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3 9090 013 410 283 


The Old Corner Book 

Rtnrp. Inr. 

Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine 
Cumfnlngs School of Veterinary Medicine at 
Tutts University 
200 Westboro Road 
North Grafton, MA 01 536 








WESLEY MILLS, M. A., M. D., D. V. S., Etc. 










D. appleton and company 


Copyright, 1892, 1895, 

bt d. appleton and company. 

All rights reserved. 

Printed in the United States of America. 


That a second edition of this work has been called 
for in so short a time the author takes to be evidence 
that it meets a want. That it has been so kindly received 
by the press, the general public, and the veterinary pro- 
fession, has encouraged him to do his best to bring this 
second edition up to date in even the smallest details. 
The author has seen no reason to change the general plan 
of the work, which he still deems the best because in 
accordance with the laws of the mind, viz., that the nor- 
mal should be studied before the abnormal or diseased; 
and he is as fully as ever convinced that if the veterina- 
rian is to secure the confidence of the public as regards 
canine medicine, he must give evidence of a knowledge 
of dogs as dogs — i. e., their nature and varieties, as well 
as their diseased conditions. In other words, the vet- 
erinarian must be a cynologist. 

Some of the changes in this edition have been made 
in deference to the views of those whose authority car- 
ries weight in regard to the subjects of which they 
speak ; others have been necessitated by the extraordi- 


nary advance in the science of medicine even since the 
date of publication of the first edition. 

In addition to the usual corrections, revisions, etc., a 
glossary of terms in common use by dog fanciers has 
been introduced. 

An effort has been made to maintain the reputation 
the work has won on account of the high character and 
abundance of its illustrations, by a few substitutions of 
more modern specimens and the addition of several full- 
page cuts of breeds of dogs not illustrated in the first edi- 
tion. For the originals of these the author is indebted to 
several persons who kindly allowed the use of cuts for the 
first edition, and also to Mr. James L. Little, of Brook- 
line, Mass. ; Mr. H. B. Donovan, editor of the Canadian 
Kennel Gazette, Toronto; Mr. L. A. Klein, of Black 
Lake; Mr. MacHaffie, of Cornwall, and others. 

The index has also been rendered more complete, so 
that it is believed that the work will be found thor- 
oughly accurate and up to date in all respects. 

The author is led to hope that the book will be 
found worthy of the confidence of the general reader 
and of students and practitioners of veterinary medicine 
in the future as it has in the past. 

The Authob. 
McGiLL University, Montreal, 
September, 1895. 


With none of our friends and helpers among tlie lower 
animals would we part so reluctantly as with the dog. 
No speechless associate of man has ever so entwined itself 
around the very roots of our domestic life as the dog; 
none has won so much admiration, confidence, and affec- 
tion ; none has appealed to so large a number of mankind 
of every condition, age, and sex. It will therefore be 
conceded that so noble, so intelligent, and so faithful an 
animal as the dog is entitled to the most complete un- 
derstanding and the best usage of which we are capable. 

The professional treatment of the dog in disease natu- 
rally falls to the veterinarian ; but inasmuch as this ani 
mal is very different in his nature from the horse and 
other herbivora which engage the chief attention of the 
veterinary profession, it follows that if the dog is to be 
treated on a rational basis, he must be made a subject of 
special study by the veterinarian. A knowledge of equine 
medicine goes but a little way to qualify a man to treat 
the dog, and the sooner this is recognized by the profes- 
sion of comparative (veterinary) medicine, the better will it 
be for both the profession and our canine friends If the 
veterinarian hopes to largely acquire the confidence of the 


public as regards dogs, he must show not only that he has 
some grasp of medicine as medicine, but a special knowl- 
edge of the nature, varieties, and peculiarities of dogs. 
The dog must be understood in health before his ailments 
can be well appreciated and treated, and the more intelli- 
gent body of breeders and owners of dogs thoroughly real- 
ize this. The consciousness that there was no book treating 
of the dog in disease that recognized adequately the princi- 
ples just set forth ; a strong desire to better the condition 
of this noble animal, that for the greater part of the writer's 
life he has studied with pleasure and profit to his own 
nature ; and an intimate knowledge of the condition and 
needs of the veterinary profession, explains the origin of 
this book, so far as the latter is concerned. The writer's 
experience as a teacher of canine medicine — or rather of 
the nature of the dog in both health and disease, for which 
the term cynology is an appropriate one — has convinced 
him that the study of the dog in disease should for veter- 
inary students, as others, be preceded by his study in 
health, with as much thoroughness as circumstances will 
permit ; hence the large amount of space given to the sub- 
ject of the first part of this work. 

But the book is by no means intended for students 
and practitioners of veterinary science alone. It is meant 
for all intelligent persons who breed, keep, or in any 
way take a special interest in the dog. Their number is 
very large, and is constantly increasing. While, there- 
fore, the whole work has a scientific foundation, it has 
been kept as free from technicalities as possible, and will, 
it is hoped, be readily comprehensible by every intelli- 
gent person. 


It has been the aim constantly to set forth the princi- 
ples that underlie the management of the dog in health 
and his treatment in disease, as by this course the individ- 
ual reader is left free to exercise his own judgment while 
guided by a sort of mariner's compass the construction of 
which is based on the well-ascertained laws of life. It has 
further been the writer's aim to bring the book thoroughly 
up to date in all respects — hence the illustrations represent 
noted dogs of the day ; and the medical principles and 
practice are modern and adapted to the real nature of the 
dog himself, and not to that of some other animal unlike 
him, as the horse, etc. 

At the same time it has been thought well, so far as 
drugs are concerned, to avoid reference to such medicines 
as are now on trial merely, and with the virtues and dan- 
gers of which we are as yet but indifferently acquainted as 
regards man, much less the dog. This applies especially 
to that now large class known as antipyretics. They should 
be carefully tried on the dog by the expert ; but to recom- 
mend them explicitly in a work of this kind seemed to 
the author hazardous. 

But, leaving out of account the second part of the 
work, the first part will, it is thought, be in itself a valu- 
able treatise on a new basis — i. e., a more rational basis 
— on the dog as he exists to-day. It has been the 
writers constant endeavor to give the reason for every 

Being deeply convinced that a work on the dog with- 
out good illustrations is of comparatively little value, es- 
pecial pains have been taken to furnish models for judg- 
ing the various breeds of dogs in the full-page plates, 

y{[\ PREFACE. 

representing the best specimens as they exist at tlie present 
time. In selecting these, only one thing has been kept in 
view — viz., choosing those that seemed the very best, irre- 
spective of every other consideration. Most of them have 
never appeared in any book on the dog before, but have 
been culled from the leading journals devoted to canine 
interests in Great Britain and America, such as the " Ca- 
nine World," from which the colored plate and several 
others are borrowed ; the " English Stock-keeper," and in 
America the "American Kennel Gazette," which has 
furnished the illustrations of the pointer " Bracket," the 
mastiff " Beaufort," etc., the artist of this periodical being 
Mr. G. Muss-Arnolt. 

The sources of the cuts in the text are acknowledged 
by the way. 

While the author has endeavored to produce a book 
founded on experience, with a thoroughly sound and scien- 
tific basis, in every way up to date and on a somewhat new 
plan, he realizes that there is much yet to learn about the 
dog, and will receive with gratitude suggestions from any 
one who has true and accurate observations to communi- 

This, like every work and every man, has no doubt its 
shortcomings, but the kind way in which much that the 
author has written for various journals devoted to dogs 
has been received, and also his Httle book, " How to keep 
a Dog in the City" (WilHam K. Jenkins, :N'ew York, 
and the Editor of the "Canadian Kennel Gazette," To- 
ronto, publishers), leads him to hope for a generous re- 
ception of this work by the veterinary profession, breeders 
of dogs, and the public in general. 


In conclusion, the writer wishes to express his apprecia- 
tion of the successful efforts of the publishers in the pro- 
duction of the work, including the illustrations, in such ad- 
mirable form. 

The Author. 

Montreal, November, 189L 


Part I. The Dog in Health. 


The Origin and History of the Dog 1 

The Zoological Position of the Dog 6 

Anatomy of the Dog 6 

Variations 9 

The Animal Body 10 

Psychic Characteristics of the Dog 15 

Classification of Dogs 18 

Class I.— Wild and Half-Reclaimed Dogs, etc 19 

Standards 21 

Standards further considered 25 

Class II. — Dogs hunting chiefly by the Eye, etc. ... 34 

The English Greyhound , .34 

The Deerhound 36 

The Russian Wolfhound or Barzoi 37 

Class III. — Domesticated Dogs, hunting by Scent, which both 

find and kill their Game 38 

The Bloodhound 38 

The Foxhound 39 

The Harrier 41 

The Beagle 41 

The Otterhound 42 

The Bassethound 43 

The Dachshund 43 

The Great Dane 43 

The Terriers 45 

The Pox-terrier 48 

The Irish Terrier , . . 49 

The Black-and-tan Terrier . , 50 





The Yorkshire Terrier 52 

The Scotch Terriers , . . 53 

The Bull Terrier 55 

Other Breeds of Terriers . 55 

The Welsh Terrier 56 

The Airedale Terrier 56 

The Dandie Dinmont Terrier 56 

The Bedlington Terrier 57 

The Paisley Terrier . 58 

The Clydesdale Terrier 58 

The Maltese Terrier 58 

Class IV. — Domesticated Dogs, finding their Game by Scent 

but not killing it, etc 59 

The Spaniels 69 

The Cocker Spaniel 69 

The Clumber Spaniel 71 

The Irish Water Spaniel 72 

The Retrievers 73 

Differences between the Breeds 73 

The Chesapeake Bay Dog 74 

The Dalmatian 74 

The Poodle 75 

Class V. — Pastoral Dogs, etc. , 76 

Sheep Dogs 76 

The Bough Collie 77 

The Smooth Collie 77 

The Bob-tailed Sheep Dog 78 

The Pomeranian, Spitz, or Loup-Loup . . . . . 78 

The Black Newfoundland 78 

Other Varieties of Newfoundland 79 

The Esquimau Dog 80 

Class VI. — Watch-Dogs and House-Dogs 80 

The Bulldog ' . 81 

The Mastiff 83 

The St. Bernard 86 

The Toy Dogs 89 

The Pug 90 

The Toy Spaniels 91 

Color Varieties 92 

The Italian Greyhound . 92 

The Schipperke 92 

The Whippet 93 

The Mexican Hairless Dog ,93 



The Management of Dogs in Health 94 

The Housing of Dogs 96 

Feeding 101 

Exercise and Occupation 114 

The Care of the Dog's Skin 117 

Breeding 125 

Mating 131 

The Care of the Stud Dog 134 

The Care of the Brood Bitch 135 

Whelping 141 

Choice of Puppies 145 

The Foster-Mother 147 

The Rearing of Puppies 150 

The Care of the Brood Bitch after Whelping . . . 148 

Weaning Puppies 153 

Feeding Puppies 156 

Other Management of Puppies 158 

Exercise and Training of Puppies 161 

Retrieving 167 

Gun-shyness 168 

Exercise of Puppies 169 

The Development of the Dog; Determination of Age . , 171 

Shedding of the Teeth 175 

Glossary 177a 

Pakt II. The Dog in Disease. 

General Principles 178 

The Causes of Disease 182 

Normal Temperature of the Dog 184 

Fever 187 

The Pulse 187 

The Methods of studying the Dog in Disease . . . 189 

Remedies and their Mode of Use 192 

Drugs and their Administration 193 

Diet and Care of the Sick . 198 

Disinfection 200 

Autopsies and Morbid Anatomy 201 

Descriptions of Disease, Relative Prevalence, etc. . . 206 

Diseases of the Respiratory Organs 209 

Influenza 215 

Acute Laryngitis 216 

Pleurisy . 217 

Bronchitis 221 



Pneumonia 222 

Asthma 230 

Tuberculosis 231 

Local Affections of the Nasal Passages 232 

Nasal Catarrh 232 

Ozaena 234 

Diseases of the Blood and Circulatorx System . . . 237 

Blood Diseases 239 

Anaemia 239 

Plethora 240 

Heart-Disease 240 

Hypertrophy 241 

Diseases of the Blood-Vessels 242 

Aneurism 242 

Diseases of Veins 242 

Diseases of Lymphatics and of Certain Glands . . . 243 

Bronchocele or Goitre 243 

Diseases of the Alimentary Tract 244 

Affections of the Mouth 247 

Warts 247 

Salivary Glands 248 

The Teeth 249 

Inflammation of the Tongue 250 

Blain 250 

Pharyngitis 251 

Functional Disorders of the Digestive Organs . . . 251 

Salivation 251 

Vomiting 251 

A Capricious Appetite 252 

Irregularities of the Bowels 253 

Obstruction . . . 254 

Constipation 254 

Colic 256 

Inflammatory Affections of the Digestive Organs . . 257 

Functional Disease of the Liver 266 

Jaundice 266 

Organic Affections of the Liver 267 

Hepatitis 267 

Chronic Hepatitis 268 

Degeneration of the Liver 268 

Cancer of Abdominal Organs 269 

Intestinal Obstruction 270 

Diseased Conditions around the Anus 271 



Prolapse of the Rectum 271 

Piles 272 

Growths around the Anus 274 

Perineal Abscess and Fistula in ano 274 

Diseases of the Urinary System 275 

Retention of Urine 276 

Acute Cystitis 278 

Chronic Cystitis 279 

Nephritis 279 

Renal Calculus 279 

Cystic Calculus 279 

Diseases of the Genital Organs 280 

Balanitis 281 

Morbid Growths 284 

Prolapse of the Vagina 284 

Metritis 285 

Complications Incident to Parturition . . , . . 288 

Malpresentations 289 

Post-partum Fever 291 

Diseases of the Bar . 295 

Canker 296 

Otitis Media 300 

Deafness 301 

Polypus 301 

Diseases of the Eye • 302 

Diseases of the Protective Apparatus of the Eye . . . 305 

Inflammation and Abscess of the Lachrymal Glamd . . 306 

The Lachrymal Ducts 306 

Conjunctivitis 306 

Ophthalmia 307 

Ulcers of the Cornea 309 

Granular Lids 310 

Iritis 310 

Cataract 311 

Amaurosis and Amblyopia 311 

Dislocation 312 

Squint 312 

Diseases of the Nervous System 312 

Rabies (Hydrophobia) 313 

Convulsions, Epilepsy, Fits, Apoplexy 318 

Epileptiform Convulsions 319 

Vertigo 321 

Apoplexy 321 



Paralysis 321 

Meningitis 322 

Hydrocephalus . . . 324 

Tetanus 324 

Chorea .325 

Injuries to the Brain 327 

Affections of the Nerves 328 

Neuralgia 328 

Diseases of the Skin 329 

Ringworm 332 

Follicular Mange 332 

Sarcoptic Mange 332 

Eczema 333 

Internal Parasites or Worms 345 

External Parasites 356 

Constitutional Diseases 359 

Erysipelas 359 

Diphtheria 361 

Dropsy 362 

Rickets 363 

Rheumatism 365 

Distemper 367 

Surgery of the Dog 380 

Anajsthesia 381 

Antisepsis 382 

Cuts 383 

Sprains and Bruises 384 

Burns and Scalds 384 

Fractures and Dislocations 385 

Cutting Operations 386 

Castration and Spaying 387 

Umbilical Hernia 387 

Poisoning 388 

Stings 392 

Sanitary and Medical Aspects of Dog Shows .... 393 

Table of Doses of the Principal Drugs 396 



Colored plate of the great Dane Ivanhoe . Frontispiece 

The greyhound Fullerton 10 

The Scottish deerhound Rona III 16 

The Irish wolfhound Sheelah ....... 24 

The Russian wolfhound Krilutt 32 

The bloodhound champion Cromwell 40 

The beagle champion Ringwood 48 

The bassethound champion Chopette 52 

The German Dachshund Isolani-Franconia .... 56 

The rough English Dachshund Woolsack 60 

The smooth-coated fox-terrier champion Blemton Victor II . 64 

The rough-coated fox-terriers Jack St. Leger and Jigger . 72 

The Irish terrier Pilgrim 80 

The white English terrier Eclipse 88 

The Yorkshire terrier champion Ted 96 

The Scottish terrier Argyle 104 

The Skye terrier Thurkill 120 

The bull-terrier Streatham Monarch 136 

The Boston terrier Prince Walnut ...... 140 

The Welsh terrier Brynhir Pardon 144 

The Airedale terriers champion Newbold Test and champion 

Vixen III 152 

The Bedlington terrier champion Humbledon Blue Boy . 160 

The pointer champion Bracket 1*^6 

The English setter champion Dad Wilson .... 184 
2 xvii 




The Irish setter Geraldine II 192 

The Gordon setter champion Bellmont 208 

The black field spaniel champion Buckle . . . .216 
The cocker spaniels Black Duke and Othello . . 224, 230 

The Clumber spaniel Friar Boss 240 

The Irish water spaniel champion Shaun 256 

The wavy-coated retriever Darenth 264 

The black-spotted Dalmatian Berolina 280 

The black poodle Achilles 300 

The rough-coated collie Sefton Hero 312 

The bob-tail sheep dogs Grizzle Bob and Dairy Maid . . 320 

The Newfoundland Mariner 328 

The bulldogs The Graven Image, Holy Terror, and Bathos 344 

The mastiff champion Beaufort 352 

The rough-coated St. Bernard champion Sir Bedivere . . 368 

The pug champion Loris 376 

The ruby spaniel Ruby King 384 

The Italian greyhounds Winks and Idiom .... 388 

The Schipperkes Mia and Drikske 392 



In order to understand an individual of any species of 
animals, it is important not only to know the circumstances 
under which it lives, but its past history ; and the further 
and the more completely this can be traced the better, in- 
asmuch as the particular animal under consideration may 
be regarded as the outcome or resultant of a vast number 
of forces extending back in fact to the origin of hfe itself. 

To illustrate, suppose one finds that a certain grey- 
hound for several successive years wins in the old-estab- 
hshed English courses, we inquire why this particular dog 
has won. He may not seem superior in form of body to 
others that he surpasses in speed, but it is perhaps found 
that in his ancestry there is a long line of those that have 
excelled in this respect. This goes a long way to explain 
the pre-eminence of this dog. Then we may take up the 
general superiority in fleetness of this breed, and this leads 
to its origin and history. For ages the best and swiftest 
have been chosen to breed from, and in all probability, from 
the earliest times that man possessed the dog, this process 


of selection of the best was going on, consciously or uncon- 

There was an ancient race of hounds not very unlike 
the present swift coursers in essential particulars. Is the 
breed used in the British Islands in any way related to 
the Koman hounds by descent, or have both arisen inde- 
pendently ? 

The characteristics of the greyhound, then, can not be 
^nderstood apart from his* history, nor from his origin. 
But regarding him simply as a dog, one of the large family 
of the Canidoe, what has been as yet considered does not 
explain much. 

Hence the necessity, if we would understand this grey- 
hound as a dog, to inquire into the origin of the family 
group to which he belongs. In other words, we must 
seek for a more distant ancestry and learn if possible its 

The subject has been very carefully studied by Charles 
Darwin, and no better treatment has been given it than 
may be found in his work, " Animals and Plants under 
Domestication." Briefly, the origin of the dog has been 
referred to the following sources : All the various breeds 
of dogs are believed by some to have descended from 
some single wild species of animal, while others hold that 
the evidence of descent from several is stronger. Some 
think the dog has been derived from several species, ex- 
tinct and recent, more or less mingled. Some would refer 
the dog to the wolf, the jackal, or some unknown extinct 

No view of the origin of the dog can be considered 
as proved ; nevertheless, some are much more probable 


than others. Yery few would now hold to a theory — at 
one time more acceptable — that all the principal varieties 
of dogs were derived from a distinct wild ancestral 

In favor of the view that the dogs of the present and 
the past historical period were derived from several, or, 
at all events, more than one wild species, may be men- 
tioned the following : 

1. The great difference, especially in form, of the dif- 
ferent breeds of dogs. 

2. At the most anciently-known historical period sev- 
eral breeds existed resembhng wild breeds then living. 

Breeds of dogs allied to greyhounds are figured on 
Egyptian monuments between 3400 b. c. and 2100 b. c, 
though there is evidence that besides these breeds there 
were, thousands of years before our time, pariah dogs, 
greyhounds, other hounds, house-dogs, mastiffs, lap-dogs, 
turnspits, etc., which bear no small resemblance to the 
breeds of the present day ; but there is not evidence to 
prove that these subvarieties are identical with those of 
the present time. But long before the historical period 
in Europe there is evidence that man possessed the dog. 
The resemblance of dogs, in different parts of the world, 
to wild species of animals, is suggestive of a multiple 
origin — i. e., an origin from several wild stocks. Con- 
sidering man's sociable nature, the tendency of many wild 
species resembling our dogs to hunt in packs — which 
animals are more readily tamed — the attempt to tame the 
young of such species can be readily understood, and its 
success would be followed by fresh attempts as soon as it 
was perceived how useful they might be in the chase, 


which was the chief occupation of primitive and uncivil- 
ized men. 

That the dogs possessed by the aborigines of I^orth 
America bear a close resemblance to the various kinds 
of wolves found wild in these regions is a matter of 
frequent observation. It is further well known that the 
dogs of the natives breed freely with wolves, and the 
same remarks apply to some breeds of dogs of Europe 
and other parts of the world. There is equally good evi- 
dence to believe that some breeds of dogs are to be re- 
ferred to the jackal. Upon the whole, it would seem prob- 
able that '' the domestic dogs of the world are descended 
from two well-defined species of wolf (viz., Oanis lupus 
and Oanis latrans\ and from two or three other doubt- 
ful species (namely, the European, Indian, and I^orth Af- 
rican wolves) ; from at least one or two South Amei'ican 
canine species ; from several races or species of jackal ; 
and perhaps from one or more extinct species " (Darwin). 

But this origin of the dog being only probable and 
not demonstrable, we are entitled to ask whether it makes 
the nature of the dog as we know it to-day more intelli- 
gible than the theory that he is derived from some wild 
forms long since extinct and of which we know little or 
nothing. In other words, referring to our illustration, is 
the greyhound more readily understood as- a dog and as 
a courser on this hypothesis of origin from some wild 
forms now existing? "Without going into details at this 
time, we agree with those who think that without some 
such theory the chain of natural coimections can not be 
forged, but that with it a flood of light is thrown on the 
whole nature of the dog, even to his minutest traits and 


habits. This is rendered clearer when the changes in the 
habits and instincts of the supposed wild ancestors of the 
dog under conlinement and domestication are considered, 
and the corresponding change in dogs when they become 
feral. Thus most of the wild forms alluded to, strictly 
speaking, do not bark as the dog ; but cases are on record 
that show that such wild forms may learn to bark in con- 
finement, while dogs that have become feral lose this trait, 
and so with many other characteristics of the dog. 

The great diversity of physical and psychic character- 
istics in the different breeds of dogs is to be explained 
by crossing, selection, and environment. 

Crossing tends to modify in all respects the existing 
form and character, selection to ^x a type, and environ- 
ment to alter particularly the more transient or less 
permanent characteristics, and produce strains, or those 
combinations of form and qualities more difficult to de- 
tect and often affecting the vitality of the breed. 

To illustrate the last statements : a highly-bred bulldog 
was crossed with a similarly well-bred greyhound, with 
the result that, in a few generations, the bulldog form was 
scarcely discernible, though the effects were manifest in 
the stamina and psychic characteristics for many genera- 
tions. This interesting experiment is given at length in 
Stonehenge's work on the dog, and illustrated by cuts of 
the animals produced. That the greyhound is such a 
specialist is doubtless owing to the fact that, for a long 
period in Britain alone, he has been used for the sole 
purpose of coursing rabbits, in connection with which pub- 
lic competitions have been instituted, leading to choice 
of those best suited for breeding purposes and the great- 


est care in selection and rearing — that is, the puppies are, 
at a certain age, retained or rejected according to the merit 
they display. Long before this, Nature will have weeded 
out those that were feeble and unresisting ; in other words, 
those perish that have insufficient stamina by a process of 
" natural selection," as opposed to the previous kind of 
selection by man, or " artificial selection." 

By the environment is meant the whole combination of 
circumstances that enters into the life of the animal — as 
food, housing, exercise, climate, etc. — in fact, everything 
not implied in breeding and selection. 

Even those extremes of form seen in the gigantic St. 
Bernard of two hundred pounds and the toy terrier of -G^ve 
pounds are to be explained chiefly on the above principles, 
though of course a possible origin from different wild 
forms complicates the problem. Great as is the influence 
of environment, greater by far are the effects of crossing 
and selection, as every breeder of experience knows. 

The history of the different breeds of dogs is involved 
in so much obscurity that there is little agreement on this 
subject. But it is very doubtful if any people, savage or 
civilized, has been without the dog, while it seems equally 
probable that this nol)le animal will continue to be man's 
companion as long as human nature endures. 


His Anatomy. — Whether the origin of the dog be as 
above described or not, his structure justifies placing him 
among the carnivora. 

This is especially evident in the teeth, which are 
adapted for seizing, tearing, and cutting rather than ^rind- 


mg, as may be readily observed by comparing the teeth of 
the dog (pages 174 and 175) with those of some ruminant 
like the ox. Moreover, while the jaws of the ruminant 
have very free fore-and-aft and lateral movements, those of 
the dog are restricted almost wholly to the vertical plane. 

Such teeth, moreover, are the principal weapons of 
defense and attack in the dog as in other carnivora. 

The limbs have freely movable toes or digits armed 
with strong and sharp claws. 

Mostly the carnivora are digitigrade, have a strong 
odor, are widely distributed, and have a two-horned uterus, 
all of which applies to the dog, even to the odor which 
is so pronounced in some breeds that in the house they are 
unpleasant companions, though this feature can be greatly 
modified by feeding, etc. 

On the next page is given a cut of the skeleton of the 
dog and the technical names applied to its various parts. 

To bring the structure of the dog into comparison 
with that of man we must place man on all fours, suppose 
his jaws greatly lengthened out, his skull much flattened 
and reduced in size, his chest flattened somewhat from 
side to side, one rib added, his clavicle or collar-bone 
absent, and, of course, his dentition modified to the car- 
nivorous type. 

Turning to the limbs, we must suppose him to walk on 
his fingers and toes (digits), which have been somewhat 
bent or flexed, and the nails elongated, thickened, nar- 
rowed, and pointed. It will follow that the bones be- 
tween the digits and the wrist or ankle will be placed 
more or less vertically, while what is known as the wrist 
in man will become the " knee " in the dog, and the heel 


Fio. 1.— Skkleton of the Doa— Carntvora— (Strangkway). 
Axial Skeleton. 

The Skull. Cranial Bones. ~a. Occipital, 1: 6, Parietal, 2; c. Frontal, 2; /.% 
Temporal, 2; Sphenoid, 1; Ethmoid, 2; Auditory ossicles, 8. Facial Bones.— f, 
Nasal, 2; e. Lachrymal, 2; d. Malar, 2; /(, Maxilla, 2; gr, Premaxilla, 2; t, Inferior 
maxilla, 2; Palatine, 2; Pterygoid, 2; Vomer, 1; Turbinals, 4; Hyoid (segments), 9, 
Teef/i. —Incisors, 12; Canines, 4; Molars. 26. 

The Trunk.— Z I, Cervical vertebrae, 7; m m. Dorsal vertebrae, 13; ?i n, Lumbar 
vertebrae, 7; o. Sacrum (three segments), 1; p p. Coccygeal vertebrae (variable), 
20; 1 1, Ribs, 20; * Sternum (eight sternebrae), 1; -i- Costal cartilages. 

Appendicular Skeleton. 

Pectoral Limb.— w. Scapula, 2; v, Humerus, 2; iv, Radius, 2; x, Ulna. Carpus. 
—J/, Trapezium, 2; z, Cuneiform. 2; a'. Scaphoid, 2; &', Unciform, 2; c'. Magnum, 
2; d', Trapezoid, 2; «', Pisiform, 2; Metacarpal bones, 10; h\ Anterior sesamoids, 
10; f/', Posterior sesamoids, 20. Digit.— i\ Proximal phalanges, 10; A:', Mesian 
phalanges, 8; /', Distal phalanges, 10; Small sesamoids vi'anting. 

Pelvic Limb. Pelvis.— Os Innominatnm.—q. Ilium, 2; r. Pubis. 2; s. Ischium, 
2. The Limb.—m', Femur, 2; o', Fabellae, 4; n'. Patella, 2; q\ Tibia, 2; p'. Tibial 
sesamoid, 2: r'. Fibula, 2. Tarms.— s', Calcaneum,2; t', Astragalus, 2; n'. Cuboid, 
2; v', Superior cuneiform, 2; w', Ecto-cuneiforme, 2; x', Meso-cuneiforme, 2; 37', 
Endo-cuneiforrne, 2. Jfetofarsrts.— Large bones, 8; z', Small bones, 2; Anterior 
sesamoids, 8; Posterior sesamoids, 16. Digit.— Frox\mal phalanges, 8; Mesian 
phalanges, 8; Distal phalanges, 8; Small sesamoids wanting. 

Visceral Skeleton. 
Os penis. 1 ; Rudimentary clavicle (inconstant), 2. 

The bones of the Carnivore Skeleton, thus considered, are 345. 


and ankle of man the " hock " of the dog. Usually, in 
the dog the innermost toe is rudimentary (dew-claw), 
though the feet, like other parts of this animal, vary 
a good deal. 

Variations. — There is scarcely a physical feature in 
which dogs do not vary, as will be more evident after 
an examination of the peculiarities of different breeds. 
Some of these, however, are of scientific interest and 
worthy of notice in passing. It might almost be said 
that there is not a bone in the framework of this animal 
which does not vary in the different breeds of dogs, not 
to speak of differences in size, coat, carriage, and psychic 
traits. The shape of the head is not identical in any two 
breeds — a difference which generally extends to the bones 
composing it. Correlated with this are differences in the 
size and shape of the brain. Possibly also, in some cases 
at all events, variations in the shape, and especially the 
number, of the teeth are to be referred to modifications 
in the size and shape of the jaws. The almost entire 
absence of teeth, as in the Turkish dog, is to be regarded 
in the light of defective development, as also the lack of 
hair in the Mexican hairless variety. In large breeds of 
dogs there seems to be a tendency to the development of 
a fifth toe, especially behind. The extent to which the 
feet are webbed — i. e., the toes united by skin — is also 
variable and characteristic of some breeds. But, in fact, 
dogs vary in every possible respect, both physical and 
psychical, as even a moderately careful study of the dif- 
ferent breeds will show, and this illustrates the remarkable 
power of animals to vary under domestication. One of 
the subjects of great interest in the study of this animai 


is the modification that his nature undergoes in relation 
to the climate and modes of life of the peoples among 
whom a particular breed happens to he developed. 

Enghsh dogs, especially of some breeds, like English- 
men themselves, fail to adapt readily to certain climates, 
as those of India and Africa. 

In order to understand the dog, either in health or 
disease, it is indispensable to know something of the way 
in which animals hve, move, and have their being— in oth- 
er words, the conditions of animal existence. From time 
to time this subject will be referred to in detail as it con- 
cerns the dog. In the mean time the following brief out^ 
Hue ^ may serve a good purpose, alike for those who have 
and those who have not studied physiology as a science : 

The Animal Body. — An animal may be made up of a 
single cell in which each part performs much the same 
work ; or, if there be differences in function, they are ill- 
defined as compared with those of higher animals. The 
condition of things in such an animal (as Amoeba) may be 
compared to a civilized community in a very crude social 
condition. When each individual tries to perform every 
office for himself, he is at once carpenter, blacksmith, 
shoemaker, and much more, with the natural result that 
he is not efficient in any one direction. A community 
may be judged in regard to its degree of advancement by 
the amount of division of labor existing within it. Thus 
is it with the animal body. 

Looking to the existing state of things in the universe, 
it is plain that an animal to attain to high ends must have 

* Taken, with some modifications, from the author's Comparative 
Physiology. D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1890. 

Thrice winner of the Waterloo Cup, the most valuable of all coursing prizes. 

For description, see page 34. 


powers of rapid locomotion, capacity to perceive what 
makes for its interest, and ability to utilize means to attain 
this when perceived. These considerations demand that 
an animal high in the scale of being shall be provided 
with limbs sufficiently rigid to support its weight, moved 
by strong muscles, which must act in harmony. But this 
implies abundance of nutriment duly prepared and regu- 
larly conveyed to the bones and muscles. All this would 
be useless unless there was a controlling and energizing 
systemx capable both of being impressed and originating 
impressions. Such is found in the nerves and nerve- 
centers. Again, in order that this mechanism be kept in 
good running order, the waste of its own work (metabol- 
ism), which chokes and poisons, must be got rid of — hence 
the need of excretory apparatus. In order that the nerv- 
ous system may get sufficient information of the world 
around, the surface of the body must be provided with 
special message-receiving offices in the form of modified 
nerve-endings. In short, it is seen that an animal as high 
in the scale as a mammal must have muscular, osseous 
(and connective), digestive, circulatory, excretory, and 
nervous tissues ; and to these may be added certain forms 
of protective tissues, as hair, nails', etc. 

The whole physiological story for one of the higher 
animals, including the dog, may be thus told in brief : 

The blood is the source of all the nourishment of the 
organism, including its oxygen supply, and is carried to 
every part of the body through elastic tubes, which, con- 
tinually branching and becoming gradually smaller, ter- 
minate in vessels of hair-like fineness in wliich the current 
is very slow — a condition permitting that interchange be- 


tween the cells surrounding them and the blood which 
may be compared to a process of barter, the cells taking 
nutriment and oxygen and giving (excreting) in return 
waste products. From these minute vessels the blood 
is conveyed back toward the source whence it came by 
similar elastic tubes, which gradually increase in size and 
become fewer. The force w^hich directly propels the 
blood in its onward course is a muscular pump (heart), 
with both a forcing and suction action, though chiefly 
the former. The flow of blood is maintained constant 
owing to the resistance in the smaller tubes on the one 
hand and the elastic recoil of the larger tubes on the 
other ; while in the returning vessels the column of blood 
is supported by elastic double gates (valves), which so 
close as to prevent reflux. The oxygen of the blood is 
carried in disks of microscopic size, which give it up in 
proportion to the needs of the tissues past which they are 

But in reality the tissues of the body are not nourished 
directly by the blood, but by a fluid derived from it and 
resembling it greatly in most particulars. This fluid 
bathes the tissue-cells on all sides. It also is taken up by 
tubes that convey it into the blood after it has passed 
through little factories (lymphatic glands), in which it un- 
dergoes a regeneration. Since the tissues are impover- 
ishing the blood by withdrawal of its constituents and 
adding to it what is no longer useful and is in reality poi- 
sonous, it becomes necessary that new material be added 
to it and the injurious components withdrawn. The for- 
mer is accomplished by the absorption of the products of 
food digestion and the addition of a fresh supply of oxy- 


gen derived from witlioiit, while the poisonous ingredients 
that have found their way into the blood are got rid of 
through processes that may be, in general, compared to 
those of a sewage system of a very elaborate character. 
To explain this regeneration of the blood in somewhat 
more detail, we must first consider the fate of food from 
the time it enters the mouth till it leaves the tract of the 
body in which its preparation is carried on. 

The food is in the mouth submitted to the action of a 
series of cutting and grinding organs worked by powerful 
muscles ; mixed with a fluid which changes the starchy part 
of it into sugar, and prepares the whole to pass farther on 
its course. When this has been accomplished, the food is 
grasped and squeezed and pushed along the tube, owing 
to the action of its own muscular cells, into a sac (stom- 
ach), in which it is rolled about and mixed with certain 
fluids of peculiar chemical composition derived from cells 
on its inner surface, which transform the proteid part of 
the food into a form susceptible of ready use (absorption). 
When this saccular organ has done its share of the work, 
the food is moved on by the action of the muscles of its 
walls into a very long portion of the tract in which, in 
addition to processes carried on in the mouth and stom- 
ach, there are others which transform the food into a con- 
dition in which it can pass into the blood. Thus all of 
the food that is susceptible of changes of the kind de- 
scribed is acted upon somewhere in the long tract devoted 
to this task. But there is usually a remnant of indigesti- 
ble material which is finally evacuated. How is the pre- 
pared material conveyed into the blood ? In part, direct- 
ly through the walls of the minutest blood-vessels distrib- 


uted throughout the length of this digestive tube, and in 
part through special vessels with appropriate cells covering 
them, which act as minute porters {villi). 

The impure blood is carried periodically to an exten- 
sive surface (lungs), usually much folded, and there ex- 
posed in the hair-like tubes referred to before, and thus 
parts with its excess of carbon dioxide and takes up fresh 
oxygen. But all the functions described do not go on in 
a fixed and invariable manner, but are modified somewhat 
according to circumstances. The forcing-pump of the 
circulatory system does not always beat equally fast ; the 
smaller blood-vessels are not always of the same size, but 
admit more or less blood to an organ according to its 

This is all accomplished in obedience to the commands 
carried from the brain and spinal cord along the nerves. 
All movements of the limbs and other parts are executed 
in obedience to its behests ; and, in order that these may 
be in accordance with the best interests of each particular 
organ and the whole animal, the nervous centers, which 
may be compared to the chief officers of, say, a telegraph 
or railway system, are in constant receipt of information 
by messages carried onward along the nerves. The com- 
mand issuing is always related to the information arriving. 

All those parts commonly known as sense-organs — the 
eye, ear, nose, tongue, and the entire surface of the body 
— are faithful reporters of facts. They put the inner and 
outer worlds in communication, and without them all 
higher life at least must cease, for the organism, like a 
train directed by a conductor that disregards the danger- 
signals, must work its own destruction. Without going 


into further details, suffice it to say that the processes of 
the various cells are subordinated to the general good 
through the nervous system, and that susceptibility of 
protoplasm to stimuli of a delicate kind which enables 
each cell to adapt to its surroundings, including the influ- 
ence of remote as well as neighboring cells. Without this 
there could be no marked advance in organisms, no differ- 
entiation of a pronounced character, and so none of that 
physiological division of labor which will be inferred 
from our brief description of the functions of a mammal. 
The whole of physiology but illustrates this division of 

It is hoped that the above account of the working of 
the animal body, brief as it is, may serve to show the con- 
nection of one part functionally with another, for it is 
much more important that this should be kept in mind 
throughout than that all the details of any one function 
should be known. 


We use the term psychic in contrast with physical as 
implying all that relates to the mental traits and the dis- 
position ; in fact, all not purely animal or physiological. 
The term is of wider significance than either "mental" 
or " moral," and includes both. 

While no doubt savages and prehistoric men early per- 
ceived that the dog possessed qualities which would aid 
them in accomplishing the aims of their life in the chase, 
etc., a little reflection will show that, apart from those 
characteristics which have made this animal man's closest 
companion of all the forms of life below him, the useful 


properties of the dog would have been of little service to 
the human race. Many of the wild congeners of the dog 
equal or excel him in hunting for game, etc., but such 
animals are rather the enemies than friends and helpers 
of man. But it is because the dog is teachable, tractable, 
and adaptive, as well as courageous and intelligent, that he 
has in all ages been one of man's most useful servants. 
There are, however, other reasons why all peoples and 
nearly all individuals have a kindly leaning toward the 
dog. Scarcely surpassed in intelligence by any known ani- 
mal, teachable in a high degree, ready to adapt cheerfully 
to every condition of life, however much hardship it may 
involve, fitted for so wide a range of duties, forgiving 
without stint, meeting every wish of his owner even to 
whims and caprices, contented with the homeliest fare and 
the rudest shelter, so that he may but win his master's 
approbation, faithful in many instances even unto death, it 
is not surprising that in every age, in every clime, by the 
lowest savages and by men of the highest talents and at- 
tainments, the dog has been held in the greatest esteem 
and, after a fashion, made a member of the family circle. 

The individual that can see nothing to admire in the 
dog is surely defective either by nature or by education — 
in fact, a sort of human monstrosity. 

The psychic characteristics of the dog have probably 
been more studied than those of any other animal. He 
has been the theme of historians, philosophers, scientists, 
and poets for ages, and yet the author ventures to think 
that, with increasing knowledge and changing views of the 
relations of things in the universe, the field is still open tc 
culture and worthy of the best human abilities. 


The dog is deserving of man's respect, for he seems to 
possess in some degree of development every mental if not 
also every moral faculty of man himself in so far as they 
can exist apart from the possession of speech. In not a 
few respects is the dog the superior of his master. If he 
can not do all that the latter can, is it not also true that 
there is much that he can accomplish quite impossible to 
man ? 

The author has long been impressed with the belief 
that in regarding the dog as very like ourselves in physical 
constitution, as shown by the similar action of drugs, poi- 
sons, etc., and in psychic characteristics, we are better 
prepared to understand this animal than on any other as- 

While he greatly resembles the cat in some of his 
physical qualities, he differs from this animal in many 
others ; and it is certain that the dog may be treated in all 
respects more as if he were a child than as bearing any 
close relationship to our other domestic animals. This 
will be explained more fully later ; but at the present 
the writer wishes to impress this on the reader, whether 
he be a professional student or not, as he is deeply con- 
vinced that the training, general management, and medical 
treatment of the dog will be infinitely better carried out 
on this basis than any other — a view which it is a great 
satisfaction to know is entertained by some of our most 
thoughtful breeders as well as most careful students of 
comparative psychology and medicine. 

For some time the author has been making a careful 
study of the entire development of puppies from birth 
onward, and this has greatly strengthened this conviction. 


The development of the puppy and the child are nearly 
parallel up to a certain stage, when the use of language 
begins. Previous to that the puppy, in many respects at 
least, surpasses the infant ; after that the child is of course, 
on the whole, greatly in advance of the dog. As this 
idea of human resemblance will be the guiding principle 
throughout this book, it need not be further dwelt upon 
just now. 


There can be no doubt that the existing varieties of the 
dog have been produced by crossing and selection, chiefly 
aided by the influence of all that enters into the term " en- 
vironment." Certain breeds have almost or quite disap- 
peared, and so rapidly are the varieties known in any one 
country modified that the dog of to-day is in some cases 
so different from his ancestors of twenty years ago as to 
be scarcely recognizable as of the same breed, owing to 
the modifications produced in the way mentioned above. 
There is in reality no limit to the number of breeds that 
may be produced. 

The great French naturalist, Cuvier, attempted to give 
dogs a scientific classification founded on the shape of the 
head, length of the jaws, etc., while these prominent parts 
were by him supposed to vary with the peculiar qualities, 
habits, etc., of the breed. It does not seem possible to 
classify dogs in this way on a strictly natural basis. As 
the purpose for which in the main a breed is used by man 
has much to do with both its form and psychic character- 
istics, the classification adopted by Stonehenge is at least 
suggestive. It is as follows : 


1. Wild and half -reclaimed dogs, hunting in packs. 

2. Domesticated dogs, hunting chiefly by the eye, and 
killing their game for the use of man. 

3. Domesticated dogs, hunting chiefly by the nose, and 
both finding and killing their game. 

4. Domesticated dogs, finding game by scent, but not 
killing it ; being chiefly used in aid of the gun. 

5. Pastoral dogs, and those used for the purposes of 

6. Watch-dogs, house-dogs, and toy dogs. 
Y. Crossed breeds, retrievers, etc. 


The most important are the dingo, the dhole, the 
pariah, the wild dog of Africa, and the North and the 
South American dogs. 

The dingo is about twenty-four inches high, and greatly 
resembles the fox in appearance, with a head somewhat 
between that of the wolf and fox, but, unlike the fox, the 
tail is carried curled over the hip. He may be tamed to 
some extent and will breed with domesticated dogs. 

The dhole, or native wild dog of India, closely resem- 
bles the dingo, except that the tail is not bushy. He at- 
tacks various kinds of wild animals, including the tiger ; 
and is of great speed and endurance. 

The pariah is the name given to those dogs that 
abound in the villages of India, and, though without 
masters proper, seem ready to become the hunting com- 
panion of any one who may encourage them. They are 
used to hunt many varieties of game, as well as the tiger 
and wild boar. 


The wild African dogs (Ekia or Deab) are unclaimed, 
half-wild, despised animals, living on the refuse of the 
village streets or on wild animals they hunt on their own 
account. They are rather large, resemble the wolf, and 
are very fierce, illustrating well how usage affects the dog 
for evil as well as for good. 

Wild American dogs are now somewhat scarce, but at 
one period were no doubt numerous enough. 

The characteristics and mode of life of these varieties 
of the canine race throw much light on not a few points 
that are peculiar to the dog as we know him in civiliza- 
tion, and lend strong probability to the views as to the 
origin of this animal set forth in these pages. • 

In almost every neighborhood there are dogs that are 
relatively wild, and many a one, left behind to shift for 
himself when the family to which he belonged has moved 
away, has in the struggle for existence become a midnight 
marauder or a canine vagabond — possibly a dangerous one. 
The author has known of dogs that committed depreda- 
tions on flocks of fowls of the neighborhoods in which 
they prowled about that were long attributed to foxes, till 
at last these vagrant animals were discovered in the act. 

He has also known several dogs in the outskirts of a 
large city in this country take up their temporary abode 
in vacant lots or open fields, where a little straw or similar 
bedding might be found, associate with them other dogs 
that soon learned to be of habits more or less like their 
own, constituting a sort of pack that lived by visiting the 
barrels set out for the scavengers, such animals being a 
menace both to human beings and well-behaved dogs that 
avoided such company. This state of things has brought 


the canine race into much discredit with those who did 
not reflect that man is himself wholly responsible for it. 

Standards. — Before proceeding to give the points, etc., 
of the various breeds of dogs coming under the subdivis- 
ions of the preceding classification still to be treated, it 
will be profitable to consider the subject of a " standard," 
or tlie description of the characteristics of any variety 
of the canine species. In this case again reference to the 
origin of standards may not be without interest. Long 
ago a large number of standards w^ere printed in Stone- 
henge's admirable work on the dog, and these are to the 
present time the basis on which others have been con- 
structed. The standard actually used, or supposed to be 
used, in the judging of any breed at a public exhibition of 
dogs is usually that adopted by the specialty club that con- 
cerns itself w-ith the breed in question. The standards of 
all the leading breeds are now to be obtained in compact 
and cheap form in one volume, indispensable to the judge, 
the critic, the breeder, the exhibitor, and others. As to 
how far they conform to the requirements of the perfect 
standard may be better determined presently. 

A standard of any breed should express in words the 
ideally perfect dog ; and it would be of the highest serv- 
ice to have the verbal description accompanied by an 
ideal illustration, for there are no perfect dogs; and if 
to these two were added a commentary of such a char- 
acter as would render the meaning more clear and at the 
same time give the reasons for the various requirements 
of the standard, we feel certain that greater progress 
would be made by all concerned. While some few^ 
writers have commented on the standards of some of the 


breeds in the way suggested, it has never been done sys- 
tematically or completely ; nor, so far as the writer knows, 
have the proposed ideal cuts ever been published accom- 
panying any set of standards. It has been customary 
to say little of the psychic characteristics of dogs in the 
standards, though surely there is no subject of higher 
importance. Possibly this omission is to be explained 
on the ground that it is impossible to learn these fully in 
the judging ring, etc. However, it seems to the writer 
that a dog of an objectionable disposition or of very de- 
fective intellect should not be encouraged in the least, as 
such qualities are, unless the result of bad usage, very 
likely to be inherited by offspring, and in fact may be in 
any case. To give such an animal a prize is to stamp him 
with approval, and it is well known that the owners of 
bitches often breed to prize dogs regardless of every other 
consideration. It should never be forgotten that the dog 
of every breed is meant to be the companion of his own 
fellows and of man himself to some extent, and in the case 
of some breeds very largely. It is unfortunate also that, 
taking the standards as a whole, they do not agree on the 
terms used or the subdivisions of the animal's form recog- 

Since the clubs established in the interest of each breed 
do now draw up and publish standards, a few words in re- 
gard to these organizations may not be out of place. 

In some countries specialism in the breeding of dogs is 
carried so far that it is not uncommon for the admirer of 
one breed to feel no interest — ^possibly a sort of contempt 
or repugnance — as regards others ; or it may be that his 
very enthusiasm may lead him to overestimate one breed 


and undervalue all others ; or, again, there may be a spirit 
of indifference to all breeds except the favorite one. We 
think that the best attitude of mind for the cynologist to 
assume is one of calm criticism, endeavoring to see the 
good and the weak points of each breed and recognizing 
that individuals of all breeds differ greatly in merit. 

The assumed object of every club is to improve the 
breed to which it is devoted by publishing a standard con- 
sidered correct, encouraging breeding to the true type — 
both physical and psychical — by giving prizes for animals 
bred nearest to the standard, and encouraging esprit de 
corps among the members. 

It is also common to name certain individuals, either 
from among the members only or including outsiders, to 
act as judges at shows, believing that the true type of 
dog will thns be best selected. 

The advantages of all this is obvious ; the dangers of 
specialty clubs not so apparent. 

The history of all specialism seems to show that nar- 
rowness and intellectual myopia are the usual pitfalls. In 
seeking for improvement, minor points are apt to be 
unduly valued and general soundness of make-up and 
physical and mental stamina too little considered, with also 
a strong tendency to go to extremes. It can not be denied, 
however, that without such specialism the dog would never 
have been advanced to the numerous distinct varieties, 
beautiful in form and attractive in qualities, that we find 
to-day. Kever before were dogs, on the whole, so typical 
and so perfect ; at all events, in such large numbers. 

Without dog shows the work would have been much 
slower if not impossible, as they are, without doubt, the 


most rapid and effective educators of the general public 
and the greatest stimulus to high-class breeding. But of 
these again. 

The dog, like most quadrupeds, may very naturally be 
considered as made up of the following sections or regions 
of the body : Head, neck, chest, shoulders, back, loins, 
quarters, tail, legs, and feet. Manifestly each of these is 
capable of subdivision, and the extent to which this is done 
in the different standards is very variable. 

Unless standards are drawn up merely by caprice, we 
are entitled to ask what should be kept in mind in per- 
forming such a task ? It seems to us that within the limits 
that Nature allows, the following should be the aims : 

Primarily, the dogs of the breed in question should 
have f^uch a form as is hest suited to the purpose for which 
the animal is intended. Let this once be lost sight of, and 
breeders are at sea without rudder or compass. 

The relative size and proportion of parts should be 
such as are consistent ; no decided weakness anywhere ; for 
in an animal, as in a chain, the strength of the whole is 
practically determined by that of the weakest part, and it 
is just this balance of parts, which Nature looks after so 
well in wild animals, that the breeder who is a specialist 
may be tempted to disregard. To illustrate • What mat- 
ters it that a dog shall have the most perfect form in every 
other part if his head is so small that it can not contain 
the necessary amount of brain for the piirpuses of his 
work, or his loin so weak that if he has galloping work 
to do he must soon tire, etc. ? 

But a dog may l>e usefully and strongly built without 
those refinements of proportion that we recognize in high- 


class dogs. Tliis result is in reality only the perfection 
of what is implied in the above. It follows almost 
as a corollary that all that is not of use in the formation 
of the animal is to be condemned, and is commonly called 
"lumber." Though the standards can not be so framed 
that the internal organs shall be taken into the account di- 
rectly, they are really considered in the form of the ani- 
mal. It must, however, be remembered that what is 
termed stamina — i. e., endurance and resisting power under 
unfavorable conditions — is the outcome of the working of 
all the cells of the body as maintained in a general balance 
of functions. It is well known that pure-bred dogs have 
not the stamina of mongrels in the sense now implied, and 
this is probably due to those disturbances introduced into 
the economy by those modifications of form, etc., for 
which man is responsible. 

The writer's accounts of the various breeds will scarce- 
ly be full enough to constitute them complete standards. 
They will, however, be more comprehensive, and, it is 
hoped, have a special value to both the breeder and practi- 
tioner of medicine, inasmuch as they will be illustrated, and 
an attempt will be made to give reasons, if only briefly and 
by way of suggestion rather than as elaborate explanations. 

The whole subject will probably be better understood 
if the principles stated above are applied first to the dif- 
ferent sections of the body, without special reference to 
any one breed exclusively. 

Standards further considered. — Certain terms have been 
and are used by breeders, convenient and well understood, 
though very difiicult to define by words. Among these 
are " character," " quality," and " type." 


Character refers to the whole constitution of the dog, 
physical and psychic, in so far as the latter is evident in 
his appearance. A dog may be fairly correct in form, 
according to the standard as regards shape and proportion 
of parts, yet his attitude, his carriage, his facial expression, 
and much more that it is almost impossible to describe, 
yet quite easy to recognize by the experienced eye, may 
be so far from correct that he may be fitly said to be 
lacking in character ; and this is a most serious, indeed, 
in the writer's estimation, a radical defect, and generally 
accompanied by psychical imperfections which, if very 
pronounced, render the specimen an undesirable posses- 

Quality is different from character, though it may 
enter into the • latter. It is a certain refinement arising 
from perfection in details of form and character. A dog 
of quality may be compared to a " gentleman " among hu- 
man beings. 

A typical animal is one that may be taken as a sort of 
model and is a living illustration of the standard, and 
inasmuch as, at the largest bench shows, such animals are 
to be found, these institutions become, even unconscious- 
ly, powerful educators, while the study of the best speci- 
mens wdth a critical eye is absolutely indispensable to the 
breeder, the critic, and the judge. 

Returning to the subdivisions of the dog's form recog- 
nized by the standards, we shall now speak of them in a 
general way. 

Head. — This is in reality tlie most important part of 
the animal, since it contains the brain, is the seat of 
most of the sense-organs, and, in consequence, deter- 


mines largely tlie psychic traits of the breed and the 
general intelligence and disposition. Apart from this, 
the head, more than any other feature of the animal, de- 
termines both character and quality. A dog with a head 
that is coarse or of wrong formation can not possibly be 
typical ; hence in every breed great importance is attached 
to this part of the animal's form, though it is just possible 
that undue attention is often given to minute details of 
this region to the neglect of very important parts, as legs, 
feet, loin, and quarters, of so much consequence in run- 

J^eck. — Of this little need be said, except that it should 
be in harmony with the rest of the animal and free from 
loose skin (throatiness) — i. e., " clean " and neat. 

Shoulders. — If the dog is one intended for speed, these 
should be sloping, clean, and distinctly marked off at the 
shoulder!-]' oint proper, with wide, long blades (scapula 
long, wide, and obliquely placed), as seen in the grey- 
hound, and in great perfection in the race-horse. Such 
conformation permits of a long and easy stride, lessens 
the shock when a galloping animal alights on its fore 
feet, and furnishes a sufficient attachment for the mus- 
cles that work the lower leg. If the withers are high, 
an appearance of character and quality is imparted. If 
the animal is not intended for speed, obliquity and length 
are not of such importance. 

Chest— li the chest is not deep it is i)lain that the 
shoulder-blades can not be properly placed. The dog, 
like the race-horse, having no collar-bone, his body is 
swung between his shoulder-blades, and, that there may 
be an easy movement of the fore-limbs, the whole chest 


should be somewhat boat-shaped. The chest must be 
rather narrow in front and keeled both before and behind 
the shoulder-joints, but, in order that abundant room be 
provided for both heart and lungs, there must be a limit 
to the narrowness in front, and the chest must be very 
wide above, w'lieh is insured by the ribs being well 
sprung, while at the same time the back ribs must be 
much shorter, otherwise there will be interference with 
the working of the hinder locomotive apparatus. 

But an opposite conformation is required in the large, 
heavy dog destined not for speed, but strength, and an- 
swering to the heavy draught-horse, in which the chest is 
rather barrel-shaped. 

Back. — As the shoulders cover so much of the chest 
in the fast animal, the back, if due proportion is to be 
maintained, must be short, and in most breeds it is level, 
and should be in all fairly muscled, and in running dogs 
especially so. 

Loin and Quarters may well be considered together, 
as these parts have so much to do with the fast gallop, as 
witness the conformation of the greyhound, race-horse, 
rabbit, etc. Both leverage and muscling are to be taken 
into account, so that the loin should be strong, which usu- 
ally implies both breadth and depth. At all events, it 
should measure well around. It begins at the last rib and 
passes into the quarters. 

In bitches more depth is required than in dogs, to 
allow of breeding room. The exact length of the loin 
depends so much on the relative proportions of the animal 
that no rule can be laid down. If very short, there is 
neither strength nor freedom ; and if too long, the animal 



invariably tires readily, and is frequently defective in 
stamina. The loin should never be absolutely flat, but 
should rise to a gentle curve. 

The quarters must be large — i. e., both wide and deep 
— as here are attached the muscles that render both loin 
and thighs effective ; and generally in very strong ani- 
mals there is a more or less rugged appearance from bony 
prominences, which indicates a strong osseous, correspond- 
ing to a strong, muscular development. 

Thighs. — The thigh-joint proper of the dog is incon- 
spicuous, and what is termed the " stifle " corresponds to 

Fig. 2, 

the knee of man. Upper and lower thigh (Fig. 2) are 
convenient terms, and both should be well developed in 
an animal intended for a long and rapid stride, for such 
implies that muscles are both thick and long. Length is 
of great importance for the highest speed, for it is well 
known that a muscle in contraction may shorten to one 


third of its length, from which its power will be evident. 
The stifle should be well bent for the same reason that the 
shoulder-blades should be oblique and should not turn in, 
but rather a little out, so that there may be movement 
free of the body. 

Legs and Feet. — However good the other parts of a 
dog, if his legs are weak, improperly bent, or otherwise 
defective, he will necessarily be of little service for con- 
tinuous work in hunting, etc. The upper avin (a part 
often too little considered) should be strong in bone and 
well muscled for the movement of what is commonly 
understood by the forearm or front leg. The leg from 
the elbow to the pastern or wrist (knee) should be perfect- 
ly straight, the bone large — i. e., so as to seem strong 
enough to support the weight of the animal and afford 
attachment to large muscles. ThQ paste7m8 should also be 
strong to bear the shocks to which they are exposed in 
galloping, jumping, etc., and a slight obliquity in fast- 
working dogs is probably an advantage, though on this 
point there is diversity of opinion. 

The elbows should be strong, but work clear of the 
body in every possible movement of the animal ; hence 
they should be turned neither in nor out (" out at elbow ") 
and placed low — i. e., low enough to be free, as indicated 

The " knee " is really the wrist of man, and should be 
low placed for speed. 

In the hind-legs the hoclc corresponds to the ankle of 
man. Like all joints that are called upon to bear severe 
strains, it should be large or prominent and well bent 
(well [turned) — i. e., tlie junction of the bones composing 


the joint should make a decided angle. It should also be 
low — i. e., near the ground — allowing of a longer thigh. 
It will be noticed that throughout a common physical 
principle is involved — viz., that obliquity is favorable to 
resistance of strain. The longer the legs above the carpal 
and tarsal joints (knee and hock), the more favorable for 
the resistance of shocks and length of leverage — i. e., 
speed. A dog straight in stifle or hocks has a stilty action 
that offends the eye as well as militates against speed. 

Feet. — There are two principal types of feet — the 
long or hare foot, and the roundish or cat foot. The lat- 
ter looks better, but it is a matter of dispute which is 
the more durable. It is probably a question of thickness, 
hardness of pads, and supply of hair between the toes, 
rather than of form. But the toes should be well flexed 
or " knuckled up," thick through, and hard on the pads 
for obvious reasons, 

The toe-nails are of importance — more than is com- 
monly believed. Let one be lost and it may then be 
learned how weak the foot concerned becomes. 

The Tail. — At first sight of little importance, but hav- 
ing much to do with the character and quality of the ani- 
mal, not to speak of its importance as an index of good 
breeding, it must be taken into the account. The writer 
believes that if animals be watched carefully it will be 
perceived that the dog makes great use of his tail in pro- 
gression, using it as a sort of air rudder or balancing-pole 
— at all events, it seems to be of importance in making 
sharp turns, etc. This should be considered, as some 
breeds have the tail docked by common practice. 

If the reader will now turn to the cut of the grey- 


hound he will find in it an almost perfect illustration of 
the embodiment of those principles that are involved in 
the most rapid progression. In the setter or pointer we 
have speed of a lower grade, but their conformation adapts 
them to more continuous work (p. 10). 

In such a dog as the mastiff or St. Bernard all those 
points so important in the above-mentioned breeds and 
their allies are of subordinate importance, and the ques- 
tion in breeding such animals is simply how to get great 
size and strength with majesty in expression ; hence a 
massive frame and due proportion of parts to this end is 
the aim. Nevertheless, attention must be paid to legs, 
feet, etc., so that they shall not be unduly weak or dispro- 
portioned anywhere, and at present the tendency seems 
to be to neglect this balance of parts which JN^ature when 
left to herself always insures, for if it does not exist in 
any specimen, that animal's days are generally few and it 
may leave no offspring. But " the survival of the fittest " 
as it applies to wild animals has been modified somewhat 
by man. 

Even in toy dogs, bred exclusively to please the eye 
and form the household pets of their masters, this same 
balance must be attended to and their supporting parts 
(leg and feet) not wholly neglected. 

To summarize the views expressed in the preceding 
pages and put them in language familiar to the breeder, a 
dog to be typical must have a correct and true form and 
show both quality and character. 

His head must be neither coarse nor weak ; his jaws 
even and teeth level ; he must be neither overshot nor 
undershot (overhung, underhung ; the first is also termed 

m a 


pig-jawed) ; his neck of due size ; his chest either barrel- 
shaped or deep and keeled according as he is intended for 
slow or fast work ; his shoulders clean at the joints, and 
long and sloping if of a fast breed ; his back level, short, 
and strong ; his loin of due length and girth, strong, and 
not flat; the quarters in the running dog especially 
strong; stifles well bent; the thighs, upper and lower, 
muscular ; the hocks strong and well bent ; bones of both 
front and hind legs large ; pasterns strong ; feet thick, 
hard, and well-knuckled ; the tail of due length, and so 
proportioned, etc., as not to be coarse. To put the case 
otherwise, the typical dog must not be snipy in muzzle, 
throaty, straight in shoulder-blades or loaded in shoulders, 
slack-backed or sway-backed, weak or flat-loined, feeble in 
quarters, out at elbow or tied in the elbows, stand over at 
the knees, weak in pasterns, straight in stifle or hock, cow- 
hocked (turning the hocks in and very close together), 
ring-tailed (curl in tail), splay-footed (foot flat and toes 
separating), etc. 

We have not alluded to coat. This should be in keep- 
ing with the work to which the breed is put. Except in 
toy dogs, more importance is attached to the color of nose, 
eyes, etc., than to that of coat, as a rule, and properly so 
because it is found that animals of the best strains have 
these well characterized. A very light-colored eye in any 
breed of dogs is to be avoided, as it is often associated 
with some pronounced psychic imperfection. Quality of 
coat — as hardness, softness, etc. — is also very suggestive to 
the experienced as to breeding, disposition, etc. 



Under Stonehenge's second class, or dogs hunting 
chiefly by the eye and killing their game for the use of 
their masters, the principal breeds encouraged in England 
and America are the smooth English greyhound, the 
deerhound, the Irish wolfhound, and the Kussian wolf- 
hound or barzoi. 

As the writer has taken great pains to secure the best 
cuts possible, the reader will find it advantageous to com- 
pare the necessarily brief descriptions compatible with the 
plan of this work with the illustrations. Few living 
specimens are to be seen as good as those represented in 
these illustrations, all of which are ty]3ical, and some of 
them almost models. 

The English Greyhound. — The most perfect form that 
has ever existed, probably, among domesticated animals 
for speed. A wonderful combination of strength and 
grace ! Since this dog is bred almost wholly for one 
purpose — the coursing of rabbits — he is an example of 
extreme specialism in breeding, and, being mostly kept 
exclusively in kennels and associating little with man as 
a companion, he is neither very intelligent nor very af- 
fectionate, as a rule, though capable of a fair develop- 
ment of both under more favorable circumstances (p. 10). 

The greyhound may be considered as an almost perfect 
embodiment of those principles set forth in previous pages 
as constituting the fundamentals for speed. No breed of 
dogs could be freer from superfluous tissue or " lumber." 
His form is admirably adapted, even in details, for cleav- 
ing the air, while his frame is a beautiful model for the 


attachment of muscles, and these being of great length, 
and the bony levers also long, while the respiratory and 
circulatory organs are well provided for, it only remains 
that the bony pillars of support and the feet shall be 
suitable for the end to be attained. 

It is manifest that when a greyhound is in " condition " 
the muscles should stand out distinctly and feel very hard. 

The head of the greyhound should be long, lean, 
tapering ; narrow across the skull as compared with some 
breeds, but of sufficient width to allow of brain room. 
The eyes must be rather full, clear, and bright ; the ears 
small, lying close to the head and folded back ; the jaws 
strong and even (not " pig-jawed "), and the teeth strong 
and sound to hold the hare. 

The greyhound's head is an example of the flat front 
— i. e., the furrow between the eyes or " stop " is indif- 
ferently marked, arid the brows not prominent. 

The neck is long, tapering, and arched, to permit of 
the dog catching up the hare without stooping, and the 
way in which it is set into the head and shoulders or chest 
has much to do with determining the quality of any par- 
ticular animal, especially when taken in connection with 
the head. 

Coat. — Short, smooth, and glossy. 
Color. — A matter of no great importance. A good 
greyhound, like a good race-horse, can not be of a " bad 
color," though of course a little attention must be paid 
to it in the show animal ; but coat and color count only 
five in a hundred marks, according to the standard now 

Tail. — Fine, nicely curved, and may indicate good 


breeding or the reverse ; always carried low, except under 
unusual excitement. 

It is scarcely necessary to speak of shoulders, chest, 
loin, quarters, etc., as these have been fully dealt with in 
the general remarks in the requirements of the fleet ani- 
mal. The loin is preferred a good deal curved and the 
belly well tucked up. 

A specially large greyhound is not to be preferred, as 
such have rarely excelled in coursing, and should not, 
therefore, have any advantage on the bench. 

The Deerhound. — A coarser, larger animal than the 
preceding, with a rough coat, once used for hunting deer, 
but,'hke the wolfhound, not now bred for any special kind 
of work (p. 16). 

The chief points of difference are the greater coarse- 
ness of head and neck. The head is heavier and the neck 
not so long or so graceful. 

This breed of dog stands higher, and, being more 
heavily made, weighs more than the greyhound ; but, 
though not so perfect a model of symmetry, the latter 
is still pronounced. 

Colors. — Tliose most preferred are dark-blue, fawn, 
grizzle, and brindle, which has something of a blue tint. 

Coat. — Whole body covered with a rough coat, coarser 
on the back than elsewhere. " Intermediate between silk 
and wool " is the description given by some breeders. 

This variety of the greyhound tribe has been used 
successfully to run down the prairie wolf or coyote of 
North America. 

The Irish "Wolfhound. — The animal that was known 
under this name is now extinct ; but a breed greatly re- 


sembling it is cultivated by a few enthusiastic admirers 
in Britain (p. 24). 

Of the deerhound type, he is more massive and far 
taller, and, though more commanding in appearance, he 
does not compare in symmetry with either of the two 

Coat. — Rough and hard. 

Colors. — Much as in the preceding. 

The Russian Wolfhound or Barzoi. — This breed has very 
recently sprung into popularity in Britain, and taken some 
hold in America. It is used in Russia to hunt (by sight) 
the wolf, etc. (p. 32). 

In general appearance this dog is a combination of the 
greyhound and the setter, though it is not to be inferred 
that such has been its mode of formation. In truth, the 
greatest diversity of opinion is expressed about the breed 
in most particulars. In not a few respects the form of 
this animal is at variance with English and American 
notions of dogs, and the breed will likely be much modi- 
lied if it has come to stay. The great size, the setter-like 
coat, and strength and elegance of form, unite to make up 
a most attractive whole. As to temper, intelligence, etc., 
we have much to learn. 

This dog is very long as well as tall, and the arch of 
back and loin surpasses that in any other breed known, 
while the muscular development of these parts is very 




The Bloodhound. — The largest of existing breeds of 
hounds cultivated in Britain or America. In general 
form he greatly resembles the English foxhound ; but 
no variety of dogs, perhaps, possesses so characteristic a 
head, which is more pronounced — as is usual in all its 
features — in the male (p. 40). 

Shull very much domed and narrow across, though 
rather long, with very decided occipital protuberance ; 
forehead much wrinkled. Eyes small, deep-set, with a 
distinct red "haw," or third eyelid. Ea7's long, fine in 
"leather," hanging close to cheeks. Muzzle long, deep, 
blunt at tip. Flews or angles of lips long and pendulous. 
Unlike most breeds, in this a " dewlap," or loose skin in 
front of the throat, is esteemed. 

The whole expression of the animal is most peculiar 
and characteristic. 

Coat. — Short, hard on body, but soft and silky on ears 
and head generally. 

Colors. — Tan and black and tan ; the latter much pre- 
ferred, the black to predominate on the upper parts of the 

The name of the breed is probably derived from its 
having been used to track wounded animals. The extent 
to which the bloodhound has ever been, or can be, em- 
ployed to track human beings is uncertain. However, this 


subject has attracted fresh attention of late, especially in 

The Foxhound. — The nature of the work that this ani- 
mal performs has decided his form and character prob- 
ably more than in any other breed of dogs after the 
greyhound, and the extent to which perfection has been 
reached is scarcely rivaled even by the latter wonderful 
animal form, especially if the pack, rather than the indi- 
vidual, be considered. 

When it is remembered what fox-hunting implies, it 
will be realized that only a breed combining considerable 
speed with the greatest endurance would meet the require- 
ments. Hence this animal's form may be considered as 
the model for combined speed and endurance. It is there- 
fore a great modification of that of the greyhound, in 
which a burst of the highest possible speed, maintained 
at the most for one or two miles, is what is sought. 

In few breeds have specimens been so carefully se- 
lected and the weeding-out process so rigidly carried on 
as in this. As individual effort must be subordinated to 
hunting in concert, considerable intelligence, as well as 
scenting powers, speed, etc., is required. 

It may be instructive to consider the points of the fox- 
hound at rather greater length than in the case of some oth- 
er breeds. (See cut and description of beagle, pp. 48, 41.) 

Head. — While not heavy, the skull must be large 
enough to accommodate a good-sized brain. Distinct but 
not exaggerated brows should in the male girth sixteen 

Muzzle. — Long (four inches and a half), wide, with 
open nostrils. 


Eyes. — Moderate in size, soft, and full of expres- 

Ears. — Long (often "rounded" or shortened artifi- 
cially), set low and lying close to cheeks. 

N'eGk.—Ijong, lean, no throatiness, tapering, with con- 
vex upper outline. 

Shoulders.— Long^ sloping, clean at points, well mus- 
cled. True arm long and muscular. 

Chest — Large — i. e., deep — with well-sprung ribs, not 
so narrow as the greyhound's, and with back ribs long ; 
shouldei girth thirty inches in a twenty-four-inch (high) 

Back. — Very muscular, running into loin without con- 
tracting or " nipping." 

Lorn. — Extremely strong and joining well into back 
and quarters. 

Quarters. — Yery strong ; may even be a little rugged 
in appearance. Thighs strong and stifle moderately bent, 
as most suitable to general work and endurance. 

Legs and Feet. — Elbows free, straight (neither in nor 
out), strong, and well let down ; legs (including bone 
throughout, joints, etc.) of great strength. Must be the 
typical exemplification of legs and feet adapted to speed 
and endurance ; hence the pasterns are so strong as to 
seem much as of one piece with the bone above. 

The feet should be round, thick, well-knuckled, with 
the hardest of pads. 

Stern (tail). — Slightly arched over back, tapering, and 
provided with a fringe of hairs below. 

Coat. — Hard, short, dense, glossy. 

Colors. — The " hound colors " are black, tan and white. 

(K. C. S. B., 19,754.) 

For description, see page 


black and white, and the " pies " — i. e., white, with the 
color of hare or badger — a sort of yellow or tan. 

Symmetry, quality, and character should be pro- 
nounced, especially the latter. The psychic characteristics 
may be inferred from preceding remarks. 

Eelated to the foxhound are the harrier and the beagle. 

The Harrier. — Said to be descended from the old 
Southern hound ; scarcely known pure now, but mostly 
crossed with the foxhound. The harrier resembles the 
foxhound closely, the head being in some respects differ- 
ent. The skull is wider and heavier, and muzzle wider 
and longer ; the ears set on rather farther l)ack, and are 
not usually " rounded " ; eyes softer and larger ; whole ex- 
pression sKghtiy suggestive of the bloodhound. 

The harrier has probably a better nose than the fox- 
hound, but tends to potter over the scent, and so does not 
push forward as fast. His voice is also more like the 
bloodhound's, and exceeds that of the foxhound in melody. 
We speak of the true harrier, not the crossed animal. 

The Beagle. — A very popular breed in America, espe- 
cially of late, and largely used in rabbit hunting. Being 
a small animal, the pack can usually be followed on foot 
(p. 48). 

Stonehenge regards the beagle as the miniature of the 
Sonthern hound, but of greater symmetry. The standard 
adopted by the American-English Beagle Club describes 
him as "a miniature foxhound, solid and big for his 
inches, with the wear-and-tear look of the dog that can 
last in the chase and follow his quarry to the death." 

In head he differs in an appreciable degree from the 
foxhound, and we quote from the above standard. 


Head. — STtull moderately domed at occiput ; cranium 
broad and full ; ears set on low, long and fine in texture, 
front edge closely framing and inturned to cheek, rather 
broad, rounded at tips, and with an almost entire ab- 
sence of erectile power at their origin. 

Eyes full, prominent, rather wide apart, soft and lus- 
trous, brown or hazel in color; orbital processes (eye- 
brows) well developed; expression gentle, subdued, and 

The nnuzzle of medium length, squarely cut, and stop 
well defined. 

Jaws level ; indentation between eyes ; lips with at 
most only moderate flews. 

Nostrils large, moist, and open. 

In other parts he should resemble the foxhound, and 
be as strongly, perhaps even more symmetrically made 
with an equal development of quality and character. 

Size is of importance ; this dog must not exceed fifteen 
inches in height at the shoulder. 

His voice, or " cry," is very melodious to the ears of 
his admirers. 

The Otterhound. — Very like the bloodhound in general 
appearance, coat excepted, which is thick, oily, and with 
pily undercoat, adapting the animal to water. Open feet 
with plenty of web, suiting the animal to swimming, are 
also desirable. 

In color sandy or grizzle, with black and tan more 
or less clearly defined. 

Irritable in temper and courageous to the last degree, 
in consequence of contests with their quarry, they some- 
times worry each other to death in the kennel. 


The Bassethoimd. — This breed originated in France, 
and is much esteemed in that country for hunting various 
kinds of game, which this hound does with wonderful 
scenting powers and pleasing music, though slow of pace. 
A sm.all pack is sufficient (p. 52). 

His form is striking as a whole, with a head very like 
that of the bloodhound ; a long body supported on strong 
short legs, the fore-legs being crooked, so that the toes 
turn out. This conformation is adopted partly by fancy 
and partly because of the strength it allows, and because 
it renders the pace slow, which is thought desirable in 
hunting the deer, etc., in Europe. 

The Dachshund. — This breed is of German origin, and, 
as the name implies (badger-dog), it is used in hunting 
the badger, though not exclusively. A German or terrier 
and an English or hound type are recognized. The for- 
mer is the smaller, and is unrivaled for underground work. 
It differs from the dog of English type in size and head, 
the skull being flatter, etc. They may be either smooth- 
haired or rough-haired (pp. 56, 60). 

The head is long, narrow, with a decided occipital 
protuberance or "peak" in the English type; no stop; 
intelligent eyes ; long, broad, soft, and low-set ears. 

Well " crooked " fore-legs are highly esteemed. 

The coat is dense and short in the smooth variety; 
hard and longer in the rough. 

The Great Dane. — The great Dane, boarhound, Ulmer 
dogge, German mastiff, German dogge, etc., are all related 
in form and characteristics, though whether of similar or 
identical origin is much disputed (frontispiece). 

The great Dane is the most esteemed of large dogs as a 


companion in Germany, though little, if at all, used now 
for boar-liunting. 

Gentle with women and children, and manageable by 
his master, he is a desirable companion and protector, for 
he is both strong and courageous. He is valuable in 
America as a watch-dog, and seems to be growing in 
popular favor. 

His strong, active form, great size, and fierce appear- 
ance render him a terror to aggressors of every kind. 

As he is very suggestive of the wild beast, no 
dog's appearance is so fitted to inspire fear, which is a 
strong recommendation in a dog intended to guard a large 
estate, etc. 

His form is about midway between that of the mastiff 
and the greyhound ; a very muscular, upstanding, alert, 
active dog, combining the activity and grace of the grey- 
hound and the strength of the mastiff in a high degree. 
If this be borne in mind as the ideal to be attained, the 
standard adopted by the Great Dane Club may be intelli- 
gently criticised. 

The minimum height for dogs is 30 inches, for bitches 
28 inches ; the minimum weight 120 pounds and 100 

The head bears a general resemblance to that of the 
bull terrier, but has characteristic features of its own. 

Tlie ears are usually cropped, but, if not, should re- 
semble in form and carriage those of the greyhound.* 

The neck should be long and clean and join head and 
shonlders neatly. Shoulders, chest, back, loin, quarters, 

* No dog of any breed born after March, 1895, can, if cropped, win 
a prize at a show held under the auspices of the English Kennel Club. 


legs, and feet are all in harmony with the above ideal — 
i. e., of a dog intermediate between the fleetest and the 
strongest breeds. 

The tail is strong at the root, tapering to the end, 
reaching to the hock, carried slightly curved and not 
mnch if at all above the level of the back ; when the ani- 
mal is tranquil it is carried very low. 

Coat — Short, liard, and dense. 

Colors. — Shades of gray (or blue), black, white, 
spotted, red, fawn, brindle or tiger-striped on a white 
ground, with patches of dark color. The single colors 
may be accompanied by markings of a darker tint about 
the eyes and muzzle, with a line of similar tint (" trace ") 
along the spine. The " wall " or " china " eye seems to 
naturally accompany certain colors, as is also the case in 

The most noticeable or common faults are too heavy 
or houndy a head ; brows and stop too pronounced ; face 
too broad ; muzzle too light, short, or not square enough 
at end ; ears too heavy or improperly carried ; throati- 
ness ; neck too short or thick ; chest too broad or too 
narrow ; sunken or sway -back and flat loin ; legs not 
straight ; weak pasterns and cow-hocks ; twisted or splay- 
feet ; coat coarse or long ; tail too heavy, too much 
curved, carried too high, or curled into a sort of ring 
(" ring-tailed "). 

This, like other large breeds, is very liable to be weak 
in hind parts — i. e., quarters, thighs, and hocks. Many 
strong specimens lack symmetry, quality, and character. 

Terriers. — The terriers constitute a numerous collection 
of breeds, and, as almost every one is in Britain encour- 


aged by a specialty club, it can be readily understood that 
they have been bred to great perfection, or, at all events, 
very near the proposed standards. It is somewhat other- 
wise in America, where this group, with the exception of 
the fox-terrier, can not be considered as very popular. 
But of .late certain varieties, especially Irish and Scot- 
tish terriers, have made great advances in popular favor. 
Both breeds are hardy and courageous. 

Since terriers, distinct as they are in details of form 
and character, have a great deal in common, it will be Avell 
to consider what may be termed terrier type. 

As every breed or group of dogs must, as we have be- 
fore said, be judged in reference to the work it is sup- 
posed to be able to perform, so with this one. The ter- 
rier is essentially a vermin (" varmint ") dog — i. e., he is 
adapted to drive out, secure, or actually kill such animals 
chiefly as are injurious to man — as rats, foxes, etc. Such a 
dog must evidently be active, fast for his size, courageous, 
with powerful jaws and teeth, and at least not large. 

Terrier character is very decided and readily recog- 
nized. The terrier must be a wiry, muscular little animal, 
ever on the look-out and ever ready to tackle vermin, and, 
if need be, to carry on the contest to the death ; and if he 
looks this from nose to tail he has terrier character, as the 
term character is understood by breeders. 

The bodily form is characterized as follows : Flat, 
more or less wedge-shaped head, with strong jaws and 
teeth, neat ears, dark, small, usually deep-set eyes. Teeth 
must be level ; to be overshot or the reverse is a great fault 
in a terrier, as it indicates weakness where, above all, he 
should be strong — i. e., in holding- and killing-power. 


The neck must suit the head and body ; cliest, loin, 
quarters, legs, and feet must be those of a strong, active 
animal, capable of considerable speed, and hence approxi- 
mating those of the great Dane, already described, which 
is a sort of larger terrier in form. 

Tail and ears are in many breeds cut, to add, as it is 
thought, to terrier expression. It is to be hoped, how- 
ever, that all such cruel practices will soon be abandoned, 
as they are plainly against nature. 

The coat should, whether long or short, be hard gen- 
erally and durable in all cases, so as to resist wear with 
work and protect the skin of the animal. It must be re- 
membered that the terrier is frequently required to dig 
and to enter burrows (" go to earth "), hence the necessity 
of strong legs, good feet well armed with strong nails, a 
resisting coat, etc. 

Color is variable but rarely striking, as that would dis- 
cover the dog to the creatures he seeks to surprise. 

The faults to be specially avoided in a terrier are 
a heavy, thick skull ; prominent brows ; full eyes ; large, 
badly carried ears ; weak jaws and poor teeth, not meet- 
ing in front ; a cloddy form ; crooked or weak legs, and 
splayed, soft, or thin feet ; tucked-up belly ; weak loin ; 
legginess or the reverse ; a broad breast, straight shoul- 
ders, or stifles ; uneven back ; flat sides ; general deficiency 
of muscle ; a coat lacking in quality and quantity. 

If the dog has a perfect form he may still lack to the 
eye terrier character, in which case he will not do for the 
bench ; and if he really is deficient in the psychical char- 
acteristics of the breed, he is, of course, useless in a de- 
gree as a vermin dog. 


The fox-terrier, the Irish terrier, the black and tan, 
and among toys the Yorkshire, enjoy a fair degree of 
popularity in America ; the first is in fact a great favor- 
ite ; we shall therefore call special attention to these. 
Although descriptions of coat will be given in referring to 
the various breeds of terriers, it must be seen (like the 
color), and in fact felt, to be appreciated thoroughly. 

The Fox-terrier. — Used, as his name implies, to unearth 
the fox, not kill him, he should be gritty and strong, and 
fleet enough to keep within sight or hearing of the 
hounds at all events. An excellent " ratter," and ready 
for most kinds of small vermin, with considerable docility, 
affection, and intelligence, handsome, sprightly, etc., he 
is largely kept as a companion, even as a sort of house 
dog. The fox-terrier may be regarded as the young 
man's companion, as the poodle, the Yorkshire, or toy 
spaniel is that of the lady (pp. 64, 72). 

Head. — Shull flat, rather narrow, sloping to muzzle ; 
little apparent stop, viewed from the front, but showing 
slightly in profile ; cheeks not full ; ears Y-shaped, small, 
pointing forward and lying close to cheeks ; jaws strong 
and muscular ; some chiseling below eyes ; muzzle taper- 
ing to nose, which must be black ; eyes and their rims 
dark in color, small, rather deep-set, nearly circular in 
shape, " full of fire, life, and intelligence " ; teeth about 
level, but the upper may be just outside lower. 

Neck. — Clean, muscular, tapering. 

Shoulders. — Long, sloping, fine at points, and clearly 
marked off at withers. 

Chest. — Deep but not broad in breast ; ribs well 
sprung ; back ribs deep. 

(K. C. S. B., 19,840.) 

For description, see page 41. 


Back, — Even, short, strong. 

Loin. — Powerful, slightly arched, not tucked up in 

Qtiarters. — Strong, muscular, no droop or crouch; 
thighs long and powerful ; hocks near ground ; stifle bent 
as in a foxhound. 

Stem (tail). — Set on high, strong, carried gayly, but 
not over back or curled ; is usually docked. 

Legs and Feet. — Much as in the foxhound. 

Coat. — There are two varieties of this terrier — the 
smooth- and the wire-haired. In the former the hair is 
smooth, flat, hard, dense, abundant, tough, and should 
cover also the belly and inner side of thighs, though not 
so thickly. In the rough-haired or wire-haired breed the 
harder and more wiry in texture the better the coat, which 
is longer than in the smooth dog ; but it should not give 
the appearance of shagginess. It must on no account be 
silky or woolly either to eye or hand. 

Color. — White should predominate ; brindle, red, or 
liver markings are objectionable ; otherwise color is not of 
much importance, though black and tan on head is much 

The fox-terrier should show symmetry, quality, and 
character in a high degree. 

Weighty etc. — Not either a leggy or low dog ; should 
fall between sixteen and twenty pounds. 

Irish Terrier. — This breed is very popular in Britain 
and is gaining ground in America. In general appear- 
ance, except in coat and color, he somewhat resembles 
the fox-terrier, but is a considerably larger dog (p. 80). 

Good-tempered with mankind, he is a little too ready 


for a fray with his own species, and he does not always 
stop to consider whether he is a match for his antagonist ; 
but in any case he is slow to give up once he begins. 

In jaws he is rather stronger than the fox-terrier. A 
reaction has taken place against cutting the ears of this 
breed, but the tail is still docked. This latter operation, 
when done at a very early age, as it usually is, causes 
very little pain. In most points the standard is similar to 
that for the fox-terrier, but the Irish dog is larger. 

Coat. — Somewhat like that of the wire-haired fox- 
terrier, but its true quality must be learned by feel. It 
should not be shaggy, but straight and flat. 

Color. — Whole-colored ; bright red preferred, wheat- 
en, yellow, and gray next ; brindle disqualifying. A lit- 
tle white on chest not so objectionable as on feet. 

TF^^'^A^.— Sixteen to twenty-four pounds, bitches, as 
in all breeds, being rather smaller. 

Black-and-tan Terrier. — Formerly a white terrier iden- 
tical in shape, etc., to this was much valued. This 
breed is now, however, rarely seen at shows in any 
numbers (p. 88). 

The black-and-tan terrier, on account of cleanly habits, 
a skin free from smell, neatness, size, color, etc., is well 
adapted to be a house dog ; but his aversion to stran- 
gers, generally manifested by a shrill, unpleasant voice, is 
no small drawback, though by no means confined to this 
breed. He is not so generally popular as the fox-terrier, 
not being so hardy and perhaps because of the cropping 
of the ears, which is not always done so as to render 
them presentable. They do not bear cold as well as most 
of the terriers. Nevertheless, he is a good vermin dog, 


being renowned in the rat pit. He has also many winning 
ways and is capable of being taught various tricks. 

In general form he is som.ewhat between the Italian 
greyhound and the fox-terrier or very small bull-terrier. 

His chief peculiarities are : 

Head. — Long and narrow, slight stop, tight-skinned ; 
like a much-tapered wedge ; eyes very dark (black), ob- 
long ; very bright, neither much sunken nor protruding ; 
nose black ; ears small, thin, set as close together as pos- 
sible at the top of the head, lying close ('' button " ear). 

Chest. — Narrow between the fore-legs and deep in the 
brisket ; ribs well sprung. 

Back. — Short. 

Loin. — Slightly arched and powerful ; flank a little 
tucked up. 

Quarters. — Strong and muscular. 

Feet. — Compact, split up between the toes and well 
arched, with jet-black nails ; the two middle toes of the 
front feet a little longer than the others ; the hind-feet 

Tail. — Moderately short, set on where arch in quarters 
ends ; thick at root, tapering gracefully, and not carried 
higher than loin. 

Coat. — Short, close, and glossy ; not soft. 

Color. — A feature of great importance in this breed. 
The recognized colors must not only be true but distinctly 
defined or sharply marked off and confined to limited 
regions. Black is the prevailing color, so that at a dis- 
tance the dog appears black. The tan is described as a 
rich or warm mahogany tan, whicli i? distributed as fol- 
lows : Small spot over each eye, and another on each 


cheek, which latter must be as small as possible ; lips of 
upper and lower jaws, extending under jaw to throat in 
shape of letter Y ; inside of ear in part ; fore-legs to knee, 
with black patch (" thumb-mark ") between pastern and 
knee ; toes must have a distinct black line on each (" pencil- 
mark ") ; on hind-legs up inside of thigh to a little below ' 
stifle ; outside of legs must be perfectly black ; tan under 
tail, and but sufficient to be covered by tail. 

Weight. — Between fourteen and twenty-two pounds. 

A dog under seven pounds is a toy, which is judged 
by the same standard, but is rarely so perfect, especially 
in head. 

The Yorkshire Terrier. — Being a toy dog, he has lost a 
great deal of the true terrier character, though in some 
specimens much more is found than in others. In this 
breed coat is the feature of the dog, and is allowed a large 
proportion of the entire marks. In the words of the 
adopted standard, his general appearance " should be that 
of a long-coated pet-dog, the coat hanging quite straight 
and evenly down each side, a part extending from the nose 
to the end of the tail. The animal should be very com- 
pact and neat, the carriage being very sprightly, bearing 
an important air. Although the frame is hidden beneath 
a mantle of hair, the general outline should be such as to 
suggest the existence of a vigorous and well-proportioned 
body." In accordance with the above, uneven jaws, crook- 
ed legs, uneven back and loin can not be tolerated (p. 96). 

Head. — Kather small and flat in skull, somewhat broad 
in muzzle, perfectly black nose ; eyes of medium size^ 
dark in color, })right, intelligent, looking straightforward, 
with dark-edged eyelids. 




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Ears. — If not cut, thej should be small, Y-shaped, and 
carried semi-erect ; if cut, quite erect. 

Coat. — As long and straight (not wavy) as possible? 
silk-like (not woolly), extending from back of head to root 
of tail. 

Color. — A bright steel-blue, and on no account to have 
any fawn, light, or dark hairs. Hair on muzzle very long 
and of a bright golden tan ; on sides of head very long 
and of a little deeper tan, especially about roots of ears. 
Ears are covered with short hair of a deep, dark tan. 
Legs covered with tan hair a few shades lighter at the 
ends than at the roots. 

Weight. — Divided usually into two classes — dogs un- 
der five pounds and over ^yq pounds, but not to exceed 
twelve pounds. Sometimes classified as toy terriers under 
seven pounds. One of the most popular small dogs in 

Scotch Terriers. — The hard-haired Scotch terrier and 
the Skye terrier are of Scotch origin, and bear the impress 
both of the climate of the country and of the character 
of the people that has such strongly pronounced national 
characteristics (pp. 104, 120). 

These dogs, when of the best strain, are docile, coura- 
geous, affectionate, and faithful in a high degree. They 
are essentially vermin dogs, but to an unusual extent show 
also qualities which fit them for being the companions of 
man. Though not so popular in America as some other 
breeds, they are kept with pride by many a self -expatriated 
Scot who has not forgotten the associations of his boyhood 
and the canine friends of his old home. 

Both the Scotch and the Skye are long, low, strongly 


made dogs, provided with a coat admirably adapted to re- 
sist wet and cold, and so fitting them for entering burrows 
after their quarry and facing any weather however bleak. 

The Skye is an especially long dog, with an ill-defined 
outline owing to length of coat. A good Skye should 
measure in length three times its height. The Scotch is 
also long, but not in such proportion as the Skye. Both 
these breeds are more cobby in build than other terriers, 
and are not adapted for great speed ; with their power- 
ful limbs, however, such conformation adapts them for 
forcing quarry from a burrow, while their powerful jaws 
and teeth make their grip firm and punishing. 

In weight neither breed should exceed twenty pounds ; 
better if a little less. 

Coat. — In the Scotch terrier proper it is rather short 
(about two inches), very dense, and extremely hard and 

In the Skye the hair should be long, straight, shining, 
like that of a horse's tail ; silkiness, woolliness, or curl to 
be avoided, though on the top of the head it may approach 

Colors. — In the Scotch, steel or iron gray, black bi'indle, 
brown brindle, gray brindle, black, sandy, and when ton ; 
^vhite markings undesirable and not permissible, except a 
little on chest. 

In the Skye the colors most favored are in their order 
of preference — steel gray, with black tips to ears and tail ; 
fa^vn, with dark-brown tips; dark slaty-blue, black, and 
pure fawn. 

The Skyes are divided into drop-eared and prick-eared, 
which terms in themselves express the main difference. 


The Bull-terrier. — The strongest, heaviest, and perhaps 
the gamest of all the terriers (p. 136). 

He is quick to take offence from another dog, and 
in fighting is very tenacious ; but he is often affectionate, 
docile, and very companionable. 

Like other all-white dogs, etc., he is liable to deafness. 

General Appearance. — " The general appearance of 
the bull-terrier is that of a symmetrical animal, an embodi- 
ment of agility, grace, elegance, and determination." 

Head. — Long, flat, wide between the ears, tapering to 
the nose, without cheek-muscles. There should be a slight 
indentation down the face, without a "stop" between the 
eyes ; jaws long and powerful, with large black and open 
nostrils ; eyes small and very black ; lips meeting tightly 
without any fold ; teeth regular and even in front. 

Ears. — Always cropped hitherto in the show dog, and 
in a peculiar manner. 

Chest. — Wider than in other breeds of terriers. 

Feet.—KoYQ of the " hare " than of the " cat " type, 
but compact and well-arched. Shoulders, back, loin, legs, 
etc., to suit a dog of the active type. 

Tail.—^Qt on low ; thick at root and tapering to a fine 
point ; carried at an angle of about 45°, without curl, and 
never over the back ; usually ten to twelve inches long. 

Color. — All wbite. 

Coat. — Glossy, short, close, and stiff. 

Weight.— From fifteen to fifty pounds. 

Other Breeds of Terriers.^" — The varieties of terriers 

* For an illustration of the Boston terrier, see p. 140. This breed 
has lately become rather popular in America, and classes for them are 
provided at some shows. It is intermediate between the bull-dog and 
the bull-terrier. 


not yet referred to are but little known in America, and 
may be briefly described. 

The Welsh Terrier. — He may be regarded as very like 
a black and tan, wire-haired fox-terrier, but rather larger 
and with a heavier head (p. 144). 

The Airedale Terrier. — After the bull-terrier, the tallest 
and largest of this class. His form departs little from what 
might be termed average terrier type. He stands rather 
high on the leg, and the tail is usually docked (p. 152). 

Coat. — Kough or broken, dense and wiry in texture, 
and free from curl or lock. 

Color. — Dark grizzle from occiput to end of tail, ex- 
tending also down sides of body, with dark markings on 
side of skull ; rest of body a good tan, w^hich should be 
darker on ears than elsewhere. 

Weight. — Dogs, forty to forty-five pounds ; bitches, 
thirty-five to forty pounds. 

Dandle Dinmont Terrier. — Differing so from all other 
terriers in eyes, ears, general shape of head, with its top- 
knot, and being of a somewhat unmanageable disposi- 
tion when he scents '' fur," it is suspected by some good 
authorities that a Dachshund cross occurred at some time 
in the history of the breed. 

The skull is wide and heavy, forehead domed, power- 
ful teeth and jaws ; eyes wide apart, full, and round ; ears 
large, pendulous, wide apart, low-set on skull. The head 
is covered wnth very soft, silky hair, forming a "top- 
knot," but not confined to the forehead. The ears are 
covered with soft, straight, brown hair, and have a thin 
feather of lighter-colored hair like the top-knot. 

Legs. — Short, straight (liable to be bandy), very strong, 
and set wide apart in front. 


Chest. — Wider than in most terriers. 

Coat. — Yery difficult to secure correct in this breed. 
It is termed piley or penciled — i. e., a mixture of hard and 
soft hair, giving a crisp feel to the hand ; the hard hair 
should be wiry, the hair on under part of body being 
softer, also lighter in color. 

Color. — "Pepper" or "mustard" — i. e., of various 
shades suggested by these colors but impossible of descrip- 
tion in words. 

Size and Weight. — Height at shoulder, eight to eleven 
inches; length not more than twice the height. Best 
weight, eighteen pounds. 

The Bedlington Terrier. — Another peculiar-looking ter- 
rier, standing rather high on the leg, and with somewhat 
hound-like ears and a top-knot. He is a hardy, game, 
useful dog (p. 160). 

Sktill. — l!^arrow, deep, and rounded, high at occiput, 
and covered with a top-knot of silky hair. 

Ears. — Kather large, filbert-shaped, well forward, lying 
close to cheek. 

Eyes. — Small and well sunk. 

Feet. — Rather long and large. 

Tail. — Of characteristic shape and carriage. 

Chest, etc. — Chest not wide, but deep and flat-ribbed — 
well " ribbed up " (deep back ribs) ; back rising into an 
arched loin ; quarters rather light". 

Coat. — Hard, with close bottom, and not lying flat to 
sides ("linty"). 

Color. — Dark blue, blue and tan, liver, liver and tan, 
sandy, sandy and tan. 

Size. — Height, fifteen to sixteen inches ; weight, eight- 
een to twenty-four pounds. 


This breed of terrier should be a light, " lathy " dog ; 
he is apt to fail in back ribs, etc. In this breed the 
stifles are apt to be rather straight and the hocks placed 
very high. 

The Paisley Terrier. — In general appearance a long, 
low, stoutly-built dog, with an intelligent expression, and a 
long, flowing, flat-lying, straight coat. The appearance of 
the head depends a good deal on the ears, which stand up 
quite straight, are set on high, covered with long hair, and 
well fringed. 

Coat. — Long, flat, and silky ; the longer and finer the 
better ; a part extends from shoulder to tail. 

Color. — Various shades of blue, dark blue preferred, 
but of a lighter shade on head and legs. 

The Clydesdale Terrier. — A long, low dog, with a large 
head and a coat that resembles silk or suggests spun glass. 
A fancy terrier, but hardier than the Yorkshire or Maltese. 

Ears. — Yery characteristic, small, set on high, per- 
fectly erect in carriage, covered with long silky hair (well 

Color. — Eanging from dark blue to light fawn, the 
first preferred. 

The Maltese Terrier. — A very small (must not be over 
six pounds) toy terrier, in which coat and color are of 
chief importance. 

Coat. — Long, silky, with a slight wave ; woolliness and 
curl are very objectionable. 

Color. — Pure white, suggesting spun glass ; fawn 
patches may occur, but are highly undesirable. 

.N^ose black ; eyes full and black and not " weeping " ; 
tail short and curled tightly over the back. 




These include the pointer and the different kinds of 
setters and spaniels. 

It will greatly facilitate the mastery of the points of 
these breeds, as well as prepare for a criticism of the 
adopted standards, if we first consider, according to the 
principles already laid down, the work or pm-pose for 
which they are intended. None of these breeds are, as a 
rule, employed to hunt " fur," hence the fieetness of the 
greyhound is not required, nor his form or characteristics 
in a very high degree. They are all employed to discover 
and indicate the whereabouts of game birds. For this 
purpose keen scenting powers are the primary requisite, 
and after that the pointing instinct. This may be re- 
garded as an example of an acquired instinct ; for, although 
all breeds of dogs and all the wild congeners of the dog 
tend to stop when prey is discovered, and in certain cases 
to steal upon it by cautious advances, in none of them has 
the actual rigid or cataleptic condition of the muscles been 
developed, at all events in any high degree. There is in 
all of these groups of animals the fundamental instinct or 
tendency out of which such a remarkable condition of the 
nervous and muscular system has been evolved, and which 
is now termed " pointing." 

Dogs have been known to remain in this condition 
(" on point ") for many hours, showing that it is not an 
act of will or a mere taught habit ; though of course the 


training and selection of the dogs showing it in the 
highest degree for generations are the means by which so 
remarkable an instinct has been developed. 

Indeed, the modern pointer and setter are capital ex- 
amples of the process of " artificial selection," or " the sur- 
vival of the fittest," or what man conceives to be the 
fittest. For many years both in Britain and America 
field trials or public competitions in actual hunting have 
weeded out the poorer specimens and brought the best to 
the front, so that breeding from these, dogs of a superior 
class have been produced. 

While a dog deficient in nose or pointing instinct is 
useless, of equal or more importance are other qualities, 
particularly a specialized intelligence of a high order well 
characterized as " bird-sense " or good judgment in seek- 
ing for birds where they are m^ost likely to be found, and 
so deporting himself throughout as to find the birds as soon 
as his nose, powers of speed, etc., will allow, all being re- 
lated to economy of energy. But with these qualities of 
highest importance must be joined docility and tractability, 
and from the physical side speed and endurance. 

We may say, then, that with the requisite general and 
special developments of the nervous system, especially of 
the brain and the sense of smell, there must be that physi- 
cal form and constitution that enables the dog to move 
rapidly and to continue long at his work. If he has these 
qualities, symmetry and beauty are of secondary impor- 
tance. However, it but rarely happens that the above 
exist in a high degree without a fair amount of the latter, 
as the relative proportion of parts must have a great deal 
to do with both speed and endurance. 

















Exceptional cases occur no doubt. These do not prove 
that form is of no consequence, but they do seem to teach 
the lesson that of however great importance a strong and 
symmetrical form may be, a sound constitution and a well- 
developed brain and nervous system generally are much 
more so. The nervous system is always king in the high- 
est classes of animals of every kind. It rarely happens 
that a very successful iield-dog is wanting in the parts 
most successful in propulsion, as loins, quarters, legs, and 
feet, though he may be defective in head parts, neck, 
shoulders, back, or even chest. 

But should we not endeavor as our highest ideal to 
combine " bench-show form " with " field form " ? What 
meaning has the former if not related to the latter in a 
hunting dog ? Our aim should be to discover what the 
latter is, and adapt bench form to field form, or, rather, 
make them identical. 

What in a general way is "field form," or that best 
adapted for work in the field, should not be very difficult 
to determine with the greyhound, the foxhound, the race- 
horse, and the hunter before us. Evidently, if, as is now 
the custom, in consequence of the relative scarcity of 
game, a dog that is both fast and lasting is required, a 
form approaching a mean between that of the foxhound 
and the greyhound must be attained. And in considering 
this, one must not be led astray by the eminence certain 
strains of dogs have attained. That eminence is no doubt 
largely due to a specially cultivated and developed intelli- 
gence, and the subject must be studied on a wider basis 
than the one sometimes adopted. 

The nature of the country and the climate must not be 


left out of the account. But, turning to general principles, 
How shall the end be attained as regards physical form so 
that an animal may be built up that shall, provided he has 
the nose and the brains, be able to put these to the most 
effective use ? 

Setter and pointer form will be first considered. It 
is to be remembered that these dogs must traverse all 
sorts of surface, pass through water often very cold, over 
snow and ice, crush through thorny and brambly vegeta- 
tion, and all this at a very considerable speed. Such a 
form, combining grace and utility, experience proves is 
built up on the following principles, most of which have 
been alluded to before : 

Head. — A longish skull, getting its capacity rather by 
length and depth than width, and suiting thus the dog's 
general form, more especially that of his long and not 
very mde but deep muzzle ; eyes mild, bright, and of 
medium fullness, thus suggesting intelligence and docility ; 
ears long, low-placed, feathered, and so adapted to his 
general character as well as protective to eyes and inner 
ears ; muzzle long, deep, and fairly wide ; square-cut at 
end, indicating that the jaws are even, mth a large nose 
and widely open nostrils. Such a muzzle provides for a 
large distribution of the olfactory nerve, and such a nose 
readily admits air. 

Neck. — Clean, graceful, and long enough to admit of 
the dog's catching the foot-scent or reaching the ground 
without stooping. 

Shoulders^ hack^ loin^ quarters, legs, and feet of the 
kind adapted for speed and endurance. The back need 
not have all the muscular development, the loin so much 


arch, the quarters be so wide, nor the lower thighs so de- 
veloped as in the greyhound, but we must not forget that 
perfect model for speed while we seek to combine this 
quality with endurance. 

The bone of the legs, the pasterns, and the feet must 
in strength and formation combine the features of these 
parts in the greyhound and the foxhound. A dog weak 
in these is, so to speak, weak all over — i. e., his otherwise 
fine powers of intellect and body are of little use. The 
chest is both deep and wide, but not in front or between 
the fore-legs; capacity is attained by depth and spring 
of ribs, but the chest must be keeled and in no sense 
barrel-shaped, though in the English and Gordon setter 
the back is wide ; the chest must be well ribbed back 
(deep back-ribs.) In the setter the feet should be all that 
is attained in the best pointers, but, in addition, have plenty 
of hair between the toes as an additional protection. 

Coat on all these breeds must be very abundant, espe- 
cially on ears, legs, breast, and tail, where it constitutes a 
long fringe or " feather." This feather adds to the grace 
of the setter, but is of questionable advantage, inasmuch 
as it tends to catch all burs, etc., and must hamper as well 
as possibly protect. The tendency seems to be, as greater 
speed is sought for, to do with less feather, and, we think, 
wisely. The pointer's coat is short and soft, but not fine 
(silky, almost) as in the setter's. Yery great fineness of 
texture of coat in either setters or pointers may indicate 
lack of stamina, as a coarseness may suggest bad breeding, 
or that the possessor is wanting in high psychical quality. 

As these breeds are never required " to go to earth," 

there is no necessity for a hard, much less a wiry, coat. 


If the pointer were covered witli a similar coat, he 
would, in general appearance, greatly resemble the setter. 
IN^evertheless, there are differences the trained eye can read- 
ily discern among the various breeds of setters, and much 
more between them and the pointer. These points have 
never been very clearly defined in words, and it is doubtful 
if they can be, imless very full descriptions and accurate 
proportional measurements be given. However, they can 
be engraved on the memory by illustrations of the best 
dogs, though, of course, better still by far from seeing 
typical specimens of the breeds. We shall now mention 
some of the salient diiferenccs. 

The Gordon is the largest, heaviest, and slowest of the 
setters ; the Irish the tallest, most lightly built, but most 
wiry and active, perhaps ; while the English is the mean 
between the other two (see pp. 1Y6, 184, 192, 208). 

Head. — Skull in the pointer wider from ear to ear ; 
consists of two rounded flats separated by a furrow ; de- 
cided stop, brows, and occipital protuberance. 

The whole head of the Gordon is heavier than in the 
other setters, but in shape much resembles that of the 
English. The skull of the English setter is between that 
of the pointer and cocker spaniel, though the tendency 
now is to a longer head and neck. In all these breeds the 
stop and brows are well marked, and there should be en- 
tire absence of " cheekiness," and both skull and muzzle 
should be well chiseled or clean-cut. 

The Irish setter's head is long and lean, in harmony 
with the general build of the dog. The skull is peculiar, 
being oval, Avith a very pronounced occipital protuber- 
ance — a domed skull. The ears in all should hani^: close 









and be low-set, which applies, of course, to the pointer 

The ejes should be dark, always having reference to 
the color of the dog ; but there is a strong tendency for 
light eyes to appear, and they greatly militate against the 
true expression of the animal. A downright yellow eye 
is an abomination in any breed of dog. 

In all setters the nose should be black or dark liver- 
color ; but in lemon and white pointers and setters it may 
be flesh-color. In the Irish setter it is described as " dark 
mahogany " or " dark chocolate." 

Shoulders. — The Irish setter is the most " upstanding " 
of all these breeds, and his shoulders should be very per- 
fect both at joints (points) and withers. This adds greatly 
to the character and quality of the dog. 

Loin. — The loin in all setters and the pointer should 
be slightly arched, but not roach-backed or "wheel- 
backed," as in the bulldog. 

Quarters. — All should be broad and muscular here ; 
but the Irish setter is the most ragged-looking in hips and 
quarters ; in fact, this dog should be throughout eminent- 
ly muscular and wiry ; he should be entirely free from 
" lumber." 

Feet. — The cat-foot is preferred in the pointer, and a 
foot with abundance of hair between the toes in the setter. 
This is most likely to be found in the hare-foot, though 
in other respects it is probably not equal to the cat-foot, 
and certainly does not look so well. 

Tail ("flag" of setters, stern of pointers) is carried 
curved and nearly on a level with the back in all breeds. 
It should begin strong and taper to a point. A well- 


carried, "sting-like" tail is a fine feature in a pointer, 
and a similar carriage, with a nice feather to the tail, adds 
greatly to a setter's appearance. Nevertheless, it has so 
little to do with actual hunting ability that it should count 
but little in the total estimate. 

Coat. — Decidedly silky in the English setter, not quite 
so much so in the Irish, and harder and coarser in the 
Gordon. In none should there be any tendency to w^avi- 
ness or curl ; in the pointer not silky, but soft and mellow. 
In all these breeds the coat should be close-lying and 

Color. — To this, great importance is not attached in the 
English setter or pointer ; liver and white in the latter, 
and black, white, and tan, and the " blue belton," or white 
with fine black flecks, giving a roughly ink-splashed ap- 
pearance, are tlie most preferred now in the former. In 
the Irish setter the dark or mahogany-red is the choice 
color. In the Gordon, color, though it is set down at five 
per cent., is really valued higher. The same importance, 
though in a minor degree, is attached to the black and the 
tan being pure and distinct, as in the black and tan ter- 
rier ; and though it is admitted that the original Gordons 
were black, tan, and white, the latter is now greatly ob- 
jected to, except a little on the breast, which, as in the 
Irish setter, is of no account. 

The black must be deep and pure, the tan a rich or 
warm mahogany-red, and confined to a spot over each 
eye, lips, cheeks, throat, fore-legs nearly to elbows, hind- 
legs to stifles, and on under side of flag, but not running 
into its long hair. 

It will scarcely be necessary to add anything to what 


has already been said on the importance of the best of 
legs and feet in hunting dogs. As they have to stop sharp, 
" or point," when in rapid motion, there is a great strain 
on the ligaments and a tendency to become out at elbow, 
or still more to walk with the fore-feet either out or in 
(" pigeon-toed "), or to " knuckle over " — i. e., with the 
knee and pastern not in Hne. To avoid this, young dogs 
should not be exercised too much nor over too rough 
country, and the exercise gradually increased. 

Lengthy and too often bitter controversies have raged 
over the respective merits of the diiferent breeds of set- 
ters and pointers. Such discussions should be conducted 
in a calm, if not a scientific, spirit ; but we venture the 
opinion that they are in general productive of little good 
and much harm, and lead to a great waste of energy and 
the engendering of bitter feeling. The best dog is that 
which suits his master best, and as no two men are alike, it 
follows that the breed best adapted to one man is not ne- 
cessarily the best for another. There is room for all ; and, 
indeed, this diversity of qualities is an advantage. The 
setters may be better able to resist the effects of wet, cold, 
briers, and rough footing, but they catch up more burs, 
bear heat and drought badly, as compared with the pointer, 
and are neither so easily trained nor so tenacious of what 
they learn as a class; and if pointers are not less liable 
to skin disease, they are more easily treated, being short- 
haired dogs. The Irish setter may be faster, have more 
dash, vim, and endurance than the English setter, but h© 
is not very readily broken or very easily restrained in 
the field ; and so we might continue the discussion. But 
dog and man must be considered together. Besides, it 


must not be forgotten that anything to which a man has 
become accustomed may be better for him though not 
better in itself. Dogs suiting the English style of shoot- 
ing must be adapted to that in vogue in America before 
they can use their powers to advantage, and the reverse. 

Two strains of English setters have been famous in 
modern times, the Laverack and the Llewellin. 

The latter was formed by a cross of the former with 
the Duke-Rhaebe blood. These strains were named from 
the gentlemen in whose hands they were formed or be- 
came renowned. 

The Laverack is heavier in the shoulders and chest, 
more feathered, and perhaps more symmetrical. 

The Llewellins have attained great eminence in field 
trials in America, one dog, Gladstone, but recently dead, 
having become a " name to conjure by." 

We have devoted a good deal of space to the setter 
and the pointer on account of their great popularity in 
America, where they have reached a degree of perfection 
perhaps not yet equaled elsewhere — at all events as re- 
gards setters, whether the field or the show bench be 

The author has just one more remark to make in re- 
gard to these breeds. The setter is unquestionably one 
of the most beautiful breeds of dogs ever seen, and it is 
to be hoped that no temporary craze or mere fad will 
lead to the production of dogs so small or so spaniel- 
like in form that we shall lose what has been the ad- 
miration and the result of the work of generations of 
gentleman sportsmen and earnest breeders ; and it is 
further to be hoped that bench-show judges will not 


neglect to examine into the muscular development and 
condition of the dogs that came before them in some 
such way as is customary with the greyhound, for a dog 
that has not plenty of muscle and in hard condition is not 
lit for work ; and a dog with a make-up that is unsuited 
for the intended purpose should not win, or judging will 
become a farce and bench-shows a hindrance rather than 
a help to the production of good animals. 

The Spaniels. — The spaniels do not point, but are 
taught to keep within a short distance of the gun, and 
give tongue when game is discovered by the nose. The 
Clumber spaniel, however, hunts mute. 

In Britain the breeds most in favor are the Clumber, 
the field, the cocker, the Irish water spaniel, and the Eng- 
lish water spaniel. In America the only one of the span- 
iels that is thoroughly popular is the cocker, and even he 
is more of a companion or a house dog than a worker, 
hence the tendency at present to breed very small speci- 
mens. Excepting the water spaniels, the breeds agree in 
being long, stoutly made, low dogs, with a profusion of 
coat of soft texture. 

All the spaniels should be of an eminently docile and 
sweet disposition. Those of the opposite characteristics 
should be discarded. 

The Cocker and the Field Spaniels. — The former an ac- 
tive, merry little dog, strong but not clumsy, and perhaps 
the most symmetrical of all the short-legged group (pp. 
216, 224, 230). 

Long, low, heavy-boned, and cobby in build, but a 
small dog (between eighteen and twenty-eight pounds). 

He differs from the field spaniel in size, relative length, 


and head. The liead of the cocker, as a whole, is not so 
heavy, nor the muzzle so square throughout. The dome 
of the skull of the cocker should correspond nearly with 
the segment of a circle. Ears in both low set, but more 
so in the field spaniel, in which they are also larger. 

The eyes should not be either full or sunken, and in 
color correspond with the coat. They are apt to be too 
light, which spoils the expression. The correct amount 
of stop and cleanness of chiseling, with correct eyes, has 
much to do with quality in both breeds — in fact, in any 
breed of dogs. 

In the rest of the form the field spaniel and the cocker 
differ but little from each other. 

The neck should be long enough to allow the nose to 
reach the ground, but free from throatiness ; shoulders 
muscular and sloping ; chest fairly wide and deep ; ribs 
well sprung and extending back, so that the coupling shall 
be short ; the loin strong, and the flank not tucked up. 

Legs and Feet are parts which, in spaniels as in 
all other very long and low dogs, are apt to be wrong. 
Legs should be strong in bone, to support weight and 
enable the animal to push through thick coverts ; fore- 
legs short and straight (not bandy) ; elbows free, and 
neither in nor out ; hind-legs strong, with well-bent stifle 
and good hocks, turning neither in nor out. Feet of 
moderate size, thick ; toes well arched, pads hard, and 
plenty of hair between the toes. 

Length. — It is still agreed that the field spaniel should 
be very long and low ; but in America there is now a re- 
action against cocker dogs as long as those high in favor 
in England. The standard in vogue says of the cocker : 


" From tip of nose to root of tail, about twice the height 
at shoulder, rather more than less." 

Coat — Abundant, soft, and silky, straight or wavy, 
but not curly ; chest, legs, ears, and tail well feathered. 

Color. — Black preferred ; liver, black, and white, and 
various shades of red. 

Tail. — Usually docked ; carried nearly level with the 
back ; lower when at w^ork and in rapid movement. 

The Clumber Spaniel. — " A long, low, heavy-looking dog, 
of a very thoughtful expression, betokening intelligence. 
Should have the appearance of great power. Sedate in 
all movements, but not clumsy. Weight of dogs, between 
fifty-five pounds and sixty-five pounds ; bitches, from 
thirty-five pounds to fifty pounds " (Standard). (P. 240.) 

B^ead. — Very characteristic, being massive in all di- 
mensions, round above eyes, flat on top, with a furrow 
running from between eyes up center of skull ; stop and 
occipital protuberance pronounced ; jaw long, broad, and 
deep; muzzle not square, but powerful-looking; nostrils 
large, open, and flesh-colored, sometimes cherry-colored; 
eyes soft, large, deep-set, and showing haw, hazel in color, 
with dignified and intelligent expression; ears long and 
broad at top, turned over on front edge, vine-shaped, low- 
set, and close, slightly feathered on front edge only, with 
straight, short, silky hair. 

X^^^^^.— About two and a half times height at 

Coat.—Silkj, straight, very dense, but not very long ; 
feather both profuse and long. 

Color.— Lemon and white, and orange and white; 
fewer markings on body the better. Solid lemon or 


orange ears, evenly marked head and eyes, muzzle and 
legs ticked, constitute perfection of marking. 

Stern. — Usually docked, set on level, and carried low. 

The Norfolk and the Sussex spaniel are almost un- 
known in America. 

The Irish "Water Spaniel. — The Irish water spaniel has 
a good many admirers, but does not enjoy the same popu- 
larity in America as in Britain (p. 256). 

]S[o dog is more adapted for retrieving from water or 
being the duck-shooter's companion, unless it be the very 
homely Chesapeake Bay dog. He is very intelligent, but 
not always equally good-tempered. His general appear- 
ance is that of a handsome, strong, rather leggy dog, with 
very striking physical characteristics. 

Head. — Skull of medium length, rather broad, with 
but a slight stop ; muzzle long and broad to the end ; eyes 
dark-brown and with an intelligent expression ; ears long 
and CO veered with curls. 

Chest. — Deep rather than wide. Loin somewhat 

Stifles rather straight ; hocks well let down. 

Stern. — Strong at root, tapering to a fine point ; hair 
on it very short, straight, and close-lying. 

Legs and Feet.—hQg^ long, but strong in bone ; feet 
somewhat large. 

Coat.—K\\ over, except on face and tail, little curls, 
hard and not woolly. On forehead a top-knot of long 
hair, falling over eyes in a peak. Legs to have as little 
feather as possible. 

Colcyr. — A rich dark-liver, free from white, though a 
little of the latter on breast or toes should not disqualify. 


The English water spaniel, which also has a curly coat 
and is a useful dog, is but little known in America. 

The Retrievers. — A dog kept purposely to retrieve 
dead and wounded birds on land is not employed in 
America, as setters, pointers, and spaniels are expected to 
do this ; but in Britain a special breed for this purpose is 
highly esteemed (p. 264). 

They are divided into two classes — the wavy-coated 
and the curly-coated black retriever. Both are large dogs 
of about eighty pounds, and standing twenty-five to 
twenty-six inches in height. 

These breeds, which resemble each other greatly except 
in coat, have been formed, in all probability, by a cross 
between the ISTewf oundland and the spaniel (Irish) or the 
setter, or most likely both. 

In general, the form is that which admits of consid- 
erable speed, endurance, and stooping power ; hence a long 
neck is indispensable, as the dog must follow the foot- 
scent to seek out the wounded bird. Scenting powers of 
the highest quality are essential, as well as docility and 
a desire to work so as to please his master. A bad-tem- 
pered dog must not be tolerated on the bench or in the 

Differences between the Breeds. — Tail. — In the wavy- 
coated it may be bushy, but in the curly-coated the hair 
should be short and curly, and bare of curls toward the 

Coat. — Texture of coat and bareness of face constitute 
the chief difference between the breeds. The coat in the 
curly dog is intermediate between wool and hair, and 
very oily. On the whole face up to nearly middle of 


ears, coat should be quite short and without the slightest 

In the wavy dog the coat is short, but not so short as 
in the hound or pointer, set close, slightly wavy, and 

The Chesapeake Bay Dog. — This breed comprises large 
dogs, highly esteemed in duck shooting, and originated, as 
their name imports, on the shores of the Chesapeake Baj', 
in the United States. Their coat is adapted to resist 
water, some being curly and others straight-haired. The 
type is not very well marked, nor are they handsome 
dogs. They seem to be intermediate in form between the 
Newfoundland and Irish water spaniel, and might be 
called the American retriever. They are of a tawny 
sedge-color or red-brown. 

The Dalmatian. — The Dalmatian, or coach dog, may be 
included under the present group, as in his native country 
he is employed as the pointer is with us. Upon the whole 
he greatly reseml)]es the modern pointer, though his ears 
are shorter, his carriage of tail higher, and his general 
bearing in movement a good deal different to the experi- 
enced eye (p. 280). 

The dog is used chiefly to follow a carriage, making a 
part of the general turn-out. Accordingly, he should be a 
dog adapted for a long journey on a hard road, being gen- 
erally muscular, though not heavily built, and with good 
legs and the best of feet. 

His chief attraction resides in the markings, which, by 
the standard of the club, count 40 per cent. These black 
spots on a white ground should be between the size of an 
English shilling and a half-crowm, being smaller on the 


head and tail. There must he nowhere any hlack patches, 
and as few " flecks " or " freckles " as possible. Liver 
may be substituted for black, but is not so popular a 
marking. The spots should also be so close that there 
will not seem to be patches of white. 

The Poodle. — On the Continent of Europe the poodlo 
is used in fowling, both on land and water, an occupation 
for which liis high intelligence and resisting coat ad- 
mirably adapt him. In Britain and America he occupies 
the role of ladies' companion and house-dog chiefly. Of 
all dogs he excels in learning tricks, and his general intel- 
ligence is very high, as might be suspected from his large, 
well-chiseled skull, and the significant expression of his 
eyes (p. 300). 

Coat and color count 50 per cent, of the total number 
of marks. 

Head. — Skull broad and large generally ; head carried 

Muzzle. — Long and not snipy ; somewhat shorter and 
thicker in the German breed ; in the French dog, nose is a 
clear pink, and in the black breed jet black ; roof of 
mouth also black. 

Eyes. — Dark hazel, clear, and should look direct into 
the face of the one addressing the dog. 

Ears. — Long, and thickly covered with long, silky 

Chest. — Broad and fairly deep. 

Tail. — Usually docked, carried jauntily at an angle of 
about forty-five degrees. 

Coat. — In the Eussian, wiry, like horse-hair; in the 
French, like wool ; in the corded, made up of long ring- 


lets ; but in all it should be very thick, springy to the feel, 
and glossy. 

Color. — Pure white or pure black, though a sort of 
liver-color seems to be coming into fashion. 



Sheep Dogs.— These include the rough colhe, the smooth 
collie, and the bob-tailed sheep dog. All these breeds are 
remarkable for high general intelhgence, no doubt largely 
due to long and close association with man and to selection 
of the best specimens for actual work, in which psychical 
qualities have been more considered than physical ones. 
However, it must be apparent that dogs physically adapt- 
ed to the work would alone survive. Their chief use for 
a very long period has been as assistants to cattle-drovers, 
and especially shepherds. Such dogs must of necessity 
be capable of adapting to a bleak climate, such as prevails 
on the hills of Scotland, etc. ; hence a coat capable of re- 
sisting wet and cold is indispensable. These dogs must 
also be of a strong racing build, capable of easy and rapid 
movements. Docility of a high order and an intelligence 
specially developed for this one occupation of herding sheep 
and horned cattle are found in admirable combination. 

The rough collie has become very popular of late as a 
show dog and companion, even as a house-dog. 

The collie is of a somewhat jealous disposition, and 
does not welcome strangers, either human or canine, very 
cordially ; and in a kennel with dogs of other breeds he 
may prove very troublesome. 

There seems to be a tendency to pay undue attention 


to profusion of coat and high quahty, especially in head, 
to the neglect of other qualities in the show dog. The 
standard allows for coat 20 per cent, of the total marks in 
the rough collie. 

Eough Collie.— ^6^^. — Skull quite flat and rather broad, 
with line tapering muzzle of fair length, the upper teeth 
projecting sHghtly beyond the lower; eyes wide apart, 
almond-shaped, and obliquely set ; skin of head tightly 
drawn, no folds at corners of mouth ; ears as small as pos- 
sible, semi-erect when surprised or listening, at other times 
thrown back and buried in the " ruff " (p. 312). 

The rest of the build corresponds to that combination 
of speed and strength so often referred to before. Neck 
rather long ; loin also. 

Tail (brush).— Long, " wi' upward swirl " at the end, 
and, except under excitement, carried low. 

^^^2;._Except on legs and head "as abundant as possi- 
ble " ; outer coat dense, straight, hard, and rather stiff ; 
under coat furry and so dense that it would be difficult to 
find the skin. The " ruif " and " frill " very full ; but little 
feather on fore-legs, and none below hocks on hind-legs. 

Color. — Immaterial, but sable and white, black and 
white, and black and tan are popular. 

^^•^^.—Height of dogs, twenty-two to twenty-four 
inches; of bitches, twenty to twenty-two inches. Yery 
small and very large and coarse specimens are to be 

The Smooth Collie. — He bears a close resemblance, ex- 
cept in coat, to the rough dog, but his head is not so foxy 
in expression nor so wedge-shaped. 

Coat. — Short, hard, and smooth. 


The Bob-tailed Sheep Dog. — This breed is, above all 
others, the drover's dog, and seems to take to his work al- 
most as a duck to water. The best specimens are devoid 
of even the semblance of a tail, have very long, shaggy 
coats, both head and legs being abundantly covered. 
Though not handsome, he is very courageous, and useful 
in the highest degree (p. 320). 

The Pomeranian, Spitz, or Loup-Loup. — Employed in his 
native land as a sheep dog, he has become in Britain and 
America a ladies' pet, of attractive appearance. In ap- 
pearance and size he is between the collie and the fox, 
except in carriage of tail, which is peculiar. Head-parts 
are very foxy. Coat and color are important, counting 
thirty per cent. Very small specimens are now favored 
in Britain. 

Coat. — More like coarse fur than hair ; undercoat 
woolly ; general distribution of long and short hair, 
feather, etc., as in the collie. 

Color. — Black or white, quite pure. 

Tail. — Carried curled over the back and usually on 
the left side ; heavily feathered and rather short in dock. 

The Newfoundland. — Employed for draught purposes 
on the island from which he derives his name, but else- 
where chiefly as a companion. Being an animal of won- 
derful sagacity and nobility of nature, he was long one of 
the greatest of canine favorites, but at present yields in 
popularity to the gigantic St. Bernard. His feats in life- 
saving have done much to make the canine race popular 
and respected (p. 328). 

The Newfoundland's general appearance is that of a dog 
of strength and general activity. He should move freely 


on his legs, with the body swung loosely between them, 
so that a slight roll in gait should not be objectionable ; 
but at the same time a weak or hollow back, slackness of 
loins or cow-hocks, constitute grave faults. 

Head. — Broad and massive ; top of skull flat; occipital 
protuberance well developed, but, unlike the St. Bernard 
and mastiff, he has no decided stop ; muzzle short, clean- 
cut, and rather square in shape, covered with short, fine 
hair ; eyes small, dark-brown, rather deeply set, without 
haw and somewhat wide apart ; ears small, set well back, 
square, with the skull lying close to head, covered with 
short hair and without fringe. 

Should be sound throughout. A sway-back, slack loin, 
cow-hocks, and splayed feet are very objectionable, as be- 
fore stated, and they are not uncommon. 

Tail. — Without flag but covered with long hair, usu- 
ally carried low, and with slight curve ; when the animal 
is excited or in motion, carried higher, but never curled 
over the back, and should never have a kink (turn to one 
side) in it. 

Color. — Jet black. 

Coat. — Flat, dense, coarse in texture, oily, elastic. 

Height and Weight. — Average height, twenty-seven 
inches at shoulder for dogs and twenty-five inches for 
bitches ; average weight, one hundred pounds and eighty- 
five pounds, respectively. Large size desirable if accom- 
panied by other good points and general symmetry. 

Other Varieties of Newfoundland. — The St. John's or 
Labrador dog is smaller and more retriever-like in form ; 
in fact, it is probable that this breed has entered into the 
formation of the retriever. 


The Landseei- Newfoundland should in all respects 
follow the black dog except in color, which may be any 
that disqualifies for the black class ; but those most in 
favor are bronze or black and white, beauty in markings 
to count high. 

The Esquimau Dog. — A moderately large dog of twen- 
ty-two to twenty-three inches in height, of wolf-like ap- 
pearance, though the head is rather foxy, covered by long 
hair with woolly undercoat and a long, gently curved, 
almost bushy tail. 

They are only half domesticated, though employed in 
large teams to draw sledges over the snow and ice of 
northern America, usually under the leadership of one of 
their number, that is acknowledged as master. They are 
left to shift very much for themselves, and getting but 
little of man's confidence or affection, give but little in 



The dogs of this class not being employed for securing 
game, are not required to have either the scenting powers 
or the conformation necessary for speed or for endurance 
in locomotion found in hunting-dogs ; but, on the contrary, 
that adapted for attack on intruders in the case of the 
krger breeds, and in all the disposition and intelligence 
fitting them for guarding persons and property. 

Most of them give warning by barking, and, in fact, in 
some of the smaller members of the class such is the more 
important part ; to this, however, the bulldog is an excep- 
tion, as he usually attacks without any warning by the voice. 

(K. C. S. B., 28,110.) 

For description, see page 49. 


The Bulldog. — It is quite impossible to understand this 
dog either physically or psychically apart from its history. 
In tlie days when our ancestors delighted in badger and 
bull baiting a dog was formed adapted in every way to 
seize and to pin down these animals ; and a study of the 
bulldog will show that for this purpose he could scarcely 
be improved upon. He was taught to attack the bull (and 
other animals) at the head, and if he could not hold, either 
from lack of courage or lack of jaw power, etc., he woukl 
have little chance in the contest. It may be said that the 
whole dog exists for his jaws ; hence that enormous head 
and front generally as compared with the parts behind tlie 
ribs ; hence that indomitable courage, that tenacity, in fact, 
which knows no yielding, for, as Stonehenge well says, the 
bulldog is not only " the most courageous dog, but the 
most courageous animal in the world." This breed may 
be considered the very opposite in all particulars of the 
greyhound, and taking these as the extremes, we can learn 
the extent to which man's capacity to take advantage of 
the variations Nature produces has been carried. Viewed 
from another standpoint, these are the results of " artificial 
selection " in the most pronounced way (p. ^^44). 

A breed like the bulldog should not be expected to 
possess high intelKgence, great affection, or indeed any 
long list of noble qualities ; nor to be amenable in a high 
degree to training. His skull is immense, but it is largely 
made up of bony processes for the attachment of muscles 
to work the enormous jaws, and is not capacious as a 
brain case ; nor is the bulldog's brain larger than that of 
other dogs, as might at first be inferred from his enormous 


However, it would be a mistake to assume that this 
breed is quarrelsome, ferocious, or utterly destitute of any 
attachment to his master. As in other breeds, much de- 
pends on his treatment. 

General Aj^pearcmce. — That of a smooth-coated, thick- 
set dog, rather low in stature, but broad, powerful, and 
compact. Its head is strikingly massive, and large in pro- 
portion to the dog's size ; its face is extremely short ; its 
muzzle very broad, blunt, and inclined upward ; its body 
short and well-knit ; the limbs stout and muscular ; its 
hind quarters very high and strong, but lightly made in 
comparison with its heavily made fore-parts. " The dog 
conveys an impression of determination, strength, and 
activity similar to that suggested by the appearance of a 
thick-set Ayrshire or Highland bull " (Standard). 

The above seems to the author a very good description 
of the dog, except that the last comparison scarcely meets 
the case. We shall not go into further details except on 
a few points, leaving the reader to observe them in the 
cuts supplied. 

Tail (stern). — Set on low, is round, smooth, thick at 
root, tapering, low carried. Is apt to be deformed (screw- 

Size. — Most desirable size about fifty pounds. 

The ear preferred is the '' rose-ear," as opposed to the 
" button-ear." In the former the organ folds back so as 
to expose the inside. 

The angles of the lips or flews are called the " chop " ; 
and the back and loin, from rising into an arch, is termed 
" roach-back " or " wheel-back." 

Goat. — Fine, close, short, smooth (not wiry). 


Colors. — Whole-colors and smuts (i. e., whole-color with 
black mask or muzzle). It is worthy of note that the bull- 
dog is the only breed in which the undershot jaw is called 
for ; this, in conjunction with the turned-up muzzle, per- 
mits of great holding power, and allows the animal to 
breathe at the same time that his jaws are buried in the 
flesh of the creature attacked. " Ugly " the bulldog may 
be in one sense, but he is, or was, an example of beautiful 

The Mastiff. — There have been other breeds named 
mastiffs, but the mastiff is essentially an English dog, 
dating back considerably more than half a century. 
Physically he is one of the largest and certainly the 
strongest and most muscular dog known, unless it be cer- 
tain specimens of the great Dane (p. 352). 

In the words of the standard of the Old English Mas- 
tiff Club : In general character he has a " large, massive, 
powerful, symmetrical, and well-knit frame. A combina- 
tion of grandeur and good nature, courage and docility." 

The mastiff is the watch-dog. In no other breed is 
watching his master's property a pure instinct to the 
same extent, a,nd this is the highest test of the strength 
of any quality. 

The mastiff at sight is not attractive in appearance to 
all. He is not the embodiment of grace and activity ; but 
if ever there was a good reliable dog, honest through and 
through, that dog is the mastiff. He makes an admirable 
companion for all, is perfectly gentle, and may be trusted 
with women and children, to whom he will prove a faith- 
ful protector. Of course there are occasional exceptions, 
as with all breeds. As a watch-dog he has the great 


merit of arresting and retaining the intruder without, as a 
rule, seriously injuring him. 

His voice is extremely low-pitched, and, though power- 
ful, is not irritating. 

General Appearance of Head. — " In general outline 
giving a square appearance when viewed from any point. 
Breadth greatly to be desired, and should be in ratio to 
length of the whole head and face as two to three." 

General Description of Body. — Massive, broad, deep, 
long, powerfully built, or legs wide apart and squarely set. 
Muscles sharply defined. Size a great desideratum if com- 
bined with quality. Height and substance both important 
if combined in due proportion. 

Since 40 per cent, of the total value is assigned to 
head, it may be well to describe it in detail. 

Skull. — Broad between ears, forehead flat, wrinkled 
when attention excited, brows slightly raised, muscles of 
temples and cheeks (temporal and masseter) well developed. 
Arch across skull a rounded, flattened curve ; a depression 
up center of forehead from median line between^ eyes to 
half way up sagittal suture. 

Face or Muzzle.— ^\\OYi, broad under eyes, and nearly 
parallel in width to end of nose, which is square-cut at 
end and of great depth ; under-jaw broad to end ; canine 
teeth powerful, sound, and wide apart ; incisors level (if 
the lower jaw projects beyond the upper, teeth not visible 
when mouth closed). 

Length of muzzle to whole head and face as one to 
three. Circumference of muzzle (measured midway be- 
tween eyes and tip of nose) to that of head (measured be- 
fore ears) as three to five. 


The author believes it would greatly advance standard- 
making if comparative measurements like the above were 
generally given. Exact knowledge dissipates many preju- 
dices, and prevents misunderstandings. 

Ears. — Small, thin, wide apart, set on at highest points 
of skull, lying flat and close to cheeks in repose. 

Eyes. — Small, wide apart, divided by at least the space 
equal to two eyes ; hazel-brown, the darker the better, and 
showing no haw. 

Nose. — Broad, flat in profile, nostrils wide. 

Lips. — Diverging at obtuse angles with septum, and 
slightly pendulous, so as to show a square profile. 

Such a head is the very ideal of strength, massiveness, 
and grandeur, and any one who has felt the bump of a 
mastiff's head as he throws it about in play can under- 
stand how bull-like in force his attack must be as he springs 
against an intruder. 

Such a head implies a neck and chest in proportion, 
while these again should be balanced with good hind 
parts, or an undesirable weakness will exist and be appa- 
rent to the eye. The shoulders, chest, etc., are not those 
of the hunting-dog, but of a wholly different type for 
obvious reasons. 

The legs and feet should be of a size to suggest 
strength and due proportion. 

Tail. — Set on high, reaching to hocks or a little lower, 
wide at root and tapering to end, hanging straight in re- 
pose, but forming a curve with end upward (but not over 
back) under excitement. 

Goat. — Short and close-lying. 

Color. — Apricot, or silver fawn, or dark fawn brindle. 


In any case, muzzle, ears, and nose black, with same color 
round orbits and extending up between them. 

The St. Bernard. — Of a dignified, sweet, and noble 
expression of countenance, of majestic size, and beauti- 
ful coat, color, and markings, with unbounded good na- 
ture, courage, and sagacity, it is not surprising that this 
breed is by far the most favored of the large dogs of 
the day, though it is possible that some reaction may 
follow his present amazing popularity for reasons to be 
given later (p. 368). 

Great importance is attached to size, to head, and to 
markings, even to the detriment of the general soundness 
of make-up of the breed, we fear ; though, so far as ex- 
pression and character go, it is well to lay great stress on 
them, for we must have the dog as well as the animal 
form, which is somewhat apt to be overlooked by those 
breeding show-dogs. Of what use is a mere mountain 
of flesh without true character — i. e., without the proper 
disposition and intelligence? These the judge can often 
only ascertain by the expression and bearing of the dog, 
and they should count high in the estimate of the animal 
as a whole. 

Head. — Like the whole body, very powerful and im- 
posing. The massive skull is wide, slightly arched, and 
sloping at the sides with a gentle curve into the very well- 
developed cheek bones. Occiput slightly developed ; su- 
pra-orbital ridge (brows) strongly pronounced, forming 
nearly a right angle with the horizontal axis of the head. 
Between the two supra-orbital arches and starting at root 
of muzzle runs a furrow over whole skull, producing a 
decided stop, which extends upward, getting more and 


more shallow toward the base of occiput. Skin on fore- 
head forms deep wrinkles, more or less distinct, and con- 
verging from top of brows toward furrow over forehead. 

Slope from skull to muzzle sudden and rather steep. 

Muzzle. — Short, not " snipy," and depth at root (stop) 
must be greater than length ; bridge of muzzle not arched, 
and over its surface runs a rather wide, well-marked, shal- 
low furrow. Flews of the upper jaw strongly developed, 
not cut at right angles, but turning with a graceful curve 
into the lower edge, and are slightly overhanging. Flews 
of lower jaw not pendant. Teeth rather weak in propor- 
tion to size of head. Black roof to mouth desirable. 

J^ose. — Yery broad. 

Ears. — Of medium size, set on high, with well-devel- 
oped " burr " ; standing out slightly at base and dropping 
with a sharp bend to the side, lying closely to head with- 
out fold. 

Eyes. — Placed more to front than to sides, of moderate 
size, brown or nut-brown, set moderately deep, with a 
sagacious and good-natured expression. 

Shoulders. — Rather more sloping than in the mastiff. 

Legs. — Massive. 

Eeet. — Broad ; single or double dew-claws, set on low, 
so as to broaden foot and prevent breaking through snow. 

Tail. — Starting broad and powerful directly from 
rump, is long, heavy, ending in a blunt tip ; carried down 
in repose, but turning gently upward on the lower third ; 
in action higher, but not over back or curled. 

Coa^t.^Two breeds of St. Bernards are recognized, 
differing only in coat, although many specimens interme- 
diate in this feature are to be found. 


In the smooth the coat is very dense, broken-haired 
{Stoch-Haarig\ flat, tough without feehng rough to the 
touch ; thighs sHghtly bushy. Tail at root covered with 
longer and denser hair, gradually getting shorter toward 
tip. Tail appears bushy, though not provided with a 
" flag." 

In the rough-coated dog the coat is long, flat, to slight- 
ly wavy ; never to curl, be rolled, or shaggy. 

Tail bushy ; hair not to be parted or feathered. Face 
and ears covered with soft, short hair, long and silky ; 
hair allowable at base of ears ; fore-legs slightly feathered ; 
thighs very bushy. 

Color and Markings. — Orange and orange-tawny are 
now preferred, with white markings and dark shadings. 
Whole-colored dogs are at a disadvantage. The follow- 
ing white markings are absolutely necessary : White chest, 
feet, tip of tail, muzzle (nose-band), and collar ; white spot 
on nape, and a blaze are very desirable. 

Dark shadings on face and ears are much esteemed. 

Since the markings have much to do with the general 
expression and character of the dog as it appears to the 
eye, it is fitting that they should rank high ; but it is 
manifestly easy to overestimate color in any dog kept for 
a useful purpose. In the case of a toy dog the subject 
assumes a wholly different aspect. 

AU the large breeds of dogs are liable to similar de- 
fects — viz., disproportion of parts and weakness in back, 
and especially in parts behind the ribs. First-class legs 
and feet, back, loin, and quarters, with correct and easy 
movement, are rather the exception than the rule in the 
Bhow St. Bernards of the day. Grand heads and great 


size aiul weight liave been attained. The author attrib- 
utes the defects, which seem to be more pronounced in St. 
Bernards now than in other breeds, to the following 
causes : Aiming to get vast size too speedily and by forced 
feeding, causing a too rapid and consequently imperfect 
growth ; the overuse of certain popular dogs in the stud, 
enfeebling their constitutions and, of necessity, that of 
their offspring ; judges favoring dogs that are giants in 
size, though with the above defects, so that these dogs get 
a factitious value in the stud and propagate their defects ; 
insufficient exercise to develop bone, muscle, and stamina ; 
show-dogs carrying too little muscle and too much fat 
(lumber), which is greatly against health and high vitality ; 
too much of the annatural surroundings of show life ; 
the inadequate feeding of many rapidly-growing puppies, 
causing rickets, etc. 

In the interests of this noble breed these things should 
be pondered. 

Toy Dogs. — Several causes tend to render toy dogs 
somewhat delicate. The small size demanded has led to 
a constant selection of smaller and smaller specimens, 
which, being naturally weaker and lacking in stamina, 
have rendered the whole class difficult to rear and keep 
in health. Being so much confined to the house, getting 
but little exercise, and tempted with all sorts of tidbits, 
indigestion and constipation, with the accompanying foul 
breath, follow. But, ])y judicious breeding from dogs 
small enough, yet healthy, and by due care in rearing, etc., 
these difficulties may be overcome. 

Toy dogs are usually fairly intelligent, from their op- 
portunities of mingling with mankind, but are apt, like 


spoiled children, to be somewhat wayward and trouble 
some, and so ready to bark on the entrance of strangers 
that they may be considered in some sense watch-dogs. 

They are in most instances kept more, however, for 
their good looks than any other qualities they may pos- 
sess ; hence, in the standards of these breeds, more im- 
portance is attached to superficial characters than in the 
case of utility dogs. 

The principal toy breeds of Britain and America are 
the pug, the toy spaniels, the Italian greyhound, toy ter- 
riers (already described), and the Mexican hairless dog, 
which is comparatively rare. 

The Pug. — A dog of fair intelligence, moderately active, 
with a very independent and conseqncntial bearing (p. 376). 

In general form and appearance (tail excepted) very 
like a diminutive mastiff, but entirely opposite in bearing 
and disposition. He is essentially a squarely built, cobby 
dog. Considering that head parts count thirty-five per 
cent., and symmetry and general carriage fifteen per cent., 
or these together fifty per cent., we get a good idea of the 
way toy dogs are rated. 

Head. — Shull large, massive, round, with large and 
deep wrinkles. Muzzle short, blunt, square, but not up- 
turned as in the toy spaniel. Eyes very large, dark, bold, 
prominent, globular, bright, soft, and soHcitous in expres- 
sion. Ears thin, soft (velvety), small, either "rose" or 
" button," the latter preferred. 

Body, legs, and feet suitable to a cobby, strongly made 

Tail curled as tightly as possible over the hip. The 
double curl is perfection. 


Coat fine, smooth, short, soft, glossy, neither hard nor 

Color^ silver or apricot fawn, very decided and pure. 

Markings. — All to be clearly defined. Muzzle or 
mask, ears, moles on cheeks, thumb-mark or diamond on 
forehead, back-trace (dark line from occiput to tail) to be 
as black as possible, and especially the mask. 

Size. — A very compact dog of thirteen to seventeen 
pounds. A leggy, lanky pug is not to be tolerated, as 
such an one is wholly false to the type. 

Toy Spaniels. — These are cobby, long-haired, small pets, 
of an affectionate and docile disposition (p. 384). 

Symmetry, condition, and size count twenty per cent, 
and head parts about fifty per cent, of the total. 

The different varieties are founded on color distinctions. 

Head. — Skull well domed, almost semi-globular, pro- 
jecting over eyes ; stop between eyes very deep ; muzzle 
very short, with nose turned up between eyes ; lower jaw 
wide between its rami or divisions, and fitted well to 
the upper, with lips concealing teeth ; eyes wide apart, 
with eyelids square to line of face, large, lustrous, very 
dark, with pupils mdely dilated ; ears very long, measur- 
ing twenty to twenty-two inches from tip to tip, set low, 
heavily feathered. The ears are longer in the King 
Charles than in the Blenheim. 

Tail. — Usually docked to length of three to four inches. 
Not to be carried above level of back. 

Coat. — Long, silky, soft, wavy but not curly. In the 
Blenheim a profuse mane extends well down front of 
chest. Legs and feet well feathered, also tail, so that a 
" flag " of a square shape results. 


Color Varieties. — King Charles : Glossy black and deep 
tan — i. e., with tan spots over eyes and on cheeks, legs, 

Blenheim: A ground of pearly white, with large patches 
of rich chestnut or ruby-red evenly distributed ; ears and 
cheeks red, with a blaze of white extending from nose up 
to forehead and ending between the ears in a crescentic 
curve. In the center of this blaze there should be a clear 
" spot " of red of the size of a sixpence. 

Tricolor or Charles I. spaniel : Like the last, but mth 
black instead of red ; ears and area beneath tail should 
be lined with tan. This breed has no '' spot." 

Ruby : A uniform red ; nose black. 

It is difficult to breed King Charles spaniels free from 

Size. — Cobby little dogs of about ten pounds weight. 

The Italian Greyhound. — An active, lithe, graceful little 
creature, rather delicate and very sensitive to cold (p. 388). 

The more nearly he approaches the greyhound in 
shape the better ; but he is not likely to have so good a 
head. The skull is apt to be relatively wider, the muzzle 
shorter, and the ears larger and not so well carried. The 
eyes are much larger and very soft in expression, but 
" weeping " is not tolerated as in the toy spaniel. 

Coat is short, soft, and silky. 

Color (value fifteen per cent.), fawns much preferred. 

Symmetry (value fifteen per cent.) is naturally high in 
a toy. 

Size (value fifteen per cent.), dogs not to exceed seven 
to seven and a half pounds, bitches five to six pounds. 

The Schipperke. — Imported from the Continent of 


Europe, especially Belgium, this breed has lately come into 
some favor both in Britain and America. It is remarkable 
in being tailless. This dog is a very active, small, long- 
haired, blixck animal, suggesting the fox in head and gen- 
eral appearance, though much higher on the leg (p. 392). 

The Whippet. — A small cross-bred dog of the grey- 
hound type, much used in competitive racing over short 
courses, for the enjoyment of the onlookers. 

The Mexican Hairless Dog. — This small breed is almost 
destitute of hair. The skin is somewhat copper-colored, 
spotted more or less with black. 

In concluding this account of the breeds of dogs recog- 
nized in British and American shows, and almost the only 
ones known as companions to those speaking the English 
language, we remind the reader of the principles which we 
have already stated as underlying breeding and the forma- 
tion of standards — viz., that the form and physical and 
psychical characters of each breed should correspond with 
a type or ideal founded on the purpose for which the 
breed is used or supposed to be used. Unless this is con- 
stantly kept in view there is no limit to which the vaga- 
ries of mankind or the caprices of fashion may cause a 
departure from Nature, and therefore from sound sense. 
A second principle is the one which we have not yet 
insisted upon, because less important and not so likely to 
be neglected, to the effect that every breed should be 
sufficiently distinct in type to merit an independent ex- 
istence. Unless something is to be gained of downright 
worth, it is only a useless expenditure of energy, that 
might be employed in perfecting existing valuable breeds, 
to set about the formation of new ones. A merely popu- 


lar craze, which must be in the nature of the case fleeting, 
or pecuniary gain to a few, can not be sufficient warrant 
for disregarding, as this implies, the importance of the 
work of generations of breeders that have passed away by 
thus attempting to replace their well-earned results in 
the formation of noble breeds of dogs by new varieties 
without new merits. 


Our object should be to develop dogs to the utmost, 
both physically and psychically. Mongrel specimens are 
so much more easily kept in health that the directions 
given in this part of the work will be supposed to refer to 
the most highly-bred animals, unless otherwise stated. 

Management resolves itself chiefly into housing, feed- 
ing, exercise, grooming, etc. ; amusement, training, and 
occupation ; also breeding in all its aspects. 

On every one of these topics the most diverse — indeed, 
totally opposite — opinions have been expressed, which is 
probably to be explained by the limited experience of the 
writers and their inability to perceive that the application 
of principles must vary with circumstances. 

So that every reader may be able to judge for himself, 
the writer proposes to lay stress on principles rather than 
their application, since only sound judgment will ever in- 
sure good practice, and the formation of that judgment, in 
so far as it can be formed by the perusal of any work, is best 
secured by clearly setting forth those fundamental princi- 
ples of Nature which must underlie all applications. When 
these are distinctly grasped, " rule of thumb " will be im- 
possible, and all experience will prove really useful, as it 


must tend to establish principles ; and then they become 
like the compass in actual practice. The possession of a 
compass will not make a man a mariner or explorer. On 
the other hand, he can not become either in any worthy 
sense without it ; so is it with underlying principles. 

In the understanding of the dog no advice can be better 
than that of the old Greek, " Know thyself." Of all the 
lower animals none is so like man as the dog, unless per- 
haps the monkey ; but of the latter this is true only in a 
certain sense. The monkey does not respond sympathetic- 
ally to our moods and our environment like the dog. 

This idea will be the key to this book throughout, and 
by making it so the author hopes to bring the whole sub- 
ject mthin easier and more effective grasp of both the 
professional and non-professional reader. 

If dogs were generally viewed as we do children of 
different ages, their whole nature and management would 
be better comprehended ; at least such is the view to 
which the best study we have been able to give to animals 
generally, and the dog in particular, for a long period has 
led us. 

In the entire management of the dog two things must 
ever be kept in mind — his origin from wild ancestors on 
the one hand, and on the other the great modification 
he has undergone during ages of association with man, in 
consequence of which he has been assimilated to mankind 
in numberless respects, both physically and otherwise. 

The whole problem is greatly simplified if only one 
breed of dogs is kept, for so great are the differences in the 
breeds as to disposition and bodily habitudes that the 
treatment that is adapted to one does not suit another 


The views of those who have kept only one breed must 
therefore often seem unsatisfactory to those who have al- 
ways been associated with one of opposite tendencies. 
In the end, whatever the advantages of specialization, and 
they are very great, careful comparison and correlation 
can alone lead to deductions at once safe and broad. 

The writer will endeavor, so far as possible, to avoid 
narrow views that apply to but a measurable extent, and 
while the limitations of space will prevent exhaustive dis- 
cussion, the foundations for conclusions and practice will 
be laid as broad as possible. 

The Housii^ of Dogs.^If even but one dog be kept, and 
he a house-dog, experience has taught that he will prove 
more satisfactory if there be some other place than the 
house to which he can retire for a time daily. The dog 
appreciates his privileges more and deports himself better. 
In the case of several dogs, it is needless to say that a spe- 
cial home or kennel is necessary. 

The best conception of a kennel is that it is a canine 
home, and that all its arrangements must be shaped in 
harmony with this view. It should therefore be not only 
a comfortable and healthy, but a happy, attractive place. 

The chief considerations ^ for health are, as in a human 
habitation, light, ventilation, temperature, drainage, cleanli- 
ness, absence of dampness, etc. In the absence of any 
one of these, dogs can not be healthy any more than human 
beings ; in fact, owing to their being usually less separated, 
there is the more need to attend to them ; for it would be 
a mistake to assume that a pure-bred dog can be kept in 
the best condition under circumstances very much less 
favorable than those suited to a rugged man. 


In addition to the above, if tlie arrangements of tlie 
kennel permit of some regard to tlie beautiful, it will not 
be witliou': its effect on the inmates, though this is of 
course a subordinate matter ; but of all creatures the dog 
is most influenced for good or ill by his surroundings. 

Dampness is perhaps of all evils, after extreme crowd- 
ing, the greatest in connection wdth a kennel. With a 
damp kennel it is impossible to keep dogs in health, and 
this condition w^ill sooner or later ruin the best collection 
of dogs that can be got together, no matter what their 

A good foundation, then, which will prevent the damp- 
ness of the soil from effecting the kennel, is desirable in 
any case, and absolutely essential if the soil is clayey or 
adapted in any way to retain moisture. If the soil is light, 
it will be well, if no foundation is used, to make a bottom 
of loam and ashes, the latter being in large proportion. 

The slope of the ground is of some importance. 

Dampness may arise from hoar-frost on the walls in 
very cold weather if no artificial heat be used ; and though 
this is not so injurious as that which arises from a bad 
floor, it is nevertheless a serious objection, especially when 
the severity of the weather mitigates. Of course brick and 
stone walls are more liable to favor such dampness than 
wooden ones. 

The outlook of every kennel should be toward the 
south, so that it shall at no season of the year be devoid of 
the heat and light of the sun, and if direct so much the 
better in the winter. Exaggerated stress can not be laid 
on the value of sunlight, and it is scarcely too much to 
say that animals can not be kept in health without it. 


A dark kennel is a wretched dog prison, unfavorable 
alike to health and canine happiness. 

There are special reasons why kennels should be well 
ventilated. However cleanly dogs may be, and however 
well their tendencies to be so may be encouraged, it will 
happen that excretions will lie on the kennel floor at times. 
Apart from the vitiation of the atmosphere, there is that 
more fatal poisoning that arises through emanations from 
the lungs and skin of the animals. At the same time ven- 
tilation must be accomplished without draught, except in 
the hottest days of summer, when a slight breeze is as re- 
freshing as to ourselves. But draughts, even in summer, at 
night, are a fruitful source of diarrhoeas, other disturbances 
of digestion, etc. Yentilating-shafts through the roof, 
that can be closed to a greater or less extent as occasion 
demands, prove successful. In addition, the kennels may 
be well aired several times a day, when the animals are out, 
by the doors and window^s. 

If the space can be afforded, the plan that has worked 
so well in some educational institutions, and, as w^e happen 
to know, in some very large kennels, should be provided 
for, w^hich is having certain rooms or compartments used 
only half the time — e. g., room A is used to-day as the habi- 
tation of the dogs while room B is being cleaned thor- 
oughly and abundantly aired, w^hile on the succeeding 
day room B will be occupied. This is far in advance of all 
other methods when it can be adopted. 

If the climate will permit, it is to our mind clear that 
hardier dogs will be reared if no artificial heat be used in 
the kennel. It is preferable even to blanket the dogs, 
though that is not as easily carried out as with horses ; 


but with thick walls, filled between the boards with saw- 
dust and covered with tar-paper within, with boxes large 
enough to hold two dogs in winter, and abundance of 
good straw, except in the coldest climates the kennel need 
not be heated. 

The danger from artificial heat arises in the changes 
in the temperature likely to result, for such irregularities 
will utterly derange the health of the strongest dogs. If 
a constant temperature of about 65° to 60° Fahr. could 
be maintained in severe weather, hoar-frost would be kept 
from the walls and the animals would no doubt be more 
comfortable. The expense of the planking would prob- 
ably be saved in food, as it is well known that all animals 
consume food in proportion to the temperature of the sur- 
rounding air. 

But sudden changes — now a fire and again none — are 
utterly demoralizing. 

After these vital considerations of light, heat, ventila- 
tion, dryness, etc., come many minor ones of great impor- 
tance to the kennel manager, and of no less moment in the 
development of the dogs. We have stated our view that a 
kennel should be made a healthful, happy home, and not a 
mere lodging place. To insure this, as with a family of 
human beings, the individual dog or the individuality of 
the members must be considered as well as the community. 
Dogs of different breeds do not usually get on very well 
together, and dogs differ so in disposition, even when of 
the same breed, that the kennel arrangements must, to be 
successful, meet these facts. 

Several smaller compartments are better than a few 
larger ones. Bitches and dogs must be kept apart absolute- 


Ij at certain periods ; old dogs and puppies rarely agree, 
while sometimes the very best mode of correction of mis- 
conduct in a dog, as in a child, is solitary confinement for 
a time. It is also often desirable to associate dogs of 
opposite temperament occasionally. 

Every kennel should be so arranged as to permit of the 
free and full natural development of the individuality of 
each dog. To allow one dog to be bullied or cowed by 
another, not to say worried or perhaps killed, as not infre- 
quently happens in some kennels, is culpable negligence 
and cruelty. 

The more orderly, systematic, and complete the arrange- 
ments of any kennel, the better both for the kennel mana- 
ger and the dogs. It will mean a saving of energy, the 
avoidance of anxiety and worry to him, and comfort, 
health, and happiness to the canine household. 

There should be a place for everything and everything 
in its place, as in any well-ordered establishment. 

As to the exact buildings and internal arrangements by 
which all this is to be carried out we have not the space 
to speak ; and indeed these must necessarily vary with the 
number of dogs kept and the depth of the owner's purse 
to some extent ; though a good kennel need not be an ex- 
pensive one, nor the latter a good one. 

Cleanliness is important both in reference to health 
and the character of the dog. Much can be done to render 
dogs cleanly in habits, but to prevent evil results arising 
from urine and fa3ces that will inevitably be deposited 
on the kennel floor, special precautions must be taken. 

The most essential at the outset is a suitable floor ; 
the very best is one of concrete, which, though expensive 


at first, is economical in the end. A wooden floor, being 
repeatedly wet with urine, soon gets saturated, foul, and 
rotten, favoring the breeding of fleas, etc. 

Fresh pine sawdust, not too fine, spread on the floor to 
the depth of tv/o inches, disinfects or deodorizes stools and 
catches much of the urine, thus saving the floor and obviat- 
ing the evils that would otherwise arise. But this can be 
spread on a concrete floor also, and the latter can be fre- 
quently washed over and will dry much sooner than a 
wooden floor, especially if very warm water be used. 

Some prefer benches or raised platforms for the dogs to 
lie on. For large dogs with long coats, that do not readi- 
ly feel cold, they serve well enough ; but in most instances 
a cheap packing box, never resting directly on the floor, 
open only in front to allow of ingress and egress, and well 
supplied with straw, answers a better purpose. They are 
warm, and allow the dog the independence and privacy of 
his own little room. If he wishes a partner, he can take 
one ; if not, he can keep the intruder out, and in no case 
should one dog be allowed to drive another out of his bed. 
It does the character of both harm. Such movable boxes 
can be readily cleaned and disinfected, or when hopelessly 
infested with vermin, burned and replaced at slight ex- 
pense. In summer, when it is excessively warm, the ken- 
nel inmates often prefer to lie on top of the boxes, or 
simply on the floor. 

Feeding. — This subject, being of such vast importance 
and one in regard to which the greatest difference in the- 
ory and practice obtains among breeders, deserves more 
than passing notice, especially since errors in feeding are 
responsible for a large proportion of canine ills. 


So that the whole subject may be grasped in a rational 
manner, we remind the reader of certain well-established 
physiological principles. 

All foodstuffs for animals are divisible into — 

I. Organic. 

1. Nitrogenous : (a) albumins ; ip) albuminoids (as gela- 

2. ]^on-nitrogenous : {a) carbohydrates (sugars, starches) ; 
(5) fats. 

II. Inorganic. 

1. Water. 

2. Salts. 

Every animal to remain in health must have all of the 
above in its diet, as has been abundantly proved by experi- 
ments — i. e., the food must be cheinically adequate. But, 
in addition, food must be in such a form that the digestive 
juices can attack it — i. e., it must be j^Jiysically suitable ; 
and finally it must be suited to the peculiar organization 
of each animal, which Nature expresses by what we term 
liking — i. e., the food in question must be craved. If a 
diet fails in any of these respects it is not suitable. But 
however good any article of diet in itself, a change is ab- 
solutely essential from time to tune. 

We have no hesitation in saying that the whole art of 
feeding dogs or other animals consists in the judicious 
application of these few principles. 

It is well known that nearly all animals, and certainly 
all dogs, will accept milk with avidity. Milk is a perfect 
food because it meets all the above requirements. It is 
what Nature has provided for all young mammals. 

But observation shows that wild mammals do not alL 


choose the same foodstuffs, though all their foods meet the 
above conditions ; and according as they derive their sup- 
plies from the bodies of other animals, from the vegetable 
kingdom alone or from both, are they termed carnivora, 
herbivora, or omnivora. 

It is found that while the digestive apparatus has a 
common resemblance in all, it varies in details of size, 
structure, etc. 

In the carnivora the stomach is always simple and the 
intestine relatively short, especially the large gut ; in the 
herbivora the stomach is always in part a reservoir for the 
storing of food as well as an organ for its digestion, and is 
often much divided into compartments, each with a differ- 
ent function, while the intestine, especially the large in- 
testine, is voluminous. The digestive tract of the omniv- 
ora is somewhat intermediate, but approximates that of 
the carnivora rather than of the herbivora. 

In type the dog is unquestionably carnivorous in both 
organization and tendencies, as is shown in a puppy's 
eagerness for a bone almost as soon as its eyes are open. 

Nevertheless, it must not be forgotten that habit for 
ages has greatly modified this tendency, and with the 
dog's altered environment there must come changed feed- 

Experience proves exactly what we should expect from 
the dog's ancestral relationships, that the more he ap- 
proaches in mode of life the carnivora, with their ex- 
tremely active habits, the more completely may he be fed 
on flesh — in fact, must he be so fed if he is to prosper — 
e. g., dogs hunted hard daily Duiy be fed better on a flesh 
diet than on any other, perhaps, in the large proportion 

;lo4 the dog in health. 

of cases. On the other hand, to feed a house-dog on flesh 
entirely is simply to invite the onset of disease. 

However, as we should suppose, no dietary for the dog 
can ever be considered complete from which meat or its 
equivalent is wholly excluded. Such practice ignores 
completely the origin of this animal. But between these 
two extremes lies that territory in which there is the 
greatest room for discretion — in fact, the closest observa- 
tion and study, especially when several dogs of different 
breeds are kept together. 

Even under identical circumstances all the dogs of a 
kennel must not be fed alike ; and it is the failure to per- 
ceive these differences for breeds, and especially for indi- 
viduals, that is the fertile source of so much wretchedness 
for dogs ; for certainly more than one half of all cases of 
skin disease, diarrhoea, etc., arise from dietetic errors. 

We find breeders of experience advocating the most 
opposite kinds of feeding. One all meat, the other little 
or none ; one abundance of milk, another condemning it 
as the source of disease ; one plenty of vegetables, another 
opposing them as unnatural ; one advocating corn-meal 
as cheap and wholesome, another declaring it unfit for the 
dog under any circumstances ; one flesh in the raw state, 
another only when it is cooked, etc. 

We think these divergent views can be reconciled. 
So long as any diet meets the conditions set forth above, it 
may vary in many respects and yet prove suitable under a 
different environment ; in a word, it must ever be borne 
in mind that the food viust vary with the environ- 

!N"ow, if we apply that principle on which we have 








































already laid such stress, tlie A\-liole matter will become 
plainer to tlie most unscientific or inexperienced. 

As are the waj^s of men so are the ways of dogs — in 
feeding as in other matters. Our own diet, when we fol- 
low our instincts freely, is made to vary with the season, 
the climate, mode of life, and a thousand other things we 
can not always define. Exactly so is it with dogs — alto- 
gether more so than with any other of our domestic ani- 

The diet of the plowman or lumberman differs widely 
from that of the clerk or bookkeeper ; and if the latter 
were to change his occupation, he would soon be under 
the necessity of altering his diet to a more nitrogenous 
one — i. e., one in which flesh, etc., was more prominent ; 
though we have in the Highlanders of Scotland a people 
that flourished on oatmeal and milk. But then milk and 
meat are similar in nutritive qualities if not in effect on 
the activities of the body. 

Whole kennels of mastiffs have been kept largely on 
horseflesh. But these dogs roamed the country fields, had 
abundance of exercise, pure air, etc. 

Certain vegetables when cooked — such as carrots, cab- 
bage, etc.— furnish little nutriment for man or dog, but 
they do under certain circumstances serve to rectify the 
workings of the machinery of life. They are in a sense 
medicines or correcti\^es rather than foods. Plainly they 
are not at all necessary under some circumstances, and 
may be positively injurious in some cases, as in dogs hunt- 
ing day after day. But why does the dog nibble grass, 
etc., if green vegetables serve no purpose under any cir- 
cumstances ? 


Milk ill large quantities contiimously tends to dilate, 
render flaccid, and to weaken the digestive tract; yet, 
used with discretion, there can be no better food for man 
or dog than milk. 

A diet of porridge and milk is a good diet, but not 
constantly and without change. We have in such a diet 
all that is involved in the principles we have set forth as 
established. It has the merit of being very easily digested ; 
])ut in some conditions of the stomach, induced by certain 
modes of hfe, as we ourselves know, it is not rehshed or 
well-borne by men, nor, as observation also teaches us, by 

The problem as to the amount and form of a meat 
diet often arises for practical solution. 

As a rule, cooked meat is the best to be fed in large 
quantity. Eaw meat, moreover, may contain parasites or 
their germs, hence it should be fed sparingly and be 
closely examined. Eaw liver is on this account danger- 
ous, though a little cooked liver acts nicely as a gentle 
aperient to the digestive tract. The habit of throwing 
sheep's-heads and ox-heads to dogs is also open to the same 
objection (parasites). Beef and mutton are the best meats 
for dogs. 

But it is difficult to conceive of a more suitable and 
agreeable meal for a dog than such as may be prepared by 
boiling sheep's-heads (or ox-heads) till the flesh falls off and 
the ligaments, etc., are reduced to a gelatin. A rich broth, 
which may be slightly flavored with salt, and a large part 
of the fat skimmed off (in most instances), results. After 
removal of the bones, the whole may be allowed to set, aft- 
er some of the broth has been removed, perhaps, and the 


solids minced. This preparation may be mixed with por- 
ridge made of oatmeal, corn-meal, wheat-meal, etc., or stale 
bread, broken biscuits, or such like, which furnish the 
necessary proportion of starchy food. A small proportion 
of vegetables may be boiled with the above, to flavor, etc. 

Certain it is that all meal preparations should be boiled 
till reduced to a jelly, for a dog's stomach is no more 
adapted to digest raw or half -cooked meals than a man's. 
It is probably this ill-prepared meal food, such as may do 
for fowls, that has been condemned by so many breeders, 
and rightly ; but their disapproval is not wisely extended 
to good porridge. However for summer use especially, 
wheat-meal porridge serves a better purpose than either 
corn-meal or oatmeal. It is less apt to cause irritation of 
the diixestive tract, and reflex effects which show them- 
selves in irritation of the skin. 

Yery generally the question of economy is an impor- 
tant one. In Britain and on the Continent of Europe 
horseflesh is obtainable at a low price. In America not 
so easily, perhaps ; but butchers' offal — such as heads of 
oxen and sheep, the '' pluck " (heart, liver), etc. — may be 
secured cheaply, and makes excellent food in the hands 
of a discreet kennel manager ; but in no case should such 
food be given raw. 

Kaw flesh in small quantity occasionally acts like a 
tonic to nearly all dogs, however kept. 

What of patent foods, such as Spratts's? Yery admira- 
ble preparations, most convenient, saving much trouble, 
but rather expensive, and not suitable for continuous use 
as the sole food any more than any uniform diet that can 
be devised. Change is at the foundation of life itself, and 


must be recognized by all who would understand the man^ 
agement of dogs. 

Starchy foods if given in excess tend to digestive de- 
rangement (fermentation, etc.) and favor skin disease. 
Meal in excess is unduly exciting, and will also cause in- 
flammation of the skin and other disturbances. Milk 
alone and uninterruptedly is too bulky, and enfeebles the 
digestive tract. 

A mixed diet, in proper proportion and properly 
cooked, will suit most of the conditions under which the 
dog is kept better than any other. Cakes or biscuits made 
of the entire wheat, ground moderately line, make good 
food, and may at times be fed dry to advantage. 

The question of quantity is of very great importance. 
Experience shows that the tendency is usually to overfeed. 
The result is digestive troubles, an undue taxing of all 
those organs that get rid of the waste or poisons of the 
body, with numberless reflex disturbances which in the 
dog, for reasons to be explained later, generally express 
themselves on the skin. 

But the quantity must vary not only with the breed 
and size of the dog, but, above all, with his surroundings 
and the amount of exercise he gets. 

A dog that is worked to the fullest extent may proba- 
l)ly nearly always be left to be his own judge as to when 
he has had enough of food. But under any other circum- 
stances this would scarcely be a safe rule for all dogs. 
Some are gluttons, and would constantly be out of condi- 
tion if fed as much as they would eat. But a pack of 
hounds hunting daily will scarcely eat too much — even the 
most ravenous dogs being able to use up, in the long-con- 


tinued and violent exercise tliey get, the material (source 
of energy) which they store up in their tissues. 

Some dogs are such uncertain and capricious feeders 
that their cai-e taxes to the utmost the skill of the most 
judicious. Such specimens are commonly defective in 
stamina, easily disordered, and unsuitable either as stud 
dogs or brood bitches, as their progeny are apt to inherit 
these undesirable qualities. 

A word of warning may be in place regarding bones. 
While useful as indicated above, when very hard they 
wear down the teeth, and it is often a question whether 
they should be allowed to old dogs at all. They clean a 
dog's teeth, and if they can be secured of the right kind it 
is well not to withhold them entirely. But very hard 
bones, and those which when broken present sharp edges, 
as those of fowls and of game birds, are absolutely unsafe, 
as there can be no doubt that they have caused death 
by puncturing the digestive tract, especially the intes- 

A question much debated is the frequency of feeding. 
Should an adult dog be fed only once, twice, or oftener, 
during the day? To all such questions no categorical 
answer can be given. Circumstances must be taken into 
account. It has been said that the dog's stomach is large 
and his digestion slow ; that the carnivora often subsist for 
days on a single meal, etc., and therefore the dog should 
be fed only once a day. 

The dog's stomach is rather large as compared with 
man's ; but the rapidity of his digestion depends greatly on 
a variety of circumstances. Digestion is less rapid when 
the stomach is distended, and in an animal in a gross con- 


dition, as compared with one not thus burdened with 

The argument from the wild carnivora must not be 
pushed too far, since their mode of life is very different 

Fig, 3.— Stomach op the Dog. 

A, CEsophagus ; B, Pylorus. 

In the Dog and Cat the ventriculus is but little curved, and is pear-shaped, the 
small extremity corresponding to the pylorus. The cardia is dilated like a 
funnel, and is nearer the left extremity of the organ than in other animals. 
The oesophageal mucous membrane is not continued beyond the margin of that 
orifice. The simple stomach of the carnivora forms only a single sac, whose in- 
ternal mucous membrane presents, throughout its whole extent, the same or- 
ganization as the membrane lining the right sac of solipeds. This membrane 
is remarkable for the regular and undulated folds it forms when the stomach 
is empty. Nothing is more variable than the capacity of the dog's stomach, 
because of the great differences in the size of this animal, according to breed. 
M. Colin has found the minimum to be 1^ pints, and the maximum to be 1^ 
gallons ; he calculates the average to be about '2)4 quarts. In the cat, the 
average is from 2 to 2X gills. (Cut and description from Chaveau.) 

from that of the dog at the present time. More reliable 
instruction may be got from a study of ourselves. 


Some moil eat four times a day, others three times, and 
some only once; and those who have varied their habits 
in this respect know th;it the result is often much the 
same whether the individual eats twice or three times 

The actual quantity of food taken is the principal 
thing. However, there are persons who, having tried dif- 
ferent methods, hnd that the number of times food is taken 
greatly modifies their comfort and efficiency. 

So far as the feeding of packs of hounds and large 
kennels is concerned, convenience, rather than any exact 
study of the question, has probably determined that the 
dogs shall be fed but once in twenty -four hours, and then 
allowed as much as they care to eat. The result is that 
the animals, being very hungry, gorge themselves to dis- 
tention, and lie about in a very lazy manner for some time 
afterward, and in this they no doubt imitate their wild 

But it seems more than doubtful whether this is the 
best way, regarded from the point of view of the dog's 
welfare rather than the keeper's convenience. 

Dogs, like other animals, require more food and a 
larger proportion of fatty food in winter than in summer ; 
and to feed a dog but once a day during the severe weather 
of winter seems little short of cruelty in the larger propor- 
tion of cases. 

A light breakfast of, say, porridge and milk, or a few 
wheat-meal biscuits, with a good meal at night, will prob- 
ably serve the best purpose. But to all rules there are 
exceptions, and some dogs will do much better if fed but 
once a day, even when getting a moderate amount of ex- 


ercise, which latter has been assumed throughout in the 
discussion of this subject. 

Again, with very hard-worked hunting dogs a break- 
fast has only proved in some cases a source of indigestion 
and diarrhoea. But, in any case, dogs should never be 
hunted or violently exercised just after a meal. It has 
been proved that in such cases food may remain for 
hours undigested in the stomach, the animal's energies 
being used up, especially by the muscular system. 

Dogs may be allowed such exercise as they will them- 
selves take in play just after a meal, or veiy soon after, at 
all events. 

The feeding of toy dogs, on account of their delicacy 
of constitution and unnatural mode of life, requires special 
care. Meat must be sparingly given, yet not absolutely 
withheld. Milk and its various preparations with eggs, 
may be well substituted, with stale bread, biscuits, etc. 
When only a single dog is kept, as is perhaps usually the 
case, table scraps make an excellent fare, given twice a 
day in moderation, but avoiding rich gravies and pastry 
except in small quantity. In the large majority of cases 
the family dog is fed too often and too much, and were 
it not that he is generally a hardy mongrel, the results 
would be more frequently manifest in skin disease and 
other troubles. Rice is an excellent staple, when well 
boiled, for toy dogs that are poor feeders. 

When dogs are allowed many bones of a kind that 
can be masticated and swallowed, they ai'c apt to become 
constipated, owing to the excess of lime, etc., forming in- 
soluble soaps in the intestine. 

Errors in feeding are responsible for more derange- 


ments of the dog than perhaps all other causes put to- 
gether ; hence we have dwelt on this subject. 

The views set forth may be thus summarized : The 
diet should be a mixed one in which all the essential food- 
stuffs are duly represented. Meat may occasionally, under 
exceptional circumstances, be safely and wisely given as the 
exclusive diet ; usually it can be allowed only in limited 
quantity, but in no case must it be permanently withheld. 
Vegetables are to be regarded as correctives rather than as 
foods. Of all the cereals, wheat, ground moderately fine 
and used to make bread, biscuits, and porridge, is the 
best. Oatmeal and corn-meal answer a good purpose, 
especially in winter. Milk is useful, but not in large 
quantities at a time, nor continuously. Bones under due 
precautions serve an excellent purpose. Patent foods are 
good, but not as a staple or for continuous use. 

Whatever foods be employed, variety is of the utmost 
importance. The less exercise a dog gets, and the more 
unfavorable his surroundings, ' the greater the care ne- 
cessary in regard to food in all except its nutritive quali- 
ties. With the hard-worked animal the latter is of the 
greatest moment. 

The actual quantity consumed within a given period is 
of more consequence than the intervals at which food is 
given. As a rule, twice in twenty-four hours will be quite 
sufficient, with many exceptions in favor of one daily 

In all matters relating to feeding, the circumstances 
under which the animal lives, and its individual peculiari- 
ties, must be carefully considered. 




The dog still retains, in most breeds, the activity that 
is characteristic of the group to which he belongs — the 

He no longer, it is true, seeks prey, but he naturally 
hunts some form of life by inherited tendency, and man 
avails himself of this to train the dog to various kinds of 
hunting, to watching, guarding, etc. 

Exercise and occu])ation we couple together, because 
the former is best secured with the latter, since it naturally 
follows that the sort of development, both physical and 
psychical, which adapts him for the intended use must be 
best. Apart altogether from this, however, dogs, like 
other animals, indeed much more so than most others, re- 
quire exercise to keep them in health. We can not dis- 
regard with impunity any animal's ancestral or inherited 
tendencies. To do so is to overlook the true nature of the 
animal. So that if a dog can not be taken to fields or 
woods, he should l)e given the opportunity somewhere not 
only to walk, but to romp freely. Exercise should be pleas- 
ant ; the dog must have some opportunity to gratify his 
instinctive tendencies, or exercise will be so destitute of the 
element of occupation or interest that it will accomplish 
but a small part of its purpose. To lead a dog out by a 
chain is better than no exercise at all, but it is at best but 
a poor substitute. To keep any dog constantly chained is 
simply downright cruelty. The yard should always, when 
at all possible, allow of moderate exercise and freedom. 

In only exceptional cases will a dog take too much 
exercise in a yard, however large. But, even with the 


freedom such circunistances permit, every dog should be 
introduced daily, weather permitting, to the larger outer 
world, for change, to develop his intelligence and to stimu- 
late him to greater efforts and attainments. 

We shall treat the whole management of puppies later, 
when their exercise, etc., will be specially considered. 

It would puzzle the best physiologist to explain fully 
why exercise is so beneficial. It seems to be a part of the 
actual constitution of protoplasm, that foundation for all 
function, to be in constant though varying action. What 
we term rest is only diminished activity ; and that princi- 
ple of change to which attention has been called as regards 
diet is but a special application of that law of incessant 
change which seems to be essential in all life-processes. 
It is a change in the life of muscle to pass from "rest" or 
diminished activity to greater activity and back again. 
Hence rest and exercise can not be separated in a healthy 
existence. With continuous rest or continuous activity, 
failure of vital powers is inevitable. Under exercise the 
circulation is quickened with a corresponding increase in 
every function of the body. Dogs are very subject to 
constipation, yet observe how freely a dog will empty 
the bowels during a ramble in the fields. Exercise fills 
the lungs with fresh air; the dog beholds new sights, 
hears new sounds, sniffs fresh scents, and is stimulated in 
every fiber of his being. 

But let exercise, good as it is in itself, be carried be- 
yond a certain point, and the result is harm rather than 
good. An exhausted dog is not ready to digest food — 
good evidence that his exercise has been an injury. 

It is not usual to give dogs when brought in from ex- 


ercise as much care as horses ; but there is the same neces- 
sity for it. The dog takes cold also, and if he does not 
show his derangement in the same way, it is not to be in- 
ferred that it is a matter of indifference whether he is al- 
lowed to throw himself down anywhere, or whether he is 
groomed as is the horse. It adds enormously to the 
value of exercise, and diminishes all its risks, to see that 
afterward the dog is rubbed dry if wet, and mud or dust 
removed — in a word, to make sure that his skin is re- 
duced to a comfortable and healthy condition ; and if to 
this the dog be shampooed or manipulated like an athlete 
in training, the results for good will be as satisfactory as 
they may be surprising to those who have not been accus- 
tomed to observe such things. 

It is difficult to convince kennel men that these details 
are of great importance, but, in the light of physiology, 
they are not difficult to understand, as will presently be 

It will be much more satisfactory to accustom dogs to 
exercise before meals ; in fact, exercise of a violent char- 
acter after a large meal is directly contra-indicated. The 
dog's energy should then be directed to his digestive sys- 
tem, and not diverted to his muscles; and it must be 
borne in mind that about one quarter of all the blood in 
the body is distributed to the muscular system, with a 
corresponding diversion of nervous energy. 

Occupation founded on natural instincts, which fur- 
nishes the best amusement for the dog, is too often neg- 
lected. It is essential for the best pliysical and psychical 
development. Tins, of course, varies with the breed ; but 
a dog that is a mere loafer is not apt to be any more a de- 


sirable companion than the liunian being of Hke character. 
Xo dog is naturally such, and it is almost cruel to force 
such a life upon him. 

The difficulties in large cities of meeting these require- 
ments as to exercise and occupation are considerable, but 
the writer is of opinion that unless a dog can be kept 
without perverting his nature, he should not be kept at all ; 
and in most circumstances a little thoughtful consideration 
will overcome the hindrances to natural development. 


The skin in all animals serves three main purposes: 
(1) It is a means of communication with the outer world, 
or a collection of sense-organs which have to do with 
"feeling" in its widest acceptation. (2) It is an organ 
or collection of organs for getting rid of the waste of the 
body — an excretory apparatus. (3) It is protective in a 
mechanical way and against loss of heat. 

In the dog the first and the third functions seem to be 
most developed. As to the first, little need be said now. 
The protective functions of the animal's skin reside chief- 
ly in the hair, which is kept more or less oily, and thus 
shielded against wet, by the oil-secreting glands {sebaceous 
(/lands) connected with the individual hairs. Small mus- 
cles attached to the hair-follicles permit of the erection 
of the hair. Sudorific or sweat-glands are less abundant 
in the skin of the dog than in that of man or the horse. 

We take the opportunity here of referring to the 
whole subject of excretion briefly, as it will not only ren- 
der the understanding of the dog's skin the more clear, but 
throw light on other subjects to be considered hereafter. 



The whole body of an animal must be regarded as a 
sort of factory, in which numberless chemical processes 

Fig. 4.— Hair and Hair-folliole (after Sappw). 

t, root of hair ; a, bulb of hair ; 3, internal root-sheath ; 4, external root-sheath ; 
5, membrane of hair-follicle : 6, external membrane of follicle ; 7, 7, muscular 
bands attached to follicle ; 8, 8, extremities of bauds passing to skin ; 9, com- 
pound seliaceous gland, with duct (10) opening into upper third of follicle; 
11, simple sebaceous gland ; 12, opening of hair-folhcle. 


are constantly going on, witli the result that useful and 
harmful products are being constructed. This, if not the 
essence of life, is inseparable from all vital processes. 
The animal in all its parts is built up from its food, but 
sooner or later the whole fabric is renewed completel}^ ; 
as a matter of fact, the building up and tearing down go 
hand in hand, and constitute what physiologists term the 

Fig. 5.— Papilla of Skin of Palm of Hand (after Sappey). 

A vascular network iu all cases, and in some nerves and tactile corpuscles, enter 

the papillge. 

metabolism of the body. Science can not at present trace 
all the changes a piece of meat undergoes from the time it 
enters the body till it leaves it. There are no doubt very 
many intermediate bodies formed of which we are as yet 
ignorant. But we do know part of the story. The meat is 
digested or changed to blood albumin ; this is assimilated or 
built up into the different parts of the body, and is finally 
broken down and expelled in forms of relative chemical 

Taking food as a whole, it may be considered as reap- 
pearing in the waste of the body (excretions) largely as 
water, carbon dioxide (usually called carbonic-acid gas). 


salts, and certain nitrogenous compounds, of which the 
principal is urea. While these are the compounds best 
known, there can be little doubt that there are others ex- 
pelled in small quantity, but which, when retained, soon 
poison and derange the whole mechanism of life — a state- 
ment which applies with more or less force to every body 
that enters into the excretions. The principal excretory or 
eliminative organs are the lungs, skin, kidneys, and bowels. 
Water and carbon dioxide pass off chiefly by the lungs ; 
nitrogenous waste by the kidneys in the urine. Exactly 
what is expelled by the bowels beyond the undigested re- 
mains of food is not so well known. The skin gets rid of 
a good deal of water, some salts, a little nitrogenous waste 
(urea), and several acids — i. e., in those animals whose 
skins are very active, as is the case with man and the 

The dog gets rid of an excess' of water by the respira- 
tory tract and the mouth. He does not sweat largely. It 
would seem as though the kidneys, lungs, and mucous 
membrane of the mouth of the dog, perhaps also his sali- 
vary glands, did some of the work that in certain animals 
is accomplished by the skin. 

The connection between the different excretory organs 
is important in all animals. Each is supplemental to the 
other ; each can to a certain extent act for the other, but 
only for a limited period if the animal is not to suffer. 
What Nature seems to aim at is a balance of work with 
division of labor, each organ being a sort of specialist, but 
one that is not wholly out of touch with the others. 

In all management of animals, in health and in disease, 
there is no more important truth to be kept in mind than 


these relations of repair and waste, of assimilation and ex- 
cretion, and of the mutual dependence of parts. They 
must be recognized by the breeder and the medical prac- 
titioner, though not necessarily in a conscious way. How- 
ever, a clear understanding is always an improvement on 
a merely practical adaptation. Good science with good 
practice is better than either alone. In a way, every 
stableman knows that grooming a horse is useful ; hence 
the very term "groom" — one whose business it is to 
attend to the skin of the horse But there can be no 
question that attention to the skin of the dog is of quite 
as much or more importance. 

The skin of the dog in all pure-bred varieties is sin- 
gularly liable to reflect every ailment of the animal, possi- 
bly because of its limited ability to throw off poisonous 
matters. The skin of the carnivora has been specialized 
for protective rather than excretory functions, and when 
much of this work is imposed upon it by the partial failure 
of other organs, it seems to break down under the task. 
Derangements of the digestive tract are immediately ex- 
pressed in the skin. 

For many reasons, therefore, the care of the skin be- 
comes of great practical importance, and in carrying this 
out we must not neglect any of its functions. 

All agree that grooming — i. e., the brushing, etc. — of 
dogs is well enough, if not greatly impressed with its 
value ; but on the subject of washing there is more differ- 
ence of opinion. In the light of the facts we have just 
considered, it will not be difficult to outline the best meth- 
ods of caring for the skin, and to give them a foundation 
that is both sensible and scientific. 


The wild carnivora, from contact with grass, forest 
brush, clean soil, etc., do not get fouled as dogs roaming a 
city or living in a kennel. The former have running 
streams and lakes to bathe in when so inclined. Their 
tongue is the only brush needed to supplement the natu- 
ral rubbing and massage they get. We will do well to 
imitate ^N^ature, and this implies cleansing the dog, when 
really befouled, by washing, but avoiding the necessity 
for this as much as possible ; also daily grooming and 

Washmg. — The only circumstance actually calling for 
washing is the presence of real dirt on the dog's skin such 
as can not be removed by dry treatment, as grooming. 
The dangers and objections to washing are primarily the 
liability to disturbances of the circulation, shock to the 
nervous system, catching cold, and allied results, together 
with the removal of the protecting oil, etc. 

These are to be obviated by care in the following : 
Wetting the dog's head with cold water before he is placed 
in the bath ; keeping him free from draughts in a build- 
ing at a temperature not lower than 60° Fahr. during and 
especially after the cleansing ; using water of a tempera- 
ture related to the season of the year ; rapid and nearly 
complete drying by cloths, followed by much friction, 
hand kneading, and rubbing; taking the animal at once, 
when fully dry, for a brisk run. 

It is better not to wash just before or after a meal, as 
the shuck, etc., disturbs digestion ; a few mouthfuls of 
food with a drink of warm milk after the dog is done 
with the hand-rubbing is a good precaution. 

After all these measures the dog must be kept free 


from draughts. If washing must be done in winter or 
for medical purposes, blanketing after, for a few hours at 
all events, may be necessary. 

Washing generally requires the use of soap, and this 
especially removes the oil from the hair, so that the coat 
after a good wash is generally somewhat dry and harsh to 
the feel, while repeated Avashings render it coarse and 
otherwise unnatural. 

The soap should be well rinsed out with soft water 
colder than that used for the general cleansing. This acts 
as a stimulant, and tends to prevent taking cold. 

Our own experience teaches us that headache, nausea, 
etc., are much less likely to follow a bath if the head be 
wet first. 

It is important to see that the ears are gently but well 
dried far within ; otherwise eczema of the flap and pos- 
sibly inflammation of the middle ear, may follow. 

Grooming. — This implies friction to the skin with ap- 
propriate means, such as brushes, gloves, cloths, chamois 
leather, and especially the naked hand. Common sense 
dictates that this must vary with the breed, size, sort of 
coat the dog has, etc. 

The idea is to remove dead epithelial scales (dandruff, 
scurf), foreign matter, as dust, to straighten hair and 
remove dead hair, quicken the functions of the sebaceous 
glands so that the hair will be oiled by a natural process, 
cause a distribution of blood and nervous energy to all 
parts of the skin, and so encourage all its functions. Of 
late, massage or kneading of the skin and deeper parts in a 
systematic way has come into use in human medical prac- 
tice with the best results, though its value has long been 



known, if not well understood, to trainers of men and 
other animals for feats of speed, etc. 

There can be no doubt that these influences, carried in 
to the nervous centers from the skin in grooming and 

massage, are reflected to all 
the organs and tissues of the 
body, and serve as the very 
best sort of a regulator or 
natural tonic. 

These means are espe- 
cially valuable just after ex- 
ercise, and on those days 
when the weather does not 
permit of the animals being 
taken into the fields or on 
the highways. 

The larger breeds of dogs 
that carry a heavy coat are 
apt to suffer from the heat 
of summer. When these 
animals can not be taken to 
some natural body of water 
for a bath, it is a comfort 
to them to supply an arti- 
ficial bath into which they 
can themselves go as they 
feel inclined. It requires a 
little study to manage this, and at the same time not allow 
the dogs to get into dirt afterward. A grass run is very 
valuable in such a case. The excess of oil in the coats of 
these breeds makes them resisting to water, and they are 

Fig. f).— Sudoriparous Glands. 1 x 20 
(after Sappey). 

1,1, epidermis ; 2, 2, mucous layer ; 3, 3, 
papillae ; 4, 4, derma ; 5, 5, subcu- 
taneous areolar tissue ; 6, 6, 6, 6, 
sudoriparous glands ; 7, 7, adipose 
vesicles; 8, 8, excretory ducts in der- 
ma ; 9, 9, excretory ducts divided. 


not spoiled, as in the case of other dogs, by frequent wet- 

Of course a dog can not be kept clean unless provided 
with proper surroundings. Every place where he is ac- 
customed to lie should be ready for his reception. To his 
bed especial attention must be paid. For a large part of 
the year nothing equals good straw ; it is both warm and 
clean. It should be changed before it gets very short and 
broken up, when it packs and irritates the dog in many 
ways, and before it becomes saturated with emanations 
from the animal's skin, when it is unhealthy and harbors 
vermin. Pine shavings make a good summer bed, but 
are apt to cling to the dog when he leaves his resting- 

Some disinfectant beneath the bed tends to preserve it 
sweet and to keep away vermin. 


In the lowest animals there is no distinction of sexes, 
and reproduction of the species is maintained by division 
of existing forms, one becoming two or more separate 
individuals. Among the invertebrates the two sexes are 
in many groups united in one individual, a common ex- 
ample of which is the tape-worm. In all vertebrates the 
sexes are distinct, and copulation or its equivalent is the 
rule. Both male and female furnish their quota to the 
new being. To explain more fully, in the higher verte- 
brates — e. g., in the dog tribe — the female organs of gen- 
eration at definite periods undergo changes consequent on 
a special accumulation of energy, resulting in the matura- 
tion in the ovary of eggs {ova\ which are discharged into the 



oviducts {Fallopian tuhes)^ wliere tliey become impregnated 
by the male cells {spermatozoa) when coitus takes place. 

Fig. 7.— Sagittal Section op the Ovary of an Adult Bitch (after Waldeyer). 

©. e, ovarian epithelium ; o. t, ovarian tubes ; y. /, younger follicles ; o. f, older 
follicle ; (1. p. discus proligerus, with the ovum ; e, epithelium of a second ovum 
in the same follicle ; /. c, fibrous coat of the follicle ; p. c, proper coat of the 
foUicle ; c. /, epithelium of the foUicle (membraua granulosa); a. f, collapsed 
atrophied foUicle ; b. v, blood-vessels ; c. t, cell-tubes of the parovarium, divided 
longitudinally and transversely ; t. d, tubular depression of the ovarian epithe- 
lium, in the tissue of the ovary ; h. e, beginning of the ovarian epithelium, 
close to the lower border of the ovary. 


In all that relates to the sexual functions in the female 
we have an illustration of the great law of periodicity of 
rhythm. A bitch experiences these recurrences of sexual 
activity at regular more or less fixed periods, usually twice 
a year, and, though these may be delayed or shortened, 
they are upon the whole very regular. 

Naturally the entire nature of the animal participates 
in corresponding changes. Usually they are preceded by 
a short interval of excitement, indicating the approach 
of a more profound change. The mammary glands may 
slightly enlarge ; the bitch, if young, may show rapid 
growth ; some fall off in flesh ; the disposition is modified; 
etc. The generative apparatus forming a connected 
whole, it is not strange that the activity of the es- 
sential organs {ovaries) is accomjoanied by a correspond- 
ing increase in vascularity or blood supply of other 
parts, so that the external genitals {vulva) enlarge. 
There is a visible flow of mucus, to be soon followed 
by blood. 

As soon as the ova are mature the female will accept 
the male. This is not usually prior to the appearance of 
blood, but may be before it has disappeared or soon after, 
generally the latter. 

As there is nothing to show clearly that the period of 
the coitus or service has anything to do with the sex of 
the offspring, the bitch may be allowed to choose her own 
time for congress with the male. 

As it is not possible to be certain that all the ova 
mature at one time, it is not irrational to allow of a 
second service after an interval of one or two 

though it is likely that if the first was in every way a 




complete coitus and nmtually desired, a second is super- 
fluous ; but of this one can never be sure. 

The mode of coitus in the dog is characteristic, owing 
to the pecuhar structure of the penis, the action of the 
female's vagina, etc. 

Fio. 8.— Embryo op Dog, Twenty-five Days Old, Opened on Ventral Side. 
Chest and Ventral Walls have been Removed. 

a, nose-pits ; 6, eyes ; c, under- jaw (first gill-arch); d, second gill-arch ; e,/,gf, h, 
heart (e, right, /, left auricle ; g, right, h, left ventricle); i, aorta (origin of); 
fcfc, liver (in the middle between the two lobes is the cut yelk- vein); I, stomach ; 
m, intestine ; n, yelk-sac ; o, primitive kidneys ; p, allantois ; g, fore-limbs ; 
h, hind-limbs. The crooked embryo has been stretched straight. (Haeckel, 
after BischofE.) 

The penis 
:erior part ( 
erectile region is the 

consists of two erectile portions. In the 
f the organ there is a bone. The posterior 

anterior part of the organ there is a bone, rne posterior 
larger, and during copulation is spas- 


modically (reflexly) grasped by the muscles {sjpliincter 
cimni) of the vagina, so that the male organ can not be 
withdrawn until erection subsides. Since certain glands 
{Cow;per^s) that secrete diluting fluids are wanting in the 
dog, as well as the reservoirs {seminal vesicles) in which 
in many animals semen is stored up, the importance of 
this arrangement enforcing prolonged copulation can be 

The forcible separation of dogs in coitu maiy lead to 
rupture of parts and dangerous bleeding. 

The whole period of being in "heat," "in season," 
or " in use " extends over about three weeks, but often 
longer, and of course in a minority of cases less. During 
the whole of this period, as a rule, it is of the greatest im- 
portance to keep the bitch entirely separate from all dogs 
except the one selected. The sexual appetite of bitches is 
strong and persistent, and no risks should be taken. 

The meeting of male and female cells usually results 
in impregnation or that commingling of their parts which 
results in the division {segmentation) of the female cell 
(egg, ovum) and its whole growth and development. 
Strictly speaking, however, we should say that the two 
are blended for growth, etc. If this were more carefully 
kept in mind the whole subject of breeding might be dis- 
cussed in a more intelligent manner. 

The two united cells making up the as yet undevel- 
oped individual soon provide arrangements for receiving 
nourishment from the mother and getting rid of the waste 
of their own life-processes. This is accomplished by cer- 
tain outgrowths which develop into the placenta, which 
may be finally said to consist of two parts — a maternal and 


a foetal — in eacli of wliicli tlie structure is essentially simi- 
lar, viz., blood-vessels covered with a layer of cells which 
elaborate the material from the mother's blood and fit it 
for the nourishment of the young animal, and which also 
excrete into the mother's blood the waste that has been 
thrown into the blood of the foetus by its own excretory 

It is highly important to understand clearly the nature 
of impregnation and the relation of the mother and foetus 
in utero. 

From these relations we think the following principles 
must of necessity follow : 

1. The offspring must be in some degree a compound 
of the nature of both parents, but not equally in most 
cases. Some stud dogs are " prepotent," or have an un- 
usual power in imparting their own riature to their off- 
spring. The same applies to some bitches. 

It is also evident that all in the same litter may not 
equally represent both parents. It would be strange if it 
were so, as the actual influence of the male cells may not 
be equal on each ovum or all male cells may not be equally 
potent. In fact, there is of necessity great room for all 
sorts of variations in such matters, so that all rigid dicta 
as to which parent exercises the most influence on the 
offspring are out of place. 

2. The dam, from her long connection with the foetus, 
must exercise an influence peculiarly her own. Since her 
health, her temper, her occupation, etc., all have an influ- 
ence on her own nutrition and that of her offspring, it is 
of the highest importance that the brood bitch should be 
given the greatest care. 


Everything that tends to her welfare in any way must 
influence the offspring more or less, and the reverse. 

3. From the close connection between mother and 
foetus, it follows that the foetus must also influence the 
mother, and more or less permanently ; which explains 
why the members of subsequent litters may show an un- 
mistakable resemblance to previous sires. The nature of 
the sire is of necessity impressed on the dam to some ex- 
tent, but in most cases it is slight and not obvious ; but 
it is difficult to see how, from the nature of the connec- 
tion between mother and foetus, the sire's influence can 
be wholly avoided. 

" Reversion " or " atavism " is resemblance to a pre- 
vious ancestor. 

There is a wide-spread belief among breeders that the 
offspring resemble the sire in external form and the dam 
in the internal or hidden form, or that which determines 
disposition, stamina, etc. 

But it is not to be forgotten that a sire is generally 
selected with more care than a brood bitch, and often be- 
cause he has a striking and pleasing form and with but 
little regard to his constitution, which is but seldom a sub- 
ject of special inquiry. 

Mating. — All sound rules for mating must be based on 
such principles as we have endeavored to set forth. 

Both parents must be equally considered. 

In wild animals there is the freest choice and the 
greatest degree of intercrossing within the limits of ^-he 
species, which result in bringing together in the male and 
fenuale cells protoplasm of the most diverse experiences, 
which seems to result in the highest vitality ; while the 


more inbreeding the less vigor at all events, as a rule, 
whatever else may be attained. 

Pure-bred dogs must, in the nature of the case, be very 
much inbred as compared with mongrels, which in great 
part explains why they are less hardy and more liable 
to all sorts of derangements. 

The problem with the breeder narrows itself down to 
this : How can the highest perfection of type in its most 
comprehensive sense, including physical and psychical 
qualities, be attained ? The more he strives for form, the 
more liable is he, perhaps, to fail in some other direction ; 
for, having got certain strains which meet his ideals pretty 
well, he fears to introduce outside blood lest he disturb, 
by the meeting of protoplasm more unlike than that of 
his own strains, the balance that exists, and thus get, per- 
haps, a series of " variations " or departures from the type 
he does not desire. 

"We think the solution lies in this principle : to keep 
within the lines that give the type as long as there is 
no sign of deterioration in any direction, notably in size, 
stamina, or intelligence, which are apt to suffer by inbreed- 
ing ; but when an outcross is necessary, to introduce one 
as similar as possible ; in other words, to make departures 
by gradual steps only. 

Pedigree is indispensable in breeding ; but in consider- 
ing family lines the conditions under which the animals 
have lived are of no little moment. To breed a brother 
an'^ sister brought up in the same kennel is quite a differ- 
ent natter from breeding the same relatives one of which 
was reared in England, say, and the other in America. 

As a rule, the less closely animals are bred, provided 


type can be secured and maintained, the better, and the 
reasons must be clear on a little consideration. 

But similarity is fatal to success if carried beyond a cer- 
tain point. We, of course, refer to that deep, underlying 
similarity commonly expressed by the term " same blood," 
but which is better understood if we use the term proto- 
plasm, or life-stuff of similar experiences. All the cells of 
the animal body are, of course, composed of protoplasm. 

But in all cases the parents must be considered much 
more than the other ancestors. Why is this ? 

Because the parents are the outcome of the entire an- 
cestry, and while they may have hidden or latent qualities, 
good or bad, dependent on the ancestry, we can not hope 
that those obvious qualities which they possess will not 
appear in the offspring. As a matter of fact, they do 
usually crop up ; and when a mating is made, the problem 
is always a complex one, with many factors known only in 
a vague way by the pedigree, but others more clear and 
certain as actually existent in the parents. 

Glaring faults are almost sure to be reproduced, no 
matter how good the mating in other respects, so that an 
animal of very pronounced defects in physical or psychical 
qualities should he rejected as a breeder ; all the more so 
if these were known to exist in the more remote ancestors. 

Disposition and stamina are of the utmost importance, 
in the brood bitch especially, as they are very likely to 
be reproduced in the offspring. But inasmuch as two 
dogs ideal in all respects can not generally be found for 
the mating, we inquire. What is the best to be done ? 

Assuming that in the bitch there is good intelligence, 
disposition, and stamina, if she have no defects of form, 


etc., beyond mediocrity, good results in a fair proportion 
of the litter may be looked for if she be mated with a dog 
not only free from these faults, but possessing the oppo- 
site qualities even slightly in excess. But from two ex- 
tremes or from two decided opposites good results need 
not be expected from a single mating. Faults when pro- 
nounced can only be corrected by degrees. 

It will be found that bitches with poor digestion, and de- 
fective in stamina generally, and those that in addition are 
liable to any form of disease, rarely make good breeders 
or nurses. If they are not able to cope with the environ- 
ment under ordinary circumstances, how can they be ex- 
pected to do so when they are handicapped in providing 
for half a dozen other creatures from their own resources ? 

Dogs lacking in health, vigor, and resisting power 
should not be used in the public stud, especially where, if 
they happen to be famous winners, they may be much in 
demand, and so have their vitality diminished still more. 
It is difficult enough to raise pure-bred puppies when the 
parents are both all that can be desired in these respects. 

It will very often be found, for the reasons stated, that 
a show bitch is a poor breeder, while a more homely but 
strongly-made and vigorous creature, judiciously mated, 
provided she come of good stock, will produce offspring 
much superior to herself in form and other qualities. 


There is plenty of evidence to show that the condition 
of the dog chosen to mate with a bitch is not a matter 
of indifference, but may have a marked effect on the 
constitution of the progeny, ire should be in such con- 


dition as fits him for doing tlie work for which the breed 
is intended, and should in no case be overburdened with 
flesh, soft in muscle, or suffer from any derangement of 

When a dog is placed in the public stud the drain on 
his vital powers may be so great that unless unusual pre^ 
cautions are taken the dog may be broken down in health, 
or, at all events, become prematurely old, not to speak of 
the natural result of impaired vitality, etc., in the off- 
spring. Of such dogs the greatest care must be taken 
even to the minutest details. They may require at times 
very concentrated and nutritious food — as eggs, strong 
broths, and even such special helps as cod-liver oil, phos- 
phates (containing iron), etc. It is to be remembered, 
however, that such frequent use of a stud dog as to require 
such adjuvants, especially if he be in his prime, clearly 
proves that he is being overtaxed. 

The extent to which a dog, with a bitch in season near, 
will lose flesh in a few days indicates that the stud dog 
should be kept so far away from bitches in this condition 
that he will not be aware of their presence, and thus have 
no superfluous source of drain on his vital powers. 

Every stud dog should have periods of sexual rest to 
allow of natural recuperation — somewhat analogous to 
turning a horse out to pasture. 


The bitch, still more than the dog, if possible, should 
be at her best in every way before being mated. She 
should be fully matured. In the author's opinion, a 
bitch should never be bred in her first season, no matter 

136 tup: dog in health. 

of what breed or how fully grown she may seem to be. 
Her constitution can not be matured, and to put on her 
the severest strain possible is unwise, if not cruel, as re- 
gards the offspring, and still more the bitch herself. 
This is especially true of the larger breeds. 

It is well known that a fleshy bitch is apt to miss con- 
ception, and as at some period of gestation the usual exer- 
cise a dog should get must in her case be cut down more 
or less, if she is even a little thin but extra hard in mus- 
cle it will be well. 

Many bitches that have failed to conceive will do so 
when reduced to a very thin condition. It is also recom- 
mended to give such a brisk run just before and just after 
copulation, especially the former. 

Barrenness exists to some extent among all animals. 
Before a bitch in her prime is given up as hopelessly bar- 
ren, she should be reduced to a low condition of flesh and 
tried at successive seasons with different young and vig- 
orous dogs. Even purgation and bleeding, to reduce the 
animal still lower, have been tried, it is said, with success. 

While in " season " the bitch must often, to avoid 
accidents,. be less exercised than usual, in which case her 
food must be cut down in quantity and be less stimulating 
— i. e., contain less meat, and consist more of milk, porridge, 
bread, etc. 

It is a wise precaution to give exercise on chain, con- 
sidering the eagerness of bitches to meet the opposite sex 
regardless of pedigree, the methods they will employ to 
escape, and in how brief a moment the best-laid plans may 
be shattered. 

It occasionally happens that a dog will not mate with a 


certain bitch, or that a dog seems to be unable to effectu- 
ally copulate even if inclined, as they now and then are 
not. It is impossible to lay down any definite rule to 
meet such cases. A consultation with some experienced 
breeder, or practitioner of canine medicine, will be best for 
the novice. It means, of course, that there is something 
wrong either in the health or the formation of the genitals 
of the dog or bitch, most likely the former. Such cases 
are rare, and often a little common sense solves the prob- 
lem. An unwilling or forced service on the part of the 
bitch may not prove unfruitful, especially if the first one. 
The treatment of the hitch after concejption is of much 

It must constantly be borne in mind that several young 
are being developed entirely at the expense of one or- 
ganism, that of the dam. In wild animals their natural 
conditions and their unerring instincts suffice. But when 
man takes matters into his own hands, as with our do- 
mestic animals, all this is changed in large measure. 

In most bitches some little alteration in demeanor may 
be detected by the experienced eye which suggests that 
the mating has been successful. 

It is seldom that change in size, shape, or weight is 
appreciable before the fourth or fifth week of gestation. 
Sometimes at this period there is only the slightest 
modification in shape. But often when the bitch is laid 
on her side or back the young may be felt through the 
walls of the abdomen in the horns of the uterus. If the 
bitch is not somewhat enlarged at the sixth week, the case 
is not hopeful, though not hopeless. 

The whole period of gestation extends over nine 


weeks, or from fifty-eight to sixty-five days. Puppies are 
not likely to be born alive before the fiftieth day, though 
they may be delayed several days without any apparent 
detriment in many cases. The average period of gesta- 
tion is about sixty-three days. 

There is room for the greatest discretion in the man- 
agement of the brood bitch, and common sense with a few 
guiding scientific principles are worth volumes of rules 
without reasons, for no two cases precisely resemble each 

For the first month there is so little change in the 
bitch, the foetuses being very small, that there seems to be 
no special reason for departing from the usual practices in 
the management. At the same time there may be periods 
when the close observer will see that the animal is disin- 
clined to exercise, needs not only abundance of food, but 
some special change, etc. It is during the first six weeks 
that plenty of exercise can be given, including galloping, 
provided the bitch is not given to abort. If so, she must 
be exercised gently. 

Her appetite may or may not be increased. 

There can be little doubt that if a bitch is engaged in 
her proper occupation — e. g., a hunting-dog in hunting — 
it will be better, or shall we say may be better, for the 
psychical development of the offspring. This the author 
believes is borne out by both theory and practice. And, 
at all events, every animal enjoys its life most and thrives 
best when following its natural instincts — i. e., when it has 
some occupation congenial to it. 

The last three weeks are the most important in them- 
selves, and for this period the bitch should have been pre- 


pared in the preceding weeks. Exercise must usually be 
gradually diminished. Toward the end of the period 
some animals are very much disinclined to exercise, and 
lose flesh in spite of good feeding and the best of care in 
other respects. In such cases it would be unwise to ex- 
haust the energies by their undue diversion to the muscles 
by vigorous exercise. Connnon sense must dictate. 

The appetite may greatly increase, and the animal's 
food should be abundant and very nutritious. If she 
shows any falling off, she must be given cod-liver oil or 
chemically pure lime phosphate or Parrish's food, espe- 
cially if the bitch be herself light in bone. The diges- 
tion must be carefully watched. If. the bowels are not 
regular in their action, if the eyes run, if the tongue be 
whitish, a change of diet, or possibly a little less for 
twenty-four hours, will prove helpful. Medicine is to be 
avoided if possible, and violent purgation is never called 
for — in fact, may cause abortion. 

Yentilation is of importance, as the bitch must pro- 
vide for the aeration and purification of the blood of the 
young within her as well as her own. The more she can 
live out of doors the better. 

A bitch may often with advantage be fed three times 
a day instead of twice. She may then not become so dis- 
tended and uncomfortable, since she requires to take less 
at each meal. 

About the sixth week she should be treated for worms. 
This is always a matter of safe routine, unless the bitch is 
unusually delicate, has aborted previously, or for some 
other special reason. Later, such treatment is not so 
free from danger; but if there be clear symptoms of 


worms, especially tape-worms, treatment is justifiable. 
The pumpkin-seed treatment (see page 355) is compara- 
tively safe even during the last week. It is also well to 
treat the bitch for worms just as she is coming into season, 
or a little before, when the dosing should be thorough. 

The brood bitch should not be fat at any period of ges- 
tation, but above all at its close. Such nearly always im- 
plies lack of vigor and inability to meet the strain of 
whelping. It moreover presents a mechanical impedi- 
ment, as with external fat there is generally internal fat, 
and at this time all the room possible is wanted within. 

When a bitch with a ravenous appetite tends to get fat, 
it is well to give more meat and less starchy food. The 
excess of fat must be removed, not by starving, which is 
dangerous for the young, but by modification of the diet, 
and especially by more exercise. 

Preparation for whelping should in every case be 
made. All forms of dirt and every kind of vermin on the 
dam are a source of danger for the puppies. 

A bitch may be safely washed a few days before 
whelping-time, and in nearly every case will be benefited 
by it if done with proper care. Of course there is more 
risk in winter ; but, except in rare cases, breeding should 
be regulated to have the puppies whelped in spring or 
summer. The former is the better period, as distemper 
is often rampant in the fall, and the older the puppies, if 
attacked by this malady, the greater are their chances of 
survival. Naturally, the months from April to ISTovem- 
ber are those permitting of that outdoor life essential to 
the development of puppies. 

i^-.T-- ' ' ^ '^ ■" ' "^-^^ -.-•'-^i^ 


By comparing the illustration of the bulldog and the bull- terrier, it will be seen 
that the Boston terrier is intermediate in form. 



Natural instinct generally shows itself in tlie bitch, 
leading her to seek retirement, to keep more quiet, to 
eat less, etc. 

When the brood bitch is one of a kennel, her instincts 
should be assisted. She should be allowed an entirely 
separate abode, out of sight of all other dogs, and given 
lighter food, especially if her appetite is capricious. A 
meal of porridge and milk tends to open the bowels; but 
if they are confined, a dose of castor oil is demanded, or 
an injection of warm soap-suds with castor oil. 

The latter is preferable if the bitch's stomach is not in 
first-rate condition. Medicine is to be avoided if possible, 
as there is no sense in prematurely distui'bing a nature 
that must soon be put to a great strain. Actual constipa- 
tion should not be allowed in the brood bitch at any time, 
above all toward the close, since a full bowel must prove a 
great mechanical hindrance to the passage outward of the 
young, not to speak of the general disturbance to health. 

Some bitches become very nervous, almost maniacal, 
just before whelping. Soothing, quiet, even darkness, 
help such ; but if these do not suftice, a dose of twenty 
grains of bromide of' potassium may be gi\'en with safety. 
However, medical treatment will be considered in another 
part of this work. 

While a bitch should be allowed considerable freedom 
in the choice of her whelping-place, there is a limit to this. 
If the animal be left in a fair-sized apartment, such as a 
" stall " or " loose box " in a stable, out of sight and out 
of hearing, if possible, of other dogs, given some straw in 


one corner, she will in general take to it and wlielj) quietly 
and well. Bnt a few additional precautions are not super- 
fluous. Beneath the straw a piece of old but clean carpet 
may be tacked to the floor, on which latter a little of some 
disinfectant has been placed, and over this the straw. The 
idea is that the claws of the puppies shall, by catching in 
it, enable them the better to suck the dam, as the straw be- 
neath them is generally clawed back. The carpet must be 
soon removed, however, or it will become a source of dis- 
ease. The writer does not consider it essential. 

A shallow board guard placed around one corner will 
keep in the straw, and give the bitch the feeling of com- 
fort arising from having a little spot all to herself. 

Some recommend a ledo^ins:, about four inches wide 
and a little way from the floor, to be provided so that the 
bitch may not crush the puppies against the wall, etc. It 
may prove useful in some cases, but in others will not be 
necessary, and may prove a source of inconvenience to 
the mother. 

Only those whom the bitch knows and likes should ap- 
proach her when whelping ; better if only one, and he as 
seldom as possible. Still, some little oversight is necessary 
withal, and in many more than a little. It can be man- 
aged so as not to disturl) the bitch, but to assure her. She 
will soon perceive its object. Gentle caressing, a little 
milk-gruel, or merely cold water, if offered in the right 
spirit, vrill be appreciated even if not taken ; but fidgeti- 
ness will do only harm. That very coarse and lowly 
organized sort of human nature to which animals are 
sometimes intrusted is never more out of place than about 
the pure-bred bitch during parturition. 


The temperature of the whelping department should 
be such that the delicate, newly born puppies may not be 
chilled if they get separated from their mother. It should 
not be lower than about 68° F., and may even be higher. 

Cleanliness in the whelping nest is looked after by 
the dam herself for a considerable period. She usually, as 
soon as a puppy is born, gnaws the navel string {umbilical 
cord) across, thus disconnecting mother and offspring in a 
safe and ready way. 

She also disposes of the after-birth {placenta) by eat- 
ing it eagerly ; and it would seem that, owing possibly to 
the discharges {vneconium) it contains, this acts as a natu- 
ral laxative for the bitch. 

The escape of the waters (Jiquor amnii), etc., leaves 
the bitch herself and the bedding in a very unsuitable con- 
dition, though the mother licks the puppies themselves 
into perfect cleanliness. 

As soon as the puppies have been all, or most of them, 
born, it is well to renew the bedding carefully, using a 
little of some disinfectant, as " Sanitas sawdust,-' and to 
sponge off the bitch where she most needs it with warm 
water, to which a few drops of carbolic acid, etc., may be 
added, drying well with cloths. 

Toward the end of the first week, if all goes well, she 
may be carefully washed all over in lukewarm water, finally 
rinsing with cooler water, drying quickly, and using much 
hand-rubbing, to prevent unfavorable effects (see p. 122). 

The strain of whelping and the attempt on the part of 
the organism to adjust to the new conditions, including 
the activity of a large amount of gland tissue in the secre- 
tion of milk, may not be so perfect that there will be no 


febrile reaction. Consider how great is the adaptation that 
must be made, and that this is sometimes affected without 
the rise of a single degree in the temperature, and we have 
an illustration of how marvelous is Nature's power to 
modify to such a greatly changed state of things. As to 
this, much will depend on the previous management of 
the brood bitch, as well as on her natural organization. 

Very generally the secretion of milk is gradually pre- 
pared for by an enlargement of the mammary glands 
prior to whelping — often weeks in advance ; but in this 
matter there is the greatest individual variation. Some 
bitches have plenty of milk days before parturition begins ; 
others have but little for from twenty-four to forty-eight 
hours afterward — all within the limits of health and safety. 

As a rule, the indication is to allow the puppies, as 
soon as they can suck the dam, which they will generally 
attempt, to do so, unless for some special reason. This 
is to be encourged, as it seems to have a beneficial effect 
on the bitch's nature in every way. 

Occasionally, however, the trials and sufferings of the 
mother during labor or afterward justify the temporary 
removal of the whelps, when they must be kept wwrm and 
carefully coddled. 

From the first every facility should be offered for the 
free and natural action of the mother. She should be 
given to understand that she is not a prisoner, but should 
be encouraged to leave the nursery to attend to nature's 
calls, get a little fresh air, stretch herself, etc. But noth- 
ing must be strained or forced, otherwise the effect on her 
nervous system is likely to be felt in either the quantity 
or quality of the milk, her digestive powers, etc. 


(K. C. S. B., 28,297.) 

For description, see page 56. 


In the case of the brood bitch, as in all else that con- 
cerns the dog, we must act as if a human being were con- 
cerned, and a similar regard for the animal's feelings 
should be shown as in the case of a member of the human 
family ; in fact, in the case of some dogs more, the sub- 
missive, dependent, gentle, and approval-loving traits of 
the dog being among its most pronounced attributes. I^o 
one can better manage a brood bitch than a lady of refine- 
ment, who has had some experience with the canine race 
and is gifted with discretion and a practical turn of mind. 
Men, in dealing with dogs in whelping, must try and feel 
as women, and to do this is worth more than any amount 
of specific directions, especially if there be an intelligent 
comprehension of the nature of the physiological pro- 
cesses involved. 


It very generally happens that more puppies are 
born than the dam can rear successfully or without great 
injury to herself. 

In most litters the puppies are not all equally beauti- 
ful or equally vigorous ; and if the purpose is to breed to 
the best advantage rather than to supply the market, it 
will be wise to follow Nature and send the weakest to 
the wall, or imitate " natural selection," for, without doubt, 
the weakest do generally perish in the litters of wild 

When some are very obviously both weak and small, 
these are plainly to be selected for drowning, and he 
who can not drown should not breed. "The survival 
of the fittest" is Nature's law, and it must be followed 


out when the fittest or the imlittest can be selected with 

But how, in many cases, to choose the best is no easy 
matter even to the most experienced. One is greatly 
aided often by past experience of puppies raised by the 
same bitch, such and such hke puppies having grown up 
with such and such merits and defects. 

It sometimes happens that the smallest at birth may 
become the largest, and a coarse-looking puppy may show, 
when developed, both vigor and quality. 

It is not possible to lay down rules that will apply 
alike to all breeds, but it is certainly always very risky to 
retain the smallest and w^eakest puppy. Dehcate animals 
greatly increase the breeder's worries, no matter what their 
beauty. Often the young seem so much alike in form, 
etc., that one may as well choose for color and markings. 
The advice of an experienced breeder is often of the 
utmost value to the novice in the choice of puppies. In 
general, a bitch can not raise well, in justice to herself, 
more than four to six puppies. To leave to a dam of any 
breed from eight to twelve puppies is sometimes down- 
right cruelty and generally very poor policy, unless the 
welfare and future of the puppies, and especially of the 
bitch, are to be wholly ignored. An animal has only so 
much vital energy, and if this be exhausted in rearing one 
litter, the bitch must of necessity be made prematurely old. 
Often, however, the puppies are so valuable, from their 
breeding (pedigree), that the owner can not afford to sac- 
rifice any of them. 

In other cases the mother is, from various reasons, un- 
able to suckle any of the litter. She may be very much 


exhausted, may be dangerously sick from blood-poisoning, 
inflammation of the womb, etc. ; she may lack milk, or it 
may act as a sort of poison. In all such cases, if the lit- 
ter is to be saved, a foster-mother is to be secured. 


The essential qualification is the ability to take the 
actual dam's place as completely as possible. The bitch 
must be not only vigorous, free from skin disease, etc., 
but, in addition, good-tempered, and able to supply at 
once, and to continue to do so, an abundance of milk of 
good quality. If a past history, showing that the require- 
ments have been met by the particular animal in question, 
can be obtained, so much the better. As a rule, a bitch 
with a good appetite and digestion bears the strain of sup- 
plying half a dozen hungry, growing young puppies with 
their entire nourishment for four weeks, and with a good 
part of it longer, and so makes the best foster-mother. A 
dainty feeder may be at once rejected. 

If the animal be of the same or closely allied breed, so 
much the better. Even a cat may serve for small puppies. 

If the foster-mother has just whelped, or is about to 
whelp at once, the case is most favorable to the ready adop- 
tion of the stranger offspring. Before introducing them 
they may be allowed to lie awhile with her own progeny in 
her absence, to get the scent from them, then have their 
heads, etc., smeared with some of the foster-mother's milk, 
and be introduced cautiously at night. However, much 
must be left to the discretion of whoever undertakes this 
delicate and sometimes impossible task. 

The mother herself should be removed so far away 


that she shall not know what has become of her offspring. 
It is important that the milk glands of the mother be 
relieved from distention in those cases where it is found 
desirable to remove puppies while the bitch is in full milk. 
One at least had better be left. If not, the secretion of 
milk should be limited by giving laxatives, dry food, etc. 
At first, after the birth of puppies, there may be an abun- 
dant and rapid secretion, and if this be not removed by 
the nursing of a puppy, with or without aid by the hand, 
febrile reaction may be severe, or even caking or inflam- 
mation of the mammary glands may occur. 

The method of drying up the milk, which is really 
preventing its secretion, will be considered shortly. 


In anticipation of febrile reaction or milk fever, it is 
well to feed lightly, both as to quantity and quality, for 
the first twenty-four hours or longer, unless the bitch 
shows great exhaustion, when easily digested but concen- 
trated nourishment is demanded ; so that gruel, milk, 
eggs beaten up with milk, stale bread and milk, etc., are 
ordinarily indicated. But some bitches dislike such food 
even when prepared in the nicest way, and^ as a rule, 
unless there is positive fever or other contra-indication, 
their tastes may be consulted with little risk — at all events, 
in moderation. 

The stools should be especially looked to, as they are 
an index to the state of the digestion. Constipation is se- 
rious, and diarrhoea must be checked, or the strength of 
the bitch will suffer and her milk possibly fail. However, 
a relaxed condition for one or two days is rather to be 


favored, as tending to prevent fever and get rid of tissue 
waste, etc. 

Constipation may best be relieved by a rectal injection. 
The less medicine the brood bitch is given the better, con- 
sistent with actual safety, as it not only modifies her own 
vital j)rocesses, but, through the milk, that of the puppies. 

After the first week the bitch should be given exercise 
regularly, at first onl}^ walking her, then gradually intro- 
ducing more and more of that form of exercise which by 
breed, previous habits, etc., is best adapted to her. It will 
be more pleasant in many cases to her to accompany the 
other dogs of the kennel, when she will thrive all the bet- 
ter in that case. 

The feedirig of the nursing bitch can scarcely be over- 
done, if her appetite be taken as a guide and she does not 
gain in flesh. After three weeks she is apt to show a fall- 
ing off, and it may be necessary to add to the food those 
helps to nutrition referred to previously. 

A nursing bitch should almost from the first be fed 
three times a day. The demands on her are very great, 
and if not met by food, the supplies will be drawn from 
her other tissues, to her detriment — i. e., the milk glands 
will rob the other tissues of the body. 

At the best she will suffer temporarily after the nurs- 
ing period is over, if not before then. A bitch always 
loses her coat after whelping, usually grows thinner, the 
skin becomes irritable, and eczema is liable to follow. If 
neglected in the matter of food, she may be ruined ; her 
constitution may be hopelessly undermined. However, 
the digestive powers must be carefully watched, for they 
are not always equal to the needs of the tissues. 


It is needless to remark that every means employed to 
keep dogs in health should be specially used in the case of 
an animal so taxed as the brood bitch. As a matter of 
fact, however, such practices as grooming, washing, even 
exercise, are too often neglected, so that the unfortunate 
creature often enough pays heavily for the pleasures of 

We are now in a better position to answer the impor- 
tant query : How often should a bitch be bred ? 

Considering how much is involved in the four months 
of maternal life of a bitch, it is not surprising that ex- 
perience has shown that to breed a bitch as often as she 
comes in season is one of the surest ways to render her 
prematurely old. Once a year at most is often enough to 
breed any bitch, and too often for many. As a rule, the 
higher the show quality of the animal, the more important 
is it to spare her. Surely this matter should be looked at 
from a humanitarian point of view ! 


A large proportion of the worries and discourage- 
ments, as well as the pleasures and successes, of the breed- 
er of dogs have their source in puppies. 

Until a young dog is matured, especially till he is one 
year old, he must be a source of more or less anxiety to 
one who really knows the risks. During this age of 
growth and development there are, however, times of 
greater danger, or critical periods. These are when being 
weaned, when getting the permanent teeth, and between 
these two periods chiefly, or, to put it otherwise, till the 
puppy is eight or nine months old. 


" To be forewarned is to be half armed," applies in a 
very higli degree in regard to these youthful troubles. 
Prevention is better than cure always, but especially so 
in this case ; for such is the delicate nature of all young, 
pure-bred dogs, as compared with the curs that run the 
streets, that it is very often a grave question whether 
medicine, which may help in the troubles of older dogs, will 
not do more harm than good with puppies. Certainly 
all the arrangements should be made with a full realization 
of possible dangers and their prevention, rather than of 
dosing with medicines. The breeder who does not act on 
this principle will not be a success ; and the practitioner 
of canine medicine, like his colleague in human medicine, 
is discharging his highest functions when he advises so as 
to prevent evils which, in a good proportion of cases, he 
can but imperfectly remedy. 

But in this as in every other case, if we would pro- 
ceed on a sound basis, we must grasp those few underly- 
ing principles on which all the details hinge. 

Let us consider that we have to do with a rapidly 
growing being that must adapt its own altering constitu- 
tion to a changing environment. There is a double in- 
stability. The constitution of the creature alters con- 
stantly and rapidly, and this alone is no small factor ; and 
the changing animal must be adapted to all vicissitudes 
of climate and to everything that enters into the environ- 
ment, so that the practical problem with the breeder is 
this : To adapt the environment, as far as possible, to 
changes that are inevitable in the organization of the 
puppy ; and in doing this two extremes are to be avoided 
— constant coddling and neglect. 


For its development the young animal requires abun- 
dant and suitable food, pure fresh air, exercise, amuse- 
ment, occupation, and training, with protection against 
the inclemencies of the weather, against filth, and all else 
that hinders development and tends to favor actual dis- 

!N^ow, manifestly here again we must not lay down iron 
rules. Every one must, in a large degree, be his own 
judge as to how best to attain these ends, for not only are 
all puppies not alike, but environments must of necessity 
differ very widely. It will be our purpose to indicate the 
fundamental principles which should guide, not to supply 
rules for combinations of circumstances that are never 
twice alike. It must not be forgotten, either, that perhaps 
the most important factor of all in the environment is the 
individual who undertakes the work of rearing puppies. 
If he lack intelligence and a sympathetic feeling with 
dogs, by which alone they can be comprehended, it is idle 
to hope that any directions will be of avail. A litter that 
with the same general management will grow up to the 
highest perfection they are capable of under one man, will 
be miserable culls under another who may think he is 
following the same course, but who neglects details of 
adaptation which all the books in the world could not 


So long as the puppies and the dam are perfectly 
well they should not be separated. It but rarely happens, 
however, that a pure-bred bitch can suckle puppies longer 
than four to five weeks without immediate or future detri- 
ment to herself especially, and not seldom must the dam 


For description, see page 56. 



be helped in her duties after the third week. This should 
be done very gradually, for the change from mother's milk 
to any other food implies a grave strain on these delicate 

It now and then happens that an attempt must be 
made to hand-feed j^uppies from the first, when a foster- 
mother can not be secured. With one this may be man- 
aged, just as an infant is fed from a bottle, but at best it is 
of doubtful success, and with a whole litter it requires a 
patience almost beyond human nature. 

The only suitable first food of the pnppy is, of course, 
that most like what he has had — viz., milk — and practi- 
cally this must be cow's milk. Experience shows that 
this can not at first be given undiluted, not because- it is 
richer than bitch's milk — for the following table shows 
that the latter far exceeds most other kinds of milk in 
nutritive qualities — but because the stomach, etc., can not 
at once adapt itself to the new food. 

Percentage Composition of Milk. 

















Total solids 

90 00 






About one half water for a couple of days, gradually 
strengthened to full quality, will suit best. Puppies soon 
learn to lap milk, which should, of course, be made all 
the more like that of the mother by being warmed, and a 
little sugar added for a few days. 


Very soon easily digested solid food, as boiled rice, 
well-cooked oatmeal porridge, and stale bread, may be add- 
ed to tlie milk ; and in a few days m'ore a little broth, ratber 
weak and free from fat, may replace part of the milk, etc. 

But if the puppies bloat under any food, either they 
have worms or the food is not agreeing with them in 
quality or quantity. Gradual adaptation, with simplicity 
yet some variety, is the key to successful puppy feeding 
at this period. 

The weaning usually may be accomplished in about 
ten days, and it is a critical period, during which many 
puppies are lost. If the whelps do not seem to thrive as 
they ought, the addition of a few drops of cod-liver oil 
for each may prove very helpful. 

The difficulties of this and the period of the succeed- 
ing weeks arise in part from the fact that the mother, 
that up to this time has been a most faithful groom and 
scavenger, begins to weary of this no longer very pleasant 
work. The canine infants evacuate the bladder and bow- 
els frequently, hence their nest is soon badly fouled, they 
themselves get dirty, the air is poisoned, and a whole chain 
of evils sets in, the end of which is not infrequently death, 
though the average observer may not always see the con- 

One source of mischief, and among the greatest, has 
received surprisingly little attention in writings on the 
management of the dog ; but in the author's opinion it is 
one of the gravest of all. 

All puppies, as soon as they begin to feed, and espe- 
cially after they have left the dam entirely, get smeared 
about the head parts with the food used. True, they will 


attempt to lick each otlier clean ; but, in the case of long- 
eared dogs especially, these, if not kept carefully cleansed, 
by hanging into the food, become the source of much 
mischief. The food dries on the puppies' hair, irritates 
the skin, and will of itself cause eczema, both external 
and internal (canker) ; and worse still, perhaps, such neg- 
lect is almost certain to be followed by lice, which soon 
become a plague, that from the constant irritation utterly 
derange the health of the animal, cause universal skin dis- 
ease to add to its misery, and have sent many a fine puppy 
to an untimely grave. Their treatment we will consider in 
the medical part of thi^ work, along with that of other 
parasites ; but prevention is now our theme. 

My own plan is the following : Immediately after eat- 
ing, each puppy is cleansed with a sponge dipped in luke- 
warm water and rubbed dry with a clean cloth. If the 
ears are long, they are pinned back by the hair behind the 
neck with spring clothes-pegs. If the bed be clean, and 
the other precautions to be suggested later be observed, 
no lice need be feared. However, the inexperienced are 
warned to look for these creatures carefully, especially 
about the outer ears, as they are not easy to detect if few, 
clinging as whitish specks close to the actual skin. They 
are best seen when the skin is wet. 

At the time of weaning the dam must not be for- 
gotten. Her milk must be gradually dried up— i. e., its 
secretion lessened, and finally wholly arrested. Usually 
this is facilitated by a little simple treatment, though in 
occasional cases the matter takes care of itself. The ap- 
plication of camphorated oil, fluid extract of belladonna 
(poisonous, and must not be licked ofi, which the bella- 


donna liniment is less likely to be), strong vinegar, etc., 
tends to arrest the secretion of milk. But perhaps a 
strong solution of camphor in alcohol is, upon the whole, 
the best, and is perfectly safe for external application 
several times a day. In obstinate cases a drop of the 
fluid extract of belladonna may be given twice a day. 

Then, great care must be taken to get the bitch back to 
her former vigor as soon as possible. The skin is very 
liable to suffer, and requires careful watching — in fact, as 
is usual with dogs, it is a remarkably good index of the 
general health of the animal. The neglect of brood 
bitches that have faithfully done their duty, as too often 
witnessed, must grieve any right-minded man sorely. 

Not seldom must the bitch have tonic treatment, as 
cod-liver oil, iron, phosphates, quinine, etc. 


The principles underlying the feeding of dogs hav- 
ing been already pretty fully discussed, it will only be 
necessary to point out certain precautions to be taken in 
the case of puppies. It must always be borne in mind 
that puppies are in need of food to construct new and 
rapidly growing tissues, as well as to maintain ordinary 
wear and tear, like adult animals ; hence their food must 
be abundant, nutritious, complete — i. e., contain all neces- 
sary constituents. But it must, in addition, be suited to 
the changing needs of the animal and the condition of 
the digestive tract, which, of course, vary from week to 

It must not contain too much liquid or be sloppy, else 
the digestive system is relaxed and enfeebled. An all- 


milk diet is not suitable, nor one wholly of broth. While 
it is not true that milk directly causes worms, through 
conveying their germs, there is nevertheless some founda- 
tion for this prejudice, inasmuch as it does when largely 
and continuously used by weakening the digestive organs, 
favoring excess of mucus, etc., tend to produce an envi- 
ronment suitable for the development of parasites. 

When bread and milk, broth and bread, and such like 
foods are used, the dry material should be allowed to soak 
up the liquid, so that the whole will be moist but not sur- 
rounded by liquid. Dry bread-crusts and biscuits are use- 
ful, and tend mechanically to remove excess of mucus, 
the worms themselves and their germs. Powdered char- 
coal is sometimes administered with the same end in view, 
as well as to prevent that flatulency and distention not un- 
common in puppies. 

Sour milk or buttermilk given now and then acts as 
a tonic, especially in hot weather, if not used in too large 
quantity at once ; and the acid it contains is no doubt 
unfavorable to worms. 

But since buttermilk lacks the fat (and some of the 
casein) of entire milk, it is not a suitable food for dogs in 
quantity or continuously. Dogs " at walk " in the coun- 
try often get too much of it for their best development, it 
is feared. 

Puppies, as soon as they cut their teeth, should be al- 
lowed bones that are suitable — i. e., large ones — that they 
can gnaw and suck but not break, and not hard enough to 
wear down or fracture the teeth. They strengthen the 
teeth, jaws, etc., as well as amuse. 

All puppies after eight weeks require a little meat, the 


quantity varying with the breed, conditions of Hfe, the in- 
dividual, etc. A diet of meat alone is too stimulating for 
a puppy of any age, while one destitute of it will never 
develop a dog of the highest quality. A little raw meat, 
cut very fine, has a tonic effect on the digestive system ; 
but, as a rule, the greater part of the meat given dogs 
should be cooked, for reasons previously given (parasites). 

The older the puppy, the stronger its food should be in 
nitrogenous or albuminous material — the more meat. But 
puppies of the larger breeds usually require more meat 
from the first. 

After six or eight months, or when the puppy has got 
its second teeth, it may be fed, Hke older dogs, on table 
scraps ; in fact, after this period the feeding may be much 
as in mature dogs. 

How often should a puppy be fed ? Since its needs 
are so great and digestion feeble, a young puppy must 
get its meals often. It is surely better to give food more 
frequently, than to feed so seldom that the puppy must eat 
to distention to satisfy his appetite. 

For puppies under three months, ^ve or six times a 
day is not too often, the last meal being given late at 
night and the first early in the morning. 

For those from three to six months, four times daily 
may suffice, and from six to eight months three times; 
after that two good meals will answer. It is best to feed 
each puppy separately. 


If we could only imitate Nature's ways, we should be 
eminently successful. We find that the carnivora, the dog 


tribe included, bring forth their young in secluded places, 
as caves, holes in the earth, burrows, etc. 

As soon as the whelps are old enough to move about, 
their surroundings are favorable for cleanliness and exer- 
cise, while they can readily resort to their natural shelter 
in case of storms or other stress of circumstances, and for 
undisturbed repose. 

What better grooming for the skin than that fur- 
nished by fresh earth, grass, forest brush, dry leaves, etc. ? 
Earth is a perfect deodorizer, if not an actual disinfect- 
ant ; it furnishes a means of removing dirt and vermin ; 
and tends to produce those ingoing nervous influences 
which have, as already pointed out, such a salutary influ- 

Kow, if we but imitate these conditions, our puppies 
will be fairly healthy, notwithstanding that in breeding 
and in many features of the environment we must depart 
from Nature in keeping pure-bred dogs around hmnan 

Puppies, when well, always play much — the best exer- 
cise they can get. What is wanted, then, is a shelter to 
which they can resort for quiet and shade during the day ; 
a kennel free from draughts or other source of danger at 
night, with free ventilation and cleanliness. 

Puppies can not develop sound bodies, especially good 

legs and feet, without liberty to run ; hence they should 

have a yard, if not a field ; they must be free to scrape up 

and burrow in earth, and this should be encouraged ; their 

stools must be constantly removed ; and they should have 

access to good, cool water. A grass run is very desirable, 

but not as the sole resort, for it is very diflicult to keep it 



clear of excrement. A heap of coal ashes, in the absence 
of opportunity to hnrrow in earth, is useful. 

When four or five months old the puppies may be 
taken out together for a little scamper. This they will 
greatly enjoy, and the change will do them good. They 
should not at this period accompany older dogs, nor be 
allowed to meet many strange dogs, lest they catch dis- 

Washing puppies is to be avoided, if possible, till they 
are six months old, and then as seldom as may be. Young 
puppies feel the shock, and are apt to catcli cold, suffer in 
their digestion, etc. Nevertheless, washing is preferable 
to that filthiness which favors all sorts of parasites and 
renders the creature's life a burden. With the precautions 
we have indicated as to cleansing after feeding, and with 
freedom and encouragement to burrow, washing will 
seldom be required. But if it must be undertaken, let it 
be done quickly and well. 

The amount and kind of grooming young puppies will 
need must vary very much with the surroundings ; after 
six months they will require more attention in this respect. 

When a puppy is kept in a small yard special attention 
must be paid to his dejections. A box of earth, ashes, or 
saw-dust, from which a little material may be taken to 
cover the offensive matter at once, will be indispensable, 
even if it is removed as soon as it should be. 

Any arrangements which do not permit — in fact, do not 
favor — the puppies retiring to where they can get undis- 
turbed sleep after eating or when tired with play are very 
defective. Eest is as absolutely demanded as exercise. 

Young dogs of different breeds, from their dissimilar 


habits and tendencies, do not usually do well together^ 
one being generally a source of annoyance or worry to 
the other, sometimes of positive danger from fighting. 
All problems are greatly complicated when several breeds 
are kept in the one kennel, even if separated. But if 
study is the main object, there is more to learn for him 
who has the eye to see. 


These subjects are so closely associated in practice that 
they may be treated together to some extent. We have 
already tried to show that the best exercise for a dog is 
that which fits him for his work, and that in the very 
nature of the case this must be taken in connection with 
that work. Such is Nature's method. The young car- 
nivora soon take part in catching, etc., the maimed ani- 
mals the parents bring home. 

An analysis of our own psychic life, complex as much 
of it is, compared with that of the dog, shows that a great 
part of our mental processes are not concerned with ab 
stractions and generalizations of a very high order, but 
with actual concrete perceptions and conceptions ; that we 
think in pictures rather than words ; that our thoughts 
are the result of past associations ; that the machinery of 
the mind or brain is so connected that when one part is 
moved, so to speak, a whole series of connections are es- 
tablished. Hence the psychic life of every creature must 
be related essentially to its past experiences. 

If this be true — and it can not be doubted — we think, 
then, the puppy's intelligence, like our own, begins to 
develop, and continues to do so exactly in relation to its 


environment. We can make that environment prettj 
much what we will ; and with the dog, his master from the 
first, and always, is the princijDal factor. 

' Two extreme views have for a long period been enter- 
tained in regard to the training of the dog : the one 
that he is a wild, wayward creature to be '' broken," the 
other that he needs no special correction if properly taught 
from the first. Neither is quite correct. 

A puppy full of life tends to do exactly as his im- 
pulses urge him, till the highest motive power, a desire 
to please his master, is substituted. It follows that a 
puppy can not be too soon led to understand that he has 
a master — kind, honest, intelligent, and firm. He must 
be consistent with his puppy. All caprice is fatal; it 
utterly confuses and demoralizes the dog. 

Kemembering, as we indicated long ago, that the dog 
is very like ourselves, we can suggest a few principles 
for training that we think will meet the test of experi- 
ence. The puppy at one period is like a young infant, 
later like a two-year-old child, and at the best most dogs 
never get beyond the intelligence of a young child in 
most respects, though in some qualities the wisest man is 
far behind the dog. 

For practical purposes the puppy may be treated as an 
infant, but as a rapidly developing one. He gets his in- 
formation through his senses, and his training must be 
related to this, and to the fact that he is a creature with 
strong impulses but of little self-control. 

It is a well-established law of the nervous system, 
that what has happened once is likely to occur again 
under the same circumstances ; hence in the training of 


puppies first experiences are of much importance, and all 
the arrangements of the kennel, and in fact the whole en- 
vironment, should be shaped in relation to this principle. 

The puppy should not be allowed to get into habits 
which will later need correction. Let him from the first 
be encouraged in cleanliness, self-respect, love of esteem, 
respect for the rights of other puppies his fellows, etc. 

Yery early begin to instill into him lessons of restraint, 
but only for the briefest periods, for the creature is as 
yet weak in brain and will power, though strong in in- 
stincts and impulses. 

The master or trainer must not be associated in his 
mind with unpleasantness, but with the reverse. Do not, 
therefore, punish him, but let him learn almost uncon- 
sciously that certain actions and certain pleasures are con- 

He should soon be taught his name, should always 
come when called, but not be summoned too often, espe- 
cially if playing. It is well to carry a bit of biscuit, 
cheese, etc., to reward him for coming at first. Later a 
pat of approbation will suffice. 

The trainer should never undertake what he is not 
reasonably sure of accomplishing ; and the first aim should 
always be to secure the dog's attention and interest and to 
make the accomplishment pleasant. But he must know 
what is wanted, and if he can not comprehend this, the 
lesson is unsuitable at this period. He must, however, 
obey if he understands ; gentle compulsion, when once the 
purpose is understood, may be exercised — e. g., if he will 
not come when he is called, he must not be whipped, as 
that will make the whole set of associations unpleasant, 


but he must be gently dragged by the back of the neck or 
bodily carried to where the trainer stood when the com- 
mand was given ; he should be very gently reprimanded, 
then forgiven and made to feel that he is forgiven, and the 
lesson repeated, always rewarding obedience in some way. 

Obedience to what is right pleasant, disobedience un- 
pleasant, is the rule for us all, dogs and men. On these 
principles yard and house training is simple with well-bred 
dogs. They mean to please if they can. Make obedience 
and right-doing understood, possible, and pleasing, and it 
will be preferred, especially if the wrong-doing is followed 
by the reverse experiences. 

Dogs are naturally cleanly, and will not foul their ken- 
nels if they can betake themselves to a more suitable place ; 
but this latter must sometimes be pointed out to puppies. 
An animal confined must of necessity evacuate his bladder 
and bowels, but a dog that has from his puppyhood had a 
chance to be cleanly will often suffer much before fouling 
his dwelling-place. The author has known a puppy at the 
point of death drag himself from his sleeping-box to evacu- 
ate his bowels. 

Dogs are not filthy in their habits, but some people 
who keep them are, and others do not understand what is 
required to enable a dog to follow his instincts of cleanli- 
ness. Where a dog has once been to respond to E'ature's 
call, he tends to visit again, and this is a guide to enable 
us to avail ourselves of natural instinct to maintain cleanly 
surroundings. The same general principles apply when 
dogs are taken afield to be worked on some sort of game. 
At first the puppy may run toward almost every form of 
life he sees. This is natural, and he would not be worth 


keeping if he did not show some such tendency to in- 
vestigate the world about him. 

But he must be restrained gradually. He must asso- 
ciate certain acts with the approval and others with the 
disapproval of him he respects, loves, and would delight 
to please if he only knew how. 

But such is the strength of the impulses of some pup- 
pies — now, we will suppose, six or eight months old — that 
they find it very difficult to restrain themselves. In such 
case we must lessen the stimulus or source of excitement 
rather than resort at once to the application of the princi- 
ple of making the act unpleasant, as by the use of a spiked 
collar or check-line. 

These may later be useful in a modified form, but not 
at first; indeed, such methods are usually quite unneces- 
sary if a proper course be pursued. To illustrate : Sup- 
pose that a brace of setter puppies eight months old be 
taken to some wood where there is but little game. If 
they tend to run wild without any reference to the where- 
abouts of the trainer, and disregard his calls or his whistle, 
it surely would not be wise to whip those puppies soundly 
at once, or attach a spiked collar or a check-line. To do 
so would probably confuse them, humiliate them, and re- 
tard their development in every way. Now, if the trainer 
secrete himself for a little while, the puppies will probably 
get frightened a little, feeling that they are lost, and will 
after this be more cautious how widely they range. When 
they do come in they may be scolded, but not whipped at 
this stage. 

All dogs should be taught to come in to whistle and to 
" down charge," or to drop at some word of command or 


at the upraising of the hand. This applies to all breeds, 
though more especially to dogs used in shooting. A dog 
in the field should also be guided by the motions of his 
trainer's hand. In learning this, the voice, the whistle, 
and often a long cord will be useful. 

But the author wishes to avoid giving the impression 
that there is only one way of accomplishing these things, 
as many previous writers seem to have thought, with the 
result that many who have attempted to follow their rigid 
rules have disgusted themselves and spoiled their dogs. 

It is to be remembered that all lessons require frequent 
repetition. " Little and often " applies to training as a 
cardinal principle. 

Ko one should undertake the training of a dog to work 
on game who is not possessed of patience and good temper. 
Lacking these, the puppy is apt to cause the trainer great 
worry and to get little good from him, if he be not actually 
spoiled. It is, in fact, better to go afield expecting that 
the puppy will do nothing as desired at first ; then one is 
prepared for the worst, and may soon lay his plans to ac- 
complish what he aims at, which must always be done in 
relation both to the dog and the circumstances. 

But with dogs example is strong for good or evil. A 
steady, old, trained dog is invaluable, while a disobedient, 
headstrong one will most assuredly ruin the puppy. But 
it is clearly foolish to expect a puppy under a certain age 
to work on game with an older dog — indeed, to work on 
game at all — though ranging, obeying the whistle, dropping, 
etc., should all be taught before the puppy is introduced 
to game. He must learn restraint and obedience, though 
it must be confessed that a day's work on actual game 


often quite transforms some puppies. But, as a rule, ten 
or twelve months will be quite soon enough to introduce 
a puppy to actual work. 

Retrieving may be taught at home, using a soft ball 
of yarn, etc.; and if the puppy is inclined to bite hard on 
this, a few wires may be pushed through it. He nnist 
always at first be rewarded, when he brings the ball when 
thrown, with a little meat, cheese, etc. The words " fetch," 
" seek," etc., may be employed. Soon he will understand, 
and seek when no ball is thrown. To get him to " seek 
dead," some article may be hidden, and at first some meat, 
etc., must be employed, and the dog assisted to find it. 
Later a real bird may be used, or a wing. The same word 
of command should always be used. If the puppy will 
not bring the article — will not retrieve — take him to the 
spot and place it in his mouth, holding it there and oblig- 
ing him to carry it and finally deliver it at command; 
reward him, and then try him again. 

Some dogs take to retrieving naturally, requiring no 
training, while it is almost impossible to get others, often 
of high intelligence, to learn this at all. 

Most puppies need a good deal of attention before they 
are perfectly steady on point, and to wing and shot, as 
their natural tendency is to secure the game when they 
have found it. How best to overcome this it is not always 
easy to decide. The dog must be encouraged to remain 
steady while his trainer moves up. Often the assistance of 
a second person to flush the bird will be desirable, while 
the dog is approached and encouraged but not allowed to 
rush on. In this case a check -cord may be useful — to be 
employed as little as possible. The example of a rehable 


old dog is invaluable. Some form of check that will make 
the dog defeat or punish himself is preferable to direct 
administration of punishment by the trainer. 

Gun-shyness is but an exaggerated form of fear of 
unusual noises, and must be treated accordingly. Let the 
dog be gradually introduced to louder and louder noises, 
never being allowed to escape, but made to see that no 
harm is meant him or can happen to him. As to whether 
it is worth while to attempt to cure the worst cases will 
depend much on other circumstances, such as the dog's 
breeding, general intelligence, " nose," etc. It may or 
may not be inherited. 

The author, in conversation with a very successful 
trainer of horses, once asked : " Can you teach any horse 
these things ? " "I can do so, but it w^ould not in many 
cases be worth while," was the reply. The same may be 
said of dogs : some of them are not adapted for certain 
kinds of work and acquirements to a sufficient degree, to 
make it worth while to persevere in teaching them ; just 
as some boys would never become expert enough at certain 
vocations to warrant their pursuit. But before abandoning 
a well-bred specimen that seems to possess courage, " go," 
and fair general intelligence, it might be well to get the 
advice of some second person of much experience. Many 
dogs, unpromising at first, have become a great success 
afterward. The ability to read dogs very thoroughly is 
given to but few men, and these, provided they have 
patience, good temper, and perseverance, must of course 
make the best trainers. 

Though we have spoken chiefly of the training of 
hunting dogs, it is simply because that is usually more 


elaborate. All training is based on essentially the same 
principles, for the mind of the trainer and that of the 
do": are relative constants, while the circumstances are the 

In every instance the dog, from the earliest period, 
must know the trainer as his master, as one who knows 
his own mind and is always to be obeyed. But, in order 
to insure this, the principles we have already endeavored 
to enforce must be faithfully and intelligently applied ; 
and it is very important, we repeat, that nothing be under- 
taken that can not be performed, and every advance in 
instruction approached by slight gradation and frequent 
repetition. All sound training must constantly keep in 
mind the individuality of the animal. The assumption 
that all dogs should be treated just alike, is as erroneous 
as that all stomachs may have the same diet. 

A dog kept constantly in a kennel can never attain his 
highest psychical development ; and it is the author's expe- 
rience that it does every dog good to bring him into the 
house occasionally for short periods and allow him to 
mingle with the family. It raises the animal in his own 
estimation, and attaches him to his master, for whom he 
will have increased respect. 

The exercise of puppies is, of course, of more impor- 
tance than that of grown dogs, as not only their health but 
their development is to be considered. Bearing in mind 
their eagerness, their inexperience, the ease with which 
they are exhausted, the immature character of their tis- 
sues, and their general instability of nature, certain pre- 
cautions are very necessary. 

It has been already pointed out that the object of exer 


cise is the best development of the dog, physical and 
psychical ; that it should be in great part in reference to 
the work — in fact, in connection, if possible, with the 
work — the animal is intended to perform. 

This is not always possible. A setter puppy can not 
always be taken to the woods, etc. In such case, the near- 
est approach to the ideal must be striven after. He can 
be taken to fields, along country roads, etc. It is desira- 
ble that all dogs be taught to lead on chain without strain- 
ing or worry, and to walk " at heel." To accomplish this 
latter a stick with a spring snap attached to one end, that 
can be put through a ring in the collar, will serve to hold 
the dog in the desired position, always accompanying the 
action with the word " heel," so that soon this apparatus 
may be dispensed with. 

This should not be undertaken too soon with puppies, 
or their natural spirit will be too much curbed. It is 
more than desirable to keep very young puppies out of 
temptation to run wild, where they can do mischief, while 
giving exercise. 

It is far more important in a puppy than in a grown 
dog to avoid exhaustion ; nor should the young dog be 
allowed to race at the top of his speed till he is tired and 
then drop and continue to lie on the cool earth, for he may 
get one of those chills so favorable to the onset of distem- 
per, pneimionia, or some less serious form of disturbance. 

Racing over hilly and rough country without previous 
preparation, especially if long continued, is very apt to 
strain the muscles and ligaments, and is no doul)t responsi- 
ble for many of the imperfections of the legr, and feet that 
we see in himting-dogs. Especially is this likely to follow 


if the dog is not well groomed and rubbed after coming 
in, the legs included. 

Big dogs, such as St. Bernards, mastiffs, etc., are not 
adapted to the same sort of exercise as setters, terriers, and 
smaller dogs ; but it is astonishing how active and fast such 
dogs become when judiciously exercised, and now and 
then, in a field not too large, allowed to romp with dogs 
of some more active breed for a short time and after pre- 
liminary training. 

We have already said that no dog should be kept con- 
stantly on chain. The tugging at a chain will not improve 
the form of any dog, and will most certainly deform a 
puppy; in fact, to keep a dog on chain is to subject him 
to entirely wrong conditions, all his natural instincts being 
checked and his nature perverted. 

Many accidents also are liable to happen, such as hang- 
ing, etc. In nearly every instance chaining up could easily 
be avoided. 



All mammals are born in a more or less undeveloped 
condition, and to this the dog is no exception. The newly 
born puppy is capable of but little locomotion ; and though 
it can both taste and smell, the eyes and ears are not yet 
complete in development, the external ears being closed 
and the eyelids not yet separated, so that the creature is 
both deaf and blind. In ten or twelve days these organs 
are functional, and from that time the puppy's advance is 
rapid. He soon gets control of his muscles, and uses his 
senses and locomotive powers to investigate the world 


about him and prepare for an independent existence. 
Every organ of the body becomes by degrees more active, 
and puppy coat, carriage, form, etc., are gradually ex- 
changed for those characteristic of the adult of the breed 
to which he belongs. 

Those familiar with a breed by raising puppies can, 
with considerable accuracy, estimate the age of a puppy 
by its general appearance and demeanor, as they can also 
of an " old dog," though in the latter case with much less 

It is easier to decide the age of a very young puppy 
than of a dog of any other age, while it is not possible to 
determine with any degree of certainty the age of a well 
reared dog between his first and his fourth or fifth year. 
The same reliance can not be placed on the teeth as in 
the case of the herbivora, especially the horse, in which 
their rate of wear is fairly constant and their appearance 
for each year of life up to old age characteristic. The 
fact is, the dog scarcely uses his teeth to masticate food 
at all, unless it be in gnawing bones. But considerable 
dependence may be placed on the teeth to indicate age 
within the first year of the dog's life. 

It will be borne in mind that a tooth consists of a part 
imbedded in the gum and jaw, the root or fang, and of an 
exposed portion, or crown. The latter is capped by an ex- 
tremely hard substance — enamel — beneath which is the 
" ivory " or dentine, made up of fine tubules into which 
the substance of the pulp extends. The tooth is supplied 
with blood-vessels and nerves through the pulp, which fills 
the hollow interior of its root or roots, and corresponds to 
the marrow of bones in some degree. (Fig. 9.) 



The teeth of the dog, as in other carnivora, are adapted 
for seizing, holding, tearing, and cutting, rather than grind- 

Fig. 9,— Tooth of Cat in Situ (Waldkybr). 

i, enamel ; 2, dentine ; 3, cement ; 4, periosteum of alveolar cavity ; 5, bone of 

jaw ; 6, pulp cavity. 

The first or milk-teeth may soon after birth be felt 
within the gums of the puppy, and the period of their 



eruption is fairly constant. The larger breeds and bitches 
get teeth earlier by a little than smaller breeds and dogs. 
It may be said that, in general, the front teeth or incisors 
appear before the back teeth or molars, though the tooth 
actually erupted first is usually the lower middle molar, 
and at about the eighteenth to the twenty-second day. 
Then follow, after one to two days' interval, the incisors 
— i. e., " nippers," " intermediates," and " corner teeth " — 

Fig. 10.— Gekeral and Lateral View of the Dog's Teeth (Chauvkau). 

in the order indicated, though this is not constant; and 
the interval between their appearance may be inappre- 
ciable, so that they often seem to erupt at once. At about 
the same time the canines (tusks) appear. The first and 
third molars are cut about the fourth week, and in a 
couple of days later the middle upper molar pushes its 
way through ; next comes the last upper molar, and then 
the first upper molar, so that hy the fifth week the whole 
of the milk-teeth mcvy he through the gums. 


The temporary teeth are twenty-eight in number — six 
incisors, two canines^ and six molars in each jaw. 

They are softer, wider apart and get more so with the 
o;rowth of the jaw, smaller and more pointed, than those 
that will succeed them. The incisors of the dog are very 
characteristic, owing to their cusps or points, usually three 
in number. 

The shedding of the teeth begins at about the four- 
teenth to the sixteenth week ; but in this case the central 
incisors are the first to be renewed, and the upper molars 

Fig. 11.— Anterior View of the Incisors and Canine Teeth in a Year-old Dog 


are cut before the lower. Usually the canines appear soon 

after, but they are more frequently delayed than the other 

teeth. However, there is a good deal of difference, often 

in even the same litter, as to the exact age at which the 

renewal begins, the teeth are all shed, and the permanent 

set is completed. Usually the dentition is complete before 

the fifth month, but in the smaller breeds the completion 

of the process may be delayed till the sixth or eighth 


There is no increase in the number of incisors or 

canines, but the molars in the second set are twelve in the 

upper jaw (occasionally fourteen) and fourteen in the 

lower, making the total number of teeth forty-two, as in- 





••* 3—3 




*** 3—2 






dicated in the following tabular comparison with the den- 
tition of man : 


The usual order of eruption is : Fourth, above ; fifth, 
above ; fifth, below, soon followed by the sixth and sev- 
enth ; three anterior above ; about a week later the three 
anterior are replaced below. The four first molars on 
each side are often termed premolars. 

From the nature of the case, it is impossible to deter- 
mine the age of a dog by his teeth after the permanent set 
is complete, as their condition varies greatly with the sort 
of wear to which they are subjected, this depending on 
the food, etc. 

In a perfectly healthy dog the teeth remain white 
for several years ; but if there be abnormalities of the di- 
gestive juices, the teeth are apt to become discolored by 
tartar, an accumulation of lime-salts, entangling foreign 

It is well to give a dog, therefore, suitable bones, hard 
biscuits, crusts of bread, etc., to clean the teeth. 

Dogs of most breeds are at their best physically in 
their third year, though some individuals of these, and 
many in the larger varieties, continue to improve up to the 
fourth year. 

After the sixth year a dog usually shows signs of fail- 
ure ; after the eighth he is old, and after the tenth year he 
is, as a rule, unfit to propagate his kind or engage in those 


pursuits which afforded liiin bo mucli pleasure in earlier 
years. As a rule, the smaller breeds are the longest-lived. 

Dogs, like human beings, improve in judgment with 
advancing years, become more staid, and prefer quiet ob- 
servation to activity. Like men, too, they show gray n ess 
about the head and face, though, as in the human subject, 
this sometimes appears early and as an hereditary trait. 

The age at which a dog ceases to be useful or to enjoy 
life will depend largely on inherited stamina, and especially 
the care he has been given. The dog is an animal in 
which maturity, both physical and psychical, is speedily 
attained, decline rapid, and life short. His is a brief, in- 
tense career. He lives much though not long ; the tide 
of hia life is rapid and full, but evanescent. 



The author has thought it well to gather together in a 
list those terms in common use among dog-fanciers, with 
the meaning attached to them, though a large proportion 
of them have been already explained in the text as they 
occurred. Such terms are often used in the reports of dog 
shows published in papers devoted to kennel interests. 

Apple-headed. Roundness instead of flatness of skull ; a common 

fault in the toy black-and-tan terrier, etc. 
Babbler. A dog that gives tongue in hunting when he should be 

Back. For illustration of the terms applied to different parts of the 

dog, see the cut, p. 29. 
Belton. Applied to an English setter with small, evenly distributed 

flecks of some other color on a white ground — e. g., black (blue 

Belton), lemon (lemon Belton), etc. 
Blaze. White extending up the center of the skull, as in a St. Ber- 
Brisket. The lower and forward part of the chest. 
Brush. The tail in some breeds with long hair on this part, as in the 

Butterfly-nose. The end of the nose not of a uniform color, as black, 

flecked with white — always a fault. 
Button-ear. The lappet of the ear hanging down so as to cover the 

entrance to the auditory canal. 
Cat-foot. The foot short and round, as in the cat. Desired now in 

most breeds. 
Chaps. The lips, especially the back parts. 
Character. See p. 26. 
Cheeky. Unduly prominent on each side of the skull ; a grave fault 

in a terrier. 
Clean. Free from loose skin, etc. ; an important point in the neck of 

most breeds of dogs — e. g., the pointer, great Dane, the terriers, etc. 


Cobby. Of compact form, as in a cob-horse; an important point in 
most breeds of spaniels. 

Condition (good). That physical and psychic state, arising from the 
health and vigor of the animal as a whole and of every part, and 
reflected in the eye, coat, movement, etc. 

Couplings. Certain joints. A dog is long-coupled when he is too 
long between the shoulder and the hip-joint ; or he is too long be- 
tween the couplings, so spoiling due proportion. 

Cow-hocked. The hock-joints turning in toward each other, instead 
of pointing straight back, and generally too close together ; most 
apt to occur in large breeds ; a grave fault. 

Crest. The upper ridge of the neck. 

Cropped. Ears not natural, but designedly cut. 

Dew-claws. Partially developed toes or claws, generally most pro- 
nounced on the hind leg. 

Dewlap. The loose skin on throat and neck; undesirable in most 
breeds, but called for in the bloodhound. 

Dish-faced. The opposite of Roman-nosed — i. e., with muzzle higher 
toward the end than elsewhere. The upper plane of the nose 
should be level. 

Docked. The tail shortened by cutting, etc. 

Drop-ear. The lappet falling to the side of the face ; the opposite of 

Dudley-nose. Flesh-colored. 

Elbow. " Out at elbow " — i. e., with the elbow inclining to the outer 
side, and not pointing straight back, as it should. 

Faking. Attempting to improve the animal by illegitimate means, as 
dyeing, clipping, singeing, etc. 

Feather. The long hair on the back of the legs, on the tail, etc., as in 

Fiddle-headed. Long and wolfish, rather than massive; a fatal de- 
fect in such a dog as the mastiff. 

Flag. The tail, especially in setters. 

Flat-footed. The opposite of well knuckled up. 

Flews. The hanging lips ; should be abundant in the bloodhound. 

Frill. The abundant long hair on the under side of the neck and 
chest, as in collies. 


Hare-foot. Elongated, as in the hare, and opposed to cat-foot (see 

illustration of the Russian wolfhound, p. 32). 
Haw. The red " third eyelid " seen at the inner angle of the eyelid in 

the bloodhound. 
Heat. In season, in use ; the period of sexual excitement in the bitch. 
Huckle-bones. Tops of the hip-joints. 
Knuckled. Toes are well knuckled up when they are bent up so that 

the foot looks thick through, as seen in the illustration of the grey- 
hound, p. 10. 
Leather. The lappet of the ear. 
Leggy. Too long in the leg. 
Level. Teeth level — i. e., the teeth of both jaws meeting evenly in 

Lippy. Lips too free when they should be tight-lipped — e. g., in the 

bull-terrier, black-and-tan terrier, etc. 
Lumber. Useless tissue ; material that is a hindrance to a dog in his 

work ; a serious defect in a hunting-dog. 
Mane. The long hair on the neck and shoulders of a collie. 
Overshot. The upper incisors projecting appreciably beyond the 

Pigeon-toed. The toes turning in when walking. 
Pig-jawed. Overshot ; the upper jaw longer than the lower, so that 

the upper incisor teeth project beyond the lower appreciably. 
Piley. Applied to the coat of some dogs, as that of the Dandie Din- 

mont ; a mixture of hard and soft hair. 
Prick-ear. The ear standing erect, as in the Pomeranian, etc., but a 

serious defect in most breeds. 
Quality. See p. 26. 

Roach-back. The back or loin arching considerably, as in the bull- 
dog ; much the same as " wheel-back." 
Rose-ear. The lappet so turning back that the inner part is exposed 

to view ; preferred in the bulldog (see p. 344). 
Ruff. The long hair back of the head in the collie. 
Snipey. Muzzle not square at the end, but narrowing gradually. 
Splay-footed. Same as flat-footed. 
Standard. Written description of a breed by which it is supposed to 

be judged. 


Stern. The tail ; used of the pointer, etc. 

Stop. The indentation between the eyes at the root of the muzzle. 

Tliroatiiiess. Excess of loose skin on the throat and neck. 

Tucked-up. A -nipping" or gathered-up appearance at the flank. 
Called for in some varieties, but a defect in dogs of a breed that 
should be cobby. 

Tulip-ear. Ilalf-pricked ear. 

Tnrii-iip (and lay back). Applied to the turning up and back of the 
muzzle of the bulldog and toy spaniel. 

Type, typical. See p. 26. 

Undershot. The lower incisors or front teeth projecting beyond the 
upper ones. 

Vermin (Varmint) Dog. One used to hunt vermin or creatures that 
annoy mankind, as rats, etc., and so applicable especially to ter- 

Well-turned Hock. The joint strong, and the bones at a good angle 
at this (ankle) joint. The hocks in a dog intended for great speed 
for short distances, as the greyhound, should be placed low or rela- 
tively near the ground. 



The processes or functions of the animal body in a 
natural condition, or in health, have been considered in 
one brief chapter (page 10), which it might, at this stage, 
be worth the reader's while to review. 

We have now to consider those deviations from the 
normal which constitute what is termed " disease," and, 
before undertaking the discussion of specific forms of dis- 
ease, it may be well to consider some of the main principles 
which underlie the subject. 

Causation. — The environment may be regarded as the 
entire collection of conditions under which an animal 
lives, life being the resultant of the action of the environ- 
ment on the organism. If this be unfavorable, disease 
results, and the unfavorable factor is termed the cause of 
the disturbance. Causes are divided into 'predisposing and 
exciting. Thus, everything that tends to lower the vitality 
of the animal is a predisposing cause of distemper in the 
dog, while a specific germ is the probable exciting cause 
of the disease. 


Medical practitioners (and we always use that term for 
those that practice on the lower animals as well as on man) 
use the terms "diagnosis," "prognosis," "prophylaxis," 
"treatment," etc., as applicable to every disease. Diag- 
nosis is the recognition of a certain group of disturbances 
or symptoms as characteristic ; prognosis is simply another 
term for the outlook, the probable issue; prophylaxis is 
the technical expression for means of prevention; while 
treatment implies all that is to be done to help the patient. 

It can not be too well remembered that disease is not 
cm entity, something that can exist apart from an animal. 
Disease is nothing more than altered function, a more or 
less serious departure from the natural condition ; hence to 
know what is the natural condition of an animal is the 
first requisite for the understanding of disease. We must 
always have a standard of comparison. Scientific medicine 
is impossible without scientific pathology or knowledge of 
altered function, and this again is dependent on a sound 
physiology or knowledge of the normal behavior of the 
body. Treatment is based on both, as w^ell as a knowledge 
of causation, for the first principle of treatment is always 
to remove, if possible, the cause, and, if that is not to be 
done, to neutralize it as far as we can. 

Disease always implies altered nutrition, or, to use a 
more modern and expressive term, metabolism, or series 
of essential changes that make up the life-work of a cell, 
organ, or entire organism. 

It is both convenient and necessary, in considering dis- 
ease, to bear in mind the alterations that take place in each 
of the great systems of the body, as well as the general 
expression or result of this ; moreover, nearly every dis- 


ease attacks, or, as we should more correctly say, results in 
a greater alteration of one system or set of functions than 
of others ; e. g., there are diseases peculiar to the digestive 
system. However, an equally important truth is to be 
recognized, viz., that no system can suffer alone ; the body 
is a whole. 

It has been customary to assign a very prominent place 
to the changes in the blood-vascular (circulatory) system 
both in health and disease ; but it must be remembered 
that changes in the blood-vessels are dependent in most 
cases directly on changes in the nervous system. In all 
diseases, as wejl as in health, the nervous system is the 
head and director of the processes of the body. This 
truth has for some years been rather ignored, but is again 
being recognized. There are certain central cells in the 
brain and spinal cord that preside over all other cells either 
by direct government or influence or indirectly^ and their 
action depends on the influences or stimuli that reach them 
through the afferent or sensory nerves, while their com- 
mands or governing influence are conveyed by the efferent 
or outgoing nerves, the whole constituting a sort of circuit 
which we may compare, after a fashion, to the circuit of a 
battery. Influences of some kind, good or bad (irritation), 
are^ always passing to and from the central cells, and any 
doctrines of pathology or therapeutics (treatment) that 
overlook this are radically defective. 

The preceding part of this book has dealt with dogs as 
they are at the present day, and has explained how they 
are to be managed to produce their best development and 
to avoid disease. But do our best, we can not always so 
perfectly adapt the environment to the animal that serious 


disturbances may not arise ; lience the necessity for chap- 
ters on disease, which disease as a matter of fact exists 
and carries off many of the finest specimens of the canine 

In a large proportion of disturbances inflammation 
and ahered conditions play a very prominent part, and to 
these, in the briefest way, attention is now invited. 

An organ may contain an excess of arterial blood, 
owing mostly to enlargement of its arterioles, and is then 
said to \>^ hyijercBmjic ; if the organ contain. an excess of 
venous blood, from the latter not being removed as rap- 
idly as usual, the part is possibly congested^ or there is 
stasis, though the latter term is applied mostly to slowed 
current in the smallest vessels or capillaries. 

When the vascular (circulatory) and associated disturb- 
ances constitute inflammation, we have dilatation of blood- 
vessels, afflux of blood, slowing of the blood-current, 
changes in the walls of the vessels, in the blood within 
them, and in the tissues around them. 

The small blood-vessels dilate, the colorless corpus- 
cles become more actively amoeboid, the vessel-walls are 
changed, and, in consequence of the relations between the 
blood, the vessels, and the tissues being altered, the cor- 
puscles pass through to a greater or less extent, especially 
the colorless ones {leucocytes), and also a fluid derived 
from the liquor sanguinis, or plasma. 

The tissues around the vessels may enter on a more 
active condition and produce immature cells. 

These changes are accompanied by heat, pain, redness, 
and swelling in most instances, and may give rise to con- 
stitutional disturbance of varying degrees of severity, 


indicated nearly always by more or less elevation of tem- 
perature, as well as other changes. 

Locally the exudation from the vessels, the cells that 
pass from them, and those that are produced in the neigh- 
boring tissues, may collect to form an abscess. 

An inflammation may end in resolution or return to 
the normal without formation of abscess, etc., or result 
in abscess, gangrene, or death of parts when very severe, 
softening and disintegration, and various forms of degen- 
eration ; or poisonous products may be formed, taken 
into the general circulation, and cause the most serious 
disturbance, or even death. 

Hypermmia may lead to increased growth, or may go 
on to inflannnation or return to the normal. 

Venous congestion is very apt to issue in some form of 
^' exudation " — i. e., a fluid derived from the plasma of the 
blood, allied to it in general comj^osition, but to be re- 
garded as " foreign " in a considerable degree. By press- 
ure and otherwise it may do much harm. 

The Causes of Disease. — Any sudden and great altera- 
tion in the environment is apt to be followed by such 
inability on the part of the organism to adapt itself to it 
that what we term disease arises. Prominent among these 
are extremes of temperature, too little and too much food, 
over-exertion, etc. Such are to be classed among predis- 
posing causes in most instances. 

Of late our knowledge of disease has been greatly 
extended by the study of a world of extremely minute 
vegetable organisms by means of powerful lenses, artificial 
cultures, and other kinds of experiments. 

It has been shown that animal life may be preyed upon 


by such organisms, distinct in form and equally distinct 
in functions, each variety of which produces a train of 
symptoms peculiar to itself. Some of these are powerless 
to affect certain species of animals or individuals. It is 
now definitely known that the greatest scourges that afflict 
man and his dumb companions are attributable to these or 
to similar lowly-organized animal forms. 

And it might be well to point out that most of the 
recent advances in human medicine, especially in that most 
important department of preventive medicine, have been 
owing to exiDcriments on the domestic animals, or on ani- 
mals living about human habitations. 

These minute organisms, by feeding on the fluids and 
tissues of the animal, cause — as they are present in vast 
numbers, mechanically, and more especially by direct irri- 
tation, and by the poisons they produce — an effect on the 
entire organism that may be best termed poisoning ; and, 
of course, the greater the vigor of the animal, the better 
prepared it is to withstand such influences and to eliminate 
both the micro-organisms themselves and their poisons. 
As yet our knowledge of combating these enemies is con- 
fined to preventive inoculation in the case of a few dis- 
eases — all that can be desired, perhaps, if it were established 
for all microbic maladies and to preventing infection in 
some degree. But direct destruction of the germs when 
once within the body remains as one of the triumphs to be 
attained. Nevertheless, it can not be denied that the 
progress of medicine within the past decade has never 
before been in the slightest degree approached. 



The bodily temperature of any animal is the result of 
that series of chemical processes inseparably associated 
with life. The fact that the temperature remains, under 
the most varying circumstances, constant -within narrow 
limits, is one of the most wonderful examples of adap- 
tation of complex vital mechanism to environment con- 

Physiologists now universally recognize two factors in 
this equilibrium — heat production and heat dissipation or 
loss, which in health balance each other. Heat production, 
as well as heat regulation, is controlled by the nervous sys- 
tem. Heat is lost chiefly by the skin and lungs, though in 
a slight degree by the passage of urine and faeces. 

The amount of heat produced in any tissue or organ is 
dependent on its activity. The muscles are the greatest 
source of heat, and among glands the liver. The blood is 
constantly being cooled at the surface of the body and in 
the lungs, and as constantly being warmed in the deeper 
muscles and the internal organs. With exercise there is 
increased metabolism, augmented chemical activity, more 
heat produced, and the necessity for greater dissipation of 
heat if the balance is to be maintained ; hence the dog 
loses heat by his skin and by his lungs to a greater extent, 
breathing faster and with open mouth. Some animals 
lose a great amount of heat by sweating ; the dog not so 
much in this way. 

It is plain that whatever will throw these two pro- 
cesses out of balance will give rise to a departure 
from the normal temperature, either in the direction of 


lowering or elevation of the temperature. The latter is 
the more common, and is termed fever. Since fever im- 
plies elevation above a normal, we shall now discuss the 
natural temperature of the dog ; and, finding that this had 
received but little attention, the author has investigated 
the subject recently with the assistance of some of his 
students, and will give a few of the results. 

It is kno\ATi that in man and other animals the tem- 
perature varies within limits in the twenty-four hours. 
The tabular statement on the next page will illustrate this, 
.and indicate what is the dog's exact temperature. 

It will be noticed that these temperatures do not quite 
correspond ; and investigation has proved that we must 
recognize differences not only for breed, age, sex, etc., but 
also for each individual. It is true these are slight, but 
they must be taken into account in drawing conclusions 
for both the healthy and the diseased. The rectal (or 
vaginal) temperature is the most reliable; that in the 
groin under favorable circumstances is usually about one 
degree less than in the rectum, but it can not be relied on. 

The dogs on which the observations were made be- 
long to the author's own kennel, and were disturbed as 
little as possible during the act of taking the temperature. 
The animals were a pedigreed greyhound dog and pedi- 
greed Gordon setter bitch,. of almost the same age — about 
two and a half years. 

The following is extracted from the author's record- 
book : Animals fed at 8.30 a. m. and 5 p. m. Dogs re- 
moved from the kennel while taking the day temperatures 
to a room in the house, and kept there during the night of 
observation, January 3 and 4, 1891. The thermometer 


used in the rectum was a corrected, certified Hick's instru 
ment. Time occupied in each observation ten minutes : 

Greyhound Dog. Gordon Setter Bitch. 

10.00 A. M 10°2-0 101-4 

12.00 noon 102-2 102-2 

2.00 P.M..... 102-4 101-7 

5.30 p. M 101-7 101-9 

8.15 p.M 101-5 101-6 

10.30 p.M 101-5 101-6 

12.00 p. M 101-4 101-2 

2.00 A. M 100-4 101-8 

4.00A.M » 100-4 100-7 

6.00 A. M 100-4 100-8 

7.40 A. M 100-6 100-5 

The following appears from the above : That there is 
a curve of temperature ; that the maximum differs from 
the minimum (in this case 102-4°, 100-4°, 102-2°, 100-5°) 
to the extent of about 2° — quite an important matter in 
determining the temperature range in fever. 

While there is a maximum in every case examined, it 
has been found that the hour has not agreed in any of the 
dogs examined, though kept under the same conditions. 
The individual differences in temperature, like the indi- 
viduality of animals generally, have been somewhat 
ignored by writers on science and medicine. 

The rectal temperature very rarely falls below 100°, 
and it is important to note that it may rise, as the author 
has many observations to show, above 102° considerably ; 
so that a conclusion that fever exists can not be made on a 
reading of even 102*8°, especially in a puppy in which the 
temperature may naturally be higher than in an adult 
dog, and is liable, as in human infants, to oscilla^te very 

FEVER. 187 

But temperatures under 99° or over 103° should arouse 
suspicion of disease, and even a temperature of 102' 6°, if 
constant, can not be normal. 


An elevated temperature is an indication of that dis- 
turbance of the bodily processes known as fever, which is 
usually accompanied by an increase of heat production 
and a decrease in heat dissipation. That there is increased 
chemical activity is shown by the augmented output of 
urea, carbonic dioxide (CO,), and still more by the excess 
in consumption of oxygen. More fuel and more smoke 
generally mean more heat, and so it is with the body. 

It would seem that fever may be caused by poisons 
produced within the body, or by any agency that will de- 
range the nerve-centers or certain parts of them. 

Usually there is excess of solids in the excretions with 
diminution of fluids. 

Many diseases are marked by febrile symptoms — i. e., 
elevated temperature, rapid pulse and respiration, with 
diminished excretions, etc. Most, if not all, germ dis- 
eases are characterized by febrile symptoms. 


As indicating the rapidity and character of the heart- 
beat, and the condition of the arteries, the pulse conveys 
to the experienced a world of information. It may be 
conveniently taken in the groin of the dog ; but often it 
will be necessary, especially in the case of small dogs, to 
attempt to get at the state of the heart directly, which can 

be readily done in the dog by feeling the organ through 


the chest-wall. As the dog is an excitable animal, he must 
be quieted and soothed a little when the pulse is being 
taken or the heart examined, especially by a stranger. 
In all cases it must be ascertained that the pulse is not 
merely transiently affected as the result of temporary 
excitement from the very process of examination or other- 

The variations natural to the different positions of the 
body are not to be forgotten. 

The pulse at birth is very rapid, 130 to 160 ; for the 
first three months, 120 to 140 ; at from the sixth to the 
ninth month, 90 to 110 ; after one year, 70 to 90. It will 
be understood that these are only rough estimates, so wide 
are the variations with age, sex, breed, position, tempera- 
ment, etc. 

A merely rapid pulse, with no elevation of tempera- 
ture or other unfavorable symptoms, is not of great sig- 
nificance usually. It is to be borne in mind, too, that 
when an adult dog is quietly sleeping the pulse may be 
very slow — indeed, 40 to 50. 

The author desires to draw special attention to a feat- 
ure of the pulse of the dog to which reference is seldom 
made. After puppyhood the pulse is subject to a sort of 
normal irregularity — i. e., with each expiration the pulse 
is slower and stronger, and the beats uneven — a condition 
of things, in fact, which in man or any other animal would 
be a certain sign of disease in the large proportion of cases. 
The phenomenon in question is never shown decidedly 
in a young puppy, and it is never absent in a matured 
dog, so that it constitutes in some measure an indication 
of age. By the inexperienced these peculiarities might 


readily be mistaken for abnormalities of the heart. The 
ratio of the respiration and pnlse in the dog is about tlie 
same as in man — i. e., about one to four. 


He who is most familiar with the appearance and de- 
portment of the dog in health at the various periods of his 
existence will most readily appreciate all departures from 
the normal. It follows that the student of canine medi- 
cine should associate as much as possible with the dog to 
acquire the desired familiarity. The idea that a student 
of medicine can get all the knowledge of dogs that is re- 
quired from seeing sick animals as they may be brought to 
an infirmary, though widespread, has not proved correct, 
and perhaps explains in no small degree that lack of con- 
fidence in veterinary surgeons, as regards the dog, which 
is certainly prevalent if not well founded. 

The careful study of even a single puppy throughout 
its whole period of growth and development by one of 
good powers of observation and a reflective habit of mind 
is one of the best possible preparations for the study of 
canine medicine, and the more of this that can be done the 
better. Departures from the normal can only be ade- 
quately appreciated by him who knows the normal (healthy) 

If the veterinarian were known to be a man who 
understood well the various breeds of dogs in health, and 
was in sympathy with dogs as dogs, there can be little 
doubt that he would be more frequently consulted, espe- 
cially by breeders ; and we see no reason why he should 
not, like the '' family physcian," be periodically called in 



to advise so as to prevent disease — a subject on which mod^ 
ern medicine has made great advances. 

To the really intelligent practitioner there is little sat- 
isfaction in pouring medicine into a dog whose case is 
plainly hopeless, but which might have been saved, possi- 
bly, if an early consultation had been sought. It is for 
owners and practitioners to so understand each other 
that advice will be valued and asked early. A certain 
proportion of breeders, etc., are men of enough intelli- 
gence to appreciate medical discussions — at all events, 
sufficiently to know when to attempt treatment themselves 
and when to call in experts in medicine ; accordingly, the 
author will endeavor to keep this part of the work free 
from needless technicalities, while it is made scientific, his 
object being to make the book as widely useful as possible. 

Diagnosis. — Different persons arrive at a diagnosis or 
determination of the nature of the ailment by different 
methods. The safest, in fact the only absolutely safe way, 
is by the process of exclusion — i. e., considering all possi- 
ble or probable diseases, and finally narrowing down to 
one by determining that the malady can not be any of the 
others ; apparently a tedious method, but in reality with 
practice pretty rapid. 

• Every help must be secured, so that the dog's attitude, 
expression, carriage, etc., are to be considered before he is 
taken in hand for a careful examination of each system of 
the organs of the body. The latter implies what is termed 
physical signs, as ascertained by palpation, or feeling dif- 
ferent parts ; wuscultaiion, or listening to various sounds 
derived from the chest-w^all usually; permssimi, or tap- 
ping with the fingers or instruments over different regions 


with a view of learning whether they are more or less 
resonant than normal, etc. But it will be perceived that 
all this can have but little meaning to him who does not 
understand the normal ; hence every sort of examination 
should be practiced on healthy dogs of various breeds and 
sizes. The physical examination of the dog is easy in it- 
self, but may be troublesome if the animal is restive or 

This leads us to consider the manner of dealing with 
dogs during examination. Some recommend that the dog 
be taken out of the sight of his master, quickly thrown 
down, and so handled that he will be taken by surprise 
and offer no resistance. But in all dealings with dogs it 
can not be too well remembered that they are very sensi- 
tive creatures, of strong likes and dislikes, and good mem- 
ories. A dog may be so treated that it will be almost im- 
possible for the same person ever to succeed a second time 
in examining him. Moreover, if a dog resists it is not 
possible to form correct judgments always, as his functions 
are disturbed thereby. 

If the dog is treated so that he shall see that no harm 
is meant him, he will usually quietly submit according to 
his natural amiability. A little rubbing of the head, a few 
soothing words, a gradual approach toward the real object, 
may occupy a few minutes at first, but save infinitely in 
the end. l^ow and then there are exceptions, but, in our 
experience, they are of the rarest. 

Before making any examination, the history of the case 
should be obtained. To the experienced especially it 
means a great deal, and upon it alone a fairly safe diag- 
nosis may often be made. While the history is being re- 


lated the dog may be observed, and an acquaintance that 
shall win his confidence established. If there are no febrile 
symptoms, a large class of maladies may be excluded. 
But it is especially necessary to point out that the cool, 
moist nose may be very deceptive. A dog with a high 
fever and dangerously sick may have a cool nose ; nor is 
the pulse of the sick dog always accelerated. The only 
safe rule is to use the thermometer. 

In making a diagnosis the greatest unportance is to be 
placed on the symptoms, physical signs, and history of the 
case, as they make wp a whole / and any one who neglects 
to consider them all together is sure to make mistakes. 

In making an examination of the dog it is most impor- 
tant to do it in such a way as will render it easier of ac- 
complishment on the next occasion ; and unless this be car- 
ried out so that it is at least not disagreeable to the ani- 
mal, or as little so as possible, the trouble will increase on 
each repetition. 


The closest investigation the author has been able to 
give the dog has convinced him that this animal is more 
like man in his physical constitution than any other ani- 
mal, as is proved in part by the character of his diseases 
and the way in which medicines and other remedies react 
on him. It is quite impossible to treat the dog on the 
same principles as the horse, ox, etc., while with com- 
paratively few reservations human medicine is directly ap- 
plicable to the dog. This is fortunate, for our knowledge 
of none of the domestic animals at all approaches in ex- 
actness and thoroughness the condition to which ages of 


study under more favorable conditions has brought human 

As the treatment of the dog falls not to the prac- 
titioner of human medicine, but to the veterinarian or prac- 
titioner of comparative medicine, it is all the more neces- 
sary that a special study should be made of the dog, tak- 
ing human rather than equine medicine as the standard of 

More and more must canine medicine become a spe- 
cialty ; and in time it will no doubt develop its own pecul- 
iar doctrines, treatment, etc. In the mean time, the closer 
human practice is imitated the better will it be for the 
dog, always observing those exceptions that experience 
shows must be made. Hence in treating the dog we have 
to use similar food stuffs for the sick, similar medicines in 
like doses, and the same external and internal treatment 
generally as with man. 


A very few drugs are known to he required in larger 
doses for the dog than for man — e. g., aloes ; but this 
medicine alone is not a good remedy for either dogs or 
human beings. Dogs are peculiarly liable to be salivated, 
or even fatally poisoned, by a comparatively small dose of 
calomel, or mercury m other form, so that great care must 
be taken to see that it is administered in very small doses 
(one fourth of a grain to three grains), and speedily removed 
from the system by a saline or other aperient ; nor is it 
safe to use, in most cases, mercurial ointments. Turpentine 
has been instanced as another drug dangerous for the dog ; 
but the same applies to man, except it be used in very 


small doses and shielded by mucilage, milk, etc. It is 
very important to note that opium and its derivatives — as 
morphia — can be tolerated to an almost unlimited extent 
by dogs, so that it can be in rare and urgent cases added 
to ointments which may be licked off without serious 
harm. A large dose of opium nauseates a dog profound- 
ly, but is not at all likely to poison him. 

A rule for the dose of any medicine suitable for the 
dog, based on the quantities given to horses and other do- 
mestic animals, is extremely difficult to lay down ; in fact, 
any attempt to do so is apt to mislead the inexperienced 
very seriously. In general, it may be said that for the 
largest dogs — as full-grown St. Bernards — the dose may be 
exactly as for an adult human being ; but for other dogs, 
of say forty pounds, the dose is about that suitable for a 
child of twelve to fourteen years, or about two thirds that 
for an adult man ; in the case of small, matured dogs — as 
terriers, toy spaniels, etc. — from one third to one half the 
latter will be near the mark. 

In the case of puppies ander two months of age the 
less medicine given the better ; but if it must be admin- 
istered, the doses should be very small and tentative. In 
fact, for a young dog the first dose especially should al- 
ways be smaller than is usually safe, with a view to any 
possible idiosyncrasy, and to allow the stomach and con- 
stitution generally to adapt themselves somewhat to the 
foreign substance, for such it is.* 

Sucking puppies may be treated, as for constipation, 
through the mother, since drugs are in many cases ex- 

* A tabular statement of the principal drugs recommended in this 
volume and their doses will be found at the end. 


creted into the milk. As a rule, very young nursing pup- 
pies can not be safely drugged directly. 

The method of administration of medicine is of simi- 
lar importance to the method or manner of him who un- 
dertakes the examination of dogs, because of the difficulties 
that arise if the animal becomes unmanageable or objects 
seriously to the treatment. Harshness with dogs is so radi- 
cally opposed to their nature that it in every way defeats 
the end in view. (See Fig. 30. page 389.) 

The following methods have been recommended : 1. 
To back the animal into a corner, press the lips against 
the teeth, and, when the mouth is opened, pass the medi- 
cine far back, rapidly close the mouth, and wait for the 
dog to swallow, covering the nostrils, if necessary, to com- 
pel him to do so. 2. Inserting the neck of a small bottle 
containing the medicine in the pouch between the angle of 
the lips and gradually pouring the liquid back. 3. Pouring 
the medicine down, if liquid, from a spoon. 4. Giving 
pills in pieces of meat. 6. Attaching a cloth to the upper 
and lower jaws to hold them open in the case of dogs 
large and hard to manage. 6. To keep the head up by 
a fastening after the administration, to prevent vomiting. 

As a matter of fact, while each of these methods may 
be useful as guides, and successful or necessary in some 
cases, the nature of the dog and the amount of experience 
one has must greatly determine the method. If possible, 
it is well that a dog should not know that he is getting 
medicine at all, so that if the latter can be given as small 
pills in meat it is most desirable. Modern pharmacy has 
provided a large number of preparations, etc., for the 
practitioner of human medicine. In some respects these 


are far more necessary for him whose duty it is to minis- 
ter to sick dogs. They can not understand the object ot 
what must seem to them ill usage ; they are keen to feel 
any affront, as this liberty by a stranger often must appear ; 
their stomachs tolerate nauseous draughts and boluses very 
badly; and altogether there is every reason why dogs 
should get their medicine in the way that will cause least 
disturbance of their feelings, which, as we have before 
pointed out and as we know by ourselves, has much to do 
with the bodily condition; and without that exhaustion 
which may follow a struggle to give medicine. 

It pays, in every sense of the word, to use means to pre- 
vent dogs tasting the medicines they must take. Hence, to 
have pills either gelatin-coated or sugar-coated, or to use 
gelatin capsules, will be most important. So many drugs 
are now put up in useful combinations for man's use that 
the canine practitioner can avail himself of a large field 
for selection. Gelatin capsules No. and No. 00 serve 
every purpose for dogs. Occasionally liquids must be 

Spoons of various sizes, strong, with blunt edges, and 
capable of containing more than the dose intended, will be 
useful. For obstinate cases, the medicine spoon as used 
in human practice will be a useful addition. 

It is often necessary to give castor oil to dogs. This 
can be done with greater satisfaction if it be somewhat 
warmed (the spoon also) and floated in a little milk, when 
it will run off the spoon and down the dog's throat easier. 

Quickness in the administration of medicines is of the 
greatest importance. 

The author's own practice in giving medicine is as fol- 


lows : Never to use fluids that must be poured down, if 
possible to avoid it ; to get the dog against a wall, a cor- 
ner preferred, between the knees, press on the lips just 
enough to cause the mouth to open, then insert the gela- 
tin capsule, moistened with saliva, far back on the tongue, 
and, giving it a gentle but rapid push down with the 
fingers, suddenly close the dog's mouth, when he usually 
swallows, almost unaware of what has happened. Then 
a pat on the head and an encouraging word, and he thinks 
no worse of his physician than before, especially if he gets 
a taste of meat or a sup of milk just after. Even in giv- 
ing pills we now often prefer to put them in a small 
gelatin capsule, so that the dog actually tastes nothing at 
all. However, the above method is varied a great deal. 

Following this method, the author can administer, with- 
out trouble to himself or offense to the dogs, a dose of 
medicine repeatedly to any of the more than twenty in- 
mates of his kennel at the present time. But in the case 
of some very sensitive dogs — e. g., Irish setters — it may be 
well for the master or trainer to get some one else to give 
medicine, so that he may not be associated with any un- 
pleasantness in tlie mind of the puppy. Sometimes a 
syringe may prove very useful in giving medicine. It 
should be of hard rubber, or, if of glass, well guarded with 
metal. Large balls or boluses are unsuitable for dogs. It 
is better to make them into smaller masses (pills), which 
can be given several together. However, gelatin capsules 
are so cheap and convenient that there can be no reason 
for neglecting their use. 

Dogs may be given injections by the rectum or vagina 
without trouble. They object to hypodermic injections, 


which should only be used in extreme cases demanding a 
very rapid action, as in collapse, internal haemorrhage, 
poisoning, etc. When the stomach will not tolerate medi- 
cine, it may be given hypodermically or by the rec- 
tum. But, in all dealings with dogs, decision, rapid action, 
gentleness, etc., can not be too much insisted on. 

As a rule, to which there are some exceptions, medi- 
cines had better be given after food, in which case they do 
not so readily act on any one part of the stomach and are 
more gradually taken into the blood. This rule applies to 
all preparations of iron and arsenic. Aperients should be 
given on an empty stomach. 


In some of the gravest troubles to which the dog is 
subject, food and the surroundings of the patient are of 
infinitely more importance than medicine, while in many 
minor ones attention to these alone is required. Per- 
haps the best advice that can be given either the breeder 
or the student of medicine is to make himself familiar 
with the actual preparation of those various articles of 
diet that have in recent times proved invaluable in 
the hands of the enlightened human practitioner and 
trained nurse. "Know thyself" applies here again in 

full force. 

Dogs have sensitive stomachs, and may altogether 
refuse to eat. Often this is Kature's method of restoring 
a disordered digestion or assimilation; but during the 
progress of febrile diseases the animal must either be 
tempted with palatable food and coaxed to eat, or 
forced, if his Hfe is to be saved. Food that is light 


and easily digested, or food that is readily digestible and 
also liighly nutritious, is indicated. 

Broths, milk, eggs, rice prepared in various forms with 
the greatest skill, may be taken when all else is rejected. 
Often the dog will accept a little given to him from the 
hand, and will so improve in the interval that at the next 
feeding period he will eat spontaneously. 

When a dog is rapidly losing flesh and strength, if he 
will not eat he should have small quantities of suitable 
food forced down his throat every hour or two. If the 
stomach is very irritable, small pieces of ice, or a very 
little spirits with broth, fluid beef, eggnog, etc., may be 
useful. In fact, the addition of a little wine, brandy, or 
whisky to liquid food in prostrating diseases may mark 
the turning point in the case. An excellent combination 
is broth and boiled rice, the latter being so easily digested. 
But if a sick dog will take nothing else, he may relish raw 
meat. The best beef or mutton, grated or minced, some- 
times acts like a charm, and need rarely be denied. 

The opinion of one who knows the individual dog well, 
provided he is one of those keen and sympathetic observ- 
ers, should be given the greatest weight, even by the most 
accomplished practitioner. We must beware of giving 
liquid food too long, lest the stomach rebel against it. 
The aim is to furnish food for a wasting, disordered or- 
ganism in a form that can be used, and often the instincts 
of the animal, if duly consulted, will be the best guide. 

As a sick dog is in every way at a disadvantage, the 
more care must be observed as to all matters of venti- 
lation, cleanliness, a suitable temperature, quiet, and com- 
fort generally, including a ministering to his self-esteem 


and love of approbation. Who has not been touched bj 
the friendly wag of the dog's tail when not far from the 
end of all things to him ? Who has not seen the effort to 
eat, simply to please the one whose slightest wish it has 
been the very highest delight of his life to meet ? 


Disinfection as a preventive of disease must play a 
great part in the medicine of the present and the future. 
Since it is now known that very many of the most fatal 
diseases are of microbic (parasitic) origin, and that these 
germs can, in many cases, live outside of the body, and so 
perpetuate disease in animals exposed to them, their de- 
struction by suitable agents is plainly indicated. Such 
destruction of the germs themselves and the poisonous 
products they create is disinfection. 

A disinfectant may or may not be a deodorizer, and 
in practice it is very important that a strong smell of car- 
bolic acid, chlorinated lime, etc., shall not of itself satisfy 
the mind. 

Disinfection of kennels, whether there has been con- 
tagious disease or not, at regular periods, is a precaution 
the proprietor will never regret. 

It is to be remembered that the germs of disease are 
usually propagated by spores, or microscopic vegetable 
cells, which have great vitality— i. e., can resist conditions 
fatal to most forms of life about us. Thus they bear, 
many of them, prolonged drying, great extremes of tem- 
perature, etc. Such facts probably explain the amazing 
tenacity that such a disease as distemper has in maintain- 
ing itself in a kennel in which it has once broken out. 


Disinfectants have been divided into two classes — those 
capable of destroying spores, including fire, steam under 
pressure (twenty-five pounds), boiling water, solution of 
chloride of lime, liquor soda3 chlorinatse (Labarraque's 
solution), and mercuric chloride in solution (corrosive 
sublimate). The second group is effective only in the 
absence of spores, and includes dry heat (230° Fahr. for 
two hours), sulphur dioxide, carbolic acid, solution of cop- 
per sulphate, and solution of chloride of zinc. 

The strength of the above solutions should be con- 
siderable and their application thorough. It will be seen 
that the agents of the first group must be the most reli- 
able, and should be resorted to in all doubtful cases. 

In the absence of disease, and merely to keep a kennel 
sweet and free from vermin, some of the various prepara- 
tions on the market serve a good purpose, such as Jeyes' 
fluid, "creosin," " sanitas sawdust," etc. " Sanitas saw- 
dust" is one of those easily handled preparations that 
are most useful for kennels and dog-shows. But none 
of these should be relied on after distemper. 

In actual practice it will be the safest to use several 
methods of disinfection. The subject is so important 
that it will receive attention again in connection with the 
disease distemper. 


Disease or alteration of the natural functions to an 
extent detrimental to the animal's welfare does not usually 
exist long without changes of either a gross or microscopic 
character ; and as experience has shown that certain sets 
of symptoms are generally associated with definite altera- 


tions in the size, color, consistence, vascularity, etc., of 
organs, for the purpose of being sure as to the actual dis- 
ease a post-mortem examination must be made ; and while 
one familiar with the normal appearances in a dead ani- 
mal may know that such and such departures exist in any 
given case, yet their exact interpretation is especially the 
duty of the expert. 

It is plain that the sooner after death the autopsy is 
made, especially in very warm or very cold weather, the 
better the chance of learning the conditions as they ex- 
isted during life, which is what is aimed at but not so 
easily attained. The position of the animal at death and 
since should be noted, as this will explain gravitation of 
blood and other fluids, the neglect of which has led to 
very erroneous conclusions. Naturally the veins contain 
most of the blood after death, so that if the small arteries 
or capillaries are full, inflammation, etc., is to be suspected. 
The condition of the heart is very instructive. If full of 
blood and distended, death must have taken place during 
the relaxed phase {diastole) of the organ, and this is al- 
ways so in cases of strangulation from any cause. 

When the heart is smaller, contracted, relatively pale, 
death must have taken place during contraction {systole) 
of the organ. Generally with the full heart the lungs are 
engorged with blood also, and in fact the appearance of 
every organ may be modified by the condition of the heart 
as affecting its blood-supply at the moment of death. 

Bearing this in mind, all other departures from the 
normal can only be estimated by experience in examining 
the dog or some other animal (the more closely allied to it 
the better) that has died from bleeding in the one case and 


from suffocation in the other. The student is recom- 
mended to investigate this subject on young puppies that 
must be killed soon after birth — worthless curs, kittens, 
rats, etc. Having learned what is normal, then a knowl- 
edge of the deviations produced by disease can be gradual- 
ly gained by autopsies on animals, the history and the 
symptoms being well known, for without these any one 
may be puzzled, and to the beginner they are absolutely 

Of course, post-mortem blood-staining is to be dis- 
tinguished from inflammatory redness, bile-staining from 
escape of bile, etc. 

The object of the present section is not, however, to 
furnish a systematic treatise on morbid anatomy, but to 
point out the great importance of studying the appear- 
ances of organs after death in hoth the healthy and 

A very few brief directions in making autopsies on the 
dog may not be out of place. It must always be remem- 
bered that the organs must be studied in relation to each 
other, and, before any one of them is removed or cut into, 
its own appearance and that of related parts well observed. 
If the examination be systematically conducted, the cause 
of death can usually be assigned. 

The general appearance and condition of the animal, 
its position, etc., is to be noted. 

Observations are to be recorded in writing, it being 
always stated how long after death the examination was 

The chest is to be opened by removal of the sternum 
by cutting through the rib cartilages on each side after 


the skin lias been dissected back from the middle line. 
Removal of hair by scissors will often be advisable. 

The circulatory and respiratory systems are so closely 
related that heart, lungs, etc., should be examined early. 
If any fluid is present in the chest it should be described, 
removed, measured, etc. The statement of the position of 
organs if abnormal is very important. 

If the abdomen is opened before the heart or circu- 
latory system in any part is disturbed, some valuable ob- 
servations may be made throwing light on the question of 
congestion, inflammation, etc. 

After noting the position, appearance, etc., of the 
heart, great vessels, lungs, and other contents of the 
thorax, the heart may be incised in position, the pres- 
ence of clots observed, the amount of blood in a fluid 
state, etc., all cuts being made so as not to injure the 

Then the organ may be removed, cutting away as 
much of the great vessels with the heart as possible, when 
all pa-rts may be opened up fully for more complete ob- 

The lungs should be removed with the trachea and 
larynx, so that all may be carefully examined. It should 
always be stated, in case of suspected disease, whether sec- 
tions of the lungs will float or not. The character of se- 
cretions in the bronchial tubes is to be stated, and, in case 
of sudden death, foreign bodies looked for in the larynx, 
bronchial tubes, etc. 

The same care should be taken before removal to note 
the position of organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavities 
as in the thorax. 


Intussusception, or one part of tlie intestine pushed 
within another, is not very uncommon in the dog, and at 
this stage it should be looked for — also perforations ; in 
fact, let everything possible be done to detect lesions be- 
fore the removal of organs. The stomach should be in- 
cluded between double ligatures at both extremities, and 
then cut free. After the removal of the intestines both 
may be examined on a suitable table or board, on which 
they may be spread out, slit open, and, after inspection of 
the contents, washed by running a stream of water over 
them from a small kettle ; the position, numbers, and kinds 
of parasites, ulcers, adhesions, etc., noted, and so with all 
other organs. 

It sometimes becomes necessary to examine the nerv- 
ous centers, the brain, and spinal cord, more frequently 
the former. This task is more difficult from the very per- 
fection of their bony protective cases. Small saws and 
bone-forceps of different kinds are required. The cuts, 
after removal of the skin of the head, may be made just 
above the base — ^on a line with the root of the ear in a 
good many cases. The saw should not penetrate soft 
parts within the skull, or lacerations will result that may 
prevent any safe conclusions being drawn. The degree of 
distention of the blood-vessels of the coverings of the 
brain, any unnatural adhesions, tumors, clots, etc., should 
be noted before the brain is lifted from its case for syste- 
matic slicing. 

A blunt chisel-like instrument is of great service, after 
the saw-cuts are made, in prying off the brain case. The 
removal of the spinal cord is difficult, and, fortunately, 
not so often required. The vertebral arches must be 


opened from the back either with bone-forceps or bj 
these together with a saw. 

The cause of death is always finally by the heart and 
lungs, so that the problem resolves itself into what has 
caused the arrest of their functions ; and while in some in- 
stances, as in the case of violent haemorrhages, this may be 
easy enough, in others the chain of events is long and 
complicated, and some of the links almost impossible to 

Every practitioner of medicine should aim at being an 
expert in making and interpreting autopsies ; while every 
breeder who will secure the assistance of the expert may 
get much useful help in avoiding future calamities, and 
aid in the most efiectual way in the advancement of medi- 


Reference has already been made to the term " type," 
or " typical," as applied to breeds of dogs. The same may 
be used for the characteristics of disease. In studying 
any disease it is found that the combinations of symptoms 
are rarely, perhaps never, quite the same in any two ani- 
mals — a statement which also applies to their intensity, 
order of appearance, etc., though the latter is often fairly 
constant. These variations, as we have already tried to 
make clear, are due to the inborn and acquired differences 
in the constitutions of animals of the same species, which 
are inseparable from and constitute indimduality. As 
there are so many breeds of dogs, these principles apply 
forcibly. But in reading most works on medicine which 


are professedly systematic treatises, one meets with such a 
long array of maladies, such a host of symptoms, and such 
a variety of " complications," that he is at first surprised, 
when an actual case of the disease presents itself, that not 
a quarter, perhaps, of the symptoms enumerated are really 
present, while the complications are likely enough wholly 

Further, with increasing experience, it is found that in 
ordinary practice, either as a breeder or practitioner of 
canine medicine, not a few of the diseases so fully de- 
scribed are scarcely met at all. While it is desirable that 
the expert shall know all the possibilities, it is only just 
to the learner, whoever he may be, to point out that some 
of the departures from health described in books are 
merely pathological curiosities. And it is especially ne- 
cessary to warn the beginner not to expect to find all the 
symptoms that may be enumerated actually present in any 
one case, or in any score of cases. But it is most impor- 
tant that the reader grasp the general character^ the type^ 
the fades of the disease under consideration — that com- 
bination of phenomena, whatever we term it, which will 
enable him to understand in a general way what is going 
on within the body of the animal whenever such a dis- 
turbance exists as is denominated the disease in question. 
After that each case must be studied on its merits. It 
will be clear that there is always room for the exercise of 
the greatest judgment in diagnosis, prognosis, and treat- 

The weakness of patent remedies in the light of such 
considerations must be plain. There can, in the very 
nature of the case, be, as a rule, no panaceas, no remedies 



of universal application. But what is possible is a mas- 
tery of the principles of physiology, pathology, and thera- 
peutics ; an acquaintance with symptoms as they group 
themselves in disordered animals; a knowledge of gross 
and microscopic lesions, etc. 

It will be the aim of the remaining portions of this 
book to be a guide to the accomplishment of this in so far 
as space permits, though, of course, it will be quite impos- 
sible to teach, ah iiiitio, such sciences as physiology, pa- 
thology, and therapeutics, while we ever gladly point to 
them as the only true lights in scientific medicine, canine 
or other. 

Relative Prevalence of Disease. — As a matter of fact, 
the greater number of dogs die within the first year of 
life, or, as in the human subject, during the period of 
very early youth, infancy, or puppyhood, as we term it, 
respectively ; and for this high mortality parasites, mostly 
internal, and distemper are chiefly responsible, always 
including all possible complications and consequences 
(sequelcB); to these must be added disturbances of the 
digestive tract and skin disease, as frequent though not 
commonly fatal maladies. A considerable proportion of 
puppies die of inflammations of the respiratory organs. 

But if any large breeder of dogs were to look over 
his mortality records for a long series of years, he 
would, we venture to state, be able to place fully three 
quarters of all fatalities under debility, parasites, and 

The first is scarcely a disease ; it is rather lack of 
vitality, usually traceable to injudicious mating or ina4e- 
quate care of the brood bitch. 















""^v^U ! 










So that, to meet the needs of actual practice, whether 
as it falls to the breeder or the veterinarian, we shall dis- 
cuss fully those conditions which are found in fact to be 
the cause of three quarters of all canine misfortunes, and 
only briefly, if at all, diseases of the rarest occurrence, and 
others requiring but common sense, general medical knowl- 
edge, and a knowledge of canine nature generally, to enable 
any one to cope with the conditions. 

However, as it is more scientific and, in the end, better 
in practice, we shall consider the derangements of each 
main system of the body ; though the reader is again re- 
minded that all the systems are inseparably connected, and 
that every one is in sympathy with the other — a result 
to be explained chiefly through the nervous system, the 
blood, and the lymph which is derived from the blood 
and is the real food of the tissues. 

In cities the veterinarian is verj- frequently consulted 
in regard to toy dogs — pampered pets — whose physical 
nature rebels against what their perverted instincts toler- 
ate. Most of their ailments are traceable to the alimentary 
tract ; and dieting, or positive abstinence from food for a 
time, proves most serviceable for them. 

As before indicated, it will be assumed that we are 
dealing with pure-bred dogs, for any treatment that will 
be efficacious with them is still more likely to succeed with 
mongrels, that are both less liable to disease and more 
readily restored to health. 


Anatomical and Physiological, — The respiratory tract 
is the area over which the gases that are concerned in the 



ventilation of the blood pass, and extends from the nos- 
trils to the air-cells. 

Briefly, the tract consists of a mucous membrane cov- 
ered with epithelial cells, abounding in blood-vessels and lin- 

FiG. 12.— Lungs, Anterior View (Sappey). 
1, upper lobe of left lung ; 2, lower lobe ; 3, fissure ; 4, notch corresponding to 
apex of heart ; 5, pericardium ; 6, upper lobe of right lung : 7. middle lobe ; 
8, lower lobe ; 9, fissure ; 10, fissm'e ; 11, diaphragm ; 12, anterior mediasti- 
num ; 13. thyroid gland ; 14, middle cervical aponeurosis ; 15, process of at- 
tachment of mediastinum to pericardium ; 16, 16, seventh ribs ; 17, 17, trans- 
versales muscles ; 18, linea alba. Though this cut refers to the human sub- 
ject, the relations of parts are substantially the same in the dog. 

ing the nose, back of the throat, the voice box {larynx)^ the 
wind-pipe {trachea)^ its subdivisions {pronchi\ and blend- 


ing with the essential lung membrane {air-cells, alveoli). 
The tubes constitute a tree-like framework, upon which the 
lung tissue proper is supported. The mass of this is elastic 
tissue. The atmospheric air rushes into the respiratory 
tract when the chest is enlarged by the muscles attached to 

Fig. 13.— Bronchial Tubes and Lungs, Posterior View (Sappey). 
1, 1, summit of luugs ; 2, 2, base of lungs ; 3, trachea ; 4, right bronchus ; 5, divis- 
ion to upper lobe of limg ; 6, division to lower lobe ; 7, left bronchus ; 8, divis- 
ion to upper lobe ; 9, division to lower lobe ; 10, left branch of pulmonary 
artery : 11, right branch ; 12, left auricle of heart ; 13, left superior pulmonary 
vein ; 14, left inferior pulmonary vein ; 15, right superior pulmonary vein ; 16^ 
right inferior pulmonary vein ; 17, inferior vena cava ; 18, left ventricle of 
heart ; 19, right ventricle. 

it, because the lungs everywhere fit its walls closely ; and 
air is expelled when the muscles are relaxed, the whole to 
be explained on physical principles ; but the action of the 
muscles is due to commands or nervous impulses originated 


in a collection of nerve-cells or center in that portion of 
the brain {m£didla oblongata) just anterior to the spinal 
cord. This center is accessible to the blood, and may be 
influenced by nervous connections of the most extensive 
kind, so that the breathing reflects the changes that are 
taking place elsewhere in the body. 

The essence of respiration is the interchange of the 
oxygen of the air and the carbon dioxide (COa) of the 
blood ; but beyond that there can be no doubt that many 
poisonous substances are eliminated from the blood by the 

The blood is exposed in the lungs in extremely minute 
blood-vessels (capillaries), which are everywhere distrib- 
uted over the air-cells, so that the whole process may be 
said to be resolved into the exposure of blood to the air 
by the intervention of the cells that compose the capillary 
blood-vessels, the basement membrane of the lungs and 
the cells covering it — all of which are of the very thinnest. 

The retention of the carbon dioxide and the poisonous 
excreta referred to stupefies and poisons the animal, while 
the withholding of oxygen from the blood starves the tis- 
sues, all of which constantly require it for their very exist- 
ence, and gives rise to a feeling of distress which we can 
ourselves artificially produce by holding the breath. The 
oxygen is carried to all parts by the coloring matter of the 
red blood-corpuscles, which is lighter or darker according 
to the amount of oxygen it retains. Such facts enable us 
to understand many of the phenomena of inflammation 
and other affections of the respiratory tract. 

The principal inflammatory diseases of the tract are 
laryngitis, Ironchitis, influenza, pneumonia, smd pleurisy. 


All diseases of tlie respiratory tract, notably all acute 
inflanimations, have much in common. In all, from dimi- 
nution of the breathing capacity or the aerating func- 
tions, the-e is more or less disturbance in respiration, with 
a corresponding alteration in the circulatory system. In 
addition, as in all inflammations, there are febrile symp- 
toms, while the whole system is affected by the retained 
poisonous products, lack of oxygen, etc. 

The onset of all is favored, if not actually caused, by 
exposure to great and sudden changes of temperature, 
especially after exercise, or when sleeping in cold and 
draughty kennels. 

Prophylaxis. — Good feeding, regular and sufficient 
exercise, comfortable and well-aired kennels. Wet, with 
cold, and, above all, draughts, are especially to be avoided. 

Common Pathology. — This depends on the fact that 
there is in all these diseases an inflammation, so that there 
is more or less sudden arrest of secretion, with swelling 
of the mucous meml)rane, followed by excess of and 
altered secretion, and modified function generally. 

Common Symptom^s. — Kapid breathing and pulse, ten- 
dency to nausea at the outset, a chill, febrile symptoms, 
anorexia (loss of appetite), more or less distress or actual 
pain, altered physical thoracic signs, changed secretions, etc. 

Prognosis. — Good, if not arising as complications of 
other diseases, and if the animal is not debilitated and the 
treatment be judicious, especially the hygienic surround- 
ings and the feeding. 

Treatment. — (For doses of medicines, see table at end 
of the book, and for formulae, pages 235 and 286.) The 
indication in all is at the outset, and only in the stage of 


hyperaemia or congestion to attempt to abort the mischief. 
This is rarely successful, as the case is not usually observed 
early enough. But at the moment of chill, a laxative, a 
good dose of quinine with bromide of potassium, the ap- 
plication of the chest-jacket, to be presently described, 
and perhaps a little whisky, to be followed in an hour 
by Dover's powder, may cut short a threatened attack. 
This will not usually be successful, and the aim must be 
to favor the aeration and purification of the blood by the 
closest attention to the atmosphere surrounding the pa- 
tient, which should be kept pure by frequent interchange 
of air. The temperature must be even, not less than 60° 
to 65° Fahr., and the air rather moist. 

Draughts are fatal. To relieve pain, quiet the heart's 
action if rapid and strong, or support it if weak. Keep 
the temperature within bounds ; administer a suitable diet, 
light usually at first, later very nutritious, but easily di- 

In this class of maladies the danger is from poisoning 
of the system by retained products, both natural, which 
are not eliminated as usual, and altered secretions; the 
heart is overworked, and death often occurs, sometimes 
suddenly, from cardiac failure, so that the pulse must be 
carefully watched. The rate of the heart's action is not 
of so much importance usually as its character. 

When the heart is weak, tonics, and especially digitalis, 
with alcoholic stimulants, administered in small doses but 
often, are called for. The animal's strength must be main- 
tained at all costs. If it will not take food, the latter, in 
the form of concentrated extracts or of the nature of fluid 
beef, must be given ; also eggnog, etc. 


On stimulants, hygiene, and feeding must tlie reliance 
be placed in extreme cases. Drugs are of subordinate 

Convalescence is assisted by gentle exercise, sunshine, 
massage, amusement, tonics, cod-liver oil, etc. 

It is well to keep records of the respirations and pulse- 
rate, as any very markedly disturbed ratio should arrest 
attention, and is by no means a good sign. 

Some additional remarks on each disease, to enable the 
reader to grasp the salient features, will now be better ap- 

Influenza. — This disease, long known among men and 
horses as an epizootic, is rarer among dogs, and is of very 
varying degrees of severity. There is an inflammation of 
the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, beginning 
usually in the nose and extending downward, sometimes, 
especially in the debilitated and old, ending in pneumonia. 

The symptoms are altered breathing, frequent sneez- 
ing, dryness, and burning sensation (if we may judge by 
man's experience), with high temperature and great pros- 

Diagnosis. — The eyes soon become affected. The 
watery secretion from the nose and eyes, and the sneez- 
ing, with the fact that the disease generally goes through 
an entire kennel, will render the diagnosis 6asy. 

Prognosis. — Favorable, if pneumonia does not inter- 
vene, at least in vigorous animals. 

Treatment. — Quinine, phenacetin, etc., with bromide of 
potassium at the outset ; attention to temperature of the 
dog's apartment and other hygienic conditions, to food, etc. 

If much depression, stimulants. Convalescence must 


be carefully watched, tonics, especially nux vomica and 
strychnine and cod-liver oil, which latter may be consid- 
ered as a food as well as tonic, being very useful. 

Acute Laryngitis is not so common by itself in the dog 
as in the horse and in man, unless that very mild form 
associated with a common cold ; but it may result from 
cold, from chemical or mechanical injury, as from tugging 
at a chain, etc. Inflammations of other parts often extend 
to the larynx. 

Diagnosis. — There may be difiiculty in swallowing, 
but usually an alteration in the voice of the dog, with 
more or less husky cough, tenderness on pressure, etc., es- 
tablish the diagnosis. 

Prognosis. — Favorable if oedema (thickening of tissues 
by effusion of liquid into them from the blood-vessels) 
does not set in. 

Treatment. — Good hygienic conditions, as indicated 
above. Simple cases require nothing more. 

The bowels to be kept freely open. Counter-irritation 
by means of turpentine, coal oil, stimulating liniments, or 
St. George's paint, over the upper trachea and the larynx, 
will tend to relieve and prevent the inflammation spread- 
ing to the parts below. 

Inhalation of medicated vapors, though most useful, is 
not easily carried out with the dog ; but he can be much 
helped by having his food given in small quantities in 
liquid and semi-liquid form, very hot ; and the air may also 
be kept moist and warm with steam. Any attempts to 
apply hot fomentations to the dog are apt to be frustrated, 
but in an extreme case they should be tried. 

As there is usually some pain and cough, sedatives may 


be given in the form of coniurn, hyoscyamus, belladonna, 
and especially Dover's powder. 

Certain oils and balsams, as copaiba, balsam of Tolu, 
etc., seem to exercise a beneficial effect. 

If suffocation threaten from swelling, tracheotomy 
should be performed — an operation to be avoided, if possi- 
ble, on account of all wounds about the neck of the dog 
tending to bleed excessively. 

Should the disease become chronic, various applica- 
tions found useful in human practice may be tried with 
the dog, though to place a solution with any degree of cer- 
tainty in the larynx itself is not always possible. A brush 
with handle bent at a right angle will be most serviceable. 
A solution of chloride of zinc in water to the extent of 
ten to forty grains to the ounce, and then diluted one half 
with glycerin, is excellent ; but at first great care must be 
exercised lest glottic spasm be produced. 

Pleurisy. — The inner surface of the thoracic walls, the 
upper aspect of the diaphragm, and the lungs themselves, 
are covered with an elastic smooth membrane, lubricated 
in health with a small quantity of fluid secreted by its own 
investing cells. 

In pleurisy or inflammation of this covering it be- 
comes dry, the friction of the opposed surfaces gives rise 
to pain, and sometimes to a rough grating or crackling 
sound — " friction sound" — which is diagnostic. 

Causes. — Similar to those producing other inflamma- 
tions of the respiratory tract, but, in addition, various con- 
ditions of the system, as rheumatism, kidney disease, blood 
poisoning {septiccemia), etc. It is a frequent complication 
or accompaniment of other diseases of the lungs when it is 


not easily detected. Various injuries, as fracture of the 
ribs, also induce it. 

Pathology. — Dryness of the membrane, followed by 
increased secretion of an altered material, either perma- 
nently fluid or with a tendency to coagulate — "plastic 
lymph." The fluid may or may not be absorbed, and the 
semi-solid matter disappear or become organized and cause 
adhesions, limiting the action of the lungs, which is one 
of the gravest results ; or the fluid produced may be puru- 
lent — also a very serious state of things. 

Prognosis. — As a simple disease and not a complica- 
tion, with but little effusion, and in the absence of pus, 
the prognosis is good j otherwise uncertain. 

Diagnosis. — The differential diagnosis is between 
bronchitis and pneumonia, chiefly the latter. 

The pain, the shallow, quick, catchy breathing, the 
anxious expression, possibly tenderness on percussion, and 
especially the " friction sound " heard on auscultation, with 
absence of dullness at the same time, make the diagnosis 
pretty certain. 

The temperature is not usually as high as in pneu- 

Of course, in the latter disease we get at the outset 
more or less dullness and altered respiratory sounds, which, 
as the disease progresses, become more pronounced, till 
there is positive " wooden dullness " on percussion, with 
the total absence of respiratory sounds over that region, 
and intensified sounds with "blowing" or "bronchial" 
breathing elsewhere on the affected side. 

The difficulty in diagnosis is only in the earliest stage, 
before the physical signs of pneumonia are well estab- 


lished. Later, if there be dullness in pleurisy, owing to 
fluid, it is shifting in extent, and varies with the position 
of the animal. 

In bronchitis we usually soon hear sounds {rales) of 
some sort on auscultation, which may be present in pneu- 
monia, though not without the signs of solidification. 

Percussion cmd Auscultation. — Percussion should pre- 
cede auscultation. We believe that the best results will 
follow the practice of very light percussion without the 
help of instruments, placing two or three fingers of one 
hand flat on the chest wall and striking quickly and lightly 
with one or two fingers of the other, so that the blows fall 
evenly and but once on a single spot, the hand working 
only, and not the arm. Eapid comparison can thus be 
made and slight differences noted. It is a good plan to 
percuss corresponding areas on both sides, for each animal 
must be a standard for itself (its own norm.). 

It is well to learn to listen with the ear applied to the 
chest, interposing only a thin piece of cotton, as well as 
with a stethoscope. It is often a great advantage to use 
the modern flexible binaural stethoscope. Apart from 
hearing more distinctly, in the case of dirty dogs infested 
with vermin the advantage is obvious. Shy animals are 
also less disturbed, not to mention the absence of the 
necessity for stooping, etc. 

One who has learned the normal percussion and aus- 
cultation sounds by examination of healthy dogs of differ- 
ent breeds and sizes, will not find much difficulty in soon 
becoming familiar with the main departures in disease, 
while mere verbal descriptions alone are of little real 




Treatment. — Much as in other diseases of the chest as 
to diet, hygienic surroundings, etc. 

Pain must be relieved at once with an opiate, say fif- 
teen grains of Dover's powder for a dog of fair size. 

Counter-irritation is decidedly useful — e. g., an appli- 
cation of turpentine, followed by the chest-jacket (see p. 
226) ; a mild aperient, and aconite to quiet the circula- 
tion, may all prove useful in this stage of the disease. 

Pleurisy with effusion is dangerous in proportion as 
the lung space is replaced by fluid and the vital organs 
displaced. Absorption should be faoilitated by counter- 
irritation, and every measure that will improve the gen- 
eral health. 

Some like to administer small doses of calomel, others 
iodide of potassium and digitalis, to stimulate the kidneys 
to do extra work, carry off more fluid from the blood, etc. 

But if within a reasonable period the fluid does not 
disappear, and especially if it tends to increase, or if it be- 
comes purulent, constituting empyema^ it must be drawn 
off either with a small trocar and canula {'' tapping ") or 
an aspirating needle ; but in no case very suddenly or all 
at once, for fear of heart-failure. The puncture should 
be made low and far back, and with the position of vital 
organs in mind. 

Convalescence may be encouraged by the best of food, 
tonics, etc. 

Chronic pletcrisy^ either as a localized subacute inflam- 
mation or with eft'usion, which is most common and most 
serious, is not of very frequent occurrence in dogs of a 
good constitution. 

The symptoms are much as in the acute form of the 


disease, except that the fever, pain, etc., are not so 

Treatment is to be directed especially to the removal 
of the effused fluid, either by natural absorption or " tap- 
ping," and the greatest attention to the general health of 
the animal. 

Bronchitis. — This disease is an inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes. 

When the smallest tubes are involved the affection is 
termed capillary hronchitls, most common in very young, 
very old, and debilitated subjects, and so is by far the most 
dangerous form. 

Pathology. — There are swelling and dryness of the lin- 
ing membrane of the tul)es, followed by a mucous dis- 
charge in excess, which is apt to become to a greater or 
less extent purulent. 

The cells lining the membrane die, are thrown off and 
expectorated in the case of man. As dogs do not properly 
expectorate or cough to much purpose, they are at a great 
disadvantage. However, they frequently vomit when 
coughing, which tends to expel the excessive and altered 
discharge, and furnishes a hint for treatment. 

Prognosis. — Favorable if not associated with gangrene 
or death of lung tissue, abscess, dilatation of the tubes, 
and if the strength of the animal be good. 

Symptoms. — More or less cough, moist sounds on aus- 
cultation, with sympathetic congestion and catarrh of the 
eyes and nose. 

Treatment. — At the outset an emetic of twenty grains 
of sulphate of zinc, which, if not effective, in a few min- 
utes may be followed by two to four drachms of wine of 


ipecacuanha, a laxative, attention to general comfort, and 
to the ventilation especially. 

When the cough is dry a choice of some of the follow- 
ing in combination may be made, viz. : Ipecac, squills, 
ammonia, spirits of chloroform, hydrochlorate of apomor- 
phia, paregoric, morphia, potassium cyanide, etc. Later, 
ammonium carbonate, syrup of Tolu, or senega may re- 
place some of the preceding. Possibly remedies of this 
character may be required ; but the sooner drugs can be 
dispensed with the better, for they all tend to disorder 
the digestive tract. Quinine, iron, nux vomica, and other 
vegetable bitters may be useful after the acute stage has 

In chronic bronchitis, tonic treatment, including cod- 
liver oil, is of great importance. 

A moderate allowance of alcoholic stimulants, as wine, 
whisky, or brandy, is often called for when bronchitis 
threatens to exhaust the animal, or when it overtakes a 
dog already enfeebled by disease. Supporting treatment, 
with an emetic at the outset, will be best in the capillary 
form of bronchitis. 

In all forms of the disease counter-irritation and the 
chest-jacket are very beneficial. 

Vermmous bronchitis, owing to the presence of para- 
sites in the bronchial tubes, is a rare and unmanageable 
disease, generally leading on to a fatal result. An attempt 
should be made to dislodge the worms by emetics, inhala- 
tions of the fumes of burning tar, etc. 

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the substance of the 
lungs, and may be confined to a portion of one lobe or 
may include the greater part of both lungs. Such exten- 


sive inflammation is not common, and is almost of neces- 
sity fatal. Pneumonia is divided into lobar {croupous^ 
diffuse) and lobular {patchy, catarrhal). In the latter, 
only limited and usually scattered portions of the lung 
tissue are involved. Tliis form is most common as a com- 
plication of bronchitis, and especially when it arises in 
the course of other diseases. 

Causation. — The onset is favored by wet, cold, any- 
thing inducing a chill, etc. Some cases are almost cer- 
tainly due to a microbe, and the disease then seems to be 
infectious. It will be safe in treatment to regard all cases 
as infective. 

Pathology. — In lobar pneumonia we have a typical 
inflammation with hyperaemia, soon followed by escape of 
red and white cor^Duscles from the blood-vessels, and effu> 
sion of a coagulable fluid with increase {proliferation) of 
the lining and other cells of the tissue of the lung. The 
portion of lung involved gets red and solid, when removed 
after death, sinks in water, cuts firm, and looks not unlike 
liver. This is the stage of red hepatization, and is suc- 
ceeded, when the course of events is typical, by a fatty 
degeneration of the morbid products, a stage known as 
gray hepatization. Resolution is the return to the nor- 
mal by the absorption or removal of this foreign material, 
a natural state of the blood-vessels, etc. Untoward results 
may occur, abscess or purulent infiltration — i. e., breaking 
down of the lung tissue — and gangrene or local death, 
usually followed by breaking down of a portion of the 
lung. Both the latter conditions frequently prove fatal. 
With pneumonia there is usually more or less bronchitis, 
and often pleurisy. 


Prognosis. — As a matter of fact, pneumonia is a dis- 
ease that carries off a considerable proj)ortion of the 
canine race, both as a jDrimary affection and as a complica- 
tion and sequel of other affections, which is probably 
owing to its attacking weakly animals when a primary 
disease, to neglect at the outset, and to indiscreet treat- 
ment ; while during the course of and subsequent to other 
diseases the constitution is naturally often unable to bear 
the additional strain. 

Much in the prognosis will depend on the amount of 
lung tissue involved, the condition of the heart, and the 
patient's vitality and resisting power. 

Symptoms. — Usually pronounced. Dyspnoea (distress- 
ing breathing), characteristic anxious fades or expression, 
injected (red) eyes, dry and hot (not always) nose, and 
most characteristic attitude. The animal sits on his 
haunches, with his head extended and mouth open, evi- 
dently suffering from lack of oxygen. If the dog attempts 
to lie down, he keeps the head supported high on some 
object. In extreme cases he may be unable to lie down 
at all. Percussion reveals a more or less dull sound over 
the affected area ; auscultation, fine crackling sounds. 
However, neither of these may be very distinct. 

If pleurisy be present, a friction sound is to be heard 
{crepitant rdles\ and this friction of dry surfaces explains 
the pain in great part, if such exist. 

The attack is usually ushered in by a chill — a symptom 
which should always be inquired for and to which the 
greatest importance should be attached, as invariably in- 
dicating that something serious is at hand in any animal 
the subject of it. 

For description, see page 69. 


The pulse is usually rapid, and disturbance of the 
pulse-respiration ratio is apt to occur. Instead of the 
normal four to one, it may be two to one, or less. 

The temperature may reach 104° to 106° Fahr., with 
other indications of fever. 

In pneumonia too much reliance must not be placed on 
physical signs, as there may be very grave disease without 
the former being at all well pronounced. 

But prostration, a weak, irregular, very slow or very 
rapid cardiac action, or greatly disturbed pulse-respiration 
ratio, are indications calling for a cautious prognosis and 
the most watchful treatment, especially if with these there 
be much dyspnoea or cyanosis (blueness of mucous mem- 
branes, etc.), indicating that the blood is being very poorly 

Less frequently than in man does the dog cough up 
the characteristic rusty sputum — i. e., mucus, etc. — with 
blood enough to color it. When this is seen, the diagnosis 
of pneumonia is clear. 

Diagnosis. — The altered respiration, the position of 
the animal, the dullness on percussion, etc., usually suffice 
to establish the diagnosis in lobar pneumonia, by far the 
commonest form as a primary disease. 

The patchy or lobular form is more difficult to make 
out; but if there be limited areas of dullness, or more 
diffuse but ill-defined dullness on percussion appearing 
during an attack of bronchitis or other disease, this form 
of pneumonia is to be suspected. 

Treatment. — The greatest difference of opinion pre- 
vails on this subject both as regards human and veterinary 
practice, some even maintaining that when no treatment 


whatever beyond careful nursing is adopted the results are 
just as favorable. 

While there may be some truth in this so far as typical 
cases are concerned, it is not a safe doctrine to teach to 
the young practitioner, nor a position with which medicine 
should be content even if the assertion be true, which we 
very much doubt. Directly opposite has been the prac- 
tice in regard to local applications, some recommending 
them warm and some cold. 

But as a matter of experience, it is found that it is un- 
wise to apply either kind to dogs under ordinary circum- 
stances. Heavy poultices are apt to shift, the dog is rest- 
less, and in changing any sort of moist applications the 
animal is apt to get chilled, so that this mode of treatment 
may be considered quite unsuitable for dogs. The same 
may be said of cold applications. 

The chest-jacket^ before referred to, we have found in- 
valuable in all chest diseases. The object is to have a 
close-fitting coat or jacket, which shall absorb the moist- 
ure from the animal's skin and protect it from varia- 
tions in the external temperature. The exact construc- 
tion is of minor importance provided that it is of even 
thickness, fits closely, and can be kept in place. Dogs 
do not usually attempt to remove such a comfortable 
body bandage. 

In winter it may be made of two layers of flannel or 
horse blanket, with or without padding of cotton-wool 
quilted in ; and it becomes still more effective if it fit 
neatly and be sewed on the dog in such a way as to lie 
close and feel comfortable, the object being to prevent 
access of cold air. For summer use the whole may be 


less warm, but, as a matter of fact, pneumonia is much 
less common at this season. 

Openings may be made for the fore-legs, or the whole 
may be attached by strips of cotton in front and iirmly 
stitched over the back. It is well that it extend far back 
over the loin. Closeness of fittino^ without beino^ so tiffht 
as to embarrass the breathing is important, both to pre- 
serve it in position and to prevent the access of cool air. 
Often the dog will breathe easier at once when this dress- 
ing is applied. 

When there is pleurisy especially, it will be advisable 
to use some form of counter-irritation first. Turpentine 
answers very well, and leaves no stain, as does iodine. 

Blistering is never called for. It is the writer's opin- 
ion that under no circumstances whatever in any acute 
disease {if ever) is llistering of the dog justifiable. The 
amount of pain and irritation is out of all proportion to 
any possible good in an animal with so responsive a nerv- 
ous system as the dog's. Counter-irritation is often use- 
ful ; blistering never. 

The hygienic surroundings should be of the best, the 
air being frequently changed, the temperature even and 
not above 60"* Fahr. 

The food must be light at first, unless there be marked 
prostration, and largely fluid or sloppy while the fever is 

If the pulse is very rapid and full, tincture of aconite 
in frequently repeated small doses may be useful, watch- 
ing ihe pulse cai-efully, especially if Fleming's tincture be 
used. Some practitioners are oppo.^t'd to this treatment. 

If there is evidence of pain, or if cough is troublesome, 

228 THE DOG IN DlSi-^ASE. 

a little paregoric, or, better, Dover's powder, on account of 
its favoring the action of the skin and kidneys, may be given. 
Bleeding has been recommended in very sthenic cases. 

Chlorate of potassium has a good reputation in diseases 
of the respiratory tract, and is favorable, it is thought, to 
the oxidation of the l)lood. As it is somewhat depressant 
to the heart, its action should be carefully watched. 

In the early stage the author likes to give, m a gelatin 
capsule, powdered bromide, acetate, and chlorate of potas- 
sium with tincture of aconite. After this is swallowed, 
the dog may be given water to drink to dissolve and 
dilute the dose. Being thirsty, he is only too glad to get 
the liquid. He may relish buttermilk or sour milk, and it 
will be useful at this period. At night fifteen grains of 
Dover's powder, with a like quantity of bromide of potas- 
sium, in capsules, will be useful in securing rest. 

It is important not to give aconite if the heart be weak, 
even if rapid, and it should be stopped if it does not with- 
in a moderate period quiet the circulation, as a depressant 
action may set in later and prove dangerous. 

Death in pneumonia is nearly always by heart-failure, 
and this organ must therefore be most carefully observed 

Assuming that resolution has begun, the general 
strength is to be maintained. If the apj^etite is not good 
and the temperature is not high, vegetable bitters — as nux 
vomica, cinchona, gentian, etc. — will be useful ; also qui- 
nine, citrate of iron and quinine, etc. 

During convalescence the treatment already recom- 
mended for other diseases of the respiratory system is 
suitable. If the temperature runs very high, quinine in 


large closes, aiitipyrin, or phenacetiii, will meet the views 
of some. One large dose of ten to fifteen grains of qui- 
nine, with twenty grains of bromide of potassium at the 
outset, may be worth a trial ; but repeated doses of the 
above remedies are of very doubtful efficacy. 

If the disease is of a low type from the first, with evi- 
dences of weakness or positive prostration, the chief reli- 
ance must be on good feeding and alcohol, with such stimu- 
lants as ammonia, strychnine, strong coffee, caffein, etc. 

Whisky or brandy, given in doses of a teaspoonful or 
lees with fluid beef or eggnog if the dog refuses nourish- 
ment, or diluted with water, given simply as medicine, 
often produces the happiest effects. In fact, in some cases 
at the outset a small dose of whisky has seemed to mitigate 
the symptoms at once. Of course, with the bounding 
pulse and a generally sthenic type of the disease this is 
plainly not indicated. 

Certainly if the dog will not take nourishment it must 
be forced on him, with as little exhaustion of his strength 
as possible. 

If the heart becomes very weak or irregular, resort 
must be had to digitalis, say five drops of the tincture 
every two hours for an adult dog of medium size, watch- 
ing its effects carefully. It is a most valuable remedy in 
skillful hands. It may be combined with carbonate of 
ammonia and some vegetable bitter, and, if quinine has 
not already been given freely, small tonic doses (one to 
two grains) may be given three times daily. Quinine is 
a well-tested remedy for dogs and men ; but, in the case 
of dogs especially, it must not be given without duly 
guarding against a depressant action. 



As in the case of man, unpleasant head symptoms may 
be obviated by giving with this drug ten to twenty grains 
of bromide of potassium, according to the dose of quinine, 
the age, etc., of the dog ; but it is somewhat depressant. 

Asthma. — Spasmodic asthma, so common in man, is of 
rather rare occurrence in the dog. This form of the dis- 
ease is the result of more or less local constriction of the 
bronchial tubes, owing to spasm of the unstriped muscular 
fibers found in their walls. 

The causes inducing it are various, as certain atmos- 
pheric conditions, certain mechanical and chemical irri- 
tants in the form of dust, gases, etc. It may also be 
excited by parasites in the intestinal tract, and more fre- 
quently by their presence in the bronchial tubes them- 
selves. It is sometimes traceable to dietetic errors. 

The other form of asthma, sometimes spoken of as 
" congestive," is due to a thickening of the mucous mem- 
brane of the air-tubes from congestion, as in heart-disease, 
from bronchitis, etc., and to the lessening of the caliber of 
the tubes by the pressure of tumors, etc., when the symp- 
toms may be described as asthmatic rather than as arising 
from asthma as a disease. 

Asthma is not common in young dogs ; but more or 
less dyspnoea of an asthmatic character is not at all infre- 
quent in old, fat, lazy dogs permitted to lie about the 
house and feed to excess. 

Prognosis.— As to complete cure, unfavorable; gen- 
erally relief can be given. The disease of itself is rarely 
if ever fatal. 

Symptorns.— Loud, wheezy respiration, labored breath- 
ing, characterized by prolonged expiratory efforts, dilated 

For description, see page 69. 


nostrils, perhaps open mouth, with numerous evidences of 
imperfectly aerated blood. 

Diagnosis. — Is very easy, but the cause is not so readily 
made out in all cases. 

Treatment. — In the spasmodic form the dog should be 
removed to a small chamber, in which tar or kindred sub- 
stances may be burned, especially if the symptoms arise in 
connection with bronchitis. 

Paper dipped in a solution of saltpeter and tincture 
of stramonium and then dried may be burned w4th relief 
to the patient sometimes. 

If the dog be gross and overfed^ his diet must be cut 
down and simplified. This is a clear case for feeding only 
once a day. 

The liver and digestive organs generally may be bene- 
fited by the timely administration of a compound cathartic 
pill at night, followed by Epsom salts in the morning, 
while the compound rhubarb pill may be given daily for a 

When associated with bronchitis, the indications are to 
treat that disease, of which it is but a sort of superadded 
symptom. In the case of tumors, removal, if possible, is 
indicated. If this can not be done, attention to the general 
health and condition of the dog may alleviate the distress. 

Iodide of potassium in small' doses, gradually increased 
and kept up for a considerable time with intermissions, 
may effect a complete or partial cure. The dose may be 
from one to five grains, though some dogs do not tolerate 
this remedy any better than some people. 

Tuberculosis. — This, in pulmonary or other form, is 
very rare in the dog, though it may be induced. When it 


occurs it is to be recognized by wasting, altered respira- 
tion, cough, etc. — in fact, the same symptoms as in other 
animals, while the treatment must be on similar lines also. 
For dogs to swallow the sputa of consumptives is dangerous. 


Nasal Catarrh. — Sometimes, though rarely, as the result 
of a " cold," more frequently of a succession of '^ colds," 
in dogs badly kenneled, an excessive discharge of muco- 
purulent matter from the nose results, and is an indication 
of a relaxed and weakened if not a low inflammatory con- 
dition of the membrane lining the nose. It is apt to fol- 
low distemper, and to improve or get worse as the dog's 
general health varies. 

Yery often the mucous membrane covering the front 
of the eyeball and the inner surfaces of the lids {conjunc- 
tiva) partakes sympathetically (reflexly), or as a result of 
the original inflammation of distemper, etc., in the ca- 
tarrhal condition. 

If unchecked, the nasal catarrh may lead to ulceration 
of the soft parts of the nose or to inflammation of the 
bones of the organ, with resulting death of part of the 
bone (necrosis, caries) ; or the secretion may become al- 
tered, or be retained and give rise to a most offensive 
smell. From such inflammation, catarrh, etc., nasal polypi 
or growths of a highly vascular character occasionally arise, 
and may so obstruct respiration, or cause such disturbance 
generally, as to demand treatment. 

Acute catarrh when not associated with distemper does 
not usually require local treatment in the dog, as it is 


When a catarrh does not yield to treatment in a mod- 
erate period, the dog should be anaesthetized and a care- 
ful examination of the nasal passages and month made l)y 
the help of bright sunlight or a reflecting mirror and a 

If growths are found, they should be at once treated 
either by burning off with a strong wire at a bright-red 
heat, or torn out, if larger, with a wire snare, and the bone 
cauterized with the hot wire as before, which usually also 
arrests all haemorrhage. 

These chronic catarrhs tend to undermine the health 
of the animal and to become less amenable to treatment 
the longer neglected. 

The nose must be washed out with a syringe and warm 
water, to which a little carbolic acid (about five grains to 
the pint) has been added ; or, better still, if the dog can be 
kept quiet, a spraying apparatus may be used, though, con- 
sidering the length of the dog's muzzle, this is somewhat 
difficult to manage. 

For a spray such a formula as the following will prove 
very useful : 

9- Sodae biborat 3 j ; 

Sodae carb 3 j ; 

Acid, carbolic , gr. v ; 

Glycerinae 5 j ; 

Aquae ad § viij. 

M. Inject. 

Often the cleansing in this manner, faithfully carried 
out, will effect a cure. If not weak, astringent solutions 
may be sprayed up the nostrils or carefully injected by 
a syringe ; but strong applications do only harm. 


Sulphate of zinc, about two to six grains to the ounce, 
half water and half glycerin, is one of the best. 

When there is much foulness, a little boracic acid or 
iodoform may be blown up to advantage. 

The external parts must be protected from the irritat- 
ing discharge or a form of eczema will result. For this 
purpose the oxide-of-zinc ointment, or one containing a 
little iodoform, etc., will be useful. 

Attention to the general health is very important, 
tonics — as quinine, iron, phosphates, cod-liver oil, etc. — 
being demanded, and proper evacuations of the bowels, 
etc., indispensable. 

A dog long affected with catarrh is a|;t to get into a 
dejected condition, and his psychic treatment is not the 
least important. 

Ozaena is the term applied to a form of eatan-h with a 
fetid, more or less bloody and purulent discharge, which 
tends to irritate all parts with wliich it comes in contact. 

If it does not yield to the treatment for chronic ca- 
tarrh, a careful examination of the nasal passages is called 
for to ascertain whether there is not disease of the bones, 
etc. The external openings of the nose should be pro- 
tected with some antiseptic, as iodoform ointment or vase- 
line. This is also a good application internally, or iodo- 
form powder, etc., may be blown up the nostrils. 

Catarrh may also be due to parasites. 

Hints as to FormulcB and Administration of Medi- 
cines in the Treatment of the Before-mentioned Diseases. 
— To economize space, we shall employ now and later the 
following commonly used abbreviations : ^ ^^^ prescrip- 
tion, recipe ; gr. for grain ; 3 for drachm ; § for ounce ; 


ft, make ; mist, mixture ; pit, pilLs ; gtt, drops ; imgt, 
ointment; sig., directions; aquae, of water; dr., drachm; 
oz., ounce. 

It will be assumed that an adult dog of say forty to 
fifty pounds is to be treated. 

To relieve pain, Dover's powder, in ten-to-fifteen-grain 
doses, morphia sulph. in pills of one eighth to one half 
grain, paregoric in doses of one half to two drachms. 
Laudanum is effective, but more apt to nauseate. All 
preparations of opium, except perhaps Dover's powder, 
tend to check secretion — a very grave objection in most 
diseases of the chest. 

To moderate the heart's action and mitigate other 
symptoms in pneumonia, etc. : 

5 Tinct. aconit. rad 3 ijss. ; 

Pot. bromid 5 ss. ; 

Pot. chlorat 1 ss. ; 

Pot. acetat § ss, ; 

Syrup, aurant 5 ij ; 

Aquae ad 5 ^iij* 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : A dessertspoonful every two hours. 
As before stated, it is easier to give most remedies not 
in solution, as assumed above, but as powders in gelatin 
capsules, with the tinctures, etc., dropped on the other 
ingredients, offering the dog water to drink just after- 
ward, or, if he will not take this, a little milk. 

N. B. — If Fleming's tincture of aconite is used, the 
dose must not exceed one drop and the effect be carefully 
watched. In the later stage of pneumonia, ammon. chlorid. 
may be substituted for pot. bromid. in the above formula. 


In troublesome cough, potassium cyanide in very 
minute doses (gr. ^\ hydrochlorate of apomorphia, or 
spirits of chloroform, may be used when opiates are 
contra-indicated, as well as tinct. hyoscyami or conii. 
Useful in acute bronchitis : 

]^ Spt. chlorof ormi § ss. ; 

Yini ipecac 3 iij ; 

Tinct. scillse 3 v ; 

Syrup, aurantii § ij ; 

Aquse ad ^iy. 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : Teaspoonful in a little water every two to four 

Of use in the later stages of acute bronchitis and in 
chronic bronchitis : 

9 Spt. ammon. aromat 5 ij ; 

Tinct. senegse S ss. ; 

Spt. eth. nit § ij ; 

Spt. chloroformi § j ; 

Syrup, aurant § ij ; 

Aquae ad § viij. 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : Dessertspoonful every two to four hours. 
In chronic laryngitis, balsam of copaiba may be given 
in doses of ten to fifteen drops in mucilage, olive oil, raw 
white of eggs, or placed in capsules. 

When iodide of potassium is to be administered it is 
well to combine it with a vegetable bitter, as tinct. gent. co. 
In asthma, such a prescription as that recommended 
for chronic bronchitis may prove useful. 

Tonic Treatment. — We again remind the reader that 


tonics had better be given some time after food — i. e., 
not on an empty stomach. Pill f(.riii answers admirably. 
Dogs often lick up cod-liver oil and phosphates (e. g., 
Parrish's syrup) very well when stirred up in a little milk„ 



The blood consists of an albuminous fluid in which 
colored and colorless cells abound, the latter in relatively 
scanty numbers. This fluid, owing to the arrangements 
of the circulatory system, is conveyed to every part of 
the body, but never during health actually escapes from 
the containing vessels 

The principal function of the red cells is the convey- 
ance of oxygen. The blood as a whole is at once the 
source of supply for all tissues and the medium of re- 
moval of all waste — i. e.^ all waste, gaseous and other, 
sooner or later gets into the blood and is carried to those 
various organs that serve to eliminate the diflersnt harm- 
ful constituents. 

Nature, then, it would seem, is constantly striving to 
maintain the equilibrium of the blood. When much is 
taken from it the nervous system becomes conscious of it, 
so to speak, and hunger for food or oxygen is the result ; 
an attempt is made to furnish food and thus renew the 
blood from the digestive supplies, while the lungs do the 
work to furnish oxygen. It thus appears that there is a 
very close relationship between the respiratory, circula- 
latory, and digestive systems. (Fig. 14.) 

But in reality the tissues are not nourished directly by 
blood, but by lymph, which may be regarded as an albu- 



minous fluid analogous to the fluid part {plasma) of blood 
secreted by the capillaries, according to the needs of the 
tissues in any particular region. This fluid {lymph\ when 

Superior Vena 

Inferior Vena 

Capillaries of 

Portal Vein. 

Capillaries of the 
Head, etc. 

Pulmonary Ca- 

Main Arterial 

Capillaries of 

Capillaries of 
Trunk and 
Lower Ex- 

Fig. 14.— Diagram of the Circulation. 
The arrows indicate the course of the blood. Though the pulmonary, the lower 
and the upper parts of the systemic circulation are represented so as to show 
the distinctness of each, it will be also apparent that they are not independent. 
Relative size of different parts of the system is only very generally indicated. 

it has served its purpose, is in great part removed by 
another set of vessels, very like blood-vessels, known as 
lymphatics. It is also likely that not a little is taken up 


bj the capillaries themselves, though of this we have not 
very much positive evidence. 

It is worth w^hile to bear in mind, too, that the blood 
and the blood-vascular system are developed in the foetus 
together as parts of one wdiole. A knowledge of tliese 
cardinal physiological truths makes much in the causation, 
pathology, and treatment of disease less obscure. 


It is likely that the white corpuscles become relatively 
too numerous in certain conditions in the dog as in man ; 
but little, however, is positively known on this subject, 
and there is ample room for investigation of the blood of 
this animal in disease. 

Ansemia — w^iich implies an impoverishment of the 
blood, especially as regards the quantity or quality of the 
coloring matter {hmmoglobin) of the blood as contained in 
the red cells — occurs in dogs as in other animals. 

It results under unfavorable surroundings, as a badly- 
lighted, damp kennel, in ill-fed animals, in those whose 
nutriment is abstracted by parasites, in bitches bred too 
frequently and exhausted by suckling, etc. 

Pallor of mucous membranes, as well seen in the 
mouth, makes the diagnosis certain. 

Treatment — Remove the cause and substitute the best 
conditions possible; feeding on the most nutritious food, 
including raw flesh, and the administration of certain ton- 
ics and alteratives. As the coloring matter of the blood 
contains a certain proportion of iron, on which its vital 
properties largely depend, this mineral, in the form best 
suited to the animal, is indicated. 


The miiriated tincture, reduced iron, the saccharated 
carbonate, j^hosphates containing iron, as well as cod-liver 
oil, and, if the appetite is poor, the citrate of iron and 
quinine — all may serve a good purpose. 

In some cases minute doses of arsenic or corrosive sub- 
limate will help the action of iron or do what this drug 
alone can not. However, the importance of gentle exer- 
else, of sunlight, and of grooming and massage, is very 
great. Parasites, if present, must of course be expelled. 

Plethora is the opposite condition to that just described, 
and is most likely to occur in vigorous young dogs that 
are insufficiently exercised and overfed. 

The remedies are plain : low diet for a time, given but 
once a day, plenty of exercise gradually increased, an oc- 
casional laxative, etc. 


Until the physical examination of dogs is practiced 
more systematically, and post-mortem examinations much 
more frequently made, we shall continue to be a good deal 
in the dark on this subject. 

All violent exercise, if long continued, tends, both in 
man and the lower animals, to induce disease of the heart 
and blood-vessels. 

The dog has a large and powerful heart, and the elas- 
ticity of the arteries of the dog and other of the domestic 
animals is not so often impaired by disease as in the case 
of man ; nevertheless, dogs violently exercised — such as 
coursing greyhounds and iield-dogs that engage in frequent 
competitions — do occasionally die Fiiddenly from heart- 
disease ; and dogs, probably of tener than we are aware, 



suffer from enlargement, dilatation, or valvular disease of 
the heart. The latter may result from rheumatism, etc. 
It is true that the physical investigation of the heart of the 
dog can not be carried out as easily as in man ; neverthe- 
less, any marked alteration in size, and especially any 
change in the heart-sounds, is readily made out in the one 
case by percussion and palpation, in the other by auscul- 

Hypertrophy, or increase in the thickness of the muscu- 
lar walls of the heart, is not of itself of such serious im- 
port as dilatation, for this results in imperfect closure 
{mGompetency) of the valves, regurgitation of blood, dam- 
ming back of blood in the venous system of the body, en- 
gorgement of the lungs, and that long list of evils arising 
therefrom, such as oedema or dropsy of the tissues, dropsy 
of the various cavities of the body, indigestion, haemor- 
rhage from the stomach, disturbed sleep, etc. 

Prognosis. — "With care in the case of hypertrophy the 
prospects are good ; of dilatation, in old dogs especially, 
not hopeful. 

Treatment. — Cure, or a return to the normal can scarce- 
ly be expected. Palliation is all that may be hoped for in 
most cases. 

The dog must never be allowed to compete with fast 
and vigorous animals. If not excitable, he may accompany 
his master quietly alone or with some easy-going compan- 
ion. If spirited, exercise on chain may alone be allowed. 

Special attention must be paid to the condition of the 
bowels and digestion, especially in dilatation. 

At the same time, to forbid exercise altogether would 
be a capital mistake, both as regards the heart itself and 


the dog's general health. Drugs should be used onlj 
when urgently needed. In dilatation, digitalis is the most 
useful single drug as regards the heart itself. 

However, every case must be treated on its merits 
with the utmost discretion, and professional advice will be 
valuable accordingly. 


Aneurism is a local dilatation of an artery. It is said 
to have been the cause of the death of the noted coursing 
greyhound Master McGrath. Such a tumor is generally 
preceded by a local weakening of the walls of the vessel, 
owing to disease of one or more of the coats, and, in such 
cases as that mentioned above, is caused by straining of 
the vascular system. The prognosis is bad. 

Diagnosis. — Dullness over the area on percussion, ab- 
normal respiration, pulse, heart's action, pain, etc., are the 
most reliable signs. 

Treatment. — Absolute quiet, a diet as free from liquid 
as possible, and iodide of potassium in gradually increas- 
ing doses, have been most useful in human practice, and 
might be imitated in the case of the dog. 


In old dogs dilatation of veins in the extremities is not 

Inflammation of veins {phlehitis), except in bitches 
after whelping or following on blood-poisoning, is not 

Diagnosis. — An alteration in the circulation, tender- 
ness on pressure, with full veins in the neighborhood. 


swelling of the limb, etc., are very suggestive, especially if 
accompanied by febrile symptoms. 

Treatment. — Quiet, relief of pain, liot fomentations to 
the part if possible, these to be medicated with opiates, 
bland diet, etc., during the acute stage ; tonics, good food, 
and massage to the part during convalescence after all ten- 
derness has disappeared — are the indications. 

Dilatation of veins in the extremities and elsewhere 
may be counteracted to some extent by bandaging and 
cold sponging, followed by suitable gentle massage. 


Inflammation of the lymphatics (ly7nphangitis\ except 
from injurj' of a mechanical or kindred nature, is rare in 
the dog, and it scarcely ever arises, as in the horse, from 
overfeeding and want of exercise. 

The treatment is about the same as for inflammation 
of t^eins. 

Of course the lymphatic glands are usually involved as 
well as the vessels. 

Scrofulous enlargement of these organs, so common in 
man and some of the domestic animals, is very rare in the 

Glands in the neighborhood of the mammm^ especially 
in old dogs, become chronically enlarged. Painting with 
tincture of iodine, the application of the ofiicinal com- 
pound iodine ointment, or removal, are the indications, 
though they are rarely dangerous. 

Bronchocele, goitre, or enlargement of the thyroid 
gland, is frequent in the dog ; the cause is not well known. 


It is recognizable as an enlargement of the neck with- 
out the redness, heat, and other signs of inflammation that 
would precede the formation of an abscess, although this 
is a possible result, especially if the part has been injured. 
It is most frequent in young dOgs, and is apt to give rise 
to trouble by interference with swallowing or respiration. 

Treatment. — Surgical procedure is to be avoided un- 
less an abscess forms, when it should be opened. Atten- 
tion should be paid to the general health, and syrup of the 
iodide of iron or iodide of potassium and a vegetable bit- 
ter may be tried, as well as tonics, etc. 

However, many cases will yield to counter-irritation, 
painting with tincture of iodine having special claims to 
success. Whenever this remedy is to be used on the dog 
it is better to snip the hair away as completely as possi- 
ble over the affected region. 


General. — The disorders of this, like other regions of 
the l)ody, become the clearer when the natural structure 
and functions are borne in mind. 

Though certain organs, as the liver and pancreas, seem 
to be separate from the " digestive tract," as that term is 
commonly understood, the history of the embryological 
development of this region of the body shows that they 
are outgrowths from a main tube which is at one period 
a straight gut and which becomes differentiated as devel- 
opment proceeds. Such a fact explains in some measure 
that sympathetic connection which is very conspicuous in 
all ailments of these parts. 

In general it may be said that the digestive tract con- 


sists of a long niuseular tube of unequal caliber at differ- 
ent parts, covered with an elastic serous membrane exter- 
nally, which tends to prevent distention, and internally 
with a mucous membrane well supplied with blood (vascu- 
lar) and abounding in glands which secrete the various 
digestive juices. The muscular tissue is necessary for the 
movements essential to push on the food from place to 
place throughout the tract. Nervous structures are 
found in abundance, which explains how pain is caused in 
disease, and how the nervous centers affect and are affected 
by the condition of the tract. (Fig. 15.) 

The solid organs, as the pancreas and liver, are really 
parts of the digestive tract, as already explained, and are 
connected with the main tube by outlets {ducts) for their 
secretions, which are, of course, emptied into the in- 

From this brief description alone it must be apparent 
that a disease affecting, say, the last part of the whole tract, 
while localized to a certain extent, must also be expressed 
elsewhere, even at the very commencement ; and, as a 
matter of fact, the appearance of the tongue is a pretty 
fair index to the condition of the stomach, intestines, etc. 

While the causes of the disturbances of the digestive 
organs must be sought in anything that will seriously dis- 
order any part of the body, it is more especially to that 
which the animal eats and its quantity, or to those condi- 
tions that affect the general health — as cold, wet, bad 
ventilation, etc. — that we must look for an explanation. 
Of acute forms of inflammation due to irritant poisons, 
nothing will be said till later, when treating the subject 
of poisoning. 



Fig. 15.— Intestines op the Dog (Chauveau). 
stomach ; 6, duodenum ; c, jejunum ; d, ileum ; e, caecum ; /, ascending colon ; 
g, transverse colon ; h, origin of descending colon ; /, great omentum ; k, 
spleen ; /, mesentery ; in, pancreas ; t, aoi-ta ; 2, great mesenteric artery ; 3, 
artery of the duodenum • 4, artery of the large intestine ; 5, small mesenteric 


Indeed, nearly all the disorders of the digestive organs 
are traceable to bad management, which is one of the rea- 
sons why we have devoted so much attention to the care 
of dogs. The disorders of this region and their conse- 
quences in loss of " condition," and especially as regards 
the skin, are among the most frequent and trying of the 
minor ailments of dogs. These are evils with which all 
kennels have to contend, while many diseases that must be 
described in books are comparatively rare. 

The treatment of such troubles when they do arise is 
so much a matter of careful dieting, that the principles of 
feeding should be well understood. 

The general expression, especially of the eyes of dogs 
suffering from any digestive disturbance, is very suggest- 
ive to the experienced. Any redness, any catarrli of the 
eyes when not directly traceable to cold, etc., may usually 
be set down to digestive disorders. 

The character of the evacuations of the bowels is al- 
ways of the utmost moment as an index to both causation 
and condition ; sometimes quite diagnostic. 

All concentrated food tends to constipate, and, as a 
rule, coarse food, as porridge, to relax, as does also a 
vegetable diet. 

But with abundant exercise the bowels rarely become 
constipated on any diet. 


We shall consider the salivary and mucous glands — 
the tongue, the teeth, the gums, the pharynx, etc. 

Warts may be so numerous over any part of the mouth 
as to require treatment. Cutting may be followed by too 


much bleeding, and caustics, except when very carefully 
applied, are apt to be too destructive. The solid nitrate 
of silver is one of the safest and best. Strong acetic acid 
is useful, especially when these epithelial growths are very 
numerous. It is to be swabbed or brushed on daily. 

But perhaps the quickest and most effective method is 
the application of the red-hot iron of neat form. The dog 
should be narcotized first, of course, when the operation 
is to be at all extensive, though the actual pain, if the iron 
be at a hright-red heat, is slight. K single wart, or a few, 
may be cut ofi and the base cauterized. 

Salivary Glands. — Salivation in greater or less degree is 
a frequent accompaniment of disordered digestion, espe- 
cially of the stomach. Salivation to a dangerous extent, 
or as evidence of poisoning by mercury, is difficult to con- 
trol. The breath is more or less fetid, and the gums and 
other parts usually suffer. When the secretion of the 
mucous glands or of the salivary glands is abnormal, tar- 
tar— i. e., a collection of lime salts entangling foreign 
matter— collects on the teeth. A dog of a thoroughly 
healthy digestion rarely suffers thus. It is important, as 
sooner or later the gums, and the teeth themselves, are cor- 
roded, resulting in ulceration of the gums {cancriim oris). 
The latter requires both local and constitutional treatment. 

If due to digestive disorders, attention to the diet, 
regulation of the bowels by exercise and dieting, and, in 
more urgent cases, by medicine, usually suffice. 

Mercurial salivation requires more attention. Locally, 
strong washes of chlorate of potassium and tincture of 
myrrh alternately will be useful. Iodide of potassium, 
combined with a vegetable tonic, should be given inter- 


nallj thrice daily in duses of one to four grains, following 
any special indications as to the rest. 

The Teeth — If tartar tends to collect, alter the food, 
and, if necessary, the general management. It may be 
judicious to feed less, or to feed at more frequent intervals 
and in small quantities. Sometimes a good fast wiU be 
beneficial. Each case must be studied and treated accord- 
ing to its indications. Hard biscuits, crusts, and bones 
tend to clean the teeth. After removal of the greater 
part of the tartar with appropriate instruments, a brush 
and powdered charcoal should be used daily. In some 
cases this alone will suffice to restore the teeth. 

If neglected, the gums are softened, abscesses may 
form, ulcers appear, the roots of the teeth be absorbed, 
the periosteal lining of the bone get inflamed, etc. 

When matters get to such a pass, one or more teeth 
may require removal, or the gums to be lanced. Fleers 
will need to be washed, as above indicated, for salivation, 
or perhaps a little boracic acid or iodoform dusted on. 

Teeth may break off, leaving stumps that decay and 
give rise to evils that threaten both the gums and bone. 
Such roots should be extracted with suitable instruments, 
the dog usually requiring to be anaesthetized. 

Coarse instruments and unpracticed hands are out of 
place about the mouth of the dog. The veterinary sur- 
geon will get some hints as to what he needs by an in- 
spection of the tools used by our modern dentists with 
their matchless outfit. In puppies the first teeth some- 
times do not drop out in time, but are in the way and 
turn the permanent ones aside. They should be re- 


Inflammation of the Tongue. — This is rare, but occasion- 
ally dangerou^:^ from threatened suffocation arising from 
swelling. "When moderate, it is marked by some swelling, 
redness, tenderness, painful deglutition, etc. 

The bowels should be opened freely, the animal fed 
on light diet at first, and later on concentrated food if the 
strength fails. If he can not swallow, rectal injections of 
strong broth or eggnog are called for. Locally, washes 
of chlorate of potassium and alum, with incision of the 
tongue, or tracheotomy in tlireatened suffocation. Tonics 
are likely to be called for after the inflammation subsides. 

Blain. — This term is applied to a vesicular eruption on 
the tongue, etc., which, bursting, is very apt to be fol- 
lowed by ulcerSo 

This is usually a disease arising from neglect, through 
which the animal gets into a debilitated condition. 

Treatment by local washes similar to those already in 
dicated, and tonics internally, with good feeding, are the 

• In all cases of disease when ulcers occur, the judicious 
use of the solid nitrate of silver as a caustic is followed by 
favorable results. 

For internal use the following is recommended : 

9 Pot. chlorat 3 iij ; 

Tinct. ferri mur 5 ss. ; 

Glyceringe § i j ; 

Aquae ad ^ viij. 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : Dessertspoonful after food three times a day. 

It is better to give this as indicated, and not in capsules, 
so as to get its local effect. 


Pharyngitis is occasionally present in mild form, as 
the result of a cold. It often arises as a complication of 
other diseases. Except the irritation of foreign bodies, as 
corrosive poisons, and when due to bones of a sharp na- 
ture being caught in this region back of the tongue, it is 
seldom serious. When a dog can not swallow perfectly 
well, a careful examination should always be made. 

Treatment is best carried out by attention to the gen- 
eral health, especially to the bowels, by administering 
warm liquid food and by careful nursing. The hot food 
acts in a soothing way. A little at a time and often, as in 
laryngitis, is best. 

If there is not much fever, the prescription recom- 
mended for blain will prove helpful. But if the stomach 
is disordered, this remedy is contra-indicated. 


The term indigestion is very vague, implying imper- 
fect discharge of the functions of the digestive tract, and 
is also often associated with certain positive ailments. 
Many of the same symptoms that manifest themselves in 
consequence of actual structural or organic disease mark 
derangements that are purely functional — i. e., not asso- 
ciated with any changes of structure visible to the naked 
eye or by the aid of a microscope. In the dog these are 
very frequent. 

Salivation as one of these has been noticed already. 

Vomiting is one of the easiest acts for the dog, for- 
tunately, and saves him many ills that we ourselves, and 

especially the horse and ruminants, must suffer from. 



It always indicates, when purely functional, that the 
food is unsuitable either in quantity or quality, or that the 
stomach is unfit to receive it, and so is better without it. 
The dog frequently, in warm weather, eats grass and 
causes vomiting, and thus in a way regulates his own di- 
gestive tract. 

As a rule, when a dog is seen to vomit he should 
either be left without food for a time or have his diet 
wholly altered — perhaps both. It is very rarely that medi- 
cine is demanded. Vomiting may be due to worms, when 
the indication is clearly to give a vermifuge. When 
vomiting is frequently repeated, a careful investigation 
should be made, and poison, among other things, sus- 

A Capricious Appetite should always receive attention. 
It may be due simply to lack of stamina, or to debility 
owing to bad hygienic surroundings. It may be a sign of 
organic disease, of worms, etc. The bowels will generally 
be found at fault. If due to mere debility or atony of 
the digestive organs, vegetable bitters — as gentian, quassia, 
cinchona, etc. — are useful, especially in the form of the 
compound tinctures. I^ux vomica, carefully watched, is 
excellent. A change in the feeding to raw meat only for 
a time may be wise. A trial may be made of a mixture 
of bicarbonate of soda, powdered rhubarb, and gentian, or 
the compound tincture of cinchona. If dependent on a 
sluggish condition of the liver, about which one can form 
some opinion by watching the stools, this must be treated. 
The color and consistence of the stools of the dog vary 
with the food. Meat causes them to be dark ; a mixed 
diet some shade of yellow. They may be very hard and 


liglit-colored when tlie dog chews up bones, owing to the 
presence of lime salts derived from them. The faeces 
should never be so stiU as to cause the dog to strain to 
pass them, nor so fluid as to run from him in a stream. 
When of a pasty consistence and a dirty-whitish color, 
an absence of bile pigment may be inferred, and that the 
liver is at fault. Of course, the appetite soon tells a tale 
when any part of the tract is disordered. In a dog well 
managed, however, purely functional gastric dyspepsia is 

Irregularities of the Bowels — as diarrhoea and consti^a- 
tio7i — are also, as may be inferred from what has already 
been said, usually evidence of injudicious management, 
mostly from too much or too little exercise, bad feed- 
ing, etc. 

Diarrhoea arises from an excessive peristaltic action of 
the bowels, causing frequent evacuations, which must of 
necessity be of improper consistence. Generally this is 
due to the presence of unsuitable food or food in excess, 
giving rise to fermentation and its irritating products ; 
sometimes to contact with the damp, cold earth, to draughts, 
etc. It is an effort on the part of I^ature to get rid of 
offending material, and should not be arrested at once ; 
in fact, only when there is danger of harm — as inflam- 
mation, weakness, etc. A diarrhoea may be caused by 
excessive discharge of bile, which is a more serious 

If diarrhoea is not checked l)y quiet and rest or by diet- 
ing, other measures may be necessary, especially if blood 
appears or much mucus. Easily digested food is, of course, 
indicated. Opiates and astringents should only be tried 


after a good dose of castor oil, to free tlie bowel from of- 
fending matter, if such there be. This is a safe proced- 
ure, even if the diarrhoea has lasted for days. If there is 
evidence of pain, ten to fifteen drops of laudanum may be 
given with the oil. Sometimes one dose of tincture of 
rhubarb in peppermint-water answers well, as there is a 
subsequent astringent action. If the relaxation still con- 
tinues, the officinal lead-and-opium pill, or such astringents 
as kino or rhatany, will be in place. 

Obstruction. — Obstruction may be due to prolonged 
constipation, and is serious, as it may end in inflammation 
of the intestine {enteritis). It is better to begin by enemas 
of warm soap-suds and castor oil or olive oil. Occasion- 
ally it may be necessary to scoop out the obstructing mass 
by mechanical means. Castor oil or syrup of buckthorn 
may be given by the mouth. Kneading the abdomen may 
be of service. Reference will be made to this subject 
again, under ^' Peritonitis." 

Constipation. — Except in old dogs, this is mostly due to 
errors in management, especially in feeding and from ir- 
regular or insufficient exercise. Dogs kept in small yards 
and on chain frequently suffer. It is a fruitful source of 
evil, including disorders of the skin. It may be necessary 
to feed vegetables, as a sort of medicine ; though porridge 
tends to relax. Liver, which should be boiled, is also use- 
ful. Food that is very concentrated, and sometimes the 
opposite kind, tends to constipate. Exercise and a suitable 
diet remedy the irregularity in most dogs. In old animals 
the muscular coat of the intestine loses tone, and then 
medicine and massage of the abdomen is demanded. A 
pill made as follows will possil)ly do good : 


51 Ext. belladon gr. ij ; 

Ext nuc. Yom gr. v ; 

Ext. Barb, aloes 3 ss. 

M. Ft. pil. no. xxiv. 
Sig. : One pill at niglit. 

Constipation may arise from a sluggish liver, in which 
case '' gray powder '' (mercury and chalk), small doses of 
calomel at night, followed by Epsom salts in the morning 
and carefully watched, extract of dandelion, etc., are 
worthy of trial. 

The author suggests as valuable remedies, in suitable 
form, for use in many disorders of the digestive tract, 
the officinal compound rhubarb pill and the compound 
cathartic pill. The first consists of aloes and rhubarb 
chiefly ; the latter, of colocynth, jalap, gamboge, and calo- 
mel. The first may be given as a digestive pill ; the sec- 
ond is excellent when the portal system is overloaded — i. e., 
when the digestive organs are congested — when their cir- 
culation is not free, as often happens in overfed, under- 
exercised dogs 

These pills can be obtained coated with sugar or gela- 
tin. One, except for the largest dogs, will suffice, given at 
night on a very light supper, and followed by a good dose 
of some sahne in the morning. For habitual constipation 
the fluid extract of cascara sagrada has found favor. It 
may be given with or without castor oil. It should be 
given in capsules, as the taste is very unpleasant. However, 
persistent medication is bad, and enemata of soap-suds 
or the injection of a small quantity (teaspoonful) of glyc- 
erin, with a little cold water added, by a small syringe, is 
not much trouble. By all means accomplish the result by 


exercise and dieting if possible. It must not be forgotten 
that bones, when small and capable of being chewed up, 
are very constipating. While line flour bread tends to 
costiveness, this article, made from unbolted wheat or 
Graham flour, is not, and constitutes a most suitable food 
for dogs. Spratts' foods rarely constipate, but at first 
may relax too much. As a rule, they soon agree well, 
and as patent foods leave nothing to be desired. 

Colic. — When the contractions of the intestine are long 
continued at one spot, pain of a very depressing though 
more or less spasmodic character results. It is not in 
itself an inflammatory affection, though colicky pains 
{formina) precede or accompany several intestinal diseases. 

Causation and Symptoms. — Colic may be caused by 
unsuitable food, damp and wet, worms, lead when intro- 
duced to a poisonous degree into the body, the passage of 
gall-stones, renal (kidney) calculi, etc. Uneasiness, moan- 
ing, or sharp cries, arched back, difiiculty in walking at 
times, as if paralyzed, a piteous expression, tense abdo- 
men, etc. 

Treatment. — Give at once a good dose of castor oil 
with twenty drops of laudanum, and apply to the abdomen 
a turpentine stupe for twenty minutes ; this may then be 
removed and replaced by a modification of the chest- 
jacket. If the bowels do not soon move, give an enema 
containing an opiate, and, if the pain still persists, twenty 
drops of chlorodyne or a drachm of spirits of chloroform, 
with a like quantity of aromatic spirits of ammonia, prop- 
erly diluted with water, will likely afford relief. 

Of itself, colic is not a fatal disease ; and those maladies 
which are really inflammatory— as enteritis, though often 

(K. C. S. B., 26,925.) 

For description, see page 72. 


associated with colicky pains — should not he termed 
" colic." 


In all these diseases the symptoms bear some resem- 
blance, which also applies to causation, pathology, and 

This is owing to similarity in structure of the intestine, 
stomach, etc., and to the fact that the different parts of 
one long tract are anatomically and functionally so related 
that one can not be seriously affected without the other 
sympathetically (reliexly) feeling the effects. To illustrate 
this again, if the stomach is inflamed, nervous influences 
proceeding from the disordered region inward to the 
centers by the nerves supplying the region in question so 
affect these centers (brain and spinal cord) that influences 
radiate from the latter along the nerves to the part affect- 
ed, and to other regions often widely removed, and act 
through the blood-vessels and otherwise. (Fig. 16.) This 
explains how it is that the heart, the appetite, the intes- 
tines, etc., may be affected in an inflammation of the peri- 
toneum, for example. 

The most important diseases of the alimentary tract 
are gastritis, or inflammation of the stomach; enteritis, 
or inflammation of the small intestines ; dysentery, or in- 
flammation of the larger intestine ; and peritonitis, or 
inflammation of the serous covering of the walls of the 
abdomen, etc. 

Comjnon Pathology. — Increased secretion, etc. {ca- 
tarrh), following a dry state of the mucous membrane, 



^dth redness, tumefaction, exudation, etc., owing to the 
usual changes in vessels and tissues at the seat of inflam- 
mation, as before described. Of course, the effects of 

[brain above medulla I 

»y CENTRE"""^ "(-"I 1- •■'■^ /"^INHIBITORY CENTRE 




Fig. 16.— Diagram intended to illustrate nervous mechanism of— 1, automatism ; 2, 
reflex action ; and 3, how nervous impulses in the latter case may pass into the 
higher parts of brain and affect consciousness, or be wholly inhibited. A reflex 
or automatic center may, for the sake of simplicity, be reduced to a single cell, 
as above on the left. The arrows indicate the course of the nervous impulses. 

irritating products formed at the site of the disease, and 
absorbed or acting locally, must not be forgotten. 

Common Causation. — Apart from poisons and such 
like irritants, unhygienic surroundings, especially damp 
with cold; unsuitable food, either too coarse and bulky 
or too exciting, too hot, too cold, or putrescent; blows, 
nervous shock, as from harsh treatment, etc. 


Co7)imon Symptoms. — Altered expression and attitude, 
modified appetite, thirst, vomiting, changed action of the 
bowels, either diarrhoea or constipation ; pain or tender- 
ness, alteration in the muscular tension of the abdominal 
walls, febrile symptoms, as elevated temperature, quick- 
ened and . otherwise modified pulse and respiration; cer- 
tain brain symptoms, as dullness, or, in bad cases, delirium 
or stupor {coma). 

The common dangers are extension of the inflamma- 
tion, gangrene or death of parts of the organ from the 
severity of the inflammation, exhaustion from pain, diar- 
rhoea, vomiting, etc., or sudden collapse from haemorrhage 
or nervous shock, heart failure, etc. 

Common Treatm^ent. — To look to all circumstances 
that tend to favor a return of the organs to health, which 
implies avoiding all sources of irritation, whether by what 
enters the digestive tract or by external conditions — sup- 
porting the strength, and attacking any symptoms that 
threaten to lead to any of the dangers above mentioned. 
In other words, we must pay special attention to feeding, 
absolute rest, comfort of body and mind, to allaying pain, 
checking vomiting or diarrhoea if excessive, and keeping 
up the strength, when failing, by suitable feeding, drugs, 
and stimulants. 

Prognosis. — So long as pain can be controlled, the 
heart's action is not very rapid or feeble, and nourish- 
ment well taken, the prognosis is usually good. 

Peritonitis, enteritis, and dysentery, a rather common 
disease, are often fatal. 

All these diseases exist in a subacute and chronic as 
well as in the acute form. 


Instead of giving a systematic account of each disease, 
we propose to now add some remarks especially as to how 
to discriminate between them as they actually meet the 
practitioner of medicine, and in reference to treatment. 
We advise all owners and breeders of dogs, when their 
animals have prolonged diarrhcea or slimy and bloody 
stools, or give evidence of pain, to consult some medical 
expert, as delay is dangerous, and sound treatment not 
always possible except by one of special education and 
experience ; though in all that relates to hygiene, feeding, 
etc., the intelligent reader, who has had some experience 
with dogs, should be fairly well prepared. 

Differential Diagnosis between Colic, Gastritis, En- 
teritds, Dysentery, and Peritonitis. — In typical cases the 
diagnosis is not specially difficult, but such cases are com- 
paratively rare. 

Colic, pure and simple, should be easily excluded, as 
there are no febrile symptoms, the pulse is not quickened 
appreciably, vomiting is rare, and the pain is relieved on 
pressure, while in all the others the reverse is the case. 

The symptoms of gastritis, very pronounced in the 
acute form, are thirst, vomiting, pain, tenderness, etc. 
The position of the animal is often characteristic, inas- 
much as it hes stretched out on its belly — there is not the 
same tendency to arch the back as in colic; but in all 
these diseases the abdominal walls are tense and shrunken 
unless there be much flatulence, when distention with ten- 
sion must result. 

Enteritis may exist wath less marked symptoms, and 
this should direct attention to the intestines. The tender- 
ness will be more extensive and reach farther back if pres- 


ent, but it is not always well marked. It may be asso- 
ciated with colicky pains {tormina). 

Inflammation of Lungs. 





Fig. 17.— (Mayhew.) 

In dysentery, tenderness, if present, will not be so dif^ 
fuse, and the stools are characteristic, at all events after 
the first, which may resemble those of a simple diarrhoea. 
Later they are soft, may contain little balls of fecal mat- 


ter, but especially are tliej jelly-like from mucus, and 
stained with blood. Vomiting is not common, and there 
is far more straining, with or without expulsion of the 
morbid secretions, than in any other of the diseases in 
question. The febrile symptoms are not so marked as in 
gastritis, enteritis, and especially peritonitis. 

Peritonitis is characterized by constipation, with much 
pain and tenderness. Thirst and vomiting may not be so 
marked as in gastritis, but flatulent distention, constipa- 
tion, and a rapid, wiry pulse are highly diagnostic. 

In the subacute and chronic forms all symptoms are 
less defined, and the general disturbance not nearly so 

As in inflammation of the serous membrane of the 
chest, there may be copious exudation of fluid or " plastic 
lymph," which may lead to adhesions that are sometimes 
the cause of future fatal obstruction of the bowels, and 
other evils. 

When all acute symptoms have subsided, the same 
remedies may be used to facilitate absorption as in pleu- 
risy, with the additional use of judicious massage, practiced 
daily at least. 

Treatment should be both internal and external. 

It is assumed that the patient is well housed, with en- 
tire separation from other dogs, and provided with a com- 
fortable bed. 

His food should be given in all cases in small quanti- 
ties and often: bland and liquid or semi-liquid at first, 
gradually adding more solid food as he can bear it. 

In all cases a turpentine stupe may be applied with ad- 
vantage, to be followed by a well-padded but not heavy 


modification of the eliest-jacket — i. e., a dressing to cover 
the parts affected and those immediately adjacent. 

The stupe may also be applied somewhat beyond the 
region beneath, which the affected organ lies, as the effect 
on sound parts seems to be beneficial to tho^e actually- 

Counter-irritation in some form, especially at the out- 
set, is certainly indicated. 

Vomiting, when persistent, must be combated by in^ 
ternal remedies also. 

Drink must not be allowed the dog except in small 
quantities at a time; his food must be liquid, and but 
little given at once. In some cases it may be worth while 
to add pepsin to the food, or give it immediately after, to 
assist digestion. Lime-water is an excellent addition to 
milk. If food is vomited in spite of all precautions, it is 
useless to further force it on the animal ; but if there be 
urgent need of nourishment, it may be given by the rectum 
(injection or enema). 

To arrest vomiting, trial may be made of small quanti- 
ties of ice-water, small bits of ice, the dilute officinal prus- 
sic acid, very small doses of carbolic acid (one half to one 
grain) in a little ice-water, oxalate of cerium, the latter 
with small doses of sulphate of morphia (gr. -J), subnitrate 
of bismuth alone or with cerium or morphia ; hypodermic 
injection of morphia over the stomach. Warm and stimu- 
lating applications, as turpentine, will be worth a trial in 
all cases. 

The diarrhoea of enteritis, or dysentery, apart from 
the external treatment, may require special remedies, such 
as have been already indicated under "Diarrhoea" (page 


253) ; but in dysentery great benefit is often derived from 
injections of boiled starch, with twenty to forty drops of 
laudanum, and a dessert-spoonful of listerine, the wliole to 
be retained within the bowel by holding the hand, invested 
in a soft cloth, against the anus for ten minutes at least. 

As already indicated, we think it wise, in both diar- 
rhoea and dysentery, to make sure that the bowels are free 
from offending matter, and would commence the treat- 
ment with castor oil or syrup of buckthorn and enough 
laudanum to reheve pain. 

When dysentery tends to become chronic, small doses 
of ipecacuanha, one to three grains of the powder, or 
three to eight drops of the wine every one to two hours, 
may be tried. It is frequently a most obstinate disease, 
and much depends on judicious nursing and feeding. 

In all these inflammatory affections pain may be severe 
and lasting, and may kill the animal by disordering the 
nervous centers, in consequence of which the nutrition 
{metabolism) is perverted and the main centers of life, 
the heart center especially, worn out, so that the indica- 
tion above all others is to relieve pain. This can be done 
by warm applications, counter-irritation, and opiates. Some 
recommend leeches and blood-letting. We doubt if either 
is practicable or judicious with the dog, but have no very 
positive opinion based on experience. 

Constipation may coexist with either gastritis or en- 
teritis. It is not to be too soon reheved with drugs; 
better far to use enemas, at least while the acute symp- 
toms last. 

In peritonitis^ opium in some form is still the sheet- 
anchor. Constipation is commonly present, and may be 


relieved after one to two days with an enema, but not 
with a purgative. 

Hot applications are of great value ; some believe in the 
administration of turpentine internally ; better, we think, 
by the rectum in soap-suds and olive oil, when, in small 
quantities, it may relieve constipation and flatulent disten- 
tion. Some also recommend ice-cold applications. The 
great indication is quiet, external and internal, and the 
relief of pain by opiates. The heart must be carefully 
watched, and, if it threatens to fail, stimulants — by the 
stomach, if possible — if not, by the bowel — must be given. 
Milk, eggs, and brandy make an excellent combination. 

When it is remembered how great in extent is the 
surface of the peritoneum, covering as it does not only 
the walls of the abdomen, the under surface of the dia- 
phragm, but also nearly all the organs of the abdominal 
cavity, the gravity of an inflammation of a large portion 
of it is very evident. 

During convalescence special attention must be paid to 
supplying a nutritious diet and to the use of tonics. 

It is important that the dog be fed for a while about 
three times a day, and in moderate quantities only at each 
meal, to avoid distention of the stomach or intestines, 
which may, if it occurs, be a cause of lasting trouble. The 
dog must, in fact, be for some time carefully guarded as 
to exercise, housing, and all that relates to his well-being, 
including the maintenance of a good deal of self-esteem and 
cheerfulness, for the effect of the psychic nature over the 
body in well-bred dogs is very great ; indeed, a fact that 
must ever be kept in mind in treating them in health and 
in disease. 


In all cases when the strength begins to fail, the most 
nutritious and easily-digested food should be given, and 
alcoholic stimulants, either alone in water or mixed with 
the food, especially if the latter must be forced on the ani- 
mal, or in injections by the rectum of broths, eggnog, etc. 

In threatened collapse, stimulants are plainly indicated. 


Jaundice, the retention or reabsorption of the constitu- 
ents of bile, results from failure of the liver to do its 
work, whether this arises from organic disease or merely 
from functional disturbance or obstruction to the outflow 
of bile. To the latter we now more especially refer. 

Causation. — Chills, caused by bad management ; inju- 
dicious feeding ; obstruction to the discharge of bile from 
the liver cells ; the poison of certain diseases, as distemper ; 
exhaustion from violent exercise, especially if left without 
grooming afterward, etc. 

Symptoms. — Usually the mucous membranes show, by 
their staining with bile pigment present in the blood, the 
true nature of the trouble. The animal is dull, appetite 
falls off or becomes capricious, urine high-colored and 
contains bile pigment. The stools are characteristic, being 
lacking in color, of a gray, dirty appearance, and usually 
tough, pasty consistence ; often fetid. There may be diar- 
rhoea, but usually constipation. 

Treatment. — The dog is to be made very comfortable, 
and protected from draughts ; gentle but regular exercise 
is to be given ; food to be supplied in small quantity and 
of a very bland character, as rice and milk, stale bread 
and milk, biscuits, etc. Fatty food is to be avoided strict- 


ly. Buttermilk is useful. Massage over the abdomen 
raaj prove valuable after the first few days. 

Gray powder or calomel in small doses (half a grain of 
calomel) three to five times a day ; the compound rhubarb 
pill, after a previous dose of one compound cathartic pill, 
followed by a saline the next morning ; powders of rhu- 
barb and the bicarbonate of soda, or the following : 

^ Tinct. rhei. co § jss. ; 

Sod. bicarb § j ; 

Tinct. gent, co 5 jss. ; 

Syrup, aurantii § ij ; 

Aquae ad § viij. 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : Dessertspoonful a short time before food three 
times a day. 

Taraxacum may also be tried ; it often does good. 
If there be pain from the obstruction of the ducts by 
gall-stones or other cause, morphia or Dover's powder is 
indicated. It is also advisable in all such cases to apply 
simple hot fomentations, turpentine stupes, or the former 
sprinkled with laudanum. 


Hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) of an acute form 

is rare, except in tropical countries — at all events, when 

not due to blows, etc. The causes are obscure, and the 

diagnosis not always easy. Tenderness over the liver on 

pressure, more or less pain, digestive disturbances, foul 

breath, altered respiration, lying on the chest and belly, 

probably jaundice, with characteristic stools, and febrile 

symptoms. If enlargement of the liver can be made out 


by physical examination, with such a train of symptoms, 
the diagnosis between this disease and gastritis or enteritis 
is pretty clear. 

Treatment. — Much the same as for jaundice induced 
functionally, though no line of treatment by drugs has 
given much satisfaction. Attention must be paid espe- 
cially to the diet and surroundings. 

The termination of the disease in abscess of the liver 
is not uncommon, and usually proves fatal. When pus 
forms, attention must be paid to maintenance of the 
strength with the most concentrated foods, quinine, and, 
if the stomach will bear it, cod-liver oil, while alcoholic 
stimulants, that are strongly contra-indicated in the early 
stages, may now prove essential. 

Chronic Hepatitis usually gives rise to dropsy, and a 
whole host of evils which commonly end in death. The 
symptoms must be combated as they arise, as it is impos- 
sible to do much with drugs by direct action on the 
affected or^an. Occasional minute doses of calomel or 
corrosive sublimate (one thirtieth of a grain) or iodide of 
potassium (one to two grains) may be tried, given two or 
three times daily. 

"When disease of the liver is due to parasites, the only 
course is to treat the case according to the symptoms 
presenting, in the hope that the cause of the disease may 
be thrown off, which rarely happens. 


The form most common in the dog is fatty degenera- 
tion, which may be found in animals no longer young that 
have been overfed and little exercised. A cure is rare, 


but something may be done to mitigate the symptoms. 
Dieting, with special reference to both quantity and qual- 
ity of food, is of the greatest importance. Ko fatty or 
starchy foods should be given for a time, and as little as 
possible later. The animal should be fed on a limited 
quantity of meat, on sweet milk and on buttermilk. 

If the liver is greatly deranged, its glycogenic func- 
tion may be altered — i„ e., its manufacture of animal 
starch, and the distribution of this to the body as sugar 
by the medium of the blood. When this function is 
disordered, dieting is the chief reliance, and all saccharine 
and starchy food must, as far as possible, be withheld. 
Skim-milk is useful. 


In dogs past their prime, and especially in old animals, 
cancer is not so very rare. It does not commonly attack 
the liver primarily, but more frequently the stomach or 
upper part of the small intestine {duodenum), though it 
is rarely confined to these regions unless death speedily 

The symptoms indicate serious disturbance of the di- 
gestive processes and great irritability of the digestive 
organs ; hence vomiting, tenderness on pressure, loss of 
aj^petite, capricious appetite, and, as properly elaborated 
material is not supplied by the digestive tract to the blood, 
there is wasting and loss of strength, which the misery 

Cancer is generally, but not always, a painful disease. 
It is, perhaps, invariably fatal, and the only thing the prac- 
titioner can do is to make the patient as comfortable as 


possible, relieve pain, vomiting, etc. The diet must, of 
course, be specially studied. 

It is important for purposes of diagnosis to get the 
animal to submit quietly to a careful palpation of the 
abdomen, as very often an enlargement of some organ, or 
possibly adhesions, etc., may be detected, and when the 
diagnosis is certain, the case is so hopeless that, if there 
is nmch wretchedness or rapid wasting, it may be kindness 
to chloroform the animal to death. 


This serious and generally fatal condition may be due 
to foreign bodies, faecal masses, the passage of one portion 
of the gut within another {intussusception)^ twisting of 
the gut, or constriction, the result of peritonitis or some 
other form of inflammation, and kindred causes. 

Symptoms. — Usually constipation, which may be pre- 
ceded by diarrhoea, increasing pain of a colicky character, 
general disturbance, flatulent distention, haggard expres- 
sion, vomiting, which may increase in severity till bile, 
and later fgecal matter, is regurgitated, prostration, etc. 

Diagnosis. — At first obscure. The abdomen should 
always be carefully palpated, with the view of detecting 
tumors within. When there is vomiting of fgecal matters, 
or prolonged vomiting in the absence of the other symp- 
toms of gastritis, obstruction should be suspected. 

Prognosis. — Yery bad ; the disease generally proves 
fatal. Occasionally the affected ])art sloughs away (drops 
off), and natural union of the adjacent parts follows. 

Treatment should be directed to allaying irritation by 
emptying the bowel beyond the obstruction by copious 


enemas ; but in no case should purgatives be given, as in 
the nature of the case they must aggravate the symptoms 
and endanger the patient. Pain must be allayed by fo- 
mentations and opiates, rest enforced, and vomiting quieted 
if possible. 

If a positive diagnosis can be made moderately early, 
surgical procedure is indicated. The dog bears opening 
the abdominal cavity well. But this should be under- 
taken only by skillful hands, under strict antiseptic pre- 
cautions, and after the operation the dog should be con- 
stantly watched, in a suitable compartment, by a discreet 
person, for at least twenty-four hours. 

In s'ome cases opening into the abdomen will be justi- 
fiable as a diagnostic measure. Yery often a portion of 
intestine will require excision and the cut ends brought 
together by careful suturing. It is most important that ex 
treme cleanliness be observed, lest inflammation of fearful 
violence may be lighted up, or blood poisoning intervene. 


Prolapse of the rectum — i. e., extrusion of a part of 
the gut — owing to a variety of relaxing and debilitating 
causes, as constipation, piles, etc., ^occasionally occurs. 
The indication is to reduce or put back the gut as soon as 
possible, before swelling, inflammation, or death and 
sloughing of the part takes place. 

The gut should be washed clean from dirt with an 
antiseptic solution of weak carbolic acid or corrosive sub- 
limate (1 in 2,000), the former preferred on account of its 
sedative action. There is no objection to adding a little 
laudanum or morphia, to still more allay irritation. The 


gut should be gently pressed back, the hind part of the 
animal's body elevated, then some cold water, or a solution 
made slightly astringent with tannic acid, injected gently 
and retained for a short time. The patient should have 
twenty grains of Dover's powder or a hypodermic injec- 
tion of a quarter of a grain of morphia, to induce quiet 
and relieve pain. 

If the intestine still tends to protrude, a special dress- 
ing or extemporized truss must be applied. No exercise 
should be allowed for some days, and then only gently. 
The bowels should be confined, and the diet nutritious and 
concentrated, but not abundant. 

Files are not uncommon in old dogs, especially if 
neglected. The circulation is weak, and if the strength 
fails becomes still weaker, so that injudicious management 
— as lack of exercise or a diet favoring constipation — leads 
to that portal (venous) congestion which tends to induce all 
sorts of digestive disorders. Any pressure, as from faeces, 
on the large gut tends to keep the veins over full, leads to 
loss of elasticity of their walls, slowing of the blood-cur- 
rent, coagulation within them, inflammation, ulceration, 
etc. Especially is this the case if the piles protrude from 
the anus. Blood in the stools, straining, licking the anus, 
dragging the hind parts, should lead one to suspect piles. 
So long as the piles are internal there is more hope of re- 
lieving the condition by medical treatment ; when ex- 
ternal^ surgical measures will generally be required. 

Treatment. — The indication is to remove the cause and 
allay irritation. Such food should be given as will of 
itself relax the bowel — as oatmeal or wheat-meal porridge 
with milk, boiled liver, or vegetables. A cure is hastened 


by the administration of laxatives, one of the best of which 
is sulphur, which dogs will generally take, when real hun- 
gry, in porridge, with milk or broth, or even in the ordi- 
nary food ; but if not, it may be given mixed up in mo- 
lasses, either with or without cream of tartar. 

External piles may be treated with astringent and 
sedative washes, as a combination of tannic acid, glycerin, 
laudanum, and water ; or with ointments of a similar 
character, as the officinal compound tannic-acid ointment, 
or one composed of oxide of zinc with extract of bella- 
donna or stramonium, etc. 

It may be necessary to muzzle the dog to prevent his 
licking these off. The following will indicate the nature 
of such combinations : 

]^ Unguent, zinci ox § ij ; 

Ext. belladon . 3 ij. 

M. Sig. : Apply three times daily. 

9 Acidi tannici 5 ss. ; 

Morph. sulph g^- ^j > 

Glycerin 5 jss- ; 

Aquae ad § iv. 

Sig. : Apply this lotion several times a day. 

When there is a tendency to inflammation without 
actual ulceration, the ofiicinal compound lead ointment is 
very soothing. 

Surgical measures are called for when such as the pre- 
ceding fail. 

Ligature and excision, or preferably the use of the 
thermo-cautery or the electro-cautery, the little tumors 
being grasped by a suitable clamp, have given good 


results. The dangers to be feared after operation are 
blood-poisoning, inflammation — as peritonitis, etc.— and 

After operation, ice in cloths, held to the anus for 
some time, has proved useful in warding off these evils. 
The patient must be kept quiet and free from pain and 
the bowels confined. 

Growths around the anus are mostly epithelial in char- 
acter, as warts or polypi. When small, their treatment 
may be similar to that adopted when found in the mouth 
or other parts (see page 247) ; but when large, more care 
must be taken, as haemorrhage may be difficult to control. 

Excision, with the use of the thermo-cautery just after- 
ward, may be demanded. 

The differential diagnosis between such growths and 
cancer should not be difficult when the history and age of 
the animal are known. Cancerous growths, except during 
degeneration, are usually very firm. Cancer rarely attacks 
animals in their prime. 

Perineal Abscess and Fistula in ano are closely related. 
Pus collected in the region of the perineum and consti- 
tuting abscess is very liable, if not freely evacuated early, 
to affect the bowel and ultimately lead to an opening into 
it, constituting fistula, which is said to be hlind when 
there is no external opening through the perinseum. The 
indication is to open the abscess and evacuate the pus by a 
free incision. 

Fistula is rarely cured except by opening up the bowel 
and perineum, which can be done well by passing a 
grooved director through the external opening and then 
through the internal, turning the inner end out through 


the anus by the finger and incising all the parts that lie 
between the director and the exterior. A poultice or 
fomentation may be necessary for a short time afterward, 
and a little iodoform dusted on will tend to keep the parts 
eweet and facilitate healing. The diet should be simple 
and the bowels confined for a few days. 


We direct attention to certain anatomical and physi- 
ological facts important to bear in mind. Urine is se- 
creted by the kidneys, a pair of organs situated in the 
loin (lumbar region), which are composed of a great vari- 
ety of tubes of different shape and size, provided with 
numerous kinds of lining cells which secrete the constitu- 
ents of urine, the whole of each organ being abundantly 
supplied with blood-vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. Urine 
is secreted constantly, and carried off to the bladder by a 
main duct {ureter) leading from each kidney. 

The bladder is the receptacle for urine — a muscular 
organ situated in the pelvis, and lined with a mucous mem- 
brane. It communicates with the exterior by a tube or 
duct {urethra) of small dimensions, which passes in the 
male through the penis, but in the female it is short and 
opens into the vagina. 

The urine of the dog is decidedly acid, of high specific 
gravity (1030 to 1050), clear and yellow, so that any dark 
color, turbidity, any stickiness from mucus, etc., should 
attract attention as probable evidence of disease of some 
part of the urinary tract. 

Other symptoms which should lead to a suspicion of 
disturbance of this part of the dog's system are frequent 


or painful urination (micturition), dribbling or retention 
of urine, an awkward or straddling gait, tenderness over 
any portion of the urinary tract, nausea, febrile symp- 
toms, etc. 

J^one of these troubles are common in the dog ; hap- 
pily so, as treatment in bad cases is difficult to carry out. 

Retention of Urine may arise from reflex spasm of the 
neck of the bladder or urethra, from swelling of the mu- 
cous membrane of the urethra, enlargement of the pros- 
tate gland, pressure on the urethra or swelling of this 
part from sexual excitement, traumatism (injury), the 
abuse of certain drugs, as cantharides, etc. Occasionally 
an excitable young dog after a long journey with confine- 
ment in a crate, or from the excitement of new surround- 
ings, as in a bench-show, will be unable to empty the 
bladder. Generally he will do so if he be removed to an 
extremely quiet place, given perfect freedom, and has his 
mind diverted from what has been engrossing his atten- 
tion and is soothed by words and caresses. However, if 
these fail, and the bladder is much distended, a warm bath 
should be given. The dog should be caused to sit on his 
haunches in a tub with enough water, as hot as can be 
borne, to reach above his loins, for twenty to thirty 
minutes. He should then be rubbed dry, and kept warm 
as a precaution against catching cold. If he still suffers, 
he may be given fifteen grains of Dover's powder and 
twenty grains of bromide of potassium. If the case grows 
urgent, an attempt to pass a catheter should be made. In 
the female this is not difficult, and the ordinary metal in- 
strument used in human practice will serve the purpose, 
or a gum-elastic catheter suitable to the size of the bitch. 


In the male dog reacliiiig the bladder in this way is 
not easy ; a small gum-elastic catheter will be required. 
The dog should be laid on his side, the instrument warmed 
in hot water and well oiled, gently passed in till its point 
can be felt with one finger in the rectum, when it may be 
guided onward into the bladder. 

This operation is to be avoided if possible, as it is 
neither easy to the manipulator nor agreeable to the dog ; 
and if there be much struggling, harm may follow the 

In extreme cases ether may be given, and, if the cathe- 
ter can not be passed, an opening made into the bladder to 
save life ; otherwise rupture of the bladder and inflamma- 
tion following this, if not sudden death, or urgemic poison- 
ing result from retention of the material in the blood 
which the kidneys should remove ; but it is seldom in- 
deed that the treatment with opiates or the hot bath will 
not suffice. 

Suppositories in the above and other painful affections 
of this region will be of great service if they can be re- 
tained in the rectum. 

As an example of a suitable combination we offer the 
following : 

'^ Pulv. opii gr. vj ; 

Ext. belladon gi"- iij ; 

Oh theobrom 3ij. 

M Ft. suppos. no. vi. Use one every two to six 
hours, as needed to relieve pain. 

Hot injections by the rectum of warm water medicated 
with laudanum or belladonna often prove very useful. 

The dog may suffer from inflammation of the kidney 


itself {nephritis)^ of the bladder {cystitis), or from renal 
or cystic calculi. 

As these are not very common affections, a general 
account, so as to enable a differential diagnosis to be 
made, will suffice. 

The history of the case is important, and in all in- 
stances a careful physical examination should be made, 
to establish local tenderness if present, bladder disten- 
tion, etc. 

Tenderness over the loins when rheumatism can be ex- 
cluded points to the kidney ; tenderness abov^e the pubes 
(between the thighs) to the bladder. 

Ordinarily, percussion does not discover the dullness of 
the bladder, but on distention it should, while at the same 
time the hand may be able to make out a somewhat globu- 
lar tumor. 

Differential Diagnosis. — In acute nephritis the kid- 
neys are swollen, and there may be escape of an albumin- 
ous fluid from the vessels, and of red blood-cells as well as 
leucocytes ; hence albuminous urine, bloody urine, tender- 
ness over the loins, with febrile symptoms, suggest acute 

Blood makes the urine " smoky " or brown in appear- 
ance. Blood may be positively diagnosticated by the 
microscope, or, better, with the spectroscope. 

In Acute Cystitis, tenderness over the loins is not so 
likely to exist, though j)ain may radiate in various direc- 
tions, and tenderness over the bladder is nearly always 
present. The urine is not so likely to contain blood, but 
the urine may be turbid, alkaline, or contain excess of 
mucus, which is not to be mistaken for albumin, which 


never constitutes a sediment, but is detected by boiling 
the urine and adding enough nitric acid to make it de- 
cidedly acid in reaction. If albumin be present, there will 
be coagulation. 

In Chronic Cystitis the urine is often decomposed and 
alkaline when passed. 

In Nephritis there may be frequent micturition from 
extension of the irritation from the kidney to the bladder, 
the alteration in the urine, etc. ; but in cystitis there is 
always more or less trouble in this way. ' If there be 
abscess of the kidney, pus will appear in abundance in the 

Renal Calculus is often difficult to diagnose ; but irregu- 
larity in the symptoms, with at times great pain and gen- 
eral tenderness over the kidney, are highly suggestive. 

Cystic Calculus, or stone in the bladder, is also marked 
by aggravation of the symptoms at times, possibly blood 
in the urine, occasional retention of urine it may be, pain, 
etc. Small calculi may block the urethra and necessitate 
urethrotomy, or cutting into the urethra. While acute 
nephritis may be set up by cold, drugs like turpentine 
and cantharides, which should be used in the case of the 
dog with extreme caution, the forms of chronic nephritis 
so common in man are of extreme rarity in the dog. 

Treat7)ient. — In all these diseases warm and in every 
way comfortable quarters are essential". Food must be 
always easily digestible and unstimulating, but in the later 
stages of acute aifections (convalescence), and in chronic 
affections, highly nourishing. In acute disease demulcent 
drinks, and in cystitis milk and lime-water, are especially 
indicated. In all, it is important to relieve pain with 


Dover's powder, suppositories, medicated injections, fo- 
mentations, hot baths, etc. 

With care and ordinary good medical treatment, acute 
nephritis and cystitis tend to get well. 

The chronic form of cystitis, and all affections depend- 
ent on calculi (stones, concretions), are very troublesome. 

If stone in the bladder can be positively diagnosticated, 
an operation may prove successful; but there are great 

Washing out the bladder of the female dog with anti- 
septic and soothing warm solutions — as warm water con- 
taining boric (boracic) acid or carbolic acid, with a little 
morphia — is practicable, but not in the male, it is feared. 
Attention must be directed to maintaining the strength 
with tonics, good food, etc. 

If from any cause ursemic poisoning is threatened, the 
bowels must be moved very freely. For this purjiose 
jalap, in doses of fifteen to twenty-five grains, answers; 
but calomel must on no account be used, as it is especially 
liable to salivate. The purpose is to divert blood from 
the head and eliminate the poison. Warm baths should 
also be tried, keeping the head cool. 


These are mostly of the nature of inflammations and 
their consequences, and morbid growths. 

Inflammation of the passage from the bladder for the 
discharge of urine iiirethrd)^ termed urethritis, occasion- 
ally occurs in the dog as a result of irritation from some 
cause, including coitus with bitches similarly affected, or 
from unhealthy discharges of some part of the genital 


tract, from retained secretions in inflammations of the 
sheath, etc. 

Some writers claim that the dog may have, hke hu- 
man beings, tlie specific inflammation known as gonor- 
rhoea from sexual intercourse, and even syphilis. The 
subject is worthy of further investigation. 

The symptoms of urethritis are uneasiness, possibly 
painful micturition, licking the penis, and especially a 
muco-purulent whitish or yellowish discharge, which can 
be traced within the penis — i. e., to the urethra. 

Balanitis is an inflammation of the sheath {prepuce) 
covering the penis. The symptoms are as in the preced- 
ing, except that the urethral discharge is not a part of 
this disease, though the two may be associated, as they 
not infrequently are. 

The sheath is swollen, tender, and soon gives rise to a 
muco-purulent discharge. The dog is disgustingly atten- 
tive to his genitals when they are affected. 

If not relieved, the prepuce may become swollen to 
such a degree as to prevent the extrusion of the penis, 
{phimosis) and may even in some degree interfere with 
the passage of urine. 

Occasionally, from long-continued sexual excitement, 
etc., the prepuce prevents the return of the penis within 
the sheath {paraphimosis)^ and the former becomes greatly 
swollen, and, in its exposed condition, liable to abrasions 
and ulcerations. The latter are apt to occur from pent-up 
discharges, as in balanitis, so that the whole may become 
very offensive to the associates of the dog, and a source of 
worry and humiliation to himself. The animal always 
licks the parts, his own method of cleansing and relieving 


pain and irritation. Inflammation may extend to the cov- 
ering of the testicles {scrotum), or this may arise inde- 
pendently in old dogs, and requires attention lest the 
parts become the seat of malignant disease, as cancer or 
sarcoma. Balanitis in chronic form is common. 

Treatment. — The indication in all these cases is to re- 
lieve irritation, both from the actual inflammation and 
from the discharges. The sheath should be kept clean 
by frequent washing with warm water or injecting up 
into it from a syringe the same, and, if this does not 
answer of itself, astringent and soothing solutions, such 
as tannic acid, sulphate of zinc, acetate of lead, etc., 
which are all the more effective if some glycerin be 

A very good plan is to insert a little surgeon's lint or 
some cotton-wool dipped in the astringent solution within 
the sheath for twenty minutes. The addition of laudanum 
or morphia to the cleansing water or to the astringent 
lotion will be helpful. 

In the case of urethritis, it will be necessary to inject 
one of these solutions after the use of very warm water 
into the urethra. 

Such combinations as the following will illustrate how 
useful lotions may be made : 

51 Tinct. opii 3iv; 

Acid. acet. dil 3 j ; 

Liq. plumbi subacetat. . . 5 j j 

Aquge ad gviij. 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : Apply or inject from two to four teaspoonfuls 
three to six times a day. 


liehed. Later, if there be dullness in pleurisy, owing to 
fluid, it is shifting in extent, and varies with the position 
of the animal. 

In bronchitis we usually soon hear sounds {rales) of 
some sort on auscultation, which may be present in pneu- 
monia, though not without the signs of solidification. 

Percussion and Auscultation. — Percussion should pre- 
cede auscultation. We believe that the best results will 
follow the practice of very light percussion without the 
help of instruments, placing two or three fingers of one 
hand flat on the chest wall and striking quickly and lightly 
with one or two fingers of the other, so that the blows fall 
evenly and but once on a single spot, the hand working 
only, and not the arm. Rapid comparison can thus be 
made and sliglit differences noted. It is a good plan to 
percuss corresponding areas on both sides, for each animal 
must be a standard for itself (its own norm.). 

It is well to learn to listen with the ear applied to the 
chest, interposing only a thin piece of cotton, as well as 
with a stethoscope. It is often a great advantage to use 
the modern flexible binaural stethoscope. Apart from 
hearing more distinctly, in the case of dirty dogs infested 
with vermin the advantage is obvious. Shy animals are 
also less disturbed, not to mention the absence of the 
necessity for stooping, etc. 

One who has learned the normal percussion and aus- 
cultation sounds by examination of healthy dogs of differ- 
ent breeds and sizes, will not find much difficulty in soon 
becoming familiar with the main departures in disease, 
while mere verbal descriptions alone are of little real 




Treatment. — Much as in other diseases of the chest as 
to diet, hygienic surroundings, etc. 

Pain must be relieved at once with an opiate, say fif- 
teen grains of Dover's powder for a dog of fair size. 

Counter-irritation is decidedly useful — e. g., an appli- 
cation of turpentine, followed by the chest-jacket (see p. 
226) ; a mild aperient, and aconite to quiet the circula- 
tion, may all prove useful in this stage of the disease. 

Pleurisy with effusion is dangerous in proportion as 
the lung space is replaced by fluid and the vital organs 
displaced. Absorption should be faoilitated by counter- 
irritation, and every measure that will improve the gen- 
eral health. 

Some like to administer small doses of calomel, others 
iodide of potassium and digitalis, to stimulate the kidneys 
to do extra work, carry off more fluid from the blood, etc. 

But if within a reasonable period the fluid does not 
disappear, and especially if it tends to increase, or if it be- 
comes purulent, constituting empyema^ it must be drawn 
off either with a small trocar and canula (" tapping ") or 
an aspirating needle ; but in no case very suddenly or all 
at once, for fear of heart-failure. The puncture should 
be made low and far back, and with the position of vital 
organs in mind. 

Convalescence may be encouraged by the best of food, 
tonics, etc. 

Chronic pleurisy ^ either as a localized subacute inflam- 
mation or with effusion, which is most common and most 
serious, is not of very frequent occurrence in dogs of a 
good constitution. 

The symptoms are much as in the acute form of the 


disease, except that the fever, pain, etc., are not so 

Treatment is to be directed especially to the removal 
of the effused fluid, either by natural absorption or " tap- 
ping," and the greatest attention to the general health of 
the animal. 

Bronchitis. — This disease is an inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes. 

When the smallest tubes are involved the affection is 
termed cwpillary hroncMtls, most common in very young, 
very old, and debilitated subjects, and so is by far the most 
dangerous form. 

Pathology. — There are swelling and dryness of the lin- 
ing membrane of the tubes, followed by a mucous dis- 
charges in excess, which is apt to become to a greater or 
less extent purulent. 

The cells lining the membrane die, are thrown off and 
expectorated in the case of man. As dogs do not properly 
expectorate or cough to much purpose, they are at a great 
disadvantage. However, they frequently vomit when 
coughing, which tends to expel the excessive and altered 
discharge, and furnishes a hint for treatment. 

Prognosis. — Favorable if not associated with gangrene 
or death of lung tissue, abscess, dilatation of the tubes, 
and if the strength of the animal be good. 

Symjptoins. — More or less cough, moist souiids on aus- 
cultation, with sympathetic congestion and catarrh of the 
eyes and nose. 

Treatment. — At the outset an emetic of twenty grains 
of sulphate of zinc, which, if not effective, in a few min- 
utes may be followed by two to four drachms of wine of 


ipecacuanha, a laxative, attention to general comfort, and 
to the ventilation especially. 

When the cough is dry a choice of some of the follow- 
ing in combination may be made, viz. : Ipecac, squills, 
ammonia, spirits of chloroform, hydrochlorate of apomor- 
phia, paregoric, morphia, potassium cyanide, etc. Later, 
ammonium carbonate, syrup of Tolu, or senega may re- 
place some of the preceding. Possibly remedies of this 
character may be required ; but the sooner drugs can be 
dispensed with the better, for they all tend to disorder 
the digestive tract. Quinine, iron, nux vomica, and other 
vegetable bitters may be useful after the acute stage has 

In chronic bronchitis, tonic treatment, including cod- 
liver oil, is of great importance. 

A moderate allowance of alcoholic stimulants, as wine, 
whisky, or brandy, is often called for when bronchitis 
threatens to exhaust the animal, or when it overtakes a 
dog already enfeebled by disease. Supporting treatment, 
with an emetic at the outset, will be best in the capillary 
form of bronchitis. 

In all forms of the disease counter-irritation and the 
chest-jacket are very beneficial. 

Verminous hronchitis, owing to the presence of para- 
sites in the bronchial tubes, is a rare and unmanageable 
disease, generally leading on to a fatal result. An attempt 
should be made to dislodge the worms by emetics, inhala- 
tions of the fumes of burning tar, etc. 

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the substance of the 
lungs, and may be confined to a portion of one lobe or 
may include the greater part of both lungs. Such exten- 


eive inflammation is not common, and is almost of neces- 
sity fatal. Pneumonia is divided into lobar {croupous, 
diffuse) and lobular {patchy, catarrhal). In the latter, 
only limited and usually scattered portions of the lung 
tissue are involved. This form is most common as a com- 
plication of bronchitis, and especially when it arises in 
the course of other diseases. 

Causation. — The onset is favored by wet, cold, any- 
thing inducing a chill, etc. Some cases are almost cer- 
tainly due to a microbe, and the disease then seems to be 
infectious. It will be safe in treatment to regard all cases 
as infective. 

Pathology. — In lobar pneumonia we have a typical 
inflammation with hypergemia, soon followed by escape of 
red and white corpuscles from the blood-vessels, and effu- 
sion of a coagulable fluid with increase {proliferation) of 
the lining and other cells of the tissue of the lung. The 
portion of lung involved gets red and solid, when removed 
after death, sinks in water, cuts firm, and looks not unlike 
liver. This is the stage of red hepatization, and is suc- 
ceeded, when the course of events is typical, by a fatty 
degeneration of the morbid products, a stage known as 
gray hepatization. Resolution is the return to the nor- 
mal by the absorption or removal of this foreign material, 
a natural state of the blood-vessels, etc. Untoward results 
may occur, abscess or purulent infiltration — i. e., breaking 
down of the lung tissue — and gangrene or local death, 
usually followed by breaking down of a portion of the 
lung. Both the latter conditions frequently prove fatal. 
With pneumonia there is usually more or less bronchitis, 
and often pleurisy. 


Prognosis. — As a matter of fact, pneumonia is a dis- 
ease that carries o^ a considerable proportion of the 
canine race, both as a primary affection and as a complica- 
tion and sequel of other affections, which is probably 
owing to its attacking weakly animals when a primary 
disease, to neglect at the outset, and to indiscreet treat- 
ment ; while during the course of and subsequent to other 
diseases the constitution is naturally often unable to bear 
the additional strain. 

Much in the prognosis will depend on the amount of 
lung tissue involved, the condition of the heart, and the 
patient's vitality and resisting power. 

Symptoms. — Usually pronounced. Dyspnoea (distress- 
ing breathing), characteristic anxious fades or expression, 
injected (red) eyes, dry and hot (not always) nose, and 
most characteristic attitude. The animal sits on his 
haunches, with his head extended and mouth open, evi- 
dently suffering from lack of oxygen. If the dog attempts 
to lie down, he keeps the head supported high on some 
object. In extreme cases he may be unable to lie down 
at all. Percussion reveals a more or less dull sound over 
the affected area ; auscultation, fine crackling sounds. 
However, neither of these may be very distinct. 

If pleurisy be present, a friction sound is to be heard 
{crepitant rales), and this friction of dry surfaces explains 
the pain in great part, if such exist. 

The attack is usually ushered in by a chill — a symptom 
which should always be inquired for and to which the 
greatest importance should be attached, as invariably in- 
dicating that something serious is at hand in any anima) 
the subject of it. 


The pulse is usually rapid, and disturbance of the 
pulse-respiration ratio is apt to occur. Instead of the 
normal four to one, it may be two to one, or less. 

The temperature may reach 104° to 106° Fahr., with 
other indications of fever. 

In pneumonia too much reliance must not be placed on 
physical signs, as there may be very grave disease without 
the former being at all well pronounced. 

But prostration, a weak, irregular, very slow or very 
rapid cardiac action, or greatly disturbed pulse-respiration 
ratio, are indications calling for a cautious prognosis and 
the most watchful treatment, especially if with these there 
be much dyspnoea or cyanosis (blueness of mucous mem- 
branes, etc.), indicating that the blood is being very poorly 

Less frequently than in man does the dog cough up 
the characteristic rusty sputum — i. e., mucus, etc. — with 
blood enough to color it. When this is seen, the diagnosis 
of pneumonia is clear. 

Diagnosis. — The altered respiration, the position of 
the animal, the dullness on percussion, etc., usually suffice 
to establish the diagnosis in lobar pneumonia, by far the 
commonest form as a primary disease. 

The patchy or lobular form is more difficult to make 
out; but if there be limited areas of dullness, or more 
diffuse but ill-defined dullness on percussion appearing 
during an attack of bronchitis or other disease, this form 
of pneumonia is to be suspected. 

Treatment. — The greatest difference of opinion pre- 
vails on this subject both as regards human and veterinary 
practice, some even maintaining that when no treatment 


whatever beyond careful nursing is adopted the results are 
just as favorable. 

"While there may be some truth in this so far as typical 
cases are concerned, it is not a safe doctrine to teach to 
the young practitioner, nor a position with which medicine 
should be content even if the assertion be true, which we 
very much doubt. Directly opposite has been the prac- 
tice in regard to local applications, some recommending 
them warm and some cold. 

But as a matter of experience, it is found that it is un- 
wise to apply either kind to dogs under ordinary circum- 
stances. Heavy poultices are apt to shift, the dog is rest- 
less, and in changing any sort of moist applications the 
animal is apt to get chilled, so that this mode of treatment 
may be considered quite unsuitable for dogs. The same 
may be said of cold applications. 

The chest-jacket^ before referred to, we have found in- 
valuable in all chest diseases. The object is to have a 
close-fitting coat or jacket, which shall absorb the moist- 
ure from the animal's skin and protect it from varia- 
tions in the external temperature. The exact construc- 
tion is of minor importance provided that it is of even 
thickness, fits closely, and can be kept in place. Dogs 
do not usually attempt to remove such a comfortable 
body bandage. 

In winter it may be made of two layers of flannel or 
horse blanket, with or without padding of cotton-wool 
quilted in ; and it becomes still more effective if it fit 
neatly and be sewed on the dog in such a way as to lie 
close and feel comfortable, the object being to prevent 
access of cold air. For summer use the whole may be 


less warm, but, as a matter of fact, pneumonia is much 
less common at this season. 

Openings may be made for the fore-legs, or the whole 
may be attached by strips of cotton in front and firmly 
stitched over the back. It is well that it extend far back 
over the loin. Closeness of fitting without being so tight 
as to embarrass the breathing is important, both to pre- 
serve it in position and to prevent the access of cool air. 
Often the dog will breathe easier at once when this dress- 
ing is applied. 

When there is pleurisy especially, it will be advisable 
to use some form of counter-irritation first. Turpentine 
answers very well, and leaves no stain, as does iodine. 

Blistering is never called for. It is the writer's opin- 
ion that under no circumstances whatever in any acute 
disease {if ever) is hlistering of the dog justifiable. The 
amount of pain and irritation is out of all proportion to 
any possible good in an animal with so responsive a nerv- 
ous system as the dog's. Counter-irritation is often use- 
ful ; blistering never. 

The hygienic surroundings should be of the best, the 
air being frequently changed, the temperature even and 
not above 60° Fahr. 

The food must be light at first, unless there be marked 
prostration, and largely fluid or sloppy while the fever is 

If the pulse is very rapid and full, tincture of aconite 
in frequently repeated small doses may be useful, watch- 
ing the pulse carefully, especially if Fleming's tincture be 
used. Some practitioners are opposed to this treatment. 

If there is evidence of pain, or if cough is troublesome, 

228 THE DOG IN DlSl^^ASE. 

a little paregoric, or, better, Dover's powder, on account of 
its favoring the action of the skin and kidneys, may be given. 
Bleeding has been recommended in very sthenic cases. 

Chlorate of potassium has a good reputation in diseases 
of the respiratory tract, and is favorable, it is thought, to 
the oxidation of the blood. As it is somewhat depressant 
to the heart, its action should be carefully watched. 

In the early stage the author likes to give, in a gelatin 
capsule, powdered bromide, acetate, and chlorate of potas- 
sium v/ith tincture of aconite. After this is swallowed, 
the dog may be given water to drink to dissolve and 
dilute the dose. Being thirsty, he is only too glad to get 
the liquid. He may relish buttermilk or sour milk, and it 
will be useful at this period. At night fifteen grains of 
Dover's powder, with a like quantity of bromide of potas- 
sium, in capsules, will be useful in securing rest. 

It is important not to give aconite if the heart be weak, 
even if rapid, and it should be stopped if it does not with- 
in a moderate period quiet the circulation, as a depressant 
action may set in later and prove dangerous. 

Death in pneumonia is nearly always by heart-failure, 
and this organ must therefore be most carefully observed 

Assuming that resolution has begun, the general 
strength is to be maintained. If the appetite is not good 
and the temperature is not high, vegetable bitters — as nux 
vomica, cinchona, gentian, etc.— will be useful; also qui- 
nine, citrate of iron and quinine, etc. 

During convalescence the treatment already recom- 
mended for other diseases of the respiratory system is 
suitable. If the temperature runs very high, quinine in 


large doses, antipyrin, or phenacetiii, will meet the views 
of some. One large dose of ten to fifteen grains of qui- 
nine, with twenty grains of bromide of potassium at the 
outset, may be worth a trial ; but repeated doses of the 
above remedies are of very doubtful efficacy. 

If the disease is of a low type from the first, with evi- 
dences of weakness or positive prostration, the chief reli- 
ance must be on good feeding and alcohol, with such stimu- 
lants as ammonia, strychnine, strong coffee, caffein, etc. 

Whisky or brandy, given in doses of a teaspoonful or 
less with fluid beef or eggnog if the dog refuses nourish- 
ment, or diluted with water, given simply as medicine, 
often produces the happiest effects. In fact, in some cases 
at the outset a small dose of whisky has seemed to mitigate 
the symptoms at once. Of course, wdth the bounding 
pulse and a generally sthenic type of the disease this is 
plainly not indicated. 

Certainly if the dog will not take nourishment it must 
be forced on him, vrith as little exhaustion of his strength 
as possible. 

If the heart becomes very weak or irregular, resort 
must be had to digitalis, say five drops of the tincture 
every two hours for an adult dog of medium size, watch- 
ing its effects carefully. It is a most valuable remedy in 
skillful hands. It may be combined with carbonate of 
ammonia and some vegetable bitter, and, if quinine has 
not already been given freely, small tonic doses (one to 
two grains) may be given three times daily. Quinine is 
a well-tested remedy for dogs and men ; but, in the case 
of dogs especially, it must not be given without duly 
guarding against a depressant action. 


As in tlie case of man, unpleasant head symptoms may 
be obviated by giving with this drug ten to twenty grains 
of bromide of potassium, according to the dose of quinine, 
the age, etc., of the dog ; but it is somewhat depressant. 

Asthma. — Spasmodic asthma, so common in man, is of 
ratlier rare occurrence in the dog. This form of the dis- 
ease is the result of more or less local constriction of the 
bronchial tubes, owing to spasm of the unstriped muscular 
fibers found in their walls. 

The causes inducing it are various, as certain atmos- 
pheric conditions, certain mechanical and chemical irri- 
tants in the form of dust, gases, etc. It may also be 
excited by parasites in the intestinal tract, and more fre- 
quently by their presence in the bronchial tubes them- 
selves. It is sometimes traceable to dietetic errors. 

The other form of asthma, sometimes spoken of as 
" congestive," is due to a thickening of the mucous mem- 
brane of the air-tubes from congestion, as in heart-disease, 
from bronchitis, etc., and to the lessening of the caHber of 
the tubes by the pressure of tumors, etc., when the symp- 
toms may be described as asthmatic rather than as arising 
from asthma as a disease. 

Asthma is not common in young dogs ; but more or 
less dyspnoea of an asthmatic character is not at all infre- 
quent in old, fat, lazy dogs permitted to lie about the 
house and feed to excess. 

Prognosis. — As to complete cure, unfavorable; gen- 
erally relief can be given. The disease of itself is rarely 
if ever fatal. 

Symptoms. — Loud, wheezy respiration, labored breath- 
ing, characterized by prolonged expiratory efforts, dilated 


nostrils, perhaps open mouth, with numerous evidences of 
imperfectly aerated blood. 

Diagnosis. — Is very easy, but the cause is not so readily 
made out in all cases. 

Treatment. — In the spasmodic form the dog should be 
removed to a small chamber, in which tar or kindred sub- 
stances may be burned, especially if the symptoms arise in 
connection with bronchitis. 

Paper dipped in a solution of saltpeter and tincture 
of stramonium and then dried may be burned with relief 
to the patient sometimes. 

If the dog be gross and overfed^ his diet must be cut 
down and simplified. This is a clear case for feeding only 
once a day. 

The liver and digestive organs generally may be bene- 
fited by the timely administration of a compound cathartic 
pill at night, follov.^ed by Epsom salts in the morning, 
while the compound rhubarb pill may be given daily for a 

"When associated with bronchitis, the indications are to 
treat that disease, of which it is but a sort of superadded 
symptom. In the case of tumors, removal, if possible, is 
indicated. If this can not be done, attention to the general 
health and condition of the dog may alleviate the distress. 

Iodide of potassium in small doses, gradually increased 
and kept up for a considerable time with intermissions, 
may effect a complete or partial cure. The dose may be 
from one to five grains, though some dogs do not tolerate 
this remedy any bettei* than some people. 

Tuberculosis. — This, in pulmonary or other form, is 
very rare in the dog, though it may be induced. When it 


occurs it is to be recognized by wasting, altered respira- 
tion, cough, etc. — in fact, the same symptoms as in other 
animals, while the treatment must be on similar lines also. 
For dogs to swallow the sputa of consumptives is dangerous. 


Nasal Catarrh. — Sometimes, though rarely, as the result 
of a " cold," more frequently of a succession of " colds," 
in dogs badly kenneled, an excessive discharge of muco- 
purulent matter from the nose results, and is an indication 
of a relaxed and weakened if not a low inflammatory con- 
dition of the membrane lining the nose. It is apt to fol- 
low distemper, and to improve or get worse as the dog's 
general health varies. 

Yery often the mucous membrane covering the front 
of the eyeball and the inner surfaces of the lids {conjunc- 
tiva) partakes sympathetically (reflexly), or as a result of 
the original inflammation of distemper, etc., in the ca- 
tarrhal condition. 

If unchecked, the nasal catarrh may lead to ulceration 
of the soft parts of the nose or to inflammation of the 
bones of the organ, with resulting death of part of the 
bone {necrosis, ca/ries) ; or the secretion may become al- 
tered, or be retained and give rise to a most offensive 
smell. From such inflammation, catarrh, etc., nasal polypi 
or growths of a highly vascular character occasionally arise, 
and may so obstruct respiration, or cause such disturbance 
generally, as to demand treatment. 

Acute catarrh when not associated with distemper does 
not usually require local treatment in the dog, as it is 


When a catarrh does not yield to treatment in a mod- 
erate period, the dog should be anaesthetized and a care- 
ful examination of the nasal passages and month made hy 
the help of bright sunlight or a reflecting mirror and a 

If growths are found, they should be at once treated 
either by burning off with a strong wire at a bright-red 
heat, or torn out, if larger, with a wire snare, and the bone 
cauterized with the hot wire as before, which usually also 
arrests all hsemorrhage. 

These chronic catarrhs tend to undermine the health 
of the animal and to become less amenable to treatment 
the longer neglected. 

The nose must be washed out with a syringe and warm 
water, to which a little carbolic acid (about five grains to 
the pint) has been added ; or, better still, if the dog can be 
kept quiet, a spraying apparatus may be used, though, con- 
sidering the length of the dog's muzzle, this is somewhat 
difficult to manage. 

For a spray such a formula as the following will prove 
very useful : 

9 Sodse biborat 3 j ; 

Sodse carb 3 j ; 

Acid, carbolic gi*- ^ > 

Glycerinse § j ; 

Aquse ad § viij. 

M. Inject. 

Often the cleansing in this manner, faithfully carried 
out, will effect a cure. If not weak, astringent solutions 
may be sprayed up the nostrils or carefully injected by 
a syringe ; but strong applications do only harm. 


Sulphate of zinc, about two to six grains to the ounce, 
half water and half glycerin, is one of the best. 

When there is much foulness, a little boracic acid or 
iodoform may be blown up to advantage. 

The external parts must be protected from the irritat- 
ing discharge or a form of eczema will result. For this 
purpose the oxide-of-zinc ointment, or one containing a 
little iodoform, etc., will be useful. 

Attention to the general health is very important, 
tonics — as quinine, iron, phosphates, cod-liver oil, etc. — 
being demanded, and proper evacuations of the bowels, 
etc., indispensable. 

A dog long affected with catarrh is apt to get into a 
dejected condition, and his psychic treatment is not the 
least important. 

Ozsena is the term applied to a form of catarrh with a 
fetid, more or less bloody and purulent discharge, which 
tends to irritate all parts with which it comes in contact. 

If it does not yield to the treatment for chronic ca- 
tarrh, a careful examination of the nasal passages is called 
for to ascertain whether there is not disease of the bones, 
etc. The external openings of the nose should be pro- 
tected with some antiseptic, as iodoform ointment or vase- 
line. This is also a good application internally, or iodo- 
form powder, etc., may be blown up the nostrils. 

Catarrh may also be due to parasites. 

Hints as to FormulcB and Administration of Medi- 
cines in the Treatment of the Before-mentioned Diseases. 
— To economize space, we shall employ now and later the 
following commonly used abbreviations : ^ for prescrip- 
tion, recipe ; gr. for grain ; 3 for drachm ; § for ounce ; 


When the disease is chronic, astringent lotions, aUied 
to those ah'eadj advised for various forms of inflamma- 
tion, are applicable. Tannic acid, borax, boric acid, zinc 
sulphate, etc., are all of value, and if some glycerin be used 
in their solution with water, they are more effectual, as 
they do not evaporate so soon. 

The following may serve as an example : 

B Acid carbolic 3 ss. ; 

Zinci sulph 3 j ; 

Sod. biborat 3 j ; 

G5-lycerin § ij ; 

Aquee ad § vj. 

Ft. mist. 
Sig. : Pour in or inject a teaspoonful, warm, two to 
three times a day after cleansing with warm water. 

The lotion recommended for ophthalmia, etc. (p. 309), 
is also valuable. In chronic cases tincture of iodine may 
do good. When there is much smell, iodoform blown in 
is invaluable. Medicated oils serve a good purpose. 

If the discharge is profuse and the affection of long 
standing, astringent powders blown in will be more effect- 
ive sometimes than liquid applications. Some of the best 
of these have been mentioned for lotions, and to the list 
may be added dry oxide of zinc and alum, or these mixed 
with subnitrate of bismuth to render them less powerful. 
For the parasitic form of the disease mercurial ointments 
are the most efficient. The yellow oxide of mercury, one 
grain to one drachm of vaseline, applied daily, often cures. 
In nearly all cases the general health of the dog will 
require attention. The bowels should be relaxed, though 

purging is not called for. The alimentary canal is often 


at fault. It may be that alteratives, as arsenic, will be in- 

When ear disease is chronic and the digestion is good, 
tonics — as iron, quinine, cod-liver oil, etc. — will hasten a 

Good feeding is as valuable as any part of the treat- 
ment. It should be very bland when the disease is acute, 
but nutritious when chronic and discharges are profuse. 

Otitis Media, or inflammation of the middle ear, as a 
primary affection is rare. It may arise from extension of 
canker, from blows or other injuries, etc., but sometimes 
it will not be possible to assign a cause. 

At the outset the pain is often very severe ; the dog 
may whine, cry out, or rub his head on the ground. In 
all such instances, if there are no external signs of disease, 
this affection may be suspected, especially if the cause can 
not be found in the mouth, as a decayed tooth, etc. After 
a few days pus is likely to issue from the ear, and then the 
disease simulates canker. 

The danger to be most apprehended is extension to the 
brain, causing meningitis, or abscess of the brain itself, 
which may end fatally by pressure or blood-poisoning. 

The prognosis should always be guarded. 

Treatment. — The most urgent indication is the relief 
of pain by opiates, combined with bromide of potassium, 
warm medicated (belladonna, etc.) injections into the ear, 
and counter-irritation to the back of the head and neck. 
Warm syringing gives great relief, and should be fre- 
quent ; but immediately after, the ear should be filled with 
cotton-wool dipped in a sedative solution and covered up 
well. Turpentine painted on moderately two or three 


2 ^ 



times a day is a good nictliod of counter-irritation. When 
the acute stage is past and there is an abundant discharge, 
the treatment should be as for canker, though the powders 
referred to, carefully blown in, are even more needed than 
in canker. Constitutional treatment is also imperative in 
many cases. 

When very chronic, the internal ear itself may become 
affected, though this is fortunately rare. 

The disease, unless checked, will lead to the loss of the 
small bones, perforation of the drum-head (very common), 
and considerable deafness. 

Deafness, to a certain extent, as a result of the last dis- 
ease, is almost sure to be present, though not always readi- 
ly observed. Old dogs, whose powers are all failing, are 
more or less deaf also, though less frequently than old 
men. There is a tendency in all white dogs, as bull terri- 
ers, to congenital deafness. A dog may be deaf in only 
one ear, but when born deaf usually both ears are defect- 
ive. In testing for deafness the trials should be so con- 
ducted that the dog may not be able to perceive actual 
concussion of the earth, waf tings of the air, or notice other 
signs which might attract his attention through sight or 
smell. It is well to make comparative tests on other dogs 
at the same time under the same circumstances. Deafness 
may be due to accumulations of dirt, wax, or both together, 
in the ears. After this has been softened by dropping oil 
into the ears for a couple of days, they should be well 
syringed with warm soap-suds. 

Polypus of the ear is apt to arise from long-continued 
discharges from the ear, the result of inflammation {ptor- 
rhma). When a discharge does not yield in a moderate 


period to treatment, a careful examination of the ear 
should be made with a speculum in a bright light. If a 
polypus is discovered and it can be reached with a for- 
ceps, snare, etc., its immediate removal is indicated, the 
base being cauterized with nitrate of silver or carbolic 
acid if possible, and the wdiole finally destroyed by re- 
peated astringent applications (powders). 


The visual apparatus consists of a series of refracting 
bodies which bring rays of light emanating from an object 
to a focus on the expansion of the optic nerve {retma) in 
the form of a clearly defined image, which so influences 
the nerve of vision that certain parts of the brain are af- 
fected, and '' seeing " or " vision " results. 

The principal refracting body is the crystalline lens. 
The essential apparatus {crystalline lens and retina), so far 
as the globe of the eye is concerned, is protected by a firm 
whitish outer tunic, lined within by a vascular (blood- 
supplying) covering supporting the retinal expansion of 
the nerve of vision. 

The main refracting body is supported in position by 
a ligament {suspensory ligament), the foldings {ciliary 
processes) of the vascular, pigmented coat {choroid), and 
the vitreous humor. 

Light is admitted through the clear outer cornea, 
which is set into the rest of the globe as a watch-glass into 
its case. At the junction of this cornea and the firm outer 
coat {sclerotic) hangs, in front of the lens, a colored (pig- 
mented) circular muscular curtain {iris) with the power to 
vary in size under the stimulus of light reflex/h^ so that 



the greater the quantity and intensity of light, the smaller 
the central opening {pu^pil) in the curtain. 

The globe of the eye is set in a bony socket, moved by 
several muscles, protected by the eyelids, eyebrows, eye- 
lashes, and washed over with the secretion of a small gland 

— S^liPERK3Rfl£eU>S 




—Section op Human Eyb, somewhat diagrammatic (after Flint). 

{lachrymal) situated in the outer part of the socket. The 
secretion, when it has served its purpose, is carried away 
by the lachrymal duct into the nose. 

In the dog, a third eyelid hiemhrana nictitans) is pres- 
ent at the inner corner of the eye, but is not so well devel- 
oped as in herbivora, etc., though more prominent in some 
breeds, as bloodhounds. 


The gland of Harder is placed in connection with it, 
and secretes a protective oily matter. 

It is important to remember the conjunctwa^ a mucous 
membrane extending over the front of the ball, reflected 
on the inside of the eyelids, and terminating at their edges. 
It is very thin and transparent over the cornea. 

Fig. 24.— Eye partially Dissected (after Sappey). 
1. optic nerve ; 2, 3, 4, sclerotic dissected back so as to uncover the choroid coat ; 
5, cornea, divided and folded back with sclerotic coat ; 6, canal of Schlemm ; 
7, external surface of choroid, traversed by one of the long ciliary arteries and 
by ciliary nerves ; 8, central vessel, into which the vasa vorticosa empty ; 9, 10, 
choroid zone ; 11, ciliary nerves ; 12, long ciliary artery ; 13, anterior cihary 
arteries ; 14, iris ; 15, vascular circle of iris ; 16, pupil. 

While it is possible that any part of the eye may be 
the seat of disease, affections of certain regions are very 
uncommon, and it would serve but little purpose to give a 
complete account of all the diseases of the eye that have 
occurred at any time. 

The eyelids, eyebrows, eyelashes, lachrymal apparatus, 


third eyelid (" haw "), and lachrymal ducts are more espe- 
cially the protective apparatus of the eye, and affections of 
some of these parts are common. 

Diseases of the Protective Apparatus of the Eye. — Kot 
infrequently, especially after distemper, the eyebrows and 
eyelids are affected with a troublesome eczema, which 
must be treated on the general principles that apply to 
that disease. 

Occasionally, particularly in neglected, ill-fed dogs and 
after distemper, the edges of the lids also tend to inflame 
and remain in a condition of chronic irritation, leading to 
exudation, scabs, loss of eyelashes, etc. 

The condition does not always yield readily to treat- 
ment. The lids should be bathed with warm, soothing 
lotions, as boric acid and laudanum, dried, and anointed 
with vaseline, while attention is paid in every way to the 
general health and the surroundings. 

If this simple treatment is not effective, it may be 
necessary to apply a mercurial ointment, either the red 
oxide-of -mercury ointment (pink ointment), three grains to 
one drachm of vaseline, or, better, the officinal nitrate-of- 
mercury ointment (citrine ointment), one drachm to one 
ounce of vaseline. 

As these are very irritating to the eye, they should be 
confined to the lids. All mercurial ointments kill para- 
sites which occasionally attach themselves to the edges 
of the lids. When such preparations are used it is 
most important that no other dog get near the patient, 
as he might lick them off and be poisoned with mer- 
cury, which in the dog happens readily and is very 


Inflammation and Abscess of the lachrymal gland now 
and then occur in the dog, and, when it does, should 
be treated on the general principles that govern other 
inflammations. It is important that no secretions be pent 

The Lachrymal Ducts also may become the seat of in- 
flammation or catarrh, giving rise to swelling, so that the ^ 
tears are not carried off^ but run over the cheeks. 

If possible, after soothing treatment in the acute stage, 
a probe should be introduced and the duct opened up. A 
cutting operation, as slitting up the duct, may be required. 
Altogether they are most unsatisfactory cases to deal with, 
and the practitioner must be guided by the indications in 
each instance. 

The haw^ or third eyelid, may inflame and greatly en- 
large. This condition, when acute and of short standing, 
may be treated with soothing and astringent lotions ; and 
very often these will reduce the structure to a natural size 
within a moderate period. If not, it must be seized with 
forceps, drawn out, and snipped off, the dog being under 
the influence of an anaesthetic, as in nearly all other opera- 
tions on the eye, so that nicety in results may be attained 
and accidents may not occur from the struggling of the 
animal. The application of cocaine may render an anaes- 
thetic unnecessar}'. 

Conjunctivitis, or inflammation of the mucous membrane 
of the eye. — The eyes in the dog, more than in any of our 
domestic animals, reflect the condition of the constitution, 
especially the state of the digestive and respiratory tracts. 

There are all degrees of abnormality in the conjunc- 
tiva, from simple injection or redness, with little or no 


discharge of any kind, to tlie extreme redness, swelling, 
and purulent discharge of ophthalmia. 

We have very often to deal with a catarrh of the con- 
junctiva akin to that of the nose during and after distem- 
per as well as from general disorder of the digestive tract 
or the economy as a whole. 

This catarrh may be regarded as a conjunctivitis, 
which, according to the symptoms, may be acute, sub- 
acute, or chronic, and is to be considered apart from oph- 

Diagnosis. — In influenza the discharge is nearly al- 
ways thin, especially for some days. In the catarrh of 
distemper, etc., it is thin at first, but soon becomes muco- 

Ophthalmia. — The local symptoms are very severe, 
especially in the worst form, the lids being swollen {mdem- 
atous\ the conjunctiva very red, thickened, tender, and 
the seat of a copious purulent discharge. It is a violent 
inflammation of the mucous membrane, affecting more or 
less the whole eye sympathetically (rellexly, etc.). 

There is pain, intolerance of light {jjhotophohia), febrile 
symptoms, and general disturbance. Damp, dark, un- 
healthy kennels, bad feeding, etc., are predisposing causes. 

There is difference of opinion as to how far purulent 
ophthalmia is contagious or infectious. However, it is 
practically better to assume that it is very liable to attack 
other dogs in the kennel, and accordingly to remove the 
sufferer to a quiet, comfortable, but somewhat darkened, 
place by himself. 

Treatment. — The indications are to allay pain and irri- 
tation both by local and constitutional measures. 


The disease can not be aborted, but its severity may be 
mitigated and complications may be prevented. 

The dangers are that adjacent structures, may take on 
an inflammatory condition, and that abscesses and slough- 
ing, or loss of structure, may result. Ulcers of the cornea 
are common after this disease. 

Cleanliness, in the medical or surgical sense, can not 
be too much insisted on in all such diseases — i. e., all dis- 
charge must be frequently removed. 

This had better be done without actual contact of the 
hand as much as possible, as the eyelids are extremely 

Warm water may be allowed to trickle from a sponge 
into the eyes, or, better, from a piece of cotton or lint, 
which, if brought in contact with the eyes at all, should be 
frequently renewed. The water should be as warm as can 
be borne comfortably. In the intervals a hot fomentation, 
medicated with belladonna if the pain be severe, may be 
laid over the eyes, but not long enough to retain much 
secretion before washing is resorted to again. Warm 
water may be poured into the eyes from a little kettle or 
teapot in a gentle stream. 

A few drops of the ofliicinal solution of atropine may 
be dropped into the eye two to three times a day, taking 
care that it does not run into the dog's mouth (poisonous). 

The application with a camers-hair brush of a solution 
of nitrate of silver, of a strength of ten to twenty grains 
to the ounce of water once or twice daily, has been found 
generally useful. For a lotion to be used more frequently, 
the following is recommended, and is useful in many ca- 
tarrhal conditions of the eye : 


9 Zinci siilph gr. xvj ; 

Morph. sulpli gi*- iv ; 

Aquae ad ^ iv. 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : Apply several times daily as a lotion to the eyes. 

Sometimes boric acid, ten grains to the ounce of water, 
answers better than the sulphate of zinc. 

The colorless fluid extract of golden seal, one part in 
six or eight of water, may be combined with other astrin- 
gents, as sulphate of zinc, though this mixture is better 
adapted for ordinary forms of conjunctivitis. 

An excellent prescription for this and other forms of 
inflammation of the eye and ear is Goulard's extract of 
lead (or Goulard's water) combined with morphia or 
opium in water, thus : 

9 Goulard's ext. plumbi 3 ss. ; 

Ext. opii liquid § ss. ; 

Aquae ad § iv. 

The quantity of the first ingredient may be double for 
use in the ear. The patient should be given abundance of 
bland, nutritious food. 

If he does not sleep, and is very restless, Dover's 
powder combined with bromide of potassium is indicated. 

Counter-irritation to the back of the head and neck 
will be found serviceable in all acute inflammations of the 
eye and ear. 

Ulcers of the Cornea are apt to result from this and 
some other conditions. They are very slow to heal, and 
prevention is much better than cure. 

The use of atropine and stimulating lotions and oint- 
ments has answered best. 


One of the most useful remedies is the yellow oxide-of> 
mercury ointment recommended for granular lids below. 
A small quantity of calomel dusted over the ulcers often 
does good. 

Granular Lids. — A condition resulting from long-con- 
tinued irritation of the mucous membrane, with more or 
less prominent elevations on the inside of the lids. These 
are a source of no little irritation to the cornea, and the 
eye as a whole. 

Treatment. — At first a gentle application of a smooth 
crystal of sulphate of copper, and, immediately after, wash- 
ing over the everted lids with a camel' s-hair pencil dipped 
in water. 

The up23er lid is easily everted with a little practice 
by placing a rather small pencil or pen-handle over it 
and then seizing the edge of the lid and lashes and turn- 
ing it back. The lower lid can readily be drawn from the 
eyeball or everted in a similar way. 

A most useful application is an ointment made from 
the amorphous yellow oxide of mercury, one to three 
grains to one drachm of vaseline. A piece the size of a 
hemp-seed sufiices for a single application. 

The same treatment is excellent for opacities of the 
cornea, which are apt to result from granular lids or m- 
iiammation of the cornea itself. 

The latter occurs during distemper, the whole cornea 
becoming cloudy or steamy in appearance. Generally it 
clears up without local treatment being specially directed 
to it. 

Iritis. — Inflammation of the iris may occur independ- 
ently, or as a complication of other diseases of the eye. 


It is recognized by an alteration in the appearance and 
mobility of the structure. It assumes a dirty hue; the 
pupil may be contracted, or very irregular in shape. 

Treatment. — Counter-irritation to the back of the 
head, atropine dropped into the eye frequently, and regu- 
lation of the general health. 

Cata/ract is a whitish opacity of the crystalline lens, 
and may be either complete or partial. As the light is 
thus shut out, the eye is more or less useless. 

It is rare in young dogs, but not uncommon in old 

The lens may be removed, as in man, but the sight is 
rather imperfect without glasses, which we fear even the 
most intelligent dog could scarcely be induced to wear. 

If only incipient, attention should be paid to the gen- 
eral health by tonics, etc., to prevent its increase. 

AmauTosis and Ainblyojpia are terms used to indicate 
blindness without obvious alterations in the structure of 
the eye. 

In all such cases an ophthalmoscopic examination of 
the eye should be made by an expert. 

The causation is obscure, but irritation from worms in 
the digestive tract, defective action of the liver, exhaustive 
diseases, etc., seem to be associated in some cases. 

The presence of hrain disease should be suspected in 
alterations of the pupils, squint, photophobia, loss of vision, 
etc., when other cause is not obvious. 

The possibility of parasites lodging within the eye is 
not to be forgotten. The treatment of amaurosis must be 
in accordance with the cause and general condition of the 
animal. No local treatment is likely to be of any use. 


Dislocation (extrusion, protrusion) of the eyeball may 
result from violence, as fighting, etc. 

If the parts are not clean they should at once be 
washed with an antiseptic solution, and, by gentle pressure, 
oiling well with vaseline, returned before swelling and in- 
flammation have set in. If some time has elapsed, the 
eye should stiU be pressed back, if possible, before opera- 
tive procedures are undertaken. 

After replacement the head should be bandaged for 
a few days, cotton-wool being laid over the eye itself. 
If there is danger of inflammation, surgeon's lint dipped 
in the lead lotion referred to previously will tend to 
soothe. The dressing should, of course, be covered with 
impermeable material to keep the whole moist. 

Squint can in some cases be remedied by operation, 
and it may be worth while if the dog be very valuable, 
though in most instances the services of an oculist will be 


The nervous system consists of nerve-endings, nerve- 
fibers, and nerve-cells. The cells alone are capable of 
originating influences {impulses), or modifying them when 
carried to them by the conductors or nerves. The nerve- 
endings are specially modified cells adapted for receiving 
the stimulus from the outer world. All the sensory or- 
gans may be regarded as more or less complex combina- 
tions of nerve-endings. The principal centers are the 
brain and spinal cord, which in reality are groups or com- 
munities of organs, just as the alimentary canal is a group 
of organs, and we must expect to find localization and 


specialization of function in tlie spinal cord, and cispecially 
in the brain, as elsewhere. 

We may compare the brain and spinal cord to the 
great collection of central offices of a vast telegraphic sys- 
tem, with the nerves as the conducting wires, and the 
nerve-endings as the outlying smaller, less important of- 
fices of the system. Another useful comparison, espe- 
cially in understanding the functions of the cord and 
reflex action, is that of a battery representing the central 
nerve-cells, and the circuit as completed by the nerves 
and nerve-endings representing the wires. 

The connection of every part of the body with the 
central nervous system and with the other regions, so that 
all the parts constitute a related {co-ordinated) whole, is 
one of the most important truths to be borne in mind by 
both physiologist and practitioner. 

The nervous system in the dog is well developed, yet 
somewhat unstable ; hence functional disease of this part 
is common. 

Rabies (Hydrophobia).— This is the gravest of all the 
diseases of the dog, both as regards the canine and human 
species, since it is invariably fatal, and is common to the 
dog and many other animals. The disease has been much 
misunderstood and dreaded by the non-professional por- 
tion of the public, though it is to the credit of dog-breed- 
ers that they have generally taken a sensible view of the 

Eabies has been treated at great length in some works, 
much useless speculation being indulged in up to within 
recent years, when the illustrious Pasteur put the subject 
on a more scientific basis. We have still a great deal to 


learn in regard to predisposing causes, and the real patho- 
logical lesion, if there be such visible by the microscope ; 
while we are utterly in the dark as to any method of treat- 
ment that has the slightest effect when once the disease 
is established. 

Eabies may be regarded as a specific disease of the 
nervous system leading to a fatal issue, and in the course 
of which all the various functions of the body may be 
more or less abnormal though the psychical changes are 
the most pronounced. 

The cause is a virus or poison communicable by a bite 
from the affected animal owing to the poison being in the 
saliva. It is known that inoculation with the saliva will 
produce the disease. 

Protection {immunity) against rabies has been pro- 
duced by Pasteur by inoculations of the weakened {attenu- 
ated) virus obtained from the portion of brain next to the 
spinal cord {medulla oblongata). 

The period of incubation or latency of the disease is 
more variable than in the case of any malady known to us. 
It seems to vary between a few days (ten to fifteen) and 
many months, if not even years. 

The animals affected may show symptoms that vary 
sufficiently to warrant a division into two distinct forms — 
the excitable, furious, or maniacal, and the paralytic. It is 
to be borne in mind, as said before, that in this, as in all 
diseases, absolutely typical cases are rare, and the dog may 
be sick unto death with either form and not attract very 
marked attention. Death usually results in from two to 
ten days in the furious form, and in a much shorter 
period in dumb rabies. 


Pathology. — No absolutely characteristic post-niortem 
appearances are known. Evidently the changes are func- 
tional modifications of the brain-cells chiefly. 

Symptoms. — These are principally expressed in the 
behavior and appearance of the dog. At first he may be 
very quiet, shy, sullen, inclined to hide away in corners ; 
but sooner or later he is likely to show more or less ex- 
citement. The dog is profoundly altered in his psychic 
nature, and this is most evident to those who are accus- 
tomed to observe dogs, though in well-marked cases obvi- 
ous to any one. He may seem more affectionate than 
usual, or the reverse. If a bitch, she may be sexually 
excitable, inclined to solicit attention from dogs of the 
opposite sex. Much stress must be laid on perverted ap- 
petite, the animal swallovring all sorts of foreign material 
— as sticks, stones, straw, even its own fseces and urine. 
The voice is altered to a short bark, often ending in a sort 
of howl or moan which is characteristic. 

At this early stage the animal may or may not snap at 
objects or champ the jaws. 

During the excitable stage, which may be well-marked 
or the reverse, the dog is prone to roam over wide tracts 
of country at a jog-trot, head down, tongue out, but not 
usually frothing at the mouth, with a dejected look and in- 
different to what is about him, yet snapping at any animals 
that happen to come in his way. He may return to his 
home if not interfered with. The biting and snapping 
should not be regarded as deliberate, but as a sort of reflex 
action, or at all events as more or less unconscious. It is 
then the dog is most dangerous to other animals. A sort 
of bluish tinge to the mucous membrane of the mouth may 


appear, and should assist in diagnosis. He will not nsnally 
eat, and for this reason, and because of the general dis- 

Fig. 26. — Representation of a Dog affected with Rabies (after Sanson). 

turbance, sleeplessness, etc., he rapidly loses flesh. His 
eyes, altered in expression from the first, get more abnor- 
mal, and his whole appearance is extremely haggard. The 
excitement may periodically result in convulsive parox- 
ysms, death resulting in one of these, or from the exhaus- 
tion that follows them. 

Diagnosis. — Discrimination lies between epilepsy, or 
fits of various kinds, arising from the heat of the sun as 
dogs run the streets, neuralgia, toothache, meningitis, ex- 
cessive fright, acute ear disease, parasites in the nose or 
brain, the distress of dogs lost in a large city, of bitches 
deprived of whelps, etc. 

If the dog has been bitten and symptoms of a sus- 
picious character follow^, he should be isolated at all events 
and kept under observation. The bark of the rabid dog 
is very characteristic, and careful examination and obser- 
vation should enable one to distinguish between the dis- 


tTirbanee arising from real pain or mental distress and the 
altered behavior of rabies. 

"Fear of water" is a pure hypothesis so far as the 
dog is concerned, nor, in the absence of paralysis, is there 
necessarily any difficulty in swallowing from spasm of the 
muscles concerned. The history and the entire assem- 
blage of symptoms must be the basis for diagnosis. 

The par aly tie form of rabies {dumb rabies) is more in- 
sidious in its attack. There is not usually any excitement, 
but very soon after the onset of the disease, manifested by 
listlessness, the muscles of mastication become paralyzed, 
so that the lower jaw drops. There is no maniacal stage. 

These forms do not constitute distinct diseases, and 
both may occur at the same time in the one kennel. In a 
word, the variations in the disease rabies are wholly de- 

B^o. 26.— Representation of a Dog supFSRiNa from Paralytic Rabies 

(after Sanson). 

pendent, so far as known now, on the amount of the 
poison introduced into the animal, and on the latter's indi- 
vidual peculiarities of constitution. 


Dumb rabies seems to l^e more prevalent in hounds 
kept in packs than in other varieties of the dog. 

Treatment. — The disease can not be conveyed by the 
digestive tract, so that there is no (danger in sucking a 
wound to extract the poison, provided the lips, etc., are 
free from cuts or abrasions — i. e., so long as they are pro- 
tected by the natural covering of epithelium. 

Sucking the wound, a handkerchief twisted tightly be- 
yond the wound to prevent the return of blood as much 
as possible into the general circulation, and especially vig- 
orous and prompt use of the actual cautery, in the form of 
a red-hot iron or the solid stick of nitrate of silver, consti- 
tute the best treatment. It is a good thing to carry the 
latter always in the vest-pocket, in view of emergencies of 
different kinds. In the case of man, the subject should be 
at once subjected to the Pasteur treatment, which has un- 
doubtedly produced marvelous results. 

The dog should, if possible, be treated in the same 
way ; but if the disease has actually developed itself and 
the diagnosis is certain, a painless death for the animal 
is the clear indication. 

The rabid dog should be not only confined in a suitable 
place, but secured by very strong and reliable fastenings. 
But as all animals bitten do not become rabid, it is not 
necessary to kill a dog bitten by a rabid animal at once, 
for he may wholly escape ; and instances are given of 
dogs repeatedly bitten that never took the disease — in fact, 
in this, as in other maladies, some animals enjoy a natural 
immunity ; but in any case secure isolation is imperative. 

Convulsions, Epilepsy, Fits, Apoplexy. — All the normal 
movements of the body are the result of harmonious or 


co-ordinated functional activity of the neuro - muscular 
mechanism — i. e., of the nerve-centers, nerves, and mus- 
cles. In a fit or convulsion this is not the case; the 
movements are irregular, purposeless, and generally ai-e 
injurious, and always wasteful of the energies of the 

Epilej>tiform convulsions are due to an irregular dis- 
charge of the nerve-cells, which are in a highly unstable 
condition ; they are independent of the will, occur during 
unconsciousness, are not dependent on a stimulus from 
without, but usually on no stimulus that we are able to 
trace, or else upon some tumor, etc., of the brain. 

They occur unexpectedly, last a variable period, the 
spasms are usually either of the nature of one prolonged 
muscular contraction {tonic), or from the first or following 
on the other variety they consist of alternate contraction 
and relaxation {clonic). The dog usually froths at the 
mouth, and may bite the tongue. Epilepsy may be heredi- 
tary, or due to injuries to the head which have resulted 
from severe concussion, new growths, to the irritation of 
worms, etc., though it is better to speak of the disturbance 
in such cases as convulsions which may be epileptiform in 
character and reflex, as they certainly are when due to 
teething and worms. 

Fits, then, may arise from teething, from worms, indi- 
gestion, and a variety of causes, such as exhausting dis- 
eases, nursing puppies to the point of debility, or the virus 
of certain diseases, as distemper. 

Treatment— Dm'mg the fit nothing can usually be 
done but to prevent the animal injuring himself as far as 
possible, and from escaping when deranged mentally. If 


the fits be due to a recognizable cause — as worms, over- 
feeding, etc. — this must be removed of course. 

Habitual epilepsy had better be treated with bromide 
of potassium conjoined with some bitter. Sometimes 
small doses of iodide of potassium prove useful. In all 
cases of fits special causes of excitement must be removed. 

As the purpose of treatment is to obviate the tendency 
to irritability of brain-cells and often excess of blood in 
the head, bromide of potassium will be worth a trial in 
most cases of convulsions. 

The body should be kept warm and the head cool. 

It is often well to hold a dog quiet and soothe him, and 
wet the head. In no case should one dog be allowed to 
see another in a fit, as it may induce a like condition, or 
produce at least a shock, if it does not cause an attack upon 
the victim. Dogs at shows sometimes grow very excited. 
They should be removed to a quiet place, or fits may re- 
sult ; cold to the head, and bromides, are also indicated. If 
in any case of fits such measures do not sufiice, the dog may 
then be placed in a warm bath, the head being kept cool. 

However, on account of the reaction and the danger 
from cold, this is not to be done unless other measures 
fail. The convulsions of strychnine poisoning and all 
forms of fits, when the stomach is very irritable, may be 
treated by rectal injection of twenty to thirty grains of 
chloral hydrate. In extreme cases, from whatever cause, 
when death is threatened by a succession of fits, a little 
chloroform and ether in equal parts may be cautiously 
given by inhalation. 

After fits dogs should always be kept in a rather dark, 
quiet place, free from all excitement for a while. 


For description, see page 78. 


Vertigo, or dizziness, is apt to occur in dogs, that are 
overfed, when taken a-field. They may reel, sit down 
dazed, or fall over, without usually losing consciousness. 
Generally attention to the digestive tract, and exercise 
gradually increased, remedy this state of things. 

Apoplexy is a term that has been used for a sudden 
attack, with loss of consciousness, possibly convulsions, 
the former not being of brief duration, as in epilepsy, but 
more lasting. 

The causes are as in the preceding — excitement, etc. 

Diagnosis. — It differs greatly from epilepsy. Usually 
convulsions are not prominent ; the loss of consciousness is 
long-continued, or, in fatal cases, permanent, with sterto- 
rous (loud snoring) breathing, pupils altered, either con- 
tracted or dilated, and more or less paralysis of one or 
both sides of the body. 

Causation. — Generally pressure, due mostly to hgemor- 
rhage within the brain, is the cause. 

Treatment. — No means are known except operation of 
removing the blood-clot, and in dogs more than in men 
the location of the clot is difficult. 

We must just wait in the hope that the blood-clot will 
be absorbed. The treatment is "expectant" — i. e., there 
is no routine treatment, but symptoms must be combated 
as they arise. 

Paralysis. — Paresis is the term used for a certain de- 
gree of loss of voluntary control of the muscles; pa- 
ralysis, for complete loss. The muscles may still contract 
rellexly, but not at the command of the will. The defect 
may be in the brain, spinal cord, nerves, or the muscles 


Paralysis, more or less complete, often arises from 
worms ; and when there is no obvious cause for a lameness 
in a dog, it is well to suspect worms. The author had a 
cocker spaniel that for some days was lame in one hind- 
leg. Treatment on suspicion of a sprain, etc., proving 
useless, she was dosed for worms. Four tape-worms were 
expelled, and the leg weakness at once disappeared. 

When paralysis is due to disease of the brain it is 
always on the side of the body opposite to the injury 

Paralysis very often follows distemper, and may be 

Treatment. — As recommended under "Apoplexy," 
when the brain is involved. 

If due to a tumor of any kind that can be localized, or 
if due to pressure from bone driven in, etc., operation is 
to be considered. 

The paralysis from a bruise or that which follows dis- 
temper is well treated by counter-irritation and massage. 
After all acute symptoms have subsided, small doses of 
iodide of potassium for a couple of weeks, or, it may be, 
syrup of the iodide of iron, are worth trial. 

Later, nux vomica or strychnine, in very minute and 
gradually increasing doses, may be useful, with such addi- 
tional treatment as each case seems to call for. 

Meningitis. — This term implies an inflammation of the 
coverings {meninges) of the brain or spinal cord. It may 
be either spinal, cerebral, or both combined. 

The general pathology is much as in inflammation of 
other membranes, as the pleura, but, from the peculiar 
confined condition of the brain, the pain is intense, and 


naturally the brain partakes in the disturbance, so that the 
psychic symptoms are very pronounced. 

Causation. — This is often obscure, but it may be the 
result of blows, wounds, ostitis, great heat, extreme cold, 

Symptoms. — Intense pain in the head, acuteness of all 
the senses at first, extreme sensitiveness over the whole 
body {hyper(jesthesia) perhaps, restlessness, greatly altered 
expression, mental aberration, passing on to delirium, 
mania, and finally stupor (gowjO). 

Diagnosis. — This affection is liable to be mistaken for 
rabies, but there is no need to make such an error. In 
this disease vomiting is common ; not so in rabies. The 
temperature is much elevated in most cases of meningitis, 
but little in rabies ; the voice is high-pitched, the animal 
snaps, etc., but he does not tear up things about him, or 
show a tendency to bite other animals; there is not the 
peculiar bark and howl combined, as in rabies. 

The animal suspected of rabies should never be killed 
off-hand, as it may be a mere temporary excitement from 
which he is suffering. It is well to handle all such ani- 
mals with thick gloves, so that biting may not occur, 
especially as the imagination of man is so active and can 
induce false rabies ilyssophohia), which may end fatally. 

TliQ prognosis in acute meningitis is bad. 

When spinal, there is generally great tenderness over 
this region, and spasms, or possibly, in the later stages, 
paralysis — which also occur in cerebral meningitis. Squint, 
alterations in the pupils, etc., are not uncommon. 

Treatment. — Counter-irritation to the hack of the head 
and nape of the neck, or, in spinal meningitis, along each 


side of the spine. Over the main portion of the head, 
cold constantly applied in the form of cloths dipped in 
ice- water and often changed, or the ice-cap ; bromide of 
potassium given frequently ; the bowels well opened ; the 
bladder relieved by a catheter, if the urine be retained, 
etc. But the cold applications and bromides must be the 
chief reliance in the acute stage. 

After effusion, iodide of potassium, good food, counter- 
irritation, etc., are indicated. If there be convulsions at 
any stage, in addition to the above belladonna may be 

If the heart be vigorous, chloral hydrate may be com- 
bined with bromide of potassium at the outset, but not 
continued, as it depresses the heart dangerously. 

When suhaciite or chronic the disease is difficult to 
recognize, and the diagnosis is got at by a process of ex- 
clusion. Stupidity, drowsiness, alteration of disposition, 
twitchings, etc., should arouse suspicion. The history 
may throw light on the case. 

The treatment should be as for the later stages of the 
acute form. 

Hydrocephalus — "large head/' "water on the brain," 
etc. — may occur in puppies owing to an excess of the fluid 
of the ventricles of the brain, possibly related to chronic 
inflammation. The prognosis is bad, though iodide of 
potassium, tonics, etc., may be tried. 

Tetanus is a dreadful and generally fatal disease. It is 
due to an irritable condition of the nerve-centers, now be- 
lieved to be caused by specific germs, in most if not all 
cases, which results in more or less constant discharges 
from the motor-cells of the brain and spinal cord, giving 


lise to tetanic or constant contraction of the muscles. The 
gernns enter the system through some open wound, though 
it is not always possible to trace the chain of events. It 
is, fortunately, not common in the dog. 

When the muscles of mastication are involved it may be 
impossible to give either food or medicine by the mouth. 

Treatment. — Perfect rest, quiet, sedatives, and nutri- 
ment. Chloral hydrate, if necessary, by the rectum or by 
hypodermic injection, nutrient enemata, and, later, stimu- 
lants. Opium hypodermically may also be tried. The 
prognosis is very bad. Death may result froni exhaustion, 
or from suffocation owing to failure of the respiratory 
muscles. Anti-toxic serum from immunized animals is 
now on trial. 

Chorea. — We do not know the essential pathological 
condition underlying those irregular, more or less con- 
stant, muscular movements that go by the name St. Yitus's 
dance, megrim, chorea, etc. These irregular, involun- 
tary discharges of the motor-cells may apparently be due 
to many causes. 

Usually only certain groups of motor nerve-cells, and 
consequently only certain groups of muscles, are affected. 
The movements may or may not cease during sleep. 
Generally there are no febrile symptoms, and the animal's 
health may seem to be otherwise perfectly good. 

It is certainly associated with the presence of worms 
in the intestinal tract in some instances, but it most fre- 
quently is a sequence of distemper. It may also follow 
on nervous shock from fright, as when a dog is thrown 
into water ; against which, and against plunging rashly into 
a bath-tub without any warning, we wish to protest. 


In the dog the disease is certainly mostly of a func- 
tional character — i. e., no lesion can usually be discovered 
even with the microscope, as has been proved by careful 
autopsies and microscopic examinations instituted at the 
author's own suggestion. The poison of distemper weak- 
ens the cells, and they discharge irregularly and without 
the normal stimulus of the will-powder. 

Except when due to worms, etc., the prognosis is bad. 
Few cases following distemper ever wholly recover. 

Treatment. — Apart from attention to the general 
health, only two or three drugs seem to have been of any 
use whatever. The disease has proved practically incurable. 

We prefer to commence with small doses of iodide of 
potassium, in case there may be any morbid grow^ths press- 
ing on the nerve-centers. Counter-irritation might be 
worth a trial — i. e., over the part of the cord correspond- 
ing to the affected muscles. 

Nux vomica or strychnine and arsenic are the drugs in 
which most confidence is placed. Some administer them 
together. It is a good plan to give one in the morning 
and the other in the evening. 

Upon the whole, freshly prepared liquor arsenicalis 
does very well. It may be mixed with the animal's food, 
but never given on an empty stomach. Commencing 
with, say, three drops in water, after a few days the dose 
n>ay be gradually increased to ten ; then, after a brief ces- 
sation from dosing, begin again, say, with five drops, and 
increase in the same way to fifteen, and so on till twenty 
or thirty drops, in the case of large dogs, may be reached. 
The other remedies may be pushed in a similar manner, 
but not to very large doses. 


Arsenic should always be stopped when the constitu- 
tional symptoms of its action — as reddened eyes, whitish 
tongue, nausea, etc. — show themselves. The same applies 
to strychnine and nux vomica. Any stiffness or tendency 
to spasms demands an immediate withdraw^al of these 
drugs. Phosphates and cod-liver oil may do good in 
very mild cases. 

When both paralysis and chorea follow distemper the 
case is nearly hopeless, and the animal may soon, in spite 
of care, become so wretched that it is kindness to chloro- 
form him to death. 

Hyoscyamin in small doses may be tried, but wdth no 
great degree of hopefulness, in piire chorea. 

Injuries to the Brain. — In consequence of violent blows, 
falls, etc., there may be concussion^ or, if rupture of a 
blood-vessel or fracture of the skull, compression of the 

It is difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish these 
when they do not occur together, as is commonly tlie case. 

Bleeding from the nose, and especially from the ears, 
is suggestive of fracture of the base of the skull. 

Unconsciousness, alteration in the mobility or size of 
the pupils, either as compared with each other or with the 
normal, points to compression. 

The symptoms of compression from a blood-clot or 
other cause have been already dwelt on (see " Apoplexy "). 
They may be sudden, or gradually increasing to the point 
of complete paralysis, coma, and death. 

Treatment. — Little can be done but meet the indica- 
tions as they arise. If possible, keep the bowels and blad- 
der free, administer nourishment or stimulants, and await 


the results of Nature's intervention. As before remarked, 
if there be depressed bone, it should be elevated by opera- 
tion {trejphining). 

Aflfections of the Nerves. — The nerves are occasionally 
the seat of painful tumors {neuromata^ etc.), giving rise, it 
may be, to sudden or more or less continuous pain, nms- 
cular twitchings, etc. 

Whenever an animal holds any part of its body more 
or less rigidly, walks gingerly, or utters loud cries now 
and then, the case calls for special examination. Recently 
a dog fell under the author's observation with such symp- 
toms. As the case seemed hopeless, he was chloroformed 
to death, when a careful examination revealed a tumor 
pressing on one of the nerves of the brachial plexus as it 
issued from the spinal column. 

Neuralgia, or pain in a nerve, is to be suspected in a 
dog that cries out apparently with pain when colic, menin- 
gitis, etc., can be excluded, and especially if he has bad 

The treatment must depend on the cause. If a de- 
cayed tooth, it should be removed ; if from cold or some 
constitutional defect, then attention to the digestive tract 
and to the diet will be the first consideration, with relief 
of pain. 

If periodic, a good dose of quinine (three to seven 
grains), a couple of hours before the attack, is indicated. 

A dose of Dover's powder internally, with counter- 
irritation over the part affected, or a hypodermic injection 
of morphia in the same region, may be required. 



The structure and functions of the skin have already 
(page 117) been considered, as well as the reasons why 
disorders of this region are so frequent in the dog. Dis- 
temper, parasites, and skin disea^^j.: are the bane of all 
large kennels of dogs, and with the greatest care they will 
occasionally occur, while in the absence of especial pre- 
cautions a kennel may be demoralized if not destroyed. 
Diseases of the skin are not usually of themselves fatal, 
but they may so undermine a dog's constitution that he 
becomes the victim of some fatal malady. 

We wish once more to insist on the close connection 
between derangements of the digestive organs and of the 
skin, to be explained reflexly as well as by the deteriora- 
tion of the blood by poisons introduced from the alimen- 
tary tract through imperfections in the digestive processes. 

Skin diseases may be divided into parasitic and iioii- 
parasitic, but in any case they all, sooner or later, become 
inflammation of the skin ; and it is from this point of view 
that they are most profitably studied and treated. 

Instead of considering the numerous phases of cutane- 
ous inflammation as so many separate diseases, it is much 
more simple, rational, and, we think, practical, to consider 
the causes and treatment of inflammations of this great 
organ as a whole. 

Causation. — Inflammation is a perverted nutrition 
{inetaholism) of a part, and its symptoms are the same in 
the skin as elsewhere, but modified by the fact of exposure 
to the atmosphere, etc. The cause is external or internal 


The external sources of irritation may be parasites — 
vegetable or animal — or bedding that is old, damp, satu- 
rated with exhalations from the animal's body, or possibly 
urine or f geces. 

The above may be direct exciting causes, but such are 
not essential to skin disease. Certain conditions of body 
predispose, and these arise from excessive or otherwise 
improper feeding, lack of exercise, or starvation, and gen- 
eral inattention to sanitary surroundings. 

It is always to be remembered that pure-bred dogs are 
disordered by an environment in wiiich a mongrel might 
do fairly well. So common a cause is overfeeding, that a 
certain form of inflammation of the skin has been called 
" surfeit " or blotch. 

Of course the presence of parasites, by the itching some 
of them cause, leads the subject to scratch so much that 
this of itself suffices to explain the inflammation, altogether 
apart from their own biting and burrowing. 

Pathological Condition and Symptoms. — As in other 
inflammations, there is heat, redness, pain or tenderness, 
and swelling ; but these are present in very varying de- 
grees in different cases. Perhaps the most typical form 
of inflammation is that known as eczema. A localized, 
swollen, more or less red, tender area, known as a pimple 
{papule), appears, which soon has its epithelial covering 
raised by exudation from the blood-vessels and becomes 
a vesicle, which may be filled with a clear, a turbid, or 
a purulent fluid. In the latter case it constitutes a pus- 
tule. These sooner or later burst ; the fluid escapes, 
irritates the adjoining skin, and dries into more or less 
well-defined scahs. If the animal scratches, these may 


bleed or become ulcers, or they may run together, and 
large patches of skin may thus be involved in a common 
condition. If this state of things continues, deep sores 
may form. 

It may be that from the first the inflammatory condi- 
tion may be somewhat different ; there may be no vesicles, 
pustules, or exudations, but a redness of the skin with dry 
exfoliation of the epithelium in a sort of coarse dandruff. 
Such a condition is often termed pityriasis rubra^ and 
may occur over the whole body. 

Again, there may be an eruption of papules small and 
more readily felt than seen, each one being distinct and 
giving a " shotty feel," a condition known as prurigo. 

Generally, in the less acute (subacute) forms there is 
little exudation, ^tc. Chronic conditions are marked by 
thickening, loss of flexibility, a tendency to crack, exten- 
sive loss of hair, etc. 

Since the hair follicles may be involved, loss of hair is 
very common in all forms of skin disease. The exact 
course of the inflammation is determined not alone by the 
cause, but depends on whether the dog is long-haired or 
the reverse, the nature of the treatment, and his individu- 

More or less tenderness or actual pain, itchiness, irri- 
tability of temper, possibly restlessness, even to the point 
of sleeplessness in extreme cases, with corresponding failure 
in the general health, are common. However, in all such 
matters there is the greatest range of variability. 

Diagnosis. — It is highly important to distinguish be- 
tween parasitic inflammations of the skin and those not 

due to this cause. The principal diseases of the skin de- 



pendent on vegetable parasites are ringworm {Tinea ton- 
siirans) 2iX\difavus. 

Ringworm occurs in more or less circular, well-defined 
patches, from which the hair falls, and which are covered 
with a fine scurf. 

Favus is characterized, after the earliest scurfy stage, 
by peculiar crusts of a sulphur-yellow color and a smell of 
mice. Beneath these, cup-shaped ulcers are found. In 
both diseases spores or branches {mycelium) of a vegetable 
growth (mold) may be discovered by the microscope. 

Follicular Mange is caused by a sort of mite {Acarus 
folliculorum\ which lodges in the hair follicles and seba- 
ceous glands and sets up 
infiammation. It is likely 
that a vegetable, fungoid 
growth akin to that caus- 
ing ringworm is an addi- 
tional source of the mis- 

Sarcoptic Mange, or 
dog itch, is due to a mite 
{Sour copies canis). The 
female, the larger, bores 
into the skin, there bur- 
rows, and lays a multi- 
tude of eggs that soon 
hatch out, the young run- 
ning over the surface to 
repeat the story. The irritation gives rise to intense 
itching, and an inflammation, with distinct small papules, 
surmounted by pointed (not flat, as in eczema) vesicles. 

Fig. 27.— Sarcoptes Canis (Gerlach). 


This is very contagions — more so than the follicular 
mange ; there is much more irritation, itching, etc. 

The hair follicles are greatly affected in the follicular 
disease, and the scabs have a peculiar sort of moldy smell. 
Tenderness replaces itching. It is more common in young 

In the early stages the diagnosis from eczema is not 
difficult ; later, the microscope alone may decide. 

Though nearly all skin diseases in the dog are popular- 
ly termed '' mange,'' true itch is rare as compared with 
eczema, which is very common. When a skin disease 
rapidly spreads through a kennel, mange is to be sus- 
pected ; though the possibility of several dogs being af- 
fected in a like way, from gorging, is not to be forgotten. 

Follicular mange is apt to begin about the head. 

If not soon cured, both become associated with eczema 
from irritation, when the diagnosis becomes more difficult, 
but generally possible by the help of the microscope. 

Eczema is, in the larger proportion of cases^ a consti- 
tutional disease, or the expression of a disorder within. 
All the forms of parasitic disease are essentially local, 
though, from the irritation they produce, the constitution 
soon suffers. 

An investigation into the whole environment of the 
patients is always advisable, both for purposes of diagnosis 
and treatment. In a large proportion of cases the disease 
will turn out to be eczema, due to excessive or scanty 
feeding, improper diet, etc. 

Is eczema contagious? One has only to observe the 
effect of the exudation on comparatively healthy skin to be 
convinced of its irritating effect. That the discharge can 


produce irritation and inflammation is certain, and in this 
sense it is contagions. It is better to act on this assump- 
tion and keep the dog pretty much to himself, and espe- 
cially not allow others to sleep with him. 

Sarcoptic mange is so extremely contagious, that when 
there are several dogs in a kennel all, or nearly all, will be- 
come affected ; and it spreads rapidly over the body from a 
small beginning in separate vesicles that lead to a whitish 
Hue, the burrow of the insect. The irritation in mange is 
so great, that a dog may rapidly lose flesh and fall off in 
health generally. Follicular mange is also contagious. 

Treatment. — The indications are to remove the cause, 
allay irritation, stimulate enfeebled parts of the skin, re- 
lieve the skin by acting on other parts, correct constitu- 
tional aberrations, etc. 

Parasitic disease when due to animals is much more 
readily managed, follicular mange excepted, than when 
vegetable organisms are concerned. Prompt measures 
soon kill the dog-mite, break up its burrows, and destroy 
the eggs. 

Suppose the case to be quite recent, very little inflam- 
mation of the skin yet present, and consequently few 
scabs, the dog should be well washed with soft soap, the 
rubbing and scrubbing being of the most thorough char- 

An ointment the basis of which is sulphur will com- 
plete the work within a few days, so far as destroying the 
parasites themselves is concerned, but eczema may remain 
and require additional treatment. 

In the management of all skin diseases, not only the 
remedy but its mode of application is of great importance. 


The Application of Remedies. — As the object of all 
local remedies is to affect the skin itself, it may be neces- 
sary, though not usually, to remove the hair from the 
diseased patches of skin by clipping as close as possible. 

As to whether a lotion or an ointment shall be chosen, 
must depend on whether the dog has a long or a short coat, 
whether clipping away of hair is admissible, the stage of 
the disease, etc. 

Both lotions and ointments should be applied as dress- 
ings when possible — i. e., the parts should be covered with 
cotton dipped in the lotions and evaporation prevented by 
impermeable material, or the cotton covering the parts 
smeared with ointment may be dipped in oil. This keeps 
the former from being rubbed or licked off. Moreover, 
when the limbs are affected, a bandage nicely applied is 
comfortable, and favors the circulation of the blood. 

Such methods are not, however, always applicable, 
from the disease being very extensive or from some other 

As any oily substance applied to the skin naturally 
checks its proper functions, ointments should never be 
employed continuously, however suitable, but will always 
be found more useful if washed off every few days. 

In using any ointment or lotion it is well to apply it 
over only a small part of the affected surface, to learn 
whether it is suitable or not; or two or three different 
applications may be compared in their effects ; for a rem- 
edy that will help one case will only make another worse, 
and what is most useful at one stage of the disease will be 
harmful at another. Moreover, a lotion or ointment that 
may soothe when of a certain strength, will irritate when 


stronger. Before discussing special forms of skin disease 
further, a few of the principles that underlie treatment in 
general will now be considered. 

Principles of Treatment. — Lotions are most efficacious 
in the early stages of inflammation, before there is exuda- 
tion and the formation of scabs, or they may be used to 
soften scabs and soothe at the same time ; however, some 
kind of oil or oily substance will best answer this purpose. 
In all cases, before applying an ointment, scabs should be 
removed, as they only tend to keep the application from 
the diseased skin. 

Generally the very best way to begin all local treat- 
ment is by washing the dog, though, of course, the season 
and all the circumstances must be taken into the account. 

Crusts or scabs may be softened by washing in water 
containing a little sodium carbonate (washing soda), which 
is soothing in itself. However, in general, oil applied to 
the skin, if scabs have formed, washing the animal in a 
couple of hours, or as soon as the scabs are moderately 
soft, with strong carbolic soap, will have a good effect, 
as carbolic acid allays irritation and favors healthy ac- 
tion of the skin. A little crude carbolic acid put into 
the washing- water — enough to make its presence percepti- 
ble to the hand — will serve the purpose, and is cheaper, 
some Castile soap being used to lather the dog. If the 
skin is very tender, eggs beaten up may replace soap. In 
all cases, when carbolic acid is used, the dog should be 
well rinsed with water not too cold. 

Having got the subject ready for the application of 
some remedy, the next thing is to determine what one^ 
Is the skin broken, or only red and tender? Are there 


ulcers? Is thickening and loss of hair prominent? etc., 
are among the questions to be considered. Ointments are 
more continuous in their action, unless lotions be applied, 
as suggested above. 

The following hints as to the preparation and use of 
certain drugs are to be remembered : Glycerin, when pure, 
tar, turpentine, balsams, coal oil, etc., are all stimulating 
and unsuitable for the most acute form of a skin inflamma- 
tion, though valuable in subacute and chronic forms. So- 
dium carbonate and bicarbonate, borax, acetate of lead, 
etc., are soothing in most cases. 

The best basis for ointments is vaseline, as it does not 
readily become rancid. Belladonna, though an excellent 
sedative, is not in the case of the dog to be used in oint- 
ments, as it may be licked ojff and cause poisoning. Opium, 
though seldom required, is not so dangerous. 

Itching may be relieved by the addition to ointments 
and lotions of alkalies, carbolic acid, and rarely opiates. 

Sulphur, in powder, dusted through the hair down to 
the skin, is soothing ; and dry oxide of zinc is useful when 
exudation is excessive. 

In non-parasitic disease the internal treatment may be 
the more important of the two, as generally the cause of 
the trouble is to be traced to some disorder of the digest- 
ive organs. The state of the bowels should be especially 
attended to, and the diet. Sulphur, Epsom salts, cream of 
tartar, and bicarbonate of soda, are useful. Violent purg- 
ing is usually not required. Often the liver is at fault, and 
the portal circulation sluggish ; in this case one of the 
officinal compound cathartic pills at night, and a saline in 
the morning, may prove efficient. 


Sulphur has, besides its laxative effect, a good influence 
on the skin of the dog, and may be given day after day 
for a time with the food, or, combined with cream of tar- 
tar, in syrup. 

Arsenic is never to be given in the acute form of skin 
disease, and when used, as pointed out before, the dose 
must be small at first, increased gradually, never given on 
an empty stomach or undiluted, stopped every now and 
then, and not continued when the digestion is poor or 
symptoms of irritation show, as evidenced by coated whit- 
ish tongue, red eyes, etc. 

Arsenic is the most valuable constitutional remedy we 
possess in chronic cases when judiciously employed. 

In cases that resist all ordinary treatment a few doses of 
calomel, small and speedily worked off by salines, may act 

The general health of the dog is always to be consid- 
ered. When very thin or debilitated, tonics and cod-liver 
oil are demanded. 

Diet is, in eczema, of the utmost importance. In a 
large number of cases the dog is overfed. In such a 
case a fast of twenty-four hours will often be the very 
best treatment. In all cases a complete change of diet 
is desirable. 

If the dog has been fed much on meat, let him have 
none for a while, but a diet of milk and bread or milk and 
wheat porridge. On the other hand, if he has been gettmg 
only starchy food, or an excess of it, a change to meat 
alone will be the best natural medicine. The half-starved 
dog is very liable to eczema. 

Yery often a long walk, or a run of ten to fifteen miles 


after a horse, an exciting hunt in the woods continued to 
tlie point of weariness, and followed by spare feeding, will 
work wonders. 

If constipation exists it must be overcome, and if by 
exercise and dieting, so much the better. The value of 
vegetables for this purpose is not to be forgotten. 

If for any reason the sulphur ointment can not be used 
in sarcoptic mange, a lotion prepared as follows is cleanly 
and effective. It forms a good standing mixture for a 
kennel. It should not be kept very long, but made fresh 
every few weeks : 

Unslaked lime, one pound ; sublimed sulphur, two 
pounds; add two gallons of soft water; mix well and 
boil down to one gallon ; let stand till cool ; pour off, after 
standing some hours, the clear liquor ; filter, if necessary. 
Apply frequently over the whole body with gentle friction. 

Special Formulas. 

For allaying irritation : 

1. Salt-water baths, or bathing with vinegar and 

2. Lotion of sodium carbonate or bicarbonate, or 
borax, of the strength of about ten grains to the ounce 
of water. 

Some glycerin may be added, thus : 

9 Sod. biborat 3 jss. ; 

Glycerin 5ij; 

Aquae camph 5 viij. 

Ft. lot. 

Especially useful in irritable, scaly, and papular erup- 


As a drying, soothing lotion : 

^ Zinci oxid 3 ij ; 

Glycerin 3 ss. ; 

Aq. calc § ij ; 

Aquse ad 5 ^iij- 

Ft. lot. 

Sig. : Apply as a lotion. 

The lead lotion recommended before (page 309) is also 
excellent, but it is better to use morphia than opium, to 
avoid staining. It is not suitable for application over a 
large surface, for, while the dog is not readily poisoned 
with opium, his stomach is easily disordered by this' drug. 

In some cases the "black wash" (calomel and lime- 
water) is valuable. 

Prepared chalk in the form of ointment or wash, with 
or without lime-water, has also given good results. 

By allowing water to stand over tar till it tastes strongly 
of this substance, a lotion suitable for the red unbroken 
skin may be made. For the eczema that attacks the face, 
especially the eyelids and eyebrows, some form of mercu- 
rial ointment may be demanded (see page 310). The liquor 
plumbi subacetatis may be combined with the tar-water. 

Soothing ointments may be made of sulphur, ox- 
ide of zinc, borax, lead salts (acetate and subacetate), etc. 
These ointments as officinal preparations may be pur- 
chased ready-made. It may be wise to dilute them at 
times, or add alkalies, carbolic acid, or opiates. 

The unguentum zinci (officinal) is a most valuable 
ointment for soothing and drying ; but when parasitic 
disease is suspected the sulphur ointment should take its 


Tlie former will be found very efficacious in eczema of 
the ear (canker). 

Such a combination as the following will suit sar- 
coptic mange and many forms of eczema : 

9 Sulphur, flor 1 ss. ; 

Sod. carb 3 ss. ; 

01. pic. liq 3 ij ; 

Yaselin 5 iv. 

Ft. unguent. 

Sig. : Apply freely once or twice daily. 
Lard or vegetable oil may be substituted for the more 
expensive vaselin. 

For mange (sarcoptic), especially after the first stage, 
and also for chronic eczema, with thickening ; for eczema 
with a scurfy or scaly condition of skin, the officinal tar 
ointment, creasote, balsam of Peru, oil of cade, oil of tar, 
kerosene (coal oil), etc., are useful, properly combined. 
As samples of combinations, we give : 

1^ Sulph. flor li; 

Bals. Peruv 5 j j 

Yaselin 5 iv. 

Ft. unguent 

Sig. : Apply twice daily for three days, then wash the 
dog thoroughly. 

Tar ointment may be conjoined with sulphur ointment, 
one of the former, four to eight of the latter. 

1^ Olei cad 5 iij ; 

Acid, acet § ij ; 

Acid, carbolic 3 ss. ; 

Olei olivae ad 5 xvj. 

Ft. mist 


Apply freely twice a day, and wash the dog after 

three days. 

This is an efficacious mixture for advanced cases, but 
disagreeable to the patient and to the one who applies it. 
For true mange its efficacy is increased, in the opinion of 
some, by the addition of sulphur. 

1^ Balsam Peruv 5 ss. ; 

Yaselin S ij- 

Ft. unguent. 

The balsam of Peru, dissolved in ^ve to eight parts of 
alcohol, may of itself be painted on. The last four com- 
binations are useful in itch (mange), and when thick- 
ening, cracks, etc., exist. The last two are excellent for 
cracked nipples. Balsam of Peru is rather expensive, 
though an excellent remedy. 

Follicular mange is very difficult to cure. One of the 
most efficacious remedies is carbolic acid. 

'^ Acid, carbolic ♦ 5 ss. 

Balsam, canadens § ij ; 

Ft. unguent. 

Sig. : Apply carefully, heating if necessary to render 
sufficiently liquid, with a camel's-hair pencil, in a thin 
layer over a portion of skin not to exceed two to four 
square inches at once, so that carbolic-acid poisoning may 
not follow. If necessary, muzzle the dog to prevent 

The mercurial ointments referred to before (page 305) 
may also prove useful, or the balsam of Peru. 

Bingworm may be treated by frequent paintings over 
and aroxmd the affected area with tincture of iodine, St 
George's paint (stronger than the former), or the appli- 


cation of mercurial ointments, etc., as in the last-men- 
tioned disease. 

Fig. 28.— Tricophyton Tonsurans, the Vegetable Parasite causing Ringworm, 
Magnified 400 Diameters (after Payne). 

After any of the contagious skin diseases, all with 
which the dog has been in contact, that can be destroyed 
without serious loss, should be burned ; all collars, chains, 
dishes, etc., and the whole kennel, disinfected as well as 
thoroughly scrubbed (see page 379). 

As an excellent kennel or office mixture for dogs re- 
quiring a saline, as frequently happens, and nearly always 
when eczema occurs, the author recommends the follow- 
ing, which may be kept constantly on hand : 

9 Magnes. sulph 5 i^ > 

Ferri sulph gr. xvj ; 

Acid, sulph. aromat 3 ij ; 

Spt. chlorof ormi 3 i j ; 

Aquae menth. pip § xvj. 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : Give sufficient to move the bowels in the morn- 
ing before food — say one to four teaspoonfuls in water. 


Of course, this is not a hard and fast formula, the 
most essential part being the saline, which is rendered 
more agreeable, and prevented from griping by some of 
the other ingredients. The whole is also somewhat of a 
tonic to the stomach and general system. 

Frequently a dog is worried by great irritability of the 
skin, though there is no eruption or other obvious cause. 
In these cases a look at the tongue will often reveal a 
disordered digestion. Attention should be given to diet, 
etc. Sulphur, cream of tartar, and also bromide of 
potassium often prove useful. Phosphorus pills given 
after food {-j-^ to -^ grain) are said to be helpful in some 
cases. A soda or salt bath is often followed by relief. A 
lotion of lead acetate is also very soothing. 

Occasionally, as a result of skin disease or defect of 
nutrition of the hair follicles, the dog's coat almost all falls 
out, or unsightly bare patches result. 

To stimulate the growth of hair, more blood and nerv- 
ous energy are required in the skin ; so that friction, mas- 
sage, and stimulating applications are indicated. 

Such applications as cocoa-nut oil, or a combination of 
this oil with coal oil and olive oil, in about equal parts, 
applied for a couple of days and then washed off, are help- 
ful in many cases, especially if the dog is shedding his 
coat — as he naturally does in the spring and autumn — too 
slowly ; or if the restoration of hair after its loss follow- 
ing suckling puppies is tedious. " Yegetable oil " (cot- 
ton-seed oil) is cheaper than olive oil, and answers well 

The above mixture is useful in true sarcoptic mange, 
especially if sulphur be added, also in chronic eczema. 


For bare patches, the following may prove of value : 

!^ Sod. biborat 3 j ; 

Tiiict. capsici 3 j ; 

Glycerin § ij ; 

Aquse ad § vj. 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : Apply with friction two to four times daily. 

After a while the quantity of tincture of capsicum 
may be increased. A very light application of glycerin 
has also been found useful in recent cases. 

When skin disease in any form occurs between the 
toes, it may be necessary to wrap up the feet in medi- 
cated dressings and keep the patient quiet. 

It is most important when true sarcoptic mange occurs to 
thoroughly disinfect the kennels and everything with which 
the dog comes in contact. The same precautions should 
be taken as after a visitation of distemper (see p. 379)."^ 


It is likely that the estimate that three quarters of the 
whole canine race are, at some time, infested by worms, 
and that they cause more deaths than all other causes 
together, is about correct. To understand their preven- 
tion and treatment, a brief account of their varieties and 
life-histories will be necessary. 

It is true that every principal organ in the body may 
be the seat of some form of parasite. Some of these are, 
however, of such rare occurrence that they are mere 
pathological curiosities, and need not be here described. 

* Modem skin specialists attri))ute more importance to vegetable 
parasites than ever before ; hence the value of sulphur, etc. 



Practically we have to do with neinatode, or round 
worms, and cestode^ or tape-worms. 

Fig. 29.— Eustronoylus Gigas (Cobbold). 
This parasite is occasionally found of great size in the dog, especially in the kidney. 

The principal round worm of the dog is Ascaris mar- 
ginata^ pale-red in color, round, tapering to each end, 
firm to the feel, the sexes distinct, propagated by eggs 
{ova) with great resisting power, and capable of maintain- 
ing their vitality for months, from one to eight inches in 

Fig, 30.— Ascaridks (Stonehenge). 

length, living in the small intestine, and moving about 
freely — i. e., not attached. Ascaris mystax also occurs. 

The thread-worm, or oxyaris, is very small, similar in 
formation and mode of propagation to the preceding, lives 



in the large intestine, and may descend low down in the 

The ova of round worms may be taken in with water, 
etc., or may hatch within the host, as the creature is 
termed that harbors them, possibly within the worm itself 
in some instances. 

Fig. 3l._T.ENiA Solicm (Stonehenge). 
o, head ; 6, generative orifice. 

The life-history and structure of the tape-worm is alto- 
gether different. Every tape- worm consists of a head 
which is usually provided with suckers, booklets, or both, 
by which it attaches itself to the mucous covering of the 

intestines, of segments {proglottides) that are budded off 



from the head end, and which contain both male and 
female generative organs ; so that a tape- worm is an exam- 
ple of an animal in which the sexes are combined ijier- 
maphrodite). When each segment is perfect, it produces a 
vast number of eggs and drops away from the main 
colony. Those farthest from the head, being the oldest, 
come away first. 

When these segments find their way into certain ani- 
mals the eggs are set free by digestion of parts surround- 

FiG. 32.— Head of Both- 


Fig. 33. — Head of 
T.ffi;NiA Solium 
magnified (aft- 
er Heller). 

Fig. 34.— Head of T.e- 


magnified (after 

ing them. The eggs hatch out into embryos, which under- 
go development up to a certain point, but do not become 
tape-worms in that species of animal but usually migrate 
from the alimentary canal into some other organ, com- 
monly the liver, there forming often hydatids, or cysts, 
and proving fatal to their host. But when these hydatids, 
or immature tape-worms, pass into that particular species 
of animal suitable for their development they become 



The following are found in the dog: T(£nia mar- 

ginata^ T. ctccumerina, T. ser- 

rata, T. echinococcus^ T. so- 
lium, and Bothriocephalus la- 

tus, the last two being common 

to man and the dog. 

The first three are the most 

common : T. fnarginata, the 

intermediate host of which is 

the sheep, may attain a length 

of eight to ten feet ; T. cucu- 

inerhia, the most common, ten 

to twenty inches in length, with 

a very small head, the segments 

getting very gradually larger 

from before backward ; T. ser- 

rata, intermediate host the hare 

and rabbit, twenty to forty 

inches in length. 

To illustrate how tape- worm 
is propagated and how one ani- 
mal may prove a source of dis- 
ease to many, we may mention 
that a larval or immature form 
{Coenurus cerebralis) of a tape- 
worm exists in the sheep's 
brain. If this be taken into 

the dog's stomach it develops fig. 35.-t^nia solium (Stonk- 
into a mature tape-worm, the 

^ c, generative orifice; e, water vascu- 

eggS of W^hich, if swallowed by lar canals ; g, ovarian duct ; h, 

ovarian receptacle ; i, branched 

the sheep in drinking-water, ovarium. 



etc., become the larval form referred to above ; and so the 
biological circle is completed. 

Again, it is believed that the dog-louse {Trichodectes 
canis), more frequently^ perhaps, the flea {Pulex canis), 
swallows the minute eggs of segments of the tape- worm ex- 
pelled from the dog and adherent to his hair 
and proves the intermediate host, while these 
parasites are again accidentally swallowed by 
the dog ; hence the vicious circle. 

It is thus apparent that one dog with tape- 
worm may infect a whole kennel of dogs. 
All sorts of worms in the intestinal tract live 
on the digestive food by which they are sur- 
rounded. They may injure an animal, when 
numerous, by taking up the nourishment be- 
longing to it ; and by irritation, which has 
innumerable reflex effects that express them 
selves through every system of the body. 
As it is most important to beware of these 
symptoms, we instance some of them : 

Digestive. — Colic, diarrhoea, constipa- 
tion, vomiting, slimy stools of a peculiar 
wormy smell — it may be gray or blood- 
stained — capricious appetite or loss of appetite, bloat- 
ing, etc. 

Circulatory. — Blood impoverished, shown by pale 

Fig. 36.— TiENiA 
(after Bris- 

TO we). 

a, Taenia magni- 
fied 10 diame- 
ters ; h, ovum 
magnified 250 

gums, etc. 

Cutaneous. — Harsh coat, skin eruptions, falling of hair. 

Respiratory. — Dry, hot nose, cough. A special form 
of bronchitis may be caused by small worms in the bron- 
chial tubes. 


Nervous. — Convulsions, twitcliings in sleep, chorea, 

The general economy suffers, as shown by emaciation, 
dullness, debility, etc. 

Round worms are much more common than tape- 
worm, which is rare in puppies, from which the former 
are seldom absent in pure-bred dogs. 

Diagnosis. — General lack of vigor, unthriftiness, with 
symptoms of imperfect digestion, especially bloating, 
should in a young dog suffice to lead to treatment for 
worms in the absence of any other obvious cause. Much 
attention to the anal region suggests thread- worms ; 
marked emaciation, with a ravenous appetite, tape-worm. 
The segments may be seen at times in the stools. 

Prophylaxis. — The prevention of worms has been al- 
luded to under treatment of the brood bitch. Pup- 
pies get the eggs from their dam ; but if one dog in a 
kennel has worms, it is easy to understand how they may 
be spread by dogs walking through the stools, licking 
each other, etc. 

Milk can not convey the germs of worms except by 
their getting into it after it leaves the cow, which is not 
very likely ; but milk does, in large quantity, tend to relax 
the digestive tract, produce an excess of mucus, and, in a 
^vord, favor an environment in the intestine suitable to the 
development of worms. 

Continuous sloppy food for puppies is therefore a mis- 

Meals of dry biscuits, bread-crusts, etc., are beneficial 
in clearing out mucus and ova of worms and begetting a 
better tone in this region. 


Powdered charcoal, given with the food of puppies, in 
one-half to one-teaspoonful doses twice a day, occasionally, 
is both a preventive and a cure {vermicide). Every means 
that will produce a vigorous condition of the animal as a 
whole, and the intestinal tract especially, will be useful. 

Treatment. — This may be divided into preparatory and 
medicinal. The object of treatment is primarily to expel 
the worms ; hence it is important that remedies shall reach 
them readily, and find them in a somewhat famished con- 

It is always desirable to allow the subject to fast — if a 
weaned puppy, eight to twelve hours ; if a dog over nine 
months, from sixteen to twenty-four hours. There will be 
no harm done, and possibly something gained, especially 
in the case of tape-worm, by giving a dose of castor oil 
several hours before the anthelmintic proper. 

The following are the principal remedies recommended 
for the round worm : Santonine, wormwood, calomel and 
jalap, pink-root and senna, kousso, hellebore, pomegran- 
ate bark, turpentine, areca nut, kameela or pumpkin, 
squash seeds, wormseed oil, etc. 

For tape-worm : Areca nut, kousso, pomegranate, tur- 
pentine, and oil of male fern. 

An old and valuable remedy for round worms, and the 
safest and best of all, perhaps, for very young puppies, is 
wormseed oil. This, in dose of one to four drops, may be 
given to puppies of four to six weeks of age. It is well 
to combine the remedy with a drop of oil of aniseseed or 
oil of peppermint and a drop of turpentine, the whole to 
be well mixed with a teaspoonful of castor oil (for toy 
puppies a little less), warmed and floated on a little milk. 




























1— 1 













Kousso dAvX pomegranate hark are not now often used. 

Such remedies as powdered glass need be mentioned 
unly to be condemned as dangerous. 

Pink and senna. An extract of pink and senna com- 
bined is now to be had which is effective and tolerably 
safe. However, it acts very dissimilarly on different dogs, 
and should be used tentatively — i. e., the dose should at 
first be much smaller than is known to be generally safe. 

It is one of the best remedies for puppies still sucking. 

Three weeks of age is about the earliest at which any 
remedy may be used, and then only in urgent cases, as 
puppies bear drugging very badly. About five drops may 
be given three times daily for two to three days, and then 
a dose of oil to expel the dead worms. For older dogs 
one half to one teaspoonful may be given at a dose, and re- 
peated. For very young puppies enough olive oil to relax 
may serve to expel worms. 

8am,tonine. This remedy may be given alone to pup- 
pies in doses of one half to one grain, according to age, 
till three or four doses have been taken at intervals of an 
hour, then followed by castor oil ; or santonine may be com- 
bined with the preceding in puppies over five weeks of age. 

Turpentine is not usually required for round worms. 
Many object to its use altogether for the dog on account 
of its irritating effect on the kidneys and alimentary tract. 

Given in small doses, it is certainly very irritating to 
the kidneys, and in a large dose it may set up gastritis or 

However, as vermicides, usually successful, fail with 
some dogs, it may be necessary to fall back on this remedy. 

Even young puppies (two or three months) may take 


five to fifteen drops of turpentine with safety if given 
beaten up in egg, mucilage, or well mixed with castor oil, 
say a teaspoonful for ten drops of turpentine. It is im- 
portant that it shall be quickly carried through the in- 

Areca {betel) nut is, on the whole, the best anthelmin- 
tic we know. Some maintain that it is quite harmless, 
others that it is dangerous and never to be given. Both 
views are extreme. The author has used this remedy a 
great deal, and has never had one bad result. He has 
found it almost invariably efficacious for both the round 
worm and the tape- worm. It seems to be least certain 
and most dangerous with young puppies. He would 
never give it to a dog under five to six weeks, and to 
those under two months only with the greatest caution. 

To very young puppies, about one grain to the pound 
weight of the dog is enough to try at first. Generally one 
grain and a half to the pound weight of the animal suffices, 
but, after four months of age, two grains is usually safe. 

The author's plan is to fast the animal, give the freshly 
grated, dark-colored nut in gelatin capsules, and, after 
from three quarters to one hour and a half, according to 
the age of the dog, a large dose of castor oil, to make sure 
that the remedy is removed from the intestine. If there 
is not a movement of the bowels in half an hour, the 
dog is permitted to eat porridge and milk, which generally 
causes a motion. 

Some dogs must be allowed out of the kennel, or they 
will suffer, owing to cleanly habits, before evacuating the 
bowels. It is the custom of some to combine santonine 
with areca nut, to which there is no objection. 


It is likely that the bad results that have followed the 
use of areca nut have arisen from neglect of some of the 
necessary precautions as to quantity and speedy purgation 
after the dose is given. 

Some puppies seem to be such perfect breeding mech- 
anisms for worms, and suffer so much from this pest, that 
it is almost hopeless work combating the evil. This con- 
dition is in some cases hereditary, and bitches that produce 
such offspring should be discarded as breeders. 

After the use of worm remedies, especially areca nut 
or turpentine, the diet should be bland for a couple of 

Pumphm and squash seeds are excellent remedies and 
quite harmless, but rather troublesome to prepare. The 
hulled seeds should be gently stewed to a pulp, the fluid 
poured oft', and given in teaspoonful doses. The pulp may 
also be given in larger quantity. It is especially a good 
way to dose puppies if they will take the preparation in 
their food ; otherwise troublesome. 

The best remedies for tape-worm are areca nut, oil of 
male fern, and turpentine. 

The author would try the areca nut fairly first. If un- 
successful he would give later ten to thirty drops of the 
ethereal extract of male fern, shielded as recommended in 
the case of turpentine, and in half an hour, or earlier if 
the dog seemed much prostrated, a large dose of castor oil. 
This is severe treatment, and not justifiable except when 
the areca nut fails, as it seldom does. The worms passed 
should be examined carefully in water to ascertain that 
the head has been removed ; otherwise reproduction of an 
entire worm is but a question of time. 


Thread-worms are easily destroyed by injecting into the 
rectum salt and water, vinegar and water, an infusion of 
quassia, etc., and retaining it there for a few minutes by 
holding the hand covered with a cloth against the anus. 

It is highly important, to prevent the spread of worms, 
that all the excreta after dosing, even when no worms 
are seen, should be collected and buried deep, or, better, 
hurned. When worms of any kind are obtained, the treat- 
ment should be repeated, but not till the dog has recovered 
from the last dosing. 


Parasites are the great evil of canine existence ; for if 
the dog is not killed by internal forms, he is worried by ex- 
ternal ones, that may be so numerous and such constant 
companions day and night that his life is burdensome. Is 
it possible to prevent them ? 

Lice are the pest of puppies chiefly, and are most 
common about the head parts. Keference has been made 
to them already. 

Fleas are divided into the common variety {Pulex irri- 
tans) and the sand flea {.Pulex penetrans). The former 
bites, the latter bores, into the skin. Both are believed to 
undergo development not on the dog, but in sand, rubbish, 

The great difliculty practically is really not killing 
fleas and getting rid of those on the dog at the time, but 
in keeping him free ; in fact, the former is quite an easy 
task comparatively. It is no exaggeration to state that 
there are surroundings amid which it is impossil)le to keep 
dogs clear of fleas for twenty-four hours ; so that, in choos- 


ing the site for a kennel, and in all its arrangements the 
flea question should be kept prominently in view. On a 
sandy soil the sand-flea may prove extremely troublesome, 
and nothing but a conversion of the soil into another sort, 
or removal of the kennel, will suffice. 

The removal of all rubbish, manure, old straw, spent 
or used sawdust, and the free use of wood ashes with lime 
below, will do much to keep down the flea pest. Coal 
ashes and loam together make a good, hard yard, which 
can be readily swept clean. All boxes used for sleeping 
places, and all cracks, should be frequently subjected to 
treatment with some of the agents that destroy these ver- 
min. This subject has been dealt with in an earlier part 
of the work. 

The agents and methods of destroying fleas are legion. 
Various powders, soaps, oils, acids, etc., are all efficacious, 
and the choice of the one or the other should depend on 
circumstances. It is to be remembered that insects breathe 
by pores, and that if these are fllled up with oils, powders, 
etc., they must perish. 

If a dog has but few fleas, the Persian or Dalmatian 
insect powder may be dusted through his coat conveniently 
from a little bellows, while he sits on papers to avoid loss, 
as the cost of this article is considerable. 

When there are many dogs in a kennel badly infested 
with fleas this method will not prove of itself successful. 
The plan the author has found most satisfactory is the 
following : Cover the dog all over with a mixture of equal 
parts of cotton-seed oil and crude coal oil, and in half an 
hour wash the animal thoroughly with strong soap. In 
some cases simply washing in water to which some crude 


carbolic acid or cresol has been added suffices to kill, or 
nearly kill, the fleas. 

In all cases the dog should be gone over with a fine 
comb and the vermin taken off and burned, for thej have 
a way of reviving after w^ashing that is astonishing. 

Another plan that gives excellent results is to get the 
dog to stand over some clean boards, so that any fleas fall- 
ing may be seen and trodden on ; and with a shallow, flat 
dish containing coal oil at hand, pass a fine comb dipped 
in this fluid through the hair and rapidly rub off the fleas 
as caught into the shallow dish of oil. 

But in any case, under certain unfavorable conditions, 
keeping dogs even moderately free from fleas is no light 
labor, and nothing but watchfulness and work will accom- 
plish it. 

The constant worry from fleas or lice may seriously 
derange a dog's health, or with the scratching produce ec- 

Lice can be easily destroyed by treating as for fleas, 
as recommended above, especially by the first method, but 
the comb will also be necessary, and in puppies with long 
ears freedom is secured only at the price of ceaseless 

Washing young puppies is to be avoided as a rule. 
Washing the head after treatment with oil, etc., will often 
suffice. However, with special care, washing is not the 
bane to puppies some would have us suppose. Of two 
. e\dls, washing and lice, the former is much to be pre- 
ferred. In the author's own kennel no unfavorable re- 
sults have ever followed washing puppies with the precau- 
tions as to rapidly rinsing, drying, etc., he employs. 



Certain disorders affect some portions of the bcdy 
specifically, yet produce symptoms wliicli are not referable 
to that region alone, but affect to a serious extent the 
whole economy, and hence are spoken of as constitutionaL 
It must be admitted, however, that it is not easy to deter- 
mine always how best to classify certain diseases ; but the 
main thing is to grasp the condition of affairs by whatever 
name called. 

Erysipelas. — Some would class this disease as an inflam- 
mation of the skin, and treat it under the head of " skin 
diseases." The constitutional symptoms are so pro- 
nounced we prefer to consider it a constitutional disease. 

Erysipelas is an inflammation of the skin, with a 
strong tendency to spread, to attack the tissues beneath, 
to end in abscess or sloughing of parts, and attended by 
fever and prostration. It may attack the unbroken skin, 
but is particularly liable to occur around wounds, especial- 
ly if patients with the disease are near. It is contagious 
and infectious, associated with and probably caused by a 
microbe, though certain constitutions are much more pre- 
disposed to it than others. 

Syraptoms. — Locally, heat, pain, redness, swelling, a 
peculiar tense, hard feel, with a dark tinge in the redness 
in some of the worst cases. Constitutionally, chill, nausea, 
fever, loss of appetite, prostration in bad cases, etc. 

Treatment. — This must be both local and constitu- 

As to the local applications, practice differs much. 
Some paint with tincture of iron, or tincture of iodine ; 


others use soothing lotions. Painting vigorously around 
but not on the seat of inflammation with tincture of 
iodine, with the application of the lead-and-opium lotion 
to the actually inflamed part, are the measures we are in- 
clined to recommend. 

All agree that constitutional treatment is essential. 
The bowels should be relaxed with salines. This is of 
great importance. 

The food should be bland at first ; later, highly concen- 
trated but easily digestible. 

If there be much prostration, alcoholic stimulants are 
absolutely necessary, in small repeated doses. 

The following has been found as useful as any internal 
medication : 

^ Tinct. f erri perchlor 3 v ; 

Potass, chlorat 3 v ; 

Glycerin § ij ; 

Aquae ad § viij. 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : Dessertspoonful every two to three hours. 
After the acute stage, quinine and iron, or the citrate 
of iron and quinine, with perhaps cod-liver oil, may be 

The above remedy may be given in capsules when the 
dog is fractious, ten drops of the tincture of iron dropped 
on ten grains of powdered chlorate of potassium, allowing 
water or a little milk just after to dilute the medicine in 
the stomach. 

The animal had better be isolated from others, and 
every attention paid to the surroundings, as the disease is 
a grave one. 


Diphtheria. — Fortunately, this fatal malady is very rare 
in the dog. It may possibly be communicated to him 
from the cat, from man, or the reverse. Its cause in the 
dog, as it certainly is in man, is probably a specific germ ; 
and certain conditions — as bad drainage, poor ventilation, 
debility, etc. — favor its spread. It usually attacks the 
throat {pharynx, larynx) or nose, and may extend from 
the one to the other, or downward into the windpipe. 
When fatal, it usually kills by exhaustion or suffoca- 
tion in the acute stage, or later by paralysis, especially 
of the heart. 

Symptoms, — Chill, fever which is not always marked, 
loss of appetite, debility, and symptoms referable to the 
parts affected, as difficulty in swallowing, possibly (if the 
larynx is attacked) great difficulty in breathing, etc. 

Treatment. — The prognosis is grave, and treatment 
should be prompt, almost continuous, and both local and 
constitutional. The dog must be isolated ; the air of his 
apartment had better be moist, and the ventilation perfect. 

Sprays and lotions to the parts affected are called for, 
but should never be of a character to injure the mucous 

Lime-water, lactic acid, carbolic acid, sulphurous acid, 
and peroxide of hydrogen are among the remedies most 

The food should be easily digested but nutritious from 
the first. The constitutional treatment, in fact, may be 
very much as in erysipelas, but the medicine should be 
given in liquid form to get its local effect. 

If suffocation is threatened, tracheotomy should be per- 


Paresis or paralysis is apt to follow. Should it occur, 
reliance is to be placed oh massage, nux vomica, strych- 
nine, etc. 

Exercise should be only gradually and cautiously al- 

Dropsy. — Dropsy is a term usually applied to a con- 
dition associated with fluid in the abdomen. It is a symp- 
tom, and not a pathological condition, but is worthy of 
special reference. 

It is due to some cause that gives rise to a very im- 
poverished condition of the blood, or, as is more com- 
mon, to pressure on or distention of the veins. The con- 
dition may be present in the thorax {hydrothorax), in the 
abdomen {ascites)^ or in the cranial cavity {hydrocephalus). 
Ascites is the more common, and is due to heart disease 
sometimes, but more frequently to some organic (struct- 
ural) disease of the liver. 

Symptoms. — These are made up of those due to the 
presence of the fluid and of those that are associated with 
the cause of the dropsy. There is usually debility, feeble 
pulse, loss of appetite, weak digestion, and probably diffi- 
cult respiration or hurried breathing, etc. 

Diagnosis.— T\\\^ lies in the bitch between pregnancy 
and the disease in question. The pregnant animal is not 
sick or emaciated, the abdomen has not the even, tense 
feel of the dropsical subject, however many whelps may be 
within ; besides, the mammary glands are usually enlarged. 
If there be a history of illness, the probability is that 
dropsy is the cause of the distended abdomen ; but the 
matter may be settled by percussion. Dullness is always 
present, while a gentle tap at one part, as the animal lies 


cn its side, will cause the perception by the hand held at 
a point opposite to this of a sort of wave or thrill, which 
will render the diagnosis certain. 

Treatment, — The disease is often fatal, but the indica- 
tions are to cause the absorption of the fluid and to im- 
prove the general health. 

Unless the patient is very debilitated, purgation by 
calomel and jalap or elaterium may be tried. 

J^ext, the use of iodide of potassium, or syrup of the 
iodide of iron, is indicated. Large doses of tincture of 
iron are also recommended. Digitalis is advocated by 

Should the fluid not disappear wdthin two weeks, tap- 
ping for its removal, which should be very gradual, may 
be tried. Similar treatment is to be adopted in hydrotho- 
rax. Treatment for hydrocephalus is generally unavailing. 

Rickets. — Though the most obvious changes are in the 
bones, the disease is essentially constitutional. 

The bones undergo a series of changes, w^hich result 
in their becoming enlarged at the ends, less resistant, and 
consequently more apt to bend, so that deformities are 

Of the bones, those of the limbs and head suffer 
oftenest. Along with this condition of the osseous sys- 
tem, the whole nutrition of the animal is at fault. Its ap- 
pearance of general lack of vigor and unthriftiness, sug- 
gests that the best thing to do with the animal is to chlo- 
roform it ; and so it is, in many cases. 

Heredity has not been established as a cause — ^i. e., the 

condition has not come to the animal from a rickety 

{rachitic) dam or sire, or one of an otherwise unhealthy 



constitution, though possibly bad management of the dam 
when in whelp or during nursing, very many bitches not 

Fig. 37.— Rachitic Dog (Hill). 

being sufficiently fed at these periods, may give rise to 
rickets in the young. Unhygienic surroundings, as damp, 
dark, ill- ventilated kennels, food insufficient as to quantity 
or quality, etc., are undoubted causes. 

Rickets has been experimentally produced in nursing 
puppies by removing them from the dam and giving 
them food they could not digest properly. 

Treatment. — Everything possible should be done to 
improve the general health — sunlight, dry, warm, well- 
ventilated kennels, and gentle exercise being essential. 
Lime-water, phosphate, bone-dust, cod-liver oil, iron ton- 
ics, etc., are all indicated. Grooming and massage are not 
to be forgotten. A diet varied and adequate is essential. 

The puppies of large breeds of dogs often grow so fast 
that the weight of the body is too great for the limbs 


witli their soft bones to bear ; hence bending of the bones, 
relaxation of tlie ligaments, etc. 

The craze for canine giants, and the habit of stuffing 
puppies to get size, at the expense of everything else, are 
to be condemned. 

All puppies, whether of large or small breeds, should 
be regularly exercised after three to four months of age, 
by being taken into the fields or woods and kept in a 
condition that enables them to form bone and muscle, but 
should not carry, either now or at any period, a " mountain 
of flesh." Forced feeding, and neglect of exercise, etc., 
leads naturally to loss of stamina and the shortening 
of life. 

When a puppy has this tendency to curvature of the 
bones, weakness of the joints, etc., — a condition akin to 
rickets — good feeding and good management generally 
will suffice for an arrest of the evil, though treatment 
similar to that recommended for rickets will also be 

Rheumatism. — Acute rheumatism may be regarded as 
an inflammation mostly of the joints, especially of the 
ligaments and related structures. 

The cause has not been definitely ascertained, and, 
though cold, damp, etc., predispose, it is believed that the 
exciting cause is some poison produced within the body, 
possibly lactic acid, 

Symjptoms. — There are swelling and pain of the joints, 
difficulty in locomotion, anxiety lest the affected parts be 
moved and pain produced, elevation of temperature, dis- 
turbance of the digestion, etc. The disease is apt to shift 
from joint to joint. 


The subacute and chronic forms are more common in 
the dog. 

Diagnosis. — The diagnosis lies between sprains and 
other injuries, colic, etc. In the acute form, when there 
is decided swelling without the history of any injury, 
when the temperature is a good deal elevated and the di- 
gestion deranged, the diagnosis is not difficult. 

In any form of the disease the joints, if not tender to 
the touch, are so when moved, which often assists in a 

The movements, attitude, etc., of a rheumatic dog are 
often characteristic. 

In the subacute and chronic forms the health is not 
always greatly impaired. 

Muscular rheumatism differs from that just described 
in not affecting joints, though in lumbago the ligaments 
as well as muscles of the loins are probably involved. 
The muscles are sore, stiff, and tender, if not positively 

Chest founder, or kennel lameness, affects more espe- 
cially the muscles of the shoulders, chest, and fore-legs. 

This form of rheumatism can generally be traced to 
damp, draughts, cold, etc. 

Treatment. — In the acute form, alkalies and colchicum 
in frequent and rather large (ten to twenty grains) doses 
are still preferred by some ; but with the majority sali- 
cylate of sodium is the favorite remedy. It is best given 
in gelatin capsules, every two or three hours, till pain, 
etc., is relieved ; afterward in smaller doses at longer 
intervals. Some incline to phenacetin. 

The animal should be made very comfortable, and, if 


pain be excessive, a dose of Dover's powder may be 
given — unnecessary, however, if phenacetin be used. The 
bowels should be free, and the food bland and readily 
digestible. It may be well to wrap up the joints in cotton- 
wool. During convalescence, tonics, etc., may be needed. 

In the subacute form the alkaline treatment may prove 
more successful. 

In the chronic form, commoner in old dogs and in ani- 
mals that go much into water, the treatment must be dif- 
ferent. Counter-irritation will generally prove helpful, 
using tincture of iodine, St. George's paint, the iodine 
ointment, or red-oxide-of -mercury ointment in the pro- 
portion of, say, one to twelve of lard or vaseline, watching 
the effect so that actual blistering may not occur. Some- 
times sedative liniments or ointments will answer a better 
purpose, such as the belladonna liniment, the chloroform 
liniment, or equivalent ointments. Dogs will not usually 
lick off these liniments, though they may the ointments. 
They are, moreover, often useful in all the other forms of 
rheimiatism, including the muscular. 

Internally, iodide of potassium, syrup of the iodide of 
iron, tincture of iron, etc., are of great value. At times 
a rheumatic affection, especially the chronic form, is very 
intractable, and renders the dog's life wretched. 

Muscidar rheumatism may be treated with hot fomen- 
tations, medicated with opiates (poppy -heads) or bella- 
donna at first ; later by counter-irritation in mild form. 
Little constitutional treatment is usually called for. 

Distemper. — Distemper is an acute contagious disease 
that tends to run a definite course. It has been compared 
to typhoid and to typhus fever in man, and distemper or 


strangles in the horse. It is more like typhus than any of 
them, but the comparison is neither exact nor fruitful. 

The disease is more apt to attack dogs under a year 
old, and pure-bred dogs, rather than others. 

It is more fatal in the former, and especially in highly 
inbred animals, which is owing to their less stable nervous 
system and less resisting constitution generally. 

As no specific is known for the disease, it remains the 
gravest acute malady that attacks the dog, and between 
the ravages of distemper and parasites a large proportion 
of pure-bred puppies are annually carried off ; it therefore 
becomes important in the highest degree that the true na- 
ture of the disease and its prevention be well understood. 

Causation. — Recent investigations and experiments, 
which it is hoped will be continued in different quarters, 
make it reasonably certain that a germ, possibly several 
germs, or, more likely, different forms of the one germ, 
are associated with distemper and constitute the essential 
cause of the disease. 

Certain it is that there is a virus of some kind, that 
can be communicated from one animal to another, and 
which has great vitality — i. e., can long exist outside of 
the body without destruction, and communicate the disease 
when brought in contact with susceptible individuals. In 
this as in all similar diseases there are predisposing causes. 
Dogs do not equally at all ages and under all circum- 
stances take distemper. We may say, then, that age, en- 
vironment, condition of the constitution at the time of 
exposure, individuality, etc., are all important. 

All dogs do not take distemper when exposed, and, as 
a rule, the older the dog the greater his chance of escape. 


Some dogs possess immunity from tins malady, and rarely 
does the subject have the disease a second time. 

It is possible, perhaps, that distemper can be conveyed 
throiio-h the air, but it is usually by contact with either an 
affected animal or with the poison (virus), which may be 
adherent to some inanimate body or the body of some dog 
that is not himself perhaps susceptible. 

Anything that tends to lessen an animal's resisting 
power, as a sudden alteration in the environment, like a 
change of weather or of feeding, exposure to wet and 
cold, exhaustion, a long journey, the exciting and un- 
natural conditions of shows generally (see page 393), with 
tlie crowding together of large numbers of dogs that 
have lived under different conditions, etc. — all such favor 
the spread of the disease. 

Prophylaxis, or prevention. — Much more can be done 
to ward off distemper than to cure it, and a consideration 
of the predisposing causes v^dll suggest means of pre- 

It will be noticed that distemper is most rife in Amer- 
ica during and after the fall shows in September and Oc- 
tober. At this period many puppies are getting their sec- 
ond teeth, their constitutions are still very immature, and 
the nervous system — the great regulator of all vital pro- 
cesses — very unstable. It can not be doubted that shows 
favor the production of distemper, and must do so even 
when all precautions are taken ; for the germs of the dis- 
ease are so widely spread, that it would seem that all that 
is required for its propagation is a young animal with a 
somewhat temporarily lowered vitality. 

Hence it follows that puppies should be kept at home, 


not sent to shows at all. Again, no dogs should be ad- 
mitted from kennels in which distemper has existed so 
late as one month previous. Every exhibitor should be 
required to sign a paper to this effect, and that the whole 
kennel had been thoroughly disinfected and the dogs well 
washed after the disease had disappeared, and also before 
the show. All dogs should be washed two to three days 
before a show, and this should be repeated after each 
show. It can be so managed that neither their coats nor 
their health will suffer (see page 122). 

Certainly it is unwise to allow any dog that has been 
away on a journey, or has mingled with a multitude of 
dogs, to return to his kennel without these precautions. 

If puppies are sent to shows, the greatest care in all 
respects should be taken of them (see page 394). 

It will be noticed that distemper is apt to break out in 
kennels during wet and cold or during muggy weather. 
When the animals are much confined the conditions are 
most favorable for the germs, or, at all events, least favor- 
able for the dog ; hence the need of all precautions as to 
fresh air, cleanliness, etc. The digestive tract must be 
especially closely watched then. When dogs can not be 
exercised on account of the weather, an extra amount of 
grooming and massage, with less food and of a lighter 
kind, will prevent many kennel troubles. 

It appears, then, that one of the seasons of the year 
at which dogs are most liable to take distemper also co- 
incides with one of the show periods in America ; so that 
there is, so far as many of the most valuable dogs are 
concerned, a double reason for the prevalence of distemper 
at that time. 


Symjptoms. — Distemper shows so great a variety of 
symptoms that it will be judicious to give nearly all pos- 
sible ones as they affect each system of organs of the 
body. It will not be feasible to enumerate all the com- 
binations that occur, as these are simply endless. 

Dullness, loss of appetite, vomiting, constipation usu- 
ually at first, possibly diarrhoea ; elevated temperature, 
thirst, rapid pulse ; dry, hot nose, sneezing, chills, harsh 
or husky cough ; soon a thin, irritating discharge from 
the eyes and nose ; redness of the eyes {conjunctiva) ; 
later, a muco-purulent discharge from nose and eyes, and 
looser cough ; there may be twitchings, or fits of various 
kinds ; symptoms of meningitis, paralysis, emaciation — all 
of which show the effect of the poison on the nervous 

The period of latency, or incubation, is from about 
four to sixteen days, during which tlie dog may seem to 
be nearty as well as usual, or rather dull. 

Diagnosis. — When the nervous system is much affected 
the discrimination is between meningitis, fits from worms, 
teething, etc. But usually in distemper there is so much 
loss of flesh, prostration, etc., that the diagnosis is not 

Whenever a dog rapidly loses flesh and falls off in his 
appetite, is dull, etc., especially if distemper is prevalent, 
this disease should be suspected and the animal isolated for 
further observation. 

The harsh cough is rather characteristic. Those affec- 
tions of the eyes associated with indigestion are not ac- 
companied by fever. The thermometer is invaluable. 

At times the attack is so sudden and so prostrating 


that the dog never rallies, and these resemble the worst 
cases of typhus fever in man. 

The blood in some cases undergoes a rapid and fatal 
degeneration ; in others the nervous system is completely 
overpowered. Such cases must soon end fatally. We do 
not think divisions of such a disease into varieties is wise 
for the inexperienced, as it is seldom that typical cases of 
each are found, and the observer is led to look for what 
does not exist in nature ; hence we do not say that there 
are two varieties or types of distemper, the nervous and 
gastric or catarrhal. 

The disease might with some propriety be termed a 
catarrhal fever, but even that term expresses only a part of 
the truth. 

Prognosis. — Except in the very severe cases (lightning 
cases) just referred to^ and when the nervous system is 
much affected, leading to fits, paralysis, extreme emaciation, 
etc., the prognosis as regards survival of the immediate 
action of the poison is good, provided complications do 
not arise. Most of the deaths from distemper are due to 
these. With marked emaciation and total refusal of food 
the prognosis is always very grave. 

Complications. — Extensive or capillary bronchitis, es- 
pecially in young puppies, pneumonia, either lobar or 
lobular, are not uncommon, and often end fatally. 

Diarrhoea with blood or bile in excess is also another 
frequently fatal complication ; while jaundice is generally 
an indication that death is not far off, as the retained bile 
soon poisons the whole system and disorganizes the blood. 

Paralysis and chorea may occur early or more fre- 
quently after all the acute symptons have subsided. They 


are due to the effects of the poison on the nervous system. 
When both occur together, or the paralysis is marked or 
progressive, the prognosis is very bad. 

There may be both paralysis and chorea without any 
visible structural changes in the spinal cord or brain. 

Ulcers of the cornea, inflammation of the cornea or the 
iris (rare), are apt to result if the eye symptoms are severe 
or neglected. 

Skin eruptions, mostly of an eczematous character, very 
frequently follow, and especially about the head. They 
are not readily cured — sometimes almost beyond treatment. 

Yery often it will be kindness, after an attack of dis- 
temper when complications of a chronic character have 
arisen that render the dog wretched, to chloroform him to 

Not a few dogs are left with digestive powers so weak- 
ened that they are always liable to get out of condition. 

However, it is the' aim of the medical expert to try 
to save, and only to recommend a painless death when 
the case is obviously hopeless or the subject very miser- 
able, and after trial of remedies has been made and a 
chance left for the vis medicatrix natiirm (nature's healing 
power) to assert itself. 

It is not always easy to detect such complications as 
capillary bronchitis, lobular pneumonia, or even the lobar 
form of the disease at the outset. The temperature may 
be but little elevated. A chill should arouse suspicion, or 
any increase in the rate of the breathing. 

The physical signs are often ill-marked. The author 
recommends that every patient lie subjected at the outset 
of the disease to a very careful physical examination, espe- 


cially as regards percussion and auscnltation of the chest, 
60 that any departures from the existing state may be the 
more readily appreciated, for much depends on an early 
diagnosis of a complication and its prompt treatment. 

Treatment. — Two extreme positions have been taken 
in regard to this disease — the one that there is some spe- 
cific or means to cut it short, the other that all remedies, 
or at least all medication, is utterly useless. 

It is true that distemper can not be aborted, but it is 
equally true that the patient may be put under conditions 
that favor his avoiding the rocks and quicksands and 
reaching a harbor of safety. 

The sooner the notion that there is any specific for dis- 
temper known at present is abandoned, the better. The 
treatment of this disease may be resolved into providing 
an environment most favorable to healthy life generally, 
and the avoidance of complications ; in other words, pro- 
viding as good hygienic surroundings as possible, with 
suitable food, and meeting special conditions as they arise. 

All who have written intelligently on distemper are 
agreed on certain points, such as that there is no specific 
for the disease ; that careful nursing and feeding are of tlu 
highest importance ; that strong purgatives are to be 
avoided ; and that exercise is injurious. 

The dog should, of course, be isolated from all com- 
panions, if possible in a separate building ; he should be 
rendered comfortable, and especially guarded against cold. 
In many cases a blanket or chest-jacket will be useful, 
perhaps always in winter. Tliis is of vital importance, as 
all sorts of chills are apt to aggravate symptoms and set 
up complications. 


As tliere is a pronounced tendency to wasting, noth- 
ing can be of greater importance than that every means 
shall be employed to feed to maintain the strength. Good 
feeding is half the battle, certainly in this disease. The 
author can not giv^e any better advice than to feed much 
as in the case of a human being with a very capricious 

At the outset, if there is a troublesome cough and ten- 
dency to retching, an emetic of fifteen to twenty grains of 
sulphate of zinc with a teaspoonful of wine of ipecac, for 
an ordinary-sized puppy of six months or over, may do 
good. The bowels had better be unloaded, and sulphur is 
about the best remedy, or sulphur and cream of tartar ; 
castor oil or syrup of buckthorn will do ; but no strong 
medicine should be given to open the bowels. 

As the fever may be decided for a few days (103° to 
106° Fahr.), the importance of plenty of fresh air and a 
nutritious but unstimulating diet can be appreciated. 

However, if a dog will not take milk, milk and eggs, 
rice and milk, rice pudding, bread and milk, or such like, 
he may have a little beef or mutton cut fine or grated. 
This may act as a tonic to his disordered digestive organs, 
and do more for him than any medicine ; but the first 
stage is not the time for feeding on meat largely. 

Those who believe in antipyretics will give them at 
this stage. For our own part we would not, as a rule, but 
would save the stomach of the dog as much as possible, 
lest it give out and pave the way for a fatal issue. 

One or two large doses of quinine, which we always 
combine with bromide of potassium, as it renders it much 
less exciting to the dog, may do good — e. g., five to eight 


grains of quinine with fifteen to twenty grains of the 
bromide. Many hke to give a fever mixture, such as the 
following : 

Jl Tinct. aconit. rad 3 jss. ; 

Spt. eth. nit 5 ij j 

Ammon. nmr 3 jss. ; 

Pot. chlorat 3 iij ; 

Syrup, aurant § j ; 

Aquae ad § iv. 

Ft. mist. 

Sig. : Teaspoonful every two hours, till the pulse is 
slowed and the temperature lowered. 

Some recommend dissolving chlorate of potassium in 
the dog's drinking-water. We do not indorse this plan, 
as we tliink a drink of good, cold, pure water has a valu- 
able tonic effect itself. 

The value of bromide of potassium, in the earlier stages 
of the disease, in quieting the animal, favoring sleep, etc., 
has not, we think, been fully appreciated. Phenacetin is 
soothing and antipyretic and might replace quinine. 

So far as giving medicine is concerned, the author is 
guided very much by the state of the dog's digestion and 
his general condition. If there is much prostration, a 
feeble pulse, distaste for food, etc., the above-mentioned 
remedies seem to him to be contra-indicated, while small 
doses of quinine and carbonate of ammonium, or perhaps 
alcoholic stimulants, with liquid food, will serve a good 

Alcoholic stimulants are injurious in the early stage, 
as a rule. Aconite must be watched in any case, on 
account of its depressing action on the heart. When 


(K. C. S. B., 17,567.) 

For description, see page 90. 


the pulse is rapid and full, it is often a most valuable 
remedy, but again at times it seems to fail utterly to re- 
duce the heart's action, or it proves too depressing. If it 
does not meet expectations after half a dozen doses, it had 
better be discontinued. Hyposulphite of sodium is highly 
valued by some experts. 

Our own plan of medication is sometimes after this 
fashion, though our belief in its efficacy is not very strong. 

After one to two large doses of quinine and bromide 
of potassium, we inclose in gelatin capsules 'No. 00 chlo- 
rate of potassium, bromide of potassium, and three to live 
grains of hyposulphite of sodium, all powdered fine, and 
some quinine (one to two grains) ; in this put three to five 
drops of tincture of aconite (if Fleming's, only one half 
to one drop) ; give this to the patient, and then offer him a 
drink of water, and, if he will not take this, a little milk. 
By this method we know that the dog gets every particle 
of his medicine, which is always an uncertainty when 
given in liquid form, not to mention the worry arising 
from the unpleasant taste, etc. 

However, such treatment must not be routine, or con- 
tinued regardless of symptoms or for an indefinite time, as 
we have already endeavoi-ed to point out. 

When the dog has passed the acute or febrile stage, he 
must be treated according to the condition in which he is 
found. If his appetite is poor, vegetable bitters, especially 
nux vomica, are indicated. The citrate of iron and quinine 
will, in such and most cases, be found an admirable remedy. 
As soon as his stomach will bear it, cod-liver oil beaten up 
with milk, or eggs and milk, will be most useful. All 
dogs should be so fed as to build them up, and given tonic 


treatment, as it is impossible to say whether chorea oi 
paralysis may not follow, often long after, apparently mild 
cases. On this the author can not too strongly insist, 
and he believes the subject has not received the attention 
it deserves. Comparatively few dogs, in fact, die during 
the acute stage of the disease ; and as such complications 
as chorea and paralysis are scarcely ever recovered from, 
it is all the more important to attempt to prevent them. 

The treatment of the various and numerous possible 
complications of distemper is given under the different dis- 
eases, elsewhere in the volume. 

A word of warning as to the eyes. They do not 
usually receive the attention they deserve during the 
earlier stages of the disease. 

From the first they had l)etter be treated as recom- 
mended under " Ophthalmia " (see page 308). It is all-im- 
portant to soothe the conjunctival irritation and keep the 
discharge well washed away, otherwise ulcers of the cornea, 
eczema of the lids, and a weakened condition of the eyes 
that may trouble the patient for months, if not for the rest 
of his life, may result. The edges of the lids should be 
kept smeared with a little vaseline, and if to this a small 
quantity of powdered iodoform be added, so much the 
better. The ordinary zinc ointment is also useful. 

As a soothing lotion the following will perhaps serve 
better than any other : 

5 Acid boracic 3 ss. ; 

Ext, belladon. fl 3 ss. ; 

Ext. opii liq 3 j ; 

Aquae ad | iv. 

Ft. mist. 


Sig. : Apply to the eyes, after they have been cleansed 
with warm water, frequently, being careful that none 
enters the dog's mouth. 

Prevention of the spread of the disease and disin- 
fection are of vital importance. There are many ways of 
accomplishing this. The plan we are most inclined to is 
the following : 

1. Have a small separate kennel or hospital into which 
cases of siisjpected distemper may be put for observation. 

2. House all distemper cases during the whole course 
of the illness in a separate kennel. 

It is preferable to have both of these comfortable but 
cheap structures, that may be burned when they have been 
used a good deal, or, better, after each outbreak, if extensive. 

]^o dog should be allowed to mingle with others, how- 
ever well he may seem, so long as he has any discharge 
from nose or eyes, and never before from four to eight 
weeks have elapsed. After the nose and eyes have been 
specially disinfected by washings or injections of a suitable 
liquid, the animal should be well washed all over, the 
water being medicated with carbolic acid, cresol, etc. 

If the kennels that have been used as hospitals can not 
be burned, they should be disinfected, and this should be 
of the most thorough kind, not relying on one method 

The walls and floors may be washed and scrubbed in 

the ordinary way, and afterward with a strong solution of 

carbolic acid, corrosive sublimate, or chlorinated lime, 

some hydrochloric acid being added to the water ; then let 

chlorinated lime be laid upon the floors, the building 

tightly closed, and diluted hydrochloric acid sprinkled on 


the lime. The person who undertakes this will not have 
a pleasant task, and speedy escape will be necessary. 

After this has gone on for many hours, the building 
may be aired, again sealed, and sulphur burned in it, the 
fumes being retained for six to eight hours. Then, after 
lime-washing all over or repainting, but little danger of 
contagion exists. Of course, all vessels, etc., that have 
been near the patient must be equally well disinfected. 


It is lamentable that even yet much of the surgery, so 
called, of the lower animals consists of cruel blisterings 
and cuttings, anaesthetics not being used, while both the 
instruments and the method of operating are of a very 
primitive character and quite unworthy of the present 

Our treatment of the subject of surgery must be brief, 
for the same principles apply as in the case of the other 
domestic animals and of man. The reduction of disloca- 
tions, and especially the setting of fractures and all cutting 
operations, should be undertaken only by those who have 
the requisite expert knowledge and skill. 

However, we would remind the veterinary student and 
practitioner that the dog probably feels pain more acutely 
than any of our domestic animals, and that more than any 
other is he capable, by reason of his intelligence, of co- 
operating, or passively assisting, in surgical operations 
when not of a nature requiring an anaesthetic. 

It is possible for one with but little anatomical knowl- 
edge to become so familiar with the natural feel of the 
joints, etc., of the dog that fractures and dislocations may 


be diagnosed, while the treatment of cuts not requiring 
stitches, and of some other accidental injuries, is simple. 

We remind the reader of a few of the principles of 
surgery of more importance. 

Any injury to an animal, whether from chemical or 
mechanical violence or from heat, is apt to be followed 
by inflammation with its attendant evils, as constitutional 
disturbance, possibly abscess, ulceration, sloughing, erysip- 
elas, and blood-poisoning {septicmmia). Hence the im- 
portance of attending to all injuries at once. 

Fortunately, repair of tissue is more rapid in the dog 
and other of the lower animals, and shock or reaction less, 
than in man. 

A few words on some of the commoner accidents and a 
few of the operations to which the dog must occasionally 
be subjected may now be offered, but first of all in regard 
to the use of anaesthetics. 

Anaesthesia. — Collapse may take place suddenly during 
the inhalation of chloroform, and from this the dog may 
not be recovered, so that special care is necessary. Anaes- 
thetics are rendered much safer if the dog be given half an 
hour previously, either by the mouth or hypodermically, 
a good dose of morphia. Most dogs are very much fright- 
ened when an anaesthetic is about to be given. Morphia 
renders them comparatively indifferent. 

Many minor operations can be well enough done with 
no further assistance, the animal feeling little or no pain. 

Ether, under proper precautions, is fairly safe for the 
dog, and some anaesthetic should be given, rather than sub- 
ject the animal to severe and especially to prolonged pain. 

Pain is injurious to the dog for the same reason that 


it is to ourselves, by causing depression, and disturbance of 
the nutrition generally ; while it is too much to expect of a 
dog, as it is of a child, that it should comprehend the pur- 
pose of the operation, except in the vaguest way at best ; 
hence its future management may be very difficult. Dogs 
are ready to forget pain that has been followed by plain 
relief, but not cruelty. Ansesthetics had better be pushed 
rapidly to complete anaesthesia. The operation should be 
done as quickly as possible and the anaesthetic then re- 
moved, so that recovery may be rapid. A mixture of ether 
and chloroform, or of alcohol, ether, and chloroform, will 
be found on the whole the most satisfactory, though always 
demanding care in its use ; but in every case the ansesthetic 
should be managed by one who is an expert, and he should 
give his whole attention to this, and not watch the opera- 
tion or anything else. Dogs do not bear prolonged anaes- 
thesia of any kind well. 

Antisepsis. — Within the last twenty years surgery has 
been revolutionized by the use of methods to prevent 
putrefaction or kindred processes due to germs and other 
causes in wounds. 

It is now regarded as highly important that all instru- 
ments, and the hands of the operator, be rendered surgi- 
cally clean — i. e., free from germs as well as all else that 
can set up the processes referred to ; and as a result, 
wounds made by the surgeon himself in operating heal 
directly {first intention) very frequently, and abscesses 
and the other evils referred to as the results of inflamma- 
tion are rare. 

Antiseptic dressings are commonly employed. There 
is no reason why the dog should not receive at the hands 


of the man that operates on him all the care given to a 
human being. "What is worth doing at all is worth doing 
well, and the individual who rightly comprehends his call- 
ing will act accordingly when operating on so noble a 
creature as the dog. 

Formerly solutions of carbolic acid in water and in oil 
were much used. They are still in vogue, though weak 
solutions of corrosive sublimate are now preferred by 

For disinfecting instruments that have been well 
washed with soap and water, one-to-twenty carbolic acid 
or one-to-five-himdred corrosive sublimate will answer. 

For dressings, one to forty or one to eighty of the 
former or one to two thousand of the latter is strong 

Various dry antiseptic dressings can now be purchased 
ready-made at chemists' shops. Carbolic oil is not the 
best dressing for wounds in dogs. 

Cuts. — "When slight and recent, it is only necessary to 
make sure that no foreign bodies — as dust, hair, etc. — are in 
the wound, and that it is protected by some simple, well- 
fitting covering. 'No irritating "salves," ointments, etc., 
should be applied. Avoid all sources of irritation, the air 
included, and E"ature will do the rest. It is needless to 
remark, that after all injuries the parts should be kept as 
nearly at absolute rest as possible. If the wound be large 
and gaping, it will be advisable to bring the edges to- 
gether with stitches of silk thread. It is not usually ne- 
cessary to give an anaesthetic, but it may be advisable to 
give a hypodermic injection of morphia. The instruments 
(needles, etc.) should be suitable in size, shape, and sharp- 


ness, and the operator skilled. A bandage should be so 
applied that very slight pressure will be exerted. 

When antiseptic dressings are not employed, boric acid 
and a little iodoform may be sprinkled over the wound. 
The latter keeps off flies, and both greatly assist the heal- 
ing process. 

Wounds of mucous membranes — i. e., those of the 
mouth, throat, vagina, etc. — may be dangerous from hgem- 
orrhage, and should receive prompt attention. Cold and 
pressure are usually successful in arresting bleeding ; in- 
deed, these are the best methods of controlling haemorrhage 
when the injured blood-vessel can not be secured by a liga- 
ture, and may often supersede ligatures. 

Sprains and Bruises. — These are common in so active 
and spirited a creature as the dog. The danger is at first 
inflammation, and, later, weakening of parts; in fact, a 
sprain may lead to a permanent weakness. 

The treatment indicated is rest, cooling lotions, as the 
lead-and-opium wash, iced cloths, etc. If inflammation 
has actually set in, hot fomentations, medicated with opium 
or belladonna, may be better. After this stage, and to 
encourage a return to a natural condition, any kind of a 
stimulating application — e. g., ammonia, soap, or turpen- 
tine liniment — will be useful, with suitable rubbing, mas- 
sage, graduated exercise, etc. 

Usually after the acute stage bruises do not give much 
trouble unless abscesses form. The treatment is much as 
for sprains. 

Burns and Scalds. — When large, these are always liable 
to be followed by serious consequences. 

The indication is to allay pain by opiates internally, 


and exclusion of the air externally by some covering ap- 
plied over the seat of injury. 

Scalds are usually worse than burns. Covering the 
part with dry bicarbonate of sodium, solutions of the same, 
even dry flour if the former is not at hand, with oil, vase- 
line, etc., all serve to protect the part and so to soothe. 
An old and favorite remedy is a mixture of lime-water 
and linseed oil or olive oil, in equal parts. As the dog 
bears opiates well, a little of the fluid extract of opium 
may be added to the dressings at first, but should not be 

Should suppuration follow or abscesses form, poultices 
may be required after evacuation of the pus by incision 
in the latter case. 

It is very important to maintain the strength, and in 
severe cases to administer alcoholic stimulants. 

Practures and Dislocations. —The increased movement, 
the crackling or grating {crepitus) of the ends of the 
broken bone, and the extreme tenderness, usually suffice 
for a diagnosis of fracture. 

The sooner a dislocation is reduced or a fracture set, 
the less likely is inflammation to follow. After a disloca- 
tion has been overcome it is always necessary to bandage 
the Dart and insist on absolute rest. 

A dog will not often walk on a fractured leg, but he 
should not be allowed to run freely on account of the risk 
of injury to it. Of the various dressings for fractured 
limbs, splints and bandages, starch, glue, and plaster-of- 
Paris bandages, the latter will usually be found the best, 
for very soon the dog can go about without fear of fresh 
injury, displacement, or other source of danger. It will 


generally be necessary to get swelling reduced before they 
are applied. They may be prepared by sprinkling the 
powder evenly over an ordinary bandage and rolling it up 
tightly. When applying, water enough to wet moderately 
will suffice, and some allowance must be made for con- 
traction in hardening. The patient must be watched, and 
kept quiet till the dressing is dry. An ordinary bandage 
should be first applied, and a little cotton-wool put be- 
tween the plaster bandage and the limb at the upper 
and lower ends, to prevent undue pressure of the sharp 

After union is established an ordinary bandage may 
be worn for a little while, and the dog allowed to exercise 
only in the yard for a time. Compound fractures — i. e., 
those with the skin broken — require especial care, and an- 
tiseptic dressings are essential. 

Cutting Operations. — If serious, these should be done 
under anaesthetics or morphia (cocaine may suffice in some 
cases), and w4th every preparation and all antiseptic pre- 
cautions. It is not usually necessary to anaesthetize before 
opening an abscess unless deep seated, but the knife used 
should be very sharp and the incision decided. 

Tumors may require removal if they press on vital 
parts, grow rapidly, are unsightly, or if small but malig- 
nant — i. e., injurious to the health of the animal and very 
apt to involve adjacent parts. 

In any cutting operation of this kind the question of 
haemorrhage is to be carefully weighed. About the neck 
and breast there is considerable danger of bleeding. On 
the other hand, some tumors may be " shelled out," when 
superficial, with little trouble or danger. 


Castration and Spaying.— It is impossible to predict 
what effect on the physical and psychic nature of the dog 
these operations may have. After either, the subject may 
be little more thaii a useless, animated mass of flesh, un- 
worthy the name of " dog." The author would not allow 
any dog he owned to be thus operated on, nor could he be 
induced to perform it except when the parts are diseased ; 
and he hopes the time is not far distant when every repu- 
table veterinary surgeon will take the same view of the 
case, and absolutely refuse to thus run the risk of de- 
stroying the dog as a dog merely to gratify the whim of 
some owner who wishes to shirk his responsibility. Every 
man should either not keep a dog at all or treat the ani- 
mal as a dog. A spayed or castrated dog can not win a 
prize on the bench. Both operations are simple, and with 
due precautions they may be safely undertaken when really 
required, but always antiseptically. Before the testicles 
are severed the spermatic cords should be each secured 
with a stout ligature, to prevent haemorrhage. The same 
applies to the ovarian tubes. 

Umbilical Hernia. — This affection arises from incom- 
plete closure of the abdominal walls, allowing the intes- 
tine to fall into the sac of distended skin. When small, it 
is likely to disappear in puppies. If large or growing 
worse, operation is demanded. The animal is to be anses- 
thetized, the sac opened, and the edges of the abdominal 
parietes brought together by strong sutures after the gut 
has been returned within the abdomen. The skin is to be 
separately sutured and covered with antiseptic dressings. 
It is well to keep the dog quiet for a couple of days, and 
to cover the wound with a firm pad and bandage. 


Other forms of hernia are rare, and must be treated ac> 
cording to the indications in each case. 


The poisoning of dogs is occasionally accidental, but 
more frequently intentional, to the disgrace of human na- 
ture. Happily, the official poisoning of dogs not licensed 
is now rare, though municipal blundering in the control 
of dogs is still common enough. 

The proper method to destroy dogs that are im- 
pounded is by the lethal chamber — i. e., by inhalation of 
carbonic-dioxide gas. When a single dog is to be killed 
for any reason, it can be easily and painlessly done by 
causing the animal to inhale chloroform without any ad- 
mixture of air. The dog may be laid on his side, the legs 
quietly bound together, and a sponge, cotton wool, etc., 
placed in a towel formed into a cone, on which about half 

Fig. 38. — Method of controlling a Dog by a Tape, etc. (Mayhew). 

an ounce of cheap chloroform has been poured, the whole 
being suddenly clapped tightly over his muzzle. In a few 
moments he will cease to struggle, but the cone may be 
left in position for some time longer. 

For description, see page 92. 


The commonest means of the " poison fiend " are 
strychnine, arsenic, pounded glass, and compressed 
sponge. Arsenic and strychnine can be purchased in the 

Fig. 39.— Administration of Medicines * (Mathkw). 

form of small pills, which may be pushed into little pieces 
of meat and dropped in the dog's way. Strychnine when 
undisguised, from its bitterness, will not be readily taken ; 
but, as dogs bolt their food, even the crystals may be in- 
serted in a pellet of meat, butter, etc., and the deadly dose 
be swallowed. Occasionally dogs roaming the woods find 
poison laid out for wild animals. 

Dogs are not infrequently poisoned by "rough on 
rats-' (arsenic) or other similar vermin poisons, and ex- 
treme precautions should be observed, for it is to be re- 
membered that the fatal poisoning of a dog is far more 
effectually secured by a moderate than a large quantity 
of the agent. The stomach may at once reject a large 
amount, while a smaller portion is likely to be retained 
long enougli to accomplish the fatal purpose. Many a 

* This cut was accidently omitted from the section on the Adminis- 
tration of Medicines, page 195. 


dog has been saved from death bj poison owing to the 
readiness with which the canine race vomit. 

Dogs should not be allowed to pass through fields in 
which Paris green (arsenic) is distributed to kill potato 

Puppies occasionally, though less frequently than chil- 
dren, are poisoned by the phosphorus of matches. 

Chronic poisoning from protracted dosing with arsenic 
used for skin disease, chorea, etc., may occur. 

Arsenic should never be administered continuously, 
and never longer than two weeks, without periodical in- 
termissions in its use. 

The practice of drugging dogs with arsenic, etc., to 
keep them in " show condition " can not be too highly 
condemned. Such dogs are apt to become so dependent on 
the drug that their health quite breaks down without it. 

Practically, cases resolve themselves into strychnine 
and arsenical poisoning. 

The diagnosis is not usually difficult to make out. 

Strychnine causes pain, twitchings, possibly vomiting 
and purging, but in fatal cases always characteristic tetanic 
convulsions — i. e., there is prolonged sj)asm of the mus- 
cles, with more or less frequent relaxation. They are 
powerful and continuous enough to kill the dog by ex- 
haustion, or to suffocate him by prolonged spasm of the 
muscles of respiration, or there may be paralysis of the 
same muscles, which leads to death in a similar way. 

Arsenic and many corrosive substances cause gastritis 
and enteritis ; hence the burning thirst, vomiting, purg- 
ing, etc., the dog usually dying from exhaustion or col- 


Treatment. — The object should be, of course, to get rid 
of the poison as soon as possible, so that it may act neither 
locally nor constitutionally ; hence emetics, immediately 
after the poison has been swallowed, are always indicated 
unless the animal is already vomiting freely. For this 
purpose fifteen to twenty grains of sulphate of zinc, with 
a teaspoonful of wine of ipecac soon after, will usually 
prove the best. If this is not at hand, baking soda or 
washing soda dissolved in lukewarm water, or given in 
pills, may answer the purpose ; also mustard in water. 
But every kennel should be provided with certain prepa- 
rations against poisoning, such as laudanum, zinc sulphate, 
wine of ipecac, olive oil, calcined magnesia, lime-water, 
tincture of iron, bicarbonate of sodium, chloral hydrate, 
stimulants, etc. Yery commonly the poison will have 
been absorbed before the dog is noticed ; then the object 
must be to prevent the further local effects and keep the 
animal from sinking. Of course, expert assistance should 
always be sought, but in the mean time something may 
be done by an intelligent person. 

Except in phosphorus poisoning, which is rare, oil 
may always be given; also calcined magnesia or lime- 
water, as they are harmless and protect the stomach me- 
chanically, which may be said of powdered charcoal and 
some other substances, as white of eggs, milk and flour, etc. 

In strychnine poisoning an effort should be made to 
neutralize the effect of the agent on the spinal cord and 
brain. Bromide of potassium and chloral hydrate are the 
best physiological antidotes. Either may be given in 
twenty-grain doses, and, if they can not be administered 
by the mouth or retained in the stomach, they should be 


injected in solution in only a small quantity of water, well 
up into the bowel, and prevented from returning. The 
dose may be repeated, if necessary, till at least a drachm has 
been taken. Hypodermic injections of chloral are valuable. 

The best antidote for arsenic is the hydrated oxide of 
iron, which can be quickly prepared by adding baking 
soda or washing soda to diluted tincture of iron so long as 
there is any effervescence — i. e., till the neutral point is 
reached. This may be given freely, say a tablespoonful 
Qvery ten minutes. 

When an animal's strength is failing, aromatic spirits 
of ammonia, carbonate of ammonium, or alcohol in re- 
peated doses, are demanded. 

In poisoning by mercury, little can be done to allay 
the symptoms, which are those of gastritis and enteritis, 
with corrosion of the mouth. The indications are to 
maintain the strength of the patient, as in other cases. If 
he survives the acute attack the mouth should be treated 
with astringent washes. Of course, the stomach should be 
protected mechanically, as in other cases. 

Carbolic-acid poisoning is marked by twitchings, possi- 
bly convulsions, or great prostration. The animal should 
be kept warm, and stimulants given. The danger of poi- 
soning from lotions, ointments, etc., containing carbolic 
acid is not to be forgotten ; but as recovery is more fre- 
quent than in poisoning by many other agents, treatment 
is hopeful. 

Stings. — This subject may be briefly alluded to under 
the head of " Poisoning," as the danger and pain of stings 
arise in great part from the poison introduced into the 


Even a single sting is ])iiinfu] enough, and when very 
numerous an aninial's Hfe is endangered. The same ap- 
plies, but still more forcil)ly, to snake - bites. In the 
case of stings the best application is warm water and 
ammonia, sufficient of the latter to be very decidedly 
tasted. To prevent collapse and relieve pain, opiates and 
aromatic spirits of ammonia, or, in grave cases, carbonate 
of ammonium, say five grains every half hour till the worst 
is over, may be tried- In snake-bite, alcoholic stimulants 
should be combined, and the wound should, if possible, be 
quickly bathed with warm water or carbolic acid or cau- 
terized with the solid nitrate of silver, which we have be- 
fore recommended to be carried in the vest-pocket in a 
suitable holder, which may be readily purchased in any 
first-class druggist's shop. 

In the case of snake-bite, it is well to put a ligature in 
the form of a pocket handkerchief around the limb, if that 
is the part injured, ahove the wound, to prevent the return 
of the blood to the heart till attempts have been made 
to remove the poison (sucking the wound is the best 
method) or to prevent its absorption by cauterization of 
the part. 


The whole environment of a dog show is an unnatural 
one from almost every point of view. The removal from 
the accustomed surroundings of home; the journey in a 
crate, with its enforced confinement ; the unusual excite- 
ment with its strain on the nervous system, from the time 
the dog leaves home till he returns ; the noise, loss of 
sleep, often vitiated atmosphere ; the possibly ' foul bed, 


draughts, extremes of temperature, lack of exercise^ 
change in food and water, and a hundred things (one need 
not enumerate all) — put a strain on the dog that tries him 
sorely even if there be no actual contagion of disease pres- 
ent in the form of mange, distemper, dysentery, etc. 

l^aturally all this tells most on young dogs with their 
less stable constitutions. In fact, a bench show is no place 
for a puppy ; all the conditions are against him. 

But every dog should be inspected daily. Doubtful 
cases should be removed to a little hospital, which should 
be, but is not, attached to all shows lasting more than one 

The medical expert should be the consultant in regard 
to food, water, ventilation, disinfection, and all that per- 
tains to the health of the dogs. The superintendent of 
the show should be a man intelligent enough to see that 
all directions are carried out properly, and discerning 
enough to detect cases of possible sickness in the absence 
of the medical man. 

If puppies are brought to a show at all they should re- 
ceive special attention, and a grain of quinine night and 
morning, in a routine way, is justifiable and wise. 

Early removal (second day) is provided for by many 
shows — which is the next best thing to the entire absence 
of puppies from the first. 

Much may be done, and should be done, to mitigate the 
discomfort of the show-bench for the canine occupants. 
Shows are indispensable as educators of the public, but to 
the dogs themselves their attractions are few and their 
trials and dangers many. 

The points that require special attention are food, 



water, ventilation, a suitable temperature, avoidance of 
draughts, exercise at least twice daily, and the opportunity 
to attend to the calls of :N^ature thrice daily, disinfection, 
etc. All dogs should be carefully examined by a medical 
canine expert before admission, especially in regard to skin 
disease and distemper. Doubtful cases should be detained 
in a separate building for more prolonged examination 
and observation, and the doubt should be given against 
the individual dog, rather than imperil the whole canine 
gathering when suspicion can not be removed. 

But the duties of the medical expert do not end with 
the preliminary inspection, which, as a matter of fact, is 
often far from thorough. If it is found that many dogs 
have unhealthy stools (diarrhoea, etc.), the food should be 
specially examined. Food should never be left before the 
animals more than an hour at most. Sour food is like 
poison to dogs. Often the water does not agree ; if so, it 
should be boiled and cooled quickly, and, if there be a 
sediment, only the clear liquid should be used. 

In truth, however, there are many things that only an 
experienced canine medical expert can, strictly speaking, 
well provide against ; and it would pay shows to obtain the 
services of such people, when they can be secured, for al- 
most the entire time while the exhibition lasts. 

During transportation of dogs it is better that they be 
fed rather sparingly on such food as will not tend to relax 
the bowels, so that they may not be compelled to soil their 
boxes. All crates should have holes in the bottom, to 
allow urine to run through. After a long journey, a dose 
of castor oil, moderate feeding, and a good deal of exer- 
cise are indicated. 




Drug^s are arranged very much according to their uses. 

Name of drug. 

Castor oil. 

Syrup of buckthorn. 

Fluid ext. of cascara 

Epsom salts. 

Flowers of sulphur. 

Cream of tartar. 
Compound rhubarb 

Compound cathartic 

Sodium bicarbonate. 

Gray powder. 


Areca nut. 


Fl. ext. pink and 

Eth. ext. male fern. 

Oil of turpentine. 




10-40 drops. 

1-4 drachms. 

1-3 drachms. 

1-3 drachms. 
1-2 pills. 

1-2 pills. 

1-2 drachms. 

2-4 grs. 
2-6 grs. 

8-15 grs. 
1-2 grs. 

1-5 grs. 
^1 drachm. 
10-30 drops. 

10-30 drops. 


As a laxative. 

(( (( 

As a laxative; may be added to 
castor oil or given alone. 

As a laxative, better to add a lit- 
tle powdered ginger, tinct. of 
ginger, etc. 

As a laxative, may often be given 
with food. 

As a laxative. 

One pill given after the principal 
meal acts as a stomach tonic. 

At night, followed by a saline in 
the morning. 

With or without cream of tartar 
or powdered rhubarb as a laxa- 

Always to be followed after a few 
hours by a saline. 

In doses of 1-3 grains good for 
puppies with deranged liver. 
Must watch carefully against 
salivation, as with all prepara- 
tions of mercury. 

Usually combined with calomel. 

A powerful purgative, causing wa- 
tery stools. 

Vermifuge ; to be given in doses of 
1-2 grains for each pound weight 
of the dog. Followed by castor 
oil in |-1^ hour. 

For puppies 1-8 grains, according 
to age, 2-3 times a day for two 
days ; then follow with castor oil. 

Better for puppies in doses of 5-30 
drops, according to age, and in 
same way as santonin. 

Very powerful remedy for tape- 
worm. Only to be used after 
areca nut has been tried. To be 
given in white of egg, mucilage, 
or oil, and followed in -|-1 hour 
by castor oil. 

To be given if areca nut fails, and 
with same precautions as male 


Name of drug. 




Tinct. opii 

Tinct. opii co. (pare- 

Dover's powder. 

Fl. ext. opium. 

Pil. plumbi cum opio 
(lead and opium pill), 

Sulphate of morphia. 

Spirits of chloroform. 

Potassium cyanide. 
Tinct. hyoscyamus. 
Tinct. conium. 
Tinct. belladonna. 
Ext. belladonna. 
Dilute prussic acid. 

Tinct. senega. 

Wine of ipecac. 

Syrup of Tolu, 

Syrup of squills. 
Tinct. of squills. 
Tinct. of aconite. 

Potassium acetate. 
Potassium bromide. 

Ammonium carbon- 

Aromatic spirits of 

Spirits of nitric ether. 

Tinct. of digitalis. 

Fl. ext. ergot of rye. 

Sulphate of quinine. 
Sulphate of iron. 

5-30 drops. 

i-1 drachm. 

5-20 grs. 

5-30 drops. 

1 pill. 

10-30 drops. 

iV-tV gr. 

10-30 drops. 

10-30 drops. 

3-10 drops. 

2-6 drops. 

15-40 drops. 

3-10 drops. 

20-60 drops. 

20-60 drops. 
5-20 drops. 
2-8 drops. 

5-15 grs. 

5-40 grs. 

3-8 grs. 
20-60 drops. 
20-60 drops. 
3-15 drops. 

15-60 drops. 

1-2 grs. 
i-2 grs. 

As a sedative for relief of pain, etc. 

Every 2-4 hours for diarrhoea. 

For relief of pain. 

For relief of pain. Good sedative 

in cough mixtures. 
As a sedative in cough mixtures. 
As a sedative. 

The officinal solution is to be em- 
ployed. Useful in vomiting, etc. 

As an expectorant in chronic bron- 

Useful to render expectoration 
loose. In doses of 2-5 drops use- 
ful in diarrhoea and dysentery. 

Useful in bronchitis, * especially 
when chronic. 

Useful in bronchitis, etc. 

(( il u 

Valuable to quiet the heart's action 
in fever. Fleming's tincture is 
very strong ; dose, ^1 drop. 

As a stimulant to the kidneys 

A most valuable sedative; good 
adjunct of opium. 

Valuable diffusible stimulant in 
pneumonia, etc. 

For like use. 

Stimulant to the kidneys ; anti- 
febrile remedy. 

As a cardiac tonic best given in 
small doses and often (2-3 hours). 
As a diuretic, in larger doses, 
watching well its action. 

To increase the contractions of the 
uterus and arrest haemorrhage 
therefrom. For the latter pur- 
pose the extract of mistletoe is 

As a tonic ; 7-15 grains as an anti- 
pyretic to lower temperature. 

As a tonic. 



Name of drug. 


Tinct of iron. 

Citrate of iron and 

Tinct of uux vomica. 

Ext. of nux vomica. 

Tinct. of quassia. ; 
Tinct. of gentian. . 
Compound tinct of j 

Compound tinct. of ' 

Tinct. of rhatany. 
Tinct, of kino. 

Oxalate of cerium. 
Subnitrate of bismuth. 


Bichloride of mercury 
(corrosive sublimate), 
Wine of colchicum. 
Iodide of potassmm. 

Syrup of the iodide 
of iron. 

Liquor arsenicalis. 

Salicylic acid. 

Salicylate of sodium. 

Potassium chlorate. ' 

Sodium hyposulphite. 
Biborate of sodium 

Boric (Boracic) acid. 

Sulphate of zinc. 

Acetate of lead. 

Tannic acid. 


5-15 drops. 

3-8 grs. 

3-10 drops. 

5-15 drops. 
5-15 drops. 
5-15 drops. 

5-20 drops. 

10-30 drops. 
10-30 drops. 

1-4 grs. 
3-10 grs. 

1-5 grs. 

^0-2^ gr- 

8-30 drops. 
1-4 grs. 

20-60 drops. 

3-20 drops. 

5-10 grs. 
5-15 grs. 
5-10 grs. 

3-10 grs. 

5-10 grs. to 
1 oz. of water. 

5-10 grs. to 
1 oz. of water, 

3-15 grs. to 
1 oz. of water. 

3-15 grs. to 
1 oz. of water. 

3-10 grs. to 
1 oz. of water. 

Valuable in erysipelas, diphtheria, 

A most excellent tonic when the 
appetite is poor, etc. 

Valuable vegetable bitter; also 
stimulant to nervous system. 

Good to combine with other reme- 
dies in pill form. 

[ Good vegetable bitters. 

Mild vegetable bitter ; suits a weak 

Tonic to stomach and system gen- 

) Internal astringents. Useful m 

] diarrhoea. , . 

) Sedatives to stomach in vomitmg. 

i Useful in gastritis, diarrhcea, 

\ dvsenterv. 

Assists digestion. Useful in cer- 
tain forms of dyspepsia. 

Given cautiously, it is a valuable 
alterative to the nutrition. 

Useful in rheumatism (acute). 

Useful ulterative in rheumatism, 
etc. Dose to be small at first, 
gradually increased, and closely 
watched. Well to combine with 
a vegetable bitter. 

Alterative. Useful in debilitated 
dogs of a certain class ; acts 
also as a tonic. 

Small dose at first; gradually in- 
creased ; occasionally stopped ; 
never given on an empty stomach. 

Useful in mange as an ointment; 

also for foul sores. 
Best remedy known for acute rheu- 
Valuable as a blood tonic, etc., in 

diphtheria, etc. 
Useful in distemper. 
Useful as a lotion. 


Name of drug. 



Fl. ext. of golden seal. 

-|-2 drachms 
to 1 oz. water. 

Useful as a lotion. 

Nitrate of silver. 

5-20 grs. to 
1 oz of water. 

Useful in purulent ophthalmia. 

Carbolic acid. 

1-20 or 1-40 

Valuable as a lotion to allay irrita- 

(of water). 

tion, disinfect, etc 


5-30 drops, 

Useful in dyspepsia with flatu- 


lency. Some prefer it to car- 
bolic acid in lotions, etc ; non- 

Phenacetin, antipy- 

2-10 grs. 

To reduce temperature. 

rin, etc. 


i-1 gr. 


Hydrochlorate of apo- 

-A-i?o gr. 




Abdominal organs, cancer d, 269. 
Abscess, perineal, 274. 

opening of, 386. 
Absence of teeth in Turkish dog, 9. 
Acute cystitis, 278. 
Acute laryngitis, 216. 
Affections of the mouth, 247. 

of the nerves, 328. 
Airedale terrier, 56, 152. 
Alimentary tract, diseases of, 244. 

structure of, 244. 
Amaurosis, 311. 
Amblyopia, 311. 
Anaemia, 239. 
Anaesthetics, 381. 
Anatomy of the dog, 6. 
Anatomy and physiology of the 

eye, 302. 
Aneurism, 242. 
Animal body, 10. 
Antisepsis, 382. 

Anus, diseased condition around, 

growths around, 274. 
Apoplexy, 321. 
Appetite, a capricious, 252. 
Application to stimulate growth 

of hair, 344. 
Arsenic, when to be used, 327. 
Artificial selection, examples of, 

heat, 99. 
Asthma, 230. 

Autopsies, directions in making, 

Autopsies and morbid anatomy, 


Balanitis, 281. 

Barrenness, 136. 

Barzoi, 37- 

Bassethound, description of, 43. 

illustration of, 52. 
Beagle, description of, 41. 

illustration of, 48. 
Bedlington terrier, 57, 160. 
Bench-show form, 61. 
Black Newfoundland dog, 78, 328. 
Black-and-tan terrier, 50, 88. 
Blain, 250. 

Blood, diseases of, 237. 
Bloodhound, description of, 38. 

illustration of, 40. 
Blood-vessels, diseases of, 242. 
Bob-tailed sheep dog, description 
of, 78. 

illustration of, 320. 
Brain, disease, 311. 

injuries to, 327. 
Breeding, 125. 

Breeds of dogs figured on Egyp- 
tian monuments, 3. 
Bronchitis, 221. 

capillary, 221. 

verminous, 222. 
Bronchocele, 243. 



Brood bitch, care of the, 135. 

after whelping, care of the, 148. 
Bulldog, description of, 81. 

illustration of, 344. 
Bull-terrier, description of, 55. 

illustration of, 136. 
Burns and scalds, 384. 

Calculus, renal, cystic, 279. 
Cancer of abdominal organs, 269. 
Canker, 296. 
Capricious appetite, 252. 
Care of the brood bitch, 135. 

after whelping, 148. 
Care of the dog's skin, 117. 

of the stud dog, 134. 
Castration, 387. 
Cataract, 311. 
Catarrh, nasal, 232. 
Causes of disease, 182. 
Characteristics of the dog, psychic, 

Chesapeake Bay dog, 74. 
Chest Jacket, 226. 
Chlorate of potassium, 228. 
Choice of puppies, 145. 
Chorea, 325. 
Chronic cystitis, 279. 

hepatitis, 268. 
Classification of dogs, 18. 
Cleanliness, 143. 
Clubs, 22. 

Clumber spaniel, 71, 240. 
Clydesdale terrier, 58. 
Cocker spaniel, 69, 224. 
Colic, 256-260. 
Collie, the rough, description of, 77. 

illustration of, 312. 

the smooth, description of, 77. 
Color varieties, 92. 
Common pathology, 213. 
Complications incident to parturi- 
tion, 288. 
Composition of milk, percentage, 

Conjunctivitis, 306. 
Constipation, 149, 254. 
Constitutional diseases, 359. 
Convalescence, 215. 
Convulsions, etc., 318. 
Cornea, opacities of, 310. 

inflammation of, 310. 
Crossing of dogs, 5. 
Cuts, 383. 

Cutting operations, 386. 
Cuvier's classification, 18. 
Cystic calculus, 279. 
Cystitus, acute, 278. 

chronic, 279. 

Dachshund, description of, 43. 

illustrations of, 56, 60. 
Dalmatian, description of, 74. 

illustration of, 280. 
Dandie Dinmont terrier, the, 56. 
Darwin on the dog, 4. 
Deafness, 301. 
Deerhound, description of, 36. 

illustration of, 16. 
Degeneration of the liver, 268. 
Description of disease, 206. 
Determination of age, 171. 
Dhole, the, 19. 
Diagnosis, 190. 

in influenza, 307. 
Diarrhoea, 253. 

of enteritis, 263. 
Diet and care of the sick, 198. 

in eczema, 338. 
Differential diagnosis between colic, 
gastritis, etc., 260. 

of meningitis, 323. 
Digestive organs, functional disor- 
ders of the, 251. 

inflammatory affections of, 257. 
Dingo, 19. 
Diphtheria, 361. 

Discharges from the genitals, 294. 
Diseased condition around the 
anus, 271. 



Diseases of the alimentary tract, 

of the blood and circulatory sys- 
tem, 237. 

of the blood-vessels, 242. 

of the ear, 295. 

of the eye, 302. 

of the genital organs, 280. 

of the lymphatics and of certain 
glands, 243. 

of the nervous system, 312. 

of the protective apparatus of 
the eye, 305. 

of the respiratory organs, 209. 

of the skin, 329. 

of the skin, application of reme- 
dies, 335. 

of the skin, diagnosis and varie- 
ties, 33 i. 

of the skin, pathological condi- 
tion and symptoms of, 330. 

of the skin, principles of treat- 
ment, 336. 

of the urinary system, 275. 

of the veins, 242. 
Disinfection, 200. 
Dislocation of the eyeball, 312, 

Disposition and stamina, 133. 
Distemper, 367. 

causation, 368. 

complications, 372. 

diagnosis, 371. 

nature of, 368. 

prevention of, 369. 

prognosis, 372. 

symptoms, 371. 

treatment, 374. 
Dog, the, in health, 1. 

absence of teeth in Turkish, 9. 

anatomy of, 6. 

classification of, 18. 

development of, 171. 

in disease, 178. 

intelligence of, 16. 

Dog, the, normal temperature of, 
origin and history of, 1. 
physical constitution resembling 

man's, 17. 
psychic characteristics of, 15. 
structure compared with man, 

wild and half reclaimed, 19. 
zoSlogieal position of, 6. 
Dog shows, 393. 

Dogs figured on Egyptian monu- 
ments, 3. 
hunting by scent, etc., 38. 
hunting chiefly by the eye, etc., 

in health, management of, 94. 
Domesticated dogs, 38. 
Dose, rule for, 194. 
Draughts, 214. 
Dropsy, 362. 
Drugs and their administration, 

Duke-Rhffibe blood, 68. 
Dumb rabies, 318. 
Dysentery, 261. 

Ear, diseases of, 295. 
Eczema, 333. 

English greyhound, description of, 

illustration of, 10. 
Enteritis, 260. 
Environment, 6. 

Epileptic form, convulsions, 319. 
Ergot of rye, 291. 
Erysipelas. 359. 

Esquimau dog, description of, 80. 
Excretion, 117. 
Exercise and occupation, 114. 

and training of puppies, 161. 

of puppies, 169. 
External parasites, 356. 
Eye, diseases of, 302. 

lotion, 309. 



Favus, 332. 
Feeding, 101. 

the nursing bitch, 149. 

packs of hounds, etc., 111. 

puppies, 156. 

toy dogs, 112. 

summarized, 113. 
Fever, 187. 

post-partum, 291. 
Field form, 61. 
Fissure of the nipple, 293. 
Fistula in ano, 274. 
Fits, 319. 
Fleas, 356. 

Follicular mange, 332. 
Food in the mouth, 13. 
Foodstuffs, 102. 
Foster-mother, 147. 
Foxhound, description of the, 

Fox-terrier, the, 48. 

illustrations of, 64, 72. 
Fractures and dislocations, 385. 
Functional disease of the liver, 

disorders of the digestive organs, 

Gastritis, 260. 

General principles of disease, 178. 
Genital organs, 280. 
Goitre, 243. 

Goitre (bronchocele), 243. 
Granular eyelids, 310. 
Great Dane, 43. 

Greyhound, English, description 
of, 34. 

illustration of, 10. 
Greyhound, Italian, description of, 

illustration of, 388. 
Grooming, 123. 
Grooming for the skin, 159. 
Growths around the anus, 274. 
Gun-shyness, 168. 

Haemorrhage, 294. 
Hair, loss of, 331. 
Harrier, 41. 
Haw, inflamed, 306. 
Heart disease, 240. 
Hepatitis, 267. 
chronic, 267. 
Hernia, 387. 

Hints as to formulae and adminis- 
tration of medicine, 234. 
History of the dog, 1. 
Housing of dogs, 96. 
Hydrocephalus, 324. 
Hydrophobia, 313. 
Hyperaemia, 182. 
Hypertrophy, 241. 

Inbreeding, 132. 
Incubation of rabies, 314. 
Inflamed haw, 306. 
Inflammation, 181. 

and abscess of the lachrymal 
gland, 306. 

of the middle ear, 300. 

of the tongue, 250. 

of the womb, 285. 
Inflammatory diseases, 212. 

affections of the digestive or- 
gans, 257. 
Influenza, 215. 
Injuries to the brain, 327. 
Instruments and the ear, 298. 
Intelligence of the dog, 16. 
Internal parasites and worms, 345. 
Intestinal obstruction, 270. 
Intussusception, 205. 
Irish terrier, 49, 80. 

water spaniel, 72, 256. 
Iritis, 310. 

Irregularities of the bowels, 253. 
Irritability of the skin, 344. 
Italian greyhound, 92, 388. 

Jaundice, 266. 

Kennel mixture, 343. 



Lachrymal ducts, gland, 306. 

Laryngitis, 216. 

Laverack strain of setters, 68. 

Lice, 353. 

Life-history of worms, 348. 

Liver, functional diseases of, 266. 
degeneration of, 268, 
organic affections of, 267. 

Llewellin strain of setters, 68. 

Local affections of the nasal pas- 
sages, 232. 

Lock-jaw (tetanus), 324. 

Loss of hair, 344. 

Lotion for the ear, 299. 

Loup-Loup dog^ 78. 

Malpresentations, 289. 
Maltese terrier, 58. 
Mammary glands, 292. 
Management of dogs in health, 94. 

of puppies, 158. 
Mange, follicular, 332. 

sarcoptic, 332. 
Mastiff, description of, 83. 

illustration of, 352. 
Mating, 131. 
Meningitis, 322. 

Method of studying the dog in dis- 
ease, 189. 

administration of medicine, 195. 
Metritis, 285. 
Mexican hairless dog, 93. 
Milk as food, 106. 

in relation to worms, 351. 

percentage composition of, 153. 

secretion of, 144. 

teeth, 173. 
Morbid growth, 284. 
Mouth, affections of, 247. 

Nasal catarrh, 232. 
Nephritis, 279. 
Nerves, affections of, 328. 
Nervous system, structure and 
functions, diseases of, 312. 

Neuralgia. 328. 

Newfoundland, black, description 
of, 78. 
illustration of, 328. 
other varieties, 79. 
Normal temperature of the dog, 

Obstruction, 254, 270. 

Ophthalmia, 307. 

Organic affections of the liver, 

Origin and history of the dog, 1. 
Otitis media, 300. 
Otterhound, 42. 
Ozaena, 234. 

Paisley terrier, 58. 

Paralysis, 321. 

Paralytic form of rabies, 317. 

Paresis, 321. 

Pariah, the, 19. 

Parturition, complications inci- 
dent to, 288. 

Pasteur's inoculations, 314. 

Pastoral dogs, etc., 76. 

Pathology in respiratory diseases, 

Pedigree in breeding, 132, 

Percentage composition of milk, 

Percussion and auscultation, 219. 

Perineal abscess, etc., 274. 

Period of gestation, 137. 

Peritonitis, 262. 

Perverted appetite in dogs, 315. 

Pharyngitis, 251. 

Physical constitution resembling 
man's, 17. 

Physiology of the dog, 11. 

Piles, 272. 

Plethora. 240. 

Pleurisy. 217. ' 

Pneumonia. 222. 

Pointing instinct, 59. 



Poisoning, 388. 

Polypus, 301. 

Pomeranian, the, description of, 

Poodle, description of, 75. 

illustration of, 300. 
Post-partum fever, 291. 
Preparation for whelping, 140. 
Presence of a fifth toe in large 

breeds, 9. 
Prevalence of disease, 206. 
Prognosis in respiratory diseases, 

Prolapse of the rectum, 271. 

of the vagina, 284. 
Prophylaxis in respiratory diseases, 

Psychic characteristics of the dog, 

Pug dog, description of, 90. 

illustration of, 370. 
Pulse, the, 187. 

Puppies, exercise and training of, 
feeding, 156. 
management of, 158. 
rearing, 150. 
washing, 160. 
weaning, 152. 

Quality, 26. 

Rabies (hydrophobia), 313. 
dumb, 318. 
incubation in, 314. 
paralytic form, 317. 
Rearing of puppies, 150. 
Rectum, prolapse of, 271. 
Regions, anatomical, of the dog, 
illustration of, 29. 
Relative prevalence of disease, 

Remedies and their modes of use, 

Renal calculus, 279. 
Respiration, 212. 
Retention of urine, 276. 
Retrievers, 73, 264. 
Retrieving, 167. 
Reversion, 131. • ' 

Rheumatism, acute, 365. 

chronic, muscular, 367. 
Rickets, 363. 
Ringworm, 332. 

plant causing, 343. 
Rough collie, 77, 312. 
Russian wolfhound or barzoi, 32, 37 

St. Bernard, description of, 86. 

illustration of, 368. 
Salivary glands, 248. 
Salivation, 251. 
Sarcoptic mange, 332. 
Schipperke, the, 92, 392. 
Scotch terrier, the, 53, 104. 
Secretion of milk, 144. 
Sense organs, 14. 
Setter and pointer form, 62. 
Shedding of the teeth, 175. 
Sheep dogs, 76. 
Skin, care of the, 117. 

diseases of, 329. 

grooming, 159. 

structure and functions of, 117. 
Skye terrier, 53, 120. 
Spaniels, 69. 

the clumber, 71, 240. 

the cocker, 69, 224. 

the English water, 73. 

the field, 69, 216. 

the Irish water, 72,' 256. 

the toy, 91, 384. 
Spasms, 319. 
Spaying, 387. 

Specialism in breeding dogs, 23. 
Spitz, the, 78. 
Sprains and bruises, 384. 
Squint, 312. 
Standards, 21. 



Standards, further considered, 25. 

summary of views on, 33. 
Stings, 392. 

Stonehenge's classification, 18. 
Structure of dog compared with 

man's, 7. 
Stud dog, care of the, 134. 
Summary of views on standards, 

etc., 32. 
Surgery of the dog, 380. 

Table of doses of drugs, 396. 
Tape-worms, 346. 
Teeth, the, 249. 

diseases of, 249. 

milk, 173. 

shedding of, 175. 
Temperature of whelping apart- 
ment, 143. 

normal, of the dog, 184. 
Terriers, general physical and 
psychic characteristics of, 45. 

Airedale, 56, 152. 

Bedlington, 57, 160. 

black-and-tau, 50, 88. 

bull, 55, 136. 

Clydesdale, 58. 

Dannie Dinmont, 56. 

fox, 48, 64, 72. 

Irish, 49, 80. 

Maltese, 58. 

other breeds of, 55. 

Paisley, 58. 

Scotch, 53, 104. 

Skye, 53, 120. 

Welsh, 56, 144. 

white English (see-black-and 
tan), 50, 88. 

Yorkshire, 52, 96. 
Tetarus, 324. 

Tongue, inflammation of, 250. 
Tonic treatment, 236. 
Toy dogs, 89. 
Toy spaniels, description of, 91. 

illustration of, 384. 

Treatment of fits, 319. 
Treatment of the bitch after con- 
ception, 137. 
Tuberculosis, 231. 
Tumors, 386. 
Typical animal, a, 26. 

Ulcers of the cornea, 309. 

Umbilical hernia, 387. 

Urinary system, diseases of the, 

Urine of the dog, 275. 
Urine, retention of, 276. 
Use of instruments, the, 290. 

Vagina, prolapse of, 284. 
Vaginitis, 284. 
Variations, 9. 
Venous congestion, 182. 
Ventilation, 139. 
Verminous bronchitis, 232. 
Vertigo, 321. 
Vomiting, 251. 
Vulvitis, 284. 

Warts, 247. 

Washing the dog, 123. 

puppies, 152. 
Watch-dogs and house-dogs, 80. 
Weaning puppies, 152. 
Welsh terrier, the, 56. 
Whelping, 141. 
Whippet, description of, 93. 
Wild and half - reclaimed dogs, 

Wild African dogs, 20. 

American dogs, 20. 
Wolfhound, Irish, description of, 

illustration of, 24. 
Wolfhound, Russian, description 
of, 37. 

illustration of, 32. 
Womb, inflammation of, 285. 


Worms, 345. 
diagnosis, 351. 
kinds of, 348. 
prevention of, 351. 
round, 347. 
symptoms of, 350. 


Worms, tape, 346. 
treatment of, 352. 

Yorkshire terrier, 52, 96. 

Zoological position of the dog, 6. 



Webster Family Library of Veterinary JVIedicine 
Cumminns School of Veterinary Medicine at 
Tufts University 
200 Westboro Road 

hii^.-+I-» r>.-rt**rt« i\/!ft n-irrn/^