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Full text of "The dog, in health and disease, by Stonehenge"

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THE DOG. 



LONDOir 
PlIIfTKD BT BPOTTMWOOnK AND CO. 
2IBW-«TBBET bt^CABE. 



J 



THE DOG 



IN HEALTH AND DISEASE. 



COMPRISING THE VARIOUS MODES OF BREAKING AND USING HIH POR 

UTJNTING, COURSING, SHOOTING, ETC., AND INCLUDING THE 

POINTS OR CHARACTERISTICS OF TOY DCGS. 



BY STONEHENGE 



)f 



AUTHOR OF "THE OBETHOUND" ETC 




LONDON 
LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, AND EOBEETS. 

1859 



/^/ 



// 



The riffkt of tranglatioH it ret&rv^d. 




k 



PREFACE. 



Among the various scientific and anecdotical writings in the 
English language on The Dofj, it might be thought that the sub- 
ject was exhausted, and that nothing remained to be done by 
the most careful observer of the habits and external forms of the 
varieties of this animal. But let any one seek for specific inform- 
ation upon several points connected with even well-marked and 
generally-recognised kinds, and he will soon be brought to confess 
that he is lost in doubt and uncertainty. For instance, where 
shall we find a sufficient description of the spaniels and terriers, 
or of the various retrievers for which such large sums are often 
given ? WTio will be able to discover, from any written account, 
the difference between the springer and the cocker, or between 
the Clumber and Sussex si)aniels ? WTio, again, will tell us the 
colours and forms of the Skye and Dandie Dinmont terriers, or the 
characteristics of the English toy terriers, pugs, and Maltese dogs ? 
Yet there are thousands and tens of thousands who take a great 

A 3 



VI PREFACE. 

interest in these animals, and who woiJd spare neither money nor 
trouble to ascertain the exact properties of the variety to wliicli 
each individual of their acquaintance Ijelongs. Daniel, Youatt, 
and Richardson have all laboured hard to enlighten their reiiders 
upon the varieties of the canine species, and liave no doubt done 

much towards the attainment of this end ; but, as I before 
remarked, the deficiencies in their descriptions are patent to all. 
It is true that the hound and the greyhound, tlie pointer and the 
setter, as well f\s many of the foreign varieties of the dog, 
have l)een favoured with sj)ecial treatises; but beyond them 
the ground is almost untrodden, or else it is choked with weeds 
and nibbish whicli render it difficult to ascertaui what is beneath 
them. 

In the following pages I have been compelled to have recourse 
to the work of jMt. Youatt in the instances of some of the foreign 
dogs, both for the descriptions and also for the engravings which 
are contained in it. At the time when he >vrote, the Zoological 
Society of London possessed an extensive collection of dogs, which 
was made use of by liim to great advantage; and I can speak to 
the correctness of most of his illustrations, from having compared 
them with the originals soon after he first gave them to the public ; 
but unfortunately there is now no such collection in England. 
As far as possible, however, throughout the first Book the 



PREFACE. vii 

descriptions and Ulustrations are drawn from the life, the 
specimens selected being of the most perfect symmetry and of 
the pm-est breed within my reach. For many of them I am 
indebted to gentlemen who have given up their best energies 
to improve the peculiar strain which has enlisted their atten- 
tion, and for the facilities which they have afforded me I here 
beg to record my most sincere thanks. 

Book I. contains the Natural History of tlie Dog, with a 
minute description of the varieties which are generally re- 
cognised. The chief claims of this book rest upon its being 
a faithful transcript in writing of oral records which have been 
treasured up by the breeders of the dog in all its varieties, 
and which being now made public, will render it comparatively 
easy in future to ascertain the position which any particular 
dog can claim, and how far it complies with the points which 
are attributed to it These records have been wefully col- 
lected; and I believe it will be found, that though some i*v 
dividuals may hold different views, yet that in each case that 
which I have presented is the one which is maintained by a 
large majority of those who have made the subject their par- 
ticular study. It is impossible to attain a certainty of this in 
every instance ; but should I be wrong, it can, at all events, l)e 

A 4 



Vlll PREFACE. 

maintained that neither time, trouble, nor expense has been 
spared in ai-riving at it. 

Book II. describes the best methods of breeding, rearing, 
breaking, and managing the dog, while in health, by means of 
appropriate food, exercise and lodging. This division of the 
subject therefore embraces the entering and running of the 
greyhound; the breaking and working of shooting dogs; the 
entering and hunting of hounds ; and the management of vermin 
terriers, toy, and house-dogs. 

Lastly, in the Third Book the most modern and successful 
treatment of the diseases to which the dog is subject is given 
at length, and in terms which will, it is hoped, be intelligible 
to all. My readers will therefore perceive that I have omitted no 
information at all likely to be interesting to the lover of t/ie dog^ 
which a long experience and most extensive opportunities have 
enabled me to obtain. 

STONEIIENGE. 
July Ist, 1859. 



CONTENTS. 



BOOK I. 

THE NATURAL HISTORY, ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION, AND VARIETIES 

OF THE DOG. 

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

PACK 

Origin. — General Characteristics. — Habitats. — Varieties. — F. Cuvier's Divisional 
Arrangement. — Arrangement adopted by the Author 3 

CHAPTER I. 

Wild and half-reclaimed Dogs, hunting in Packs. — The Dingo. — The Dhole. 
— The Pariah. — The Wild Dog of Africa.— The South- American Dog.— 
The North- American Dog. — Other wild Dogs 14 

CHAPTER IL 

DOMESTICATED DOGS DUNTINO CHIEFLY BT THE EYE, AND KILLING THEIR 

GAME FOR MAM*8 USB. 

The Rough Scotch Greyhound and Deerhound. — The Smooth or English Grey- 
hound. — The Gazehound. — The Irish Greyhound, or Wolf-dog The 

French Mitin. — The Hare-Indian Dog. — The Albanian Dog. — The Grecian 

Greyhound The Turkish Greyhound. — The Persian Greyhound — The 

Russian Greyhound. — The Italian Greyhound 20 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER m. 

DOMESTICATED DOOS, HCNTIWO CIIIEFLT DT THE NOSE, AMD BOTH FINDING AND 
KILLING THEIR GAME ; COMMONLY KNOWN AS HOl^DS. 

PAGB 

The Southern Hound. — The Bloodhound. —The Staghound. — The Foxliound. 
— The Harrier. — The Beagle— The Otterhound. — The Terrier. — The 
Dachshund 47 



CHAFPER IV. 

DOMESTICATED DOGS, FINDING GAME BY SCENT, BUT NOT KILLING IT, BEING 

CHIEFLY USED IN AID OF TllE GUN. 

The Spanish Pointer. — The Modem English Pointer. — The Portugncse Pointer. 
— The French Pointer. — The Dalmatian and Danish Dogs. — The English 
and Irish Setters. — The Russian Setter. — The Ordinary Field Spaniel, in- 
cluding the Springer (Clumber, Sussex, and Norfolk breeds), and the Cocker 
(Welsh and Deyonshirc). — The Water Spaniel (English and Irish) . . 85 



CHAPTER V. 

PABTOBAL DOGS, AND THOSE USED FOR THE PURPOSES OF DRAUGHT. 

The English Sheep-Dog. — The Colley. — The Drover's Dog. — The German 
Sheep-Dog. — Pomeranian Wolf- Dog. — The Newfoundland and I^brador 
Dogs. — Tlie Esquimaux Dog. — The Greenland Dog. — The Iceland and 
Lapland Dogs 117 



CHAPTER VI. 

WATCH DOOS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOT DOGS. 

Bulldog. — Mastiff — Thibet Dog. — Poodle. — Maltese Dog. — Lion-Dog. — 
Shock-Dog. — Toy Spaniels. — Toy Terriers. — The Png-Dog . . . 1 29 



CONTENTS. XI 

CHAPTER Vn. 

CB088ED BBEED8. 

PA 01 

RetricTcr. — Bull-Terrier. — Lurcher. — Dog and Fox Cross . . . .166 



BOOK 11. 



THE BREEDING, REARING, BREAKING, AND MANAGEMENT OF THE DOG, 

IN-DOORS AND OUT. 



CHAPTER I. 

BREEDING. 

Principles of Breeding. — Axioms for the Breeder's Use. — Crossing and crossed 
Breeds. — Importance of Health in both Sire and Dam. — Best Ages to 

breed from In-and-in Breeding. — Beat Time of Year. — Duration of Heat. 

— Management of the Bitch in Season. — The Bitch in Whelp. — Preparations 
for Whelping. — Healthy Parturition. — Destruction or Choice of Whelps at 
Birth 171 



CHAPTER II. 

RBARINO. 

Management in the Nest — Choosing. — The Foster -Nurse. — Feeding before 

Weaning Choice of Place for Whelping. — Removal of Dew-Claws, &c. — 

Weaning. — Lodging. — Feeding. — Exercise. — Home Rearing v. Walking. 

— Food — General Management. — Cropping, Branding, and Rounding . 199 



XU COXTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

KKNNET.S AND KENNEL MANAGEMENT. 

rAUR 

Greyhound Kennels. — Foxhound Kennels. — Pointer Kennels. — Kennels for 
Single Dogs. — House Dogs 225 



CHAPTER IV. 

IIBEAKINO AND ENTERING. 



The Entering of the Greyhound and Dcerliound. — Of Foxhounds and Harriers. 
— Breaking the Pointer and Setter. — Tlie Retriever (Land and Water). — 
The Spaniel — Tlie Vermin Dog .241 



CHAl'TER V. 

THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN COUBSING, HUNTING, SHOOTING, ETC. 

Coursing. — Deerstalking. — Hunting. — Partridge- and Grouse-Shooting. — 
Snipe-Shooting. — Covert Shooting. — Wildfowl-Shooting. — Ferreting . 280 



BOOK III. 

THE DISEASES OF THE DOG AND THEIR TREATMENT. 

CHAPTER I. 

PECinJARlTIES IN THE AKATOMT AND I'lIYSIOLOGT OF THE DOG. 

The Skeleton, including the Teeth. — The Muscular System. — The Brain ana 
NenrouB System. — The Digestive System — The Heart and Lungs. — The 
Skin 327 



CONTENTS. XIU 



CHAPTER II. 

THE REMEDIES SUITED TO TUE DOG, AND THE BEST MEANS OF ADMINISTERINO 

THEM. 

PAOB 

AlteratiTes. — Anod/nes. — Antispasmodics. — Aperients. — Astringents. — Blisters. 

— Caostics — Charges. — Cordials. — Diuretics. — Embrocations. — Emetics. 

— Expectorants. — Fever Medicines. — Clysters. — Lotions. — Ointments. — 
Stomachics. — Styptics. — Tonics. — Worm Medicines. — Administration of 
Remedies 340 



CHAPTER HI. 

FEVERS, AND THEIR TREATMENT. 

Simple Ephemeral Fever, or Cold. — Epidemic Fever, or Inflnenza. — Typhus 
Fever, or Distemper. — Rheumatic Fever. — Small-Pox. — Sympathetic 
Fever 364 



CHAPTER IV. 

INFLAMMATIONS. 

Definition of Inflammation — Symptoms and Treatment of Rabies, Tetanus, 
and Tumside. — Of Inflammation of the Eye, Ear (canker). Mouth, and 
Nose.— Of the Lungs. — Of the Stomacli. — Of the Bowels. — Of the Liver. 
— Of the Kidneys and Bladder. — Of the Skin 385 



CHAPITER V. 

DISEASES ACCOMPANIED BT WANT OF POWER. 

Chore*. — Shaking Palsy. — Fits — Worms — General Dropsy or Anasarca . 4T.\ 



XIV CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VI. 

DISE-VSES ARISING FROM MISIIAKAOEIIKKT OR KEOLECT. 

PACK 

Anaemia. — Rickets. — Indigestion 443 



CHAPTER VII. 

DISBABKS AMD ACCIDENTS REQUIRING SURGICAL AID. 

Tumonre. — Cancer. — Encysted Tnuiours. — Abscesses. — Unnatural Parturi- 
tion. — Accidents and Operations 448 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



PAGK 

The Wolf 3 

Sknll of Dingo 10 

„ Spaniel . .11 

„ Mastiff .12 

The Dingo 14 

•*Cader/* a Decrhound of the pure 

Glengarry breed . . . .20 
Caplain Daintree's " King Cob " . 25 
The Hare-Indian Dog .39 

The Grecian Greyhound .41 

Italian Greyhounds, " Billy " and 

"Minnie" 44 

The Southern Hound .47 

Head of the Bloodhound .51 

"Hermit," a highbred modem Ft)x- 

hoond 55 

•Grasper," a Harrier, and "Trueman," 

a Foxhound-Harrier . . G3 

"Dahlia," a pure Foxhound 65 



PAni 
The Medium- sized Beagle . .67 

" Barmaid," a Dwarf Beagle, bred by 

Lord Gifford .69 

" Bellman," an Otterhound . . 70 
"Lady," an English Terrier . . 73 
" Peto," a Scotch Terrier ... 75 
" Rough " and " Tuck," Dandies . 77 
The English Dandie . . .97 

" Quilick," a Skye Terrier . . . 80 

The Boarhound 83 

The Spanish Pointer . . . .85 
" Sancho," a modem English Pointer 88 
The Dalmatian Dog . . .93 

" Sailor," a perfect specimen of the 

Setter 94 

A Russian Setter slightly crossed with 

English blood . . . .100 
"Brass" and "Jndy," Clumber 

Spaniels 107 



XVI 



LIST OF KNGUAVINGS. 



•• George *' and " Romp/' SiuJsex 

Spaniels 108 

English and Welsh Cockers . .111 
The Water Spaniel . .113 

The English Sheop-J)og . .117 

TheColley 119 

The I-Jirgor Newfoundland Dog . 122 
"BiUy/' a St. John's or lesser Labra- 
dor Dog 126 

The Esquimaux Dog . .127 

" Top," a pure HuIIdog . .130 

The Cuban Mastiff . . . .136 
"Wallace," nn English Mastiff . . 137 
Tlic Mount St. Bcniard Dog .140 

The ThilMit Dog . . U2 

Tlic Toodlc 144 

" Psyche," a Maltese Bitch . 146 

The King Charles and Blenheim 

Spaniels 149 

** Punch " and " Tetty," Pugs . .152 
"Sting" a half-bred Terrier; and 

"Fox," a Fox Terrier . .161 

A Dog and Fox crossed Bitch .165 



dog 



IMOF. 

•• Half-and-half/' lirst Cross from the 
Bulldog 181 

" llicate," second Cross from the Bull- 

1S2 

** Hecuba," third Cross from the Bull- 
dog 183 

" ITystcrics," fourth Cross from the 

L.illdog 184 

Ground Plan of Greyhound Ken- 
nel 226 

Elevation of Greyhound Kennel . 227 

Plan of Kennel Bench for Hounds . 232 

Muir*8 Ventilating Apparatus . . 234 

Diagram of the principle upon which 

pointers should beat their ground 255 

Hunting with a ** Puzzle-peg " . . 260 



The Skeleton of the Dog 



. 332 



Teeth of the Dog at various ages . 335 
The Maw -worm . . .429 



The llound-wonu 
The TaiKJ-womi 

** (Segment of) 
The Kidnev-worm 



. 429 
. 431 
. 432 
. 434 



THE DOG. 



BOOK I. 

THE NATURAL HISTORY, ZOOLOGICA.L CLASSIFICATION, AND 

VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



B 




n in tliF Znologiol Gardfiu. 



INTRODDCTORY CHAPTER. 

Origin. — General Characterulics. — Habitat. — Varieties. — F. Cuvier*s Divi- 
Bional Arrangement. — Arrangement adopted bj the Author. 

FbOu the earliest times we have reaaoa to believe that the dog haa 
been the faithful companion and asBietant of man in all parts of the 
world, and his fidelity and attachment are so remarkable as to have 
become proverbiaL Before the introduction of agriculture, it was 
by means of tlie hunting powers of this ammal that man was 
enabled to support himself by pursuing the wild denizens of the 
forest; for though now, with the aid of gunpowder, he can in great 



4 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

measure dispense with the services of his assistant, yet, until the 
invention of that destnictive agent, he was, in default of the dog, 
reduced to the bow and arrow, the snare, or the pitfall. The dog 
was also of incalculable service in guarding the flocks and herds 
from the depredations of the Camivoray and even man himself 
was often glad to have recoiurse to his courage and strength in 
resisting the lion, the tiger, or the wolf. 

Much has been written on the origin of the dog, and Peimant, 
Buffon, and other naturalists have exhausted their powers of re- 
search and invention in attempting to discover the parent stock 
from which all are descended. The subject, however, is wrapped 
in so much obscurity as to bafHe all their efforts, and it is still a 
disputed point whether the shepherd's dog, as supposed by Bu£fon 
and Daniel, or the wolf, a.s conjectured by Bell, is the progenitor of 
the various breeds now existing. Anyhow, it is a most unprofitable 
speculation, and, being unsupported by proof of any kind, it can 
never be settled upon any reliable basis. We shall not, therefore, 
waste any space in entering upon this discussion, but leave our 
feaders to investigate the inquiry, if they think fit, in the pages 
of Buffon^ Linnaeus, Pennant, and Cuvier, and our most recent 
investigator, Professor Bell. It may, however, be observed that 
the old hypothesis of Pennant that the dog is only a domesticated 
jackal, crossed with the wolf or fox, though resuscitated by Mr. 
Bell, is now almost entirely exploded ; for while it accounts some- 
what ingeniously for the varieties which are met with, yet it is 
contradicted by the stubborn fact that, in the present day, the 
cross of the dog with either of these animals, if pi*oducedy is in- 



. ORIGIN OF THE DOG. 5* 

capable of continuing the species when paired with one of the 
same crossed breed. Nevertheless, it may be desirable to give 
Mr. Bell's reasons for thinking that the dog is descended from the 
wolf, which are as follows : — 

" In order to come to any rational conclusion on this head, it 
will be necessary to ascertain to what type the animal approaches 
most nearly, after having for many successive generations existed 
in a wild state, removed from the influence of domestication, and 
of association with mankind. Now we find that there are several 
different instances of the existence in dogs of such a state of 
wildness as to have lost even that common character of domes- 
tication, variety of colour and marking. Of these, two very re- 
markable ones are the dhole of India and the dingo of Australia. 
There is, besides, a half-reclaimed race amongst the Indians of 
North America, and another also partially tamed in South America, 
which deserve attention. And it is found that these races in 
different degrees, and in a greater degree as they are more wild, 
exhibit the lank and gaunt form, the lengthened limbs, the long 
and slender muzzle, and the great comparative strength which 
characterise the wolf; and that the tail of the Australian dog, 
which may be considered as the most remote from a state of 
domestication, assumes the slightly bushy form of that animal. 

" We have here a remarkable approximation to a well-known 
wild animal of the same genus, in races which, though doubtless 
descended from domesticated ancestors, have gradually assumed 
the wild condition ; and it is worthy of especial remark that the 
anatomy of the wolf, and its osteology in particular, does not 

B 3 



6 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

differ from that of the dog in general^ more than the different kinds 
of dogs do from each other. The cranium is absolutely similar^ and 
so are all, or nearly all, the other essential parts ; and, to strengthen 
still further the probability of their identity, the dog and wolf will 
readily breed together, and their progeny is fertile. The obliquity of 
the position of the eyes in the wolf is one of the characters in which 
it differs from the dog ; and, although it is very desirable not to 
rest too much upon the effects of habit on structure, it is not 
perhaps straining the point to attribute the forward direction of 
the eyes in the dog to the constant habit, for many successive gene- 
rations, of looking forward to his master, and obeying his voice."* 

Such is the state of the argument in favour of the original 
descent from the wolf, but, as far as it is foimded upon the breed- 
ing together of the wolf and dog, it applies also to the fox, which 
is now ascertained occasionally to be impregnated by the dog; but 
in neither case we believe does the progeny continue to be fertile 
if put to one of the same cross, and as this is now ascertained 
to be the only reliable test, the existence of the first cross stands 
for nothing. Indeed, experience shows us more and more clearly 
every year, that no reliance can be placed upon the test depending 
upon fertile intercommunion, which, especially in birds, is shown 
to be liable to various exceptions. Still it has been supported by 
respectable authorities, and for this reason we have given inser- 
tion to the above extract. 

* Beirs British Quadrupeds, pp. 196-7. 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DOG. 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

In every variety the dog is more or less endowed with a keen 
sight, strong powers of smelly sagacity almost amoimting to reason, 
and considerable speed, so that he is admirably adapted for all pur- 
poses connected with the pursuit of game. He is also furnished 
¥rith strong teeth, and courage enough to use them in defence of his 
master, and with muscular power sufficient to enable him to draw 
moderate weights, as we see in Kamtschatka and Newfoundland. 
Hence, among the old writers, dogs were divided into PugnaceSy /So- 
gaces, and Celeres ; but this arrangement is now superseded, various 
other systems having been adopted in modern times, though none 
perhaps much more satisfactory. Belonging to the division Verier 
brata, class Mammalia^ order Ferce^ family FelidcBy and sub- 
family Caninay the species is known as Cania famUiariSy the 
sub-family being distinguished by having two tubercular teeth be- 
hind the canines on the upper jaw, with non-retractile claws, while 
the dog itself differs from the fox with which he is grouped, in 
having a roimd pupil in the eye instead of a perpendicular slit, as 
is seen in that animal. 

The attempt made by Linnseus to distinguish the dog as having a 
tail curved to the left, is evidently without any reliable foimdation, 
as though there are far more with the tail on that side than on the 
right, yet many exceptions are to be met with, and among the pugs 
almost all the bitches wear their tails cm-led to the left. The defi- 

B 4 



8 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

nition therefore, of Canis familiaris caudd (sinistrorsum) recur- 
vatdy will not serve to separate the species from the others of the 
genus OaniSy as proposed by the Swedish naturalist. 



HABITAT. 

In almost every climate the dog is to be met with, from ICamt- 
Bchatka to Cape Horn, the chief exception being some of the 
islands in the Pacific Ocean ; but it is only in the temperate zone 
that he is to be found in perfection, the courage of the bulldog 
and the speed of the greyhound soon degenerating in tropical 
coimtries. In China and the Society Islands dogs are eaten, being 
considered great delicacies, and by the ancients the flesh of a young 
fat dog was highly prized, Hippocrates even describing that of an 
adult as wholesome and noiurishing. In a state of nature the dog 
is compelled to live on flesh which he obtains by himting, and 
hence he is classed among the Camivora ; but when domesticated 
he will live upon vegetable substances alone, such as oatmeal 
porridge, or bread made from any of the cereals, but thrives best 
upon a mixed diet of vegetable and animal substances ; and, indeed, 
the formation of his teeth is such as to lead us to suppose that by 
nature he is intended for it, as we shall hereafter find in discussing 
his anatomical structure. 



VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 

The varieties of the dog are extremely numerous, and, indeed, as 
they are apparently produced by crossing, which is still had recourse 
to, there is scarcely any limit to the numbers which may be described. 
It is a curious fact that large bitches frequently take a fancy to 
dogs so small as to be incapable of breeding with them; and in any 
case, if left to themselves, the chances are very great against their 
selecting mates of the same breed as themselves. The result is, 
that innumerable nondescripts are yearly bom, but as a certain 
number of breeds are described by writers on the dog, or defined by 
** dog-fanciers," these " mongrels," as they are called from not be- 
longing to them, are generally despised, and, however useful they 
may be, the breed is not continued. This, however, is not literally 
true, exceptions being made in favour of certain sorts which have 
been improved by admixture with others, such as the cross of the 
bulldog with the greyhound; the foxhound with the Spanish 
pointer; the bulldog with the terrier, &c. &c., all of which are 
now recognised and admitted into the list of valuable breeds, and 
not only are not considered mongrels, but on the contrary, 
are prized above the original strains from which they are descended. 
An attempt has been made by M. F. Cuvier to arrange these varie- 
ties under three primary divisions, which are founded upon the shape 
of the head, and the length of the jaws ; these being supposed by 
him to vary in accordance with the degree of cunning and scenting 
powers, which the animal possessing them displays. The following 



10 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

is his classification, which in the main is correct, and I shall adhere 
to it with trifling alterations in the pages of this book. 



F. Cuvier^s Divisional Arrangement 

I. mAtins. 

Cliaracteinsed by head more or less elongated ; parietal bones 
insensibly approaching each other; condyles of the lower jaw 
placed in a horizontal line with the upper molar teeth, exempli- 
fied by — 




Skull of Dingo. 

Sect. 1. Half-^'eclaimed dogs, hunting in packs ; such as the 
Dingo, the Dhole, the Pariah, &c. 

Sect. 2. Domesticated dogs, hunting in packs, or singly, but using 
the eye in preference to the nose ; as, for instance, the 
Albanian dog, Deerhound, &c. 

Sect. 3. Domesticated dogs, which hunt singly, and almost en- 
tirely by the eye. Example : the Greyhound. 



DIVISIONAL ARRANGEMENT OF DOGS. ll 



n. SPANIELS. 



Characteristics. Head moderately elongated ; parietal bones do 
not approach each other above the temples, but diverge and swell 
out, so as to enlarge the forehead and cavity of the brain. 




Skull of Spamel. 



Sect. 4. Pastoral dogSy or such as are employed for domestic 
purposes. Example : Shepherd's Dog. 

Sect. 5. Water dogs, which delight in swimming. Examples: 
Newfoundland Dog, Water-Spaniel, &c. 

Sect. 6. Fowlers, or such as have an inclination to chase or point 
birds by scenting only, and not killing. Examples: 
the Setter, the Pointer, the Field-Spaniel, &c. 

Sect. 7. Hounds, which hunt in packs by scent, and kill their 
game. Examples : the Foxhound, the Harrier, &c. 

Sect. 8. Crossed breeds, for sporting purposes. Example : the 
Retriever. 



INTBODUCTORY CHAPTKR. 



IIL HOUSE DOGS. 



Cha/ractanati^x. Muzzle more or less shortened; akull h^li; 
bootal sinusee cousiderable ; condyle of the lower jaw extending 
above the line of the upper cheek teeth. Cranium smaller in this 
group than in the first and second, in consequence of iia peculiar 
formation. 




Skull ufUuiiK 



Sect. 9. Watch dogs which have no propensity to hunt, but are 
solely employed in the defence of man, or his pro- 
perty. Examples : the Mastiff, the Bulldog, the Pug 
dog, &c. 

As before remarked, this division is on the whole founded on 
natural laws, but there are some anomalies which we shall en- 
deavour to remove. For instance, the greyhound is quite as ready 
to bunt in packs as any otlier hound, and is only prevented from 
doing so by tlie hand of liia muster. Tlie same restraint keeps him 



DIVISIONAL ARRANGEMENT OF DOGS. 13 

from using his nose, or he could soon be nearly as good with that 
organ as with the eye. So also Cuvier defines his sixth section as 
** having an inclination to chase and point birds/* whereas they 
have as great, and often a greater, desire for hares and rabbits. 
Bearing therefore in mind these trifling defects, we shall consider 
the dog imder the following heads : — 

Chap. I. Wild and half-reclaimed dogs, hunting in packs. 

Chap. II. Domesticated dogs, hunting chiefly by the eye, and 

killing their game for the use of man. 

Chap. III. Domesticated dogs, hunting chiefly by the nose, and 

both finding and killing their game. 

Chap. IV. Domesticated dogs, finding game by scent, but not 

killing it ; being chiefly used in aid of the gun. 

Chap. V. Pastoral dogs, and those used for the purposes of 
draught. 

Chap. VL Watch dogs. House dogs, and Toy dogs. 

Chap. VII. Crossed breeds. Retrievers, &c. 




Wild and hair-recUimed Duge, Lunting in Pauka.— The Ditigci.— 'Ilie Dliule. 
— Tbe Pariah. — 'ITie VIM Dog of Africa. — The South-Amerioaii Dor. — 
Tliu North- American Dog. — Other wild Doga. 



THE DINGO. 

It is upon the great Bimilarity between tbeBe wild dogs and tbe 
wolf ot fox, that the suppositioii is founded of tbe geneial descent 
of the domesticated dog from either tbe one or the other. After 
examining the portrait of tbe dingo, it will at once be seen that it 
renemhles the fox so closely in the shape of its body, that an 



THE DINGO THE DHOLE. 15 

ordinary observer could readily mistake it for one of that species, 
while the head is that of the wolf. The muzzle is long and pointed, 
the ears short and erect. Height about 24 inches, length 30 
inches. His coat is more like fur than hair, and is composed of 
a mixture of silky and woolly hair, the former being of a deep 
yellow, while the latter is grey. The tail is long and bushy, and 
resembles that of the fox, excepting in carriage, the dingo curling 
it over the hip, while the fox trails it along the ground.* While in 
his unreclaimed state this dog is savage and unmanageable, but 
is easily tamed, though even then he is not to be trusted, and 
when set at liberty will endeavour to escape. Many dingoes have 
been brought to this country, and some of its crosses with the 
terrier have been exhibited as hybrids between the dog and fox, 
which latter animal they closely resemble, with the single exception 
of the pendulous taiL Whenever, therefore, a specimen is pro- 
duced which is said to be this hybrid, evei-y care must be taken to 
ascertain the real parentage without relying upon the looks alone. 



THE DHOLE. 



The native wild dog of India, called the dhole, resembles the 
dingo, in all but the tail, which, though hairy, is not at all bushy. 
The following is Captain Williamson's description, extracted from 
his ** Oriental Field Sports," which is admitted to be a very accurate 

* The engraviDg of the Dingo was taken from an nniiual in confinement, in 
which state the tail is seldom curled upwards. 



16 WILD AND HALF-RECLAIMED DOGS. 

account by those who have been much in India. '^The dholes are 
of the size of a small greyhoimd. Their countenance is enlivened 
by unusually brilliant eyes. Their body, which is slender and 
deep-chested, is thinly covered by a coat of hair of a reddish brown 
or bay colour. The tail is dark towards its extremity. The limbs 
are light, compact, and strong, and equally calculated for speed 
and power. They resemble many of the common pariah dogs in 
form, but the singularity of their colour and marks at once de- 
monstrate an evident distinction. These dogs are said to be 
perfectly harmless if unmolested. They do not willingly approach 
persons, but, if they chance to meet any in their course, they do 
not show any particular anxiety to escape. They view the human 
race rather as objects of curiosity than either of apprehension 
or enmity. The natives who reside near the Eanochitty and 
Katcunsandy passes, in which vicinity the dholes may frequently 
be seen, describe them as confining their attacks entirely to wild 
animals, and assert that they will not prey on sheep, goats, &c. ; 
but others, in the country extending southward from Jelinah and 
Mechungunge, maintain that cattle are frequently lost by their de- 
predations. I am inclined to believe that the dhole is not parti- 
cularly ceremonious, but will, when opportunity offers, and a meal 
is wanting, obtain it at the expense of the neighbouring village. 

** The peasants likewise state that the dhole is eager in propor- 
tion to the animal he hunts, preferring the elk to any other kind 
of deer, and particularly seeking the royal tiger. It is probable 
that the dhole is the principal check on the multiplication of the 
tiger; and although incapable individually, or perhaps in small 



THE PARIAH. 17 

numbers, to effect the destruction of so large and ferocious an 
animal, mayj from their custom of hunting in packs, easily over- 
come any smaller beast found in the wilds of India." Unlike 
most dogs which hunt in packs the dholes run nearly mute, utter- 
ing only occasionally a sliglit whimper, which may serve to guide 
their companions equally well with the more sonorous tongues of 
other hounds. The speed and enduiance of these dogs are so great 
as to enable them to run down most of the varieties of game which 
depend upon flight for safety, while the tiger, the elk, and the 
boar diminish the numbers of these animals by making an 
obstinate defence with their teeth, claws, or horns, so that the 
breed of dholes is not on the increase. 



THE PARIAH. 

This is the general name in India for the half-reclaimed dogs 
which swarm in every village, owned by no one in particular, but 
ready to accompany any individual on a hunting excursion. They 
vary in appearance in different districts, and cannot be described 
very particularly; but the type of the pariah may be said to 
resemble the dhole in general characteristics, and the breed is most 
probably a cross with that dog and any accidental varieties of 
domesticated dogs which may have been introduced into the respec- 
tive localities. They are almost always of a reddish brown colour, 
very thin and gaunt, with pricked ears, deep ctiest, and tucked up 
belly. The native Indians liunt the tiger and wild boar, as well as 



18 WILD AND HALF-RECLAIMED DOGS. 

every species of game, with these dogs, which have good noses and 
hunt well, and though they are not so high-couraged as our British 
hounds, yet they often display considerable avidity and detennina* 
tion in " going in " to their formidable opponents. 



THE EKIA, OR WILD AFRICAN DOG. 

The native dogs of Africa are of all colours, black, brown, and 
yellow, or red ; and they hunt in packs, giving tongue with con- 
siderable force. Though not exactly wild, they are not owned by 
any individuals among the inhabitants, who, being mostly Ma- 
hometans, have an abhorrence of the dog, which by the Koran is 
declared to be unclean. Hence they are complete outcasts, and 
obtain a scanty living either by hunting wild animals where they 
abound, or, in those populous districts where game is scarce, by 
devouring the oflFal which is left in the streets and outskirts of the 
towns. The Uklay also called the Deab, is of considerable size, 
with a large head, small pricked ears, and round muzzle. His 
aspect in general resembles that of the wolf, excepting in colom*, 
which, as above remarked, varies greatly, and in the tail, which is 
almost always spotted or variegated, Tliese dogs are extremely 
savage, probably from the constant abuse which they meet with, 
and they are always ready to attack a stranger on his entrance 
into any of the villages of the country. They are revolting animals, 
and unworthy of the species they belong to. 



AFRICAN AND AMERICAN DOGS. 19 



THE NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICAN DOGS. 

A great variety of the dog tribe is to be met with throughout 
the continent of America, resembling in type the dingo of Austra- 
lia, but appearing to be crossed with some of the diflferent kinds 
introduced by Europeans. One of the most remarkable of the 
South-American dogs is the Alco^ which has pendulous ears, with 
a short tail and hog-back, and is supposed to be descended from 
the native dog found by Columbus ; but, even allowing this to be 
the case, it is of com*se much intermixed with foreign breeds. The 
North-American dogs are very closely allied to the dingo in all 
respects, but are generally smaller in size, and are also much 
crossed with European breeds. In some districts they burrow in 
the ground, but the march of civilisation is yearly diminishing 
their numbers throughout the continent of America. 



OTHER WILD DOGS. 



Many other varieties of the wild dog are described by travellers, 
but they all resemble one or other of the above kinds, and are of 
little interest to the general reader. 



c 2 




CHAPTER II. 



Tlie Kougb Scotch Grej-hoiind and Deerliound. — The Smooth or English 
Greyhound. — The Gnzehound.— The Irish Greyhound, or Wolf-dog. — The 
French Mdtin. — The Hare-Indian Dog. — The Albanian Dog.— The Grecian 
Greyhound. — The Turkish Greyhoiitid. — The Persian Greyhound. — The 
RuBsisn Greyhound. — The Italian Greyhound. 

THE ROUGH SCOTCH GREYHOUND AND DEERHOUND. 
Tain breed of dogs is, I believe, one of the oldest and purest in 
exlsU'nce. but it is now nipidly Itecoming extinct. l)ein{r supplanted 



BOUGH SCOTCH GREYHOUND AND DEERHOUND. 21 

in public estimation, for coursing purposes, by the English grey- 
hound, or by a cross between the two. The rough greyhound is 
identical in shape and make with the pure deerhound, and the two 
can only be distinguished by their style of running when at work 
or play ; the deerhound, though depending on his nose, keeping his 
head much higher than the greyhound, because he uses this attitude 
in waiting to pull down his game. By some people it is supposed 
that the smooth variety of the gi-eyhound is as old as the rough ; 
but, on carefully examining the description given by Arrian, no 
one can doubt that the dog of his day was rough in his coat, and 
in all respects like the present Scotch dog. In shape the Scotch 
greyhound resembles the ordinaiy smooth variety, but he is rather 
more lathy, and has not quite the same muscular development of 
loin and thigh, though, the bony frame being more fully developed, 
this is perhaps more apparent than real. 

In spite of the external forai being the same in the rough Scotch 
greyhound used for coursing hares, and the deerhound, there can 
be no doubt that the two breeds, from having been kept to their 
own game exclusively, are specially adapted to its pursuit by in- 
ternal organisation, and the one cannot be substituted for the 
other with advantage. Generally speaking, the deerhound is of 
larger size than the greyhound, some being 28 inches high, 
though this size is not very imcommon in the greyhound, and 
dogs of 26^ or 27 inches are often seen. Mr. Scrope, the talented 
author of *' Deer-stalking," gives the following description of 
Buskar, a celebrated deerhound belonging to Captain McNeill 
of Colonsay, viz.: height, 28 inches; girth round the chest, 32 

•c 3 



22 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

inches ; running weight, 85 lbs. ; colour, red or fawn, with black 
muzzle. To these external qualifications were added great speed 
and strength, combined with endurance and courage, while the 
sagacity and docility of the dog made him doubly valuable. He 
was used for coursing the deer, but his nose was good enough for 
hunting, even a cold scent, as was the case with all of his breed. 
Whether or not the deerhound can now be procured in a state of 
purity I am not prepared to say, but that they are extiemely 
rai*e is above dispute, though there are numberless animals re- 
sembling them in form, but all more or less crossed with the 
foxhoimd, bloodhound, bulldog, &c., and consequently not abso- 
lutely pure. Mr. Scrope himself, with all his advantages, could 
not succeed in obtaining any, and had recourse to the cross of 
the greyhoimd with the foxhound, which, he says, answered par- 
ticularly well; as, according to his experience, **you get the 
speed of the greyhound with just enough of the nose of the 

foxhound to answer your pm-pose In point of shape they 

resemble the greyhoimd, but they are larger in the bone and 
shorter in the leg. Some of them, when in slow action, carry the 
tail over the back like the pure foxhound ; their dash in making a 
cast is most beautiful, and they stand all sorts of rough weather." 
(p. 314.) He advises that the first cross only should be employed, 
fearing that, as in some other instances, the ultimate results of 
breeding back to either strain, or of going on with the two crosses, 
would be unsatisfactory. " Maida," the celebrated deerhound be- 
longing to Sir Walter Scott> was a cross of the greyhoimd with the 
bloodhound, but some distance off the latter. The bulldog in- 



ROUGH SCOTCH GREYHOUND AND DEERHOUND. 23 

fusion has the disadvantage of making the deerhound thus bred 
attack the deer too much in front, by which he is almost sure to 
be impaled on the horns, so that, in spite of the high courage of 
the breed, it is from this cause quite useless in taking deer. 

The rough Scotch greyhoimd, as used for coursing, averages 
about 26 inches in the dog, and 22 or 23 inches in the bitch ; 
but, as above remarked, its use is almost abandoned in public, 
and those which are still bred are either used in private, or 
are kept entirely for their ornamental properties, which are 
very considerable, and, as they resemble the deerhound, they are 
very commonly passed oflF for them. They are of all colours, 
but the most common are fawn, red, brindled (either red and black 
mixed, or fawn and blue), grey, and black. The coat is harsh, 
long, and rough, especially about the jaws, where the hair stands 
out like that of a Scotch terrier. In speed they are about equal 
to the smooth greyhound, but they do not appear to be quite so 
Rtout^ though of late we have had no opportunities of judging, as 
a rough greyhound in public is rare in the extreme. Mr. A. 
Graham, who formerly was celebrated for his breed of these dogs, 
has now abandoned their use, excepting when largely crossed with 
the smooth greyhound, for which purpose they seem well suited, 
when the former are too small or too delicate for the work they 
have to do. But as these are now bred of a much more hardy 
kind than formerly, so that they will stand cold and wet almost as 
well as the Scotch dog, there is little necessity for resorting to the 
cross, and it is accordingly abandoned by almost all the breeders 
of the animal. Nevertheless, some of the best dogs of the present 

c 4 



24 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

day have a strain of the rough dog in them, but it is gradu- 
ally dying out as compared with ten or twenty years ago. It is 
alleged, and I fancy with some truth, that the rough dog runs 
cunning sooner than the smooth, and hence the cross is objected 
to; and certainly many litters of greyhounds bred in this way 
within the last few years have been remarkable for this objection- 
able vice. 

The jpointSy or desirable external chai-acteristics of this breed, 
with the exception of the rough coat, are so similar to those of 
the smooth greyhound, that the two may be considered together* 



THE SMOOTH GREYHOUND. 

This elegant animal appears to have existed in Britain from a 
very early period, being mentioned in a very old Welsh proverb, 
and a law of King Canute having precluded the commonalty from 
keeping him. Numberless hypotheses have been brought forward 
relative to the origin of the greyhoimd, Buffon tracing him to the 
French nation, and some other writers fancying that they could 
with more probability consider him as the descendant of the bull- 
dog or the mastiff. But as I believe that it is impossible to 
ascertain with any degree of certainty the origin of the species 
CaniSy so I am quite satisfied with the conclusion that no long- 
standing variety can be traced to its source. We must, therefore, 
be content to take each as we find it, and rest content with in- 
vestigating its present condition ; perhaps in some cases extending 



SMOOTH GREVHOUND. 



our researches back for fifty or a huodred years, and even then we 
8hall often find that we are lost in a sea of doubt. 




..'Hpniii DiiiDlne'ii " KiMO Cub.' 



Until within the last twenty-five years pubhc coutsing was 
confined to a very limited circle of competitors, partly owing to 
the careful retention of the hest blond in the kennels of a chosen 
few, but chiefly to the existing game laws, which made it impera- 
tive that every person coiirsing should not only have a certificate. 



26 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

but also a qualification, that is to say, the* possession of landed 
property to the value of one himdred pounds per annum. Hence 
the sport was forbidden to the middle classes, and it was not until 
the passing of the present game laws, in 1831, that it was thrown 
open to them. From that time to the present the possession of the 
greyhound has been coveted and obtained by great numbers of 
country gentlemen and farmers in rural districts^ and by pro- 
fessional men as well as tradesmen in our cities and towns^ so that 
the total number in Great Britain and Ireland may be estimated 
at about fifteen or twenty thousand. Of these about five or six 
thousand are kept for public coursing, while the remainder amuse 
their owners by coursing the hare in private. 

Various explanations have been offered of the etymology of the 
prefix greyy some contending that the colom- is implied, others that 
it means Greek {Q-raiu8\ while a third party understand it to mean 
greed. But as there is a remarkable peculiarity in this breed con- 
nected with it, we need not, I think, go farther for the derivation. 
No other breed, I believe, has the blue or grey colour prevalent ; 
and those which possess it at all have it mixed with white, or other 
colour ; as, for instance, the bbie-mottled harrier, and the blotched 
blue and brown seen in some other kinds. The greyhound, on the 
contrary, has the piue blue or iron grey colour very commonly; and 
although this shade is not admired by any lovers of the animal for 
its beauty, it will make its appearance occasionally. Hence it may 
fairly be considered a peculiarity of the breed, and this grey colour 
may, therefore, with a fair show of probability, have given the 
name to the greyhound. 



SMOOTH GBEYHOUl^D. 27 

In describing the greyhound it is usual, and indeed ahnost 
necessaiy, to consider him as used for the two purposes already 
mentioned, that is to say, — Ist, as the private, and 2ndly, as the 
public, greyhound; for though externally there is no difference 
whatever, yet in the more delicate organisation of his brain and 
nerves there is some obscure variation, by which he is rendered 
more swift and clever in the one case, and more stout and honest 
in the other. In the horse the eye readily detects the thorough- 
bred, but this is not the case here ; for there are often to be met 
with most beautifully formed gi'eyhounds of private blood, which 
it would be impossible to distinguish from the best public breeds 
by their appearance, but which in actual trial would be sure to 
show defective speed and cleverness. This being the case I shall 
first describe the general characteristics of both, and afterwards 
those in which they differ from one another. 

The points oi the greyhound will be described at length, because, 

as far as speed goes, he may be taken as the type to which all 

other breeds are referred ; but, before going into these particulars, 

it will be interesting to examine the often-quoted doggrel rhymes, 

which are founded upon a longer effusion originally published by 

Wynkyn de Worde in 1496, and to institute a comparison between 

the greyhounds of the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the 

former of these periods it was said that this dog should have — 

'* The head of a snake, 
The neck of the drake, 
A back Hke a beam, 
A side like a bream, 
The tul of a rat. 
And the foot of a cat/^ 



28 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

Now, although the several points herein mentioned may be en- 
larged upon, it is scarcely possible to dissent from any one of them; 
but, as all my readers may not exactly know the form which is 
meant to be conveyed by the side of a bream for instance, it is 
necessary to explain it in more intelligible language. 

1st. The HEAD, it is said, should be snake-like, but this is not to 
be taken literally, as that of the snake differs considerably from 
the head of any specimen of the greyhotmd which has ever come 
under my observation. Every snake's head is flat and broad, with 
the nose or snout also quite compreased, while the head of the 
greyhound, though flat at the top, is comparatively circular in its 
transverse section, and the nose is irregularly triangular. There is 
no doubt that the greyhound of former days, before the cross of the 
bulldog was introduced, had a much smaller head than that which 
is now seen; and I also believe that some breeds at present 
existing may be ascertained to be free from this cross, by their 
small brain-cases ; but, still, none have the perfectly flat head of the 
reptile in question. The tyro, therefore, who looks for a literal 
interpretation of the first line of the rhyme will be disappointed* 
My own belief is that a full development of brain gives courage 
and cleverness, but leads to such a rapid acquirement of knowledge 
relative to the wiles practised by the hare, as to make the dog 
possessing it soon useless for anything but killing his game, which 
he is often able to do with absolute certainty. Hence it is im- 
portant to bear this in mind, and to take care not to overdo this 
characteristic. In all cases, the more the development is increased 
behind the ears, the higher will be the courage ; and if this can be 



SMOOTH GREYHOUND. 29 

obtained without a corresponding increase in the diameter in front 
of those organs, there will be no attendant disadvantage, as the 
intellectual faculties no doubt reside in the anterior part of the 
brain. llie best average measiurement opposite the ear in 
dogs of full size is about 15 inches, and for bitches, 14 or 14^. 
The jaw should be very lean, and diminishing suddenly from 
the head, not gradually falling oflF in one uniform line. The 
teeth are of great importance, as, unless they are strong and good, 
the hare cannot be seized and held. They should be white, 
strong, and regular, showing strength of constitution, as well as 
being useful in the course. As a rule, the incisor teeth meet 
each other, but some dogs are underhung like the bidldog, and 
others the reverse like the pig ; that is to say, one or other set of 
teeth overlaps those above or below, as the case may be. The 
former is not of much consequence imless very much marked, 
when it diminishes the chance of holding the hare; but the 
latter is certainly prejudicial, and a "pig-jawed" greyhound 
should never be selected, though I have known one or two good 
killers with this formation. The eye should be bright and tole- 
rably full, the colour varying with that of the coat. The ears are 
generally recommended to be soft and falling, and pricked ears 
are despised, as being terrier-like, but some good breeds possess 
them, nevertheless, probably deriving them from the bulldog. I 
cannot, therefore, lay any great stress upon this point in the 
formation of the head. 

The NECK also, though compared to that of a drake, is a long 
way from being as thin, but, nevei-theless, it may be «iid that it 



30 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

should be as drake-like as possible. The object of this is to enable 
the greyhound to stoop and bear the hare without being put out of 
his stride. The proper average length of the neck is about equal 
to that of the head. 

The beam-like back is all-important, for without strength in this 
department, though high speed may be obtained for a short 
distance, it is impossible to maintain it, and then we have a flashy 
animal, who is brought up at the end of a quarter of a mile. 
What is meant by the comparison to the beam is not only that it 
shall be strong, but that the back shall have the peculiar square 
form of that object. There is a long muscle which runs from the 
hip forwards to be attaclied to the angles of the ribs, and this, if 
well developed, gives great power in turning, so that it is a very es- 
sential point, and upon the size of it the squareness mainly depends. 
Without width of hip no back can be strong, since the muscles have 
no possibility of attachment in suf&cient breadth, and the same may 
be said of the ribs. In examining, therefore, a dog out of condi- 
tion, the experienced eye often detects the probability of the future 
development of a good back, even though there is no appearance 
of muscle at the time ; because, the bones being of good size and 
breadth, there is every reason to expect, with health and good feed- 
ing, that they will be covered by their usual moving powers, 
and will then show the substance which is desired. It is also desi- 
rable to have depth of back from above downwards, by which the 
whole body is *' buckled and unbuckled " with quickness and power, 
as is required in the gallop. The muscles of the abdomen may 
draw the client towards the hind legs powerfully, but the action is 



SMOOTH GREYHOUND. 81 

too slow^ and for quick contraction those of the under side of the 
back are essential. 

By the side is to be understood the chesty which is composed of 
the two sides combined. The bream-like form of this part depends 
upon the width at the angles of the ribs, where they curve to- 
wards the backbone, and upon which, as I before observed, the size 
of the back depends. Very round ribs like a barrel are not so de- 
sirable as the squared form which I have alluded to, for several 
reasons which will be given under the anatomical description of this 
part. Great depth of chest is apt to prevent the dog stooping on 
rough ground, as he strikes it against high ridges or large stones, 
but a moderately deep chest is a valuable point, giving plenty of 
" bellows' room " as it is popularly called. This, however, is pro- 
vided for better by breadth than depth, and the former should be 
insisted on more than the latter, provided there is not that round 
tub-like form of the ribs which interferes with the action of the 
shoulder-blades, and often accompanies low breeding. 

A rat-like tail is insisted upon, not as of absolute use in any way, 
but as a sign of high breeding, without which it is well known the 
greyhound is comparatively valueless. But it must be understood 
that it is only in the size of the bones that the similarity should be 
insisted on, for many good breeds have a considerable quantity of 
hair upon the tail, though this never ought to be in a bushy form. 
A slight fan-like distribution of hair is not therefore to be con- 
sidered objectionable, and in puppies is a mark of hardihood. 

Cat-like feet are much insisted on, and this point has been so 
much attended to that some breeds have been produced remaikable 



%'2 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

for having their feet even more round than those of the cat. Their 
toes seem to he the only parts touching the ground, the pad ap- 
pearing as if it was not in contact with it. This form I believe to 
be an exaggeration of a good point, as all dogs so provided are very 
apt to draw their nails, or break their toes, both of which accidents 
it is of great importance to avoid. The most essential point, there- 
fore, is such a form of foot as will prevent the toes spreading, 
taking care that the knuckles are well up, by which a good foot- 
hold is secured. But beyond this it is necessary to provide for the 
wear and tear which the sole of the foot incurs, and hence a thick 
pad well covered with hard akin is to be insisted on. If the grey- 
hound has this he will stand his work, while its absence renders him 
at all times liable to become footsore, and incapable of doing it. 

The HIND QUARTER is entirely overlooked in the rhymes above- 
mentioned, but it is of the greatest importance nevertheless, being 
the chief element of progression. First of all, we should insist 
upon a good framework, which, presenting the levers acted on by 
the muscles, must be in proper form, and of sufficient length and 
strength. Thus it is usual in examining puppies for selection to 
extend them to their full length, and then the one which stretches 
over the greatest distance is supposed to be the best in this pointy 
and (other things being equal) very properly so. Thus, then, we 
arrive at the conclusion that the hinder limbs should be made up of 
long bones ; but they must be united by well-formed joints, and in 
order that the dog shall not stand too high they should be well 
bent, though if the fore pail of the dog is lower than the hind there 
is no necessity for the presence of this form, as it comes to the same 



SMOOTH GREYHOUND. 8» 

thing in realily. Strong bony stifle-joints and bocks, witb great 
lengtb between them and from the stifle to the hip, united with a 
short leg, constitute the perfection of form in the hind quarter, if, 
as is almost always the case, the muscles covering them are strong 
enough to put them in action. 

The FOKE QUABTER is composcd of the shoulder, the upper arm 
(between it $tnd the elbow), the fore-arm (below the elbow), the 
knee, the leg, and the foot. The shoulder should be oblique, well 
covered with muscles, and moving freely on the ribs, which it sel- 
dom does if the two blades are kept wide apart at their upper 
edges by the tub-like form of the chest, described under that head* 
Hence we should examine, and anxiously look for, length of 
shoulder-blade, which cannot exist without obliquity ; freedom of 
play, without which the fore quarter is not protruded in the gallop 
as it ought to be ; and musculai' development to bear the shocks to 
which this part is subject* The arm also should be long, so as to 
raise the point of the shoulder high enough to make the blade lie 
at an angle of 45** with the horizon, and to throw the elbow 
well back to take the weight of the body. With regard to the 
elbow itself, the joint must be placed in the same plane as the body ; 
that is to say, the point of the elbow should not project either in- 
wards or outwards. In the former case the feet are tiumed out, and 
then there is a want of liberty in the play of the whole shoulder, 
because the elbow rubs against the ribs, and interferes with the 
action. This is called being ^^ tied at the elbow," and is most care- 
fully to be avoided in selecting the greyhound, as well as all other 
breeds. The arm should be straight, long, and well clothed with 

D 



34 I>OME«TICATED IIUNTING-DOGS. 

muscle. The knee should be bony, and not bent too much back, 
which is an element of weakness, though seldom to such an extent 
as to be prejudicial to real utility. The leg, or bones below the 
knee, should be of good size, the stopper (or upper pad) well 
united to it, and firm in texture, and supported upon a foot of the 
formation recommended under that head. 

The COLOURS commonly met with among high-bred greyhounds 
are black, blue, red, fawn, brindled, and white, variously mixed. 
There are also sometimes seen cream, yellow, brown, dun, and grey 
dogs. When a plain colour is speckled with small whit^ marks, 
the dog is said to be ticked. The black, red, and fawn are the 
most highly prized by most coursers, especially when the last two 
have black muzzles. Some people are partial to blue dogs, of 
which several good specimens have been met with, as may also be 
said of the brindled colour, but, as before remarked, the general 
opinion is in favour of black, red, and fawn. I believe that black, 
red, and white may be considered as the primary colours, and that 
the others arise out of their mixture in breeding. Thus a black 
dog and a white bitch will produce either blacks, whites, black and 
whites, blues, or greys ; while a red dog and white bitch will have 
red, white, fawn, red and white, yellow, or cream puppies. Black 
and red united together make the red with black muzzle or the 
black brindle, while the blue and fawn give rise to the blue brindle; 
or sometimes we see the black or blue-tanned colour, as we meet 
with commonly enough in the setter, spaniel, and terrier. Mr. 
Thacker was of opinion, with some of the early writers on tlie 
greyhound, that the brindle was a mark of the descent from the 



SMOOTH GREYHOUND. 35 

bulldog; but^ as nothing is known of the time when the colour 
first appeared, no reliance can be placed on the hypothesis. 

The texture of the coat is the last point upon which any re- 
liance is placed, but, as far as my experience goes, there is little to 
be gained from it. Nevertheless, I should always discard a very 
soft woolly coat as being an evidence of a weak constitution, unable 
to bear exposure to weather, and, on that account, unfit for the 
purposes of the courser. The old breeds were, many of them, very 
bald about the cheeks and thighs, and this used to be considered 
a mark of good blood; but, since the intermixture of the rough 
greyhound, most of our best sorts have been free from this pecu- 
liarity, and many of them have had hard rough coats, quite unlike 
the fine and thin hair, which was formerly so highly prized. My 
own impression is in favour of a firm, glossy, and somewhat greasy- 
feeling, coarse coat, which stands wetting well, and at the same 
time looks healthy and handsome to the eye. 

Various distinct breeds or strains have long been known as 
the Newmarket, Wiltshire, Lancashire, Yorkshire, and smooth 
Scotch greyhounds ; but these are now so completely amalgamated 
that it is useless to attempt a description of them. Twenty years 
ago, the Newmarket dog was a distinct animal from that used in 
Wiltshire, but it would be wholly impossible in the present day to 
find a single specimen of either uncrossed with the blood of some 
other variety. If, however, any of my readers wish, from motives 
of curiosity, for a definite description of these strains, it may be 
found in "The Greyhound," where they are all described most 
minutely. Public coursing has now reached such a pitch, that 

D 2 



36 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

those who indulge in it take care to select the best blood which is 
to be obtained, and readily send two or three hundred miles for it. 
Hence, locality has now little to do with it, and throughout Great 
Britain and Ireland the public greyhound is the same animal. 
Newmarket, which used to be the grand centre of the coursing 
world, is now fallen from its high position, and neither produces 
first-class dogs, nor coursing meetings of a corresponding character. 
Scotland, on the other hand, which formerly had its own breed of 
smooth greyhounds, has lately taken up the mantle fallen firom the 
shouldei's of Newmarket, and has not only usurped her breed of 
dogs, but has established most numerously supported meetings in 
various localities. Almost all her modem strains are thence de- 
scended, but some are also dependent upon old Lancashire blood, 
as, for example, Mr. Borron's "Bluelight" strain, and Mr. Wilson's 
** King Lear.** It is true that there is an infusion of old Scotch 
blood in nearly all of these dogs, but that of the south and midland 
district greatly preponderates; as, for instance, Mr. Gibson's "Sam," 
"Jacobite," and "Caledonian;" Mr. Wilson's "King Lear," and 
sisters; the various descendants of " Japhet," " Baron," and " Hughie 
Graham," as well as of Sir James Boswell's "Jason," and Mr. 
Sharpe's " Monarch ; " all of southern descent. Lancashire has still 
some strains peculiar to herself, which have suffered no intermixture 
for many years, and the same may be said of the Yorkshire blood ; 
but these are exceptions to the general rule, for nine tenths of the 
greyhounds in these districts are now crossed with Scotch or New- 
market blood, through " King Cob," or " Jason," or some of their 
descendants. Indeed, it is now extremely rare to meet with any 



SMOOTH GREYHOUND. 37 

first-class breed of greyhounds which has not the name of one or 
other of these dogs in their pedigrees; and, as in former years it 
was thought necessary to trace every dog if possible up to 
"Snowball,'* so now, if it can be asserted that a favourite is 
descended from " King Cob," it is considered that a good claim 
to high breeding has been made out^. 

In the CHOICE of a greyhound I have already observed 
that we must be guided by other considerations besides make 
and shape, depending greatly upon the precise object which the 
intending possessor has in view, since, although the high-bred 
and low-bred greyhounds are alike externally, yet there is in 
their internal structiure some diflference beyond the ken of our 
senses. But, as it is found by experience that in this particular 
**like produces like," it is only necessary to be assured that 
the parents possessed this internal formation, whatever it may 
be, in order to be satisfied that their descendants will inherit it 
Thus we arrive at the necessity for " good breed," or " piu-e blood," 
as the same thing is called in diflferent language, both merely 
meaning that the ancestors, for some generations, have been 
remarkable for the possession of the qualities most desired, what- 
ever they may be. Hence, in selecting greyhounds to breed from, 
the pedigree for many generations is scrutinised with great care, 
and if there is a single flaw it is looked at with suspicion, because 
the bad is almost sure to peep out through any amount of good 
blood. 

The modes of breeding, managing, breaking, and using the 
greyhound are entered into in the next part. 

D 3 



38 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 



THE GAZEHOUND. 

This breed is now lost^ and it is very di£Scult to ascertain in 
what respects it diflfered from the greyhound. Bewick describes it 
minutely, but he does not appear to have any authority for what 
he writes on this particular. 



THE IRISH GREYHOUND, OR WOLF-DOG. 

This fine animal is now, I believe, extinct, though there are 
still some gentlemen who maintain that they possess the breed in 
all its pristine purity of blood. They were much larger than the 
deerhound ; some of them being 35 or even 38 inches high, but 
resembling that dog in shape, being generally of a fawn colour, with 
a rough coat, and pendent ears. They were formerly used for the 
piurpose of himting the wolf. 



THE MATIN. 



The IVench matin is not a very distinct dog, comprehending an 
immense variety of animals, which in England would be called 
lurchers, or sheep dogs, according to the uses to which they are 
put. The head has the elongated form of this division of the dog, 
with a flat forehead ; the ears stand up, but are pendulous towards 
the tip^ and the colour varies from red to fawn. He is about 24 
inches high, has strong muscular action, and is very courageous, 



M^TIN. — HARG-INDIAN DOG. 10 

being employed ia hobdng the wild boar and wolf. This dog 
is 8ud, by F. Cuvier, to be the progenitor of the greyhound and 
deerhound; but Pennant, on the contrary, considers him to be 
dencended from the Irish wolf-dog. 




The Kir* Inituin nnfi (^eoMt ) 

THE HARE-INDIAN DOG. 

The specimen belimging to the Zoological Socie^, from which 
the above cut was taken, is now dead, and, I believe, there is no 
longer one of the variety in England. At one time there were 
three in the gardens of the Society, but for want of exercise none 
of the dog« throve there, and they now are entirely absent from the 



40 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

otherwise rich and valuable collection. The general shape of the 
body would induce us to class this dog with the spaniels or pas- 
toral dogs^ but the shape of the head being allowed to be the best 
guide, it must take the place which is here given it, inasmuch as 
it has all the characteristics of the first division. The Hare-Indian 
dog inhabits the country watered by the Mackenzie River, and the 
Great Bear Lake of America, where it is used to hunt the moose 
and reindeer hy sighty aided occasionally by its powers of scent, 
which are by no means contemptible, but kept in abeyance by 
disuse. The feet are remarkable for spreading on the snow, so as to 
prevent them from sinking into it, and to enable the dog to bound 
lightly over a surface which the moose sinks into at every 
stride. The height is about 25 inches, combined with great 
strength. The ears are broad at the base, and pointed towards the 
tips, being perfectly erect. The tail is thick, bushy, and slightly 
curved, but not so much so as in the Esquimaux dog. The hair 
is long and straight; the groimd colour being white, marked with 
large irregular patches of greyish black, shaded with brown. 



THE ALBANIAN DOG. 



The Albanian dog is said to stand about 27 or 28 inches 
high, with a long pointed muzzle, powerful body, strong and 
muscular limbs, and a long bushy tail, carried like that of the 
Newfoundland dog. His hair is very fine and close, being of 



ALBANIAN DOO QBECIAN GRETHOUND. 41 

a silty texture, and of a fawn colour, variously clouded with 
brown. He is used for huntiug the wild boar and wolf, as 
well as for Uie purpose of guarding the sheep-fold from the latter ; 
but the accounts of this d<^ vary greatly, and are not much to be 
relied on. 




Th« GiHun GnjI ound (Yoail ) 

THE GRECIAN GREYHOUND. 



This elegant animal is somewhat smaller than the English dog, 
and the h^r is longer and slightly wavy, the tul also being clothed 



42 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

with a thin brush of hair. This is supposed to be the same breed 
as the greyhound of Xenophon^ the Athenian. 



THE RUSSIAN GREYHOUND. 

This variety of the greyhound hunts well by scents and, being at 
the same time fast and stout, he is used for the destruction of the 
wolves and bears which inhabit the fiussian forests, and also for 
coursing the deer and the hare. For this latter sport he is well 

adapted ; but, being somewhat deficient in courage and strength, he 

• 

is hardly a match for the wolf and bear, excepting in packs. 

The Eussian greyhound is about 26 or 27 inches high, with 
short pricked ears, turned over at the tips ; he is rather thin and 
weak in the back and loins, and long on the leg. The coat is thick, 
but not long, excepting the hair of the tail, which is fanlike, 
with a spiral twist of a peculiar form. The colour is dark brown 
or grey. I am not aware of any undoubted specimen of this breed 
having been imported into this country, nor of a correct portrait 
having been painted ; so my readers must depend upon description 
alone. 



TURKISH AND PERSIAN GREYHOUNDS. 43 



THE TURKISH GREYHOUND. 

A small and almost hairless dog^ of the greyhound kind, is met 
with in Turkey, but it is not common in that country, and I have 
never seen a specimen or even a good portrait of it. 



THE PERSIAN GREYHOUND 

Is an elegant animal, beautifully formed in all points, and re- 
sembling the Italian in delicacy of proportions. In Persia he is 
used for coursing the hare and antelope, as well as sometimes the 
wild ass, WTien the antelope is the object of the chase, relays of 
greyhounds are stationed where the game is likely to resort to, and 
slipped each in their turn as the antelope passes. 

The Persian greyhound is about 24 inches high. The ears 
are pendulous like those of the Grecian dog, and hairy like 
those of the English setter, but in other respects he resembles the 
English smooth greyhound, with the exception of the tail, which 
may be compared to that of a silky-coated setter. Several portraits 
of this dog have appeared at various times in the " Sporting 
Magazdne^" and elsewhere, but I am told they do not well represent 
his appearance. 



DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOOS. 







Italiui Gr^buoodo, " Billy " ind " MiaMm."' 



THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND. 

This little dog ia one of the most beautifully proportioned ani- 
mals in creation, being a smooth English greyhound in miniature, 
and resembling it in all respects but size. It is bred in Spain 
and Italy In great perfection, the warmth of the climate agreeing 
well with its habits and constitution. In England, aa in its native 
country, it is only used as a pet or toy dog, for though ita speed 
is considerable for its size, it is incapable of holding even a rabhit. 

' See p. 46. 



ITALIAN GREYHOUND, 45 

The attempt, therefore, to course rabbits with this little dog has 
always failed, and in those instances where the sport (if such it can 
be called) has been carried out at all, recourse has been had to a 
cross between the Italian greyhound and the terrier, which results 
in a strong, quick, little dog, quite capable of doing all that is 
reqidred. 

The chief points characteristic of the Italian greyhound are 
shape, colour, and size. 

In shape he should as nearly as possible resemble the English 
greyhound, as described at page 28 et aeq. The nose is not 
iisually so long in proportion, and the head is fuller both in width 
and depth. The eyes, also, are somewhat larger, being soft and 
full. The tail should be small in bone, and free from hair. It is 
scarcely so long as that of the English greyhoimd, bearing in mind 
the difiference of size. It usually bends with a gentle sweep up- 
wards, but should never turn round in a corkscrew form. 

The colour most prized is a golden fawn. The dove-coloured 
feiwn comes next Then the cream coloiir, and the blue fawn, 
or fawn with blue muzzle, the black-muzzled fawn, the black- 
muzzled red, the plain red, the yellow, the cream-coloured, and 
the black ; the white, the blue, the white and fawn, and the white 
and red. Whenever the dog is of a whole colour, there should be 
no white whatever on the toes, legs, or tail ; and even a star on the 
breast is considered a defect, though not so great as on the feet. 

The size most prized is when the specified weight is about six or 
eight pounds ; but dogs of this weight have seldom perfect sym- 
metry, and one with good shape and colour of eight pounds is to 



46 



DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 



be preferred to a smaller dog of less perfect symmetry. Beyond 
12 lbs. the dog is scarcely to be considered a pure Italian, though 
sometimes exceptions occur, and a puppy of pure blood with a 
sire and dam of small size may grow to such a weight as 16 lbs. 

The black dog from which the engraving at the head of this 
article was taken is remarkable for a degree of in-breeding rarely 
seen, as will be evident from the annexed pedigree. He is of a 
black colour, is very handsome, and is considered by "fanciers" to 
be perfect in all his points. The engraving gives his proportions 
most exactly, but represents him as altogether too large, being in 
reality only 14^ inches high, and 8| lbs. in weight. 



Pedigrees of Mr. GowaiCs " Billyh and Mr, Hardy $ ** Minnie* 



C PRINCK* 

( GowaxCt . " 



BILLYf 

22, Dean . 
Street, 
Fetter 
Lane). 



Fly 
{Barker), 
came from 
L luly. 



'' Bill 
(Anderton's)^ 
came from 
Italy. 



'^ Bill 
(as above). 



VioiJi 
(Gotpon**) 



'^ Bill 
(as above). 



Chum 
(Stebbin't). '^ 



r Bill 
(as above). 



Myrtle 
[XThom'sy^ 



f Bill 
(as above). 



ZlDO 

{Thorria).^ 



A bitch 
Jmta Italjr. 



MINNIE . 



Bn.L, whose pedigree is already famished. 

J Prince. 
Myrtle. 
Jeniiy. 



* Took a prize of a silver collar in 1851. 



t Took a silver collar in 1856. 




CHAPTER III. 



DOMESTICATED DOGS, HUXTIXG CHIEFLY BY THE NOSt; AND BOTH 
FINDING AND KILLING THEIR GAUE ; COMMONLY KNOWN AS 
HODNDS. 

The Sontbern Bound.— The Bloodhound. — The Staghound.— The Foxhound. 
— The Harrier. — The Bekgle.— The Otterhouod.— The Terrier.- The 
Dadufannd. 



THE SOUTBERN HOUND, NORTHERN HOUND, AND TALBOT. 
Thesz appeara to be some difficulty in getting any reliable account 
of tbe original stock from which our modem hounds are descended. 



48 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

iDasmuch as the portraits of the old Talbots, southern hounds^ 
northern hounds, bloodhounds, &c., which exist in various loca- 
lities, do not bear any strong evidence of resembling the Animftls 
from which they were painted. One thing, however, is clear, 
namely, that one or more breeds of hound existed in former 
years which were heavier and slower than any we now possess, 
their ears also being longer, and their noses said to be more 
tender. The last point is one upon which much difference 
of opinion may be entertained, as it is almost impossible to 
compare one with the other ; but in regard to their weight and 
want of pace, little doubt can be felt as to their differing from 
our modem hounds. But it was not only in shape and want 
of pace that these hounds were different from ours, but in 
their dwelling on a scent, as if enjoying the pleasure of inhaling 
the perfume, which no doubt is felt by the dog. These hounds 
would absolutely sit down and throw their tongues in the most 
melodious tone for half a minute when they met with any 
peculiarly strong scent, and then go off again till they came to 
another similar full stop, upon which the same occmred again ; and, 
as a natural result, the frequent stoppages, added to the absolute 
deficiency of speed, made the dog wholly incapable of running 
down any animal which has a safe retreat like the fox, although he 
might in his " slow and sure " way overcome those which have 
none, such as the hare and the deer. Various writers describe the 
southern hound and northern hound as different dogs, the 
former being met with in the South of England and Wales, and 
more particularly in Devonshire, while the latter was confined to 



SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN HOUNDS, AND TALBOT. 49 

the north. Both, however, were large, bony hounds, with long 
falling ears, but the southern hounds had absolute dewlaps, or at 
all events such excessive throatiness as to make them rejected in 
the present day on that accoimt alone. The portrait at the head 
of this article does not represent this peculiarity sufficiently, and 
the dog there drawn would pass muster in this point among modem 
foxhounds. In other respects he is, I believe, a faithful copy of 
the southern hound, and shows the bony limbs, great strength and 
height, as well as the length of eai* and heaviness of head so re- 
markable in them. Markham, who lived three hundi*ed years ago, 
in comparing the two kinds of hound, describes the northern as 
having " a head more slender, with a longer nose, ears and flews 
more shallow, back broad, belly gaunt, joints long, tail small, and 
his general form more slender and greyhound-like ; but the virtues 
of these Yorkshire hounds I can praise no farther than for scent 
and swiftness, for with respect to mouth, they have only a little 
shrill sweetness, but no depth of tone or music." The Talbot 
has been described in different terms by various authors, and 
his likeness delineated in changing forms, but there is no 
doubt that he was a heavier hound than the northern, though 
not perhaps quite up to the solemn and slow dignity of the 
southern hound, being very much like the bloodhound, except in 
colour, which was generally pied. In the nineteenth century, when 
pace is considered an essential to himting, these three homids are 
discarded in favour of either the staghoimd, foxhound, harrier, or 
beagle, all of which are now bred as fast as possible consistently 
with the possession of a good nose. The music of the pack is also 

E 



50 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

much neglected, and most men now-a-days prefer even that of 
** the squeaking bitches " if they give a good gallop, to the full- 
toned and bell-like tongues, one below the other, which were 
formerly considered to be a part of the sport, and without which a 
full cry was not listened to with pleasure. All this is of course a 
matter of taste, as it is manifest that the bitches with their shrill 
tongues can hunt as well as the dogs, and not having a musical 
ear myself, I cannot enter into the feelings of those who have. 

There are still several small packs of these heavy slow hounds 
kept in the sequestered villages of Devon, Yorkshire, Sussex, and 
South Wales, but it is very doubtful how far they represent any 
one of the three alx)ve-named old breeds. It is wholly as a matter 
of curiosity and antiquarian lore that any reference is made to 
them. 



BLOODHOUND. 




Bnd or the BloodJioi 



THE BLOODHOUND. 



The name given to this hound is founded upon his peculiar power 
of scenting the blood of a wounded animal, so that, if once put on 
his trail, he could hunt him through any number of his fellows, and 
would thus single out a wounded deer from a lai^ herd, and stick 
to him through any foils or artifices which he may have recourse to. 
From this property he has also been used to trace human beings, 
and as his nose is remarkably delicate iD hunting, even without 



62 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

blood, he has always been selected for that purpose, whether the 
objects of pursuit were slaves, as in Cuba and America^ or sheep- 
stealers, as in England. 

At present there are, as far as I know, no true bloodhounds in 
this country for this purpose, or indeed for any other, as I believe 
the breed to be extinct; but several gentlemen possess hounds com- 
monly called bloodhounds, though only partially resembling tiie 
veritable animal, and use them for hunting fallow-deer, especially 
those which are only woimded with the rifle, and not killed out- 
right. This dog is also kept for his fine noble appearance, and 
as his temper is generally less uncertain than the genuine old 
bloodhound, and his taste for blood not so great, though still some- 
times beyond all control, he is not unfitted to be the constant com- 
panion of man, but must always be regarded with some degree of 
suspicion. 

Mr. Grant] ey Berkeley has long been celebrated for his breed of 
bloodhounds, and the performances of his dog " Druid" have been 
before the public so often as not to require recapitulation here. 
According to his authority the following are the distinctive 
marks, which should make their appearance even when the 
dog has one only of his parents thorough-bred : — Height from 
24 to 25 or even 26 inches: peculiarly long and narrow fore- 
head; ears from 8 to 9, and even 10, inches long; lips loose and 
hanging ; throat also loose, and roomy in the skin ; deep in the 
brisket, roimd in the ribs, loins broad and muscular, legs and 
feet sti'aight and good, muscular thighs, and fine tapering and 
gracefully waving stem ; colour black-tan, or deep and reddish 



STAGHOUND. 5a 

fawn (no white should be shown but on just the tip of the stem) ; 
the tongue loud, long, deep, and melodious; and the temper 
courageous and irascible, but remarkably forgiving, and immensely 
susceptible of kindness. Nevertheless, we have reason to believe 
that Mr. Berkeley, on more than one occasion, has had to rim from 
** Druid " when his blood was up. (See Frontispiece for portrait 
of « Druid.") • 

According to Mr. Apperley, the Duke of Bedford possessed some 
fine specimens of the modem bloodliound fifteen years ago, and the 
Lords Yarborough and Fitzwilliam were also famous ; the latter 
nobleman's " Bellman " being as well known for stud purposes as 
Mr. Osbaldiston's " Furrier " among foxhounds. He observes, with 
great probability of correctness, that the bloodhoimd is identical 
vrith the old southern harehound, now almost extinct in England, 
both being remarkable for adhering to the scent of the animal on 
which they are first laid. Mr. Jennings of London also pos- 
sesses a fine breed of the bloodhound. 



THE STAGHOUND. 



The old English true staghound, which is now nearly if not quite 
extinct, resembles the bloodhound, but has a lighter cross, probably 
with the greyhound, and therefore somewhat approaches to the 
modem lurcher in formation of body, with the head of a southern 
hound. I believe there were till very lately some of these, nearly 
thorough-bred, in the pack of the Devon and Somerset staghounds, 

E 3 



54 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

but even they were more or less crossed with the foxhound* Like the 
bloodhound and old southern hound, this dog has the peculiarity of 
keeping to the hunted deer, which is not the case with the fashion- 
able staghound of the day. There is some difficulty, however, in 
getting at a true description of the old staghound, and as it can 
only be valuable to the antiquarian, I shall not attempt anything 
further. • 

The staghound at present used in Her Majesty's and Baron 
Rothschild's kennels is merely a larger, and therefore faster, 
draft of the foxhound of the day. The dogs are about 24 or 
25 inches high, and the bitches 22 to 23. They have broad 
short heads, straight hind legs, well-furnished thighs, full ears, 
which are not required to be rounded so much as the foxhound's, 
inasmuch as they do nothing in covert, and stems feathered 
like the ordinary foxhound. The endurance of the staghound is 
very considerable, though from his extra size and weight he 
cannot compete in this respect with the foxhoimd of 23 inches ; 
but as he is not required to hunt a second fox, and has not often 
more than a few miles of road work in going to the meet, he is not 
wanted to be so capable of long continued exertion. Even in 
Somersetshire, where wild red deer are hunted, the staghound is 
not employed to " unharbour " them, and slow hounds which are 
nearly pure bloodhounds are used for the purpose. 

It is unnecessary, therefore, to describe this hound more 
minutely, as, by reference to the foxhound, his shape, colour, &c, 
will be easily ascertained, and the size is given above. 




THE FOXHOUND. 



The modem foxliound is one of the most wonderful animals in 
creMion, whicli is probably owing to the great pains that have 
been bestowed upon him for the last two or three centuries. 
Numerous instuicee have occurred where eight or ten thousand a 
year have been spent for a long time together upon a fox-huntiag 
establiebment, and therefore, when this outlay has been united 



* Ore«l b; J. J. FanjuhiirMiii, Esij., bj Lord Fitzlianlinge's 
iif tbe Puckeridge ** Veniu." 



" Hermit," out 



56 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

with the great judgment which has been displayed in the most 
celebrated kennels of the present century^ it can scarcely occasion 
surprise that the combination has resulted in the most complete suc- 
cess. In breeding cattle and sheep one man has in more than one 
instance, during his single life, effected a complete revolution in the 
animal he was engaged in improving ; and therefore, when a number 
of gentlemen combine for one purpose, and spare neither time, 
money, nor trouble, we ought to expect the fulfilment of their 
wishes. In no department of rural sports has so much been written 
as on fox-hunting, and this not only of late years, but for the last 
three centuries, during which Markham, Somerville, and Beckford 
may be instanced as examples of truthful as well as clever writing 
on the subject. Beckford, who wrote in the latter part of the last 
century, his first letter being dated 1779, is, however, the father of 
the modern school, and, with slight exceptions, the hound described 
by him is still that selected by our best masters, though perhaps 
they carry out his principles to a greater extent than he ever 
expected they would go. Much has been written, it is true, since 
his time, but I am not aware that any one has deviated from his 
description without doing wrong, and, therefore, as I like to give 
credit where credit is due, I shall extract his description entire, as 
contained in his third letter to his friend. 

" You desire to know what kind of hound I would recommend. 
As you mention not for any particular chase or country, I understand 
you generally ; and shall answer that I most approve of hounds of 
the middle size. I believe all animals of that description are 
strongest, and ])est able to endure fatigue. In the height as well 



FOXHOUND. 57 

as the colour of hounds most sportsmen have their prejudices; but 
in their shape^ at least, I think they must all agree. I know sports- 
men who boldly affirm that a small hound will oftentimes beat a 
large one ; that he will climb hills better, and go through cover 
quicker; whilst others are not less ready to assert that a large 
hound will make his way in any country, will get better through 
the dirt than a small one, and that no fence, however high, can stop 
him. You have now their opinions : and I advise you to adopt 
that which suits your countiy best. Tliere is, however, a certain 
size best adapted for business, which I take to be that between the 
two extremes, and I will venture to say that such hounds will not 
sufifer themselves to be disgraced in any country. Somerville I 
find is of the same opinion : 



' But here a mean 
Observe, nor the large hound prefer, of size 
Gigantic ; he, in the thick-woven covert, 
FainfuUjr tugs, or in the thorny brake, 
Torn and embarrassM, bleeds : but, if too small, 
The pigmy brood in every furrow swims ; 
Moird in the clogging clay, panting, they lag 
Behind inglorious ; or else shivering creep, 
BenumVd and faint, beneath the sheltering thorn. 
Foxhounds of middle size, active and strong, 
Will better answer all thy various ends. 
And crown thy pleasing labours with success.* 



I perfectly agree with you that to look well they should be all 
nearly of a size ; and I even think that they should all look of the 
same family. 



58 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

* Facies non omnibus una. 
Nee diversa tamen, qualem decet esse sororum.* 

" If handsome without they are then perfect With regard to 
their being sizeable, what Somerville says is so much in your own 
way that I shall send it you : 



' As some brave captain, curious and exact| 
By his fix*d standard, forms in equal ranks 
His gay battalion : as one man thejr move. 
Step after step ; their size the same, their arms, 
Far gleaming, dart the same united blaze ; 
Reviewing generals his merit own ; 
How regular ! how just ! And all his cares 
Are well repaid if mighty Georgb approve : 
So model thou thy pack, if honour touch 
Thy gen*rous soul, and the world*s just applause/ 



'* There are necesaaij points in the shape of abound which ought 
always to be attended to by a sportsman^ for if he be not of a 
perfect symmetry he will neither rim fast nor bear much wort 
He has much to undergo, and should have strength proportioned 
to it. Let his legs be straight as arrows^ his feet round and not 
too large; his shoulders back; his breast rather wide than 
narrow ; his chest deep ; his back broad ; his head small ; his neck 
thin; his tail thick and brushy, if he carry it well so much the 
better. Such hounds as are out at the elbows^ and such as are 
weak from the knees to the footy should never be taken into the 
pack. 

^^ I find that I have mentioned a small head as one of the neces- 



FOXHOUND. 59 

sary requisites of a hound; but you will understand that it is 
relative to beauty ordy^ for as to goodneaSy I believe, large-headed 
hounds are in no wise inferior. The colour I think of little moment, 
and am of opinion with our friend Foote, respecting his negro 
friend, that a good dog, like a good candidate, cannot be of a bad 
colour. 

** Men ai'e too apt to be prejudiced by the sort of hound which 
they themselves have been most accustomed to. Those who have 
been used to the sharp-nosed foxhound, will hai-dly allow a large- 
headed hound to be a foxhound ; yet they both equally are ; speed 
and beauty are the chief excellencies of the one, while stoutness 
and tenderness of nose in hunting are characteristic of the other. 
I could tell you that I have seen very good sport with very 
unhandsome packs, consisting of hounds of various sizes, differing 
from one another as much in shape and look as in their colour ; nor 
could there be traced the least sign of consanguinity amongst them. 
Considered separately the hoimds were good ; as a pack of hounds 
they were not to be commended ; nor would you be satisfied with 
anything that looked so very incomplete. You will find nothing 
so essential to your sport as that your hounds should run well 
together; nor can this end be better attained than by confining 
yourself, as near as you can, to those of the same sort, size, and 
shape.^ 

Thus then, as to pomts, it will be evident from the above extract 
that Beckford was fully aware of all which are considered essential 
to the foxhoimd, except the depth of the back ribs, in which the 
modern hound differs from both of his supposed progenitors (the 



60 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

greyhound and old-fashioned hound)^ and which has been esta- 
blished by carefully breeding from sires and dams peculiar for 
this development. It is upon this formation that stoutness, and 
the capability of bearing work day after day^ mainly depend ; and 
hence all good judges both of the hunter and the hound insist so 
strongly upon it. Nimrod (Apperley) also remarks that Beckford 
has omitted to particularise "the length of thigh discernible in 
first-rate hounds, which, like the well-let-down hock of the horse, 
gives them much superiority of speed, and is also a great security 
against laming themselves in leaping fences, which they are more 
apt to do when they become blown and consequently weak.** 
It may also be remarked, that though Beckford insists upon a 
middle size, he does not define what he means by the term, but 
as foxhounds vary from 26 inches to 20, I should say 23 to 25 
inches for doghounds, and 21 to 23 for bitches, would be about 
the height meant by him. In open countries, with thin fences or 
walls, a large hound may perhaps suit best ; but in woodlands, 
the small size, if not too small and delicate, has many advantages, 
and will always beat the larger and heavier hound, who tires him- 
self in driving through the runs, which will readily admit the small 
dog or bitch. Nimrod fixed the height at *' 21 to 22 inches for 
bitches, and 23 to 24 for doghounds ;** but I have given a 
little more latitude in the above estimate. The speed of the 
foxhound may be estimated from the well-known match over 
the Beacon course, at Newmarket, which is 4 miles 1 furlong 
and 132 yards, and which was run by Mr. Barry's "Bluecap** 
(the winner) in eight minutes and a few seconds, Mr. MeynelPs 



FOXHOUND. 61 

hounds being not far behind; and only twelve ont of sixty 
horsemen who started with them being with them to the end. 
Colonel Thornton's bitch, ** Merkin," is even said to have run the 
same course in seven minutes and half a second. This speed is 
accounted for by the greyhound descent, if it really exists; and 
that it does so I have little doubt, as it is quite clear that the old 
hound was deficient in those points which the greyhound alone 
would be able to give ; but as this is only conjecture I have not 
insisted upon it. 

The amall rounded ear of the foxhound is due to the rounding 
irons of the huntsman, who removes a large portion of the pup*s 
ears in order to save them from the tears and scratches which they 
would inevitably encoimter in " drawing," if allowed to remain on. 
The portion left is sufficient to protect the passage to the internal 
organ, but for which necessity it would be better to crop them 
closely, as is practised with dogs intended for fighting ; just as the 
wrestler and the pugilist have their hair cropt as close to their 
heads as possible. 

The prevailing colours of foxhoimds in the present day are as 
follows, placing them in the order of their frequency : — (1.) Black 
and white with tan ; (2.) The mixed or blended colours, known as 
" pies," as red pie, blue pie, yellow pie, grey pie, lemon pie, hare 
pie, and badger pie, the last three very handsome ; (3.) Tan ; 
(4.) Black; (5.) White; (6.) Eed; (7.) Blue; each being more or 
less mixed with white. Foxhounds are often slightly ticked, but 
rarely mottled, the "blue mottled hound," according to Mr. 
Apperley, being a true harrier or beagle, and most probably 



62 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

descended from the southern hound, which was often of this 
colour. 

It must be remembered that the foxhound is always to be 
looked at as part of a pocky and hence it is of no use to breed an 
exceptionally high or otherwise well made hoimd if it will make 
him run in a different style to his companions. Hence it is neces- 
sary to keep to such a model as can be produced in number suffi- 
cient to form the pack, which is another argument in favour of a 
medium size ; and hence, in looking at a pack, together or sepa- 
rately, the lover of the foxhound is always on the look out for 
'^ suitiness,^ or the resemblance to another in size and shape, 
which Beckford alludes to in describing a good-looking pack of 
hounds as appearing " all of one family." 

In his work the foxhound is peculiar for dash, and for always 
being inclined to cast forwards, instinctively appearing to be aware 
that the fox makes his point to some covert different from that in 
which he was found. On the other hand, the harrier casts back, 
from a knowledge, instinctive or acquired, that the hare has a 
tendency to return to the place from which she started, and will 
be almost sure to do so if she has time enough given her. 




n Btirier, and " Trubuas," t * Faihoand-Harrifr. 



THE HARRIER. 



The tnie harrier is a dwarf southern hound, with a very slight 
infusion of the greyhound in him. Hence he is more throaty than 
tl)e foxhound, and haa also more ear, with a broader head, more 



• " Grasper " by " Solomon," out of " OiivemeBs," froin (be late Mr. Furze's 
barrier paek in Devonabire. " Solomon " hj Prince Albert's " Solomon," 

t " Tmeman " by Mr. Lisle PhillippB' hnrrif r " Roman," out of " Dunsel." 
"Damsel," n pure foxhound bitch, only IB iiicbes bigh, from the late Sir RichanI 
Sutton's kennel, and of the famous " Truemnn " blood, waa by his " Dexter." 



64 DOBiESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

fully developed flews, and altogether a heavier and less active 
frame. The height is usually at present under 20 inches, 
averaging about 18; but in the old times, when the dwarf 
foxhound was never used for the purpose, harriers were often 
22 and sometimes 23 inches high, because even with that 
size they dwelt on the scent so long that they were not too 
fast for sport. But it is in tongue and in style of hunting that 
true harriers are chiefly remarkable, the former being melodious 
in the extreme, and a pack in full cry being heard for miles; while 
the latter is distinguished by excessive delicacy of nose, and by 
an amount of patience in working out the doubles of the hare 
which the old-fashioned hare-hunter considered perfection. Mr. 
Yeatman has, however, introduced a different style, and accord- 
ing to his system the hare is diiven so fast that she is com- 
pelled to abandon her cunning devices, and to trust to her 
speed alone. But as, following his example, most of ihe modem 
packs of harehounds are dwarf foxhoimds, it is unnecessary 
to dwell upon the old-fashioned animal, and the modern harrier 
may therefore be described as a foxhound in shape, but of a 
size averaging about 18 or 19 inches, and kept to hare with 
great care, so that in some instances packs are known to refuse 
to own the scent of the fox; but these are rare exceptions, 
as most himtsmen will be ready to hunt one whenever they have 
the opportunity, and many regularly finish their season by shaking 
down a bag-fox, or by trying for one in some covert where they 
have permission. The fashion of the day is to demand pace in all 
kinds of himting, and for this reason these dwarf foxhounds are 



FOX HOXnro-HARBIER. 



selected, taking care to unite with it as fine and delicate a nose aa 
possible, but alt^^ther regardless of the music, which used to be a 
«t7t« qud non with masters of barriers. 




*- Dahlu," a pun FoihODDd.* 

Among the packs of pure foxhounds which are devoted to 
hunting the hare, Mr. Yeatman's has long been celebrated in the 
west of England. His hounds possess very fine noses, combined 
with great pace; and while they drive their hares to abandon 
their natural doubles, they are able to hunt a cold scent in a 
marvellously clever manner. 



" Dahlia " ig "bj tlie Duke of Rutland's 
■ " Dulcet." She is 21 inches in height. 



' Driver," out of the Bramham- 



M DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

One chief beau^ in hare-hunting 18 the proper packing of t 
hounds, and aa thia cannot be done without having all nearly 
the same size, shape, and breed, ma^rs of harriers are very pt 
ticular in keeping the whole of their hennel of one stnun ; m 
when they cross their hounds it should be with great care, so as 
avoid the introduction of blood very difiereot to that which th 
already possess. 

For the jwinte of the modem harrier the reader is referred 
the description of the foxhound, with the modifications in heigl 
&C., alluded to at page 64, To the colours detailed at page t 
may be added the " blue mottle," which is often seen in hoim 
of part harrier blood, marking their descent &om the southe 
hound. The ears are either not rounded, or only slightly 1 
For the poijUe of the old-faahioned harrier, see the southe 
hound at page 47. The Welsh barrier is a rough eouthe 
hound, being the same breed aa that described in this book as t 
otterhound at page 69. 




The Medinm-aJicd Bugle. (Yonill.) 



THE BEAGLE. 

The tnie beagle, like the old harrier, is now almost entirely 
displaced by dwarf specimens of the foxhound, or by crosses with 
it in varying proportions. Still there are some packs left, and a 
good many gentlemen also possess one or two couple which they 
use for covert shooting, though even here this breed ia giving way 
to tiie Bpaniel. 

In external /ottr the beagle rcBembles the southern hound, but 
is much more compact and elegant in shape, and far less throaty 
in proportion to its size, though still possessing a considerable rufT. 
There are three or four varieties, however, which differ a good deal 
among themselves in shape and make, and also to some degree in 
style of hunting. 



68 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

The mediurrinsized beagle may be taken as the type of the others 
of the same name, and somewhat resembles a small old-fashioned 
harrier in shape, but with a larger body and shorter legs in pro- 
portion to it. The head is very wide and roimd, with a short 
square nose, very full and soft drooping ears, good feet, and not 
much hair on the body, but with a slight brush on the taiL Their 
tongues are most musical, and their noses extremely delicate, being 
even more so than the harrier, but hunting in the same style, 
with the same tendency to dwell on the scent. In size they may 
be described as averaging about 12 or 14 inches. (See portrait.) 

The rough beagle is apparently a cross between the above little 
hoimd and the rough terrier, though by many people he is supposed 
to be a distinct breed, and as much so as the Welsh harrier, which 
he resembles in all but size. His origin is, however, lost in ob- 
scurity, and can only be conjectured. One chief reason why I have 
supposed him to arise from the above cross is, that he has lost in great 
measure the beagle tongue, and squeaks like the terrier, though 
not quite so much as that dog. He has, however, the full ear of 
the smooth beagle, or nearly as great a development of that organ, 
but the nose is clothed with the stiflF whisker of the rough terrier, 
and the body generally has the same rough and wiiy hair. It is 
maintained by some people that he has obtained this from the 
deerhound through the southern hound, but his dwarf size renders 
it more probable that it is derived from the terrier, which breed, 
however, very probably is descended from the deerhound, as indeed 
I believe is the case with nearly all our hounds. The size of this 
beagle varies greatly, the average being perhaps about 14 inches. 



DWARF BEAOLE. 




" Babjuid,"** Dnrf Bogle, bnd bj Lord GiBbrd. 

The dwarf or rabbit beagle is & very small and delicate little 
hound, but with an excellent nose, and much faster than he looks. 
Some sportsmen have carried their predilection for small dogs to 
such an extent, as to use a pack of these beagles which might be 
carried about in the shooting pockets of the men; and in this way 
have conEned their duties to the hunting alone, so that they were 
not tired in trailii^ along the road from the kennel to the hunting- 
field and back again. The average height of these may be taken 



* ^^1 beautiful little bitcb, presented to Mra. Chapmnn of Cbeltenbam by 
Lord Gifibrd, !> b; Mr. Buker'a " Ruler," out of bia " Bluebell." Heigbt, 
\'i\ iDchw. 



70 DOMESTICATED HUNTING -DOGS. 

at 10 inches, but their bodies are disproportionately lengthened. 
Patience and perBeverance are still more necessary in these hounds 
than in their larger brethren, and without them they soon lose their 
hare, as they must be content to hunt her at a pace with which a 
man can readily keep up on foot, horses being quite out of place 
with Buch a diminutive pack. 




" BiLLHAH," u) OtMrtionnd ; pedigree anknawB. 
THE OTTERHOUND. 

Xo hound which is now kept in Great Britain resembles the 
southern hound so much as this, the difference being only in the 



THE OTTERHOUND. 71 

rough wiry coat, which has been obtained by careful breeding, to 
enable them to resist the ill eflFects of the rough weather which the 
breed have to encounter, whether in the chase of the hare, for which 
they were originally employed in Wales, or for that of the otter, to 
which they are now almost exclusively restricted. If, therefore, the 
reader turns to the description of the southern hound, and adds to 
it a rough wiry coat with a profusion of rough whisker, he will at 
once understand the form and nature of the otterhoxmd, alias the 
Welsh harrier. It is a moot point, whether this roughness is 
obtained by crossing, or whether it is attributable to careful selec- 
tion only ; but I am inclined to think that as the full melodious 
note of the hound is retained, there is no cross of the terrier or of 
the deerhound, which two breeds divide between them the credit 
of bestowing their coats upon the otterhound. Anyhow it is a 
distinct breed in the present day; and, with the shape I have 
described, it unites all the characteristics of the old southern hoxmd, 
in dwelling on the scent, in delicacy of nose, and in want of dash. 
Whether the power of swimming has been obtained by any cross 
with the water-spaniel is also a disputed point, but as I do not 
believe in any peculiar swimming power inherent in that breed, 
I am not inclined to attribute that of the otterhound to a cross 
with it^ especially as the foxhound swims equally well. 

As these hounds have to compete with a very savage and hard- 
biting animal, they must of necessity be fearless and hardy ; and 
as for their specific pm^oses those which are not so have been re- 
jected, it happens that the breed has become imusually savage, and 
that they are constantly fighting in kennel. Indeed, instances are 

¥ 4 



72 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

common enough of more than half being destroyed in a angle 
night) in the bloody fight which has been commenced by perhaps 
a single couple, but soon ending in a general scrimmage. No dog 
bites more savagely, and, unlike the bulldog, the hold is not firmly 
retained, but the teeth are torn out with great force the instant the 
hold is taken. The usual height of the otterhound is from 22 to 
25 inches in the dogs, the bitches being somewhat lower. 



THE TERRIER. 



The terrier as used for himting is a strong useful little dog, with 
great endurance and courage, and with nearly as good a nose as the 
beagle or harrier. From his superior courage when crossed with 
the bulldog, as most vermin-terriers are, he has generally been kept 
for killing vermin whose bite would deter the spaniel or the beagle, 
but would only render the terrier more determined in his pursuit 
of them. Hence, he is the constant attendant on the rat-catcher, 
and is highly useful to the gamekeeper, as well as to the farmer 
who is annoyed with rats and mice. Formerly it was the custom 
to add a couple of terriers to every pack of foxhounds, so as to be 
ready to aid in bolting the fox when he runs into a drain, or goes 
to ground in any easily accessible earth ; the stoutness of the 
terrier enabling him, by steadily following on the track, to reach the 
scene of operations before it would be possible to obtain any other 
assistance. This aid, however, in consequence of the increased 
speed of our hounds, is now dispensed with, and the old fox-terrier 



ENGLISH TEBBIBB. 



TS 



is oat of date, or is only kept for the purpose of destroying ground 
vermin, such as the rat or the weasel, or as a companion to man, 
for which purpose his fidelity and tractability make him peculiarly 
fitted. Terriers are now usually divided into four kinds: — Ist, 
The old English terrier ; 2iid, The Scotch (including the Daudie 
Dinmont) ; 3rd, The Skye ; and 4th, The modern toy dog. 




" L»D»,' RO EDglish Terrier, Ui» proper^ of C. Uorrisoo, E>q., of W^Ituin GrecD.* 

The JEngliak terrier is a Bmooth-haired dog, weighing fi-om about 
6 to 10 lbs. His nose is very long and tapering neatly off, the jaw 



• ** Lidy," by Frank Redmond's celebrated dog " Tartar," out of " Vic," a 
IUnnchest«r-bred bitch, formerly the property of the Hon. Egremoat Las- 
celle*. Her weight ia about 6^ lbs. 



74 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

being slightly overhung, with a high forehead, narrow flat skull, 
strong muscular jaw, and small bright eye, well set in the head ; 
ears when entire are short and slightly raised, but not absolutely 
pricked, tumuig over soon after they leave the head. When 
cropped they stand up in a point, and rise much higher than they 
naturally would. The neck is strong, but of a good length ; body 
very symmetrical, with powerful short loins, and chest deep rather 
than wide. Shoulders generally good, and very powei*ful, so as to 
enable the terrier to dig away at an earth for hours together with- 
out fatigue, but they must not be so wide as to prevent him from 
** going to ground. ' Fore legs straight and strong in muscle, 
but light in bone, and feet round and hare-like. Hind legs straight 
but powerful. Tail fine, with a decided down carriage. The colour 
of these dogs should be black and tan, which is the only true colour, 
many are white, slightly marked with black, red, or sometimes, 
but very rarely, blue. The true fox-terrier was generally chosen 
with as much white as possible, so that he might be readily seen, 
either coming up after the pack, or when in the fox's earth, in 
almost complete darkness ; but these were all crossed with the bull- 
dog. Those which are now kept for general purposes are, however, 
most prized when of the black and tan colour, and the more complete 
the contrast, that is, the richer the black and tan respectively, the 
more highly the dog is valued, especially if without any white. In 
most cases there is a small patch of tan over each eye ; the nose and 
palate should always be black. Such is the pure English terrier, a 
totally different animal from the shorty thick muzzled, spaniel-eyed, 
long-backed, cat-footed, curly-tailed abomination so prevalent in 



SCOTCH TBBBIEK. 73 

the present day. But he is a rank coward, unlesB crossed with the 
bulldog. (For the fox-terrier, see Grossed-breeds.) 




" pEnv' > Scotch T«Tter. 



The Scotch terrier closely resembles the English dog in all but 
bis coat, which ia wiry and rough, and hence he is sometimes 
called the wire-haired terrier, a name perhaps better suited to a 
dog which bae long been oaturalised in England, and whose origin 
is obscure enough. Beyond this difference in externals, there 
is little to be saiA distinctive of the one from the other, the 
colours being the same, but white being more highly prized in the 
southern variety, and the black and tan when more or less mixed 



76 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

with grey, so as to give the dog a pepper and salt appearance, 
being characteristic of the true Scotch terrier ; but there are 
numberless varieties in size, and also in shape and colour. This 
is a very good vermin dog, and will hunt anything from a fox 
to a mouse; but while he may be induced to hunt feather, he 
never takes to it like fur, and prefers vermin to game at all 
times. 

The Dandle Dinmont breed of terriers, now so much cele- 
brated, was originally bred by a farmer of the name of James 
Davidson, at Hindalee, in Eoxburghshire, who, -it is generally 
believed, got his dogs from the head of Coquet Water. There 
was also a good strain at Ned Dunn's at Whitelee, near the 
Carter Bar. 

Those who have investigated the subject are inclined to think 
that the Dandie Dinmont is a cross between the Scotch terrier 
and the otterhound, or, as I believe, the Welsh harrier, which is 
identical with the latter. 

The most celebrated strains are those belonging to the Duke of 
Buccleugh (presented by James Davidson) ; Stoddart, of Selkirk ; 
Frain, of the Trows; McDougall, of Cessford; F. Somners, of 
Kelso ; Sir G. Douglas, of Springwood Park ; Dr. Brown, of Mel- 
rose ; J. Aitken, of Edinburgh ; and Hugh Purves, of Leaderfoot, 
who is the principal hand in having kept up the breed* So much 
were the Dandies in vogue some years ago, that Mr. Bradshaw 
Smith, of Dumfriesshire, bought up every good dog he could lay 
his hands on, and as a consequence his breed is now well 
known. 



DANDIB DINMONT. 




The Dandle is represented by two colours of haii', which is 
sometimes rather hard, but not long ; one entirely a reddtRb brown, 
and called the " mustard," the other grey or bluish grey on the 
back, and tan or light brown on the legs, and called the " pepper ; " 
both have the dlky bur on the forehead. The l^s are short, the 
body loi^, shoulder low, back slightly carved, head large, jaws 
long and tapered to the muzzle, which ia not sharp ; ears large and 
banging close to the head, eyes full, bright and intelligent, tail 

* Both froQ photographs. That of " Puck" showing only the upper part of 
the bodj, ba* necessitated the attitude in which he is drawn. See pnges 
78,79. 



78 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

straight, and carried erect, with a slight curve over the back 
(houndlike); the weight 18 to 24 lbs., varying according to the 
strain, but the original Dandie was a heavy dog. Occasionally in 
a litter there may be some with the short folding ear of a bull- 
terrier, and also with some greater length of the legs ; these are 
not approved of by fanciers, but nevertheless are pure, showing 
a tendency to cast back. Sir W. Scott, I believe, preferred the 
small ear. The above description is taken from dogs bred from 
"Meadow,"* by Dr. Brown's celebrated dog " John Pym,"t w^d 
"Puck,'' J son of "John Pym." "Meadow" was bred at Birses- 

* A Dandie Dinmont terrier bitch, named ** Meadow,** bred at Birseslees, 
Long Newton, Roxburgshire. Dam, " Schann ; " sire, " Pepper ; '* was 
pupped earlj in December, 1844. ** Pepper " and " Schann " are the property 
of Sir George II. S. Douglas, Baronet, of Springwood Park, Captain 34th 
Regiment of Infantry. '* Schann ** was bred at Bowhill, Selkirkshire ; dam, 
bis Grace the Duke of Buccleugh's " Schann ; •* sire, " Old Pepper," also the 
property of his Grace. 

'* Schann," at Bowhill, was bred by John Stoddart, at Selkirk. Dam, 
*« Schann ; " sire, ** Old Dandy." J. Stoddart's " Schann *" was bred at Hindalee 
by Mr. Scott, the successor to James Davidson in that place. 

" Pepper," at Birseslees, was bred by Mr. Lang, Selkirk ; but as " Pepper " 
is now thirteen or fourteen years of age, and as Mr. Lang's bitch had about 
that period litters to different celebrated dogs of that breed, there is now a 
doubt which of those breeds he is really the produce of. " Old Pepper " is 
claimed as being bred by more than one celebrated breeder. 

" Old Dandie " was bred by Mr. Stoddart. 

f " John Pym " was by ** Shem," a dog which belonged to Mr. Somncr, of 
Kelso : dam, a bitch belonging to John Lauder, ** Old Melrose," and bred 
by Mr. Frain, of the Trows, near Kelso. 

I " Puck," Dr. Brown's present dog, was got by his old dog " Pym," out of a 
bitch called *' Tib." " Tib " was bred by Purves, of Leaderfoot : sire, " Old 
Dandie," the famous dog of " Old Stoddart," of Selkirk ; dam, " Whin," a 
very well-bred bitch. 



SKTB TERRIER. 79 

lee& Sometimes a Dandle pup of a good strain may appear not 
to be game at an early ^e ; but he should not be parted with 
on ihat account, because many of them do not show their cou- 
rage till nearly two years old, and then nothing can beat them ; 
this apparent softness arising, as I suspect, from kindness of 
heart. 

The mustard-coloured bitch from which the above sketch was 
taken belongs to the breed referred to, as far as I can trace her 
pedigree, and answers to the description; but I have not been 
able to obtain positive proof of her entire purity of blood, the 
breed having, I believe, been obtained surreptitiously a generation 
back. It will be seen that the points diSer a good deal from 
tiiose UBually ascribed to this breed in England, where the Dandies 
have almost invariably prick ears, and are of smaller size, seldom 
exceeding 10 or 12 lbs. 

Of this English variety the following is a characteristic sketch, 
in a somewhat exaggerated form. 



DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 



The 8kye terrier is remarkable for his long weasel-shaped body, 
and for his short fin-like legs, added to which he has a long rather 




" QuiLicK," ft Skj« Terrier, lbs propntj of C«pt Frtier. 

than a wide head, and also a neck of unusual dimeusious, so that 
when measured from tip to tail the entire length is more than three 
times his height The nose is pointed, but so concealed in the long 
hair which falls over his eyes, that it is scarcely visible without a 
careful inspection ; eyes keen and expressive, but small as compared 
with the spaniel. The ears are large and slightly raised, but 
turning over ; tail long, but small in bone and standing strwght 
backwards, that is, not curved over the back, but having only a very 



8KYE TERRIER. 81 

gentle sweep to prevent touching the ground. Fore legs slightly 
bandy^ yet this is not to be sought for, but to be avoided as much 
as possible, though always more or less present. The dew-claws 
are entirely absent, and if present may be considered a mark of 
impurity. The colours most in request are black, fawn, or blue, 
especially a dark slaty blue, and the slightest trace of white is care- 
fully avoided. Tlie hair is long and straight, hard, and not silky, 
parted down the back, and nearly reaching the ground on each side, 
without the slightest curl or resemblance to wool. On the legs and 
on the top of the head it is lighter in colour than .on the body, 
and is softer and more silky. This dog is little used as a sporting 
or vermin dog, being chiefly reserved for the companionship of 
man, but he is sometimes employed as a vermin-killer, and is as 
game as the rest of the terriers when employed for that purpose. 
His weight is from 10 to 18 lbs., averaging about 14. But 
the variations in this particular, as indeed in almost all the points 
of the Skye terrier, are numerous beyond description. Thus there 
are, first of all, two if not three kinds of the pure Skye: one 
rather small in size, with long soft hair ; another considerably larger, 
and with hard wiry hair ; while again, between these two, a third 
may, by hair-splitters, be readily made out Then there is also a 
cross between the Skye and Dandie, which partakes in nearly equal 
proportions of the characteristics of each ; and, lastly, most of the 
Skye terriers about London are crossed with the spaniel, giving 
them that silky coat and jet black colour which are admired by 
the ladies, but mark impurity of blood. This cross is detected 
by the worn-out appearance of the hair on the face up to the 

o 



82 DOMESTICATED HUNTING DOGS. 

brow. The Skye is a very good vermin dog, and will hunt 
anything. 

The toy terrier, being used solely for fancy purposes, will be de- 
scribed under the chapter devoted to that subject. 

The fooc-terrier is the smooth English terrier crossed with the 
bulldog, and will be found described under that head. 

The hvllrierrier is also a crossed breed. 

The Maltese dog is sometimes classed among the terriers, 
but, as it has little affinity with them, it is included among the 
toy dogs. 

The turnspit and the truffle dog are by some naturalists described 
as terriers, but they are now nearly extinct, and need not there- 
fore be included here, especially as the shape of the former is so 
well known, while the latter varies greatly in different districts. 



THE BOARHOUND, OR GREAT DANE. 

This dog has so frequently been represented on canvass that 
it would be idle to refuse a description of it, in a work professing 
to treat of the dog in all his varieties. Nevertheless, he does 
not appear to be a distinct breed, but rather a compound of 
the greyhound, the mastiff, and the terrier. The first element 
being required for speed, the second for strength and courage, and 
the third for nose. By some writers he is considered to be a distinct 
breed, and it is possible that he may be so ; but the various forms in 



BOAKHOUNU, OR GREAT DANE. 83 

which he appears militate agtunst this idea. The colour resembles 
that of the mastiff, being brindled or fawD, but sometimes of a 
bluish slate, with blotches of brown. The height is great, being 




The BodthaiiDd. 



from 30 to 32 inches at the shoulder, with vast strength of body. 
Head long and narrow, but the muzzle square like that of the 
mastiff. Tail fine, and slightly curved upwards. This is the same 
dog as the Great Dane, and is used for boar-hunting in Germany, 
and for hunting the elk in Denmark and Norway. 



84 DOBfESTICATED HUNTING DOGS. 



THE DACHSHUND, OR TECKEL. 

Within the last few years this little hound has been introduced 
into England, a few couple having been presented to the Queen, 
from Saxony. The dachshund is a long, low, and very strong 
hound, with full head and sweeping ears. The fore legs are some- 
what bandy, and when digging their action is very mole-like. The 
colour is either black-and-tan or wholly tan, and the height about 
14 to 16 inches. The scenting power of these hounds is said to 
be very good ; they are chiefly used in Germany for hunting the 
badger, whence the name. 



**^^lf 




CHAPTER IV. 



Thi: Spsoish Pointer. — Tbe Mudern Eagliitk Poioter. — Tbe Portuguete 
FtHDKr. — The French Poioter. — The Daluiatian and Daniith Dugs. — 
The English vid Irish Setters. — The Russian Setter.— The Ordinary Field 
SpMiiel, including the Springer (Clumber, Sussex, and Nurfulk breeds), and 
tbe Cocker (Welsh and Duvonsliire). — The Water Spaniel (Knglish antl 
Irish). 

THE SPANISH POINTEK. 
Ab in the case of tbe species itself, bo in this and most other 
varieties of the dog, a great difference of opinion exists as to the 



86 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

origin of each. By most writers the Spanish pointer is thought to 
be descended from the hound, but from being kept to one particu- 
lar kind of work he has gradually become fonder of it than of any 
other, and those particular faculties which are employed in it have 
become developed. No dog requires a more keen sense of smell, 
and in none are tractability, patience, and a kind of reasoning 
power, more imperatively demanded. Hence we require a large 
brain, and a well-developed nose, in order to endow the possessor 
with the attributes I have eniunerated. The first thing, therefore, 
which was formerly sought for was the full head, large in all its 
dimensions, and the wider nose, with the pendent flews which 
generally accompany a high sense of smell, and which, being met 
with also in the hound, have led to the belief of the descent of the 
pointer from that variety of the dog. But, accompanying this 
form of head, there was produced a heavy and unwieldy formation 
of the body ; and, what is very remarkable, it differed in shape from 
that of the hound, so that there is strong reason for believing that 
the two are altogether distinct, and have been kept so from the 
earliest ages. Indeed, their style of hunting differs so much, that 
it alone would lead one to suppose them to have had a distinct 
origin, inasmuch as the hoimd always drops his nose to the ground 
in feeling for a scent, while the pointer carries his head in the air, 
and tries for the body scent as it is wafted on the breeze. The, 
true old Spanish pointer is hardly to be met with now in a pure 
state, and I therefore insert a copy of an old and well-known portrait 
of the animal, which is acknowledged to be correct, and gives his 
points with great fidelity, showing also how much he exceeds the 



SPANISH POINTER. 87 

modem breed of dogs in size of head and nose, and in depth of ear. 
It will be seen that this is a very heavy, and somewhat clumsy 
dog, incapable of ranging far and fast, as is required in wild beats 
for the partridge, and in most cases for grouse. Our ancestors were 
satisfied and pleased to walk with their dogs in beating for game, 
but in these modem times sportsmen like to take it easy, and make 
their pointers or setters do their work for them, so that pace and 
lasting powers to keep it up, are now much more required ; and 
hence the modem English pointer has been bred, partly by cross- 
ing with the foxhoimd or greyhound, and partly by selecting the 
lightest and quickest of the old breed. 

The Spanish pointer is characterised by great height and weight, 
large bones, and altogether heavy limbs, large and rather spreading 
feetj a small stem, which in the engraving is represented as cropped, 
that being the imiversal practice in former days with the pointer ; 
muzzle broad, head large and heavy, ears full and pendent, but not 
so wide as those of the hound. In hunting he was slow and lum- 
bering, lashing his " stem " with great vigour, and, from his weight, 
soon tiring himself, or wearing his feet through till he became 
lame. Three or four hours' work in the day was quite as much as 
could be got out of this dog, which is therefore now almost entirely 
superseded by the modern breeds. 



a 4 



DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE QUN. 




THE MODERN ENGLISH POINTER. 
This is now one of the moBt beautiful of aU out sportiag dogs, 
dividing with the setter the admiration of all those who enjoy the 
pleasures attending on the use of the gun. The above engraving 
IB from a dog possessing the extreme degree of development of the 
head and muzzle that is now sanctioned, but tiuiting with it a very 
different frame, legs, and feet from those of the Spanish pointer. 
Such a dog is a very fast galloper compared with the old-fashioned 
d(^, and will beat out a moderate-sized field while his master is 
crossing it at a moderate pace. If extreme speed is obtained, many 



MODERN ENGLISH POINTER. 89 

single birds must be passed over, and on bad scenting days coveys 
even will be run in to from the dog being unable to stop himself in 
time, after he catches the scent, which then does not reach beyond 
a few yards. I have seen and owned pointers almost as fast as a 
slow greyhound, but though some are able to do wonders, con- 
sidering the pace they go, I am satisfied that a brace of good dogs 
of the above shape are able to do all that can be required, in point 
of pace, and at the same time, will not run in to a twentieth part 
of the game which will be put up by a faster dog. The trace of 
the foxhound in these heavier specimens of the modern pointer is 
very slight if any ; and I am inclined to believe that they are 
descended from the Spanish pointer in all his purity, but, by 
constant care in the selection of the lightest specimens to breed 
from, so altered in shape as to appear like different animals. All 
this is, however, pm'ely conjectural, as the pedigrees of our 
pointers seldom extend beyond two or three generations, and even 
Mr. Edge in his day could hardly have gone further, nor could the 
breeders of the present time trace their pointers sufficiently far 
back to settle the question. The pedigrees of those bred by Lord 
Sefton are probably as well made out as any in the kingdom, but 
even they are far from leading to what is desired. If a dog is 
traced up to any one of Mr. Edge's kennel, all is done which 
is now thought necessary, and indeed all that can be useful to the 
sportsman, however interesting a further investigation might be to 
the naturalist. 

The points desirable in the pointer are, a moderately large head, 
wide rather than long, with a high forehead, and an intelligent eye 



90 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

of medium size. Muzzle broad, with its outline square in front, not 
receding as in the hound. Flews manifestly present, but not 
pendent The head should be well set on the neck, with a pecu- 
liar form at the junction only seen in the pointer. The neck 
itself should be long, convex in its upper outline, without any ten- 
dency to a dewlap or to a " ruflf," as the loose skin covered with 
long hair round the neck is called. The body is of good length, 
with a strong loin, wide hips, and rather arched ribs, the chest 
being well let down, but not in a hatchet shape as in the greyhound, 
and the depth of the back ribs being proportionally greater than 
in that dog. The tail, or ** stem '' as it is technically called, is 
strong at the root, but suddenly diminishing it becomes very fine, 
and then continues nearly of the same size to within two inches of 
the tip, when it goes off to a point looking as shai-p as the sting of 
a wasp, and giving the whole very much the appearance of that 
part of the insect, but magnified as a matter of course. This 
peculiar shape of the stern characterises the breed, and its absence 
shows a cross with the hound or some other dog. The shoulders 
are points of great importance in the pointer, as unless tliey are 
well-formed he cannot last throughout the day, and, moreover, he 
can neither stop himself nor turn quickly in his work as he ought 
to do. tHence, a long, slanting, but muscular blade is of vast im- 
portance, united to a long upper arm, which again requires for its 
existence an elbow well let dovm below the chest, and a short fore 
arm. This low position of the elbow is not generally sufficiently 
insisted on, but in pointers and setters it is all-impoi-tant, and it 
will be seen to be particularly well shown in the portrjvit annexed. 



MODERN ENGLISH POINTEH. 91 

Plenty of bone in the leg, well clothed with muscle and tendon, a 
strong knee, full-sized ankle, and round strong foot, provided with 
a thick 8ole, are also essential to the wear and tear of the fore 
quarter, while the hind requires muscular haunches and thighs, 
strong well bent stifles, large and strong hocks, and the hind feet 
of the same character as those described for the fore feet. The 
colour should be principally white, in order that the dog may 
readily be seen either among heather, or in clover or turnips, 
as the case may be. Liver-coloured or black pointers look very 
handsome, but it will be found that great inconvenience attaches 
to them, as they will often be lost sight of when pointing in either 
of the above kinds of beat. White, with black, liver, yellow, or 
lemon-coloured heads, are the most prized ; and of these my preju- 
dice is in favour of the last, from having had and seen so many 
good dogs of that colour. A spot or two on the body, and any 
number of ticks, are not considered objectionable, particularly the 
latter, which are generally admired. Some breeds are distinguished 
by having numerous white ticks in the colour, especially when 
there are lai-ge patches on the body, the marks on the head being 
usually free from them. Black and white pointers have sometimes 
also the tanned spots over the eye, and the edges of the black on 
the cheeks tinged with tan ; but this is supposed to indicate a 
cross of the foxhoimd, and no doubt in many cases with truth ; 
yet I fancy that if a yellow and white pointer is put to a black 
and white one, the tan will show itself occasionally without any 
admixture with the hound. The coat of the high-bred pointer 
is short and soft to the touch; but for hard work, especially on 



92 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

the moors, a dog with rather a wiry coat, and well clothed with 
hair on the legs and feet, should be preferred; but these will 
show rather more hair on the stern than is thought to be charac- 
teristic of high breeding ; yet let the stern be ever so hairy, there 
ought to be the same small boiie and pointed tip as in the en- 
graving. 



THE PORTUGUESE POINTER 

Besembles the Spanish in general form, but is furnished with a 
bushy stern, and looks like a cross with the old-fashioned spaniel. 



THE FRENCH POINTER. 

This is rather a nondescript animal, as he varies greatly through- 
out France, being in some districts very similar to the Spanish dog, 
while in others he has evidently been crossed with the poodle, and 
resembles that dog very closely. Indeed, the poodle itself is often 
broken and used as a pointer, but he is incapable of long-continued 
work ; and such is also the characteristic of the French dog, though 
perhaps superior in this respect to the Spanish breed. Many 
English pointers are now used in France, and indeed the great 
majority of good sportsmen in that country have them more or less 
pure. 



DALMATIAN AND DANISH D008. 




The IMmitiin Dop . (Yomtl.) 



THE DALMATIAN AND DANISH DOGS. 
The Dalmatian dog is a handsome well-foimcd <log, standing 
alx>ut 24 or 25 inches high, and resembling the pointer in his 
shape, but usually having his ears cropped, as shown in the en- 
graving. He is beautifully spotted with black on a white ground, 
and being remarkably fond of horses, nod of road-work with them, 
he bas been long employed in this country to accompany our car- 
riages afl an ornamental appendage : but this fashion has of late 



U DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

years Bubsided. Hence be is here coiamonly known as " the 
Coach Dog ; " but in hia native country he is used as a pointer 
in the field, and is said to perform his duties well enough. 

The Danish dog is smaller than the Dalmatian; but, being 
spotted in the same way and characterised by the same fondness 
for horses, they are generally confounded under the term " Coach 
Dog." 




" Saiuiu " a pF feci epecimen of the Setter bred bjr Mr Tiuun of Wormier 



THE SETTER (ENGLISH AND miSH). 

The setter is commonly supposed to be the old spaniel, either 
crossed with the pointer or his setting powers educated by long 



ENGLISH AND IRISH SETTERS. 95 

attentaon to the breed. Daniel, in his "Rural Sports/' vol. ii. 
p. 290, gives a copy of a bond, signed by John Harris, on Oct. 7, 
1485, in which he covenants to keep for six months, and break, a 
certain spaniel to " sit partridges, pheasants, and other game," in 
consideration " of ten shillings of lawful English money." Thus it 
can be shown, that as early as the fifteenth century, a dog similar to 
a spaniel, and therefore not a pointer, was used for setting game ; 
and there is reason to believe that at that time, and for a long 
period subsequently, the setter did j^ctually drop and not stand as 
the pointer does; but how this change was efifected we do not 
exactly know, though there can be no doubt of the fact. The 
following may be hazarded as the most probable explanation of 
this change which has taken place in the position of the setter. 
Prior to the introduction of the flint-gun it was impossible to 
shoot flying, and these dogs were used in aid of the net which 
was drawn over both dog and game, and hence a crouching 
setter was more useful than a standing pointer; but, when the 
gun came into general use, the pointer, from being more visible 
as he kept his upright posture, was selected in preference, and 
the setter rejected, until in course of time certain breeds of 
that dog were known to imitate the pointer in the standing posi- 
tion, and after a still further lapse the old crouching style of setting 
was lost Thus, I believe, it came to pass that the English setter 
imitated the pointer ; but whether it was efiected by crossing with 
that dog it is difficult to say. We know now by experience that 
the first cross between the two, commonly called " a dropper," is a 
very useful dog, possessing the properties of each, but it does not 



96 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

answer to go on breeding from it, either on the side of the sire or 
dam ; and therefore, judging from analogy, the effect has not been 
produced in this way. 

The peculiar characteristics of the English and Irish setters, as 
displayed in the field, are great speed, activity, endurance, capabi- 
lity of bearing cold and wet, and of standing the rough work of the 
moors, in all of which good qualities the Irish setter is even better 
than the English. He not only has these in perfection, but he 
also exaggerates the wilfulness and want of steadiness so remarkable 
in the setter as compared with the pointer, while, at the same time, 
he is just as incapable of bearing the heat of the sun without water. 
Indeed some rough-coated setters, both Irish and English, cannoi 
work at all when their skins are dry, and, unless they can run into 
a pool every half-hour at least, they blow like porpoises, and are 
utterly useless. Hence it is that, in the south, the pointer, who 
fulfils all the requisites for partridge-shooting, is preferred to the 
setter as a general rule; while, in the north, the latt-er is adopted, 
because he will range wider and faster, stand more work, and 
bear the vicissitudes of the weather so common in Scotland, as well 
as the rough heather, which distresses the more delicate feet and 
legs of the highbred pointer. In point of nose it is commonly 
supposed that the pointer is also superior, but I believe that if 
both are in condition, and neither of them distressed by heat, there 
will be little or no difference in this respect. A moderately slow 
dog will always appear to have a better nose than a very fast one, 
and will put up less game ; but, if too slow, he will lose a great 
many points which are taken from him by his faster competitor. 



ENGLISH AND IRISH SETTERS. 97 

Hence it follows that there is a medium in point of speed which 
may be possessed by either breed, and a selection need not ])e made 
on that accoimt. The setter is, however, acknowledged to be more 
difficult to break than the pointer, and when once broken he is 
more apt to require a second series of lessons, whereas the pointer 
rarely forgets himself imless encouraged to do so by a careless or 
incompetent master. 

The points of the English and Irish setters are nearly the same, 

but there is a peculiar look about each, which, though not exactly 

capable of being described, readily distinguishes the one from the 

other. Both have moderately heavy heads, but not so much so as 

the pointer ; and their muzzles also are not so broad, nor are they 

nearly so square in profile, the lower angle being rounded oflF, but 

the upper being still neai'ly a right angle. The eye is similar to 

that of the pointer, but not so soft, being more sparkling and 

fuU of spirit. The ear long, but thin, and covered with soft silky 

hair, slightly waved. The neck is long, but straighter than that of 

the pointer, being also lighter and very flexible. The back and 

loin are hardly so strong as those of the pointer, the latter 

also being rather longer; the hips also being more ragged, and 

the ribs not so round and barrel-like. The stem, or flag, is 

usually set on a little lower, is fm-nished with a fan-like brush 

of long hair, and is slightly curved upwards towards the tip, but 

it should never be carried over the back, or raised above the level 

of its root, excepting when standing, and then a slight elevation 

is admired, every hair standing down with a stiff and regular 

appearance. The shoulder-blade is very long and fine, and the 

H 



98 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

chest not being so wide as that of the pointer, it plays very freely 
upon the ribs. The true arm should be very long, and the elbow, 
when in perfection, is placed so low as to be fully an inch below 
the brisket, making the fore arm appear very short, as seen in 
the beautiful illustration which heads this article. The bone of 
the leg is very large, and the feet round, thick, and their soles 
hard, while they, as well as the back of the legs, being clothed 
with long hair, are well protected from all kinds of friction. The 
hind quarter is not usually so muscular as that of the pointer ; but 
the thighs being longer, and the hocks usually stronger, the power 
is quite as great. The hind feet and legs are clothed with hair, or 
" feathered," as it is called, in the same way as the fore legs, and 
the amount of this beautiful provision is taken into consideration 
in selecting the dog for his points. In all these the English and 
Irish dogs are alike, except that the latter are rather more leggy, 
but are very powerful nevertheless, and are quite as enduring. 
The colour of the Irish is generally a rich dark red, with still 
darker muzzle, sometimes actually black, but more often a rich 
mahogany, the same dark shade running down the back to the stem, 
which has the short hair as dark as the muzzle. Many of them 
have more or less white about their limbs, but the mouth should 
always be black, and, the less white they have, the more thorough- 
bred they are considered. On the other hand, the English setter 
has almost always, like the pointer, a foundation of white, with black, 
liver-coloured, yellow, red, or lemon-coloured head, and much of 
the same, with or without ticks, about them. Some are pure black 
or pure white, others black and tan ; and others, again, black and 



ENGLISH AND IRISH SETTERS. 99 

white, with the tan spots over the eyes, and tanned cheeks, described 
under the head of the pointer. The coat of the setter is of the 
greatest importance to attend to in selecting the breed, since there 
is a great difference in this respect ; and while those with thin coats 
are equally capable of bearing heat with the pointer, the rough, 
curly, and oily-coated dogs are utterly useless in hot weather. The 
best kind of hair is one which is composed of the same throughout 
(that is, without an under coat of a woolly texture), and which, 
without any decided curl, has a trace of a wave here and there. 
These dogs ought, however, to be well feathered nearly all the way 
down their legs, and their feet especially ought to be well clothed 
with hair. Such dogs have always plenty on their flags; but 
if these are bushy sideways, and not presenting a flat fanlike 
form, they are to be considered imperfect in this point, though, 
nevertheless, the individual possessing such a stem may be a 
good dog. 

The bitch setter, like the pointer, is lighter and smaller, espe- 
cially about the head, which is not so square and deep in any of 
its proportions. 



H 2 



DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GVN. 




bliglilly I'monl with English bhnd. 



THE RUSSIAN SETTKK. 



This (log was at oue time, that is about twenty years ago, con- 
sidered to be siiperior to our English breed, and many of them 
were then introduced into the kennels of our best sportsmen, but 
they are now almost lost sight of again. In the year 1841, Mr. 
Lang, well known as a first-rate shot both at game and pigeons, 
and as a breeder of pointers and setters, nTot« to the Editor of the 
" .SiK>rting Hcviow " a letter warmly in praise of tliem, from which 
the following is an exfrju-t: — 



RUSSIAN SETTER. 101 

"In the season of 1839 I was asked, for a week's shooting, into 
Somersetshire, by an old friend, whose science in everything con- 
nected with sporting is first rate. Then, for the first time for 
many years, I had my dogs, English setters, beaten hollow. His 
breed^was from pure Russian setters, crossed by an English setter 
dog, which some years ago made a sensation in the sporting world, 
from his extraordinary performances: he belonged to the late 
Joseph Manton, and had been sold for a hundred guineas. Al- 
though I could not but remark the excellence of my friend's dogs, 
yet it struck me, as I had shot over my own old favourite setter 
(who had himself beat many good ones, and had never before been 
beaten) for eight years, that his nose could not have ])een right, for 
the Russians got three points to his one. I therefore resolved to 
try some others against them the next season ; and having heard a 
gentleman, well kno^vn as an excellent judge, speak of a brace of 
extraordinary young dogs he had seen in the neighbourhood of 
his Yorkshire moors, with his recommendation I purchased them, 
I shot to them in August last, and their beauty and style of per- 
formance were spoken of in terms of praise by a correspondent to 
a sporting paper. In September I took them into Somersetshire, 
fully anticipating that I should give the Russians the go by : but I 
was again disappointed; I found, from the wide ranging of my 
dogs, and the noise consequent upon their going so fast through 
stubbles and turnips (particularly in the middle of the day, w^hen 
the sun was powerful and there was but little scent), that they 
constantly put up their birds out of distance, or, if they did get a 
point, that the game would rarely lie till we could get to it. The 

II 3 



102 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

BussioDs, on the contrary, being much closer rangers, quartering 
their ground steadily — heads and tails up— and possessing perfec- 
tion of nose, in extreme heat, wet, or cold, enabled us to bag double 
the head of game that mine did. Nor did they lose one solitary 
wounded bird; whereas, with my own dogs, I lost six brace the 
first two days of partridge-shooting, most of them in standing 
com. 

" My old friend and patron, having met with a severe accident 
while hunting last season, determined to go to Scotland for the 
next three years. Seeing that my dogs were well calculated for 
grouse-shooting, as they had been broken and shot to on the moors, 
and being aware of my anxiety to possess the breed of his Eus- 
sians, he very kindly offered to exchange them for mine, with a 
promise that I would reserve a brace of Sussian puppies for him. 
Although I had refused fifty guineas for my brace, I most gladly 
closed with his offer. Since then I have hunted them in company 
with several dogs of high character, but nothing that I have yet 
seen could equal them. If not taken out for six months, they are 
I)erfectly steady, which is a quality rarely to be met with. Every 
sportsman must know, that the fewer dogs he can do his work 
with properly, the better : for if they are in condition they cannot 
be too firequently hunted ; and their tempers, style of working, &c., 
become more familiar to him. On this the whole comfort of 
shooting depends. Upon these grounds I contend that, for all 
kinds of shooting, there is nothing equal to the Bussian or half- 
bred Bussian setter, in nose, sagacity, and every other necessary 
qualification that a dog ought to possess."' 



BUSSIAN SETTER. 103 

Since then, however, Mr. Lang has lost the breed, and, I believe, 
for some reason or other, has also lost confidence in them. They 
are now very scarce in this country, of pure blood, and even the 
cross with the English setter is seldom seen. 

The actual form of the Russian setter is almost entirely con- 
cealed by a long woolly coat, which is matted together in the most 
extraordinary manner, and which would lead to the supposition 
that he would be unable to stand heat even as well as our curly 
setters; but, on the contrary, he bears it almost like a pointer. He 
has the bearded muzzle of the deerhound and Scotch terrier, but 
the hair is of a more woolly nature, and appears to be between 
that of the poodle and the water spaniel, or perhaps the ordinary 
setter, but far thinner than either, which may account for the sus- 
tenance of heat. The legs are straight and strong, and the form of 
the body well adapted for the pace which the setter has to keep 
up ; but this dog is not very fast, though quite sufficiently so for 
all sporting purposes. The feet are generally rather flat, but the 
soles are stout, and stand work well, while the quantity of hair on 
them fits them to bear the friction of heather or other rough work. 
I have never tried one of these dogs myself, but I have always 
heard the highest character of their nose and sagacity, as well as 
of their powers of endurance. 



H 4 



104 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 



THE FIELD SPANIEL. 

Tlie field spaniel is distinguished from the toy dog by his pro- 
pensity to hunt game, and by his size and strength, which are 
sufficient to enable him to stand the work which is required in 
making his way through the briars and thorns of a tliick covert^ 
where he is chiefly employed. Although not used for water, where 
the water spaniel is pre-eminent, his coat must be of such a thick 
nature as to bear long-continued wet, inasmuch as he is generally 
soaked with it, either from the snow on the briars, or from moisture 
hanging to them in drops, caused either by rain or dew. Hardi- 
hood, therefore, is essential, and though a little dog 7)iay possess it, 
there are few instances of anything under 12 or 14 pounds being 
able to stand the wet and labour of a day's covert shooting. The 
nose of the spaniel must be exquisite, or he will be unfit to per- 
form his duties, which require him to follow out the pheasant, 
woodcock, or hare, to the well-concealed retreat in or imder a thick 
bush, which either of them may have chosen. A good and some- 
what musical tongue was, by the old school of sportsmen, con- 
sidered B,de8lderaiamy\ii order not only to give notice that the dog 
is on game, but also the particulai* kind which he is " questing," 
and which many good spaniels enable their masters to distinguish 
by a variation in their notes. Formerly this was thought so 
important, that if a spaniel happened to be mute, he was hunted 
with a bell round Ids neck, as is sometimes done with the setter 



FIELD SPANIEL. 105 

when used in covert. In the present day, a very fashionable 
breed (the Chimber), is invariably mute; but as these dogs are 
chiefly used in aid of the battue, there is not the same neces- 
sity for them to give notice of their approach, as in the case of 
spaniels used either in \vild-phea8ant shooting, or for cocks, hares, 
or rabbits. It will therefore appear, that, for every kind of covert 
shooting but the battue, we re(iuire a strong useful spaniel, capa- 
ble of bearing exposure to the weather, and neither too large for the 
runs, nor too small to bear work. Added to these qualities, we 
want an exquisite nose, and a musical but not noisy tongue, 
which is all the more valuable if it will distinguish by its note the 
various kinds of game. These dogs must also be readily kept 
under command, and must not be inclined to hunt far away from 
the shooter, or so fast as to prevent his following them. For 
various purposes a vast number of breeds have been established, 
more or less resembling each other, and a good many of them 
being now extinct, in consequence of the diminished demand for 
their services since the introduction of battues and their attendant 
preserves, by which, as a matter of course, wild covert shooting 
is rendered much more scarce. All the spaniels have a marked 
down carriage of their tails, which they work rapidly when on 
game, but should never raise above the level of their backs. All 
these various breeds may, however, be arranged under two leading 
divisions : one known as "the Springer," and including the Sussex, 
Clumber, and Norfolk Spaniels, besides several others confined to 
their respective localities ; and the other called " the Cocker," from 
his being chiefly used for woodcocks, though also good for general 



106 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

purposes. The King Charles and Blenheim originally belonged 
to the second division, but they are now kept and bred for toy 
purposes only. 

The springer has a most tender and discriminating nose, is 
very tractable, and therefore easily kept in command. As has 
been already remarked, some are mute (a« the Clumber), while 
others throw theii* tongues, as, for instance, the Sussex and the 
Norfolk. All the springers are heavy and slow as compared with 
the cockers, and most of them soon tire, three or four hours' 
work being about a good average day's work. Hence, they are 
scarcely adapted for beating large and wild woodlands, and for 
this reason they are seldom used for cock-shooting, excepting in 
small coverts frequented by this bird, and highly valued by the 
sportsman. 

The Clumber spaniel, which for a long time was confined to the 
Newcastle family, but has lately become very fashionable, is a re- 
markably long, low, and somewhat heavy dog. In weight he is 
from 30 to 40 lbs. Height 18 to 20 inches. The head is heavy, 
wide, and full, the muzzle broad and square, generally of a flesh 
colour. Nostrils open, and chops full and somewhat pendent. 
Ears long, and clothed with wavy hair, not too thick. Body very 
long and strong, the back ribs being very deep, and the chest being 
very round and barrel-like, the ribs at the same time being so 
widely separated from each other as to make the interval between 
them and the hips small in proportion to the great length. Tail 
bushy, but not at all woolly, the hair being waved only, not curled. 
It is generally cropped. Shoulders rather heavy and wide apart. 



CLUMBEB SPANIEL. 



arms short but etrong, elbows not very well let down, fore arms 
strong, with plenty of bone, good knees, and fitrong useful round 
feet, but not very well up in the knuckles. The legs should be 
well featbered, and the feet hairy. The hind legs are rather 




" BlUM " lod " JUDI 



straight, and should, like the fore legs, be short, so that the dog 
altogether has rather a weasely appearance, but the body being 
considerably stouter in proportion than that animal's. The coat is 
very thick, but should be silky and wavy, not curled, except in 
the Ceatherings, which are long and well marked. Colour, yellow 



DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 



and white, or, as is mort liiglily prized, lemon and wliitc. Tliis 
dog is almost invariably mute. 




The Sueeex »piiniel differs from the Clumber in lihapc and 
colour, D» well as in his " ([nesting," his note being full anil Ik'H- 
like, thougli sharp. In height and weight there is not much 
difference, nor is the general chai-acter of the head very dia- 
tiugtiishable from tliat of the Clumber ; but in length he is not 



* JlrcU by llje late A. E. Fuller, Esq., of Rose Hill, Brightliiig, Sussex, 
iluauutidei] fi'iuu tliu culcbmtuJ stock of Kli'. Sloiicyiiuiiiiy, gf Rulvviidon. 



SUSSEX SPANIEL. 109 

nearly so remarkable as that dog, though still long and low, the 
body being very round and full, indicating great power. The coat 
also is pretty nearly the same in (Quality, being soft and silky, 
though thick and free from distinct curls; and this dog is also 
beautifully feathered. The hejid is not quite so heavy about the 
muzzle, but very square above the eyes, and with an expression of 
exceeding gravity and intelligence. The ears are full in length, 
but not very thickly covered ^vith hair. Muzzle broad, with the 
under jaw receding more than in the Clumber, and the point of 
the nose of a liver-colour. The whole body is also of a decided 
liver-colour, but ^vith rather a golden shade, not so deep as that 
of the Welsh or Devonshire cockers, or the Irish water spaniel. 
Legs and feet very strong, and well feathered. Tail generally 
cropped, and well clotlied with wavy hair. The bitches are usually 
smaller than the dogs. All of this breed throw their tongues, 
and when kept to cocks or pheasants, they readily indicate their 
scent by a sharper note than usual. 

The Norfolk apanisl resembles a thick-made English setter in 
shape and general proportions, but is of smaller size, seldom ex- 
ceeding 17 or 18 inches in height. The colour is black and white, 
or liver and white, accompanied by ticks of either on the white. 
This is a very useful breed, and it is now generally spread 
throughout England, where, however, it is not kept very pure, 
being crossed with the Clumber and Sussex, and also with the 
innumerable other breeds which are met with in other coimties. 

The rockei^ can scarcely be minutely described, inasmuch as 
there are so many varieties in different parts of Great Britain. 



110 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

He may, however, be said, in general terms, to be a light active 
spaniel of about 14 lbs. weight on the average, sometimes reach- 
ing 20 lbs., with very elegant shapes, and a lively and spirited 
carriage. In hunting he keeps his tail down, like the rest of 
his kind, and works it constantly in a most rapid and merry 
way, from which alone he may be known from the springer, who 
also works his, but solemnly and deliberately, and apparently 
without the same pleasurable sensations which are displayed 
by the cocker. The head is roimd, and the forehead raised. 
Muzzle more pointed than the springer, and the ear less 
heavy, but of good length, and well clothed with soft wavy hair, 
which should not be matted in a heavy mass. The eye is of 
medium size, slightly inclined to water, but not to weep like the 
toy dog's. Body of medium length, and the shape generally re- 
sembling that of a small setter. It has long been the ciistom to 
crop the tail nearly half off, so as to prevent the constant wearing 
of it against the bushes, as the dog works his way through them. 
If left on, it is nearly as long in proportion as that of the setter, 
but more bushy, and not so closely resembling a fan. These dogs 
are well feathered, and the work for their feet and legs requires 
them to be strong and well formed. The coat should be thick and 
wavy, but not absolutely curled, which last shows the cross with 
the water spaniel, and that gives too much obstinacy with it to 
conduce to success in covert shooting. The colour varies from a 
plain liver or black to black and tan, white and black, white and 
liver, white and red, or white and lemon; and different breeils 
jire noted jw pow^essing some one of these in particular, but I 



WELSH COCKER. Ill 

am not aware that any one is remarkable as belonging to a su- 
perior race. 



Engliib and Wclih Cockcra. 

The Welsh cocker, aa represented on tlie right, i8 one of the 
best of this division, being of good size, with strong loins, capital 
legs and feet, and an excellent noee. The coat is very slightly 
curled on the body, but the ears and legs are feathered, the 
tail being very nearly bare of hair. These dogs are etill exten- 
sively used in Wales for the purpose of hunting the cocks, which 
are to be met with in the principality in large numbers during the 
season, and form one of the cliief attractions to the shooter. 



11-2 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

Tlie Devonshire cocker closely resembles tlie Welsli dog, botli 
being of a deep liver-colour. The dog on tlie left is the ordinary 
English cocker. 

The BUiiheivi and Kin(/ Charks^ sjmnieh ^vill be descril>eil 
under the head of toy dogs, to which purpose alone are they 
really suited, though sometimes used in covert shooting. 



TUE WATER SPANIEL. 

Water spaniels are commonly said to have web-feet, and this 
point is oft^n made a ground of distinction from other dogs, but the 
fact is that all dogs have their toes united by membrane in the same 
way, the only distinction between the water and land dogs being 
that the former have larger feet, and that the membrane l)etween 
the toes being more lax, they spread more in swimming, and 
are thus more useful in the water. Most people would understand, 
from the stress laid on web-feet in the water dogs, that the toes of 
the land dogs were nearly as much divided as those of man, but 
there are none so formed, and, as I before remarked, the toes of 
all are luiited throughout by a strong membrane. The coat in all 
the water dogs is woolly and thickly matted, often curly, and in 
all more or less oily, so as to resist the action of the water. This 
oil is rank in smell, and hence they are all unfit to be inmates 
of our houses, whicli is a strong objecti<ni to the poodle as a 



WATEK SPANIEL. 



toy d<^. As, therefore, we have no ground for separating the 
land from the water dogs, I have not attempted to do so, but 
have grouped them according to the divisions under which they 
naturally fall. 




The Old English tvaler spaniel is particularly fond of the 
water, and will enter it in almost all weathers hy choice, while 
it never is too cold for him when any game is on it. His powers 
of swimming and diving are immense, and he will continue in 



114 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

it for hours together^ after which he gives his coat a shake aiid 
is soon dry. Indeed, when he first comes out he does not seem 
thoroughly wet, his oiled and woolly coat appearing to set at 
defiance the approach of water. His nose is pretty good, and 
he is capable of an excellent education ; but it takes some time to 
break him thoroughly, as he is required to be completely under 
command, and is a very restless dog by nature, whereas his 
duties demand perfect silence. There are generally said to be two 
distinct breeds, one larger than the other, but in other respects 
alike. 

HiB points are as follows: — Head long and narrow, eyes small, 
and ears of medium length, covered with thick curly hair. Body 
stout, but elegantly formed, with strong loins, and round barrel- 
like chest, which is broad across the shoulders. The legs are 
rather long, but very strong, the bone being of great size, and 
well clothed with muscle. Feet large and spreading, tail covered 
thickly with long curly hair, and slightly curved upwards, but 
not curved above the level of the back. 

The Inah water spaniel consists of two distinct varieties, pecu- 
liar to the North and South of Ireland. The Nortliem dog has 
shoi*t' ears, with little feather either on them or on the legs, but 
with a considerable curl in his coat. In colour he is generally 
liver, but with more or less white, which sometimes predominates, 
so as to make him decidedly white and liver. The South country 
Irish water spaniel is, on the contrary, invariably of a pure liver 
colour. Ears long and well feathered, being often two feet from 
point to point, and the whole coat consisting of short crisp curls. 



WATER SPANIEL. 115 

Body long, low, and strong, tail round and carried slightly down ; 
but straight, without any approach to feather. The celebrated 
breed known as "McCarthy's" is thus described by that gen- 
tleman in " The Field " newspaper. 

"The present improved and fancy breed, called McCarthy's 
breed, should run thus : — Dog from 21 to 22^ inches high (seldom 
higher when pure bred), head rather capacious, forehead pro- 
minent, face from eyes down perfectly smooth, ears from 24 to 26 
inches from point to point. The head should be crowned with a 
well-defined top-knot, not straggling across like the common 
rough water dog, but coming down in a peak on the forehead. 
The body should be covered with small crisp curls, which often 
become daggled in the moulting season ; the tail should be round 
without feather underneath, of the two i-ather shorty and as stiff as 
a ramrod; the colour of a pure puce liver without any white. 
Though these dogs are generally of very high mettle, I have never 
found them intractable or difficult to be trained ; they readily 
keep to heel and down-charge, and will find a dead or wounded 
bird anywhere, either in the open or in covert, l)ut they are 
not partial to stiff thorny brakes, as the briers catch the curl and 
trail after them. It is advisable to give them a little training at 
night, so that in seeking objects they must rely upon the nose 
alone. For the gun, they should be taught to go into the water 
like a duck ; but when kept for fancy, a good dog of this breed 
will take a flying jump of from 25 to 35 feet, or more, perpen- 
dicular height, into the water. My old dog " Boatswain " lived to 
be about eighteen years old, when, although in good health and 

I 2 




116 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

spirita, I wtis obliged to destroy him. When going abroad in 
1849, for some years, I gave my breed to Mr. JolIifTe TufFnell, of 
Mount-street, Merrion Square, Dublin, son of the late Col. TufF- 
nell, of Bath. His dog Jack, a son of my dog Boatswain, is 
known particularly as a sire to every one in Ireland, and to very 
many in England. A good well-trained dog of this breed will 
not be obtained under from 10/. to 15/. or 20/., and I have known 
as much as 40/. and 50/. to be paid for one. They will not 
stand a cross with any other breed; the spaniel, setter, New- 
foundland dog, and Labrador dog, &c., perfectly destroy coat, 
ears, tail, and symmetry; added to which, the cross-bred dog is 
very difficult to dry. If any cross would answer, I should say the 
bloodhound, which would give at least head, and ears, and nose. 
I have bred with the greatest care, giving the highest prices for 
good dogs to cross my own. I still have a first-rate bitch of the 
breed. It is essential for gentlemen purchasing puppies to see 
both sire and dam, as in this breed it is very easy to be imposed 
upon in a young one. The true breed has become very scarce; 
and although very hardy when grown up, they are very delicate as 
puppies. — J. M*C." 

The poodle wiis probably originally a water spaniel, but he is 
now used solely as a toy dog, in this country at all events. 




Tht English StaMp-Dog. (YoiialL) 



CHAPTER V. 

PASTORAL D0G8, AND THOSE USED FOR THE PURPOSES OF DBAUGHT. 

The EnglUh Sheep-Dog. — The Colle;. — The Drover'e Dog. — The German 
Sheep-Dog. — Fomeraoian Wolf-Dog. — The Newfoundland ond Labrador 
Doga. — The Esqutmanx Dog. — The Greenland Dog. — The Iceland and 
L^Und Doga, 

THE ENGLISH SHEEP-DOG. 

The English aheep-dog is tolerably represented in the annexed 
engraving, but there are so many diflferent breeds that it is difficult 



118 PASTORAL DOGS, ETC. 

to describe him very exactly. He has a sharp muzzle, medium- 
sized head, with small and piercing eyes ; a well-shaped body, 
formed after the model of a strong low gi'eyhound, but clothed in 
thick and somewhat woolly hair, which is particularly strong about 
the neck and bosom. The tail is naturally long and bushy, but, as 
it has almost invariably been cut off until of late years, its 
variations can hardly be known. Under the old excise laws the 
shepherd's dog was only exempt from tax when without a tail, and 
for this reason it was always removed; from which at last it 
happened that many puppies of the breed were born without any 
tails, and to this day some particular breeds are tailless. In 
almost all sheep-dogs there is a double dew-claw on each hind 
leg, and very often without any bony attachment The legs 
and feet are strong and well formed, and stand road-work 
well, and the untiring nature of the dog is very remarkable. 
The colour varies greatly, but most are grey, or black, or brown, 
with more or less white. 

Such is the true old English sheep-dog, but a great proportion 
of those in actual use are crossed with the various sporting dogs, 
such as the setter, which is very common, or the pointer, or even 
the hound ; and hence we so often find the sheep-dog as good in 
hunting game as in his more regular duties, while a great many 
are used as regular poaching dogs by night, and in retired districts 
by day also. 




TlieColley. (Yoq.tt.) 



THE COI.LEY. 



One of the moat beautiful and useful of all our dc^ is tbe 
Scoteh sheep-dog or colley, an excellent engraving of which 
heads this article. With a fine muzzle he combines an intelli- 
gent-looking and rather broad head, and a clear hnt mild eye, a 
pricked and small ear slightly falling at the tip. His body is 
elegantly formed, and clothed with a thick coat of woolly hair, 
which stands out evenly from his sides and protects him from all 



120 PASTORAL DOGS, ETC. 

the vicissitudes of the weather, neither wind, rain, nor snow 
being capable of penetrating it. The legs are well formed and 
the feet strong and useful. The tail is long, gently curved, and 
bushy, and the whole outline resembles the dingo; but the 
form is stouter and the limbs stronger. The colour is nearly 
always black and tan, with little or no white ; sometimes, however, 
the whole skin is of one or other of these colours, but then the 
dog is not considered nearly so valuable. The coUey, like the true 
English sheep-dog, has always one or two dew-claws on each hind 
foot^ The sagacity and perseverance of this dog are wonderful, 
and the instances in which he has succeeded in saving sheep and 
lambs under perilous circumstances are beyond all description. 



THE DROVER'S DOG. 

This is a mixed breed, being a cross between the sheep-dog and 
the mastiff or hound, or sometimes the greyhound, pointer, or 
setter. In the grazing counties he is of great size and strength, 
and some strains are highly valued ; but they differ so much as to 
he incapable of being distinguished from other breeds. 



GERMAN SHEEP-DOG. — POMERANIAN WOLF-DOG. 121 



THE GERMAN SFIEEP-DOG 

Is a small-sized dog, with biishy tail carried over the back, 
small muzzle, and shaggy coat, which is generally black or light 
fawn. His manner is brisk and affectionate, and his tractability is 
great, so that he is most useful in his vocation, and as a com- 
panionable dog is not excelled. 



THE POMERANIAN WOLF-DOG. 

This variety is used to protect the sheep from the wolf. His 
head is long with a pointed muzzle, and short pricked ears. He 
is a large wolf-like dog in shape, with long silky hair on the body 
and tail, but short on the head, legs, and ears. The colour is 
black, white, grey, or sometimes yellow. Tail long and spirally 
curled. 



PASTOR,\L DOGS, ETC. 




ThF Largw N<<i>fuDnd1>nd Dog. (YinultO 



THE NEWFOUNDLANn. 



This most valuable aiiima) is of two very differeut kinds, viz. 
the large, looBe-mnde, and long-haired variety, known as the Large 
I^ahradur; und the Binall, compact, and comparatively nhort-haired 



NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 123 

dog, known as the St. John's or Leaser Labrador breed. Both were 
originally natives of Newfoundland, and though many are bred in 
England, fresh specimens are constantly being imported from the 
island. All are now more or less crossed with the mastiflf or setter. 
In this coimtry they are chiefly used for ornamental pm^oses and 
as companions to their masters, the small breed being also crossed 
with the setter to make the retriever ; but in their native country 
they are used to draw timber over the snow in the winter months, 
being harnessed to carts and sledges made for the purpose. In 
intelligence the two breeds are about equal, both being celebrate 
for their faculty of learning to fetch and carry. This is sometimes 
developed to such an extent that a well-trained dog will go back 
for anything which his master has pointed out to him, if it has 
been handled, when it is only necessary to order him back to 
" seek," and he will find it by the scent. Many amusing instances 
of this are told, one of which we have heard on good authority, 
but which is almost beyond belief. A lady was most anxious to 
obtain a particular object from her lover, which he had strong 
reasons for refusing to her ; but being at length teased into com- 
plying he gave it her, and after parting, at some distance from her 
home, he fetched his dog and ordered him to " go seek.'' The 
intelligent creature at once started off on tlie heel of his master, 
and, overtaking the lady still carrying the gage (Paviour, he laid 
hold of it and brought it back in triumph. The dispossessed fair 
one, not having the least idea whose dog it was, and being ashamed 
to own how she had lost it, said nothing about the matter, and so 
the gentleman for once outwitted the la<1y in this stage of their 



124 PASTORAL DOGS, ETC. 

courtship ; whether the tables were turned afterwards, and the dog 
was enlisted in her service, we know not. Both breeds are good 
water-dogs and bear immersion for a long time, but the large 
variety having a more woolly coat is superior in endurance of wet 
and cold. Hundreds of anecdotes are told of extraordinary escapes 
from drowning by means of these dogs, their tendency to fetch 
and carry being doubly useful here. Children and light small 
women may be intrusted to them with safety in the water, if they 
are not bewildered with fear, when they will sometimes cling 
round the dog^s neck, and frustrate all his efforts to restore them 
to the land by swimming ; generally, however, in cases of recovery, 
the person has fainted, and being then powerless is towed ashore 
readily enough. The speed with which the Newfoundland swims 
is very great^ his large legs and feet enabling him to paddle him- 
self with great force. From their great size and strength they are 
able to beat off most dogs when they are attacked, and their thick 
coats prevent the teeth of their assailants from doing much 
damage; but in offensive measures they are of little use, being 
rather unwieldy, and soon winded in a desperate struggle. Hence 
they are not useful in hunting the lai-ge kinds of game, nor the 
bear, wolf, or tiger. The nose is delicate enough to hunt any 
kind of scent, but as they soon tire they are not used in this way, 
and it is solely as retrievers on land or water that they are useful 
to the sportsman, being generally crossed vrith the setter for the 
former, and the water spaniel for the latter element- 

The characteristic points of the Large Newfoundland are, great 
size, often being from 30 to 32 inches high ; a form proportion- 



NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 125 

ally stout and strong, but loosely put together, so that there is a 
general want of compactness, especially about the loins, which are 
long and very flexible. The head is not large in comparison to 
the size, but wide across the eyes ; muzzle of average length and 
width, and without any flews, as in the hounds and pointers ; 
eye and ear both small, the latter falling, and without much hair 
on it; neck short and clothed with a ruCF of hair; tail long, curled 
on itself slightly, and woolly ; legs very strong, but not feathered ; 
feet large and rather flat, bearing the road badly; coat on the 
body long, woolly, and matted ; colour black, or black and white, 
or whit<5 with little black, or liver colour, or a reddish dun, or 
sometimes, but rarely, a dark brindle not very well marked. 

The St. John's, or Smaller Labrador^ or Newfoundlandy the 
three names being used indiscriminately, is seldom more than 25 
inches high, and often much less. The head is larger in propor- 
tion to his size, and the ear also slightly fuller ; neck longer ; body 
far more compact, and clothed with shorter hair, shining, and 
without any woolly textiu-e ; tail similar in shape, but the hair less 
woolly ; legs and feet also better adapted for work ; colour almost 
always a jet black, rarely liver-colomred. This dog is now generally 
more or less crossed with the setter. The specimen which is here 
engraved is not particularly well marked, but I have been unable 
to obtain a better, and therefore give it as the nearest approach 
to the true breed, which is now very scarce. The dog was bred 
by the celebrated ** Bill George," of Kensall New-town, who con- 
siders him to be a pure Small Labrador ; but according to my own 
opinion his coat is too curly for perfect purity of blood, and he 



PASTOBAL DOGS, ETC. 




St. Joha'i or LeaMr lAbndor dog. 



it) probably crossed with tbe setter, or perbaps with the spaniel. 
I have lately been Bbown several of these dogs which were said ti> 
have been recently imported, but all were evidently crossed with 
other breeds, and were therefore rejected. 



ESQUIMAUX DOG. 




Tbs EsqoiDUui Dog. (YooMI.) 



THE ESQUIMAUX DOG 



This dog 18 the only beast of burden in the northern parts of 
he continent of America and adjacent islands ; being sometimes 
employed to carry materials for hunting, or the produce of the 
chase, on his back ; and at others he is harnessed to sledges in teams 
varying from 7 to 11, each being capable of drawing a hundred- 
weight for his share. Tliey are harnessed to a single yoke-line 
by a breast-strap, and, being without any guidii-reins, they are 



1-28 PASTORAL DOGS, ETC. 

entirely at liberty to do what they like, being only restrained by 
the voice of their master, and urged forward by his whip. A 
single dog of tried intelligence and fidelity is placed as leader, and 
upon him the driver depends for his orders being obeyed. In the 
summer they are most of them turned oflF to get their own 
subsistence by hunting, some few being retained to carry weights 
on their backs; sledges are then rendered useless by the absence of 
snow ; and, as there is a good subsistence for them from the ofial 
of the seal and the walrus which are taken by the men, the 
dogs become fat at this season of the year. The Siberian and 
Greenland dogs are nearly similar to those of Kamtschatka, but 
somewhat larger, and also more manageable, all being used in the 
same way. The Esquimaux dog is about 22 or 23 inches high, 
with a pointed fox-like muzzle, wide head, pricked ears, and wolf- 
like aspect ; the body is low and strong, and clothed with long 
hair, having an undercoat of thick w^ool; tail long, gently curved, 
and hairy ; feet and legs strong and well formed ; the colour is 
almost always a dark dun with slight disposition to brindle, and 
black muzzle. 



ICELAND AND LAPLAND DOGS. 

These are nearly similar to the Esquimaux, but rather laiger, 
more wolf-like, and far less manageable. 



]'2d 



CHAPTER VI. 

WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

Bulldog. — MasliflT.— Thibet Dog.— Pomile.— Maltese Dog. — Lion-Dog 

Shock-Dog. — Toy Spaniels. — Toy Terriers. — The Pug-Dog. 

Tire peculiarity of this division is that the dogs composing it 
are solely useful as the companions or guards of their owners, not 
being capable of being employed with advantage for hunting, in 
consequence of their defective noses, and their sizes being either 
too large and unwieldy, or too small, for that purpose. For the 
same reason they are not serviceable as pastoral dogs or for 
draught, their legs and feet, as well as their powers of maintaining 
long-continued exertion, being comparatively deficient These 
dogs nearly all show a great disposition to bark at intruders, 
and thereby give warning of their approach ; but some, as the 
bulldog, are nearly silent, and their bite is far worse than their 
bark. Others, as, for instance, the little housedogs, generally 
with more or less of the terrier, are only to be used for the 
purpose of warning by their bark, as their bite would scarcely 
deter the most timid. The varieties are as follows : — 




WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 




« puni DuUJog, Uie prupeitjr uf C. Stockdule, Esq., Slicpl»nl's ! 



THE BULLDOG. 

F. Cuvier hiis osHerted that tliia dog haa a brain itmaller in 
proportion than any other of his congenere, and iu this way 
accounbi for Lis assumed want of si^acity. But, though this 
authority is deservudly high, I must l>eg leave to doubt the fact as 
well as tbe inference, for if the brain is weighed with the body of 
the dog from which it was token, it will be found to be relatively 



* Fur tLc fulluwiDg pedigree of this bulldog, I am indebted t 



BULLDOG. 



131 



above the average, the mistake arising from the evident dispro- 
portion between the brain and the skull. For the whole head, 
including the zygomatic arches and cheek-bones, is so much larger 
than that of the spaniel of the same total weight of body, that 
the brain may well look small as it lies in the middle of the 
various processes intended for the attachment of the strong 
muscles of the jaw and neck. I have never been able to obtain 
the fresh brain of a pure bulldog for the purpose of comparison, 
but, from an examination of the skull, I have no doubt of the fact 
being as above stated. The mental qualities of the bulldog may 
be highly cultivated, and in brute courage and unpelding tenacity 
of purpose he stands unrivalled among quadrupeds, and with the 
single exception of the game-cock, he has perhaps no parallel in 



C. Stockdale, Esq., Shepherd*8 Bush, who has compiled it from authentic 
sources : — 



Pedigree of Mr, Stockdale's " Top. 

TOP. 

I 



I 
Hifi Music. 

I 



I 

Hb Bos. 
I 



I 
Lady 

(^George* s), 

I 



I 

Viper 
(jGwrge^s), 

I 



LiLL 

{Teaglet). 



I I I 

Daughter of Viper Wasp Mad Crib 



Gully 
{Aforri$on*s). 

I 



„ I I 

Duchess Gully 



I 

Nell 



I 

Roman by 



{George's). 



( George's), {A IboUs), {Morrison's). {MonHson's). {Redmonds). 



I 



I i I I I I 

Crib Imported His Crib Daugh- Tumbler (As above.) 

{Jem ^m White {Red- ter of {Hughes's). 

{Bums's). France. Lill. monds). \ \ 

Ditta Crib 

{Burns). 

K 2 



Boatswain "^ 
{Redmonds). 

I 
Crib 

{Redmonds). 



a 

o 
a 



CO 



132 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

these respects in the brute creation. Two remarkable-features are 
met with in this breed : Firstly, they always make their attack at 
the head ; and, secondly, they do not bite and let go their hold, but 
retain it in the most tenacious manner, so that they can with 
difficulty be removed by any force which can be applied. 
Instances are recorded in which bulldogs have hung on to the 
lip of the bull (in the old days of baiting this animal) after their 
entrails had been torn out, and while they were in the last 
agonies of death. Indeed when they do lay hold of an object, it is 
always necessary to choke them oflf, without which resource they 
would scarcely ever be persuaded to let go. From confinement 
to their kennels, they are often deficient in intelligence, and they 
can rarely be brought under good control by education; and, 
from the same circumstance, they show little personal attach- 
ment, so that they are almost as likely to attack their friends 
as their enemies in their fury when their blood is put up. 
Many a bulldog has pinned his master's leg in revenge for a 
tread on his foot, and it is very seldom that liberties can be 
taken with him by any one. There is an old story strongly 
characteristic of this tendency, which will illustrate this passion 
for pinning, and also the fondness of the lower orders in some 
districts for the fighting and baiting propensities of their dogs. 
A Staflfordshire coal-miner was one day playing with his bulldog, 
an unentered puppy, when the animal became angry and pinned 
his master by the nose. On this the by-standers became alarmed, 
and were going to treat the dog roughly, when the owner inter- 
fered with — " Doan't touch un. Bill ; let im teaste blood, an it '11 



BULLDOG. 138 

be the meaking on him." And so the puppy was allowed to 
hang on and worry his master's nose to his heart's content. 

But, when differently treated, the bulldog is a very different 
animal, the brutal nature which he so often displays being mainly 
attributable to the savage human beings with whom he associates. 
Although, therefore, I am ready to admit that the bulldog often 
deserves the character for ferocity which he has obtained, yet 
I contend that this is not natural to him, any more than stupidity 
and want of affection, which may readily be proved to be the 
reverse of his character, if any one will take the trouble to treat 
him in a proper manner. For the following remarks I am mainly 
indebted to Mr. Stockdale, who is a celebrated breeder of bull- 
dogs, and has had a long experience of their various attributes. 
The antiquity of the breed is unquestionable, and it has always 
been peculiar to these islands, the Spanish variety having ori- 
ginally been procured from Britain. It is highly probable that 
the modem bulldog has undergone a change in appearance du- 
ring the last fifty years, being now decidedly neater in shape 
than was formerly the case, if we are to judge from the portraits 
handed down to ils. As now exhibited, he is a remarkably neat 
and compact animal naturally, the deformities sometimes seen 
being produced principally from the practice of constantly keeping 
the poor dog tied up with a short chain. It is amusing to any 
one who has any knowledge of these dogs to read the terrible 
accounts of their ferocity in various books purporting to give 
us an insight into canine nature in general, but as these for 
the most part are merely copies of each other, too much weight 

K 3 



184 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

need not be attached to them. The only evil of such books is 
that they find their way into the hands of inexperienced persons, 
who are easily imposed on by bold assertion. Surely no animal 
has suffered more at the hands of his would-be historians than 
the dog, the books on him being composed, one half of impro- 
bable stories of his exploits, and the other of silly conclusions 
from them. Most writers, whether political or otherwise, are 
fond of dilating on the "Bulldog courage" of Englishmen, yet, 
in the same breath, they vilely asperse the noble animal from 
whom they draw their simile. The btdldog has been described 
as stupidly ferocious, and showing little preference for his master 
over strangers ; but this is untrue, he being an excellent watch, 
and as a guard unequalled, except perhaps by the bull-mastiff, a 
direct cross from him. Indeed, he is far from being quarrelsome 
by nature, though the bull-terrier in many cases undoubtedly 
is 80, and I fancy that some writers have taken their description 
from this dog rather than from the pure bidldog, which has been 
at all times rather a scarce animaL If once the pure breed 
is allowed to drop, the best means of infusing fresh courage 
into degenerate breeds will be finally lost, except with the 
addition of extraneous blood which may not suit them; for I 
believe that every kind of dog possessed of very high courage 
owes it to a cross with the bulldog; and thus the most plucky 
greyhounds, foxhounds, mastiffs, pointers, &c., may all be traced 
to this source. Though bull and badger baiting may not be 
capable of extenuation, to them we owe the keeping up of this 
breed in all its purity ; and though we may agree to discontinue 



BULLDOG. 135 

these old-fashioned sports, yet, I am sure, my brother-sportsmen 
will see the bad taste of running down a dog who, with all his 
fieiults, is not only the most courageous dog^ but the most cou-' 
rageous animal in tlie woidcL 

The points of a well-bred bulldog are as follows. The head 
should be round, the skull high, the eye of moderate size, and the 
forehead well sunk between the eyes, the ears semi-erect and 
small, well placed on the top of the head, rather close together 
than otherwise, the muzzle short, truncate, and well furnished with 
chop; his back should be short, well arched towards the stem, 
which should be fine and of moderate length; many bulldogs 
have what is called a crooked stern, as though the vertebraB of 
the tail were dislocated or broken. I am disposed to attribute 
this to in-breeding. The coat should be fine, though many superior 
strains are very woolly-coated; the chest should be deep and 
broad, the legs strong and muscular, and the foot narrow and well 
split up like a hare's. 



K 4 



WATCH IHKJS, EIOUSK IMKJS, AND TOT DOGS. 




TliP Cuh:m Miuti(r. (YouMt-} 



THE MASTIFF. 



There is every reasoa to suppose that this is an indigenous 
breed, like the bulldog, for though the Cuban mastiff closely 
resembles it, yet the latter is to all appearance crosBed with the 
bloodhound (sec cut). 



The Englteh nuift /? is a fine noble looking animil, -uid in 
tf mper is the most to be depended on of all the large and power- 




K"clisli SlH-tiff, iliF pmia-rly r.f T. LnkPT, V^<f.. «f M.>r.ifl.. 



ful dogs, being extremely docile and companionable, though 
(wssesaed of the highest cnnrage. When crossed with tlic New- 



188 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

foundland or bloodhound they answer well as yard-dogs, but 
the produce is generally of a savage nature, while the pure breed 
is of so noble and mild a nature that they will not on any pro- 
vocation hurt a child or even a small dog, one of their most 
remarkable attributes being their fondness for affording protec- 
tion. Mr. Lukey of Morden, Surrey, has a very fine breed of 
the pure mastiff, an engraving of one of which accompanies this 
article together with his account of the mode in which he 

obtained the blood.* 

The English mastiff is a most useful watch dog, and is so 
capable of attachment to the person of his master, and so com- 
pletely imder control, that he makes a most excellent night- 
guard te the game-keeper, for which purpose he is much used 
in this country, especially crossed with the bulldog, to give extra 
courage. This cross is, however, not te any great extent, and 



• " In 1835 I bought of the late Geo. White, of Knightsbridge, a brindled 
mastiff* bitch, at a high price (40/.), from the Duke of Devonshire's stud. I 
bred from her with a fawn black-muzzled dog, * Turk,* the property of the late 
Lord Waldegrave, a splendid high-couraged dog. I kept two brindled bitch 
pups; and with great interest and considerable cost I obtained the use of 
' Pluto,' the Marquis of Hertford's well-known mastiff* dog, considered by 
judges the finest and best-bred dog of his day, and valued immensely by the 
Marquis. I have not had any other cross but the ' Turk ' and ' Pluto ' 
breed, having kept bitches from the one and dogs from the other. ' Wallace,' 
the grandsire of the dog engraved, was an immense animal, standing 33 inches 
at the shoulder, 50 inches round the body, and weighed 172 lbs. The Ne- 
paulese Princes bought his brother and sister at eight months old, and gave 105/. 
for them. The late Pasha of Egypt for five successive years had two pair of 
whelps (brindled) sent spring and autumn from Southampton. — T. L." 



MASTIFF. 139 

many true mastiffs are used for the purpose. The well-known 
Bill George is also celebrated for his breed of mastiffs. 

The points of the mastiff are : — A head of large size between 
that of the bloodhound and bulldog in shape, having the 
volume of muscle of the latter, with the flews and muzzle 
of the former; the ear being of middle size but drooping, like 
that of the hound. The teeth generally meet, but if anything 
there is a slight protuberance of the lower jaw, never being 
imcovered by the upper lip like those of the bulldog. Eye 
small. In shape there is a considerable similarity to the hound, 
but much heavier in all its lines. Loin compact and powerful, 
and linibs strong. Tail very slightly rough, and carried high 
over the back when excited. Voice very deep and sonorous. 
Coat smooth. Colour red or fawn with black muzzle, or 
brindled, or black ; or black, red, or fawn and white. Height 
about 25 to 28 inches ; sometimes, but rarely, rather more. 



140 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOOR. 




The Mmnt SI. Bemitnl Dog. (Y»iislt.) 



THE MOUNT ST. BERNARD DOG. 



Closely allied to the mastiff, but resembling tlie Newfound- 
land in temper and in hix dispORition to fetch and carry, in 
the Mount St. Bernard breed, confine<l to t}ie Alpn and the 



MOUNT ST. BERNARD DOG. 141 

adjacent countries, where he is used to recover persons who 
are lost in the snow-storms of that inclement region. Wonder- 
ful stories are told of the intelligence of these dogs and of 
the recovery of travellers by their means, which are said to 
extend almost to the act of pouring spirits down the throats 
of their patients; but, however, there is qo doubt that they 
have been and still are exceedingly useful, and the breed is 
still kept up at the monastery of Mount St. Bernard. The 
height is about 25 to 28 inches ; length six feet, including the 
taiL The coat is short but varies a good deal in length, and 
the colour is a red or fawn with black muzzle, occasionally 
slightly marked in a brindled fashion. The shape of the head 
and body closely resembles that of the English mastiflf, but 
rather heavier in all respects. Some dogs have been imported 
with decidedly rough coats, as in the specimen given above, 
and ve probably crossed with the boarhound. 



WATCH DOOS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 




The Thibet Dof;- (Yotuitl.) 



THE THIBET DOG. 



This aaimal, as before remarked, reeerables the English mastiff 
in general appearance, and, being alflo put to the same use, 
the two may be said to be nearly allied. According to Mr. 
Bennett, he ia bred on the Hiinalava Mountains, oq the borders 



rOODLE. 143 

of Thibet, for the purpose of guarding the flocks and the 
women who attend them. 

The portrait annexed sufficiently describes the shape of this 
dog, whose colour is a dark black, and his coat is somewhat 
rough. 



THE rOODLE. 

The engraving given on next page represents the poodle with 
the whole of his coat on, but he is generally to be seen shaved 
in part, so as to resemble the lion in having a mane, and the 
tip of his tail also having a tuft left on. He is by many 
supposed to be the produce of a cross between the water and 
land spaniels, but there is no good reason to suppose that the 
breed is not quite as distinct as either of them. For many 
years it has been known in France and Germany, particularly 
the former country, and it is there occasionally used for 
sporting purposes, though, as in England, it is chiefly as a 
companion that this dog is kept. With more intelligence 
than falls to the lot of any other dog, he unites great fidelity 
to his master, and a strong love of approbation, so that he 
may readily be induced to attempt any trick which is shown 
him, and the extent to which he may be taught to carry out 
the secret orders of his instructor is quite marvellous. He 
fetches and eiuries very readily, swims well, and has a good 



14-1 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

nose, but has tio particular foiidu<.-iiu fui- liuittiug gume, ofteu 
preferriug a atick or a stone to a hare or plieasaut. Two of 
these dogs which were exhibited in London, iu 1829, astonished 




Thf PoodI*. (Y^Mll,) 



every one by their clever performance, sitting »ip to fcihle gravely, 
and playing a game at cards as quickly as a human being, the 
cards being placed before them, and the one to be played 
beinf; selected by the dog's foot. Of course this was all done 



rOODLE. 145 

by preconcei-ted signal, but nevertheless it was remarkably well 
managed, and showed a degree of intelligence and discipline 
worthy of a better purpose. Dancing dogs are also generally 
poodles, and indeed nearly all canine actors are of that de- 
scription, including Sir Bulwer Lytton's latest impersonation 
of the tribe in " What will he do with it," where the cha- 
racter of "Sir Isaac" is drawn to the life. 

The poodle is cluiracteriaed by a large wide head, rising 
sharply at the forehead, long falling ears clothed with thick 
curly hair, rather small eyes, square muzzle, with a liberal 
allowance of jowl, and a sedate appearance till roused by any 
prospect of fun. A well-formed pointer-like body, but covered 
with thick closely curling hair, hanging down in ringlets be- 
low; tail usually cropped more or less, naturally covered with 
crisp curls. Legs straight, and covered all round with hair 
hanging in short ringlets. Feet small and round, and moderately 
hairy. Colour white or black, or white and black. Height from 
16 to 20 inches. 

The barbet is merely a small variety of the poodle, which it 
resembles in all respects but size. 



L 



146 WATCH I)UGt<, HOUSE DUGS, AND TOY DOGS. 




ri'itK," * k llallFU Bitcb, tli< properl}' nf UiiHi tiibbs, o 



MALTESE DOG. 

Tliis beautiful little dog in a Skye terrier in miniature, with, 
however, a far more silky coat, a considerably shorter back, and 
a tail Htiffly cuiTed over the hip. 



• "Pejclic," thu original of the eiigraTinjr, was bri'd by Mr. Lukuy, of 
Afordi;n, direct from tlif parent stock, being bj " Ciipiil " out of " I'aythe," 
ivlio ncre both brought from Munilla in Itt41, ami boii;;lil tticn.- at a high 
|irice by CHptniii Lukcy, of the East India Company's service. Hiuy were 
iutendeU hh a present for the Queen, but after being nine niontii! on lioai-il 



POMERANIAN FOX-DOG. 147 

Points. — The weight should never exceed 5 or 6 lbs. Head 
closely resembling that of the Skye, but with more shining and 
silky hair Coat as long as that dog's ; but more traasparent and 
silky. Actions lively and playful, and altogether rendering it a 
pleasing pet. The tail is curved over the back, very small and 
short, with a brush of silky hair. Colour white, with an oc- 
casional patch of fawn on the ear or paw. The breed was so 
scarce some time ago, as to induce Sir E. Landseer to paint one 
as the last of his race ; since which several have been imported 
from Malta, and, though still scarce, they are now to be obtained. 
The little bitch from which the above portrait was sketched is the 
property of Miss Gibbs, of Morden, and is descended from parents 
imported by Mr. Lukey direct from Manilla. 



THE POMERANIAN FOX-DOG. 

This cheerful little dog is extremely common on the Continent 
of Europe, where it goes by the name of Loiip^loup. Until lately 

ship were found on their arrival in England not presentable, from their coats 
having been entirely neglected during the voyage. "Psyche" is now twenty 
months old, pure white, weighs 3^ lbs., measures in length of hair across the 
shoultlers 1.5 inches, and when in her gambols presents in appearance a ball of 
animated floss silk, her tail falling on her back like spun glass. Of all the 
canine pets this breed is the most lovable, being extremely animated and 
sagacious, full of natural tricks, and perfectly free from the defects of the 
spaniel, viz. snoring and an oflensive breath, being naturally cleanly and 
capable of instruction. 

h 1 



148 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

it was veiy rare in England^ but within the last twenty years it 
has become very common as a house dog. It is not recognised, 
however, by the fanciers, and is not piized highly by any one, 
being of no use but as a companion. The head is very fox-like, 
with pricked eai's and a sharp nose ; neck thick, and covered with 
a ruflf of woolly hair ; body also clothed with thick woolly hair, not 
curled ; legs free from hair. Tail carried high, and curled over 
the back, but not so closely as that of the pug dog. Colour gene- 
rally white, sometimes a pale cream colour and more rarely black. 



THE LION DOG. 

This toy dog appears to be a cross between the poodle and the 
Maltese dog, being curly like the former, but without his long 
ears and square visage. He is now very seldom seen in this 
country, and is not prized among fanciers of the canine species. 
Like the poodle he was generally shaved to make him resemble 
the lion. 



THE SHOCK DOG. 

This dog also is now almost unknown. But formerly he was very 
generally kept as a toy dog. He is said to have been a cross 
between the poodle and small spaniel, both of which varieties he 
resembled in part. 



TOY SPANIELS. 



•V..!"?,V 




Tlif Kinit ChJirW sn,l Blenheim Spanieh, (Vointt.) 



TOY SPANIELS. 



Two breeds are known and recognised tinder this head, namely, 
the King Charles and the Blenheim spaniels, the former being 
slightly the larger of the two, and hy moat, people connidered the 
more handflome. To an ordinary observer the chief points of dis- 
tinction in the King Charles are, the colour, which is black and tan 
more or less mixed with whit^, the lew the better ; and the length 



l.W WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

of the ears, which is greater than in the Blenheims ; these being 
also lighter in frame, and always yellow or red and white. Both 
are small delicate dogs, and though they have pretty good noses, 
and will hunt game readily, yet they so soon tire that they are 
rarely used for the purpose, and are solely kept for their ornamental 
properties. They make good watch dogs in-doors, barking at the 
slightest noise, and thus giving notice of the approach of improper 
persons ; nor, though they are somewhat timid, are they readily 
silenced^ as their small size allows of their retreating beneath 
chairs and sofas, from which asylum they keep up their sharp and 
shrill note of defiance. The great objection to these handsome 
little creatures as pets is that they follow badly out of doors, and 
as they are always ready to be fondled by a stranger, they are very 
liable to be stolen. Hence many people prefer the toy terrier, or 
the Skye, which is now introduced very extensively as a toy dog, 
and might with equal propriety be inserted in this chapter, as in 
that which he occupies. The King Charles and Blenheim spaniels 
are often crossed, and then you may have good specimens of each 
from the same litter, but if true their colours never vary. 

The points of the King Charles spaniel are : extremely shoi-t 
muzzle, which may be slightly turned up ; black nose and palate ; 
full prominent eye, which is continually weeping, leaving a gutter 
of moisture down the cheek; a round bullet-shaped head; very 
long, fuU-haired, and silky ears, which should fall close to the 
cheeks, and not stand out from them. The body is covered with 
wavy hair of a silky texture, without curl ; and the legs should be 
feathered to the toes, the length and silkiness of this being a 



PUG. 151 

great point. Tail well feathered, but not bushy; it is usually 
cropped. The colour should be a rich black and tan, without a 
white hair; but those marked as in the left-hand dog of the 
engraving are not to be despised, and sometimes make their 
appearance in a litter of which both sire and dam had scarcely 
a white hair. The weight should never exceed 6, or at the 
utmost 7 lbs : and they are valued the more if they are as 
low as 4^ or 5 lbs. 

The paints of the JMenheim vary very little from those of the 
King Charles, except in colour, which is always a white ground 
with red or yellow spots. The ears should be coloured, and also 
the whole of the head with the exception of the nose and a white 
mark up the forehead, as is shown in the right-hand figure of the 
cut, which represents the Blenheim pretty accurately. The palate 
is black like that of the King Charles ; and there is little difiFerence 
in shape, though an experienced eye could detect the one from the 
other even irrespective of colour. This dog is generally slightly 
less than the King Charles. 



THE PUG. 

This ctu-ly and pretty little toy dog was out of fashion in 
England for some years, but has recently come again into such 
vogue that a good pug will fetch from 20 to 35 guineas. The 

L 4 



laa WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

British breed, however, which is one of those known to have 
existed from the cnrliest times, was never entirely lost, having 
been carefully preserved in a few families. The Dutch have 
always had a fondness for the png dog, and in Holland the breed 




1 enough, but the same attention has not been paid to 
it as in England, and yellow maslcR, low foreheade, and pointed 
noses aie constantly making their appeunnce in them, from the 



both by liis " ClinrHi-. 



rUG. 153 

impure blood creeping out, and showing evideneeH of the crosses 
which have taken place. Vot the sketch of tlie very beautifiil 
pair of these dogs which is engraved at the head of this article, 
I am indebted to one of the first toy dog breeders of the day, 
Mr. Morrison, of Walham (jreen, who has been long engaged in 
bringing his stock to their present state of perfection, and whose 
admirable management is shown in the healthy appearance of all 
of them. These dogs are not remarkable for sagacity displayed 
in any shape, but thoy are very affectionate and playful, and, like 
the Dutch and Flemish cows, they bear the confinement of the 
house better thtm many other breeds, racing over the carpets in 
their play as freely as others do over the turf. For this reason, 
as well as the sweetness of their skins, and their short and soft 
coats, they are much liked by the ladies as pets. 

Their points are as follows : — General appearance low and 
thickset, the legs being short, and the body as close to the ground 
as possible, but with an elegant outline. Weight from 6 to 10 lbs. 
Colour fawn, \yith black mask and vent. The clearer the fawn, 
and the more distinctly marked the black on the mask, which 
should extend to the eyes, the better; but there is generally a 
slightly dai'ker line down the back. Some strains have the hair 
all over the body tipped with " smut," but on them the mask is 
sure to shade off too gently, without the clear line which is valued 
by the fancier. Coat short, thick, and silky.* Head round, fore- 
head high; nose short, but not turned up; and level-mouthed. 
Ears always cropped close, naturally rather short but falling. 
Neck of moderate length, stout but not throaty. Chest wide. 



154 WATCH D0G8, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

deep, and round. Tail short, and curled closely to the side, not 
standing up above the back. It is remarkable that the tail in the 
dog generally falls over the oflF side, while in the bitch it lies on 
the near. The legs are straight, with small bone, but well clothed 
with muscle. Feet like the hare, not cat-footed. No dew-claws 
on the hind legs. The height is from 11 to 15 inches. 



TOY TERRIERS. 

These are of the various breeds described under the head of 
the terrier, but of smaller size than the average, and with great 
attention paid to their colour and shape. The smooth English 
terrier, not exceeding 7 lbs. in weight, is much prized ; and when 
he can be obtained of 3 J or 4 lbs. weight, with perfect symmetry, 
and a good rich black and tan colour without a white luur, he is 
certainly a very perfect little dog. Most of the toy terriers 
now sold are either crossed with the Italian greyhound or with 
the King Charles spaniel. If the former, tlie shape is preserved, 
and there is the greatest possible diflSculty in distinguishing this 
cross from the pure English terrier ; indeed, I am much incline<l 
to believe that all oiur best modern toy terriers are thus ])red. 
They have the beautiful long sliarp nose, the narrow forehead, 
and the small sharp eye, which characterises the piure breeil ; but 
they are seldom good at vermin, though some which I have 
known to be half Italian have been bold enough to attack a good 



TOY TERRIERS. 155 

strong rat as well as most dogs. Many of these half-bred Italians 
are used for rabbit-coursing, in which there is a limit to weight, 
but it is chiefly for toy purposes that long prices are obtained 
for them. When the cross w^ith the spaniel has been resorted to, 
the forehead is high, the nose short, and the eye large, full, and 
often weeping, while the general form is not so symmetrical and 
compact ; the chest being full enough, but the brisket not so deep 
as in the true terrier, or in the Italian cross. 

The Shje temer, as used for toy purposes, is often crossed with 
the spaniel to get silkiness of coat. See page 81. 

The points ai*e as there described. 

Scotch terriers are seldom used as toys, and are not considered 
such by the fanciers of the animal. 



156 



CHAPTER VII. 

CROSSED BREEDS. 
Retriever. — Bull-Terrier. — Lurcher.— Dog and Fox Cross. 

Althotigii many of the breeds which have been enumerated 
in the preceding chapters were most probably originally the 
produce of crosses l)etween distinct varieties, yet at present they 
are continued by breeding from a sire and dam of the same kind, 
whereas, with those which we are now considering, tliere is 
constantly a necessity for having recourse to the original breeds. 
For instance, many breeds of the greyhound are known to be 
crossed with the bidl, and the identical animal with which the 
cross first commenced is well ascertained, as in the case of Sir 
James Boswell's "Jason," Mr. Etwall's "Enrns," &c.; so also with 
the foxhound, though here the particular cross is not so well 
ascertained, but it is admitted to have taken place within the last 
century. Yet these are not called mongrels, and the breed, instead 
of being despised as such, is more highly prized than those of 
the pure strain which formed one side of the parent stock. The 
term mongrel may more properly be applied to those chance 
crosses which occur from accident or neglect, the bit<;h selecting 



RETRIEVER. 157 

her own mate, and being guided by caprice, without reference 
to the fitness of the match in reference to the progeny resulting. 
Hence we see the monstrosities which disgrace our streets, 
animals which might puzzle the most learned in dog-lore to say 
in what proportions they are allied to recognised varieties of the 
species CaniSy but which are sometimes highly valuable in point 
of Utility, and are often broken by the poacher to perform the 
most difficult feats. Indeed, it often happens that a poaching 
labourer, who is the worst kind of poacher, selects some mongrel 
in preference to a better-bred dog, in order to escape notice ; but 
the gamekeeper should never despise the most wretched-looking 
animal on his beat, if the cur has size and strength to do what 
is required. 



THE RETRIEVER.* 

In speaking of the retriever, it is generally understood that 
the dog for recovering game on land is meant, the distinct kind 
known as the water spaniel being already alluded to at page 112. 
With regard to the propriety of using a separate dog for retrieving 
in open or covert shooting, there is a great diflference of opinion, 
but this subject will be better considered under the next division 
of this book, and I shall now confine myself to a description 

• See Frontispiece. 



158 CROSSED BREKDS. 

of the crosses used solely as retrievers, including the ordinary 
cross between the Newfoundland and setter, and that between 
the terrier and the water spaniel, which is recommended by Mr. 
Colquhoun, and which I have found especially serviceable. 

The qualities which are required in the regular retriever are : 
great delicacy of nose, and power of stooping (which latter is 
often not possessed by the pointer) ; cleverness to follow out* the 
windings of the wounded bird, which are fre:iuently most intri- 
cate, and puzzle the intelligence as well jus the nose to unravel 
them ; love of approbation, to induce the dog to attend to tlie 
instructions of the master ; and an amoiuit of obedience which 
will be required to prevent his venturing to break out, when 
game is before him. All these are doubtless found in the 
retriever, but they are coupled with a large heavy fnune, requiring 
a considerable amount of food to keep it, and space in the dog- 
cart, when he is to be conveyed from place to place. Hence, if 
a smaller dog can l)e found to do the work equally well, he should 
be preferred; and, as I think he can, I shall describe both. 

The laiye black retriever is known by his resemblance to the 
small Newfoundland and setter, between which two he is bred, 
and the forms of which he paitakes of in nearly ecjiial proportions. 
His head is that of a heavy setter, but with shorter ears, less 
clothed with hair. The l)ody is altogether larger and heavier, 
the limbs stronger, and the feet less compict, while the loin is 
much more loose, and the gait more or less resembling in its 
peculiarities that of the Newfoundland. The colour is almost 
always black, with very little white: indeed, most people would 



RETBIEVER. 159 

reject a retriever of this kind, if accidentally of any other colour. 
The coat is slightly curly, but not very long; and the legs are not 
much feathered. The height is usually about 23 or 24 inches, 
sometimes slightly more or less. This dog can readily be made 
to set and back ; and he will also hunt as well as a setter, but 
slowly, and lasting for a short time only. 

The ierrm^ cross is either with the beagle or the pointer, the 
former being that which I have chiefly used with advantage, and 
the latter being recommended by Mr. Colquhoun in his " Lochs 
and Moors." He gives a portrait of one used by himself, which 
he says was excellent in all respects ; and, from so good a sports- 
man, the recommendation is deserving of all credit. This dog 
was about 22 inches high, with a little of the rough coat of the 
Scotch terrier, combined with the head and general shape of the 
pointer. The sort I have used is, I believe, descended from the 
smooth white English terrier and the true old beagle; the nose 
and style of hunting proclaiming the hound descent, and the 
voice and appearance showing the preponderance of the terrier 
cross. These dogs are small, scarcely ever exceeding 10 lbs. 
in weight, and with diflSculty lifting a hare, so that they are 
not qualified to retrieve " fur " any great distance. Tliey must, 
therefore, be followed when either a hare or pheasant is sought 
to be recovered. They are mute in " questing," and very quiet 
in their movements, readily keeping at heel, and backing the 
pointers steadily while they are *'down charge," for as long a 
time as may be required ; and when they go to their game they 
make no noise, as is too often done by the regular retriever. 



I(f0 CKOSSEI) BREEDS. 

They do not carry so well as the larger dog, but in all other 
respects they are his equal, or perhaps superior; and from their 
small size they are admissible to the house, and being constant 
companions are more easily kept under command ; besides which, 
they live on the scraps of the house, while the large retriever 
must be kept tied up at the keeper's, and costs a considerable 
sum to pay for his food. 



THE BULL-TERRIER. 

Most of om* smooth terriers ai-e slightly crossed with the bull- 
dog, in order to give courage to bear the bites of the vermin 
which they are meant to attack. When thus bred, the terrier 
shows no evidence of pain, even though half a dozen rats are 
hanging on to his lips, which are extremely tender parts of the 
body, and where the bite of a mouse even will make a badly bred 
dog yell with pain. In fact, for all the purposes to which a 
terrier can be applied, the half or quarter cross with the bull, 
commonly known as the "bull-terrier" or "half-bred dog," is 
of more value than either of the purely bred progenitors. Such 
a dog, however, to be useful, must be more than half terrier, or 
he will be too heavy and slow, too much under-jawed to hold 
well with his teeth, and too little under command to obey the 
orders of his master. Sometimes the result of the second cross, 
which is only one quarter bull, shows a great deal of tlie shape 



BULL-TKRRIER. 161 

peculiar to that aide ; and it is not till the third or fourth croHS 
that the terrier shape comes out predominant: but this is all a 
matter of chance, and the exact reverse may just as probably 
happen, if the terrier was quite free from the stain of the bull. 




■ hBlf-breii Terrier; und " Fox 



which is seldom the case; and this may account for the great 
predominance of that side in most cases, as we shall see in in- 
vestigating the subject of breeding for the kennel in the next 

• " Sting," half-bred, the property of C. MorriBon, Esq., of Walham Green. 
A Nottinghun-bred dog, of verj (n]>erior fightiDg strain, half-brother to the 
celebrated dog " Tobj," the property of Captkin Rnibbrook. 



162 CROSSED BREEDS. 

Book. The field fox-terrier, used for bolting the fox when gone 
to ground, was of this breed. So also is the fighting-dog 2>ar 
excellencey and, indeed, there is scarcely any task to which a dog 
of his size may be set that he will not execute as well as, or 
better than, most others. He will learn tricks with the poodle, 
fetch and carry with the Newfoundland — take water with that 
dog, though his coat will not suflFer him to remain in so long, — 
hunt with the spaniel, and fight " till all's blue." For thorough 
gameness, united with obedience, good temper, and intelligence, 
he surpasses any breed in existence. 

The points of the bull-terrier vary greatly in accordance with 
the degree of each in the specimen examined. There should not 
be either the projection of the imder jaw, or the crooked fore 
legs, or the small and weak hind quarters; and until these are 
lost, or nearly so, the crossing should be continued on the terrier 
side. The perfect bull-terrier may, therefore, be defined as the 
terrier with as much bull as can be combined with the absence 
of the above points, and showing the full head (not of course 
equal to that of the bull), the strong jaw, the well-developed 
chest, powerful shoulders, and thin fine tail of the bulldog, 
accompanied by the light neck, active frame, strong loin, and 
fuller proportions of the hind quarter of the terrier. A dog of this 
kind should be capable of a fast pace, and will stand any moderate 
amount of road work. The height varies from 10 inches to 16, 
or even 20. Colour most frequently white, either pure or patched 
with black, blue, red, fawn, or brindle. Sometimes also black and 
tan, or self-coloured red. 



LURCHER. 163 



THE LURCHER. 

Although this dog is not used by the fair sportsman in this 
country, yet he must be recognised as a distinct and well-known 
cross. From his great speed, combined with his good nose and 
his silence, he is "par excellence the poacher's dog; but he is 
very little better than the pure-bred greyhound accustomed to 
the same kind of work, and with the same amount of practice. 
I have known a great many greyhounds which would never miss 
a hare if once sighted, or even put on the fresh scent, dropping 
their noses, and hunting out all the turns of the hare nearly as 
well as the beagle. Hence it is not to be supposed that the nose 
of the lurcher is derived from the sheep-dog's side only, for both 
being good, he may be readily said to owe it to each in due pro- 
portions. When the lurcher is bred from the rough Scotch 
greyhound and the colley, or even the English sheep-dog, he 
is a very handsome dog, and even more so than either of his 
progenitors when pure. He is also a most destructive animal, 
showing speed, sagacity, and nose in an extraordinary degree, 
from which causes the breed is discouraged, as he would ex- 
terminate all the frirred game in a very short time. A poacher 
possessing such an animal seldom keeps him long, every keeper 
being on the look out, and putting a charge of shot into him on 
the first opportunity ; and as these 'must occur of necessity, the 
poacher does not often attempt to rear the dog which would suit 

M 2 



164 CROSSED BREEDS. 

him best, but contents himself with one which will not so much 
attract the notice of those who watch him. 

It is needless to describe the points of the lurcher, further than 
to remark that he partakes of those of the greyhound in shape, 
combined with the stouter frame, larger ears, and rougher coat of 
the sheep-dog, but varying according to the breed of each em- 
ployed in producing the cross. Formerly these lurchers were 
invariably deprived of their tails, in order to pass muster as 
sheep-dogs, and some are still thus cropped; but as hundreds of 
these farmer's friends are now suffered to enjoy their full propor- 
tions, the lurcher, when he does exist, is also full-tailed. The 
colour varies greatly, and may be any one of those belonging to 
either of the breeds from which he springs. 



THE DROPPER. 

This is a cross of the pointer with the setter, which at one 
time was supposed to be superior to either, but is now seldom 
met with ; for, though the individual is useful enough, he is not 
ornamental, and has the inconvenience of being unfitted for breed- 
ing purposes, the second cross being invariably a faihu'e. 



DOG AND FOX CBOSS. 




A Dog and Fox craucd Bitch, ths proptrt; of — Eemr, Esq., oF Bwdiog. 



THE DOG AND FOX CROSS. 



It is DOW generally admitted that the dog and fox will breed 
together, but so little is known with certainty of the resulting 
produce that it is scarcely desirable to attempt a minute descrip- 
tion. Still it will be perhaps interesting to allude to the best 
authenticated specimen within my knowledge, which is now the 
property of Mr. Hewer, of Beading. She is a daughter of the 



169 CBOSSED BREEDS. 

first crosRy which was described by Mr. Toraliii in " Bell's Life " in 
the year 1855, and is by an ordinaiy terrier dog. 

Letter by R. ToTnliriy Eeq., on the subject of the Dog and Fox 

Cross. 

" Mb. Editob, — ^As your * Life ' is the only * Old Curiosity Shop ' 
for the reception of * fancy articles,' I venture to forward you one 
respecting the fox and dog cross, and, although somewhat out of season, 
it may, perhaps, prove interesting to the sportsman and the naturalist. 
In 1853 various accounts appeared in * Bell's Life in London ' of the fox 
and dog cross, the fact being established by a gentleman of Kent^ who 
then possessed a vulpo-canine bitch which had produce by a dog 
(vide ' Bell's Life,' Dec. 1 853 and Feb. 1854). This bitch (half fox, half 
dog), now in my possession, had produce in the month of February 
last by a terrier dog. The produce are two dog-whelps and three 
bitches, some of which were (to ease the dam) suckled by a cur bitch. 
Two of the litter prove in nature shy as a fox ; three of them dog-like 
in appearance, colour, and perfectly quiet, and follow well at heeL 
Still, they have the real fox muzzle and * fox action,' about which (to 
those who have well studied it in the hunting-field) there exists but 
little mistake. Many there are who doubt the existence of any such 
animal as that between fox and dog. I am, however, in perfect condi- 
tion to prove (by the living articles themselves) that the fox is merely 
a separate species of the genvs dog, and intercopulates With the bitch, 
producing not a hybrid or mule animal, but one which will propagate 
its species to the very end of the chapter. — Yours, &c. 

Robert Tomlin. 
. ^ Peterborough, Jane, 1855." 

The following letter, sent by Mr. Tomlin to the above paper 
in 1857, refers to this particular bitch which formed one of the 
litter therein mentioned ; — 



DOG AND FOX CROSS. 167 



Second Lettei' on the above Subject. 

" Mr. Editor, — In 1855 you were good enough to describe in 'Bell's 
Life ' some history of a vulpo-canine bitch in my possession at Peter- 
borough which had bred whelps, and as you are at this period of the 
year ' for the fox and nothing but the fox,' perhaps you can spare a 
niche in your 'fancy columns' for a subject that may not be consi- 
dered out of season. The vulpo-canine vixen is now, like all the fox 
genus, in full coat, and a beautiful-looking animal, higher on the leg 
than our common foxes, with more frame and size, and looks like going 
a slapping pace, and carries that unmistakable odour which accom- 
panies * the beast of stinking flight.' She bred a litter of whelps in 
the spring of the years 1855 and 1856 (got by a * lion-tawny-* 
coloured terrier dog), and goes * on heat ' only at one regular period. 
Her produce are endued more or less with the natural shyness and 
timidity of the vulpine species, and which it appears somewhat difficult 
to remove. The formation of their heads is faultless — ^long, and punish- 
ing — in fact, the appearance of these animals resembles terrier dogs, 
with the perfect head and countenance, back, body, and feet of the fox. 
The vulpo-canine bitch is now suckling four whelps (got by a good 
white terrier dog), and as their colours are likewise good — white 
* with black and pied ear-patches ' — it is likely to prove a better 
cross of its sort than the two former litters of whelps which the bitch 
reared, they being all of foxy, wild, dark-looking colours; and, as the 
terrier dog which got them was somewhat wicked and crafty in nature^ 
I am now inclined to think that, *as like begets like,' he was not 
altogether a suitable partner for the vulpo-canine bitch — an animal but 
one remove from the * veritable fox itself,' as wild, too, as the wildest 
fox which ever broke away in a state of nature from any * evergreen 
gorse covert,' with a pack of hounds in pursuit, all eager for the fray. 

Yours, &c. 

Robert Tomlin. 
'* Dane Court, ble of Thanet, January, IS57.'* 



168 CliOSS£D BREEDS. 

The original of the engraviDg which heads this article has all 
the crouching look of the fox, with many of the wild habits of 
that animal. Mr. Hewer tells me that up to six or eight months 
old she would hiss and spit like a kitten, but has quite lost that 
peculiarity now. She still often disappears into the adjacent 
covertB for a day or two, after which hunger compels her return. 
She has bred a litter by a terrier, but has not been put to one of 
her own cross, which is necessary to be done before Mr. Tomlin's 
assertion is to be accepted, that the individuals of the dog and 
fox cross will breed inter se. And this being the only proof of a 
distinction of species which is now recognised, until the experi- 
ment is carried out successfully we are not in a position to admit 
that the dog and fox belong to the same species. 



BOOK II. 

THE BREEDING, REARING, BREAKING, AND MANAGEMENT 

OF THE DOG, IN-DOORS AND OUT. 



CHAPTER 1 

BREEDING. 

Principles of Breeding. — ^Axioms for the Breeder's Use.— Crossing and crossed 
Breeds. — Importance of Health in both Sire and Dam. — Best Ages to 
breed from. — ^In-and-in Breeding. — Best Time of Year.— Duration of Heat. 
— Management of the Bitch in Season. — The Bitch in Whelp. — Preparations 
for Whelping. — Healthy Parturition. — Destruction or Choice of Whelps at 
Birth. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BREEDING. 

The principles upon which the breeding of the dog should be 
conducted axe generally in accordance with those necessary for the 
production of other domestic animals of the class MarmrudicLy 
remembering always that it is not reliable to argue from one class 
of animals to another^ because their habits and modes of propa- 
gation vary so much as to interfere with the analogy. Thus as 
the pigeon, in common with other birds, does not rear her young 
with the 'produce of her own body to the same comparative size 
as most of the individuals of the class MammaMay the mother has 
not so much more to do with the process than the father as is the 
case with the bitch, mare, and cow, &c., where the quantity and 
quality of the milk are to be taken into the calculation. Hence, 
in selecting a sire and dam for breeding purposes among dogs, the 



172 BREEDING. 

bitch is most to be considered for many reasons, one being that 
she usually continues the property of the breeder, while the sire 
can be changed each time she breeds ; but the chief argument in 
her favour being founded upon the supposition that she really 
impresses her formation upon her progeny more than the dog. 
This, however, is a vexed question in natural history as w^ell as in 
practical breeding, but from my own experience I am sti'ongly of 
opinion that it is true. Many horses and dogs may be instanced 
which have got good stock from all sorts of mares and bitches; 
but in opposition to this may be instanced the numbers which 
have had enormous opportunities of showing their good qualities, 
but while they have succeeded with one or two they have failed 
with the larger proportion of their harems. So with mares and 
bitches, some have produced, every year of their breeding lives, one 
or more splendid examples of their respective kinds, altogether 
independent of the horse or dog which may be the parent, so long 
as he is of the proper strain likely to hit with hers. It is usually 
supposed that the sire impresses his external formation upon his 
stock, while the bitch's nervous temperament is handed down ; and 
very probably there is some truth in the hypothesis. Yet it is 
clearer that not only do the sire and dam affect the progeny, but also 
the grandsires and granddams on both sides, and still further than 
this up to the sixth and perhaps even the seventh generations, but 
more especially on the dam's side, through the granddam, great- 
granddam, &c. There is a remarkable fact connected with breeding 
which should be generally known, which is, that there is a ten- 
dency in the produce to a separation between the different strains 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BREEDING. 173 

of which it is composed ; so that a puppy composed in four equal 
proportions of breeds represented by A, b, c, and d, will not repre* 
sent all in equal proportions^ but will resemble one much more than 
the others, and this is still more clear in relation to the next step 
backwards, when there are eight progenitors : and the litter which, 
for argument's sake, we will suppose to be eight in number, may 
consist of animals each " going back " to one or other of the above 
eight. This accounts for the fact that a smooth terrier bitch put 
to a smooth terrier dog will often "throw" one or more rough 
puppies, though the breed may be traced as purely smooth for 
two or three generations, beyond which, however, there must have 
been a cross of the rough dog. In the same way colour and par- 
ticular marks will be changed or obliterated for one, two, or even 
three generations, and will then reappear. In most breeds of the 
dog this is not easily proved, because a record of the various 
crosses is not kept with any great care ; but in the greyhoimd the 
breed, with the colours, &c., for twenty generations, is often known, 
and then the evidence of the truth of these facts is patent to all. 
Among these dogs there is a well-known strain descended from a 
greyhoimd with a peculiar nose, known as the "Parrot-nosed 
bitch." About the year 1825 she was put to a celebrated dog 
called " Streamer," and bred a bitch called "Ruby," none of the litter 
showing this peculiar nose; nor did " Ruby" herself breed any in her 
first two litters ; but in her third, by a dog called " Blackbird," 
belonging to Mr. Hodgkinson, two puppies showed the nose 
(" Blackbird " and " Starling"). In the same litter was a most cele- 
brated bitch, known as " Old Linnet^" from which are descended a 



174 BREEDING. 

great number of first-rate greyhounds. In these, however, this 
peculiarity has never appeared, with two exceptions^ namely, once 
in the third generation, and once in the fifth, in a dog called 
** Lollypop," bred by Mr. Thomas, of Macclesfield, the possessor 
of the whole strain. One of the bitches of this breed is also 
remarkable for having always one blue puppy in each litter, 
though the colour is otherwise absent, never having been seen 
since the time of the above-mentioned ** Euby," who was a blue 
bitch. These facts are very remarkable as showing the tendency 
to " throw back " for generations, but, as they are well known and 
fully recognised by all breeders, it is unnecessary to dilate upon 
them, and the above instances are only introduced as absolutely 
proving to the iminitiated what would otherwise depend upon 
dogmatic assertion. 



AXIOMS FOR THE BREEDER'S USE. 

But it may be asked, — What then are the principles upon 
which breeding is to be conducted? To this, in many of the 
details, no answer can be given which can be relied on with cer- 
tainty. Nevertheless, there are certain broad landmarks esta- 
blished which afford some assistance, and these shall be given, 
taking care to avoid all rules which are not clearly established by 
general consent. 



AXIOMS FOR breeder's USE. 175 

1. The male and female each furnish their quota towards the 
original germ of the offspring; but the female over and above 
this nourishes it till it is born, and, consequently, may be supposed 
to have more influence upon its formation than the male. 

2. Natural conformation is transmitted by both parents as 
a general law, and likewise any acquired or accidental variation. 
It may therefore be said that, on both sides, ^^like produces 
nicer 

3. In proportion to the purity of the breed will it be trans- 
mitted imchanged to the offspring. Thus a greyhound bitch of 
pure blood put to a mongrel will produce puppies more nearly 
resembling her shape than that of the father. 

4. Breeding in-and-in is not injurious to the dog, as may be 
proved both from theory and practice ; indeed it appears, on the 
contrary, to be very advantageous in many well-marked instances 
of the greyhound, which have of late years appeared in public. 

5. As every dog is a compound animal, made up of a sire 
and dam, and also their sires and dams, &c, so, imless there is 
much breeding in-and-in, it may be said that it is impossible 
to foretell with absolute certainty what particular result will be 
elicited. 

6. The first impregnation appears to produce some effect 
upon the next and subsequent ones. It is therefore necessary to 
take care that the effect of the cross in question is not neutralised 
by a prior and bad impregnation. This fact has been so fully 
established by Sir John Sebright and others that it is needless 
to go into its proofs. 



176 BREEDING. 

By these general laws on the subject of breeding we must 
be guided in the selection of the dog and bitch from which a 
litter is to be obtained, always taking care that both are as far 
as possible remarkable, not only for the bodily shape, but for the 
qualities of the brain and nervous system which are desired. 
Thus, in breeding the pointer, select a good-looking sire and dam 
by all means, but also take care that they were good in the 
field ; that is, that they possessed good noses, worked well, were 
stout, and if they were also perfectly broken so much the better. 
So, again, in breeding hounds, care must be taken that the animals 
chosen are shaped as a hound should be ; but they should- also 
have as many of the good hunting qualities, and as few of the 
vices of that kind of dog; and if these points are not attended to 
the result is not often good. 

To secure these several results the pedigrees of the dog and 
bitch are carefully scanned by those who are particular in these 
matters, because then assurance is given that the ancestors, as far 
as they can be traced, possessed all those qualifications without 
which their owners would not in all human probability retain 
them. Hence a pointer, if proved to be descended from a dog 
and bitch belonging to Lord Sefton, Lord Lichfield, or any well- 
known breeder of this dog in the present day, or from Sir H. 
Goodrich, Mr. Moore, or Mr. Edge, so celebrated for their breeds 
some years ago, would be valued more highly than another 
without any pedigree at all, although the latter might be superior 
in shape, and might perform equally well in the field. The 
importance of pedigree is becoming more fully recognised every 



CROSSING AND CROSSED BREEDS. 177 

year, and experienced breeders generally refuse tx) have anything 
to do with either dog or bitch for this particular purpose, unless 
they can trace the pedigree to ancestors belonging to parties who 
were known to be themselves careful in their selections. In most 
cases this is all that is attempted^ especially in pointers, setters, 
spaniels, &c., but in greyhounds and foxhounds of first-class blood 
the genealogy may generally be taraced through half a dozen 
kennels of known and established reputation ; and this same 
attention to breed ought to prevail in all the varieties of the dog 
whose performances are of importance, and indeed without it the 
reproduction of a particular shape and make cannot with anything 
like certainty be depended on. Hence the breeders of valuable 
toy dogs, such as King Charles spaniels, Italian greyhounds, &c, 
are as careful as they need be, having foimd out by experience 
that without this attention they are constantly disappointed. 



CROSSING AND CROSSED BREEDS. 

Crossing is practised with two distinct objects in view : — Ist, To 
prevent degeneration in consequence of keeping to the same blood, 
or what is called "in-and-in" breeding; and 2dly, With the 
view of improving particular breeds when they are deficient in 
any desirable quality, by crossing with others which have it in 
perfection, or often in excess. The first of these will be better 

N 



178 BREEDING. 

understood after alluding to the practice of " in-and-in " breeding, 
but the second may now be considered with advantage. 

Among dogs, as among horses, certain varieties are remarkable 
for particiilar qualities, and as the latter are more numerous in 
the species Canis familiaria than in the horse, so there is a greater 
opportunity for alteration. Thus in the horse there are speed, 
stoutness, courage, temper, and shape (which includes action) to 
be considered ; but in the dog there are also, over and above these, 
nose and sagacity, the presence or absence of which in some 
breeds is of the greatest importance. Now it happens that there 
are certain old strains which have some of these qualities deve- 
loped in a very high degree, but are deficient in others, and there- 
fore they are only adapted to those breeds in which the qualities 
they are deficient in are in excess. It is by a knowledge of 
these properties, and by taking advantage of them, that our 
modem breeds have been brought to the perfection at which they 
have arrived ; carefully combining the plan with the principle of 
selection, which is the great secret in all kinds of breeding. In 
this way the foxhound has been produced by introducing the speed 
of the greyhound, and in like manner the courage of the bull- 
dog has been added to the speed of the greyhound, to establish 
the present high form of that animal. So also the terrier, though 
ardent enough in pursuit of vermin, is too great a coward to bear 
their bites without flinching unless he is crossed with the bull- 
dog ; and hence the bull-tenier is the most usefid dog for that 
purpose. Although many breeds of terrier so crossed are not 
admitted to contain the biill strain, still it is notorious that a 



CROSSING AND CROSSED BREEDS. 179 

vast proportion, if not all, have been crossed in this way some 
generations back, and I firmly believe that without this blood in 
their veins they are utterly useless. 

It might naturally be supposed by any person who has not 
been convinced to the contrary, that it would take several crosses 
to get rid of the heavy form of the bulldog when united with the 
light and graceful shape of the greyhound. But on actually 
trying the experiment it will readily be seen that in the third 
generation very little trace remains of the bulldog, while in the 
fourth there is none whatever apparent in external form. My 
friend Mr. Hanley is the last who has tried the experiment, and 
having kept a daguerreotype of every individual used in it, which 
he has kindly placed at my service, I have been enabled to 
present to my readers perfectly trustworthy proofs of the correct- 
ness of this assertion. The bulldog " Chicken " used was a very 
high-bred animal, and of him also Mr. Hanley has preserved a 
daguerreotype, but as his blood is very similar to that of Mr. 
Stockdale's "Top" (see p. 131), I have not thought it necessary 
to engrave him. The bitch " Fly," put to " Chicken," was also 
highly bred; but the most satisfactory proceeding will be to 
insert the whole pedigree at length, as shown on next page. 

That the illustrative engravings are literal copies of the 
above-mentioned daguerreotypes is a £Ekct which should be 
plainly stated; in the first place, because, without a knowledge 
of it, the strangely uncouth forms of the first two would hardly 
be accepted; and in the second, to account for the attitudes in 
which the whole four are represented. 

N 2 









4^ 

I 



I 



i 

2 









ii^ 









-it- £g 












-ill- 




CROSSING AND CB08SBI) BKEGUS. IBl 

From " Chicken " and " Fly " came the foUowiDg thick and 
clmnsy-looking animal, which was named ** Half-and-HsIf," being 
the fitst cross. 




"HALF-AMn-HAi.r,"* first Cimii from Iht Bulhlop. 

The next rtep was t^ put this " Half-and-Half " to a well-bred 
dog beloi^ing to Mr. Hanley, called " Blunder," whose descant in 
shown in the extended pedigree. From thene came the second cross, 
" Hecate," a white bitch Ktill presenting some slight characteristics 



" From ft itgarmcXjft m tlw {mwuioo of Hugh Hanlaj, Ewg, Irt Life Gnardn, 




" Uecatb," * second Cnw Trom thi Bulldog. 

of the bulldog lireed, but by an ordinary observer this would be 
scarcely noticed. There is, however, a remarkable want of sym- 
metry and true proportion in this bitch, which the portrait con- 
veys exactly. 

She was a^n put to "Preston," a very fast dog belonging 
to her owner, and from them the produce was "Hecuba," 
a large block bitch of good shape, and, as I l>efore remarked 



• From > duguernoljiie in Ihe 



of IlDgli Hanlej, Esq., la) Life Gnirds. 



CK0SS1N6 AND CROSSED BREEDS. 1S3 




" Hecuba," ihird Cnaa rrom th« BaUdog. 



scarcely diBtinguishablo from the pure greyhoiiDd. She was very 
foet, but could not work very cleverly, and her staying powers 
were very limited indeed. 

Mr. Hanley sent her to the celebrated dc^ "Bedlamite," ex- 
pecting in this fourth croaa to have some good runners, but they 
were all remarkably deficient in stoutness, though fast as well as 
clever. One of them is represented on the next page, liaviog run 
in pul)lic as "Hysterics." 




" Htbthpic*," fowrili CroM fr 



This bitch Iiaa been put to " Ranter," a son of " Bedlamite ; " 
but the result of this, the fifth croas, is not as yet, I believe, more 
BatiBfactory than the fourth. 

Before resorting to any particular strains, with a view of im- 
fmjving upon defects, it is necessary to consider what breeds are 
remarkable for each quality which is likely to be desired, — 
namely, speed, courage, nose, and sagacity. Of these, the first 
is so remarkably prominent in the greyhound, that there is no 
necessity for going further, and whenever it is desired to in- 



CROSSING AND CROSSED BREEDS. 185 

crease the pace of any kind of dog, no discussion would arise 
as to the best means of effecting the object, this breed being 
immediately selected. So also the bulldog is proverbial for 
courage, and fortunately he is so formed as to be readily made 
to amalgamate with other breeds. Even the greyhound re- 
covers his peculiar shape completely in the fourth generation, 
and in the third it would be difficult to discover any certain 
proof of the existence of the cross. 

With regard to nose, there may be a difference of opinion de- 
pending upon the purpose to which it is devoted ; but as it is 
seldom that this quality is wanted to be engrafted on speed or 
courage, the reverse being the usual course, it is scarcely neces- 
sary to dilate upon it. Thus it may be desirable to alter or 
improve the nose of the hoimd, the pointer, the setter, the 
spaniel, or the terrier, and in that case it would only be neces- 
sary to have recourse to the best specimens, as regards nose, in 
each breed, because there is a peculiarity attending on each 
mode of using the nose, which renders it more adapted to the 
work to be done than any other. Hence the pointer, when 
crossed with the foxhound, is apt to hunt too low, besides other 
faults which interfere with the usefulness of the cross, and the 
same may be said of the cross with the setter and spaniel. So 
that it may be laid down as a rule, that in the article nose, it is 
not safe to look beyond the particular breed for improvement in 
this important quality. 

Sagacity may be looked for in several breeds, but it is most 
highly developed perhaps in the poodle, the Newfoundland, and 



186 BREEDING. 

the temer ; chiefly, I imagine, because these clogs are more fre- 
quently the companions of man than the sporting clogs, which 
are kept in kennels. No dog is more capable of being taught 
than the half-bred bull-terrier, although the bulldog is by no 
means so, and, as he is almost always tied up, the reason is 
obvious enough. Solitary confinement makes all animals, and 
even man himself, more or less idiotic, and if any dog is to be 
rendered as sagacious as possible, he must be constantly asso- 
ciated with his master. Hence it is that the poacher^s dog is 
80 much more clever than the fair sportsman's, for, being the 
constant companion and friend of his master, he understands 
every word he says, and is ready also to communicate his own 
ideas in return. 

To sum up, it may be assumed that the following breeds may 
be taken as types of the qualities so remarkable in each, and may 
be resorted to when any other kind is deficient in them. Thus, 
speed is typified in the greyhound, courage in the bulldog, 
and nose or scenting power in the bloodhound; for hunting 
purposes, the pointer or setter, when required in conjunction 
with setting ; and the spaniel or terrier, for finding or " questing " 
both fur and feather. Lastly, sagacity is displayed in the poodle, 
Newfoundland, and terrier, chiefly because they are the constant 
associates of man. 



HEALTH. 187 



IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH IN BOTH SIRE AND DABL 

Health in both parents should be especially insisted upon, 
and in the bitch in particular there should be a sufficiently strong 
constitution, to enable her to sustain the growth of her puppies 
before birth, and to produce milk enough for them afterwards, 
though in this last particular she may of course be assisted by a 
foster-nurse. 



BEST AGE TO BREED FROM. 

The heat age to breed from, in almost all breeds, is soon after 
the sire and dam have each reached maturity. When, however^ 
the produce is desired to be very small, the older both Anifnals 
are, the more likely this result is, — excepting in the last litter 
which the bitch has, for this being often composed of only one 
or two puppies, they are not smaller than the average, and 
sometimes even larger. All bitches should be allowed to reach 
full maturity before they are allowed to breed, and this period 
varies according to size, small dogs being adult at one year, 
whereas large ones are still in their puppyhood at that time, and 
take fully twice as long to develop their proportions. The mastiff 
is barely fiill grown at two years; large hounds at a year and a 
half; greyhounds at the same time; pointers and setters from 



188 BREEDING. 



a year and a (quarter to a year and a half; while terriers and 
small toy dogs reach maturity at a year old, or even earlier. 



IN-AND-IN BREEDING. 

The questions relating to i/n^indAn breedifig and crossing 
are of the greatest importance, each plan being strongly advocated 
by some people and by others as strenuously opposed. Like 
many other practices essentially good, in-breeding has been 
grossly abused ; owners of a good kennel having become bigoted 
to their own strain, and, from keeping to it exclusively, having at 
length reduced their dogs to a state of idiotcy and delicacy of 
constitution which has rendered them quite useless. Thus I have 
seen in the course of twenty years a most valuable breed of 
pointers, by a persistence in avoiding any cross, become so full of 
excitability that they were perpetually at **a false point," and 
backing one another at the same time without game near them ; 
and, what is worse, they could not be stirred from their position. 
This last was from a want of mental capacity, for it is by their 
reasoning powers that these dogs find out when they have made 
a mistake, and without a good knowledge-box the pointer and 
setter are for this reason quite useless. But the breed I allude to, 
when once they had become stiflF, were like Chinese idols, and 
must absolutely be kicked or whipped up in order to make them 
start off beating again. Mr. A. Graham, who has had a long 



IN-AND-IN BREEDING. 189 

experience in breeding greyhounds, and was at one time so 
successful as to obtain the name of " The Emperor of Coursers," 
has laid down the rule that "once in and twice out' is the proper 
extent to which breeding in the greyhound should be carried, and 
probably the same will apply to other breeds. Sometimes a 
sister may be put to a brother even, when there was no previous 
near relationship in their sire and dam; but though this has 
answered well two or three times, it is not to be generally recom- 
mended. A father may in preference be put to a daughter, 
because there is only half the same blood in them, when the sire 
and dam of the latter were not related ; or an uncle to a niece; 
but the best plan is to obtain a dog which has some considerable 
portion of the same blood as the bitch, but separated by one or 
two crosses ; that is to say, to put two animals together whose 
grandfathers or great-grandfathers were brothers, but whose 
mothers and grandmothers were no relation to each other. This 
relationship will do equally well on the dam's side, and the grand- 
mother may be sister to the grandsire, quite as well as having 
the two grandsires brothers. The practice of breeding-in to 
this extent has been extensively adopted of late years and has 
answered well with the greyhoimd, in which breed, as used 
for public coursing, the names of "Harriet Wilson," "Hour- 
glass," " Screw," " Sparrowhawk," " Vraye Foy," " Motley," " Miss 
Hannah," and "Rival" speak volumes in its approbation, all 
being in-bred and all wonderfully successful. The last-named 
bitch is a remarkable instance, being by a half-brother out 
of a half-sister, and yet continuing honest up to her sixth 



190 BREEDING. 

season, when she broke a toe in running the last course but 
one in a large stake at Ashdown. In her case too the blood of 
the dam was somewhat notorious for a tendency to nm cimning ; 
and indeed the same might be said of nearly all the strains of 
which she was composed ; nevertheless, throughout her career she 
was entirely free from this vice, and left off without a stain. 
She has, however, imfortunately refused to breed ; but, as I have 
never known this peculiarity confined to in-bred bitches, I do 
not allege the fact as arising from her close in-breeding. Thus I 
have shown that in practice in-and-in breeding, within certain 
bounds, is not only not prejudicial, but absolutely advantageous, 
inasmuch as it does not injure the nervous temperament and 
mental qualities of the produce; and that the body does not suffer 
is a well-known fact, easily capable of proof by examining the 
external forms of the dogs so bred. Theoretically, also, it ought 
to answer, because we find in nature gregarious wild animals 
resorting to in-breeding in all cases, the stag adding his daughters 
to his harem as long as he has strength enough to beat off his 
younger rivals. In the same way the bull and the stallion fight 
for supremacy, till at length from age or accident they are beaten 
off, and a younger and more vigorous animal masters them and 
their female attendants. Yet this seems Nature's mode of 
insuring a superior stock, and preventing the degeneration which 
we see take place among human beings, when a feeble pair take 
upon themselves the task of producing a family. It would appear 
that man is an exception to the general rule, for there is a special 
revelatiou prohibiting intermairiages, while we find them con- 



BEST TIME OF YEAR. 191 

stanily going on among brutes, and especially, as above remarked, 
among gregarious animals. Hence it should not lead us to reason 
by analogy from one to the other, nor because we find that 
first cousins among our own race are apt to produce defective 
children, bodily and mentally, should we conclude that the same 
evil results will occur when we breed from dogs or horses having 
the same degree of relationship to their mates. At the same 
time, when all that can be desired is obtainable without in- 
breeding, I should be inclined to avoid it ; always taking care to 
resort to it, when it is desired to recover a particular strain, which 
is becoming merged in some other predominant blood. Then by 
obtaining an animal bred as purely as possible to the desired 
strain, and putting him or her to your own, it may be expected 
that the produce will " go back " to this particular ancestry, and 
will resemble them more than any other. 



BEST TIME OF YEAR. 

The beat time of the year for breeding dogs is from April to 
September, inasmuch as in the cold of winter the puppies are apt 
to become chilled, whereby their growth is stopped, and some 
disease very often developed. Among public greyhounds there is 
a particular reason for selecting an earlier period of the year, 
because as their age is reckoned from the 1st of January, and as 
they are wanted to run as saplings or puppies, which are defined 



192 BREEDING. 

by their age^ the earlier they are bom the more chance they have 
in competition with their fellows of the same year. Hounds 
and game dogs are wanted to begin work in the autumn, and as 
they do not come to maturity till after they are a year old, they 
should be whelped in the spring. This is more especially the 
case with pointers and setters, which are then old enough to have 
their education nearly completed at ** pairing time " in the spring 
of the next year, when only their breaking can properly be 
carried on, as birds then lie like stones and allow the dog to be 
reached, and properly kept under by his breaker. Toy dogs, and 
all small dogs which are reared in the house, may be bred almost 
at any time of the year, but even they are stronger and healthier 
if born in the summer months, because the puppies may then 
be supposed to get more air and sun than they could do in the 
winter, when the warmth of the fire is essential to their well- 
doing. 



DURATION OF HEAT. 

Hie duration of the period of heat in the bitch is about three 
weeks, during the middle week of which she will generally take 
the dog; but about the eleventh or twelfth day from the first 
commencement^ is, on the average, the best time to put her to 
him. During the first three or four days of the middle week the 
bitch ^^ bleeds" considerably from the wlva, and while this is 



MANAGEMENT OF BITCH IN SEASON. 193 

going on she should not be allowed access to the male, nor will 
she generally if left to herself^ but as soon as it subsides, no 
time should be lost, as it often happens that very shortly 
afterwards she will refuse him altogether, and thus a whole 
year may be lost. Most bitches are "in heat" twice a year, 
at equal periods, some every five, or even every four, months; 
others every seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, or twelve months; 
but the fer greater proportion of bitches of all breeds are " in 
season" twice a year pretty regularly. There is, therefore, a 
necessity for ascertaining the rule in each bitch, as it varies 
so considerably ; for, when it is known, the calculation can better 
be made as to the probability of the heat returning at the de- 
sired time. The period between the first and second "heats" 
will generally indicate the length of the succeeding ones, but 
this is not invariable, as the "putting by" of the animal will 
sometimes throw her out of her regular course. 



MANAGEMENT OF THE BITCH IN SEASON. 

When bitches are not intended to breed, they are carefully 
"put by," that is to say, they are secluded from the dog, and 
during that time they are in great measure deprived of their 
usual exercise. From this circumstance they are very apt to 
get out of health, and some injury is thereby done to their 

o 



194 BREEDING. 

offspring as well as themselves. At this time they ought^ from 
their general feverishness, as well as from their deprivation of 
exercise, to be kept rather lower than usual, and very little meat 
should be given. Slops and vegetables, mixed with biscuit or 
oatmeal, form the most suitable diet ; but, if the bitch has been 
accustomed to a great deal of flesh, it vdll not do to deprive 
her of it altogether. Bearing in mind then this caution, it 
is only necessary to remember that she must be lowered in 
condition, but not so starved as to do harm by the sudden 
change. After the end of the period, a little cooling medicine 
will often be required, consisting of a dose of oil or salts. 
(See Aperients.) 



MANAGEMENT OF THE BITCH IN WHELP. 

When it is clearly ascertained that the bitch is in whelp, the 
exercise should be increased and carried on freely till the sixth 
week, after which it should be daily given, but with care to 
avoid strains either in galloping or jumping. A valuable bitch 
is often led during the last week, but somehow or other she 
ought to have walking exercise to the last, by which in great 
measure all necessity for opening medicine will be avoided. 
During the last few weeks her food should be regulated by her 
condition, which must be raised if she is too low, or the reverse 
if she is too fat^ the desired medium being such a state as is 



PKEPABATION FOB WHBI^ING. 196 

compatible with high health, and neither tending towards ex- 
haustion nor inflammation. Excessive fat in a bitch not only 
interferes with the birth of the pups, but also is very liable to 
interfere with the secretion of milk, and, if this last does happen, 
aggravates the attendant or "milk" fever. To know by the 
eye and hand how to fix upon this proper standard, it is only 
necessary to feel the ribs, when they should at once be apparent 
to the hand, rolling loosely under it, but not evident to the 
eye so as to count them. It is better to separate the bitch 
from other dogs during the last week or ten days, as she then 
becomes restless, and is instinctively and constantly looking for 
a place to whelp in, whereas, if she is prevented from occupying 
any desirable corner she is uneasy. At this time the food should 
be of a very sloppy nature, chiefly composed of broth, or milk 
and bread, adding oatmeal according to the state of the bowels. 



PREPARATION FOR WHELPING. 

The best mode of preparing a place for the bitch to whelp in 
is to nail a piece of old carpet over a smooth boarded floor, to 
a regular "bench," if in a sporting kennel; or on a door or 
other flat piece of board raised a few inches from the ground, 
if for any other breed. When a regular wooden box or kennel, 
as these are called in ordinary language, is used for the bitch, 
she may as well continue to occupy it^ as she will be more 

o 2 



196 BREEDING. 

contented than in a fresh place ; but it is not so easy to get at 
her there if anything goes wrong with either mother or whelps, 
and on that account it is not a desirable place. A board, l^rge 
or small, according to the size of the bitch, with a raised edge 
to prevent the puppies rolling oflF, and supported by bricks a 
few inches from the ground, is all that is required for the most 
valuable animal; and if a piece of carpet, as before mentioned, 
is tacked upon this, and some straw placed upon all, the height 
of comfort is afforded to both mother and offspring. The use 
of the carpet is to allow the puppies to catch their claws in it 
as they are working at the mother's teats; for without it they 
slip over the board, and they are restless, and unable to fill 
themselves well; while at the same time they scratch all the 
straw away, and are left bare and cold. 



HEALTHY PARTURITION, 

During whelpingy the only management required is in regard 
to food and quiet, which last should as far as possible be 
enjoined, as at this time all bitches are watchful and suspicious, 
and will destroy their young if they are at all intefered with, 
especially by strangers. While the process of labour is going 
on no food is required, unless it is delayed in an unnatural 
manner, when the necessary steps will be found described in 
the Third Book. After it is completed, some lukewarm gruel. 



HEALTHY PARTUBITION. 197 

made with half milk and half water, should be given, and repeated 
at intervals of two or three hours. Nothing cold is to be allowed 
for the first two or three days, unless it is in the height of 
summer, when these precautions are imnecessary, as the ordhiary 
temperature is generally between 60** and 70° of Fahrenheit. 
If milk is not easily had, broth will do nearly as well, thickening 
it with oatmeal, which should be well boiled in it^ This food 
is contmued till the secretion of milk is fully established, when 
a more generous diet is gradually to be allowed, consisting of 
sloppy food, together with an allowance of meat somewhat 
greater than that to which she has been accustomed. This last 
is the best rule, for it will be found that no other useful one can 
be given ; those bitches which have been previously accustomed 
to a flesh diet sinking away if they have not got it at this time, 
when the demands of the puppies for milk drain the system 
considerably; and those which have not been used to it being 
rendered feverish and dyspeptic if they have an inordinate allow- 
ance of it. A bitch in good health, and neither over-reduced 
by starvation nor made too fat by excessive feeding, will rarely 
give any trouble at this time ; but, in either of these conditions, 
it may happen that the secretion fails to be established* (For the 
proper remedies see Parturition, in Book III.) From the first 
day the bitch should be encouraged to leave her puppies twice 
or thrice daily to empty herself, which some, in their excessive 
fondness for their new charge, are apt to neglect. When the 
milk is thoroughly established, they should be regularly exercised 
for an hour a day, which increases the secretion of milk, and 

o 3 



198 BREEDING. 

indeed will often bring it on. After the second week^ bitches 
will always be delighted to leave their puppies for an hour or 
two at a time, and will exercise themselves if allowed to 
escape from them. The best food for a suckling bitch is strong 
broth, with a fair proportion of bread and flesh, or bread and 
milk, according to previous habits. 



DESTRUCTION OR CHOICE OF WHELPS AT BIRTH. 

Somethnes it is desirable to destroy all the whelps as soon as 
possible after birth, but this ought very seldom to be done, as 
in all cases it is better to keep one or two sucking for a short 
time, to prevent milk fever, and from motives of humanity also. 
If, however, it is decided to destroy all at once, take them 
away as fast as they are bom, leaving only one ¥dth the 
mother to engage her attention, and when all are born, remove 
the last before she has become used to it, by which plan 
less cruelty is practised than if she is permitted to attach herself 
to her oflFspring. Low diet and a dose or two of mild aperient 
medicine, with moderate exercise, will be required to guard 
against fever, but at best it is a bad business, and can only 
be justified under extraordinary circumstances. 



199 



CHAPTER II. 



REAKING. 



Management in the Nest. — Choosing. — The Foster-Nurse. — Feeding before 
Weaning. — Choice of Place for Whelping. — Removal of Dew-Claws, &c. — 
Weaning. — Lodging. — Feeding. — Exercise. — Home Rearing r. Walking. 
— Food. — General Management. — Cropping, Branding, and Rounding. , 



THE MANAGEMENT OF WHELPS IN THE NEST. 

This, till they are weaned, does not require much knowledge or 
experience beyond the feedmg of the mother, and the necessity 
for removing a part when the numbers are too great for her 
strength to support. For the first fortnight, at least, puppies are 
entirely dependent upon the milk of their dam or a foster-nurse, 
unless they are brought up by hand, which is a most troublesome 
office, and attended also with considerable risk. Sometimes, how- 
ever, the bitch produces twelve, fomleen, or even sixteen whelps, 
and these being far beyond her powers to suckle properly, either 
the weak ones die off, or the whole are impoverished, and rendered 
small and puny. It is better, therefore, especially when size and 
strength are objects to the breeder, to destroy a part of the litter, 
when they are more than five or six in the greyhoimd, or seven or 
eight in the hound or other dog of that size. In toy dogs a small 
size is sometimes a desideratum, and with them, if the strength of 

O 4 



200 BEABING. 

the dam is equal to the draio, which it seldom is, almost any num- 
ber may be kept on her. For the first three or four days, the bitch 
will be able to suckle her whole litter; but if there are more 
puppies than she has good teats, that is, teats with milk in them, 
the weak ones are starved, unless the strong ones are kept away 
in order to allow them access, so as to fill themselves in their tum« 
To manage this, a covered basket, lined with wool if the weather 
is at all cold, should be provided ; and in this one third or one half 
of the puppies should be kept, close to the mother, to prevent 
either from being uneasy, but the lid fastened down or she will 
take them out in her mouth. Every two or three hours a fresh 
lot should be exchanged for those in the basket, first letting them 
fill themselves, when they will go to sleep and remain contented 
for the time fixed above, thus allowing each lot in its turn to fill 
itself regularly. At the end of ten days, by introducing a little 
sweetened cow*s milk on the end of the finger into their mouths, 
and dipping their noses in a saucer containing it, they learn to lap; 
and after this there will be little difficulty in rearing even a dozen; 
but they will not, however carefully they may be fed in aid of the 
mother, be as large as if only a small nimiber were left on her, 
and therefore greyhound-breeders limit their litters to five, six, or 
at most seven; destroying the remainder, or rearing them with a 
foster-nurse. 



CHOICE OF WHELPS. 201 



CHOICE OF WHELPS. 

To choose the whelps m the nest which are to be kept, most 
people select on different principles, each having some peculiar 
crotchet to guide himself. Some take the heaviest^ some the 
last bom; others the longest of the litter; while others again are 
entirely guided by colour. In toy dogs, and those whose appearance 
is an important element, colour ought to be allowed all the weight 
it deserves, and among certain toy dogs the value is often affected 
a himdred per cent by a slight variation in the markings. So also 
among pointers and setters, a dog with a good deal of white should 
be preferred, on the score of greater utility in the field, to another 
self-coloured puppy which might otherwise be superior in all 
respects. Hounds and greyhounds are however chosen for shape and 
make, and though this is not the same at birth as in after life, still 
there are certain indications which are not to be despised. Among 
these the shoulders are more visible than any others, and if on 
lifting up a puppy by the tail he puts his forelegs back beyond his 
ears, it may be surmised that there will be no fiEtult in his shape 
in reference to his fore quarter, supposing that his legs are well 
formed and his feet of the proper shape, which last point can 
hardly be ascertained at this time. The width of the hips, and 
shape of the chest, with the formation of the loin, may also be 
conjectured, and the length of the neck is in like measure sha- 
dowed forth, though not with the same certainty as the shoulders 
and ribs. A very fat puppy will look pudgy to an inexperienced 



202 BEARING. 

eye^ so that it is necessary to take this into consideration in making 
the selection; but fat is a sign of strength^ both actual and consti- 
tutional^ when it is remarkably permanent in one or two among a 
litter, for it can only be obtained either by depriving the others of 
their share of milk by main force, or through such constitutional 
vigour as to thrive better on the same share of aliments The navel 
should be examined to ascertain if there is any rupture, and this 
alone is a reason for deferring the choice till nearly the end of the 
first week, np to which time there is no means of judging as to its 
existence. Indeed, if possible, it is always better to rear nearly 
all till after weaning, either on the dam herself or on a foster- 
nurse, as at that time the future shape is very manifest, and the 
consequences of weaning are shown, either in a wasting away of 
the whole body, or in a recovery from its effects in a short time. 
Sometimes, however, there are not conveniences for either, and 
then recourse must be had to an early choice on the principles 
indicated above. 



THE FOSTER-NURSE 

Need not be of the same breed as the puppies which she is to 
suckle, and at all times a smoothnskinned bitch is superior for the 
purpose to one with a rough coat, which is apt to harbour fleas, 
and in other ways conduces to the increase of dirt. For all large 
breeds the bull-terrier (which is the most commonly kept among 



THE FOSTER-NUBSE. 203 

the class who alone are likely to sell the services of d nurse) 
answers as well as any other^ and her milk is generally plentiful 
and good. For small breeds any little house dog will suffice^ 
taking care that the skin is healthy, and that the constitution is 
not impaired by confinement or gross feeding. Grreyhound pup- 
pies are very commonly reared by bull-bitches without any dis- 
advantage, clearly proving the propriety of the plan. It may 
generally be reckoned, in fixing the number which a bitch can 
suckle with advantage, that, of greyhoimd or pointer puppies, for 
every seven pounds in her own weight the bitch can do one well; so 
that an average bull-terrier will rear three, her weight being about 
twenty-one pounds, and smaller dogs in proportion. When the 
substitution is to be made, the plan is to proceed as follows : — Get 
a warm basket, put in it some of the litter in which the bitch and 
her whelps have been lying, then take away all her own progeny, 
and, together with the whelps to be fostered, put all in the basket, 
mixing them so that the skins of the fresh ones shall be in contact 
with the bitch's own pups and also ¥dth the litter. Let them 
remain in this way for three hours, during which time the bitch 
should be taken out for an hour's walk, and her teats will have 
become painfully distended with milk. Then put all the pups in 
her nest, and, carefully watching her, let her go back to them. In 
ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, she will at once allow them all 
to suck quietly, and if she licks all atike^ she may be left with 
them safely enough; but if she passes the fresh ones over, pushing 
them on one side, she should be muzzled for twelve hours, leaving 
all with her, and keeping the muzzle on excepting while she is fed. 



204 BEABING. 

or ¥ratched till she is observed to lick all alike. On the next day, 
all but one of her own puppies may be withdrawn^ with an in- 
terval of one hour or two between each two^ and taking care that 
she does not see what is done. After two days the last may also 
be taken away, and then she acts to her foster-puppies in every 
way the same as to her own. Some people squeeze a little of the 
bitch's milk out of her teats, and rub this over the puppies, but 
I have never seen any advantage in the plan, and, as I have never 
had any difficulty in getting puppies adopted, I do not recommend 
any other than that I have described. In most cases the foster- 
bitch is strange to those about her, having been brought from her 
own home, and in that case a muzzle is often required for the 
safety of the servants watching her as well as for the whelps ; but 
if she seems quiet and good-tempered, it may be dispensed with 
even here. 



FEEDING BEFORE WEANmG. 

The food of whdpe before weanmg should be confined at first 
to coVs milk, or, if this is very rich, reduced with a little water. 
It is better to boil it, and it should be sweetened with fine sugar, 
as for the human palate. As much of this as the whelps will 
take may be given them three times a day, or every four hours 
if they are a large litter. In the fourth week get a sheep's head, 
boil it in a quart of water till the meat comes completely to pieces, 
then carefully take away every particle of bone, and break up the 
meat into fragments no larger than a small horse-bean ; mix all 



CHOICE OF PLACE FOR WHELPING. 205 

np with the broth, thicken this to the consistence of cream with 
iiTie wheat flour, boil for a quarter of an hour, then cool and 
give alternately with the milk. At this time the milk may also 
be thickened vdth flour ; and as the puppies grow, and the milk 
of the bitch decreases in quantity, the amount of milk and thick- 
ened broth must be increased each day, as well as more fre- 
quently given. Some art, founded on experience, is required not 
to satiate the puppies; but, by carefully increasing the quantity 
whenever the pups have finished it greedily the last time or two, 
they will not be overdone. In no case should the pan containing 
the food be left in the intervals with the puppies, if they have 
not cleared it out, as they only become disgusted with it, and next 
time refuse to feed. A sheep's head will serve a litter of large- 
sized puppies two days up to weaning, more or less according to 
numbers and age. 



CHOICE OF PLACE FOR WHELPING. 

The whelfprng^lacCy up to the third week, may be confined to 
a square yard or two, floored with board as already described. 
After the third week, when the puppies begin to run about, 
access should be given them to a larger nm, and an inclined plane 
should be arranged for them to get up and down from their 
boarded stage. If the weather is cold, the best place for a bitch 
to whelp is in a saddle-room warmed by a stove; or an empty 
stall, with a two-foot board placed across the bottom, opposite the 



206 REARING. 

stall-post, SO as to prevent the puppies getting among the horses. 
In either case there is an amount of artificial heat, which con- 
duces to the growth of the puppies, and allows them to be reared 
sufficiently strong to bear any cold afterwards with impunity. 
If the weather is not cold, an ordinary horse-box is the best place 
which can be chosen, fixing the boarded stage at a distance from 
the door, and either sanding or slightly littering the brick floor, 
according to the weather ; but the latter is to be preferred, ex- 
cepting in a very hot summer. In these boxes puppies take a vast 
amoimt of exercise, which they require for health, and to give 
that appetite without which sufficient food for growth is not 
taken. 



REMOVAL OF DEW-CLAWS, ETC. 

Before weaning^ any cropping which is intended, whether of 
the dew-claw or tail, should be practised, but the ears should be 
left alone till the third or fourth month, as they are not suffi- 
ciently developed before. If, however, the operator does not 
understand his business thoroughly, it is better to leave the 
latter organs alone, till a later period, as otherwise the proper 
quantity may not be cropped or roimded, as the case may be. 
Indeed, even the most skilful hand will hardly ever manage either 
the one or the other well before the fifth month ; and in hounds 
it is usual to defer it till they are nearly full grown, as they often 
lose a considerable quantity of blood, which interferes with their 



WEANING. 207 

growth. But the tail and dew-claws may always be best done, 
and with least pain, while with the dam; besides which, her 
tongue serves to heal the wound better than that of the young 
puppy, who has hardly learnt to use it. Eegular dog-fanciers bite 
off the tail, but a pair of scissors answers equally well ; and the 
same may be said of the dew-claw. If, however, the nail only 
is to be removed, which it always ought to be, the teeth serve 
the purposes of a pair of nippers perfectly, and by their aid it 
may be drawn out, leaving the claw itself attached, but rendered 
less liable to injury, from having lost the part likely to catch 
hold of any projecting body. 



WEANING. 

When weaning is to be commencedy which is usually about 
the fifth or sixth week, it is better to remove the puppies alto- 
gether, than to let the bitch go on suckling them at long in- 
tervals. By this time their claws and teeth have become so 
sharp and so long, that they punish the bitch terribly, and 
therefore she does not let them fill their beUies. Her milk 
generally accumulates in her teats, and becomes stale, in which 
state it is not fit for the whelps, and by many is supposed to 
engender worms. The puppies have always learned to lap, and 
will eat meat, or take broth or thickened milk, as described in 
the last chapter; besides which, when they have no chance of 



aOft REARING. 

sucking presented to them, they take other food better, whereas, 
if they are allowed to suck away at empty teats, they only fill 
themselves with wind, and then lose their appetites for food of 
any kind. But, having determined to wean them, there are 
several important particulars which must be attended to, or the 
result will be a fedlure, at all events for some time. That is to 
say, the puppies will fall away in flesh, and will cease to grow 
at the same rate as before. In almost all cases, what is called 
the " milk-fat ** disappears after weaning, but still it is de- 
sirable to keep some flesh on their bones, and this can only 
be done by attending to the following directions, which apply 
to dogs of all kinds, but are seldom rigidly carried out, except 
with the greyhoimd, whose size and strength are so important 
as to call for every care to procure them in a high degree. In 
hoimds, as well as pointers and setters, a check in the growth 
is of just as much consequence; but as they are not tested to- 
gether as to their speed and stoutness so closely as greyhounds 
are, the slight defects produced in puppyhood are not detected, 
and, as a consequence ; the same attention is not paid. Never- 
theless, as most of these points require only care, and cost little 
beyond it, they ought to be carried out almost as strictly in the 
kennels of the foxhound and pointer as in those devoted to the 
longtails. These chief and cardinal elements of success are, — 
1st, a warm, dean, and dry lodging; 2ndly, suitable food; 
3rdly, regularity in feeding ; and 4thly, a provision for sufficient 
exercise. 



LODGING. 209 



NECESSITY FOR WARM AND DRY LODGING. 

All puppies require a dry lodging^ and in the winter season 
it should also be a warm one. Greyhound whelps^ up to their 
third or fourth months are sometimes reared in an artificial tem- 
perature, either by means of a stove, or by using the heat of a 
stable, the temperature chosen being 60** of Fahrenheit. Beyond 
this age, it can nevei: be necessary to adopt artificial heat in rearing 
puppies, because for public coursing they are required to be 
whelped after the last day of the year, and four months from 
that time takes us on to May, when the weather is seldom cold 
enough to require a stove ; and then during the summer months 
they are gradually hardened to the vicissitudes of the weather, 
and as they become older their growth is established, and they 
are no longer in danger of its being checked. It is true that 
some few coursers always keep their kennels at 60^ ; but on the 
whole^ as we shall hereafter find, the plan is not a good one, 
and need not be considered here. But far beyond the warmth 
is dryness essential to success. Dogs will bear almost any 
amoimt of cold if unaccompanied by damp, provided they have 
plenty of straw to lie in; but a damp kennel, even if warm, 
is sure to lead to rickets or rheumatism, if the puppies escape in- 
flammation of some one or more of the internal organs. Take care, 
therefore, to give a dry bedstead of boards, lined with the same 
material towards the wall, (the cold of which strikes inwards 
and gives cold,) and raised somewhat from the floor, which will 

p 



210 REARING. 

otherwise keep it damp. Puppies soon learn to lie on this, and 
avoid the cold stones or bricks, except in the heats of summer, 
when these do no harm. The stone or brick floor should be so 
made as to avoid absorption of the urine, &c., which can only be 
effected by employing glazed tiles or bricks that are not porous, 
or by covering the whole with a layer of London or Portland 
cementy or with aaphalte, which answers nearly as welL Cai^ 
should be taken that there are no interstices between the boards, 
if the kennel is made of them ; and in every way, while ven- 
tilation is provided, cold draughts must be prevented. Clean- 
liness must also be attended to rigidly by sweeping out the floor 
daily, and washing it down at short intervals, and by changing 
the litter once a week at the least. In the summer time, straw 
is not desirable, as it harbours fleas; and, if the boarded floor 
is not considered sufficient, a thick layer of deal sawdust will be 
the best material, as it is soft enough, without harbouring ver- 
min of any kind; the only objection to it being that the puppies 
are apt to wet it often, after which it becomes offensive. 



FEEDING. 



The feeding of puppies is all important, and, unless they have 
plenty of food sufficiently nourishing to allow of a proper growth, 
it 18 impossible that they should become what they might be if fed 
with the best materials for the purpose. From the time of weaning 



FEEDINO. 211 

to the end of the third month, when a decision must be arrived 
at as to their subsequent management, very little deviation is re- 
quired from the plans described at pp. 204, 205; that is, the 
puppies should be fed every four hours upon the thickened broth 
made from sheep's head, and thickened milk alternately. After 
that time, however, their food must be given them rather stronger 
and of a somewhat different nature, as we shall find in its proper 
place. This food will be required for any kind of dog, but a single 
puppy may very well be reared upon thickened milk, with the scraps 
of the house in addition, including bones, which it will greedily 
pick, and any odds and ends which are left on the plates. 

Regularity of feeding in puppies, as in adult animals, is of the 
utmost importance; and it will always be found that if two puppies 
are equally well reared in other respects, and one fed at regular 
hours, while the other is only supplied at the caprice of servants, 
the former will greatly excel the latter in size and health, as 
well as in the symmetrical development of the body. It is also 
very necessary to avoid leaving any part of one meal in the pans 
or feeding-troughs till the next, as nothing disgusts the dog more 
than seeing food left in this way. The moment the puppies fill 
themselves, take away the surplus ; and, indeed, it is better still to 
anticipate them by stopping them before they have quite done. 
All this requires considerable tact and experience, and there are 
very few servants who are able and willing to carry out these 
directions fully. 



P 2 



212 REARING. 



EXERCISE. 

Exercise is Tieceasary at all ages^ but the fully developed dog 
may be confined for some little time without permanent injury, 
the formation of his feet and the texture of his bones and muscles 
being then finally settled. On the other hand, the puppy will 
grow according to the demands made upon his mechanism, and 
if the muscles are left idle they do not enlarge; while the feet 
remain thin and weak, with the tendons and ligaments relaxed, so 
that they spread out like a human hand. Growing puppies should 
be provided with an area sufficiently large for them to play in, 
according to their size, and under cover up to the end of the third 
month; after which, if they have a sheltered sleeping-place to run 
into, they will generally avoid heavy rain. Young puppies play 
sufficiently in a loose box or similar enclosure; but, after the time 
specified above, they must either have their entire liberty, or be 
allowed the run of a larger space, the alternative being bad feet^ 
defective development, and weak joints. 



HOME REARING VERSUS WALKING. 

When one or two puppies only are to be reared, they may be 
readily brought up at home, excepting in towns or other con- 
fined situations where due liberty and a proper amount of sun and 



HOME REARING VERSUS WALKING- 213 

air cannot be obtained. But where a larger number are to be 
reared, as in the case of hounds, greyhounds, pointers, and setters, 
&C., there is a diflSculty attending upon numbers, as a dozen or 
two of puppies about a house are not conducive to the neatness 
and beauty of the garden; besides which, the collection together in 
masses of young dogs is prejudicial to their health. To avoid this 
evil, therefore, it is customary to send puppies out at three or four 
months of age to be kept by cottagers, butchers, small farmets, 
&C., at a weekly sum for each, which is called "walking" them. 
Young greyhounds may be reared in a large enclosure, which 
should be not less than thirty or forty feet long, with a lodging- 
house at one end ; but hoimds do not take exercise enough in a 
confined space^ and should invariably be sent out. It is only there- 
fore in reference to the rearing of greyhounds that the two plans 
can be compared, or perhaps also with pointers and setters, if they 
are taken out to exercise after they are four or five months old. 

The two plans have been extensively tried with the longtails, 
and in my own opinion the preference should be given to the 
home rearing if properly carried out, because it has all the ad- 
vantages of the ^'walk" without those disadvantages attending 
upon it^ in the shape of bad habits acquired in chasing poultry, 
rabbits, and often hares, during which the puppy learns to run 
cunning. One of the first symptoms of this vice is the waiting to 
cut off a comer, which is soon learnt if there is the necessity for it^ 
and even in mutual play the puppy will often develop it. Hence 
I have seen a "walked" greyhound, with his very first hare, show 
as much waiting as any old worn-out runner, evidently acquired 

p 3 



214 REARING. 

in his farm-yard education^ or possibly from having been tempted 
after a hare or two by the sheepdog belonging to the farm. More- 
over, the home-reared puppy, being confined in a limited space 
during the greater part of his time, is inclined to gallop when first 
let out, and takes in this way more exercise than those brought up 
on the other plan; so that, after considering both methods, I have 
come to the conclusion that the home rearing is preferable on the 
whole, though there is no doubt that good dogs may be reared in 
either way. 

The best plan is to fence off a long slip of turf; or, if a small 
walled enclosiu'e can be procured, fence off about a yard or two 
all round, by which last plan an excellent gallop is secured, without 
the possibility of cutting corners, and with a very slight loss of 
groimd. An admirable plan is to build four large sleeping-rooms 
in a square block, and then all roimd this let there be a run two 
yards wide, which may be separated into four divisions, or thrown 
into one at will. If the latter, the puppies will exercise themselves 
well round and round the building, which is a practice they are 
very fond of; and, even if two or more lots are wanted to occupy 
the compartments, the whole can be thrown open to each lot in 
turn. When this plan is adopted the run should be paved, so that 
the expense is much greater than in the other mode, in which the 
natural soil is allowable, because the puppies are not kept on it 
long enough to stain it. (See page 226.) 



FOOD OF PUPPIES. 215 



THE FOOD OF PUPPIES AT HOME OR "AT AVALK," AND 

ITS PROPER PREPARATION. 

Whether at home or out, puppies require the same kind of food, 
and the more regularly this is given as to quantity and quality, as 
well as the times of feeding, the more healthy the puppy will be, 
and the faster he will grow. Many people consider milk to be by 
far the best article of food for gio wing puppies, and undoubtedly 
it is a good one, but it is not superior to a mixed diet of meal 
and animal food in proper proportions, and occasionally varied by 
the addition of green vegetables. Indeed, after three months, or 
at most four, puppies may be fed like grown dogs as to the quality 
of their food, requiring it however to be given them more fre- 
quently the younger they are. Up to six months they require it 
three times a day, at equal intervals, and after that age twice ; for 
although there is a diflference of opinion as to the propriety of 
feeding the adult once or twice a day, there is none about the 
puppy demanding a supply morning and evening. In all cases, 
they should be encouraged to empty themselves (by allowing a run, 
if they are confined to kennel) just before feeding, and for an 
hour or two afterwards they are best at rest. If milk is given, it 
may be thickened by boiling in it oatmeal or wheat-flour, or both 
together, or biscuits may be scalded and added to it; but no flesh 
is needed in addition, bones only being required to amuse the dog 
and to clean his teeth by gnawing them. With these any dog 
may be very well reared, but the plan is an expensive one, if the 

P 4 



216 REARING. 

milk has any thing like the ordinary value attached to it, and if it 
has to be purchased^ the cost is generally quite prohibitory of its 
employment. 

Besides miUc^ the following articles are employed in feeding 
dogs, each of which will be separately considered, as to price and 
value. Of these, Indian meal is by far the best in proportion to 
its price (being quite equal to anything but the very best wheat- 
flour, which is perhaps slightly more nourishing), and, being so much 
cheaper, is, on that account, to be preferred. It requires to be 
mixed with oatmeal, in about equal proportions or less of the 
latter, if the bowels are at all relaxed. The usual price of Indian 
meal is about lOL or 12L per ton, half that of wheat and the same 
as that of barley, to which it is greatly to be preferred, being far 
less heating, and producing muscle in larger proportion. Oatmeal 
is considerably dearer, though the grain itself is cheaper; but the 
quantity of meal obtained, owing to the amount of chaff, is so 
small, that when this is got rid of the meal is necessarily sold at a 
higher price, being from 121. to 18^. per ton, according to the season. 
But a much larger bvlk of thick stuff, commonly called "pud- 
dings,'' is produced by oatmeal than can be obtained from any other 
meal in proportion to weight, the absorption of water being greater, 
and also varying in different qualities of oatmeal itself; so that, after 
all, this meal is not so expensive as it looks to be, when comparing 
an equal weight of it vdth barley or Indian meal. The real coarse 
Scotch oatmeal yields the greatest bulk of puddings, and is to be 
preferred on that account; besides which, it appears to agree best 
with dogs, and altogether is a very superior article; but in any 



FOOD OF PUPPIES. 217 

case it ought to be nearly a year old. It may therefore be con- 
taidered that Indian meal or Scotch oatmeal^ both of which may 
always be procured from the corn-dealers, will be the best meal, 
unless the price of wheat-flour can be aflforded, when the best red 
wheat should be coarsely ground and not dressed, and in this state 
made into biscuits or dumplings, or used to thicken the broth. 

If Indian meal is employed, it must be mixed with the water 
or broth while cold, and then boiled for at least an hour, stirring 
it occasionally to prevent burning. If it is intended to mix oat- 
meal with the Indian meal, the former may be first mixed with 
cold water to a paste, and then stirred in after boiling the latter 
for three quarters of an hour; then boil another quarter, reckoning 
from the time that the contents of the copper came to the boiling 
point a second time. 

Wheat-Hour should be boiled from fifteen to twenty minutes, 
and may be mixed with the oatmeal in the same way as the Indian 
meal. 

Oatmeal pudding^ and poi'i^idgey or atirahouty are made as fol- 
lows; the first name being given to it when so thick as to bear the 
weight of the body after it is cold, and, the last two to a somewhat 
thinner composition. In any case the meal is stirred up with cold 
water to a thick paste, and, when quite smooth, some of the broth 
should be ladled out and added to it, still stirring it steadily. 
Then return the whole to the copper, and stir till it thickens, ladle 
out into coolers, and let it " set," when it will cut with a spade and 
is quite solid. The directions as to length of time for the boiling 
of oatmeal vary a good deal, some preferring at least half an 



218 BEARING. 

hour's boil, while others are content with ten or fifteen minutes, 
but for most purposes from a quarter to half an hour is the proper 
time, remembering that this is to be reckoned fvatn, the mxynvent 
that the water boils. 

The animal food used should be carefully selected to avoid 
infectious diseases, and the flesh of those creatures which have 
been loaded with drugs should also be avoided. Horseflesh, if 
death has been caused by accident, is as good as anything, and in 
many cases of rapid disease the flesh is little the worse, but though 
in foxhound kennels there is little choice, yet for greyhounds those 
horses which have been much drugged for lingering diseases, and 
those also which are much emaciated, are likely to do more harm 
than good. Slipped calves and lambs, as well as beef and mutton, 
the result of death from natural causes, make an excellent change, 
but are seldom better than bad horseflesh. Still, as variety is es- 
sential to success in rearing, they should not be rejected. Flesh 
may be kept for a long time, even in summer, by brushing it over 
with a quicklime wash, or dusting it with the powder, and then 
hanging it up in trees with thick foliage, carefully watching the 
attacks of the flies, which will not blow in the lime. In this way 
I have kept the shank ends of legs and shoulders good for six 
weeks in the height of summer, and in winter for three months. 
Whatever this kind of food is composed of, it should be boiled, 
with the exception of paunches, which may be given raw, but 
even they are better boiled, and I think an occasional meal of well- 
kept horseflesh is rather a good change. The flesh with the bones 
should be boiled for hours, till the meat is thoroughly done ; then 



FOOD OF PUPPIES. 



219 



take it out and let it hang till cold^ cut or strip it from the 
bones and mix with the puddings or stirabout according to the 
quantity required. The broth should always be used^ as there are 
important elements of nutrition dissolved in it, which are absent 
in the boiled flesh. It is therefore necessary to make the puddings 
or stirabout with it, or to soak in it the biscuit, when this is the 
food selected. The bones should be given for the dogs to gnaw, 
together with any others from the house which can be obtained, 
but taking care to remove all fragments small enough for them 
to swallow whole. Bones should be given on grass or clean 
flags. 

The comparative value of the various articles of diet enumerated 
above, according to the authority of Liebig, is as follows: — 



The proportions in 


MateriiiU used for 

makiDg muicle, booe, 

Ac. 


Materials used in 

retpiratlun, or in 

forming fat. 


Cow*s milk are 
Fat mutton „ 
Lean mutton „ 
Lean beef - „ 
Lean horseflesh „ 
Hare and rabbit „ 
Wheat-flour „ 
Oatmeal - „ 
Barlej-meal „ 
Potatoes - „ 
Rice - - „ 


Parts, 
as 10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 


Parts. 

to 30 

27 to 45 

19 

17 

15 

2 to 5 

46 

50 

57 

86 to 115 

153 



From this high authority it appears that barley-meal is supe- 
rior both to wheat-flour and oatmeal in fat-making materials^ but 



220 BEARING. 

it is greatly inferior in muscle-making power, and hence, in dogs 
where fat is not required, it is of inferior value. Science and prac- 
tical experiment here go hand in hand, as they always do when 
the former is based upon true premises. In cow's milk, which is 
the natural food of the young of the Mammalia, the proportion is 
30 to 10, and this seems to be about what is required in mixing 
the animal and vegetable food. Now by adding equal weights of 
wheat-meal and lean horseflesh, we obtain exactly the same pro- 
portions within the merest trifle ; thus — 

Wheat-flour - - 10 46 

Horseflesh - - 10 15 

20 61 

being equal to 10 of muscle-making to 30^ of fat-making matter ; 
and this is practically the proportion of animal food to meal 
which best suits the dog's stomach and general system. The 
reader is not to suppose that a dog is to be fed on equal parts of 
cooked meat and piiddingSy but of raw meat and dry meal, which 
when both are boiled would, by the loss of juice in the flesh and 
the absorption of water in the meal, become converted into about 
two quantities by weight of pudding to one of cooked meat. Even 
this proportion of flesh is a large one for growing dogs which have 
not much exercise, but those which are *^ at walk " or which have 
their liberty in any situation will bear it. Most people prefer a 
much smaller proportion of meat, especially for hounds, pointers, 
setters, and spaniels, which depend on their nose, this organ being 



FOOD OF PUPPIES. 221 

supposed to be rendered less delicate by high feeding. From long 
experience in this matter, however, I am satisfied that, while the 
health is maintained in a perfect state, there is no occasion to fear 
the loss of nose, and that such may be avoided with the above diet I 
am confident from actual practice. At the same time it must not 
be forgotten that all dogs so fed require a great supply of green 
vegetables, which should be given once or twice a week during the 
summer, without which they become heated, and throw out an 
eruption as a proof of it, the nose also being hot and dry. Green 
cabbage, turnip-tops, turnips, nettle-tops, or carrots, as well as 
potatoes, may all be given with advantage boiled and mixed with 
the meal and broth, in which way they are much relished. 

Greaves, bought at the chandler's, and consisting of the refuse of 
the fat melted to make tallow, make a very common article for 
flavouring the meal of sporting dogs of all kinds. Beyond this 
they have little value, but they certainly afford some degree of 
nourishment, and are not altogether to be despised. They are 
boiled in water first till soft, and then mixed with the meal to 
form the stirabout or pudding. With oatmeal they form a good 
food enough for pointers and setters, as they are not so heating as 
flesh. 

The quantity by weight which is required by the growing 
puppy daily of such food as the above, is from a twelfth to one- 
twentieth of the weight of its body, varying with the rapidity of 
growth, and a good deal with the breed also. Thus a 12 lb. 
dog will take from five eighths of a pound to a pound, and a 36 lb. 
dog from two pounds to three pounds. When they arrive at full 



222 REARING. 



growth^ more than the smaller of these weights is very seldom 
wanted^ and it may be taken as the average weight of food of this 
kind for all dogs in tolerably active exercise. 



GENERAL TREATMENT. 

During tJie whole time of growth, the only general management 
required is, firstly, a habit of obedience, the dog being taught his 
kennel name, to follow at heel, and to lead. Some breeds require 
more than this ; as, for instance, the pointer and setter, which will 
be mentioned imder the head of breaking. Secondly, great clean- 
liness in all respects, the kennel being kept scrupulously clean by 
washing the floor, and at least once a year lime-washing the walls, 
while the skins are freed from any vermin which may be found 
by the means described in the Third Book. In the summer a 
straw bed is seldom required, but in the winter it must be given 
for the sake of warmth, and changed once or twice a week. Physic 
is not needed as a regular practice, if feeding is conducted on the 
above plan, and the exercise is sufficient ; but if the puppies are 
dull, a dose of castor oil occasionally wiU do good. 



CHOICE OF PUPPIES AFTER WEANING. 228 



CHOICE OF PUPPIES AFTER WEANING THEM. 

Puppies of all kinds vary in form so much between the weaning 
time and the period of full growth, that there is great difficulty 
in making a choice which shall be proved by subsequent events to 
be on reliable grounds. All young animals grow by fits and starts, 
the proportions varying with the stage of development in which 
any part is at the time of examination. Thus at the fourth month 
a puppy may look too long, but during the next month he may 
have grown so much in the legs that he no longer looks so. 
Again, another may be all legs and wings in the middle of his 
growth, but he may finally grow down to a strong, low, and mus- 
cular dog. So also with the fore and hind quarters, they may grow 
alternately, and one month the fore quarter may be low, and the 
next the hind. None but an experienced eye therefore can pre- 
tend to foresee, after the period of weaning, what will be the final 
shape ; but either soon after that time, or a day or two after birth, 
a pretty good guess may be given, subject to the continuation of 
health, and to proper rearing in all respects. Bad feet can soon 
be detected, but the limbs grow into a good shape after most extra- 
ordinary deviations from the line of beauty, particularly in the 
greyhound, which is often apparently deformed in his joints when 
half grown. The most unwieldy - looking animals often fine 
down into the best shapes, and should not be carelessly rejected 
without the_^a< being pronounced by a breeder of experience. 



224 REARING. 



CROPPING, BRANDING, AND ROUNDING. 

If terriers are to be cropped, the beginning or end of the fourth 
month is the best time to choose ; and, before sending out to walk, 
hounds are branded with the initials of the master or of the hunt, 
a hot iron shaped like the letter itself being used. Both cropping 
and rounding require practice to perform them well, a large sharp 
pair of scissors being used, and care being necessary to hold the 
two layers of skin in the ear in their natural position, to prevent 
the one rolling on the other, and thus leaving one larger than the 
other. Foxhounds have so much work in covert that rounding is 
imperatively called for to prevent the ears from being torn, and 
it always has been adopted as a universal practice, different 
huntsmen varying in the quantity removed. Some people after 
cutting one ear lay the piece removed on the other, and so mark 
exactly the amoimt which is to be removed from it; but this is a 
clumsy expedient, and, if the eye is not good enough to direct the 
hand without this measurement, the operation will seldom be 
effected to the satisfaction of the owner of the dog. It is usual 
to round foxhoimd puppies aft^r they come in from their walks ; 
but it would be far better to perform the operation before their 
return, as it only makes them more sulky and unhappy than they 
otherwise would be, and is a poor introduction to their new 
masters. The men could easily go roimd to the different walks 
during the summer, and it would insure a supervision which is 
often required. 



225 



CHAPTER III. 

KENNELS AND KENNEL MANAGEMENT. 

Greyhound Kennels. — Foxhound Kennels. — Pointer Kennels. — Kennels for 

single Dogs. — House Dogs. 

Between the kennels intended for the various kinds of dogs, and 
the methods of management therein, some considerable difference 
exists, though the same principles are adopted throughout. Thus, 
packs of foxhoimds are often kept to the number of 80 or even 
100 couples, and these must be managed rather differently to the 
three or four brace of greyhounds or pointers, which usually con- 
stitute the extent of each of these kinds in one man's possession, 
or at all events in one building. Besides this, foxhounds are much 
more exposed to the weather than greyhounds, which are usually 
clothed out of doors, and otherwise protected by dog-carts, &c. 
The former therefore must be hardened to the duties they have to 
perform, while the latter may be brought out in more vigorous 
health, and with their speed very highly developed, but at the 
same time in so delicate a condition as to be liable to take cold if 
allowed to remain in the rain for any length of time. Hence it 
will be necessary to describe the kennels for greyhoimds, hounds, 
pointers, &c., separately. 



226 



KENNELS AND KENNEL MANAGEMENT. 



GREYHOUND KENNELS. 

Every kennel intended for greyhounds should be thoroughly 
protected from the weather, and should have the yard covered in 
as well as the lodging-house. The plan which has been indicated 
at page 214 as useful for the kennel intended to rear puppies is 
also best adapted for their future keeping, and this it will be 
desirable to describe more fully here. 




^ t'jfmwr«»mnmrmmi^XiM,}i..ViMM ^BOaSSSBB^ 



Groand Plan of Grejhouzul Kennel. 



The central square, comprised between the four angles a h cd^ 
is divided into four lodging-houses, having a ventilating shaft in 
the middle, with which they all communicate. These are filled up 
with benches separated by low partitions as shown in the diagram. 



GREYHOUND KESNELS. 22T 

and raised about a foot from the ground. Each opens into a yard, 
with a door of communication bo arranged as to be left partly open 
without allowing the slightest draught to blow upon the bedft. 
These yards, ab, be, cd, da, are all roofed in, and bounded on the 
outer side by open pales guarded by coarse wire net, to prevent the 
teeth of the inmates gnawing them. They are separated by narrow 
partitions, which slide up to allow of the dogs having the whole 
run; or they may be left down, and the upper part open, so as to 




Eleralitn of Grajbouod Kcunit. 



encourage the puppies to fence, by the necessity for jumping over 
them in pursuing one another. The floors should be of glazed 
tiles, adamantine clinkers, Dutch clinkers, Broseley bricks, or 
cement, the last being the most clean and free from absorption, 
which ought always to be entirely prevented. Each sleeping-place 
and yard should have a trapped drain, so as to carry off any wet 



228 KENNELS AND KENNEL MANAGEMENT. 

directly it falls, and the former should be built exteriorly of brick 
cemented at least a foot from the ground, with board partitions 
between them, A window should be in each, which is capable of 
being opened, and the ventilation should be secured by the plan 
introduced by Mr. Muir, whose address is 11, Ducie Street^ 
Exchange, Manchester. This always secures a down-current as 
well as an up-current, so that there is little or no necessity for 
haying the door open except for cleanliness, but in very windy 
weather the ventilation on the side of the wind should be closed, 
or the down-draught will be enough to chill the greyhounds. As 
these kennels are to be paved with a non-porous material, the soil 
is not of much consequence, but the situation should be dry and 
healthy, and the shade of a large tree is to be obtained if possible. 
The kennel management of the greyhound consists in little more 

m 

than the adoption of cleanliness, which should be of the most 
scrupulous kind, together with regular feeding. Water is by some 
people constantly left for them to get at, but others object to it for 
dogs in training, and they then only give it with the food. My 
own opinion is decidedly in favour of the constant supply, as it is 
impossible to prevent these animals from getting to it when at 
exercise; and I am sure thatj when they are kept from it in-doors, 
they take too much while they are out. On the contrary, if it is 
regularly supplied to them, they take very little, and ai-e quite 
careless about it at all times. The dressing and management of 
the feet form a part of the training of the greyhoimd, and will 
be treated of under the head of Coursing. 



FOXHOUND AND HARRIER KENNELS, ETC. 22D 



FOXHOUND AND HARRIER KENNELS, ETC. 

Unlike the greyhound kennel in many respects, that which we 
are now considering must be adapted for from thirty to a hundred 
couples of hounds, and the accommodation should therefore be more 
extensive, while a less degree of protection from the weather is 
desirable, because these hounds must be constantly exposed to 
long-continued \vind and wet, and should therefore be hardened to 
them. The annexed description of the most desirable plan for 
kennels is chiefly derived from "Scrutator," who is, I believe, 
the most trustworthy as well as the most recent writer on this 
subject. 

The kennel should be placed upon some high and dry situation ; 
the building should face the south, and there should be no large 
trees near it. To hunt three or fom- days a week, you will require 
about forty couples of hounds according to the country. The 
lodging-rooms should be four in number, by which you will have 
a dry floor for the hoimds to go on to every morning (the pack 
in the hunting season being in two divisions), instead of its 
being washed down whilst the hounds are left shivering in the 
cold on a bleak winter's day, which I have seen done when the 
huntsman has been too busy to walk them out during this 
process. 

Nothing is more prejudicial to hounds than damp lodging- 
rooms, a sure cause of rheumatism and mange, to which dogs are 
peculiarly liable. I have seen them affected by rheumatism 

QS 



230 KENNELS AND KENNEL MANAGEMENT. 

in various ways, and totally incapacitated from working ; some- 
times they are attacked in the loins, but more often in the 
shoulders, both proceeding either from a damp situation, damp 
lodging-room, or damp straw, often combined with the abuse 
of mercury in the shape of physic. In building kennels, there- 
fore, the earth should be removed from the lodging-room floor 
to the depth of a foot at least, and in its place broken stones, 
sifted gravel, or cinders, should be substituted, with a layer of 
fine coal-ashes, upon which the brick floor is to be laid, in 
cement or hot coal-ash mortar, taking care to use bricks which 
are not porous, or to cover them with a layer of cement, which 
last is an admirable plan. Outside the walls and close to them, 
an air-drain about three feet deep should be constructed with 
a draining pipe of two inches bore at the bottom, and filled 
up vdth broken stones to within six inches of the surface. 
This drain is to be carried quite round the building, and should 
fall into the main sewer. For a roof to the building I prefer 
thatch to tiles, as affording more warmth in winter and coolness 
in summer; but as slate or tiles are more agreeable to the eye, 
a thin layer of reed placed under the tiles will answer the 
purpose. 

Over the centre of the lodging-rooms should be a sleeping- 
apartment for the feeder, which being raised above the level 
of the other roof will break the monotony of its appearance. 
At the rear of the kennel should be the boiling-house, feeding- 
court, straw-house, and separate lodgings for bitches. In front 
of the kennels, and extending round to the back door of the 



FOXHOUND AND HARRIER KENNELS, ETC. 231 

feeding-house, should be a good large green yard enclosed by 
a wall or palings. The former I prefer, although more ex- 
pensive, because hounds, being able to see through the latter, 
will be excited by passing objects ; and young hounds, for whose 
service the green yard is more particularly intended, are inclined 
to become noisy, barking and running round the palings when 
any strange dog makes his appearance. 

In the boiling-hoase will be required two cast-iron boilers, 
one for the meal, the other for flesh. Pure water must be in 
some way conducted to the kennels, both for cleanliness and 
for the preparation of food, and this should be laid on at the 
service of the kennel-man at all parts, so that there may be 
no excuse on the score of trouble in carrying it. There must 
also be coolers fixed in proportion to the number of hounds, 
each couple requiring from half a foot to a foot superficial, 
according as it is intended to make the puddings daily or every 
other day. Stone or iron feeding- and water-troughs are the 
best; the latter should be fixed high enough to keep them 
clean. 

To each lodging-room there should be two doors ; one at the 
back with a small sliding panel and high up, through which 
the himtsman may observe the hounds without their seeing him ; 
and another in the front with a large opening cut at the 
bottom, high enough and wide enough for a hound to pass 
through easily, and which should always be left open at night 
to allow free egress to the court. In addition there must also 
be another between each of the rooms, so as to throw two into 

Q 4 



232 KENNELS AND KENNEL HANAOEUBHT. 

one in the summer for the purpose of making them more ury. 
The benches should be made of pine or oak spars, and if they 
are made to turn up accordiog to the following plan several 
advaatf^es result, being described, by a correspondent ugnlcg 
himself "LepuB," in the columns of " The Field," as follows : — 
"KENNEL BENCHES. 
"My benches are made of inch deal, cut into -widths of three 
inches, and nailed half an inch apart to two tnmBverse pieces, to 
whidi hinges are fixed to connect the bench with a board six 




Pbn of Eouwl Bcndi for Hoanda 



inches wide, fastened firmly to the wall about a foot from the 
groimd. In front is a piece of board about three inches in width 
to keep the straw from drawing off with the hounds. To prevent 



FOXHOUND AND HARRIER KENNELS, ETC. 233 

the hounds from creeping under, I nail two long laths the length 
of the bench across in front of the legs, which are hung with 
hinges in front of the bench, so that when the bench is hooked 
back they fall down and hang flat. By having the six-inch board 
between the hinges and the wall, it prevents the former from being 
strained when the bench is hooked back with straw upon it." 

In some establishments there is a separate kennel for the 
young hounds, with a grass yard attached, for their own use, 
and it is certainly very advantageous; but with a little ma- 
nagement the buildings above recommended will be sufficient, 
and with a saving of considerable expense. The hoimds during 
the hunting season will not require it at all, as they should 
be walked out several times a day into a paddock or field, 
and should not be allowed to lie about anywhere but on their 
benches. 

In the rear of the kennels should be a covered passage into 
which the doors of the middle kennel should open, and leading 
to the feeding-house, which stands under the same roof as the 
boiling-house, only separated from it by a partition. This pas- 
sage should be so constructed as to make a foot bath for the 
hounds as they pass through after himting, the bricks being 
gradually sloped from each end to the centre, where it should 
be a foot deep, with a plugged drain in the lowest part, to let 
the hot liquor or water oflF into a drain. On each side of this 
passage should be a paved court with a small lodging-house at 
each end ; one for lame hoimds, and the other for those which 
are sick. 



234 



KENNELS AND KENNEL lilANAGEMKNT. 



The ventilcUion of the rooms composing the lodgings of the 
hounds must be carefully attended to, and for this purpose the 
shaft alluded to at page 228 is by far the best adapted. It 
resembles in external appearance that usually placed above Well 





liluir's Ventilatiog Appwratos. a^hyCydf the foar diyisions of shaft ; e/, board for 

distribatiog down current. 



constructed stables, &c. ; but there is this important internal 
alteration, that the square is divided perpendicularly into four 
triangular tubes, one of which is sure to be presented to the wind 
from whatever quarter of the compass it is blowing, while the 
opposite one allows the foul air to escape, to make room for that 



FOXHOUND AND HARRIER KENNELS, ETC. 235 

descending through the first-named tube. When this is once con- 
structed it only remains to lead a metal tube from each of these 
four compartments to every one of the lodging-rooms, which will 
thus be as efifectually ventilated as if each had an apparatus to 
itself. To carry this out well the lodging-rooms should be in a 
block, and then there will be a corner of each meeting in a 
common centre, above which the ventilator should be placed with 
the arrangement of tubes above described. 

The kennel tnanagement of hounds is a much more difiicult and 
important aflfair than is generally supposed, as upon its proper 
performance, in great measure, depends the obedience of the pack 
in the field. Sometimes it is entirely committed to the care of 
the feeder, but every huntsman who knows his business will take 
as much pains with his hounds in kennel as out, and though he 
will not of course prepare the food, yet he will take care to super- 
intend it, and will always " draw " his hounds himself, for no one 
else can possibly know how to feed them. During the season 
this duty must of necessity devolve on the feeder or kennel-man 
on the hunting days, but the huntsman should always carry it out 
himself whenever he can. Hounds cannot be too fond of their 
huntsman, and though " cupboard love '' is not to be encouraged 
in man, yet it is at the bottom of most of that which is exhibited 
by the dog, however much it may appear to take a higher range 
when once it has been properly developed. 

The regular daily kennel discipline is as follows : — With the 
four lodging-rooms described there should always be two dry and 
clean in the early morning, having been washed the day before. 



236 KENNELS AND KENNEL MANAGEMENT. 

Into these the general pack should be turned, as soon as the doors 
are opened, or, if the morning is not wet, directly after a short 
airing in the paddock, Tlie feeder then sweeps out the room in 
which they have slept, and afterwards mops it clean, drying the 
floor as much as possible, so that by ten or eleven o'clock it is fit 
for the hounds to re-enter. The men then get their breakfast^ and 
directly afterwards the hounds are taken out to exercise, or the 
hunting hounds to their regular day's work. If the former, they 
are brought back to kennel at eleven o'clock, fed, and returned to 
their regular lodging-room, or in some kennels they are still kept 
in a separate room during the day and night, always taking care 
that they are not turned into a room while the floor is damp, and 
that strict cleanliness is practised nevertheless. The hour of feed- 
ing is generally fixed for eleven o'clock, but for the day before 
hunting it should be an hour or two later, varying with the dis- 
tance they have to travel. Water should be constantly provided, 
taking care that the troughs are raised above the height at which 
dogs can pass their urine into it, which they will otherwise be 
constantly doing. As before remarked, iron troughs are the best. 
After feeding the hounds should remain quiet for the rest of the 
day, only stirring them in removing them from their day-room to 
their night-room, if two are allowed, which, I think, is an excellent 
practice. 

The food of hounds is composed of meal flavoured with broth, 
to which more or less flesh is added, or with greaves as a substi- 
tute when flesh cannot be obtained. The relative value of the 
various meals is described at page 217, but I may here remark 



FOXHOUND AND HARRIER KENNELS, ETC. 237 

that old oatmeal is the recognised food of hounds, though Indian 
meal is an excellent substitute. After boiling the flesh till the 
meat leaves the bones readily, take all out with a pitchfork, and 
put it to cool, skin all the fat off the broth, and fill up with water 
to the proper quantity; next mix the meal carefully with cold 
water, and then pour this into the hot broth, keeping it con- 
stantly stirred till it thickens ; after which it should be boiled vei^ 
gently till it has been on the fire for half an hour, continuing the 
stirring to prevent its burning. Lastly, draw the fire and ladle 
out the stuff into the coolers, where it remains till it has set, when 
it acquires the name with the solidity of "puddings." There 
should always be two qualities made, one better than the other for 
the more delicate hounds, which must be apportioned by the hunts- 
man properly among them. This may be reduced with cold broth, 
when wanted, to any degree of thinness ; and the meat, being cut or 
torn up, is mixed with it. 

In feeding the houiula, the huntsman, having the troughs 
supplied with the different qualities of food, orders the door to be 
thrown open which communicates with the lodging-room; then, 
having the hounds under proper control, they all wait till each is 
called by name, the huntsman pronouncing each name in a 
decided tone, and generally summoning two or three couple at a 
time, one after the other. When these have had what he con- 
siders sufficient, they are dismissed, and others called in their turn; 
the gross feeders being kept to the last, when the best and most 
nourishing part has been eaten. By thus accustoming hounds in 
kennel to wait their proper turn, and to come when called, a 



2.38 KENNELS AND KENNEL MANAGEMENT. 

control is obtained out of doors which could never be accomplished 
in any other way. Once a week, on a non-hunting day in the 
winter, and every three or four days in the summer, some green 
food, or potatoes or turnips, should be boiled up with tlie puddings, 
and serves to cool the hounds very considerably. If this is 
attended to very little physic is required, except from accidental 
causes. 

A regular drea^mg and physickiiig is practised in some 
kennels, the former to keep the skin free from vermin and erup- 
tions, and the latter with the same view, but also to cool the 
blood. This is by no means necessary, if great care is taken with 
regard to cleanliness, feeding, and exercise; and in the royal 
kennels neither one nor the other is practised, excepting when 
disease actually appears, and not as a preventive measure. When 
it is considered desirable to adopt either or both, directions for 
their use will be found given in the next Book. 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 

These dogs do not require a covered yard, and may be 
treated in all respects like hounds, the only difference being in 
regard to numbers. More than three or four brace should not 
be kept together if it can be avoided, as they are apt to quarrel 
when not thoroughly exercised or worked, and then a whole lot 



UOUSE DOGS. 239 

will fall upon one and tear him almost to pieces. The rules 
of cleanliness, feeding, &C.9 are the same as for hounds. 



SINGLE DOGS KENNELLED OUT OF DOORS. 

Where a single dog is kept chained up to what is called a 
kennel, care should be taken to pave the ground on which he 
lies, unless he can be moved every month, or still more fre- 
quently, as in course of time his urine stains the ground so 
much as to produce disease. It should always be borne in 
mind that the dog reqiures more exercise than he can take 
when chained up, and he should therefore be set at liberty for 
an hour or two daily, or at all events every other day. 



HOUSE DOGS. 

The great bane of dogs which are at liberty to run through 
the house is that they are constantly receiving bits from their 
kitchen, as well as from their parlour, friends. The dog's stomach 
is peculiarly unfitted for this increasing demand upon it, and, 
if the practice is adopted, it is sure to eud in disease before 



240 KENNELS AND KENNEL MANAGEMENT. 

many years are passed. The rule should be strictly enforced^ to 
avoid feeding more than once or twice daily, at regular hours, 
and then the quantity and quality should be proportioned to 
the size of the dog and to the amount of exercise which he takes. 
About one twentieth to one twelfth of the weight of the dog is 
the proper amount of food, and all beyond this is improper in 
most cases, though of course there are some exceptions. Dogs 
are very cleanly animals, and often refuse to dirty a carpet 
or even a clean floor; they should therefore be turned out at 
proper times to relieve themselves, the neglect of which is cruel, 
as well as injurious to the health. I have known dogs retain 
their excretions for days together, rather than expose themselves 
to the anger which they think they should incur, and I believe 
some high-couraged animals would almost die before they would 
make a mess. Long-haired dogs, when confined to the house, 
are apt to smell disagreeably if they have much flesh, and they 
should therefore be chiefly fed upon oatmeal porridge, with very 
little flavoiuring of broth or meat mixed up with it. 



241 



CHAPTER IV. 



BREAKING AND ENTERING. 



The £ntcring of the Greyhound and Deerhound. — Of Foxhounds and Harriers. 

— Breaking the Pointer and Setter. — The Retriever (Land and Water). 

— The Spaniel. — The Vermin Dog. 

With the exception of the greyhound, sporting dogs require some 
considerable education to the sport in which they are to be 
engaged. Unlike the hound and the dogs intended for the gun, 
greyhounds have only their instinctive desires to be developed, 
and as no restraint is at any time placed upon these, except 
that depending upon mechanical means which they cannot get 
rid of, nature has uncontrolled sway. Hence their entering is 
a very easy process; nevertheless, there are some precautions to 
be taken which it is necessary to describe. The deerhound, as 
well as the greyhound, is held in slips, a single one being used 
for him, and a double slip, or pair of slips as it is called, for 
the two greyhounds which form the complement for coursing the 
hare, a greater number being considered imfair, and therefore 
unsportsmanlike. These slips are so made that by pulling a 
string the neck-strap is loosed, and the two dogs are let go 
exactly at the same moment. They are always used in public 
coursing, but in private the greyhounds are sometimes suffered 

u 



242 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

to run loose, waiting for the moment when the hare is put up 
by the beaters or by the spaniels, which are occasionally em- 
ployed. Hounds also are coupled under certain circumstances, 
but they are never slipped at the moment when game is on foot, 
and they must therefore be made steady from " riot." 



THE ENTERING OF THE GREYHOUND AND DEERHOUND. 

Whether for public or private coursing, the greyhound should 
not be suffered to course a hare until he is nearly at maturity ; 
but as the bitches come to their growth before the dogs, they 
may be entered earlier than the latter. About the tenth month 
is the best time for forward bitches, and the twelfth or fourteenth 
for dogs. If therefore a greyhound is to be allowed to see a 
hare or two at this age, he or she must be bred early in the 
year, in order to have a brace late in the spring, so as to be 
ready for the next season. Some people invariably prefer 
keeping tHem on to the autumn, and for private coursing there 
is no reason whatever for beginning so early ; but public coursers 
begin to run their dogs in puppy stakes in the month of 
October, prior to which there is so little time after the summer 
is passed, that they prefer beginning in the spring if their dogs 
are old enough, and if they are not they will not be fit to 
bring out in October. 

Before being entered the dogs must be taught to lead quietly. 



GREYHOUND AND DEEBHOUND. 243 

as they cannot be brought on to the ground loose, and if not 
previously accustomed to it, they knock about and tear them- 
selves dreadfully, and moreover will not go quietly in slips. 
As soon therefore as the ground is soft, after they are six or 
eight months old, they should have a neck-strap put on, and 
should be led about for a short time daily, till they follow 
quietly. Some puppies are very violent, and will fight against 
the strap for a long time, but by a little tact they soon give in, 
and follow their leader without resistance. The coursing-field is 
the best school for this purpose, as the puppies have something 
to engage their attention, and until they will bear their straps 
without pulling against them their education in this respect is 
not complete. A dog pulling in slips will do himself so much 
harm as often to cause the loss of a course, and therefore every 
precaution should be taken to avoid this fault. The leader 
should never pull against the puppy steadily, but the moment 
he finds him beginning to hang forward, give him a severe check 
with the strap, and repeat it as often as necessary. It is a very 
common defect, but never ought to occur with proper manage- 
ment; though when once established it is very difficult to get 
rid of. Two or three days' leading on the coursing-field will 
serve to make any puppies handy to lead if properly managed, 
and they may then be put in slips with perfect safety. 

The condition of the puppy at the time of entering is too 
often neglected, but it should be known that a fat over-fed 
puppy without previous exercise may be seriously injured even 
by a short course, which, moreover, can never be assured under 

B 2 



244 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

any circumstances, as the hare will sometimes run in a different 
direction to that which is expected. 

A sapling y as the young greyhound is called to the end of 
the first season after he is whelped, should never be trained 
like an old one, as the work is too severe, and his frame is not 
calculated to bear it, but he may be reduced in flesh by light 
feeding, and allowed to gallop at liberty for two or three hours 
a day, giving him that amoimt of walking exercise and as much 
galloping as he likes to take. With these precautions, he will 
be fit to encounter any hare in a short course, which is all that 
should ever be allowed, as far as it is possible to foresee what 
will happen. 

Wliether an old assistant or a young one shall be put down 
with a sapling is a subject which admits of some discussion. 
If the former, the young dog has small chance of getting to 
work at all, and if the latter, he may have so little assistance 
as to be greatly distressed. Few people like to put down an 
honest old dog with a sapling, and a cunning one soon teaches 
the tricks which he himself displays. Sometimes young dogs 
have great difficulty in killing, and want the encouragement 
afforded by blood ; in such a case, a good killer may be desirable, 
but with no other object could I ever put down an old dog with a 
sapling. Before they are going to run in a stake, an old dog 
of known speed should be put in slips with the puppy, in order 
to arrive at a knowledge of the powers of the latter, but this 
is with a view to a trial, and not as part of the entering of 
the greyhound. WTien a sapling has rim enough hares to know 



FOXHOUNDS AND IIAKBIEBS. 245 

his work, and has killed a hare, or been present at the death of 
one, he may be put by as properly entered; and the number 
required will average about five or six — more or less according 
to the cleverness of the particular animal, which will generally 
depend upon his breed. 

The deerJiQund is entered at his game on the same principles a? 
the greyhound, but as red deer are more scarce than hares it 
requires more time. It is always better to sUpJiim with an older 
companion, but beyond this precaution everything must be left to 
his natural sagacity. As his nose is to be brought into play, and 
as he may possibly cross the scent of hares or other game, he must 
be made steady from all " riot," and, if possible, should be taken up, 
in couples, to the death of a deer once or twice and ^' blooded," so as 
to make him understand the nature of the scent. His instinctive 
fondness for it will, however, generally serve him without this, 
but the precaution is a good one, and may save some trouble and 
risk. He will not do much in aid of his older companion in 
hunting the animal he is slipped at, but when "at bay" he is 
soon encouraged by example to go in and afford his help, and this 
is the time when a second deerhound is chiefly wanted. 



THE ENTERING OF FOXHOUNDS AND HARRIERS. 

The first thing to be done with hoimd puppies, when they come 
into kennel, is to get them used to their new masters and to their 

R 3 



246 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

names, wliich ought to have been given them " at walk." For some 
little time the puppy often refuses to be reconciled to its confine- 
ment in his new home, and sulks by himself in a comer, refusing 
to eat and to follow his feeder or himtsman. This, however, soon 
goes off; but till it does there is no use in attempting to do anything 
with the dog. When the puppies are quite at home they may be 
taken out • by the feeder, at first in couples, and then by degrees 
removing these and allowing them to nm free. For some time it 
will be prudent to take only six or seven couples at a time, as 
when any " riot " makes its appearance there is enough to do even 
with this number, and more would be quite unmanageable. Indeed 
the huntsman will do well to take out only a couple or two at a 
time into the paddock with him, till they are thoroughly accus- 
tomed to his voice, and have found out that he must be obeyed. 
As soon as they are tractable on the road, they may be walked 
among sheep and deer, where they should at first all be in couples, 
and then only one or two should be loosed at a time ; but before 
long the whole pack should be accustomed to resist the temptation, 
till which time they are unfit to be entered. It is also highly 
necessary that foxhounds should in the same way be broken 
from hare and rabbit ; but too much must not be attempted with 
them until they are entered to fox, as their spu-it and dash would 
be discouraged, if the whip or rate were always being used without 
the counter-cheer in favour of some kind of game. 

All hounds require daily exercise, without which they cannot 
be preserved in health, nor can their high spirits be controlled, as 
if they are not exercised they will be always requiring the whip. 



FOXHOUNDS AND HARRIERS. 247 

If, however, the huntsman takes them out daily in the morning 
on the road, which hardens their feet, and in the evening in the 
paddock, they are so orderly that anything may be done with 
them. For this purpose the men should be mounted in the morn- 
ing, but in the evening they may be on foot. 

Cub-kunting, which is the name given to the process by which 
young hounds are entered, begins in August as soon as the 
com is .cut, and the time will therefore vary with the season 
and the country. In some places, as in the New Forest for 
instance, it may be carried on at any time, but this month is early 
enough. It is better to take out the old hounds once or twice 
till they have recovered their summer idleness, as a good example 
is everything to the yoimg hound. When the yoimg entry are to 
be brought out, it is very desirable to find as quickly as possible, 
and some cautious huntsmen go so far as to keep them coupled 
till the old hounds have found their fox ; but if they have been 
made steady from ** riot " there is no occasion for this. If, however, 
they have never been rated for '* riot," there is no great harm in 
their hunting hare or anything else at first, till they know what 
they ought to do ; after which they must be rigidly kept to their 
game. But cub-hunting is not solely intended to break in and 
" enter " the hound, it has also for its object to disperse the foxes 
from the large woodlands which form their chief holds in all 
countries ; and, as these cannot show good sport during the season, 
they are well routed before it commences, to drive the foxes into 
smaller coverts, while at the same time the hounds may be ren- 
dered steady, and by practice enabled to work their fox. Very often 

R 4 



248 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

the master \vill take advantage of an opportunity to have a nice 
little burst to himself; and, if the hounds are not made to hustle 
the foxes through the large woodlands^ good after sport cannot be 
expected. Independently of the above object, cub-hunting is prac- 
tised in August, September, and October, firstly, in order to give 
the young hounds blood, which they can obtain easily firom a litter 
of fat cubs ; secondly, to break them from " riotj" while they are 
encouraged to hunt their own game ; and, thirdly, to endeavour to 
break them of simdry faults, such as skirting, &c. ; or, if apparently 
incurable, to draft them at once. These objects are generally 
attained by the end of October, when the regular season begins. 

Harriers and beagles are entered to hare on the same principle, 
the scent of the fox and deer, as well as that of the rabbit, being 
" riot " to them, and strictly prohibited. Otterhaunds also have 
exactly the same kind of entry, although the element they work 
in is of a di£ferent character. 



THE BREAKING OF THE POINTER AND SETTER. 

The following observations on the breaking of these dogs 
appeared in " The Field," during the spring of 1858, and are be- 
lieved to embody the general practice of good breakers : — 

As the method is the same for each kind, whenever the word 
pointer is used, it is to be understood as applying equally to 
the setter. 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 249 

It is scarcely necessary for me to remark that no single life 
would suffice to bring the art of breaking dogs to all the per^ 
fection of which it is capable, when the various improvements 
of succeeding generations are handed down from one to the other ; 
and therefore I neither pretend to be the inventor of any me- 
thod here detailed, nor do I claim any peculiarity as my own. 
All the plans of teaching the young dog that will be found 
described by me are practised by most good breakers ; so that 
there will be nothing to be met with in my remarks but what 
is well known to them. Nevertheless, they ai*e not generally 
known; and there are many good shots who are now entirely 
dependent upon dog- dealers for the supply of their kennels, 
and who yet would infinitely prefer to break their own dogs, 
if they only knew how to set about it. Others, again, cannot 
afford the large sum which a highly accomplished brace of 
pointers or setters are worth in the market; and these gentle- 
men would far rather obtain two or three good puppies and 
break them with their own hands, with expenditure of little 
more than time, than put up with the wretchedly broken ani- 
mals which are offered for sale by the dozen at the com- 
mencement of every shooting season. To make the utmost of 
ai^y dog requires great experience and tact, and therefore the 
ordinary sportsman, however ardent he may be, can scarcely 
expect his dogs to attain this amount of perfection; but by 
attending to the following instructions, which will be given in 
plain language, he may fairly hope to turn out a brace of dogs 
far above the average of those belonging to his neighbours. 



250 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

One advantage he will assuredly have when he begins the actual 
war against the birds in September, namely, that his dogs will 
cheerfully work for him, and will be obedient to his orders ; but 
at the same time he must not expect that they will behave as 
well then as they did when he considered their education com- 
plete in the previous April or May. No one who values ** the 
bag" above the performance of his dogs will take a young 
pointer into the field at all, till he has been shot over for 
some time by a man who makes it his business to break dogs, 
and who is not himself over-excited by the sport. It is asto- 
nishing what a difference is seen in the behaviour of the young 
dog when he begins to see game falling to the gun. He niay 
go out with all the steadiness which he had acquired by two 
months' drilling in the spring; but more frequently he will have 
forgotten all about it, unless he is well himted in the week 
previous to the opening of the campaign. But no sooner has 
he found his birds or backed his fellow-pointer, and this good 
behaviour has been followed by the report of the gun, heard 
now almost for the first time, and by the fall of a bird or two 
within a short distance, than he becomes wild with excitement, 
and, trying to rival the gun in destructiveness, he runs into 
his birds, or plays some other trick almost equally worthy of 
punishment. For this there is no remedy but patience and 
plenty of hard work, as we shall presently find; and I only 
mention it here, in order that my readers may not undertake 
the task without knowing all its disagreeables as well as the 
advantages attending upon it. 



POINTERS AND SETTERS, 251 

Supposing, therefore, that a gentleman has determined to break 
a brace of pointers for his own use, without assistance from a 
keeper^ let us now consider how he should set about it, 

In the first place, let him procure his puppies of a breed in 
which he can have confidence. He will do well to secure a 
brace and a half, to guard against accidents or defects in growth. 
Let these be well reared up to the end of January, or, in fact, 
imtil the birds are paired and will lie welly whatever that time 
may be. They should be fed as directed in the last chapter. 
A few bones should be given daily, but little flesh, as the nose 
is certainly injuriously afifected by this kind of food ; and without 
attention to his health, so as to give the dog every chance of 
finding his game, it is useless to attempt to break him. The 
puppies should either be reared at full liberty at a good walk, 
or they should have an airy yard, and should then be walked out 
daily, taking care to make them know their names at a very 
early age, and teaching them instant obedience to every order, 
without breaking their spirit. Here great patience and tact are 
required; but, by the owner walking them out himself two or 
three times a week and making them fond of him, a little severity 
has no injurious effect. In crossing fields the puppies should 
never be allowed to " break fence," even if the gates are open, 
but should be called back the moment they attempt to do so. 
These points are of great importance, and by attending to them 
half the diflBculty of breaking is got over; for, if the puppy is 
early taught obedience, you have only to let him know what he is 
required to do, and he does it as a matter of course. So also the 



252 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

master should accustom his puppies from the earliest age to place 
a restraint upon their appetites when ordered to do so ; and if he 
will provide himself with pieces of biscuit and will place them 
within reach of the dog, whilst he prevents his taking them by the 
voice only, he will greatly aid the object he has in view. Many 
breakers carry this practice so far as to place a dainty morsel on 
the ground before the dog when hungry, and use the word "Toho'* 
to restrain him ; but this, though perhaps hereafter useful when 
inclined to run in upon game, is by no means an immixed good, 
as the desire for game in a well-bred dog is much greater than 
the appetite for food, unless the stomach has long been deprived 
of it. 

Besides these lessons prior to breaking, it will be well to teach 
the dog to come to heel, and to keep there, also to run forward at 
the word of command, to lie down when ordered, and to remain 
down. All these several orders should be accompanied by the 
appropriate words afterwards used in the field, viz. 

WORDS OF COMMAND USED TO THE POINTER AND SETTER. 

1. To avoid breaking fence — "Ware fence." 

2. To come back from chasing cats, poultry, hares, &c. — " Ware 
chase." 

3. To come to heel, and remain there — " To heel," or " Heel." 

4. To gallop forward — "Hold up." 

5. To lie down — "Down," or "Down charge." 

6. To abstain from taking food placed near, equally applied to 
nmning in to birds — " Toho." 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 253 

When these orders are cheerfully and instantly complied with 
by the puppy, it will be time to take him into the field, but not 
till then. Many breakers during this period accustom their dogs 
to the report of the gun, by firing a pistol ofiF occasionally while 
they are a short distance off, and in a way so as not to alarm 
them. This is all very well, and may prevent all danger of a 
dog becoming "shy of the gun;" but ^vith a well-bred puppy, 
properly reared, and not confined too much so as to make him 
shy in other respects, such a fault will seldom occur. Never- 
theless, as it does sometimes show itself, from some cause or other, 
the above precaution, as it costs little trouble or expense, is 
not to be objected to. It is also advantageous to accustom the 
dog to drop when the pistol is discharged, and, if he is of high 
courage, he may be drilled to this so effectually that he never 
forgets it. By the aid of a " check cord,** wherever the dog is 
when the pistol is discharged, he is suddenly brought up and 
made to drop with the command ^' Down charge ; " and in process 
of time he associates one with the other, so that whenever he 
hears a gun he drops in an instant. Timid dogs may however 
be made shy in this way, and, unless the puppy is evidently of 
high courage, it is a dangerous expedient to resort to ; as, instead 
of making the dog, it may mar him for ever. 

Next comes the teaching to " range," which is about the most 
difficult part of breaking. Many sportsmen who have shot all 
their lives are not aware of the extent to which this may be, 
and indeed ought to be, carried ; and are quite content if their 
dogs "potter" about where they like, and find game anyhow- 



254 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

But the real lover of the dog, who understands his capabilities, 
knows that for perfect ranging the whole field ought to be beaten 
systematically, and in such a way as to reach all parts in succes- 
sion, the dog being always as near to the gun as is consistent 
with the nature of the ground, the walking powers of the man, 
and the degree of wildness of the game. All these varying points 
of detail in the management of the dog while beating his ground 
will, however, be better considered at a future stage of the 
inquiry ; so that at present, taking it for granted that what I have 
assumed is the real desideratum <, we will proceed to inquire how 
this mode of ranging is best taught. It must be understood 
that what we want is, — first, that the puppy should hunt freely, 
which soon comes if he is well bred ; secondly, that he should 
range only where he is ordered, and that he should always be on 
the look-out for his master's hand or whistle to direct him. 
This also is greatly dependent on breed, some dogs being naturally 
wilful, while others from their birth are dependent upon their 
master, and readily do what they are desired. Thirdly, great 
pains must be taken to keep the puppy from depending upon 
any other dog and following him in his line, and also from "pot- 
tering,** or dwelling on " the foot-scent," which, again, is a great 
deal owing to' defective blood. Now, then, how are these points 
to be attained? By a reference to the annexed diagram, the 
principle upon which two dogs should beat their ground is laid 
down; the dotted line a a a a representing the beat of one, 
and the plain line hhhh that of the other dog. But, with a raw 
puppy, it is useless to expect him to go oflf to the right while 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 



255 



his fellow proceeds to the left, as they afterwards must do if they 
perform their duty properly ; but, taking an old dog into a field 
with the puppy, the former is started off with the ordinary words 
"Hold up" in either line laid down, which, being properly 




broken, he proceeds to follow out, accompanied by the puppy, 
who does not at all imderstand what he is about Presently the 
old dog " finds," and very probably the young one goes on and 



256 BREAKING AND £NT£1UNG. 

puts up the birds, to the intense disgust of his elder companion, 
but to his own great delight, as shown by his appreciation of the 
scent, and by chasing his game till out of sight. At the 
present stage of breaking, the puppy should by no means be 
checked for this, as he knows no better, and the great object is 
to give him zest for the work, not to make him dislike it; so 
that, even if he runs in to half a dozen pairs of birds, it will 
do him no harm, however jealous it may make the old dog. As 
soon, however, as the young one seems decidedly inclined to 
go to work by himself, take up the old dog, and hunt the young 
one till he is thoroughly tired or till he begins to point, which 
he ^vill often do before that time arrives if he is well enough 
bred. At first, when he comes upon a scent, he will stop in a 
hesitating way, then draw rapidly up and flush his birds, chasing 
them as before; but gradually, as he tires, he gains steadiness, and, 
after a time, he assumes the firm attitude of the true pointer 
or setter, though this is seldom shown in perfection for the first 
two or three days. Let it be clearly understood, that the 
present lesson is solely with a view to teach the range, steadiness 
in the point being at first quite subordinate to this quality, though 
in well-bred dogs it may often be taught at the same time. 
Hundreds of puppies are iiTetrievably spoiled by attempting to 
begin with teaching them to stand, when, by undue hardship and 
severity, their relish for hunting or beating the ground is 
destroyed ; and they are never made to do this part of the work 
well, although their noses are good enough when they come upon 
game, and they stand for a week if allowed to do so. Keep to 



POINTEES AND SETTERS. 257 

the one object till the puppy will beat his ground as shown in the 
diagram, at first single-handed, and then crossing it with another 
dog ; but it seldom answers to use two together until steadiness 
at "the point" is attained, as there are few old dogs which will 
beat their ground properly long together when they find that 
they are worked with a yoimg one which is constantly flushing 
his birds or committing some other faux pas. For these reasons 
it is better to work the young ones at first singly, that is, as 
soon as they will work ; and then, after they range freely and 
work to the hand and whistle, turning to the right or left, 
forwards or backwards, at the slightest wave of the hand, and 
when they also begin to point, it is time enough to *' hunt them 
double." 

In order to complete the education of the pointer in ranging 
or beating his grouiuly it is not only necessary that he should 
" quarter " it, as it is called, according to the method inculcated 
at page 254 et aeq., but that he should do it with every advantage 
of the wind, and also without losing time by dwelling on a false 
scent, and, above all, avoiding such careless work as to put up 
game without standing to a point at all. I have before explained 
the principle upon which a field is to be " quartered," and de- 
scribed the way in which the dog is to be set to do his work 
by the hand and voice, aided by the whistle. As a general rule, 
pointers find their game by the scent being blown to them 
from the hody^ constituting what is called a "body-scent," 
and not from that left by the foot on the groimd, which is 
called a ^^ footHScent." Hence it is desirable in all cases to 

s 



258 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

give the dog the wind, that is to say, to beat up towards 
the wind's eye; and therefore the breaker will put his dogs 
to work in that direction ; and then, though they do not always 
beat directly towards the wind, yet they have it blowing from 
the game towards them in each of their crossings. (See diagram 
on p. 255.) But suppose, as it sometimes happens, that the 
sportsman cannot well do this, as when birds are likely to l)e 
on the edge of a manor, with the wind blowing on to it from 
that over which he has no right of shooting ; — here, if he gave 
his dog the wind in the usual way, he would drive all the birds 
oflf his own beat ; and, to avoid this, he begins at the edge of it, 
and makes his pointers (if they are well enough broken) leave 
him and go up the other side to the far end of the field (if 
not too long), and then beat towards him in the usual way. It 
is true that the necessity for this kind of beating does not often 
occur;- but sometimes a considerable number of shots are lost 
for want of teaching it, and the perfect dog should imderstand it 
thoroughly. When, therefore, the puppy has learnt to range 
in the ordinary way, and will work to the hand well, as before 
described, give him a lesson in this kind of beating; and, if 
any difficulty occurs, send a boy to lead him imtil he is far 
enough away, and then let the biped loose his charge, first 
catching the dog's eye yourself, so as to make him aware that 
you are the person he is to range to. In a few lessons he soon 
begins to find out the object of this departure from the usual 
plan, and by a little perseverance he will, of his own accord, 
when he finds he has not got the wind, work so as to make a 



POINTEES AND SETTERS. 259 

circuit and get it for himself. Nevertheless, a good dog, who 
lias a Tnaster as good as hiviaeify should always wait for orders, 
but there is always some excuse for very clever ones becoming 
headstrong when they are constantly misdirected. Let me again 
repeat what I have observed on the importance of teaching, at 
first, the correct mode of quartering the ground, and of per- 
severing (without regard to standing or pointing) in the lessons 
on this subject alone, until the puppy is tolerably perfect in 
them. At the same time it is true that some little attention 
may be paid to the "point;" but this is of far less conse- 
quence at the early stage which we are now considering. In- 
deed, in most well-bred dogs, it comes naturally; but none 
beat to the hand without an education in that particular depart- 
ment. 

But at this stage it will be frequently needful to correct 
vari&as faults which are apt to show themselves in young dogs, 
such as (1) "hunting too low," leading to "pottering or dwell- 
ing on the foot-scent ; " (2) hunting too wide from the breaker ; 
and (3) " blinking," or leaving the game as soon as found, which 
last is a fault depending on imdue previous severity. With 
regard to the first of them, there is, unfortunately, no certain 
remedy for it ; and the puppy which shows it to any great ex- 
tent after a week or ten days' breaking will seldom be good 
for much, in spite of all the skill and trouble which an expe- 
rienced breaker can apply. The method of cure most commonly 
adopted is that called himting with a *^ puzzle-peg " on, which 
is shown applied in the annexed cut. It consists of a piece of 

8 2 



BHEAKING AND ENTBIUNO. 



strong wood, Buch as ash or oak, attached to the neck by a 
leather collar, and to the jaw by a string tied jtist behind the 
tufikfi or canine teeth, so as to constitute a firm projection in 
continuation of the lower jaw; and, as it extends from six to 




nine inches beyond it, the d(^ cannot put his nose nearer to 
the ground than that amount of projection will allow of. The 
young dog should be well accustomed to it in kennel and in 
the field, before he is bunted in it; for when it is put on for 
the first time it inevitably "cows" him so much as to stop all 
disposition to range ; but by putting it on him for an hour or 
two daily while he is at liberty and not expected to hunt, he 
soon becomes tolerably reconciled to it, and will set off on hia 
range when ordered or allowed. With it on, a foot-scent can 
seldom be made out, unless pretty strong; but, at all erenta. 



POINTEIIS AND SETTERS. 261 

the dog does not stoop to make it out in that spaniel-like style 
which occasions its adoption. Nevertheless, when it is left oflF, 
the old tendency to stoop most frequently reappears, more or 
less, and the sportsman finds that all his care has been thrown 
away. Still I have known it cure this fault, and if it fails I 
have no other suggestion to offer but sixpennyworth of cord or 
*'a hole in the water." If used at all, it must be kept on for 
many days together, that is to say, while at work, and when 
left oflf it should be occasionally reapplied if the dog shows the 
slightest tendency to put his nose down, or dwell on the scent 
where birds have been rising or have " gone away." I may 
here remark that " false pointing " is altogether diflferent from 
this low hunting, though often coupled with it; but this we 
shall come to after describing the nature of, and mode of teach- 
ing, that part of the pointer's education. There is a wonderful 
faculty in some breeds of feeling a body-scent at long distances, 
while they have no perception of the foot-scent, and this is the 
quality which ought to be most highly prized in the pointer 
or setter, imless he is also wanted to retrieve, in which latter 
case such a nose will be found to be defective. But of this also 
we shall come to a more close imderstanding in a future part 
of this inquiry. In addition to the use of the ** puzzle-peg," — 
which should only be resorted to in extreme cases, and even in them 
is, as I before remarked, of doubtful utility, — the voice should 
be used to cheer the dog when he dwells on the scent too long, 
or carries his nose too low. ** Hold up 1 " may be cried in a 
cheering way, and the dog encouraged with the hand waved 

I 3 



262 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

forward as well. Colonel Hutchinson recommends the previous 
inculcation of the perception of heighfy — in fact, to make the 
dog understand that you mean, when you use the word ** Up," 
that he should raise his head. But this is a refinement in 
dog-breaking which possibly may be carried out, yet which, I 
confess, I think practically inoperative. Few of us would like 
to teach our hacks to lift their knees, by giving them to under- 
stand the nature of height, and then telling them to lift them. 
We should certainly find it much more simple to select hacks 
with good action, or to breed them even, rather than to convert 
our colt-breakers into circus-men. If there were no other method 
of attaining the object, by all means adopt it; but, when a 
far easier one is at hand, I should certainly select it in pre- 
ference. Nevertheless, it may serve to prove the teachableness 
of the dog; and, knowing the extent to which his education 
may be carried by patience and perseverance, I have no doubt 
that Colonel Hutchinson's plan is capable of execution, if the 
time and trouble necessary for it were properly remimerated. 
But we must now proceed to the second fault, which consists 
in ranging too far from the breaker. This may readily be 
cured, either by compelling attention to the hand and voice, 
with the aid of the whip in bad cases; or by attaching to the 
dog's collar a long cord, which is then suffered to trail on the 
ground, or is held in the hand of the breaker when the dog is 
very wild. Twenty, thirty, or at most forty, yards of a small 
box-cord will suffice for this purpose, and will soon tire down 
the strongest and most unruly dog. Indeed, an application of 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 263 

it for a short time will make many dogs give in entirely; but 
some high-couraged ones, and setters especially, will per- 
severe with it on till they are fairly exhausted. This " check- 
cord," as it is called, is also necessary in some dogs, to perfect their 
education in other respects, and, indeed, is chiefly wanted at a 
later period of breaking, not being often required at this stage. 

Having described the mode of teaching pointers and setters 
to beat their groimd, I have now to consider the best modes of 
teaching them (1) to point, set, or stand (which are different 
names for the same act), (2) to back, (3) to down charge, (4) 
to retrieve, if considered desirable, and (5) how to remedy certain 
faults, such as blinking, &c. 

Pointing^ setting, or standing is taught as follows. It will, of 
course, be discovered in practice that, in teaching the range, most 
dogs begin to point, and nineteen out of twenty, if well-bred, 
become steady enough, without the gun, before they are perfect 
in the proper mode of beating their groimd. For these, then, it 
is unnecessary to describe any other means of teaching their trade; 
but there are some few exceptions, in which, even after a fort- 
night's work, the dog is still deficient in this essential, and, though 
he beats his ground in ever so perfect a manner and finds his birds 
well enough, yet he invariably runs them up, sometimes with great 
zest and impudent disregard of his breaker, and at others with 
evident fear of the consequences. Here, then, something more 
must be done, and it is eflFected by taking the young dog out with 
a steady companion and hunting them together; then, keeping 
the old dog within forty yards, let him, if possible, be the one to 

8 4 



264 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

find, and take care to walk up to him before the young one comes 
up, which he is sure to do as soon as he catches his eye on the 
point Now use your voice in a severe but low tone to stop him; 
and, as he has been accustomed to halt with the word "Toho!" he 
will at once do so, generally standing in a cautious attitude, at a 
distance varying with his fear of his breaker and the amount of 
courage which he possesses. If the birds lie close, let him draw 
up and get the scent ; and the excitement will then be so great^ 
that, if he is under sufficient command to be held in check by 
the "Toho!" he will be sure to assume the rigid condition cha- 
racteristic of his breed. Now go quietly up to him, pat him, and 
encourage him, but in such a tone as to prevent his running in, 
— still using the " Toho ! good dog ; toho 1 " — and keeping him 
for a few minutes where he is, so long as he can scent his birds, 
which he shows by champing and frothing at the mouth. After 
the lapse of this time, walk quietly forward, keeping your eye on 
him, and still restraining him with the " Toho," put up the birds, 
and then, if possible, make him drop with the words **Down 
charge I " the meaning of which he has already been taught. 
But, if he is very wild and of high courage do not attempt 
this at first, as it is better to proceed step by step, and to 
teach each department thoroughly before another is commenced* 
In this way, by perseverance and hard work (which last is 
the keystone of the breaker's arch), any dog, whether -of 
the special breeds used for the purpose or not, may be made 
to point when he finds game; but none but the pointer and 
setter become rigid or cataleptic, a peculiarity which is con- 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 265 

fined to them. In very high-couraged dogs a check-cord, thirty 
or forty yards in length, is sometimes suflfered to trail on the 
ground, or is held by the breaker, so as to assist the voice in 
stopping the dog when he is wanted to make his stand ; but the 
cases where this is wanted are so rare as scarcely to require any 
allusion to it, if the breaker is sufficiently industrious to give 
work enough to his charge. This part of the education is gene- 
rally eflfected in a couple of lessons, without trouble, and, indeed, 
the young dog often points steadily enough at the first or second 
scenting of game. 

Backing, — >Mien a dog has acquired the merely instinctive 
property already described, he is said to be ** steady before," and 
may be used cUone or single-handed without any further edu- 
cation ; but when he is to be hunted with other dogs he requires 
to be made ** steady behind," that is to say, he must be taught 
to "back" another dog as the latter stands. In very high-bred 
dogs this property, like the former, is developed very early; but 
the more hardy and courageous the breed, the longer they gene- 
rally are in acquiring it, and therefore the young breaker should 
not be discouraged if he finds that his puppies give him some 
trouble after they have learnt to stand perfectly steady. Backing 
is usually taught in the same way as described for standing, 
that is to say, by hunting with an old steady dog, taJdng care that 
he is one whose find is to be depended on^ and then stopping the 
young one with the voice and hand, or with the aid of a check- 
cord if necessary. The great art consists here in managing to 
get between the two dogs at the moment when the old one stands. 



266 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

and thus to be able to face the puppy as he rushes up to share 
the scent with his rivals which he at first considers his companion 
to be. Jealousy is a natural feeling in all dogs^ from their desire 
to obtain approbation; but it must be eradicated in the pointer 
and setter, or they never become steady together, and whichever 
finds first the other tries to run up and take the point from him. 
To avoid this failing, leave the dog which first finds alone, and 
walk up to the one which you have stopped, pat and encourage 
him with the word "Toho!" in a low but pleased tone; let him 
not on any account creep forward a step, but keep him exactly 
where he is for some minutes, if the birds lie well. Then walk 
forward to the old dog, but take no notice of him, and, with your 
eye still on the puppy, put up the birds, having stopped him with 
voice and hand if he moves a limb. Supposing the old dog has 
pointed falsely, the young one is materially injured, inasmuch as 
he has lost confidence in him, and next time he is with more 
difficulty restrained for running in to judge for himself; hence 
the necessity for a good nose in the old dog, who ought to be very 
steady and perfect in all respects. It will thus be seen that very 
little art is required in carrjring out this part of the education, 
which really demands only hard walking, patience, and perseve- 
rance to complete it in the most satisfactory manner. It should 
be pursued day after day, till the young dog not only finds game 
for himself and stands quite steadily, but also backs his fellows 
at any distance, and without drawing towards them a single step 
after he sees them at point. When this desirable consummation 
is effected to such an extent that the puppy will back even a 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 267 

strange dog, and has already learnt to beat his ground properly, 
as explained in my previous remarks, he is steady and well broken 
as he can be without the gun, and may be thrown by until a 
fortnight before the shooting season, when he ought to be taken 
out again for two or three days, as in the interval he will gene- 
rally have lost some of his steadiness. Still he will only require 
work to restore it, as he knows what he ought to do; and with 
patience, joined if necessary with a little punishment, he soon 
reacquires all that he had forgotten. Many masters now fancy 
that all is done towards "making the pointer:" but, on the con- 
trary, they find that after birds are killed the puppy which was 
previously steady becomes wild and ungovernable, and spoils the 
day's shooting by all sorts of bad behaviour. Hence it is that 
breakers so often are blamed without cause; but when it is found 
by experience that such conduct is the rule, and not the exception, 
young dogs are left by their owners to be shot over by a keeper 
for a few days, or even longer, before they are taken into the 
field. Another reason for this wildness may be assigned; namely, 
the dogs are often hunted in the commencement of the season 
by almost perfect strangers, two or three guns together; whereas, 
if their breaker had the management, they would be under much 
more control, and especially if he went out quietly by himself. 
Here again is another reason for gentlemen breaking their own 
dogs, or, at all events, finishing their education by giving their 
dogs and themadvea a few lessons together. 

Down cliargCy as already described, ought to be taught from 
a very early period, the dog being made to drop at the word 



268 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

or elevation of the hand of his master, without the slightest 
hesitation. It is not, therefore, necessary to dwell upon this 
part of his education, further than to remark that after each 
point, or, indeed, directly after birds rise under any circumstances, 
the dog should be made to drop by the voice, using the order 
** Down charge 1 ** or by raising the hand if the eye of the dog 
can be cau^iht. When this practice is made habitual, there is 
little trouble in carrying out the order until the gun is added; 
but then it will be found that great patience and forbeai*ance 
are required to prevent the dog from running to his birds as 
they drop ; for, if this is allowed, it is sure to make him un- 
steady in every case as soon as his eye catches sight of game, 
whether after the point or not. It is now that the advantage 
of having made the dog drop to the gun is manifested, for the 
first thing he thinks of when the gun is fired is the necessity 
for dropping, and if this is encouraged all goes on well. Too 
often the shooter himself produces unsteadiness, by disregarding 
his dog at the moment when he ought to attend to him most 
particularly, and by running in himself to take care of his 
''bag" considering that more important than the steadiness of 
his dog. It is true that a runner is sometimes lost by the 
delay of a few seconds while the discharged barrel is reloaded ; 
but, in the long run, the shooter who keeps his dog down till 
he has loaded will bag the most game. 

The faults which chiefly require correction at this stage are 
blinking^ shying the gun, potteHng at the hedges, hunting too 
wide, and chasing fur. The vice of blinking has been caused 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 269 

by over-severity in punishment for chasing poultry, &c., and 
takes a great deal of time to remove. Indeed, until the dog 
sees game killed, he seldom loses the fear which has produced 
it. It is therefore frequently useless to continue the breaking 
in the spring, although such a dog sometimes becomes very 
useful by careful management in the shooting season. Generally 
speaking, it is occasioned by undue severity, either applied for 
chasing cats or poultry, or for chasing game when first hunted. 
The former kind of castigation should be very cautiously applied, 
as the puppy is very apt to associate the punishment given for 
the chasing of game with that due to the destruction of poultry 
or cats; and as he has been compelled to leave the latter by 
the use of the whip, and has been afterwards kept "at heel," 
so he thinks he must do so now, and in fear he comes there, 
and consequently "blinks his birds." This defect is only to be 
remedied by instilling confidence, and by avoiding punishment; 
but it is often one which gives great trouble before it is got 
over. It is not so bad as the obstinately refusing to work at 
all, but is only next to it. Both occur in dogs which are 
deficient in courage, and both require the most delicate and 
encouraging treatment to remove them. Let such dogs nm 
"riot," and commit any fault they like, without fear for a 
time; then afterwards (that is, when they begin to be quite 
bold, and are full of the zest for game) begin very cautiously 
to steady them, and something may yet be done. In very bad 
cases all attempts at breaking must be given up at " pairing time," 
and the gun must be relied on as a last resource, the killing of 



270 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

game having sometimes a wonderful effect in giving courage to 
a dog which has been depressed by undue correction. Punish- 
ment is not to be condemned altogether, for in some breeds and 
individuals without the whip nothing could be done; but it 
should be very cautiously applied, and the temper of each dog 
should be well studied in every case before it is adopted. 
Kindness will effect wonders, especially where united with firm- 
ness, and with a persevering determination to compel obedience 
somehow : but, if that " how " can be effected without the whip, 
so much the better; still, if it cannot, the rod must not be 
spared, and, if used at all, it should be used sufficiently. 

Shyness of the gun will generally also go off in time ; but, as 
it seldom occurs except in very timid and nervous dogs, they 
do not often become very useful even when they have lost it. 
The best plan is to lead a shy dog quietly behind the shooters, 
and not to give him an opportunity of running off, which he 
generally does on the first discharge. When game falls, lead 
him up and let him mouth it ; and thus, in course of time, he 
connects cause with effect, and loses that fear of the report, 
which he finds is followed by a result that gives him the plea- 
sure of scenting fresh blood. 

PotteHng at the hedges in partridge-shooting is the result 
of using dogs to find rabbits, or of allowing them to look for 
them, which they always are ready to do, especially if permitted 
to chase or even to retrieve hares. There is no remedy for it, 
and a potterer of this kind is utterly worthless and irreclaimable. 

Hunting too wide for close partridge-shooting may be easily 



BREAKING TO RETRIEVE. 271 

remedied by constantly keeping in the dog by the whistle and 
hand ; and, if he has been properly taught to range at command, 
little trouble is required in making him change from the wide 
beat, necessary in countries where game is scarce, to the con- 
fined and limited range of sixty yards, which is best where it 
is thick on the ground. 

Cha8in{/ fur, and also running in to dead birds, are often most 
unmanageable vices ; but either can generally be cured by pa- 
tience and severe treatment, aided if necessary by the check-cord, 
or in very bad cases by the spike-collar in addition. "WTien these 
are used it is only necessary to work the dog with them on, the 
cord either trailing loosely on the ground or held in an assistant's 
hand. Then, the moment the dog runs in, check him severely, 
and, if he is not very bold, the plain collar will suflSce, as it 
may be made by a shaip jerk to throw him back, to his great 
annoyance; but the spike-collar pimishes far more, and if it is 
used will soon give the dog cause to leave oflF his malpractices. 



BREAKING TO RETRIEVE. 

Retrieving, in my opinion, should be invariably committed 
to a dog specially kept for that piurpose ; but, as this is not the 
universal practice, it will be necessary to say a few words on this 
subject. "WTien pointers or setters are broken to retrieve, in 
addition to those qualities peculiar to them they should always 



272 BBEARING AND ENTERING. 

be so much under command as to wait ^^down charge^'' until 
they are ordered on by the words " Seek dead ; " when they at 
once go up to the place where they saw their game drop, and, 
taking up the scent, foot it till they find it. Some breeds have 
no nose for a foot-scent, and, if ordered to " seek dead," will beat 
for the body-scent as they would for a single bird ; and, when 
they come upon the lost bird, they "peg" it with a steady point 
in the same way. This does not injure the dog nearly so much 
as the working out a runner by the foot-scent ; but a retrieving 
pointer of this kind is of little use for any but a badly wounded 
bird which has not run far. Few pointers and setters will 
carry game far, nor indeed is it worth while to spend much time 
on teaching them to do so ; and when they are set to retrieve 
it is better to follow them, and help them in their search, so as 
to avoid all necessity for developing the " fetch and carry " quality 
which in the genuine retriever is so valuable. But it is chiefly 
for wounded hares or running pheasants that such a retriever 
is required; and as the former spoil a pointer or setter, and 
are sure to make him unsteady if he is allowed to hunt them, 
it is desirable to keep clear of the position altogether, while 
pheasants are so rarely killed to these dogs that their retrieval 
by them need not be considered. 

The regular land retriever requires a much more careful 
education, inasmuch as he is wanted to abstain from hunting, 
and from his own especial duties excepting when ordered to 
commence. The breed generally used is the cross of the New- 
foundland with the setter or water-spaniel, but^ as I have described 



BREAKING TO RETRIEVE. 273 

at page 158, other breeds are equally useful. . In educating these 
dogs they should be undertaken at a very early age, as it is 
almost impossible to insure perfect obedience at a later period. 
The disposition to "fetch and carry,** which is the essence of 
retrieving, is very early developed in these dogs, and without it 
there is little chance of making a puppy perfect in his vocation. 
Young dogs of this breed will be seen carrying sticks about, 
and watching for their master to throw them, that they may fetch 
them to him. This fondness for the amusement should be 
encouraged, to a certain extent, almost daily, but not so far as to 
tire and disgust the dog, and care should always be taken that 
he does not tear or bite the object which he has in charge. 
On no account should it be dragged from his mouth, but he 
should be ordered to drop it on the ground at the feet of his 
master, or to release it directly it is laid hold of. The con- 
sequence of pulling anything out of the young retriever's mouth 
is that he becomes " hard bitten," as it is called ; and, when he 
retrieves a wounded bird, he makes his teeth meet, and mangles 
it so much that it is utterly useless. A dog which is not 
naturally inclined to retrieve may be made so by encouraging 
him to pull at a handkerchief or a stick; but such animals 
very seldom turn out well in this line, and it is far better to put 
them to some other task. As soon as the puppy has learnt 
to bring everything to his master when ordered, he may be taught 
to seek for trifling articles in long grass or other covert, such 
as bushes, &c. ; and, when he succeeds in this, get some young 
rabbits which ai*e hardly old enough to run, and hide one at a 

T 



274 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

time at a little distance, after trailing it throiigh the grass so 
as to imitate the natural progress of the animal when wounded. 
"WTien putting the young retriever on the scent at the commence- 
ment of the ** nm," let him puzzle it out till he finds the rabbit, 
and then make him bring it to his master without injuring 
it in the least. Encouragement should be given for success, 
and during the search the dog should have the notice of his master 
by the words "Seek I seek! seek dead!" &c. A perseverance 
in this kind of practice will soon make the dog very clever in 
tracing out the concealed rabbits, and in process of time he may 
be intrusted with the task of retrieving a wounded partridge 
or pheasant in actual shooting. But it is always a long time 
before the retriever becomes perfect, practice being all important 
to him. 

Many shooters use a slip for the retriever, the keeper leading 
him in it till he is wanted, which is a good plan when a keeper 
is always in attendance. In any case, however, these dogs 
should be made to drop "down charge,** as the gun may be 
used while they are at work, and if they are not broken to drop 
they become excited, and often flush other game before it is 
reloaded. 

The breaking of the Water-Sjpaniel or Retriever is also a 
complicated task, and, as he has to hunt in the water and on 
the banks, his duties are twofold. These dogs are used in the 
pimt as well as on the edge of the water, but, when the educa- 
tion is finished in the river, the pupil w^ill generally do what 
is wanted from the punt. As in the land retriever, so in this 



BREAKING TO RETRIEVE. 275 

variety, the first thing to be done is to get the puppy to " fetch 
and carry'' well; after which he may be introduced to "flappers" 
in July and August, when the water is warm, and he does not 
feel the ill effects and disagreeables attendant on a cold winter's 
day with a wet coat. The young birds are also slow and awkward 
in swimming and diving, so that every encouragement is afforded 
to the dog, and he may readily be induced to continue the 
sport, to which he is naturally inclined, for hom-s together. The 
chief difficulty at first is in breaking the water-spaniel from 
rats, which infest the banks of most streams, and which are 
apt to engage the attention of most dogs. The dog should be 
taught to beat to the hand, and, whenever a flapper is shot 
and falls in the water, then he must be encouraged to bring it 
to land without delay. No art must be neglected to induce him 
to do this, and, failing every other plan, the breaker must him- 
self enter the water; for, if the dog is once allowed to leave a 
duck behind him, he is much more difficult afterwards to break. 
Indeed, perseverance in the breaker is necessary at all times, 
to insure the same quality in the pupil. The object in teach- 
ing the range to hand to the spaniel is, because without this 
there will often be a difficulty in showing him where a bird lies 
in the water, the eye of the dog being so little above its level, 
and the bird very often so much immersed, that when there 
is the slightest ruffle he can scarcely see it a yard from his nose. 
As in all other cases, the water-retriever must be strictly "down 
charge," and he must be thoroughly steady and quiet at heel, 
or he will be sure to disturb the water-fowl when the shooter 

T 2 



276 BBEAKING AND ENTERING. 

is in ambush waiting for them. The slightest whine is fatal, 
and the dog should^ therefore, be taught to be as quiet as a 
mouse imtil ordered to move. 



THE ENTERING AND BREAKING OF THE COVERT SPANIEL. 

The breaking of all spaniels should be commenced as early 
as possible, as they are naturally impetuous, and require con- 
siderable restraint to keep them near enough to the shooter 
while they are at work. After teaching them the ordinary rules 
of obedience, such as to " come to heel," to " hold up," to drop 
**down charge," &c., which may all be done with the pistol 
and check-cord, aided if necessary by the spiked-collar, the 
next thing is to enter them to the game which they are intended 
to hunt. Generally it is the practice to use spaniels for phea- 
sants, cocks, and hares, disregarding rabbits, which take their 
chance with the shooter. The spaniel, therefore, is not expected 
to ** speak " to them, and if he can be induced to give a diflferent 
note at each of the three varieties above mentioned, he is all 
the more highly prized. These dogs are better taken out first 
into small coverts or hedgerows (provided there are not too 
many rabbits in the latter), as they are more under command 
here than in large woodlands; self-hunting should be strictly 
discouraged, that is to say, the dog should neither be allowed 
to hunt hy himself nor for himself, but should be made to 



TUE COVERT SPANIEL. 277 

understand that he is alwcays in aid of the gun, and that he 
must keep within shot. For this purpose spaniels must be 
taught not to press their game till the shooter is within range, 
which is one of the most difficult things to teach them. WTien 
they are to be kept exclusively for "feather," they must be 
stopped and rated as soon as it is discovered that they are speak- 
ing to "fiu*." This requires a long time, and therefore few 
spaniels are worth much till they have had one or two seasons' 
practice, from which circumstance it should not occasion surprise 
that a thoroughly broken Clumber spaniel fetches from 30 to 
40 guineas. Wlien they are too riotous and hunt too freely, 
these methods of sobering them are adopted : — 1st, to put on 
a collar, and slip one of the fore legs into it, which compels 
the dog to run on three only; 2ndly, to buckle a small strap, 
or tie a piece of tape tightly round the hind leg above the hock, 
by which that limb is rendered useless, and the dog haa to go 
upon three also ; and, 3rdly, to put on a collar loaded with shot. 
If either of the legs is fastened up, it must be occasionally 
changed, especially if the strap is adopted, as it cramps the 
muscles after a certain time, and, if persisted in too long, renders 
the dog lame for days afterwards. On the other hand, when 
the puppy is slack in hunting, put him on the scent of pheasants 
as they are going off their feed, when they generally run back 
into covert, and at that time the scent is very strong, especially 
in the evening. The birds soon rise into the trees, and after 
that are no longer disturbed by the dog. In hunting hedge- 
rows, the young dog should at first be kept on the same side as 

T 3 



278 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

the shooter^ so that his- movements may be watched; but^ as 
soon as he can be trusted, he should be sent through to the 
other side^ and made to drive his game towards the gun^ always 
taking care that the dog does not get out of shot. In first 
introducing a young dog to a large covert, he must be put down 
with a couple of old ones which are very steady; and, at the 
same time, he should have a shot-collar on, or one of his legs 
up. Without this precaution he will be sure to range too wide, 
and, if he gets on the scent of a hare, he will probably follow 
her all over the covert, to the entire destruction of the day's 
sport; but, by the above precautions, he is prevented doing 
this, and by imitating his fellows, he soon learns to keep within 
the proper distance. Here, as in all dogs intended for the gun, 
the great principle is to make them imderstand that it is the 
instrument of destruction, not themselves, and that it is only 
by paying proper attention to the gun that they can be ex- 
pected to succeed in obtaining game. In working spaniels in 
covert great quiet is desirable, as game will never come within 
distance of the shooter if they hear a noise proceeding firom 
him, and hence the constant encouragement to the dogs, which 
some sportsmen indulge in, is by no means necessary. If the 
spaniel is properly broken, he can hear his master as he passes 
through the underwood, and he will take care to drive the 
game towards him, while, if he is slack and idle, the voice does 
him little good, and prevents the only chance of getting a shot 
which might otherwise occur. In hattue shooting, spaniels, if 
employed, are in aid of the beaters, not of the shooters, most 



VERMIN DOGS. 279 

of whom do not even know the dogs' names, and the latter 
cannot, therefore, be expected to work to them; but as they 
go forward with the beaters in line, they must be kept from 
getting on too far, or they mil often drive game back. For 
this work, however, they do not require to be nearly so thoroughly 
broken as for hunting to the single shooter, for which purpose 
they must know him, and should in fact be broken by him. 



THE ENTERING AND BREAKING OF VERMIN DOGS. 

Terriers are entered to vermin with great facility, and require 
very little breaking, unless they are intended to be used with 
ferrets, when they must be broken to let these animals alone, as 
they are apt to make their appearance occasionally in passing 
from one hole to another. It is only necessary to let the ferret 
and the terrier be together in a yard or stable, cautioning the latter 
not to touch the former, for a few times, and the young dog soon 
learns to distinguish his friends from his foes. Some terriers are 
not hardy enough to brave the bites which they are liable to in 
ratting, &c., and, indeed, the true terrier without any cross of the 
bull-dog is a great coward, so that he is quite useless for the 
purpose. In such a case he must be encouraged by letting him 
kill young rats first, and as he gains confidence he will perhaps 
also increase in courage. If, however, the terrier is well bred, he 
will seldom want anything but practice. 

T 4 



280 



CHAPTER V. 

THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN COURSING, HUNTING, 

SHOOTING, ETC. 

Coursing. — Deerstalking. — Hunting. — Partridge- and Grouse- Shooting. — 
Snipe-Shooting. — Covert Shooting. — Wildfowl- Shooting. — Ferreting. 

PRIVATE COURSING. 

Between private and public coursing there is a considerable dif- 
ference, not only in the methods adopted, but also in the kind of 
greyhound most useful for each. In the first place, the private 
courser will not like the expense of rearing a fresh set of greyhoimds 
each year, but will expect them to last several seasons ; and hence 
speed and cleverness must to some extent be sacrificed to honesty, 
which is the sine qud non of the private greyhoimd, excepting 
for those who course for currant jelly purposes only. It is true 
that a cunning old dog, if fast and clever, will kill more hares 
than any other, but he will do it in a way to disgust every sports- 
man, and such an animal is not to be recommended on any 
account. If, therefore, the private courser regards the sport inde- 
pendently of the obtaining hares, he will see that his greyhounds 
combine as many good qualities as possible, with an amount of 
honesty which will carry them through three or four seasons 



PRIVATE COURSING. 281 

without lurching. These, however, are only now to be obtained 
from private sources, for every strain of public greyhounds with 
which I am acquainted will show a tendency to lurch after a 
couple of seasons, if used as much and as freely as the grey- 
hounds of most private coursers are expected to be. 

The feeding/ of these greyhounds should be on oatmeal porridge, 
with more or less wheat-flour or Indian meal, as described at page 
215, and flavoured with greaves, or with broth made from flesh 
of some kind. If half a pound a day, or rather more, of flesh 
can be given in addition, they will be so much the better, but 
in that case they ought to have a couple of hours' exercise every 
day, without which they become fat and unwieldy. Vegetables 
should be carefully given, as in all cases with dogs, and due at- 
tention should be paid to cleanliness. In fact there is no reason 
why the system adopted in the feeding of the public greyhound 
should not be fully carried out. TIte ajpoH of pt'ivate coursing 
may be conducted exactly on the same principles as public 
coursing, excepting that stakes are not usually run for, but in 
almost all cases the dogs are matched together, without which 
the sport is tame and iminteresting. The essence of coming 
is the competition between the two dogs engaged, that being the 
number which is considered fair to the hare, and coursing with 
more than two being by general consent stamped as poaching 
ever since the days of Arrian, A.D. 150. "WTien, therefore, grey- 
hounds are kept with this purpose, it promotes the object of 
sport if two or more gentlemen will meet together to run their 
dogs in competition mth one another; and, when this is done. 



282 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

there is often quite as much excitement produced as in the most 
important public meeting. But then there must be a person 
appointed to act as judge, for without this functionary there 
must be endless disputes as to the respective qualifications of the 
greyhounds engaged. With him, if he understands the points 
of the course, it is only necessary to conduct the beating of the 
ground properly, and to appoint a proper person to slip the 
greyhounds, and then everything is eii rhjle. 

In heating the ground^ when there are no gentlemen present 
on horseback, five or six beaters must be provided, whose task is 
somewhat onerous, if there is much ploughed land, especially in 
clay districts when wet. In any case, a line should be formed, 
with one person at every twenty yards, and then walking abreast 
from one extremity of the field to the other, so as either to find 
the hare sitting, or to put her up from her form. The proper 
direction of this line of beaters, so as to drive the hare in the best 
direction, requires some considerable experience and tact. Thus, 
when there is a covert near, the beat should be from it, so as to 
compel the hare to go in the opposite direction, by which a suffi- 
ciently long course is often insured, whereas otherwise she would 
be safe before she was well reached. At the end of this beat the 
men should return over the beaten giound, taking what is called 
a " dead beat," and then again beating from covert. \Mien the 
part of a field is beaten near the hedge, the line on that side 
should be extended forwards; and, if there is a horseman present^ he 
should walk up close to the hedge, thirty yards in front of the 
others, so as to prevent the hare at once running through it. Hares 



PUBLIC COURSING. . 283 

may often be driven out of turnips, clover, or small coverts, by a 
line of beaters driving them towards the dogs, which are held at a 
particular spot, and kept as much as possible out of sight. The 
slipper uses the same kind of slips as are adopted in public 
coursing, and slips his dogs in the same way, adapting, the length 
of- the slip allowed to the nature of the ground. It is a very bad 
plan to let the greyhounds run loose while the hare is looked for, as 
the two rarely st.u-t on even terms, and consequently they cannot be 
compared together. Unless, therefore, coursing is pursued solely 
to get the hare, slips are indispensable. 

When private coiu-sing is conducted in the above way, it is quite 
as good a sport as the public kind ; but too often it degenerates 
into a series of mobbings of the hare, followed by perpetual squab- 
blings of the owners of the dogs engaged, as to their respective 
merits or demerits. 



PUBLIC COURSING. 

This amusement has now become veiy general since the last 
alteration of the game laws, which permitted any person to course 
a hare without a certificate. It diflfers from private coursing, 
firstly, in requiring rather a different greyhound, and, secondly y in 
being governed strictly by rules which settle all the preliminaries. 

Tlie public greyhound , to be successful, must be a dog which 
can beat his competitors in the stake in which he is engaged, even 



284 EiMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

if he never runs afterwards respectably. Hence, unlike the dog 
which we have been just considering, everything is sacrificed to 
this point, and it has at last come to pass that the animal has 
been bred to such a degree of cleverness combined with speed 
that he very soon runs cunning, and is then no longer useful, 
because he will not exert his powers. The consequence is, that a 
great many dogs begin by running with extraordinary pace and 
working powers, but after winning one or two stakes they are not 
to be depended on. This is so common, that, as a rule, most 
coursers do not think it worth their while to keep their dogs for 
more than one season, and bring up a succession of puppies one 
year aft^r another, reserving only one or two old ones to their 
second season. It must be remembered that this animal is kept 
for a specific purpose, namely, to compete with his fellows in 
killing the hare uiuler certain conditions, ivhich are defined by 
general consent and laid down in certain specified i^les. Hence 
it is not the greyhound which will most certainly pull down his 
hare that is always to be prized, but he that will comply with 
these rules most fully in the act of running her, and will, in other 
words, score most points; and, in effecting this, four cardinal virtues 
must be combined as far as possible, consisting in speed, working 
power, bottom, and courage. It is almost impossible to obtain 
the fullest development of these several qualities in one individual, 
and therefore all that can be done is to sacrifice those which are 
of the least importance. Thus, excessive speed, as shown from 
the slips, is hardly consistent with a high degree of working 
power, or with a capability of lasting throughout a long course ; 



PUBLIC COURSING. 285 

and for this reason extremely fast dogs are not adapted to down 
countries, where the hares are not only stout but short in their 
turns. In some localities, however, where there is no room for a 
long course, or where the hares are weak, a fast dog, even if he is 
not stout, and probably even if he is a bad worker, will be able to 
win a stake ; but wherever the hares are good, and there is scope 
for them to display their powers, there must be both bottom and 
working power displayed in order to insure success. The best 
plan in breeding greyhounds is to obtain a brood bitch of stout 
blood and good working powers, combined with as much speed as 
possible, but still laying the most stress on the first two qualities, 
and then put her to a dog essentially fast, but in him also looking 
to bottom and working power, though secondaiy to speed. Courage 
is essential in all greyhounds, and may be obtained equally well 
whether the breed is fast or slow, clever in working or the reverse. 
It must exist with bottom, but may also be developed without it, 
some very soft greyhoimds being high-couraged, and going till 
they drop from the exhaustion of their delicate frames. In look- 
ing for these several qualities it is necessary to observe that speed 
depends upon the formation of the body and limbs, which must 
be of the most perfect make, as described under the head of the 
points of the ffreyhouiid at page 27 ; but with the most perfect 
shape there is often a want of speed, apparently owing to the 
absence of that nervous stimulus which sets the frame in motion. 
Such dogs want quickness and elasticity in using their organs, 
and, though they often move elegantly, there is a deficiency in the 
rapidity of repetition in the muscular contractions which constitute 



286 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

high speed. Hence the necessity for attending to breed, and to its 
purity, which is the only guarantee (short of an actual trial) that 
the perfect frame will give perfect action. The same remarks 
apply to working power : a dog may look to be exceedingly cleverly 
made, with good shoulders, and all the other parts essential to this 
faculty, and yet there may be a want of cleverness and tact, as well 
as a deficiency in courage, which will render him absolutely use- 
less. But when the breed is known to be almost invariably good 
in these respects, and the formation of the individual is good, 
there is a reasonable groimd for expecting that he will exhibit 
them in more or less perfection. Nothing is more provoking than 
to find a splendidly formed dog beaten in his trial by a wretched- 
looking brute, the sole advantage attending the latter being that 
he is descended from good blood, while the former perhaps owns 
a sire and dam of well-known and ascertained imperfect nervous 
organisation. 

^Vhen the young courser detennines upon getting together a 
kennel of greyhounds, he must therefore carefully attend to all 
these points; but with all his caie he will be disappointed unless 
he knows how to manage them, or can intrust them to some one 
who does. Public greyhounds, as I have already explained, are 
easily spoiled by using them too frequently ; and yet they must 
have some amount of practice before they run in a stake, or they 
will inevitably be beaten from awkwardness. Some breeds are 
naturally more clever than others, and take less time in coming 
to their best, so that, if they have as many courses as would bai-ely 
suffice in many cases, they would be past their prime. All this 



PUBLIC COURSING. 267 

therefore requires considerable practice, and theoretical know- 
ledge as well ; and, for this reason, the young courser should not 
fancy that he can at once compete on even terms with the expe- 
rienced hand. Let him therefore content himself with creeping 
before he runs, and let him undertake a brace or two at the most 
for a season, before he rushes into the thick of the contest. No 
one can hope for much success who keeps a very large kennel 
under the management of one man, because he cannot do justice 
to more than eight or ten nmning dogs ; but at first he had better 
content himself with half that number, and he will find afterwards 
that he has made many mistakes about these. It is also very 
difficult to purchase good dogs, though occasionally they may 
be met with; but when a young courser begins he wants the 
experience which is required to know how to select them. On all 
these accounts therefore he had better begin by sporting a brace, 
and in the meantime he can be bringing forward a moderate 
number of puppies bred by himself, which will be ready for work 
in a year or two. 

The kennel management of greylwumh has been described at 
page 226, and it only remains to describe the method of training 
which is adopted for the purpose of enabling them to bear the 
severe work often experienced in going through a stake. Many 
a greyhound will run one course quite as well without training as 
with, that is, if it is not a long one ; but there are few untrained 
dogs that will go on through a series of courses as well as if they 
had had the pains bestowed upon them which a man of expe- 
rience would be able to give. It is often said that certain dogs 



288 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN IIUNTING, ETC. 

have run better untrained than trained, but this only shows that 
the training in their particular case was mismanaged ; for, if they 
had been treated properly, they would not have been worked to the 
extent which produced the change for the worse. Scarcely any 
two dogs require the same treatment, and the chief art in training 
is to discover the exact amount which each will bear and require 
in order to bring him out to the best advantage. It must 
therefore be understood, that by training is here meant the act 
of preparing a dog for certain public performances in the way 
best fitted for each individual ; and that it does not by any means 
consist in putting him through a specified course of physic, diet> 
and work, which, in his case, may be altogether unsuited to him. 

Before comnieyicing to train a greyhoundy it is necessary to 
consider what condition he is in at the time, and what amount 
of work he is likely to bear, judging from his breed, and also 
from his bodily formation. The first thing to be done is to 
see that his health is good, and that his liver and kidneys are 
doing their work properly, without which it is useless to attempt 
to train him. If he is known to be descended from a stock which 
has been accustomed to severe preparatory work, and if he also 
has a stout frame and good feety it may reasonably be expected 
that he will bear as much training as his progenitors, and he may 
be treated accordingly. If on the other hand he comes of a soft 
strain, that has never been used to road-work, and of which 
the dogs composing it have always trained themselves in their 
play to the highest pitch of which their frames are capable, 
then it will be safer to follow suit, and to take the descendant 



PUBLIC COURSING. 289 

of these latter animals out for two or three hours a day on the 
greensward, simply keeping him moving, and encouraging him 
to play with his fellows till he is tired. Less than three hours' 
exercise can never be suflScient, as the dog is only compelled 
to walk, and any faster pace is voluntary, and will not be 
attempted if he is at all exhausted. From this it will appear 
that the trainer's art greatly consists in apportioning the proper 
quantity of work, which he can only do by studying the con- 
stitutions and breeding of the dogs under his charge; after 
which he will determine in his own mind the probable amount 
of work which each will bear, and will proceed to put his 
theory into practice, always carefully watching the progress 
which is made, and altering his plans as he goes on, according 
as he finds that he has calculated erroneously. One great guide 
which he has is the weight which is gained or lost; for if he 
finds the dog is putting on flesh when he wants some oflF, or 
if he is losing it when he is already too light, there must be 
some alteration made, or the dog will not come out fit for his 
duties. Thus, then, the trainer first fixes in his mind the weight 
to which he wishes to bring his dog on a certain day, and 
then, by apportioning the work, physic, and food according to 
his ideas of the dog's constitution, he endeavours to attain that 
standard of proportion; altering his plans as he goes on if 
necessary. It must, however, always be remembered, that train- 
ing should not attempt to produce an unnatural condition, but 
rather the highest state of health consistent with that free play 
of the lungs and heart which will enable the dog to continue 

u 



290 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

his highest speed for the longest time, and guarantees the re- 
tention of his spirit and courage, so as to induce him to exert it. 

Work for training purposes is effected in two ways: the 
object being to get rid of the superfluous fat, which interferes 
with muscular action, and with the free play of the lungs ; and 
also to accustom the muscles, ligaments, and tendons to severe 
and long-continued exertions. These two methods are often 
combined; and indeed, though the one by means of slipping is 
effectual by itself, yet the other, or horse-exercise alone, will 
not develope the wind sufficiently, and, if it is adopted, it must 
be aided by slipping the dogs as well. Horse-exercise is chiefly 
confined to countries where the courses are very long and severe, 
and where also much of the work can be given on turf, so that 
it is only in down countries that it is very available, but there 
it is almost essential to full success in training the greyhound. 
The amoimt of this kind of exercise which a greyhound of 
stout blood will take with advantage is very great, and it is 
sometimes more than one horse will be able to lead; but this 
is not often the case. Few greyhoxmds will be the better for 
more than fifteen miles every other day, and this is quite 
within the compass of a horse's powers, especially when it is 
considered that not more than two or three miles of this dis- 
tance should be at the gallop. But the great object of horse- 
exercise is not to produce a fast pace, so much as to insure a 
sufficiency of slow work ; for there are few trainers who will 
walk fifteen or sixteen miles a day on foot, and yet in order 
to keep the dogs out for four hours they ought to do so. A 



PUBLIC COURSING. 291 

certain amount of road-work is essential to the hardening of 
the feet, but this should be commenced two or three months 
prior to the time of training, as it cannot be done without 
time to cause the growth of the thick horny matter which 
covers the sole of the foot. If, therefore, horse-exercise is to 
be adopted, it is better to commence it two or three months 
before the meeting for which the dog is to be trained, and 
after giving him two or three days a week, up to within a fort- 
night of the time, discontinue it, and proceed to develop the 
highest degree of wind, by slipping the dog to his trainer's call. 
A short gallop of a couple of miles on turf will be nearly as 
beneficial, but the long dragging road-work, which will serve 
to prepare the dog earlier in his training, is now to be dis- 
continued, because it interferes with the spirit, and will render 
him disinclined to exert himself with that fiery courage which 
is requisite for success. The slipping-work is efiFected by the 
aid of an assistant, who leads the greyhounds off in one direc- 
tion, while the trainer walks to another point ; and when half a 
mile apart or thereabouts the dogs are let loose, one after another, 
the trainer whistling and shouting to them, so as to excite them 
to their highest speed. The assistant should be a stranger to 
them, and it is better to buckle a stirrup-leather roimd his 
waist with the noose at the end of each leading-strap inserted, 
so that he may have both his hands at liberty to unbuckle the 
collars in succession. If there is a gently sloping valley com- 
posed of ground similar to that over which the public coursing 
is to take place, it is better to select it, as the dog then sees 

U 2 



292 EMFLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

his trainer plainly, and also finishes up-hill, which is of great 
service in "opening the pipes." By means of these two kinds 
of work properly proportioned, and taking care not to overdo 
them, the dog is at last rendered equal to any ordinary amount 
of exertion; but, in hardy animals which are allowed to eat 
as much as they like, the work which would reduce them 
sufficiently would make them stale in their joints, and dull 
in spirit, so that it is found necessary to call in the aid of 
physic and a reduction of food. 

The physic proper for a dog in training should be of such 
a nature as simply to cause an increase of his secretions, 
without rendering him liable to catch cold. Hence, mercury 
should be carefully avoided ; and jalap, salts, or aloes, will be 
found to be the best. Some people use emetics, but these do 
not reduce the weight of the dog, and they are solely useful 
in giving tone to the stomach, which they certainly appear to 
do. Even within two or three days of running they are often 
given, and will then render the dog lively and full of spirits, 
when he would otherwise be dull and disinclined to exert 
himself. The trainer, throughout, should watch the secretions, 
and if he finds that they are deficient he may give a dose of 
aloes or jalap ; but if in good order it is better to avoid medi- 
cine, if the weight can be kept down by other means. 

The diet is of the greatest importance, and indeed it is in 
this point that more mistakes are made than in any other. If 
a hardy dog is fed as heavily as his inclination prompts him, no 
kind of work will reduce him without also destroying his elas- 



PUBLIC CODESING. 293 

ticity and fire^ and hence it is found necessary to limit his food. 
For this reason reduction of food is indispensable in most cases, 
and in very few will the dog in training require the same 
quuntity as before, though the quality can hardly be too good 
provided it does not upset his stomach. These animals are 
extremely liable to become bilious, and suffer from disorder of 
the stomach and liver, just as man does. Hence it follows that 
any concentrated food like eggs or strong soup, although in theory 
it may be better than meat and bread, is inadmissible, because, 
being so prone to dyspepsia, just at the time when the grey- 
hound is wanted to nm he is off his feed, sick and sorry. The 
dog naturally requires variety in his feeding, but the change 
should be always gradual in the proportions of the elements of 
which it is composed. The changes may be rung on beef, mutton, 
and horseflesh, as often as may be convenient, but the propor- 
tion of flesh to meal must be very carefully kept at the same 
ratio. For the dog in high training lean mutton is the best of 
all flesh, as it is milder than either of the others, and though 
quite as nourishing, yet it is less heating ; so that careful trainers 
prefer it to all others, especially when from home, as it can always 
be procured at the butcher's, while good horseflesh must be carried 
about, and is on that account troublesome to get. But if a 
good leg of well-hung horseflesh from a tolerably healthy horse 
can be procured, it is very nearly as good as mutton, and far 
better than beef, being more tender, and I think not so heating. 
No one, however, who wishes to take advantage of every chance 
in his favour, should use bad meat; and the difference between 

n 3 



294 EBiPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

the one and the other cannot exceed 6d, per day per dog, which 
at a meeting lasting a week amounts to Ss. 6cL per head. About 
three quarters of a pound of dressed meat, and the same quantity 
of biscuit or bread soaked in jelly, will be sufficient on the 
average for most dogs in training ; but some take more and 
some less, so that this can only be taken as an approximation 
to what each animal requires. The water which is given should 
be boiled, by which it deposits its lime when over-abundant, 
and imless this precaution is taken the change of water often 
upsets the dog's kidneys. Many people do not leave water in 
the dog's kennel while in training, but I prefer the plan, taking 
care to remove it on the morning of running, after the kennel 
is first entered. 

Tits amount of friction on the skin which is of service during 
the course of training is very considerable, and each dog ought 
to have half an hour a day after his exercise, first washing the 
feet and if necessary touching their pads with a little tar- 
ointment. Then taking the dog between the knees, and putting 
on a pair of hair gloves, rub him well in the direction of the 
hair, applying the pressure over the large muscles, especially 
those of the shoulders, loins, and haunches, and avoiding the 
bones as much as possible. The spine or backbone should be 
left between the two hands in rubbing the loin, but the ribs 
as a matter of course must be included. Afl«r this friction has 
been continued, rub all over gently with a linen rubber and again 
put on the clothing. 

Dogs in training are dothedy because they are more liable to 



PUBLIC COUKSINQ. 295 

cold than at other times, and also because their strange lodgings 
are seldom so free from draughts as their regular kennels. The 
clothing is made in one sheet which covers them from the head 
to the tail, but when in kennel the head and neck part is turned 
back over the shoulders. The clothing is necessary to put on 
when the dogs are carried out to the coursing-field, as they are 
often kept standing about in the cold for hours. A waterproof 
cloth is of great service in wet weather. This clothing can 
be obtained at almost any saddler's throughout the country. The 
following summary will be useful in giving general directiona 
for training the greyhound. 

1. Give no more physic than just enough to freshen the 
stomach, unless it is wanted as a means of reduction. 

2. When used in this way try mild physic before giving 
stronger. 

3. Give about three quarters of a pound of mutton or horse- 
flesh daily, mixed with as little bread as will suffice for health. 
The quantity of bread necessary may be known by the colour 
of the faeces, which ought to continue of a good gingerbread 
colour, and which become black, or nearly so, when the flesh is 
overdone. 

4. Reduce the dog more by increase of work and reduction of 
food, than by physic. 

5. Give as much horse or other exercise as the stoutness of the 
dog will enable him to bear, without overdoing him. 

6. Use plenty of friction. 

7. Feed from one to three o'clock on the day before running. 

u 4 



296 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

8. Do not give more than walking exercise on the day before 
running, or on the morning prior to the course. 

Oreyhou^uls require veiy careful management ai the meetvng 
when they are to run, inasmuch as there are many strange 
circumstances which often affect their health. In the first place 
the travelling is apt to upset them, especially if by railway, the 
excitement of which is too much for irritable dogs, and therefore 
they should be moved to their new quarters several days before 
they are wanted. It is usual to feed rather more lightly than 
usual on the day before nmning, but this plan is often carried 
to extremes, and the dog runs weak in consequence. After 
running very little is needed, except to get the dog home, and 
feed him for next day if he is required. If, however, there is 
much distress, and the dog has to run again, a cordial must 
be given, which is sometimes egg and sherry. The egg I do not 
believe to be useful, as it has a tendency to make the dog bilious, 
but a little sherry or spirit and water may be employed ; what is 
far better is some kind of spice mixed with a little mutton or 
by itself, and given about half an hour before the dog will be 
wanted; using plenty of fnction just before he is put in the 
slips. 

Spiced-Meat Baix. 

Take of Carawaj seeds, 10 grains. 
Cardamoms, 10 grains. 
Grains of Paradise, 5 grains. 
Ginger, 5 grains. 
Lean boiled knuckle of mutton, ^z. 

Bruise the seeds in a mortar, and then mix with the mutton, and form 
it into a ball. 



NATIONAL COURSING CLUB. 297 

Common Cordial-Baui. 

Take of Cumin seeds, 10 grains* 

Coriander seeds, 10 grains. 
Caraway seeds, 10 grains. 
Grains of Paradise, 10 grains. 
Saffron, 1 drachm. 
Syrup, enough to form a ball. 

Bruise in a mortar, and mix well together, then make up into a ball. 



THE NATIONAL COURSING CLUB. 

Public coursing is conducted under certain rules which have 
recently been revised by a committee appointed at the Qreat 
Waterloo Meeting held at Liverpool in 1858. These supersede 
all previous rules^ with the exception of those of Mr. Thacker 
which relate to the decision of courses, which, by Eule 1, are 
now approved of. The committee thus appointed have resolved 
themselves into a National Coursing Club, to be elected each 
year at the Waterloo Meeting. 

The National Coursing Club has now been established, and all 
complaints of whatever description connected with coursing, or 
any matters in dispute, can be referred to it for arbitration and 
adjustment. 

The National Club consists at present of the members selected 
at the Waterloo Coursing Meeting in February, 1858, together 
with several other influential noblemen and gentlemen who have 
been added to it, and whose names have been made known. 



298 EMPLOYBfENT OP THE DOG IN HUNTINO, ETC. 

The Club is to be dissolved at the Waterloo Meeting in each 
year^ and shall then be reformed, and re-elected by coursers then 
present. It consists of thirty members, of whom five shall be 
a quorum, and five shall go out annually by rotation, but shall 
be re-eligible if desired. 

Two General Meetings of the Club shall be held in each year — 
viz. one in London during the Epsom Hace-week, and one at 
Liverpool during the Waterloo Coursing Meeting — for the de- 
spatch of business, and for the revision and alteration of rules; 
but the Secretary shall be authorised, upon a requisition addressed 
to him in writing by any three of the secretary and stewards of 
a meeting, or upon a remonstrance signed by six public coursers 
who may happen to be present, to summon such special meetings 
as may be necessary from time to time, at the earliest convenient 
opportunity, for adjudication upon such questions as may be re- 
ferred to the Club. 

The National Coursing Club recommends that the following 
code of laws shall be adopted imiversally as soon as possible 
(not interfering with meetings already advertised to be held 
under other rules), for the guidance both of open and club meet- 
ings, clubs merely adding such special or local regulations as 
may be required to adapt the national code to their own peculiar 
use: — 

BULES OF THE NATIONAL COUBSINQ CLUB. 

L Every course shall be decided according to the judge's 
estimate of the balance of points in favour of either greyhound 



NATIONAL C0UB8ING CLUB RULES. 299 

The value of the points in a course, viz. the cote, go-bye, wrench, 
turn, trip, or kill, as well as allowances or penalties, to be for 
the present considered as settled by Thacker's rules. 

2. The judge shall deliver his decision cdoud^ immediately 
the course is ended, and shall render an explanation of such 
decision (when called in question) to the stewards of a meeting. 
His decisions once given shall not be liable to be reversed ; but 
complaints against him may be lodged with the National Club, 
who, upon proof of gross mistakes, shall record their censure, and 
recommend his non-employment for such a period as may seem 
fitting. 

3. If a greyhound be unsighted in going fi-om the slips, or 
afterwards, it shall be at the discretion of the judge to decide 
what allowance, if any, is to be made under the circum- 
stances. 

4. If a second hare be started during a course, and one of the 
dogs follow her, the course to end there. 

5. A " no course ** is where sufficient has not been done to show 
superiority in either greyhound, and shall be run at the ex- 
piration of two courses. An ** imdecided course " is when the 
judge considers the merits of the dogs so equal that he cannot 
decide. This need not be run again if one greyhound be 
drawn, but the owners must at the time declare to the secre- 
tary which dog remains in. If they decide to run again, 
they must do so after two courses. If the last course of 
the day, fifteen minutes shall be allowed after both dogs are 
taken up. 



800 EBfFLOTMENT OP THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

6. The control of all matters connected with slipping the 
greyhounds shaU rest with the stewards of a meeting. 

7. When two greyhounds drawn together are of the same 
colour, they shall each wear a collar, and shall be subject to a 
penalty of 10«. for non-observance of this rule; the colour of the 
collar to be red for the left-hand side, and white for the right- 
hand side of the slips. After the first roimd, the upp^ dog 
on the card for the day will be placed upon the left hand, and the 
lower dog on the right hand, in the slips. 

8. If through accident one greyhoimd gets out of slips, the 
slipper shall not let the other go. If the slips break and the dogs 
get away coupled together, the judge shall decide whether it is 
to be a no-course, or whether enough has been done to constitute 
it an undecided course. In any case of slips breaking and either 
or both dogs getting away in consequence, the slipper may be 
fined not exceeding 1^ at the discretion of the steward. 

9. If any subscriber or his servant shall ride over his opponent's 
greyhound while running a course, the owner of the dog so 
ridden over shall, although the course be given against him, be 
deemed the winner of it, or shall have the option of aUowing 
the other dog to remain in and run out the stake, and in such 
case shall be entitled to half his winnings, if any. 

10. Any person allowing a greyhound to get loose, and join 
in a course which is being run, shall forfeit 1/^ If the loose 
greyhound belongs to either of the owners of the dogs engaged in 
the particular course, such owner shall forfeit his chance of the 
stake with the dog then running ; unless it can be proved to the 



NATIONAL COURSING CLUB RULES. 801 

satisfaction of the stewards that the loose greyhound had not 
been able to be taken up after running its own course. The 
course not to be considered as necessarily ending when the third 
dog joins in. 

11. If any subscriber openly impugns the decision of the judge 
on the ground, he shall forfeit not more than five nor less than 
two sovereigns, at the discretion of the stewards. Any complaint 
which he has to make shall be notified to the secretary or one 
of the stewards, who shall take steps to bring the matter before 
the proper authorities. 

12. The secretary of any proposed open meeting shall associate 
with himself a committee of not less than three members to 
settle preliminaries. The management of the meeting shall be 
intrusted to stewards and field-stewards (in conjunction with this 
committee), who shall be elected by the subscribers present the 
first evening of a meeting. The secretary shall declare as soon 
as possible how the prizes are to be divided ; and a statement of 
expenses may be called for by subscribers after a meeting if they 
think proper. 

13. The appointment of the judge shall be determined by the 
votes of the subscribers taking nominations, but each subscriber 
shall have only one vote, whatever the number of his nomina- 
tions ; it shall be open to subscribers, within a fortnight of the 
judge's name being declared, to withdraw from their nominations, 
paying half forfeit. The appointment of the judge to be 
published at least one month before the meeting, and the number 
of votes in favour of each judge to be declared, if required. 



302 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

14. If a meeting appointed to take place upon a certain day 
be interfered with by frost, the committee shall have power to 
postpone it, but not beyond the week. If, through a continuance 
of frost, the meeting be void, the subscribers shaU be liable to 
their quota of expenses. This rule not to apply to Produce 
meetings. 

15. Immediately before the greyhoimds are drawn at any open 
meeting, the place and time of putting the first brace of dogs 
into the slips on the following morning shall be declared, and 
the owner of any dog which shall not be ready to be put into 
slips at such appointed time and place, or in proper rotation 
afterwards, shall be fined IZ. ; if not ready within ten minutes 
from such time the absent greyhound shall be adjudged to have 
lost its coiurse, and the opponent shall run a bye. If both dogs 
be absent at the expiration of ten minutes, the stewards shall 
have power to disqualify both dogs, or to fine their owners any 
sum not exceeding 5L each. 

16. No entry by a subscribei* shall be valid unless the amount 
of stake be paid in full, when a card or coimter bearing a cor- 
responding number shall be assigned to each entry. These num- 
bered cards or coimters shall then be placed together in a bowl 
and drawn out indiscriminately. This classification once made 
shall not be disturbed throughout a meeting, except for the 
piuT)ose of guarding, or on account of byes. 

17. When more than one nomination is taken in the name of 
one person, his gr^hounds shall be guarded, but not exceeding 
two dogs in a 16-dog stake, four in a 32-, and eight in a 64-dog 



NATIONAL COUBSING CLUB BULBS. 308 

stake, except by special agreement. In Produce Stakes any 
number may be guarded if bond fide and exclusively the property 
of the nominator. This guarding is not, however, to deprive any 
dog of a natural bye to which he may, in nmning through a 
stake, be entitled. 

18. No greyhound shall run more than one natural bye in any 
stake, and this bye shall be given to the lowest available dog on 
the list in each round. In Puppy Stakes each bye must be 
run with a puppy or single-handed. 

19. If any subscriber shall enter a greyhound by a different 
name from that in which it shall last have nm for any stake or 
piece of plate, without giving notice to the secretary of the 
alteration, such greyhound shall be disqualified. 

20. Any subscriber taking an entry in a stake, and either 
prefixing the word "Names" to a gi-eyhoimd fcona^/wfo his own 
property, or not prefixing the word " Names '* to a dog which is 
not his own property, shall forfeit that dog^s chance of the 
stake. He shall likewise be compelled to deliver in writing to the 
secretary of the meeting the name of the bond fide owner of 
the dog named by him. This communication to be produced 
shoidd any dispute arise in the matter. Greyhounds which 
belong to confederates, and are sometimes entered in one some- 
times in another owner's name, shall have a cross prefixed to their 
names. 

21. For Produce Stakes, the names, ages, colours, and distin- 
guishing marks of the puppies shall be detailed in writing to the 
secretary at the time of entering them. The subscriber must 



304 EMPLOYMENT OP THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

also state in writing the name of the sire or sires, the dam, and 
their owners, together with the names and addresses of the parties 
who bred and reared the puppies, and where they are kept at 
the time of entry ; and any puppy whose marks and pedigree shall 
not correspond with the entry as thus given shall be disquali- 
fied, and the whole of its stakes forfeited. No greyhoimd shall be 
allowed to run in any Puppy Stake whose description is not 
properly given as above, and it must be capable of being proved, 
if required by the secretary or committee. No greyhound to be 
consider a puppy which was whelped before the 1st January of 
the year preceding the season of running. 

22. An objection may be made at any time within a month, 
upon the objector lodging a sum of not less than 5L, as may be 
required, in the hands of the secretary, which shall be forfeited 
if the objection prove frivolous ; and the owner of the greyhound 
objected to shall be compelled to deposit a like amoxmt, and 
to prove the correctness of his entry. The cost of the expenses 
incurred in consequence of the objection to fall upon the party 
against whom the decision is given. 

23. Should an objection be made which cannot at the time be 
substantiated or disproved, the greyhoimd may be allowed to run 
under protest, and should the objection be afterwards substai>- 
tiated, and if the winnings have been paid over to the owner of a 
greyhound who will thus be disqualified, he shall return the 
money, or be declared a defaulter. The money returned shall be 
divided equally among the greyhounds beaten by the dog thus 
disqualified. 



NATIONAL COURSING CLUB BULBS. 305 

24. K two greyhounds belonging to the same owner or to 
confederates remain in for the deciding course, the stake shall be 
considered divided, as also if the owner of one dog induce the 
owner of the other to draw him for any payment or consideration ; 
but if one greyhound be drawn from lameness, or from any cause 
clearly aflfecting his chance of winning, the other may be declared 
the winner, the facts of the case being proved to the satisfaction 
of the stewards. 

25. When more than two prizes are given, the greyhound 
beaten by the winner in the last class but one shall have pre- 
cedence of that beaten by the runner-up. When only three dogs 
run in this class, then the greyhound first beaten of these three 
shall have the third prize ; and the fourth prize shall be given 
to the greyhound beaten by the winner in the previous class, 
unless the winner had a bye in that class, in which case the 
fourth prize shall be awarded to the dog beaten by the runner-up 
in that class. 

26. If two greyhounds shall each win a stake, and have to run 
together for a final prize or challenge cup, should they not have 
nm an equal niunber of ties in their respective stakes, the grey- 
hound not having run the suflScient number of courses must run 
a bye or byes, to put itself upon an equality in this respect With 
its opponent. 

27. No person shall be allowed to enter or run a greyhound in 
his own or any other person's name who is a defaulter for stakes 
or bets. 

28. If a judge or slipper be in any way interested in the win- 

X 



806 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

nings of a greyhound or greyhounds, the nominator of these dogs, 
unless he can prove satisfactorily that such interest was without 
his cognizance, shall forfeit all claim to the winnings. 

29. All bets upon an individual course to stand, unless one of 
the greyhoimds be drawn. All bets upon a dog nmning further 
than another in the stake, or upon the event, to be p.p., whatever 
accident may happen. 

30. Where money has been laid against a dog winning a stake, 
and he divides it, the two sums must be put together, and divided 
in the same proportion as the stakes. 



MB. THAGKEB's BULES FOB THE DECISION OF COUBSES. 

fiules 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 repealed by the above rules. 

7. A cote to be reckoned two points; and a cote is when 
two dogs start even together, and one outruns the other, and 
gives the hare a turn or wrench; but if the hare take a cir- 
cuitous route, and the dog which runs the outer circle gives the 
turn, to be reckoned three points. 

8. A turn to be reckoned one point ; but if the hare turn 
not as it were round, she only wrenches; and two wrenches 
are equal to one turn. A wrench is when she strikes off to 
the right or left, at about a right angle. Anything short of 
that in a forward direction is only a rick or whiff, for which 
nothing ought to be allowed.* 

* This rule is sometimes connected with the 7th and 12th rules — namely, a 
cote and a fall ; and but for the contingencies, and their confusing the matter. 



RULBS FOR THE DECISION OF COURSES. 307 

9. A go-by to be reckoned two points; but one dog being 
behind the other, and then getting first, by the hare running 
in a curve, or any way but in a straightforward stretch, or by 
superior speed, when both are fairly on their legs after a turn, 
is no go-by; if a dog give half go-by, to be allowed one point 
for it, unless that half a go-by forms part of a cote, in which 
case it should be reckoned in the cote. 

10. Killing or bearing the hare to be reckoned two points, 
if it be a kill of merit; but if one dog turn the hare into the 
other dog's mouth, or the hare being taken by other casual 



those three rules might be condensed into one rule, as thus : Turn about, if 
gained without that superior speed which constitutes a cote, one point ; if with 
that superior speed, two points ; or if the turn about is given when a dog falb 
in giving it, two points without superior speed, or three points with superior 
speed ; if he only wrench the hare when he falls it ought to be taken into 
account the same as a wrench under other circumstances. Those contingencies 
render it necessary that the three rules should be distinctly and separately 
understood and acted upon, and the points will be as easily counted under the 
three rules as under one. They must not be counted under both or all three 
heads ; nor, on the contrary, must the fall be counted and omit the turn, 
which I have known to be done. With respect to a wrench being originally 
meant as I have here defined it, the hare striking off to the right or lefk at 
about a right angle, which has been suggested to me as being only my own 
interpretation of the meaning, and would be better backed by some other 
authority, I have applied to the only work I know capable of illustrating the 
(|uestion, and that in very few hands, the noble art of Ycncry or Hunting, 
by Tuberville, from which the translator of Arrian has favoured me with the 
following copy, and which bears me out in having interpreted the meaning 
properly : — ** A cote servcth for two turnes, and two stryppings or jerkinnes 
(as some call them) stand for a cote ; also many times a hare doth but wrench 
and not tume ; for it is not called a turne unlesse the hare be set and do turne 
(as it were) round about ; two such wrenchys stand for a turne.** 

X 2 



308 ESCPLOTMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

circumstances wherein there is no merit in the dog, to reckon 
nothing ; but there may be a kill which has not the first degree 
of merit in the dog, yet not without merit, wherein the judge 
shall use his discretion in allowing one point for it. 

11. A tripping or jerking the hare to be reckoned one 
point. A jerk is when a greyhound catches hold of a hare^ 
but again loses his hold; and a trip is, when he misses his 
catchy but throws her up with his nose, or other hindrance of 
that kind. It has been said, when a hare is tripped or jerked 
that the dog ought to have held her, and that it is a clumsy 
trick in letting her go again; it may sometimes be the case, 
but whether it is or not, it contributes toward the main object, 
as it distresses the hare, and delays her so that his fellow-dog 
has the better chance of taking her; a dog giving either trip- 
ping or jerking generally effects quite a^ much as by giving a 
complete turn. 

12. If a dog take a fall in a course whilst performing his 
duty, to be allowed one point for it; if he fall from pressing 
the hare closely, or flinging himself to take her, and causes 
her to turn about, he is entitled to two points, one for the 
fall and one for the turn; or if the turn were by superior 
speed, he gains three points, one for the fall and two for the 
cote. — This rule is connected with the 7th and 8th rules. 

13. If one dog see not the hare when slipped by any 
accidental occurrence not his own fault, to be deemed no course ; 
but if owing to his own untractableness or infirmity of sight, 
or the fault of his owner or servants, the dog that follows the 



RULES FOR THE DECISION OF COURSES. 309 

hare to win, and the judge to decide whether his not seeing 
the hare was accidental or the fault of the dog. If he after- 
wards join in the course, it must be in the discretion of the 
judge, if he deem it no fault in the dog his not seeing the 
hare when slipped, to give it no course; or decide it according 
to the merits of the dogs when running together, allowing for 
the distance or number of turns given by one while the other 
was absent from it, and comparatively not so much at work. 
But if his not seeing the hare when slipped was his own fault, 
or that of his owner or servant, the course to be given against 
him. 

14. If there be no turn or other point gained, an equal 
start, and the hare run in a straight direction, the dog leading 
first to the covert to win. If one dog lose groimd at the start, 
and afterwards evidently gain upon the other by superior speed, 
though he does not pass or get even with him, yet, if there 
be no turn or other point gained between them, he ought to 
be deemed the winner: either dog leading first to the covert 
by an unequal start, an inside turn, or other occurrence where 
there is no superiority of speed shown, the course to be ad- 
judged dead; but if the unequal start were the fault of that 
dog which lost ground by it, and who does not regain that loss 
by superior speed, he ought to forfeit the comrse for his own 
untractableness. But if a dog lose his start by the slipper 
standing still instead of running forwards for the dogs to press 
against the collar, and in his natural struggling to get to the 
hare when he sees her has his eyes in a contrary direction when 

X 3 



810 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

loosed, it ought not to be deemed his untractableness, but the 
slipper's awkwardness. 

15. If a dog lose ground in the start by any untoward 
circumstances, not his own fault, and yet maintain equal speed 
with the other, if that other give the hare a turn, or gain any 
other point, but the course ends immediately by the hare gaining 
covert, sough, squatting in turnips or other brush, except kill- 
ing her, that turn or point not to be allowed for, but the course 
to be adjudged dead. If that turn were gained by the advantage 
of an inside turn, the hare running in a curve, without any supe- 
riority of speed being shown, to be adjudged dead. If the course 
continue longer, and other points are gained, that first turn or 
point to be taken into the account; and if that unequal start 
were owing to the dog's untractableness, or otherwise his own 
fault, the turn or point gained by the other dog to entitle him 
to win. 

16. If a dog wilfully stand still in a coiu-se, or depart from 
directly pursuing the hare, or to meet her, the points he has 
gained to be reckoned only to the time he stood still, or left 
the course, though he may afterwards join in it. If the points 
he has gained up to the time he stood still or departed from 
the ordinary course should equal what the other gained in the 
whole course, his standing still, or leaving the course, to give 
the casting point against him. If both dogs wilfully stop vrith 
the hare in view, to be decided by the number each gained ; 
and if they are equal, to be decided by a toss up, though one 
run longer than the other. If one or both dogs should stop 



RULES FOR THE DECISION OF COURSES. 311 

with the hare in view, and relinquish the pursuit through utter 
inability to continue it, the course to be decided according to the 
niimber of points each dog gained in the whole course, and not 
to that dog which ran the longest, though he continued the pursuit 
to the covert. 

17. If a dog refuse to fence where the other fences, his 
points to be reckoned only up to that time, though he may 
afterwards join in the com-se. If he do his best endeavour to 
fence, and is foiled by sticking in the meuse, or the fence being 
too high to top it, whereby he cannot join in the rest of the 
course, such course to be deemed to end at that fence. Should 
the points be equal between them, to be imdecided; but if one 
be thrown out by being a bad fencer, and yet the points be equal, 
a good fencer to have a casting point over a bad one. 

18. If a fence intervene in a course that the judge cannot 
get over, and thereby lose view of the remainder of the course, 
the course to end at that fence. 

19 and 20 repealed. 

21. If the points are even between two dogs, and one 
evidently show most speed, that extra speed to entitle him to 
win ; but where a dog has a balance of one point, and the 
speed of the other is only a trifle more, the point to win. If 
very few turns or wrenches are given, and one dog has a balance 
of only one point and the other a great degree of superior speed, 
that speed to win. If the points be equal, and one has most 
speed at the first part of the course, and the other at the last 
part, if in equal proportion up to the last turn, or kill, the 

X 4 



312 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

course to be adjudged dead; but if the points are equal, and 
speed also up to the last turn, and one shows more speed than 
the other in the run up to cover, that extra speed to win. 
If two dogs are slipped even, the course straight, without a turn, 
and one shows most speed at first and the other at the last part, 
BO as just to get even with his fellow, and no mare, the course to 
be adjudged dead.* 



DEER-STALKING. 

It is needless to dilate upon the employment of this dog in 
deer-stalking, as his perfection depends entirely upon his amount 
of experience, and the degree of nose and sagacity which he 
naturally possesses. 



HUNTING. 

Fox-hunting has now become a science in itself, and it would 
be useless to attempt any minute detail here of all the features 

* The last section of this rule is just like a race with horses, and it is imma- 
terial whether a dog loses ground at first from waiting or deficiency of speed, 
or whether he guns at last firom having waited or being stouter than his fellow ; 
whether he begins to gun exactly half way, or either before or afler : then, if 
they come even at last, it is to all intents and purposes a dead heat. There is 
no distress from turns, or any other by-dependcnces, but the same ground run 
over in the same time. 



HUNTING. SHOOTING. 813 

which attend upon it. I have already alluded at some length 
to the duties and peculiarities of the foxhound, in the description 
of the hound himself at page 55, and of the mode of entering 
him at page 245, beyond which I must refer my readers to the 
pages of Beckford and Somerville, among the old authorities, 
and to "Nimrod," Col. Cooke, the Hon. Grantley Berkeley, 
Mr. Delm6 Radcliffe, and lastly '^ Scrutator," among the modem 
writers on this subject. A treatise on Hunting must comprise 
at least as large a volume as the present, and, therefore, I 
may well be excused from going into it. For the same reason 
hare-hunting both with harriers and beagles must be passed 
over, as well as otter-hunting, beyond the notices which are 
given of the hounds used in these sports, at pages 63 — 67 and 70. 



THE USE OF THE DOG IN SHOOTING. 

The dogs used in aid of the gun are : the pointer, the setter, 
in grouse- and partridge-shooting; the spaniel, beagle, and 
terrier, in covert shooting; either of the above in snipoHBhooting; 
and the water-spaniel or retriever in wildfowl-shooting. 



314 EMPLOYBiENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 



GROUSE- AND PARTRIDGE. SHOOTING. 

In open shooting, whether of the grouse or partridge, there 
is a great difiference of opinion respecting the choice of a dog, 
that is, whether the pointer or setter shall be selected, and, if 
either, the particular breed. In order to arrive at any conclusion 
on this quceatio veoccUa, it is desirable to consider what are the 
chief dififerences between the two kinds of shooting, and also 
between the two kinds of dog which have to beat the respective 
grounds on which partridge and grouse are found. Every sports- 
man knows that the former are chiefly met with in cultivated 
corn-lands, and especially on a light sandy soil suited to barley, 
such as that of Norfolk and part of Suffolk. Here these birds 
are preserved in immense numbers; and there is no heather, 
or other rough undergrowth of any kind, to scratch the skin or 
to wear away the hair on the legs, the only parts which suffer 
at all being the pads of the feet. Indeed in too many cases, ac- 
cording to my opinion, the dog is dispensed with altogether in 
actual shooting; and the birds being driven into the turnips by 
spaniels, assisted by a man on horseback, are afterwards walked 
up by the shooters, who require only a retriever to find the 
woimded birds. In wilder districts where the birds are more 
scarce the pointer or the setter is used, but he is always worked 
within fifty or sixty yards of his master, and is never on any 
account suffered to " break fence." Hence the amount of ground 
beaten is comparatively small, but it is of such a nature, being 



GROUSE- AND PARTRIDGE-SHOOTING. 815 

composed almost entirely of stubble, fallow, or tumipB, that it 
requires a good nose to find game, while at the same time the 
scent of the partridge is very mild as compared with that of 
the grouse; on the other hand, this latter bird is found 
where they are scattered indiscriminately over the heath-covered 
slopes, and where dogs are essential to success, because there are 
no turnips or other cover to drive them into, and they are as 
likely to be on one spot as another. Hence every inch of ground 
must be beaten, and often a day's sport covers two or three thou- 
sand acres or even more. The scent of the grouse is also stronger 
than that of the partridge, and from the nature of the heather 
he is disposed to lie closely, unless made wild by constant dis- 
turbance, so that with good dogs he is seldom put up out of shot. 
The heather is very rough and irritating, and as it works up 
between the toes it makes the interspaces extremely sore if they 
are not well covered with hair. 

From these varying circumstances it results that a careful dog, 
not ranging too wide, but going steadily to work, and keeping 
at it at such a pace as to make sure of not flushing a bird, per- 
fectly steady " before and behind " and " down charge " is the dog 
for partridge-shooting ; while a wider ranger, with perhaps a trifle 
less delicacy of nose, will be preferred for grouse-shooting, espe- 
cially if he will last for a longer time at his work, and will bear 
the constant friction of the heather. Now it is clear to every one 
who has had much experience of the two kinds of dog, that the 
pointer has the more delicate nose ; for though some setters may 
compete with any pointer in this particular, yet^ on the whole, the 



316 EMPLOYMENT OF TUE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

average of setters are inferior to the average of pointers in powers 
of scent. The pointer is also more easily broken, and when per- 
fect, remains so with more certainty, but he has the disadvantage 
of more readily tiring, and his toes sooner become sore if used in 

* 

heather. On the whole, therefore, though there are numerous 
exceptions, the pointer is more suited to partridge-shooting, and 
the setter to grouse. If, however, the sportsman haa a fancy for 
or against either, and selects the smooth dog for the moors, he 
should fix upon a strong coarse-haired dog, and those with a cross 
of the foxhound seem to be generally preferred ; but they have 
some of the disadvantages of the setter, being much more difficult 
to break than the genuine pointer, but are far more hardy and 
enduring. Indeed, some of this breed will beat the setter in pace 
and endurance ; while the nose of the hound, being as good as that 
of the pointer, or nearly so, does not lower the power of scent, but 
it has a tendency to make the dog lose that fine handsome range 
which the true breed possess, as displayed in the high carriage of 
the head when at work, which is so beautiful to the eye of the 
sportsman. With regard to the peculiar breed of each which is to 
be selected, I should advise the modern pointer without the fox- 
hound cross (or, if any, very remote), taking care that there is 
endurance enough to carry the dog through a good day's shooting. 
On the average, few pointers will beat as they should do for more 
than four or six hours, and even this amount of work cannot be 
maintained for many days together. I have had one or two dogs 
which no one man could tire, but these were light greyhound-like 
animals; and though they could do wonders on a good scenting 



GROUSE- AND PARTRIDGE-SHOOTING. 317 

day, they were useless on a dry September afternoon, without any 
wind stirring. It is true that few dogs will find game on such a 
day ; but there are some which will reduce their pace accordingly, 
and these are generally to be found among the true pointers, bred 
with as large heads as possible, consistently with the possession of 
fi-ames suited to go through their work. They need not be very 
fast, but they should keep at their work steadily, and in that way 
will cover a vast deal of groimd in a short time, never flushing 
even a single bird, and rarely leaving one behind them. Such a 
dog, if well matched with another, is the one to kill game to ; and 
if the sportsman will only give the brace time to try their ground, 
and will avoid spoiling them by running in to wounded birds and 
other indiscretions, he will find that for all kinds of open shoot- 
ing they are invaluable. Irish setters are thought very highly of 
by some people; but those which I have used have been head- 
strong and unruly, while I never found any superiority in their 
noses, nor is their endurance, as far as I have seen, greater 
than that of our best English breeds. With a dog formed like 
the animal from which the engraving at page 94 was taken, 
great endurance may be expected, and his nose was equal to 
any emergency. The Eussian setter I know very little of, so 
can give no reliable opinion on his merits. 

In condticting the heaty whether for partridge or grouse, it is 
always desirable to give these dogs the wind, inasmuch as they 
generally find their game by the scent wafted to them in the 
air, and not by the foot-scent. Sometimes they are obliged to 
" road " a running bird, especially with grouse, which will often 



318 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

take the pointer or setter a long way, and a stupidly stiflF old- 
fashioned pointer which refuses to stir is an abomination. 
Nothing is more annoying than to see birds get up far out of 
shot, while the pointer is ** steady as a crutch" at his 'first 
point, where he caught the scent and where they started from. 
A sensible dog would either have drawn up to his birds after 
waiting till his master was close up, or he would have left his 
point and gone round to head them if he was unusually clever 
in his vocation. Such a feat is by no means unattainable, if 
dogs are broken to beat towards the shooter as explained at 
page 258 ; but some stupid brutes will never learn to do it 
of their own accord, and must be sent round by their master, 
which causes delay and takes away half the advantage of the 
plan. Beyond a repetition of the cautions as to making the 
dog work to hand, and keeping him steady **down charge," 
there is little more to be said on the use of the pointer and 
setter. 



SNIPE-SHOOTING. 

The following observations on snipe-shooting in Ireland, by 
an Irish sportsman, recently appeared in the columns of ** The 
Field ; " and, as the writer has had far more experience in this 
department of sport than I can lay claim to, I prefer intro- 
ducing these extracts to inserting the results of my own ex- 
perience, which, however, are strictly in accordance with his. 



SNIPE-SHO OTING . 319 

" In Ireland the best sportsmen do not commence snipe-shoot- 
ing until the November frosts set in. This is sometimes con- 
sidered an old-fashioned prejudice; but there are good reasons 
why it should be postponed until that season. For, although 
the birds bred here are in good condition in September, or 
even earlier, they do not, except to the mere tyro, afiford any- 
thing like the same sport. Instead of the ringing scream and 
rapid eccentric flight with which they dart away from the 
shooter through the thin frosty air of a winter's day, they 
flutter up with a faint cry from his feet, fly straight forward, 
and pitch almost immediately; while, to the gourmand, the 
difierence in flavour between a bird placed on the table in Sep- 
tember and December is almost as great as between a spent 
salmon and one fresh run from the sea. On the other hand, 
those birds which arrive here in October, during the equinoctial 
gales, are so thin and worn out with their long flight as 
scarcely to be worth powder and shot. 

** In shooting these birds, with or without a dog, it is always 
better to himt down the wind, as, unless it is blowing a hiurri- 
cane, they always fly against it. By this means the sportsman 
will get two shots for one he would otherwise obtain. The 
popular idea that the slightest graze will bring down a snipe is, 
like many popular ideas, a fallacy; no bird requires more care- 
ful marking. After being fired at^ I have known them fly nearly 
out of sight when shot clean through the body, and then drop 
suddenly dead. This happens most frequently when very light 
shot has been used ; and for that reason I would always recom- 



320 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

mend the shooter to load the second barrel with No. 6 shot. 
It has another advantage. He will often meet hares, teal, and 
duck at distances where his light shot would be thrown away; 
and it is well to be prepared for them. If a snipe stops 
screaming, and stoops in his flight after being fired at^ it is a 
pretty good sign that he is hit hard. If his legs drop, he is 
mortally wounded, and will never fly far. 

" In some marshes snipes are very wild, rising in wisps, before 
you can come within range. This generally occurs when the 
ground is wet, and the birds are sitting upon the little hillocks 
above the water. In such cases the dogs should be tied up, and 
the sportsman ought to walk them up alone. If this does not 
succeed, the only chance left is to stand (under cover if possible) 
at the windward end of the bog, and send the attendant in to 
leeward, with directions to make as little noise as possible; by 
this means a few shots may be obtained, and you will have an 
opportimity of, perhaps, marking some of the birds down in 
more favourable ground. At all events, there is the chance of 
meeting them when scattered through the coimtry. 

" Many an old Irish sportsman will smile at the idea of any 
person giving directions for finding snipe. Until the last few 
seasons they have been so numerous, that all he had to do was 
to walk into the first marsh and blaze away until the light failed, 
or his ammunition was expended. What with severe and long- 
continued frosts, however, drainage, and other * dreadful inven- 
tions of science,' as one of your correspondents terms agricultural 
improvements, we are not (except in a few happily situated Al- 



SNIPE-SHOOTING. 321 

satias) so sure of a good bag as we were : it may, therefore, be 
worth the shooter's while to study the habits of these birds. In- 
deed, every sportsman ought to be something of a * field natu- 
ralist,' as it gives him an additional enjoyment in his favourite 
sport. 

" The state of the weather is, I believe, the great clue to the 
haunts of the snipe, their delicate organisation making them pecu- 
liarly sensitive to atmospheric influences. At the first breath of 
the autumn frosts, those birds which have been bred upon the 
mountains leave their summer quarters, and come down to the 
vast bogs which still abound in some parts of our island. Here 
they are soon joined by their comrades from Scotland and the 
North of Europe, who rapidly recover from the eflfects of their 
long flight; and from that time forward, until the arrival of 
spring scatters them again, their life is one constant succession 
of changes from one part of the country to another, moving 
towards the sea-shore, the mountains, or inland, according as the 
season is mild or severe. 

" In very mild wet weather, snipe leave the bogs and return 
to the mountains, where it is scarcely worth the sportsman's 
while to follow them. With a good dog, however, fair sport can 
be had at such times by beating rushy coarse pastures and 
heathery uplands, where he will be sure to find a considerable 
number of outlying birds. In this description of ground they 
lie well to a dog, and are much easier to shoot than in the bogs, 
where the unsteadiness of footing makes it difficult to take 
iiccurate aim. 



822 EMPLOYBiENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

" I have always found northerly winds with hail showers the 
best weather for the marshes. The hail drives the birds down 
from the mountains, collects them together, and makes them 
unwilling to rise. In white frosts they are generally wild, 
though numerous; in hard black frosts they assemble in wisps 
about the margin of unfrozen springs, along the borders of 
streams, or in marshes near the shore. Bent grass is also a 
favourite haunt at such times, as frost has seldom any efifect 
upon it. Should the severe weather continue, they take to the 
plantations like woodcocks, to furze covers on southern slopes, 
and to the rocks on the shore. 

" Snipe are very restless at night, but, unless disturbed, 
seldom move in the daytime. During bright moonlight nights 
they travel a great deal, and are fond of feeding on the sea-shore. 
Walking along the coast at such times, I have put them up 
in dozens, and even in daylight have shot them on a strand. 
In beating a marsh near the sea I have always been least suc- 
cessful when the tide was out, which I could only account for 
by the supposition that the birds were then feeding, upon the 
strand. 

*^ In some districts in Ireland there are what are called black 
and red bogs. The sportsman will sometimes find them in one 
and sometimes in the other, never in both together. I cannot 
account for this, as the weather does not appear to be the 
cause; at least, I could not observe any marked change. 

" Almost any dog can be trained to set snipe. Water spaniels 
and Newfoundlands have been known to do it; and I once shot 



L 



SNIPE-SHOOTING. 323 

for part of a season over a little Dinmont terrier. But the dog 
of all dogs for that sport — or indeed any sport — is the old Irish 
setter, when he can be got pure. Handsome, courageous, hardy, 
and delighting in water, he is (as an old gamekeeper remarked to 
me once) * a companion for any gentleman.' The dropper is. also 
a capital dog for general purposes in a wet country. One of the 
finest animals I ever saw of this kind was the produce of a cross 
between a Eussian and a smooth pointer. They are, however, 
difficult to train, and curiously ugly. The smooth pointer should 
never be used in snipe-shooting. They have a natural dislike to 
the water, and, although their high breeding and coiu*age make 
them disregard it when in pursuit of game, any one who has seen 
them cowering at their master's heels after a hard day's work on 
a cold wintry day cannot but feel compassion for these noble 
animals. 

** In training dogs for snipe-shooting they should be broken as 
much as possible to ^ hand.' Shouting or talking in a bog ought 
always to be avoided ; more birds will be sprung in that way than 
by the report of the gun. No dog that splashes through the 
water, or with bad feet, should be used for snipe. It is in his 
peculiar style of going that the old Irish setter shows his supe- 
riority to all other dogs for this sport ; not pottering or plowtering 
among the reeds, like a tame drake, but moving through the 
marsh with a long, lights stealthy pace, like a panther in search 
of prey. 

^' The system of training dogs in Ireland is, generally speaking, 
very bad, — in fact, cannot well be worse. Three guineas and a 

T 2 



824 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN UUNTING, ETC. 

hundred-weight of meal is the usual charge; and for this you 
will get plenty of so-called gamekeepers and trainers willing 
to undertake the duty. I do not object to the price, which is 
moderate enough, if the duty was properly performed; but do 
object, and very strongly, to the fact that not one grain of the 
meal ever finds its way to the stomach of the unfortunate animal 
for whose benefit it was ostensibly bought. This would not suit 
the trainer's purpose, whose object is to return him * broken ' in 
the shortest possible time (and broken he certainly is, with a 
vengeance). This can only be accomplished by fasting and flagel- 
lation, and accordingly both are put liberally in requisition ; the 
former by leaving the dog entirely to his own resources, when the 
chances are, he takes to killing his own mutton ; and the latter, 
by the unsparing use of the whip, or the butt end of the gun, 
according as his master is drunk or out of temper. The conse- 
quences may easily be anticipated. Should he survive this treat- 
ment, he is returned at the end of three months, thoroughly 
cowed and heart-broken, and in such a state of starvation that 
his owner will have some difficulty in recognising his favourite. 
Should he succeed in getting once more into condition, it will be 
found that he has forgotten all he ever learned under the former 
system, and will require to be trained over again. 

" I would therefore recommend the sportsman, if he can spare 
time, by all means to break his own dogs. If he succeeds, and 
a little patience and temper are all that is required to make 
success certain, he will be amply repaid, for a dog works far 
better for the man who tiains him than for any one else. A sort 



COVERT SHOOTING. 325 

of mutual understanding springs up between them ; the dog gets 
into his master's ways, and a look or a gesture is sufficient to 
make him comprehend his meaning. Better this, surely, than 
the constant rating and flagellations which make it positively 
painful to go out with some men, who are everlastingly using 
the whip upon their unhappy slaves. 

" If the snipe-shooter wishes to keep his dogs in health and 
condition, free from coughs and colds, and always fit for work, he 
must not be above looking after them himself when their day's 
work is done, instead of handing them over to ignorant or care- 
less servants. Their legs and feet should be well washed in warm 
water before consigning them to the kennel, which ought to be 
comfortable and dry, and provided with a liberal allowance of 
straw. — Henrt Clive." 



COVERT SHOOTING. 

This kind of shooting is generally carried out by the aid of 
human beaters, who, either with or without dogs, enter the covert 
and drive the game to the shooter. Sometimes, however, the 
sportsman has a train of thoroughly broken spaniels, beagles, or 
terriers, and with these he goes quietly to work, either making 
them drive the game to him, or else keeping them at work so 
close to him, as he walks through the covert, that any game which 
is disturbed comes within shot. In either case the dogs should 

V 3 



326 EMPLOYMENT OF THE DOG IN HUNTING, ETC. 

be thoroughly under command, as has been explained in the 
chapter treating of the breaking of them to the gim, and, beyond 
the remarks there introduced, there is little to be said. A prac- 
tical acquaintance with each animal is more requisite here than 
in any other kind of shooting, because the sportsman always is 
being called upon to judge of the proximity of the dog to his 
game, and of the kind of game also by his note at the time. 
Hence practice is all important, and directions are of little avaiL 
The shooter must, however, be quick in his movements in getting 
to his dogs when they give tongue in a way to lead him to expect 
that they are close upon their game, or he will get few shots ; 
and in this one of the chief arts of covert shooting consists. It 
is, however, useless to attempt any further explanation of its 
details. 

Whether apanielsy heayleSy or tei^iera make the best covert dogs 
is a point which is sometimes discussed; but I think there is a 
general feeling in favour of the first, and at present the Clumber 
spaniel is certainly the fashion. He is more suited to battues, 
which are now the only kinds of covert shooting much in vogue, 
for the reason that pheasants will not bear disturbing many times 
in the season, and so the proprietor of a large preserve likes to 
give the greatest happiness to the greatest number of his friends 
on the small number of days which his gamekeeper advises him 
that he can aflFord. These spaniels, however, are too heavy for 
wild woodlands, or for cock-shooting, for which the light corky 
cocker must be employed. But between these t^o there is little 
room for the too noisy beagle, or the too silent terrier, and they 



WILDFOWL-SHOOTING. 327 

are therefore seldom used^ though the last is very useful to the 

single sportsman who goes quietly poking about in search of 
a shot. 



WILDFOWL-SHOOTING. 

As far as the dog is concerned, this kind of sport requires 
a steady water spaniel or retriever, with a good nose, and 
thoroughly accustomed to his work. In river and pond shooting, 
he will have to find as well as to retrieve the ducks or other 
kinds of water-fowl which are sought for; but in the marine 
variety his sole use is to retrieve the dead and crippled birds, 
which would otherwise be beyond the reach of the shooter. For 
each kind, however, the power of retrieving is most important, 
and no one would think of embarking in this sport without a 
dog thoroughly broken in this respect, or likely to become so. 
Those who wish to become expei-t in it, and have no friend or 
servant able to teach them the various details necessary for its 
successful prosecution, will do well to consult the pages of Col. 
Hawker, who has written most minute instructions for the con- 
struction and management of punts, punt guns, &c., in his 
celebrated work on shooting. 



T 4 



328 USE OF TEBBIEBS IN FERRETING, ETC. 

THE USE OF TERRIERS IN FERRETING, RATTING, ETC. 

Beyond the necessity for entering these dogs to their game, and 
breaking them from destroying the ferrets, little, can be said on 
the mode of using them. Some practice is of course required to 
do these things well and successfully, but the oral instructions of 
a good keeper or ratcatcher are of far more value than all the 
written directions which can be given. 



BOOK III. 



THE DISEASES OF THE DOG AKD THEIR TREATMENT. 



I 



I 



' 



331 



CHAPTER I. 

PECULIARITIES IN THE ANATOMY AND PHTSIOLOGT OF THE DOG. 

The Skeleton including the Teeth. — The Muscular System. — The Brain and 
Nervous Sjstcm. — The Digestive Sjstem. — The Heart and Lungs. — The 
Skin. 

THE SKELETON*, INCLUDING THE TEETH. 

In the skeleton of the dog and in that of the horse^ as well as 
of all other animals remarkable for their speedy there is a peculiar 
formation of the chest which deserves to be noticed. The prin- 
ciple of construction in every thoi^aXy as this part is called sden- 
tifically, is that of dilatation and contraction, by which its entire 
contents are lessened or increased, and thereby air is made to pass 
in and out. In man this is chiefly caused by the front of the 
chest rising and falling, and in this way increasing the diameter 
from before backwards, but in the dog, horse, deer, &c., the in- 
crease is from side to side, the ribs being fdcklenshaped, and acting 
laterally like the gill-covers of a fish. From this it often arises 
that a narrow-chested horse or dog may have better wind than 
another with a round barrel, because he is able to alter the cubic 
contents of his chest more rapidly, and thus inspire and expire 
a larger volume of air. A round barrel is nearly at its greatest 
expansion, and though it can contract it cannot dilate its volume, 
while the chest that is too flat can expand rapidly, but then it 

* See next page. 



ANATOMY OF THE DOG. 




Tha Bkctalon of tha Dof. (Yuiutt.) 



I. The iuteraunJlkr; bone 
3, Nual bono. 

3. Wa-iilTj Buperior. 

4. lAchiymil bone. 
9. Zygomatic bone. 
6. Orbit 

T. FnmUl bon«. 

5. Puietal bone. 

9, 9. Occipital bone. 
10, 10, la Temporal bone 



11,11, II. InfcriOT nuzil1ai7 or }aw- 

13,13. Senn inTerior muulluj molar 
teeth. 

13. IS. Six molar teeth of the nperior 

jaw. 

1 4. Canine l«eth of the lapcrior and io- 

(eriorjaiTi. 

15. Three inciior teeth of the raperior 

maxiUarf bone. 

16. Hie three inferior ditto. 



a, 0,0. The ligaaentDa nnchn. 
1. II. III. IT. y. Ti, Tn. The aerci 

tebra ot the neck. 
13. The thirteen dorsal vertebne. 

7. The uren lumbar Tcrtebne. 
SI. Os lacrnm, or rump-bone. 



52, SS. Twent; candal vertebi* — rerte- 
vcr- bin of the [ail. 

53. The left oi innominatom. 
34. Bight ditto. 

Tbe nine true ribt, with their cartilagea. 
The four ToIm riba, with their caitiiagta. 
. The itcmiun. 



SKELETON OF THE DOG. 



333 



TUB LEFT ANTERIOR EXTREMITY. 



1. The scapula, or shoalder-blade. 

2. Os hameri, or arm-bone. 

3. Radius — the lesser bone of the arm. 

4. The elbow, or olecranon process of 

the ulna. 
7. Os pisiforme, or pisiform bone. 
10. Os metacarpi digiti tcrtii — the third 
metacarpal bone. 



11. Os metacarpi digiti quart! — fourth 

metacarpal 

12. Os metacarpi digiti quinti. 

13. 13. 13. 13. The first phalanges of the 
fore feet. 

14. 14. 14. 14. The second ditto. 

15. The third ditto. 

16. The sesamoid bone. 



TDK RIGHT ANTERIOR EXTREMITT. 



1. Radius. 

2. Ulna. 

3. Os triquctrum — the triangular bone. 

5. Os semilnnare — the semilunar bone. 

6. Os multangulum majns — the larger 

multangular bone. 

7. Os multangulum minus — the small 

multangular bone. 

8. Os metacarpi pollicis — the thumb. 



9. Ossa metacarpi digitorum quatuor 
— the four bones of the meta- 
carpus. 

10. Phalanx prima pollicis — first pha- 

lange of the thumb. 

11. Phalanx tertia pollicis — third pha- 

lange of ditto. 

12. Digiti quatuor — phalanges of the 

four toes. 



THE LEFT POSTERIOR EXTREMITY. 



1, 1. Os fcmoris — thigh-bone. 

2. Patella — the knee-pan. 

3. 3. Tibia — the shank of the leg. 

4. 4. Fibula — the small bone of ditto. 

5. Os calcis — the heel. 

6. Astragalus — one of the seren bones 

of the tarsus. 

7. Os naviculare — the navicular bone. 

8. Os cuboideum — or cubic bone. 



9. Os cunciforme tertium et maximum. 

10. Os metatarsi digiti quarti. 

1 1. Os metatarsi digiti tertiL 

12. Os metatarsi digiti secundi. 

13. Os metatarsi digiti primi. 

14. Phalanges prims digitorum pedis. 

15. Phalanges secundn digitorum pedis. 

16. Phalanges tertise digitorum pedis. 

17. Os sesamoidenm — the sesamoid. 



THE RIUnT POSTERIOR EXTREMITY. 



1. Os femoris — the thigh-bone. 

2. Patella— the knee-pan. 

3. Tibia — the shank of the leg. 

4. Os calcis — the heel-bone. 

5. Astragalus — one of the seven bones 

of the tarsus. 

7. Os uaviculare — the navicular bone. 

8. Os cuneiforme primum et medium. 

9. Os cuboideum, or cubic bone. 

1 0. Os cuneiforme tertium et maximum 



11. Os cuneiforme secundum ct mini- 

mum. 

12. Rudimentum ossis metatarsi hallucis. 

13. Os metatarsi digiti primi. 

14. Os metatarsi digiti secundi. 

15. Os metatarsi digiti tcrtii. 

16. Phalanges primn digitorum 

17. Phalanges secundsQ digitorum pedis. 

18. Phalanges tertiie digitorum pedis. 

19. Os sesamoideum — the sesamoid. 



334 ANATOMY OF THE DOG. 

has not the power of contraction beyond its natural limits. A 
medium transverse diameter is therefore to be desired^ and is 
practically found to be advantageous, in allowing a better action 
of the shoulder-blades rolling upon the surface on each side. 
On the other hand, man requires great depth of chest from 
before backwards if he is to have good wind, and the lateral 
diameter is of less importance. These facts ought to be taken 
into consideration in selecting the best kind of frame for the 
purposes of speed and endurance. 

Large size of bane contributes to the strength of the limbs, 
and foxhounds especially, which have continual blows and strains 
in their scrambling over or through fences of all kinds, require 
big limbs and joints. When, however, extreme speed is desired, 
as in the greyhound, there may be an excess of bone, which then 
acts as so much lumber, and impedes the activity. Still, even in 

this dog, the bones and joints must be strong enough to resist 
the shocks of the course, without which we constantly find them 
liable to fracture or dislocation. If, however, a dog is brought 
up at liberty, and from his earliest years is encouraged in his play, 
the bones though small are strong, and the joints are united 
by firm ligaments which will seldom give way. 

The dog has tvo coUar-honey so that his fore quarter is only 
attached to the body by muscular tissue. This is effected chiefly 
by a broad sling of muscle, which is attached above to the edge 
of the shoulder-blade, and below to tiie ribs near their lower 
ends. It is also moved backwards by muscles attached to the 
spine, and forwards by others connected in front to the neck and 



TEETH OF THE DOQ. 



head, bo that at the will of the animal it plays freely in all 
directions. 

The te^h are 42 in number arranged as follows : — 
Incisors 4^ : Canines jf) : Molars !^ 



rg. 1. 



Fif. s. 




TEETH OF THE DOG AT VARIOUS AGES. 

The inciaora are somewhat remarkable in shape, having three 

little lobules at their edges resembling Bkjieur-de-Lie (F^. 1 ). Next 

to these come the canine teeth or tusks, and then the molars, which 



836 ANATOMY OF THE DOG. 

vary in form considerably. In the upper jaw, in front, are three 
sharp and cutting teeth, which Cuvier cbUb false molars; then a 
tooth with two cutting lobes ; and lastly two flat teeth, or time 
molars. In the under jaw, the first four molars on each side are 
false, or cutters ; then an intermediate one, with the posterior part 
flat ; and lastly two tubercular teeth, or true molars. As the in- 
cisors are worn away and the dog becomes old, the lobules on the 
edges wear away and are flattened (see Figs. 3 and 4). The 
teeth are developed in two sets; the first, called mUh-teeih, 
showing themselves through the gums about a fortnight or three 
weeks after birth, and lasting till the fifth or sixth month, when 
they are displaced by the permanent set, the growth of which 
is accompanied by a degree of feverishness which is often mis- 
taken for distemper. The dog's teeth should be beautifully white, 
if he is healthy and well reared, and until the third year there 
should be no deposit of tartar upon them, but after that time they 
are always coated with this substance at the roots, more or less, 
according to the feeding and state of health. 

The fore feet are generally provided with five toes, and the 
hind with foiu*, all furnished with strong nails that are not 
retractile. The inner toe on the fore feet is more or less rudi- 
mental, and is called the dew-claw ; while there is also sometimes 
present in the hind foot a claw in the same situation still more 
rudimental, inasmuch as there is often no bony connexion with 
the metatarsal bone. This also is called the dew-claw, when 
present. 



THE MUSCULAB AND NERVOUS SYSTEliS. 337 



THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM. 

The muscles of the dog have nothing remarkable about them^ 
excepting that they are renewed and wasted faster than in most 
animals. This has passed into a proverb, and should be known 
as influencing the time which dogs take to recruit their strength. 



THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

The nervous system is highly developed in those breeds which 
have been carefully attended to, that is, where individuals of 
high nervous sensibility have been selected to breed from. 
This is therefore remai'kable in the bulldog, selected for genera- 
tions for courage ; in the pointer, where steadiness in pointing has 
been the prominent cause of choice; and in the greyhound, 
whose characteristic is speed ; all requiring a high development 
of the nervous system, and all particularly liable to nervous 
diseases, such as fits, chorea, &c. On the other hand, the cur, 
the common sheep-dog, &c., seldom suffer from any disease 
whatever. 



z 



388 ANATOMY OF THE DOG. 



THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 

The stomach of this animal is extremely powerful in dissolving 
bones, but it is also very liable to sickness, and on the slightest 
disturbance rejects its contents. This appears to be ahnost a 
natural effect^ and not a diseased or disordered condition, as there 
is scarcely a dog which does not wilfully produce vomiting 
occasionally by swallowing grass. Few medicines which are at 
all irritating will remain down, and a vast number which are 
supposed to be given are not retained on the stomach, while others 
are only partially so. The bowels are extremely liable to 
become costive, which is in great measure owing to the want of 
proper exercise, and this also is very apt to produce torpidity 
of the liver. It may, however, be observed that in almost all 
particulars, except the tendency to vomit, the digestive organs of 
the dog resemble those of man. 



THE HEART AND LUNGS. 



There is nothing whatever remarkable in the heart and lungs ; 
but the blood-vessels, like those of most of the lower animals, 
are so elastic in their coats that they quickly contract when 
divided, and a fatal bleeding rarely results. 



THE SKIN. 339 



THE SKIN. 

The skin of the dog is said to be quite free from perspiration, 
but this is a mistake, as I have often seen the short hairs of a 
smooth-coated dog glistening with fine beads of liquid, poured 
out on a hot day, when strong exercise was taken. The tongue, 
however, is the grand means of carrying oflf heat by evaporation, 
and its extensive surface, when hanging out of the mouth, is 
sufficient for the piupose, as the fluid is carried off more rapidly 
from the air passing over it in expiration. I am persuaded that 
a considerable amount of insensible perspiration is constantly 
going on from the surface of the skin, and that nothing ought to 
be done which is likely to check it. This, however, is contrary to 
the generally received opinion, which is that nothing of the 
kind takes place in this animal. 



3S 2 



340 



CHAPTER 11. 

THE REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG, AND THE BEST MEANS OF 

ADMINISTERING THEM. 

Alteratives. — Anodynes. -^ Antispasmodics. — Aperients. — Astringents. — 
Blisters. •— Caustics. — Charges. — Cordials. — Diuretics. — Embrocations. — 
Emetics. — Expectorants. — Fever medicines. — Cljsters. — Lotions. — Oint- 
ments. — Stomachics. — Stjptics. ^ Tonics. — Worm medicines. — Admi- 
nistration of Remedies. 

ALTERATIVES. 

These are medicines which are given with a view of changing 
an unhealthy into an healthy action. We know nothing of the 
mode in which the change is produced, and we can only judge 
of them by the results. The most powerful are mercury, iodine, 
hemlock, hellebore, and cod-liver oil, which are given in the fol- 
lowing formulas : 

1. — ^thiop's mineral, Uto 5 grains. 

Powdered rhubarb, 1 to 4 grains. 
„ ginger, i to 1} grain. 

Mix and make into a pill, to be given every evening. 

2. — Hemlock extract, or fresh-bruised leaves, 2 to 4 grains. 

Plummer*s pill, 1} to 5 grains. 

Mix, and give every night, or every other night. 



ALTERATIVES ANODYNES. 841 

3. — Iodide of potassium, 2 to 4 grains. 

Liquid extract of sarsaparilla, 1 drachm. 

Mix, and give in a little water, once or twice a day. 

4. — Stinking hellebore, 5 to 10 grains. 

Powdered jalap, 2 to 4 grains. 

Mix into a bolus, and give every other night. 

5. — Cod-liver oil, from a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful. 
To be given twice a day. 



ANODYNES. 

Anodynes are required in the dog chiefly to stop diarrhceay 
which is a very common disease in him. Sometimes also they 
are used for the purpose of relieving spasm. Opium is so little 
objectionable in the dog that is almost the only anodyne used ; 
but the dose must be far larger than for human beings, and less 
than a teaspoonful of laudanum for an average dog will be found 
to be wholly inert. 

For slight purging : 

6.— Prepared chalk, 2 to 3 drachms. 
Aromatic confection, 1 drachm. 
Laudanum, 3 to 8 drachms. 
Powder of gum arable, 2 drachms. 
Water, 7 ounces. 

Mix, and give two tablespoonfuls every time the bowels are relaxed. 

% 3 



342 RE&IEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

or, 

7. — Castor oil, from a dessert to a tablespoonful. 
Laudanum, 1 to 2 drachms. 

Mix, and give as a drench, repeating it in a day or two if necessary. 

For long standing and severe purgation : 

8. — Creasote, 2 drachms. 

Laudanum, 6 to 8 drachms. 
Prepared chalk, 2 drachms. 
Powdered gum arabic, 2 drachms. 
Tincture of ginger, 2 drachms. 
Peppermint water, 6 ounces. 

Mix, and give two tablespoonfuls every time the bowels are relaxed, but 
not more often than every four hours. 



ANTISPASMODICS 

Are useful in allaying cramp or spasm, but, as in the case of 
Alteratives, we do not know how they act. The chief are opium, 
SBther, spirit of turpentine, and camphor, prescribed according to 
the following formulas : 

9. — Laudanum, 

Sulphuric ether, of each | to 1 drachm. 
Camphor mixture, 1 ounce. 

Mix, and give in any ordinary spasm, as colic, &c. 

An antispasmodic injection : 

10. — Laudanum, 

Sulphuric aether. 

Spirit of turpentine, of each 1 to 2 drachms. 

Gruel, 3 to 8 ounces. 

Mix, and inject with a common clyster syringe. 



ANTISPASMODICS. — APERIENTS. 343 



APERIENTS. 

Aperients, opening medicines, or purges, by which several names 
this class of medicines is known, are constantly required by the 
dog, though it is a great mistake to give them when they are not 
absolutely demanded by the necessity of the case. All act by 
quickening the ordinary muscular action of the bowels, but 
some also stimulate the lining membrane to pour out large quan- 
tities of watery fluid, and others either directly or indirectly 
compel the liver to increase its secretion of bile. Hence they 
are often classed into corresponding divisions, as laxatives, drastic 
purgatives, &c. The chief of these drugs used in the dog-kennel 
are aloes, colocynth, rhubarb, jalap, ipecacuanha, senna, calomel, 
and blue pill, all of which act more or less on the liver; while 
Epsom salts, castor oil, and croton oil open the bowels without 
any such efiect. Sjrrup of buckthorn is commonly given, but has 
little effect ; and, indeed, the syrup of red poppies is generally 
substituted for it by the druggist, who seldom keeps the genuine 
article, from the belief that it is inert 

A mild bolus : 

11. — Borbadoes aloes, 10 to 15 gnunB. 
Powdered jalap, 5 to 8 grains. 
Ginger, 2 or 3 grains. 
Soap, 10 grains. 

Mix into one bolus for a large dog, or divide into two or three for 
small ones, and give as required. 

X 4 



344 BEBfEDlES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

Strong bolii8 : 

12. — Calomel, 3 to 5 grains. 

Jalap, 10 to 20 grains. 

Mix with syrup, and give as a bolus. 

A good common aperient, when the liver is sluggish : 

13. — Blue pill, 6 to 8 grains. 

Compound extract of colocynth, 12 to 18 grains. 
Powdered rhubarb, 3 to 5 grains. 
Oil of cloves, 2 drops. 

Mix, and give as a bolus to a large strong dog, or divide into two or 
three for smaller dogs. 

Very strong purgative when there is an obstruction : 

14. — Croton oil, 1 to 2 drops. 

Purified opium, 1 to 2 grains. 
Linseed meal, 10 grains. 

Mix the meal with boiling water into a thick paste, then add the oil 
and spices, and give as a bolus. 

Ordinary castor oil mixture : 

15. — Castor oil, 3 ounces. 

Syrup of buckthorn, 2 ounces. 
Syrup of poppies, 1 ounce. 

Mix, and give a tablespoonful to a medium-sized dog. 

Very strong purgative mixture : 

16. — Jalap, 10 gruns. 

Epsom salts, 2 drachms. 
Subcarbonate of soda, 10 grains. 
Infusion of senna, 1 ounce. 
Tincture of senna, 2 drachms. 
Tincture of ginger, 15 drops. 

Mix, and give as a drench. For a small dog, give one half, one third, or 
one quarter, according to size. 



APERIENTS. — ASTRINGENTS. 345 

A purgative clyster : 

17. — Castor oil, \ ounce. 

Spirit of turpentine, 2 to 3 drachms. 
Common salt, ) ounce. 
Gruel, 6 to 8 ounces. 
Mix all together, and inject carefully per anum. 



ASTRINGENTS 

Produce contraction in all living tissues with which they are 
placed in apposition^ either directly or by means of absorption 
into the circulation. Of these, opium, gallic acid, alum^ bark, 
catechu, sulphate of zinc, nitrate of silver, and chloride of ziuc 
are the most commonly used. 

An astringent bolus for diabetes or internal hemorrhage : 

18. — Gallic acid, 3 to 6 grains. 

Alum, 4 to 7 grains. 
Purified opium, 1 to 2 grains. 

Mix with sjrup, and give two or three times a day to a large dog 

or, 

19. — Nitrate of silver, | grain. 

Crumb of bread, enough to make a small pill. 

To be given twice a day. 

Astringent wash for the eyes : 

20. — Sulphate of zinc, 5 to 8 grains. 

Water, 2 ounces. — Mix. 



a4(> BGMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

or, 

21. — Extract of goulard, 1 dracbm. 

Water, 1 ounce. — Mix. 

or, 

22. — Nitrate of silver, 2 to 6 grains. 

Distilled water, 1 ounce. — Mix. 

Wash for the penis : 

23. — Chloride of zinc, | to 2 grains. 

Water, 1 ounce.— Mix. 

Astringent application for piles : 

24. — Grallic acid, 10 grains. 

Extract of goulard, 15 drops 
Powdered opium, 15 grains. 
Lard, 1 ounce. 

Mix, and apply night and morning. 



BLISTERS 

Are not often used for the dog, because unless he has a proper 
muzzle on he will lick them oflF, and injure himself very ma- 
terially. Sometimes, however, as in inflammation of the lungs, 
they are absolutely necessary. Iodine blisters to reduce local 
swellings may often be applied with a bandage over them, but 
even then, unless there is a muzzle on, the dog soon gets the 
bandage off, and uses his tongue. The chief are cantharides, 
turpentine^ sulphuric acid, mustard, ammonia, tincture of iodine. 



BLISTERS. 347 

and biniodide of mercury; the last two having some peculiar 
effect in producing absorption of any diseased substance lying 
beneath. In all cases the hair ought to be cut off as closely as 
possible. 

A mild blister : 

25. — Powdered cantbarides, 5 or six drachms. 

Venice turpentine, 1 ounce. 
Lard, 4 ounces. — Mix, and rub in. 

Strong blister : 

26. — Strong mercurial ointment, 4 ounces. 

Oil of origanum, | ounce. 

Finely powdered euphorbium, 3 drachms. 

Powdered cantharides, i ounce. — Mix. 

Very quick blister : 

527. — Flour of mustard, 4 ounces. 
Spirit of turpentine, 1 ounce. 
Strong liquor of ammonia, J ounce. 

Mix the mustard with water into a paste, then add the other ingredients 
and rub in. 

For bony growths or other tumours : 

28. — Tincture of Iodine. 

Painted on everj day, by means of a common painter's brush. 

or, 

29. — Biniodide of mercury, 1 to 1} drachms. 

Lard, 1 ounce. 

Mix, and rub in a piece the size of a nutmeg every day, keeping the 
part wet with tincture of arnica, | ounce, mixed with half a pint of 
water. 



348 BEldEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 



CAUSTICS. 

This name is given to substances which either actually or 

potentially destroy the living tissue; the actual cautery is an 

iron heated in the fire^ the potential some chemical substance, 

such as corrosive sublimate^ lunar caustic, caustic potash, a mineral 

acid, or the like. The actual cautery, or firing, is not often used 

for the dog, but in some cases it is of great service. Both kinds 

are used for two purposes : one to relieve the eflfects of strains, 

and other injuries of the limbs, by which the ligaments are 

inflamed ; and the other to remove diseased growth such as, warts, 

fungus, &c. 

30. — Firing, when adopted for the dog, should be carried out with a very 
small thin-edged iron, as the dog*s skin is thin, and very liable to 
slough. Ko one should attempt this without experience or previously 
watching others. 

31. — Lunar caustic, or nitrate of silver, is constantly required, being very 
manageable in the hands of any person accustomed to woimds, &c. 

32. — Sulphate of copper, or bluestone, is much milder than the lunar caustic, 
and may be freely rubbed into the surface of fungus or proud flesh. 
It is very useful in ulcerations about the toes. 

33. — Fused potass is not fit for any one but the experienced surgeon. 

34. — Corrosive sublimate in powder may be applied, carefully and in very 

small quantities, to warts, and then washed off. It is apt to extend 
its effects to the surrounding tissues. 

35. — Yellow orpiment is not so strong as corrosive sublimate, and may be 
used in the same way. 

36. — Burnt alum and white sugar, in powder, act as mild caustics. 



CHARGES CORDIALS. 849 



CHARGES. 

Charges ore plasters which act chiefly by mechanical pressure, 
being spread on while hot, and then covered with tow. They 
are not much used among dogs, but in strains they are sometimes 
useful, as they allow the limb to be used without injury. The 
best for the dog is composed as follows : 

37. — Canada balsam, 2 ounces. 

Powdered arnica leaves, J ounce. 

Melt the balsam, and mix up with the powder, with the addition of a littlo 
turpentine, if necessary. Then smear over the part, and cover with tow, 
which is to be well matted in with the hand ; or use thin leather. 



CORDIALS. 

Warm stimulating stomachics are so called. They may be 
given either as a ball or a drench. 

Cordial ball : 

38. — Powdered caraway seeds, 10 to 15 gnuns. 

Ginger, 3 to 5 grains. 
Oil of cloves, 2 drops. 

Linseed meal, enough to make a ball, first mixing it with 
boiling water. 

Cordial drench : 

39. — Tincture of cardamoms, ) to 1 drachm. 

Sal volatile, 15 to 30 drops. 
Tincture of cascarilla, ^ to 1 drachm. 
Camphor mixture, 1 oz. — Mix. 



850 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 



DIURETICS. 

Medicines which act on the secretion of urine are called 
diuretics. They are either employed when the kidneys are 
sluggish^ to restore the proper quantity; or to increase it beyond 
the natural standard, when it is desired to lower the system. 

Diuretic bolus : 

40. — Nitre, 5 to 8 grains. 

Digitalis, ^ grain. 
Ginger, 2 or 3 grains. 

Mix with linseed meal and water, and give all or part, according to the 
size of the dog. 

Diuretic and alterative bolus: 

41. — Iodide of potassium, 2 to 4 grains. 

Nitre, 3 to 6 grains. 

Digitalis, \ grain. 

Extract of chamomile, 5 grains. 

Mix, and give all or part 



EMBROCATIONS. 

These external applications, otherwise called liniments, are 
extremely useful in the dog, for strains, or sometimes to relieve 
muscular inflammation, or chronic rheumatism of the joints. 
Mustard, ammonia, laudanum, and turpentine are the chief agents 
employed. 



£l^fBBOCATIONS. — EMETICS. 961 

Miistard embrocation: 

42. — Best mustard, 3 to 5 ounces. 

Liquor of ammonia, 1 ounce. 
Spirit of turpentine, 1 ounce. 

I^fix into a thin paste, and rub into the part affected. 

Embrocation for strains or rheumatism : 

43. — Spirit of turpentine. 

Liquor of ammonia. 
Laudanum, of each J ounce. 

Mix, and shake well before using, then rub in. 



EMETICS. 

Emetics are very commonly used in the diseases of the dog, 
and sometimes act very beneficially; but they have a tendency 
to weaken the stomach, and should therefore be used with caution. 
If not frequently resorted to no harm is likely to accrue, as 
vomiting is almost a natural process in the dog. 

Common salt emetic : 

44. — Dissolve a teaspoonful of salt and half a teaspoonful of mustard 
in half a pint of tepid water, and give it as a drench. 

Strong emetic : 

45. — Tartar emetic, 1 to 3 grains. 

Dissolve in a tablespoonful of warm water, and give as a drench ; fol- 
lowing it up in a quarter of an hour, by pouring down as much thin 
gruel as the dog can be made to swallow. 



Common cough bolus : 

46. — Ipecacuanha in powder, i to 1) grain. 

Powdered rhubarb, 1 to 2 grains. 
Purified opium, ^ to 1 J grain. 
Compound squill pill, 1 to 2 grains. 

Mix, and give night and morning. 

Expectorant draughty useful in recent cough : 

47. — Ipecacuanha wine, 5 to 10 drops. 

Common mucilage, 2 drachms. 
Sweet spirit of nitre, 20 to 30 drops. 
Paregoric, 1 drachm. 
Camphor mixture, i ounce. 

Mix, and give two or three times a day. 



Expectorant draught for chronic cough : 

48. — Friar*8 balsam, 8 to 12 drops. 
Sjrrup of poppies, 1 drachm. 
Diluted sulphuric acid, 3 to 8 drops. 
Mucilage, 2 drachms. 
Paregoric, 1 drachm. 
Camphor mixture, ^ ounce. 

Mix, and give twice a day. 



FEVEB MEDICINES. 353 



FEVER MEDICINES. 

These medicines reduce fever by increasing the secretions of 
urine and perspiration^ and by reducing the action of the heart 
to some extent. 

Common fever powder : 

49. — Nitre in powder, 3 to 5 grains. 

Tartar emetic^ i grain. 

Mix, and put dry on the dog*s tongue everjr night and morning. 
More active powder : 

50. — Calomel, J to IJ grain. 

Nitre, 3 to 5 grains. 
Digitalis, ^ to 1 grain. 

Mix, and give once or twice a day, in the same way ; or made into 
a pill with confection. 



Fever mixture : 



51. — Nitre, 1 drachm. 

Sweet spirit of nitre, 3 drachms. 
Mindererus* spirit, 1 ounce. 
Camphor mixture, 6| ounces. 

Mix, and give two tablcspoonfuls every six hours. 



A A 



351 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 



CLYSTERS 

Are extremely useful in the dog, who is very liable to con- 
stipation from want of exercise, and in that case is mechanicaliy 
bound. A pint of warm water, in which some yellow soap has 
been dissolved, will generally have the desired effect. 

Turpentine clyster in colic : 

52. — Spirit of turpentine, ^ ounce. 
Castor oil, 1 ounce. 
Laudanum, 2 to 3 drachms. 
Gruel, 1 pint. 

Alix, and throw up, using onljr half or one third for a small dog. 



LOTIONS, 

Otherwise called Washes, are intended either to reduce the 
temperature in inflammation of the surface to which they are 
applied, or to brace the vessels of the part. 

Cooling lotion for bruises : 

53. — Extract of lead, 1 drachm. 

Tincture of arnicn, ^ to 1 drachm. 
Water, ^ pint. 

Mix, and ap])ly by means of a bamhigc or sponge.. 



LOTIONS. — OINTMENTS. 355 

For severe stiffness from over-exercise : 

54. — Tincture of arnica, j draclim. 

Strong spirit of wine, whisky, or brandy, 7} drachms. 

Mix, and rub well into the back and limbs, before the fire. 

Lotion for the eyes : 

55. — Sulphate of zinc, 20 to 25 grains. 

Water, ) pint. 

Mix, flnd wash the eyes night and morning. 
Strong drops for the eyes : 

56. — Nitrate of silver, 3 to 8 grains. 

Distilled water, I ounce. 

Mix, and drop in with a quill. 



OINTMENTS. 

By means of lard, wax, &c., various substances are mixed up so 
as to be applied to wounds, chiefly to keep out the air. 

A good ointment for old sores : 

57. — Yellow basilicon. 

Ointment of nitric-oxide of mercury, equal parts. 

Digestive ointment : 

58. — Red precipitate, 2 ounces. 

Venice turpentine, 3 ounces. 
Beeswax, 1 } ounce. 
Lani, 4 ounces.— Mix. 

A A 2 



356 REMEDIES SUITED TO TIIE DOG. 



STIMULANTS — see CORDIALS. 



STOMACHICS. 

The name describes the use of the remedies, which are in- 
tended to give tone to the stomach. 

Stomachic bolus : 

59. — Extract of gentian, 6 to 8 grains. 

Powdered rhubarb, 2 to 3 grains. 

Mix, and give twice a day. 

Stomachic draught : 

60. — Tincture of cardamoms, ^ to 1 drachm. 

Compound iufusion of gentian, 1 ounce. 
Carbonate of soda, 3 grains. 
Powdered ginger, 2 grains. 

Mix, and give twice a day. 



STYPTICS 



Are remedies applied to stop bleeding. In the dog the vessels 
seldom give way externally, but internally the disease is frequent 
enough, either in the shape of a bloody flux, or bloody urine, or 
bleeding from the lungs, for which the following may be tried : 



STYPTICS TONICS WOBM MEDICINES. 357 

Gl* — Superacetate of lead^ 2 to 3 grains. 
Tincture of matico, 30 to 50 drops. 
Vinegar, 10 drops. 
Water, 1 ounce. 
Mix, and give two or three times a day. 



TONICS. 

Tonics permanently increase the tone or vigour of the system ^ 
]being particularly useful in the recovery from low fever. 

Tonic pill : 

62. — Sulphate of quinine, I to 3 grains. 

Extract of hemlock, 2 grains. 
Ginger, 2 grains. 

Mix, and give twice a day» 

Tonic mixture : 

63. — Compound tincture of bark, 2 ounces. 

Decoction of yellow bark, 14 ounces. 

Mix, and give three tablespoonfuls twice or thrice daily to a large dog. 



WORM MEDICINES. 

By this term we are to understand such substances as will 
expel worms from the intestines of the dog, their action being 

AA 3 



358 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

either poisonous to the worm itself, or so irritating as to caiise 
them to evacuate their position. All ought either to be in them- 
selves purgative, or to be followed by a medicine of that class, in 
order to insure the removal of the eggs, as well as the worms 
themselves. The more detailed directions will be found in the 
chapter on Worms. 

Aperient worm-bolus: 

64. — Calomel, 2 to 5 graing. 

Jalap, 10 to 20 grains. 

Mix into a bolus, with treacle. 

For general worms. Not aperient, and therefore to be followed 
by castor oil : 

65. — Kecently powdered areca nut, 1 to 2 drachms. 

Mix up with broth, and give to the dog directly, as there is no taste in it 
till it has been soaked some time, when the broth becomes bitter. 
If the dog refuses it he must be drenched. Four hours after, give 
a dose of castor oil. (15.) 

For round-worms, or maw-woims: 

66. — Indian pink, } ounce. 

Boiling water, 8 ounces. 

Let it stand for an hour, then strain, and give half to a large dog, a 
quarter to a middle-sized dog, or an eighth to a very small one. 
This, however, is a severe remedy, and is not unattended with danger. 
It should be followed by castor oil in six hours. (15.) 

Mild remedy, unattended with any danger : 

67. — Powdered glass, as much as will lie on a shilling, heaped up. 

To be mixed with butter, and given as a bolus, following it up with 
castor oil after six hours. (15.) 



ADMINISTRATION OF BEMEDIES. 359 

For tape-worm : 

68. — K0U880, ^ to i ounce. 

Lemon juice, 1 tablespoonful. 
Boiling water, ^ pint. 

Pour the water on the kousso, and when nearly cold add the lemon 
juice. Stir all up together, and give as a drench. It should be 
followed up in six or eight hours by a dose of oil. (15.) 

Another remedy for tape-worm : 

69. — Spirit of turpentine, 1 to 4 drachms. 

Tic this up firmly in a piece of bladder, then give as a bolus, taking care 
not to burst the bladder. This also requires a dose of oil to follow. 
(15.) Or mix the turpentine with suet into a bolus. 

Another : 

70. — Fresh root of male fern, 1 to 4 drachms. 

Powdered jalap, 15 grains. 

Liquorice powder and water, enough to make a bolus. 

The oil of male fern is better than the dry root, the dose being ten to 
thirty drops. 



ADMINISTRATION OF REMEDIES. 

Some considerable tact and knowledge of the animal are re- 
quired^ in order to give medicines to the dog to the best 
advantage. In the first place, his stomach is peculiarly irritable, 
and so much under the control of the will, that most dogs can 
vomit whenever they like. Hence it is not only necessary to 
give the medicine, but also to insure its being kept down. 

A A 4 



360 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

For this purpose, however, it is generally only necessary to keep 
up the dog's head, as he will not readily vomit without bringing 
his nose to the ground, and so it is the regular practice in large 
kennels, in giving a dose of physic, to put the couples on, and 
fasten them up to a hook, at such a height that the dog cannot 
lower his head, maintaining this position for two or three hours. 
A single dog may be watched, if such is preferred, but a lot of 
hounds in physic must be treated with less ceremony. 



THE DOG'S SYSTEM RESEMBLES THAT OF MAN. 

The effects of remedies on the dog are nearly the same as on 
man, so that any one who understands how to manage himself 
may readily extend his sphere of usefulness to the dog. On the 
other hand, horses require a very different treatment, which 
accounts for the ignorance of the diseases of the dog so often 
displayed by otherwise clever veterinary surgeons, who have con- 
fined their attention to the more valuable animal. Some remedies 
affect the dog differently, however ; thus laudanum, which is a 
very dangerous drug in human medicine, rarely does harm to the 
canine species, and treble the dose which is enough for a man will 
be required for the dog. On the other hand, calomel is quite 
the reverse, being extremely liable to produce great irritation on 
the lining membrane of the dog's stomach and bowels. 



MODB OF GIVING A BOLUS OR PILL. 361 



MODE OP GIVING A BOLUS OR PILL. 

If the dog is sinall^ take him on the lap, without harshness, and 
if inclined to use his claws tie a coarse towel round his neck^ 
letting it fall down in front, which will muffle them effectually ; 
then with the finger and thumb of the left hand press open the 
mouth by insinuating them between the teeth, far enough back 
to take in the cheeks, and so to compel the mouth to open from 
the pain given by the pressm*e against the teeth, while it also 
prevents the dog from biting the fingers. Then raising the nose, 
drop the pill as far back as possible, and push it well down the 
throat with the forefinger of the right hand. Let go with the left, 
still hold the nose up, keeping the mouth shut, and the pill is 
sure to go down. A large dog requires two persons to give a 
pill, if he is at all inclined to resist. First, back him into a 
comer, then stride over him, and putting a thick cloth into his 
mouth, bring it together over the nose, where it is held by the 
left hand; the right can then generally lay hold of the lower 
jaw. But if the dog is very obstinate and inclined to resist, another 
cloth must also be placed over tbat^ and then drawing them apart 
an assistant can push the pill down. Very often a piece of meat 
may be used to wrap the pill up in, and the dog will readily bolt 
it ; but sometimes it is desirable to avoid this, as it may be neces- 
sary to give the medicine by itself. Even large dogs, however, 
are seldom so troublesome as to require the above precautions in 
giving pills, though they almost always obstinately refuse liquid 
medicine when they have tasted it once or twice. 



362 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 



MODE OF DRENCHING THE DOG. 

If a small quantity only is to be given, the dog's head being 
held, the liquid may be poured through the closed teeth, by making 
a little pouch of the cheek ; ])ut this is a tedious process, as the 
animal often refuses to swallow it for a long time, and then 
struggles till half is wasted. A spoon answers for small quantities, 
but for larger a soda-water bottle is the best instrument. Then, 
having the dog held on either of the plans recommended in the 
last paragraph, pour a little down, and shut the mouth, which 
is necessary, because the act of swallowing cannot be performed 
with it open. Repeat this till all is swallowed. Then watch the 
dog, or tie his head up, till it is clear that the medicine will \ye 
retained on the stomach. 



CLYSTERS, OR INJECTIONS. 

When the bowels are very much confined, a pint or two of warm 
gruel will often be of great service, if thrown up into the rectum. 
The dog should be placed on his side, and held in this position 
on a table by an assistant, while the operator passes the pipe care- 
fully up into the rectum, and then pumps the fluid up. 



APPLICATION OF THE MUZZLE. 363 



THE APPLICATION OF THE MUZZLE. 

\Mien any operatiou is to be performed which is likely to make 
the dog use his teeth , he must be muzzled, either with an instru- 
ment made on purpose, or with a piece of tape, which is to be 
first wound round the nose of the dog, as close to the eyes as 
possible without touching them, then tied in a knot between them, 
and both ends brought back over the forehead to the collar, 
where they are to be made fast. When a muzzle is required to be 
worn by a savage dog, cither iu-doors or out, it must be so made 
as to allow of his readily putting his tongue out. For this pur- 
pose either a cone of leather pierced with holes, or of wire, is 
strapped on by a neck-strap and two or three short side-straps. 



d(;4 



CHAPTER III. 

FEVERS, AND TUEIR TREATMENT. 

Simple Ephemeral Fever, or Cold. — Epidemic Fever, or Influenza. — Typhus 
Fever, or Distemper. — Rheumatic Fever. — Small-Pox. — Sympathetic 
Fever. 

The dog is peculiarly liable to febrile attacks, which have 
always a tendency to put on a low form, very similar in its 
nature to that known as typhus in human medicine. This is 
so generally the case, that every dog is said to have the dis- 
temper at some time of his life, that name being given to this 
low form of fever. Hence, an attack may commence with a 
common cold, or any inflammatory affection of the lungs, 
bowels, &C.; but, this going on to assume the low form, it 
becomes a case of genuine typhus fever, or distemper. Never- 
theless, it does not follow that the one must necessarily end 
in the other; and so the dog may have simple fever, known as 
" a cold," or various other complaints, without being subjected to 
the true distemper. The fevers occurring in the dog are : Ist, 
Simple ephemeral fever, commonly called " a cold ; " 2nd, Simple 
epidemic fever, or influenza ; 3rd, Typhus fever, known as Dis- 
temper; 4th, Bheumatic fever, attacking the muscular and 
fibrous systems ; and, 5thly, Small-pox. 



SIMPLE FEVKU. — INFLUENZA. 3GS 



SIMPLE EPHEMERAL FEVER. 

Symptoms. — This slight disease, known as " a common cold," 
is ushered in by chilliness, with increased heat of surface, a qiuck 
pulse, and slightly hurried breathing. The appetite is not as 
good as usual, eyes look dull, bowels costive, urine scanty and 
high-coloured. There are often cough and slight running at the 
nose and eyes, and sometimes the other internal organs are 
attacked ; or the disease goes on till a diflferent form of fever is 
established, known as typhus, and this is particularly the case 
when many dogs are collected together, or when one or two 
are kept in a close kennel, and are neither properly ventilated 
nor cleaned. 

Cause. — Exposure to wet or cold. 

Treatment. — Complete rest. A gentle dose of opening medi- 
cine: (12) or (13) if the liver is torpid, (15) if acting. After this 
has acted, give slops, and if there is still much fever, one of 
the remedies (45) or (51). If there is much cough, give the 
draught (47) or the bolus (46). 



INFLUENZA. 

The sym/pt<yms of influenza at first closely resemble those of 
the last-described attack, but as they depend upon some peculiar 



866 FEVenS, AKI) THEIB TREATMENT. 

conditiuD of the air which prevails at the time, and as the; 
are more persistent, the name influenza, is given. After thi 
first few days, the ninning at the eyes and nose increases, ant 
a cough ia almost always present, which symptoms often persis 
for two or three weeks, leaving great prostration of strength a 
the end of that time, and oft«n a chronic cough, which require 
careful treatment. 

3?M cauae is to l>e looked for in some peculiar stiite of thi 
BIT, of the nature of which nothing is known at present. 

Treatment. — In the early sts^, the remedies should be thi 
same as for ordinary or simple " cold." Toward*i the seconi 
week, a cough-bolus (46) or draught (47) will generally be re 
quired. When the strength is much reduced after the seconi 
week, and the cough is nearly gone, give a tonic pill (62) o 
mixture (63). Great care shotild be taken not to bring on i 
relapse hy improper food, or by too early an allowance of ex 
ercise. Fresh air is of the utmost importance, but it must b 
taken at a slow pace, as a gallop will often undo all that ha 
been effected in the way of a cure. 



TYPHUS FEVER, OR DISTEMPER. 

Having in previously published works proved the similarity o 
this disease to the typhus fever of man, and the identity of th 



TYPHUS FEVER, OR DISTEM1>ER. 367 

two methods of treatment, I shall take this for granted, more 
especially as it is now generally admitted. 

Tlie essence of the disease is some poison admitted from 
without, or developed within the blood, by which the various 
secretions are either totally checked, or so altered as no longer 
to purify the system. The exact nature of this poison is beyond 
our present state of knowledge, but from analogy there is little 
doubt that it resides in the blood. As in all cases of poison absorbed 
into the system, there is a most rapidly depressing eflFect upon 
the muscular powers, which is to be expected, inasmuch as their 
action requires a constant formation of new material from the 
blood ; and as this is retarded in common with all other func- 
tions, the muscles waste away rapidly, and their contractions 
are not performed with any strength. The disease is some- 
times contracted by infection, and at others developed within 
the body; just as in the case of fermentation in vegetable 
substances, there may be a ferment added to a saccharine solu- 
tion, by which the process is hastened, although if left to itself 
it will come on in due course. 

The symptoms are very various, but they may be divided into 
two sets, one of which comprises a set always attending upon 
distemper ; while the other may or may not be present in any 
individual attack. The invaAabh symptoms are : a low insidious 
fever, with prostration of strength to a remarkable degree, in 
proportion to the duration and strength of the attack, and rapid 
emaciation, so that a thick muscular dog is often made quite 
thin and lanky in three days. As a pait of the fever, there is 



36!) FEVEBS, AND TlIEIlt TUEATMENT. 

shivering, attended by quick pulee, hurried respiration, loss of aj. 
petite, and impaired secretions: but, beyond these three, are d 
Bigns which can be called positively invariable; though the rui 
ning at the eyes and nose, and the short husky cough, especiall 
after exercise, are very nearly always present. The accidenk 
symptoms depend upon the particular complication which ma 
exist; for one of the most remarkable features in distemper i 
that, coupled with the above invariable symptoms, there may b 
congestion, or inflammation of the head, chest, bowels, or skii 
So that in one case the disease may appear to be entirely cor 
Bned to the head, in another to the chest, and in a third t 
the bowels; yet all are strictly from the same cause, and n 
quire the same general plan of treatment, modified according t 
the seat of the complication. 

The ordinary cotiree of an attach of distemper is as fuUowii 
that is, when contracted by contagion, or clearly epidemic. (0 
the other hand, when it is developed in consequence of neglec 
it comes on at the end of some other attack of disease, whic 
may have existed for an indefinite time.) Almost always th 
first thing noticed is a general diilneas or lai<sitnde, togeth< 
with loss of appetite. In a day or two there is generally 
peculiar husky cough, which aoiinda as if the dog were tryir 
to get a piece of straw out of his throat, and always comi 
on at exercise after a gallop. With this there is also a tendem 
to sneeze, but not so marked as the " husk " or " tissuck " whit 
may occur in common " cold " or influeniui, but is then usi 
ally more severe, and also more variable in its severity; boo 



SYMPTOMS OF DISTEMPER. 3C9 

going on to inflammation^ or else entirely ceasing in a few days. 
In distemper, the strength and flesh rapidly fail and waste, 
while in common "cold," the cough may continue for days 
without much alteration in either; and this is one of the chief 
characteristics of the true disease. There is, also, geneially a 
black pitchy condition of the fcnceSy and the urine is scanty and 
high-coloured. The white of the eyes is always more or less 
reddened, the colour being of a bluish red cast, and the vessels 
being evidently gorged with blood. When the brain is attacked, 
the eyes are more injected than when the bowels or lungs are 
the seats of complication. The comers of the eyes have a small 
drop of mucus, and the nose runs more or less, which symp- 
toms, as the d'sease goes on, are much aggravated, both being 
glued up by brownish matter, while the teeth also are covered 
with a blackish brown fur. Such are the regular symptoms of 
a severe attack of distemper, gradually increasing in severity to 
the third, fourth, or fifth week, when the dog dies from ex- 
haustion, or from disease of the brain, lungs, or bowels, marked 
by peculiar signs in each case. In this course the disease may 
be described as passing through four titayea or periods: Ist, 
That in which the poison is spreading through the system, called 
the period of incubatian; 2nd, That in which nature rouses 
her powers to expel it^ called the period of reaction ; 3rd^ The 
period of prostration ^ diuring which the powers of nature are 
exhausted, or nearly so, by the efforts which have been made; 
and 4th, The period of convalescence. On the average, each of 

B B 



370 FEVERS AND TBEIB TBEATMENT. 

these will occupy a week or ten days, varying with the mil' 
ness or severi^ of the attack. 

When the hetul is attacked, there may or may not be a ru: 
ning from the nose and eyes; but more luiually there 
some evidence of congestion in these organs, the eyes beii 
weak and glued up with the mucus, and the nose runnii 
more or leas. A fit is, however, the clearest evidence of bra 
affection, and, to a common observer, the only reliable on 
Sometimes there is stupor without a fit, gradually increasii 
till the dog becomes insensible, and dies. At others, a ravii 
delirium comes on, easily mistaken for hydrophobia, but di 
tinguished from it by the presence of the premonitory sym] 
toms peculiar to distemper. This is the most fatal complicatit 
of all, and, if the dog recovers, he is often a victim to paL 
or chorea for the rest of his life. 

If the lungs are attacked, there is very rapid breathing, wil 
cough, and almost always a considerable running from the ey< 
and DOse, and expectoration of thick frothy mucus. If ioflan 
matioa of the lungs is established, the danger is as great i 
when the head is the seat of the seizure. 

The bowels may be known to be seized when there is 
violent piuging of black offensive matter, often tinged wit 
blood, and sometimes mixed with |>atche8 or shreds of a whi1 
leathery substance, which is coagulable lymph. The discharge < 
blood is in some cases excessive, and rapidly carries off the dog. 

If the skin is attacked, which is a favourable sign, thei 
is a breaking out of pustules on the inside of the thighs an 



TREATMENT OF DISTEMPEB. 371 

belly, which fill with matter often tinged with dark blood, and 
sometimes with blood itself of a dark purple colour. 

To diatimjuiah distemper from similar affections is not always 
easy to an inexperienced observer, but the practised eye at 
once detects the difference. The chief diseases which are likely 
to be confounded with it are, the true canine madness, com- 
mon ''cold," or influenza, inflammation of the lungs, and 
diarrhoea. The first of these runs a more rapid course, and is 
ushered in by peculiar changes in the temper, which will be 
described under the head of Hydrophobia. " Cold " and in- 
fluenza cause no great prostration of strength; and the former 
comes on after exposure to the weather, while the latter is sure 
to be prevalent at the time. Inflammation of the lungs must 
be studied to be known, and simple diarrhoea has no fever 
attending upon it. 

The treatment of dietenvper is twofold : firstly, being directed 
to the safe conduct through the lowering effects of the com- 
plaint; and secondly, to ward off the fiebtal results which are 
likely to be occasioned by the local complications in the brain, 
lungs, or bowels. It must be remembered that the disease is 
an effort of nature to get rid of a poison; and, therefore, the 
powers of the system must be aided throughout, or they will 
be incompetent to their task. One great means of carrying off 
this poison is to be looked for in the bowels and kidneys; and, 
as far as possible, these organs must be restored to their natural 
state, taking care that> in trying to effect these desirable ob- 
jects, they are not injured by the remedies used Thus it is 

B B 2 



372 FEVERS AND THEIR TREATMENT. 

well known that aperients, and especiallj calomel^ have the 
property of restoring the suspended action of the liver; but 
they also have an injurious effect upon the strength of the 
general system, and therefore must be used with great cau- 
tion; the best formulaB being (13) or (15) given only once 
or twice, at intervals of two or three days. After the secre- 
tions are restored, the next thing to be done is to look out for 
the complications in the brain, lungs, and bowels, which are to 
be expected ; and, if present, to counteract them by appropriate 
remedies. Thus a seton put into the back of the neck, cover- 
ing the tape with blister ointment, will be likely to relieve the 
hea/Jy together with cold applications of vinegar and water by 
means of a sponge. At the same time the fever mixture (51) 
may be regularly administered. For any trifling complication 
in the lungs the fever powder (49) will generally suffice; but, 
if severe, blood must be taken from the neck vein ; though this, 
if possible, should be avoided, and the cough bolus or draught 
(46) or (47) administered. Dian^hcea must be at once checked by 
one of the mixtures (6) or (8) ; or, if very severe, by the pill (19). 
At the same time, rice-water should be given as the only 
drink ; and beef-tea, thickened with arrow-root or rice, as the 
sole article of diet, changing it occasionally for port wine and 
arrow-root. When the stage of exhaustion has commenced, the 
tonic mixture (63) will almost always be required; and it is 
astonishing what may be done by a perseverance in its use. 
Dogs which appear to be dying will often recover ; and no case 
should be given up as long as there is any life remaining. 



TREATMEKT OF DISTEMPER. 373 

The diet should be carefully attended to, little or no food being 
required on the first four or six days^ beyond weak broth or 
gruel, no solid food from the first being permitted, and this 
restriction being maintained till the dog is quite recovered. When 
the state of exhaustion or prostration comes on, good strong 
beef-tea should be given every three or four hours, and, if the 
dog will not swallow it, force should be used ; a spoonful at a 
time being given in the way ordered for drenching at page 362. 
At this time also port wine is often of service, thickened with 
arrow-root, and given alternately with the beef-tea. For a dog 
of average size the plan is to give a teacupful of beef-tea, 
then, after two hours, the same quantity of arrow-root and wine ; 
then, again after two hours, a dose of the tonic mixture, and 
so on through the twenty-four hours. Perseverance in this 
troublesome plan will generally be rewarded with success ; but^ of 
course, it is only a valuable dog which will reward it properly. 
In less important animals the beef-tea may be provided, and if 
it is not voluntarily swallowed the poor patient often dies for 
want of the compulsion, so that humanity as well as self-interest 
counsels the adoption of what often appears a harsh proceeding. 

No exercise^ even of the most gentle kind, should be allowed, 
it being found invariably to bring on a return of the disease, 
whenever it is indulged in. Many a young dog has been sacri- 
fied to the mistaken kindness of his master, who has thought 
that a "breath of fresh air** would do him good; and so it 
would if taken in a easy carriage, at rest; but the muscular 
exertion necessary to procure it is highly injurious, and should 

BBS 



374 FEVERS AND THEIR TREATMENT. 

be delayed until the strength is restored. This is one reason 
why dogs in the country bear distemper so much better than 
in towns; for, as it is known that they are in the firesh aur, 
no attempt is made to take them to it, and so they are left 
alone, and are not induced to exert their strength prematurely. 
Even when the dog appears nearly well it is better to lead him 
out to exercise for the first day or two, for othervrise he is 
almost sure to over-exert himself, and a gallop will often do 
more harm than can be rectified in many days afterwards. 

Ventilation should not be neglected, but moderate warmth 
is essential to a cure, and a delicate dog like the greyhound 
should have a cloth on him in cold weather. The greatest 
cleanliness should be observed, but this should be done as far 
as possible without making the kennel damp with water. Clean 
straw must be liberally provided, and all offensive matters re- 
moved as often as they are voided. 

Summai^y of trecUnient. — In the early stage get the bowels 
into good order by mild doses of aperient medicine : (11), (13), or 
(15). Attend to any complication which may come on, using 
a seton for the head, or the appropriate remedies for the chest, 
or mixture for the bowels (6) if there is diarrhoBa. For the 
exhaustion, when the violent symptoms are abated, give the tonic 
(63) ; and during the whole period attend to the diet, ventilation, 
cleanliness, and rest, as previously described. 

Vaccination has been recommended as a remedy for dis- 
temper, and has been largely tried both in foxhound and 
greyhound kennels, as well as among pointers and setters. The 



VACCINATION FOB DISTEMPER. 375 

result has been that some people fancy it to be a sure preventive, 
and there is evidence that for years after it has been adopted 
in certain kennels distemper, which was previously rife in them, 
has been kept at bay. On the other hand, a still more numerous 
party have found no change produced in the mortality among 
their dogs, and they have come as a natural consequence to the 
opposite conclusion. Seasoning from analogy, there is no ground 
for supposing that the matter of small-pox or cow-pox should 
prevent the access of a disease totally dissimilar to these com- 
plaints; but, as experience is here the best guide, the appeal 
must be made to it in order to settle the question. Judging 
from this test, I can see no reason whatever for the faith 
which is placed in vaccination, because there are at least as 
many recorded failures as successes ; and as we know that after 
any remedy there will always be a certain number of assumed 
cures held out by sanguine individuals, so we must allow for 
a great many in this particular case. Distemper is well known 
to be most irregular in its attacks, and to hit or miss particular 
kennels, as the case may be, for years together ; after which it 
reverses its tactics ; and as vaccination is used at any of these 
various periods of change, so it gains credit or discredit which 
it does not deserve. My own belief is, after trying it myself 
and seeing it tried, and after also comparing the experience 
of others, that vaccination is wholly inoperative ; but, as others 
may like to test it for themselves, I here append directions 
for the operation. 

To vaccinate the dog, — Select the thin skin on the inside 

B B 4 



37C FEVERS AND THEIK TREATMENT. 

of the ear, then with a lancet chai*ged with vaccine lymph 
(which should be as fresh &9 possible) make three or four 
oblique punctures in the skin, to such a depth as barely to 
draw blood, charging the lancet afresh each time. If the lymph 
cannot be procured fresh, the punctures must be made as above 
described, and then the points charged with dry lymph must 
be introduced one in each puncture and well rubbed into 
the cut surface so as to insure the removal of the lymph from 
the points. In four or five days an imperfect vesicle is formed, 
which, if not rubbed, goes on to maturity and scabs at the 
end of ten days or thereabout. There are various other methods 
suggested, such as introducing a piece of thread dipped in the 
virus, &c., but the above is the proper plan, if any is likely 
to be effectual. 

The treatment of the various sequels of distemper, including 
fits, palsy, &c., will be given under those heads respectively. 



RHEUMATIC FEVER. 

One of the most common diseases in the dog is rheumatism 
in some form, generally showing itself with very little fever, but 
sometimes being accompanied with a high degree of that attendant 
evil. The frequency of this disease is owing to the constant expo- 
sure of the dog to cold and wet, and very often to his kennel 



RHEUMATIC FEVER. 377 

being damp, which is the fertile source of kennel lameness, or 
chest-founder, which is nothing more than rheumatism of the 
muscles of the shoulders. Again, those which spend half their 
time before a roasting fire, and the other half in the wet and cold, 
are extremely apt to contract this kind of fever, but not in so 
intractable a form as the denizen of the damp kennel. By some 
writers this affection is classed among the inflammations ; and it 
is a debatable point to which of these divisions it should be 
assigned ; but this is of little consequence, so that it is properly 
known and easily recognised by the symptoms. I shall therefore 
include here rheumatic fever, which is a general affection, and 
also the partial attacks known as kennel lameness or chest-founder, 
and rheumatism of the loins, commonly called palsy of the 
back. 

Rheumatic fever is known by the following signs : — There is 
considerable evidence of fever, but not of a very high character, 
the pulse being full but not very quick, with shivering and dull- 
ness, except when touched or threatened, the slightest approach 
causing a shriek, evidently from the fear of pain. Tlie dog almost 
always retires into a corner, and is very reluctant to come out 
of it. On being forcibly brought out he snarls at the hand even 
of his best friend, and stands with his back up, evidently prepared 
to defend himself from the pat of the hand, which to him is 
anguish. The bowels are confined, and the mine high-coloured 
and scanty. 

The treatment consists in bleeding from the neck, to a moderate 
extent, if the dog is very gi*oss and full of condition, then giving 



578 FEVERS AND THEIR TREATMENT. 

a smart dose of opening physic : (12) or (13), After this has acted 
give the following pills: — 

Calomel, 

Purified opium, of each 1 grain. 
Powdered root of colchicum, 2 to 3 grains. 
Syrup, enough to make a pill. 

This is the dose for an average-sized dog. A hot bath will 

often be of service, taking care to dry the skin afterwards before 

the fire. Then follow up with a liberal friction by the aid of the 

liniment (43). 

Kennel lamenesSy or cheat-founder^ shows itself in a stiffness or 

soreness of the shoulders, so that the dog is unable to gallop freely 

down hill, and is often reluctant to jump off his bench to the 

ground, the shock giving pain to the muscles suspending the 

body to the shoulder-blades, which are affected with rheumatism. 

It is peculiarly prominent in the kennels of foxhounds, for 

these dogs being exposed to wet and cold for hours together, and 

then being sometimes brought home to a damp lodging-room, 

contract the disease with great frequency. Pampered house pets 

are also very liable to chest-founder, over-feeding being quite as 

likely to produce rheumatism as exposure to cold, and when both 

are united this state is almost sure to be established. When 

it becomes chronic there is little or no fever attendant on it, nor 

is there much in the recent state. After it has existed for some 

months it is generally considered to be incurable, but instances 

are known in which the stiffness has entirely disappeared. ChesU 

founder also arises from a sprain of the muscles suspending the 

chest between the shoulders. 



TBEATMENT OF KENNEL LAMENESS. G79 

The remedies for kennel lameness are nearly the same as for 
general rheumatism, taking care to remove the cause if it has 
existed in the shape of a damp cold lodging-room. The food 
should be light, and composed chiefly of vegetable materials, 
strong animal food being inclined to increase the rheumatic affec- 
tion. The liniment (43) is very likely to be of service, especially 
if used after the hot bath, as previously described. It has been 
asserted, by persons of experience, that a red herring given two 
or three times a week will cure this disease : I have no personal 
experience of the merits of this remedy, but, according to Col. 
Whyte, it has recently been discovered that there is an active 
principle in the herring that is a complete specific in human 
rheumatism, and therefore this apparently inert remedy may 
really be a very powerful one. At all events it is worth a trial. 
It is ordered to be given with two drachms of nitre and one of 
camphor, most dogs readily eating the herring and camphor, 
and the nitre being added in a little water as a drench. Cod- 
liver oil is also said to be of great service (5). Iodine with 
sarsaparilla (3) is a combination which I have known of more 
service than any internal medicines. 

A draggi/iig of the hind limba is common enough in the dog, 
and, though often called palsy, it really is almost always of a 
rheumatic nature. It exactly resembles chest-founder in all its 
symptoms, excepting that the muscles affected are situated in the 
loins and hips, corresponding with human lumbago in all parti- 
culars, excepting that it is far more permanent The causes and 
treatment are the same as those of kennel lameness. 



3b0 FEVERS AND THEIR TREATMENT, 



SMALL-POX. 

Never having seen a case of this disease in the dog, I must be 
content with extracting entire Mr. Yoiiatt's description of it : — 

"In 1809, there was observed, at the Boyal Veterinary School 
at Lyons, an eruptive malady among the dogs, to which they gave 
the name of sniall-pox. It appeared to be propagated from dog 
to dog by contagion. It was not difficult of cure ; and it quickly 
disappeared when no other remedies were employed than mild 
aperients and diaphoretics. A sheep was inoculated from one 
of these dogs. There was a slight eruption of pustules formed on 
the place of inoculation, but nowhere else; nor was there the 
least fever. 

" At another time, also, at the school at Lyons, a sheep died 
of the regular sheep-pox. A part of the skin was fastened, during 
four and twenty hours, on a healthy sheep, and the other part of 
it on a dog, both of them being in apparent good health. No 
effect was produced on the dog, but the sheep died of confluent 
sheep-pox. 

" The essential symptoms of small-pox in dogs succeed each 
other in the following order : the skin of the belly, the groin, and 
the inside of the fore arm becomes of a redder colour than in its 
natural state, and sprinkled with small red spots irregularly 
rounded. They are sometimes isolated, sometimes clustered toge- 
ther. The near approach of this eruption is annoimced by an 
increase of fever. 



SMALL-1*0X, 381 

" On the second day, the spots are larger, and the integument 
is slightly tumefied at the centre of each. 

^* On the third day, the spots are generally enlarged, and the 
skin is still more prominent at the centre. 

" On the fourth day, the summit of the tumour is yet more 
prominent. Towards the end of that day, the redness of the 
centre begins to assume a somewhat grey colour. On the fol- 
lowing days, the pustules take on their peculiar characteristic 
appeai'ance, and cannot be confounded with any other eruption. 
On the summit is a white circular point, corresponding with a 
certain quantity of nearly transparent fluid which it contains, and 
covered by a thin and transparent pellicle. This fluid becomes 
less and less transparent, until it acquires the colour and con- 
sistence of pus. The pustule, during its serous state, is of a 
rounded form. It is flattened when the fluid acquires a purulent 
character, and even slightly depressed towards the close of the 
period of suppuration, and when that of desiccation is about to 
commence, which ordinarily happens towards the ninth or tenth 
day of the eruption. The desiccation and the desquamation 
occupy an exceedingly variable length of time ; and so, indeed, do 
all the different periods of the disease. \Miat is the least incon- 
stant, is the duration of the serous eruption, which is about four 
days, if it has been distinctly produced and guarded from all fric- 
tion. If the general character of the pustules is considered, it 
will be observed, that, while some of them are in a state of serous 
secretion, others will only have begun to appear. 

'^ The eruption terminates when desiccation commences in the 



882 FEVERS AND THEIB TREATMENT. 

first pustules; and, if some red spots show themselves at that 
period of the malady, they disappear without being followed by 
the development of pustules. They are a species of abortive 
pustules. After the desiccation, the skin remains covered by 
brown spots, which, by degrees, die away. There remains no 
trace of the disease, except a few superficial cicatrices on which 
the hair does not grow. 

" The causes which produce the greatest variation in the periods 
of the eruption are, the age of the dog, and the temperature of 
the situation and of the season. The eruption runs through its 
diflferent stages with much more rapidity in dogs from one to five 
months old than in those of greater age. I have never seen it in 
dogs more than eighteen months old. An elevated temperature 
singularly favours the eruption, and also renders it confluent and 
of a serous character. A cold atmosphere is unfavourable to the 
eruption, or even prevents it altogether. Death is almost con- 
stantly the result of the exposure of dogs having small-pox to any 
considerable degree of cold. A moderate temperature is most 
favoui-able to the recovery of the animal. A frequent renewal 
or change of air, the temperature remaining nearly the same, is 
highly favourable to the patient; consequently close boxes or 
kennels should be altogether avoided. 

" I have often observed that the perspii-ation or breath of dogs 
labouring under variola emits a very unpleasant odoiur. This 
smell is particularly observed at the commencement of the desicca- 
tion of the pustules, and when the animals are lying upon dry 
straw ; for the friction of the bed against the pustules destroys 



SYMPATHETIC FEVER. 383 

their pellicles, and permits the purulent matter to escape; and 
the influence of this purulent matter is most pernicious. The 
fever is increased, and also the unpleasant smell from the mouth, 
and that of the faeces. In this state there is a disposition which 
is rapidly developed in the lungs to assume the character of 
pneumonia. This last complication is a most serious one, and 
almost always terminates fatally. It has a peculiar character. It 
shows itself suddenly, and with all its alarming symptoms. It is 
almost immediately accompanied by a purulent secretion from the 
bronchi, and the second day does not pass without the characters 
of pneumonia being completely developed. The respiration is 
accompanied by a mucous rah which often becomes sibilant. 
The nasal cavities are filled with a purulent fluid. The dog that 
coughs violently at the commencement of the disease employs 
himself, probably, on the following day in ejecting, by a forcible 
expulsion from the nostrils, the purulent secretion which is soon 
and plentifully developed. When he is lying quiet, and even 
when he seems to be asleep, there is a loud, stertorous, guttmul 
breathing." 



SYMPATHETIC FEVER. 

This term is applied to the fever which comes on either before 
or after some severe local affection, and being, as it were, 
eclipsed by it. Thus in all severe inflammations there is an 



384 FEVERS AND THEIR TREATMENT. 

accompanying fever which generally shows itself before the ex- 
act nature of the attack is made manifest, and though it runs 
high, yet it has no tendency in itself to produce fatal results, 
subsiding, as a matter of course, with the inflammation which 
attends it. The same happens in severe injuries; but here also, 
if there is no inflammation, there is no fever ; so that the same 
rule applies as where there is an external cause. 

The treatment of this kind of fever is always merged in that 
which is necessary for the attendant inflammation, and this being 
removed the fever subsides ; it therefore requires no special notice 
to be taken of it, or any remedy to be directed to it. 



385 



CHAPTER IV. 



INFLAMlIATIONa 



Definition of Inflammation. — Symptoms and Treatment of Rabies, Tetanus, 
and Tumside. — Of Inflanmiation of the Eye, Ear (canker), Mouth, and 
Nose. — Of the Lungs. — Of the Stomach. — Of the Bowels. — Of the Liver. 
— Of the Kidneys and Bladder. — Of the Skin. 



DEFINITION OP INFLAMMATION. 

Inflammation consists in a retardation of the flow of blood in 
the small vessels, which requires an increased action of the large 
ones to overcome it. When external and visible, it is charac- 
terised by increased heat, swelling, pain, and redness, and in- 
ternally by the first three, the last not being discoverable, 
though existing. It may be dcute when coming on rapidly, or 
chronic when slow, and without very active symptoms. In the 
acute form there is always an increased rapidity of the pulse, 
with a greater reaction on the heart's pulsations, known as 
hardness of the pulse. In the dog the healthy pulsations are 
from 90 to 100 in the minute, which may be taken as the 
standard of health ; the arterial pulse may be felt on the inside 
of the arm above the knee; or, by putting the hand against the 

c c 



386 INFLAMMATIONS. 

lower part of the chest, the contractions of the heart may be 
readily felt. In different breeds, however, there is considerable 
variation in the pulsations of the heart. 



HYDROPHOBIA, RABIES, OR MADNESS. 

This disease has been classed among the inflammations^ although 
it has not been proved to arise from that cause; but, as it is 
generally supposed to be connected with an inflammation or 
congestion of the spinal column and brain, there is every reason 
for placing it at the head of this division; and, as it is of the 
utmost importance to understand its symptoms, the sooner it is 
studied the better. At present there appears to be little or no 
control over this horrible complaint, so that it is. solely with a 
view to recognise the attack and prevent its transmission by 
inoculation, that it is interesting to the owner of the dog. 

The aymptoma are chiefly as follows: — The first is a marked 
change of temper ; the naturally cheerful dog becoming waspish 
and morose, and the bold fondling pet retreating fi-om his mas- 
ter's hand as if it was that of a stranger. On the other hand, 
the shy dog sometimes becomes bold; but in almost every case 
there is a total change of manner for several days before the 
absolute outbreak of the attack, which is indicated by a kind 
of delirious watching of imaginary objects, the dog snapping at 
the wall, or, if anything comes in his way, tearing it to pieces 



HYDROPHOBIA. 387 

with savage fury. With this there is constant watchfulness^ and 
sometimes a peculiarly hollow howl, while at others no sound 
whatever is given, the case being then described as "dumb 
madness." Fever is always present, but it is difficult to ascer- 
tain its extent on account of the danger of approaching the 
patient, and with this (in contradiction to the name hydro- 
phobia) there is invariably an urgent thirsty which the dog is 
in such a hurry to gratify that he generally upsets the vessel 
containing his water. Mr. Grantley Berkeley maintains very 
strongly that no dog really attacked with rabies will touch water, 
and that the presence of thirst is a clear sign of the absence of 
this disease ; but this opinion is so entirely in opposition to the 
careful accounts given by all those who have witnessed the dis- 
ease when it had unquestionably been communicated either to 
man or to some of the lower animals, that no reliance ought 
to be placed upon it, especially where so important a stake is 
involved. Mr. Youatt witnessed more cases of rabies than per- 
haps any equally good observer ever did, and he strongly in- 
sists upon the presence of thirst, as may be gathered from the 
concluding portion of the following extract : — 

** Some very important conclusions may be drawn from the 
appearance and character of the urine. The dog, and at par- 
ticular times when he is more than usually salacious, may, and 
does diligently search the urining places ; he may even, at those 
periods, be seen to lick the spot which another has just wetted ; 
but, if a peculiar eagerness accompanies this strange employ- 
ment, if, in the parlom*, which is rarely disgraced by this eva- 

cc 2 



388 INFLAMMATIONS. 

cuation, eveiy comer is perseveiingly examined, and licked with 
unwearied and unceasing industry, that dog cannot be too care- 
fully watched, there is great danger about him; he may, with- 
out any other symptom, be pronounced to be decidedly rabid. 
I never knew a single mistake about this. 

'^Much has been said of the profuse discharge of saliva from 
the mouth of the rabid dog. It is an undoubted fact that, in 
this disease, all the glands concerned in the secretion of saliva, 
become increased in bulk and vascularity. The sublingual glands 
wear an evident character of inflammation ; but it never equals 
the increased discharge that accompanies epilepsy or nausea. 
The frothy spume at the comers of the mouth is not for a 
moment to be compared with that which is evident enough in 
both of these affections. It is a symptom of short duration, 
and seldom lasts longer than twelve hours. The stories that 
are told of the mad dog covered with froth are altogether 
fabulous. The dog recovering from, or attacked by, a At may 
be seen in this state; but not the rabid dog. Fits are often 
mistaken for rabies, and hence the delusion. 

'^ The increased secretion of saliva soon passes away. It less- 
ens in quantity; it becomes thicker, viscid, adhesive, and glu- 
tinous. It clings to the comers of the mouth, and probably 
more annoyingly so to the membrane of the fauces. The human 
being is sadly distressed by it, he forces it out with the great- 
est violence, or utters the falsely supposed bark of a dog, in 
his attempts to force it from his mouth. This symptom occurs 
in the human being when the disease is fully established, or 



HYDROPHOBIA. 389 

at a late period of it. The dog furiously attempts to detach it 
with his paws. 

" It is an early symptom in the dog, and it can scarcely be 
mistaken in him. When he is fighting with his paws at the 
comers of his mouth, let no one suppose that a bone is sticking 
between the poor fellow's teeth; nor should any useless and 
dangerous effort be made to relieve him. If all this uneasiness 
arose from a bone in the mouth, the mouth would continue 
permanently open, instead of closing when the animal for a 
moment discontinues his efforts. If after a while he loses his 
balance and tumbles over, there can be no longer any mistake. 
It is the saliva becoming more and more glutinous, irritating 
the fauces and threatening suffocation. 

** To this naturaUy and rapidly succeeds an insatiable thirsL 
The dog that still has full power over the muscles of his jaws 
continues to lap. He knows not when to cease, while the 
poor fellow labouring under the dumb madness, presently to 
be described, and whose jaw and tongue are paralysed, plunges 
his muzzle into the water-dish to his very eyes, in order that 
he may get one drop of water into the back part of his mouth 
to moisten and to cool his dry and parched fauces. Hence, in- 
stead of this disease being always characterised by the dread of 
water in the dog, it is marked by a thirst often perfectly un- 
quenchable. Twenty years ago, this assertion would have been 
peremptorily denied. Even at the present day we occasionally 
meet with those who ought to know better, and who will not 

CO 3 



390 INFLAMMATIONS. 

believe that the dog which fairly, or perhaps eagerly, drinks, 
can be rabid." — Youatty pp. 135-6. 

From my own experience I can fully confirm the above ac- 
comit, having seen seven cases of genuine rabies, in all of 
which thirst was present in a greater or less degree; and in 
five of which the disease was communicated to other dogs. 

If the rabid dog is not molested he will seldom attack any 
living object; but the slightest obstruction in his path is suf- 
ficient to rouse his fury, and he then bites savagely, and in 
the most unreasoning manner, so as to be wholly uncontrollable 
by fear of the consequences. The gait, when at liberty, is a 
long trot, without any deviation from the straight line, except 
what is compulsory from the nature of the siurounding objects. 

The average tvme of the occurrence of rabies after the bite is, 
in the dog, from three weeks to six months, or possibly even 
longer; so that a suspected case requires careful watching for 
at least that time; but, after three months, the animal sus- 
pected to have been bitten may be considered tolerably safa 

The duration of the disease is about four or five days, but 
I have myself known a case fatal in forty-eight hours. 

Aa there has never yet been discovered a cure for rabies, so 
the best plan in all cases is to destroy the dog as soon as he 
is clearly shown to exhibit the disease. In the interval he 
should be secluded in a safe place, where he cannot possibly 
get at any living animal. 



TETANUS. 391 



TETANUS. 

Resembling rabies in some degree, tetanus differs from it in 
tlie absence of any affection of the brain, the senses remaining 
perfect to the last. It is not common with the dog ; and, when 
it does manifest itself, is generally produced by a severe 
injury, and shows itself in the form known as " lockjaw." 
Hence in France it is known as mal de cerfy from its super- 
vening upon wounds from the horns of that animal. It con- 
sists in spasmodic rigidity of certain muscles, alternately with 
relaxation ; but the stiffness continuing for some length of time, 
and not appearing and disappearing as quickly as in cramp. If 
the tetanic spasm affects the muscles of the jaw, the state is 
called "lock-jaw." When it seizes on all the muscles of the 
back, the body is drawn into a bow, the head being brought 
nearly close to the tail. Sometimes the contraction is of one 
side only, and at others of the muscles of the belly, producing 
a bow in the opposite direction to that alluded to above. 
These various conditions exactly resemble the contractions pro- 
duced by the poison of strychnine ; so that when they occur, 
as the disease is extremely rare, it is fair to suspect that 
poison has been used. Nevertheless, it should be known that 
they were witnessed long before this poison was in use; and, 
therefore, they may arise independently of it. 

TJte successful treatment of tetanus is a hopeless affair, if the 
case is clearly established. Purgatives and bleeding may be 

c c 4 



392 INFLAMMATIONS* 

tried, followed by chloroform, which will always relieve the 
spasm for the time ; but, as it returns soon after the with- 
drawal of the remedy, no good is likely to accrue &om its use. 
Excepting in the case of very valuable or highly valued dogs, 
I should never advise any remedies being tried, and the most 
humane course is at once to put the poor animal out of his 
misery, the spasms being evidently of a most painful nature. 



TIJRNSIDE 

Is more frequently seen in the dog than tetanus; but, never- 
theless, is by no means common. It consists in some obscure 
affection of the brain, resembling the " gid" of sheep, and 
most probably produced from the same cause, namely, from 
the presence of a hydatid. (See Worms, Chap. V.) The dog has 
no fit, but keeps continually turning roimd and round, and at 
last dies worn out It is most commonly met with in high- 
bred puppies, whose constitutions are of great delicacy; and I 
have known a whole litter carried off, one after the other, in 
this way. As far as I know, no remedy is of any avail; but 
bleeding, blistering, and purgatives are said to have restored 
some few cases. The seton, also, has been recommended, and 
is, in my opinion, more likely than any other remedy to pro- 
duce a cure, taking care to keep the strength supported against 
the lowering effects of this remedy. 



INFLAMMATIONS OF THE EYE. 398 



INFLAMMATIONS OF THE EYE. 

Opkthal/mi<i, or simple inflammation of the eyes, is very 
common in the dog, especially in the latter stages of dis- 
temper, when the condition of this organ is often apparently 
hopeless; though a little patience will show that no mischief 
eventually occurs. On more than one occasion I have saved 
puppies from a watery grave, whose eyes were said to be 
hopelessly gone ; but without any remedy being applied locally, 
and simply by attending to the general health, the organ has 
recovered its transparency, and the sight has become as good as 
ever. The appearance of this form, as seen in distemper, con- 
sists in an unnatural bluish redness of ^^ the white " of the eye, 
together with a film over the transparent part, which may or 
may not show red vessels spreading over it There is great 
intolerance of light, with a constant watering; and, if the eye 
is opened by force, the dog resists most strenuously, giving evi- 
dence of pain from exposure to the rays of the sun. This state 
resembles the *^ strumous ophthalmia" of children, and may be 
treated in the same way, by the internal use of tonics, the pills 
(62) being especially serviceable. In the ordi/nary ophihalrma 
the "white" of the eye is of a brighter red, and the lids are 
more swollen, while the discharge is thicker, and the intolerance 
of light is not so great. The treatment here which is most likely 
to be of service is of the ordinary lowering kind, exactly the 
reverse of that indicated above. Purgatives, low diet, and some- 



394 INFLAMMATIONS. 

times bleeding, will be required^ together with local washes, such 
as (55) or (56^. If the eyes still remain covered with a film, a 
seton may be inserted in the back of the neck with advantage, 
and kept open for two or three months. 

Cataract may be known by a whiteness more or less marked 
in the pupil, and evidently beneath the sur&ce of the eye, the 
disease consisting in an opacity of the lens, which is situated 
hddnd the pupil. It may occur from a blow, or as the result 
of inflammation, or from hereditary tendency. No treatraent 
is of any use. 

In amaurosis the eye looks clear, and there is no inflamma- 
tion; but the nerve is destroyed, and there is partial or total 
blindness. It may be known by the great size of the pupil. 



CANKER, OR INFLAMMATION OF THE EAR. 

From high feeding generally, and exposure to the weather, 
many dogs (especially of a sporting kind) contract an inflam- 
mation of the membrane or skin lining the ear. This pro- 
duces irritation, and the dog shakes his head continually, which, 
together with the tendency to spread externally, causes an 
ulceration of the tips of the ears of those dogs, such as the 
hound, pointer, setter, spaniel, &c., which have these organs 
long and pendulous. Hence, the superficial observer is apt to 
confine his observation to this external ulceration, and I have 



CANKER. 305 

even knowii the tips of the ears cut oflf in the hope of getting 
rid of the mischief, whereas it was only aggravated, because the 
incessant shaking caused the wound to extend, while the in- 
ternal mischief was not in the slightest degree relieved. The 
pointer is particularly liable to "canker," as shown on the tips 
of the ears, because he has little hair on this part to take off 
the acuteness of the "smack" which is given in the shaking 
of the head. Long-haired dogs on the other hand are quite as 
liable to the real disease, as evidenced on an examination of 
the internal surface, but, from the protection afforded by the 
hair, the pendulous ear is not so much ulcerated or inflamed. 
Whenever, therefore, a dog is seen to be continually shaking 
his head, and abortively trying to rub or scratch his ear, not 
being able to succeed because he cannot reach the interior, an 
examination should be made of the passage leading into the 
head; and if the lining is red and inflamed, there is clear 
evidence of the disease, even if the external ear is altogether 
free from it. On the other hand, the mere existence of an 
ulceration on the tips of the ears is no absolute proof of 
"canker," because it may have been caused by the briars and 
thorns which a spaniel or hoimd has to pass through in himt- 
ing for his game. Still it should lead to a careful inspection, 
and, if it continues for any length of time, it may be generally 
concluded that there is an internal cause for it. 

The treatment should in every case be chiefly directed to the 
internal passage, the cap which is sometimes ordered to be 
applied to the head, with a view of keeping the ears quiet, 



396 INFLAMMATIONS. 

having a tendency to increase the internal inflammation, and 
being, therefore, rather prejudicial than otherwise. The first 
thing to be done, is to lower the system by purgatives (11), 
(12), (15), or (16), with low diet, including no animal food. 
As soon as this has produced a decided effect, the nitrate of 
silver wash (22), and the goulard wash (21), or the sulphate of 
zinc (20), should be dropped into the ear-passage, changing the 
one for the other every second or third day. At the same 
time the sores on the edges of the ears may be touched with 
bluestone daily, which will dry them up. In slight cases, this 
treatment will suffice for a cure, if carried on for three weeks 
or a month ; but, in long-standing attacks, a seton must be put 
into the back of the neck, and this seldom fails to afford 
relief. If the inflammation in the external ear has been so 
great as to produce abscesses, they must be slit open with 
the knife to the very lowest point, as wherever matter is con- 
fined in a pouch there can be no tendency to heal. Whenever 
anything is to be done to the ear the dog must be muzzled, as 
the head cannot otherwise be held sufficiently still, and in 
pouring in the lotion, the head must be placed on a table, and 
held there steadily for some minutes, so that the fluid may have 
time to penetrate the whole canal. 

DeafTieas may arise firom canker, or from rheumatic or other 
inflammation of the internal ear ; but, as no treatment is likely to 
be beneficial, there is no use in enlarging on the subject The 
only remedy at all to be relied on in recent cases is the seton 
in the back of the neck. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE MOUTH AND TEETH. 397 



INFLAMMATION OF THE MOUTH AND TEETH. 

Dogs which are fed on strongly stimulating food are very 
apt to lose their teeth by decay, and also to suffer from a 
spongy state of the gums, attended with a collection of tartar 
about the roots of the teeth. Decayed teeth are better extracted, 
but the tartar, when it produces inflammation, may be removed 
by instruments if it is considered worth the trouble. By care- 
fully scraping the teeth there is little or no diflSculty in removing 
it if the dog's head is held steadily, but few people are handy 
enough with the necessary tools to effect this, excepting those who 
make a business of the art ; and, if the dog is so highly valued 
as to make it desirable to incur the expense, he should be 
taken to a veterinary surgeon. A lotion composed of 1 part of 
a solution of chlorinated soda, I part of tincture of myrrh, and 
6 parts of water will be afterwards of service^ if the teeth are 
occasionally brushed with it When puppies are shedding their 
milk teeth^ it often happens that these are not easily got rid of, 
producing a good deal of soreness in the mouth which prevents 
the puppy eating. In such a case the old tooth is better removed 
with a pair of forceps. 

Blain is a watery swelling beneath the tongue, showing itself 
in several large vesicles containing straw-coloured lymph, which 
is sometimes stained with blood. When discovered, the treatment 
consists in pricking them with a lancet or penknife, after which 
the sores may be washed with the lotion given above. 



398 INFLAMMATIONS. 



INFLAMMATIONS. 

Ozcma is an inflamed state of the lining membrane of the 
nose producing a stinking discharge from the nostrils. This is 
very common in the pug dog, and also more or leas in toy 
spaniels. There is little to be done in the way of treatment, 
but a solution of cloride of zinc (2 grains to the ounce of 
water) may be thrown up into the nostrils with a syringe. 



LARYNGITIS AND BRONCHOCELE. 

Laryngitis consists in inflammation of the top of the wind- 
pipe, where there is a very narrow passage for the air, and con- 
sequently where a slight extra contraction caused by swelling 
is necessarily fatal. When dcute it is a very dangerous disease, 
and is characterised by quick and laborious breathing, accom- 
panied by a snoring kind of noise. There is also a hoarse and 
evidently painful cough. Pulse quick and sharp, and some 
degree of fever. The trecUment must be active, or it will be of 
no use. Large bleedings, followed by a calomel purge (12) and 
the fever powder (50), will be necessary; but no time should 
be lost in calling in skilful aid, if the life of the dog is of 
any consequence. 

Chronic lai^yngitis attacks the same part, but comes on in- 
sidiously, and is shown chiefly in a hoarse cough and stridulous 



INFLABIMATION OP THE LUNGS. 399 

bark. It is best treated by a seton in the throat, together with 
low diet and the alterative pill (1). 

Bnmchocele is known by an enlargement (often to the size 
of the fist) of the thyroid body placed just on each side of the 
windpipe. If this does not press upon the air passage, there is 
no inconvenience; but in course of time it has that ill effect, 
and the dog becomes wheezy and shortwinded. It is chiefly 
seen in house pets, and may be relieved by the internal use of 
iodine (3), given for weeks together. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS. 

The organs of respiration consist of an external serous and 
an internal mucous membrane, united together by a cellular 
tissue, and each of these is the seat of a peculiar inflammation 
(jpleurisyy pneumonia, and bronchitis), attended by different 
symptoms and requiring a variation in the treatment There 
is also, as in all other inflammations, an acute and a chronic 
kind, so that here we have six different inflammatory disorders 
of the contents of the chest, besides heart disease and phthisis or 
consumption, which last requires a separate notice. All the acute 
forms are attended with severe sympathetic fever, and with a 
qiuck pulse ; but the character of the latter varies a good deal. 
The chronic forms have also some slight febrile symptoms; but 
generally in proportion to the acuteness is the amount of this 



400 



INFLAMMATIONS. 



attendant or sympathetic fever. As these three forms are liable 
to be easily mistaken for each other, I shall place the symp- 
toms of each in juxtaposition in the following Table: — 



COMPABATIVE TABLE OF STHPTOMS. 



Early 
symp- 
toms. 



Stetho- 

scopic 

sounds. 



Percus- 
sion. 



Termi- 
nation. 



Acute Pleurisj. 



Shivering, with 
slight spasms of the 
muscles of the chest; 
inspiration short and 
unequal in its depth, 
expiration full, air 
expired not hotter 
than usual ; cough 
slight and dir ; pulse 
quick, small, and 
wiry. 



Acnto Pneumonia. 



No very readily dis- 
tinguishable sound. 
A practised ear dis- 
covers a friction 
sound or rubbing. 

Produces at first no 
result different from 
a state of health. 
After a time, when 
serum is thrown out, 
there is increased 
dullness. 



The symptoms ei- 
ther gradually dis- 
appear, or lymph is 
thrown out, or there 
is an effusion of se- 
rum or matter, with 



Strong shivering, 
but no spasms; in- 
spiration tolera- 
bly fuU, expiration 
short, air expired 
perceptibly hotter 
than natural; nos- 
trils red inside ; 
cough violent and 
sonorous, with ex- 
pectoration of rusty 
coloured mucus ; 
pulse quick, full, 
and soft. 

A crackling sound, 
audible in tne early 
stage, followed by 
crepitating wheez- 
ing. 

Dullness after the 
early stage is pro- 
duced by the thick- 
ening of the tissue, 
approaching to the 
substance of liver, 
hence called ** hepa- 
tisation.** 

If the symptoms do 
not disappear, there 
is a soliaification of 
the lunff, by which 
it is rendered imper- 
vious to air, and in 



Acute Bronchitis. 



Shivering, soon fol- 
lowed by continual 
hard cough ; inspi- 
ration and expira- 
tion e<}ua]ly full, 
air expired warm; 
but not so hot as in 
pneumonia ; cough 
soon becomes moist, 
the mucus expecto- 
rated being frothy, 
scanty at nrst, but 
afterwards profuse ; 
pulse full and hard. 

The sound in this 
form varies from 
that of soap bub- 
bles to a hissing 
or wheezing sound. 

No change. 



The inflammation 

generally subsides 
y a discharge of 
mucus, which re- 
lieves the inflamma- 
tion; or it may go 



INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS. 



401 





Acute Pleurisy. 


Acute Pneumonia. 


Acute Bronchitis. 


Treat- 
ment. 


a frequently fatal 
result. 

Bleeding in the ear- 
ly stage, in degree 
according to the se- 
verity of the attack. 
Relieve the bowels 
by(12}or(13). No 
blistering, which is 
actually prejudicial. 
Try the fever pow- 
der (49) or (50), and 
if not active enough 
give calomel and 
opium, of each 1 
grain, in a pill, 3 
times a day. Low 
diet of slops only. 


bad cases suflbcation 
takes place, or mat- 
ter is formed, pro- 
ducing abscess. 

Bleeding in the ear- 
ly stage, in amount 
according to the se- 
verity of the attack. 
Give an aperient, 
(]2)or(l3). Blisters 
to the chest of ser- 
vice, or the mustard 
embrocation (42). 
Give the cough bo- 
lus (46) or the 
draught (47). If 
the inflammation is 
very high, give ca- 
lomel and opium, of 
each 1 gram, digi- 
talis i grain, tartar 
emetic ^ grain, in a 
pill, 3 times daily. 

Low diet of slops. 

• 


on to the extent of 
causing sufibcation 
by the swelling of 
the lining mem- 
brane filling up the 
area of the tubes. 

No bleeding is re- 
quired. In tne early 
stage give an emetic 
(44). Follow this 
up with a mild ape- 
rient, (11) or (15). 
Apply the embro- 
cation (42) to the 
chest, and give the 
cough bolus (46) or 
tlie draught (47). 
Low diet in the early 
stages ; afterwards, 
a little solid food, not 
meat, may be given. 



COMPARATIYE TABLE OF CHRONIC STMPTOVS. 





Chronic Pleurisy. 


Chronic Pneumonia. 


Chronic Bronchitis. 


Early 
symp- 
toms. 

1 


Inspiration slower 
than expiration ; 
cough dry ; pulse 
quicker than natu- 
ral, small and wiry. 


Respiration quick 
and painful ; cough 
troublesome but re- 
strained ; expecto- 
ration trifling; pulse 
quick and full. 


Respiration quick 
but free ; cough con- 
stant and severe, but 
without pain; pulse 
scarcely affected. 



D D 



402 



INFLABOiATIONS. 





Chronic Pleurisy. 


Chronic Pneumonia. 


Chronic Bronchitis. 


Termi- 
nation. 

Treat- 
ment. 


Either in a cure, or 
else there is an effu- 
sion of serum into 
the chest, and gene- 
rally also into the 
belly and limbs, 
causing suffocation 
by pressure. 

'l*he same as for 
acute pleurisis but 
milder in degree, 
and the diet is not 
required to be so 
strictly confined to 
slops. 


If not ending in a 
cure, there is great 
difficulty of breath- 
ing, of>en endinff^in 
sunocation. The 
animal does not lie 
down, but sits up 
on his hind legs, 
supporting himself 
on his fore legs. 

Bleeding will seldom 
be required. Give 
the calomel, opium, 
and tartar emetic, 
without the digitalis, 
in the doses ordered 
for acute pneumo- 
nia. Afler a few 
days have recourse 
to the bolus (46). 
Diet nourishing, but 
strictly confined to 
farinaceous articles. 
The embrocation is 
of great service. 


Ends in a cure, or 
in a permanently 
chronic state of in- 
flammation. Or, if 
fatal, there is suffo- 
cation from effusion, 
but this is very rare 
in chronic bronchi- 
tis. 

Dispense with the 
emetic, and at once 
try the cough bolus 
(4i5). In very mild 
cases, give ipecacu- 
anha ^-grain, rhu- 
barb 2 grains, opium 
^ grain, in a piU, 3 
times a day. Apply 
the mustard embro- 
cation (43). Milk 
diet, with nourish- 
ing slops. 



These various forms constantly run into one another^ so that 
we seldom see pleurisy without some degree of pneumonia, or 
the latter without bronchitis. Still one generally predominates 
over the other, and, as fex as treatment is concerned, that one 
may be considered as distinct. So also there is every shade 
between the very acute form, the acute, the subacute, the chro- 
nic, and the permanently chronic; but for practical purposes 
the two divisions are sufficient. 



SPASMODIC ASTHMA. 403 



SPASMODIC ASTHMA. 

What is often called asthma in the dog is nothing more than 
a permanently chronic form of bronchitis^ which is very common 
among petted toy dogs or house dogs^ which are not allowed 
much exercise. The symptoms and treatment are detailed under 
the head of Chronic Bronchitis^ at p. 401. But there is a form of 
true asthma with spasm^ which is also met with among the same 
kind of dogs, the sym/ptoTna of which are much more urgent^ 
comprising a sudden accession of difficulty in breathing, so severe 
that the dog evidently gasps for breath, and yet there is no 
evidence of inflammation. It may be known by the suddenness 
of the attack, inflammation being comparatively slow in its 
approach. The treatmenrvt consists in the administration of an 
emetic (45), followed by the cough bolus (46), or the draught 
(47) ; but, if the spasms are very severe, a full dose of laudanum 
and ether must be given, viz.— 1 drachm of laudanum, and 
30 drops of the ether, in a little water, every three hours, till 
relief is afforded. The mustard embrocation (42), or the tur- 
pentine liniment (43), may be rubbed into the chest vrith great 
advantage. 



1> D 8 



404 INFLAMMATIONS. 



PHTHISIS, OR CONSUMPTION. 

This disease, though very commonly fatal among highly-bred 
animals, has not been noticed by the writers on the diseases of 
the dog in this country, neither Blain, Youatt^ nor Mayhew, 
making the slightest allusion to it. I have, however, seen so 
many cases of tubercular disease in the dog, that I cannot doubt 
its existence as an ordinary affection, and, since I know that 
hundreds die every year from it, I cannot pass it over without 
notice. I have soen the tubercules in almost every stage of 
softening, and have known scores of cases in which a blood-vessel 
has given way, producing the condition known in the human 
being as " spitting of blood," without any other attendant symp- 
toms than those which are seen in man. 

The symptoms of consumption are, a slow insidious cough, 
without fever in the early stage, followed by emaciation, and 
ending after some months in diarrhcEa, or exhaustion from the 
amount of expectoration, or in the bursting of a blood-vessel, 
which last is generally the termination in those dogs that are 
kept for use, the work to which they are subjected leading to 
excessive action of the heart, which is likely to burst the vessel. 
In the latter stages there is a good deal of constitutional fever, 
but it is seldom that the dog lives long enough to show this 
condition, being either destroyed as incurable, or dying rapidly 
from loss of blood or diarrhcsa. Treatment is of little use, as, 
though the attack may be postponed, the disease can not be 



INFLAMBIATION OF THE STOBIACH. 406 

cured^ and no phthisical animal should be bred from. Cod-liver 
oil is of just as much service as in the human subject^ but^ as 
before remarked, it can only put off the fatal result. Except, 
therefore, in the case of house-pets, it is not desirable to use it^ 
The dose is from a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful three times a 
day. 



GASTRITIS, OR INFLAMMATION OF THE STOMACH. 

This affection is like all others of the same kind, either acute 
or chronic. The former very rarely occurs except from poison^ 
or highly improper food, which has the same eflFect, The 
symptoms are a constant and evidently painful straining to 
vomit, with an intense thirst, dry hot nose, quick breathing, 
and an attitude which is peculiar, the animal lying extended on 
the floor, with his belly in contact with the ground ; and in the 
intervals of the retching, licking anything cold within reach. 
The treatment consists in bleeding, if the attack is very violent; 
calomel and opium, of each a grain, in a pill every four hours ; 
and two drops of the diluted hydrocyanic acid in a little distilled 
water following each. Thin gruel or arrow-root may be given 
occasionally in very small quantities, but until the vomiting 
ceases they are of little service. If poison has clearly been 
swallowed, the appropriate treatment must be adopted. 

Chroniic gastritis is only another name for one of the forms 
of dyspepsia, for the symptoms and treatment of which see p. 444. 

D D 3 



i 



406 INFLAMMATIONS. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVEE (Hipatttis, oe Yw-lows). 

This is one of the most common of the diseases to which 
sporting dogs are subject, in consequence of the exposure to cold 
and wet which they are submitted to, producing congestion of the 
liver, and this going on to inflammation. Dogs deprived of 
exercise also contract it, because their livers first becoming torpid 
the bile accumulates, and then, in order to get rid of it, natiure 
establishes an action which ends in inflammation. The symptoms 
are a yellow state of the white of the eye and skin generally, firom 
which the disease is commonly called " the yellows." 

Acute hepatitis comes on rapidly, and with a good deal of 
fever, generally showing itself on the day after a long exposure 
to wet and cold, as in shooting or hunting. The dog shivers, 
his nose is hot, his breathing slightly quicker than usual, and 
his pulse quick, sm>aUy and wi^ry. The bowels are confined, and, 
when moved, the motions are clay-coloured or slaty. If these 
symptoms are not soon relieved, the case ends fatally, sickness 
coming on, and the strength being rapidly exhausted. The 
treatment should be, first, a considerable abstraction of blood; 
then give the bolus (13); and, as soon as it has acted, rub on 
to the right side, over the liver, the embrocation (42) or (43); 
and, at the same time, give calomel and opium, of each a 
grain in a pill, every four hours, taking care to keep the bowels 
open by the bolus (13), or by castor oil (15). As soon as the 
proper colour returns to the motions, the calomel may be en- 



INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER. 407 

tirely or partially discontinued, substituting small doses of rhu- 
barb and ipecacuanba. An emetic in the early stage (45) will 
sometimes act like a charm, imloading the liver, and thus at once 
cutting short the congestion, but when inflammation has set in 
actively it is worse than useless, inasmuch as it aggravates the 
disease tenfold. 

Chronic Itepatitia is more frequently caused by improper food 
than exposure, and is very different in its symptoms from the 
acute form. Whenever the fceces are pale, or dark, or slate- 
coloured, the approach of this disease may be suspected, and 
appropriate treatment should be commenced ; but it is not until 
the liver is perceptibly enlarged, and the dog is evidently out 
of condition, that it is generally considered to be established, 
and then scarcely any remedies will be of much service. At 
this time there is often not only a hard enlarged state of the 
liver, easily felt through and below the ribs on the right side, 
but also a yielding watery enlargement of the belly, from a col- 
lection of serous fluid, which is thrown out in consequence of 
the pressure on the veins as they return through the liver itself. 
The skin is "hidebound," and the hair dull and awry; while, 
altogether, the dog looks thin and wretched. The treatment 
consists in the use of small doses of mercury, with or without 
aperients, according to the state of the bowels (1) or (13); or 
sometimes ipecacuanha may be given instead of the mercury, in 
half-grain doses; but it requires a long time to act, and will 
only suffice in very mild cases. The biniodide of mercury 
may be rubbed into the side, mixed with lard (one drachm to 

D D 4 



408 INFLAMMATIONS. 

one ounce of the lard), or the embrocation (42) or (43) may oe 
used instead Grentle exercise may be given at the same time, 
and mild farinaceous food, with a small quantity of weak broth. 
After a time, as the liver begins to act (sho¥ai by the yellow 
colour of the fcece8)y the disease relaxes, and the mercury may 
be dispensed with ; but it is usually some considerable time 
before the stomach recovers its tone. A strong decoction of 
dandelion roots (made by boiling them for an hour in as 
little water as will serve to cover them, and then straining) may 
be given for this purpose, the dose being half a teacupful 
every morning. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS. 

Four varieties of this condition are met with, viz. 1, acute 
inflammation of the peritonseal coat; 2, spasms of the muscular 
coat, attended with congestion or inflammation, and known as 
colic; 3, inflammation of the mucous coat, attended by diar- 
rhcea; and 4, chronic inflammation, almost always followed by 
constipation. 

Acute inflammation of the peritonssal coat is known as perito- 
nitis and enteritisy according as its attacks are confined to the 
membrane lining the general cavity (perito7iceum)y or to that 
covering the intestines (eiiteron); but, as there is seldom one 
without more or less of the other, there is little practical use 
in the distinction. The symptoms are very severe, and are 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS. 409 

shown by shivering, feverishness, cold dry nose, ears, and legs, 
breath hot, and the expression anxious, showing evidence of 
pain, which is increased on pressing the bowels with the hand. 
The tail is kept closely pressed against the body, and the atti- 
tude is peculiar to the disease, the back being arched, and the 
legs all drawn together. The bowels are costive, the urine 
scanty and high-coloured; there is thirst, and the appetite is 
absent altogether. Sometimes there is a slight vomiting after 
food, but at others it is retained; though, in the later stages, 
the former condition generally prevails. The disease soon runs 
on, and, if not relieved, is fatal in a few days. To treat 
ity take a large quantity of blood; give calomel and opium in 
grain doses of each, every three or four hoiurs ; put the dog in 
a warm bath for half an hour, and, after drying him, rub in the 
embrocation (43), avoiding pressure, and applying it rapidly, 
but lightly. After twelve hours the bowels may be moved by 
means of the castor oil (15); or, if necessary, the strong mixture 
(16), repeating the calomel pills till the tenderness ceases. 
Crreat skill is required in adapting the remedies to the disease, 
and a veterinary surgeon should be called in whenever the dog 
is worth the expense. 

Colic is also a frequent complaint among the dog tribe, the 
aiffns being intense pain aggravated at intervals to such a de- 
gree as to cause the patient to howl most loudly, the back 
being at the same time arched as far as possible, and the legs 
drawn together. If this shows itself suddenly after a full meal, 
the colic may at once be surmised to exist, but the howl at 



410 INFLAMMATIONS. 

first is not very loud, the dog starting up with a sharp moan, 
and then lying down again, to repeat the start and moan in a 
few minutes with increased intensity, until it becomes a howl 
continued for many seconds together. The nose is of a natural 
appearance, and there is little or no fever, the evidence of pain 
being all that directs the attention to the bowels, where there 
is no tenderness, and, on the contrary, pressure gradually made 
with the hand seems to afford relief. The trecUfmerU should be 
by means of laudanimi (1 drachm) and ether (30 drops) in a 
little water every two or three hours; or, in very bad cases, 
croton oil (1 drop) may be given in a pill with 3 grains of 
solid opium every four hours till the pain ceases. The embroca- 
tion (45) may also be rubbed into the bowels, either at once 
or after a very hot bath continued for at least half an hour, which 
last remedy is of the greatest service. The clyster (17) may 
also be tried with advantage, and sometimes a very large 
quantity of warm water thrown up into the bowels while the 
dog is in the warm bath will afford instant relief. Colic 
sometimes ends in intusauaception, which is a drawing of one 
portion of the bowel into the other; but of this there is no 
evidence during life, nor if there was would any remedy be of 
service, short of opening the belly with the knife and drawing out 
the inverted portion with the hand. 

Diarrhcea, or inflammation of the mucous membrane of the 
bowels, is a constant visitor to the kennel. Sometimes it is 
produced by chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane ; at 
others by improper food irritating it, but not to that extent; 



DIABRHOCA. 41 1 

and at others again by an epidemic influence, the nature of 
which it is difficult to understand. The aymptoma are too 
plain to need description, further than to remark that the 
motions may be merely loose, marking slight irritation, or 
there may be a good deal of mucus (slime), which is an 
evidence of great irritation of the membrane: or, again, there 
may be shreds or lumps of a white substance resembling boiled 
white of egg, in which case the inflammation has run very 
high. Lastly, blood may be poured out, marking either ulcera- 
tion of the bowel, when the blood is bright in colour, or an 
oozing from the small intestines, when it is of a pitchy con- 
sistence and chocolate colour ; or a similar oozing from the large 
intestines, when the blood is similar to that drawn from a vein. 
It may also be poured out from piles, which are not uncommon 
in the dog, though they seldom bleed as they do in the human 
being, the horizontal position of the dog accounting for this 
immunity. The treatment for these several conditions will vary 
considerably. If there is reason to believe that there is irrita- 
tion from improper food, a dose of oil (15) will clear all away 
and nothing more is needed. In slight cases of mucous diarrhoea, 
laudanum may be added to a small dose of oil (7), and if this 
does not have the desired effect, try (6), (8), or (9). Bleeding 
from an ulcerated surface or from the small intestines seldom 
occurs except in distemper, and can rarely be restrained when 
severe. Relief may be attempted by the bolus (18) or the pill 
(19), but the shock to the system is generally too great to allow 
of perfect health being restored. In case of bleeding from the 



412 INFLAMMATIONS* 

large intestines^ the chalk mixture (6)^ together with the bolus 
(18), will often avail. Rice-water should be given as the only 
drink, and well-boiled rice flavoured with milk as the only 
solid food. 

Chronic inflammatiaji with constipation is very apt to 
occur in dogs which are not exercised, and are fed with biscuit 
or meal without vegetables. The consequence is, that the bowels 
after a time become inflamed, and diarrhoea is set up ; but, this 
soon ceasing, the mucous membrane is impaired in tone, and 
there is a want of the proper secretion, so that the fceces 
become hard, and the muscular coat refuses to act as it should 
do. In such a case, the belly becomes distended, and there is 
excessive pain, with more or less spasm. In some instances 
the fceces have become so impacted that no means could be 
used which would overcome the mechanical difficulty, and the 
dogs have died " undelivered." It is easy to distinguish these 
collections, because they may be readily felt through the flank, 
and nothing but a case of pregnancy can be mistaken for them. 
The treatment of habitual constipation should be by giving 
regular exercise and green vegetables with the food. Coarse 
oatmeal will almost always act gently on the bowels of the dog, 
and a costive animal may be fed upon porridge with great 
advantage, mixing wheat flour with it or Indian meal, so as to 
correct any over-activity* It is better to avoid opening medi- 
cine as a rule, though there is no objection to an occasional 
dose of a mild drug like castor oil. (See Aperients, page 343.) 
If the fceces are impacted, throw up warm water or gruel re- 



KIDNEYS ANT) BLADDER. 413 

peatedly, till they are softened, and at the same time give the 
aperient (12), (15), or (16). If there are piles, which may be 
seen as dark niit-like tumours round the anus, give as much 
brimstone as will lie on a shilling to a dog of average size 
every morning mixed up in his food. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS AND BLADDER. 

The former of these aflFections, which may be known by a 
great scantiness of urine, and evident pain in the loins, is not 
very common in the dog, but it does occasionally occur. The 
only treatment likely to be of service is the administration of 
carbonate of soda (5 grs.), with 30 drops of sweet spirit of nitre, 
in a little water twice a day. 

The bladdery and the urethra leading from it for the passage 
of the urine, are often subject to a mucous inflammation cha- 
racterised by pain and constant irritation in passing water, and 
by a gradual dropping of a yellowish discharge from the penis. 
This is generally the result of cold, and may be treated by 
giving full doses of nitre (10 grs.) with Epsom salts (half an 
ounce) in some water twice a week. If the discbarge and pain 
are very severe, balsam of copaiba may be administered, the 
best form being the ** capsules " now sold, of which two form a 
dose for an average-sized dog. If the discharge has spread to 
the exterior of the penis, the wash (20) will be of service. 



i 



414 INFLAMMATIONS. 



SKIN DISEASES. 

Almost all skin diseases depend on neglect in some form ; and 
in the dog they arise either from improper management, as in 
the case of ** blotch," or "surfeit," or from the presence of 
parasites, as in mange. These three names are all that are 
applied to skin diseases in the dog, though there can be no 
doubt that they vary greatly, and mange itself is subdivided 
by different writers so as to comprehend several varieties. 
Fleas, ticks, &c., also irritate the skin greatly, and all will 
therefore be included here, the inflammation produced by 
them being entitled to be considered a skin disease as much as 
mange itself. 

Blotchy or surfeit, shows itself in the shape of scabby lumps 
of matted hair, on the back, sides, head, and quarters, as well 
as occasionally on the inside of the thighs. They vary from 
the size of a sixpence to that of half a crown, are irregularly 
round in shape, and after about three or four days the scab 
and hair fall off, leaving the skin bare, red, and slightly inclined 
to discharge a thin serum. The disease is not contagious, and 
evidently arises from gross feeding joined very frequently with 
want of exercise, and often brought out by a gallop after long 
confinement to the kennel. The appropriate treatment is to 
remove the cause by giving mild aperients (11), (13), or (14), 
with low diet and regular exercise, by the aid of which, continued 
for some little time, there is seldom any difficulty in effecting 
a cure. 



SKIN DISEASES. 415 

An eruption between the toes, similar in its nature and cause 
to " blotch," is also very common, showing itself chiefly at the 
roots of the nails, where there are considerable redness and swelling, 
and so much tenderness as to make the dog quite lame. In 
bad cases, when the constitution is impaired by defective kennel 
arrangements, the sores become very foul, and are then very 
difficult to heal. In order to remove this state of things, the 
general health must first be attended to, using the same means 
as in " blotch " if the cause is the same, and touching the 
sores themselves with blue-stone, which should be well rubbed 
into the roots of the nails, first scraping it to a fine point. 
When the health is much impaired and the sores are in the 
foul state described above, give from five to eight drops of 
liquor araeniccdia with each meal, which for this condition 
should be of good nourishing food. This remedy must be con- 
tinued for weeks, or even months in some obstinate cases. Here, 
after applying the blue-stone, it is often of service to rub in a 
very little tar-ointment^ and then dust all over with powdered 
brimstone, dipping the foot into a box of it being the best mode 
of applying it. 

Foul mange (resembling the paoriasia of man in its nature) 
is a most unmanageable disease, inasmuch as it has become quite 
constitutional before it can be so designated, and because, being 
a disease of the blood, it requires a complete change in the 
composition of this fluid before it can be eradicated. It is 
doubtful whether mange is contagious, but that it is hereditary I 
have no doubt whatever, the proofs within my own knowledge 



416 INFLAMMATIONS. 

being amply suflRcient to convince me of the fact. Thus I have 
Been a bitch apparently cured of it, and with a perfectly healthy 
skin, produce a litter of whelps all of which broke out with 
mange at four or five months old, though scattered in various 
parts of the country at their walks; the bitch afterwards 
showing the impurity of her blood by again and again becoming 
the subject of mange. I should therefore never breed from 
either a dog or bitch who was attacked by this form of eruption. 
There is considerable thickening of the skin with an oflFensive 
discharge from the siurface, chiefly flowing from the cracks and 
ulcerations under the scabs on it. This dries and falls off in 
scales, taking with them a good deal of the hair, which is further 
removed by the constant scratching of the poor dog, who is 
tormented with incessant itching. Almost always there is a 
fat unwieldy state of the system from want of exercise, but 
the appetite is often deficient. The treatment is founded upon 
the constitutional nature of the disease, which is not caused 
by any parasite or vegetable growth, and is solely the result 
of what is commonly called foulness of the blood. The first 
thing to be done is to clear out the bowels by a brisk aperient^ 
such as (12) or (13). Then give low diet without flesh, starving 
the dog till he is ready to eat potatoes and green vegetables, 
alternately with oatmeal porridge, — and then only in moderate 
quantities. As soon as the stomach is brought down to this 
kind of food, but not before, begin to give the liquor arsenicalis 
with the food, the dose being a drop to each four pounds in 
weight of the animal, and thus a dog of eight pounds' weight 



VIRULENT MAKQE. 417 

will require two drops three times daily; taking care to divide 
the food into three equal portions^ and not to give more of 
this altogether than is required for the purpose of health* 
The arsenic must be administered for weeks or even months, 
and as soon as the itching seems abating, and the health is 
improved, the mangy parts of the skin may be slightly dressed 
with small quantities of sulphur and pitch ointments mixed 
in equal proportions. By a perseverance in these remedies for 
two or three months, the blood becomes piuified, and the eruption 
disappears, after which, if the health seems impaired, a stomachic 
or tonic, (59) or (62), will often be required. 

Virulent mange (which may be compared to psora and 
porrigo in the human subject) is of two kinds, one attribu- 
table to a parasitic insect, and the other of vegetable origin* 
In the former case, which is its most common form, it appears 
in large kennels where cleanliness is not sufficiently attended to, 
and when the floors become loaded with the excretions. There 
is no doubt that this is highly contagious, but there is also little 
difference of opinion as to its being capable of being bred or 
developed among a lot of previously healthy dogs if mismanaged 
in the above way. The skin shows itself bare of hair in large 
patches of irregular form, and the hair being as it were gradually 
worn away at the edges, as if by scratching. The skin is dry 
and rough, with cracks and creases in various directions, from 
some of which a thin ichorous discharge may be seen to flow, 
on removing the scabs which fill them. The dog feeds well, 
but from want of sleep is languid and listless ; there is consider- 

£ E 



418 INFLAMMATIONS. 

able thirst and some slight feverishness, but very often the flesh 
is maintained for months at a high rate. The treatment of this 
form of mange is founded upon the belief that it is caused by 
an insect of the acatms tribe, which has been detected by the 
microscope in many cases, but which by some people is main- 
tained to be an accidental effect, and not a cause of mange. 
However this may be, it is found that remedies which are de- 
structive to insect life, are by far the most efficacious, such as 
hellebore, sulphur, corrosive sublimate, tobacco, &c. The second 
kiiul of virulent mange is more rare than that described above, 
and still more difficult of cure, the vegetable parasite being less 
easily destroyed than the insect. This parasite is supposed to 
be of the nature of mould or fungus, which we all know is most 
obstinately tenacious of life, and is reproduced again and again 
in any liquid where it has once developed its germs. In out- 
ward appearance this variety of mange differs very little from 
the insect-produced form, but it may be known by its generally 
attacking young puppies, while the other appears at all ages, 
but chiefly in the adult animal. The hair falls off in both, but 
there is more scab in the insect mange, probably from the fact, 
that it does not produce such violent itching, and therefore the 
scratching is not so incessant. The treatvfient is nearly the same 
in both cases, being chiefly by external remedies, though altera- 
tives, stomachics, and tonics, are often required from the loss 
of health which generally accompanies the disease. In all cases, 
therefore, it is necessary to attend to this, giving generally a mild 
aperient first, such as (12) or (13), and subsequently (2) and (3) 



VIRULENT BiANGE. 419 

combined together, or (1) and (59), according to circumstances. 
At the same time one of the following applications may be tried 
externally, with the greatest care that the dog does not lick 
them off, as they are highly poisonous when taken into the 
stomach. To the wash some aloes is added, with the view of 
preventing this by the bitter taste of the drug, but though it 
has this good effect partially, there is nothing like a wire or 
leathern muzzle kept constantly on, except when feeding, at 
which time of course the tongue is otherwise engaged. All 
applications must be rubbed well into the roots of the hair. 
Wash for virulent mange : 

Decoction of white hellebore, and 
„ tobacco, 12 ounces. 

Corrosive sublimate, 12 grains. 
Aloes, 3 drachms. 

Make the decoction by boiling half an ounce of white hellebore ( Vera" 
trum album) and two drachms of tobacco with the aloes in two pints 
of water, down to one pint, then strain, and dissolve the corrosive 
sublimate in it while hot. Use with a sponge to the whole diseased 
surface, rubbing it well into the cracks. 

Ointment (or dres.sing) for virulent mange : 

Iodide of mercury, 2| drachms. 
Lard, 2 ounces. 

Mix, and rub as much as can be got rid of in this way, into the diseased 
skin, every other day, for a week ; then wait a week, and dress again. 

A milder ointment : 

Compound sulphur ointment, 4 oz. 
Spirit of turpentine, 1 ounce. 

Mix, and rub in every other day. 

E E 2 



420 INFLAMMATIONS. 

Red mange is quite of a different nature to either of the 
above forms, being evidently a disease of the bulb which produces 
the hair, inasmuch as the colouring matter of the hair itself 
is altered and, if white, the hair looks of a pale brickdust colour, 
almost as if the dog had been sprinkled over with this material. 
It first shows itself almost invariably at the elbows and inside 
the arms, then on the front and inside of the thighs, next on the 
buttocks, and finally on the back, which is only attacked when 
the disease has existed for some weeks or months. The health 
does not seem to suffer, and the skin is not at all scabbed, 
except from the effects of the scratching, which is very frequent^ 
but not so severe as in the virulent or foul mange. It appears 
most probable that red mange is contagious, but it is by no 
means a settled question, as it will often be seen in single 
dogs which are in the same kennel with others free from it 
entirely. Of its exact nature I know nothing, beyond the 
theoretical belief, foimded upon analogy, that the disease is in 
the blood, and is not caused by any parasite. Dogs which are 
highly fed, and which are allowed to lie before the fire, are 
the most subject to it^ while the poor half-starved cur becomes 
affected with the foul or virulent forms. The treatment con- 
sists in lowering the diet, giving aperients (12) or (13); fol- 
lowing these up with the addition of green vegetables to the 
food, and at the same time using one or other of the following 
applications every other day. In obstinate cases arsenic may be 
given internally (see page 416), 



VERMIN IN TUB SKIN. 421 

Dressing for red mange : — 

Iodide of mercury, 1^ drachm. 
Spirit of turpentine, ^-ounce. 
Lard, 1| ounce. 

Mix, rub a very little of this well into the roots of the hair every other 
day. 

Or, 

Pitch ointment, 

Sulphur ointment, 

Spirit of turpentine, of each 1 ounce. 

Mix, and use as above. 

Canker of the ear has been alluded to under the disease 
of that organ at page 394. 

Irritative inflammation of the skin is produced by flea^, 
lice, and ticks, which are readily discovered by examining the 
roots of the hair. Dog-fleas resemble in appearance those of 
the human subject. The lice infesting him are, however, much 
larger, but otherwise similar in appearance. Dog-ticks may 
easily be recognised by their spider-like form, and bloated bodies, 
the claws adhering firmly to the skin, so that they are with 
some difficulty removed from it. These last are of all sizes, 
from that of an average pin's head to the dimensions of a lady- 
bird, beyond which they seldom grow in the dog. They suck 
a great quantity of blood when they are numerous, and im- 
poverish the animal to a terrible extent, partly by the drain 
on the system, and partly by the constant irritation which they 
produce. The remedies are as follows : — 

E B 3 



422 INFLAMMATIONS. 

To remove fleas and lice : — 

Mix 8ofl soap with as much carbonate of soda as will make it into a thick 
paste, then rub this well into the roots of the hair all orer the dog's bodj, 
adding a little hot water so as to enable the operator to completely saturate the 
skin with it. Let it remain on for half an hour, then put the dog into a warm 
bath fur ten minutes, letting him quietly soak, and now and then ducking his 
head under. Lastly wash the soap completely out, and dry before the fire, or 
at exercise, if the weather is not too cold. This, after two or three repetitious, 
will completely cleanse the foulest skin. 

Dry remedies for lice and ticks 2 — 

Break up the lumps of some white precipitate, then with a hard bmah mb it 
well into the roots of the hair over the whole body. Get rid of the superfluous 
powder from the external surface of the coat by means of light brushing or 
rubbing with a cloth. Put a muzzle on, and leave the dog with the powder in 
the coat for two or three days. Then brush all well out, rerersing the hair for 
this purpose, and the ticks and lice will all be found dead. A repetition at the 
expiration of a week will be necessary, or even perhaps a third time. 

Or, use the Persian Insect-destroying powder, sold by Keating, 
of St. Paul's Churchyard, which seems to answer welL 

Or, the following wash may be tried : 

Acetic acid (Pharm. Lond.), 3^ ounces. 
Borax, i drachm. 
Distilled water, 4} ounces. 

Mix, and wash into the roots of the hiur. 



423 



CHAPTER V, 

DISEASES ACCOMPANIED BY WANT OF POWER. 
Chorea. — Shaking Palsj. — Fits. — Worms. — General Dropsy or Anasarca. 

As inflammation is attended by increased action of the heart 
and arteries, so this class of diseases is^ on the contrary, accom- 
panied by a want of tone (atony) in these organs, as well as by an 
irritability of the nervous system, which arises from the same 
cause. None of them require lowering measures, but, on the 
contrary, tonics and generous Uving wUl almost- always be de- 
manded. I have included worms among them, because these 
parasites produce a lowering effect, and seldom infest to any 
extent a strong healthy subject, preferring the delicate and half- 
starved puppy, to the full grown and hardy dog. 



CHOREA. 

ChoreOj or St. Vitua^a danccy may be known by the spasmodic 
twitches which accompany it, and by their ceasing during sleep. 

B E 4 



424 ATONIC DISEASES. 

In slight cases the spasm is a mere drop of the head uid shoulder^ 
or sometimes of the hind quarter only^ the nods in the former 
case, or the backward drop in the latter, giving a very silly and 
weak expression to the animal* Chorea is almost alwajrs a con- 
sequence of distemper, so that it is imnecessary to describe its 
early stages, and the disease itself cannot be further defined than 
by the above description. It seldom goes on to destroy life, 
though occasionally it is accompanied by fits, the disease in the 
brain and spine then being of such a severe nature^ as to end 
fatally in the course of time, the dog apparently dying from 
exhaustion. Of the exact nature of the disease we know nothing, 
the most careful examination of the brain and spinal cord lead- 
ing to no useful result. But it often happens that there is 
present at the same time, a degree of mischief in the stomach, 
caused apparently by the presence of worms, and then the chorea 
is said to be sympathetic with this. In the trecUment, therefore, 
it is desirable to ascertain the existence of worms, and if they are 
foimd, no remedy will be likely to be beneficial so long as they 
are allowed to continue their attacks. If they are only suspected, 
it is prudent to give a dose of the most simple worm-medicine, 
such as the areca nut (65), and if this brings away only one or 
two, the presence of others may be predicated, and a persistence 
in the proper remedies (see p. 435) will be necessary, till the dog 
is supposed to be cleansed from them. Beyond this, the remedies 
must be directed to improve the general health, and at the same 
time to relieve any possible congestion of the brain or spine by 
the insertion of a seton in the neck. Fresh country air is the 



CHOREA AND PALSY. 425 

best giver of strength, and it alone will often suffice ; but if not, 
after trying good nourishing animal food, mixed with a proper 
proportion of vegetables, recourse may be had to the following 
tonic, which is often of the greatest service : 

Sulphate of zinc, 2 to 5 grains. 
Extract of gentian, 3 grains. 

Mix, and form a bolus. To be given three times a day. 

Attention must be carefully paid to the state of the bowels, 
both constipation and looseness being prejudicial to the health, 
and each requiring the appropriate treatment laid down at pages 
410 and 412. Sometimes the tonic pill (62) will do wonders, and 
often the change from it to the sulphate of zinc and back again 
will be of more service than either of them continued by itself. 
A perseverance in these methods, with the aid of the shower- 
bath, used by means of a watering-pot applied to the head and 
spine, and followed by moderate exercise, will sometimes entirely 
remove the disease, though in the majority of cases a slight drop 
will be ever afterwards noticed, and in sporting-dogs the strength 
is seldom restored to the same extent as before. 



SHAKING PALSY. 

This resembles chorea in its nature, but it is incessant, except 
during sleep, and attacks the whole body. The same reTnedies 
may be applied, but it is an incurable disease, though not always 
destroying life. 



426 ATONIC DISEASES. 



FITS. 

Fits are of three kinds : 1st, those arising from irritation, espe- 
cially in the puppy, and known as convulsive fits; 2nd, those 
connected with pressure on the brain, and being of the nature of 
apoplexy; and 3rd, epileptic fits, which may occur at all ages, 
and even at intervals throughout the whole life of the animaL 

Convulsive fits are generally produced by the irritation of 
dentition, and occur chiefly at the two periods when the teeth 
are cut, that is, in the first month, and from the fifth to the 
seventh. They come on suddenly, the puppy lying on its side, 
and being more or less convulsed, the extent and severity of 
the struggling being no indication of the amount of the disease. 
There is no foaming at the mouth, and the recovery from them 
is gi-adual, in both these points differing from epilepsy. The 
only treatment at all likely to be of service, is the use of the 
hot-bath, which in young and delicate puppies may sometimes 
give relief. Fits arising in distemper, are caused by absolute 
mischief in the brain, unless they occur as a consequence of 
worms, which will also produce them at other times, and are 
nearly as often the cause as teething. In such cases, these 
parasites being removed, the fits cease. 

In apoplectic fits the dog lies insensible, or nearly so, without 
foaming at the mouth, but snoring and breathing heavily. Here 
the treatmen^i must be conducted by taking away blood from the 
neck-vein, afterwards purging by means of croton oil, and insert- 



EPILEPSY. — WOBMS. 427 

iog a seton in the bac^ of the neck. The attack, however, is 
generally fatal, in spite of the most scientific treatment. 

Epilepsy may be distinguished by the blueness of the lips and 
gums, and by the constant champing of the jaws and frothing at 
the mouth, which constantly accompany its attacks. The fit 
comes on without any notice, frequently in sporting dogs while 
they are at work, a hot day being specially provocative of it. In 
the pointer and setter, the fit almost always occurs just after a 
"point," the excitement of which seems to act upon the brain 
in producing it. The dog falls directly the birds are sprung, and 
after lying struggling for a few minutes, or perhaps a quarter of 
an hour, rises, looking wildly about him, and then sitting or lying 
down again for a few minutes, he is ready to go to work again, 
apparently unconscious of anything having been the matter. As 
in chorea so in epilepsy, nothing is known of the cause, and the 
treatTYient is therefore guided by the most empirical principles. 
Emetics and strong aperients seem to have the most power, but, 
excepting for a time, I have no faith in them. The mistletoe is 
supposed to be very efiScacious, but I have never used it in the dog. 
The dose should be one berry three times a day to every 10 lbs. 
of the dog's weight 



WORMS. 



Wcyrr^is are a fertile source of disease in the dog, destroying 
every year more puppies than distemper itself; and, in spite of 



428 ATONIC DISEASES. 

every precaution, appearing in the kennelled hound or shooting-* 
dog> as well as the pampered hoiise-pet and the half-fitarved cun 
In old and constantly used kennels they are particularly rife, and 
I believe that, in some way, their ova remain from year to year, 
attached either to the walls or to the benches. All of the varieties 
met with are propagated by ovay though some, as the Aeoa/ris lumr 
bricoidea, are also viviparous, so that the destruction of the worms 
actually existing at the time the vermifuge is given does not 
necessarily imply the after clearance of the animal, who may be 
infested with them as badly as before, from the hatching of the 
eggs left behind. The natural history of these parasites is, how- 
ever, very imperfectly understood, in spite of the carefully re- 
corded and extended labours of Budolphi, Schmalz, Cloquet, 
Creplin, and our own Owen ; indeed, as it is not till after the death 
of the animal infested by them that they can be reached, it \b 
only wonderful that so much is known. Besides the intestinal 
worms, there are also others met with in the dog, including the 
large kidney worm, {Strongylus ffigas), which shall presently be 
described, and the hydatid, which is in all probability the cause 
of turnside ; but, though found in the dog's brain, its presence has 
not) I believe, been clearly associated with that disease. I shall, 
therefore, first describe the appearance of each kind of worm ; 
then the symptoms of worms in general; and, lastly, the best 
means for their expulsion. 

The Maw-worm {Ascaris vei^micularis) is much larger than 
its representative in the human subject, which is a mere thread, 
and is hence called the '^ thread^worm.'' In the dog it ib about 



an inch in length (Jig. 1), of a milky white colour, with one end 
cut oEF obtusely and slightly puckered (the mouth), and the other 




FJg. 1. 
pointeil (the tail). Maw-wonne exist in great numbers in the 
dog, chiefly occupying the large intestines, and not injuring the 
healtli to any great degree, unless they exist in very large num- 
bera They are male and female, and are propagated by ova. 

The Round-^orm {Ascana lumbriccddea) is from four to seven 
inches long, round, firm, and of a pale pink colour. The two 
extremities are exactly alike, and are slightly flattened in one 
direction at the point (see fg. 2), la which a shows the worm 




430 ATONIC DISEASES. 

extended^ and b a group of three as actually discharged from the 
intestine of a dog in which they were thus knotted. I have often 
seen from six to a dozen round worms thus collected together^ so 
as when discharged to form a solid mass as large as an egg. Like 
the last species they are propagated by ovd, but sometimes these 
are hatched in the body of the parent, so that a large worm may 
be seen full of small ones. This species occasions much more 
inconvenience than the maw-worm, but still far less than the 
tape-worm. 

Tape-^orms in the dog are described by foreign writers as of 
five kinds, of which the Tcenia solium and Boihriocepfialus lotus 
are common to man and the dog. The others are not readily 
distinguished from these two, and all are now said to be de- 
veloped from the hydatid forms found in the livers of sheep, 
rabbits, &c. The peculiarity in the bothriocephalus consists in the 
shape of the head {see Jig, 4), which has two lateral longitudinal 
grooves {bothina\ while that of the true taenia is hemispherical. 
The following is a description according to Professor Owen: — '* The 
Timiia solium attains the length of several feet, extending 
sometimes from the mouth to the anus. The breadth varies 
from one-fourth of a line at its anterior part to three or four 
lines towards the posterior part of the body, which then again 
diminishes. The head (fig, 3, a) is small, and generally hemi- 
spherical, broader than long, and often as if truncated ante- 
riorly; the four mouths, or oscula, are situated on the anterior 
surface, and surround the central rostellum, which is very short, 
terminated by a minute apical papilla, and surrounded by a 



431 



double circle of small recurred hooka. The s^^ents of the 
neck, or anterior part of the body, are represented by transverse 
nigie, the marginal angles of which scarcely project beyond the 
lateral line; the Bucceeding segments are subquadrate, their 




Fig. 8. 



length scarcely exceeding their breadth ; they then become 
sensibly longer, narrower anteriorly, thicker and broader at the 
posterior margin, which alightly overlaps the succeeding joint 
The last aeries of segments are sometimes twice or three times 



ATONIC DISEASES. 




as long as they are broad. The geu«- 
ratiTe orificee {b b) are placed near the 
middle of one of the margins of each 
joint, and are generally alternate (Jig. 5, 
d). The T(miui solium, ia androgy- 
nous ; that is to say, it produces its ova 
without the neceasity for the contact of 
two individualB, the male and female 
organs being contwned in each." Pro- 
fessor Owen thus describes them : " In 
each joint of this worm th^e is a Urge 
branched ovarium (Jiff' 5, i), from which 
a duct (h) is continued to the lateral 
opening; the ova are crowded in the 
ovary, and in those situated on the pos- 
terior segments of the body they gene- 
rally present a brownish colour, which 
renders the form of their receptacle 
sufficiently conspicuous. In s^^ent^ 
which have been expelled separately, we 
have observed the ovary to be nearly 
empty ; and it is in these that the male 
duct and gland are most easily perceived. 
For this purpose, it is only necessary 
t« place the segment between two slips 
of glass, and view it by means of a 
simple lens, magnifying from 20 to 30 



WORMS. 433 

diameters. A well-defined line {c/)y more slender and opaque than 
the oviduct, may then be traced, extending from the termination 
of the oviduct, at the lateral opening, to the middle of the joint, 
and inclined in a curved or slightly wavy line to near the 
middle of the posterior margin of the segment, where it termi- 
nates in a small oval vesicle. This, as seen by transmitted 
lights is subtransparent in the centre, and opaque at the cir- 
cumference, indicating its hollow or vesicular structure. The 
duct., or vaa deferens^ contains a grumous secretion ; it is slightly 
dilated just before its termination. In this species, therefore, 
the ova are impregnated on their passage outward." {Cyclo- 
pedia of Anatomy, art* Entozoa.) From this minute de- 
scription it may be gathered, that the ova are in enormous 
numbers, each section of the worm being capable of producing 
them to an almost indefinite extent; and as they aie passed 
out of the body with the fceceSy it is not surprising that they 
are readily commimicated from one dog to another, as is almost 
proved to be the case from the fact of their prevalence in 
certain kennels and absence from others. The injury caused 
by these worms is twofold, depending partly upon the abs- 
traction of nourishment, which is absorbed by the worm, and 
partly by the irritation produced by its presence in the in- 
testines; and hence it is of the utmost importance to get rid of 
so troublesome a customer. 

The Kidney-worm (Strongylua gigas) "inhabits the kidney 
of the dog, as well as that of the wolf, otter, raccoon, glutton, 
horse, and bull (see fig. 6). It is generally of a dark blood- 

r F 



434 



ATONIC DISEASES. 




Fig. 6. 



colour, which seems to be owing to the 
nature of its food, which is derived 
from the vessels of the kidney, as, 
when suppuration has taken place 
round it, the worm has been found 
of a whitish hue. " In the human 
kidney it has been known to attain 
the length of three feet, with a dia- 
meter of half an inch. ^^The head 
(a) is obtuse, the mouth orbicular and 
surrounded by six hemispherical papillae 
(a) ; the body is slightly impressed with 
circular striae, and with two longitu- 
dinal impressions; the tail is incurved 
in the male, and terminated by a 
dilated point or bursa (b), from the 
base of which the single intromittent 
spiculum (b) projects. In the female 
the caudal extremity is less attenuated 
and straighter, with the anus (c) a 
little below the apex.** {Oydopedia of 
Anatomy f art Entozoa.) I have been 
thus particular in inserting descriptions 
of these worms, because I find that 
the study of their natural history is 
becoming more general ; and as there 
is a large field for the microscopic 



WORMS. 435 

inquirer, it is well to have a good ground to start from. The 
generation of parasites is at all times of great interest, but, 
with reference to the Entozod, there is so much still unknown, 
that the natural historian who would be able to throw light 
on this branch of his favourite study would deserve the thanks 
of those who, while they take an equal interest in it with himself, 
have not the opportunity, or perhaps the industry, which he 
posseflses. 

The eymptoma of the presence of worms in the dog should 
be carefully noted and anxiously looked for, if the health of 
the animal is of any importance. They are, an unhealthy ap- 
pearance of the coat, the hair looking dead and not lying 
smoothly and evenly; appetite ravenous in proportion to the 
condition, which is generally low, though worms may exist for 
months without interfering much with the presence of fat. 
After a time, however, the fat of the body is absorbed, and 
the muscles, without being firm and prominent, are marked 
with intervening lines from its absence. The fcecea are passed 
frequently and in small quantities, the separate passage of a 
small quantity of mucus each time being particularly indicative 
of worms, especially if there is first a solid lump, and then a 
small portion of frothy mucus. The spirits also are dull, the 
nose hot and dry, and the breath offensive. These signs are 
only present to the full extent when the dog is troubled with 
tape-worm, or with the roimd-worm in large quantities; the 
maw-worm being only slightly injurious in comparison with 
the others, and seldom producing the whole of the above train 

F F 2 



i 



436 ATONIC DISEASES. 

of symptoms. The kidney-worm, of course, has no effect upon 
the intestinal secretions, but it produces bloody luine^ more or 
less mixed with pus. Still, as these are often present without 
this worm, it is impossible to predict its existence during life, 
with any degree of certainty. When worms are suspected, in 
order to distinguish the species, it is better to give a dose of 
calomel and jalap (16), unless the dog is very weakly, when the 
areca nut may be substituted {65) ; and then, by watching the 
fcecesy the particular worm may be detected and the treatment 
altered accordingly. 

The expulsion of the worms is the proper method of trecUment 
in all cases, taking care afterwards to prevent their regeneration, 
by strengthening the system, and by occasional doses of the 
medicine suited to remove the worm in question. All vermifuges 
act as poisons to the worms themselves, or as mechanical irritants ; 
the former including the bulk of these medicines, and the 
latter powdered glass and tin as well as cowhage. These poisons 
are all more or less injurious to the dog, and in spite of every 
precaution fatal results will occur after most of them ; even 
the areca nut^ innocent as it is said to be, having occasionally 
nearly destroyed the life of valuable dogs under careful super- 
intendence. There is a wonderful difference in the power of 
resisting the action of remedies in certain individuals of the 
dog tribe, as well as in the worms themselves; so that whereas 
in some instances a remedy may clear a dog easily without the 
slightest ill effect upon him, in another, apparently under the 
very same circumstances of health and strength, remedy and 



WORMS. 437 

dose^ a fatal result, or nearly so, shall be produced, and even 
without bringing away the worms. Hence there is always some 
little risk in conducting the removal of these troublesome para- 
sites, which directly and indirectly cause more deaths than all 
other diseases put together ; the former by their own prejudi- 
cial eflFects, and the latter from the abuse of the powerful drugs 
which are employed. 

The following list of remedies against the various worms is 
inserted: 

For round and maw-worms : 

Betel nut (Nux arecd). 

Stinking hellebore (Helleborus ftrtidus), 

Indian pink (Spigelia Marylandicd). 

Calomel (Jlydrargyri chloridtan). 

Wormwood (^Artemisia Absinthium), 

Santonine, tbe active principle of wormseed (^Artemisia contra), 

Cowhage {Mucuna pruriens). 

Powdered tin and glass. 

For tape-worm : 

Spirit of turpentine (Spiritus (erebinthina), 
Kousso {Brayera anthelmintica). 
Pomegranate bark {Punica Oranatum), 
Leaves and oil of male fern (JFUix nuu). 

The areca nut was first recommended in this country as a 
vermifuge about ten years ago, by Major Besant, who had seen 
it used in India for that purpose. Since that time it has been 
very generally adopted, and appears to answer the purpose re- 
markably well^ if it is frequently used, and dependence is not 

F F 3 



438 ATONIC DISEASES. 

placed on a smgle dose. It should be given every week or 
ten days, for six or seven times, if the round-worm is present; 
but two or three doses occasionally given will 8u£Sce for the 
maw-worm. Six or eight hours afterwards, a dose of castor oil 
should be given. The dose of the freshly powdered areca nut 
is about two grains to every pound of the dog*s weight. Thus 
a dog of 30 lbs. will take one drachm, or half an average nut 
The powder should be merely the nut xoughly grated vrith a 
coarse " grater ;** and it should be quickly mixed with some 
good broth, thickened with oatmeal, and given before the bitter 
taste is extracted by soaking, after which the dog will not 
voluntarily take it. 

Stinking hellebore is very innocent, and even useful in other 
ways. The dose for a 30 lb. dog is five or six grains mixed 
up with eight or ten of jalap, and formed into a bolus, to be 
given every five or six days. 

Indian pink is a very powerful vermifuge; but it also occa- 
sionally acts very prejudicially on the dog; and it must never 
be given without knowing the risk which is incurred. I have 
myself used it in numberless instances without injury; but its 
employment has so frequently been followed by fatal results in 
other hands* that I cannot do otherwise than caution my 
readers against it. How, or why, this has been, I have never 
been able to ascertain; but, that it is so, I have no doubt 
whatever. If it is determined to use it, half an ounce of the 
drug, as purchased, should be infused in half a pint of boiling 
water; and of this infusion, after straining it, from a table- 



WORMS. 439 

Hpoonful to two table-spoonfuls should be given to the dog, ac- 
cording to size, followed by a dose of oil. 

CaJUym/d is a powerful expellant^ but it also is attended with 
danger. The dose is from three to five grains, mixed 'with 
jalap. (See 12, page 344.) 

W(yirmwood may be given with advantage to young puppies, 
being mild in its operation ; but I do not believe it to be 
as generally useful as the areca nut. The dose is from ten to 
thirty grains, in syrup or honey. 

Santonine is an admirable remedy, when it can be procured 
in a pure state. The brown is the best, of which from one 
half to three grains is the dose, mixed with from five to fifteen 
grains of jalap, and given at intervals of a week. 

Cowhagey powdered tiny and glaaSy all act by their me- 
chanical irritation, and may be given without the slightest 
fear at any time. The first should be mixed with treacle, and 
a tea-spoonful or two given occasionally. The second and third 
are better mixed with butter, the dose being as much as can 
be heaped upon a shilling. 

Spirit of turpentine is without doubt the most efficacious of 
all worm medicines; but, if not given with care, it is apt to 
upset the health of the dog, by irritating the mucous mem- 
brane of the alimentary canal, and of the kidneys also. I am 
satisfied, however, that it is not necessary to give it in its un- 
diluted form, and that by mixing it with oil its dangerous 
qualities are altogether suppressed. I have known young pup- 
pies, under two months of age, cleared of worms without the 



440 ATONIC DISEASES. 

slightest injury, by giving them from three to ten drops, ac- 
cording to their size, in a tea-spoonful of oil. The old plan was to 
tie up the turpentine in a piece of bladder, which is then to be 
given as a bolus; but this is either broken in the throaty 
causing suffocation by getting into the windpipe, or it is dis- 
solved in the stomach, which is then irritated by the almost 
caustic nature of the turpentine. The ordinary dose given in 
this way is from half a drachm to half an ounce, the latter 
being only adapted to very strong and full-sized dogs. Cer- 
tainly it is very useful given in this way, if it does not irri- 
tate; but I should prefer the mixture with oil, though it is 
sometimes rejected from the stomach. 

Kou880y when employed, should be given entire, first pouring 
boiling water upon it, and, when cool, adding the juice of half 
a lemon, which seems to increase its power. Like Indian pink 
and turpentine, it sometimes acts prejudicially, or even fatally, 
though it is generally quite innocent. The dose is from two 
drachms to four, in half a pint of boiling water, which should be 
repeated two or three times at intervals of a week. 

PoTnegranate bark is an admirable remedy, but it is not 
often to be obtained genuine, it being little used in this 
country. The dose is from half an ounce to an ounce of the 
bark, which, after standing for twenty-foiu: hours in a pint 
and a half of water, is to be boiled down to one half and 
filtered. This quantity is then to be divided into tliree por- 
tions, one of which is to be given every half hour, till the 
whole is taken. 



GENERAL DROPSY. 441 

The leaves and oil of the male fern are both very efficacious 
remedies, when obtained in a state of purity, in which there is 
some difficulty, though the plant is common enough. It should 
be dug up in the summer, and the top powdered and carefully 
preserved in stoppered bottles. The dose is from twenty grains 
to two drachms, made into a bolus, and followed by a jalap 
purge, or castor oil, in two or three hours. Of the oil, from ten 
to twenty drops are the dose, mixed up with linseed meal and 
water, and one half given at night, the remainder next morning, 
followed in an hour by a dose of castor oil. 



GENERAL DROPSY (Anasarca). 

General Dropsy consists in serum infiltrated into the cellular 
membrane, beneath the skin of the whole body, as shown by 
swelling without redness, and "pitting" on the pressure of the 
finger being removed. The immediate cause is to be looked for 
either in general debility, by which the serum is not absorbed in 
due course, or from defective action of the kidneys, by which the 
blood is overcharged with it. More i^emotely, improper stimulants 
or gross food will produce it, especially in foul and dirty kennels, 
and in old and worn-out dogs when the liver is deficient in 
activity. The treatmeat must vary with the cause, and it is 
therefore important that this should be ascertained at once. Thus, 
in case there is merely general debility, tonics (62) or (63) vdll be 



442 ATONIC DISEASES. 

the proper remedies. If the kidneys are in f&ult, but merely 
torpid, the diuretic bolus (40) or (41) may be relied on ; while, if 
they have been inflamed, the treatment proper to that disease 
(see page 413) must be resorted to. Sometimes, in a broken 
down constitution, when the urine is mixed with blood, small doses 
of cantharides may be found beneficial, as advised by Mayhew ; 
but these cases are so difficult to distinguish, that it is only when 
veterinary aid cannot be obtained that I should advise the use of 
this drug. The dose is two to three drops in water twice a day. 

Tincture of Cantharides, 2 drops. 
Spirit of Nitric Ether, 15 drops. 
Water, 1 oz. 

Mix, and give as a drencb twice a day. 



443 



CHAPTER VL 

DISEASES ARISING FROM MISMANAGEMENT OK NEGLECT. 
Ansemia. — Rickets. — Indigestion. 

POVERTY OF BLOOD (Ahjkmia). 

When puppies are reared in the densely populated parts of our 
cities, or even in the country where they are crowded together in 
large numbers, they are weakly in constitution, and their blood 
is pale, from being deprived of the red particles which fresh air 
and good food with sunlight will alone produce. The feeding 
has a good deal to do with this, but not so much as the other 
causes. The signa are clear enough, the young dog looking 
emaciated and delicate and his coat staring, while his lips and 
tongue are of a pale pink as if washed out. Worms are almost 
always present, and if so they aggravate the disease tenfold. (See 
p. 427.) The treatment should consist in plenty of fresh air, in 
the country if possible, admitting the sun on all occasions ; toge- 
gether with good nourishing food, composed of the proper propor- 
tions of animal and vegetable ingredients. (See page 215.) Gene- 
rally a total change in these respects will be the best remedy 



444 DISEASES ARISING FKOM NEGLECT. 

but sometimes this cannot be had^ and then a combination of 
quinine and steel may be used as an internal medicine. Thus, 

Sulphate of quinine, 

Sulphate of iron, of each 1 grain. 

Extract of dandelion, 3 grains. 

Mix, and give 3 times a dajr. 

If worms are present they must of course be got rid of. (See page 
427.) 



RICKETS AND ENLARGED JOINTS. 

By Rickets is understood a soft and weak condition of the 
bones, in which the lime is deficient ; and, the gelatine comprising 
their framework having no proper support, they bend in any 
direction which the superinciunbent weight may give them. 
Hence we so often see puppies which are confined to their kennels 
with bandy legs, which is usually the first sign of rickets. Some- 
times the shins bend forward, producing what is called the ** buck- 
shin," but whether the legs bow outwards or forwards the cause is 
the same. The remedy for this is to be looked for in country air, 
exercise, and good food ; but the quinine and steel pills, ordered 
for poverty of blood, will also be of service here. 

Enlarged Joints may be merely a sign of excessive vigour in 
the formation of bone, as is sometimes seen in the early puppy- 



RICKETS. 445 

hood of the greyhound, the mastiff, and other large dogs, between 
three and nine months old, when the knees and hocks will strike 
the eye as out of all character with the rest of the frame. Here, 
so long aj9 the legs are not bent out of shape, and there is no lame- 
ness, the breeder need feel no anxiety, as in course of time the 
enlargement of the joints subsides, leaving only what is parti- 
cularly desired, namely, large bony and strong joints, without 
any malformation. It is extraordinary to what an extent this 
bony development sometimes goes, especially in young dogs, 
bitches seldom showing the same amount of it. Inexperienced 
breeders are often sadly puzzled to know whether such puppies 
are worth rearing, and I have often saved the lives of valuable 
animals, which had been condemned as diseased, but which ulti- 
mately turned out to be all that could be wished. When, there- 
fore, such a state of things exists, let the patience of the owner be 
exercised till the ninth or tenth month, or sometimes still longer, 
and, if about this time the limbs do not grow into shape, it will 
be quite early enough to consider what is to be done. But, again, 
there is to be met with a scrofulous enlargement of the joints 
which is seldom got rid of; but this occurs in delicate puppies, 
and not in the large overgrown animals which are the subjects of 
the mere "big joints" above described. There is a puffy and 
soft feeling communicated to the hand on examining the leg, and 
usually there is tenderness on pressure, together with more or less 
lameness in walking or running. This scrofulous enlargement 
may occur in the knees, hocks, or stifles, but the last-named joints 
are most usually the seats of the disease. Sometimes nature 



44(J DISEASES ARISING FROM NEGLECT. 

rallies and throws off this tendency to scrofula^ but more frequently 
the joints become larger and larger, the lameness increases, and, 
in most cases, some one joint being worse than the others inflames 
and forms matter within it^ when nothing is to be done but to 
consign the poor animal to the halter or the river. 



INDIGESTION (Dyspepsia). 

Among the most conmion consequences of improper feed- 
ing and neglect of exercise is indigestion, attended by its 
usual concomitant, constipation. (See page 412.) It shows 
itself in flatulence, loss of appetite, alternations of constipa- 
tion and diarrhoea, low spirits, and want of muscular vigour; 
although often the animal is fat enough, or, indeed, some- 
times loaded with fat (adipose matter). Such a state of 
things never occurs to a dog properly reared and afterwards 
well managed, being confined to those which are either fed on 
improper food, or allowed too much of it, or which are not 
allowed exercise enough; or, as is too frequently the case, 
which are submitted to all three of these causes. The threat" 
ment is simple enough, it being only necessary, except in very 
old-standing cases, to adopt the proper rules for feeding, ex- 
ercise, &c., which are laid down at page 199 et seq., and nature 
asserts her supremacy, rapidly getting the victory over disease. 
In no aninu;! are the ups and downs so rapid as in the dog, 



INDIGESTION. 447 

who gets fat and lean in a week; and certainly there are few 
which will bear with impunity the liberties which are taken 
with him. If moderate starvation (sometimes, at firsts entire, 
in order to make the pampered dog take food which is fit 
for him) does not soon restore the stomach, care must be 
taken that the liver is acting properly, the forces being watched 
to see if they are of a proper colour; and, if not, small doses 
of calomel or blue pill will be required: (1), (2), or (13). If, on 
the contrary, the liver acts properly, yet the stomach is out of 
order, recourse may be had to the stomachic bolus (59), or 
the draught (60), which will very seldom fail, if aided by 
proper management. It should, however, never be forgotten, 
that medicine is of no use, imless, at the same time, the diet is 
attended to, and sufficient exercise given. In cases of indi- 
gestion it is particularly necessary to change the food every 
third or fourth day, for the stomach is often so fitful that 
what will agree with it once or twice will afterwards be almost 
sure to disagree. 



448 



CHAPTER VII. 

DISEASES AND ACCIDENTS BEQUIKING SUKGICAL AID. 

Tumours. — Cancer. — Encysted Tumours. — Abscesses. — Unnatural Par- 
turition. — Accidents and Operations. 

TUMOURS. 

BRONCHOCELEy Or GoitrCy is very common among house pets, 
showing itself in a large and rather soft swelling in the front 
of the throat. It is not attended with danger; and even in 
extreme cases, when it affects the breathing so as to cause it 
to be short and even attended with noise, it very rarely goes 
on to produce suffocation. It is called, scientifically, an hyper-- 
trophy of the thyroid body, being an excessive and unnatiu-al 
growth of the part, and not a new or diseased production. The 
treatment consists in rubbing in iodine outwardly ; and, if this 
fails, giving it internally also. The internal remedy may be 
according to the formula (3); but, if the expense is objected 
to, the sarsaparilla may be omitted. The ointment is as fol- 
lows : 

Iodide of potassium, 1 drachm. 
Lard, 1 ounce. 
Mix, and rub in the size of a filbert, night and morning. 

Or, 

Paint over the surface some tincture of iodine twice a week. 



SURGICAL DISEASES. 449 



CANCER. 

Cancer is a malignant disease ; that is, it is incapable of a 
cure by the natural powers, and must be eradicated either by 
the knife or by caustic. It is, however, very doubtful whether 
by their means the disease is checked for any length of time, 
generally returning afterwards in the coiuse of a few months. 
The disease may be known in the early stage by the appear- 
ance of a hard lump, varying in size from that of a filbert to 
a large walnut or common egg, with an irregular " knotty " 
feel and a strange hardness. In process of time this enlarges, 
and the skin adheres to it, by and by ulcerating, and a red 
fungous growth making its appearance. There are various 
forms in which the open cancer shows itself, sometimes red 
and smooth, at others very " knotty ^ and purple, while a 
third variety resembles curdy matter mixed with streaks of 
blood. The most common seats of cancer in the dog are, 
the teats or womb in the bitch, and the penis in the dog. 
I have several times seen a cancerous condition of the womb 
and vagina cause such constant irritation that the bitch always 
appeared to be at heat, and would take the dog at any 
time, but without breeding, to the great astonishment and 
annoyance of the owner, who is unable to account for this 
repeated "heat," as he considers it. A cancer is incurable; 
the knife is the only remedy, but it should be used by 
hands accustomed to operations, and practice with previous 

GG 



450 SURGICAL DISEASES. 

demonstrations is all important. When, therefore, a cancer 
is to be removed, a veterinary surgeon should at once be 
called in. 



ENCYSTED TUMOURS. 

Encysted tuinaura are sacs or bags of various sizes, which 
occur just beneath the skin, and contain a thick, glairy, and 
transparent fluid resembling white of egg. They are readily 
known by their soft yielding feel, and by their evident want 
of connexion with the sm-roimding parts. Nothing but the knife 
is of the slightest use, and, by cutting through them, the sac 
may readily be torn out, each half at a time, taking care not 
to leave a particle behind, as it is sure to grow again into another 
sac of the same size as before. 



ABSCESSES. 

Abscesses, the result of inflammation, are very common in the 
dog, and show themselves in the early stage as hard painful 
swellings more or less deep, but gradually coming to the surface, 
when the skin reddens, and they burst of themselves in the 
course of time. Very often, however, the matter forms so slowly, 
and has such a tendency to burrow among the muscles, that, if it 
is not let out by the knife in the early stage, it produces great 
exhaustion from the quantity formed. Matter may be detected as 



ABSCESS. — UNNATUKAL PARTURITION. 451 

sooa as it is thrown out, by the sensation given to the fingers 
of each hand called " fluctuation ; " that is to say, on pressing 
one side of the swelling with the left hand, the other side rises 
beneath the fingers of the right, in an elastic way, just as 
happens with a water-pillow, when pressure is made upon it. 
WTien, therefore, this fluctuation is clearly made out, a lancet 
or knife should be inserted, and made to cut its way out^ so as 
to leave a considerable opening, which should be so arranged 
as to let the matter drain out at all times. This is what in 
surgery is called a "depending" opening, the opposite plan 
allowing the matter to remain in the abscess, which cannot there- 
fore heal, because its walls are separated, and the consequence 
is that a sinus forms, which gives infinite trouble to get it well. 
Should this sinus be established, the only plan is, either to lay 
it open by slitting it up with a narrow knife, or by passing a 
probe or other similar smooth body to the end, cutting down 
upon it, and then inserting a few threads or a piece of tape, 
convert it into a seton, which will either eat its way out, or after 
a time the threads may be withdrawn and the sides unite. 



UNNATURAL PARTURITION. 

I have alluded to the management of healthy parturition at 
page 196, but in this chapter I must say something of the proper 
conduct to be observed where the process is disturbed by any 
accidental complication. As, however, these unnatural labours 

002 



452 SURGICAL DISEASES. 

only occur in any number to the veterinary practitioner, I shall 
take the liberty of inserting here Mr. Youatt's remarks on the 
subject, which I believe to be truthful throughout : — 

*'The pupping usually takes place from the sixty-second to 
the sixty-foiuth day ; and, the process having commenced, from 
a quarter to three quarters of an hour generally takes place be- 
tween flie production of each puppy. 

" Great numbers of bitches are lost every year in the act of 
parturition: there seems to be a propensity in the females to 
associate with dogs larger than themselves, and they pay for it 
with their lives. The most neglected circumstance during the 
period of pregnancy is the little exercise which the mother is 
permitted to take, while, in point of feet, nothing tends more 
to safe and easy parturition than her being permitted or com- 
pelled to take a fair quantity of exercise. 

** When the time of parturition has arrived, and there is evident 
difficulty in producing the foetus, recourse should be had to the 
ergot of rye, which should be given every hour or half hour, 
according to circumstances. If after a certain time some, al- 
though little, progress has been made, the ergot must be con- 
tinued in smaller doses, or perhaps suspended for a while ; but, 
if all progress is evidently suspended, recourse must be had to 
the hook or the forceps. By gentle but continued manipulation 
much may be done, especially when the muzzle of the puppy 
can be brought into the passage. As little force as possible 
must be used, and especially the foetus little broken. Many a 
valuable animal is destroyed by the undue application of force. 



UNNATURAL PARTURITION. 4,53 

" If the animal seems to be losing strength, a small quantity 
of laudanum and ether may be administered. *The patience 
of bitches in labour is extreme/ says Mr. Blaine; *and their 
distress, if not removed, is most striking and affecting. Their 
look is at such time particularly expressive and apparently im- 
ploring.' When the pupping is protracted, and the young ones 
are evidently dead, the mother may be saved, if none of the 
puppies have been broken. In process of time the different 
puppies may, one after another, be extracted ; but when violence 
has been used at the commencement, or almost at any part of the 
process, death will assuredly follow. 

** June 15, 1832. — A spaniel bitch was brought to my infirmary 
to-day, who has been in great and constant pain since yesterday, 
making repeated but fruitless efforts to expel her puppies. She is 
in a very plethoric habit of body ; her bowels are much confined, 
and she exhibits some general symptoms of febrile derangement, 
arising, doubtless, from her protracted labour. This is her first 
litter. Upon examination no young could be distinctly felt. 

** Place her in a warm bath, and give her a dose of castor oil, 
morning and evening. 

*^Ju7ie 16. — The bitch appears in the same state as yesterday, 
except that the medicine has operated freely upon the bowels, 
and the febrile symptoms have somewhat decreased. Her strain- 
ings are as frequent and distressing as ever. Take two scruples 
of the ergot of rye, and divide into six doses, of which let one be 
given every half hour. 

^ In about ten minutes after the exhibition of the last dose of 

o o s 



454 SURGICAL DISEASES. 

this medicine, she brought forth with great diflSculty, one dead 
puppy ; upon taking which away from her, she became so imeasy 
that I was induced to return it to her. In about a quarter of an 
hour after this I paid her another visit; the puppy could not 
now be found ; but a suspicious appearance in the mother's eye 
betrayed at once that she had devoured it. I immediately ad- 
ministered an emetic ; and in a very short time the whole foetus 
was returned in five distinct parts, viz. the four quarters and the 
head. After this, the bitch began to amend very fast ; she pro- 
duced no other puppy ; and, as her supply of milk was small, she 
was soon convalescent. 

"Twelve months afterwards she was again taken in labour, 
about eleven o'clock in the morning, and after very great diffi- 
culty, one puppy was produced. After this the bitch appeared 
in great pain, but did not succeed in expelling another foetus, in 
consequence of which I was sent for about three o'clock p. m. I 
found her very uneasy, breathing laboriously; the mouth hot, 
and the bowels costive ; but I could not discover any trace of 
another foetus. She was put into a warm bath, and a dose of 
opening medicine was administered. 

"About five o'clock she got rid of one dead and two living 
puppies. 

" 2ml. She is still very ill ; she evinces great pain when pressed 
upon the abdomen ; and it is manifest that she has another foetus 
within her. I ordered a dose of the ergot, and in about twenty 
minutes a large puppy was produced, nearly dying. She siurvived 
with due care. 



UNNATURAL PARTURITION. 455 

" I cannot refrain from inserting the following case at consider- 
able length : — • 

"fifep^ 4th^ 1820. — A very diminutive terrier, weighing not 
5 lbs., was sent to my hospital in order to lie in. She was already 
restless and panting. About eight o'clock at night the labour 
pains commenced; but until eleven scarcely any progress was 
made. The os uteri would not admit my finger, although I fre- 
quently attempted it. 

" At half-past eleven, the membranes began to protrude ; at one 
the head had descended into the pelvis and the puj)py was dead. 
In a previous lal)Our she had been imable to produce her young, 
although the ergot of rye had been freely used. I was obliged to 
use considerable force, and she fought terribly with me throughout 
the whole process. At half-past one, and after applying consider- 
able force, I brought away a large foetus, compared with her own 
size. On passing my finger as high as possible, I felt another 
foetus living, but the night passed and the whole of the following 
day, and she ate and drank, and did not appear to be much 
injured. 

" Several times in the day I gave her some strong soup and the 
ergot. Some slight pains now returned, and by pressing on the 
belly the nose of the foetus was brought to the superior edge of 
the pelvis. The pains again ceased, the pudenda began to swell 
from frequent examination, the bitch began to stagger, and made 
frequent attempts to void her urine : with extreme difficulty in 
accomplishing it. I now resorted to the crotchet ; and after many 
unsuccessful attempts, in which the superior part of the vagina 

G G 4 



450 SURGICAL DISEASES. 

must have been considerably bruised, I fixed it sufficiently firmly 
to draw the head into the cavity of the pelvis. Here for a while 
the shoulder resisted every attempt which I could make without 
the danger of detruncating the foetus. At length by working at 
the side of the head until my nails were soft and my fingers sore, 
I extracted one fore leg. The other was soon brought down; 
another large puppy was produced, but destroyed by the means 
necessary for ita production. This was the fruit of two hours' 
hard work. 

"She was completely exhausted, and scarcely able to stand. 
When placed on the ground she staggered and fell at almost 
every step. Her efforts to void her urine were frequent and 
ineffectual. 

" At four o'clock I again examined her ; the external pudenda 
were sore and swelled, and beginning to assume a black hue. It 
was with considerable difficulty that I could introduce my finger. 
A third foetus irregularly presented was detected. I could just 
feel one of the hind legs. No time was to be lost. I introduced 
a small pair of forceps by the side of my finger, and succeeded in 
laying hold of the leg without much difficulty, and, with two or 
three weak efforts from the mother, — I could scarcely call them 
pains, — I brought the leg down until it was in the cavity of the 
pelvis. I solicited it forwaij^ with my finger, and, by forcibly 
pressing back the labia pudendi^ I could just grasp it with the 
finger and thumb of the right hand. Holding it there, I intro- 
duced the finger of the right hand, and continued to get down the 
other leg, and then found little difficulty until the head was 



UNNATURAL PARTURITION. - 457 

brought to the superior edge of the pelvis. After a long interval^ 
and with considerable force, this was brought into the pelvis, and 
another puppy extracted. This fully occupied two hours. 

" The bitch now appeared almost lifeless. As she was unable 
to stand, and seemed unconscious of every thing around her, I 
concluded that she was lost : I gave her one or two drops of warm 
brandy and water, covered her up closely, and put her to bed. 

"To my surprise, on the following morning, she was curled 
round in her basket ; she licked my hands, and ate a bit of bread 
and butter ; but when put on her legs staggered and fell. The 
pudendum was dreadfully swollen, and literally black. In the 
afternoon she again took a little food : she came voluntaiily from 
her basket, wagged her tail when spoken to, and on the following 
day she was taken in her basket a journey of seventy miles, and 
afterwards did well. No one could be more rejoiced than was her 
master, who was present at, and superintended, the greater part of 
the proceedings. 

" The beiieficial effect of Ergot of Rye in difficuli Parturition. 
— The following case is from the pen of Professor Dick : — 

* On the loth instant, a pointer bitch produced two puppies; 
and it was thought by the person having her in charge that she 
had no more. She was put into a comfortable box, and with a 
little care was expected to do welL On the next morning, how- 
ever, she was sick and breathed heavily, and continued rather 
uneasy all the day. 

* On the forenoon of the following day I was requested to see 
her. I found her with her nose dry, breath hot, respiration fre- 



45S SUBGICAL DISEASES. 

quent, mouth hot and parched, coat stariDg, back reached, pulse 
120, and a black fetid discharge from the vagina. Pressure on 
the abdomen gave pain. A pup could be obscurely felt ; the 
secretion of milk was suppressed, and the skin had lost its natural 
elasticitv. 

* Tepid water with a little soap dissolved in it was immediately 
injected into the uterus, which in a considerable degree excited 
its action ; and this injection was repeated two or three times with 
the same effect. 

* After waiting for half an hour, the foetus was not discharged 
nor brought forward ; therefore a scruple of the ergot of rye was 
then made into an infusion with two ounces of water, and one 
third of it given as a dose ; in half an hour another one third of it ; 
the injections of warm water and soap being also continued* Soon 
after the second dose of the infusion, a dead puppy was expelled ; 
the bitch rapidly recovered, and, with the exception of deficiency 
of milk, is now quite well. 

* This case would seem to prove the great power of the ergot 
of rye over the uterus ; but, until more experiments are made, it 
is necessary to be cautious in ascribing powers to medicines which 
have not been much tried in our practice. It is not improbable 
that the warm water and soap might have roused the uterus into 
action without the aid of the ergot ; and it is therefore necessary 
that those who repeat this experiment should try the effects of the 
medicine unaided by the auxiliary.' 

" The Professor adds, that the great power which this drug is 
said to have on the human being, and the apparent effect in the 



PUERPERAL FITS. 459 

case just given, suggest the propriety of instituting a further trial 
of itj and of our extending our observations to cattle, amongst 
which difficult cases of calving so frequently occiu-. 

** Mr. Simpson thus concludes some remarks on ergot in difficult 
parturition. * This medicine possesses a very great power over the 
uterus, rousing its dormant or debilitated contractility, and stimu- 
lating it to an extra performance of this necessary function after 
its natural energy has been in some measure destroyed by forcible 
but useless action. The direct utility of the ergot was manifested 
in cases where the uterus appeared quite exhausted by its repeated 
efiforts ; and certainly it is but fair to ascribe the decidedly aug- 
mented power of the organ to the stimulus of the ergot, for no 
other means were resorted to in order to procure the desired eflFect* 
Its action, too, is prompt. Within ten minutes of the adminis- 
tration of a second or third dose, when nature has been nearly 
exhausted, the parturition has been safely eflFected.' 

" Puerpei^al Fits. — ^Nature proportions the power and resources 
of the mother to the wants of her offspring. In her wild un- 
domesticated state she is able to suckle her progeny to the full 
time ; but, in the artificial state in which we have placed her, we 
shorten the interval between each period of parturition, we increase 
the number o{ her young ones at each birth, we diminish her 
natural powers of affording them nutriment, and we give her a 
degree of irritability which renders her whole system liable to be 
excited and deranged by causes that would otherwise be harmless : 
therefore it happens that, when the petted bitch is permitted to 
suckle the whole of her litter, her supply of nutriment soon 



4G0 SURGICAL DISEASES. 

becomes exhausted^ and the continued drain upon her produces a 
great degree of irritability. She gets rapidly thin ; she staggers, 
is half-unconscious, neglects her puppies, and suddenly falls into 
a fit of a very peculiar character. It begins with, and is some- 
times confined to^ the respiratory apparatus : she lies on her side 
and pants violently, and the sound of her laboured breathing may 
be heard at the distance of twenty yards. Sometimes spasms 
steal over her limbs ; at other times the diaphragm and respiratory 
muscles alone are convulsed. In a few hours she is certainly lost; 
or, if there are moments of remission, they are speedily succeeded 
by increased heavings. 

^^ The practitioner unaccustomed to this fearful state of excita- 
tion, and forgetful or unaware of its cause, proceeds to bleed her, 
and he seals her fate. Although one system is thus convidsively 
labouring, it is because others are suddenly and perfectly ex- 
hausted ; and by abstraction of the vital current he reduces this 
last hold of life to the helpless condition of the rest. There is not 
a more common or fatal error than this. 

** The veterinary practitioner is unable to apply the tepid bath 
to his larger patients, in order to quiet the erethism of certain 
parts of the system, and produce an equable difiusion of nervous 
influence and action ; and he often forgets it when he has it in his 
power to save the smaller ones. Let the bitch in a fit be put into 
a bath, temperature 96° of Fahrenheit, and covered with the 
water, her head excepted. It will be surprising to see how soon 
the simple application of this equable temperament will quiet 
down the erethism of the excited system. In ten minutes, or a 



PUERPERAL FITS. 4C1 

quarter of an hour, she may be taken out of the bath evidently 
relieved, and then, a hasty and not very accurate drying having 
taken place, she is wrapped in a blanket and placed in some warm 
situation, a good dose of physic having been previously admi- 
nistered. She soon breaks out in a profuse perspiration. Every- 
thing becomes gradually quiet, and she falls into a deep and long 
sleep, and at length awakes somewhat weak, but to a certain 
degree restored. 

" If, then, all her puppies except one or two are taken from 
her, and her food is, for a day or two, somewhat restricted, and 
after that given again of its usual quantity and kind, she will 
live and do well ; but a bleeding at the time of her fit, or suffer- 
ing all her puppies to return to her, will inevitably destroy her. 

" A bitch that was often brought to my house was suckling a 
litter of puppies. She was foolishly taken up and thrown into 
the Serpentine in the month of April. The suppression of milk 
was immediate and complete. There was also a determination to 
the head, and attacks resembling epilepsy. The puppies that were 
suffered to remain with the mother, were very soon as epileptic 
as she was, and were destroyed. A seton was inserted on each 
side of her neck. Ipecacuanha was administered ; and, that having 
sufficiently worked, a small quantity of diluted sulphuric acid was 
given. A fortnight afterwards she was perfectly well. 

^^ Inversion of the uterus in a Bull bitch after puppinfj. 
Extirpation and cure. By M. Cross, M. V., Milan. — *In July, 
1829, 1 was desired to attend a small bull bitch six years old, and 
who had had puppies four times. The uterus was completely 



462 SURGICAL DISEASES. 

inverted, and rested all its weight on the vaginal orifice of the 
urethra, preventing the discharge of the urine, and thus being the 
cause of great pain when the animal endeavoured to void it, or 
the faecal matter. The uterus was become of almost a black 
colour, swelled, softened, and exhaling an insupportable odour. 
Judging from this that the preservation of the uterus was im- 
possible, and reckoning much on the good constitution of the 
patient, I warned the proprietor of the danger of its reduction, 
even supposing that it was practicable, and proposed to him the 
complete extirpation of the uterus as the only means that 
remained of saving the bitch. 

* Armed with his consent, I passed a ligature round the neck 
of the uterus, at the bottom of the vagina, and drew it as tight as 
I possibly could. On the following day I again tightened the 
ligature, in order to complete the mortification of the part, and 
the separation of the womb. On the third day I extirpated the 
womb entirely, close to the haunch. There was very slight loss 
of blood, but there ran from the walls of the vagina a small 
quantity of ichorous fluid, with a strong fetid smell. The opera- 
tion was scarcely completed ere she voided a considerable quantity 
of urine, and then searched about for something to eat and to 
drink. 

* The portion of the uterus that was removed weighed foiuteen 
ounces. The mucous membrane by which it was lined was in a 
highly disorganised state. From time to time injections of a 
slight infusion of aromatic plants were introduced into the vagina, 
and the animal was nourished with liquid food of easy digestion. 



ACCIDENTS AND OPERATIONS. 463 

* The first day passed without the animal being in the slightest 
degree affected; but on the following day, in despite of all our 
care, an ichorous fluid was discharged, which the dog would lick 
notwithstanding all our efforts to prevent it. The general health 
of the animal did not seem to be in the slightest degree affected. 
We continued our aromatic infusion and our regimen. 

*0n the fourth day after the operation, the cords that had 
served as a ligature fell off, and all suppuration from the part 
gradually ceased. 

* October 20th. — Three months have passed since the operation, 
and she is perfectly well.'" — Youatt on the Dog, pp. 225 — 230. 



ACCIDENTS AND OPERATIONS. 

CuiSy tears^ and bites, unless they are very extensive, and are ' 
therefore likely to occupy a long time in healing, are better left 
to themselves, the dog's tongue being the best healing remedy. 
But when a V-shaped flap is torn down, or a very long and 
straight cut or tear is accidentally made, a few stitches should 
be put in with a proper curved needle armed with strong 
thread or silk. It is only necessary to introduce the needle in 
two places on exactly opposite sides, and then, an assistant 
drawing the skin together, the ends are tied in a common knot, 
and cut off closely. When, however, this plan is adopted, a 
muzzle must be worn as long as the stitches are kept in, because 
the dog never rests satisfied till he has licked the knots open. 



464 SURGICAL DISEASES. 

or in some way with his teeth and tongue has got rid of them. 
Woimds in the dog do not heal "by the first intention," that 
is, in three or four days, as in man, but fill up by what is called 
granulation. Of course, in long wounds, more than one stitch is 
required, but, as perfect union never can be effected by adhesion, 
the attempt to bring the edges carefully together is a failure; 
and, provided that anything like an approach to this is effected, 
all is done by a few stitches at short distances which can be 
desired. A bandage may be put on afterwards and kept on for 
three days, after which it must be changed daily, still keeping 
on the muzzle. When the red granulations rise above the level 
of the skin, called then " proud flesh," a piece of blue-stone 
should be rubbed on them daily, or often enough to keep them 
down to the proper level. When below the level of the skin, 
they never require caustic of any kind. 

In any cuts about the legs or feet^ the parts may be protected by 
collodion painted on rapidly with a camel-hair brush, and allowed 
to dry ; but a very little friction removes it. Canada balsam, spread 
on white leather and warmed, will keep its place well enough 
to bear the rubs of a course in the greyhound, and is I believe 
the best application. A leathern boot may be made to fit the 
pointer's or setter's foot, or indeed that of any dog which re- 
quires protection during work. It should be made of two pieces 
of leather, one considerably larger than the other, and the large 
one set into the small with a puckered or full edge. This, 
when firmly tied or stitched roimd the ankle, just below the 
knee, will resist all the efforts of the dog to get it off, and 



CUTS. — FRACTURES. 465 

iiiay be worn without a muzzle for weeks^ taking care to re- 
move it occasionally in order to cleanse the wound. In this 
way I have obtained the healing of cuts in the ball of the foot 
in a week or two, without stopping exercise a single day, 
whereas, without a boot, the dog would have been lame, and it 
would take months to heal the wound without resting the dog. 

Fractures may occur in any of the bones of the dog, but 
excepting in the legs or ribs little relief can be aflForded by 
art. They are detected by the deformity which is seen in the 
part, an angle being presented in the interval between two joints, 
when occurring in the limb, and a crepitus or crackling being 
heard and felt on handling the part. When the ribs have been 
broken, the injury is easily detected by the depression which 
is felt, and the grating sound often produced in breathing. 
In this case a flannel bandage may be boimd tightly round 
the chest, and the dog, afber being bled, should be kept quiet, 
and fed on low diet. A horse-girth passed twice or thrice 
round and buckled answers the piurpose pretty well, but is not 
equal to a well-applied bandage. Fractures of the limbs may 
be set by extending the broken ends, and then carefully apply- 
ing wooden or gutta percha splints lined with two or three 
thicknesses of coarse flannel; they are bound round with tapes 
and tied, and kept on till the end of three weeks or a month, 
re-applying them if necessary. This, however, requires some 
practical experience to perform properly. If there is much local 
injury, it is better to apply the splints very loosely for the 
first week, keeping the whole wrapped in folds of linen dipped 

H H 



466 SUBGICAL DISEASES. 

in the lotion (53). In all cases the dog must be strictly kept 
to his kennel, and the limbs should not be strained by 
allowing him to jump up and down on a bench, a low bed 
being provided. In five or six weeks the thigh or hind leg 
is united, and the fore leg in three weeks or a month. 

Dislocations occur in the shoulder and elbow very rarely, in 
the knee and toes commonly, in the hip very often, in the stifle 
occasionally, and in the hock very seldom, except in connexion 
with fracture. In all cases, they are detected by the deformity 
occurring in any of these joints, which is not capable of 
restoration by gentle handling, and is not accompanied by the 
crepihcs which marks the fracture. To reduce a dislocation^ 
two persons must lay firm hold of the two parts of the limb 
on each side of the injured joint, and then extending them 
strongly, the head of the bone in slight and recent cases will 
be felt to slip into the socket. It is only, however, in the knee, 
that any inexperienced operator is likely to succeed, for in the 
hip, which is the most common seat of dislocation, great tact 
and knowledge of the anatomy of the part are required to 
effect a cure. Here the head of the bone may be removed 
from the socket in three different directions, namely, either 
forwards, upwards, or backwards, and the pull must be in the 
direction of the socket, or it will do harm rather than good. 
At the same time while an assistant is making the extension, 
the operator himself, with his hand or a towel, lifts the thigh 
from the body, with the view of raising the head of the bone 
over the edge of the cup, into which it is his object to conduct 



DISLOCATIONS. — OPERATIONS. 467 

it. Chloroform should always be given during the operation, 
if the attempt is not immediately successful when made directly 
after the accident, inasmuch as it relaxes the muscles in a re- 
markable manner, and enables the operator to proceed without 
being coimteracted by the struggles of the dog. Dislocated toes 
are sometimes reduced directly after the accident occurs, but they 
are very apt to return to their deformed condition immediately, 
and a small splint should be bound on at once. In disloca- 
tions of the knee, also, a bandage should be applied, so as to 
keep the joint slightly bent, and prevent the foot from being 
put to the ground. 

The operations which are likely to be practised on the dog are 
somewhat numerous, but the only ones fit to be attempted by 
any but the professed veterinarian are bleeding, the insertion 
of a seton, and the closing of wounds by the ligature. 

Bleeding is effected with a common lancet in the neck vein. 
The hair is cut off in a small patch close to the wind-pipe; 
then, tying a, string tightly round the neck, the vein will be 
felt to rise on the side next the head, and then the lancet 
must be introduced with some little force, cutting out again so 
as to make the opening large enough inside to allow of the 
blood escaping. When enough blood has been taken, the string 
is taken off, a pin is introduced through and across the lips of 
the wound, and some tow or thread wound round the ends; 
after which the point is cut off, and the whole is left for three 
or four days, when the pin may be safely withdrawn, leaving 
the tow to fall off. If the neck is too fat, a vein on the inside 



4G8 SURGICAL DISEASES. 

(»f the fore arm may be opened. To inseH a seton^ all that 
is necessary is to take any large needle with an eye (a seton 
needle is msule on purjiose), then, lifting up a fold of skin, a 
knife or lancet is p^xssed through it, and on its withdrawal the 
needle armed with the tape follows, after which the two ends 
of the tape are tied with a common knot, and in that way it is 
securely kept in. In bad cases of brain mischief, when there 
is a necessity for immediate relief by counter-irritation, a small 
red-hot poker is passed through the opening made by the knife 
before the introduction of the tape, which need not then be 
covered with blistering ointment, as is required in ordinary cases. 
The closing of wounds, and the application of the muzzle, have 
been already described. 



THE END. 



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