. They now do not ramble much 
until late in the afternoon, when they again commence 
feeding rapidly, until near the close of the day. If one 
should accidentally wander too far, or they should be 
scattered by the huntsman, they collect themselves again 
by rather a plaintive little whistle, answered from one to 
the other. 

"The above is the course for a still and clear day; 
but rain, cold, and wind, always produce a variation. 
When raining, they -travel but little, afid when snowing 
never. They then generally shelter themselves under 
fallen bushes, or in the corners of the fence, or in thick 
broom sedge, or weeds. Cold and windy days they 
mostly keep close, not. venturing far; and if 'they do, 
they seek a sunny hill-side, which protects them from 
the wind. . 

" Their places of feeding I have also observed. Grass 


seed they prefer to every thing else. Can a field be 
found which has not been cultivated, nor much grazed 
for a number of years, and in which the grass and 
weeds have gfown luxuriantly, there the sportsman may 
find much good shooting. 

** They are very apt also to visit oat or wheat stacks 
oncaor twice per day; and, in the winter, when the seed 
become mpre scarce, you will generally find them around 
our wheat or rye fields, along the fences, or the adja- 
cent branch, that they may feed upon the lender sprigs 
and have a ready covert to which they may flee in 
case of danger. They seldom venture far in the field ; 
but, in very cold weather, when the earth is covered 
with snow, they become much more tame, through 
necessity, venturing to the farm-pens and barn-yards. 

"We have delightful sport with them. During the 
last season we killed a great many. One day, Mr. L, 
Mr. G., and myself, rode to Mr. C's fields. Owing to 
delay, we did not reach it until eleven o'clock, (a bad 
hour,) and met with little success at first. We stayed but 
a few hours, and bagged fifty-six birds. Mr. L, this 
day, excelled beyond expectation. He fired forty-three 
times, killed thirty-eight birds, and wounded four, only 
missing clearly once. He used a double-barrelled flint- 
gun, whirled and fired five times, with both'barrels, in 
difllerent directions, killed nine birds, and wounded the 
tenth. This is good shooting with us, and requires a 
ready hand and a quick eye. A party of us made a 
hunt, some time ago, and we bagged one hundred and 
forty-seven. Of these Mr. I. killed fifty. 

•' Our dogs, Cato and Ponto, behaved remarkably 
well throughout the season. They never flushed, and a 
straggler could scarcely escape. Cato is the best of 



dogs. He has a slow, but regular lope, hunts remarka- 
bly close, ajid the powers of his nose would, if the various 
instances were related, seem incredible. When we 
would flush, he would always wait for orders as to the 
course he should go, and as soon as he found the bird 
was near, he almost invariably looked back at you, as if 
asking, ' are you ready V and soon took his stand. ^ He 
is a large dog, liver-coloured, with spots, and of untiring 
powers. Of his pedigree I know nothing, save this, 
that the sire and slut were both imported."* 

* We are terry and asbamed to have fiirgotten, if we knew^ the real 
name of Buch an agreeable writer. 



Which is very conMnonly, but very improperly called 
rabbit. Indeed the hare and rabbit so much resem* 
ble each other, that we do not wonder that mere empi- 
rical observers should have been puzzled in assigning 
distinguishing marks of difference between them. There 
are many circumstances in which they difier, in reference 
to their reproductive system for example, which are 
sufficient to ^sonstitute them of very distinct species. 
Thus, the nest of the hare is open, constructed without 
care, and destitute of a lining of fur. The nest of n, 
rabbit is concealed in a hole of the earth, constructed of 
dried plants, and lined with fur, which is pulled from its 
own body. The young of the hare, at birth, have their 
eyes and ears perfect, their legs in a condition for run- 
ning, and their bodies covered with fur. The young of 
the rabbit at birth, have their eyes and ears closed, are 
unable to travel, and are naked. The maternal duties 
of the hare are few in number, and consist in licking 
the young dry at first, and supplying theih regularly 
with food. Those of the rabbit are more numerous, 
and consist of the additional duty of keeping the young 
in a state of suitable cleanliness and warmth. ^ The 


circumstances attending the birth of a hare, are ana- 
logous," says Dr. Fleming, *' to those of a horse, while 
those of a rabbit more nearly resemble the Fox." 

The American hare is found throughout this country 
to as far north as the vicinity of Carlton House, in the 
Hudson's Bay country. In summer the pelage is dark 
brown on the upper part of the head, a lighter brown 
on the sides, and of an ash-colour below. The ears are 
wide and edged with white, tipped with brown, and 
very dark on their back parts ; their sides approach to 
an ash-colour; The inside of the neck is slightly ferru- 
ginous ; the belly and the tail is small, dark above, and 
white below, having the inferior surface turned up. The 
hind legs are covered with more white than dark hairs, 
and both fore and hind feet have sharp-pointed, narrow, 
and nearly straight nails. In winter, the pelage is 
nearly twice the length of what it is in summer, and is 
altogether, or very nearly white. The weight of the 
animal is about seven pounds. It is about fourteen 
inches in length. The hind legs are ten inches long, by 
which circumstance it is most strongly distinguished, 
in external appearance, from the common rabbit of 

The American bare never burrows in the ground 
like the common European rabbit. But in its move- 
ments it closely resembles the common hare of Europe, 
bounding along with great celerity, and, when pursued, 
resorts to the artifices of doubling so well known to be 
used by the latter animaL It is not hunted, however, in 
this country as in Europe, but is generally roused by 
a dog, and shot, or is caught in various snares or 

The kind provisions of nature for the preservation 


of the leporine race, are many and wonderful, and afford 
a striking proof, among thousands which might be pro- 
duced, of that system of compensations, that balancing 
of perfections and defects, that equalizing of the quantity 
of life and destruction, on which the continued existence 
of the respective tribes of animals depends. If the hare 
is, on the one hand, exposed to the attacks of almost 
every beast of prey, it is, on the other, abundantly fruit- 
ful* The American hare breeds several times during 
the year, and in the Southern States, even during the 
winter months, having from two to four or six at a litter. 
If often pursued, the hare is also furnished with various 
sources of evasion and escape. Its ears are so contrived, 
as to convey even remote sounds from behind : the eyes 
are so situated as to enable it, when at rest on its seat, 
to observe without difficulty, and even without much 
motion of the head, a whole circle ; and, though it sees 
imperfectly in a straight line forwards, it can direct its 
vision to whatever threatens it in the way of pursuit; 
and the eyes are never wholly closed during sleep. 
From the extriiordinary muscularity of its limbs, it can 
sustain the fleetness of its course for a considerable 
time, while the greater length of the hinder legs gives it 
such a decided advantage in ascending, that, when 
started, it always makes to the rising ground. Its habi- 
tual timidity, and perpetual apprehension of danger pre- 
serves it lean, and in a condition the best adapted to 
profit by that speed which forms its security. The 
thick hairy protection of its feet also gives it, in dry or 
frosty weather, an advantage over the dog which pursues 
it Its near approach in colour to the soil often conceals 
it from the sight of man, and predacious animals ; and 
in the northern countries, its fur becoming white, as we 


said before, the finimal can scarcely be distinguished 
from the surrounding snow. As if conscious of its re* 
semblance to the earth on which it treads, it has often 
been known when closely pursued by the hounds, to 
squat behind a clod, and suffer the dogs to run over it^ 
which they no sooner do, than it instantly takes a con- 
trary direction, and thus deceives them. As it possesses 
the sense of smell in a pre-eminent degree, it is often 
aware of the presence of an enemy before it can ascer- 
tain hs danger by the sight. The doublings of its course 
are familiar to every European sportsman ; and though 
in some respects its sagacity seems to be at fault, espe- 
cially in exhausting its strength in the early part of the 
chase, and in returning to its resting-place by the same 
paths, it has been frequently observed to have recourse 
to stratagems, which, in the human being, would bespeak 
not only presence of mind, but a prompt and practical 
application, of the reasoning faculties. 

During the daytime the hare remains crouched 
within its form, which is a mere space of the size of the 
animal, upon the surface of the ground, cleared of grass, 
and sheltered by some overreaching plant; or else its 
habitation is in the hollowed trunk of a tree, or under a 
collection of stones. It is commonly at the earliest 
dawn, while the dew-drops still glitter on the herbage, 
or when the fresh verdure is concealed beneath a mantle 
of glistening frost, says Dr. Godman, that the timorous 
hare ventures forth in quest of food, or courses undis- 
turbed over the plains. Occasionally during the day, in 
retired and little frequented parlls of the country, an indi- 
vidual is seen to scud from the path, where it has been 
basking in the sun ; but th^ best time for studying the 
habits of the animal is during moonlight nights, when 


the bare is to be seen sporting with its companions ia 
unrestrained gjBimbols, frisking with delighted eagerness 
around its mate,, or busily engaged in crop^ng its food. 
On such occasions, the turnip and cabbage fields suffer 
severely* where these animals are numerous, though in 
general they are not productive of serious injury. How- 
ever, when food is scarce they 4o much mischief to the 
farmers, by destroying the bark on the young trees in 
the nurseries, and by cutting valuable p^lants. 

Although not ^ery susceptible of strong attachment, 
the hare is naturally of a gentle disposition, and, when^ 
taken young, may be tamed without much difficulty* 
Shy and timid as it undoubtedly is in its native haunts, 
yet when domesticated it often assumes a forward and 
even petulant demeanoui:. In respect of temper and 
talent, however, a very marked diversity obtains among 
different individuals, a fact not sufficiently attended to 
in the moral history of animals, without excepting man- 
kind, and which has been fairly exemplified by Cowper, 
in his account of three hares which he watched himsel£ 

The flesh of the American hare, though of a dark 
colour, is much esteemed as an articfe of food. During 
the summer season they are lean and tough, and in many 
situations they are infested by si species of oestrus, which 
lays its eggs in their skins, producing worms of consi- 
derable size. But in the autumnal season, and especially 
after the commencement of the frosty'^when the wild 
berries are ripe, they become very fat, and are a deli- 
cious article of food. In the north, during winter, they 
feed on twigs and buds of the pine and fur, and are fit 
for the table throughout the season. The Indians eat 
the contents of their stomachs, notwithstanding the food 
is such as we have just mentioned. The flesh of the 

92 ram AxasxoAir uamm. 

hare was reckoned a great delicacy among the Jlomans, 
and, in Martial's estimation was superior to that of all 
other quadrupeds. From an allusion in the eighth satire 
of his second book, we may infer that Horace regarded 
the wing as the part in highest request among his 

Et leporam avulioB, at mult6 raaviiii, armos, 
Qa/km si cam Inmbli quia edit 

the wings of harea, Ibr bo, it aeema 

No man of luxurj the hack eateema. 


Though no animal can appear less formidable or 
repulsive to a human being than a timid leveret, it is 
somewhat remarkable that the brave Due D'Epernon, 
from one of those constitutional antipathies for which 
it is so difficult to account^ always fainted at the sight 
of one. 

There are probably four species, belonging to the 
genus Lepus, which are natives of North America, viz. 

1. TTie American hare, Lepus Americanus; L. God- 
man's Am. Nat Hist. vol. ii. page 157. 

2. The Polar hare, L. Glacialis; Sabin. Godman, 
page 163. 

3. The Virginia hare, L. Virginianus ; Harlan. Faun. 
Americ. pages 196 and 310. 

4. The Varying hare, L. Variabilis ; Pallas. 



The individuals belonging to the animal family of 
which we shall presently proceed to describe one spe- 
cies, are remarkable for the liveliness of their disposi- 
tioD, the quickness of their motions, and the general 
beauty and neatness of their appearance. They climb 
trees, and spring from branch to branch with astonishing 
agility. Some of them are furnished with hairy mem- 
branes, in the form of a lateral and expansile skin, which 
enables them to leap occasionally from one tree to 
another. But though, from this circumstance, they are 
called flying squirrels^ they are incapable of keeping up 
their volant motion in the manner of bats. The tails of 
all the tree squirrels are very long, bushy, and light; 
having the long hairs so extended towards one another, 
as to render this appendage wider than deep. In the 
extensive leaps which the animals take from tree to tree, 
their tail seems to serve the same purpose which the 
feather does to the arrow ; for it balances the body, and 
renders their motion through the air much more steady 
than it would otherwise be. The greatest number of 
the species live almost entirely in woods, and make their 
nests in the hollows of trees; others burrow in the earth, 

04 THBflQVntRSLa . 

and are, therefore, called ground squirreb. They live 
entirely on vegetable food ; particularly nuts, and other 
fruits. When on the ground, they advance by leaps; 
and in^eatiag, they sit erect, and hold their food in their 
fore-paws. Many of them may with care be rendered 
docile; but when irritated they attempt to bite. The 
skins of all the species are considerably valued as fur, 
and their flesh is a very palatable food. 

The common gray squirrel is still very common 
throughout the United States, and was once so exces- 
sively multiplied as to be a scourge to the inhabitants, 
by invading the corn fields, from which it carries off 
and destroys a very large quantity of grain. Hence a 
pretty inveterate war is waged against it by the farmers. 

Early in spring, the males of this species are observed 
to be particularly nimble and frolicsome, exhibiting 
wonderful proof of agility, while the females, 'like true 
coquettes, feign to avoid them by a variety of entertain- 
ing sallies. In warm summer evenings, they may also 
be seen playing their gambols among the trees ; but 
they seem to dread the heat of the sun ; for during the 
day they commonly remain in their retreats, reserving 
their principal excursions for the night This retreat, or 
nest, is generally formed among the large branches of a 
great tree, principally oak trees, where they begin to 
fork off into small ones. Halving selected the part where 
the timber is beginning to decay, and where a hollow 
may be more easily effected, the squirrel commences 
her operations by making a kind of level between these 
forks, and then fetching twigs, moss, and dry leaves, 
binds them so closely that they can resist the most vio- 
lent storm. This part of the structure is covered on all 
sides, and has but a single opening at the top, just large 


enough to admit the animal ; and this opening is itself 
defended from the weather by a kind of canopy, formed 
like a cone, so as to throw off the rain, however heavy 
it may fall. The inside is soft, roomy, commodious, 
and warm. During cold weather the squirrels seldom 
leave their snug retreats, except for the purpose of 
visiting their 9tore-house$, and obtaining a supply of 
provisions. It has been said that the approach of un- 
commonly cold weather is foretold when these squyrrels 
are seen out \n unusual numbers, gathering a larger 
I stock of provisions, lest their magazines should fail. 
This, however, it has been again remarked, is not an 
infallible sign, at least in vicinities where many hogs are 
allowed to roam at large, as these keen-nosed brutes are 
very expert at discovering the winter hosirds of the 
squirrel, which they immediately appropriate to their 
own use. 

Like most of the animals belonging to this order, they 
are very prolific. The young are generally three or 
four in number, and are produced about the niiddle of 
summer, and sometimes earlier. The squirrel is ex- 
tremely watchful ; and it is alleged, that if the tree in 
which it resides is but touched at the bottom, it instantly 
takes the alarm, quits its retreat, and glides from tree to 
tree till it is beyond the reach of danger. For some 
hours it remains *at a distance from home qntil the alarm 
has subsided, and then it returns by paths, which, to 
nearly all quadrupeds but itself, are utterly impassable. 
Owing to its wonderful activity, it is very difficult to 
take a full grown squirrel alive, but we have seen boys 
sometimes contrive to lay hold of it, .by assembling in 
the woods, and pursuing the animal with loud noises. 

06 TBt SqiuiHREL. 

and the barking of dogs, when it seems to lose its pre- 
sence of mind, and falls to the ground. 

The squirrel expresses the sensation of pain by a sharp 
piercing cry, and that of pleasure by a sound not unlike 
' the purring of a cat. Besides, when teased or irritated, 
it occasionally utters a loud growl of discontent. It has 
been remarked that its gullet is very narrow, to prevAt 
the food from being disgorged, in descending trees, or 
in leaping downwards. The species we are now de- 
scribing, is remarkable among all our squirrels for its 
beauty and activity. It is in captivity very playful and 
mischievous, and is more frequently kept as a pet than 
any other. It becomes very tame, and may be allowed 
to spend a great deal of the time entirely at liberty, 
where nothing is exposed that can be injured by its 
teeth, which it is sure to try upon every article of furni- 
ture, &c,, in its vicinity. It is curious, that in its wild 
state it satisfies its thirst only with the dew or rain col- 
lected in the leaves or the hollows of trees, but in its 
domesticated state it drinks freely, and a considerable 
quantity at a draught. In its wild state also, it feeds 
principally upon hickory nuts, chestnuts, and mast ; in 
a state of captivity, it will eat a great variety of fruits, 
and other vegetable substances, and is delighted with 
sugar and sweetmeats. 

The gray squirrel varies considerably in colour, but 
is most commonly of a fine bluish gray, mingled with a 
slight golden hue. This golden colour is especially 
obvious on the head, along the sides, w,here the white 
hair of the belly approaches the gray oY the sides, and 
on the anterior part of the fore and superior part of the 
hind feet, where it is very rich and deep. This mark 


on the hind feet is very prominent, and evident even in 
those varieties which differ most from the common 
colour. For some remarks on the apparent or supposed 
emasculation of the squirrel, we refer our readers to the 
American Farmer, vol. V. 

There are, belonging to the genus Sciurus, at least 
twenty-nine species; we shall content ourselves with 
mentioning those only which belong to America. 

!• Common gray sqmrrel — Sciurus Carolinensis. Gmel. 
Godman's American Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 131. 

2. Fox squirrel — S.Vulpinus. Gmel. Godman, p. 128. 

3. Cat squirrel — S. Cinereus. Lin. Gmel. Godman, 
p. 129. 

4. Black squirrel — S. Niger. Lin. Godman, p; 133. 

5. Great tailed squirrel — S. Macroureus. Say. God- 
man, p. 184. 

6. Line tail squirrel — S. Grammurus. Say. Godman, 
p. 136. 

7. Four-lined squirrel — S. Quadrivittatus. Say. God- 
man, p. 137. 

8. The chickaree — S. Hudsonius. Forster. Godman, 
p. 138. 

9. Red belly squirrel'—S. Rufivepter. Geoff. God- 
man, p. 141. 

10. Ground squirrel'-^S. Striatus. Klein. Godman, 
p. 142. 

11. Rocky Mountain ground squirrel — S. Lateralis. 
Say. Godman, p. 144. 

12. Louisiana squirrel — S. Ludovicianus. Curtis. 
The flying squirrel belongs to the genus Pteromys. 




As I do not profess to teach the art of gun-makings it 
will suffice to recommend all, when intending to purchase 
a gun, to go to some respectable maker, and, after 
having described the calibre, weight, and any particular 
bend of stock that suits, to leave the minutise to him. 
For his own credit he will do all in his power to make 
the gun shoot well; and, if he cannot accomplish it 
himself, no instructions of an amateur will assist him. 
If a cheap gun will better suit his finances, let him 
endeavour to purchase a tolerably sound second-hand 
one of some good maker, rather than a new one of 
doubtful manufacture ; for badly made guns are always 
dangerous, while it requires considerable wear to render 
one so that was originally otherwise. 

We will suppose he has purchased one, or is^about to 
purchase it, (for he should by all means try it first,) I 
will proceed to describe how it should be tried, in order 
to ascertain if it be as good as guns ordinarily are. I 
say ordinarily; for some few guns have accidentally 
turned out such extraordinary shooters as to defy the 


art of the man who made them to mak6 another equally 
good, and have been valued accordingly. Such a gun 
is now in the possession of Captain Ross. He gave 
upwards of one hundred guineas for it, although a 
pawnbroker would not venture to ask ten for it. 

The first thing to be done is to examine the fttings of 
the lock, &c., whether the external workmanship be as 
good as the price demands; for of course a low-priced 
gun cannot be expected to be finished in as handsome 
style as one for which a top price is to be paid. 

The cLction of the lock is next to be examined. On 
withdrawing the cock, it should feel smooth and oily, 
and at the same time snap sharp and quick. No grating 
nor harshness should be felt, and the trigger should pull 
tolerably easy. The main spring of a detonator cannot 
well be too strong. The hammer, when on full cock, 
should b^ as clpse to the nipple as possible, so that no 
time may be lost after the trigger is pulled. This is not 
paid sufficient attention to by many makers, and there- 
fore should be insisted on by purchasers. The cock 
may be allowed to look clumsy, rather than be left slight 
for the sake of appearance. The head or part that 
covers the nipple when down, I think should be solid, 
and not opened in front, as is commonly done. Those 
opened in front are liable to break, particularly when 
anti-corrosive caps are used. The nipple ought to slant 
so as to range with the line of the circle that the head 
of the cock makes when drawn up. If this is not 
attended to, it will be liable to fly off when struck with 
the hammer. 

I say nothing of the tube guns, not having had much ' 
experience with them. They are troublesome to load 
and keep clean ; and I have yet to learn what merit 

100 BiirrsTo sHoonss. 

they possess to counterbalance so great objections. The 
barrel should be free from flaws, and when held to the 
light, should show no shadows or waves. A good 
average length for a fourteen gauge, is two feet sdx 
inches, but some prefer it longer. The disposition of 
the metal is of more importance. It should run nearly 
the same thickness from the breech for about six inches, 
and then gradually taper off to the end. It is a bad 
practice to begin tapering from the breech, as the 
greatest strain on the barrel is where the charge first 
moves, or where the gun leads. Here also the wear is 
greatest, and in fact here it is that it generally bursts. 
Furdy and some others are now making their guns 
much stronger here than forjperly. Let not this matter 
be considered trifling : it should be remembered that a 
gun is a dangerous weapon, even after every precaution, 
and will not therefore admit of any liberties being taken. 



The quantity of powder and shot which constitutes 
the correct load or charge for the fowling-piece, is a 
circumstance which ought to be duly innpressed on the 
mind of every shooter, and to which, I am inclined to 
think, not sufficient attention is generally paid. On trial, 
it will be found that all guns shoot the strongest the first 
discharge, or, in other words, when they are perfectly 
clean, and that the force decreases in exact proportion 
as the piece becomes foul ; hence the necessity of occa- 
sionally wiping out the barrel during a long day's shoot- 
ing. There is also a certain proportion of powder and 
shot which will exactly suit every fowling-piece ; and to 
ascertain this should be the first object with all new guns. 
If a piece be overloaded with powder, the shot will 
scatter very much, and but few pellets will strike the 
object ; whereas, if an insufficient quantity of powder 
be used, the shot will not be driven with sufficient force. 
Yet, it is more than probable, that a trifling variation 
will be found in all guns ; or, to speak more plainly, it 
will be a difficult matter to find two pieces, though of 
the same length and calibre,- which require precisely 
the same charge. A very good method of ascertaining 


the proper load for a fowling-piece is by firing at sheets 
of paper at given distances, and the progressive results 
will guide the shooter in the increase or decrease of 
either the powder or shot, or bolh. 

On investigation it will probably be found, that the 
general error in loading the fowling-piece, is using too 
much powder, which not only very much scatters the 
shot, but renders the recoil almost insupportable, — it is 
quite a mistaken notion to suppose that a distant object 
will be better reached with a large load of powder, or 
that the force of the shot is thus increased ; as it will be 
found, on experiment, that those pellets which strike the 
mark are not so strongly driven as when a reduced, but 
a correct, portion of powder is used, to say nothing of 
the scattering of the shot, by which a small object will 
generally be missed. Hence it is highly necessary that 
the correct charge should be ascertained, and uniformly 



More than forty years ago, this curious mode of 
getting ducks is said to have had its commencement, 
near Havre do Grace, Maryland. 

Tradition says the discovery was made by a sports- 
man, who, patiently waiting for a body of ducks to feed 
within gun-shot (as was then the only chance of getting 
a shot at them on the water), saw them suddenly raise 
their heads, and swim directly for the shore. On look- 
ing for the cause of this strange manoeuvre, he found 
they were decoyed by a red fox playing on the shore. 

An active, sprightly dog is generally selected for this 
service. They are taught from their infancy to run after 
small pebbles, and when taken to the shore, the sports- 
man, from behind his blind, throws stones up and down 
the shore, after which his dog runs. The continued 
action of the dog attracts the attention of the ducks, and 
they run into him. The only art necessary is to keep 
your dog in constant motion ; a red colour is best, and 
a long bushy tail of great advantage. 

There are few dogs which gain celebrity in this capa- 
city; they generally become loo fond of the ducks, and 
either stop to look at them, as they approach the shore, 
or lay down ; in either case, your sport is spoiled. 


The canvasS'back and red heads are the best to tole, 
and they appear to. be differently operated on. The 
former comes to the dog with head erect, sitting high 
on the water ; and when near you has, if I may use the 
expression, a kind of idiotic look in the eye, whereas 
the latter are more sunk in the water, and appear 
unconscious of their approach to the shore. 

Ducks act very strangely sometimes. I have seen a 
dog play without effect at one spot, when, by moving a 
short distance to another blind, the same d|,|cks would 
run into him as fast as they could swim.' At other 
times I have seen them take no notice of a dog, when 
they would run immediately in to a red silk handker- 
chief tied to the end of a ramrod, and kept in constant 
motion on the outside and in front of your blind. 

To show you the value put on dogs, well trained to 
this sport, it was a custom, formerly, for the dog to get 
a share of the game equal with each sportsman, and 
I have often -divided equally with the dog. There no 
doubt may be many amusing anecdotes related of this 
sport, and the quantity of blood shed in many instances 
is astonishing. 






. 1 












































The sportsman may add colamns at pleasure for other game. 




T^HB interest connected with the animal whose natural 
history we are now about to sketch, is of a very dif- 
ferent order from that which we have discovered in the 
the horse and the dog. The fox is not the friend^ but the 
enemy of man ; as such we inquire into his history, to 
know his habits, detect his wiles, and to destroy him. 
In another respect, however, he is peculiarly interesting 
to the' sportsman. 

The fox, which, in numerous varieties of colour, and 
differences in size, inhabits, all the northern and tem- 
perate regions of the globe, has a broad head, a sharp 
snout, a flat* forehead, eyes obliquely seated, ears sharp 
and erect, a body w^l covered with hair j aftd a straight, 
bushy, and somewhat pointed •tail. Its predominant 
colour is yellowish-red, or yellowish-brown ; a little 
mixed witji white or ash-colour on the forel^ead, shoul- 
ders, hind part of the back, and outside of the hind legs. 
The biseast and belly are cinereous-gray, ©r whitish- 
gray ; the tips of the ears and the feet are black ; the 
head is larger than that of the dog, in proportion to the 
size of the^hody; the ears are shorter, the t^\ much 
latger, the hair longer, and the eyes are more oblique. 
The intestines, too, particularly the coecum, are more 

THE FOX. 107 

capacious ; and the cutting teeth of the upper jaw have 
no lines or furrows, like those of the dog and wolf. 
Another mark of distinction is its smell, which is very 
strong and offensive. It utters a yelping kind of bark, 
consisting in a succession of similar sounds, concluding 
with an elevation of the voice. In disposition it differs 
greatly from the dog; for it' is tamed with difficulty, is 
never completely reclaimed, and is a stranger to the 
exercise of generosity and kindness. Yet, notwithstand- 
ing these points of discrepancy, it is a well-established 
fact, that the two species have been known to breed 
together under certs^in circumstances, and produce a 
mongrel race, (see Godman's Amer. Nat. Hist.) The 
females of this species produce only once a year and 
have from three to six young at a time* TJ*hey are 
brought forth blind, and continue growing for about 
eighteen months. In its first year the fox is called a 
cub, in the second a fox, and afterwards an M fox. If 
the aam perceives that her place of retreat has been 
discovered, she carries off her cubs, one by one, to a 
more secure habitation* 

The fox jsleeps much during the day, lying like the 
dog, in a round form. Indeed, he may in some degree 
be considered a nocturnal animal ; for in a strong light 
the pupil of the eye contracts, like those of the cat. In 
clear and very warm weather, he may sometimes be 
seen basking in the sun, or amusing himself with his fine 
bushy tail. Crows and other birds, that justly €<nisider 
him as their common enemy, will often give notice of 
hils presence by the most clamorous notes, and follow 
him a long way from tree to tree, repeating their out- 
cries. The fox lives upon an average thirteen or four- 
teen vears. 

108 TBM FOX* 

This animaU we need scarcely mention, is prover* 
bially celebrated for his cunning; and, although this 
feature in his character has given rise to much exagge- 
ration and fable, his proceedings are certainly more 
under the guidance of craft and subtlety than of courage, 
or a spirit of enterprise. He chooses his habitation 
amongst brambles, woods, and thick underwood, pre- 
paring his bed under hard ground, the roots of trees, or 
similar situations, where he can. contrive proper outlets 
to escape from danger. He does not always take the 
trouble of making a hole for himself, but often procures 
accommodation by dispossessing the cleanly badger, 
which be is said to do by ihjecting his fcetid urine into 
this animates burrow. His lodge is seldom remote from 
the habitations of man, and often in the neighbourhood 
of some farmyard. He listens to the crowing of the 
cocks, and the cries of the poultry, scents them at a 
distance, selects his time with judgment, conceals his 
road as well as his purposes, slips forward with caution, 
sometimes even trailing his body, and seldom makes a 
fruitless expedition. If he can either leap over the walls, 
or creep in underneath, he ravages the yard, puts all to 
death, and retires softly i^ith his prey, which he con- 
ceals under leaves, or carries off to his kennel. In 
painting the confusion of a farmyard, when a fox had 
seized a favourite cockt Chaucer, with much humour, says : 

** after him they ran. 

And eke with stavis, many another man 
Ran call our dogge Talbot and eke €rarlund; 
And Malkin with her distaffe in.her hood. 
Ran cowe and calfe and eke the very hogges. 
The dackies cryed as men would tham kill, 
The geese for fear flewin over the trees ; 
Out of the hives came the swarme of bees.'* 

THK Fex. 109 

Id a few minutes he returns for more, which he bears 
away or conceals in the same manner, but in a diiTerent 
place. In this way he proceeds systematically, till the 
progress of the sun, or some movement perceived in the 
house gives him warning that it is time to suspend his 
operation, and to retire to his resting-place for the day. 
He digs out rabbits from their warren, detects the nests 
of quails and partridges, seizes the mothers on their eggs, 
and thus destroys a great quantity of game. In pro- 
curing young rabbits from their burrows, Jie follows 
tl^ir scent above ground, till he comes to the end where 
they lie, and there scratching up the earth, descends and 
despatches them. In default of other victims, he makes 
war on rats, serpents, lizards, toads, and moles, of which 
he consumes a great number, and with which, like the 
cat, he plays before he devours them. When urged by 
hunger, he will also eat insects or roots; his drag is 
often struck upon at the root of the persimmon, where 
he goes to feed on the fallen fruit ; if near the coast, he 
will seize on crabs, oysters, and other shetl-fish. He 
manifests a predilection for grapes, and has been a 
destroyer of vineyards from the earliest times : ** take 
us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines," it is 
said in the Song of Solomon. He is fond of sweel 
things, and will boldly attack wild bees to get at their 
stores. Assailed by swarms that fasten on him with 
their stings, he retires, but only for a few minutes, rids 
himself of his opponents by rolling on the ground and 
crushing all that stick to him, and then returns to the 
charge, and devours both wax and honey. Though 
sated with food, his active foresight will often prompt 
him to prolong his researches, less with the intention of 
discovering fresh booty than of exploring the details of 


110 THK FOX. 

his future resources. Thus he frequently returns to the 
various holes ^hich he had at first cleaned, surveys 
them with much precaution, enters into them, and slily 
examines their different issues. With cautious slowness 
he approaches objects that are new to him, and which, 
on account of their novelty, excite his suspicion, and 
distrust. A favourite lure will ensnare him ** in the days 
of his inexperience," but, when apprised of its nature, 
the same expedient becomes unavailing. He seems to 
smell the very iron of the trap, and carefully shuns it. 
If he perceive that the means of ambush are multiplying 
around him, he quits his place of residence, and retires 
into some more secure quarters. Man, with «11 bis 
reasoning and machines, requires, himself, mqch expe- 
rience, not to be over-reached hy the prudence and 
stratagems of this wily quadruped. If all the issues of 
the kennel are beset with snares, the occupant scents and 
recognises them, and, rather than fall into them,.exposes 
himself to the most cruel and protracted privation of 
food. This state of alarm in confinement is neither 
mechanical nor passive; for in the mean while, he 
leaves nothing untriec} to escape from dangers. If he 
has been taken by one leg, in the trap, he will break it 
with great resolution, and never cease his exertions to 
regain his liberty. Somerville thus notices the fact : 

** by the indented steel 

With gripe tenacious held, the fblon grieves, 
And struggles, but in vain ; yet oil Uis known, 
When every art has failed, the captive fox 
Has shared the wounded joint, and with a limb 
Compounded for his life.'* 

In the fox, in short, as in the wolf, we cannot but 
remark an aptitude to acquire habits, and to be regu- 



lated by his reflections on existing circumstances. Where 
no war is waged against him, he is comparatively igno- 
rant and careless of his conduct; but when the appre- 
hension of pain or death, exhibited under various forms, 
has produced multiplied sensations, which become fixed 
in his memory, and give rise to comparisons, judgments, 
and inductions, he acquires skill, penetration, and cun- 
ning. If the. imprudence and thoughtlessness of youth 
frequently make him deviate from the right path, the 
experience of age corrects his wanderings, and teaches 
him how to discriminate true from false appearances. 

From the character which we have thus been led to 
ascribe to the fox, it is not much a matter of wonder 
that he should be persecuted by man ; and that to avoid 
this persecution he should have recourse to all sorts of 
stratageni. But experienced huntsmen alone can know 
the various shifts to which he has recourse for salvation 
when hard pressed in the chase — how he will run his 
foil ; leave his course to pass through a flock of sheep, 
or herd of cattle ; or swim the water-course, and walk 
the top rails of the fence for many panels, to put at 
fault and confound his pursuers^ often occasioning joss 
and perplexing difficulties, that nothing but the most 
sagacious old hound can unravel and ^* hit off." It is 
these stratagems, however, that create intense anxifety 
to the sportsman, and give variety and interest to the 
chase, the most manly, healthful, and at the same time 
useful sport, in which a gentleman can engage. 




This is the bird called partridge in the Eastern States, 
and pheasant in the middle, southern, and western. It 
is a beautiful bird, nearly as heavy as the pinnated 
grouse, and is found, in more or less abundance, from 
Hudson's Bay to the Rocky Mountains. Unlike its 
congener, which is fond of open prairie |rrounds, the 
ruffed grouse seeks the thickest covers, mountainous 
regions, or bill sides. It is particularly fond of grounds 
covered with the balsam pine, hemlock, or laurel ; is a 
very shy bird, and on this account difficult to shoot. Its 
favourite food is the same as that of the pinnated grouse; 
but its flesh is white, while that of the latter is black. 
During the severe snows of winter it feeds upon the 
tender bqds of the alder and laurel, and of the apple 
tree, if orchards are in its vicinity.' It will also feed 
upon the wild grape, particularly the small kind, called 
the chicken grape. It is in the best order for the table 
in September and October; but in the middle of winter, 
when its food is limited, its flesh is said, after it has fed 
some time on the buds of the laurel, to partake of the 


poisonous qualities of ihis plant, and to become a dan- 
gerous food. This is a common opinion in relation to 
the flesh of this bird ; but I must confess that I have no 
personal knowledge of any bad eflfects from eating it at 
any season, nor have I ever met with any one who had. 

It is a bird of some sagacity, and when overtaken in 
an open wood will allow a person to pass close to it ; 
and when at a distance of ten to fifteen feet, will sud- 
denly dart off in an opposite direction. And I have 
known it, when come upon, to dart off, and keep a tree 
between itself and the gunner until too far off to get a 
shot at it. This fact has been mentioned to me by 
others, and I am inclined to think it more than accident, 
not that I mean to say the bird is aware of the gun and 
its effects, but that it considers its safety to consist in 
keeping itself out of sight. 

It is extremely difficult to get it to endure the point of 
a dog. Ho^must approach with great caution, and be 
satisfied when within twenty feet. An old dog is the 
the best for this game. In September, however, when 
the young, though well grown, are yet with the hen, 
they will lay well. On these accounts, and the thick 
cover they generally resort to, few of them are shot with 
the usual game-dog, and the greater number brought to 
market are either taken in traps or shot when budding 
or eating grapes, by gunners lying in wait for them, or 
by the aid of a small barking dog, (King Charles or the 
cocking spaniel, or springer) that will tree them. The 
time they choose for eating buds or grapes is about day- 
light or after sundown. Those acquainted with the 
haunts of this bird seek out their places and shoot them 
as they arrive, which is usually one at a time. Though 



sagacious in some respects, they are singularly stupid in 
others. Instances have been known of persons shooting 
several from the same tree, though all were there when 
the first was shot, by beginning with the one on the 
low^est limb, so that it would not disturb the others by 
its falling. It is a solitary bird, and after the young are 
weaned is seldom found in coveys. 

It pairs in April and builds its nest in May, choosing 
a place on the ground, sheltered by the root of a bush 
or by an old log. The nest is made of dry leaves and 
grass. It lays from ten to fifteen eggs, nearly as large 
as those of a pullet ; and the young leave the nest as 
soon as hatched, guided by their mother, who clucks to 
them like the common hen. 

A celebrated naturalist has remarked, that solitary 
animals cannot be completely tamed, which I believe 
holds good with this bird, as I have never known an 
instance of one being domesticated, or seeking shelter in 
the habitations of man during the severest winters, which 
the quail will frequently do. But I once saw one of 
these birds in a cage, which fed well, and would admit 
the approach of one's hand without showing much un- 
easiness. Their eggs have been hatched under the 
common hen, but the young have in all cases, (within 
my knowledge,) taken advantage of the first opportunity 
to escape and abandon their foster-mother. 

They are very fond of the steep declivities, thickly 
covered with evergreens, which so frequently charac- 
terize the banks of our running streams, and are also 
found abundantly in the heavy evergreen thickets, which 
so often cover our flat land streams. Thev lie in these 
grounds in numbers, but generally some feet apart, so 



that but one is flushed at a time. But to find them in 
numbers, these grounds must be unfrequented and dis- 
tant from habitations ; and when the thicket is narrow, 
which is frequently the case, each side occupied by one 
or two sportsmen having well-trained dogs, very fine 
'spoi*t may be made on them. 





This interesting game-bird is found all over our 
country, and in Canada and Nova Scotia. It is said to 
be* migratory, and that it passes in winter from the 
Northern and Eastern States, and the cold regions of the 
Alleghany Mountains, to the sea-coast of the Southern 
and Middle States^ and into the peninsula of Florida. It 
is not found in great numbers east of the Hudson and 
north of the Mohawk, but is extremely abundant in the 
Middle, Southern, and Western States. In a walk with 
dog and gun, of a mile to a mile and a half in Burling- 
ton county. New Jersey, I have frequently iSushed from 
ten to fifteen coveys; and in the bottom-lands of the 
Potomac, above tide-water, I have found them so abun- 
dant as really to distract the attention of both dog and 
sportsman. I am informed that they are equally abun- 
dant below. They appear to congregate in such places 
from the more barren high grounds of the vicinity. I 
have also found them very abundant in the stubble-fields 
of the lower part of the Chesapeake and its tributaries. 
I once spent the months of November and December in 
the neighbourhood of Mobjack Bay, and found the fields 
there so well supplied with them, that hunting of them 


lost some of its zest, for the want of the exercise and 
fatigue of the search. 

I have never gunned for them in the Western States, 
but from the representations of others, their numbers there 
exceed any knowledge we have of them on the Atlantic. 

Being entirely a granivorous and insectivorous, bird, 
they suffer exceedingly in severe winters, when the 
ground is a long time covered with deep snow. It is 
not uncommon, after such seasons, when the snow has 
disappeared, to find entire coveys frozen and dead, in 
the positions they usually occupy when at roost. Also, 
at such seasons, the difficulty of procuring food places 
them completely in the power of trappers, by whom 
vast numbers are annually destroyed. But another 
fertile source of destruction is, in robbing their nests 
and bringing their eggs to market. It behooves every 
friend of the delightful and healthy amusement which 
the hunting of these birds affords, zealously to discourage 
this most shocking practice* and every owner of a farm 
to prohibit his negroes from pursuing it, as it is only 
where negroes exist that I have found this practice 
pursued to a pernicious extent. 

Fair and legitimate gunning cannot be said to be 
destructive of these birds, but in fact tends to their 
preservation. By scattering and dividing the coveys, 
the effect of frequent gunning on them, they are less 
injured by trapping, and afford from their divided state 
so little encouragement to trappers^ that this method of 
taking them is nearly abandoned where gunning is 
actively pursued. These birds bree'd so abundantly, that 
it is not necessary that many should be preserved to 
keep up the stock. The gunner rarely destroys a covey, 
and when it becomes much reduced, seeks other ground. 



by which a sufficient oumber to breed are always 
spared; but the trapper, on the contrary, as rarely 
avoids capturing the entire covey,, and two or three 
heavy snows enable him completely to extirpate this 
bird within the limit of his operations. On this rea- 
soning, I have been able to account for a singular 
experience, which, as it is the result of many years of 
observation, may be received as a correct general truth. 
There is a part of Burlington county, New Jersey, io 
which I have been in the habit of gunning for many 
years. Some of the farmers in this neighbourhood leave 
their grounds open to all gunners, after the season under 
the law has commenced; others place their grounds 
under an interdict. These open grounds, in consequence, 
are visited by more gunners, and yet it is a singular fact 
that birds are here always to be found, and the stock 
renewed every fall, and apparently increasing, and not 
a trap is to be observed. On the contrary, when I have 
obtained permission to hunt on these interdicted grounds, 
I have uniformly been disappointed, finding very few 
birds, but the remains of a trap in nearly every hedge. 
Were I, therefore, to propose a plan of preserving these 
birds, it would be by prohibiting the robbing of their 
nests, fixing the season of shooting them by law, and 
then permitting all sportsmen to gun for them as fre- 
quently as they pleased. 

The quail builds its nest early in May, and is fond of 
a clover field for such a purpose. It usually seeks tbe 
shelter of a tuft of grass, and uses leaves and fine dry 
grass as materials for its nest. It lays from fifteen to 
twenty-four eggs, and many are of an opinion, that in the 
Middle and Southern States, it produces two broods a 
year. One thing is certain, that it is not uncommon in 


New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, to 
find it setting about harvest, and I have frequently in 
October found the young not more than a third grown. 
The period of incubation is about four weeks. ^ 

They have never been don>esticated. Their eggs 
have been hatched under the hen, and the young raised, 
and sufficiently tamed to occupy the barn-yard during 
the succeeding winter; but universally in the spring 
they would betake themselves to the fields, pair, and 
breed ; and haVe never been known to return again to 
the barn-yard. 

The American quail is much larger than the 'Euro- 
pean, full a third, and breeds more abundantly. En- 
deavours have been made to transport it to Europe, 
particularly to England, but I have not understood with 
what success. They prefer dry and open grounds, will 
feed upon any grain, but are particularly fond of buck- 
wheat, and I have thought that birds shot from the 
stubble of this grain, were of a very delicate flavour 
and remarkably juicy. 

Considering its numbers, size, good conduct before 
the dog, and its delicacy as a food, it may be ranked 
as the most interesting of our game-birds, and particu- 
larly when we bear in mind, that the sportsman has not, 
as when after the snipe and woodcock, to seek for it in 
swamps and wet places. It is unquestionably the finest 
bird upon which to break a dog, and well trained on 
this, he may be trusted on any other game. 




On the power given to the quail of withholding that peculiar 

odour which betrays it to the dog. 

WUmiogfon, Del^ Oct 14, 1829. 

Mr. Editor, " 

A CLOSE scrutiny of every subject in natufal history 
discloses some marvellous power given lo inferior crea- 
tures for their preservation from the hostility of man 
and his various and numerous agents. It is surprising 
how many striking facts are forced upon us for contem- 
plation, before any doctrine is thoroughly admitted as 
truth. How long, for instance, has it been observed, 
and with regret by sportsmen, that the best dogs could 
not discover certain birds of value, such as quails, in 
places where they were seen to settle by themselves; 
and yet years have rolled away without a single 
individual advancing the only rational idea of the proper 
cause^ The truth never reached them that these perse- 
cuted little creatures had been granted the power of 
withholding odour to preserve them from their ruthless 
destroyers. Noble dogs have been censured as wanting 
or careless, when the often repeated fact, in almost every 
day's hunt, made it manifest that the fault did not lay 
with them. Many years ago I noticed this fact, and 
after frequent and earnest observation I adopted the 
conclusion already given. 

I ^'ill state some of my observations and experiments. 

THS aiXAIL Oft PAXTSIOes. 121 


Precise dates are of no conseqaence, as the facts are 
general and open to the study of all who are interested. ^ 
It is now twenty years since I was, one day, in com- 
pany with my friend and companion, the late learned 
ornithologist, Alexander Wilson, assisting him in his 
endeavours aftei* the birds of this country. We encoun- 
tered a well-appointed party of gentlemen who were 
shooting quails. They had seven dogs, apparently of 
the best quality. The party were in a large stubble- 
field, having small patches of low bushes and briars in 
several places. From one of these was flushed a very 
large covey of quails, which, after having been vigor- 
ously fired upon, settled nearly in the centre of the field, 
in a place slightly depressed, where the stubble was 
unusually high, with rank clover underneath. The 
sportsmen pursued with due caution, giving the proper 
instructions and ample time to the dogs. Some of the 
birds were put up and killed, but not near as many as 
had taken refuge there. After considerable search the 
party left the ground. The deep interest I took in this 
(to me) new and animating scene, was the cause of my 
becoming a keen sportsman. Why so few of the birds 
were roused puzzled me exceedingly, and I, in common 
with every one, censured the dogs. Immediately adja- 
cent to this stubble, was a body of open woodland, in 
which Mr. Wilson was several hours engaged in his 
usual ardent study into the habits and manners of a 
number of small birds sporting in it. On our return 
homeward we crossed the stubble, directly past the spot 
where the quails had been hunted by the sportsmen. As 
we approached it, a bird flew up, and soon after another, 
and another, uiWil five went oflT. I expressed my sur- 
prise to Mr.^ Wilson, who dismissed the matter, by sup- 


posing, that the stronger scent from the feet of so many 
men b&d transcended that of the birds, and bewildered 
the dogs. Having been an anxious witness of the whole 
scene, I was not satisfied with this explanation, but 
believed the dogs to have been in fault. 

After the lapse of a few years I became exceedingly 
given to field sports, and was in possession of several 
fine dogs. It often happened that my dogs could not find 
quails, even when I had marked the settle and conducted 
them to it, especially when the cover was of thick and 
matted grass. In 1821, 1 obtained a pup of high pedi- 
gree and took the charge of his education upon myself. 
No animal of his kind ever surpassed him; but even 
with him I was often unaJble to flush a scared quail. I 
now first admitted the idea that these birds were endued 
with the occasional power of holding that effluvia which 
exposed them to their direst enemy. My remarks were 
genera], but tended to strengthen the opinion I had adopt- 
ed. For instance, I excursed very many times with 
large parties, where there might be said to be a pack oi 
dogs, from their number, and most of them approved 
hunters. Often have I seen in large clearings five or 
six coveys of quails flushed, amounting probably to a 
hundred birds, and although scarcely a brace of them 
would leave the open ground, not more than a fifth part 
of them could be recovered. The sportsmen did not 
seem to me tq think of the cause of their failure, and no 
one would disparage the truth of the charming Venuscs, 
Junes, Dianas, and Coras, so sedulously engaged for his 
amusement. After such a field, I have made it a prac- 
tice to return alone to it, after the lapse of sufficient time, 
and I always found that the birds had not left it ; but 
that having resumed their natural or usual habits, were 


easily flushed. In October, 1824, 1 became assured of 
the truth of my doctrine. I was then in company with 
five gentlemen in a fine quail country. We had eleven 
dogs (setters and pointers) of approved value. The 
party concluded to range a field or two before break- 
fast, but I did not go out with them. I soon heard very 
rapid firing in a new cleared ground, in sight of the 
tavern house. I hurried to join the sportsmen. There 
was a sm^ll strip of meadow-land, and a little brook 
intervening between us. On the margin of this meadow 
stood a large pine stump covered with running dewberry 
vines and surrounded by small oak shrubs. I was within 
sixty yards of it, and parallel to it, when two quails 
came directly towards me, across the meadow. Having 
but one barrel charged, I fired upon the nearest bird and 
killed it. The other made a sudden dart from its line, 
and took refuge among the shrubs and briars about the 
stumj5. I had my favourite dog and a very valuable 
pointer slut with me ; having re-charged, I approached 
in guard upon the marked bird; but the dogs gave no 
poin . This was the proper time to test my belief. I 
therefore called off the dogs, and waited until I could 
have every one on the ground brought to the spot. This 
was done, but there was no intimation given that there 
was a bird near us. We left the ground without remark 
or explanation, and retired to breakfast. In an hour we 
took the field for the day. I requested the gentlemen to 
indulge me again by an advance upon the stump, lead- 
ing the van myself with the pointer slut; she^instantly 
pointed, and the other dogs backed her; the bird was 
flushed and shot. I now explained myself fully, and 
Mr. Edward Tilghman, well known to most American 
sportsmen, was greatly struck with it. He expressed 




great pleasure too at it, as he said it would save many 
valuable animals from unmerited censure. He told me, 
moreover, that he had more than once noticed the same 
fact with partridge and grouse. I think it highly probable 
that these birds are endowed with the same power; but 
I have no^ had sufficient experience to speak of them 
with any certainty. Last week, in one of our steam- 
boats, Colonel S. B. Davis, formerly of the United States 
Army, a great sportsman in his day, asked me, without 
any previous conversation on the subject, why the best 
dogs could not sometimes find a single quail in open 
ground? The fact was forced upon him, but he had 
not thought of the solution here advanced. 

Yours, respectfully, 

Samuel B. Smith, M. D. 



This bird is well known to all our sportsmen* It 
usually begins to lay its eggs in April, but nests with 
^gs are frequently found in February and March, as 
far north as Pennsylvania. Its nest is made on the 
ground, and is cotpposed of grass and a few dry leaves. 
It lays four eggs generally, but five have been found in 
its nest. In July they are considered sufficiently grown 
for the sportsmen, but it is not uncommon in that month 
to find many too young to be without the care of the 
mother, which is always indicated by the action of the 
old bird when flushed, called hovering. The true sports- 
man, in such cases, withholds his fire» and spares the. 
imploring mother and her young. 

It is found throughout the United States 4ind Canada, 
and passes to the south as the winter approaches. I 
have found them in great numbers in South Carolina in 

The female is larger thim the mate, but both are 
considerably smaller than the European bird of the 
same name, and are also of a different species. Thos^ 
who have eaten of both kinds pronounce tb^ American 
the more delicate. 


I have never m^t with them elsewhere ia as great 
abundance as in New Jersey. The extensive, wild, and 
wet meadows of that state, are favourite places of resort 
for them, during the drought so usual with us in July 
and August They congregate in such places at those 
seasons, in numbers truly astonishing, and incredible to . 
those who have not witnessed it. Here the sportsman 
may easily fill his bag, without greater risk than an 
occasional plunge, belly deep, into a mud-hole, which is 
not so much to be regretted, as it breaks in upon the 
monotony of killing, and affords a hearty laugh to his 

A great fault in sportsmen, on this as well as other 
birds, is the ambition of killing for quantity^ which 
occasions them to protract their hunt until many of the 
birds are spoiled by the heat and delay. The sportsman 
should have a spice of chivalry in his composition; he 
should not be merely a wanton and reckless destroyer. 
He should always spare the hovering bird, and <;onfine 
his efibrts to others, to the number he can carry in 
order to his home, for his friends or himself. I have 
known this pernicious system of shooting for quantity 
pursued on the grouse, and to gratify the false pride of 
killing more than any other party, the time protracted 
until all the .birds killed on the first day were spoiled 
and had to be thrown away. You should raise your 
voice against this growing and vicious ambition, and 
establish it as a rule among sportsmen, that credit 
should be given only for such game^ as each returned 
with in good order. Our Indians look upon this habit 
of the whites with the utmost horror. He kills and 
wastes, say they, without object \ and riots over life as 
if it were a thing of no value. - The game vanishes 


from his desolating path, and the ground is covered by 
his destroying hand with that which he does not mean 
to use* The bounteous gifts of the Great Spirit are the 
mere objects of his wantoa destruction. 

We should redeem ourselves from this just reproach, 
and infusa some prudential consideration and moral 
feeling in our hours of sport. 

TJje woodcock is easily killed; a slight blow will 
bring him to the ground. I have frequently looked in 
vain for marks of the shot upon their bodies, and have 
been led to suppose that young birds will drop sometimes 
from fright at the report of the gun, and allow them- 
selves to be picked up. 

They are juicy in July and August, but seldom fat. 
In September they are generally in bad condition ; it is 
their moulting season, which lasts until about the 20th, 
when they are also very difficult to find. After about 
the 20th, they show themselves more abundantly, and 
improve in condition rapidly. In October and November 
they are in prime order, fat, juicy, and full-feathered; 
bold in their flight, and less firm to the dog. They leave 
also in these months, their usual summer haunts, and are 
found in clear woods with a damp soil well covered with 
grass. They are also frequently found late in November 
on the south sides of wooded hills, apparently basKing or 
resting. On such occasions the sportsman must not 
lose a moment, as these are generally migrating birds, 
and are off by the next day, as I have experienced on 
more occasions than one. 

Their food consists of worms, and the larvae of insects. 
It turns over old leaves to draw the latter from its abode, 
and seeks the former in wet boggy ground by boring. 
I have never seen it in the act of boring, but I have been 




told by several old sportsiuen, that in performing this 
operation, it first strikes its bill in the soil, then raiding 
on its feet, opens its tail and wings, and flutters round 
upon its bill as a pivot When in full plumage it is a 
beautiful bird, and of an extremely mild and kind aspect 
I have frequently felt something like reaK>rse, when, on 
picking up a wounded one, I have met the forgiving 
expression of its full and bright, yet soft hazel orb. How 
many of the beauties who dazzle and enslave us, would 
be proud of such an eye. 


. . i . ? r. L^ t^i^ GROUSE-SHOOTING. 

Philadelphia, January 23d, 1830. 

Mr. Editor, 

I have perused the numbers of your Sporting Maga- 
zine as they have appeared, without finding any thing 
in them relative to grouse-shooting. As I have been a 
shooter of this de^fcription of game for the last ten years, 
and eonsidering it the finest sport in the game line that 
we have in this country, I am induced to give you a 
hasty sketch of my sport the present season, accompa- 
nied with a few observations. My hunting has always 
been on the coalings or barrens of New Jersey, though 
they are found in greater numbers in this State— -the 
birds of the former, however, are always preferred. 

My first trip was on the 20th of August, which, by 
the by, is more than a month before the season, (1st of 
October,) according to the laws of that State, but less 
than a fortnight (1st of September) of the time it should 
commence — even thus early I found them very wild, 
and cut up into pairs and small packs, by previous 
hunters, who live in the neighbourhood, and commence 
upon them by the 1st of August, or in fact whenever 
they are to be found, equally regardless of their total 



130 GH0U8B*8H00T1NG. 

extinguishment, or destroying a whole pack at a single 
fire, by killing a brooding hen. This at least should be 
remedied. Myself and companions, three in number, 
arrived at a cabin near the hunting-ground on the 
evening previous, preferring a night's rest to one of 
fatigue and travelling, that we might be fresh for the . 
morning's hunt — in this last reasonable expectation, we 
were, however, defeated, by an old sow and her pro- 
geny, who, doubtless, had been deposed to make room 
for us, and by whom we were annoyed almost un- 
ceasingly during the night, and before it was light, sans 
ceremonie, was determined to be reinstated in their lost 
possessions, part of her family having actually taken 
a berth alongside of us in bed — if an old blanket spread 
on some straw, and our great coats for covering, can 
merit the name of bed. We were all hunters, however, - 
and expected slim accommodations in this part of the 
country, nor were we disappointed. After an early 
breakfast and some, twenty minutes' walk, we found 
ourselves by a little after sunrise on the grouse ground. 
The morning was cool for so early in the season, damp, 
and windy — and in a very little time General A.'s cele- 
brated old setter dog Bone, indicated sport close at 
hand, and our other three younger dogs became very 
eager, but to no purpose, as we found, after sufficient 
time for ranging and giving them, pretty much their 
own way, that the birds had flushed. We pursued our 
route, and soon after crossing some unfavourable ground 
and a slough, Mr. C.'s young dog Pan soon struck on a 
trail, and my dog. Major, who had crossed to the wind- 
ward about a hundred yards, had actually brought up — 
the other dog§ immediately backing as they discovered 
him. Now, all was trembling anxiousness — we paused 




a moment for- the better self-possession, and then walked 
ahead of the dogs. The first bird to rise, which is 
most generally 'the case, was the pinnated cock, who 
was immediately knocked down by General A.'s first 
barrel— this alv^ays should be endeavoured to be done, 
as you then have a much better chance of success with 
the balance of the pack. Not a word was spoken — all 
grouse-shooters are aware of the necessity of silence 
when game is supposed close at hand — indeed at no time 
of the hunt should any noise be made — you may fire 
&s often as you choose without fear of flushing the birds, 
but the moment your voice is heard they will flush. As 
an instance in proof of this, a friend of mine last season 
but one, assured me that he had killed twelve birds out 
of a pack of thirteen, without picking up a bird till the 

* last had rose, which he missed ; therefore the necessity 
of having staunch and well-broken dogs in hunting 
them. There is not one young dog in fifty but that will 
ruin your sport in grouse-shooting. After his charging, 
we approached where we supposed the remaining birds 
to be, and soon flushed two more — bolb down — three 
barrels discharged. After re-lo^ding, we continued to 
range this ground, but without any further success, it 
being no doubt the remains of a pack, and to which we 
gave the finale. We continued on through a very warm 
and oppressive day — the wind having lulled, and the 
sunbeams pouring down upon us, rendered it the most 

» trying to one's nerve and bottom I ever experienced, 
and which can only be judged of by those who have 
experienced it, — ^with some fine trailing and standing at 
single birds, and most generally bagging them. They 
being found thus singly, proves what I have before said 
of their being killed off so early in the season. When 


we returned by the ground where, in the- morning, we 
had been disappointed in sport — nor bad we scatcely 
got on it, when old Bone (as tough as obe yet, although 
thirteen years old), came to ^fidl stop, with every nerve 
extended, and was soon backed by the others in the most 
splendid style — we walked in at once, without the morn- 
ing's precaution of self-possession, as we had become 
somewhat accustomed to it by the day's sport, and 
flushed eight birds, almost at the same moment, a thing 
quite unusual, and only to be accounted for by their 
being so near each other, and preparing for roost By 
the rapid discharge. of six barrels, five were knocked 
down — the other three crossing a stream bordered by 
cedars, settled in a cripple beyond, some five or six 
hundred yards from where they were put up. We re- , 
loaded and pursued, but it had become too late to do 
any thing, and after putting up one bird, and that 
getting off, we gave it up for the night, after a hard 
hunt and bagging fourteen grouse. The birds were 
then drawn, although dark, and stuffed with a peculiar 
description of wet moss, procurable only near streams 
of cedar ^ater : returning to the cabin of pig and pro* 
geny, and taking a wee drop and a hasty luncheon, (the 
first of the latter since morning,) we soon departed for 
a more comfortable lodging in a less forlorn neighbour- 
hood — Burlington, N. J. 

At this early period in the season you can have bat 
one day's shooting, if successful, as no method with 
which I am acquainted will preserve the birds more 
than a couple of days ; and for that length of time it is 
necessary they should be drawn, as before observed, 
immediately after they are killed, and packed in pow- 
dered charcoal. Early in the season, when found in 


the savannah grounds, shot No. 5 or 6 is sufficiently 
large — later, when they are on high ground amongst 
the scrub oaks, shot No. 4 is the proper size. 

The author of the " Shooter's Manual" recommends 
shot No. 3 and 4 early in the season, and No. 1 or 
single B. later. These sizes are much too large, and I 
doubt their ever being used as specified by him — or if 
ever used by him, proves at once what knowledge he 
possesses of this species of game. I am acquainted 
with most of the grouse-hunters of the day, and I doubt 
being able to find one that at any time of the season 
ever used larger than No. 3. In the same work it is 
stated, that '* grouse always feed and fly down the 
wind ;*' — ^this is erroneous, as I have known the con- 
trary in both cases. Indeed, in the latter, it depends 
entirely on the direction they are come upon and 
flushed, as they always either make a slight angle, or 
fly straight from you — nine out of ten cases the latter 
is the fact, the wind to the contrary notwithstanding. 
And when once they have got their usual elevation, the 
direction of their flight is seldom varied, without their 
being forced or frightened from it. This I know to be 
a fact from observation, and the experience of ten 
successive years hunting them. 

Yours, respectfully, 

J. B. D. 




This is the bird commonly called the English snipe, 
and also frequently the Jack «nipe. It has a very strong 
resemblance to the common snipe of Great Britain, to 
which circumstance it is probably indebted for one of 
its appellations. It is smaller, however, than its Euro- 
pean congener, which, with other distinctive marks, 
have induced naturalists to consider it a different spe- 
cies. It is very rarely found in Europe. 

Like the woodcock, it is a bird of passage, and found 
in the Middle and Northern States only in the spring and 
fall, when they are frequently shot in great numbers. In 
the winter they frequent the rice-grounds of the south. 

The history of this bird is somewhat obscure. We 
know not where it breeds, its. manner of constructing its 
nest, the number of eggs it lays, or time of incubation. 
For although I have frequently shot them late in the 
season containing eggs with the shell nearly formed, I 
have never met with the young, or with any one who 
has, and have frequently heard it as a banter among 
sportsmen, Can you tell where the snipe breeds, or have 
you ever seen its young ? it is knolk^n, therefore, with 
us, only as a bird of passage. Wilson furnishes no 
information on these points of its history. 



Its irregular and zigzag motion on rising from the 
ground, perplexes the young sportsman exceedingly, 
and frequently baffles his efforts, and has occasioned 
this bird to be considered as difficult to shoot ; but the 
more experienced, aware of its habits, wait until it has 
attained its elevation; when its flight is steady and 
direct, and it then becomes a certain conquest. 
, During the periods of its migration, it is found in all 
our wet, low, open grounds, is rather a shy bird, and I 
am inclined to think may be hunted more successfully 
without than with a dog. It bears his approach with 
extreme restlessness, and to be of any use to his master 
he must be slow and cautious, and satisfied with a dis- 
tant point. The woodcock, on the contrary, particu- 
larly in the early part of the season, will frequently rest 
under his nose. This difference may, however, be 
accounted for by a difference in choice of ground. 
Each likes it wet, but the snipe prefers the meadow 
with a short grass ; the woodcock, on the contrary, 
seldom takes to meadows where the grass is not long 
and the cover close. 




In treating of the diseases of these animals, the com- 
panions and friends of man, the same order will be 
adopted that has been pursued in the pathology of the 

Of inflammation generally, it is unnecessary again to 
speak ; and although there are many diseases A^hich 
are connected with an inflammatory stat« of the brain, 
a case of pure phrenilis has rarely, if ever, been seen in 
tbe^og; nor is there any thing that bears strict re- 
semblance to either vertigo or apoplexy. That which 
comes the nearest to them shall be the subject of the 
first chapter. 



This singular disease is thus characterized: — The dog 
is continually running round and round ; and where he 
has liberty to do so he will continue this action almost 
from morning until night He performs these incessant 
circles in precisely the same direction, and generally 
^ith his head a little inclined to the inside of the circle. 
At first he is conscious of surrounding objects ; he stops 
for a moment when spoken to ; but immediately after- 
wards he resumes his perambulations, carefully steering 
clear of every impediment in his way. After the first 
or second day, he usually becomes both blind and deaf, 
and yet still he marches round, blundering against 
every thing, arid this he continues until he is fairly worn 
ont, when he dies in slight convulsions. 

On examination after death, there will generally be 
found pressure on some part of the brain, and on the side 
towards which the animal inclined his head. The nature 
of that pressure is variable. Spiculae of bone have been 
seen pressing upon, and entering into the substance of 
the brain : sometimes eflfusion of blood on the brain has 
been found, and, oftener, an accumulation of serous 
fluid in the ventricles. 

188 DI8EA8B8 OF DOGS. 

Thi» is a disease which has been uniformly fatal, and 
the dog labouring under it should be destroyed. If, 
however, the veterinarian is urged to do something, his 
course is plain. He must first bleed, and that copiously, 
in proportion to the size of the dog. The -medium 
quantity of blood to be taken away in the various dis- 
eases of dogs may be calculated at about an ounce for 
every three pounds of general weight. In such a case, 
a far greater quantity should be abstracted. 

The jugular is the most convenient vessel for bleeding 
both in the horse, and cattle, and dogs. 

Purgative medicine must next be given. The best 
physic ball for dogs is the following : — 

RECIPE (No. 1). 

Phytic Balls. 

Takk — Powdered Barbadoee aloes, eigh| ounces ; 
Calomel, one ounce ; 
Antimonial powder, one ounce ; 
Ginger* one ounce ; 
Palm-oil, five ounces : 
Beat them well together, enclose the mass in a jar, where it may be 
defended from the air by a piece of bladder, and give from three quarters 
of a drachm to two drachms, according to the size of the animal. 

The bowels should afterwards be kept open by daily 
doses of Epsom salts ; one or two drachms of which 
should be given rolled in silver paper, and divided into 
portions according to the size of the dog. A seton in 
the nape of the neck, and extending from ear to ear, 
is also clearly indicated ; and, to prevent the exhaustion 
of the animal, he should be put into a basket, or boXf 
in which he will be unable to perform these circum- 
volutions '^ he will then lay himself quietly down. 


[A vein may be distinguished from an artery by its hav- 
ing no pulsation. If an artery of any consequence should 
be divided the blood will flow in irregular gushes, it will 
be difficult to stop, and may cause the death of the dog. 
However, there is little danger of such an unpleasant 
circumstance happening, and an ordinary degree of at- 
tention is quite sufficient to obviate it. The most con- 
venient and best place to bleed a dog is to open a vein 
(the jugular vein) longitudinally in the side of the neck, 
around which a cord should be first tied. And if the 
sportsman is not expert at handling a lancet he may 
purchase a fleam at any of the shops where surgical in- 
struments are sold, which, by means of springs, is so 
contrived that the greatest bungler need be under no 
apprehension. Those who sell this instrument will de^ 
scribe the method of using it ; which, indeed, is so ob- 
vious, at first view, as to render elucidation superfluous 
in this place. 

. If, after the vein is opened, the animal should not 
bleed freely, pressure, a little below the orifice, will 
cause the blood to flow. When sufficient blood has 
been taken (eight ounces if a strong dog) the bleeding 
will, generally, subside. Should this not be the case, a 
little fur from a hat will stop it; or, the lips of the 
orifice may be drawn together with a needle and thread. 

The vein should be opened longitudinally, as I have 
already observed; as,. if opened in a transverse direction, 
it may be difficult to stop the bleeding, owing to the cir<- 
cumstance of the incision opening 'levery time the dog 
holds down or stretches his head. 

Caustic, or hot iron will stop a bleeding, even when 
an artery is divided ; or it may be sewn up.] 

140 MtBAMi OF D066* 

This dreadful disease is comparatively rare in the 
horse, and when it does appear, it is usually propagated 
to him from the dog. 

Rabies is said to be produced by improper food, by 
want of water, by hot weather, and by various other 
causes. It has but one origin^ and thai is inoculation. 
It is conveyed from one animal to another by the bite 
alone, or by the poison which resides in the saliva being 
received on some wounded or abraded surface. 

The knowledge of this should teach the owners of all 
dogs a lesson of caution, and should check that foolish 
fondness for useless dogs in which so many indulge. 
The humane person will never ill u^e the animals which 
he has domesticated, and which are serviceable to him ; 
but there is a foolish fondness for the dog, an endurance 
of his caresses, and his lickings — lickings of the hand 
and of the face, which places in continual danger the 
persons who can indulge in so absurd a habit; and the 
penalty of which many more than the public are aware 
of, have paid with their lives. 

The dog that is becoming rabid is dull, disinclined for 
food, more than usually ill-tempered, fidgety, and dis- 
contented. If he is closely watched, there is usually 
some part which he is eagerly licking, or biting, or 
scratching. It is the place where he was bitten, and 
which now seems to be itching intolerably, or to give 
him very great pain. 

Soon afterwards a very considerable change takes 
place in his whole appearance and manner, and it as- 

KABIK8 — MAOKSflS. 141 

sumes one of two forms. The eye becomes intensely 
bright and glaring; the dog is continually on the watch, 
and is tracing the fancied path of some imaginary 
object* He darts at every fly ; he darts at many a thing 
that has no existence bat in his own disturbed imagina- 
tion; he makes the most violent efforts to escape; he 
gnaws his kennel almost to pieces. If a dog or a 
strange person comes within his reach, he flies at them 
with the greatest fury; sometimes he does not respect 
even his master; he seizes a stick when presented to 
him, and shakes it furiously. 

He is in incessant action : he scrapes his bed under 
his chest : he dieses of it in a thousand ways, and yet 
is unable to make himself comfortable ; and, every now 
and then, he lifts his head and utters a howl, altogether 
characteristic of the mad dog. 

If he is enabled to effect his escape, he wanders 
hither and thither, seeking for victims; he surmounts 
every obstacle in order to get at them ; he travels many 
and many a mile ; yet he seldom worries or tears his 
prey ; he gives one bite, and his object is accomplished. 
If he is not stopped in his career of mischiff, and 
knocked on the head as a mad dog, he at length 
becomes wearied, and finds his way home, and curls 
himself up in his kennel, and sleeps away twelve or 
twenty-four hours ; when, if he has the opportunity, he 
sallies out again in search of fresh objects. 

His appetite is variable; sometimes he will eat his 
usual food, and at other times he cannot be tempted 
with it ; but, almost always, there is a singularly de- 
praved appetite: he eats his own excrement, laps his 
own urine, and fills his stomach with every abominable 
thing. His thirst is always increased, and when he can 

143 DI8BA0B8 OF DOGS. 

get at water he drinks a most extraordinary quantity 
of it. 

This stage of ferocity and danger lasts about two 
days ; and then the brightness of the eye dies away — a 
film steals over it — the dog becomes weak — he staggers 
about — and dies four or five days after the commence- 
ment of the attack. 

At other times, rabies assumes a very difierent cha- 
racter. The dog does not exhibit the slightest symptom 
of ferocity, or even of ill-temper, unless he is very much 
put upon ; but there is ,the peculiar glare of the eye, yet 
expressive of anxiety and supplication; there is the 
same making of the bed, but not with so much violence ; 
the same watching of imaginary objects, but no attempt 
to seize them. The dog recognises hia owner and 
obeys him, and fondles upon him. 

The lower jaw, after the first day, begins to lose its 
power of motion ; the dog may be^ able to close his 
mouth by a violent effort, but he cannot seize and mas- 
ticate his food. The jaw hangs down, and the tongue 
protrudes. There is the same thirst, but the poor fellow 
is unable to swallow : and he hangs over the water for 
a quarter of an hour at a time, plunging his muzzle into 
it up to his eyes, covering it with the spume which flows 
from his lips, yet unable to get a drop into the back 
part of the mouth. There is rarely any howl, but a 
harsh inward sound in the throat. 

The disease continues about the same time; the dog 
becomes weak; he staggers; he loses the use of his 
hinder limbs ; and dies without a struggle. 

The appearances after death are different in the two 
varieties of the malady. In the first there is generally 
great inflammation about the back part of the mouth, 

BABIB8— MADlfEBS. 143 

and the upper part of the windpipe ; inflammation also 
in the stomach; and the stomach contains more or 
less of the strange substances of which mention has 
been made: in the latter there* is less inflammation in the 
throat, and less also in the stomach; but yet sufficient to 
mark the disease, and the stomach usually contains a 
dark, blackish fluid* 

Of the medical treatment of rabies in the dog little 
that is satisfactory can be said. If the animal is of 
extraordinary value, the owner may perhaps be forgiven 
if he endeavours to save him after he has been bitten. 
In that case he should be shorn from the head to the 
tail, and every wound and scratch ^ell burned with the 
lunar caustic. He should then be securely confined for 
seven or nine months; for until the expiration of that 
time he cannot be considered as safe; and there are a 
few instances, yet fortunately only a few, in which the 
disease has appeared at a more distant period. 

As to preventives, no dependence can be placed upon 
them, and it will generally be the duty of the practi- 
tioner to urge the destruction of every dog that has 
been bitten, or on which any suspicion can lie. Human 
life is far too valuable to be ^ endangered ; and, even 
after the most careful search, and the freest use of the 
caustic, there will always be a degree of apprehension 
and fear attending the keeping of such a dog, and a 
consciousness of not doing that which is perfectly right, 
that will materially lessen the pleasure that should other- 
wise be felt in having these faithful animals about us. 

A practitioner is exposed to considerable danger in 
the examination of suspected dogs, and he may deem 
himself fortunate if he is not, at some time or other, 
bitten by them. The remembrance of this ought td 


render him cautious. But if he should be bitten, let him 
not make himself unhappy about it The prevention of 
the disease is in his own power, and it will only cost 
him a little pain. Let himisharpen his lunar caustic to a 
point ; and, if it is a superficial wound, apply it with 
some severity to every portion of the surface. If it is a 
punctured wound, let him be assured that he reaches 
the very bottom of it, and destroys every part that the 
tooth of the dog can have touched, and then there wiU 
be a perfect end of the matter. He may dismiss all 
fear — there is no absorption, or, at least, no immediate 
absorption in these cases; but, the surface to which 
the virus was applied being destroyed, all possible 
danger is destroyed with it. 

This is not, and cannot, be the case with the dog; for 
even after he is shorn, some little scratch or abrasion 
may, and too often will, escape notice, concealed amidst 
the roots of the hair, and where the poison may still 
fatally lurk. 

[An esteemed friend. Col. N. G., of Talbot Co., Mary- 
land, to whose opinions we habitually defer, suggests 
rather as a question than a fact, whether Rabies, or 
Hydrophobia, has ever been known to originate with the 
female dog ? With this doubt he couples the observation, 
said to have been made by late Commddore Kennedy, 
that in Turkey, where, he said, mad dogs are unknown, 
• the sln^s are never drowned or destroyed, as they are, 
for the most part, in this, and other countries where 
this awful malady takes place. The same gentleman, 
(Col. 6.) is under the impression that dogs, usually go 
mad in the extremes of hot or cold weather, when 
the streams of , water are either dried, or frozen over. 
Thence he infers that madness may proceed from either 


excessive carnal excitement or thirst ! He queries 
whether it might not be well to emasculate the male 
pups in the proportion that females are destroyed; 
and humanely recommends that we never allow a dog 
to suffer for water, as doubtless they, as well as our 
horses, and other domestic animals, and even young 
children often do. The safest, and most humane pro- 
ceeding is, when a dog is known to have been bitten by 
a mad dog, to destroy him at once. Emasculation leads 
to fatness^ and imbecility, physical and mental. Every 
man of feeling will regard it as an extreme exercise of 
arbitrary power, to Ijjb stigmatized as a cruelty when 
not resorted to for obviously good and adequate reasons. 
The great equestrians Pepin and Brechard said they 
would never again undertake to educate a gelding for 
the circus, as they were found to be inferior in aptness 
and docility to the stallion and the mare.] 




These may be divided into such as afiect the external 
and the internal parts of the ear. « 
Among those of the flap of the ear are, 


A scurfy roughness spreads around the edge of the 
ear, attended with a little thickening of the part, and in- 
tolerable itching. An eighth part of mercurial ointment 
should be added to the common dog mange ointment/ 
and a little of the compound well rubbed into the ear 
niorning and night. 

RECIPE (No. 2). 

Mange Ointment, 

Take — Comtnon horse turpentine, and 
Palm-oil, of each a pound; 
Train-oil, half a pint : melt them togfether, and when 

they begin to cool, stir in 
Flower of sulphur, three pounds. 

At the same time, as this is usually connected with 
some mangy aflection, a physic ball (Recipe No. 1, p« 


DI0BA8B8 OF THE KAR8. 147 

138) should be given on every fifth morning, and an 
alterative ball on each of the intermediate days. 

RECIPE (Na 3). 

Alterative batU, - 

Takx — Flower of sulphur, two potindfi and a half; 
Nitre, half a pound ; 
Ethiops mineral, four ounces ; 
Linseed-meal, half a pound; 
Palm-oil, one pound : 
Beat them all together, and keep the mass in a jar for us^. In win- 
ter a little more, and in summer a little less, of the palm-oil must be 

Huntsmen and gamekeepers are fond of the sulphur 
vivum, and use it instead of the yellow sulphur ; but it 
contains little more than the earthy residuum after the 
sulphur has run through a crucible, except that it often 
contains some poisonous mineral, as arsenic. 

Spaniels ^re most subject to this scurfy affection of 
the edge of the ear ; pointers frequently have a more se- 
rious complaint 4 


The pointer is always a fidgety, impatient dog ; and 
if there is any thing about the face, or any little heat in 
the ear to annoy him, he will shake his head and flap 
and beat his ears without mercy. In consequence of 
this, a sore is produced on the edge of the ear, of a cor- 
roding nature, and which eats even through the cartilage, 
making a deep slit into it. 

The sportsman having in vain tried many an applica- 


tion in order to get rid of this, often proceeds in a sum- 
mary way. He raund,s the ear, u e.f he cuts off a por- 
tion of the flap, including the whole extent of the slit ; 
and then he rounds the edges of the remaining part, in 
order to produce as little deformity as possible. 

It is notorious, howeirer, that this operation, which 
would seem to promise perfect success, fails much oftener 
than it succeeds. Possibly, care has not been taken to 
prevent the blood from flowing over the old wound, and 
then back again upon the new one, and so empoisoning the 
freshly cut edge : but, whatever be the cause, the sports- 
man sometimes has recourse to his rounding iron again 
and again, until he is tired of punishing the poor animal, 
or the dog has no more ear to lose. It is also to be ob- 
served, that the repetition of the rounding produces so 
much inflammation of the ear, that a worse species of 
canker is frequently set up in the internal part of it. 

The principle on which the cure of canker is founded 
is the confinement of the ear, and the prevention of 
fresh irritation ; therefore a cap must be procured which 
will reach round the head and tie under the jaw, 
and fairly include the ear. A running string must go 
along the side towards the face, and also that which 
comes behind the ear, while a shorter string is sewed in 
the centre. By means of these tapes or strings the cap 
may be tied securely over the head above the eyes, and 
round the neck behind the ears, and the flapping of the 
ear altogether prevented. 

An ulcer of this character will require some stimu- 
lating application in order to induce it to heal. 



RECIPE (Na 4). 

C«tnkmr mnHneiU, 

Taxb*— White vitriol ; and 

Alam, of eaeh a drachmt reduce them to a fine 

powder, aad mix them with 
Four oonces of lard. 

This must not merely be smeared over the sore, or 
placed on it by means of a piece of lint, but gently, yet 
well rubbed into the crack. 

Should this produce much inflammation and swelling, 
the application of it may be omitted for a day, and the 
healing ointment substituted. 

RECIPE (No. 5). 

Healing OitUment* 

TAKS-^Palm-oil, three pounds ; 

Resin, one pound : melt them together, and when 

they begin to cool, add 
Finely-powdered calamine, one pound : 
Stir the mixture until the whole is ^ed. 

When the inflammation is thus subdued, the canker 
ointment must be again applied, unless the wound begins 
to assume a healthy appearance, and heals at the edges, 
in which case the healing ointment must be continued 
until the cure is complete. 

It will sometimes happen that the caustic ointment, 
after being apparently used with advantage 'for some 
time, begins to lose its effect It must be then changed 
for another application, equally stimulating, but of a 
different nature. 


RECIPE (Nu. 6). 

Stronger Canker Ointment. 

Taks — ^Nitrate of biWot, one 0cra|^ ; 
Lard, one oonce : 
Rub them well together. 

This should be applied in the same manner, and 
succeeded by the healing ointment always. The cap 
should be worn for a few days after the ulcer is'healed, 
for the part will be tender, and the dog will be apt to' 
beat the ear about again, and make it as bad as ever. 


This is a frequent consequence of the flapping and 
beating of the ears- A swelling will be observed on the 
inside of the flap, and extending sometimes from the tip 
to thjB base of the ear. It evidently contains a fluid. If 
it is noticed in its early stage, or if it increases very 
slowly, it may be worth while to attempt to disperse it 
by cold applications. Equal parts of vinegar and water 
will often be very useful for this purpose. 

This course of treatment must not, however, be per- 
sisted in too long. If it is evident that the tumour, 
instead of diminishing, is continuing to increasCt it must 
be opened, and the fluid evacuated. It will be useless 
merely to puncture with a lancet, for the orifice will 
close, and the swelling rapidly fill again. Either a 
seton must be passed through the tumour, or it most 
be slit up with a lancet from end to end. The latter is 
the preferable way. The black net-work lining of the 


cyst — the secreting surface — must be carefully taken 
out, and three or four pieces of lint tnust be introduced 
between the lips of the wound, and extending into the 
cyst, in order to prevent the incision from closing before 
the sides of the cyst had b^un to adhere. In the 
course of a few days they will adhere ; the .cyst will 
close up as far as the incision ; and then the wound may - 
be permitted to heal. 


This is the most serious afiection of the ears of 
dogs. The first symptom is shaking of the head, and 
perhaps carrying it a little on one side, and scratching 
with greater or less violence about the ear. On ex- 
amining the dog, the projections about the base of the 
inside of the ear will be found to be a little more en- 
larged and a little redder than usual. The membrane 
lining the inside of the ear is inflamed. 

Two or three fomentations with warm water, or with 
a decoction of poppy-heads, and a good dose of physic, 
will abate, if not remove this. 

If the inflammation is suffered to proceed, there will 
soon be perceived, at the base of the inside of the ear, a 
dark red deposit; it is the blood which was effused by 
means of the intensity of the inflammation, the aqueous 
portion having evaporated. The dog now evidently 
suffers to a considerably greater degree than he did 

A 6ourse of physic and alterative medicines (Recipes 
No. 1 and 3, pp. 138, 147) must now be commenced ; 
and some local applications made to the ear, as well to 

162 I>I8EAflB8 OF D006. ^ 

abate the inflammation as to prevent the oozing out of 
more blood. A decoction of poppy-heads or foxglove 
leaves will effect the first intention; and the redness 
having. somewhat disappeared^ and the heat abated, the 
following lotion should be used« 

RECIPE (No. 7). 

MUd Canker Lotion, 

Taxi — Infusion of leaves of foxglove, half a pint ; 
Groulard extract, half an ounce ; 
Mix them together. 

There is some art in the application of these lotions 
to the ear, and two persons are required in order to' do 
it effectually. One of them must hold the muzzle of the 
dog with his right hand, having the root of the ear in the 
hollow of the leiFt hand, and between the fore-finger and 
the thumb. The second person must then pour half a tea- 
spoonful of thoi-liquid into the ear, when the first person, 
without quitting the muzzle of the dog, should close the 
ear, and gently mould it, until the liquid has insinuated 
itself into the interior of the ear, and disappeared there. 

In a few cases, the disease will not yield to this treat- 
ment, or it will have advanced beyond t^e early and 
manageable stage before it is seriously attacked ; and, 
instead of the reddish-black deposit, there will be ulcera- 
tion at the base of the ear, and a discharge of matter 
from it. If the discharge is offensive, the ear should be 
washed out two or three times a day with a weak solu- 
tion of chloride of lime. ^ 



RECIPE (No. 8). 

Loiian of CMoride of JUwu. 

TAKS^-Chloride of lime, a scrapie ; 
Water, half a pint: 
Mix them together, and apply them to the ear in the manner described 
in the last Recipe. 

The mild canker lotion should be tried 'first; and if 
that fails, the following one may be resorted to:— 

RECIPE (Na 9). 

Strong Canker Lotion, 

Taks— Goolard's extract, two drachms ; 
White vitriol, one drachm ; 
Alum, two drachms ; 
Water, half a pint 

This may seem to be an unchemical mixture, but it is 
an exceedingly good one. The principal ingredient in 
it, when compounded, is acetate of zinc, which could not 
be conveniently made in any other way. 

Should the application of this give the dog very great 
pain, it may be lowered by adding four ounces more of 
the water; the seeming expression of pain, however, 
may be caused by the sudden application of a cold lotion 
to the irrital^le surface of the ear ; therefore, before the 
fresh quantity of water is added, a little of the lotion 
should be warmed in a pewter or iron spoon held over 
the flame of a candle, ana then poured into the ear. 

If the case does not proceed satisfactorily, the princi- 
ples of counter-irritation and derivation must be resorted 
to, and a seton must be passed across the poll, beneath 

154 ^ DI8BA8BS OF D008. 


the skin, and extending from ear to ear. This must be 
kept diligently turned, and the mucous discharge occa- 
sionally washed away in order to prevent irritation or 
excoriation. If the seton does not discharge well, it 
should be wetted every alternate morning with spirit of 
turpentine, or turpentine liniment. 

The worst description of canker has not yet been 
described. Either the case has been neglected, or 
has not gone on well, and the projections which have 
been spoken of about the base of the inside of the ear 
have very considerably enlarged, and have blocked up 
the passage into the ear ; and from one or more of them 
there has been a sprouting of fungous substance, sore, 
and discharging much ichorous fluid, which has irritated 
the inside of the flap of the ear, and rendered it one 
complete sore — the whole of the ear becoming a mass 
of disease. 

In such a case, if the dog is old, he should be im- 
mediately destroyed, for the chances of a perfect cure 
are abundantly against him ; and if a cure is effected, it 
must be at the expense of great and prolonged pain. 

If the case is undertaken, the first object will be to 
heal the flap of the ear, which having become a conti- 
nued sore, will be a source of much annoyance. The 
whole of the ear should be cleaned as carefully as possi- 
ble with the chloride of lime lotion (Recipe No. 8, p. 
153), and to which an equal portion of warm water has 
been added, after which the healing ointment (Recipe 
No. 6, p. 149) should be lightly smeared over the flap 
and the fungous substance at the base. This should be 
done twice or thrice in the day. 

The flap being nearly healed, the nature of the fungus 
should be more carefully examined, and wherever it 


may be possible a tight ligature should be drawn round 
the base of the principal mass and each separate brand, 
and which should be tightened ev^ry second or third 
day, until the fungus drops off. 

This being effected, there will neverthelesis be gene- 
rally found an extensive ulcerated surface beneath. 
The mild canker lotion should be the first application 
here; but as soon as the ulcer can bear the stronger 
canker lotion without too great pain, it should be used, 
but beginning at first with adding double the quantity of 
water, and gradually increasing the strength of the 
lotion as the cure advances. A seton, and kept welt 
stimulated, is essential here, and plenty of physic and 
alterative balls. 

Deafness is the frequent result of this species of 
canker. There is no remedy in this case, for it is 
impossible to re-open the passage which has been ob- 
structed by such a mass of morbid growth. 

Deafness is occasionally congenital. It is hereditary 
in some breeds, and particularly in that of the white 
rough-haired terrier. The cause has never been ascer- 
tained, nor has any mode of cure been discovered. 

[Formica. — Scab in the ears. A little mercurial oint- 
ment rubbed upon the affected parts, every two or three 
days, will, very soon, effect a cure.] 



The first of these belongs to the eyelid, although 
generally accompanied by some inflammation of the 
eye itself. 


When a dog has much mangy affection about him, it 
attacks various parts. One of the most painful and ob- 
stinate species is scurfiness, loss of hair, swelling, and 
ulceration of the eyelid. It is inflammation of the nu- 
merous little glands which secrete a fluid destined to 
keep the lids'moist and supple during the waking hours, 
and to bring them in close approximation to each other 
during sleep. 

This disease will not yield to any of the common 
mange remedies, but there is an ointment that will some- 
times be efiectual. 

RECIPE (No. 10). 

Ointment for Ulcerated Eyelids. 

Take — Quicksilver, one drachm ; 

Strong nitric acid, a drachm and a half; 
DissolTC the mercary in the acid, and while the solution is warm add ' 
•ix ounces of melted lard. Siir them well together until they are cold. 


Some of this ointment should be rubbed on the Hds 
morning and night» care being taken that as little as 
possible gets into the eyes. 


The quadruped not having hands to ward off some 
dangers which threaten him, and to which the eyes are 
particularly exposed, nature has given him a movable 
membrane, situated within the inner corner of the eye, 
and which can be protruded at his pleasure, either as 
a defence to the eye, or to wipe off any temporary 
nuisance. It is sometimes called, on account of its 
function, the third eyelid. 

The dog is more adroit in the use of his paws than 
many other animals are, and therefore this membrane is 
very little developed compared with the haw or mem- 
brana nictitans of the horse or ox. It is, however, far 
more subject to disease than the same membrane in 
either of those animals. A little dust or gravel some- 
times insinuates itself within the folds of the membrane, 
and produces much inflammation and enlargement ; or 
inflammation and enlargement arise from some unknown 
cause. The membrane projects at the inner corner of 
the eye so often as to prevent the lids from closing, 
while it becomes a source of very great annoyance to 
the poor animal. This sometimes occurs in common 
inflammation of the eye, and more particularly in the 
inflammation of distemper. 

When the haw protrudes considerably from the corner 
of the eye, warm fomentations sl^ould be first applied, 
consisting of simple water or a decoction of poppy- 

158 DIBSA8B8 OF 0068. 

heads. If no diminution of size is thus obtained, cold 
applications, such as water, or a very weak solution of 
the extract of lead in water (in the proportion of a 
drachm to a pint), should follow; after which light scari- 
fications with a very fine and sharp lancet should be 
tried ; or, last of all, a small crooked needle, armed with 
fine silk, should be passed through the enlarged part, and 
by means of which the tumour may be drawn out suffi- 
ciently far to be neatly dissected out with a pair of scis- 
sors. Very little bleeding will follow, nor will there be 
afterwards any apparent inconvenience to the animal, 
and probably no very serious one. 


This is the usual accompaniment of inflammation, 
and will abate when the inflammation subsides; or, 
should it continue, and especially should a mucous dis- 
charge be established, the following wash will generally 
' get rid of it. 

RECIPE (No. 11). 

Attringent Wash for Weak Eyes, 

Takk — White yitriol, four grains ; disBolve it in 
Spirits of wine, half a drachm ; and add 
Water, four ounces. 
This may be applied several times in the daj. 

In some breeds, however, this weeping seems to be a 
natural defect of the eye. It is so in the Blenheim 
spaniel. Here another wash will be of more service. 


RECIPE (No. 12.) 

Wa$hfor Eye$ NaturaUy Weak. 

Take — ^Laadanam, two drachms ; add to it 

Water, eight ounoes ; and preaerve it ibr use. 
This should be osed every morning. 


There is a canal below the inner corner of the eye 
through which the superfluous tears flow into the cavity 
of the nose. When the tears are secreted too rapidly 
to be thus carried away, they run down the cheek, and 
they do so When this canal is obstructed. An obstruc- 
tion may be caused in this canal by inflammation of its 
lining membrane, or by the introduction of a portion of 
hardened mucus into it. When an obstruction occurs, 
the upper part of the canal is evidently distended with 
the fluid. There is a soft tumour below the inner angle 
of the eye. This for a considerable time alternately ap- 
pears and disappears, or the fluid may often be pressed 
down towards the nose, or upwards into the eye, by 
a little careful management with the finger. At length, 
from frequent distension, the membrane of the canal be- 
comes diseased; it is ruptured, and an ulcer is seen 
below the eye. This is the fistula lacrymalis. 

The ulcer, being once formed, will never be healed ; it 
is the passage for the tears which nature has contrived, 
the true canal having been obstructed. The old canal 
can never be re-opened ; we have no instruments suffi- 
ciently delicate for the purpose ; or, if we had, we could 
not give the dog patience enough to' wear them. 


The practitioner, therefore, should confess at once 
the hopelessness of the case, and limit his directions to 
simple cleanliness. 


The dog is frequently subject to pure inflammation of 
the eyes. He seeks the darkest places — he is conti- 
nually closing his eyes when brought into the light. The 
conjunctivar membrane, whether covering the eye or 
the eyelid, is intensely red ; and when the eye is looked 
into from above there is a red shade, showing how soon 
the interior of this organ is affected in the dog. 

The practitioner should bleed and purge (Recipe No. 
1, p. 138), and cause the eyes to be diligently fomented 
with warm water, or decoction of poppy-heads. 

The inflammation, being a little subdued, cold appli- 
cations will be most useful, and they should be resorted 
to in something like the following order. The wash for 
eyes (Recipe No. 12, p. 159) should be first used; to 
this, after a few days, should succeed a weak solution of 
goulard (in the proportion of a drachm of the goulard 
to a pint of water) ; and, the eye having considerably 
improved, the astringent wash (Recipe No. 11, p. 158) 
may wind up the treatment. 

* Inflammation of the eyes is more or less connected 
with some other diseases, and the practitioner forms a 
tolerably accurate opinion of the intensity of those dis- 
eases, and the probability of cure, by the appearance of 
the conjunctival membrane. In epilepsy the dog has 
little chance if the eye is very red ; in pneumonia, and 
in distemper, he augurs badly if the conjunctiva is much 


DI8BA8B8 OF TBX BYB8. 161 

injected ; while he scarcely fears any disease so long as 
the eye is clear, and of its natural colour. x 

Inflammation of the eye takes on a peculiar cha- 
racter in distemper. It is far more intense than when 
that organ alpne is the subject of disease; it speedily 
runs to ulceration^ and that of the most dreadful cha- 
FaQter» and which quickly eats through the cornea and 
permits the aqueous humour to escape, while numerous 
fongQus granulations spring from the edges of the ulcer. 

The practitioner will not forget the state of; the eye; 
he will touch the granulations with the lunar caustic^ and 
eadeaVdUr, by. the use of the proper meana, to abate the 
infliammation; but his principal attention will be directed 
to the malady vvith which this affection of the eye is 
connected; and if be can subdue that— if the dog lives, 
and recovers his u^ual strength — the ulcer will heal, the 
cloudiness disperse, and scarcely a trace of all this mis* , 
chief will be left behind. 


This is one of the terminations of inflammation of the 
eye. It is opacity, sometimes of the membrane covering 
the crystalline lens, but much oftener of the lens itself. 
The dog is peculiarly subject to cataract. The majo- 
rity of old dogs become blind from this cause. Nothing 
can be done,, even from the commencement of the. ob- 
scurity of the lens, for the part is too deeply seated for 
our applications to reach it. 




This isf another (somewhat unfrequent) cause of blind- 
ness in the dog. The eye itself is perfectly clear, but 
the retina — the expansion of the optic nerve within the 
eye — is paralysed, and consequently insensible lo the im- 
pression of light. There are a few instances of the 
successful treatment of this species of blindness. 

Much depends on the cause of it. If it is the conse- 
quence of violence, it never can be cured. If it has 
come on very slowly, little good can be expected ; but 
when it appears unaccompanied by other disease, there 
may be some slight hope. A strong emetic may be 
given, followed by an active purge. The emetic should 
be repeated on Ihe third day, and the bowels kept in a 
state of purgation. A seton should be inserted in the 
poll, and, if the dog is fat, a moderate quantity of blood 
should be taken away. 

The purgatives should foe continued, united with tonics, 
and the best tonic in this case is the chamomile. 

RECIPE (Na 13). 

Tonic Ball for Gfutta Serena, 

Take — Powdered Chamomile-flowers, one ounce; 
Powdered rue, half an ounce ; 
Ginger, two drachms ; 
Palm-oil, fieven drachms : 
Beat them well together; diYide them into twelve, sixteen, or twenty 
balls, according to the 8i2e of the dog, and give one morning and night. 

D18BAtB8 OF THB BTB8. 169 


In consequence of inflammation, the eyeball will some- 
times become more than double its natural size. It will 
be cloudy, the different parts of it confused, and the sight 
gone. Nothing should be attempted to be done, except 
the dog is evidently suffering much pain from the disten- 
sion of the eye, and then it may be punctured with a 
lancet, and the fluid evacuated. It is seldom that much 
inflammation follows this operation, nor does the tiog 
express any great degree of pain, but the eye will after- 
wards dwindle almost entirely away* 


This occasionally happens from the bite of a larger 
dog. The eyeis forced out of the socket, and the lid 
contracts around it, and prevents its return. If the acci- 
dent has not occurred more than a few hours, a little 
patience and adroitness will accomplish the return of the 
eye, and^with a fair chance of preserving the sight. 

The part must be gently but well cleaned, and a smAll 
stream of warm water made to run on the eye, and the 
parts around, for more than a-quarter of an hour. The 
object of this is to relax the muscles of the lids and the 
cellular substance surrounding the eye. The blunt end 
of a small curved needle must then be dipped in olive- 
oil, and inserted between the edge of the eyelid and the 
parts on which it is powerfully Contracting, and, having 
been removed once or twice for the purpose of being 


armed with more oil, it must be carried fairly roood the 
eye, aod between it and the lid. 

A somewhat larger crooked needle is now to be taken, 
that the purchase may be greater. The blunt end must 
be introduced between the eye and the lid* about the 
centre of the upper lid, and the lid elevated with some 
degree of force, and attempted, by means of the carve 
of the needle,' to be drawn over the eye, which, by a 
firm pressure on it with the moistened fingers of the 
other hand, is attempted to be poshed inward, and rather 
upward. In a great many cases this will be accom- 
plished, much more easily than would be deemed pos- 

If the practitioner does not succeed with the upper lid, 
let him try the lower one, but let him not torture the 
animal too much. The pressure of the needle oh the 
irritated conjunctival membrane causes extreme pain, 
which the dog plainly enough evinces. 

If the return of the eye in this way is impracticable, the 
upper lid may be lifted once more at the centre, for it is 
there only that it can be got at, and with a pair of 
scissors, snipped as deeply as possible. This will put an 
end to the muscular contraction of that lid, and enlarge 
the aperture, and the eye may now be returned without 
much difficulty. The eye having regained its place, the 
divided edges of the lid must be brought together and 
retained by two or three stitches inserted by means of a 
small straight needle and waxed silk. A great deal oi 
inflammation is apt to follow this last kind of operation. 
The eye had suffered severely enough before, and will 
not bear this new irritation. 

It will therefore be a point of duty and humanity to 
consider, when more than five or six hours have passed 

DiiBAfM or vam mwwB. IM 

since the accident, and the eye eaanot be returned by 
the first method, \7hetfaer the practitioner should not 
proceed to the 


In the present case this is a very easy thing to accom- 
plish. The assistant should press down the lid as much 
as possible around the eye, and the operator, taking the 
eye in his left hand, ^nd pulling it slowly but firmly for- 
wards, should cut through the nerve, and adipose and 
other substance, with one stroke of his scalpel, the 
division being made as closely as possible to the lids 
without wounding them. 

The bleeding will not be considerable, and will be 
easily checked. The eyelids must be opened, and a little 
very soft lint introduced into the cavity, not sufficient in 
quantity to press painfully on the tender parts within, yet 
enough tolerably to fill the hollow when gorged with 
blood. A piece of linen, or a cap contrived for the pur- 
pose, must then be securely tied over the eye, and the 
patient dismissed with a dose of physic. On the follow- 
ing day the lint may be removed from the socket, and 
not in one case in twenty will there be any after bleed- 
ingl The blemish will be considerably less than if the 
eye had been forcibly returned, and the sight destroyed. 


Bathe the afiected part twice a day with water in 
which a little vitriol has been dissolved, (the size of a 

166 DnKASBs or dogs. ' 

large horse-bean to a pint of spring water,) and, in i 
minute or two, wash it in clear water. 
Or, bathe it with the following lotion twice a daj: 

Sulphate of copper, one ecruple ; 
Water, four ounces. 

Or, bathing the forehead and eyes externally with tar- 
tvater^ very profusely, has an excellent effect in all cases 
either for horses or dogs. It was much used in Hospital 
practice, by the late Dr. Physick of Philadelphia. la 
this case there is no danger of injury by making it too 



Thrrs is the same vesicular inflammation of the 
tongue in the dog which has been described (page 67) 
as found in the horse. Tlie dog will not eat^he will not 
or cannot open bis month, and he resists the attempt to 
open it with all th^ strength he has ; a great quantity of 
saliva is running from his mouth; and he has a pecu- 
liarly anxious look. It has been mistaken for locked'^ 
jaw, or the commencement of rabies. 

The swelling in the horse is usually confined to the 
tongue. In the ox it sometimes spreads over the whole 
of the face and neck ; and in the dog the cheeks and 
the whole of the mouth are involved. 

On opening the mouth the cause of all this is plainly 
seen. A red or dark-purple bladder extends along the 
side of the tongue, and more under than in other 

The same lancing from end to ei\d, the same washing 
of the mouth with tincture of myrrh while the wounds 
'are healthy, or with the solution of chloride of lime 
when they become foetid, will speedily set all right, 
especially if one or two doses of physic are given. 

This, perhaps, is the proper place to refer to the pre- 



PIBKAin OF D069. 

bailing opinion of the advantage derived from worming 
dogs. They are supposed to be broken of their pro- 
pensity to gnaw every thing within their reach, and to 
be in a manner secure from becoming mad ; or, should 
they be rabid, it is said that they will never bite. 

All thid, however, is perfectly fallacious No dog was 
ever broken of his trick of gnawing things by the 
operation of worming. He will have a sadly sore 
mouth for a few days, but when that gets well he will 
gradually become as mischievous as ever. 

As to worming preventing the dog from biting when 
rabid, it is hard to conceive how the removal of a little 
dense tendinous substance eaveloped in the folds of the 
frsBnum, or bridle of the tongue, and destined to assist 
the tongue in the act of lapping, can have any thing to 
do with rabies. 

The plain fact, however, is, that worming is no pre- 
ventive either against the disease, or the disposition to 
bite when under its influence. 



The full-grown dog has twenty teeth in the upper jaw, 
and twenty-two in the Idwer one. The central front 
teeth and the tushes pierce the gums before, or very 
shortly after, the birth, and the others protrude very 
rapidly. They remain only a very short period com- 
pared with the horse or with cattle, for by the time he 
is four or five months old the mastiff has all his perma- 
nent teeth complete, but the teething of the spaniel is 
not over until he is seven or eight months *old. 

The teeth preserve their freshness and whiteness until 
the dog is twenty months or two years old, when they 
begin t6 be tarnished, and the fieut'de^lis shape of the 
fix>nt teeth is changed to a more rounded one. This is 
hastened or retarded by the general health of the dog, 
and by the kind of food on which he lives, so that there 
is nothing about them that will indicate the age with 
any degree of certainty, -- The dog of five years old, 
who has plenty of exercise, and is fed on soft meat, wiU 
have a mouth full two years younger than another who 
has been in constant confinement, or who has been fed 
on bones ; and the difficulty of judging of the precise 
age increases every year. In the general course of 


things the middle front teeih of the lovrer jaw begin to 
be rounded in large dogs at sixteen months, and in 
smaller dogs at between twenty and two-and-twenty 
months, and the centra] lobe of the Jleur-de-Ks is gone, 
and the whole of the edge is level, at between three and 
four years old. 

The same process commences in the fiext incisors 
between two years and a half and three years, and termi- 
nates between four and five; and in the comer front 
teeth it commences at four years, and is completed at 
five. The wearing away of the upper front teeth begins 
m a later period, and that has not been so carefully 

The tushes do not generally appear to be rounded until 
the front teeth are more or less changed, and they longer 
retain their freshness of appearance. The indications 
of age in them are vague and variable, and depend still 
more on the habits and food of the dog than do those of 
the other teeth. 

The diseasl^s of the teeth of petted dogs are often 
difiicult and disgu3ting to treat. Before the inmate of 
the drawing-room becomes three years old, tartar begins 
to accumulate round the roots of many of the teeth. 
While it grows downward on the teeth, it also presses 
upward against the gums, and inflames and corrodes 
th^m, and the breath becomes offensive. 

If the case is now neglected, the dog soon becomes 
a perfect nuisaiDire to all about him. The tartar will be 
collected thickly about the teeth ; it will eat deeply into 
the gums ; it will form extensive and foetid ulcers on the 
inside of the lips ; many of the teeth will become loose, 
or drop out; and the breath of the animal is absolutely 
poisonous.. - 


TBB TEtTH. 171 

As a local application, healing the gums and sweet* 
ening the breath, equal parts of the tincture of myrrh 
and water will be most excellent. It should be daily 
applied until the cleanness of the teeth, and the healthi- 
ness of the gums, show that the evil is got rid of. A 
weak solution of the chlorides of lime and soda will 
also be found very useful for removing the present fcetor; 
but they must not be continued longer than is necessary, 
for Ihey are of a caustic nature, and corrode and de« 
stroy the enamel. . 



There are two afTections of the membrane of the 
nose that deserve mention. The first is a peculiar vio- 
lent sp;asmodiG snorting noise, made with the head ex* 
tended, and the nose protruded and pointing a little 
upwards. It will occasionally last for two minutes, or 
more, until the dog seems to be giddy, and staggers or 
falls ; sometimes it terminates in a fit of sneezing : it is 
rarely connected with any degree of cough. It is coryza 
— inflammation of the membrane of the nose. 

The only medicine that will have the slightest effect 
upon it is an emetic ; and the best emetic for the dog is 
the following:-^ 

RECIPE (No. 14). 

Emetic Powder, 

TAKi--Calomel, and 

Emetic tartar, one ounce each ; 
Red sulphurate of mercury, ten grains : 
Rub them well together. 

The dose will vary from one to three grains of the 
powder, according to the size of the dog ; and the best 
way to give these emetics is either to open the mouth 




of the animal and shake them on the tongue, or to, mix 
them in a teaspoonful of milk and force this on the 

The mildest emetic (one grain) will usually answer 
here, and it should be given every third day until the 
animal is relieved. ' , . 

The second corpplaint is a purulent discharge from 
the nose similar to that /^bich accompanies one, stage 
of distemper. Old dogs are very subject to it, and 
particularly old pugs. It is occasionally a discharge of 
simple pus, without much discoloration or smell; but 
at other times it is of almost all colours, and stipks in- 
sufferably. It is probably ulceration of some of the 
small bones of the nose, and there is no cure for it. 


inrLAMMATioff or the glakds/and of tub cellular 


Dogs are very subject to swellings of the necl, of 
various kinds. Sometimes, on the lower jaw, or on the 
side of the throat immediately beneath it, a tumoar 
suddenly appears, at first quite circumscribed, but gradu- 
ally becoming more diffused, running up the cheek, and 
almost closing the eye, and occupying the throat so 
as to prevent the opening of the mouth. It is hot and 
tender, and the dog is evidently suffering acute pain. 

After a day or two*s fomentation, it will point deci- 
dedly at some part at which it should be opened with a 
lancet The quantity of fluid which some of these ab- 
cesses contain is astonishing. More than a quart has 
been taken from a large dog. 

The fomentation should be continued until the swelling 
has run itself out, care being taken that the dog is not 
permitted to get at the part and to scratch it If a 
tumour of this kind is suffered to break, or the dog tears 
it open, or scratches it after it has been opened, a ragged 
ulcer will be formed which it will be difficult to heal. 
The best application for such an ulcer is the common 
tincture of aloes : 



RECIPK (No. 15). 

Take — Barbadoes aloes, powdered, eight ounces ; 
Myrrh, powdered, one ounce ; 
Proof spirit, two quarts ; 
y Water, one quart : - ' . 

Let them infuse for three weeks, shaking them well daily. 


There is sometimes a tumour of a very difTerent kind 
* placed in the front of the throat. It is usually found 
on, or a little below, the thyroid cartilage, between the 
skin and the cellular substance beneath. From the 
beginning it is soft, and plainly contains a fluid. Its 
progress is uncertain, but generally slow, and it is never 
attended by inflammation or heat. Fomentations would 
be thrown away here, and a puncture with the lancet 
would afford merely temporary relief. A seton must 
be passed through the tumour, from the top to the bottom 
of it, and worn until the cyst is obliterated. The con- 
tents of this tumour afe also various; that which is 
oftenest seen is a glairy fluid, much resembling the 
white of an'egg; but after the swelling has been opened 
two or three times, the fluid becomes mingled with 
blood, and at length purulent. 


The throat of the dog exhibits yet another kind of 
tumour. On either side of the windpipe, sometimes 
high up in the neck, at others almost as low as the chest, 
will be felt an oval, movable, hard tumour, varying in 
size from a sparrow's to a pullet's egg. The pug, the 
Italian greyhound, and the Blenheim spaniel, are parti- 

176 D1IBA8C8 OF 0068. 

cularly subject to these tumours. In the pug they are 
often exceedingly large. The jugulars pass over them, 
and beconne strangely turgid from the necessary impe- 
diment to the circulation which such tumours must cause. 
The tumour sometimes pressefs upon the windpipe, and 
the dog breathes with difficulty, and has, in a few in- 
stances, been literally suffocated. 

A seton passed through these tumours would produce 
immense irritation, and cause them to increase to a 
strange and fearful degree. Every external stimulating 
application has done harm, and the practitioner is left to 
the efficacy of medicine alone; but fortunately he has a 
medicine that will rartely fail in considerably diminishidg 
the bulk of these tumours, and, in some cases, it will 
disperse them altogether. 

RECIPE (No; 16). 

r . ^ 


Pills for Enlarged Glands. 

Take — Iodine, twelve grains ; 

Powdered gum arable, two scruples : 
Rub them together with simple syrup, and form a hard mass. Divide 
into forty-eight pills, and give one or two, according to the size of the 
dog, morning and night. 



Being very small, they can easily be concealed in bits 
of meat or bread and butter, and may, in the generality 
of cases, be given for a great length of time without 
any inconvenience, and especially if a ^ose of castor- 
oil, or Epsom sahs, is administered when the bowels 
are constipated ; or once in every week or ten days, 
whatever may be the state of the bowels. 

The approach of any inconvenience resulting from 
the use of the iodine will be indicated by the dog rapidly 


losing flesh ; and in such case nothing more is neces- 
sary than to omit the pills for a vteek, and then give 
them again as before. 


There are other tumours which cannot, perhaps, be 
any where more conveniently considered than here, viz., 
enlargement of the teats, or hard schirrous tumours in 
them or near them. 

When the milk of a suckling bitch is dried away too 
rapidly, or when the teats fill with milk at the time at 
which she would have pupped had she been with the 
dog, and absurd external applications are made to dis- 
perse the milk, and especially if it is a maiden bitch, in 
whom this secretion often periodically appears nine 
weeks after she has been at heat, there will sometimes 
remain permanent enlargements around the base of the 
teats, or very small, hard, kernel-like substances will be 
found there. 

The moment one of these little hard bodies is detected, 
it should be taken between the finger and thumb, an 
incision being made through the skin with a scalpel, 
and should be turned or dissected out ; for if it is suf- 
fered to remain, it will assuredly grow to a very consi- 
derable size, and require a serious operation in order to 
its removj^l, . 

If the owner should object to this summary mode of 
proceeding, recourse must be had to the iodine pills, 
which should be given of the same strength, and with 
the same intervals, as for enlargement of the glands of 
the neck. 




The iodine, however, has not so rapid nor so certain 
an effect as in enlargement of the glands of the neck, 
and it may be advisable to have recourse to another 
preparation of the same mineral. 

RECIPE <Na 17). 

Ointment for Sehirrous 7\iiiiaiir«. 

TAKS^Hydriodate of potash, one drachm ; 
Lard, leven drachms : 
Rob them together, and form an ointment 

A quantity varying from the size of a kidney-bean to 
that of a filbert, in proportion to the bulk of the tumour, 
should be rubbed into it, and around its base, morning 
and night 

The combined influence of the pills and the ointment 
will generally disperse these tumours in their early state: 
but if they have been permitted to grow, and to acquire 
considerable bulk, they will often bid defiance to any 
external application or internal medicine. An operation 
is then the only resource. The nature of this operation 
will vary with the size and attachment of the tumour. 
If it does not weigh above two or three ounces, and is 
quite detached from the belly, and can be in a manner 
drawn from it, so as to leave a kind of pedicle not larger 
than a finger, a ligature of double waxed silk may be 
.passed around it, and tightened, and in the course of three 
or four days the tumour will drop off. If the swelling 
IS of larger size, and is not so perfectly detached, it will 
be better and safer to remove it with the knife. 

The sooner the owner can be prevailed upon to have 
one or the other of these operations performed, the better 
for the poor animal, for a radical cure may now be 


pitiably effected; but at some uncertain time after- 
wards the tumour will begin to enlarge more rapidly ; 
it will become red and glistening, hot and tender ; and 
the dog will evidently suffer considerable pain. From 
a florid red colour, it wiU afterwards change to a darker 
hue, and at length assume a purple tinge, and break. A 
very considerable discharge of thin, ichorous, bloody 
fluid win follow, and an ulcer of variable depth will be 

This ulcer, however, will heal without much difficulty; 
but it will redden and break again, possibly three or four 
times in less than double that number of months. 

Irreparable mischief was done, however, at the first 
ulceration, for the ichorous fluid which flowed from the 
wound inoculated the neighbouring parts, and other 
little kernels, or nuclei, will soon be felt about the base 
of the original tumour. Absorption likewise of a portion 
of this fluid took place from the surface of the wound, 
and the virus was carried into the circulation, and 
empoisoned the whole system ; and, thereforej not only 
around the original tumour, but connected with other 
teats, these kernels will begin to appear. It is now a 
purely constitutional disease, and local means are alto- 
gether unavailing. The removal of any one of the 
tnmours would be useless, for the one next in size would 
speedily begin to grow, and become fully as . large as 
the other, and the animal might be needlessly tortured 
with operation upon operation. The iodine also will 
now be comparatively powerless. 

The treatment of these tumours when thejrare broken, 
or, at least, for the first four or five times that they 
ulcerate, is very simple. If the dog is tolerably tractable. 

' I 


a poultice should be applied, and worn, being changed 
morning and night, until the fluid has run itself out, and 
the wound begins to look a little healthy. A few dressings 
with lint or tow, wetted with friar's balsam or tincture 
of aloes, will then heal the wound. If the, discharge 
should continue more than three or four days, an astrin- 
gent may be resorted to, for th*e long continuance of 
the poultice would debilitate the part, and indispose it 
afterwards to heal. 

RECIJPE (No. 18). 

AMtringent Lotion for Wound$, 

Taxi — Bruised oak-bark, two oonoes ; 
Powdered catechu, an ounce : 
Boil them in three pints of water until the fluid is reduced to a pint. 
Strain the decoction, and put it by for use. 

The ulcer should be washed with this several times 
in the day. It is both astringent and healing ; it will 
arrest the ichorous discharge, and hasten the process of 


The tinoe will come when the .wound will no longer 
heal. It will have assumed a new character; it will 
have become a malignant cancerous ulcer, the source^ 
no doubt, of great pain to the animal, wearing her down 
with greater or less rapidity, and rendering her a per- 
fect nuisance to every one about her. As soon as the 
cancerous ulcer is established, the duty of the practi- 



tioner will be a straightforward one, namely, to advise 
that a termination should be put to that suffering which 
he cannot relieve. 

If, however, it is insisted upon that the case should 
continue to be treated, fomentations of poppy-heads may 
be used to assuage the anguish ; a weak solution of tbe 
chloride of lime to get rid of the stench; and the tinc- 
ture of iodine, diluted with eleven times the quantity of 
water, to attack, if possible, the cancerous principle. 


Cancer occasionally attacks the vagina of the bitch. 
It is the consequence of injury and ulceration of the 
membrane lining that passage ; either from being sud- 
denly forced from the dog; or from difficult parturition, 
and in which the practitioner has been compelled to 
have recourse to instruments; or the presence of, or 
awkward or ineffectual attempts to remove, a fungous 
substance which sometimes grows on the membrane of 
the vagina, and which will be described in its proper 
place. Cancer should not be confounded with these 
fungous excrescences, for their cauliflower appearance, 
their florid colour, the pedicle or stalk from which they 
spring, and the blood which is continually flowing from 
them, will sufficientiv characterize them : whereas can- 
cer is immediately distinguishable by its livid colour, its 
uneven surface, its hardened base, and its peculiar 
pungent and nauseous 6mell When the vagina is felt 
externally, it is uniformly soft if it is occupied by this 
fungus, but it is peculiarly hard and unyielding when it 
is cancerous. 


Even if it is attacked before there is any external 
ulceration, there is very little chance of doing good. 
The iodine pills may be given internally, and the diluted 
tincture of iodine, as before recommended, injected up 
the vagina. The tincture of iodine is thus composed : — 

RECIPE (Na 19). 

T^^eture of Mime. ■ 

Ta^k — ^lodine, a drachm ; 

Rectified spirit, an ounce : 
Shake them leTeral times well together, and the iodine will speedily 
dissolTe. Sufficient only for the use of a week or two should be made 
at once, because a portion of the iodine will after that time separate 
from the spirit, and become precipitated. 


Cancer is occasionally the consequence of inveterate 
canker. It appears first in the internal part of the ear, 
but it spi^eads to the cheek and down the face, corroding 
and destroying every thing before it. The progress of 
this species of cancer can seldom be arrested. 


It is not every tumour of the teats that becomes 
schirrous or cancerous. Some of them seem to be com- 
posed of mere masses of fat that have been separated 
from the neighbouring substance. These are termed 
adipose tumours. They seldom grow to any very large 
size, and they never ulcerate. They are not often 
attached to the teats; they are more between thetn, 



and they may be known by their uniform smoothness 
and softness. ' 


Other enlargements, belonging more to the teats, are 
called encysted tumours. They are composed of a cyst 
including a fluid of uncertain character. Aq enormous 
tumour may sometimes be of this nature composed of a 
single cyst These tumours occasionally tilcerate, but 
the ulcer does not become of a malignant nature. They 
are always plainly distinguishable from the schirrous 
tumour by the greater evenness of their surface, and by 
their not possessing .the peculiar unyielding character 
of the schirrous tumoun 

Some have recommended the passing of a seton 
through tumours of this nature. Good is rarely effected 
by this, and a degree of irritation has occasionally been 
produced that has been fatal to the animal. 

The compound encysted tumour is more common than 
the simple one. One cyst being formed, another unites 
itself to it, or seems to grow upon it, and another and 
another follows, until there is an accumulation of them 
that makes the whole bulk of an enormous size. This 
species of tumour never breaks, but, when it hangs 
down upon or rubs against the ground, it occasionally 
becomes ulcerated, and the ulceration assumes a malig- 
nant character by a repetition of the cause of irritation. 

A. seton will be of no service here, for it cannot be 
passed through all the cysts. Both the simple and the 
compound encysted tumour will be best removed by 
means of the knife. 



Dogs are often subject to warts. They appear scat- 
tered on various parts of the skin, either of a simple 
form, or with spreading, fungous-like heads. If a strong 
solution of the nitrate of silver is applied to them with 
a camel-hair brush, they will usually gradually dwindle 
away without any soreness or pain. 

Sometimes they appear on the lips, and, frequently 
bleeding from the motion of the lips or tongue, some of 
the blood is conveyed into the mouth, and the whole of 
the interior surface of the mouth becomes covered with 
them. This is a sad nuisance to the dog, for he can 
eat no solid food, and scarcely lap enough to keep him- 
self alive. The nitrate of silver must be daily applied 
over the whole of them, and it will be most conveni- 
ently used in the solid form over the greater part, if not 
the whole, of the mouth. If a solution is resorted to, 
some care must be taken that the brush is not too wet, 
and that as little as possible of the fluid is swallowed. 

When warts dppear on the inside of the prepuce or 
vagina, the lunar caustic in ' its solid form will speedily 
remove them. 

Now and then they appear on the eyelids, and if they 
grow on, or incline to, the inner edge, they are h source 
of insufferable annoyance, by entering into or pressing 
upon the eye. ' Many a severe inflammation of the eye 
has been produced by the constant irritation of a wart, 
and the disease has gone on to absolute blindness, because 
the owner or the practitioner has been too careless to 




notice a diminutive wart that grew half concealed a 
little within the lid. 

The nnethod pf removal will depend on the situation 
and the size of the wart. If it is small, and lies towards 
the inside of the lid, it may be cut off with a sharp pair 
of scissors, and the root lightly touched with the caustic, 
finely pointed. If it lies more on the outside it will be 
best got rid of by means of a ligature of very fine 
waxed silk, as the bleeding and propagation of the wart 
will be thus avoided. 




Th£ dog is as subject to catarrh and cold as other 
animals : but there is a singular difference in the sound 
and character of the cough of dogs uader different 
circumstances, and indicative of different affections of 
the lungs, the immediate recognition of which marks the 
man who is accustomed to their diseases. 

There is a cough, the very sound of which indicates 
obstruction of the air-passages, or accumulation of mu- 
cus there. It comes on after the slightest exertion ; 
it is, in a manner, incessant from morning to night; and 
it terminates with an apparent attempt to vomit; but 
nothing is ejected except a little frpthy mucus, either 
white or discoloured with bile. The dog is usually 
middle*aged, if not old ; in good, or perhaps too good a 
condition ; and the cough does not seem to affect the 
health in the slightest degree. 

Emetics will afford the most certain and the greatest 
relief (Recipe No. 14, p. 172). One may be given every 
third or fourth day, varying from a grain of the com- 
pound powder to a grain and a half, according to the 
size of the dog. 

Should the asthma^ for that is the proper name of this 


kind of cough, not be relieved by the emetics, a cough- 
bail should be given morning and night on each of the 
intermediate days. 

RECIPE (Na 20). 

Cmtgk BaUt. 

Taxi— Powdered digitalis, a scruple ; 

Antimonial powder, two scrnples ; 
Nitre, six dnchms; 
Sulphur, two draehms; 
Palm-oil, three drachms ; 
Divide into ten or twenty balb, according to the size of the dog. 

There is another kind of cough, or rather huskiness, 
"which is the companion of distemper. This is not so 
loud, and sooner terminates in the attempt to vomit. 

A third kind of cough is a hollow and very noisy 
one ; occurring frequently during the day, and most of 
all at night. The emetics and cough-balls will be useless 
here, unless they are preceded by. a copious bleeding, 
and then they will rarely fail of having effect. Bleeding 
is seldom indicated in either of the other kinds of cough. 


A cough arises from an irritation of the lungs ; and 
may be produced by a cold, or otherwise. It is gene- 
rally the effect of a cold, and may be removed by 

RECIPE (No. 21). 

Antimonial powder, five grains ; 
Calomel, four grains ; 
Made with honey into two boluses, and giTen in the eyening for two 
nights successiTely. 

If a dog should be afSicted with a cough, in the first 


166 DUSAISS OF Dooa* 

place examine his throat, in order to ascertain if any 
species of bone is lodged there; as such a circumstance 
will cause a dog to cough for weeks. If the cough 
arises from a cold, administer a dose or two of syrup of 
buckthorn. Should the cough still continue, give tartar 
emetic, as described under the head Distemper. 



This is the most fatal disease to which the dog is sub- 
ject, and it is one which he seems doomed to undergo 
at least once in his life. An attack of it is indicated by 
a gradual loss of appetite, and spirits, and flesh, with- 
out any peculiar local aifection; by mucus collecting at 
the comer of the eye, and by that husky cough to which 
allusion has been made in the last chapter, and which is 
rather an apparent attempt to get something from the 
throat than a true cough. Soon after this, the usual 
watery discharge from the nose will cease, and it will 
gradually thicken and stick about, or plug up the nostril, 
and at length become purulent or bloody. These are the 
general characteristics of distemper in every dog, except 
the greyhound, in which it is often characterized by ema- 
ciation alone. 

The appetite is now generally lost, and ohe of three 
symptoms makes its appearance. Either the dog be- 
gins to purge, and the discharge rapidly increases, being 
first almost chalk-coloured, then olive-coloured, then mu- 
cus, and, last of all, consisting of mucus and blood min- 
gled together : or fits come on, ushered in by a peculiar 
champing of the lower jaw, and which, if only a second 


appears, bid defiance to all medical aid ; or the eyes be- 
come inflamed ; a film spreads over them ; a small ulcer 
appears in the centre of the transparent cornea ; it deep- 
ens and spreads ; the contents of the forepart of the eye are 
evacuated ; and the sight seems to be irrecoverably lost. 

There is scarcely a sportsman or a whipper-in who has 
not a supposed infallible cure for distemper; but it must 
be sufficiently plain that the treatment of a disease so 
variable in its symptoms must be regulated by those 
symptoms. One thing, however, should be given, what- 
ever be the symptoms, and as the precursor of every 
plan of treatment, and that is, an emetic. One or two 
grains of the emetic powder (Recipe Na 14, p. 172) 
should be sprinkled on the tongue, or dissolved in a little 
milk, or concealed in a bit of meat 

If the cough is violent, the breathing quickened, and 
the muzzle hot, the dog should lose blood. The average 
quantity that should be taken away has already been 
stated at page 138. Bleeding is serviceable in this stage 
of the disease alone ; afterwards it would be almost cer- 
tain destruction to the dog. 

Next the cough-balls (Recipe No. 20, p. 187) should be 
given, from half a drachm to two drachms in weight, 
according to the size of the dog, and repeated morning, 
noon, and night ; an emetic being repeated every third 
or fourth day, depending on the degree of huskiness. 

In many cases little more will need to be done ; but if, 
when the cough abates, the dog should have become thin 
and weak, or if he should gradually lose flesh, the cough 
continuing as violent as ever, some tonic should mingle 
with the other medicine. 

DisnxPBs. 191 

RECIPE (No. 22). 

Tbfitc Balls. 

Takx — Gentian-root, powdered, one pound ; 

Chamomile-fluwers, ditto, half a pound; 
Oak.bark^ ditto, half a pound ; 
Ginger, ditto, four ooncev ; 
CartK>nate of iron, four ounces ; 
Palm-oil, one pound : 
Beat them well together, and keep the mass in a dosed jar for use. 

Equal parts of the cough and tonic medicine will con- 
stitute the best ball for this stage of the disease^ increas- 
ing the cough medicine if the affection of the chest 
should increase, and the tonic medicine if the strength 
and condition of the dog should be rapidly wasting. 

When the discharge from the nose becomes purulent, 
and especially if it should be brown, or bloody, or 
foetid, the cough medicine must be altogether omitted, 
and the tonic balls alone given. 

' During every stage of the; disease, attention should be 
paid to the feeding of the dog ; he should bb moderately 
fed even when the cough is at the worst, and should be 
coaxed to eat, and tempted with various kinds of food, 
when his strength declines. 

A physic-ball (Recipe No. 1, p. 138) may be given 
with advantage at the commencement of the distemper, 
if the dog is costive, and also during the state of fever; 
but few things are more to be dreaded than the diarrhoea 
that often accompanies distemper, and which nothing 
will arrest. The distemper purging being once esta- 
blished, a physic-ball will probably be too irritating ; yet 
some effort should be made to carry off any irritating 
matter in the bowels. The Epsom salts will be the 


safest and the most effectual medicioe here ; and from one 
to four drachms may be given, according to the size of 
the dog, and either dissolved in a little water, or rolled 
up in tissue paper, in which form they will be less likely 
to occasion sickness. 

The day after the administration of the salts, a course 
of astringent balls should be commenced. 

RECIPE (No. 23). 

Attringent Balls. 

Takz— Prepared chalk, two pounds ; 

Powdered gam arabic, half a pound ; 
Powdered catechu, half a pound ; 
Powdered oak-bark, half a pound ; 
Powdered ginger, four oances ; 
Powdered opium, half an ounce ; 
Palm-oil, one pound : 
Be^t them well together, and keep the mass in a jar for use. 

The size of the ball will depend on that of the dog, 
and vary from half a drachm to two drachms. It should 
be given morning, noon, and night ; simple water being 
put out of the animal's reach, and water in which a 
little whole rice has be^n boiled being substituted. In 
cases of very obstinate purging, the following injection 
may be thrown up:— Good thick starch or gruel, a quar- 
ter or half a pint, according to the size of the dog, and 
from five to ten drops of laudanum. 

The method of treating the inflammation of the eye 
which frequently accompanies distemper has been al- 
teady described in p. 160. 

Sufficient warning isi usually given of the approach of 
distemper fits: there is not only the champing of the 
lower jaw, but an unwonted and insatiable appetite; the 

DISTSMPn. 103 

mucus all at once disappears from the eyes ; and there is 
usually a twitching of. some part of the frame. 

The medicine first to be administered is an emetic 
(Recipe No. 14> p. 172)» and a strong one too, compared 
with the size of the dog. To this should follow sufficient 
castor-oil to open the bowels, and repeated dos^s oC it 
afterwards, so as to obviate costiveness; and to this 
should succeed the tonic balls (Recipe No. 22, p. 191), 
with a quarter of a grain of opium in each. Now, also, 
is the time when a seton will, if ever, be serviceable. It 
should be inserted by means of a proper seton-needle 
(never the farrier's red-hot iron), and extend over the 
poll, and under the skin, from ear to ear. If there should 
be little discharge from it, the power of the seton should 
be increased by moistening it occasionally with oil of 
turpentine, or liquid blister. 

RECIPE (No. 24). 

Strong Liquid Blister, 

Takx<— Powdered Alkanet root, two onnccs ; 
Spirit of turpentine, a gallon. 

Pour the turpentine on the alkanet root, and let, it macerate three dajs, 
frequently shaking it ; on the fourth day let it stand undisturbed ; then 
put one pound of Spanish flies, powdered, into another jar, and pour on 
them the clear tVirpentine from the first jar. Let these macerate a 
month, daily shaking them ; then let the jar stand undisturbed four daya, 
and pour off the clear fluid for use. 

(Preserving the proportions where a smaller or larger quantity is to 
be made.) 

At the moment of the fit, do not let the poor animal 
be thrown into water, or a quantity of cold water sluiced 
over him ; it will be quite sufficient to take him by the 
nape of the neck with the left hand, and dash a little cold 



104 DIBBASIi or OOG8. 

water against his muzzle from a tea^cup with the right 
hand, and the fit will usually cease in an instant 

During the whole of the disease, the dog should be 
kindly treated. Few persons are aware how far this 
will go in preventing fits, or recovering the dog from 
them, and efiecting a cure. 

If fits should degenerate into chorea, or a spasmodic 
action of some limb, or if this spasmodic action should 
follow distemper, without the intervention of fits, it is 
not often that the dog will recover the full use of his 
limbs. A seton will here also be indispensable ; costive- 
ness must be prevented by occasional doses of castor-oil; 
the dog must be well fed, and a course of tonic medicine 
must be long persisted in. The tonic balls (Recipe No. 
22, p. 101) may first be tried, and, should they fail, the 
followihg may be given, and usually with much success. 


REX^IPE (Na 25). 

Thnie PiUafor Chorea. 

Take — ^Nitrate of silver (lunar caustic), eight grains ; 
Ginger, powdered, a scrapie ; 
Simple syrup, a sufficient quantity ; 
Divide them into sixty-four pills, and give one or two, according to 
the siae of the dog, morning and night. 

If no amendment is produced in the course of three 
weeks, it will be useless to pursue the treatment. There 
will always, however, be one guide that will not deceive 
the practitioner :— if the dog is gaixiing flesh, although 
exceedingly slowly, he will ultimately get well ; but if, 
after the appearance of chorea, he should continue re- 
gularly to lose flesh, however slow may be the progress 
of the emaciation, he will ultimately be lost. 

The distemper frequently attacks a dog before he has 
attained his first year. As a preliminary observation, it 
may be remarked, that the same membrane which lines 
the nostrils, extends down the windpipe into the lungs ; 
and the distemper, in the first instance, may be regarded 
as an inflammation of this membrane, which, if not 
timely removed, extends down to the lungs, where sup- 
puration will soon be produced, when the animal's eye 
will become dull, accompanied by a mucous discharge, 
a cough, and loss of appetite. As the disease advances 
it presents various appearances ; but is frequently at- 
tended with twitchings about the head, while the animal 
becomes e^tcessively weak in the loins and hinder ex- 
tremities. Indeed he appears completely emaciated, and 
smells intolerably. At length the twitchings assume the 
appearance of convulsive fits, accompanied with giddi- 
ness, which causes the dog to turn around. He has a 
constant disposition to dung, with excessive costiveness, 
or incessant purging. 

On the first appearance of the symptoms which i 
have described, I should recommend that the dog be bled 
very freely, arfd that his body be opened with a little 
castor-oil or syrup of buckthorn. This will, generally, 
remove the disease altogether, if applied the moment 
the first symptoms appear. If, however, this treatment 
should not have the desired effect, and a cough ensues, 
accompanied with a discharge of the nose, give from 
two grains to eight of tartar emetic, (according to the 
age and size of the dog) every other day. When the 
nervous symptoms ensue, which I have already described, 
external stimulants (such as sal-ammoniac and oil, equal 
parts) should be rubbed along the course of the spinal 
marrow, and tonics givofi internally, such as bark, &c. 


Of the various remedies the following was given, with 
success, to a dog so afficted as to be scarcely able to 
stand; viz: 

RECIPE (Na 26). 

Torbeth'B mineral, six gnhu ; 
Mixed with sulphur, and divided into three doses, one given every 
other morning. 
Let a few dajs elapse, and then repeat the coarse. 


RECIPE (Na 27). 

Calomel, one grain and a half; 
Rhubarb, five grains ; 
Given every other day for a weel^ 

Another : 

RECIPE (No. 28). 

Antimonial powder, sixteen grains ; 
Powdered Foxglove, one gfrain ; 
, Made into four boluses with conserve of roses, and one given at night, 
and another the next morning, for two days. 

I have uniformly found a complete cure effected from 
copious and repeated venesection, in the early stages of 
the distemper, accompanied with a little opening medi- 
cine, — syrup of buckthorn, for instance. In the kennel of 
Sir Harr^ Mainwaring the distemper generally swept 
away a third of the yoiing dogs, at least. My system of 
treating the disease has since been adopted with the most 
beneficial effect. 




No animal is ,so subject to fits as the dog ; and, next 
to distemper, they destroy a greater number of dogs 
than any other disease. A puppy cutting or changing 
his teeth is very subject to fits ; and the remedy is to 
lance the gums and give a dose of physic. Worms will 
produce them; the vermin must be destroyed by the 
medicines that will be hereafter pointed out. Dogs that 
are too well fed, and have little regular exercise, will 
often suddenly fall into fits, if they are suflfered to range 
at large and are more than usually excited. The remedy 
is regular jexercise and occasional physic. At the begin- 
ning of the season many sporting dogs have^ fits ; and 
when they once appear in a kennel almost every dog 
occasionally becomes affected by them. 

For a dog that is subject to occasional fits there is no 
better medicine than the alterative balls (Recipe No. 3, 
p. 147). One should be given every morning, and a 
physic-ball occasionally. These balls will be particularly 
useful if the dog is become too fat and pursy. If fits 
are produced by the convulsive cough of spasmodic 
asthma, an emetic is indicated. In cases, where the 
alterative balls fail, the tonic will sometimes succeed, 

198 DISBASBfl OF D0O6. 

and the nitrate of silver pills, recommended under chorea, 
will very much diminish the tendency to epilepsy. If 
the fit is obstinate at any time, it will be proper to bleed; 
the full quantity of blood, according to the size of the 
dog, should be taken, and anodynes given. The syrup 
of white poppies is the best, for it is almost the only pre- 
paration of opium that will remain on the stomach of 
the dog, and it may be administered in doses of from 
one to two drachms once or twice every day. If the 
fits are connected with costiveness, the following mixture 
may be given ; it is the very best aperient, for general 
purposes, that can b^ administered to the dog. 

RECIPE (No. 29). 

Aperient Mixture, 

TAKX-^Ca8tor<4>i], one ounce and a half; 
Syrup of buckthorn, an ounce ; -- 
Syrup of white poppies, half an ounce ; 
Mix them together, and keep the dog in a cool place. The dose will 
vary from a teaspocmful to a tablespoonful, according to the aize of the 

Locked-jawt or tetanus, is a very unfrequent disease 
in the dog, and I do not recollect a single case of re- 
covery. The plan of treatment would be to bleed, and 
to give alternately, or at such times as to keep the bowels 
regularly open, the above aperient mixture and the syrup 
of white poppies. 

Palsy is a frequent disease in the dog. It is too 
often the consequence, of distemper, and then is seldom 
removed. The only hope of its removal depends on the 
good condition of the dog, and on his retaining that 
condition. It is the same as in chorea ; if the animal 
is in tolerable plight and spirits, there is a chance ; if be 

PAUT. 109 

is gradually wasting and sinking, no medical skill can 
arrest the progress of the disease. A seton, the keeping 
of the bowels in a rather relaxed state, the feeding of 
the dog, and the exhibition of tonic medicines, will be 
the principal means indicated ; and to these may be 
added local applications. 

RECIPE (No. 30). 

Embrocation for PaUy and Kheumaium. 

Taks— -Spirit of turpentine ; 
Hartshorn; and 

Camphorated spirit ; one ounce each : 
Laudanum, half an ounce. 


A little of this should be well rubbed in along the 
course of the spine, morning and night, being omitted 
for a few days if the part should become blistered or 
very sore. 

In a great many cases, and particularly when palsy 
is the consequence of either constipation or rheumatism, 
or both, these measures will fail of success, find recourse 
must be had to another stimulus. The hair must be cut 
off from the beginning of the loins to the tail, and ex- 
tending half way down the thigh, on either side. A 
piece of thick white leather must be cut precisely to fit 
the part from which the hair has been clipped, and, the 
materials for a charge,** having been melted and spread 

•RECIPE (No. 31). 

A charge for the Loins or Legt, 

Take — Pitch, three pounds ; 
Tar, one pound ; 
Beeft*wax, half a pound : 
Mix them together, and, when they are cool enough to be conyeniently 
applied, spread the charge thickly over the loins, and scatter some flocks 
of short tow over it before it gets quite cold and firm. 


on the leather, it must be applied over the loins while 
warm as accurately as possible. It will adhere closely 
to the skin, and almost- without the possibility of getting 
it off, for three weeks or a month ; and in that time its 
constant but mild stimulus will often recall the power of 

Rheumatism is also a frequent disease of the dog. It 
is entailed upon him by his unnatural petted state. Its 
most frequent immediate cause is constipation, degene- 
rating by degrees into inflammation of the bowels.. He 
cries when he gels up, cries when he walks, cries when 
he is lifted up, and frequently if he is merely looked at. 
The remedy is in most cases very simple and perfectly 
effectual. He must first be put into a warm bath of the 
temperature of 96 degrees, and kept in it ten minutes or 
a quarter of an hour. As soon as he comes from the 
bath the aperient medicine must be administered in the 
dose of a dessert or tablespoonful, according to his size, 
and repeated in half doses morning and night until he is 
relieved. This will usually be all that is necessary; but 
if complete relief is not afforded, recourse may be had 
to the rheumatic embrocation (Recipe No.»30, p. 199), 
which should be well rubbed on the part that seems to 
be principally affected, and should follow the apparent 
shifiings of the disease from limb to limb. 



The existence of this disease is easily recognised. 
There is not only the cessation of the cough, the heaving, 
the heat of the mouth, and the coldness of the feet, 
which characterize the same malady in the horse, but 
there is the same disinclination to lie down. The dog 
seats himself upon his haunches, his head elevated, his 
muzzle protruded, his breathing hard and quick, and his 
countenance anxious ; yet there he sits, and will sit hour* 
after hour, and until he is so completely wearied that 
his legs slip from under him ; still he recovers himself, 
and will not fall until he falls to die. The causes 
which lead on to cold and inflammation of the chest in 
other animals will produce it in the dog ; and he is often 
predisposed to it by the foolish nursing that is lavished 
upon him. 

He must be bled, and to the full quantity, according 
to his size. To this should follow a dose of physic. 
The Epsom salts rolled in paper, or in solution, will be 
most likely to remain on his stomach and to produce the 
desired efiect. Then should be given the cough and 
fever balls (Recipe No. 20, p. 187), made fully large 
when compared with his size, and repeated morning, 
noon, and night. 



A se&ond bleeding should take place if the inflamma- 
tion is not subdued ; yet some caution should be exercised 
here, for the dog ^fiers more, perhaps, than any other 
animal by an unnecessary loss of blood. All food should 
be removed, or only a little milk and water, or weak 
broth, allowed. 

This inflammation is either originally, or it soon be* 
comes, one of the pleura, and then eflusion in the chest 
quickly follows. For this there is seldom any cure. 



Fbw animals are so exposed to the vengeance of some 
miscreant, or so much in the way of accidental poison- 
ing, as the dog. The poisons usually given, or picked 
up by chance, are arsenic, corrosive sublimate, and nux 
vomica, and there is seldom any remedy. The two 
first are attended by excruciating colicky pains, and a 
discharge of blood by stool. When this last symptom 
appears there is no hope. 

The poison of lead may be combated. Dogs are 
fond of licking new paint, on account of the oil which 
it contains, and perhaps the sweetness of the lead. They 
often likewise lap water that has long stood in paint-pots 
that have been carelessly suffered to stand about The 
symptoms are the crying and moaning of the animal, 
his anxious countenance, his peculiarly tucked up and 
corded belly, and an excessive degree of costiveness. 

The bowels must be opened — ^particularly with calo- 
mel, in order that a chemical decomposition may take 
place. The lead that has been received into the stomach 
or intestines has a strong affinity for the chlorine with 
which the mercury is combined ; and a salt of lead, the 
chloride or muriate, is formed, which is not or a poison- 


204 DI8SA8BS OF D008. 

ous charactert while the mercury is left free, and also 
harmless, in the stomach or bowels. The opening of 
the bowels may be assisted in the first place by the 
aperient mixture, the anodyne in which will likewise 
sheathe the inflamed membrane of the bowels; but the 
chief dependence is to be placed on the calomel, which 
will combine with the lead, and render it innocuous. 

The dog is seldom without tfforms; but except they 
exist in large quantities they do little harm. There are 
four varieties of worms in dogs. 

The first is a small worm, two or three inches long, 
sharpened at both ends, and of a somewhat hard struc- 
ture. This is usually found in the stomach of puppies. 
Occasionally they are vomited, either singly or rolled 
into masses. They have been found in the trachea, 
where they have produced a great deal of irritation and 
a most distressing cough, and they are very much con- 
cerned in the production of the fits of young dogs. 

If one of these worms is accidentally discovered, an • 
emetic should be given, and then a physic-ball (Recipe 
No. 1, p. 138). 

The next kind of worm is the long round worm, re- 
sembling that in the horse. This seldom produces irri- 
tation or disease unless it exists in great numbers. 

In order to expel this w6rm a physic-ball should be 
given on every fourth morning; and on each of the 
intermediate days, and an hour before the dog has 
any thing to eat, one of the following balls should be 
given, weighing from three-quarters of a drachm to two 
drachms, according to the size of the dog. 

wosMS. 205 

RECIPE (No. 32). 

Worm BalU. 

TAK>--Carbonate of iron, half an ounee ; 
£th]op*s minera], one drachm; 
Gentian, an ounce ; 
Ginger, half an ounce ; 
Levigated glass, an ounce ; 
Palm-oil, nine drachms : 
Beat them wdl together, an4 keep them in a covered jar for uise. 

The third kind of worm is one of a singular kind. It 
is composed of a multitude of joints, three or four hun- 
dred of them, and each joint capable of becoming a 
perfect worm. It is sometimes three or four feet in 
length, and probably occupies the greater part of the 
length of the intestinal canal. At the upper end is a 
narrow neck, terminating in a small head furnished with 
suckers or tentacula, by means of which the animal ad- 
heres firmly to the intestine. Even when the bowels are 
in a manner filled by the worm, — for sometimes two or 
three exist there at the same time, — it is singular how 
little inconvenience the dog suffers. The bowels will be 
so occupied by them that there does not seem to be 
comfortable room for the whole of these parasites, and 
joint after joint is detached, and crawls from the anus, 
about half an inch in length, and flat ; and yet the dog is 
in perfect health. 

It is very difficult to detach and expel this worm, 
and it is necessary that the whole of it should be de- 
tached ; for if only the little neck and head remain the 
reptile will grow again, so as once more to fill the bowels. 
The worm-ball just recommended seems to be the only 
thing that has power to efiect its destruction. The 


206 DXSBAStS OF D068. 

rough filings of the tin irritate and wound the skin of the 
worm, and cause it by degrees to detach itself from its 
hold, and to be carried on by the peristaltic motion of 
the bowels, increased by the physic-ball, which is period- 
ically given. 

The last worm is the ascaris, or thread-worm, inha- 
biting the lower intestine. These are not, except they 
exist in large quantities, injurious to health, but they often 
tease the dog by the itching which the^ occasion about 
the anus. Medicine has comparatively little effect upon 
them, Jbut the readiest way to expel them is to inject 
some linseed-oil and solution of aloes up the rectum. 

For worms, generally speaking, the following may 
be regarded as a sovereign remedy ; and there are few 
cases which it will not effectually cure. 

RECIPE (No. 33). 

Linseed-oilf half a pint; 
on ^i turpentine, two drachms. 
Repeat the dotse, if necediary. 




There is a species of spasmodic colic with which pup- 
pies are often attacked. The little animals are uneasy 
and fidgety, shifting their posture and place, hiding them- 
selves in corners, looking at their sides, and crying as 
they run. It attacks them at all ages; but from one 
month to three they are most exposed to it. If it is 
neglected, it is usually fatal, and examination after death 
shows an intussusception, or receiving of one part of the 
small intestines within another. This causes an evident 
and insuperable objection to the passage of the faeces ; 
at the same time it shows the fearful degree of painful 
spasm that must have taken place. 

The cure for it, and an almost certain one, is the ex- 
hibition of the aperient mixture (Recipe No. 29, p. 198), 
in doses apportioned to the size of the dog, and given 
morning, noon, and night, until the bowels are well 
opened, a slightly aperient action being kept up by oc- 
casional doses afterwards. If the spasm does not soon 
yield to the mixture, a warm bath will often be service- 
able, both in relieving the pain and preparing the bowels 
to act 

Inflammation of the bowels. — Inflammation of the mus- 
cular or peritoneal coat does not happen so frequently as 


208 DI8fiA8E8 OF DOOf. 

the food and habits of the animal would lead one to 
suspect. One of the most frequent causes of it is costive* 
ness. It is difficult to fix on the precise symptoms of 
this complaint. The dog iS frequently bringing his 
stomach in contact with the floor, while his hind parts 
are elevated ; he is feverish ; the countenance is anxious ; 
the belly tucked up, and hot and painful when touched ; * 
and the pulse, although small, is hard and wiry. 

This disease requires bleeding, a warm bath, the 
aperient mixture, and low dieC The aperient mixture 
will be of far more service than any combination of 
aloes and calomel, or any other drastic purgative. 

Of the varieties of diarrhasa that of distemper is the 
most to be dreaded, and too frequently bids defiance to 
all medicine. This has been treated of under distemper. 

Next in obstinacy and serious consequences is bilious 
diarrhoea. The dog is even more subject to an increased 
secretion of bile than is the human being, and, on 
account of its stimulating and acrid character, inflam- 
mation of the mucous coat of the intestines is speedily 
produced. It is usually preceded and often accompanied 
by obstinate sickness. A great quantity of bile mingles 
with the fseces ; the stools are in a manner composed of 
bile ; they are evacuated with a great deal of pain ; there 
is rapid prostration of strength ; and the dog soon ^inks 
under the disease. 

The treatment of bilious inflammation and purging is 
often diflicult. The aperient mixture (Recipe No. 29, p. 
198) is first indicated, unless the purging is very profuse 
and blood mingles with the faeces, in which case the 
syrup of buckthorn must be omitted. As soon as the 
purging is a little restrained, that which will act on the 
cause of the disturbance of the bowels must be given. 


RECIPE (Nik 34). 

Pwoitrfor BUimu Mt^fUnrnmHam. 

Taxs— Calomel, eight gniiiB ; 

Antimonial powder, Ibnr gnini; 
Powdered opiam, one gondii : 
Mix together, and divide into powden. 

Give one or two of these, according to the size of the 
dog, morning, noon, and night. 

One of the most distressing circumstances attending 
this disease is an incessant vomiting. A little boiled 
milk, with one drop of laudanum in it, will sometimes 
quiet the stomach ; but if that fails, it is not often that 
any thing else will succeed. The following ball may, 
however, be tried : — 

RECIPE (No. 35). 

BaUfor Inee$$ant Vomtltfig. 

Takc — Powdered chalk, one oanee ; 

Powder€i,d colombo-root, half an ounce: 
Make into a masfl with thick syrup of poppies, and give from half 
a drachm to a drachm, according to the size of the dog, two or three 
times'in the day. 

Petted dogs are very subject to piles^ produced by the 
stimulating nature of their food, and the costiveness to 
which they are subject. 'The dog frequently licks his 
anus, or drags it along the carpet; there is considerable 
swelling and tenderness of the part ; a little matter often 
oozes out when it is pressed upon, and blood /o//ot&5, not 
mingles with, the stools. 

Present costiveness must be removed by the castor-oil 
mixture ; a little sweet oil or pomatum should be smeared 



over the part, or introduced up the ^nus ^ith the tip of 
the little finger, and an alterative ball (Recipe No, 3, p. 
147) given every* morning. 

A considerable tumour sometimes arises by the side 
of the anus, and is to be attributed to the same causes. 
It is exceedingly painful — swells to a very considerable 
size — is at first of an intense red colour, but becomes 
dark and purple, and, at length, breaks, and discharges 
a great quantity of thick bloody pus, leaving a large and 
deep ulcer. The tumour is a species of carbuncle. 
The ulcer will readily heal, if the bowels are kept open 
by means of the aperient mixture (Recipe No. 29, p 
198), and the astringent lotion (Recipe No. 18, p. 180) 
.applied to the wound. 

Very great attention should afterwards be paid to the 
feeding of the dog, and the proper state of the bowels. 
The alterative balls (Recipe No. 3, p. 147) will be useful, 
and an occasional meal of boiled bullock's liver should 
be allowed ; otherwise the tumour will return, and, at 
length, degenerate into an ulcer of a cancerous nature, 
which will spread and corrode and destroy the dog. 

To this chapter belongs an accident which occasion- 
ally happens to young dogs that are delicate and subject 
to frequent purging, viz. protrusion of the rectum. The 
part should be cleaned with warm water, and then rQ- 
turned as gently as possible. The purging should be 
stopped by means of the aperient mixture, without the 
syrup of buckthorn ; if there is much tenesmus, a little 
of the same mixture, mixed with gruel, should be admi- 
nistered as an injection ; the anus should be afterwards 
frequently bathed with cold water, and proper means 
laken to strengthen the constitution of the dog. 



The glan3 of the penis of the dog, and especially of 
the young dog, sometimes enlarges, and the prepuce 
contracts beneath it, and can no longer be brought over 
and made to cover Jt The glans becomes of a pale 
red colour, glossy, and is evidently distended by a fluid. 
It tnusi be punctured with a fine lancet, and the enlarge- 
ment will speedly subside. It should then be examined 
whether any of the hairs at the edge of the prepuce had 
insinuated themselves into the sheath, and these must be 
cut off with a pair of scissors. 

There is sometimes a discharge, or oozing of blood 
from the prepuce. This rarely or never proceeds from 
the urethra ; but when the sheath is turned down, a cauli- 
flower-like fungous growth is perceived, from which the 
blood flows on the slightest touch. If there is no great 
quantity of it, and the whole can be easily got at, there 
is a very fair prospect of a cure. It must be cut off 
closely with a pair of sharp scissors, and the roots 
touched with the lunar caustic. A second, or even a 
third, repetition of the paring of the fungus, and the ap- 
plication of the caustic, will not unfrequently be neces- 


213 ]>X8SAiS8 OF D008. 

If, however, the sheath seems to be in a manner filled 
with it, and the whole of it cannot be fairly exposed, hu- 
manity will require that the poor animal should be de- 

Castration is best performed in the dog by means of 
a ligature. An incision is made into the scrotum, the 
testicle turned out, and a tight ligature passed round 
the cord ; after which the testicle is immediately re- 

The scrotum itself is subject to disease : there is en- 
largement of the bag generally, a very great redness of 
the integument, and the appearance of a superficial 
pimpled sore. Fomentation with warm water, and the 
application of the healing ointment (Recipe No. 5, p. 149), 
will usually etkct k cure. 

If this is neglected, that which, in the first place, was 
only inflaaunation of the integument, will spread to the 
testicle, and scbirrous enlargement and cancer of it will 
be produced. Little hope of doing good can then be en- 
tertained, although in a few instances the friar's balsam 
and the healing ointment have efected a cure. The 
iodine pills (Recipe No. 16, p. 176) will be worth trying, 
if the owner is determined that a cure shall be attempted. 
In most cases, however, the patient should be put out of 
his misery as speedily as possible. 

Castration will not always succeed in schirrous en- 
largement and cancer of the testicle : the disease will 
spread up the cord, when that has begun to enlai^; and, 
in some cases, when there is no apparent hardening or 
thickening of the cord, the cancerous tendency will 

The fungous excrescences already described are some- 
times found in the vagina of the bitch, and generally 



produced either by difficult parturition, or the forcible 
separation of the dog from her at the time of heat. If 
these groi?vths can be got at, a cure may be attempted ; 
but if they are beyond the reach of the scissors or the 
caustic, no good can be done. These fungous growths, 
either from ineffectual attempts to get rid of them, or in 
their natural progress, terminate in cancer of the vagina; 
and injuries either at parturition, or the period of oestrum, 
are sometimes productive of the same consequence. It 
will be Qseless to attempt to cure cancer in the vagina^^-^ 




The bitch goes with young nine weeks. She rarely 
varies even one day. It is seldom before the fifth week 
that the belly begins to enlarge, or that the motions of 
the foetus can be detected. A day or two before the 
expiration of her time of utero-gestation, she usually 
gets fidgety and uneasy, and selects her bed ; and for 
some days before that the secretion of milk has com- 
menced. If she has not been petted, and disposed to 
inflammation, and if the dog was not much larger than 
herself, there is little or no danger attending the act of 
parturition. ' 

Petted bitches, however, frequently experience much 
difficulty in bringing forth their young, and manual 
assistance is thea necessary. The precise time at which 
the connexion took place should be ascertained, and 
no attempt made to extract the foetus, until some hours 
after the full expiration of the usual period of utero- 
gestation, nor for the first six or eight hours after the 
labour has commenced should the bitch be worried by 
any attempts at examination or assistance. 

When, however, it is deemed expedient to interfere, 

PARTvirrioN. 215 

the first thing that should be done is to examine ^whether 
any part of the foetus has entered the pelvis; if it has 
ooty she must be left undisturbed for a few hours longer. 
If it appears, after a second examination, that no pro- 
gress has been made, a stimulant should be given ; and 
the best stimulus to the womb, and that which has saved 
the lives of hundreds of these animals, is the Secale 
comtUum^ or ergot of rye. 

RECIPE (No. d€). 

Ergot of Rye PilU. 

Takk — Ergot of rye, a scrapie; rub it down to a fine powder, 
and then add. 
Powdered ginger, sixteen grains ; 
Simple syrup, a sufficient quantity-: . 
Beat into a mass, and divide into five pills. 

One of these should be given to a bitch of tolerable 
size every hour, and half a pill to a smaller animal. 
They will usually rouse the womb to mor^ forcible con- 
traction, and often recall the labour-pains after they had 

As soon as the foetus is in the pelvic cavity, and a 
Utile portion of it presents from ihQ external orifice, the 
finger, previously oiled, should be introduced into the 
vagina, by the side of the puppy, most especial cure 
being taken that the young one is not forced back. The 
position of the fcetus will now \ye ascertained. If it is 
a natural presentation, the muzzle being foremost, the 
foetus may be a little advanced, by gentle solicitation 
and working of the finger. The finger must then be 
carried as far up as possible, and one of the shoulders 
of the dog feh for, and the elbow being found, that fore- 


leg may be easily brought down. The other must be 
disposed of in the same manner, and then, ^y gentle but 
firm pulling, the whole foetus will be extracted. It will 
qever be prudent to use any force until the fore-legs arc 
thus disposed of, for there will be hazard of breaking 
the puppy ; and, that being done, the life of the mother 
is irrecoverably lost. 

If the hinder legs present, there will be somewhat 
more difficulty. The puppy must be partly drawn, but 
more solicited, forward, by the action of the fore-finger, 
in the manner I have described, until the chest is in the 
passage. The foetus then being firmly held, a finger 
must be introduced, and the shoulder, and the. elbow, 
on one side, sought for as recommended before, and that 
fore-foot brought forward. The other must be managed 
in the same way, and then the head will give little 

Instruments should never be resorted to until the 
strength of the bitch is evidently exhausted, and the 
throes have ceased, and she can no longer a.ssist the 
surgeon ; then a hook resembling a button*hook, but 
with the extremity not curved round, must be taken, and, 
the fore-finger of the left hand having been introduced 
into the vagina, the hook is slid along it, completely 
guarded by it, and introduced into the mouth of the 
foetus, in a case of natural presentation, and into the 
pelvic cavity if the presentation is not natural ; and 
being gently, but somewhat firmly, pulled, whjle the fore- 
finger of the left hand is still urging the foetus forward, 
it may often be extracted. 

Soothing and gentle treatment will avail more here 
than (iny force that could be used. 

Inversion of the womb sometimes takes place, when 

PAETvimoir. 217 


too great force has been used. If it is immediately and 
carefully returned, there will be little danger; but if 
considerable straining should continue after the wOmb 
is returned, a bandage must be eontrived to press upon 
the external orifice, or a stitch must- be passed through 
the lips of the vulva. 

After the bitch has pupped, she should be left as much 
as possible to herself; for she will then be far more 
likely to do well than when "disturbed by the kindest 
nursing. She may be suffered to ea^ and drink as usual, 
for it is rare that, even in petted bitches, any fever ensues, 
except fr6m two causes. 

If her young ones, or all except one, are cruelly taken 
from her, because there may perchance be a stain in 
their pedigree, nature wjll continue to secrete milk 
enough for the whole litter, and this will accumulate in 
her teats, and cause local swelling and inflammation: 
it will likewise be a frequent source of general fever, 
that cannot easily be subdued. 

Physic, the cough-balls (Recip€f No. 20, p. 187), little 
food, and frequent fomentations with warm water, wi 
be most likely to afford relief. 

Sometimes, however, a contrary course is pursued. ^ 
The owner sets great value on the breed, and is anxious 
to save every puppy ; and, instead of finding o\}t a foster- 
mother for some of them, he suffers the whofe litter to 
suck and exhaust her. A bitch that is used to hardship, 
and whose constitution has not been impaired by foolish 
fondness, will not be hurt by this ; but a spoiled and pet- 
ted bitch is rarely capable of suckling with safety more 
than half of her produce. 

If too many remain.with her, she, after a while, be- 
comes somewhat stupid, and inattentive to her young 


218 DIUAfm OF D068. 

ones ; she rapidly, loses flesh ; she will not eat ; and she 
has a wild yet sunken look : then all at once she will 
lay herself down, and begin to pant dreadfully, as if she 
was about to die in a few minutes ; or strong yelping 
fits come upon her. 

'ihi» is the consequence of extreme irritabiHty, pro- 
duced by exhaustion and debility ; and every thing that 
would tend to weaken the bitch would increase that 
irritability, and aggravate every symptom. It would, 
therefore, be bad practice to bleed her. The best allayer 
ot irritability is a warm bath, into which she should be 
put, and kept ten minutes or a quarter of an hour; ^nd 
if, after that, a physic-ball is given her, and half her pup- 
pies taken from her, she wilf do very well 

Sometimes a bilious diarrhoea will come on from the 
same cause. ' The same means must be pursued, with 
this difference, that a dose of the ape/ient mixture (Re- 
cipe No. 29, p. 198), must be given instead of the aloetic 
ball, and followed by the astringent balls (Recipe No. 23, 
p. 192). 



There is scarcely a keepei:, or a whipper-in, who has 
Dot an infallible specific for the mange ; and one or two 
applications are to perform a complete cure. I know 
nothing of these wonderful ointments, or lotions ; and if 
I did I would not use them, because I should be sure 
that so sudden a revulsion from the skin would be very 
likely to produce other and worse diseases. 

If the mange, whether red mange, or that of the 
common scabby kind, is derived from either of the 
parents,' no power on earth will cure it; nor can the 
periodical mange, which has returned in the spring and 
he autumn for a few years, be ever eradicated from the 
blood. Mange caught on ship*board, and where the dog 
has had much salted meat, is very obstinate. The red 
mange, also, is difficult to cure ; but patience and perse- 
verance may conquer that. 

Itching, although it may exist to a considerable de- 
gree, and even with some redness of the skin, will 
sometimes yield to medicine, and bleeding, and a little 
starvation. A physic-ball (Recipe No. 1, p. 138) should 
be given every fourth d^y, and an alterative ball (Recipe 

220 DiSBAtss OF Does. 

No. 3, p. 147) on each of the intermediate days, and 
blood should be abstracted, according to, the size of the 

If, however, a week should pa^s, and the itchiness 
and redness continue, the mange ointment (Recipe No. 
2, p. 146) must be resorted to. The hair must be care- 
fully parted, and a little of it gently but well rubbed into 
the skin, wherever the disease appears. This should be 
continued daily for a w^ek, the physic ^nd alterative 
balls being given- as before. At the expiration of a week 
the dog may be washed, in order to ascertain the pro- 
gress of the cure, and to open the pores of the skin, for 
the better effect .of the ointment. The proof of cure 
will be the cleansing away of all the scabs, the whole- 
some and natural appearance of the skin, and the ces- 
sation of the itching. The medicine should be continued 
at least a week after the mange has seemed to disappear. 

In red mange there is seldom any scabbiness, but in- 
tense redness, and heat, and itchiness of the skin on 
various parts, and particulsixiy oA the belly, the flanks, 
and the inside of the thigbsr. Here sitso the physic and 
the application of the ointment should be preceded by 
bleeding. The same medicine must be given, and one- 
eighth part of mercurial ointment added to the com^ion 
mange ointment Care must be taken that the dog does 
not lick it off, for if he does he will soon become sali- 
vated ; and in order to prevent this, if he will not other- 
wise let it alone, a little powdered aloes should be 
mixed with the ointment. 

Should little or no progress be made after a month's 
trial has been given to this treatment, the following lotion 
may be used. 

VANGB. 221 

RECIFE <Na 37). 

Wathfrnr JUdBUnge. 

Tmme — Corroeive sttUimate, a scruple ; dimolTe it in 
Spirits ef wine, two dnchms; add 
Milk of sidphnr, an oance ; and gradually pour upon this, 

well Mining the whole together. 
Lime-water, half a pint 

This may be applied to, or rubbed on, the aflTccted 
part by means of a bit of sponge or clean rag, the 
liquid being kept welt stirred. There is little or no 
danger of salivation from the use of this liniment, Unless 
it is used in great quantities or contiuued very long. 

If the disease should still be obstinate, local applica- 
tions may be altogether omitted, and the following 
alterative powder given daily. 

RECIPE'CNo. 38). 

AUenUioe Mtdidnefor Red BUnge* 

Takk— Ethiop's mineral, fT<Mn two to five grains, according to the sise 
• of the dog ;. 

Cream of Tartar, from fi>ur to ten grains; and 
Tartrate of iron, from one to three grains.: 
Rub them well together. 

I have known some sportsmen continue to give this 
for five or six weeks, and at length succeed ; but even 
this will sometimes fail Should purging, or a slight 
soreness of the mouth, occur at any period, the medicine 
should be discontinued for a week, and then given again 
as before. 

I have said nothing of tobacco water, hellebore, or the 
tan-pit; they are *' kill or cure^' things, and better let 

232 DUEA888 OF D0G8. 

A very peculiar species of mange will sometimes ap- 
pear. A dog is perfectly well to-day, and bis skin 
every where whole and sound; to-morrow a bare raw 
patch is found upon him, usually about his haunches, 
varying from the size of a shilling, to that of the palm 
of the hand. It is exceedingly sore ; it seems from the 
dog's manner to itch dreadfully ,' a thin, ichorous fluid 
exudes from it, and it spreads rapidly. Practitioners 
call it, from its sudden appearance and Inflammatory 
character, " the acute mange." 

It has a frightful appearance, but it readily yields to 
treatment. The dog should be bled, a dose of physic . 
given, and the healing ointment (Recipe No. 5, p. 149) 
gently smeared over the sore; and very frequently* in 
three or four days, the whole will disappear. 

Mange will frequently attack the feet of dogs. It 
usually appears, at least in its early stage, in the form of 
inflammation of the web between the toes, which be- 
comes intensely red ; an ichorous fluid exudes from it; 
and the dog is very lame. The wash for red mange 
will be the best application, but the foot should be bound 
up. The arm of a lady's worn-out glove will be most 
conveniently used for this purpose. 
^ Sote feet, partly arising from, this affection, but more 
from working over rough or stubble ground, is best 
cured by a strong solution of common salt, to which a 
little tincture of myrrh has been added. 

When either sore feet or miirige in the feet is neglected, 
the disease spreads to the toes, and particularly to the 
roots of the nails, and the nail is sometimes lost, and the 
dog for a while rendered useless. All broken nails 
should be cut, and s^l that are loosened should be pulled 
out ; poultices of linseed-meal should then be applied to 

iiAKOS. 223 

abate inflammation; and after that the feet should be 
frequently bathed with the astringent lotion for wounds 
(Recipe No. 18, p, 180), diluted with an equal quantity of 
water, and a little tincture of aloes being mixed with it. 
There are few disorders says Beckford to which dogs 
are so. subject as mange. Air and exercise, wholesome 
food and cleanliness, are the best preservatives against 
it Your feeder should be particularly attentive to it, 
and when any spot of it is perceived, let hini rub it with 
the following mixture. 

RECIPE (No. 39). 

Take — ^A pint of train oil ; 

Half pint oil of turpentine ; 
A t[uarter of a pound of ginger in powder ; 
Half an ounce of gunpowder^ finely powdered. 
Mixed up Qold. 

If the disorder should not yield to the remedy just pre- 
scribed, three mild purging balls, one every other day, 
should be given, and the dog laid up for a little while 
afterwards. For the red mange, you may use the 
following : 

RECIPE (No. 40). 

Take — Four ounces of quicksilver ; 

Two ounces of Venice turpentine ; 
One pound of hog's lard. 

The quicksilver and turpentine are to be rubbed together till the 

globules disappear. When you apply it, you must rub one ounce once 
a day on the part affected, for three days successively. This to be used 
when the hair comes off, or any redness appears. 

To cure soi^efeet,' — Wash them with brine, or salt and 
vinegar, a handful of salt to a pint of vinegar. 

chapter: XXXIX. 


Sprains are painful swellings of the ligaments and 
tendons of the joints ; and are caused by too great ex 
tensiqns of the limbs, of which the tendons become re- 
laxed. They should be \;ell rubbed with the following^ 
twice a day. 

RECIPE (No. 41). 

Takc— Camphor, two drachms ; 
Brandjrl one oonoe. 

When the camphor is well dissolved, add one ounce of sweet <^], and 
shake them well together. 

Should this not have the desired effect, try the follow- 

ing, viz.: 

RECIPE (No. 4-2). 

TAK»-*Spidt of hartshorn, two drachms ; 
Sweet oil, six drachms. 
Well shaken, and applied as the others. Give a spoonful or two of 
syrup of buckthorn. 

As sprains are attended with inflammation, this should 
be got rid of, in the first place, by fomenting with warm 
water four or five times a day, and the following lotion 

RECIPE (No. 43). 

Take — Extract of lead, two ounces ; 
Water, one pint 

Should any stiffness remain, after the infiammation 
has totally subsided, apply a blister. 

THE ENTD. . ■ ' " 


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I _ 



i NATION, INSTINCT, tc, &c. 

Wtth Plates, Pkdn or Colored, 
Bt Williak Eibbt, M. A., F. R. S. And William Sfence, Esq., F.R.S. 

From the Sixth London edition, 


In one large octavo volume^ extra doth. 

I Thia work, as it at present stands, is acknowledged to be the best extant as a popular intro- 
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toBTejed in an i^reeable manner. In preparing the last edition, from which ttiis is printed, 
&e aathon hare omitted the two last Totumes, as being too scientific for popular use, and arranged 
' lias it now is, forming a complete exposition of the principles of the study, unincumbered with 
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[ ' **Thifl publication is one of the highest character of its class; and while the information it 
I eontains is, generally speaking, valuable and instructiTS, much of it is remarkably curious and 
interesting. The work is comprised in a volume of six hundred pages, and should tiave a place 
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Revised by the Editor of the « Forget-Me-Not." 
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M A R S T O N , 

By the rev. GEORGE CROLY. 
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Thif edkioD of Gnhame's lUndard work is far preferable to the Englbh edHioa, wm contain 
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uvES m mE mm^ ^ McriitN® vmsL the 


HOW Fnti^ twuMitb i-kote atrtct&L itcdosns 'aM> (jntEft ikknjMistm. 


Forming a neat doodecimo aeries, to match 'Mij? Strickland's''^' i^oeens of England.'* 

Volume I. contains theXife of '< Williak the Con^uebob." 

*<The *Liresof the Kings of England,' must therefore prom a aalnable auxiliary to thoss 
feaden, who, fond of tracing eflbcts npio their tMe causes, are^tosirons of ascertaining the real 
■hare contriboted bj each of the British Sorereigns to those results which have conferred on our 
conmry lind ttAfon Aelr present ffreiid pre-emi^eiite tn power^ ]IM)Sp«vity,freedeBi, anil glfaiy. 
To such as seek amusement only, they cannot fail to be equally acceptable, as a connected \ 
fecord of the sayings and doings of personages, many bf ikeA ranking foremost as models of 
chivalry, and most eajoyiiif^'tfae highest renown among tiie politlaiaDs and the warriors of their 
own time." 




Jn'tvfooctifbo voikata, mfa OMK 
Mr. Moore has at length eempletadiiiaSislory^'llielattd daring 4lie «Mt tnmUed and Inta- 

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as Ihr as the Great Expedition agalnst'Scotland in 1545, can procure the second toluB 







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ahd 'Bnquirer, ^ 

** We do not remember ever 40 ^lave- read a adore BtrAAng sketch Aan the one just preceding. 
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jQst."— i7a«7y CTmsfi. 

One Xgazge Octavo Volume, with many Cuts. 





PapU'»r4ll^-«el«l«rtted Otretaie; late Maitre D*H6teI, and CKief Cook to her 

Majesty the Queen, 8tc. 
nr Cit(T:irtk1t imAt o(?tAVo volume, With ufwakm of sixty illustratioKs. 
This volume will take the place formerly occupied by the elaborate work of Ude. It con- 
tains ample instructions for making all thechoicestFrenchdisheSf from the simplest to the 
nest complex. 




The ol^jeei-of tMs Httie book Is to show in a popular and agreeable manner the chemical 
agency exerted in the Yarious phanonena of aatore. b forms a neat volume for the Cenue 




SY LEWIS DURLACHER, Sus«son Chiropodim ^eo vn -QvMir. 

Jfi OfM d^^odecimo vohone, cMK 




or TBS 





NOV niusrr pubu8bo> psom 





'* The treasares of antiquity, laid up 
la old historic rolls, I oi>ened." 



VOL. L—Coataiai Matilda of Flanden, H&tflda of Soodand. Adelida of Loovako. 

Matilda of Bouloffne, and Eleanor of Aqnitatne. Prioe 50 Peati, in finwr paper. 
VOL. II. — Bereagaria of NaTarre, Iwiwlla of Angoalena, Eleanat of nrnvonee, WIeeaeff 

ofCaetile, Marguerita of France, Inbella of FraDeo..^ulippa of Haiaiiyiir, aad 

Ann of Bohemia. Prioe 50 Cente. 
VOL. III. — balMlla of Valoie» Joanna of Navarre, Eatliarino of Valoifs Mmant of 

Aqjoa, Elixabedi Woodville, and Ann of Warwiek. Prioe 50 Cente. 
VOL IV. — EBxabetli of Yorlt, Katharine^of Arrason, Ann Boleyn, Jane Sewanm, Ann 

of Cleree. and Katharine Howard.' Price 05 Cents. 
VOL. v.— Katharine Parr, and aneen Mary. Price 65 Ceofa. 
VOL VI. — aneen Elizabeth. Price 65 Centf. 

VOL. VII. — aneen Eliaabetii (eontioaed), and Ano-of Denmaric Priee 68 Cvtibk 
VOL. Vin.— Henrietta Maria, and Cfeitherine of B|»f ansa. Price eS.Cente. 

Any Volume sold separately, or the whole to match in extra green cloth. 




'"^^^^^^^"'Tr r' l " ------------ I ' *^ ,> f.- | - » r X C'»"|J~>' - I ■ 'X ^l I J I J I _ <I . 




MODERN COOCERt IN ALL ItS BltANCHt^tS, f^iie^ to m 
Sjstem of Easy Practice, for the use of Private FEunilies. In a Setiei 
cr Practical Receipts} ^ df which are gwen with the roost minlutt 
exactness* By Eliza Acron. With numerous Wood-cut lUustratidna 
To which is added, a Table of Weights and Measure& The whole 
revised and prepared jfor American Housekeepers, by Mjlb. Sa&ah 
J. Halb, tnx^ the jeeooft ixmdwi editipD. In onelBise i2n»b volulne. 

"The publishers beg to present a few of the testimoniak of the Englisii 
liriesB in fiivour of this work. 

DM ^t ii tpoedUy fiadinc iti way to erar^ 'drener^ ill the kinidom. Her 't/ookory-l>o4k fa 
vaftmitlioiiabfar Um noit VtitkMB ottnitaiMitite of ^ «ft ilutt Wfe y^ been publMMdv it 
-ttrMfly iaeoIeatM wMuionueal piinoiplea. and pointe oat how good thinga may be ooueottod 
%iihoiit that lecUeai eztraTacanoe which goed cooka hare been wont to hnagine the beat &▼»■ 
ileioe they ean gm of akill in their pnitbaAtM.**^'lj&kdd» MorniHg Po9U 

** The anangenwvtt adopted by Miai Acton hi excellent She haa tnnted nathing t9 otUanr. 
Bh6 haa pi«v«l*alr=ih« ftha wiiHen ^iMnAMd ttipebtibii «irf expiriiMit. QRwiKOTel Mum 
«ff her book, which will greatly fadlitate thelabooia of the kitchen, ia the anmmary appendeli f^ 
eatii recipe of the materiab which it contains, with the exact proportion of erery ingretenlb 
iadl the preeiaatinie required to draaa Uie whofo.^*— ZimuIm wfttea. 

** Aware of ow own imnompetency to pronounce npop the d^na of .thhi Tohune to the cteff • 
leioe of thoaa noatinfaiMicd initatenlanfe, wb adbniittad it to meiaihan one profeaior of tha 
Urt of cookery. Hie report made to na ia more than fitYoomUe. We are aaaared that Mte 
Actoo^ inatmctiona may be aafely followed ; her receipta are diitinguiahed for excellence. The 
tfiafaea i*ebtt«a idsbtdlhg lb mm AcfOti^a dl»<Jdtrona-^U 6f Vhieh, Ute tilit 'Ol, h&%^ bedtt 
Vrtod and approrad— will give aatia&ction by their delicacy, and will be foond economical in 
Yfiee aa weD ia dkHdhMslk flf»o». WM i«toh gnMHtiOtetb Hi sttpiulft iMnh, there it lA 
']8oAbt tliat die Volome will bis parcbaaed and conaalted by The Homeatic aathoritiei of eVeit 

Shakily ia whidi good coofcaqri oonabined mth rigid economy, ia an oloMt of intereat'*— GMik 

-'- '" — — "t 

** We have anbjected tlda book to the aerere teat of practice, and we readily cmwedeto it the 
VMfcitof beawamoatiMeftilaaxiUarytothepreadinggeniaaof thecMlnRa. The inatmclloai 
it kivea in all that relataa Id oafiaary iffitin tfre ectm^irefteniiftve^ jodicioua, and completely 
div<Baled of old-fhahh»ed taraddle. It contains, beaidea, aome novel featnrea, calculated to facili' 
Into liie labovrs of cookery ; the |>rtneipal of these is the snmmaiy appended to each receipt of 
the exact qnantitieB of the ingredients it contains, and the precise time required to dress tiie 
dish. To the practical woman vriio aeeka to comUoe comfort with economjr in the direction of 
hot bouaehoid eoDMnB,'tfak bookHriO prav« an iniralnabb ti«aa«ra.*t^*«taidair Tbtu. 

** We cannot, thenlbre, too warmly recommflnd to the noUce of our Junior brethren thia eom- 
pilatioa of Elisa Acton*s, which will p i o Ts a a w wftd -to young Mrs. and her cook in the kitdien, 
■aa TiHmiaon*s Di«aaaatory or Conqwetiia to the young doctor in the libraiy." — J 

'* Mialraaa Aelon writaa #en,fo thaiiioi9t,-and )ikem>rdih«ta bfstbriing sense ; her prefhee oigljl 
to be printed on a broadside, and taught td all the young ladiaa at all the boarding-aohdolib 
and all the day-acbbola, HrhatlWr b6U«lfiig«Dr itot. In BoflaHd. 

"^The whde of Mias Aeton*s receipts, wiUi a few trifling exdi^dns, Which are aenqMh 
hrasly specified, *are confined to aueh as may be perfitctly depended on iVom having been proted 
b ene a th our own roof, and under our -peraonal iitqiectioo.* We add, moreover, that the 
ncaipta are aU maaooabla, and never in any instance extravngant. They do not bid ua saeri* 
fibe ted pouds of excellent aseat-lhatwe may<iOt« eoapleof«aarlaof gravy from it; nor dotbay 
deal with MMsr and eggtf at If Ihdy Mist Aothing. Utaa Aett>n*s book fa a good^eok in «r«y 
«ay ; then fa riKhHUhMfedlflab In art'iry ioage of It, aa ifell aa thorough knowladctt of the h^ 
fact dw handfaa.'*— X,aiMfa» JtMk^l OauUs. (H) 













Murrmfs Encydoptedia of Geography^ 

8ROVOBT VF TO 1842. 














flbitl about SUten XniOrtely ot|^ IBiigcabCiifls.on Wootr 

Ru g i MM ill i i g Iht M<wt wwkabis o U tem of Natw — d Art ia vntf wfiwi af ttaClebs ; 



DiawB by Dmyton. fiom Tanmr*! Map. tad EngraTed on Copper, ia which to flmbodkd tho 

laiMt ialbnBBtioa niatiac to the lalaraal Imprtvomooti of this eooatry. 



In Three handBome Roral Oetayo VolameB, TariovB biRdiag** 

FBtsoBB can be supplied hf sending their names to the PnUi8her% 

or the general Agent, 














9Y H. WHU5, B.A., 




rBoreipAL of ran philadbl^hia.. high school, xm professor of mora^ 


In one Volume, large Duodecimo, neatly bound in Mu^oon. 

Tk« PabfiBhen* in preBenttng " Whitest Vnivenai HisUtrif^ to the public 
belieye that it is calculated to fUl a defidenc^t long ezistiiig in school-books, of 
good and an accurate condensed manual of die Ifietery of the World, fitted as 
essentially appropriate work for schools. Some of those now in use have beei 
long before the public, and since their appearance, n^my interestipg investigatk 
haye been made, and import^uit facts deYeloped ; some are meagre in their del 
and the narrations given are proved by later researches to be incorrect ; while npi 
embrace a broad and philosophical view of the gatherings of late histonans. 

It is believed that the present volume is capable of iulfiUing theae ii 
The Author, who has had great experience as a teacher of history, has spei 
several years in the composition of the work ; and every effort has been made t< 
insure its aeconcy during its passage through the press. In his Preiace, he 
marks that "he has consulted the best works in the Epgliah laogQ^ge, 
acknowledges his great obligatipps to peveral of the more recent French -and Ger- 
man writers. The rtfereoces introduced in the body of the work, serve to indical 
the main sources from which his information has been deHved ; and it is 
they will also bs aervicfiable to the student, by directing the eoucse of his 
researches, as well as inducing him to continue them in a more extended field." 





The work is divided into three parts, corresponding with Ancient, Middle, and 
Modem History; which parts are again subdivided into centuries, so that the various 
events are presented in the order of time, while it b so arranged that the annals 
of each country can be read consecutively, thus combining the advantages of both 
the plans hitherto pursued in works of this kind. To guide the researches of the 
student, there will be found numerous synoptical tables, with remarks and sketches 
of literature, antiquities, and manners, at the great chronological epochs. 

As to the method to be adopted in using this manual, " the compiler deems it 
unnecessary to offer any lengthened direction^ ; the experienced teacher will readily 
adopt that best suited to those under his charge. The work may be used simply 
as a reading-book ; but a certain portion should be given 3ut for the attentive study 
of the pupil, after which he should be closely questioned, not only as to the more 
general facts, but also the most trivial circumstances recorded.*' To facilitate this 
exercise on the part of the teacher, the American Editor, Mr. J. S. Hart, has 
added a series of Questions, which will be found very useful to those who prefer 
this mode of instruction. 

In preparing this edition, the American Editor has paid particular attention to 
those portions of the work which treat of American History, making them more 
full, and correcting those mistakes which are inevitable in one residing at such a 
<fistance from the source of information. His extended and well-earned reptHtation 
as a teacher, is a sufficient guarantee that whatever has possed under his revision 
will be free from all errors of importance. 

In conclusion, the publishers have to observe, that during the short time in which 
this work has been before the public, it has received the most flattering testimonlils 
of approbation. Already it has been introduced into many of the highest class of 
institutions for instruction, and three editions have been called for in less than a year. 

A few recommendations and notices are smbjoined. 

Metsn. Lea ({• Slanchard: 

Gehtlemen — ^I return the volume of ** Elements of Universal History" you 
left with me a few days since. On a cursory examination, it appears to me to be 
much the best of the elementary works on the subject which I have met with. 
The author has executed his method with a great deal of skill, and by this means 
has avoided much of the confusion which is apt to occur in manuaij of Universal 
History. The book is a very comprehensive one, and must have cost Mr. White 
great labor in collating, and still more in arranging his materials. He shows, more- 
over, a direct acquaintance with many of the best historical authorities, among 
them, those of late years. I have turned to several periods of history which I 
thought would be most likely to show its character, and find them treated wiih 
cooaderable fairness and accuracy ; indeed, it is unusually free from the prejudices 
that often disfigure books of this sort — ^I mean on questions of history. 

The book is one that might, I am inclined to think, be introduced with advan- 
tage as an historical text-book for the younger classes in our colleges. It will be 
found, too, I believe, a convenient manual for private students, which is one of the 
uses contemplated by the author. Let me add that, judging from the passages I 
have looked at, the book is written in good, unaffected English. 

Truly and respectfully* 

Profeisor of BeUet LeUret in the University of Pennsylvania, 


Clinton St., Phiio.. Skft. 15, 1844. 
ilfettrf . Zea ( Blanehard : 

GiNTLBMXN,^I thank you for the c^py of ''White's Elements of UniveiBal BQs- 
tory," which you were so kind as to send me. After a somewhat careful eiaminatiflw 
of ity I was so much pleased with its arrangement, with the judgment eTincad in 
it in the selection of facts, and in the high moral tone which pervades it through- 
out, that I determined to introduce it into my schooL My first class haTc been 
studying it since the commencement of the term, and I am increasingly pleased 
with it. Respectfully yours, C. D. CLEAVELAND, A.M. 

Author of ^* Grecian Antiquities, ' 4^. 



Meggrs, Lea <(> Blanehard: 

1 am indebted to your politeness for an opportunity of ftxamining White's Ele- 
ments of Universal History, lately published by you. It gives me pleasure to add 
my sufirage to the respectable testimonials of teachers and others, with whidi the 
work has been favoured. 

In my opinion, it affords to teachers and students a facility for imparting and ac- 
quiring a knowledge of history, superior to any single volume I have ever met 
with, while it proves an invaluable addition, as a book of reference, to every pri- 
vate gentleman's library. JOSEPH P. ENGLES, 

Clatsical InstitiUe. 
Philadelphia, August 20th, 1844. 

Messri, Lea <{• Blanehard: 

Gentlemen — I offer you my sincere thanks for the copy of " White's Universal 
History," which you were so kind as to send me a few days ago. The work 
pleases me so much, that I have determined to use it in my academy. 

I am, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 




Tlw WatniMtar ReriAir, in notieins the work, 
nmariu— ** Without braochtac oat into annecet- 
■ary or minute details, it containii a succinct nar- 
ratire bf the principal events in our world*s his- 
torr, fiom the eariieit ages to the preseat time, 
drawn np in a simple and luminous style. 

The author makes no pretensions to originality; 
"If he shall be pronounced fortunate in the 
ehoioe and eondeosation of his maleriais, he 
will," be says. " have attained the ohiect of his 
wishes." This modest claim we, fur our part, 
nnhflritatinKly accord to his labours. The present 
■amnuuT will not only prove a valnable class- 
book, but may bo advantageously consulted by 
those who have not in youth been syotematicaliy 
tninod in historical knowledge.** 

Ubuurf, and sepantes, by typofra»hie«l 

the narrative of events from the oooBoieiitary < 
them.**— Spectator. 

" This work has been compiled with skiU.*'- 

"The Elements of (Jnlversal History'* is en- 
tijled to fceat praise ; the writer has taken firln 
grasp of his subject : he exhibits a just estimate of 

" This work appears to us to supply a want 
which has long been felt in American Sdiook 
and Colleges. The History of the WbrM, ftma 
the Creation down to the present time, has baas 
arranged by Mr. White in such a way ae to ren- 
der the study of his elegant synopsis easy and 
agreeable. From its ehareoter, we believe that 
this book is ultimately destined to snpenede eve- 
ry other in the same department that has hitherto 
appeared. The style in which it is ' got op* 
does credit to tfa»«nterprisintiniUialMn.'*«^jmi 

*' We were indaced, by several notioM ofthis 


book, to look with mora care iato it tlmn w« bav* 
imallr time to bestow oa works of this class. It 
is a British pioductioQ, bat the author is quite as 
free from prejudice as one coald possibly expect. 
The plan is very Judicious. It compresses into 
one Tofaune a survey of universal history,—^ 
aonipleto Uank form whtcl» the student can eom- 
prebend at a ffianco^ and ffil op at bis Msom. 
For achoob it n particularly well adapted, as tbo 
questions upon the text, appended by Mr. Hart, 
&eilitate the use of it for the teacher and incraase 
its vaiaa for thtf learaer.'* — M'orth Awurieam, 

*' A work which fives, in a succinct narration, 
the principal events in the history of the workl. if 
faithfully executed, cannot fkil to bo of vast im- 
portsnee to private stodenta aa well as for Iha osa 
of schools. The volume hare given to tte pub- 
ic, baa evidently been prepared with much care. 
It is ananfed with freat convenience, and the 
narratives of events are given in a style that 
will doubtless prove inteiesting to every reader. 
We think it one of the best manuals Of Univenal 
Bistory that has ever been poblisbed.*'— 5attir- 
im Cnrier, 

" On the wilolo, tills most be regarded as one 
of the most eompendions and well arranged 
works that have appeared ; and if used for no 
other purpose than as a chronological guide, will 
prove most valuable.*^ — Saturday Pott. 

" The great merit is in the arrangement of tho 
matter, which is admirable, and wHl be found to 
assist, in an eminent degree, the teacher and the 

** BSi. Hart has well executed bis share of the 
work, and given thereto an important ingredient 
in Its nsefnlness.** — U. S, Oatette. 

** It is on a new aitd excellent lysteawtie plaa, 

aonUining a brief narrative of the prineipal 
events in the history of the world, firom the ear- 
liflst ages to the prasest time. An important 
feature in the work, is its arrangement into pe- 
riods of centuries. This is decidedly of voiy 
grant advantage lo the student, and cannot fUl to 
commend the work.** — Bottom AUa», 

*' The work is a brief nanative of the prineipal 
and most interesting events in the history of the 
world, but those events are placed in sach a 
shape as te enable the mind of Ae student or 
rej^er to gxaap them with more certainty and 
less difficulty of retention than by the old-fashion 
ed method. — This must surely operate as a pow 
erful recommendation in favour of its naefnlnesi 
to the casual reader, as well aa to the student— 
we allnde paiticutely to ita ehvonolegical ar- 
rangement, and general memoranda of events, 
compriMd within the limils of the last eentory— 
the genealogieal tables with which it abounds* 
and the conciseness, yet clearness of its notes. 
The antbor is indebted to the most sdentifle of 
modern travellers, (in whom only he seems to 
place confidence) for the vahuble Information he 
gives in his notes, which, in addilien to the foots 
they narrate and explain, display an admirable 
perspicuity of language that must gratify t^ 
reader, and tend to increase his interast as he 
progresses.**— A*. OrUanaJigt, 

*'Un^er whatever circumstances persons are 
led to seek an aCquaintaiMte with general birtoiy, 
the work by Mr. White will serve to gratify their 
loBgtngs in thii particular, and to aid them in 
treasuring up a vast amount of well arranged 
and clearly told historical incidents, of the dif- 
ferent people who have flourished, i^suocessive 
ages, iirom the earliest date down to the preaent 
time.— CaJsntzoeisn Berald, 

Sbcbstabt's Office, ? 

DsPASTMXKT OF CoxiKHT ScHooLS, > AJbony^ October 14, 1846. 

Meawrs. Lea and Blanehard .* 

QsirTLXMiK,— I have examined the copy of « White's Umveraal Hwtoiy," 
which yoa were 00 obliging as to forward me, and cheerfully and fully concur in 
the commendations of its value, as a comprehensive and enlightened survey of 
the ancient and modern world, which many of the most competent judges hate, 
as I perceive, already bestowed upon it It appears to me to be admirably adapted 
to the purposes of our pabHc schools ; and I unhesitatingly approve of its intro- 
duction into these seminaries of elementary instruction. 

Yery respectf ul ly, your obedient servant, 

Deputy Superintendent of Common Schoob, 

Am this work is prepared vHth reference to general reading, as well as for 
Schools, an edition has been prepared without questions, making it a very valua- 
ble volume for District School and other Libraries. 



_ . 



IJOSOPHY9GENER4X AND MEDICAL. Written for anivenal 
uae, in plain, or non-technical language. Complete in 1 vol. Reyised 
and corrected from the last English edition, with additions, by Isaac 
Hays, M. D. A work xued extensively in yarious seminaries. 

HERSCHEL^ A8TRONOMT9 a new edition, with a pi^ace, and a 
Series of Questions for the examination of Students, with Engravings, 
by S. C. Walker, in 1 vol., 12mo. 

BREWST£R*S OFTlCSy a new edition, with an appendix, and numeroos 

cuts, by Professor Bache, in 1 vol., 12mo. 

21 coloured maps, with a complete accentuated index. 

Ancient Geography to the Classics ; 4th Americam edition, with Qaes> 
tions, 1 yoL 

Bolmar^s French Series. 

New editions of the following works, by A. Bolmar, forming in connec- 
tion with " Bolmar's Levizac," a complete series for the acquisition of the 
French language. 


accompanied by a Key, containing the text, a literal and free transla- 
tion, arranged in such a manner as to point out the difference between 
the French and ftiglish idiom, &.C., in 1 vol., 12mo. 


necessary to maintain conversation, arranged under difierent heads with 
numerous remarks on the peculiar pronunciation and uses of various 
words ; the whole so disposed as considerably to facilitate the acquisi- 
tion of a correct pronunciation of the French, 1 vol., 18mo. 


vol., 12mo., accompanied by a Key to the first eight books, in 1 vol., 
12mo., containing like the Fables, Uie text, a literal and free translation, 
intended as a sequel to the Fables. Either volume sold separately. 

ALL THE FRENCH VERBS, both regular and irregular, m a Noall 











In one iMTge Iffno* -roluine, ^ritlk nearly two Irandred -wood*evte« 

Hie duuecler of diif work ii raeh ai to reconmieiid it to all eoUoRW aod aeademiei in want 
of a text-book. It is fullj tnrought op to the dajr, containiDC all the late viewa and diacoreriee 
that baTB ao entireljr changed the face of the aoienee. and it ia completely illaatrated with Teiy 
munerom wood enfiaringi. explanatory of all the different iMroeeaaea and forma of apparatoa. 
Tbooffh strictly scientific, it ■ written with great clear n ess and aimplioity of style, rendering it 
tmn to be CMnprehended by thoee who are conimeocnig the study. 

It may be had well bound in leathor, or neatly done op in strong cloth. Ita low price plaeea 
it within the reach of alL 

EasHTQgt of a letter front Pnfeetor MUUngton, of WilKam and Marjf Cbttege, Fk, 

'* 1 have pemaed the book with much pleasure, ud find it a most admirable work ; and, to my 
Bsind, aneh a one as is just now mneh needed in schoob and collegea. * * * All the books I 
have met with on chemiatry are either too puerile or too eradite, and I confess Dr. Fownes nook 
aeema to be the hapinest medium I have seen, and admirably suited to fill up the hiatoa.** 

'* He has sneteeded in comprising the matter of his work in 460 duodecimo pages, which, aa- 
smedly, is a recommendation of the Tolume aa a text-book for students. In this respect it hae 
advantages over any treatiae which baa yet been ofibred to American students. The diflleulty 
in a text-book of chemistry ia to treat the solgect with sufficient fulness, without going too much 
into detail. For atodenta comparatively .ignorant of chemical science, the larger systems an 
unprofitable companioaa in their attendance upon lectures. They need a wrork of a more ele- 
mentary character, by which they may be inducted into the first priqciples of the science, and 
prepared for maatering ita more abstruse sohieets. Such a treatise la the one which we have 
now the ptoasore of introducing to our readers ; no manual of ehenuslry with whidi we liave 
nset comes ao near meeting the wants of the begmner. All the prominent troths of the science, 
up to the present time, will be found given in it with the utmost practicable brevity. The stylp 
is admirable for ita conciseness and cleamass. Bfany wood-cuts are supplied, by which pro- 
mssea are made intelligible. The author expresses regret that he could not enter more largely 
into organic chemistry, but his details will be found to embrace the most important facta in that 
interesting branch of the scienoe. We diall recommend his manual to our class next winter.**— 
The WuUr% JounuU of Medidne ami Surgenf' « 

Though this work has been so recently pablished, it has already been 
adopted as a text-book by a large number of the higher schools and 
colleges throughout the country, as well as by Professor Silliman, and 
many of the Medical Institutions. As a work fer the upper classes in 
acaifemies and the junior students of colleges, there has been but one 
Qpinion expressed concerning it, and it may now be considered as thb 
Text-book for the Chemical Student 


iTlNDlii^S^-^ — 1 


TcT'oTthe Hoase, 




TOGETHER ^TH ^ -rT/\f><3T? * 




ABBlstBnt Post Hastex General, and Editor 


1844. , 

'. ^* TTT«T ISSUED m i.oin'ON, 










With Plates. In one very neat l2mo, volume^ extra doth. 
** This is an excellent book. It shows how serviceable the dog may be made, 
how to make him serviceable. The excellent advice upon the treatment of 
half-reasoning animal, (some dogs do reason,) should be read by every one 
o aspires to own a dog, that is serviceable in the field." — U, S, Gazette. 


T H E D O G. 



In one beautiful volume, with all the fine illustrations beautifully executed. 






Author of " Every Man his own Cattle Doctor." 
And his Son JOHN C LATER. 




In one l2mo. volume, cloth. 
** Lea & Blancbard have just published Clater's capital treatise on the Diseases of 

ses, containing < the causes, symptoms, and most approved methods of cute,' with 
uable notes and additions by J. S. Skinner, Esq. This is the first American from 

twenty-eighth English edition of this standard work, which should find its way 
;o the hands of every lover of the Horse." — N, Y. Spirit qfthe Timea. 




0L0»Y OF Neat Cattle. By FRANCIS CLATER. 

rted. Revised, and almost Rewritten, by William Youatt. With Numerons Addi- 
tiona, embracing an Essay on the Use of Oxen, and the Improvement in the 
Breed of Sheep, by J. S. Skinner, A«8t. P. M. General. 
In one duodecimo volume, cloth, unth numerous illustrations. 





By LiEirr. Col. P. HAWKER. 
From the Enlarged and Improved Ninth London Edition. 


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