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Full text of "The dogs of Great Britain, America, and [other] countries : their breeding, training, and management in health and disease,comprising all the essential parts of the two standard works on the dog"

■J X /'v-r-^ >^ 




NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



S01 229723 Q 



This book is due on the date indieal 
below and is subject to an overd 
fine as posted at the circulation de 



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earlier if this item is REC ALLEE 



APR 2 aiooo 






MAY 2 ^1 



150M/01 -92-941 680 



THE DOG 



OF 



:;reat Britain, America, and . 
countries. 



* 
Ibeir Breeding, Training, and Management in Health 

and Disease. 



>?mm ALL THE ESSEFTIAL PARTS OF THE TWO STAPABl) WORKS ON THE D0&, 
By STONEHENGE. 
TOGETHER WITH CHAPTERS BY AMERICAM WRITERS. 

NEV^ AND ENLARGED EDITION. 
IXH OVKR one; HIJItiDRKO 1I<L,VSXRAXI01«S« 




NEW YORK: 

OEAKGE JTJDD COMPANr, 
1914 



R00005 HHb^a 



Bntered, accoitttug to Act of CongresB, in the year 1887, by the 

O. JTIDD CO., 

In tie Office of tlie Librarian of Congress, £.t Washingtoa, 



<■) 



\ ^ 



Feinted in U. S. A. 



CONTENTS. 



BOOK I. 

THE NATUKAIi HISTORY, ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATIOJT, ATTD VAROk 
TIES OF THE DOG. 

CHAPTER I. 

PAGl, 

Origin ; General Characteristics ; Habitats ; Varieties ; F. Cuvier's 
Divisional Arrangement; Arrangement adopted by Stonehenge - 17 
CHAPTER n. 

WDd and half -reclaimed Dogs, hunting in Packs ; The Dingo ; The 
Dhole ; The Pariah ; The Wild Dog of Africa ; The South- Ameri- 
can Dog ; The North American Dog ; Other Wild Dogs • -27 
CHAPTER HI. 

Domesticated Dogs Hunting Chiefly by the Eye and the Nose, 
and Killing their Game for Man's use ; The Rough Scotch Grey* 
hound and Deerhound; The Smooth or English Greyhound; 
The Irish Greyhound, or Wolf-dog ; The French Matin ; The 
Hare-Tr-riian Dog ; The Albanian Dog; The Grecian Greyhound ; 
The Turkish Greyhound ; The Persian Greyhound; The Russian 
Greyhound ; The Italian Greyhound ; The Bloodhound ; The 
Foxhoubd ; The Harrier ; The Beagle ; The Otterhound , The 
Terrier ; The Dachshund -------.-33 

CHAPTER IV. 

Domesticated Dogs, finding game by scent, but not killing it, being 
chiefly used in aid of the gun; The Modern English Pointer; 
The Portuguese Pointer ; The French Pointer ; The Dalmatian 
and Danish Dogs ; The English and Irish Setters ; The Russian 
Setter ; The Ordinary Field Spaniel, including the Springer 
(Clumber, Sussex, and Norfolk breeds), and the Cocker (Welsh 
and Devonshire) ; The Water Spaniel (English and Irish) ; The 
Chesapeake Bay Dog ..-..---ga 

CHAPTER V. 

Pastoral Dogs, and those used, for the purposes of draught ; The 
English Sheep-Dog; TheColley; The German Sheep-Dog ; Pom- 
eranian or Spitz Dog; The Newfoundland and Labrador Dogs ; 
The Esquimaux Dog; The Greenland Dog. - - - - 13* 
CHAPTER VI. 

Watch Dogs ; House Dogs, and Toy Dogs ; Bulldog ; English Mas- 
tiff; Mount St. Bernard; Thibet Dog; Poodle; Maltese Dog; 
Lion Dog ; Shock Dog ; Toy Spaniels ; Toy Terriers ; The 
Pug Dog; Italian Greyhound. ----..-- 141 
CHAPTER YIL 

tossed Breeds. — ^Retriever ; BuU-Terrier » . • • - 163 

V 



n CONTENTS. 

BOOK n. 

THE BREEDING, REARING, BREAKING, AND MANAGEMENT OP THl 
DOG, IN-DOORS AND OUT. 
CHAPTER I. 
Breeding. — Principles of Breeding:; Axioms for the Breeder's Use; 
Crossing and Crossed Breeds ; Importance of Health in both Sire 
and Dam ; Best Ages to Breed From , in-and-in Breeding ; Best 
Time of Year; Duration of Heat ; Management of the Bitch in 
Season ; The Bitch in Whelp ; Preparations for Whelping . 
Healthy Parturition ; Destruction or Choice of Whelps at Birth - 173 
CHAPTER II. 
Rearing. — Management in the Nest ; Choosing ; The Foster-Nurse ; 
Feeding before Weaning , Choice of Place for Whelping ; Re- 
moval of Dew-Claws, etc.; Weaning ; Lodging ; Feeding; Exer- 
cise ; Home Rearing vs. Walking ; Food. ; General Management ; 
Cropping, Branding, and Rounding - • 187 

CHAPTER in. 
Kennels and Kennel Management.— Greyhound Kennels , Fox- 
hound Kennels ; Pointer Kennels ; Kennels for Single Dogs ; 
House Dogs .-.--. . • 20i 

CHAPTER IV. 
Breaking and Entering. — The Entering of the Greyhound and Deer- 
hound ; Of Foxhounds and Harriers ; Breaking the Pointer and 
Setter ; The Retriever (Land and Water) ; The Spaniel ; The Ver- 
min Dog ^...--- .... 213 
CHAPTER V. 
The Use of the Dog in Shooting.— Grouse and Partridge (Quail) 
Shooting ; Snipe and Woodcock Shooting ; Wild Fowl Shooting : 
Shoal-water Fowl; Deep-water Fowl; Hare Hunting; Deer 
Hunting ; Game in the Far West - - • - • - 248 



BOOK ni. 

THE DISEASES OF THE DOG AND THEIR TREATMENT. 
CHAPTER I. 
Peculiarities in the Anatomy and Physiology of the Dog.— The 
Skeleton, including the Teeth ; The Muscular System ; The Brain 
and Nervous System; The Digestive System; The Heart and 

Lungs ; The Skin 287 

CHAPTER n. 
Ihe Remedies Suited to the Dog, and the Best Means of Adminis- 
tering them. — Alteratives ; Anodynes ; Antispasmodics ; Aperi 
ents ; Astringents ; Blisters ; Caustics ; Charges ; Cordials ; Diu- 
retics ; Embrocations ; Emetics ; Expectorants ; Fever Medi- 
cines ; Clysters ; Lotions ; Ointments ; Stomachics ; Styptics ; 
Tonics ; Worm MedicineB ; Administration of Remedies - • 2flQ 



CONTENTS. VH 

CHAPTER ni. 
Fevers, and their Treatment.— Simple Ephemeral Fever, or Cold ; 
Epidemic Fever, or Influenza ; Typhus Fever, or Distemper ; 
Bhsumatic Fever ; Small-Pox ; Sympathetic Fever - - . gOQ 
CHAPTER IV. 
.'nflamraatioDS. — Definition of Inflammation ; Symptoms and Treat- 
ment of Babies, Tetanus, and Turnside ; Of Inflammation of the 
Eye, Ear (canker), Mouth, and Nose ; Of the Lungs ; Of the 
Stomach ; Of the Bowels ; Of the Liver ; Of the Kidneys and 
Bladder ; Of the Skin - - - - - £23 

CHAPTER V. 
Diseases Accompanied by "Want of Power.— Chorea ; Shaking Palsy - 
Fits ; y/orms ; General Dropsy or Anasarca - • • 347 

CHAPTER VI. 
Diseases Arising from Mismanagement or Neglect.— Anaemia ; Rick 
ets ; Indigestion - - , jjsg 

CHAPTEB VII. 
Diseases and Accidents Requiring Surgical Aid. — Tumors ; Cancer; 
Encysted Tumors ; Abscesses; Unnatural Pjrturition ; Accidents 
and Operations ----- _ - , _ 35^ 

Hew York Annual Bench Shows, ••••... 35) 




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Frontispiece (Cotmtess.)- • 

Fetchino: Game 7 

Outwitting the Dog 10 

Group of Dogs 11 

Pointing a Grouse 12 

Flushing Birds 14 

The Wolf 17 

English ?n]nter,'Dra.]sieFitllpage 21 

Head of WUd Dog 26 

The Dingo 27 

Head of Retriever 31 

Deerhound 33 

Greyhound 35 

Pair of 36 

Setters, Pair of FuU page. . 39 

Deer at Bay 48 

Hare-Indian Dog 49 

Greyhound, Persian 51 

Greyhounds, Italian, Pair of.... 53 

Hound, Head of 54 

Bloodhound, Head of 55 

Foxhound 57 

Beagles, American 64 

Rabbit 66 

English Terrier 69 

Dandie Dinmont Terriers 72 

Irish Setter, Rover. .i^uZZ page. . 109 

Skye Terrier 77 

Fox Terrier 79 

Torkshire Terrier 81 

Head of Terrier 82 

fox Terrier Full page.. 73 

Dachshunds 85 

Dalmatian Dog 91 

Gordon Setter, Lau^.Funpage.. 93 

Setter at Work 95 

Shepherd Dosrs Fullpage..l25 

Spaniel, Clumber 113 

" Sussex 114 

** Cocker 115 

« Head of 117 

« Irish Water 118 

Dachshund FitU page. . 83 

Spaniel and Woodcock 1'^ 

Chesapeake Bay Dog 121 

Colley Dog, Scotch 128 

Sheep Dog, Head of 130 

Spitz Dog 131 

Newfoundland Dog 134 



Esquimaux Dogs, Heads of .136-137 

Esquimaux Dog Full page.. 139 

BuU Dogs : 143 

" " Head of 145 

Mastiff, English 146 

St. Bernard, Rough 148 

" Smooth 150 

" Heg*iof 151 

Poodle Dog 153 

Bull Dog and Spaniel 153 

Maltese Dog 154 

Spaniel, King Charles 156 

" Blenheim 157 

Pug Dogs, A Pair of 159 

Dog and Crow 160 

Terriers, Toy 161 

Retrievers Full page . .165 

Bull Terrier 169 

Terrier and Cat 170 

Dachshund and Pups 186 

Group of Dogs 205 

Kennel, Plan of 207 

" Elevation of 208 

" Bench for 211 

" Ventilating Shaft 212 

Hound, Head of 217 

Plan of Quartering Ground.... 228 

Puzzle Peg 231 

Pointer, Daisy Fvltpage. .237 

Head of Skye' Terrier 247 

Snipe Full page. .253 

Woodcock Fun page. .259 

American Hare Full page . . 273 

Deer at Salt lAc^.... Full page. .277 

Coursing Deer 280 

Buffalo Hunters Full page.. 2Sl 

Teeth of Dogs. 4 Figures 289 

Head of Sick Dog 291 

Dog in Trouble 308 

Paper Carrier 323 

Puppy 346 

Maw Worm 351 

Tape Worm 353 

Tape Worm, Head of 353 

Kidney Worm 354 

Shepherd Dog and Flock 358 

A Sudden Encounter 366 

Bloodhound, Head of 381 

Colburn's Dash 383 



FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



X. Frontispiece, Countess, the celebrated English setter belonging 
to Mr. Purcell Llewellyn. Stonchenge regards her as an absolutely 
perfect dog. For her complete pedigree, sec pages 96-97. 

2. Dkake, (page 21), a distinguished pointer in his day. He belonge(3 
to Mr. R. J. Lloyd Price, of North Wales, and is fully described oa 
page 90, 

3. Flora and Nelly, (page 39), two well-known American setters ex« 
hibited at a recent New York Bench Show, the former by W. C. 
Waters, of New York, and the latter by Milo Seagears, an eminent shot 
and trainer of Florida, Orange County, N. Y. Nelly, the under 
dog in the illustration, was the stanchest h'ttle setter we ever shot 
over; she was unfortunately drowned not long since in £. vat, to the 
great regret of many sportsmen. 

4. Rover (page 109), a majestic Irish setter, belonging to Mr. Macdona. 
He is by Beahty out of the Rev. R. Callaghan's Gkouse, and is own 
brother to Plunket. He is referred to page llO. 

5. Fox Terrier (page 73). This breed of dogs is becoming very popu- 
lar as companions. They are fully described, page 78. The English 
Terrier Belciier, whose portrait is given on a previous page (69), has 
taken many prizes. He now belongs to Mr. T. B. Swinburne, of Great 
Britain, and is considered the most perfect specimen of the breed extant. 

6. La^Q (page OC), an elegant Gordon setter belonging to Mr. Coath, 
of Great Britain. He has taken numerous prizes at Birmingham and 
elsewhere, and is fully described, page 106. The Dalmatian dog Captain, 
of which an engraving is given on a previous page, (91), belongs to Mr. 
Fowdry, of Great Britain, and since 1875 has taken several first prizes at 
London, Birmingham, and other important Dog Shows in England. 

7. Shepherd Dogs (page 125), or Scotch Colleys. The group belong 
to Mr. Francis Morris, of Philadelphia, Pa. These dogs have a most 
tenacious memory, whereby they are enabled to recognize every sheep 
In the flock. The breed is described, page 126. 

8. Dachshund (page 83). This is an engraving of a dog belonging to 
Mr. Raab, of Hoboken, N. J. Ten years ago there wfere very few Dachs- 
iaunds in the United States in addition to Mr. Raab's small pack. They 
are now becoming quite popular, as they already have been on tho 
European Continent. The breed is described, page 85. 

9. Esquimaux or Wolf Dog (page 139). This engraving represents 
the breed of North American do2:s, which, having many of the charac- 
teristics of the wolf, were frequently taken for the latter animal by Dr. 
Kane. They are described, page 135. 

10. "Wavt-Coated Retrievers, Paris and Melody (page 165). These 
two beautiful animals belong to Mr. G. Brewis, of Great Britain. The 

IX 



X PULL PAGE ILLUSTBATIONS, 

breed is now much employed in England, Ihongh as yet compara.* 
tively little used in the United States, their work being performed bj 
our setters and pointers. They are described, page 164. 

11. Pointer, Daisy (page 2S7). This pointer, belonging to Dr. A. B, 
Strachan, of New York City, took the first prize of her class in a recent 
New York Bench Show. She is small, but finely formed, and beautiful 
both in color and action. 

12. American Snipe (page 259). Though commonly called Englisli 
Bnipe, and formerly supposed to be identical, this is an American bird, 
the differences first having been ascertained and designated by Dr Alex- 
ander WUson, the celebrated Ornithologist. The bird in the engraving 
was shot on the Hackensack Meadows, and owing to its size and beauty, 
preserved for illustration. Snipe shooting is described, page 255. 

13. Woodcock, (page 259). The engraving represents the American 
Woodcock. Though smaller than the English bird, it is fully as hand- 
somely marked and held in equal estimation by epicures of both coun- 
tries. The bird described flew from its feeding ground across a village 
Btreet in Bergen, New Jersey, and dashing through the window of a drug 
store broke its neck against the stove. 

14. American Hare (page 273). Suggestions regarding the hunting 
of hares in the United States are given, page 275. 

15. Shooting Deer at a Salt-Lick (page 277). The engraving repre- 
sents a favorite and successful mode of hunting deer in the United 
States, and is described, page 280. 

16. Buffalo Hunters' Camp (page 281). This scene, representing 
buffalo hunters, curing the hides of the animals, was sketched in South- 
em Kansas by one of the contributors to this volume. The present 
ranges of the buffalo are described, page 383. 

17. Colburn's Dash (page 382). This celebrated dog, belonging to 
George C. Col burn, of this city, combines the English, Irish, and Gordon 
strains, and has sired some of our best prize and field winners. 





PUBLISHERS' PEEFACE. 



For fifty years, " Stonehenge," by which name Mr. J. H. Walsh 
is known In both Continents, has made the dog a constant study. 
More than twenty years ago the Messrs Longman, of London, 
selected him to revise Mr. Youatt's work. Since then his volumi- 
nous writings in the " Field," and elsewhere, have revealed such 
thorough knowledge of the subject as to constitute him the un- 
disputed authority on all matters pertaining to the dog. Blaine, 
Daniel, Hill, Mayhew, Richards, Youatt, and other authors, take 
rank far below him, while '* Idstone," who, perhaps, stands next 
to him, frankly alludes in his work to " Stonehenge " as " without 
doubt the first of living authorities," " the most experienced and 
scientific of writers," etc. He is so regarded to-day in America, 
as well as in Europe. The writings on which *' Stonehenge's" 
reputation and present popularity mainly rest are contained in the 
two works " The Dog in Health and Disease," (1872), and " Tho 
Dogs of the British Islands," (1878). The high cost of these works 

XI 



xn 



PUBLISHERS PEEPACE. 



has placed them, with few exceptions, beyond the reach of would 
be buyers in the United States, where there is a very general 
curiosity and desire to procure them. Such being the case, we 
have incorporated all the essential features of both works into one, 
at a cost to the reader of less than one-fifth the amount charged 
for the two imported works. The new volume may be correctly 
described as Stonehenge's writings, omitting minor details of 
merely local interest, and following the original text, except in the 
reconstruction of sentences for the sake of perspicuity and sim- 
plicity. Such additional matter as has been deemed desirable for 
an American book is contributed, among others, by Mr. David W. 
Judd, whose annual three months' hunting trips for many years, 
have discovered choice bunting grounds in the Middle and West' 
em States and Territories; by Mr. Henry Stewart, whose long 
studies in animal life have produced several successful volumes, 
and by Mr. F. R. Ryer, whose familiarity with dog lore has so fre- 
quently been veiified in controversial papers. The engravings have 
been executed by Mr. Charles Hinkle, whose known experience 
with dogs enables him to successfully bring out tlie required points 
in his subject. The full page illustrations are distributed without 
regard to the text, but to add to the general effect of the volume. 
Lists of prize winners in Dog Shows, down to 1887, are given. 




mTRODUCTORY. 



Every lover of the dog has hailed with lively satisfaction the 
reproduction of Stonehenge's Great Works in the United States. 
Mr. Walsh does not always express himself in the smoothest 
terms, but what he writes is to the point. The reader feels that 
he is explaining or advising what he knows to be true from actual 
experience, that he can safely purchase one animal or administer 
.medicine to another in accordance with his directions. The com- 
position of his latest book, the " Dogs of the British Islands," shows 
a marked improvement over that of "The Dog in Health and 
Disease," though the directions for breedmg, rearing, etc., and for 
the treatment of the diseases, are fuller and mor'i satisfactory in the 
latter. The present volume very properly, therefore, combines de- 
scriptions of dogs selected from both works, while the matter 
pertaining to the breeding of dogs, management in disease, etc., is 
eproduced almost bodily from Stonehenge's first book. The 
Jlustrations are much the superior in the latest work, and are 
therefore selected from that for reproduction. Portraits of 
several well known American dogs are added. 

The rapidly increasing interest manifested in Dog Shows 
bears evidence to the growing regard and care in the United States 
for the canine species. Of all animals, the dog possesses the most 
intelligence, and, with proper effort and training, can be educated 
up to a point next to human. We have plenty of books on the 
dog, but none furnishing the desired mformation and instruction 
which are presented in Stonehenge's combined works. 

Time devoted to the animal creation is by no means lost. Kot 
to speak of the practical results, it has an ameliorating effect upon 
humanity. He who is kind to his brutes does not himself become 
a brute. If the disposition to treat them with consideration is cul- 
tivated, it is carried into his daily walk and conversation, with 
humanity. He who practices profanity and physical abuse upon 
xm 



XIV 



rNTEODITCTORT. 



his animals, all the more readily berates his family. However d©i 
graded, the man who loves his dog is not wholly lost. There ia 
yet considerable humanity about him, which may, perhaps, be 
sooner or later successfully appealed to. The dog is a valuable 
factor in society. Cuvier styles the domestic dog " the most use- 
ful conquest that man has gained in the animal world." The 
Shagg}' Esquimaux which draws its heavy sled over weary roads ; 
the faithful Colley, " without which," says the Ettrick Shepherd, 
" the whole of the open mountainous land in Scotland would not 
be worth a sixpence " ; the noble Newfoundland which protects 
and rescues life ; the sturdy Mastiff which guards well the home 
from all intruders ; the Pointer or Setter which, with its unerring 
scent, contributes to the delicacy of the table, and in the " season" 
swells may be his masters slender income ; the lively Terrier which 
rids the house of vermin; the ever alert Skye, whose shrill 
night bark betokens danger — one and all enact an important 
part for mankind. "When we take into account the very many 
valuable sei-vices performed for us by the various species, we 
can not so much wonder, perhaps, that the untutored savage thinks 
his dog follows him straight to the spirit land, or that the ancient 
Egyptians freshly shaved themselves as a mark of grief every 
time a dog died in the family, or that a tribe of Ethiopia once set 
up a dog for their king, and accepted the wags of his tail aa 
heavenly divinations. Hq is certainly one of the noblest and 
most useful of animals. 




BOOK I. 



THE ISTATURAL HISTORY, ZOOLOGICAL CLAS- 
SIFICATION, AND VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



15 




Fig. 1.— THE WOLF. 



CHAPTER I. 



ORIGIN. — GENERAIi CHARACTERISTICS. - 
CtrVTER'S DIVISIONAL ARRANGEMENT. 
"STONEHENGB.'* 



HABITAT. — VARIETIES. — P. 
-ARRANGEMENT ABOPTED Bt 



From the earliest times we have reason to believe that the dog 
has been the faithful companion and assistant of man in all parts 
of the world, and his fidelity and attachment are so remarkable 
as to have become proverbial. Before the introduction of agricul- 
ture, it was by means of the hunting powers of this animal that 
man was enabled to support himself by pursuing the wild denizens 
of the forest ; for though now, with the aid of gunpowder, he can 
In great measure dispense with the services of his assistant, yet, 
until the invention of that destructive agent, he was, in default of 

17 



18 ORIGIN OF THE DOG. 

the dof;, reduced to the bow and arrow, the snare, or the pitfalL 
The dog was also of incalculable service in guarding the flecks 
and heras from the depredations of the Carnwora, and even man 
himself was often glad to have recourse to his courage and 
strength in resisting the lion, the tiger, or the wolf. 

Much has been written on the origin of the dog, and Pennant, 
Buffon, and other naturalists have exhausted their powers of re- 
search and invention in attempting to discover the parent stock 
from which all are descended. The subject, however, is wrapped 
in so much obscurity as to baffle all their efforts, and it is still a 
disputed point whether the shepherd's dog, as supposed by Buffon 
and Daniel, or the wolf, as conjectured by Bell, is the progenitor 
of the various breeds now existing. Anyhow, it is a most unprofit- 
able speculation, and, being unsupported by proof of any kind, it 
can never be settled upon any reliable basis. "We shall not, there- 
fore, waste any space in entering upon this discussion, but leave 
our readers to investigate the inquiry, if they think fit, in the pages 
of Buffon, Linnaeus, Pennant, and Cuvier, and our most recent in- 
vestigator. Professor Bell. It may, however, be observed that the 
old hypothesis of Pennant that the dog is only a domesticated 
jackal, crossed with the wolf or fox, though resuscitated by Mr- 
Bell, is now almost entirely exploded ; for while it accounts some- 
what ingeniously for tlie varieties which are met with, yet it is 
contradicted by the stubborn fact that, in the present day, the cross 
of the dog with either of these animals, if produced, is incapable 
of continuing the species when paired with one of the same crossed 
breed. Nevertheless, it may be desirable to give Mr. Bell's reasons 
for thinking that the dog is descended from the wolf, which are as 
follows : — 

"In order to come to any rational conclusion on this head, it 
■will be necessary to ascertain to what type the animal approaches 
most nearly, after having for many successive generations existed 
in a wild state, removed from the influence of domestication, and 
of association with mankind. Now we find that there are several 
different instances of the existence in dogs of such a state of wild- 
ness as to have lost even that common character of domestication, 



ORIGIN OF THE DOG. 19 

variety of color, and marking. Of these, two very remarkable 
ones are the Dhole of India, and the Dingo of Australia. There is, 
besides, a half-reclaimed race amongst the Indians of North Ameri- 
ca, and another, also partially tamed in South America, which de- 
serve attention. And it is found that these races in different de- 
grees, and in a greater degree as they are more wild, exhibit the 
lank and gaunt form, the lengthened limbs, the long and slender 
muzzle, and the great comparative strength which characterize the 
wolf ; and that the tail of the Australian dog, which may be con- 
sidered as the most remote from a state of domestication, assumes 
the slightly bushy form of that animal. 

" We have here a remarkable approximation to a well-known 
wild animal of the same genus, in races which, though doubtless 
descended from domesticated ancestors, have gradually assumed 
the wild condition ; and it is worthy of especial remark that the 
anatomy of the wolf, and its osteology in particular, does not differ 
from that of the dog in general, more than the different kinds of 
dogs do from each other. The cranium is absolutely similar, and 
so are all, or nearly all, the other essential parts ; and, to strengthen 
Btill further the probability of their identity, the dog and wolf will 
readily breed together, and their progeny is fertile. The obliquity 
of the position of the eyes in the wolf is one of the characters in 
which it differs from the dog ; and, although it is very desirable 
not to rest too much upon the effects of habit on structure, it is 
not perhaps straining the point to attribute the forward direction 
of the eyes in the dog to the constant habit, for many successive 
generations, of looking forward to his master, and obeying his 
voice."* 

Such is the state of the argument in favor of the original de- 
scent from the wolf, but, as far as it is founded upon the breeding 
together of the wolf and dog, it applies also to the fox, which is 
now ascertained occasionally to be impregnated by the dog ; but in 
neither case we believe does the progeny continue to be fertile if 
put to one of the same cross, and as this is now ascertained to be 
the only reliable test, the existence of the first cross stands for 

* Bell's British Quadrupeds, pp. 196-7. 



20 GENEEAL CHARACTEEISTICS. 

nothing. Indeed, experience shows ns more and more clearly 
every year, that do reliance can be placed upon the test depending 
upon fertile intercommunion, which, especially in birds, is shown 
to be liable to various exceptions. Still it has been supported by 
respectable authorities, and for this reason we have given insertion 
to the above extract. 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

In every variety the dog is more or less endowed with a keen 
sight, strong powers of smell, sagacity almost amounting to rea- 
son, and considerable speed, so that he is admirably adapted for all 
purposes connected with the pursuit of game. He is also furnished 
with strong teeth, and courage enough to use them in defence of 
his master, and with muscular power sufficient to enable him to 
draw moderate weights, as we see in Kamtschatka and Newfound- 
land. Hence, among the old writers, dogs were divided into Pug- 
naces, Sagaces, and Geleres; but this arrangement is now super- 
seded, various other systems having been adopted in modern times, 
though none perhaps much more satisfactory. Belonging \o the 
division Vertebrata, class Mammalia^ order Ferce^ family FelidcB^ 
and sub-family Ganina, the species is known as Ganis Jamiliarii^ 
the sub-family being distinguished by having two tubercular teeth 
behind the canines on the upper jaw, with non-retractile claws, 
while the dog itself differs from the fox with which he is grouped, 
in having a round pupil in the eye instead of a perpendicular slit, 
as is seen in that animal. 

The attempt made by Linnaeus to distinguish the dog as having 
4 tai\ curved to the left, is evidently without any reliable founda- 
tion, as though there are far more with the tail on that side than 
on the right, yet many exceptions are to be met with, and among 
the pugs almost all the bitches wear their tails curled to the left. 
The definition, therefore, of Gani% familiaris caudd {sinistrorsum) 
recurvatd^ will not serve to separate the species from the others of 
the genus Ganis, as proposed by the Swedish naturalist. 



HABITAT VARIETIES. 23 

HABITAT. 

In almost every climate the dog is to be met with, from Kamt< 
Bchatka to Cape Horn, the chief exception being some of the 
islands in the Pacific Ocean ; but it is only in the temperate zone 
that he is to be found in perfection, the courage of the bulldog and 
the speed of the greyhound soon degenerating in tropical coun- 
tries. In China and the Society Islands dogs are eaten, being con- 
sidered great delicacies, and by the ancients the flesh of a young 
fat dog was highly prized, Hippocrates even describing that of an 
adult as wholesome and nourishing. In a state of nature the dog 
is compelled to live on flesh which he obtains by hunting, and 
hence he is classed among the GarniDora ; but when domesticated 
he will live upon vegetable substances alone, such as oatmeal por- 
rido-e, or bread made from any of the cereals, but thrives best upon 
a mixed diet of vegetable and animal substances ; and, indeed, the 
formation of his teeth is such as to lead us to suppose that by 
nature he is mtended for it, as we shall hereafter find in discussing 
his anatomical structure. 



VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



The varieties of the dog are extremely numerous, and, indeed, 
as they are apparently produced by crossing, which is still had 
recourse to, there is scarcely any limit to the numbers which may 
be described. It is a curious fact that large bitches frequently 
take a fancy to dogs so small as to be incapable of breeding with 
them ; and in any case, if left to themselves, the chances are very 
great against their selecting mates of the same breed as themselves. 
The result is, that innumerable nondescripts are yearly bom, but 
as a certain number of breeds are described by writers on the dog, 
or defined by " dog-fanciers," these '* mongrels," as they are called 
from not belonging to tliem, are generally despised, and, however 
useful they may be, the breed is not continued. This, how- 
ever, is not literally true, exceptions being made in favor of cer- 
tain sorts which have been improved by admixture with others, 



24 VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 

such as the cross of the bulldog with the greyhound ; the foxhound 
with the Spanish pointer; the bulldog with the terrier, etc., etc., 
all of which are now recognized and admitted into the list of val- 
uable breeds, and not only are not considered mongrels, but, on 
the contrary, are prized above the original strains from which they 
are descended. An attempt has been made by M. F. Cuvier to 
£u:range these varieties under three primary divisions, which are 
founded upon the shape of the head and the length of the jaws, 
these being supposed by him to vary in accordance with the de- 
gree of cunning and scenting powers, which the animal possessing 
them displays. The following is his classification, which in the 
main is correct, and I shall adhere to it, with trifling alterations, 
in the pages of this book. 

F, Cuvier^s Divisional Arrangement. 

L MATINS. 

Characterized by head more or less elongated ; parietal bones in- 
sensibly approaching each other; condyles of the lower jaw 
placed in a horizontal line with the upper molar teeth, exempli- 
fied by— 
Sect. 1. Half-reclaimed dogs, hunting in packs ; such as the Dingo, 

the Dhole, the Pariah, etc. 
Sect. 2. DomesticaUd dogs, hunting in packs, or singly, but using 

the eye in preference to the nose ; as, for instance, tlie 

Albanian dog, Deerhound, etc. 
Sect. 3. DomestiGaUd dogs, which hunt singly, and almost entirely 

by the eye. Example : the Greyhound. 

II. SPANIELS. 

CMraderistics.—RQ^H moderately elongated ; parietal bones do 
not approach each other above the temples, but diverge and swell 
out, so as to enlarge the forehead and cavity of the brain. 
Sect. 4. Pastoral dogs, or such as are employed for domestic pur- 
poses. Exampb : Shepherd's Dog. 



VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 25 

Sect. 5. Water dogs, which delight in swimming. Examples : 
Newfoundland Dog, Water-Span iel, etc. 

Sect. 6. Fowlers^ or such as have an inclination to chase or point 
birds by scenting only, and not killing. Examples: 
the Setter, the Pointer, the Field-Spaniel, etc. 

Sect. 7. Rounds, which hunt in packs by scent, and kill their 
game. Examples : the Foxhound, the Harrier, etc. 

Sect. 8. Crossed breeds, for sporting purposes. Example: the Re- 
triever. 

in. HOUSE DOGS. 

Characteristics. — Muzzle more or less shortened, skull high, 
frontal sinuses considerable, condyle of the lower jaw extending 
above the line of the upper cheek teeth. Cranium smaller in this 
group than in the first and second, in consequence of its peculiar 
formation. 

Sect. 9. Watch dogs, which have no propensity to hunt, but are 
solely employed in the defence of man, or his prop- 
erty. Examples : the Mastiff, the Bulldog, the Pug 
dog, etc. 

As before remarked, this division is on the whole founded ou 
natural laws, but there are some anomalies which we shall en- 
deavor to remove. For instance, the greyhound is quite as ready 
to hunt in packs as any other hound, and is only prevented from 
doing so by the hand of his master. The same restraint keeps him 
from using his nose, or he could soon be nearly as good with that 
orgm as with the eye. So also Cuvier defines his sixth section as 
"having an inclination to chase and point birds'' whereas they 
have as great, and oftener a greater, desire for hares and rabbits. 
Bearing therefore in mind these trifling defects, we shall consider 
the dog under the following heads : 

Chap. I. Wild and half-reclaimed dogs, hunting in packs. 
Chap. II. Domesticated dogs, hunting chiefly by the eye, and 
killing their game for the use of man, 
2 



26 TAKIETIES OF THE DOG. 

Chap. III. Domesticated dogs, hunting chiefly by the nose, and 
both finding and killing their game. 

Chap. IV^ Domesticated dogs, finding game by scent, but not 
killing it ; being chiefly used in aid of the gun. 

Chap. Y. Pastoral dogs, and those used for the purposes of 
draught. 

Chap. YI. Watch dogs. House dogs, and Toy dogs. 

Chap. YII. Crossed breeds, Retrievers, etc. 





%'^..., — :-- — 

Fig. 2.— THE DINGO. 



CHAPTER 11. 



WILD AND HALF-RECLAIMED DOGS HUNTING IN PACKS. — THE DINGO. — THIB 
DHOLE. — THE PARIAH. — THE WILD DOG OP APRICA. — THE SOUTH- 
AMERICAN DOG. — THE NORTH-AMERICAN DOG.— OTHER WILD DOQ3. 

THE DINGO. 



It is upon the great similarity between these wild dogs and the 
wolf or fox, that the supposition is founded of the general descent 
of the domesticated dog from either the one or the other. After 
examining the portrait of the dingo, it will at once be seen that it 
resembles the fox so closely in the shape of its body, that an or- 
dinary observer could readily mistake it for one of that species, 
while the head is that of the wolf. The muzzle is long and pointed, 
the ears short and erect. Hight about 24 inches, length 30 inches. 
His coat is more like fur tl^-an hair, and is composed of a mix- 
%1 



28 THE DHOLE. 

ture of silky and woolly hair, the former being of a deep yellow, 
while the latter is grey. The tail is long and bushy, and resem- 
bles that of the fox, excepting in carriage, the dingo curling it 
over the hip, while the fox trails it along the ground.* While in 
his unreclaimed state this dog is savage and unmanageable, but is 
easily tamed, though even then he is not to be trusted, and when 
set at liberty will endeavor to escape. Many dingoes have been 
crossed with the terrier, and have been exbibited as hybrids be- 
tween the dog and fox, which latter animal they closely resemble, 
with the single exception of the pendulous tail. Whenever, there- 
fore, a specimen is produced which is said to be this hybrid, every 
care must be taken to ascertain the real parentage without rely- 
ing upon the looks alone. 



THE DHOLE. 



The native wild dog of India, called the Dhole, resembles the 
Dingo in all but the tail, which, though hairy, is not at all bushy. 
The following is Captain Williamson's description, extracted from 
his " Oriental Field Sports," which is admitted to be a very accu- 
rate account by those who have been much in India. " The 
dholes are of the size of a small greyhound. Their countenance is 
enlivened by unusually brilliant eyes. Their body, which is slen- 
der and deep-chested, is thinly covered by a coat of hair of a red- 
dish brown or bay color. The tail is dark towards its extremity. 
The limbs are light, compact, and strong, and equally calculated 
for speed and power. They resemble many of the common pariah 
dogs in form, but the singularity of their color and marks at once 
demonstrate an evident distinction. Thes3 dogs are said to be 
perfectly harmless if unmolested. They do not willingly approach 
persons, but, if they chance to meet any in their course, they do 
not show any particular anxiety to escape. They view the human 

*Tlic cn^raviTi'^of the Diniro wns tnk'Mi from an animal in confinement, in 
wliich state the tail is seldom curled upwardR- 



WILD AND HALF-RECLAIMED DOGS. 29 

race rather as objects of curiosity than cither of apprehension or 
enmity. The natives who reside near the Ranochitty and Kat- 
cunsandy passes, in which vicinity the dholes may frequently be 
seen, describe them as confining their attacks entirely to wild ani- 
mals, and assert that they will not prey oa sheep, goats, etc. ; but 
others, in the country extending southward from Jclinah and 
Mechungunge, maintain that cattle arc frequently lost by their 
depredations. I am inclined to believe that the dhole is not par- 
ticularly ceremonious, but will, when opportunity offers, and a 
meal is wanting, obtain it at the expense of the neighboring 
village. 

" The peasants likewise state that the dhole is eager in propor- 
tion to the animal he hunts, preferring the elk to any other kind 
of deer, and particularly seeking the royal tiger. It is probable 
that the dhole is the principal check on the multiplication of the 
tiger ; and although incapable individually, or perhaps in small 
numbers, to effect the destruction of so large and ferocious an 
animal, may, from their custom of hunting in packs, easily over- 
come any smaller beast found in tlie wilds of India." Unlike 
most dogs which hunt in packs, the dholes run nearly mute, utter- 
ing only occasionally a slight whimper, which may serve to guide 
their companions equally well with the more sonorous tongues of 
other hounds. The speed and endurance of these dogs arc so great 
as to enable them to run down most of the varieties of game which 
depend upon flight for safety, while the tiger, the elk, and the 
boar diminish the numbers of these animals by making an obsti- 
nate defence with their teeth, claws, or horns, so that the breed of 
dholes is not on the increase. 

/ 



THE PAEIAH. 



This is the general name in India for the half-reclaimed dogs 
which swarm in every village, owned by no one in particular, but 
ready to accompany any individual on a hunting excursion. They 
vary in appearance in different districts, and can not be described 



30 AFRICAN AND AMERICAN DOGS. 

very particularly ; but the type of the pariah may be said to re- 
semble the dhole in general characteristics, and the breed is most 
probably a cross with tbat dog and any accidental varieties of 
domesticated dogs which may have been introduced into the re- 
spective localities. They are almost always of a reddish brown 
color, very thi;\ and gaunt, with pricked cars, deep chest, and 
tucked up belly. The native Indians hunt the tiger and wild 
boar, as well as every species of game, with these dogs, which 
have good noses and hunt well, and though they are not so high- 
couraged as our British hounds, yet they often display considerable 
avidity and determination in " going in " to their formidable op- 
ponents. 



THE EKIA, OR WILD AFRICAN DOG. 

The native dogs of Africa are of all colors, black, brown, and 
yellow, or red; and they hunt in packs, giving tongue with con- 
siderable force. Though not exactly wild, they are not owned by 
any individuals among the inhabitants, who, being mostly Ma- 
hometans, have an abhorrence of the dog, which by the Koran is 
declared to be unclean. Hence they are complete outcasts, and 
obtain a scanty living either by hunting wild animals where they 
abound, or, in those populous districts where game is scarce, by 
devourin"- the ofifal which is left in the streets and outskirts of the 
towns. The EJcia, also called the Deab, is of considerable size, 
with a large head, small pricked ears, and round muzzle. His 
aspect in general resembles that of the wolf, excepting in color, 
Which, as above remarked, varies greatly, and in the tail, which is 
almost always spotted or variegated. These dogs are extremely 
savage, probably from the constant abuse which they meet with, 
and they are always ready to attack a stranger on his entrance into 
any of the villages of the country. They are revolting animals, 
and unworthy of the species they belong to. 



AFRICAN AND AMERICAN DOGS. 31 

THE NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICAN DOGS. 

A great variety of the dog tribe is to be met with throughout 
the continent of America, resembling in type the dingo of Aus- 
tralia, but appearing to be crossed with some of the different kinds 
introduced by Europeans. One of the most remarkable of the 
South-American dogs is the Alco, which has pendulous ears, with 
a short tail and hog-back, and is supposed to be descended from 
the native dog found by Columbus ; but, even allowing this to be 
the case, it is of course much intermixed with foreign breeds. The 
JSTorth-American dogs are very closely allied to the dingo iix all 
respects, but are generally smaller in size, and are also much 
crossed with European breeds. In some districts they burrow in 
the ground, but the march of civil izition is yearly diminishing 
their numbers throughout the continent of America. 



OTHER WILD DOGS. 



Many other varieties of the wild dog are described by travellers, 
but they all resemble one or other of the above kinds, and are of 
little interest to the general reader. 




ATW^-v^-^^^ 










mmi: ^ 








Fig. 3.— DEERHOUND, BBiJI. 

CHAPTER III. 

DOMESTICATED DOGS HUNTING CHIEFLY BY THE 
EYE, AND KILLING THEIR GAME FOR MAN'S USE. 

THE ROUGH SCOTCH GREYHOUND AND DEERHOU^TD.— THE SMOOTH OB 
ENGLISH GREYHOUND.— THE GAZEHOUND. — THE IRISH GREYHOUiJD, 
OR WOLF-DOG. — THE FRENCH MATIN — THE HARE-INDIAN DOG — THE 
ALBANIAN DOG.— THE GRECIAN GREYHOUND.— THE TURKISH GREY- 
HOUND. — THE PERSIAN GREYHOUND — THE RUSSIAN GREYHOUND. — THE 
ITALIAN GREYHOUND. 



THE ROUGH SCOTCH GREYHOUND AND DEERHOUND. 

This breed of dogs is, I believe, one of the oldest and purest in 
existence, but it is now rapidly becoming extinct, being supplanted 
in public estimation, for coursing purpo&es, by the English grey- 
32 



BOUGH SCOTCH GREYHOUND AITD DEERHOUND. 33 

hounrl, or by a cross between the two. The rough greyhound is 
identical in shape and make with the pure deerhotind, and the two 
can only be distinguished by their style of running when at work 
or play ; the deerhound, though depending on his nose, keeping 
his head much higher than the greyhound, because he uses this 
attitude in waiting to pull down his game. By some people it is 
supposed that the smooth variety of the greyhound is as old as the 
rough ; but, on carefully examining the description given by Arrian 
no one can doubt that the dog of his day was rough in coat, and 
in all respects like the present Scotch dog. In shape, the Scotch 
greyhound resembles the ordinary smooth yariety, but he is rather 
more lathy, and has not quite the same muscular development of 
loin and thigh, though, the bony frame being more fully developed, 
this is perhaps more apparent than real. 

In spite of the external form being the same in the rough Scotch 
greyhound used for coursing hares, and the deerhound, there can 
be no doubt that the two breeds, from having been kept to their 
own game exclusively, are specially adapted to its pursuit by in- 
ternal organization, and the one cannot be substituted for the 
other with advantage. Generally speaking, the deerhound is of 
larger size than the greyhound, some being 28 inches high, though 
this size is not very uncommon in the greyhound, and dogs of 
26i or 27 inches ar3 frequently seen. Mr. Scrope, the author of 
•' Deer-stalking," gives the following description of Buskar, a cele- 
brated deerhound belonging to Captain McNeill of Colonsay,viz. : 
hight, 28 inches; girth round the chest, 32 inches; running 
weight, 85 lbs.; color, red or fawn, with black muzzle. Bran, 
whose portrait is given at the head of this chapter, and which 
showed all the points of the deerhound, was by Mr. Stewart 
Hodgson's Oscar, of the breed of Mr. McKenzie, of Ross-shire, 
Scotland. The measurement of this noble animal was as fol- 
lows: from nose to setting on of the tail, 47 inches; tail, 22 
inches ; hight, 32 inches ; length of head, 12 inches ; circumfer- 
ence of head, 17i inches ; round the arm at the elbow, 9^ inches ; 
girth at chest, 33| inches ; girth at loin, 24 inches ; round the thigh, 
17i inches ; round lower thigh hock, 7 inches ; knee, 7 inches. To 



34 DOMESTICATED IIUNTING-DOGS. 

these external qualifications were added great speed and strength, 
combined with endurance and courage, while the sagacity and 
docility of the dog made him doubly valuable. He was used for 
coursing the deer, but his nose was good enough for hunting, even a 
cold scent, as was the case with all of his breed. Whether or not 
the deerhound can now be procured in a state of purity, I am not 
prepared to say, but that they are extremely rare, is above dispute, 
though there are numberless animals resembling them in form, but 
all more or less crossed with the foxhound, bloodhound, bulldog, 
etc., and consequently not absolutely pure. Mr. Scrope himself, 
with all his advantages, could not succeed in obtaining any, and 
had recourse to the cross of the greyhound with the foxhound, 
which, he says, answered particularly well ; as, according to his 
experience, "you get the speed of the greyhound with just enough 

of the nose of the foxhound to answer your purpose In point 

of shape, they resemble the greyhound, but they are larger in the 
bone and shorter in the leg. Some of them, when in slow action, 
carry the tail over the back like the pure foxhound ; their dash in 
making a cast is most beautiful, and they stand all sorts of rough 
weather." He advises that the first cross only should be employed, 
fearing that, as in some other instances, the ultimate results of breed- 
ing back to either strain, or of going on with the two crosses, would 
be unsatisfactory. " Maida," the celebrated deerhound belonging 
to Sir Walter Scott, was a cross of the greyhound with the blood- 
hound, but some distance off the latter. The bulldog infusion has 
the disadvantage of makmg the deerhound thus bred, attack the 
deer too much in front, by which he is almost sure to be impaled 
on the horns, so that, in spite of the high courage of the breed, it 
is from this cause quite useless in taking deer. 

The rough Scotch greyhound, as used for coursing, averages 
about 26 inches in the dog, and 22 or 23 inches in the bitch ; but 
as above remarked, its use is almost abandoned in public, and 
those which are still bred are either used in private, or are kept 
entirely for their ornamental properties, which are very consider- 
able, and, as they resemble the deerhound, they are very commonly 
passed off for them. They are of all colors, but the most common 



ROUGH SCOTCH GKEYllOUXD AND DEERHOUIfD. 35 

are fawn, red, brindled (either red and black mixed, or fawn and 
blue), grey, and black. The coat is harsh, long, and rough, espec- 
ially about the jaws, where the hair stands out like that of a 
Scotch terrier. In speed they are about equal to the smooth grey- 
hound, but they do not appear to be quite so stout, though of late 
we have had no opportunities of judging, as a rough greyhound 
in public is rare in the extreme. Mr. A. Graham, who formerly 
was celebrated for his breed of these dogs, has now abandoned 
their use, excepting when largely crossed with the smooth grey- 
hound, for which purpose they seem well suited, when the former 
are too small or too delicate for the work they have to do. But as 
these are now bred of a much more hardy kind than formerly, so 
that they will stand cold and wet almost as well as the Scotch 
dog, there is little necessity for resorting to the cross, and it is ac- 
cordingly abandoned by almost all the breeders of the animal. 
Nevertheless, some of the best dogs of the present day have a 
strain of the rough dog in them, but it is gradually dying out as 
compared with ten or twenty years ago. It is alleged, and I fancy 
with some truth, that the rough dog runs cunning sooner than the 
smooth, and hence the cross is objected to; and certainly many 
litters of greyhounds bred in this way within the last few years 
have been remarkable for this objectionable vice. 

The points, or desirable external characteristic's of this breed, 
with the exception of the rough coat, are so similar to those of 
the smooth greyhound, that the two may be considered together. 




36 DOMESTICATED UU^•TING-DOGS. 



Fig. 4. — PAIR OF SMOOTH GREYHOUNDS — RIOT AND DAVID. 

THE SMOOTH GREYHOUND. 

This elegant animal appears to have existed in Britain from a 
very early period, being mentioned in a very old Wel>h proverb, 
and a law of King Canute having precluded the commonalty from 
keeping him. Numberless hypotheses have been brought forward 
relative to the origin of the greyhound, Buffon tracing him to the 
French nation, and some other writers fancying that they could 
■with more probability consider him as the descendant of the bull- 
dog or the mastiff. But as I believe that it is impossible to ascer- 
tain with any degree of certainty the origin of the species Canis, so 
I am quite satisfied with the conclusion that no long-standing va- 
riety can be traced to its source. We must, therefore, be content 
to take each as we find it, and rest content with investigating its 
present condition ; perhaps in some cases extending our researches 
back for fifty or a hundred years, and even then we shall often 
find that we are lost in a sea of doubt. 

Until within the last twenty -five years public coursing was con- 



THE SMOOTH GKEYIIOUXD. 37 

fined to a very limited circle of competitors, partly owing to the 
careful retention of the best blood in the kennels of a chosen few, 
but chiefly to the existing game laws, which made it imperative 
that every person coursing should not only have a certificate, but 
also a qualification, that is to say, the possession of landed prop- 
erty to the value of one hundred pounds per annum. Hence the 
sport was forbidden to the middle classes, and it was not until 
1831 that it was thrown open to them. From that time to the 
present the possession of the greyhound has been coveted and 
obtained by great numbers of country gentlemen and farmers in 
rural districts, and by professional men as well as tradesmen in our 
cities and towns, so that the total number in Great Britain and 
Ireland may be estimated at about fifteen or twenty thousand. Of 
these about five or six thousand arc kept for public coursing, while 
the remainder amuse their owners by coursing the hare in private. 

Various explanations have been oflTercd of the etymology of the 
prefix grey, some contending that the color is implied, others that 
it means Greek {Grains), while a, third party understand it to mean 
great. But as there is a remarkable peculiarity in this breed con- 
nected with it, w^e need not, I think, go farther for the derivation. 
No other breed, I believe, has the blue or grey color prevalent; and 
those which possess it at all have it mLxed with white, or other 
color ; as, for instance, the blue-mottled harrier, and the blotched 
blue and brown seen in some other kinds. The greyhound, on the 
contrary, has the pure blue or iron grey color very commonly ; and 
although this shade is not admired by any lovers of the animal for 
its beauty, it will make its appearance occasionally. Hence it may 
fairly be considered a peculiarity of the breed, and this grey color 
may, therefore, with a fair show of probability, have given the 
name to the greyhound. 

In describing the greyhound it is usual, and indeed almost neces- 
sary, to consider him as used for the two purposes already men- 
tioned, that is to say, — 1st, as the private, and 2ndly, as the public, 
greyhound ; for though externally there is no dificrence whatever, 
yet in the more delicate organization of his brain and nerves there 
is some obscure variation, by which he is rendered more swift and 



38 DOMESTICATED HUNTING DOGS. 

clever in the one case, and more stout and honest in the other. In 
the horse the eye readily detects the thoroughbred, but this is not 
the case here : for there are often to be met with most beautifully 
formed greyhounds of private blood, which it would be impossible 
to distinguish from the best public breeds by their appearance, but 
Tvhich in actual trial would be sure to show defective speed and 
sagacity. This being the case, I shall tirst describe the general 
characteristics of both, and afterwards those in which they differ 
from one another. 

The points of the greyhound will be described at length, because 
as far as speed goes, he may be taken as the type to which all 
other breeds are referred ; but, before going into these particulars, 
it will be interesting to examine the often-quoted doggrel rhymes, 
which are founded upon a longer effusion originally published by 
Wynkyn de Worde in 1496, and to institute a comparison between 
the greyhound of the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the 
former of these periods it was said that this dog should have — 

" The head of a snake, 
The neck of the drake, 
A back like a beam, 
A side like a bream. 
The tail of a rat, 
And the foot of a cat." 

Now, although the several points herein mentioned may be en- 
larged upon, it is scarcely possible to dissent from any one of 
them ; but, as all my readers may not exactly know the form 
which is meant to be conveyed by the side of a bream for instance, 
it is necessar\- to explain it in more intelligible language. 

1st. The HEAD, it is said, should be snake-like, but this is not to 
be taken literally, as that of the snake differs considerably from 
the head of any specimen of the greyhound which has ever come 
under my observation. Every snake's head is flat and broad, with 
the nose or snout also quite compressed, while the head of the 
greyhound, though flat at the top, is comparatively circular in its 
transverse section, and the nose is irregularly triangular. There 
is no doubt that the greyhound of former days, before the cross of 



THE SMOOTH GREYHOUND. 41 

the bulldog was introduced, had a much smaller head than that 
which is now seen ; and I also believe that some breeds at present 
existing may be ascertained to be free from this cross, by their 
small brain-cases ; but, still, none have the perfectly flat head of 
the reptile in question. The tyro, therefore, who looks for a literal 
interpretation of the first line of the rhyme will be disappointed. 
My own belief is that a full development of brain gives courage 
and sagacity, but leads to such a rapid acquirement of knowl- 
edge relative to the wiles practised by the hare, as to make the 
dog possessing it soon useless for anything but killing his game, 
which he is often able to do with absolute certainty. Hence it is 
important to bear this in mind, and to take care not to overdo this 
characteristic. In all cases, the more the development is increased 
behind the ears, the higher will be the courage ; and if this can be 
obtained without a corresponding increase in the diameter in front 
of those organs, there will be no attendant disadvantage, as the 
intellectual faculties no doubt reside in the anterior part of the 
brain. The best average measurement opposite the ear in dogs of 
full size is about 15 inches, and for bitches, 14 or 14|. The jaw 
should be very lean, and diminisliing suddenly from the head, not 
gradually falling off in one uniform line. The teeth are of great 
importance, as, unless they are strong and good, the hare cannot 
be seized and held. They should be white, strong, and regular, 
showing strength of constitution, as well as being useful in the 
course. As a rule, the incisor teeth meet each other, but some dogs 
are underhung like the bulldog, and others the reverse, like the 
pig ; that is to say, one or other set of teeth overlaps those above 
or below, as the case may be. The former is not of much conse- 
quence, unless very much marked, when it diminishes the chance 
of holding the hare ; but the latter is certainly prejudicial, and a 
*' pig-jawed " greyhound should never be selected, though I have 
known one or two good killers with this formation. The eye 
should be bright and tolerably full, the color varying with that of 
the coat. The ears are generally recommended to be soft and fall- 
ing, and pricked ears are despised, as being terrier-like, but some 
good breeds possess them, nevertheless, probably deriving them 



42 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

from the bulldog. I cannot, therefore, lay any great stress upon 
this point in the formation of the head. 

The NECK also, though compared to that of a drake, is a long 
way from being as thin, but, nevertheless, it may be said that it 
should be as drake-like as possible. The object of this is to enable 
the <i-reyhound to stoop and bear the hare without being put out of 
his stride. The proper average length of the neck is about equal 
to that of the head. 

The beam-like back is all-important, for without strength in this 
department, though high speed may be obtained for a short dis- 
tance, it is impossible to maintain it, and then we have a flashy 
animal, who is brought up at the end of a quarter of a mile. 
What is meant by the comparison to the beam is not only that it 
shall be strong, but that the back shall have the peculiar square 
form of that object. There is a long muscle which runs from the 
hip forwards to be attached to the angles of the ribs, and mis, if 
well developed, gives great power in turning, so that it is a very 
essential point, and upon the size of it the squareness mainly de- 
pends. Without width of hip no back can be strong, since the 
muscles have no possibility of attachment in sufficient breadth, 
and the same may be said of the ribs. In examining, therefore, a dog 
out of condition, the experienced eye often detects the probability 
of the futurs development of a good back, even though there is no 
appearance of muscle at the time; because, the bones being of 
good size and breadth, there is every reason to expect, with health 
and good feeding, that they will be covered by their usual mov- 
ing powers, and will then show the substance which is desired. 
It is also desirable to have depth of back from above down- 
wards, by which the whole body is "buckled and unbuckled" 
with quickness and power, as is required in the gallop. The 
muscles of the abdomen may draw the chest towards the hind legs 
powerfully, but the action is too slow, and for quick contraction 
those of the under side of the back are essential. 

By the side is to he understood the chest, which is composed of 
the two sides combined. The bream-like form of this part depends 
upon the width at the angles of the ribs, where they curve towards 



THE SMOOTH GUEYHOtTND. 43 

the backbone, and upon which, as I before observed, the size of the 
back depends. Very round ribs like a barrel are not so desirable 
as the squared form which I have alluded to, for several reasons 
which will be given under the anatomical description of this part. 
Great depth of chest is apt to prevent the dog stooping on rough 
ground, as he strikes it against high ridges or large stones, but a 
moderately deep chest is a valuable point, giving plenty of " bel- 
lows' room " as it is popularly called. This, however, is provided 
for better by breadth than depth, and the former should be insisted 
on more than the latter, provided there is not that round tub-like 
form of the ribs which interferes with the action of the shoulder- 
blades, and often accompanies low-breeding. 

A rat-like tail is insisted upon, not as of absolute use in any 
way, but as a sign of high breeding, without which it is well known 
the greyhound is comparatively valueless. But it must be under- 
stood that it is only in the size of the bones that the similarity 
should be insisted on, for many goo J breeds have a considerable 
quantity of hair upon the tail, though this never ought to be in a 
bushy form. A slight fan-like distribution of hair is not therefore to 
be considered objectionable, and in puppies is a mark of hardihood. 

Cat-like feet are much insisted on, and this point has been so 
much attended to that some breeds have been produced remarkable 
for having their feet even more round than those of the cat. 
Their toes seem to be the only parts touching the ground, the pad 
appearing as if it was not in contact with it. This form I believe 
to be an exaggeration of a good point, as all dogs so provided are 
very apt to draw their nails, or break their toes, both of which 
accidents it is of great importance to avoid. The most essential 
point, therefore, is such a form of foot as will prevent the toesr 
spreading, taking care that the knuckles are well up, by which a 
good foothold is secured. But beyond this it is necessary to pro- 
vide for the wear and tear which the sole of the foot incurs, and 
hence a thick pad well covered with hard skin is to be insisted on. 
If the greyhound has this he will stand his work, while its absence 
renders him at all times liable to become footsore, and incapable 
of doing it 



44 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

The HIND QUARTER is entirely overlooked in the rhymes above- 
mentioned, but it is of the greatest importance nevertheless, being 
the chief element of progression. First of all, we should insist' 
upon a good framework, which, presenting the levers acted on by 
the muscles, must be in proper form, and of sufficient length and 
strength. Thus it is usual in examining puppies for selection to 
extend them to their full length, and then the one which stretches 
over the greatest distance is supposed to be the best in this point, 
and (other things being equal) very properly so. Thus, then, we 
arrive at the conclusion that the hinder limbs should be made up 
of long bones ; but they must be united by well-formed joints, and 
in order that the dog shall not stand too high they should be well 
bent, though if the fore part of the dog is lower than the hind, there 
is no necessity for the presence of this form, as it comes to the same 
thing in reality. Strong bony stifle-joints and hocks, with great 
length between them and from the stifle to the hip, united with a 
short leg, constitute the perfection of form in the hind quarter, if, 
as is almost always the case, the muscles covering them are strong 
enough to put them in action. 

Th3 FORE QUARTER is composed of the shoulder, the upper arm 
{between it and the elbow), the fore-arm (below the elbow), the 
knee, the leg, and the foot. The shoulder should be oblique, well 
covered with muscles, and moving freely on the ribs, which it sel- 
dom does if the two blades are kept wide apart at their upper 
edges by the tub-like form of the chest, described under that head. 
Hence we should examine, and anxiously look for, length of 
shoulder-blade, which cannot exist without obliquity; freedom of 
play, without which the fore quarter is not protruded in the gallop 
as it ought to be ; and muscular development to bear the shocks to 
which this part is subject. The arm also should be long, so as to 
raise the point of the shoulder high enough to make the blade lie 
at an angle of 45' with the horizon, and to throw the elbow well 
back to take the weight of the body. With regard to the elbow 
itself, the joint must be placed in the same plane as the body ; that 
is to say, the point of the elbow should not project either inwards 
or outwards. In the former case, the feet are turned out, and then 



THE SMOOTH GREYHOUND. 45 

there is a want of liberty in the play of the whole shoulder, be- 
cause the elbow rubs against the ribs, and interferes with the 
action. This is called being " tied at the elbow," and is most care- 
fully to be avoided in selecting the greyhound, as well as all other 
breeds. The arm should be straight, long, and well clothed with 
muscle. T.he knee should be bony, and not bent too much back, 
which is an element of weakness, though seldom to such an extent 
as to be prejudicial to real utility. The leg, or bones below the 
knee, should be of good size, the stopper (or upper pad) well 
united to it, and firm in texture, and supported upon a foot of the 
formation recommended under that head. 

The COLORS commonly met with among high-bred greyhounds, 
are black, blue, red, fawn, brindled, and white, variously mixed. 
Thore are also sometimes seen cream, yellow, brown, dun, and 
grey dogs. When a plain color is speckled with small white marks, 
the dog is said to be ticked. The black, red, and fawn are the 
most highly prized by most coursers, especially when the last two 
have black muzzles. Some people are partial to blue dogs, of 
which several good specimens have been met with, as may also be 
said of the brindled color, but, as before remarked, the general 
opinion is in favor of blick, red, and fawn. I believe that black 
red, and white, may be considered as the primary colors, and that 
the others arise out of their mixture in breeding. Thus a black 
dog and a white bitch will produce either blacks, whites, black and 
whites, blues, or greys ; while a red dog and white bitch will have 
red, white, fawn, red and white, yellow, or cream puppies. Black 
and red united together make the red with black muzzle or the 
black brindle, while the blue and fawn give rise to the blue brin- 
dle; or sometimes we see the black or blue tanned color, as we 
meet with commonly enough in the setter, spaniel, and terrier. 
Mr. Thacker was of opinion, with some of the early writers on 
the greyhound, that the brindle was a mark of the descent from 
the bulldog ; bat, as nothing is known of the time when the color 
first appeared, no reliance can be placed on the hypothesis. 

The texture of the coat is the last point upon which any reli- 
ance is placed, but, as far as my experience goes, there is little 



46 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

to be gainei from it. Nevertheless, I sliould always discard a very 
soft woolly coat as ueiu^ an evidence of a weak constitution, uj-^ble 
to bear exposure to weather, and, on tiiat account, unlit for the 
purposes of the courser. The old breeds were, many of them, 
very bald about the cheeks and thighs, and this used to be consid- 
ered a mark of good blood ; but, since the intermixture of the 
rough greyhound, most of our best sorts have been free from 
this peculiarity, and many of them have had hard rough coats, 
quite unlike the fine and thin hair, which was formerly so highly 
piized. My own impression is in favor of a firm, glossy, and 
somewhat greasy-feeling, coarse coat, which stands wetting well, 
and at the same time looks healthy and handsome to the eye. 

The relative value of these several points varies a good deal 
from those of dogs whose breeding can chiefiy be arrived at by 
external signs — e.g., the stern, color, and co::t in the pointer and 
setter. Here the pedigree is well known for many generations ; 
and therefore, although the breeding may be guessed at from the 
appearance of the individual, it is far better to depend upon the 
evidence afforded by the Coursing Calendar, or if that is not forth- 
coming, to avoid having anything to do with breeding from the 
strain. I quote : 

"In measuring a dog, I should take only the following points, 
which should be nearly of the proportions here given in one of 
average size : 

" Principal points : Hight at the shoulder, 25 in. ; length from 
shoulder point to apex of last rib, 15 in. ; length of apex of last 
rib to back of buttock, 13 in. to 15 in. ; length from front of thigh 
round buttock to front of other thigh, 21 in. 

*' But to be more minute, it is as well to measure also the subor- 
dinate points as under: Circumference of bead between eyes and 
ears, 14^^ in. to 15 in. ; length of neck, 9 in, to 10 in. ; circumfer- 
ence of chest, 28 in. to 30 in. in condition ; length of arm, 9 in. ; 
length of knee to the ground, 4^ in. ; circumference of the loin, 
18 in. to 19 in., in running condition ; length of upper thigh,10^ in. ; 
lower thigh, 11 in.; and leg from hock to ground, 5^ in. to 6 in. 

" In taking these measurements, the fore legs should, as nearly 



THE SMOOTH GKEYHOUXD. 47 

as possible, be perpendicular, and the hind ones only moderately 
extended backwards." 

The specimens selected for illustrations are Riot and David, 
which were perhaps the best greyhounds for all kinds of ground 
which ever ran, not even excepting the two treble winners of the 
Waterloo Cup, as they were not tried over the downs. Riot was 
the property of Mr. C. Randell, of Chadbury, and was not only 
the winner of seventy-four courses in public, with the loss of only 
ten, but she was also the dani of several good greyhounds. David 
had also the same double distinction, but was not quite so cele- 
brated in the coursing field as the bitch. He had, however, the 
advantage at the stud, as might be expected from his sex, and a 
goodly list of winners are credited to him. 

In the CHOICE op a greyhound I have already observed that 
we must be guided by other considerations besides make and 
shape, depending greatly upon the precise object which the in- 
tending possessor has in view, since, although the high-bred and 
low-bred greyhounds are alike externally, yet there is in their in- 
ternal structure some difference beyond the ken of our senses. 
But, as it is found by experience that in this particular "like pro- 
duces like," it is only necessary to be assured that the parents pos- 
sessed this internal formation, whatever it may be, in order to be 
satisfied that their descendants will inherit it. Thus we arrive 
at the necessity for " good breed," or " pure blood," as the same 
thing is called in different language, both merely meanmg that the 
ancestors, for some generations, have been remarkable for the pos- 
session of the qualities most desired, whatever they may be. 
Hence, in selecting greyhounds to breed from, the pedigree for 
many generations is scrntinized with great en re, and if there is a 
single flaw it is looked at with suspicion, because the bad is almost 
sure to peep out throug'i any amount of good blood. 

Tlie modes of breeding, managinT, breaking, and using the 
greyhound, will be described later on in the volume. 



48 



DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS, 



THE IRISH GREYHOUND, OR WOLF-DOG. 

This fine animal is now, I believe, extinct, though there are still 
some gentlemen who maintain that they possess the breed in all 
Its pristine purity of blood. They are much larger than the deer- 
hound, some of them being 35 or even 38 inches high, but resem- 
bling that dog in shape, being generally of a fawn color, with a 
rough coat and pendent ears. They were formerly used for the 
purpose of hunting the wolf. 



THE MATIN. 



The French m:itin is not a very distinct dog, comprehending an 
immense variety of animals, which in England would be called 
lurchers, or sheep dogs, according to the uses to which they are 
put The head has the elongated form of this division of the dog, 
with a flat forehead ; the ears stand up, but are pendulous towards 
the tip, and the color varies from red to fawn. He is about 24 
inches high, has strong muscular action, and is very courageous, 
being employed in hunting the wild boar and wolf. This dog is 
said, by F. Cuvier, to be the progenitor of the greyhound and 
deerhound ; but Pennant, on the contrary, considers him to be de^ 
scended from the Irish wolf-dog. 




THE HAKE-1NT>IAN DOQ. 



4ii 




Fig. 5. — THE HAKE-INDIAN DOG, 



THE HARE-INDIAN DOG. 



The Hare-Indian dog inhabits the country watered by the Mac- 
kenzie River and the Great Bear Lake of America, where it is used 
to hunt the moose and reindeer by sight, aided occasionally by its 
powers of scent, which are by no means contemptible, but kept in 
abeyance by disuse. The feet are remarkable for spreading on 
the snow, so as to prevent them from sinking into it, and to enable 
the dog to bound lightly over a surface which the moose sinks into 
at every stride. The hight is about 25 inches, combined with 
great strength. The ears are broad at the base, and pointed to- 
wards the tips, being perfectly erect. The tail is thick, bushy, 
and slightly curved, but not so much so as in the Esquimaux dog. 
The hair is long and straight; the ground color being white, 
marked with large, irregular patches of greyish black, shaded with 
brown. 



50 DOMESTIC A.TED HUNTING-DOGS. 

THE ALBANIAN DOG. 

The Albanian dog is said to stand about 27 or 28 inches high, 
with a long pointed muzzle, powerful body, strong and muscular 
limbs, and a long bushy tail, carried like that of the Newfoundland 
dog. Mis hair is very fine and close, being of a silky texture, ana 
of a fawn color, variously clouded with brown. He is used for 
hunting the wild boar and wolf, as well as for the purpose of 
guarding the sheep-fold from the latter ; but the accounts of this 
dog vaiy greatly, and are not much to be relied on. 



THE GRECIAN GREYHOUND. 

This elegant animal is somewhat smaller than the English dog. 
The hair is longer and slightly wavy, the tail also being clothed 
with a thin brush of hair. This is supposed to be the same breed 
as the greyhound of Xenophon, the Athenian. 



THE RUSSIAN GREYHOUND. 

This variety of the greyhound hunts well by scent, and, being at 
the same time fast and stout, he is used for the destruction of the 
wolves and bears which inhabit the Russian forests, and also for 
coursing the deer and the hare. For this latter sport he is well 
adapted ; but, being somewhat deficient in courage and strength^ 
he is hardly a match for the wolf and bear, excepting in packs. 

The Russian greyhound is about 26 or 27 inches high, with 
short pricked ears, turned over at the tips ; he is rather thin and 
weak in the back and loins, and long on the leg. The coat is 
thick, but not long, excepting the hair of the tail, which is fanlike, 
with a spiral twist of a peculiar form. The color is dark brown 
or grey. I am not aware of any undoubted specimen of this breed 
having been imported into England, nor of a correct portrait 



TUKKISH AND PEKSIAN GREYHOUNDS. 51 

having been painted ; so my readers must depend upon description 
alone. 



THE TURKISH GREYHOUND. 

A small and almost hairless dos^, of the greyhound kind, is met 
with in Turkey, but it is not common in that country, and I have 
never seen a specimen or even a good portrait of it. 



THE PERSIAN GREYHOUND 

Is an elegant animal, beautifully formed in all points, and re« 
sembling the Italian in delicacy of proportions. In Persia he is 
used for coursing the hare and antelope, as well as sometimes the 
wild ass. When the antelope is the object of the chase, relays of 
greyhounds are stationed where the game is likely to resort to and 
slipped each in their turn as the antelope passes. 

The Persian greyhound is about 24 inches high. The ears are 
pendulous like those of the Grecian dog, and hairy like those of the 
English setter, but in other respects he resembles the English 
smooth greyhound, with the exception of the tail, which may be 
compared to that of a silky-coated setter. Several portraits of this 
dog have appeared at various times in the *' Sporting Magazine " 
and elsewhere, but I am told they do not well represent his ap- 
pearance. 




52 



DOJilESTIOATED HUNTING-DOGS. 




Fig. 6. — ^ITALIAN GREYHOUNDS, BISMARK AND CRUCrFIX. 



THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND. 



This little dog is one of the most beautifully proportioned ani- 
mals in creation, being a smooth English greyhound in miniature, 
and resembling it in all respects but size. It is bred in Spain and 
Italy in great perfection, the warmth of the climate agreeing well 
■with its habits and constitution. In England, as in its native 
country, it is only used as a pet or toy dog, for though its speed is 
considerable for its size, it is incapable of holding even a rabbit^ 
The attempt, therefore, to course rabbits with this little dog has 
always failed, and in those instances where the sport (if such it can 
be called) has been carried out at all, recourse has been had to a 
cross between the Italian greyhound and the terrier, which results 
in a strong, quick, little dog, quite capable of doing all that is re- 
quired. 

The chief points characteristic of the Italian greyhound are 
shape, color, and size. 



THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND 53 

In shape, he should as nearly as possible resemble the English 
greyhound, as described elsewhere. The nose is not usually 
80 long in proportion, and tlie head is fuller both in width and 
depth. The eyes, also, are somewhat larger, being soft and full 
The tail should be small in bone, and free from hair. It is scarcely 
so long as that of the English greyhound, bearing in mind the 
difference of size. It usually bends with a gentle sweep upwards, 
but should never turn round in a corkscrew form. 

The color most prized is a golden fawn. The dove-colored 
fawn comes next; then the cream color, and the blue fawn, or 
fawn with blue muzzle, the black-muzzled fawn, the black- 
muzzled red, the plain red, the yellow, the cream-colored, and the 
black ; the white, the blue, the white and fawn, and the white and 
red. Whenever the dog is of a whole color, there should be no 
white whatever on the toes, legs, or tail ; and even a star on the 
breast is considered a defect, though not so great as on the feet. 

The size most prized is when the specified weight is about six or 
eight pounds ; but dogs of this weight have seldom perfect sym- 
metry, and one with good shape and color, of eight pounds, is to 
be preferred to a smaller dog of less perfect symmetry. Beyond 
twelve pounds the dog is scarcely to be considered a pure Italian, 
though sometimes exceptions occur, and a puppy of pure blood, 
with a sire and dam of small size, may grow to such a weight as 
sixteen pounds. 

I have never yet seen an Italian greyhound more nearly ap- 
proaching perfection than Mr. Pirn's Bismark, a considerable 
prize-winner at Bristol and in Ireland, although he has recently 
been twice unnoticed, beyond a high commendation at Birming- 
ham and the Alexandra Park Shows. These defeats were, how-= 
ever, maiiily owing to the excellence of the bitches amongst 
which he was classed ; for at Birmingham there were four of that 
sex only a trifle behind the celebrated Molly in shape and color, 
while at the Alexandra Park there were nearly as many. Bis- 
mark is, nevertheless, a very neat dog, and, barring his round 
head and his color, which has a shade of blue in the fawn, he is 
rery little behind the first-class bitches of his day. His pedi^ee 



54 



DOMESTICATED HUNTiNG-t)OGS. 



is dnknown, so that it is not possible to trace these defects to 
their cause; but I have little doubt that, at some time more or 
less remote, a terrier cross in his pedigree would creep out. At 
all events, he is the best dog exhibited of late years, and as such I 
have selected him for illustration. Crucifix, his companion in the 
engravinp;, was, like him, passed over at the above shows, obtain- 
ing only a second prize at the shows recently held at Birmingham 
and Alexandra Palace. My own opinion, however, was strongly 
in her favor at both of these shows ; and, in spite of the high au- 
thority of Messrs. Hedley and Handley (the respective judges), I 
have accordingly selected her for portraiture. Her beautiful 
golden-fawn color Ls even superior to Molly's dove-color, and her 
general shape and symmetry are nearly equal ; but no doubt in 
head Molly has the advantage, and if the two were shown to- 
gether, both in their i)nme, the latter would weigh down the scale 
considerably. Like Bismark, she has had more lionor in her own 
country than at Birmingham and London, having been awarded 
the first prize at Manchester in two dog sho ws,and also at Glasgow 
in two other years. She is Dy Bruces Prince out of his Beauty; 
Prince by Old Prmce— Speed ; Beauty by Chief— Tit. 




THE BLOODHOUKD. 



55 




Fig. 7. — ^HEAD OF BLOODHOUND. 



THE BLOODHOUND. 

The name given to this hound is founded upon his peculiar 
power of scenting the blood of a wounded animal, so that, if once 
put on his trail, he could hunt him tlirough any number of his 
fellows, and would thus single out a wounded deer from a large 



56 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

herd, and stick to him through any foils or artifices which he may 
have recourse to. From this property he has also been used to 
trace human beings ; and as his nose is remarkably delicate in 
hunting, even without blood, he has always been selected for that 
purpose, whether the objects of pursuit were slaves, as in Cuba, 
or sheep-stcalers, as in England. 

At present there are, as far as I know; no true bloodhounds in 
England for this purpose, or indeed for any other, as I believe 
the breed to be extinct ; but several gentlemen possess hounds 
commonly called bloodhounds, though only partially resembling 
the veritable animal, and use them for hunting fallow-deer, espe- 
cially those which are only wounded with the rifle, and not killed 
outright. This dog is also kept for his fine noble appearance ; and 
as his temper is generally less uncertain than the genuine old 
bloodhound, and his taste for blood not so great, though still 
sometimes beyond all control, he is not unfitted to be the constant 
companion of man, but must always be regarded with some degree 
of suspicion. Bloodhounds, more or less purely bred, are still 
plentiful in the Southern States, where formerly considerable 
packs were kept for hunting both deer and fugitive slaves. 

The following are the distinctive marks of this dog, which 
should make their appearance even when one only of the parents 
is thorough-bred :— Hight, from 24 to 25 or even 26 inches ; pecu- 
liarly long and narrow forehead : ears from 8 to 9, and even 10, 
inches long ; lips loose and hanging ; throat also loose, and roomy 
in the skin ; deep in the brisket, round in the ribs, loins broad and 
muscular, legs and feet straight and good, muscular thighs, and 
fine tapering and gracefully waving stem ; color black-tan, or deep 
and reddish f;iwn (no white should be shown but on just the tip 
of the stem) ; the tongue loud, long, deep, and melodious, and the 
temper courageous and irascible, but remarkably forgiving, and 
immensely susceptible of kindness. The illustration is a portrait 
of the fine head of a dog owned by Mr. Reynold Ray, an old and 
well-known breeder, and a prize-winner at various shows. 



THE FOXHOUND. 



57 




Fig. 8.— FOXHOUND, BLUECAP. 



THE FOXHOUND. 



The modern foxliouncl is one of tlie most wonderful animals in 
treation, which is probably owing to the great pains that have 
been bestowed upon him for the last two or three centuries. Nu- 
merous instances have occurred where forty or fifty thousand dol- 
lars a year have been spent for a long time together upon a fox- 
hunting establishment, and therefore, when this outlay has been 
united with the great judgment which has been displayed in the 
most celebrated kennels of the present century, it can scarcely 
occasion surprise that the combination has resulted in the most 



58 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

complete success. In breeding cattle and sheep, one man has, in 
more than one instance, during his single life, elfected a complet« 
ievolution in the animal he was engaged in improving; and there- 
fore, wlien a number of gentlemen combine for one purpose, and 
spare neither time, money, nor trouble, we ought to expect the 
luj.fillment of their wishes. In no department of rural sports has 
so much been written as on fox-hunting, and this not only of late 
years, but for the last three centuries, during which Markham, 
Soraerville, and Beckford may be instanced as examples of truth- 
ful as well as clever writing on the subject. Beckford, who wrote 
in the latter part of the last century, his first letter being dated 
1779, is, however, the father of the modern school, and, with 
slight exceptions, the hound described by him is still that selected 
by our best masters, though perhaps they carry out his principles 
to a greater extent than he ever expected they would go. Much 
has been written, it is true, since his time, but I am not aware that 
any one has deviated from his description without doing wrong, 
and therefore, as I like to give credit where credit is due, I shall 
extract his description entire, as contained in his third letter to his 
friend. 

** You desire to know what kind of hound I would recommend. 
As you mention not for any particular chase or country, I under- 
stand you generally ; and shall answer that I most approve of 
hounds of the middle size. I believe all animals of that description 
are strongest, and best able to endure fatigue. In the hight as 
well as the color of hounds, most sportsmen have their prejudices ; 
but in their shape, at least, I think they must all agree. I know 
sportsmen who boldly affirm that a small hound will oftentimes 
beat a large one ; that he will climb hills better, and go through 
cover quicker ; whilst others are not less ready to assert that a 
large hound will make his way in any country, will get better 
through the dirt than a small one, and that no fence, however high, 
can stop him. You have now their opinions : and I advise you to 
adopt that which suits your country best. There is, however, a 
certain size best adapted for business, which I take to be that be- 
Iween the two extremes, and I will venture to say that such hounds 



THE FOXHOTrNl>. 59 

■will not suffer themselves to be disgraced in any country. Somer- 
ville 1 find is of the same opinion : 

' But here a mean 
Observe, nor a large hound prefer, of size 
Gigantic ; he, in the thick-woven covert, 
Painfully tugs, or in the thorny brake, 
Torn and embarrass'd, bleeds : but, if too small. 
The pigmy brood in every furrow swims ; 
Moil'd in the clogging clay, panting, they lag 
Behind inglorious; or else shivering creep, 
Benumb'd and faint, beneath the sheltering thorn. 
Foxhounds of middle size, active and strong, 
Will better answer all thy various ends, 
And crown thy pleasing labors with success.' 

I perfectly agree vyith you that to look well they should be all 
nearly of a size ; and I even think that they should all look of the 
same family, 

* Facics non omnibus una. 
Nee di versa tamen, qualem decet esse sororum." 

"If handsome without they are then perfect. With regard to 
their being sizeable, what Somerville says, is so much in your own 
"way that I shall send it you : 

* As some brave captain, curious and exact. 
By his fix'd standard, forms in equal ranks 
His gay battalion : as one man they move, 
Step after step ; their size the same, their arms. 
Far gleaming, dart the same united blaze ; 
Reviewing genends his merit own ; 
How regular ! how just ! And all his cares 
Are well repaid if mighty George approve : 
So model thou thy pack, if honor touch 
Thy gen'rous soul, and the world's just applause.' 

" There are necessary points in the shape of a hound which 
ought always to be attended to by a sportsman, for if he be not of 
a perfect symmetry, he will neither run fast nor bear much work 
He has much to undergo, aad should have strength proportioned 



50 DOMESTICATED HUNTIXG-DOGS. 

to it. Let his legs be straight as arrows, his feet round and not too 
large ; his shoulders back ; his breast rather wide than narrow ; bis 
chest deep ; his back broad ; his head small ; his neck thin ; his tail 
thick and brushy ; if he carry it well, so much the better. Such 
hounds as are out at the elbows, and such as are weak from the 
knees to the foot, should never be taken into the pack. 

" I find that I have mentioned a small head as one of the neces- 
sary requisites of a hound ; but you will understand that it is 
relative to beauty only, for as to goodness, I believe large-headed 
hounds are in no wise inferior. The color I think of little mo- 
ment, and am of opinion with our friend Foote, respecting his 
negro friend, that a good dog, like a good candidate, cannot be of 
a bad color. 

" Men are too apt to be prejudiced by the sort of hound which they 
themselves have been most accustomed to. Those who have been 
used to the sharp-nosed foxhound, will hardly allow a large-head- 
ed hound to be a foxhound ; yet they both equally are ; speed and 
beauty are the chief exc2lleucies of the one, while stoutness and 
tenderness of nose in hunting are characteristic of the other. I 
could tell you that I have seen veiy good sport with very unhand- 
some packs, consisting of hounds of various sizes, differing from 
one another as much in shape and look as in their color ; nor could 
there be traced the least sign of consanguinity amongst them. 
Considered separately the hounds were good; as a pack of hounds 
they were not to be commended ; nor would you be satisfied with 
anything that looked so very incomplete. You will find nothing 
so essential to your sport as that your hounds should run well 
together; nor can this end be better attained than by confining 
yourself, as near as you can, to those of the same sort, size, and 
shape." 

Thus then as to points, it will be evident from the above extract 
that Beckford was fully aware of all which are considered essential 
to the foxhound, except the depth of the back ribs, in which the 
modern hound differs from both of his supposed progenitors (the 
greyhound and old-fashioned hound), and which has been estab- 
lished by carefully breeding from sires and dams peculiar for this 



THE FOXHOUND. 61 

development. It is upon this formation that stoutness, and the 
capability of bearing work day after day, mainly depend; and 
hence all good judges both of the hunter and the hound insist so 
strongly upon it. Nimrod (Apperley) also remarks that Beckford 
has omitted to particularize " the length of thigh discernible in 
fir^t-rate hounds, which, like the well-let-down hock of the horse, 
gives them much superiority of speed, and is also a great security 
against laming themselves in leaping fences, which they are more 
apt to do when they become blown and consequently weak." It 
may also be remarked, that though Beckford insists upon a middle 
size, he does not define what he means by the term, but as fox- 
hounds vary from 25 inches to 20, I should say 23 to 25 inches for 
doghounds, and 21 to 23 for bitches, would be about the hight 
meant by him. In open countries, with thin fences or walls, 
a large hound may perhaps suit best ; but in woodlands, the 
small size, if not too small and delicate, has many advantao-es 
and will always beat the larger and heavier hound, who tires 
himself in driving through the runs, which will readily ad- 
mit the small dog or bitch. Nimrod fixed the hight at " 21 
to 22 inches for bitches, and 23 to 24 for doghounds ;" but 
I have given a little more latitude in the above estimate. The 
speed of the foxhound may be estimated from the well known 
match over the Beacon course, at Newmarket, which is 4 miles 
1 furlong and 132 yards, and which was ruD by Mr. Barry's 
" Bluecap " (the winner) in eight minutes and a few seconds, Mr. 
Mcynell's hounds being not far behind ; and only twelve out of 
sixty horsemen who started with them being with them to the end. 
Colonel Thornton's bitch, " Merkin," is even said to have run the 
same course in seven minutes and half a second. This speed is ac- 
counted for by the greyhound descent, if it really exists ; and that 
it does so I have little doubt, as it is quite clear that the old hound 
was deficient in those points which the greyhound alone would be 
able to give; but as this is only conjecture I have not insisted 
upon it. 

The small rounded ear of the foxhound is due to the rounding 
irons of the huntsman, who removes a large portion of the pup'3 



62 DOMESTICATED UUNTIXG-DOGS. 

ears in order to save them from the tears and scratches which they 
would inevitably encounter in " drawing," if allowed to remam on. 
The portion left is sufficient to protect the passage to the internal 
organ, but for which necessity it would be better to crop them 
closely, as is practised with dogs intended for fighting ; just as the 
wrestler and the pugilist have their hair cropt as close to their 
"heads as possible. 

The prevailing colors of foxhounds in the present day are as fol- 
lows, placing them in the order of their frequency : — (1.) Black and 
white with tan ; (2.) The mixed or blended colors, known as " pies," 
as red pie, blue pie, yellow pie, grey pie, lemon pie, hare pie, and 
badger pie, the last three very handsome ; (3.) Tan ; (4.) Black ; 
(5.) White; (6.) Red; (7.) Blue ; each being more or less mixed 
with white. Foxhounds are often slightly ticked, but rarely mot- 
tled, the "blue mottled hound," according to Mr. Apperley, being 
a true harrier or beagle, and most probably descended from the 
southern hound, which was often of this color. 

It must be remembered that the foxhound is always to be looked 
at as part of a pack, and hence it is of no use to breed an excep- 
tionally high or otherwise well made hound if it will make him 
run in a different style to his companions. Hence it is necessary 
to keep to such a model as can be produced in number sufficient to 
form the pack, which is another argument in favor of a medium 
size ; and hence, in looking at a pack, together or separately, the 
lover of the foxhound is always on the look-out for " suitiness," or 
the resemblance to another in size and shape, which Beckford 
jilludes to in describing a good-looking pack of hounds as appear- 
ing " all of one family." 

In his work the foxhound is peculiar for dash, and for always 
being inclined to cast forwards, instinctively appearing to be aware 
that the fox makes his point to some covert different from that in 
which he was found. On the other hand, the harrier casts back, 
from a knowledge, instinctive or acquired, that hare has a ten- 
dency to return to the place from which she started, and will be 
almost sure to do so if she has time enough given her. 



THE HARRIER. ©8 

THE HARRIEK 

The true harrier is a dwarf southern hound, with a very slight 
infusion of the greyhound in him. Hence he is more throaty than 
the foxhound, and has also more ear, with a broader head, more 
fully developed flews, and altogether a heavier and less active 
frame. The hight is usually at present under 20 inches, averag- 
ing about 18 ; but in the old times, when t .e dwarf foxhound was 
never used for the purpose, harriers were often 22 and sometimes 
23 inches high, because even with that size they dwelt on the 
scent so long that they were not too fast for sport. But it is in 
tongue and in style of hunting that true harriers are chiefly re- 
markable, the former being melodious in the extreme, and a pack 
in full cry being heard for miles ; while the latter is distinguished 
by excessive delicacy of nose, and by an amount of patience in 
working out the doubles of the hare which the old-fashioned hare- 
hunter considered perfection. Mr. Yeatman has, however, intro- 
duced a difierent style, and according to his system the hare is 
driven so fast that she is compelled to abandon her cunning de- 
vices, and to trust to her speod alone. But as, following his ex- 
umple, most of the modern packs of harehounds are dwarf fox- 
hounds, it is unnecessary to dwell upon the old-fashioned animal, 
*nd the modern harrier may therefore be described as a foxhound 
In shape, but of a size averaging about 18 or 19 inches, and kept 
to hare with great care, so that in some instances packs are known 
to refuse to own the scent of the fox ; but these are rare excep- 
tions, as most huntsmen will be ready to hunt one whenever they 
have the opportunity, and many regularly finish their season by 
shaking down a bag-fox, or by trying for one in some covert where 
they have permission. The fashion of the day is to demand pace 
in all kinds of hunting, and for this reason these dwarf foxhounds 
are selected, taking care to unite with it as fine and delicate a nose 
as possible, but altogether regardless of the music, which used to 
be a sine qua non with masters of harriers. 

One chief beauty in hare-hunting is the proper packing of the 
hounds, and as this can not be done without having dl nearly of 



64 



DOMESTICATUD HUNTING-DOGS. 



the same size, shape, and breed, masters of harriers are very par- 
ticular in keeping the whole of their kennel of one strain ; and 
when they cross their hounds it should be with great care, so as to 
avoid the introduction of blood very different to that which they 
already possess. 




Fig. 9.— AMERICAN BEAGLES. 



THE BEAGLE. 

The true beagle, like the old harrier, is now almost entirely dis- 
placed by dwarf specimens of the foxhound, or by crosses with 
it in varying proportions. Still there are some packs left, and a 
good many gentlemen also possess one or two couple which they 
use for covert shooting, though even here this breed is giving way 
to the spaniel. 

In external form the beagle resembles the southern hound, but is 
much more compact and elegant in shape, and far less throaty 
in proportion to its size, though still possessing a considerable ruff. 
There are three or four varieties, however, which differ a good de£. 



THE BEAGLE. 65 

among themselves in shape and make, and also to some degree in 
style of hunting. 

The medium-sized beagle maybe taken as the type of the others 
of the same name, and somewhat resembles a small old-fashioned 
harrier in shape, but with a larger body and shorter legs in propor- 
tion to it. The head is very wide and round, with a short square 
nose, very full and soft drooping ears, good feet, and not much hair 
on the body, but with a slight brush on the tail. Their tongues 
are most musical, and their noses extremely delicate, being even 
more so than the harrier, but hunting in the same style, with the 
s&me tendency to dwell on the scent. In size they may be de- 
scribed as averaging about 12 or 14 inches. 

The rough beagle is apparently a cross between the above little 
hound and the rough terrier, though by many people he is sup- 
posed to be a distinct breed, and as much so as the Welsh harrier, 
which he resembles in all but size. His origin is, however, lost in 
obscurity, and can only be conjectured. One chief reason why I 
have supposed him to arise from the above cross is, that he has 
lost in great measure the beagle tongue, and squeaks like the ter- 
rier, though not quite so much as that dog. 

The Kerry or Laune (Irish) Beagles are distmguished for speed, 
strength, size, endurance, and keen nose. These characteristics 
admirably adapt them for deer hunting. The first of this slram, 
Towler, was imported to the United States by Dr. Lewis A. Sayre,' 
of New York City, in 1879. In October, 1881, Towler died. Dr. 
Sayre, however, still has left Doxey and Lightfoot, which, together 
with Towler, were presented to hvn by a grandson of John O'Con- 
nell. The New York " Turf, Field and Farm," of Nov. 18, 1881, 
contains a detailed and interesting description of this rare strain 
of dogs, together with engravings of Doxey and Lightfoot. 

The dwarf or rabbit beagle is a very small and delicate little 
hound, but with an excellent nose, and much faster than he looks. 
Some sportsmen have carried their predilection for small dogs to 
such an extent, as to use a pack of these beagles which might be 
carried about in the shooting pockets of the men ; and in this way 
have confined their duties to the hunting alone, so that they were 



66 



DOMESTICATED OUNTING-DOGS. 



not tired in trailinEj along the road from the kennel to the huntings^ 
field and back again. The average hight of these may be taken at 
10 inches, but their bodies are disproportionately lengthened. 
Patience and perseverance are stil' more necessary in these hounds 
than in their larger brethren, and without them they soon lose 
their hare, as they must be content to hunt her at a pace with 
which a man can readily keep up on foot, horses being quite ouf 
of place with such a diminutive pack. 

A pack of rabbit-beagles, the property of Mr. Crane, of South- 
over House, England, we believe to contain the best "patterns" 
we have ever known. "We have seen them on a cold bad scenting 




Fig. 10, — RABBIT BEAGLES, GIANT AXD RINGLET. 



day work up a rabbit and run him in the most extraordinary man- 
ner, and although the nature of the ground compelled the pack to 
run almos-t m Indian file, and thus to carry a very nnrrow line of 
scent, if they tlirew it up, it was but for a moment. Mr. Crane's 
standard is 9 in., and every little hound is absolutely perfect. TVe 
saw but one hound at all differina, from his companions, a littk 
black-tanned one. This one on the flags we should have drafted 
but when we saw him in liis work we quite forgave him for being 
of a conspicuous color. Giant (see portnit) was perhaps the very 
best of the pack, a black-whitc-nnd-tannel dogiiound, always at 
work, and never wrong. He has a capital tonirne, and plenty of 
It. The bitch, Ringbt, has the most beautiful points wc Imvc ever 
seen, and b a fit companion for her mate, Gi.mt. D^unper, Dutch 



THE OTTEKHOUND. 67 

man, and Tyrant, are also all of them beautiful models. We give 
tlie measurement of Damper: Mglit,9 in. ; round the chest, 16 in. 
across the ears, 12 in. ; extreme length, 2 ft. 4 in. ; eye to nose, 2i in. 



THE OTTERHOUND. 



No hcnnd which is novr kept in Great Britain resembles the 
southern hound so much as this, the difference being only in the 
rough, wiry coat, which ha^i been t^btained by careful breeding, to 
enable them to resist the ill p.ffe^^a of the rough weather which the 
breed have to encounter, whether in the chase of the hare, for 
which they were origmally employed in Wales, or for that of the 
otter, to which they are now almost exclusively restricted. If, 
therefore, the reader ty/us to the description of the southern 
hound, and adds to it a rough, wiry coat, with a profusion of 
rough whisker, he will at once understand the form and nature of 
the otterhound, alias the Welsh harrier. It is a disputed poini 
whether this roughness is obtained by crossing, or whether it is 
attributable to careful selection only. We are inclined to think 
that as the fall melodious note of the hound is retained, there is 
no cross of the terrier or of tlie dcer]\onnfl, which two breeds 
divide between them the credit of bestowing their coats upon the 
otterhound. An3diow, it is a distinct breed in the present day; 
and, with the shape I have described, it unites all the characteris- 
tics of the old southern hound, in dwelling on the scent, in deli- 
cacy of nose, and in want of dash. Whether the power of 
swimming has been obtained by any cross with the water-spaniel, 
Is also a disputed point; but as I do not believe in any pec .liar 
swimming power inherent in that breed, I nm not inclined to 
attribute that of the ottcrhonnd to a cross with it, especially as the 
foxhound swims oqnnlly w"ll. 

As these hounds have to compete with a very savage and hard- 
biting animal, t'ney must of necessity be fearless anfl hardy; and 
as, for their specific purpo.sL's, th;js3 which are not so, have been re* 



68 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS, ? 

jected, it happens that the hreed has become unusuaUy savage^ 
and that they are constantly fighting in kennel. Indeed, instances 
are common enough of more than half being destroyed in a sin- 
gle night, in the bloody fight -which has been commenced by 
perhaps a single couple, but soon ending in a general scrimmage. 
No dog bites more savagely ; and, unlike the bulldog, the hold is 
not firmly retained, but the teeth are torn out with great force the 
instant the hold is taken. The usual hight of the otterhound is 
from 22 to 25 inches in the dogs, the bitches being somewhat 
lower. 

The points of the otterhound are like those of the bloodhound, 
except as to the coat, which should be composed of hard and long 
hair, somewhat rough in its lying, and mixed with a short, wooUy 
under-coat, which serves to keep the body warm even when wet- 
ted by long immersion. The color differs also, in not being 
confined to black-and-tan or tan— the former, however, being often 
met with. 



THE TERRIER. 



The terrier, as used for hunting, is a strong, useful little dog, 
with great endurance and courage, and with nearl}' as good a nosft 
as the beagle or harrier. From his superior courage, when crossed 
with the bulldog, as most vermin-terriers are, he has generally 
been kept for killing vermin whose bite would deter the spaniel 
or the beagle, but would only render the terrier more determined 
in his pursuit of them. Hence he is the constant attendant on the 
rat-catcher, and is highly useful to the gamekeeper, as well as tc 
the farmer who is annoyed with rats and mice. Formerly it was 
the custom to add a couple of terriers to every pack of foxhounds, 
so as to be ready to aid in bolting the fox when he runs into a 
drain, or goes to ground in any easily accessible earth ; the stout- 
ness of the terrier en'ibling him, by steadily following on the track, 
to reach the scene of operations before it would be possible to 
obtain any other assistance. This aid, however, in consequence 



tHE TEBRIEE. 



69 



of the increased speed of our hounds, is now dispensed with, and 
the old fox-terrier is out of date, or is only kept for the purpose 
of destroying ground vermin, such as the rat or the weasel, or aa 
a companion" to man, for which purpose his fidelity and tracta- 
bility make him peculiarly fitted. Terriers are now usually di- 
vided into eight kinds :-lst, the old English Terrier; 2d, the 
Scotch; 3d, the Dandle Dinmont; 4th, the Skye ; 5th, the Fox 




Fior. 11. — ^ENGLISH TERRIER, BELCHER. 



Terrier; Gth, the Bedlington; 7th, the Halifax Blue Tan ; and 8th, 
the Modern Toy Terriers of various kinds. 

The English Terrier is a smooth-haired dog, weighing from about 
6 to 10 lbs. His nose is very long and tapering neatly off, the jaw 
being slightly overhung, with a high forehead, narrow flat skull, 
strong muscular jaw, and small bright eye, well set in the head; 
ears when entire are short and slightly raised, but not absolutely 
pricked, turning over soon after they leave the head. When 



70 DOMESTICATED IIUNTIXG-DOGS. 

cropped they stand up in a point, and rise nuicli higher than they 
naturally would. The neck is stroiig, but of a good length ; boay 
very symmetrical, with powerful short loins, and chest deep rather 
than wide. Shoulders generally good, and very powerful, so as to 
enable the terrier to dig away at an earth for hours together with- 
out fatigue, but they must not be so wide as to prevent him from 
*' going to ground." Fore legs straight and strong in muscle, 
but light in bone, and feet round and hare-like. Hind legs straight 
but powerful. Tail fine, with a decided down carriage. The color 
of these dogs should be black and tan, which is the only true 
color ; many are white, slightly marked with black, red, or some- 
times, but very rarely, blue. The true fox-terrier was generally 
chosen with as much white as possible, so that he might be readily 
seen, either coming up after the pack, or when in the fox's earth, 
in almost complete darkness ; but these were all crossed with the 
bull dog. Those which are now kept for general purposes are, 
however, most prized when of the black and tan color, and the 
more complete the contrast, that is, the richer the black and tan 
respectively, the more highly the dog is valued, especially if with- 
out any white. In all cases there should be a small patch of tan 
over each eye ; the nose and palate should always be black. The 
toes should be pencilled with black reaching more or less up the 
leg. In the first volume of the stud book, which chronicles the 
principal shows for fourteen years, he was simply and properly 
described as the black and tan terrier, " English " of course being 
understood ; hut since 1874 they have added to his title, " or Man- 
Chester Teri-kr:'' The reason for this change I do not know, as 
the r3Cords of their own stud book do not disclose many names of 
eminent Manchester breeders or exhibitors besides Mr. Samuel 
Handlcy, who bred and exhibited some of the best that have been 
shown, and who is still generally recognized as one of the best 
judges of them; and, however great an honor it may be +.0 be " Man- 
chester," it is a greater honor to be English, and, so far as I can 
see, the change in name was useless and uncalled for, and deroga- 
tory to the breed. . In addition to Mr. Handley, there were years 
ago the following celebrated Lancashire breeders : Mr. James Bar- 



THE TEERIER. 71 

row, Mr. Joseph Kay, and Mr. William Pearson, all now dead ; 
but the crack dogs now met with at our shows have generally been 
bred by unknown people, and brought out by astute judges and 
spirited exhibitors. In the early days of shows Birmingham took 
the lead in this breed, and Mr. G. Filter, of that town, who had a 
good strain, held the first posiiiou lor several years with his ex- 
ceptionally good dog Dandy. Of late years the most successfuj 
exnibitors have been Mr. George Wilson, Huddersfield ; the late 
Mr. Martin, Manchester ; and, more so than either, Mr. Henry 
Lacy, of Hebden Bridge. 

This breed is not such a general favorite with the public as it 
deserves to be, for it has many excellent qualities to recommend it 
to those who like a nice pet that does not need nursing, an affec- 
tionate, lively, and tractable companion, not given to quarrelling, 
very active and graceful in his actions, and with pluck enough and 
a keen zest for hunting and destroying such vermin as rats that 
infest houses and outbuildings ; for with larger vermin, such as the 
fox, badger, etc., (with exceptional cases), he has not the hardness 
to cope with or to stand their bites, nor has he the strength even 
of other terriers of his own weight, as he is formed more for nimble- 
ness than work requiring power. His most ardent admirers can- 
not claim for him the courage and obduracy of attack and defence 
that characterize less pure terriers. As a house dog he is unex- 
celled, always on the alert, and quick to give alarm. 

The Scotch Terrier closely resembles the English dog in all but 
his coat, which is wiry and rough, and hence he is sometimes called 
the wire-haired terrier, a name perhaps better suited to a dog which 
has long been naturalized in England, and whose origin is obscure 
enough. Beyond this difference in externals, there is little to be 
said distinctive of the one from the other, the colors being the 
same, but white being more highly prized in the southern variety, 
and the black and tan when more or less mixed with grey, so as to 
give the dog a pepper and salt appearance, being characteristic of 
the true Scotch terrier ; but tliere are numberless varieties in size, 
and also in shape and color. This is a very good vermin dog, and 
will hunt anything from a fox to a mouse ; but while he may be 



72 



DOilESTICATED HU-N'TING-DOGS. 



induced to hunt feather, he never takes to it like fur, and prefers 
vermin to game at all times. 

The Dandie Dinmont breed of terriers, now so much celebrated, 
was originally bred by a farmer of the name of James Davidson 
at Hindalee, in Roxburghshire, who, it is generally believed, got his 
dogs from the head of Coquet Water. There was also a good 
strain at Ned Dunn's at Whitclee, near the Carter Bar. 

Those who have investigated the subject are inclined to think 
that the Dandie Dinmont is a cross between the Scotch terrier and 




Fig. 12. — ^DAOTJIE DESTMONTS, DOCTOR AND TIT-MlI\rPS. 



the otterhound, or, as I believe, the Welsh harrier, which is iden- 
tical with the latter. 

The most celebrated strains are those belonging to the Duke of 
Buccleugh (presented by James Davidson); Stoddart, of Selkirk; 
Frain, of the Trows; McDougall, of Cessford; F. Somners, of 
Kelso ; Sir G. Douglass, of Springwood Park ; Dr. Brown, of Mel- 
rose ; J. Aitken, of Edinburgh ; and Hugh Purves, of Leaderfoot, 
who is the principal hand in having kept up the breed. So much 
were the Dandies in vogue some years ago, that Mr. Bradshaw 
Smith, of Dumfriesshire, bought up every good dog he could lay 
his hands on, and as a consequence his breed is now well known. 



d'^ 




m^'iK\ mv 



THE TERRIER. if.) 

The Dandie is represented by two colors of hair, which is some- 
times rather hard, but not long ; one entirely a reddish brown, 
and called the " mustard," the other grey or bluish-grey on the 
back, and Ian or light brown on the legs," and called the " pep- 
per;" both have the silky hair on the forehead. The legs are 
short, the body long, shoulder low, back slightly curved, head 
laro-e, jaws long and tapered to the muzzle, which is not sharp ; 
ears large and hanging close to the head ; eyes full, bright, and in- 
telligent ; tail straight and carried erect, with a slight curve over 
the back (houndlike); the weight, 18 to 24 lbs., var3ring according 
to the strain, but the original Dandie was a heavy dog. Occasion- 
ally in a litter there may be some with the short, folding ear of 
a bull-terrier, and also with some greater length of the legs ; these 
are not approved of by fanciers, but nevertheless are pure, showing 
a tendency to cast back. Sir W. Scott, I believe, preferred the 
small ear. 

The following letter from Mr. E. Bradshaw Smith to the Editor 
of the " London Field " is of interest : 

" SiK — If not trespassing too much on your valuable space 1 
may here be allow^ed to show how I first became possessed of this 
historic breed. 

" During my residence in Roxburghshire my fancy was greatly 
taken by several specimens I saw of this game little animal. In 
1841, I bought the first Dandie I ever possessed, and since that 
date I have no hesitation in stating that more Dandie Dinmonts 
have passed through my hands than through those of any half 
dozen of fanciers. I feel myself competent, therefore, to give a 
decided opinion on the article penned by ' Stonehenge,* although 
it be at variance with his remarks. 

" In the first place, it seems to me an entire mistake on his part 
that the Dandie Dinmont of the present day is longer in the body 
than formerly. My observation tends rather in the opposite di- 
rection. 

" Secondly, a strong characteristic of the breed has ever bee 
tenacity of purpose, and I have only known two of my dogs whic? 
could be taught at command to leave the trail of either fox or rat 



76 DOMESTICATED UUNTIXG-DOGS. 

bit ; certainly it would be a hopeless task to prevent a DandiftDin- 
mont from engaging with a fox were an opportunity to offer. I 
consider the animal as naturally good-tempered, but when once 
roused, he is ready to seize hold of anything within reach. When 
I first kept these dogs, I was ignorant of their extremely excitable 
nature, and had many killed from time to time in fights, either in 
the kennels or at the entrance of rabbit holes; in short, when once 
their blood is fairly up they become utterly unmanageable. On 
this account, for years past (though I keep a number) I do not 
allow more than one dog and one bitch in a kennel, but sometimes a 
dog and two bitches if very harmonious. The first I had worried, 
many years ago, was a beautiful little fellow 14 lb. weight, bred 
by Mr. Kerss (Bowhill), from a sister of Stoddart's old Dandie and 
his own old Pepper. lie was killed in the night time by another 
of my dogs, to my great annoyance. When I mentioned the cir- 
cumstance to Mr. Kcrss, he informed me that during the time the 
little animal belonged to him, he had worried some of his, amongst 
the number a Newfoundland pup six mouths old. Yet it is by no 
means always the most excitable and pugnacious animal that 
stands the severe test, viz., to face alone two badgers at once, and 
fasten upon one of them while the other in turn attacks him, as I 
have known very many do. For my part, I prefer the dog who 
encounters his antagonist coolly and without any fuss. 

"In conclusion, I annex a list of the kennels I purchased, viz., 
that of Mr. Somncr (including his crack dog Shem), those of 
Messrs. Purves, Frain, M'Dougakl (including his famous Old May- 
day), J. Stoddart (who sold to me his celebrated Old Dandie), and 
many other Dandies from Mr. Milne, of Faldonside, bred from his 
famous Old Jenny, from Mr. Jas. Kerss (Bowhill), and likewise 
from the Haining, near Selkirk. From these ancestors my dog3 
are purely and lineally descended. 

"Apologizing for having occupied so much of your columns, 

" E. Bradshaw Smith. 

" Zurich, Switzerland." 

The illustration is a portrait of Mr. Locke's Doctor, which has 
been established as one of the favorites of the various experts em» 



THE TEEKIEK. 



77 



ployed to judge this breed, and, as I think, deservedly, until the 
last Brighton show, where naturally enough the immediate de- 
scendants of Shamrock had the best of it under the fiat of his 
owner. 

The Skye Terrier is remarkable for his long weasel-shaped body, 
and for his short, fin-like legs, added to which he has a long rather 
than a wide head, and also a neck of unusual dimensions, so that 
when measured from tip to tail the entire length is more than three 
times his bight. The nose is pointed, but so concealed in the long 




Fig. 13.— SKYE TEKKIEK. 



hair which falls over his eyes, that it is scarcely visible without a 
careful inspection ; eyes keen and expressive, but small as com« 
pared with the spaniel. The ears, if falling, are large and slightly 
raised, but turning over; in the prick-eared variety, which Ts by 
many in the north preferred, the ears stand up like those of the 
fox; tail long, but small in bone, and standing straight backwards, 
that is, not curved over the back, but having only a very gentle 
sweep, to prevent touching the ground. Fore legs slightly bandy, 
yet this is not to be sought for, but to be avoided as much as pos- 



78 DOMESTICATED HUNTING-DOGS. 

sible, thou^^b always mor<; or less present. The dew-claws are en- 
tirely absent, and if present may be considered a mark of impurity. 
The colors most in request are steel-grey, with black tips ; fawn 
with brown tips to ears and tail; black, fawn, or blue, especially 
a dark, slaty blue ; the slightest trace of white is carefully avoided- 
The hair is long and straight, hard, and not silky, parted down the 
back, and nearly reaching the ground on each side, without the 
sli"-htest curl or resemblance to wool. On the legs and on the top 
of the head it is lighter in cohjr than on the body, and is softer and 
more silky. This dog is little used as a sporting or vermin dog, 
beino- chiefly reserved for the companionship of man, but he is 
sometimes employed as a vermin-killer, and is as game as the rest 
of the terriers, when employed for that purpose. His weight is 
from 10 to 18 lbs., averaging about 14. But the variations in this 
particular, as indeed in almost all the points of the Skye terrier, 
are numerous beyond description. Thus there are, first of all, two 
if not three kinds of the pure Skye ; one rather small in size, with 
long soft hair ; another considerably larger, and with hard, wiry 
hair; while again, between these two, a third may, by hair-split- 
ters, be readily made out. Then there is also a cross between the 
Skye and Dandie, which partakes in nearly equal proportions of 
the characte; istics of each ; and, lastly, most of the Skye terriers 
about Loudon are crossed with the spaniel, giving them that silky 
coat and jet black color which are admired by the ladies, but mark 
impurity of blood. This cross is detected by the worn-out ap- 
pearance of the hair on the face, up to the brow. The Skye is a 
very good vermin dog, and will hunt anything. The portrait of 
the prick-eared variety given is that of a dog belonging to Mr. H. 
Martin, of Glasgow. 

The Fox Terrier was originally kept as an addition to every pack 
of foxhounds, being always so handy as to be up within a very few- 
minutes of running to ground. Now hounds are so fast that he 
would be left many miles behind in a run, and dependence is there- 
fore placed upon any chance terrier at hand when one is wanted. 
But in proportion as he has ceased to be used in the hunting-field, 
he has attained popularity as the most fashionable companion lor 



THE TERRIER. 



79 



young men, and of late years the classes of fox-terriers at our dog 
shows have been the most numerous and generally mteresting. 

The points are as follows : Head Hut, and narrow between the 
eyes, but wider between the ears,— these are set rather back but lie 
close to the cheek, and are small and thin ; jaw strong, mouth 
level, and teeth strong ; eyes small and keen ; nose black ; shoul- 
ders straight, not too wide ; chest full and round, but not deep ; 
neck light and coming beautifully out of the shoulder ; back pow- 




Fig. 14. — ^FOX TERRIER, BITTERS. 



r//> 



/y t/J/^j^y^ 



erful, and thighs well bent and strong ; legs and feet straight and 
strong ; color white, with black, or black and tan, or tan markings 
about the head ; coat fine, but hard and not silky ; weight not ex- 
ceeding 16 lbs. 

At the present time the most noted show fox terriers are Mr. 
Burbidge's Bitters, Nimrod, Royal, Nettle, and Dorcas, Mr. Ab- 
bott's Moslem, Mr. Hyde's Buffett, Mr. Murchison's Forceps, Olive, 
Katty, and Whisky, Mr. Gibson's Boxer and Joe, :Mr. Fletcher's 



80 D0ME3TICATEi> IIUNTING-DOGS. 

Rattler, and Mr. Whittle's Yorick. The most successful breeders 
of these have been Mr. Luke Turner and Mr. Gibson, the former 
having bred Nettle, Olive, and Joe, besides the first bitch puppy at 
the Lillie Bridge show, while the latter has bred Dorcas, BufFett, 
Natty, and Boxer. 

I have selected for the engraving, as the best specimen, the dog 
Bitters, he being, I believe, the nearest of any of the dogs to the 
requirements of a fox terrier. Bitters won his first prize (under 
the name of Jock) at Epworth in 1872, and has altogether won 
nine first and nine second prizes. 

The Bedlington Terrier has long been prized in the north of Eng- 
land, but until lately it has not been known out of that district 
It is a very quarrelsome dog, and is said to be of high courage. 
The body is not very long, the general appearance being somewhat 
leggy ; head high and narrow, and crowned with a tuft of silky 
hair like the Dandie ; eyes small, round, and rather sunk ; ears 
filbert-shaped, long, and hanging close to the cheek ; neck long 
and slender; legs rather long, but well formed and straight; color 
liver or sandy, or dark blue,— in the two former cases with a cherry 
nose, in the latter with a black one. 

The Yorh'ihire Blue Tan, sillcy coated Terrier, is a modem breed 
altogether, having been almost unknown beyond the neighborhood 
of n:\lifax until within the last few years. Excepting in color and 
coat this dog resembles the old English rough terrier, as well as the 
Scotch, but the silky texture of his coat and his rich blue tan color 
are the result of careful selection and probably of crossing with the 
Malte •e. The ears are generally cropped, but if entire should be 
fine, tliin, and moderately small. The coat should be long, silky 
in texture, and well parted down the back. The beard is peculi- 
arly long and falling, being often several inches in length, and of 
a rich golden tan color. The color must be entirely blue on the 
back and down to the elbows and thighs, without any mixture of 
tan or fawn. The logs and muzzle should be a rich golden tan ; 
the ears being th? same, but of a darker shade. On the top of the 
skull it becomes lighter and almost fawn. The weight varies from 
10 lbs. to 18 lbs. 



THE TEKRIEK. 



81 



Visitors to our dog shows who look out for the beautiful as well 
as the useful, cannot fail to be attracted by this little exquisite, as 
he reclines on his cushion of silk or velvet, in the center of his 
little palace of crystal and mahoiiany, or struts round his mansion, 
with the consequential airs of the dandy that he is ; yet, with all^ 




Fig. 15. — YORKSHIRE TERRIER, LADY GIFFARD'S KATIE, 



his self-assertion of dignity, his beard of approved cut and color, 
faultless whiskers of Dundreary type, and coat of absolute perfec- 
tion, without one hair awry, one cannot help feeling that he is but 
a dandy after all. 

Although so very modern, it is difficult to trace satisfactorily 
the pedigree of this breed; indeed, pedigree he maybe said at 
present to have none, and it is hard to say out of what materials 
he was manufactured ; but the warp and woof of him appear to 
have been the common long-coated black and tan, and the lighter- 
colored specimens of what is known as the Glasgow or Paisley 
Skye terrier, the former of no certain purity, and the latter an ad- 
mitted mongrel ; and from which I think the Yorkshire gets the 
softness and length of coat due to Maltese blood. In shape this 



82 



DOMESTICATED HUNTING -DOGS. 



dog is in the proportion of hight to length between the Skye and 
English terrier — rather nearer to the latter; a long back is objected 
to. As they are always shown in full dress, little more than out- 
line of shape is looked for; the eye, except when the hair is tied 
up, is invisible ; the tail is shortened, and the ear is generally cut ♦, 
when uncut it must be small, and is preferred when it drops 
slightly at the tip, but this is a trival point, and sinks into insig- 
nificance before coat and color ; the coat must be abundant ovei 
the whole body, head, legs, and tail, and artificial means are used 
to encourage its growth ; length and straightness, freedom from 
curl and waviness, being sought for ; the body color should be clear, 
soft, silvery blue, of course varying in shade ; with this is preferred 
a golden tan head, with darker tan about the ears, and rich tan 
legs. The style in which the coat is arranged for exhibition is 
beautifully shown m the sketch of Katie ; but that stage of perfec- 
tion is not aWained without much time, trouble, and patience 
When the pups are bom, they are black in color, as are pepper 
Bandie Dinmonts and others ; at an early age the tip of the tail is 
nipped oflf to the desired length, the ears, if cut at all, not until 
the age of six to eight months , and before this the coat will be 
changing color, getting gradually lighter. To prevent the hair 
being scratched and broken, little or no meat is given. 




THE DACHSHUND, 



85 




Fig. 16. — ^PAIR OF BACHSHtraDS. 



THE DACHSHUND, OR GERMAN BADGER DOG. 



The Dachshund is perhaps one of the most ancient forms of the 
domesticated dog. The fact is that lie has for centuries repre- 
sented an isolated class between the hound and the terrier, with- 
out being more nearly connected with the one than the other. His 
obstinate, independent character, and his incapacity to be trained 
or broken to anything beyond his inborn, game-like disposition, 
are quite unrivalled among all other races of the dog. Regarding 
his frame, he differs from the hound, not only by his crooked fore 
legs and small size, but by the most refined modification of all 
parts of his body, according to his chief task — to work under- 
ground. It is not possible to imagine a more favorable frame for 
an " earth dog " than the real dachshund type. Some of our high- 
bred dachshunds are near perfection, according to German points; 
they do not want much improvement, but propagation, for they 
are seldom met with even in northern Germany. 

The desire for " hound-like type "in dachshunds would never 
have originated if the natural vocation of this breed (underground 
work) had not been overlooked. The consequence of this errone- 
ous idea will be that well-bred dachshunds will be regarded as a 
" terrier cross," and that it will be next to impossible for many dog 
fanciers to get a clear idea of the real type of the dachshund. 



86 DOMESTICATED HUXTING-DOGS. 

Havinn: concentrated all varieties of the badger dog to one single 
cliiss — the crook-legged, short-haired dog, with head neither hound 
nor terrier-like, weight from 8 lbs. to 20 lbs., color black-tan and 
its variations — we shall still mejt here many varying forms. With 
some attention we shall soon distinguish the common breed and 
the well or high-bred dachshund. The first is a stout, strong-boned, 
muscularly built dog, with large head and strong teeth ; the back 
not much arched, sometimes even straight; tail long and heavy; 
fore legs strong and regularly formed ; the head and tail often ap- 
pear to be too large in the dog; the hair is rather coarse, thick-set, 
short, and wiry, lengthened at the uudgrside of the tail, without 
forming a brush or feather, and covering a good deal of the belly. 
These dogs are good workmen, and are less affected by weather 
than high-bred ones ; but they arc very apt to exceed 18 lbs. and 
even 20 lbs. weight, and soon get fat if not worked frequently. 
From this common breed originates the well and high-bred dog, 
which may at any time be produced again from it by careful selec- 
tion and in-breeding without any cross. The well and high-bred dog 
is smaller in size, finer in bone, more elegantly built, and seldom 
exceeds 16 lbs. to 17 lbs. weight ; the thin, slight, tapering tail is 
onij' of medium length ; the hair is very short, glossy like silk, but 
not soft ; the under part of the body is very thin-haired, rendering 
these nervous and high-spirited dogs rather sensitive to wet ground 
and rain. 

In hunting above ground tiie dachshund follows more the track 
than the general scent {wiitcrung) of the game ; therefore he follows 
rather slowly, but surely, and with the nose pretty close to the 
ground. His noise in barking is very loud, far sounding, and of 
surprising depth for a dog of so small a frame ; but, in giving 
tongue while hunting, he pours forth from time to time short, 
shrill notes, which are quickened as the scent gets hotter, and, at 
sight of the game the notes are often resolved into an indescribable 
screnm,as if the dog were being punished in a most cruel manner. 

Though not a pack hound, the dachshund will soon learn to run 
in couples ; and two or tliree of these couples, when acquainted 
with one another, or forming a little family, will hunt pretty well 



THE DACTI-'^riU^TD. 87 

together. They do not frii^^htcn their game so much as the larger 
hounds, and, when frequently used, they will learn to stay when 
arrived at the line of the shooters, not by obedience to their mas- 
ter, but because they are intelligent enough as to see that it is quite 
useless to run longer after the game. 

For tracking wounded deer or a roebuck a dachshund may be 
used when no bloodhound is to be had ; but they must be accus- 
tomed to collar and line for this purpose, and then they are rather 
troublesome to lead in rough ground or coverts. They retrieve 
better by running free or slipped, but must carry a bell, for they 
arc apt to keep silence when they find their game dead ; and, be- 
ginniug to lick at the wound where the ball has gone' into' the 
body, they will slowly advance to tearing and to eating their prey. 

Dachshunds are very headstrong and difficult to keep under 
comma-nd ; and, as they are at the same time very sensitive to 
chastisement, it is next to impossible to force them to do anything 
against their will. Many good badger dogs have been made cow- 
ards for their whole life by one severe whipping. They must be 
taken as they are— with all their faults, as well as their virtues. 
When treated always kindly, the dachshund is verj^ faithful to his 
master, and not only a useful, but a most amusing dog — a very 
humorist among the canine family. In spite of his small frame, 
he has always an air of consequence and independence about him ; 
but, at the same time, he is very inquisitive, and always ready to 
interfere with things with which he has no concern. He seems to 
have an antipathy to large dogs, and, if they object to be domi- 
neered over, the dachshund will certainly quarrel with them. 
When his blood is up, he will care neither for blows nor fox 
wounds, and is often bitten dreadfully in such encounters. There- 
fore dachshunds should not be kept in kennels with larger dogs. 
When kept in houses and accustomed to children, they will make 
good pets, for they are clean, intelligent, and watchful, without 
being noisy, though often snappish with strangers. First in- 
troduced into the United States about twelve years ago, they 
are now becoming quite numerous. 



CHAPTER IV. 

DOMESTICATED DOGS, FINDING GAME BY SCENT, 

BUT NOT KILLING IT, BEING CHIEFLY USED 

IN AID OF THE GUN. 

THE MODERN ENGLISH POINTER. — THE PORTUGUESE POINTER. — THE 
FRENCH POINTER. — THE DALMATIAN AND DANISH DOGS. — THB 
ENGLISH AND IRISH SETTERS.— THE RUSSIAN SETTER.— THE ORDINARY 
FIELD SPANIEL, INCLUDING THE SPRINGER (CLUMBER, SUSSEX, AND 
NORFOLK BREEDS), AND THE COCKER (WELSH AND DEVONSHIRE).— 
THE WATER SPANIEL (ENGLISH AND IRISH).— THE CHESAPEAKE BAT 
DOG. 

THE MODERN ENGLISH POINTER. 

This is now one of the most beautiful of all our sporting dogs, 
dividing with the setter the admiration of all those who enjoy the 
pleasures attending on the use of the gun. 

The points desirable in the pointer are, a moderately large head, 
wide rather than long, with a high forehead, and an intelligent eye 
of medium size. Muzzle broad, with its outline square in front, 
not receding as in the hound. Flews manifestly present, but not 
pendent. The head should be well set on the neck, with a peculiar 
form at the junction only seen in the pointer. The neck itself 
should be long, convex in its upper outline, without any tendency 
to a dewlap or to a "ruff," as the loose skin covered with long hair 
round the neck is called. The body is of good length, with a strong 
loin, wide hips, and rather arched ribs, the chest being well let 
down, but not in a hatchet shape as in the greyhound, and the depth 
of the back ribs being proportionately greater than in that dog. 
The tail, or " stern" as it is technically called, is strong at the root, 
but suddenly diminishing it becomes very fine, and then continues 
nearly of the same size to within two inches of the tip, when it 
goes off to a point looking as sharp as the sting of a wasp, and giv- 
ing the whole very much the appearance of that part of the insect, 
but magnified as a matter of course. This peculiar shape of the 
88 



THE MODERN ENGLISH POINTER. 89 

Stem characterizes the breed, and its absence shows a cross with the 
hound or some other dog. The shoulders are points of great im- 
portance in the pointer, as unless they are well-formed he cannot 
last throughout the day, and, moreover, he can neither stop him- 
self nor turn quickly in his work as he ought to do. Hence, a 
long, slanting, but muscular blade is of vast importance, united to a 
long upper arm, which again requires for its existence an elbow well 
let down below the chest, and a short fore arm. This low posi- 
tion of the elbow is not generally sufficiently insisted on, but in 
pointers and setters it is all-important, and it will be seen to be 
particularly well shown iu the portrait, page 21. Plenty of bone 
in the leg, well clothed with muscle and tendon, a strong knee, 
full-sized ankle, and round strong foot, pr.)vided with a thick sole, 
are also essential to the wear and tear of the fore quarter, while 
the hind requires muscular haunches and thighs, strong well-bent 
stifles, large and strong hocks, and the hind feet of the same char- 
acter as those described for the fore feet. The color should be 
principally white, in order that the dog may readily be seen either 
among heather, or in clover or turnip-, as the case may be. Liver- 
colored or black pointers look very handsome, but it will be found 
that great inconvenience attaches to them, as they will often be 
lost si:^ht of when pointing in either of the above kinds of beat. 
White, with black, liver, j'-ellow, or lemon-colored heads, are the 
most prized ; and of these my prejudice is in favor of the last 
from having had and seen so many good dogs of that color. A 
spot or two on the body, and any number of ticks, are not consid- 
ered objectionable, particularly tlie latter, which are generally ad- 
mired. Some breeds are distinguished by having numerous white 
ticks in tlie color, especially when there are large patches on the 
body, the marks on the head being usually free from them. Black 
and white pointers have sometimes also the tanned spots over the 
eye, and the edges of the black on the cheeks tinged with tan ; but 
this is supposed to indicate a cross of the foxhound, and no doubt 
in many cases with truth ; yet I fancy that if a yellow and white 
pointer is put to a black and white one, the tan will show itself 
occ<isionally without any admixture with the hound. The coat of 



90 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

the high-bred pointer is short and soft to the touch ; but for hard 
work, especially on the moors, a dog with rather a wiry coat, and 
well clothed with hair on the legs and feet, should be preferred; 
but these will show rather more hair on the stem than is thought 
to be characteristic of high breeding ; yet let the stern be ever so 
hairy, there ought to be the same small bone and pointed tip as in 
the engraving 

Among pointers there are no national divisions corresponding 
with those of the setters. There are, however, two distinct vari- 
eties, strongly marked by color, viz., the lemon and white, and 
the liver and white, besides the black and white, the whole liver, 
and the whole black strains ; but these last are not common in the 
present day, and the appearance of one on the show bench is 
almost as rare as a black swan. Among the liver and whites, the 
dogs are often too heavy for much speed or endurance — a remark- 
able exception being the celebrated Drake (see page 21), bred by 
Sir R. Garth, and sold by him at a high figure in his seventh season 
to Mr. R. J. Lloyd Price, of Wales, at which advanced age he went 
as fast, and showed as good a nose, as most puppies even of high 
class. This dog was in his day the fastest and most wonderful 
animal that ever quartered a field, and his race up to a brace of 
birds at Shrewsbury in the field trials of 1868, when the ground 
was so dry as to cause a cloud of dust to rise on his dropping to 
their scent, was a sight which will probably never be seen again. 
He was truly a phenomenon among pointers. His extraordinary 
pace compelled his dropping in this way, for otherwise he could 
not have stopped himself in time, but when he had lost pace in 
his seventh season, he began frequently to stand up, as represented. 
In appearance, he is not taking, having a plain head with a some- 
what throaty neck ; but his frame is all through good, and there is 
no lumber about him. 



THE PORTUGUESE POINTER 

Resembles the Spanish in general form, but is furnished with a 
busby stern, and looks like a cross with the old-fashioned spaniel 



DALMATIAN AND DANISH DOGS. 



91 




Fig. 17.— DALMATIAN DOG, CAPTAnT. 



THE DALMATIAN AND DANISH DOGS. 



The Dalraa'ion dog is a handsome, well-formed dog, standing 
about 24 or 25 inches high, and resembling the pouiter in hia 
shape, but usually having his ears cropped, as shown in the en- 
graving. He is beautifully spotted with black on a white ground, 
his chief merit consisting in the nearly uniform size of the spots 
(which should be from about an inch in diameter), and in their 
distinctness from the white in which they are imbedded ; and being 
remarkably fond of horses, and of road-work with them, he has 
been long employed in England to accompany our carriages as an 
ornamental appendage ; but this fashion has of late years subsided. 
Hence he is commonly known as the "Coach Dog;" but in his 
native country he is used as a pointer in the field, and is said to 
perform bis duties well enough. 



92 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOE THE GUN". 

The small Danish dog is smaller than the Dalmatian ; but, being 
spotted in the same wa}^, and characterized by the same fondness 
for horses, they are generally confounded under the term " Coach 
Dog." 



SETTERS. 

THE ENGLISH SETTER. — THE BLACK AND TAN OR GORDON SETTER. — THB 
IRISH SETTER. 

The setter is, without doubt, either descended fi-om the spaniel, 
or both are oflfshoots from the same parent stock. Originally — 
that is before the improvements in the gun introduced the practice 
of " shooting flying," — it is believed that he "was merely a spaniel 
taught to " stop " or " set" as soon as he came upon the scent of 
the partridge, when a net was drawn over the covey by two men. 
Hence he was made to drop close to the ground, an attitude which 
is now unnecessary ; though it is taught by some breakers, and 
notably to very fast dogs, who could not otherwise stop themselves 
quickly enough to avoid flushing. Manifestly, a dog prone on the 
ground allowed the net to be drawn over him better than if he 
was standing up ; and hence the former attitude was preferred, an 
additional reason for its adoption being probably that it was more 
easily taught to a dog like the spaniel, which has not the natural 
cataleptic attitude of the pointer. But when "shooting flying'' 
came into vogue, breakers made the attempt to assimilate the atti- 
tude of the setting spaniel, or "setter" as he was now called, to 
that of the pointer; and in process of time, and possibly also by 
crossing with that dog they succeeded, though, even after the 
lapse of more than a century, the cataleptic condition is not so 
fully displayed by the setter as by the pointer. In the present day, 
as a rule, the standing position is preferred, though some well 
known breakers, and notably George Thomas, Mr. Statter's keeper, 
have preferred the " drop," which certainly enables a fast dog to 
Btop himself more quickly tnan he could do by standkig up. It is. 



ir 




SETTERS. 



95 



however, attended with the disadvautage that in heather or clover 
a " dropped " dog cannot be seen nearly so far as if he was stand- 
ing, and on one occasion, at the famous Bala trials, the celebrated 
Ranger was lost for many minutes, having " dropped " on game in 
a slight hollow, sarrounded by heather. As a rule, therefore, the 
standing position is the better one, but in such fast dogs as Ranger 
and Drake, " dropping " may be excused. At the above meeting, 
however, after a long and evenly balanced trial between Mr. Mac- 
dona's Ranger and Mr. R. J. LI. Price's Belle, the latter only won 
by her superior attitude on the point, and Ranger again suffered 
the penalty for dropping at Ipswich. 




96 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOB THE GUN. . . 

THE ENGLISH SETTER. 

Since the first publication of the articles on the various breeds 
on dogs in TJie Field, during the years 1865-6, the strain of English 
setters known by the name of " Laverack," from the gentleman 
who bred them, has carried all before it, both on the show bench 
and in the public field trials which have been annually held. For 
this high character it is greatly indebted to the celebrated Countess, 
who was certainly an extraordinary animal, both in appearance 
and at work; for until she came out the only Laverack which had 
shone to advantage was Sir R. Garth's Daisy, a good average bitch. 
Though small, Countess was possessed of extraordinary pace, not 
perhaps quite equal to that of the still more celebrated pointer 
Drake, but approaching so closely to it that his superiority would 
be disputed by many of her admirers. On referring to her por- 
trait (see frontispiece), it will be seen that her frame, though on 
short legs, is full of elegance, and her beautiful head and neck 
are absolutely perfect 

The most remarkable feature in the Laverack breed of setters is 
the extraordinary extent to which in-breeding has been carried, as 
shown in the pedigree of Countess, given by Mr. Laverack in his 
book on the setter. By examining this carefully, it will be seen 
that every animal in it, is descended from Ponto and Old Moll, 
which were obtained by Mr. Laverack in 1825 from the Rev. A. 
Harrison, who lived near Carlisle, and who had kept the breed 
pure for thirty five years. Four names only besides these two 
are found in the right hand column, and these four are all de- 
scended from Ponto and old Moll, as will be seen at a glance by 
referring to the names in italic in the middle of the table. Thus 
it appears that they alone formed Mr. Laverack's breed, though 
he often stated that h(? had tried the introduction of alien blood, 
but finding it not to answer, he had abandoned the produce, and 
resorted agam to the original stock. This has led to the belief 
that the pedigree is incorrect, but he was very positive in his state- 
ment. If correct, it certainly is the most remarkable case of 
breeding-in-and-in I ever met with. 



THE ENGLISH SETTEE. 



97 



rSting. 



Corall. 



» 

° 8* 

" I 



Fred I. 



BeUen. 



Rock. 



(.Blair's Cora.. 



fFredl. 



Coral. 



Eock I. 



Moll n. 



[Rock 



(_ Blair's Cora. 



Regent, 
L Jet I . . . 

Regent . 
tJetl... 
fRock... 

Molin. 

Dash I. 



Belle I. 



■Rock. 



I 



Peg .. 
Dash I. . 
Belle I. 
Regent. 



Jet I 



■ResfeDt. 



Jet I 



(Pilot J Dash I. 

-{ 1 Belle I. 

( Moll II j Dash I. 

} Belle I. 

(Pilot (Dftrshl. 

-{ 1 Belle I. 

(Moll II ^ Dash I. 

) Belle I. 

(Pilot ) Dash I. 

•< 1 Belle I. 

( Moll II J Dash I. 

1 Bolle I. 
(Pilot J Dash I. 

< 1 Belle I. 
(Moll II J Dash I. 

I Belie I. 

(Rock j Pilot. 

■{ 1 Moll II. 

( Peg J Dash I. 

1 Moll II. 

(Dash I j Ponto. 

■{ 1 Old Moll. 

(Belle I J Ponto. 

\ Old Moll. 
J Ponto 

(Old Moll ... 

{ Ponto 

] Old Moll.... 

\Pilot (Dash I. 

\ 1 Belle I. 

( Moll II j Dash I. 

1 Belle I. 
( Dash I . . . . j Ponto. 

< loidMolL 
(Molin (Dash I. 

1 Belle I. 
(Ponto 

I Old Moll. . 

(Ponto 

(Old Moll.... 

(Pilot (Dash I. 

i 1 Belle I. 

( Moll II j Dash I. 

1 Belle I. 

(Pilot (Dash I. 

J. 1 Holle I. 

(Molin J Dash I. 

1 Belle T. 

(Pilot (Dash I. 

■{ \ Belle I. 

Moll II ( Dash I. 

1 Belle I. 

(Pilot j Dash I. 

\ } Belle I. 

(MollII (Dash I. 

1 Belle I. 



98 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOK THE GUN. 

A great many diflferent strains of English setters might be ad- 
duced from all parts of the country, but notably from the north of 
England, with claims superior to those of Mr. Laverack's strain, 
up to the time of the institution of field trials. Among these -were 
the Graham and Corbet breeds, those of the Earl of Tankerville, 
Lord Waterpark, Mr. Bishop, ]Mr. Baylcy, Mr. Lort, Mr. Jones (of 
Oscott), Major Cowan, Mr. Withington,Mr. Paul Hackett, and Mr. 
Calver, the last two being a good deal crossed with Gordon blood. 
None of these strains were, however, so generally known beyond 
the immediate circle of their owners' friends as to have gained a 
Universal reputation ; and it was not until the public appearance of 
Mr. Garth's Daisy, and afterwards that of Mr. Purcell Llewellyn's 
Countess and Nelly, that the Laverack strain attained its present 
high reputation. Before Daisy came out, Mr. Garth had produced 
a brace of very bad ones at Stafford in 1867; and it was with con- 
siderable prejudice against them that the above celebrated bitches 
first exhibited their powers, in spite of the high character given of 
them by Mr. Lort, Mr. Withington, and other well-known sports- 
men wiio had shot over them for years. It is Mr. Lort's opinion 
that Mr. Withington possessed better dogs than even Countess; 
but it must not be forgotten that private trials are generally more 
flattering than those before the public. 

I come now to consider the value of Mr. Llewellyn's*' field trial " 
strain, as they are somewhat grandiloquently termed by their " pro- 
moters," or as I shall term them, the " Dan-Laveracks," being all 
either by Dan out of Laverack bitches, or by a Laverack dog out 
of a sister to Dan. As a proof of the superiority of this cross to 
the pure Laveracks, "Setter" states, that during the last two 
years ten of this breed " (Laveracks), " and ten of the Duke-Rhoebe 
and Laverack cross, have been sent to America ; the former includ- 
ing Petrel, winner of the champion prize at Birmmgham, Pride 
of the Border, Fairy, and Victress ; the latter includmg Rock, Lei- 
cester, Rob Roy, Dart, and Dora, the same men being owners of 
both sorts. At the American Shows both sorts have appeared, and 
the Rhcebe blood has always beaten the Laverack. At field trials 
no Laverack has been entered ; but, first, sicond, and third prizes 



THE ENGLISH SETTEK. 99 

were gained at their last field trials, in the champion stakes, by 
dogs of the Rhoebe blood, all descended from Mr Llewellyn's ken- 
nel." I confess that, in my opinion, this does not indicate any 
superiority in the one over the other, as far as regards field trials, 
since they were not tested together; and in reference to the supe- 
riority of the Dan-Laveracks on the show bench, it is of little in- 
terest to my present inquiry, but I unhesitatingly state, that, as far 
as my judgment and opportunities for forming it go, " Setter" is 
quit3 correct. Dan himself was a very fine upstanding and hand- 
some dog, and his stock might therefore be expected to resemble 
him, while the Laverack dogs are nearly all heavy and lumbering, 
and the bitches, though very elegant, too small and delicate for 
perfection. 
The points of the English setter may be described as follows : 

1. The skull has a character peculiar to itself, somewhat between 
that of the pointer and cocker spaniel, not so heavy as the former's, 
and larger than the latter's. It is without the prominence of the 
occipital bone so remarkable in the pointer, is also narrower be- 
tween the ears, and there is a decided brow over the eyes. 

2. The nose should be long and wide, without any fullness un-^ 
dor the eyes. There should be in the average dog setter at least 
four inches from the inner corner of the eye to the end of the nose. 
Between the point and the root of the nose there should be a slight 
depression — at all events, there should be no fullness — and the 
eyebrows should lise sharply from it. The nostrils must be wide 
apart and large in the openings, and the end should be moist and 
cool, though many a dog with exceptionally good scenting powers 
has had a remarkably dry nose, amounting insome cases to rough- 
ness like that of shagreen. In all setters the end of the nose should 
be black, or dark liver-colored, but in the very best bred whites or 
lemon and whites pink is often met with, and may in them be par- 
doned. The jaws should be exactly equal in length, a "snipe 
nose," or " pig jaw," as the receding lower one is called, being 
greatly against its possessor. 

3. Ears, lips, and eyes. With regard to ears, they should be 
shorter than the pointer's and rounded, but not so much so as 



lOO DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN, 

those of the spaniel. The " leather" should be thin and soft,ca^ 
ried closely to the cheeks, so as not to show the inside, without 
the slightest tendency to prick the ear, which should be clothed 
with silky hair little more than two inches in length. The lips 
also are not so full and pendulous as those of the pointer, but at 
their angles there should be a slight fullness, not reaching quite to 
the extent of hanging. The eyes must be full of animation, and 
of medium size, the best color being a rich brown, and they should 
be set with their angles straight across. 

4. The neck has not the full rounded muscularity of the pointer, 
being considerably thinner, but still slightly arched, and set into 
the head without that prominence of the occipital bone which is 
BO remarkable in that dog. It must not be " throaty," though the 
skin is loose. 

5. The shoulders and chest should display great liberty in all di- 
rections, with sloping deep shoulder blades, and elbows well let 
down. The chest should be deep rather than wide, though Mr. 
Laverack insists on the contrary formation, italicising the word 
wide in his remarks at page 22 of his book. Possibly it may be 
owing to this formation that his dogs have not succeeded at any 
field trial, as above remarked ; for the bitches of his breed, nota- 
bly Countess and Daisy, which I have seen, were as narrow as any 
setter breeder could desire. I am quite satisfied that on this point 
Mr. Laverack is altogether wrong. I fully agree with him, how- 
ever, that the "ribs should be well sprung behind the shoulder," 
and great depth of the back ribs should be especially demanded. 

6. Back, quarters, and stifles An arched loin is desirable, but 
not to the extent of being " roached " or " wheel-backed," a defect 
which generally tends to a slow up-and-down gallop. Stifles well 
bent, and set wide apart, to allow the hind legs to be brought for 
ward with liberty in the gallop. 

7. Legs, elbows, and hocks. The elbows and toes, which gener- 
ally go together, should be set straight ; and if not, the " pigeon- 
toe " or in-turned leg is less objectionable than the out-turn, in which 
the elbow is conflned by its close attachment to the ribs. The arm 
should be muscular and the bone fully developed, with strong and 



THE ENGLISH SETTER. IQl 

broad knees, short pasterns, of which the size in point of bone 
should be as great as possible (a very important point), and their 
slope not exceeding a very slight deviation from the straight line. 
Many good jtidges insist upon a perfectly upright pastern, like that 
of the foxhound ; bat it must not be forgotten that the setter has 
to stop himself suddenly wuen at full stretch he catches scent, and 
to do this with an upright and rigid pastern causes a considerable 
strain oa the ligaments, soon ending in *' knuckling over;" hence a 
very slight bend is to be preferred. The hind legs should be mus- 
cular, with plenty of bone, clean strong hocks, and hairy feet. 

8. The feet should be carefully examined, as upon their capabil- 
ity of standing wear and tear depends the utility of the dog. A 
great difference of opinion exists as to the comparative merits of 
the cat and hare foot for standing work. Foxhound masters in- 
variably select that of the cat, and, as they have better opportuni- 
ties than any other class of instituting the necessary comparison, 
their selection may be accepted as final. But, as setters are spe- 
cially required to stand wet and heather, it is imperatively neces- 
sary that there should be a good growth of hair between the toes, 
and on this account a hare foot, well clothed with hair, as it gen- 
erally is, nmst b3 preferred to a cat foot naked, as is often the 
case, except on the upper surface. 

9. The flag is in appearance very characteristic of the breed, al- 
though it sometimes happens that one or two puppies in a well- 
bred litter exhibit a curl or other malformation, usually consid- 
ered to be indicative of a stain. It is often compared to a scimitar, 
but it resembles it only in respect of its narrowness, the amount 
of curl in the blade of this Turkish weapon being far too great to 
make it the model of the setter's flag. Again, it has been com« 
pared to a comb ; but as comba are usually straight, here again the 
simile fails, as the setter's flag should have a gentle sweep ; and 
the nearest resemblance to any familiar form is to the scythe with 
its curve reversed. The feather must be composed of straight 
silky hairs, and beyond the root the less short hair on the flag the 
better, especially towards the point, of which the bone should be 
fine, and the feather lapering with it. 



102 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

10. Symmetry and quality. In character the setter should dis- 
play a great amount of " quality," a term which is difficult of ex- 
planation, though fully appreciated by all experienced sportsmen. 
It means a combination of symmetry, as understood by the artist, 
with the peculiar attributes of the breed under examination, as in- 
terpreted by the sportsman. Thus, a setter possessed of such a 
frame and outline as to charm an artist would be considered by the 
sportsman defective in " quality " if he possessed a curly or harsh 
coat, or if he had a heavy head with pendent bloodhound-like jowl 
and throaty neck. The general outline is very elegant, and more 
taking to the eye of the artist than that of the pointer. 

11. The texture and feather of coat are much regarded among 
setter breeders, a soft silky hair without curl being considered a 
sine quii non. The feather should be considerable, and should 
fringe the hind as well as the fore legs. 

12. The color of coat is not much insisted on among English set- 
ters, a great variety being admitted. These arc now generally 
classed as follows, in the order given : (1) Black and white ticked, 
with large splashes, and more or less marked with black, known 
as " blue Belton ; " (2) orange and white freckled, known as 
orange Belton ; (3) plain orange, or lemon and white; (4) liver and 
white; (5) black and white, with slight tan markings; (6) black 
and white ; (7) liver and white ; (8) pure white ; (9) black ; (10) 
liver; (11) red or yellow. 



THE BLACK-TAN OR GORDON SETTER. 

The black-tan setter, until the institution of shows, was com- 
monly called "Gordon," from the fact that the Dukes of Gordon 
had long possessed a strain of setters of that color, which had ob- 
tained a high reputation. At the first dog show held at Newcastle 
in June, 1859, Mr. Jobling's (of Morpeth) black and tan Dandy 
was shown with success in an open class : and in November of the 
same year Mr. Purdett's Brougham followed suit at Birmingham. 



THE r.LACK-TAN OR GORDON SETTER. 103 

In 1861 Mr. Burdett's Ned (son of Brougham) won the first prize 
in an open class at Birmingham, after which a special class was 
made for dogs of that color at Birmingham, London, and other 
large shows, the breeders of English dogs fancying that the beauti- 
ful color of the " Gordons " was too much in their favor. 

But, in spite of the above successes, it cannot be denied that the 
general opinion of good sportsmen in the south has not been in 
favor of the breed since the institution of field trials, in which it 
has been brought into competition with the English and Irish set- 
ter. Both Rex and Young Kent had shown marvellous powers of 
scent, but exception was taken to their tiring action, and it must 
be admitted that six hours' work was enough at one time for either 
of them, and probably too much for Young Kent. Both dogs also 
were headstrong, and required severe treatment to keep them 
under command, and though neither showed the slightest disposi- 
tion to unsteadiness on the point, yet both were jealous behind, 
and it was diflScult to make them work to hand. Among the num- 
berless specimens of the breed (black-tan) which I have seen at 
work, not one has shown the solicitude to catch the eye of the 
shooter which is so essential to the perfect correspondence of man 
and dog which ensures sport. The pointer or setter ought always 
to know where his master is, and if put into high covert, such as 
beans, should raise his head at short intervals above them to ascer- 
tain his whereabouts. Now, as far as my experience goes, black- 
tan setters, and notably the Kents, never do this, and cannot be 
taken off a scent without very great severity, until they have satis- 
fied themselves of its fallacy. 

The points of the black-tan setter are very nearly the same as 
those of the English dog, the only deviations being as follows : 

1. The skull is usually a little heavier than that of the English 
setter, but in other respects it resembles it. 

2. The nose, also, is like the English setters ; but it is usually a 
trifle wider. 

9. The flag is usually a trifle shorter than that of the English 
setter, which it otherwise resembles in shape. 
11. The coat is generally harder and coarser than that of the 



104 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR TUE GUN. 

English or Irish setter, occasionally with a strong disposition to 
curl, as in the celebrated champions Reuben and Regent. 

12, The color is much insisted on. The black should be rich, 
without mixture with the tan, and the latter should be a deep ma- 
hogany red without any tendency to fawn. It is admitted that the 
original Gordons were often black, tan, and white ; but, as in all 
our shows the classes are limited to black-tan ; the long arguments 
which have been adduced on that score are now obsolete. A little 
white on the chest, and a white toe or two, are not objected to; 
but a decided frill is considered by most judges to be a blemish. 
The red tan should be shown on lips, cheeks, throat, spot over the 
eyes, fore legs nearly to the elbows, hind legs up to stifles, and on 
the under side of the flag, but not running into its long hair. 

I have selected Mr, Coath's Lang to illustrate this breed, and 
the engraving, page 93, is a wonderful likeness of this elegant dog. 
On the show bench he has been very successful since the retire- 
ment of his sire Reuben from old age, having won first and cham- 
pion prizes at Glasgow, Edinburgh, Crystal Palace (twice), Bir- 
mingham (thrice), and Alexandra Palace. At the Shrewsbury 
field trials of 1872 and 1873, he was entered, and showed great 
pace and a fine style of going ; but in the former year his pace was 
too great for the absence of scent and covert which prevailed 
there, and he was put out by Mr. Armstrong's Don, in one of 
those unsatisfactory trials to which owners of dogs have so often 
been reduced there. In the next year he showed well at first with 
Mr. Barclay Field's Rake, but was put out from chasing fur. At 
the same meeting he was bracketed with Mr. Macdona's Ranger in 
the braces, but not being quite steady behind, they were beaten by 
Mr. Barclay Field's Bruce and Rose. He is a fine slashing dog, of 
good size, possessing plenty of bone without lumber, and excellent 
legs and feet. His pedigree is an excellent one, being as follows: 



Milo (Malcolm's J ^^ndy (Jobling's) 

J Grouse 






Ruin (Lord Rosslyn's J D„(.he«s 
Lang (Mr. Coath's) \ (PedxTee unknown, 

f Suwarrow (Birch's) . . J From Dnke of Buc- 

iMona J ( cleiiirh's Kennels) 

\ i Kent (Pearce's) 

[Bounce -j Old Moll, by Job* 

{ ling's Dandy. 



THE IRISH SETTER. 105 

It will be seen that he goes back to Jobling's Dandy, on the side 
of both sire and dam. 

The black and tan setter crosses well with the Irish, and Mr. 
Salter possesses an excellent specimen of the cross in his Young 
Rex, winner of the first prize at Brighton in the black and tan 
class in 1876. This dog is by Rex (son of Kent and Regent), out 
of Sal, a well-bred bitch descended from Major Hutchinson's Bob, 
and is a good looking dog, as well as a fine mover. Mr. Purcell 
Llewellyn has also crossed the Laveracks with it, the result, in 
1872, being a very beautiful orange Belton bitch. Flame, out of 
Carrie, who was by Pilkington's Dash, out of a daughter of Hutch- 
inson's Bob (winner of the champion prize at the Crystal Palace, 
in 1875) ; and also a 1st prize winner at the Crystal Palace in 1872, 
and a 2nd at Birmingham in the same year. 



THE IRISH SETTER. 



This breed has long been known to sportsmen throughout Great 
Britain as a good one, especially in point of stamina, and a class 
was set apart for it at BLj-mingham in 18G0, a year before the black 
and tans were similarly favored. 

There is no reason to suppose that any improvement had taken 
place in tbis breed in its native country until very recently, when 
the institution of local shows seems to have stimulated Irish breed- 
ers to fresh exertions ; bat ia the exhibits which have been made 
in the English shows the chain of progress has been unbroken 
from Carlo to Dash and Palmcrston. In the field trials, the Rev. 
J. C. Macdona has raised its character by producing his Plunket at 
Shrewsbury in 1870, after which he was sold to Mr. Purcell Llew- 
ellyn, and took prizes at Vaynol, Southampton, and Shrewsbury. 
This dog was very small and bitch-like in appearance, and rather 
light in color, but his pace was very great, though not perhaps quite 
equal to that of the L'lvcnick Countess, while his style of going 
and his attitude on the point were far superior to hers. He was 



106 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

bred by the Hon. D. Plunket, and combines the blood of that gen- 
tleman's kennel with the La Touche and Hutchinson strains. Mr. 
Purcell Llewellyn purchased him in the hight of his successes, and 
bred several average dogs from him out of Kate (of the Knight of 
Kerry's strain), including Kimo, Kite, and Kitty; while another 
litter, out of Buckell's Min, contained Marvel, May, and Knowing, 
less successful than the former, both on the bench and in the field. 
With the solitary exception of Plunket and his daughter Music, 
who was at Vaynol in 1872, however, no Irish setter has shown any- 
thing like high form in the (.eld trials, Mr. Purcell Llewellyn's 
Samson, who is above the average, being crossed with the Laver- 
ftck Prince through his dam, Carrie, through both are entered in 
the Stud Book as Irish setters. 

After a great deal of discussion, a separate class has been made 
in Dublin and elsewhere for "reds" and "white and reds," it be- 
ing shown that there are two distinct strains of the Irish setter, 
of these colors respectively. The white and reds stands no 
chance in the open classes, and yet it was considered hard to debar 
them from all prizes, especially as by some good judges they are 
thought to possess better noses than the reds. According to my 
judgment the rich red, or blood red color as it is described, is made 
a little too much of, and I shouni strongly object to the passing 
over of excellence in shape because the color is too pale ; a marked 
instance of which happened at the Brighton show of 1876. 

In points the Irish setter only differs from the English in the fol- 
lowing: 

t. The skull is somewhat longer and narrower, the eyebrows 
being well raised, and the occipital prominence as marked as 
in the pointer. 

2. The nose is a trifle longer, with good width, and square at the 
end : nostrils wide and open, with the nose itself of a deep mahog- 
any or very dark fleshy-color, not pink nor black. 

3. Eyes, ears, and lips. — The eyes should be a rich brown or ma- 
hogany color, well set, and full of intelligence ; a pale or goose- 
berry eye is to be avoided. Ears long enough to reach within 
half an inch or an inch of the end of the nose, and, though mow 



THE IRISH SEtTEfi. lO? 

tapering than in the English dog, never coming to a point ; they 
should be set low and close, but well back, and not approaching to 
the hound's in setting and leather. Whiskers red ; lips deep, but 
not pendulous. 

5 and 6. In frame the Irisli dog is higher on the leg than either 
the English or black and tan, but his elbows are well let down 
iievertheless ; his shoulders are long and sloping ; brisket deep, 
but never wide; and his back ribs are somewhat shorter than 
those of his English brethern. Loin good, slightly arched, and 
well coupled to his hips, but not very wide; quarters slightly 
sloping, and flag set on rather low, but straight, fine in bone, and 
beautifully carried. Breeders are, however, going for straight 
backs like that of Palmerston, with flags set on as high as in the 
English setter. 

7. Legs very straight, with good hocks, well-bent stifles, and 
muscular but not heavy haunches. 

8. The feet are hare-like, and moderately hairy between the toes. 

9. The flag is clothed with a long, straight comb of hair, never 
bushy or curly, and this is beautifully displayed on the point. 

IL The coat should be somewhat coarser than that of the English 
setter, being midway between that and the black and tan, wavy 
but not curly, and by no means long. Both hind and fore leg£ 
are well feathered, but not profusely, and the ears are furnished 
with feather to the same extent, with a slight wave, but no curl. 

12. The color should be a rich blood red, without any trace of 
black on the ears or along the back ; in many of the best strains, 
however, a pale color or an occasional tinge of black is shown. A 
little white on the neck, breast, or toes, is by no means objection- 
able, and there is no doubt that the preponderance of white, so as 
to constitute what is called " white and red," is met with in some 
good strains. 

In his work the Irish setter is fast and enduring; his nose is 
quite up to the average of fast dogs in dehcacy, and to those who 
are limited to a small kennel he is an tuvaluable aid to the gun. 
His style of going is very beautiful, with head well up and feeling 
for the body scent; he has a free action of the shoulders, hind legs 



108 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOP. THE GtlN, 

brought well under him, and a merry lashing of the flag on the 
slightest indication of scent — often, indeed, without it. His ad- 
vocates contend that he is as steady as any other setter when once 
broken, but, as far as my experience goes, I scarcely think this 
position can be maintained. Neither Plunket, nor any that I have 
seen of Mr. Purccll Llewellyn's breeding, nor indeed any of those 
which I have had out in private, have been always reliable, and I 
fear that, like almost all other setters of such high courage, it must 
be admitted that he requires work to keep him in a state of control 
fit for immediate use with the gun. In this respect, and indeed in 
delicacy of nose, both the English and Irish setter must yield to 
the black and tan of the best strains ; but to do the same 
amount of work, at least a double team of the last mentioned 
must be kept. 

Having been charged, by 3Ir. Adcock,in the case of the bulldog, 
with selecting inferior specimens for illustration, it is perhaps 
necessary that I should explain my reasons for choosing a dog 
without any public reputation to represent the Irish setter in pref- 
erence to Mr. Hilliard's Palmerston, who has taken all the chief 
prizes since the last appearance of Dr. Stone's Dash at the Crystal 
Palace in 1875. As remarked above, no strain but that of the 
Hon. D. Plunket has been tried in the field ; and, as that has done 
great credit to the breed in the shape of Mr. Macdona's (afterwards 
Mr. Llewellyn's) Plunket,* his daughter Music, and his sons Marvel 
and Kite, I prefer a portrait of one of this tried strain to that of 
any dog not similarly tested. Both Plunket and his daughter 
Music were too small to serve as a type, while Kite and Marvel 
have faults which render them equally unfit for that purpose. 
Fortunately, however, I have been able to meet with a grand 
specunsn of the breed m Rover, an own brother to Plunket, which 
Mr. Macdona has recently obtained from Ireland, and which 
has never yet been shown. The faithful portrait of this dog pre- 
sented on page 109 speaks for itself as to his external shape ; but for 
his performances it is necessary to look to his brother Plunket, 

• Plunket was purchased by Mr. Llewc-IIyn from Mr. Macdona for $750, aod it 
now in the possession of W. J. Farrar, of Toledo, Ohio. 



THE FIELD SPAIHEL. HI 

except that I have ascertained on good evidence that in private he 
has been tried to be first class. In color he is of a beautiful rich 
red with scarcely any white ; while he possesses a frame of great 
size, symmetry, and substance, with good legs and feet. 



THE FIELD SPANIEL. 



The field Spaniel is distinguished from the toy dog by his propen- 
sity to hunt game, and by his size and strength, which are suflB- 
cient to enable him to stand the work which is required in making 
his way through the briars and thorns of a thick covert, where he 
is chiefly employed. Although not used for water, where the 
water spaniel is pre-eminent, his coat must be of such a thick 
nature as to bear long continued wet, inasmuch as he is generally 
soaked with it, either from the snow on the briars, or from mois- 
ture hanging to them in drops, caused either by rain or dew. Har- 
dihood, therefore, is essential, and though a little dog may possess 
it, there are few instances of anything under 12 or 14 pounds being 
able to stand the wet and labor of a day's covert shooting. The 
nose of the spaniel must be exquisite, or he will be unfit to per- 
form his duties, which require him to follow out the pheasant, 
woodcock, or hare, to the well-concealed retreat in or under a thick 
bush, which either of them may have chosen. A good and some- 
what musical tongue was, by the old school of sportsmen, consid- 
ered a desideratum, in order not only to give notice that the dog is 
on game, but also the particular kind which he is " questing," and 
which many good spaniels enable their masters to distinguish by a 
variation in their notes. Formerly this was thought so important, 
that if a spaniel happened to be mute, he was hunted with a bell 
round his neck, as is sometimes done with the setter when used in 
covert. In the present day, a very fashionable breed (the Clumber) 
is invariably mute ; but as these dogs are chiefly used in aid of the 
battue, there is not the same necessity for them to give notice of 
their approach, as in the case of spaniels used either in wild-phea- 
sant shooting, or for cocks, hares, or rabbits. It will therefore ap 



112 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUK, 

pear, that, for every kind of covert shooting but the battue, we re- 
quire a strong useful spaniel, capable of bearing exposure to the 
weather, and neither too large for the runs, nor too small to bear 
work. Added to these qualities, we want an exquisite nose, and a 
musical but not noisy tongue, which is all the more valuable if it 
will distinguish by its note the various kinds of game. These dogs 
must also be readily kept under command, and must not be inclined 
to hunt far away from the shooter, or so fast as to prevent his fol- 
lowing them. For various purposes a vast number of breeds have 
been established, more or less resembling each other, and a good 
many of them being now extinct, in consequence of the diminish- 
ed demand for their services since the introduction of battues and 
their attendant preserves, by which, as a matter of course, wild 
covert shooting; is rendered much more scarce. All the spaniels 
have a marked down carriage of their tails, which they work rapid- 
ly when on game, but should never raise above the level of their 
backs. All these various breeds ma}', however, be arranged under 
two leading divisions ; one known as the " Springer," and includ- 
ing the Sussex, Clumber, and Norfolk Spaniels, besides several 
others confined to their respective localities ; and the other called 
*' the Cocker," from his being chiefly used for woodcocks, though 
also good for general purposes. The King Charles and Blenheim 
originally belonged to the second division, but they are now kept 
and bred for toy purposes only. 

The Springer has a most tender and discriminating nose, is very 
tractable, and therefore easily kept in command. As has been 
already remarked, some are mute (as the Clumber), while others 
tlirow their tongues, as, for instan<"e, the S;ssex and the Norfolk. 
All the springers are heavy and slow as compared with the cock- 
ers, and most of them soon tire, three or four hours' work being 
about a good average day's work. Hence, they are scarcely adapt- 
ed for beating large and wild woodb'^ds, and for this reason they 
are seldom used for cock-shootin£ excepting in small coverts 
frequented by this bird, and highly valued by the sportsman. 

The Clumber Spaniel, which for a long time was confined to the 
Newcastle family, but has lately become very fashionable, is a re- 



THE FIELD SPANIEL. 



113 



markably long, low, and somewhat heavy dog. In weight he is 
from 30 to 40 lbs. Hight 18 to 20 inches. The head is heavy, 
wide, and full, the muzzle broad and square, generally of a flesh 
color. Nostrils open, and chops full and somewhat pendent. Ears 
long, and clothed with wavy hair, not too thick. Body very long 
and strong, the back ribs being very deep, and the chest being very 
round and barrel-like, the ribs at the same time being so widely 




Fig. 18. — CLUMBER SPANIEL, BRUCE. 



separated from each other, as to make the interval between them 
and the hips small in proportion to the great length. Tail bushy, 
but not at all woolly, the hair being waved only, not curled. It is 
generally cropped. Shoulders rather heavy and wide apart, arms 
short but strong, elbows not very well let down, fore arms strong, 
with plenty of bone, good knees, and strong useful round feet, but 
not very well up in the knuckles. The legs should be well feath- 
ered, and the feet hairy. The hind legs are rather straight, and 
should, like the fore legs, be short, so that the dog altogether has 
rather a weasely appearance, but the body being considerably 



11-i DOMESTIC ATi:D DOGS FOP. TUfi GUN". 

Stouter in proportion than that animal's. The coat is very thick, 
but should be silky and wavy, not curled, except in the feather- 
ings, which are lon^ and well marked. Color, yellow and white 
or, as is most highly prized, lemon and white. This dog is almost 
invariably mute. The portrait given of Mr. R. J. LI. Price's Bruce 
may be regarded as a good type of the breed. 

The lyussex Spaniel differs from the Clumber in shape and color. 
as well as in his "questing," his note being full and bell-like, 
though sharp. In hight and weight there is not much difference, 




Fig. 19.— SUSSEX SPA>-IEL, GEOROE. 

nor is the general character of the head very distinguishable from 
that of the Clumber; but in length he is not nearly so remarkable 
as that dog, though still long and low, the body being very round 
and full, indicating great power. The coat also is pretty nearly 
the same in quality, being soft and silky, though thick and free 
from distinct curls; and this dog is also beautifully feathered 
The head is not quite so heavy about the muzzle, but very square 
above the eyes, and with an expression of exceeding gravity and 



THE FIELD SPANIEL. 



115 



intelligence. The ears are full in length, lobe-shaped, bnt not very 
thickly covered with hair. Muzzle broad, with the under jaw re- 
ceding more than in the Clumber, and the point of the nose of a 
liver-color. The whole body is also of a decided liver-color but 
with rather a golden shade, not so puce as that of the Welsh or 
Devonshire cockers, or the Irish water spaniel. Legs and feet very 
strong, and well feathered. Tail generally cropped, and well 
clothed with wavy hair. The bitches are usually smaller than the 
dogs. All of this breed throw their tongues, and when kept to 




Fig. 20. — COCKER SPANIEL, BBUSH. 



cocks or pheasants, they readily indicate their scent by a sharper 
Dote than usual. The portrait given as a specimen of the breed 
was bred by the late A. E. Fuller, of Rose Hill, Sussex, England. 

The Cocker can scarcely be minutely described, inasmuch as there 
are so many varieties in different parts of Great Britain. He may, 
however, be said, in general terms, to be a light, active spaniel, of 
about 14 lbs. weight on the average, sometimes reaching 20 lbs., 
Vith very elegant shapes, and a lively and spirited carriage. In 



116 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE GUN. 

hunting he keeps his tail down, like the rest of his kind, and 
works it constantly in a most rapid and merry way, from which 
alone he may be known from the springer, who also works his, 
but solemnly and deliberately, and apparently without the same 
pleasurable sensations which are displayed by the cocker. The 
head is round and tlie forehead raised ; muzzle more pointed than 
tlic springer, and the ear less heavy, but of good length, and well 
clothed with soft wavy hair, which should not be matted in a 
heavy mass. The eye is of medium size, slightly inclined to water, 
but not to weep like the toy dog's; body of medium length, and 
the shape generally resembling that of a small setter. It has long 
been the custom to crop the tail nearly half off, so as to prevent 
the constant wearing of it against the bushes, as the dog works 
his way through them. If left on, it is nearly as long in propor- 
tion as that of the setter, but more bushy, and not so closely re- 
sembling a fan. These dogs are well feathered, and the work for 
their feet and legs requires them to be strong and well formed. 
The coat should be thick and wavy, but not absolutely curled, 
which last shows the cross with the water spaniel, and that gives 
too much obstinacy with it to conduce to success in covert shoot- 
ing. The color varies from a plain liver or black to black and tan, 
white and black, white and liver, white and red, or white and 
lemon ; and different breeds are noted as possessing some one of 
these in particular, but I am not aware that any one is remarkable 
as belonging to a superior race. 

The title " cocker" includes every kind of field spaniel except the 
Sussex and Clumber, and it is therefore necessary to allude to the 
Norfolk Spaniel as well as to the Welsh and Devon Cocker. The 
Norfolk spaniel is still to be found scattered throughout the coun- 
try, and is generally of a liver and white color, sometimes black 
and white, and rarely lemon and white; usually a good deal 
ticked with color in the white. Higher on the leg than the 
Clumber or the Sussex, he is generally more active than either, 
sometimes almost rivalling the setter in lightness of frame; his 
ears are long, lobular and heavily feathered, and he is a very use- 
ful dog when thoroughly broken, but he is apt to be too wild in 



THE FIELD SPANIEL. 117 

his behavior and too wide in his range until he has had a longer 
drill than most sportsmen can afford, and in retrieving he is often 
hard mouthed. When thoroughly broken, however, he is an ex- 
cellent aid to the gun ; but he is so intermixed with other breeds, 
that it is impossible to select any particular specimen as the true 
type. With regard to the Welsh and Devon cocker of former 
times, they are now scarcely to be met with in a state of purity 
and of the regulation size (20 lbs. to 25 lbs.) ; most of them have 
been crossed with the springer, or by improved management have 
been raised in weight to 30 lbs. at the least, which militates against 
their use in some coverts ; and in a vast majority of teams, the 
modern field spaniel must be regarded as more like the springer 
than the cocker. The Welsh and Devon cockers are both liver- 
colored, not of the Sussex golden hue, but of a dead true liver 
color. Their ears are not too large for work, and on the show 
bench would by many judges be considered too small ; but they 
are always lobular, without the slightest tendency to a vine shape. 
Throughout the country there are numberless breeds of cockers of 
all colors, varying from white, black, or liver to red and white, 
lemon and white, liver and white, and black and white. Lady- 
bird is nearly all red, but she comes of strains usually all liver or 
all black. The illustration is a portrait of Mr. W. Gillett's Brush, 
an excellent representative dog. 

The Blenheim and King Charles' Spaniels will be described under 
the head of toy dogs, to which purpose alone are they really suited, 
though sometimes used m covert shooting. 




118 



dome..ti(j..t::i) dogs fou the g0K. 




Fig. 21. — IRISH WATER SPANIEL, KAKE. 



THE WATER SPANIEL. 



WaUr Spaniels are commonly said to have web-feet, and this 
point is often made a ground of distinction from other dogs, but 
tlie fact is that all dogs have their toes united by membranes in 
the same way, the only distinction between the water and land 
dogs being that the former liave larger feet, and that the membrane 
between the toes being more lax, they spread more in swimming, 
and arc thus more useful in the water. Most people would un- 
derstand, from the stress laid on web-feet in the water dogs, that 
the toes of the land dogs were nearly as much divided as those of 
man, but there are none so formed, and, as I before remarked, the 
toes of all are united throughout by a strong membrane. The 
coat in all the water dogs is woolly and thickly matted, often curly, 
and in all more or less oil}-, so as to resist the action of the water. 



THE WATER SPANIEL. HQ 

This oil is rank in smell, and hence they are all unfit to be inmates 
of our houses, which is a strong objection even to the poodle as a 
toy dog. As, therefore, we have no ground for separating the 
land from the water dogs by this strong line, I have not attempted 
to do so, but have grouped them according to the divisions under 
which they naturally fall. 

The Old English water Spaniel is particularly fond of the water, 
and will enter it in almost all weathers by choice, while it never is 
too cold for him when any game is on it. His powers of swim- 
ming and diving are immense, and he will continue in it for hours 
together, after which he gives his coat a shake and is soon dry. 
Indeed, when he first comes out he does not seem thoroughly wet, 
his oiled and woolly coat appearing to set at defiance the approach 
of water. His nose is pretty good, and he is capable of an excel- 
lent education ; but it takes some time to break him thoroughly, 
as he is required to be completely under command, and is a very 
restless dog by nature, whereas his duties demand perfect silence. 
There are generally said to be two distinct breeds, one larger than 
the other, but in other respects alike. 

His points are as follows : — Head long and narrow, eyes small, 
and ears of medium length, covered with thick curly hair. Body 
stout, but elegantly formed, with strong loins, and round barrel- 
like chest, which is broad across the sh(Hildcrs. The legs are 
rather long, but very strong, the bone being of great size, and well 
clothed with muscle. Feet large and spreading, tail covered 
thickly with long curly hair, and slightly curved upwards, but 
not carried above the level of the back. 

The Irish icater Spaniel consists of two distinct varieties, peculiar 
to the north and south of Ireland. The northern dog has short 
ears, with little feather either on them or on the legs, but with 
a considerable curl in his coat. In color he is generally liver, but 
with more or less white which sometimes predominates, so as to 
make him decidedly white and liver. The south country Irish 
water spaniel is, on the contrary, invariably of a puce liver color. 
Ears long and well feathered, being often two feet from point to 
point, and the whole coat consisting of short crisp curls. Body 



120 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOK THE GUN. 

long, low, and strong, tail round and carried slightly dovcn ; but 
straight, without any approach to featlier. The celebrated breed 
known as "M'Carthy's" is thus described by that gentleman in 
a recent communication. 

"The present improved and fancy breed, called M'Carthy's 
breed, should run thus :— Dog from 21 to 22^ inches high (seldom 
higher when pure bred), head rather capacious, forehead promi- 
nent, face from eyes down perfectly smooth, ears from 24 to 26 
inches from point to point. The head should be crowned with a 
well-defined top-knot, not straggling across like the common rough 
water dog, but coming down in a peak on the forehead. The body 
should be covered with small crisp curls, which often become drag- 
gled in the moulting season : the tail should be round without 
feather underneath, of the two rather short, and as stiff as a ram- 
rod ; the color of a pure puce liver without any white. Though 
these dogs are generally of very high mettle, I have never found 
them intractable or difficult to be trained ; they readily keep to heel 
and down-charge, and will find a dead or wounded bird anywhere, 
either in the open or in covert, but they are not partial to stiff 
thorny brakes, as the briers catch the curl and trail after them. 
It is advisable to give them a little training at night, so that in 
seeking objects they must rely upon the nose alone. For the gnn, 
they should be taught to go into the water like a duck ; but when 
kept for fancy, a good dog of tliis breed will take a flying jump of 
from 25 to 35 feet, or more, perpendicular hight, into the water. 
My old dog Boatswain lived to be about eighteen years old, 
when, although in good health and spirits, I was obliged to destroy 
bim. When going abroad in 1849, for some years, I gave my breed 
to Mr. Jolliffe Tuffnell, of Mount-street, Merrion-square, Dublin, 
son of the late Col. Tuffnell, of Bath. Ilis dog Jack, a son of my 
dog Boatswain, is known particularly as a sire, to every one in Ire- 
land, and to very many in England. A good well-trained dog of 
this breed will not bo obtained under from $50 to $100, and 
I have known as much as $200 or $000 to be paid for one. They 
will not stand across with any other breed; the spaniel, setter, 
Newfoundland dog, and Labrador dog, etc., perfectly destroy coat, 



CHESAPEAKE BAY DOG. 



121 



ears, tail, and symmetry ; added to which, the cross-bred dog is 
rery difficult to dry. If any cross would answer, I should say the 
bloodhound.— J. M'C." 

The portrait on page 118 is from a remarkably good photograph 
of Mr. Lindoe's celebrated Rake. 







Fig. 22. — CHESAPEAKE BAT DOG. 



CHESAPEAKE BAT DOG. 



The earliest accounts that we have of the above mentioned dog 
date back to the year 1807, when the ship "Canton," of Balti- 
more, fell in at sea with an English brig in a sinking condition, 
bound from Newfoundland to England. The crew were rescued 
and taken aboard of the " Canton," also two Newfoundland pups, 
a dog and bitch The English crew were landed at Norfolk, and 
the two pups purchased from the English captain for a guinea 
apiece, and taken to Baltimore. The dog pup, called " Sailor," 



122 DOMESTICATED DOGS FOR THE QUi^. 

was given to Mr. John Mercer, of West River; the bitch pup, 
named " Canton," to Dr. James Stewart, of Sparrow Point. The 
dog was of a dingy-red color, and the bitch black. They were not 
large, hair short, but very thick-coated, attained great reputation 
as water dogs, and were very sagacious, particularly so in all 
duties pertaining to duck shooting. Gov. Lloyd, for a valuable 
consideration, succeeded in securing the dog, and took him to his 
estate on the eastern shore of Maryland, where his progeny may 
still be known as the Sailor breed. The bitch remained at Sparrow 
Point, and her progeny are well known to the duck shooters of 
Patapsco Neck, Gunpowder, etc. 

As there now appears to be three types of this dog, the members 
of the Maryland Poultry and Fancier's Association, at their first 
show, held at Baltimore, January, 1877, appointed a committee to 
draw up a standard of points for judging. On the evening of 
January 3, 1877, they met the members of the club, and made 
their report, which was adopted. The committee consisted of the 
following gentlemen (each representing their respective type): Mr. 
John Stewart, representing the Otter breed, in color a tawny sedge, 
with very short hair ; Mr. O. D. Foulks, the long-haired, or Red 
Winchester, and Mr. J. J. Turner, Jr., the curly-coated, in color a 
red-brown — the bitches showing the color and approximating to the 
points of the class to which they belong, a white spot on the breast 
in either class not being unusual. The measurements were as 
follows : from fore toe to top of back, 25 inches ; from tip of nose 
to base of head, 10 inches ; girth of body back of fore leg, 33 inches; 
breast, 9 inches ; around fore feet, 6 inches ; around fore arm be- 
low shoulder, 7 inches ; between eyes, 2^- inches ; length of ears, 5 
inches; from base of head to root of tail, 35 inches; tail, 16 inches 
in length ; around muzzle below the eyes, 10 inches. The writer 
has one crossed with the pure Irish Water Spaniel, which cannot 
be excelled as a ducking dog. The illustration page 121 is of the 
dog "Trip," owned by C. H. Tilghman, of Easton, Md., and 
awarded the first premium at the Bench Show held in New 
York in 1877. 



CHAPTER V. 

iPASTORAL DOGS, AND THOSE USED FOR THE PUIV 
POSES OF DRAUGHT. 

THE ENGLISH SHEEP-DOG. — THE COLLET. — THE GERMAN SHEEP-DOG.-» 
POMERAJ^IAN OR SPITZ DOG. — THE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR 
DOGS. — THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. — THE GREENLAND DOG. 

THE ENGLISH SHEEP-DOG. 

There are so many different breeds of the English Sheep-dog that 
it is diflScult to describe him. He has a sharp muzzle, medium- 
sized head, with small and piercing eyes ; a well- shaped body, 
formed after the model of a strong low greyhound, bat clothed in 
thick and somewhat woolly hair, which is particularly strong about 
the neck and bosom. The tail is naturally long and bushy, but, as 
it has almost invariably been cut off until of late years, its varia- 
tions can hardly be known. Under the old excise laws the shep- 
herd's dog was only exempt from tax when without a tail, and for 
this reason it was always removed ; from which at last it happened 
that many puppies of the breed were born without any tails, and 
to this day some particular breeds are tailless. In almost all sheep- 
dogs there is a double dew-claw on each hind leg, and very often 
without any hony attichment. The legs and feet are strong and 
well formed, an 1 stan 1 road-work well, and the untirin:: nature of 
the dog is v^ry remarkable. The color varies greatly, but most are 
grey, or black, or brown, with more or less white. 

Such is the trie ol I En jlish sheep-dog, but a great proportion 

of those in actual use are crossed with the various sporting dogs, 

such as the setter, wkich is very con.mon, or the pointer, or even 

the hound ; and hence ^c so oaeu find the sheep-dog as good in 

133 



124 TA STOMAL DOnS, ETC. 

hunting gnme as in his more rei^ular duties, while a ,Q;reat many- 
are used as regular poaching dogs by night, and in retired districts 
by day also. 



THE COLLET. 



One of the most beautiful and useful of all dogs is the Scotch 
sheep-dog or colley, excellent engravings of which .are given, pp. 
125-128. With a fine muzzle he combines an intelligent-looking 
and rather broad head, and a clear but mild eye, a pricked and 
small car slightly falling at the tip. His body is elegantly formed, 
and clothed with a thick coat of woolly hair, which stan.ds out 
evenly from his sides and protects him from all the vicissitudes of 
the weather, neither wind, rain, nor snow being capable of pene- 
trating it. The legs are well formed and the feet strong and use- 
ful. The tail is long, gently curved, and bushy, and the \\liole 
outline resembles that of the dingo ; but the form is stouter and 
the limbs stronger. The color is nearly always black and tan, with 
little or no white; sometimes, however, the whole skin is of one 
or other of these colors, but then the dog is not considered nearly 
so valuable. The colley, like the true English sheep-dog, has 
always one or two dew-claws on each hind leg. 

A great deal of discussion has lately taken place in regard to 
the colley's proper color and general appearance, and various de- 
scriptions have been given of what each writer considers the 
genuine breed, differing in every respect but the one to which I 
have drawn attention, which in almost all cases has been admitted 
to be essential. Some gentlemen, however, who have obtained 
specimens with beautiful but open coats of a glossy black, pointed 
with tan, have contended that this is the desideratum ; and so it is 
for the dog, considered simplj^ as a companion. Hitherto, how- 
ever, no one has ventured to propound the theory that he is to be 
so regarded ; and, until I find that a separate class is made at some 
one or more of our important shows for *' toy collcys," I must 



THE COLLET. 127 

continue to describe the breed from the shepherd's point of view, 
only — ret^arding any suspicion of a setter cross, and especially if 
shown in coat, as injuring his value for the reasons before given. 
Only those who have seen one or more of the public sheep-dog 
trials (instituted about four years ago by Mr. Lloyd Price, and many 
of which have of late years been held in Wales as well as in Eng- 
land), or have privately seen these animals at their usual work, can 
realize the amount of intelligence displayed by them. In these 
trials the slightest sign from the shepherd is understood and 
obeyed, and even the exact amount of driving calculated to make 
the sheep go quietly forward to the pen without breaking away is 
regulated to a nicety. 

But, irrespective of his obedience to his master's orders, the in- 
dependent intelligence of the colley is very high, and it is interest- 
ing to watch him or some other sheep-dog manage a wild sheep 
t^hich is to be driven against his will in a certain direction. Very 
frequently the sheep turns round and stands facing the dog, and 
the natural expectation on the part of a spectator is that the latter 
will try by barking to make the sheep turn round and progress 
somewhere. Not so, however ; such a proceeding would inevita- 
bly cause a " break away," and the course pursued is to lie quietly 
down and face the sheep. By this method in a short time the fac- 
ing is changed to a quiet retreat, or sometimes to a slight backing, 
when the dog quietly moves a step or two forward and again lies 
down, till at lasi, by this kind of coaxing, the weaker animal of 
the two is quietly managed. In such cases a high degree of intel- 
ligence and tact is required which is partly innate and partly ac- 
quired from the shepherd by education. As a consequence there 
must be a due development of brain in the sheep-dog, and there 
must be a disposition to learn and obey the orders given. So 
clever is the colley that he will not be imposed on for any purpose 
not evidently useful, and it is seldom that he can be taught to exe- 
cute tricks for the gratification of idle spectators, although there is 
no difficulty in getting him to perform them once or twice to please 
his master. If exhibited beyond this extent he is apt to sulk and 
refuse to show off; but when he is wanted to do really useful 



128 



PASTOEAL DOGS, ETC. 



work, such as is required for tlie slieplierd's purposes, be is untir« 
ing, and will go on until utterly exhausted. 

No otlier dog in this country is so constantly with his master en- 
gaged in his proper calling — taking the breed as a whole. Occa- 
sionally, it is true, pet dogs are as much so, but by no means uni- 
versally, nor are they even then so frequently employed in carry« 
ing oat their master's orders. This naturally increases the intelli- 
gence of each individual and reacts on the whole breed ; so that, 
independently of the constantly weeding ooit of puppies rendered 







Fig. 23.— SCOTCH COLLET DOG, TOM BIDLEY. 



useless from a want of intelligence, the superiority of the whole 
variety in mental attributes is easily accounted for. For the same 
reason, when the pet colley gels old and is submitted to the rebuffs 
of children or strangers, he is apt to become crusty in temper, and 
sometimes even savage; but he is always most affectionate to his 
master, and no dog seems to be more sincerely repentant when he 
has done wrong. 

Within the last ten years the colley has become very fashionable 
as a pet, and his market price has risen from $15 to $150, or even 



THE COLLEY. 129 

more for animals good-looldng enough to take a prize at our shows. 
For this kind of colley, beauty of form and a brilliant black coat 
are the chief requisites, and these are greatly aided by the cross 
with the Gordon setter ; that is to s ly, without any consideration 
for the purposes to whic-i Jvs dog was originally bred, and is stiH 
extensively used. The pet colley, not being exposed to weather 
is quite as useful to his master with an open setter coat and feath- 
ered legs ; while regarded from an artistic point of view he is 
more handsome from the superior brilliancy of his color, and from 
the addition of feather. His ears, when thus bred, are, however, 
seldom good, being neither pricked like the colley's, nor falling 
close like the setter's ; and this is the chief objection to the cross 
from the pet dog point of view, though no doubt it is and has been 
easily bred out by careful selection. Moreover, if a pet is wanted 
solely as such, the Gordon setter in his purity is a handsomer dog 
than the colley, with a more pettable disposition, and it would be 
better to select him accordingly. 

In Scotland and the north of England, as well as in Wales a 
great variety of breeds is used for tending sheep, depending- 
greatly on the locality in which they are employed, and on the 
kind of sheep adopted in it. The Welsh sheep is so wild that he 
requires a faster dog than even the Highlander of Scotland, while 
in the lowlands of the latter country a heavier, tamer, and slower 
sheep is generally introduced. Hence it follows that a different 
dog is required to adapt itself to these varying circumstances, and 
it is no wonder that the strains are as numerous as they are. In 
Wales there is certainly, so far as I know, no special breed of 
sheep-dog, and the same may be said of the north of England, 
where, however, the colley (often improperly called Scotch), more 
or less pure, is employed by nearly half the shepherds of that dis- 
trict, the remainder resembling the type known by that name in 
many respects, but not all. For instance, some show a total 
absence of " ruff" or " frill ;" others have an open coat of a pied 
black and white color, with a setter shaped body ; while others, 
again, resemble the ordinary drover's dog in all respects. But, 
%ithout doubt, the modern " true and accepted " colley ^hs been 



ICO 



PASTOKAL "DOGS, ETC. 



in existence for at least thirty yenrs, as proved by the engraving 
published in Youatt's bck on " TJic Dog," nearly thirty years ago, 
which, by permission of his publisher, was accepted by me as the 
proper type in 1859, in my first treatise on the varieties of the 
canine race. That pc-^^iit was, T believe, copied from a specimen 
in the gardens of ti.e Zoological Society, which for some years 
after its formation possessed a most interesting collection of dogs, 
now unfortunately abandoned. The engraving given on page 99 
represents some specimens of good American bred Col leys ; that 
on page 128 is a portrait of Tom Ridley, tlie first prize dog at the 
N. Y. Bench Show, 1877, and owned by Mr. F. Bronson, of New 
York City. 



THE GERMAN SHEEP-DOG 

Is a small-sized dog, with bushy tail carried over the back, small 
muzzle, and shaggy coat, which is generally black or light fawn. 
His manner is brisk and affectionate, and his tractability is great, 
so that he is most useful in his vocation, and as a companionable 
dog is not excelled. 




THE POMERANIAX OK SPITZ DOG. 



131 















Fig. 24.— A SPITZ DOG. 



THE POMERANIAN OR SPITZ-DOG. 

Within the last twenty years this dog has been largely imported 
from Germany and France into England, in addition to those bred 
in that country; but, nevertheless, he has not become so general a 
favorite as was expected, owing in some measure to the fashion of 
the day tendmg towards the fox terrier and collcy, and also to tlie 
temper of the Spitz, which is too short and snappish to make liim 
fit to be trusted with children. It is true that the colley has the 
same disposition, but not quite to the same extent; and, being a 
better traveller with horses and carriages, he is more suited to act 
as a companion in country rides and drives tliaii his more deli- 
cate rival. 

In his native country, the Pomeranian dog is employed as a 



132 PASTOKAL DOGS, ETC. 

sheep-dog, for which he is fitted by his peculiarly woolly coat and 
ample frill, rendering him to a great degree proof against wet and 
cold. Like the coUey, he is impatient of control in playing tricks, 
and, indeed, can seldom be taught to display them even for a 
time, his intelligence not being of a very high order — at all events, 
if the attempt is made in any direction but that of his peculiar 
calling, for which, as far as known, he has never been employed 
anywhere else. But he is always cheerful in the house, generally 
free from smell either of coat or breath, and readily taught to be 
cleanly in all his habits. He has not the fondness for game gen- 
erally exhibited by the colley, and on that account is more suited 
to be a ladies' pet, nor is he so pugnacious as that dog, being as a 
rule inclined to run away rather than fight, when the choice lies 
between those alternatives. From these peculiarities it may be 
gathered that he is quite up to the average in his fitness to fill the 
position of companion. 

The specimen selected for illustration is only of average perfec- 
ti(m in the shape of body and head, but his coat is highly charac- 
teristic of the true breed. He took the first prize at the late Isling- 
ton Show of the Kennel Club. This variety of dog has become 
very popular as a house dog in America, but of late has fallen into 
some disrepute on account of his snappish disposition. 



THE NEWFOUNDLAND. 



This most valuable animal is of three very different kinds, viz.: 
1. The true Newfoundland ; 2. The large, loose-made, and long- 
haired variety, known as the Large Labrador; and 3. The small, 
compact, and comparatively short-haired dog, known as the St. 
John's or Lesser Labrador breed. All were originally natives of 
Newfoundland, and though many are bred in England, fresh 
specimens are constantly being imported from the island. Many 
of the naturalized strams are now more or less crossed with the 
mastiff or setter. They are chiefly used fcr ornamental purposes 



THE NEAVFOUNDLAND. 133 

and as companions to their masters, the small breed beinn- also 
crossed with the setter to make tlie retriever ; but in their native 
country they are used to draw timber over the snow in the winter 
months, being harnessed to carts and sledges made for the pur- 
pose. In intelligence the three breeds are about equal, all being 
celebrated for their faculty of learning to fetch and carry. This 
is sometimes developed to such an extent that a well-trained dog 
will go back for anything which his master has pointed out to 
him, if it has been handled, when it is only necessary to order him 
back to seek, and he will find it by the scent. 

Both breeds are good water dogs and bear immersion for a long 
time, but the large variety having a more woolly coat is superior 
in endurance of wet and cold. Hundreds of anecdotes are told of 
extraordinary escapes from drowning by means of these dogs, their 
tendency to fetch and carry being doubly useful here. Children 
and light small women may be intrusted to them with safety in 
the water, if they are not bewildered with fear, when they will 
sometimes cling round the dog's neck, and frustrate all his efforts 
to restore them to the land by swimming; generally, however in 
cases of recovery, the person has fainted, and being then power- 
less, is towed ashore readily enough. The speed with which the 
Newfoundland swims is very great, his large legs and feet enabling 
him to paddle himself with great force. From their great size and 
strength they are able to beat off most dogs when they are attacked 
and their thick coats prevent the teeth of their assailants from doing 
much damage ; but in offensive measures they are of little use, being 
rather unwieldy, and soon winded in a desperate struggle. Hence 
they are not useful in hunting the large kinds of game, nor the 
bear, wolf, or tiger. The nose is delicate enough to hunt any kind 
of scent, but as they soon tire, they are not used in this way, and 
it is solely as retrievers on land or water that they are useful to the 
sportsman, being generally crossed with the setter for the former, 
and the water spaniel for the latter element. 

The characteristic points of the Large Newfoundland are, great 
size, often being from 25 to 30 inches high ; a form proportionally 
stout and strong, but loosely put together, so that there is a general 



134 



PASTORAL DOoS, ETC. 



want of compactness, especially about tlic loins, wbicb are long 
and very flexible. The head is not large in comparison to the size, 
but wide across the eyes; muzzle of average length and width, 
and without any flews, as in the hounds and pointers ; eye and ear 
both small, the latter falling, and without much hair on it; neck 
short and clotl.ja with a ruff of hair; tail long, curled on itself 
slightly, and woolly; legs very strong, but not feathered; feet 
large and rather flat, bearing the road badly ; coat on the body 







^JK 






^"^ a^^ 




Fig. 25. — NEWFOUNDLAND DOG, LEO. 



long, hairy, shaggy, and shining, without any admixture of wool; 
the color should be black, but it is sometimes black and white, or 
white with little black, or liver color, or a reddish dun, or some- 
times, but rarely, a dark brindle not very well marked. 

The large black Newfoundland is remarkable for his majestic 
appearance, combined with a benevolent expression of counte- 
nance. The latter quality, being really in accordance with his dis- 
position, and frequently displayed by his life-saving capacities in 
cases of threatened drowning, has made him for many years a great 



THE NEWFOUNDLAND. 135 

favorite as a companion, especially with those who live near the 
sea or any great river. With these points in view, judges have 
naturally made a full size of great importance, since it not only 
adds to the majestic aspect of the dog, but renders him really more 
capable of distinguishing himself in the career so beautifully com- 
memorated by Landscer in one of his most popular pictures. 

The general opinion now is, that a dog of this breed above 26 
inches is almost unknown in Newfoundland ; but it is also allowed 
that puppies bred and reared in England of the pure strains, which 
in the island never attain a greater hight than 26 inches, will o-row 
to 30 or even 32 inches. Such an animal is Mr. Mapplebeck's Leo, 
who has recently taken the first prize at Islington in the Kennel 
Club Show, after distinguishing himself previously at Bath, and 
other places. 

The Large Labrador is a more loosely-framed animal, and is 
never entirely black, being more or less mixed with white. The 
coat also is longer, more woolly, and curly. 

The St. John's, or Smaller Labrador, or Newfoundland, the three 
names being used indiscriminately, is seldom more than 25 inches 
high, and often much less. The head is larger in proportion to 
his size, and the ear also slightly fuller ; neck longer ; body far 
more compact, and clothed with shorter hair, shining, and with- 
out any woolly texture ; tail similar in shape, but the hair less 
woolly ; legs and feet also better adapted for work ; color almost 
always a jet black, rarely liver-colored. This dog is now generally 
more or less crossed with the setter. 



THE ESQUIMAUX DOGS. 



These dogs are the only beasts of burden in the northern part 
of America and the adjacent islands, being sometimes employed to 
carry materials for hunting or the produce of the chase on their 
backs. At other times they are harnessed to sledges in teams, vary- 
ing from 7 to 11, each being capable of drawing a hundred-weight 



136 



PASTORAL DOGS, ETC. 



for his share. They are harnessed to a single yoke-line by a breast- 
strap, and, being without any guide-reins, they are entirely at lib- 
erty to do what they like, being only restrained by the voice of 
their master, and urged forwiird by his whip. A single dog of 
tried intelligence and fidelity is placed as leader, and upon him the 
driver depends for his oracrs being obeyed. In the summer they 
arc most of them turned oiF to get theh: own subsistence by hunt- 
ing, some few being retained to carry weights on their backs. 
Sledges are then rendered useless by the absence of snow ; and, as 




Fig. 26.— HEAD OF ESQUIMAUX DOQ. 



there is a good subsistence for them from the ofFal of the seal and 
the walrus which are taken by the men, the dogs become fat at 
this season of the year. The Siberian and Greenland dogs are 
nearly similar to those of Kamtschatka, but somewhat larger, and 
also more manageable, all being used in the same way. The Es- 
quimaux dog is about 22 or 23 inches high, and varies greatly in 
appearance, having been crossed considerably with the Newfound- 
land and Labrador species. The illustration, fig. 26, represents a 



THE ESQUIMAUX DOGS. 137 

variety used mostly in the region about York Factory, Rupert's 
Rivers, and Labrador. It is generally of the Newfoundland 
type. The dog common to the region of the Saskatchewan River 
and Lake Winipeg is stone-grey, of large and bony build, with 
large spreading feet and with prick ears. The hair is Jong and 
wiry, and lies close to the body. The head of this dog is shown 
in the engraving, fig. 27, which is from a drawing by Adrian 
Nelson of Manitoba, who gives the following particulars in a re- 
cent letter : 
" The black and the yellow Esquimaux dogs are, I believe, pe- 




Fig. 27.— HEAD OP ESQmMAUX DOO. 

culiar to the American Esquimaux. These I consider the best 
sleigh dogs known, especially the black variety. The other variety 
is found in all shades of yellow, sometimes almrst white. A 
portrait of a white dog of this variety is given on page 139. The 
following are the measurements of this remarkably fine specimen : 
Hight at shoulder, 2 ft. 6 in.; length from center between shoulder 
blades to center between ears, 1 foot ; from latter point to end of 



138 PASTOIIAL DOGS, ETC. 

nose, 11 in.; length from shoulders to setting on of tail, 2 ft 7 in.; 
length of tail, 1 foot 4 in.; nieasuremeat round head just behind 
ears, 2 ft.; just above eyes, 1 foot 8 in.; at point of nose, 10 in.; 
his girth measured fairly tight, not outside the hair, 3 ft.; his 
weight is 120 lbs. Out of a good many hundred of the black 
I have not seen a single specimen marked with either white 
or brown. When skinned it is at once noticed that the skull 
is unusually Hat; this peculiarity is hidden in the live animal 
by its hair. It has a heavy jaw, very small round ears, which 
are always erect, and the hair, which is long, hard, and 
wiry, invariably stands erect off the skin, very similar to that 
of a bear, to which the whole dog bears a very close re- 
semblance when lying down. All of this breed ai*e fierce, 
treacherous, and active. A man would be considered a fool who 
attempted to harness them without his whip, and that whip must 
have some little bells, thimbles, or pieces of tm attached, so as to 
constantly jingle. It would be the essence of folly to touch one 
of these dogs when out of his harness, except with the whip. Ap- 
proaching the dog, the driver throws the lash, which is about 10 
feet long, round the dog's neck, twists it until it almost chokes 
him, and then drags him to his collar by main strength, grasps his 
head between his thighs, and then slips the collar, which is very 
ti^ht, over the head. From that instant the dog is quiet and sub' 
missive enough. The whips used are of plaited canbou hide, with 
from 2 oz. to 8 oz. of small shot woven into them, to give them 
weight. Besides this, with most strains, it is necessary to carry 
chains to fasten the dogs at night, and, if travelling on ice, also a 
spear to picket them to. Mr. Ouyon, of Fort Chippewyan, on Lake 
Arthabasca, has some splendid dogs of this breed. This post has 
the reputation of having the finest dogs in the North. A peculiar- 
ity in these dogs is that they all have bright, clear, yellow eyes, 
similar to a cat, with great powers of dilating the pupils. These 
dogs cannot be purchased, except at a very great expense, a good 
one being sold for $100, or more. 



CHAPTER VI. 

WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

bULLDOG.— ENGLISH MASTIFF.— MOUNT ST. BERNARD.— TUIBET DOG.^ 
POODLE.— MALTESE DOG.— LION DOG.— SHOCK DOG.— TOY SPANIELS. 
—TOT TERRIERS.— THE PUG DOG.— ITALIAN GREYHOUND. 

Th2 peculiarity of this division is that the dogs composing it are 
solely useful as the companions or guards of their owners, not 
being capable of being employed with advantage for hunting, in 
consequence of their defective noses, and their sizes being either 
too large and unwieldy, or too small, for that purpose. For the 
same reason they are not serviceable as pastoral dogs or for 
draught, their legs and feet, as well as their powers of maintaining 
long-continued exertion, being comparatively deficient. These 
dogs nearly all show a great disposition to bark at intruders, and 
thereby give warning of their approach ; but some, as the bull- 
dog, are nearly silent, and their bite is far worse than their bark. 
Others, as, for instance, the little house dogs, generally with more 
or less of the terrier in them, are only to be used for the purpose 
of warning by their bark, as their bite would scarcely deter the 
most timid. The varieties are as follows : — 



THE BULLDOG. 



F. Cuvier has asserted that this dog has a brain smaller in pro- 
portion than any other of his congeners, and in this way accounts 
for his assumed want of sagacity. But, though this authority is 
deservedly high, I must beg leave to doubt the fact as well as the 
inference, for if the brain is weighed with the body of the dog 
from which it was taken, it will be found to be relatively above 
the average, the mistake arising from the evident disproportion be- 
tween the brain and the skull. For the whole head, including the 
141 



143 



WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 



zygomatic arches and clieek-bones, is so much larger than that of 
th« spaniel of the same total weight of body, that the brain may 
well l'.)ok small as il lies in the middle of the various processes in- 
tended for the attachment of the strong muscles of the jaw and 
neck. I have never been able to obtain the fresh brain of a pure 
bulldog for the purpose of comparison, but, from an examination 
of the skull, I have no doubt of the fact being as above stated. 
The mental qualities of the bulldog may be highly cultivated, and 




Fig. 28. — BULLDOGS, SMASHER AND SUGAR. 



in brute courage and unyielding tenacity of purpose he stands un- 
rivalled among quadrupeds, and with the single exception of the 
game-cock, he has perhnps no parallel in those respects in the brute 
creation. Two re\narkablc features are met with in this breed : 
First, they always make their attack at tlie head ; and, secondly, 
they do not bite and let go their hold, but retain it in the most 
tenacious manner, so that they can with difficulty be removed by 
any force wliich can be applied. Instances are recorded in which 
bulldogs have hung on to the lip of the bull (in the old days of bait- 



THE BULLDOG. 143 

ing this animal) after their entrails had been torn out, and while 
they were in the last agonies of death. Indeed when they do lay 
hold of an object, it is always necessary to choke them off, with- 
out which resource they would scarcely ever be persuaded to let 
go. From confinement to their kennels, they are often deficient in 
intelligence, and can rarely be brought under good control by 
education. Owing to the same cause, they show little personal 
attachment, so that they sometimes attack their friends as well 
as their enemies when their blood is put up. 

But, when differently treated, the bulldog is a very different ani- 
mal, the brutal nature which he so often displays being mainly at- 
tributable to the savage human beings with whom he associates. 
Although, therefore, I am ready to admit that the bulldog often 
deserves the character for ferocity which he has obtained, yet I 
contend that this is not natural to him, any more than stupidity 
and want of affection, which may readily be proved to be the re- 
verse of his character, if any one will take the trouble to treat him 
in a proper manner. For the following remarks I am mainly in- 
debted to Mr. Stockdale, who is a celebrated breeder of bulldogs, 
and has had a long experience of their various attributes. The 
antiquity of the breed is unquestionable, and it has always been 
peculiar to the British islands, the Spanish variety having originally 
been procured from Britain. It is highly probable that the modem 
bulldog has undergone a change in appearance during the last fifty 
years, being now decidedly neater in shape than was formerly the 
case, if we are to judge from the portraits hanided down to us. As 
now exhibited, he is a remarkably neat and compact animal natur- 
ally, the deformities sometimes seen being produced principally 
from the practice of constantly keeping the poor dog tied up with 
a short chain. 

The bulldog has been described as stupidly ferocious, and show- 
ing little preference for his master over strangers ; but this is un- 
true, he being an excellent watch, and as a guard unequalled, ex- 
cept, perhaps, by the bull-mastiff, a direct cross from him. 
Indeed, be is far from being quarrelsome by nature, though the 
bull- terrier, in many cases undoubtedly is so, and I fancy that 



144 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

some writers have taken their description from this clog rat'.ci 
than from the pure bulldog, which has been at all times 
rather a scarce animal. If once the pure breed is allowed to 
drop, the best means of infusing fresh courage into degenerate 
breeds will be finally lost, except with the addition of extraneous 
blood, which may not suit them ; for it is believed that every kind 
of dog possessed of very high courage owes it to a cross with the 
bulldog, and thus the most plucky greyhounds, foxhounds, mas- 
tiffs, pointers, etc., may all bo traced to this source. Though bull 
and badger baiting may not be capable of extenuation, to them we 
owe the keeping up of this breed in all its purity ; and though we 
may agree to discontinue these old-fashioned sports, yet sports- 
men will see the bad taste of running down a dog who, with all 
his faults, is not only the most courageous dog, but the most cour- 
ageous animal in the world. 

The points of a well-bred bulldog are as follows : The head 
should be round, the skull high, the eye of moderate size, and the 
forehead well sunk between the eyes, the ears semi-erect and 
small, well placed on the top of the head, rather close together 
than otherwise, the muzzle short, truncate, and well furnished 
.Tith chop ; his back should be short, well arched towards the 
stern, which should be fine, and of moderate length. Many bull- 
dogs have what is called a crooked stem, as though the vertebrae 
of the tail were dislocated or broken. Some authorities attribute 
this to in-breeding. The coat should be fine, though many supe- 
rior strains are very woolly coated; the chest should be deep and 
broad, the legs strong and muscular, and the foot narrow and well 
split up, like a hare's. 

Many of the old well-known breeders of the bulldog have dis- 
appeared from the prize list. In the present day, Mr. G. A. 
Dawes, of Leamington ; Mr. G. Raper, of Stockton-on-Tees ; Mr. 
James Taylor of- Rochdale ; Mr. Harding Cox; Mr, Adcock, of 
Wigan ; Mr. James Berrie (now one of the oldest and most enthusi 
astic fancier?\ Mr. Lay ton, Mr. T. H. Joyce, and Mr. Vero Shaw, 
of London, have many good specimens of the type I have en- 
deavored to describe in the foregoing notes. 



THE BULLDOG. 



145 



The engraving given on page 142 is a portrait of a pair of dogs 
bred by Mr. Shaw, which show the peculiarities of the breed in a 
marked degree. The fore-shortened stetch o<= the dog exhibits 
the formation of the chest, shoulders, width of skull, and «' rose " 
carriage of ears, peculiar to the breed, while the bitch's side view 
shows her wonderfully short face and " roached" loin, rarely met 
with to the same extent. Their pedigrees are as follows: The 
dog, Smasher, by Master Gully, out of Nettle, by Sir Anthony. 
The bitch, Sugar (formerly Lily), is by the Abbot out of Mr. J. L. 
Ashburne's Lola, and was bred by the latter gentleman. 




146 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOT DOGS, 



iiiiiiii^^ 




Fior. 29. — ENGLISH mastiff, governor. 



THE IVIASTIFF. 



There is every reason to suppose that this is an indigenous 
breed, like the bulldog, for though the Cuban mastiff closely re- 
sembles it, yet the latter is to all appearances crossed with the 
bloodhound. 

The English Mastiff is a fine noble-looldug animal, and in tem- 
per is the most to be depended on of all the large and powerful 
dogs, being extremely docile and companionable, though possessed 
of the highest courage. When crossed with the Newfoundland 
or bloodhound, they answer well as yard-dogs, but the produce 
is generally of a savage nature, while the pure breed is of so noble 
and mild a nature that they will not on any provocation hurt a 



THE MASTIFF. 147 

chad or even a small dog, one of their most remarkable attributes 
being their fondness for affording protection. Mr. Lukey, of 
Morden, Surrey, has a very fine breed of the pure mastiff. We 
present an engraving of Governor, the finest of his dogs. 

Mr. Lukey began to breed mastiffs rather more than forty years 
ago, taking a brindled bitch bred by the then Duke of Devonshire 
as his foundation. Putting her to Lord Waldegrave's celebrated 
do"- Turk, and her puppies to the Marquis of Hertford's Pluto, he 
obtained a strain with which he stood for some years almost alone 
as the celebrated mastiff breeder of the day, without any outcross. 
At length, fearing deterioration by further in-breedmg, he resorted 
to Capt. Garnier's kennel for a sire, the produce being that mag- 
nificent dog Governor, by Capt. Garnier's Lion out of his own 
Countess, a daughter of his Duchess by his Bruce II., who was by 
his Bruce I. out of his Nell. Of the breeding of his own Lion, 
and Lord Waldegrave's Turk, Capt. Garnier writes as follows: 

"Some time ago I bought of Bill George a pair of mastiffs, 
whose produce, by good luck, afterwards turned out some of the 
finest specimens cf the breed I ever saw. The dog Adam was one 
of a pair of Lyme Hall mastiffs, bought by Bill George at Tatter- 
sail's. He was a different stamp of dog to the present Lyme breed. 
He stood 30i in. at the shoulder, with length of body and good 
muscular shoulders and loins, but was just slightly deficient in 
depth of body and breadth of forehead ; and from the peculiar 
forward lay of his small ears, and from his produce, I have since 
suspected a remote dash of boarhound in him. The bitch was ob- 
tained by Bill George from a dealer in Leadenhall Market. Noth- 
ing was known of her pedigree, but I am as convinced of its purity 
as I am doubtful of that of the dog. There was nothing striking 
about her. She was old, with shoulders a trifle flat. She had a grey 
muzzle, but withal stood 29 in, at the shoulder, and had a broad 
round head, good loin, and deep length}"- frame. From crossing 
these dogs with various strains I was easily able to analyze their 
produce, and I found in them two distinct types — one due to the 
dog, very tall, but a little short in the body and high on the leg^ 
while their heads were slightly deficient in breadth ; the other due 



148 



WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOT DOGS. 



to the bitch, equally tall, but deep, lengthy and muscular, with 
broad massive heads and muzzles. Some of these latter stood 33 
inches at the shoulder, and by the time they were two years old 
weighed upwards of 190 lbs. They had invariably a fifth toe on 
each hind leg, which toe was quite distinct from a dew-claw, and 
formed an integral portion of their feet. By bad management, I 
was only able to bring a somewhat indifferent specimen with me 
on my return to England from America — a badly reared animal, 
who nevertheless stood 32 in. at the shoulder, and weighed 170 lbs. 












Fiff. 30.— ROUGH ST. BERNARD, TELL. 



This dog Lion was the sire of Governor and Harold, by Mr. 
Lukey's bitch Countess, and so certain was I of the vast size of the 
breed in him, that I stated beforehand, much to Mr. Lukey's in- 
credulity, that the produce would be dogs standing 33 in. at the 
shoulder— the result being that both Grovernor and his brother 
Harold were fully that hight. In choosing the whelps, Mr. Lukey 
retained for himself the best marked one, an animal that took 
after the lighter of the two strains that existed in the sire ; for 
Governor, grand dog and perfect mastiff as he was, compared to 
most others of the breed, was nevertheless shorter in the body, 
higher on the leg, and with less m.uscular development than Har- 



TETE MASTIFF. 249 

old, while his head, large as it was, barely measured as much 
around as did his brother's. I, who went by the development of 
the fifth toe (.in this case only a dew-claw), chose Harold, a don- 
which combined all the best points except color of both strains 
and was a very perfect reproduction on a larger scale of his dam 
Countess. This dog was the finest male specimen of the breed I 
have met with. His breast at ten months old, standing up, meas- 
ured 13 in. across, with a gkth of 41 in., and he weighed in mod- 
erate condition 140 lbs., and at twelve months old 160 lbs., while at 
13i months old, Governor only weighed m excellent condition 150 
lbs. with a girth of 40 in. ; and masmuch as Governor eventually 
weighed 180 lbs. or even more, the size to which Harold probably 
attained must have been very great. His head also in size and 
shape promised to be perfect." 

The points of the mastiflf are :— A head of large size, between 
that of the bloodhound and bulldog in shape, having the volume 
of muscle of the latter, with the flews and muzzle of the former, 
though, of course, not nearly so deep; the ear being of small size 
but drooping, like that of the lionud. The teeth generally meet, 
but if anything there is a slight protuberance of the lower jaw, 
never being uncovered by the upper lip like those of the bulldog; 
eye small; in shape there is a considerable similarity to the 
hound, but much heavier in all its lines; loin compact and 
powerful, and limbs strong ; tail very slightly rough, and carried 
high over the back when excited ; voice very deep and sonorous ; 
coat smooth ; color red or fawn with black muzzle, or brindled, 
or black ; or black, red, or fawn and white, the latter mixture ob- 
jected to ; bight about 28 to 31 inches. 



150 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AXD TOY DOGS, 




'*rfi>«'* , 



Fig. 31. — SMOOTH ST, BERNARD, MONARQUB. 



'np^^^ f^^mw 



THE MOUNT ST. BERNARD DOG. 

Closely allied to the mastiff, but resembling the Newfoundland 
in temper and in his disposition to fetch and carry, is the Mount 
St. Bernard breed, until lately confined to the Alps and the ad- 
jacent countries, where he is used to recover persons who are lost 
in the snow-storms of that inclement region. Wonderful stories 
are told of the intelligence of these dogs and of the recovery of 
travellers by their means, which are said to extend almost to the 
act of pouring spirits down the throats of their patients ; but, how- 
ever, there is no doubt that they have been and still are exceed- 
ingly useful, and the breed is kept up at the monastery of Mount 
St. Bernard. The hight is about 28 to 31 inches ; length six feet, 
including the tail. The coat varies a good deal in length, there 
being in England two distinct varieties founded upon this point, 
viz. , the rough and the smooth. Mr. Macdona, who has been at 
great trouble and expense to import both of the best Swiss strains, 



THE THIBET DOG. 151 

leans to the rough, but there are many who still adhere to the 
smooth variety. The smooth dog is red and white, or brindled 
and white, a broad white collar of white of a peculiar shape dis- 
tinguishmg the true breed. The rough dog is most highly prized 
when of a deep tawny brindle, still with some white, but not so 
much as in the smooth kind. Both dogs are remarkably good- 
tempered, and may be trusted with the care of women or children 
with great dependence. The absence of dew-claw on the hind 
leg is considered a defect by some judges, and there is no doubt 
that many imported specimens of the breed have the double dew- 
claw. The illustrations of the two varieties mentioned are portraits 
of dogs owned by Mr. Macdona. 



THE THIBET DOG. 



This animal, as before remarked, resembles the English mastiff 
in general appearance, and, being also put to the same use, the two 
may be said to be nearly allied. According to Mr. Bennet, he is 
bred on the Himalaya Mountains, on the borders of Thibet, for 
the purpose of guarding the flocks and the women who attend 
them. 




152 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 



,..->ii!iii!:iii;'!iii'i' 



.111: 



,, iilSpii^^ 









,:,.,;, 








THE POODLE. 

The engraving given on this page represents the poodle as he is 
generally to be seen, shaved in part, so as to resemble Ihe lion in 
having a mane; the tip of his tail having a tuft left on it. 
He is by many supposed to be the produce of a cross between the 
water and land spaniels, but there is no good reason to suppose 
that the breed is not quite as distinct as either of them. For many 
years it has been known in France and Germany, particularly the 
former country, and it is there occasionally used for sporting pur- 
poses, tliough, as in England, it is chiefly as a companion that 
tliis dog is kept. With more intelligence than falls to the lot of 
any other dog, he unites great fidelity to his master, and a strong 
love of approbation, so that he may readily be induced to attempt 
any trick which is shown him, and the extent to which he may be 
taught to carry out the secret orders of his instructor is quite mar- 
vellous. He fetches and carries very readily, swims well, and has 
a good nose, but has no particular fondness for hunting game, 
often preferring a stick or a stone to a hare or pheasant. Two of 



THE POODLE DOG. 153 

these dogs which were exhibited in London astonished every one 
by their clever performances, sitting up to table gravely, and play- 
ing a game at cards as quickly as a human being, the cards being 
placed before them, and the one to be played being selected by 
the dog's foot. Of course this was all done by preconcerted signal, 
but nevertheless it was remarkably well managed, and showed a 
degree of intelligence and discipline worthy of a better purpose. 

The poodle is characterized by a large wide head, rising sharply 
at the forehead, long falling ears clothed with thick curly hair, 
rather small eyes, square muzzle, with a liberal allowance of jowl, 
and a sedate appearance until roused by any prospect of fun ; a 
well-formed pointer-like body, but covered with thick closely curl- 
ing hair, hanging down in ringlets below ; tail usually cropped 
more or lesp, naturally covered with crisp curls; legs straight, 
and covered all round with Lair hanging in short ringlets; feet 
small and round, and moderately hairy; color white or black, or 
white and black ; hight from 16 to 20 inches. 

The Barbet is merely a small variety of the poodle, which it re- 
sembles in all respects but size. 




154 



WATCH DOr,?;, IJOFSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 










Fig. 33.— MALTESE DOG, FIDO. 

MALTESE DOG. 

This beautiful little dog is a Skye terrier in miniature, with, 
however, a far more silky coat, a considerably shorter back, and a 
tail stiffly curved over the hip. 

Points. — The weight should never exceed 5 or 6 lbs. ; head 
closely resembling tliat of the Skye, but with more shining and 
silky hair ; coat as long as that dog's, but more transparent and 
silky ; actions lively and playful, and altogether rendering it a 
pleasing pet. The tail is curved over the back, very small and 
short, with a brush of silky hair; color white, with an occasional 
patch of fawn on the ear or paw. The breed was so scarce some 
time ago, as to induce Sir E. Landseer to paint one as the last of 
his race ; since which several have been imported from Malta, and, 
though still scarce, tliey are now to be obtained. A strain bred by 
Mr. Mandeville has kept possession of the show bench since 1862, 
when the first class of this kind of toy dog was established at the 
Agricultural Hall Show, in which Mr. Mandeville's Mick and Fido 
were first and second. In the following year, at Ashbumham, the 
same kennel again produced the first and second prize holders, 
Fido being at the head of his class, and a dog called Prince 



LION DOG, SnOCK rOG, AXD TOY SPANIELS. 155 

second. Since then Mr. Mandeville's strain lias held undisputed 
possession of the prize list. 



THE LION DOG. 



This toy dog appears to be crossed between the poodle and the 
Maltese dog, being curly like the former, but without his long ears 
and square visage. He is now very seldom seen anywhere, and 
is not prized among fanciers of the canine species. Like the 
poodle he was generally shaved to make him resemble the lion. 



THE SHOCK DOG. 



This dog also is now almost unknown. But formerly he was 
very generally kept as a toy dog. He is said to have been a cross 
between the poodle and small spaniel, both of which varieties he 
resembled in part. 



TOT SPANIELS. 



Two breeds are known and recognized under this head, namely, 
the King Charles and the Blenheim spaniels, the former being 
slightly the larger of the two, and by most people considered the 
more handsome. To an ordinary observer the chief points of dis- 
tinction in the King Charles are, the color, which is black and tan 
more or less mixed with white, the less the better; and the length 
of the ears, which is greater than in the Blenheims ; these being 
also lighter in frame, and always yellow or red and white. Both 
are small delicate dogs, and though they have pretty good noses, 
and will hunt game readily, yet they so soon tire that they are 
rarely used for the purpose, and are solely kept for their orna- 
mental properties. They make good watch dogs in-doors, bark- 
ing at the slightest noise, and thus giving notice of the approach of 



156 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS. 

improper persons Though they are somewhat timid they are not 
readily silenced, as their small size allows of their retreatmg be- 
neath chairs and sofas^ from which asylum they keep up their 
sharp and shriVl note of defiance The great objection to these 
handsome little creatures as pets is that they follow badly out of 
cloors. and as they are always ready to be fondled by a stranger, 
they are very liable to be stolen. Hence many people prefer the 
toy terrier, or the Skye. which is now introduced very extensively 




Fig. 34:. — ^KING CHARLES SPANIEL, TOUNG JDMBO. 



as a toy dog, and might with propriety be inserted under this 
chapter. The King Charles and Blerxheim spaniels are often 
crossed, and then you may have good specimens of each from the 
same litter, but if true, their colors never vary. 

The points of the King Charles spaniel are: extremely short 
muzzle, which should be slightly turned up; black nose and pal- 
ate ; full prominent eye, which is continually weeping, leaving a 
gutter of moisture down the cheek ; a round bullet-shaped head, 
with a well-marked "stop" between the eyes; very long, full- 
haired, and silky ears, which should fall close to the cheeks, and 



TOT SPANIELS. 



157 



not stand out from tlaem ; the body is covered with wavy hair 
of a silky texture, without curl; and the legs should be feathered 
to the toes, the length and silkiness of this being a great point; 
tail well feathered, but not bushy; it is usually cropped; the 
color should be a rich black and tan, without a white hair ; but 
those marked with an unusual amount of white are not to 
be despised. They sometimes make their appearance in a litter of 
which both sire and dam have scarcely a white hair ; the weight 




Fisr. 35.— BLENHEIM SPANIEL. 



should never exceed 6, or at the utmost 7 lbs. ; and they are valued 
the more if they are as low as 4^ or 5 lbs. (See portrait.) 

The points of the Blenheim vary very little from those of the 
King Charles, except in color, which is always a white ground 
with red or yellow spots or patches, with well-marked blaze 
of white between the eyes. The ears should be colored, and also 
the whole of the head, with the exception of the nose and a white 
mark up the forehead, as is shown in the cut, which represents the 
Blenheim pretty accurately. The palate is black, like that of the 
King Charles ; and there is little difference in shape, though an 
experienced eye could detect the one from the other even irre 



158 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOY DOGS, 

Bpcctive of color. This dog is generally smaller tlian the King 
Charles. 



THE PUG. 

This curly-tailed and pretty little toy dog was out of fashion in 
Eno-land for some years, but has recently come again into such 
vogue that a good pug will fetch from 100 to 200 dollars. The 
British breed, however, which is one of those known to have exist- 
ed from the earliest times, was never entirely lost, having been 
carefully preserved in a few families. The Dutch have always had 
a fondness for the pug dog, and in Holland the breed is common 
enough, but the same attention hasjiot been paid to it as in Eng- 
land, and yellow masks, low foreheads, and pointed noses are con- 
stantly making their appearance in them, from the impure blood 
creeping out, and showinge vidences of the crosses which have taken 
place. The very beautiful pair of these dogs, which is engraved on 
the next page, have the following history. During the decade 
1840-50, several admirers of pugs attempted to breed them from 
good foreign strains. Foremost among these was the then Lady 
"Willoughby de Eresby, who, after a great deal of trouble, obtained 
a dog from Vienna which had belonged to a Hungarian countess, 
but was of a bad color, being a mixture of the stone-fawn now 
peculiar to the " Willoughby strain," and black ; but the combina- 
tion of these colors was to a certain extent in the brindled form. 
From accounts which are to be relied on, this dog was about 
twelve inches high, and of good shape, both in body and head, but 
had a face much longer than would now be approved of by pug 
fanciers. In 1846 he was mated with a fawn bitch imported from 
Holland, of the desired color, viz., stone-fawn in body, with black 
mask and trace, but with no indication of brindle. She had a 
shorter face and heavier jowl than the dog, and was altogether in 
accordance with the type now recognized as the correct " Wil- 
loughby pug." From this pair are descended all the strain named 



THE PUG. 



159 



after Lady Willoughby de Eresby, which are marked in color by 
their peculiar cold stone-fawn, and the excess of black often show- 
ing itself, not in brindled stripes, but in entirely or nearly entirely 
black heads, and large *' saddle marks " or wide " traces." 

But coincidently with this formation of a new strain was the ex- 
istence of another, showing a richer and more yellow fawn, and no 
tendency to excess of black. This strain was possessed by the late 
Mr. Morrison, of Walham Green; the late Mr. H. Gilbert, of Ken- 
sington: Mr. W. Macdonald, now of Winchmore Hill, but at that 




-PAIR OF PUG DOGS. 

time residing in London ; and some other fanciers of less note. 
According to Mr. Morrison's statement to me (which, however, he 
did not wish made public during his life), this strain was lineally 
descended from a stock possessed by Queen Charlotte, one of which 
is paiiit?d with great care in the well-known portrait of George 
IIL at Hampton Court ; but I could never get him to reveal the 
exact source from which it was obtained. 



160 WATCH DOGS, HOUSE DOGS, AND TOT DOGS. 

These dogs are not remarkable for sagacity displayed in any 
shape, but they are very atlectionate and playful, and bear the 
confinement of the house better than many other breeds, racing 
over the carpets in their play as freely as others do over the turf. 
For this reason, as well as the sweetness of their skins, and their 
short and soft coats, they are much liked by the ladies as pets. 

Their points are as follows : — General appearance low and thick- 
set, the legs being short, and the body as close to the ground as 
possible, but with an elegant outline ; weight from 6 to 10 lbs ; 
color fawn, with black mask and vent. The clearer the fawn, 
and the more distinctly marked the black on the mask, which 
should extend to the eyes, the better; but there is generally a 
slightly darker line down the back. Some strains have the hair 
all over the body tipped with "smut," but on them the mask is 
sure to shade ofi'too gently, without the clear line which is valued 
by the fancier ; coat short, thick, and silky ; head round, fore- 
head high ; nose short, but not turned up ; and level-mouthed ; 
eai-8, when cut. cropped quite close, naturally rather short but 
falling ; neck of moderate length, stout, but not throaty ; chest 
wide, deep, and round ; tail short, and curled closely to the side, 
not standing up above the back. It is remarkable that the tail in 
the dog generally falls over the off side, while in the bitch it lies on 
the near. The legs are straight, vrlth small bone, but well clothed 
with muscle ; feet like the hare, not cat-footed ; no dew-claws 
on the hind legs. The bight is from 11 to 15 inches. 




CHAPTER VII. 
CROSSED BREEDS. 

RETBIEVEB.— BULL-TBRBIEB. 

Although many of the breeds which have been enumerated in 
the preceding chapters were most probably the produce originally 
of crosses between distinct varieties, yet at present they are con- 
tinued by breeding from a sire and dam of the same kind. But with 
those which we are now about to consider, there is constantly a neces- 
sity for having recourse to the original breeds. For instance, many 
breeds of the greyhound are known to be crossed with the bull, 
and the identical animal with which the cross first commenced is 
well ascertained, as in the case of Sir James Boswell's "Jason '* 
Mr. Etwall's " Eurus," etc. ; so also with the foxhound, though 
here the particular cross is not so well ascertained, but it is ad- 
mitted to have taken place within the last century. Yet these are 
not called mongrels, and the breed, instead of being despised as 
such, is more highly prized than those of the pure strain which 
formed one side of the parent stock. The term mongrel may more 
properly be applied to those chance crosses which occur from ac- 
cident or neglect, the bitch selecting her own mate, and being 
guided by caprice, without regard to the fitness of the match in 
reference to the progeny resulting. 



THE RETRIEVER. 



In speaking of the retriever, it is generally understood that the 
dog for recovering game on land is meant, the distinct kind known 
as the water spaniel being already alluded to on page 118. With 
163 



164 CROSSED BllEEDS. 

regard to the propriety of using a separate dog for retrieving in 
open or covert shooting, there is a great difference of opinion. 
This part of the subject will be considered under the next division 
of this book. I now confine myself to a description of the 
crosses used solely as retrievers, including the ordinary cross be- 
tween the Newfoundland and setter, and that between the terrier 
and the water spaniel, which is recommended by Mr. Colquhoun, 
and which I have found especially serviceable. 

The qualities which are required in the regular retriever are : 
Great delicacy of nose, and power of stopping (which latter is of- 
ten not possessed by the pointer); cleverness to follow out the 
windings of the wounded bird, which are frequently most intri- 
cate, and puzzle the intelligence as well as the nose to unravel 
them ; love of approbation, to induce the dog to attend to the in- 
structions of the master, and an amount of obedience which will 
be required to prevent his venturing to break out when game is 
before bim. All these are doubtless found in the retriever, but 
they are coupled with a large heavy frame, requiring a consider- 
able amount of food to keep it, and space in the vehicle when he 
is to be conveyed from place to place. Hence, if a smaller dog 
can be found to do the work equally well, he should be preferred, 
and as some think he can, both shall be described. 

The Large Black Betriever is known by Lis resemblance to the 
small Newfoundland, and the Irish water spaniel, or setter, be- 
tween which two he is bred, and the forms of which he partakes 
of in nearly equal proportions, according to the cross. Hence the 
modem retriever is distinguished as either the curly-coated or 
wavy-coated, separate classes being made for them at most of our 
shows, and sometimes a third depending on color alone. 

The Wavy-coated Betrie'cer has a head like that of a heavy setter, 
but with shorter ears, less clothed with hair. The body is al- 
together larger and heavier, the limbs stronger, the feet less 
compact than those of the setter, while the gait more or less 
resembles in its peculiarities that of the Newfoundland. The 
color is almost always black, with very little white ; indeed, 
most people wotUd reject a retriever of this kind, if accidentally 



THE KETKIEVEB. 167 

of any other color. The coat is slightly wavy, but not very long 
or curly; and the legs are but little feathered. The hight is 
usually about 23 or 24 inches, sometimes slightly more or less. 
This doo- can readily be made to set and back ; and he will also 
hunt as well as a setter, but slowly, and lasting for a short time 
only. 

The Curly-coated Retriever is distinguished by having the whole 
body covered with short crisp curls like those of the Irish water 
spaniel. The head is quite free from these, a well-marked line 
being apparent just behind the ears. Like the wavy-coated dog 
he should have a long deep jaw, and with the exception of the 
coat the two breeds resemble each other closely. The curly -coated 
dog is black or of a deep liver color, without white. 

The Terrier cross is either with the beagle or the pointer, the 
former being that which I have chiefly used with advantage, and 
the latter being recommended by Mr. Colquhoun in his "Lochs 
and Moors." He gives a portrait of one used by himself, which 
he says was excellent in all respects ; and, from so good a sports- 
man, the recommendation is deserving of all credit. This dog 
was about 22 inches high, with a little of the rough coat of the 
Scotch terrier, combined with the head and general shape of the 
pointer. The sort I have used is, I believe, descended from the 
smooth white English terrier and the true old beagle ; the nose 
and style of hunting proclaiming the hound descent, and the 
voice and appearance showing the preponderance of the terrier 
cross. These dogs are small, scarcely ever exceeding 10 lbs. in 
weight, and with difficulty lifting a har^, so that they are not 
qualified to retrieve " fur " any great distance. They must, there- 
fore, be followed when either a hare or pheasant is sought to be 
recovered. They are mute in *' questing," and very quiet in their 
movements, readily keeping at heel, and backing the pointers 
steadily while they are " down charge," for as long a time as may 
be required ; and when they go to their game they make no noise, 
as is too often done by the regular retriever. They do not carry 
so well as the larger dog, but in all other respects they are his 
equal, or perhaps superior. Owing to their small size they are ad- 



168 CROSSED BREEDS. 

missible to the bouse, and being constant companions are more 
easily kept under command ; besides which, they live on the scraps 
of the house, while the large retriever must be kept tied up at the 
keeper's, and costs a considerable sum to pay for his food. 



THE BULL-TERRIER. 



Many of our smooth terriers are slightly crossed with the bull- 
dog, in order to give courage to bear the bites of the vermin which 
they are meant to attack. When thus bred, the terrier shows no 
evidence of pain, even though half a dozen rats are hanging on to 
his lips, which are extremely tender parts of the body, and where 
the bite of a mouse even will make a badly bred dog yell with 
pain. In fact, for all the purposes to which a terrier can be ap- 
plied, the half or quarter cross with the bull, commonly known 
as the "bull-terrier" or "half-breed dog," is of more value than 
either of the purely bred progenitors. Such a dog, however, to 
be useful, must be more than half terrier, or he will be too heavy 
and slow, too much under-jawed to hold well with his teeth, and 
too little under command to obey the orders of his master. Some- 
times the result of the second cross, which is only one quarter 
bull, shows a great deal of the shape peculiar to that side; and it 
is not until the third or fourth cross that the terrier shape comes out 
predominant. Tiiis is all a matter of chance, and the exact reverse 
may just as probably happen, although the terrier was quite free 
from the stain of the bull,which is seldom the case. This may account 
for the great predominance of that side in most cases, as we shall 
see in investigating the subject of breeding for the kennel in the 
next Book. The field fox-terrier, used for bolting the fox when 
gone to ground, was of this breed. So also is the fighting-dog par 
excellence, and, indeed, there is scarcely any task to which a dog of 
his size may be set that he will not execute as well as, or better 
than, most others. He will learn tricks with the poodle, fetch and 
carry with the Newfoundland — take water with that dog, though 



THE BULL TERRIER. 



169 



his coat will not suffer him to remain in so long, — ^hunt with the 
spaniel, and fight " till all's blue." For thorough gameness, united 
with obedience, good temper, and intelligence, be surpasses any 
breed in existence. 

The points of the bull-terrier vary in accordance with the de- 
gree of each strain in the specimen examined. There should not 
be either the projection of the under jaw, or the crooked fore legs, 
or the small and weak hind-quarters ; and until these are lost or 



ifIt"'l''*''l''''''^'''ll'*V''ff5M'v 




Fig. 38. — BUI>L TEBKIER, TARQUIN. 



nearly so, the crossing should be continued on the terrier side. 
The perfect bull-terrier may, therefore, be defined as the terrier 
with as much bull as can be combined with the absence of the 
above points, and showing the full head (not of course equal to 
that of the bull), the strong jaw, the well-developed chest, power- 
ful shoulders, and thin fine tail of the bull-dog, accompanied by 
the light neck, active frame, strong loin, and fuller proportions of 
the hind-quarter of the terrier. A dog of this kind should be ca- 
8 



170 



CROSSSED BREEDS. 



pable of a fast pace, and will stand any moderate amount of road 
work. The hight varies from 10 inches to 16, or even 20. The 
color most admired is white, either pure or patched with black, 
blue, red, fawn, or brindle, sometimes black and tan, or self-colored 
red. The dog whose portrait is given, is Tarquin, bred and owned 
by Mr. Vero Shaw, of England. 




BOOK II. 



THE BREEDIlSra, REARING, BREAKIl^G, Al^D 

MANAGEMENT OF THE DOG, 

IN-DOORS AND OUT. 



CHAPTER I. 
BREEDING. 

^KINCIPLES OF BBEEDINQ. — AXIOMS FOR THE BREEDER'S USE. — CROSSINQ 
AJST> CROSSED BREEDS.— IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH IN BOTH SIRE AND 
DAM.— BEST AGES TO BREED FROM.— IN-AND-IN BREEDING.— BEST 
TIME OF TEAR.— DURATION OF HEAT.— MANAGEMENT OF THE BITCH IN 
SEASON.— THE BITCH IN WHELP.— PREPARATIONS FOR WHELPING. — 
HEALTHY PARTURITION.— DESTRUCTION OR CHOICE OF WHELPS AT 
BIBTH. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BREEDING. 

The principles upon -which the breeding of the dog should be 
conducted are generally in accordance with those necessary for the 
production of other domestic animals of the class Xa.nmcdia^ 
remembering always that it is not safe to argue from one class 
of animals to another, because their habits and modes of propaga- 
tion vary so much as to interfere with the analogy. Thus as the 
pigeon, in common with other birds, does not rear her young with 
the produce of her own body to the same comparative size as most of 
the individuals of the class Mammalia^ the mother has not so much 
more to do with the process than the father, as is the case with the 
bitch, mare, and cow, etc., where the quantity and quality are to 
be taken into the calculation. Hence, in selecting a sire and dam 
for breeding purposes among dogs, the bitch is most to be con- 
sidered for many reasons, one being that she usually continues the 
property of the breeder, while the sire can be changed each time 
she breeds ; but the chief argument in her favor is founded upon 
the supposition that she really impresses her formation upon her 
progeny more than the dog docs. This, however, is a vexed ques- 
tion in natural history as well as in practical breeding, but from 
my own experience I think this is true of the bitch. Many horses 
173 



1T4 BREEDING. 

and do,::s may be instanced which have got good stock from all 
sorts of marcs and bitches. Yet in opposition to this may be 
instanced the numbers which have had great opportunities for 
snowing their good qualities, but while they have succeeded with 
one or two i!iey have failed with the larger proportion of their 
harems. So with mares and bitches, some have produced, every 
year of their breeding lives, one or more splendid examples of 
their respective kinds, altogether independent of the horse or dog 
which may be the other parent, so long as he is of the proper 
strain. It is usually supposed that the sire impresses his ex- 
ternal formation upon his stock, while the bitch's nervous tem- 
perament is handed down; and very probably there is some truth 
in the hypothesis. Yet it is clearer that not only do the sire 
and dam, but also the grandsires and grand-dams affect the pro- 
geny on both sides, and still further than this up to the sixth and 
perhaps even the seventh generations, but more especially on the 
dam's side, through the granddam, great granddam, etc. There is 
a remarkable fact connected with breeding which should be gen- 
erally known, viz., that there is a tendency in the produce to 
a separation between the different strains of which it is com- 
posed ; so that a puppy composed in four equal proportions of 
breeds represented by a, b, c, and d, will not represent allin equal 
proportions, but will resemble one much more than the others. And 
this is still more clear in relation to the next step backwards, when 
there are eight progenitors ; and the litter which, for argument's 
sake, we will suppose to be eight in number, may consist of ani- 
mals each "going back " to one or other of the above eight. This 
accounts for the fact that a smooth terrier bitch put to a smooth 
terrier will often " throw " one or more rough puppies, though the 
breed may be traced as purely smooth for two or three genera- 
tions, beyond which, however, there must have been a cross of the 
rough doc:. In the same way color and particular marks will be 
changed or obliterated for one, two, or even three generations, 
and will then reappear. In most breeds of the dog this is not 
easily proved, because a record of the various crosses is not kept 
with any great care ; but in the greyhound the breed, with the 



AXIOMS FOR THE BKEEDEIi's USE. 175 

colors, etc., for twenty generations, is often known, and then the 
evidence of the truth of these facts is patent to all. Among these 
dogs there is a well-known strain descended from a greyhound 
with a peculiar nose, known as the "Parrot-nosed bitch." About 
the year 1825 she was put to a celebrated dog called " Streamer," 
and bred a bitch called " Ruby," none of the litter showing this 
peculiar nose ; nor did " Ruby " herself breed any in her first two 
litters; but in her third, by a dog called " Blackbird," belonging 
to Mr. Hodgkinson, two puppies showed the nose ("Blackbird" 
and "Starling"). In the same litter was a most celebrated bitch, 
known as " Old Linnet," from which are descended a great num- 
ber of first-rate greyhounds. In these, however, this x>eculiarity 
has never appeared, with two exceptions, namely, once in the third 
generation, and once in the fifth, in a dog called " Lollypop," bred 
by Mr. Thomas, of Macclesfield, the possessor of the whole strain. 
One of the bitches of this breed is also remarkable for having al- 
ways one blue pu-ppy in each litter, though the color is otherwise 
absent, never having been seen since the time of the above men- 
tioned " Ruby," who was a blue bitch. These facts are very re- 
markable as showing the tendency to " throw back " for genera- 
tions, but, as they are well known and fully recognized by all 
breeders, it is unnecessai-y to dilate upon them, and the above 
instances are only introduced as absolutely proving to the uniniti- 
ated what would otherwise depend upon dogmatic assertion. 



AXIOMS FOR THE BREEDER'S USE. 

But it may be asked,— What then are the principles upon which 
breeding is to be conducted ? To this, in many of the details, no 
answer can be given which can be relied on with certainty. 
Nevertheless, there are certain broad landmarks established which 
afford some assistance, and these shall be given, taking care to 
avoid all rules which are not clearly established by general 
consent. 



176 BREEDING. 

1. The male and female each furnish their quota towards the 
original germ of the offspring ; but the female, over and above 
this, nourishes it until it is born, and consequently may be sup- 
posed to have more influence upon its formation than the male. 

2. Natural conformation is transmitted by both parents as a 
general law, and likewise any acquired or accidental variation. 
It may therefore be said that, on both sides, " like produces like." 

3. In proportion to the purity of the breed, will it be transmit- 
ted unchanged to the offspring. Thus a greyhound bitch of pure 
blood put to a mongrel, will produce puppies more nearly resem- 
bling her shape than that of the father. 

4. Breeding in-and-in is not injurious to the dog, as may be 
proved both from theory and practice. Indeed it appears, on the 
contrary, to be very advantageous in many well-marked instances 
of the greyhound, which have of late years appeared in public. 

5. As every dog is a compound animal, made up of a sire and 
dam, and also their sires and dams, etc. ; so, unless there is much 
breeding in and-in, it may be said that it is impossible to foretell 
with absolute certainty what particular result will be elicited. 

6. The tirst impregnation appears to produce some effect upon 
the next and subsequent ones. It is therefore necessary to take 
care that the effect of the cross in question is not neutralized by 
a prior and bad impregnation. This fact has been so fully estab- 
lished by Sir John Sebright and others, that it is needless to go 
into its proofs. 

By these general laws on the subject of breeding, we must be 
guided in the selection of the dog and bitch from which a litter is 
to be obtained, always taking care that both are as far as possible 
remarkable, not only for the bodily shape, but for the qualities of 
the brain and nervous system, which are desired. Thus, in breed- 
ing the pointer, select a good-looking sire and dam by all means, 
but also ascertain that tliey w^ere good in the field ; that is, that 
they possessed good noses, worked well, were stout, and if they 
were also perfectly broken, so much the better. So, again, in 
breeding hounds, care must be taken that the animals chosen are 
shaped as a hound should be ; but they should also have as many 



AXIOMS FOE THE BliEEDEif S USE. ITT 

of the good hunting qualities, and as few of the vices of that kind 
of dog ; and if these points are not attended to, the result is not 
often good. 

To secure these several results, the pedigrees of the dog and bitch 
are carefully scanned by those who are particular in these matters, 
because then assurance is given that the ancestors, as far as they 
can be traced, possessed all those qualifications, without which 
their owners would not in all human probability retain them. 
Hence a pointer, if proved to be descended from a dog and bitch 
belonging to Lord Sefton, Lord Lichfield, or any well-known 
breeder of this dog in the present day, or from Sir H. Goodrich, 
Mr. Moore or Mr. Edge, so celebrated for their breeds some years 
ago, would be valued more highly than another without any 
pedigree at all, though the latter might be superior in shape, 
and might perform equally well in the field. The impor- 
'tance of pedigree is becoming more fully recognized every 
year, and experienced breeders generally refuse to have any- 
thing to do with either dog or bitch for this particular pur- 
pose, unless they can trace the pedigree to ancestors belonging to 
parties who were known to be themselves careful in their selections. 
In most cases, this is all that is attempted, especially in pointers, 
setters, spaniels, etc., but in greyhounds and foxhounds of first- 
class blood, the genealogy may generally be traced through half a 
dozen kennels of known and established reputation; and this 
same attention to breed ought to prevail in all the varieties of the 
dog whose performances are of importance, and indeed without it 
the reproduction of a particular shape and make cannot with any- 
thing like certainty be depended on. Hence the breeders of the 
valuable toy dogs, such as King Charles spaniels, Italim grey- 
hounds, etc., are as careful as they need be, having found out by 
experience that without this attention they are constantly dis- 
appointed. 



178 BKEEDIXG. 

IMPOrwTANCE OF HEALTH IN BOTH SERE AND DAM. 

Heal til in both parents should be especially insisted upon, and 
in the bitch in particular there should be a sufficiently strong con- 
stitution, to enable her to sustain the growth of her puppies before 
birth, and to produce milk enough for them afterwards, though Id 
this lust particular she may of course be assisted by a foster-nurse. 



BEST AGE TO BREED FROM. 

The best age to breed from, in almost all breeds, is soon after the 
sire and dam have reached maturity. When, however, the pro- 
duce is desired to be very small, the older both animals are, the 
more likely this result is, excepting in the last litter which the 
bitch has, for this being composed of only one or two puppies, they 
are not smaller than the average, and are sometimes even larger. 
All bitches should be allowed to reach full maturity before they 
are permitted to breed, and this period varies according to size, small 
dogs being adult at one year, whereas large ones arc still in their 
puppyhood at that time, and take fully twice as long to develop 
their proportions. The mastiff is barely full growm at two years, 
large hounds at a year and a half, greyhounds at the same time, 
pointers and setters from a year and a quarter to a year and a 
half, while terriers and small toy dogs reach maturity at a year 
old, or even earlier. 



IN-AND-IN BREEDING. 



The questions relating to in-and-in breeding and crossing are of 
the greatest importance, each plan being strongly advocated by 
some people, and by others as strenuously opposed. Like many 
other practices essentially good, in-breeding has been grossly 
abused. Owners of a good kennel having become bigoted to their 
own strain, and, from keeping to it exclusively, having at length 



IN-AND-IN BREEDING. 179 

reduced their dogs to a state of idiotcy and delicacy of constitu- 
tion which has rendered them quite useless. Thus I have seen in 
the course of twenty years a most valuable breed of pointers, by a 
persistence in avoiding any cross, become so full of excitability 
that they were perpetually at " a false point," and backing one 
another at the same time without game near them ; and, what is 
worse, they could not be stirred from their position. This last 
was from a want of mental capacity, for it is by their reasoning 
powers that these dogs find out when they have made a mistake, 
and without a good knowledge-box the pointer and setter are for 
this reason quite useless. But the breed I allude to, when once 
they had become stiff, were like Chinese idols, and must be abso- 
lutely kicked or whipped up in order to make them start off beat- 
ing again, Mr. A. Graham, who has had a long experience in 
in-breeding greyhounds, and was at one time so successful as to 
obtain the name of the " Emperor of Coursers," has laid down the 
rule that " once in and twice out " is the proper extent to which 
breeding in the greyhound should be carried, and probably the 
same will apply to other breeds. Sometimes a sister may be put to a 
brother even, when there has been no previous relationship in their 
sire and dam ; but though this has answered well two or three 
times, it is not to be generally recommended. A father may 
in preference be put to a daughter, because there is only half the 
same blood in them, when the sire and dam of the latter are not 
related ; or an uncle to a niece ; but the best plan is to obtain a dog 
which has some considerable portion of the same blood as the 
bitch, but separated by one or two crosses ; that is to say, to put 
two animals together whose grandfathers or great-grandfathers 
were brothers, but whose mothers and grandmothers were not re- 
lated to each other. This relationship will do equally well on the 
dam's side, and the grandmother may be sister to the grandsire, 
quite as well as having the two grandsires brothers. The practice 
of breeding-in to this extent has been extensively adopted of late 
years, and has answered well with the greyhound, in which breeds 
as used for public coursing, the names of "Harriet Wilson," 
** Hour-glass," '* Screw," " Sparrowhawk," "Vraye Foy,""Mot. 



ISO BREEDING. 

ley," " Miss Hannali," and " Eival " speak ToUinics in its approba* 
tion, all being in-brcd and all wonderfully successful. The last- 
named bitch is a remarkable instance, bcinL; bj- a balf-brother out 
of a balf-sister, and yet continuing honest up to her sixth season, 
when she broke a toe in running the last course but one in a large 
stake at Ashdown. In her case, too, the blood of the dam was 
somewhat notorious for a tendency to run cunning; and, indeed, 
the same might be said of nearly all the strains of which she was 
composed ; nevertheless, throughout her career she was entirely 
free from this vice, and left off without a stain. She has, how- 
ever, unfortunately refused to breed ; but as I have never known 
this peculiarity confined to in-bred bitches, I do not allege the fact 
as arising from her close in-breeding. Thus I have shown that in 
practice, in-and-in breeding, within certain bounds, is not only not 
prejudicial, but absolutely advantageous, inasmuch as it does not 
injure the nervous temperament and mental ciualitics of the pro- 
duce ; and that the body does not suffer is a well-known fact, 
easily capable of proof by examining the external forms of the 
dogs so bred. Theoretically, also, it ought to answer, because we 
find in nature gregarious wild animals resorting to in-breeding in 
all cases, the stag adding his daughters to his harem as long as 
he has strength enough to beat off his younger rivals. In the 
same way the bull and the stallion fight for supremacy, until at 
length from age or accident they are beaten off, and a younger 
and more vigorous animal masters them and their female attend- 
ants. Yet this appears to be Nature's mode of insuring a superior 
stock, and preventing the degeneration which occurs among 
human beings, when a feeble pair take upon themselves the task 
of producing a family. It would appear that man is an exception 
to the general rule, for there is a special revelation prohibiting m- 
termarriages, while we find them constantly going on among 
brutes, and especially, as above remarked, among gregarious ani- 
mals. Hence it should not lead us to reason by analogy from one 
to the other, nor because we find that first cousins among our own 
race are apt to produce defective children, bodily and mentally, 
sliould we conclude that the same evil results will occur when we 



BEST TIME OF YEAR. 181 

breed from dogs or horses having the same degree of relationship 
to their mites. At the same time, vvlicn all that can be desired is 
obtainable without in-breeding, 1 should be inclined to avoid it; 
always taking care to resort to it when it is desired to recover a 
particular strain, which is becoming merged in some other pre- 
dominant hlooi'.. Then by obtaining an animal bred as purely as 
possible to the desired strain, and putting him or her to your own, 
it may be expected that the produce will " go back " to this par- 
ticular ancestry, and will resemble them more than any other. 



BEST TIME OF TEAR. 



The best time of the year for breeding dogs is from April to 
September, inasmuch as in the cold of winter the puppies are apt 
to become chilled, whereby their growth is stopped, and some 
disease very often developed. Among public greyhounds there is 
a particular reason for selecting an earlier period of the year, 
because as their age is reckoned from the 1st of January, and as 
they are wanted to run as saplings or puppies, which are defined 
by their age, the earlier they are born, (he more chance they have 
in competition with their fellows of the same year. Plounds and 
game dogs are wanted to begin work in the autumn, and as they 
do not come to maturity until after they are a year old, they 
should be whelped in the spring. This is more especially the case 
with pointers and setters, which are then old enough to have their 
education nearly completed at " pairing time," in the spring of 
the next year, when only their breaking can properly be carried 
on, as birds then lie like stones, and allow the dog to be reached 
and properly kept under by his breaker. Toy dogs and all small 
dogs, whicli are reared in the house, may be bred almost at any 
time of the year; but even they are stronger and healthier if born 
in the summer months, because the puppies may then be supposed 
to get more air and sun than they could do in the winter, when 
the warmth of the fire is essential to their well-doing. 



182 BEEEWNG. 

DURATION OF HEAT. 

The duration of the period of heat in the bitch is about three 
weeks, during the middle week of which she will generally take 
the dog; but about the eleventh or twelfth dav from the first 
commencement is, on the average, the best time tc bring her to him. 
J>uriMg the first three or four days of the middle week the bitch 
*' bleeds ' considerably from the vulva, and while this is going 
on she should not have access to the male, nor will she gen- 
erally, if left to herself. But as soon as it subsides, no time should 
be lost, as it often happens that very shortly afterwards she will 
refuse him altogether, and thus a whole year may be lost. Most 
bitches are " in heat " twice a year, at equal periods ; some every 
five, or even every four, months ; others every seven, eight, nine, 
ten, eleven, or twelve months; but the far greater proportion of 
bitches of all breeds are " in season " twice a year pretty regularly. 
There is, therefore, a necessity for ascertaining the rule in each 
bitch, as it varies so considerably; for, when it is known, the cal- 
culation can better be made as to the probability of the heat re- 
turning at the desired time. The period between the first and 
second " heats" will generally indicate the length of the succeed- 
ing ones; but this is not invariable, as the "putting by" of the 
animal will sometimes throw her out of her regular course. 



MANAGEMENT OF THE BITCH IN SEASON. 

When bitches are not intended to breed, they are carefully " put 
by," that is to say, they are secluded from the dog, and during 
that time they are in great measure deprived of their usual exer- 
cise. From this circumstance they arc very apt to get out of 
health, and some injury is thereby done to their offspring as well as 
themselves. At this time, from their general feverishness, as veil 
as from their deprivation of exercise, they ought to be kept 
rather lower than usual, and very little meat should be given. 
Slops and vegetables, mixed with biscuit or oatmeal, form the 



MANAGEMENT OF THE BITCH IN WHELP. 1G3 

most suitable diet; but, if the bitch has been accustomed to a 
great deal of flesh, it will not do to deprive her of it altogether. 
Bearing in mind then this caution, it is only necessary to remem- 
ber that she must be lowered m condition, but not so starved as to 
suffer by the sudden change. After the end of the period, a 
Uttle cooling medicine will often be requii'ed, consisting of a dose 
of oil or salts. 



MANAGEMENT OF THE BITCH IN WHELP. 

When it is cleai-ly ascertained that the bitch is in whelp, the 
exercise should be increased and carried on freely untC the sixth 
week, after which it should be daily given, but with care to avoid 
strams either in galloping or jumping. A valuable bitch is often 
led during the last week, but some way or other she should have 
walking exercise to the last, by which in great measure all neces- 
sity for opening medicine will be avoided. During the last few 
weeks her food should be regulated by her condition, which must 
be raised if she is too low, or the reverse if she is too fat, the de- 
sired medium being such a state as is compatible with hio-h health 
and not tending towards exhaustion or inflammation. Exces- 
sive fat in a bitch not only interferes with the birth of the pups, 
but also is very liable to interfere with the secretion of milk, and, 
if this last does occur, it aggravates the attendant or " milk " fever. 
To know by the eye and hand how to fix upon this proper stan- 
dard, it is only necessary to feel the ribs, when they should at 
once be apparent to the hand, rolling loosely under it, but not evi- 
dent to the eye so as to count them. It is better to separate the 
bitch from other dogs during the last week or ten days, as she 
then becomes restless, and is instinctively and constantly looking 
for a place to whelp in, whereas, if she is prevented from occupy- 
ing any desirable comer she is uneasy. At this time the food 
should be of a very sloppy nature, chiefly composed of broth, or 
milk and bread, adding oatmeal according to the state of the 
bowels. 



184 BREEDING. 

PREPAEATION FOR WHELPING. 

The best mode of preparing a place for the bitch to whelp in ia 
to nail a piece of old carpet over a smooth boarded floor, to a 
re*nilar " bench," if in a sporting kennel ; or on a door or other 
Hat piece of board raised a few inches from the ground, if for any 
other breed. When a regular wooden box or kennel, as these are 
called in ordinary language, is used for the bitch, she may as well 
continue to occupy it, as she will be more contented than in a 
fresh place ; but it is not so easy to get at her there if anything 
goes wrong with cither mother or whelps, and on that account it 
IS not a desirable place. A board, large or small, according to the 
size of the bitch, with a raised edge to prevent the puppies roll- 
ing off, and supported by bricks a few inches from the ground, is 
all that is required for the most valuable animal ; and if a piece of 
carpet, as before mentioned, is tacked upon this, and some straw 
placed upon all, the hight of comfort is afforded to both mother 
and offspring. The use of the carpet is to allow the puppies to 
catch their claws in it as they are working at the mothers teats ; 
for without it they slip over the board, and they are restless, and 
unable to fill themselves well ; while at the same time they scratch 
all the straw away, and are left bare and cold. 



HEALTHY PARTURITION. 



During whelping, the only management required is in regard to 
food and quiet, which last should as far as possible be enjoined, as 
at this time all bitches are watchful and suspicious, and will de- 
stroy their young if they are at all interfered with, especially by 
strangers. While the process of labor is going on no food is re- 
quired, unless it is delayed in an unnatural manner, when the ne- 
cessary steps will be found described in the Third Book. After it 
IS completed, some lukewarm gruel, made with half milk and half 
water, should be given, and repeated at intervals of two or three 
hours. Nothing cold is to be allowed for the first two or three 



HEALTHY PAETURITIOX, ETC. 185 

days, unless it is in the hight of summer, when these precautions 
are unnecessary, as the ordinary temperature is generally between 
60" and 70" of Fahrenheit. If milk is not easily had, broth will 
do nearly as well, thickening it with oatmeal, which should be 
well boiled in it. This food is continued until the secretion of 
milk is fuily established, when a more generous diet is gradually 
to be allowed, consisting of sloppy food, together with an allow- 
ance of meat somewhat greater than that to which she has been 
accustomed. This last is the best rule, for it will be found that no 
other useful one can be given ; those bitches which have been pre- 
viously accustomed to a flesh diet sinking away if they do not 
have it at this time, when the demands of the puppies for milk 
dram the system considerably ; and those which have not been 
used to it being rendered feverish and dyspeptic if they have an 
inordinate allowance of it. A bitch in good health, and neither 
over-reduced by starvation nor made too fat by excessive feeding, 
will rarely give any trouble at this time ; but, in either of these 
conditions, it may happen that the secretion fails to be established. 
(For the proper remedies see Parturition, in Book III.) From the 
first day the bitch should be encouraged to leave her puppies twice 
or thnce daily to empty herself, which some, in their excessive 
fondness for their new charge, are apt to neglect. When the milk 
is thoroughly established, they should be regularly exercised for 
an hour a day, which increases the secretion of milk, and indeed 
will often bring it on. After the second week, bitches will always 
be delighted to leave their puppies for an hour or two at a time, 
and will exercise themselves if allowed to escape from them. The 
best food for a suckling bitch is strong broth, with a fair pro- 
portion of bread and flesh, or bread and milk, according to their 
habits. 



DESTRUCTION OR CHOICE OF WHELPS AT BIRTH. 

Sometimes it is desirable to destroy all the whelps as soon as 
possible after birth, but this ought very seldom to be done, as in 



186 



BEEEDIKG. 



all cases it is better to keep one or two sucking for a short time, to 
prevent milk fever, and from motives of humanity also. If, how- 
ever, it is decided to destroy all at once, take them away as fast as 
they are born, leaving only one with the mother to engage her at- 
tention, and when all are bom, remove the last before she has 
become used to it, by which plan less cruelty is practised than if 
she is permitted to attach herself to her offspring. Low diet and 
a dose or two of mild aperient medicine, with moderate exercise, 
will be required to guard against fever, but at best it is a bad 
business, and can only be justified under extraordinary circum- 
stances. 




CHAPTER II. 
REARING. 

MANAGEMENT IN THE NEST.— CHOOSING.— THE FOSTER NURSE.— FEEDING 
BEFORE WEANING.— CHOICE OF PLACE FOR WHELPING.— REMOVAL OP 
DEW-CLAWS, ETC.— WEANLNG. — LODGING. — FEEDING. —EXERCISE.— 
HOME REARING V. WALKING.— FOOD.— GENERAL MANAGEMENT.— CROP- 
PING^ BRANDING, AND ROUNDING. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF WHELPS IN THE NEST. 

Until weaned, the management of dogs does not require much 
care beyond the feeding of the mother, and the necessity for re- 
moving a part when the numbers are too great for her strength 
to support. For the first fortnight, at least, puppies are entirely 
dependent upon the milk of then- dam or a foster-nurse, unless 
they are brought up by hand, which is a most troublesome office, 
and attended also with considerable risk. Sometimes, however, 
the bitch produces twelve, fourteen, or even sixteen whelps, and 
these being far beyond her powers to suckle properly, either the 
weak ones die off, or the whole are impoverished, and rendered 
small and puny. It is better, therefore, especially when size and 
strength are objects to the breeder, to destroy a part of the litter, 
when there are more than five or six in the greyhound, or seven or 
eight in the hound or other dog of that size. In toy dogs a small 
size is sometimes a desideratum, and with them, if the strength of 
the dam is equal to the dram, which it seldom is, almost any num- 
ber may be kept on her. For the first three or four days, the bitch 
will be able to suckle her whole litter ; but if there are more pup- 
pies than she has good teats, that Is, teats with milk m them, the 
weak ones are starved, unless the strong ones are kept away m 
order to allow them access, so as to fill themselves in their turn. 
To manage this, a covered basket, lined with wool if the weather 
18T 



188 I^EA lllSG. 

is at all col:l, should be provided; and in this ODe-third or one- 
half of the puppies should be kept, close to the mother, to prevent 
either from being uneas}', with the lid fastened down or she will 
take them out in her mouth. Every two or three hours a fresh 
lot should be exchanged for those in the basket, first letthig them 
fill themselves, when they will go to sleep and remam contented 
for the time fixed above, thus allowing each lot in its turn to fill 
itself regularly. At the end of ten days, by introducing a little 
sweetened cow's milk on the end of the finger into their mouths, 
and dipping their noses in a saucer containing it, they learn to lap. 
After this there will be little difficulty in rearing even a dozen ; 
but they will not, however carefully they may be fed, be as large 
as if only a small number were left on her. Therefore grey- 
hound breeders limit their litters to five, six, or at most seven ; 
destroying the remainder, or rearing them with a foster-nurse. 



CHOICE OF WHELPS. 



In choosing the whelps in the nest which are to be kept, most 
people select on different principles, each having some peculiar 
crotchet to guide himself. Some take the heaviest, some the last 
born ; others the longest of the litter ; while others again are en- 
tirely guided by color. In toy dogs, and those whose appearance 
is an important element, color ought to be allowed all the weight 
it deserves, and among certain toy dogs, the value is often affected 
a hundred per cent, by a slight variation in the markings. So also 
among pointers and setters, a dog with a good deal of white should 
be preferred, on the score of greater utility in the field, to another 
self-colored puppy which might otherwise be superior in all re- 
spects. Hounds and greykounds are however chosen for shape and 
make, and though this is not the same at birth as in after hfe, still 
there are certain indications which are not to be despised. Among 
these the shoulders are more visible than any others, and if on 
lif tmg up a puppy by the tad, he puts his forelegs back beyond his 



THE FOSTER NURSE. 189 

ears, it may be surmisea that there will be no fault in his shape in 
reference to his fore quarter, supposing that his legs are well 
formed and bis feet of the proper shape, which last point can 
hardly be ascertained at this time. The width of the hips, and 
shape of the chest, with the formation of the loin, may also bo 
conjectured, and the length of the neck is in like measure shadow- 
ed forth, though not with the same certainty as the shoulders and 
ribs. A very fat puppy will look pudgy to an inexperienced eye, 
so that it is necessar}'^ to take this into consideration in makino- Uiq 
selection ; but fat is a sign of strength, both actual and constitu- 
tional, when it is remarkably permanent in one or two amon«- a 
litter, for it can only be obtained either by depriving the others of 
their share of milk by main force, or through such constitutional 
vigor as to thrive better on the same share of aliment. The navel 
should be examined to ascertain if there is any rupture, and thia 
alone is a reason for deferring the choice until nearly the end of the 
first week, up to which time there is no means of judging as to this 
defect. Indeed, if possible, it is always better to rear nearly 
all until after weaning, either on the dam herself or on a foster- 
nurse, as at that time the future shape is very manifest, and the 
consequences of weaning are shown, either in a wasting away of 
the whole body, or in a recovery from its effects in a short time. 
Sometimes, however, there are not conveniences for either, and 
then recourse must be had to an early choice on the principles in- 
dicated above. 



THE FOSTER-NURSE. 



The foster nurse need not be of the same breed as the puppies 
which she is to suckle ; a smooth-skinned bitch is superior for the 
purpose to one with a rough coat, which is apt to harbor fleas, and 
in other ways conduces to the increase of dirt. For all large 
breeds the bull-terrier (which is most commonly kept among 
the class who alone are likely to sell the services of a nurse) 
answers as well cs any other, and her milk is generally plentiful 



1 90 EEABING. 

ar.d go«d. For small breeds any little house dog ^vill suffice, tak- 
ing care that the skin is healthy, and that the constitution is not 
impaired b}^ confinement or gross feeding. Greyhound puppies 
are very commonly reared by bull-bitches without any disadvan- 
tage, clearly proving the propriety of the plan. It may generally 
be reckoned, in fixing the number which a bitch can suckle will? 
advantage, that, of greyhound or pointer puppies, for every seven 
pounds in her own weight the bitch can nurse one ; so that an aver- 
age bull-terrier will rear three, her weight being about twenty one 
pounds, and smaller dogs in proportion. When the substitution 
is to be made, the plan is to proceed as follows : — Get a warm 
basket, put in it some of the litter in which the bitch and her 
whelps have been lying, then take away all her own progeny, and 
put all in the basket, together with the whelps to be fostered, mLx- 
ing them so that the skins of the fresh ones shall be in contact with 
the bitch's own pups, and also with the litter. Let them remain in 
this way for three hours, during which time the bitch should be 
taken out for an hour's walk, when her teats will have become pain- 
fully distended with milk. Then put all the pups in her nest, and, 
carefully watching her, let her go back to them. In ninety-nine 
cases out of a hundred, she will at once allow them all to suck 
quietly, and if she licks all alike, she may be left with them safely 
enough ; but if she passes the fresh ones over, pushing them 
one side, she should be muzzled for twelve hours, leaving all with 
her, and keeping the muzzle on excepting while she is fed, or 
watched until she is observed to lick all alike. On the next day, all 
but one of her own puppies may be withdrawn, with an interval 
of one hour or two betw'een each two, taking care that she 
does not see what is done. After two days the last may also be 
taken away, and then she acts to her foster-puppies in every way 
the same as to her own. Some people squeeze a little of the bitch's 
milk out of her teats, and rub this over the puppies, but I have 
never seen any advantage in the plan, and, as I have never had 
any difficulty in getting puppies adopted, I do not recommend any 
other than that I have described. In most cases tlie foster-bitch 
is strange to those about her, having been brought from her own 



FEEDING KEFOBE WEANING, ETC. 191 

home, and in that case a muzzle is often required for :^e safety of 
the servants watching her as well as for the whelps ; but if she 
seems quiet and good-tempered, it may be dispensed with. 



FEEDING BEFORE WEANING. 

The food of whelps before weaning should be confined at first 
to cow's milk, or, if this is very rich, reduced with a little water. 
It is better to boil it, and sweeten it with a little fine suo-ar 
as for the human palate. As much of this as the whelps will 
take may be given them three times a day, or every four hours, if 
they are a large litter. In the fourth week get a sheep's head, 
boil it in a quart of water until the meat comes completely to 
pieces, then carefully take away every particle of bone, and break 
up the meat into fragments no larger than a small horse-bean ; 
mix all with the broth, thicken this to the consistence of cream 
with fine wheat flour, boil for a quarter of an hour, then cool and 
give alternately with the milk. At this time the milk may also be 
thickened with flour ; and as the puppies grow, and the milk of 
the bitch decreases in quantity, the amount of milk and thickened 
broth must be increased each day, as well as more frequently 
given. Some art, founded on experience, is required not to satiate 
the puppies ; but, by carefully increasing the quantity whenever 
the pups have finished it greedily the last time or two, they will 
not be overdone. In no case should the pan containing the food 
be left in the intervals with the puppies, if they have not cleared it 
out, as they only become disgusted with it, and the next time refuse 
to feed. A sheep's head will serve a litter of large-sized puppies 
two days up to weaning, more or less, according to numbers and age. 



CHOICE OF PLACE FOR WHELPING. 

The whelping-place, up to the third week, may be confined to 
a square yard or two, floored with board as already described. 



192 BEARING. 

After the third week, when the puppies he<]i;in to run about, ucuess 
should be given them to a larger run, and tin inclined plane 
should be arranged for ihem to get up and down from their 
boai ;ed stage. If the weather is cold, the best place for a bitch 
to wiielp is in a saddle-room warmed by a stove, or an empty 
st:ill, with a two-foot board placed across the bottom, opposite the 
stall-post, so as to prevent the puppies getting among the horses. 
In either case there is an amount of artificial heat, which conduces 
to the growth of the puppies, and allows them to be reared suffi- 
ciently strong to bear any cold afterwards with impunity. If the 
weather is not cold, an ordinary horse-box is the best place which 
can be chosen, fixing the boarded stage at a distance from the 
door, and either sanding or slightly littering the brick floor, ac- 
cording to the weather; but the latter is to be preferred, excepting 
m a very hot summer. In these boxes puppies take a vast am.ount 
of exercise, which they require for health, and to giv^e that appe- 
tite without which sufficient food for growth is not taken. 



REMOVAL OF DEW-CLAWS, ETC. 

Before weaning, any cropping which is intended, whether of 
the dew-claw or tail, should be practised, but the ears should be 
left alone until the third or fourth month, as they are not suffi- 
ciently developed before. If, however, the operator does not 
understand his business thoroughly, it is better to leave the latter 
organs alone, until a later period, as otherwise the proper quantity 
may not be cropped or rounded, as the case may be. Indeed, even 
the most skillful hand will hardly ever manage either the one or the 
other well before the fifth month ; and in hounds it is usual to de- 
fer it until they are nearly full grown, as they often lose a consider- 
able quantity of blood, which interferes with their growth. But 
the tail and dew-claws may always be best done, and with least 
pain, while with the dam; besides which, her tongue serves to heal 
the wound better than that of the young puppy, who has hardly 
learned to use it. Regular do^-fanciers bite off the tail, but a pair? 



WEANIXG. 193 

of scissors answers equally well ; and the same may be said of the 
dew-claw. If, however, the nail only is to be removed, which 
always ought to be done, the teeth serve the purpose of a pair of 
nippers, and by their aid it may be drawn out, leaving the 
claw itself attached, but rendered less liable to injury, from having 
lost the part likely to catch hold of any projecting body. 



WEANING. 

When weaning is to be commenced, which is usually about the 
fifth or sixth week, it is better to remove the puppies altogether, 
than to let the bitch go on suckling them at long intervals. By 
this time their claws and teeth have become so sharp and so long, 
that they punish the bitch terribly, and therefore she does not let 
them fill their bellies. Her milk generally accumulates in her 
teats, and becomes stale, in which state it is not fit for the whelps, 
and by many is supposed to encourage worms. The puppies have 
always learned to lap, and will eat meat, or take broth or tliick- 
ened milk, as previously described; besides which, when they 
have no chance of sucking presented to them, they take other food 
better, whereas, if they are allowed to suck away at empty teats, 
they only fill themselves with wind, and then lose their appetites 
for food of any kind. But, having determined to wean them, there 
are several important particulars which must be attended to, or 
the result will be a failure, at all events for some time. That is to 
say, the puppies will fall away in flesh, and will cease to grow at 
the same rate as before. In almost all cases, what is called the 
" milk-fat " disappears after weaning, but still it is desirable to keep 
some flesh on their bones, and this can only be done by attending 
to the following directions, which apply to dogs of all kinds, but 
are seldom rigidly carried out, except with the greyhound, whose 
size and strength are so important as to call for every care to pro- 
cure them in a high degree. In hounds, as well as pointers and 
setters, a check in the growth is of just as much consequence ; hut 
as they are not tested together as to their speed and stoutness so 
9 



194 EEARING. 

closely as greyhounds are, the slight defects produced in puppy- 
hood are not detected, and, as a consequence, the same attention is 
not paid. Nevertheless, as most of these points require only care, 
and cost little beyond it, they ought to be carried out almost as 
strictly in the kennels of the foxhound and pointer as in those de- 
voted to the longtails. These chief and cardinal elements of suc- 
cess are, — 1st, a warm, clean, and dry lodging ; 2ndly, suitable 
food ; 3rdly, regularity in feeding ; and, 4thly, a provision for suf- 
ficient exercise. 



NECESSITY FOB WARM AND DRY LODGING. 

All puppies require a dry lodging, and in the winter season it 
should also be a warm one. Greyhound whelps, up to their third 
or fourth month, are sometimes reared in an artificial tempera- 
ture, either by means of a stove, or by using the heat of a stable, 
the temperature chosen being 60" of Fahrenheit. Beyond this 
ao-e, it can never be necessary to adopt artificial heat in rearing 
puppies, because for public coursing they are required to be whelp- 
ed after the last day of the year, and four months from that time 
takes us on to May, when the weather is seldom cold enough to re- 
quire a stove; then during the summer months they are gradu- 
ally hardened to the vicissitudes of the weather, and as they be- 
come older their growth is established, and they are no longer in 
danger of its being checked. It is true that some few breeders 
always keep their kennels at 60^; but on the whole, as we shall 
hereafter find, the plan is not a good one, and need not be consid- 
ered here. But far beyond the warmth, dryness is essential to suc- 
cess. Dogs will bear almost any amount of cold if unaccompanied 
by damp, provided they have plenty of straw to lie in ; but a damp 
kennel, even if warm, is sure to lead to rickets or rheumatism, if 
the puppies escape inflammation of some one or more of the inter- 
nal organs. Take care, therefore, to give a dry bedstead of boards, 
lined with the same material towards the wall (the cold of which 
strikes inwardly and gives cold), and raised somewhat from the 



FEEDING. 195 

floor, which will otherwise keep it damp. Puppies soon learn to lie 
oa this, and avoid the cold stones or bricks, except in the heats of 
summer, when these do no harm. The stone or brick floor should 
be so made as to avoid absorption of the urine, etc., which can only 
be effected by employing glazed tiles or bricks that are not porous, 
or by covering the whole with a layer of hydraulic cement, or with 
asphalt, which answers nearly as well. Care should be taken 
that there are no interstices between the boards, if the kennel is 
made of them ; and in every way, while ventilation is provided, 
cold draughts must be prevented. Cleanliness must also be at- 
tended to rigidly by sweeping out the floor daily, and washing it 
down at short intervals, and by changing the litter once a week at 
the least. In the summer time, straw is not desirable, as it harbors 
fleas, and, if the boarded floor is not considered sufficient, a thick 
layer of pine sawdust will be the best material, as it is soft enough, 
without harboring vermin of any kind ; the only objection to it be- 
ing that the puppies are apt to wet it often, after which it becomes 
offensive. 



FEEDING. 



The feeding of puppies is all important, and, unless they have 
plenty of food sufl3ciently nourishing to allow of a proper growth, 
it is impossible that they should become what they might be if fed 
with the best materials for the purpose. From the time of wean- 
ing to the end of the third month, when a decision must be arrived 
at as to their subsequent management, very little deviation is re- 
quired from the plans described on page 191 ; that is, the pup- 
pies should be fed every four hours upon the thickened broth made 
from sheep's bead, and thickened milk alternately. After that 
time, however, their food must be given them rather stronger and 
of a somewhat different nature, as we shall find in its proper place. 
This food will be required for any kind of dog, but a single puppy 
may very well be reared upon thickened milk, with the scraps of 
the house m addition, including bones, which it will greedily pick, 
and any odds and ends which are left on the plates. 



196 REARING. : 

Regularity of feeding in puppies, as in adult animals, is of the 
utmost importance; and it will always be found that if two pup- 
pies are equally well reared in other respects, and one fed at regu- 
lar hours, while the other is only supplied at the caprice of ser- 
vants, the former will excel the latter in size and health, as well as 
in the symmetrical development of the body. It is also very neces- 
sary to avoid leaving any part of one meal in the pans or feeding- 
troughs until the next, as nothing disgusts the dog more than seeing 
food left in this way. The moment the puppies fill themselves^ 
take away the surplus ; and, indeed, it is better still to anticipate 
them by stopping them before they have quite done. All this re- 
quires considerable tact and experience, and there are very few 
servants who are able and willing to carry out these directions 
fully. 



EXERCISE. 

Exercise is necessary at all ages, but the fully developed dog 
may be confined for some litile time without permanent injury, 
the formation of his feet and the texture of his bones and muscles 
being then finally settled. On the other hand, the puppy will 
grow according to the demand made upon his mechanism, and if 
the muscles are left idle they do not enlarge; while the feet re- 
main thin and weak, with the tendons and ligaments relaxed, so 
that they spread out like a human hand. Growing puppies should 
be provided with an area sufficiently large for them to play in, 
according to their size, and under.cover up to the end of the third 
month ; after which, if they have a sheltered sleeping-place to run 
into, they will generally avoid heavy rain. Young puppies play 
sufficiently in a loose box or similar enclosure ; but, after the time 
specified above, they must either have their entire liberty, or be 
allowed the run of a larger space, the alternative being bad feet, 
defective development, and weak joints. 



HOME REARING VERSUS WALKING. 197 

HOME REARING VERSUS WALKING. 

When one or two puppies only are to be reared, they may be 
readily brought up at home, excepting in towns or other confined 
situations, where due liberty and a proper amount of sun and air 
can not be obtained. But where a larger number are to be reared, 
as in the case of hounds, greyhounds, pointers, and setters, etc., 
there is a diflBculty attending upon numbers, as a dozen or two of 
puppies about the house are not conducive to the neatness and 
beauty of the garden ; besides which, the collection together in 
masses of young dogs is prejudicial to their health. To avoid 
this evil, therefore, it is customary to send puppies out at three or 
four months of age to be kept by cottagers, butchers, small farm- 
ers, etc., at a weekly sum for each, which is called " walking '* 
them. Young greyhounds may be reared in a large enclosure, 
which should be not less than thirty or forty feet long, with a 
lodging-house at one end ; but hounds do not take exercise enough 
in a confined space, and should invariably be sent out. It is only, 
therefore, in reference to the rearing of greyhounds that the two 
plans can be compared, or perhaps also with pointers and setters, 
if they are taken out to exercise after they are four or five months 
old. 

The two plans have been extensively tried with the longtails, 
and in my own opinion the preference should be given to the 
home rearing if properly carried out, because it has all the advan- 
tages of the " walk" without those disadvantages attending upon 
it, in the shape of bad habits acquired in chasing poultry, rabbits, 
and often hares, during which the puppy learns to run cunning. 
One of the first symptoms of this vice is the waiting to cut oflT a 
corner, which is soon learned if there is the necessity for it, and 
even in mutual play the puppy will often develop it. Hence I 
have seen a " walked " greyhound, with his very first hare, show 
as much waiting as any old worn-out runner, evidently acquired 
in his farm yard education, or possibly from having been tempted 
after a hare or two by the sheep-dog belonging to the farm, More- 
Over, the home-reared puppy, being confined in a limited space 



198 BEAKING. 

during the greater pari of his time, is inclined to gallop when first 
let out, and takes in this way more exercise than those brought up 
on the other plan ; so that, after considering both methods, I have 
come to the conclusion that the home rearing is preferable on the 
whole, though there is no doubt that good dogs may be reared in 
either way. 

The best plan is to fence off a long slip of grass ; or, if a small 
walled enclosure can be procured, fence off about a yard or two 
all round, by which last plan an excellent gallop is secured, with- 
out the possibility of cutting corners, and with a very slight loss 
of ground. An admirable plan is to build four large sleeping 
rooms in a square block, and then all round this let there be a run 
two yards wide, which may be separated into four divisions, or 
thrown into one at will. If the latter, the puppies will exercise 
themselves well round and round the building, which is a practice 
they are very fond of; and, even if two or more lots are wanted to 
occupy the compartments, the whole can be thrown open to each 
lot in turn. Wiien this plan is adopted, the run should be paved, 
so that the expense is much greater than in the other mode, in 
which the natural soil is allow^able, because the puppies are not 
kept on it long enough to stain it. 



THE FOOD OF PUPPIES AT HO^fE OR "AT WALK," AND ITS 
PROPER PREPARATION. 

Whether at home or out, puppies require the same kind of food, 
an 1 the more regularly this is given as to quantity and quality, as 
well as the times of feeding them, the more healthy they will be, 
and the faster they will grow. Many people consider milk to be by 
far the best article of food for growing puppies, and undoubtedly 
it is a good one, but it is not superior to a mixed diet of meal and 
animal food in proper proportions, and occasionally varied by the 
addition of green vegetables. Indeed, after three months, or at 
most four, puppies may be fed like grown dogs as to the quality 



THE FOOD OF PUrPIES, ETC 199 

of their food, requiriui; it however to be given them more fre- 
quently the younger they are. Up to six months they require it 
three times a day, at equal intervals, and after that age twice ; for 
although there is a difference of opinion as to the propriety of 
feeding the adult once or twice a day, there is none about the 
puppy demanding a supply morning and evening. In all cases, 
they should be encouraged to empty themselves (by allowing a 
run, if they are confined to kennel) just before feeding, and for an 
hour or two afterwards they are best at rest. If milk is given, it 
may be thickened by boiling in it oatmeal or wheat-flour, or both 
together, or biscuits may be scalded and added to it; but no flesh 
is needed in addition, bones only being required to amuse the dog 
and to clean his teeth by gnawing them. Witli these any dog 
may be reared very well, but the plan is an expensive one, if the 
milk has any thing lilic the ordinary value attached to it, and if it 
has to be purchased, the cost is generally quite prohibitory of its use. 
Besides milk, various other articles are employed in feeding doo-s. 
Of these, Indian meal is by far the best in proportion to its price 
(being quite equal to anything but the very best wheat-flour, which 
is perhaps slightly more nourishing), and, being so much cheaper, 
is, on that account, to be preferred. It requires to be mixed with 
oatmeal, in about equal proportions, or less of the latter if the 
bowels are at all relaxed. Oatmeal is considerably dearer, 
though the grain itself is cheaper; but the quantity of meal 
obtained, owing to the amount of chaflf, is so small, that 
when this is got rid of the meal is necessarily sold at a higher 
price, according to the season. But a much larger bulk of 
thick stuff, commonly called " puddings," is produced by oatmeal 
than can be obtained from any other meal in proportion to weight, 
the absorption of water being greater, and also varying in different 
quahties of oatmeal itself; so that, after all, this meal is not so 
expensive as it looks to be, when comparing an equal weight of it 
with barley or Indian meal. The re.il coarse Scotch oatmeal yields 
the greatest bulk of puddings, and is to be preferred on that 
account ; besides which, It appears to agree best with dogs, and 
altogether is a very superior article ; but in any case it ought to be 



200 EEARING. 

Dearly a year old. It may therefore Ln; considered that mo-1 
or oatmeal is the best meal, unless the price of wheat-flour e;ui 
bo afforded, when the best red wheat should be coarsely ground 
and not bolted, and in this state made into biscuits or dump- 
lings, or used to thicken the broth. 

If corn meal is employed, it must be mixed with the water or 
broth while cold, and then boiled for at least an hour, stirring it 
occasionally to prevent burning. If it is intended to mix oatmeal 
with the com meal, the former may be first mixed with cold 
water to a paste, and then stirred in after boiling the latter for 
three quarters of an hour ; then boil another quarter, reckoning 
from the time that the contents of the copper came to the boiling 
point a second time. 

Wheat-flour should be boiled from fifteen to twenty mmutcs, 
and may be mixed with the oatmeal in the same way as the corn 
meal. 

Oatmeal pudding, and porridge, or stirabout, are made as follows : 
the first name being given to it when so thick as to bear the 
weight of the body after it is cold, and, the last two to a somewhat 
thinner composition. In any case the meal is stirred up with cold 
water to a thick paste, and, when quite smooth, some of the broth 
should be ladled out and added to it, still stirring it steadily. Then 
return the whole to the boiler, and stir until it tliickeus, ladle out 
into coolers, and let it " set," when it can be cut with a spade and is 
quite solid. The directions as to the length of time for tlie boiling 
of oatmeal vary a good deal, some preferring at least half an hour's 
boil, while others are content with ten or fifteen minutes, but for 
most purposes from a quarter to half an hour is the proper time, 
remembering that this is to be reckoned from the moment that 
the water boils. 

The animal food used should be carefully selected to avoid in- 
fectious diseases, and the flesh of those creatures which have been 
loaded with drugs should also be avoided. Horseflesh, if death 
has been caused by accident, is as good as anything, and in many 
cases of rapid disease the flesh is little the worse, but though in 
foxhound kennels there is little choice, yet for greyhounds those 



THE FOOD OF PUPPIES, ETC. 



201 



horses which have been much drugged for Imgering diseases, and 
those also which are much emaciated, are likely to do more harm 
than good. Slipped calves and lambs, as well as beef and mutton, 
the result of death from natural causes, make an excellent change, 
but are seldom better than bad horseflesh. Still, as variety 
is essential to success in rearing, thoy should not be rejected. 
Whatever this kind of food is composed of, it should be boiled, 
with the exception of paunches, which may be given raw, but 
even they are better boiled, and I think an occasional meal of well- 
kept horseflesh is rather a good change. The flesh with the bones 
should be boiled for hours, until the meat is thoroughly done ; then 
take it out and let it hang ui^til cold ; cut or strip it from the bones 
and mix with the puddmgs or stirabout according to the quantity 
required. The broth should always be used, as there are impor- 
tant elements of nutrition dissolved in it, which are absent in the 
boiled flesh. It is therefore necessary to make the puddings or 
stirabout with it, or to soak in it the biscuit, when this is the food 
selected. The bones should be given for the dogs to gnaw, to- 
gether with any others from the house which can be obtained, but 
taking care to remove all fragments small enough for them to 
swallow whole. Bones should be given on grass or clean flags 
The comparative value of the various articles of diet enumerated 
according to the authority of Liebig, is as follows : 





Materials ^ised 


Materials used in 


The proportions in 


for making 
7/ntsde, bone. 


respiration, or 
in forming 




etc. 


fat. 




Parts. 


Parts. 


Cow's milk are 


as 10 


to 30 


Fat mutton "■ 


10 


27 to 45 


Lean mutton " 


10 


19 


Lean beef " 


10 


17 


Lean horseflesh " 


10 


15 


Hare and rabbit " 


10 


2 to 5 


Wheat-flour " 


10 


46 


Oatmeal " 


10 


50 


Barley meal 


10 


57 


Potatoes " 


10 


86 to 115 


Rice 


10 


153 



From this high authority it appears that barley-meal is superior 



202 



REARING. 



both to wheat-flour and oatmal in fat-nrsaking materials, but it ig 
greatly inferior in muscle-making power, and hence, in dogs where 
fat is not required, it is of inferior vaUie. Science and prnctical 
experiment here go hand in hand, as they alwa^'s do when the for- 
mer is based upon true premises. In cow's milk, which is the nai- 
jral food of the young of the Mammalia, the proportion is 30 to 
10, and this seems to be about what is required in mixing the ani- 
mal and vegetable food. Now by adding equal weights of wheat- 
meal and lean horseflesh, we obtain exactly the same proportions 
within the merest trifle ; thus — 

Wheat-flour 10 46 

Horseflesh 10 15 

20 61 

being equal to 10 of muscle-making to 30| of fat-making matter ; 
and this is practically the proportion of animal food to meal which 
best suits the dog's stomach and general system. The reader is 
not to suppose that a dog is to be fed on equal parts of cooked 
meat and pudding, but of raw meat and dry meal, which when 
both are boiled would, by the loss of juice in the flesh and the ab- 
sorption of water in the meal, become converted into about two 
quantities by weight of pudding to one of cooked meat. Even 
this proportion of flesh is a large one for growing dogs which have 
not much exercise, but those which are "at walk" or which have 
their liberty in any situation will bear it. Most people prefer a 
much smaller proportion of meat, especially for hounds, pointers, 
setters, and spaniels, which depend on their nose, this organ being 
supposed to be rendered less delicate by high feeding. From long 
experience in this matter, however, I am satisfied that, while the 
health is maintained in a perfect stiite, there is no occasion to fear 
the loss of nose, and that such may be avoided with the above diet 
I am confident from actual practice. At the same time it must 
not be forgotten that all dogs so fed require a great supply of 
green vegetables, which should be given once or twice a week dur- 
ing the summer, without which they become heated, and throw 
out an eruption as a proof of it, the nose also being hot ana dry. 



GENERAL TREATMENT. 203 

Green cabbage, turnip tops, turnips, net tic-tops, or carrots, as well 
as potatoes, may all be given with advantage boiled and mixed with 
the meal and broth, in which way they are much relished. 

Scraps, bought at the provision stores, and consisting of the refuse 
of the fat melted to make tallow, are a very common article for 
flavoring the meal of sporting dogs of all kinds. Beyond this 
they have little value, but they certainly aiford some degree of 
nourishment, and are not altogether to be despised. They are 
boiled in water first until soft, and then mixed with the meal to 
form tlie stirabout or pudding. With oatmeal they form a good 
food enough for pointers and setters, as they are not so heating us 
flesh. 

The quantity by weight which is required by the growing puppy 
daily of such food as the above, is from a twelfth to one-twenlieth 
of the weight of its body, varying with the rapidity of growth, 
and a good deal with the breed also. Thus a 12 lb. dog will take 
from five-eighths of a pound to a pound, and a 36 lb. dog from two 
pounds to three pounds. When they arrive at full growth, more 
than the smaller of these weights is very seldom wanted, and it 
may be taken as the average weight of food of this kind for all 
dogs in tolerably active exercise. 



GENERAL TREATMENT. 



During the whole time of growth, the only general management 
required is, first, a habit of obedience, the dog being taught his 
kennel name, to follow at heel, and to lead. Some breeds require 
more than this; as, for instance, the pointer and setter, which will 
be mentioned under the head of breaking. Secondly, secure clean- 
liness in all respects, the kennel being kept scrupulously clean by 
washing the floor, and at least once a year lime-washmg the walls, 
while the skins are freed from any vermin which may be found 
by the means described in the Third Book. In the summer a 
straw bed is seldom required, but in the winter it must be given 
for the sake of warmth, and changed once or twice a week. 



204 REAKIXG. 

Physic is not needed as a regular practice, if feeding is conducted 
on the above plan, and the exercise is sufficient ; but if the pup- 
pies are dull, a dose of castor oil occasionally will do good. 



CHOICE OF PUPPIES AETER WEANING THEM. 

Puppies of all kinds vary in form so much between the weaning 
tii»e and the period of full growth, that there is great difficulty in 
making a choice which shall be proved by subsequent events to be 
on reliable grounds. All young animals grow by fits and starts, 
the proportions varying with the stage of development in which 
any part is at the time of examination. Thus at the fourth month 
a puppy may look too long, but during the next month he may 
have grown so much in the legs that he no longer looks so. 
Again, another may be all legs and wings in the middle of his 
growth, but he may finally grow down to a strong, low, and mus- 
cular dog. So also with the fore and hind quarters, they may 
grow alternately, and one month the fore quarter may be low, and 
the next the hind. None but an experienced eye therefore can 
pretend to foresee, after the period of weaning, what will be the 
final shape ; but either soon after that time, or a day or two after 
birth, a pretty good guess may be given, subject to the continua- 
tion of health, and to proper rearmg in all respects. Bad feet can 
soon be detected, but the limbs grow into a good shape after most 
extraordinary deviations from the line of beauty, particularly in 
the greyhound, which is often apparently deformed in his joints 
when half grown. The most unwieldy-looking animals often " fine " 
down into the best shapes, and should not be carelessly rejected 
without the fiat being pronounced by a breeder of experience. 



CROPPING, BRANDING, AND ROUNDING. 

If terriers are to be cropped, the beginning or end of the fourth 
month is the best time for this ; and, before sending out to walk, 



CROPPING, BRANDING, AND HOUNDING. 205 

hounds are branded with the initials of the master or of the hunt, 
a hot iron shaped like the letter itself being used. Both cropping 
and rounding require practice to perform them well, a large sharp 
pair of scissors being used, and care bemg necessary to hold the 
two layers of skin in the ear in their natural position, to prevent 
the one rolling on the other, and thus leaving one larger than tho 
other Foxhounds have so much work in covert that rounding is 
Imperatively called for to prevent the ears from being torn, and 
it always has been adopted as a universal practice, different hunts- 
men varying in the quantity removed. Some people after cutting 
one ear lay the piece removed on the other, and so mark exactly 
the amount which is to be removed from it ; but this is a clumsy 
expedient, and, if the eye is not good enough to direct the hand 
without this measurement, the operation will seldom be effected to 
the satisfaction of the owner of the dog. It is usual to round fox- 
hound puppies after they come in from their wallis ; but it would 
be far better to perform the operation before their return, as it 
only makes them more sulky and unhappy than they otherwise 
would be, and is a poor introduction to their new masters. The 
men could easily go around to the different walks during the sum- 
mer, and it would uisure a supervision which is often required. 




CHAPTER III. 
KENNELS AND KENNEL MANAGEMENT. 

GBETHOUXD KERNELS. — ^FOXHOUND KENNELS. — ^POINTER KENNELS.— KEN* 
NELS FOR SINGLE DOGS.— HOUSE DOGS, 

Between the kennels intended for the various kinds of dogs, and 
the methods of management therein, some considerable difference 
exists, though the same principles are adopted throughout. Thus, 
packs of foxhounds are often kept to the number of 80 or even 100 
couples, and these must be managed rather differently from the three 
or four brace of greyhounds or pointers, which usually constitute 
the extent of each of these kinds in one man's possession, or at all 
events in the building. Besides this, foxhounds are much more 
exposed to the weather than greyhounds, which are usually clothed 
out of doors, and otherwise protected by dog-carts, etc. The 
former therefore must be hardened to the duties they have to per. 
form, while the latter may be brought out in more vigorous health, 
and with their speed very highly developed, but at the same time 
in so delicate a condition as to be liable to take cold if allowed to 
remain in the rain for any length of time. Hence it will be neces- 
sary to describe the kennels for greyhounds, hounds, pointers, etc., 
separately. 



GREYHOUND KENNELS. 



Every kennel intended for greyhounds should be thoroughly pro- 
tected from the weather, and should have tlie yard covered in as 
well as the lodging-house. The plan for the kennel intended to 
rear puppies in is also best adapted for their future keeping, and 
this it will be desirable to describe more fully here. 

The central square, comprised lietween the four angles a b c d^i^ 
divided into four lodgin^'-l-ous:;:, L.r.iiij .. v;.':i:\lating shaft in the 
206 



GEEYHOUND KENXELS. 



207 



middle, with which they all communicate. These are filled with 
benches separated by low partitions as shown in the diagram, 
and raised about a foot from the ground. Each opens into a yard, 
with a door of communication so arranged as to be left partly open 
without allowing the slightest draught to blow upon tJie beds. 
These yards, ab, be, cd, da^ are all roofed in, and bounded on the 
outer side by pickets guarded by coarse wire net, to prevent the 
teeth of the inmates gnawing them. They are separated by narrow 
partitions, which slide up to allow of the dogs having the whole 



a 






i i 

r 


c 


1 ■ : 



FlV. 39.— PLAN OF KENNEL. 

run; or they may be left down, and the upper part open, so as to 
encourage the puppies to fence, by the necessity for jumping over 
them, in pursuing one another. The floors should be of glazed 
tiles, bricks, or cement, the last being the most clean and free 
from absorption, which ought always to be entirely prevented. 
Each sleeping-place and yard should have a trapped drain, so as to 
carry oflf any wet directly it falls, and the former should be built 
exteriorly of brick cemented at least a foot from the ground, with 
board partitions between. A window should be in each, which 
is capable of being opcncl, and tlie vcntllatior. should be secured 



208 



KENNELS AND KEXNEL MANAGEMENT. 



in some satisfactory manner. This always ensures a down- 
current as well as an up-current, so that there is little or no neces- 
sity for having the door open except for cleanliness, but in very 
windy weather the ventilation on the side of the wind should be 
closed, or the down-draught will be enough to chill the greyhounds. 
As these kennels are to be paved with a non-porous material, the 
soil is not of much consequence, but the situation should be dry 
and healthy, and the shade of a large tree is to be obtained if 
possible. 
The kennel management of the greyhound consists in little more 




Fiir. 40.— ELEVATION OF KENNEL, 



than the adoption of cleanliness, which should be of the most 
scrupulous kind, together with regular feeding. Water is by some 
people constantly left for them to get at, but others object to it for 
dogs in training, and they then only give it with the food. My 
own opinion is decidedly in favor of the constant supply, as it i3 
impossible to prevent these animals from getting to it when at ex- 
ercise ; and I am sure that, when they are kept from it indoors, 
they take too muf;h while they are out. On the contrary, if it is 
regularly supplied to them, they take very little, and are o^uite care- 
less about it at all times. 



ETC. 209 

FOXHOUND AND nARRIER KENNELS, ETC. 

Unlike the greyhound keimel in many respects, that which we 
are now considering muat be adopted for from thirty to a hundred 
couples of hounds, aud the accommodation should therefore be 
more extensive, while a less degree of protection from the weather 
is desirable, because these hounds must be constantly exposed to 
long-continued wuid and wet, and should therefore be hardened 
to them. 

The kennel should be placed upon some high and dry situation ; 
the building should face the south, and there should be no large 
trees near it. 

Nothing is more prejudicial to hounds than damp lodging, 
rooms, a sure cause of rheumatism and mange, to which dogs are 
peculiarly liable. I have seen them affected by rheumatism in 
various ways, and totally incapacitated from working. Sometimes 
they are attacked in the loins, but more often in the shoulders, 
both proceeding either from a damp situation, damp lodging-room, 
or damp straw, often combined with the abuse of mercury in the 
shape of physic. In building kennels, therefore, the earth should 
be removed from the lodging-room floor to the depth of a foot at 
least, and in its place broken stones, sifted gravel, or cinders, 
should be substituted, with a layer of fine coal-ashes, upon which 
the brick floor is to be laid, in cement or hot coai-ash mortar, 
taking care to use bricks which are not porous, or to cover them 
with a layer of cement, which last is an admirable plan. Outside 
and close to the walls, an air-drain about three feet deep should 
be constructed with a draining pipe of two inch-bore at the bot- 
tom, and filled with broken stones to within six inches of the 
surface. This drain is to be carried quite round the building, and 
should fall into the main drain. For a roof to the building, I pre- 
fer shingles to tiles as aflfording more warmth in winter and cool- 
ness in summer ; but as slate or tiles are more agreeable to the 
eye, a thin layer of paper placed under the tiles will answer the 
purpose. 

Over the center of the lodging-rooms should be a sleeping-apart' 



210 KENNELS AND KENNEL ilANAGEMENT. 

ment for the feeder, which being raised above the level of the 
other roof, will break the monotony of its appearance. At the 
rear of the kennel there should be the boiling-house, feeding-court, 
straw-house, and separate lodgings for bitches. In front of the 
kennels, and extending round to the back door of the feeding- 
house, there should be a good large green yard enclosed by a wall or 
pickets. I prefer the former, although more expensive, because 
hounds, being able to see through the latter, will be excited by 
passing objects ; and young hounds, for whose service the green 
yard is more particularly intended, are inclined to become noisy, 
barking and running round the fence when any strange dog makes 
his appearance. 

In the boiling-house two cast-iron boilers will be required, one for 
the meal, the other for flesh. Pure water must be conducted in some 
way to the kennels, both for cleanliness and for the preparation 
of food, and this should be placed at the service of the kennel- 
man at all parts, so that there may be no excuse on the score of 
trouble in carrying it. There must also be coolers fixed in pro- 
portion to the number of hounds, each couple requiring from half 
a foot to a foot superficial, according as it is intended to make the 
puddings daily or every other day. Stone or iron feeJ.ing and 
water-troughs are the best ; the latter should be fixed high enough 
to keep them clean. 

To each lodging-room there should be two doors; one at the 
back with a small sliding panel, and high up, through which the 
huntsman may observe the hounds without their seeing him ; and 
another in the front with a large opening cut at the bottom, high 
enough and wide enough for a hound to pass through easil3% and 
which should always be left open at night to allow free egress to 
the court. In addition, there must also be another between each 
of the rooms, so as to throw two into one in the summer for the 
purpose of making them more airy. The benches should be 
of pine or oak spars, and if they are made to turn up according to 
the following plan several advantages result. This plan is de- 
scribed by a recent authority as follows : 



FOXHOUND AND IIATIRIER KENNELS, ETC. 



211 



KENNEL BENCHES. 

" My benches are made of inch pine, cut into -widths of three 
inches, and nailed half an inch apart to two transverse pieces, to 
which hinges are fixed to connect the bench with a board six 
inches wide, fastened firmly to the wall about a foot from the 
ground. In front is a piece of board about three inches in widtli. 
to keep the straw from drawing off with the hounds. To prevent 
the hounds from creeping under, I nail two long laths the length 
of the bench across in front of the legs, which are hun"- with 

I 



I 


\* 




\ * ""^^-^^ 


\ 
\ 

\ 




\ 


\\ 


I 


\a 


\ 


\ 




Fig, 41.— BENCH FOR A KENNEL.— a a folds to b b , c c folds to d d^ 
e, book to fasten bench back. 

hinges in front of the bench, so that when the bench is hooked 
back they fall down and hang flat. By having the six-inch board 
between the hinges and the wall, it prevents the former from 
being strained when the bench is hooked back with straw 
upon it." 

In some establishments there is a separate kennel for the young 
hounds, with a grass yard attached, for their own use, and it is 
certainly very advantageous; but with a little management the 
buildings above recommended will be sufficient, and with a saving 



212 



KENNELS AND KENNEL MANAGEMENli 



of considerable expense. The hounds during the hunting season 
will not require it at all, as they should be walked out several times 
a day into a paddock or field, and should not be allowed to lie 
about anywhere but on their benches. 

In the rear of the kennels there should be a covered passage into 
which the doors of the middle kennel can open, and leading to 
th3 feeding-house, which stands under the same roof as the boil- 
ing-house, only separate i from it by a partition. This passage 



Fig. 42. 




-VENTILATING SHAFT,— a, 6, c, d, the four divisions of shaft ; 
«, /, board for distributing down current. 



should be so constructed as to make a foot-bath for the hounds as 
they pass through after hunting, the bricks being gradually sloped 
from each end to the center, where it should be a foot deep, with 
a plugged drain in the lowest par^, to let the hot hquor or water 



POXnOUXD AOT) HARKIEE KENNELS, ETC. 2l>? 

off into a drain. On each side of this passaf;-e there s^. juld be v 
paved court with a small lodging-house ai eac'i.^ end; one fo^ 
lame hounds, and the other for those which are sick. 

The ventilation of the rooms composing the lodgings of the 
hounds must be carefully attended to, and for this purpose the 
shaft shown at fig. 42 is especially well adapted. It resem- 
bles in external appearance that usually placed above well-con- 
structed stables, etc. ; but there is this important internal altera- 
tion, that the square is divided perpendicularly into four triangu- 
lar tubes, one of which is sure to be presented to the wind from 
whatever quarter of the compass it is blowing, while the opposite 
one allows the foul air to escape, to make room for that descend- 
ing through the first-named tube. When this is once constructed, 
it only remains to lead a metal tube from each of these four com- 
partments to every one of the lodging-rooms, which will thus be 
as efi"ectually ventilated as if each had an apparatus to itself. To 
carry this out well, the lodging-rooms should be in a block, 
and then there will be a corner of each meeting in a common cen- 
ter, above which the ventilator should be placed with the arrange- 
ment of tubes above described. 

The kennel management of hounds is a much more difficult and 
important affair than is generally supposed, as upon its proper 
performance, in great measure, depends the obedience of the pack 
in the field. Sometimes it is entirely committed to the care of the 
feeder, but every huntsman who knows his business will take as 
much pains with his hounds in kennel as out, and though he will 
not, of course, prepare the food, yet he will take care to superin- 
tend it, and will always " draw " his hounds himself, for no one 
else can possibly know how to feed them. During the season, this 
duty must of necessity devolve on the feeder or kennel-man on 
the hunting days, but the huntsman should always carry it out 
himself whenever he can. Hounds can not be too fond of their 
huntsman, and though " cupboard love " is not to be encouraged 
in man, yet it is at the bottom of most of that which is exhibited 
by the dog, however much it may appear to take a higher range 
when once it has been properly developed. 



27.4 KEXXELS AXD KENXEL MAXAGEiTKNT. 

The regular daily kennel discipline is as follows: "With the four 
Jodging-rooms described there should always be two dry and clean 
in the early morning, having been washed the day before. Into 
these the general pack should be turned, as soon as the doors are 
opened, or, if the morning is not wet, directly after a short airing 
in the paddock. The feeder then sweeps out the room in which 
they have slept, and afterwards mops it clean, drying the floor as 
much as possible, so that by ten or eleven o'clock it is fit for the 
hounds to re-enter. The men then get their breakfast, and directly 
afterwards the hounds are taken out to exercise, or the hunting 
hounds to their regular day's work. If the former, they are 
brought back to kennel at eleven o'clock, fed, and returned to 
their regular lodging-room, or in some kennels they are still kept 
in. a separate room during the day and night, always taking care 
that they are not turned into a room while the floor is damp, and 
that strict cleanliness is practised nevertheless. The hour of 
feeding is generally fixed for eleven o'clock, but for the day before 
hunting it should be an hour or two later, varying with the dis- 
tance they have to travel. Water should be constantly provided, 
taking care that the troughs are raised above the hight at which 
dogs can pass their urine into it, which they will otherwise be 
constantly doing. As before remarked, iron troughs are the best 
After feeding, the hounds should remain quiet for the rest of the 
day. Only stir them in removing them from their day-room to 
their night-room, if two are allowed, which, I think, is an excellent 
practice. 

The food of hounds is composed of meal flavored with broth, to 
which more or less flesh is added, or with scraps as a substitute 
when flesh cannot be obtained. The relative value of the various 
meals is described at page 201, but I may here remark that old 
oatmeal is the recognized food of hounds, though corn meal is 
an excellent substitute. After boiling the flesh until the meat 
readily leaves the bones, take all out with a pitchfork, and put it 
to cool, skim all the fat off the broth, and fill up with water to the 
proper quantity; next mix the meal carefully with cold water, 
and then pour this into the hot broth, keeping it constantly stirred 



FOXHOUND AND HARKIEK KEX:N-ELS, ETC. 215 

until it thickens ; after which it is to be boiled very gently until it 
has been on the fire for half an hour, continuing the stirring to 
prevent its burning. Lastly, draw the fiie, and ladle out the stuff 
into the coolers, where it remains until it has set, when it acquires 
the name with the solidity of " puddings." There should alwavs 
be two qualities made, one beUer than the other for the more del- 
icate hounds, which must be apportioned by the huntsman prop^ 
erly among them. This may be reduced with cold broth, when 
wanted, to any degree of thinness ; and the meat, being cut or 
torn up, is mixed with it. 

.In feeding the hounds, the huntsman, having the troughs sup- 
plied with the different qualities of food, orders the door to be 
thrown open which communicates with the lodging-room ; then 
having the hounds under proper control, they all wait until each is 
called by name, the huntsman pronouncing each name in a decided 
tone, and generally summoning two or three couple at a time, one 
after the other. When these have had what he considers sufficient, 
they are dismissed and others called in their lurn ; the gross feed- 
ers being kept to the last, when the best and most nourishing part 
has been eaten. By thus accustoming hounds in kennel to wait 
their proper turn, and to come when called, a control is obtained 
out of doors which could never be accomplished in any other way. 
Once a week, on a non-hunting day in the winter, and every three 
or four days in the summer, some green food, or potatoes or tur- 
nips, should be boiled with the puddings. They serve to cool the 
hounds very considerably. If this is attended to, very little physic 
is required, except from accidental causes. 

A regular dressing and physicing is practised in some kennels, 
the former to keep the skin free from vermin and eruptions, and 
the latter with the same view, but also to cool the blood. This is 
by no means necessary, if great care is taken with regard to clean- 
liness, feeding, and exercise ; and in the royal kennels neither one 
nor the other is practised, excepting when disease actually appears, 
and not as a preventive measure. When it is considered desirable 
to adopt either or both, directions for their use will be found given 
in the next Book. 



21 G k:e:s^"els a^td kexmel management. 

POINTERS AND SETTERS. 

These dogs do not require a covered yard, and may be treated 
in all respects like hounds, the only ditfjrence being in regard to 
numbers. More than three or four brace should not be kept to- 
gether if it can be avoided, as they are apt to quarrel when not 
ihoroughly exercised or worked, and then a whole lot will fall 
upon one and tear him almost to pieces. The rules of cleanliness, 
feeding, etc., are the same as for hounds. 



SINGLE DOGS KENNELLED OUT OF DOORS. 

Where a single dog is kept chained to what is called a kennel, 
care should be taken to pave the ground on which he lies, unless 
he can be moved every month, or still more frequently, as in course 
of time his urine stains the ground so much as to produce disease. 
It should always be borne in mind that the dog requires more ex- 
ercise than he can take when chained, and he should therefore 
be set at liberty for an hour or two daily, or at all events every 
other day. 



HOUSE DOGS. 



The great bane of dogs at liberty to run through the house 
is that they are constantly receiving bits from their kitchen, 
as well as from their parlor, friends. The dog's stomach is pecu- 
iarly unfitted for this increasing demand upon it, and, if the 
practice is adopted, it is sure to end in disease before many years 
are passed. The rule should be strictly enforced, to avoid feeding 
more than once or twice daily, at regular hours, and then the 
quantity and quality should be proportioned to the size of the dog 
and to the amount of exercis'^ which he takes. About one-twon- 
tieth to one-twelfth of the weicrht of the dog is the proper amount 
of food, and all beyond this is improper in most cases, though of 



HOUSE DOGS. 217 

course there are some exceptions. Dogs are very cleanly animals 
and often refuse to dirty a carpet or even a clean floor. Tliey should 
therefore be turned out at proper times to relieve themselves. To 
neglect to do this is cruel, as well as injurious to the health. J 
have known dogs retain their excretions for days to^-ether rather 
than expose themselves to the anger which they think they should 
incur, and I believe some high couraged animals would almost dia 
before they would make a mess. Long-haired dogs, when confined 
to the house, are apt to smell disagreeably if they have much 
flesh, and they should therefore be chiefly fed upon oatmeal por- 
ridge, with very little flavoring of broth or meat mixed with it. 




10 



CHAPTER IV. 
BREAKING AND ENTERING 

^H5 ENTERING OF THE GItEYHOUND AND DEERHOUND.— OF FOXHOUNDS 
A>D HARRIERS.— BREAKING THE POINTER AND SETTER.— THE RE- 
TRIEVER (LAND AND WATER).— THE SPANIEL.— THE VERMIN DOG. 

With the exception of the greyhound, sporting dogs require some 
considerable education for the sport in which they are to be en- 
gaged. Unlike the hound and the dogs intended for the gun, grey- 
hounds have only their instinctive desires to be developed, and as 
no restraint is at any time placed upon these, except that depend- 
ing upon mechanical means which they cannot get rid of, nature 
has uncontrolled sway. Hence their entering is a verj' easy process ; 
nevertheless, tliere are some precautions to be taken which it is nec- 
essary to describe. The deerhound, as well as the greyhound, is 
held in slips, a single one being used for him, and a double slip, or 
pair of slips as it is called, for the two greyhounds which form the 
complement for coursing the bare — a greater number being consid- 
ered unfair, and therefore unsportsmanlike. These slips are so 
made that by pulling a string the neck-strap is loosed, and the two 
dogs are let go exactly at the same moment. They are always used 
in public coursing, but in private the greyhounds are sometimes 
suffered to run loose, waiting for the moment when the hare is put 
up by the beaters or by the spaniels, which are occasionally em- 
ployed. Hounds also are coupled under certain circumstances, but 
they are never slipped at the moment when game is on foot, and 
they must therefore be made steady from " riot." 



THE ENTERING OF THE GREYHOUND AND DEERHOUND. 

Whether for public or private coursing, the greyhound should 
not be suffered to course a hare until he is nearly at maturity ; but 
S18 



GREYHOUND AND DEERIIOUN^D. 219 

as the bitches come to their growth before the dogs, they may be 
entered earlier than the latter. About the teuiu inoath is tue best 
time for forward bitches, and the twelfth or fourteenth for do^^s. 
If therefore a greyhound is to be allowed to see a hare or two ^t 
this age, he or she must be bred early in the year, in order to have 
a brace 'late in the spring, so as to be ready for the next season. 
Some people invariably prefer keepmg them on to the autumn, and 
for private coursing there is no reason whatever for beginning so 
early ; but public coursers begin to run their dogs in puppy stakes 
in the month of October, prior to which there is so little time after 
the summer is passed, that they prefer beginning in the spring if 
their dogs are old enough, and if they are not they will not be 
fit to bring out in October. 

Before being entered the dogs must be taught to had quietly, 
as they cannot be brought on to the ground loose ; if not pre- 
viously accustomed to it, they knock about and tear themselves 
dreadfully, and moreover will not go quietly in slips. As soon 
therefore as the ground is soft, after they arc six or eight months 
old, they should have a neck-strap put on, and should be led about 
for a short time daily, until they folio w quietly. Some puppies are 
very violent, and fight against the strap for a long time, but by a 
little tact they soon give in, and follow their leader without resis- 
tance. The coursing-field is the best school for this purpose, as 
the puppies have something to engage their attention, and until 
they will bear their straps without pulling against them, their edu- 
cation in this respect is not complete. A dog pulling in slips will 
do himself so much harm as often to cause the loss of a course, and 
therefore every precaution should be taken to avoid this fault. 
The leader should never pull against the puppy steadily, but the 
moment he finds him beginning to hang forward, give him a severe 
check with the strap, and repeat it as often as necessary. It is a 
very common defect, but never ought to occur with proper man- 
agement ; though when once established the habit is very difficult to 
break. Two or three days* leading on the coursing-field will serve 
to make any puppies handy to lead if properly managed, and they 
may then be put in slips with perfect safety. 



220 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

The condition of the puppy at the time of entering, [a tt>o often 
neglected. It should be known that a fat over-ted pappy with- 
out previous exercise may be seriously injured even by a short 
course, which, moreover, can never be assured under any circum- 
stances, as the hare will sometimes run in a diiierent direction to 
that which is expected. 

A sapling, as the young greyhound is called to the end of the 
first season after he is whelped, should never be trained like an old 
one, as the work is too severe, and his frame is not calculated to 
bear it, but he may be reduced in flesh by light feeding, and allow- 
ed to gallop at liberty for two or three houi-s a day. With these 
precautions, he will be fit to encounter any hare in a short course, 
which is all that should ever be permitted. 

Whether an old assistant or a young one shall be put down with 
a sapling is a subject which admits of some discussion. If the 
former, the young dog has small chance of getting to work at all, 
and if the latter, he may have so little assistance as to be greatly 
distressed- Few people like to put down an honest old dog with 
a sapling, and a cunning one soon teaches the tricks which he him- 
self displays. Sometimes young dogs have great difficulty in kill- 
ing, and want the encouragement afforded by blood ; in such cases 
a good killer may be desirable, but with no other object could I 
ever put down an old dog with a sapling. Before they are going to 
run in a stake, an old dog of known speed should be put in slips 
with the puppy, in order to airivc at a knowledge of the powers of 
the latter; but this is with a view to a trial, and not as part of the 
entering of the greyhound. When a sapling h-^s run enough hares 
to know his work, and has killed a hare, or been present at the 
death of one, he may be put by as properly entered ; and the num^ 
ber required will average about five or six — more or less according 
to the capability of the p irticular animal, which will generally de- 
pend upon his breed. 

The deerhound is entered nt his game on the same principles 
as the greyhound. It is always better to slip him with an older 
companion, but beyond this prv-cantion everything must be left to 
his natural sagacity. As his nose is to be brought into play, and 



FOXHOUNDS AND HAKRIERS. 221 

aa he ma/ possibly cross the scent of hares or other game, he must 
be made steady from all "riot," and, if possible, should be taken 
up, in couples, to the death of a deer once or twice and " blooded " 
^M) as to make him understand the nature of the scent. His in- 
-»tinctive fondness for it will, however, generally serve him with- 
■>ut this, but the precaution is a good one, and may save sonit- 
trouble and risk. He will not do much in aid of his older com- 
panion in huntmg the animal he is slipped at, but when " at bay » 
he is soon encouraged by example to go in and afford his help, and 
this is the tune when a second deerhound is chiefly wanted. 



THE ENTERING OF FOXHOUNDS AND HAKRIERS. 

The first thing to be done with hound puppies, when they come 
into kennel, is to get them used to their new masters and to their 
names, which ought to have been given them "at walk." For 
some little time the puppy often refuses to be reconciled to its con- 
finement in his new home, and sulks by himself in a corner, refus- 
ing to eat and to follow his feeder or huntsman. This, however 
soon goes off; but until it does there is no use in attempting to do 
anything with the dog. When the puppies are quite at home, they 
may be taken out by the feeder, at first in couples, and then by de- 
grees removing these and allowing them to run free. For some 
time it will be prudent to take only six or seven couples at a time, 
as when any "riot" makes it appearance there is enough to do 
even with this number, and more would be quite unmanageable. 
Indeed the huntsman will do well to take out only a couple or two 
at a time into the paddock with him, until they are thoroughly ac- 
customed to his voice, and have found out that he must be obeyed. 
As soon as they are tractable on the road, they may be walked 
among sheep and deer, where they should at first all be in couples, 
and then only one or tw^o should be loosed at a time ; but before 
lonir, the whole pack should be accustomed to resist the temptation, 
until which time they are unfit to bo entered. It is also highly 
necessary that foxhounds should in the same way be broken from 



BREAKING AliH) ENTERING. 

hare and rabbit; but too much must not be attempte-J with them 
until they are entered to fox, as their spirit and dash would be dis- 
coura.:^ed, if the whip or scold were always being used without the 
counter-cheer in favor of some kind of game. 

All hounds require daily exercise, without which they cannot be 
preserved in health, nor can their high spirits be controlled, for, if 
they are not exercised, they wUl always be requiring the whip. If, 
• however, the huntsman takes them out daily in the morning oii the 
road, which hardens their feet, and in the evening in the paddock, 
they are so orderly that anything may be done with them. For 
this purpose the men should be mounted in the morning, but in 
the evening they may be on foot. 

Cub-huntmg, wbich is the name given to the process by which 
young hounds are entered, begins in August as soon as the wheat is 
cut, and the time will therefore vary with the season and the 
country. In some places it may be carried on at any time, but 
this month is early enough. It is better to take out the old hounds 
once or twice, until they have recovered their summer idleness, as 
a good example is everything to a young hound. When the young 
entry are to be brought out, it is very desirable to find as quickly 
as possible, and some cautious huntsmen go so far as to keep them 
coupled until tlie old hounds have found their fox ; but if they 
have been made steady from " riot " there is no occasion for 
this. If, however, they have never been rated for " riot," there is 
no great harm in their hunting hare or anything else at first, until 
tliey know what they ought to do ; after which they must be 
rigidly kept to their game. But cub-hunting is not solely intended 
to break in and " enter" the hound. It has also for its object to dis- 
perse the foxes from the large woodlands which form their chief 
holds in all countries. Independently of the above object cub- 
hunting is practised in August, September, and October, first, in 
order to give the young hounds blood, which they can obtain 
easily from a litter of fat cubs ; secondly, to break them from 
*' riot," while they are encouraged to hunt their own game ; and, 
thirdly, to endeavor to break them of sundry faults, such as skirt- 
ing, etc. ; or, if apparently incurable, to draft them at once 



POIXTERS AXD SETTERS. 223 

These objects are generally attained by the end of October when 
the regular season begins. 

Harriers and beagles are entered to hare on the same principle 
the scent of the fox and deer, as well as that of the rabbit, being 
"riot "to them, and strictly prohibited. Otterhounds also have 
exactly the same kind of entry, although the element they work 
in is of a different character. 



THE BREAKING OF THE POINTER AND SETTER. 

The following observations on the breaking of these dogs are 
believed to embody the general practice of good breakers : As the 
method is the same for each kind, whenever the word pointer is 
used, it is to be understood as applying equally to the setter. 

It is scarcely necessary for me to remark that no single life 
would suflSce to bring the art of breaking dogs to all the perfection 
of which it is capable, when the various improvements of succeed- 
ing generations are handed down from one to the other ; and there- 
fore I neither pretend to be the inventor of any method here de- 
tailed, nor do I claim any peculiarity as my own. All the plans of 
teaching the young dog that will be found described by me are 
practised by most good breakers ; so that there will be nothing to 
be met with in my remarks but what is well known to them. 
Nevertheless, they are not generally known ; and there are many 
good shots who are now entirely dependent upon dog-dealers for 
the supply of their kennels, and who yet would infinitely prefer to 
break their own dogs, if they only knew how to set about it 
Others, again, cannot afford the large sum which a highly accom- 
plished brace of pointers or setters are worth in the market ; and 
these gentlemen would far rather obtain two or three good pup- 
pies and break them with then- own hands, with expenditure of 
little more than time, than put up with the wretchedly broken ani- 
mals which are offered for sale by the dozen at the commencement 
of cTery shooting season. To make the utmost of any dog requires 



224 BREAKING AXD ENTERING. 

great experience and tact, and therefore the ordinary sportsman, 
however ardent he may be, can scarcely expect his dogs to attain 
tl)is amount of perfection ; but by attending to the following in- 
structions, which will be given in plain language, he may fairly 
hope to turn out a brace of dogs far above the average of those be- 
longing to his neighbors. One advantage he will assuredly' ha vi 
when he begins the actual war against the birds in September; 
namely, that his dogs will cheerfully work for him, and will be 
obedient to his orders ; but at the same time he must not expect 
that they will behave as well then as they did when he considered 
their education complete in the previous April or May. No one 
who values " the bag " above the performance of his dogs will take 
a young pointer into the field at all, until he has been shot over for 
some time by a man who makes it his business to break dogs, and 
who is not himself over-excited by the sport. It is astonishing 
what a difference is seen in the behavior of the young dog when he 
begins to sec game falling to the gun. He may go out with all the 
steadiness which he had acquired by two months' drilling in the 
spring; but more frequently he will have forgotten all about it, 
unless he is well hunted in the week previous to the opening of 
the campaign. But no soonor has he found his birds or backed his 
fellow-pointer, and this good behavior has been followed by the 
report of the gun, heard now almost for the first time, and by the 
fall of a bird or two within a short distance, than he becomes wild 
with excitement, and, trying to rival the gun in dcstructiveness,he 
runs in to his birds, or plays some other trick almost equally 
worthy of punishment. For this there is no remedy but patience 
and plenty of hard work, as we shall presently find. I only men- 
tion it here, in order that my readers may not undertake the task 
without knowing all the disagreeable as well as agreeable things 
attending upon it. 

Assuming, therefore, that a gentleman has determined to break 
a brace of pointers for his own use, without assistance from a 
keeper, let us now consider how he should set about it. 

In the first place, let him procure his puppies of a breed in 
which he can have confidence. He will do well to secure a brace 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 225 

and a half, to guard against accidents or defects in growth. Let 
these be well reared up to the end of January, or, in fact, until the 
birds are paired and will lie well, whatever that time may be. 
They should be fed as has been previously directed. A few bones 
should be given daily, but little flesh, as the nose is certainly in- 
juriously affected by this kind of food. Without attention to 
his health, so as to give the dog every chance of finding his game, 
it is useless to attempt to break him. The puppies should eitiier 
be reared at full liberty at a good walk, or they should have an 
airy yard. They should also be walked out dail}^ taking care to 
make them know their names at a very early age, and teachino- 
them instant obedience to every order, without breaking their 
spirit. Here great patience and tact are requu*ed ; but, when the 
owner walks them out himself two or three times a week and 
makes them fond of him, a little severity has no injurious effect 
In crossing fields the puppies should never be allowed to " break 
fence," even if the gates are open, and should be called back the 
moment they attempt to do so. These points are of great impor- 
tance, and by attending to them, half the difllculty of breaking is 
gotten over ; for, if the puppy is early taught obedience, you have 
only to let him know what he is required to do, and he does it as 
a matter of course. So also the master should accustom his pup- 
pies from the earliest age to place a restraint upon their appetites 
when ordered to do so ; and if he will provide himself with pieces 
of biscuit and will place them within reach of the dog, while he pre- 
vents his taking them by the voice only, he will greatly further the 
object he has in view. Many breakers carry this practice so far as 
to place a dainty morsel on the ground before the dog when 
hungry, and use the word "Toho'» to restrain him; but this, 
though perhaps afterward useful when inclined to ran in upon 
game, is by no means an unmixed good, as the desire for game in 
a well-bred dog is much greater than the appetite for food, unless 
the stomach has long been deprived of it. 

Besides these lessons prior to breaking, it will be well to teach 
the dog to come to heel, and too keep there, also to run forward at 
the word of command ; to lie down when ordered, and to remain 



226 BEEAsixc; and entering. 

down. All these several orders should be accompanied by the 
appropriate words afterwards used in the field, viz. 

WORDS OP COMMAND USED TO THE POINTER AND SETTER. 

1. To avoid breaking fence — "Ware fence.'* 

2. To come back from chasing cats, poultry, hares, etc. — " Ware 
chase." 

3. To come to heel, and remain there—" To heel," or " Heel.'* 
4 To gallop forward — " Hold up." 

5. To lie down — " Down," or " Down charge." 

6. To abstain from taking food placed near, equally applied to 
running in to birds — " Toho." 

When these orders are cheerfully and instantly complied with 
by the puppy, it will be time to take him into the field, but not 
until then. Many breakers during this period accustom their dogs 
to the report of the gun, by firing a pistol occasionally while they 
are a short distance off, and in a way so as not to alarm them. 
This is all very well, and may prevent all danger of a dog becom* 
ing " shy of the gun ; " but with a well-bred puppy, properly 
reared, and not confined so much as to make him shy in other 
respects, such a fault will seldom occur. Nevertheless, as it does 
sometimes show itself, from some cause or other, the above pre- 
caution, as it costs little trouble or expense, is not to be objected 
to. It is also advantageous to accustom the dog to drop when the 
pistol is discharged, and, if he is of high courage, he may be 
drilled to this so effectually that he never forgets it. By the aid of 
a " check cord," wherever the dog be, when the pistol is discharged, 
he is suddenly brought up and made to drop with the command 
" Down charge ; " and in process of time he associates one with 
the other, so that whenever he hears a gun he drops in an instant 
Timid dogs may however be made shy in this way, and unless the 
puppy is evidently of high courage, it is a dangerous expedient to 
resort to ; as, instead of making the dog, it may mar him forever. 

Next comes the teaching to " range," which is about the most 
difficult part of breaking. Many sportsmen who have shot all 
their lives are not aware of the extent to which this may be, and 



POINTERS AXD SETTEES. 227 

Indeed ought to be, carried ; and are quite content if their dogs 
"potter" about where they like, and find game anyhow. But the 
real lover of the dog, who understands his capabilities, knows that 
for perfect ranging the whole field ought to be beaten systematic- 
ally, and in such a way as to reach all parts in succession—the dog 
being always as near to the gun as is consistent with the nature of 
the ground, the walking powers of the man, and the degree of 
wildness of the game. All these varying points of detail in the 
management of the dog while beating his ground will, however 
be considered more in detail hereafter; so that at present 
taking it for granted that what I have assumed is the real 
desideratum, we will proceed to inquire how this mode of ranging 

is best taught. It must be understood that what we want is 

first, that the puppy should hunt freely, which soon comes if he is 
well bred ; secondly, that he should range only where he is or- 
dered, and that he should always be on the look-out for his mas- 
ter's hand or whistle to direct him. This also is greatly dependent 
on breed, some dogs being naturally wilful, while others from their 
birth are dependent upon their master, and readily do what they 
are desired. Thirdly, great pains must be taken to keep the puppy 
from depending upon any other dog and following him in his line, 
and also from "pottering," or dwelling on "the foot-scent,'* 
which, again, is a great deal owing to defective blood. Now, then, 
how are these points to be attained? By a reference to the an- 
nexed diagram, the principle upon which two dogs should beat 
their ground is laid down ; the dotted line representing the 
beat of one, and the plain line that of the other dog. But, 
with a raw puppy, it is useless to expect him to go off to the right 
while his fellow proceeds to the left, as they afterwards must do if 
they perform their duty properly. But, taking an old dog into a 
field with the puppy, the former is started off with the ordinary 
words "Hold up" in either line laid down, which, being properly 
broken, he proceeds to follow out, accompanied by the puppy, 
who does not at all understand what he is about. Presently the 
old dog " finds," and very probably the young one goes on and 
puts up the birds, to the intense disgust of his elder companion, 



228 



BUEAKING AND ENTERING. 



but to Lis own great delight, as shown bj his appreciation of the 
scent, and by chasing his game until out of sight. At the present 
stage of breaking, the puppy should by no means be checked for 




Fig. 43.— PLAN OF QUARTERING GROUND. 



this, as he knows no better, and the great object is to give him zest 
for the work, not to make him dislike it ; so that, even if he runs 
in to half a dozen pairs of birds, it will do him no harm, however 
jealous it may make the old dog. As soon, however, as the young 
one seems decidedly mclined to go to work by himself, take up 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 229 

the old dog, and hunt the young one until he is thoroughly 
tired or until he begins to point. At first, when he comes 
upon a scent, he will stop in a hesitating way, then draw rapidly 
up and flush his birds, chasing them as before ; but gradually, as 
he tires, he gains steadiness, and, after a time, he assumes the firm 
attitude of the true pointer or setter, though this is seldom shown 
in perfection for the first two or three days. Let it be clearly un- 
derstood, that the present lesson is solely with a view to teach the 
range; steadiness in the point, being at first quite subordinate to 
this quality, although, in well-bred dogs, it may often be taught at 
the same time. Hundreds of puppies are irretrievably spoiled by 
attempting, to begin with teaching them to stand, when, by undue 
hardship and severity, their relish for hunting or beating the ground 
is destroyed ; and they are never made to do this part of the work 
well, although their noses are good enough when they come upon 
game, and they stand for a week if allowed to do so. Keep to 
the one object until the puppy will beat his ground as shown in 
the diagram, at first single-handed, and then crossing it with an- 
other dog. It seldom answers to use two together until steadi- 
ness at "the point" is attained, as there are few old dogs which 
will beat their ground properly, together, when they find that 
they are worked with a young one which is constantly flushing 
his birds or committing some other faux pas. For these reasons 
it is better to work the young ones at first singly, that is, as soon 
as they will work; and then — after they range freely and work to 
the hand and whistle, turning to the right or left, forwards or 
backwards, at the slightest wave of the hand, and when they also 
begin to point — it is time enough to " hunt them double." 

In order to complete the education of the pointer in ranging or 
beating his ground, it is not only necessary that he should " quar- 
ter " it, as it is called, but that he should do it with every advan* 
tage of the wind, and also without losing time by dwelling on a 
false scent, and, above all, avoiding such careless work as to put 
np game without standing to a point at all. I have before ex- 
plamed the principle upon which a field is to be " quartered," and 
described the way in which the dog is to be set to do his work, by 



230 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

the hand and voice, aided by the whistle. As a general rule, 
pointers find their game by the scent being blown to them from 
the body, constituting what is called a " body-scent," and not from 
that left by the foot on the ground, which is called a "foot- 
scent." Hence it is desirable in all cases to give the dog the wind, 
1 Uat is to say, to beat up towards the " wind's eye ; " and, therefore, 
t,hc breaker will put his dogs to work in that direction, and then, 
though they do not always beat directly towards the wind, yet 
they have it blowing from the game towards them in each of their 
crossings. (See diagram on page 228.) But suppose, as some- 
times happens, that the sportsman can not well do this, as when 
birds are likely to be on the edge of a manor, with the wind blow- 
ing on to it from that over which he has no right of shooting ; 
here, if he gave his dog the wind in the usual way, he would 
drive all the birds oflf his own beat ; and, to avoid this, he begins 
at the edge of it, and makes his pointers (if they are well enough 
broken) leave him, and go up the other side to the far end of the 
field (if not too long), and then beat towards him in the usual way. 
Tt is true that the necessity for this kind of beating does not often 
occur ; but sometimes a considerable number of shots are lost for 
want of teachmg it, and the perfect dog should understand it thor- 
oughly. When, therefore, the puppy has learned to range in the 
ordinary way, and will work to the hand well, as before described, 
give him a lesson in this kind of beating ; and, if any difficulty oc- 
curs, send a boy to lead him until he is far enough away, and then 
let the biped loose his charge, first catching the dog's eye yourself, 
so as to make him aware that you are the person he is to range to. 
In a few lessons, he soon begins to find out the object of this depar- 
ture from the usual plan, and by a little perseverance he will, of his 
own accord, when he finds he has not got the wind, work so as to 
make a circuit, and get it for himself. Nevertheless, a good dog, 
who has a master as good as himself, should always wait for or- 
ders, and there is always some excuse for very clever ones becom- 
ing headstrong when they are constantly misdirected. Let me 
again repeat what I have observed on the importance of teaching, 
at first, the correct mode of quartering the ground, and of perse- 



POIXTEUS AND SETTERS. 



231 



vering (without rcgird to standing or pointing) in the lessons on 
this subject alone, until the puppy is tolerably perfect in them. 
At the same time, it is true that some little attention may be paid 
to the '* point ;" but this of far less consequence at the early stage 
which we are now considermg. Indeed, in most well-bred dogs, 
it comes naturally ; but none beat to the hand without an educa- 
tion in that particub^ department. 

But at this stage it will frequently be necessary to correct various 
faults whicL are apt to show themselves in young dogs, such as (1) 
"hunting too low," leading to " pottering or dwelling on the foot- 




Fig. 44.— "puzzle peg. 



scent ;" (2) hnntmg too wide from the breaker ; and (3) " blinking,'* 
or leaving the game as soon as found, which last is a fault depend- 
ing on undue previous severity. With regard to the first of them, 
there is, unfortunately, no certain remedy for it ; and the puppy 
which shows it to any great extent after a week or ten days' break- 
ing will seldom be good for much, in spite of all the skill and 
training which an experienced breaker can apply. The method of 
cure most commonly adopted is that called hunting with a " puz- 
zle-peg," which is shown in the annexed cut. It consists of a 



232 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

piece of strong wood, such as ash or oak, attached to the neck 
bj' a leather collar, and to the jaw by a string tied just behind the 
tusks or canine teeth, so as to constitute a firm projection in 
continuation of the lower jaw ; and, as it extends from six to nine 
inches beyond il, the dog cannot put his nose nearer to the ground 
than that amount of projection will allow of. The young dog 
should be well accustomed to it in kennel and in the field, before 
he is hunted in it; for when it is put on for the first time it inevi- 
tably " cows " him so much as to stop all disposition to range ; but 
by putting it on him for an hour or two daily while he is at liberty 
and not expected to hunt, he soon becomes tolerably reconciled to 
it, and will set off on his range when ordered or allowed. With it 
on, a foot-scent can seldona be made out, unless pretty strong ; but, 
at all events, the dog does not stoop to make it out in that spaniel- 
like style which occasions its adoption. Nevertheless, when it is 
left off, the old tendency to stoop most frequently reappears, more 
or less, and the sportsman finds that all his care has been thrown 
away. Still I have known it to cure this fault, and if it fails I have 
no other suggestion to offer but sixpenny worth of cord or " a hole 
in the w^ater." If used at all, it must be kept on for many days 
together, that is to say, while at work, and when left off it should 
be occasionally reapplied if the dog shows the slightest tendency 
to put his nose down, or dwell on the scent where birds have been 
rising or have " gone away." I may here remark that " false point- 
ing "is altogether different from this low hunting, though often 
coupled with ic ; but this we shall come to after describing the 
nature of, and mode of teaching, that part of the pointer's educa- 
tion. There is a wonderful faculty in some breeds of discovenng a 
body-scent at long distances, while they have no perception of the 
foot-scent, and this is the quality which ought to be mosi highly 
prized in the pointer or setter, unless he is also wanted to retrievi 
in which latter case, such a nose will be found to be defective. Bu 
of this also w^e shall come to a closer understanding in a fu 
ture part of this volume. In addition to the use of the " puzzle- 
peg," — which should only be resorted to in extreme cases, and even 
then, as I before remarked, it is of doubtful utility, — the voice 



POT^"TERS A>Tt) SETTERS. ^S3 

should be used to cheer the dog when he dwells on the scent too 
long, or carries his nose too low. "Hold up!" may be cried in a 
cheering way, and the dog encouraged with the hand waved for- 
ward as well. Colonel Hutchinson recommends the previous in- 
culcation of the perception of hight, — in fact, to make the dog un- 
derstand that you mean, when you use the word " Up," that he 
should raise his head. But this is a refinement in dog-breaking 
which possibly may be carried out, yet which, I confess, I think 
practically inoperative. Few of us would like to teach our hacks 
to lift their knees, by giving them to understand the nature of 
hight, and then telling them to lift them. We should certainly 
find it much more simple to select hacks with good action, or to 
breed them even, rather than to convert our colt-breakers into cir- 
cus-men. If there is no other method of attaining the object, 
by all means adopt it; but, when a far easier one is at hand, I 
should certainly select it in preference. Nevertheless, it may serve 
to prove the teachableness of the dog ; and, knowing the extent to 
•which his education may be carried by patience and preseverance, 
I have no doubt that Colonel Hutchinson's plan is capable of exe- 
cution, if the time and trouble necessary for it are properly re- 
munerated. Bat we must now proceed to the second fault, which 
consists in ranging too far from the breaker. This may readily be 
cured, cither by compelling attention to the hand and voice, with 
the aid ("f the whip in bad cases ; or by attaching to the dog's col- 
lar a long cord, which is then suffered to trail on the ground, or is 
held in the hand of the breaker, when the dog is very wild. 
Twenty, thirty, or at most forty, yards of a small box-cord will 
suilice for this purpose, and will soon tire down the strongest and 
most unruly dog. Indeed, an application of it for a short time will 
make many dogs give in entirely ; but some high-couraged ones, 
and setters especially, will persevere with it on untiJ they are faurly 
exhausted. This " check-cord," as it is called, is also necessary in 
some dogs, to perfect their education in other respects, and, indeed, 
is chiefly wanted at a later period of breakmg, not being often re- 
quired at this stage. 
Havmg described the mode of teaching pointers and setters to 



234 ^JKEAKrs-G AXD ENrTEni:N"G. 

beat their ground, I have now to consider the best modes of teach- 
ing them (1) to point, set, or stand (which are different names for 
the same act), (2) to back, (3) to down charge, (4) to retrieve, if con- 
sidered desirable, and (o) how to remedy certain faults, such as 
blinking, etc. 

Pointing, setting, or standing can be readily taught. It will, of 
course, be discovered in practice that, in teaching the range, most 
dogs begin to pomt, and nmeteen out of twenty, if well-bred, be- 
come steady enough without the gun, before they are perfect in 
the proper mode of beating their ground. For these, then, it is 
unnecessary to describe any other means of teaching their trade ; 
but there are some few exceptions, in which, even after a fort- 
night's work, the dog is still deficient m this essential, and, though 
he beats his ground in ever so perfect a manner and finds his birds 
wdl enough, yet he invariably runs them up, sometimes with great 
zest and impudent disregard of his breaker, and at others with evi- 
dent fear of the consequences. Here, then, something more must 
be done, and it is effected by taking the young dog out with a 
steady companion and hunting them together ; then, keeping the 
old dog within forty yards, let him, if possible, be the one to find, 
and take care to walk up to him before the young one comes up, 
which he is sure to do as soon as he catches his eye on the point. 
Now use your voice in a severe but low tone to stop him ; and, as 
he has been accustomed to halt with the word " Toho ! " he will at 
once do so, generally standing in a cautious attitude, at a distance 
varying witu his fear of his breaker and the amount of courage 
which he possesses. If the birds lie close, let him draw up and 
get the scent. The excitement will then be so great, that, if the dog 
is under siifn.aent command to be held m check by the " Toho ! '* 
he will be sure to assume the ngid condition, charactenstic of his 
breed. Now go quietly up to him, pat him, and encourage him, 
but m such a tone as to prevent his running in, — still using the 
" Toho ! good dog , toho : " — and keeping him for a few minutes 
wnere he is, so long as he can scent his birds, which he shows by 
champing ana frothing ai the mouth. After the lapse of this time, 
walk quiCtly forward, keeping your eye on him, and sliU restrain- 



rOlK^TEHS AND SETTERS. 235 

ing liim with tlic " Tolio," put up tlie birds, and then, if possible, 
make him drop with the words " Down charge ! " tae meaning of 
which he has already been taught. But, if he is very wild and of 
high courage, do not attempt this at first, as it is better to proceed 
step by step, and to teach each lesson thoroughly before an- 
other is commenced. In this way, by perseverance and hard work 
(which last is the keystone of the breaker's arch), any dog, whether 
of the special breeds used for the purpose or not, may be made to 
point when he finds game ; but none but the pointer and setter 
become rigid or cataleptic, a peculiarity which is confined to them. 
In very high-couraged dogs, a check-cord, thirty or forty yards in 
length, is sometimes suffered to trail on the ground, or is held by 
the breaker, so as to assist the voice in stopping the dog wlven he 
is wanted to make his stand ; but the cases where this is wanted 
are so rare as scarcely to require any aUusion to it, if the breaker 
is sufficiently industrious to give work enough to his charge. This 
part of the education is generally accomplished in a couple of 
lessons, without trouble, and, indeed, the young dog often points 
steadil}'- enough at the first or second scenting of game. 

Backing. — When a dog has acquired the merely instinctive prop- 
erty already described, he is said to be " steady before," and may 
be used alone or single-handed without any further education ; but 
when he is to be hunted with other dogs he requires to be made 
*' steady behind," that is to say, he must be taught to " back" an- 
other dog as the latter stands. In very high-bred dogs, this prop- 
erty, like the former, is developed Yerj early ; but the more hardy 
and courageous the breed, the longer they generally are in acquir- 
ing it, and therefore the young breaker should not be discouraged 
if he finds tliat his puppies give him some trouble after they have 
learned to stand perfectly steady. Backing is usually taught in 
the same way as described for standing, that is to say, by hunting 
with an old steady dog, taking care that he is one whose find is to 
be depended on, and then stopping the young one with ths voice 
and hand, or with the aid of a check-cord if necessary. The great 
art consists here in managing to get between the two dogs at the 
moment when the old one stands, and thus to be able to face the 



BPvEAKIXG AND ENTERING. 

pu'ppy as he rushes up to share the scent ^ith his rival, -^hich he 
at first considers his companion to be. Jealousy is a natural feeling 
in all dogs from their desire to obtain approbation ; but it must be 
eradicated in the pointer and setter, or they never become steady 
together, and which ever finds first, the other tries to run up and 
take the point from him. To avoid this failing, leave the dog 
which first finds, alone, and -walk up to the one which you have 
stopped, pat and encourage him with the word " Toho ! " in a low 
but pleased tone ; let him not on any account creep forward a step, 
but keep him exactly where he is for some minutes, if the birds lie 
well. Then walk forward to the old dog, but take no notice of 
him, and, with your eye still on the puppy, put up the birds, hav- 
ing stopped him with voice and hand if he moves a limb. Sup- 
posing the old dog has pointed falsely, the young one is materially 
injured, inasmuch as he has lost confidence in him, and next time 
he is with more difficulty restrained from running in to judge for 
himself ; hence the necessity for a good nose in the old dog, who 
ought to be very steady and perfect in all respects. It will thus 
be seen that very little art is required in carrying out this part of 
the education, which really demands only hard walking, patience, 
and perseverance to complete it in the most satisfactory manner. 
It should be pursued day after day, until the young dog not only 
finds game for himself and stands quite steadily, but also backs his 
fellows at any distance, and without drawing towards them a single 
step after he sees them at point. When this desirable consumma- 
tion is effected to such an extent that the puppy will back even a 
strange dog, and has already learned to beat his ground properiy, 
as explained in my previous remarks, he is steady and well broken 
as he can be without the gun, and may be thrown by, until a fort- 
night before the shooting season, when he ought to be taken out 
again for two or three days, as in the interval he will generally 
have lost some of his steadiness. Still he will only require work 
to restore it, as he knows what be ought to do ; and with patience, 
joined if necessary with a little punishment, he soon re-acquires all 
that he has forgotten. Many masters now fancy that all is done 
towards " making the pointer; " but, on the contrary, they find that 



POIXTEHS AND SETTERS. 230 

after birds are killed the puppy wliich was previously steady be 
comes wild and ungovernable, and spoils the day's shootmg by all 
sorts of bad behavior. Hence it is that breakers so often ar** 
blamed withocit cause ; but when it is found by experience that 
such conduct is the rule, and not the exception, young dogs are 
left by their owners to be shot over by a keeper for a few days, or 
even longer, before they are taken into the field. Another reason 
for this wildness may be assigned; namely, the dogs are often 
hunted in the commencement of the season by almost perfect 
strangers, two or three guns together ; whereas, if their breaker 
had the management, they would be under much more control, 
and especially if he went out quietly by himself. Here again is 
another reason for gentlemen breaking their own dogs, or, at all 
events, finishing their education by giving their dogs and them- 
selves a few lessons together. 

Down charge, as already described, ought to be taught from a 
very early period, the dog being made to drop at the word or ele- 
vation of the hand of his master, without the slightest hesitation. 
It is not, therefore, necessary to dwell upon this part of his educa- 
tion, further than to remark that after each point, or, indeed, di- 
rectly after birds rise under any circumstances, the dog should be 
made to drop by the voice, using the order " Down charge ! " or by 
raising the hand, if the eye of the dog can bo caught. When thi?i 
practice is made habitual, there is little trouble in carrying out the 
order until the gun is added ; but then it will be found that great 
patience and forbearance are required to prevent the dog from 
running to his birds as they drop ; for, if this is allowed, it is sure 
to make him unsteady in every case, as soon as his eye catches sight 
of game, whether after the point or not. Il is now that the advan- 
tage of having made tho dog drop to the gun is manifested, for the 
first thing he thinks of, when the gun is fired, is the necessity for 
dropping, and if this is encouraged all goes on well. Too often 
the shooter himself produces unsteadiness, by disregarding his dog 
at the moment when he ought to attend to him most particularly, 
and by running in himself to take care of his " bag," considering 
that more important than the steadiness of his dog. It is true 



240 BREAKING AND ENTERING. 

that a runner is sometimes lost by the delay of a few seconds whilo 
the discharged barrel is reloaded ; but in the long rua, the shooter 
who keeps Ms dog down until he has loaded, will bag the most 
game. 

The faults which chiefly require correction at this stage are ; 
blinking, shying the gun, pottering at the hedges, hunting too 
wide, and chasing fur. The vice of blinking has been caused by 
over-severity in punishment for chasing poultry, etc., and takes a 
gi'cat deal of time to remove. Indeed, until the dog sees game 
killed, he seldom loses the fear which has jDrodnced it. It is there- 
fore frequently useless to continue the breaking, in the spring, 
although such a dog sometimes becomes very useful by careful 
management in the shooting season. Generally speaking, it ia 
occasioned by undue severity, either applied for chasing cats or 
poultry, or for chasing game when first hunted. The former kind 
of castigation, should be cautiously applied, as the puppy is very 
apt to associate the punishment given for the chasing of game 
with that due to the destruction of poultry or cats ; and as he has 
been compelled to leave the latter by the use of the whip, and has 
been afterwards kept " at heel," so he thinks he must do so now, 
and in fear he comes there, and consequently " blinks his birds." 
This defect is only to be remedied by instilling confidence, and by 
avoiding punishment ; but it is often one which gives great trouble 
before it is got over. It is not so bad as the obstinatel}'- refusing lo 
work at all, but is only next to it. Both occur in dogs which are 
deficient in courage, and both require the most delicate and en 
couraging treatment to remove them. Let such dogs run " riot," 
and commit any fault they like, without fear for a time ; tlien after- 
wards, that is, when they begin to be quite bold, and are full of 
zest for game, begin very cautiously to steady tlicm, and some- 
thing may yet be done. In very bad cases, all attempts at break- 
ing must be given up at "pairing time," and the gun must be 
relied on as a last resource, the killing of game having sometimes 
a wonderful effect in giving courage to a dog winch has been de- 
pressed by undue correction. Punishment i=! iiot to be condemned 
altogether, for m some breeds and inilividiinls witliout the whip. 



POINTERS AND SETTERS. 241 

nothing could be done ; but it should be very cautiously applied, 
and the temper of each dog should be well studied in every case 
before it is adopted. Kindness will effect wonders, especially 
where united with firmness, and with a persevering determination 
to compel obedience somehow ; but, if that " how *' can be effected 
without the whip, so much the better; still, if it cannot, the rod 
must not be spared, and, if used at all, it should be used elli 
caciously. 

Shyness of the gun will generally also pass off in time ; but, as it 
seldom occurs, except in very timid and nervous dogs, they do not 
often become very useful even when they have lost it. The best 
plan is to lead a shy dog quietly behind the shooters, and not to 
give him an opportunity of running off, which he generally docs 
on the first discharge. When game falls, lead him up and let him 
mouth it ; and thus, in course of time, he connects cause with effect, 
and loses that fear of the report, which he finds is followed by a 
result that gives him the pleasure of scenting fresh blood. 

Pottering at the hedges in partridge-shooting, is the result of 
using dogs to find rabbits, or of allowing them to look for them 
which they always are ready to do, especially if permitted to 
chase or even to retrieve hares. There is no remedy for U, and a 
potterer of this kind is utterly worthless and irreclaimable. 

Hunting too wide for close partridge-shooting may be easily 
remedied by constantly keeping in the dog by the whistle and 
hand ; and, if he has been properly taught to range at command, 
little trouble is required in maldng him change from the wide 
beat, necessary in countries where game is scarce, to the confined 
and limited range of sixty yards, which is best where it is thick ivn 
the ground 

Chasing fur, and also running in to dead birds, are often most 
unmanageable vices; but either can be generally cured by pa. 
tience and severe treatment, aided, if necessary, by the check-cord, 
or in very bad cases by the spike-collar in addition. When these 
are used, it is only necessary to work the dog with them on, the 
cord either trailing loosely on the ground or held in an assistants 
hand. Then, the moment the dog runs in, check him severely 
11 



242 BREAKING AND ENTEEING. 

and, if he is not very bold, the plain collar will suflacc, as it may 
be made \)y a sharp jerk to throw him back, to his great annoy- 
ance. Pointer Daisy, page 237, took first prize in her class, I^evv 
YorR Bench Show of 1877< 



BREAKING TO RETRIEVE. 

Retrieving, in my opinion, should be invariably committed to a 
dog, specially kept for that purpose ; but, as this is not the uni- 
versal practice, it will be necessary to say a few words on this 
subject. When pointers or setters are broken to retrieve, in addi- 
tion to those qualities peculiar to them, they should always be so 
much under command as to wait " down charge," until they are 
ordered on by the words " seek dead," when they at once go up to 
the place where they saw their game drop, and, taldng up the 
scent, foot it until they find it. Some breeds have no nose for a 
foot-scent, and, if ordered to " seek dead," will beat for the body- 
scent as they would for a single bird ; and, when they come upon 
the lost bird, they " peg " it with a steady point in the same way. 
This 'docs not injure the dog nearly as much as working out a 
runner by the foot-scent; but a retrieving pointer of this kind, is 
of little use for any but a badly wounded bird, which has not run 
far. Few pointers and setters will carry game far, nor indeed is 
it worth while to spend much time in teaching them to do so ; and 
when they are set to retrieve, it is better to follow them, and help 
them in their search, so as to avoid all necessity for developing 
the " fetch and carry" quality, which in the genuine retriever is 
so valuable. But it is chiefly for wounded hares or running 
pheasants that such a retriever is required; and as the former 
spoil a pointer or setter, and are sure to make him unsteady if he 
is allowed to hunt them, it is desirable to keep clear of the posi- 
tion altogether, while pheasants are so rarely killed to these dogs 
that their retrieval by them need not be considered. 

The regular land retriever requires much more careful educa- 
tion, inasmuch as he is wanted tr^ «hst,a«r from hunting, and from 



BREAKING TO RETRIEVE. 243 

his ovm especial duties, except when ordered to commence. The 
breed generally used is the cross of the Newfoundland with the 
setter or water-spaniel, but, as I have explained in another place, 
other breeds are equally useful. In educating these dogs, they 
should be taken at a very early age, as it is almost impossi- 
ble to insure perfect obedience at a later period. The disposition 
to *' fetch and carry," which is the essence of retrieving, is very 
early developed in these dogs, and without it there is little chance 
of making a puppy perfect, in his vocation. Young dogs of this 
breed will be seen carrying sticks about, and watching for their 
master to throw them, that they may fetch them to him. This 
fondness for the amusement should be encouraged to a certain ex- 
tent, almost daily, but not so far as to tire and disgust the dog, 
and care should always be taken that he does not tear or bite the 
object which he has in charge. On no account should it be 
dragged from his mouth, but he should be ordered to drop it on 
the ground at the feet of his master, or to release it, directly it is 
laid hold of. The consequence of pulling anything out of the 
young retriever's mouth is that he becomes " hard bitten," as it is 
called ; and, when he retrieves a wounded bird, he makes his teeth 
meet, and mangles it so much, that it is utterly useless. A dog 
which is not naturally inclined to retrieve, may be made so by en- 
couraging him to pull at a handkerchief or a stick ; but such ani- 
mals very seldom turn out well in this Ime, and it is far better to 
put them to some other task. As soon as the puppy has learned 
to bring everything to his master when ordered, he may be taught 
to seek for trifling articles in long grass or other covert, such as 
bushes, etc. When he succeeds in this, get some young rab- 
bits which are hardly old enough to run, and hide one at a time 
at a little distance, after trailing it through the grass so as to imi- 
tate the natural progress of the animal when wounded. After 
putting the young retriever on the scent at the commencement of 
the " run," let him puzzle it out, until he finds the rabbit, and then 
make him bring it to his master without injuring it in the least. 
Encouragement should be given for success, and during the search, 
the dog should have the notice of his master, by the words: 



244 BEEAKING AND ENTERING. 

" Seek ! seek ! seek dead !" etc. A perseverance in this kind of 
practice will soon make the dog very bright, in tracing out the 
concealed rabbits, and in process of time he may be intrusted with 
the task of retrieving a wounded partridge or pheasant in actual 
shooting. But it is always a long time before the retriever be- 
comes perfect, practice being all important to him. 

Many shooters use a slip for the retriever, the keeper leading 
him in it, until he is wanted, which is a good plan when a keeper is 
always in attendance. In any case, however, these dogs should 
be made to drop " down charge,'" as the gun may be used while 
they are at work, and if they are not broken to drop, they become 
excited, and often flush other game before it is reloaded. 

The breaking of the water-spaniel or retriever is also a compli- 
cated task, and, as he has to hunt in the water and on the banks, 
his duties are twofold. These dogs are used in the punt as well 
as on the edge of the water, but when the education is finished in 
the river, the pupil will generally do what is wanted from the 
punt. As in the land retriever, so in this variety, the first thing 
to be done is to get the puppy to " fetch and carry " well ; after 
which he may be introduced to " flappers " in July and August, 
when the water is warm, and he does not feel the unpleasantness 
and ill eff'ects, attendant on a cold winter's day with a wet coat. 
The young birds are also slow and awkward, in swimming and 
diving, so that every encouragement is afl'orded to the dog, and 
he may readily be induced to continue the sport, to which he is 
naturally inclined, for hours together. The chief difficulty at first 
is in breaking the water-spaniel from rats, which infest the banks 
of most streams, and which are apt to engage the attention of 
most dogs. The dog should be taught to beat to the hand, 
and, whenever a flapper is shot and falls in the water, then he 
must be encouraged, to bring it to land without delay. No art 
must be neglected to induce him to do this, and, every other 
plan failing, the breaker must himself enter the water ; for, if the 
dog is once allowed to leave a duck behind him, he is much 
harder to break afterward. Indeed, perseverance in the breaker 
is necessary at all times, to insure the same quality in the pupil. 



THE COVERT SPANIEL. 245 

The object in teaching the spaniel the range to hand is, because 
w'iLhuut tais there will often be difficulty in showing him where 
a bird lies in the water — the eye of the dog being so little above its 
level, and the bird very often so much immersed, that when there 
is the slightest rfflc, he can scarcely see it a yard from his nose. 
As in all otlier cases, the water-retriever must be strictly " down 
charge," and he must be thoroughly steady and quiet at heel, or 
he will be sure to disturb the water-fowl when the shooter is in 
ambush waiting for them. The slightest whine is fatal, and the 
dog should, therefore, be taught to be as quiet as a mouse until 
ordered to move. 



THE ENTERING AND BREAKING OF THE COVERT SPANIEL. 

The breaking of all spaniels should be commenced as early as 
possible, as they are naturally impetuous, and require consider- 
able restraint to keep them near enough to the shooter, while they 
are at work. After teaching them the ordinary rules of obedience, 
such as to " come to heel," to " hold up," to drop " down charge," 
etc., which may all be done with the pistol and check-cord, aided 
if necessary by the spiked-collar, the next thing is to enter them 
to the game, which they are intended to hunt. These dogs are 
better taken out, first into small coverts or hedgerows (provided 
there are not too many rabbits in the latter), as they are more 
under command here than in large woodlands. The dog should 
not be allowed to hunt by himself nor for himself, but should be 
taught that he must keep within shot. For this pm'pose spaniels 
must learn not to press their game until the shooter is within range, 
which is one of the most difficult things to teach them. "When 
they arc to be kept exclusively for " feather," they must be stopped 
and rated as soon as it is discovered that they are speaking to 
** fur." This requires a long time, and therefore few spaniels are 
worth much until they have had one or two seasons* practice, from 
which circumstance it should not occasion surprise that a thor- 
oughly broken Clumber spaniel fetches from $150 to $250. When 



«46 JBIiEAKING AKD EXTERmG. 

they are too riotous and hunt too freely, these methods of sobering 
them are adopted: — 1st, put on a collar, and slip one of the 
fore legs into it, which compels the dog to run on three legs; 
2ndly, buckle a small strap, or tie a piece of tape, tightly round 
the hind leg above the bock, by which that limb is rendered use- 
Jess, and the dog has to go upon three also; and, 3dly, put on a 
t'ollar loaded with shot. If either of the legs is fastened up, it 
must be occasionally changed, especially if the strap is adopted, as 
it cramps the muscles after a certain time, and, if persisted in too 
long renders the dog lame for days afterwards. In hunting fence- 
rows, the young dog should at first be kept on the same side as 
the shooter, so that his movements may be watched ; but, as soon 
as he can be trusted, he should be sent through to the other side, 
and made to drive his game towards the gun — always taking care 
that the dog does not get out of shot. In first introducing a young 
dog to a large covert, he must be put down with a couple of old 
dogs which are very steady; and, at the same time, he should 
have a shot-collar, or one of his legs tied up. Without this precau- 
tion, he will be sure to range too wide, and, if he gets on the scent 
of a hare, he will probably follow her all over the covert, to the 
entire destruction of the day's sport. With the above precautions, 
he is prevented from doing this, and by imitating his fellows, he 
soon learns to keep within the pioper distance. In working span- 
iels in covert, stillness is desirable, as game will never come within 
distance of the shooter, if they hear a noise proceeding from him; 
hence the constant encouragement to the dogs, which some 
sportsmen indulge in, is by no means necessary. If the spaniel is 
properly broken, he can hear his master as he passes through the 
un^lerwood, and will take care to drive the game towards him, 
while, if he is slack and idle, the voice does him little good, and pre- 
vents the only chance of getting a shot, which might otherwise occur. 



THE ENTERING AND BREAKING OF VERMIN DOGS. 

Terriers are entered to vermin with great facility, and require 
very little breaking, unless they are intended to be used with fer- 



VEBMTN DOGS. 247 

rets. Then they must be broken to let these animals alone, as they 
are apt to make their appearance occasionally in passing from one 
hole to another. It is only necessary to let the ferret and the ter- 
rier be together in a yard or stable for a few times, cautioning the 
latter not to touch the former, and the young dog soon learns 
to distinguish his friends from his foes. Some terriers are not 
hardy enough to brave the bites which they are liable to in rat- 
ting, etc., and, indeed, the true terrier without any cross of the 
bull-dog is a great coward, so that he is quite useless for the pur- 
pose. In such a case, he must be encouraged by letting him kill 
young rats at first, and as he gams confidence, he will perhaps also 
increase in courage. If, however, the terrier is well bred, he will 
rarely require anything more than practice. 




CHAPTER V. 
THE USE OF THE DOG IN SHOOTING. 

GROUSE AND PARTRIDGB (QUAIL) SHOOTING.— SNIPE AND WOODCOCK 
SHOOTING. — WliD-FOWL SHOOTING. — SHOAL-WATER FOWL. — DBEP- 
WATER FOWL. — HARE HUNTING.— DEER HUNTING. 

The dogs used in aid of the gun are: the pointer, the setter, in 
p:rouse and quail shooting; the spaniel, the beagle, and terrier in 
covert or timber shooting ; either of the above in snipe and wood- 
cock shooting ; the water spaniel or retriever in wild fowl shoot- 
ing ; and the hound or dachshund in deer shooting. 



GROUSE AND PARTRIDGE (QUAIL) SHOOTING. 

North America is exceeded by no other country in the world in 
the number and varieties of its game birds, and among these the 
grouse of different species and the true partridge— the so-called 
quail — furnish more recreation to the sportsmen and more food for 
domestic uses, than any other of our birds. Curiously the partridge, 
so-called in common parlance, is not the true one, but belongs to 
the grouse family, of which we have ten species, the ruffed grouse, 
{Tetrao umbellus), the prairie hen, {Tetrao cupido\ the spruce 
grouse {Tetrao Canadensis) of the East and West, and the dusky 
grouse {Tetrao ohscurus) of the Pacific Coast, being the most com- 
monly known of these birds. The true partridge, of which we 
have at least seven species, are commonly called quail. The best 
known species is the Virginia partridge, {Ortyx Virginianus), 
whose cry, at the brooding season, so nearly like " bob-white," with 
a slowly drawn lengthening of the first syllable and a quick sharply 
accented rising inflection of the latter one — is so well known to 
every rural dweller. 
248 



GBOFSE A>rD PARTRIDGE SHOOTING. 249 

Tlie Ruffed Grouse is scattered all over the country east of the 
Mississippi, where woods now exist, or have previously existed. It 
is found in cultivated fields, patches of woods, and in the deep 
forests. Under the influence of moderate protection at the 
breeding season, it is sufficiently plentiful to afford recompense for 
the time occupied in pursuing it. It is too well known to need 
any description, indeed it is so well known and so constantly and 
persistently hunted, that were it not an exceedingly shy and wary 
bird, strong of wing, and direct and swift in its flight, it would 
soon be exterminated. It is a difficult bird to shoot on the wing, 
especially in woods and thickets, and it requires a practised hand 
and a quick eye to bring it to bag, except when started by a 
snapping cur, often trained to " tree" these birds, it takes refuge 
upon the nearest tree, and giving sole attention to the dog is easily 
shot by a sharp-eyed hunter, who can distinguish its speckled 
brown plumage from the similarly colored bark against which it 
crouches. In the open, it is more easily shot over a setter or a 
pointer, and in open woods with a good dog, its chase is by no 
means so unsuccessful as to discourage the sportsman. It must 
be hit hard, to kill ; and will frequently carry off a load of 
shot to a considerable distance before it drops. As it rises before 
the dog it flies off with a loud, sharp whhr, which greatly confuses 
a novice until he becomes accustomed to it. 

2?ie Pinnated Orouse, or Prairie hen, is abundant from Texaa 
through all the prairie country northward to Canada, but it 
has been driven out of the Middle States where it was formerly 
abundant, in the openings among the timber. Thirty years' slaugh- 
ter have been sufficient to exterminate this game bird from the 
Atlantic Coast to the Mississippi River, except in a few localities 
where now it is gradually disappearing ; when it was formerly so 
abundant as to feed in the farm yards and appear in the streets of 
villages. This confiding habit has perhaps led to its general de- 
struction. The attitude of this bird is not so graceful as that of 
the ruffed grouse, but its walk is bold and erect. When startled it 
runs with swiftness until taking wing, or squats until it is flushed. 

In August and September they lie well to a dog, and can be shot 



250 USE OF THE DOG IN SnOOTING. 

with ease. Later they gather in flocks, and become wild, rising ont 
of gun shot and fl}'ing away for a long distance; but if followed 
and again started they scatter, and, lying close, may be flushed singly 
and bagged. In the fall they frequent the corn fields and pick up 
the scattered corn, but are difficult to shoot in such places, from the 
joisemadein passing through tlie rustling leaves which startles 
them before the hunter can get within shot. Sport under such 
circumstances is weary and unprofitiible work. 

Tlie Dnsky Grouse, is the finest of the whole family, exceeding 
all others in size, and being equal to any in delicacy of flesh. The 
male has been found to weigh 3^ lbs., while 3 lbs. is a common 
weight. In color it is generally greyish brown, mottled with red- 
dish brown and black; the throat is white, crossed with black ; the 
breast and belly are lead color ; the tail feathers are black with the 
terminal cross band of grey usual in the grouse family. 

The young birds when half grown in August are easily killed, and 
are much sought for on account of the tenderness and delicacy of 
their flesh. The mature birds have the same habit which the re« 
lated species of the east possess of taking refuge in the nearest tree, 
and remaining crouched against the trunk on a limb. They lie 
very close to dogs, and are easily killed when found away from 
the thick pine forest in which they usually harbor. 

Ths Virginia Partridge or Qutil, is known by its right name in 
Pennsylvania and further South, although the residents there make 
up for this accuracy by wrongly calling the grouse a pheasant. As 
a quail, it is wrongly known in Kew England and the Northern 
States. No more familiar srvand is heard in the spring, when the 
bird is mating or brooding, than the cheery "bob-white" which at 
morning, noon, and night, is sung by the male and answered by the 
female. The nest is made on the ground, of grass, and is sheltered 
by some tall tuft. The young birds run as soon as hatched, and the 
brood roost together at night upon the ground, in a circle with 
their heads outwards. If disturbed they take flight, each in a 
direct line, and thus spread in separate courses. The note of alarm 
is a low twittering sound, not unlike thai made by young chickens ; 
the note of recall, after a scattering, is loud and frequent, with a 



QROtrSE AND PARTRIDGE SHOOTINa. 251 

tone of tenderness and anxiety expressed in it. At the hunting 
season in September and October, the grain fields furaish a harbor 
for feeding places, and beveys of four or five, up to thirty, afford 
sport to the sportsman. The pointer or setter is used to find the 
game and its dkect, steady flight, makes it an easy mark for a fair 
shot. The partridge abound from Canada to Texas and Florida, 
and are numerous in the great Western States. Their flesh is white, 
tender and delicious, and a supper of broiled " quail " is a sufl5cient 
reward to the sportman with appetite sharpened by healthful ex- 
ercise over the stubble fields. 

Quail shootmg is the most frequent and convenient sport both for 
the country dweller, and those who are condemned by thfc pursuits 
of business to inhabit the cities, from which they can only occa- 
sionally steal away to the field. When in pursuit of quail, as the 
main object, all other kinds of game are taken as they come. Grouse 
and hares may be picked up occasionally, and the expectation of 
finding these add to the zest of the sport. The sportsman is there- 
fore required to be constantly on the lookout, and ready to take 
what it may happen to be. It is not wise to be too early afield 
after quail. The dew should be off the ground, and the birds 
should have left their roosting places, else they may lay up for the^ 
day out of reach, or they will not lie to the dog. From eight to nine 
depending upon the weather somewhat, is early enough. In beat- 
ing the ground, the first thing, is to drive the whole range up to 
the wind, so as to give the dogs a chance to scent and to get the 
best shots, as quail prefer to fly with the wind rather than against 
it. When birds are flushed and marked down, they should be ap- 
proached so as to let the dogs face the wind. 

The best ground for quail, early in the morning, is grain stubbles 
and cornfields, and meadows adjacent to dry boggy swamps, and 
rank places where briers, low bushes, and cranberries grow. The 
boundaries of fields, especially where coarse weeds and brush is 
growing, and on the bushy borders of woods, are likely places to 
find bevys. After these have been beaten, the middles of the 
fields may be tried. When the dog stands still, with stem out- 
fttretched and rigid, his frame quivering with excitement, the 



252 USK OF THE DOG IN SHOOTHTG. 

game is close before him. When he wavers, wags his tale wist- 
fully, and looks back, the game is gone, or is at some distance. If 
he crouches low, and evinces a desire to crawl on the ground, he 
has a ranniDg bevy before him. In the first case, it will be neces- 
sary to take such a direction in coming up as will command a 
good shot when the birds rise, and will drive them to ground 
which you propose to beat by and by. 

This, of course, has been previously laid out in the mind in 
planning the day's sport. When the birds rise, if a single one 
leads, he is the old cock, and should be killed by all means, if pos- 
sible. When he is bagged, the rest of the bevy will alight sooner. 
When the old pair has been shot, the rest may be counted as 
already in bag, for, deprived of their leaders, the young birds are 
bewildered. 

If all the bevy rise at once, do not shoot into the body of it, but 
select the outer bird on your own hand, the right if you are at the 
right, and the left if your companion has the right. When the 
outer bird has been dropped, the next should be covered and shot 
as quickly as possible. At least twelve or fifteen yards should be 
given before the gun is fired, otherwise the birds will be torn by 
the shot. As they light, they should be marked down carefully ; 
if they are going down hill, and before the wind, they will go 
some distance, beyond where they were last seen. If they enter a 
wood or a field of standing corn, they will rarely go through to 
the other side, but on alighting will run a few yards, and then 
squat. If the birds are seen to drop, they may be marked with 
certainty, otherwise the nature of the ground, the wind, and their 
flight, must be considered before one can be certain of their where- 
abouts. After quail have dropped and squatted, they sometimes 
give no scent, and the best dog may fail to point them. This 
habit of withholding scent, is supposed to be voluntary and in- 
stinctive; or it may be a physiological peculiarity, consequent 
upon their state of alarm, and involuntary ; this is obviously, 
however, a matter which cannot easily be investigated. But the 
fact should be known and noted, because it is useless to follow 
birds to their hiding places immediately, and the time would be 



SNIPE AND WOODCOCK SHOOTING. 255 

thrown away in doing so. To secure sport, therefore, in the af- 
ternoon, the best way is to continue beating the stubbles, feeding 
grounds, and edges of woods and dry swamps, and to secure what 
birds are found, until the scattered birds shall begin to call ; then 
to follow up those which have been flushed in the morning and 
marked down, into the precise spots or as near as may be, and 
beat up for them with patience, turning and returning until every 
bird has been accounted for. 

The quail is a difficult bird to shoot in a covert ; it flies rapidly, 
as fast in a thick cover as in the open, carries shot a long dis- 
tance, and falls suddenly in the midst of its flight. It is necessary 
for the sportsman to keep close up to his dogs when in covert 
and not to lag behind on any account whatever, lest he have only 
his labor and an empty bag for his pains. 

When rufied grouse have been flushed while hunting quail, it is 
not difficult to bag them if the precaution is taken to shoot fully 
three feet ahead of him if he be sailing down on the wind with 
the wings set ; otherwise, when he rises within range, he hangs at 
first, and if one is cool and shoots quickly, it is not so hard a 
matter to drop him. 



SNIPE AND WOODCOCK SHOOTING. 

The first game shooting after the winter is over, is that of the 
English or Wilson's snipe As soon as the frost is out of 
the ground, snipe may be hunted in low wet places and meadow 
swamps. Here they may be found resting for a time before 
going further north to their breeding places. When first arrived, 
they are wild and shift constantly from place to place ; sometimes 
they fly in knots of 10 or 20 birds, and rise high, soaring and de- 
parting out of sight. No other sport depends more upon the state 
of the weather than this; nor is any other more uncertain, on ac- 
count of the errratic and capricious nature of these birds. The 
most promising conditions for sport are the clearing of a violent 



256 USE OF THE DOG IN SHOOTING. 

K. E. Storm into soft, warm weather, the partial drying up of the 
early sprini; floods, and the blowing of a warm, south-westerly 
Lrecze, Rough weather disturbs the conditions, and shooting then 
will be a matter of great uncertainty. At times, snipe will lie in 
uplands, fallow fields, grassy meadows, and even in woodlands ; 
while in the marshes one may find plenty of borings and drop- 
pings, but not a bird. Sometimes one cannot choose, and having 
come to shoot, must do the best he can. Then, even in rough 
squally weather, birds may be found about springs and muddy 
pools, surrounded by brakes and briers, or tall alders, or high 
bunches of marsh grass or reeds. Thus the sportsman who is 
after snipe, to succeed in his aims, must know the character of his 
game and the ins and outs of its curious disposition. 

A dark day, a drizzly day, or a windy, is not favorable to sport, 
unless the wind is from the south or west and not too high. A 
mild, soft, hazy, sunshiny day, with a gentle south breeze, is jus^». 
the day for snipe. It may be hot, and if the air is damp, and thb 
breeze gentle, the birds will lie the closer for it, and on such a day 
their flight is lazy and they will drop often within a few yards of 
the dog that has flushed them. Then there are no easier birds to 
kill ; all that has to be done is to let them get away a fair dis- 
tance, so as to allow for the shot to spread, then cover the bird 
well before the trigger is touched, all the time taking things 
coolly and deliberately. 

Snipe nearly always rise against and go away up-wind, as 
closely as possible; consequently the mode of beating for this 
game is different from that used for any other. It is generally the 
practice to beat down-wind, and the ground is to be entered from 
the windward instead of from the leeward as for all other game. 
If this is not possible, the ground must be beaten diagonally, and 
all the most likely spots, approached by a circuit so as to come on 
the windward side of it. If the dog points, the sportsman must 
make a circuit around so as to get the bird, do^Ti-wind of him, and 
for this reason it is very necessary to have a steady dog. 

For young sportsmen, a pointer is recommended, but for old 
and practised sportsmen, a setter is preferred. "When the birds 



WOODCOCK SHOOTING. 257 

are plentiful, a dog is not necessary, as they lie to a man alone, as 
■well as to a man with a dog ; but if the ground to be beaten is 
wide, and the birds few, the help of a dog is needed. A dog must 
be stanch as well as steady, and sliould be immovable on his point • 
he must not crawl in or approach the bird, but must remain stiff 
even though the shooter may have to make a circuit and come 
round facing him. He must be trained to obey the hand. He 
must follow at heel when called in, without attempting to beat 
until ordered. This is a great point in snipc-sbooting, for a bird 
will lie close to a man after having been marked down, when it 
would flush wide of a dog ; and when marked down, a snipe can 
always be found because it never runs more than a few feet from 
the spot where it alighted. By going down- wind on the game, 
the sportsman forces the bird to go away to the right or left hand, 
as it tries to fly up- wind and thus afibrd a side shot. The moment 
to deliver the shot is when the snipe poises itself after first rising, 
and before it gets under way. It is then almost motionless for an 
instant, and if it rises 15 yards from the gun — and it seldom rises 
nearer — this is the time to shoot. As the snipe flies quickly, it is 
necessary to aim the gun a foot ahead of him at 20 yards, and at 
40 yards three feet space should be allowed. 

In the fall of the year their is less uncertainty in the habits of 
the birds, and they are neither so wild nor unsteady as in the 
spring. 



WOODCOCK SHOOTING. 



Custom or law has authorized the beginning of cock shooting on 
the 1st day of July in most of our States, but it is too early, both 
on account of the heat of the weather and the condition of the 
birds. At this period many broods of woodcock are but recently 
hatched, so that the killing of the hen bird, is the destruction of 
the young brood. This may perhaps account for the fact that 
these birds are rapidly diminishing in numbers, and in many places 
have been exterminated. 



258 USE OF THE DOG IN SHOOTING. 

Woodcock return year after year to the same wood to breed, and 
if owners of grounds could or would prevent shooting birds too 
early in the season, their care would be for their own benefit, as 
well as for that of the public. 

Early morning and late afternoon are the times to be preferred 
for summer shooting, though, as this bird feeds and lies upon the 
same ground all day long, it may be pursued at any time. 

The only difficulty in shooting woodcock is in the thickness of 
the covert in which they lie. In the summer the old birds rise 
heavily and often drop close to the gun in the effort to cover their 
young broods ; the young ones rise stupidly, and can be found 
again within a score or two yards. In shooting in a thick covert, 
one of the guns should be placed in an open spot where the bird 
can be seen, as it rises, because the one whose point is made can 
scarcely get a sight of the bird, at times unless he is very quick. 
Under these circumstances it is best for the shooter to flush his 
birds and not suffer the dog to do it ; in no case should he permit 
his dog to go out of sight. 

The choice of ground, depends upon the season and various other 
circumstances. In some places the birds lie in open meadows 
among rushes, bogs, and water-plants,where there is no brush. They 
are rarely found in woods. In other places they will be found in 
brakes of alders where there is a muddy bottom, or in grassy- 
meadows where slow running brooks and swales exist, with 
patches of willow and tall weeds about them. In the valleys of the 
mountain ranges they haunt the sides of low meadows at the foot 
of hills, and spots where streams emerge into the lowlands upon 
beds of black oozy vegetable matter, covered with water plants. 
A favorite feeding ground is in open woods, upon rich, black allu- 
vial soil, covered with short bunchy grass with soft spots inter- 
mingled, and where there is no undergrowth ; also in thick, red 
maple swamps on flat lands adjacent to river banks which are 
overflowed. In dry, hot weather, the cool, shady, moist ground 
is most attractive to them. 

When woodcock are not to be found i-n one favorable place, they 
may often be found in others which might be supposed to be unat- 



WOODCOCK SHOOTING. 261 

tractive, so that not only must the sportsman be patient and perse- 
vering, but be must also be observing, and make use of his well 
earned experience. Later in the season cock are to be found not 
only in such places as have been indicated, but upon damp, springy 
hill sides, where chestnuts are mixed with laurels and low ever* 
greens. Indeed as the season lengthens out to November, such 
hill sides supply these birds, with the most of their favorite food, 
which they find hidden under fallen leaves. They are always 
apt to be found where their food is most abundant. After this 
month the annual migration occurs, and the birds silently steal 
away singly, and in the night, to their winter quarters. 

The difference in the size of the male and female woodcock is 
decidedly marked ; so much is this the case that warm contro- 
versies have occurred between experienced sportsmen upon this 
subject ; some maintaining that there are two distinct species of 
the bird in this country. It was finally settled that the greater size 
of the female had misled many observant sportsmen. Woodcock 
make annual migrations in the spring and autumn, arriving in the 
Middle States from the latter part of February or first week of 
March, according as the season may be open or severe, and depart- 
ing in the months of November and December. In the autumn, 
migration, the birds that have recently arrived, are called " Flight'* 
birds, and are distinguished by the feathers on the breast being 
brighter in color than of those that have been lying in the feeding 
ground for some time; the latter's breast color being decidedly 
duller in hue. Many young cock are lost during the early freshets. 
Sometimes the weather is dry and mild in the early part of spring, 
and the woodcock hatching her brood is overtaken by rainy weath- 
er, when the young are drowned, or, if unhatched, the eggs are 
destroyed. Consequently, the sportsmen always desire a c(mtinued 
dry spring, as it is especially favorable to the increase of all species 
of game. The woodcock often feeds in the night, and persons 
but slightly acquainted with their habits are astonished at discov- 
ering in the morning, the amount of borings, covering the soft 
ground in a favorite feeding place. In very dry weather woodcock 
gather in the low wet swamps, while after a rain of a day or two's 



£G2 USE o:^' THE DOG IN SHOOTING. 

duration, tbej^ scatter through the woods, and may be found on 
hill sides, and, in fact, on much the same ground as in the fall. 
They are a most devoted and fearless bird. While on the nest a 
person may stand quietly within a very short distance of one, and if 
no unusual motion or noise is made, the hen-bird will gaze without 
fear upon the intruder. 



WILD-FOWL SHOOTING. 



The shooting of water-fowl is a sport attended with too much 
labor, fatigue and exposure to render it very attractive to any but 
experienced and eager sportsmen, who have perhaps become sated 
with the commoner recreations of grouse, snipe, quail, or wood- 
cock shooting. Familiarity with this sport is only arrived at 
through many hardships, if not risks, and exposures in all sorts of 
weather. Consequently, there are few persons besides those who 
hunt for a living, who have acquired the necessary knowledge of 
the habits and natural history of the birds, and the proper methods 
of circumventing the instinctive wariness of water-fowl, and tak- 
ing advantage of their peculiar ways, to shoot them successfully. 
Yet when a taste for the sport has been once acquired, or the first 
experience of it has been agreeable, there is no other that becomes 
more fascinating. 

Water-fowl may be divided into two classes, those which are 
found in shoal water, and those which inhabit the deep waters of 
the sounds and inlets of the sea-coast. The mallard and the dif- 
ferent teals are examples of tlie former, and the canvas-back is 
the type of the latter. The shoal water birds rarely go under 
water when feeding, although they will dive and swim long dis- 
tances under water, when wounded or alarmed. This class of 
birds includes the mallard, the blue acd green winged teal, the 
summer or wood duck, the pintail, the grey duck, shoveler, wid- 
geon, and the black or dusky duck, together with the wild goose. 
The deep water varieties include the canvas-back, the broad bill, 
tufted duck, and the buffle head. 



WILD-FOWL SHOOTING. 263 

The methods of hunting wild fowl in general nse require the 
exercise of considerable ingenuity and knowledge of the habits of 
the different species, their feeding places, and favorite food. Their 
extreme wariness and the necessity of finding the game without 
the help of dogs, retrieving being the only help afforded by them, 
add much to the labor and excitement of the sport. The ground, 
or rather the water, where the fowl abound, is generally inland 
rivers and ponds, bordered by reedy marshes and the tidal flats of 
estuaries. There is scarcely a river or marsh in the country East 
or West, or North or South, where ducks of some variety or other 
are not found at some season of the year, and sometimes in fabu- 
lous numbers. The opening of the spring and the fall are the 
sporting seasons The birds are taken either by means of decoys, 
or by awaiting their passage over a place of ambush in which the 
hunter is concealed. A boat is generally used, else the labor of 
wading through the marshes and picking roundabout paths to 
avoid deep sloughs is intolerable. 

Sometimes two persons hunt in company, yet at a distance from 
each other, one driving the birds towards the other, and the latter 
driving them back again. In this way many heavy bags are pro- 
cured. Blinds or screens are provided, behind which the hunter 
keeps himself concealed until the moment when the game are 
within range of his gun. These blinds are made in various ways. 
Full information for their construction is given in the volume 
by J. W. Long, entitled " American Wild-fowl Shooting." 

Decoys are employed to allure the passing flocks or stragglers to 
alight, being placed in such positions as are habitually chosen by 
the fowl. These decoys are mostly selected for the deep-water vari- 
ties, which can not be so well approached as those which haunt 
the ponds, rivers, and marshes, from the banks of which, screened 
from observation behind his blind, the hunter can easily reach the 
approaching game. Decoys of various kinds are used. Those 
made of pine, and thoroughly coated with priming of raw oil, 
are to be preferred, as they are light and durable. The main thing 
in the decoy is to have it as natural as possible in form and color, 
and so built up and weighted that it will sit steadily in the water 



.^64 USE OF THE DOG IX SHOOTING. 

without rolling; or losin^^ an upright position. A finishing coat of 
vaniish will spoil the best made decoy, on account of its glaring 
and glistening in the sun. A dead surface is the best. The 
weight needed to steady the decoy should be made of a strip of 
sheet lead, placed in a groove at the bottom, and formed like the 
keel of a boat. Where smooth water only is to be met with, flat- 
bottomed decoys can be used. These may be carved out of a 
piece of soft pine plank, but for rough water use, two pieces are 
needed ; one for the top and another for the bottom, which are 
hollowed out, then put together and painted. Decoys are pro- 
vided with a line suited to the depth of the water, and a weight of 
not less than four ounces, made of a quarter length of a pound bar 
of lead of the kind used for bullets. The line is wound around 
the body of the duck, towards the tail, from which it unwinds 
easily as the weight is thrown out, when the decoys are set. A 
long string is usually tied to one of the decoys by which it may be 
shaken so as to ripple the water, and cause the whole flock of 
them to move. A " duck call " being used at the same time when 
birds are passing will almost surely attract their notice. The de- 
coys are best placed, so that the sun shines on the side towards 
which the ducks are expected. 

A Water Retriever, or a dog that will take to water readily and 
is furnished with a coat of a nature that resists water, is used in 
duck shooting. Whatever kind is selected, whether a well-bred 
curly-coated rctreiver, a water spaniel, or a Chesapeake Bay dog, 
he must be well trained for his work, and not averse to taking to 
the water however cold it may be. The only native dog of the 
right kind we have, is known as the Chesapeake Bay dog. Though 
a descendent of the curly-^^oated Irish retriever without doubt, 
he has been educated to his work by breeding and training for 
some years. There is no better hunting ground in America for 
wild fowl, than the Chesapeake Bay and its inlets and the 
sounds along the North Carolina Coast, and here this useful dog has 
his home and vocation. The dog used for this sport is trained 
first to know his name; then to instantly drop, wherever he 
may be, at a word or a signal of the hand, and to lie quietly until 



WILD-FOWL SHOorrN-G. 265 

ordered or signalled to rise. He should be taught to remain quiet 
after the discharge of the gun, until ordered to work. This is the 
most important part of his education, and if not well trained in 
this, he may easily spoil good sport and lose game by rushing out 
and spoiling the effect of a second shot. Dead birds need not 
be gathered until the shooting slackens or good opportunity 
occurs; otherwise, the dog may alarm the game and prevent 
birds alighting by his frequent appearance. It is best, however, 
to secure the cripples as soon as possible, and tliis a well trained 
dog will do of his own motion and without waiting for orders; 
while he will leave dead ducks until ordered to retrieve them. A 
dog when taught to fetch should never be permitted to drop the 
game at his master's feet, lest by doing this, when at work, some 
wounded birds may flutter away and be lost or give much trouble 
to recapture them. He should be made to deliver only to the 
hand. Water-Fowl retrievers naturally grip their birds tightly 
and should be taught to hold them tenderly yet safely. The season 
for training is the summer when the water is warm ; some dogs 
will refuse to enter water that is very cold after having experi- 
enced the discomforts of it in training. When being trained, he 
should be taught to search for tlie object he is ordered to retrieve, 
and to do this, the trainer should secretly throw the object 
to a distance and then bi:l the dog search and find it, or motion 
him with a wave of the arm in the direction he should go. Short 
and easy lessons will be found the most useful. When punishing 
a dog for a fault, the castigation should never be so severe as to 
overbear in his mind the memory of the offence for which it was 
given. Punishment ought to be administered gently but firmly 
and instantly. ISTever delay punishment until it is necessarily dis- 
connected with the fault, and do not be chary of praise for good 
conduct. 

A ducking expedition can hardly be worth much, without the 
necessity for camping out for a longer or shorter interval. The 
sportsman should therefore not only know how to make camp, but 
also be provided with the means for making and furnishing it. In 
the spring when bark of nearly all kinds peels very easily, a com- 
12 



266 USE OP THE DOG IN SHOOTINO. 

fortable camp is soon made. Two forked poles set up for tho 
front, a cross bar resting upon these, form the opening and a sup- 
port for the roof ; two saplings reaching from the forks to the 
ground giving slope for the roof, and a few poles resting on these, 
and fastened with some withes, finish the frame. Slabs of bark 
laid upon the top form the roof, and the ends are closed up in the 
same way ; the front is left open. In place of bark, pine or hem- 
lock brush, or coarse grass, will furnish substitutes. Otherwise a 
pair of gum blankets, or when one has plenty of means, a A tent 
complete, can be provided. Cooking apparatus and comfortable 
furniture and folding boats or canoes are supplied by the dealers 
in sporting commodities. A genuine sportsman will always be 
independent of these appliances, an ax and a box of matches serv- 
ing to supply all his wants in the way of furnishing camp and 
cooking materials. As to supplies for camping, it is hardly neces- 
sary to mention these, further than to caution the young sports- 
man never to forget to provide salt, pepper, and sugar; everything 
else will follow. These are most frequently forgotten, to the 
great disappointment of those of the party who never trouble 
themselves about the arrangements. 

The camp should never be set in a hollow ; a round knoll being 
safe in case of a sudden heavy rain which might overflow a hol- 
low and make matters very uncomfortable. A shelter for the 
camp should be chosen where there are no tall trees. Low brush 
will protect the camp from heavy winds without such danger as 
would exist among heavy trees in case of sudden gusts. The camp 
should always face southward. 

The color of the dress is an important consideration. This 
should always be of a neutral tint, matching the surroundings. 
The light brown waterproof hunting suits made for this special 
purpose, offer very little contrast with the color of the ground or 
with faded weeds, grass, leaves, and trunks of trees and brush. 
Ducks are more suspicious of dark colors than of light, and next 
to the yellowish-brown clothing, a light grey will be found desir- 
able. A waterproof coat and rubber boots covering the thighs are 
indispensable; 



SHOAL- WATER FOWL, 26? 

As to tlie supply of ammunition that " goes without saying," 
and as no one would make a secondary matter of this, it may be 
safely left for each one to please his fancy in this respect. 

A pocket compass is indispensable to avoid trouble, for in 
ihick marshes upon cloudy days the direction of the camp is other- 
wise difficult to find. A man used to the woods is not easily lost ; 
there are many signs which guide him in his course, but so many 
accidents may occur that it is prudent to have a compass on all 
occasions. A " pocket pistol" charged with the best quality of 
any good spirit may be needed in case of sickness. As a safe- 
guard against chills, there should likewise be a supply of quinine 
on hand. Little hunting should be done before breakfast, and the 
coffee sliould be made hot and strong. The drinking of impure 
water is to be carefully avoided. Lastly, woollen flannel under- 
clothing will be found a great protection in warding off ague. 



SHOAL-WATER FOWL. 



The species of fowl which frequent shoal water have been 
already mentioned ; but a short description of the principal varie- 
ties may be of interest. 

Th^ Mallard,— This is a handsome bird, 24 inches in length to 
the end of the tail when full grown ; the extent of the wings is 36 
inches, and the weight is about 3 pounds. The male is marked 
^s follows: The bill, greenish-yellow; iris, dark brown; feet, 
3range-red ; head and neck, deep green, with a ring of white about 
the middle of the neck ; fore part of the chest, chestnut brown ; 
fore part of back, yellowish-brown and grey ; the rest of the back, 
brownish-black ; the rump, black, with purplish and green shad- 
ing ; the wings are greyish brown, with a " beauty spot" of purple 
and green, edged with black and white on ten or more of the 
secondaries; breasts, sides, and belly, pale grey, shaded with dark 



268 TTSE OF THE BOG IN SHOOTING. 

The female has the bill black and orange ; the iris and feet as in 
the male; the upper pans generally pale brown, spotted -with 
dusky brown; the head striped or narrowly streaked ; the wings 
and beauty spots nearly as in the male; the under parts dull 
olive, spotted with brown ; length, 22 inches ; weight, Lbout 2i 
lbs. Mallards breed mostly in the far north and begin to come 
south in August, staying for a month or more in the Northwestern 
States and Canada, where vast numbers are sometimes taken. On 
one occasion l,o65 ducks were killed in 17 days' shooting by one 
man, with a single barrel, muzzle-loading gun. The rivers and 
lakes of the Northwestern States furnish unlimited sport in the 
spring when the birds are on the way to their breeding places, and 
in the fall when they are returning south. During the winter the 
open overflowed timber lands of the Southern and Southwestern 
States are fairly alive with these birds. A great number of them 
are sb'^t at this season in the large corn fields of the more southern 
of the Western States, where they stay to feed upon the scattered 
corn. While shooting ducks in the com fields, the sportsman will 
pick up occasionally a few quail or prahie chickens, and should 
be accompanied by a good dog. 

The Blue- Winged 7<saA— This is a small, but richly flavored bird, 
considered to be inferior to none except the canvas-back and the 
red-head. They are the first to move southward in the fall, and 
are 'ound in vast numbei-s in suitable grounds in the western 
coulitr>^ where they find acceptable food, such as wild rice, oats, 
and pond weeds. They congregate about small, muddy streams, 
where pond lilies and wild rice abound, and also in shallow sloughs. 
Gravelly streams or ponds are rarely frequented by them. This 
bird weighs less than one pound, and is about 16 inches in length. 
The head of the male is black on the upper part, with a half-moon 
shaped patch of white in front of each eye ; the neck is purplish 
blue ; the back brownish black, with green gloss ; the lower parts 
pale reddish orange ; the breast purplish red, and spotted with 
black. The wings are marked with rich lustroua blue. The 
female's head is pale buff, striped with dark lines. The upper parts 
are dark brown, the lower parts are dusky brown and grey. 



WILD-FOWL SHOOTING. 269 

TJie Green Winged Teal is smaller than the previous variety, and 
among other dtSerences in color has the wings and back of the 
neck marked with deep bright green. This bird remains later in 
the season than the blue teal, but while it remains it associates 
■with the latter, feeding and flying promiscuously with them. 

The Pintail Duck is a bird of about 3 pounds weight, and 
measures full-grown 29 inches from bill to end of tail. The female 
is smaller and lighter than the male. In color this duck is greenish 
brown on the head, throat, and upper part of the neck; part of 
the neck is barred with brownish black and a yellowish white. The 
spots on the wings are coppery red with green reflections. On each 
side of the neck is a white band, and the upper parts in general are 
whitish. 

The Sprigtail is the most handsomely formed of the whole duck 
tribe, and abounds in all parts of the country except in the New 
England Stales. Its food consists of the small acorns of the pin 
oak, the seeds of smartweed, cockle-burr, wild oats, and com, and 
beech-nuts. This species is found in immense numbers at the 
opening of spring, occupying the overflowed fields and prairies, 
and feeding upon the drifting masses of grass seeds, com, and 
waste grain. They soon become fat and in fine condition, and 
offer the best of sport, flying closely and irregularly, and are thus 
easily killed ; several often dropping at one shot. Decoys are not 
used for hunting them. When wounded, and on land, they are diffi- 
cult to retrieve without a good dog, as they can run rapidly and 
are apt to crouch and hide very closely, and so escape observation. 

The Wood Duck is the most beautifully feathered of all the wild 
fowl, and are common to all parts of the Union except the sea- 
coast. Their nesting places are in stumps and hollow trees, whence 
they derive their name. They never dive for food, and are gener- 
ally found about old musk-rat houses, logs, and banks, on the 
edges of patches of reeds. In the middle of the day they may 
nearly always be found in these spots sunning themselves and 
trimming their feathers. They are in season in August and Sep- 
tember. 

The American Widgeon is abundant in the waters of some of the 



270 USE OP THB DOG IN SHOOTIKQ. 

Southern States, more particularly Missouri and Tennessee, and on 
the Chesapeake Bay, where they feed on the roots of wild celery, 
which they rarely find by diving for them, but most frequently 
procure by robbing the canvas-backs of the fruits of their sub- 
aqueous labors. They are distinguished from others of their tribe 
by their length of wing. They are easily brought down, as they 
fly clustered together, and several may be killed at a shot. 

Spoonbills, seldom furnish sport themselves alone, but associat- 
ing with mallards are often taken with them. They are easily 
decoyed and are killed by a slight blow ; it is not unusual for a 
flock of 6 or 8 to fall before the discharge of both barrels. They 
are easily approached from the shore, and their habit of springing 
up directly in the air several feet before flying off on a course, 
gives an opportunity for using the second barrel with eSect, 

The Dusky or Black Duck, weighs 3 pounds. The general color 
is blackish brown. It is frequently found in the West with the 
mallard, having the same food and general habits. In the East it 
is very numerous, and is eagerly pursued by sportsmen. It is very 
wary and must be approached with caution. 



DEEP-WATER FOWL. 



TJie Canvas-Back Duck. — This species is the finest flavored of 
all wild fowl. Its food in those localities where it is taken in per- 
fection, consists of the roots of the wild celery, which give to its 
flesh the peculiar flavor for which it is so attractive. Its habits of 
frequenting open water entail much labor and sometimes exposure 
and risk to the sportsman ; and the uninitiated gunner is foiled 
in his attempts, time after time, to secure the gamy and highly 
prized bird, disappointment however only whetting desire and add- 
ing to his eagerness. To approach these wary fowl, or to induce 
them to approach the hunter is the secret of the sportsman's art, 
and by the help of various stratagems the game is generally 
brought to bag by the experienced. The system pursued on the 



DEEP-WATER FOWL. 271 

Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolma Sounds, and known as 
" toling," is the most successful. It is as follows : A small dog, 
an ordinary poodle, or one very much similar to that, white or 
brown in color, and called the toler breed, is kept for the purpose. 
It is trained to run up and down on the shore in the sight of the 
ducks, directed by the motion of his owner's hand. The curiosity 
of the ducks is excited, and they approach the shore to discover 
the nature of the object which has attracted their attention. They 
raise their heads, look intently, and then start in a body for the 
shore. When within 40 yards or less, they stop and swkn back 
and forth for a moment before they return. The dog lies low 
when the ducks are approaching, and at the time when they pre- 
sent their sides is the opportunity to rake the flock. Many ducks 
then often fall before one gun. To prevent the dogs from disturb- 
ing the ducks while they are toling, they are not allowed to go in 
for the game, but the retrievers known as the Chesapeake Bay 
dogs are used for this purpose. 

When the ducks become bedded, that is, gather in large bodies 
in one place in open water, for feeding or resting, boats covered 
with brush and weeds, and propelled silently by paddles, are used 
by hunters to approach within shooting distance. The sportsman 
rests upon his knees, in the boat, bending forward to conceal him- 
self, when ducks are approaching. The arrangement of decoys, 
and taking up the dead ducks, are matters of experience about 
which no suggestions are needed. Canvas-backs do not drop as 
mallards do, when alighting on the water, but sweep over the de- 
coys, and circle round again, to alight, if their suspicions are not 
aroused. The novice may lose his game by haste in firing as they 
first approach, when by reserving his fire until they come the 
second time, his chances are greatly improved. The moment of 
bunching or crossing of the flock as it prepares to alight is the time 
for the hunter to rise slowly and deliberately so as to create no 
alarm. A second shot may often be made by taking things coolly, 
as the ducks, seeing the decoys quiet, are reassured, and often do not 
leave at the first shot. The big bags are made on rainy days when 
the ducks are restless and are easily decoyed. Wounded ducks 



273 USE OF THE DOG IN SHOOTING, 

must be shot again at once before the shooter is discovered, othe^ 
wise a long and weary chase may be needed before they are secur- 
ed, as they are expert divers and can swin under water for very 
long distances. Retrievers cannot be used for picking up crippleci 
canvas-backs, as catching one ui this way is out of the question. 
Canvas backs are found in the spring along the back waters of the 
Mississippi, in great numbers, when the winter has been severe in 
the East, as they then make their way up from Galveston Bay an^ 
from the mouths and bayous of the river. 

The Bed-headed Buck is distinguished by the color of its head, 
which, with more than half the neck, is of a brown-red, glossed 
with bright red above. Its weight is about 2^ pounds. Its habits 
are similar to those of the canvas-back, and it subsists upon the 
same kind of food, chiefly roots of grasses and other aquatic 
plants. They are found in large flocks, always fly together, but feed 
along with canvas-backs, and some kinds of shoal- water fowl. 
They cluster well together and decoy easily. Sometimes they are 
taken plentifully, foolishly returning to the decoys after a shot, 
and rising so close together that several are dropped at one dis- 
charge, as they rise against the wind, or huddle up before rising. 
This duck is second only to the canvas-back, as a delicate article 
of food. 

The Scaup-Duck or Blue-Bill^ furnishes more sport than many of 
the more valuable ducks. They settle down to decoys so readily, 
return so quickly, and pack so closely together, the hunter can 
hardly fail of being satisfied either with his sport or his bag. They 
approach shore so carelessly, that with decoys well placed, they 
may be shot from a blind, built in the bushes, if care is taken to 
avoid sudden or needless movements. 

Ring-necked and Ruffle-fieaded Bucks, are small, and although 
furnishing some good sport, are not often hunted. They are found 
in nearly every part of the country, in both fresh and salt water. 
The former is a vegetable feeder and its flesh is well flavored ; 
the latter subsists on fish, snails, and other animal foods, and the 
flesh is ill flavored although it is always fat. It is neglectod by the 
pot hunter as too insignificant for his professional attention. 







-■^ g 



HAKB HUNTING. 275 

HARE HUNTING. 

We have no rabbits in America, although the animals called rab- 
bits — but really hares — are sufficiently plentiful to afford gooci 
sport with dogs, in the fall and early winter. It may be of interest 
to note here that the principal specific differences between hares 
and rabbits, are that the former breed twice a year only, and make 
their forms upon the ground under the shelter of bushes or tufts 
of grass, weeds, or brakes, while the latter breed once a month and 
are burrowing animals, making their hiding-places underground 
and in company on the sides of dry banks, the places being called 
" warrens." 

The larger hare, which changes its color in the winter, is abun- 
dant in the Eastern States, Northern New York, Canada, and the 
wooded portions of the North-western States. The writer has had 
excellent sport in the wooded regions of the northern peninsula of 
Michigan and the adjoining part of Wisconsin, in the early fall, 
when a few sharp frosts have caused the woods previously dressed 
in their gorgeous habits of crimson and gold, to drop their foliage 
and admit the light of day without interference. The most useful 
dog in such a case, is a setter trained for this especial work, 
taught to beat the ground properly, pomt his game, to range low 
and to retrieve well. 

The Small Hare, which does not change color in the winter, af- 
fords good sport in the fall, m the cultivated country further 
south, in open woods, stubble fields, and meadows. For hare 
shooting alone, a pair of small beagles are to be preferred. The 
pace of these little hounds is comparatively slow, but they will 
follow up their game tirelessly through all their doublings and 
twistings, and will always bring them back to the starting point. 
Here, covered by a stump, a tree, or a bush, the sportsman stands 
stUl, waiting for the return of the game, and listening, meanwhile, 
to the smaU music of these melodious little animals during the 
few minutes the circuit is making. The cry of the hounds will 
inform the hunter of the direction in which to look for the game, 
and unless he remains perfectly motionless, without doing more 



276 USE OF THE DOG IN SHOOTING, 

than breathing quietly, and even scarcely winking, he will find 
the wary and suspicious animal to dart away suddenly, or to steal 
off unobserved within a few paces under cover of the smallest 
possible shelter. Sometimes a spoken word, an ejaculation, or 
a whistle will arrest the fugitive, and give time for an effective 
shot, almost at point-blank range. With a number of guns in a 
well furnished covert, and a few couple of beagles, lively sport 
can be had. The ground best adapted for this sport, and where 
plenty of game is to be found, is in ranges of scrub oaks, pine 
barrens, and low bushy thickets, such as occur in many places on 
Long Island, Southern New Jersey, Eastern Pennsylvania, and the 
" old fields " of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. 



DEER HUNTING. 



The finest of all American hunting consists, perhaps with- 
out exception, in taking deer, either on the run followed by 
hounds, by stalking or still hunting, or by hunting the game 
with packs of well trained hounds regularly maintained and fol- 
lowed by fleet high bred hunters, mounted by the keenest sports- 
men. The first method is that which is mostly followed in the 
West and Northern States. It is in this way that a welcome ad- 
dition to the larder of the enterprising settler or backwoodsman is 
procured, while his instinctive love of hunting is gratified. This kind 
of sport is considered slow by those who have once enjoyed the 
hunt^ar excellence in the open fields or free woods of the South, in 
which horse and hound are pitted against each other in conflict 
^ith the game. But it is by no means to be despised, and the 
hunter who is not able to join the mounted hunt with a regular 
pack, may well feel satisfied when he bears to his camp the well- 
earned game, secured after many miles of exciting tramp or patient 
eager waiting. 

The American deer is found more or less abundantly wherever 
there are large tracts of woodland, from the central and northern 
part of New York and Maine, to Texas. The mountains of Centrai 



DEER HUNTIN^G. 279 

New York, the great forests of Pennsylvania and of Western 
Virginia, with the mountain region of the Carolinas and Alabama, 
and the hummocks of Florida in the East, and the extensive 
wooded regions of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and 
Canada in the West, furnish the great field for deer hunting 
of this kind. There the frequent deer paths mtersect the woods 
and fresh scent can always be found upon which to start the dogs. 
The dogs used are generally cross-bred hounds or deerhounds of 
impure blood, although the pure, but rarer dachshund, is now being 
employed m this sport. Speed is not so much a requisite as stanch- 
ness and excellent scent ; the tireless, unerring following up of 
the trail, with plenty of tongue to signify the whereabouts of the 
game, being the chief requisites for this sport. Some hunters who 
desire great activity are fond of objecting to this as dull plodding 
amusement; this may be when a party of "tender feet" are 
stationed at run ways to spend hour after hour and while away 
the day in the vain hope of seemg game, or even hearing the 
music of the hounds. But when a lone hunter, or a well-mated 
party, join in the sport, with a couple of good dogs, and shift 
their places, as the baying of the dogs gives notice of 'the course 
the game is taking, and when the hunter, now following the course 
over logs and rocks, through brush and swamps, cutting off the 
game as it sweeps around, and with true woodcraft, meets it at a 
turn, without giving sight or scent of his presence, and with un- 
erring aim speeds his deadly bullet through the head or heart of 
bis prey — then the most thorough sportsman may find sufficient 
pleasure and excitement in which to forget the sometimes too 
vigorous and enduring exercise. Deerhounds well trained for this 
sport wif. bring the game around to their starting point, where a 
a cover of brush may be provided to screen the hunter from ob- 
servation until the deer is brought within easy distance for a safe 
shot. 

Beer Stalking.— Perhaps the true woodsman will choose to still 
hunt his game. In this sport there are required : a wonderful acute- 
ness to distinguish "sign "to follow the trail; excessive stealth, 
yet swiftness of tread, to cover the ground quickly; a rare keej 



280 



USE OF THE DOG IN SnOOTING. 



ness of vision and of hearing, to detect and discover the game ; an 
accurate sight, and rapid yet steady shooting from tlie shoulder, 
and, lastly, the capability of dressing the game and packing it to 
camp or out of the -woods. 

JDcer Licks. — A safe and sure method of hunting deer is to make 
what are known as deer licks. The well known appetite of the 
icer for salt famishes an opportunity for this sport. A stump or 
fallen log is chosen near where deer paths cross or are abundant, 
and in a somewhat open place, such as a windfall, where fallen 
trees and roots furnish a good blind, to screen the hunter. The 
blind is chosen on the windward side of the lick, so as to prevent 
the game from scenting the hunter. The deer frequent the licks 
in the early morning and about sun-down. At these times the 
hunter is at his stand prepared for work, and he is generally re- 
warded by a successful sliot for his patient waiting. The engrav- 
ing on page 277 represents the usual manner of hunting by means 
of a "lick," 




aAMB IN THB FAR WEST. 283 

GAME IN THE FAR WEST. 

While Buffalo have almost wholly disappeared from the regions 
traversed by the great public thoroughfares, and other kinds of 
game have perceptibly diminished in some quarters, there is no im- 
mediate danger of their becoming extinct, as has been argued by 
some writers. There will be some hunting for several more years 
to come in many localities in the yet unoccupied regions of West. 
ern Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Montana, and 
Dakota. You can leave New York, and in about a week's time 
reach the hunting centers where one who has a passion for the rod 
or gun can be fully gratified. Within ten years' time, buffalo were 
seen in droves from the cars of the passing railway trains in Kan- 
sas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Now they have disappeared from 
Middle and Southern Kansas, and the present range of what is 
known as the " southern herd " of buffalo, lies in the region of 
country south of the Arkansas River and extends to the Texas 
line. Here large numbers of buffalo have been killed during the 
past six or eight years. Between the scant herbage of the plains, 
and the merciless destruction of Remington, Winchester, and 
Sharpens rifles, the animals have mostly disappeared from this 
re^on. The range is reached by going out on the Atchison, To- 
peka, and Santa F6 road as far as Lakin, and then striking due 
south. There are a few buffalo left in North Park, Colorado, and 
the country west of it. They are, however, very wary and di^'fi- 
cult to find. A party of us rode over 130 miles in a fruitless efl >rt 
to discover this drove. There are likewise a few buffalo in North- 
ern Nebraska in the Niobrara region. The great northern herd, 
ho we ver,has pushed far northward beyond the Yellowstone country. 
During November, 1881, we found large numbers of Buffalo be- 
tween tbe Little Missouri River and the Yellowstone. The drove 
was estimated at luUy eighty thousand. At Glendive, Montana, 
we met hunters killing them for their hides. A few years 
ago, passengers on the Kansas Pacific Road constantly saM( A.nte- 
Jope from the windows. Now, however, they are rarely se^^n ex- 
cept in the western portion of Kansas and along the Colorado bouu- 



284 USE OF THE DOG IN SHOOTING. 

dary. They are likewise diminishing in Colorado and Nebraska. 
In Wyoming, however, and Northern Colorado, there were more 
antelope after 1878 than there had been for several seasons, and 
the hunting has since been good. I know no better locality for 
hunting antelope than North Park. We found countless numbers 
here during Nov. 1878, and so tame, that they would occasionally run 
tiirough our camp before sunrise. After the genuine sportsman has 
shot one or two of these beautiful creatures, he desists from th-.ir 
further destruction unless it be i.n food. There are parties, how- 
ever, calling themselves sportsmen, who shoot down antelope ri^ht 
and left for the mere brutal gratification of being able to tell on their 
return home of their achievements, and to add to the number of 
their horns and other tropnics. Day after day I have marked the 
trail of these spurious sportsmen by the carcasses of animals, un- 
necessarily and inhumanly slaughtered. There is naturally much 
feeling in Wyoming and Colorado against these butchers, and the 
frontiersman is often so incensed as to threaten summary vengeance. 

Deer and elk are to be found during the summer months in the 
snowy ranges of Colorado, and likewise on the southern borders 
of North Park. In October and November they begin to come 
out of the snow-covered mountains, among the foot-hills, and on 
the plains, where they are found in considerable numbers. One 
day, not long ago, while we were riding on the Uts^h Northern 
Road, the engineer w^as compelled to slack up the tram for fear of 
running over a band of deer which were crossing the track in their 
descent from the mountain regions to the plains. 

During tlie winter months, the best country for hunting elk, deer, 
or antelope, is in Northern Wyoming, due north from Rawlms, in 
the Sweet Water and Wind River regions. Here appears to be a 
kind of winter rendezvous for wild game, and if a hunting part^ 
secures the right kind of a guide, they can have their fill of enjoy- 
ment in this country. If you can afford the time and expenditure, 
one of the most adventurous of western trips is to proceed to Bis- 
marck, then to the Yellow Stone River, visit the Parks, and then, 
pushing down through Wyoming, reach the Union Pacific at Raw- 
lins, Laramie, or some adjacent point 



BOOK III 



THE DISEASES OF THE DOG AND THEIB 
TREATMENT. 



CHAPTER I. 

PECULIARITIES IN THE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 
OF THE DOG. 

r 
THE SKELETON, INCLUDING THE TEETH. — THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM.— THE 

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM. — THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. — THE HEART 

AND LUNGS.— THE SKIN. 

THE SKELETON, INCLUDING THE TEETH. 

In the skeleton of the dog and in that of the horse, as well as of all 
other animals remarkable for their speed, there is a peculiar char- 
acteristic of the chest which deserves to be noticed. A narrow- 
chested horse or dog may have better wind than another with a 
round barrel, because he is able to alter the cubic contents of his 
chest more rapidly, and thus inspire and expire a larger volume of 
air. A medium transverse diameter is therefore to be desired 
and is practically found to be advantageous, in allowing a better 
action of the shoulder-blades rolling upon the surface on eacb 
side. These facts ought to be taken into consideration in selecting 
the best kind of frame for the purposes of speed and endurance. 

Large size of bone contributes to the strength of the limbs, and 
foxhounds especially, which have continual blows and strains in 
their scrambling over or through fences of all kinds, require big 
limbs and joints. When, however, extreme speed is desired, as in 
the greyhound, there may be an excess of bone, which then acts as 
an incumbrance, and impedes the activity. Still, even in this dog, 
the bones and joints must be strong enough to resist the shocks of 
the course, without which we constantly find them liable to frac- 
ture or dislocation. If, however, a dog is brought up at liberty, 
and from his earliest years is encouraged in his play, the bones, 
though small, are strong, and the joints are united by firm ligaments 
which will seldom give way. 
2S7 



288 ANATOMY OF THE DOG. 

The dog has no collar-bone, so that his fore quarter is only at- 
tached to the body by muscular tissue. This is effected chiefly by 
a broad sling of muscle, which is attached above to the edge of the 
shoulder-blade, and below to the ribs near their lower ends. It is 
also moved backwards by muscles attached to the spine, and for- 
wards by others connected in front to the neck and head, so that 
at the will of the animal it plays freely in all directions. 

The teeth are 42 in number, arranged as follows : 

3 3 1 1 8 6 

Incisors 3^3 Canines j^^ Molars j^^ 



TEETH OF THE DOG AT VARIOUS AGES. 

The incisors are somewhat remarkable in shape, having three 
lobules at their edges resembling a fleur-de-lis (Figs. 43-44). Next 
to these come the canine teeth or tusks, and then the molars, which 
vary in form considerably. In the upper jaw, in front, are three 
sharp and cutting teeth, which Cuvier calls false molars; then a 
tooth with two cutting lobes ; and lastly two flat teeth, or true 
molars. In the under jaw, the first four molars on each side arc 
false, or cutters ; then an intermediate one, with the posterior part 
flat; and lastly two tubercular teeth, or true molars. As the inci- 
sors are worn away and the dog becomes old, the lobules on the 
edges wear away and are flattened (see Figs. 45 and 46). The teeth 
are developed in two sets; the first, called milk-teeth, showing 
themselves through the gums about a fortnight or three weeks 
after birth, and lasting until the fifth or sixth month, when they arc 
displaced by the permanent set, the growth of which is accom- 
panied by a degree of feverishness, which is often mistaken for dis- 
temper. The dog's teeth should he beautifully white, if he is 
healthy and well reared, and until the third year there should be 
no deposit of tartar upon them, but after that time they are always 
coated with this substance at the roots, more or less, according to 
the feeding and state of health. 



TEETH OP THE DOG. 



289 



The fore feet are generally provided with five toes, and the hind 
with four, all furnished with strong nails that are not retractile. 
The inner toe on the fore feet is more or less rudimental, and is 
called the dew-claw ; while there is also sometimes present in the 
hind foot a claw in the same situation still more rudimental, inas- 



Fig. 43. 



Fig. 44. 




Fig. 45. 



Fig. 46. 



much as there is often no bony connexion with the metatarsal 
bone. This also is called the dew-claw, when present. 



THE MUSCULAK SYSTEM. 



The muscles of the dog have nothing remarkable about them, 
except that they are renewed and wasted faster than in most 
13 



290 ~ ANATOMY OF THE DOG. 

animals. This has passed into a proverb, and should be known as 
influencing the time which dogs take to recruit their strength. 



THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

The nervous system is highly developed in those breeds whici 
have been carefully attended to, that is, where individuals of high 
nervous sensibility have been selected to breed from. This is 
therefore remarkable in the bulldog, selected for generations for 
courage ; in the pointer, where steadiness in pointing has been the 
prominent cause of choice ; and in the greyhound, whose charac- 
teristic is speed ; all requiring a high development of the nervous 
system, and all particularly liable to nervous diseases, such as fits, 
chorea, etc. On the other hand, the cur, the common sheep-dog, 
etc., seldom suffer from any disease whatever. 



THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 



The stomach of this animal is extremely powerful in dissolving 
bones, but it is also very liable to sickness, and on the slightest dis- 
turbance rejects its contents. This appears to be almost a natural 
effect, and not a diseased or disordered condition, as there is scarcely 
a dog which does not wilfully produce vomiting occasionally by 
swallowing grass. Few medij[;ines which are at all irritating will 
remain down, and a vast number which are supposed to be given 
are not retained on the stomach, while others are only partially so. 
The bowels are extremely liable to become costive, which is in 
great measure owing to the want of proper exercise, and this also 
is very apt to produce torpidity of the liver. It may, however, be 
observed that in almost all particulars, except the tendency to 
vomit, the digestive organs of the dog resemble those of man. 



SBABT, JLUNGS, AND SKIN. 291 

THE HEART AND LUNGS. 

There is nothing whatever remarkable in the heart and lungs ; 
but the blood-vessels, like those of most of the lower animals, are 
BO elastic in their coats that they quickly contract when divided, 
and a fatal bleeding rarely results. 



THE SKIN. 

The skin of the dog is said to be quite free from perspiration, 
but this is a mistake, as I have often seen the short hairs of a 
smooth-coated dog glistening with fine beads of liquid, poured 
out on a hot day, when strong exercise was taken. The tongue, 
however, is the grand means of carrying off heat by evaporation, 
and its extensive surface, when hanging out of the mouth, is suf- 
ficient for the purpose, as the fluid is carried off more rapidly 
from the air passing over it in expiration. I am persuaded that a 
considerable amount of insensible perspiration is constantly going 
on from the surface of the skin, and that nothing ought to be done 
which is likely to check it. This, however, is contrary to the 
generally received opinion, which is thai nothing of the kind 
takes place in this animal. 




CHAPTER IL 

THE REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG, AND THE BEST 
MEANS OF ADMINISTERING THEJVI. 

ALTERATIVES. — ANODT^TES. — ANTISPASMODICS. — APERIEJITS. — ASTRIN- 
GENTS.— BLISTERS.— CAUSTICS.— CHARGES.— CORDIALS. — DIUBETIC3. 
— EMBROCATIONS. — EMETICS. — EXPECTORANTS. — FBVER MEDICINES. — 
CLYSTERS. — LOTIONS. — OINTMENTS.— STOMACHICS. — STTPTI03. — TON- 
ICS. — ^WORM MEDICINES.— ADMINISTRATION OF REMEDIES. 

ALTERATIVES. 

These are medicines which are given with a view of changing 
an unhealthy into a healthy action. We know nothing of the 
mode in which the change is produced, and we can only judge of 
them by the results. The most powerful are mercury, iodine, 
hemlock, hellebore, and cod-liver oil, which are given in the fol- 
lowing formulas : 

1.— ^thiop's mineral, ly to 5 grains. 
Powdered rhubarb, 1 to 4 grains. 
" ginger, i to li grain. 
Mix and make Into a pill, to be given every evening. 

2. — Hemlock extract, or fresh-bruised leaves, 2 to 4 grains. 
Plummer's pill, 14 to 5 grains. 
Mix, and give every night, or every other night. 

3.— Iodide of potassium, 2 to 4 grains. 

Liquid extract of sarsaparilla, 1 drachm. 
Mix, and give in a little water, once or twice a day. 

4- — Stinking hellebore, 5 to 10 grains. 

Powdered jalap, 2 to 4 g:rains. 

Mix mto a bolus, and give every other night. 

5. — Cod-liver oil, from a teaspoonful to a tablespoonfoL 
To be given twice a day. 
292 



ANODYNES AND ANTISPASMODICS. 293 

ANODYNES. 

Anodynes are required in the dog chiefly to stop diarrhoea, 
which is a very common disease with him. Sometimes also they are 
used for the purpose of relieving spasm. Opium is so little objec- 
tionable in the dog that it is almost the only anodyne used ; but 
the dose must be far larger than for human beings, and less than 
a teaspoonful of laudanum for an average dog will be found to be 
wholly ineffectual. 
For slight purging : 

6.— Prepared chalk, 2 to 3 drachms. 
Aromatic confection, 1 drachm. 
Laudanum, 3 to 8 drachms. 
Powder of gum arable, 2 drachms. 
Water, 7 ounces. 
Miij^and give two tablespoonfuls every time the bowels are relaxed, 
or, 
7. — Castor oil, from a dessert to a tablespoonful. 
Laudanum, 1 to 2 drachms. 
Mix, and give as a drench, repeating it in a day or two if necessary. 

For long standing and severe purgation : 
8. — Creosote, 2 drachms. 

Laudanum, 6 to 8 drachms. 
Prepared chalk, 2 drachms. 
Powdered gum arabic, 2 drachms. 
Tincture of ginger, 2 drachms. 
Peppermint water, 6 ounces. 
Mix, and give two tablespoonfuls every time the bowels are relaxed, but 
not more often than every four hours. 



ANTISPASMODICS. 

Antispasmodics are useful in allaying cramp or spasm, but, as in 
the case of Alteratives, we do not know how they act. The chief 
ones are opium, ether, spirits of turpentine, and camphor, pre- 
scribed according to the following formulas : 
9. — Laudanum. 

Sulphuric ether, of each i to 1 drachm. 
Camphor mixture, 1 ounce. 
Mix, and give in any ordinary spasm, as colic, etc. 



294 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

An antispasmodic injection : 
10. — Laudanum, 

Sulphuric ether, 

Spirits of turpentine, of each 1 to 2 drachm*. 
Gruel, 3 to 8 ounces. 
Mix, and inject with a commoa clyster syringe. 



APERIENTS. 



Aperients, opening medicines, or purges, by which several 
names this class of medicines is known, are constantly required by 
the dog, though it is a great mistake to give them when they are 
not absolutely demanded by the necessity of the case. All act by 
quickening the ordinary muscular action of the bowels, but some 
also stimulate the lining membrane to pour out large quantities of 
watery fluid, and others either directly or indirectly compel the 
liver to increase its secretion of bile. Hence they are often classed 
in corresponding divisions, as laxatives, drastic purgatives, etc. 
The chief of these drugs used in the dog-kennel are aloes, colo- 
cynth, rhubarb, jalap, ipecacuanha, senna, calomel, and blue pill, 
all of which act more or less on the liver ; while Epsom salts, cas- 
tor oil, and croton oil open the bowels without any such effect. 
Syrup of buckthorn is commonly given, but has little effect ; and, 
indeed, the syrup of red poppies is generally substituted for it by 
the druggist, who seldom keeps the genuine article, from the belief 
that it is ineffectual. 

A mild bolus : 

11.— Barbadoes aloes, 10 to 15 grains. 
Powdered jalap, 5 to 8 grains. 
Ginger, 2 or 3 grains. 
Soap, 10 grains. 
Mix into one bolus for a large dog, or divide into two or three for Bmall 
ones, and give as required. 

Strong bolus : 

12.— Calomel, 3 to 5 grains. 
Jalap, 10 to 20 grains. 
Mix with syrup, and give as a bolus. 



ASTRINGENTS. 295 

A good common aperient, when the liver is sluggish : 
13.— PodophyJIin, t grain. 

Compound extract of colocynth, 12 to 18 grains. 
Powdered rhubarb, 3 to 5 grains. 
Oil of cloves, 2 drops. 

Mix, and give as a bolus to a large strong dog, or divide into two or 
three for smaller dogs. 

Very strong purgative when there is an obstruction : 
14.— Croton oil, 1 to 2 drops. 

Purified opium, 1 to 2 grains. 
Linseed meal, 10 grains. 
Mix the raeal with boihng water into a thick paste, then add the oil and 
spices, and give as a bolus. 

Ordinary castor oil mixture : 

15. — Castor oil, 3 ounces. 

Syrup of buckthorn, 2 ounces. 
Syrup of poppies, 1 ounce. 
Mix, and give a tablespoonful to a medium-sized dog. 
Very strong purgative mixture : 
16. — Jalap, 10 grains. 

Epsom salts, 2 drachms. 
Subcarbonate of soda, 10 grains. 
Infusion of senna, 1 ounce. 
Tincture of senna, 2 drachms. 
Tincture of ginger, 15 drops. 
Mix, and give as a drench. For a small dog, give one half, one third, or 
one quarter, according to size. 

A purgative clyster : 

17. — Castor oil, i ounce. 

Spirits of turpentine, 2 to 3 drachmae 
Common salt, i ounce. 
Gruel, 6 to 8 ounces. 
Mix all together, and inject carefully per anum. 



ASTRINGENTS. 



Astringents produce contraction in all living tissues with which 
they are placed in apposition, either directly or by means of ab- 
sorption in the circulation. Of these, opium, gallic acid, alum, 



296 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

bark, catechu, sulphate of zinc, nitrate of silver, and chloride of 
zinc are the most commonly used. 
An astringent bolus for diabetes or internal hemorrhage : 
18.— Gallic acid, 3 to 6 grains. 
Alum, 4 to 7 grains. 
Purified opium, 1 to 2 grains. 
Mix with syrup, and give two or three times a day to a large dog. 
or, 
19.— Nitrate of silver, i grain. 

Crumb of bread, enough to make a small pilL 
To be given twice a day. 
Astringent wash for the eyes : 

20.— Sulphate of zinc, 5 to 8 grains. 
Water, 2 ounces, — Mix. 
or, 
21.— Extract of goulard, 1 drachm. 
Water, 1 ounce.— Mix. 

or, 

22.— Nitrate of silver, 2 to 6 grains. 
Distilled water, 1 ounce.— Mix. 

Wash for the organ : 

23.— Chloride of zinc, i 2 to grains. 
Water, 1 ounce.— Mix. 

Astringent application for piles: 
24. — Gallic acid, 10 grains. 

Extract of goulard, 15 drops. 
Powdered opium, 15 grains. 
Lard, 1 ounce. 
Mix, and apply night and moming. 



BLISTERS. 

Blisters are rarely used for the dog, because unless he has a proper 
muzzle on he will lick them off, injuring himself very materi- 
ally. Sometimes, however, as in inflammation of the lungs, they 
are absolutely necessary. Iodine blisters to reduce local swellings 
may often be applied with a bandage over them, but even then, 



CAUSTICS. 297 

unless there is a muzzle on, the dog soon gets the bandage off, and 
uses his tongue. The chief are cantharides, turpentine, sulphuric 
acid, mustard, ammonia, tincture of iodine, and biniodide of mer- 
cury ; the last two having some peculiar effect in producing ab- 
sorption of any diseased substance lying beneath. In all cases the 
hair ought to be cut off as closely as possible. 

A mild blister : 

25. — Powdered cantharides, 5 or 6 drachms. 
Venice turpentine, 1 ounce. 
Lard, 4 ounces. — Mix, and rub in. 

Strong blister : 

26.— Strong mercurial ointment, 4 ounces. 
Oil of origanum, i ounce. 
Finely powdered euphorbium, 3 drachms. 
Powdered cantharides, i ounce. — ^Mts. 

Very quick blister : 

27. — Flour of mustard, 4 ounces. 
Spirit of turpentine, 1 ounce. 
Strong liquor of ammonia, i ounce. 
Mix the mustard with water into a paste, then add the other ingredients 
and rub in. 

For bony growths or other tumors : 
28. — Tincture of Iodine. 
Painted on every day, by means of a common painter*8 brush, 
or, 
29. — Biniodide of mercury, 1 to li drachms. 
Lard, 1 ounce. 
Mix, and rub in a piece the size of a nutmeg every day, keeping the 
part wet with tincture of arnica, i ounce, mixed with half a pint 
of water. 



CAUSTICS. 

This name is given to substances which either actually or po- 
tentially destroy the living tissue. The actual cautery is an iron 
heated in the fire, the potential of some chemical substance, such 
as corrosive sublimate, lunar caustic, caustic potash, a mineral 
acid, or the like. The actual cautery, or firing, is not often used 



298 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

for the dog-, but in some cases it is of great service. Both kinds 
are used for two purposes : one to relieve the effects of strains and 
other injuries of the limbs, by which the ligaments are inflamed, 
and the other to remove diseased growth, such as warts, fun- 
gus, etc. 

30.— Firing, when adopted for the dog, should be carried out with a 
very small thin-edged iron, as the dog's skin is thin, and very li- 
able to slough. No one should attempt this without experience 
or previously watching others. 

31. — Lunar caustic, or nitrate of silver, is constantly required, being 
very manageable in the hands of any person accustomed to 
wounds, etc. 

32,— Sulphate of copper, or bluestone, is much milder than the lunar 
caustic, and may be freely rubbed into the surface of fungus or 
proud flesh. It is very useful in ulcerations about the toes. 

33.— Fused potass is not fit for any one but the experienced surgeon. 

34, — Corrosive sublimate in powder may be applied, carefully and in 
very small quantities, to warts, and then washed otf. It is apt to 
extend its effects to the surrounding tissues, 

35, — Yellow orpiment is not so strong as corrosive sublimate, and may 
be used in the same way. 

36.— Burned alum and white sugar, in powder, act as mild caustics. 



CHARGES. 

Charges are plasters which act chiefly by mechanical pressure, 

being spread on while hot, and then covered with tow. They are 

not much used among dogs, but in strains they are sometimes 

beneficial, as they allow the limb to be exercised •without injury. 

The best for the dog is composed as follows : 

37.— Canada balsam, 2 ounces. 

Powdered arnica leaves, i ounce. 

Melt the balsam, and mix up with the powder, with the addition of a 
little turpentine, if necessary. Then smear over the part, and cover 
with tow, which is to be well matted in with the hand ; or use thin 
leather. 



CORDIALS, DIRUETIC5, AKD EMBROCATIONS. 299 

CORDIALS. 

Warm stimulating stomachics are so called. They may be given 
either as a ball or a drench. 
Cordial ball : 

38. — Powdered caraway seeds, 10 to 15 grains. 
Ginger, 3 to 5 grains. 
Oil of cloves, 2 drops. 

Linseed meal, enough to make a ball, first mixing it with 
boiling water. 

Cordial drench : 

39. — Tincture of cardamoms, i to 1 drachm. 
Sal volatile, 15 to 30 drops. 
Tincture of cascarilla, i to 1 drachm. 
Camphor mixture. 1 oz. — Mix. 



DIURETICS. 

Medicines which act on the secretion of urine are called diuret- 
ics. They are either employed when the kidneys are sluggish, to 
restore the proper quantity, or to increase it beyond the natural 
standard, when it is desired to lower the system. 
Diuretic bolus : 

40.— Nitre, 5 to 8 grains. 
Digitalis, i grain. 
Ginger, 2 or 3 grains. 

Mix with linseed meal and water, and give all or part, according to 
the size of the dog. 

Diuretic and alterative bolus : 

41. — Iodide of potassium, 2 to 4 grains. 
Nitre, 3 to 6 grains. 
Digitalis, i grain. 
Extract of camomile, 5 grains. 
Mix, and give all or part. 



EMBROCATIONS. 



These external applications, otherwise called liniments, are ex- 
tremely useful in the dog, for strains, or sometimes to relieve 



300 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

muscular inflammation, or chronic rheumatism of the joints 
Mustard, ammonia, laudanum, and turpentine, are the chief agents 
employed. 

Mustard embrocation : 

42.— Best mustard, 3 to 5 oances. 
Liquor of ammonia, 1 ounce. 
• Spirit of turpentine, 1 ounce. 

Mix into a thin paste, and rub into the part affected. 

Embrocation for strains or rheumatism : 
43. — Spirit of turpentine. 
Liquor of ammonia, 
Laudanum, of each i ounce. 
Mix, and shake well before using, then rub In. 



EMETICS. 

Emetics are very commonly used in the diseases of the dog, and 
sometimes act very beneficially; but they have a tendency to 
■weaken the stomach, and should therefore be used with caution. 
If not frequently resorted to no harm is likely to accrue, as vom- 
iting is almost a natural process in the dog. 
Common salt emetic : 

44.— Dissolve a teaspoonful of salt and half a teaspoonful of mus- 
tard in half a pint of tepid water, and give it as a drench. 

Strong emetic : 

45. — Tartar emetic, 1 to 3 grains. 
Dissolve in a tablespoonful of warm water, and give as a drench ; fol- 
lowing it up in a quarter of an hour, by pouring down as much thin 
gruel as the dog can be made to swallow. 



EXPECTORANTS, OR COUGH MEDICINES. 

The action of these remedies is to promote the flow of mucus, 
80 as to relieve the congestion of the air passages. 



FEVER MEDICINES. 301 

Common cough bolus : 

46.— Ipecacuanha in powder, i to li grain. 
Powdered rhubarb, 1 to 2 grains. 
Purified opium, i to U grain. 
Compound squill pill, 1 to 2 grains. 
Mix, and give night and morning. 

Expectorant draught, useful in recent cough : 
47. — Ipecacuanha wine, 5 to 10 drops. 
Common mucilage, 2 drachms. 
Sweet spirit of nitre, 20 to 30 drops. 
Paregoric, 1 drachm. 
Camphor mixture, ^ ounce. 
Mix, and give two or thiee times a day. 

Expectorant draught for chronic cough : 

48. — Compound tincture of benzoin, 8 to 12 drops. 
Syrup of poppies, 1 drachm. 
Diluted sulphuric acid, 3 to 8 drops. 
Mucilage, 2 drachms. 
Paregoric, 1 drachm. 
Camphor mixture, i ounce. 
Mix, and give twice a day. 



FEVER MEDICINES. 



Fever medicines reduce fever by increasing the secretions of 
urine and perspiration, and by reducing the action of the heart to 
some extent. 

Common fever powder : 

49. — Nitre in powder, 3 to 5 grains. 
Tartar emetic, x grain. 
Mix, and put dry on the dog's tongue every night and morning. 

More active pov^der : 

50.— Calomel, i to li grain. 
Nitre, 3 to 5 grains. 
Digitalis, i to 1 grain. 

Mix, and give once or twice a day, in the same way ; or made Into 
a pill with confection. 



302 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

Fever mixture : 

51.— Nitre, 1 drachm. 

Sweet spirit of nitre, 3 drachmB. 
Mindererus' spirit, 1 ounce. 
Camphor mixture, 6i ounces. 
Mix, and give two tablespoonf uls every six hours. 



CLYSTERS. 

Clysters are extremely useful in the dog, which is liable to con- 
stipation from want of exercise, and in that case is mechanically 
bound. A pint of warm water, in which some yellow soap has been 
dissolved, will generally have the desired effect. 
Turpentine clyster in colic : 

53.— Spirit of turpentiue, I ounce. 
Castor oil, 1 ounce. 
Laudanum, 2 to 3 drachms. 
Gruel, 1 pint. 
Mix, and throw up, using only half or one third for a small dog. 



LOTIONS. 

Lotions, called Washes, are intended either to reduce the tem- 
perature in inflammation of the surface to which they are applied, 
or to brace the vessels of the part. 
Cooling lotion for bruises: 

53.— Extract of lead, 1 drachm. 

Tincture of arnica, i to 1 drachm. 
Water, i pint. 
Mix, and apply by means of a bandage or sponge. 
For severe stiffness from over-exercise : 
54.— Tmcture of arnica, i drachm. 

Strong spirit of wine, whiskey, or brandy, 7i drachms. 
Mix, and rub well into the back and limbs, before the fire. 
Lotion for the eyes : 

55._Sulphate of zinc, 20 to 25 grams. 
Water, ¥ pint. 
Mix, and wash the eyes night and morning. 



OINTMENTS, STIMULANTS, AND STOMACHICS. 303 

Strong drops for the eyes : 

56. — Nitrate of silver, 3 to 8 grains. 
Distilled water, 1 ounce. 
Mix, and drop in with a quill. 



OINTMENTS. .- 

By means of lard, wax, etc., various substances are mixed up so 
s to be applied to wounds, chiefly to keep out the air. 

A good ointment for old sores : 

57. — Yellow basilicou, 

Ointment of nitric-oxide of mercury, equal parts. 

Digestive ointment : 

58.— Red precipitate, 2 ounces. 
Venice turpentine, 3 ounces. 
Beeswax, H ounce. 
Lard, 4 ounces. — Mix. 

Mange ointment: 

58a. — Green iodide of mercury, 1 drachm. 

Lard, 8 drachms. 
Mix, and rub in carefully every 2nd or 3rd day. 



STIMULANTS— s^e CORDLiLS. 



STOMACHICS. 

The name describes the use of the remedies, which are intended 
to give tone to the stomach. 

Stomachic bolus: 

59.— Extract of gentian, 6 to 8 grains. 
Powdered rhubarb, 2 to 3 grains. 
Mix, and give twice a day. 



304 REMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

Stomachic draught : 

60. — Tincture of cardamoms, 1 to 1 drachm. 
Corapound infusion of gentian, 1 ounce. 
Carbonate of soda, 3 grains. 
Powdered ginger, 2 grains. 

Mix, and give twice a day. 



STYPTICS. 

Styptics are remedies to stop bleeding. In the dog the vessels 
seldom give way externally, but internally the disease is very fre- 
quent, either in the form of a bloody flux, or bloody urine, or 
bleeding from the lungs, for which the following may be tried : 

61— Superacetate of lead, 2 to 3 grains. 
Tincture of matico, 30 to 50 drops. 
Vinegar, 10 drops. 
Water, 1 ounce. 
Mix, and give two or three times a day. 



TONICS. 

Tonics permanently increase the tone or vigor of the system, be- 
ing particularly useful in the recovery from low fever. 

Tonic pill : 

62 — Sulphate of quinine, 1 to 3 grains. 
Extract of hemlock, 2 grains. 
Ginger, 2 grains. 
Mix, and give twice a day. 
Tonic mixture : 

63 — Compound tincture of bark, 2 ounces. 
Decoction of yellow bark, 14 ounces. 
Mix, and give three tablespoonsf uls twice or thrice daily to a large dog. 



WORM MEDICINES. 



By this term we are to understand such substances as will expel 
worms from the intestines of the dog, their action being either poi- 



WORM MEDICINES. 305 

sonous to the worm itself, or so irritating as to cause them to evacu- 
ate. All ought either to be in themselves purgative, or to be fol- 
lowed by a medicine of that class, in order to insure the removal 
of the eggs, as well as the worms themselves. More detailed 
directions will be found in the chapter of Worms. 

Aperient-worm bolus. 

64 — Calomel, 2 to 5 grains. 
Jalap, 10 to 20 grains. 
Mix into a bolus, with molasses. 

For general worms. Not aperient, and therefore to be followed 

by castor oil : 

65 — Recently powdered areea nut, 1 to 2 drachms. 

Mix with broth, and give to the dog directly, as there is no taste in it 
until it has been soaked some time, when the broth becomes bitter. It 
the dog refuses it he must be drenched. Four hours after, give a dose 
of castor oil. N. B. — The exact dose is 2 grains for each pound the dog 
weighs. 

For round- worms, or maw- worms : 

66 — Indian pink, i ounce. 
Boiling water, 8 ounces. 
Let it stand for an hour, then strain, and give half to a large dog, a 
quarter to a middle-sized dog, or an eighth to a very small one. This, 
however, is a severe remedy, and is not unattended with danger. It 
should be followed by castor oil in six hours. 

Mild remedy, unattended with any danger : 

67.— Powdered glass, as much as will lie on a twenty-five cent 
piece, heaped up. 

To be mixed with butter, and given as a bolus, following it up with cas- 
tor oil after six hours. 

For tape- worm : 

68 — Kousso, J to 3 ounce. 

Lemon juice, 1 tablespoonful. 
Boiling water, i pint. 
Pour the water on the kousso, and when nearly cold add the lemon 
luice. Stir ali up together, and give as a drench. It should be fol- 
lowed up m six or eight hours by a dose of od. 

Another remedy for tape-worm : 

69— Sp.rit of turpentine, 1 to 4 drachms. 
Tie this up Crmxy in apiece of bladder, *.ben give as a bolus, taking care 



306 EKMEDIES SUITED TO THE DOG. 

not to burst the bladder. This also requires a dose of oil to follow. (X 
mix the turpentine with suet into a bolus. 

Another : 

70— « Fresh root of male fern, 1 to 4 drachms. 
Powdered jalap, 15 grains. 
Liqaorice powder and water, enough to make a bolus. 

S. B.— The oil of male fern is better than the dry root, the dose being 
i«u CO thirty drops. 



AD^fTNISTRATION OF REMEDIES. 

Some considerable tact and knowledge of the animal are re- 
quired, in order to give medicines to the dog to the best advantage. 
In the first place, his stomach is peculiarly irritable, and so much 
under the control of the will, that most dogs can vomit whenever 
they like. Hence it is not only necessary to give the medicine, 
but also to insure its being kept down. For this purpose, however, 
it is generally only oecessary to keep up the dog's head, as he will 
not readily vomit without bringing his nose to the ground, and so 
it is the regular practice in large kennels, in giving a dose of 
phvsic, to put tlifi couples on, and fasten them up to a hook, at 
such a bight that the dog cannot lower his head, maintaining this 
position for two or three hours. A single dog may be watched, if 
such is preferred, but a lot of hounds in physic must be treated 
with less ceremony. 



THE DOG'S SYSTEM RESEMBLES THAT OF MAN. 

The effects of remedies on the dog are nearly the same as on 
man, so that any one who understands how to manage himself 
may readily extend his sphere of usefulness to the dog. On the 
other hand, horses require a very different treatment, which ac- 
counts for the ignorance of the diseases of the dog so often dis- 
played by otherwise clever veterinary surgeons, who have confined 



MODE OF GIVING A BOLUS OB PILL. 307 

their attention to tlie more valuable animal. Some remedies affect 
the dog differently, however; thus laudanum, which is a veiy 
dangerous drug in human medicine, rarely does harm to the 
canine species, and treble the dose for a man will be required for 
the dog. On the other hand, calomel is quite the reverse, being 
extremely liable to produce great irritation on the lining mem- 
brane of the dog's stomach and bowels. 



MODE OF GIVING A BOLUS OR PILL. 

If the dog is small, take him on the lap, without harshness, and 
if inclined to use his claws, tie a coarse towel round his neck, let- 
ting it fall down in front, which will muffle them eflPectually ; then 
with the finger and thumb of the left hand press open the mouth 
by inserting them between the teeth, far enough back to take in 
the cheeks. This compels the mouth to open from the pain given 
by the pressure against the teeth, while it also prevents the dog 
from biting the fingers. Then raising the nose, drop the pill as 
far back as possible, and push it well down the throat with the 
forefinger of the right hand. Let go with the left hand, still hold 
up the nose, keeping the mouth shut, and the pill is sure to go 
down. Two persons are required in administering a pill to a large 
dog, if he is at all inclined to resist. First, back him into a corner, 
then stride over hira, and putting a thick cloth into his mouth, 
bring it together over the nose, where it is held by the left hand ; 
the right can then generally lay hold of the lower jaw. But if the 
dog is very obstinate, another cloth must also be placed over the 
first, and then as they are drawn apart, an assistant can push the 
pill down. Yery often a piece of meat may be used to wrap the 
pill in, and the dog will readily bolt it ; but sometimes it is de- 
sirable to avoid this, as it may be necessary to give the medicine 
by itself. Even large dogs, however, are seldom so troublesome as 
to require the above precautions in giving pills, though they, as a 
general thing, obstinately refuse hquid medicine when they have 
tasted it once or twice. 



308 BEMEDIES SUITED TO THE TOGU 

MODE OF DRENCHING THE DOG. 

If a small quantity only is to be given, the dog's head being 
held, the liquid may be poured tliroui^b the closed teeth by mak- 
ing a little pouch of the cheek. This, however, is a tedious pro- 
cess as the animdl often refuses to swallow the medicine for a 
long time, and then struggles mUil half is wasted. A spoon an 
swers for small quantities; for laige quantities a soda-water bot- 
tles is the best instrument. Having the dog held on either of the 
plans recommended in the last paragraph, pour a little of the fluid 
down his throat, and shut the mouth. This is necessary, inasmuch 
as the act of swallowing can not be performed with the mouth 
open. Repeat this, until all the medicine is swallowed. Then 
watch the dog, or tie up his head until it is certain that the medi- 
cine will be retained on the stomach. 



CLYSTERS OR INJECTIONS. 

"When the bowels are very much confined, a pint or two of 
warm gruel will, if thrown up into the rectum, often be of great 
service. The dog should be placed on his side, and held in this 
position on a table by an assistant, while the operator passes the 
pipe carefully into the rectum, and pumps up the fluid. 




CHAPTER III. 
FEVERS AND THEIR TREATMEIH'. 

•SIMPLE EPHEMBKAL FEVER, OR COLD.— EPIDEMIC FEVER, OB INPLTJ* 
ENZA. — TYPUUS FiiVEK, OR DISTEMPER. — RHEUMATIC FEVER. — 9MALa> 
POX. — SYMPATHETIC FEVER. 

The dog is peculiarly liable to febrile attacks, which have always 
a tendency to put oii a low fonn, very similar in its nature to that 
known as typhus in human diseases. This is so generally the 
case, that every dog is said to have the distemper at some time of 
Lis life, that name being given to this low form of fever. An at- 
tack may commence with a common coll, or any inflammatory 
affection of the lungs, bowels, etc.; and on assuming the low 
form, is followed by a genuine case of typhus fever or distemper. 
Nevertheless, it docs not follow that the one must neccssarUy end 
in the other ; the dog may hive simple fever, known as " a cold,** 
or various other com^plaints, without being subjected to the true 
distemper. Tlie fevers occurring in the dog are: 1st, Simple 
ephemeral fever, commonly called " a cold ; " 2d, Simple epidemic 
fever, or influenza ; 3d, Typhus fever, knowm as Distemper; 4th, 
Rheumatic fever, attacking the muscular and fibrous systems; 
and, 5th, Small-pox. 



SIMPLE EPHEMERAL FEVER. 

Simple Ephemeral Fever, known as '' a common cold," ia 
ushered in by chillinops, with increased heat of surface, a quick 
puise, and slightly hurrie 1 breathing. The appetite is not as good 
as usual ; the eyes look dull ; the bowels are costive; tlie urine is 
scantv and high-colored There are often cough and slight rua 
309 



510 FEVERS AND THElB TREATMENT. 

ning at the nose and eyes, and sometimes other internal organs are 
attacked ; or the disease goes on until a different form of lever is 
established, known as typhus. This often occurs wiica many doirs 
are collected together, or when one or two are kept in a close ken 
nol, where there is neither proper ventilation nor cleanliness. 

Cause. — Exposure to wet or cold. 

Treatment. —Complete rest; a gentle dose of opening medicine: 
(12) or (13) if the liver is torpid, (15) if acting. After this has 
acted, give slops, and if there is still much fever, one of the 
remedies (45) or (51). If there is much cough, give the draught (47) 
or the bolus (46). 



INFLUENZA. 



The symptoms of influenza at first closely resemble those of 
ephemeral fever, but as they depend upon some peculiar condition 
of the air which prevails at the time, and as they are more per- 
Bistent, the name influenza is given to the disease. After the first 
few days, the running at the eyes and nose increases, and a cough 
is almost always present. These symptoms often continue for two 
or three weeks, and are followed with great prostration of strength 
and often a chronic cough, which requires careful treatment. 

The cause is to be looked for in some peculiar state of the air, 
concerning the nature of which nothing is known at present. 

Treatment.— In the early stage, the remedies should be the same 
as for ordinary or simple "cold." Towards the second week, a 
cough-bolus (46) or draught (47) will generally be required. When 
the stren^^h is much reduced after the seconu week, and the cough 
is nearly gone, give a tonic pill (62) nr mixture (63). Great care 
should be taken not to bring on a relapse by improper food, or by 
too early an allowance of exercise. Fresh air is of the utmost im- 
portance, but it must be taken at a slow pace, as a gallop will often 
undo all that has been effected in the way of a cure. 



TYPHUS PEVEK, OR DISTEMPEE. 311 

TYPHUS FEVER, OR DISTEMPER. 

It is now generally admitted that this disease is similar to typhus 
fever in man, and should be treated in much the same manner. 

The essence of the disease is some poison admitted from with- 
out, or developed within the blood, by which the various secretions 
are either totally checked, or so altered as no longer to purify the 
system. The exact nature of this poison is beyond our present 
state of knowledge, but from analogy there is little doubt that it 
resides in the blood. As in all cases of poison absorbed in the 
system, there is a most rapidly depressing effect upon the muscular 
powers, which is to he. expected, inasmuch as their action requires 
a constant formation of new material from the blood. As this is 
retarded in common with all other functions, the muscles waste 
away rapidly, and their contractions are not performed with any 
strength. The diseas3 is sometimes conveyed by infection. At 
others it is developed in the body ; just as in the case of fermen- 
tation in vegetable substances, there may be a ferment added to a 
saccharine solution, by whicii the process is hastened, although if 
left to itself, it will come on in due course. 

The symptoms are various ; they may be divided into two classes 
one of which comprises those always attending upon distemper ; 
the other may or may not be present in any individual attack. The 
invariable symptoms arc, a low insidious fever, with prostration of 
strength to a remarkable degree, in proportion to the duration and 
strength of tne attack, and rapid emaciation, so that a thick mus- 
cular dog often becomes quite thin and lanky in three days. As a 
part of the fever, there is shivering, attended by quick pulse, hur- 
ried respiration, loss of appetite, and impaired secretions. Beyond 
these, there are no signs which can be called positively invariable, 
though the running at the eyes and nose, and the short husky 
cough, especially after exercise, are very nearly always present. 
The accidental symptoms depend upon the particular complication 
which may exist ; for one of the most remarkable features in dis- 
temper is, that, coupled with the above invariable symptoms, there 
may be congestion, or inflammation of the head, chest, bowels, or 



312 FEVERS AXD TOEIR TREATMENT. 

skin. In one case the disease may appear to be entirely confined 
to the head, in another to the chest, and in a third to the bowels ; 
yet it results from the same cause in each case, and requires the 
same general plan of treatment, moJiiieJ according to the seat of 
the complication. 

When distemper is the result of neglect, it generally succeeds 
some other disease which may have existed for an indefinite period. 
The ordinary course of an attack of distemper, wlien epidemic, or 
the result of contagion, is as follows : ganeral dullness or lassitude, 
together with loss of appetite are first observed. A peculiar husky 
cough generally follows in a day or two, with sounds as if the dog 
were trying to discharge a piece of straw from his throat. It al- 
ways comes on at exercise after a gallop. Witli this there is also a 
tendency to sneeze, but not so marked as the '' husk" or " tissuck" 
which may occur in common "cold" or influenza, and is then usu- 
ally more severe, and also more variable in its severity ; soon 
going on to inflammation, or else entirely ceasing in a few days. 
In distemper, the strength and flesh rapidly fail and waste, while 
in common '* cold," the cough may continue for days without much 
alteration in either; this is one of the chief characteristics of the 
true dis3ase. There is, also, generally a black pitchy condition of 
the foeccs, and the urine is scanty and high-colored. The white of 
the eyes is always more or less reddened, the color being of a bluish 
red cast, and the vessels being evidently gorged with blood. When 
the brain is attacked, the eyes are more injected than when the 
bowels or lungs is the seat of complication. The corners of the 
eyes have a smnll drop of mucus, and the nose runs more or less, 
which symptoms, as the disease goes on, are much aggravated, 
both eyes being glued by brownish matter. The teeth are also cov- 
ered with a blackish brown fur. These are the rogular symptoms 
of a severe attack of distemper, which gradually increases in sever- 
ity to the third, fourth, or fifth week, when the dog dies from ex- 
haustion, or from disease of the brain, lungs, or bowels, marked by 
peculiar signs in each case. In this course the disease may be de- 
scribed as passing throug'i four stages or periods : 1st, tliat in which 
the poison is spreading through the system, called the period of in- 



TYPHITS FEVER, OR DISTEMPER. 313 

cubation ; 2nd, that in which nature rouses her powers to expel it 
called the period of reaction ; 3rd, the period of prostration, dur- 
ing which the powers of nature are exhausted, or nearly so, by the 
efforts which have been made; and 4tb, the period of convales- 
cence. On the average, each of these will occupy a week or ten 
days, varying with the mildness or severity of the attack. 

When the head is attacked, there may or may not be a running 
from the nose and eyes; but more usually there is some evidence 
of congestion in these organs, the eyes being weak and glued up 
with the mucus, and the nose running more or less. A fit is, how- 
ever, the clearest evidence of brain affection, and, to a common 
observer, the only reliable one. Sometimes there is stupor with- 
out a fit, gradually increasing until the dog becomes insensible, and 
dies. At other times, a raving delirium comes on, easily mistaken 
for hydrophobia, but distinguished from it by the presence of the 
premonitory symptoms, peculiar to distemper. This is the most 
fatal complication of all, and, if the dog recovers, he is often a vie- 
tim to palsy or chorea for the rest of his life. 

If the lungs are attacked, there is very rapid breathing, with 
cough, and generally a considerable running from the eye's and 
nose, accompanied with expectoration of thick frothy mucus. If 
inflammation of the lungs is established, the danger is as great as 
when the head is the seat of the malady. 

The bowels may be known to be seized when there is a violent 
purging of black offensive matter, often tinged with blood, and 
sometimes mixed with patches or shreds of a white leathery sub- 
stance, which is coagulable lymph. The discharge of blood is, in 
some cases, excessive, and quickly carries off the dog. 

If the skin is attacked, which is a favorable sign, there is a 
breaking out of pustules on the inside of the thighs and belly, 
which fill with matter, often tinged with dark blood, and some- 
times with blood itself of a dark purple color. 

It is not an easy matter for an inexperienced observer to dis- 
tinguish distemper from similar affections, but the practised eye 
readily detects the difference. The chief diseases which are likely 
to be confounded with distemper are, the true canine madness 
14 ' 



314 PEVERS AND THEIR TREATMENT. 

common cold or influenza, inflammation of the lungs, and diar- 
rhoea. The first of these runs a rapid course, and is ushered in by 
peculiar changes in the temper, which wOl be described under the 
head of hydrophobia. Cold and influenza cause no great prostration 
of strength. The former comes on after exposure to the weather, 
while the latter is sure to be prevalent at the time. Inflammation 
of the lungs must be studied to be known ; simple diarrhoea has no 
fever attending upon it. 

The treatment of distemper is twofold ; care first, bemg directed 
to the safe conduct through the lowering efifects of the complaint, 
and second to the warding ofl" of the fatal results which are likeiy 
to be occasioned by the local complications in the brain, lungs, or 
bowels. It must be remembered that the disease is an eff'ort of 
nature to rid itself of a poison ; and, consequently, the powers of 
the system must be aided throughout, or they will be incompetent 
to their task. One great means of carrying ofl" this poison, is to 
be looked for in the bowels and kidneys. These organs must be 
restored as far as possible to their natural condition, care being ex- 
ercised that they are not injured by the remedies used. It is well 
known, for instance, that aperients, and especially calomel, have 
the property of restoring the suspended action of the liver. But 
they also have an injurious efiect upon the strength of the general 
system, and therefore must be used with great caution. The best 
formulae is, (13) or (15) given only once or twice, at mtervals of two 
or three days. After the secretions are restored, the next thing is 
to look out for the complications in the brain, lungs, and bowels, 
which are to be expected ; and, if present, to counteract them by 
appropriate remedies. A seton placed on the back of the neck, 
covering the tape with blister ointment, will be likely to relieve the 
head, together with cold applications of vinegar and water by 
means of a sponge. At the same time the fever mixture (51) may 
be regularly administered. For any trifling complication in the 
lungs the fever powder (49) will generally suffice ; but, if severe, 
blood must be taken from the neck vein ; though this, if possible, 
should be avoided, and the cough bolus or draught (46) or (47) be 
administered. Diarrhoea must be at once checked by one of the 



TYPHUS FEVER, OR DISTEMPER. 315 

mixtures (6) or (8) ; or, if very severe, by the pill (19). At the 
same time, rice-water should be given as the only drink ; and beef- 
tea, thickened with arrow-root or rice, as the sole article of diet, 
changing it occasionally for port wine and arrow-root. When the 
stage of exhaustion has commenced, the tonic mixture (63) will gen- 
erally be requii-ed ; and it is astonishing what may be done by a per- 
severance in its use. Dogs which appear to be dying will often re- 
cover. No case should be given up as long as there is any life 
remaining. 

The diet should be carefully attended to, little or no food being 
required on the first four or six days, beyond weak broth or gruel, 
no solid food from the first being permitted. This restriction must 
be maintained until the dog is quite recovered. When the state of 
exhaustion or prostration comes on, good strong beef-tea should be 
given every three or four hours, and, if the dog will not swallow 
it, force should be used ; a spoonful at a time being given in the 
manner described elsewhere for drenching. Port wine is often of 
service at such times, being thickened with arrow-root, and given 
alternately with beef-tea. For a dog of average size, the plan 
is to give a teacupful of beef -tea, then, after two hours, the same 
quantity of arrow-root and wine ; then, again, after two hours, a 
dose of the tonic mixture, and so on through the twenty-four 
hours. Perseverance in this troublesome plan will generally be 
rewarded with success, but, of course, it is only a valuable dog 
which will reward it properly. In less important animals, the 
beef-tea may be provided, and if it is not voluntarily swallowed, 
the poor patient often dies for want of the compulsion, so that 
humanity as well as self-interest counsel the adoption of what 
often appears a harsh proceeding. 

No exercise, even of the most gentle kind, should be allowed, 
as it invariably tends to bring on a return of the disease. Many a 
young dog has been sacrificed to the mistaken kindness of his 
master, who has thought that a " breath of fresh air" would do 
him good. And so it would, if taken in an easy carriage, at rest; 
but the muscular exertion necessary to procure it is highly injuri- 
ous, and should be delayed until the strength is restored. This is 



316 FEVEKS AND THEIE TREATMENT. 

one reason why dogs in the country bear distemper so much better 
than in towns ; for, as it is known that they are in the fresh air 
no attempt is made to take them to it, and so they are left alone, 
and are not induced to exert their strength prematurely. Even 
when the dog appears nearly well, it is better to lead him out to 
excercise for the first day or two. Otherwise he is almost sure to 
over-exert himself. 

Ventilation should not be neglected ; moderate warmth is essen- 
tial to a cure, and a delicate dog like the greyhound should have 
a cloth on him in cold weather. The gi-eatest cleanliness 
should be observed, and as far as possible without making the 
kennel damp with water. Clean straw must be liberally provided, 
and all offensive matters removed as often as they are voided. 

Summary of treatment.— In the early stage of disease, get the 
bowels into good order by mild doses of aperient medicine : (11), 
(13), or (15). Attend to any complications which may come on, 
using a seton for the head and appropriate remedies for the chest, 
or mixture for the bowels (6) if there is diarrhoea. For the exhaus- 
tion, when the violent symptoms are abated, give the tonic (63) ; 
and during the whole period attend to the diet, ventilation, cleanli- 
ness, and rest, as previously described. 

Vaccination has been recommended as a remedy for distemper, 
and has been largely tried both in foxhound and greyhound ken- 
nels, as well as among pointers and setters. Some people think it 
a sure preventive, and there is evidence that for years after it has 
been adopted in certain kennels, distemper, which was previously 
rife among them, has been held in check. On the other hand, a 
still more numerous party have found no change produced in the 
mortality among their dogs, and they have come as a natural con- 
sequence to the opposite conclusion. Reasoning from analogy, 
there is no ground for supposing that small-pox or cow-pox should 
prevent the access of a disease totally dissimilar to these com- 
plaints ; inasmuch as experience is the best guide, the appeal must 
be made to it in order to settle the question. Judging from this 
test, I can see no reason whatever for the faith which is placed in 
vaccination, because there are at least as many recorded failures 



BHKITMATIC FEVER. 31? 

as successes ; and as we know that after any remedy there will 
always be a certain number of assumed cures held out by sanguine 
individuals, so we must allow for a great many in this particular 
case. Distemper is well known to be most irrregular in its attacks, 
and to hit or miss particular kennels, as the case may be, for years 
together, and as vaccination is used at any of these various periods 
of change, so it gains credit or discredit which it does not deserve. 
After trying it myself and seeing it tried, and after also comparing 
the experience of others, my own belief is, that vaccination is 
wholly inoperative ; but, as others may like to test it for them- 
selves, I here append directions for the operation ; 

To vaccinate the dog, select the thin skin on the inside of the 
ear, then with a lancet charged with fresh vaccine lymph, make 
three or four oblique punctures in the skin, to such a depth as 
barely to draw blood, chargiig the lancet afresh each time. If the 
lymph cannot be procured fresh, the punctures must be made as 
above described, and then the points charged with dry lymph 
must be introduced, one in each puncture, and well rubbed into 
the cut surface so as to insure the removal of the lymph from the 
points. In four or five days an imperfect vesicle is formed, which, 
if not rubbed, goes on to maturity and scabs at the end of ten 
days or thereabout. There are various other methods suggested, 
such as introducing a piece of thread dipped in the vims, etc., 
but the above is the proper plan, if any is likely to be e-^ectual. 

The treatment of the various sequels of distemper, including 
fits, palsy, etc., will be given under those heads respectively 



RHEUMATIC FEVER. 



One of the most common diseases in the dog, is rheumatism *% 
some form, generally showing itself with very little fever, hu* 
sometimes being accompanied with a high degree of fever. The 
frequency of this disease is owing to the constant exposure of the 
dog to cold and wet, and very often to his kennel being damp, 



318 FEVEKS AND THEIK TEEATMENT. 

which is the fertile source of kennel lameness, or chest-founder, 
the latter being nothing more than rheumatism of the muscles of 
the shoulders. Again, those which spend half their time before a 
roasting fire, and the other half in the wet and cold, are very liable 
to contract this kind of fever, but not in so intractable a form as 
the denizen of the damp kennel. By some writers this affection 
Is classed among inflammations, and it is a debatable point to which 
of these divisions it should be assigned. But this is of little con- 
sequence, so that the fever is properly known and easily recog- 
nized by the symptoms. I shall therefore include here, rheumatic 
fever, which is a general affection, and also the partial attacks 
known as kennel lameness or chest-founder, and rheumatism of 
the loins, commonly called palsy of the back. 

Rheumatic fever is known by the following signs : — There is 
considerable evidence of fever, but not of a very high character, 
th3 pulse being full but not very quick, with shivering and dull- 
ness, except when touched or threatened — the slightest approach 
causing a shriek, evidently from the fear of pain. The dog gen- 
erally retires into a corner, and is very reluctant to come out. On 
bein"- forcibly brought out, he snarls at the hand even of his best 
friend, and stands with his back up, evidently prepared to defend 
himself from the pat of the hand, which to him is anguish. The 
bowels are confined, and the urine highly colored and scanty. 
The treatment consists in bleeding from the neck, to a moderate 
extent, if the dog is very gross and full of condition, followed with 
a smart dose of opening physic ; (12) or (13). After this has acted 
give the following pills : 

Calomel. 

Purified opium, of each 1 grain. 
Powdered root of colchicum, 2 to 3 grains. 
Syrup, enough to make a pill. 

This is the dose for an average-sized dog. A hot bath is often of 
service, care being taken to diy the skin before the fire. Then 
follow up with a liberal friction by the aid of the liniment (43). 

Kennel lameness, or chest-founder, manifests itself in a stiffness 
or soreness of the shoulders, so that the dog is unable to gallop 



EHEUMATIC FEVEE. 319 

freely down hill, and is often reluctant to jump off his bench to 
the ground, the shock giving pain to the muscles. It is very com- 
mon in the kennels of foxhounds, for these dogs, being exposed 
to viret and cold for hours together, and then brought home to a 
damp lodging-room, contract the disease with great frequency. 
Pampered house pets are also very liable to chest-founder, over- 
feeding being quite as likely to produce rheumatism as exposure to 
cold, and when both are united this condition is almost sure to 
follow. When it becomes chronic there is little or no fever. After 
it has existed for some months it is generally regarded as incurable, 
but instances are known in which the stiffness has entirely disap- 
peared. Chest-founder also arises from a sprain of the muscles 
which suspend the chest between the shoulders. 

The remedies for kennel lameness are nearly the same as for 
genera] rheumatism, care being taken to remove the cause if it has 
existed in the shape of a damp cold lodging-room. The food 
should be light, and composed chiefly of vegetable materials; 
strong animal food tends to increase the rheumatic affection. The 
liniment (43) is very likely to be of service, especially if used after 
the hot bath, as previously described. It has been asserted, by 
persons of experience, that a red herring given two or three times 
a week will cure this disease. I have no personal experience 
of the merits of this remedy, but, according to Col. Whyte, it has 
recently been discovered that in the herring there is a specific for 
human rheumatism. It is worth a trial in dogs. It is given with 
two drachms of nitre and one of camphor. Most dogs readily eat 
the herring and camphor, and the nitre is added in a little water as 
a drench. Cod liver oil is also said to be of great service (5). 
Iodine with sarsaparilla (3) is a preparation which I have known 
to be of more service than any internal medicines. 

A draggmg of the hmd limbs is common enough in the dog^ 
though often called palsy, it really is, m most cases, of a rheumatic 
nature. It closely resembles chest-founder in all its symptoms, 
excepting that the muscles affected are situated in the loins and 
hips. The causes and treatment are the same as those for kennel 
lameness. 



320 FBVEKS AND THEIR TEKATMENT. 



SMALL-POX. 

I reproduce Mr. Youatfs description of small-pox in dogs : 
In 1809, there was observed, at the Royal Veterinary School a2 
Lyons, an eruptive malady among the dogs, to which they gave the 
name of small-pox. It appeared to be propagated from dog to dog 
by contagion. It was not difficult of cure ; and it quickly disap- 
peared when no other remedies than mild aperients and diaphoret- 
ics were employed. A sheep was inoculated from one of these 
dogs. There was a slight eruption of pustules around the place 
of inoculation, but nowhere else ; nor was there the least fever. 
At another time, also, at the school at Lyons, a sheep died of the 
regular sheep-pox. A part of the skin was fastened, during four 
and twenty hours, on a healthy sheep, and the other part of it on 
a dog, both of them being in apparent good health. No effect was 
produced on the dog, but the sheep died of confluent sheep-pox. 
The essential symptoms of small-pox in dogs succeed each other in 
the following order : the skin of the belly, the groin, and the in- 
side of the fore arm becomes of a redder color than in its natural 
state, and is sprinkled with small red spots irregularly rounded. 
They are sometimes isolated, sometimes clustered together. The 
near approach of this eruption is announced by an increase of 
fever. 

On the second day, the spots are larger, and the integument 
is slightly tumefied at the center of each. On the third day, the 
spots are generally enlarged, and the skin is still more prominent 
at the center. On the fourth day, the summit of the tumor is yet 
more prominent. Towards the ends of that day the redness of 
the center begins to assume a somewhat grey color. On succeed- 
ing days, the pustules take on their peculiar characteristic appear- 
ance, and cannot be confounded with any other eruption. On the 
summit, is a white circular point, corresponding with a certain 
quantity of nearly transparent fluid which It contains, and covered 
by a thin and transparent pellicle. This fluid becomes less and 
less transparent, until it acquires the color and consistence of pua. 



SMAXL-POX. 321 

The pustule, during its serous state, is of a rounded form. It is 
flattened when the fluid acquires a purulent character, and even 
slightly depressed towards the close of the period of suppuration. 
The desiccation and the desquamation occupy an exceedingly vari- 
able length of time ; and so, indeed, do all the different periods of 
the disease. What is the least inconstant, is the duration of the 
serous eruption, which is about four days, if it has been distinctly 
produced and guarded from all friction. If the general character 
of the pustules is considered, it will be observed, that while some 
of them are in a state of serous secretion, others will only have 
begun to appear. The eruption terminates when desiccation com- 
mences in the first pustules ; and, if some red spots show them- 
selves at that period of the malady, they disappear without bemg 
followed by the development of pustules. They are a species of 
abortive pustules. After the desiccation, the skin remains covered 
by brown spots, which, by degrees, die away. There remains no 
trace of the disease, except a few superficial cicatrices on which 
the hair does not grow. 

The causes which produce the greatest variation in the periods 
of the eruption are, the age of the dog, and the temperature of the 
situation and of the season. The eruption runs through its differ- 
ent stages with much more rapidity in dogs from one to five 
months old than in those of more advanced age. I have never 
seen it in dogs more than eighteen months old. An elevated tem- 
perature singularly favors the eruption, and also renders it conflu- 
ent and of a serous character. A cold atmosphere is unfavorable 
to the eruption, or even prevents it altogether. Death is almost 
constantly the result of the exposure of dogs, having small-pox, 
to any considerable degree of cold. A moderate temperature is 
most favorable to the recovery of the animal. A frequent renewal 
or change of air, the temperature remaining nearly the same, is 
highly favorable to the patient, consequently close boxes or ken- 
nels should be altogether avoided. I have often observed that tho 
perspiration or breath of dogs laboring under variola, emits a very 
unpleasant odor. This smell is particularly observed at the com. 
mencement of the desiccation of the pustules, and when the am 



322 FEVERS AND THEIR TREAT:srENT. 

mals are lying upoo dry straw. The friction of the bed against 
the pustules destroys their pellicles, and permits the purulent 
matter to escape ; and the influence of this purulent mat- 
ter is most pernicious. The fever is increased, as also the un- 
pleasant smell from the moutb, and generally the fccces. In this 
state there is a disposition which is rapidly developed in the lungs, 
to assume the character of pneumonia. This last complication is 
a most serious one, and always terminates fatally. 



SYMPATHETIC FEVER. 



This term is applied to the fever which comes on either before 
or after some severe local affection, and is, as it were, eclipsed by 
it. Thus in all severe inflammations there is an accompanying 
fever, which generally shows itself before the exact nature of the 
attack is made manifest, and though it runs high, yet it has no 
tendency in itself to produce fatal results, subsiding, as a matter 
of course, with the inflammation which attends it. The same oc. 
curs in severe injuries ; but here also, if there is no inflammation, 
there is no fever ; so that the same rule applies as where there is 
an external cause. 




CHAPTER IV. 
mFLAMMATIONS. 

DEFINITION OP INFLAMMATION. — SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT OF RABIES, 
TETANUS, AND TURNSIDE.— INFLAMMATION OF THE EYE, EAR, MOUTH, 
AND NOSE.— LUNGS.— STOMACH.— BOWELS.— LIVER.— KIDNEYS, BLAD- 
DER, AND SKIN. 

DEFINITION OF INFLAMMATION. 

Inflammation consists in a retardation of the flow of blood 
through the small vessels; an increased action of the large ones is 
required to overcome it. When external and visible, it is charac- 
terized by increased heat, swelling, pain, and redness ; when inter- 
nally, by the first three, the last not being discerned, though ex- 
isting. It may be acute when coming on rapidly, or chronic when 
slow, and v/ithout very active symptoms. In the acute form there 
is always an increased rapidity of the pulse, with a greater reac- 
tion of the heart's pulsations, known as hardness of the pulse. In 
the dog, the healthy pulsations are from 90 to 100 to the minute. 
This may be taken as the standard of health. The arterial pulse 
may be felt on the inside of the arm above the knee ; by placing 
the hand against the lower part of the chest, the contractions of 
the heart may be readily felt. In different breeds there is, how- 
ever, considerable variation in the pulsations of the heart. 



HYDROPHOBIA, RABIES, OR MADNESS. 

This diser.se h.is been classed among the inflammations. The 
symptoms are chiefly as follows : The first is a marked change of 
temper; the naturally cheerful dog becoming waspish and mo- 
rose, and the bold fondling pet retreating from his master's hand 
323 



824 rSTLAMMATIONS. 

as if it was that of a stranger. On the other hand, the shy dog 
becomes bold ; in almost every instance there is a total change of 
manner for several days before the absolute outbreak of the attack, 
which is indicated by a kind of delirious watching of imaginary 
objects, the dog snapping at the wall, or if anything comes in his 
way, tearing it to pieces with savage fury. With this there is 
constant watchfulness, and sometimes a peculiarly hollow howL 
At other times no sound whatever is given, the case being then 
described as " dumb madness." Fever is always present, but it is 
difficult to ascertain to what extent on account of the danger of 
approaching the patient. Urgent thirst accompanies the fever. 
Mr. Grantley Berkeley strongly maintains that no dog really at- 
tacked with rabies will touch water, and that the presence of 
thirst is a clear sign of the absence of this disease. This theory is 
so entirely in opposition to the careful accounts given by all those 
who have witnessed the disease, when it had unquestionably been 
communicated either to man or to some of the lower animals, that 
no credence need be given it. Mr. Youatt witnessed more cases 
of rabies than perhaps any equally good observer, and he strongly 
insists upon the presence of thirst, as may be gathered from the 
concluding portion of the following extract: 

" Some very important conclusions may be drawn from the ap- 
pearance and character of the urine. The dog, at particular times 
when he is more than usually salacious, may, and does diligently 
search the urining places ; he may even at those periods be seen to 
lick the spot which another animal has just wetted. If a peculiar 
eagerness accompanies this strange employment, if in the parlor, 
which is rarely disgraced by this evacuation, every comer is perse- 
vcringly examined, and licked with unwearied and unceasing indus- 
try, the dog cannot be too carefully watched ; there is great dan- 
ger about him ; he may, without any other symptom, be pronoun- 
ced to be decidedly rabid. I never knew a single mistake about 
this. Much has been said of the profuse discharge of saliva from 
the month of the rabid dog. It is an undoubted fact that, in this 
disease, all the glands concerned in the secretion of saliva become 
increased in bulk and vascularity. The sublingual glands wear 



HYDEOPHOBIA, E ABIES, OE MADNESS. 325 

an evident character of inflammation ; but it never equals the in- 
creased discharge that accompanies epilepsy or nausea. The 
frothy spume, at the corners of the mouth, is not for a moment to 
be compared with that which is evident enough in both of these 
affections. It is a symptom of short duration, and seldom lasts 
longer than twelve hours. The stories that are told of the mad 
dog, covered with froth, are altogether fabulous. The dog recov- 
ering from, or attacked by a fit may be seen in this state, but not 
the rabid dog. Fits are often mistaken for rabies, and hence the 
delusion. 

" The increased secretion of saliva soon passes away. It lessens 
in quantity and becomes thick, viscid, adhesive, and glutinous. It 
clings to the corners of the mouth, and probably more annoyingly 
so to the membrane of the fauces. The human being is sadly 
distressed by it. He forces it out with the greatest violence, or 
utters the falsely supposed bark of a dog, in his attempts to eject 
it from his mouth. This symptom occurs in the human being 
"when the disease is fully established, or at a late period of it. The 
dog furiously attempts to brush away the secretion with his paws. 
It is an early symptomin the dog, and it can scarcely be mistaken 
in him. When he is fighting with his paws at the corners of his 
mouth, let no one suppose that a bone is sticking between the 
poor fellow's teeth ; nor should any useless and dangerous effort 
be made to relieve him. If all this uneasiness arose from a bone 
in the mouth, the mouth would continue permanently open, instead 
of closing when the animal for a moment discontinues his efforts. 
If after a while he loses his balance and tumbles over, there can 
be no longer any mistake. It is the saliva becoming more and 
more glutinous, irritating the fauces and threatening suffocation. 
To this naturally and rapidly succeeds an insatiable thirst* 
The dog that still has ful\ power over the muscles of his jaws con- 
tinues to lap. He knows not when to cease, and the poor fellow 
whose jaw and tongue are paralyzed, plunges his muzzle into the 
water-dish to his very eyes, in order that he may get one drop of 
water into the back part of his mouth to moisten and to cool his dry 
and parched fauces. Hence, instead of this disease being always 



326 INFLAMMATIONS. 

characterized by the dread of water in the dog, it is marked by a 
thii-st often perfectly unquenchable. Twenty years ago, this asser- 
tion would have been peremptorily denied. Even at the present 
day we occasionally meet with those who ought to know better, 
and who will not believe that the dog which fairly, or perhaps 
eagerly, drinks, can be rabid." 

My own experience fully confirms the above account, having 
seen, as I have, seven cases of genuine rabies, in all of which thirst 
was present in a greater or less degree ; in five of the cases the dis- 
ease was communicated to other dogs. If the rabid dog is not 
molested he will seldom attack any living object ; but the slightest 
obstruction in his path is sufficient to rouse his fury, he then bites 
savagely, and in the most unreasoning manner, wholly regardless 
of the consequences. The gait, when at liberty, is a long trot in a 
straight line. 

The average time of the occurrence of rabies after the bite is, in 
the dog, from three weeks to six months, or possibly even longer ; 
a suspected case therefore requires careful watching for at least 
that time ; after three months, the animal supposed to have been 
bitten may be considered tolerably safe, if no unfavorable symp- 
toms have in the meantime shown themselves. The duration of 
the disease is about four or five days, but I have myself known a 
case to be fatal in forty-eight hours. No remedy having yet been 
discovered for rabies, nothing remains but to kill the dog suffer- 
ing therefrom. 



TETANUS. 

Resemblmg rabies in some degree, tetanus differs from it in the 
absence of any affection of the brain, the senses remaining perfect 
to the last. It is not common with the dog. It is generally pro- 
duced by a severe injury, and shows itself in the form known as 
** lock-jaw." It consists in spasmodic rigidity of certain muscles, 
alternating with relaxation. The stiffness continues for some length 
of time, not appearing and disappearing as quickly as in cramp. 



TURNSIDE. 327 

If the tetanic spasm affects the muscles of the jaw, the state is 
called " lock-jaw." When it seizes on all muscles of the back the 
body is drawn into a bow, the head being brought in close prox- 
imity to the tail. Sometimes the contraction is of one side onlv 
and at others of the muscles of the belly, producmg a bow in the 
opposite direction to that alluded to above. These various condi- 
tions exactly resemble the contractions produced by the poison of 
strychnine. When, therefore, they occur, as the disease is extremely 
rare, it is fair to suspect that poison has been used. Nevertheless 
it should be known that they were witnessed long before this poi- 
son was in use ; and, therefore, they may arise independently of it. 
The successful treatment of tetanus is hopeless, if the case is 
clearly established. Purgatives and bleeding may be tried, folv 
lowed by chloroform, which will always relieve the spasm for the 
time ; but, as it returns soon after the withdrawal of the remedy, 
no permanent good is likely to accrue from its use. Except in the 
case of highly valued dogs, I should never advise any remedies be- 
ing tried ; the humane course is to at once put the poor animal out 
of misery, the spasms being evidently of the most painful nature. 



TUENSIDE. 



Turnside is more frequently seen in the dog than tetanus, still 
it is by no means common. It consists in some obscure affectioA 
of the brain, resemblins: the '* gid " of sheep, and probably results 
from the same cause. The dog has no fits, but keeps continually 
turning round and round, until death ensues from exhaustion. 
Tetanus is more commonly met with in high-bred puppies, whose 
constitutions are delicate ; I have known a whole litter carried off, 
'^ne after the other by the malady. No remedy to my knowledge 
is of any avail ; bleeding, blistering, and purgatives are said to 
have restored some few cases. The seton, also, has been recom- 
mended, and is, in my opinion, more likely than any other remedy 



328 INFLA:^rMA'^ONS. 

to produce a cure, care being taken to maintain and support the 
strength of the animal against the lowering effects of this remedy. 



INFLAMMATIONS OF THE EYE. 

Ophthalmia, or simple inflammation of the eyes, is very com- 
mon in dogs, especially during the latter stages of distemper, when 
tlie condition of this organ is often seemingly, though not really, 
hopeless. On more tiian one occasion I have saved puppies from 
a watery grave, whose eyes were said to be beyond cure. Apply- 
ing no remedy locally, but simply attending to the general health 
of the dog, I have secured the recovery of the affected eye to its 
normal condition. The indications are, an unnatural bluish red- 
ness of "the white" of the eye, together with a film over the 
transparent part, which may or may not show red vessels spread- 
in"- over it. Tliere is great intolerance of light, with a constant 
watering. If the eye be opened by force, the dog most strenuously 
resists, giving evidence of pain from exposure to the rays of the 
sun. This state resembles the " strumous ophthalmia" of children, 
and may be treated in the same way, by tue uitemal use of tonics, 
the pills (62) being especially serviceable. In the ordinary ophthal- 
mia, the •' white" of the eye is of a brighter red, and the lids are 
more swollen, while the discharge is thicker, and the intolerance of 
light is not so great. The treatment here which is most likely to 
be of service is of the ordinary lowering kind, exactly the reverse 
of that indicated above. Purgatives, low diet, and sometimes 
bleeding, will be required, together with local washes, such as (55) 
or (56). If the eyes still remain covered with a film, a seton maj 
be inserted in the back of the neck with advantage, and kept opet> 
for two or three months. 

Cataract may be known by a whiteness, more or less marked in 
the pupil, and evidently beneath the surface of the eye, the disease 
consisting in an opacity of the lens, which is situated behind the 
pupil. It may occur from a blow, or from inflammation, or result 
from hereditary tendency. No treatment is of avaiL 



CANKER, OR INFLAMMATION OF THE EAR. 329 

In amaurosis the eye looks clear, and there is no inflammation; 
the nerve however is destroyed, and there is partial or total blin* 
ness. It may be known by the great size of the pupiL 



CANKER, OR INFLAMMATION OF THE EAR. 

Many dogs, especially of sporting breeds, contract an inflamma- 
tion of the membrane or skin lining of the ear, from high feeding 
generally, and exposure to the weather. This causes irritation, 
and tlie dog shakes his head continually. This, together with the 
tendency to spread externally, causes an ulceration of the tips of 
the ears of those dogs, such as the hound, pointer, setter, spaniel, 
etc., which have these organs long and pendulous. Hence, the 
superficial observer is apt to confine his observations to this exter- 
nal ulceration, and I have even known the tips of the ears cut off 
in the hope of getting rid of the mischief. This heroic treatment, 
however, only aggravated the malady, because, while the incessant 
shaking caused' the wound to extent, the internal inflammation 
was not in the slightest degree relieved. The pointer is specially 
liable to ** canker," as shown at the tips of the ears, inasmuch as 
there is little hair to break the acuteness of the "smack" which is 
given in the shake of the head. Long-haired dogs, on the other 
hand, are quite as liable to the real disease, as shown by an exami- 
nation of the internal surface, owing hoAvever to the protection 
affbrded by the hair, the pendulous ear is less ulcerated or in- 
flamed. Whenever, therefore, a dog is seen to continually shake 
his head, and ineflectually endeavor to rub or scratch his ear, not 
being able to succeed, because he cannot reach the interior, an ex- 
amination should at once be made of the passage leading into the 
head. If the lining be red and inflamed, there is clenr evidence of 
the disease, even though the external ear be altogether free from 
it. On the other hand, the mere existence of an ulceration on the 
tips of the ears is no absolute proof of " canker," inasmuch as it 
may have been caused by the briars and thorns which a spaniel or 



330 rSTLAMMATIONS. 

hound encounters in hunting for his game. Still it should lead to 
a careful inspection, and, if it continues for any length of time, it 
may be generally concluded that there is an internal cause for it. 
The treatment should in every case be chiefly directed to the inter- 
nal passage ; the cap which is sometimes ordered to be applied to 
the head, with a view of keeping the ears quiet, has a tendency to 
increase the internal inflammation, and should not therefore be em-^ 
ployed. The first thing to be done, is to lower the system by pur- 
gatives (11), (12), (15). or (16), with low diet, mcludmg no animal 
food. As soon as this has produced a decided effect, the nitrate of 
silver wash (22), the ointment (58a), melted, or the sulphate of zinc 
(20), should be dropped into the ear-passage, changmg one for the 
other every second or third day. At the same time the sores on 
the edges of the ears may be daily touched with bluestone, which 
will dry them up. In slight cases, this treatment will suffice for a 
cure, if carried on for three weeks or a month. In long-standing 
attacks, however, a seton must be put into the back of the neck ; 
this seldom fails to afford relief. If the inflammation in the exter- 
nal ear has been so great as to produce abscesses, they must be 
slit open with the knife to the very lowest point, as wherever mat- 
ter is confined in a pouch there can be no tendency to heal. The 
dog should be muzzled and the head held firmly on a table, when- 
ever any remedial fluid is applied internally to the ear. Deafness 
may result from canker, or from rheumatic or other inflammation 
of the internal ear. As no treatment is likely to be beneficial, 
there is no necessity for enlarging on the subject ; the only remedy 
at all to be relied on, in recent cases, is the seton in the back of the 
neck. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE MOUTH AND TEETH. 

Dogs fed on strongly stimulating food, are very apt to lose their 
teeth by decay, and also to suffer from a spongy state of the gums, 
attended with a collection of tartar about the roots of the teeth. 
Decayed teeth are better extracted, but the tartar, when it pro* 



OZ^NA, LARYNGITIS AND BRONCHOCELE. 331 

duces inflammation, may be removed by instruments. By care- 
fully scraping the teeth there is little or no diflaculty in removing- 
it if the dog's head is held steadily. If the animal be highly 
prized, he should be taken to a veterinary sui-geon for the opera- 
tion. Afterwards brush the teeth occasionally with a lotion com- 
posed of 1 part of a solution of chlorinated soda, 1 part of tinc- 
ture of myrrh, and 6 parts of water. When puppies are shedding 
their milk teeth, frequent soreness in the mouth prevents them 
from eating. In such cases the old teeth are better removed with 
a pair of forceps. 

Blain is a watery swelling beneath the tongue, showing itself in 
several large vesicles containing straw-colored lymph, sometimes 
stained with blood. The treatment consists in lancing them, after 
which, the lotion, given above, may be effectually applied to the 
sores. 



OZ^NA. 

Ozaena is an inflamed condition of the lining membrane of the 
nose, producing an offensive discharge from the nostrils. This is 
very common in the pug dog, and also more or less in toy spaniels. 
There is little to be done in the way of treatment; a solution of 
chloride of zinc (3 grains to the ounce of water), may be thrown 
into the nostrils with a syringe. 



LARYNGITIS AND BRONCHOCELE. 
Laryngitis is mflammation of the top of the wind-pipe, where 
there is a very narrow passage for the air, and consequently where 
a slight extra contraction caused by swelling is necessarily fatal. 
When acute, it is very dangerous, and characterized by quick 
laborious breathing, accompanied with a snoring kind of noise. 
There is also a hoarse and evidently painful cough. The pulse is 
quick and sharp, attended with some fever. The treatment must 



332 infla:mm:atioxs. 

be active, or it will be of no avail. Large bleedings, followed by 
a calomel purge (12), and the fever powder (50), will be necessary ; 
but no time should be lost in calling in skilful aid, if the dog's life 
is valued. 

Chronic laryngitis attacks the same part, comes on insidiously, 
and manifests itself chiefly in a hoarse cough and stridulous bark. 
It is best treated by a scton in the throat, together with low diet 
and the alterative pill (1). 

Bronchocele is known by an enlargement, often to the size of the 
fist, of the thyroid body placed on each side of the wind pipe. If 
this does not press upon the air-passage, there is no inconvenience ; 
but in course of time it generally does this, and the dog becomes 
wheezy and short-winded. It is chiefly seen in house pets, and 
may be relieved by the internal use of iodine (3), given for weeks 
in succession. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS. 

The organs of respiration consist of an external serous and an 
internal mucous membrane, united together by cellular tissue. 
Each of these is the seat of a peculiar inflammation (pleurisy, 
pneumonia, and bronchitis), attended by different symptoms and 
requiring a variation in treatment. There is likewise, as in all 
other inflammations, an acute and a chronic kind, so that here we 
have six different inflammatory disorders of the organs of the 
chest, besides heart disease and phthisis or consumption. All the 
acute forms are attended with severe sympathetic fever, and quick 
pulse ; but the character of the latter varies a good deal. The 
chronic forms have also some slight febrile symptoms; but gener- 
ally in proportion to the acuteness is the amount of this attendant 
or sympathetic fever. As these three forms are liable to be easily 
mistaken for each other, I place the symptoms of each in juxtapo- 
sition in the following Table : 



INFLAMMATION" OF THE LUNGS. 



333 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF SYMPTOMS. 



Early 
symp- 
toms. 



Stetho- 

scopic 

sounds. 



Percus- 
sion. 



Termina- 
tion. 



Treat- 
ment. 



Acute Pleurisy. 



Shivering, with 
slight spasms of the 
muscles of the chest; 
inspiratiou short and 
unequal in Its depth, 
expiration full, air 
expired not hotter 
than usual; cou.;h 
slight and dry ; pulse 
quick, small, and 
wiry. 



Acute Pneumonia. 



Strong shivering, 
but no spasms; in- 
spiration to.erably 
full, expiration 
short, air expired 
perceptibly hotter 
than natural; nos- 
trils red inside; 
cough violent and 
sonorous, with ex- 
; pectoration of rusty 
colored mucus; 
pulse quick, full, 
and soft. 



Acute Bronchitis. 



No very readily A crackling sound, 
distinguishable audible in the early 
sound. A practised | stage, followed by 
ear discovers a fric- j crepitating wheez- 
tion sound or rub- ing. 
bing. 



Produces at first no 
result difi"erent! from 
a slate of health. 
After a time, when 
serum is thrown out, 
there is increased 
dullness. 



The symptoms 
either gradually dis- 
appear, or lymph is 
thrown out, or there 
is an effusion of se- 
rum or matter, with 
a frequently fatal re- 
sult. 



Bleeding in the 
early stages, in de- 
gree according to the 
severity of the at- 
tack. Relieve the 
bowel8by(l2)or(13). 
No blistering, which 
is actually prejudi- 
cial. Try the fever 
powder (49) or (50). 
and if not active 
enough, give calomel 
and opium, of each 1 
^ain, in a pill, 3 
times a day. Low 
diet of slops only. 



Dullness after the 
early stage is pro- 
duced by the thick- 
ening of the tissue, 
approaching to the 
substance of liver, 
hence called "• hepa- 
tization." 

If the symptoms 
do not disappear, 
there is a solidifica- 
tion of the lung, by 
which it is rendered 
impervious to air, 
and in bad cases suf- 
focation takes place, 
or matter is formed, 
producing abscess. 



Bleeding in the 
early stages, in 
amount according to 
the severity of the 
attack. Give an ai>e- 
rient, (12) or (13>. 
Blisters to the chest 
of service, or the 
mustard embroca- 
I tion i42). Give the 
cough bolus '4t)) or 
the draught (47-. If 
the inflammation is 
very high, give calo- 
mel and opium, of 
eacli 1 grain, digita- 
lis, \ gniin, tartar 
emetic, \ grain, in a 
pill, 3 times daily. 
Low diet of slops. 



Shivering, soon fol- 
lowed by continual 
hard cough ; inspira- 
tion and expiration 
equally full ; air ex- 
pired warm, but not 
so hot as in pneu- 
monia ; cou^h soon 
becomes moist, the 
mucus expectorated 
being frothy, scanty 
at firs*:, but after- 
wards profuse; pulse 
full and hard. 

The sound in this 
form varies from 
that of soap bubbles 
to a hissing or 
wheezing sound. 



No change. 



The inflammation 

fenerally subsides 
y a discharge of 
mucus, which re- 
lieves the inflamma- 
tion; or it may go on 
to the extent of caus- 
ing suffocation by 
the swelling of the 
liningmembrane fill- 
ing up the area of 
the tubes. 

No bleeding is re- 
quired. In the early 
stage give an emetic 
(44). Follow this 
up with a mild ape- 
rient, (11) or (15). 
Apidy the emTaro- 
cation (42> to the 
chest, and give the 
cough bolus (46) or 
the draught (47). 
Low diet in the early 
stages ; afterwards, a 
little solid food, not 
meat, may be given. 



334 



INFLAMMATIONS. 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF CimONIC SYMPTOMS. 



Chronic Pleurisy. Chronic Pneumonia. Chronic Bronchitis. 



Early 
symp- 
toms. 



I Inspiration slower 
than 



Termina- 
tion. 



! Respiration quick 
expiraciun ; ! and painful; cough 
cough dry ; pulse | troublesome but re- 
quicker tban uatu- strained; expectora- 
ral, small and wiry. \ tion trittin!:,'; pulse 

i quick and full. 



Respiration quick 
but free; cougli t.on- 
stant and severe, but 
without pain; pulse 
scarcely aliectea. 



Treat- 
ment, 



Either in a cure, or 
else there is an effu- 
sion of serum into 
tlie chest, and gen- 
erally also into the 
belly and limbs, 
causing suffocation 
by pressure. 



The same as for 
acute pleurisy, but 
milder in degree, 
and the diet is not 
required to be so 
strictly confined to 
slops. 



If not ending in a Ends in a cure, or 
cure, tbere is great in a permanently 
difficulty of breath- I chronic state of iu- 
iu". often ending flammation. Or. if 



suffocation. Tne 
aniaial does not lie 
down, but sits up 
on his hind legs, 
supporting himself 
on his fore legs. 

Bleeding will sel- 
dom be required. 
Give the calomel, 
opium, and tartar 
emetic, withoui the 
di siitali s, in the 
doses ordered for 
acute pneumonia. 
After a few days, 
have recourse to the 
bolus (46). Diet 
nourishing, but 
strictly confined to 
farinaceous articles. 
The embrocation is 
of great service. 



fatal, there is sutfo- 
cation trom effusion, 
hut this IS very rare 
in chronic bronchi- 
tis. 



Dispense with the 
emetic, and at once 
try the cough bolus 
(46). In very mild 
cases, give ipecacu- 
anha \ grain, rhu- 
bai b 2 grains, opium 
i grain, in a pill, 3 
times a day. Apply 
the mustard embro- 
cation (43 1. Milk 
diet, with nourish- 
ing slops. 



These various forms constantly run into one another, so that we 
rarely find pleurisy without some degree of pneumonia, or pneu- 
monia without bronchitis. Still, one generally predominates over 
the other, and, as far as treatment is concerned, the malady pre- 
dominating may be considered as distinct. So, also, there is every 
shade between the very acute form, the acute, the subacute, the 
chronic, and the permanently chronic. For practical purposes, 
however, the two divisions are sufficient. 



SPASMODIC ASTHMA- 



What is often called asthma in the dog is nothing more than a 
chronic form of bronchitis, very common among petted toy dogs 



PHTHISIS, OR CONSUMPTION. 335 

or house dogs, which do not have much exercise. The symptoms 
and treatment are detailed uader the head of Chronic Bronchitis. 
There is, however, a form of true asthma, accompanied with 
spasms, among the same kind of dogs, the symptoms of which are 
much more urgent. They comprise a sudden difficulty in breath- 
ing, so severe that the dog manifestly gasps for breath ; stUl there 
is no evidence of inflammation. This malady may be known by the 
suddenness of the attack, inflammation being comparatively slow 
in its approach. The treatment consists in the administration of 
an emetic (45), followed by the cough bolus (46), or the draught 
(47). If the spasms are very severe, a full dose of laudanum and 
ether must be given, viz.—l drachm of laudanum, and 30 drops of 
the ether, in water, every three hours, until relief is afforded. 
The mustard embrocation (42), or the turpentine liniment (43), 
may be rubbed on the chest with great advantage. 



PHTHISIS, OR CONSUMPTION". 

Though very often fatal among highly-bred animals, phthisis 
or consumption has not been noticed by writers on dog dis- 
eases, neither Blain, Youatt, nor Mayhew making the slightest 
allusion to it. I have, however, seen so many cases of tubercular 
diseases in the dog, that I cannot doubt its existence as an ordinary 
affection. Furthermore, I know that hundreds of canines die 
every year from it. I have seen the tubercules in almost every 
stage of softening, and I have known scores of cases in which a 
blood-vessel has given way, producing the condition known in 
the human being as spitting of blood. 

The symptoms of consumption are, a slow insidious cough, with- 
out fever in the early stage, followed by emaciation, and endmg, 
after some months, in diarrhoea, or exhaustion from the amount of 
expectoration, or in the bursting of a blood-vessel. This last is 
generally, the termination in those dogs that are kept for use, the 
work to which they are subjected leading to excessive action of 
the heart, which is likely to burst the vessel. In the latter stages 



336 INFLAMMATIONS. 

tliore is a good deal of constitutional fever, but the dog rarely 
lives long enough to show this condition, being either destroyed 
as incurable, or dying rapidly from loss of blood or diarrhoea. 
Treatment is of little avail. Though the attack may be postponed, 
the disease cannot be cured, and no phthisical animal should be 
bred from. Cod-liver oil is of just as much service as in the 
human subject, but, as before remarked, it can only postpone the 
fatal result. It is therefore not well to use it except in the case 
of house pets. The dose is from a teaspoon ful to a tablespoonful 
three times a day. 



GASTRITIS, OPw INFLAMMATION OF THE STOMACH. 

This affection is, like all others of the same kind, either acute or 
chronic. The former very rarely occurs except from poison, or 
highly improper food, which has the same effect. The symptoms 
are a constant and evidently painful straining to vomit, with an in- 
tense thirst, dry hot nose, quick breathing, and an attitude which 
is peculiar— the animal lying extended on the floor, with his belly 
in contact with the ground, and in the intervals of retching lick- 
ing anything cold within reach. The treatment consists in bleed- 
ing, if the attack is very violent, and calomel and opium pOls, of a 
grain each. These pills are to be given every four hours, to be fol- 
lowed with two drops of the diluted hydrocyanic acid, distilled in 
a small quantity of water. Thin gruel or arrow-root may be given 
occasionally in very small quantities, but until the vomiting ceases, 
they are of little service. If poison has clearly been swallowed, 
the appropriate treatment must be adopted. 

Chronic gastritis is only another name for one of the forms of 
dyspepsia, the symptoms and treatment of which are given else- 
where. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER. 

This is one of the most common of the diseases to which sports 
ing dogs are liable, in consequence of exposure to cold and wet 



INFAMMATION OF THE LIVER. 337 

It causes congestion of the liver, which runs into inflammation.. 
Bogs deprived of exercise likewise contract it, because their livers 
first becoming torpid, the bile accumulates, and then, in order to 
get rid of it, nature establishes an action which ends in inflamma- 
tion. The symptoms are a yellow condition of the whites of the 
eye and of the skin generally, from which the disease is commonly 
called " the Yellows." 

Acute hepatitis comes on rapidly, and with a good deal of fever 
generally manifesting itself on the day following a long exposure 
to wet and cold. The dog shivers ; his nose is hot. His breathing 
is more rapid than usual, and his pulse is quick and weak. The 
bowels are confined; and when moved, the "motions" are clay- 
colored or slaty. If these symptoms are not immediately attended 
to, the case ends fatally, sickness coming on, and the strength 
being rapidly exhausted. The treatment should be, first, a consid- 
erable abstraction of blood ; then give the bolus (13) ; and, as soon 
as it has acted, rub the embrocation (42) or (43) on the right side, 
over the liver. At the same time, give calomel and opium pills of 
a grain each, every four hours, taking care to keep the bowels open 
by the bolus (13), or by castor oil (15). As soon as the proper color 
returns to the motions, the calomel may be entirely or partially 
discontinued, small doses of rhubarb and ipecacuanha being sub- 
stituted. An emetic (45) in the early stages will sometimes act like 
a charm, unloading the liver, and at once cutting short the conges- 
tion. When, however, inflammation has actively set in, it is worse 
than useless, inasmuch as it aggravates the disease tenfold. 

Chronic hepatitis is caused more frequently by improper food 
than by exposure, and is very different in its symptoms from the 
acute form. Whenever the faeces are pale, dark, or slate-colored, 
the approach of this disease may be suspected, and appropriate 
treatment should be commenced forthwith ; but it is not until the 
liver is perceptibly enlarged, and the dog is evidently out of con- 
dition, that it is generally considered to be established. Then 
scarcely any remedies will be of much service. At this time there 
is frequently not only a hard enlarged state of the liver— easily 
felt through and below the ribs on the right side— but also a yield- 

15 



338 INFLAMMATIONS. 

ing watery enlargement of the belly, from a collection of serous 
fluid, which is thrown out in consequence of the pressure on the 
veins, as they return through the liver. The skin is " hide-bound," 
the hair dull and awry, and the dog looks thin and wretched. 
The treatment consists in the use of small doses of mercury, or 
podophyllin, according to the state of the liver (1) or (18) ; or some- 
times ipecacuanha may be given instead of the mercury, in half- 
grain doses. It requires a long time, however, to act, and will 
suffice only in very mild cases. The red iodide of mercury mixed 
with lard, may be rubbed into the side, one drachm to one ounce 
of the lard, or the embrocation (42) or (43) may be used instead. 
Gentle exercise may be given at the same time, and mild farinace- 
ous food, with a small quantity of weak broth. After a time, as 
the liver begins to act, shown by the yellow color of the faeces, the 
disease relaxes, and the mercury may be dispensed with. As a 
general thing, however, considerable time elapses before the 
stomach recovers its tone. A strong decoction of dandelion roots 
boiled in water and strained, may be given for this purpose, the 
dose being half a teacupful, administered every morning. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS. 

Four varieties of inflammation of the bowels are met with, viz.: 1, 
acute inflammation of the peritonaeal coat ; 2, spasms of the mus- 
cular coat, attended with con!^estl<m or inflammation, and known 
as colic ; 3, inflammation of the mucous coat, attended by diarrhoea; 
and 4, chronic inflammation, generally followed by constipation. 
Acute inflammation of the peritonaeal coat is known as perito- 
nitis and enteritis, according as its attacks are confined to the mem- 
brane lining the general cavity, or to that covering the intestines ; 
but, as there is seldom one without more or less of the other, tliere 
is little practical use in the distinction. The symptoms arc very 
severe. They are indicated by shivering, fevcrishness, cold dry 
nose, ears, and legs, hot breath, and anxious expression — showing 
evidence of pain, which is increased on pressing the bowels with 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS. 339 

the hand. The tail is kept closely against the body. The attitude 
is peculiar to the disease, the back being arched, and the Icijs drawn 
together. The bowels are costive, and the urine scanty and highly- 
colored. There is likewise thirst, attended with loss of appetite. 
Sometimes there is a slight vomiting after food. The disease soon 
runs on, and, if not relieved, is fatal in a few days. To treat it 
take a large quantity of blood ; give calomel and opium in grain 
doses of each, every three or four hours. Place the dog in a warm 
bath for half an hour, and, after drying him, rub in the embroca- 
tion (43), avoiding pressure, and applying it rapidly, but lightly. 
After twelve hours, the bowels may be moved by means of the 
castor oil (15) ; or, if necessary, by the strong mixture (16), repeat- 
ing the calomel pills until the tenderness ceases. Great skill is re- 
quired in adapting the remedies to the disease, and a veterinary 
surgeon should be called in, whenever the dog is worth the 
expense. 

Colic is a frequent complaint among dogs, the signs being in- 
tense pain, aggravated at intervals to such a degree as to cause the 
patient to howl most loudly. The back at the same time is arched 
as far as possible, and the legs are drawn together. If this shows 
Itself suddenly after a full meal, the colic may at once be surmised 
to exist, but the howl at first is not very loud, the dog starting up 
with a sharp moan, and then lying down again, to repeat the start 
and moan in a few minutes with increased intensity. The nose is 
of a natural appearance, and there is little or no fever, the evidence 
of pain being all that directs the attention to the bowels. The 
treatment should be by means of laudanum (1 drachm) and ether 
(30 drops) in a little water every two or three hours ; or, in very 
bad cases, croton oil (1 drop) may be given in a pill with three 
grains of solid opium eveiy four hours until the pain ceases. The 
embrocation (45) may also be rubbed into the bowels, either at 
once, or after a very hot bath. The clyster (17) may also be tried 
with advantage, and sometimes a very large quantity of warm 
water thrown into the bowels while the dog is in the warm bath, 
will aflford instant relief. Colic sometimes ends in intussusception, 
or a drawing of one portion of the bowel into the other; but of 



340 INFLAMMATIONS. 

this there is no evidence during life. If there were, no remedy would 
avail short of opening the belly with the knife and drawing out 
the inverted portion with the hand. Diarrhoea, or intlammation 
of the mucous membrane of the bowels, is a constant visitor to the 
kennel. The symptoms are too plain to need description, further 
than to remark that the motions may be merely loose, marking 
slight irritation, or there may be a good deal of mucus, which is an 
evrdencc of great irritation of the membrane ; or, again, there may 
be shreds or lumps of a white substance resembling the boiled 
white of an egg, in which case the inflammation has run very high. 
Lastly, blood may be poured out, marking either ulceration of the 
bowels, when the blood Is bright in color, or an oozmg from the 
small intestines, when it is of a pitchy consistence and chocolate 
color. The treatment varies. If there is reason to believe that 
irritation from improper food exists, a dose of oil (15) will clear all 
away and nothing more is needed. In slight cases of mucous 
diarrhoea, laudanum may be added to a small dose of oil (7). If 
this does not have the desired effect, try (6), (8), or (9). Bleeding 
from an ulcerated surface or from the small intestines seldom oc- 
curs except in distemper, and can rarely be restrained when severe. 
Relief may be attempted by the bolus (18) or the pill (19), but the 
shock to the system is generally too great to allow of perfect 
health being restored. In case of bleeding from the large intes- 
tines, the chalk mixture (6), together with the bolus (18), will often 
avail. Rice water should be given as the only drink, and well- 
boiled rice flavored with milk as the only solid food. 

Chronic inflammation with constipation is very liable to occur in 
dogs which are not exercised, and are fed with biscuit or meal 
without vegetables. The treatment of habitual constipation should 
be regular exercise and green vegetables with food. Coarse oat- 
meal will generally act gently on the bowels of* the dog, and a cos- 
tive animal may be fed upon porridge with great advantage, mixed 
with wheat-flour or Indian meal. It is better to avoid opening 
medicine as a rule, though there is no objection to an occasional 
dose of a mild drug like castor oil. If the faeces are impacted, 
throw up warm water or gniel repeatedly, until they are softened^ 



KIDNEY, BLADDER, AND SKIN DISEASES. 341 

at the same time giving the aperient (12), (15), or (16). For piles, 
give every morning to a dog of average size as much brimstone a.k 
will lie on a quarter of a dollar. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS AND BLADDER. 

The former of these affections, which may be known by a great 
scantiness of urine, and evident pain in the loins, is not very com- 
mon in the dog, but it does occasionally occur. The only treat- 
ment likely to be of service, is the administration of carbonate of 
soda (5 grs.), with 30 drops of sweet spirit of nitre, in a little 
water twice a day. The bladder, and the urethra leading from it 
for the passage of the urine, are often subject to a mucous inflam- 
mation characterized by pain and constant irritation in passing 
water, and by a gradual dropping of a yellowish discharge from the 
organ. This is generally the result of cold, and may be treated by 
giving full doses of nitre (10 grs.), with Epsom salts (half an ounce), 
in some water twice a week. If the discharge and pain are very 
severe, balsam of copaiba may be administered, the best form being 
the " capsules " now sold, of which two form a dose for an aver- 
age-sized dog. If the discharge has spread to the exterior of the 
organ, the wash (20) will be of service. 



SKIN DISEASES. 



Nearly all skin diseases are due to neglect in some form. In the 
dog, they arise either from improper management, as in the case 
of '* blotch,*' or " surfeit," or from the presence of parasites, as in 
mange. These three names are all that are applied to skin diseases 
in the dog, though there can be no doubt that they vary greatly, 
and mange itself is subdivided by different writers so as to compre- 
hend several varieties. Fleas, ticks, etc., likewise irritate the skin, 
and all will therefore be included here, the inflammation produced 
by them being entitled to be considered a skin disease as much 
as mange itself. 



342 INFLAMMATIONS. 

Blotch, or surfeit, shows itself in the shape of scabby lumps of 
matted hair, on tlie back, sides, liead, and quarters, as well as oc- 
casionally on the inside of the thi^dis. They vary in size from a 
ten cent lo twenty-tiye cent piece, are irregularly round in shape, 
and after about three or four da3's, the scab and hair fall off, leav- 
ing the skin bare, red, and slightly inclined to discharge a thin 
serum. The disease is not contagious, and evidently arises from 
gross feeding joined very frequently with want of exercise, and 
often brought out by a gallop after long confinement to the kennel. 
The appropriate treatment is to remove the cause by giving mild 
aperients (11), (13), or (14), with low diet and regular exercise, by 
the aid of which, continued for some little time, there is seldom 
any difficulty in effecting a cure. 

An eruption between the toes, similar in its nature and cause to 
"blotch," is also very common, showing itself chiefly at the roots 
of the nails, and often making the dog quite lame. In bad cases, 
when the constitution is impaired by defective kennel arrange- 
ments, the sores become very foul, and are very difficult to heal. 
The general health must first be attended t®, using the same means 
as in "blotch" if the cause is the same. Touch the sores with 
bluestone, which should be well rubbed into the roots of the 
nails. When the he dth is much impaired and the sores are in a 
foul state, give from five to eight drops of liquor arsenicalis with 
each meal, which should be of good nourishing food. This must 
be continued for weeks, or even months in some obstinate cases. 
After applying the bluestone, it is often well to rub in a very little 
tar-ointment ; then dust all over with powdered brimstone. 

Foul mange, resembling psoriasis in man, is an unmanageable 
disease of the blood, requiring a complete change in the blood be- 
fore a cure can be effected. I am satisfied that it is hereditary, 
though probably not contagious. For example, I have seen a 
bitch apparently cured of it, and with a perfectly healthy skin, 
produce a litter of whelps all of which broke out with mange at 
four or five months old, though scattered in various parts of the 
country. The bitch afterwards revealed the impurity of her 
blood by again becoming the subject of mange. 1 should there- 



SKIN DISEASES. 343 

fore never breed from either a dog or bitch attacked by this form 
of eruption. There is considerable thickening of the skin, with 
an offensive discharge ironi the surface, chiefly flowing from the 
craclvS and ulcerations under the scabs on it. This dries and i:dls 
off in scales, taking vvith them a good deal of the hair, which is 
further removed by the constant scratching of the poor dog, who 
is tormented with incessant itching. Generally there is a fat 
unwieldly state of the system for want of exercise, but the appe- 
tite is often deficient. Clear the bowels with a brisk aperient, 
such as (12) or (13). Give low diet without flesh, starving the dog 
until he is ready to eat potatoes and green vegetables, alternately 
with oatmeal porridge — in moderate quantities. As soon as the 
stomach is brought down to this kind of food, but not before, 
begin to give the liquor arsenicalis with the food, the dose being a 
drop to each four pounds in weight of the animal. A dog of 
eight pounds weight, for example, will require two drops, three 
times daily ; taking care to divide the food into three equal por- 
tions, and not to give more of this altogether than is required for 
the purpose of health. The arsenic must be administered' for 
weeks or eveo months. As soon as the itching abates, and the 
health is improved, the mangy parts of the skin may be slightly 
dressed with small quantities of sulphur and pitch ointments, 
mixed in equal proportions. In two or three months the blood 
becomes purified, the eruption disappears, and the health seems 
impaired, a stomachic or tonic, (59) or (62), will often be required. 
Sometimes the ointment (58a) will be necessary. 

Virulent mange, similar to psora and porrigo in the human sub- 
ject, is of two kinds, one attributable to a parasitic insect, and the 
other of vegetable origin. In the former case, which is its most 
common form, it appears in large, unclean, unkempt kennels. The 
disease is highly contagious. The skin is dry and rough, with 
cracks and creases, from some of which there is a thin ichorous 
discharge when the scabs are removed. The dog feeds well, but 
from want of sleep is languid and listless ; likewise shows thirst 
and some feverishness. The treatment of this form of mange is 
based upon a belief that it is caused by an insect of the acarus 



344 i.vFLAMi^rATioxs. 

tribe, which has been detected by the microscope in many cases, 
but which by some people; is inai.it:;incd to be au accidental effect, 
and not a cause of mange. However this may be, it is found that 
remedies which are destructive to insect life, are by far the most 
eflScacious, such as hellebore, sulphur, corrosive sublimate, tobacco, 
etc. The second kind of virulent mange is more rare than that 
described above, and still more difficult of cure, the vegetable par- 
asite being less easily destroyed than the insect. This parasite is 
supposed to be of the nature of mould or fungus, which is most 
obstinately tenacious of life, and is reproduced agam and again in 
any liquid where it Las once developed its germs. In outward 
appearance this variety of mange differs very little from the in- 
sect-produced form, but it may be known by its generally attack- 
ing young puppies, while the other appears at all ages, but chiefly 
in the adult animal. The hair falls off in both, but there is more 
scab in the insect mange, probably from the fact, that it does not 
produce such violent itching, and therefore the scratching is not 
so incessant. The treatment is nearly the same in both cases, being 
chiefly with external remedies, though alteratives, stomachics, and 
tonics are often required from the loss of health which generally 
accompanies the disease. In all cases, therefore, it is necessary to 
attend to this, giving generally a mild aperient first, such as (12) or 
13), and subsequently (2) and (3) combined together, or (1) and (59), 
according to circumstances. At the same time one of the following 
applications may be tried externally, using a wire or leather muz- 
zle so that the dog does not lick off the ointments, either one of 
them, as they are highly poisonous when taken into the stomach. 

Ointment [or dressing) for virulent mange: Green iodide of mer- 
cury, 2 drachms. Lard, 2 ounces. Mix, and rub as much as can 
be got rid of in this way, into the diseased skin, every other day, 
for a week ; then wait a week, and dress again. Take care to leave 
no superfluous ointment. A milder ointment : Compound sulphur 
ointment, 4 oz. Spirits of turpentine, 1 ounce. Mix, and rub in 
every other day. All applications should be rubbed well into the 
roots of the hair. 

Red mange differs materially from either of the above forms, be« 



SKIX DISEASES. 345 

in^ evidently a disease of the bulb which produces the hair, inas- 
much as the colorin;^ matter of the hair itself is altered. It first 
shows itself almost invariably at tlie elbows and inside the arms, 
then on the front and inside of the thighs, next on the buttocks, 
and finally on the back, which is attacked when the disease has ex- 
isted for some weeks or months. The general health does not ap- 
pear to suffer, and the skin is not at all scabbed, except from the 
effects of the scratching, which is very frequent, but not so severe 
as in the virulent or foul mange. Red mange is probably conta- 
gious, but it is by no means a settled question, as it will uften be 
seen in single dogs which are in the same kennel witt otiicrs free 
from it entirely. Dogs highly fed, and allowed to n'e before the 
fire, are most subject to it, while the poor half -starved cur becomes 
aflfected with the foul or virulent forms. The treatment is to 
lower the diet; give aperients (.12) to (13). Following up these 
with the addition of green vegetables to the food, at the same time 
asing one or other of the following applications every other day. 
In obstinate cases arsenic may be given internally. 

Dressing for red mange : — Green iodide of mercury, 1^ drachm; 
spirits of turpentine, 2 drachms ; larJ, 1^ oui;ice. Rub a very little 
of this well into the roots of the hair eycry other day. 

Or, use carbolic acid, 1 part ; water, 30 parts. Use as a wash. 

Canker of the ear has elsewhere been alluded to under the dis- 
eases of that organ. 

Irritative inflammation of the skin is produced by fleas, lice, and 
ticks, which are readily discovered by examining the roots of the 
hair. Dog-fleas resemble those of the human subject. The lice 
infesting the animal are much larger, but otherwise similar in ap- 
pearance. Dog-ticks may easily be recognized by their spider-like 
forms, and bloated bodies, the claws adhering firmly to the skin, 
so that they are with some difficulty removed. These last are of 
all sizes, from that of an R.voragc pin's head to the dimensions of a 
ladybird. They suck a grcit quantity of blood when numerous, 
and impoverish the animal to a terrible extent, partly by the drain 
on the system, and partly by tjje constant iiritation which they 
produce. The remedies are as follows : — 



346 



INFLAMMATIONS. 



To remove fleas and lice : — 

Jfix soft soap with as much carbonate of soda as will make ft into a 
thick pasLu; r-ib this well into the roots of tiic huir all over the dog's 
body, aildini:; a liUic liot wator, so as to cn.iblo tlu; opcrai or to compleiely 
saturate the skia with it. Let it remaiu on for half an hour, tlicn put 
the dog iwro a warm bath for ten minutes, letting hisn quietly soak, and 
oow aad then ducking his head under. Lastly wash tiic soap completely 
out, and dry before the fire, or at exercise, if the weather is nut too cold. 
This, after two or three repetitions, will completely cleanse the foulest 
skin. 

Dry remedies for lice and ticks :— 

Break up the lumps of some white precipitate, then with a hard brush 
<ub it well into the roots of the bair over the whole body. Get rid of the 
superfluous powder from the external surface of the coat b}' means of 
light brushing or rubbing with a cloth. Place a muzzle on, and leave the 
dog with the powder in the coat for five or six hours. Then brush all 
well out, reversing the hair for this purpose, and the ticks and lice will 
all be found dead, A repetition at the expiration of a week will be ne- 
cessary, or even perhaj^s a third time. 

Or, use the Persian Insect-destroying Powder, which seems to 
answer well. 

Or, the following wash may be tried: Acetic acid 3| ounces ; 
borax, i drachm ; distilled water, 4^ ounces. Mix, and wash into 
the roots of the hair. 




CHAPTER V. 
DISEASES ACCOMPANIED BY WANT OF POWER. 

\ MOliEA. — SHAKING PALSY. — FITS.— WORMS. — GENEKAL EROPSY OB 
ANASARCA. 

inflammation is altendecl by increased action of the heart and 
at.eries. The abo'o^e class of diseases is, on the contrary, accom- 
panied by a want of tone (atony) in these orijans, as well as by an 
irritability of the nervous S3'stem. None of them require lowering 
measures, but, tonics and generous living are demanded, I have 
included worms in the classification, because these parasites pro- 
duce a lowering effect, and rarely infest to any extent a strong 
healthy subject, prefemng the delicate and half starved puppy, to 
the full-grown and hardy dog. 



^ CHOREA. 

Chorea, or St. Vitus's dance, may be known by the spasmodic 
twitches which accompany it, and cease during sleep. In slight 
cases the spasm is a mere drop of the head and shoulder, or some- 
times of the hind quarter only, the nods in the former case, or the 
backward drop in the latter, giving a very silly and weak expres- 
si(m to the animal. Chorea is generally a consequence of dis- 
temper, so that it is unnecessary to describe its early stages. It 
rarely destroys life, though it is occasion lly accompanied by fits, 
and the sufferer ultimately dies, apparently from exhaustion. Of 
the exact nature of the disease we know nothing, the most careful 
examination of the brain and spinal cord leading to no decided re- 
sult. In the treatment it is desirable to ascertain the existence of 
worms, and if they are found, no remedy will be likely to be bene- 
ficial, so long as they are allowed to continue their attacks. If 
347 



348 ATONIC DISEASES. 

they are only su^pectod, it is prudent to give a dose of the most 
simple worin-meaiciae, such as the areca nut (63). If tais brings 
away only one or two, the presence of others may bj predicated, 
and a persistence in the proper medicines will be necessary, until 
the dog is supposed to be cleansed from them. Beyond this, the 
remedies must be directed to improve the general health, and at 
the same time to relieve any possible congestion of the brain or 
spine, by the insertion of a seton in the neck. Fresh country aii 
is very beneficial. If good nourishing animal food, mixed with a 
proper proportion of vegetables does not avail, recourse may be 
had to the following tonic, which is often of the greatest service : 
Sulphate of zinc, 2 to 5 grains ; extract of gentian, 3 grains. Mix, 
And form a bolus. To be given three times a day. 

Careful attention must be paid to the state of the bowels, both 
constipation and looseness bdng prejudicial to the health, anl each 
requiring the appropriate treatment. Sometimes the tonic pill (62) 
will do wonders, and often the change from it to the sulphate of 
zinc and back again will be of more service than cither of them 
continued by itself. A p3rseverance in these methods, with the aid 
of the shower-bath, used by means of a watering-pot applied to the 
head and spine, and followed by moderate* exercise, "will some- 
times entirely remove the disease. In tlie majorityof cases a slight 
drop will be ever afterwards noticed, and in sporting-dogs the 
Strength is seldom wholly restored. 



SHAKING PALSY. 



This resembles ciiorea in its nature, but it is incessant, except 
iuying sleep, and attacks the whole body. The same remedies 
nay h(i applied, but it is an incurable disease, though not always 
destroying life. 



FITS. 

Fits are of three kinds : 1st, those arising from irritation, espe 
dally in the puppy, and known as convulsive fits ; 2ndly, those 



FITS. 349 

connected with pressure on the brain, and being of the nature of 
apoplexy ; and, 3rdly, epileptic: fits, which may occur at all ages, 
and even at intervals, through the whole life of the animal. 

Convulsive fits are generally produced by the irritation of denti- 
tion, and occur chiefly at the two periods when the teeth are cut 
viz., during the first month, and from the fifth to the seventh month 
They come on suddenly, the puppy lying on its siJe, and bein^ 
more or less convulsed. There is no foaming at the mouth, and 
the recovery from them is gradual, in both these points differing 
from epilepsy. The only treatment at all likely to be of service, 
is the use of the hot-bath, which in young and delicate puppies 
may sometimes give relief. Fits arising in distemper, are caused 
by absolute mischief in the brain, unless they occur as a conse- 
quence of worms, which being removed, the fits cease. 

In apoplectic fits the dcg lios insensible, or nearly so ; does not 
foam at the mouth, but snores and breathes heavily. Take away 
blood from the neck-vein, afterwards purging by means of croton 
oil, and inserting a scton in the back of the neck. The attack, 
however, is generally fatal, in spito of the most scientific treat- 
ment. 

Epilepsy may be distinguished by the blueness of the lips and 
gums, and by the constant chamjjing of the jaw and frothing at 
the mouth. The fit comes on without any notice, frequently in 
sporting dogs while they are at work, a hot day being specially 
provocative of it. In the pointer and setter, the fit almost always 
occurs just after a *' point," the excitement of which appears to act 
upon the brain. The dog falls directly the birds are sprung, after 
lying struggling for a few minutes, he rises, looking wildly about, 
him, and then sitting or lying down agam for a few minutes, \s 
ready to renew work apparently unconscious that anything unu- 
sual has occurred. As in chorea so in epilepsy, nothing is known 
of the cause and the treatment is therefore guided by the most em* 
plrical principles. Within the last ten years bromide of potassium 
has been used with great success in the human subject, but 
although I have recommended its use in many cases on the dog, 1 
cannot bear testimony as to the result. The dose for a moderate 



350 ATONIC DISEASES. 

sized animal is 3 grs. twice a day in a pill, continued foi a montb 
»<, least. 



WORMS. 

Worms are a fertile source of disease in the dog, destroying 
every year more puppies than does distemper itself ; and, in spite 
of every precaution, attackhig the kennelled hound or shooting- dog, 
hs well as the pampered house pet and the half-starved cur. In old 
and constantly used kennels, they are particularly rife, and I believe 
that, in some way, their ova remain from year to year, attached 
either to the walls or to the benches. All of the varieties met 
•with are propagated by ova, though some, as the Ascaris lumbri- 
coides are also viviparous, so that the destruction of the worms 
actually existing at the time the vermifuge is given does not neces- 
sarily imply the after clearance of the animal. He may be infest- 
ed with them as badly as before, from the hatching of the eggs 
left behind. Besides the intestinal worms, there are also others 
met with in the dog. including the large kidney worm, and the 
hydatid, which is in all probability the cause of tumside. I shall, 
therefore, first describe the appearance of each kind of worm ; 
then the symptoms of worms in general; and, lastly, the best 
means for their expulsion. 

The Maw-woi-m is much larger than its representative in the 
human subject, which is a mere thread, and is hence called the 
" thread-worm" In the dog it is about an inch in length, having 
a milky white color. Maws-worms exist in great numbers in the 
dog, chiefly occupying the large intestines. They do not injure 
the health to any great degree, unless they exist in very large num- 
bers. They are male and female, and are propagated by ova. 

Tfie Round-worm is from four to seven inches long, round, 
firm, and of a pale pink color. The two extremities are exactly 
alike, and are slightly flattened in one direction at the point. See 
engraving. Figure 47 shows a group of three round worms as 
actually discharged from the intestine of a dog in which they 
were thus knotted- I have often seen from six to a dozen round 



WORMS. 



351 



■worms thus collected together, so as when discharged to form a 
solid mass as large as an egf;. Like the last species, they are pro. 
pagated by ova, but sometimes these are hatched in the body of 
the parent, so that a large worm may be seen, full of small ones. 
This species occasions much more inconvenience than the maw- 
worm, but still far less than the tape-worm. 

Tape-worms in the dog are of five kinds, of which the Tcenia 
solium and Bothriocephalua latus are common to man and the dog. 
The other kinds are not readily distinguished from these two, and 




Fig. 47. — MAW-WOBM. 



all are now said to be developed from the hydatid forms found in 
the livers of sheep, rabbits, etc. The peculiarity in the bothriocC' 
phalus consists in the shape of tae head, which has two lateral 
longitudinal grooves, v^lnle that of the true taenia is hemispherical. 
Professor Owen says : " The ToBuia solium (Fig. 48) is several feet 
long. The breadth varies from one-fourth of a line at its anteiior 
part to three or four lines towards the posterior part of the body, 
which then again diminishes. The head (fig. 49) is small, and 
generally hemispherical, broader than long, and often as truncated 
anteriorly ; the four mouths, or oscula, are situated on the anterior 
surface, and surround the central rostellum, which is very short 



353 ATONIC DISEASES. 

terminated by a minute apical papilla, and surrounded by a double 
circle of small recurved hooks. The segments of the neck, or 
anterior part of the body, are represented by transverse rugae, the 
marginal angles of which scarcely project beyond the lateral line. 
The succeeding segments are subquadrate, their length scarcely 




Fig. 48. — TAPE-WORM. 

exceeding their breadth. They then become sensibly longer, nar* 
rower anteriorly, thicker and broader at the posterior margin, 
which slightly overlaps the succeeding joint. The last scries of 
segments are sometimes twice or three times as long as they are 
broad. The generative orifices are placed near the middle of one 
of the margins of each joint, and generally alternate. 



woEMS. 353 

The Toenia solium is androgynous ; that is to say, it produces its 
ova without the necessity for the contact of two individuals the 
male and female organs being contained in each. ProfessoT 
Owen further describes them: *' In each joint of this worm there is 
a large branched ovarium, from which a duct is continued to the 
lateral opening. The ova are crowded in the ovary, and in those 
situated on the posterior segments of the body they generally pre- 
sent a brownish color, which renders the form of their receptacle 
sufficiently conspicuous. In segments which have been expelled 
separately, we have observed the ovary to be nearly empty ; and 
ic is in these that the male duct and gland are most easily per- 
ceived. For this purpose, it is only necessary to place the seg- 
ment between two slips of glass, and view it by means of a simple 
lens, magnifying from 20 to 30 diameters. A well defined line, 
more slender and opaque than the oviduct, may then be traced 
extending from the termination of the oviduct, at the lateral open- 
ing, to the middle of the joint, and inclined in a curved or slightly 
wavy line to near the middle of the posterior margin of the scg 
ment, where it terminates in a small oval vesicle. This as seen 
by transmitted light, is subtransparent in the center,,and opaque 
at the circumference, indicating its hollow or vesicular structure. 
The duct, or xas deferens^ contains a gnimous secretion . it 
is slightly dilated just before its termination. In this species 
therefore, the ova are impregnated on their passage outward" 
From this minute description, it may be gathered that the ova are 
in enormous numbers, each section of the worm being capable of 
producing them to an almost indefinite extent ; and as they are 
passed out of the body with the .faeces, it is not surprismg that 
they are readily communicated from one dog to another, as is al- 
most proved to be the case from the fact of their prevalence in 
certain kennels, and absence from others. The injury caused by 
these worms is twofold, viz., the abstraction of nourishment, 
which is absorbed by the worms, and the irritation produced by 
theu- presence in the intestines. It is, therefore, of the utmost im- 
portance to get rid of so troublesome customers. 
The Kidney- worm {^igai). Professor Owens says, •* inhabits the 



354 



ATONIC DISEASES. 



kidnCy of the clog, as well as that of the wolf, otter, raccoon, glut 
ton, horse, and bull, (see fig. 50). It is generally of a dark blood- 
color, which seems to be owing to the nature of its food, which is 
derived from the vessels of the kidney, as, when suppuration has 
taken place round it, the worm has been 
found of a whitish hue. In the human 
kidney it has been known to attain the 
length of three feet, with a diameter of 
half an inch. The head {a), is obtuse, 
the mouth orbicular and surrounded by 
six hemispherical papillae (a) ; the body 
is slightly impressed with a circular 
I'] // striae, and with two longitudinal impres- 

sions. The tail is incurved in the male 
and terminated by a dilated point or 
bursa (u), from the base of which the 
single intromittent spiculum (b), projects. 
In the female, the caudal extremity is 
less attenuated and straighter, with the 
anus (c), a liitle below the apex." I have 
been thus particular in inserting descrip- 
tions of these worms, because their study 
is becoming more general, and they pre- 
sent a large field for the microscopic 
inquirer. 

Indications of worms in the dog 
should be carefully noted and anxiously 
looked for, if the health of the animal 
is of any importance. They are, an un- 
healthy appearance of the coat, the 
Fig. 50.— KIDNEY-WORM, h^lr looking dead and not lying smoothly 
and evenly. The appetite is ravenous 
m proportion to the condition, which is generally low, though 
worms may exist for months without interfering much with 
the presence of fat. After a time, however, the fat of the 
body is absorbed, and the muscles, without being firm and promi- 




WORMS. 355 

flent, are marked with intervening lines from its absence. The 
faeces are passed frequently and in small quantities, the separate 
passage of a small quantity of mucus each time being particularly 
indicative of worms. The spirits are dull, the nose hot and dry 
and the breath offensive. These signs are only present to the full 
extent when the dog is troubled with tape-worm, or with the 
round-worm in large quantities; the maw-worm being only 
slightly injurious in comparison with the others, and rarely bemg 
attended with all of these symptoms. The kidney-worm has no 
effect upon the intestinal secretions, but it produces bloody urine, 
more or less mixed with pus. Still, as this is often present with- 
out the worm, it is impossible to predict its existence during life, 
with any degree of certainty. When worms are suspected, in 
order to distinguish the species, it is better to give a dose of calomel 
and jalap (16), unless the dog is very weakly, when the areca nut 
may be sustituted (65). Then, by watching the faeces, the particu- 
lar worm may be detected and the treatment altered accordingly. 

The expulsion of the worms is the proper method of treatment 
in all cases, taking care afterwards to prevent their regeneration, 
by strengthening the system, and by occasional doses of the medi- 
cine suited to remove the worm in question. All vermifuges act 
as poison to the worms themselves, or as mechanical irritants; the 
former including the bulk of these medicines, and the latter pow- 
dered glass and tin as well as cowhage. These poisons are all more 
or less injurious to the dog, and in spite of every precaution fatal 
results will occur after most of them ; even the areca nut, innocent 
as it is said to be, has occasionally nearly destroyed valuable dogs 
tinder careful superintendence. 

The following is a list of remedies for the various worms : — For 
round and maw- worms: Betel nut {Nux areca). Stinking helle- 
bore \Helleborus fcetidibs). Indian pink {Spigelia Marylandica). 
Calomel {Hydrargyri chloHdum). Wormwood {Artemisia Absin- 
thium). Santonine, the active principle of wormseed {Arte' 
misia contra), Cowhage {Mucuna prwiens). Powdered tin and 
glass. 

For tape-worm: Spirits of turpentine {Spiriius teredinthince) 



356 ATONIC DISEASES. 

Kousso {Brayerz antTidmintica). Pomegranate bark {Punica Ora- 
natum). Leaves and oil of male fern {Filix mas). 

The areca nut was fii-st recommended as a vermifuge by Major 
Besant, who had seen it used in India for that purpose. It has 
since been very generally adopted, and appears to answer the pur- 
pose remarkably well. It should be given every week or ten days, 
for six or seven times, if the round-worm is present ; two or three 
doses occasionally given will suffice for the maw-worm. Six or 
eight hours afterwards, a dose of castor-oil should be administered. 
The dose of the freshly powdered areca nut is about two grains to 
every pound of the dog's weight. Thus a dog of 30 lbs. will take 
one drachm, or half an average nut. Stinking hellebore is very 
innocent, and even useful in other ways. The dose for a 30-lb. 
dog is five or six grains mixed up with eight or ten of jalap, and 
formed into a bolus, to be given every five or six days. Indian 
pink is a vqyj powerful vermifuge ; but it al.-o occasionally acts 
very prejudicially on the dog, and it must never be given without 
knowledge of the risk which is incurred. I have myself used it 
in numberless instances without injury ; but its employment has 
60 frequently been followed by fatal results in other hands that I 
cannot do otherwise than caution my readers against it. How, or 
why, this has been, I have never been able to ascertain ; but, that 
it is so, I have no doubt whatever. If it is determined to use it, 
half an ounce of the drug, as purchased, should be infused in half 
a pint of boiling water ; and of this infusion, after straining it, 
from a tablespoonful to two tablespoonfuls should be given to 
the dog, according to size, followed by a dose of oil. Calomel is 
a powerful expellant, but it also is attended with danger. The 
dose is from three to five grains, mixed with jalap. Wormwood 
may be given with advantage to young puppies, being mild in its 
operation. The dose is from ten to thirty grains, in syrup or honey. 
Santonine is an admirable remedy, when it can be procured in a 
pure state. The brown is the best, of which from one half to 
three grains is the dos'^, mixed with from five to fifteen grains of 
jalap, and given at intervals of a week. Cowhage, powdered tin, 
and glass, all act by their mechanical irritation, and may be given 



GENERAL DEOPSY. 357 

without the slightest fear. The first should be mixed with molas- 
ses, and a teaspoonful or two given occasionally. The second and 
third are better mixed with butter, the dose being as much as can 
be heaped upon a twenty -five cent piece. Spirits of turpentine is 
without doubt the most efficacious of all worm medicines; but, if 
not given with care, is apt to upset the health of the dog, by irritating 
the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal, and of the kidneys 
also. I am satisfied, however, that it is not necessary to give it in 
its undiluted form, and. that by mixing it with oil, its dangerous 
qualities are altogether suppressed. 1 have known young puppies, 
under two months of age, cleared of worms without the slightest in- 
jury, by giving them from three to ten drops, according to their size, 
in a teaspoonful of oil. Tlie old plan was to tie up the turpentine in 
a piece of bladder, which is then to be given as a bolus ; but this is 
either broken in the throat, causing sufibcation by getting into the 
windpipe, or it is dissolved in the stomach, which is then irritated 
by the almost caustic nature of the turpentine. The ordinary 
dose given in this way is from half a drachm to half an ounce, the 
latter being only adapted to very strong and full-sized dogs. 
Certainly it is very useful given in this way, if it does not irritate ; 
but I should prefer the mixture with oil, though it is sometimes 
rejected from the stomach. The leaves and oil of the male fern 
are both very eflScacious remedies, when obtained in a state of 
purity. 



GENERAL DROPSY. 



General Dropsy consists, in scrum infiltrated into the cellular 
membrane, beneath the skin of the whole body, as shown by 
swelling without redness, and " pitting *' on the pressure of the 
finger being removed. The immediate cause is to be looked foi 
either in general debility, by which the serum is not absorbed in 
due course, or from defective action of the kidneys, by which the 
blood is overcharged witli it. More remotely, improper stimu- 
lants or gross food will produce it, especially in foul and dirty 
kennels, and in old and worn-out dogs when the liver is deficient 



358 



ATONIC DISEASES. 



In activity. The treatment must vary with the cause, and it 13 
therefore important that this should be ascertained at once. Thus, 
in ca^e there is merely general debility, tonics (62) or (63) will be 
the proper remedies. If the kidneys are in fault, but merely 
>3rpid, the diuretic bolus (40) or (41) may be relied on ; while, if 
they have been inflamed, the treatment proper to that disease 
must be resorted to. Sometimes, in a broken down constitution, 
when the uiine is mixed with blood, small doses of cantharides 
may be found beneficial, as advised by Mayhew ; but these cases 
are so difficult to distinguish, that it is only when veterinary aid 
cannot be obtained that I should advise the use of this drug. The 
dose is two to three drops in water twice a day; Tincture ol 
Cantharides, 2 drops; Spirits of Nitric Ether, 151 drops; Water, I 
0£. Mix, and give as a drench twice a day. 




CHAPTER VI. 

DISEASES ARISING FROM MISMANAGEMENT OR 
NEGLECT. 

AN2EMIA..— KICKETS. — ^TNBIGESTION, 

POVERTY OF BLOOD. 

When puppies are reared in densely populated parts of cities, or 
even in the country where they are crowded together in large 
numbers, they are weakly in constitution ; their blood is pale, from 
being deprived of the red particles which fresh air and good food 
with sunlight, will alone produce. The feeding has a good deal to 
do with this, but not so much as other causes. The signs are clear 
enough, the young dog looking emaciated and delicate, and his 
coat staring, while his lips and tongue are of a pale pink, as if 
washed out. Worms are almost always present, and if so they ag- 
gravate the disease tenfold. Give plenty of fresh air, in the coun- 
tiy if possible, admitting the sun on all occasions. Administer 
good nourishing food, composed of the proper proportions of ani- 
mal and vegetable ingredients. The following mixture of quinine 
and steel may be used as an internal medicine : Sulphate of qui- 
nine ; sulphate of iron, of each 1 grain ; extract of dandelion^ 8 
grains. Mix, and give three times a day. If worms are present, 
they must of course be got rid of. 



RICKETS AND ENLARGED JOINTS. 

By rickets is understood a soft and weak condition of the bones, 
m which the lime is deficient ; the gelatine comprising their frame- 
work having no proper support, they bend in any direction which 
the superincumbent weight may give them. Hence we so often 
359 



360 DISEASES ARISING FROM NEGLECT. 

see puppies which are confined to their kennels with bandy legs. 
This is usually the first sign of rickets. Sometimes the shins 
bend forward, producing what is called the "buck-shin," but 
whether the legs bow outwards or forwards the cause is the same. 
The remedy is country air, exercise, and good food ; quinine and 
steel pills, ordered for poverty of blood, will also prove beneficial. 
Enlarged joints may be merely a sign of excessive vigor in the 
formation of the bone. But there is to be met with a scrofulous 
enlargement of the joints, which is seldom got rid of. This 
scrofulous enlargement may occur in the knees, hocks, or stifles, 
but the last-named joints are usually the seats of the disease. 
Sometimes nature rallies and throws off this tendency to scrofula, 
but more frequently the joints become larger and larger, the lame- 
ness increases, and, in most cases nothing is left but to kill the 
sufferer. 



INDIGESTION. 



Among the most common consequences of improper feeding 
and neglect of exercise is indigestion, attended by its usual con- 
comitant, constipation. If moderate starvation does not soon 
restore the stomach, care must be taken that the liver is acting 
properly, the faeces being watched to see if they are of a proper 
color; if they are not, small doses of calomel or blue pill will 
be required : (1), (2), or 13). If, on the contrary, the liver acts 
properly, yet the stomach is out of order, recourse may be had to 
tlie stomachic bolus (59), or to the draught (60), which will very 
seldom fail, if aided by proper management. It should, however, 
never be forgotten that medicine is of no use, unless, at the same 
time, the diet is attended to, and sufficient exercise given. In 
cases of indigestion, it is particularly necessary to change the food 
every third or fourth day. 



CHAPTER VII. 

DISEASES AND ACCIDENTS REQUIRING SURGICAL 

AID. 

TUMORS. — CANCER. — ENCYSTED TUMORS. — ABSCESSES. — UNNATURAI, PAR* 
TUKITION. — ACCIDENTS AND OPERATIONS. 

TUMORS. 

Bronchocele, or Goitre, is very common among house pets, 
showing itself in a large and rather soft swelling in the front d 
the throat. The treatment consists in rubbing in iodine outward 
ly, and, if this fails, giving it internally also. The internal 
remedy may be according to the formula (3); but, if the expense 
is objected to, the sarsaparilla may be omitted. The ointment is 
as follows : Iodide of potassium, 1 drachm ; Lard, 1 ounce. Mix, 
and rub in the size of a filbert, night and morning. 



CANCER. 

Cancer is a malignant disease, that is, it is incapable of a cure by 
the natural powers, and must be eradicated either by the knife or 
by caustic. It is, however, very doubtful whether by their means 
the disease is checked for any length of time, and does not return 
after the lapse of a few months. The knife is the only remedy, 
and should be used only by practised hands. When, therefore, a 
cancer is to be removed, a veterinary surgeon should at once bo 
called. 



ENCYSTED TUMORS. 



Encysted tumors ve sacs or bags of various sizes, just 
beneath the skin, containing a thick^ glairy, and transparent fluid 
3QI 16 



362 DISEASES ARISING FR0:M NEGLECT. 

resembling the white of an egg. They are readily detected by 
their soft yielding feeling, and by their evident want of connection 
•with the surrounding parts. Nothing but the knife is of the 
slightest use. By cutting through them, the sac may readily be 
torn out, each half at a time, taking care not to leave a particle 
behind, as it is sure to grow again into another sac of the samo 
size as before. 



ABSCESSES. 

Abscesses, the result of inflammation, are very common in the 
dog. They show themselves in the early stage, as hard pain- 
ful swellings more or less deep, but gradually coming to the sur- 
face, when the skin reddens, and they burst in the course of 
time. Very often, however, the matter forms so slowly, and 
has such a tendency to burrow among the muscles, that, if it is 
let out by the knife in the early stage, it produces great exhaus- 
tion from the quantity formed. Matter may be detected as soon 
as it is thrown out, by the sensation given to the fingers of each 
hand called " fluctuation." That is to say, on pressing one side of 
the swelling with the left hand, the other side rises beneath the 
fingers of the right, in an elastic way, just as happens with a water- 
pillow, when pressure is made upon it. When, therefore, this 
fluctuation is clearly made out, a lancet or knife should be insert- 
ed, and made to cut its way out, so as to leave a considerable open- 
ing, which should be so arranged as to let the matter drain out at 
all times. This is what in surgery is called a " depending open- 
ing." 



UNNATURAL PARTURfTION. 

When, says Mr. Youatt, the time of parturition amves,and there 
is evident difficulty in producing the foetus, recourse should be had 
to the ergot of rye, given every hour or half-hour, according to cir- 
cumstances. If after a certain time, some progress, however little. 



l»t;ERPERAL FITS. 3G3 

has been made, the ergot must be continued in smaller doses, or 
perhaps suspended for a while ; but, if all progress is evidently 
suspended, recoui-se must be had to the hook or the forceps. By 
gentle but continued manipulation much may be done, especially 
when the muzzle of the puppy can be brought into the passage. 
Little force as possible must be used, and the foetus be but 
little broken. Many a valuable animal is destroyed by the undue 
application of force. If the animal seems to be losing strength, 
a small quantity of laudanum and ether may be administered. 
The patience of bitches in labor is extreme, says Mr. Blaine ; and 
their distress, if not relieved, is most striking and affecting. Their 
look at such times is particularly expressive and apparently im- 
ploring. When the pupping is protracted, and the young ones 
are evidently dead, the mother may be saved, if none of the pup- 
pies have been broken. In process of time the different puppies 
may, one after anothet, be extracted ; but when violence has been 
used at the commencement, or almost at any part of the process, 
death will surely follow. 



PUERPERAL FITS. 



Nature proportions the power and resources of the mother to 
the wants of her offspring. In her wild undomesticated state she 
is able to suckle her progeny to the full time; but, in the artificial 
state in which we have placed her, we shorten the interval be- 
tween each period of parturition, we increase the number of her 
young ones at each birth, we diminish her natural powers of 
affording them nutriment, and we give her a degree of irritability 
which renders her whole system liable to be excited and deranged 
by causes that would otherwise be harmless. Fits ultimately follow. 
Place the sufferer in a bath, temperature 96°, and cover her with the 
water, her head excepted. It will be surprising to see how soon 
the simple application of this equable temperament will quiet 
down the erethism of the excited system. In ten minutes, or a 
quarter of an hour, she may be taken out of the bath evidently 



364 DISEASES ARISING FROM NEGLECT. 

relieved, and then, a hasty and not very accurate drying having 
taken place, she is wrapped in a blanket and placed in some warm 
situation, a good dose of physic having been previously adminis- 
tered. She soon breaks out in a profuse perspiration. Everything 
becomes gradually quiet. She falls into a deep and long sleep, 
and at length awakes somewhat weak, but to a certain degree 
restored. If, then, all her puppies except one or two are takea 
from her, and her food is, for a day or two, somewhat restricted, 
and after that given agahi in its usual quantity and kind, she will 
live and do well. Bleeding at the time of her fit, or suffering all 
puppies to return to her, will inevitably destroy her. 



ACCIDENTS AND OPERATIONS. 

Cuts, tears, and bites, unless they are very extensive, and there- 
fore likely to occupy a long time in healing, are better left to 
themselves, the dog's tongue being the best healing remedy. But 
when a V-shaped flap is torn down, or a very long and straight 
cut or tear is accidentally made, a few stitches should be put in 
with a proper cui-ved needle, armed with strong thread or silk. 
It is only necessary to Introduce the needle in two places on ex- 
actly opposite sides, and then, an assistant drawing the skin to- 
gether, the ends are tied in a common knot, and cut off closely. 
When, bowiiver, this plan is adopted, a muzzle must be worn as 
long as the stitches are kept in, because the dog never rests satis- 
fied until he has licked the knots open, or in some way with his 
teeth and tongue has got rid of them. Wounds in the dog do not 
heal "by the first intention," that is, in three or four days, as in 
man, but fill up by what is called granulation. Of course, in long 
wounds, more than one stitch is required, but, as perfect union can 
never be effected by adhesion, the attempt to bring the edges care- 
fully together is a failuic; and, provided that anything like an ap- 
proach to this is effected, all is done which can be desired by a few 
Stitches at short distances. A bandage may be added afterwards 



ACCIDENTS AND OPERATIONS 365 

and kept on for three days, after which it must be changed daily, 
the muzzle still being kept on. When the red granulations rise 
above the level of the skin called then " proud flesh " a piece of 
bluGstone should be rubbsd on them daily, or often enough to keep 
them down to the proper level. When below the level of the skin» 
they never require caustic of any kind. 

In any cuts about the legs or feet, the parts may be protected by 
collodion painted on rapidly with a camers-hair brush, and allowed 
to dry ; but a very little friction removes it. Canada balsam, spread 
on white leather and warmed, will keep its place well enough to 
bear the rubs of a course in the greyhound, and is, I believe, tlis 
best application. A leathern boot may be made to fit the pointer's 
or setter's foot, or, indeed, that of any dog which requires protec- 
tion, during work. 

Fractures may recur in any of the bones of the dog, but except- 
ing in the legs or ribs, little relief can be afforded by art. They 
are detected by the deformity which is seen in the part, an angle 
being presented in the interval between two joints, when occur- 
ring in the limb, and a crepitus or crackling being heard and felt 
on handling the part. When the ribs have been broken, the in- 
jury is easily detected by the depression which is felt, and the 
grating sound often produced in breathing. In this case a flannel 
bandage maybe bound tightly round the chest. The dog, after 
being bled, should be kept quiet, and fed on low diet. A horse- 
girth passed twice or thrice round and buckled answers the pur- 
pose pretty well, but is not equal to a well-applied bandage. 
Fractures of the limbs may be set by extending the broken ends, 
and then carefully applying wooden or gutta percha splints lined 
with two or three thicknesses of coarse flannel. 

Dislocations occur in the shoulder and elbow very rarely ; in 
the knee and toes frequently; in the hip very often ; in the stifle 
occasionally, and in the hock very seldom, except in connection 
with fracture. In all cases, they are detected by the deformity 
occurring in any of these joints, which is not capable of restora- 
tion by gentle handling, and is not accompanied by the crepitus, 
which marks the fracture. To reduce a dislocation, two person? 



366 DISEASES ARISING Fr.OM NEGLECT. 

must lay firm hold of the two parts of the limb on each side of the 
injured joint, and then extending them strongly, the head of the 
bone in slight and recent cases will be felt slipping into the socket. 
Chloroform should be given during the operation, if the attempt is 
not immediately successful when made directly after the accident, 
inasmuch as it relaxes the muscles in a remarkable manner, and en- 
ables the opeiator to proceed without being opposed by the strug- 
gles of the dog. Dislocated toes are sometimes reduced directly 
after the accident occurs, but they are very apt to return to their 
deformed condition immediatelj^ and a small splint should be 
bound on at once. In dislocations of the knee, also, a bandage 
should be applied, so as to keep the joint slightly bent, and prevent 
the foot from being put to the ground. The operations likely to be 
practised on the dog are somewhat numerous, but the only ones fit 
to be attempted by any but the professed veterinarian are bleeding, 
the insertion of a seton, and the closing of wounds by the ligatura 




INDEX. 



Age to Breed Prom 178 

Albanian Dog 50 

American Dogs 31 

Anatomy of tbe Dog 287 

Axioms for Breeders Use 1T5 

Barbet,the 153 

Beagles, American * 64 

" Dwarf 65 

" Rabbit* 66 

Bench Show, New York 367 

Bitch, the Duration of Heat 182 

" Management of in Season. . . 182 

Whelp... 183 

" Preparation for Whelping. ..184 

Bloodhound, the * 55 

Breaking Pointers and Setters 223 

Breaking and Entering Dogs 218 

Breed, Time of Year to 181 

Breeding, General Principles of,. ..173 

In-and-in 178 

Buffalo Hunter's Camp * 281 

Bulldog, the* 141 

Bull Terrier* 169 

Camp, How to Make a 265 

Characteristics of Different Species. 24 

Chesapeake Bay Dog * 124 

Cuvier's Divisional Arrangement... 24 

Dachshund, the* 85 

'^ Character of 87 

Dalmatian Dog • 91 

Dandie Dinmonts, Origin of 73 

Deer at a Salt-Lick* 277 

Deerhound* 32 

" Entering o? 218 

Deer-Hunting 276 

Dhole, the, of India * 28 

Digestive System ot the Dog 290 

Dingo of Australia * 19-27 

Diseases of the Dog 309 

Distemper 311 

Fevers 309 

Influenza 310 

Rhenmaric Fever 317 

Smallpox .320 

Sympathetic Fever 322 

Tpyb us Fever 311 



Inflamraatlona ...,.828 

Hydrophobia 323 

of the Bowels 33S 

of the Ear 329 

of the Eye 328 

of the Kidneys & Bladder. .^41 

of the Liver 336 

of the Lungs 332 

of the Mouth and Teeth... 330 

of the Nose 331 

of the Stomach 33Q 

of the Throat 331 

Tetanus S'?9 

Turnside 327 

Asthma, Spasmodic 335 

Diseases from Neglect 359 

Indigestion qqq 

Rickets 359 

Di.seases of the Skiu 341 

Blotch ^2 

Eruption on the Toes 342 

Fleas, etc 345 

Foul Mange ^42 

Red Mange 344 

Virulent Mange 343 

Diseases of the Nerves 347 

Chorea 347 

Fits [.'343 

l*'»J5y 343 

Worms* 350 

Diseases Requiring Surgical Aid.. .361 

Abscesses sgg 

Accidents and Operations 364 

Cancer ggi 

I>ropsy 357 

Fits, Puerperal .363 

Partnrition, Difficult S6% 

Phthisis 335 

Tumor sSl 

Tiimors Encysted 363 

Dog— an Article of Food 21 

" Doscent from the Wolf 19 

" Varieties of the 21 

Dogs Used with the Gun 88 

'* Domesticated 32 

Drenching, Mode of . ., 30Q 



3a8 



INDEX. 



Bar;?, Cropplnsj 205 

E-qiiiiiiaux D()i,'S* 135 

Faults, Correction of 231 

Feeding before Weaning 191 

Food, Value of Articles of 201 

Foxhound, The* 57 

Coljrsof 62 

" Entering of 221 

" How to Choose a 58 

Same in the Far West 283 

arcyhound. Choice of a 47 

Enteringof 208 

** Grecian 50 

»* Irish 48 

•* Italian* 52 

** Kennels for 206 

•* Persian 51 

** Points of a 38 

** Russian 50 

♦* The Rough Scotch 32 

•* The Smooth* 36 

** Turkish 51 

Grouse, Varieties of 249 

Hare Hunting 275 

Hare-Indian Dog * 49 

Harriers, Enteringof 221 

The 03 

Hounds, Kennel Management of. ..213 

Feeding 215 

" Foodfor 214 

House Dogs, Management of 216 

Kennels, Benches for* 211 

"■ Elevation of. 208 

*♦ for Foxhounds and Har- 
riers 209 

•* for Greyhounds 206 

** for Pointers and Setters.. 216 

•* Management of 206 

** Pavement for .- 208 

'• Plan of* 207 

•* Single Dogs 216 

" Ventilation for* 212 

Labrador Dogs 132 

Lion Dog, The 155 

Maltese Dog, The* 154 

Mastiff, English* 146 

Matins 24,48 

Muscular System of the Dog 289 

Nervous System of the Dog 290 

Newfoundland Dog* 132 

Origin of the Dog 18 

Otterhound, The &l 



1 Pariah, The 29 

i Parturition, Healthful 184 

Pastoral Dogs 125 

Pills, How to Give 307 

Pointers, Breaking 223 

Pointer, Daisy* 2:37 

Pointer, English 88 

" " Portrait of* 21 

" Portuguese 90 

Poodle, The* 153 

PugDog^,* 159 

Puppies, Food of 201 

" Amount of Food for 203 

** Choice of, af Ler Weaning. -^04 
** Cropping and Rounding 

Ears 205 

»* Treatment of ...203 

** Weaning 193 

Puzzle Peg, Use of* 231 

C^uail Shooting 250 

Quarterini; Ground, Plan of* 228 

Ranging and Beating 229 

Remedies, Administration of 306 

Remedies against Disease 292 

Alteratives 292 

Anodynes 293 

Antispasmodics 293 

Aperients 294 

Astringents 295 

Blisters 2r6 

Caustics ,. C9T 

Charges, or Plasters 298 

Clysters S02, 308 

Cordials 299 

Diuretics 299 

Embrocations 299 

Emetics 300 

Expectorants 300 

Fever Medicines »- 301 

Injections 302,308 

Lotions 303 

Ointments 303 

Stimulants 303 

Stomachics 304 

Styptics 304 

Tonics ...304 

Vermifuges 355 

Worm Mndicines 304 

Remedi es. Effects of 306 

Retrieve, Breaking to 243 

Retriever, The Curly Coated 167 

** The Terrier Cross IW 



rWDBX. 



3G9 



Retriever, The 163 

The Large Black 164 

" The Wavy Coated 164 

Scotch CoUey Dog* 126 

Setters, Breaking 223 

SetteiB 92 

" Countess, Pedigree of 97 

»» English* 96 

'' Gordon, The* 104 

•* Irish 107 

*■ Lang, Pedigree of 106 

** Laverack 96 

Bheep Do-, English 126 

" " German 130 

Shock Dog, Tlie 155 

Shooting Grouse and Quail 243 

Bire and Dam, influences of in 

Breeding 174 

Skeleton of the Dog 287 

Snipe Shooting 255 

Spaniel Covert, Breaki n;" 245 

Spaniel, Head of * 123 

" Irish Water* 121 

•« The Clumber* 112 

♦• The Cocker* 115 

•* The English Water* 121 

•* The Field* 111,155 

" The Sussex* 114 

♦• TheWater* 118 

spaniels, Blenhei m* 157 

** KingCharles* 15fi 



Spaniels, Toy* 155 

Spitz Dog* 131 

St. Bernard Rough, The* 148 

" Smooth, The* 150 

Springer, The ..112 

Teeth of the Dog* 288 

Terrier, Bedlington 80 

" Dandie Dinmont* 72 

" English* ]. 69 

" Fox* 79 

" Halifax, Blue Tan 162 

" Scotch 71 

* Terrier, Skye* 77 

Terrier, Toy, The* 161 

Terriers, Varieties of. 68 

Terriers, Yorkshire* 81 

Thibet Dog, The 151 

Vermin Dogs, Breaking 246 

Vermin, Prevention of 215 

Water-fowl, Shooting 262 

Water-fowl, Deep, Varieties of 270 

Water-fowl, Shoal, Varieties 267 

Watch Dogs 141 

Whelps, Choice of at Birth 185 

" Management of, in Nest... 187 

Whelping, Choice of Place for 191 

Wild Dogs 27 

" " or Africa 30 

" " Of India 29 

Woodcock Shooting 257 

Yards, Arrangement for 9ffl 



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By H. E. Ross. While the book is intended primarily 
for use in the laboratory, it should be of value to the 
practical dairyman. The time has come when the suc- 
cessful dairyman must study his business from a purely 
scientific point of view, and in this book the scientific 
principles, upon which dairy industry is based, are stated 
clearly and simply, and wherever it is possible, these prin- 
ciples are illustrated by practical problems and examples. 
90 pages. 5x7 inches- Cloth Net, $0.50 

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Profitable Stock Raising 

By Clarence A. Shamel. This book covers fully the 
principles of breeding and feeding for both fat stock and 
dairying type. It tells of sheep and mutton raising, hot 
Kouse lambs, the swine industry and the horse market. 
Finally, he tells of the preparation of stock for the market 
and how to prepare it so that it will bring a high market 
price. Live stock is the most important feature of farm 
life, and statistics show a production far short of the 
actual requirements. There are many problems to be 
faced in the profitable production of stock, and these are 
fully and comprehensively covered in Mr. Shamel's new 
book. Illustrated. 5x7 inches. 288 pages. Cloth. 

Net, $1.50 

The Business of Dairying 

By C. B. Lane. The author of this practical little book 
is to be congratulated on the successful manner in which 
he has treated so important a subject. It has been pre- 
pared for the use of dairy students, producers and handlers 
of milk, and all who make dairying a business. Its pur- 
pose is to present in a clear and concise manner various 
business methods and systems which will help the dairy- 
man to reap greater profits. This book meets the needs 
of the average dairy farmer, and if carefully followed will 
lead to successful dairying. It may also be used as an 
elementary textbook for colleges, and especially in short- 
course classes. Illustrated. 5x7 inches. 300 pages. Cloth. 

Net, $1.25 

Questions and Answers on Buttermaking 

By Chas a. Publow. This book is entirely different 
from the usual type of dairy books, and is undoubtedly in 
a class by itself. The entire subject of butter-making in 
all its branches has been most thoroughly treated, and 
many new and important features have been added. The 
tests for moisture, salt and acid have received special 
attention, as have also the questions on cream separa-r 
tion, pasteurization, commercial starters, cream ripening, 
cream overrun, marketing of butter, and creamery man-» 
agement. Illustrated. 5x7 inches. 100 pages. Cloth. 

Net, $0.50 

Questions and Answers on Milk and Milk Testing 

By Chas. A. Publow, and Hugh C. Troy. A book that 
no student in the dairy industry can afford to be without. 
No other treatise of its kind is available, and no book of 
its size gives so much practical and useful information in 
the study of milk and milk products. Illustrated. 5x7 
inches. 100 pages. Cloth Net, $0.50 

(a) 



Soils 

By Charles William Burkett, Director Kansas Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. The most complete and 
popular work of the kind ever published. As a rule, a 
book of this sort is dry and uninteresting, but in this case 
it reads like a novel. The author has put into it his in- 
dividuality. The story of the properties of the soils, their 
improvement and management, as well as a discussion of 
the problems of crop growing and crop feeding, make this 
book equally valuable to the farmer, student and teacher. 
Illustrated. 303 pages. S^^xS inches. Cloth. . Net, $1.25 

Weeds of the Farm Garden 

By L. H. Pammel. The enormous losses, amounting 
to several hundred million dollars annually in the United 
States, caused by weeds stimulate us to adopt a better 
system of agriculture. The weed question is, therefore 
a most important and vital one for American farmers 
This treatise will enable the farmer to treat his field to 
remove weeds. The book is profusely illustrated by photo- 
graphs and drawings made expressly for this work, and 
will prove invaluable to every farmer, land owner, gar- 
dener and park superintendent. 5x7 inches. 300 pages. 
Cloth Net, $1.50 

Farm Machinery and Farm Motors 

By J. B. Davidson and L. W. Chase. Farm Machinery 
and Farm Motors is the first American book published 
on the subject of Farm Machinery since that written by 
J. J. Thomas in 1867. This was before the development 
of many of the more important farm machines, and the 
general application of power to the work of the farm. 

I Modern farm machinery is indispensable in present-day 
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chinery and Farm Motors will fill a much-felt need. The 
book has been written from lectures used by the authors 
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pared from practical experience and a thorough review of 

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primarily as a text-book, it is equally useful for the prac- 

[tical farmer. Profusely illustrated. 5^x8 inches. 520 

'pages. Cloth Net, $2.00 

The Book of Wheat 

I By P. T. DoNDLiNGER. This book comprises a complete 
study of everything pertaining to wheat. It is the work 
of a student of economic as well as agricultural condi- 
tions, well fitted by the broad experience in both practical 
and theoretical lines to tell the whole story in a condensed 
form. It is designed for the farmer, the teacher, and the 
student as well. Illustrated. 5>^x8 inches. 370 pages. 
Cloth. . . . «_-.... Net, $2.00 

i4> 



The Cereals in America 

By Thomas F. Hunt, M.S., D.Agri., Professor of Agron- 
omy, Cornell University. If you raise five acres of any kind 
of grain you cannot afford to be without this book. It is in 
every way the best book on the subject that has ever been 
written. It treats of the cultivation and improvement of every 
grain crop raised in America in a thoroughly practical and 
accurate manner. The subject-matter includes a comprehen- 
sive and succinct treatise of wheat, maize, oats, barley, rye, 
rice, sorghum (kafir corn) and buckwheat, as related particu- 
larly to American conditions. First-hand knowledge has been 
the policy of the author in his work, and every crop treated is 
presented in the light of individual study of the plant. If you 
have this book you have the latest and best that has been 
written upon the subject. Illustrated. 450 pages. 55^x8 
inches. Cloth $1.75 

The Forage and Fiber Crops in America 

By Thomas F. Hunt. This book is exactly what its title 
indicates. It is indispensable to the farmer, student and 
teacher who wishes all the latest and most important informa- 
tion on the subject of forage and fiber crops. Like its famous 
companion, "The Cereals in America," by the same author, it 
treats of the cultivation and improvement of every one of the 
forage and fiber crops. With this book in hand, you have 
the latest and most up-to-date information available. Illus- 
trated. 428 pages. 5J/I x8 inches. Cloth. .... $1.7$ 

The Book of Alfalfa 

History, Cultivation and Merits. Its Uses as a Forage 
and Fertilizer. The appearance of the Hon. F. D. Coburn's 
little book on Alfalfa a few years ago has been a profit revela- 
tion to thousands of farmers throughout the country, and the 
increasing demand for still more information on the subject 
has induced the author to prepare the present volume, which 
is by far the most authoritative, complete and valuable work 
on this forage crop published anywhere. It is printed on fine 
paper and illustrated with many full-page photographs that 
were taken with the especial view of their relation to the text. 
('336 pages. 6^^ x 9 inches. Bound in cloth, with gold stamp- 
ing. It is unquestionably the handsomest agricultural refer- 
ence book that has ever been issued. Price, postpaid, . $2.00 

Clean Milk 

By S. D. Belcher, M.D. In this book the author sets forth 
practical methods for the exclusion of bacteria from milk, 
and how to prevent contamination of milk from the stable 
to the consumer. Illustrated. 5x7 inches. 146 pages. 
Cloth $1.00 

X5> 



Beai^ Culture 

By Glenn C. Sevey, B.S. A practical treatise on the pro 
duction and marketing of beans. It includes the manner ol 
growth, soils and fertilizers adapted, best varieties, seed selec- 
tion and breeding, planting, harvesting, insects and fungous 
pests, composition and feeding value; with a special chapter 
on markets by Albert W. Fulton. A practical book for the 
grower and student alike. Illustrated. 144 pages. 5x7 
inches. Cloth $0.50 

Celery Culture 

By W. R. Beattie. A practical guide for beginners and a 
standard reference of great interest to persons already en- 
gaged in celery growing. It contains many illustrations giving 
a clear conception of the practical side of celery culture. The 
work is complete in every detail, from sowing a few seeds in 
a window-box in the house for early plants, to the handling 
and marketing of celery in carload lots. Fully illustrated. 
150 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $0.50 

Tomato Culture 

By Will W. Tracy. The author has rounded up in this 
book the most complete account of tomato culture in all its 
phases that has ever been gotten together. It is no seconr^- 
hand work of reference, but a complete story of the practici ^ 
experiences of the best-posted expert on tomatoes in the 
world. No gardener or farmer can afford to be without the 
book. Whether grown for home use or commercial purposes, 
the reader has here suggestions and information nowhere else 
available. Illustrated. 150 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. $0.50 

The Potato 

By Samuel Fraser. This book is destined to rank as a 
standard work upon Potato Culture. While the practical side 
has been emphasized, the scientific part has not been neglected, 
and the information given is of value, both to the growej and 
to the student. Taken all in all, it is the most complete, reliable 
and authoritative book on the potato ever published in Amer- 
ica. Illustrated. 200 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. . . $0.75 

Dwarf Fruit Trees 

By F. A. Waugh. This interesting book describes in detail 
the several varieties of dwarf fruit trees, their propagation, 
planting, pruning, care and general management. Where 
there is a limited amount of ground to be devoted to orchard 
purposes, and where quick results are desired, this book will 
meet with a warm welcome. Illustrated. 112 pages. 5x7 
inches. Cloth $0.50 

(6) 



Cabbage, Cauliflower and Allied Vegetables 

By C. L. Allen. A practical treatise on the various 
types and varieties of cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels 
sprouts, kale, collards and kohl-rabi. An explanation is given 
of the requirements, conditions, cultivation ahd general man- 
agement pertaining to the entire cabbage group. After this 
each class is treated separately and. in detail. The chapter 
on seed raising is probably the most authoritative treatise on 
this subject ever published. Insects and fungi attacking this 
class of vegetables are given due attention. Illustrated. 126 
pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $0.50 



Asparagus 

By F. M. Hexamer. This is the first book published in 
America which is exclusively devoted to the raising of aspara- 
gus for home use as well as for market. It is a practicp^ 
and reliable treatise on the saving of the seed, raising of the 
plants, selection and preparation of the soil, planting, cultiva- 
tion, manuring, cutting, bunching, packing, marketing, canning 
and drying, insect enemies, fungous diseases and every re- 
quirement to successful asparagus culture, special emphasis be- 
ing given to the importance of asparagus as a farm and money 
crop. Illustrated. 174 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. . $0.50 



The New Onion Culture 

By T. Grfiner. Rewritten, g'reatly enlarged and brought 
up to date. A new method of growing onions of largest size 
and yield, on less land, than can be raised by the old plan. 
Thousands of farmers and gardeners and many experiment 
stations have given it practical trials which have proved a 
success. A complete guide in growing onions with the great- 
est profit, explaining the whys and wherefores. Illustrated- 
5x7 inches. 140 pages. Cloth $0.50 



The New Rhubarb Culture 

A complete guide to dark forcing and field culture. Part 
I — By J. E. Morse, the well-known Michigan trucker and 
originator of the now famous and extremely profitable new 
methods of dark forcing and field culture. Part II — Com- 
piled by G. B. Fiske. Other methods practiced by the most 
experienced market gardeners, greenhouse men and experi- 
menters in all parts of America. IHustrated. J30 pages. 
.5x7 inches. Cloth. $0.50 



Alfalfa 

By F. D. CoBURN. Its growt.., uses, and feeding value. 
The fact that alfalfa thrives in almost any soil; that without 
reseeding, it goes on yielding two, three, four, and sometimes 
five cuttings annually for five, ten, or perhaps lOO years; and 
that either green or cured it is one of the most nutritious 
forage plants known, makes reliable information upon its pro- 
duction and uses of unusual interest. Such information is 
given in this volume for every part of America, by the highest 
authority. Illustrated. 164 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. $0.50 

Ginseng, Its Cultivation, Harvesting, Marketing 
and Market Value 

By Maurice G. Kains, with a short account of its history 
and botany. It discusses in a practical way how to begin with 
either seeds or roots, soil, climate and location, preparation 
planting and maintenance of the beds, artificial propagation, 
manures, enemies, selection for market and for improvement, 
preparation for sale, and the profits that may be expected. 
This booklet is concisely written, well and profusely illus- 
trated, and should be in the hands of all who expect to grow 
this drug to supply the export trade, and to add a new and 
profitable industry to their farms and gardens, without inter- 
fering with the regular work. New edition. Revised and en- 
larged. Illustrated. 5x7 inches. Cloth $0.50 

Landscape Gardening 

By F. A, Waugh^ professor of horticulture, university of 
Vermont. A treatise on the general principles governing 
outdoor art ; with sundry suggestions for their application 
in the commoner problems of gardening. Every paragraph fs 
short, terse and to the point, giving perfect clearness to the 
discussions at all points. In spite of the natural difficulty 
of presenting abstract principles the whole matter is made 
entirely plain even to the inexperienced reader. Illustrated. 
152 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $0.50 

Hedges, Windbreaks, Shelters and Live Fences 

By E. P. Powell. A treatise on the planting, growth 
and management of hedge plants for country and suburban 
homes. It gives accurate directions concerning hedges; how 
to plant and how to treat them ; and especially concerning 
windbreaks and shelters. It includes the whole art of making 
a delightful home, giving directions for nooks and balconies, 
for bird culture and for human comfort. Illustrated. 140 
pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. . $0.50 

(8) 



Farm Grasses of the United States of America 

By William Jasper Spillman. A practical treatise on 
the grass crop, seeding and management of meadows and 
pastures, description of the best varieties, the seed and its 
impurities, grasses for special conditions, lawns and lawn 
grasses, etc., etc. In preparing this volume the author's object 
has been to present, in connected form, the main facts con- 
cerning the grasses grown on American farms. Every phase 
of the subject is viewed from the farmer's standpoint. Illus- 
trated. 248 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $1.0 

The Book of Corn 

By Herbert Myrick, assisted by A. D. Shambia, E. A 
Burnett, Albert W. Fulton, B. W. Snow, and other most 
capable specialists. A complete treatise on the culture, mar- 
keting and uses of maize in America and elsewhere for 
farmers, dealers and others. Illustrated. 372 pages. 5x7 
inches. Cloth $1.50 

The Hop — Its Culture and Care, Marketing and 
Manufacture 

By Herbert Myrick. A practical handbook on the most 
approved methods in growing, harvesting, curing and selling 
hops, and on the use and manufacture of hops. The result o£ 
years of research and observation, it is a volume destined to 
be an authority on this crop for many years to come. It takes 
up every detail from preparing the soil and laying out the 
yard, to curing and selling the crop. Every line represents the 
ripest judgment and experience of experts. Size, 5x8; 
pages, 300; illustrations, nearly 150; bound in cloth and gold; 
price, postpaid. $1.50 

Tobacco Leaf 

By J. B. Killebrew and Herbert Myrick. Its Culture and 
Cure, Marketing and Manufacture. A practical handbook 
on the most approved methods in growing, harvesting, curing, 
packing and selling tobacco, with an account of the opera- 
tions in every department of tobacco manufacture. The 
contents of this book are based on actual experiments in field, 
curing barn, packing house, factory and laboratory. It is the 
only work of the kind in existence, and is destined to be the 
standard practical and scientific authority on the whole sub- 
ject of tobacco for many years. 506 pages and 150 original 
engravings. 5x7 inches. Cloth $2.00 

i9) 



Bulbs and Tuberous-Rooted Plants 

By C. L. Allen. A complete treatise on the history, 
description, methods of propagation and full directions for 
the successful culture of bulbs in the garden, dwelling and 
greenhouse. The author of this book has for many years 
made bulb growing a specialty, and is a recognized authority 
on their cultivation and management. The cultural direc- 
tions are plainly stated, practical and to the point. The 
illustrations which embellish this work have been drawn 
from nature and have been engraved especially for this 
book. 312 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $1.50 

Fumigation Methods 

By Willis G. Johnson. A timely up-to-date book or 
the practical application of the new methods for destroying 
insects with hydrocyanic acid gas and carbon bisulphid, the 
most powerful insecticides ever discovered. It is an indis- 
pensable book for farmers, fruit growers, nurserymer 
gardeners, florists, millers, grain dealers, transportation com 
panics, college and experiment station workers, etc. Illus- 
trated. 313 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. . . , . . $1.00 

Diseases of Swine 

By Dr. R. A. Craig, Professor of Veterinary Medicine at 
the Purdue University. A concise, practical and popular guide 
to the prevention and treatment of the diseases of swine. With 
the discussions on each disease are given its causes, symptoms, 
treatment and means of prevention. Every part of the book 
impresses the reader with the fact that its writer is thor- 
oughly and practically familiar with all the details upon which 
he treats. All technical and strictly scientific terms are 
avoided, so far as feasible, thus making the work at once 
available to the practical stock raiser as well as to the teacher 
and student. Illustrated. 5x7 inches. 190 pages. Cloth. $0.75 

Spraying Crops — Why, When and How 

By Clarence M. Weed, D.Sc. The present fourth edition 
has been rewritten and set throughout to bring it thoroughly 
up to date, so that it embodies the latest practical information 
gleaned by fruit growers and experiment station workers. So 
much new information has come to light since the third edi- 
tion was published that this is practically a new book, needed 
by those who have utilized the earlier editions, as well as by 
fruit growers and farmers generally. Illustrated. 136 pages. 
5x7 inches. Cloth $0.50 

(10) 



Successful Fruit Culture 

By Samuel T. Maynard. A practical guide to the culti- 
vation and propagation of Fruits, written from the standpoint 
of the practical fruit grower who is striving to make his 
business profitable by growing the best fruit possible and at 
the least cost. It is up-to-date in every particular, and covers 
the entire practice of fruit culture, harvesting, storing mar- 
keting, forcing, best varieties, etc., etc. It deals with principles 
first and with the practice afterwards, as the foundation, prin- 
ciples of plant growth and nourishment must always remain 
the same, while practice will vary according to the fruit 
grower's immediate conditions and environments. Illustrated 
265 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $1.00 

Plums and Plum Culture 

By F. A. Waugh. a complete manual for fruit growers, 
nurserymen, farmers and gardeners, on all known varieties 
of plums and their successful management. This book marks 
an epoch in the horticultural literature of America. It is a 
complete monograph of the plums cultivated in and indigenous 
to North Arnerica. It will be found indispensable to the 
scientist seeking the most recent and authoritative informa- 
tion concerning this group, to the nurseryman who wishes to 
handle his varieties accurately and intelligently, and to the 
cultivator who would like to grow plums successfully. Illus- 
trated. 391 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $1.50 

Fruit Harvesting, Storing, Marketing 

^ By F. A. Waugh. A practical guide to the picking, stor- 
ing, shipping and marketing of fruit. The principal subjects 
covered are the fruit market, fruit picking, sorting and pack- 
ing, the fruit storage, evaporation, canning, statistics of the 
fruit trade, fruit package laws, commission dealers and deal- 
ing, cold storage, etc., etc. No progressive fruit grower can 
afford to be without this most valuable book. Illustrated 
232 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $1.00 

Systematic Pomology 

By F. A. Waugh, professor of horticulture and landscape 
gardening in the Massachusetts agricultural college, formerly 
of the university of Vermont. This is the first book in the 
English language which has ever made the attempt at a com- 
plete and comprehensive treatment of systematic pomology. 
It presents clearly and in detail the whole method by which 
fruits are studied. The book is suitably illustrated. 288 
pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $1 00 

■ ' (U) 



Feeding Farm Animals 

By Professor Thomas Shaw. This book is intended alike 
for the student and the farmer. The author has succeeded in 
giving in regular and orderly sequence, and in language sa 
simple that a child can understand it, the principles that govern 
the science and practice of feeding farm animals. Professor 
Shaw is certainly to be congratulated on the successful man- 
ner in which he has accomplished a most difficult task. His- 
book is unquestionably the most practical work which has ap- 
peared on the subject of feeding farm animals. Illustrated. 
55^ X 8 inches. Upward of 500 pages. Cloth. . . . $2.00' 

Profitable Dairying 

By C. L. Peck. A practical guide to successful dairy r- Q- 
agement. The treatment of the entire subject is thorou .y 
practical, being principally a description of the methods prac- 
ticed by the author. A specially valuable part of this book 
consists of a minute description of the far-fafned model driry 
farm of Rev. J. D. Detrich, near Philadelphia, Pa. On Ae 
farm of fifteen acres, which twenty years ago could not main- 
tain one horse and two cows, there are now kept twenty-seven 
dairy cattle, in addition to two horses. All the roughage, 
litter, bedding, etc., necessary for these animals are grown on 
these fifteen acres, more than most farmers could accomplish 
on one hundred acres. Illustrated. 5x7 inches. 200 pages. 
Cloth. $0.75 

Practical Dairy Bacteriology 

By Dr. H. W. Conn, of Wesleyan University. A complete 
exposition of important facts concerning the relation of bac- 
teria to various problems related to milk. A book for the 
classroom, laboratory, factory and farm. Equally useful to 
the teacher, student, factory man and practical dairyman.. 
Fully illustrated with 83 original pictures. 340 pages. Cloth. 
5J^ X 8 inches $1-25 

Modem Methods of Testing Milk and Mrlk 
Products 

By L. L. VanSlyke. This is a clear and concise discussion 
of the approved' methods of testing milk and milk products. 
All the questions involved in the various methods of testing 
milk and cream are handled with rare skill and yet in so plain 
a manner that they can be fully understood by all. The book 
should be in the hands of every dairyman, teacher or student. 
Illustrated. 214 pages. 5x7 inches $0.75 

(12). 



Animal Breeding 

By Thomas Shaw. This book is the most complete and 
comprehensive work ever published on the subject of which 
it treats. It is the first book which has systematized the sub- 
ject of animal breeding. The leading laws which govern this 
most intricate question the author has boldly defined and 
authoritatively arranged. The chapters which he has written 
on the more involved features of the subject, as sex and the 
relative influence of parents, should go far toward setting at 
rest the wildly speculative views cherished with reference to 
these questions. The striking originality in the treatment of 
the subject is no less conspicuous than the superb order and 
regular sequence of thought from the beginning to the end 
of the book. The book is intended to meet the needs of all 
persons interested in the breeding and rearing of live stock. 
Illustrated. 405 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. . . . $1.50 

Forage Crops Other Than Grasses 

By Thomas Shaw. How to cultivate, harvest and use 
them. Indian corn, sorghum, clover, leguminous plants, crops 
of the brassica genus, the cereals, millet, field roots, etc. 
Intensely practical and reliable. Illustrated. 287 pages. 5x7 
inches. Cloth $1.00 

Soiling Crops and the Silo 

By Thomas Shaw. The growing and feeding of all kinds 
of soiling crops, conditions to which they are adapted, their 
plan in the rotation, etc. Not a line is repeated from the 
Forage Crops book. Best methods of building the silo, filling 
it and feeding ensilage. Illustrated. 364 pages. 5x7 inches. 
Cloth $1.50 

The Study of Breeds 

By Thomas Shaw. Origin, history, distribution, charac- 
teristics, adaptability, uses, and standards of excellence of all 
pedigreed breeds of cattle, sheep and swine in America. The 
accepted text book in colleges, and the authority for 
farmers and breeders. Illustrated. 371 pages. 5x7 inches. 
Cloth $1.50 

Clovers and How to Grow Them 

By Thomas Shaw. This is the first book published which 
treats on the growth, cultivation and treatment of clovers as 
applicable to all parts of the United States and Canada, and 
which takes up the entire subject in a systematic way and 
consecutive sequence. The importance of clover in the econ- 
omy of the farm is so great that an exhaustive work on this 
subject will no doubt be welcomed by students in agriculture, 
as well as by all who are interested in the tilling of the soil. 
Illustrated. 5x7 inches. 337 pages. Cloth. Net ... . $1.00 

(13) 



Land Draining 

A handbook for farmers on the principles and practice o 
draining, by Manly Miles, giving the results of his extende* 
experience in laying tile drains. The directions for the layini 
out and the construction of tile drains will enable the farme 
to avoid the errors of imperfect construction, and the disap 
pointment that must necessarily follow. This manual fo 
practical farmers will also be found convenient for referenc 
in regard to many questions that may arise in crop growing 
aside from the special subjects of drainage of which it treats 
Illustrated. 200 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth $1.0 

Barn Plans and Outbuildings 

Two hundred and fifty-seven illustrations. A most valu 
able work, full of ideas, hints, suggestions, plans, etc., for th 
construction of barns and outbuildings, by practical writers 
Chapters are devoted to the economic erection and use o 
barns, grain barns, horse barns, cattle barns, sheep barnj 
cornhouses, smokehouses, icehouses, pig pens, granaries, et( 
There are likewise chapters on birdhouses, doghouses, toe 
sheds, ventilators, roofs and roofing, doors and fastening} 
workshops, poultry houses, manure sheds, barnyards, root pitj 
etc. 235 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth , $1.0 

Irrigation Farming 

By Lute Wilcox. A handbook for the practical applica 
lion of water in the production of crops. A complete treatis 
on water supply, canal construction, reservoirs and pondi 
pipes fo;: irrigation purposes, flumes and their structure 
methods of applying water, irrigation of field crops, th 
garden, the orchard and vineyard, windmills and pumps 
appliances and contrivances. New edition, revised, enlarge- 
and rewritten. Profusely illustrated. Over 500 pages. 5x 
inches. Cloth $2.0 



Forest Planting 

By H. Nicholas Jarchow, LL. D. A treatise on the car 
of woodlands and the restoration of the denuded timberland 
on plains and mountains. The author has fully describe 
those European methods which have proved to be most useft 
in maintaining the superb forests of the old world. This expe 
rience has been adapted to the different climates and trees o 
America, full instructions being given for forest planting o 
our various kinds of soil and subsoil, whether on mountai 
or valley. Illustrated. 250 pages. 5x7 inches. Cloth. $i.S 

(14) 



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