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A FOURTH preface, Mr. Murray ! ! ! 

There are not sufficient materials, although there is 
some fresh matter, and undeniably, many excellent 
sketches, thanks to the clever artist F. W. KEYL, and 

the talented amateur John M n, who, contrary 

to the advice of many friends, has determined that 
the sword shall be his profession rather than the 

Well ! another party shall speak for me, and much 
surprised will he be to find the duty his words are 
performing; but they advocate so good a cause that 
I feel sure of his forgiveness. He writes in the third 
person, for we are perfect strangers to each other. 

" Captain T r has all his life been a most enthu- 

" siastic sportsman, but never broke a dog, until a year 



" ago, when he happened to come across the Major- 
" General's work on ' Dog-breaking/ Since then he has 
" trained two entirely on the system laid down in the 
" book. People say they have never before seen dogs 
" so well-broken certainly the owner never has." 

" Always an ardent disciple of St. Hubert, Captain 

" T r is now still more so from the increased grati- 

" fication he derives from the performance of animals 
" trained entirely by himself." 

Eeader, why not give yourself a similar gratification ? 

W. K H. 

December, 1864. 


I CANNOT help congratulating my canine friends, (and 
may I not their masters also ?), on the circulation of 
two large impressions of this work ; for I trust that 
many of the suggestions therein offered have been 
adopted, and that their education has consequently 
been effected in a much shorter period, and with far 
less punishment, than that of their forefathers. 

I have endeavoured in the present edition to ren- 
der more complete the lessons respecting Setters and 
Pointers. I have added somewhat on the subject of 
Spaniels, Eetrievers, and Bloodhounds. It has been 
my aim, also, to give a few useful hints regarding the 
rearing and preservation of Game ; and I shall be 

viii PREFACE. 

disappointed if the youngest of my readers does not 
derive, from the perusal of what I have written, aii 
assurance that he need not take the field wholly 
ignorant of all sporting matters, or without any know- 
ledge of the best method of "handling arms." 

W. K H. 


WHEN Colonel Hawker, who lias been styled the 
" Emperor of Sportsmen," writes to me, (and kindly 
permits me to quote his words), " I perfectly agree 
with you in everything you have said, and I think 
your work should be preached in a series of lectures 
to every dog-breaker in the profession, as all these 
fellows are too fond of the whip, which hardens the 
animal they are instructing, and the use of their own 
tongues, which frighten away the birds you want to 
shoot," I feel some confidence in the correctness of 
what I have put forth. But there may be points that 
have not been noticed, and some things that require 
explanation, especially as regards Spaniels and Ee- 
trievers. In endeavouring to supply these deficiencies, 
I hope my additional prosing may not send the dog- 
breaker to sleep, instead of helping to make him more 
" wide-awake." 

W. K H. 



MY respected Publisher has suggested that a Preface 
may be expected. His opinion on such a subject ought 
to be law ; but as I fear my readers may think that 
I have already sufficiently bored them, I will beg them, 
in Irish fashion, to refer any formalist, who considers 
a Preface necessary, to the conclusion of the work, 
where a statement will be found of the motive which 
induced me to write. 

W. K H. 























































INDEX, in which the figures refer to the numbers of the paragraphs, 

and not to the pages 349 



SCENE NEAR WALTHAM ABBEY, 1st Sept. 1847 . . Title-page, r 

WITH BLOODHOUND. (Lesson VIII. Par. 141) . . . . Page 25 



CLUMBERS. (Lesson III. Par. 141) 43 

WILD SPANIELS. (Lesson XII. Par. 141) 47 

IRISH WATER SPANIEL. (Lesson I. Par. 141) 53 











"SMALL, ACTIVE POINTER." (Lesson IX. Par. 141) ... 131 


XV. Par. 141) 137 




XIV. Par. 141) 141 

LARGE HEAVY POINTER. (Lesson X. Pars. 141 and 266) . . 157 




(Lesson XIII. Par. 141) . . . 215 

IRISH RED SETTER. (Lesson II. Par. 141) 221 


DOMINI AND ' DOMTNOS ' . . 245- 

THE MIGHTY KING , . . . 254 




WARM GREETING OF A GREAT 'BORE' . ... . . . . 266-- 




RUSSIAN SETTER. (Lesson XI. Pars. 141 and 266) .... 275 





'FouL' FEEDING. . 336_ 


The Frontispiece, Vignette Title, and the Lessons, are designed and 
drawn on Wood by F. W. KEYL. See 4th Preface. 




1. Dog-breaking an Art easily acquired. 2. Most expeditious Mode of imparting 
every Degree of Education, Time bestowed determines Grade of Education. 
In note, Col. Hawker's opinion. 3. Sportsmen recommended to break in their 
own Dogs. 4. Men of property too easily satisfied with badly-broken Dogs. 
Keepers have no Excuse for Dogs being badly broken. 5. Great Experience in 
Dog-breaking, or Excellence in Shooting, not necessary. Dispositions of Dogs 
vary. 6. What is required in an Instructor. 7. Early in a Season any Dog will 
answer, a good one necessary afterwards. Hallooing, rating Dogs, and loud 
whistling spoil Sport. In note, Age and choice of birds. Several shots fired 
from Stooks at Grouse without alarming them. American Partridges and our 
Pheasants killed while at roost. 8. What a well-broken Dog ought to do. 
9. Severity reprobated. 10. Astley's Method of teaching his Horses. 11. Fran- 
coni's Cirque National de Paris. 12. Initiatory Lessons recommended to be 
given when alone with Dog given fasting. 13. Success promised if rules be 
followed. Advantages of an expeditious Education. September shooting not 

1. DOG-BREAKING, so far from being a mystery, is an 
art easily acquired when it is commenced and continued 
on rational principles. 

2. I think you will be convinced of this if you will 
have the patience to follow me, whilst I endeavour to 
explain what, I am satisfied, is the most certain and 
rapid method of breaking in your dogs, whether you 
require great proficiency in them, or are contented with 
an inferior education. No quicker system has yet been 
devised, however humble the education may be. The 
education in fact, of the peasant, and that of the future 
double-first collegian, begins and proceeds on the same 



principle. You know your own circumstances, and you 
must yourself determine what time you choose to devote 
to tuition ; and, as a consequence, the degree of excel- 
lence to which you aspire. I can only assure you of 
my firm conviction, that no other means will enable 
you to gain your object so quickly ; and I speak with a 
confidence derived from long experience in many parts 
of the world, on a subject that was, for several years, 
my great hobby.* 

3. Every writer is presumed to take some interest in 
his reader ; I therefore feel privileged to address you as 
a friend, and will commence my lecture by strongly 
recommending, that, if your occupations will allow it, 
you take earnestly and heartily to educating your dogs 
yourself. If you possess temper and some judgment, 
and will implicity attend to my advice, I will go bail 
for your success ; and much as you may now love 
shooting, you will then like it infinitely more. Try the 
plan I recommend, and I will guarantee that the Pointer 
or Setter pup which I will, for example sake, suppose to 
be now in your 'kennel, shall' be ~a better dog by the end 
of next season (I mean a more killing dog) than pro- 
bably any you ever yet shot over. 

4. Possibly; you will urge, that you are unable to 
spare the time which I consider necessary for giving 
him a high education, (brief as that time is, compared 
with the many, many months wasted in the tedious 
methods usually employed), and that you must, perforce, 

* It may be satisfactory to others Hutchinson's valuable work on 

to know the opinion of so unde- 'Dog-breaking' has appeared. It 

niable an authority as Colonel is a perfect vade mecum for both 

Hawker. The Colonel, in the Sportsmen and Keeper, and I 

Tenth Edition of his invaluable have great pleasure in giving a 

Book on Shooting, writes, . ^page cordial welcome to a work which 

285) "Since the publication of so ably supplies my own defi- 

the last edition, Lieutenant-Col. ciencies." 


content yourself with humbler qualifications. Be it so. 
I can only condole with you, for in your case this may 
be partly true ; mind I only say partly true. But how 
a man of property, who keeps a regular gamekeeper, 
can be satisfied with the disorderly, disobedient troop, 
to which he often shoots, I cannot understand. Where 
the gamekeeper is permitted to accompany his master 
in the field, and hunt the dogs himself, there can be no 
valid excuse for the deficiency in their education. The 
deficiency must arise either from the incapacity, or from 
the idleness of the keeper. 

5. Unlike most other arts, dog-breaking does not 
require much experience ; but such a knowledge of dogs, 
as will enable you to discriminate between their dif- 
ferent tempers and dispositions (I had almost said cha- 
racters) and they vary greatly is very advantageous. 
Some require constant encouragement ; some you must 
never beat ; whilst, to gain the required ascendancy over 
others, the whip must be occasionally employed. Nor 
is it necessary that the instructor should be a very good 
shot ; which probably is a more fortunate circumstance 
for me than for you. It should even be received as 
a principle that birds ought to be now and then missed 
to young dogs, lest some day, if your nerves happen to 
be out of order, or a cockney companion be harmlessly 
blazing away, your dog take it into his head and heels 
to run home in disgust, as I have seen a bitch, called 
Countess, do more than once, in Haddingtonshire. 

6. The chief requisites in a breaker are : Firstly, 
command of temper, that he may never be betrayed into 
giving one unnecessary blow, for, with dogs as with 
horses, no work is so well done as that which is done 
cheerfully ; secondly, consistency, that in the exhilara- 
tion of his spirits, or in his eagerness to secure a bird, 

B 2 


he may not permit a fault to pass unreproved (I do not 
say unpunished) which at a less exciting moment he 
would have noticed and that, on the other hand, he 
may not correct a dog the more harshly, because the 
shot has been missed, or the game lost ; and lastly, the 
exercise of a little reflection, to enable him to judge 
what meaning an unreasoning animal is likely to attach 
to every word and sign, nay to every look. 

7. With the coarsest tackle, and worst flies, trout can 
be taken in unflogged waters, while it requires much 
science, and the finest gut, to kill persecuted fish. It is 
the same in shooting. With almost any sporting-dog, 
game can be killed early in the season, when the birds 
lie like stones, and the dog can get within a few yards 
of them ; but you will require one highly broken, to 
obtain many shots when they are wild. Then any in- 
cautious approach of the dog, or any noise, would flush 
the game, and your own experience will tell you that 
nothing so soon puts birds on the run, and makes them 
so ready to take flight, as the sound of the human voice, 
especially now-a-days, when farmers generally prefer 
the scythe to the sickle, and clean husbandry, large 
fields, and trim narrow hedges, (affording no shelter from 
wet) have forced the partridge a short-winged* bird 

* Rounded, too, at the extremi- for the table. Hold an old and 
ties the outer feathers not being a young bird by their under 
the longest a formation adverse beaks between your fore-finger 
to rapid flight. The extreme outer and thumb, and you will soon see 
feather of young birds is pointed, how little, comparatively, the old 
and, until late in the season, ac- beak yields to the weight. This 
companies soft quills, weak brown rule applies equally to grouse, the 
beaks, and yellow legs. These legs of which birds when young 
(beaks and legs) become grey on are not much feathered, but late 
maturity, or rather of the bluish in the season it is difficult to de- 
hue of London milk and the termine their age. Yet a know- 
quills get white and hard facts ing hand will find a difference, the 
which should be attended to by old birds' legs will still be the 
those who are making a selection more feathered of the two ; and 


unwillingly to seek protection (when arrived at maturity) 
in ready flight rather than in concealment. Even the 
report of a gun does not so much alarm them as the 
command, " Toho," or "Down charge/' * usually, too, as 
if to make matters worse, hallooed to the extent of the 
breaker's lungs. There are anglers who recommend 
silence as conducive to success, and there are no expe- 
rienced sportsmen who do not acknowledge its great 
value in shooting. Eate or beat a dog at one end of a 
field, and the birds at the other will lift their heads, 
become uneasy, and be ready to take wing the moment 
you get near them. " Penn," in his clever maxims on 
Angling and Chess, observes to this effect, " if you wish 
to see the fish, do not let him see you ;" and with respect 
to shooting, we may as truly say, " if you wish birds to 
hear your gun, do not let them hear your voice." Even 

a loud whistle disturbs them. Mr. 1 of C e 

says, a gamekeeper's motto ought to be, " No whistling 

its feet will be more worn and which come from the hills to feed ; 

extended. If you spread open the and, curious to say, several shots 

wing of any game bird, you will are often obtained before the pack 

find the upper part (near the second takes wing. The first few reports 

joint) more or less bare. The less frequently no more alarm them, 

that part is covered with feathers than to make the most cautious of 

the younger is the bird. the number jump up to look 

A* poulterer once told me that around, when, observing nothing 
at the end of the season he judged that ought to intimidate them, 
much of the age of birds by the they recommence feeding. By 
appearance of their heads. commencing with the undermost 
" Ware " sunken eyes, and birds, the Americans sometimes 
tainted or discoloured vents they shoot in daylight all the Par- 
have been too long out of the tridges (as they erroneously call 
kitchen. them) roosting on a tree ; and 

* The following facts are strong poachers in this country, by 

evidences of the correctness of this making a similar selection, often 

assertion. Late in the season far kill at night (using diminished 

more grouse than ought to be are charges) several Pheasants before 

shot by "gunners," to use an Ame- those that are on the topmost 

rican expression, " true sports- branches fly away. A strong breeze 

men " 1 can hardly term them much favours the poacher by 

who conceal themselves in large diminishing the chance of the 

stooks of grain, to fire at the birds birds much hearing him. 


no whipping no noise, when master goes out for 

8. These observations lead unavoidably to the in- 
ference, that no dog can be considered perfectly broken, 
that does not make his point when first he feels assured 
of the presence of game, and remain stationary where 
he makes it, until urged on by you to draw nearer that 
does not, as a matter of course, lie down without any 
word of command the moment you have fired, and after- 
wards perseveringly seek for the dead bird in the direc- 
tion you may point out, and all this without your once 
having occasion to speak, more than to say in a low 
voice, " Find," when he gets near the dead bird, as will 
be hereafter explained. Moreover, it must be obvious 
that he risks leaving game behind him if he does not 
hunt every part of a field, and, on the other hand, that 
he wastes your time and his strength, if he travel twice 
over the same ground, nay, over any ground which his 
powers of scent have already reached. Of course, I am 
now speaking of a dog . hunted without a companion to 
share his labours. 

9. You may say, "How is all this, which sounds so 
well in theory, to be obtained in practice without great 
severity ? " Believe me, with severity it never can be 
attained. If flogging would. make a dog perfect, few 
would be found unbroken in England or Scotland, and 
scarcely one in Ireland. 

10. Astley's method was to give each horse his pre- 
paratory lessons alone, and when there was no noise 
or anything to divert his attention from his instructor. 
If the horse was interrupted during the lesson, or his 
attention in any way withdrawn, he was dismissed for 
that day. When perfect in certain lessons by himself, 
he was associated with other horses, whose education 


was further advanced. And it was the practice of that 
great master to reward his horses with slices of carrot 
or apple when they performed well. 

11. Mons. A. Franconi in a similar manner rewards his horses. 
One evening I was in such a position, at a performance of the 
Cirque National de Paris, that I could clearly see, during the Lutte 
des Voliigeurs, that the broad-backed horse held for the men to 
jump over was continually coaxed with small slices of carrots to 
remain stationary, whilst receiving their hard thumps as they 
sprang upon him. I could not make out why the horse was 
sniffing and apparently nibbling at the chest of the man standing 
in front of him with a rein in each hand to keep his tail towards 
the spring-board, until I remarked that a second man, placed in 
the rear of the other, every now and then, slily passed his hand 
under his neighbour's arm to give the horse a small piece of 

.12. Astley may give us a useful hint in our far easier 
task of dog-breaking. .We see that he endeavoured by 
kindness and patience to make the horse thoroughly 
comprehend the meaning of certain words and signals 
before he allowed him any companion. So ought you, 
by what may be termed " initiatory lessons," to make 
your young dog perfectly understand the meaning of 
certain words and signs, before you hunt him in the 
company of another dog nay, before you hunt him at 
all; and, in pursuance of Astley's plan, you ought to give 
these lessons when you are alone with the dog, and his 
attention is not likely to be withdrawn to other matters. 
Give them, also, when he is fasting, as his faculties will 
then be clearer, and he will be more eager to obtain any 
rewards of biscuit or other food. 

13. Be assured, that by a consistent adherence to the 
simple rules which I will explain, you can obtain the 
perfection I have described, (8) with more ease and ex- 
pedition than you probably imagine to be practicable ; 
and, if you will zealously follow my advice, I promise, 
that, instead of having to give up your shooting in 


September, (for I am supposing you to be in England) 
while you break in your pup, you shall then be able to 
take him into the field, provided he is tolerably well 
bred and well disposed, perfectly obedient, and, except 
that he will not have a well-confirmed, judicious range, 
almost perfectly made ; at least so far made, that he 
will only commit such faults, as naturally arise from 
want of experience. Let me remmd you also, that the 
keep of dogs is expensive, and supplies an argument 
for making them earn their bread by hunting to a useful 
purpose, as soon as they are of an age to work without 
injury to their constitution. Time, moreover, is valuable 
to us all, or most of us fancy it is. Surely, then, that 
system of education is best which imparts the most 
expeditiously the required degree of knowledge. 



14. One Instructor better than two. 15. Age at winch Education commences. 
In-door breaking for hours, better than Out-door for weeks, 16. To obey all 
necessary Words of Command and all Signals before shown Game. 17. Un- 
reasonableness of not always giving Initiatory Lessons leads to Punishment 
thence to Blinking. 18. Dog to be your constant Companion, not another's. 
19, 21, 22. Instruct when alone with him. Initiatory Lessons in his Whistle 
in " Dead" " Toho " "On" 20. All Commands and Whistling to be given 
in a low Tone. 23 to 26. Lessons in "Drop" Head between fore-legs Setters 
crouch more than Pointers. 24. Slovenly to employ right arm both for 
"Drop" and "Toho." 27. Lessons in "Down-charge" Taught at Pigeon- 
match Rewards taken from Hand. 28. Cavalry Horses fed at discharge of 
Pistol Same plan pursued with Dogs. 29. Dog unusually timid to be coupled 
to another. 30. Lessons at Feeding Time, with Checkcords. 31. Obedience of 
Hounds contrasted with that of most Pointers and Setters. 32. Shooting 
Ponies how broken in. 33. Horse's rushing at his Fences cured Pony 

14. IT is seldom of any advantage to a dog to have 
more than one instructor. The methods of teaching 
may be the same ; but there will be a difference in the 
tone of voice and in the manner, that will more or less 
puzzle the learner, and retard rather than advance his 
education. If, therefore, you resolve to break in your 
dog, do it entirely yourself : let no one interfere with 

15. As a general rule, let his education begin when 
he is about six or seven months old,* (although I allow 

* But from his very infancy four months old being made quite 

you ought not to have allowed au fait to the preliminary drill 

him to be disobedient. You should here recommended. This early 

have made him know which he exercise of their intelligence and 

will do nearly intuitively that a observation must have benefited 

whip can punish him, though he them. The questionable point is 

ought never to have suffered from the unnecessary consumption of 

it. I have heard of pups only the instructor's time. 


that some dogs are more precocious than others, and 
bitches always more forward than dogs,) but it ought to 
be nearly completed before he is shown a bird (132). 
A quarter of an hour's daily in-door training called 
by the Germans " house-breaking " for three or four 
weeks will effect more than a month's constant hunting 
without preliminary tuition. 

16. Never take your young dog out of doors for in- 
struction, until he has learned, to know and obey the 
several words of command which you intend to give 
him in the field, and is well acquainted with all the 
signs which you will have occasion to make to him 
with your arms. These are what may be called the 
initiatory lessons. 

17. Think a moment, and you will see the importance 
of this preliminary instruction, though rarely imparted. 
Why should it be imagined, that at the precise moment 
when a young dog is enraptured with the first sniff of 
game, he is, by some mysterious unaccountable instinct, 
to understand the meaning of the word " Tpho ?" Why 
should he not conceive it to be a word of .encourage- 
ment to rush in upon the game, as he probably longs to 
do ; especially if it should be a partridge fluttering 
before him, in the sagacious endeavour to lure him 
from her brood, or a hare enticingly cantering off from 
under his nose ? There are breakers who would correct 
him for not intuitively comprehending and obeying the 
" Toho," roared out with stentorian lungs ; though, it 
is obvious, the youngster, from having had no pre- 
vious instruction, could have no better reason for 
understanding its import, than the watch-dog chained 
up in yonder farm-yard. Again he hears the word 
"Toho" again followed by another licking, accom- 
panied perhaps by the long lecture, " 'Ware springing 


birds, will you ? " The word " Toho " then begins to 
assume a most awful character ; he naturally connects 
it with the finding of game, and not understanding a 
syllable of the lecture, lest he should a third time hear 
it, and get a third drubbing, he judges it most prudent, 
(unless he is a dog of very high courage) when next 
aware of the presence of birds, to come in to heel ; and 
thus he commences to be a blinker, thanks to the 
sagacity and intelligence of his tutor. I do not speak 
of all professional dog-breakers, far from it. Many are 
fully sensible that comprehension of orders must neces- 
sarily precede all but accidental obedience. I am only 
thinking of some whom it has been my misfortune to 
see, and who haye many a time made my blood boil at 
their brutal usage of a fine high-couraged young dog. 
Men who had a strong arm and hard heart to punish, 
but no temper and no head to instruct. 

18. So long as you are a bachelor, you can make a 
companion of your dog, without incurring the danger 
of his being spoiled by your wife and children ; (the 
more, by-the-bye, he is your own companion and no 
other person's the better) and it is a fact, though . you 
may smile at the assertion, that all the initiatory lessons 
can be, and can best be, inculcated in your own break- 

19. Follow Astley's plan. Let no one be present to 
distract the dog's attention. Call him to you by the 
whistle you propose always using in the field. Tie a 
slight cord a few yards long to his collar. Throw him 
a small piece of toast or meat, saying, at the time, 
"Dead, dead/' Do this several times, chucking it into 
different parts of the room, and let him eat what he 
finds. Then throw a piece (always as you do so saying, 
"Dead"), and the moment he gets close to it, check 

12 "LEAD." "TOHO." "OK" [CH. n. 

him by jerking the cord, at the same time saying, 
" Toho," and lifting up your right arm almost perpen- 
dicularly. By pressing on the cord with your foot, 
you can restrain him as long as you please. Do not 
let him take what you have thrown, until you give 
him the encouraging word, " On," accompanied by a 
forward movement of the right arm and hand, some- 
what similar to the swing of an under-hand bowler at 

20. Let all your commands be given in a low voice. 
Consider that in the field, where you are anxious not to 
alarm the birds unnecessarily, your words must reach 
your dogs' ears more or less softened by distance, and, 
if their influence depends on loudness, they will have 
the least effect at the very moment when you wish 
them to have the most. For the same reason, in the 
initiatory lessons, be careful not to whistle loudly.* 

21. After a few trials with the checkcord, you will 
find yourself enabled, without touching it, and merely 
by using the word " Toho," to prevent his seizing the 
toast (or meat), until you say " On," or give him the 
forward signal. When he gets yet more perfect in his 
lesson, raising your right arm only, without employing 
your voice, will be sufficient, especially if you have 
gradually accustomed him to hear you speak less and 
less loudly. If he draw towards the bread before he 
has obtained leave, jerk the cord, and drag him lack to 
the spot from which he stirred. He is not to quit it 
until you order him, occupy yourself as you may. 
Move about, and occasionally go from him, as far as 
you can, before you give the command " On." This 

* It may be fancy, but I have other birds regarded the sports- 
imagined that coveys hatched near man's whistle, 
railway stations have less than 

CH. ii.J "DROP." "DOWN CHARGE." 13 

will make him less unwilling hereafter to continue 
steady at his point while you are taking a circuit to 
head him, and so get wild birds between him and your 
gun, (265, 284.) The signal for his advancing, when 
you are facing him, is the " beckon" (see 37). 

22. At odd times let him take the bread the moment 
you throw it, that his eagerness to rush forward to seize 
it may be continued, only to be instantly restrained at 
your command. 

23. Your left arm raised perpendicularly, in a similar 
manner, should make the young dog lie down. Call out 
" Drop," when so holding up the left hand, and press 
him down with the other until he assumes a crouching 
position. If you study beauty of attitude, his fore-legs 
ought to be extended, and his head rest between them. 
Make him lie well down, occasionally walking round 
and round him, gradually increasing the size of the 
circle your eyes on his. Do not let him raise himself 
to a sitting posture. If you do, he will have the 
greater inclination hereafter to move about : especially 
when you want to catch him, in order to chide or correct 
him. A halt is all you require for the " Toho," and you 
would prefer his standing to his point, rather than his 
lying down,* as you then would run less risk of losing 
sight of him in cover, heather, or high turnips, &c. 
Setters, however, naturally crouch so much more than 
Pointers, that you will often not be able to prevent their 
" falling " when they are close to game. Indeed, I have 
heard some sportsmen argue in favour of a dog's drop- 
ping, "that it rested him." An advantage, in my 

* This is one reason for giving chance of being cowed in learning 

initiatory lessons in the "Toho" the "Drop." If the latter were 

before the "Drop." Another is taught first, he might confound 

that the dog may acquire the the " Toho " with it. 
''Toho" before he has run the 

14 "TOHO." "DROP." [CH. ii. 

opinion, in no way commensurate with the incon- 
venience that often attends the practice. 

24 If you are satisfied with teaching him in a 
slovenly manner, you can employ your right arm both 
for the " Toho " and " Drop ; " but that is not quite cor- 
rect, for the former is a natural stop, (being the pause 
to determine exactly where the game is lying, pre- 
paratory to rushing in to seize it,) which you prolong 
by art,* whilst the other is wholly opposed to nature. 
The one affords him great delight, especially when, from 
experience, he has well learned its object : the latter is 
always irksome. Nevertheless, it must be firmly esta- 
blished. It is the triumph of your art. It insures 
future obedience. But it cannot be effectually taught 
without creating more or less awe, and it should create 
awe. It is obvious, therefore, that it must be advan- 
tageous to make a distinction between the two signals, 
especially with a timid dog, for he will not then be 
so likely to blink on seeing you raise your right hand, 
when he is drawing upon game. Nevertheless, there 
are breakers so unreasonable as not only to make that 
one signal, but the one word "Drop" (or rather "Down") 
answer both for the order to point, and the order to 
crouch ! How can such tuition serve to enlarge a dog's 
ideas ? 

25. To perfect him in the " Down," that dimcult part 
of his education, dimcult, because it is unnatural, 
practise it in your walks. At very uncertain, unex- 
pected times catch his eye, (having previously stealthily 
taken hold of the checkcord a long, light one,) or 
whistle to call his attention, and then hold up your left 

* I know of a young man's cording to the method just recom- 

readmg the first edition of this mended. He succeeded perfectly, 

book, and taking it into his head Some Terriers have been made 

to teach his Terrier to point ac- very useful for cover shooting. 


arm. If he does not instantly drop, jerk the checkcord 
violently, and, as before, drag him back to the exact 
spot where he should have crouched down. Admit of 
no compromise. You must have implicit, unhesitating, 
instant, obedience. When you quit him, he must not 
be allowed to crawl an inch after you. If he attempt 
it, drive a spike into the ground, and attach the end of 
the checkcord to it, allowing the line to be slack ; then 
leave him quickly, and on his running after you he will 
be brought up with a sudden jerk. So much the better: 
it will slightly alarm him. As before, take him back to 
the precise place he quitted, do this invariably, though 
he may have scarcely moved. There make him again 
"Drop" always observing to jerk the cord at the 
moment you give the command. After a few trials of 
this tethering, (say less than a dozen) he will be certain 
to lie down steadily, until you give the proper order or 
a signal (21), let you run away, or do what you may to 
excite him to move. One great advantage of frequently 
repeating this lesson, and thus teaching it thoroughly, is, 
that your dog will hereafter always feel, more or less, in 
subjection, whenever the cord is fastened to his collar. 
He must be brought to instantly obey the signal, even 
at the extreme limit of his beat. 

26. Most probably he will not at first rise when he is 
desired. There is no harm in that, a due sense of the 
inutility of non-compliance with the order to " Drop," 
and a wholesome dread of the attendant penalty, will 
be advantageous. Go up to him, pat him, and lead 
him for some paces, "making much of him," as they say 
in the cavalry. Dogs which are over-headstrong and 
resolute, can only be brought under satisfactory com- 
mand by this lesson being indelibly implanted, and I 
think a master before he allows the keeper to take a 


pup into the field to show him game, should insist upon 
having ocular demonstration that he is perfect in the 

27. When he is well confirmed in this all-important 
lesson, obeying implicitly, yet cheerfully, you may, 
whilst he is lying down, (in order to teach him the 
" down charge,") go through the motions of loading, on 
no account permitting him to stir until you give him 
the forward signal, or say " On." After a few times you 
may fire off a copper cap, and then a little powder, but 
be very careful not to alarm him. Until your dog is 
quite reconciled to the report of a gun, never take him 
up to any one who may be firing. I have, however, 
known of puppies being familiarized to the sound, by 
being at first kept at a considerable distance from the 
party firing, and then gradually, and by slow degrees 
brought nearer. This can easily be managed at a rifle 
or pigeon match, and the companionship of a made-dog 
would much expedite .matters. Whenever, in the les- 
sons, your young dog has behaved steadily and well, 
give him a reward. Do not throw it to him ; let him 
take it from your hands. It will assist in making him 
tender-mouthed, and in attaching him to you. 

28. In some cavalry regiments in India, the feeding- 
time is denoted by the firing off of a pistol. This soon 
changes a young horse's first dread of the report into 
eager, joyous, expectation. You might, if you did not 
dislike the trouble, in a similar manner, soon make your 
pup regard the report of a gun as the gratifying sum- 
mons to his dinner, but coupled with the understanding 
that, as a preliminary step, he is to crouch the instant 
he hears the sound. After a little perseverance you 
would so well succeed, that you would not be obliged 
even to raise your hand. If habituated to wait patiently 


at the " drop/' however hungry he may be, before he is 
permitted to taste his food, it is reasonable to think he 
will remain at the " down charge," yet more patiently 
before he is allowed to "seek dead." 

29. If your pupil be unusually timid, and you cannot 
banish his alarm on hearing the gun, couple him to 
another dog which has 110- such foolish fears, and will 
steadily " down charge." The confidence of the one, will 
impart confidence to the other. Fear and joy are feel- 
ings yet more contagious in animals than in man. It is 
the visible, joyous animation of the old horses, that so 
quickly reconciles the cavalry colt to the sound of the 
" feeding-pistol." 

30. A keeper who had several dogs to break, would 
find the advantage of pursuing the cavalry plan just 
noticed. Indeed, he might extend it still further, by 
having his principal in-door drill at feeding-time, and 
by enforcing, but in minuter details, that kennel disci- 
pline which has brought many a pack of hounds to 
marvellous obedience.* He should place the food in 
different parts of the yard. He should have a short 
checkcord on all his pupils ; and, after going slowly 
through the motions of loading, (the dogs having regu- 
larly "down-charged" on the report of the gun,) he 
should call each separately by name, and by signals of 
the hand send them successively to different, but desig- 
nated feeding-troughs. He might then call a dog to 
him, which had commenced eating, and, after a short 
abstinence, make him go to another trough. He might 
bring two to his heels and make them change troughs, 
and so vary the lesson, that, in a short time, with the 

* There is often such a simila- struck, who for the first time sees 
rity in the names of hounds, that them go to their meals, one by 
a person cannot but be much one as they are called. 



aid of the checkcords, he would have them under such 
complete command, that they would afterwards give 
him comparatively but little trouble in the field. As 
they became more and more submissive, he would 
gradually retire further and further, so as, at length, to 
have his orders obeyed, when at a considerable distance 
from his pupils. The small portion of time these lessons 
would occupy, compared with their valuable results, 
should warn him most forcibly not to neglect them. 

31. All keepers will acknowledge that, excepting a systematic 
beat, there is nothing more difficult to teach a Pointer or Setter 
than to refrain from " pursuing Hare." They will concede that 
there is a natural tendency in the breed to stand at game ; and, as 
a necessary consequence, they must admit that they would have 
far more trouble in weaning a young foxhound from the habit, 
whose every instinct urges him to chase. And yet these keepers 
may daily see not merely one hound, but a whole pack in the 
highest condition, full of energy and spirits, drawing a cover alive 
with Hares, not one of which a single dog will even look at. 
Should not this fact convince a keeper, that if he is often obliged 
to speak loudly to the brace of dogs he calls broken, there must be 
something radically wrong in his management '? Is he satisfied 
that he began their education sufficiently early, and that he has 
been uniformly consistent since its commencement ? 

32. If you have to break in a shooting pony, you must adopt 
some such plan as that named in 27 and 28 to make him steady. 
Your object will be never to alarm him, and gradually to render 
him fond of the sound of the gun. To effect this, you will keep 
the pistol, or whatever arms you use, for a long time out of his 
sight. Commence by burning but little powder, and fire * at some 
distance from him. Always give him a slice of carrot or apple 
immediately after he hears the report, and, if you act judiciously 
and patiently, he will soon love the sound. You may then fire in 
his presence (turning your back upon him, as if he were not a party 
in any way concerned), and, by degrees, approach nearer and nearer ; 
but do not go quite into his stall, that would make him shrink or 
start, and you wish to banish all nervousness ; the least precipitation 
would undo you ; therefore begin in the stable, with only using a 
copper cap. Need I caution you against firing if near any straw ? 

33. Confidence being fully established, pursue the same plan 
when you ride the pony. Again commence with a copper cap, only 

* It would expedite matters you remained near the pony to 
much if the groom did this while feed him, or vice versd. 


by slow degrees coming to the full charge. As before, always 
reward him after every discharge, and also at the moment when you 
pull up and throw the reins on his neck. If he finds he gets slices 
of carrot when he stands stock-still, he will soon become so anxious 
to be stationary that you will have to ride with spurs to keep him 
to his work. By such means you could get him to lead over fences 
and stand on the other side until you remount. Many years ago I 
had in Ireland a chestnut which did not belie his colour, for I 
purchased him far below his value on account of his great im- 
petuosity with hounds. He had a sad habit of rushing at his leaps, 
but riding him in a smooth snaffle, and often giving him slices 
of carrot, gradually cured his impatience, and he ultimately became 
very gentle and pleasant. A naval officer, well known to a friend 
of mine, finding he could not by other means make his pony stand 
when the dogs pointed, used, sailor like, to anchor the animal by 
" heaving overboard " (as he expressed it) a heavy weight to which 
a line from the curb-bit was attached. The weight was carried in 
one of the holster pipes, in the other was invariably stowed away 
a liberal allowance of " Grog and Prog." 



.'{4, 35. Initiatory Lessons in "Dead" and "Seek," continued. 36. In Signals to 
hunt to the "right" u left" " forward." 37. In the "Beckon." Woodcock 
Shooting in America. 38. In looking to you for instructions. 39. In "Care." 
40. Always give a reward. 41. In "Up." saves using Puzzle-peg. 42. Dog to 
carry Nose high. 43. Initiatory Lesson in "Footing" a Scent. 44. In "Heel." 
45. In "Gone" or "Away." 46. In "Fence" or "Ware-fence." 47. "No" 
a better word than " Ware. " 48. Accustomed to couples. 49. Initiatory Lessons 
in-doors with a Companion when one "drops" the other to "drop." 50. Makes 
"Backing" quickly understood. 51. Initiatory Lessons with a Companion in 
the Fields. 52. Initiatory Lessons save Time make Dogs fond of hunting. 
53. Checkcord described. Wildest Dogs possess most energy. 54. Advantages 
of Checkcord explained Spaniels broken in by it. 55. Lad to act as Whipper-in. 
56. Retriever that acted as Whipper-in. 57. Jealousy made him act the part. 
Might be taught to Retriever. 58. Instead of " down charge" coming to "heel." 
59. As Puppies kept close to you, not to "self-hunt" "broke" from hare. 
60. Blacksmith straps Horse's Leg above Hock Dog's similarly confined Shot- 
belt round the necks of wildest. 61. Hunted in Gorse. 62. Age when shown 
Game. Example of good Spaniels advantageous. 63. Perfected in "Drop" 
taught to " seek dead" to "fetch" entered at Hedge-rows and lightest Covers. 
Bells to Collars. 64. To hunt further side of Hedge. 65. How Sportsmen may 
aid Keeper. In note, Covers for Pheasants. Hints to Tyros on Shooting and 
Loading (See Appendix). 66. Experienced Spaniels slacken Pace on Game. 
67. Difficult to work young ones in Silence. 68. Spaniels that Pointed. 
69. Game first accustomed to, most liked. 70. Principal requisites in Spaniels. 
71. The signal "to point with finger." 72. Following Cockers a Young Man's 
work. 73. Education differs in different Teams. 74. One and a half couple of 
large Spaniels sufficient. One of the Team to retrieve. 75. Clumbers pro- 
curing more Shots in Turnips than Pointers. 76. Lord P n's highly-broken 

Team. 77. Of small Cockers three couple a Team. What constitutes Perfec- 
tion. 78. Retriever with Team. Duke of Newcastle's Keepers. 79. Some 
Teams allowed to hunt Flick. 80. Rabbits shot to a Team in Gorse. Shooting 
to Beagles described 81. Markers necessary with wild Spaniels. 82. Cover 
beat with wildest Dogs before shot in. Woodcocks. 83. Old Sportsmen prefer 
mute Spaniels. 84. Babblers bestinsome Countries. Cock-shooting in Albania. 
85. Hog and deer in ditto. 86. Glorious month's sport in the Morea. 
87. Handy old Setters capital in light cover. Attention necessary when first 

entered. 88. C' e r s Pointers as good in cover as on the stubble. 89. Pointer 

that ran to opposite side of Thicket to flush Game towards Gun. 90. Water 
Spaniels, how broken. 91. Shepherd's Forward Signal best for Water Re- 
trievers. 92. Wild Fowl reconnoitred with Telescope. 93. Qualities required 
in Water Retriever. In note, Poachers in Snow. Beast or man of one uniform 
colour easily detected. 94. Ducks emit a tolerable scent " Flint" and 
Mr. C e's Setter. 95. Steady Spaniels in Rice Lakes. 

34. WHEN your young dog is tolerably well advanced 
in the lessons which you have been advised to practise, 

CH. in.] "DEAD." "SEEK." SIGNALS. 21 

hide a piece of bread or biscuit. Say " Dead, dead." 
Call him to you. (44.) Let him remain by you for 
nearly a minute or two. Then say " Find," or " Seek." 
Accompany him in his search. By your actions and 
gestures make him fancy you are yourself looking about 
for something, for dogs are observing, one might say, 
imitative, creatures.* Stoop and move your right hand 
to and fro near the ground. Contrive that he shall 
come upon the bread, and reward him by permitting him 
to eat it. 

35. After a little time (a few days I mean), he will 
show the greatest eagerness on your saying, at any un- 
expected moment, " Dead." He will connect the word 
with the idea that there is something very desirable 
concealed near him, and he will be all impatience to be 
off and find it ; but make him first come to you, (for 
reason, see 269.) Keep him half a minute. Then say 
" Find," and, without your accompanying him, he will 
search for what you have previously hidden. Always 
let him be encouraged to perseverance by discovering 
something acceptable. 

36. Unseen by him, place the rewards (one at a time), 
in different parts of the room, under the rug or carpet, 
and more frequently on a chair, a table, or a low shelf. 
He will be at a loss in what part of the room to search. 
Assist him by a motion of your arm and hand. A 
wave of the right arm and hand to the right, will soon 
show him that he is to hunt to the right, as he will find 
there. The corresponding w r ave of the left hand and 
arm to the left, will explain to him, that he is to make 

* "Imitative creatures!" who will be surprised to see how quickly 

can doubt it ? If you make an old the young one will learn the trick, 

dog perform a trick several times especially if he has seen that the 

in the sight of a young one who old dog was always rewarded for 

is watching the proceedings, you his obedience. 


a cast to the left. The underhand bowler's swing of the 
right hand and arm, will show that he is to hunt in a 
forward direction.* Your occasionally throwing the 
delicacy (in the direction you wish him to take), whilst 
waving your hand, will aid in making him comprehend 
the signal. You may have noticed how well, by watch- 
ing the action of a boy's arm, his little cur judges 
towards what point to run for the expected stone. 

37. When the hidden object is near you, but between 
you and the dog, make him come towards you to seek 
for it, beckoning him with your right hand. When he 
is at a distance at the "Drop," if you are accustomed 
to recompense him for good behaviour, you can employ 
this signal to make him rise and run towards you for 
his reward, (and, according to my judgment, he should 
always join you after the " down charge," 271). By 
these means you will thus familiarise him with a very 
useful signal ; for that signal will cause him to approach 
you in the field, when you have made a circuit to head 
him at his point (knowing that birds will then be lying 
somewhere between you and him), and want him to 
draw nearer to the birds and you, to show you exactly 
where they are. This some may call a superfluous re- 
finement, but I hope you will consider it a very killing 
accomplishment, and being easily taught, it were a pity 
to neglect it. When a Setter is employed in cock- 
shooting, the advantage of using this signal is very 

* Obedience to all such signals day retrieving, as instanced in 

will hereafter be taught out of 277, it will be your aim to get 

doors at gradually increased dis- him not to seek immediately, but 

tances : and to confirm him in the to watch your signals, until by 

habit of sniffing high in the air obeying them you will have placed 

(41) for whatever you may then him close to where the object lies, 

hide, put the bread or meat on a at which precise moment you will 

stick or bush, but never in a hedge say energetically "Find," and 

(175). With the view to his some cease making any further signs. 

CH. in.] BECKON. "CARE." 23 

apparent. While the dog is steadily pointing, it enables 
the sportsman to look for a favourable opening/ and, 
when he has posted himself to his satisfaction, to sign 
to the Setter (or if out of sight tell him), to advance 
and flush the bird : when, should the sportsman have 
selected his position with judgment, he will generally 
get a shot. I have seen this method very successfully 
adopted in America, where the forests are usually so 
dense that cocks are only found on the outskirts in the 

38. After a little time he will regularly look to you 
for directions. Encourage him to do so ; it will make 
him hereafter, when he is in the field, desirous of hunt- 
ing under your eye, and induce him to look to you, in a 
similar manner, for instructions in what direction he is 
to search for game. Observe how a child watches its 
mother's eye ; so will a dog watch yours, when he be- 
comes interested in your movements, and finds that you 
frequently notice him. 

39. Occasionally, when he approaches any of the 
spots where the bread lies hidden, say " Care," and 
slightly raise your right hand. He will quickly con- 
sider this word, or signal, as an intimation that he is 
near the object of his search. 

40. Never deceive him in any of these words and 
signs, and never disappoint him of the expected reward. 
Praise and caress him for good conduct; rate him for 
bad. Make it a rule throughout the whole course of 
his education, out of doors as fully as within, to act 
upon this system. You will find that caresses and sub- 
stantial rewards are far greater incentives to exertion 
than any fears of punishment. 

41. Your pup having become a tolerable proficient in 
these lessons, you may beneficially extend them by 

24 "UP." NOSE CARRIED HIGH. [en. in. 

employing the word " Up," as a command that he is to 
sniff high in the air to find the hidden bread or meat, 
lying, say on a shelf, or on the back of a sofa. He will-, 
comparatively speaking, be some time in acquiring a 
knowledge of the meaning of the word, and many would 
probably term it an over-refinement in canine education ; 
but I must own I think you will act judiciously, if you 
teach it perfectly in the initiatory lessons ; for the word 
" Up," if well understood, will frequently save your 
putting on the puzzle-peg. For this you would be 
obliged to employ, should your dog prove disobedient 
and be acquiring the execrable habit of " raking " as it 
is termed, instead of searching for the delicious effluvia 
with his nose carried high in the air. Colonel Hawker 
much recommends the puzzle-peg, but I confess I would 
not fetter the dog by using it, unless compelled by his 
hereditary propensity to hunt-foot. 
. 42. Whenever birds can be sought for in the wind, 
the dog should thus hunt the field (and the higher he 
carries his nose the better), for, independently of the 
far greater chance of finding them, they will allow the 
dog to come much nearer, than when he approaches 
them by the foot : but of this more anon. (185, 186.) 

43. Setters and Pointers naturally hunt with their 
noses sufficiently close to the ground, they want ele- 
vating rather than depressing. Notwithstanding, you 
will do well to show your pupil a few times out of doors, 
how to work out a scent, by dragging a piece of bread 
unperceived by him down wind through grass, and then 
letting him " foot " it out. Try him for a few yards at 
first ; you can gradually increase the length of the drag. 
You must not, however, practise this initiatory lesson 
too frequently, lest you give him the wretched custom 
of pottering. 


HEEL. "A backward low wave of the right hand." Par. 44. 

CH. in.] "HEEL." "GONE." 27 

44. The word " Heel/' and a backward low wave of 
the right hand and arm to the rear, (the reverse of the 
underhand cricket-bowler's swing,) will, after a few 
times, bring the dog close behind you. Keep him there 
a while and pat him, but do not otherwise reward him. 
The object of the order was to.jnake him instantly give 
up hunting, and come to your heels. This signal cannot 
be substituted for the " beckon." The one is an order 
always obeyed with reluctance (being a command to 
leave off hunting), whereas the " beckon " is merely an 
instruction in what direction to beat, and will be at- 
tended to with delight. The signal "heel," however, 
when given immediately after loading, is an exception ; 
for the instructions about " Dead," in xi. of paragraph 
171, will show that without your speaking, it may be 
made to impart the gratifying intelligence of your 
having killed. See also 277. 

45. To teach him to attach a meaning to the word 
" Gone," or " Away," or " Flown," * (select which you 
will, but do not ring the changes,) you may now rub a 
piece of meat (if you have no one but your servant to 
scold you) in some place where the dog is accustomed 
frequently to find, and when he is sniffing at the place 
say "Gone," or "Away." This he will, after some 
trials, perceive to be an intimation that it is of no use 
to continue hunting for it. 

46. You will greatly facilitate his acquiring the 
meaning of the command "Fence," or "Ware fence," 
if. from time to time, as he is quitting the room through 
the open door or garden window, you restrain him by 
calling out that word. 

* The least comprehensive and cal grammarian, understands it 
logical of the expressions, yet one to apply to " fur " as well as 
often used. A dog being no criti- " feather." 

28 "WARE FENCE." [CH. in. 

47. Whenever, indeed, you wish him to desist from 
doing anything, call out "Ware," (pronounced "W^ar"), 
as it will expedite his hereafter understanding the 
terms, " Ware sheep," " Ware chase," and " Ware lark." 
The last expression to be used when he is wasting his 
time upon the scent of .anything but game a fault best 
cured by plenty of birds being killed to him. However, 
the simple word " No," omitting " Chase " or " Fence," 
might be substituted advantageously for " Ware." All 
you want him to do is to desist from a wrong action. 
That sharp sound, and when necessary it can be clearly 
thundered out, cannot be misunderstood. 

48. That your young dog may not hereafter resist the 
couples, yoke him occasionally to a stronger dog, and 
for the sake of peace, and in the name of all that is 
gallant, let it be to the one of the other sex who appears 
to be the greatest favourite. 

49. When he is thus far advanced in his education, 
and tolerably obedient, which he will soon become if 
you are consistent, and patient, yet strict, you can, in 
further pursuance of Astley's plan, associate him in his 
lessons with a companion. Should you be breaking 
in another youngster, (though one at a time you will 
probably find quite enough, especially if it be your 
laudable wish to give him hereafter a well-confirmed 
scientific range,) they can now be brought together for 
instruction. You must expect to witness the same 
jealousy which they would exhibit on the stubble. 
Both will be anxious to hunt for the bread, and in 
restraining them alternately from so doing, you exact 
the obedience which you will require hereafter in the 
field, when in their natural eagerness they will endea- 
vour, unless you properly control them, to take the 
point of birds from one another; or, in their rivalry, 


run over the taint of a wounded bird, instead of col- 
lectedly and perseverinoiy working out the scent. You 
can throw a bit of toast and make them " Toho " it, and 
then let the dog you name take it. In the same way 
you can let each alternately search for a hidden piece, 
after both have come up to you, on your saying "Dead." 
I would also advise you to accustom each dog to " drop," 
without any command from you-, the moment he sees 
that the other is down. 

50. Those lessons will almost ensure their hereafter 
instantly obeying, and nearly instantly comprehending 
the object of the signal to " back " any dog which may 
be pointing game. 

51. When you take out two youngsters for exercise, 
while they are romping about, suddenly call one into 
" heel." After a time again send him off on his gambols. 
Whistle to catch the eye of the other, and signal to him 
to join you. By working them thus alternately, while 
they are fresh and full of spirits, you will habituate 
them to implicit obedience. When the birds are wild, 
and you are anxious to send a basket of game to a 
friend, it is very satisfactory to be able merely by a 
sign, without uttering a word, to bring the other dogs 
into " heel," leaving the ground to the careful favourite. 
Teach the present lesson well, and you go far towards 
attaining the desired result. 

52. I trust you will not object to the minutiae of these 
initiatory lessons, and fancy you have not time to attend 
to them. By teaching them well, you will gain time, 
much time, and the time that is of most value to you 
as a sportsman ; for when your dog is regularly hunting 
to your gun, his every faculty ought to be solely devoted 
to finding birds, and his undisturbed intellects exclu- 
sively given to aid you in bagging . them, instead of 



[CH. ITT. 

being bewildered by an endeavour to comprehend novel 
signals or words of command. I put it to you as a 
sportsman, whether he will not have the more delight 
and ardour in hunting, the more he feels that he under- 
stands your instructions? and, further, I ask you, 
whether he will not be the more sensitively alive to 
the faintest indication of a haunt, and more readily 
follow it up to a sure find, if he be unembarrassed by any 
anxiety to make out what you mean, and be in no way 
alarmed at the consequences of not almost instinctively 
understanding your wishes ? 

53. In all these lessons, and those which follow in 
the field, the checkcord will wonderfully assist you 


Indeed, it may be regarded as the instructor's right 
hand. It can be employed so mildly as not to inti- 
midate the most gentle, and it can, without the aid of 


any whip, be used with such severity, or, I should rather 
say, perseverance, as to conquer the most wild and 
headstrong, and these are sure to be dogs of the greatest 
travel and endurance. The cord may be from ten to 
twenty-five * yards long, according to the animal's dis- 
position, and may be gradually shortened as he gets 
more and more under command. Even when it is first 
employed you can put on a shorter cord, if you perceive 
that he is becoming tired. In thick stubble, especially 
if cut with a sickle, the drag will be greater, far greater 
than when the cord glides over heather. The cord may 
be of the thickness of what some call strong lay-cord, 
but made of twelve threads. Sailors would know it by 
the name of log-line or cod-line. To save the end from 
fraying it can be whipped with thread, which is better 
than tying a knot because it is thus less likely to be- 
come entangled. 

55. Hunted with such a cord, the most indomitable 
dog, when he is perfectly obedient to the " drop" is nearly 
as amenable to command, as if the end of the line were 
in the breaker's hand. By no other means can 


be quickly broken in. The general object of the trainer 
is to restrain them from ranging at a distance likely to 
spring game out of gun-shot, and to make them perfect 
to the " down charge." If one of these high-spirited 
animals will not range close when called to by whistle 

* With a resolute, reckless, thinner the cord the more readily 

dashing dog you may advan- does it become entangled, as a 

tageously employ a thinner cord rule, a checkcord cannot be too 

of double that length, whereas, firmly twisted, a soft one quickly 

the shortest line will sometimes gets knotted and troublesome, 

prevent a timid animal from (See note to 262.) 
ranging freely. By-the-bye, the 


or name, the breaker gets hold of the cord and jerks it ; 
this makes the dog come in a few paces ; another jerk 
or two makes him approach closer, and then the breaker, 
by himself retiring with his face towards the spaniel, 
calling out his name (or whistling), and occasionally 
jerking the cord, makes him quite submissive, and more 
disposed to obey on future occasions. 

55. In training a large team it is of much advantage 
to the keeper to have a lad to rate, and, when necessary, 
give the skirters a taste of the lash, in short, to act 
as whipper-in. The keeper need not then carry a whip, 
or at least often use it, which will make his spaniels all 
the more willing to hunt close to him. 

56. Lord A r's head gamekeeper was singularly 

aided : he possessed a four-legged whipper-in. A few 
years ago while Mr. D s (M.P. for a South Eastern 
County) was with a shooting party at his Lordship's, 
the keeper brought into the field a brace of powerful 
retrievers, and a team of spaniels, among which were 
two that had never been shot over. On the first phea- 
sant being killed, all the old spaniels dropped to shot, 
but one of the young ones rushed forward and mouthed 
the bird. The person who had fired ran on to save it, 
but the keeper called aloud, and requested him not 
to move. The man then made a signal to one of the 
retrievers to go. He did so instantly, but, instead of 
meddling with the bird, he seized the spaniel, lifted him 
up, and shook him well. The moment the pup could 
escape, he came howling to the " heels " of the keeper, 
and lay down among his companions. The keeper then 
confessed that a couple of the spaniels had never been 
shot to, but he confidently assured the sportsmen, they 
would see before the day was over, that the pups behaved 
fully as steadily as the old dogs, and explained to the 



party, how the retriever did all the disagreeable work, 
and indeed, nearly relieved him of every trouble in 
breaking in the youngsters. On the next few shots this 
novel schoolmaster was again deputed to show his pupils 
that he would not allow his special duties as a retriever 
to be interfered with. Both the young dogs, having 
been thus well chastised, became more careful, made 
only partial rushes to the front, when a recollection of 
their punishment, and a dread of their four-footed tutor 
brought them slinking back to their older companions. 
As the keeper had averred, they soon learned their 
lesson completely, gave up all thoughts of chasing 
after shot, and quietly crouched down with the other 

57. I can easily imagine that it was a feeling of 
jealousy, which first prompted the retriever to thrash 
some spaniel who was endeavouring to carry off a bird, 
and that the clever keeper encouraged him in doing so, 
instantly perceiving the value of such assistance. It is 
worth a consideration whether it would not be advisable 
to train the retriever employed with a team to give this 
assistance. A dog of a quarrelsome disposition could be 
taught, by your urging him, to seize any spaniel who 
might be mouthing a bird, in the same manner you 
would set on a young terrier to fly at a rat. 

58. Doubtless it is the highest training to teach a 
team to " down-charge," but most breakers make their 
spaniels come into " heel," or rather gather close around 
them, (by the word " round ") whenever a gun is dis- 
charged. This plan, though so injudicious in the case 
of pointers or setters, is but little objectionable in the 
case of spaniels, for spaniels in their small sweep in- 
wards, are not likely to spring game while the guns are 
unloaded. It certainly possesses this merit, that it is 



readily taught to puppies, (with the aid of a whipper-in) 
by the trainer's giving them some delicacy on their 
rejoining him. It may be urged, too, that the method 
much removes any necessity for noise in calling to a 
dog, whereas, with a team trained to the "down- 
charge," however highly broken, it will occasionally 
happen that the keeper (or assistant) has to rate some 
excited skirter for not instantly " dropping." Moreover, 
in thick cover an infraction of the irksome rule to 
" down charge " may sometimes escape detection, which 
might lead to future acts of insubordination. The 
lamented Prince Albert's team of Clumbers " down- 
charge," but the greatest attention could be given, and 
was given to them. They were admirably broken, and 
I might add, were shot over by a first-rate hand. 

59. When exercising young spaniels it is a good plan 
to habituate them, even as puppies, never to stray 
further from you than about twenty yards. With them, 
even more than with other kinds of dogs trained for the 
gun, great pains should be taken to prevent their having 
the opportunity of " self-hunting." If it is wished to 
break from hare, the method to be followed is mentioned 
in 334, &c., for with spaniels as with setters (or pointers) 
it is always advisable to drag them back to the spot 
from which they started in pursuit. 

60. Occasionally you may see a country blacksmith, 
when preparing to shoe the hind-legs of a cart-horse 
that appears disposed to make a disagreeable use of his 
heels, twist the long hair at the end of his tail, raise 
the foot that is to be shod, pass the twisted hair round 
the leg immediately above the hock, and by these means 
press the tendon close to the bone. The tail assists in 
retaining the leg in position, and thus for the time the 
limb is rendered powerless. Acting much upon this 


coercive principle, but discarding the aid of the tail, 
some breakers slightly confine a hind-leg of their most 
unruly spaniels with a soft bandage, shifting it from one 
leg to the other about every hour. Possibly a loop of 
vulcanized india-rubber, being elastic, would best answer 
the purpose. Restrained in this manner a dog is less 
likely to tumble about, and become injured, than if one 
of his fore-legs had been passed through his collar. 
Other breakers when hunting many couples together, 
fasten a belt with a few pounds of shot round the necks 
of the wildest. But the sooner such adjuncts to disci- 
pline can be safely discarded the better ; for " brushing " 
a close cover is severe work. Gorse is the most trying. 
Its prickles are so numerous and fine, that the ears and 
eyes of every spaniel hunted in it ought to be separately 
examined on returning home, and well bathed in warm 
water. Their eyes are peculiarly liable to be injured, by 
iust and gravel from their hunting so close to the ground. 

61. To give young spaniels sufficient courage to face 
the most entangled cover, a judicious trainer will occa- 
sionally introduce them to thick brakes, or gorse, early 
in the morning, or in the evening, when the noise of his 
approach will have made the pheasants feeding in the 
neighbourhood, run far into it for shelter. The effluvia 
of the birds will then so excite the young dogs, especially 
if cheered with good companionship, (which always 
creates emulation,) that they will utterly disregard the 
pricks and scratches of the strongest furze. 

62. If the time of year will permit it, they should be 
shown game when about nine or ten months old. At a 
more advanced age they would be less amenable to con- 
trol. Happily the example of a riotous pup will not be 
so detrimental to the discipline of the rest of the team, 
as the example of an ill-conducted companion would be 


to a pointer (or setter), for the influence of thoroughly 
steady spaniels makes the pup curtail his range sooner 
than might be expected. Finding that he is not fol- 
lowed by his associates he soon rejoins them. 

63. A judicious breaker will regard perfection in the 
" drop" (23 to 26) as the main-spring of his educational 
system. He will teach his young spaniels to " seek 
dead," (34, 35, 43) where directed by signs of the hand. 
He will instruct them in "fetching," (109, 107, &c.) 
with the view to some of them hereafter retrieving. He 
will accustom them to hunt hedge-rows, and light open 
copses, because always under his eye, before taking 
them into closer cover. Nor until they are under some 
command, and well weaned from noticing vermin and 
small birds, will he allow them to enter gorse or strong 
thickets, and then he will never neglect (though pro- 
bably he will have used them before) to attach bells of 
different sounds to the collars of his several pupils (one 
to each), so that his ear may at all times detect any 
truant straying beyond bounds, and thus enable him to 
rate the delinquent by name. In this manner, he 
establishes the useful feeling elsewhere spoken of (383), 
that whether he be within or out of sight, he is equally 
aware of every impropriety that is committed. 

64. Young spaniels, when they have been steadily 
broken in not to hunt too far ahead on the instructor's ' 
side of the hedge, may be permitted to beat on the 
other; and this when only one person is shooting, is 
generally their most useful position, for they are thus 
more likely to drive the game towards the gun. 

65. If a keeper is hunting the team, while you and a 
friend are beating narrow belts or strips of wood,* should 

* The printer finds tins note on long that he will place it in an 
covers, shooting, and loading, so Appendix. 


you and lie be placed, as is usual, on the outside, a little 
ahead of the keeper (one to his right, the other to his 
left), you would much aid him in preventing the young 
spaniels from ranging wildly, were you to turn your 
face towards him whenever you saw any of them getting 
too far in advance, for they will watch the guns as much 
as they will him. They should never range further than 
thirty yards from the gun. 

66. Among spaniels the great advantage of age and 
experience is more apparent than in partridge-dogs. A 
young spaniel cannot keep to a pheasant's tail like an 
old one. He may push the bird for forty or fifty yards 
if judiciously managed. After that he is almost sure 
from impatience, either to lose it, or rush in and flush 
out of shot, whereas an old cocker, who has had much 
game shot over him, is frequently knowing enough to 
slacken his pace, instead of increasing it, when he first 
touches on birds, apparently quite sensible that he ought 
to give the gun time to approach, before he presses to a 

67. Even good spaniels, however well bred, if they 
have not had great experience, generally road too fast. 
Undeniably they are difficult animals to educate, and it 
requires much watchfulness, perseverance, and attention 
at an early age, so to break in a team of young ones 
that they shall keep within gun range, without your 
being compelled to halloo or whistle to them. But 
some few are yet more highly trained. 

68. Mr. N n, when in France, had a lively, in- 
telligent, liver and white cocker, which would work 
busily all day long within gun-shot ; and which pos- 
sessed the singular accomplishment of steadily pointing- 
all game that lay well, and of not rushing in until the 
sportsman had come close to him. But this is a case of 


high breaking more curious than useful, for spaniels are 
essentially springers, not pointers, and the little animal 
must frequently have been lost siglrUof in cover. The 

Messrs. W e, alluded to in 551, had also a cocker 

that regularly pointed. Our grandfathers used to apply 
the term springers solely to large spaniels, never to the 
Duke of Marlborough's small breed, which was greatly 

69. A dog is generally most attached to that descrip- 
tion of sport, and soonest recognises the scent of that 
game, to which he has principally been accustomed in 
youth. He will through life hunt most diligently where 
he first had the delight of often finding. The utility 
therefore is obvious of introducing spaniels at an early 
age to close covers and hedge-rows, and setters and 
pointers to heather and stubble. 

70. In spaniels, feathered sterns and long ears are 
much admired, but obviously the latter must suffer in 
thick underwood. The chief requisite in all kinds of 
spaniels, is, that they be good finders, and have noses so 
true that they will never overrun a scent. Should they 
do so when footing an old cock pheasant, the chances 
are, that he will double back on the exact line by which 
he came. They should be high-mettled, as regardless 
of the severest weather as of the most punishing cover, 
and ever ready to spring into the closest thicket the 
moment a pointed finger gives the command. 

71. A comprehension of the signal made by the 
finger, (which is far neater than the raising of the hand 
described in 34, but not so quickly understood) might 
with advantage be imparted to all dogs trained for the 
gun, in order to make them hunt close exactly where 
directed. It is usually taught by pointing with the fore- 
finger of the right hand to pieces of biscuit, previously 


concealed, near easily recognised tufts of grass, weeds, 
&c. It is beautiful to see how correctly, promptly, yet 
quietly, some spaniels will work in every direction thus 

72. Breasting a strong cover with cockers, is more 
suited to young, than to old men. The gun must follow 
rapidly, and stick close when a dog is on the road of 
feather. A shot will then infallibly be obtained, if a 
good dog be at work ; for the more closely a bird is 
pressed, the hotter gets the scent. If a pheasant found 
in thick cover on marshy ground near water, a locality 
they much like in hot weather, is not closely pushed, 
he will so twist, and turn, and double upon old tracks, 
that none but the most experienced dogs will be able to 
stick to him. 

73. The preceding observations respecting spaniels 
apply to all descriptions employed on land-service, 
whether of the strong kind, the Sussex breed and the 
Clumber, or the smallest cockers, Blenheims and King 
Charles'.* But whether they are to be trained not to 
hunt flick,f (the most difficult part of their tuition, and 
in which there is generally most failure), and whether 
they shall be bred to give tongue, or run mute, will 
depend much upon the nature of the country to be 
hunted, and yet more upon the taste of the proprietor. 

* These fetch immense fancy of the scent. In strong high tur- 

prices when well shaped, black nips, he is employed with much 

and tan, without a single white advantage to spring the partridge, 

hair, and long eared. But this He creeps under, where a larger 

breed is nearly useless to the dog would be constantly jumping, 
sportsman, whereas the Blenheim T For the benefit of those 

is a lively diligent little fellow in who have the good fortune, or 

light cover, and from his diminu- the bad fortune, as the case may 

tive size threads his way through be, of always living within the 

low thick brushwood more readily sound of Bow bells, " Flick," be 

than might at first be imagined, it observed, is a synonym for 

being incited to great perseverance " Fur," thereby meaning Hare, or 

by a most enthusiastic enjoyment Rabbit. 

42 BELLS IN COVER. [CH. in. 

Xo fixed rules can be given for a sport that varies so 
much as cover- shooting. 

74. Of the large kind, most sportsmen will think a 
couple and a half a sufficient number to hunt at a time. 
Certainly one of them should retrieve : and they ought 
to be well broken in not to notice flick. These dogs are 
most esteemed when they run mute. If they do, they 
must be hunted with bells in very thick cover ; but the 
less bells are employed the better, for the tinkling sound, 
in a greater or smaller degree, annoys all game. Such 
dogs, when good, are very valuable. 

75. I once shot over a team of Clumber spaniels belonging to 

Mr. D z. The breed (the Duke of Newcastle's, taking their 

name from one of his seats), are mostly white with a little lemon 
colour, have large sensible heads, thick, short legs, silky coats, carry 
their sterns low, and hunt perfectly mute. The team kept within 
twenty or twenty-five yards of the keeper, were trained to acknow- 
ledge Eabbits, as weli as all kinds of game ; and in the country 

Mr. D z wt s then shooting over afforded capital sport. One of 

the spaniels was taught to retrieve. He would follow to any dis- 
tance, and seldom failed to bring. A regular retriever was, however, 

generally taken out with them. Mr. D z told me that they 

required very judicious management, and encouragement rather 
than severity, as undue whipping soon made them timid. They 
are of a delicate constitution. He rather surprised me by saying 
that his spaniels from working quietly and ranging close, (therefore, 
alarming the birds less,) procured him far more shots in turnips 
than his pointers ; and he had three that looked of the right sort. 
He explained matters, however, by telling me, that it was his 
practice to make a circuit round the outskirts of a turnip or potato 
field before hunting the inner parts. This of course greatly tended 
to prevent the birds breaking (401). A juvenile sportsman would 
rejoice in the services of the spaniels, for many a rabbit would they 
procure for him without the aid of powder and shot. 

76. When Colonel M , who died in Syria, was stationed with 

his troop of Horse Artillery at Pontefract, he was asked to shoot 

partridges at Lord P n's seat in Yorkshire. On meeting the 

gamekeeper, according to appointment, he found him surrounded 

by a team of Clumber spaniels. Colonel M , in some surprise 

at seeing no setters or pointers, remarked that he had expected 
some partridge shooting. " I know it," answered the man, " and 
I hope to show you some sport." To the inquiry why one of the 
spaniels was muzzled, the keeper said that his master had threatened 
to shoot it should it again give tongue, and, as it possessed a par- 


All the Clumbers dropped instantly." Par. 76. 

CH. in.] TEAM OF COCKER?. 45 

ticularly fine nose, he (the keeper) was anxious not to lose it. 

They walked on, and soon the man told M to be prepared, as 

the spaniels were feathering. A covey rose. The Colonel, who was 
a good shot, killed right and left. All the Clumbers dropped 
instantly. When he was reloading, the keeper begged him to say 

which of the dogs should retrieve the game. M pointed to 

a broad-headed dog lying in the middle, when the keeper directed 
by name the spaniel so favoured to be off. It quickly fetched one 

of the birds. The keeper then asked M to choose some other 

dog to bring the remaining bird a runner. He did so, and the 
animal he selected to act as retriever, performed the duty very 
cleverly ; the rest of the team remaining quite still, until its 

The Colonel had capital sport, killing nearly twenty brace, and 
the dogs behaved beautifully throughout the day. When afterwards 
relating the circumstances, he observed that, although an old sports- 
man, he had seldom been so gratified, as it was a novel scene to 
him, who had not been accustomed to shoot over spaniels. 

77. Of small cockers, three couples appear ample to 
form a team. Some teams of small springers greatly 
exceed this number, and many sportsmen shoot over 
more than a couple and a half of the larger spaniels ; 
but it is a question whether, in the generality of cases, 
the gun would not benefit by the number being dimi- 
nished rather than increased. The smaller in number 
the team, the greater is the necessity that none of them 
should stick too close to "heel." The difficulty is to 
make them hunt far enough, and yet not too far. At 
least one of the number should retrieve well. If they 
give tongue, it ought to be in an intelligible mariner ; 
softly, when they first come on the haunt of a cock, but 
making the cover ring again with their joyous melody, 
when once the bird is flushed. A first-rate cocker will 
never deceive by opening upon an old haunt, nor yet 
find the gun unprepared by delaying to give due warning 
before he flushes the bird. When cocks are abundant, 
some teams are broken, not only to avoid flick, but 
actually not to notice a pheasant, or anything beside 
woodcock. Hardly any price would tempt a real lover 


of cock-shooting, in a cocking country, to part with such 
a team. Hawker terms the sport, " the fox-hunting of 
shooting." Some sportsmen kill water-hens to young 
spaniels to practise them in forcing their way through 
entangled covers, and get them well in hand and steady 
against the all-important cocking season. 

78. When a regular retriever can be constantly em- 
ployed with spaniels, of course it will be unnecessary to 
make any of them fetch game, (certainly never to lift 
any thing which falls out of bounds), though all the 
team should be taught to " seek dead." This is the plan 
pursued by the Duke of Newcastle's keepers, and ob- 
viously it is the soundest and easiest practice, for it 
must always be more or less difficult to make a spaniel 
keep within his usual hunting limits, who is occasionally 
encouraged to pursue wounded game, at his best pace, to 
a considerable distance. 

79. Other teams are broken no more than to keep 
within range, being allowed to hunt all kinds of game, 
and also rabbits ; they, however, are restricted from 
pursuing wounded flick further than fifty or sixty yards. 
Where rabbits are abundant, and outlying, a team thus 
broken affords lively sport, nothing escapes them. 

80. In the large woods that traverse parts of Kent and Sussex, 
a kind of hunting-shooting is followed, that affords more fun, where 
there are plenty of rabbits and but few burrows, than might at first 
be imagined. The dogs employed are the smallest beagles that can 
be obtained. The little creatures stick to a hare, rabbit, or wounded 
pheasant with greater pertinacity than most spaniels, probably 
because they (the beagles) are slower, and hunt so low. Three or 
four couples make most animating music in the woodlands, and 

procure many shots, but they awfully disturb game. Mr. D z 

has gorse covers through which openings or rides are cut. He shoots 
rabbits in them to a team of beagles trained not to notice hare. 
The burrows are ferreted the preceding day, and regularly stopped. 
The sport is excellent and most animating. Plenty of snap shots. 
An old buck rabbit once or twice hunted becomes extremely cun- 
ning. He is soon on the move, and will work round beyond the 
dogs, so as to double back upon the ground already hunted. 



81. Wild spaniels, though they may show you most 
cock, will get you fewest shots, unless you have well- 
placed markers. There are sportsmen who like to take 
out one steady dog to range close to them, and a couple 
of wild ones to hunt on the flanks, one on each side, 
expressly that the latter may put up birds for the 
markers to take note of. 

82. Mr. n, who is devoted to shooting, acts upon this system, 

but upon a more enlarged scale. Having previously posted his 
markers, he has each cover, immediately before he shoots it, well 
hunted by the wildest of the dogs : he then takes a steady animal 
to the several spots pointed out, and is thus enabled to kill annually 
thrice as many cock as any other man in the country. The aptness 
of this bird, when a second time flushed, to return (397) to its old 
haunt, and when again put up to take wing in the direction of its 
first flight, much tends to its destruction. 

83. An old sportsman knows mute spaniels to be 
most killing ; a young one may prefer those which 
give tongue, (if true from the beginning owning nothing 
but game,) because, though undeniably greater disturbers 
of a cover, they are more cheerful and animating. The 
superiority of the former is, however, apparent on a 
still calm day, when the least noise will make the game 
steal away long before the gun gets within shot. But it 
is not so in all countries. 

84. Wild as is the woodcock with us after it has recovered from 
its fatiguing migratory flight, and been a few times disturbed, there 
is not, perhaps, naturally, so tame a game-bird, and one more 
difficult to flush in close cover where rarely alarmed. Officers 
quartered at Corfu frequently cross in the morning to the Albanian 
coast, a two hours' sail or pull, and return the same evening, 
having bagged from fifty to sixty couples to half-a-dozen good guns. 
Their boat is directed to meet them at some head-land, towards 
which they shoot. An attendant to carry the game, and a relay of 
ammunition, &c., is told off to each sportsman, and he of the party 

' who best knows the country, is chosen captain for the day, and 
walks in the centre of the line, the rest conforming to his move- 
ments. There is generally an agreement to halt for a minute, but 
not a second more, to allow a man to look for any cock he may have 
knocked over ; therefore the possessor of a first-rate retriever is an 


50 COVERS. [CH, in. 

envied character. The strength and density of the bush occa- 
sionally there encountered, is more than we in England can imagine : 
and in such situations, experience has shown the sportsmen the 
superiority of spaniels which give tongue. On hearing the warning 
cheerful music, the line halts for a few seconds, as, notwithstanding 
all the noise, some little time may pass before the cock is sprung, 
for he is frequently so protected by a wall of impervious thicket, 
(though sure to have a clear opening overhead for unimpeded flight) 
that the keenest dogs cannot immediately get at him. 

85. Although the country abounds with deer and boar, it is almost 
needless to observe, that the cock-shooters are too noisy a party often 
to bag such noble game, unless some ambitious and bold man (for 
being alone he risks having a long barrel covertly pointed at him^ 
take up a favourable position far in advance. Captain Best, a 
fellow-student of mine, about a dozen years ago, gives a spirited 
account of this shooting, in his entertaining book, entitled " Ex- 
cursions in Albania." 

86. In the northern part of the Morea, about twenty-five miles* 
from Patras (near Ali Tchelepi, a dilapidated monastery inhabited 
by only three monks n^ar Monolada, and Pera Metochi), Mr. 

n and Captaim B y, between the 14th of January, 1843, 

and the llth oi' the following month (both days inclusive), killed 
862 woodcocks, 11 hares, 11 duck, and 11 snipe. Not bad sport ! 

87. In very thick covers it is obvious, the height of 
setters being greatly against them, that spaniels are far 
preferable : but in light covers, and when the leaves are 
off the trees, handy old setters (if white, all the better) 
that will readily confine themselves to a restricted range, 
and will flush their game when ordered fiv. and vn. of 
141 and 284) afford quite as much sport, if not more. 
Setters do not, to the same degree, alarm birds ; and 
there is, also, this advantage, that they can be employed 
on all occasions, excepting in low gorse or the closest 
thickets, whereas spaniels, from their contracted " beat," 
are nearly useless in the open when game is scarce. 
You will be prepared, when first you hunt a setter in 
cover, to sacrifice much of your sport. There must be 
noise ; for it is essential to make him at once thoroughly 
understand the very different " beat " required of him, 
and this can only be effected by constantly checking 
and rating him, whenever he rages beyond the prescribed 


limits. He should hunt slowly and carefully to the 
right and left, and never be much in advance of the 
guns. In a short time he will comprehend matters, if 
you are so forbearing and judicious as invariably to call 
him away from every point made the least out of bounds. 
A less severe test of your consistency will not suffice. 
The few first days will either make or mar him as a 
cover-dog. You must naturally expect that hunting 
him much in cover, will injure his range in the open, 
and make him too fond of hedge-rows. 

88. But there is a man in Yorkshire, who will not willingly admit 

this. C e, Sir George A e's gamekeeper, and a good one 

he is, for he has a particularly difficult country to protect, one 
intersected with "rights of way" in every direction, makes his 
pointers as freely hunt the cover as the open. You never lose them, 
for they are sure to make their appearance when they think they 
have given you ample time to go to them if you choose. This cover 
work does not the least unsteady them, but it is right to state, that 

C is an unusually good breaker, and works his dogs with 

singular temper and patience. They are very attached to him, and 
appear to listen anxiously to what he says when he talks to them, 
which, I own, he does more than I recommend. 

89. Pointers, however, are manifestly out of place in strong cover, 
though an unusually high-couraged one may occasionally be found, 
who will dash forward in defiance of pricks and scratches ; but it is 
not fair to expect it. Jn a very light cover I have often shot over 
one belonging to a relation of mine, which was so clever, that when 
I came close to her as she was pointing, she would frequently run 
round to the other side of the thicket, and then rush in to drive the 
game towards me. This killing plan had in no way been taught 
her ; she adopted it solely of her own sagacity. Having been much 
hunted in cover when young, she was so fond of it (69) as to be, 
comparatively speaking, quite unserviceable on the stubbles. 


90. A young water spaniel might, with advantage, 
occasionally be indulged with a duck-hunt in warm 
weather. It would tend to make him quick in the 
water, and observant. The finishing lessons might 



conclude with your shooting the bird and obliging him 
to retrieve it. He should be made handy to your sig- 
nals (iv. to vn. and x. of 141), so as to hunt the fens 
and marshes, and " seek dead " exactly where you may 

91. This obedience to the hand is particularly re- 
quired ; for when the spaniel is swimming he is on a 
level with the bird, and therefore is not so likely to see 
it, especially if there is a ripple on the water, as 
you are, who probably may be standing many feet above 
him on the shore. As you may frequently, while he is 
retrieving, have occasion to direct his movements when 
at a considerable distance from him, you probably 
would find it more advantageous to teach him the for- 
ward signal used by shepherds (143), than the one 
described in iv. of 141. 

92. A water spaniel should also be taught to fetch 
(96, 98, 106 to 109), be accustomed to follow quietly 
close to your heels, be broken in, not to the "down 
charge" (27), but to the "drop" (23 to 26), the instant 
you signal to him, while you are noiselessly stalking 
the wild-fowl previously reconnoitered, with the aid of 
your Dollond, from some neighbouring height; nor 
should he stir a limb, however long he and you may 
have to await, ensconced behind a favouring bush, the 
right moment for the destructive raking discharge of 
your first barrel, to be followed by the less murderous, 
but still effective flying shot. On hearing the report, 
it is his duty to dash instantly into the water, and 
secure the slain as rapidly as possible. 

93. A really good water retriever is a scarce and 
valuable animal. He should be neither white nor black, 
because the colours are too conspicuous, especially the 


Our good Irish friend." Par. 9f. 


former, (a hint by-the-bye for your own costume) ;* he 
should be perfectly mute ; of a patient disposition, 
though active in the pursuit of birds ; of so hardy a 
constitution as not to mind the severest cold, therefore 
no coddling while he is young near a fire, and possess 
what many are deficient in, viz., a good nose : conse- 
quently, a cross that will improve his nose, yet not 
decrease his steadiness, is the great desideratum in 
breeding. He should swim rapidly, for wild-fowl that 
are only winged, will frequently escape from the quick- 
est dog, if they have plenty of sea-room and deep 
water. (See also 113, 553, 567.) 

94. Wild-fowl emit a stronger scent than is, I believe, generally 

supposed. At Mr. G r's, in Surrey, Mr. L g was shooting 

one day last season, when his pointer " Flint " drew for some time 
towards the river, and brought the sportsmen to the stump of an 
old tree. They could see nothing, and thought the dog must be 
standing at a moorhen ; but on one of the beaters trying with a 

stick, out flew a mallard like a shot from a gun. As Mr. L g 

levelled his tubes, it is unnecessary to observe that it fell ; but 
probably it would have been lost had not " Flint," when encouraged, 

jumped into the water and brought the bird to land. A Mr. C e, 

living near Edinburgh, whom I have the pleasure of knowing, has 
a white setter that is a capital hand at finding ducks, and sets them 

95. In the wild-rice lakes, as they are commonly 
called, of America, a brace of highly-trained spaniels 
will sometimes, on a windy day, afford you magnificent 

* But when the moors are can escape from their enemies by 
covered with snow, poachers, who speed, are mostly of one colour, 
emerge in bands from the mines, On the .contrary, the tiger kind, 
often put a shirt over their clothes, snakes, and all that lie in wait 
and manage to approach grouse at for, and seize their prey by stealth, 
a time when a fair sportsman can- wear a garment of many colours, 
not get a shot ; but this is the so do the smaller animals and most 
only occasion on which one uni- birds, which are saved from cap- 
form colour could be advantageous, ture by the inability of their foes 
A mass of any single colour always to distinguish them from the sur- 
catches, and arrests the eye. Na- rounding foliage or herbage. The 
ture tells us this ; animals that uniform of our rifle corps is too 
browse, elephants, buffaloes, and much of one hue.] 
large deer, as well as those which 


sport. The cover is so good that, if it is not often 
beaten, the birds will frequently get up singly, or only 
a couple at a time. The dogs should keep swimming 
about within gun-shot, while you are slowly and silently 
paddling, or probably poling your canoe through the 
most likely spots. Eelays of spaniels are requisite, for 
it is fatiguing work. If, by any rare chance, you are- 
situated where you can get much of this delightful 
shooting, and you are an enthusiast in training, it may 
be worth your while to consider whether there would 
not be an advantage in making the dogs perfect in the 
" down charge," as they would then cease swimming the 
instant you fired. But this long digression about 
spaniels has led us away from your pup, which we 
assumed (3) to be a pointer or setter, very unlike our 
good Irish friend, well represented in the last en- 



96. Lessons in "fetching" recommended. 97. Dog not taught to retrieve bringing 
dead Bird he had found. 98. Taught to deliver into your hand ; never pick up 
a Bird yourself; Dog which often lost winged Birds she had lifted. -99. Colonel 

T y. 100. Retriever killing one Bird in order to carry two. 101. " Fan's" 

sagaciously bringing to firm ground Bird that had fallen in a swamp. 
102. "Dove's" spontaneously fetching one from RiTer, though not accustomed 
to retrieve. 103. Retrievers taught to carry something soft ; injudiciousness 
of employing a stone. 104. How encouraged to plunge into Water; evil of 
deceiving a Dog instanced. 105. Diving, how taught. 106. "Fetching" taught 
with a Pincushion: with a Bunch of Keys. 107. Made to deliver instantly. 
108. Practised to carry things of the size and weight of a Hare. 109. " Fetching," 
how taught at commencement. - 110. Brace of Setters taught with an old bone. 
111. "Fetching" often taught unskilfully. 112. Regular Retrievers taught to 
fetch Birds: to "foot" Rabbits and Winged Game. 113. Retriever observes 
when a Bird is struck: a quality particularly useful in a Water Retriever. 
1 14. Pigeons and small Birds shot to Retrievers. 115. Injudiciousness of aiding 
a young Dog when Retrieving ; makes him rely on Gun rather than his own 
Nose. 11(5. Fatigue of carrying Hare tempts young Retriever to drop it ; 
taught to deliver quickly by rewards of hard boiled liver. -117. If he taste 
blood, put on Wire Snaffle; how made. US. Retriever how taught to pursue 
faster: should commence to "road" slowly, but '-follow up" rapidly. 119. Why 
Land Retrievers should "down charge." 120. Some Retrievers may "run on 
shot," but those for sale should " down charge." 121. Fine retrieving instanced 
in "Ben." 122. Anecdote showing his great sagacity. 123. Benefit derived 
from a Seton; another instance of "Ben's" superior retrieving qualities. 
124. With "Ben's" good nose, certain advantage of "down charge." 125. Re- 
trievers not to be of a heavy build, yet strong and thick-coated. 126. Cross 
between a Newfoundland and Setter makes best Retriever ; the real Newfound- 
land described. 127. Cross from heavy Setter best Retriever. 128. Most Dogs 
can be taught more or less to Retrieve. 129. Young Retriever to lift Woodcock 
and Landrail. 130. Retrievers never to kill Rats; lift vermin, or wounded 
Herons, &<:. 

96. THOUGH you may not wish your young pointer 
(or setter) to perform the duties of a regular retriever, 
(536) still you would do well to teach him, whilst he is 
a puppy, to fetch and deliver into your hand anything 
soft you may occasionally throw for him, or leave be- 
hind you in some place where he will have observed 
you deposit it, while he is following at your heels. In 


a little time you can drop something without letting him 
see you, and afterwards send him back for it. A 
dog thus made, who is your intimate companion, be- 
comes so conversant with every article of your apparel, 
and with whatever you usually carry about you, that, 
should you accidentally drop anything, the observant 
animal will be almost certain to recover it. On re- 
ceiving your order to be " off and find " he will accu- 
rately retrace your footsteps for miles and miles, dili- 
gently hunting every yard of the ground. Of course, 
the distances to which you at first send your dog will 
be inconsiderable, and you should carefully avoid perse- 
vering too long at a time, lest he get sick of the lesson. 
Indeed, in all his lessons, as well in-doors as out, 
but particularly in this, let it be your aim to leave off 
at a moment when he has performed entirely to your 
satisfaction ; that you may part the best of friends, and 
that the last impression made by the lesson may be 
pleasing as well as correct, from a grateful recollection 
of the caresses which he has received. In wild-duck 
shooting you may be in situations where you would be 
very glad if the dog would bring your bird ; and when 
it is an active runner in cover, I fear you will be more 
anxious than I could wish (322) that the dog should 
" fetch." It is probable that he will thus assist you if 
he be practised as I have just advised ; and such in- 
struction may lead, years hence, to his occasionally 
bringing you some dead bird which he may come across, 
and which you otherwise might have imagined you had 
missed, for its scent might be too cold, and consequently 
too changed, for the dog to have thought of regularly 
pointing it. 

97. When I was a boy, I recollect seeing such an instance in 
Kent. As a great treat, I was permitted (but merely as a spectator) 


to accompany a first-rate shot, Mr. C h, who was trying a gun 

he thought of purchasing for his keeper. The dogs soon came upon 
a covey. He killed with his first barrel, but apparently missed with 
his second. He found fault with the gun for not shooting strongly ; 
and I well remember impertinently fancying, but I dared not say 
so, that perhaps he was as much to blame as the gun. Soon after- 
wards, to our mutual surprise, we saw one of the dogs trotting up 
with a bird, still warm, in its mouth ; thus tacitly reproving me for 

not having done justice to Mr. C h's unerring eye and steady 


98. Mark my having said, " deliver into your hand," 
that your young dog may not be satisfied with only 
dropping, within your sight, any bird he may lift, and 
so, perhaps, leave it on the other side of a trout stream, 
as I have seen dogs do more than once, in spite of every 
persuasion and entreaty. "With a young dog, who 
retrieves, never pick up a bird yourself, however close 
it may fall to you. Invariably, make him either deliver 
it into your hand or lay it at your feet. The former is 
by far the better plan. If the dog has at one moment 
to drop the bird at ymir will, he is likely to fancy him- 
self privileged to drop it at another time for his own 
convenience. In other respects, too, the former is the 
safest method. I have a bitch now in my recollection, 
who frequently lost her master slightly winged birds, 
(which she had admirably recovered} by dropping them 
too soon on hearing the report of a gun, or coming on 
other game, for off they ran, and fairly escaped, it 
being impracticable, by any encouragement, to induce 
her to seek for a bird she had once lifted. 

99. This error, I mean that of allowing a wounded bird to regain 
its liberty, was once beautifully avoided by a pretty black retriever, 
belonging to Colonel T y, a good sportsman and pleasant com- 
panion, who, not long since, told me the circumstance ; and I am 
glad to be able, on such authority, to relate an anecdote evincing so 
much reflection and judgment, for I know not by what other terms 
to characterise the dog's sagacity. 

100. Colonel T y's avocations constantly take him from his 

neat bachelor's cottage in Kent, to travel abroad. Shooting in 


Hungary he once knocked down two partridges at a shot, one was 
killed outright, the other only slightly wounded. " Venus " soon 
hit off the trail of the latter, quickly overtook, it, and, while 
carrying it to her master, came upon the dead bird. She stopped, 
evidently greatly puzzled ; and, after one or two trials, finding she 
could not take it up without permitting the escape of the winged 
bird, she considered a moment, then, deliberately murdered it, by 
giving it a severe crunch, and afterwards brought away both together. 
It is due to the lady to observe that she is naturally as tender- 
mouthed as her name would imply her to be tender-hearted, and 
that this is the only known instance of her ever having wilfully 
injured any game. 

101. Sometimes a dog's sagacity will induce him, however little 
taught, to assist you in your hour of need ; but you must not trust 
to this. An intimate friend of mine, shooting in Ireland to a 
pointer-bitch that was totally unaccustomed to fetch and carry, but 
well instructed to seek for a dead bird, killed a snipe. It fell in 
soft, boggy ground, where he could not get at it to pick it up. After 
some vain efforts to approach it, he hied on the bitch, who was still 
steadily " pointing dead," with " Fetch it, Fan ; fetch it." The bitch 
seemed for a moment puzzled at such an unusual proceeding, and 
looked round, inquisitively, once or twice, as if to say, " What can 
you mean ? " Suddenly, my friend's dilemma seemed to flash upon 
her. She walked on, took the bird, quite gently, in her mouth, and 
carried it to where the ground was firm ; but not one inch further 
would she bring it, despite all the encouragement of her master, 
who now wished to make her constantly retrieve. This was the 
first and last bird she ever lifted. 

102. " Dove," a white setter, belonging to a near relation of mine, 
(the left-hand dog in the engraving illustrating 540, is considered 
extremely like her,) did, spontaneously, that which " Fan " only 
consented to do after much entreaty. My relation, shooting on the 
banks of the Forth, killed a partridge that was flying across the 
river. As he had no retriever with him he almost regretted having 
fired ; but, to his surprise, " Dove " volunteered jumping into the 
water ; made her way to the bird with a sort of steamboat paddle 
action, for I verily believe it was the first time she had attempted 
to swim, seized it, and, returning with it to the shore, deposited it 
safely on the bank. She never had retrieved before, and is not par- 
ticularly good at "seeking dead." 

102. I observed it was something soft which you 
should teach your dog to fetch. Probably you have 
seen a retriever taught to seek and bring a stone, upon 
which, in a delicate manner, the tutor has spit. Does 
it not stand to reason that the stone must have tended 
to give his pupil a hard mouth ? And what may, later 

CH. iv.] TAUGHT TO "FETCH." 61 

in life, cause him much misery in dashing at a bound- 
ing stone, he may split a tooth. Dogs of an advanced age 
suffer more in their mouths than most of us suspect. 

104. Should your pup be unwilling to enter water, 
011 no account push him in, under the mistaken idea 
that it will reconcile him to the element, it will but 
augment his fears (320). Eather, on a warm day, throw 
some biscuit for him, when he is hungry, close to the 
edge of the bank, where it is so shallow as merely to 
require his wading. Chuck the next piece a little 
further off, and, by degrees, increase the distance until 
he gets beyond his depth, and finds that nature has 
given him useful swimming pow r ers. On no occasion 
will the example of another dog more assist you. Your 
youngster's diving can never be of service ; therefore 
throw in only what will float. Otherwise he might 
have a plunge for nothing, and so be discouraged ; and 
evidently it should be your constant aim to avoid doing 
anything likely to shake his confidence in the judi- 
ciousness of your orders. 

A person I know, taught a dog many good tricks, among others, 
to extinguish the papers thrown upon the ground that had served 
to light cigars. A booby of a fellow, very wittily, took in the dog, 
once, by chucking a red-hot coal to him. " A burnt child," says the 
old adage, " dreads the fire :" so does a burnt dog : and, of course, 
no subsequent encouragement would induce him, ever again, to 
approach a lighted paper. 

105. If you ever have occasion to teach a dog to dive 
and retrieve, first accustom him, on land, to fetch some- 
thing heavy, of a conspicuous colour. When he brings 
it eagerly, commence your diving lesson by throwing 
it into the shallowest parts of the stream. Only by slow 
degrees get to deep water, and let your lessons be very 
short. Never chuck in a stone. The chances are twenty 
to one that there are several at the bottom not very 
dissimilar, and the young dog ought not to be subjected 


to the temptation of picking up one of them in lieu of 
that he was sent for. Should he on any occasion do so, 
neither scold nor caress him ; quietly take what he "brings, 
lay it at your feet, to show him that you want it not, and 
endeavour to make him renew his search for what you 
threw in ; do this by signs, and by encouragement with 
your voice, rather than by chucking stones in the right 
direction, lest he should seek for them instead of search- 
ing for what you originally sent him. 

106. Some teachers make a young dog fetch a round 
pin-cushion, or a cork ball, in which needles are ju- 
diciously buried ; nor is it a bad plan, and there need 
be no cruelty in it, if well managed. At least it can 
only be cruel once, for a dog's recollection of his suffer- 
ings will prevent his picking up the offending object a 
second time. Others, after he is well drilled into 
" fetching," and takes pleasure in it, will make him 
bring a bunch of keys. There are few things a dog is 
less willing to lift. Most probably they gave him some 
severe rebuffs when first heedlessly snatching at them ; 
and the caution thereby induced tends to give him a 
careful, tender mouth. A fencing master, I knew in 
France, had a spaniel, singularly enough for a French- 
man, called " Waterloo," that would take up the smallest 

107. When your dog has picked up what you desired, 
endeavour to make him run to you quickly. Many who 
teach a dog to fetch, praise and encourage him while he 
is bringing what he was sent after. Clearly this is an 
error. It induces the dog to loiter and play with it. 
He thinks he is lauded for having it in his mouth and 
carrying it about. Eeserve your encomiums and caresses 
until he has delivered it. (see 153.) If you walk away, 
the fear of your leaving him, will induce him to hurry 


after you. Let a dog retrieve ever so carelessly, still, 
while on the move, he will rarely drop a bird. 

108. Dogs that retrieve should be gradually brought 
to lift heavy, flexible things, and such as require a large 
grasp, that they may not be quite unprepared for the 
weight and size of a hare ; otherwise they may be in- 
clined to drag it along by a slight hold of the skin, 
instead of balancing it across their mouths. Thus ca- 
pacious jaws are obviously an advantage in retrievers. 

The French gamekeepers, many of whom are capital 
hands at making a retriever (excepting that they do not 
teach the "down-charge"), stuff a hare or rabbit skin 
with straw, and when the dog has learned to fetch it 
with eagerness, they progressively increase its weight 
by burying larger and larger pieces of wood in the 
middle of the straw: and to add to the difficulty of 
carrying it, they often throw it to the other side of a 
hedge or thick copse. If the dog shows any tendency 
to a hard mouth they mix thorns with the straw. 

109. I ought to have mentioned sooner, that you 
should commence teaching a puppy to "fetch," by 
shaking your glove (or anything soft) at him, and en- 
couraging him to seize and drag it from you. Then 
throw it a yard or two off, gradually increasing the 
distance, and the moment he delivers it to you, give 
him something palatable. It is easier to teach a dog to 
retrieve as a puppy than when he is older. From teeth- 
ing his gums are in a state of slight irritation, and it 
gives him pleasure to employ his teeth and gums. 
Should you, contrary to every reasonable expectation, 
from his having no inclination to romp or play with the 
glove, not be able to persuade him to pick it up, put it 
between his teeth, force him to grasp it by tightly 
.pressing his jaws together, speaking all the while im- 

64 TAUGHT TO "CAKRY." [en. iv. 

pressively to him, scold him if he is obstinate and 
refuses to take hold of the glove. After a little time 
retire a few paces, keeping one hand under his mouth 
(to prevent his dropping the glove), while you lead or 
drag him with the other. When you halt, be sure not 
to take the glove immediately from him, oblige him 
to continue holding it for at least a minute, (lest he 
should learn to relinquish his grip too soon) before you 
make him yield at the command " give ; " then bestow 
a reward. Should he drop it before he is ordered to 
deliver it, replace it in his mouth, and again retreat 
some steps before ordering him to "give." He will 
soon follow with it at your heels. If you have suf- 
ficient perseverance you can thus make him earn all his 
daily food. Hunger will soon perfect him in the lesson. 
Observe that there are four distinct stages in this trick 
of carrying, the first, making the dog grasp and retain, 
the second, inducing him to bring, following' at your 
heels, the third, teaching him not to quit his hold 
when you stop, the fourth, getting him to deliver into 
your hands on your order. The great advantage of a 
sporting dog's acquiring this trick, is, that it accustoms 
him to deliver into your hands / and it often happens 
that you must thus teach a dog to " carry '' as a pre- 
parative to teaching him to " fetch." It certainly will 
be judicious in you to do so, if the dog is a lively, 
riotous animal ; for the act of carrying the glove (or 
stick, &c.) quietly at your heels will sober him, and 
make him less likely to run off with it instead of de- 
livering it when you are teaching him to fetch. As 
soon as he brings the glove tolerably well, try him with 
a short stick. You will wish him not to seize the end 
of it, lest he should learn to "drag" instead of to 
" carry." Therefore fix pegs or wires into holes drilled 

rn. iv.] LAND RETRIEVER, 65 

at right angles to each other at the extremities of the 
stick. He will then only grasp it near the middle. 

110. On one occasion I had a brace of setters to instruct, which 
had come to me perfectly untaught, at far too advanced an age to 
make their education an easy task ; they had also been harshly 
treated, and were consequently shy and timid. This obliged me to 
proceed with much caution and gentleness. I soon won their con- 
fidence, I may say, their affections ; but I could not persuade them 
to play with my glove, nor to lift anything I threw before them. 
I was hesitating how to act, when I saw one of them find an old dry 
bone and bear it off in triumph. I encouraged him in carrying 
it, threw it several times for him, and when he was tired of the 
fun, I brought the old bone home as a valuable prize. Next day 
I tied a string to it, I frequently chucked it to a short distance, 
and when the dog had seized it I dragged it towards me, generally 
turning my back to the dog. As soon as I regained it, I made him 
attach a value to its being in my hands, by employing it as a plate 
on which to offer him some delicacy. In a few days I could dispense 
with the string, and I soon ventured to substitute for the bone the 
string rolled up as a ball ; afterwards I employed a stick. Ulti- 
mately the dog fetched very promptly. His companion also took 
up the trick from the force of good example. (See note to 34.) 

111. I have dwelt thus long on "carrying" and "fetching," 
because they are frequently taught so injudiciously, that the result 
is a complete failure. 

112. This drill should be further extended if a 


be your pupil. Throw dead birds of any kind for him 
to bring (of course one at a time), being on the alert to 
check him whenever he grips them too severely. If he 
persists in disfiguring them, pass a few blunted knitting 
needles through them at right angles to one another. 
When he fetches with a tender mouth, you will be able 
to follow up this method of training still further by 
letting him "road" (or "foot," as it is often termed) 
a rabbit in high stubble, one (or both, if a strong buck) 
of whose hind legs you will have previously bandaged 
in the manner described in 60. Be careful not to let 
him see you turn it out, lest he watch your proceedings 
and endeavour to " hunt by eye." Indeed, it might be 

66 LAND RETRIEVER. [en. iv. 

better to employ another person to turn it out. Keep 
clear of woods for some time : the cross scents would 
puzzle him. If by any chance you have a winged 
pheasant or partridge, let him retrieve it. You will 
not, I presume, at the commencement select a morning 
when there is a dry cold wind from the north-east, but 
probably you will wish to conclude his initiatory lessons 
on days which you judge to possess least scent. The 
more he has been practised as described in 43, the 
better will he work ; for he cannot keep his nose too 
perse veringly close to the ground. With reference to 
the instructions in that paragraph I will here remark, 
that before you let the dog stoop to hunt, you should 
have placed him by signal (35) near the spot from which 
you had begun dragging the bread. In paragraph 277 
an instance is given of the manner in which a dog who 
retrieves should be put upon a scent ; and why that 
mode is adopted is explained in 271. 

113. It is quite astonishing how well an old dog that 
retrieves knows when a bird is struck. He instantly 
detects any hesitation or uncertainty of movement, and 
for a length of time will watch its flight with the 
utmost eagerness, and, steadily keeping his eye on it, 
will, as surely as yourself, mark its fall. To induce a 
young dog to become thus observant, always let him 
perceive that you watch a wounded bird with great 
eagerness ; his imitative instinct will soon lead him to 
do the same. This faculty of observation is particularly 
serviceable in a water retriever. It enables him to 
swim direct to the crippled bird, and, besides the saving 
of time, the less he is in the water in severe weather, 
the less likely is he to suffer from rheumatism. 

114. As an initiatory lesson in making him observant 
of the flight and fall of birds, place a few pigeons (or 


other birds) during his absence, each in a hole covered 
with a tile. Afterwards come upon these spots ap- 
parently unexpected!}^ and, kicking away the tiles, 
(or, what is better, dragging them off by a previously 
adjusted string,) shoot the birds for him to bring ; it 
being clearly understood that he has been previously 
tutored into having no dread of the gun. As he will have 
been taught to search where bidden (iv. to vui. of 141), 
nothing now remains but to take him out on a regular 
campaign, when the fascinating scent of game will 
infallibly make him search (I do not say deliver) with 
great eagerness. When once he then touches upon a 
scent, leave him entirely to himself, not a word, not a 
sign. Possibly his nose may not be able to follow the 
bird, but it is certain that yours cannot. Occasionally 
you may be able to help an old retriever (544), but rarely, 
if ever, a young one. Your interference, nay, probably 
your mere presence, would so excite him as to make 
him overrun the scent. Remain, therefore, quietly 
where you are, until he rejoins you. 

115. When we see a winged pheasant racing off, most 
of us are too apt to assist a young dog, forgetting that 
we thereby teach him, instead of devoting his whole 
attention to work out the scent, to turn to us for aid 
011 occasions when it may be impossible to give it. 
When a dog is hunting for birds, he should frequently 
look to the gun for signals, but when he is on them, he 
should trust to nothing but his own scenting faculties. 

116. If, from a judicious education, a retriever pup 
has had a delight in " fetching " rapidly, it is not likely 
he will loiter on the way to mouth his birds ; but the 
fatigue of carrying a hare a considerable distance may, 
perhaps, induce a young dog to drop it in order to take 
a moment's rest. There is a risk that when doing so 

F 2 


he may be tempted to lick the blood, and, finding it 
palatable, be led to maul the carcase. You see, there- 
fore, the judiciousness of employing every means in 
your power to ensure his feeling anxious to deliver 
quickly, and I know not what plan will answer better, 
though it sounds sadly unsentimental, than to have 
some pieces of hard boiled liver* at hand to bestow 
upon him the moment he surrenders his game, until 
he is thoroughly confirmed in an expeditious delivery. 
Never give him a piece, however diligently he may 
have searched, unless he succeed in bringing. When 
you leave off these rewards do so gradually. The 
invariable bestowal of such dainties during, at least, 
the retriever's first season, will prevent his ever dropping 
a bird on hearing the report of a gun (as many do), 
in order to search for the later killed game. 

117. Should a young retriever evince any wish to 
assist the cook by plucking out the feathers of a bird ; 
or from natural vice or mismanagement before he came 
into your possession,! show any predisposition to taste 
blood, take about two feet (dependent upon the size of 
the dog's head) of iron wire, say the one- eighth of an 
inch in diameter, sufficiently flexible for you, but not 
for him, to bend. Shape this much into the form of the 
letter U, supposing the extremities to be joined by a 
straight line. Place the straight part in the dog's 
mouth, and passing the other over his head and ears, 
retain it in position by a light throat lash passed 
through a turn in the wire, as here roughly repre- 

* A drier and cleaner article of gnawing hare or rabbit-skins 

than you may suppose, and which thrown aside by a slovenly cook, 

can be carried not inconveniently it will not be unnatural in him, 

in a Mackintosh, or oil-skin bag, when he is hungry, to wish to 

a toilet sponge bag. appropriate to himself the hide, 

t If a retriever has the op- if not the interior of the animals 

portunity, while prowling about, he is lifting. 

CH. iv.] THE "DOWN CHARGE." 69 

sented. The flexibility of the wire will enable you to 
adjust it with ease to the shape of his head. When in 
the kennel he ought to be occasionally thus 
bitted, that he may not fret when he is first 
hunted with it. It will not injure his teeth 
or much annoy him, if it lies on his grinders 
a little behind the tushes. 

118. Sometimes a retriever, notwithstanding every 
encouragement, will not pursue a winged bird with 
sufficient rapidity. In this case associate him for a few 
days with a quicker dog, whose example will to a cer- 
tainty animate him and increase his pace. It is true 
that when he is striving to hit off a scent he cannot 
work too patiently and perseveringly ; but, on the other 
hand, the moment he is satisfied he is on it, he cannot 
follow too rapidly. A winged bird when closely pressed, 
seems, through nervousness, to emit an increasing stream 
of scent ; therefore, though it may sound paradoxical, 
the retriever's accelerated pace then makes him (his 
nose being close to the ground) the less likely to overrun 
it ; and the faster he pursues the less ground must he 
disturb, for the shorter will be the chase. 

119. Retrievers are generally taught to rush in, the 
instant a bird falls. This plan, like most other things, 
has its advocates and its opponents. I confess to being 
one of the latter, for I cannot believe that in the long 
run it is the best way to fill the bag. I think it certain 
that more game is lost by birds being flushed while the 
guns are unloaded,* than could be lost from the scent 
cooling during the short period the dog remains at the 
" down charge." Unquestionably some retrievers have 

* This reasoning obviously does the day," where the sportsmen 
ot apply to the retrievers em- do not condescend to charge their 
ployed in those battues where own guns, but are constantly sup- 
rapid slaughter is " the order of plied with relays of loaded arms. 

70 iHE "DOWN CHARGE." [CH. iv. 

so good a nose, that the delay would not lead to their 
missing any wounded game, however slightly struck 
(123) ; and the delay has this great advantage, that it 
helps to keep the retriever under proper subjection, and 
diminishes his anxiety to rush to every part of the line 
where a gun may be fired, instead of remaining quietly 
at his master's heels until signaled to take up the scent. 
Morever, a retriever, by neglecting the " down charge," 
sets an example to the pointers or setters who may be 
his companions, which it is always more or less difficult 
to prevent the dogs, if young, from following. But I 
once shot over a retriever which I could hardly wish 
not to have "run on shot." On a bird being hit he 
started off with the greatest impetuosity, kept his eye 
immoveably fixed on its flight, and possessed such speed, 
that a winged bird scarcely touched the ground ere it 
was pinned. He would, too, often seize a slightly 
injured hare before it had acquired its best pace. The 
pursuit so soon terminated, that possibly less game 
escaped being fired at, than if the retriever had not 
stirred until the guns were reloaded. On a miss he was 
never allowed indeed appeared little inclined to quit 
"heel." Of course a trainer's trouble is decreased by 
not breaking to the " down charge/' which may induce 
some to recommend the plan; though it is to be ob- 
served, that this class of dogs is more easily than any 
other perfected in it, because the breaker nearly always 
possesses the power of treading upon or seizing the 
checkcord the instant a bird is sprung. 

120. The nature of your shooting will much influence 
you in deciding which of the two methods to adopt ; 
but should you select the one which the generality of 
good sportsmen consider to be most according to rule, 
and to possess the greatest beauty, viz., the " down 

CH. iv.] MR. K G'S "BEX." 71 

charge/' rather lose any bird, however valuable, so long 
as your retriever remains young, than put him on the 
" foot " a second before you have reloaded. Undoubtedly 
it ought to be taught to every dog broken for sale, as the 
purchaser can always dispense with it should he judge 
it unnecessary : it can soon be untaught. It is clear 
that not "quitting heel" until ordered, is tantamount 
to the regular " down charge," but I think the last is the 
easiest to enforce constantly. It is the more decided 

121. Mr. K- -g (mentioned in 231) had a famous retriever 
whose build, close curly hair, and aquatic propensities, showed his 
close affinity to the water spaniel, though doubtless there was some 
strain of the Landsman. He retrieved with singular zeal and per- 
tinacity. Indeed his superiority over all competitors in his neigh- 
bourhood, was so generally admitted, that his master was hardly 
ever asked to shoot at any place, without a special invitation being 
sent to " Ben." When beating a cover, there was a constant cafl 
for " Ben." No merely winged pheasant fell to the ground, and no 
hare went off wounded but there was heard, " Ben, Ben." On one 

occasion, when K g was posted at the extremity of the line, the 

dog was called away so often that his master got annoyed, and 
declared that the animal should attend to no one but himself. Soon 
there was a double shot, and, of course, the usual vociferations for 
" Ben," but he was ordered to keep close. Louder and louder were 
the cries for u Ben," but all in vain, he obediently followed only 
his master's orders. At length when the cover was beaten through, 

K g inquired into the cause of the hubbub. Young B k 

told him, in no kind humour, that his churlishness in retaining the 

dog had lost them a fine hare. " If," said K g, " you are certain 

you wounded it, and can put me on the exact spot where it was 
when you fired, I will bet you 5 that 'Ben' shall find her." 

B k observed that he knew perfectly the precise place, having 

carefully marked it with a stick, but added, that he much doubted 
the possibility of the dog's picking up the scent, as more than half 

an hour had since elapsed. K g, however, stuck to his offer. 

They went back and found some pile, which proved that the hare 
had been struck. The dog was put on the trail. He at once took 
it, but was so long away, (perhaps twenty minutes,) that they 
thought it best to search for him. They found him almost imme- 
diately, lying down with the hare alongside of him. His tongue 
was hanging out of his mouth, and he showed other symptoms of 
great distress. Evidently he had brought the hare from a con- 
siderable distance. 


122. "Ben" had numerous excellent qualities, but his greatest 
admirers, and few dogs had so many, were obliged to admit, that he 
was of a quarrelsome, pugnacious disposition. It unluckily hap- 
pened that he had taken a great dislike to a large cubbish young 

retriever belonging to the aforesaid Mr. B k, who often shot 

with K g ; and I am sorry to say none of " Ben's " prejudices 

were removed by the kindly fellowship and good feeling usually 
engendered by association in field-sports. The day's work generally 
commenced by " Ben's " making a rush at his big awkward com- 
panion, and overturning him. After this feat, upon which he 
evidently greatly plumed himself, he would proceed to business. It 
happened that one of the sportsmen once knocked over a pheasant 
which fell outside the hedge surrounding the copse they were beating. 
It proved to be a runner ; " Ben," however, soon got hold of it, and 
was carrying it to his master in the cover, when up came the other 
dog wishing to assist. " Ben's " anger was roused, he was anxious 
to punish such intrusive interference but how to manage it was 
the question, for if he put down the winged bird it would run into 
the wood, where there might be much trouble in recovering it. 
Quick as thought, off ran " Ben" to the middle of the large ploughed 
field, there he dropped the bird, then dashed at his lumbering 
rival, quickly gave him a thrashing, and afterwards started in 
pursuit of the pheasant, which he managed to overtake before it 
regained the copse. If that was not refiection it was something 
very like it. 

123. One more anecdote of poor " Ben." I say " poor," because 
he died prematurely from a swelling under the throat which might, 
in all probability, have been cured, had a long seton been run 
through it, or rather under the adjacent skin, a mode of treatment 
attended with the happiest results in the case of another dog 
attacked in a similar manner in the same kennel. " Ben " and an 

old setter were K g's only canine attendants when he was once 

pheasant shooting with a friend on some steep banks. K g 

was at the bottom, his friend on the top. A cock pheasant was 
sprung and winged by the latter. The bird not being immediately 
found, there was the usual cry for " Ben." " Go along," said 

K g. Away went the dog, who soon took up the scent and 

dashed off, but had not gone many yards before he started a hare ; 

K g had soon an opening to fire, and wounded it. " Ben " 

pursued it, urged on by his master, who felt sure the dog would be 
able to retrieve the pheasant afterwards. The hare was viewed 
scrambling up the bank. " Ben " soon appeared in sight and caught 

it. K g's friend much abused poor " Ben " for quitting one 

scent for another. "Do not put yourself out of humour," said 

K g ; "you don't know the dog, wait till he comes back, and 

if he does not then get the bird, blame me." Having allowed 

" Ben " a little breathing time, K g took him to the place where 

the bird fell. The dog quickly hit off the scent. K g, now 

perfectly satisfied that all was right, made his friend sit down. In 
little more than a quarter of an hour " Ben" came back with the bird 


alive in his mouth, it having no other wound that could be perceived 
than on the pinion of one wing. 

124. With such a nose as "Ben's" could there have been any 
harm in his being taught to " down charge," and might there not 
have been much good (119) ? You see that owing to his having put 

up the hare while K g's friend was loading, it might have 

escaped, had it, as is usually the case, at once taken to the hills. 

125. Large retrievers are less apt to mouth their game 
than small ones : but very heavy dogs are not desirable, 
for they soon tire. And yet a certain medium is neces- 
sary, for they ought to have sufficient strength to carry 
a hare with ease through a thicket, when balanced in 
their jaws, and be able to jump a fence with her. They 
should run mute. And they should be thick coated : 
unless they are so, I do not say long coated, they 
cannot be expected to dash into close cover, or plunge 
into water after a duck or snipe when the thermometer 
is near zero. 

126. From education there are good retrievers of many breeds, 
but it is usually allowed that, as a general rule, the best land 
retrievers are bred from a cross between the setter and the New- 
foundland, or the strong spaniel and the Newfoundland. I do not 
mean the heavy Labrador, whose weight and bulk is valued because 
it adds to his power of draught, nor the Newfoundland, increased 
in size at Halifax and St. John's to suit the taste of the English 
purchaser, but the far slighter dog reared by the settlers on the 
coast, a dog that is quite as fond of water as of land, and which 
in almost the severest part of a North American winter will remain 
on the edge of a rock for hours together, watching intently for any- 
thing the passing waves may carry near him. Such a dog is highly 
prized. Without his aid the farmer would secure but few of the 
many wild ducks he shoots at certain seasons of the year. The 
patience with which he waits for a shot on the top of a high cliff' 
(until the numerous flock sail leisurely underneath) would be fruit- 
less, did not his noble dog fearlessly plunge in from the greatest 
height, and successfully bring the slain to shore. 

127. Probably a cross from the heavy, large-headed setter, who, 
though so wanting in pace, has an exquisite nose ; and the true 
Newfoundland, makes the best retriever. Nose is the first deside- 
ratum. A breaker may doubt which of his pointers or setters 
possesses the greatest olfactory powers, but a short trial tells him. 
which of his retrievers has the finest nose. 


] 28. Making a first-rate retriever is a work of time, 
but his being thoroughly grounded in the required 
initiatory lessons facilitates matters surprisingly. In- 
deed after having been taught the "drop" (23, 25, 26) 
to "fetch" (107 to 109) and "seek dead" in the 
precise direction he is ordered (xi. of 141), almost any 
kind of dog can be made to retrieve. The better his 
nose is, the better of course he will retrieve. Sagacity, 
good temper, quickness of comprehension, a teachable 
disposition, and all cultivated qualities, are almost as 
visibly transmitted to offspring as shape and action ; 
therefore the stronger a dog's hereditary instincts lead 
him to retrieve, the less will be the instructor's trouble ; 
and the more obedient he is made to the signals of the 
hand, the more readily will he be put upon a scent. 
Dogs that are by nature quick rangers do not take 
instinctively to retrieving. They have not naturally 
sufficient patience to work out a feeble scent. They are 
apt to overrun it. A really good retriever will pursue a 
wounded bird or hare as accurately as a bloodhound will 
a deer or man ; and if he is put on a false scent, I mean 
a scent of uninjured flick or feather, he will not follow 
it beyond a few steps : experience will have shown him 
the inutility of so doing. (545.) 

129. Avail yourself of the first opportunity to make a 
young retriever lift a woodcock, lest in after life, from 
its novel scent, he decline touching it, as many dogs 
have done to the great annoyance of their masters. 
Ditto, with the delicate landrail. 

130. The directions given about " fetching," led me 
to talk of retrievers ; and having touched upon the 
subject, I thought it right not to quit it, until I had 
offered the best advice in my power. I have but one 
more recommendation to add before I return to your 


setter (or pointer) pup : carefully guard a young re- 
triever (indeed any dog bred for the gun) from being 
ever allowed to join in a rat-hunt. Eat-hunting would 
tend to destroy his tenderness of mouth, nay possibly 
make him mangle his game. But this is not all. It has 
often gradually led good dogs to decline lifting hares or 
rabbits, apparently regarding them more in the light of 
vermin than of game. Some dogs, however, that are 
not bad retrievers, are capital ratters, but they are ex- 
ceptions to the general rule. Indeed, you should never 
permit your dog to retrieve any kind of ground or 
winged vermin. If the creature were only wounded it 
might turn upon him. He in self-defence would give it 
a grip, and he might thus be led to follow the practice 
on less pardonable occasions. Eemember, that a winged 
bittern or heron might peck out his eye. 



131. Lessons in Country Walks. 132. "Instruction in quartering;" hunted where 
least likely to find Game ; taught while young. In note, Bitch shot over when 
seven months old. -133. If unreasonably long before taking to hunting, the 
remedy. 134. Utility of Initiatory Lessons; taught without punishing. 
135. Self-confidence of timid Dogs increased. 136. The more Dogs learn, the 
more readily they learn. 137. Two superior Dogs better than half-a-dozen of 
the ordinary sort ; Action of Dogs ; their Feet ; Loins ; dash of Foxhound gives 
endurance ; cross with Bull hunts with nose too low ; Reliefs desirable ; best 
Dog reserved for evening. 138. Immense sums spent in shooting, yet begrudged 
for superior Dogs. 139. Memorandum, never to ride through gate with gun 
athwart-ship ; instance of Dog's behaving admirably the first day shown Game. 
140. Proves the value of Initiatory Lessons. 141. Summary of knowledge 
imparted by them. 142. Why to signal with right Hand. 143. Obedience of 
Shepherd's Dogs to Signals. 144. One Word only of command ; dogs attend to 
the general Sound, not to the several Words. 145. Names of Dogs not to end in 
"O ;" to be easily called ; to be dissimilar. 146. " Drop" better word of com- 
mand than "Down;" use words of command least likely to be employed by 
others ; when purchasing a Dog, ascertain what words he is accustomed to. 
147 to 149. Ladies have no control over Dogs ; the reason. 150. They possess 
patience and temper: could teach any Tricks; Dogs how taught to fag at 
Cricket. 151. Newfoundland carrying off lady's Parasol for a Bun. 152. He 
was a Physiognomist. 153. Method of teaching "carrying," greatly differs from 
method of teaching "fetching." 154. Tricks exhibited with effect. 155 to 157. 
Instanced at Tonbridge Wells. 1^8, 159. Instanced at Gibraltar; Game of 
Draughts. 160, 161. Elephant shown off. 162. Bewilderment of Keeper of 
Menagerie. 163. Ladies' Pets too pampered ; Shepherd's Collies. 164. Kind- 
ness without petting. 165, 166. Instance of bad Habit cured by perseverance. 
Ladies breaking in Dogs for the gun. In note, Whale fishing at Bermuda. 
167. Dog's Affections; always gained by first attentions: win his love, that he 
may exert himself to please. Dog sleeping on poacher's clothes. 169. Esqui. 
maux Dogs ; Esquimaux Women. 

131. As I before observed, you can practise most of 
the initiatory lessons in your country walks. Always 
put something alluring in your pocket to reward your 
pupil for prompt obedience. Do not take him out un- 
necessarily in bad weather. On no account let him 
amuse himself by scraping acquaintance with every idle 
cur he meets on the way ; nor permit him to gambol 

. V.J 



about the lanes. Let him understand by your manner 
that there is business in hand. Never let him enter a 


field before you. Always keep him at your heels, until 
you give him the order to be off. You will find him dis- 
posed to presume and encroach. According to the old 
adage, " Give him an inch, and he will take an ell," He 
will be endeavouring to lead rather than to follow, and, 
should he fancy himself unobserved, he will most per- 
severingly steal inch upon inch in advance. Be ever on 
the watch, ready to check the beginning of every act of 
disobedience. Implicit obedience in trifles will insure 
it in things of more importance but see par. 345. 

132. For some time, but the period is uncertain, 
say from his being eight months old until double that 


age,* he will merely gallop and frisk about, and pro- 
bably will take diligently to persecuting butterflies. Let 
him choose what he likes. Don't think that he will prize 
small beer, when he can get champagne. He will leave 
off noticing inferior articles as he becomes conversant 
with the taste of game. It is now your main object to 
get him to hunt ; no matter what, so that he is not per- 
petually running to "heel." And the more timid he is, 
the more you must let him chase, and amuse himself as 
his fancy dictates. When you see that he is really 
occupying himself with more serious hunting, eagerly 
searching for small birds, especially larks, you must 
begin instructing him how to quarter his ground to the 
greatest advantage, under your constant direction. Should 
any one join you, or anything occur likely to prevent 
your giving him your strictest attention, on no account 
permit him to range, keep him to "heel" until you 
are quite prepared to watch and control all his move- 
ments. Hunt him where he is least likely to find game, 
for he will take to quartering his ground far more regu- 
larly, under your guidance, where his attention is least 
distracted by any scent. The taint of partridge would 
be almost sure to make him deviate from the true line 
on which you are anxious he should work. Labour now 
diligently, if possible daily, though not for many hours 
a day ; for be assured, a good method of ranging can 
only be implanted when he is young : but be discreet, 
if he be naturally timid, you may make him afraid to 
leave your heel the worst of faults. 

133. Should your pup be so long before taking to 

* I once had a pointer pup could not have been hunted for 

whose dam was broken in (after more than an hour or two at a time, 

u fashion) and regularly shot to She ought not to have been taken 

when seven months old. With- to the field for regular use until 

out injury to her constitution, she fully a year old. 


hunting that your patience becomes exhausted, let an 
old dog accompany you a few times. When lie finds 
birds, gradually bring the young one upon them from 
leeward, and let him spring them. Encourage him to 
sniff the ground they have quitted, and allow him to 
run riot on the haunt. After that enjoyment, the 
example of the old dog will most likely soon make 
him range, and employ his nose in seeking a repetition 
of what has afforded him such unexpected delight. If 
it does not, and the old dog is steady and good-humoured 
enough to bear the annoyance cheerfully, couple the 
young one to him. Before this he should have learned 
to work kindly in couples (48) . But I am getting on 
too fast, and swerving from the track I had marked for 
myself. By-and-by I will tell you how I think you 
should instruct your youngster to quarter his ground to 
the best advantage. (173, &cv) 

134. Common sense shows that you ought not to 
correct your dog for disobedience, unless you are certain 
that he knows his fault. Now you will see that the 
initiatory lessons I recomnieiid r must give him that 
knowledge, for they explain to him the meaning of 
almost all the signs and words of command you will 
have to employ when shooting. That knowledge, too, 
is imparted by a system of rewards, not punishments. 
Your object is not to break his spirit, but his self-will. 
With his obedience you gain his affection. The greatest 
hardship admissible, in this early stage of his education, 
is a strong jerk of the checkcord, and a sound rating, 
given, wlien necessary, in the loudest tone and sternest 
manner ; and it is singular how soon he will discrimi- 
nate between the reproving term "bad" (to which he 
will sensitively attach a feeling of shame), and the 
encouraging word " good," expressions that will here- 


after have a powerful influence over him, especially if 
he be of a gentle, timid disposition. 

135. In educating such a dog, and there are many 
of the kind, likely to turn out well, if they are judiciously 
managed, often possessing noses so exquisite (perhaps 
I ought to say cautious), as nearly to make up for their 
general want of constitution and powers of endurance : 
it is satisfactory to think that all these lessons can be 
inculcated without in the slightest degree depressing his 
spirit. On the contrary, increasing observation and in- 
telligence will gradually banish his shyness and distrust 
of his own powers ; for he will be sensible that he is 
becoming more and more capable of comprehending 
your wishes, and therefore less likely to err and be 
punished (347). 

136. I fear you may imagine that I am attributing 
too much reasoning power to him. You would not think 
so if you had broken in two or three dogs. What makes 
dog-teaching, if not very attractive, at least not labo- 
rious, is the fact that the more you impart to a dog, the 
more readily will he gain further knowledge. After 
teaching a poodle or a terrier a few tricks, you will be 
surprised to see with what increasing facility he will 
acquire each successive accomplishment. It is this 
circumstance which, I think, should induce you not to 
regard as chimerical the perfection of which I purpose 
to speak by-and-by, under the head of " refinements in 
breaking." Indeed I only adopt this distinction in 
deference to what I cannot but consider popular preju- 
dice ; for I well know many will regard such accom- 
plishments as altogether superfluous. It is sad to think 
that an art which might easily be made much more 
perfect, is allowed, almost by universal sufferance, to stop 
short just at the point where excellence is within grasp. 


137. Far more dogs would be well-broken, if men 
would but keep half the number they usually possess. 
The owner of many dogs cannot shoot often enough over 
them to give tliem great experience. 

Is it that some youngsters are fond of the eclat of a large kennel ? 
That can hardly be, or ought not to be ; for clearly it would be more 
sportsmanlike to pride themselves upon the rare qualities of a few 
highly-trained animals. A lover of the trigger might be excused an 
occasional boast, if made with an approach to truth, that he shot over 
the best-broken dogs in the county. I say seriously, that if I had 
a considerable bet upon the quantity of game that I was to kill in a 
season, I had much rather possess two perfectly educated dogs than 
half-a-dozen commonly called broken ; and even if I gave fifty or 
sixty guineas for the brace, it would be more economical than to 
purchase twice as many of the everyday sort ; for, to say nothing of 
the tax-gatherer, consider what would be the saving at the end of 
a very few years between the keep of two, and of four or five dogs. 
I suspect the difference would soon repay the large price paid for 
the highly-educated favourites. Oh ! yes. I anticipate what you 
would say ; but, keen sportsman as I am, I own I have not time or 
inclination to shoot oftener than three or four out of the six working- 
days of the week, and I suspect not many men have, except just 
at the beginning of a season. Moreover, in reference to what I 
fancy are your thoughts respecting the insufficiency of two, I must 
premise that they are to be good-hearted dogs, good feeders after 
work, probably of the sort whose exuberant animal spirits, untiring 
energies, and rapture at inhaling the exciting perfume of game, have 
led them to run riot in many a lawless chase ; who have consequently 
used up more than their fair share of the breaker's checkcord, and 
consumed an undue portion of his time. They must not be those 
whose constitutions have been injured in their growth by excessive 
work ; for dogs vary as much as horses in the quantity of labour 
they are able to perform, both from diversity of natural capabilities, 
and from the greater or less care bestowed upon them while pro- 
gressing towards maturity. The Esquimaux, who from anxious 
observation must be a competent judge, his very existence de- 
pending upon the powers and endurance of his dogs, not^ only 
occasionally crosses them with the wolf (the progeny is prolific) to 
increase their strength and hardiness, I do not say sagacity, but 
he is so impressed with the necessity of not overtasking them until 
they have attained their full stamina and vigour, that although he 
breaks them into harness before they are quite a twelvemonth old, 
when their immediate services would be convenient, he yet abstains 
from putting them to severe labour until they are nearly three years 
of age. My supposed dogs must, too, have as united a gallop as a 
good hunter, and have small, round, hard feet ; for this I hold to be 
a more certain test of endurance in the field, than any other point 


that you can name. Rest assured, that the worst Joined dogs with 
good feet * are capable of more fatigue in stubble or heather, than 
the most muscular and best loined, with fleshy " understandings." 
The most enduring pointers I have ever seen hunted, had more or 
less of the strain of the fox-hound ; but doubtless they were pro- 
portionately hard to break, for their hereditary bias on one side of 
the house must have given them an inclination to chase and carry 
their heads low. I have shot over a cross with the bull-dog. The 
animal showed great courage, perseverance, and nose, but he hunted 
with his head so near the ground, that he hit off no game unless he 
came upon its run. The strongest heather could not have cured 
such a sad carriage. It would be quite unreasonable to expect that 
dogs so bred (from either fox- hound or bull-dog), would have acted 
like Mr. M t's, (see 280) the first day they were shown game. 
Remember also that I do not expect to lose any shots from the birds 
being scared by my being forced to call or whistle to the dogs, and 
that I confidently hope to shoot more coolly and collectedly, from 
not being worried and annoyed by their misconduct ; I allow, how- 
ever, that in any open country more than two dogs are desirable ; 
and I especially admit, that whenever I might have the good luck 
to get away to the moors, I should be unwilling to start with no 
more than a brace ; but even in this' case, as I should hope for 
better society than my own, have I not a right to calculate upon the 
probable contingent to be brought by my friend ? and if his turned 
out superior to mine, we should always reserve his for our evening's 
beat, which ought to be the best feeding ground, and towards which 
it would be our endeavour throughout the day to drive the birds ; 
for, unlike the partridge, the later it is, early in the season, the better 
grouse lie. Many dogs are desirable, not that they may be hunted 
together, but that they may be hunted in reliefs. But some possess 
so much power and bottom, that their owners need seldom think 
about reliefs in partridge-shooting. 

138. In enlarging a kennel, it ought always to be remembered, 
that the companionship of one disorderly cur nominally cheap, but 
in reality dear, soon leads astray the better disposed. Men who 
spare no expense in preserving their grounds, in rearing and feeding 
birds, &c. will often be found to begrudge a few extra pounds in the 
purchase of a dog, however good. This appears odd, but it is too 
true. If they would but sum up the rent they pay for the right of 
shooting, (or what is the same thing, its value, if they choose to let 
it), the wages of men, the cost of breeding game, taxes, and all 

* I often shoot over a setter soon brings her round for another 

bitch (belonging to one of my half day's brilliant work. Unless 

relations) that has capital feet, a dog is particularly light in body, 

but is very defective across the bad feet quickly scald upon heath 

loins. She is extremely fast, and or stubble, and they are longer 

a brilliant performer for half a getting round, than is a bad loined 

day; but she then shuts up com- dog in recovering from a day's 

pletely. A little rest, however, fatigue. 


The extremities of the gun caught the side-posts." Par. 139. 


other attendant expenses, they would find that they wreck them- 
selves at last for comparatively a trifle. 

139. I am, however, wandering from our immediate 
subject. Let us return to the lecture, and consider how 
much knowledge your pupil will have acquired by these 
preliminary instructions. We shall find that, with the 
exception of a systematically confirmed range, really 
little remains to be learned, save what his almost un- 
aided instinct will tell him. 

I will give you an instance of what I mean in the conduct of a 
young pointer I saw shot over the first day he was ever shown 
game. You know that in Ireland grouse-shooting does not com- 
mence before the 2()th of August, a date far more judicious than 
ours. I well remember that day at Clonmel in the year 1828. Long 
before any glimmering of light, one of our party had fractured the 
stock of a favourite double barrel, by carelessly letting it hang 
across his body at the moment a skittish cob he was riding rushed 
through a narrow gateway. The extremities of the gun caught the 
side-posts, and if it had not given way, he must have parted com- 
pany with his nag. I believe we each made a memorandum, never 
whilst riding through a gate to let our guns get athwart-ship. The 
morning turned out so dreadfully wet that, after remaining for hours 
in a hovel at the foot of the Galtee Mountains, we were forced to 
return home. The following day we made a fresh start. Being 
sadly in want of dogs, we took out a young pointer who had never 
seen a bird, but was tolerably au fait in the initiatory lessons which 
I have described. In a short time he began to hunt, made several 
points in the course of the day, and though every thing was strange 
to him, (for it was the first time he had been associated in the field 
with other dogs, nay, almost the first time of his being hunted at 
all,) yet, from his comprehension of the several orders that he 
received, and perfect obedience, he acquitted himself so creditably, 
that he was allowed, not only to be one of the best, but nearly the 
very best broken dog of the party. Indeed, the sportsmen who accom- 
panied the owner (for three guns shot together a mal-arrangement 
attributable to accidental circumstances, not choice) could hardly be 
persuaded that the dog had not been shot over the latter end of the 
preceding season. 

140. I name this instance, and I can vouch for its 
truth, not as an example to be followed, for it was most 
injudicious to have so soon taken out the youngster 
with companions, but to prove to you how much you 
can effect by initiatory instruction ; indeed, afterwards, 

86 RULES KNOWN. [CH. v. 

you will have little else to do than teach and confirm 
your dog in a judicious range, his own sagacity and 
increasing experience will be his principal guides, for, 
consider how much you will have taught him. 
141. He will know 

i. That he is to pay attention to his whistle, the 
whistle that you design always to use to him. 
I mean that, when he hears one low blast on his 
whistle he is to look to you for orders, but not 
necessarily run towards you, unless he is out of 
sight, or you continue whistling (19). 
n. That " Toho," or the right arm raised nearly per- 
pendicularly, means that he is to stand still 
(19 to 22). 

in. That " Drop," or the left arm raised nearly perpen- 
dicularly, or the report of a gun, means that he 
is to crouch down with his head close to the 
ground, between his feet, however far off he may 
be ranging. Greater relaxation in the position 
may be permitted after he has been a little time 
shot over (23 to 27). 

IV. That "On," (the short word for " hie-on ",) or the 
forward underhand swing of the right hand, 
signifies that he is to advance in a forward 
direction (the direction in which you are waving). 
This signal is very useful. It implies that you 
want the dog to hunt ahead of you. You em- 
ploy it also when you are alongside of him at 
his point, and are desirous of urging him to 
follow up the running bird or birds, and press 
to a rise. If he push on too eagerly, you restrain 
him by slightly raising the right hand xn. of 
this paragraph (19 to 22). 
v. That a wave of the right* arm and hand (the arm 

CH. v.] RULES KNOWN. 87 

being fully extended and well to the right) from 
left to right, means that he is to hunt to the right. 
Some men wave the left hand across the body from 
left to right, as a direction to the dog to hunt to 
the right ; but that signal is not so apparent at 
a distance as the one I have described (36). 

VI. That a wave of the left arm from right to left (the 
arm being fully extended and well to the left), 
means that he is to hunt to the left (36). 

vii. That the "Beckon," the wave of the right hand 
towards you, indicates that he is to hunt towards 
you (37). See also 71. 

viii. That the word " Heel," or a wave of the right hand 
to the rear (the reverse of the underhand cricket- 
bowler's swing), implies that he is to give up 
hunting, and go directly close to your heels (44). 

ix. That "Fence" means that he is not to leave the 
place where you are. After being so checked a 
few times when he is endeavouring to quit the 
field, he will understand the word to be an order 
not to "break fence" (46, 47). 

x. That "Find," or "Seek," means that he is to 
search for something which he will have great 
gratification in discovering. When he is in the 
field he will quickly understand this to be game 
(34, 35). 

xi. That " Dead " (which it would be well to accom- 
pany with the signal to " Heel ") means that 
there is something not far off, which he would 
have great satisfaction in finding. On hearing 
it, he will come to you, and await your signals 
instructing him in what direction he is to hunt 
for it. When, by signals, you have put him as 
near as you can upon the spot where you think 


the bird has fallen, you will say, " Find ; " for, 
until you say that word, he ought to be more 
occupied in attending to your signals than in 
searching for the bird. When you have shot a 
good many birds to him, if he is within sight, in 
order to work more silently, omit saying " Dead," 
only signal to him to go to "Heel" (19, 34, 35, 

XII. That " Care " means that he is near that for which 
he is hunting. This word, used with the right 
hand slightly raised (the signal for the " Toho," 
only not exhibited nearly so energetically), will 
soon make him comprehend that game is near 
him, and that he is therefore to hunt cautiously. 
You will use it when your young dog is racing 
too fast among turnips or potatoes (39). 
xni. That "Up" means that he is to sniff' with his 
nose high in the air for that of which he is in 
search (41). 

XIV. That "Away" (or "Gone," or "Flown") is an 
indication that the thing for which he was hunt- 
ing, and of which he smells the taint, is no 
longer there. This word is not to be used in 
the field until your young dog has gained some 
experience (45). 

XV. That "Ware" (pronounced "War") is a general 
order to desist from whatever he may be doing. 
" No " is perhaps a better word : it can be pro- 
nounced more distinctly and energetically. If 
the command is occasionally accompanied with 
the cracking of your whip, its meaning will soon 
be understood (47). 

xvi. He will also know the distinction between the 
chiding term " Bad " and the encouraging word 


" Good ; " and, moreover, be sensible, from your 
look and manner, whether you are pleased or 
angry with him. Dogs, like children, are phy- 
siognomists (40, end of 134). 

142. You will perceive that you are advised to use 
the right hand more than the left. This is only because 
the left hand is so generally employed in carrying the 

143. By often and uniformly employing the signals I have named, 
you will find it more easy to place your pupil, and make him hunt 
exactly where you wish, than you may at first suppose. In an open 
country the movements of sheep are entirely controlled by dogs ; and 
if you never have had the opportunity of observing it, you would be 
no less surprised than interested at witnessing with what accuracy 
a shepherd, standing on a hill side, can, by the motions of his hand 
and arm, direct his dog to distant points in the valley below. If 
you could see it, you would be satisfied it was not by harsh means 
that he obtained such willing, cheerful obedience. His signals to 
the right, left, and inwards, are very similar to those just described. 
He, however, instructs his dog to go further ahead, by using his 
hand and arm as in the action of throwing, but keeping an open 
palm towards the animal (the arm raised high) : a signal undenia- 
bly more visible at a distance than the one named in iv. of 141, 
though not generally so well suited to the sportsman. 

144. You will also observe, that when the voice is 
employed (and this should be done only when the clog 
will not obey your signals), I have recommended you to 
make use of but one word. Why should you say, 
"Come to heel," "Ware breaking fence," "Have a care?" 
If you speak in sentences, you may at times uncon- 
sciously vary the words of the sentence, or the emphasis 
on any word ; and as it is only by the sound that you 
should expect a dog to be guided, the more defined and 
distinct in sound the several commands are, the better. 

145. This consideration leads to the remark that, as, 
by nearly universal consent, "Toho" is the word em- 
ployed to tell a dog to point, the old rule is clearly a 
judicious one, never to call him " Ponto," " Sancho," or 


[CH. V. 

by any name ending in " o." Always, too, choose one 
that can be hallooed in a sharp, loud, high key. You 
will find the advantage of this whenever you lose your 
dog, and happen not to have a whistle. Observe, also, 
if you have several dogs, to let their names be dis- 
similar in sound. 

146. I have suggested your employing the word 
" Drop," instead of the usual word " Down," because it 
is less likely to be uttered by any one on whom the dog 
might jump or fawn ; for, on principle, I strongly object 
to any order being given which is not strictly enforced. 
It begets in a dog, as much as in the nobler animal who 
walks on two legs, habits of inattention to words of 
command, and ultimately makes greater severity neces- 


sary. If I felt certain I should never wish to part with 
a dog I was instructing, I should carry this principle so 


far as to frame a novel vocabulary, and never use any 
word I thought he would be likely to hear from others, 
By the bye, whenever you purchase a dog, it would be 
advisable to ascertain what words of command, and 
what signals he has been accustomed to. 

147. The fair sex, though possessing unbounded and most proper 
influence over us, notoriously have but little control over their 
canine favourites. This, however, solely arises from their seldom 
enforcing obedience to the orders which they give them. 

148. If a lady takes a dog out for a walk, she keeps constantly 
calling to it, lest it should go astray and be lost. The result is, that 
ere long, the dog pays not the slightest attention to her, his own 
sagacity telling him that he need not trouble himself to watch her, 
as she will be sure to look after him. But she can plead a charming 
authority for her weakness, Charles Lamb who felt obliged to 
follow wherever " Dash " chose to lead ; for " Dash " soon found out 
that he might take what liberties he pleased with " Elia." 

149. There is also a varying in the manner, tone of voice, and 
words of command, which generally prevents the success of ladies 
in teaching a four-footed pet any tricks beyond the art of begging. 


This feat they accomplish because they cannot well deviate from the 
beaten path. They naturally hold the animal in a proper position 
while they say, " Beg ; beg, sir, beg ; " and do not give him the 
reward until he has obeyed orders more or less satisfactorily. 

150. Honesty compels us to give them credit for more temper 
and patience than fall to the lot of the sterner sex ; and if they 
would but pursue one steady, uniform, consistent plan, they might 
(sitting in a begging attitude not being naturally an agreeable 


position for a dog) quite as easily teach him to dance, hold a pipe 
in his mouth, stand up in a corner, give the right or left paw, 
shut the door, pull the bell rope, leap over a parasol, or drag 
forth his napkin, and spread it as a table-cloth at dinner-time,* &c. ; 
and, by following the method elsewhere explained (96, 107, 109,) 
seldom lose anything in their walks, as their faithful companion 
would almost invariably be on the alert to pick up and carry to 
them whatever they might drop. It is in this manner that dogs 
are sometimes made very useful assistants at cricket. A golf-ball 

maker at St. Andrew's, A n R n, employs his dog yet more 

usefully at least more profitably. He has taught the animal to 
search the links by himself for balls, and to take home all he finds. 
Until the introduction of the universally applied gutta percha, the 
price of golf-balls was two shillings each. It may, therefore, be 
easily imagined that the diligent little fellow paid liberally for his 
board and lodging. But the trick of carrying has been made as 
serviceable to the dog as to his master. 

151. A cousin of one of my brother officers, Colonel A n, was 

taking a walk in the year '49, at Tonbridge Wells, when a strange 
Newfoundland made a snatch at the parasol she held loosely in her 
hand, and quietly carried it off. His jaunty air and wagging tail 
plainly told, as he marched along, that he was much pleased at his 
feat. The lady civilly requested him to restore it. This he declined, 
but in so gracious a manner, that she essayed, though ineffectually, 
to drag it from him. She therefore laughingly, albeit unwillingly, 
was constrained to follow her property rather than abandon it alto- 
gether. The dog kept ahead, constantly looking round to see if 
she followed, and was evidently greatly pleased at perceiving that 
she continued to favour him with her company. At length, he 
stepped into a confectioner's, where the lady renewed her attempts 
to obtain possession of her property ; but as the Newfoundland 
would not resign it, she applied to the shopman for assistance, who 
said that it was an old trick of the dog's to get a bun ; that if she 
would give him one, he would immediately return the stolen goods. 
She cheerfully did so, and the dog as willingly made the exchange. 

152. I'll be bound the intelligent animal was no mean observer 
of countenances, and that he had satisfied himself, by a previous 
scrutiny, as to the probability of his delinquencies being forgiven. 

153. "Carrying" is a pretty occasionally, as we see, 
a useful trick, but it does not further any sporting- 
object. "Carrying" and " fetching " are essentially 

* A trick that historical research worthy son of the " Dearest- of- 

probably would show to have been men," as he used to be called by 

devised in a conclave of house- his fond mistress, who, I need not 

maids, and which was constantly say, had no children of her own 

performed by one of ray oldest on whom to lavish her caresses, 
acquaintances, "Little-brush," a 


different. The object chiefly sought in the latter is to 
make the dog deliver expeditiously (IQ1\ in the former, 
to make him carry perseveringly for miles and miles. 
To inculcate carrying, always make him suppose that 
you greatly regard what is confided to his charge. 
Many a good carrier is spoiled by children picking 
up any stick and giving it to him. He has the sense 
to know that it is valueless, and when he is tired of the 
fun, he drops it unrebvked, and, after a time, is supplied 
with another. If you practise a pup in carrying a stick, 
show more discretion than to let it be so long that it 
must jar against his teeth by trailing on the ground, or 
hitting the walls. 

154. Being on the subject of tricks, as several ladies have done 
me the unexpected but highly appreciated honour of reading what 
I have said respecting their four-footed attendants, I think it as 
well to observe, should they be tempted to teach a favourite any 
accomplishments, that these should be practised occasionally, or 
they may be forgotten, (all the sooner, like more serious studies, the 
more easily they were acquired ;) and that the exhibition of them 
might be made much more effective and striking by a little exer- 
cise, on the ladies' part, of the address and tact with which Dame 
Nature has so liberally endowed them. 

155. Quite a sensation was created many years ago, at Tonbridge 

Wells, by the Hon. C. D s, who possessed a dog which had been 

taught by a former master, for very unlawful purposes, to fetch, 
when ordered, any article to which his owner had slily directed the 
animal's attention. 

156. The gentleman was walking up and down the crowded 
Pantiles, listening to the public band, and playing the agreeable to 
a titled lady, whom he subsequently married ; when, bowing to 
some passing acquaintance, he casually observed, " How badly my 
hat has been brushed ! " at the same time giving the private signal 
to the dog, who instantly ran off to one of the adjacent toy-shops, 
and brought away the hat-brush which his master had pointed out 
to him about a quarter of an hour before. 

157. As Mr. D s kept his own counsel, the lady and many of 

their friends, as well as the pursuing shopman, fancied the dog had 
sufficient intelligence to understand what had been said, and had, 
from his own sagacity, volunteered fetching what he conceived was 

158. The barrack-rooms at Gibraltar used not to be furnished 
with bells. An officer of the Artillery, quartered on the Rock 


while I was there, and, by the bye, so good a player at draughts, 
that he used to aver and his unusual skill seemed to prove the 
correctness of the assertion that, if he had the first move, he 
could win to a certainty, was accustomed to summon his servant by 
sending his dog for him. On getting the signal, away the Maltese 
poodle would go, not much impeded by closed doors in that hot 
climate, and, by a bark, inform the man that he was wanted. 

159. The daily routine of a quiet bachelor's life is so unvaried in 
those barracks, that the servant could generally guess w r hat was 
required ; and visitors were often surprised at hearing the officer 

(Major F e) say to his dog, " Tell John to bring my sword and 

cap," or " the breakfast," &c. and still more surprised at seeing that 
such orders were punctually obeyed. 

160. But for exhibiting tricks with effect doubtless my old warm- 
hearted friend K g, (elsewhere mentioned 450,) bears off the 

palm. He brought two young elephants to England from Ceylon ; 
one he secured when it was a mere baby, and would not quit the 
side of its dam after he had shot her. The other was about seven 
feet high. He had taught them several tricks before they em- 
barked, and during the long voyage home, passed on deck, they 
had learned many others from the sailors, and, when needed, would 
usefully help in giving " a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull all 

161. General B g having spoken to the Duchess of Y k 

about the little animals, she happened to say she would like to 

possess the smallest ; of course K g was too gallant a man not 

to send it at once to Oatlands. George the Fourth heard of the 
other ; and on some of his staff mentioning that it would be acceptable 
to His Majesty, it went to the Pavilion at Brighton. It was kept 
there until they were tired of it, when it was transferred to the 

Tower. Hearing of its being there, K~ -g one morning went into 

the menagerie. An officer of the Guards, on duty at the Tower, 
was at the moment seeing the animals with a party of ladies ; 

K g was in a hurry, and inquired where the elephant was, 

saying he had come expressly to have a look at him and nothing 
else. The officer very good-humouredly observed that it mattered 
not what beasts they saw first, so the party adjourned to the 

elephant. K g urged the keeper to go into the den to show 

him off, but the man said the animal had so recently arrived there 

that he was afraid. K g offered to go in. The man refused 

leave, stating it was more than his situation was worth to permit it. 

K g pressed to be allowed. The officer warmly urged the 

keeper to comply, * as the gentleman felt so confident," and the 

keeper wavering, K g, without saying another word, squeezed 

himself through the massive oak bars, went up boldly to the 
elephant, put his hand on his shoulder as he use I to do in old 
days ; the sagacious brute at once obeyed the signal and lay down, 
got up again when desired, salaamed to the ladies, held a foot out 

for K g to stand on, then raised it up to aid K g in getting 

on his back, and afterwards lay down to enable his old master to 


dismount conveniently. K g then tickled him to make him 

kick, which the awkward looking beast did in a very laughable 
manner, and the laugh of the spectators was not diminished 

by his squeezing K g so close into a corner, that he could only 

escape by slipping under the creature's belly. K g finished 

the exhibition by making him turn round, and again salaam the 

162. I will not swear that K g, who has much quiet humour, 

did not propose going into any other den and show off all the lions 
and tigers in a similar manner, but he found, of course unexpectedly, 
on looking at his watch, that he was obliged to hurry off instantly. 
The delighted and bewildered keeper entreated him to reveal the 

secret by which such marvellous feats were performed. K g 

promised to do so on his return to London ; and he would have 
kept his wofd, had not the poor elephant soon afterwards died in 
cutting his tusks. So the man to this day, for all I know to the 
contrary, thinks my friend little less than a necromancer. 

163. It is to be observed that ladies' dogs are generally so pam- 
pered and overfed that a common reward does not stimulate them 
to exertion in the same degree it does dogs less favoured. I should 


speak more correctly if I said less fed ; for I am ungallant enough 
to fancy, that an unpacked canine jury would consider the good 

96 TEOUT TAMED. [CH. v. 

health, high spirits, and keen appetite of the latter, a fair set-off 
against the delicacies and caresses bestowed by the prettiest and 
most indulgent of mistresses. Though the collie is the shepherd's 
constant companion, the shepherd well knows that always petting 

the dog would spoil him. Sir J s M e, a Highlander, 

observed to his gamekeeper, that he never saw the shepherds 
coaxing and caressing their collies. "True," the man replied, 
" but you never saw one strike his dog ; he is always kind to them." 
Hear this, ye ladies, who would be right glad that your pretty pets 
were a hundred times more obedient than you find them. 

164. There are few animals whose confidence, if not attachment, 
may not be gained by constant kindness without petting. One 

summer's morning I walked from Ross to breakfast with Mr. G s 

at his picturesque old-fashioned house, built near a small tributary 
to the Wye. I was specially invited to see some tame trout, whose 

timidity Mr. C s had overcome by feeding them regularly every 

day. Until he made his appearance near the waters, not a fish was 
visible ; and it was very interesting to watch the perfect confidence 
they evinced, I might add pleasure, whenever he approached the 
banks. He said he felt sure he could get them to feed out of his 
hands, if he chose to devote sufficient time to them. There was 
one fine fellow for whom all the rest most respectfully made way. 
He weighed close upon 5 Ibs. This was proved ; for a party, 
whose name I dare not mention, secretly caught the animal in order 
to weigh it, and though he immediately replaced it in the water 
perfectly uninjured, yet its old distrust was so much re-awakened 

that it hid itself for four or five months. Mr. C s naturally 

thought that it had been captured by some poacher, and had met 
with the same unlucky fate as a former favourite, of still larger 
dimensions, which a newly-hired cook had contrived to secure 
whilst it was basking in the shallows ; and had served up at dinner 
time, in the full expectation of receiving much commendation for 
her piscatory skill. 

165. Judicious perseverance, in other words, consistency, will 
not only teach accomplishments, but correct bad manners. The 
oldest friend I possess used to allow a favourite dog to sleep in his 
bed-room. The animal, though he had a very short, clean coat, was 
always more or less annoyed by those nimblest of tormentors * to 

* It is astonishing what myriads be some intimate, however mys- 

of fleas are bred in the sand in terions, connexion between the 

many hot countries. When walk- two. In India the natives expel 

ing along some of the roads during the intruders from their houses by 

the spring, numbers of the little strewing fresh saffron leaves about 

creatures will pay you the com- the rooms ; and a decoction from 

pliment of attaching themselves these said leaves, applied liberally 

to your dress and person. At to a dog's coat, rids him of the 

Bermuda they so regularly make unwelcome visitors, however nu- 

their appearance with the whales, merous. I have read that the 

that the Niggers think there must same good effect will be produced 


be found in most countries, particularly in warm ones ; and there 
being no carpet in the room, his scratching at night, as you may 
well imagine, made a loud, disagreeable thumping against the 
boards, which invariably awoke my friend (& very light sleeper), 
and he as invariably scolded the dog. This undeviating consistency 
made the dog at length entirely relinquish the obnoxious practice, 
until his master was fairly awake, or at least had begun to stretch 
and yawn. 

166. Now, I want you to observe, that had the noise but only 
occasionally awakened my friend, however much he might then 
have scolded, the dog would not have given up the habit ; he 
would constantly have entertained the hope that he might endeavour 
to remove his tiny persecutors unreproved, and the temptation 
would have outweighed the risk. It would have been inconsistent 
to have frequently but not always checked him. I know a lady, 
possessing great perseverance and temper, who has taught even cats 
many tricks nay, since the last edition of this book was printed I 
have heard of several ladies having most successfully educated dogs 

for the field. A very pleasant girl, Miss G h, almost a stranger 

to me, who sat next to me at a large dinner-party about a year ago, 
asked me in the course of conversation whether I was related to the 
author of " Dog-Breaking," and then greatly gratified me by say- 
ing that her sister had broken in several Pointers for her brother, a 
M.F.H. She spoke of one particular 1st of September, when her 
sister was rather nervous as a well-known keen sportsman had been 
invited to shoot, and a young well-bred dog, solely tutored by 
herself, was to bear his first shot but at dinner-time she was amply 
recompensed for all the trouble she had taken by having the delight 
of learning that her pupil had performed admirably, and had under- 
stood and been attentive to every signal. I asked how it was that 

if his hair be well wetted with a ment. By a colonial law no charge 
solution of the gum of the sloe- can be made for the flesh of the 
tree in water. Fourteen grains fish. Every comer has a right to 
of the gum to one quart of water. carry off as much of the meat as 
The capture of the whale, by he may require, but no blubber. 
the bye, at Bermuda, affords sport On a whale being killed, a well- 
as exciting as it is profitable. The known signal, hoisted at the seve- 
fish are struck within sight of the ral look-out posts, quickly informs 
Islands, and as the water is shoal, the coloured inhabitants of the 
owing to sandbanks, a short line successful seizure, and whether it 
is employed. By this line the has been effected at the north or 
stricken animal tows the har- south side. Numerous claimants 
pooner's boat along with fearful then hurry off, on foot or in boat, 
rapidity, an immense wave curling to secure a sufficiency for several 
far above the high bow. The flesh days' consumption, of a food they 
of the young whale is excellent, prize far more than beef or mutton, 
very like veal, and with the black What is not immediately used is 
population the whaling season is cut into strips, and dried in the 
one of great feasting and enjoy- sun. 


the youngster was not alarmed at the report of the gun. She 
replied that it was doubtless attributable to his perfect confidence 
that he should not be hurt, as he had never undergone any punish- 
ing during the whole course of his training. 

167. Ladies' pets are a proof that dogs can, as easily as children, 
be effectually spoiled by injudicious kindness ; but canine nature 
contrasts with infant nature in this, that no petting or spoiling will 
withdraw a dog's affection from the individual to whom he first 
becomes attached in a new home, provided that person continues 
but decently civil to him. And be this a caution to you. If ever 
you have a stranger to instruct, let no one but yourself associate 
with or feed him for many days after his arrival. You may then 
feel assured of afterwards possessing his unrivalled affections, 
especially if to you alone he is to be grateful for his enjoyment in 
the field ; and you must win his affection, or he will not strive to 
his utmost to assist you. 

168. A well-known poaching character, though ostensibly, and 
by profession, a dog-breaker, was remarkable for the fondness 
immediately evinced for him by all dogs placed under his care. He 
was not particular about his dress ; and it at length transpired that 
it was his custom to make up a bed, for all new comers, in his room, 
of the clothes he had just taken off. This so habituated the dogs 
to the scent of his person, by night as well as by day, that they 
became unwilling to quit it, especially as the man was naturally 
good-tempered, nnd always treated them with great kindness. 

169. Captain Parry relates of the Esquimaux dogs, that they are 
far more attached, from kindnesses received in youth, to the 
women, than to the men ; and that, consequently, the latter, it) all 
cases of difficulty, are obliged to apply to their wives to catch the 
almost woolly animals, and coax them to draw unusually heavy 
loads. The beloved voice of the women will control and animate 
the dogs to exertion, at a time when the words of the men would 
be powerless, and their blows only produce irritation or obstinacy. 



170. Regular Breakers make Dogs "point" paired birds in Spring; tends to 
blinking. 171. Better not to see Game until shot over; taken out alone on 
a fine day in September. 172. Perpetually whistling to animate dogs, inju- 
dicious. 173. Beat largest Fields, and where least likely to find Game. 
174. Commence from leeward; Scent bad in a calm or gale; observations on 
Scent; it differently affects Pointers and Setters; see Note. 175 to 179. In- 
structions in " ranging." 180. Kept from hedge ; Range greater on moors than 
stubble. 181. Distance between Parallels dependent on tenderness of nose. 
182. A point at Partridge a hundred yards off. 183. At Grouse a hundred and 

fifty yards off; Mr. L g*s opinion of distance at which Dogs wind birds. 

184. If the Dog is to hunt with another, the Parallels to be further apart. 185. No 
interruption when winding birds, yet not allowed to puzzle; Nose to gain 
experience. 186. Birds lie well to Dog that "winds," not "foots" them. 

187. White Dogs most visible to birds and to ymi; a disadvantage and advan- 
tage; white Feet often not good; feet of Setters better than of Pointers. 

188. Inattentive to Whistle, made to "drop," <fcc. ; when rating or punishing, 
the disregarded order or signal to be often repeated; Whip to crack loudly. 

189. The attainment of a scientific Range difficult, but of surpassing value ; the 
best ranger must in the end find most game. 

170. A KEEPER nearly always breaks in his young 
dogs to point, (or " set " as some term it) if their ages 
permit it, on favourable days in Spring, when the par- 
tridges have paired.* He gets plenty of points, and 
the birds lie well. But I cannot believe it is the best 
way to attain great excellence, though the plan has 
many followers : it does not cultivate the intelligence 
of his pupils, nor enlarge their ideas by making them 
sensible of the object for which such pains are taken in 
hunting them. Moreover, their natural ardour (a feeling 
that it should be his aim rather to increase than weaken) 
is more or less damped by having often to stand at 

* In ordinary seasons inime- before the birds have made their 
diately after St. Valentine's Day, nests. 



game, before they can be rewarded for their exertions 
by having it killed to them, it prevents, rather than 
imparts, the zeal and perseverance for which Irish dogs 
are so remarkable (565). Particularly ought a breaker, 
whose pupil is of a nervous temperament, or of too 
gentle a disposition, to consider well that the want of 
all recompence for finding paired birds, must make 
a timid dog far more likely to become a "blinker," 
when he is checked for not pointing them, than when 
he is checked for not pointing birds, which his own 
impetuosity alone deprives him of every chance of 
rapturously "touseling." (See also end of 280.) The 
very fact that " the birds lie well " frequently leads to 
mischief; for, if the instructor be not very watchful, 
there is a fear that his youngsters may succeed in 
getting too close to their game before he forces them 
to come to a stanch point. A keeper, however, has 
but little choice, (and it is not a bad time to teach 
the back,) if his master insist upon shooting over the 
animals the first day of the season, and expect to find 
them what some call "perfectly broken in." But 
I trust some few of my readers may have nobler 
ends in view, and that they will cheerfully sacrifice 
a little of their shooting the first week of the season, to 
ensure super-excellence in their pupils at its close. Ee- 
member, I do not object to spring drilling, (vide 131) 
but to much spring pointing. 

171. I will suppose your youngster to have been well 
grounded in his initiatory lessons, and that you take 
him out when the crops are nearly off the ground (by 
which time there will be few squeakers) on a fine cool 
day in September, (alas ! that it cannot be an August 
day on the moors,) to show him birds for the first time. 
As he is assumed to be highly bred, you may start in 


the confident expectation of killing partridges over him, 
especially if he be a pointer. Have his nose moist and 
healthy. Take him out when the birds are on the feed, 
and of an afternoon in preference to the morning, 
(unless from an unusually dry season there be but little 
scent,) that he may not be attracted by the taint of 
hares or rabbits. Take him out alone, if he evince any 
disposition to hunt, which, at the age we will presume 
him to have attained this season, \ve must assume 
that he will do, and with great zeal. Be much guided 
by his temper and character. Should he possess great 
courage and dash, you cannot begin too soon to make 
him point. You should always check a wild dog in 
racing after pigeons and small birds on their rising ; 
whereas you should encourage a timid dog (one who 
clings to "heel") in such a fruitless but exciting chase. 
The measures to be pursued with such an animal are 
fully detailed in 132, 133. 

172. I may as well caution you against adopting the 
foolish practice of attempting to cheer on your dog with 
a constant low whistle, under the mistaken idea that it 
will animate him to increased zeal in hunting. From 
perpetually hearing the monotonous sound, it would 
prove as little of an incentive to exertion as a continued 
chirrup to a horse; and yet if habituated to it, your 
dog would greatly miss it whenever hunted by a stran- 
ger. Not unregarded, however, would it be by the 
birds, to whom on a calm day it would act as a very 
salutary warning. 

173. Though you have not moors, fortunately we can 
suppose your fields to be of a good size. Avoid all 
which have been recently manured. Select those that 
are large, and in which you are the least likely to find 
birds until his spirits are somewhat sobered, and he 



[CH. VI. 

begins partly to comprehend your instructions respect- 
ing his range. There is no reason why he should not 
have been taken out a few days before this, not to show 
him birds, but to have commenced teaching him how to 
traverse his ground. Indeed, if we had supposed him 
of a sufficient age (132), he might by this time be some- 
what advanced towards a systematic beat. It is seeing 
many birds early that is to be deprecated, not his being 
taught how to range. 

174. Be careful to enter every field at the leeward* 
side (about the middle), that he may have the wind to 
work against. Choose a day when there is a breeze, 
but not a boisterous one. In a calm, the scent is sta- 
tionary, and can hardly be found unless accidentally. 
In a gale it is scattered to the four quarters, f You 

* " Leeward" a nautical phrase 
here meaning the side towards 
which the wind blows from the 
field. If you entered elsewhere, 
the dog while ranging would be 
tempted, from the natural bearing 
of his nose towards the wind, to 
come back upon you, making his 
first turn inwards instead of out- 

h But, independently of these 
obvious reasons, scent is affected 
by causes into the nature of which 
none of us can penetrate. There 
is a contrariety in it that ever has 
puzzled, and apparently ever will 
puzzle, the most observant sports- 
man (whether a lover of the chase 
or gun), and therefore, in igno- 
rance of the doubtless immutable, 
though to us inexplicable, laws 
by which it is regulated, we are 
contented to call it "capricious." 
Immediately before heavy rain 
there frequently is none. It is 
undeniable that moisture will at 
one time destroy it, at another 
bring it. That on certain days 
in slight frost, for instance, 

setters will recognise it better 
than pointers, and, on the other 
hand, that the nose of the latter 
will prove far superior after a long 
continuance of dry weather, and 
this even when the setter has been 
furnished with abundance of water, 
which circumstance pleads in 
favour of hunting pointers and 
setters together. The argument 
against it, is the usual inequality 
of their pace, and, to the eye of 
some sportsmen, the w r ant of har- 
mony in their appearance. Should 
not this uncertainty respecting the 
recognition of scent teach us not 
to continue hunting a good dog 
who is frequently making mis- 
takes, but rather to keep him at 
" heel " for an hour or two ? He 
will consider it a kind of punish- 
ment, and be doubly careful when 
next enlarged. Moreover, he may 
be slightly feverish from over- 
work, or he may have come in 
contact with some impurity, in 
either of which cases his nose 
would be temporarily out of 


want not an undirected ramble, but a judicious tra- 
versing beat under your own guidance, which shall 
leave no ground unexplored, and yet have none twice 

175. Suppose the form of the field, as is usually the 
case, to approach a parallelogram or square, and that 
the wind blows in any direction but diagonally across 
it. On entering at the leeward side send the dog from 
you by a wave of your hand or the word " On." You 
wish him, while you are advancing up the middle of it, 
to cross you at right-angles, say from right to left, then 
to run up-wind for a little, parallel to your own direc- 
tion, and afterwards to recross in front of you from 
left to right, and so on until the whole field is regularly 
hunted. To effect this, notwithstanding your previous 
preparatory lessons, you will have to show him the way, 
as it were (setting him an example in your own person), 
by running a few steps in the direction you wish him to 
go (say to the right), cheering him on to take the lead. 
As he gets near the extremity of his beat, when he does 
not observe you, you can steal a small advance in the 
true direction of your own beat, which is directly up 
the middle of the field, meeting the wind. If per- 
ceiving your advance he turns towards you, face him, 
wave your right hand to him, and while he sees you, 
run on a few paces in his direction (that is parallel to 
his true direction). As he approaches the hedge (the 
one on your right hand, but be careful that he does not 
get close to it, lest, from often finding game there, he 
ultimately become a potterer and regular hedge-hunter) 
face towards him, and on catching his eye, wave your 
left arm. If you cannot succeed in catching his 
eye, you must give one low whistle, the less you 
habituate yourself to use the whistle, the less you 


will alarm the birds, study to do all, as far as is 
practicable, by signals. You wish your wave of the 
left arm to make the dog turn to the left (his head 
to the wind), and that he should run parallel to the side 
of the hedge for some yards (say from thirty to forty) 
before he makes his second turn to the left to cross the 
field ; but you must expect him to turn too directly 
towards you on your first signal to turn. Should he 
by any rare chance have made the turn (the first one) 
correctly, and thus be hunting up-wind, on no account 
interrupt him by making any signals until he has run 
up the distance you wish, (the aforesaid thirty or forty 
yards,) then again catch his eye, and, as before (not 
now, however, faced towards him and the hedge, but 
faced towards your true direction), by a wave of the 
left arm endeavour to make him tarn to the left (across 
the wind). If, contrary to what you have a right to 
suppose, he will not turn towards you on your giving a 
whistle and wave of your hand, stand still, and continue 
whistling eventually he will obey. But you must not 
indulge in the faintest hope that all I have described 
will be done correctly ; be satisfied at first with an 
approach towards accuracy ; you will daily find an 
improvement, if you persevere steadily. When you 
see that there is but little chance of his turning the 
way you want, at once use the signal more consonant 
to his views, for it should be your constant endeavour 
to make him fancy that he is always ranging according 
to the directions of your hands. Be particular in at- 
tending to this hint. 

176. His past tuition (38) most probably will have 
accustomed him to watch your eye for directions, there- 
fore it is not likely, even should he have made a wrong 
turn near the hedge (a turn down-wind instead of up- 

en. vi.] TO WATCH FOR SIGNALS. 105 

wind, Avhich would wholly have prevented the required 
advance parallel to the hedge), that he will cross in rear 
of you. Should he, however, do so, retreat a few steps, 
(or face about if he is far in the rear,) in order to im- 
press him with the feeling that all his work must be 
performed under your eye. Animate him with an 
encouraging word as he passes. When he gets near 
the hedge to the left, endeavour, by signals (agreeably 
to the method just explained (175), to make him turn 
to the (his) right, his head to the wind, and run up 
alongside of it for the thirty to forty yards, if you can 
manage it, before he begins to recross the field, by 
making a second turn to the right. If you could get 
him to do this, he would cross well in advance of you. 

177. Though most likely his turn (the first the turn 
iip-wind) will be too abrupt (too much of an acute 
angle instead of the required right angle), and that 
consequently, in order to get ahead of you, he will have 
to traverse the field diagonally, yet after a few trials 
it is probable he will do so, rather than not get in front 
of you. This would be better than the former attempt 
(not obliging you to face about), express your approval, 
and the next turn near the hedge may be made with a 
bolder sweep. Remember your aim is, that no part be 
unhunted, and that none once commanded by his nose 
be again hunted. He ought to cross, say thirty yards 
in front of you, but much will depend upon his nose. 

178. Nearly on every occasion of catching his eye, 
except when he is running up-wind parallel to the hedge, 
give him some kind of signal. This will more and more 
confirm him in the habit of looking to you, from time to 
time, for orders, and thus aid in insuring his constant 
obedience. After a while, judging by the way in which 
your face is turned, he will know in what direction you 


purpose advancing, and will guide his own movements 
accordingly. Should he, as most probably he will for 
some time, turn too sharply towards you when getting 
near the hedge, I mean at too acute an angle, incline or 
rather face towards him. This, coupled with the natural 
wish to range unrestrained, will make him hunt longer 
parallel to the hedge, before he makes his second turn 
towards you. 

179. You may at first strive to correct your dog's 
turning too abruptly inwards (the first turn) , by pushing 
on in your own person further ahead on your own beat ; 
but when he has acquired if merely the slightest idea of 
a correct range, be most careful not to get in advance of 
the ground he is to hunt. Your doing so might habituate 
him to cross the field diagonally (thereby leaving much 
of the sides of the fields unhunted), in order to get 
ahead of you ; and, moreover, you might spring birds 
which you are anxious Iw should find. Should he, on 
the other hand, be inclined to work too far upward 
before making his turn to cross the field, hang back 
in your own person. 

180. Though you may be in an unenclosed country, 
let him range at first from no more than from seventy to 
eighty yards on each side of you. You can gradually 
extend these lateral beats as he becomes conversant 
with his business indeed, at the commencement, rather 
diminish than increase the distances just named, both 
for the length of the parallels and the space between 
them. Do not allow the alluring title " a fine wide 
ranger " to tempt you to let him out of leading-strings. 
If he be once permitted to imagine that he has a dis- 
cretionary power respecting the best places to hunt, and 
the direction and length of his beats, you will find it 
extremely difficult to get him again well in hand. On 


the moors his range must be far greater than on the 
stubbles, but still the rudiments must be taught on this 
contracted scale, or you will never get him to look to 
you for orders. Do you keep entire control over his 
beats ; let him have almost the sole management of his 
drawing upon birds, provided he does not puzzle, or run 
riot too long over an old haunt. Give him time, and 
after a little experience his nose will tell him more 
surely than your judgment can, whether he is working 
on the "toe" or "heel" of birds, and, whether he 
diverges from or approaches the strongest and most 
recent haunt, do not flurry or hurry him, and he will 
soon acquire that knowledge. 

181. As the powers of scent vary greatly in different 
dogs, the depth of their turns (or parallels) ought to 
vary also, and it will be hereafter for you to judge what 
distance between the parallels it i& most advantageous 
for your youngster ultimately to adopt in his general 
hunting. The deeper his turns. are, of course, the more 
ground you will beat within a specified time. What 
you have to guard against is the possibility of their 
being so wide that birds may be passed by unnoticed. I 
should not like to name the distance within which good 
cautious dogs that carry their heads high, will wind 
game on a favourable day. 

182. I was partridge shooting the season before last with an 
intimate friend. The air was soft and there was a good breeze. 
We came upon a large turnip-field, deeply trenched on account of 
its damp situation. A white setter, that habitually carried a lofty 
head, drew for awhile, and then came to a point. We got up to her. 
She led us across some ridges, when her companion, a jealous dog 
(a pointer), which had at first backed correctly, most improperly 
pushed on in front, but, not being able to acknowledge the scent, 
went off, clearly imagining the bitch was in error. She, however, 
held on, and in beautiful style brought us direct to a covey. My 
friend and I agreed that she must have been but little, if at all, less 
than one hundred yards off when she first winded the birds ; and it 
was clear to us that they could not have been running, for the 


breeze came directly across the furrows, and she had led us in the 
wind's eye. We thought the point the more remarkable, as it is 
generally supposed that the strong smell of turnips diminishes a 
dog's power of scenting birds. 

183. R 1 T n, a gamekeeper, once assured me he had seen 

a point at grouse which were at the least one hundred and fifty 
yards off. The dogs were on the edge of a valley the pack on a 
little hillock from which direction the wind blew an intervening 
wall near the top of the hillock separated them from the dogs ; and 
as intermediately there was no heather, the man was satisfied that 
the birds had not run over the ground. When I was talking one 

day to Mr. L g, the well-known gunmaker in the Haymarket, 

about the qualities of dogs' noses, and from his long experience he 
ought to be a judge of such matters, he told me, before I had said 
a word respecting distances, that he thought he had seen more than 
once a dog point at one hundred and fifty yards from his game. 

184. If you design your pupil, when broken in, to 
hunt with a companion, and wish both the dogs, as is 
usual, to cross you, you will, of course, habituate him to 
make his sweeps (the space between the parallels) wider 
than if you had intended him to hunt without any one 
to share his labours. 

185. I need hardly warn you to be careful not to 
interrupt him whenever he appears to be winding birds. 
However good his nose may be by nature, it will not 
gain experience and discrimination, unless you give him 
a certain time to determine for himself whether he has 
really touched upon a faint scent of birds, and whether 
they are in his front or rear, or gone away altogether. Like 
every other faculty, his sense of smell will improve the 
more it is exercised. But on the other hand, as I 
observed before, do not let him continue puzzling with 
his nose close to the ground, urge him on, make him 
increase his pace, force him to search elsewhere, and 
he will gradually elevate his head, and catching the 
scent of other particles, will follow up these with a nose 
borne aloft, unless he is a brute not worth a twentieth 
part of the pains which you think of bestowing upon 
him; for, 


186. Besides the greatly decreased chance of finding 
them, birds that to a certainty would become uneasy, 
and make off if pursued by a dog tracking them, will 
often lie well to one who finds them by the wind. They 
are then not aware that they are discovered, and the 
dog, from the information his nose gives him, can 
approach them either boldly or with great wariness, 
according as he perceives them to be more or less shy. 

187. It is rather foreign to our immediate subject, but I will here 
observe, that it is generally thought white dogs cannot approach 
shy birds * as closely as dogs of a dark colour can (93) ; but there 
is a set-off to this supposed disadvantage in your being able to 
distinguish the light ones more readily at a distance, a matter of 
some moment on heather. If you have not your eye on a steady 
brown setter at the moment he drops on grouse, you may spend half 
an hour most vexatiously in searching for him. When you expect 
to find the birds wild, should your kennel allow you the choice, you 
ought to take out out those of a sombre hue. Light coloured dogs 
have not generally such well-shaped feet as their darker brethren. 
It is curious that white feet in dogs as well as in horses should often 
be objectionable. As a rule, setters have harder, tougher feet than 
pointers. This is very apparent in a flinty country or in frosty 
weather, and is partly attributable to their being better defended 
with hair round the ball, and between the toes. 

188. If, being unable to catch the dog's eye, you are 
forced to use the whistle frequently, and he continues 
inattentive to it, notwithstanding his previous tuition, 
stand still, make him lie down (by the word " drop," if 
he will not obey your raised left arm) go up to him, 
take hold of his collar, and rate him, saying, " Bad, bad," 
cracking your whip over him (let the whip be one that 
will crack loudly, not for present purposes, but that, 
when occasion requires, he may hear it at a distance) 
and whistling softly. This will show him (should you 
beat him, you would confuse his ideas) that he is 
chidden for not paying attention to the whistle. Indeed, 

* There are sportsmen who aver standing is advantageous, as it 
that a setter's " Jailing" instead of does not so much alarm the birds. 


whenever you have occasion to scold or punish him, 
make it a constant rule, while you rate him, to repeat 
many times the word of command, or the signal which 
he has neglected to obey. There is no other way by 
which you will make him understand you quickly. 

189. You must expect that your young dog will for 
some time make sad mistakes in his range ; but be not 
discouraged. Doubtless there is no one thing, I was 
going to say, that there are no dozen things, in the 
whole art of dog-breaking, which are so difficult to 
attain, or which exact so much labour, as a high, well- 
confirmed, systematic range. Nature will not assist 
you : you must do it all yourself ; but in recompense 
there is nothing so advantageous when it is at length 
acquired. It will abundantly repay months of perse- 
vering exertion. It constitutes the grand criterion of 
true excellence. Its attainment makes a dog of inferior 
nose and action far superior to one of much greater 
natural qualifications who may be tomfooling about, 
galloping backwards and forwards sometimes over iden- 
tically the same ground, quite uselessly exerting his 
travelling powers ; now and then, indeed, arrested by 
the suspicion of a haunt, which he is not experienced 
enough, or sufficiently taught, to turn to good account, 
and occasionally brought to a stiff point on birds acci- 
dentally found right under his nose. It is undeniable, 
cceteris paribus, that the dog who hunts his ground most 
according to rule must in the end find most game. 



190. Dog to be hunted alone. 191. Many Breakers exactly reverse this ; it expedites 
an inferior education, but retards a superior. 192. Turnips, Potatoes, &c., 
avoided. Range of Dogs broken on moors most true. 193. In Turnips, &c., 
young Dogs get too close to birds. 194. Cautious Dogs may with advantage be 
as fast as wild ones ; the two contrasted ; in Note, injudiciousness of teaching 
a Puppy to "point" Chickens. 195. Instance of a Dog's running to "heel," 
but not "blinking," on finding himself close to birds. 196. A Dog's Nose can- 
not be improved, but his caution can, which is nearly tantamount ; how effected. 
197. How to make fast Dogs cautious. 198. The cause why wild Dogs ulti- 
mately turn out best. 199. Dog tumbling over and pointing on his Back. 
200. Dog pointing on top of high-log Fence at quail in tree ; in Note, Militia 
Regiment that sought safety by taking to Trees. 201. The day's Beat com- 
menced from leeward. 202. Wondrous Dogs, which find Game without hunting. 

203. Colonel T y*s opinion. 204 to 209. His dog " Grouse," that walked up 

direct to her Game. 210. "Grouse's" portrait. 211 to 213. Probable solution 
of " Grouse's" feat ; in Note, why high nose finds most game. 214. Reason why 
Dogs should be instructed separately, and allowed Time to work out a Scent ; 
young dogs generally too much hurried. 215. Mysterious Influences. 216. Re- 
triever that runs direct to hidden object. 217. Not done by nose. 218. New. 
foundland that always swam back to his own Ship. 219. Another that did the 

same. 220. Now belongs to the Duke of N k. 221. Cats and Dogs carried 

off in baskets, finding their way back ; Nature's Mysteries inexplicable. In 
Note, instance of extraordinary memory in a Horse. 

190. IF it is your fixed determination to confirm 
your dog in the truly-killing range described in the last 
Chapter, do not associate him for months in the field 
with another dog, however highly broken. It would be 
far better to devote but two hours per diem to your 
pupil exclusively, than to hunt him the whole day with 
a companion. 

191. Many breakers do exactly the reverse of this. 
They take out an old steady ranger, with the intention 
that he shall lead the young dog, and that the latter, 
from imitation and habit, shall learn how to quarter his 

112 OLD DOG LEADER. [rn. vn. 

ground. But what he gains by imitation will so little 
improve his intellects, that, when thrown upon his own 
resources, he will prove a miserable finder. On a hot, 
dry day he will not be able to make out a feather, nor 
on any day to " foot " a delicate scent. I grant that the 
plan expedites matters, and attains the end which most 
professional trainers seek; but it will not give a dog 
self-confidence and independence, it will not impart to 
him an inquiring nose, and make him rely on its sensi- 
tiveness to discover game, rather than to his quickness 
of eye to detect w T hen his friend touches upon a haunt ; 
nor will it instruct him to look from time to time to- 
wards the gun for directions. It may teach him a range, 
but not to hunt where he is ordered ; nor will it ha- 
bituate him to vary the breadth of the parallels on 
which he works, according as his master may judge it to 
be a good or bad scenting day. 

192. To establish the rare, noble beat I am recom- 
mending, one not hereafter to be deranged by the 
temptation of a furrow in turnips or potatoes, you 
must have the philosophy not to hunt your dog in them 
until he is accustomed in his range to be guided entirely 
by the wind and your signals, and is in no way in- 
fluenced by the nature of the ground. Even then it 
would be better not to beat narrow strips across which 
it would be impossible for him to make his regular 
casts. Avoid, too, for some time, if you can, all small 
fields (which will only contract his range), and all fields 
with trenches or furrows, for he will but too naturally 
follow them instead of paying attention to his true beat. 
Have you never, in low lands, seen a young dog run- 
ning down a potato or turnip trench, out of which his 
master, after much labour, had no sooner extracted him 
than he dropped into the adjacent one ? It is the 


absence of artificial tracks which makes the range of 
nearly all dogs well broken on the moors so much truer 
than that of dogs hunted on cultivated lands. 

193. Moreover, in turnips, potatoes, clover, and the 
like thick shelter, birds will generally permit a dog to 
approach so closely, that if he is much accustomed to 
hunt such places, he will be sure to acquire the evil 
habit of pressing too near his game when finding on the 
stubbles (instead of being startled as it were into an 
instantaneous stop the moment he first winds game), 
and thus raise many a bird out of gun-shot that a 
cautious dog, one who slackens his pace the instant he 
judges that he is beating a likely spot, would not have 

194. " A cautious dog " ! Can there well be a more 
flattering epithet ? * Such a dog can hardly travel too 
fast f in a tolerably open country, where there is not a 
superabundance of game, if he really hunt with an 
inquiring nose ; but to his master what an all-important 
" if" is this ! It marks the difference between the saga- 
cious, wary, patient, yet diligent animal, whose every 
sense and every faculty is absorbed in his endeavour to 
make out birds, not for himself but for the gun, and the 
wild harum-scarum who blunders up three-fourths of 
the birds he finds. No ! not finds, but frightens, for he 
is not aware of their presence until they are on the 
wing, and seldom points unless he gets some heedless 
bird right under his nose, when an ignoramus, in admi- 

* Provided always he be not " standing by eye ; " which, how- 

perpetually pointing, as occa- ever, may have made him a first- 

sionally will happen and is the rate hand at pointing crows, 

more likely to happen if he has + With the understanding that 

been injudiciously taught as a the pace does not make him " shut 

puppy to set chickens, and has up" before the day is over, 
thereby acquired the evil habit of 


ration of the beauty of the dog's sudden attitude, will 
often forget the mischief which he has done. 

195. Nature gives this caution to some dogs at an early age. A 

clergyman of my acquaintance, Mr. G. M 1, a keen sportsman 

in his younger days, told me that when he was partridge-shooting 
once in Essex, a favourite pointer of his, that was ranging at a 
rapid pace alongside a thick hedge, coming suddenly upon an 
opening where there should have been a gate, instantly wheeled 
round and ran to heel, and then commenced carefully advancing 
with a stiffened stern towards the gap ; and so led his master up to 
five birds which were lying close to it, but on the further side. 
Evidently the cautious dog, for he was no blinker, on so unex- 
pectedly finding himself in such close vicinity to the covey, must 
have fancied that his presence would alarm them, however motion- 
less he might remain. 

196. Though you cannot improve a dog's nose, you 
can do what is really tantamount to it you can increase 
his caution. By watching for the slightest token of his 
feathering, and then calling out " Toho," or making the 
signal, you will gradually teach him to look out for the 
faintest indication of a scent, and point the instant he 
winds it, instead of heedlessly hunting on until he meets 
a more exciting effluvia. (See 259 to 261, also 329.) 
If from a want of animation in his manner you are not 
able to judge of the moment when he first winds game, 
and therefore are unable to call out " Toho " until he 
gets close to birds, quietly pull him back from his point 
" dead to leeward " for some paces, and there make him 
resume his point. Perseverance in this plan will ulti- 
mately effect your wishes, unless his nose be radically 
wrong. A dog's pointing too near his game more fre- 
quently arises from want of caution, in other words, 
from want of good instruction, than from a defective 

197. Slow dogs readily acquire this caution ; but fast 
dogs cannot be taught it without great labour. You 
have to show them the necessity of diminishing their 

en. vii.] CAUTION TAUGHT. 115 

pace, that their noses may have fair play. If you have 
such a pupil to instruct, when you get near birds you 
have marked down, signal to him to come to "heel." 
Whisper to him " Care," and let him see by your light, 
slow tread your anxiety not to alarm the game. If he 
has never shown any symptoms of blinking, you may, a 
few times, thus spring the birds yourself while you keep 
him close to you. On the next occasion of marking 
down birds, or coming to a very likely spot, bring him 
into " heel," and after an impressive injunction to take 
" care," give him two or three very limited casts to the 
right or left, and let him find the game while you 
instruct him as described in 329. As there will be no 
fear of such a dog making false points, take him often 
to the fields where he has most frequently met birds. 
The expectation of again coming on them, and the 
recollection of the lectures he there received, will be 
likely to make him cautious on entering it. I remember 
a particular spot in a certain field that early in the 
season constantly held birds. A young dog I then 
possessed never approached it afterwards without draw- 
ing upon it most carefully, though he had not found 
there for months. At first I had some difficulty in 
preventing the " draw " from becoming a " point." 

198. I have elsewhere observed that fast dogs, which 
give most trouble in breaking, usually turn out best. 
Now if you think for a moment you will see the reason 
plainly. A young dog does not ultimately become first- 
rate because he is wild and headstrong, and regardless 
of orders, but because his speed and disobedience arise 
from his great energies, from his fondness for the 
sport ; from his longing to inhale the exhilarating scent 
and pursue the flying game. It is the possession of 
these qualities that makes him, in his anxious state of 


116 CAUTIOUS DOGS. [CH. vn. 

excitement, blind to your signals and deaf to your calls. 
These obviously are qualities that, under good manage- 
ment* lead to great excellence and superiority, that 
make one dog do the work of two. But they are not 
qualities sought for by an idle or incompetent breaker. 
He would prefer the kind of dog mentioned in 280, 
and boast much of the ability he had displayed in 
training him. These valuable qualities in the fast dog, 
must, however, be accompanied by a searching nose. 
It is not enough that a dog be always apparently 
hunting, that is to say, always on the gallop his nose 
should always be hunting. When this is the case (and 
you may be pretty certain it is if, as he crosses the 
breeze, his nose has intuitively a bearing to windward), 
you need not fear that he will travel too fast, or not 
repay you ultimately for the great extra trouble caused 
by his high spirits and ardour for the sport. 

199. The Eev. Mr. M t (spoken of in 195) had one of these 
valuable, fast, but cautious dogs. The dog, in leaping over a stile 
that led from an orchard and crowned a steep bank, accidentally 
tumbled head over heels. He rolled to the bottom of the bank, 

and there remained motionless on his back. Mr. M 1 went up 

in great distress, fancying his favourite must have been seriously 
injured. However, on his approaching the dog, up sprung some 
partridges, which, it appears, the careful animal must have winded, 
and fearing to disturb, would not move a muscle of his body, for 
happily he was in no way hurt by the fall. 

200. I was shooting in the upper provinces of Canada over a 
young dog, who suddenly checked himself and came to a stiff " set " 
on the top of a high zigzag log fence. I could not believe that he 
was cunning enough to do this for the purpose of deceiving me, 
because I was rating him for quitting the field before me ; and yet 
why should he be pointing in mid-air as rigidly as if carved in 
stone ? On my going up the enigma was solved, by a bevy of quail 
flying out of a neighbouring tree.f It is said they often take to them 

* The more resolute a dog is, *f* The mention of quails taking 

the more pains should be taken, to trees recalls to my recollection 

before he is shown game, to perfect a novel light infantry manoeuvre 

him in the instant " drop " (26), (for the exact particulars of which 

however far off he may be rang- I will not, however, positively 

ing. pledge myself,) that was con- 

; He rolled to the bottom of the bank, and there lay motionless on his back.' 
Par. 199 

CH. VII.] 



in America : but this was the only instance I ever saw. But we 
will now hark back to your pup, which, for your sake, I wish may 
turn out as cautious a dog. 

201. You have been recommended invariably to enter 
every field by the leeward side. This you can generally 
accomplish with ease, if you commence your day's beat 
to leeward. Should circumstances oblige you to enter 
a field on the windward side, make it a rule, as long as 
your dog continues a youngster, to call him to " heel," 
and walk down the field with him until you get to the 
opposite side (the leeward), then hunt him regularly 
up to windward. 

202. I have read wondrous accounts of dogs, who, 
without giving themselves the trouble of quartering 

ceived with such admirable ra- 
pidity by the commanding officer 
on an occasion of great emergency, 
and executed with such wonderful 
celerity by the troops under him, 
that I hope my professional par- 
tialities will be allowed to excuse 
my describing it. 

Bermuda, " the blest little 
island," as the fascinating Tommy 
Moore styles her, although now 
well supplied with all the neces- 
saries of life, especially since the 
improvements in husbandry, in- 
troduced by its late excellent go- 
vernor, Colonel R d (now Sir 

William), was formerly but little 
better provided with fresh meat 
than a man-of-war victualled for 
a six months' cruise. At the time 
I allude to there were but few 
cows, and only one bull on the 
islands ; and what made matters 
more disagreeable, it had been 
slanderously reported of the strange 
beast that " he was an awfully 
vicious animal." It is certain 
that he bellowed fearfully. The 
inhabitants (who have always 
been highly esteemed by those 
who know them) though they 
were not at that period as well 

fed with the roast beef of old 
England as when I was recently 
quartered among them, were, not- 
withstanding, a right loyal set, 
and prided themselvesgreatly upon 
their efficient militia. On a hot 
day, as are most of their days, 
when these good soldiers were at 
drill under their esteemed com- 
mander let us say, Col. e, 

a breathless messenger ran up 
to him as he was mounted on his 
grey charger in front of the steady 
Tine, and uttered some mysterious 
words. The gallant colonel's coun- 
tenance assumed a look of deep 
anxiety, for an instant his cheek 
blanched, his lip quivered : 
but quickly rallying, he abandoned 
his horse, and with infinite pre- 
sence of mind, gave in unfaltering 
accents the order, " Gentlemen, 
tree yourselves, Moll Burgess's 
Bull is loose." Precept and ex- 
ample were here happily com- 
bined, and the able commander 
was among the first to find safety 
in the topmost branches of a 
neighbouring cedar. Military 
annals record no instance of more 
prompt, zealous obedience. 

120 "GROUSE." COL. T Y'S BITCH. [CH. vn. 

their ground, would walk straight up to the birds if 
there were any in the field. It has never been my 
luck, I do not say to have possessed such marvellous 
animals, but even to have been favoured with a 
sight of them. I therefore am inclined to think that, 
let your means be what they may, you would find it 
better not to advertise for creatures undoubtedly most 
rare, but to act upon the common belief that, as the 
scent of birds, more or less, impregnates the air, no dog, 
let his nose be ever so fine, can, except accidentally, 
wind game unless he seek for the taint in the air, and 
that the dog who regularly crosses the wind must have 
a better chance of finding it, than he who only works 
up wind, and that down wind he can have little other 
chance than by " reading." 

203. Thus had I written, for such was ray opinion, but Colonel 

T y, mentioned in 99, having seen the preceding paragraph, 

in the first edition, spoke to me on the subject, and, as he thinks 
such a dog occasionally may be found, and gave good reasons for so 
believing, I begged him to commit the singular facts to paper ; for 
I felt it a kind of duty to give my readers the most accurate infor- 
mation in my power on a matter of such interest. He writes : 

204. " I should like to show you the portrait of a favourite old 
pointer of mine, who certainly had the gift of walking up straight 
to her birds without, apparently, taking the trouble of looking for 
them, and about which I see you are naturally somewhat sceptical 
It was in this wise : 

205. " I had gone down into Wales, with my Norfolk pointers, in 
order to commit great slaughter upon some packs of grouse fre- 
quenting the moors belonging to my brother-in-law ; my dogs, I 
think, were fair average ones, but the three did not find so many 
birds, I was going to say, in a week as old l Grouse ' (the pointer 
alluded to) did in a day. She had been, previous to my arrival, a 
sort of hanger-on about the stables, gaining a scanty subsistence 
by foraging near the house, until she was four years old, without 
ever having been taken to the adjoining moor, at least, in a regular 

206. " One morning as I was riding up to the moor she followed 
me ; happening to cast my eyes to the right I saw her pointing 
very steadily in a batch of heather not far from a young plantation. 
I rode up, and a pack of grouse rose within twenty yards. This 
induced me to pay more attention to my four-footed companion ; 


Page 119, Note. 


and the result was, that in a week's time the Norfolk pointers were 
shut up in the kennel, and the neglected ' Grouse ' became my 
constant associate. A more eccentric animal, however, cannot well 
be conceived. She hunted just what ground she liked paid no 
attention whatever to call or whistle would have broken the hearts 
of a dozen Norfolk keepers, by the desperate manner in which she 
set all rules for quartering at defiance, but she found game with 
wonderful quickness, and in an extraordinary manner. She seemed, 
in fact, to have the power of going direct to where birds lay, with- 
out taking the preliminary trouble of searching for them ; and, when 
the packs of grouse were wild, I have seen her constantly leave her 
point, make a wide circuit, and come up in such direction as to get 
them between herself and me. 

" She was, in every way, a most singular creature. No one did 
she regard as her master : no one would she obey. She showed as 
little pleasure when birds fell, as disappointment when they flew 
away ; but continued her odd, eccentric movements until she be- 
came tired or birds scarce, and then quietly trotted home, totally 
regardless of my softest blandishments or my fiercest execrations. 

208. " She was beautifully-shaped, with round well-formed feet, 
her forehead prominent, and her nostrils expanded more, I think, 
than I ever saw in any dog. 

209. " I bred from her, but her offspring were not worth their 
salt, although their father was a good dog, and had seen some 
service in Norfolk turnips." 

210. As a horse-dealer once said to me, " I'd ride many a mile, 
and pay my own pikes," to see such an animal ; but, " Grouse," 
being, unhappily, no longer in the land of the living, I was forced 
to content myself with merely looking at her portrait. This, how- 
ever, afforded me much pleasure ; I therefore obtained the owner's 
permission to have it engraved. He says that she always much 
arched her loins when at a point close to game, and that the artist 
has most happily hit off her attitude. She is the darker dog of the 
two, and stands, as soldiers say, on the " proper left." Her com- 
panion, " Juno," was far from a bad bitch. 

211. Might not this singular feat of "Grouse's" be thus ex- 

212. The longer the time that has elapsed since the emission 
of particles of scent, the more feeble is that scent, on account of 
the greater dispersion of the said particles ; but, from the greater 
space * they then occupy, a dog would necessarily have a greater 
chance of meeting some of them, though, possibly, his nose might 
not be fine enough to detect them. 

213. Now, my idea is, that "Grouse's" exquisite sense of smell 
made her often imagine the possible vicinity of game from the very 

* This dispersion of scent in the more game than a dog who hunts 
atmosphere explains why a dug with his nose near the ground, 
who carries his head high finds 



[CH. VII. 

faintest indications, that her sagacity led her not to abandon 
hastily such tokens, however feeble, but rather to seek patiently for 
a confirmation or disproval of her surmises, that these fancies of 
hers often ending in disappointment, her manner did not exhibit 
any excitement that could have induced a spectator to guess what 
was passing in her mind, that he, therefore, noticed nothing un- 
usual until after the removal of her hesitation and doubts, when he 
observed her walking calmly direct up to her birds, and that he 
thus was led to regard as an unexplained faculty what really ought 
to have been considered as simply an evidence of extreme sensitive- 
ness of nose combined with marvellous caution, a caution it is 
the great aim of good breaking to inculcate. If I am right in my 
theory, extraordinary " finder " as " Grouse " was, she would have 
been yet more successful had she been taught to range properly. 

Stiff by the tainted gale with open nose, 

Outstretched and finely sensible." THOMSON'S SEASONS. 

Par. 210. 

214. It is heedlessness, the exact opposite of this 
extreme caution, that makes young dogs so often dis- 
regard and overrun a slight scent ; and since they are 

A DOG-FISH. Par. 218 


more inclined to commit this error from the rivalry of 
companionship, an additional argument is presented in 
favour of breaking them separately, and giving them 
their own time, quietly and methodically, to work out 
a scent, provided the nose be carried high. I am satisfied 
most of us hurry young dogs too much. Observe the 
result of patience and care, as exhibited in the person 
of the old Dropper, noticed in 228. 

215. But, doubtless, there are mysterious influences and instincts 
of which the wisest of us know but little. 

216. An old brother-officer of mine, the Hon. F. C h, has a 

very handsome black retriever that possesses the extraordinary gift 
of being able to run direct to any game, or even glove, you may 
leave behind you, however tortuous may be your subsequent path. 

C h told me that he has, in the presence of keepers, frequently 

dropped a rabbit within sight of the dog, and then walked in a 
circle, or rather semicircle, to the other side of a low hill a distance, 
possibly, of nearly a mile before he desired the dog to fetch it ; 
yet, on receiving the order, the animal invariably set off in an un- 
deviating line straight to the rabbit, unless his attention had been 
drawn away by playing with other dogs a license C h some- 
times designedly allowed. The retriever would then shuffle about a 
little before he went off, but when he started it would be in as direct 
a line to the object as usual. 

217. No one could explain by what sense or faculty he performed 
this feat. It appears not to have been by the aid of his olfactory 

powers, for C h (who is a keen sportsman, and capital shot, by 

the bye) would often purposely manage that the dog, when he was 
desired to " fetch " the object, should be immediately to windward 
of it : and in the most unfavourable position, therefore, for deriving 
any advantage from the exercise of his nasal organs. 

218. Capt. G g, K.N. mentioned to me, that a ship, in which 

he had served many years ago in the Mediterranean, seldom entered 
a port that the large Newfoundland belonging to her did not jump 
overboard the instant the anchor was dropped, swim ashore, and 
return, after an hour or two's lark, direct to his own ship, though 
she might be riding in a crowd of vessels. He would then bark, 
anxiously, until the bight of a rope was hove to him. Into this he 
would contrive to get his fore legs, and, on his seizing it firmly with 
his teeth, the sailors, who were much attached to him, would hoist 
him on board. 

219. Mr. W b, of S a, had a young Newfoundland that 

from very puppyhood took fearlessly to water, but acquired as he 
grew up such wandering propensities on land, that his master deter- 
mijied to part with him, and accordingly made him a present to his 

128 INSTINCT. [CH. vir. 

friend Lieut. P d, K.N. then in command of H.M. Cutter 

" Cameleon." " Triton," however, was so attached to his old roving 
habits, that whenever the cutter went into port he would invariably 
swim ashore of his own accord, and remain away for several days, 
always managing, however, to return on board before the anchor 
was weighed. Such, too, was his intelligence that he never seemed 
puzzled how to pick out his own vessel from amidst forty or fifty 
others. Indeed, Lieut. P d, (he lately commanded the " Vul- 
can,") to whom the question, at my request, was expressly put, 
believes, (and he has courteously permitted me to quote his name 
and words,) that, on one occasion, " Triton " contrived to find his 
own vessel from among nearly a hundred that were riding at anchor 
in Poole harbour. The dog's being ever so well acquainted with the 
interior of the craft does not explain why he should be familiar 
with her external appearance. Did he judge most by the hull or 
the rigging ? 

220. The Duke of N k so much admired the magnificent 

style in which " Triton " would spring into the strongest sea', that 

Lieut. P d gave the fine animal to his Grace, who, for all I know 

to the contrary, still possesses him. 

221. Who can account for the mode in which a dog or cat, carried 
a long journey from home, in a covered basket, instinctively, finds 
its way back ? yet, numerous are the well authenticated instances 
of such occurrences.* But, enough of this, fortunately I have not 
undertaken to attempt an elucidation of any of Nature's many 
mysteries, but simply to show how some of the faculties she has 
bestowed upon the canine race may easily be made conducive to our 

* When quartered, years ago, house where his services had ever 

in County Wexford, I used fre- before been required. As it is 

quently to see a fine strong-kuit, certain that he was perfectly blind, 

well-built horse, who could never no faculty we can believe him to be 

see me for he was stone-blind ; possessed of, unless it be memory, 

yet, odd to say, all his progeny had will explain how, at such long 

capital eyes. 1 He had rather a queer intervals, he could recognise the 

temper, as his name, " Kestless," many different places so accu- 

partly implied. During the spring rately ; and if it be attributable 

he was led about the country, and to memory, that of the Senior 

what is very surprising, there was "Wrangler of Cambridge's best year 

always a fight to get him past the can in no way be compared with 

lane or gate leading to any farm- it. 

1 This is the more singular, as, attributed it to the dampness of 

from unexplained causes, diseases the climate. His young English 

of that organ are but too common horses suffered while at Cork as 

in Ireland. One veterinary surgeon much as his Irish ones. 



222. Your dog not to "break fence ;" how taught ; birds often sprung while you are 
scrambling over hedge. 223. Turning one's back upon a dog to bring him away ; 
stooping down, &c. to make him hunt close. 224. Dog, when fatigued, not to 
be hunted; leads to false points. 225. Sent home, brushed, and allowed a warm 
berth; not to follow all day at " heel." 226. Instance of longevity and vigour 
flapper shooting. 227. Value of good old dogs. 228. Exemplified in an old 
dropper on the moors. 229. Young dogs get thrown out; cunning of old birds 
exemplified in a Grouse. 230. Annual "fall" of underwood in Kent. 231 

Mr. K g, good fisherman ; in Note, anecdote of voracity of pike. Wheatley's 

"Rod and Line." 232. Extraordinary chase after a wounded pheasant 233 
Singular appearance of the pheasant on its capture. 234. Description of the 
Spaniel "Dash." 235. Evil of "fetching," not having been taught in youth 
exemplified. 236. Another instance of the cunning of an old Pheasant. In 
Note, how to choose and tell age of Pheasants. 237. The last Duke of Gordon 
his black setters; his shooting over old dogs. 238 to 240. Beat of two dogs 
how regulated. 241. Whatever number be hunted, all should look to the gun 
for orders; Mr. Herbert's opinion in his "Field Sports in United States." 
242, 243. Beat of three dogs. 244. Of four dogs. 245 to 247. Of five or six 
dogs. 248. Great precision impracticable, but the necessity of a system main- 
tained ; System particularly essential where game is scarce ; dogs to be brigaded 
not employed as a pack. 249. When each keeper hunts a brace. 250. Major 

B d's highly broken pointers. 251, 252. His making six alternately "road;' 

their running riot when ordered. 253. Not a good shot, which shows excellence 
in shooting not to be essential in a breaker. 254. A brigade of fine rangers 
worth from fifty to sixty guineas a brace. 255. Bad rangers afford some sport 

where game is plentiful; Captain R s' dogs on Quail. 256. Fastest walkers 

do not necessarily beat most country. 257. Nor do always the fastest dogs. 
258. How slow dogs may hunt more ground than faster. 

222. Of course, you will not let your pupil " break 
fence," or get out of your sight. If he be a small, active 
pointer or setter he may be out of sight before you are 
aware of it. Be on the watch to whistle or call out 
" Fence/' the instant you perceive that he is thinking of 
quitting the field. Do not wait until he is over ; check 
him by anticipating his intentions. Should he, unper- 
ceived, or in defiance of your orders, get into a field 


130 "BREAKING FENCE." [OH. vm. 

before you, call him back (by the same opening if 
practicable, through which he passed, the more clearly 
to show him his folly) ; and do not proceed further 
until he has obeyed you. A steady adherence to this 
rule will soon convince him of the inutility of not 
exercising more patience, or at least forbearance ; then 
signal to him " away " in the direction you choose, not 
in the direction he chooses. It is essential that you 
should be the first over every fence. In the scramble, 
birds, at which you ought to have a shot, are frequently 
sprung. If he is not obedient to your orders make him 
" drop," and rate him as described in 188. 

223. A dog from his own observation so much feels, 
and in a greater or less degree, according to his educa- 
tion, the necessity of watching in what direction you 
are walking, that if he is habituated to work under your 
eye, I mean, is never allowed to hunt behind you, by 
turning your back upon him when he is paying no 
attention to your signals, you will often be able to 
bring him away from a spot where he is ranging (perhaps 
down wind) against your wishes, at a time when you 
are afraid to whistle, lest you should alarm the birds. 
Waving your hand backwards and forwards near the 
ground, and stooping low while walking slowly about, 
as if in search of something, will often attract the 
attention of an ill -taught self-willed dog ; and his 
anxiety to participate in the find, and share the sport 
which he imagines you expect, will frequently induce 
him to run up, and hunt alongside of you for any close 
lying bird. 

224. Never be induced to hunt your young dog, (nor 
indeed, any dog), when he is tired. If you do, you will 
give him a slovenly carriage and habits, and lessen his 
zeal for the sport. In order to come in for a sniff, at 

Small, active Pointer." Par. 222. 

K 2 

CH. viii.] TIRED DOGS. 133 

a time when he is too fatigued to search for it himself, 
he will crawl after his companion, watching for any 
indication of his finding. As they become wearied you 
will have a difficulty in keeping your old well-broken 
dogs separate much more young ones, however in- 
dependently they may have ranged when fresh. You 
may also, to a certainty, expect false points ; but what 
is of far more consequence, by frequently overtasking 
your young dog, you will as effectually waste his consti- 
tution as you would your horse's by premature work. 

225. If he is very young when first entered, two or 
three hours' work at a time will be sufficient. When he 
is tired, or rather before he is tired, send him home with 
the man who brings you a relief. Do not fancy your 
dog will be getting a rest if he be allowed to follow at 
your heels for the remainder of the day, coupled to a 
companion. His fretting at not being allowed to share 
in the sport he sees, will take nearly as much out of 
him as if you permitted him to hunt. If you can per- 
suade John always to rub him down, and brush and dry 
him nay even to let him enjoy an hour's basking in 
front of the fire before he shuts him up in the kennel, 
you will add years to his existence ; and remember that 
one old experienced dog, whose constitution is uninjured, 
is worth two young ones. 

226. A gentleman in Eyrecourt, County Galway, gave me, as a 
valuable present, a black setter thirteen years of age. And most 
valuable was the setter to my friend, who had carefully reared him 
from a puppy, and had him well under command ; but with me 
he was so wild, I make use of the term most advisedly, that 
he did me more harm than good the only season I shot over him. 
He was stolen from me, and his teeth were so sound, and he bore 
so little the appearance of age, that I have no doubt he was sold as 
a tolerably young dog. He was the best specimen I ever saw of 
the vigour that may be retained for old age by judicious treatment 
in youth. The excellence of his constitution was the more remark- 
able, from the fact of his having always been extremely fond of the 
water. Few dogs could equal him for flapper shooting, that vilest 

134 VIGOUR IN OLD AGE. [OH. vin. 

of sports, if followed before the unfortunate birds get strong on the 
wing as unprofitable, too, for the table, as unsatisfactory to the 

real sportsman. Sir J s M e, of Perthshire, told me that he 

had shot grouse over an Oxfordshire pointer bitch (the best he ever 
possessed and the founder of his kennel-stock) until she was eighteen 
years of age, when she could do no more than crawl up the side of 
a hill, occasionally, to gain time, making false points. Once, how- 
ever, on the top, she would work merrily downwards, no false 
points then. 

227. But canine veterans, of however invalided a constitution, if 
they have been really first-rate in their youth, are not always to be 
despised. Occasionally you may come across one who will, from his 
past experience and superior nose, prove a more valuable auxiliary 
in the field, than many a campaigner of greater activity and vigour. 

228. Many years ago I went from the south of England for some 
grouse shooting in Scotland. When arranging with my companion 

(Captain S s, a connexion of the kind-hearted old warrior, whose 

crowning victory was Goojerat,) what dogs should accompany us, he 
remarked, that it would be useless to take his old Dropper (one far 
more resembling a pointer than a setter), as he was too aged to 
undergo any work. I observed, that he could do us no harm if he 
did us no good ; and, as he had been an admirable animal, I advised 
his being taken. Off he went to the North ; and frequently did we 
afterwards congratulate ourselves upon this decision, for the old 
fellow, apparently grateful for the compliment seemed to feel that 
he ought to make us some return, and that the less ground he could 
traverse with his legs the more he was bound to traverse with his 
nose. The result was, that while he was slowly pottering about, 
(the season being unusually hot and dry, there was but little scent) 
he was constantly finding us birds which his more flashy companions 
had passed over ; and before we left Scotland we agreed that none 
of our dogs had procured us so many shots as the slow, careful old 

229. Old birds become very cunning ; they are quite sensible of 
the danger they incur by rising, and to escape from the dog, and 
puzzle him, have as many wiles and twists as a hunted hare. It 
may be that as old age advances, their decreasing bodily powers 
warn them to add to their security by the exercise of their wits. 
It is often remarked, that if ever we kill any of their natural 
enemies, whether winged or four-footed, we are sure to find them 
in niir condition. This condition makes it obvious, that they must 
have gained with years the experience which enables them to obtain 
a good livelihood by craft, at a time of life when their failing strength 
would prevent their procuring a single meal by a direct pursuit. * 
If then we argue from analogy, we shall think it almost impossible 

* Indeed, through a merciful dis- ing, painful death from starvation, 
pensation, it seems to be ordained, but shall serve for the nourish- 
that no animal (in the general ment of others before his body 
course of nature) shall die a linger- becomes attenuated from want. 


for any unpractised dog, however highly bred, to procure us so many 
shots as one who has been hunted for several seasons. And such is 
really the case. A young dog will not keep to the trail of an old 
bird for more than about forty yards ; after that he will give it up 
altogether, or rush in. It is when he is " roading " one of these 
knowing aged patriarchs, that you become aware of the great value 
of experience in a dog. You may have seen a young one bewildered 
in the devious intricacies of the broken hags, sought as a refuge by an 
old cock-grouse, and have probably imagined that the youngster had 
only been following a recent haunt, and that the game was gone. 
Not so, the dog was right at first. He " footed " it out admirably 
until he came to the dark bush, which you must have wondered to 
see growing in such a situation ; there the sly bird doubled, then 
turned short to the right for nearly a hundred yards before it re- 
sumed its course down wind. A dog more up to his work would 
have again hit off the scent, and an old stager, probably, never have 
lust it. 

230. In order to be generally understood, I will preface the fol- 
lowing anecdote by mentioning that in the large Kentish woods, 
where the annual falls of underwood take place to the extent of 
forty or fifty acres, it is usual to drain the land by digging water- 
courses, or as they are commonly called, Grips. The first year's 
growth of the underwood is called yearling Fall (or Spring) ; the 
second, two-year old Fall (or Spring) ; and so on. 

231. Mr. K g, a good sportsman, and so successful an angler,* 

that he is familiarly called by his friends " the King-fisher," to dis- 
tinguish him from others who bear his name, was pheasant shooting 
in the winter of 1848-9, in two-year old springs, where, with all 

* Numerous accounts have been lost line, swivel, and lead hanging 

given of the voracity of the pike. out of its mouth, while, appa- 

K g told me of a very remark- rently not much to the animal's 

able instance, and one which clearly discomfort, the bait and hooks 

shows that fish do not always suffer quietly reposed in its interior. On 

so much torture when hooked as turning the gullet inside out, 

many suppose. He was spinning K g found the bait so unin- 

a gudgeon for pike in the river jured that he again fastened it to 

Stour, near Chilham, having bent his line along with the recovered 

on four large hooks, back to back, tackle, and actually caught another 

and a large lip-hook. He was run pike weighing 41bs., and a perch 

at by a pike, which he struck, of 241bs., with the very gudgeon 

but the line unfortunately break- that had been in the stomach of 

ing, the fish earned off fully four the large pike for nearly a quarter 

yards of it, together with half a of an hour, 

yard of gimp, two large swivels, Those who are fond of trolling 

and a lead. K g put on fresh for trout would not find their time 

tackle and bait. At the very first thrown away in reading Wheat- 
cast he was run at again, and sue- ley's novel hiLti on all kinds of 
ceeded in landing the fish, which spinning baits. His " Rod and 

weighed 12 Ibs. To K g's Line" is an excellent little book. 

great surprise, he observed the 


acknowledged partiality for Kent, it must be admitted that birds 
are not so plentiful as in certain preserves in Norfolk, though pro- 
bably foxes are fully as numerous. It has been remarked, by the 
bye, that where foxes abound, old pheasants are very cunning ; 
doubtless from having been often put to their shifts to escape from 
their wily adversaries. 

232. K g sprung a splendid cock-pheasant, which, although 

a long way off, he shot at and dropped. Judging from the manner 
in which it fell that it was a runner, and well knowing the racing 
propensities of the old cocks, he hastened to the spot where it 
tumbled, and, giving his gun to the marker, prepared for a sharp 
burst, though he little expected the extraordinary chase that was to 
follow. He found, as he had anticipated, some breast feathers, but 
no bird. After fruitlessly trying in every direction, for nearly a 

quarter of an hour, to put "Dash" on the scent, K g's eyes 

rested on one of the grips just spoken of : it ran close to where the 
bird had fallen, and the thought struck him that possibly the cun- 
ning creature might have taken refuge in it, and thus have thrown 

out the spaniel. K g got into it, and though finding fully six 

inches of water, he persevered in following it. It brought him to 
a high wood about one hundred yards off, and towards which the 
pheasant had been flying when shot at, but " Dash" could not obtain 

the least scent of the bird. As a last resource, K g then returned 

to the spot where he had left the marker with his gun, being deter- 
mined to try the grip in the opposite direction, notwithstanding its 
leading exactly contrary to the point for which the bird had been 
making. He did so, and by calling energetically to "Dash," he 
endeavoured to make the dog believe that at length the bird was in 
view. The plan succeeded. " Dash," who had become slack from 
disappointment, hunted with renewed animation, and, after pur- 
suing the grip for some time, took the scent full cry across the 
springs until he came to an old waggon-road, along which he went 

at speed. Feeling assured that all was now right, K g gladly 

moderated his pace, for he was much out of breath. When at 
length he overtook " Dash," instead of seeing him in possession of 
the bird, he only found him completely at fault, trying up and 
down the well-indented wheel-ruts. On the other side of the road 

there was another grip. Into it K g jumped, followed the plan 

he had before adopted, and with like success ; for on running up the 
grip for about sixty yards, the spaniel again hit off the scent, and 

after taking it away at a right angle (so far that K g could only 

now and then catch a faint tingle of the bell), brought it back to 
the same grip, but some 200 yards higher, where he suddenly 

threw up." For the fourth time in went K g. " Dash " now 

seemed thoroughly to understand matters, and kept trying both 
sides of the grip for the scent. At length he found it, and went 
full cry across a yearling fall, which was everywhere very bare, 
except here and there an occasional patch of high strong grass. At 

one of these K g found him again at fault. The dog seemed 

quite done ; but still it was evident, from his excited manner, that 

Short-legged, strong-loined, Sussex Spaniel." Par. 236. 


he thought the pheasant was not far distant. After a time he began 

scratching at the long grass. K g went up, and, on putting the 

stalks aside, fancied he perceived the end of some tail feathers. 
He thrust in his arm, and ultimately succeeded in dragging forth 
the well-hunted bird, quite alive, out of the deep wheel-track in 
which it had buried itself. The coarse grass had grown so closely 
over the rut, that the bird had been able to creep in for three or four 

233. A more miserable appearance than the poor creature pre- 
sented, cannot easily be conceived. Its feathers were so completely 
sopped, and stuck so close to its body, that it looked a mere 
skeleton ; and yet it was a noble bird, measuring three feet and an 
inch from the tip of its bill to the extremity of its tail, and weighed 
3 Ibs. 6 oz. 

234. As "Dash" plays so conspicuous a part in the foregoing 
history, it appears right that a few words should be given to describe 
him. He is a low, strong-limbed, broad-backed nearly thorough- 
bred Sussex spaniel, with an extremely intelligent-looking head, but 

a sadly mean stern. His colour is black. K g generally hunts 

him with a bell, especially where the underwood is thick. If he is 
sharply called to when he is on game he will slacken his pace, look 
round for his master, and not "road" keenly until the gun ap- 
proaches him ; he will then rush in with a bark to flush, though at 
other times hunting mute. The intelligent animal seems, however, 

perfectly to know when the cover is too high or strong for K g 

to follow, for he then invariably runs full cry from first touching on 
a scent. He never deceives the sportsman, for he never gives one 
of his eloquent looks unless he is certain of being on game ; and 
his nose is so good, and he hunts so true, that he invariably 
"pushes " his pheasant, however much it may turn or double. 

235. He is also undeniable at "seeking dead," but unluckily 
was not taught as a youngster to fetch. Much time is, therefore, 
often lost in finding him after he has been sent for a winged bird ; 
but when he is at length discovered it is sure to be with him. 

236. I was told of a farmer in Kent one of her fine yeomen, of 
whom England has such cause to feel proud, (pity that in some other 
counties the class is not as distinctly preserved !) who was shooting 
with an old short-legged, strong-loined, Sussex spaniel. The dog, 
after " reading " a pheasant along many a tortuous path, led the 
farmer to the edge of a shallow brook, up the middle of which, far 
away to his right, he was lucky enough to see the animal running, 
obviously with the design of throwing out the dog. A light pair of 
heels soon brought the sportsman within shot, and enabled him to 
bag the heaviest and richest feathered bird he had ever seen. The 
sharp long spurs* showed it to be at least five years of age, and its 

* There are poulterers who and the smoother the leg, the 

would pare such a spur to di- younger is the bird. Dr. Kitchener, 

minish the appearance of age. who appears not to have had much 

The shorter and blunter the spur, luck in stumbling upon well-fed 


sagacity would probably have borne it triumphantly through another 
campaign or two, had not the farmer's quick eye detected its adroit 
manoeuvre, one that forcibly calls to mind Cooper's descriptions of 
the stratagems employed by the North American Indians to baffle 
pursuit by leaving no indication of their trail. 

237. Must there not be experience on the part of dogs to contend 
successfully with such wiliness as this ? So much was the last Duke 
of Gordon convinced of its necessity, and he is well known to 
have been a capital sportsman, and to have paid great attention to 
his fine breed of black setters, that he would never allow one of 
them to accompany him to the moors that had not been shot over 
five or six seasons and "small blame" to his Grace "for that 
same," as he had a choice from all ages. But it must be acknow- 
ledged, that however excellent * in many respects, and when in the 
hands of the breaker their indomitable energies would cause the 
bunch of heather, fastened to the end of their checkcords, to dance 
merrily over the mountains from morning until night-fall, most of 
them were a wild set in their youth, and required constant work to 
keep them in order. Every experienced sportsman in the High- 
lands is aware that young dogs will romp (for it cannot be termed 
hunting), with their noses here, there, and everywhere, obtaining but 
few points over ground on which knowing old dogs will immediately 
afterwards keep the gun-barrels at an exhilarating temperature. 

238. When you hunt a brace of dog?, to speak theoreti- 
cally, they should traverse a field in opposite directions, 
but along parallel lines, and the distance between the lines 
should be regulated by you according as it is a good or 
a bad scenting day, and according to the excellence of 
the dogs' noses. Mathematical accuracy is, of course, 
never to be attained, but the closer you approach to it 
the better. 

pheasants, avers that they have vein." The more fat and yellow 

not the flavour of barn-door fowls that appears, the higher is the 

if they are cooked before they condition of the animal. Blow 

drop from the single tail feather aside the feathers of a snipe ; and 

by which, he says, they should be if the flesh is nearly black the 

hung up in the larder ; or, rather, bird wants condition, it should 

he advises that two pheasants be white. 

should be suspended by one feather * On the 7th of July, 1836, his 
until both fall. Birds of full, kennel was put up to auction, 
beautiful plumage gratify the eye when three of his setters fetched, 
more than the palate. It is an severally, seventy-two, sixty, and 
indication of age in all sorts of fifty-six guineas. Two puppies 
birds. The hens are the tenderest. brought fifteen guineas 'each, 
On the body of birds, immediately and two of his retrievers, " Bess " 
under the wing, there is what and " Diver," forty-six and forty- 
keepers often call, " the condition two guineas. 

Duke of Gordon's fine breed of Black Setters." Par. 237. 

CH. viii. J BEAT OF TWO DOGS. 143 

239. You should attempt it (on entering the field to 
leeward, as before directed) by making one dog go straight 
a-head of you to the distance which you wish the parallel 
lines to be apart from each other, before you cast him 
off (say) to the right ; then cast off his companion to 
the left. If the dogs are nearly equal in pace, the one 
a-head, so long as he does not fancy he winds game, 
should continue to work on a parallel more advanced 
than the other. 

240. Should you not like to relinquish, for the sake 
of this formal precision, the chance of a find in the 
neglected right-hand corner of the field, cast off one 
dog to the right, the other to the left on entering it, 
and make the one that soonest approaches his hedge 
take the widest sweep (turn), and so be placed in the 
advanced parallel. 

241. With regard to hunting more than a brace 
when your difficulties wonderfully multiply your own 
judgment must determine in what manner to direct 
their travelling powers to the greatest advantage. Much 
will depend upon the different speed of the dogs; the 
number you choose, from whim or otherwise, to hunt ; 
the kind of country you beat ; and the quantity and 
sort of game you expect to find. It is, however, certain 
you must wish that each dog be observant of the direc- 
tion in which your face is turned, in order that he may 
guide his own movements by yours ; that he from time 
to time look towards you to see if you have any com- 
mands ; and that he be ever anxious to obey them. 

Herbert writes as follows, in his work on shooting in the United 
States : * his words ought to have influence, for manifestly he is 
a good sportsman ; but I own I cannot quite agree with him as to 

Entitled, " Field Sports in the United States and British 
Provinces, by Frank Forester." 

144 BEAT OF THREE DOGS. [en. vm. 

the facility with which a range can be taught : " It is wonderful 
how easily dogs which are always shot over by the same man he 
being one who knows his business will learn to cross and re-quarter 
their ground, turning to the slightest whistle, and following the least 
gesture of the hand. I have seen old dogs turn their heads to catch 
their master's eye, if they thought the whistle too long deferred ; 
and I lately lost an old Irish setter, which had been stone deaf for 
his last two seasons, but which I found no more difficulty in turning 
than any other dog, so accurately did he know when to look for the 

242. To beat your ground systematically with three 
dogs you should strive to make them cross and re-cross 
you, each on a different parallel, as just described for 
two dogs ; but each dog must make a proportionately 
bolder sweep (turn) ; or, 

243. If you have plenty of space, you can make one 
dog take a distinct beat to the right, another a separate 
beat to the left, and direct the third (which ought to be 
the dog least confirmed in his range) to traverse the 
central part, and so be the only one that shall cross 
and recross you. If one of your dogs is a slow pot- 
terer, and you prefer this method to the one named in 
242, give him the middle beat, and let his faster com- 
panions take the flanks. In our small English fields 
you have not space enough, but on our moors, and in 
many parts of the Continent, it cannot be want of room 
that will prevent your accomplishing it. To do this 
well, however, and not interfere with each other's 
ground, how magnificently must your dogs be broken ! 
In directing their movements, the assistance that would 
be given you by each dog's acknowledging his own 
particular whistle, and no other (505), is very apparent. 

244. It is difficult enough to make three dogs traverse 
across you on tolerably distinct parallels, and at a jn- 
dicious distance between the parallels ; you will find it 
hopeless to attempt it with more than three ; and one 
can hardly imagine a caste in which it would be advan- 


tageous to uncouple a greater number of good rangers. 
If, however, the scarcity of game, and the extensiveness 
of your beat, or any peculiar fancy, induce you habitually 
to use four dogs, hunt one brace to the right, the other 
to the left ; and, so far as you can, let those which form 
a brace ~be of equal speed* Your task will be facili- 
tated by your always keeping the same brace to one 
flank, I mean, by making one brace constantly hunt 
to your right hand ; the other brace to your left. The 
same reasoning holds with regard to assigning to each 
dog a particular side when hunting three, according to 
the mode described in last paragraph. It should, how- 
ever, be borne in mind, that constantly hunting a dog 
in this manner on one and the same flank, tends to 
make him range very disagreeably whenever employed 

245. If you hunt five dogs, four of them ought to 
work by braces to the right and left, and the fifth (the 
dog whose rate of speed most varies from the others) 
should have a narrow beat assigned him directly in 
advance of you. 

246. If three brace are to be used, let the third brace 
hunt the central ground, as recommended for the fifth 
dog, or they could b$*worked in leashes, one on the 
right of the gun, the other on the left. 

247. These are the correct theoretical rules, and the 
more closely you observe them, the more truly and 
killingly will your ground be hunted. 

248. Probably you will think that such niceties are 
utterly impracticable. They must be impracticable, if 
you look for mathematical precision ; but if you are deter- 
mined to hunt many dogs and hope to shoot over more 
than a mere rabble, you should work upon system. If you 

* A rule to be followed whenever you employ relays of braces. 



do not, what can you expect but an unorganized mob ? 
an undrilled set, perpetually running over each other's 
ground, now scampering in this part, now crowded 
in that, a few likely spots being hunted by all (espe- 
cially if they are old dogs), the rest of the field by none 
of them ; and to control whose unprofitable wanderings, 
why not employ a regular huntsman and a well-mounted 
whip ? Doubtless it would be absurd to hope for perfect 
accuracy in so difficult a matter as a systematic range 
in a brigade of dogs ; but that you may approach cor- 
rectness, take a true standard of excellence. If you do 
not keep perfection in view, you will never attain to 
more than mediocrity. I earnestly hope, however, that 
it cannot be your wish to take out a host of dogs, but 
should you have such a singular hobby, pray let them 
be regularly brigaded, and not employed as a pack. In 
my opinion, under no circumstances can more than 
relays of leashes be desirable ; but I should be sorry in 
such matters to dispute any man's right to please him- 
self ; I only wish him, whatever he does, to strive to do 
*t correctly. 

249. Some men who shoot on a grand scale make 
their keepers hunt each a distinct brace of dogs, the 
gun going up to whatever dog points. It is the most 
killing plan to adopt ; but that is not the matter we 
were considering. The question was, what method a 
man ought to pursue who had a fancy to himself hunt 
many dogs at a time. 

250. The late Major B d, of B d, in Lancashire, had this 

fancy. The moors over which he shot were by no means well 
stocked with game ; but the wonderful control he obtained over 
his pointers showed, in the strongest manner, the high grade of 
education that can be imparted to dogs by gentle and judicious 

251. He was accustomed to hunt three brace at a time. Each 
dog when he was ranging would take up his separate ground, with- 

CH. vin.] MAJOR B D'S BRIGADE. 147 

out interfering with that of his companions. The Major's raising 
his arm was the signal for all to drop. 

252. If one of the dogs was pointing, the Major would go up 
perhaps to the dog furthest off, and make him approach the dog 
that was standing ; and in October (when grouse run much) he 
has thus brought all six dogs in a line, one following the other, 
and made each in succession take the lead, and " foot " the birds for 
a short distance. The same dogs, on the same day, at a given 
signal, would run riot ; scamper over the moor ; chase hares, sheep, 
or anything they came across ; and at the well-known signal again 
would drop, and, as if by magic, resume their perfect obedience. 

253. Major B d was quite one of the old school ; used flint 

and steel ; and looked with ineffable contempt at the detonators of 
the youngsters. He was not remarkable for being a good shot, 
capital sportsman as he undoubtedly was in the highest sense of the 
word, showing the truth of what was said in the fifth paragraph, 
that excellence in shooting, though of course advantageous, is not a 
necessary qualification in a breaker. 

254. If a professional breaker could snow you a 
brigade of dogs well trained to quarter their ground 
systematically, and should ask from fifty to sixty 
guineas* a brace for them, you ought not to be sur- 
prised. What an extent of country they could sweep 
over in an hour and not leave a bird behind ! And 
consider what time and labour must have been spent 
in inculcating so noble a range. He would have been 
far better paid, if he had received less than half the 
money as soon as they " pointed steadily," both at the 
living and the dead ; " down charged ; " " backed ; " and 
were broken from " chasing hare," or noticing rabbits. 

255. The great advantage of fine rangers is not much considered 
where game is abundant. A friend of mine, a capital shot (though 

far inferior to his namesake, Captain R s of sporting celebrity), 

with whom I have enjoyed some pleasant quail shooting in America, 
used constantly to hunt a leash of pointers, "Jem," "Beau," and 
" Fag," the last a regular misnomer, for the dog was incorrigibly 
idle. It was curious to watch how pertinaciously, like sheep, they 
herded together, seldom did one wind a bird that would not have 

been found a few seconds afterwards by the others. R s, long 

before I knew him, had relinquished all attempts at making them 
beat separately indeed, I am not positive that he was fully sensible 

* That price was named in the Table of Contents of the first edition. 

L 2 


of its utility. As they all " backed " promptly instantly " down- 
charged," and had not a shade of jealousy, they did little harm ; 
and sometimes on a broiling day " Beau," who generally took the 
lead, was not the first to come on a dead bird. Where game is 
plentiful, as bad rangers as the trio belonging to my old friend, will 
afford you sport ; but it is certain that they will pass by many birds, 
unless you undergo the fatigue of walking over most of the ground 
yourself, and it is clear if you do, that you will not be able to hunt 
half as many acres in a day, as you could if you kept to your general 
central direction while the dogs hunted according to rule. Few 
Frenchmen agree with us respecting a fine range. They make their 
pointers and setters hunt almost as close as spaniels. They prefer 
bitches to dogs, saying that they are more affectionate ("plus 
fideles"), and therefore range nearer. In England, in old days, 
when our dogs were far heavier and slower than they are now, and, 
in consequence, could not run over so much ground, they were 
taught to traverse little more than from thirty to sixty yards on 
each side of the gun. 

256. Some men fancy that the faster they walk, the 
more country they hunt. This is far from being always 
the case. Dogs travel at one rate, whether you walk 
fast or slow, and the distance between the parallels on 
which they work, (being determined by the fineness of 
their noses, and the goodness of the scent,) ought not to 
be affected by your pace. Suppose, therefore, that you 
shoot in an unenclosed country, whether you walk 
quickly, or merely crawl along, the only difference in 
the beat of your dogs ought to be that, in the latter 
case, they range further to the right and left. You thus 
make up in your lyreadth what you lose in your length 
of beat. 

257. Nor do the fastest dogs, however well they may 
be broken, always truly hunt the most ground. The 
slower dogs have frequently finer olfactory nerves than 
their fleeter rivals, therefore the parallels on which the 
former work, may correctly be much wider apart than 
the parallels of the latter, The finer nose in this 
manner commands so much more ground, that it beats 
the quicker heels out and out. 


258. You will see, then, how judicious it is to show 
forbearance and give encouragement to the timid, but 
high-bred class* of dogs described in 116 ; for it is 
obvious that, though they may travel slower, yet they 
may really hunt properly, within a specified time, many 
more acres of ground than their hardier and faster 
competitors : and it is certain that they will not so 
much alarm the birds. Dogs that are most active with 
their heels are generally least busy with their noses. 

* It is admitted, however, that the part of the instructor may 
they are often difficult animals to create a distrust that he will find 
manage ; for the hast hastiness on it very hard to remove. 



259. Affection makes Dog anxious to please when he rushes in to be dragged back. 
260. Rule pressed. 261. Reason for Rule Experience anticipated. 262. To 
"stand" far off Pointer procuring shots at black game, but raising Grouse. 
263. Patience enjoined Not to part as enemies. 264. The first good point- 
Remain yourself stationary. 265. "Heading" Dog Your circle to be wide. 
The first bird killed. 266. Finding dead bird, it being to Leeward. 267. Point- 
ing it Blinking it The cause. 268. Woodcock lost from Dog not "pointing 
dead." 269. Bird killed, the Dog to go to "heel." 270. Supposed objection. 
271. Answered. 272. Temptation to run after fallen bird greater than to run to 
"heel" 273. Dog pointing one bird, and after "down charge" springing the 
others. The cause. 274. The preventive. Dog never to discontinue his point 
in order to "down charge." How taught. 275. Its advantages exemplified. 
276. Decide whether Dog goes direct to bird, or first to you. 277. Dog which 
performed well. Snipe shooting on banks of Richlieu. 278. Coolness recom- 
mended. Inconsistency deprecated. 

259. To proceed, however, with our imaginary Sep- 
tember day's work. I will suppose that your young 
dog has got upon birds, and that from his boldness and 
keenness in hunting you need not let him run riot on a 
haunt, as you were recommended (in 132), when you 
wished to give courage and animation to a timid dog. 
You must expect that his eagerness and delight will 
make him run in and flush them, even though you 
should have called out " Toho " when first you perceived 
his stern begin feathering, and thence judged that his 
olfactory nerves were rejoicing in the luxurious taint of 
game. Hollo out "Drop" most energetically. If he 
does not immediately lie down, crack your whip loudly 
to command greater attention. When you have suc- 
ceeded in making him lie down, approach him quietly : 

CH. ix.] FIRST FIND. 151 

be not angry with him, but yet be stern in manner. 
Grasping the skin of his neck, or what is better, putting 
your hand within his collar (for he ought to wear a 
light one), quietly drag him to the precise spot where 
you think he was first aware of the scent of the birds. 
There make him stand, (if stand he will, instead of 
timidly crouching), with his head directed towards the 
place from which the birds took wing, and by frequently 
repeating the word "Toho," endeavour to make him 
understand that he ought to have pointed at that 
identical spot. Do not confuse him by even threatening 
to beat him. The chances are twenty to one that he 
is anxious to please you, but does not yet know what 
you wish. I assume also that he is attached to you, 
and his affection, from constantly inducing him to exert 
himself to give satisfaction, will greatly develop his 
observation and intelligence. 

260. Consider it a golden rule never to be departed 
from (for I must again impress upon you a matter of 
such importance), invariably to drag a dog who has put 
up birds incautiously, or wilfully drawn too near them, 
and so sprung them (or, what is quite as bad, though 
young sportsmen will not sufficiently think of it, 
endangered their rising out of shot), to the exact spot at 
which you judge he ought to have pointed at first, and 
awaited your instructions. 

261. Think for one moment what could be the use of 
chiding (or beating, as I have seen some * * * * do) 
the poor animal at the spot where he flushed the birds. 
You are not displeased with him (or ought not to be) 
because the birds took wing, for if they had remained 
stationary until he was within a yard of them, his fault 
would have been the same : nor are you angry with him 
because he did not catch them (which interpretation he 


might, as naturally as any other, put upon your rating 
him at the spot where he flushed them), you are 
displeased with him for not having pointed at them 
steadily the moment he became sensible of their 
presence. This is what you wish him to under- 
stand, and this you can only teach him by dragging 
him, as has been so often said, to the spot at which he 
ought to have " toho-ed " them. Your object is to give 
the young dog by instruction, the caution that most old 
dogs have acquired by experience. Doubtless experi- 
ence would in time convince him of the necessity of 
this caution ; but you wish to save time, to anticipate 
that experience ; and by a judicious education impart 
to him knowledge which it would take him years to 
acquire otherwise. What a dog gains by experience is 
not what you teach him, but what he teaches himself. 

262. Many carelessly-taught dogs will on first recog- 
nising a scent make a momentary point, and then slowly 
crawl on until they get within a few yards of the game, 
if it be sufficiently complaisant to allow of such a 
near approach, and there " set " as steady as a rock by 
the hour together. Supposing, however, that the birds 
are in an unfriendly distant mood, and not willing to 
remain on these neighbourly terms, " your game is up," 
both literally and metaphorically, you have no chance 
of getting a shot. This is a common fault among dogs 
hastily broken in the spring. 

I speak feelingly on the subject from a still unpleasant recollec- 
tion of my extreme vexation on a certain 20th of August,* when 
shooting over a young pointer-bitch of excellent natural capabilities, 
but who had been injudiciously allowed, during her tuition in the 
spring, to stand too close to her birds. She was a quick ranger, 
carried a high diligent nose, had much endurance, and procured 
me several shots at young black game, but not one, if I remember 

* The first day for killing black-cock. 


right, at grouse. I was always aware when she first found, for her 
attitudes were fine and marked, but, in defiance of all my signals, 
and occasional calls, she would persist in creeping nearer, a proxi- 
mity the grouse would not endure. As a violent jerk would not 
have been necessary, often did I wish that day, whenever she ap- 
proached a likely spot, that it was in my power to attach to her 
collar a stiff thin checkcord about 100 yards long,* such a one as 
would have been handed to me at a fishing-tackle shop on my 
asking for a strong hemp salmon line, the kind used in former 
days after being soaked for weeks in oil, now, however, considered 
heavy and unmanageable. A mild spiked collar applied as described 
in 302 to 304, would, I think, have noiselessly reclaimed her, with- 
out injuring my shooting. 

263. But to resume our supposed lesson. You must 
not be in a hurry keep your dog for some time for a 
long time, where he should have pointed. You may 
even sit down alongside him. Be patient; you have 
not come out so much to shoot, as to break in your dog. 
When at length you give him the wave of the hand to 
hie him on to hunt, you must not part as enemies, 
though I do not say he is to be caressed. He has com- 
mitted a fault, and he is to be made sensible of it by 
your altered manner. 

264. Suppose that, after two or three such errors, all 
treated in the way described, he makes a satisfactory 
point. Hold up your right hand, and the moment you 
catch his eye, remain quite stationary, still keeping your 
arm up. Dogs, as has been already observed, are very 
imitative ; and your standing stock still will, more than 
anything else, induce him to be patient and immovable 
at his point. After a time (say five minutes if, from the 
hour of the day and the dog's manner, you are convinced 
that the birds are not stirring), endeavour to get up to 
him so quietly as not to excite him to move. When- 
ever you observe him inclined to advance, of which his 

* If painted white it will be the seizing it, or an ungloved hand 
more readily seen and trodden on, may suffer should the dog be rang- 
a step advisable preparatory to ing rapidly. 


lifting a foot or even raising a shoulder, or the agitation 
of his stern will be an indication, stop for some seconds, 
and when by your raised hand you have awed him into 
steadiness, again creep on. Make your approaches within 
his sight, so that he may be intimidated by your eye 
and hand. If you succeed in getting near him without 
unsettling him, actually stay by him, as firm as a statue, 
for a quarter of an hour by one of Barwise's best chrono- 
meters. Let your manner, which he will observe, show 
great earnestness. Never mind the loss of time. You 
are giving the dog a famous lesson, and the birds are 
kindly aiding you by lying beautifully and not shifting 
their ground.* 

265. Now attempt a grand coup, in which if you are 
successful, you may almost consider your dog made 
staunch for ever. Keeping your eye on him, and your 
hand up (of course the right one), make a circuit, so 
that the birds shall be between him and you. Be 
certain that your circle is sufficiently wide, if it is not, 
the birds may get up behind you, and so perplex him, 
that at his next find he will feel doubtful how to act. 
Fire at no skirter, or chance shot. Eeserve yourself for 
the bird or birds at which he points ; a caution more 
necessary on the moors than on the stubbles, as grouse 
spread while feeding. When you have well headed him, 
walk towards him and spring the birds. Use straight 
shooting-powder. Take a cool aim well forward, and 
knock down one. Do not flurry the dog by firing more 
than a single barrel, or confuse him by killing more 
than one bird. If you have been able to accomplish all 
this without his stirring (though, to effect it, you may 
have been obliged to use your voice), you have every 

* Should they (unluckily for deavour to minage as detailed in 
the lesson) run', you must en- 285. 

CH. ix.] POINTING DEAD. 155 

right to hope, from his previous education, that he will 
readily " down-charge " on hearing the report of your 
gun. Do not hurry your loading : indeed, be unneces- 
sarily long, with the view of making him at all such 
times patient and steady. If, in spite of all your calls 
and signals, he gives chase to the sprung birds, make 
him " drop," instantly if possible, and proceed much 
as described in 259, dragging him back to the place 
where he should have " down-charged." 

266. When you have loaded, say, "Dead,"* in a low 
voice, and signalling to " heel " make him come up to 
you, yourself keeping still. By signs (xi. of 141) place 
him as near as you can, but to leeward of the dead bird. 
Then, and not till then, say, " Find ; " give him no other 
assistance. Let him have plenty of time to make out 
the bird. It is not to be find and grip, but find and 
point,~\ therefore the moment you perceive he is aware 
that it is before him, make him (by word of command) 
" toho : " go up to him, stay for a while alongside him, 
then make a small circuit to head him, and have the 
bird between you and him ; approach him. If he 
attempt to dash in, thunder out "No," and greet him 
with at least the sound of the whip : slowly pick up 
the dead bird ; call the dog to you ; show him the bird ; 
but on no account throw it to him, lest he snatch at it ; 
lay it on the ground, encourage him to sniff it ; let him 
(for reason why see 313) turn it over with his nose, 
teeth closed, say to him, "Dead, dead;" caress him; 

* As he acquires experience he your friend may not load as ex- 
will wish to rise the moment he peditiously as yourself, 
observes that your loading is com- t Never being allowed to grip 
pleted. Do not allow him to move, conduces so much to making him 
however correctly he may have tender-mouthed, that, should he 
judged the time. Let his rising hereafter be permitted to lift his 
be always in obedience to signal game, it is probable he will deliver 
or word. You may occasionally it up perfectly uninjured, 
make a mistake in charging, or 


sit down ; smooth the feathers of the bird ; let him. 
perceive that you attach much value to it ; and after a 
while loop it on the game bag, allowing him all the 
time to see what you are doing. After that, make much 
of him for full five minutes : indeed with some dogs it 
would be advisable to give a palatable reward, but be 
not invariably very prodigal of these allurements ; you 
may have a pupil whose attention they might engross 
more than they ought. Then walk about a little time 
with him at your heels. All this delay and caressing 
will serve to show him that the first tragedy is con- 
cluded, and has been satisfactorily performed. You may 
now hie him on to hunt for more birds. 

267. Pray mind what is said about making your 
youngster point the dead bird staunchly, the moment 
you perceive that he first scents it. Should he be 
allowed to approach so near as to be able to touch it 
(instead of being made to point the instant he finds), 
the chances are, that, if hard-mouthed he will give it a 
crunch, if tender-mouthed a fumbling of the feathers ; 
and either proceeding satisfying him, that he will quit 
it, and not further aid you in a search. As " pointing " 
is only a natural pause (prolonged by art) to determine 
exactly where the game is lying, preparatory to rushing 
forward to seize, it would be unreasonable to expect him 
willingly to make a second point at game he has not 
only found but mouthed : the evil, however, does not 
rest here. There is such a disagreeable thing as blinking 
a dead bird, no less than blinking a sound one. Tor 
mouthing the bird you may possibly beat the dog, or for 
nosing it and not pointing you may rate him harshly, 
either of which, if he be not of a bold disposition, may 
lead, on the next occasion, to his slinking off after 
merely obtaining a sniff. You ought, in fact, to watch 


CH. ix.] WOODCOCK LOST. 159 

as carefully for your pupil's first " feathering " upon the 
dead bird, as you did (259) upon his first coming upon 
the covey. You see, then, that your teaching him to 
" point dead " is absolutely indispensable ; unless, indeed, 
you constantly shoot with a retriever. Pointing at a 
live bird or at a dead one, should only differ in this, that 
in the latter case the dog makes a nearer point. Begin 
correctly, and you will not have any difficulty ; but you 
may expect the greatest, if you let your dog go up to 
one or two birds and mouth them, before you commence 
making him point them. The following season, should 
you then permit him to lift his game (538), it will be 
time enough to dispense with his " pointing dead." I 
dwell upon this subject because many excellent dogs, 
from not having been properly taught to " point dead," 
often fail in securing the produce of a successful shot, 
while, on the contrary, with judiciously educated dogs it 
rarely happens that any of the slain or wounded are 
left on the field. Moreover, the protracted search and 
failure (as an instance see 314) occasions a lamentable 
loss of time. Were a sportsman who shoots over dogs 
not well broken to " point dead " (or retrieve) to calcu- 
late accurately, watch in hand, he would, I think, be 
surprised to find how many of his best shooting hours 
are wasted in unprofitable searching for birds, of the 
certainty of whose untimely fate his dogs had probably 
long before fully convinced themselves. 

268. I was shooting some seasons back where woodcocks, being 
scarce, are considered great prizes. If one is sprung, the pheasants 
are immediately neglected, and every exertion is made to secure the 
rara avis. We flushed one ; at length it was killed ; it fell in thick 
cover, was found by a setter (a feather or two in his mouth 
betraying him) ; but as the dog had not been properly taught to 
"point dead," we were obliged to leave the bird behind, after 
spending nearly half an hour in a fruitless search. 

269. As to the word " Dead," whether you choose to 


continue using it immediately after loading, or, as I 
have recommended (xi. of 141), after a time omit it, and 
merely let the signal to " heel " intimate that you have 
killed, always make your dog go to you before you 
allow him to seek for the fallen bird. 

270. Some may say, "As a dog generally sees a bird 
fall, what is the use of calling him to you before you let 
him seek ? and even if he does not see the bird, why 
should any time be lost ? "Why should not you and he 
go as direct to it as you can ? " 

271. Provided you have no wish that the "finder" 
(see 541), rather than any of his companions, should be 
allowed the privilege of "seeking dead/' I must admit 
that in the cultivated lands of England, when a dog 
" sees a bird fall," he might in nine cases out of ten go 
direct to it without inconvenience. Even here, how- 
ever, there are occasions when intervening obstacles 
may prevent your observing what the dog is about ; and 
in cover, so far from being able to give him any assis- 
tance by signaling, you may be ignorant whether or not 
he has seen the bird knocked over, or is even aware of 
the general direction in which he ought to seek. But 
in the oft-occurring cases in which " he does not see the 
bird fall/' it is obvious (particularly when he happens 
to be at the extremity of his beat), that you will far 
more quickly place him where you wish, if you make 
him, at first, run up to you, and then advance from you, 
straight to the bird, by your forward signal (277). These 
good results at least will follow, if you remain stationary, 
and make him join you. You do not lose sight of the 
spot where you marked that the bird or birds fell. The 
foil is not interfered with by your walking over the 
ground (a matter of much importance, especially on 
bad-scenting days). The dog, if habituated to " seek " 




without your companionship, will readily hunt morasses 
and ravines, where you might find it difficult to accom- 
pany him. He will feel the less free to follow his own 
vagaries; and this consciousness of.' subjection will 
dispose him to pay more watchful attention to your 
signals. He will the more patiently w^it at the " down 
charge ; " and when you are reloaded 1 ^will not be so 
tempted to dash recklessly after the tyird. regardless 
whether or not he raises others on the way. If he is 
dragging a cord, you can the more easily take hold of 
its end, in order to check him, and make him point 
when he first winds the dead bird, and should you be 
shooting over several dogs, by none of them being per- 
mitted to run direct to the fallen bird, they will the 
less unwillingly allow you to select the one who is to 
approach close to you before " seeking dead." 

272. The opponents of this method argue, that the 
practice may give the dog the bad habit of running 
immediately after the " down charge " to the gun, instead 
of recommencing to hunt ; particularly if he is shot over 
by a first-rate performer. Granted ; but is not the 
temptation to bolt off in search of a dead bird still 
stronger ? To check the former evil, endeavour to make 
the coming to " heel " an act of obedience rather than a 
voluntary act, by never failing, as soon as you are re- 
loaded, to give the customary signal (vra. of 141) when 
you have killed, or the signal to "hie on'"' should you 
have missed. 

2*73. Moreover, you will sometimes meet with a dog 
who, when a bird has been fired at, though it be the 
first and only one sprung of a large covey, commences 
"seeking dead" immediately after the "down charge/' 
apparently considering that his first duty. This sad, 
sad fault for it frequently leads to his raising the 



other birds out of shot is generally attributable to the 
dog's having be$n allowed to rush at the fallen bird, 
instead of being^ accustomed to the restraint of having 
first to run up to -the gun. 

274. To prevent your pupil from ever behaving so 
badly, often adojt the plan of not " seeking dead" im- 
mediately after loading, especially if the birds are lying 
well. Mark accurately the spot where your victim lies, 
and closely hunt for others, endeavouring to instil great 
caution into the dog, much in the manner (being guided 
by his disposition and character) described in 196, 197, 
and 329. As long as any of the covey remain unsprung, 
you ought not to pick up one dead bird, though you 
should have a dozen on the ground. Your dog ought 
not even to " down charge " after you have fired, if he is 
fully aware that more birds are before him. To impart 
to him the knowledge that, however important is the 
" dmvn charge" his continuing at his point is still more 
so, you may, when the birds are lying well and he is at 
a fixed point, make your attendant discharge a gun at 
a little distance while you remain near the dog, en- 
couraging him to maintain his " toho." If you have no 
attendant, and the birds lie like stones, fire off a barrel 
yourself while the dog is steadily pointing.* He will 
fancy you see birds which he has not noticed, and, un- 
less properly tutored and praised by you, will be desirous 
to quit those he has found, to search for the bird he 
conceives you have shot. 

275. It is a fine display of intelligence in the dog, 
and of judicious training in the breaker (may it be your 
desert and reward ere long to witness it in your pupil), 
when a pointer (or setter) in goodly turnips or strong 
potatoes draws upon birds which obligingly rise one 

* Ofteiier practicable on heather than on stubble. 


after the other, while by continuing his eloquent atti- 
tude he assures you that some still remain unsprung, to 
which he is prepared to lead you, if you will but attend 
to them and him, and, instead of pot-hunting after those 
you have killed, wait until his discriminating nose in- 
forms him that having no more strangers to introduce, 
he is at liberty to assist you in your search. 

276. To revert, however, to the point particularly 
under discussion, viz., whether you prefer that your 
dog go direct to the fallen bird, or (as I strongly re- 
commend) that he first join you, pray be consistent ; 
exact which you will, but always exact the same, if you 
are anxious to obtain cheerful unhesitating obedience. 

277. I have seen the advantage of the latter method very 
strikingly exemplified in America, in parts of which there is capital 
snipe-shooting. In the high grass and rushes on the banks of the 
Eichelieu, many a bird have I seen flushed and shot at, of which 
the liver and white pointer, ranging at a little distance, has known 
nothing. As he was well broken in, he, of course, dropped in- 
stantly, on hearing the report of the gun. If the bird had fallen, 
his master, after reloading, used invariably to say " Dead," * in 
a low tone of voice, on which the dog would go up to him ; and 
then his master, without stirring from the spot where he had fired, 
directed him by signals to the place where the bird fell, to reach 
which the dog often had to swim the stream. His master then 
said "Find." At that word, and not before it, his intelligent 
four-footed companion commenced searching for the bird, nor did 
he ever fail to find and bring ; and so delicate was his mouth 
that I have often seen him deliver up a bird perfectly alive, with- 
out having deranged a feather, though, very probably, he had 
swam with it across one of the many creeks which intersect that 
part of the country. If the shot was a miss, his master's silence 
after reloading, and a wave of his arm to continue hunting (or the 
command to " Hie on," if the dog was hidden by the rushes per- 
haps a low whistle would have been better), fully informed his 
companion of the disappointment. He was quite as good on the 
large quail, and small wood-cock found in Canada, which latter 
makes a ringing noise on rising, not unlike the sound of a distant 

* In order to work in silence, sede the word "dead." It might 

I advised (xi. of 141) that the be necessary to sing out with a 

signal to "heel," whenever the boatswain's voice should the dog 

dog could observe it, should super- be far off. 



soft bell ; but reminiscences of that capital old dog are leading me 
away from your young one. 

278. For some days you cannot shoot to your pupil 
too steadily and quietly I had well-nigh said too 
slowly. By being cool, calm, and collected yourself, 
you will make him so. I am most unwilling to think 
that you will be too severe, but I confess I have my 
misgivings lest you should occasionally overlook some 
slight faults in the elation of a successful right and 
left. Filling the game-bag must be quite secondary to 
education. Never hesitate to give up any bird if its 
acquisition interfere with a lesson. Let all that you 
secure be done according to rule, and in a sportsman- 
like manner. 



279. Some Dogs will not point readily Breeding in and in, error of. 280. Instance 
of two young, untaught, highly-bred Pointers, behaving well first day shown 
Game Dogs more inclined to point at first than afterwards. 281. Checkcord 
employed spike attached to it 282. With wild dog assistant useful Signals 
to. 283. How particularly useful with a badly broken Dog Range of Stoat 
Traps better than Guns. In Note, Hen-harrier feeding her yonng Decoy Owl 
for Winged- Verm in Keeper to possess Dog that hunts Vermin Account of a 
capital Bull-Terrier Destructiveness of Stoats. (See Appendix). 2S4. Shy 
birds, how intercepted between Guns and dog. Cheeta driven near Antelopes 
by cart circling and never stopping. In Note, Cheeta always selects the Buck. 
Cheeta how trained. 285. "Heading" Dog at his point not practised too 
often Dog to acquire a knowledge of his distance from Game. 286. Beautiful 
instance of Pointer correcting his Distance. 2S7. Constantly "Heading" Dog 
may make him too immoveable. 288. A fault often caused by over-punishment. 

289. Mr. C t's Bitch, which persisted 'three times in taking up the same 

point. 290 to 292. Instance of fine " roading" in a young Dog. 293. False points 
caused by over-punishment Self-confidence and experience only cures for over- 
caution. 294. Dog's manner shows position of birds. 295. Curiously instanced 

in a Dog of Lord M d's. 296. Also shows species of Game Pointer on 

Rabbits. 297. Young Dog drawing upon his first Blackcock. 298. Terrier 
pointing four kinds of game, and each in a different attitude. 

279. IT is proper you should be warned that you must 
not always expect a dog will "toho" the first day as 
readily as I have described, though most will, and some 
(especially pointers) even more quickly, if they have 
been previously well-drilled, and have been bred for 
several generations from parents of pure blood. 

I do not say bred in and in. Breeding in and in, to a certainty, 
would enfeeble their intellects as surely as their constitutions. In 
this way has many a kennel been deprived of the energy and en- 
durance so essential in a sportsman's dog. 

280. The late Lord Harris gave Mr. M 1 (mentioned in 195), 

then residing in Essex, two young, very highly bred pointer pups, 

a brother and sister. Mr. M 1, after some months, carried them 

into Kent, and, without their having had the least preliminary 
instruction, or ever having seen a bird, took them out partridge- 


shooting. He had no older dog to set them a good example, and as 
they were wholly unbroken, he feared they would bolt for home the 
moment he squibbed off his gun ; but, though they seemed much 
astonished and extremely nervous at the report, great caressing and 
encouragement induced them to remain. After awhile the dog 
went forward, and sniffed about, then he began to hunt, at length 
he did so very assiduously ; but his sister not so keenly, for she did 
little more than follow in his wake. Generally it is otherwise, 
bitches being usually the earliest in the field. At length the dog 
came to a stiff point at the edge of some turnips. The bitch per- 
ceived him and timidly backed. Mr. M 1 hastened up birds 

arose one fell, fortunately killed outright the dog dashed at it, 
and, tremulous with a world of new and pleasurable emotions, 
nosed and fumbled it about in a very excited manner, but did not 

attempt to gripe it. Mr. M 1, lest he should damp the youngster's 

ardour, refrained from rating, or even speaking to him, but left 
him entirely to himself. After a time, singular to say, for he had 
not been taught as a puppy to " fetch," he lifted the partridge, 
and carried it to his master, a practice he was afterwards allowed to 
pursue. Is it not clear that, if he had been well instructed in the 

initiatory lessons, Mr. M 1 would have found him perfectly made 

with the exception of having no systematic range ? He turned out 
extremely well, and constantly showed himself superior to his sister, 
who always wanted mettle. 

As in the present instance, it often occurs that a dog 
is less inclined to dash in at first than when he is more 
acquainted with birds. He is suddenly arrested by the 
novelty of the scent, and it is not until he is fully 
assured from what it proceeds that he longs to rush for- 
ward and give chase. In autumnal breaking the dog 
gets his bird it is killed for him he is satisfied arid 
therefore he has not the same temptation to rush in as 
when he is shown birds in the spring. 

281. If you find your dog, from excess of delight and 
exuberance of spirits, less under general command than 
from his initiatory education you had expected, and that 
he will not " toho " steadily at the exact spot at which 
you order him, at once attach a checkcord to his collar. 
It will diminish his pace, and make him more cautious 
and obedient. The moment you next see him begin to 
feather, get up quickly, but without running, to the end 


of the cord, and check him with a sudden jerk if you 
are satisfied that game is before him and that he ought 
to be pointing. If from his attitude and manner you 
are positive that there is game, drive a spike (or peg) 
into the ground, and tie the cord to it. I only hope the 
birds will remain stationary. If they do, you can give 
him a capital lesson by remaining patiently alongside of 
him, and then heading him and the birds in the manner 
before described (264, 265). 

282. As a general rule, an attendant or any companion 
cannot be recommended, because he would be likely to 
distract a young dog's attention (10) ; but an intelligent 
fellow who would readily obey your signals, and not 
presume to speak, would, doubtless, with a very wild 
dog, be an advantageous substitute for the spike. You 
could then employ a longer and slighter cord than usual, 
and, on the man's getting hold of the end of it, be at 
once free to head and awe the dog. Whenever you had 
occasion to stand still, the man would, of course, be as 
immoveable as yourself. 

Your signals to him might be : 

The gun held up, " Get near the clog." 
Your fist clenched, " Seize the rope." 
Your fist shaken, " Jerk the cord." 
Your hand spread open, " Let go the cord." 

Or any signs you pleased, so that you understood each 

other without the necessity of speaking. 

283. Should it ever be your misfortune to have to 
correct in a dog evil habits caused by past mismanage- 
ment, such an attendant, if an active, observant fellow, 
could give you valuable assistance, for he sometimes 
would be able to seize the cord immediately the dog 
began " feathering," and generally would have hold of 
it before yoy could have occasion to fire. But the fault 

168 RANGE OF STOAT. [CH. x. 

most difficult to cure in an old dog is a bad habit of 
ranging. If, as a youngster, he has been permitted to 
beat as his fancy dictated, and has not been instructed in 
looking to the gun for orders, you will have great, very 
great difficulty in reclaiming him. Probably he will 
have adopted a habit of running for a considerable dis- 
tance up wind, his experience having shown him that 
it is one way of finding birds, but not having taught 
him that to seek for them by crossing the wind would 
be a better method. 

Curiously enough, nature has given this systematic range to the 
stoat,* though, happily for the poor rabbits, it cannot carry a high 
nose, and therefore the parallels on which it hunts are necessarily 
not far apart. This interesting proceeding is occasionally witnessed 
by those keepers who injudiciously prefer their game-disturbing 
guns to their vermin-destroying traps.f 

284. The great advantage of teaching a dog to point the instant 
he is sensible of the presence of birds (260), and of not creeping a 
foot further until he is directed by you, is particularly apparent 
when birds are wild. While he remains steady, the direction of 
his nose will lead you to give a tolerable guess as to their " where- 
abouts," and you and your companion can keep quite wide of the 
dog (one on each side), and so approach the birds from both flanks. 
They, meanwhile, finding themselves thus intercepted in three direc- 
tions, will probably lie so close as to afford a fair shot to, at least, one 
gun, for they will not fail to see the dog and be awed by his presence. 
Kaise your feet well off the ground, to avoid making a noise. Walk 
quickly, but with no unnecessary flourish of arms or gun. They may 
fancy that you intend to pass by them : a slow cautious step often 
raises their suspicions. (Most sportsmen in the Highlands prefer a 
low cap, or a wide-awake, to a hat; one of the motives for this 
choice being that the wearer is less conspicuous, not appearing so 
tall. It is because he will not appear so tall that he thinks he can 
get nearer to a pack by approaching the birds up hill, rather than 
by coming down upon them from a height. Many an old sports- 
man crouches when approaching wild birds.) As soon as you and 
your friend are in good positions, you can motion to the dog to 
advance and flush the birds. You should on no account halt on the 

* "Which becomes white in a trapping, and keeper's vermin- 
severe winter, a regular ermine ; dogs, &c., is so long that the 
the only one of the weazel-tribe printer has placed it in an Appen- 
that does so in England. dix. 

t This note on the subject of 

C'H. X.] 



way, for the moment you stop they will fancy they are perceived, 
and take wing. It is by driving round and round, constantly con- 
tracting the circle, and never stopping, that the bullock-cart, carrying 
the trained cheeta, is often brought within 100 yards of the herd of 
antelopes, amidst which is unsuspiciously browsing the doomed dark 
buck.* Driven directly towards the herd, the cart could not ap- 

* The cheeta invariably selects 
the buck, passing by the nearer 
does and fawns. I never saw 
but one instance to the contrary. 
On that occasion the cheeta en- 
deavoured to secure what appeared 
to be his easiest victim a young 
fawn; but the little creature twisted 
and doubled so rapidly, that it 
escaped perfectly uninjured. The 
turbaned keeper, greatly surprised, 
begged the spectators to remain 
at a respectful distance while he 
proceeded to secure the panting, 
baffled animal. The caution was 
not unnecessary ; for the disap- 
pointed beast, though usually very 
tractable, struck at the man's arm 
and tore it. On examination a 
large thorn was found in one of 
the animal's fore paws, which fully 
explained the cause of his not 
bounding after the lord of the 
herd, when he had, in cat-like 
manner, stealthily crawled as near 
as any intervening bushes would 
afford concealment. This pre- 
liminary part of the affair is at 
times very tedious ; the rest is 
quickly settled : for the wondrous 
springs of the cheeta (whose form 
then so apparently dilates, 1 that 
the observer, if a novice, starts 
in the belief that he suddenly sees 
a royal tiger) soon exhaust him, 
which accounts for his always 
creeping as near as possible before 
openly commencing his attack. 

The education of the cheeta is 
no less progressive than that of 
the dog ; and whatever patience 

the latter may require from his 
instructor, the former demands 
far greater ; not so much from 
want of docility, as from the nearly 
total absence of all the feelings of 
attachment so conspicuous in the 
canine race. The cubs when they 
are very young are stolen from the 
rocky fastnesses where they are 
usually bred. They are imme- 
diately hooded, and allowed no 
other exercise than what they can 
take when they are led about by 
their keeper. While he is feeding 
them, he invariably shouts in a 
peculiar key. In a month or so 
their eager looks, animated ges- 
tures, and possibly cheerful purr- 
ing, testify that they comprehend 
its import as fully as a hungry 
young ensign does " the roast beef 
of old England." They are then 
slightly chained, each to a separate 
bandy (bullock-cart), and ha- 
bituated to its motion. They are 
always fed during the drive. They 
thus learn to expect a good meal 
in the course of their airing. After 
a time the keeper, instead of feed- 
ing a promising pupil while he is 
a prisoner, goes to a little distance 
from the bandy and utters the 
singular cries now so joyfully 
heard, upon which an attendant 
slipping off the chain and hood 
the liberated cheeta runs to his 
trainer to be fed. By degrees this 
is done at increased distances. He 
is always conducted back to the 
carriage by the keeper's dragging 
at the lump of meat of which the 

1 A dealer often says in praise 
of a small horse, and great praise 
it is " You may fancy him a little 

one now, but wait till you see him 
move, and then you'll think him 
a big one." 


proach within thrice that distance. In Yorkshire, very late in the 
season, when the grouse are so scared that they will not allow a dog 
or man to get near them, it often happens that a good bag is made 
by the gun keeping just a-head of a cart and horse. Here, how- 
ever, no circuit is made. The birds are found by chance. The only 
clog employed is the retriever, kept in the cart until he is required 
to fetch. 

285. You must not, however, too often try to work 
round and head your pupil when he is pointing. Judg- 
ment is required to know when to do it with advantage. 
If the birds were running, you would completely throw 
him out, and greatly puzzle and discourage him, for they 
probably would then rise out of shot, behind you, if 
they were feeding up wind, behind him, if they were 
feeding down wind.* Far more frequently make him 
work out the scent by his own sagacity and nose, and 
lead you up to the birds, every moment bristling more 
and more, at a pace t entirely controlled and regulated 
by your signals. These being given with your right 

animal retains a firm hold. The he quit hold of the wind-pipe as 
next step is for the man again to long as the prostrate animal can 
commence feeding near the cart, make the slightest struggle for 
but without making any noise, breath. This affords the keeper 
the removal of the hood being the ample time to cut off a limb, 
only thing that tells the spotted which he thrusts against the 
beast to look about him for his cheeta's nose, and as soon as the 
dinner. The last step is the sub- still quivering dainty tempts him 
stitution of a kid or wounded an- to grasp it, he is again led off to 
telope, for the keeper with his his cart. He is then further re- 
provision basket, when it rarely warded with a drink of warm blood 
happens that nature's strong in- taken from the inside of the an- 
stinct does not make the cheeta telope, and the scene concludes 
seize with eagerness the proffered by the carcass being strapped 
prey. His education is now com- under the bandy, 
pleted ; but for many months he * Many think that grouse feed 
is never unhooded at a herd unless more down wind than partridges, 
the driver has managed to get the f A pace that keeps the sports- 
cart within a very favouring dis- man at a brisk walk is obviously 
tance. the best. It is very annoying to 
The cheeta knocks over the buck be unable, by any quiet encourage- 
with a blow of his paw on the ment, to get a dog to " road " as 
hind-quarters, given so rapidly rapidly as you wish an annoy- 
that the eye cannot follow the ance often experienced with natu- 
motion, and then grasps him rally timid dogs, or with those 
firmly by the throat ; nor will which have been overpunished. 


hand will be more apparent to him if you place your- 
self on his left side. It is in this manner that you give 
him a lesson which will hereafter greatly aid him in 
recovering slightly winged birds, in pressing to a rise 
the slow- winged but nimble-heeled rail, or in minutely 
following the devious mazes through which an old cock 
pheasant, or yet more, an old cock grouse, may endeavour 
to mislead him. And yet this lesson should not be given 
before he is tolerably confirmed at his point, lest he 
should push too fast on the scent ; and make a rush 
more like the dash of a cocker than the sober, con- 
venient " road " of a setter. As his experience in- 
creases he will thus acquire the valuable knowledge of 
the position of his game : he will lead you to the 
centre of a covey, or what is of greater consequence 
as grouse spread to the centre of a pack, (instead of 
allowing himself to be attracted to a flank by some 
truant from the main body), and thus get you a good 
double shot, and enable you effectually to separate the 
birds: he will, moreover, become watchful, and sensible 
of his distance from game a knowledge all important, 
and which, be it remarked, he never could gain in tur- 
nips or potatoes, or any thick cover. 

286. Mr. C s R n, well known in Edinburgh, told me 

that a black and tan pointer of his (Admiral M y's breed) gave, 

on one occasion, a very clever proof of his knowledge of the distance 
at which he ought to stand from his game. He was ranging in thick 
stubble. Some partridge, being slightly alarmed, rose a little above 
the ground, and then dropped very near the dog, upon which the 
sagacious creature instantly crouched close to the ground, his head 
between his fore-legs, and in that constrained position ventre-a-terre, 
pushed himself backwards until he had retreated to what he con- 
ceived to be a judicious distance from the covey, when he stood up 
and pointed boldly. 

287. There is another and yet stronger reason why 
you should not consider it a rule always to head your 
young dog at his point. You may although at first it 


seems an odd caution to give make him too stanch. 
This, to be sure, signifies less with partridges than with 
most birds ; but if you have ever seen your dog come 
to a fixed point, and there, in spite of all your efforts, 
remain provokingly immoveable plainly telling you of 
the vicinity of birds, but that you must find them out 
for yourself your admiration of his steadiness has, I 
think, by no means reconciled you to the embarrassing 
position in which it has placed you. I have often wit- 
nessed this vexatious display of stanchness, although 
the owner cheered on the dog in a tone loud enough to 
alarm birds two fields off. 

288. A keeper will sometimes praise his dog for such 
stanchness ; but it is a great fault, induced probably by 
over-severity for former rashness, and the more difficult 
to be cured, if the animal is a setter, from the crouching 
position which he often naturally assumes when pointing. 

289. A friend of mine was told by Mr. C 1 (to whom those 

interested in the prosperity of the Edinburgh Zoological Gardens 
ought to feel much indebted), that a little pointer bitch of his came, 
on a hot, dry, bad scenting day, to a fixed point. He could not 
persuade her to move, nor could he or his friend spring any game ; 
and two not bad-nosed dogs that were hunting with her would not 
acknowledge the scent, even when they were brought close to the 
bitch. As she would neither advance nor retire, he actually had 
her carried off ia a boy's arms. When she was put down, away she 
ran and resumed her point. After another ineffectual attempt to 
raise birds, again she was borne off, but only to take up for a third 
time her point. At length, after a yet closer search in which, 
however, she still refused to join, a young blackcock was perceived 
closely buried under a thick piece of heather. The very excellence 
of the bitch's nose, and her admirable perseverance, made it the 
more vexatious that she had not been taught the meaning of the 
signals to advance. One grieves that anything should have been 
neglected in the education of so superior a creature. 

290. I advised (285) your practising your young dog in "footing" 
out a scent. Though it occurred many years ago, I remember as if 
it were but yesterday (from my annoyance at shooting so execrably, 
when it was peculiarly incumbent on me not to miss), my nearly 
making a sad mistake with a very young dog, who was following up 
a retreating bird most magnificently. 


291. I was looking for grouse where I thought that there might 
be some, but was sure there could not be many. After beating for 


a considerable time unsuccessfully, the youngest of the dogs that 
were hunting made a stanch point. I got up to him ; nothing rose. 
I encouraged him to press on. He did so, and at a convenient pace 
which allowed me to keep parallel with him. He so seldom stopped, 
and bristled so little, that I thought he was making a fool of me. 
Still, as he now and then looked round sagaciously, as if to say 
" There really is game a-head," I did not like to tell him of my 
suspicions. Though my patience was sorely tried, for he led me a 
distance which I dare not name, I resolved to let him have his 
own way, and to see what would be the result, satisfied that undue 
precipitance on my part might effect more evil than could arise from 
an erroneous participation in his proceedings. At length, when my 
good resolutions were all but exhausted, and I was thinking of 
chiding the dog for his folly, we approached a bare spot, free from 
heather : up sprung a noble cock-grouse, challenging splendidly. 

292. I had been so perplexed, and was, I am ashamed to say, so 
unnerved, that, though the bird went off in a line directly from me, 
I missed him with both barrels ; I don't know when I was more 
vexed : nothing but my bungling lost the young dog the reward he 
so richly deserved. 


293. I recount this story, though it is little in my 
favour, to warn you against the too common error of 
fancying that a young dog is making false points if 
birds do not get up directly. They may have taken 
leg-bail, and thus have puzzled him in his inexperience. 
Dogs not cowed by punishment will, after a little hunt- 
ing, seldom make false points, while they are unfatigued. 
To a certainty they will not draw upon a false point for 
any distance : therefore, never punish what is solely 
occasioned by over-caution. Your doing so would but 
increase the evil. Self-confidence and experience are 
the only cares for a fault that would be a virtue if not 
carried to excess. Even a good dog will occasionally 
make a point at larks from over-caution when birds are 
wild ; but see the first note to 194. 

294. After you have shot over a dog a short time, his 
manner and attitude will enable you to guess pretty ac- 
curately whether birds are really before him ; whether 
they are far off or near ; and whether or not they are 
on the move. Generally speaking, the higher he carries 
his head, and the less he stiffens his stern, the further 
off are the birds. If he begin to look nervous, and be- 
come fidgety, you will seldom be wrong in fancying they 
are on the run. But various, and at times most curious, 
are the methods that dogs will adopt, apparently with 
the wish to show you where the birds are, and certainly 
with the desire to get you a shot. 

295. A pointer, belonging at the present moment to a nobleman 

in Perthshire, Lord M d, (from whose lips my informant heard 

the strange story), has quite a novel mode of telling that birds are 
on the move. While they continue quiet, he points them in the usual 
manner, with his head towards them, but so soon as they begin to 
walk off, he directly faces about, very disrespectfully presenting his 
stern to them, whether to express contempt for their want of cour- 
tesy, or to warn his lordship to look out for a long shot, I will leave 
you to decide.* I particularly inquired if he did this indifferently, 

* " Suwarrow's " manoeuvre (530) clearly shows the true reason. 


whether the birds were running up or down wind. This my infor- 
mant could not positively tell. All he knew was that his lordship 
had said, in a general way, that the singularly mannered animal 
invariably repeated this eccentric proceeding whenever the birds 

296. Not only will a dog's manner often show you whether or not 
birds are on the move, but his carriage, when you are accustomed 
to him, will frequently tell you what species of game is before him. 
I know an old pointer that is capital in light cover. His owner 
shoots rabbits over him, and whenever the dog finds one, though he 
points steadily, his tail vibrates as regularly as a pendulum. 

297. Years ago, when I was shooting in the North, I was crossing 
some land which the encroachments of husbandry had converted 
from wild heather to profitable sheep-walks ; suddenly a young dog 
that was with me came to a more rigid point than I had ever 
seen him make every muscle appeared distended I was puzzled 
I felt satisfied that he had winded something very inusual, but 
what to expect I could not imagine, for there seemed not cover for 
a tomtit. When I got up to him he was so nervously anxious that 
I had some difficulty in making him advance, but at length he 
slowly brought me towards a small bush, to which he nailed his 
nose. Further he would not proceed. I kicked the bush ; when, 
to my great gratification, up gradually rose a young blackcock, 
which went off to killing distance with a flight not more rapid than 
that of the florikin. It was the first black game that the dog had 
ever seen. It was also the first that I had ever seen on the wing, 
and this may account for all the attendant circumstances being so 
strongly impressed upon my memory. 

298. Colonel 'C n, on the staff of the Duke of C e, told 

me that about ten years ago he heard a gentleman, then living on 
the Mall at Birr, make a bet of a pony (he offered to wager a much 
larger sum) that his terrier bitch would point all the kinds of game 
found in the neighbouring bog and further, that before it was sprung 
he would name what description of game the dog was pointing. 
The gentleman won his bet handsomely, though they found snipe, 
woodcock, grouse, hare, and something else, as well as Colonel 
C n now remembers, a duck. It was soon evident to the spec- 
tators, that the attitude of the clever animal short-eared, with a 
considerable cross of the bull-dogvaried according to the nature 
of the game she came across. To an English ear shooting on a bog 
does not sound very attractive, but though the walking is generally 
difficult, the sport is often interesting, from the variety of game the 
sportsman frequently meets with. 



299. Bar cure for too high spirits. A leg strapped up. Why these remedies are 
better than starvation and excessive work. 300. The regular Spike Collar 
described. French Spike Collar. 301. One less objectionable. 302 to 305. 
How, in extreme cases, the Spike collar might be employed. 306. Dog spring- 
ing Birds without noticing them ; how to be treated. 307. The first Birds fired 
at to be killed outright; the Search for winged Birds, Dog being to leeward. 
308. Had the Dog seized. Firing at running Bird. 309. The Search for winged 
Bird, Dog being to windward. 310. "Lifting" a Dog, when recommended. 
"Footing" a scent. In Note, speed of Red-legged Partridge. 311. Evil of a 
Young Sportsman always thinking his birds killed outright ; often calls away 
Dog improperly. 312. Loss of dead bird discouraging to Dog. 313. Perse- 
verance in Seeking, how fostered. 314. "Nosing" Bird allowed. 315. Its 

advantage instanced in Sir W m F n's dogs. 316. Error of picking up 

winged bird before Loading. In Notes, ingenious Argument in its favour ; Bird 
picked up in the Evening; rejoins Covey. 317. If winged bird be a fast ranner, 
and out of shot. 318. Dog that was devoted to "seeking dead," would retrieve 
Snipe she would not point; probable cause of her fondness for retrieving. 
319. Dog which kept his paw on winged bird ; how taught. " Beppo" in Africa. 
320. Blenheim, which hated Water, yet would always retrieve Wild Fowl. 
321. If dog rashes forward yet yields to menaces and stops. 322. If he seizes the 
dead bird; if he has torn it. 323. How to administer Punishment. 324. Part 
good friends. Your own temper not to be ruffled. 325. He is no Breaker who 
cannot always get hold of Dog. 32t>. Be certain^of Dog's guilt before punishing. 
327. Dog's Ears not to be pulled violently. 328. To "drop" whenever Bird 
or Hare rises. 329. Lesson in Turnips. 330. Real Lesson in "Gone" or 
"Flown" given after dog has had some experience ; reason why. 

299. AFTER a few trials you will, I hope, be able to 
dispense with the peg recommended in 281, and soon 
after with the checkcord also. But if your dog possesses 
unusually high spirits, or if he travels over the ground 
at a pace which obviously precludes his making a proper 
use of his nose, it may be advisable to fasten to his 
collar a bar, something like a diminutive splinter-bar, 
that it may, by occasional knocking against his shins, 
feelingly admonish him to lessen his stride. If he gets 


it between his legs and thus finds it no annoyance, 
attach it to both sides of his collar from points near 
the extremities. One of his forelegs might occasionally 
be passed through the collar ; but this plan is not so 
good as the other ; nor as the strap on the hind leg (60). 
These means (to be discarded, however, as soon as obe- 
dience is established) are far better than the temporary 
ascendancy which some breakers establish by low diet 
and excessive work, which would only weaken his 
spirits and his bodily powers, without eradicating his 
self-will, or improving his intellects. You want to force 
him, when he is in the highest health and vigour, to 
learn by experience the advantage of letting his nose 
dwell longer on a feeble scent. 

300. I have made no mention of the spiked collar, 
because it is a brutal instrument, which none but the 
most ignorant or unthinking would employ. It is a 
leather collar into which nails, much longer than the 
thickness of the collar have been driven, with their 
points projecting inwards. The French spike-collar is 
nearly as severe. It is formed of a series of wooden 
balls, larger than marbles, linked (about two and a 
half inches apart) into a chain by stiff wires bent into 
the form of hooks. The sharp pointed hooks punish 
cruelly when the checkcord is jerked. 

301. We have, however, a more modern description 
of collar, which is far less inhuman than either of those I 
have mentioned, but still I cannot recommend its adop- 
tion, unless in extreme cases ; for though not so severely, 
it, likewise, punishes the unfortunate dog, more or less, 
by the strain of the checkcord he drags along the ground : 
and it ought to be the great object of a good breaker as 
little as is possible to fret or worry his pupil, that all his 
ideas may be engaged in an anxious wish to wind birds 



On a leather strap, which has a ring at one end, four 
wooden balls (of about two inches diameter) are threaded 
like beads, at intervals from each other and the ring, 
say, of two inches (the exact distance being depen- 
dent on the size of the dog's throat). Into each of the 
balls sundry short thickish pieces of wire are driven, 
leaving about one-sixth of an inch beyond the surface. 
The other end of the strap (to which the checkcord is 
attached) is passed through the ring. This ring being 
of somewhat less diameter than the balls, it is clear, 
however severely the breaker may pull, he cannot com- 
press the dog's throat beyond a certain point. The 
effect of the short spikes is rather to crumple than 
penetrate the skin. 

302. I have long been sensible of the aid a spiked 
collar would afford in reclaiming headstrong, badly edu- 
cated dogs, if it could be used at the moment and only 
at the precise moment when punishment was required ; 
but not until lately did it strike me how the collar could 
be carried so that the attached cord should not con- 
stantly bear upon it, and thereby worry, if not pain the 
dog. And had I again to deal with an old offender, 
who incorrigibly crept in after pointing, or obstinately 
" rushed into dead," I should feel much disposed to 
employ a slightly spiked collar in the following manner. 

303. That the mere carrying the collar might not 
annoy the dog, I would extract or flatten the nails fixed 
on the top of the collar, on the part, I mean, that would 
lie on the animal's neck. This collar I would place 011 
his neck, in front of his common light collar. I would 
then firmly fasten the checkcord, in the usual way, to 
the spiked collar ; but, to prevent any annoyance from 
dragging the checkcord, at about five or six inches from 
the fastening just made I would attach it to the com- 


mon collar, with very slight twine twine so slight that, 
although it would not give way to the usual drag of the 
checkcord, however long, yet it would readily break on 
my having to pull strongly against the wilful rush of an 
obstinate dog, when, of course, the spikes would punish 
him, as the strain would then be borne by the spiked 
collar alone. 

304. Guided by circumstances, I would afterwards 
either remove the spiked collar, or, if I conceived another 
bout necessary, refasten the checkcord to the common 
collar with some of the thin twine, leaving, as before, 
five or six inches of the checkcord loose between the 
two collars. 

305. If you should ever consider yourself forced to 
employ a spiked collar, do not thoughtlessly imagine 
that the same collar will suit all dogs. The spikes for 
a thin-coated pointer ought to be shorter than for a 
coarse-haired setter ! You can easily construct one to 
punish with any degree of severity you please. Take a 
common leather collar ; lay its inner surface flat on a 
soft deal board : through the leather drive with a ham- 
mer any number of tacks or flat-headed nails : then get 
a cobbler to sew on another strap of leather at the back 
of the nails, so as to retain them firmly in position. 

306. I have supposed that your dog has scented the 
birds before they rose, but if he spring them without 
having previously noticed them (as in some rare cases 
happens even to well-bred dogs) you must bring him 
back to the spot at which you feel assured that he ought 
to have been sensible of their presence, and there make 
him "Toho." Afterwards endeavour to make him aware 
of the haunt by encouraging him to sniff at the ground 
that the birds have just left. The next time watch very 
carefully for the slightest indication of his feathering 



and then instantly call out "Toho." After a few times 
lie will, to a certainty, understand you. 

307. You should kill outright the few first birds at 
which you fire. I would infinitely prefer that you 
should miss altogether, than that one of the two or three 
first birds should be a runner. Afterwards you have 
full leave to merely wing a bird; but still I should wish 
it not to be too nimble. This is a good trial of your 
judgment as well as the dog's. I hope he is to leeward 
of the bird, and that it will not catch his eye. See he 
touches on the haunt. Do not let him work with his 
nose to the ground. "Up, up," must be your encouraging 
words (or " On, on," according to circumstances), whilst 
with your right hand (iv. of 141) you are alternately 
urging and restraining him, so as to make him advance 
at a suitable pace. From his previous education, not 
being flurried by any undue dread of the whip, he will 
be enabled to give his undisturbed attention, and devote 
all his faculties to follow unerringly the retreating bird. 
But from inexperience he may wander from the haunt. 
On perceiving this, bring him, by signals, back to the 
spot where he was apparently last aware of the scent. 
He will again hit it off'. If you view the bird ever so 
far ahead, on no account run. I hope you will at length 
observe it lie down. Head it, if possible, and strike it 
with your whip, if you think you will be unable to 
seize it with your hand. Endeavour to prevent its 
fluttering away ; it is too soon to subject the youngster 
to such a severe trial of his nerves and steadiness. Then, 
(having put the poor creature out of its misery, by 
piercing its skull, or rapping its head against your gun,) 
as before (266), show your dog the gratifying prize which 
your combined exertions have gained. 

308. Should he unluckily have caught sight of the 


running bird, and, in spite of all your calls, have rushed 
forward and seized it, you ought to have proceeded as 
described in 322. Clearly, however, you would not have 
dragged the dog back to the place where he "down 
charged," but merely to the spot from which he had made 
his unlawful rush. If the bird had been very active, it 
would have been far better to have fired at it a second 
time (while it was running), than to have incurred the 
risk of making your dog unsteady by a wild pursuit. 
Suppose that it was not winged, but rose again on your 
approaching it, and fluttered off, a hard trial for the 
young dog, you must, however, have made him bear 
it, and obey your loud command to " drop/' you would 
(or should) have taken another shot, and have proceeded 
in exactly the same manner as if this had been your 
first find (265, 266). 

309. As the wounded bird was to windward of the 
dog, the course to follow was obvious, it was plain 
sailing ; but the case would have varied greatly if the 
dog had been to windward. Had you pursued the usual 
plan, he must have roaded the bird by the " foot ; " and 
the danger is, that in allowing him to do so, you may 
create in him the evil habit of hunting with his nose 
close to the ground, which is above all things to be 
deprecated. You have another mode you can " lift " 
the dog (I suppose you know the meaning of that hunt- 
ing term), and make him take a large circuit, and so 
head the bird, and then proceed as if it had fallen to 

310. The latter plan would avoid all risk of your 
making him a potterer, and it is, I think, to be recom- 
mended if you find him naturally inclined to hunt low. 
But the former method, as a lesson in " footing," must 
be often resorted to, that he may learn unhesitatingly to 


distinguish the " heel " from the " toe/' and how to push 
an old cock-grouse, or to flush a pheasant running 
through cover, or the red-legged, I was nearly saying, 
the everlasting-legged partridge;* and, indeed, generally, 
how to draw upon his birds, and with confidence lead 
you to a shot when they are upon the move and running 
down wind. (See end of 115 ; and for further direc- 
tions, and for " seeking dead " with two dogs, look at 
544). The heavy Spanish pointer, from his plodding- 
perseverance and great olfactory powers, was an excel- 
lent hand at retrieving a slightly injured bird on a 
broiling, bad scenting day. 

311. When I advised you (266) to let the dog "have 
plenty of time to make out the bird," I spoke from per- 
sonal experience, and from a vivid recollection of errors 
committed in my novitiate. A young hand is too apt 
to imagine that every bird which falls to his gun is 
killed outright, and lying dead on the spot where it fell. 
He will, therefore, often impatiently, and most inju- 
diciously, call away the dog who, at a little distance, 
may have hit-off the trail of the winged bird, and be 
" footing " it beautifully. 

312. If in these lessons you should fail in obtaining one 
or two wounded birds, though it might not be a matter of 
any moment to yourself personally, it would be extremely 
vexatious on the dog's account, because, in this early 
stage of his education, it would tend to discourage him. 
The feeling which you must anxiously foster in him is 
this, that after the word "Find"t the search must never 

* The speed with which one of t The force of the word "Dead" 

these extremely beautiful, but in (preceding the command "Find") 

every other respect far, far in- that joyous, exciting note of 

ferior partridges will run, when triumph ought never to be les- 

only slightly wounded, is quite sened by being employed, as I 

marvellous. have heard it, to stimulate a dog 


be relinquished, even though he be constrained to hunt 
from morning till night. And it is clear that to make 
an abiding, valuable impression, this lesson must be 
inculcated on the several first occasions with unre- 
mitting, untiring diligence. 

313. Persevere, therefore, for an hour, rather than 
give up a wounded bird. Join in the search yourself. 
Even if you see where it lies, do not pick it up hastily. 
On the contrary, leave it, but mark well the spot. Keep 
on the move. Hold your gun as if in expectation of a 
rise. Pretend to seek for the bird in every direction, 
even for a good half hour, if you can encourage your 
dog to hunt so long. If, indeed, you see him flag, and 
get wearied and dispirited, gradually bring him close, 
but to leeward of the spot where the bird lies, in order 
to make him " point dead," and be rewarded for all his 
diligence by finding it himself. Let him, also, have a 
good sniff at it and nose it (but let there be no biting 
or mouthing), before you put it into the bag. Other- 
wise, what return has he for the pains he has taken ? 

314. It is no conclusive argument against the practice 
of allowing him to "nose," that many first-rate dogs 
have never been so indulged. It is certain that they 
would not have been worse if they had ; and many a 
dog, that would otherwise have been extremely slack, 
has been incited to hunt with eagerness from having 
been so rewarded. There are dogs who, from having 
been constantly denied all "touseling," will not even 
give themselves the trouble of searching for any bird 
which they have seen knocked over, much less think 
of pointing it. They seem satisfied with this ocular 

to hunt when no bird is down ; influence at the moment when it 
or, like the shepherd-boy's cry of should most animate to unremit- 
" Wolf ! wolf ! " it will have little ting exertions. 


evidence of its death ; for, odd to say, these very dogs 
will often zealously obey the order to hunt for any bird 
whose fall they have not noticed ; but in winding it 
they will indulge in no more than a passing sniff, 
which sniff, unless you are watchful, you may not ob- 
serve, and so lose your bird. Never fail, therefore, to 
let your pupil ruffle the feathers* a little, while you 
bestow on him a caress or a kind word of approbation. 
You then incite to perseverance, by, even with dogs, a 
very abiding motive, " self-interest ; " but mind the 
important rule, that this " nosing " be only when the 
bird is in your possession, not before it is in your posses- 
sion. If you wish to establish for ever a confirmed 
perseverance in " seeking dead," you must sacrifice hours 
(I say it seriously) rather than give up any of the first 
wounded birds. Be persuaded that every half hour 
spent in an unremitting search for one bird, if ultimately 
successful, will more benefit the young dog than your 
killing a dozen to him, should you bag them the moment 
you are reloaded. Of course you would not, when you 
are giving such a lesson in perseverance, fire at another 
bird, even if it sprang at your feet, for your doing so, 
whether you missed or killed, would unsettle the young 
dog, and make him relinquish his search. Be stimulated 
to present exertion by the conviction that if he be not 
now well instructed, you must expect him to lose, season 
after season, nearly every bird only slightly disabled by 
a merely tipped wing. 

* After a tonseling you may time interfered with the delicacy 

have observed the dog rubbing and discrimination of his olfactory 

his nose in the grass. He did organs. He got too near his 

right. I have lately had reason birds before acknowledging them, 

to think that when from the ab- Would you be shocked if I asked 

sence of grass a dog could not you to assist him occasionally in 

effectually wipe his nose, the fine freeing his nostrils from the of- 

down adhering to it has for some fending feathers ? 


315. I casually asked Mr. H h what kind of sport he had 

had in Aberdeenshire with Sir W m F n. He replied, " The 

pleasantest imaginable. One day we killed forty-six brace, and 

bagged every feather. Indeed, F n never loses a bird. I have 

actually known him, when his dogs were young, spend a full half 
hour in hunting for a dead bird ; nothing would induce him to give 
up. The consequence is, that now he never loses one by any chance. 
He broke in the dogs entirely himself : he would seldom allow his 
keeper to say a word to them. He was always very patient ; and 
he is well rewarded for his trouble." Why not take the same trouble 
and obtain a like reward ? This was true sport ! What battue- 
shooting could compare with it ? 

316. I hope you will not say, as would most of our 
neighbours * on the other side of the Channel : " But if, 
instead of waiting to load, I had gone after the winged 
bird just as it fell, when first I saw it start off running, 
the evil you have now spoken of (312) could not have 
occurred, for there would have but been little risk of losing 
it." Probably not, but you would have almost ruined 
your dog ; and to secure this one bird, in all likelihood 
you would subsequently lose a hundred.-f- How could 
you with justice blame him if, when next you killed, he 
rushed headlong after the bird (instead of dropping 
patiently to the " down charge "), and so sprung a dozen 
birds while you were unloaded ? 

317. Perhaps you will say, "You tell me to fire at a 
running bird, but when a winged cock-pheasant or red- 
legged partridge is racing off out of shot, how am I to 
get it, if I proceed in the slow, methodical manner you 
advise ? May it not lead me an unsuccessful dance for 

* In favour of such unsports- pening that a partridge gets up 

man-like haste they ingeniously the moment the guns have left 

argue that a continued noise after the spot, though t no previous 

firing makes birds lie, from at- noise had induced it to stir, 
tracting their attention. They t Had you lost the bird from 

say that a sudden change to quiet there being but little scent, it is 

(and a great change it must be, probable you might have found it 

for a chasseur is always talking) by renewing your search on your 

alarms the birds. As an evidence return homewards in the evening, 

of this, they adduce the well- If a runner, it would most likely 

known fact of its frequently hap- have rejoined the covey. 


an hour, if I do not allow the dog to start ahead and 
seize?" It may, (but I hope months will pass before you 
witness such agility) ; and this shows that those who do 
not employ a retriever, and yet are sticklers for a setter's 
(or pointer's) never being permitted to touch a feather, 
must on such occasions get into a dilemma ; and, unless 
they are willing to lose the bird, must plead guilty to the 
inconsistency of being pleased however loudly they may 
roar out " Toho," " ware dead," when they see their dog, 
in defiance of all such calls, disable it by a sudden grip. 
This plan, though frequently followed, cannot be correct. 
They blame the dog for doing what they really wish, 
and if he be too tender-mouthed to injure the bird, he 
keeps them at top speed, while he is alternately picking 
up the unfortunate creature, acting on his natural im- 
pulses, and letting it fall on being rated. I therefore 
repeat, that even if you do not wish your dog constantly 
to retrieve (536), you would still act judiciously in 
teaching him as a puppy to fetch (96), for then he will 
give chase to the winged bird, and bring it to you on 
getting the order, instead of permitting it to escape for a 
fresh burst, or carrying it off, as I have seen done. You 
thus maintain discipline. The dog will do what you 
wish, in obedience to orders, not in opposition to orders. 
The sticklers for dogs never being allowed to nose a 
feather, ought, unless they are willing to give up slightly 
winged birds, not to shrink from the difficult task 
of teaching their pupils to stop and retain with their 
paws (319). 

318. The pertinacity with which some dogs will " seek dead " is 
really surprising. A relative of mine had an English pointer which 
was so devoted to hunting for " knocked-down " birds, that she was 
almost unequalled in "finding," though in other respects possessed of 
very ordinary qualifications. If she failed in soon winding the lost 
bird, she would of her own accord make a large circuit ; and if still 


unsuccessful, she would indefatigably traverse the field from leeward 
until some slight taint in the atmosphere intimated to her in what 
direction to continue the search. When he afterwards hunted her 
in Ireland, though he could not get her to point snipe, yet if he 
killed one, she would exert herself to the utmost to retrieve it. Her 
keenness probably in part arose from her having, as a young one, 
always been indulged with a good " touseling " of the game before 
it was picked up. She never wished to grip. 

319. A gentleman who was my neighbour a few seasons ago, has 
a very old setter, which was also capital at "finding." " Don" used 
to lay his paw upon the wounded bird, which, I fancy, afforded him 
such gratification that he would zealously devote every faculty he 
possessed to secure the prize. You could not teach every dog this 
method of detaining a bird. If yours is one of a very docile dis- 

Cition you may effect it by always placing the dead or wounded 
i for a minute or two under his paw before you deposit it in 
the bag. 

320. An officer of the Navy, Mr. W b, of Southsea, once pos- 
sessed a true Blenheim naturally a tender breed that, from having 
been injudiciously thrown into the water when young (see 104), had 
taken such a dislike to the element, that although she was extremely 
attached to her master, and always anxious to be with him, especi- 
ally when he shouldered his gun, yet the moment she saw him appear 
with a towel in hand (feeling assured he purposed bathing), she would 
bolt off, and allow nothing to persuade her to accompany him. 
Now, great as was her abhorrence of a cold bath, yet her gratifica- 
tion in retrieving so far outweighed every other feeling, that for the 
moment it overcame her aversion to a plunge, and whenever Mr. 

W b shot a duck she would dash in to bring it on shore. She 

would carefully deposit it at the edge of the bank, but not carry it 
a step further. " Kose " had secured it, and that was the extent of 
her wishes. 

321. We have only spoken of instances 266, 307, 309, 
in which all has gone on smoothly, the dog most obe- 
diently dropping to shot and permitting you to take up 
the bird notwithstanding the poor creature's death- 
struggles. Suppose, however, and this may probably 
happen, that he does not restrain himself at the " down 
charge/' but, in spite of all your calls and signals, rushes 
forward, yet yields to your menaces and halts in mid- 
career. It is well your course is clear ; you have to 
lug him back, and threaten, and lecture him. But should 
he not check himself until he sniffs the game, his stop 


then becomes a " point ; " and if he is of a timid dispo- 
sition, or has ever evinced any disposition to blink, you 
dare not force him to retrace his steps, lest he should 
mistake your motives, and fancy himself encouraged to 
abandon his point. If you merely make him "down 
charge," you violate the axiom named in 359. In short, 
you are in a difficulty. It is a nice case, in which your 
own judgment of the dog's character can alone decide 

322. But, if from inadequate initiatory instruction 
for I will maintain that such marked rebellion can arise 
from no other cause in the excitement of the moment 
he actually rushes in and seizes the bird, he must be 
punished, I am sorry to say it ; but however much we 
may deplore it, Tie must ; for he has been guilty of great 
disobedience, and he well knows that he has been dis- 
obedient. But the temptation was strong, perhaps too 
strong for canine nature, that is to say, for canine nature 
not early taught obedience. The wounded bird was 
fluttering within sight and hearing : it was, too, the first 
he had ever seen, and this is almost his first glaring 
act of disobedience: be merciful, though firm. Make 
him " drop." Get up to him at once. Probably he will 
relinquish his grip of the bird ; if not, make him give 
it up to you, but do not pull it from him : that would 
only increase the temptation to tear it. Lay it on the 
ground. Then drag him back to the spot from which 
he rushed ; there make him lie down. Eate him. Call 
out " Toho." * Crack the whip over him and, I am 
pained to add, make use of it but moderately, not 
severely. Three or four cuts will be enough, provided 

* "Toho, "rather than "Drop," fied that he would have, "down 

your object now being to make charged " had the bird been 

him stand at, and prevent his missed, 
mouthing game ; for you are satis- 


fie has not torn the bird ; if he has, his chastisement 
must be greater. Let him now have one nibble without 
punishment, and soon a whole carcass will not suffice 
for his morning's meal. Do not strike him across the 
body, but lengthwise. 

323. An ill-tempered dog might attempt to bite you. 
Prevent the possibility of his succeeding, by grasping 
and twisting his collar with your left hand, still keeping 
him at the "down." Consider coolly whether you are 
flagellating a thick-coated dog, or one with a skin not 
much coarser than your own. Pause between each cut ; 
and that he may comprehend why he is punished, call 
out several times, but not loudly, " Toho bad toho," 
and crack your whip. Let your last strokes be milder 
and milder, until they fall in the gentlest manner a 
manner more calculated to awaken reflection than give 
pain. When the chastisement is over, stand close in 
front of him, the better to awe him, and prevent his 
thinking of bolting. Put the whip quietly into your 
pocket, but still remain where you are, occasionally 
rating him and scolding him while you are loading ; 
gradually, however, becoming milder in manner, that he 
may be sensible that, though your dissatisfaction at his 
conduct continues, his punishment is over (342 to 347). 
Indeed, if you have any fear of his becoming too timid, 
you may at length fondle him a little, provided that 
while you so re-encourage him, you continue to say 
" Toho toho," most impressively then, giving him the 
wind, go up together to the bird, and make him " point 
dead " close to it. Take it up, and let him fumble the 
feathers before you loop it on the bag. 

324. Never let a dog whom you have been forced to 
chastise bolt or creep away until you order him. If he 
is ever allowed to move off at his wish, he will improve 


upon the idea, and on the next occasion will far too soon 
anticipate yours. And do not send him off, until he has 
given some evidence of having forgiven you, and of his 
desire to be reconciled, by crawling towards you, for 
instance, or wagging his tail. On no occasion under 
circumstances of ever such great provocation be so 
weak or irritable (but I hope you do not need the 
warning) as to give him a kick or a blow when he is 
going off. He ought to have stood with reassured con- 
fidence alongside of you, for perhaps a minute or so, 
before you sanctioned his departure ; and the severer 
his punishment the longer should have been the deten- 
tion. You are always to part tolerable friends, while he 
feels perfectly convinced that his chastisement is over. 
If you do not, you may find it rather difficult to catch 
him when he commits another fault. It will be owing 
to your own injudiciousness if he ever become afraid of 
approaching you after making a blunder. Should he be 
so, sit down. He will gradually draw near you ; then 
quietly put your hand on his collar. 

325. If a man cannot readily get hold of any dog 
under his tuition whom he desires to rate or punish, 
you may be certain that he fails either in temper or 
judgment ; perhaps in both. He may be an excellent 
man, but he cannot be a good dog-breaker. There are 
men who get quite enraged at a dog's not coming in- 
stantly to " heel " on being called. When at length the 
poor brute does come within reach, he gets a blow, per- 
haps a licking a blow or licking, he has the sense to 
see he should have longer avoided had he stayed longer 
away. Thus the punishment increases instead of reme- 
dying the evil. 

326. Never correct or even rate a dog, in the mere 
"belief that he is in error ; be first convinced of his guilt. 


If you have good reason to suspect that, unseen by you, 
he has wilfully sprung birds, still rather give him an 
earnest caution than any severer rebuke. It is not easy 
to repair the mischief occasioned by unjust punishment. 
When from his sheepish look, or any other cause, you 
imagine that he k has raised game, either through heedless- 
ness, or from their being unusually wild, be sure to give 
him a short lecture, and accompany him to the haunt. 
A lingering bird may occasionally reward you. If his 
manner has led you to form an incorrect opinion, your 
warning can have no other effect than to increase his 
caution (rarely an undesirable result) ; and if you are 
right, the admonition is obviously most judicious. 

327. Let me caution you against the too common 
error of punishing a dog by pulling his ears. It has 
often occasioned bad canker. Some men are of opinion 
that it is frequently the cause of premature deafness. 
When you rate him you may lay hold of an ear and 
shake it, but not with violence. 

328. I would strongly recommend you always to 
make your young dog " drop " for half a minute or so, 
when he sees a hare ; or when he hears a bird rise.* 
To effect this, stand still yourself. After a few seconds 
you can either hie him on, or, which is yet better, get 
close to him if you expect other birds to spring. You 
will thus, especially in potatoes or turnips, often obtain 
shots at birds which would have made off, had he con- 
tinued to hunt, and early in the season be frequently 
enabled to bag the tail-bird of a covey. This plan will 
also tend to make him cautious, and prevent his getting 
a habit of blundering-up birds, and cunningly pretending 
not to have noticed their escape. It will also make him 

* Of course, with the proviso that he is not pointing at another 
bird <274). 


less inclined to chase hares and rabbits, or rush at a 
falling bird. 

329. On approaching a piece of turnips, you may 
have heard, "Let us couple up all the. dogs excepting 
Old Don ; " the veteran's experience having shown him, 
that the only effect of his thundering through them" 
would be to scare every bird and make it rise out of 
shot. You, on the contrary, when your pupil is well 
confirmed in his range, and has some knowledge of his 
distance from game, ought to wish the other dogs kept 
to "Heel" (especially when the seed has been broad- 
cast), that by the word " Care " and the hand slightly 
raised, you may instil into him the necessary caution, 
and so, by judicious tuition, give him the benefit of your 
own experience. Most probably you would be obliged to 
employ the checkcord * which I presume to be always 
at hand ready for occasional use. Or you might strap 
your shot-belt round his throat, for it is essential that 
he traverse such ground slowly, and greatly contract his 
range, (see 197). The several cross scents he will 
encounter should afford him a valuable lesson in de- 
tecting the most recent, and in discriminating between 
the "heel and toe" of a run. Be patient, give him 
time to work and consider what he is about. It is 
probable that he will frequently overrun the birds 
on their doubling back, and imagine that they are 
gone. Should he do so, bring him again on the spot 
where he appeared to lose the scent. He now rushes 
up the adjacent drill. "Slower, slower," signals your 
right arm ; " go no faster than I can walk comfortably." 
On the other hand, the birds may lie like stones. Not 
until you have remained nearly a minute alongside of 

* Lest the cord should cut the employ the elastic band spoken of 
turnip-tops, it might be better to in 60. 

CH. xi.] LESSON IN "GONE." 193 

him let him urge them to rise ; and make him effect 
this, not by a sudden dash, but by steadily pressing on 
the scent. Bear in mind, as before warned (193), that 
the confidence with which he can here creep on to a 
near find may lead, if he is now mismanaged, to his 
springing on future occasions, from want of care, many 
a bird at which he ought to get you a shot. 

330. If you can contrive it, let your pupil have some 
little experience in the field before you give him a real 
lesson in "Gone" (or "Flown"). Instead of being 
perplexed, he will then comprehend you. Should you, 
therefore, during the first few days of hunting him, see 
birds make off, in lieu of taking him to the haunt (as 
many breakers erroneously do), carefully keep him 
from the spot. You cannot let him run riot over the 
reeking scent without expecting him to do the same 
when next he finds ; and if, in compliance with your 
orders, he points, you are making a fool of him there 
is nothing before him ; and if he does not fancy you as 
bewildered as himself, he will imagine that the exhilara- 
ting effluvia he rejoices in is the sum total you both 
seek. This advice, at first sight, may appear to contra- 
dict that given in 132 and 306 ; but look again, and 
you will find that those paragraphs referred to peculiar 
cases. Should your young dog be loitering and sniffing 
at a haunt which he has seen birds quit, he cannot well 
mistake the meaning of your calling out, " Gone, gone." 



331. Shooting Hares not recommended ; shooting Rabbits strongly condemned. In 
Note, why superior Grouse-Dog better than superior Partridge-Dog. Dog brought 
from strange country always hunts to disadvantage. 332. Put off killing Hares 
long as possible. 333. Dogs not to quit faint Scent of Birds for strong Scent of 
Hare. 334. Dog off after Hare ; no racing after Dog ; Puss gone down wind. 
335. Checkcord employed. Drive in spike on "So-ho-ing" Hare. 336. Impro- 
propriety of Firing at Dog. 337. Hares scarce, visit Rabbit-warren. 338. 
Morning, hunt where no Hares ; evening, where plentiful. Mountain-hares. In 
Note, how to choose, and tell age of, Hares and Rabbits. 339. Killing Hare in 
its form. 340. Shooting Bird on ground. 341. Dog taught to pursue wounded 
Hare. 342. Whip carried, saves punishment. Detention of Dog at crouching 
posture, saves whip. 343. Pointer's revenge for detention from hunting. 
344. Few cuts, but severe ones. 345. Instance of timidity cured. Range im- 
parted by giving Dog feet of Partridge. In Note, sinews of thigh dragged out. 
346. Punishment, not defective Nose, causes Blinking. 347. Courage imparted 
to' timid Dogs. 348. Dogs expect punishment for faults ; vexed when Birds are 
not fired at. 349. Instance of Pointer's not hunting keenly until punished. 
350. What Dog to select to teach yours to "Back." 351. Example has great 
influence. 352. Instanced in conduct of young bitch when hunted with steady 
dog. In Note, Mare teaching Colts to swim. 353. "Backing" old Dog. 

354. "Finder" to "road" to a "rise;" his intrusive companion described. 

355. To "Back" by Eye, not Nose. 356. Encourage old Dog before rating the 
other. 357. "Finder" not to advance, even if passed by other Dog. 358. The 
"Backer" should "down charge." 359. Dog when pointing never to "down 
charge ;" how taught. 360. Much required in " Dove." 

331. PROBABLY you may be in a part of the country 
where you may wish to kill hares to your dog's point. 
I will, therefore, speak about them, though I confess I 
cannot do it with much enthusiasm. Ah ! my English 
friend, what far happier autumns we should spend 
could we but pass them in the Highlands ! Then we 
should think little about those villanous hares (338). 
We should direct the whole undivided faculties of our 
dogs, to work out the haunt of the noble grouse.* As 

* A superior dog on grouse more than a superior partridge-dog be- 
easily becomes good on partridge comes good on grouse. Grouse 



for rabbits, I beg we may have no further acquaintance, 
if you ever, even in imagination, shoot them to your 
young dog. Should you be betrayed into so vile a 
practice, you must resign all hope of establishing in 
him a confirmed systematic range. He will degene- 
rate into a low potterer, a regular hedge-hunter. In 
turnips he will always be thinking more of rabbits than 
birds. It will be soon enough to shoot the little 
wretches to him when he is a venerable grandfather. 
The youngster's noticing them (which he would be 
sure to do if you had ever killed one to him) might 

must have found difficult (though 
none are ever shot to him) from 
the few that, comparatively speak- 
ing, his pupil could have seen. 
Independently, however, of want 
of pace and practice in reading, it 
never would he fair to take a dog 
direct from the Lowlands to con- 
tend on the Highlands with one 
habituated to the latter, and vice 
versd, for the stranger would always 
be placed to great disadvantage. 
A faint, scent of game which the 
other would instantly recognise, 
he would not acknowledge from 
being wholly unaccustomed to it. 
Sometimes, however, a grouse dog 
of a ticklish temper will not bear 
being constantly called to on 
"breaking fence." A fine, free 
ranging pointer, belonging to one 

of the brothers H y, when 

brought to an enclosed county, 
became quite subdued and dis- 
pirited. He could not stand the 
rating he received for bounding 
over the hedges, and he evidently 
derived no enjoyment from the 
sport, though there were plenty 
of birds. On returning to the 
Highlands, he quite recovered his 
animation and perseverance. He 
added another to the many evi- 
dences that dogs are most attached 
to, and at home on, the kind of 
country they first hunted. 


run so much, both when they are 
pairing, and after the first night 
of the young pack, that a dog 
broken on them has necessarily 
great practice in "roading," ("road- 
ing," too, with the nose carried 
high to avoid strong heather a 
valuable instructor), whereas the 
dog broken on partridge often be- 
comes impatient, and breaks away 
when he first finds grouse. The 
former dog, moreover, will learn 
not to "break fence," and the 
necessity of moderating his pace 
when hunting stubbles and turnips, 
sooner than the latter will acquire 
the extensive fast beat so desirable 
on heather, where he can work for 
hours uninterrupted by hedge, 
ditch, or furrow ; making casts to 
the right and left a quarter of a 
mile in length. First impressions 
are as strong in puppyhood as in 
childhood ; therefore the advan- 
tage of having such ground to 
commence on must be obvious. 
There are, however, favoured spots 
in Perthshire, &c., where game so 
abounds that close rangers are as 
necessary as when hunting in 
England. Alas ! even the grouse - 
dog will take far too quickly to 
hedge-hunting and pottering when 
on the stubbles. It is, of course, 
presumed that he is broken from 
" chasing hare" a task his trainer 


frequently lead to your mis-instructing him, by earnestly 
enforcing " Care " at a moment when you ought to rate 
him loudly with the command "Ware" (or "No"). 
But to our immediate subject. 

332. Defer as long as possible the evil day of shooting 
a hare over him, that he may not get too fond (69) of 
such vermin I beg pardon, I mean game and when 
you do kill one, so manage that he may not see it put 
into the bag. On no account let him mouth it. You 
want him to love the pursuit of feather more than of 
fur, that he may never be taken off the faintest scent of 
birds by coming across the taint of a hare. I therefore 
entreat you, during his first season, if you will shoot 
hares, to fire only at those which you are likely to kill 
outright ; for the taint of a wounded hare is so strong 
that it would probably diminish his zeal, and the sensi- 
tiveness of his nose, in searching for a winged bird. 

333. The temptation is always great to quit for a 
strong scent of hare (which any coarse-nosed dog can 
follow), a feeble one of birds ; therefore it is a very 
satisfactory test of good breaking to see a dog, when he 
is drawing upon birds, in no way interrupted by a hare 
having just crossed before him. If you aim at such 
excellence, and it is frequently attained in the High- 
lands, it is certain you must not shoot hares over your 

334. I hope that he will not see a hare before you 
have shot a few birds over him. The first that springs 
up near him will test the perfection to which he has 
attained in his initiatory lessons. Lose not a moment. 
It is most essential to restrain instantaneously the 
naturally strong impulse of the dog to run after four- 
footed game. Halloo out " Drop " to the extent of your 
voice, raise your hand, crack your whip, do all you 

CH. xii.] OFF AFTER HARE. 197 

can to prevent his pursuing. Of course you will not 
move an inch. Should he commence running, thunder 
out "No," "no." If, in spite of everything, he bolts 
after the hare, you have nothing for it but patience. 


It is of no use to give yourself a tit of asthma by 
following him. You have only half as many legs as he 
has, a deficiency you would do well to keep secret 
from him as long as possible. Wait quietly where you 
are for an hour if necessary. You have one conso- 
lation, puss, according to her usual custom, has run 
down wind ; your dog has lost sight of her, and is, I 
see, with his nose to the ground, giving himself an 
admirable lesson in reading out a haunt. After a time 
he will come back looking rather ashamed of himself, 
conscious that he did wrong in disobeying, and vexed 
with himself from having more than a suspicion forced 

198 CHECKCORD. [CH. xn. 

upon him, that he cannot run so fast as the hare. 
When he has nearly reached you, make him " drop." 
Scold him severely, saying, " Ware chase " (a command 
that applies to the chase of birds as well as of hares). 
Pull him to the place where he was when first he got a 
view of the hare, make him lie down, rate him well, 
call out " No," or " Hare," or " Ware chase," or any 
word you choose, provided you uniformly employ the 
same. Smack the whip and punish him with it, but 
not so severely as you did when we assumed that he 
tore the bird (end of 322). You then flogged him for 
two offences : first, because he rushed in and seized the 
bird ; secondly, because he tore it and tasted blood. 
If you had not then punished him severely, you could 
never have expected him to be tender-mouthed. On 
the next occasion he might have swallowed the bird, 
feathers and all. 

335. Should he persist in running after hares, you 
must employ the checkcord. If you see the hare, at 
which he is pointing, in its form, drive a peg firmly 
into the ground, and attach the cord to it, giving him a 
few slack yards, so that after starting off he may be 
arrested with a tremendous jerk. Fasten the line to 
the part of the spike close to the ground, or he may 
pull it out. 

336. I have known a dog to be arrested in a headlong- 
chase by a shot fired at him : an act which you will 
think yet more reprehensible than the previous mis- 
management for which his owner apparently knew no 
other remedy than this hazardous severity. 

337. When you are teaching your dog to refrain from 
chasing hares, take him, if you can, where they are 
plentiful If they are scarce, and you are in the neigh- 
bourhood of a rabbit-warren, visit it occasionally of an 

CH. xii.] MOUNTAIN- HARES. 199 

evening. He will there get so accustomed to see the 
little animals running about unpursued by either of 
you, that his natural anxiety to chase fur, whether it 
grow on the back of hare or rabbit, will be gradually 

338. In Scotland there are tracts of heather where 
one may hunt for weeks together and not find a hare ; 
indeed, it is commonly observed, that hares are always 
scarce on those hills where grouse most abound. In 
other parts they are extremely numerous. Some sports- 
men in the Highlands avail themselves of this con- 
trasted ground, in order to break a young dog from 
"chasing." They hunt him, as long as he continues 
fresh, where there are no hares ; and when he becomes 
tired, they take him to the Lowlands, where they are 
plentiful. By then killing a good many over him, and 
severely punishing him whenever he attempts to follow, 
a cure is often effected in two or three days. In the 
yet higher ranges, the mountain-hares,* from possessing 
a peculiarly strong scent, and not running to a distance, 
are a severe trial to the steadiest dog. 

In the autumn they are nearly blue ; in the winter white ; and in 
some counties are now found in marvellous quantities. The greater 
pains taken of late years to destroy all kinds of vermin, has much 
tended to their increase. A few seasons ago a party at Lord 

M d's, in Perthshire, killed seven hundred in one day. The 

plan adopted was for a large body of men and boys to surround a 
hill at its base, and beating slantingly upwards, to drive all the 
hares before them. The sportsmen, who formed part of the ascending 

* The ears of young hares tear to the strongest pressure of your 

readily ; and there is a gristly fingers. 

substance, larger than half a pea, When you observe that the 

at the end of the shank -bone of carving knife performs the part 

the fore-leg, just above the joint, of curling-tongs, prefer a help 

which departs with youth. Their from the birds at the top of the 

smooth, close, sharp claws dis- table. 

appear afterwards ; and when quite Ditto, ditto, in all particulars, 

old their jaw-bones become so with regard to rabbits, 
strong as not to yield and crack 


cordon, obtained many shots ; but the principal slaughter was 
reserved for the guns previously posted on the top. There is, how- 
ever, little sport or fun in such stationary, wholesale butchery, 
beyond the excitement of competition, and not being able to load 
fast enough. The doomed animals, being solely attentive to the 
movements of their assailants below, come trooping upwards, and 
, are mostly knocked over whilst sitting on their haunches, listening 
5 to the unusual sounds made by the approaching beaters. 

339. Killing a sitting hare to your dog's point will 
wonderfully steady him from chasing ; but do not fire 
until he has remained stanch for a considerable time. 
This will show him that puss is far more likely to be 
bagged by your firing, than by his pursuing. 

340. For the same object, I mean, to make your 
young dog stanch, I would recommend your killing a 
few birds on the ground to his point, were it not that 
you rarely have the opportunity. 

341. When you have made your dog perfectly steady 
from chasing, you may (supposing you have no retriever 
at hand), naturally enough, inquire how you are to 
teach him to follow any hare you may be so unlucky 
as merely to wound. I acknowledge that the task is 
difficult. I would say, at once resolve to give up every 
wounded hare during his first season.* The following 
year, provided you find that he remains quite steady, on 
your wounding an unfortunate wretch, encourage your 
dog to pursue it by running yourself after it. When he 
gets hold of it, check him if he mauls it, and take it 
from him as quickly as possible. As I cannot suppose 
that you are anxious to slaughter every hare you see, 
let the next two or three go off without a shot. This 
forbearance will re-steady him, and after a while his 
own sagacity and nose (545) will show him that the 

* This appears extremely cruel; would not make this sacrifice, at 

remember, however, that 1 en- least " only to lire at those which 

treated you to abstain entirely you were likely to kill outright " 

from shooting hares ; but if you (332). 


established usage was departed from solely, because 
puss was severely struck. 

342. As you wish to flog your dog as little as possible, 
never go out without your whip, paradoxical as this may 
appear. The dog's salutary awe of the implement 
which he sees in your possession, like a horse's con- 
sciousness of your heel being armed with a spur, will 
tend to keep him in order. If the dog is a keen ranger, 
you may much spare the whip by making him crouch 
at your feet for several minutes after he has committed 
a fault. The detention will be felt by him, when he is 
all anxiety to be off hunting, as a severe punishment. 
If he is a mettlesome, high-couraged animal, he will 
regard, as a yet severer punishment, his being compelled 
to follow at your heels for half-an-hour, while the other 
dogs are allowed the enjoyment of hunting. 

343. Captain W 1, (son of the celebrated shot), was in the 

stubbles in '50 with some friends, who were anxious to see how 
their own dogs hunted. He, therefore, had his favourite pointer 
taken up and led by an attendant. This first-rate animal, who is 
passionately devoted to the sport, struggled so violently to get free, 
that he actually foamed at the mouth. After a time he was un- 
coupled ; when, instead of hunting as usual, he raced over the field, 
quartering his ground most systematically, and designedly springing 
all the birds. Quite useless was every halloo and threat, whether 
of voice or whip ; stop he would not, as long as there was a feather 
in the field. Satisfied then with the mischief he had done, he sat 
down by the hedge, quietly awaiting any punishment that might be 
awarded him. His master, however, feeling persuaded that the dog 
had only acted from the impulse of momentary passion, and with 
the intention of avenging the unusual indignity to which he had 
been subjected, merely reproached him for his misconduct, and 
allowed him to hunt the next field, which he did as steadily as 
ever. This was somewhat similar to " Captain's" behaviour (492). 

344. Excess of punishment has made many a dog 
of good promise a confirmed blinker; and of far more 
has it quenched that keen ardour for the sport, without 
which no dog can be first-rate. For this reason, if 
not from more humane motives, make it a rule to 

202 BIRDS' FEET GIVEN. [CH. xir. 

give but few cuts ; let them, however, be tolerably 
severe. Your pupil's recollection of them, when he 
hears the crack of the whip, will prevent the necessity 
of their frequent repetition. 

345. I knew of a young fellow's purchasing a pointer of an ex- 
cellent breed from a gamekeeper for a few shillings merely, as the 
animal had become so timid from over-chastisement, that she not 
only blinked her game, but seldom quitted the man's heels. 

The lad had the good sense to treat the bitch, at all 
times, with the greatest kindness ; and in order to in- 
duce her to hunt, he used to break off the feet* of every 
bird he killed, and give them to her to eat along with 
the sinews. The plan succeeded so well that she even- 
tually became an unusually keen and fast ranger. This 
would be a hazardous step to take with a dog wanted 
to retrieve. There are few, if any dogs who may not 
be tempted by hunger to eat game. A gentleman told 
me, that, to his great astonishment, he one day saw an 
old tender-mouthed retriever, that he had possessed for 
years, deliberately swallow a partridge. Before he could 
get up to the dog even the tail-feathers had disappeared. 
On inquiry it turned out that, through some neglect, 
the animal had not been fed. 

346. Some argue that blinking arises from a defective 
nose, not from punishment ; but surely it is the in- 
judicious chastisement following the blunders caused by 

* Thus greatly improving it for front of and about the middle of 
table. The cook who first thought its legs, crack the bone across 
of breaking the legs of birds, and that part with a blow of the knife ; 
dragging out the sinews, ought to then stick the sinews of the foot 
be immortalized. The first person on a hook fixed high against the 
I saw practising the feat was an wall, seize firm hold of the thigh 
admirable black man-cook, in the of the turkey, give a sudden power- 
West Indies : he was preparing ful pull, and leave the lower part 
turkeys for a large supper ; and, of the leg, with a large body of 
to my great surprise, I saw him sinews, perfectly stripped of all 
take up each bird, cut the skin in flesh, suspended on the hook. 


a bad nose that makes a dog, through fear, go to "heel" 
when he winds birds. A bad nose may lead to a dog's 
running up birds from not noticing them, but it cannot 
naturally induce him to run away from them. Possibly 
he may be worthless from a deficiency in his olfactory 
powers ; but it is hard to conceive how these powers 
can be improved by a dread of doing mischief when he 
finds himself near game. Some dogs that have been 
unduly chastised do not even betray themselves by 
running to " heel," but cunningly slink away from their 
birds without giving you the slightest intimation of their 
vicinity. I have seen such instances. When a young 
dog, who has betrayed symptoms of blinking, draws 
upon birds, head him, if you can, before you give him 
the order to " toho : " he will then have such a large 
circuit to make, that he will feel the less tempted to run 
to your heels. 

347. Obedience and intelligence are, as I have already 
remarked, best secured by judicious ratings and en- 
couragements, scoldings for bad conduct, praise, 
caresses, and rewards for good. Never forget, there- 
fore, to have some delicacy in your pocket to give the 
youngster whenever he may deserve it. All dogs, how- 
ever, even the most fearful, ought to be made able to 
bear a little punishment. If, unfortunately, your dog 
is constitutionally timid (I cannot help saying un- 
fortunately, though so many of the sort have fine noses), 
the whip must be employed with the greatest gentle- 
ness, the lash being rather laid on the back than used, 
until such forbearance, and many caresses before his 
dismissal, have gradually banished the animal's alarm, 
and ultimately enabled you to give him a very slight 
beating, on his misconducting himself, without any 
danger of making him blink. By such means, odd as 


it may sound, you create courage, and with it give him 
self-confidence and range. 

348. A judiciously-educated dog will know as well as 
you do whether or not he has earned a chastisement, 
and many a one is of so noble a nature that he will not 
wish to avoid it if he is conscious that he deserves it. 
He will become as anxious for good sport as you are, 
and feel that he ought to be punished, if from his own 
misconduct he mars it. Indeed, he will not have much 
opinion of your sagacity if you do not then give him 
a sound rating, or let him have a taste of the lash, 
though it matters not how slight. Clearly this feeling, 
which it will be right to foster, must have arisen from 
his belief that you are always conscious of his actions 
(383) ; therefore never check him for coming towards 
you on his committing any unseen error. Moreover, 
when he has been but a little shot to, you will find that 
if you abstain from firing at a bird which through his 
fault he has improperly flushed, although in its flight 
it affords you an excellent shot, you will greatly vex 
him ; and this will tend to make him more careful for 
the future. 

349. Mr. C s K n (286) had a pointer who would at once 

give up hunting if he was not properly chastised on committing 
a fault ; but what is far more extraordinary, and strongly shows 
the varied, and occasionally odd dispositions of dogs, he would 
never hunt keenly until from birds rising wildly (or from some other 
cause) an excuse arose for giving him a flogging. After receiving the 
punishment he would start off in the greatest spirits, and range 
with uncommon ardour and perseverance. An excuse was, however, 
quite indispensable ; for, if from a good-humoured desire to gratify 
his apparent longings he was favoured beforehand with a thrashing, 
he would consider himself imposed on, and forthwith run home. 

350. When, after a few weeks, you perceive that the 
youngster has confidence in himself, and is likely to 
hunt independently, not deferentially following the foot- 
steps of an older companion, take out a well-broken 

CH. xii.] BACKING TAUGHT. 205 

dog with him, that you may have the opportunity of 
teaching him to " back." Be careful to choose one not 
given to make false points ; for if he commit such mis- 
takes, your pupil will soon utterly disregard his pointing. 
Select also one who draws upon his birds in a fine, 
determined attitude ; not one to whose manner even 
you must be habituated to feel certain he is on game. 
Be watchful to prevent your dog ever hunting in the 
wake of the other, which, in the humility of canine 
youth, he probably will, unless you are on the alert 
to wave him in a different direction, the moment you 
observe him inclined to seek the company of his more 
experienced associate. By selecting a slow old dog, 
you will probably diminish the wish of the young one 
to follow him ; for it is likely that the youngster's 
eagerness will make him push on faster, and so take 
the lead. 

351. The example for a few days (but only for a few 
days) of a good stanch dog who is not a hedge-hunter, 
has no bad habits, and does not require being called 
to, will be advantageous to your inexperienced animal ; 
as an instance : 

352. On one occasion, when I was abroad, I lent a favourite dog 
to a young friend who had requested the services of the animal for 
his kennel, not the field. I much objected to any person's shooting 
over the dog except myself, particularly as it was only his second 
season. Therefore, very knowingly as I thought, I sent him on a 
Saturday evening, having obtained a promise that he should be 
returned to me early on Monday morning and so he was ; the lad, 
however, had done me ; for he confessed, many months afterwards, 
that he could not resist the temptation of taking out my pointer 
snipe-shooting on the intermediate Sunday along with his little 
liver-coloured bitch ; and with a glowing countenance he observed 
that he never had been so enchanted, for his young lady seeing her 
fond companion drop instantly the gun was fired, and remain im- 
moveable until " hied on," sedulously imitated him throughout the 
day. It was the making of her, but as it was the first time in 
her young life she had ever behaved steadily, there was a great 
risk of my pointer's being much injured ; for, alas ! like poor 


mortals, dogs are more prone to follow a bad example * than a good 
one. We are, however, wandering. 

353. On the old dog's pointing, catch the eye of the 
young one. If you cannot readily do so, and are not 
afraid of too much alarming the birds, call to the old 
fellow by name, and desire him to " toho." The order 
will make the young one look round, and awaken him 
to a suspicion of what is going forward. Hold up your 
right arm, stand still for a minute, and then, carrying 
your gun as if you were prepared momentarily to fire, 
retreat, or move sideways in crab-like fashion towards 
the old dog, continuing your signal to the other to 
remain steady, and turning your face to him, so that he 
may be restrained by the feeling that your eye is con- 
stantly fixed upon him. He will soon remark the 
attitude of the old dog, and almost intuitively guess its 
meaning. Should the old one draw upon his game, still 
the other dog must remain stationary. If he advance but 
an inch, rate him. Should he rush up (which is hardly 
to be expected), at him at once ; having made him 
drop, catch hold of him, and drag him to the place at 
which he should have backed, there (if you judge such 
strong measures necessary) peg him down until after 
you have had your shot and are reloaded. If by head- 
ing the birds you can drive them towards the young 

* A singular evidence of the in- the example set them by the mare, 
flue nee of example was furnished voluntarily took to the water, and 
by a favourite charger belonging gradually became expert swim- 
to the father of the present Lord mers. Until within a short time 

G d. As a reward for gallant of her death, and she attained the 

service, she had been turned out unusual age of forty-three, she 

for life, when only seven years continued to bathe ; and I have 

old, on the banks of the Shannon. heard that she was evidently much 

She had a shed to run into, and puzzled and vexed whenever from 

plenty of hay in winter. It pleased the stream being frozen she could 

her, in all seasons, daily to have not get her plunge. She would 

a swim in the river. Year after walk a little way on the ice, but 

year colts were turned out on the finding it too slippery, unwillingly 

same grass. All these, following return. 


dog, do so ; and aim at the one most likely to fall near 
him. Endeavour to make him comprehend that any 
sign or word to urge on or retard the leading dog, in no 
way applies to him. This he will soon understand if he 
has been properly instructed with an associate in the 
initiatory lesson described in (49). After you have 
picked up the bird let him sniff at it. 

354. It is most important that the dog which first 
winds birds should be allowed to " road" them to a 
spring without being flurried, or in any way interfered 
with by another dog. Few things are more trying to 
your temper as a sportsman, than to see a self-sufficient 
cub, especially when birds are wild, creep up to the 
old dog whom he observes pointing at a distance, or 
cautiously drawing upon a covey. The young whipper- 
snapper pays no attention to your most energetic signals : 
you are afraid to speak lest you should alarm the birds, 
and before you can catch hold of the presumptuous 
jackanapes, he not only steals close to the good old dog, 
but actually ventures to head him ; nay, possibly dares 
to crawl on yet nearer to the birds in the hope of enjoy- 
ing a more intoxicating sniff. 

355. All dogs but the " finder" should stand wholly 
by sight, just the reverse of pointing. Your dog's nose 
ought to have nothing to do with backing. If you per- 
mit it, he will get the abominable habit of creeping up 
to his companions in the manner just described (354), 
when he observes them to be winding birds ; and though 
he may not presume to take the lead, nay, even keep at 
so respectful a distance as in no way to annoy the 
" finder," yet a longing to inhale the " grateful steam " 
(as that good poet and capital sportsman, Somerville, 
terms it) will make him constantly watch the other 
dogs, instead of bestowing his undivided attention and 


faculties upon finding game for himself. It is quite 
enough if he backs whenever you order him, or he 
accidentally catches sight of another dog either " point- 
ing" or "reading ;" and the less he is looking after his 
companions, the more zealously will he attend to his 
own duties. 

356. If you have any fears that the old dog when he 
is on birds will not act steadily, should you have occa- 
sion to chide the young one, be careful to give the old 
dog a word expressive of your approval, before you com- 
mence to rate the other. 

357. When your youngster is hereafter hunted in 
company, should he make a point, and any intrusive 
companion, instead of properly backing him, "be im- 
pertinently pressing on, the youngster should not be 
induced (however great may be the trial upon his 
patience and forbearance) to draw one foot nearer to the 
game than his own knowledge of distance tells him is 
correct ; not even if his friend, or rather, jealous rival, 
boldly assumes the front rank. Your pupil will have 
a right to look to you for protection, and to expect that 
the rash intruder, however young, be at the least well 

358. It is a matter of little moment whether the 
" backer " attends to the " down charge," or continues to 
back as long as the other dog remains at his point. It 
appears, however, best, that he should " drop," unless he 
is so near that he winds the game, when he would be 
rather pointing than backing (and should, consequently, 
behave as explained in 274) ; for the fewer exceptions 
there are to general rules the more readily are the 
rules observed. 

359. Should both dogs make separate points at the 
same moment, it is clear that neither can back the other. 


They must act independently each for himself. More- 
over, your firing over one should not induce the other 
to " down charge," or in any way divert his attention 
from his own birds. He ought to remain immoveable 
as a statue. Some dogs, whose high courage has not 
been damped by over-correction, will do this from their 
own sagacity ; but to enable you to teach them to behave 
thus steadily, game should be plentiful. When you are 
lucky enough to observe both dogs pointing at the same 
time, let your fellow-sportsman (or your attendant) flush 
and fire at the birds found by the older dog, while 
you remain stationary near the young one, quietly but 
earnestly cautioning him to continue firm. When your 
companion has reloaded and picked up his game (and 
made the other dog "back"), let him join you and knock 
over the bird at which your pupil is pointing. It will 
not be long before he (your young dog) understands 
what is required of him, if he has been practised (as 
recommended in 274) not to "down charge" when 
pointing unsprung birds. In short, it may be received 
as an axiom, that nothing ought to make a dog voluntarily 
relinquish a point so long as he winds birds; and nothing 
but the wish to continue his point should make him neglect 
the "down charge" the instant he hears the near report 
of a gun. 

360. " Dove," (the setter spoken of in 102, who invariably stands 
at her point,) on one occasion in the season of '50 dropped as usual 
on her master's firing at some distance from her ; but, instead of 
"seeking dead" as ordered when he had reloaded, she remained 
immoveable at the " down charge," although repeatedly coaxed and 
called to. The sportsman thought that birds must be near, and 
after much perseverance, he succeeded in walking up a brace that 
were lying close to her. We must allow that this was a prettily 
conceived piece of caution on the part of Mrs. " Dove ; " but how 
far more usefully would she have acted had she been taught the 
inferiority of the " down charge " to the continued point, followed 
by the " road " to successive birds. 



331. The "back" being taught young Dog again hunted alone. 362. Break ershun 
too many together. Why injudicious. 363. One hour's Instruction alone, better 
than a day's in company. 364. Horse's value little dependent on Education 
Dog's greatly. Many good points in Dog, similar to those in Horse ; in Note, 
Frame of Pony studied. Arab proverbs. Admirable receipt for putting hard 
flesh on Horse. Hoof Ointment. 365. Hints to Dog-purchasers. Tenderness 
of Nose, how judged of. 366 to 368. Instance of great superiority of Nose in 
Pointer on bad scenting Day. 369. Ditto in Setter. 370. In Breeding, Nose 
sought for in both parents. 371. Good Dog, like good Horse, not suited to all 
countries. 372. Purchasing a Brace of Dogs, before buying shoot over. 373. 
Case in Point. 374. Rushing in to "dead," how cured. 375. Dogs shot over 
"single-handed." Jealousy decreases with intimacy. Independence and self- 
reliance, how imparted. 376. Good Breeding and Breaking command good 
Prices. 377 to 379. Great Sums realized at Tattersall's for thirteen highly-bred 

Pointers. 380. Small sums unknown Dogs fetch. 381. Mr. C t's Dogs half 

a sovereign each. 382. Immense price given for stanch Setter. 383. Best Dogs ; 
summary of rules for making, concisely given. The best will make mistakes. 
384. Companionship with man makes Dog useful servant. 385. Tweed-side 
Spaniel and blind man. 386. Dog that always ran riot when out of sight. 
387. Killing Sheep; cure attempted. 388. Another plan. 389. Third attempt 

at Remedy. 390. Sir H n S d's recipe. 391. Muzzle Dog likely to worry 

Sheep. 392. Killing Fowls ; the cure. 

361. WHEN your dog has been properly taught the 
"back," fail not to recommence hunting him alone, if 
it is your object to establish a perfect range. 

362. Professional dog-breakers, I have remarked, 
almost invariably hunt too many dogs together. This 
arises, I suppose, from the number which they have to 
train; but the consequence is, that the younger dogs are 
spectators rather than actors, and, instead of ranging 
independently in search of game, are watching the 
manoeuvres of their older associates. 


363. A glimmering of knowledge may be picked up 
in this way ; but no one will argue that it is likely to 
create great excellence. Doubtless the young ones will 
be good backers ; and to the inexperienced a troop of 
perhaps a dozen dogs, all in chiselled form, stanchly 
backing an old leader, is a most imposing sight, but if 
the observer were to accompany the whole party for a 
few hours, he would remark, I will bet any money, that 
the same veterans would over and over again find the 
birds, and that the "perfectly" broken young ones in 
the rear would do nothing but " back " and " down 
charge." What can they know of judicious quartering ? 
Of obeying the signals of the hand ? Of gradually 
drawing upon the faintest token of a scent (only per- 
ceptible to a nose carried high in the air) until they 
arrive at a confident point ? Of perseveringly working 
out the foil of a slightly winged bird, on a hot still day, 
to a sure " find ? " Nothing, or next to nothing, nearly 
all is to be taught ; and yet the breaker will show orf 
those raw recruits as perfectly drilled soldiers. Would 
they not have had a much better chance of really being 
so, if he had given a small portion of his time each day 
to each ? He well knows they would ; but the theatrical 
display would not be half so magnificent. If he had 
truly wished to give his pupils a good systematic range, 
without a doubt he would have devoted one hour in the 
field exclusively to each dog, rather than many hours to 
several at once and not have associated any together 
in the field until he had gained full command over each 
separately. And this he would have done (because it 
would have tended to his interest), had he supposed that 
his dog's qualifications would be investigated by judges, 
by those who would insist on seeing a. dog hunted 
singly (in order to observe his method of ranging), or 





with, but one companion, before they thought of defini- 
tively purchasing. 

364. The good qualities of a horse being principally derived from 
nature, a judge can pretty accurately discover his general capabilities 
simply by a glance at his make and action ; but the good qualities 
of a sportsman's dog are chiefly derived from art ; consequently, 
though his movements may be light and springy, his countenance 
intelligent, his nostrils wide, his cerebral development large, 
his forehand deep, his ribs round and full, his elbows well de- 
tached from them, not tied in, his shoulders high, and slanting 
backwards, his loins muscular and arched, his quarters lengthy, 
and sinewy, his legs bony, and straight, his feet small and round, 
pointing direct to the front, his tail taper to the finest point from 
a strong root,* yet if he has been improperly shot over as a young- 

* The continuation of the ver- 
tebrse of the back, and clearly, 
therefore, an indication of their 
substance. Query Was it because 
our grandfathers knew that a tail 
naturally short was a pledge of 
stamina, that they endeavoured 
to imitate it by docking their 
horses and pointers? Curiously 
enough, the points named in 364 
as desirable in a dog are considered 
good in a horse. In portraits of 
the useful old English hunter, you 
never see a feeble, flexible neck, 
it is desirable that it should be 
arched, a dog's neck also should 
be sufficiently strong, and put on 
high. Neither horse nor dog should 
should have large fleshy heads, 
and a full bright eye is in both a 
sign of spirit and endurance. The 
canon bone in a horse should be 
short, so ought the corresponding 
bone of a dog's leg ; and every 
joint ought to be large, yet clean ; 
and (without a bull) the short ribs 
in both animals should be long. 
There are hardy horses whose flesh 
you cannot bring down without 
an amount of work that is inju- 
rious to their legs, there are also 
thrifty dogs which are constantly 
too fat, unless they are almost 
starved, and common sense tells us 
they cannot be so starved without 

their strength being much reduced. 
The analogy does not hold with 
respect to ears, for it is generally 
considered that the dog's should 
be soft and drooping, lying close 
to his head not short and ever in 
motion. Moreover, most men 
would wish his muzzle to be broad 
as well as long. 

Our eye is so accustomed to the 
sight of weeds, animals bred for 
short-lived speed, not for en- 
durance, that we no longer look 
for, and possibly do not properly 
appreciate, the short back (though 
long body), with scarcely room for 
a saddle ; and the width between 
the upper part of the shoulder- 
blades (as well as the lower) the 
indication of space within upon 
which points our forefathers justly 
set great value. We forget it's 
being mentioned of Eclipse, whose 
endurance is as undeniable as his 
speed, that he had a "shoulder 
broad enough to carry a firkin of 
butter," and that Stubb's por- 
traits of winners (of races four 
and occasionally six miles long !) 
show that they possessed power- 
fully muscular, as well as slanting 
shoulders. The frame of a clever 
Welsh, or New Forest pony, if his 
head is set on at a considerable 
angle with his neck, is perfection. 




ster he may never be worth his keep. Therefore, though a man 
may in five minutes decide upon purchasing the horse, he would act 
very imprudently if he ventured upon buying the dog before he had 
seen him hunted ; * unless indeed he feels well-justified confidence 
in the ability of the party who broke him in, and is also satisfied 
with the character, as a sportsman, of the person who has since shot 
over him. 

365. No dog can be worth a large sum, or should be considered 
perfectly made, that cannot be hunted in perfect silence, that is 
not good at finding dead or wounded birds, and that is not sure to 
point them when found. If in his transverse range he keep his 
head to windward it is a good sign, for it evinces his consciousness 
that it is in the breeze he should seek for an intimation of the 
vicinity of game. As to the excellence of his nose, this can only 
be fully ascertained by experience, and by comparing him in the 
field with other dogs ; but some opinion may be formed by observing 
whether on first winding game he confidently walks up to his point 

It might with profit be studied by 
any youngster wishing to form his 
eye, and know what, on an en- 
larged scale, should be the build 
of a real hunter, an animal fitted 
for every kind of work. The Arabs 
so much prize a short back and 
lengthy quarters, that they have 
a proverb to the effect that a horse 
which measures the same from the 
hip-bone to the end of his croupe, 
that he does from the hip-bone to 
the withers, is a blessing to his 
master. Another assertion of theirs 
is, that all their fastest horses 
measure less from the middle of 
the withers to the setting on of 
the tail, than they do from the 
middle of the withers to the ex- 
tremity of the nose, or rather 
extremity of the upper lip. This 
measurement is supposed to be 
taken along the crest of the neck, 
over the forelock, and between 
the eyes. 

It is sometimes so difficult to 
get a horse into condition, and the 
following recipe, given me by an 
old cavalry officer who is an ex- 
cellent stable-master, is so admi- 

rable, that I need not apologize 
for inserting it : 

" Give three 1 ounces of cold 
drawn linseed-oil in a cold inash 
every alternate night for a fort- 
night. If you judge it advisable, 
repeat the same after an interval 
of a fortnight. The good effects 
of the oil are not immediately 
visible, but in about a month the 
horse's coat will become glossy, 
and he will commence putting up 
good hard flesh." 

The daily rubbing in a portion 
of the following ointment into a 
horse's hoof (especially after exer- 
cise in moist ground, and on re- 
moval of wet bandages, before any 
evaporation can take place,} will 
prevent, indeed cure, brittleness 
that constant precursor of con- 
tracted feverish feet : 

Tar (not Coal Tar;. 

Soft Soap. 

Soap Cerate. 

Hog's Lard. 

4 Ib. of each well mixed together 
over a very slow fire. 

* Amidst sheep too. 

1 20 oz. s= 1 imperial pint. 


with a high head, or is shuffling in an undecided manner to the right 
and left (perhaps even pottering with his nose near the ground), 
before he can satisfy himself respecting the exact locality of the 
birds. There are favourable days when any dog can wind game, 
when finding many birds will far more depend upon " range " than 
nose. The surest way to test the olfactory powers of different dogs 
is to take them out directly after mid-day in sultry weather, or 
when a north-easterly wind has been blowing for some days. If 
their condition, &c. is then alike, you may be certain that the dog 
who winds most birds has the finest (or most cautious ?) nose. On 
such a day chance will but little assist him. 

366. On an extremely bad scenting day in October, 1838, a cold 

dry wind blowing from the east, the Hon. F C , Baron A. 

and Sir F. H , then partridge-shooting at C n, in Stafford- 
shire, saw a liver-coloured pointer take every point from three setters 
of some celebrity belonging to a very sporting baronet. The setters 
did not make a single " set " throughout the day, but ran into the 
birds as if they had been larks. The pointer's nose was, however, 
so good that the party, notwithstanding the badness of the scent, 
bagged thirty-five brace. 

367. The keeper who brought out the setters Avas obliged to own, 
that he could not otherwise account for the apparent singularity of 
their behaviour, than by admitting the superiority of the pointer's 
nose ; yet, judging from the engraving, he did not carry his head 

368. A stiffish price had been given for the dog, but I need hardly 
say that it was not considered unreasonable, after the exhibition of 
scenting-powers so unusual, fairly tested in the field with com- 
petitors of established character. 

369. In this instance it was a pointer that evinced singular ten- 
derness of nose ; but in the following, a setter bore off the palm in 

a contest with good pointers. Mr. Q r, of F w (county of 

Suffolk), who is ari enthusiast about shooting, three years ago took 
out his favourite dog, a heavy, large-limbed, liver-coloured setter, on 
a cold, raw, bad-scenting day, together with a brace of pointers of 

high character belonging to another Suffolk sportsman, Mr. W s. 

The latter had expressed rather a contemptuous opinion of the 
setter, whose appearance was undeniably not very prepossessing ; 
but to the gentleman's astonishment, and perhaps somewhat to his 
mortification, the lumbering dog found plenty of birds, though there 
was so little scent that the vaunted pointers were nearly useless. I 

was told, that at that moment Mr. Q r would not have taken 

two hundred guineas for the animal. 

370. What a pity it is that more pains are not taken to link in 
matrimonial chains dogs of the rare excellence of nose described in 
the preceding paragraph, and in 182, 204, and 289, instead of being 
satisfied with marked superiority in one parent only ! In a setter 
or pointer sensitiveness of nose is the most valuable natural quality 
sought for ; correctness of range the most valuable artificial 

" He did not carry his head well." Par. 367. 

CH. xiii.] DOG SPOILT. 217 

371. Few horses, however good, are fitted to hunt in all countries, 
nor are many dogs ; and as in selecting a hunter a man ought to 
consider the kind of work for which he is wanted, so ought he 
when he is purchasing a dog to be influenced by the kind of country 
in which the animal is to perform. A slow dog, however good, 
would weary your heart out on the moors with his perpetual see- 
saw, ladylike canter ; and a fast one, unless wonderfully careful, on 
enclosed lands alive with game, would severely test your aelf-control 
over tongue and, temper. 

372. If a purchaser be in search of a brace of dogs, assuredly he 
ought not to give a large figure fot them, if they do not traverse 
their ground separately. What is the use of two dogs if they hunt 
together ? Both are engaged in doing what would be better done 
by one, for there would be no undue excitement, or jealousy, or 
withdrawal of attention. Not only ought a purchaser to see how 
dogs quarter their ground, but, if the time of the year will permit, 
he should even kill a bird to them, for though they may once have 
been good, if an ignorant or careless sportsman has shot over them 
but for a few days, they may be spoiled (end of 364). 

373. At the beginning of a partridge season, I unexpectedly 
wanted to purchase a dog. An old gamekeeper, one on whose 
judgment I could rely, and who, I knew, would not willingly de- 
ceive me, saw a setter in the field that he thought would please, 
and accordingly sent it to my kennel. I greatly liked the looks of 
the animal. He quartered his ground well was obedient to the 
hand carried a high and apparently tender nose pointed, backed, 
and down-charged steadily. Unquestionably he had been well 
broken. I thought myself in great luck, and should not have 
hesitated to complete the purchase, but that fortunately I had an 
opportunity of shooting a bird over him, when to my horror, he 
rushed at it with the speed of a greyhound. As in spite of all my 
remonstrances, shouted in the most determined manner, he repeated 
this manoauvre whenever a bird fell, I returned him. I after- 
wards heard he had just been shot over by a party on the moors, 
who, no doubt, had spoiled him by their ignoble, pot-hunting pro- 

374. Had I chosen to sacrifice my shooting in order 
to reclaim him (which I must have done, had I too 
hastily concluded the purchase), I ought to have sent 
home the other dogs, and proceeded, but with greater 
severity, much in the manner described in 321 and 323. 
I ought not, however, to have gone after him when 
first he bolted; I ought merely to have endeavoured to 
check him with my voice, for it would have been most 
important to set him a good example by remaining 

218 HOW REFORMED. [CH. xm. 

immoveable myself; lie might have misconstrued any 
hasty advance on my part into rivalship for possession 
of the bird ; in short, into a repetition of one of the 
many scrambles to which he had recently been accus- 
tomed, and in which I feel sure he must invariably 
have come off victorious. I ought, when loaded, to 
have walked calmly up to him, and, without taking the 
slightest notice of the disfigured bird, have dragged him 
back, while loudly rating him, to the spot where. he 
should have " down charged." After a good flagellation, 
a protracted lecture, and a long delay, (the longer the 
better,) I ought to have made him cautiously approach 
the bird ; and by a little scolding, and by showing him 
the wounds he had inflicted, have striven to make him 
sensible and ashamed of his enormities. Probably, too, 
had the birds lain well, the moment he pointed I should 
have employed the checkcord * with a spike, giving him 
a liberal allowance of slack line (335). Had I thus 
treated him throughout the day, I have little doubt but 
that he would have become a reformed character; though 
an occasional outbreak might not unreasonably have 
been expected. (See 302 to 305.) 

375. If you purchase a dog who has been much shot over single- 
handed by a tolerably good sportsman, you have the satisfaction of 
knowing that the animal must necessarily have great self-reliance 
and experience. On the other hand, you will see reason to distrust 
his forbearance and temper when he is hunted with a companion. 
Of the usual run of dogs, it probably would be better to purchase 
two which have been shot over singly, and then associate them in 

* I am glad to say I never had bird which the dog had been re- 
occasion to adopt so severe a strained by a checkcord from bolt- 
remedy as the following ; but I ing. The pins were cut to a length 
have heard of an otherwise incor- somewhat less than the diameter 
rigible taste for blood being cured of its body, and were fixed at right 
by a partridge pierced transversely angles to one another. Several 
with two knitting - pins being slight wires would, I think, have 
adroitly substituted for the fallen answered better. 


the field, than to buy a brace which had been broken in together. 
You would, I think, find it more difficult to give independence to 
the latter, than to cure the jealousy of the former. Jealousy in the 
field would, however, decrease with their increasing intimacy in the 

To create a feeling of self-dependence, obviously there 
is no better plan than for a considerable time to take 
out the dog by himself, and thus force him to trust for 
sport to his own unaided powers ; and when he is at 
length hunted in company, never to omit paying him 
the compliment of attending to every indication he 
evinces of being upon birds, even occasionally to the 
unfair neglect of confirmed points made by the other 

376. Confidence, however, in good breeding and breaking often 
induces sportsmen to give large sums for young dogs without seeing 
them in the field. 

377. In July, 1848, thirteen pointers were sold at Tattersall's, 
which brought the large sum of two hundred and fifty-six guineas, 
though only two of them had ever been shot over. 

378. The following description of each was advertised before the 
sale. I have prefixed to it the prices they severally realized. Such 
sums mark how highly the public appreciate the qualifications of 
the breaker who lives with Mr. Moore, of Derbyshire, and ought to 
stimulate others to increased exertions. 

379. &Q h ^olb frg guuiiott, 


ON MONDAY, JULY 3D, 1848, 


at, the 



When Pupped. 




(Bloss, by the late 





Nov. 1st, 1846. 

( Bounce, own bro- 
l ther to Bloom . 

1 Mr. Edge's Rake, 
4 out of his Bess, 
by Capt. White's 

V. Don out of Deuce. 

(Rev. J. Cooper's 

Dido, out of Mr. 



DRAB. . 

June 18th, 1847. 


< Marriott's Bitch 

by Capt. White's 

V Don. 



Buzz . . 

April 13th, 1847. 


(Mob, by a Dog of 
J Major Bilbie's, 

1 by the late Mr. 

^ Edge's Nelson. 



RAKE. . 

June llth, 1847. 

( Mr. Hurt's Rake, 
\ outofhisNa/ice. 

(Die, by Rock out 
< of Belle, own 
V sister to Bloom. 



DOT . . 

May 2d, 1847. 

Bang (Lot 14) . . 

(Rue, dam Bess out 
I of the late Mr. 

^ Edge's Mink. 

f Dam by the late 



BEN i 

April 20th, 1847. 

(Sir Arthur Clif- 
{ ton's Don . . . 

Mr. Edge's Rake 
< out of Mob, by a 
son of Mr. Edge's 

^ Nelson. 




May 8th, 1847. 

( Don, by Rap out 
of Bess, sister 
( to Bloom . . . 

\Bitch of Sir Ro- 
j bert Wilmot's. 

(Bloom (sold at the 




Feb. 2d, 1847. 

(J. Newton's, Esq. 
{ Duke, by Capt. 

late Mr. Edge's 
< sale for 80 Gui- 




I White's Don . 

neas), by Rake 

V out of Mink. 

{Rap (sold at the 

late Mr. Edge's 

sale for 53 Gui- 

Bitch of H. K. 



EOCK. . 

Two years old. 

neas), by a Dog 
of Dale Trot- 

Fenton's, Esq. 
( by Lord Mex- 

ter's, Esq. of 
Bishop Middle- 

borough's Romp. 



(The late Mr. 



BANG. . 

Three years old. 

[Bounce (Sire of 
Lots 1,2, 3, and 

( 4\ 

Edge's Bess, by 
I Captain White's 
j Don out of Deuce, 

v *) 

I sister to Die the 


\. Dam of Rake. 


t * The first twelve Lots are well broke, but have not been shot over. Lots 13 and 14 
have been shot over both in England and Scotland, and are in every respect 
superior Pointers. 

IRISH RED SETTER." Steadily pointing." Par. 3S2. 


380. In marked contrast to such high prices, are those often 
realized at Laing's and at Wordsworth's stables, in Edinburgh, 
where sometimes a batch of pointers and setters are sent for un- 
reserved sale, of whose previous history and education no one can 
tell anything, except perhaps, the party sent by the vendor, natu- 
rally considered a prejudiced if not an interested witness. 

381. The Mr. C 1 named in 289 boasts, that he never gives 

more than half a sovereign for any dog, and that he has some of the 
best in Scotland. He attends at Laing's and Wordsworth's, when 
dogs are advertised for sale by auction, and buys all those that are 
decent-looking, and fetch no higher bid than ten shillings, a fre- 
quent occurrence where their characters are quite unknown. He 
takes his bargains to the moors. Those that show any promise he 
keeps for further trial ; the rest he at once shoots, leaving their 
bodies unhonoured by any other burial than the purple heather that 
blooms around them. 

382. A red setter brought the largest price that I ever knew paid 
for a dog. After mid-day he came upon a covey basking in the 
sun. His owner very knowingly told the shooting party that they 
might go to luncheon ; that he would leave the dog, and accompany 
them, engaging that they should find him still steadily pointing on 
their return. The promise was faithfully redeemed by the stanch 
setter. One of the sportsmen was so struck with the performance, 
that he could not resist buying at a tremendous figure, and he soon 
regained, I believe, much of the purchase-money from some in- 
credulous acquaintance, by backing the animal to perform a similar 
feat. It was, however, no great test of excellence. 

383. I conceive those dogs must be considered the 
lest, which procure a persevering sportsman most shots 
in a season, and lose him fewest winged birds.* If you 
are anxious for your pupil to attain this superlative 
excellence (I will repeat it, at the risk of being accused 
of tautology), you must be at all times consistently 
strict, but never severe. Make him, as much as you 
can, your constant companion ; you will thereby much 
develop his intelligence, and so render him a more 
efficient assistant in the field, for he will understand 
your manner better and better, and greatly increase in 
affection as well as observation. Many men would like 
so faithful an attendant. Teach obedience at home to 
obtain it in the field. Consider the instantaneous "drop," 

* And if hares are shot to him, fewest wounded hares. 

224 BEST DOGS. [CH. xin. 

the moment he gets the signal, as all-important, as the 
very key-stone of the arch that conducts to the glorious 
triumphs of due subordination. Notice every fault, and 
check it by rating, but never punish with the whip un- 
less you judge it absolutely necessary. On the other 
hand, following Astley's plan (10), reward, or at least 
praise, every instance of good behaviour, and you will 
be surprised to find how quickly your young dog will 
comprehend your wishes, and how anxious he will be to 
comply with them. Remember that evil practices, un- 
checked until they become confirmed habits, or any 
errors in training committed at the commencement of 
his education, cannot be repaired afterwards without 
tenfold nay, twentyfold trouble. Never let him hunt 
from under your eye. Unceasingly endeavour to keep 
alive in him as long as possible his belief that you are in- 
tuitively aware, as fully when he is out of sight as within 
sight, of every fault he commits, whether it arise from 
wilfulness or mere heedlessness. This is a very impor- 
tant admonition. Remember, however, that the best 
dogs will occasionally make mistakes when they are 
running down wind (especially if it blows hard), and 
that there are days when there is scarcely any scent. 
(Note to 174.) 

384. I said, " Make him," (your pupil,) " as much as you can, 
your constant companion." Many breakers seem not to consider, or, 
at least, seem not to be sufficiently influenced by the consideration, 
that it is companionship with us, through successive generations, 
which alone has led to the dog's becoming the useful servant we find 
him. In his wild state he may have as much sagacity as when 
domesticated ; but this he displays in a manner in no way advan- 
tageous to us ; it is shown in the mode in which he procures his 
food, avoids his enemies, &c. We hear much of the different de- 
grees of " natural sagacity " evinced in different breeds ; of the 
wonderful intelligence of collies, &c. : but surely it is chiefly associ- 
ation with man that awakened that apparently greater intelligence ; 
or, to speak more correctly, that gave them the greater habit of 
observation, of watching their master's looks, of listening to his 


voice, &c. : whence comes their readier comprehension of his wishes 
and orders often termed sagacity. 

385. When recently salmon-fishing on the upper part of the 
Tweed, I occasionally met on its banks a totally blind man, and 
who, in spite of this great disqualification, continued a keen and 
successful trout-angler. He had been for some years entirely sight- 
less, and was led about by a large brown Tweed-side spaniel, of 

whose intelligence wonderful stories are told. M r travelled 

much round the country ; and it is certain, for he would frequently 
do so to show off the dog's obedience, that on his saying (the cord 
being perfectly slack), " Hie off to the Holmes," or, " Hie off to 
Melrose," &c., &c., the animal would start off in the right direction 
without an instant's hesitation. Now, this Tweed spaniel was not 
born with more brains than other Tweed spaniels, but he was 

M r's constant companion, and had, in consequence, acquired a 

singular facility of comprehending his orders, and doubtless from 
great affection was very solicitous to please. 

386. Attend most carefully to the injunction not to 
let your dog hunt out of sight. It is essential that you 
do so. 

I once possessed a pointer who behaved admirably while he was 
under my eye, but who, if he could cunningly contrive to get on the 
other side of rising ground, would invariably, instead of pointing, 
make a rush at any game he came across, determined, as my Irish 
companion used to say, " to take his divarsion : " and it was most 
curious to remark how immediately his pace would slacken, and 
how promptly he would resume a cautious carriage, the moment he 
perceived I again had the power of observing him. His proceedings 
displayed so much sagacity, that though I was extremely vexed, I 
could hardly find it in my heart to punish him as he deserved. 

387. Notwithstanding Beckford's capital story of the 
hounds making a dinner of the old ram which his lord- 
ship had left in their kennel to intimidate them, if your 
dog be unhappily too fond of mutton or lamb of his own 
killing, perhaps no better cure can be attempted, provided 
you superintend the operation, than that of muzzling 
him, and letting a strong ram give him a butting at the 
time that you are administering the lash, and hallooing 
out " Ware " or " Sheep." But, unfortunately, this too 
often fails. 

388. If you do not succeed, you must hang or drown 


226 KILLING SHEEP. [CH. xm. 

him, (the latter is probably the less painful death, but a 
charge of shot well lodged behind the ear in the direc- 
tion of the brain would be yet better.) Therefore you 
will not mind giving him another chance for his life, 
though confessedly the measure proposed is most bar- 
barous. Procure an ash-pole about five feet long. Tie 
one extremity of the pole to a strong ram, by the part 
of the horns near the forehead. To the opposite ex- 
tremity of the pole attach a strong spiked collar, and strap 
it round the dog's throat, to 'the audible tune of "Ware" 
or "Sheep." (To prevent the possibility of the cord 
slipping, through each end of the pole burn a hole.) 
The continued efforts of the ram for same hours either 
to free himself from his strange companion, or to attack 
him, will possibly so worry and punish the dog as to 
give him a distaste ever afterwards for anything of a 
woolly nature. The pole will so effectually separate 
these unwilling (but still too intimate) associates, that 
you need not muzzle the dog. 

389. There is yet another remedy, which I will name 
as it sounds reasonable, though I cannot speak of its 
merits from personal observation, never having seen it 

Wrap a narrow strip of sheep-skin, that has much 
wool on it, round the dog's lower jaw, the wool outwards, 
and fasten it so that he cannot get rid of it. Put this 
on him for a few hours daily, and there is a chance that 
he will become as thoroughly disgusted, as even you 
could wish, with every animal of the race whose coat 
furnished such odious mouthfuls ; but prevention being 
better than cure, pay great attention to your dog's morals 
during the lambing season. Dogs not led away by evil 
companionship rarely commence their depredations 
upon sober, full-grown sheep. In ninety-nine cases out 




of a hundred,* they have previously yielded to the great 
temptation of running down some frisking lamb, whose 
animated gambols seemed to court pursuit. f 

* In the remaining odd case 
<one out of a hundred) the pro- 
pensity may be traced to the 
animal belonging to a vicious 
stock, in short, to hereditary 

t Mr. C. B y, who has writ- 
ten so cleverly and usefully under 
the name of " Harry Hieover," 
supports (in " Practical Horse- 
manship") an argument respecting 
the breaking of horses, by de- 
scribing with such good judgment 
the manner in which he would 
proceed to gradually wean a dog 
from worrying sheep (much on the 
principle of taking him to a rabbit- 
warren, 337), that I think some 
of my readers may peruse it with 
profit : 

" I suppose myself to have a dog 
addicted to chasing sheep. He 
must be cured of that. If I de- 
pute a servant to do this, 1 know 
how he will set about it. He will 
take the dog on a common, where 
sheep are running at large. The 
moment they see the dog they 
begin running. This is just what 
the man wished they might do. 
The dog, of course, immediately 
sets off after them, and the man 
after the dog. Probably after the 
latter has ceased chasing, he is 
caught ; and at a moment when 
he is not in fault he is most 
brutally thrashed, knowing or not 
knowing what he is thrashed for. 
He is cowed for the day, and 
sore for three or four afterwards, 
when he forgets the beating ; and 
the next time he sees the sheep, 
he feels the same excitement and 
propensity, and away he goes after 
them ; so probably it would be as 
long as he lives. 

"I now take the dog in hand, 
and as sedulously avoid taking 

him where he has a chance of 
seeing sheep running, as the other 
sought for a place where he should ; 
for I know, with his present habits, 
the temptation will be too strong 
for the dog to resist. I put a 
collar round his neck, with a chain 
to hold him by, and a good dog- 
whip in my hand. I take him to 
a sheep-fold : here the sheep can- 
not run : and not being wild, the 
utmost they can do on seeing the 
dog is to huddle all together. On 
entering the fold I cry in a warn- 
ing voice, 'Ware sheep, Don.' 
The dog looks up. ' Ware sheep, ' 
I cry again. If he appears in the 
least elated or fidgety, ' Ware 
sheep, ' I cry in a voice of anger. 
If he attempt to make any hasty 
advance towards them, a smart 
stroke or two of the whip makes 
him find * Ware sheep ' must be 
attended to. If after this he pulls 
towards, or jumps at them, I give 
him a good flogging, he deserves it, 
for he knows he is doing wrong, and 
has not over-excitement as an ex- 
cuse. In a day or two, more or less, 
as he is more or less incorrigible, 
he will cease not only to jump at 
the sheep, but will walk quietly 
among them. He has learned per- 
fectly one lesson, which is, that he 
must not touch sheep standing 
still. Probably, being now cowed 
by the warning 'Ware sheep,' if 
I took him on the common, he 
would, if he saw sheep running, 
stop at being halloed to (if not too 
far oft') ; but it would be highly 
injudicious to trust him, for if he 
broke away, my three or four days' 
lesson would go for nothing : he 
would be nearly as bad as ever. 

" I now take him where sheep 
are wild, but never get near enough 
to set them running. But sup- 



390. A full admiral (Sir H n S d), as well known in the 

field as in the ballroom, and whose exhilarating society is coveted 
alike by young and old, had many years ago a valuable retriever 
named " Lion," bred between a setter and a Newfoundland, fast and 
high-couraged, but which had not been properly trained. 

His condemnation had been pronounced by his owner, the late 

Sir J s D n H y, in the hearing of the admiral, who at 

once asked for and obtained the dog. Sir J s' keeper (P n) 

had put a ring upon one of the animal's fore feet to prevent his 
travelling too fast. This the admiral immediately removed, and by 
making " Lion " his companion, and feeding him himself, he soon 
brought him into tolerable obedience, but he had the vexation of 
finding that the retriever always showed a great longing to chase 
sheep, and more than once had pulled one down in spite of all 
threats and admonitions. 

One fine summer's morning the cheery admiral, who is an excel- 
lent piscator, had started at sunrise across the moors to fish a dis- 
tant loch. " Lion " quietly followed behind the dog-cart, but on 
getting sight of some sheep he started off and overturned one. 

The admiral hurried up in time to save its life. Although alone, 
he managed to tie its legs securely together. Ditto " Lion's," and 
then he laid the two helpless animals nearly side by side. With 
his driving-whip he belaboured "Lion" most severely, endeavouring 
to make him comprehend why he was punished, and in the intervals 
of the flagellation caressing the poor sheep. 

This occurred about 6 A.M. and the admiral did not return to his 
captives until the same hour in the evening. After repeating his 
powerful admonitions he released both the animals, determined to 
give up the dog as incorrigible should he ever repeat the offence, 
but he never did. He turned out an admirable retriever, and a 
faithful, attached friend. He seemed ever after ashamed to look a 
sheep in the face. On catching sight of one, he would slink to 

Be assured that the truly gallant admiral's is an excellent recipe for 
giving a dog a higher relish for cooked than for uncooked mutton. 

pose they were to do so, I am pre- him head over heels, haul him up, 

pared, for I have him in a cord and getting hold of him, give him a 

some twenty yards long. This second thrashing a lesson or two 

length gives him something of a more, and he, in nine cases in ten, 

feeling of liberty. If he looks will be broken of the habit. But 

towards the flock, ' Ware sheep ' if without the cord to check him 

reminds him of his lessons. In he had got in full career, flaying 

a day or two I approach them ; the poor brute alive would not 

they begin to run : Don gets have prevented his doing it again ; 

fidgety, but the warning and show- but his propensity having been 

ing him the whip most probably diminished gradually, moderate 

controls him ; if it does not, and reflection will reform him, which 

he breaks away, I let him reach it would not have done while that 

the elid of the cord, and with a propensity was in full force." 

stentorian 'Ware sheep,' I pull Page 171. 


391. If ever you have fears that you may be unable 
to prevent a dog's breaking away to worry sheep, hunt 
him in a muzzle * of a size that will not interfere with 
his breathing, and yet effectually prevent the wide ex- 
tension of his jaws. 

392. The killing of fowls is more easily prevented. 
The temptation, though equally frequent, is not so great 
he will only have tasted blood, not revelled in it. 
Take a dead fowl one of his recent victims if you can 
procure it, and endeavour, by pointing to it, while you 
are scolding him, to make him aware of the cause of 
your displeasure. Then secure him to a post, and thrash 
him about the head with the bird, occasionally favouring 
his hide with sundry applications of a whip, and his 
ears with frequent repetitions of the scaring admonition, 
" Ware fowl," " Fowl fowl fowl." Whenever you 
afterwards catch him watching poultry, be sure to rate 

* A muzzle is the best recipe for should invariably be employed 

keeping a howling dog quiet at whenever any ointment is applied 

night from what is commonly to his skin for mange, &c. 
called " baying the moon." It 



393. A Halt sounded ; present Position considered ; Refinements or extra Accom- 
plishments easily taught. 394. Excellent Snipe-shot who never used Dog. 
395. Dog employed by another. 398. Which Sportsman had the best of it. 

399. Squire O n's and Mr. C d's Match. 39(5. Snipe killed off. 397. 

Woodcocks become attached to undisturbed Covers ; Mr. S t's. 400. Par- 
tridges cut off from Place of Refuge. 401. Turnip-Field ridden round. 402. 
After Wind and Rain, hunt driest places ; late in season, beat uncultivated lands. 
403. In hot weather, give marked birds time to run. 404. Advantage of 
killing Old Birds; protects young Breeders. 405 to 407. Old Hen Pheasants 
shot ; case in point ; in Note, Pheasants reared under barn-door hen require 
meat ; so do Fowls. Cantelo's method. Pheasantries, Mr. Knox. (See Appen- 
dix). Oak-bark a tonic. Cross with China Pheasant. 408. Sportsmen urged 
to break in their own Dogs. 409. Shooting conducive to Health. 410, 411. 

Mr. W n and the old crippled Scotch Sportsman. 412. Instructing Dogs 

improves temper ; not an ungentlemanly recreation. 413. " Beckford's " 
opinion. 414. "Munito" selecting cards. 415. Shepherds' Dogs in France. 
416. Collie Dogs. 417. "Fairy" ringing bell. 418, 419. "MedorV fetching 
house-keys. Installed as their keeper. 420. " Sultan's " keeping the key in his 

larder. 421. Mr. A n's " Taffy" knowing by name every member of family. 

422. " Taffy ' ' proves himself a first-rate Watch-Dog. 423. " Taffy ' ' understands 
why he is borrowed. 424. "Taffy" an able Poacher. 425. "Taffy" being 
insulted bides his time to avenge the affront. 426. "Taffy" "turns the tables" 
upon workman who tries to impose upon him. 427. "Taffy" purloins for his 
master when ordered. 428. "Taffy" betrayed into momentary weakness pur- 
loins for himself. 429. "Taffy's" birth and education revealed; but his 
parentage a mystery. -430. "Taffy's" dam shipwrecked on the Needles. 431. 
Jesse's opinion of Dogs ; in Note, Lord Brougham's cunning of Fox of Dog 
of Monkey. 432. Exhibition of jealousy. 433. Lost Child fed by Dog. 
434. "Philax" and "Brae" playing Dominos. 135 to 441. Showman's Dogs in 
Paris. Tricks with Cards and Numbers. Fortune-telling. Playing Dominos. 
442. How assisted by Showman. 443. Our attention to be confined to 
Sporting Dogs. 

393. WE have now arrived at a good halting-station, far beyond 
the half-way house ; for any dog educated as I have described may 
fairly be considered well-broken. Shall we here part company, or 
will you proceed with me to what I termed "refinements" in 
breaking ? I did so, as I mentioned at the time, in deference to 
general opinion, for many would call it superfluous breaking. It 
may be but the additional excellence is easily attainable by per- 
severance in the system which I have detailed, and but little 


extension of it. Why then should we not strive to reach it ? It 
must, however, be granted that so finished an education is not 
absolutely necessary, for many killing dogs never attain it : indeed, 
many good sportsmen have never witnessed it. And this is pro- 
bably the reason why such a number abjure the aid of a dog in 

394. Years ago, when I was in County Wexford, I knew, by 
sight, a capital snipe-shot, though he constantly wore spectacles, 
who loathed the idea of letting a dog accompany him. This he 
would not have done, had he known to what perfection the animal 
could be brought. But certainly our spectacled friend had less 
occasion for canine assistance than any man I ever saw. He knew 
every rushy spot for miles around. If there was a snipe in a field, 
he would point to within a few feet where it was lying. He walked 
very fast ; was indefatigable ; without waiting for loading picked 
up every bird the moment it was knocked over; kept relays of 
ammunition at several farm-houses ; and nearly always came home 
with his capacious pockets (for he carried no bag) well filled. I 
heard an anecdote of him, more in praise of the correctness of his 
eye than the make of his leg, that on one occasion, after he had 
stuffed his pockets full of snipe, he proceeded actually to cram more 
birds into the tops of his boots. 

395. An officer whom I knew well in Canada came for a few days 
to Isle Aux Noix. He paddled himself and a favourite dog to the 
opposite shore. The dog made nineteen separate points at snipe 
of which my friend bagged seventeen, and he thinks he did not 
see above three more birds. He admits that the day was hot,* and 
that in consequence the snipe lay well ; but he certainly would not 
have obtained so many shots without the assistance of his intelli- 
gent companion. He was, however, beautifully broken. I do not 
suppose that my friend had once occasion to use his voice. And 
the sagacious animal would creep across wind as stealthily as a 
cat on the right hand being slightly raised, as described in xn. 
of 141. 

396. My friend's sport caused a laugh in the little garrison at 
the expense of its Fort Adjutant, by no means a first-rate shot, 
who complained that his favourite, though confessedly very small, 
preserve was destroyed for the season ; and I rather think it was ; 
for my experience leads me to believe, contrary to what is generally 
supposed, that snipe, when once they have had time to settle in a 
spot, become attached to it, and do not much shift their ground. 
At least I have known many places in which snipe having been 
killed off early in the season, none appeared the same season in 
their stead, although in preceding years birds had been plentiful 
during the whole winter. 

397. Woodcocks also consider themselves permanently established 
in localities where they have been long undisturbed (82). Mr. 

* A dark day with a good breeze would be preferred with us., 


S 1 of C n, on the west coast of Ireland, was so fully im- 
pressed with this opinion that he would not allow a gun to be fired 
in his covers until after Christmas, asserting that not a bird would 
then leave them before the regular period of migration, but merely, 
when flushed, remove from one part of the woods to another. It 
is hard to think that he reasoned incorrectly, for he had when I 
was in his neighbourhood, and may have to this day for aught I 
know to the contrary, nearly the best, if not undeniably the best, 
woodcock-shooting in Ireland until the very end of the season. 
This, too, is saying a "big word," for woodcock-shooting in the 
emerald isle is the cream of sport. 

398. Now our spectacled acquaintance (394), capital sportsman 
as he was, owed his numerous shots solely to his great pedestrian 
powers, and the large development of his organ of locality. It is 
sometimes difficult enough, even with a clever dog, to spring a jack 
snipe, and you will not tell me that he (not master " Jack," but the 
gentleman) would not have bagged mare birds, and have had to 
walk over less ground, had he possessed as good an animal as that 
which helped to destroy the Fort Adjutant's preserve. And do 
you think that our friend with the barnacles, who was in no way of 
a misanthropical disposition, would not thus have more enjoyed his 
day's sport ? He might have been assured that birds, if they would 
not lie for a good-nosed dog, who hunted as cautiously as the 
officer's, would not lie for his walking them up. And if on a 
boisterous day he chose to shoot down wind (as snipe fly against it), 
why should he not call his companion in to " heel," and afterwards 
employ him when re-hunting the same ground up-wind ? An ex- 
perienced old dog, would rarely, however, when beating down-wind, 
pass by many birds without noticing them. 

399. We often hear of sportsmen shooting against each other for 
considerable sums in our best partridge-counties, where the game is 
so abundant that they consider it most advisable to employ no dog, 
save one or two retrievers. I at once admit that they act judiciously 
in not hunting any ordinary animal, but I am confident that the 
competitor who used such a cautious dog as the officer's (395), would 
not only get more shots than his opponent, but be able to kill to 
a greater certainty, because better prepared for every rise. The 
quantity of game would not have confused that first-rate dog, his 
nose was too discriminating. He would have walked quietly, 
almost crept, up to every bird, and I will venture to say would 
not have sprung one out of shot, that would not have risen as 
readily had he been left in his kennel. In the match that came off 

in October, '50, at Lord L h's, R d Hall, between the Squire 

O n and Mr. C d, both good performers so many birds 

would not have been missed had the sportsmen been warned to look 
out for most of their shots by a careful dog's drawing upon the 
birds. Victory would have sided with the party thus aided. 

. 400. I said (398), " An experienced old dog would rarely, how- 
ever, even when beating down-wind, pass by many birds without 
noticing them : " and most fortunate is it that this is the case, for 


otherwise you would seldom get a shot to a poiiit at partridge when 
the ground is wet, and the birds have taken to running ahead along 
a furrow or, as is frequently the case, are all making off in one 
direction, probably seeking the shelter of some well-known friendly 
cover. Should you think this likely to happen, you must, without 
minding what quarter the wind blows from, commence your beat 
by traversing the ground that lies between them and their place of 
refuge. Even then you will often find that they will rather face 
you, than be diverted from their original design. 

401. In large turnip-fields you would do well when birds are 
wild to hunt the outer parts first, and so gradually work round and 
round towards the centre. Then return to the outer parts, and 
airain work round the borders. The birds- thus finding themselves 
headed in every direction are much more likely to lie than if you 
had not so manreuvred. On such occasions the great advantages of 
caution in dogs, and of their prompt obedience to the hand are made 
maniiest. I heard of a man who, in order to make birds lie close 
in turnips, used to direct his little boy to trot his pony round and 
round the field. The plan was very successful. The birds seemed 
quite bewildered, especially when time had been allowed for the 
boy to complete the circuit before the dogs were permitted to enter. 
I remember a good sportsman telling me that he had more than 
once succeeded in making wild birds lie by attaching soft-sounding 
bells to the collars of his pointers. The novel sound appeared to 
arrest the attention of the partridges. This seems opposed to 
what is said in 74 about bells used in cover scaring game. 

402. High winds and rain greatly disturb birds ; and if you are 
a tyro in partridge-shooting you should thank me for recommending 
you, if you are ever so anxious to get a few shots, to wait for the 
first hour of sunshine after such weather,* and then to hunt the 
// -i> 4 grounds, where you probably will find the birds not feeding, 
but quietly reposing, after the knocking about they have undergone. 
But, my young friend, I should like to give you another hint. 
When it is late in the season, instead of constantly beating the 
denuded stubbles, try the wild uncultivated lands (if there are any 
in your neighbourhood) where it is likely the birds will be found 
searching for the common grass-seeds which they neglected when 
more palatable grain could be easily obtained. Wind without wet 
sometimes makes wild birds lie, probably because they do not hear 
the sportsman's footsteps. 

403. After you have sprung a covey, and succeeded in killing the 
old pair, should the scent be bad, give the young birds time to run 
a little before you let your dogs hunt for them. Late in the season, 
in hot, dry weather, such delay is frequently productive of much 

* But there is this to be said in under the two-fold annoyance of 

favour of your perpetually shooting the gun and such weather, the 

in wind and wet : you will'be act- birds will fly to great distances to 

ing a most friendly part by your seek for quiet shelter, 
less persecuting neighbour, for 

234 KILL OLD BIRDS. [CH. xiv. 

good, for partridges will often at such times not move an inch from 
the spot where] they first pitched ; thereby emitting so little scent 
that an ordinary dog will not be able to find them, however accurately 
you may have marked the place where they opened their wings pre- 
paratory to dropping. 

404. If, when first a covey rose, the old pair was knocked over, 
the young ones would lie singularly close, awaiting the accustomed, 
unspellable, unpronounceable parental call. But there is a yet 
stronger reason why the precedence and attention usually given to 
age should not in the present instance be withheld. Old birds, 
whether breeding or barren, drive off the younger ones during the 
breeding season. Some sportsmen, I am aware, deem this opinion 
a vulgar prejudice ; but, if it be well founded, common sense bids 
us kill the old birds, that the young ones may have undisturbed 
possession of their ground. They must be unusually small squeakers 
if they cannot shift for themselves early in September, particularly 
if the weather be warm. They will come to no harm, where the 
keeper has done his duty as a trapper. On estates infested with 
vermin, they will, of course, suffer from the absence of the warning 
parental cry. There are country gentlemen who go so far as to 
have the old birds shot in August (when they can readily be dis- 
tinguished even in the most forward coveys), well knowing that a 
jealous old pair of partridges will take possession of as much ground 
in spring, as would suffice for nearly half-a-dozen young couples ; 
especially if the latter belong to the same covey, and are therefore 
accustomed to associate together ; for, contrary to the general laws 
of nature, these birds breed in and in. 

405. Old hen pheasants should also be killed off : they are barren, 
and are accused of sucking the eggs of the younger birds. They 
may be readily distinguished by their deeper and more brilliant 
plumage. As a case in point, 

406. I know of a gentleman going to the North to reside on a 
small property, where the game had not been preserved for years. 
He at once engaged a clever keeper, who joined him immediately 
after the conclusion of the shooting season. In a few days the 
latter requested to see his master. 

" Well, George, I fear you don't find much game." 

The other replied, in broad Yorkshire dialect, " No-o, sir, no 
n6t mutch. 'A' been thruff (through) t' covers, and seen some auld 
budds and, please, sir, I'd loike to shut 'em." 

The gentleman started. " Shoot them ! That's an odd way of 
preserving them, unless indeed you intend to stuff them. Are 
you mad ? There may be only a few birds, but I suppose a few are 
better than none." 

"No-o, sir, no they beant. A few auld budds is wuss than 

" How's that ? What do you mean ? " 

" Well, I tell'e, sir t' auld uns be so stri^id -jealous verre (very) 
t' missis is surnames (sometimes) ees verre I sure she is. They 
fght t' young uns, and can't do with strangers no how. Folks say 


folks say a barren hen, if she folnd (find) a nest, 'ill brak all 
t' eggs. A don't k?iow about that ; perhaps they brak 'em i' t' 
fighting, but they be brukken sure enact So ye see, sir, 'spose we 
have no budds here, then t' young 'uns, when t' auld 'uns fight 'em 
in neighbours' covers, cooin in here to uz and folnd 'emselves quite 
coomfortuble and bide. And b'sides they'll know-thSy-'ve-no-rlght 
they'll know-they-'ve-nS-right themselves, and so they wunt fight 
t' new comers. There be sum gentlemen as shuts doon one-third 
of their estate every year, clean right away and then t' pheasants 
and t' partridge coom in like-o-o-o. Quite many of them ; yes,. 
they do like t' settlars in 'Merika, as a' do hear say." 

407. This homely reasoning of the honest Yorkshireman * pre- 
vailed, and a good show of game the following season satisfactorily 
established the soundness of his views. 

408. But we have been astray on the stubbles and in cover,, in- 
stead of attending to our friend (394, 398) snipe-shooting in the 
marshes, and determining (for our own satisfaction, if not for his) 
whether the companionship of a good dog would not have greatly 
added to his enjoyment. Doubtless it would ; for I appeal to you, 
if you are a devotee to the double detonator, whether it be not a 
magnificent thing to witness brilliant performance in fine dogs to 
watch their prompt obedience their graceful action the expres- 
sion of their intelligent countenances to hope at the first feathering 
at a haunt to participate in the nervous start on a closer touch 
to share in the exciting alternation of 'the cautious "road," and 
the momentary stop to exult in the certainty of a sure find to 
hesitate in the expectation of a sudden rise, and, finally, to triumph 
in the fall of the noble old bird you have been steadily following 
through all his wiles and stratagems ? If we have travelled over 
the past pages together, I hope you will further agree with me in 
thinking, that should you shoot over well-educated dogs of your 
own making, instead of to dogs broken by others, your gratification 
would be as greatly increased as would have been our Irish acquaint- 
ance's, had he shot to really killing dogs, instead of possessing none 
at all. I firmly believe that more than half the pleasure a sports- 
man derives from shooting, consists in watching the hunting of well- 
broken dogs, and that his gratification is nearly doubled if the dogs 
are of his own training. It was this persuasion that, on our intro- 
duction to each other (3), made me so strongly urge you to break 
in your dogs yourself. 

409. I might urge you to do so from yet another motive. What 
can you name besides glorious hunting that will keep you in strength 
and prime condition so long as shooting ? Is not an autumnal ex- 
cursion to the wild moors, or even homely stubbles, far more in- 
vigorating than a saunter at the most salubrious watering-place ? 
And would not continued, though it may be diminished, zest, for 
the sport induce you to take air and exercise at a time of life 

* This note about rearing phea- printer has placed it in an Ap- 
sants, &c., is so long that the pendix. See page 335. 


when little else would lure you from the fire-side ? That shooting, 
then, may not pall upon you as years creep on, surely you would 
do well to make the healthy recreation as attractive as possible ; and 
hunting dogs of your own breaking would undeniably lend it not 
only a great but an enduring charm. 

410. A fondness for the beauties of nature, a sense of freedom 
while one is inhaling the pure mountain breezes, and it may be a 
consciousness of power, have made men bordering on four-score 
continue to love their guns with a feeling somewhat akin to the 
fervour of their first love, as is well exemplified in an aged tenant 

of Mr. W n of Edinburgh, to whom I have been occasionally 

indebted for a capital day's sport. 

411. Mr W n visiting one of his farms, found the old man, 

who had been a keen sportsman all his life, labouring under chronic 
rheumatism (caught by injudicious exposure in the discharge of his 
agricultural duties), so severe as to be obliged to go about on 
crutches. After the usual salutations, at meeting, the farmer 
began : 

" May be ye'll think the place negleckit-like, but I'm no able to 
look after the wark noo." 

"Keep a good heart," said Mr. W n; "things are looking 

well enough. I suppose you are pining after the shooting you 
can get no sport now." 

" Ye may weel think that," replied the farmer, adding in a sort 
of chuckle and confidential undertone, " the auld gun and me is 
no parted yet." 

" But," rejoined Mr. W n, " you surely don't mean that you 

can still kill birds ? You can hardly manage that." 

" I can manage it fine," observed the other, with some pique ; 
" the cart takes me to the neeps.* The bit callant f helps me oot. 
I hirple + on. When the dog maks a point, doon gang the crutches 
the laddie takes haud o' me, and though my legs is neither straught 
nor steady, my e'e is as true as yer ain." 

412. Breaking in dogs is not only an invigorating bodily exercise, 
but a healthy moral training ; for to obtain great success, you m ust 
have much patience and self-command ; and whatever may be your 
rank or position in life, Beckford not he of Fonthill, but the man 
whose memory is held in veneration by all Nimrods for his admir- 
able " Thoughts on Hunting " will not allow you to plead, as an 
excuse, for what just possibly may be want of energy or sad 
laziness, that breaking in dogs for your own gun is an ungentle- 
manly or unbecoming recreation. I grant he is speaking of instructors 
of hounds, but his words in their spirit are fully as applicable to 
the instructors of pupils accustomed to the smell of gunpowder. 

413. In his 22d letter he writes, " It is your opinion, I find, that 
a gentleman might make the best huntsman. I have no doubt that 

Neeps, anglice turnips. f Callant, anglice boy. 

Hirple, anglick limp. 

CH. XIV.] 



he would, if he chose the trouble of it. I do not think there is any 
profession, trade, or occupation, in which a good education would 
not be of service ; and hunting, notwithstanding that it is at present 
exercised by such as have not had an education, might without 


doubt be carried on much better by those that have. I will venture 
to say fewer faults would be committed, nor is it probable the same 
faults would be committed over and over again as they now are. 
Huntsmen never reason by analogy, nor are they much benefited by 
experience." I fear we may say the same of the generality of 
keepers, for decidedly dog-breaking has not kept pace with the 
manifest improvements in other arts. Few brigades indeed few 

dogs are now-a-days broken like. Major B d's (251), or Captain 

J n's (542). But I do not intend to say it is necessary ; all 

that is merely for show might be advantageously dispensed with. 

414. It is hard to imagine what it would be impossible to teach 
a dog, did the attainment of the required accomplishment suffi- 
ciently recompense the instructor's trouble. Most of us have heard 
of the celebrated dog " Munito," who, at some private signal from 
his master, quite imperceptible to the spectator, would select from 
a pack of out-spread cards that which the spectator had named to 
the master in a whisper, or merely written on a piece of paper. 

238 FAIRY AND MfiDOR. [OH. xiv. 

415. In the unenclosed parts of France, when the young crops 
are on the ground, you may frequently see a shepherd's dog trusted 
to prevent the sheep from nibbling the tender wheat growing con- 
tiguous to the grass, which he peaceably permits them to crop within 
a foot of the tempting grain ; but he is keenly watching, ready to 
dart at the first epicure who cannot resist a bite at the forbidden 
dainty ; and so ably and zealously does the dog discharge his duties, 
that even in such trying circumstances will the shepherd leave his 
sheep for hours together under the charge of their sagacious and 
vigilant guardian. In a similar manner, a couple of dogs, stationed 
one at each flank of a large flock, effectually protect the vineyards 
from their depredations. The latter you will think not so remark- 
able an instance of discrimination as the former ; for, compared 
with the difference in appearance between the herbage and the vine, 
there is but little between the young grain and the adjacent grass. 

416. Who has not read with intense delight the tales of the 
almost incredible intelligence and devotion to their duties of the 
Scotch collie dogs, as related by the Ettrick Shepherd ? He 
mentions one which, when his master was speaking, evidently 
understood much of what was said. 

417. I know a lady who had a small, nearly thorough-bred King 
Charles. Being one day desired by her mother to ring the bell, 
she turned to the dog, and said, very energetically, " Fairy, ring the 
bell." The little dog had no previous training, but she had been 
observant, and was imitative. She immediately sprung at the bell- 
rope, and pulled it. "Fairy," indeed, unfortunately pulled with 
great violence the rope came down, and so alarmed was she (re- 
member how I have cautioned you never to alarm your pupil), that 
no subsequent coaxing could induce her to return to the bell. But 
if she had not been frightened, she might have become as service- 
able a bell-ringer as the little dog that preceded her in the office of 
pet. That predecessor (the mention of a useful pet, though a lady 
was not his instructor, will, I hope, redeem my character with the 
fair sex) saved his young mistress from many an interruption of 
work and study, by ringing the bell on command. And " Bob " 
was discreet in his spontaneous ringings. He never rang without a 
cause ; but if he was unreasonably detained by himself, or a visitor's 
knock remained too long unanswered, the tardy attendant was 
warned of his remissness by a loud peal. 

418. A French lady, who is fond of animals, at my request com- 
mitted the following anecdote to paper : 

419. " My dear Medor, a beautiful red and white setter, was re- 
markable, I am told, for many rare qualities as a sporting dog ; 
but, of course, none of these could be compared, in my eyes, to his 
faithfulness and sagacity. I looked upon him as a friend ; and 
I know that our affection was mutual. I could mention several 
instances of his intelligence, I might say reflection, but one in par- 
ticular gave me such delight that, though years have since passed 
away, all the circumstances are as fresh in my memory as if they 
had occurred but yesterday. I was returning from school at Ver- 


sallies, and having rung uselessly for a little time at the front door, 
I went round to the carriage-gate to have a chat with my silky- 
haired favourite. He barked anxiously ; thrust his cold nose through 
an opening near the ground ; scratched vigorously to increase its 
size ; and in numerous ways testified great joy at again hearing my 
voice. I put my hand under the gate to caress him, and while he 
was licking it, I said in jest, but in a distinct, loud voice, ' Dear 
Medor, I am shut out go, bring me the keys.' It so happened that 
the stable where they usually hung was not closed. Medor ran off, 
and in a few seconds returned and placed them in my hands. I 
will not attempt to describe my gratification at such a striking proof 
of his intelligence, nor his evident pride at seeing me enter the hall ; 
nor yet the fright of the servant at thinking how long the street- 
door must have been carelessly left open. ' Medor deserves that 
his life should be written,' said I to my uncle when afterwards 
telling him the whole story ; ' I am sure his deeds are as wonderful 
as those related of the " Chiens celebres" by De Freville.' 

" My setter was immediately declared * Keeper of the Keys,' and 
forthwith invested with all the rights of office, nor was this con- 
fidence misplaced. He would never give up his charge to any one 
but to my uncle or myself ; and always seemed fully sensible of the 
dignity and responsibility of his new position." 

420. Another anecdote touching keys. 

A family residing at Chepstow had a house with a gate leading 
into the castle-ditch, and they used to pass through it almost daily 
in order to avoid the bustle of the town. The key of this gate was 
kept in the kitchen, and a black retriever, Sultan by name, was 
accustomed to ask the cook for it by pulling her dress until he suc- 
ceeded in bringing her under the nail on which the key was hung, 
and he always returned it most honestly when the family had done 
with it. One day, however, having brought it back as usual, he 
found the cook too busy to attend to him, and, growing impatient 
he trotted off with it, and for a whole fortnight it was missing. At 

length Miss , being much inconvenienced by its loss, armed 

herself with a whip, and, standing by the gate, called the dog, and 
said in a very determined tone, " Now, Sultan, bring me that key 
directly." Off he went to a gooseberry-bush, scratched up the key, 
and brought it to her. He had, probably, found the same spot a 
safe depository for many a bone. 

421. Mr. A n, with whom I was slightly acquainted, a man 

of great originality, and singular shrewdness and intelligence, had 
a dog called Taffy, who had a remarkable aptitude for comprehending 
whatever was told him. He knew by name every member of Mr. 

a certainty 

harder grip ;" the dog would bite more firmly. At the third order, 
" Harder, my boy, yet harder," the party assaulted would be too 
glad to sue for mercy ; for no one dared to strike Taffy excepting 
Mr. A n. Even to him the animal never submitted quietly, but 


kept growling and snarling whenever he was being punished indeed, 
on more than one occasion he fonght for the mastery, but unsuccess- 
fully, for few men are more resolute than was Mr. A n. 

422. Taffy was an admirable watch-dog, and fully sensible of the 
responsible duties that devolved upon him. It happened that, in 

a violent storm, late one evening, when Mr. A n was from 

home, the force of the wind drove in the front door. Taffy forth- 
with commenced a search from the bottom of the house to the 
top, apparently to ascertain that no stranger had entered, and he 
then went downstairs. Next morning he was found lying across 
the door-mat, where evidently he had remained the whole night, 
although the cold and wet had been most severe. 

423. Taffy's character was so established as a sagacious, faithful 

guardian, that Mr. A n's sister-in-law, feeling nervous at her 

husband's being obliged to leave home, begged the loan of Taffy 

for a few nights. Mr. A n consented, and ordered Taffy, 

manifestly to his great annoyance, to remain at the house. Four 

days afterwards he reappeared at home, when Mr. A n, in the 

belief that he had run away, was about to beat him, but was 
persuaded to suspend the punishment until it was ascertained 

whether Mrs. had not brought him into the neighbourhood. 

About an hour afterwards she arrived to make inquiries about the 
dog, w r ho, she said, had left her house the moment her husband put 
his foot' withinside the door. 

424. Taffy was also a sporting character, I fear I ought to say a 
poaching character, for he was a peculiar dog, he had peculiar 
ideas would that such ideas were more peculiar on the subject of 
game, and fancied all means lawful that insured success. In the 
Isle of Wight there once were (probably the spot is now drained) 
ten or twelve acres of marsh-land, nearly surrounded by water, 
much in the shape of a horse-shoe. It was a favourite resort for 
hares, as Taffy well knew. His bulk prevented his ever having a 
chance of catching any in a fair run ; he used, therefore, to dodge 
about between them and the outlet, and would so worry and distress 
them, that he was pretty certain of eventually carrying off one as a 

425. We all remember the story of the unfortunate tailor deluged 
with a shower of dirty water by the indignant elephant whose pro- 
boscis he had imprudently insulted in the morning by pricking it 
with his needle, instead of presenting the expected delicacy. It 
would appear as though Taffy had heard and understood the anecdote. 
He was once pelted with stones by some boys from behind a wall : 
having then no means of retaliating, he seemed to take the affront 
quietly, but he did not forget it ; he patiently bided his time, and, 
as opportunities offered, avenged himself upon each successively by 
knocking them down in the dirt ; nor did he allow one to escape 
unpunished, though some of them avoided him for three weeks or a 
month. There were six offenders, and he made all the six expiate 
their offences in a dirty kennel. 

426. Indeed, Taffy would never allow anybody, young or old, to 

CH. xiv.] TAFFY PURLOINS. 241 

play tricks upon him with impunity. On one occasion, when the 
labourers had left off work to take their dinners, one of them 
amused himself by offering Taffy a piece of bread stuck on the end 
of a knife, and by suddenly turning it over, managed to give the 
dog a rap on the nose with the handle, on his attempting to seize 
the proffered gift. Taffy bore the joke patiently for some time ; but 
at length, thinking that his good-nature was unduly taxed, and 
perceiving also that the loaf was fast decreasing, he determined to 
turn the tables. Bristling up, therefore, he jumped, open-mouthed, 
at the man, and so alarmed him, that in his fright he dropped the 
bread, and Taffy quietly walked off with it, much to the delight of 
the bystanders. 

427. Though Taffy's natural parts were so great, they were 

doubtless improved by education. If Mr. A n ever called the 

dog's attention to a thing by pointing at it, the dog would, to 
nearly a certainty, bring it to him when he had got well out of 
sight, and was, therefore, not likely to be suspected of participating 
in the robbery. Many a time has Taffy run off with the finest fish 
from the side of the unsuspecting angler, who, until he was en- 
lightened upon the subject on its safe restoration, may in his be- 
wilderment have gravely considered whether, under very favouring 
circumstances, it would be possible for a trout to possess the same 
vitality and power of locomotion as an eel. It always tended to the 
maintenance of the piscator's proverbial reputation for patience and 
equanimity, that he should not detect Taffy in the commission of 
the theft ; for the dog would constantly show fight rather than give 
up the prize. He evinced yet greater adroitness in securing pigeons. 
On numerous occasions bets have been laid, and rarely lost, that he 
would bring home the particular one indicated to him out of a large 
flock feeding on the ground ; for he would patiently crouch, per- 
haps affecting to be asleep, until it incautiously afforded him the 
opportunity of seizing it ; but so careful was he of his charge, that 
he invariably delivered it up to his master, perfectly uninjured. 

428. With all his cunning and eccentricities, Taffy was " passing 
honest," and seldom purloined on his own account ; but I regret to 
say it is recorded of him, that in a moment of weakness and hunger 
he yielded to temptation, The instance was this. Taffy observed 
a woman seated at a cottage-door feeding her child. He earnestly 
begged for a share, but in vain. Remarking, however, that she 
frequently turned round to dip the spoon into something, he con- 
trived to creep behind her without her perceiving him, when to his 
satisfaction he discovered a basin of pap on the floor. It was too 
hot to gobble up at once ; so waiting quietly until her attention 
was drawn away, he cautiously took up the crock and trotted off 
with it to the good woman's dismay, who was wondering what had 
become of her dear baby's dinner and, without spilling any of the 
contents, carried it to a convenient distance, where he leisurely ate 
up all the carefully-prepared food, leaving the basin perfectly un- 
damaged, and as clean as if it had been washed by the most praise- 
worthy housewife. 




[CH. XIV. 

429. Other stories could be told of Taffy's sagacity, but these 
you will probably think more than sufficient. However, you would 
perhaps like to hear how he was bred. No one can tell you more 
than that, judging from his appearance, he must have ha'd a strain 
of the Newfoundland in him, for the circumstances attending his 
birth and parentage are nearly as singular as his character. 

430. A ship was lost in a storm off the Needles, in 1811. No- 
thing was saved, not a plank whereon was a letter to indicate to 
what country she belonged. For some weeks afterwards, a farmer 
in the Isle of Wight found that regularly every night one of his 
sheep was destroyed. A watch was set. The culprit was at length 
discovered to be a strange, savage-looking dog. supposed to have 
escaped from the wreck. For many, many nights it baffled its pur- 
suers, but was at length wounded, and tracked by its blood to a cave, 
where it was killed. Three young pups were found. One of them, 

the said Taffy, was saved, and brought up by hand by Mr. A n, 

who became so fond of it that their attachment might almost be 
said to be mutual. Taffy lived admired and honoured beyond the 
term of life usually assigned to the canine race. 

431. Jesse * narrates many instances similar to the foregoing, in 

* Lord Brougham, in his " Dia- 
logues on Instinct," gives anec- 
dotes showing the great sagacity 
of animals. He writes "The 
cunning of foxes is proverbial ; 
but I know not if it was ever 
more remarkably displayed than 
in the Duke of Beaufort's country ; 
where Reynard, beinghard pressed, 
disappeared suddenly, and was, 
after strict search, found in a 
water-pool up to the very snout, by 
which he held on to a willow-bough 
hanging over the pond. The cun- 
ning of a dog, which Serjeant 
Wilde tells me of as known to 
him, is at least equal. He used 
to be tied up as a precaution 
against hunting sheep. At night 
he slipped his head out of the 
collar, and returning before dawn, 
put on the collar again to conceal 
his nocturnal excursions." 

All animals are more or less 
cunning. The cunning of monkeys 
I do not quite like using that 
word : it hardly does them justice 
is nearly as proverbial as the 
cunning of foxes but it is not 
so generally admitted that the 
monkey has an innate sense of the 

ludicrous ; and it would surprise 
many to be told that its mischievous 
propensities frequently arise, not 
from a spirit of wanton destruc- 
tiveness, but from a consciousness 
of fun from a feeling of enjoy- 
ment at thinking of, or witnessing 
the embarrassments created by its 
pranks. Yet it is so. Captain 

H e, when in the 7th Fusiliers, 

mentioned to me that the sailors 
of the ship in which he returned 
from the Mediterranean had two 
pet monkeys on board. The older 
one not being so tame as the 
smaller, a belt with a short rope 
was fastened round his waist, in 
order that he might be occasionally 
tied up, and as this belt had chafed 
him he greatly disliked its being 
touched. One hot day when the 
monkeys were lying beside each 
other on the deck, apparently 

asleep, H e observed the little 

one raise himself softly, look at 
his companion, and feeling assured 
that he was asleep, sink down 
quietly, close his eyes, and give 
the obnoxious belt a sudden twitch. 
The other instantly sprang up, 
perceiving, however, nothing near 

CH. XIV.] 



his amusing work on Dogs a book likely to convince the most 
sceptical, that few among us give the canine race credit for half the 
sagacity and intelligence with which they are really endowed. He 
asserts, and I, for one, fully agree with him, " that there is not a 
faculty of the human mind, of which some evident proof of its 
existence may not be found in dogs. Thus," he says, " we find 
them possessed of memory, imagination, curiosity, cunning, revenge, 
ingenuity, gratitude, devotion or affection, and other qualities." 

432. To this list he ought to have added jealousy : only this year 
I heard of a stronger instance of it than I could have imagined 
possible. Walking near Devonport, I met a man with two small 
dogs ; one was evidently a foreigner. Apologising for the abrupt- 
ness of the question, I inquired from what country the animal 
came. " From Japan." I then asked whether he had ever bred 
from the other dog, a most varmint-looking, wiry little terrier ; he 
replied that she was three years old, and had never had but one 
pup, which, because he was fondling it, she had deliberately killed 
that very morning, although it was six weeks old, and she was still 
nursing it. I cannot say that she manifested either sorrow for its 

him but the little fellow (seem- 
ingly) in a deep slumber, he laid 
himself down to continue his siesta. 
After a while the young tormentor 
cautiously peered round ; when 
satisfied that his friend was again 
in the arms of " Mr. Murphy," he 
repeated the disagreeable twitch 
with yet greater success, the old 
chap becoming this time delight- 
fully puzzled. 

A third time the little rascal, 
after the same precautions as be- 
fore, endeavoured to play off his 
trick, but he was foiled at his 
own weapons. The old gentleman 
suspecting him, had cunningly 
pretended to be asleep ; and on the 
small paw quietly approaching his 
sensitive loins, he jumped up 
seized the culprit in the very fact, 
and forthwith gave him a drub- 
bing that taught him more re- 
spectful manners during the 
remainder of the voyage. 

But to return for a moment to 
foxes. A story is told in the 

family of Mr. C s E n (286) 

of the sagacity of these animals, 
to which he gives implicit cre- 
dence. Adjacent to their old 
family house stands a yet older 

high tower, the summit of which 
commands an extensive view of 
the surrounding country, and con- 
sequently of the several rides lead- 
ing to the building. From this 
elevated position his grandfather 
was one morning watching the 
hounds drawing some neighbour- 
ing covers, when he saw a fox 
steal away unobserved, and hide 
himself in a few furze-bushes. The 
pack passed by at some distance 
from him, and Monsieur Reynard 
must have begun congratulating 
himself upon his escape, when to 
his horror he perceived two lag- 
ging skirters approaching his place 
of concealment. Instead of break- 
ing away in an opposite direction, 
he at once went forth to greet 
them, lay down, playfully wag- 
ging his tail, and gave them a 
pressing, and doubtless sincere, 
invitation to join in a game of 
romps. The ruse was successful. 
The hounds came up, paid him the 
compliment of sniffing at him as 
he rolled on his back humbly 
admitting his inferiority, and then 
cantered off to join their com- 
panions. Upon this, Pug at once 
retreated to his first covert. 
R 2 

244 PHILAX AND BRAC. [OH. xiv. 

loss, or repentance of her unnatural conduct ; on the contrary her 
joyous gambols seemed to evince her delight at having removed 
from her path a dreaded rival in the affections of her master. 

433. We must all admit that they have much reflection, or they 
would not evince the good judgment they so frequently display in 
unusual circumstances circumstances in which mere instinct could 
in no way assist them.* An industrious couple, who lived high on 
the side of one of the romantic Ennerdale Hills, (Cumberland) in 
a cottage which had descended through several generations from 
father to son, used to gather fuel in a neighbouring wood. They 
often took their little daughter with them ; but one evening, whilst 
hunting for wild flowers, she strayed beyond their sight or hearing. 
They searched unceasingly for their lost darling as long as the 
waning light permitted them to distinguish objects amidst the thick 
foliage ; and then, with heavy hearts, turned towards home, the 
father endeavouring to cheer the mother with the hope he could 
not himself entertain that the little girl might have wandered to her 
accustomed haunts ; but they had the grief of finding that she had 
not returned ; and fruitless also was the anxious search renewed by 
torchlight. The poor mother mechanically spread out the frugal 
supper, thinking it possible that her husband might partake of the 
food she could not taste. It would, however, have remained on the 
board untouched had not the old dog seized a large slice of the loaf 
and rushed out of the cottage. The father quietly observed, " I 
never knew the dog to thieve before." Ere the day had fully 
dawned, they were again hunting the wood ; but they could dis- 
cover no trace of their child. At breakfast-time the dog, as on the 
preceding evening, purloined a piece of bread. The man was about 
to strike the depredator, but his wife, her countenance radiant with 
hope, stopped him with the exclamation, " I am sure he knows 
where Agnes is." They ran down hill after him, and at length found 
him near the edge of the lake, lying on the child to keep her warm. 
She appeared quite satisfied with her position, and extremely pleased 
with her shaggy companion. In her small fat fingers she grasped 
the stolen bread, together with many flowers she had gathered. 

434. You may have seen the account of the marvellous tricks 
which Monsieur Leonard, by kindness and perseverance, taught his 
dogs Philax and Brae. That a dog could be tutored into playing 
as good a game of dominos as a man, may sound preposterously 
unreasonable, but the respectability of the writer compels us to give 
credence to the recital. 

435. I, also, had once the honour of playing a game of dominos 
with a learned dog, whose celebrity, however, was far inferior to 
that acquired by M. Leonard's clever pupil. It thus happened. 
As I was crossing the Place St. Sulpice, at Paris, I saw a large 
crowd collected in a circle of considerable diameter round a man 

* Is not the capability of form- upon the exercise of the reasoning 
ing a good judgment in unusual than the instinctive faculties ? 
circumstances more dependent 

CH. XIV.] 



who was exhibiting tricks with dogs. He had a great variety. Six 
were yoked in pairs to a light carriage. On the roof sat a terrier 
dressed up most fantastically, and who with difficulty retained his 
elevated position when the carriage was in motion. Two others, 
one an extremely small animal, called the " petit Caporal," were 
favoured with places in the interior. There were, also, two slight 
greyhounds and a Russian poodle. Total, a dozen. It may be 
worthy of note that all, with, I believe, only one exception, were 
of the masculine gender. They were miserably thin, but I must 
admit that they appeared attached to their master. 


436. When I joined the group, the showman was making a dog, 
dressed in a petticoat and smart cap, dance a minuet. Then a 
greyhound leaped, of course gracefully, through a hoop held by a 
boy over his head ; and afterwards trotted, as ungracefully, on three 
legs, affecting extreme lameness on each alternately. The man 
then promised numerous surprising feats if he could but collect 
as many as twelve sous. On summing up the coppers thrown to 
him, there appeared to be thirteen. This he averred to be such an 
unlucky number that he dare not proceed unless some benevolent, 
Christian-like person would break the charm by adding another 
sou. His demand was immediately complied with. 

In order to increase the size of the arena at least, such I con- 
ceived to be the reason, it certainly had the effect he drove the 
car fast round the circle. He then spread ten cards on the four 

246 CARD TRICKS. [CH. xiv. 

sides of an old cloth, about five feet long, and of nearly the same 
width. Each card bore a legibly- written number from to 9. He 
invited the spectators to ask for whatever number they pleased, 
provided it did not hold doublets, nor contain more than four of 
the cyphers ; asserting that his dogs, without the least assistance 
from him, would bring, in regular order, the several cards repre- 
senting the required number ; and to create, as it seemed to me, 
the impression that it was a matter of perfect indifference what 
dog he took, he unyoked one of the leaders, a close-cropped, small 
Dane, and called him to the centre. I begged a lady who was 
leaning on my arm, and whose eyes are generally sharp enough, to 
watch the man most carefully. Some one demanded 1824. The 
dog went round and round the cloth as if examining every card 
separately, and lifted, in regular succession (carrying them one by 
one to his master), the several numbers composing 1824. The dog 
committed no blunder ; and did not long hesitate in making his 
selection. Another person in the crowd called out for 29, when 
the dog was equally successful ; and on neither occasion could the 
lady or myself perceive that the man gave the slightest sign. At one 
time I thought I had detected that he took a short step forward, as 
if to receive the card, when the dog was about to grasp the right 
one ; but I was soon aware that I had only found a " mare's nest." 

437. When reharnessing the Dane to the carriage, the showman 
gave out that, if duly paid, he could exhibit before the " respect- 
able and discriminating company "the feats of a far more wonderful 
animal. He collected what satisfied him ; and producing two 
similar packs of common playing cards (say a dozen in each), he 
bade the Russian come forth and astonish the public. The man 
distributed one pack along the borders of the cloth ; and handing 
round the other pack, he begged as many of the company as pleased, 
to take a card. Five or six did so. The man then showed what 
cards remained in his hands to the poodle, desiring him to point 
out those that had been taken. The dog walked round and round 
the cloth, and one by one fetched the corresponding cards. 

438. The showman still more astonished the gaping crowd by 
assuring them that this dog's intellect was so extraordinary and 
wonderful, that he could read their most secret thoughts ; and to 
prove the truth of his assertion, whilst telling a good-humoured 
fiacre-driver, well known to many of them, to think of a card, he 
successfully forced * one upon his sight : and after coachee had, 

* So adroitly obtruding (or the eight by lightly sticking on a 

forcing) a particular card of an bit of paper cut into proper shape, 

outspread pack upon the notice of and of the same colour as the suit, 

an unsuspecting party, that he un- The metamorphosed card is forced 

hesitatingly selects that identical upon one of the audience, and the 

card. This trick is performed very exhibitor manages unperceived to 

effectively, having previously con- remove the deception with his 

cealed the eight of a suit, by tern- little finger when reshuffling the 

porarily converting the seven into cards. 


agreeably to the showman's desire, whispered to a neighbour what 
it was, the dog, without taking much time for reflection, selected 
the true card from among those lying on the cloth. 

439. The expressions of admiration and bewilderment this feat 
elicited having somewhat subsided, the showman again laid out 
those cards on which the numbers were written. There was a large 
public clock easily visible from the Place : he held the dog's head 
towards it ; requested him to look at it attentively, and tell the 
gentlemen and ladies the exact time, first the hours, then the 
minutes. It was a quarter-past two. The dog brought 2 for the 
hours, and then 1 and 5 for the minutes. 

440. Having now sufficiently worked upon the imagination and 
credulity of the observers, the showman drew forth a quantity of 
small folded papers of various colours ; and having spread them 
along the edges of the cloth, he solemnly protested that the dog 
would tell the fortune of any of his hearers who would first give 
him a sou. As a guarantee for the dog's ability, he told them they 
might compare the several fortunes written on the papers selected 
for them by the dog, however numerous they might be, when it 
would be found that, without a single exception, the canine magician 
would have foretold to each what could only happen to an individual 
of his or her sex. The charlatan reaped a plentiful harvest, for the 
temptation was strong to female curiosity especially ; and no one 
could prove that the dog was ever in error. 

441. After a laughable exhibition of several of the dogs marching 
in procession, which he called " the carnival of Venice," he affected 
suddenly to discover that none of the dogs had been allowed a 
game of dominos. He again unyoked the Dane, and asked if any 
one was willing to become his antagonist. As no one would step 
forward, whether from bashfulness or fear of necromancy I cannot 
say, I avowed my willingness to play. There were fourteen dominos. 
I drew seven. The others were arranged for the dog on the cloth, 
far apart from one another. He had the double six, and he imme- 
diately took it up to begin the game. I followed ; and we alter- 
nately played a piece in the most orderly and regular manner the 
dog carrying the dominos to the man to place for him ; wagging his 
short stump when he found (from his master's manner), that he 
was right ; and, to do him justice, he never made a mistake. 

442 Although I was now close to the showman, I could not re- 
mark that he gave the least signal by look, or by motion of hand or 
foot : but I fancied this, however, may be only another " mare's 
nest," though I cannot think it was that I heard him make a slight 
chuckling sound* (with his tongue against the roof of his mouth), 
whilst the dog was walking round from domino to domino, which 
ceased when he approached the right domino, leaving the man at 
liberty to jest and talk nonsense for the amusement of the crowd. 

* This would account for the his audience at a respectable dis- 
showman's wish to increase the tance, well out of hearing, 
size of the circle (436), and keep 


He had evidently a long string of ready-prepared witticisms. He 
laughed at the dog for being so long in making up his mind as to 
what it would be most judicious to play ; told him that he had 
been so hospitably treated by the good Parisians, that it was evident 
his brains were not so clear as they ought to be, &c., &c. : all which 
verbiage I suspect the dog took as a confirmation that he was 
making the selection his master wished. The man promised to call 
upon me ; but I was obliged to leave Paris sooner than I had ex- 
pected, and I never saw him again. 

443. Our attention, however, perhaps you will think, ought to 
be confined to instances of intelligence and high education in 
sporting-dogs. Well, then, in the next Chapter I will speak of 
what some dogs of that class do in this, and some are trained to do 
in other countries ; facts for the truth of which I can vouch, and 
I hope the account will induce you to believe I am not unreason- 
able in asserting that we have a right to require greater excellence 
in our sporting-dogs than what is now regarded by most of us as 



444. Dogs for Hunting Bears in India. 445. Polygar Dogs for Hunting Wild Hog 
in India. 446. Beaters in India ; the greater utility of Dogs. 447. Mongrel 
Pointer in India which proved of great value. 448. Cross between Pointer and 
Indian Dog recommended ; in Note, Arab Greyhounds. 449. Coolness neces- 
sary in attacking large Game. 450 to 457. K g"s critical encounter with 

Elephant. 458. Sketch of Scene. 459, 460. Wounded Elephant. 461. Pot 
shot at Bear to be potted. 462. Skull of Indian and African Elephant differs. 

463 to 467. M e bearding Lion in Den. 468. Hindu's estimate of courage of 

Europeans. Encounter with Wild Boar. 469. Strong Greyhounds for killing 
Kangaroos in Australia. 470. Greyhound hunted with Falcon. 471. The Creole 
Sportsman and admirable little Cur. 472. His good generalship with Wild Hog. 
473. The moral of the Story ; in Note, Guinea chicks ; Guinea birds' eggs, 
how taken. Cross with Muscovy Drake. 474, 475. Quantity of fish at New- 
foundland. Dog Fishing. 476. Sir H dD s. 477 to 480. Newfoundland 

fetching back Fox. 481. Sir George B k, R.N. 482 to 488. His Terrier 

"Muta" leading him to Musk Bull. 489. His Sketch of the Scene. 490. Lord 

M f; the dogs "Captain" and "Suwarrow." 491. Dot-and-go-one, with his 

old Pointer. 492. How fairly done by "Captain." 493. Breakers, not dogs, in 
fault ; they could be taught anything. 494. " Rap" (a Pointer) hunting covers 
with Springers and Terriers. 495. "Shot" (a Pointer), on alternate days, hunt- 
ing with Hounds and standing at Birds. 496. How accounted for. 497. Affec- 
tion an incentive to exertion ; Dropper alternately pointing Grouse and Snipe ; 
Grouse-dog to be rated when noticing Snipe. 498. Capital Dropper from 
Russian Setter; difficulty of procuring Russian Setters. 499. Bet respecting 
superiority of two Keepers in the Highlands ; how decided. 500. High-priced 
,dogs ought to be highly broken. 

444. BEARS of the common species which we often see led 
about, are very numerous in the hilly districts of some parts of 
India. In rocky, nearly inaccessible places, the natives hunt them 
with a strong-set wiry dog. This dog is trained to watch for his 
opportunity, and leap very high upon the chest of the bear, and 
seize his throat. You would, perhaps, think this the most disad- 
vantageous position which the dog could select, enabling Bruin to 
crush nim in his powerful embrace. Not so. The well-instructed 
creature draws himself up so high that the bear, in lieu of crushing 
his ribs, merely presses his hips, and the bear's arms, instead of 
injuring his opponent are often his best protection ; for the animals 
frequently come rolling together to the foot of the hill, where the 
hunters despatch poor Bruin with their spears. 

445. In other parts of India the natives chase the wild hog with 


a coarse dog of the Polygar breed. The dog is taught to seize the 
hog between the hind legs when he has turned his head to meet 
some other assailant, and to retain the hold until the hunters come 

446. Talking of India, however, I cannot help digressing. Why 
should not more Europeans residing in that country, have dogs as 
well-trained for birds as the Natives have for the bear and hog ? I 
have often thought what much finer sport I should have enjoyed, 
when I was serving there, if I had then gained as much experience 
in dog-breaking as I now have. As too many young fellows, be- 
longing both to the Queen's and Company's service, frequently 
complain of their inability to kill time (time which so soon kills 
them !) it is a pity more of them do not take to the innocent 
amusement of dog-breaking. The broiling sun* makes all game 
lie so close in India (except very early in the morning, and towards 
the close of day) that the best beaters, unless the number be un- 
usually great, leave nearly a dozen head of game behind them for 
every one that is sprung, especially in jungly ground. The evil is 
partially, I allow, but very partially, remedied in grass-land, by 
attaching numerous little bells to the long cord carried by the line 
of beaters. I have heard of this plan being pursued in England 
in the absence of dogs, or when the scent was unusually bad. 

447. The object at that time of my especial envy was a nonde- 
script belonging to an officer of the Company's service, with whom 
I used occasionally to shoot near Belgaum. The animal had, I 
fancy, some cross of pointer in his composition ; so little, however, 
that he never pretended to point. He used just to "feather" 
feebly when he happened to get near any game ; and as he was a 
wretchedly slow potterer, and never strayed (for hunting it could 
not be called) far from his master, all that he did put up was well 
within gun-range. His owner thus got nearly twice as many shots 
as any of his companions. How much his sport would have been 
increased had he possessed a good dog ! 

448. Now there are some native dogs t in India with not a bad 
nose (those, for instance, which are employed to hunt the porcupine 
at night), and a breed from them with an European pointer would, 

* We speak not of the delight- fields are cut ; but in high grass 

ful Neilgherry hills, nor the val- and strong jungle a team of Clum- 

leys of the magnificent Himalaya bers would be invaluable. They 

mountains. could not, however, be kept healthy 

t The really wild dogs of India, in the low, hot lands. We must 

the Dhole, hunt by nose, and naturally expect that in the cool 

in packs. parts of India the true English 

J Pointer rather than setter, not pointer (or setter) would be found 

only on account of his shorter coat, more serviceable than the best cross, 

but because his nose seems better For those who are fond of coursing 

suited to a hot climate. This cross in India what a pity it is that it 

would be hardy; and prove ex- should be so difficult to procure 

tremely useful when the grain good Arab -grey hounds. Whilst 


doubtless, prove extremely useful. Their strength of constitution 
would compensate for acknowledged inferiority in every other re- 
spect. A cross with the Spanish I)on would probably be the best, 
and the easiest broken in, as he is so steady and full of point. But 
the Hidalgo would be of little service out of the kennel. From 
his natural inactivity and weight, he would soon knock up under 
an Indian sun. Three or four pups would be enough for the dam 
to rear. Those most like the sire should be preserved ; and they 
might be kept in good health, if they were occasionally treated to 
a little calomel overnight, with castor oil in the morning, and 
allowed full liberty to run about for an hour every morning and 
evening. I knew some greyhounds of a purely English breed, but 
born in the country, which were thus maintained in capital health. 
They belonged to the only litter that the mother ever had. The 
climate, which is generally fatal to. England-born dogs, killed both 
the parents within a year after their arrival in India. It is best that 
the pups should be whelped in the latter part of the year, as they 
would then acquire some strength before the setting in of the hottest 
weather, and be of an age to commence hunting at the beginning 
of the following cool season. The companionship of dogs in the 
jungle adds much to the security of the pedestrians. A timid yelp or 
a clamorous bark gives timely notice of the vicinity of every dis- 
agreeable, dangerous neighbour, and enables the sportsman to take 
a cool deliberate aim, instead of having to make a hurried snap- 
shot at some stealthy panther or tiger, or the far more formidable 
foe, a solitary buffalo. The habit of placing the fore-finger along- 
side the stock, and not letting it touch the trigger, until the moment 
of firing, proves very valuable in these critical circumstances. Many 
a barrel has gone off, even in the hands of an old sportsman, before 
he properly covered some vital part of his first royal tiger. The 
certainty of ignition afforded by a detonator gives great confidence 
to the present generation of sportsmen. Even in the wettest 
weather, the waterproof caps manufactured by Eley and others, 
seem to insure an instantaneous fire. 

449. Great presence of mind in moments of unforeseen, sudden 
peril is undoubtedly a gift ; but calmness and self-possession, for- 
tunately for sportsmen seeking " large game " (burrah shicar), as it 
is technically termed in India, can be acquired by reflection and 

450. A friend and old fellow-passenger of mine, one of the 

Colonels K g, a name that will long be remembered at Hythe 

evinced in 1816 as much coolness as I ever heard of. He was 

I was in the country, but I speak parts of Arabia, where an admi- 

of many years ago, I never saw a rable, short-coated greyhound is 

decent one. A far better descrip- reared for different kinds of cours- 

tion of dog, and one which would ing. The best dogs are greatly 

keep healthy in the hottest weather, valued, and it is a question whether 

might be imported (if expense was our noble breed is not originally 

no consideration) from the upper derived from this stock. 

252 ROGUE-ELEPHANT. [en. xv. 

then on the staff at Ceylon, and used, while accompanying the 
Governor on his annual tour throughout the island, to have mag- 
nificent sport in places rarely visited by Europeans. Indeed, his 
character as a slayer of elephants was so fully established that he 
was often called " elephant-king." 

451. On the party arriving one morning within the Mahagam- 

pattoo district, the Governor said to K g, " Surely you will not 

attack the desperate brute that lately killed those villagers and 
the two letter-carriers?" The sportsmen modestly replied, "I 
cannot say, sir ; perhaps I may." Now it is well known that a 
rogue-elephant is always a formidable animal ; but one recently 
driven from a herd by a stronger bull is particularly dangerous. 
In his malignant rage he often wantonly attacks whatever he sees ; 
and there are several instances of his having displayed extraordinary 
patience in waiting for imprisoned men who had climbed into trees, 
or retreated into caves, to avoid his fury. 

452. The elephant the Governor referred to was, at that time, 
the terror of the surrounding neighbourhood ; for when maddened 
by jealousy and rage at being expelled after a severe conflict from 
the harem, and smarting from the blows and wounds inflicted by 
his more powerful rival, he had ventured to attack an unfortunate 
labourer, and finding how slight was the resistance offered, he had 
since sought opportunities for wreaking his vengeance on man, of 
whom he had now lost all his former instinctive dread. 

453. About four o'clock, as the Governor, Lady B g, and the 

staff, &c., were seated at dinner, which was nearly over, a message 
that caused some excitement among the hearers was delivered to 

K g. The Governor inquired about it. K g explained 

that the Shircarree set as a watch had reported that the much 
dreaded " Rogue " had just left the jungle and appeared upon the 

plain. K g asked leave to attack him. Lady B g begged 

that, escorted by a few gentlemen, she might be allowed to watch 

his proceedings from some safe spot. This K g acceded to, but 

stipulated that he was then to be left entirely to himself. On 
getting a view of the low ground, and observing several herds of 
elephants scattered over the extensive plain, her ladyship became 
nervous, and returned to the encampment. Her brother, Mr. 

B 1 and Mr. G. (now living in London) remained ; and K g 

placed them in a secure position amidst some trees standing too 
close together to admit of the elephant's forcing his large body 
through, should he be merely wounded, and perchance take that 

454. After carefully examining the localities, K g made a 

detour to prevent the " Rogue " from winding him. There was 
some brushwood, but no trees, to cover his approach. The vindic- 
tive solitary animal was apparently brooding over his wrongs in an 
open space rich with the luxuriant vegetation consequent on tropical 
rains. He began to feed, striking the ground with each fore-foot alter- 
nately, in order to loosen the grass from the soil. He then collected 
the herbage with his trunk ; but before carrying the mass to his 


mouth, shook it carefully to free the roots from earth. This gave 
K g the opportunity, stealthily and creeping low, to get unde- 
tected about twenty paces in rear of him. There he knelt and 
anxiously awaited the turn of the head that should expose some 
spot not completely protecting the brain. 

455. Long did he watch, for the elephant, when not engaged in 
feeding, stood motionless, save an occasional whisk of his cord- 
like tail, or the flopping of his huge ears. At times, however, he 
would slightly bend his head when with his proboscis scattering 
sand over his body, in order to drive off some troublesome insect ; 
at which moment the hopeful sportsman would noiselessly cock his 
piece, but only to again half cock it in disappointment. 

456. Messrs. B. and G. became impatient. They fancied the 
elephant must have stolen away ; and a peacock happening to fly 
over their heads, they fired at it. On hearing the noise, the elephant 

wheeled, and perceived K g. He curled his trunk under his 

neck, lowered his head, and charged. The most vulnerable spot 

was thus presented. K g's barrel was deliberately poised, a 

cool aim taken, and the trigger pulled ; but it yielded not ! 

K g felt, he told me, " a choking sensation " certain death was 

before him ; but instantly remembering that he had replaced the 
piece on half-cock, he brought it from his shoulder full-cocked it 
raised it again to level and with unshaken nerve, and unerring 
precision, a second time covered the vulnerable spot. Down with a 
tremendous crash dropped the ponderous brute, first on his knees, 
then on his chest ; and with such speed was he charging that he 
almost made a complete somerset in the act of falling stone dead 
near the feet of his comparatively puny conqueror vanquished by 
skill and cool intrepidity. 

457. The party on descending found K g endeavouring to 

climb up the enormous carcass. They feared the animal might be 

only stunned, but K g satisfied them by probing to its brain 

with his ramrod in the direction the bullet had taken. 

458. Colonel W. (the Q. Master General), who was of the party, 
made a spirited sketch of the scene. I have more than once ad- 
mired it. It is admirably done in red chalk. K g is seen 

standing upon the prostrate elephant, and a number of the natives 
are represented in their picturesque costumes, making grateful 
salaams to the u brave sahib " who had slain their formidable 
enemy. Underneath the sketch is written " The Mighty King." 

459. My friend's nerves were so little affected by his narrow 
escape that he killed two more elephants the same evening, and 
wounded another. It was a long shot across the river. The animal 

was feeding. K g waited to aim until he could bring its temple 

so low as to align with the elbow, when the head would be in a 
favourable position for a well-directed ball to penetrate to the 
brain. But the two oz. bullet missed the temple ; it, however, 
struck the elbow and fractured the bone. Darkness was gradually 
coining on, the river was full of alligators, there was no bridge, 
and K g was unwillingly compelled to defer despatching the 


poor creature until daylight the next morning. He left it ineffectu- 
ally endeavouring to make use of the fractured limb by frequently 
lifting it with his trunk and placing it in front. 


460. Colonel W., whose artistic sketch shows that he was an 
undeniable hand at the pencil, whatever he might be with the rifle, 
was ambitious of being able to say he had killed an elephant. He, 
therefore, begged leave to give the wounded animal its coup de 
grace. It was found wallowing in an adjacent buffalo hole. Colonel 
W. got within twelve yards of it, but bespattered by the mud the 
disabled beast threw over him the novel and only defence it could 

make his aim was so uncertain, that, after all, K g had to put 

the sufferer out of its misery. 

461. Colonel W.'s ambition recals to my mind a singular adver- 
tisement, though I cannot think that even he would have answered 
it had he been in London at the time. It appeared in the papers 
many years ago, but was too ludicrous not to be still in the recollec- 
tion of many. A perfumer in Bishopsgate Street Without, gave 
notice in conspicuous characters " to SPORTSMEN," that a splen- 
did Bear was to be killed on his premises, at which they might 
have a shot by paying, I now forget what exact sum. 

462. I am told that an examination of the skulls of the Asiatic 
and African elephants would show a marked difference between the 
two, and explain why the latter animal cannot be instantaneously 
killed. In the Asiatic elephant there is a spot about the size of a 
man's hand between and somewhat above the eyes, where a bullet 

Made the Caffre boy behind him pull the deadly trigger." Par. 464. 

cir. xv.] ENCOUNTER WITH LION. 257 

can easily penetrate to the brain when the head is carried low ; 
whereas the brain, it is said, of the African elephant is as effectually 
guarded on the forehead as elsewhere. This might be inferred 
from a perusal of Gordon Cumming's exciting book. Murray 
would not print many of the startling anecdotes related in the 
manuscript, fearing they might throw discredit upon the work. 
But it is, I think, to be regretted that he did not trust more to the 
discernment of the public ; and to the strong internal evidence of 
truthfulness afforded in the descriptions given of the habits of the 
various beasts which the author had singular opportunities of 

463. The mention of Gordon Cumming's name, which is naturally 
associated with feats of cool daring, leads one to speak of an old 
fellow-sportsman of his at the Cape of Good Hope. Doubtless 
there are men of whom it may be almost averred that they know 
not the sensation of fear. Of this number was Gordon Cumming's 

friend Captain G. B. M e of the 45th. Alas ! we must say 

" was," for that brave heart has ceased to beat. 

464. Whilst quartered with his regiment at the Cape, M e 

took constant opportunities of encountering single-handed the real 
lords of the forest in their own wild domain ; and numerous are 
the stories told by his brother officers of his hair-breadth escapes. 
Gordon Gumming and he often shot together ; and I have heard it 
said that at a time when his left arm was so much injured as to be 
perfectly useless, he went close up to a lion, which was standing 
over Cumming's prostrate body, and with his right hand aiming at 
the animal's heart made the Caffre boy behind him pull the deadly 
trigger. And does not the little fellow's heroic conduct, who 
placed such implicit confidence in his master's address and nerve, 
claim much of our admiration ! 

465. M e's courage was reckless. Having more than once 

failed in getting a shot at a formidable lion which had committed 
great ravages, and was reported to be of immense size, he deter- 
mined upon tracking the beast to his rocky fastness, and forcing 
him to a hand-to-hand combat in his very den. One morning a 
recent spoor * enabled him to find the cave he sought, the entrance 
of which was so contracted that in order not wholly to exclude the 
light, he was compelled to lie down and crawl in upon his elbows. 
Pushing the muzzle of his gun before him, slowly, inch by inch he 
crept on, expecting every moment to see the large, glaring, cat-like 
eye-balls, or to hear the menacing growl. His sight becoming more 
accustomed to the gloom, he was enabled to scan every crevice, and 
was satisfied that the master of the habitation could not have yet 
returned from his nocturnal rambles. Bones of large size were 
strewn about, as well as others whose suspicious appearance prompted 
the involuntary reflection that the absent animal was in very 
truth the dreaded " man-eater " who had so long baffled all pursuit. 

Impression of feet. 


Nothing daunted, but rather aroused by the thought to an increased 

determination to destroy the monster, M e resolved quietly to 

await his return. 

466. Hour after hour passes. The shades of evening fall. The 
bark of the jackal and the howlings of the hyaena, showing the 
advance of night, meet his ear, but not the longed-for roar of the 
expected lion. Surely he will again seek his lair while the bright 
moon yet favours the intrepid sportsman. No he comes not. Com- 
plete darkness sets in darkness intense in that deep recess ; but 
ere long the discordant screams of the peacock announce the early 
dawn, and after a while the hot beams of the sun again hush all 
into silence, save the busy hum of innumerable insects. Horrible 
suspense ! The weary hours drag on still he returns not ; and 
there still sits M e, but not the man he was. Anxious excite- 
ment want of sleep and, above all, the deprivation of bodily 
stimulants, have done their work. He was agitated and unnerved. 
To quote his own words when afterwards recounting the adventure, 
he " would have given worlds to have been away, or to have had a 
flask of brandy." What madness, he thought, could have tempted 
him to seek such certain destruction ? Had the taint of his feet 
raised the animal's suspicions ? Was his presence detected ? And 
was the shaggy monster watching outside, crouching low, ready to 
spring when his victim should be forced by hunger to emerge ? Quit 
he dare not ; yet to remain with nerves unstrung was terrible. In 
his diseased state of mind imagination conjured up awfully har- 
rowing scenes in which man in his feebleness had succumbed ; 
and was it really decreed that his crushed bones should mingle 
unhonoured and unnoticed with the heap around him ? Hours that 
seemed days of torture passed away again the sun reached the 
zenith again it sets and again it shines upon the remains of 
huge limbs, and upon those of slighter mould that bear a fearfully 
close resemblance to his own ! The sun has sunk behind the sum- 
mit of the distant hills, already the short twilight commences. Can 
he survive another night of horrors, or shall he, risking v all, rush 

467. Suddenly a deep and angry growl is heard. It acts as 
music upon his soul his nerves are at once restored to their 
pristine firmness strong is his pulse steady his hand ; his coun- 
tenance lights up with hope and animation ; and as the cave is 
darkened by the entrance of its legitimate but no longer dreaded 
owner, the favourite barrels are deliberately levelled with the ac- 
customed deadly aim. 

468. The Hindoos, who are naturally an inoffensive timid race, 
have an almost fabulous reverence for the courage of Europeans, 
whom they often term fighting devils an epithet applied in no dis- 
paraging way, but, on the contrary, as the highest of compliments. 

The Assistant-surgeon (B h) and a Lieutenant (D n), of a 

regiment to which I once belonged on the Indian establishment, 
were travelling up the country. On arriving early one morning at 
their breakfast tent (which had been sent forward as usual the 

/ J. M. 


Dropped upon his right knee, brought his firelock to the charging position." Par. 468. 

S 2 


preceding evening), they were met by the Cutwal and principal 
men of the small village, bearing a trifling present of fruit. After 
many salaams, the deputation said that the villagers were in the 
greatest distress, that an enormous wild boar and a sow had taken 
up their abode in the neighbouring sugar plantation, that the crop 
was fully ripe, but that whenever the labourers ventured in to cut 
the canes they were driven out by a charge of the swine ; that the 
whole body, women as well as men, had united more than once in 
an attempt to alarm the intruders with the noise of tomtoms, cholera 
horns, firing of matchlocks, &c., but that the unclean brutes would 
not leave, and that the inhabitants had nearly resigned all hope of 
saving the crop, when they had the happiness of hearing that an 
English officer was expected, who, as a matter of course, could have 

no objection to shoot the vicious animals. D n and B h 

willingly consented to start directly after breakfast. The former 
was a keen sportsman, but the latter had never fired a gun ; how- 
ever, he said he would do his best ; and being furnished with an 
old musket, he sallied forth "at fixed bayonets." Almost the 
moment they entered the cover a crashing noise warned them to be 
on their guard. The boar, without an instant's hesitation, rushed 
at the invaders, making a special selection of the individual least 

accustomed to arms. B h, in no way daunted, dropped upon 

his right knee, brought his firelock to the charging position, and 
calmly waited to pull trigger until the formidable beast was so close 

upon the bayonet, that he knocked the piece out of B h's grasp, 

and sent him spinning heels over head. On regaining his feet, 

B h found that his formidable adversary was already dead ; the 

bayonet, much bent in the encounter, was buried deep in his huge 
chest ; and subsequent examination showed that the ball had 
severed his heart into two nearly equal portions. The sow had 
apparently quickly become aware of the mischance that had befallen 
her mate, for she ignominiously fled from the field at her best pace. 
In reply to the thanks, congratulations, and encomiums bestowed 
upon the worthy Assistant-surgeon for his success and admirable 
coolness, he quietly observed, that all was well that ended well ; 
that it was an awful beast ; and that he would take precious good 
care never voluntarily to encounter such another ; that he had 
had his first shot, and fervently hoped it would be his last. 

469. To hark-back, however, to our subject. Greyhounds of a 
large rough kind are trained in some parts of Australia to course 
the kangaroo. A kangaroo when he is brought to bay* would 
disable a great number of dogs, however bold and strong they 
might be, should they incautiously attack him in front : for while 
he is sitting upon his hind quarters, or standing upright, he can by 
one blow, or rather strike of his hind-leg, which is furnished with 
huge claws, tear open the strongest greyhound from the chest down- 
wards ; and many dogs have been thus killed. As soon, therefore, 
as a large kangaroo is seen, a well-educated brace of greyhounds are 

* In general he knowingly places his back against a tree. 


slipped. For some time, by a succession of enormous bounds, the 
animal keeps far ahead of his pursuers especially when running 
up hill, where he is as much favoured by his long hind-legs as a 
hare is by hers, and all are soon lost to the sight of unmounted 
hunters. When he has been overtaken and brought to bay, one of 
the trained dogs keeps him there ; and this he does barking round 
and round him, threatening every moment to fly at him. The other 
dog returns to the hunters, and leads them to the spot where his 
companion is detaining the kangaroo : and so completely does the 
noisy assailant engage the attention of the unfortunate beast, that 
the hunters are frequently enabled to approach unperceived, and 
stun him with a blow over the head. An old kangaroo is there 
termed by the hunters " an old man ; "* the flesh of a young one 
is, however, by many considered very delicate eating. A powerful 
dog will kill a small kangaroo single-handed ; and if properly taught, 
will then seek for his master, and conduct him to the body. 

470. In Persia and many parts of the East greyhounds are taught 
to assist the falcon in the capture of deer. When brought within 
good view of a herd the bird is flown, and at the same moment the 
dog is slipped. The rapid sweep of the falcon soon carries him far 
in advance. It is the falcon who makes the selection of the in- 
tended victim, which appears to be a matter of chance, and a 
properly-trained greyhound will give chase to none other, however 
temptingly close the alarmed animals may pass him. The falcon is 
instructed to aim at the head only of the gazelle, who soon becomes 
bewildered ; sometimes receiving considerable injury from the quick 
stroke of its daring adversary. Before long the gazelle is overtaken 
by the greyhound. It is not always easy to teach a dog to avoid 
injuring the bird, which is so intent upon its prey as utterly to dis- 
regard the approach of the hound. Death would probably be the 
penalty adjudged to him for so heinous an offence ; fora well-trained 
falcon is of great value. You can readily imagine that neither it 
,nor the greyhound could be properly broken unless the instructor 
possessed much judgment and perseverance. The sport is very 
exciting ; but the spectator must be well-mounted, and ride boldly 
who would closely watch the swift, varying evolutions of the assail- 
ing party, and the sudden evasions of the helpless defendant. The 
education of this falcon is conducted on the same principle as that 
of the cheeta. (Note to 284.) The lure is a stuffed gazelle. It is 
placed at gradually increased distances. The raw meat is fixed 
between its eyes, and the concluding lessons terminate with the 
sacrifice of a few tame or maimed deer ; a portion of whose warm 
flesh is given to the bird as a reward for his aid in recapturing the 
unfortunate creatures. 

471. An officer, quartered at Antigua, used occasionally to obtain 
permission to shoot on an island called Barbuda, in the possession 
of Sir Bethel Codrington. It is a strange spot, a coral rock just 

* The North American trappers apply the same term to an old 

"JJy a succession of enormous bounds, the animal keeps far ahead." Par. 469 

CH. xv.] BARBUDA CUB. 265 

emerging from the sea, its highest point being no more than one 
hundred and twenty feet above the water. The horses, cattle, and 
everything on the island are wild, save the manager and two over- 
seers, its only white inhabitants. The former (I speak of the year 
1835) was a splendidly built man, not very refined, but full of 
energy, an excellent shot, and an indefatigable sportsman. No 
Indian had a keener eye for a trail. A turned leaf or a broken 
twig told him the path, and almost the distance, of the hog or deer 
which he was pursuing through the dark intricacies of stunted trees, 
cactus, and long grass, with which the island is, in a great measure, 
covered. A small mangy-looking mongrel, with a long thin muzzle, 
and lanky body, always accompanied him. The sagacity of this 
brute, and his powers of scenting game, were most remarkable. 
He generally walked about ten yards in front of his master, and 
suddenly throwing his nose high in the air, would quicken his pace, 
and trot up wind. Gradually again his pace would slacken, the 
trot was changed to a walk, the walk to stealthy creeping, when he 
would raise each foot with the greatest caution, putting it down as 
noiselessly as though shod with velvet, most carefully avoiding the 
crisp leaves and dry twigs, for fear of making the slightest sound. 
Presently he would stand stock-still (the inclination to point is, I 
think, more general among dogs than many men suppose) and look 
at his master ; but he never did this unless the game was well 
within shot. His master would now peer closely round, and his 
eagle-eye never failed to detect the tip of a horn, or a dappled spot, 
showing where a fallow-deer was feeding. If there was a flock of 
Guinea-birds,* (which are numerous in Barbuda,) the sagacious 

* Guinea-birds beingmuch prized is seldom told him, and therein 

in such of the islands as possess lies the real secret, that, in ad- 

but little game, many are reared dition to such precautions, he 

at the farms of the planters. The never ought to rob a nest without 

negroes dig up ants' nests, which leaving at the least three eggs. It 

are disagreeably numerous, and on is surprising how many may in this 

bringing one into the yard, dash way be taken. I know of a single 

it violently upon the ground, when pair of guinea-birds being thus 

the chicks eagerly scramble for the robbed in one spring of no less 

contents, the insects and the than eighty-four, 
eggs. By the bye, much is said Having got into a Creole's poul- 

about the difficulty of taking eggs try-yard, I am unwilling to quit 

from Guinea-birds without making it without observing, that few 

them abandon their nests. The better birds are reared than his 

would-be purloiner, in answer to cross between common ducks and 

his inquiries, is often recommended a Muscovy drake. It is found 

to keep as far as possible from the necessary carefully to guard against 

nest ; and, that it may in no way be the ungainly gentleman's having 

contaminated by his touch, to re- any rival of the ordinary breed 

move the eggs during the absence iu the neighbourhood, for if the 

of the birds with an iron or silver opportunity were afforded them, 

spoon, having a long stick at- the ladies would to a certainty 

tached to it as a handle ; but it forsake their cumbrous lord for 



[CH. XV. 

little creature would wait until the gun was close to him, and then, 
to prevent their running, would dash in and spring them. 

472. If a hog was in the wind, the cur dashed off immediately, 
following the animal until it stopped at bay, when a shrill bark 


warned the sportsman of the scene of action. The tiny animal had 
many a scar on his rugged hide, cut by hogs, with whose ears and 
heels he frequently took liberties ; but, up to the time that the 
officer left that part of the world, the dog had escaped serious injury 
by his good generalship and activity. He certainly had a very just 
estimate of his own physical powers, for with young porkers he 
stood on little ceremony, rushing into them at once, and worrying 
and holding them until the hunter came to his assistance. 

473. You might draw a useful moral from this long story by 
considering for a moment what kind of sport our Creole acquaintance 
would have had, and what number of Guinea-birds, wild hogs, and 
deer (capital shot as he was) he would have killed in the year, had 

the more active commoner. Al- 
though the true Muscovy is very 
coarse eating, the Hybrid is as 
much an improvement upon the 
flavour as it is upon the size of 

the common duck. I have known 
the birds to be reared in this 
country, and often wondered that 
the plan was not more generally 

CH. XV.] 



he been obliged to speak to the little cur when hunting. The 
calculation, I fancy, would not be found difficult from the number 
of figures employed in the enumeration. 

474. You may think the foregoing a tough yarn, but I have now 
in my mind an instance of sagacity in a Newfoundland, apparently 
so much less entitled to credence, that I should be afraid to tell it 
(though the breed is justly celebrated for its remarkable docility 
and intelligence), if its truth could not be vouched for by Capt. 

L n, one of the best officers in the navy ; and who, when I had 

the gratification of sailing with him, commanded that noble ship, 
the " Vengeance." 

475. At certain seasons of the year the streams in some parts of 
North America, not far from the coast, are filled with fish to an 
extent you could scarcely believe, unless you had witnessed it and 
now comes the Munchausen story. A real Newfoundland, belonging 
to a farmer who lived near one of those streams, used, at such times, 
to keep the house well supplied with fish. He thus managed it : 
He was perfectly black, with the exception of a white fore-foot, and 


for hours together he would remain almost immoveable on a small 
rock which projected into the stream, keeping his white foot hanging 


over the ledge as a lure to the fish. He remained so stationary 
that it acted as a very attractive bait ; and whenever curiosity or 
hunger tempted any unwary fish to approach too close, the dog 
plunged in, seized his victim, and carried him off to the foot of 
a neighbouring tree; and, on a successful day, he would catch a 
great number. 

476. I have another anecdote of a young Newfoundland, told me 
by General Sir H d D s, to whose scientific attainments 

\yy^ the two sister-services, the army and the navy, are both so greatly 

\. indebted. He bred the dog in America, having most fortunately 

\, taken the dam from England ; for, to her address in swimming, and 

, willingness to "fetch," he and his surviving shipwrecked companions 

syere, under Providence, chiefly indebted for securing many pieces 

ol salt pork that had drifted from the ill-fated vessel, and which 

constituted their principal food during their six weeks' miserable 

detention on an uninhabited island. 

477. At a station where he was afterwards quartered as a subaltern, 
in '98, not far from the falls of Niagara, the soldiers kept a tame 
fox. The animal's kennel was an old cask, to which he was at- 
tached by a long line and swivel. The Newfoundland and the fox 
soon scraped an acquaintance, which, in due course, ripened into an 

478. One day that Sir H d went to the barracks, not seeing 

anything of the fox, he gave the barrel a kick, saying to a man 
standing by, " Your fox is gone ! " This sudden knock at the back- 
door of his house so alarmed the sleeping inmate, that he bolted 
forth with such violence as to snap the light cord. Off he ran. The 

soldiers felt assured that he would return, but Sir H d, who 

closely watched the frightened animal, had the vexation of observing 
that he made direct for the woods. 

479. Sir H d bethought him to hie on Neptune after Eeynard, 

on the chance of the friends coming back together in amicable con- 
verse. It would, however, appear that the attractions of kindred 
(more probably of freedom) had greater influence than the claims 
of friendship ; for, instead of the Newfoundland's returning with 
Pug as a voluntary companion, after a time, to the surprise and 
delight of many spectators, the dog was descried, with the end of 
the rope in his mouth, forcibly dragging along the disappointed fox, 
who was struggling, manfully but fruitlessly, against a fresh introduc- 
tion to his military quarters. 

480. "Nep"was properly lauded and caressed for his sagacity; 

and Sir H d was so satisfied that he would always fetch back 

the fox perfectly uninjured and un worried, however much excited 
in the chase, that the next day, after turning out Reynard, he 
permitted the officers to animate and halloo on the dog to their 
utmost. When slipped, though all eagerness for the fun in hand, 
"Nep" took up the trail most accurately, hunted it correctly, and 
in due course, agreeably to his owner's predictions, dragged back 
the poor prisoner in triumph, having, as on the previous occasion, 
merely seized the extremity of the cord. 


" The dog was descried, with the end of the rope in his mouth, forcibly dragging along the 
disappointed fox." Par. 479. 


481. For the following anecdote I am indebted to Sir G e 

B k, the intrepid and scientific navigator, whose name will be 

mentioned as long as British deeds of the present century are cited, 
descriptive of bold daring and perseverance in surmounting the 
greatest difficulties. 

482. " On the 8th of September, 1834, after a laborious morning 
spent in ascending a part of the Thlew-ee-choh-dezeth, or Back 
Kiver, we were detained by the portage of the * Cascades.' While 
the men were actively employed in carrying the things across, I was 
equally busy in the tent, working a series of observations which had 
just been obtained for longitude, &c. 

483. "A little dog, a species of terrier, called 'Muta' from her 
silent, quiet habits, was my only companion. She had been the 
faithful follower of my party to the polar sea, and, independently of 
her value as a good watch, was not only a pet of mine, but had 
managed to become a great favourite with all the others. 

484. " Muta had left the tent for upwards of an hour, but returned 
in great haste, bustled about inside, rubbed against me, and with 
eyes bright and eager stood looking in my face. Finding I paid no 
attention to her, she rushed out came back, however, quickly ; 
and standing over the gun, which was near me, again looked 
imploringly at me. Once more she sprung outside, and barked 

485. " Still I continued my calculations ; and perhaps twenty 
minutes might have elapsed when Muta, warm and panting, leapt 
upon me ran to the gun then to the opening of the tent, and 
evinced such very unusual restlessness that I could not help fancy- 
ing something must be wrong. Being alone, I thought it well to be 
prepared, and accordingly put a ball into my second barrel, there 
always was one in the first, and followed her out. 

486. " Her joy was unbounded, and perfectly noiselessly she led 
me such a distance that I thought she was deceiving me, and I 
chidingly told her so ; but she still persisted in going forward, 
pleased though excited. I walked on a little further, when con- 
ceiving I was but losing my time I turned back. She ran round 
to intercept me, and so earnestly resisted my attempts to retrace my 
steps, that I yielded to the appeal, and again consented to accompany 

487. " She brought me to the edge of a gully, fully half-a-mile 
from the tent, partly sheltered by willows. Here she stopped. 
Thinking she had tricked me, I began to reproach her, on which she 
darted like lightning into the underwood, barking furiously, when, 
to my great surprise, out rushed a large musk bull, which unluckily 
I only wounded, to Muta's manifest disappointment, and my own 
great annoyance. 

488. " Poor Muta's sad fate is recorded in the 462d page of my 
Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition of 1833-4-5, and she may 
be seen in the mouth of the white wolf that killed her, safely housed 
in a glass case within the walls of the United Service Institu- 



[CH. XV. 

489. At my request, Sir G e kindly drew the spirited sketch, 

which I have had engraved, of the scene he so vividly described. 


490. Dining one day at the hospitable board of Lord M f, 

he told me, that many years ago an uncle of his, an excellent sports- 
man, lent him a brace of short-haired English dogs, yclept "Captain" 
and " Suwarrow," martial names ! yet not inappropriate, you will 
think, when you hear some of their feats of strategy. " Captain," 
moreover, had other warlike propensities ; he was a close-knit, 
powerful dog, and there was no peace in any kennel he ever entered 
until' its boldest inmates had conceded to him all the privileges of 
commander- in-chief. 

491. Lord M f and a friend had obtained permission to shoot 

on a considerable part of an extensive valley in Perthshire, lying at 
the foot of " Schichallion ;" but unfortunately they had not the sole 
right, a similar favour had been granted to a lame man, but no 
lame, sportsman, who for some days greatly annoyed them. Start 
when they would, and take what line they might, Dot-and-go-one 
with his old pointer was sure to be on the heather before them. 

492. "Captain" and "Suwarrow" bore this for some time with 
greater apparent patience than the gentlemen. On one occasion, 
however, when the inferiority of the ground they were compelled to 
take was more than usually obvious, "Captain's" blood was fairly 

OH. xv.] RAP. 273 

roused, he could stand it no longer. Leaving his companion, he 
crossed at full speed to the other side of the valley, not, as might 
possibly be surmised, to wreak his vengeance upon the old pointer, 
but, strange to say, to hunt at his best pace the good ground in 
front of his rival, and raise, not point, every grouse he could find. 
When he conceived he had done enough mischief, or perhaps thought 

he had driven a fair proportion of birds to Lord M f 's side of 

the valley, he quietly returned to his usual duties duties which, 
be it remarked, he always performed most steadily. As an evidence 
on the evening of that very day, instead of pointing, as was his 
wont, he dropped, on unexpectedly getting into the midst of a pack, 
and did not stir an inch until all the birds had successively risen. 
You will surely think his right to be considered a first-rate tactician 
is fully proved : when you read 530, you will perhaps allow that 
"Suwarrow" has an equally good, if not superior, claim to the 

493. And will not these evidences of great sagacity and, except 
in the few last cases, instances of good breaking and they might be 
multiplied, I was nearly saying, ad infinitum, [for every sportsman 
could furnish some convince you, that it is our own fault, if our 
high-bred pointers, setters, and retrievers (which can scarcely be 
surpassed in docility and intelligence), are indifferently educated ? 
It is not that they cannot understand, but that we, either for want of 
patience or reflection, cannot make ourselves understood. The fault 
is ours, not theirs. They might, indeed, almost be taught anything 
even things quite opposed to their nature if we did but act more 
reasonably, and were not in most cases supinely content to stop so 
very far short of perfection, apparently grudging a little additional 

494. In the "Sporting Magazine" for May, 1834, a likeness is 
given of an admirable pointer named "Rap," of whom it is recorded 
that " he often hunted in the woods with springers and terriers, all 
which time he played in both characters, and in both excelled. No 
sooner, however, had he returned to his especial occupation, as a 
pointer, than he became as steady as ever." 

495. I knew intimately an excellent shot (T. F e, of the 76th), 

who, some years ago, during one of the many disturbances in County 
Tipperary, was quartered with a detachment of men at a gentle- 
man's house, in rather a wild part of the country. The proprietor 
kept a small scratch-pack of harriers, with which the officer's pointer, 
called Shot, became very intimate. When the hunting season com- 
menced, Shot accompanied them to the field, joined in the chase, 
and performed uncommonly well ; indeed, he frequently led the 
pack, and yet, singular to say, he continued as steady as possible 
when he was shot to. As you may well suppose, it was a source of 
much fun and laughter to the Nimrods to see, regularly hunting 
with their harriers, a dog which possibly had stanchly pointed at 
birds the preceding day. 

496. Though I had bred and educated him myself, he was the 
dog of which I spoke (139) as behaving so well on the Galtee moun- 


274 MR. B E'S DROPPER. [CH. xv. 

tains when first shown game, no one could be more surprised than 
I was at hearing of so novel a display of intelligence. It is partly 
to be accounted for by the fact, that none of his high animal spirits 
and self-confidence had been destroyed by severity in breaking. I 
can conscientiously aver that I do not think I whipped him more 
than twice in the whole course of his training, and I am certain not 
once harshly ; and his next owner was equally kind, I might more 
correctly say, equally judicious. 

497. As a dog that loves you, and possesses proper self-confidence. 
though, at the same time, he entertains due respect for your 
authority, will always exert himself to the best of his abilities 
to please, it remains but for you to direct those abilities aright. 
" Shot," you see, pointed and hunted on alternate days. A little 
bitch, that I knew, would, on the same day, set alternately different 
kinds of game, according to the wishes of her master. She belonged 

to a Mr. B e, near Templemore, and, with the exception that 

she had no established judicious range, was one of the most killing 
dogs to be met with in a long drive. She was an ugly, short-tailed 
dropper ; in appearance not worth three half-crowns. She was 
capital on snipe ; but on the bogs, if you were in expectation of 
meeting with grouse, and, in consequence, refused to fire at one or 
two snipes, and slightly scolded her for pointing them, she would 
immediately leave off noticing them, confining herself entirely to 
hunting for grouse. If you shot a snipe, and showed it to her, she 
would immediately recommence seeking for the long-bills. But this 
would be a dangerous lesson to teach a dog ever likely to be required 
on the moors. A dog trained for grouse should invariably be rated 
whenever he notices snipe ; lest, after toiling up the side of a moun- 
tain on a broiling day, in expectation of hearing the exciting 
" Whirr-r whirr-r," you be only greeted with the disappointing 
" Skeap, skeap." On the other hand, if you live in the lowlands, 
and think you may hereafter wish to take your dog out snipe- 
shooting, make him occasionally point one in the early part of his 
education. It is often difficult to bring a partridge-dog to notice 
snipe, whereas a snipe-dog will readily acknowledge partridge on 
account of the stronger scent. 

498. Many sportsmen are of opinion that droppers inherit more 
of the bad than the good qualities of their parents ; but occasionally 

one of a litter, like Mr. B e's bitch, turns out an admirable dog, 

and proves a valuable exception to the supposed rule. Some time 
since I heard an officer of the Eng'neers expatiating upon the 
excellent qualities of a dropper (by his pointer " Guy ") out of a 
Eussian setter, which, as he said, belonged to me many years ago : 
but he was mistaken. I never possessed one. I wish I had ; for I 
hear the breed is capital, that they are very easily broken, are 
very intelligent, have excellent noses, and great endurance, but not 
much speed, and never forget what has been once taught them : in 
this respect more resembling pointers than our setters, which are 
often wild at the beginning of a season. Could we, by judicious 
crossing, improve them half as much as we did the old heavy 

"Difficult to procure even in Russia of a pure breed." Par. 498. 

T 2 

CH. xv.] RIVAL KEEPERS. 277 

Spanish pointer.* what glorious dogs we should possess ! It is, 
however, very difficult to procure them even in Russia of a pure 
breed ; for so few sportsmen in that country think of shooting 
according to our system, that but little attention is paid to their 
fine setters. 

499. If your patience is not exhausted, you shall hear (as told me 

by an old commanding officer of mine, Major S n) how, many 

years ago, a bet was decided in the Highlands, as to the perfection 
in dog-breaking attained by two rival keepers. It was in the month 
of August, and there was plenty of game. The dogs produced by 
the two competitors performed so brilliantly, were hunted so noise- 
lessly, quartered their ground so systematically and independently, 
and worked so zealously, yet cautiously, that the awarding of the 
palm seemed to be a difficult matter. At length one of the keepers 
obtained the decision of the umpires in his favour by the following 
feat. He made his three dogs, in obedience to a low whistle and a 
sign, at a moment when all three were separately setting, retreat 
from their several points without flushing any of the birds, and take 
up each other's points, each dog remaining stationary until he was 
individually shot o^er. This great command, I suppose, but I 
cannot assert it positively, must have been gained by much such 
kennel discipline as is described in 30. It would appear, too, as if 
a distinct whistle or note had been employed for each dog (505). 

500. I only advocate instruction that is really useful ; therefore, 
I merely mention this instance of excellent breaking as another 
evidence of the great perfection to which our well-bred dogs can be 
brought : and as it is certain they can reach such perfection, I think 
you will admit that every high-priced dog ought to be far better 
educated than is customary. Indeed, I trust, if you are an enthusiast 
on the subject, that you will not only agree with me in requiring 
that he be as fully made as I have described, and as I am of opinion 
is absolutely necessary (393), but that occasionally you will wish 
him to be yet further instructed in some of the still higher accom- 
plishments or refinements which, if you are willing, we will now 
proceed to consider. 

* Improved as regards shape and action, but not as to stanclmess 
and nose. 



501. A DISTINGUISHING WHISTLE FOR EACH DOG ; disadvantage of em- 
ploying but one Whistle for several Dogs ; supposed Case. 502. Another Case. 
503. Third Case. 504. Reader will admit correctness of reasoning. 505. Dis- 
similar Whistles, or distinct notes on one whistle. 506. Boatswain's Whistle 
almost a musical instrument. 507. Railway Whistles ; Porteous': general Rule 
for whistling. 508. Porteous' newly-invented Dog Whistles. 509. DOG TO 
BACK THE GUN ; how taught ; it creates Caution ; in Note, sagacity of Fawn 
Antelope in concealing itself; want of like sagacity in Pea-fowl. Portable rest 
for Rifle. 510. Advantage of Dog backing the Gun. 511. American Wood- 
taught. 514. Shows dog object for which he is hunted. 515. Not taught too 
early. 516. Dog's Consciousness of its Object. 517. Pointer doing it spon- 
taneously. 518. Setter which was taught to do it. 511). Surprising author by 
volunteering the feat. 520. Irish Setter retreating from, and resuming point at 
Hare. 521. Bitch that barked when pointing and hid in cover. 522. DOG TO 
how taught. 523. A careful Dog running down wind would not spring birds. 
524. The great Advantages of the Accomplishment. 525. DOG TO HEAD 
RUNNING BIRDS ; could be taught 526. Tolfrey's ''Sportsman in France." 
527. Instance of Dog's spontaneously heading, and thus intercepting, red- 
legged Partridges. 528, 529. M i's "Albert" volunteering to head Guinea 

birds. 530. Lord M f's "Snwarrow" spontaneously heading running 

Grouse; then keeping his stern towards them. 531. How accounted for. 
532. Not so extraordinary had the Dog been taught to hunt "unaccompanied 
by Gun." 533. The accomplishment taught by "lifting ;" not commenced first 
season. In Note, " Niger's" spontaneously running to further sidge of hedge to 
drive birds to this side. 534. Could be taught as easily as Shepherds' Collies 
are instructed. 535. Particularly useful where the red-legged Partridge is 
found. Shooting in Africa. 


501. THOUGH you may have only begun to shoot last 
season, have you not often wished to attract the atten- 
tion of one of your two dogs, and make him hunt in a 
particular part of the field, but, for fear of alarming the 

CH. xvi.] WHISTLES. 279 

birds, have been unwilling to call out his name, and 
have felt loth to whistle to him, lest you should bring 
away at the same time the other dog, who was zealously 
hunting exactly where you considered him most likely 
to find birds. 

502. Again : have the dogs never been hunting close 
together instead of pursuing distinct beats ; and has it 
not constantly happened, on your whistling with the 
view to separate them, that both have turned their heads 
in obedience to the whistle, and both on your signal 
changed the direction of their beat, but still the two 
together ? And have you not, in despair of ever parting 
them by merely whistling and signalling, given the 
lucky birds (apparently in the most handsome manner, 
as if scorning to take any ungenerous advantage) fair 
notice of the approach of the guns by shouting out the 
name of one of the dogs. 

503. Or, if one dog was attentive to the whistle, did 
he not gradually learn to disregard it from observing 
that his companion was never chidden for neglecting to 
obey it ? and did not such laxity more and more con- 
firm both in habits of disobedience ? 

504. I believe several of my readers will be con- 
strained to answer these questions in the affirmative ; 
and, further, I think their own experience will remind 
them of many occasions, both on moor and stubble when 
birds were wild, on which they have wished to attract 
the notice of a particular dog (perhaps running along a 
hedge, or pottering over a recent haunt ; or hunting 
down wind towards marked game) by whistling instead 
of calling out his name, but have been unwilling to do 
so, lest the other dogs should likewise obey the shrill 
sound to which all were equally accustomed. 

505. Now, in breaking young dogs, you could, by 


using whistles of dissimilar calls, easily avoid the 
liability of these evils ; and by invariably employing a 
particular whistle for each dog to summon him separately 
to his food (30), each would distinguish his own whistle 
as surely as every dog knows his own master's whistle, 
and as hounds learn their names. Dogs not only know 
their own names, but instantly know by the pronuncia- 
tion when it is uttered by a stranger. To prevent 
mistakes, each dog's name might be marked on his own 
whistle. You might have two whistles, of very different 
sound, on one short stock. Indeed, one whistle would 
be sufficient for two dogs, if you invariably sounded the 
same two or three sharp short notes for one dog, and as 
invariably gave a sustained note for the other. Nay, 
the calls could thus be so diversified, that one whistle 
might be used for even more than two dogs. 

506. Whoever has heard the boatswain of a man-of-war piping 
all hands on deck, must think his whistle,- from the variety of its 
tones, almost a musical instrument ; but it could not well be 
employed for dogs, as they would not understand it when sounded 
by any one but their master. 

507. Eailways have led to the introduction of new whistles. 
Porteous, the band-master at Chelsea College (whose Light Infantry 
Field Pipe is well-known to military men), has exercised his in- 
genious talents in making several, but they are too shrill to be of 
much service to the sportsman. The acorn (or bell pattern) has, 
however, a much softer tone, yet it, too, makes an awful noise. 

But whatever whistle you choose to employ, be sure, 
both in and out of the field, to sound it softly whenever 
the dog is near you. Indeed, you would act judiciously 
to make it a constant rule, wherever he may be, never to 
whittle louder than is really requisite, otherwise (as I 
think I before remarked) he will, comparatively speak- 
ing, pay little attention to its summons, when, being at 
a distance, he hears it but faintly. 

508. I wrote to Mr. Porteons, explaining how much a whistle 
was wanted that might be used by the most unmusical person, yet 

CH. xvi.] BACKING THE GUN. 281 

give distinct unvarying sounds, so that no dog could mistake his 
own whistle, let it be blown by whom it might. He at once under- 
stood what was required, and has invented one with a slide that 
answers well for two dogs. He told me that he was making further 
improvements, and expected to contrive one which would answer 
for as many as three or four dogs. Messrs. Stevens, Darlington 
Works, Southwark-bridge Koad, are the manufacturers. 


509. In shooting, especially late in the season, you 
will often mark down a bird, and feel assured that you 
stand a better chance of getting a shot at it if the dogs 
cease hunting whilst you approach it. You can teach 
your dog to do this by holding up your right hand 
behind you when you mark down a bird, saying at the 
same time, "Toho," in an earnest, quiet voice, and 
carrying your gun as if you were prepared to shoot. 
He will soon begin, I really must say it, to back you, 
for he actually will be backing you, ludicrous as the ex- 
pression may sound. After a few times he will do so on 
the signal, without your speaking at all ; and he will be 
as pleased, as excited, and as stanch, as if he were 
backing an old dog. Making him " drop " will not effect 
your object ; for, besides that it in no way increases his 
intelligence, you may wish him to follow at a respectful 
distance, while you are stealing along the banks of some 
stream, &c. Ere long he will become as sensible as 
yourself that any noise would alarm the birds, and you 
will soon see him picking his steps to avoid the crisp 
leaves, lest their rustling should betray him. I have 
even heard of a dog whose admirable caution occasionally 
led him, when satisfied that his point was observed, to 
crawl behind a bush, or some other shelter, to screen* 
himself from the notice of the birds. 

* On one occasion, shooting in animal's endeavouring to hide 
India, I saw an instance of an itself, that always struck me as 



[CH. XVI. 

510. The acquisition of this accomplishment and it 
is easily taught to a young dog previously made steady 
in backing another (it should not be attempted before) 
will often secure you a duck, or other wary bird, which 
the dog would otherwise, almost to a certainty, spring 

remarkable from the youth of the 
creature, and the fact that its 
usual instincts lead it to seek 
safety, not in concealment, but in 
flight. I was looking for a small 
kind of grouse commonly called 
there rock-pigeon, when, crowning 
a small eminence, I unexpectedly 
came upon a young antelope, about 
a hundred yards off, that appa- 
rently had lost its dam. The 
country was open and bare, with 
here and there a few stunted 
bushes. It instantly ran behind 
one of these, and there remained 
while I drew the shot, and had 
nearly rammed down one of the 
balls (enclosed in greased cloth) 
that I constantly carried in my 
pocket ready for immediate use. 
I was almost prepared, when off 
it went. As the ball was nearly 
home, I forced it down, not liking 
the trouble of extracting it, and 
took a random chance shot at the 
little animal. I could not perceive 
that it winced, and it was not 
until it fell that I was aware I had 
struck it The ball had passed 
through its body a little too far 
behind the shoulder, and some- 
what too high a common fault. 
It was so thin and poor that it 
must have been separated for some 
time from its mother. The want of 
sagacity evinced by peafowl, when 
hiding themselves, is strongly 
contrasted with the intelligence 
displayed by the fawn. I have 
known these birds, when alarmed, 
run their heads into a crevice, 
leaving the whole of their bo- 
dies exposed, and then fancy 
themselves so effectually protec- 
ted, as to remain immoveable, 

until the sportsman got close to 

"When you are hunting, rifle in 
hand, for large game on an open 
prairie, or where it is unlikely that 
you will find a convenient rest, 
you can carry in your waistcoat 
pocket, until the moment you 
require it, not a very bad sub- 
stitute, in the shape of a piece of 
string looped at both ends. This 
string will have been carefully ad- 
justed to exactly such a length that 
when one loop is slipped over your 
left foot, and the other loop over 
the end of the ramrod (near the 
muzzle), on your bringing up your 
rifle to the poise, the pull of the 
string will restrain you from unduly 
elevating it while taking aim. An 
ordinary rest prevents your lower- 
ing the muzzle when in the act of 
firing the resistance of the string 
opposes your raising it. The string, 
however, will not wholly hinder 
the muzzle from diverging to the 
right or left, but in reality it 
will much prevent such unsteadi- 
ness, by permitting your left hand 
to press strongly upwards against 
the rifle. In the new drill for tiring 
with the Enfield, the soldier is 
taught a position which gives him 
a firm rest for his musket. It is to 
sit on his right heel (the right knee 
carried well to the right, and rest- 
ing on the ground), and to place 
his left elbow on his left knee. 
He is taught to take aim a little 
below the object, and to raise the 
muzzle very slowly and to pull 
the moment he covers the object, 
having previously well considered 
what allowance he should make 
for the influence of the wind. 

" And took a random chance shot." Par. 509, Note. 

CH. xvi.] POINT RESUMED. 285 

out of gun-shot. If you should " soho " a hare, and wish 
to kill one, you will have an excellent opportunity of 
practising this lesson. 

511. In America there is a singular duck, called, from its often 
alighting on trees, the Wood-duck. I have killed some of these 
beautiful, fast-flying birds, while they were seated on logs over- 
hanging the water, which I could not have approached within 
gun-shot had the dog not properly backed the gun when signalled 
to, and cautiously crept after me, still remaining far in the rear. 


512. Amidst coppices, osiers, or broom indeed, some- 
times on a rough moor you will occasionally lose sight 
of a dog, and yet be unwilling to call him, feeling as- 
sured that he is somewhere steadily pointing ; and being 
vexatiously certain that, when he hears your whistle, he 
will either leave his point, not subsequently to resume 
it, or (which is far more probable) amuse himself by 
raising the game before he joins you. There are 
moments when you would give guineas if he would 
retreat from his point, come to you on your whistling, 
lead you towards the bird, and there resume his point. 

513. This accomplishment (and in many places abroad 
its value is almost inappreciable) can be taught him, 
if he is under great command, by your occasionally 
bringing him to heel from a point when he is within 
sight and near you, and again putting him on his 
point. You will begin your instruction in this accom- 
plishment when the dog is pointing quite close to you. 
On subsequent occasions, you can gradually increase the 
distance, until you arrive at such perfection that you can 
let him be out of sight when you call him. When he is 
first allowed to be out of your sight, he ought not to be 
far from you. 

514. You may, for a moment, think that what is here 


recommended contradicts the axiom laid down in 359 ; 
but it is there said, that nothing ought to make a dog 
"voluntarily" leave his point. Indeed, the possession 
of this accomplishment, so far from being productive 
of any harm, greatly awakens a dog's intelligence, and 
makes him perceive, more clearly than ever, that the 
sole object for which he is taken to the field is to obtain 
shots for the gun that accompanies him. When he is 
pointing on your side of a thick hedge, it will make him 
understand why you call him off; take him down wind, 
and direct him to jump the fence : he will at once go to 
the bird, and, on your encouraging him, force it to rise 
on your side. 

515. You will practise this lesson, however, with great 
caution, and not before his education is nearly completed, 
lest he imagine that you do not wish him always to 
remain stanch to his point. Indeed, if you are precipi- 
tate, or injudicious, you may make him blink his game. 

516. After a little experience, he will very likely some 
day satisfactorily prove his consciousness of your object, 
by voluntarily coming out of thick cover to show you 
where he is, and again going in and resuming his point. 

517. I was once shooting in Ireland with a friend (MajorL e), 

late in the season, when we saw a very young pointer do this solely 
from his own intelligence. Unperceived by either of us he had 
broken fence, and was out of sight. In vain we whistled and called. 
At length we saw him on the top of a bank (in that country usually 
miscalled " ditch ") ; but the moment he perceived that we noticed 
him, down he jumped. We went up, and to our great satisfaction 
found him steadily pointing a snipe. I need not say that he 
received much praise and many caresses for the feat. 

518. I was partridge-shooting a few seasons back with an intimate 
friend, who was anxious to give me a good day's sport, when I 
observed him beckoning to me from a distance. He told me, when 
I came up to him, that some birds were immediately before him. 
I was puzzled to conceive how he could know this, for his white 
setter was alongside of him rolling on her back. He signalled to 
her to go forward, and sure enough she marched on, straight as an 
arrow's flight, to a covey lying on the stubble. In answer to my 


inquiries, my friend, who seemed to attach no value to the feat, but 
to take it as a matter of course, told me that he had called the 
bitch away from her point lest her presence should alarm the birds, 
and make them take wing before I could come up. 

519. As my friend was obliged to return home early, he left the 
lady with me. I had marked some partridges into the leeward-side 
of a large turnip-field. I could not get her to hunt where I wished ; 
I, therefore, no longer noticed her, but endeavoured to walk up the 
birds without her assistance. After a time she rejoined me, and 
ranged well and close. I then proceeded to beat the other part of 
the field the part she had already hunted contrary to my wishes. 
Instead of making a cast to the right or left, on she went, directly 
ahead, for nearly three hundred yards. I was remarking to my 
attendant that she must be nearly useless to all but her master, 
when I observed her come to a stiff point. I then felt convinced 
that I had done her great injustice, that she must have found 
and left this covey, whilst I was hunting far to leeward, and 
that she had gone forward to resume her point, as soon as my face 
was turned in the right direction. On my mentioning all this 
to her owner, he said he had no doubt but that such was the case, as 
she would often voluntarily leave game to look for him, and again 
stand at it on perceiving that he watched her movements. 

520. An old Kentish acquaintance of mine, though he is still a 
young man, has an Irish setter that behaved in a very similar 

manner. F r, having severely wounded a hare in cover, put the 

dog upon the scent. He immediately took it up, but " roaded " 
so fast as to be soon out of sight. After a fruitless search for the 

setter, F r was obliged to whistle two or three times, when he 

showed himself at the end of a ride, and by his anxious looks and 
motions seemed to invite his master to come on. This he did. 
The sagacious beast, after turning two corners, at each of which he 

stopped until F r came up, went into cover and resumed the 

point, which my friend feels satisfied the dog must have left on 
hearing the whistle, for the wounded hare, whose leg was broken, 
was squatted within a yard of him. Such instances of a voluntary 
relinquishment and resumption of a point, must lead us to think 
that this accomplishment cannot be very difficult to teach dogs who 
have been accustomed to the gratification of always seeing their 
game carefully deposited in the bag. 

521. In a capital little treatise on field diversions, written by 
a Suffolk sportsman upwards of seventy years ago, it is recorded 
that a pointer bitch, belonging to a Doctor Bigsbye, used to give 
tongue if she found in cover and was not perceived, and that she 
would repeatedly bark to indicate her locality until she was relieved 
from her point. 



522. In paragraph 201 I observed, that when you 
are obliged, as occasionally must be the case, to enter 
a field to windward with your pupil, you ought to go* 
down to the leeward side of it, keeping him close to 
your heels, before you commence to hunt. After 
undeviatingly pursuing this plan for some time, you 
can, before you come quite to the bottom of the field, 
send him ahead (by the underhand bowler's swing of 
the right hand, IV. of 141), and, when he has reached 
the bottom, signal to him to hunt to the right (or left). 
He will be so habituated to work under your eye (176) 
that you will find it necessary to walk backwards (up 
the middle of the field), while instructing him. As he 
becomes, by degrees, confirmed in this lesson, you can 
sooner and sooner send him ahead (from your heel), 
but increase the distances very gradually, until at 
length he will be so far perfected, that you may venture 
to send him down wind to the extremity of the field 
(before he commences beating), while you remain quietly 
at the top awaiting his return, until he shall have hunted 
the whole ground, as systematically and carefully as if 
you had accompanied him from the bottom. By this 
method you will teach him, on his gaining more ex- 
perience, invariably to run to leeward, and hunt up to 
windward (crossing and re-crossing the wind) whatever 
part of a field you and he may enter. What a glorious 
consummation ! and it can be attained, but only by 
great patience and perseverance. The least reflection, 
however, will show you that you should not attempt it 
until the dog is perfected in his range. 


523. A careful dog, thus practised, will seldom spring 
birds, however directly he may be running down wind. 
He will pull up at the faintest indication of a scent, 
being at all times anxiously on the look-out for the 
coveted aroma. 

524. Not only to the idle or tired sportsman would it 
be a great benefit to have a field thus beaten, but the 
keenest and most indefatigable shot would experience 
its advantages in the cold and windy weather customary 
in November, when the tameness of partridge-shooting 
cannot be much complained of; for the birds being then 
ever ready to take wing, surely the best chance, by fair 
means, of getting near them would be to intercept them 
between the dog and yourself. The manoeuvre much 
resembles that recommended in 284, but in this you 
sooner and more directly head the birds. 

525. Here the consideration naturally arises, whether 
dogs could not be taught (when hunting in the ordinary 
manner with the dog in rear) 


Certainly it could be done. There have been many 
instances of old dogs spontaneously galloping off, and 
placing themselves on the other side of the covey (which 
they had pointed) as soon as they perceived that it was 
on the run, and by good instruction you could develop, 
or rather excite, that exercise of sagacity. 

526. Tolfrey (formerly, I believe, of the 43rd) gives, in his 
" Sportsman in France," so beautiful an instance of a dog's un- 
tutored intelligence, leading him to see the advantage of thus 
placing running birds between himself and the gun, that I will 
transcribe it, although I have already mentioned (end of 206) 
Grouse's very similar behaviour. 

527. " On gaining some still higher ground, the dog drew and 
stood. She was walked up to, but to my astonishment we found 
no birds. She was encouraged, and with great difficulty coaxed off 


290 ALBERT AND PEGGY. [CH. xvi. 

her point. She kept drawing on, but with the same ill-success. I 
must confess I was for the moment sorely puzzled ; but knowing 
the excellence of the animal, I let her alone. She kept drawing on 
for nearly a hundred yards still no birds. At last, of her own 
accord, and with a degree of instinct amounting almost to the faculty 
of reasoning, she broke from her point, and dashing off to the right 
made a detour, and was presently straight before me, some three 
hundred yards off, setting the game whatever it might be, as much 
as to say, ' I'll be ****** if you escape me this time.' We walked 
steadily on, and when within about thirty yards of her, up got a 
covey of red-legged partridges, and we had the good fortune to kill 
a brace each. It is one of the characteristics of these birds to run 
for an amazing distance before they take wing ; but the sagacity of 
my faithful dog baffled all their efforts to escape. We fell in with 
several coveys of these birds during the day, and my dog ever after 
gave them the double, and kept them between the gun and herself." 

528. Mr. M i, an officer high in the military store department, 

wrote to me but last Christmas (1863) almost in the following 
words : 

529. " When stationed in Jamaica, quail and the wild guinea-fowl 
were the only game I ever hunted for. The latter are very difficult 
to approach, as they run for hours through the long grass and brush- 
wood, and will not rise unless hard pressed ; but when once flushed, 
they spread through the cover, and lie so close, that one may 
almost kick them before without raising them. My dog, ' Albert, 
was broke on grouse before I had him out from home. A steadier 
or better dog you will rarely see. The first time we went out after 
guinea-fowl he set to work as though hunting for grouse, pointing, 
and reading cautiously when he came on the run of the birds, but, 
from their pace through the cover, never coming up with them. 
This occurred the first two or three mornings, and annoyed him 
greatly. At last one day, as soon as he found that the birds were 
running through the bush, he halted, turned round, and looked up 
at me as much as to say : * My poking after these fellows is all 
nonsense ; do let me try some other dodge.' So I told him to go 
on, when he instantly started off, making a wide cast until he 
headed his game, when he commenced beating back towards me, 
driving the birds before him until they were sufficiently near me, 
when he dashed suddenly in amongst them, forcing the whole 
pack to take wing. They spread through the surrounding grass 
and cover, and ' Albert ' and his mother, ' Peggy,' went to work, 
picking up the birds singly or in pairs as they lay. Old mother 
' Peggy ' was f ar too sedate and stanch to follow her son in the 
chase ; she remained with me until he had brought back, and flushed 
the birds, and then she vied with him in finding them. 

From this time I never had any difficulty in getting shots at these 
wary birds, for the very moment they commenced running, 'Albert' 
was off until he headed them, drove them back, and flushed them, 
as above described. 

When looking for quail, 'Albert' behaved quite differently, 

CH. xvi.] SUWAKROW. 291 

working steadily and cautiously, and never attempting to run into 
or spring his game until I came close up to him." 

530. Grouse were unusually on the run one misty day, when the 
able Judge mentioned in 490 was shooting over " Captain's '' com- 
panion, "Suwarrow." The dog "roaded" a pack for some time 
very patiently, but suddenly darted off for a considerable distance 
to the right and dropped into a long hag, through the mazes of 
which Lord M f followed as fast as the nature of the ground 
would permit him. Every now and then the dog just raised his 
head above the heather to satisfy himself that his Lordship was 
coming. Where the hag ceased, and " Suwarrow " could no longer 
conceal his movements, he commenced a very curious system of 
tactics, travelling, after a most extraordinary fashion, sideways 
on the arc of a circle, constantly keeping his stern towards its 
centre. At length he wheeled about, and stood stock-still at a fixed 

point, as if inviting Lord M f to approach. He did so, raised 

a large pack, and had a capital right and left. 

531. It would appear that the "Marshal" soon perceived that 
he had no chance of being enabled by a regular pursuit to bring his 
artillery to bear upon the retreating party ; he, therefore, resorted 
to a novel strategy to lull them into fancied security, and induce 
them to halt. He at once made a feint of abandoning the pursuit, 
and moved off to the flank. He made a forced concealed march in 
the hag ; and when it would no longer mask his plans and he was 
compelled to show himself, he merely let them see his rear guard, 
that they might still think he was retiring, and did not show any 
front until he had fairly entangled them between himself and his 
guns. It was a feat worthy of " Wellington " or " Napoleon," let 

alone " Suwarrow." By the bye, it explains why Lord M d's 

dog (295) faced about whenever he perceived that his presence 
alarmed the birds. 

532. If "Grouse" (206), Tolfrey's bitch, "Albert," 
and " Suwarrow " had been taught to " hunt from lee- 
ward to windward without the gun " (522), they would 
have been habituated to seeing game intercepted between 
themselves and their masters, and then their spon- 
taneously heading running birds (though undeniably 
evincing great intelligence) would not have been so very 
remarkable. They would but have reversed matters 
by placing themselves to windward of the birds while 
the gun was to leeward. This shows that the acquisition 
of that accomplishment (522) would be a great step 
towards securing a knowledge of the one we are now 

u 2 


considering. Indeed, there seems to be a mutual relation 
between these two refinements in education, for the pos- 
session of either would greatly conduce to the attain- 
ment of the other. 

533. This accomplishment and hardly any can be 
considered more useful is not so difficult to teach an 
intelligent dog as one might at first imagine ; it is but 
to lift him, and make him act on a larger scale, much in 
the manner described in 309 and 544. Like, however, 
everything else in canine education indeed, in all 
education it must be effected gradually ; nor should 
it be commenced before the dog has had a season's 
steadying ; then practise him in heading every wounded 
bird, and endeavour to make him do so at increased 
distances. Whenever, also, he comes upon the " heel " 
of a covey which is to leeward of him, instead of 
letting him " foot " it, oblige him to quit the scent and 
take a circuit (sinking the wind), so as to place himself 
to leeward of the birds. He will thereby head the covey, 
and you will have every reason to hope that after a time 
his own observation and intellect will show him the 
advantage of thus intercepting birds and stopping them 
when they are on the run, whether the manoeuvre places 
him to leeward or to windward of them.* 

534. If you could succeed in teaching but one of 
your dogs thus to take a wide sweep when he is ordered, 
and head a running covey before it gets to the extremity 
of the field (while the other dogs remain near you), you 
would be amply rewarded for months of extra trouble in 

* A reverend and very enthu- winded birds on the other side of 

siastic dog-breaker in Cornwall a hedge, he would make a circuit, 

(R. R. W t), who took to the and coming behind them would 

art late in life, had an admirable drive them over to his master, 

dog named Niger, who practised This was all innate talent. In no 

a peculiar self-taught dodge. He way did it result from tuition, 
had a capital nose, and when he 


training, by obtaining shots on days when good sports- 
men, with fair average dogs, would hardly pull a trigger. 
And why should you not ? Success would be next to 
certain, if you could as readily place your dog exactly 
where you wish, as shepherds do their collies (143). 
And whose fault will it be if you cannot ? Clearly not 
your dog's, for he is as capable of receiving instruction 
as the shepherd's. 

535. Manifestly it would be worth while to take 
great pains to teach this accomplishment, for in all 
countries it would prove a most killing one when birds 
become wild ; and, as Tolfrey shows (529), it would be 
found particularly useful wherever the red-legged part- 
ridge abounds,* which birds you will find do not lie 
badly when the coveys are, by any means, well headed 
and completely broken. But there are other accom- 
plishments nearly as useful as those already detailed ; 
the description of them, however, we will reserve for a 
separate Chapter. 

* Unless they are very young Mr. L d, A r's keeper (of 

they are little prized at table ; and H n Hall), told me he had on 

they afford such bad sport to the several occasions seen the young 
gun that, notwithstanding their red-legged Frenchmen persever- 
beauty, great pains are now taken ingly attack and eventually kill 
in Norfolk and Suffolk to exter- a whole covey of the less active 
minate the breed. Their nests English squeakers. The late Mar- 
are sought for to be destroyed ; quis of Hertford has the credit (?) 
and when the snow is on the of having been the first to turn 
ground, the old birds are killed in out a few of the strangers. This 
great numbers. It is observed was nearly fifty years ago at Sud- 
that in proportion as they increase, bourn Hall, his seat in Suffolk, 
so do the common partridge de- whence they have spread over that 
crease. The stronger bird, accord- county and Norfolk, and are fast 
ing to the general law of nature, invading the northern parts of 
drives off the weaker congener. Essex. 



536. SETTER TO RETRIEVE ; obtain thereby in one dog the services of two ; 
necessity of having some Dog that retrieves. 537. Predilection for Setters con- 
fessed; Reason given; in Note, Setters daily becoming more valuable than 
Pointers ; Partridges netted by Poachers, also by Keepers, to make birds wary ; 
Bloodhounds to track Poachers; Education of Bloodhounds; Education of 
Keeper's night dog. (See Appendix). 538. Retrieving not to be taught first 
season. 539. Value of retrieving instanced in Pointer. 540. One Dog only 
to retrieve ; Dog that bolted Partridge because interfered with by companion ; 
Birds kept cool. 541. Let "retrieving" be done by "Finder." 542. Captain 
J n's three Dogs that alternately retrieved as ordered. 543. Such an Educa- 
tion could be given, but unnecessary. 544. Seeking Dead with two Dogs ; 
Winged Bird searched for in direction of covey's flight. 545. Scent differs of 
wounded and unwounded birds. 546. Three dead Snipe lifted in succession; 
Setter that stood fresh birds while carrying a dead one ; Pointer that pointed 
Partridge while carrying a hare; Retriever refusing to relinquish chase of 
wounded Hare; wounded Woodcock walked up to, not "set" by Dog. 547. 
"Venus" tracking winged Partridge through Pheasants and Rabbits. 548. In- 
judiciousness of retrieving Setter pointing dead. 549. Argument against 
employing retrieving Setters holds against using regular Retrievers. 550. 
REGULAR RETRIEVERS TO BEAT ; its Advantages ; one Dog does the duty 
of two. 551. Instance of Retriever doing so spontaneously. 552. Retriever 
that never disturbed fresh ground. 553. WATER RETRIEVERS (OR WATER 
WILD FOWL ; how taught. 554. None of these Accomplishments so difficult 
to teach as a good range. 555. Might be taught by your Gamekeeper but not 
to be expected of regular Breaker. 


536. UNDENIABLY there is some value in the extra 
number of shots obtained by means of highly-broken 
dogs ; and nearly as undeniable is it that no man, who 
is not over-rich, will term that teaching superfluous 
which enables him to secure in one dog the services of 
two. Now, I take it for granted (as I cannot suppose 
you are willing to lose many head of killed game), that 
you would be glad to be always accompanied in the 


field by a dog that retrieves. Unless you have such 
a companion, there will be but little chance of your 
often securing a slightly winged bird in turnips. In- 
deed, in all rough shooting, the services of a dog so 
trained are desirable to prevent many an unfortunate 
hare and rabbit from getting away to die a painful, linger- 
ing death ; and yet, if the possession of a large kennel is 
ever likely to prove half as inconvenient to you as it 
would to me, you would do well, according to my idea 
of the matter, to dispense with a regular retriever, 
provided you have a highly-broken setter who retrieves 

537. I say setter rather than pointer, not on account 
of his more affectionate, and perhaps more docile dispo- 
sition (for certainly he is less liable to sulk under 
punishment), but because, thanks to his long coat, he 
will be able to work in any cover, and that from nature 
he " roads " quicker. 

I must, however, plead guilty (for many good sportsmen wil 
think I evince bad taste) to a predilection for setters meaning 
always cautious setters a partiality, perhaps, attributable to 
having shot more over wild, uncertain ground than in well-stocked 
preserves. Doubtless, in a very enclosed country, where game is 
abundant, pointers are preferable, far preferable, more especially 
should there be a scarcity of water ; but for severe and fast work, 
and as a servant of all work, there is nothing, I humbly conceive, 
like the setter.* He may be, and generally is, the more difficult to 
break ; but when success has crowned your efforts, what a noble, 
enduring, sociable, attached animal you possess. I greatly, too, 
admire his long, stealthy, blood-like action, (for I am not speaking 
of the large heavy sort before which in old days whole coveys used 
to be nettled), and the animated waving of his stern, so strongly 
indicative of high breeding ; though, strange to say, in gracefulness 
of carriage the fox, when hunting, and actually on game, far excels 
him. But we are again getting astray beyond our proper limits ; 
let us keep to the subject of dog-breaking. 

* This note on setters, poachers, has placed it in an Appendix, 
keepers, bloodhounds, night-dogs, See page 344. 
&c., is so long, that the printer 


538. As it will be your endeavour, during your pupil's 
first season, to make him thoroughly stanch and steady, 
I cannot advise you (as a general rule liable, of course, 
to many exceptions one of which is named in 317), to 
let him retrieve, by retrieve I always mean fetch, 
until the following year. There is another advantage 
in the delay. His sagacity will have shown him that 
the design of every shot is to bag the game when, 
therefore, he has once been permitted to pick up a bird, 
he will be desirous of carrying it immediately to you, 
and will resist the temptation to loiter with it, mouthing 
and spoiling it ; and however keenly he may have 
heretofore " sought dead," he will henceforth search with 
redoubled zeal, from the delight he will experience in 
being permitted to carry his game. Moreover, the 
season's shooting, without lifting, will have so tho- 
roughly confirmed him in the " down charge," that the 
increased * inclination to bolt off in search of a falling 
bird will be successfully resisted. If he has been taught 
while young to "fetch" (107, 109, &c.), he will be so 
anxious to take the birds to you, that instead of there 
being any difficulty in teaching him this accomplish- 
ment, you will often, during his first season, have to 
restrain him from lifting when he is "pointing dead." 
The least encouragement will make him gladly pick up 
the birds, and give them, as he ought, to no one but 

539. Suppose you possess no regular retriever if, instead of 
lifting your game yourself, you accustom one of your pointers or 
setters to do so, you will occasionally, in some odd manner, bag a 
bird which you would otherwise inevitably lose. In 97 is given 
such an instance ; and in Scotland, no later than last season, I saw 
another. An outlying cock-pheasant rose out of stubble. It was a 
long shot, but he was knocked over, falling into an adjoining piece 

* "Increased :" the gratification of carrying being far greater than 
that of merely " pointing dead. " 




of turnips. After the " down charge," a pointer bitch accustomed 
to retrieve, was sent to fetch him. The moment she approached 
the bird, up he got, apparently as strong as ever, and flew over some 
rising ground, but whither, I had no idea, further than suspecting 
that he was making for a distant cover on forbidden ground. I, 
therefore, at once gave him up as lost. The dog, however, was 
more sanguine, for, to my great surprise, off she started in pursuit, 
clearly imagining it was quite a mistake of the pheasant's. I soon 
lost sight of her, but, to my great gratification, I observed her, some 
little time afterwards, topping the hillock with the bird in her 
mouth. If she had been young, her chase after the pheasant might 
only have shown sad unsteadiness and wildness ; but as she was 
a stanch sober old lady, it manifestly evinced nothing but, it 
will be safest to say, much intelligence and discrimination, lest 
you cavil at the words reason or reflection. I must own I should 

540. You need hardly be cautioned not to let more 
than one dog retrieve the same bird. "With more dogs 

" With more dogs than one the bird would, almost to a certainty, be torn." 

than one the bird would, almost to a certainty, be torn r 
and if a dog once becomes sensible of the enjoyment he 


would derive in pulling out the feathers of a bird, you 
will find it difficult to make him deliver it up before he 
has in some way disfigured it. 

A bitch that retrieved admirably, known to an acquaintance of 
mine, was on one occasion so annoyed at being interfered with by 
her companion, that, in a fit of jealousy, she actually bolted the 
partridge she was carrying lest " Jack " should come in for a nibble. 
I must confess I think it of much importance that a dog who 
retrieves should be tender-mouthed, for I own I like to put my 
birds by smooth and tidy, and, if I want them to keep long, take 
care to observe the old rule of hanging them (by their heads rather 
than their feet, that rain may not saturate the feathers) on the loops 
outside the game-bag until they are quite cool, before I allow them 
to become inside passengers ; but I generally have their bodies 
placed within the netting, as for want of this precaution many a bird 
has been decapitated in the scramble through a thick hedge. Game, 
whether cool or warm, kept in a close Mackintosh bag, soon becomes 
unfit to send to any distance. 

541. If you shoot with several dogs that retrieve, be 
careful always to let the dog who finds the game be 
the one to bring it. It is but fair that he should be so 
rewarded, and thus all will be stimulated to hunt with 
increased diligence. 

542. Captain J n, K.N., of Little B w, Essex (well-known 

for the gallantry and skill he displayed when risking his own life to 
save that of many stranded on the Kentish coast), used to break in 
his own dogs, and required them to show yet greater obedience and 
forbearance while retrieving. At one period he was in the habit of 
taking two pointers and a little spaniel into the field to hunt 
together, the latter so small that he often carried it in his pocket 
when it was fatigued. The following kind of scene constantly 
occurred. One of the pointers would stand, the other back, so 

also would the spaniel. Captain J n, after killing his bird and 

loading, probably said, " Don, go fetch it." Don went forward to 
obey. "Stop, Don." Don halted. " Carlo, fetch the bird." Carlo 
advanced. " Stop, Carlo." Carlo obeyed. " Tiny, bring it." The 
little creature did as ordered, and placed it in her master's hand, the 
pointers meanwhile never moving. 

543. I am not urging you to give up the time requisite to educate 
dogs so highly as this, but you see it can be done. 

544. If the dog that found the covey be not able 
to wind the bird you have shot, make one of the other 


dogs take a large circuit. The latter may thus, without 
interfering with the first dog, come upon the bird, should 
it have run far. Send him in the direction the covey 
has taken the chances are great that the bird is travel- 
ling towards the same point. By pursuing this plan, 
obviously there will be much less chance of your losing 
a bird than if you allow the dogs to keep close together 
while searching. (See also 115.) 

545. Do not think that by making your setter lift 
(after his first season), instead of " pointing dead," there 
will be any increased risk of his raising unsprung birds. 
The difference between the scent of dead or wounded 
game, and that of game perfectly uninjured, is so great 
that no steady, experienced dog will fail to point any 
fresh bird he may come across whilst seeking for that 
which is lost. 

As a proof of this I may mention that, 

546. In North America I once saw three snipe lying on the ground, 
which a pointer, that retrieved, had regularly set one after the 
other, having found a couple on his way to retrieve the first, and 
which he afterwards brought in succession to his master, who had 
all the time governed the dog entirely by signs, never having been 
obliged to use his voice beyond saying in a low tone, " Dead," or 
" Find." I remember, also, hearing of a retrieving setter that on 
one occasion pointed a fresh bird, still retaining in her mouth the 
winged partridge which she was carrying, and of a pointer who 
did the same when he was bringing a hare ; there must, too, be 
few sportsmen who will not admit that they have found it more 
difficult to make a dog give up the pursuit of a wounded hare than 
of one perfectly uninjured. I know of a sportsman's saying he felt 
certain that the hare his retriever was coursing over the moors must 
have been struck, although the only person who had fired stoutly 
maintained that the shot was a regular miss. The owner of the 
dog, however, averred that this was impossible, as he never could 
get the discerning animal to follow any kind of unwounded game ; 
and, on the other hand, that no rating would make him quit the 
pursuit of injured running feather or fur. The retriever's speedy 
return with puss, conveniently balanced between his jaws, bore 
satisfactory testimony to the accuracy of both his own and his master's 
judgment. In December, '49, a woodcock that was struck hard 
took a long flight. A setter-bitch I have often shot over came, 

300 COLONEL T Y'S VENUS. [OH. xvn. 

quite unexpectedly to herself, on the scent of the bird when it was 
at such a distance from her that the party who had shot it felt sure 
she was on other game. Instead, however, of " setting," the bitch, 
who, be it observed, is particularly steady, drew on, and after 
deliberately walking up to the woodcock, gave it a touseling, for 
she is not broken into "pointing dead." It is certain that her 
olfactory nerves plainly told her there was no chance of its rising. 

547. In corroboration of the correctness of the opinion I have 
just expressed, respecting the difference between the scent of injured 
and uninjured birds, I am glad to be permitted to make the following 

extract from a letter I lately received from Colonel T y, spoken, 

of in 99. He writes, " When shooting at Alresford, in Essex, last 
year, I had a singular instance of Venus' sagacity in detecting the 
scent of wounded game. I was returning home, and while walking 
through a field of turnips a covey of birds got up near the fence. I 
winged one, which fell in the midst of some rabbits and pheasants 
feeding near the edge of the cover on the opposite side. Of course, 
they all bolted at the appearance of such an unwelcome visitor as 
the retriever the rabbits into their burrows, the pheasants into 
cover. My servant brought the bitch up to the place where I 
thought the bird had fallen. After puzzling about for some time, 
she took the trail about thirty yards down by the side of the fence, 
and then 'set' at a rabbit-hole. Thinking she was mistaken, I 
rated her and tried to get her away, but she stuck to her point. 
Determining, therefore, to ascertain the facts, we dug up the top 
part of a narrow fence, and bolted a couple of rabbits out of the 
hole, at the further end of which we found my wounded bird, an old 
Frenchman." * 

548. Some good sportsmen maintain that a retrieving 
setter (or pointer) on finding a dead bird ought to point 
it until directed to lift it. This training they hold to be 
advisable, on the ground that it conduces to the dog's 
steadiness by diminishing his wish to run forward on 
seeing a bird fall ; but the plan has necessarily this evil 
consequence, that should the setter, when searching for 
the dead bird, come across and point, as he ought, any 
fresh game, on your telling him to fetch it (as you 
naturally will), he must spring it if he attempt to obey 
you. Surely this would tend more to unsteady him 
than the habit of lifting his dead birds as soon as found ? 
Your dog and you ought always to work in the greatest 

* A red-legged partridge. 


harmony in the mutual confidence of your, at all times, 
thoroughly understanding each other and you should 
carefully avoid the possibility of ever perplexing him by 
giving him any order it is out of his power to obey, 
however much he may exert himself. Moreover, if you 
teach your retrieving setter to " point dead," you at once 
relinquish surely unnecessarily ? all hope of ever wit- 
nessing such a fine display of sagacity and steadiness as 
has just been related in the first part of 546. 

549. If you object to a setter's being taught to lift on 
the ground, that it will make the other dogs jealous, 
pray remember that the argument has equal force against 
the employment of a regular retriever in their presence. 


550. We all have our prejudices, every Englishman 
has a right to many. One of mine is to think a regular 
retriever positively not worth his keep to you for general 
shooting if one of your setting dogs will retrieve well but 
what an all-important " if" is this ! However, if you shoot 
much in cover, I admit that a regular retriever which can 
be worked in perfect silence, never refusing to come in 
when he is merely signalled to, or, if out of sight, softly 
whistled to, is better* (particularly when you employ 
beaters), but even then he need not be the idler that 
one generally sees, he might be broken in to hunt 
close to you, and give you the same service as a mute 
spaniel. I grant this is somewhat difficult to accomplish, 
for it much tends to unsteady him, but it can be effected, 
I have seen it, and being practicable, it is at least 
worth trying ; for if you succeed, you, as before (536), 
make one dog perform the work of two ; and, besides its 

* Of course, a regular retriever of which are accustomed to re- 
is absolutely necessary when a trieve (78). 
team of spaniels is hunted, none 


evident advantage in thick cover, if lie accompany you 
in your every-day shooting, you will thus obtain, in the 
course of a season, many a shot which your other dogs, 
especially in hot weather, would pass over. If, too, the 
retriever hunts quite close to you, he can in no way 
annoy his companions, or interfere with them, for I take 
it for granted he will be so obedient as to come to 
" heel " the instant he gets your signal. 

551. Many regular retrievers take spontaneously to beating. Two 

brothers, named W e, living at Grewell, in Hampshire, termed 

by the village wags, not inappropriately, " Watergruel " (there is 
good snipe and duck-shooting in the surrounding marshes), have a 
ranging-retriever (a Newfoundland), still young, now called " Nelly," 
though, as a puppy, christened " Nelson " by the girls of the family. 
Miss Nelly, as if to give further proof of the impropriety of her 
original name, is remarkably timid, and therefore has been allowed 
to follow, unchecked, her own devices in the field. In imitation of 
her companions, she took to beating and pointing ; and, after the 
" down-charge," would retrieve as zealously and efficiently as if she 
had never been allowed to " quit heel," except for that express 
purpose. I have myself, when in the north, killed game to the 
voluntary point of " Sambo," a black regular-retriever, who was 
permitted to range close to the keeper. I have also shot to the 
point of " Bang," a very handsome animal, a cross between a New- 
foundland and a setter. Dogs so bred often, when ranging, take to 
pointing for a short period before dashing in ; or can easily be made 
to do so, thereby giving the gun a very acceptable caution. 

552. The sire of " Venus " honourable mention is made of her 
in 99 a very celebrated dog, had an invaluable quality as a retriever, 
though the very opposite of the range I have been recommending. 
He disturbed as little ground as possible during his search, and no 
fresh ground returning. After running with the greatest correct- 
ness a wounded pheasant through a large cover, he would invariably 
return upon the same track he had taken when first sent from 
" heel." I confess I cannot see how this admirable habit could be 
taught by any one but Dame Nature. Is it not a beautiful instance 
of sagacity ? But you will observe that, singularly good as was this 
regular-retriever, he would have sprung the snipe at which the 
retrieving-pointer stood (546). For instructions regarding regular 
land retrievers, see 112 to 130. 

Accoutred as I was I plunged in and bade him follow. "-Pars. 276 and 553. 

OH. xvii.j WATEB SPANIELS. 305 



553. This a knowing old dog will often do of his own 
accord ; but you must not attempt to teach a young one 
this useful habit, until you are satisfied that there is 
110 risk of making him blink his birds. You can then 
call him off when he is swimming towards dead birds, 
and signal to him to follow those that are fluttering 
away. If the water is not too deep, rush in yourself, 
and set him a good example by actively pursuing the 
runaways ; and until all the cripples that can be re- 
covered * are safely bagged, do not let him lift one of 
those killed outright. If very intelligent, he will before 
long perceive the advantage of the system, or at least 
find it the more exciting method, and adhere to it with- 
out obliging you to continue your aquatic excursions. 
(For advice about water retrievers, see 90 to 95.) I 
have placed this paragraph among the " refinements " in 
breaking ; but I ought, perhaps, to have entered it 
sooner ; for if you are fond of duck-shooting, and live 
in a neighbourhood where you have good opportunities 
of following it, you should regard this accomplishment 
as a necessary part of your spaniel's education. 

554. In your part of the country none of these extra, 
or, as some will say, always superfluous accomplishments 
may be required ; but if you consider that a pupil of 
yours attaining any one of them would be serviceable, 
be not deterred from teaching it by the idea that you 
would be undertaking a difficult task. Any one of 
them, I was nearly saying all of them, could be taught 

* In deep water diving birds will of course beat the most active 



a dog with far greater ease, and in a shorter time, than 
a well-established, judicious range. 

555. It would be quite unreasonable to expect a 
regular breaker (" mark/' I do not say your gamekeeper) 
to teach your dog any of these accomplishments. He 
may be fully aware of the judiciousness of the system, 
and be sensible of its great advantages, but the many 
imperious calls upon his time would preclude his pur- 
suing it in all its details. At the usual present prices 
it would not pay him to break in dogs so highly. 



556. Reflect on what is said. 557. Not to rest content with bad dogs. 558. Beck- 
ford's opinion of the education that could be given to Dog. 559. Education of 
the Buckhound. 560, 561. St. John's opinion. The old Show-woman's learned 
dog. 562. Hunting to be Dog's principal enjoyment. 563. While young, not 
to have run of kitchen. To be in kennel ; not tied up ; chain better than rope. 
564. When older, more liberty allowed, but never to " self-hunt ;" old Dogs 
spontaneously take judicious liberties. Easier to teach accomplishments than 
cure faults. "Self-hunter's" example most dangerous. 565. Fine range and 
perseverance attained. Irish red setters. 566. Good condition ; exercise oil 
road ; attention to feet. In Note, Claws sometimes too long ; Claws of Tigress 
that ran into feet. 567. Diet to be considered ; muscle wanted ; fat detrimental, 
except to Water Retrievers. In Note, recipe for waterproofing boots. 568. 
Indian-corn meal; Mr. Herbert's opinion of; feed of an evening. 569. Beef- 
soup brings Mange in hot climates : Mutton better meat necessary to prevent 
disgusting habits. 570. Good condition of Nose most material ; Kennels. 
571. Warmth necessary ; Winter pups. 572. Pups inoculated for Distemper. 
573 to 575. Vaccinated for Distemper. 577. Elaine and Colonel Cook thought 
it useless. 577. Old prejudice against Vaccination. 578. Colonel Hawker 
advocates it. 579. Salt for Distemper. 580. Easy to give medicine. 581. The" 
method. 582. If force is necessary. 583. Castor oil lapped up with milk. 
584. Dog not to be lent. 586. In Note, old sportsman's advice about choosing 
a Keeper. 588. Education gradual ; taught from the A, B, C. In Note, Query, 
do Keepers find time to break in dogs of strangers, while their masters' remain 
unfinished? Advantage of young Dog's accompanying Keeper when he goes 
his rounds by day. " Snap" daily visiting the traps for his master. 585 to 589. 
The Conclusion. 

556. WE have come to the concluding division (dignified by the 
name of Chapter) of this little Work ; for I have at length nearly 
finished my prosing about dog-breaking. But reflect upon what I 
have said. The more you do, the more, I think, you will be of 
opinion that I have recommended only what is reasonable, and that 
but little attention beyond the trouble usually bestowed, if directed 
by good judgment, is required to give a dog the education which 
I have described. 

557. I wish I could animate you with but a quarter of the 
enthusiasm which I once felt on the subject. I am not desirous of 
making you dissatisfied with anything that you possess, excepting 
your dogs, such as, I fear, they most probably are. and that only 



because, if they are young, a little judicious extra-exertion on your 
part will add as much to their usefulness as to your own enjoyment. 
And I do not wish them, or anything you have, or have not, to 
make you discontented ; I only pray you not to be supine. If you 
can get no more alluring drink than cold water, reflect on its whole- 
someness, and enjoy it, if you can, with all the relish of a parched 
Arab ; but I entreat you not to be contented with a disorderly 
noise-exciting cur, when a trifling addition to your pains will ensure 
you an obedient, well- trained animal, one that will procure you 
twice as many shots as the other. It will, indeed. Believe me, I 
am not too extravagant in my conception of a perfect dog. You 
may not consider it worth your while to take the trouble of giving 
him such an education ; but it seems hardly reasonable to say it 
could not be imparted. Naturally enough you may distrust my 
judgment, but you cannot doubt the experience of the reflecting, 
discriminating Beckford ; and what does he say on the subject of 
canine education ? 

558. " The many learned dogs and learned horses that so fre- 
quently appear and astonish the vulgar, sufficiently evince what 
education is capable of ; and it is to education I must attribute the 
superior excellence of the buckhound, since I have seen high bred 
fox-hounds do the same under the same good masters. 

559. "Dogs that are constantly with their masters acquire a 
wonderful degree of penetration, and much may be done through 
the medium of their affections. I attribute the extraordinary 
sagacity of the buckhound to the manner in which he is treated. 
He is the constant companion of his instructor and benefactor the 
man whom he was first taught to fear he has since learned to love. 
Can we wonder that he should be obedient to him ? Oft have we 
viewed with surprise the hounds and deer amusing themselves 
familiarly together on the same lawn, living, as it were, in the 
most friendly intercourse ; and with no less surprise have we heard 
the keeper give the word, when instantly the very nature of the dog 
seemed changed ; roused from his peaceful state, he is urged on 
with a relentless fury, which only death can satisfy the death of 
the very deer he is encouraged to pursue. The business of the day 
over, see him follow, careless and contented, his master's steps, to 
repose on the same lawn where the frightened deer again return, 
and are a^ain indebted to his courtesy for their wonted pasture. 
Wonderful proofs of obedience, sagacity, and penetration ! " 

560. If you have at hand St. John's " Tour in Sutherlandshire " 
(he is the author of that most interesting work, " Wild Sports and 
Natural History of the Highlands "), pray turn to the part in the 
second volume, where he describes the old show- woman's learned 
dog. I would transcribe the whole of the amusing account, were 
not this little book already swollen to undue proportions but I 
must quote the concluding observations, as his opinion respecting 
the aptitude of dogs for instruction so fully coincides with Beckford's. 

561. " The tricks consisted of the usual routine of adding up 
figures, spelling short words, and finding the first letter of any town 


named by one of the company. The last trick was very cleverly 
done, and puzzled us very much, as we i.e. the grown-up part of 
the audience were most intently watching not him but his mistress, 
in order to discover what signs she made to guide him in his choice 
of the cards ; but we could not perceive that she moved hand or 
foot, or made any signal whatever. Indeed, the dog seemed to pay 
but little regard to her, but to receive his orders direct from any one 
who gave them. In fact, his teaching must have been perfect, and 
his intellect wonderful. Now I dare say I shall be laughed at for 
introducing an anecdote of a learned dog, and told that it was * all 
trick.' No doubt it was * all trick,' but it was a very clever one, and 
showed how capable of education dogs are far more so than we 
imagine. For here was a dog performing tricks so cleverly that not 
one out of four or five persons, who were most attentively watching, 
could find out how he was assisted by his mistress." 

562. In following Beckford's advice respecting your 
making, as far as is practicable, your dog your " constant 
companion," do not, however, forget that you require him 
to evince great diligence and perseverance in the field ; 
and, therefore, that his highest enjoyment must consist 
in being allowed to hunt. 

563. Now, it seems to be a principle of nature, 
of canine as well as human nature, to feel, through 
life, most attachment to that pursuit, whatever it may 
be, which is most followed in youth. If a dog is per- 
mitted as a youngster to have the run of the kitchen, 
he will be too fond of it when grown up. If he is 
allowed to amuse himself in every way his fancy dic- 
tates, he will think little of the privilege of hunting. 
Therefore, the hours he cannot pass with you (after you 
have commenced his education), I am sorry to say it, 
but I must do so, he ought to be in his kennel loose in 
his kennel,* not tied up ; for straining at his collar 
would throw out his elbows, and so make him grow up 
bandy-legged. If, however, he must be fastened, let it 

* Twice a day he should be pensities. If he has acquired the 

allowed to runout, that he may disagreeable trick of howling when 

not be compelled to adopt habits shut up, put a muzzle on him. 
wholly opposed to his natural pro- 


be by a chain. He would soon learn to gnaw through 
a cord, especially if a young puppy, who, from nature, 
is constantly using his teeth, and thus acquire a trick 
that some day might prove very inconvenient were no 
chain at hand. You would greatly consult his comfort 
by having the chain attached, with a loose ring and 
swivel, to a spike fixed a few paces in front of his 
kennel, so that he could take some exercise by trotting 
round and round. 

564. When your dog has attained some age, and 
hunting has become with him a regular passion, I be- 
lieve you may give him as much liberty as you please 
without diminishing his zeal, but most carefully prevent 
his ever hunting alone, technically called " self-hunting." 
At that advanced time of life, too, a few occasional 
irregularities in the field may be innocuously permitted. 
The steadiest dogs will, at times, deviate from the usual 
routine of their business, sagaciously thinking that such 
departure from rule must be acceptable if it tends to 
obtain the game ; and it will be advisable to leave an 
experienced dog to himself whenever he evinces great 
perseverance in spontaneously following some unusual 
plan. You may have seen an old fellow, instead of 
cautiously " reading " and " pointing dead," rush forward 
and seize an unfortunate winged bird, while it was 
making the best use of its legs after the flight of the 
rest of the covey some peculiarity in, the scent emitted 
having probably betrayed to the dog's practised nose 
that the bird was injured. When your pup arrives at 
such years of discrimination, you need not so rigorously 
insist upon a patient " down charge," should you see a 
winged cock-pheasant running into cover. Your dog's 
habits of discipline would be, I should hope, too well 
confirmed by his previous course of long drill for such a 

CH. xvm.] "SELF-HUNTING." 311 

temporary departure from rule to effect any permanent 
mischief ; but, oh ! beware of any such laxity with a 
young pupil, however strongly you may be tempted. In 
five minutes you may wholly undo the labour of a 
month. On days, therefore, when you are anxious, 
codte qui cotite, to fill the game-bag, pray leave him at 
home. Let him acquire any bad habit when you are 
thus pressed for birds, and you will have more difficulty 
in eradicating it than you would have in teaching him 
almost any accomplishment. This reason made me all 
along keep steadily in view the supposition, that you 
had commenced with a dog unvitiated by evil associates, 
either biped or quadruped ; for assuredly you would find 
it far easier to give a thoroughly good education to 
such a pupil, than to complete the tuition (particularly 
in his range) of one usually considered broken, and who 
must, in the natural order of things, have acquired some 
habits more or less opposed to your own system. If, as 
a puppy, he had been allowed to self-hunt and chase, 
your labour would be herculean. And inevitably this 
would have been your task, had you ever allowed him 
to associate with any dog who "self-hunted." The 
oldest friend in your kennel might be led astray by 
forming an intimacy with the veriest cur, if a "self- 
hunter." There is a fascination in the vice above all, 
in killing young hares and rabbits, that the steadiest 
dog cannot resist when he has been persuaded to join in 
the sport by some vagabond of a poacher possessing a 
tolerable nose, rendered keenly discerning by experience. 
565. I hope that by this time we too well understand 
each other for you now to wonder why I think that you 
should not commence hunting your young dog where 
game is a.bundant. Professional breakers prefer such 
ground, because, from getting plenty of points, it enables 


them to train their dogs more quickly, and sufficiently 
well to ensure an early sale. This is their object, and 
they succeed. My object is that you shall establish 
ultimately great perseverance and a fine range in your 
young dog, let birds be ever so scarce. If you show him 
too many at first, he will subsequently become easily 
dispirited whenever he fails in getting a point. 

It is the general paucity of game in Ireland (snipe and woodcock 
excepted) that makes dogs trained in that country show so much 
untiring energy and indomitable zeal when hunted on our side of 
the Channel. But the slight wiry Irish red setter (whom it is so 
difficult to see on the moor from his colour), is naturally a dog 
of great pace and endurance. There is, however, a much heavier 

566. Many dogs, solely from want of good condition, greatly 
disappoint their masters at the beginning of the season. You could 
not expect your hunter to undergo a hard day's work without a 
previous course of tolerably severe exercise ; and why expect it of 
your dog ? A couple of hours' quiet exercise in the cool of the 
morning or evening will not harden his feet, and get him into the 
wind and condition requisite for the performance you may desire of 
him some broiling day in the middle of August or early in September. 
If you do not like to disturb your game, and have no convenient 
country to hunt over, why should you not give him some gallops 
before the beginning of the shooting-season, when you are mounted 
on your trotting hackney ? Think how greyhounds are by degrees 
brought into wind and hard meat before coursing commences. 
Such work on the road will greatly benefit his feet,* particularly if, 
on his return home in wet weather, they are bathed with a strong 
solution of salt and water. When the ground is hard and dry. they 
should be washed with warm water and soap, both to soothe them 

* Claws of dogs kept on boarded and would rub against the bars 

floors, or not exercised, occa- when she was approached by 

sionally become so long, that visitors to invite their caresses ; 

unless they are filed or pared but it was quite distressing to see 

down, they cause lameness. In her raising each leg alternately, 

the menagerie at the Cape of Good really to ease it of her weight, but 

Hope I saw a fine tigress, the apparently as if soliciting relief, 

claws of whose fore-feet had grown The blessings of chloroform were 

so far beyond her power of sheath- then unknown. No tiger while 

ing that they had penetrated deep under its drowsy influence had 

into the flesh, and it was under ever had an injured limb ampu- 

consideration how to secure her tated, as was once successfully 

so that the operator should incur managed at the Surrey Zoological 

no risk while sawing off the ends. Gardens. 
She was very tame and sociable, 

CH. xviii.] MUSCLE WANTED, NOT FAT. 313 

and to remove all dust and gravel. They might afterwards be 
gradually hardened by applying the salt and water. When they 
are inflamed and bruised, almost a magical cure might be effected 
by their being sponged with a solution of arnica ten parts of water 
to one of arnica. Should the dog lick the lotion, dissolve a little 
aloes in it. If, by the bye, you would make it a rule personally to 
ascertain that attention is always paid to your dogs after a hard 
day's work, and not leave them to the tender mercies of an un- 
interested servant, you would soon be amply repaid for your trouble 
by their additional performance. Many men make it a rule to send 
their dogs to the mountains a week or two before the grouse shoot- 
ing ; but they seldom even then get sufficiently exercised, and their 
mettle is slacked (confessedly a temporary advantage with half- 
broken, wild dogs), instead of being increased, by finding that, 
however many points they may make (at squeakers under their 
nose), they never secure a bird. A month's road- work, with 
alterative medicine, is far better. 

567. Dogs severely worked should be fed abundantly on a nu- 
tritious diet. Hunters and stage-coach horses have an unlimited 
allowance, and the work of eager setters and pointers (in a hilly 
country particularly) is proportionately hard ; but the constitutions 
of dogs vary so greatly that the quantity as well as quality of their 
diet should be considered ; for it must be your aim to obtain the 
largest development of muscle with the least superfluity of flesh, 
that enemy to pace and endurance in dog as surely as in horse and man. 
Yet this remark does not apply to a water retriever : he should have 
fat. It is a warm, well-fitting great coat, more impervious to wet 
than a Mackintosh, furnished by Providence to whales, bears, and 
all animals that have to contend with cold; and obviously your 
patient companion will feel the benefit of one when he is shivering 
alongside you while you are lying perdu in a bed of damp rushes.* 

* It will tend to your comfort ber into a thick fluid, add not 
and health to have your boots more than one pint of oil ; linseed 
made waterproof, and you will oil, or neat's foot oil is, I am 
not easily get a better preparation, told, the best, 
when well rubbed into the leather, For waterproofing cloth : 
for effecting your object, than the 2 Ibs. alum, 
following. It is an admirable one 1 K>. sugar of lead, 
for rendering all kinds of leather 20 quarts spring water, 
pliable, and for pres&rmng them in Strain off to clear. Let garment 
that state and how often in the soak 48 hours. Hang up until 
beginning of a season have you dry. Well brush afterwards. In- 
found your water-boots as hard as expensive yet effective ! 
a board ! When you catch cold, do not 

To one ounce of India-rubber too hastily blame our climate, our 

(the old bottle-shaped gum) cut enviable climate, which preserves 

into very small pieces, and dis- longer than any other the bloom 

solved in only as much spirits of of its women and the vigour of its 

naphtha as will convert the rub- men, where the extremes of cold 



568. Having mentioned condition, I am led to observe, that in 
America I saw a pointer, which, from being hunted, I may say 
daily, Sundays excepted, could not be kept in condition on oatmeal 
and greaves, but which was put in hard flesh, and did his work 
admirably, when Indian-corn meal was substituted for the oatmeal. 
I have not seen it used in this country, but I can fancy it to be a 
heating food, better calculated for dogs at regular hard work than 
when they are summering.* It is well known that no food should 
be given in a very hot state, not of a higher temperature than 
milk- warm ; and that evening is the proper feeding time, in order 
that the dogs may sleep immediately afterwards, and not be full 
when they are taken out for their morning's work. 

569. In India, I remember complaining to an old sportsman that 
I had much difficulty in keeping my dogs free from mange. He 
at once asked if I did not give them beef-tea with their rice. I 
acknowledged that I did. He said it was of too heating a nature. 
I tried mutton-broth, agreeably to his recommendation. Every 
vestige of mange vanished, but yet I could hardly believe it 
attributable to so slight a change in their diet, for very little meat 
was used. As the mutton was much dearer, I again tried the beef. 
It would not do. The mange reappeared. I was, therefore, obliged 
to return to the mutton, and continue it. The teeth of dogs show 
that flesh is a natural diet ; and if they are wholly deprived of it 
when they are young, they will acquire most revolting habits, 
feeding upon any filth they may find, and often rolling in it. The 
meat should be cooked. 

570. The good condition of a dog's nose is far from 
being an immaterial part of his conditioning, for on the 
preservation of its sensitiveness chiefly depends your 
hope of sport. If it be dry from being feverish, or if it 
be habituated to the villanous smells of an impure 
kennel, how are you to expect it to acknowledge the 
faintest taint of game yet one that, if followed up by 

and heat are equally unknown, in all the extra heat he acquired from 

which you can take with advan- exercise. 

tage exercise every day in the year, * Since the publication of the 
and need never suffer annoyance first edition of this book, I have 
from mosquitoes, sandflies, fleas, had the gratification of reading 
and other abominations, from Mr. Herbert's " Field Sports in the 
which few countries are free. "When United States, &c., " and find that 
heated by labour, are we not too he does not consider Indian-corn 
apt to throw off some article of to possess any injurious qualities 
apparel in order to get cool ? on the contrary, he strongly re- 
whereas the Turk, more sensibly, commends its adoption in ken- 
puts on additional clothing, and nels. 
sits out of a draught until he loses 


olfactory nerves in high order, would lead to a sure find ? 
Sweetness of breath is a strong indication of health. 
Cleanliness is as essential as a judicious diet ; and you 
may be assured, that if you look for excellence, you 
must always have your youngster's kennel clean, dry, 
airy, and yet sufficiently warm. The more you attend 
to this, the greater will be his bodily strength and the 
finer his nose. 

In India the kennels are, of course, too hot ; but in the best 
constructed which fell under my observation, the heat was much 
mitigated by the roofs being thickly thatched with grass. In 
England, however, nearly all kennels I am not speaking of those 
for hounds are far too cold in winter. 

571. There must be sufficient warmth. Observe how 
a petted dog, especially after severe exercise, lays himself 
down close to the fire, and enjoys it. Do you not see 
that instinct teaches him to do this ? and must it not be 
of great service to him ? Why, therefore, deny him in 
cold weather, after a hard day's work, a place on the 
hearth-rug? It is the want of sufficient heat in the 
kennels, and good drying and brushing after hard work, 
that makes sporting dogs, particularly if they are long- 
coated ones, suffer from rheumatism, blear eyes, and 
many ills that generally, but not necessarily, attend 
them in old age. The instance given in 226 is a proof 
of this. 

Winter pups, you are told, are not so strong as those born in 
summer. They would be, if they were reared in a warm room. 
The mother's bodily heat cannot warm them ; for after a while, they 
so pull her about and annoy her, that she either leaves them for a 
time, or drives them from her. 

572. As I have casually touched on puppies, I will take the 
opportunity of recommending, according to the plan adopted by 
some sportsmen, and of which I have experienced the advantage, 
that you have a whole litter, soon after it has been weaned, 
(provided it be in a healthy state), inoculated for the distemper, 
a small feather, previously inserted in the nose of a diseased dog, 
being for an instant put up the nostrils of the puppies. It will be 


necessary to keep them unusually warm,* and feed them high, 
while they are suffering from the effects of this treatment. It is 
not likely that you will lose any ; but if you should, the loss will be 
small compared with that of an educated dog at a mature age. The 
extent of the mischief will probably be a slight cough, with a little 
running at the nose for a few days. 

573. Having heard that vaccination would greatly mitigate the 
distressing symptoms of distemper, if not entirely remove all 
susceptibility to infection, I endeavoured to possess myself with the 
facts of the case. Circumstances were thus brought to my know- 
ledge which appear so interesting, that a brief detail of them may 
not be unacceptable to some of my readers. It would seem that 
vaccination might be made as great a blessing to the canine race as 
it has proved to mankind : that is to say, many experienced men 
are still of that opinion. All that I heard of material import is 
nearly embodied in letters I received, some years ago, from Mr. 

L e, of Neat's Court, Isle of Sheppey, an intelligent sportsman, 

much attached to coursing. As I am sure he will not object to my 
doing so, I will quote largely from his notes. He writes nearly 

574. " It is with pleasure that I answer yours of this morning, 
and give you what little information I can respecting the vaccination 
of my puppies. Mr. Fellowes, who resided about eight years since 
at 34, Baker Street, was the first person from whom I learned any- 
thing on the subject. He was a great breeder of bull-dogs, of all 
the canine race the most difficult to save in distemper, greyhounds 
being, perhaps, the next on the list.f He told me that in twelve 
years he had lost but two puppies, and those not, he believed, from 
distemper, and yet he had regularly bred every year. 

575. " I went to town purposely to see him operate upon a clutch. 
The method is very simple. Take a small piece of floss silk, and 
draw the end through a needle. On about the middle of the silk 
place some matter (when in a proper state) extracted from a child's 
arm. Unfold (throw back) the ear so as to be able to see the 
interior part near the root. You will then perceive a little project- 
ing knob or kernel almost detached from the ear. With the needle 
pierce through this kernel. Draw the silk each way till the blood 
starts. Tie the ends of the silk, and the process is completed. You 
may let the silk remain there : it will drop off after a time. The 
object is to deposit the matter by this method, instead of employing 
a lancet. I have great faith in the efficacy of the plan, simple as it 
appears. With me it has never failed. For some years in suc- 
cession I dropped a clutch of greyhounds and two litters of setters, 
and not a single pup had the distemper more severely than for the 
disease to be just perceptible. A little opening medicine then 

* In all diseases of dogs pointers that rarely take it, espe- 

innammatory, of course, excepted cially if they are liberally fed, and 

warmth is recommended. lie warm while young. W. N. H. 

t There is a hardy breed of 


quickly removed that slight symptom of illness. Perhaps the best 
age to operate upon puppies is when they are well recovered from 
their weaning." 

576. The balance of testimony and experience is, in my opinion, 
quite in favour of vaccination ; but there are authorities of weight 
who think that no good results from it. It is, however, certain that 
it cannot be productive of harm. Elaine writes that, as far as his 
experience went, " vaccination neither exempts the canine race from 
the attack of the distemper, nor mitigates the severity of the com- 
plaint." He adds, however, that the point was still at issue. 

577. It appears right to observe that Elaine and Jenner were 
contemporaries at a period when the medical world was greatly 
opposed to the vaccination of children. It is not surprising, there- 
fore, that there should have been an unjust prejudice against the 
vaccination of puppies. 'Youatt is altogether silent on the subject, 
although he quotes Dr. Jenner's description of distemper. Colonel 
Cook, in his observations on fox-hunting, &c., says, " Vaccination 
was tried in some kennels as a preventive, but it failed, and was 
abandoned." Mayhew* does not allude to it. 

578. Not until after the foregoing remarks on vaccination were 
written, was I aware that Colonel Hawker recommended the plan, 
or, of course, I should, in former editions, have quoted such high 
authority. Speaking in 1838, he observes, " I have ever since 
adopted the plan of vaccination ; and so little, if any, has been the 
effect of distemper after it, that I have not lost a dog since the year 
1816." " This remedy has been followed with great success both 
here and in the United States. The plan adopted is to insert a 
small quantity of vaccine matter under each ear, just as you would 
do in the human arm." 

579. I know of many dogs in the south of England having been 
cured of a regular attack of distemper by a lump of salt, about the 
size of a common marble, being occasionally forced down their 
throats ; say, for a grown-up pointer, half a dozen doses, with an 
interval of two or three hours between each. The salt acts as an 
emetic. Nourishing food and warmth are very requisite. 

580. To some few of my readers it may possibly be of use to 
observe, that with a little management, it is very easy to trick a dog 
into taking medicine. 

581. If your patient is a large animal, make a hole in a piece of 
meat, and having wrapped the physic in thin paper, shove it into 
the hole. Throw the dog one or two bits of meat, then the piece 
containing the medicine, and the chances are that he will bolt it 
without in the least suspecting he has been deceived. A pill, 
enveloped in silver paper, emits no smell. If a powder is well 

* " Dogs, their Management," judgment ; one who dares think 

published by Routledge, a work for himself, not servilely treading 

evidently written by akind-hearted in the footsteps of his predeces- 

man of reflection, experience, and sors. 


rubbed up with butter, and a little at a time of the mixture be 
smeared over the animal's nose, he will lick it off and swallow it. 
Powders can also be placed between thin slices of bread and butter, 
and be so administered. If you are treating a small pampered 
favourite, probably a little previous starvation will assist you. 

582. Should you fail in your stratagems, and force be necessary, 
it will be best to lay the dog on his back, or place him in a sitting 
posture between your knees, with his back towards you. In either 
position his legs are useless to him, as they have no fulcrum. While 
you are making him open his mouth, if you do this by forcing your 
thumb and fingers between his grinders, you can effectually protect 
yourself from a bite by covering them w T ith the dog's own lips any 
powders then placed far back on the tongue near the throat must be 
swallowed on the dog's mouth being firmly closed for a few seconds. 
He will not be able to eject them as they will adhere to his moist 
tongue. If given with a little dry sugar they will be the less 
nauseous, and therefore the dog will be less disposed to rebel when 
next you have occasion to act the part of a doctor. 

583. Castor oil is a valuable medicine for dogs ; and it is a good 
plan to let a pup occasionally lap milk into which a little of this oil 
is poured, as then he will not in after life dislike the mixture. 

584. I have still one very important direction to give : NEVER 
LEND YOUR DOG. It may seem selfish, but if you make him 
a really good one, I strongly advise you never to lend him to any 
one not even to a brother, unless, indeed, his method of hunting 
be precisely the same as your's. If you are a married man, you 
will not, I presume, lend your wife's horse to any one who has a 
coarse hand ; you would at least do it with reluctance ; but you 
ought (I hope she will forgive my saying so) to feel far more reluc- 
tance and far more grief, should you be obliged to lend a good dog 
to an ignorant sportsman or to one who shoots for the pot. 


585. GENTLE Reader, according to the courteous phraseology of 
old novels, though most probably I ought to say, Brother Sports- 
man; if you have had the patience to attend me through the 
preceding pages, while I have been describing the educational 
course of a dog from almost his infancy, up to maturity, I will 
hope that I may construe that patience into an evidence that they 
have afforded you some amusement and, perhaps, some useful 

586. Though I may have failed in persuading you to undertake 
the instruction of your dogs yourself, yet I trust I have shown you 
how they ought to be broken in;* and if you are a novice in the 
field, I hope I have clearly explained to you in what manner they 
ought to be shot over, a knowledge which no one can possess by 
intuition, and which you will find nearly as essential to the preserva- 
tion of the good qualities of well-tutored dogs, as to the education 
of uninformed ones. 

587. I believe that all I have said is perfectly true, and, as the 
system which I have described advocates kind treatment of man's 
most faithful companion, and his instruction with mildness rather 
than severity, I trust that you will be induced to give it a fair trial, 
and if you find it successful, recommend its adoption. 

588. I dare not ask for the same favour at the hands of the 
generality of regular trainers I have no right to expect such 
liberality. They, naturally enough, will not readily forgive my 
intruding upon what they consider exclusively their own domain, 
and, above all, they will not easily pardon my urging every sports- 
man to break in his own dogs. They will, I know, endeavour to 
persuade their employers that the finished education which I have 
described is useless, or quite unattainable, without a great sacrifice 
of tinie;f and that, therefore, the system which I advocate is a bad 

* A right good sportsman, in + Is it quite certain that the 

days long gone by, gave this ad- keepers who plead their inability 

vice to his son " a true chip of to devote more time to the im- 

the old block," "Don't get an provement of their masters' dogs 

experienced keeper wedded to his have never found time to break in 

own customs and prejudices ; but dogs belonging to strangers ? If 

engage a young man fond of sport. a keeper would but make it a rule 

Break him to your mind ; and while he is going his rounds by 

then, and not until then, will you day (to examine his traps, &c.) to 

have dogs broken to your mind." allow each of his pupils in turn 




one. They will wish it to be forgotten that I advise a gradual 
advance, step by step, from the A, B, ; that accomplishments 
have only been recommended after the acquisition of essentials 
never at the expense of essentials ; that at any moment it is in the 
instructor's power to say, " I am now satisfied with the extent of my 
pupil's acquirements, and have neither leisure nor inclination to 
teach him more;" and that they cannot suggest quicker means of 
imparting any grade of education, however incomplete; at least 
they do not I wish they would ; few would thank them more than 

589. Greatly vexed at the erroneous way in which I saw some 
dogs instructed in the north by one, who from his profession should 
have known better, I promised, on the impulse of the moment, to 
write. If I could have purchased any work which treated the 
subject in what I considered a judicious and perspicuous manner, 
and, above all, which taught by what means a finished education 
could be imparted, I would gladly have recommended the study of 
it, have spared myself the trouble of detailing the results of my 
own observations and experience, and not have sought to impose 
on any one the task of reading them. When I began the book, and 
even when I had finished it, I intended to put it forth without any 
token by which the writer might be discovered. Mr. Murray, how- 
ever, forcibly represented that unless the public had some guarantee 

to accompany him in fine weather, 
and avail himself of that oppor- 
tunity to give the young dogs an 
occasional out-door lesson, they 
would all be brought under good 
subjection, and be taught to obey 
implicitly every signal of the hand 
which is half the battle with- 
out taking him from his other oc- 
cupations, and without his having 
devoted more than a few hours ex- 
clusively to their preparatory edu- 
cation. If a keeper feels no pride 
in the conduct of his dogs if he 
is not animated with a spark of 
the enthusiasm that incites the 
huntsman to such willing exertion 
in the education and performance 
of his hounds, he (the keeper) had 
better change his profession. He 
may attain to eminence in another, 
he certainly never will in his pre- 
sent position. 

As I have just talked about a 
keeper " going his rounds" to ex- 
amine his traps, it would be wrong 
not to mention the serviceable 

" Snap," a white, short-haired 
terrier belonging to a game-keeper 

of Mr. R es, who for many 

years has sat as member for Dover. 
The little animal's personal quali- 
ties are far inferior to his men- 
tal, for even his master, with all 
his well-known partiality for his 
petted companion, cannot call him 
handsome ; but he has a right to 
quote in the dog's favour the old 
saying, " Handsome is as hand- 
somedoes." Besides other ways of 
rendering himself useful, " Snap " 
willingly considers it a standing 
rule that he is to start off alone 
every morning after breakfast to 
take the tour of all the traps. On 
his return to the lodge, if he has 
no report to make, lie maintains 
a discreet silence ; but if any of 
them are sprung, by vermin or 
otherwise, he loudly proclaims 
the fact, and leads the keeper, 
whose time and legs he has thus 
cleverly saved, direct to any spots 
requiring his personal attention. 



for the fidelity of the details, there would be no chance of the little 
work being circulated, or proving useful ; therefore, having written 
solely from a desire to assist my brother sportsmen, and to show the 
injudiciousness of severity, with a wish that my readers might feel 
as keen a zest for shooting as I once possessed, and with a charitable 
hope that they might not be compelled to seek it in as varied 
climates as was my lot, I at once annexed my address and initials 
to the manuscript, but with no expectation that my pen could 
interest the public half as much as it would a favourite Skye terrier, 
well known in Albemarle Street. 




SOMETIME after the foregoing sheets were numbered and prepared 
for the press, I received a letter on the subject of dogs and dog- 
breaking from Mr. L g (spoken of in 183). 

I had long ago requested him freely to make remarks upon my 
book, assuring him that as I had only written from a wish to be 
serviceable, I could not but take all his comments in good part, how- 
ever much they might be opposed to my pre-conceived ideas. I 
further promised to mention his criticisms for the benefit of my future 
readers, if I considered them judicious. 

Every man is fullv entitled to form an opinion for himself : and as 
there are minor points though on most we are fully agreed in 

which Mr. L g and myself slightly differ, I think it the fairest 

plan to let him explain his own views in his own way, and I have the 
less hesitation in doing so as, to most sportsmen, a letter from a clever 
sportsman on his favourite subject must always be more or less in- 
teresting. He writes nearly word for word as follows : 

" 7, HAYMARKET, January, 1850. 

" SIR, On perusing your book on dog-breaking I really find little, 
if anything, to say that will assist you in vour new edition ; but I 
must observe that I think you would be doing a service to the com- 
munity, if you would lend a helping hand to improve the breed of 
pointers ; or rather to get up a sort of committee of sportsmen 
(thorough judges) to investigate into the pedigree of dogs, and ex- 
press their opinion of the make, nose, durability, &c., of the several 
animals submitted to them ; that prizes might be awarded, or stakes 
hunted for ; and books kept of the pedigree of the several competitors, 
much in the same way as such matters are managed with greyhounds. 

" It is of no consequence how fast a dog travels who is wanted for 
the moors, or how wide he ranges ; but such a dog would be worse 
than useless in the south, and in all small enclosures. I feel assured 
that dogs which are first-rate on grouse are not fitted for partridge. 
My experience tells me that not one dog in twenty is worth keeping, 
that the generality do far more harm than good, this I see almost 
every day that I am out. There seem to be now-a-days no recognised 
thorough-bred pointers, but those obtained from one or two kennels 
in Yorkshire. 1 have shot over many north-country dogs, but found 
there was too much of the fox-hound blood in them for the south, 
they are too high couraged, and range much too far. After the first 

MR. L G'S LETTER. 323 

fortnight of partridge-shooting you want quiet, close rangers who 
will never move until told. In the turnip fields in Norfolk you will 
get among lots of birds, and you may then fill your bag any day, pro- 
vided you can hunt the field in perfect quiet ; but with a rattling, 
blustering dog you will hardly get a shot, yet you want a dog that 
shall be neither too large nor too heavy. 

" Not one dog in fifty of the many I see, properly hunts his ground. 
The reason is this. The keepers in the north, yet none understand 
their duties better, take out a lot of dogs along with an old one ; 
off they all start like oiled lightning some one way, the others just 
the contrary : one gets a point, they all drop and stop. The keepers 
say, is not that beautiful ? is it not a picture for Landseer ? I have 
followed the party on the moors over the self-same ground a dozen of 
times, and obtained with my brace of close rangers and good finders 
double the number of shots that they did, and three times the amount 
of game ; for I was walking at my ease, and giving my dogs time to 
make out the birds which is very essential in the middle of the day, 
when there is a scorching sun. 

" I recollect one instance in particular. Some years ago I had just 
arrived at the top of a very stiff hill on the Bradfield Moors (in York- 
shire), and was making for a certain spring where I had forwarded 
my luncheon, and a fresh supply of ammunition, when I saw, imme- 
diately before me, two gentlemen with their keepers, and four very 
good-looking setters, hunting the precise ground I had to take to get 
to my point about a mile off. I therefore sat down for a quarter of 
an hour to let them get well ahead. They found several straggling 
birds; but there was such a noise from the keepers rating and 
hallooing to the dogs, that, although they got five or six shots, they 
only bagged one brace of birds. When they reached the spring, they 
observed me coming over the very ground they had beat only a 
quarter of an hour before. I got ten shots, every one to points, and 
killed nine birds. I was highly complimented on the beautiful, quiet 
style of my dogs, &e., and was offered a goblet of as fine old sherry 
as man ever drunk. I need not observe that I much relished it after 
my morning's walk. The gentlemen said, that if I felt disposed to 
take the dogs to the Tontine Inn, Sheffield, when I had done with 
them, I should find fifty guineas there awaiting me ; but I declined 
the offer, as on several occasions I had repented having yielded to the 
temptation of a long price for favourite dogs. The brace I refused 
to sell were young setters, bred by Tom Cruddas, keeper to Bowes, 
Esq., near Barnard Castle, Durham. I subsequently found them very 
unfitted for the style of work required in small fields and indifferent 
stubble, and I was well beaten in a trial with them against a brace of 
Russian setters. I afterwards procured the latter by exchanging my 
Englishmen for them. For two years I was much pleased with the 
foreigners, and bred some puppies from them ; they did not, however, 
turn out to my satisfaction. I then tried a cross with some of the 
best dogs I could get in England and from Russia, but could never 
obtain any so good as the original stock. I have now got into a 
breed of red and white pointers from the splendid stock of the late 

Y 2 

324 MR. L G'S LETTER. 

Sir Harry Goodrich, and many and many another hundred head 
of game should I have killed, and in much greater comfort and 
temper should I have shot, had I possessed so perfect a breed twenty 
years ago. 

" As a proof of what can be done with dogs, I will mention that 
I broke in a spaniel to hunt (with my setters) in the open as well as 
in cover, and made him ' point,' ' back, 5 and ' drop to charge,' as per- 
fectly as any dog you ever saw ; and he would, when ordered, retrieve 
his game ; the setter, meanwhile, never moving until desired. I shot 
over them for two years. They were a very killing pair, but had not 
a sporting look. In September, '38, I took them with me to that 
excellent sportsman, Sir Richard Sutton. The old Squire Osbaldiston, 
was there. They were both much pleased with the dogs. By letting 
my poor pet ' Dash ' run about, he was bitten by a mad dog in the 
neighbourhood. Of course I lost him. 

" Speaking of spaniels, I must say I think that there is no kind of 
dog that retrieves birds so well in thick turnips, where so much dead 
ana wounded game is frequently left unbagged. With 'Dash' 1 
seldom lost a feather in the strongest turnips in the course of a whole 
day ; but I now rarely go out with sportsmen but that I see two or 
three birds lost, sometimes more, from what are said to be the 
best breed of retrievers in the country. The constant loss of wounded 
birds is one of the drawbacks to the Norfolk shooting, where, without 
doubt, the finest shooting in England is to be obtained. Gentlemen 
there go out, some four, five, or six in a line, with only one or two 
retrievers, and a man to each to pick up the killed game. The sports- 
men never stop to load, for each has generally a man by his side with 
a spare gun ready charged. If a bird is winged, or a hare wounded, 
the dogs go in at once to fetch it. Were the sportsmen to divide into 
distinct parties, each party taking one or two steady, close-ranging 
dogs, what much more true sport and pleasure they would have ! 
and kill, too, quite as much game. 

" You ask me wherein I differ from you in what you have written ? 
Certainly in very little, and I have sent several gentlemen to 
Murray's for copies of your book ; but in page 3, you say that ' dog- 
breaking does not require much experience.' There I cannot agree 
with you, for how is it that there are so few who understand it ? 
Not one keeper or gentleman in a thousand, in my opinion. The 
reason is that they have not sufficient practice and experience.* 

" In another point I differ with you. I have seen some of the best 
rangers I ever shot over made by being allowed to follow their mother 
in the field, or some very old dog,f what some people would term a 
worn-out potterer. But I think it a yet better plan to attach a lay 
cord of about forty yards in length to the collar of the young dog, 
and let a man or' boy hold the other end. You will give a slight 

* The reason in my opinion + An expeditious method, as is 
is, that they have not been pro- admitted in 191, but there, I 
taught how to teach. think, all praise ceases. W. N..H- 

perly ta 

ME. L G'S LETTER. 325 

whistle when he gets to the extremity of his range, and a wave of 
the hand to turn him forward or back.* By such means I have seen 
dogs, with a few days' constant shooting, made perfect in that, the 
most essential thing in all dog-breaking. 

" I observe that you condemn the check-collar f in toto. I think 
you are wrong. I have seen dogs cured by it who would not drop to 
shot, but would perpetually rush in, especially if a wounded bird was 
fluttering near them, and who had been most unmercifully licked, to 
no useful purpose. I recollect orders being given to destroy a dog 
that appeared utterly incorrigible. As he was a beautiful ' finder, 5 I 
begged that he might be allowed one more trial. I sent to town for 
a check-collar, and in a few hours he was pulled head over heels half- 
a-dozen times. He then found out what he was punished for, squatted 
down accordingly, and never afterwards attempted to rush forward, 
unless he was over-fresh. You speak of hares not annoying your 
dogs in Scotland. I have been sadly annoyed by them when grouse- 
shooting there. In one part, from hares jumping up every five 
minutes, I had great difficulty in restraining my dogs from chasing ; 
and on this occasion I found the check-collar quite a blessing, for 
had I used the whip I should have been thrown off my shooting, and 
the noise would have disturbed the birds. I had at the time two of 
the best shots in England shooting against me, and I should to a 
certainty have been beaten had I not been so prudent as to take out 
the collar. 

" I remember selling to a young officer a brace of my puppies, or 
rather young dogs (for they were eighteen months old), for twenty- 
five guineas. They were well broken, but had not been shot over. 
He had not been an hour on the moors before up started one of the 
small Scotch sheep. Both the dogs gave chase, and on their return 
the keeper was directed to give them a good dressing. One of them 
would not hunt for them again, and became so timid that the officer 
desired the keeper to get rid of it. It was given to a gentleman in 
the neighbourhood, who knew he could not be far away in accepting 
it, as it had been bred and sold by me. He took it out a few times 
and soon found out its value. The other dog the officer sold for 10/., 
and then wrote a very angry letter to me, complaining of my having 
sold him such a brace as well broken. A fortnight after this he in- 
vited the gentleman who had become possessor of the shy puppy to 
come and shoot with him. The gentleman made his appearance with, 
what he termed, his ' shy friend.' After many protestations against 

* Doubtless a good plan ; per- his range being more extended. 

haps the best plan with a bold W. N. H. 

dog whose initiatory education t Meaning the spike collar 

has been neglected and who, in described in 300 of this, and 136 

consequence, will not watch for of first edition. No mention was 

your signals, nor yet look to you made in that edition of the milder 

on your whistling ; but the cord collar now spoken of in 301. 

might be longer, and the boy W. N. H. 
should follow the dog to allow of 

326 MR. L G'S LETTER. 

taking out such a brute, it was agreed that it should be done on the 
gentleman's offering to bet 5/. that his 'shy friend' would get more 
points than either of the dogs they proposed hunting ; and another 
5/. that he should prove himself the best broken of the dogs, and 
never during the whole day offer to chase hare or sheep. The bets 
were not made, but to show you the esteem in which his late master 
afterwards held the animal, he offered fifty guineas to get her back, 
but the money was refused. His brother also turned out a magnifi- 
cent dog so much for want of patience. 

" It is just possible that all. I have written may be of no use, but 
should you find it of any, it is quite at your service. Since I last saw 
you I have had many more opportunities of observing the extraordinary 
nose of the dog I showed you a quality in which I fancy forty -nine 
out of fifty dogs are deficient. I sent him down to Hickfield-place, 
Hants, for the Speaker, who is an excellent sportsman', to use for a 
few times to see if he was not superior to his dogs. He returned the 
dog with a very handsome basket of game, saying he was one of the 
finest dogs he had ever seen hunted, and he begged me to get him a 
brace of the same kind against next season ; stating that the price 
would be no consideration if they proved as good as mine. I have 
tried him against many other old dogs, said to be ' the best in Eng- 
land/ but not one of them had a shadow of a chance against him. I 
have refused a very long price for him. For beauty, style, symmetry, 
nose, durability, and good-temper (a great thing), none can beat him. 
I should like to increase his breed for the sake of the shooting com- 
munity ; yet I have no wish to keep him publicly as a sire, nor to 
send him away. I think I should be doing a general benefit, if I gave 
it out that his services could be obtained for three guineas : and that 
the sums thus obtained were to be set aside as a prize for the best 
dog, to be contended for by competitors who should give 3/. or 51. 
each. Something of this kind, could, I think, be managed, and it would 
greatly tend to improve our breed of pointers. I bought a bitch with 
the view of getting some pups by him. She had nine, but not one 
like the father, grandfather, or great-grandfather so I sold her, 
puppies and all. I have just purchased another ; she comes of an 
excellent stock, and has good shape. I shall see what luck I have 
with her. She is a far more likely dam. 

" I should have written to you long ago, had I not expected to 
meet the person I term my Yorkshire breeder. He is the best breaker 
I ever saw, and a man you can depend upon. He and his father, for 
sixty years, have borne as high a character for honesty, as for excel- 
lence in breaking. Many a time has he contended, and always come 
off victor, against Mr. Edge's dogs a good trial kennel, but the 
breed have savage dispositions, bad tempers, and are very un- 
manageable when young. I have tried many of them myself, and 
have no faith in them. 

"On the moors, when the work is excessively fatiguing, and 
plenty of water is generally to be found, you may with advantage 
employ setters : but in a hot September, in England, when no water 
could be procured, I have known some of the best setters I ever saw 

MR. L G'S LETTER. 327 

do nothing but put up the birds. In mid-day, when there was but 
little scent, their nasal organs seemed quite to fail them, and being 
fast they constantly ran into coveys before they could stop them- 

"I was once asked to be umpire in a match between a pointer and 
a setter. It was to be decided by which of the dogs got most points 
in the day. As this was the agreement, I was obliged to abide by it 
and decide accordingly : but that is not the test by which the supe- 
riority of dogs ought to be determined. I presume what is really 
wanted in a dog is usefulness to his master in killing game. If so, that 
dog ought to be considered best which gets his master most shots 
within a rise not exceeding forty yards.* The setter being faster and 
taking a much wider range, got by far the most points, therefore I 
was compelled to award him the prize ; but the pointer made twenty- 
two points to which the party got twenty-one shots. The setter got 
thirty points, but only sixteen of them could be shot to, and he put 
up thrice as many birds as the pointer. I could mention twenty 
other similar instances of trials between pointers and setters, but I 
should fill half-a-dozen more sheets and not interest you. It is getting 
dark, so I will conclude my long yarn. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) "JOS FT. LANG." 

In the correctness of this reasoning I fully concur. "W. N. H. 


NOTE TO 65. Covers. Shooting. Loading. 

WHAT convenient covers they are and what excellent shelter they 
furnish for game, when planted with holly, laurel, and other ever- 
greens ! especially if the proprietor, in a moment of sporting 
enthusiasm, has consented to his keeper's request, and had some of 
the trees half-felled, so that the branches lying on the ground live 
and grow, deriving nourishment from the sap still flowing through 
the uncut bark. Perhaps gorse forms the best ground cover for the 
preservation of game ; but it is far from being the most agreeable to 
shoot in. It has, however, a great merit it is much disliked by 
poachers. There should be good roosting-trees ; and the different 
kinds of fir spruce particularly give most security, their thick, 
spreading branches affording much concealment at all seasons of the 
year. They are, too, of quick growth. But the most favourably 
planted covers will prove unattractive unless there is a constant 
supply of water within a reasonable distance. An old brother officer 
of mine, who has property in Suffolk, argues, and most will think 
correctly, that for the preservation of game, beltings should not run 
round the external part of an estate (as is often the case,) but lie well 
within it, and at some distance from a high road. 

Talking of beltings and pheasants, as some sporting Griffin (to use 
an Indian expression) may come across this book, I may as well, for 
his sake, mention, that pheasants are generally prevented from run- 
ning to the further end of a belting, and then rising in one dense 
cloud, by a man sent ahead striking two sticks together, or making 
some other slight noise which, without too much alarming the birds, 
yet prevents their running past him. As the guns approach him he 
gets further forward and takes up another position, keeping wide of 
the cover whilst he is on the move. Should the Griffin make one of 
the shooting-party, he is advised to bear in mind that the guns should 
keep close to the hedge (or rails), that any game on the point of 
"breaking" may not so readily observe them, and in consequence 
beat a retreat. By the bye, my young friend, should you wish your 
host to give you another invitation to his covers never let him see 
you carrying your barrels horizontally. If you are a bit of a soldier 
you will know what I mean when I say that, combining due prepara- 
tion for prompt action with security to him who may be skirmishing 
near, your gun can be conveniently borne across the open at the " Slope 
arms" of the sergeant's fusil. When you are in cover (or your dog 
draws upon game), it might be carried much in the position of " Port 
arms." At the moment you level, following the example of the best 
pigeon shots, place your left hand well in advance of the poise. If 


you have any fears of the barrels bursting, leave them at home. Your 
steadiest position is with the elbow held nearly perpendicularly under 
the gun : whereas your right elbow ought to be almost in a hori- 
zontal line with your shoulder, thus furnishing a convenient hollow 
for the reception of the butt. The firmer you grasp the stock the less 
is the recoil. That amusing fellow Wanostrocht, in his work on 
cricketing ("Felix on the Bat"), writes, " The attitude of en garde 
of the left-handed swordsman is the attitude of play for the right- 
handed batsman," and you, my supposed Grifiin, may rest assured 
that it is the best position your feet and legs can take on a bird's 
rising, but the right foot might be with advantage a little more to the 
right. Wanostrocht continues, " The knees are bent ; and the body, 
well balanced, is prepared," you may add, " to turn steadily to the 
right or left according to the flight of the bird." In nine cases out 
of ten the common advice to " keep both eyes open " when firing is 
extremely judicious. But some men are "left-eyed;" a matter you- 
have probably little thought about ; and yet it is of consequence, for 
if you are " left-eyed," your aim from the right shoulder (both eyes 
being open) cannot be correct. To determine whether or not you 
are " right-eyed," look steadily, with both eyes open, at any small 
object near you, rapidly raise a finger (of either hand) perpendicularly, 
endeavouring to cover the object. Instantly close the left eye. If 
you find that your finger lies in the direct line between the object and 
your right eye, you will have the satisfaction of knowing that you are 
" right-eyed ;" but if your finger, instead of intercepting the object, 
is wide of the mark, at once close the right eye and open the left, 
when you will, in all probability, perceive that that your finger lies 
directly between your left eye and the object, thereby showing that 
you are "left-eyed." I hope it may not be so, as, unless you can 
shoot from the left shoulder, you ought to close the left eye when 
bringing your gun to the poise, until from practice you become 
"right-eyed." The odds are in favour of your being right-legged as 
well as right-eyed, which important point will be settled, I hope to 
your satisfaction, should you ever be under the disagreeable neces- 
sity of having to kick an impertinent fellow downstairs. Never 
shoot in a hurry. Strive to acquire coolness in other words, strive 
to acquire such a command over your trigger-finger that it shall never 
bend until so ordered by your judgment. Your eye will inform your 
reason of the exact moment when you ought to pull, and your finger, 
submissive to reason, ought to wait for that precise moment, and not 
yield to any nervousness. Look with the greatest intensity at the bird 
as it rises, and coolly observe its line of flight while deliberately 
bringing the barrels to your shoulder. Steadiness will be increased 
by your not removing the gun from your shoulder the instant you 
have fired. Never fire when your shot can be of no more advantage 
than a single bullet. If you have a bet about killing a jack snipe, 
seize the favourable moment for pulling the trigger when the pellets 
will be spread over a disk of more than a yard in diameter. He will 
then be zigzagging some thirty-five or forty yards from you ; and if 
your aim is taken at this moment a full foot in advance of his general 


line of flight, there is little chance of his escaping unpeppered (and 
one grain will suffice), however adroitly he may turn and twist. For 
any kind of bird flying at that distance rapidly down-wind and cross- 
ing you, your gun ought to be pitched much further forward. A 
still greater allowance should be made if the distance be considerable : 
and greater elevation should be then given to the barrels, as the 
grains of shot will become deflected. The same rule holds with birds 
rising. Aim must be taken above them. There is always more fear 
of your firing too much to the rear and too low, than too much to the 
front and too high. Fancy that hares and rabbits have only heads 
and get into the habit of looking at no other part, nay, of looking 
yet further ahead. The best cover-shot I know says, that he aims at 
a rabbit rushing through gorse or underwood a yard in front of the 
spot where he last caught a glimpse of it. Rabbits halt for a moment 
the instant they get hidden by cover not so hares. That their 
hands and eyes may work in unison, novices have been recommended 
to hang on the flight of swallows with an unloaded gun. It would 
be better practice to hang on a full foot or more in front of the birds. 
To save your locks use snap caps, and pull the very instant you 
think your aim is correct. No second aim can be so effective as 
the first. The more you thus practise (and at game especially, in 
order to overcome any nervous sensation occasioned by birds rising) 
before you commence using powder, the more certain is it that 
you will eventually become a cool, steady shot. After having com- 
menced the campaign in right earnest, should you be shooting un- 
steadily or nervously, you would do well to have the philosophy 
to go up a few times to your dog's point with uncapped nipples, and 
by taking (long after the birds are on the wing, but yet within 
shot) a deliberate aim reassure yourself of the folly of all hurry and 
precipitancy. Lest you should (as often happens in spite of every 
previous resolution) involuntarily pull the trigger sooner than you 
intend, keep your finger off it until the very instant you wish to fire.* 
If you shoot with a muzzle loader and carry one of Sykes's spring- 
shot pouches at present in such general use by having its nozzle 
lengthened (some few are made lone), I mean by having a cylinder 
of nearly three inches in length welded to its end, you will be able 
to load quicker than most of your fellow-sportsmen particularly if 
you use a loading-rod : the best are of cane, because the material is 
light and tough. You can make the long nozzle of the shot-pouch 
(its end being cut square, i.e. at a right angle to its length) force the 
wad over the powder so far down the barrel before you press the 
pouch-spring to pour in the charge of shot, that you need not draw 
your ramrod to drive home until after you have inserted the shot- 
wad. Using a long nozzle has also this great advantage, that the 
shot is packed more densely than the powder. In the new German 
copper-cap musket (whose long range is now, 1854, much spoken of,) 
to keep the powder loose when the charge is rammed home, a thick 
peg, nearly one and a half inches long, is fixed longitudinally in the 

* See end of 448. 


centre of the chamber, I mean, in the direction of the axis of the 
bore. This cylindrical peg, which is much like the tige invented by 
Colonel Touv'enin in 1828, arrests the jagged bullet at the precise 
moment when the powder is sufficiently pressed to remove all chance 
of the slightly six-grooved barrel's bursting ; and yet not so much 
pressed as to interfere with the complete ignition of every^ grain. 
These lie loose round the peg. The want of this complete ignition 
(owing to the rapidity of explosion not giving time for all the par- 
ticles of closely -wedged powder being fired) has been the only valid 
objection yet ottered to the detonating system. Eor strong shooting, 
the wad over the powder should be much thicker than the wad placed 
over the shot. The several waddings now sold greased with some 
mercurial preparation undeniably retard leading a great gain. If 
the long nozzle of the shot-pouch fits close within the barrel, on un- 
loading your gun you can easily return the shot into the pouch 
without 'losing a grain. As a concluding piece of advice let me 
recommend you, my young friend, to make but a light breakfast 
whenever you expect a heavy day's work, take out, however, a 
few sandwiches for luncheon. 

NOTE TO 283. Trapping. Owl as decoy. Hen Harrier. Keeper's 

Vermin dogs. Stoats. 

A good book for gamekeepers' on trapping is still a great desidera- 
tum. It should be written by a practical man who is a bit of a 
naturalist ; for no trapper can be very successful unless he is well 
acquainted with the haunts and habits of the many kinds of vermin it 

is his business to destroy. Mr. C e's gamekeeper, at R n, 

Perthshire, who was well aware of the great importance of diligently 
searching for their nests in the breeding season, was at length amply 
repaid for often watching the proceedings of a hen-harrier frequently 
seen hovering over a small wood not far from his cottage. He could 
never perceive that she alighted on any of the trees ; but from the 
time of year, and her so perseveringry returning to the spot, he felt 
convinced that her nest was- not far off. Ineffectual, however, was 
every search. At length, one morning he was lucky enough to 
remark that something fell from her. He hunted close in that direc- 
tion, found the nest, and the young ones regaling on a snipe whose 
remains were still warm ; evidently the identical bird she had most 
adroitly dropped from a considerable height into the middle of her 
hungry brood. It would have been very interesting to have observed 
how she managed on a windy day. Probably she would have taken 
an easy shot by sweeping close to the trees. In Germany much 
winged vermin is destroyed with the aid of a decoy honied owl. The 
keeper having selected a favourable spot on a low hillock where the 
bird is likely to be observed, drives an upright post into the ground, 
the upper part of which is hollowed. The bird is placed on a perch 
much shaped like the letter T. A string is attached to the 
bottom of the perpendicular part, which is then dropped into the 
hollow or socket. The armed keeper conceals himself in a loopholed 
sentry-box, prepared of green boughs, at a suitable distance, amidst 


sheltering foliage. His pulling the string raises the perch. The owl, 
to preserve its balance, flutters its wings. This is sure to attract the 
notice of the neighbouring magpies, hawks, crows, &c. Some from 
curiosity hover about, or, still chattering and peering, alight on the 
neighbouring trees (of course, standing invitingly within gun-shot) ; 
others, having no longer any reverence for the bird of Wisdom in his 
present helpless condition, wheel round and round, every moment 
taking a sly peck at their fancied enemy, while their real foe sends 
their death-warrant from his impervious ambuscade. 

Talking of vermin, I am reminded that J s H d, an old 

gamekeeper with whom I am acquainted, avers that one of his craft 
can hardly be worth his salt unless he possesses " a regular good 
varmint of a dog." It should be of a dark colour, not to betray so 
readily the movements of his master to interested parties. He says 
he once owned one, a bull-terrier, that was, to again quote the old 
man's words, " worth his weight in gold to a gamekeeper;" that it 
was incredible the quantity of ground- vermin, of every kind, the dog 
killed, which included snakes and adders destroyers of young birds 
of every sort, and it is said of eggs (but this it is difficult to conceive, 
unless we imagine them to be crushed in the same manner as the 
boa-constrictor murders his victims, a supposition without a shadow 
of proof small eggs, however, might be swallowed whole), that he 
was perpetually hunting, but never noticed game had an excellent 
nose, and, on occasions when he could not run into the vermin, 
would unerringly lead his master to the hole in the old bank, tree, or 
pile of fagots where it had taken refuge ; when, if it was a stoat or 
weasel, and in a place where the report of a gun was not likely to 
disturb game, the keeper would bring him into " heel," wait patiently 
awhile, and then, by imitating the cry of a distressed rabbit, endeavour 
to entice the delinquent to come forth and be shot. If this ruse 

failed, H d quickly prepared a trap that generally sealed the fate 

of the destructive little creature. As the dog retrieved all he caught, 
the old barn-door was always well covered with recent trophies. Old 
trophies afford no evidence of a keeper's diligence. 

The dog invariably accompanied his master during his rounds at 
night, and had great talents for discovering any two-legged intruder. 
On finding one he would quietly creep up, and then, by running 
round and round him as if prepared every moment to make a spring, 
detain him until joined by the keeper ; all the while barking furiously 
and adroitly avoiding every blow aimed at his sconce.* 

* If you are attacked by a dog generally disable the strongest 

when you have the good fortune dog. Consider how feelingly alive 

to be armed with a shilelagh, do your own shins are to the slightest 

not hit him across the head and rap. I have in India seen a 

eyes ; bear in mind that the front vicious horse quite cowed under 

part of his fore legs is a far more such discipline, and a really 

vulnerable and sensitive spot. savage nag in that country is, to 

One or two well applied blows use an expression common among 

upon that unprotected place will the natives, a fellow who would 


He was moreover (but this has little to do with his sporting- 
habits), a most formidable enemy to dogs of twice his power ; for he 
would cunningly throw himself upon his back if overmatched, and 
take the same unfair advantage of his unfortunate opponent which 
Polygars are trained to do when they are attacking the wild hog 

I relate this story about H d and his bull terrier because few 

men ever were so successful in getting up a good show of game on a 
property. It was a favourite observation of his that it was not 
game, it was vermin, that required looking after ; that these did 
more injury than the largest gang of poachers, as the depredations 
of the latter could be stopped, but not those of the former. There 
are few who, on reflection, will not agree with the old keeper. Stoats 
are so bloodthirsty, that if one of them come across a brood of young 
pheasants he will give each in succession a deadly gripe on the back 
of the neck close to the skull, not to make any use of the carcasses, 
but in the epicurean desire to suck their delicate brains. All who are 
accustomed to "rabbiting" know that even tame ferrets evince the 
same murderous propensities, and commit indiscriminate slaughter, 
apparently in the spirit of wanton destructiveness. 

From all, however, that I have seen and heard, I fancy no animal 
so much prevents the increase of partridges and pheasants, as the 
hooded crow. 

An intelligent man, C s M n (an admirable dresser of 

salmon-flies), whose veracity I have no reason to distrust, assured me 
that he had seen about the nest of a " hoodie " (as he called the 
bird), the shells of not less than two hundred eggs, ah 1 nearly of the 
partridge and pheasant. He told me that he once had an opportunity 
of observing the clever proceedings of a pair of these marauders, bent 
on robbing the nest on which a hen-pheasant was actually sitting. One 
of the depredators by fluttering round her, and slily pecking at her 
unprotected stern, at length so succeeded in irritating her, that she 
got up to punish him. By a slow scientific retreat, he induced her 
to pursue him for a few steps, thus affording his confederate, who 

"eat one to the very turban." his high spirit and great courage 

They will sometimes cure a biter make^him quite indomitable, 

by letting him seize a leg of With a stout stick, a better 

mutton burning hot off the fire defence than you may at first 

not so expensive a remedy as you imagine can be made against the 

may think, where sheep, wool, or attack of a vicious bull. Smart 

rather hair and all, are constantly blows struck on the tip of his 

sold at 25. each, I will not de- horns seem to cause a jar painfully 

scribe how poor, I have lifted felt at the roots. Mr. B n, of 

them up, one in each hand, to A n, when he was charged in 

judge of their comparative weight. the middle of a large field by a 

A country bred horse may be con- bull which soon afterwards killed 

quered by harsh means ; but a a man, adopting this plan, beat 

true Arab never. It is rare to off the savage animal, though 

find one that is not sweet-tern- it several times renewed its at- 

pered ; but when he is vicious, tacks. 


had concealed himself. I he opport null v of muouiii,' eertaiiiK one eirir, 
perhaps two. H) repetitions of this .sli;nu ami retreat, the 
adroit pilferer^ i \cnlnallx managed to empl x llic nest. 

The above mentioned man had been brought up us a i;amekeeper 
in Cumberland. !!' became anexeelleut trapper; ami x\as afterwards 
employed on an estate near the ( he\ iot Hills, \\ here, in a .short lime, 
he u'ot up a decent stock offline h\ destroMii^ the xcrmiu. He 
fouiul llic grounds sx\armiiit; with " hoodies ;" hut il was not until 
their hreedini; .season the following spring. XN hen he was favoured in 
hi-, operations l)> a t'tv-.| . that he Miei'eeileil in eaplurmi; them in 
eoiiMilerahle nnnthers. On tlu> ^ronml heeomini* 1 hai'il, he, tor nearly 
a t'.ulnmht, fed eertain >pots on the hanks of I he Te\ iot \\ilh IfOOfl 


EUftn'lnls. liesules an\ \ennin that he eoiiln\e ( l to 
that tune tin- "hoodies" halulnalK n-soiled. \ulhoul ilisinisi. to 
tho>e phu'es lor food. He then set his lr;ip> lulled \Mlh all Mirh 
delieaeies. luit he eoiisulereil a small rallu(. or a pigeon 1\ 111-' on its 
haek \\ ith ontst retehcd \\ m^s. as the mi>s| temptiim-ot' his m\ it at ions ; 
ami it often happened that he had seareeK disappeared In-fore the 
eliek of ihe eloMiis; sprni:; anpnsetl him of a capture. \\ hen his he 
queul success had rendered the Imds sh\. he set lu.s traps in the 
.i>l|.u(iil stream. co\(-riui;- their sides \uili urass ( .r ruslies. the 
attraeliNc hail alone appearini; alune the .surface. For three reasons 
he re-aided the hanks of the rncr as the best situation lor his traps 
lie could, as just mentioned, conceal them in the \\ater on the birds 
liecomini;- too suspii'ious M-eoull\ . streams arc mueh n->ortcil !o l.\ 
the 'hoodie." \\ho searches dihuvnlK tor an \ I'hanci 
the \\aler, and lasth. (lu- rooks, ot \\ Inch there \\erc man\ in that 
p. nl of the countrx. from natural!) hunting inland, the reverse of the 
" hoodie," \\erc the less likeU to spring hts (raps 

i ron the short, fuller nci k. the lu ul beat peerixtghr downwiurda, 

but, ahove all. front the ha\\ k like nio\eme*ita of the wing, tJ^e 

sportsman \\ill he able to distinguish the : 

at a moment \\heu he max he too distant e the black anil 

inou hooked lull. mul never let him spare, lie should lk> s\spieious 
,\ .u.,1 n , ; , - .11^ a tielil. in realit \ \\\\\\\- 
ing it Wltb ftS regular a heal a-- a pointer's. 

11 - n kdKd a grout wftuv atoata Mid weaaela with wtoiM 

traps. As it is t he hahit of these little animals, \\hcn hunting a hedge- 
row. t prefer ruuiuu-;- through a cox cred passage to t\num- aside. 
he nsed, \\herc the ground fa\oinvii hm In slight K nsiu^. lo 
inlash ( ,ii .ham, about a tool in breadth, and rather less in denth, 
parallel and oloae to the hedge it \\ith the sods he had 

icnuncd At the bottom of these drains he fixed his trans, as soon 
as the animals i .ncd to the r\u\. and r:uvl\ fade*! \\\ 

sci-ni the \\easel famiK \\luch had taXen \u> its 

ahoile in thc'Mcutitx. The best description of hntch trap (wmdl 
man\ prefer to the' u'intrap> is maile entire!) of u . . x..ptiuj 
the bottoms. All appears so lisjht and a>rv that little s\ispu ., 
a\\akeucd. The doors tall on am llnn^ rni'nnn^ oxer the tlooi 

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food. In a long voyage a bird that dies in a coop is often found by 
" Billyducks " * half eaten up ; and it is questionable whether a 
sickly companion be not occasionally sacrificed by his stronger 
associates to appease their natural craving for flesh. In the West 
Indies the accidental upsetting of an old sugar-cask in a farm-yard, 
and its scattering forth a swarm of cock-roaches, sets all the 
feathered tribe in a ferment. The birds that had been listlessly 
sauntering about, or standing half-asleep in the friendly shade, sud- 
denly seem animated with the fury of little imps, and, influenced 
by a taste in every way repugnant to our feelings, with outstretched 
necks and fluttering wings race against each other for possession of 


the offensive, destructive insects, evincing in the pursuit an agility 
and a rapidity of movement of which few would imagine them to be 

The keeper just spoken of used to rear his pheasants within 
doors, or rather in an outhouse, the floor of which was in part 

covered with sods of turf, but I think J s T n, another of 

the craft whom I know well, pursues a better and far less trouble- 

* The common sobriquet of the boy in charge. 


some plan. He selects a piece of clover * facing the south, and 
sheltered from the north and east winds by a contiguous small copse 
which he feels assured can harbour no destructive vermin. On this 
grass-plat, if the weather is fine, he places the common barn-door 
hens, each with her brood the moment they are hatched, under 
separate small coops. Two or three boards run from each coop, 
forming a temporary enclosure, which is removed in about a week 
on the little inmates gaining strength. If he has any fear of their 
being carried off by hawks, &c., he fixes a net overhead. The hens 
had sat on the eggs in an outhouse. 

The first food given to the chicks is soaked bread, and white of 
eggs cut up fine! The colour (is not that a bull ?) catches their eye, 
which is the alleged reason for all their food being given to them 
white. Ants' nests are procured for them, of the red ant first, of 
the larger kind, when the chicks become so strong that the insects 
cannot injure them later in the season, wasps' nests. When there 
is a difficulty in procuring any of these nests, curd is often given ; 
but should it become sour, as frequently happens in hot weather, it 
is likely to occasion dysentery, f therefore oatmeal porridge made 
with milk is considered a safer diet. This is eagerly picked up 
when scattered about, sprinkled as it were, and the weaker chicks 

are thus enabled to secure a fair share. T n breeds a quantity 

of maggots for them, and at no expense, in the adjacent copse. 
Whatever vermin he kills (whether winged or four-footed) he hangs 
up under a slight awning as a protection from the rain. On the 
flesh decaying the maggots drop into the box placed underneath to 
receive them. The insects soon become clean, if sand and bran is 
laid at the bottom of the box, and it is an interesting sight to see 
the excited little birds eagerly hurrying from all quarters to the 
grass-plat on the keeper striking the tray with his knuckles to invite 
them to partake of some choice maggots, spread out on sanded 

If a piece of carrion is placed under a wire netting near the 
coops, the chicks will feed with avidity on the flies it attracts. 

Change of food is beneficial : therefore, boiled barley or rice, is 
often substituted, or oatmeal, or Indian-corn meal, mixed with the 
flesh of boiled rabbits. 

Saucers of clean water are placed about. Water in a dirty state 
is very injurious. It is not of any depth, lest the chicks should wet 
their feathers when standing in it. Occasionally iron saucers are 
used, ingeniously designed on the ridge and furrow plan. The 

* Clover does not retain the wet lump about the size of a walnut 

like common grass, and it affords to half a gallon of water also 

some shade in hot weather to the mix such a quantity of common 

very young birds. salt in their food, that the stim- 

t Until the young birds recover ulant therein is quite perceptible 

do not let them have access to to your taste, and feed more 

any water in which alum is not sparingly than usual, 
dissolved in the proportion of a 


ridges are so little apart, that the chicks can insert no more than 
their heads into the furrows. As cleanliness must in all things 
be preserved, the coops are shifted a few feet aside twice a day. 

The chicks soon quit the hens to roost in the shrubs, which afford 
welcome shade during the mid-day heat ; but the imprisoned 
matrons are still useful, as their plaintive call prevents the chicks 
from becoming irreclaimable truants. As they have always the 
opportunity of running in the grass and copse, where they find seeds 
ana insects, they quickly become independent, and learn to forage 
for themselves, yet when fully grown up they are not so likely to 
stray away as birds who have been more naturally reared, and who 
have been made wanderers even in their infancy. This is a great 

That the chicks may come upon fresh ground for seeds and insects, 
the situation of the coops may be occasionally changed. If liable to 
be attacked by vermin at night, a board can be fixed in front of each 

Partridges may be reared by the same means. But instances are 
rare of their laying while in a state of captivity. 

That the young birds may be able to rid their bodies of vermin, 
they should be provided with small heaps of sand protected from 
rain, and dry earth, in which they will gladly rub themselves. 

If you design rearing pheasants annually, always keep a few of the 
tame hens and a cock at home. By judicious management these will 
supply a large quantity of eggs for hatching, eggs that you can 
ensure, when in their freshest state, being placed under barn-door 
hens. Keep the eggs in a cool place. I cannot believe that you 
will ever be guilty for it is guilt, great guilt of the sin of purchasing 
eggs. "Buyers make thieves," and one sneaking, watching, un- 
winged pilferer on two legs would do more mischief in the month of 
May than dozens of magpies or hooded crows. 

Pheasants so soon hunt for their own subsistence, that they are 
brought to maturity at less expense than common fowls. 

Since the publication of the second edition, I have had an oppor- 
tunity of talking to Mr. Cantelo, the clever inventor of the novel 
hatching machine, whereby (following nature's principle) heat is 
imparted only to the upper surface of eggs. He annually rears 
a large quantity of all kinds of poultry, besides partridges and 
pheasants, and I believe no one in England is so experienced in these 

He found it best not to give food to any kind of chicks for the 
two first days after they were hatched. As they would not all break 
the shell together, it is probable that in a state of nature many of 
them would be for, at least, this period under the hen before she 
led them forth to feed. To young turkeys and pheasants he gave 
no food for three days. They would then eat almost anything 
voraciously, whereas, when fed sooner, they become dainty and 

He recommends that the lean of raw beef, or any meat (minced 
fine, as if for sausages) be given to partridge or pheasant chicks, 


along with their other food,* or rather before their other food, and 
only in certain quantities ; for if they are fed too abundantly on 
what they most relish, they are apt to gorge themselves, and 
they will seldom refuse meat, however much grain they may have 
previously eaten. He said that they should be liberally dieted, but 
not to repletion, that once a day they should be sensible of the 
feeling of hunger. 

It certainly is most consonant to nature, that the flesh given to 
the chicks should not be cooked ; and Mr. Cantelo observed that it 
would be immediately found on trial, that young birds prefer that 
which is undressed, nay, that which has a bloody appearance. 

He considers maggots (gentles) an admirable diet, and he gave me 
a valuable hint about them. This is, that they be fattened on 
untainted meat, placed in the sand-box into which they fall. The 
pieces of meat will soon be drilled like a honey-comb, and the little 
crawlers, by becoming in a day or two large and fat, will prove a 
far more nourishing diet than when given in the attenuated state to 
which they are commonly reduced, by the present starving process of 

Mr. Cantelo has remarked that guinea-birds require food at an 
earlier period after they are hatched than any other sort of chick, 
and that they and ducklings eat most meat, turkey-poultry 

Wet is injurious to all chickens (the duck-tribe excepted) ; and 
when the hen, from being confined, cannot lead her brood astray, 
they_ will, of themselves, return to her coop on finding the grass too 

Mr. Cantelo is strongly of opinion, that all diseases to which 
infant birds are liable are contagious. He advises, in consequence, 
that the moment any one of the brood is attacked with diarrhoea, 
sore eyes, or sneezing, it be instantly separated from the others. 

He considers all chickens safe from ordinary diseases on their 
gaining their pen-feathers. 

He has found that nest eggs, not sat on for twelve hours, do not 
lose their vitality. This shows that eggs taken by mowers should 
not be hastily thrown away, in consequence of a considerable delay 
unavoidably occurring before they can be placed under a hen to 
complete their hatching. 

Pheasants sit about five days longer than common fowls. 

Mr. Cantelo recommends that eggs sent from a distance be packed 
in oats. He had succeeded in hatching some he had kept, as an 
experiment, upwards of two months in a temperate atmosphere, 
turning them daily. This continued vitality is, however, seldom a 
consideration as regards pheasants ; for the earlier in the season the 
birds can be produced the better. It is a great advantage to have 
five months' growth and feed in them by the first of October. 

* Principally Indian corn-meal. full-grown birds of a large species, 
When the chickens are older, it is given whole, 
the grain is merely bruised. To 

z 2 


Mr. Knox, in his interesting work on " Game-birds and Wild- 
fowl," has given some good advice about the rearing and preservation 
of pheasants. I will make some extracts from it, and, I think, many 
would do well to read the whole book. 

With respect to a pheasantry for procuring eggs, he is of opinion 
that in March, the time when the cocks begin to fight, the 
enclosure containing the stock of birds should be divided, by high 
hurdles, or wattles, into partitions, so that each cock may be told off 
with three hens into a distinct compartment. He advises that no 
harem should be greater in a state of confinement. His opportunities 
for forming a correct judgment have probably been greater than 
mine ; but I must observe that I have known of ladies, kept in such 
small seraglios, being worried to death. " The larger the compart- 
ments," he says, "the better;" "a heap of bushes and a mound of 
dry sand in each ; " an attendant to visit them once (and but once) a 
day, to take in the food of "barley, beans, peas, rice, or oats; 
boiled potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, and Swedish turnips;"* and 
to remove whatever eggs may have been laid during the preceding 
twenty-four hours. 

The accidental destruction of the net overhanging Mr. Knox's 
pheasantry, and the escape of the cocks, led to his ascertaining a 
fact of much importance; viz. that pinioned hens (one wing ampu- 
tated at the carpal joint " the wounds soon healed ") kept in an 
unroofed enclosure, near cover, into which (what are called) " tame- 
bred pheasants " have been turned, will always attract sufficient 
mates mates in a more healthy state than confined birds, and that 
the eggs will be more numerous, and unusually productive. 

I can easily imagine that such matrimonial alliances are sure to be 
formed wherever the opportunity offers ; and if I were establishing a 
pheasantry, I would adopt the plan Mr. Knox recommends, unless 
withheld by the fear that more than one cock might gain admittance 
to the hens ; for I am aware of facts which incline me to think, that, 
in such instances, the eggs may be unserviceable. At a connexion's 
of mine, where the poultry-yard lies close to a copse, hybrid chickens 
have often been reared the offspring of barn-door hens and cock- 
pheasants not tame-bred. 

Mr. Knox elsewhere observes, that the hen-pheasants kept in con- 
finement should be tame-bred; that is, be "birds which have been 
hatched and reared under domestic hens, as those which are netted, 
or caught, in a wild state, will always prove inefficient layers." 
" About the fourth season a hen's oviparous powers begin to decline, 
although her maternal qualifications, in other respects, do not 
deteriorate until a much later period. It is, therefore, of consequence 
to enlist, occasionally, a few recruits, to supply the place of those 
females who have completed their tliird year, and who then may be 
set at large in the preserves." Of course, not those birds who have 
had the fore-hand of a wing amputated. 

* For reasons already given, I think some animal food should be 
aided. W. N. H. 


Talking of ants' eggs, which Mr. Knox terms " the right-hand of 
the keeper " in rearing pheasant chicks it is the first food to be 
given to them Mr. Knox says, " Some persons find it difficult to 
separate the eggs from the materials of the nest. The simplest mode 
is. to place as much as may be required ants, eggs, and all in a bag 
or light sack, the mouth of which should be tied up. On reaching 
home, a large white sheet should be spread on the grass, and a few 
green boughs placed round it on the inside, over which the outer 
edge of the sheet should be lightly turned; this should be done 
during sunshine. The contents of the bag should then be emptied 
into the middle, and shaken out so as to expose the eggs to the light. 
In a moment, forgetting all considerations of personal safety, these 
interesting little insects set about removing their precious charge 
the cocoons from the injurious ravs of the sun, and rapidly convey 
them under the shady cover afforded by the foliage of the boughs 
near the margin of the sheet. In less than ten minutes the work 
will be completed. It is only necessary then to remove the branches ; 
and the eggs, or cocoons, may be collected by handfuls, unencumbered 
with sticks, leaves, or any sort of rubbish." 

Mr. Knox goes on to say, that " green tops of barley, leeks, boiled 
rice, Emden groats, oatmeal, &c.," are excellent diet for the chicks, 
but that this kind of food is "almost always given at too early a 
period. In a state of nature, their food, for a long time, would be 
wholly insectile." " Now, as it is not in our power to procure the 
quantity and variety of small insects and larvae which the mother- 
bird so perseveringly and patiently finds for them, we are obliged to recourse to ants' eggs, as easily accessible, and furnishing a 
considerable supply of the necessary sort of aliment in a small 

"When the chicks are about a week or ten days old, Emden 
groats and coarse Scotch oatmeal may be mixed with the ants' eggs ; 
and curds, made from fresh milk, with alum, are an excellent addition. 
If ants' nests cannot be procured in sufficient quantities, gentles 
should occasionally be given." 

When more wasps' nests are obtained than are required for imme- 
diate use, " it will be necessary to bake them for a short time in an 
oven. This will prevent the larvae and nymphs from coming to ma- 
turity, in fact, kill them and the contents of the combs will keep 
for some weeks afterwards. Hempseed, crushed and mingled with 
oatmeal, should be given them when about to wean them from an 
insect diet. Hard-boiled eggs, also, form a useful addition, and 
may be mixed, for a long time, with their ordinary farinaceous 

" Young pheasants are subject to a kind of diarrhoea, which often 
proves fatal. If the disease be taken in time, boiled milk and rice, 
in lieu of any other diet, will generally effect a cure. To these chalk 
may be added, to counteract the acidity which attends this complaint ; 
and should the symptoms be very violent, a small quantity of alum, 
as an astringent." 

This treatment appears reasonable. Many consider rice a judicious 


diet in such cases ; and I know of a surgeon's giving boiled milk 
with great success, in the West Indies, to patients suffering from 

" But the most formidable disease from which the young pheasant 
suffers is that known by the name of ' the gapes : ' so termed from 
the frequent gaping efforts of the bird to inhale a mouthful of air. 
Chickens and turkeys are equally liable to be affected by it ; and it 
may be remarked, that a situation which has been used, for many 
successive seasons, as a nursery ground, is more apt to be visited 
with this plague, than one which has only recently been so employed. 
Indeed, I have observed that it seldom makes its appearance on a 
lawn or meadow during the first season of its occupation ; and, there- 
fore, when practicable, it is strongly to be recommended, that fresh 
ground should be applied to the purpose every year : and when this 
cannot be done, that a quantity of common salt should be sown 
broadcast over the surface of the earth, after the birds have left it in 
the autumn." He elsewhere describes the gapes as that " dreadful 
scourge, which, like certain diseases that affect the human subject, 
seems to have been engendered and fostered by excessive population 
within a limited district." 

" Dissection has proved that the latent cause of this malady is a 
minute worm of the genius fasciola, which is found adhering to the 
internal part of the windpipe, or trachea." Then Mr. Knox explains 
how this worm may be destroyed; (and only by such means, the 
most delicate operator being unable to extract it without materially 
injuring the young bird) viz. by fumigating with tobacco-smoke, 
according to the method (which he fully describes) recommended by 
Colonel Montagu. If the worm is not destroyed, the death of the 
bird ensues " by suffocation from the highly inflamed state of the 
respiratory apparatus." 

I once kept many guinea-birds when abroad; and I am now 
convinced that I should have succeeded in rearing a far greater num- 
ber, had I adopted more closely the mode of feeding, &c., here 
recommended for young pheasants. 

In July, '57, I saw in a large clover field at Sandling, East Kent, 
820 pheasant chicks which had been reared by M n under sixty- 
six common hens. It was a very interesting sight. I accompanied 
him round all the coops. They stood about twenty paces apart, and 
I could not detect a single bird with a drooping wing or of sickly 
appearance. He told me most positively that he had not lost one by 
disease, but a few had been trodden under foot by careless, awkward 
hens, and, what seems curious, some few chicks on quitting the shell 
had been intentionally killed by the very hens which had hatched 
them. A hatching hen will sometimes thus destroy ducklings, but 
these are far more unlike her natural progeny than are pheasant 

chicks. M n found that game-fowls make the best mothers 

Cochin-china the worst. He has a prejudice, how doctors differ ! 
against maggots and ants' nests. However, he has a right to his 
notions, for he lost hardly any birds in the year '56, out of the 400 
and upwards that broke the shell. He devotes himself to what, with 


him, is a labour of love. He lias great, and just pride in liis success. 
He maintains that pheasants can be reared cheaper than barn-door 
fowls, wherever there are woods, as the chicks find their own food at 
such an early age. The rearing of the birds that I saw and about fifty 
partridge-chicks, occupied the whole of his time and that of an assistant. 
There was also a boy to cook, &c. The chicks were fed every two hours 
throughout the day with a mixture of hard boiled eggs,* curds, 
bread-crumbs, rape and canary seed. The shutter of each hutch 

doing duty as a tray for the food. After the chicks had fed M.-, n 

made his rounds, and scraped into a pot all that was not consumed, 
being careful that nothing was left to get sour. He gave a small 
portion of these remains to the imprisoned matrons. He feeds the 
chicks liberally, yet calculates to a great nicety what will be eaten, for 
on every shutter a portion, but a very small portion of food was left. 
Water, kept in earthenware pans made with concentric circles on the 
ridge and furrow system, was placed at intervals between the hutches. 
Many times a day he moved the several coops a few feet to fresh 
ground. At night when all the chicks have joined the hens he fastens 
the shutters, and does not remove them in the morning until the dew 
is off the grass. How entirely is this practice opposed to the advice 
of the Yorkshireman given at the commencement of this note ! and 
yet it might be possible to reconcile the contradictory recommenda- 
tions by supposing that as soon as the young birds have nearly reached 
maturity they are allowed to search for insects at the earliest dawn. 

M n's last location for the hutches would be in the centre of the 

landlord's property, and they would not be taken away until the hens 
were quite abandoned by 'the young pheasants which in general 
would be at the end of August. Differing much from Mr. Knox, it 

was M n's practice to keep as many as five hens with one cock 

for the purpose of obtaining eggs. I observed that some hutches 
possessed a disproportionate number of inmates. This had arisen 
from the hutches having been placed in too close proximity before the 
chicks had the sense to know their respective foster-mothers. 

Remarking once after a good battue in cover upon the fine condition 
of the birds spread in a long array on the lawn for the inspection of the 
ladies, I was told that the keeper greatly attributed their size and 
weight to keeping ridge and furrow pans near their feeding places 
constantly filled with bark-water. He used to boil from a quarter to 
half a pound of oak-bark in two gallons of water until it was reduced 
to half the quantity. After once tasting it the pheasants become 
fond of it, their natural instinct telling them the advantages of the 
tonic. A cross with the true China makes the young birds hardy and 
wild. The brilliancy of the plumage is much increased but not the 
size of the birds. However long Chinese pheasants may be kept in 
confinement they will be alarmed at the sight of strangers. 

* French eggs, which he pur- from an importing house at 
chased cheap in large quantities Folkestone. 


NOTE TO 537. Setters. Poachers. Keepers. Netting Partridges. 
Bloodhounds. Night-dogs. 

IT is far more easy to get a well-broken pointer than a well-broken 
setter ; but times may change, for clean farming, the sale of game, 
poaching, and poisoning of seed-grain, are now carried on to such an 
extent, and the present game-laws are so inefficacious, that, probably, 
our children will much prefer the hard-working setter to the pointer. 
What an encouragement to villany is it that poulterers will give a 
higher price for game that appears perfectly uninjured, than for what 
has been shot ; and seldom ask questions ! It is a pity that the sale 
of such game cannot be rendered illegal. The destructive net sweeps 
off whole coveys at a time. The darkest night affords no protection, 
for the lantern attached to the dog's neck sufficiently shows when he 
is pointing at birds. A friend of mine in Kent, some years ago, 
wanted a partridge in order to break in a young bitch. Under a 
solemn promise of secrecy he was taken to an attic in an old house, 
not far from London, where he saw more than a hundred birds, ready 
for the market against the approaching first of September, running 
among the sheaves of corn standing in the corners of the room. To 
prevent the employment of the net, it has been recommended that 
the fields frequented by partridges should be staked, according to the 
method successfully followed in some preserved streams : but there 
are French gamekeepers who adopt a far less troublesome, and more 
effective plan. They themselves net the coveys at night, as soon as 
the harvest is collected, and turn them out again on the same ground 
the next evening, in the fullest confidence that the birds are hence- 
forth safe from the poacher's net : for, however carefully they may 
have been handled, they will have been so alarmed, that their dis- 
trust and wariness will effectually prevent their being again caught nap- 
ping. Talking of poaching, I am led to observe that one well-trained 
bloodhound would be more useful in suppressing poaching than half- 
a-dozen under-keepers ; for the fear poachers naturally entertain of 
being tracked to their homes at dawn of day, would more deter them 
from entering a cover, than any dread of being assailed at night by 
the boldest armed party. Even as compared with other dogs, the 
sensitiveness of the olfactory nerves of the bloodhound appears mar- 
vellous. Let one of pure breed but once take up the scent of a man, 
and he will hold it under the most adverse circumstances. No cross 
scents will perplex him. 

At two o'clock on a frosty December morning in '44, when the 
wind blew bitterly cold from the east, Mr. B e, of S d, War- 
wickshire, was called up by the keepers of a neighbour, Mr W n, 

and informed that some poachers were shooting pheasants in a plan- 
tation belonging to Mr. B e, whose keepers were on the look-out 



in a different direction. They and Mr. W n's had agreed to work 

in concert, and mutually assist each other. 

Mr. B e instantly dressed, and went out with his brother 

(Captain B ), and the butler, making a party of eight, including 

Mr. W n's keepers. They took with them a couple of trained 

bloodhounds in long cords, a regular night-dog, and a young blood- 
hound which had broken loose, and, unsolicited, had volunteered his 

"One well-trained bloodhound will be more useful." Page 344. 

On entering the plantation, it was found that the poachers, having 
become alarmed, had made off. Two of the keepers remained to 
watch. The bloodhounds were laid on the scent. They took it up 
steadily, and the rest of the party followed in keen pursuit. As the 
poachers had not been seen, their number was unknown, but it was 
supposed to be about six from the report of the guns. 

Notwithstanding the cold east wind and sharp frost the hounds 
hunted correctly, for about three miles, across fields, and along foot- 


paths and roads, until they came to a wood of three hundred acres; 
They took the scent into the heart of it, evincing great eagerness. 
Here the hunt became most exciting, for the poachers were heard in 
the front crashing through the branches. A council of war was 
held, which unluckily ended, as many councils of war do, in coming 
to a wrong decision. It was resolved to divide forces, and endeavour 

to head the enemy. Captain B e, two men and one of the old 

hounds, turned down a ride towards which the poachers seemed to 
be inclining; while the others continued the direct chase. The 
poachers, however, soon broke cover, but had not run across many 
fields ere they were overtaken. The clear, bright moon showed eight 
well-armed men, rather a disproportionate force for the attacking 
three. A fight ensued. The young hound and the watch-dog were 

shot. Mr. B e was lamed, and his two men being a good deal 

hurt, the poachers triumphed and resumed their flight. On Captain 

B e rejoining the baffled party the pursuit was renewed for nine 

miles, the dogs carrying the scent the whole way into Coventry, 
where they were stopped. 

It was now half-past seven. Many early risers were about the 
streets ; the police offered to point out the poachers, provided their 
identity could be sworn to. The hounds were stopped. Two 
men were apprehended (a third escaped from the police) were 
lodged in jail, and subsequently convicted and sentenced to eighteen 
months' hard labour. As they had not been seen until the time of 
the scuffle, which took place fully five miles from Mr. B e's plan- 
tation, the only evidence to prove they had been poaching there was 
furnished in the undeviating pursuit of the hounds. The remainder 
of the gang fled the country. 

A farmer., several years ago, sent to the same Mr. B e to say, 

that a sheep had been killed and carried off in the night. Six hours, 
to a certainty, probably many more, had elapsed since the animal 

had been stolen before Mr. B e could put the only hound he had 

with him on the scent. The dog, which was loose, hunted very 
slowly to a barn where the hidden skin was found ; and afterwards, 
without any hesitation, held on the scent from the barn to the resi- 
dence of a respectable person so wholly beyond all suspicion that the 
hound was called off. It was so late in the day, and along paths so 
much frequented, that it was thought the dog must have been hunting 

other footsteps than those of the real culprit. Mr. B e at that 

moment was not aware that the respectable householder had taken in 
a lodger. This lodger, it subsequently appeared, was the thief, and 
in bed at the house at the time. Did not the Squire get well laughed 
at in all the adjacent beer-shops for his softness ! However, this 
hunt, and another not very dissimilar under the head-keeper, effec- 
tually suppressed sheep-stealing in that neighbourhood. 

The principal initiatory lesson for a bloodhound pup is to teach 
him to " roaa " well, as described in 43. He should, too, be perfected 
in following quietly at " heel." When commencing to teach him to 
follow the footsteps of the runner sent on in advance, it will be your 
aim to make the dog enjoy the scent and carry it on with eagerness. 


Therefore, that the mail's shoes may prove attractive, have them 
lightly rubbed with tainted meat (or blood). The savoury applica- 
tion may be progressively diminished in intensity, until at length the 
pup is guided only by the natural effluvia escaping from the man's 
pores. Whenever the dog gets up to him, let it be a rule that he 
instantly reward the animal liberally with some acceptable delicacy. 

After a time the fleetest and most enduring runner should be 
selected, and the interval between the time of his starting, and 
the moment when the hound is laid upon the scent, should be by 
degrees increased, until, at length, an hour and more will intervene. 

The first lessons should be given early in the morning, when the 
dew is not quite off the grass ; and the runner should be instructed 
to take a direction not likely to be crossed by others. Gradually the 
hound will be made to follow the scent under less favourable cir- 
cumstances, as respects the state of the ground and the chance of the 
trail being interfered with. 

It will be obvious that the example of an old well-trained hound 
would be very beneficial to the pup ; and, if it can be so managed, he 
should not be thrown upon his own unaided resources, until he has 
acquired a tolerable notion of his business. 

A young dog that works too fast must be brought to pursue at a 
pace regulated by your signals (end of iv. of 141). That completes 
his education. 

At night bloodhounds are generally held with a light cord, which 
restraint appears to lessen their wish to give tongue. Of course, 
they are checked if they do, that the poachers may not be warned of 
the pursuit. 

A trained bloodhound will seldom endeavour to carry on the scent 
he has brought into a road, until he has tried the adjacent gates, 
gaps, and stiles. 

Bloodhounds not confined are peaceable and, apparently r , cowardly. 
They will rarely attack, unless provoked ; but let them be once 
roused by a blow, and they become extremely savage. They also 
soon become savage if chained up, when they evince but little 
affection or obedience. Should they, by accident, get loose, they 
will more willingly allow a woman or a child to re-chain them than 
a man. 

Bull-dogs have good noses. I have known of the cross between 
them and the mastiff being taught to follow the scent of a man 
almost as truly as a bloodhound. The dog I now particularly allude 
to was muzzled during the day when accompanying the keeper ; and 
the appearance of the formidable-looking animal, and the knowledge 
of his powers, more effectually prevented egg-stealing than would 
the best exertions of a dozen watchers. He was the terror of all the 
idle boys in the neighbourhood. Every lad felt assured that, if once 
" Growler " were put upon his footsteps, to a certainty he would be 
overtaken, knocked down, and detained until the arrival of the 
keeper. The dog had been taught thus : As a puppy he was excited 
to romp and play with the keeper's children. The father would occa- 
sionally make one of them run away, and then set the pup on him. 


After a time he would desire the child to hide behind a tree, which 
gradually led the pup to seek by nose. An amicable fight always 
ensued on his finding the boy ; and, as the pup grew stronger, and 
became more riotous than was agreeable, he was muzzled, but still 
encouraged to throw down the child. It is easy to conceive how, in 
a dog so bred, the instincts of nature eventually led to his acting his 
part in this game more fiercely when put upon the footsteps of a 


ACCOMPLISHMENTS or Refinements : 
Distinguishing clog-whistle, 501. 
Dog to back the gun, 509. 

to head running birds, 525. 

to hunt without gun, 522. 

to retreat and resume point, 512. 
Regular retrievers to beat, 550. 
Setter to retrieve, 536. 
Water-retriver to fetch cripples, 553. 

Affection an incentive, &c., 167, 259. 
497, 559. 

gained by first attentions, 167. 
Age for education, 15, 62, 132. 

Age of game, 7 n. 236 n. 338 n. 
Albania, cock-shooting in, 84. 
Anecdotes. See Instances. 
Antelope sagacity of fawn, 509 n. 
Antelopes and cheeta, 284. 
Ants' nests, Guinea-chicks, 471 n. 
Arnica, lotion for bruises, 566. 
Assistant with wild dog, 2S2. 
Australia, kangaroo-hunting, 469. 
Author's writing, cause of, 589. 
Axioms, 274, 359. 

BACK turned brings dog away, 223. 
" Backing" how taught, 350, 353. 

initiatory lesson in, 50. 

the gun, -509. 

" Bar," for wild dog, 299. 

Bark of Oak tonic for pheasants end 

of note to 407. 

Barbuda Creole and cur, 471. 
Beagles shot over, 80. 
Bear at perfumer's, 461. 
Bears killed in India, 444. 
"Beat," a, range taught, 132, 133. 171, 

bad, hard to cure, 283. 

good, difficult, but invaluable, 


Herbert's opinion, 232. 

without gun, 522. 

of five or six dogs, 245248. 

of four dogs, 244. 

of three, 242, 243. 

of two, 238240. 

taught following old dog, 191. 
Beaters in India, 446. 

Beckford. Education of buckhound, 
558, 559. 

Gentlemen hunting hounds, 

" Beckon," why useful signal, 37. 

and "Heel," differ, 44. 
Beef, heating in hot climates, 569. 
Begging, how taught, 149. 

Bell rang by dog, 417. 

Bells, to rope of beaters in India, 446. 

put on dogs, 63, 74, 401. 
Beltings of wood, spaniels, 65. 
" Ben," a capital retriever, 121. 
Bermuda, militia, 200 n. 

Best dogs err, concise hints, 383. 

Bird dead, loss of discourages dog, 31 -2. 

dead, seized and torn by dog, 321. 

shot on ground, steadies dog, 340. 

shot, search for, 266, 307, 309, 317. 

322, 544. 

shot, signal heel, 269. 

winged, shoot on ground, 308. 
Birds, lie well, dog winding them, 186. 

lie, induced to, 401. 

old, cunning of, 229, 232, 236. 

wounded, scent differs, 545. 

wild, intercepted, 384, 400, 525, 


wounded, first retrieved, 553. 

wounded, make off towards 

covey, 544. 

wounded, found evening, 316. 

wounded, the search for, 266. 

wounded, observed by dog, 113. 
Bit for bloodsucker, 117. 
Black-cock pointed three times, 289. 

dog drawing on his first, 297. 
Black too conspicuous a colour, 93. 
Blacksmith shoeing kicker, 60. 

Blind man, and Tweed-side spaniel, 385. 
Blinking dead bird, 257. 

from punishment, 165, 344. 
Blinking, initiatory lessons prevent, 17. 

B k, Sir George, 481. 

Bloodhounds, training of; poachers, 

537 n. App. 

Boar, wild ; encounter with, 468. 
Brace of dogs, sufficient if good, 137. 
Break in dogs yourself, 3, 408, 409. 
Breaker, qualifications required, 6. 

one, better than two, 14. 
Breakers in fault, not dogs, 493, 

regular, displeased, 588. 



Breakers hunt too many, 191, 362. 

idle, dislike bold dogs, 198. 
Breakers' accomplishments, 555. 
"Breaking fence" prevented, 222. 
Breeding and breaking, fetch money, 

in and in, bad, 279. 

superior nose sought, 370. 
Brougham's story of fox, of dog, 431 n. 
Buck-hound, Beckford's story of, 559. 
Bull, strike horns, 283 n. App. 
Bull-dogs, keepers, 546 n. App. 

cross with, 137. 
Bull-terrier, keeper's, 283 n. App. 
Buying dogs. See Purchasers. 


CALLING constantly, injudicious, 148. 
Cantelo on rearing birds, 407 n. App. 

"Captain," Lord M f s dog, 491. 

Cards selected by "Munito," 414, 436. 
"Care," signal for, 39. 
Carrots, for horses, 10, 11, 33. 
"Carrying" and "fetching," differ, 153. 

how taught, 96, 109. 
Cats and dogs returning home, 221. 
" Caution," taught to fast dogs, 197. 

in excess, 287 ; cure for, 293 
Cautious and wild dog contrasted, 194. 

dog, rarely too fast, 194. 
Chain better than rope, 563. 
Check-cord, 53, 54, 262, 282. 

spike to, 25, 281, 335. 
Cheeta and antelopes, 284. 

how trained, 284 n. 
Child lost, fed by dog, 432. 
China Pheasant, cross with, end of note 

to 407, page 343. 

Circle wide when heading dog, 265. 
Cirque National de Paris, 11. 
Claws of dogs pared, 566 n. 
Clothes, dog sleeping on, 167 n. 
Clumber spaniels, 75. 
Cock-shooting, 37, 84, 397. 
Cocking, young man's pursuit, 72. 
Cockroaches eaten by fowls, 407 n. 


Collar, a light one on dog, 259. 
Collie dogs, 415, 516. 
Colours for concealment, 93 n. 
Commands given in a low tone, 20. 

understood before seeing 

game, 16. 
Companion, dog to be yours, 18, 383,384. 

initiatory lessons with, 49, 

Condition attended to, 566. 
Consistency necessary, 6, 165, 278. 
Coolness recommended, 278. 
Couple to older dog, 29. 
Couples, accustomed to, 48. 
Courage created, 135, 347. 
Cover, pointers in, 88. 
Covers for game, 65 n. App. 
Cricket, dogs made fag at, 150. 
Cripples first retrieved, 553. 
Cunning of old birds, 229. 


"DASH," a spaniel, described, 234. 
Dead bird, blinking of, 267. 

lifted by you, error of, 98. 

loss of, discourages dog, 31'2. 

rushing into, 321, 374. 

search for, 266, 307, 309. 

search for, with two dogs, 544. 

the first killed, 265. 

to be pointed, 267 ; but not 

by retrieving setter or 
pointer, 548. 

torn by dog, 322. 
Dead, initiatory lesson in, 19, 34. 
Diet considered, 567. 

Distance, whence birds are winded, 
182, 183. 

between parallels, 181. 

dog's knowledge of, 285. 
Distemper, pups inoculated for, 572. 

salt for, 579. 

vaccination for, 573, &c. 
Diving, how taught, 105. 

Dogs, good, cheapest in the end, 137. 

shape, &c. of, 137, 187, 364, 537. 

shepherds', in France, 415. 

slow, beatingmore than faster, 327. 

unknown, fetch small sums, 380. 

wildest, most energetic, 53, 137. 


Dominos played at by dogs, 433, 441. 
"Down" see "Drop." 
"Down-charge," dog pointing, not to, 

initiatory lesson in, 27, 

ingenious argument 

against, 316 n. 

why retrievers should, 


Draughts, the first to move wins, 158. 
"Drop," a better word than "Down," 

dog to, another dropping, 49. 

dog to, game rising, 328. 

initiatory lessons in, 23, 25, 26. 

unnatural, " Toho" natural, 24. 
Dropper, pointing grouse or snipe, 497. 

by Russian setter, 498. 
Duck emits a goodish scent, 94. 
Duck. Wood-duck of America, 511. 
Duck-shooting in wild rice, 95. 
Ducks, wounded, first retrieved, 553. 
Duke of Gordon's dogs, 237. 


EARS not pulled violently, 327. 
Education, age when commence, 15. 

best conducted by one, 14. 

Beckford's opinion of, 558. 

commenced from A,B,C, 588. 

expeditious, economical, 13. 
Elephant, critical encounter with, 450. 

skulls of, 462. 

tricks exhibited, 160. 
Energy, wildest dogs have most, 53, 

137, 198. 
Esquimaux dogs, and women, 169. 

crossed with wolf, 137. 



Example advantageous, 351 ; especially 
to spaniels, 62 ; yours has influence, 
264, 374. 

Exercise on the road, 566. 


FALCON with Greyhound. 470. 
Fastest dogs not beating most, 257. 

walkers not beating most, 256. 
Fasting, initiatory lessons given, 12. 
Fat, enemy to endurance, 567. 
Fatigued, dog not hunted when, 224. 
Faults, punishment expected for, 348. 
Fawn, sagacity of, 509 n. 
Feeding-time, lessons at, 30. 

pistol fired, 28. 

the evening, 568. 
Feet, 187 ; attended to, 566. 

and loins compared, 137. 

of setter better than pointer's, 187. 

Partridge's, given to dog, 345. 
Fence not to be broken, 222. 
''Fence," or "Ware fence," initiatory 

lesson in, 46. 
"Fetching" and " carrying " differ, 153. 

evil of not, 235. 

lessons in, 96, 109. 
Fields, largest beat, 173. 
"Find," initiatory lesson, 34, 35. 
" Finder" not to advance, 357. 

retrieves, 541. 
Fire, dog to bask before, 225. 

First day on game, good conduct of dog, 

139; of two dogs, 280. 
First good point, 264 ; first bird killed, 


Flapper shooting, 226. 
Fleas. Saffron. Gum of sloe, 165 n. 
Flesh detrimental to pace, 567. 
Flogging, how administered, 323. 

reprobated, 9, 344. 

" Flown," initiatory lesson, 45 ; real, 330. 
Food given cool, 568. 
"Footing" a scent, 43, 112, 285. 
" Forward," initiatory lesson, 36. 
Fowls, killing of the cure, 392. 

require animal food. 407 n. 
Fox brought back by dog, 478. 

his sagacity, 431 n. 

graceful when hunting, 537. 
Fox-hound, cross gives vigour, 137. 
Franconi's Cirque National de Paris, 11. 


GAME, age, &c. 7 n. 236 n. 338 n. 

bag, birds looped on, 540. 

lies close in hot weather, 446. 

lies too close in turnips, 193. 

not shown dog soon, 16, 171. 

plentiful. Bad rangers, 255. 

sprung towards gun, 64, 89, 284. 
Gone," initiatory lesson, 45 ; real, 330. 

Gordon, the Duke of, his dogs, 237 
Gorse, spaniels to be habituated to, 61. 
Greyhounds, conditioning of, 566. 

with Falcon, 470. 
Griffin, hints to, 65 n. 400 i03. 

Grouse and snipe alternately set, 497. 

best to break dog on, 331 n. 

cunning of old, 229. 

dog for, rated on snipe, 497. 

shot from stooks, 7 n. 

shot with aid of cart, 384. 

spread while feeding, 265. 
" Grouse's" portrait, 210 
Guinea-birds' eggs. Chicks, 471 n. 
Guinea-birds headed, 528. 

Gun, dog to "back" the, 509. 

first over fence, not dog, 222. 

game flushed towards, 64, 89, 284. 

how carried, 65 n. 

HAND, bird delivered into, 98. 
rewards taken from, 27. 
Hare, chase of, checked, 334, 335. 

heavy, tempts dog to drop, 116. 

killed in form, steadies dog, 339. 

scent of, strong, 333. 

shooting of, condemned, 331. 

white, the mountain, 338. 

wounded, dog may pursue, 341. 
Harriers, pointer hunted with, 495 
Hat-brush brought by dog, 156. 
Hawker, Colonel, 577. 

Haunt, dog brought on, 306 ; not soon, 

Heading birds, 284, 400, 525. 

Heading dog making too stanch, 287 

circle wide, 265. 
Health promoted by shooting, 409. 

Heat beneficial to dogs, 571. 
Hedge, furthest side hunted, 54. 
Hedge-rows not hunted, 175. 
" Heel," signal to, on killing, 269, 276. 

the signal to, 37, 44. 
Hen-harrier's nest found, 283 n 
Herbert's Field Sports in United States, 

241, 568. 

Hereditary instincts, 128, 137 279 
Hog-hunting with native dogs, 445. 
Hog, wild, first encounter with, 468. 
Hooded crow, 283 n. 
Horned owl, a decoy, 283 n 
Horse, memory of, 221, n. 
Hoof ointment, 364 n. 
Horse, recipe for conditioning, 364 n. 
Horse's and dog's points similar 364. 

biting cured, 283 n. 

leg strapped, 60. 

rushing at his leaps cured, 33 
Horses, how taught by Astley, 10 

fed on firing, 28. 
Hounds, obedience of, 31. 

tuition of, 30, 505. 
Hunting, dog's chief enjoyment, 562. 

dog long taking to, 132. 
Huntsman for pack bad rangers, 248. 

a gentleman, 413. 


IMITATIVE, dogs are, 34, 264. 
In-and-in breeding injudicious, 279. 



Independence imparted, 375. 

India, 444, 446, &c. 

Indian-corn meal, 568. 

Initiatory lessons, important, 12, 17, 52, 
134, 14J0 

Inoculation for distemper, 572 n. 

INSTANCE OF breaking highly, 251, 395, 
499 .-coolness and courage, 449468 ; 
cunning in grouse, 229 ; in pheasant, 
232, 236 ; in monkeys, 431 n. ; dog's 
Larking at point, 521 ; dog's behaving 
well first day, 139, 280 ; dog's forcing 
game to gun, 89 ; dog's pointing after 
the shot, 275 ; dog's intercepting, 
206, 527, 530 ; dog's manner showing 
birds on the run, 295, 530 ; dog's 
pointing on his back, 199 ; dog's 
pointing on fence, 200 ; dog's de- 
taining with paw, 319 ; dog's retreat- 
ing from and resuming point, 286, 517, 
519, 520 ; dog's retrieving snipe he 
would not point, 318 ; dog's retrieving 
duck, though detesting water, 320 ; 
dog's running riot from jealousy, 343 ; 
dog's running riot only out of sight, 
386 ; dog's running to heel, but not 
blinking, 195 ; dog's slipping off and 
replacing collar, 431 n. ; dog's stanch- 
ness high price it commanded, 382 ; 
dog's stanchness to excess, point 
made three times, 289 jy-dog, though 
never retrieving, bringing lost bird, 
97 ; dog's walking to mallard from a 
distance, 93 n. ; dog's walking from 
a distance to object he seeks, 216 ; 
dogs alternately retrieving as ordered, 
542 ; dropper's alternately pointing 
grouse and snipe, 497 ; example being 
useful, 352 ; good snipe-shot who 
always used a dog, 395 ; good snipe- 
shot who never used a dog, 394 ; 
longevity and vigour, 226 ; old dog 
proving of great value, 228 New- 
foundlands finding their vessels amidst 
many, 218, 219 ; pointer's hunting 
with hounds or standing snipe, 495 ; 
pointer's superior nose, 366 ; 
pointer standing at partridge while 
carryinghare, 546 ; pot-hunting ruin- 
ing dog, 373 : prices dogs fetch, 137, 
237, 254, 379, 382, 500 : retriever 
bolting partridge because interfered 
with, 540 ; retriever losing birds 
from not delivering into hand, 98 ; 
retriever killing one bird to carry two, 
100 ; retriever never disturbing fresh 
ground, 552 ; retriever ranging spon- 
taneously, 551 ; retriever tracking 
wounded through other game, 547 ; 
retriever running direct to hidden 
object, 216; " reading" well per- 
formed by young dog, 290; setter 
facing about, on birds running, 295, 
530 ; setter's superior nose, 369; 
setter's standing fresh birds while 
carrying dead one, 546 ; spaniels 
pointing, 68, 551 ; young dogs be- 
having well first day shown game, 
139, 280. 

Instinct and reason contrasted 432. 
Instincts hereditary', 128, 137, 279. 
Ireland. Snipe, Woodcock. 397, 565. 
Isle-aux-Noix, good conduct of dog. 

JESSE'S opinion of dogs, 431. 

KANGAROOS, Greyhounds, 469. 
Keeper, advice in choosing, 586 n. 
Keeper, feeding several dogs, 30. 

to teach accomplishments, 555. 
Keeper's dogs for vermin and poachers, 

283 n. App. 537 n. 588 n. 
Keepers dislike this book, 588. 

blameable for bad dogs, 4. 

idle, dislike clogs of energy, 193. 

rival, bet respecting, 499. 
Kennel, dog in, when not with you, 563. 
Kennels in India and England, 570. 
Keys, retrievers taught with, 106. 

- "Medor's," bringing, 418. 
Killed outright evil of thinking, 311. 
Killing fowls - the remedy, 392. 

sheep cure attempted, 387, <fcc. 
Kitchen, dog not allowed run of, 563. 
Knox on rearing Pheasants, 407 n. App. 


LADIES, breaking for gun, 166. 

- no control over dogs, 147. 
Ladies' Pets pampered, 163. 
Learned dog in Paris, 435 ; St. John's, 

Leeward, beat from, 201. 

dog's beat from without gun, 


Left hand signals, "Down charge," 24. 
less than right, 142. 
Left side of dog, keep on, 285. 
" Left," signal for dog to go to, 36. 
Lending dog injudicious, 584. 
Lesson left off when well repeated, 96. 
Lessons, initiatory, reasonable, 12, 17, 

52, 134. 

_ _ walking in fields, 131. 
"Lifting" a dog, 309, 533, 546. 
Lion bearded in his den, 465. 
Liver, hard-boiled, 116. 
Loins and feet compared, 137. 
Longevity and vigour in a setter, 226. 

Lord M 's setter facing about on 

birds running, 295, 530. 

MAJOR B d's well-broken dogs, 250. 

Mange mutton instead of beef, 569. 
Mare making colts swim, 352 n. 
Markers used with spaniels, 81. 
Meat recommended for dogs, 569. 
Medicine, how easily given, 580. 
Memory in horse, 221 n. 
Militia 'regiment treeing, 200 n. 



Monkeys their fun, 431 n. 
Moors, advantage of, 137, 
"Munito" selecting cards, 414. 
Muscle wanted, not flesh, 567. 
Muscovy drake, the cross, 471 n. 
Musk bull found by " Muta," 487. 
Mute, spaniels, old sportsmen prefer, 83. 
Mutton less heating than beef, 569. 
Muzzle dogs that worry sheep, 391. 


NAMES ending in " o " dissimilar, 145. 
Netting partridges, 537 n. App. 
Newfoundland carrying off' parasol, 151. 

swimming to ship, 218, 219. 

that fished, 474, 475. 

the true breed, 126. 

" Niger's" crossing hedge to drive birds, 

533 n. 

Night-dogs, 283 n. and 537 n. App. 
" No " better word than ' ' Ware, "47. 
Noise spoils sport, 7, 20, 172, 473. 
Nose carried high, 42, 186. 

condition of, important, 570. 

direction of, shows birds, 284. 

of .pointers and setters differ, 174 n. 

of timid dogs often good, 135. 

tenderness of, how judged, 365 
"Nosing" allowed, 314. 


OATMEAL and Indian corn, 568. 
Old birds, cunning of, 229, <fec. 
first killed, 404, 405. 
Old crippled Scotch sportsman, 411. 
Old dog allowed liberties, 564. 

range taught with, 191. 

when good, value of, 227. 
" On" initiatory lesson in, 19, 21. 
Owl used to decoy vermin, 283 n. App. 


PAKALLELS, distance between, 181, 184. 
Parasol carried off for bun, 151. 
Partridges, benefit farmers, 407 n. App. 

how to choose, 7 n. 

netted, 537 n. App. 

old killed first, 404. 

red-legged, 535 n. 

wild, intercepted, 284, 400. 
Patience enjoined, 263. 

Paw kept on wounded bird by dog, 319. 
Pea-fowl wants sagacity, 509 n. 
Peg, or spike on check-cord, 281, 335. 
Perseverance and range attained, 565. 

cures bad habits, 165. 

in seeking, taught, 313. 
Pheasants, benefit farmer, 407 n. App. 

cover for, 65 n. App. 

cunning of old, 231, 236. 
r old hens killed off, 404. 

rearing of, 471 n. App. 
Physic, how easily given, 580. 
Pigeons shot to retriever, 114. 

Pike, voracity of, 231 n. 
Pincushion, retrievers fetch, 106. 
Pistol, horses fed at discharge, 28. 
Poachers, dogs for attacking, 283 n. and 
537 n. App. 

killing birds, 7 n. 93 n. 

tracked by bloodhounds, 

Poultry and game reared, Cantelo, 407 n. 

killing birds, 7 n. 93 n. 

tracked by bloodhounds, 

537 n. 
Poultry and game reared, Cantelo, 407 n. 

" Point dead," to, 266. 
Point left and resumed, 512. 

150 yards from grouse, 183. 

100 yards from partridge, 182. 

not quitted for "down charge," 

274, 359. 

the first good one, 264. 

inclination to, general, 471. 

same, taken three times, 289. 
Pointer cross with Indian dog, 448. 
Pointer's points, 137, 187, 364, 537. 
Pointing, .dog not soon, 132, 281, 306. 

dog when, not to down, 359. 

origin of, 24. 
Polygar dogs, to hunt hog, 445. 
Pony for shooting, how broken in, 32. 
Porcupine, dogs for hunting the, 448. 
Porteous's whistles, 507, &c. 
Pot-hunting sportsmen ruin dogs, 373. 
Potato-fields, avoid, 192. 
Preparatory lessons important, 12, 17, 

52, 134, 141. 

Price of dogs, 138, 237, 254, 379, 382, 500. 
Punishment avoided by lessons, 17. 

causes blinking, 344, &c. 

decreases, whip carried, 342. 

not shunned by dogs, 348, &c. 

how administered, 323. 

making dog too stanch, 2871 

not inflicted on suspicion; 


reprobated, 9, 344. 
Pups born in India, 448. 

in winter, 571. 

inoculated for distemper, 572. 

vaccinated for distemper, 573, <fee. 
Purchasers of dogs, hints to, 146, 365, 


Ptizzle peg, saved by word "up," 41. 
" Puzzling" with nose to ground, 185. 


QUAIL pointed, dog on fence, 200. 

large in Canada, 277. 
Qualities expected in good dog, 8. 
Quartering-ground. See Beat. 


RABBIT-SHOOTING, reprobated, 331. 
with beagles, 80. 

Rabbit-warren, visit, hares scarce, 337. 
Rabbits, choice and age of, 338 n. 




Railway whistles, 507. 

"Range." See "Beat." 

" Rating" dogs, how best done, 188. 

Rats, dogs for gun not to kill, 130. 

Red-legged partridges, headed, 527. 

destroyed, 535 n. 
Red setters, Irish, 565. 
Refinements. See Accomplishments. 
Belays desirable -not a pack, 248. 
Requisites in a dog, 8 ; in a breaker, 6. 
Retreat from point, &c. 512. 
Retriever, bit for one that mouths, 117. 

evil of assisting, 115. 

"footing" scent, lesson in, 


for water, qualities in, 93. 

made whipper-in, 57. 

observes struck bird, 113. 

(regular), useful with beaters, 


(regular), to " down charge" 

or not? 119. 
Retrievers, shape, &c. of, 125. 

to beat, 550. 

to fetch, taught, 108, &c. 

to pursue faster, 118. 

water, to fetch cripples first, 


how bred, 126. 
Retrieving not taught first season, 538. 

setters or pointers not to 

"point dead," 548. 

setters, not pointers, 536. 
Rewards always given, 27, 40. 
Rheumatism prevented by care, 571. 
Rice; wild lakes, duck-shooting in, 95. 
"Richelieu," snipe-shooting, 277. 
Rifle, rest for, 509 n. 

Right, the signal to go towards, 36. 
Right-eyed, 65 n. App. 
Right hand, for "Toho" and "Drop," 

signals more than left, 142. 
Road, exercise on, good for dogs, 566. 

" Reading, " instance of fine, 290292. 

by 6 dogs alternately, 251. 

by " Finder," 354. 
Rope to tie dog, bad, 563. 
Running bird, firing at, 308. 
Rushing in to "dead" cured, 374. 
Russian setter, dropper from, 498. 

SAFFRON removing fleas, 165 n. 

Salt for distemper, 579. 

Scent, bad in calm or gale, 174. 

differently recognised by pointers 

and setters, 174 n. 

of birds, not left for hare, 333. 

"footing" a, initiatory lesson in, 

Scent of wounded and un wounded birds 

differs, 545. 
Search " dead," 266 ; with 2 dogs, 544. 

for Wounded bird, when to lee- 
ward, 309 ; when to windward, 307. 

Seeking dead, how taught, 313. 
"Self-hunting," prevent, 564. 

September, dog taken out in, 171. 

day's lesson continued, 259. 
Servant useful in field, 282. 
Seton proved useful, 123. 
Setter, stanch sum paid for, 382. 

to retrieve, 536 ; argument 
against applies to retriever, 549. 

Setters crouch more than pointers, 23. 

Duke of Gordon's breed, 237. 

for cover shooting, 87. 
Setters, points in, 137, 187, 364, 537. 

red the Irish breed, 565. 
Setters' feet better than pointers', 187. 
Severity reprobated, 9, 344. 

Sheep, killing of cure, 387390. 
Sheep-stealing. Bloodhounds, 537 n. 
Shepherds' dogs, 143, 163, 415. 

"forward" signal^ for water 

retrievers, 91. 

Shooting, excellence in, not necessary 
in breaker, 5, 253. 

hints to tyros, 65 n. App. 
Shot-belt, nozzle lengthened, 65 n. App. 

on spaniels and setters, 60, 329. 
Shot over, dog to be, before bought, 372. 
Showman's dogs in Paris, 434, &c. 

Shy birds intercepted, 284, 400, 525, 533. 

Sight, dog not to be out of, 386. 

Silence enjoined, 7, 172, 473. 

Sinews of legs drawn, 345 n. 

Single-handed, shot to, 375. 

Sloe, gum of, 165 n. 

Slow dog, associate for young one, 350. 

dogs hunting more than faster, 257. 
Snipe, condition of, 236 n. 

grouse dog rated noticing, 497. 

killed off, 396. 

Snipes, three, lifted in succession, 546. 
Snipe-shooting on Richelieu, 277. 
Snipe-shot who never used dog, 394 ; 

who used one constantly, 395. 
Spaniel puppies, keep close, 59. 
Spaniels, age when shown game, 62. 

babbling occasionally best, 84. 

hunted in gorse, 61. 

mute, preferred, 83. 

numbers for a team, 74, 77. 

requisites in, 70. 

shot-belt on wildest, 60. 

Sussex, 236. 

that pointed, 68. 

water, how broken in, 90. 
Spike-collar, 300, &c. 

Spike fastened to check-cord, 281, 335. 
Sportsmen to break dogs, 3, 408, 4oy. 
Spring, dogs broken in, 170. 
Springing the other birds after pointing 

one, 373. 

Stanch made too, by heading, 287. 
St. John's old woman's dog, 559 n. 
Stoat, range of, 283 and n. App. 
Stone, error of retrieving, 103. 
Summary imparted by lessons, 141. 
Sussex spaniel, 236. 
"Suwarrow," heading running birds, 



"TAFFY, "-anecdotes of, 421430. 



Tattersall's, thirteen pointers at, 379. 
Temper in breaker necessary, 6 ; im- 
proved by successfully teaching, 409. 
Temper hereditary, 128. 
Terrier pointing in varied attitudes, 298. 
Terriers for covers, 24 n. 
Tigress' claws running into feet, 566 ;<. 
Time given determines education, 2. 

saved by initiatory lessons, 52. 
Timidity cured, 135, 345, '347. 

" Toho," first good one in field, 264. 

initiatory lesson in, 19, 21, 24. 
Traps beat guns for vermin, 283, App. 

visited by terrier, 283 n. 
Tricks easily taught after first, 136. 

exhibited with effect, 154, 487. 

taught by ladies, 150. 
Trout, tame, 164. 

trolling for, 231 n. 588 n. 
Turning back, brings dog away, 223. 
Turnip-field ridden round, 401. 
Turnips avoided, 192. 

lessons in, 329. 

Tweed spaniel, and blind man, 385. 
Two dogs, beat of, 238240. 
steady, first day, 280. 

"Up," signal for initiatory lesson, 41. 


VACCINATION for distemper, 573, &c. 
Vermin, dogs for, 283 n. 588 n. 

traps. Decoy owl, 263 n. App 
Vigour and longevity in setter, 226. 
Vineyards protected by dogs, 415. 

Water-proof, recipe for leather, 567 n. 

for cloth, 567 n. 

Water-retriever, how broken, 90. 

observes struck bird, 113. 

qualities required in, 93. 
Whales, Bermuda, 165 n. 

Whip carried saves punishment, 342. 

to crack loudly, 188. 
Whistle low, 20, 507. 

dissimilar notes on one, 505. 

distinguishing, for each dog, 501. 

inattentive to, how punish, 188. 

initiatory lesson in, 19. 
Whistles, boatswain's, 506 ; railway, 507. 
Whistling to animate, injudicious, 172 ; 

spoils sport, 7. 
White dogs, arguments for and against, 


White feet, objectionable, 187. 
White, too conspicuous a colour, 93. 
Wild birds, intercepted, 284, 400, 525, 


Wild dog contrasted with cautious, 194. 
Wild dogs turning out best, 198. 
Wildfowl, wounded, retrieved first, 553. 

reconnoitred with glass, 92. 
Winged bird. See Bird winged. 
Winter pups, 571. 

Wolf, cross with Esquimaux dog, 137. 
Woodcock-shooting in Albania, 84; in 

America, 37; in Ireland, 397; in 

Kent, 82. 
Woodcocks attached to covers, 397. 

reflushed, 82. 

small, in Canada, 277. 
Wood-duck of North America, 511. 
Wounded bird. See Bird wounded. 


WALKERS, fastest, not beating most, 256. 
"Ware," not so good word as "No," 47. 
Warmth necessary for dogs, 571. 
Warren, visit, hares scarce, 337 n. 
Water, dog taught to plunge into, 104. 

YEOMEN of Kent, 236. 
Yorkshire keeper's advice, 406. 
Young dogs steady first day on game, 

139, 280. 
Youth, game followed in, liked, 69. 

occupation followed in, liked, 563. 



January t 1865, 




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