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The Earl of Lonsdale, J. P., D. L. 

The Earl of Huntington, D. L. 

The Duke of Beaufort, A. D. C., J. P., D. L. 

The Marquis of Linlithgow. 

Lord Viscount Hemsley. 

Lord Vivian, P. C., G. C. M. G., C. B. 

Lord Middleton, J. P., C. A., R. A. 

Lord Herbert Vane-Tempest, K. C. V. O. 

Lord Fitzhardinge, J. P., D. L. 

Sir Wm. Savory, Bart. 

Sir Edmund Chaytor, Bart. 

Sir Wyndham Hanmer, Bart., J. P., D. L. 

Sir Daniel F. Gooch, Bart., J. P. 

Sir M. Bromley- Wilson, Bart. 

The Duchess of Hamilton., 

Lady NTicpbuntesf ' MJrcteii. ; 

Lady r Viscountess r Valletort v , , 

Lady Fairbairn. 

Lady Muriel Worthington. 

Lady V. Lacon. 


'HE world-wide and constantly increasing interest in 
dogs prompts the author to present in concise form, 
and at a price within the reach of all, a description and 
illustration of every variety now known to be breeding 
true to type. 

An attempt is also made to group them in Nationalities, 
though, since it is admitted that the origin of certain varieties is 
somewhat obscure, no arbitrary lines can be laid down in this 
respect Originality as to descriptions is not, in many instances, 
claimed by the author, though where the occasion seemed to call 
for it, modern ideals have been incorporated in the text. On the 
contrary, he acknowledges with thanks the services rendered by 
the following accepted authorities : 

Count Henry A. Graaf Van Bylandt 
Theo. Marples 
Dr. Caius 

Unless otherwise stated, the maximum sizes of the various 
breeds have been given. Bitches may be taken as about ten per 
cent lighter than the dogs. Owing to the exigencies of space 
the descriptions have been confined to color, size, head, ears, eye, 
tail and general appearance. Dogs, all the world over, more or 
less, are intended to be straight and strong on the legs, possessed 
of well padded feet and in other ways endowed with working 

The author's object will have been attained if the subject, in 
the form presented, is found acceptable to dog lovers who have 
not the leisure to study the more exhaustive works on dogs. 





BULLDOG (Miniature) 





COLLIE (Rough-coated) 

COLLIE (Smooth-coated) 

RETRIEVER (Flat-coated) 

RETRIEVER (Curly-coated) 










Fox TERRIER (Smooth-coated) 

Fox TERRIER (Wire-haired) 




BULL TERRIER (Miniature) 











TOY SPANIEL (King Charles) 

TOY SPANIEL (Prince Charles) 


TOY SPANIEL (Blenheim) 


Color : Black and tan, red and tan, and tawny ; the darker colors being sometimes 
interspersed with lighter or badger-colored hair and sometimes flecked with white. 
Too much white is objectionable. Height: 26 in. Weight: 90 Ibs. 

The Bloodhound possesses in remarkable degree every point and characteristic of 
those dogs which hunt together by scent. He is very powerful and stands over more 
ground than is usual with hounds of other breeds. The skin is thin to the touch, and 
extremely loose, this being more especially noticeable about the head and neck, where 
it hangs in deep folds. His temperament is extremely affectionate, neither quarrelsome 
with companions nor with other dogs, and he is somewhat shy and sensitive. 



Color: White or white with black mask or muzzle, brindle, retf, fawns (fallows, 
occasionally pied and mixed colors). 
\ Weight : A^'xceeding 55 Ibs. ; B, exceeding 45 Ibs. ; C, not exceeding 45 Ibs. 

Until by law abolished, the Bulldog was used for bull baiting. In general appear- 
jance the bulldog should be a low-set, heavy-boned, smooth-coated dog built on broad 
and powerful lines. His head should be strikingly massive and large in proportion to 
ithe dog's size, the face extremely short, muzzle very broad, blunt and inclined 
upwards, fx>dy short and well knit, the limbs stout and muscular, hind quarters very 
high and', but rather lightly made in comparison with its heavily made fore- 
parts. The (Jpg conveys an impression of determination, strength and activity. 

The Bulldog may be said to occupy the pride of place amongst the non-sporting 
varieties. Furthermore, it is one of the oldest of them and has been selected by the 
British themselves to typify the national character and is often termed the national 
breed. Certain it is that he conveys a "what we have we'll hold" impression, and for a 
dogged, determined, courageous and tenacious symbol one could not imagine any breed 
filling the role more aptly. 

BULLDOG (Miniature) 

Weight : Not exceeding 22 Ibs. 

The points and characteristics of this sub-division of the British bulldog may 
be summed up in the simple statement that it should be an exact duplicate in miniature 
of the larger specimen in every point and detail, excepting size. 





Color: Not of great moment so long as it is not wholly black or wholly white. 
The favorite color is black and hare-'tan, distributed in large patches on a white ground. 

Height : 25 in. 

Weight : 85 Ibs. 

A clean-cut, powerful hound. He has oblique and well laid-back shoulders, grace- 
fully arched neck, good spring of rib, strong loins, and powerful hindquarters. 

Skull should be flat, of medium width, the muzzle long, rather narrow and deep 
and square at the end, with large nostrils. He is endowed with extraordinary bone 
and hard, cat-like feet. 


Color : White with red, brown or yellow patches. 

Height : 24 in. 

Weight: 46 Ibs. 

This is a well built and symmetrical dog with a large head, domed in skull, "stop" 
not too pronounced, occipital bone fairly well developed and with good length of 
muzzle. The eyes are rather small and brown in co<!or. Nose sharp with open nostrils. 
The ears are set on low and lay close to the head. The back is strong and muscular, 
and chest deep. Legs straight, long and muscular. Stern is of medium length, carried 
higher than the back and the coat short and dense. 



Color : Any hound color. 

Height: 18 in. 

Weight : 56 Ibs. 

The leading features of Harriers are long heads, free from "stop," square muzzles, 
sloping shoulders, straight forelegs, round cat-like feet, short backs, well sprung ribs, 
strong loins, and sound hind-quarters with well bent stifles. 


Color : Blue mottle, black 
tan and white, black and 
tan, lemon and white- or any 
other hound color. 

Height: 15 in. 

The beagle is without 
doubt one of the oldest dis- 
tinct breeds we have. 

Beagles to be very choice 
can scarcely be bred too 
small. Although far inferior 
in speed to the harrier the 
sense of smelling is equally 
if not more exquisite in the 

The short back, compact 
body, straight legs, round 
feet, powerful loins, nicely 
placed shoulders, and the 
true beagle head is a beauti- 
thing to look upon. 

There are also the "pocket" beagle, which stands not more than 
rough or wire-haired variety, though now very scarce. They are 
in a rough country. 


11 in. high and a 
hardy and useful 

(Rough Coated) 

Color : Any 
color is accepted 
provided the mark- 
ings do not dis- 
figure. The most 
popular colors are 
sable, with i t s 
many varying 
shades, and white 
markings, black 
with white and tan 
markings, and blue 

Height: 24 in. 
Weight: 65 Ibs. 
The collie is a 
lithe, active dog, 
and is remarkable 
chiefly for his in- 
telligent, cunning, 
yet kindly outlook, 
h i s magnificent 
coat and the de- 
votion he displays to his master. The elegance of his outline is quite distinct from any 
other breed and shows great strength and activity. The head should be moderately 
long, proportionate to the size of the dog, with a flat skull moderately wide 
between the ears, and a very slight elevation at the eyebrows, and very little 
"stop." The muzzle should be well filled up before the eyes. The ears are 
small and when at attention should be carried semi-erect, with the tips turn- 
ing slightly outwards. The eyes are a most important feature in this breed 
They should be almond-shaped, not too large or too small, set obliquely in the head, 
and of a dark hazel color. The blue merles should have a merled or "China" eye, 
though this is not an essential. On the size, color and placing of the eyes>, together 
with the size and placement of the ears depends the expression and characteristic out- 
look which is so appreciated by connoisseurs. The neck, should be long, body fairly 
short, with well sprung ribs, chest deep and forelegs straight. Any tendency to cow- 
hocks in the hind legs should be penalized. The tail should be fairly long, carried low 
when in repose, and straight or gaily when excited. The coat, except on the mask, 
tips of ears and legs where it is smooth, should be very abundant, especially around the 
neck and chest, where it should form a distinct cape and frill. A dense undercoat is 
also very essential. 



The smooth 
collie is identi- 
cal with his 
rough - coated 
brother, except- 
ing that the 
coat should be 
short, dense and 
flat, with an 
abundance o f 



Color : Rich 
black, free from 
rustin'ess and 
from white. 
There is also a 
Golden Retriever 
so named because 
of the golden or 
yellow color of 
his coat. 

Height: 25 in. 

Weight : 68 Ibs. 

The symmetry and elegance of this dog are considerable and essential, and he has 
a decidedly sporting character. The head should be long with the skull wide and flat 
at the top, and slight furrow down the middle. Eyes of medium size, dark brown or 
hazel in color with a bright intelligent and mild expression indicating a good temper. 
The neck long and muscular, chest broad and deep with well developed and well-sprung 
ribs. The tail should be bushy but not feathered, carried gaily but not curled over 
the back. His coat should be fairly long, bright, close and thick, and either straight 
or slightly waved. 




Color: Black 
or liver, a white 
patch on chest is 

Height : 26 in. 

Weight: 68 Ibs. 

A strong, smart dog moderately low on leg, active, lively, beaming with intelli- 
gence and expression. The head should be long and narrow for the length, the eyes 
should be rather large and cannot be too dark. Chest not too wide but decidedly 
deep, back muscular and rather short with powerful loins, straight forelegs and plenty 
of bone. The coat should be formed of small tight curls all over the body much re- 
sembling the Astrachan. 



Color: A pre- 
dominance of 
white is most 
favored by 
sportsmen. Liver 
and white, lemon 
and white, and 
black and white 
are also quite 
common. Whole 
colors black, liver 
and various 
shades of yellow 
are also quite 

Height : 26 in. 
Weight : 70 Ibs. 
The Pointer is 
an elegantly shap- 
ed dog, symmetri- 
cal and well 
built all over, of 

great strength and endurance, yet full of refinement and very speedy. The leading 
essentials of a good Pointer are, pace, endurance, intelligence, and powers of smell. 
The head should be fairly long and broad at the skull, muzzle long and well filled up. 
Eyes soft and dark brown in color. Ears soft and hanging gracefully. Neck well 
arched and long, free from dewlap or throatiness. Ribs well arched. Loins and hind 
quarters very muscular. The stern must be strong at the root and free from the 
slightest approach to curl at the tip. 


Color: Black 
and white ticked, 
with large 
splashes and 
more or less 
marked with 
black, known as 
blue b e 1 1 o n ; 
orange and white, 
ticked as in the 
blacks and blues ; 
liver and white, 
ticked in similar 
manner ; black 
and white, with 
tan markings ; 
orange or lemon 
with white ticks; 
black and white ; 
liver and white. 
Pure white, 

black, liver and red or yellow are occasionally seen but not desirable. 
Height : 24 in. 
Weight : 60 Ibs. 

This dog owns an elegant outline. The skull is moderately narrow between the 
ears, with prominent occiput, a decided brow over the eyes, with long muzzle. The 
eyes should be dark brown in color, and are full of animation. Ears small, thin and 
soft, carried close to the cheeks. The neck should be slightly arched, but must not be 
throaty, chest deep and wide, tail should be carried with a gentle sweep downwards, 
and well feathered with straight silky hair. The coat is soft and silky without curl, 
and he should have plenty of feather on both fore and hind legs. 



Color : Creamy white with lemon markings ; orange markings not so typical. 

Height : 18 in. 

Weight : 65 Ibs. 

This is a long, low, massive dog, with a thoughtful expression. The skull is large, 
massive and broad on top, with decided occiput, heavy brow and deep stop. The muzzle 
should be of medium length, square and with flews well developed. His orange brown 
eyes are of medium size and deep set. The ears are large and pointed at the tip and 
the hair on them should be straight. His neck is thick and powerful, well feathered 
underneath, and his body is long, strong and barrel-like and the hind quarters very 
powerful and muscular. The stern is docked, well feathered, low set, and carried level 
with the back, and his coat is abundant, soft and straight. 

The Clumber is said to have been evolved by one of the Dukes of Newcastle at 
Clumber Castle, in Nottinghamshire, England, from which connection he takes his name. 

The breed is also affected by other influential members of the English peerage, 
which, together with his dignified bearing and classical lineage, account for being 
dubbed the aristocrat of the spaniel family. The Clumber differs from all other varieties 
of the Spaniel in that he is considerably heavier and more massive and therefore less 
active and a slower dog in the field. For this reason he is used largely by sportsmen 
who do not care to travel as fast as the more agile varieties work. 

Albeit as an all-round hunter the Clumber is probably without his equal and is 
excellent alike both as a field and water dog. 



Color : Almost any color. 

Height : 20 in. Weight : 50 Ibs. 

This dog is leggier in comparison to any other field spaniel and has a short and 
symmetrical body, long, head, square muzzle, rather narrow skull, and low-set ears, 
lie combines strength with activity, courage with docility, and all the characteristics 
of a workman and gentleman combined, but without his> vices. The coat is thick, firm 
and smooth or slightly wavy, and must not be too long. 


Color : A deep shaded golden liver. 

Height : 16 in. Weight : 45 Ibs. 

In appearance the Sussex Spaniel is a sedate and thoughtful looking dog when at 
rest but is full of life and activity when at work. The skull is massive and heavy for 
his size with the forehead projecting over the eyes. The jaws are long and square with 
flews fairly well developed and nostrils large and of liver color. The eyes should be 
hazel in color, large and soft in expression and should not show any haw. Ears large 
and well furnished with silky hair. The body is long and round, with chest deep and 
ample. The hind quarters are very muscular. The stern should be docked to about 6 
in. in length, set low, with a downward action and well feathered. A low carriage of 
tail is most desirable. The coat is straight or slightly wavy, thick, soft and abundant. 



Color : Jet black throughout, a little white on chest, though a drawback should not 

Height: 15 in. 

Weight: 50 Ibs. 

This is a moderately low and long dog, sound in the hind limbs, with well sprung 
ribs and strong quarters. The head should be long and level on top, with some stop. 
The skull should be narrow and the muzzle deep and square. The ears are set on low 
and moderately long. The eye should always be dark. The coat is flat, dense and 
glossy, with a fair amount of feathering. Excessive feathering is objectionable. 


Color: Jet 
black, A white, 
short frill is not 
disqualified but is 
not desirable. 
Other colors 
liver, lemon, red 
or any of these 
colors with white 
or tan or both. 

Height: 12 in. 

Weight: 25 Ibs. 

This dog should be shaped like a setter in miniature, but he is more merry and 
alert in expression and behavior. It is essential that he should combine small size 
with great activity. The skull is fairly long and forehead raised. Color of eyes varies 
according to the color of the coat, but should always be mild in expression. The ears 
are of moderate size, broad rather than long and fairly well covered with hair. His 
neck is long, clean, arched, and muscular, with well developed body and very strong 
hind quarters. The stern is docked, carried downwards, and has a perpetually vibrat- 
ing movement, a sort of restless quivering, peculiar to his breed. The coat is smooth 
or slightly wavy, very dense but not very long. 




Color: White should predominate; brindle, red or liver markings are objection- 

Height : 16 in. 

Weight : 20 Ibs. 

This dog generally presents a gay, lively and active appearance. He must also 
possess speed and endurance, and the symmetry of an English Foxhound. He must 
on no account be leggy, and like a well built hunter cover plenty of ground without 
being long in the body. The skull is flat and moderately narrow, ears V-shaped and 
small, dropping forward close to the cheek, jaws strong and muscular. Eyes dark 
in color, small, full of fire and intelligence, neck clean and muscular without throati- 
ness, chest deep but not broad, and the back should be short, straight and strong. His 
legs viewed in any direction must be straight, well boned throughout, and short and 
straight at the pasterns. His feet should be round and compact, tail set on rather high, 
always docked, and carried gaily, but not over the back or curled, and should be well 
coated. His coat is straight, flat, smooth, hard, dense and abundant. 




This variety is identical with the smooth coated Fox Terrier, except in the matter 
of coat, which should be broken, and the harder and more wiry the texture the better. 
On no account should it look or feel woolly or silky. The coat should not be too long 
so as to give him a shaggy appearance. 



Color: Any color, but those preferred are black, red or brindles, fawn, blue and 
slates. Height: 27 in. Weight: 65 Ibs. 

The Greyhound's head should be fairly wide between the ears and of good length. 
The muzzle is long anl lean. The eyes are full, bright and penetrating, giving one the 
idea of high spirits and animation. The ears are set well back on the head, small and 
folding when at rest, but raised when in action. The neck is fairly long, arched and 
very flexible. The shoulders should be as oblique as possible. Chest wide and. deep, back- 
powerful and arched, loins strong, broad and deep, and the hind legs very muscular, 
somewhat long, the stifles strong and well bent, and very muscular thighs. The tail is 
long, fine and nicely curved. A terse description of this dog is contained in the 
following couplet : 

The head of a snake, 
The neck of a drake, 

A back like a beam, 
A side like a bream, 

The tail of a rat, 
And the foot of a cat. 


This dog is a 
greyhound in min- 
i a t u r e . The 
weights of the rac- 
ing whippet vary 
from 10 to 2'3 Ibs., 
the best running 
weights being 
about 16 Ibs., 
which is also con- 
sidered the best 
size for an ideal 
show specimen. 





Color : Pure white. Height : 18 in, Weight : 60 Ibc. 

This is a symmetrically built dog and the embodiment of agility, grace, elegance 
and determination. He is styled by some as the Gladiator of the canine race. Certainly 
he is plucky, yet generations of training have made him the easiest of dogs to control. 
The skull is flat and wide between the ears, and there should be no stop. The jaws 
are long and very powerful, eyes small, very black and of almond shape. Ears when 
not cropped should -be small and carried semi-erect. The neck is long and slightly 
arched without any loose skin. Chest wide and deep with well-sprung ribs, back short 
and muscular, tail short, set on very low down, thick at the root, and tapering to a fine 
point, and must never be carried over the back. The coat is short, close and stiff to 
the touch, with a fine gloss. 

This dog 
Height, 12 in, 

should resemble the 
Weight, 15 Ibs. 


bull terrier in every 

respect except as to size. 



Color: The head and ears, with the exception of dark markings on each side of 
skull, should be rich tan, as also should be the legs to the thighs and elbows. The 
body should be black or dark grizzle. 

Height : About 24 in. 

Weight : About 50 Ibs. 

This dog is of a fairly recent creation. He is a sensible and companionable dog, 
game to the core and a fine guard. He has a well knit frame, great bdne for his size, 
a long punishing jaw and lean head, with a keen expression and a wiry, weather 
resisting coat. His ears should be small and V-shaped. The tail is set on high and 
carried gaily, but not curled over the back. The coat is hard and wiry but not so long 
as to appear ragged. It should be straight and close. 


Color : Dark blue, 
blue and tan, liver, 
liver and tan, sandy, 
sandy and tan. 

Height: 16 in. 

Weight: 24 Ibs. 

In general appear- 
ance the Bedlington is 
a lightly built, lathy 
dog, but not shelly. 
The skull is narrow, 
deep and rounded, 
high at the occiput, 
covered with a nice 
silky tuft or topknot. 
His muzzle must be 
long and tapering. 
The eyes are small, 
placed obliquely, 

and close together, and in shade should follow the color of the dog. The 
ears are moderately large, placed low, thinly covered and tipped with fine silky hair, 
and filbert shaped. The neck is long and chest deep, though not wide. The back 
should be slightly arched, and the body well ribbed up. The tail is thick at the root 
and scimitar shaped. The coat is a mixture of hard and soft hair, of the stand-off 
variety, and crisp to the touch. 



Color : Jet black and rich mahogany tan. The position of the tan markings is 
important. The muzzle should be tanned to the nose. A bright spo<t on each cheek and 
above each eye and the under-jaw and throat are tanned with a distinct black V mark 
immediately under the jaw. The fore legs should be tanned up to the knee, with black 
lines up each toe, and a black "thumb" mark above the foot. The insides of the hind 
legs tanned, but divided with black at the hock joint. The under part of the tail is also 
tanned, and there should be a light tan mark at each side of the chest. Tan outside of 
hind legs, commonly called "breeching," is a serious defect, and in all cases the black 
should not run into the tan, or vice versa. The two colors should be well defined. 

Height: 17 in. 

Weight : 20 Ibs. 

This is a good boned dog with the appearance of speed and activity rather than 
of strength, and he should be free of any approach to the whippet type. Head should be 
long, flat and narrow at skull, level and wedge-shaped, and well filled up before the 
eyes, which should be small, brilliant and dark. The ears if cropped should be carried 
erect. Chest narrow and deep, body moderately short with well sprung ribs. The 
tail is rather short and should not be carried higher than the back, and the coat is 
close, smooth, short and glossy. 

In the opinion of many the ban of the English Kennel Club, which now prohibits 
the cropping of dogs' ears, has seriously impaired the popularity of this breed, as it is 
claimed that drop ears, no matter how small and neatly they may be carried, compare 
unfavorably with the smart appearance conveyed by neatly cropped ears. None the 
less a tremendous amount of suffering unquestionably has been prevented as a result of 
the English Kennel Club's ruling, and all good sportsmen will endorse its decision. 


This dog should resemble his larger brother in every respect except that he should 
be under ten inches in height and under six pounds in weight. 



Color : Apricot or silver fawn or dark fawn brindle. In any case the muzzle, ears 
and nose should be black, with black shadings around the orbits extending upwards be- 
tween them. 

Height: 28 in. 

Weight: 170 Ibs. 

This is a large, massive, powerful dog, with symmetrical and well knit frame, a 
combination of grandeur, good nature, courage and docility. The head offers a square 
appearance when viewed from any point. Great depth is much desired. The skull is 
broad between the ears, with muscles on the temples and cheeks well developed. There 
should be a depression up the center of the forehead. The muzzle is short, blunt and 
square. The eyes are small, wide apart, with stop between the eyes well marked, and 
of a hazel-brown color, showing no haw. The ears are small, thin, set on high any lay 
Mat to the cheeks. The chest is wide and deep and the back wide and muscular with 
great depth of flanks. His tail is thick at the root and hangs straight in repose. The 
ccat is short and close laying. 

TJbe Mastiff is one of the very oldest breeds known to the British Isles. The 
Assyrian kings possessed a large dog of decided Mastiff type and used it for lion 
hunting. Credible authorities point to a similarity, also, between the Mastiff and the 
fierce Molorsian of the ancient Greeks, and it is claimed by many students that the 
breed was introduced into Britain in the sixth century B. C. by adventurous Phoenician 


Color : Pure white. 

This terrier should resemble the Manchester terrier illustrated on previous page 
in every respect excepting in regard to color, which should be a pure white. 



Color : Any shade of gray, grizzle or blue with or without white markings. 

Height : 24 in. 

Weight: 65 Ibs. 

This is a strong, compact dog, profusely coated, with a characteristic ambling when 
trotting, and owns a thick-set, muscular short body, liberal bone, and a most intelligent 
expression. The skull is capacious, squarely formed, and well covered with hair. The 
eyes vary in color according to the shade of the dog. A "wall" or "China" eye is 
considered typical. The small ears are carried flat to the side of his head. Many are 
bred tailless, if otherwise they are docked close. The coat is profuse, of good hard 
texture, not straight, but shaggy, yet free from curl. He should have plenty of 

This breed is also of very early origin and has been bred in England for some 
hundreds of years. He is probably a relic of the early pastoral days when the wolf 
inhabited the British Isles, from which the flocks and herds had to be protected. Some 
authorities claim, however, that he is a descendant of the Russian Owtchar. 


This Toy Terrier should resemble the white English Terrier mentioned on. previous 
page in every respect except as regards size, which should be under ten inches high and 
under 6 Ibs. weight. 



Color : Grizzle and tan, blue and tan, yellow or red. 

Height : 26 in. 

Weight : 90 Ibs. 

The Rough-Coated Otterhound's head should be large, but not showing quite the 
peak of the bloodhound, long with strong and powerful jaws, the whole appearance being 
sedate and intelligent. The eye should be dark, the haw sometimes showing, but this 
is not a defect of the breed. His long and pendulous ears are set on close to the head 
and covered with hair short and fine in texture. The coat is hard, crisp, and not too 
long, having also a close, woolly, water-resisting undercoat. 


Color: On the head a beautiful golden tan, 
much darker on the ears. The back and tail 
should be dark blue inclining to silver, the lat- 
ter color extending over the other portions of 
the body, excepting the legs, which should be a 
golden tan. 

There are two classes for weight, under 5 
Ibs., and over 5 Ibs. but not exceeding 12 Ibs. 

This is a long coated pet dog, the coat hang- 
ing quite straight and evenly down each side 
with a parting extending from the nose to the 
end of the tail. His general appearance is one 
of compactness and neatness, with a sprightly 
and important bearing. The head is rather 
small and should be fiat. The hair should be very long on his muzzle and chin, of a 
rich tan shade, and on no account intermingled with dark or sooty hair. The ears 
when cropped are carried quite erect ; when not cropped, semi-erect. His body is very 
compact, and level on back. The tail is cut to' a medium length and should be well 
covered with dark blue hair, especially at the end. The coat should be as long as 
possible, straight and glossy as silk, and not wavy or woolly. 



Weight: Not exceeding 10 Ibs. 

The color of this dog varies with his breed, there being four varieties : A. The 
King Charles; B. Tri-color, or Prince Charles; C. Ruby; D. Blenheim. 

The King Charles is a rich glossy black, with deep tan spots over the eyes and on 
the cheeks. 

The Tri-color or Prince Charles should have the tan of the King Charles with 
markings like the Blenheim in black instead of red, on a pearly white ground, the ears 
and under the tail should be lined with tan, and he has no "spot." 

The Ruby is a rich chestnut red and a few white hairs intermixed on his chest 
carries great weight against him, as they do on the chest of the King Charles. 

The Blenheim must on no account be whole colored, but should have a ground of 
pure pearly white, with bright, rich chestnut or Ruby markings, evenly distributed in 
large patches, and should have a spot on the forehead. 

Strictly speaking this breed might, with some justice, be classed with the Spanish 
breeds, as unquestionably the King Charles Spaniel originally hailed from that country, 
but since the early part of the seventeenth century certain families of the English 
nobility have affected him and it is equally true to assign the production of the other 
three varieties to their influence and breeding operations. 

The King Charles's compactness of shape almost rivals that of the Pug. He has 
a broad back and wide chest. The head is well domed, and in good specimens is semi- 
globular, and the skull should project over the eyes, so as to nearly meet the upturned 
nose. The eyes are se. wide apart, are large and dark, with enormous pupils. The 
stop is well marked, some good specimens exhibiting a hollow. The nose is short 
and well turned up and should be both deep and wide with open nostrils. The ears 
must be long so as to almost touch the ground, are set low on the head, and be heavily 
feathered. The coat is long, silky, soft and wavy, but not curly. In the Blenheim 
there should be a profuse mane. The feathering should be well displayed on the ears 
and feet, and on the King Charles the feathering is very long and profuse. The 
feathering on the tail (which is cut to the length of three or four inches) should be 
silky, forming a marked "flag" of a square shape, and must not be carried above the 
level of the back. 


Irish Breeds 





Color : Gray, red, black, pure white, fawn and brindle. 

Height: 35 in. 

Weight: ISOlbs, 

This dog though not as heavy and massive as the Great Dane is more so than the 
Deerhound. He has a commanding appearance and is very muscular, strongly though 
gracefully built, with movements easy and active. The head is long, skull not too broad, 
and muzzle moderately pointed. Eyes dark in color, ears small and of the greyhound 
type, neck very strong, muscular and well arched, w 7 kh a long back and muscular thighs. 
The tail is long and slightly curved and well covered with hair. Coat should be rough 
and hard on the body, legs and head, and especially long and wiry over the eyes and 
under the jaw. 

This breed is undoubtedly of great antiquity and was freely bred and used hundreds 
of years ago in Ireland for the hunting of wolves. When wolves became extinct the 
breeding of Irish Wolfhounds came to its lowest ebb, but during the last twenty years 
great strides have been made to resuscitate, and it is now one of the most popular of 
the large varieties on the show bench. 



Color : Whole colored 
bright red, red, wheaten 
or yellow red. A little 
white is permissible on 
chest and feet, but is not 

Height: 18 in. 

Weight: 24 Ibs. 

The outstanding feat- 
ure of this dog is a style 
of physiognomy and ex- 
pression peculiarly his 
own. The head is a 
little longer than the fox 
terrier's, his eyes hazel 
rather than very dark, 
and so set as to give 
him the sort of dare- 
devil expression for 
which he is so famous. 
The ears are small and 
V-shaped and drop for- 
ward close to the cheeek. 
The back should be 
strong, with loins broad 

___^__ ar "d powerful. The stern 

is generally docked, 

should be well covered with rough hair but free from feathering. The coat is hard, 
wiry, straight and flat. 


Color : Black and tan, blue mottled and tan, black tan and white, tan and white. 

Height : 22 in. 

Weight: 45 Ibs. 

A well built and muscular dog. Head of moderate length, broad in skull, slightly 
arched from eyes to point of nose, with long round muzzle. The eyes are large, bright 
and intelligent, varying in color from bright yellow to a deep brown. Ears large, 
pendulous, falling below the neck and set on low. Chest deep but not -broad. Back 
strong, moderate in length and muscular. The stern is long and evenly furnished with 
hair, thick at the root and carried curved upwards. The coat is hard, close and smooth. 



In the leading essentials, this dog is similar to its English brother, the main differ- 
ence between the two is that the head of the Irish dog is not quite so long in propor- 
tion and the occipital bone not so well developed. His eyes, too, are lighter, and show 
less haw, and his expression, like that of the Irish Water Spaniel and the Irish Terrier, 
is different to any English variety. In fact it is a characteristic purely Irish expression. 


Color: A pure 
deep liver with- 
out any white. 

Height: 23 

Weight : 6 

This i s a 
highly intelli- 
gent dog with 
a rare combin- 
ation of power 
and activity. 
The skull i s 
capacious with 
forehead prom- 
inent. Ears are 
set on low, are 
long and well 
feathered. The 
neck muscular, 
body well rib- 


bed, chest deep and broad. The stern is thick at 
fine point, and is carried quite stiff and straight, 
smooth hair, and present a whip-like appearance. 

composed of small crisp ringlets, on the head is a pronounced top-knot of long ring- 
lets. The mask is perfectly smooth. 

the root, is short and tapers to a 
It should be covered with short, 
The coat is oily and on the body 

Scottish Breeds 

SKYE TERRIER (prick-eared) 
SKYE TERRIER (drop-eared) 



Color : Dark o r 
light blue or gray, 
or fawn with black 
points. Ears much 
darker than the body. 
Height : 9 in. 
Weight : 18 Ibs. 
This is a dog of 
long and low struc- 
ture. The skull is 
wide at front of brow, 
narrows between the 
ears and tapers grad- 
ually toward the muz- 
zle. The eyes should 
be hazel color and set 

close together. Ears 

small, carried nearly 

erect, and the neck long. The back should be level and slightly declining from hip to 
shoulders, and should be very long and low. The tail should hang perpendicular with 
a slight backward curl at the" end. This dog's coat should be long, hard, straight and 
flat, with a short, dense woolly undercoat. The hair on the head is shorter and softer 
than on the rest of the bodv, and should veil the forehead and eyes. 

SKYE TERRIER (Drop-eared) 

The drop-eared Skye Terrier is identical with his prick-eared brother in every 
respect, except that the ears are a little larger, should hang straight down, lying flat 
at the side of the head, and incline a little towards the front. 






Color: Pure 

Height: 12 in. 

Weight: 17 


In general appearance this dog is a small, game, hardy-looking terrier, with a 
varminty appearance, strongly built, with straight back on muscular legs. The 
coat should be about two and one-half inches long, of a hard texture, with plenty 
of undercoat, and no tendency to wave or curl. The tail should be straight, car- 
ried not too gaily, covered with hard hair, but not bushy. The ears are small and 
as pointed as possible, and carried absolutely erect. Eyes of moderate size, dark 
hazel in color, widely placed, with a sharp, bright, intelligent expression. The 
muzzle should be long and powerful. 


Color: Steel 
or Iron-gray, 
Black - brin- 
dle. Brown- 
brindle, Griz- 
zled. Black, 
Sandy a n d 
Wh eaten. 
(White mark- 
ings are ob- 
Height: 12 in. 
Weight : 20 Ibs. 

In general appearance this dog should appear to be higher on the leg than he 
really is. He should look compact be possessed of great muscle in the hind 
quarters, and be powerfully put together throughout. He should own a sharp, 
bright, and active expression, and head should be carried well up. Skull should 
be long, slightly domed, very powerful muzzle and very little stop. Eyes of dark 
hazel color, set wide apart, small, piercing and very bright. Ears small and 
erect, and sharp pointed, and covered with a velvety hair. The neck is short, thick 
and muscular. Chest broad, body sho,rt and well ribbed up, and exceedingly 
strong in hind quarters. The tail is never docked and should be carried gaily. 
The coat is about two inches long on the body, dense, hard and wiry in texture. 



Color: Dark blue-gray, brindles, yellow and sandy, red or red-fawn, especially if 
with black points. White is objectionable. Height: 30 in. Weight: 100 Ibs. 

In general form the deerhound should be like a greyhound, but heavier and wiry 
coated. The head is long and the muzzle tapers decidedly toward the nose. The skull 
should be flat with no stop. The eyes are dark brown or hazel, and convey a soft look 
in repose, but a keen far-away expression when the dog is aroused. The ears are set 
on high and should fall back. A prick ear is bad, and a thick ear hanging flat to the 
head or heavily coated is an even worse fault. The neck is fairly long and very strong, 
and should carry sufficient coat to form a mane. The chest is deep rather than broad, 
and the tail is fairly long and carried straight down or curved when in repose. The 
coat on the body, neck and quarters should be harsh and wiry, and about three or four 
inches long. The Deerhound should be a shaggy dog. A woolly coat is bad. 


This variety is of recent 
origin, the questionable inten- 
tion being to evolve a toy 
collie. The weights aimed at 
are from 7 to 10 Ibs., and the 
colors and conformation 
throughout should follow the 
collie as nearly as possible. 
Considerable strides have al- 
ready been made 'in this direc- 
tion, though the author does 
not -regard the nature and dis- 
position of a collie as suitable 
for lap-dog purposes. 



Color : Pepper or mustard. The peppers range from a dark bluish-black to a light 
silvery-gray. The mustards vary from a reddish-brown to a pale fawn, the head being 
a creamy-white. 

Height : 10 in. Weight : 18 Ibs. 

This is a terrier of considerable antiquity. He is very game and a dog of excep- 
tional power and pluck, yet endowed with an abundance of common sense and docility. 
He should be round in skull, full in eye, which should be a rich dark hazel. This 
dog should be strong in jaw, with short, stout legs,~and long weasel-shaped body, 
with a -soft linty coat and top-knot. A point strongly demanded is the size 'and\ 
carriage of his ears, which should be almond-shaped, set on low, smooth coated, with 
edges fringed with longer hair, and lay very close to the head. 


Color: The most appreciated colors are rich red-brindle and silver-gray brindle. 
Black mask and muzzle very desirable. 

Height: , 10 in. Weight: About 12 Ibs. 

This smart terrier is today one of the most popular of all the terrier varieties. 
The head is fairly capacious for his size, ears are small and carried erect, eye small, 
dark and of the peculiar keen "cairn" expression not found in any other breed.; well 
sprung in ribs, abundance of bone and straight fore legs. The coat should be harsh 
and as dense as possible. 



Color: Red and 
black, with rich 
dark mahogany 
markings. The 
tan should appear 
on lips, cheeks, 
throat, spots over 
the eyes, under- 
side of ears, front 
of chest, and the 
lower part of both 
fore and hind 

Height: 25 in. 
Weight : 70 Ibs. 
In general ap- 
pearance this is a 
well built and ele- 
gant dog, heavier 
than the English 

setter. His head too is much heavier in construction. The occiput is well developed, 
eyes lustrous, intelligent and full, ears set on low and close to the upper neck. Neck 
should be fairly long and not throaty, tail rather short and scimitar-like and nicely 
feathered. The coat is straight or slightly waved, not curly and not so fine as that of 
the English Setter. 


The points of the Highland or Bearded Collie are identical with the Old English 
Sheep clog except that'lie has a tail of moderate length and which is carried low. 

He is famous as a worker of sheep and cattle and is endowed with great intelli- 
gence and highly prized in both the highlands -and lowlands of Scotland, equally for 
his companionship and faithful service as a guard to either homestead or flock. 


Welsh Breeds 




Color : Black and tan or black-grizzle and tan, free from black penciling on toes. 

Height: 15 in. Weight: 20 Ibs. 

This is a well-built, game, plucky terrier, with a smart and active appearance. The 
skull is flat, fairly wide between the ears, and with a fairly strong muzzle. The eyes 
are of a dark hazel color, are small and indicate abundant pluck. Ears are V-shaped, 
small, set on fairly high and carried forward close to the cheek. Back should be short 
and well ribbed, and the hind-quarters strong and the thighs muscular. The tail is set 
on high and should not be carried too gaily. The coat is wiry, hard, very close and 
abundant. White patches should disqualify. 


Color :White with 
or brown patches, 

such are not desirable. 

Height: 10 in. 

Weight : 16 Ibs. 

This dog was formerly 
known a,s the Border or 
Cowley terrier, and has 
within recent years be- 
come very popular on ac- 
count of his workman- 
like terrier qualifications. . 
He should possess a long 
head with punishing jaw, 
and be endowed with 
abundant whiskers. His 
ears are carried like the 
fox terrier's, eye small 
and dark, well sprung 
ribs, body fairly long, im- 
mense bone for his size, short on the leg and hard weather-resisting coat. 



Color : Red or 
orange and white. 

Weig-ht : Not more 
than 42 Ibs. 

As a worker this dog has no superior. He owns a well balanced head, grand spring 
of rib, and powerful hind quarters. He may best be described as a large Cocker 
Spaniel. His eyes should be hazel or dark brown and should not show any haw. The 
ears are comparatively small and hang close to the cheeks. His coat is straight or flat 
and thick. 

The Welsh Springer has been bred and preserved in its purity for hundreds of 
years. As a worker he has no superior, no day being too long and no covert too diffi- 
cult for the endurance and pluck of the gay Cambrian Springer. 


Color : Grizzle-red with white patches and with white markings like the English 
Foxhound, Harrier and Beagle. 

Height : 24 in. 

Weight : 75 Ibs. 

A symmetrically built dog on racy lines. His head is of good length, domed in 
skull and rather long muzzle. The eyes are small, brown and intelligent in expression. 
The ears are often rounded and lay close to the head. Neck long, clean and muscular 
without dewlap. Back strong and broad, deep in the chest and very muscular in thighs 
and hind-quarters. Tail should be carried gaily, thick at the root and well furnished 
with hard hair. The coat is hard, wiry, crisp and water resisting. 


British Colonial Breeds 

BANJARA (India) 
BARB (Australia) 



NEWFOUNDLAND, Black (Newfound- 

NEWFOUNDLAND, other than Black 

HUSKIE (Canada) 

LABRADOR (Canada) 


Color : Self-colored black and the different shades of fawn and dirty white. 

Height: 29 in. 

Weight: 70 Ibs. 

A big dog built on delicate and elegant lines. The head is tine, lean and bony. 
Skull long and slightly domed. Eyes mild, intelligent and dark brown, like the 
gazelle. Ears are long, hang close to the head and are abundantly coated. The neck 
is long, chest deep, back straight, long and strong, and tail is of fair length. The coat 
is smooth and very soft and the ears and tail are covered with long, wavy, silky hair. 



Color : Black, dark 
grizzle, slate, sandy, 
or mixture of these 
colors with white. 
Height: About 11 in. 
Weight : About 14 

The head is distinctly 
terrier-liKe, with, nar- 
row skull, w r hich falls 
away in a marked de- 
gree behind the eyes. 
The eyes are dark 
brown in color. Ears 
set on low and carried 
close to the cheeks. 

Body not too short, and well ribbed up. The legs are short, with a tendency to crook- 
edness. The tail is carried over the back. A low carriage is considered a sign of im- 
pure blood. The coat is of good length, straight and very dense with a strong growth 
on the skull, and the legs should be well coated right down to the toes. 


Color: Black and tan, red with black saddle, mahogany red, or all black. White 
is sometimes seen on the chest and toes. 

Height : Not less than 30 in. Weight : Not less than 160 Ibs. 

This is a large, powerful and noble-looting animal, in aspect courageous, grim and 
earnest. The skull is broad and arched, with prominent occiput. His small eyes are 
dark brown in color, and often show the haw. The deep wrinkles around the eyes 
give him a sullen, savage look. Ears set on high, hang straight down, and not too long. 
His neck is short and powerful, the hair on it standing up like a mane. The tail is 
short, bushy and usually carried over the back, and his coat is soft, thick, long and 
straight, with a woolly undercoat. 



Color: Mouse-gray. Height: 30 in. Weight: 75 Ibs. 

This is a powerfully-built greyhound, with a long, strong skull, flat between the 
ears, without any stop and has powerful jaws. His light yellow eyes give him a hard 
and cruel expression. His ears are fairly large and are Filbert-shaped. The body 
is somewhat coarse, of fair length. Chest very deep and back slightly arched. When 
in action the tail is carried horizontally and the end slightly curled upwards. His 
coat is like that of a freshly clipped horse, if longer is a sign of impure blood. 


Color: Self-colored, sandy, light 
fawn, and the various shades of gray. 
Without white if possible, but a little 
white on chest and toes does not dis- 

Height: 25 in. 

Weight: 45 Ibs. 

This dog is indigenous to the North 
of India, is as hard as nails in con- 
stitution, somewhat rough and rugged 
in outlook, but a well-built, sym- 
metrical dog, possessed of consider- 
able speed. His expression should be 
very' keen and wicked, especially 
when roused. Head is long and flat, 
well filled up before the eyes, with a 
strong punishing jaw. The ears lay flat on the cheeks and are filbert shaped. His small 
eye is close set, and the color varies to the shade of the dog's coat._ The body is moder- 
ately long and falls away a good deal to the set-on of the tail, which also is set on low 
and carried with an upward sweep. His coat is very thick and dense and close lying, 
soft to the touch but not silky. 


(The Australian Sheep Dog, often 
called the Kelpie) 

Color: All black. 

Height : 24 in. 

Weight : 54 Ibs. 

A well-built, medium-sized dog 
with a head like the Pomeranian or 
Schipperke. His almond-shaped, dark 
eyes convey an intelligent expression. 
The ears are pricked, neck long and 
well arched, back straight, chest deep 
but not too wide, and well developed 
loins. The tail is of medium length 
and carried rather high, and his coat 
is of fair length, straight and harsh. 

This dog is extensively used by 
Australian and New Zealand shep- 
herds in the work-a-day life on their 
sheep ran/hes. His intelligence and 
adaptability as a working sheep dog 
is said to be even more pronounced 
than the best English, Welsh or 
Scotch exponents. Furthermore, he 
has been bred in some quarters so 
that he cannot bark. 


Color: Blue or gray body, tan on legs orxface, with a top-knot of blue or silver. 
Clear sandy or deep red. 

Height: 10 in. 

Weight: 15 Ibs. 

This is a rather low set dog, compact and active. The head is long, full between 
the eyes with a top-knot of soft hair. Eyes small, keen and of dark color. Ears small, 
set high on skull, free from long hairs, and may be either cropped or uncropped. The 
tail is docked. The coat should be straight and of wiry texture. 



Color : All colors. Black not desirable. 

Height: 29 in. 

Weight: 66 Ibs. 

In general appearance he resembles the English Greyhound, but is heavier built. 
The skull is broader between the ears and more domed and the ears are not set so 
high as those of the English dog. His eyes are brown and intelligent. Neck slender, 
muscular and slightly arched. Back long and strong, with short, arched and muscular 
loins, and his hindquarters are well developed and very muscular. The tail is long 
and fine and carried downwards and his coat is smooth and fine, though sometimes 
coarser on the body. 


Color : Pure white, without 

Height : From 8 to 12 in. 

Weight : Under 12 Ibs. ; 

This is a bright, spritely, acUv "j taking character. His head is much 

like that of a drop-eared Skye Terrier in miniature/, but rather shorter and thicker in 
muzzle. The ears are moderately long and are covered with long, silky hair, and his 
eyes are very dark and piercing. He is short andycobby in back, and legginess should 
be avoided. The tail is short, well feathered, particularly towards the end, and carried 
gracefully over the back. 



Color: -A. Jet black with a slight tinge of brown or a splash of white on chest and 
toes is not objectionable. B. Black and white, or white and black. Beauty in markings 
is of great consideration. C. Self-colored bronze. 

Height : 27 in. or more. 

Weight : 100 Ibs. or more. 

This dog should impress the eye with strength and great activity. He is a free 
mover for his size and should be sound on his legs. The head is broad, massive, flat, 
with the occiput well developed. There is no decided stop and the muzzle should be 
short and rather square in shape. The eyes are small, dark brown, showing no haw, 
and set widely apart. Small ears set well back and covered with short hair without 
fringe. He should be massive in bone, well ribbed up in body, with broad back and 
strong loins and hind quarters. Dew claws are objectionable. The tail is of moderate 
length and should be well covered with long hair, carried downwards when in repose. 
Tails with a kink in them or curled over the back are very objectionable. 

legs or 

NEWFOUNDLAND (Black and white) 

The Huskie Sledge Dogs of Northern Canada 

The Huskie is a strong, powerfully built dog, varying in size and color, but uniform 
as to his great bone, stamina and dense coat. He is extensively used for all manner of 
draught work in which service he has made himself indispensable to mankind in the 
northern latitudes. See special chapter on Alaskan dogs. 




Color : Black. 

Height : 26 in. 

Weight : 8 

The Labrador 
is of medium 
size, strong and 
well built, head 
strong and 
rather long 
with wide, rath- 
er flat skull 
with a slight 
ridge running 
down it. The 
eyes should be 
oval in shape, 
dark brown in 
color and o f 
gentle and i n - 

telligent expres- , 

sion. Being a hard working dog the body should be rather long and v|/ll ribbed up, and 
deep in the brisket. He should carry his thick and bushy tail rather high but not on the 
back, his coat should be very profuse, and of moderate length, lying close to the body 
and very oily. 


French Breeds 













Color. All white, sometimes with small orange patches on the ears. 

Height: 30 in. Weight: 155 Ibs. 

This is a h ^e, well-built dog, with a rather weak head in comparison to his body. 
The skull is sli & !itly rounded, and the muzzle should not be too square. The small 
eyes should be brown and set obliquely in the head. Ears of medium size, hanging 
close to the head. The tail is long, well feathered and carried low, and his coat is long, 
straight, dense, and fitting close to the body. 



Color: Dirty black, 
slate, grizzle and red- 

Height : 25 in. 

Weight: 65 Ibs. 

This is a well-built 
dog of medium size, 
with a busy and in- 
telligent appearance. 
and is well covered 
with a shaggy coat. 
The head is strong 
and covered with long 
hair, forming eye- 
brows, beard a n d 
whiskers, yet the eye 
is not hidden by the 
hair. The eyes are 
brown and very ex- 
pressive, ears short, 
erect and never pen- 
dulous and often 

cut. Body is well-built for endurance. The tail is never docked, of medium length 
and carried low, and his coat is long and woolly. 


Color : Grizzle black, creamy brown, dirty white, white and chestnut, and white 
and black. 

Height: 22 in. 

Weight: 56 Ibs. 

The Barbet is a strongly made dog, very compactly built. Ts round and broad 
in skull with forehead well developed. Muzzle broad and short, well furnished with 
long moustaches. The eyes are round, lively and intelligent and dark brown in color, 
and are entirely hidden "by the long and thick hair on the eyebrows. The ears are 
set on low, are long and flat and well covered with long, curly hair, which often 
forms cords or ringlets. The body is strongly built, ribs and loins well _ rounded and 
muscular. The forelegs are straight with plenty of bone and covered with long hair. 
The tail is set on low, carried slightly upwards. The Barbet's coat is long, woolly and 
curly, forming cords or ringlets. 



Color : Black with white and tan, the head, shoulders and quarters a rich tan, and 
black patches on the back. They are sometimes hare-pied. 

Height: 13 in, 

Weight: 50 Ibs. 

The head is most perfect when it closely resembles that of a bloodhound. It is 
long and narrow with heavy flues, prominent occiput, and forehead wrinkled to the 
eyes. The general appearance of the head should indicate high breeding and -a 
reproachful dignity. The eyes show a kind expression and no haw is visible. Ears 
very long, so long that in hunting they will often actually tread on them, set on low, 
and hang loose in folds like drapery. Their texture is thin and velvety. Forelegs 
only about four inches long. Stern is carried hound fashion, coat short, fine, smooth 
and glossy. Skin is loose and elastic. 


Color: Any recognized hound color. 

Height : 13 in. 

Weight: 50 Ibs. 

A very powerful hound for its size, on short and strong legs. The head is large, 
skull long and narrow and peak well developed. A snipy or weak jaw is objectionable. 
The eyes are dark with a kindly and intelligent expression. Ears set on low, of good 
length and fine in texture. Chest large and very deep. Body massive, of good length, 
any weakness or lightness of loin being a bad fault. Forelegs are short and very 
powerful. Stern of moderate length and carried gaily. The coat is profuse, thick and 
harsh to the touch, with a dense undercoat, and may be wavy. 



Color : Tawny-red with white markings. 

Height: 12 in. 

Weight: 56 Ibs. 

This is a coarse looking dog with long body and short, heavy neck. The head is 
long with high domed skull. Stop slightly developed and long muzzle. The eyes are 
dark in color, ears long, rounded at the tips and slightly folded. Stern of medium 
length and carried upwards. The coat is wiry and broken, of fair length, softer on the 
skull and ears. 


Color : Black and tan, hare color or tawny red. 

Height: 15 in. 

Weight: 55 Ibs. 

This is a typical hound, a bloodhound in miniature. The head is large but not 
broad, skull high and narrow, occipital bone well developed, with pendulous lips. Eyes 
brown, with eye lids loose and pendulous. The ears are long, fine and hanging for- 
ward close to the jaws. Body is heavy and massive and the back long, broad and 
deep. The stern is carried hound-like. The coat is short, hard on the body, but 
softer on the ears and skull. 



Color : White with red patches or tri-color. 

Height: 15 in. 

Weight: 56 Ibs. 

This is a dog of strong and muscular shape, with a long, lean, slightly rounded 
head. The eyes are dark brown with an intelligent outlook and somewhat hidden by 
the strong eyebrows. The- ears are soft, flat and covered with white hair. Body long 
and low, and deep in chest. The stern, is short, set on high and carried very gaily. 
The coat is hard but of rather fine texture. 


Color : Tri-color, so-called trout color, blue-mottled, white with black and light 
tan spots above the eyes. 

Height: 14 in. 

Weight: 56 Ibs. 

This is a strong and massive dog, with a long, well developed head, skull high and 
narrow, prominent occiput and lips not too pendulous. The eyes are dark brown, 
ears very long and folded. He is long in body, with broad and deep chest. The stern 
is fine, set on low, and carried upwards, and his coat is short and dense. 



The stern is generally docked ; in all other respects similar to the English Pointer. 


Color Pure white with small or large dull brown markings. 

Height: 27 in. Weight: 50 Ibs. 

The Dupuy Pointer is a big upstanding dog with considerable elegance in his 
movements. The head is narrow and long. Occipital bone prominent, muzzle long, 
lean and slightly arched. Eyes golden brown in color with a rather melancholy expres- 
sion. Nose well developed and broad and brown in color. Lips fine, thin and very 
tight Ears set on rather high, very fine in texture, not too long, and folded back- 
wards. The neck is long and gracefully arched. Chest deep and narrow. ? Hindquar- 
ters strong and muscular. Stern long, set low and carried like a greyhound's tail. 



Color : White with light brown or lemon spots. 

Height: 26 in. 

Weight: 701bs. 

This dog is elegant in build and well developed. The skull should be rather nar- 
row with the occipital bone well defined. Muzzle long with a slight stop. Lips thin 
and pendulous. Ears very thin, long and set on low. Neck long, graceful, strong and 
free from dewlaps. Chest broad and deep, long in the back and loins. Hindquarters 
muscular and well developed. The tail is long, set on rather low, and generally docked. 


Color : White 
wiith large lemon 
markings, not 

Height: 27 in. 
Weight: 60 Ibs. 
In general ap- 
pearance he .is a 
clever looking, 
graceful dog, sym- 
metrical in shape 
and standing 
rather high on the 
leg. The occipital 
bone should b e 
v/ e 1 1 developed. 

Skull rather broad. Stop well denned, and the muzzle long and straight. Eyes golden 
or yellow in color. Ears set on high, shorter than the ears of the French Pointer, 
but longer than the ears of the English Pointer. The neck is strong and well arched ; 
chest deep and broad. Hindquarters muscular and fully developed. Tail thick at the 
root, carried straight or with a little curve but no curl at the tip. 





Color: White 
with light chest- 
nut spots, and no 
large markings. 

Height: 24 in. 

Weight: 70 Ibs. 

This dog is rath- 
er lighter in bone 
than the English 
and French 
varieties, is short- 
er and more com- 
pact in build, and 
more of the ap- 
pearance of a cob. 
The head should 
be long, straight 
and rather broad; 
eyes large, dark 
amber in color, 
and with an intelli- 
gent expression. Ears fine and not too long, set on rather low and hanging in folds. 
Neck strong, short and muscular. Chest deep and broad. Hindquarters short, round 
and muscular. Stern set on rather low, and not more than 3 inches in length. 


Color : White with black markings and tickings, giving a blue effect. Head always 
black with a white blaze up the face. 

Height : 25 in. 

Weight: 53 Ibs. 

In general appearance this dog is of perfect proportions suitable for hard w r ork. 
The occipital bone should be well defined. Skull broad with a pronounced dip below 
the eyes. Muzzle straight and cheek bones well developed. The eyes should be dark 
brown in color. Lips very pendulous. Ears long and fine in texture, hanging in folds 
and should be set on level with the eyes and not carried too closely to the head. Neck 
strong, slightly arched and throaty. Hindquarters and legs similar to other varieties 
of the Pointer. Stern strong at the root and generally docked and set on low. 



Color : White 
with chestnut 

Height: 25 in. 
Weight: 56 Ibs. 
The French Set- 
ter is a strong, 
shapely dog of an 
imposing appear- 
ance. The head is 
strong and well 
developed. Skull 
round, broad and 
long with the oc- 
cipital bone well 
defined and the 
stop nicely chisel- 
led. The eyes 
should be rather 
small, dark am- 
ber in color, and of open expression. His chest should be very deep and broad 
with long and rather flat ribs. The stern set on high, rather long and be carried in 
two curves; the first convex and the second concave, with a nice fringe of long, wavy, 
silky hair. His coat should be thick and not bright, smooth on the head and flat on 
the body with- a fair amount on the belly, chest and throat and the ears and legs well 


This is a variety of the French Setter and is sometimes called the black Setter 
of the North. The points are the same, except that in color he should be brown and 
grizzle, black or black and tan. 




Color : Brown 
and grizzle, brown 
and white, or self- 
colored brown. A 
black or black and 
white coat is ob- 
Height: 22 in. 
Weight: 56 Ibs. 
This dog should 
be of a short, 
thick-set build 
with a cobby ap- 
pearance. The 
skull should b e 
round with promi- 
nent occipital 
bone, forehead ris- 
ing well toward 
the top knot or 

crest. Eyes dark amber with a good and frank expression. Nose brown and 
nostrils well open. The ears should be set on rather low, hanging close to the neck 
and should be very long and well furnished with long, crisp hair. The chest is deep 
and broad, back and loins strong and muscular; back slightly convex, strong and short. 
The stern should be strong in bone at the root,. carried rather straight and is generally 
docked. The coat should be crisp on the ears and top knot, which should stand 
upright, and rather thick and curly on the body. The hair on mask should be smooth. 



Color : Chestnut, dead leaf color with or without white, never with black or 
yellow. Height : 23 in. Weight : 56 Ibs. 

A rather coarse-looking dog, but with a sharp appearance and his expression is 
mild and intelligent. Has broad and round skull, long, broad and square muzzle, with 
heavy moustaches. The "stop" well defined but accentuated by strong eyebrows, give 
him a rather savage aspect. The eyes, however, are intelligent and affable, of yellow 
color. The nose is light color or brown with nostrils well open. The chest is broad 
and deep and the ribs well arched. The forelegs are strong and muscular, covered 
with abundance of long hair. The straight tail is of medium length, well covered with 
hair but no feathering. His coat is of a nondescript character, fairly long, and silky 
without brilliancy and smooth or wavy, but is never curly. 


Color: White with 
orange or yellow 

Height: 23 in. 

Weight: 56 Ibs. 

This is a medium- 
sized dog, short in 
the body and com- 
pactly built. He has 
a big head for his 
size and the eyes are 
rather large and light 
brown in color. The 
nose is always brown 
with nostrils well 
open. Chest broad 
and back strong and 
well developed. The 
legs are straight and 
muscular, rather on 

the long side and well covered with short, wiry hair. Stern is carried straight, covered 
with wiry hair but without feathering, and a third of its length is generally docked. 
The coat is hard and wiry, rather short and not curly. 



Color. Tri-color, black and tan and brown, with or without dirty white patches 

Height: 23 in. 

Weight: 60 Ibs. 

A strongly built dog, rather long in body and not particularly attractive in appear- 
ance. The head is fairly long and rather square with slightly domed skull. Muzzle 
also of medium length and of square formation. The eyes are bright, intelligent and 
brown in color. Ears set high and well back on the head, of good size and hanging 
without folds close to the head. Back long, straight and muscular, as also are the 
loins. The legs are straight with plenty of bone and covered with hard hair. Stern 
of medium length, also" well covered with hair. The coat is semi-long, close and of a 
hard texture. 


Color : Fallow, inclined to red, sometimes discolored red. 

Height : 23 in. 

Weight: 65 Ibs. 

A heavily-built dog, very robust. The head is large and strong with flat skull, 
prominent occiput and muzzle of good length, square and strong. The ears should 
not be too long and are covered with soft hair. The neck is short and muscular and 
the chest deep, lie is endowed with plenty of bone in the leg and has splendid feet. 
The stern is of medium length, well covered with hair but not any feathering. The 
coat is semi-long, hard and wiry. 



Color : White and 
orange, white and 
wheaten, white and 
mouse-gray, and with red 
or brown patches. 

Height: 25 in. 

Weight: 65 Ibs. 

An upstanding dog of 
firm structure, covered 
with a hard and close 
coat. The head is rather 
big and typical, i j- 
nounced in occiput and 
muzzle of good length. 
The eyes are rather 
small, brown in color 
and full of life. Ears 
long, nicely folded and 

hang gracefully. He is muscular in body, deep and broad in chest with a rather long 
muscular back. The stern is of medium length, carried gaily and well covered with 
hard hair. The coat is thick, hard and wiry. 

A similar dog to the Vendeen but more nervous in temperament and not so heavily 
coated as the. Griffon de Cosse, and those marked with the red or brown patches are 
called Griffons du Grip or Griffons d'Anjou. 


Color: Almost any color, 
but black and black and tan 
will disqualify. 

Weight: Three classes are 
provided, under 20 Ibs., 20 to 
24 Ibs., and 24 to 28 Ibs. 

The French Bulldog ought 
to have the appearance of an 
active, intelligent and very 
muscular dog of cobby build 
and heavy in the bone for his 
size. The head should be large 
and square with the forehead 
nearly flat, the muscles of the 
cheek well developed but not 
prominent. "Stop" as deep as 
possible. The forehead should 
be wrinkled, and the skin of 

the head not tight. Eyes moderate in size and dark in color. "Bat" ears of medium 
size, large at the base and rounded at the tips and placed high on the head. The 
body should be short and rotund with a distinct roach and light but sound 
quarters. His shoulders should be strong and he should stand on short but fairly 
stout limbs for his size. The fundamental difference between the French Bulldog and 
the English miniature is seen in the foreface which in the French should show some 
slight protusion of the under jaw, and some turnup, but no layback. 



Color : All black, 
all white, all red, 
or all blue. 
Height: 22 in. 
Weight : 50 Ibs. 
The most popu- 
lar varieties of the 
Poodle are the 
corded and n o n - 
corded. In gen- 
eral appearance he 
presents an active 
and elegant o u t - 
line. He is a well- 
built dog and car- 
ries himself proud- 
ly. The head is 
long, straight and 
fine. The muzzle 
should be strong 
and the lips black 
and fit tightly. 
Eyes almond 
shape, very dark 

brown, and full of fire and intelligence. The ears are long and wide, set on high and 
hang close to the head. The back is strong and muscular. The tail is set on high and 
should never be curled or carried over the back. In the corded variety the white 
Poodle should have dark eyes, black or dark liver nose, lips and toe nails. The red 
Poodle should have dark amber eyes, with dark liver jiose, lips and toe nails. The 
blue Poodle should be of even color, without patches of black or white, and have dark 
eyes, lips and toe nails. All the other points of the white, red and blue Poodle should 
be the same as. the perfect black Poodle. The coat should be very profuse, of good, 
hard texture, hanging in tight, even cords. In the non-corded variety the coat should 
be very profuse, of hard texture of even length, and may be either curly or fluffy. 




Similar in all respects to the non- 
corded variety, but the coat is softer 
and silxier, and he should not stand 
more than 12 inches high or weigh 
more than 10 pounds. 


Color: Reddish fawn, with red mask, red with red mask, fawn and no mask, 
fawn or red with black mask, Brindles, blacks and pied disqualify. 

Height: 29 in. 

Weight: 120 Ibs. 

This is a smooth-coated dog, very powerful in build, somewhat low in stature, 
massive, broad and muscular. He possesses an enormous head, greater in proportion 
to his body than that of any other breed, and should be very long and broad, high and 
square, and the whole of the face and muzzle should be covered with ropes of loose 
skin, lying in wrinkles. The eyes are small, wide apart, deep set, light in color, and 
very penetrating in expression. The "rose" ears when uncropped should be small and 
fine in texture. The neck is very thick and powerful, with skin very loose, forming 
a dewlap on each side of the throat. Back is short and straight, of great breadth at 
the shoulder, and the hindquarters should be pear-shaped, as in the bulldog, and it 
should forgotten that this dog is the gladiator of his race. 



Color : White or with dark red and yellow patches. Height : 28 in. Weight : 58 Ibs. 

A strong dog, well built and elegant. His head is clean and slightly arched and 
skull rounded. The eyes are dark yellow or dark brown in color. Nose brown with 
well open nostrils. The ears are flexible, thin, long, pendulous, set on low and nicely 
folded. The neck is long, clean, well muscled and splendidly arched. The loins are 
well arched, powerful and deep.. Legs clean, straight and well boned and stern of 
medium length, tapering and carried rather high. The coat is short and fine. 


Color: White, 
blue and orange, 
with pale tan 
markings on body 
and legs. 

Height: 25 in. 
Weight: 58 Ibs. 
This is a muscu- 
lar sort of dog 
with rather square 
fine head, slightly 
domed in skull, oc- 
cipital bone not 
particularly well 
developed. Eyes 
are brown and in- 
t e 1 1 i g e n t. Nose 
black with open 
nostrils. Ears well 
set on, rather 
short and well 
folded. Neck 

of good length. Back slightly arched and chest not too deep. The legs are straight, 
strong and well boned. Stern of medium length, carried gaily and with a short, rather 
thick coat. 



Color : White, 
black and tan, and 

Height : 26 in. 

Weight: 58 Ihs. 

A muscular dog 
with limbs rather 
flat but large. 
The head is lean, 
fine and carried 
proudly on a well 
arched neck. The 
skull is slightly 
domed and the oc- 
cipital bone just 
visible, and the 
muzzle should be 
long. The brown 
eyes give him a 
bright and intelli- 
g e n t expression. 
The ears are 
moderately short, 

very thin, velvety and hang gracefully in folds. His deep chest, slightly arched back, 
well muscled loins and straight, well-boned limbs, fit him for arduous work. The stern 
is of medium length and tapers towards the point. The coat is coarse and should not 
be too short, especially on hindquarters and stern. 


Color : White with large brown, black or grizzled patches, tri-color with grizzle 
saddle. Height: 29 in. Weight: 78 Ibs. 

A heavy, strong, rather coarse-looking dog and is the heaviest of all the French 
Hounds. He has a long, broad skull with coarse muzzle and the skin on the head is 
very loose and wrinkled. The eyes are full and gay and the haw is visible. Ears set 
on low, long, thin, velvety and folding inwards. The body is rather long and heavy. 
Neck short, strong and thick with heavy dewlap. Back broad, strong and well 
muscled. Legs strong, muscular and with rather coarse bone. The feet are clean 
and pointed. The stern is thick at the root, tapering towards the point and carried 
gaily, curved upwards. The coat is short and coarse in appearance. 



Color : White with black patches and blue belton. The ears and palate always 
black and he has light tan spots above the eyes. Height : 28 in. Weight : 62 Ibs. 

In general appearance this dog is elegant and not too heavily built. The head is 
lean, light and of a fair length, with skull slightly arched and with occipital bone well 
developed. The eyes are bright and intelligent, showing the haw and brown in color. 
Ears long, fine, set on low, black 1 in color, edged with a light tan. Chest deep and rather 
narrow; legs straight, lean and rather long. Stern is of medium length and tapering. 
Coat short and fine. 


Color : Blue or white with many black spots, blue mottled, and pale tan markings, 
rather black and the legs tinted with red. Height : 23 in. Weight : 55 Ibs. 

This is a strong and massive dog, with a large and sometimes a rather long head, 
with the occipital bone well developed, resembling in this respect a bloodhound. The 
eyes are brown, bright and clear, and somewhat hidden, showing the haw. The lips 
are pendulous. Ears very long, rather fine and well folded. Chest very deep, back 
broad and strong. The "stern is fine but not too long and carried well up. Coat short 
and hard on the body, soft and silky on the skull and ears. 


'^te^*** |t. 



Co^or : White with yellow, orange or red patches. 

Height: 23 in. 

Weight : 54 Ibs. 

A dog of medium size and symmetrically built. The head is fine and of fair 
length with domed skull and the occipital bone slightly developed. Eyes of medium 
size, bright and brown in color. Ears are set on low, of medium length, thin and soft. 
He is rather short in the neck, chest deep, ribs not too rounded, legs well boned and 
muscular. His stern is set on high, rather short, and tapers to a fine point. The coat 
is smooth, fine and glossy.- 


Color : White with yellow or red patches, tri-color with black saddle. 

Height: 23 in. 

Weight: 50 Ibs. 

A strong and well-built dog of medium size. Rather long skull, with the stop 
not too deep. The eyes are full, dark yellow or light brown in color. The ears are 
broad, very long and set on low. Body not too long, neck rather short, back strong 
and straight. His legs are not too long and are straight and strong. The stern is 
strong and carried upwards. The coat is short and not too silky. 



Color : White with large black patches and light tan spots. 

Height : About 29 in. 

Weight: About 62 Ibs. 

A dog of great size, yet strong and light and rather long in the body. The head 
is fine rather than heavy; occipital bone well developed, and has pendulous lips. The 
eyes are brown in color and the ears long and fine. He is strong, straight and well 
boned in the legs. The stern is long and carried hound-like, and he is short in coat. 


Color : Grizzle on the back, red brindled with the legs of a hare color, or the back 
rather black and the legs tinted with red. Height : 23 in. Weight : 55 Ibs. 

This is a dog of good size, rather high on the legs, strong and symmetrically built. 
The long, well-developed head has a broad skull, slightly rounded and stop well 
defined. The muzzle is of medium length, square and strong. His bright and intelli- 
gent eyes are dark brown in color. The ears are set well back on the head, are long, 
thin, and nicely folded. Neck not too long and very muscular. He is strong and 
broad in back with a deep and capacious chest. Legs straight, long and well boned. 
The stern is thick and well covered with hair and carried very curved. The coat is 
hard and wiry. 


German Breeds 

POMERANIAN (Miniature) 














Color: Brindle, fawn, blue, black and harlequin. The harlequin should have jet- 
black patches and spots on a pure white ground. 

Height : 30 in. or more. Weight : 120 Ibs. and over. 

This dog is remarkable in size and very muscular. Strongly yet elegantly built, 
which latter feature is an absolute essential, as also is alertness of expresion and brisk- 
ness of movement, and generally he should carry a look of dash and daring. The head 
is of great length, muzzle broad, and jaw powerful. The skull should be flat rather 
than domed, and have a slight indentation running up the center. The ears in Ger- 
many are cropped, set high, and carried erect, with the tips falling forward. The neck 
should be long and well arched, and quite free from loose skin. The body is very 
deep, back strong and hind quarters extremely muscular. His coat is short, dense 
and sleek. 

The abolition of cropping by the English, Kennel Club resulted in English breeders 
concentrating their attention to the production of a small ear, which would hang- 
neatly in lieu of his original large ear, which was desirable when cropping was per- 
mitted. In doing this, character was at first lost, to some extent, in head, color and 
soundness of limb, but these temporary disabilities have now been largely overcome. 



Color : Black, gray, red or yellow in good harmony, much white is objectionable. 

Height: English standard, 7 to 9 in.; German standard, 7 to 8^ in. 

Weight : English standard, 18 to 21 Ibs. ; German standard, three classes : A, \S l / 2 
to I6y 2 Ibs. ; B, 15 to 22 Ibs. ; C, Over 22 Ibs. 

It will b observed from the above that there is a difference of opinion between 
the German and English ideas as to the most desirable size of the Dachshund. This 
dog is of a long, low and graceful conformation. His figure though elongated should 
present a stiff and muscular appearance, notwithstanding his short and crooked front. 
He should not appear lean or weasel-like. His pert, saucy pose of the head are 
desirable characteristics. The skull is long and narrow, eyes small and in shade should 
follow the color of the dog, ears long, broad and soft, chest narrow and deep with 
breast bone prominent, stern long and strong, flat at the root and carried low. His 
skin should be thick, subtle, loose and in great quantity. There are three varieties as 
regards coat. A The smooth, short and strong coat. B The rough, dense, not silky 
or long coat. C The long-coated variety, which should be straight, though it is 
sometimes wavy, fine and glossy. It should be abundant on the neck, chest, ears, 
forelegs and tail. 

It is worthy of notice that though the Dachshund is of German origin, the English 
Dachshund Club, founded in 1881, preceded the German Teckel Klub by ten years, and 
Dachshunds were exhibited in England five or six years before they made their appear- 
ance on the show bench in Germany. The "points" of the two clubs also differed con- 
siderably, more particularly in regard to the head and size. The English breeders 
seemed rather to regard him as a hound, but now-a-days there is little or no difference 
between the best specimens of the two countries. 



Color : White, black, blue, brown, chocolate, sable in all shades, red, orange and 
fawn in all shades, and parti-colors. The whites must be free from lemon or any 
color, and the other colors free from white. In the parti-colors the colors should be 
evenly distributed in body patches. Self colored dogs with white feet or legs are ob- 

Weight : About 2.4 Ibs. 

This is a compact, short-bodied dog, with head and face fox-like. Small erect 
ears, and exhibits great intelligence in expression, docility in disposition and activity 
in buoyancy and deportment. The skull should be somewhat flat, eyes oblique, not 
set too wide apart, bright and dark in color. The neck is short and lion-like, is covered 
with a profuse mane and frill of long straight hair. The tail is a characteristic of this 
breed and should be turned over the back, profusely covered with long spreading hair. 
He should have a long, perfectly straight and glistening coat, sound and even in color, 
and soft fluffy undercoat, the whole effect being of a stand-off, weather resisting 



This breed has now been per- 
fected as a toy variety to the 
almost entire exclusion from 
the show ring of the original 
spitz. Formerly he was pro- 
duced in Pomeria, in all sizes 
from 20 to 40 Ibs. weight. Then 
the fashionable weight became 
18 to 24 Ibs., but latterly breed- 
ers have perfected the variety 
and he is classified at shows 
as above 8 Ibs. and less than 8 
Ibs., until nowadays the smaller 
they are the more the} 7 are 
appreciated. There are many 
poms around three or four 
pounds weight, and some full 
grown specimens have been 
exhibited as small as \ l / 2 Ibs. 




Color : Black and tan, small white patches on chest is permissible. 

Height: 24 in. 

Weight: 45 Ibs. 

This is a well built muscular dog, with an appearance denoting quickness, strength 
and endurance, and he has a lively and game temperament. The skull is broad, flat 
and slightly rounded, muzzle long and moderately tapered. Ears well cropped and not 
too pointed. Eyes dark brown, of medium size, with a friendly and intelligent outlook. 
The back is straight and of fair length, with well developed and muscular hind quar- 
ters. The tail is docked to the length of about 6 inches, and bob-tails are much appre- 
ciated. He has a short, hard, and close-lying coat. 

(Monkey Terrier) 

Color : Gray-black, 
blue-gray, dirty yellow, 
red and their different 
shades. The light-col- 
ored dogs have often a 
black muzzle. 

Height : Not more than 
20 in. 

Weight : Under 8^ 

This is a small ladies' 
dog, well built, of com- 
pact form and very in- 
telligent. The head is 
thick and round, cover- 
ed with long, hard and 

-al hair, ~n*2is hort and strong and he should be under-shot, yet without showing 
eeth, and weft furnished with mustache and beard. The eyes are large, round, 
inent and very intelligent and dark in -color. The eyebrows should be straight 
d but not hanging, with a general outlook that of the monkey. The ears are 
'S cut, carried erect and pointed, set on wide apart and well covered with short 
He has a \ery compact body, is sort in neck and broad in chest. The tail is 
sd to about two- thirds of its length, and is carried upwards. His coat is profuse, 
hard and unequal, and should be of a dry nature, with a woolly undercoat some- 



Color: Black, grizzle, reddish brown, either self colored or with tan, white ar 
white with large dark patches or brindle, with or without tan markings. White c 
the chest and legs is permissible, but not desirable. Height: 22 in. Weight: 55 Ibs 

This is a medium sized dog, rather long in 1 the body but well built, and is vei 
game and intelligent. The 'head is lean, skull broad between the ears and long le 
muzzle. The ears are of medium size, carried erect, and pointed forward. The ey 
are almond shaped, dark in color, full of "fire" and intelligence, but often sour. Tl 
body is rather narrow, with deep chest, straight back and strong loins. The tail 
well coated, carried low when the dog is quiet and gaily but not over the back whe 
excited. There are three varieties as to coat: A. Smooth coated. Short dense ar 
hard, round the neck the coat is longer and harder. B. Long haired, wavy and hare 
the hair on the head partially covering the eyes, and with well marked beard ar 
moustaches and tail well feathered. C. Wire haired. Straight, hard and wiry, th; 
on the head and legs being especially short and hard with beard and eyebrows we 


Color : White muzzle, 
collar, neck, chest and 
tip of tail ; the head, 
body and tail are orange, 
tawny, yellow, black, 
grizzle or brindle, but 
never brown. 

Height: 21 in. 

Weight: 40 Ibs. 

This is a lightly made, 
elegant dog, with head 
lean, long and narrow, 
occipital bone not prom- 
inent, and "stop" slight- 
ly developed. The eyes 
are bright with a friend- 
ly expression. Ears long, 
broad, flat and round at 
the tips. Fairly light 
in body, whicii 

is well developed in comparison to the head. Stern long, rather thick, tapering 
point and well covered with long hair, and carried downwards with a slight 
upwards. The coat is long for a smooth coated dog and is very dense and hard. 



(Schnanzer or Rattler) 

Color: Pepper and salt, iron-gray, silver-gray, dull black with yellow or tan 
markings on head and legs, rust-yellow and gray-yellow. A bright red is objection- 

Height: 18 in. 

Weight: 28 Ibs. 

This is a strongly built cobby dog, of a rather nervous temperament, yet he is gay, 
watchful, very intelligent and courageous, without being quarrelsome. He is a first 
rate rat dog. The head is strong, fairly long, with a flat skull rather narrow between 
the ears, and the occiput is well developed. The ears are set on high and are cropped 
with rounded tips. The oval eyes convey an intelligent and vivacious expression, with 
eyebrows well developed and covered with rough upstanding hair. His back is strong 
and straight and rather flat sided in rib. The tail is set on high, is docked very short 
and if a bob-tail is much appreciated. The coat is as hard, rough and wiry as possible, 
of the stand-off variety and though it is shorter on the head, it is not softer. On the 
muzzle we find a characteristic short beard and whiskers. 

This breed has worked himself into popular favor in Germany by his indefatigable 
industry as a worker and as a good friend of the horse, hence he is much appreciated in 
the stable. Certainly he is very intelligent, a very apt pupil, as quick as lightning in his 
movements and unfailing in his fidelity, courage, endurance and muscular strength. 
He is a rare good dog for bad weather purposes. 


This dog is the same in every particular to the wire-coated German terrier, except- 
ing that his color is black and tan, black with yellow shade and wolf gray, and the coat 
is smooth, of fine texture and lays close to the body. 



Color : Pure brown, brown and white, or white with brown patches. 

Height : 26 in. Weight : 70 Ibs. 

This dog is of medium size and is built on good uniform lines. It should not be 
too heavy in the head. The lips should be pendulous. Eyes oval in shape and brown 
in color, varying somewhat according to the shade of his coat, and have a rather grave 
expression. Ears moderately long but not too broad, and should lay without folds 
close to the head. Back straight, broad, short and muscular. The stern is of medium 
length, and should be carried a little above the line of the back, strong in bone at the 
root, but not coming to a fine point. The tail is always docked. 


Color: Brown and white, apparently grizzled-brown mixed with large brown 
markings. Height : 26 in. Weight : 70 Ibs. 

In general appearance this dog follows the characteristics of the smooth-coated 
German Pointer except in the matter of coat, which should be about 2 inches long 
all over the body of a rough, hard and dull texture. In the winter time a considerable 
undercoat is developed. The cheeks are well covered with whiskers, and the eyebrows 
are bushy. On the skull the hair is flat, short, hard and dull. 


Color : Tri-color, so-called trout color, with brown-brindle and patches of tan 
markings. Head and ears darker in color than the rest of the body. Height 27 in. 
Weight 75 Ibs. 

A strong, shapely dog, not coarse looking and standing rather high on the leg. 
The skull is long and narrow, occipital and cheek bones well developed. The eyes are 
light brown in color, of intelligent and grave expression and showing a prominent haw. 
Ears set on not too high, and hang gracefully close to the cheeks. The neck should 
be strong, very muscular and throatv. The chest is deep, back straight, broad and 
powerful, and loins broad and deep. The tail is strong and set on net too high. 



Color: Varies 
from silver grizzle 
to m o u s e grizzle, 
often clearer on the 
head and on the ears. 
White patches on the 
chest and on the feet 
are objectionable, and 
tan markings are de- 
cided faults. 
Height : 26 in. 
Weight: 70 Ibs. 
In general appear- 
ance the dog of Wei- 
mar is of medium size 
but with muscles not 
so well developed as 
the German Pointer. 
The head is rather 
light, and narrow in 

skull, and the occipital bone well developed. The jaws are long, lips pendulous without 

exaggeration, and the muzzle broad. Eyes of medium size, yellow brown in color. 

Nose flesh-colored, joining on to the muzzle in a clear violet tint. The ears are light 

and somewhat pointed. Tail rather thin and short 



with a 
white on 





white with large 
or small brown 
patches or mix- 
ed ; never black 
or red. 

Height : 26 in. 

Weight: 70 

In general ap- 
pearance the 
German Setter 
is a strong, 
shapely dog, 
not too heavy in 
build. The head 
is rather long, 
skull slightly 

rounded, lips pendulous. Eyes are of medium size, oval in shape, dark brown in color, 
varying in shade with that of the coat. The body should be straight, broad and mus- 
cular, with neck slightly arched but not throaty; chest deep but not too broad. The 
stern should be of medium length, strong at the root and tapering near the point, car- 
ried straight to the middle with the end curled upward and well feathered. 


Color : Self- 
colored brow r n, 
often with a 
white patch on 
stern and chest ; 
white with large 
or small brown 
patches, or mix- 

Height : 20 in. 

W e i g h t : 56 

The Wachtel- 
hund is some- 
what like the 
German Setter 
in miniature and 
is strongly 
built, notwith- 
standing h i s 
small size. The 
head is large 

and long, skull slightly rounded and fairly broad. Muzzle of fair length and narrow with 
the occipital bone and stop both well denned. The eyes are dark in color, varying in shade 
with that of the coat and of medium size. The ears are long compared with those of the 
German Setter, are set on high and hang close to the head. The neck should be strong 
and not throaty; chest deep, back straight, broad and muscular, and the loins short and 
broad. He is strong and straight on the leg and the tail is usually docked and well 
feathered. The coat is slightly wavy, fairly long and very dense. 



Color: Steel gray with brown patches or self-colored brown often mixed with 
grey hairs. Also white, grey with brown, or grey with yellow patches. 

Height: 24 in. 

Weight: 561bs. 

This dog is of medium size, symmetrical and well built. The head is heavy and 
long, covered with wiry hair not too long, but there should be a good moustache and 
eyebrows. The muzzle is long and square, nasal bone convex and the stop not too 
abrupt. The eyes are large, very intelligent in expression and brown or dark yellow 
in color. The nose is always brown. Ears of medium size, set on not too low, carried 
close to the head. The back strong and well developed and the forelegs straight, 
muscular and covered with wiry hair. The stern is carried straight out and is covered 
with wirv hair but without feather. About a third of the stern is generally docked. 
The coat is wiry, crisp and harsh like fine iron wire, never curly or woolly. Undercoat 
is dense and soft. 



Color : Yellow or brin- 
dle, with or without 
black muzzle. White 
patches allowed, but liver 
color is a disqualifica- 

Height: 21 in. 

Weight: 50 Ibs. 

A strong, lively, 
smooth-coated dog of 
great activity. The ears 
are set on high, are al- 
ways cropped and when 
at attention the skull is 
freely wrinkled. The 
eyes are dark and large 
and his back is short 
and straight with well 
rounded ribs. The tail 
set high and is always 
docked. Coat short, hard 
and glossy. 



Color : Gray-bro*wn, like the winter coat of a deer, tan, red-yellow, darker on the 
mask, ears, and around the eyes, and often with a dark trace down the back. 

Height : 20 in. Weight : 54 Ibs. 

In general appearance this dog is of medium height, of strong and long structure. 
He is broad in skull and slightly domed, forehead slightly wrinkled, eyebrows well de- 
veloped and protruding. The eyes show no haw and convey an energetic and earnest 
expression. Ears are very broad, set on high, and are carried close to the head. Chest 
wide and deep, back long with broad loins. The tail is long, strong at the root and 
tapering, well provided with long hair and carried downwards. The coat is close, full, 
smooth and elastic, and of a dull appearance. 


Color : Tan, red-yellow, or wheaten, often darker on the back, with muzzle and 
ears nearly always black. Height : 20 in. Weight : 52 Ibs. 

A medium-sized dog, light in bone, with a grave and mild expression. Has a 
broad skull, slightly domed, eyebrows well developed, "stop" slightly defined, and lips 
not too heavy or pendulous. The eyes are dark brown and the haw is not visible. 
The ears are of medium length, broad, set on high, and round at the tips. Body not 
too long and chest fairly broad. Tail of good length, well covered with long hair, 
carried downwards, and is never docked. The coat is full and dense of hard texture, 
finer on the head and ears. 


Italian Breeds 




Color : Dirty yellow, dark 
shades are not desirable. 

Height: 23 in. 

Weight : 62 Ibs. 

This is a strong, thick-set 
dog with heavy, somewhat 
rounded skull. The eyes 
are hazel color of intelligent 
expression. Ears are short 
and hanging, covered with 
fairly long, straight fur. His 
back is strong and straight; 
tail long, carried low and 
well coated, and the coat is 
curly and dense, except on 
the head, where it should be 


Color: All wihite. 

Height: 27 in. 

Weight : 66 Ibs. 

A large and coarse 
dog. The head is fair- 
ly long, somewhat 
broad in skull, slight- 
ly domed, and with- 
out stop. The eyes 
are small and dark in 
color ; ears of medium 
size and carried close 
to the head. Body 
strong and well built, 
with well developed 
and muscular loins. 
The tail is long, well 

coated, generally carried low, but sometimes over the back. His coat is dense and long, 
especially around the neck, on the back and on the tail. The skull, muzzle, ears and 
forepart of the legs are smooth coated. A curly coat is a serious fault. 



Color: Self-colored, gol- 
den fawn, but all shades of 
fawn, red, mouse, blue, 
green, and white are recog- 
nized. Blacks, brindles and 
pied are less (Desirable. 

Weight, two classes : Over 
8 Ibs. and under 8 Ibs. 

This is an English grey- 
hound in miniature, of very 
slender proportions, and of 
ideal elegance and grace in 
shape, symmetry and action. 


Color : All white or white with yellow or light brown patches. 

Height : 26 in. Weight : 56 Ibs. 

This dog is known as the Spinone and is a well-built and clever dog of medium 
size. The head is rather long and large and though the moustaches are abundant the 
rest of the hair on the head is, of, a smooth nature. The skull is not too broad, fore- 
head slightly domed, muzzle square and long, and the stop not very clearly denned. 
The eyes, though yellow or light brown in color, are very intelligent. Ears not too 
large, set on rather high and hang close to the cheeks. The stern is carried straight or 
slightly upwards, and is generally docked. The coat is short, hard and wiry, never 
woolly or curly and the undercoat is dense. 



Color: White with orange patches, white speckled with lemon, white and liver, 
and roan with liver. Height : 25 in. Weight : 80 Ibs. 

The Italian Pointer is a strong, muscular and elegantly shaped dog, full of char- 
acter. The skull is slightly rounded, occipital bone well developed with broad, long 
and straight muzzle. The eyes are oval in shape, dark yellow in color, sympathetic 
and grave in expression. The nose is of brown or flesh color, never black. The lips 
are pendulous, thick and rounded. Ears long and broad, set on at the height of the 
eye, hanging gracefully and round at the tips. The back and loins are broad and 
muscular. The stern is thick and tapering and is generally docked to about 7 in. 
in length. 


Color: Self-colored white. 

Height : 12 in. or under. 

Weight: 8 Ibs. or less. 

This is a ladies' toy dog. 
The head is rather broad 
and muzzle not too long. 
The eyes are large, dark in 
color and watery. The ears 
hang, but not too close to 
the head, which gives the 
head a square appearance, 
and are well covered with 
long, curly hair. He is 
straight in the back and 
deep in the chest. The tail 
is curled over the back and 
well coated, and his coat 
should be long, silky and 


Netherlands Breeds 




This is more or less of a nondescript variety, but he is worthy of a place in the 
sun by reason of the inestimable service he renders to his master or misttess. Daily 
he may be seen in Belgium and Holland drawing the carts purveying milk, butter, 
vegetables and other similar household necessities. He varies in height from about 
24 in. to 32 in. and weighs around 100 Ibs. Fawns and brindles are the most common 
colors. In general appearance he is a cobbily-built strong dog capable of great endur- 
ance. Naturally he must be strongly 'made in back and loins, well boned in legs and 
with feet well padded. The tail is generally docked to about three inches. Chapters 
dealing with other purposes to which dogs are put will be found in other parts of 
this work. 


Color: Red. 

Weight : Under 9 Ibs. 

This is a ladies' pet dog, very intelligent, sprightly, robust, of compact appearance, 
and is peculiar for his quasi-human expression. His head is rounded, furnished with 
hard, irregular hair, which is longer around the eyes and on the nose and cheeks. 
The ears are erect when cropped, but not otherwise. The eyes are very large, black 
and with long and black eye lashes, and the hair on his nose should grow upwards, 
towards his pronounced stop. His chin should be prominent, but must not show the 
teeth. The tail is erect and cut two-thirds of its length. 

There is no definite data as to this clog's precise origin, and though credit for his 
conception belongs to Brussels, it is highly probable that he has been evolved by an 
admixture of the Yorkshire Terrier, Irish Terrier and the Ruby Spaniel. His quaint- 
ness and degree of dignity, altogether disproportionate to his size, account in a large 
measure for the popular esteem in which he is held. 


The Toy Branbantine resembles the Brussels Griffon in every respect, except that 
his coat is short and smooth and his color red, or black and tan. 



CC'DF: Reddish-black, if possible with black muzzle. Height: 21 in. Weight: 54 Ibs. 

A very intelligent and rustic dog built to withstand the changeable climate of 
Belgium. His sagacity, activity and enduring strength and dauntless courage fit him 
peculiarly as a protector for his Belgian master. The head is long, skull flat, not too 
broad, and moderate "stop." The eyes are brown, with an inquiring intelligent ex- 
pression, The ears should be stiff and carried erect, and triangular in shape, neck 
rather long, chest broad and not too deep, back straight, broad, strong, and of medium 
length. The tail is carried low in repose and should never be curled over the back, 
and is never docked. There are three varieties as to coat : A. Long and straight on 
the body, smooth on the head, with the inside of the ears protected by dense hair, 
and with considerable coat round the frill or mane. Forelegs well feathered and very 
profuse tail. B. Smooth on the body, head and legs, little longer round the neck, and 
slight feathering on the tail. C. A hard, dry and bristling wire-coat of the stand-off 
variety, more or less the same length all over the body, and with a bushy tail. 


Color: All black. 

Height: 12 in. 

Weight : 12 Ibs. 

This is an excellent little 
watch dog, very active and 
always on the alert, very 
courageous, exceedingly in- 
quisitive, and a good vermin 
dog. The head is foxy, 
eyes dark brown, oval, and 
keen. Ears quite erect, 
small, triangular and set on 
high, and very mobile. The 
body is short and thick-set, 
chest broad, with straight 
back and powerful loins. 
He has no tail. His coat 
should be dense and harsh on the body, very profuse around the neck, forming a mane 
and frill, but short and smooth on the ears and head. 



Color : Self-colored red mahogany, ruby, chestnut red, dark yellow, or white with 
these patches. Height : Not more than 10 in., the smaller the better. Weight : 8 Ibs. 
and under. 

This is a lively and active ladies' pet dog. The skull is small, slightly domed, and 
muzzle rather snipy. The eyes are round, dark colored, set low in the head, and convey 
a lively expression. The ears are set high on the head, carried erect like the wings of a 
butterfly, from which feature he is often styled the Butterfly Spaniel. The back is 
straight and not too short or cobby. The tail is carried like that of the squirrel and isl 
long and heavily feathered, which again accounts for him sometimes being called the 
Squirrel Spaniel. His coat should be long and silky, abundant on the body and tail 
and ears, but short on the mask. 


Color : Red, yellow-brown, dirty yellow with moustaches, beard and eye lashes 
often black. Height: 17 in. Weight: 27 Ibs. 

This is a rather commonly built dog, lively and intelligent; is a good ratter and is 
a stable dog rather than a ladies' pet. The head is rather round and short, with stop 
well defined and the skull well covered with a short and hard coat. The eyes are 
rather large and round, dark brown in color, with an intelligent and lively expression. 
The ears are set on high, carried erect, and cropped to points, covered with coat shorter 
and softer than on the body. The tail is always docked, carried gaily and should be 
well coated but without feathering. The coat is hard, wiry and rough, never curly, 
wavy or woolly. 



Color : Immaterial, but no pie colors allowed. Height : 21 in. Weight : 52 Ibs. 

A strong, well-built dog, very active and intelligent. The head is rather long and 
narrow, with flat skull, no stop, ears erect and of medium size, pointed at the tip and 
set on high. The neck is muscular and clean. Chest deep but not too broad, back 
strong, and on .the short side. The tail is carried low, and is never docked. There 
are three varieties as to coat. 

A. A short, smooth coat like that of the smooth collie ; B. A long, rough coat 
similar to the rough collie but without the frill ; C. A wiry or broken coat with smooth 
mask, and with distinct beard and eyebrows. 


Color : Y e 1 - 
low-orange with 
white markings 
on the legs, 
feet, chest, muz- 
zle and tip of 
tail. Self-color- 
ed yellow- 
prange i s ob- 

Height: 26 in. 

Weight : 6 

In general ap- 
pearance the 
Danish Pointer 
is smaller i 11 
size than the 
'.o.ther varieties ; 

the head is light and fairly long, muzzle long and broad ; eyes of medium size and 
brown topaz in color, giving a pleasant expression, ears soft and hanging gracefully 
close to the cheeks and moderately long ; neck is long,, round and arched, free from 
dewlaps ; body though light is powerful looking ; back not too short and very strong, 
with loins and hindquarters full of muscle ; stern fine and rather short. 

Austro-Hungarian Breeds 




Color: Black 
with tan or yellow, 
brown and red in 
all shades and self- 
colored white. 

Height: 21 in. 

Weight : About 
50 Ibs. 

A dog of medium size, rather long, strong and of elastic structure. The head is of 
medium size, broad in skull, eyebrows well denned, and with pendulous lips. Eyes 
bright, brown and intelligent. Ears of medium length, not too broad, round at the tips, 
and set high. The body is strong, neck of medium length and very strong, chest 
broad and fairly long in the back. Stern is long, strong at the root and tapering. The 
coat : A, smooth, dense and glossy ; B, semi-long, wiry and dull. 


Color : White or 
dirty white, sometimes 
seen with a yellow tip 
on the ears. 
Height: 27 in. 
Weight : 73 Ibs. 
This is a well-made 
muscular dog, with 
broad skull, long and 
tapering muzzle. The 
eyes are small, set in 
obliquely and rather 
close together, of dark 
color and of an 
energetic and some- 
times sour expression. 
The ears are small and 
carried close to the 
head and covered with 
smooth hair. The back 
is long, straight 
and well developed. 

The tail is carried low. His coat is fairly long, flat, dense and hard, sometimes wavy, 

but never curly. 



Color : Red, brown white ^low, or red patches and tri-color. Height : 25 in. 

Weight: 65 Ibs. 

This is a well-built, lively dog aL< conveys the impression of great stamina. The 
head is somewhat like that of the rough-coated German pointer, eyes bright, yellow or 
light brown in color, and of medium size. His heavy eyebrows give a rather threaten- 
ing expression. Ears of medium length, broad, rounded at the tips, set on high, and 
hanging close to the head. He is broad in chest with neck long and well arched and 
well rounded in rib. Stern of fair length, strong at the root and carried downwards. 
The coat is hard, wiry and dense. 


Color : Color together with markings are most important. The ground should be 
white. He should be spotted with either black or liver-colored spots clearly defined 
and on no account should the spots run into each other and they should be as round 
as possible. Height : 22 in. Weight : 55 Ibs. 

A strong, muscular, active dog capable of great endurance. In size, build and 
outline he very much resembles the pointer. 

The eyes are round, bright and sparkling, as dark as possible in the black spotted 
dogs, though a yellow tint is allowed in the liver dogs. Ears are set on high, of 
moderate size and carried close to the head, of fine texture, and the more profusely 
they are spotted the better. His back is strong and muscular, tail of fair length carried 
with a nice curve upwards but not curled and should be well spotted. The coat is 
short,, hard, dense and fine in texture, but must not be woolly or silky. 


Spanish Breeds 




Color : Brown and white, 
red and white, black and 
white, and pure brown. The 
white must not predominate. 

Height: 24 in. 

Weight: 80 Ibs. 

In general appearance the 
Spanish Pointer is a some- 
what heavy, loosely made dog, 
larger than the English Point- 
er. The head is indented be- 
tween the^eyes, broad in skull, 
square, long and broad in muz- 
zle with lips large and pendu- 
lous. The eyes are large and 
somewhat sunken in the head. 
Ears thin, loose and of moder- 
ate length. Chest broad and 
deep. Back and hind quarters 
very muscular. The stern is 
strong at the root, tapering to- 
wards the end and is frequent- 
ly docked. 


Color : A dirty color or grizzled red 
with white patches and always shaded 
with black or darker color, like the St. 
Bernard and Mastiff. 
Height: 27 in. 
Weight: 180 Ibs. 

A powerful and imposing dog resem- 
bling in many features the Mastiff and 
the Bordeaux, but is longer and harder 
in coat. The head is very heavy, power- 
ful, large and square, with skull broad 
I between the ears. The muzzle short, 
I blunt, broad and square, and the lips 
H have heavy pendulous flews. Eyes are 
small and brown, and convey a grave 
and sometimes an almost grumbling ex- 
pression, and show the haw. Ears small, 
set on high, and hang close to the head. 
Body is strong, neck strong, heavy and 
muscular, chest deep and broad, back 
I long, broad and powerful. Tail long, 
f|ji heavy, and carried downwards. Coat is 
M semi-long, dense and hard. 


Swiss Breeds 



Swiss HOUND 


Color: Red, orange, various shades of brindle, or white with patches on body, 
of the above named colors. He should have white muzzle, blaze up face, collar, chest, 
forelegs, feet and end of tail, with black shadings on face and ears. 

Height : Not less than 30 in. 

Weight : 200 Ibs. 

This dog is known as the "Saintly" breed and may by his size, magnificent appear- 
ance, beautiful temper and docility be justly regarded as one of the finest examples and 
most noble members of the canine species. 1 he head is large and massive, short and 
square in the muzzle, with great depth from eye to lower jaw. The eyes are rather 
small, deeply set and dark in color, the lower eyelid drooping, showing the haw. His 
expression should betoken benevolence, dignity and intelligence. Ears of medium size 
and not heavily feathered. Chest wide and deep with level back, well rounded ribs, and 
very muscular loins. He should be strong and straight on his legs. The tail is long 
and bushy, carried low when in repose. There are two varieties as regards coat : A. 
In the long-coated variety it should be dense and flat, rather fuller around the neck, 
with the thighs well feathered; B. In the short-coated variety, it should be close and 
hound-like and only slightly feathered on thighs and tail. 



Color: Mixed chestnut and grizzle, trout color, or white and chestnut with 
grizzled patches. Height : 24 in. Weight : 52 Ibs. 

In general appearance the Swiss Setter is a well built, intelligent and rustic looking 
dog. The head is rather light and short skull round and broad, occipital bone well 
developed, and with a well defined stop. The eyes should not be too small and should 
be brown or yellow brown in color. Back straight, strong and muscular, chest well 
developed, but not too broad, and well rounded in rib. The stern is often docked, 
otherwise it should be carried scimitar shaped. The coat should be very dense, but not 


Color: Iron-gray, steel-blue, blue mottled with large dark or black patches, and 
some have the head, body and paws with pale yellow or tan markings. Height : 19 in. 
Weight : 45 Ibs. 

A dog of medium size and of fine structure. Head long, narrow and fine, eyes 
bright, large and intelligent, and dark brown in color, ears set on low, not too broad, 
are long and carried close to the head, with rounded tips. He is straight and broad in 
back. Stern of medium length and tapering to a point. The coat is short, smooth, fine 
and glossy. 



Color : Tri-color, white, black, brown-yellow, or tan. White with large black 
patches and tan markings on the eyes, jaws, and inside of the ears. 

Height : 21 in. 

Weight: SOlbs. 

This is a leggy and longish dog of elegant and muscular build. The head is long, 
narrow and somewhat pinched. Skull high and occipital bone well developed. The 
eyes are bright and dark. Ears set on backwards and are long but not too broad. 
They are rather pointed at the tips. Is deep and broad in chest, long and not too broad 
in back. Stern is not too heavy, tapers to the point and is carried down. He is smooth, 
short and fine in coat. 


Color : White with 
large yellow, orange or 
tan patches. Frequently 
spotted with red or yel- 
low markings and a black 
shade with red color is 
permissible. The skin is 
often spotted with black, 
giving 'him a blue ap- 
pearance when out of 

Height: 20 in. 

Weight : 46 Ibs. 

A dog of medium size, 
strong but not heavily 
built. The skull is broad 
and the occipital bone 
well developed, eyes rath- 
er large but not promi- 
nent, hazel brown, bright 
and intelligent. The ears 
are not set on too high, 
are thin and moderately 
long, and covered with fine hair. Chest deep and not too broad 
in back. Stern of medium length, fairly short, strong at the root 
are two varieties as to coat : A. Smooth and dense, which is 
head, e*. -s and shoulders, and coarser on the back ; B. Medium 


, and is short and broad 

, and well coated. There 

fine and glossy on the 

length, coarse, hard and 

Russian Breeds 

BORZOI (Russian Wolfhound) 




Color: Immaterial, except that self-colored specimens or those with heavy, black 
markings are objectionable. 

Height : 33 in. 

Weight: 100 Ibs. 

The Borzoi is one of the most ancient of Russian breeds and should possess great 
size, great speed and great strength. The head is of extraordinary length, and should 
appear rather Roman nosed in profile. The eyes are dark, expressive and almond 
shaped ; ears small, thin and placed well back on the head ; the chest is deep and nar- 
row ; the back bony, and well arched ; loins broad and very powerful, with well sprung 
ribs ; the tail is long and well feathered and carried low ; the coat should be long and 
silky, not woolly, and on the neck it should be profuse and rather curly. 

This breed, though originating from Russia, has been bred and exhibited in Eng- 
land since 1872. The Duchess of Newcastle and, a little later, Queen Alexandra, then 
the Princess of Wales, are mainly responsible for the popular favor in which they are 
now regarded. The finest collection in the world, however, is owned by the Grand 
Duke Nicholas, at Perchina, near Moscow. These are said to excel even th se pos- 
sessed by the Czar, from whom dogs cannot be purchased. 






Color : Yellow or rich red sable. Height : 28 in. Weight : 90 Ibs. 

This dog is similar in all essentials to the Englis'h Retriever, except that he is a 
size bigger and heavier in coat, and of course different in color, as his name implies. 
He is used principally for tracking wounded deer. 


Color : Grizzle or black, with tan markings, often with a white collar, feet and 
tip of tail. Height: 20 in. Weight: 58 Ibs. 

The head much resembles that of a wolf, being considerably broader between the 
ears than at the forehead. Eyes of medium size, bright, brown or yellow, sometimes 
nearly black. Ears small and; hanging with a tendency to prick when the dog is 
angry. Stern is short, strong y't the root, and carried straight. The coat is hard and 
smooth, with a woolly under toat, and the wolf or fox brush. 


OWTCHAR (Russian Sheepdog) 

Color : Slate color, dirty white, and nearly black, Height : 32 in. Weight : 105 Ibs. 

This is a large and strongly built dog of very great antiquity. His head is massive, 
round, and covered with softer hair than on the body. The eyes are rather large, dark 
brown in color, and very intelligent. The ears are of fair size, hanging, well coated, 
and are sometimes cut and carried semi-erect. He has a short, muscular neck, strong, 
well developed body, and is the largest of all the varieties of the sheep dogs, and is 
intended to defend his flocks against wolves. The tail is often docked, otherwise it 
should be well coated, and his coat is very dense and somewhat woolly. 


Color: White or 
white with black, 
brown or wolf 

Height: 22 in. 
Weight: 65 Ibs. 
A dog of med- 
ium size, well built 
and cobby, covered 
with a thick fur. 
The head is slight- 
ly domed and fair- 
ly broad. He is 
rather small i n 
eyes, which should 
be dark in color 
and set obliquely 
in the head, and 
convey a very in- 
telligent and live- 
ly expression. The 
ears are erect, 

broad at the root, and taper to a point. The neck is strong and muscular, the chest 
broad and deep, and back short, straight and strong. Tail is short and heavily coat- 
ed, and carried curled over the back. His stand-off coat is semi-long, dense and 
thick, and abundant around the neck, with a short and dense undercoat. 


Breeds of the Northern 

Latitudes of Europe 

and Asia 




Dogs Sledging in the Icefields of the Northern Latitudes. 


Color : Foxy-red or yel- 
low-red, often with a white 
patch on chest, feet and tip 
of tail. 

Height: 18 in. 

Weight: 56 Ibs. 

A cobbily-built clog with 
an intrepid and audacious 
appearance. The head of 
medium size, lean, not too 
round, and stop well de- 
fined. Eyes are obliquely 
set in the head, giving him 
a mild, lively and intelli- 
gent expression, and are 
dark or light brown in 
color. The ears are set on 
high, carried erect, very 
mobile, and of moderate 
size. Has muscular neck, 
chest deep but not too 
broad, and body straight, 
broad and short. The tail 
is thick at the root, profuse- 
ly covered with long hair, 
and carried curled over the 
back. His coat is smooth 

on head and forelegs, but long, dense and perfectly straight on the body wkh a dense 
and fluffy undercoat. It should be very abundant around the neck, forming a frill. 



Color: Red-brown, shade of yellow on muzzle and legs; white patches per- 

Height: 23 in. 

Weight: 65 Ibs. 

A proportionately built dog with long, broad muzzle, light brown eyes, deep chest, 
muscular loins, rather high on leg in proportion to his body, medium length tail, carried 
like a saber. His coat is flat, smooth though rather coarse on the back. 


Color: Grizzle in all 
its shade ; grizzle- 
brown, grizzle - brown 
and black. A white 
patch on the chest and 
feet is permissible. The 
undercoat should be 
pale brown. 

Height: 20 in. 

Weight: 60 Ibs. 

In stature this dog 
is rather short, but he 
has much strength and 
temerity. The head is 
carried high, is large 
and square, broad be- 
tween the ears, with 
"stop" well denned. 
Eyes should be dark 
brown or yellow- 
brown and convey an 
active and courageous 
expression. The ears 
are pointed, carried 
erect and very mobile. 
The body is short, and 
the chest broad and 
deep. The stern is of 
medium length, thick 
and heavy and carried 
curled over the back. 
His coat is short and 
flat on the head but 
hard, coarse and rather 
long on the body. 




Color: Black the head, chest and legs being tan or dark yellow. White 
patches on the head, chest, feet and tip of tail are permissible. Also tan or dark 
>ellow with large white patches. Height: 33 in. Weight: 65 Ibs. 

This is a well-built dog with a noble head, which is long and lean. The eyes 
are bright and for preference are dark in color. Chest deep land straight and 
broad in the back. Stern of medium length, strong at the root, and carried with 
a slight curve. His coat is thick, hard, dense and glossy. 


Color: Iron gray patches and spots on blue background; so-called "trout" 
color with brown-brindle in patches, tan mart ings; blue-merle; black with tan or 
brown markings; tan with white patches. Iron-gray with tan markings is not 
desirable. Height: 20 in. Weight: 60 Ibs. 

This is a strongly built dog rather long in body, and with a grave and intel- 
ligent expression. The head is large, of medium breadth, not domed and with 
distinct "s^op." Eyes are brown. Blue-merle dogs have "China" ears. Ears set 
on rather high, of medium length and breadth, and hang close to the head. The 
chest is broad rather than deep. Stern of medium length, carried rather high. 
The coat is thick and glossy. 



Color: Brownish or gray, sometimes dirty white or dirty yellow, and is fre- 
quently seen with black on the back. 

Height: 14 in. 

Weight: 451bs. 

This is a lightly built dog with a "game" temperament. The head is large 
in proportion to his body, with broad domed skull, and rather short, snipy 
muzzle. The ears are large at the base, pointed and carried erect, though some- 
times semi-erect. He is large and deep in chest, short in body, with bushy tail 
carried over the back. His coat is hard, of medium length, flat .and shorter on 
the head and legs. 


Color : All shades of griz- 
zle with black or darker 
tips. The under coat should 
be as white as possible. A 
yellow undercoat is a fault. 

Height: 22 in. 

Weight : 65 Ibs. 

A strong and well-built 
dog on rather cobby lines ; 
the head is rather small, 
slightly arched and without 
"stop." Eyes should be 
dark brown, bright and in- 
telligent. Ears small, very 
mobile, carried erect and set 
high on the head. Chest 
deep and broad. The tail is 
strong, medium length, and 
curled over the back. The 
coat is short aud thick on 
the head, legs and feet, and 
more abundant on the body. 



Color : Black, 
rusty black, grizzle 
with white feet. 
White dogs with 
reddish brown 
patches and self- 
colored yellow- 
brown ones are 
highly appreciated, 
but all white is a 

Height: 20 in. 

Weight : 56 Ibs 

This dog has a 
rather long body, 
which is well cov- 
ered with thick, 
abundant coat. The 
skull is broad and 
domed; ears erect; 
eyes large, brown 
and intelligent; 

chest narrow and deep. His tail is sometimes docked, but when not is well 
coated and curled over the back. The coat on the head is short, but on the body 
should be long, thick and dense, and never wavy, and he should have a very dense 
undercoat and a distinct frill. 


Color: Black or rusty black with white patches, and white chest. Sometimes 
brown with gray patches and all white. Height : 16 in. Weight : 56 Ibs. 

This is a medium-sized, well-boned dog, with broad domed skull, rather snipy 
muzzle, with well denned "stop." The ears are broad, pointed and carried erect, and 
the insides should be well coated. The eyes are small, dark in color, and of intelligent 
expression. The chest is broad rather than deep and the tail long, bushy and carried 
over the back. His coat is dense, flat, hard and long, especially on the back, with dense, 
woolly undercoat. 

United States of America 





Color : Brindle with even 
white markings. 

Weight : Not exceeding 
27 Ibs., divided into three 
classes, as follows : A, un- 
der 17 Ibs.; B, 17 to 22 Ibs.; 
C, 22 to 27 Ibs. 

The general appearance 
of the Boston Terrier should 
be that of a lively, highly 
intelligent, smooth coated, 
(short headed, compactly 
built, short tailed, well 
balanced dog. The head 
should indicate a high de- 
gree of intelligence, the 
body rather short and well 
knit, limbs strong and 
neatly turned. This dog 
should convey an appear- 
a n c e of determination, 

strength and activity, with easy, graceful carriage. Color and even white mark- 
ings are given particular consideration in the matter of general appearance. 
The skull is square, flat, free from wrinkles, abrupt brow, eyes wide apart, large and 
round, and dark in color. The muzzle is short, square, wide and deep, and free from 
wrinkles, and the ears should be small and thin. The body is deep with wide chest, 
and well sprung ribs. The tail is set on low, straight or screw, short, fine and taper- 
ing, and the coat is short, smooth and of fine texture. 


Color: Tan, black and tan. The black and 
tan must be well defined ; white is not allowed 
except a small spot on the breast. Height : 28 
in. Weight : 60 Ibs. 

A clog showing much hound character, but 
is smaller and lighter in muzzle and bone than 
the English Bloodhound. The skull should be 
rounded crossways with the occiput slightly 
prominent. The eyes are piercing with hound 
expression and hazel in color. The ears should 
reach to end of muzzle and as much longer as 
possible ; they are thin, covered with a soft 
silky coat, and low set. The neck should be 
clean and of good length without throatiness. 
Back broad, strong and short and hind quar- 
ters very strong and muscular. The stern is 
not very strong in bone at the root and of me- 
dium length. The coat is not rough, nor so 
fine as to be silky, wiry or shaggy. 



Color : Nearly resembling wet sedge grass or discolored coat of the Buffalo. 
Height: 24 in. Weight: 65 Ibs., 

A symmetrical and well built dog with a head somewhat broad, yellow eyes, small 
ears placed well upon the head, of lively and intelligent expression. Powerfully built, 
with a. somewhat coarse coat which has a tendency to waviness over the shoulders. 
His skin is protected from the water by a short woolly and dense undercoat. 


Color : Not material, but usually black and tan and white. E eight Males 24 in 
Weight: 60 Ibs. 

The American Foxhound is a strong, clean-limbed dog, built on lighter lines than 
his English brother and resembles him in all other essentials. 


Mexican Breeds 



Color : Generally color of elephant's hide. The skin always feels cold and is 
often mottled with flesh-colored, pink or grizzle patches. Weight : From 8 to 20 Ibs. 

In body properties they somewhat resemble the black and tan "Manchester" 
terrier. The "points" of this breed are not sufficiently well known to have enabled 
breeders to formulate a standard. 


;^i *V?- 



Color: Reddish black and fawn. Weight: From \ l /2 to 4 Ibs. 

This dog is strictly of Mexican origin, though it is also found in the state of Texas. 
It is the most diminutive of all breeds. Is remarkably game and exclusive in its 
affections. His legs are very slender and toe nails very long and strong, features 
which seem to justify the belief that in early days they inhabited the dense forests of 
northern Mexico. The head is round with sharp pointed nose, and large erect ears. 

This breed is famous as a performing dog, being very intelligent and agile. 


Japanese Breed 



Color : Black and white, o.r red and white. The term red includes all shades of 
sable, brindle, lemon and orange, but the brighter and clearer the red the better. The 
white should be clear white and whatever color the patches are they should be evenly 
distributed over the body, cheeks and ears. 

This is a lively, highly bred little dog, of dainty, smart appearance, compact car- 
riage, profuse coat, and very stylish in movement. The head should be large, broad, 
and slightly rounded, with strong and wide muzzle, very short from eyes to nose. The 
under-jaw should be slightly turned up, but the teeth should not be shown. The 
nose should be wide and open, and must be the color of the dog's markings. The 
eyes are large, dark, lustrous, prominent and set wide apart. Ears small, nicely 
feathered and set high on the head. The body is very compact and squarely built with 
short cobby back. In fact the length of the dog should be about equal to his total 
height. The tail is carried in a tight curl over the back and should be profusely 
feathered, so as to give the appearance of a beautiful plume. 

During the last thirty years the popular taste for the Japanese Spaniel has called 
for smaller and smaller specimens, until now the more diminutive they are the more 
valuable have they become. In Japan they are affected by the ladies as "sleeve" dogs, 
such being almost priceless. It is not now uncommon to find them 2^ Ibs. weight, 
though fully matured. These small specimens are now also freely bred in England, 
the climate of which country appears to suit them very well. 


Chinese Breeds 








Color: All colors are allowable red, fawn, black, black and tan, sable, brindle, 
white and parti colors. Those with black masks and "spectacles" around the eyes and 
lines to ears are the most appreciated. 

Weight : A. 10 to 18 Ibs. ; B. Under 10 fts. 

This is probably the most fashionable pet dog now in vogue. His character is full 
of dignity and consummate pride, and, disgust for anything menial or common. His 
head is massive, broad, wide and flat between the ears and eyes. The eyes should 
be large, dark, prominent, round and lustrous. "Stop" deep. Ears heart-shaped, 
drooping and well feathered. Muzzle very short, broad and wrinkled. He has a heavy- 
fronted body and light hind quarters, and the great coat on the frill and neck give him 
a lion-like appearance. The coat should be long, straight and flat, with dense under- 
coat and well feathered on thighs, legs, tail and toes. 


The Happa is identical in every respect with the Pekingese Spaniel, except that his 
coat is short and smooth. 



Colors: Black, red, yellow, blue, white. All self-colors. Height: 20 in. Weight: 
50 Ibs. 

A lively, compact, short-bodied dog with well-knit frame, and tail curled well over 
the back. The skull is flat and broad, well filled out under the eyes, and broad at the 
snout. His tongue should be black, eyes dark and small, though in the blue shades 
a lighter colored eye is permissible. The ears are small, pointed and erect, and should 
be placed well forward over the eyes, a feature which gives the dog a characteristic 
expression or "scowl" peculiar to the breed. The chest is broad and deep ; back short, 
straight and strong, and his coat in the rough variety should be abundant, dense, 
straight, coarse in texture, with a soft woolly undercoat. Smooth-coated CHOWS are 
identically the same as above, except that the coat should be smooth, short and dense. 


Color : Silver fawn, apri- 
cot fawn, black. 

Height : 12 in. 

Weight: 17 Ibs. 

This is a square and cobby 
dog, short in body, and wide 
in chest. His compactness 
of form and hardness of de- 
veloped muscle are his chief 
characteristics. The head is 
large, massive and round, 
muzzle short, blunt a n d 
square, and he should have 
large and deep wrinkles. The 
eyes are very large, dark, 
bold and prominent, with a 
soft and solicitous expres- 
sion, and when excited be 
full of "fire." The ears are 
thin, small and soft and of 
two varieties as regards car- 
riage "rose" and "button." The tail 
double curl is considered perfection, 
neither too hard nor too woolly. 


is curled as tightly as possible over the hip ; a 
His coat is fine, smooth, soft short and glossy, 


Height : 12 in. 

Weight : 20 Ibs. 

This is a hairless breed, except that he has a silky top-knot or crest, and some 
feathering or tuft at the root of the tail, which feature is considered very typical of 
the breed. It is difficult to assign its origin, but they are found freely in the South and 
Central American States, Mexico, South Africa and China. The ears should be carried 
erect and are never cut. The conformation of the body is like that of the black and tan 
terrier, but the head is shorter and the skull more rounded. The skin always feels 
cold and is of the color of the hide of an elephant. Some are mottled with flesh 
colored patches, and sometimes the skin is of a pink color with grizzle patches. 


Color : All colors) self-colored or parti colors. The most preferable being the 
self-colored white, black and lemon. 

Height : 14 in. 

Weight: 9 Ibs. 

This is a small ladies' pet dog, very active and intelligent, generally with one-third 
of his body clipped or shaved, which gives him the appearance of a lion in miniature. 
The head is short and broad ; eyes large, round and intelligent, and dark in color, ind 
his well feathered ears are long and hanging. The tail is of medium length, is clipped at 
the root, and well feathered at the tip. The coat is long and wavy, but not curly. 


Various Greyhounds 

Pnu-Quoc (Siam) 



In addition to the above named varieties of the Greyhound, there are others knojvn 
as Greyhounds of Crimea, of Caucasus, of Circassia, of Tartary, of Kurdistan, and of 
Anatoly. None of these, however, have any adopted "points," but are rather the result 
of crossings between the Borzoi and the different Asiatic greyhounds which are por- 
trayed in other parts of this work. 

As a general rule these dogs are used for hunting various kinds of fleet-footed 
game, sometimes in the interest of sport, but more frequently in the protection of the 
homestead against wolves and other kinds of wild beasts. 


Color: Red fawn or fawn with white patches. 

Height: 25 in. 

Weight: 66 Ibs. 

This is a lean-looking dog and by no means elegant. The skull is slightly domed, 
narrow and long, and the jaws are long and powerful. His almond-shaped, brown 
eyes convey a sour expression. The ears are pointed, erect, set on high, turned out- 
wards, and very movable. The head is lean and straight, neck straight and rather short, 
with short and powerful loins. The coat is short, hard and fairly long on the back, neck 
and tail. 



Color: Reddish-fawn with black muzzle and with dark strip down the back. 
Heig-ht : 21 in. Weight : 40 Ibs. 

This is a heavy kind of greyhound with a long, slightly domed skull, broad muzzle, 
jaw is long and powerful, lips and tongue black and with reddish eyes giving him a 
savage expression. The ears are carried erect, shell shaped and somewhat pointed. 
He is coarse in body, very long and flexible in neck, with broad and strong loins. 
The tail is short, very movable and carried curled over the back. The coat on the body 
and legs is very short and dense, and this dog is peculiar and different from any other 
kind in that the hair on the back grows the wrong way, and is much longer and harder 
there than on the rest of his body. 


Color : Reddish-roe, dark yellow, mouse grey, or black, with small white patch 
only on the chest. Height : 29 in. Weight About 56 Ibs. 

A muscular and well-built dog, but rather coarse for a greyhound. The head is 
narrow and pointed, jaws long, strong and powerful, and his hazel-brown eyes convey 
a lively expression. The ears are large, carried erect, sometimes semi-erect, pointed 
and set on not too high. The back is long and slightly arched, with muscular and 
rather coarse body, tail long and fine, carried upwards in a slight curve. Coat is 
smooth and in others wire-haired or broken. 



Color : Black, various 
shades of fawn and 
sometimes a dirty white. 

Height : 28 in. 

Weight : 70 Ibs. 

This is a rather big 
dog, but delicate and ele- 
gant in outline. His 
head is fine, light, lean 
and bony, with a slight^ 
domed skull. The eyes 
are mild, intelligent and 
dark brown. The ears 
hang close to the head, 
are long and well feath- 
ered with wavy hair. 
The neck is arched, ele- 
gant and slender. Chest 
deep and back straight, long and strong. He is moderately long in tail, which is carried 
hanging like a sabre. The coat is smooth and very soft, but is much longer on the 
ears and tail, where it is silky and wavy. 


Color : Light yellow sand color with black mask and black eyelids. 

Height : 28 in. 

Weight : 65 Ibs. 

This is a dog of lean, elegant and alert appearance. He is higher on the leg and 
shorter in the body than the English Greyhound. He is not as long in the head but 
more domed in the skull than the English dog, and seen in profile the head has some 
resemblance to that of the Jackal. The eyes are large, dark amber in color, and in- 
telligent in expression. He is rather large in ears, which are folded well down on the 
neck. He is strong and muscular in neck with hind quarters well developed. The tail 
is fairly long, fine and carried curved downwards. The coat is smooth, dense and fine. 


Belgian Dogs trained to draiv quick-firing guns 

Dogs in Warfare 

"Cry Havoc! and let slip the dogs of war" 

HOWEVER trite may be the saying that history repeats itself, it is unquestionably 
apposite in regard to the employment of dogs in warfare. Great hounds were 
used to guard the camps of Rome. In even more primitive times they were 
formidable adversaries in hand-to-hand conflicts, while to come to more modern days 
Frederick the Great and Napoleon two of the greatest soldiers the world has ever 
seen held a very high opinion of the value of canine sentries. Napoleon, in fact, 
is said to have urged Marmont to fasten dogs to stakes around the circuit of the walls 
of Alexandria to keep guard. 

(Recent wars have served to emphasize the advantages which may be gained by the 
use of the peculiar qualities of scent and hearing which dogs possess. Their sense 
of scent we human beings lack almost entirely, while they not only hear audible things 
more quickly than we do, but also hear things which are quite inaudible to u|7] Is it 
to be wondered at, therefore, that military experts have not been slow to recognize 
such potential properties? 


The present-day tendency consequently is to bring dogs more and more into the 
foreground in warfare. During the Russo-Japanese War the whole of the Manchurian 
Railway line was guarded by dogs, who gave the alarm, and on several occasions pre- 
vented the Japanese crossing the line. Those which were sent out from England with 
the Abor Expedition, N. W. Frontier, more than once prevented the sentries from 
being rushed during night duty, owing to their keener sense of hearing. In the Tripoli 
campaign their value was frequently demonstrated, while the dogs belonging to Major 
Richardson, the famous English trainer of war dogs, rendered yeoman service to the 
Bulgarians at the siege of Adrianople, where they were able to give warning of at- 
tempted sorties by the Turks. Some of Major Richardson's well-trained animals were 
also used in the Spanish trenches in Morocco, being responsible for the finding of 
hundreds of wounded men who would otherwise have been left to their fate. 



At the present moment most of the modern armies employ dogs, although naturally 
opinions differ as to the most suitable type of dog. The Russians have adopted the 
Caucasian dog, Austria, Dalmatians; Turkey, Asiatic Sheepdogs; France and Belgium, 
the smugglers' dogs of the Belgium frontier ; while Germany uses Collies, Pointers and 
Airedales. So far the British Army has ignored the value of trained dogs, though the 
Admiralty some five years ago instituted a scheme for the use of dogs in naval stations 
ashore. Major Richardson believes that the only really useful dogs are the Airedale, 
Sheepdog, and Bloodhound. 

What part dogs will play in the present great conflict time only will show, but that 
it will probably be a large one may be gathered from the fact that the German army 
alone possesses over 6,000. 

.. - '^mnSBBBHR 

Corps of Sentry Dogs 

The importance of determining some efficient and economical form of traction for 
Infantry machine guns had been under consideration in Belgium before the war. Up 
till recently, pack-horse transport had been considered the most satisfactory system. 
Exhaustive trials between this method and that of wheel traction by a pair of dogs of 
a breed known in that country as the Belgian Mastiff, have, however, resulted in favour 
of the latter, and the final adoption of this mode of transport for the Machine Gun 
Units of the Belgium Army. This form of traction is not novel in Belgium in civil 
life. According to the Journal of the Royal Artillery the breeding of dogs for light 
draught purposes has long been in vogue in that country, for the purpose of conveying 
farm produce from the country into the towns. Dog traction is employed by the 
country people, milkmen, bakers, greengrocers, and many artisans with light carts, 
in conducting their trade and business. There are reckoned to be 50,000 dogs available 
for this purpose in Belgium, of which 10,000 are in Brussels alone. They are found 
to be admirably suited for the purpose. Their bodies are thick set, loins strong, and 
they have deep chests, and muscular limbs. A dog of 110 Ibs. weight is capable of 
drawing on a good road a load of 880 Ibs., and a horse 1,100 to 1,300 Ibs. (or ten times 
and upwards the weight of one of these dogs), cannot draw much more than the 
equivalent increase of his weight. With an average load of 660 Ibs. behind the team on 
good roads, a dog can keep up for long distances a pace of 4 or 5 miles an hour; for 
several hundred yards he can attain a speed of from 6 to 7 miles an hour. 

The price of a pack-horse is not less than 40, and his daily forage may be reckoned 
to cost about 1/4^/2 a day, without taking into consideration the construction and up- 
keep of his stable. The pack-saddle costs about IS, whereas dog harness can be pur- 
chased for the pair of dogs for something less than 4. A male dog costs 4, and his 
food per day amounts to about 4^d. Finally, the small carriage for the machine gun 
or ammunition cart costs about 8, and the net cost for construction and unkeep of 
kennels is something small. Moreover, as the dog does not require shoes, lameness 
is rare, which we well know from the enormous distances he can go when hunting. 
He is intelligent and docile, and puts all his heart into serving his master faithfully 
under all circumstances. The length of his military service may be taken at from 
eight to nine years. The discipline of the trained dog is such that an untrained dog, 
harnessed with him, would be compelled to submit to all the movements of the former. 
On the march, and under fire, one can rely on his working till absolutely exhausted 
or mortally wounded. These are the qualities which can be developed in the breeding 
kennel, and in his subsequent training. The four wheels of the little gun carriage 


are made of tubes of steel, light, low and stable, and fitted with pneumatic tires. The 
carriage complete does not weigh more than 220 Ibs., and is easily dragged by the 
team of two dogs, or eventually carried by the four members of the detachment. Its 
height and breadth are each about 31 inches. The trials were carried out to test the 
following : Visibility, mobility on roads and across country, overcoming obstacles, 
and resistance to fatigue. They lasted three weeks in bad weather, during which a 
distance of 250 miles was covered. The six pack-horses were wither-galled, and had 
to be successively replaced but not so the dogs. On the march across country, 
or commons, of from \ l / 2 to 3 miles, where the ground presented obstacles or was 
broken up, the dogs gained without doubt in mobility and speed over the horses, 
especially when ditches, hedges and low walls had to be negotiated. The teams 
crossed with ease ploughed land and crops, copses and banks. Assisted by the detach- 
ments they crossed over deep ditches and steep slopes. The horses showed signs of 
fatigue long before the dogs. The latter were afraid of nothing, and followed perfectly 
the member of the detachment charged with leading each team. They lay down or 
resumed the order of march on a signal, without even barking, and in perfect order. 

The smallest fold in the ground concealed the teams, and at 300 yards distance, 
nothing of them could be distinguished. Coming into or out of action was more 
rapidly effected than in the case of the pack-horses. 

Dog Harness 

The regiments to which they were attached had three sections, each of 2 guns and 
4 ammunition carts, requiring 36 dogs for the 18 vehicles. 

In action the dogs gave every satisfaction, and whilst halted in positions of 
readiness for often considerable periods, they lay down quietly waiting in their harness. 

In coming into action the Nos. 1 had sometimes to creep on in front, accompanied 
by the team driver of each gun, in order to choose their positions in actions. At a 
signal, the teams moved quickly up into the emplacements when, the detachments hav- 
ing brought the guns into action, the empty carriages with their drivers proceeded to 
the rear and rejoined the ammunition carts under cover. 

The trials indeed were so successful that orders were issued to erect, for all 
infantry regiments, kennels for a dozen dogs per unit, and at Beverloo a remount and 
training establishment for these dogs was to be formed. 

It is even reported in the course of the campaign, in Belgium that the war dogs 
of the machine guns took a still more active part by "going for" German soldiery. 


m m 

The Ambulance Dog at Work 


Not until the history of the present European war comes to be written will it be 
known just how great have been the services of the dog for ambulance work. Shortly 
after the outbreak of this, the world's greatest war, an Association in Germany, 
formed about the year 1893, known as the Ambulance Dogs' Association, greatly 
increased its activities. 

It has been found by experience that the best breeds for ambulance work are 
collies, retrievers, bloodhounds, Airedale terriers, German shepherd dogs and Dober- 
mann Pinschers. It is absolutely essential that ambulance dogs should be extremely 
wiry and hardy, and capable of great hardship and endurance, otherwise they are of 
little use. 

The manner in which ambulance, dogs are employed is to help the Red Cross men 
and doctors to search for wounded within a given area on the battlefield. A dog's 
sense of scent and acute hearing enable him frequently to detect the sound of the 
breathing of a wounded man when inaudible to the human ear. Moreover, a puff of 
wind often suffices to carry to the dog's nose the scent of a man lying possibly uncon- 
scious in some concealed place. 

Fields of battle nowadays are widely extended, and soldiers have to take advantage 
of every possible bit of natural cover. The instinct of the wounded is to use their last 
strength in seeking protection from artillery fire, cavalry charges, the wheels of guns, 
and the other horrors to which they are exposed. They crawl away into the most 
hidden, safest places. The collection of the wounded is usually at night. This accounts 
for the large numbers that after each battle are reported as "missing." In some 
instances the missing have been more than half as many as the known total of killed 
and wounded. 

They are differently equipped in the armies of different countries. The Germans 
provide their ambulance clogs with a saddle with pockets in which are bandages and 
dressings, while around the neck is a wooden flask of stimulant. The Italians and 
French put the flask in a pocket of the saddle. British experts consider bandages and 
stimulant unnecessary, as every man has to carry his own first-aid dressing, and the 
extra weight hinders the dog's action. In the English army the dogs wear a very 
light saddle with the Geneva cross on each side, and a loud bell hangs from a leather 
collar. The Russians provide their ambulance dogs with small lanterns and attach 
the bells elsewhere on the collar. 


In some of the European armies the ambulance dog is trained to return to his 
master and guide him to the wounded man ; in others he is taught to bark and give 
the news of his discovery in that way. Still another method is to have the dog on a 
long leash and thus lead the searcher in the right direction. 

The Japanese also use scouting dogs in this way, and so do many of the European 
armies. They are trained to growl at any sudden surprise, their natural temptation 
to bark being thwarted by muzzling with a leather strap. In sentry duty the muzzle 
is moved. With an upwind blowing these sentry dogs are able to detect the approach 
of men and horses an extraordinary distance away. 

On the whole, it is found that the speediest method is for the dog to stay beside 
his "quarry" when found, and bark until the ambulance arrives, but there is the 
drawback that if several dogs are being employed in a restricted area and several bark 
simultaneously, it is not always easy to locate whence the barking comes. 

The Germans, unlike the French, do not permit their dogs to wear even a collar, 
as it is thought that this may hinder him in pushing his way through the thicket 
or hedges. It has often happened that the wounded are found adjacent to some hedge 
or other cover not easy to search by human aid alone. On the other hand, the French 
fasten water bottles around the neck of the dog and train him to search for wounded, 
who, if still conscious, eagerly grasps the welcome and ofttimes life-saving beverage. 

Constant practice in this, as in other kinds of dog training, is an absolute essential. 
As the war proceeds more and more use will be made of the special functions and 
gifts of dogs, a resume of which, when peace again reigns, will surely prove one of the 
most interesting phases of the hostilities now taking place in Europe. 

In the annals of the French army Mustache is still a celebrity. Mustache was one 
of the war dogs in the Italian campaign when Napoleon was first consul. He saved 
the French army from a night surprise and annihilation. Later he tracked- and 
captured a spy who had secured valuable information. But this dog's crowning achieve- 
ment was at the battle of Austerlitz. 

The standard bearer of the regiment had just fallen dead. Mustache's teeth and 
an Austrian soldier's hands grasped the tattered, bloodstained banner simultaneously. 
Mustache flew at his enemy's throat and bore him down. Then, seizing the flag, he 
carried it back to the regiment. Napoleon gave Mustache the highest decoration for 
valor. He met a soldier's death not long afterward, racing forward beside the flag, 
leading the regiment in a furious charge. 

The Canine Ambulance Division of the French Army Off to the Front. 

British Sheep Dogs 

PUBLIC trials of working sheep dogs were first introduced by Mr. Lloyd Price, 
of Rhiwlas, Bala, North Wales, in 1873. The object for which they were 
originally instituted was to promote a better training of sheep dogs amongst 
the Welsh farmers. 

Strange as it may seem, though the mountainous districts of Wales have been 
devoted from time immemorial almost exclusively to sheep rearing, the old-time 
farmers took little trouble in the training of dogs to collect and work their sheep. In 
fact, previous to the inauguration of the competitions, the duties of the Welsh sheep 
dog were confined principally to the taste of hunting and chasing sheep back again up 
the mountains whenever they strayed down to graze upon the more fertile pastures in 
the valley which the farmers reserved for their cattle. This was well enough so long as 
the sheep were roaming at will among their native haunts and feeding grounds, but 
whenever it was necessary for the farmer to gather his flock together the trouble 
began. The hardy little animals are wild and timid creatures that are not easily 
induced to leave their mountain, home; moreover, when at liberty they are scattered 
in small lots over immense tracts of country. 

To gather sheep from the mountains with the aid of dogs alone was in those days, 
with few exceptions, an utter impossibility, consequently as many as ten or twelve 
men had to be employed tq scour the mountains, and even then many stragglers were 
inevitably left behind. Nowadays all that is changed, one man can with the assist- 
ance of a good sheep dog do the same work much more thoroughly and satisfactorily, 
and without hustling or distressing the sheep (themselves. 

The systematic training of sheep dogs has indeed accomplished for the sheep- 
rearing hill farmer almost as much in the way of labor-saving as the adoption of agri- 
cultural machinery has done for the farmer who cultivates the lowlands. 

The sagacity displayed by a really good sheep-dog gathering sheep upon a moMii- 
tain side, often a mile or more away from his master, must be seen to be believed. 
When the farmer goes out to gather his flock for shearing or other purposes, far away 
upon the bleak hillside, little clusters of white spots are all that are to be seen. The 
farmer takes up a position upon some point of vantage, gives a word or whistle or 
instruction to his four-footed companion, and the dog bounds away in response till he 
seems no more than a tiny moving speck occasionally visible in the distance. Sharp 
and shrill the farmer's whistle pierces the keen mountain air, and ever and anon, as 
though by magic, the little white dots begin to move and converge towards a common 
center. In response to one signal the sound of the dog's answering bark can be heard ; 
another signal and he drops as though shot, and is as/ silent as the grave. In the dim 
distance a few small dots can be seen; they are some stragglers that have been over- 
looked ; a whistle galvanizes them also into motion, but in the wrong direction ; a 
moment later and they are merged into one motionless white blot upon the dark 
mountain side. The blot moves again, not quite in the desired direction ; whistle suc- 
ceeds whistle in quick succession, and at each one the little moving blot alters its 
course, zig-zagging this way and that, until it finally becomes merged in the large 
white patch that marks the remainder of the flock, which keeps on the move, drawing 
nearer and nearer until the sheep take shape and can be seen coming down steadily 
with the dog dodging in their rear, till they are rounded up and brought to a standstill 
within reach of the farmer's; stick. Such a sight is common today upon the Welsh 
mountain or in the Scottish Highlands, though it is not given to every man to acquire 
perfect mastery over his animal ; so much depends upon both man and dog. A dog 
belonging to a man who takes no interest, or has not the knadk 1 and patience necessary 
to teach him is worse than useless. The dog often reflects to a great extent his 
master's character. An excitable, hasty-tempered man generally has a headstrong, 
willful dog that is hard to control. Some dogs, born of a long line of carefully- 
trained sheep dogs, take to working sheep as ducks do to water; a savage, uncon- 
trollable brute, whose only ambition seems to be to worry and abuse the sheep, and 
there are hundreds of such animals, is simply a hindrance and a source of trouble to 
its owner, as anyone who is acquainted with sheep and their ways knows full well. 

The sheep dog proper must above all things be gentle and patient with its often 
cantankerous charges, yet firm and masterful enough to inspire the timid sheep .with 
sufficient sense of fear to cause them to move away in another direction at its appear- 
ance and approach without creating such a panic-stricken stampede. Such strains of 
dogs are scarce and highly-prized by their owners, though from the show-bench 
fancier's point of view their often nondescript exterior cannot be classified into those 
niceties of shape and color in which the judge of show dogs delight. Many a sheep 

clog that would not attract a second glance from a professional dog judge has won 
enough in money prizes to turn the whole fraternity green with envy. 

Such a dog is, for instance, Mr. J. Moses' "Old Jem," not beautiful to look at, 
but of sterling quality, which has won for his master over $1,000 in cash quite irre- 
spective of the value of himself and his progeny. 

Sheep-dog trials are now held in all parts of the British Empire, Canada, New 
Zealand, Australia; in fact, wherever sheep are reared in any quantity. 

Perhaps one of the most favorable opportunities the general public has of watch- 
ing one of these absorbingly interesting spectacles is during the well-known agricul- 
tural show held each year in Lord Rothchild's beautiful park at Tring, England. A 
description of an actual trial witnessed by the writer in these ideal surroundings will 
give an idea of the exciting nature of the tests and high standard of perfection to 
which the numerous entries have to be trained before they can compete with the 
remotest chance of success. 

A portion of the vast park, some three-quarters of a mile long and about half as 
wide, remote from the show ground where the exhibits are localized, is divided off by 
a rope fence ; this > constitutes the course, of wihich thousands can obtain a full and 
uninterrupted view. The competitor takes up his stand near the center with his dog 
or dogs, for there are prizes for two dogs working together as well as for single dog 

When "Penning," the Man Is Allowed to Assist the Dog. 

trials. The number of sheep that have to be driven round the course is three only ; 
this small number greatly increases the difficulties of the subsequent maneuvers. Fresh 
sheep are provided for each competitor, usually those of the wild, hardy mountain 

At a given signal the animals) are released from a cart that is out of sight in a 
clump of trees on a hill some half a mile distant. The dog must then locate the sheep, 
the master remaining in the center of the course guiding and directing him by voice or 
whistle as he chooses. The obstacles consist of, first, what is termed "a false fence" ; 
that is to say, two short limes of hurdles so placed as to leave a wide gap through 
which the dog must drive the sheep ; should he allow them to run round the end of 
one of the lines instead of through the center, the sheep must be driven back and 
another attempt made. The second obstacle is a flag-post, round which the sheep 
must be driven in a circle before being conducted through a V-shaped gap made with 
two hurdles. 

If the dog has negotiated these obstacles successfully he will have brought his 
charges to within about a hundred yards of his master. Having been successful in 
bringing the sheep so far, a very different task awaits both dog and master at the 


"Maltese Cross." At this, and the final "penning up" of the sheep, the master is per- 
mitted by the rules of the trials, to assist his dog personally. The "Maltese Cross" 
consists of two lanes intersecting at right angles, each passage being only just suffi- 
ciently wide to permit the sheep to pass in single file. It must not be imagined that 
the wild mountain sheep, terrified at their unwonted surroundings and the presence of 
a strange dog, submit tamely to being thus driven past alternative openings without 
strenuous efforts to break away and bolt in whichever direction their erratic fancy 
dictates. The master must be on the alert for these attempts, and be quick and 
decisive in giving his dog instruction as to how to frustrate these sudden rushes. It 
is upon the promptitude and correctness with which the dog responds to the signals 
that success or failure depends. It is at the cross that the innate perversity of the 
sheep's nature asserts itself, with the result that the first animal very frequently turns 
down one or other of the cross lanes instead of going straight through. When this 
occurs the other two naturally follow, and all three must be induced to negotiate the 
passage again. Having driven the sheep through straight in one direction, the dog 
and his master must then bring them back and run them through the other lane at 
right angles to the original course. Finally, the even more difficult task of "penning 
up" awaits the competitors. The final pen is formed of four hurdles with a space 
just sufficient to admit one sheep at a time left open. The slightest over-anxiety on the 
part of the dog or his master is fatal at this stage of the trial. The difficulty of 
exercising the necessary self-restraint will be the more readily realized when one 

The Sheep Being Driven Through the Maltese Cross. 

considers that it is often a matter of working against time, as should a dog have been 
a little slower unfortunate in his previous maneuvers he is extremely liable to exceed 
the time limit set for the competition, and thus lose the points awarded for penning. 

It cannot be laid down as an infallible rule that the best dog for actual field work 
will always win a competition, so much relies on the master and other incidental 
details which affect the judge's decision, 

The most important consideration from the competitor's point of view is the 
invididuality of the three sheep which the dog is called upon to work. Some, when 
released, are found to be extremely wild, and cause the dog a lot of trouble by frantic 
efforts to escape. Others often adopt an aggressive attitude towards the dog, and 
persist in facing round and charging at him instead of allowing themselves to be 
driven, This type of sheep is most exasperating, both to dog and man. Again, many 
dogs, more especially young ones, are excitable by the applause of the spectators. 

To ^see sheep dogs work to perfection one should watch them, as the writer has 
been privileged to do, being practiced and trained upon their own home ground, where 
one can realize more fully the practical utility of a well-trained dog and the amount 
of labor which he saves his owner. The north of England and some parts of Scotland 
have always been noted for good dogs, the original strain being a cross between the 


smooth collie and the old Scotch bearded collie. These animals are naturally hardy, 
fleet-footed and sagacious, and for real skill in working sheep will hold their own 
against any dogs in the world. 

One of the most prominent and successful trainers is Mr. J. Moses, of Oswestry, 
who is manager of Lord Harlech's Home Farm at Brogyntyn>, and the accompanying 
photographs show some of his famous dogs at work on the farm. Mr. Moses is a great 
advocate of teaching a dog to work entirely by whistle, instead of giving commands in 
ordinary language. The great advantage of this system is that the dog can hear and 
recognize the signals at a much greater distance, and when once accustomed to them 
is much less liable to misinterpret his master's meaning than is the case when the 
command is given vocally. Many people seem to find a difficulty in training their dogs 
to work by whistle, but if the system is started at the commencement of a young dog's 
training he will soon learn to appreciate the distinctions of sounds and obey them 
more readily. 

In order to demonstrate the perfect command that my friend had over the actions 
of his dog, even at a great distance, for it must have been over three-quarters of a 
mile, Mr. Moses made "Trim" execute a series of maneuvers, instructing the dog to 
drive the sheep round a telegraph post, in and out of two trees, take them back again 
to the original spot in which they were first located, and finally drive them straight 
up to within reach of his master's stick. Each and every one of these evolutions was 
carried out with such skill, intelligence and obedience on the part of the dog that it 
seemed hard at first to realize that "Trim" was actually obeying implicitly his master's 
command, and mot just driving the sheep about for his own pleasure. 

The maneuvering of sheep at a distance is a feature in sheep-dog trials for which 
more points than are now granted should be given, as it demonstrates unmistakably 
the excellence of the training and also the actual utility of a dog for field work. Many 
dogs are under perfect control as long as they are within reach- of their master's stick, 
but cannot be relied upon implicitly when far away ; such a dog is obviously improp- 
erly trained. 

Patience and firmness are the keynotes of success in training a sheep dog, though 
everything relies, in the first instance, upon the suitability of the dog taken in hand, for 
good sheep dogs are born as well as made, and a well-bred puppy will have a natural 
instinct for the work, which will reveal itself at an early age. 

In the next chapter will be found some useful hints on the training of the working 
sheep dog. 

Training the Working Shepherd Dog 

CERTAIN technical terms are used in the following article which it may be well 
to explain for the benefit of those not familiar with the shepherd's vocabulary. 
1. The "run out" means that the dog is sent away to gather the sheep. 
"Running out" is the act of going for the sheep. 

2. "Hauling" in its widest sense means the dog going out for his sheep, taking 
command of them and bringing them to the shepherd. In the narrower sense, how- 
ever, the term is confined to the bringing in of the sheep by the dog. 

3. "Shedding" means the dividing of a lot of sheep. Supposing, for example, a 
shepherd wis'hes to separate lambs from their mothers, the act of doing so by the 
dog is called "shedding." 

4. "Wearing" means keeping a sheep from going in the wrong direction. Sup- 
posing, for example, a sheep bolts up a wrong road, the dog is sent to turn it back. 
Turning back is the "wearing." 

5. A "cut" simply refers to a number of sheep. Supposing, for example, a shep- 
herd herds five or six hundred sheep and goes for forty or fifty to take them to the 
market. The number so taken is called a "cut." 

6. "Flying off" means where the dog yields to the sheep instead of facing up to 
them. In "wearing" this is best seen. A dog which will not come in close to stubborn 
sheep, yields to them when pressed, is said to "fly off." 

7. A "soft-tempered" dog is one which shows little grit when pressed by wild or 
stubborn sheep. It won't, stand up to them and shows little fight, and generally 
evidence of a soft disposition. The contrary expression is "hard tempered," which 
means a dog that will not yield to wild or stubborn sheep, but will face up to them, 
and as a last resort will even grip and show his teeth and other signs of temper and 

Believing that some instruction as to the methods employed in the training of the 
working collie will be helpful to those who desire to bring out the best gifts with 


which Nature has endowed this king of all utility dogs, we append a few suggestions 
from the curriculum of Mr. T. P. Brown, of Qxton, Berwickshire, Scotland, than 
whom no one is more qualified to speak on this important subject. 

In the first place, it must be acknowledged that unless the master has himself 
studied :the subject with the utmost care and keen perception, success in teaching a 
dog to work sheep will not fall to his lot. Many a good dog has been spoiled in the 
hands of an unthinking and unsympathetic would-be trainer, and, conversely, many a 
vicious, timid, or "wild" dog has been converted by the master hand into a brainy, 
intelligent servant. 

With few exceptions, any collie can be taught to work sheep; therefore, as a 
general proposition, it is the man who makes or mars the dog's natural bent. 

To achieve the greatest measure of success the sooner one starts the elementary 
first lessons /the better. The puppy should be taken in hand when three or four 
months old. 

The very first step is to teach him to run up to you. Use a thin, low whistle with 
the lips, and pat and make a fuss of him when he comes up. 

The second lesson is to get him .to go down quickly. This is best done by a hiss. 
If he does not put his head down, press it gently down with your hand. This has 
generally to be repeated a good many times before he does it nicely. Some pups go 
down of their own accord when they see the sheep. This is no real drawback, but as 
a rule they require a little more training to go down when commanded, instead of 
waiting till they get to a place where they want to go down. 

After the pup has learned to go down nicely, put him down and walk away, and 
see if he will lie still until you give him the whistle to come up, and don't rest satis- 
fied until he does -so with alacrity. 

When he has learned to do this to please you, begin to stop him half-way up, and 
always see that he puts his head in the proper position. He should be proficient in 
this before he is ever taken to the sheep. No pup should ever be taken to the sheep 
until he is under complete control in the run up and lay down. To introduce him to 
sheep until he has thoroughly mastered these simple but highly-important commands 
has a tendency to spoil him and get him into bad habits. No matter how fast he is 
running, if you give him the hiss to stop he should drop like a stone ; and, on the 
other hand, he should obey the command to come on quickly and without the least 
hesitation, and on no account should he rise until told to do so. To fall and rise 
when commanded, and only when commanded, is the most important point in the 
training of a collie. Having progressed so far, the pup should now be taken to 
the sheep. 

If he is off a good working strain, he will either circle away round his "quarry" 
or he will "set" and crawl forward. 

If he circles round anjl goes down, and the sheep do not come away, he is apt 
to lie still, but if you use the call whistle and bring him a little forward, then drop 
him. The sheep will most likely come away, and you must take care that he comes 
straight behind them, and not too quickly. 

Don't use the call whistle very long at first, just a little to get him to understand 
to start the sheep. Get him used to start either with a sheep or a short whistle. 

If in running up to the sheep he does not go right round, you must go up to the 
sheep and move them in the direction you want them to go. Then use the whistle, 
sound or words by which you want to shift him (some trainers say "Keep wide" or 
"Keep wide, away out," but it is better to use only distinctive whistles). 

You should thus keep the sheep moving about, making him move to what spot you 
want. Others use a combination of whistles and signs (motions of the arms). This 
latter method has its advantages w r hen working at a distance and under certain climatic 

When the dog has become expert in moving about, teach him to "run out." Don't 
try him too far away at first, and if possible let him see the sheep. 

A perfect run out should be in the form of a good wide circle all the way until he 
gets well behind the sheep. Then he should double back behind the sheep when he 
sees he has them all rounded up, and he should be allowed to move them a little 
before you put him dowm. 

In "haulding" them he should come straight behind the sheep, and not too near 
them. If they come steadily, he should be allowed to follow them in. When "hauld- 
ing" a few sheep, say five, he should bring them in straight ; but with a large number 
he should "flank" them from side to side in half-moon circles, as by this means he gets 
them forward in better time. 

By this time the dog should have learned to go down at a distance from the 
shepherd, a distance which is only restricted by the impossibility of hearing the whistle. 


In all these processes one requires four different kinds of whistles one for the 
"call," one to go out, one to stop and lie down, and one to hauld. 

To teach a dog "to shed," get the sheep to pass quietly between yourself and the 
dog several times ; the dog during this time must lie down. 

Then divide the sheep and give him the call whistle to come in to you, and drop 
him when he is in between the two lots. Then go behind one of the lots and press 
them on to the dog and get him "to wear" and turn them to you. 

Repeat this several times, and in giving the call whistle make sure that he never 
rises until commanded, for a dog that moves about as the sheep move will never be a 
good "shedder," as he always mixes the sheep up when you are preparing for a "cut." 
Be sure also that he shifts every time you ask him, and that he turns the sheep in to 
you, instead of flying off them. 

At this stage in his education the dog should be approaching his complete training. 
To teach him to come in front of the sheep, draw him to you by the call whistle. 
He will think at first that he is to come in to you, but when you see he is far enough 
past the sheep to give him plenty of room to work, give him the whistle to go to the 
sheep. He will then turn and face the sheep, and as he does so drop him there. After 
being several times repeated he will do this as readily as he has learned to go round 
behind the sheep. 

The next lesson is to teach him to go from one side to the other, passing between 
you and the sheep. 

Let him go half round the sheep, then get him to go forward on the sheep from 
any point he is stopped, by either driving straight from you or from the left side to 
the right side. This feat is most necessary for driving away or for pole work at a trial. 

The art of wearing a single sheep has not been touched on, because unless the dog 
is naturally gifted with this it is almost impossible to make him proficient at it, 
though one can help him a little. 

Much depends on the nerve and compelling power of the dog's eye. Leave him 
pretty well to his own resources until he has the sheep stopped before you drop him. 

Some pups are naturally born with tendencies to wearing single sheep, including 
to run too wide or too near, and, worst of all, stopping before they go round the sheep. 
Be guarded to immediately check these faults, and remember that command is the 
most important lesson of all. 

One hears a great deal about bad-tempered dogs and soft-tempered ones, but it is 
not so much a display of temper as nervousness. If a dog keeps his eye on the sheep, 
no matter how soft he is in the temper, any capable trainer can make him a good dog, 
but the one who won't keep his eye on the sheep can never become proficient in his 
service to his lord and master. 

Police Dogs 

IT is admitted on all hands that the dog is capable of training to do his master's 
bidding in a great many different ways. 
Other chapters appear in ithis work detailing with what purpose he is used as an 
aid to the hunter, sportsman, courser, for the drawing of quick-firing guns into the 
firing line, for ambulance work, for sentry duty, as an indispensable aid in all Arctic 
and Antarctic expeditions, to say nothing of the sport certain breeds give us as racing 
and performing dogs. 

The purport of this chapter is to indicate with what success he is being trained 
as a branch of the police force. Thousands of dogs, mostly of the German and Belgian 
sheepdog variety, are at this present time enrolled in the widely scattered police and 
other municipal forces of America and other countries. 

In the training of dogs for this work a special aptitude on the part of the 
"handler" or "guide" is essential. Given a reasonable amount of common sense, un- 
limited patience and an understanding of a dog's nature, success is assured in a large 
majority of cases. 

The police dog trial is an old story so far as Germany, Belgium and Holland are 
concerned. Americans are now taking this highly instructive work in hand and the 
displays create a tremendous amount of enthusiastic interest. The objects of such 
trials are: 

1. Obedience exercises. 

2. Detective work. 

3. Protective work. 

The obedience exercises called for are: 

1. Heeling on leash. 

2. Heeling without leash. The guide turns to right or left. Runs, walks and 
stops with the object of confusing the dog. 



The Police Dog is Trained to Attack on Command 

3. Refusing food offered by strangers or thrown OT found on the ground. The 
dog is made to lie down both free and in the absence of the guide, and he must refuse 
bread, meat or other tempting morsels of food. Then a dish of food is placed within 
his reach, but he must not touch it under penalty of lost points. 

4. Guarding objects. This is considered a most important acquisition. Every 
possible effort is made to remove the object by the judge. The dog is chained beside 
the object, which is well within his reach, and he is taught to lie down quietly beside 
it and not to move or growl 1 or show his teeth until the judge makesi an effort to take 
the object away quietly. ;If a vigorous attempt is made to snatch the object then the 
dog is to defend it and himself in energetic fashion. Even when the judge threatens 
the dog with a stick, or by coaxing, the faithful tyke will be proof against them all. 
Bad marks are recorded if he gnaws the object or otherwise misuses it. 

5. Giving "tongue" on command. This must be dome continuously on command. 
It is insufficient for him to bark once and imitation barking by the guide is forbidden. 

6. Retrieving objects weighing two pounds. The dog must sit down quietly and 
await instructions. Then he must bring it coming over a fence or hedge promptly and 
sit down again before his guide until relieved of the object. The varying heights of 
the fence or wall provide a number of diverse exercises in the retrieving lesson. 

9. Scaling wall. 

10. Going ahead. The guide walks across the trial ground with the dog at heel 
On command the dog runs ahead in the direction given to a distance of about 30 yards. 
He shall "drop" immediately on command andi stay there until told to rise. 

11. Lying down. The dog is shown free in this exercise and immediately on 
command he must rise and go away. 

The detective work is conducted as follows : 

1. Searching for objects left by a stranger at the end of a trail of 250 yards long 
and half an hour old. The trailer proceeds on a track, directed by the judge, walk 
at his natural pace and at the end of the trail stand still for one minute, wipe his feet 
well on the ground, place the object between his footprints and then take the shortest 
cut to a place again directed by the judge. An interesting variation of this is pro- 
vided by the object being placed thirty yards away from the end of trail and at 
right angles thereto. 


Police Dog Scaling Fence 8 ft. 6 in. High 

2. Search for object left by a stranger on a trail 500 yards long, and barking at 
the trailer when found. This is done both with the dog free and also when on leash 
ten yards long, and it is particularly desirable that the dog be taught to bark on 
finding the object or person discovered. 

The protective work comprises : 

1. Scouting over ground and barking at any large object found. The dog follows 
the direction indicated by the guide and covers the ground carefully, searching every 
nook and corner not so as to encircle the guide at a short distance. Three hiding 
places are provided. As soon as the dog finds the hidden person he is taught to watch 
him and by barking attract the guide's attention. 

2. Transporting "prisoner" without nipping. When found, the dog follows behind 
the "prisoner" quietly without barking or nipping. Any object dropped inconspicu- 
ously must be picked up at once by the dog and brought to the guide, then continue 
the transport without waiting for the command. If the "prisoner" attempts to escape, 
or attacks the guide, the dog must attack him immediately, without waiting for com- 
mand to do so. During these attacks the "prisoner" shoots twice into the air. 

3. Watching the "prisoner" quietly when latter is quiet. 

4. Arresting and holding the "prisoner" on attempted flight. The "prisoner" 
attempts to drive the dog away with blows or a whip or by throwing pieces of wood 
at him. The dog must watch him alone and twice stop an attempted flight. As soon 
as the "prisoner" is quiet the dog must leave him alone and watch him until the 
guide returns. 

A high percentage of points are given for general obedience. 

The whole attitude of the dog is taken into consideration especially between the 
different exercises if he remains at heel ; also how he controls himself between the 
exercises toward the "prisoner," and whether he needs holding in check by the collar 
and in other ways indicates that he understands when he is on duty and when he is not. 

Unquestionably these trials throw a good deal of light on the training of dogs 
used by the Continental nations for war purposes as well as for police work, and it is 
hoped that greater facilities will be given for such in other parts of the world. 


The Hunting World and the Use 

of Dogs 

IT IS to the Normans that the English-speaking races of the earth today owe their 
hunting hounds and in all their varieties. The Talbot hound was introduced into 

England at the time of the conquest by William the First. 

All are not agreed as to the color of these Talbot hounds. Spmervile, the great 
sporting poet, describes them as "white as Alpine snows," There is, however, reason 
to believe that they are invariably of a reddish tan and often with a black saddle. In 
form, color and shape they are very much like the English bloodhound of today; in- 
deed, that noble animal is supposed to be the bedrock of all the breeds of hunting 
hounds that are now in use the world over; and this because of that sentiment and 
recognition of the variety as the chief pillar or the stay of several of the most valued 
breeds, that the bloodhound is placed first in the stud books of England and America, 
and the breed is number one in the catalogues of the all-round dog shows everywhere. 

English Foxhounds in Full Cry 

It was and is desirable that the head of a hunting hound should be of the above 
description that is, if a close-diunting, unerring hound is required to hunt singly, 
rather than in a pack. The formation of the head above described, is one that is 
"made" for the purposes of hunting; and in such a head are to be found the highly 
developed olfactory nerves which communicate with the brain and actually inform 
the hound when he strikes the scent of an animal and whether the effluvium is recent 
or old. 

It is the gloriousness and health-giving surroundings that have made the chase 
so popular with nearly all peoples, and that is the reason hounds are bred with such 
care and may generally be found in the ownership of the well-to-do and the high per- 
sonages of the world. 

In the early days the English pursued the chase on foot, and their objects of pur- 
suit appear to have been principally the wild boar and the wolf. The Anglo-Normans 
might be considered as the more polished, more noble, and more scientific hunters, 
and they introduced that powerful and pleasant assistant in the chase the horse as 
well as a great variety of objects of pursuit. They chased the stag, the roebuck, the fox, 
the hare, etc., and hunting the less dangerous animals seems to have constituted their 
principal amusements; though the wolf and the boar occasionally occupied their 
attention, and in all these branches of the hunt dogs of varying degree were used. 


Every village in England has its beagles, and nothing is more enjoyable than an 
old-fashioned fox hunting, or chase, where -hounds belonging to many owners are 
packed together, and, jumping a fox, they run him for hours on end, their glorious 
music resounding throughout the woods and delighting the ear of the sportsman. The 
American foxhound appears to have more of the old harrier or English southern hound 
blood in him than is allowed to remain in the hound of the English. There are some 
broad-headed and long-eared and heavy-lipped hounds in the United States which 
remind the observer of the hounds of France and other Continental countries hounds 
that still bear a good deal of resemblance to the old talbot-hounds the hounds of the 
Normans. Finer and finer the English bred their hounds as stag hunting gave way to 
fox hunting. The old staghound was only one remove from the talbot, and he was 
a big and picturesque creature and these hounds are to be found in France today. 

Hunting is a foremost sport all over the world, and there can be little wonder that 
the spirit and -standing of the peoples may be gauged from the quality of their hounds 
The panoply of the chase is among the more glorious sights of the world, and in the 
pursuance of the various sports connected with hounds, large and small, a vast amount 
of money is spent, and a large number of persons employed, in the piping times of 

The beagle should be 15 inches or under, measured across the withers. If he is 
over that height he becomes a harrier ; ; and a harrier over 19 inches becomes a fox- 
hound, and a foxhound standing 24 inches at the shoulders and 30 inches round his 
girth is indeed a splendid creature and a beautifully proportioned one to boot. The 
hound is indeed a beauty and a joy forever ! 

In England alone there are more than 800 packs of hunting dogs. Roughly, there 
are 326 owners of hunts or hunting establishments in France. Some of these hunts 
have 50 or 60 couples. In Belgium foxhounds are kept, and the chief packs of hounds 
in Germany are the Royal Hounds, at Potsdam, and the Hanover Hounds. They both 
hunt the drag and the boar. The conditions of hunting in Austria and Hungary are 
much better than in Germany. It is a good wild country and full of foxes. The 
Roman hounds are world renowned. Fox hunting was introduced into Italy by Lord 
Chesterfield in 1842, and the sport has flourished ever since. In Spain the Calpa fox- 
hounds show much sport in the vicinity of Gibraltar. 

In the United States there are about forty well-known and properly established 
packs of foxhounds. Throughout the Indian Empire there are numerous packs, many 
of them being of the bobbery or mixed kind. The jackal is the most frequently hunted 
animal. The Bombay Hounds are the chief pack in India. 

In South Africa the jac'kal is hunted with foxhounds, and a single hound is used 
to drive buck to the rifle or gun. American foxhounds have recently been introduced 
to British East Africa for the purposes of hunting lion. These hounds have been of 
great use in bagging such large and dangerous game, and in the case of cheetah and 
other tree-climbing animals, the American foxhounds have not had the slightest diffi- 
culty in driving their quarry at such a pace and with so much persistence that the large 
cat is glad to see the supposed shelter of a thorn or other tree standing out like 
a sentinel on the vast expanse of plains. 

The foxhound, the harrier and the beagle are also of great use in Africa for 
driving, certain of the antelope, which keep in the bush, to the gun, and a good deal 
of sport may be had in some of the rivers otter hunting, and when otter hunting, a 
monitor, or huge lizard-like creature, is often started in a swamp, and the reptile, 
taking to the water like an otter, he will provide a good deal of sport. The otters in 
the Eastern province of South Africa are plentiful and of good size. The rivers are 
very huntable, for they are not deep and there is no great width or volume of water at 
certain seasons of the year. There is much sport to be had on the Mooi River, in 
Natal, where a pack of pure-bred otter hounds is kept. And these hounds will not 
only hunt the water dog but the aforesaid African monitor. Everywhere the hound 
is useful and especially is this the case in a big and open country like Africa, where a 
dog is required to be not only a hunter, but a guard and a friend. 

In Australia there is a good deal of hunting and the Melbourne hunt is a well- 
organized institution. Australia is a country in which all animal life increases and mul- 
tiplies rapidly. In 1864 one dog fox and two vixens were imported from England. There 
soon became enough foxes in Victoria to last the colony, now the province, forever. But 
red deer and kangaroos are sometimes hunted with foxhounds, and in Western Austra- 
lia, in the neighborhoods of Freemantle, Perth and Kalgoorlie, there has been much 
sport experienced in hunting the brush-tailed kangaroos. This form of hunting was 
introduced by Mr. Cairns Candy in the late nineties. 

In Tasmania, the island province off the main Australian continent, there is some 
hunting with properly constituted and maintained packs of hounds. In this lovely 


country, noted for its apples and the matchless complexions of its pretty women, they 
hunt deer and hare. In New Zealand there is a good deal of hunting, and harriers are 
principally in use. There is a fine open country, and that in the North Island will 
remind the hunting man of some of the shires of England. 

The hounds of Europe, Asia, Africa and Australasia have been discussed, and now 
we will find ourselves back in America. And this country may well be proud of its 
old-fashioned, long-eared, heavy-jawed and deep-throated foxhounds. That American 
foxhounds are suitable for hunting American foxes, and where foxes are shot before 
hounds, there can be no manner of doubt; but they do not kill many foxes, neither 
may this killing quality be placed to the credit of the English foxhounds in this 
country. Once a fox is able to sit down and listen to his pursuers, then a foxhound 
or a pack of foxhounds, have as much chance of overtaking the quarry as a short- 
ringed hawk has of catching a swallow on the wing. A century ago, it is recorded, 
it was not unusual in South Carolina to drive out of one large swamp, deer, wolves, 
bears, foxes, wildcats and wild turkeys. The sportsmen were ready to shoot all of 

In descriptive poetry of the earliest date, hunting is frequently alluded to ; even in 
the most important action of the whole Iliad, the death of Hector, the pursuit of him 
by Achilles is thus introduced : 

"As through the forest, o'er the vale and lawn, 
The well-breathed beagle drives the flying fawn, 
In vain he tries the coverts of the brakes, 
Or deep beneath the trembling thicket shakes, 
Sure of the vapor in the tainted dews, 
The certain hound his various maze pursues." 


The Gun and Coursing Dogs of 
the World 

IF there be one study in connection with dogs more interesting than another, it must 
be that which has reference to the gun dogs and the coursing dogs of the 
world. Since time immemorial, dogs have been used by man for certain purposes 
and those which he has bred, maintained and improved for his services, have kept time 
with the ever-changing methods whereby the human is able to obtain and have for 
himself the beasts of the field and the birds of the air. The first men who went after 
game hunted it for food; and they very soon found out the most suitable dogs for their 
purposes and they bred and produced dogs for different kinds of work. It is fair to 
write that no domestic animals are better represented throughout the world than are 
thoroughbred dogs of one kind or another. The pure-breeds are to be found in coun- 
tries that are foreign to their varieties, and what is more, they are highly and justly 
prized by their owners and even the very community in which the imported dog has' its 
new being. For let it be known, there are less distinctions than owning a superior 
dog, and as these dogs are capable of reproducing themselves, and both the males and 
females are prolific breeders, there is almost at once, or within one year, established 
in the kennel of the new land the high-blooded and moreover most useful dogs of other 
nations. And that is the reason that wherever we may go we shall probably find the 
particularly good gun dogs of Great Britain. These consist of the pointer, the English, 
Irish and Gordon setters, the retrievers and the Labrador or Lesser Newfoundland 
dogs, and the various spaniels, which have all been practically made perfect in the 
British Isles and distributed to the four corners of the earth. Dogs have been pro- 
duced that will hunt as well in one country as another ; but one can generally find that 
dogs gun dogs and coursing dogs are mostly chosen with an eye to the environment 
in which they will have to 'hunt 

Both the pointer and the spaniel originally came from Spain, so it is said. But the 
original Spanish pointer was too heavy and slow in his pace for the English gunner, 
so he was crossed with the lighter foxhound, and it is even said with the greyhound, 
so that he should be more active and able to cover his ground better. Furthermore, the 
heavy-headed Spanish pointer had the kind of head and lips that proclaim a hunting 
dog that is inclined to keep his nose to the ground, rather than carry it highly and thus 
better obtain the body scent of birds and other game in the distance. The setter was 
originally the large spaniel, and was taught to "set" or sit down when he had come 
upon birds, so that the game could be encompassed by the fall-net, or the hawk or 



falcon might have the better opportunity to fly at her quarry. When the small pellets 
of lead were invented and the shortgun first used then the setters of the netters and 
falconers became gun dogs, and as such we will find pointers, setters, retrievers and 
spaniels of English origin in every country where the sportsman may be found. Gun 
and coursing dogs are not only imported into America as workers but as show dogs, 
and in the great majority of cases these dogs are thoroughly broken or trained as well 
as being good to look upon. Then these gun dogs may compete at the various field 
trials now run off all over Europe, the United States and Canada, or even South Africa, 
or at the coursing meetings in every country of the world. The coursing dog is found 

The Hunter and His Dog 

most useful in Canada, especially in the prairie provinces, where coyotes are destructive 
and a curse to the sheepman and even the horse breeder, for a pack of prairie wolves 
will attack and kill a foal. As a part and parcel of the farm, the ranch, the station and 
estancia the gun dog and the coursing dogs are invaluable. Pointers, setters, spaniels 
and retrievers are useful under all circumstances, and they perform the same work in 
all climates and under the various and dissimilar conditions. In some countries pointers 
are preferred to setters ; but, on inquiry, it will generally be found that the alleged 
fitness of one variety of dog over the other, is merely a matter of taste or "fancy." A 
man who owns setters prefers setters; the individual who possesses pointers has a 


preference for pointers. Tis 'his fancy his hobby, and that gentle leaning towards 
one breed often means the fellow's antipathy to another breed. 

In a land or country that has been indifferently cultivated or is wild, there are 
several kinds of burrs that inconveniently fall at the very time when (the hunting or 
shooting season begins. Some say that the pointer, because of his short coat, will not 
be so troubled with these prickles as will the long-coated setter, which is feathered on 
the legs and picks up the burrs wherever he may go. On the other hand, the setter 
admirer avows that the feathered and better protected foot of the setter saves him from 
being lamed so often as the clean and unprotected footed pointer. So it will be seen 
that these preferences are mostly imaginary and may be traced to fancy. 

On the Continent of Europe we find many kinds of most useful dogs ; but both the 
pointers and setters are only modifications of the old hunting dogs that came from 
Spain. There are rough-haired and smooth-coated pointers in Germany, and they are 
very handsome animals with excellent formation and with hunting qualities of the 
highest order. The griffons of France, Holland and Belgium are particularly good 
dogs; rough and ready in appearance, with excellent brains and great scenting powers. 
In him we will recognize a lot of hound blood which may have come from the otter- 
hound or the hounds of Vendee. But they are just the sort of dogs that a man wants 
for rough-shooting in the woods or swamps. The griffon is an active dog, does not 
throw his tongue when immediately close to game or in sight of it, as does the hound. 
The griffon makes a good woodcock, "partridge" and duck dog; and as such he has 
been found of the greatest use in America. The griffon is a good dog in the water as 
well as on land, and in this way he proves himself a thoroughly serviceable all-round 
sporting dog. The wolf-hounds of Russia are most useful dogs, and as their name 
foretells, they are used as wolf-coursing dogs. Three are slipped to the wolf after he 
has been driven from cover by foxhounds or beaters. When they come up with their 
game they bump into the quarry and at the right moment lay hold of the beast by the 
neck and hold him until the hunter arrives and either dispatches the game with a 
pistol or knife, or placing a stick] in the wolf's jaws, twists a rope around the muzzle 
and neck, and thus preventing him from accomplishing any harm, captures the creature 
alive and practically uninjured. The Russian wolf-hound is the best killer of any of 
the coursing dogs. Like a bulldog, he holds on to what he seizes; his jaws are very 
powerful, and it is because of this tenacity that the Russian wolf-hound, or borzoi, as 
he is frequently called, is used far crossing purposes on the English greyhound and the 
Scottish deerhound or on the progeny of these two breeds, for the purpose of produc- 
ing what is known as the "long dog" of the Canadian prairies, where he is used princi- 
pally for coursing and killing the coyote. The Russian wolf-hound has also been 
successfully crossed on to the deerhound in Australia, either for straight out kangaroo 
dogs or dingo killers. The Russian wolf-hound goes to the throat of his enemy, and 
such a dog is required for the prompt killing of dingoes. The long and strong limbs 
of the kangaroo are means of defense, both as propelling powers in his long and swift 
bounds or jumps and for fighting when it comes to the more serious defense as against 
dingoes or the domesticated dogs, hence the kangaroo dog is taught to attack from 

The slugi or greyhounds of Arabia, Persia and Egypt may be noticed. In these 
we will find small examples of the Russian wolf-hound, but they have down or setter- 
like ears as opposed to the half-cocked or fully pricked ears of the. Northern dogs. 
The dogs of the near East have generally long feet and these are feathered, as are 
their ears, legs and tails. They are used to course antelopes and hares, and one of the 
most ancient of sports is. to not only course the antelope with these slugi, but at the 
same time fly hawks at the fleeing buck, which has the advantage over the dogs in 
sandy places and over stony or rocky ground. The big and somewhat picturesque 
greyhounds of Afghanistan are large dogs much after the form of the near Eastern 
dogs ; they are used for the same purposes, and because of their surroundings in high 
altitudes, they grow large and wooly coats to aid them against the vicissitudes of the 
cold climate. In India, indeed, all over Asia, the different gun dogs generally associ- 
ated with the British Isles are used and they cannot very well be done without on the 
small feathered game which is plentiful. In Japan and China the pheasant shooting is 
very good, and Americans who have gone over to shoot in those countries have taken 
their dogs from this country with them and have found them to accomplish all that 
was required of them. 

If we leave Asia and continue our wanderings and huntings to the South, and 
reach Africa, we will find plenty of work for our hunting hounds, our coursing dogs 
and gun dogs. The slugi or greyhound,s were the most valued dogs of the Pharoahs. 
In the ancient monuments the dogs' places are at the sides of some great personage. 
It would appear that the tastes of the Egyptians of old were exactly those of the 


ancient Britons, for there is an old Welsh saying which states that "a gentleman is 
known by his 'horse, his hawk and his greyhound." The slugi in its native or home 
state is now principally to be found in its purity among the Bedouin Arabs. They 
place the greatest value on these dogs, and they are as difficult to obtain from the wan- 
dering Arabs as are their thoroughbred horses. Furthermore, there is an Arab saying 
that the most valued of all things among the highest of these nomads and hunters are 
"his horse, his slugi and his wife's earrings." The Arabian greyhounds are primarily 
valuable for coursing antelope in sandy countries and where the sun is felt with all his 
power. They also thrive in temperate climates. 

Our old friends the pointers and setters are used in Northern Africa, as they are 
in the South and the East, the West and Central of that enormous and game-holding 
country. American foxhounds have been found most useful running on the trail of 
the lion ; furthermore, they have the good sense to keep away from the great cat when 
it comics to close quarters. These hounds will soon tree a cheetah and the rifles or 
the arrows of the natives will accomplish the rest. In Africa, generally, there is 
much bird life, as that term applies to partridges, snipe, quail, etc. In that country 
there are several small and dangerous snakes; but it has been found that the dogs' 

Incident in a Waterloo Coursing Meeting 

sagacity has been such that they, of their own initiation, immediately become alive to 
the dangerous natures of these reptiles and that they will return to the shooter when 
they get near a snake, either in the grass or on a branch overhead. Greyhounds are 
used in Africa for coursing the smaller bucks and hares, and such dogs, fleet of foot 
and able to run down an antelope, may be bartered "up-country" for produce of great 
value, the natives, especially the chiefs of powerful tribes practically nations having 
been known to give mining and other concessions where first class dogs have been 
given as presents. 

There is a great deal of variety in the Australian shooting and the bush life of that 
lovely country is entrancing for the lover of nature and the observer of mammals and 
birds. Pointers and setters are used in just the same way as they are anywhere else. 
Quail are plentiful and the varieties of numbers of wild fowl are beautiful and often 
countless. As for hares, in some places they are almost as common as the rabbits ; and 
hares are three times more prolific in that balmy country than they are in climes north 
of the equator in Europe and America. Coursing is a great sport there and is a 
means of much speculating or wagering among Australians and New Zealanders. New 
Zealand in many climatic instances and country surroundings is very much like England, 
and game has been imported and the different societies and clubs have done much to 
acclimatize/' breed and protect game. Here is a country where springer spaniels could 


be more in evidence and worked with advantage. A good trade should spring up 
between New Zealand and California for gun dogs and greyhounds. The passage is 
one of less than three weeks, and the freight inconsiderate. All over South America 
gun dogs and greyhounds are required. There is some shooting in New Guinea, but 
the bush is very dense and the natives not always agreeable to the visitation of 
th,e man with a gun. Some very nice dogs are to be found in the Hawaiian 
Islands, notably at ever-glorious and salubrious Honolulu, the Paradise of the 
Pacific. And within a few days' hail is the Golden Gate and the ever-bountiful 
lands that slope down to the North Pacific and the longed-for port by the voyagers 
from the far East and the farther South. Here, of course, we will find gun dogs in 
great variety, and many greyhounds. Some years ago several of the best running dogs 
in England were imported by sportsmen in California. And that stock is in the Golden 
State now. Gun dogs are not only esteemed as gun dogs or for their work, but also 
for their good looks. The English setter is bred in all his attractive loveliness and 
usefulness all the way up the Pacific Coast as far as British Columbia. And it is in 
the last mentioned province that some of the most beautiful of the blue-ticked, long 
and silver silk-like coated setting dogs have been bred. Taking the whole of the North 
American Continent we will find it one abiding place for gun dogs of the highest merit ; 
and as it is well known, Americans and Canadians have always been circumspect and 
generous in their importations of gun dogs from Europe, and, consequently, have 
possessed themselves of specimens that are not only good to look upon, but easy to 
train and delightful to shoot over. 

Whippet Dogs and Whippet Racing 

THE whippet is a greyhound-like dog, and is the fastest of all dogs at his weight or 
height. In some instances they have been crossed with Italian greyhounds, but 
these alliances are apt to bring about inferior whippets for racing or catching 
rabbits, either on their own ground or at rabbit-coursing or snap-dog matches. In 
rabbit-coursing, where the rabbits have previously been caught and turned down on 
unknown ground (to the rabbit) before a brace of whippets, it is the dog that catches 
the rabbit that wins the course, and the winner of the majority of a given number of 
courses wins the wager for its owner or connections. Snap-dog coursing that is, 
running rabbits down with whippets in small and enclosed places, the rabbit being 
given little "law," is not considered a sportsmanlike action, and is practiced only as a 
means of gambling. Whippets have long been declared a pure breed, and this dog was 
first recognized as such by the English Kennel Club. 

The Whippet 

Whippet racing is an old sport and the pastime of working men in England. He 
has been called the poor man's race-horse, as indeed he is, the dog providing sport and 
a means of speculation for men of slender means. Whippet racing is carried on right 
through the year in the Northwest and North of England. Of late years it has become 


a great sport in London and its suburbs, the principal handicaps being run off every 
other Sunday forenoons at Walthamstow. Whippet racing was patronized by the late 
King Edward VII of England, at the Ranelagh Club grounds, London, and the leading 
''country club" of its kind in the United Kingdom. Whippet racing has long been a 
sport in Belgium, France and Germany. Dog racing was also introduced into South 
Africa during the end of the last century, and valuable handicaps are run off on the 
diamond and gold fields. Whippet racing was first favored in the United States by 
the English operatives in the cotton mills in New England, especially in Massachusetts. 
The sport has been well and continuously conducted at country clubs around Boston 
and Philadelphia, which has put the pastime on a society basis. There is no cruelty 
in whippet racing. The dog is held on his made by the neck and root of tail, and, 
starting off at pistol fire, the object of his run of 200 yards or less being a towel held 
by the runner-up usually someone he knows who stands, holloas and waves the 
"rag," as it is called, 10 yards beyond the winning line or mark. The dogs are handi- 
capped according to their weight or height. The latter is not a popular mode and it is 
the weight of a dog that is considered practically everywhere. Roughly, it can be 
reckoned that a dog of say 16 pounds is 2i^ to 3 yards faster than a 15-pound dog. A 
bitch is keener than a dog. The handicap scale given in this description of the whippet 
was arranged by Freeman Lloyd and is largely in use throughout the world. 

Finish in an Old-time Whippet Race Meeting 

A whippet track may be easily laid out on grass, race track, show or fair ground. 
It must be 220 yards straight. If it is over, so much the better. The further the 
onlookers are kept off the track the more they can see, and they will not interfere with 
the dogs running. The whippets are entered, their names, weights, colors and owners 
being given. Each owner pays an entry fee for each dog and these fees are generally 
made a sweepstake and the purse divided between the first, second and third dogs in 
the final heat. The dogs must be weighed before they run and an allowance is made 
of 4 ounces or 8 ounces either way in their stated weight. The handicap is run off in 
heats, the number of dogs in each heat varying according to the entry and the duration 
of the racing. Heats may be run off like clockwork, one lot of dogs starting off as the 
others are finishing; or it may 'be delayed when the number of dogs is limited. If 40 
dogs are entered and an afternoon's sport desired they can be run off in heats of four 
dogs each. There would be then 10 winners of heats to run off in the semi-finals, 
which could be either two heats of five each or, better still, three heats with two fours 
and one of three dogs. The two winners, or the three winners of the semi-finals, must 
be run off in the final. Taking the three semi-finals for choice, there would be run off 
altogether 14 races, which would occupy about two hours. The owner of the second 
may challenge the weight of the winner, immediately after the final is run. The dog 
is then allowed 6 ounces to the usual allowance made before the running of its first 


Here is a plan of a track. If possible, the dogs should run so that the sun shall 
not be in their faces. 

200 Yards 

10 Yards 

Handicap Marks Winning Ovc 
Mark Mai 

The dogs run in colors, strips of narrow ribbon being tied around their necks. 
These are of red, white, blue, yellow, green and black. On the race card the shade 
of the dog's racing color is noted in the preliminary heats. In the semi-final and final 
heatg the back or scratch dog wears the red collar, the next the white, the next the 
blue, and so on. If the red dog is first over the winning line, where the judge stands, 
the judge raises a red flag. Whatever color wins so is a flag of the same color held 
aloft by the official whose ruling is final. Each "runner-up" must be behind the over 
or trig mark before his dog crosses the winning line. If dogs start when the cap is 
fired, but there is no powder explosion, it is no start. But if all dogs go fairly away, 
it is a start. Dead heats must be run off excepting in the final, where owners may agree 
to divide. If a dog is disqualified, the: second dog takes his place in the records. No 
live bait allowed with the runner-up, and all dogs are subject to inspection by the 
officials. It is recommended that only whippets of 25 pounds or under be raced. The 
bigger dogs are often given to savaging or "slapping," and appear ungainly among a 
lot of small dogs. The back dog in every heat must run the whole of the 200 yards, or 
whatever smaller course is used. 

When a dog wins at a handicap he must be penalized according to the judgment 
of the handicapper. The following handicap would put each dog or bitch on equal 
terms, providing all the dogs were exactly of the same calibre or of equal racing 
powers barring their weights : 

Wt. of Dog 
or Bitch 


Wt. of Dog 

or Bitch 


28 ......... 

27 ......... 

26 ......... 

25 ......... 

Start for Start for 
Dogs, Yd. Bitches, Yd. 

Start for Start for 
Dogs, Yd. Bitches, Yd. 








10. . . . 













26i/ 2 







A dog covering 200 yards in 12 seconds gallops at the rate of 16 yards 24 inches a 
second ; in 13 seconds, 15 yards 14 inches, and in 14 seconds, 14 yards 10 1-3 inches. 

The Sled Dogs of Alaska 

Between the laborer who earns his daily bread by the sweat of his brow, and the 
spoiled favorite of fortune who neither toils nor spins, there is not more difference than 
between the workers of the North the Sled Dogs of Alaska and the pampered, fur- 
coated, jewel-hung dogs "in society"; dogs who have their silk-lined baskets, their 
gold-mounted toilet articles, and the exclusive services of a personal attendant. But 
"Dogs is Dogs," and the unhappy accident of birth that gives to such a dog the humiliat- 
ing experience of having his teeth brushed by a maid, or a massage of cold cream after 
a bath in a silver-plated tub, should not be held against him for he may still retain 
some of his admirable, lovable canine qualities through the human veneer. 

A dog's intelligence and his faithful, affectionate nature are his chief assets in his 
association with man; and if he preserves these in spite of his artificial surroundings as 
a mere toy, his development along those lines is almost unlimited when he becomes a 
co-worker with his master, and a devoted comrade through adversity and peril. 


Incident in the Ziegler Polar Expedition, 1903-5 
Mr. Anthony Fiala with His Dog Teams Lat. 82 N. 

Far beyond the Aleutian Islands, which stretch a grim barrier between the North 
Pacific and Bering Sea, almost to the bleak coast of Siberia, there lies that part of 
Alaska not familiar to the average tourist. The Alaska of primeval forests, of great, 
almost unknown rivers, of vast areas of snow and ice that reach to the desolate shore 
of the Arctic the Alaska of the Dogs; and here in the "Land that God forgot," the 
dog holds a unique place as an indispensable factor in the settlement of the country. 

He discovered the North Pole with Peary; he discovered the South Pole and the 
Northwest Passage, too, with Amundsen; and he played a pathetic yet heroic part in 
the brave, if futile, efforts of Captain Scott to reach his goal; just as he has ever 
played well his role of support to those who have sought to penetrate the trackless 
wastes at the ends of the earth. 

Late in October, usually under leaden skies, nearly the entire population of Nome 
stands upon a dreary beach watching the last boat of the open season, the "Victoria," 
steam slowly out through a sea already heavy with young ice, and disappear in the misty 
grayness of the horizon. The parting salute of the ship's siren has been answered by 
all of the town whistles; and then as if to add the fitting climax to the gloom of the 
occasion, it seems that every dog within hearing raises his voice to join in a mournful 
farewell chorus a blood-curdling wail that is characteristic of these Northern dogs 
with their strong wolf strain. 

But the people look with kindly eyes upon them, and even listen with kindly ears 
for they know that every letter, paper, and magazine from now till the middle of June, 
will be brought in over fifteen hundred miles of ice and snow and frozen sea, by the 
United States Government Dog Team Mail; and that, except for the wireless system, 
all of the news from the great world "outside," from family and friends, depends upon 

A Typical Scene in the Arctic Regions 


Eskimo family and malamuie At Home. 

these Postmen of the Silent Trails. They go where soft snow and other conditions 
make it impossible to use horses. No service is too lowly, no mission too high. They 
pull the baby in his tiny sled, are the means of delivery for the merchant, and they carry 
the doctor and priest to the bedside of the sick or dying in some lonely, distant cabin. 

Owing to the prohibitive tax rate on railroads which traverse practically uninhabited 
districts in Seward Peninsula a tax which has only been abolished within the past few 
months dogs have become the motive power instead of engines ; and in place of the 
"toot-toot" of the locomotive as it takes a freight train out to the mines with supplies, 
there is the "bow-wow" of the dog team "Kougarok Limited" or the "Little Creek 
Express" as it starts down the track with a loaded flat car. 

As to "joy riding," the "Pupmobile" has every automobile completely outclassed 
when it comes to the maximum of joy, and the minimum of danger. Given a winter 
night when the frosty air brings the tingling blood to eheek and ringer tip, when the 
glittering stars seem close above one's head in the clear sky, and when the trail glistens 
like a silver ribbon in the ghostly radiance of the Northern Lights, it is a phlegmatic 
person indeed who does not feel the thrill of excitement and delight that animates the 
dogs as they strain in their harness to be away for a spin across the snows. 

Then there is the famous All Alaska Sweepstakes race each April from Nome on 
Bering Sea, to Candle on the Arctic Ocean and return, a distance of 408 miles ; and the 
dogs as well as the men who have won their laurels in this contest are the sort of men 
and dogs who are making the History of Alaska who are creating an Empire from a 

There are two types of dogs used in the race. The Siberians, small, prick-eared, 
with bushy tails curled up over their backs, and with apparently decided traces of the 
fox ; and the Alaskans who are of mixed breeds setters, pointers, collies, hounds or 
what not with a more or less pronounced wolf strain inherited from the McKenzie 
River Huskie or coast Malamute. 

Both types have their staunch supporters, and for excellent reasons for both 
possess wonderful qualities that endear them to dog users and dog lovers. The 
Siberians have not the speed, and many claim not the responsiveness and intelligence 
of the Alaskans but they are gentle, tractable, easy to handle and are able to travel 
more steadily and with less rest than the others. 


Dubby, a McKensie River huskie, of the Allan and Darling Kennel, whose wonderful 

intelligence, and a record of over thirty thousand miles in harness, established 

his reputation as one of the greatest leaders Alaska has ever known. 

The amount of rest in the race is a question of judgment with the driver, who must 
decide how much he can afford to take himself, and give his dogs without the unneces- 
sary loss of a moment ; but as he must return with every dog dead or alive with 
vyhich he started, it is to his greatest advantage to keep them in the very best of condi- 
tion. At every road-house and relay camp where they stop for food and sleep, it is 
"Dogs First," no driver thinking of himself till his team is fed, rubbed, and bedded. 
When they are tired or foot-sore, they ride in turn upon the sled, recuperating quickly 
in this way. Little moccasins of canton flannel are carried to be used on hard trails, 
and veils of black or green mosquito netting are placed over the dogs' eyes if the glare 
of the sun is too dazzling. 

In the Sweepstakes of 1910, John Johnson, a Russian Finn, driving a team of 
Siberians entered by Colonel Charles Ramsay of London, came in first. The weather 
had been ideal, the trail perfect, and they had broken all records covering the 408 miles 
in but little more than seventy-four hours. Closely following them was Charles Fox- 
Maule Ramsay, nephew of Colonel Ramsay, and younger brother of the Earl of Dal- 
housie, driving his own team of Siberians ; and it certainlv seemed that the day of the 
Siberians had come. But in 1911 and 1912, through terrible blizzards and over miser- 
able trails, the Allan and Darling team of Alaskans, driven by "Scotty" Allan, were the 


winners ; and in 1913, Fay Dalzene, with the Bowen-Dalzene dogs, was first, also using 
the Alaskan type. So that out of the seven great races that have been held under the 
auspices of the Nome Kennel Club since it was organized in 1908, five victories have 
fallen to the Alaskans, and the breaking of the record to the Siberians. 

In short distances some of the dogs are remarkably fast, travelling at the rate of 
fifteen or sixteen miles an hour. Irish, one of the Allan and Darling team, a beautiful 
setter with some huskie blood, can pace a mile in three minutes ; and Spot, a cross-bred 

pointer and huskie, after leading the team thirty miles over a heavy trail, covered four 
miles in thirteen minutes and twenty-five seconds without breaking. 

As dog teams are not driven with reins, but by word of mouth, there must be in 
every team a particularly intelligent dog who is the leader. He must understand not 
only the simple orders "Mush" (go on), "Gee" (to the right), "Haw" (to the left), and 
"Stop," but he must have exceptionally quick instincts, a definite acknowledged mastery 
over the other dogs, and a sort of canine good judgment which tells him the right thing 
to do in difficulties and emergencies. 


The stories of the marvellous sagacity of certain leaders are easy of belief to "the 
men that know the North" as Service calls them, but they would appear to be gross 
exaggerations or absolute untruths to those who have never seen dogs work in harness 
on the trail. 

A leader has certain privileges, such as getting into the sled when the driver is not 
at the handle bars, and reposing in comfort and dignity on the furs while the rest of the 
dogs lie in the snow; and other perquisites which may occasion bitter jealousy and 
make necessary the utmost precaution in guarding him from the attacks of his envious 
team-mates. Sometimes an old leader, discarded or pensioned, will craftily wait for a 
chance to kill his successor this chance generally occurring when the new aspirant for 
honors is tied and at a disadvantage. Some leaders, however, through wonderful 
strength and other superior qualities, become more or less exempt from this ill feeling, 
and their leadership is freely and pleasantly accepted both in and out of "business 
hours." Of these, Dubby, a magnificent specimen of the McKenzie River huskie, 
brought down from Dawson by "Scotty" Allan, was one of the most prominent. Dubby 
lived to be twelve years old, but was pensioned on his ninth birthday, while still in 
perfect condition and well able to enjoy the rewards of his faithful service. He had a 
record of over thirty thousand miles, in harness, to his credit, and the anecdotes of his 
intelligence are legion. He was often driven "loose," running ahead of the team instead 
of being hooked up with them; and he was so efficient as a "general manager" that 
the loss of his pulling power was of small moment compared to his ability to find and 
keep an obliterated trail, and his capacity for doing the many clever and helpful things 
that his active mind found to do. A mere hint that some dog was not working was 
enough, and Dubby would rush back to critically examine them all till the shirker was 
located by a slack tow line or traces not held taut. The culprit received a warning 
nip on the ear or flank, which was a threat of worse punishment if he did not mend his 
laggard habits ; then Dub would dash off to give some other evidence of his real gen- 
eralship. Perhaps it would be to decide that the ice on the river was not thick enough 
to bear the weight of the heavily loaded sled for some strange instinct enabled him to 
know that fact, when an experienced Musher could be readily deceived; or he would 
choose the correct trail where many met and crossed, in spite of the efforts of an 
exasperated driver to convince him of the error of his ways. "You stubborn old 
Siwash (an insult indeed to apply the name of the most shiftless of Indians to a self- 
respecting huskie), I'll wager you're wrong; but do as you please, keep us all out here 
in thirty below weather, tired and hungry, and then maybe next time you'll listen to 
reason." But Dubby never did make the predicted mistake, and many a comfortable 
night's rest in shelter and warmth was the result of his unerring confidence in his own 
ability which no argument could disturb. He would politely wag his stump of a tail 
while he listened tolerantly to your opinion, but he ignored it with the same amiable 
disregard one would show toward the foolish suggestions of a babbling child. 

The tragedies of the Arctic wastes are many, and would be more but for the 
faithful dogs ; the list oi canine heroes is long, and would be much longer were all of 
their brave deeds recorded. They have never, like some of whom we read, attended an 
"Acadamie pour Chiens," and acquired, with a diploma, such unnatural refinements 
and useless accomplishments as are displayed by "dogs in society." If invited to 
attend a luncheon of chicken a la Maryland, served on a decorated table, with Fifi and 
Bijou as fellow guests, they would not only demolish the chicken in short order, but 
also the decorations, and possibly Fifi and Bijou as well classing them with cats and 
other legitimate prey. 

There is no downy cushion before the blazing fire, no chosen corner of the 
limousine, no tooth brush or manicure set for the work dog of the North ; yet they are 
probably happier than their kin of the governess and college education. They have 
no time for ennui there are duties to be done, and it is rare indeed to find a sled 
dog who does not take pride in his task, show delight at the sight of his harness, and 
eagerly welcome the preparations for a good long mush. 

Perhaps one of the most striking features of the races is the pleasure that the dogs 
manifest not only in the preliminary training, but in the contest itself. One frequently 
sees a team of dogs, old in the knowledge of racing, perfectly familiar with the hard- 
ships before them, waiting for the signal to leave, and so eager to be off, that three or 
four men are barely able to restrain them till the dip oi the flag starts them on their 
dash to the' Arctic. So, too, it is not unusual for a Mail Team, becoming impatient of 
the delay in unloading the mail, to run away after having carried a thousand pounds of 
mail for a distance of two or three hundred miles. 

In summer when the dogs are not being used they often spend the time about 
mining camps where they are fed ; or if in town they select one or more houses to which 
they make daily visits at meal hours if they find the inmates hospitably inclined. In 
many districts the dogs are virtually turned out to forage for themselves, when the 


wild strain in them asserts itself to an astonishing degree ; but this is not true of Nome 
where dogs are held in high esteem, and where they are given the proper care at all 
seasons. And each year when the last boat of the summer sails from Nome, there is a 
long list of dog passengers. To a fancier they would seem undoubtedly a collection not 
worth their transportation ; to my Lady of the Lap Dog they would cause shudders of 
disgust ; there would be no place at the Bench Show for such as these. They are 
without pedigree, or beauty perhaps mongrels if you will but one never knows what a 
wealth of fidelity may be hidden beneath a rough exterior. Many a story that touches 
the heart may be extracted from the prospector going outside accompanied by some 
favorite dog who has shared his solitude and his hardships ; who has helped to bear his 
burdens, and who is now to enjoy with him what they have earned together. 

Perhaps that blind old huskie has guided his bewildered driver along the right 
trail to safety, true to the instincts of the wild, when the whirling snow and icy sleet 
cut like stinging whip lashes into the face and eyes, making sight impossible. 

Perhaps this ragged, ungroomed malamute with his wolf head and his human heart, 
dragged himself with patient, bleeding feet, half starved and nearly frozen, to some 
remote camp with the warning that his unconscious master, caught unprepared in a 
sudden storm, needed help. 

Perhaps but after all, each tale is only another variation of the same theme : dog's 
loyalty to man. And as pampered pets, <3r as valued assistants, in society or out of it, 
this loyalty justifies the attention and regard they receive. It is the one thing all dogs 
have in common, and whether in their veins runs the blue blood of generations of prize 
winners, or the humble strain of some obscure street waif, it is to You, and not to 
what you possess, not for what you can offer him, that the dog gives his steadfast 

Sometimes when life has gone wrong with you 

And the world seems a dreary place, 

Has your dog ever silently crept to your feet, 

His yearning eyes turned to your face 

Has he made you feel that he understands, 

And all that he asks of you 

Is to share your lot, be it good or ill, 

With a chance to be loyal and true? 

Are you branded a failure? He does not know 

A sinner? He does not care 

You're Master to him that's all that counts 

A word, and his day is fair. 

Your birth and your station are nothing to him ; 

A Palace and Hut are the same ; 

And his love is yours in honor and peace, 

As it's yours through disaster and shame. 

Though others forget you and pass you by, 

He is ever your Faithful Friend, 

Ready to give you the best that is his. 

Unselfishly, unto the End. 




Breed. Nationality. Page. 

Bloodhound English 7 

Bulldog " 8 

Bulldog ( Miniature) " 8 

Foxhound 9 

Trailhound " 9 

Harrier " 10 

Beagle '. " 10 

Collie (Rough-Coated) " 11 

Collie (Smooth-Coated) " 11 

Retriever (Flat-Coated) 12 

Retriever (Curly-Coated) 12 

Pointer ' 13 

Setter ' 13 

Spaniel (Clumber) 14 

Spaniel ( English Springer) 15 

Spaniel ( Sussex) . ' 15 

Spaniel (Field) ' 16 

Spaniel ( Cocker) ' 16 

Fox Terrier (Smooth-Coated) 17 

Fox Terrier (Wire-Haired) 17 

Greyhound ' ....'. 18 

Whippet ' 18 

Bull Terrier ' 19 

Bull Terrier (Toy) ' 19 

Airedale ' 20 

Bedlington 20 

Manchester Terrier 21 

Manchester Terrier (Toy) " 21 

Mastiff " 22 

White English Terrier " 22 

Old English Sheepdog 23 

White English Toy Terrier " 23 

Otterhound 24 

Yorkshire Terrier " 24 

Toy Spaniel '' 25 

Irish Wolfhound Irish 26 

Irish Terrier " 27 

Kerry Beagle " 27 

Irish Setter " 28 

Irish Water Spaniel " 28 

Skye Terrier (Prick-Eared) Scottish 29 

Skye Terrier (Drop-Eared) " 29 

West Highland White Terrier " 30 

Scottish Terrier 30 

Deerhound ' 31 

Shetland Sheepdog 31 

Dandie Dinmont ' 32 

Cairn Terrier 32 

Gordon Setter ' 33 

Bearded Collie ' 33 

Welsh Terrier . Welsh 34 

Sealyham Terrier " 34 

Welsh Springer " 35 

Welsh Hound " 35 

Ga zelle Hound Indian 36 

Lhassa Terrier " 37 

Tibetan Mastiff 37 

Rampur Greyhound " 38 

Ban j ara . " . . .^ 38 

Barb Australian' 39 

Australian Terrier " 39 

Kangaroo Greyhound " 40 


Breed. Nationality. Page. 

Maltese Terrier Malta 40 

Newfoundland (Black) Newfoundland 41 

Newfoundland (Black and White) 41 

Huskie Canadian 42 

Labrador Retriever " 42 

Pyrenean Sheepdog French 43 

French Sheepdog . 


Smooth-Coated French Basset . . 
Rough-Coated French Basset . . . 
Rough-Coated Basset of Brittany 

Basset of the Ardennes 

Rough-Coated Basset of Vendee 

Blue Basset of Gascogne 

French Pointer 

Dupuy Pointer 

Pointer of Ariege 

Pointer of Saint Germain 

Pointer Bourbonnais 

Blue Pointer of Auvergne 

French Setter 

Setter of Picardie 

Setter of Pont Audemer 

Griffon Boulet 

Griffon Guerlain 

Griffon Nivernais 

Griffon Fauve de Bretagne 

Griffon Vendeen 

French Bulldog 

Poodle (Corded) 

Poodle (Non-Corded) 

Poodle (Toy) 


Hound of Vendee 

Poitevin Hound 

Poitou Hound 

Normand Dog 




Artois , 


Gris de Saint-Louis 

Great Dane 



Pomeranian (Miniature) 

Dobermann Pinscher 


German Shepherd Dog 

German Hound 

Wire-Coated German Terrier . . 
Smooth-Coated German Terrier 
Smooth-Coated German Pointer 
Rough-Coated German Pointer . 

Pointer of Wurtemberg 

Pointer of Weimar 

German Setter 




Hanovrian Limer 

Bavarian Limer 

Italian Sheepdog Italian 

Sheepdog of Abruzzes 
Italian Greyhound ... 
Italian Griffon . 






































German 62 


....: 64 






Breed. Nationality. Page. 

Italian Pointer Italian 75 

Bolognese " 75 

Draught Dog Belgian 76 

Brussels Griffon 
Toy Brabantine . 
Belgian Sheepdog 




Wire-Haired Dutch Terrier Dutch 79 

Dutch Sheepdog " 80 

Danish Pointer Denmark 80 

Austrian Hound Austrian 81 

Hungarian Sheepdog Hungarian 81 

Bosnian Hound Bosnian 82 

Dalmatian Dalmatian 82 

Spanish Pointer Spanish 83 

Medelan " 83 

St. Bernard Swiss 84 

Swiss Setter " 85 

Lucern Hound " 85 

Bern Hound " 86 

Swiss Hound " 86 

Borzoi Russian 87 

Russian Yellow Retriever " 88 

Russian Hound " 88 

Owtchar " 89 

Samoyed " 89 

Finnish Pom Finland 90 

Finnish Hound " 91 

Norwegian Elkhound Norwegian 91 

Swedian Hound Swedian 92 

Norwegian Hound Norwegian 92 

Iceland Dog Iceland 93 

Dog of Noorland Noorland 93 

Lapland Sheepdog Lapland 94 

Esquimau Greenland 94 

Boston Terrier American 95 

American Bloodhound " 95 

Chesapeake " 96 

American Foxhound " 96 

Mexican Hairless Mexican 97 

Chihuahua . " 97 

Japanese Spaniel Japanese 98 

Pekingese Spaniel Chinese 99 

Chow-Chow . 


Chinese Crested Dog 

Little Lion Dog 

Balearic Greyhound Spanish 102 

Phu-Quoc Greyhound Siamese 103 

Portugese Greyhound Portugese 103 

Persian Greyhound Persian 104 

Arabian Greyhound Arabian 104 


Dogs of Warfare 105 

British Sheepdogs 110 

Training the Shepherd Dog 113 

Police Dogs 115 

The Hunting World and the Use of Dogs 118 

The Gun and Coursing Dogs of the World 120 

Whippet Dogs and Whippet Racing 125 

The Sled Dogs of Alaska ' 127 





will give special displays on the 

International Exposition 

Track and Polo Grounds 

on SUNDAY afternoons and 
other special occasions featuring 
the following UTILITY DOGS: 


Dates and other information will be an- 
nounced later. 


With eyes upraised, his master's face to scan; 
The joy, the solace, and the aid of man; 
The rich man's guardian, the poor man's friend; 
The only creature faithful to the end. 

My twenty-five years' experience as breeder, exhibitor, trainer 
and judge of dogs is at the service of anyone requiring specimens 
either for the show bench, for work in the field or for society. 


Dogs from my kennels are constantly taking leading show 
bench honors in England, France, Germany, Australia, New 
Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and every State in North America. 

All sales effected during the Exposition must be made through 
the office in the "Docs OF ALL NATIONS" building, for which an 
official receipt will be given. 

Specimens purchased from the collection comprising the "Docs 
OF ALL NATIONS" exhibit may be either shipped by express in 
suitable traveling crate or taken away on lead, in which event a 
special pass-out permit will be required. 

References will be supplied, on request, to hundreds of satis- 
fied clients who have honored me with their patronage. 

Banking references as follows : 

Crocker National Bank, San Francisco, Cal. 

New Netherlands Bank, New York, N. Y. 

Ridgewood Trust Co., Ridgewood, N. J. 

London County & Westminster Bank, Woking, Eng. 

Bank of Liverpool, Sbuthport, Eng. 

Address all communications during 1915 



Exposition Grounds 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Phones: Fillmore 7000 Local 175 

407 Lord Street, Southport, Eng, 





Cures and Prevents 

This is the original distemper bacterin 
and nothing else has been produced that 
gets the same results in the same way. 
It has been thoroughly tested on both 
sides of the Atlantic for NINE YEARS. 
We are proud of the verdict of those 
who use it. 

Manufactured by 

Middle Mass. Chemical Co. 

Palmer, Mass., U. S. A. 

European Agent Canadian Agents 


407 Lord St., Southport, England 80 George St., Toronto, Ont. 








Blood Purifying Tablets $0.50 
Cankered Ear Lotion... .50 

Chorea Tablets 50 

Condition Tablets 50 

Cough Syrup 50 

Diarrhoea Tablets 50 

Digestive Tablets 50 

Disinfectant and Germi- 
cide .50 

Distemper Remedy 1.00 

Eve Lotion 50 

Fever Tablets 50 

Flea Powder 25 

Gum Set (For Loose 

Teeth) 50 

Kidney Tablets 50 

Liniment 50 

Mange Remedy (Stain- 
less) 1.00 

Mange Remedy (Stand- 
ard) 1.00 

Mouth Wash . .50 










Dogs of Every Age 
and Breed 

Rheumatic Tablets 
Shampoo "Veno" (For 
Toy Dogs and Pup- 


Shampoo Deodorizing 
(For Large Dogs)... 
Skin Cleansing Cream 
(For Toy Dogs and 
Skin Cleanser (For 
Large Dogs) . ... 



Soap Special Cake(For 
Toy Dogs and Pup- 


Soap Cake (For Large 
Dogs and All Ani- 


Tonic Tablets 


preme Worm Remedy) 
preme Worm Remedy) 




Sold during the Exposition at the "VERMILAX" Exhibit in the Liberal Arts Building' 
also at the " DOGS OF ALL NATIONS " Exhibit and by Leading Drug and Department 
Stores, Sporting Goods Houses and Pet Shops Everywhere. 


Dept. D. N., 220 W. 42d St., New York 

(Send for Dr. Delaney's Valuable FREE Book on Dogs) 


Irish Wolfhound 

Toy on 
Southport St. Patrick 

Farm raised puppies from 
the best imported stock 
usually For Sale. 






Either in Liquid Form, Soft Capsules or Pills 

The peculiar virtue of Clayton's Vermifuge 
is recognized by all dog fanciers. I here is 
no other vermifuge like it. 

is equally good for dogs of all ages and 
breeds, and is especially adapted for very 
young puppies. The treatment for 
worms in puppies should be commenced 
at 10 days old, as they have worms soon 
after birth. (Can be administered in 

CLAYTON'S VERMIFUGE (Soft) CAPSULES are intended for 
puppies after they are six weeks old and for grown dogs. 

Where a pill is more easily administered there is nothing better than 
Clayton's Worm Pills. For puppies 6 weeks old and for grown dogs. 

Rid your puppies of worms and give them a chance to grow strong 
and healthy. 


Are for every form of Skin Disease. They are to destroy all parasites, 
heal the skin and promote the growth of the hair. 



Are for all forms of Distemper. You need not fear Distemper when you 
have Clayton's Distemperine or Clayton's Distemperine Tablets. 

Are a reliable remedy for all run-down conditions of the nervous system, 
or after any constitutional disease. They are especially useful when 
convalescing from distemper. They are to make your dog eat and grow 
strong and healthy. 


For Washing your Dog and to Disinfect your Kennel. It is an excellent 
disinfectant, deodorizer and germicide. 


Clayton's Price Postpaid 

Mange Remedy $0.50 $0.75 

Skin Lotion 50 75 

Hair Tonic 50 60 

Distemperine 50 60 

Distemperine Tablets 50 50 

Condition Pills, Pepsin 50 50 

Blood Purifying and Cooling 

Pills 50 50 

Digestive Tablets 50 50 

Laxative Pills 50 50 

Worm Pills 50 50 

Tape Worm Expeller 50 50 

Vermifuge- (Liquid) 50 60 

Vermifuge (Soft Capsules).. 50 50 

Canker Lotion 50 60 

Canker Lotion Tablets 50 50 

Eye Lotion 50 60 

Eye Lotion Tablets 50 50 

Clayton's Price Postpaid 

Fit Remedy $0.50 $0.60 

Fit Tablets 50 50 

Cough Remedy 50 60 

Sulphur Tablets 50 50 

Puppy Tonic 50 60 

Rheumatic Tablets 50 50 

Diarrhoea Remedy 50 

Diarrhoea Tablets 50 

Cholera Tablets 50 

Goitre Remedy 1.00 

Ceoline Dog Wash and Dis- 
infectant 25 

Shampoo 25 

Kilflea Soap 25 

Dog Soap 20 

Ceoline Dog Soap 10 

Kilflea Powder . 25 






Clayton's Remedies are for sale by all Sporting Goods Houses, Drug 
Stores and Bird Stores. Send 2c. stamp for Dr. Clayton's Treatise on the 
Dog, or ask your dealer for one. 

Manufactured By 
Dr. GeO. W. Clayton, 1810 Wabash Ave., Chicago 




The Result of 

35 Years' 

Experience in the 

Treatment of 

Sick Dogs 

Distemper Remedy. ... $1 .00 

Mange Remedy 50 

Vermifuge .50 

Canker Wash 50 

Blood Purifier 50 

Tonic 50 

Cough Mixture 50 


Fit Remedy $0.50 

Eye Lotion 50 

Black Tongue Remedy. .50 

Condition Pills 50 

Digestive Pills 50 

Liver Pills 50 

Comp. Sulphur Tablets. . . 50 

Sold by 


Sporting Goods 

Worm Capsules $0. 50 

Tape Worm Capsules.. . .50 

Diarrhoea Remedy 50 

Liniment 50 

Sore Foot Remedy 50 

Kennel and Stable Soap. . 25 


Book on "DOG DISEASES AND HOW TO FEED," Free on Application 


25 Years Veterinarian to the Westminster Kennel Club 

118 West 31st Street - - - New York City, U. S. A. 


were accepted by the proprietor of 
the "Dogs of All Nations" Exhibit 
at the Panama- Pacific International 
Exposition, because of their well 
known qualities as Hunters, Protec- 
tors, Companions and Winners. For 
years they have been produced Only 
from Educated and Winning stock 
of Fashionable blood-lines. They 
Win, Work and Please invariably. 


Bettis Airedales Exclusively 

R. L. BETTIS, Owner 






Tiie most distinctive lawn fencei 
fabric made. Supplied in styles and 
sizes specially adapted to enclose 
Lawns, Gardens, Estates, Deer 
Parks, Cemeteries, etc. Made of 
tough, strong, durable Open Hearth 
Wire genuinely double galvanized. 
All wires electrically welded at the 
joints. The strongest, toughest, 
most durable and economical fence 
you can buy. In use all over the 
world. Sold by dealers every- 
where. Write for Catalogue. 


New York 


Chicago Memphis Duluth San Francisco Dallas 

The largest independent plant in the world manufac- 
turing Nails, Wire and Fencing 

The Imported Airedale Terrier 

"Clonmel Master Nobbier" 

A High Class Dog for High Class Bitches 

Airedale puppies for sale. Combining the most 
classical blood lines of England and America. 


Property of Miss Edith Chesebrough 




RETURN TO the circulation desk of any 
University of California Library 

or to the 

Bldg. 400, Richmond Field Station 
University of California 
Richmond, CA 94804-4698 


2-month loans may be renewed by calling 

1-year loans may be recharged by bringing 
books to NRLF 

Renewals and recharges may be made 4 
days prior to due date. 

SEftfy DM ILL 



U, C. OCniCrLCY 


SEP 2 5 2002 





\ f ^ 


A friendly Warning 



Guard against the substitution of inferior 
foods s said to be "Just as good as SprattV* 
by insisting upon our name appearing on 
every package you purchase., The success 
of the genuine production has given rise to 
a number of imitations but there are no 
real substitutes., 



for Dogs, Cats, Poultry, Birds, etc., and in 
the interest of the health and well being of 
your pet, it will pay you to ask for^ and 
insist 'on having "vSPRATT'S." 



Main office and factories 


Pacific CoaH Depot 
No. 60 Federal Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


St. Louis, Mo. Cleveland, Ohio Chicago, 111. 

Boston, Masse Montreal, Canada 

London, England Berlin, Germany