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Full text of "Domestic animal's friend, or, The complete Virginia and Maryland farrier: being a copious selection from the best treatises on farriery now extant in the United States"


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Book _ 






81? 



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// 

THE 

BOMESTIC ANIMAL'S 

FRIEND, 

OR 

THE COMPLETE 
VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND 

BEI5rQ 

A COPIOUS SELJ'-CnOJf FROM THE BEST TREATISES ON 
"' TARRIERY NOW EXTANT IN TUE UNITED STATES, 



JJY FIVE FARTS. 

T. Ailvice to the purchasers I 11. Dii-ections and Receipts 
ot Horses — observations and J for the cure of most distempers 
directions concerning Horses < in Oxen, Cows and Calves; 
when travelUng--orderin^ and I also a description of many of 
keeping the Running Horse, * the complaints incident to 
according to ihe several states I tiiem. 

of ai,; body — a description off Hf. Observations and re- 
most disorders incident to^ceiptsfor the cure and pre- 
Horses, and a great number S vention of most distempers in- 
of Receipts for the cure of j cident to Slicep and Lambs, 
such complaints, in that noble j IV. Receipts and directions 
animal, as are curable; includ- ^ for the cure of most distem- 
ingalio directions for prevent- j pers in Hogs, 
ing many disorders that Hor- 1 V. Receipts and directions 
ses iire subject to, &c. &c. | to cure distenjpers in Dogs. 

TO WaiCil IS ADOED 

A NUMBER OF RECEIPTS, 

li-.iOAVJJ TO BE EFFICACIOUS IN THE CURE OF MANY COMPLAINT;. 

IXCIDENT TO THE DOMESTIC qUAORUPEDS OF AMERICA, 

THAT HAVE NEVER YET APPEARED IN PRINT, 



WINCflKSTER, Ya. 

PRINTED AND PUiiLISilED BY 

J. FOSTER. 



■ UN 



Bistrid of Virginia to wit: 

Be it remembered, that on the sixteenth day of April, 112 
the forty seconct year of the Independence of the United 
States of America, Jonathan Foster, of the said District, hatli 
deposited in this office, the title of a book, the right whereof 
he clainis as proprietor, in the w ords following to wit : " The 
Domestic Animal's Friend, or the Complete Vixginia and Ma- 
ryland Farrier, being a copious selection from the best Treati- 
ses on Farr]cry,now extant in the United States, in five parts. 

I. Advice to the purchasers of Horses — observations and di- 
rections concerning Horses vhen travelling'— ordering and 
keeping the Running Horse, according to the several states of 
his body — a description of most disorders incident to Horses, 
and a great number of receipts for the cure of such complaints 
in that noble animal, as are curable, including also directions 
for preventing many disorders that Horses are subject to, &c. 
&c. 

II. Directions and Receipts for the cure of most distem- 
pers in Oxen, Cows and Calves; also a description of n-any 
of the complaints incident to them. 

III. Observations and receipts for the cure and prevention 
of most distempeis incident to Sheep and Lambs. 

lY. Receipts and directions for the cure of most distempers 
in Hogs. 

Y. Receipts and directions to cure distempers in Dogs. 

To which is added a number of Receipts, known to be effi- 
cacious in the cure of many complaints incident to the Do- 
mestic Quadrupeds (f Ameiica that have never yet appeared 
in print. W inchester, Va. Printed and Published b}' J Fos- 
ter, I818. In conformity to the Act of Congress of the Uni- 
ted States, entitled " An Act for the encouragement of lear- 
ning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the 
authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times there- 
in mentioned. 

RD. JBFFRIES, 
Clerk of the District of Virginia, 



iCT^The publisher requests every gentleman, iwto whose 
andsthis book may fall to give it, at least, one careful peruss!. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

fJU" ^'^^ attention of the reader is partiailarly invited 
*o the following introductory remarks. 

In compiling this work the publisher has been careful 
to examine tlie most celebrated authors on the subject, 
both European and American that are extant. In doing 
of which he is sorry to say, he has found none that are 
not highly objectionable — some having swelled their 
books to an enormous size with a ridiculous redundancy 
of extraneous matter, evidently designed to impress on 
the mind of the reader that the authors were, in their 
own estimation at least, men of profound erudition, and 
eminently skilled in their profession, while they have, by 
their worse than useless criticisms, disgusted the honest 
enquirer alter a knowledge of tlie useful science proposed 
to be taught by them. And in their very learned and ek- 
\ borate diSiinisitiuns^ have said much on some of the com- 
mon complaints incident only to a few of our domestic ani- 
mals, while they have wholly omitted offering either re- 
u ^ medy or preventives for others of the most serious com 
^ plaints that afflict many of our useful quadrupeds. 
^ Others, again, are as deficient as those are redundant — 
t. * neither describing many of the complaints of our domes- 
-? tic animals, that, from a want uf a knowledge of them, 
, r become fatal — the poor animals suffering a lingering 
disease and finally death, and the owner frequently a 
sjj^ serious loss ; and for fear, it would seem, of enlarging 

^ ' their books to a reasonable size, have omitted some of the 

most speedy and sovereign remedies for many dangerous 
dism-ders that the American quadrupeds are subject to. 
O It has been the object of the compiler of this work 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

Studiously to avoid both these extremes— He has been 
careful not to crowd his botjk with extraneous or irrele- 
vant matter, and to insert all such, so far as he has been 
enabled to obtain it, as he deems of any advantage either 
in discribing, preventing, or remedying the many diseases 
incident to every class of our domestic animals — And 
by examining the different authors to which he has had ac- 
cess, he flatters himself that he has been enabled to glean 
from among them a sufficient number and variety of cures, 
&c. to answer the most sanguine expection of all those 
who may patronise tlds work. 

The compiler and publisher, having thus attempted to 
furnish the public with a complete treatise on a' subject 
which is universally acknowledged to be among those of 
the first importance to a great majority of the people of 
the United States, submits the same to the examination 
of his fellow citizens, with a confident hope that the many 
and salutary advantages to be derived therefrom will se- 
cure to him an adequate remuneration for the labour and 
expense he has unavoidably incurred in completing the 
Work. 

J^ote. It will no doubt be acceptable to subscribers, to 
inform them that there is considerably more in the 
above work than was promised in the prospectus — 
namely — an alphabetical list of all, or most of the Me- 
dicines directed to be used in the book, also upwards of 
thirty six pages more than was promised, and four 
plat$^ which -were not mentioned in the Proposals. 



THE 

EDITOR AND PUBLISHER S 

PREFACE. 



TO test the utility of this Treatise, we would onij 
ipequest tlie reader to visit, weekly for one year, any 
Fu n, >V agon- Yard, Stable or Barn-Yard, which is R 
resting place or home for the Quadrupeds of our coun- 
try ; and if, in that time, he does not discover sufficient 
cause to induce him to acknowledge the almost universal 
necessity of such a work; and that a book, containing a 
description of most of the complaints and disorders inci- 
dent to the domestic animals of America, with a great va- 
riety of soverei.'in remedies for those complaints and 
disorders, and preventives against them, is Wdrthy of, 
and ought to be patronised by the citizens of Virginia and 
Maryland — yea, and by the people of the United States 
generally, the Editor and Publisher pledges himself to 
make the author of such a happy discovery a compliment 
of a' copy of the work. 

In selecting, compiling and arranging the matter of the 
following pages,no pains, care nor expense has been spared 
to render the book as useful as it is possible such apublica» 
tion can be. Howfar the end in view has been accom- 
plished, must remain for a judicious and enlightened pub- 
lic to determine — To whose judgment and decision the 
publisher, with pleasure, submits the work- 



iV PREFACE 

The selections hiive been carefully made from the best 
Authors — perhaps from all the good Authors on Farriery 
m Ame? ica ; and the medicines to be used, both as cures 
and antidotes, are to be had either from our gardens, fields 
or voods, or from almost any Apothecary in the United 
States. 

To conclude, the publisher docs not fear to hazard the 
opinion that tm) gentleman, who becomes the owner of thi;? 
work, will consider the price of the book as an equivalent 
by any means to its value. 

j^Q^ A proper attention to the following directions and 
advice on the subject of tlie Form, Nature, Constitution, 
Age and Managemtnt of Morses, kc. will afford such in:^ 
formation as to enable any gentleman idways to be master 
of a good Horse, and to obtain, from that noble animal. 
the utmost service which he is capable of performing ir 
ilie highest state of perfection. 



EXTRACT 

yROM Clark's introduction to his treatise on the 

PREVENTION OF DISEASES INCIDENTAL TO HORSES. 



•"' To obse'-ve the golden mean, 

To keep the end in view and follow nature." 



THE propriety of this excellent maxim is, perliaps, in 
few cases more applicable than in the following subject, 
relating to the Management of Horses. Every judicious 
observer must have had an opportunity of seeing the ma- 
ny absurdities daily committed in the treatment and man- 
agement of this animal, in a great variety of cases, and, 
at the same time, of observing the bad consequences that 
follow from it ; and perhaps there is no subject of equal 
importance, in which people are more apt to be led by pre- 
judice in favour of certain estab'ished modes and cus- 
toms. But a prejudice in favour of popular customs, 
however plausible they may appear, when adopted with- 
out any inquiry into their propriety and usefulness, far- 
ther than the sanction of the vulgar, can seldom stand the 
test of philosophical research. 

It is to be regretted with what obstinacy many ridicu- 
lous absurdities are persevered in, relating to horses, in 
opposition to experience, and to common sense, which 



Vi CXARK's iNTHODtrCTIOW. 

notliing can ever banish from stables, but the interpositioya 
of those whose real interest it will be, and who shonld as- 
sume the right they have to think for themselves, w ithout 
being dictated to by those they should command. 

The many advantages we derive from liorses, their real 
and solid services, render the-ii \aluable; and every 
thing which tends to improvement in the management of 
them, or in preventing those diseases they are subject to, 
(by error in management,) are objects worthy of attention. 

Horses, in their natural state, ».r running at grass in 
th • fields, do not require much attention from man. If 
they haA'c sufficient pasture and water, they eat, drink, and 
run about at pleasure, l heir wants are few, and easily 
supplied ; and they enjoy a pejfect state of health. But, 
in a domesticated state, from a variety of circunivstances, 
their constitutions undergo a considerable change-^ — They 
require then particular care ajid attention in the manage- 
ment of them. To be sheltered from the weather, and to 
be fed with rich food, to enable them to perform with vi 
gour the various labours imposed on them, and \\hif h too 
frequently are exacted with rigour and severity beyond 
what they are well able to bear. Hence the unnatural re- 
straint, the confinement in too close foul-aired stables, 
together with the violent exercises tliey are exposed to» 
and the injudicious management of them in a variety of 
respects, render them liable to a long train of diseases, 
which sooner or later either proves fatal to them, or lays 
he foundation of some chronic disorder, which art can 
neither palliate nor remove. 

The British horses are justly esteemed the finest in the 
world ; and, what is very remarkabicj it is the finest and 



Clark's introduction vii 

best of tliese herses that too frequently arc most exposed 
to be hurt, from an injudicious method of treating th^m ; 
whilst thuse of an inferior degree, being left more to 
themselves, or, in other words, are allowed tp live more 
agreeable to their nature, and free from those established 
practices observed iu tJie more elegant stables, perforna 
the task required of them to a good old age in health and 
soundness : a mode of refinement, if it may be so called, 
prevails in the stables where fine horses arc kept ; every 
thing respe<tii!g the management ot th^m is carried al- 
most to an extreme, insomuch that there is hardly any 
mpiiura observed. Thus, a certain degree of warmth is 
agreeaole, and even necessary to horses, yet they gene- 
rally are kept too hot, attlie same time frequently luatled 
with body-cloch'^s. Food, wliich ought to be distributed 
according to their work or exercise, is frequently dealt 
with too liberal a hand; whether they work or not, the 
food is always continued the same, without consivirvi' g 
whetiier the waste in th» constitution requires a gieater 
or a lesser supply of nourishment. Exercise, that neces- 
sary article for preserving tiiem in healt!:, and iittp g 
them for the active exercises required, is too frequently 
neglected. Fresh air, that exhilarating principle of life, 
which is so. essentially necessary for the healtl; of all ani- 
mals, is but too much excluded from their stables. But 
that 1 may not anticipate my subject, I shall only ob- 
serve, that the health and soundness of horses depend 
greatly on the manner in which they are treated ; and it 
ought always to be observed, as a general maxim, that 
the nearer we approach in the management of hoise.s, to 
that which is most agreeable to their nature, they wili 



viii ciark's introduction. 

be in tlie greater perfection ; and the farther we deviate 
from this rule, we lay a restraint upon them, and injure 
their constitutions. 

It is surely of greater importance to endeavour to pre- 
vent diseases and lameness in horses, especially when it is 
practiciible, by proper care and attention in the manag- 
ing of them, than by an opposite conduct, to run the risk 
of their health and soundness, and afterwards have re- 
course to precarious and uncei'tain cures ; for many dis^ 
cases and lameness in horses might, without all doubt, be 
prevented, by proper care and attention, which, when 
once they have taken place, cannot so easily be removed. 
Slight causes, when neglected, often produce the most vio- 
lent complaints, whicli art, in many cases, can only pal- 
liate; and it ought always to be remembered, that unless 
horses are in health, and thoroughly sound, they are not 
fit for the laborious exercises required of them. 

Health is the faculty of performing all the functions 
of animal life in the most proper and perfeet manner ; that 
is, when respiration or breathing is performed in a free, 
easy, regulai* manner ; when a horse can bear exercise or 
labourwithout becoming short-breathed, faint, or appear 
too much fatigued in proportion to the labour or exercise 
he has undergone ; when he eats and drinks moderately, 
with a good appetite and a])pears refreshed by it ; when 
his hair lies smooth and shining; when the excretions of 
dung,urine,&c. are discharged in a due proportion and 
consistency ; and when a horse appears lively, active, and 
full of spirit. 

In order to preserve horses in this heaUhful state, it is 
not necessary to have recourse to medicine or blooding* 



CLARK. 3 INTRODUCTIOXo iX 

kc. Sec. by way of preventing disetises, or preserving them 
in iiealtli. The most effectual means to attain this end, 
are apioper attention to the management of them in ge- 
neral, which partly consists in accommodating th.era with 
well aiied stables, with wide stalls, and allowing them 
wholesome and nourishing food and drink, in proportion 
to tlie labour required of them ; together with v.ell-tini- 
ed exercise, when they are not otherwise employed ; to 
which may be added, good rubbing and dressing, twice cv 
thrice evf^ry day. 



CHAPTER r. 

On the Building and Construction of Stables, 
Jind the Management of Horses. 

YOUNG horses generally are accustomed to live and 
breathe in a pure open air till they come of age, and are 
fit for labour; it is then found convenient to house them. 
This produces a considerable change in their bodies, and 
makes them liable to be greatly affected by the tempera- 
ture of the air which surrounds them, and in \> hich the^ 
breathe. 

That the generality of stables are kept too close and hot, 
requires no demonstration, as every one ^ho piPs into 
them, (even when the weather is pretty cool) must have 
discovered this from their own feelings ; and, in the sum- 
mer season, the heat within them is increased to a very 
great degrese. "What renders it still worse, it frequently 
happens, that from the situation and structure of many sta- 
bles, no opening can be made to allow a sufticient quanti- 
ty of fresh air, so as to enable horses confined in them to 
breathe with any tolerable degree of freedom. The door 
is the only entrance for air, and that can only happen oc- 
casionally when it is open. It is true, the intercourse 
that must unavoidably take place througli the day in go- 
ing out and in, renders such stables tolerably fresh air- 
ed; yet in the mornings, when the door has been shut up 
for some hours through the njght, and especially in sum- 
mer, the heat is intolerable, and the air so foul, that a 



ON STABLES, &C. 11 

mail can hardly breathe in it, whilst, at the same time, 
the sharpness of the salts, arising from the horse's urine, 
&c. attacks his nose and eyes, and occasions a copious 
discharge of tears. 

Many of the hovels at present used as stables do not 
even deserve the name ; and it is surprising that, consider- 
ing the value and usefulness of horses, so little attention 
is paid to their health in this respect : for surely there can 
be nothing more hurtful than keeping a number of them 
(perhaps 30 or 40) shut up in a close warm stable, where 
they must constantly breathe a hot foul aii', which, at the 
same time, is strongly impregnated with the putrid steams 
of their own dung, wind, and urine, besides the exliala- 
tions that arise from their bodies, which, in this case, 
are kept in a constant strong perspiration, by the great 
heat of the air which surrounds them ; and, to add to all 
this, they are perhaps wrapped tight up in body-clothes. 
How can it be expected that a horse, who has passed the 
night in this situation, should be active and vigorous to 
perform his day's work ? "Will he not rather be faint, lan- 
guid, and dull, his whole system, as it were, being unhing- 
ed, and in a relaxed state? Let any man, who is an ad- 
vocate for this treatment of horses, try the experiment on 
himself; let him sleep in a heated close room, covered up 
with clothes, sweat it out for the night, and try the con- 
(lition he will be in next day for any employment what- 
ever. 

Although the description I have given of the situation 
of horses in large close stables through the night, may ap- 
pear exaggeratedtothose who have not had an opportuni- 
ty of knowing it from their own observation, it is, howev- 

B 



1-2 ON STABIES, &C, 

cr, a li'ue one ; aiul llic same observation will hold with 
respect to those stables that are of smaller dimensions, 
even although they should contain fewer horses. If, at 
the same time, the stable is made so close as to exclude 
the admission of fresh air, it is well known to be a com- 
mon practice to shut up every crevice that would admit 
the least quantity of air. The very threshold of the door 
is choaked up with dung ; and even the key-hole is filled 
up with straw. 

Every man knows, from his own experience, that 
\yhen a number of people are met together in a close 
room, the air when it becomes moist and hot, ren- 
ders breathing diilicult : and, if continued in for a length 
of time, this uneasy sensation would be increased. In 
churches, or crowded assemblies lighted with candles, the 
effects of a lieatcd foul air are evident to the sight from the 
lights burning dim and very faintly; and although the 
loftiness of the roofs in such places contributes to render 
it less perceptible to those who are on the lower or ground 
Boor, (as the heated foul air always ascends) yet, to 
such people as are in the higher parts or galleries, the 
oppression it occasions in breathing is great, the perspira- 
tion becomes profuse, and their thirst excessive^. The 
bad effects of breathing long in a licated foul-air is but 
too well known, and wiil be remenibered by every one 
who has heard of tiie unfortunate affair of Calcutta black 
]iolc. 

The lowness of the gcriCrality of stable roofs renders 
llicHi unwholesome from this cii-cumstance alone; the hor- 
ses' heads being too near the .=>table roof, are under the ne* 
cessitv of breathing a heated foul-air, almost constantly. 



ON STABLES, &C. 1^' 

During the time they arc confined in the stable, especially 
through the nigiit, when tlie doors, &c. arc sluit up, it is 
btill worse in the warm months of summer. A heated 
foui-air is noxious to aniinal life in general. How then 
can it be expected that horses should thrive in it ? At the 
same time, can there be any thing more inconsistent than 
keeping horses warm to an excess in the house, by the use 
of body clothes, in a constant state of strong perspiration, 
and stripping them naked the moment they are to go 
abroad in all weathers ? The constitution of a horse, strong 
as it is, cannot vvithstand such irregularities : it must, and 
indeed does, too often fall a sacrifice to this manner ot 
treatment. The sudden and frequent transitions which 
horses undergo, almost CYcry day, from being surrounded 
with, and breathing a hot foul air through the night, and 
suddenly exposed to a sharp piercing cold air, and vice 
tersa^ from a cold to a hot, were there no other causes, 
are sulncient of themselves to produce a number of the 
most violent diseases. It is to be observed, that great 
heat and profuse perspiration dissipates the watery parts 
of the blood, and renders it too thick for circulation ; 
and from that cause alone many diseases proceed. The 
constant inspiring of a hot foul air does not expand the 
lungs sufficiently, so as to promote the circulation of the 
blood through them ; hence it is accumulated, and proves 
another source of diseases in that organ. It likewise 
renders them liable to fevers, faintness, langour, frequent 
sickness, and loss of appetite. Jt exposes them to all those 
external complaints which arise from obstructed perspi- 
I'ation, as rheumatism, tumours in the glands, scabs, 
Jumps, scales on the skin, staring of the, hair, Arc. But 



14 ON STABLES, &C. 

the danger is still greater when the perspirable matter 
that should be carried off in the ordinary course is thrown 
upon some of the internal viscera, as the lungs, intestines, 
brain, pleura, &c. Fromthe firstof these proceed coughs, 
pcripneuraony, or inflammations of the lungs, consumptions, 
&c. From an affection of the intestines proceed obstruc- 
tions in the bowels, and diarrhoea, or scouring^ as it is call- 
ed in horses. When it settles on the brain, it produces 
vertigo, or staggers, apoplexy, epilepsy, &c. And when 
on the pleura, it is attended with the most acute pains or 
stitches; symptoms which nearly resemble those of the 
gripes or cholic. These complaints, if not speedily re- 
lieved, generally prove fatal to horses. 

Together mth the heated foul air which generally pre- 
vails in such stables, as are kept too hot and close, there 
is always a dampness or moisture. This is occasioned by 
their being made too close, and kept so ; insomuch that 
no fresh air can be admitted into them, but what passes 
in at the stable door, and that only, as I have already 
observed, when it is occasionally open. Hence the mois- 
ture from the horses breath (and which may be increased 
from a low or damp situation) gathers, or is collected, in 
large drops on the roof, walls, and glass windows, and 
runs down in small streams. At the same time, the sta- 
ble is filled with a hot, damp, and moist air, which is not 
only extremely pernicious to horses health, bat destruc- 
tive to their furniture of every kind. Foul air, whether 
from putrid steams, or exhalations of any kind, is nox- 
ious to all animals, and productive of various diseases 
which frequently prove fatal. 

Itwould be needless to enter liere into ii\ inquiry con- 



ON STABLES, &,C. 15 

ceruing the properties of air, as every one, from his own 
experience, must have observed, at some time or otlien 
the great difference arising from his breathing in a foul 
or in a fresh air ; it will be sufficient to observe, that air 
is the chief instrument of liealth, and principle of life, 
without which no animal can subsist. It is likewise ne- 
cessary to observe, that there is a peculiar matter thrown 
from the lungs of every animal, together with the air, 
w^hich renders it unfit for respiration or breathing. Be- 
sides, particular situations and seasons often alter the 
([ualities of the air, and render it more or less unfavorable 
to animal life. Nature, accordingly, makes use of all pos- 
sible ways to preserve the air in a wholesome state; for 
it is thinned and purified by heat, «ind kept in continual 
motion by the winds. 

Although the air is by such means often preserved in a 
wholesome state, yet, as has been before observed, parti- 
culau situations and seasons often alter its qualities, so as 
to render it more or less hurtful. Its dryness produces 
one set of diseases, its moisture another; its heat or its 
cold others ; and so on. It is well known, that no ani- 
mal can exist long in the same individual fjuantity of air. 

Thus, it is computed that a gallon of air is rendered un- 
fit for respiration by the steams of a man's breath in one 
minute ; consequently a hogshead of air would not sup- 
ply a human creature one hour; nor, indeed, can he live 
in it one third of that time. Hence, therefore, we may 
learn, that, without a contiinial supply of fresh air, the 
lungs cannot perform tlieir oflice. This will appear 
still more necessary, when it is considered that tlie lungs 
are supposed to be the chief insfvument of sanguification. 



16 ox STABLES, &C. 

and mixing the blood and chyle by their cxpansioii anti 
dilatation, &c. 

Dr. Hales, to whom the world is much indebted for his 
curious and useful experiments on air, tells us, that he 
could not live half a minute without uneasiness in seventy- 
four cubical inches '>f air, and not one miimte in the same 
t|uantity, without danger of suffocation. 

ir the quantity of air above mentioned is lendered im- 
fitior respiration by a man's breathing in it for so short 
a time, we may conclude that a much greater quantity of 
air would be rendered unlit for respiration in the same 
time by a horse, w hose lungs are considerably larger, and 
of a more extensive surface. 

TheeiSuvia from animal bodies are likewise very hurt- 
ful to the air. Three thousand men, living within the 
compass of one acre of ground, would make an atnjos- 
phere of their own steams seventy feet high, which would 
soon become pestilential, if it were not dispersed by the 
winds. The air of prisons, for this reason, produces mor- 
tal fevers, &c. 

M<jist air relaxes all animal fibres. Such diseases, 
therefore, as proceed from laxity of fibres, must be the 
common diseases, both of moist seasons and moist situa- 
tions. Dry air, by producing opposite effects, produces 
o]i])osite diseases. 

Cold air, by bracing the fibres, and giving them a stim- 
hIous, prciduccs that strength and activity of which we 
are so sensible in fiosty weather. Hot air, likewise, re- 
l;ixes the fibres so as to occasion that faintuess and debili- 
ty so often experienced in hot weather. 

Tho'-'c 'rtables. which contain a ereat i^iui-bs-'r of horses. 



ON STABLES, ikC. 17 

are attended with other disadvantages, beside those I 
have ah'eady mentioned, especially to tired or fatigued 
horses, from the great intercourse which must unavoida- 
bly happen in people going out and in, especially in pub- 
lic stables. Hence those horses that are shy to lie do^^^l■• 
or are easily disturbed, \^ill riot rest themselves in that 
horizontal posture, which is of great consequence for 
keeping their logs fine and clean, as it forwards the circu- 
lation of the blood, &c. in the vessels, and prevents swel« 
ling and gourdincss of the legs and heels, which arc ge- 
nerally the forerunners of ulcers, scabs, grease, &c. Rest, 
to horses that are tired and fatigued, becomes absolutelj 
necessary, in order to recruit and refresh nature. We 
know how agreeable and necessary it is to oui-selves. 
Horses are susceptible of the same sensations : therefore, 
every opportunity of restiiig and stretching their legs 
should be given them. 

Large crowded stables contribute greatly tocornmaai- 
cate contagious or infectious diseases, A great ninnber 
of horses breathing in one place contaminates the air; 
and if it has not a free current, it soon becomes unwholc 
some, and, like the air of jails, it contracts a malignani 
quality, which produces fevers in those horses who staniS 
in them ; and, on changing them to other stables, they 
likewise communicate the infection to others. Ilcrxse i?. 
has been remarked, in those epidemical diseases amongs?. 
horses which have appeared in Britain, that it raged wills 
most violence in those stables where a great number «f 
horses were confined together in one large stable, Avhiist 
its effects, in small \\c\\ aired stables, were more mi?d aii4 
less destructiAT. 



IS ON STABLES, &C. 

To enimierate all the disadvantages which arise to hor- 
ses, from their being kept too warm, and breathing a hot 
foul moist air in close stables, would take up too much of 
the reader's time, or perhaps weary his patje»ce, as the 
impropriety of this treatment to horses, must be obvious 
to every one, who allows himself to reflect cooly upon the 
subject, and to apply tliese reflections to what he has c^- 
perienced from his own feelings in the like situations. I 
shall therefore only add further, that it renders horses ex- 
ceedingly delicate : it enervates their w hole system, and, 
of course, renders them unfit for the laborious exercises 
required of them, 

(Jn the other hand, too cold stables are likewise hurt- 
ful to horses, moix especially after labour or exercise, or 
when they are kept standing fixed to one place, or where 
the cold air is directed upon them in a current or stream 
from any door or window. A current of cold air is more 
noxious to animals that stand in it but for a short time, 
than heat. The natural qualities of the former is one of 
the principal causes of the distempers it produces ; for its 
coldness checks perspiration, by contracting the skin, and 
closing or sliutting up the pores. 

It is a common saying among stable people, that horses 
feed best wlsen kept in darkness. But this is by no means 
the case. They feed equally well in light, arc fond of it, 
and show evident symptoms of pleasure, wlien they are 
brought from a dark stable into t!ie light, by their frisking, 
&c. Such stables are generally unwholesome ; for, as 
they have 210 windov, s, fresh air is excluded as well as 
light. 

Very dark stables are likewise hurtfrd to the eyes. 



ON STABLES, &C. 19 

Herses are naturally timorous, more especially when they 
see but imperfectly around them. Hence they are the 
more constantly upon their guard. By this means the 
pupils of the eyes are too much dilated, or opened, in 
search of the least ray of light, in order to discover objects 
near them. This constant dilatation of the pupils great- 
ly weakens their contractile power; and, when the horse is 
brought out to the open day, the rays of light fall so sudden- 
ly, and so strong, upon his eyes, as to cause a kind of qui- 
vering orconTulsive motion in them, and in the eye-lids; 
the immediate efforts of the poor animal to keep out those 
rays of light which give him so much pain, and that, at 
other times, are so very agreeable to him. But this is not 
the only bad effect that arises to horses from their stand- 
ing in dark stables. It affects their seeing objects dis- 
tinctly when abroad, and causes them to startle, and be 
alarmed at every thing they meet with, which makes them 
exceedingly troublesome to the riders. The poor animals 
are blamed, when, in fact, it is in a great measure owing 
to the dismal situation in which they are too constantly 
kept. Light, to horses, is as cheering, agreeable, and na= 
tural, as it is to the human species, therefore, they ought 
not to be denied that common privilege. 

Farmers, from a view of making dung, lay great quan - 
titles of straw under their horses, where they sometimes 
let it remain for weeks together. The dung, urine, to- 
gether with tlie heat of the stable, soon reduce it to a state 
of putrefaction from which issue steams of a most noxious 
quality, which the horses constantly breathe in ; and, in 
wet weather, when they are more confined to the stable, 
this hot foul air mav occasion fevers of the most malig- 



20 ON STABLES, &C. 

nant kind ; and, perhaps, this may be the cause of thoit 
epidemical levers wliich break out in rainy seasons. 

In my observations upon the shoeing of horses and 
the diseases cf their feet, I havt- frequently hinted at the 
bad effects of keeping their hoofs and legs too hot, by 
means of too great a quantity of litter at all times, night 
and day, and perhaps large quantities of heated dung. 
Tlie great heat of the stable, together with the accumu- 
lated heat arising from too great a quantity of litter about 
the legs, occasion a more than ordinary- derivation of 
blood to the legs, &c. which causes a dilatation, or full- 
ness of the blood vessels, and, of course, a swelling or 
gourdiness in the legs. Hence proceed a stiffness and 
immbnoss, greasy heels, ^c. If the horse lies down for 
relief, the great heat of the littei' soon forces him to get 
up again ; and, A^ii'V repeaudly lyii^sr flown, and being 
forced to get up immediately, from the above cause, he at- 
tempts it no farther, but st;;iids upright, or perhaps a lit- 
tle stradling, often ^hr; ting the weight of his body from 
dne leg to another. This erect positin, in which he is 
obliged to stand, increases the swelling of bis legs, «^c. 
Recourse is then had to all the remedies commonly pre- 
scribed for swelled heels, under the notion of carrying off 
humours, as bleeding, rowels, purging, diuretics, <§*c. ^c« 
I have been the more particular in the above desprip- 
tion, as many cases have occurred, arising from the above 
cause, when no disease did at first actually exist, and 
^vhich might have easily been prevented, by renjoving the 
quantity of litter as soon as the horse's legs began to 
swell, keeping them coolj and washing tiicm frequently 
with cold water. 



QN STABLES, &C. 21 

The Earl of Pembrt)ke, in Uis Military Equitation, has 

A very judicious remark on this head. " After working, 

••' (says he,) and at night of course, as also in lamenesses, 

^* and sicknesses^ it is good for horses to stand on litter / 

*' it also promo'es staleing, &c. At other times, it is a 

" bad custom ; the constant use of it heats and makes the 

" feet tender, and causes svv elled legs. Moreover, it ren- 

" ders the animal delicate. Swelled legs may frequently 

" be reduced to tlieir proper natural size, by taking away 

" the litter oidy, which, in some stables, where ignorant 

" grooms and farriers, govern, would be a great saving 

" of pljysic and bleeding, besides straw. I have seen, by 

" repeated experiments, legs swell and unswcll, by leav- 

" ing litter, or taking it awav, like mercury in a weather- 
" glass." 

The Arabians,* who arc remarkably careful in the 
snanagement of their hi>rses, and have them in the great- 
est perfection, litter them with their own dung, dried in 
the sun, and afterwards beat down to a powder, and spread 
thinly upon the floor, about four or five inches thick ; and, 
after being soiled, it is dried a second time in the sun, 
which clears it entirely of its offensive odour ; and, in or- 
der to keep their legs cool, wash them carefully with cold 
water morning and evening. This practice has not only 
the desired effect on the legs, but it keeps their hoofs cool 
and moist in that dry and warm climate. 

The same author likewise tells us, that the Arahians 
keep their horses, as much as possible, in the open air, 
" Every day, (says he,) from morning to night, all the 
" Arabian horses stand saddled at the tent doors; and, as 

* Buffon's Natura 1 History of the Horse. 



^^ ON STABLES, &iC. 

*' the Arabians live in tents, these tents serve them like- 
*' wise for stables." 

This method of managing horses approaches as near as 
it is possible, to the natural or wild state, and cannot fail 
of being attended with salutary effects to the constitution 
of this useful animal: and, although this practice cannot 
be adopted or recommended in our cold and changeable 
climate, yet the inference is very obvious, and cannot fail 
of showing the propriety and usefulness of keeping our 
horses in well aired ventilated stables. 

The above author likewise observes. " That very 
^' warm climates, it would appear, are destructive to 
" horses ; and, when they are transported from a mild cli- 
^' mate to a very warm one, the species degenerate." This 
observation, together, with the arguments produced in 
support of it, and which appear to be founded in fact, 
shows how pernicious and unnatural too hot stables are 
to the constitutions of horses. Stables, with double heads 
as they are called, that is, when the horses stand with 
their tails opposite to one another, are very improper, un- 
less there is a considerable open space behind them, as 
horses are apt to kick and fight, by which they lame and 
wound one another ; instances of which occur almost 
every day : a precaution of this kind is the more necessa- 
ry, as many, if not most horses, when not feeding, stand 
as far back avS the stalk of their collar will admit. This 
practice I have observed to prevail mostly in those sta- 
bles that were kept too hot, probably owing to a foul hot 
air prevailing near the rack and manger, or from putrid 
steams arising from old musty litter below the manger, 
or from that under the horse's fore feet .; for it is t© be ob 



ON STABLE S, &C. 23 

served that horses and geldings, when they stale throw 
their urine considerably forward, and if the wet litter is 
allowed to remain under them, (which indeed is ten fre- 
quently the case) it heats like a dunghill. The saline 
steams arising from it are so sharp and disagreeafble to the 
organs of smelling, that horses stand as far back as they 
can in order to avoid the smell, and to breathe a freer and 
fresher air. 

From what has been said, it is obvious, that the pre* 
vailing custom of keeping horses too warm in their sta- 
bles, and where at the same time, a hot foul air must of 
course prevail, cannot fail of being attended with bad con- 
sequences to their health, &c. and shows the necessity of 
accommodating them properly with well aired stables, 
free from all damp or foul air, and so contrived as to be 
kept at all seasons of a proper temperature, avoiding the 
extremes of heat and cold. 

It is well known, 1 hat in hot-houses, where exotic and 
other delicate plants are kept, a thermometer is used to 
ascertain the heat of the air within the house, which be- 
comes absolutely necessaiy, as an excess of heat or cold 
would injure the plants. This practice, with great pro- 
priety, might be adopted in stables, that, when the heat 
within them is increased to a certain degree, the ventila- 
tors should then be opened ; and when too cold, they may 
be shut, or nearly so, as may be found necessary. 

All stables should be built in a dry situation, and in a 
free air. They ought to be at a distance from all boggy 
or marshy grounds, and free from all noise or disturbance. 
The ceiling or roof should be high and lofty, as the heat» 
ed foul air always ascends. The dung shoidd never be 



24 ox STABLES, &e. 

allowed to rot "within the stable, (as is done in sdme 
places,) nor even at the stable door ; but every thing about 
horses shouhi be kept sweet and clean. The stables 
should be frequently well aired, by keeping the doors and 
windows open when the hoises are out tlirough the day, 
E-wperienct Reaches us how agreeable and even ne< essary 
it is to admit tVesli air into our own apartments, it is equal- 
ly necessary and useful to horses. >.'o stable should con- 
tain more tiian six or eight horses at in.;st, for the rea- 
sons ali'eady mentioned. The stalls should be large and 
roomy, at least six feet wide, in order that a horse may 
stretch his legs out when he lies down with freedom ; and 
as horses are sociable creatures, and always thrive best 
in company with one another, no stable shi)uld be made of 
one stall only, unless it may be so situated as the horse 
that stands in it may be within the hearing of other horses. 
The stable-windows should be large, in order to adnsit a 
good deal of light, and nude so as to let down from t!ie 
top occasionally for the admission of fresh air. The 
damp or moisture that settles on thegh'.ss-windows sliould 
he frequently wiped-away, and kept clean and dry. I'he 
litter .under the horses should always be put up through 
the day below the manger, especially when a horse goes 
abroad, in order to let the pavement dry and cool ; and 
when the litter is spread down, it ought never to be too 
thick for the reasons already mentioned. A horse should 
never be allowed to stand on litter through the day un- 
less he is unwell or fatigued, wheii it is presumed he will 
lie down to rest himself. 

Having already hinted, that too much clothing to horses, 
whilst they stand in the stable, contributes greatly tt> 



4i 



ON STABLES, &C. 25 

i-ender them tender and delicate, besides exposing them 
to ail the diseases ansiiig from too great heat about their 
bodies, and likewise to those arising from an obstructed 
perspiration trom cold when they go abroad. It will be 
proper here to ubstr\e, that in some cases clothing be* 
comes higidy necessary. W hat 1 condenm is the too 
constant and improper use of them, even to excess, in 
warm weati er and in warm stables. \Mien a horse is in 
health, and stands idle. Very little clothing is necessary : 
a.single sheet or rug will be sufficient, unless the stable 
he stands in is very cold. But when a horse has been 
overheated, from violent labour or exercise, more cloth- 
ing vv ill be at that time necessary, as circumstances may 
require, till he becomes moderately cool. 

Here I counot help taking notice of that pernicious cus- 
tom of girding horses bodies so Aery tight above their 
clothing, by means of very broad girths or rollers, having 
a considerable number of straps and buckles, with a view 
of taking up the horses belly (as the phrase is.) If 
such bandages, are necessary, of which I have gicat 
doubt, why arc they used indiscriminately to all hoi'scs, 
and even to those that are naturally liglit bellied ? 1 ost 
and road horses, when they are fed for some time with 
clean dry food, have as ligiit bellies as the finest hunters ^ 

or racers ; and yet no such thing as broad rollers are ever 
applied to them. 

Broad girths, when drawn too tight round the body, 
impede the free action of the lungs, and, by their com- 
pressing the liver and otiier viscera, the circulation of the 
blood, kc. in them is considerably affected. 1 have seen 
many horses, whew labouring under a feverish disorder. 



B6 ON STABIiES, &C. 

girded so tight with these broad rollers, that it occasion- 
ed a more than ordinary difficulty of breatliing, attended 
"With great anxiety and restlessness : and on ungirding 
the rollers^ the animal seemed greatly relieved. For 
the same reason, too great a number of girths to a saddle 
are hurtful, when too good ones will answer the same 
purpose. 



CHAPTER IL 

Farther observations and directions on the same subject- 
partly selected and partly original. 



IN the construction of a stable there is no circumstance 
more deserving attention, or that is more generally ne- 
glected than ventilation ; the most convenient method of 
doing this is to have one window in each stall a little above 
the manger so contrived that it may be occasionally shut; 
this will prevent the air from becoming impure, and en- 
able you in some measure to regulate the temperature of 
the stable. 

The stalls should be of sufficient width to allow the 
horse to turn freely say at least five feet ; narrow stalls 
are not only very inconvenient, but have some times oc- 
casioned dangerous diseases of the spine. 

The floor should be made of two inch plank at least and 
nearly level, very little declivity being sufficient to drain 
off the urine. 

The partitions of each stall should, by all means, join 
to the floor ; as by leaving such a vacanoy that the horse 



ON STABLE S, &C. it 



tan get his loot and leg under, or his foot only, he may 
be in danger of breaking his leg or thigh. — An instance 
t)f which happened to a liorse belonging to the publislier^ 
hy which he sustained a loss of one hundred dollars. 

The common method of making the back part conside- 
rably lower than the front, is certainly very improper. 
When a horse stands in this way the muscles and liga-" 
ments of the hind legs arc kept constantly on the stretch 
in some degree, frequently producing a swelling of the 
legs. 

Dark stables arc very injurious to the eyes, the win- 
dows therefore should be larger than they are commonly 
made. 

There is a neatness and advantage in having the man- 

gcr made so as to slide into the wall, like a drawer, and 
an iron rack is preferable to one of wood ; by this con- 
trivance they may be more easily kept clean, and the 
horse will not be so liable to acquire the vice o( crib-biting^ 
Horses .should not be suffered to stand on their litter dur 
ingthc day, unless they have undergone considerable la- 
bour, nor should it be placed under the manger as is usu- 
ally the case; the stimulating vapours, which constantly 
exhale from it, being injurious to the eyes and lungs j 
it tends also to produce in the hoof a dis])osition to con- 
tract : it is advisable, therefore, to remove tlie litter eve- 
ry morning, and expose it during the day to the air ; thd 
moisture and stimulating vapours would be completely 
dissipated by the evening, and it would be nearly as use- 
ful as fresh straw. Another advantage arising from this 
plan is, that ahorse would have but little opportunity to 

eat his Utter, which they are frequently inclined to do 

D 



SS' ON STABLE S, &€, 

wher r<r-iiixi i,:: jf-^--. The quantity of litter which some 
horfc^ c?.t 'I'n5»i^ t'le day is productive of much mischief; 
it certainly oppresses the stomach, and weakens its di- 
gestive power ; it tends also to injure the wind, without 
affording the smallest quantity of nutriment. Though 
Tentilation is of the utmost iiiiportance in a stable, heat, 
in a moderate degree, is certainly congenial to the consti- 
tution of the horse, and contributes to the promotion of 
his condition ; moderate clothing, therefore, during the 
winter is to be recommended. 

When a horse is brought in from exercise he should not 
only have his feet cleaned out with a picker, but it is ne- 
cessary to wash them well with a brush and water ; this 
will effectually remove all dirt and gravel, and serve like- 
wise to cool and moisten the hoofs. Horses should if pos- 
sible be watered at a pond or brook in hot and dry wea- 
ther, the moisture which the hoofs receive in this way 
will frequently prevent those sand-cracks and lameness 
which are so apt to occur in the hot months of summer. 



2a 



PART L 

CHAPTER III. 

*jMviee, General Observations, Helps and Instnidions to the 
purchasers of Horses. 

THERE is nothing more difficult in the art of horse- 
manship, than to adopt any rule to govern men in the pur- 
chase or choice of horses ; for, according to the adage. 
That which is one man^s meat is another inaji's poison ; 
Avliat one likes, another dislikes. But to proceed accord- 
ing to the rule of reason, the precepts of ancient and mo- 
dern practice and of our present conceived opinions, I 
will in this work lay down such rules and obsci'vations as 
may strengthen and fortify you in any hard and difficuit 
choice. . 

First, you are to observe, in buying a horse, this prin- 
cipal consideration, viz. tlie end and purpose for which 
you want him ; whether for the saddle, speed, draught 
or burthen ; every one having their several characters 
and their several faces, both of beauty and uncomeliness. 

But because there is but one truth, and one perfection, 
I will under the description of the perfect horse, shew all 
the imperfections that either nature or mischance can put 
upon the horse of greatest deformity. 

Let me then advise you that intend to buy a horse, to 
acquaint yourself well with all the true shapes and excel- 
lencies which belong to an horse, whether it be in his na- 
tin*al and true proportion, or in any accidental or outward 



^P ADVICE, &.C. 

increase or decrease of any limb or member ; and from 
their contraries, to gather all things whatever that may 
g^ive dislike or offence. 

To begin, therefore, with the first principles of buying, 
you are to understand, that they are divided into two spe= 
ipial heads : the one general, the other particular. 

Tlie general rule of buying, is, first, the end for which 
you buy; then his breed or generation, his colour, his face 
and his stature, and these are said to be general ; because 
the first, that is the end for which you buy, is a thing on- 
ly known to yourself. 

The otlier, which is his breed, you must either take ii 
from faithful report, your own knowledge, or from some 
known and certain characters, by which one strain or one 
country is distinguished from another; as the Neapolitan 
is known by his hoop nose, the Spaniard by his small 
limbs, the Barbary by his fine head, the Dutch by his 
rough legs, the English by his general strength, being well 
knit togetlier, &c. 

As for his colour, although there is no colour exempt 
entirely from goodness, for I have seen good of all, yet 
there are some better reputed than others, as the dapple- 
grey for beauty, the brown-bay for service, the black siL 
ver-hairs for coiiragCj and the lyard or true mixed rr>an 
for countenance. As for the sorrel, the black Avithout 
white, .ind the unchangeable ^ron-gray, they are reputed 
choleric ; the bright-bay, the flea-bitten, and the black 
with white marks, are sanguinary ; the blank-white, the 
yellow-dun, the kite-glewed, and the py-bald, are phleg- 
matic ; and the chesnut, the mouse- dun, the red-bay, and 
the blue-grey are melancholy. 



ADVICE, kc. 31 

Now for liis pace, which is either trot, amble, rack oi= 
gallop, you must refer it to the end also for which yon 
buy ; if he be for the wars, hunting, running, or your own 
private use then the trot is most tolerable. And this mo- 
tion you shall know by a cross-moving of tlic hoise's 
limbs, as when the far fore leg and the far hinder leg 
move and go forward at the same instant. And in this 
motion, the nearer the horse takes his limbs from the 
ground, the opener, the evener, and the shorter he 
treadeth, the better his pace ; for to take up his feet 
awkwardly shows stumbling and lameness ; to tread nar- 
row or cross, shews interfering or falling ; to step une- 
ven, shews toil and weariness ; to tread long, shews over 
reaciiing. 

If you buy fQV ease, or long travelling, then an amble 
is required ; and this motion is contrary to a trot ; for 
now botli the feet on one side must move equally together- 
that is, his far fore leg, and the far hind leg ; and this mo- 
tion must go just, large, smootli, and nimble ; for to tread 
false takes away all ease ; to tread short, rids no ground; 
to tread rough, shews rolling ; and to tread nimbly, 
shews a false pace that never continueth, as also lameness. 

If you buy for hunting for galloping on the highway, 
for post, hackney, or the like, then a racking itare is re^ 
quired ; and this motion is the same as of that ambling, 
only it is in a swifter time and shoiter tread ; although it 
does not travel so quick, yet it is a little nioie easy. 

Now, to all these parts must be joined a gallop (w hich 
naturally every trotting and racking horse hath) but at 
which the ambler is a little unapt at first because the mo- 
tions jire botlj one, so that being put to a greater swiftness 



52 ADVICE, &C. 

of pace than waturally he hath been acquainted with, h*- 
handles his legs confusedly and out of order ; but being 
tamed gently, and made to know and understand the mo- 
tion, he will shortly as well undertake it as any trotting 
horse whatever. In a good gallop, you are to observe 
these virtues — 

First, that the horse which taketh his feet nimbly from 
the ground, but doth not raise them high, that neithei' 
rolleth, noi' beats himself, tliat stretcheth out his forelegs, 
follows nimbly with his hind, and neither cutteth under 
the knee, (which we call the swift cut) nor crosseth, nor 
claps one foot upon another, and ever leadeth with his far 
fore foot, and not with the near. 

Such a horse is said ever to gallop most comely, and 
most true, and is the fittest for speed, or any other like 
employment. 

If lie gallop round, and raise his fore feet, he is then 
said to gallop strongly, but not swiftly, and is fittest for 
the great saddle, the wars and strong encounters. 

If he gallop slow, yet sure, he will serve for the high- 
way ; but if he labor his feet confusedly and gallop pain- 
fully, he is good for no galloping service ; besides, it shews 
some concealed lameness. 

Lastly, touching his stature, it must be referred to 
your own judgment, and the end for which you buy ; ever 
observing, that the biggest and strongest are" fittest for 
strong occasions, as great burthens, strong draughts, and 
double carriage ; the middle size for pleasure, and gener- 
al employment ; and the least for case, street-walks, and 
summer hackney's. 

Touching the particular rule of purchasing, it is to be 



ADVICE, &C. ^^ 

observed in the discorcry of natural deformities, acciden- 
tal, outward or inward iiiddcn mischiefs, which are so 
many, yea, infinite, that it is a world of work to explain 
them ; yet, for satisfaction's sake, 1 will in as methodical 
a manner as I can, brifly, and according to the best con- 
ceived opinions, shewwhatcanbekuownon this occasion. 

First, then, when an horse is brought to you to buy, 
being satisfied of his breed, his pace and colour, then see 
him stand naked before you, and placing yourself before 
his face, take a strict view of his countenance, and the 
cheerfulness thereof, for it is an excellent glass wherein to 
see his goodness ; as thus, if his ears be small, thin, sharp, 
pricked, and moving, and if they be long, yet well set on, 
it is a mark of beauty, goodness, and mettle ; but if they 
be thick, laved, or lolling, wide set on, and unmoving, 
then are they signs of dullness, doggedness, and ill na- 
ture. 

If his face be clean, his forehead swelling outward, the 
iHark or feather in his face set high, as above his eyes, or 
at the top ofltis eyes ; if he has a wlute star, or a wliite 
rach of an indifferent size, and even placed, or a white 
snip on his nose, all are marks of beauty and goodness ; 
but if his face be fat, cloudy or scowling, his forehead flat 
as a trencher, which we call mare-faced, the mark in his 
forehead stands low, as under his eyes ; if his star or rach 
stand awry or in an evil posture, or instead of a snip, his 
nose be raw and unhairy, or his face generally bald, all 
are signs of deformity : if his eyes be round, bright, black 
shining, staring, or starting from his head ; if the black 
•>of the eye fill the pit, or outward circumference, so ti at 
j)i tJie moving none for very little) of the white appears, 



34 ADVICE, SCC^ 

all are signs of beauty, goodness and metal ; but if ids 
eyes be uneven, and of a wrinkled propoi-tion ; if they be 
little, (which we call pig-eyed) are uncomely, and signs 
of weakness ; if they be red and fiery, take heed of moon- 
ed cs, which is the next thing to blindness; if white and 
walled, it shews a weak sight, and unnecessary starting; 
if with wliite specks, take heed of the pearl, pin and web; 
if they water or siiew bloody, it shews bruises ; and if 
they matter, they shew age, over-riding and festered 
rheums, or violent strains ; if they look dead or dull, or 
all hollow and much sunk, take heed of blindness ; at the 
best the beast is of an old decriped generation ; if the 
black fill notthe})it, but the v\hite is always appearing, or 
if in moving the white and black be seen in equal (pianti- 
ty, it is a sign of weakness and dogged disposition. 

If handling of his checks or chaps, you find the bones 
iean andthin, the space wide between them, the thropple 
or wind-pipe big as you can gripe and the void place with- 
out knots or kernels, and generally the jaws so open 
that the neck seemeth to couch within them ; they are all 
excellent signs of great wind, courage and soundness of 
head and body ; buf if the chaps be lat and thick, the space 
between them closed up with gross substance, and the 
thropple little, all are signs of short wind, and much in- 
1\'ard foulness I if the void place be full of kftots and k t- 
nels, take heed of the strangles or glanders, at least the 
borse is not without a foul cold. 

If his jaws be so strait, that his neck swelleth ah.out 
them ; if it be no more than natural, it is orly an uncome- 
ly sign of strait wind and pursiness, or grossness : but it 
the swelling be long and close to his chaps like a whet- 



ADVICE, &C, 35' 

stone, then take heed of the uvies, or some other unnatu- 
ral iniposthiune. 

If his nostrils be open, dry, wide and large, so as upon 
any straining the very inward redness is discovered ; and 
if his muzzle be small, his mouth deep, and his lips equal- 
ly meeting, they are all good signs of wind, heat and cou- 
rage; but if his nostrils be strait, his wind is little; if his 
muzzle be gross, his spirit is dull — if his mouth be shal- 
low, he will never carry a bit well ; and if his upper lip 
will not reach his under, old age or infirmity hath marked 
him for carrion ; and if his nose be moist and dropping^ 
if it be clear water, it is a cold ; if foul matter, then bci- 
ware of the glanders ; if both nostrils run, it is hurtful j 
but if one, then dangerous. 

From his head look down to his breast, and look that it 
be broad, out-setting, and adorned with many feathers, for 
that shews strength and endurance. The little breast is 
uncomely, and shews weakness; the narrow breast is apt 
to stumble, fall and interfere before ; and the breast that 
's hidden inward, and wanteth the beauty and division of 
many feathers, shews a weak armed heart, and a breast 
that is unwilling and unfit for any toil or strong labor. 

Next look down from his elbow to his knee, and see that 
his fore-thiglis be rush-grown, well horned within, sinewy 
flesh, and witbcmt swelling, for they are good signs of 
strength ; the contrary sliew weakness, and are unnatural. 

Then look on his knees, that they carry an equal and 

even proportion, be clean, sinewy, and close knit, for they 

are good and comely; if (me be bigger and rounder than 

the other, the horse hath received mischief; if they be 

gross, the horse is gouty; or if they have scars,, or hai!'. 

E 



36 ADVICE, &C. 

broken, it is a true mark of stumbling and a perpetual 
falling. 

From his knees look down his le^s to his pasterns, and 
if you -find his legs dean and sinewy, and the inward 
bought of his knee without a seam, or hair-broken, then he 
shews good shape and soundness; but if on the inside 
there are excretions, if under his knee are scabs on the 
inside, it is the swift-cut, and he will ill endure galloping; 
if above his pasterns on the inside you find scabs, it shews 
interfering. But if the scabs be generally over his legs, 
it is either extreme foul keeping, or a species of the mange,: 
if his legs be fat, round and fleshy, he will never endure 
labour; if in the inward bought of his knee you find seams, 
scabs, or hair-broken, it shews a malander, which is a 
cankerous ulcer. 

Look then on his pasterns, the first must be clean and 
"Well knit together, the other must be short, strong and 
upriglit standing; for if the first be big or swelled, take 
heed of the sinew-strain and gurding ; if the other be long 
weak, or bending, the limbs will hardly carry the body 
without tiring. 

For the hoofs in general, they should be black, smooth, 
tough, rather a little long than round and hollow, and full 
sounding : for a white hoof is tender, and carries a shoe 
ill; a rough, gross, seamed hoof shews old age or over- 
heating : brittle hoofs will carry no shoe ; an extraordi- 
nary round hoof is ill for foul ways or deep hunting: a 
flat hoof that is pummiced shews foundering ; and an hoof 
that is empty and hollow sounding, shews a decayed in- 
ward part, by reason of some wound or dry founder. As 
for the crownet of the hoof, if the hair be smooth and 



Auvicii, 6iC. 37 

close, and tlie flesh fat and even, all is periect ; but ii' the 
hair be staring, the skin scabbed, the flesh rising, then 
look for a ring-hone, a crown scab, or the like evil. 

After this stand by his side, and first look to the setting 
on of his head, and see that it stands neither too high nor 
too low, but in a direct line j and that iiis neck be small 
at the setting on, and long, growing deeper and deeper, 
till it comes to the shoulders, with a high, strong and thin 
crest; and his mane thin, long, soft, and somewhat cur- 
ling, for these are beautiful characters ; whereas to have 
the head ill set on, is the greatest deformity; to have any 
bigness or swelling in the nape of the neck, shews the 
poll-evil, or beginning of a fistula. To have a short thick 
neck, like a bull, to have it falling at the withers, to have 
a low, a weak, a thick or falling crest, shews want both 
of strength and mettle ; and to have much hair on the 
mane, shews intolerable dulness ; to have it too thin shews 
fury, and to have none, or to shed, shews the worm in 
the mane, the itch, or else mange. 

Look then to the chine of his back, that it be broad, even 
and straight, his ribs well compassed, and bending out- 
ward, his fillets upright, strong and short, and not above 
four fingers between his last rib and his knuckle-bonc. 
Let his body be well let down, yet hidden without his ribs 
and let his stones be close thrust up to his body, for all 
thess are marks of perfection. Whereas to have his chin e 
narrow, he will never carry a saddle without wounding ; 
and to have it bending, or saddle-backt, shews weakness; 
to have his ribs fa(, there is no liberty for wind ; to have 
his fiilcts hanging long or weak, he will never climb a 
hilJ well, nor carry burthen ; and to have his belly clung 



38 ADVICE, &C. 

up and gant, or his stenes hanging down close or aside, 
they are both signs of sickness, tenderness, or foundering 
in the body, and unaptness for labor. Then look upon his 
buttocks, and »ee that they be round, full, phn«p, and in 
an even level with his body ; or if long, that tliey be well 
raised behind, and spread forth at the setting on of the 
tail, for these are comely and beaiitiful. The narrow 
pun-bottock, the hog, or swinc-riimp, and the falling or 
downlet-buttock, are full of deforn;ity, and shew both an 
injury in nature, and that tliey are neither fit nor beco- 
ining for pad, foot-cloth, or pillow. 

Then look to his hinder thighs, or gascoins, that they 
be well let down, even to the njiddle joint, thick, brawny, 
full and swelling, for that is a sign of strength and good- 
ness; whereas the lean, lank, slender thigh, shews disa- 
bility and weakness, i hen look upon the iniddle joint 
behind, and see that it be nothing hut skin and bone, veins 
and sinews, rather a little bending than too straight, then it 
is perfect as it should be ; but if it hath chops sores in the 
inward bought or bending, then it is a salander. 

If the joint be swelled generally all over, then he hath 
gotten a blow or bruise; if the swelling be particular, as 
in the plot or lioUoW part, or on the inside, and the vein 
full and proud; if the swelling be shoi't, it is a blood-spa- 
vin ; if hard, it is a bone-spavin ; but if the swelling be 
just behind, below the knuckle, then it is a curb. 

Then look to his hinder legs, and if they be clean, and 
sinewy, then all is well ; but if they be fat, they will not 
endure hard labor; if they be swelled the grease is molten 
into them ; if they be scabbed above the pasterns, he hath 
the scratches ; if he has chops under his pasterns, he hath 



i.DVICE, &t:. -39 

the pains, and none of these but are dangerous and a nui- 
sance. 

Lastly, for the setting on of his tail, where there is a 
good buttock, there the tail can neyer stand ill, and va here 
tliere is an ill buttock, there the tail can never stand well, 
for it ought to stand broad, high, flat, aiid a little touch- 
ed inward. 

Thus I have shown you the time shapes, and deformi- 
ties, you may therefore in your choice please your owa 
fancy. 



Farther advice on the same subject. 

THE artifice too generally practised by dealers iij 
borses, renders it necessary that unwary as well as un- 
skilful purcliascrs should have some rides laid down by 
which tliey may, in a degree, avoid or guard against such 
fraudulent and dislionourable practices. Indeed it is to 
be lamented tliat some merj who evince a proper regard 
for rectitude in their ordinary transactions, will, when 
selling a horse, deviate from their true character, by ex- 
tolling the animal beyond his real merit, or by concealing 
material faults or latent defects, in direct violation of truth 
and candor. 

The purchaser ought thcrefo;e first to examine tLc 
horse as he stands in the stall, when no person is near liim, 
and observe whether he stands fu-m and steady on all ids 
legs; if he shifts their position frequently and ajipcra-s 
restless, it indicates hard usage or something worse ; art], 
although, it may not he a sufficient reason aloiso, i<} 'jc 



40 ADVICE, &C. 

cline a purchase, the cause ought first to be well inquired 
into. 

Having examined the horse in the stall, let him be 
brought out of the stable and placed upon level ground, 
(not with his fore feet several inches higher than the hind 
ones, which is an universal practice among dealers) tlien 
minutely examine hislimhs, beginning at his breast which 
should be reasonably broad and a little projecting, as a 
hollow, small and contracted breast indicates weakness 
and an aptness to stiunble.; — Thence examine from his 
elbows to his knees, wjiich is by some called the foi'e thighs 
and by others the arms; tliese ought to be Heshy and a 
little bulging on the outside, but nearly straight within. 
If, on the contrary, they are lean and slender, it is a sign 
of weakness. See that he does not tremble or totter, but 
stands firm upon his knees, which should bear an exact 
proportion to each other and be stout, lean and sinewy . 
if they be scared it will at least afford reason to suspect 
that he is a stumbler if nothing woi'se. — The legs from 
the knees to the pasterns or fetlock joints, should be lean 
and fiat. If, on the inside, hard excrescences or knots 
are found, they are splents ; but if they do not approach 
too near the knee joint they seldom or ever occasion lame- 
ness and generally go away of themselves as the horse 
grows in years. 

The horse should also stand firm on the pastern joints, 
which must be of equal size, clean, and well knit, and thp 
pasterns be strong, stout and almost upright ; if, on the 
contrary, they are long, slender and bending, or tottering 
and leaning forward, it indicates weakness as well as. hard 
usage. After examining thus far, stand a few paces be 



ADVICE, &:c. 41 

fore the horse and see that he is not bow-legged, that is, 
the knees turning outward and the toes inward ; for, tills 
is a defect not only disagreeable to the sight, but a horse 
thus formed never can be sure footed. 

This is a proper time also to examine the hoofs, on 
which much depends ; they should be large, black, smooth, 
tough and nearly round, not too flat, neither too upright 
and the bottom concave. White hoofs are apt to be ten- 
der and do not so well bear, or retain the shoe : a hoof 
that is flat and pummiced on the under side is generally 
tender and indicates founder or some other defect. If the 
hair lie smooth at the edge of the hoof and the flesh even, 
alljis well there, but if the hair is rough and the flesh rais- 
ed and uneven, a ring, or quittcrbone may be appre- 
hended. 

The hinder thiglis should be thick, full within and bul- 
ging on the outside, at what is called the stifle or middle 
joint; lean and slender thighs are not so agreeable to the 
sight, nor do they promise much service. From the thigh 
bones to the hock or what is by some called the gambrel 
joints, should bo pretty long, but from thence to the pas- 
terns or fetlock joints short, and the leg lean, flat and' 
sinewy. 

The hock joint should be particularly examined, and 
to be perfect must not be fleshy, but consist of skin, bone, 
veins, and sinews only ; bending a little, rather than too 
straight. If any knots or swellings (either hard or soft) 
arc found in the hollow part, or inside of the legs, just 
belov/ the joint; beware of spavin, for although the horse 
may not yet be lame, a little labour will piobably make 
him «f». Tl.'c n-niarks before mad? with resiiect to the 



4g ADYICE, &C. 

pastern, or fetlock joints of the fore legs, also apply tux 
those of the hind. If scabs are found on the inside of the 
pasterns of the fore or hind legs, it is evident that he cuts 
or interferes, which is a great objection, particularly if 
the horse is intended for the saddle. 

The head should be of a medium size, the forehead 
bulging, and the face from the root of the ears to the nose 
a little bending outward. A hollow faced horse, with his 
-nose projecting, never can please the eye, though he may 
not be the worse for service. 

The head also should be of a gradual taper, rather 
small just above the mouth, whicli should be large, as a 
horse with a small mouth never carries or bears the bit 
well. The nostrils should be wide, and when the horse 
is in motion, a redness should appear within, which indi- 
cates free breathing. 

The eyes ought to be most minutely examined, and 
in a situation where glare of light is not too strong ; the 
middle sized eyes are to be preferred, it is better, howe- 
ver, that they should be rather large than small ; they 
should be round, lively, dark coloured (but not entirely 
black) and so clear and shining that you can see far into 
them, and when the horse is moving, but little of the white 
should appear. — Eyes that are very black or cloudy, 
ought to be avoided, as they are generally prone to dis^ 
case. Most dealers in horses are prepared to account for 
every defect that an observing purchaser may happen to 
discover or point out, and particularly as respects the 
eyes, which they studiously endeavour to make appear as 
trivial, or of no consequence at all. The purchaser how- 
ever should be aw^are of such sophistry, and not rely too 



ADVIjCE &CV .43 

implicitly upon it; but rather trust to his own jiulgment, 
or tiiat of some disinterested friend. 

The neck should be long, and small at tlie setting on 
of the head, growing deeper from thence to the shoulder!*. 
The upper edge should be thin and rising a little semi- 
circular from the shoulders to the head ; the mane tiiin 
and strong, as a heavy thick mane, bull neck, or a very 
lean and slender neck, arc never pleasing to the sight. 
The shoulders should be thin, and lay well back ; but to 
judge correctly of them, the horse should stand upon le- 
vel ground. If the shoulders are thick and upright, be 
will not answer well for the saddle, as too much weight 
will necessarily be thrown upon his fore legs, which w ill 
make it unpleasant, as well as unsafe for the rider. For 
a draught horse, however, thick and upright shoulders 
arc rather a recommendation than otherwise. Beware of 
swellings on the top of the head, or on the withers, as the 
former may result in the poll-evil and the latter in the fis- 
tula. 

The back should be short, and the chine Ir a'l or thick, 
and moderately curved, but if too much bending, or what 
is called saddle backed, it is never strong. A horse with 
a higli or roach back is very objectionable as he never 
can be used under the saddle with satisfaction to the ri 
der. If the chine be thin the saddle will not sit well. A 
horse with a high back, or thin chine, is however, not th.e 
Wf)rse for harness. 

The ribs should not be flat, but bend well outward, the 

last rib should approach the hip or buckle bones within 

about four or five inches and the belly be moderately let 

down, but not to swag. 

V 



i4 ADVICE &C. 

A flat ribbed horse with a gaunt or cluivg up beiiy, cati 
never perform much labour. The buttocks should be 
round, full, and the rump nearly on a level with the back, 
and the tail set high. Thin, contracted, or steep buttocks, 
are always offensive to the eye, though probably do not 
injure the animal for actual seivice. 

It is a good sign when a horse is deep in the girthing 
place ; but if, on the contrary, he is there slender, it indi- 
cates weakness. 

Having attentively examined the horse standing, let 
him be rode in your presence, on hard level ground, fif- 
teen or twenty rods backward and forward frequently, 
first in a walk, then alternately in his other gaits. Ob- 
serve his mouth that he bears steady and fair on the bit, 
his head well up, but his nose not much projecting, as this 
is a great fault, especially for a riding horse. Stand oc- 
casionly before as well as behind him, and see that his 
tees neither turn inward or outward, and that he goes ra- 
ther narrower before than behind, as no horse can move 
well on his legs unless he docs. If he goes too close there 
is reason to believe he will cut ; his action should be lively 
and when in a trot his fore legs well thrown forward, 
though even and regular, and not clambering ; observe 
that he treads firtn on the hardest ground, otherwise you 
may be assured he is tender footed, which is a great fault 
and diminishes his value much. His hind legs when in a 
trot should move even, bending a little outward at the 
hock, and be thrown well under him, though never to 
strike the fore shoes, which is called forging and is very 
objcctfonable. If he takes up his feet slovenly, throws 
them outward, steps irregular, or clambers, have nothing; 



ADVICE 6CC. 45 

10 do with him for tiny active service ; as he is only fit for 
the iieavy draught. 

After a minute examination, such as hefore recommend- 
ed, mount yourself and ride him a few miles alone^ other- 
wise you cannot judge correctly of his gaits or spirits, as 
most liorses go mucli freer and better in company than 
they do alone. This is a proper time also to observe his 
wind. Such trial is the more necessary as it is not un- 
common to meet with horses whose gaits and actions arc 
pleasing to the eye; yet when mounted, are intolerably 
rough and unpleasant to the rider, and often addicted to 
start and stumble. 

Do not permit yourself to be hurried into the purchase 
of a horse because he is a beautiful figure, or otherwise 
fascinating in his external appearance, but always exam- 
ine more than mice before you purchase ; otherwise, it is 
highly probable that some material defects will escape 
your notice ; especially, if you are not a critical judge. 
This caution is the more necessary because your morals 
as well as. pecuniary interest may both suffer. For, 
should it so happen tliat by making a hasty purchase, you 
^ti a horse defective in some essential points, that will 
by no means answer the intended purpose, you may pos- 
sibly be induced to commence thejocky, to get him off 
your hands ; and, in order to do this with the least loss to 
yourself, you may not cotisider it indispensably necessary 
to acquaint the purchaser (perha})s as inattentive as your- 
self) with the whole truth respecting the defective animal; 
in which case your morals will most certainly be implicat- 
ed. 
It is also necessary to have particular regard to the 



4t) ADVICE &C. 

kind of service ior which the liorse is intended. If for 
the saddle or any active service, the middle size, say 
about fifteen hands high, well formed as before described, 
is to be preferred; but if for a sl.»vv and heavy draughty 
the larger and stronger the better. 

Small horses answer equally ^^ell for the purposes of 
agriculture, as well as for many other employments to 
ivhich their strength is adequate. 

All the extraordinary qualities and exact symmetry, be- 
fore described will seldom or ever be met with in any one 
horse; the purchaser however, will, no doubt, give a pre- 
ference to those that approach them the nearest. 

^ge. A horse that has arrived at an age fit for ser- 
vice ought to have forty teeth; twenty-four grinders, 
twelve fore teeth, and four tusks. Mares, however, have 
but tlurty-six, except when they happen to have tusks, 
which is by no means common. 

It is by the fore teeth and tusks that the age of a horse 
is to be judged of, and as they are not generally put to^ 
service until they come three tjears old, (and indeed that is 
one year too soon) we shall commence our description of 
the teeth at that age. 

At iJiree therefore, he will have four horse and eight 
colt teeth, which are easily distinguished, by the horse 
teeth being much larger and flatter than the colt's. These 
four horse teeth, which are called pincej-s, have a dee]> 
black hole in the middle ; while those of the colt, are round 
solid and. white. 

A short time before the horse comes four years old, lie 
loses four middle teeth, two above and two below, winch 



ADVICE ^e. 47 

iire followed by foiu* more horse teeth, with hlack holes 
in the middle, the same as the pincers. 

A few months before he comes^^re, he sheds the four 
corner teeth, two above and tNvo below, which is his last 
coifs tf.eth, and ntjivc they are replaced with horse teeth 
hollow as before described and grooved on the inside. 
At this age he also gets four tusks, the two lower ones 
generally three or four months before the uppci'. 

Some liorses, however, never have any upper tusks, but 
this is not common. Tlie appearance of the two lower 
tusks is the most certain proof that the horse is coming 
fire years old; even if some of his colt's teeth still remain. 

When he is nearly six^ all his fore teeth are full grown, 
pointed and a little concave on tlie inside. At s'uv the 
grooves on the inside begin to fill up, and soon after 
disappear, the black holes in the middle of the teeth also 
begin to fill up, but are still very apparent. 

At seven all the fore teeth except the corner ones arc 
generally filled up smooth, though a black spot in the cen- 
tre may yet appear. Between seven and eight the cornei- 
teefh also fill and become smeolh ; after eight it is ditixnlt, 
and indeed by some held to be impossible to judge correct- 
ly of the age of a horse; nil the striking marks of iiis 
mouth having dlsappeare<i. 

After whicli period, reco;irsc »niist be had to the gene- 
ral atipcct of the mouth. If tiic tnsks be Hat and poiiitcd 
and have two small grooves on tlie itihiv!*', which yois can 
readily feel with your finger, be assureMl !jc is not old, | rr- 
babJy not yet ten, but if yon (intl only one groove witiiia 
the task, yoa may cor.cladc that he is ai^proachiiig tweivo. 

After hvelretlm gro'vcs ge:irr<i.!!y rli-a]?]K'ar and V.if- 



48 ADTICE &C. 

tusks become blunt, and as round within as without. Tli* 
length of the teeth is by no means a certain criterion to 
judge of the age, though long teeth, projecting forward, 
certainly indicates an advanced age, as the teeth of young 
horses are not so long and generally meet almost perpen- 
dicular. 

The lips of a young horse are very firm and elastic, 
■while those of an old one are soft, flabby, and hanging, 
and the tongue often so large, that the cavity of the mouth 
is scarcely capable of containing it. 

The holes in the centre of the teeth, sometimes continue 
to an advanced age, but when the tusks become round and 
blunt, the fore teeth long and projectiJig forward, the 
longue large and lips flabby, the horse is most certainly 
old ; sjny from twelve to twenty^ or upwards, notwithstand- 
ing any apparent marks to the contrary. 

Having noticed all the material marks which serve to 
instruct us as to the age of a horse, it is believed that a 
person of the most common capacity may, by paying at- 
tention to the foregoing directions ascertain the age of a 
horse with a considerable degree of certainty ; at least 
until he is too far advanced to be of much value. 



CHxVPTER 1\. 

Observations on the Management of Horses when Travelling. 

It ought always to be remembered, tfiat, when a horse 
is intended for a joui'oey of any length, and the prospect 



OBSERVATIONS, &C„ 49 

of continuing it for some time, that he be properly pi*epar- 
ed for it, by good feeding, and that he has been in the ha- 
bitual practice of regular and daily exercise : for, w ithout 
a due proportion of the latter, no horse can be in proper 
condition for tiavclling, or undergoing any fatigue, with- 
out danger ot being laid up by some acute disease ; for 
which reason it will be obvious, that a horse which is too 
fat, or full of flesh, or that has been kept long on soft feed- 
ing, or newly from the hands of a dealer, or running late 
at grass, or that has been accustomed to stand much at 
rest in the stable, or those that are too low of flesh, and are 
worn out or exhausted by former fatigue, from disease, or 
from old age, are unfit for this purpose : neither are too 
young horses fit for a journey, especially when about cast- 
ing their foal teeth, or before their strength is confirmed, 
and their bodies seasoned by the habit of labor or exercises. 
On the other band, a liorse that is rather meagre than 
fat, and whose flesh is firm from good feeding, and in the 
habitual practice of undergoing active exercises of labor, 
has always the host chance of performing a long journey 
with ease to himself, and with satisfaction to his owner. 

For the ease of the horse, and safety of the rider, it is 
proper to attend particularly to the saddle, that it fit iht: 
horse's back properly, that is, it must neither be too wide 
in the trees, to come forward on tlie shoulder blades, nor 
too narrrvv, so as to pinch and break ofl'or bruise the skin; 
and that the bolstering or stuffing in the pannel is adapted 
to the hollow spaces on each side of the spine or ridge of 
tlie back; that it lie smooth and equal on every part the 
spine excepted, wliich it ought not to touch or come nem 
m th« least, neither on the fore or back part. If it is ihu^ 



50 OKSEttVATlONS, &C. 

properly fitted, there will be no occasion for a crupper^ 
unless it may be the choice of the rider. The rider must 
likewise take notice, when on the road, tliat the stuffing in 
the saddle pannel does not become too thin, which it will 
be apt to do, and if needful, to have it repaired. 

Before a horse sets out on a journey, it will be prudeuj 
to have him shod some days before hand, in case any ac- 
cident should happen by driving the nails too near, &c. 
There is another advantage attending this caution, which 
is, the shoes become firmer seated on the hoofs, and the 
clenches and nails rusted, which contributes greatly to 
keep them firm in their place. If the horse goes too near, 
so as to cut his legs, either before or behind, that must be 
provided against in the shoeing. 

It is customary to water horses in the morning before 
they are fed ; but it will be found of more advantage to 
water them after feeding, as it then more properly dilutes 
the food that is taken into the stomach ; at the same time 
it washes the moutli and throat, and prevents or restrains 
the too sudden return of thirst or desire for water, which 
occasions an inclination in horses of stopping at every ri- 
vulet that comes in the way on their road. But, as horses 
that stand in a warm stable through the night, and per- 
haps feeding greedily on hay, are disposed to drink too 
much water, when led to a watering trough, it \vill be pro- 
per to prevent them drinking too much, by giving them 
water in a pail by measure ; about half a pailful at once 
will be sufficient. On their fii-st setting out on the road, 
they ought not to be too suddenly hurried on, as the sto- 
mach and bowels are then too full ; as this fulness goes off, 
they will naturally mend their paces of themselves; to- 



OBSERVATIONS, &C. Si 

T?ard the ead of the stage, their motion may be restrained 
by degrees, and brought in as cool as possible. After they 
are thoroughly cool and well dressed^ they should then be 
fed and watered as above. The same rules may be ob- 
served at the end of every stage. At night, their legs be- 
low the knee, and the hoofs, may be washed with cold 
water, and well rubbed afterwards, till the legs are tho- 
roughly dry, when tliey may be fed, and indulged with 
more water given them at once than they had through the 
day. It ought always to be observed, that when horses 
come to the end of a stage, if they are very warm that 
they be walked about gently till they cool gradually ; and 
never to wash their legs, or any part of their bodies, till 
they are cool. In hot weather, when the roads are dry 
and dusty, the washing of horse's legs proves very refresh- 
ing ; when the roads are dirty and wet, it is the readiest 
method of cleaning them ; but they ought always to be 
well rubbed afterwards. 

It may be needful to remind young travellers, thatthc;^ 
have their horse's shoes inspected at every stage, and 
whatever is amiss about them, or the clenches of the nails, 
rectified ; likewise to observe that the saddle has kept its 
proper place, in order to prevent its injuring the back, oi' 
coming forward on the shoulder blades. 

It frequently happens, that the skin of horses, who have 

not been accustomed to perform long journies, becomes 

scalded by the friction of the girths, and likewise on the 

under part of the breast, between the fore legs, where the 

skin is loose and full of wrinkles. This proceeds entire^ 

iy from neglect, in not cleaning the sand and dirt from 

'hose parts, but suffering it to clot among the hair, it col- 

G 



52 OBSERVATIONS, &C. 

lects in lumps, and, by the continued friction in the liorse'd 
moving, it produces the above effect, whicli is attend- 
ed with pain to the animal, and causes a contracted step 
in his going ; and when it is not taken notice of in pro- 
per time, the parts become inflamed and swelled, which 
proves a great hindrance to the horse's travelling. When 
the hair is fretted off by the girths, they should be wash- 
ed clean from the sand and dirt, and dried thoroughly be- 
fore a fire, after the horse is put up for the night. At 
the same time it will be proper to cause the sand and gra- 
vel to be picked out from below the shoes, and to wash 
out the smaller particles of sand and gravel that are apt 
to lodge there, as in weak hoofs it frequently occasions 
lameness. One great advantage that arises to the hoofs 
from being frequently washed and moistened w ith water, 
especially in dry warm weather is, that it keeps them cool^ 
a state which is most natural to them, and which is mucli 
more beneficial than all the stopping and greasing which 
at present is so much in use. 

It is likewise proper to observe, that the saddle girths 
be not drawn too tight, especially on the belly ; if the fortJ 
or point girths on the breast be drawn tolerably tight^ 
that will be sufficient of itself, if the saddle fits properly, 
to keep it in its place. The girths on the belly, however 
tight they may be drawn, soon slacken as the bowels 
empty, and they only serve to give pain to the animal, by 
confining the viscera, and occasion a difficulty of breath- 
ing on the hori^e's first setting out, when the belly is dis- 
tended with food ; besides, in round bellied horses, especi- 
ally if the belly is big, the tighter the back girths are 
drawn the more they contribute to push tlie saddle on the 



OBSEKVATIONS, &C. 53 

shoulders, in spite of every means that can be devised to 
keep it in its proper place. 

Road-horses, on long stages, at any halting-place, about 
the middle of the stage, should get a little corn, wheat, rye 
or oat-mcal mixed in about half a pail of water, to refresh 
them. Tliis not only quenches their thirst, by washing 
their mouths, &c. when the roads are dusty, but it invigo- 
rates them to perform the remainder of the stage. The 
meal prevents any bad consequences that might arise to 
tliem from giving cold water when they are heated, espe- 
cially in such a small quantity at once. 

It frequently happens on by-roads, or little frequented 
inns and baiting places, especially towards the end of har- 
vest, that horses are fed with green oats in the sheaf, newly 
taken from the field, for want of other feeding; that is ex- 
tremely hurtful to them, as it occasions faintishness, &c. 
and frequently produces a scouring, attended with great 
weakness. If, possible, in such situations, it would be 
prudent to get oat-meal for them, and mix it with a small 
quantity of water, only as much as is sufficient to moisten 
the meal, so as to prevent it blowing away by their breath 
in feeding. When the oats are too new and softish, oat-meal 
should always be got for them, if possible, in tlieir stead, 
and given as above directed. Bread, of different kinds, 
is likewise a good substitute in place of new or bad grain, 
especially tlie coarse wlieaten bread, formerly so much 
used to horses, and known by the name of horse bread. 
But, whatever kind can be got, if they will not eat it by 
itself, it may be rubbed down between the hands, or beat 
in a trough, and mixed with oat-meal. This will make 
Tcry good feeding for horses, and which most of them will 



5.4 OBSERVATIONS, &C. 

eat. A little trouble and care, in such cases, ought not 
to be spared for the benefit of so useful and valuable crea- 
tures, on such emergencies. 

Horses on a journey, from the strong persjjiration they 
undergo, and the constant feeding on dry food, are apt to 
become too costive, This ought to be guarded against, 
by giving them occasionally a mash of scalded bran, boil- 
ed barley, or malt, either by itself, or mixed in their oats, 
by way of a double feed. When a horse shews an incli- 
nation to stale on the road, he sliould always be allowed 
to stand still for that purpose ; and, if he has any difficul- 
ty in staling, an ounce of nitre may be given in his food 
for a few nights following. It is of consequence to attend 
to this discharge, and also that by stool, as inattention to 
either of these frequently proves the source of many dis^ 
orders. 

Before I conclude this article on travelling, I would beg 
leave to prefer a petition in favor of the poor animal who 
is the subject of this treatise, and which is, the allowing 
him a little more time to perform the task required of 
him; fifteen minutes more than what is allowed at pre- 
sent to perform a stage of as many miles, would save the 
lives of a number of horses yearly, besides the numbers 
that are lamed, and otlierwise rendered useless by such 
3evcrity. 

When the roads, &c. are covered with ice, it becomes 
necessary to have the heels of the shoes turned up, 
and fi-equently sharpened, in order to prevent horses 
from slipping and falling. As this cannot be done 
without the frequent moving of the shoes, which breaks 
and destroys the crust of the hoofs where the nails are 



OF THE RUNNING HORSE. S5 

drove, to prevent this, I would recommend to have siee 
points screwed into the heels or quarters of each shoe, 
which might be taken out and put in oocasionally. 

The method of doing this properly is, first to have the 
shoes fitted to the shape of the fioof, then to make a 
small round liole in the extremity of each heel, or in the 
quarters, about three-eights of an inch in diameter, or 
more, in proportion to the breadth and size of the shoe; 
in each of these holes a screw is to be made which the 
steel points are to have on them, exactly fitted to that 
in the shoes. Care must be taken that the screw on the 
points is no longer, when they arc screwed into the shoe, 
than the thickness of the shoe. The steel points are to 
be made sharp; they may either be made square, trian- 
gular, &c. as may be most agreeable. Tlve heighth of the 
point above the shoe should not exceed half an inch for a 
saddle-horse; they may be made higher for a draught 
horse. 



CHAPTER y. 



Ordering and keeping the Running Horse, according to iho 
several states of his body. 

When a horse is to be nwitched for a lunning course, 
you are principally to regard tlie state of the body in 
which the horse is in at the time of his niatcliing : and 
this state of body I divide into three several kinds. 



S6 OV THE RUNNING HORSE. 

1st. If he be very fat, foul, and newly taken from g?asi| 
or soil. 

2d. If he be extremely lean and poor, either through 
over-riding, disorder or other infirmity. 

3d. If lie be in a good state, having had good ijisage and 
moderate exercise. 

If your horse he in the first state, you shall take longer 
time for matching, keeping, and bringing into order, as 
two months at the least. 

If your horse be in the second state, that is, very poor, 
then you shall also take as long time; yet you need not so 
much as in the former, both becajise grease cannot much 
offend, and exercise may go hand in hand with feeding. 

If your horse be in the third state, (which is a mean 
betwixt the other extremes) then a^month or six weeks 
may be time sufficient to diet him for his match. 

]>Jow as you regard these general states of body, so you 
must have an eye to certain particular states of body; as 
if a liorse be fat and foul, yet of free and spending nature^ 
apt quickly to consume and lose his flesh, this horse must 
hot have so strict a liand, neither can he endure so violent 
excicise as he that is of a hard disposition, and will feed 
knd be fat upon all meats and all exercises. 

Again, if your horse be in extreme poA^rty, through 
disorder or misusage, yet is by nature very hardy and apt 
both soon to recover his flesh, and long to hold it, 
then over this horse you shall by no means hold so liberal 
and fender a hand, nor forbear that exe rcise which other- 
wise you would do the horse which is of a tender nature, 
a weak stomach and a free spirit; provided always, you 
have regard to his limbs. 



OF THE RUNNING BORSEo 5f 

Thus you see how to look into the state of horse's bo- 
dies, and wliat time to take for your matching. 

I will now descend to tlieir several orderings and diet- 
ings, and because in the fat horse is contained both the 
lean horse, and the horse in reasonable state of body, I 
will in him shew all the secrets and observations which 
are to be employed in the dieting and ordering of all three^ 
Without any omission or reservation whatsoever. 

How to diet a Horse for a match that i$ fat^ foul^ and either 
newlij takenj'rom grass or soil being the Jirst fortnight. 

If you match a horse that is fat and foul, either by run- 
ning at grass, or standing at soil, or any other means ot 
rest, or too high keeping, you shall for the first fortnight 
at least, rise early in the morning before day, or at break 
of day, according to the time of the year, and having put 
on his bridle, washed him in beer, and tied him to the rack, 
take away the dung and other foulness of the stable, then 
you shall dress the horse exceeding well, that is to say, 
you shall first curry him all over, from the head to the 
tail, from the top of the shoulder to the knee, and from the 
top of the buttock to the hinder gambrel; then dust him 
all over, either with a clean dusting cloth, or with a horse's 
tail, or sucli thing, made fast to a handle; then curry or 
rub him all over with the French brush, beginning with 
his forehead, temples and cheeks, so down his neck, shoul- 
ders and fore legs, even to the setting on of his hoofs, so 
along his sides and under his belly; and lastly, all about 
his buttocks and hinder legs, even to the ground. When 
you shall go over all tlrose parts whicU the brush hath 



$$ OF THE RUNNING HORSE. 

touched, with your wet hand, and not leave, as near as 
you can, one loose hair about him, nor one wet hair, for 
what your hands did wet your hands must rub dry again/ 
you shall also with your wet hands cleanse his sheath, 
yard, cods, and tuel, and not leave any secret place un- 
cleansed; as ears, nostrils, fore-bowels, and between his 
hinder thighs : then take an hair-cloth and rub the horse 
all over, especially his face, eyes, cheeks, the top of tlie 
forehead, the i>ape of the neck, and down his legs, fetlocks, 
and about his pasterns. Then take a clean woollen cloth 
and rub the Imrse all over, beginning with his head and. 
face, and so passing over each part of the horse's body : 
then take a wet mane romb ami comb iiis mane and tail; 
when this is done, take a large body-cloth of thick warm 
kersey, if in the winter; or of fine cotton or other light 
stuff, if in the summer, and fold it round the horse's body, 
then put on his saddle and girt, the foremost girt pretty 
tight, and the other girt slack, and whisp it on each side of 
tlie horse's heart, until that both girts be of equal straight* 
ness, then put before liis breast a w arm breast-cloth, and 
let it cover both his shoulders. 

When the horse is thus accoutred, you shall take a little 
beer into your mouth, and spirt into the horse's mouth, 
then lead him out of the stable and mount him, leaving 
some person to trim up your stable, clear away the dung, 
and shake up your litter, for your horse must stand upon 
good store of fresh dry litter continaully — of wheat straw 
if possible, if not, of oat straw : as for barley or rye 
straw, they are both unwholesome and dangerous, one 
causeth the heart-burn, the other scouring. 

When you are mounted, walk forth your horse a fooi 



OF THE RUN'NIJfG HORSE. 56 

pace which is called racking (you must neither amble nor 
trot for a mile or two at least,) upon good smooth ground, 
and as near as you cart to the steepest hills, then gallop 
your horse gently up the hills, and rack or walk him down 
softly, that he may cool as much one way as he warmed 
the other; and wlien you have thus exercised him until 
sun rise, you must walk him to some fresh river or clean 
pond that is fed with a sweet spring, and let him drink at 
his })leasure. After he hath drank you shall gallop and 
exercise hisn moderately, as before^ then walk him a pret- 
ty space and offer him more water : if he drinks, then 
gallop him again; if he refuses, then gallop him to occa- 
sion thirst, and always give him exercise both before and 
after water. 

When you think he hath drank sufficient, ride him home 
gently without a wet hair. ^Yhen come to the stable door, 
before which you must throw all your foul litter, there 
alight from his back, and by whistling, stretching the horse 
upon the straw, and raising the straw up under him, see 
if you can make him piss; which if at first he do not, yet 
with a little custom he will soon be brought to it; it is a 
wholesome action both for the horse and for keeping the 
stable clean. 

When these things are performed, you shall bring the 
horse into his stall, and tic his head up to the rack in his 
bridle, then with hard wisps rub down his legs very hard, 
afterwards untie his breast cloth, rub his head, neck and 
breast very much with a dry cloth; then take off his sad- 
dle and body cloth, and rub him all over, especially his 
back where the saddle stood; and then clothe him up with 

a linen sheet, then over it a good strong housing clotli, and 

H 



60 OF THE RUNNING HORS£. 

above it his wollen body cloth, which in the winter is not 
amiss to have lined with some thin cotton or wollen stuff, 
but in the heat of summer, the kersey itself is sufficient. 

When you have girt these clothes about him, stop his 
gursingle round with large soft and thick wisps, for with 
them he will lie most at ease, because the small hard wisps 
are hurtful. 

After your horse is thus clothed, then pick his leet and 
stopthemup with cow dung, and then throw into his rack 
a small bundle of hay, well dusted and bound up hard, this 
he will tear out as he standeth witb his bridle. 

After the horse hath stood with his bridle on more than 
an hour, then rub his head, face, and the nape of his neck, 
with a clean rubber of nevv coarse hempen cloth, it is ex- 
cellent for the head, and dissolves all gross and filty hu- 
mors; then draw his bridle, and witli a clean cloth clear 
out the manger; and if he hath scattered any hay therein, 
gather it up, and tlirow it bark into his rack ,* then take 
a quart of sweet, dry, and clean dressed old oats, of which 
the heaviest and the whitest are the best, such as the Po- 
land oats, or the cut-oats, for those only are wholesome, 
the others breed infirmity, those which are moist cause 
swelling in the body, those which are new, breed worms, 
and those which are half dressed, deceive and injure your 
horse much ; as for the black oats, though they are tole-. 
rable in time of necessity, yet they cause foul dung, and 
thereby hinder a man's knowledge in the state of the 
horse's body. 

This quart of oats put into a sieve, somewhat less than 
a riddle, and rather larger than a reeing sieve, such as 
will let light oats go through, and keep a full oat from 



OF THE RUNNING HORSE. jB.1 

scattering. Having well cleaned your oats, give them 
to the horse, and it he eats them with a good stomach, 
then sift and give him as much more, letting him rest un- 
til 11 o'clock; then return to the stable, and having ruh- 
bed the horse's head, neck and face, take another quart 
6f oats, cleaned as before, and give them to him, tiien clo- 
sing up your vt^indows, that the horse may remain as dark 
as possible, leave him till one o'clock, for the darker you 
keep your horse in your absence, the better it is; it will 
occasion him to feed, lie down arid take his rest, where 
otherwise he would nol, and you should cover the stall all 
round, over head and over the rack, with strong canvass, 
both for darkness, warmth, and that no filth may come 
near tiie horse. 

At one o'clock, return again to the horse, and dress 
him another quart of oats and give it him: after you have 
well rubbed his face, head and the nape of his neck, put 
away his dung, and make the stable clean, give a small 
lock of hay, and leave him until four o'clock, if it be sum- 
mer, and until three, if it be in the winter. 

At four o'clock return to the stable, and having made 
all things clean, bridle up your horse ; having wet the 
snaflf Ic with beer, and tied him to the rack, then take off 
his clothes, and dress him in all points, as was shewn you 
in the morning, then clothe and saddle him, and lead him 
forth, endeavor to make him piss, and dung upon the foul 
Utter at the stable door ; afteiwards mount liis back and 
ride him forth as you did in the morning, but not to the 
hills, if you can find any plain and level ground, as pas- 
ture, meadow, &c. especially if it lies along the riverside; 
hut in this case you must take the most convenient ground 



6a OF THE RUNNING HOBSE. 

you can find, there air your horse as you did in the morn' 
ing, galloping him both before and after his water, theji 
rack him gently up and down ; in your racking you must 
observe, even from tlie stable door, in all your passages, 
especially when you would have your horse to empty him- 
self, to let him smell upon every old and new dung ho 
meets, for this will cause him to empty his body, and re- 
pair his stomach. 

When you have watered your horse, and spent tlie even- 
ing in airing him, till near night, (for nothing is more 
"wholesome, or sooner consumeth foulness, than early and 
late airings) you shall then ride him home, and whatever 
you did in the morning, either within doors or without, 
do the same also at night, and so leave him in his bridle 
for an hour or upwards, then return and rub him well, 
take off his bridle, clean the manger, put up his scattered 
hay, sift him a quart of oats, and so let him rest till nine 
o'clock. 

At nine o'clock, which is bed time for your horse, you 
must rub down his legs with hard wisps, then with a clean 
cloth rub his face, head, chaps, nape of the neck, and fore 
parts; then turn up his clothes and rub over his fillets, 
buttocks and hinder parts ; then sift him a quart of oats : 
afterwards put into his rack a small bundle of hay, toss 
up his litter, and make his bed, and let hini rest till the 
next morning. 

Next morning visit the horse at day-break, and do eve- 
ry thing that hath been formerly mentioned. You shall 
keep your horse thus constantly, for the first fortnight : 
in which time, by this daily exercise, you shall so harden 



OF THE RUJJNING HORSE. 6S 

his flesh and consume his foulness, that the next fortnight 
you may venture to give him gentle heats. 

JVow touching his hcatSy you are to observe these foiirconsi' 
derations. 

1st. That two heats in the week are sufficient for any 
horse, of what condition or state of body he may be. 

2nd. That one heat should be given on that day in the 
week on which he is to run with his match, viz : 

If your match is to be run on Monday, then your best 
heating days are Mondays and Fridays, and Monday to 
be the sharper heat, because it is the day of his match, 
and there is three days respite betwixt it and the other 
heat. 

If the match is to be run on Tuesday, then the heating 
days are Tuesdays and Saturdays. 

If on Wednesdays, then the heating days are Wcdnes- 
days and Saturdays, by reason of the Sabbath. 

If on Thursday, then the heating days are on Thurs- 
days and Mondays, and so of the rest. 

5d. You shall give no heat, (except in case of extremi* 
ty) in rainy or foul weather, but rather change the time 
and hours, for it is unwholesome and dangerous. And 
therefore in case of showers and uncertain weather, you 
shall be sure to provide for your horse a warm ^lined 
hood, with linen ears and the nape of the neck lined, to 
keep out rain, for nothing is more dangerous than cold 
■wet falling into the ears, upon the nape of the neck and 
the fillets. 

4th. Observe to give your heats, (the weather being' 



64 OF THE RUNNING HORSE. 

seasonable) as early in the morning as you can, that is by 
break of day ; but not in the dark, for it is unwholesome 
fw tlie horse. 

The second forinighfs keeping. 
Now with regard to your second fortnight's keeping, 
your approach to the stable, cleaning and the like, you 
shall do all things as in the first fortnight, only before 
you put on his bridle you shall give him a quart of clean 
sifted oats, wlien he has eaten them, bridle lilm up and 
dress him well; then clothe and saddle him, air him, water 
him, and bring him home, as in the first foi'tnight, 05)ly 
you must not put any hay in his rack, but draw a hanuful 
of fine, sweet hay, which you must dust well, and let him 
tear it out of your hand as he standeth with the bridle on, 
and if he eats it greedily, then you may give him a second 
and a third handful, and so let him stand an hour or more, 
then return, and after rubbing him, kc. dress up another 
quart of oats and lay them by ; next take a loaf of bread, 
that is at least three days old, made in the following mar- 
ner : 

T^ie first bread. 
Take three pecks of clean beans, and one peck of fine 
wheat, mix them together and grind them into pure meal: 
then sift and bolt it through a pretty fine sieve and knead 
it up with a good quantity of yeast and lightening, but w ith 
as little water as possible ; w-ork it well in the trough, 
tread and break it, and then cover it w arm, and let it lay- 
in the tnnigh to raise ; afterwards knead it over again 
and make it into large loaves, bake them well and let, 



OE THE RUNNING H0R3E» 05 

Ihem soak soundly ; after they are drawn from the oven, 
turn the bottoms upwards and let them cool. 

When three days old you may venture to use this hread 
but not sooner, for nothing occasions surfeits, or is more 
dangerous than new bread : yet if compelled by necessity 
to use it sooner, or it gro\vs heavy and clammy, so as 
to displease th«^ horse, you may then cut it into thin sli- 
ces, lay it in a sieve to dry, and then crumble it amongst 
his oats, you may then give it to the horse without danger. 

When you have taken a loaf of this bread of three days 
old, you must chip it very well, then cut it into thin slices, 
and break three or four of them very small, and mix it - 
with the oats you had before sifted, and give them to your 
horse. 

About eleven o'clock visit your horse, and after doing 
the necessary things about the stable, give him the same 
quantity of bread and oats as you did in the morning, and 
let him rest till the afternoon. 

At one o'clock in the afternoon, (or after if you do not 
intend to give him a heat the next day) you shall feed him 
witli bread and oats as you did in the forenoon, and so 
every meal following fur that day, observing every action 
and motion as heretofore. 

But if you intend the next day to give him a heat, you 
must only give him a quart of sweet oats, and as soon as 
they are eaten, put on his bridle and tie up his head, not 
forgetting the several other things necessary to be done ; 
then dress, clothe, saddle, air and water him, and order 
him as before, only give him no hay. 

After he hath stood an hour with the bridle on, give him 
a quart of clean sifted oats, and when he hath eatfn them 



66 OF THE RUNNING HORSE. 

put on liis head a clean sweet muzzle, and let liim rest 
till nine o'clock at night. 

With regard to the use of the muzzle, and which is the 
best kind, I shall inform you :— 

The true use of the muzzle is to keep the horse from 
eating his litter, knavving boards, and to keep him from 
eating any thing, except what he receiveth from your 
hand. 

These'rauzzles are sometimes made of leather and pierc- 
ed lull of holes, or else close, but they are unsavory and 
unwholesome, for if it be allumed leather, the allum is of- 
fensive; if it be liquored, the grease is fully as disagree- 
able : besides they arc too close and hot ; — both make a 
horse sick, cause him to lose rest, and retain his dung 
longer in his bodj^ than he would do otherwise. 

The host sumirer muzzle is the net miizzle, made of 
strong p;ick threau anu knit very thick, with small n.ash- 
es in ttie bottom, and gradually wider up to the middle of 
the horse's bead, and then bound about the top with strong 
tape, upon the near side a loop, and on the far side a long 
string of tape, to be fastened under the horse's head. 

The best winter muzzle is that which is made of strong 
double canvass, with a round bottom, axd a square lattice 
window oisdiall tape, before both his nostrils, down to 
the very bottom of the muzzle ; this must also have a loop 
and string to fasten it about the horse's head. 

At nine o'clock at J>i§ht, visit the horse, and when you 
have performed your by-ceremonies, give him a quart of 
oats, and as soon as he hath eaten them, put on his muzzle, 
shake up his litter, and leave him to rest. 

Next morning come to him before day, if he be lying, 
do not disturb him. 



OF THE RUNNING HORSE 6f 

Now whilst he is lying, or if he be standing, take a 

quait of clean oats, and wash them in a little sti'ong beer, 

do not let tliein be too moist, for fear of offence, and so 

give them to him. 

As soon as lie hath eaten them, bridle him up and hang 

his -iuzzle on some clean place ; afterwards unclothe him 

and dress him as hath before been shown ; then put on 

his body-cloth and breast-cloth, and saddle him ; when 

ready to go forth, take liis bridle and draw it over the 

top of the rack, so that you may draw his head aloft ; then 

take a new laid egg, washed clean, and break it in his 

moiitb, and make him swallow it, then wash his tongue 

and mouthwith a little beer, and so lead him out of thii 

stable. 

At the door see if he will piss or dung, then mount his 

back and rack him gently to the course, making him 

smell upon other horse's dung, that he may empty himself 

the better. 

When you are come within a mile of the starting post, 

alight from your horse, and take off his body-cloth and 

breast cloth, then girt on the saddle again ; afterwards 

send away your groom both with those cloths, and the 

clean dry rubbing clotlis; let him go to the last end of 

the raee and stay there till you come. Then rack your 

horse gently up to the starting post, and beyond ; make 

your horse smell to that post, as you shall also do at 

the first post, which we call the weighing post, (hat he 

may take notice of the beginning and ending of his course, 

there start yonr horse roundly and sha^-ply at near sL 

three ipiarlers speed, and according to his strength of body^ 

ability of mind, and cheerfulness of spirit, run him tho 

I 



68 0¥ THE RUNNING HORSE. 

whole length of the course, but by no means do any thin^ 
in extremity above his wind and strength ; but when you 
find him yield a little, give him a little ease, so that all he 
doth may be done with pleasure and not with pain ; for 
this manner of training will make him take delight in his 
labor, and so increase it ; the contrary will breed discom- 
fort, and make exercise irksome. 

Also during the time that you thus course your horse, 
you shall, with all care, note upon what ground he run- 
neth best ; whether upon the hill, the smooth or rough 
eai*th, whether on the wet or dry, and according as 
you find his disposition, so maintain him for your own ad- 
vantage. 

When you have thus run the course over strongly and 
swiftly, and after a little slightly galloping him up and 
down the field to rake his wind and cheer his spirits, 
then ride to some warm place, (your groom being ready 
with the clothes, and other necessaries) as under the co- 
ver of some hedge, bushes or trees, into some hollow dry 
ditch, pit, or other defence from the air, there alight, and 
with a grasping knife, or scraping knife as some call it, 
made either of some broken sword blade, some old broken 
scythe, or for want of them, a thin piece of old hard oak, 
shaped like a long broad knife with a sharp edge ; and 
with both hands scrape the sweat off your horse in every 
part, and continue to do so until he will sweat no more, 
and every now and then walk the horse up and down, and 
then with dry clothes rub the horse well all over, after- 
wards take off his saddle, and having glassed, scraped 
and rubbed his back, put on his body-cloth, and breast- 
cloth, then set on the saddle again, afterwards gallop the 



an? THE RUNNING HORSE. 69 

Morse gently forth, and again a little space, often rubbing 
his head, neck, and body as you sit on his back, then walk 
hiia about the fields to cool, and when you find that he dri- 
eth apace, rack him gently homewards, sometimes racking, 
sometimes galloping, but by no means bring him to the sta- 
ble, until he ia quite dry. V/hen come to the stable, dismount 
and having enticed him to piss and empty himself, then 
lead him into his stall, and tie his head gently up to the 
rack with the bridle, then give him the following scour- 
ing, having prepared it before. 

The first scouring. 
Take a pint of the best sweet sack, and put thereto bet- 
ter than an ounce of the clearest and best rosin, well pow- 
dered, brew them together very much ; when they arc well 
incorporated together, put to it half a pint of the best sal- 
lad oil, and brew them also well together: lastly, take an 
ounce and a half of brown sugar-candy, bruised to pow- 
der, and add it also ; then mull the whole upon the fire» 
and being hike- warm, and the horse just come in from his 
heat, draw his head up to the rack, and with an horn give 
him this scouring, for it is a strong one, and takes away 
all manner of molten grease and foulness whatsoever. 
The ordering of the Horse after this Scouring, 
As soon as you have given the horse this scouring, le* 
your groom rub his legs immediately and do you take off 
his saddle and clothes, and finding his body dry, run 
slightly over it with your curry-comb, and then the brush 
then dust well, and lastly, rub all his body over exceed- 
ing well with dry cloths, especially his head, nape of 
the neck, and about his heart; then clothe him up warm, 
and wisp him round with great warm wisps, and if you 



70 OF THE RUNNING HORSE. 

tlirow over him a little loose blanket, it will not be amis* 
^t such times, especially if the season be coW. 

Your horse must fast full two hours after the. receipt 
of his scouring, but do not depart from the stable, but 
stay and keep the horse stirring and awake, paitly by 
noise, and partly by making him move up and down. 
There is nothing more hurtful to the hoise, or hindereth 
the operation of the medicine, tban sleep, and inaction ; 
and nothing better than action, for it makes the spirits 
lively, and stirs up those humours which should be re- 
moved, when rest keeps the spirits dull, and the humours 
so confined, that nature hath no pov.er to work. 

After your horse hath fasted upon his bridle for two 
hours, then take a handful of wheat-ears without beards, 
and first liandle the roots of his ears, then under his clothes 
against his heart, upon his fillets, flanks, and thighs ; and 
if any sweat arise, or any coldness of sweat, or if his body 
beats, or he breathes fast, then forbear to give him any 
thing, for it is a sure sign that there is much foulness 
stirred up, on which the medicine working with great 
power, the horse is brought to a little heart-sickr.css : in 
this case, only take off his bridle, and put on his collar ; 
then toss up his litter, that he may lie down ;— after hav- 
ing made the stable dark, absent yourself for two lioujs, 
which is the utmost end of that sickness. 

But if you find no such appearance, offer him ti.c ears 
of wheat by three or four at a time ; and if he oiis^ them. 
give him more. 

After he hath eaten the wheat ears, give him a little 

l)undle of hay and draw his bridle, rubbing his head well, 

. ^n hour after this, sift him a quart of the best oats. a«<! 



OF TIIK RUNNING iltUiSl., 71 

to them put Iw'o or three liandfuls of speltcd beans, whiclt 
cause to be ree'd and dressed very clean. To these oats 
and beans, break two or tliree thick slices of bread, clean 
chipt, and give all to the horse, and let !:im rest for near 
three hours. 

At evening before you dress your horse, give liim tbe 
like quantity of oats, spelted beans, and bread, and when 
he hath eaten them, bridle him up and uress him, after he 
is drest, clothe him, for you shall neither saddle !iim nor 
ride him forth, as this evening after his heat, the horse 
being imvardly foul, and the scouring yet working him 
he must not receive any v,atei\ 

After the horse is dressed, and hath stood an hour and 
a half upon his bridle, then take three pints of" clean sift- 
ed oats, and wash them in strong beer, and give them to 
the horse, for tliis will inwardly cool and I'eficsh liiin. 

After he hath eaten all his washed meat, and rested a 
little whi!'^, then at his feeding times feed him with oats 
and spelt beans, or oats and bread, or all togcthei', or each 
several and simple by itself, as you find the ! orse's sto 
macli suited to receive best; feed him i\i?.i ni.2,ht in a plen- 
tiful manner, and leave a lock of hay in the rack when 
you go to bed. 

Early the next morning, Iced, dress ami clothe your 
Isorse, tlien saddle iiim, air him, and water iiim, as hcibre; 
afterwards bring him home ar.dfecd him willi oats, spelt- 
cd beans, and bread : give liim but little li;\y, and keep 
your heating days, and the pi-eparation tlic day before, in 
such manner as hath been formerly declared, without 
omission or addition. Thus you shall spend the sccoiid 
fortnight, in W'hicii you!' iiorse having received four hcat<: 



72 OF THE RUNNIJSjG HOESB. 

soundly given, and four scourings, there is no doubt bwt 
his body will be inwardly clean. 

The third fortnight's keeping. 

The third fortnight you must make his bread which is 
finer than before : viz. 

The second Bread, 

Take two pecks of clean beans, and two pecks of fine 
wheat, have them well ground, and sifted through a 
fine scive, and knead it up with yeast and lightening, 
working it well, and baking it in the same manner as you 
did the former bread. 

With tills bread, having the crust rut clean off, and be- 
iug three days old, and clean oats, and clean spelt beans, 
you shall feed your horse this fortnight as in the former ; 
observe his dressing, airing, and hours of feeding, as in 
the former fortnig'nt; also observe his heatug days and 
the day before his heat, as before, only with this differ- 
ence : 

You shall not give liis heats so violently as before, but 
with a little more pleasui-e ; that is if the fiist heat be of 
force and violence, the second heat shall be of pleasure 
and ease, and not at all to o^ erstrain the horse, or make 
his body sore. 

Next, you shall not after his heats, >vhen becomes homf: 
give him any more of the former scouring, but instead 
thereof yo i shall instantly, upon the end of your heat, af- 
ter the liorse is a little cofsl, and clothed up, and in the 
same place where you rubhcd him, by drawisig his head up 
aloft as you sit in the saddle, or raising it up otherwise; 
give him a ball somewhat bigger than a French wal-nutj 
hull and a]l, of thai confection which is mentioned before, 
of the true manner of ranking cordial I all5. 



OF TILE RtJNNING HOUSE. 73 

The fourth and last fortnight- s keeping. 

You shall make your horse's bread inucli finer the last 
fortnight than eitlier of the former. 
The last hread. 

Take three pecks of line wheat and one peck of clean 
beans, grind them to powder, and bolt them through the 
finest bolter you can get; then knead it up with very 
sweet ale yeast, and new strong ale and the yeast beaten 
together, and the wliites of at least twenty eggs ; and 
instead of water, lake a small quantity of new milk. 
Then work it up\ery much, and bake it as before. 

With this bread (having the crust cut clear away) and 
oats well sunned, rubbed and beaten, and winnowed, and 
with the purest spelted beans, feed youi' horse at his usual 
feeding times, in such manner as you did in the fortnight 
hefore mentioned. 

You shall keep his heating days the first week of this, 
last fortnight, in the same manner as you did the former 
fortnight, but the last week you shall forbear one heat, 
and not give him any heat five days before his match, only 
give liim long and strong airings to keep him in wind. . 

You need not give him any scouring ti»is fortnight. 

If for this fortnight you burn, each morning and even- 
ing, some pure Olibanum, or Frankincense, mixed with 
Storax and Benjamin, upon a chafing dish of coals in your 
stable to perfume and sweeten it; you will find it exceed- 
ing wholesome for the horse, and he will take delight 
therein. 

In this fortnight when you give your horse any washed 
meat, wash it not in ale or beer, but in the white of egg« 
<*r mHskadine, for that is much more wholesome. 



74 OS THE liLWMNG lioRsr. 

During this fortiiiglit give your horse no hay but whal* 
he litketit out of your own hand after his heats, and that 
m.ist be in little quantities and well dusted, unless he be 
an exceeding bad feeder, \evy tender, and a great belly 
loser. 

The last week of this fortnight, if your horse he a foul 
feeder, you inust use the nuizzlc continually: but if he be 
a clean feeder, and will not touch his litter, then use th6 
muzzle three days before you match. 

On the morning of the day before your match, feed him 
well before and after his airing and watering, as at other 
times before noon : — Jiftcr noon, scant his portion of meat 
a little. 

Before and after evening ailing, feed as at noon, and 
water as at other times, but be sure to return before sun 
set.' 

This ih.y you shall cool the horse, shoe him, and do 
all pxtiaordinary things of ornament about him, provid- 
ed there bfe nothing to give him offence, or hinder him in 
feeding, or other material points; for I have heard some 
horsemen say, that wlicn they had shod the horse with 
ligh<^ shoes, and done ot'ier actions of ornament about 
him,t}»e night before the course, their horse hath taken 
such special notice of it, that they refused to eat or lie 
down : but those horses must have been old, and long ex- 
perienced iji this exercise, or they cannot have such ap- 
prehensions. As for the nice and straight platting up of 
horse's tails in the maimer of sackers or docks, howsoe- 
ver great the ornament may appear to the eye, yet I 
do not like it, because if an ignorant hand havo the manac- 
ing thereof, he may give offence to the horse many ways, 



OF THE RUNNING HORSE 75 

and by e.ideavoring to avoid incumbrance may incmnber 
the more ; therefore I advise every one rather to avoid 
such ornament, than by such false notions injure their 
horse. 

The necessary and indifferent things which are to be 
done to the horse, should be done the day before, rather 
than on the morning of the course, because the horse 
should not be troubled or vexed on that morning. 

The next morning, which is the match day, visit your 
horse before day ; take off his muzzle, rub his head well, 
and give him a pretty quantity of oats mashed in muska- 
dine, if he will eat them, or else iii the white of eggs : 
or if he refuses both, try liim with fine dressed oats, dry 
and mixed with a little wheat, or with your lightest bread ; 
but do not give him beans. Of any of these foods give 
him such a quantity as may keep him in high spirits ; tlien 
if he be a horse that is hard of digestion, and will retain 
food long, you may walk him abroad; and in the places 
where he used to empty, there entice him to einpty ; as 
soon as he hath done, bring him liome, put on his muzzle, 
and let him rest until you have warning to make him rea- 
dy and lead him forth ; but if he be easy of digestion, you 
need not stir him, but let him rest quiet. 

When you are warned to prepare for leading out, come 
to your horse, and having washed his snaffle in a little 
Muskadine, take off his muzzle, and bridle him up ; but 
if you think the horse is too empty, give him three or 
four mouthfulsof the washed food last spoken of, before 
you bridle him. Then bridle up and dress, having wax' 
ed your saddle and girts with shoemaker's wax, set it on 
his back and girt it very gently, so that he hath^ feeling, 

K 



f6 01? THE IlUNNlNG HORSE. 

but not strained. Then lay a white sheet over the saddle 
next his skin, and over it his ordinary clothes, then his 
body and breast clothes, and wisp them round with soft 
wisps. If you have a counterpane or cloth of state, let it 
be fastened above all. AMien you are ready to come forth 
take half a pint of best Muskadine, give it him with a 
horn, then lead him away. 

in all your leadings upon the course, of slow motions^ 
suffer the horse to smell upon every dung, that he may 
thereby empty himself; and in places of advantage, as 
Avhcre you find rushes, long grass, or heath, walk your 
horse, and entice him to piss : but if you find none, then 
w alk him in good places on the course, and chiefly towards 
the end ; and having used the same means before, break 
some of your wisps under his belly, and make him piss. 

In your leading, if any w hite or thick froth arise about 
the horse's mouth, wipe it away with a clean handker- 
chief. Carry a small bottle of clean water, and vVash his 
mouth now and then. 

When arrived at the place of starting, before you un- 
clothe your horse, rub and chafe his legs with hard wisps; 
then pick liis feet, and wash his mouth with Avater; af- 
terwards unclothe him^mount his rider, and then start fair. 



CHAPTER Yl. 

Feeding, Exercise, Docking and JStcking. 

Feeding and Exercise. — This is a subject of considerable 
importance, and requires more attention than is commonly 
paid to it; since by a judicious management in this respect, 
many troublesome diseases may be prevented. 

Wnen a horse is in a state of nature, and using only 
voluntary exercise, tiiere cannot be a doubt that the food 
which nature provides for him is perfectly sufficient for his 
support, and better calculated than any other to keep him 
in healtb; but w hen he is employed in the various labours 
in wliich he is found so essentially useful, it becomes ne- 
cessary to adapt tlic quantity and quality of his food to 
the exercise he has to perform; for example, if a horse, 
whose work consisted merely in being walked out for an 
hour every day, were to be fed daily with twelve quarts 
of oats, and an uidimitcd quantity of hay, he would in all 
probability become full of humours, according to the lan- 
guage of grooms, and some troublesome disease, either of 
the lungs, eyes or lieels, would be the consequence; but 
if one that performs the bard labour of a post horse were 
to be kept on such allowance, he would soon lose flesh, 
and become inadequate to his work. ^Vlien we undertake, 
therefore, to get a Imrse into condition, it is necessary to 
enquire what kind of work he is designed for, as it is by 
this circumstance tiiat his feeding and exercise are to be 
regulated. It is a fact, not sufficiently known perhaps, 
that the strength of an animal, or any particular par 
of an animal, may be increased to a considerable de- 
gree by means of exercise properly condnrted, Tistis 



78 IfiEDING AND EXKKCISE. 

we find that the arms of a waterman are particularly 
large and strong from frequent exertion of its muscles j 
and thfe same may be observed of the legs of a por- 
ter, who is almost constantly employed in carrying heavy 
burthens. In like manner, a horse, by means of exercise 
gradually increased, and proper feeding, may have his 
strength brought to the highest degree of perfection of 
which it is capable. 

It is a very common practice, and thought by many to 
be indispensably necessary, to give a horse three doses of 
physic, in order to train him for the field, or to bring him 
into high condition. We believe, however, that this prac- 
tice frequently does mischief, and it has been proved that 
a horse's wind and strength may be made as perfect as 
possible, merely by proper management in feeding and ex» 
crcise. 

With respect to the food most proper for horses, pats 
and clean hay free from dust are certainly the best. In- 
dian corn appears to dispose the body to inflammatory 
complaints, unless this effect is counteracted by a con- 
siderable degree of exercise; it should be given only to 
such horses as work very hard, and then it will be found 
a very invigorating and nutricious diet. 

To a horse that works moderately, ten or twelve (juarts 
of oats and fourteen pounds of hay are a sufficient allow- 
ance for twenty four hours, if at any time he is requir- 
ed to perform more work than usual, there should be a 
proportionate increase in the quantity of oats, but the 
above quantity of hay will on all occasions be sufficient. 

But straw or hay cut short, well wet and mixed witJi 
shorts, chopped rye or corn, is a most healthy and desiru 



DEEDING ANB EXERCISE. 79 

bie diet for a horse, particularly in warm weather ; and, 
indeed, occasionally at other times, when he is not employ- 
ed in much active service. 

Those who have paid most attention to the effects of 
different kinds of water upon horses, are of opinion that 
pond water is to be preferi'ed, where the hottom is com- 
posed of clay, and the water generally turbid. It lias been 
asserted also by persons of considerable experience, that 
without good water it is difficult, and often impossible to 
bring a horse into high condition. 

A horse should not be stinted too much in Avater, but 
should be served tbree times a day, particularly in sum- 
mer ; nfiany horses are injured in this vvay, but they should 
not be allowed to drink too much at one time, nor should it 
be very cold. 

The hours of feeding shoukl be regularly observed, and 
never deviated from if it can be avoided. 

To a horse that does no work, two or three hours exer- 
cise every day is necessary to his health and condition. 
When a hr)rse is to be prepared for the road, and is intend- 
ed for moderate riding, his exercise may be confined to 
walking; but if he is designed for fast riding or for innit- 
ing, he must be gradually accustomed to tliat velocity 
of motion for which he is wanted; .it is in t!iis way only 
that his wind can be brought to perfection. 

Horses arc very liable to be injured by too sndiien a 
change of temperature ; this l».as been often occasioni-d 
by bringing them too hastily from grass into warm stabk^s, 
many fatal diseases having been produced by it; on those 
occasions, therefore the most open stables shoukl be cho- 
sea at first, and thi) diet shoidd consist of hay, bran, cul' 



so D0CK15G. 

straM', &c. After a few days a small quaiiliiy of oats 
may be given, and the stable made a little closer. He 
may thus be brought gradually to usual diet. If during 
this time, any symptoms of inflammation make their ap- 
pearance, such as cough, inflamed eyes, quickness of 
breathing, swelling of the legs, Sec. he should be immedi- 
ately bled, and next morning take a laxative ball. Were 
these precautions more attended to then they are, many 
fatal diseases might be prevented. 

BocMnff. — This operation is to be performed as follows : 
a twitch is to he. put upon the upper lip of the liorsc luit not 
so high as to aflect his breathing, a cord is to he made fast 
to the fetlock of one of his hind legs, thence carried for- 
ward and made fast to his near fore leg, below the knee and 
from thence to the fetlock of the otlicr hind leg; Mhich Avill 
effecjually prevent his striking or kicking during the ope- 
ration. The iiorsc being thus bound, a block of woed is 
to be placed under his tail and a sjiarp instrument is to be 
drove through it (at a joint if possible) with one stroke. 
The bleeding is to be stopped by searing tlie dock Avith a 
|iot iron of a circular forni prepared for the purpose ; 
so ;5c powdered rosin is first to be applied to the dock. 
After the first day, let a little train oil and si)irits of tur- 
pentine mixed, be applied daily, which will lessen the in- 
fl?.mmation and soon heal the sore. The best metfiod of 
docking, however, is by an instrument prepared for the 
purpose which operates as a pair of shears, 

JMcJdng. — After tlic horse is securely bound as directed 
in case of docking and tltc twitch applied to his nose; the 
tail is to be held up and three deep incisions are to be cut 



NICKING. ?/ 

f though not so ileep as to touch the bone) with the point of 
a sharp pen-knife, so as to effectually divide the lower si-= 
news, the ends of which sinews, however, need not be cut 
off or shortened as usual; as they never can unite if the tail 
is kept in the puUies until the incisions heal up, which 
ought to be particularly attended to, otherwise the opera- 
tion will in a great degree be useless. 

The first incision should be about two inches from the 
root of the tail, another at about the same distance from 
the end, provided the dock is already reduced to the pro- 
per length, and the other at a medium distance between 
the two. 

A pulley should be placed over each side of the stall, 
precisely opposite to the tail when the horse stands in a 
position to feed ; a cord is then to be passed through each 
pulley and the ends brought together and securely fasten- 
ed by means of strong twine, to the hair of the tail ; a mo- 
derate weight must be attached to the other end of each 
cord, sufficient to keep the tail pcr(>endicular; thus situat- 
ed the horse will generally stand in the middle of the 
stall, which will effectually prevent the tail from inclining 
to one side or the other, v/hich is too often tlie case whew 
hut one pulley is used. The tail should be kept in the 
puUics at least one month, in order to give the new flesh 
that generates in those deep incisions time to become 
firm, otherwise the horse will not carry so well. He 
ought to have an hour or two of moderate exercise daily 
after the first two or three days and a little train oil ap- 
plied to the sores once a day, with a featlier. 

If proud flesh appears, apply powdered allum or red 
precipitate, aiid if the tail should become raiich inflamcil. 



32 HORSlJS CUTTING, &,Ci 

wash frequently about the root with salt and vinegar, and 
apply a poultice of flaxseed and bran, moistened with hogs 
lard, and give half a pound of salts in about two quarts of 
water every other day until the inflammation subsides. 

A horse may even be nicked in warm weather (though 
this we would not recommend) provided salts are given 
4 iew days before and after, and the root of the tail well 
washed daily with sale and vinegar, which will also pre- 
vent the hair from con ing out. 

{j3^As pricking is a practice that is frequently of serious 
injury to a horse, and therefore ought never to be used, wp 
shall give no directions on that subject. 



CHAPTER Yir. 

Sorses cutting their legs in Travelling, 

Horses frequently cut their legs both before and be- 
hind, by striking or knocking the foot when trotting, &c. 
against the opposite leg, whereby a wound is made, which 
is attended with an inflammation, swelling, &c. and of 
Course lameness. The parts commonly wounded from 
cutting in the fore legs, are the prominent and back part 
of the fetlock joint ; and under tlie knee joint on the in-? 
side of the leg. The former is most common : the latter 
only happens to those horses who raise their feet high in 
trotting : and as horses generally go fast, this last species 
of cutting is distinguished by the name of swift or speedy 



HORSES CUTTING, &C. %i 

in the hind legs, horses cut themselves upon the promi* 
iientpart of the fetlock; and sometimes, especially those 
who move their legs too low, cut upon their coronet. But 
whether they cut before or behind, it commonly proceeds 
from some of the following causes. 

Injudicious shoeing, under which may be iiicluded, the 
hoof being suffered to grow too large and broad, tlie shoe 
projecting over the inside edge of the hoof, the clenches 
©r rivets of the nails rising above the surface of the crust.. 

There are a great variety of shoes recommended for 
preventing this complaint, of different constructions; but 
the most common are those that are made thick upon the 
inside heel. Others have a border or margin turned up 
upon the inside of the shoe's rim, commonly called n fea- 
ther, which raises the inside of the hoof considerably high-» 
er from the ground than the otitside. Either of tliiese 
shoes may be of use to a dealer to make a wry-footed 
horse appear to stand straight upon his limbs, but can 
have no effect upon a horse's manner of moving his legs, 
especially at the time when the foot is raised from the 
ground, and passing by the other leg, so as to prevent him 
from cutting. The reason why this method of shoeing 
seems to succeed, especially in the hind feet, is this, 
when the shoe is made thick upon the inside heel, which 
part commonly strikes the opposite leg, the shoe-nails ar^ 
removed to a considerable distance forward from the 
thick part of the shoe, wliich at the same time is kept 
much within the circle of the hoof; and on that account, it 
becomes impossible that the shoe should touch the oppo- 
site leg. 

N. B. To shew that this raising of the iusidc quarter 



S4 HORSES CUTTIlfG, &e, 

or heels, by a thickness of rim in the shoe, is not necessa 
1*7 to prevent horses from cutting, tlie author has frequent- 
ly caused the heel of tlte shoe to be made thinner than 
common; and, by keeping it within the hoof, it answered 
equally well with the former^ he has likewise caused the 
shoe to be cut in the middle ot the quarter, whereby tlte 
hoof at the heel was left quite bare, w hich answered the 
purpose so much the better, as the foot was less loaded 
with the additional weight of supeifluous iron. 

The great weigiit of the concavt shoes commonly used, 
is likewise another cause why horses, that in other respects 
move well upon their legs, do frequently cut and wound 
themselves, and to this we may add, the great length of 
the hoof at the toe, especially in the foi-e feet, which is 
allowed frequently to grow to an unnatural size. It has 
been already said, that a great load of iron is by no 
means necessary in a horse's shoe; on the contrary it be- 
comes a great disadvantage : for a fiat one, that is proper- 
ly constructed, and well wrought, that is, well hammered^ 
will wear as long as a concave bi* hollow shoe that is al- 
most double the weight of the former. This, at first view, 
will perhaps appear a paradox,but never the less it is a fact; 
for as the round or outward surface of a concave shoe is 
the only part that touches the ground, and is liable to be 
worn, it soon grows thin, and yields to the pressure from 
the weight of the body; and therefore must be renewed 
before the other parts of it are hardly touched, and but lit- 
tle reduced in its original weight; but the surface of a flat 
shoe, resting equally upon the ground, will remain firm 
upon the hoof, and be sufficiently strong to support the 
weight of the body till it wears very thinv 



MOKSES CUTTING, &C. ^5 

When horses cut or wound themselves immediately un- 
der the knee joint, this is called the sxvift^ or speedy cutj 
and is occasioned by raising the feet high in trotting* 
whereby the inside toe or quarter of the hoof strikes 
against the opposite leg. Ti)is is easily prevented by 
making the shoe straight, and placing it considerably 
within the hoof of the part where the shoe strikes the other 
les:, observing that no nails are to be put in that part of 
the shoe which is kept so much within the hoof, they musjt 
immediately plunge within the quick. 

When cutting proceeds from a natural defect, that is, 
a WTong position of tlie foot upon the leg bones, whereby 
the toes are turned too much outward, or too much in« ard, 
at the same time, if the horse crosses his legs much iii 
trotting, in this case there is no preventing liis cutting 
altogether, thougli it may be palliated. Such horses are 
by no means fit for jeurney riding, being generally ad- 
dicted both to cutting and stumbling. 

In the last place, it may proceed from fatigue or w'eak- 
jiess. This happens frequently, even to thos^ horses that 
deal their Jegs well, (as the phrase is) especially in young 
horses; but they soon leave it off w hen they acquire more 
strength, and become accusto?ned to their work. Most 
people must have experienced this in themselves when 
boys; as they at that age are very ready to knock Mith 
the heel of the opposite shoe, which custom wears off as 
they grow strong. Upon the whole, the best general rule 
that can be laid down for preventing horses from cutting 
their legs, is, to keep the hoofs round and sharp at the toe, 
and from growing too large and broad; to observe that the 
ahoe does not project over the inside edge of the h»of: 



8^ AFATOMY OF THiE IIOBSE. 

that the clenches or livets of the nails on the dnter surtacfc 
of the crust are smooth; and, ahove all, that the shoe bi?; 
made tight, well worked, and properly proportioned to th^ 
?ize of the foot 



; CHAPTER VIII, 

ANATOMY OF THE HORSE. 

1. Of the Osteology or bones. — As the bones are the 
foundation and support of the whole body, so the know- 
j^edge of them is the ground work of anatomical re- 
search. They may be considered, collectively, as form- 
ing a surface of attachment for the various soft parts 
which they are the means of preserving in thier true 
form and situation. Bones in their structure are hard, 
compact, and durable bodies, insensible biit when in- 
flamed, and of a whitish colour. We may consider 
them as principally made up of two parts, a mem- 
brane of the size and form of the bone, and an earthy 
in after filling up this membrane. To detect these twa 
principles, we need only macerate or soak apiece of freslt 
bone in spirit of salt, which acts on the earthy matter 
alone, dissolves it without affecting the membrane, which 
still retains its form and size, though it may be rolled up 
and put into a phial, when the addition of wafer will open 
and bring it to its original shape. This earthy matter 
appears deposited in layers, composed of fibres crossing 
each other and forming a net work. They are not plac 



ANATOMY or THE HtJUS^. ^T, 

€il exactly alike in all bones, nor in all parts of the same 
bone ; in some they are so close as to make it almost so- 
lid, as in the middle of the long bones, whereas the extre- 
mities or ends appear spongy throughout, composed of lit- 
tle cells extending through the centre only of the compact 
parts; thus their ends are larger than their middle, to al- 
Jow a greater space for muscles to attach thpmselvcs, an^ 
to extend the surface of the joints. 

Bones are furnished with arteries of two kinds, one en- 
tering at their extremities to ajffbrd nourislmicr.t, tiie 
other piercing the middle to secrete the marrow, which is 
deposited in the cells we have noticed. Tliis substance 
keeps them moist and from becoming brittle ; thus the 
bones of old animals, whore it exists but in small quanti- 
ties, break more frequently than those of the younger. It 
may become diseased from long fevers, it then corrodes 
and eats through the bone, producing a thin foatid dis- 
charge ; this will happen (more particularly to blood colts 
Bear the knee and hock) without previous fever, and then 
is called, as in the human spina rentosa. The veins of 
the bones, though not very evident, yet are now and then 
detected ; and the sensibility of inflamed bone, and of the 
ftmgus arising from a diseased one, plainly shews tlie ex- 
istence of nen^es. In common w ith otlier parts, they arc 
likewise furnished witli a set of vessels, mxmcil absorbents^ 
or lymphatics. As all the fluids of the body are continu- 
ally changing, and fresh poured out in their room, it is ne- 
cessary that there should be appropriate vessels to cany 
back what the arteries before deposited, vitich is perform- 
ed by the absorbents. Botli externally and internally the 
bones are covered bv a membrane, from its situation term* 



Bet ANATOMiT 0£ THE ilORSii. 

ed periosteum ; it serves to strengthen and prevent their 
overgroulh, and to give a rougli surface for the attach- 
ment of muscles, &c. It is very sensible, and when 
stretched, as in splents, spavins, &c. becomes very pain- 
ful. It may likewise itself become diseased, and is then 
apt to be mistaken for an affection of the bone. Bones 
are furnished with ligaments, which are connnon and pro- 
per : the common surround the ends of the bones, fasten- 
ing them together, forming the connected parts, called 
joints, into complete cavities, within which is secreted, by 
glands, a fluid, called synovia or joint oil, for the purpose 
of casing the motion of the joints, by rendering the ends 
of tiie bones smooth and slippery. In old animals it is 
formed only in small quantities, and this occasions that 
stiffness and cracking of their joints we so constantly ob- 
serve. From a defect in the absorbents, or from an in- 
creased secretion of this fluid, is produced a dropsy of the 
joints, to be distinguished by attention from wind-galls. 
The cure consists in making a small opening into the ca- 
vity, and letting out the contents, carefully preventing 
tlic air fi'om getting into the joint. The proper ligaments 
are such as are attached to particular parts, as those of the 
loot, that which connects the thigli bones with the pelvis, 
and several others. In their structure they are (inn and 
inelastic, and from this cause arises the great difiiculty of 
removing extensions or strains of the joints : from this 
likewise we are made sensible that the cure must consist 
in such apjjlications as tend to brace the i-claxed fibres, 
Theprogressof 05SJ/zca/iou, orthe foimation ot bone, ap- 
pears to begin in a few weeks after conception, or after 
the mare is in foal : at first little limes shoot out, whicfe 



ANATO^IY OF THE HORSE. 69 

prove to be the membrane of tlie bone ; by degrees this 
hardens into gristle ; the earthy matter then begins to be 
deposited in the middle of it, and gradually proceeds to 
the ends, where the ossification is not completcdtill the 
fourth year ; consequently young horses sho uld not be ex- 
ercised violeiitly till then ; the lessening of the joints be- 
ing the last act of growth, may afford a rule to guide ws in 
this respect. The complete formation of the bones may 
be hastened by exterior causes, as by pressure, whether 
arising from any foreign body, or from increased and vi- 
olent action of the muscles. This pressure may act on 
the blood itself going to form bone, or it may produce its 
effect by accelerating and propelling it, and thus incorpo- 
rate the long matter more speedily and minutely : howe- 
ver it may act, it appears evident that it has tiie effect at- 
tributed to it ; the spine becomes so ossified in horses 
long used to bui'den as sometimes to form one entires 
piece; it must likewise be the increased action of the 
blood-vessels, vv hen we give spirits to puppies and bathe 
them in it, that prevents in a measure their future growth; 
the same reason accounts for the appearance of splents 
and spavins in horses when too early worked. If a ting- 
ing substance, as madder, is given to animals, even after 
they have arrived at their full size, the bones partake of 
the colour : should tiie madder be omitted, after sometime 
they resume their natural appearance : from this it would 
appear that the eartliy matter of iyone is taken up by the 
absorbent vessels, and a fresh supply is deposited by the 
arteries, and this change seems continued through life. 
Should not this teach us the necessity of feeding young 
hftvses well : and that, if boHes partake so much of wha*- 



§0 ANATOMY 01' THE HORSE 

ever is taken into the stomach, how much firmer will b© 
the bone produced from oats, beans, and hay, than from 
marsh grass or straw I Tlie ends of the bones are cover- 
ed, or, as it were, tipped with a white, smooth substance, 
called cart'dege or gristle : by its elasticity it prevents the 
jar tlmt would otherwise arise from any violent action^ 
as leaping, trotting, &c. \V hen this becomes diseased, it 
is not easily replaced, but bony matter is thrown out, and 
a stiff joint generally follows. To the ends of many of 
the bones are small processes or parts, of a bony nature, 
adhering, called epiphyses : most of tliem by age are so 
firmly joined as to appear one and the; same bone ; they 
are then termed apopltyses ; Wmv use is considerable, in 
furnishing a broader surface for tlie attachment or fas- 
teningof muscles, and preventing the tendons or sinews 
from inserting themselves too near the centre of motion. 
Bones being irregular and various in their form, must 
aecessarily have many risings and depression ; these re- 
ceive names according to their shape and appearance 5 
thus a rounded body jutting out, is called a Aead, as is the 
. part that supports it, a cervix or neve ; if flattened on each 
side, a condyle; wiien rough and irregular, a tuberosity ; a 
sharp rising is named a spine, but if slight a crest; when 
the risings arc more determined, they are CAlled processes^ 
and these are various, as transverse, ohliqiie, inferior, supe- 
rior, &c. The cavities are likewise named according to 
their appearances, as sinus, fossce, groove, nitch, channel^ 
furrow, ike. but as these are so expressive, we shall not 
particularize them; neither shall we enter into a detail of 
tlie various names and classes that the junction of the 
bones with each other, called arhctilation, receive; it is 




\ 



AfirlTOMT 01' THE HORSE. 91 

efficient to say, they are more or less moveable according 
to their situation and the nature of their office. 

2. Of the Eyes.— The eyes form one of the principal or- 
gans, and are in most animals two in number; wisely and 
securely placed by nature within a long bony canal form- 
ed of the bones of the head. The principal part of the 
eye is the glob'*; the others are some external and some 
internal; as the lids, caruncula lachry males, puncta la- 
ehrymalia, the menlbrana mictitaris, fat, lachrymal gland, 
nerves, blood vessels, dec. The cavity wherein the eye is 
lodged is called the orbit^ it is lined throughout by a pro- 
duction from the dura mater, and is perforated at the bot- 
tom for the passage of the optic and other nerves, and 
blood vessels. 

The globe of the eye i^ made up of several proper coat^p, 
forming a shell containing fluids, termed the humours of 
the eye. The coats are some additional, while some yro- 
perly invest the humours. The coats investing the globe 
of the eye are the sclerotic^ the cornea-, formihg the ante- 
rior part, the im, choroides^ a.nd retina. The additioi al 
eoats are two, one called tendinosa or albuginea^ tl.is 
forms the white of the eye, the other is called conjunct it- a, 

3. Structure and Functions of the Internal Organs.- — The 
Jiollow part of the body is divided into two cavities by a 
strong muscular partition, termed diaphragm or midriff; 
the anterior part is named thorax or chest; and the pos- 
terior abdomen Or belly. Tlie thorax contains the lungs 
knd heart ; the abdomen the stomach, intestines, liver spleeiS 
^r melt, pancreas or sweetbread, kidneys and bladder. 

4. Of the jLwi^s.— In describing the lungs it is necessary 

to begin with the trachea or windpipe, which is a cylindrJ^ 

M 



92 ANATOMY OF THE HORSEv 

cal cartilaginous tube, extending from tlie throat to thfe 
chest ; tlic trachea is not made up of one entire cartilage, 
but of several cartilaginous rings, wliich are united by 
strong membranes, and such is the elasticity of these car- 
tilages that the tube is enabled to preserve its cylindrical 
form, even when it receives considerable pressure, and 
thereby affords free ingress and egress to the air in respi] 
ration. The upper part of the trachea is composed of 
stronger cartilages than the other parts of the tubp, and 
rs termed larijnx ; to this is connected a curious kind of 
valve, called epiglottis, which is always open, except in the 
act of swallowing, it is then forced down upon the larynx 
so as to prevent food, or any thing which may be passing 
over the throat, from falling into the windpipe : when the 
tracljea arrives at the chest, it divides into numerous 
branches, which gradually becoming smaller, at length 
terminate in minute cells ; the lungs indeed are made up 
of the ramifieations of the trachea and blood vessels ; the 
interstices being filled with cellular membrane, which 
serves not only to wiiite them, but likewise to give a uni- 
form and homogeneous appearance to the whole mass. 
The lungs are covered w ith a fine delicate membrane cal- 
led the pleura, which also covers the internal surface of 
the ribs and diaphragm, and by stretching across the chest 
from the spine to the breast bone, divides the thorax into 
two cavities ; this part of the pleura is tliercfore named 
mediasiiminu On every part of the pleura an aqueous flu- 
id is secreted for the purpose of preventing a cohesion of 
the parts, and when this is produced too abundantly, it 
constitutes the disease termed hydrothorax or dropsy of 
the chest. The lungs are divided into two parts, one of 



ANATOMY 01' THE HORSE. 9S 

fvliich is situated in each cavity of the thorax ; this divi- 
sion seeiiTs to have been provided in case of accidents, it 
having been proved that when one lung has been incapable 
of performing its function in consequence of injury or dis- 
ease, the other has been found adequate to tlie support of 

life. 

The lungs are the organs of respiration or breathing, 
but they do not appeiar to be ocfix'^'Z?/ concerned in the 
performance of this office; when the diaphragm, and the 
muscles of the belly and ribs contract, the cavity of the 
thorax is considerably diminished, and the lungs so com- 
pressed, that all the air contained in them is forced out 
through the windpipe ; when this has been effected, the 
muscles relax, and the thorax returns to its original size ; 
there would now be a vacuum between the internal surface 
of the ribs, and the extei*nal surface of the lungs, did not 
the air rush in through the windpipe, and so distend ita 
branches and cells as to make the lungs completely fill 
the cavity; thus are the lungs constantly employed in in- 
spiration and expiration, and this process, which we call 
breathing, is carried on by the combined action of the dia- 
phragm, and the muscles of the ribs and abdomen. 

5. Of the Heart. — The heart is placed nearly in the mid- 
dle of the thorax, it is rather conical in its form ; the apex 
inclining towards the left side. The heart is divided into 
two cavities, termed ventricle^^esich of them having a small 
hollow appendage, which from a slight resemblance it 
bears to a dog's ear, has been named auricle. When the 
left ventricle is full of blood, it contracts so powerfully, as 
to force its contents into the aorta or grand artery, by 
which the blood is distributed all over the body ; it is then 



^4 ANATOMSr or THE HQBSJg,. 

taken up by the veins, and conveyed by them to the righf 
auricle, whence it flows into the right ventricle ;. this also,, 
^hen it is sufficiently distended, contracts upon its con» 
tents and propels the blood into the ■pulmonary arterij, by 
which it is conveyed to e^ery part of the lungs. The 
pulmonanj veins then receive it, and convey it to the left 
auricle, from whence it is propelled into the left ventricle, 
that it n.ay again be distributed by the aorta to every 
part of the body.— The blood is thus continually circulat- 
ing through the body, and this procesis piay be. consider- 
ed as one of the most important actions that is performed 
in the animal machine ; if it be stopped for a few seconds, 
9,11 motion i§ suspended, and if it be prevented a longer 
time from going on, vitality is destroyed. The function 
of the lungs is of equal impoi'tance in the animal economy, 
and cannot he stopped even for a short time, vvitliout sus- 
pending or totally destroying animation. Ancient phy- 
siologists had a very imperfect. idea of the manner in 
which those organs so essentially contributed to the sup- 
port of life; the moderns, liowever, have been more suc- 
cessful in their researches ; they have discovered that the 
blood derives from the. air which is taken into the lungs, 
the most important properties, without which it would be 
an useless vapid mass, totally inadequate to the purposes 
for which it wa§ designed. If we examine the blood in 
the left ventricle of the heart, and in the arteries, it will 
he found of a bright scarlet colour, and replete with those 
properties that render it capable of nourishing the body, 
^nd stimulating the whole system to action : in the veins 
it becomes of a much darker colour, and when it arrives 
g^t the right^ ventricle is nearly black, and destitute of tlio-*'** 



S^ATOM^i or THE HOilSl:, ^5 

enlivening qualities which it possessed when in the left 
rentride : had not the Creator then provided some means 
for its renovation, it would have been quite unfit for a se- 
cond circulation, and the duration of life must have boeti 
short indeed; but from the right ventfidc it is conveyed 
by tiie pulmonary artery to the lungs, at the moment tl>ey 
are distended with air ; litre the blood undergoes a won- 
derful alteration, it resumes its bright sciylet colour and 
is returned by the pulmonary veins to the left side of the 
heart, with all its original and essential qualities restored 
to it. 

Hence we may learn how important are the functions 
of respiration and circulation of blood, how essential to 
the life of animals, and iioAV dependant they are on each 
other- • . 

6. Vtscera of the «&(Zo?He?i.~Having finished our descrip- 
tion of the thoi^acic visceru, we sliall proceed to notice 
those of the abdomen or belly; the first, and most Impor- 
tant of wliich i§ the stomach. >\'hatever this oi'g'an re- 
ceives, is conveyed to it by a long muscular tube, named 
(Esophagus or .4-uilet; tlie jesophagus originates in the throat, 
where its size is considerable, but it suddenly diminislies 
into a small tube, and is continued of the same size to the 
stomach; this upper part has been thought to resemble a 
iunnel in its form, and is distinguished by the tei^^i 
pharynx. 

The jesophagus having passed along the throat and 
back part of the chest, penetrates through the diaphragm, 
and terminates in the stomach. 

The {esophagus of a horse has on its internal surface 
an insensible membrane, which stretches into the stoinacfe 



Qo ANATOMY OF THE lIOKtSSSi. 

and lines nearly one half of it; this peculiarity of stmij;- 
ture enables us to account, in some measure, for the inac- 
tivity of many violent poisons when given to the horse.. 
In the human sesophagiis this membrane does not exist, the 
whole of its internal surf;'.ce, as well as that of the sto- 
mach, being exquisitely sensible. 

. If two grains of emetic tartar are swallowed Jby a man 
it soon occasions violent vomiting; whereas two hundred 
times that quantity Would produce no sensible effect upon 
the horse. At the carjlaic orifice, or that part where the 
oesophagus enters the stomach, its internal cqiat is so loose 
as to be thrown into folds, appearing as if it were design- 
ed as a valve to prevent the regurgitation of tlie contents 
of the stomach; from this cause, as well as from the insen- 
sibility of the membrane with which great part of the sto- 
mach is lined, a horse very rarely vomits; but the "opinion 
that he is totally incapable of that action, is certainly not 
true, as the contrary is well ascertained. 

When we examine the throat of a horse^ another vulgar 
structure is observed, which is formed by the epiglottis, or 
valve of the wind pipe, and a membranous substance that 
hangs from the back part of the roof of the mouth, and is 
peculiarly lai;ge in the horse, termed velum pendulum pa- 
lati; these bodies form a very complete valve, which opens 
downwards only, theieby preventing the return of any 
thing through the mouth, either fioni the lungs or stomach : 
thus we find that a horse breathes only through his nose ^ 
except in coughing, by which the valve is so deranged as 
to allow the air, which is thrown out from the lungs, to 
pass througii the mouth. 

In case of vomitine: the contents of the stomach are at 



AWATOifY OF THE HORSE. 97" 

iarst obsened to pass through the nose^ at length, by a yio- 
knt cough, tlie vahe is deranged, and a considerable quan- 
tity of. fluid, mixed with masticated food is evacuated by 
the inoitth. 

That part of the stomach where tl>e jcsoplmgus terli\i- 
nates, is called tlie cardaic orifice, and that w here the in - 
destines begin, is termed Pylorus- 

The intestines or bowels consist of one very long tube^ 
which terminates at the anus. 

In tlie horse the intestines measure nearly thirty yards, 
but being convoluted in order to adapt them to the cavity 
in which they are placed, they have the appearance of se- 
Tcral distinct parts. 

The internal surface of a horse*s intestines are not lined 
with that insensible membrane which is found in the eso- 
phagus and upper part of the stomach, on the contrary it 
is endued with a high degree of sensibility, and appears 
to be more susceptible of irritation than that of most other 
animals; from this irritability of the intestines, many 
horses have been destroyed by the administration of strong 
purgatives, and Iience arises the necessity of using those 
medicines witli skill and caution. 

The intestinal tube is not tliroughout its whole extent of 
a uniform size; tliat part next the stomach is rather small, 
ajul continues for about fifteen yards nearly of the same 
diameter; it then becomes very large, but again diminish- 
es before it terminates the anus. 

Anatomists in describing the intestinal cinal, divide it 
into two parts, viz. the small and the large intestines." 
these are subdivided, the former into duodenum, jejunum^ 
and ileum; the latter into coecitm^ colon., and rectitm. 



tB 1 -UTOMY or THE HORSfei 

All tlie internal surface of the intestinal tube w covere'l 
with a mucoeus substance, for the purpose of defending it 
froni the action of acrimonious bodies. The various con- 
volutions of the intestines are held together by a mem- 
brane called mesentery, which not only serves this pur- 
pose, but affords also a bed for the lacteals, or those small 
vessels by which the nutritious parts of the food are con- 
veyed to the heart to be converted into blood; but before 
we give a particular "description of those vessels, it will be 
necessary to describe the process of nutrition. 

When food is taken into the mouth, it is broken down 
hj the teeth, and so mixed with saliva, as to be in a pro- 
per state for entering the stomach : it is then b^ the united 
action of the tong!ie and muscles of the throat forced into 
the sesophagus, whence it passes into the stomach; in this 
6rgan it undergoes a considerable alteration; for here na- 
ture has provided a curious liquid, called gastric juice, 
which has the property of dissolving eveiy thing that is 
taken into the stomach, and of converting it into a soft 
pulpy mass, oi an uniform and homogeneous appearance; 
when the food has been thus altered, it is forced by a con- 
traction of the stomach into the duodenum, or first part of 
the intestinal canal; this mass, however, does not consist 
wholly of nutritive parts, or such as are fit for the forma- 
tion of blood, and another operation is necessary in order 
to separate them from such as are useless : this seems to 
be effected by the bile and pancreatic juice.* 

The bile is formed by the liver, which is a large glan- 



*This opinion appears to have been proved bj the experi- 
ments of Mr. Ashley Cooper, Lecturer on Anatomy and Suf= 
gery, and Assistant Surgeon of St. Thomas' Hospital, 



AN ATOM If OF THE HORS^, 9S 

tular body, divided into several lobes, and situated immc^ 
diately behind the diaphragm, to wliich it is firmly attach- 
ed. The form of the liver is too well known to requii-e a 
particular description; we have only to observe, therefore, 
that the bile which it secretes, is conveyed by the hepa- 
tic duct into the duodenum, within three or four inches of 
its origin. In man, and the greater part of the quadru- 
peds, all the bile does not flow immediately into the in- 
testine, there being a small vessel connected with the he- 
patic duct, which conveys a certain portion into a sac 
that is attached to tlio liver, and called the gall bladder, 
whence it is occasionally expelled ; but this does not ex- 
ist in the horse, although Mr. Taplin, in his Stable Di- 
rectory, has attempted to give an accurate description oi' 
its situation and diseases. 

The pancreas is also a glandular body, and secretes a 
fluid somewhat resembling saliva, which is conveyed by 
the pancreatic duct into the duodenum, at the same placb 
where the hepatic duct enters. Wlicn these fluids (the 
bile and pancreatic juice) are poured into the intestine, 
diey mingle with the mass of digested food, which has 
been expelled from tlic stomach, and separate from it all 
those essential parts which are fit to be converted into 
blood; this process is termed chyli fixation. Wc have 
before observed, when describing the mesentery, or that 
membrane by which the intestines are held together, that 
an immense number of small delicate vessels are spread 
over its surface ; these are named lacteals, from their con- 
taining a fluid, which in its appearalice resembles milk ; 
this ftuid is in fact the essential parts of the food, proceed- 
ing to the heart in order to be converted into Ijlood* AW 



100 ANATOMl' or THE HORSE. 

the lacteals open into the intestines, and cover the whoW 
of their internal surface, where they are always disposed 
to absorb the nutritious parts of the food in its passage 
through the intestinal canal. Some physiologists sup- 
pose that the mouths of the lacteals have the power of se- 
lecting such parts of the food as are fit to be converted in- 
to blood, that no previous separation takes place, and that 
the bile serves only as a natural purgative, con^antly 
stimulating the intestines, thereby keeping up a small de- 
gree of motion in them, and promoting the expulsion of 
the feculent parts of the food. 

It will probably be asked how it is that the mass of 
jfood passes through the intestines, since they are so con- 
voluted that it cannot possibly be effected by the power of 
gravity ; but if we examine their structure, this phenome- 
non may be readily explained. The intestines are com- 
posed, in great measure, of muscular fibres, some of which 
run in a circular and others in a longitudinal direction ; 
when the circular fibres contract, the diameter of the ca- 
nal is diminished, and when the longitudinal fibres are in 
action, it becomes shorter; by the combined action of 
those fibres, the food is gradually propelled through the 
whole of the intestinal canal ; the motion thus excited may 
be distinctly seen in an animal recently killed, and in 
some it continues a considerable time after death. The 
intestine, however, is not entirely composed of muscular 
fibres, its internal surface is lined with a fine nervx)us and 
muscular membrane, which is endued with exquisite ssn- 
sibility, and has the power of forming on its surface a 
muGous substance, which sei'ves to protect it from the ac- 
tion of acrimonious bodies. Besides the muscular and 



ANATOMY OF THE HORSE. 101 

nei'vous coat there is another which enters into the com- 
position of the intestine, and this is a thin membrane 
called peritonc6um. The. poritonscum not only forms the 
third and external coat, it likewise envelopes the whole 
of the abdotninai viscera, and is then so reflected, as to 
form a kind of sac, in which they are all enclosed. Thus 
are the intestines composed of three coats, which are 
closely in contact with each other ; the peritonseel, the 
muscular, and the nervous coat. Wc have yet to describe 
the course of the lacteals, or those vessels which take up 
the chyle or nutritious parts of the food. We have be- 
fore observed that tliey are spread upon the mesentery, 
from whence they pass on towards the spine, becoming 
larger and less numerous in their progress, at length they 
terminate in a large tube, which runs along the spine, 
and is named thoracic duct ; this pours its contents into 
^ large vein near the heart, to which part it is imme- 
diately after conveyed and converted into blood. 

The Kidneys are two glandular bodies, situated within 
the loins; their office is to separate urine from the blood: 
the urine thus separated is conveyed by two tubes of con- 
siderable length termed ureters^ into the bladder, which is 
composed of three coats like tliese of the intestine, and 
when it has received a sufficient quantity of urine to sti- 
mulate its muscular fibres into action, it contracts upon 
the urine, and forces it out, through the urethra or uvi- 
nary canal. 

7. Physiology of the foot. Of all the diseases to which 
iiorses are liable, there are none more difficult of cure, or 
that occur so fi'equently, as these which attack the footi 
and however improbably it may appear to those who 



i02 ANATOMY OF THE HORSE. 

have not paid much attention to this siihject, it is an in- 
controvertible fact, that almost all of them are the conse- 
quence of bad shoeing and improper management of the 
foot. 

No one can be aware of the importance of this branch 
of the Veterinary Art, but he who has had frequent op- 
portunities of seeing those diseases, and has taken the 
trouble to enquire into their causes ; and such a man will 
be convin£ed that nearly half of the horses that become 
unserviceable, are rendered so by some defect in the feet; 
and he will find that such defects are most commonly oc- 
casioned by a bad method of shoeing ; therefore it must 
surely be of importance to every man who values his horse 
to acquire such a knowledge of this subject, as may ena- 
ble him to preserve so useful an animal from a multitude 
of diseases. 

The bad effects which arise from the common practice 
of shoeing are so gradual, that we can easily account for 
their having been so generally overlooked : the grada- 
tions between soundness and absolute lameness are so nu- 
merous, that it has been found rather difficult to trace the 
disease back to its source ; and this cannot be done readi- 
ly without having some knowledge of the structure of the 
foot, and the particular uses of the various parts wliich 
compose it. It is necessary also to be well acquainted 
with the natural form of the foot, in order to determine 
liow far it has been altered or destroyed by any plan of 
shoeing ; for example, take a horse that has had a sound 
well-formed foot, let it be improperly pared, and It't bad 
shoes be applied, in all probability lameness will not be 
the immeiliate consequence; by a repetition, bowevci-j of 



• ANATOM¥ OF THE HOUSE. 10^ 

'4ns practice, it will be found that the original shape of the 
foot is gradually altered, and that eventually it will be so 
far deformed as to produce, perhaps, incurable lameness ; 
therefore we ought not to be satisfied with apian of shoe- 
ing, merely because a horse is not immediately made 
lame by it, but should examine also the effect prodiiced by 
it upon the shape and structure of the foot; and this rule 
jnay invariably be depended on, that any mode of shoe < 
ing and treating the foot, which has a tendency to alter 
the form given to it by nature, is highly absurd and de- 
structive ; vhile that practice which tends to preserve its 
original form, is founded upon sound and rational princi- 
ples. 

It has been very justly observed, that if we wish to ex- 
amine a perfect foot, such as n.iture made it, it is general- 
ly necessary to find one tiiat has never been shod ; for 
the common mode of shoeing is so frequently destructive, 
that we seldom meet with a horse whose feet have not 
lost, in some degree, their original form ; and this devial 
tion from their natural fihape, is genei-ally proportioned 
to the length of time he has worn shots. From this cir 
cumstance writers on farriery iiave been led to form va 
rious opinions respecting the most desirable form for a 
horse's foot : but had they consulted ]\*atitre, this variety 
of opinion w^ould not have existed — tliey would have bee« 
'Convinced, that tlic feet of all horst^s that have not been 
taken froma state of nature, or impropej'ly shod, are near- 
ly of the same shape; and surely ho one will dispute that 
this form which tlie Creator has given it, is the mosi 
perfect, and far better adapted ta al! the purposes for 



i04 ANATOMY OF THE HOKSB. 

which the animal was designed, than any that can be gi- 
ven by the most ingenious farrier. 

A person unacquainted witli the anatomy of the horse's 
foot, \voul(J naturally suppose that the internal parts 
are simply inclosed by the hoof, and that by its hard- 
ness it sei'ved to protect them from the blows and pres- 
sure to which they would othenvise be constantly expos- 
ed; but very little reflection would convince bim how in- 
complete and inadequate such a protection would be ; 
let liim consider that tliose internal parts are replete 
with blood-vessels and nerves, and possessed of a high 
degree of sensibility: let him consider also, what an im- 
inense weight is thrown upon them at every step, and what 
painful concussion must be occasioned to the animal, were 
this the only safeguard against it ; but nature, ever pro- 
vident, has so constructed this part as to obviate all those 
inconveniences; if we examine any part of the animal eco- 
nomy, we are astonished at the infinite wisdom that is 
displayed in it; it is not however too much to assert, 
chat the structure of the horse's foot is strikingly beau- 
fiful and curious ; liere we find a variety of wonderful 
contrivances to prevent any painful concussion, from the 
most violent exertions, or from carrying heavy burthens ; 
but such is the folly and obstinacy of farriers, that they 
frequently destroy or pervert the whole of this beautiful 
mechanism, and the poor animal is doomed to painful la- 
bour or perpetual lameness. 

It will therefore be essentially useful to give such an 
explanation of the foot, as will enable the reader fully to 
romprehend the principle? of shoeing, and the method of 



ANATOMY OF THE HORSE. 10 J 

iwesemug the feet, from many troublesome and incurable 
diseases. 

The horse's foot is made up of a great variety of parts, 
some of them possessing blood-vessels and nerves, like 
other parts of the body, and highly sensible ; others arc 
composed of dead horney substance that is perfectly des 
titute of feeling. All the external parts of the foot, which, 
when taken together, are termed the coffin or koof^ are 
composed of this horney substance, which is not only ve- 
ry hard, but is possessed also of a considerable degree of 
toughness and elasticity, which render it extremely dura- 
ble, and well calculated to protect the sensible parts 
which it encloses. 

The hoof consists of the wall or crust, the sole, tlie/ro^, 
and the bars ; the. upper part of the crust, where it is con 
nected with the skin, is termed the coronet, the lower part 
in front the toe ; the sides of the crust are named the 
quarters, the quarters terminate in the heels, and the heels 
are connected with the frog. The crust grows from the 
coronet, and instead of taking a perpendicular dircctioii 
becomes oblique in its descent, whereby it acquires a co- 
nical figure, being considerably wider at the basis than at 
the coroniet ; but this description of the~ hoof applies only 
to the healthy foot, that has not been improperly treated, 
for when the bars have been cut away, and the frog muti- 
lated and prevented from receiving pressure, the heels 
will contract, or approach each other, and the shape of 
the foot will be considerably altered. 

When we examine a hoof that has been recently se 
parated from the foot, an immense number of small ori- 
fices or pores may be observed in that groove, which is 



t^ 



io6 



ANATOMY OF THE HORSE. 



found oh the inside of the coronet ; into the orifices thi 
extremities of those vessels are inserted, which secrete 
tJ»e horney inatter, the vsliole of which appears to he per- 
vaded hy a fine fluid, serving to prevent brittleness, and 
to preserve in the hoof a proper degree of elasticity. 

All the interjial surface of the crust, except the groove 
"we have just mentioned, is covered by a beautiful mem- 
Lranous or laminated substance, which very much resem- 
bles the under surface of a mushroom ; these are united, 
or rathcj' interwoven, with similar laminse or membranes, 
which cover all the anterior and lateral surfaces of the 
sensible foot, forming a very secure union between the 
crust and the internal parts, nor are those membranes 
possessed merely of great strength ; they possess like- 
wise a considerable degree of elasticity, constituting one 
of those cuiious springs which nature has provided to 
prevent concussion when the animal is in motion ; that 
these laminje form an union between the crust and sensi- 
ble foot, of sufficient strength to support the animal's 
weiglrt, has been proved beyond a doubt, by removing 
from a living horse the bottom of the hoof, that is, the 
sole and frog : in this case, had the laminre been imable 
to support tlie horse's weiglit, the internal foot must have 
slipped through the hoof so as to come down upon the 
ground, but this did not happen, and the sole, as it was 
re-produced, assumed its proper concave form. 

As these laminie form so secure an union between the 
crust and the internal foot, it is evident that the weight 
of a horse is in -a great measure supported by the crust, 
which tlierefore oXight to possess considerable strength, 
for if it werp too weak and inflexible, it would not be ade* 



AWlTOMir OF THE HORSE. i07 

quate to the burthen which it has to sustain, and must 
consequently bend to it. In this case the hoof would 
lose the oblique form which it had originally, and would 
approach the horizontal line, at the same time, the sole 
would lose its concave form, from receiving an unusual 
degree of pressure, becoming flat, and at length convex 
or projecting ; but when the crust is sufliciently strojdg, 
the internal foot, and consequently the whole animal is 
suspended by those elastic membranes, as a carriage is by 
its springs ; and though the bottom of the internal foot is 
in contact with the sole, it nevertheless does not press 
upon it considerably, except wljen the horse is in motion, 
and then the back part of the sole descends a little (being 
somewhat elastic,) and suffers the lamiuje to elongate in 
a small degree, so as to prevent any painful concussion. 
The bottom of tltc hoof is formed by the sole, the frog, 
and the bars. 

The sole is rather concave or hollow on its external 
Surface, and consists of a different kind of horn from thai 
which forms the crust, being of a scaly texture, and some- 
times soft and pulverablc on its exterior surface ; its use 
is to defend the sensible sole that lies immediately under 
it ; from its concave form the horse is enabled to tread 
more firmly on the ground, and the sensible parts are 
less exposed to blows or pressure than they would be, had 
it been made either flat or convex ; and being somewhat 
flexible and elastic towards the heels, it assists in the ac- 
tion of those curious springs we have just described. 

The frog is a very important part, and requires to be 
particularly considered ; it is intimately united with the 

Sole, but is composed of a tougher and more elastic kind 

0^ 



1G8 ANATOMY or THE HOUSE. 

pf horn j it resembles a wedge in its form; but towards' 
the heel, where it becomes wide and expanded, there is a 
separation in the middle which is contimied to the heel t 
when the frog receives the pressure of the horse's weight, 
this separation is increased, and consequently the frog 
becomes wider, and as it is connected \vith the heels of 
the crust, the same effect must be produced upon them. 

As great part of the frog is placed behind the coffin 
bone, all the intervening space between it and the back 
sinew being filled with a fatty elactic substance, it forms 
another of those curious springs which nature has provi- 
ded to prevent concussion. 

When the frog is in contact with the ground, it is evi- 
dent, from its construction with the heels of the crust, as 
we have before observed, and with two cartilages or elas- 
tic bodies, vvhich are covered in a great measure by the 
heels and quarters of the crust, and belong to the internal 
foot, that it must tend to widen or expand the heels, and 
however tliey may be disposed to contract, by the foot 
being kept hot and dry, such contraction cannot possibly 
take place while the frog bears on the ground, because it 
is then opposed by a very considerable part of the ani- 
mal's weight. 

It has been supposed by some, that the principal use of 
the frog is to serve as a cushion and p()int of su])port t© 
the back sinew. Wlien we consider, however, tlie struc- 
ture and relative situation of those parts, this opinion 
does not appear to be very probable. From what has 
been said of the frog, the reader may judge of its iujpor- 
tance, and how necessary it is to attend to its preserva- 
tion ; but such is the mutilated practice of farriers, so de- 



ANATOMY OF THE HORSE. 109 

termined do they seem on most occasions to act in oppo- 
sition to nature, that this essential part is generally the 
first that is destroyed or rendered useless. 

The bars form t\A o ridges, one on each side the frog, 
extending from the head of the crust towards the toe of 
the frog ; they appear to he a continuation of the crust, 
being like it, composed of strong longitudinal fihres; at 
the part where it joins the crust a very firm hearing is 
afforded for the heel of the shoe. The use of the bars is 
to oppose any disposition there may be in the hoof to con- 
tract, by acting as props to the heels : but in the common 
practice of shoeing they are generally destroyed, for far- 
riers have supposed that they bind the heels together and 
prevent their expansion; they have thereforq named them 
binders, and cut them away in order to open the heels, as 
they term it ; this practice, however, is not now so fre- 
quent as it us'ed to be. 

Having finished our description of the hoof, we shall 
proceed to describe the internal or sensible foot. 

All the parts, of which the internal foot is composed, 
are, as we have before observed, endued with great sen- 
sibility ; and so nicely is it adapted to the cavity of the 
hoof, that it completely fills it, without suffering the 
least inconvenience from pressure ; but when tlie foot has 
been improperly treated, when the frog has been dei)riv- 
ed of its hard surface, for the purpose of giving it what 
farriers conceive, a neat and fashionable appearance, (as 
if nature had been so clumsy in this part of her work, 
as to require a polish from the hands of those ingeni- 
ous gentlemen) when the frog has been thus mutilated, 
the. bars destroyed, and shoes applied that are either 



^IG Alf ATOMY OF THE HORSE. 

turned up or made very thick at the lieels, and whew 
this shoe, for the purpose of saving trouble, has been 
applied to the foot almost red hot ; in such circumstan- 
ces the hoof must necessarily contract, whereby its cavity 
will be diminished, so that the neiTes and bliod-vessels 
will be compressed, the circulation of the blood impel ed, 
and inflammation and lameness will most probably be the 
consequence. 

All the anterior and lateral surfaces of the sensible loot 
are covered with that membranons or laminated substance 
which we have before described ; but it differs from tliose 
laminae which are found on the internal surface of the 
crost, in possessing numerous blood-vessels, which can be 
easily demonstrated by injecting coloured wax into the 
trunk of the arteries ; but the laminsc of the crust cannot 
be made to appear vascular even by the finest injection 
and are therefore supposed to be insensible. At the up= 
per part of the sensible foot, where the laminse terminate 
a roundish projecting body may be observed, extending 
all round the coronet to the hack part of the frog, this is 
termed the coronary ring, its surface is covered with the 
extremities of vessels, which are very conspicuous when 
the arteries have been injected with coloured w ax or size; 
it is from this part that the hoof is formed. 

The bottom of the internal foot is formed by the sonsi 
ble frog and sole, the former perfectly resembles in shape 
t!ie horney frog, to the concavities of which its convexi- 
ties are nicely adapted. In describing the horney frog, 
w- had occasion to mention its connection with two elas- 
tic bodies or cartilages, that are in a great measure co- 
vered by the heels and quarters of the hoof; but this cqu- 



ANATOMY OF THE IIOilSE. Hi 

ijeciion, is, tlirougli the inecliurn of the sensible frog ^ which 
is more immediately united to those cartilages. When 
the former come in contact with the ground, and re- 
ceives the pressure of the horse's weigitt, the latter is 
forced upward and rendered wider, and at the same 
time the cartilages are forced upward and outward, tend 
ing thereby to expand the lieels and quarters, and assist 
in taking off concussion. From the sensible frog and sole 
the horn which composes the external frog and sole is se- 
creted; for this purpose they are supplied with numeroi.s 
blood vessels, the extremities of which may be seen upon 
their surface, and become very conspicuous wlien the ar- 
teries have been injected witJi coiouied size. Hence we 
are enabled to account for tiirushes, and that rottenness 
of the frog which generally accompanies that disease: 
for when the sensible frog is compressed and inflamed by 
a contraction of the licels, it becomes incapable of per- 
forming its principal function, that is, tlie secretion of 
horn ; and the blood which should have been applied to 
this purpose, is chiefly expended in forming that offen- 
sive matter discharged in thrushes ; from this wc may 
learn also the cause of that unnatural tliinness in the 
soles of horses that have pummice or flat fret. When 
the crust gives way to the pressure of the horse's weigl't, 
allowing the internal foot to bear so upon the sole as to 
render it either flat or convex, the extraordinary pres- 
sure which the sensible sole receives, inflames it and ira 
pedes in a greater or less degree the secretion of horn^ 
The sensible sole lies immediately under t!ie hornej 
.sole, by which it is defended froui blows or }(rcssure. 
When the horney sole loses its concave form, and btv 



11^2 ANATOMY OF THE IIOES£. 

comes thin and incapable of performing its function, if 
flat shoes were applied, or if the sole were suffered to bear 
upon the ground, lameness would be the consequence^' 
and it is for the purpose of preserving the sole from pres- 
sure, that the concave or hollow shoe is employed in these 
cases. When these parts which we have described are 
removed from the sensible foot, the tendons, ligaments, 
and bones come into view. 

It will be unnecessary . to give a particular description 
of these. It may be useful, however, to point out the se- 
samoid bones, and the navicula or nut bone : the former 
is connected posteriorly with the lower extremity of the 
cannon or shank bone ; they consist of two small bones, 
firmly united by means of very strong ligaments; they 
compose part of the fetlock joint, having a moveable arti- 
culation with the cannon bone; their external part af- 
fords a smooth polished surface for the back sinews to 
slide upon, and the same ligament which composes this 
surface, comes round the back sinews, so as to form a 
sheath for them, and keep them in their situation. In 
this sheath a fluid similar to synovia, or joint oil, is form- 
ed for the purpose of rendering it smooth and slippery, 
and enabling the tendon to move easily upon it. As these 

bones project a little, they serve as a pulley for the ten- 
dons to slide upon, and afford a considerable mechanical 

advantage to the flexor muscles of the limb. The nut 
bone serves as another pulley for the tendon or back si- 
new to move upon : it is connected posteriorly with the 
coffin bone and the small pastern, and affords the same 
kind of polished surface and sheath for the tendon as we 
have before described. 



AW ATOMY OF THE HORSE, Hi? 

7. On the practice of sJweing. Having given a concise 
-description of the hoise's foot, and pointed out the uses of 
the various parts which compose it, we shall now describe 
the method of shoeing ; but first it will be necessary to 
observe, that as the mode of shoeing most commonly 
practised has so destructive a tendency; and produces 
such a variety of diseases, that we seldom meet with a 
foot that has not lost in a greater or less degree its ori- 
ginal shape ; it must be obvious therefore, that one kind 
of shoe cannot with propriety be recommended for gene- 
ral application, and that it is necessary on all occasions 
to adapt it carefully to the state of the foot. This con- 
stitutes the most difficult part of the art of shoeing, and 
from neglecting this precaution, shoes of the best form 
have often occasioned lameness. 

If we examine the foot of a hundred colts, it will be 
found that more than ninety of thejn are of the same form; 
it is true that some may have grown more luxuriantly 
than others, whereby tiie crust will be deeper, and the bot- 
tom part may liave been partially broken, so as to give 
the foot a ragged and uneven appeai-ance, still the essen- 
tial ahape is the same, and when this superfluous horn has 
been removed, it will be found that the bottoni of the foot 
will be nearly circular, tbe sole concave, the bars distinct, 
the frog and heels open arid expanded. 

In preparing a horse's foot for the shoe, the lower part 
is to be reduced, when luxuriant, which is generally the 
case, more particularly at the toe, and this is to be done 
by means of a buttress or rasp : the loose scaly parts of 
the sole are likewise to be removed, so as to preserve its 
contavity, and the small cavity is to be made with a 



il4 ANATOMY OF THE HOESE= 

drawing knife, between the bar and crust, to prevent 
the shoe from pressing on that part, and occasioning 
corns : it is however necessary in doing this, to take par- 
ticular care that the connection between the bar and crust 
is not destroyed or weakened, which would of course ren- 
der the bar useless. 

The junction of the bar and crust aflords a firm bear- 
ing for the heel of the shoe, and is to be rasped perflectly 
flat, and so low as to be exactly on a level with the frog^ 
that they may bear equally on a plane surface, before the 
shoe is applied j indeed, the whole of the bottom of the 
crust is to be made perfectly fiat and even at the same time 
with the rasp, that the shoe may bear equally on every 
part of it ; farriers should never be allowed to do this by 
means of a hot shocy which is too frequently the case. If 
any ragged parts are observed in the frog, they are to be 
carefully removed with a knife, for, if suffered to remain, 
ihej might afford a lodgement for dirt and gravel. Thus 
do we prcpjire a foot for the shoe, and to a foot of this de- 
scription, meaning one that is sound and perfect, or that 
lias not suffered any material alteration in its form from 
improper shoeing, a shoe of the following description is to 
be applied. Thetoe of the shoe for a middle sized horse 
intended for active service is about an inch in width, and 
a quarter of an inch in depth or thickness ; the heels about 
lialf an inch in width, and barely three eighths in depth = 
the wearing part of the toe is best to be made of steel, and 
the nails ought to be brought very near to the toe, but not 
quite round it ; for when that is done, there must also h6 
,p. groove made, which considerably weakens that part, and 
almost all horses wear principally at the toe, no nail? 



d.N THE PEACTlfcE OF SHOEING. iiS- 

Must \)t put near the heels. Both surfaces of the shoe 
must be perfectly flat, and the heel of the shoe rest upon 
the junction of the bar and crust, beyond which it should 
never extend. 

, It will be supposed, perhaps, that a shoe which is flat or 
the surface next tlie foot, will be apt to produce lame- 
ness by pressing on the sole ; but let it be recollected, 
that this shoe is recommended only for k sound foot, in 
which the sole is always a little concave, so that it can- 
not possibly receive any pressure from a flat shoe ; it may 
be said also, that when the nails are placed far from the 
heels, the shoe will not be sufficiently secure, and will be. 
frequently loosened ; but as tlie shoe bears equally on ev- 
ery part of the crust, this objection cannot have any 
weight ; it must be granted, however, that wlien a foot is 
pared in the common way, that is, when the heels have 
heen opened, and the shoe So applied, that nearly an inch 
ef the heel has no bearing upon the crust ; that if the 
nails were placed so far from the heels, as before recom- 
mended, the shoe would be very insecure, for as nrtuch of 
it as Ijas no bearing upon the crust, would operate occa- 
sionally as a lever in raising the nails, and consequently 
the shoe would frequently be loosened. Farriet-s there- 
fore find it necessary, when the foot has been thus pared, 
and the shoe applied in this way, to place the nails in the 
quarters, by which the shoe is certainly rendered more 
secure than it would be, had it been placed nearer the toe. 
Many disadvantages, however, attend this method. la 
the first place, by placing the nails in the quarters, they 
prove a considerable obstacle to the expansion of the heels, 
and as the crust is generally much thinner at the q«ar^ 



116 ON THE PRACTICE OF SH0E1N<&, 

ters than at the toe, the sensible parts are more iiabie to 
be wounded ; but tins docs not apply to ttie hind feet, iu 
which the crust of the quarters is generally thicker than 
that of the toe. ^^ hen a horse over-reaclies, if any part 
of the shoe has no bearing upon the crust, it is very 
liable to be struck by the toe of the hind foot, and shoes 
are often forced off in this way ; to this may be added, 
the insecurity of such a shoe When a horse is rode on 
deep or heavy ground. 

It will probably be observed of the shoe here recom ' 
mended, that it is inconsistent with the principle which 
has been laid down respecting the necessity of the frog's 
receiving pressure. It is an incontrovertible fact, that 
unless the frog receives a certain degree of pressure, it 
will becojne soft and incapable of affording sufficient 
protection to the sensible frog which it Covers ; that the 
heels will gradually contract, and Ihe natural form of the 
foot will be destroyed; for it has been proved by experi- 
ment, that the bars alone are not sufficient to prevent con- 
traction, though they certainly oppose it with considera'' 
ble force ; but it does not follow from this, that it is neces- 
sary for the pressure to be constant, nor is it believed that 
a shoe which allows the frog to bear upon the ground , 
when the horse stands upon a plane hard surface, can 
be always applied, even to sound feet, without inconveni» 
ence ; there is no doubt that a liorse in a state of nature 
has his frog almost always in contact with the ground ^ 
and then of course he feels no inconvenierice from it; but 
when burthens are placed upon bis back, and he is driv- 
en about upon hard roads, he is certainly in very differ 
ent circumstances; and if the frog in such cases were con- 



JN THE PBACTieE OT SHOEING, 117 

stantly exposed to this sev ere pressure, it woulil no doubt 
occasion lameness. 

When a shoe is applied agreeable to the foregoing di* 
vections, the frog would be raised three-eighths of an inch 
from the ground; that when the horse is going upon a 
hard surface, where he would be most liable to feel incon- 
venience from the pressure on the frog, it receives none ; 
but upon soft yielding ground the frog certainly receives 
pressure, and without giving the animal any pain. To a 
horse that travels or works regularly, and is occasionally 
taken upon soft ground, tiie pressure therefore that the 
frog receives in this way, is quite sufficient to preserve 
the foot in a state of health ; but when a horse is kept al- 
most constantly in the stable, standing upon hot litter, 
particularly in hot and dry weather, his feet will certain- 
ly be undergoing an alteration in their form, an,d will be 
in a progressive state towards disease. 

In those cases, however, contraction of the hoof may be 
effectually prevented by means of the patent artificial frog, 
invented by Mr. Coleman.* By this ingenious contri- 
vance, a horse's frog may receive sufficient pressure, in 
whatever circumstances he may be placed, to prevent con- 
traction, and keep the foot sound and healthy, without the 
inconvenience of wearing thin heeled shoes; but it must 
be remembered that whenever the frog is much exposed 
to pressure, whether it be by applying the patent frog, or 
by the thin heeled shoe, and reducing the crust at the 
heels, it is necessary that the quarters and heels should 
possess a proper degree of pliancy ; if they are rigid and 



"•Professor of the Veterinary College, 



li& ON THE PRACTICE OF SHOEING. 

inflexible, it is evident that the sensible frog and cartila- 
ges would be placed between two fixed points, and theijj 
would consequently be bruised and inflamed. Indeed mai 
jiy cases of lameness are produced in this way ; whenevev 
thfr hopf appears to be too dry and brittle, or to have lost 
its natural plasticity, it is necessary to rasp the quarters 
and ^0 keep the whole hoof moist, either by applying se- 
veral folds of flannel round the coronet, constantly wetted, 
pr by making the horse stand in w'lter or soft clay four or 
jpve hours during the day; by these means the natural 
flexibility of the horn would be restored, and the heels and 
iquarters would yield in a small degree^ whenever th^i 
Jiqrse's weight was thrown upon the frog. 

Having said as much as appears to be requisite of the 
jnethod of shoeing a sound foot, and having also describe^ 
those diseases of the foot which render a different kind of 
shoe necessary, we would proceed to observe. In the 
iirst place it will be proper to say, that when a horse, 
even with a sound foot, has worn shoes that are very thick, 
or turned up at the heels, particularly if at the same time 
the crust at the heels bas been suffered to grow so high that 
the frog is kept at a considerable distance from the ground, 
^t would be very improper to reduce the heels suddenly, so 
as to allow the frog to receive pres?«ure ; the back sinews 
would in that case be injured, and lameness might ensue. 
In feet of this description, it is necessary to remove from 
the toe all that can be done without exposing the part too 
much, and to lower the heels gradually ; the toe of the shoe 
§hould be made rather thin, and of the best steel. 

The shoes for draught horses should be made flat on 
both surfaces, provided the sole is of a proper form and 



BITEEDING hc. H^ 

thickness, but if flat or convex, and consequently too thin, 
which is often th^ case in horses of this description, the in^ 
teriial surface of the shoe must be concave ; still the exter- 
nal surface should be flat, for the convex slioe, which is 
commonly used for drauglit horses, prevents them from 
treading securely, and renders them incapable oi exert- 
ing the whole of their strength. 

Shoes for draught horses that seldom go out of a walk, 
should be much stronger than those for horses cni{)loyi- 
ed in active service, and may be turned up or raised at the 
t;oe and heels with advantage, when the ground is frozen. 



CHAPTER IX, 

Memarks and directions cjoncernin^ Bleeding. 

This operation is frequently necessary in the diseases 
of horses, and is performed either with a lancet or fleme, 
in the neck vein. 

The blood should always be preserved, that the qiiantity 
drawn may be accurately known, and that its quality 
may be ascertained. If, after it has coagulated, a white, 
or rather a light buff" coloured jelly, is found on tlie sur- 
face, an inflammatory state of the body is indicated ; hut 
in order to render this criterion useful, the blood must not 
be taken from too small an orifice, nor should it be suf- 
fered to run down the sides of the vessel which receives it 

Blood drawn from a healthy horse very soon coagu- 



120 BLEEDING &€. 

lates, and appears like an uniformly red jelly with a smali 
quantity of fluid, resfembling water, floating on its sur- 
face; this red jelly may by washing be rendered of a light 
buff colour, and exactly resembles the buff or size, as it 
is termed, of inflamed blood. The most healthy blood, 
therefore, contains tliis size, and tiie cause of its not be- 
ing conspicuous in such blood, is that coagulation takes 
place before the red colouring matter can have time to 
separate from it; but as blood that is drawn from an ani- 
mal labouring under general mfiainmation or fever, al- 
ways preserves its fluidity much longer than healtliy 
blood, and as the red colouriug particles are specifically 
heavier than the fluid with which they arc mixed, they 
wiii of course be gradually subsiding as long as tiie mass 
continues fluid, leaving a coat of buff coloured jelly on 
the surface. 

It has been observed before, that healthy blood, whejii 
suffered to coagulate, appears to consist of two parts: the 
red jelly, termed crassainentnm; and the water, or scrum^ 
and that the former may afterwards be separated by wash- 
ing into two parts, viz. the red colouring paijticles, or red 
globules^ as they are termed by anatomists, and buff co« 
loured jelly, or coagulahle lymph. Tlie proportion which 
these component parts of the blood bear to each otherj 
seems to depend upon the state of the system at the time 
it is drawn. When the body is healthy and vigorous, we 
find but little serum; when it is preternaturally excited, or 
in a state of inflammation, tlsere is still less; and when th? 
animal is weak and debilitated, there is generally an 
abundance of serum. Another circumstance to be attend- 
ed to in examining blood J is the firmness er tenacity of the 



:iJLEEDING &€. \^l 

coagulum.— In health the blood \vhen drawn and sufiercd 
to coagulate, is of a moderately firm consistence, and ea- 
sily broken; but when the system is highly excited, as in 
«;eneral inflammation, so great is the tenacity of the mass^ 
that the finger can scarcely penetrate it ; on the other 
hand, when the powers of life arc weak, as iu the latter 
stage of symptomatic feyer, the blood almost loses its 
]power of coagulating. The necessity of examining blood 
that is drawn from the diseased horse must be obvious, 
as it assists in forming a judgment of the nature of the 
disease, and points out the proper remedies. When blood 
exhibits buff on its surface, particularly if at the same 
time the coagulum is firm and solid, wc may be certain 
that the complaint is inflammatory, and that bleeding 
may be repeated with advantage. It on the other hand 
the mass of blood is wanting in tenacity, and has more 
serum than usual, we may safely conclude that the sys- 
tem is in a state of debility, and consequimtly that bleed- 
ing is highly improper. 

Incases of symptomatic fever it will generally be ne- 
cessary to take away four or five quarts of blood at the 
first bleeding; even six quarts have been taken with 
manifest advantage. It is at this period of the disease 
(its commencement) that copious bleeding is particularly 
useful; and it is froui an absurd prejudice that obtains 
againstthis practice, that So many horses are destroyed 
by such fevers. It is truly laughable to hear a groom or 
quack farrier pronouncing, with an affectation of uner- 
ring sagacity upon the qualities of blood, frequently ob- 
serving that it is too hot, and that consequently the horse 
must jiavc a fever : or that it is too ^ark coloured, and 



i2& BLEEDING, &C. 

t!ierefore foul, or that it is too thick, and consequent!!^ 
unfit for circulation ,• it is said to be full of humours. TV ith 
i*espect to the heat of the blood it will be sufficient to ob- 
serve that it preserves nearly the same temperature while 
<iirculating in the body, whether the animal be an inhabi- 
tant of the most sultry or the coldest country, whether in 

liealth or in the highest fever. 

As to the colour of the blood while flowing from the 

body, it may be either red or of a dark colour, as the ope- 
jator pleases, for pressing on the vein for a short time be- 
fore the orifire is made, it may always be made to appear 
of a dark colour. The opinion that blood sometimes be- 
comes thick or viscid in the body^ was Supported by many 
respectable philosophers, but is now universally abandon- 
ed, because it has been proved to be erroneous. 

It is a bad practice to bleed horses frequently when 
there is no urgent occasion, as they thereby acquire a 
plethbric habit, and iiidess the operation be regularly per- 
fbrnicd and gradually increased in frequency, trouble- 
some diseases might ensue. Horses of a full habit, that 
are consequently liable to inflammatory complaints, will 
receive most benefit from moderate, but long continued 
exercise, and good grooming. \Mien bleeding is per- 
formed for the cure of important inflammatory diseases, a 
large orifice should be made in the vein, and the blood 
drawn in a large stream, as we thereby diminish the ac- 
tion of the heart and arteries much more readily than if 
it w ere draw n slowly from a small orifice. In cases of 
external and circumscribed inflammation, topical bleed- 
ing is eminejitly useful, which is done by opening some 
veins contieuous to the affected part, or by scarifying the 
inflamed surface. 



1^ 



CHAPTER ic 
Semarks and directions concerning Physic. 

In purging horses great care and attentioft are necesi 
iary, their bowels being particularly irritable, and liable 
to inila,a!iiati<)n. Tiie piiysic commonly given is certain- 
ly to.» sti'ong, and inany aorses have been destroyed by 
the imiij-jJerate doacH that nave been recommended by 
Writers on iari;ery ; when this happens, the mischief is 
generally atti'ibated to the coarseness or impurity of the 
medicine, and t-.iu (ii'.ig^ist is undeservedly censured. 

When time and cii*cu\nstanccs will allow, it is advisear 
ble to prepare a h(n'se for pbysic by giving him bran 
mashes for a day or two ; this m ill gently relax the bow- 
els, and remove any indurated fceces that may be lodged 
in them; it will also tend to facilitate the operation of the 
medicine. 

When a horse is purged for the first time, it is prudent to 
give a very modei-ate dose. Were the common quajitity gi- 
ven to one of weak, irritable bowels, there would be danger, 
not only of producing great debility, and thereby of coun 
teracting the intention of the medicine, but likewise o& 
destroying the animal, by bringing on an inflammation of 
the bowels ; and this is by no means an unfrequent oc- 
currence. — Should the first ball not operate sufficiently, a 
stronger may be given after an interval of a few days. 

The morning is the best time for giving a purgative, 
the horse having previously fasted two or three hours, M 



1£4 PHYSIC, kt. 

he is disposed to drink after taking the hall, give a modc'' 
rate quantity of warm water, which will promote its so- 
lution in the stomach, and consequently expedite the ope- 
ration : during this day tlie horse is to he kept in the 
stahle, and led with hran niashes and a moderate quan- 
tity of hay ; he may he allowed also to drink plentifully 
of warm water ; and if he refuses it in this state, let it he 
offered nearly, but not entirely cold. The following morn- 
ing he is to be moderately exercised until gentle perspi- 
ration is produced, and at this tim« the medicine will ge- 
nef ally begin to operate. Should the purging appear to 
be sufficient, he need not be taken out a second time ; but 
when the desired effect does not readily take place, trot- 
ting exercise will tend to promote it ; during this day also 
he is to he carefully supplied with hran mashes aild warm 
water ; warm clothing, (if the weather is cold) more par- 
ticularly wh«n out of the stable, must not be omitted ; 
the next day the purging will generally have ceased, anft 
then a small quantity of oats may be added to his mash. 
When physic does not operate at the usual time, the horse 
appearing sick and griped, relief may generally be obtain, 
ed by giving a clyster of water gruel, and making hiiii 
drink freely of w arm water. When the purging continues 
longer tlian usual, and the horse appears to he consi- 
derably weakened by the evacuation, let the astringent 
ball be given. 

It will be observed, perhaps, tliat some ingredients, com- 
monly thought necessary in physic, have been omitted in 
the following formulse. — These medicines have been pro- 
ved, ho\vev(^, to be perfectly useless. J alap, though given 
to the amount of four ounces, will produce very little purgs.- 
• ^^ "■ 



PHYSIC, &,c. 125 

iivt effect upon a horse, nor will cream of tartar; rhubarb, 
however large the dose, will not operate as a purgative, tho' 
it may be useful in moderate doses as a stomachic. 

PHYSIC. JVo. 1. Succotrine aloes, 5 dr. Prepared na 
tron, 2 dr. Aromatic powder, 1 dr. Oil of carraways, 1 
drops. 

Syrup or molasses enough to form the ball ; one dose. 
fHow to be given.* J 

JVo. 2. Succotrine aloes, 7 dr. Castile soap, \ 07.. 
J*owdered ginger, 1 dr. Oil of caraways, 10 drops. 

Syrup enough to form the ball; one dose. 

JVo. 3. Succotrine aloes, 1 oz. Prepared nati'on, 2 dr. 
Aromatic powder, 1 dr. Oil of anise-seed, 10 drops. 

Syrup enough to form the ball for one dose. 

JVo. 4. One pint or 20 oz. of castor oil is also a «afe 
and excellent purge, or 1 | pint of linseed oil. 

(J;J° The ball. No. 2, is generally found sufficient for 
strong horses, and there is scarcely ever occasion to go 
farther than No. 3. Should any one, however, be desirous 
of stronger medicine, it may readily be procured by adding 
1 or 2 drachms of aloes, or 1 drachm of calomel to the 
ball No. 3; hut it is proper to observe, that there may be 
some danger in making tiie addition. 

fCj^ Cold water must never be given after purgative, 
medicine, nor until it has entirely worked off. 

Mode|^te exercise until a gentle perspiration is produ- 
ced, the next morning, or twenty-four hours after the 
purge is given, will assist the ojjeration much. 

*iinF,ycH. — The best method of administeiing a drench or any liquid 
jTiedicine, is by means of a claret, or any other bottle with a long neck; 
the liquid being first put into the bottle, the neck is to be introduced 



t^S BITTRETICS, TOMENTATIOIfS, ^Cs 

CHAPTER XL 

Remarks and directions concerning^ Diuretics^ Fomenlationi, 
Po2iltices, Rowels, Pulse and Ciy tiers, ^c, 

1. Diuretics. These are medicines which by gtimulat' 
ing the kidneys, incre^ise the secretion of urine. The 
following formulae I have found both convenient and effi- 
cacious. 

M). 1. — Castile soap, 4 oz. Powdered rosin and ni- 
tre, of each, 2 oz. Oil of juniper, | oz. 

Linseed powder or any flour and syrup enough to give 
it a proper consistent t, to be divided into six balls fo?" 
f trong, or eight for weak delicate horses. 

JVb. 2. — Castile soap, 4 oz. Venice turpentine, 2 oz» 

Powdered anise-seed enough to give it a proper con- 
sistence, to be divided into six balls. 

Fomentations are commonly made by boiling worm- 
wood, southernwood, camomile, and bay leaves in water' 
so as to make a strong decoction, v.hich being strained off, 
is to be applied as hot as it can be, without giving pain to 
the animal, by means of large flannel cloths. — The effica- 
cy of fomentations depends in a great measure on their 
use being continued for a considerable time together, and 
lieing frequently repeated. 



as far into the moutli of the horse as possible and the contents discharg- 
ed, his head is at the same time to be held so high with a bridle as to 
prevent his throwing out an} ofthehquid; the under jaw and tongue 
must be left at hberty or he cannot conveniently swallow. — When _a 
ball is given, the same method must be observed as to holding up his 



illUEETICS, FOMENT ATIOXS, 8iC. ISHf 

Foultke, The following mixture will be found useful 
as a common poultice ; fine bran one quart ; pour on it a 
sufficient quantity of boiling water, to make a thin paste, 
to this add of linseed powder or boiled linseed, enough to 
give it proper consistence. 

Rowels, When these are used with a view of relieving 
internal inflammation or fever, it will be found useful to 
apply blistering ointment instead of turpentine, or the di- 
gestive commonly made use of, for this Mill produce a 
considerable degree of inflammation in a short time. 

Pulse. In the management of sick horses, great advan- 
tage may be dei ived from attending to the state of the 
pulse, as we are thereby enabled to judge of the degree or 
violence of the disease, and the probability there may be 
of recovery : we are in some measure assisted also by it, 
in ascertaining the nature of the complaint, and in the ap- 
plication of remedies. 

In a healthy horse the pulsations are about S6 or 40 in 
a minute, and may be felt very distinctly either on the left 
side, or in an artery wiiich passes over the lower jaw bone ; 
in short, a pulsation may be felt in every superficial artery. 
When the brain is oppressed, the pulse generally becomes 
unusually slow : in a case of water in the brain, the pulse 
has been known to fall to twenty three in a minute ; in the 
progress of the disease, however, it became unusually 
quick. 

When a horse appears rather dull, and docs not feed 
properly, it is adviseablc to examine t'le pulse; and if it is 
found to exceed the standard of hcaltii, immediate recourse 
should he had to bleeding: by this timely interference many 
dangerous coraplaints may be prevented. When the pulse 



128 ON A JOURNEY &C. 

rises to 80 or 90 in a minute, there is reason to be appre- 
hensive of danger; and when it exceeds 100, the disease 
frequently terminates in death. 

Clysters. A variety of compositions have been recom- 
mended for clysters by those who have written on the 
subject, there being scarcely an article in the Materia Me- 
dica that has not been occasionally employed in this way. 
It is ascertained, however, from considerable experience, 
that for a common clyster, water-gruel is as efficacious as 
the most elaborate composition ; when that cannot he rea- 
dily procured, warm wati ? has been used without per- 
ceiving any difference in the effect. Where a purgative 
clyster is required, from four to eight ounces of common 
salt may be added ; and if an anodyne be wanted, or an 
astringent, let half an ounce of opium be dissolved in a 
quart of water-gruel. If a clyster is employed for the 
purpose of emptying the large intestines, or of purging, 
the quantity of liquid should not be less than a gallon or 
six quarts ; but when it is used as an anodyne or astrin- 
gent, from a quart to three pints of the liquid will bt 
sufficient — given as a drench. 



CHAPTER, XIL 

Farther advice, on the management of a Horse preparatorij 
tOy and during a journey. 

Previous to setting out on a journey, your horse sliould 
be exercised one hour every morning and evening in the 
gait in which he is intended to be used, for eight or ten 



ijN A JOURNEY &Co ISf 

iiays at least). and every precaution should be employed 
to b-ring liim into as perfect a state of health as possible, 
as you may thereby avoid much trouble and inconve- 
nience ; should he be at all subject to grease or swelling 
of the legs, a dose of physic is to be recommended, taking 
care to preserve the heels clean, and to keep up a brisk 
circulation in the legs by frequent hand rubbing ; should 
the feet of the horse be tender, it is necessary to enquire 
into tlie cause of the tenderness ; if it arises from corns, 
let the directions be followed tliat are given under that 
head ; if it proceeds from AM and thin soles, apply tar to 
them, and let tiie horse stand upon a flat surface, without 
shoes, by which means tliey will be rendered thicker and 
more firm : and when he is rode, let the concave shoe be 
made use of. When thrushes or rottenness of the frog 
are the cause of the tenderness, cut away the diseased 
parts, apply tar with, a pledget of tow, first pouring in 
oil of turpentine, and upon this place an artificial frog — 
tiie natural frog w ill in consequence sooh become firm and 
bolid, and the tenderness will be in a great measure re- 
moved : if the thrushes are occasioned by a contraction of 
the heels, which is frequently the case, it will then be ne- 
cessary to rasp tlie quarters moderatelyj and should they 
appear to be too strong, wanting a proper degree of elas- 
iicity, keep the luiof constantly moist- Horses that tra- 
vel during tlic winter arc very liable to have their heels 
inflamed and cracked, as it is termed, unless great atten- 
tion is paid to them in the stable. In cases where the 
, heels aiv. already thus affected, they should be washed 
with moderately warm soap suds as s^on as the horse 
gets in, and afterwards carefnlly wiped dry with a cloth j 



150 ox A JOUKKJEiY &C. 

if much inflamed the astringent lotion may be applied, 6r 
strong soap suds will answer : and if there be any idcerS 
or cracks, use the gun powder ointment twice a day at 
least, (see gi ease or scratches) and if the horse can be 
permitted to stand for a couple of days, give him half a 
pound of salts in about two quarts of water. 

Particular attention should be paid to your saddle, (if the 
horse is to be rode,) taking care that it is well fitted to his 
back, with a good solt woollen pad, and stuffed to prevent 
any bearing upon the chine or back bone. When you are 
mounted, there must be sufficient room to introduce your 
finger betv/een the saddle and the chine or back bone 
of the horse, before and behind; the pad ought to be beat 
with a stick every two or three days to prevent it becom^ 
iag hard, 

A soft blanket folded and placed under the saddle in cool 
weather, lias a tendency to preserve the horse's back, but 
it is too heating in w arm. 

Your first d'ay's journey, (if you have a long one to per- 
form) ought not to exceed twenty miles, which may be in- 
creased daily from five to ten miles, but should never ex- 
feeed, except in cases of real necessity, forty miles in one 
day; nor should you ever travel at a gait exceeding five 
miles an hour, and even less when the roads are not good, 

A traveller that has industry enough to start early in 
the morning, and patience enough to jog on at this mo- 
derate gait, will m all probability get over 75 to 100 miles 
more in the course of a fortnight, than he would do if more 
speed were attempted ; besides the advantage of preserv- 
ing his horse in a condition capable of continuing his 
journey to almost any extent; while on the contrary a» 



ON A JOURK^EY, &C. 131 

stitemj)! at more speed would most probably' be productive 
<>f lameness, sore back, founder, or some other casualty 
still more fatal. 

It is adviseable, except in very cold or stormy weather, 
lo start very earh in tlie morning, and travel eight or ten 
miles before you feed or bi-eakfast ; this will enable you 
to give your horse several hours rest at different periods 
through the day, which will be of essential benefit to him, 
and yet afford you sufficient time to make your day's 
journey good. At your first stage in the morning after 
your horse is well washed down and cool, feed with four 
quarts of oats : again in the middle of the day with about 
six, and at night with six, eight, or ten, or as much as he 
will eat, given at different times in the course of the even- 
ing, always sprinkled with water, if oats can be had, ne- 
ver feed with Indian corn, or any other grain; but if you 
arc necessitated to do so, the quantity must be reduced one 
half, or one third at least, and given but in small portions 
at a time. 

A horse ought to cat at least from sixteen to twenty 
quarts of oats per day, otlicrvvise he will not, nor cannot, 
perform a long journey. Clean fresh hay, and a little 
water, should be given as often as you stop, 

Ne^ er trust to ostlers when you are on a journey. It is 
essentially necessary that you personally see to the clean- 
ing, watering, feeding, and littering of your horse, other- 
wise you will in all probability soon be necessitated to hire, 
<»r purchase another, or abandon your journey. 

Should your horse lose his appetite, give him half an 
ounce of salt-petre in a bran mash once or twice. This, 

with a little rest, will soon recover him. 

R 



'13^ ON A JOTJBNEY, kc-c 

Should you be so unfortunate as to have your hors® 
foundered, by injudicious feeding, or ^vate^ir!g, before lio 
is sutliciently cool, which is always to he apprehended 
when you feed on Indian corn, or any other .erain exrtpt 
oats; it is adviseable on the first appearance of founder, 
to take two quarts oi" bloi.d from the neck, and also bleed 
iii two places (in each foot) in the coronet or upper edge 
of the hoof, about one inch each v\ ay from the centre, and 
if it is possible to get him out of the stable, force him to 
take exercisej which is of all others, the most efficacious 
remedy ; an<l if persevered in, how ever crueJ and painful it 
may appear to be, seldon- or never fails to carry off the com» 
plaint in a short time, esi)ccially if the founder or stiffness 
is not very severe. But should it be found impracticable 
to move the Itorse out of the stable, which is sometimes 
the case, he must be bled as before directed, and bran poul- 
tices applied to his legs and feet, kept constantly wet \Aitb 
cold water, and one of the following purges must be given. 

JV1>. 1. Mix S ft coap, I pint/ Beer or porter, 1| pint. 
Add a handftil of fine .salt. 

If beer or porter cannot be had, substitute a pint of mo- 
lasses. 

If this dose does not operate in ten or twelve hours, 
•specially if the horfee can be exercised, it may be repealed. 
(To be given the same as a drench.) 

JVo. 2. Castor oil 1 pint, or Linseed oil, 1 f pint. 

The latter will not operate so quick as the former; pro= 
bably in not less than double the time, say in about twenty 
four hours ; either of which, however, ought to be assisted 
by exercise if possible; clysters of three quarts of warm 
■water, flaxseed tea, or water gruel, ought also to be given. 



ON A JOUK'NEY, &Cc 13S 

l^nd repeated if nectssiiry, witli a handful of fine salt iu. 
ill eitiier. While the stifl'iiess continues, tiic horse should 
be led upon bran mashes, with a small quantity of outs 
gdded, and be allowed but little water, and tliat not en» 
tireiy cold. Exercise must on no account be omitted. 

VV hen a horse's wind appears to be imperiect, he should 
jiot be allowed to till himself with hay or watei-, and must 
te prevented from eating his litter, which horses of this 
description £^re generally inclined to do, particularly when 
atinted in hay : in this case costiveness sometimes occurs, 
Wiiich always increases the complaint; to remedy this, let 
a clyster and a few bran mashes be given; too higli feed- 
ing is also very prejudicial in those complaints, as any 
thing which t<Mjds to create a plethora, and determine too 
much blood to the lungs, is sure to aggravate the disease^ 
To a horse that purges or scours in travelling, and ap- 
pears faint, (s V 'at^ng much with moderate excrci>!e) give 
the cordial bail, the efficacy of which is sometimes in- 
creased by being mixed with a pint of ale or strong beer; 
if the complaint iloes not give way to thi? treatment, let 
jthe astringent ball be given. As soon as a horse corner 
into the stable, let his legs and feet be well cleaned by 
was ling, as it cannot effectually be <lone otherwise. It is 
^ very common practice with ostlers, even in winter, to 
^ie the horse up in the yard, that he may undergo the ce- 
re iiony of having his heels washed with cold water; this 
is very proper iii warm weather, but should never be per- 
mitted when co'd, as many bad consequences may arise 
^ro n it; but washing with warm water is highly commen- 
dable. During hot weather, when the roads are dry and 
4usty, idlovv a horse to rest a few minutes every six or 



1S4 ON A JOXTRNEY, &C. 

eight miles, and to drink a small quantity of water,- this 
not only refreshes him considerably, but has the useful ef- 
fect of cooling and moistening his hoofs, if he is permitted 
to stand in the water while drinking, (if not they should 
be wet by the ostler) nor is there the least danger to be ap- 
prehended from it, unless he is rode very hard immediately 
before or after drinking. In winter he should never be 
tak«n into the water if it can be avoided conveniently. 
Some horses are particularly subject to the flatulent cho- 
lic or gripes ; this is often the case with crib-biters ; on 
such occasions it is adviseable to be alwajs provided wit|i 
a remedy, and as a ball is the most convenient form, I have 
given a recipe for the purpose (see flatulent cholic or 
gripes.) For want of the ball or some of the prescriptions 
for that complaint, (but not otherwise) give three gills of 
gin or any other ardent spirits diluted with an equal quan- 
tity of warm water. Should the pain not subside in half 
an hour, repeat the dose and give copious clysters of v.ater 
gruel or warm water, and bleed from two to three quarts. 
A suppression of urine or great difliculty and pain in stal- 
ing, is an accident that sometimes occurs iji travelling; 
and in such cases a diuretic ball is commonly given, which 
though sometimes successful, has often done mischief. 
The most effectual way of relieving the horse, in this case 
also, is by throwing up a clyster,* and bleeding moderate. 
ly : should there be no appearance of inflammation in the 

* CLYSTER. — The method of administering a ciyster, is by 

Uhsans of a large bladder (to be softened by putting it into 

warm water before it is used) and a pewter pipfe or common 

reed, or indeeei any other tube nine or ten inches in length, 

which is »ot more than about one inch in diameter. The neck 



ON A JOUBXET, &C. 1S5 

kidneys, a dose of nitre may also be given. The com- 
mon practice of loading a horse with clothes, and keep- 
ing him in a close warm stable, if he happens to take 
cold during a Journey, is certainly improper, since he is 
liable to be frequently exposed to wet and cold in iravel- 
ling; it is a well-known fact, that animals are not hurt 
by being kept in any uniform temperature, whether it be 
hot or cold ; and that their diseases more commonly arise 
from sudden changes, or frequent variation of tempera- 
ture. 

When a horse becomes suddenly iame in travelling, let 
the feet be carefully examined. Should the lameness be 
occasioned by a wound from a nail or flint, apply oil of 
turpentine, tincture of Myrrh, or Fryar's balsam, having 
previously removed all dirt or gravel from it; and if the 
wound has been inflicted with a nail, let it be carefully 
opened to the bottom with a small drawiug knife, and 
proper means used to prevent dirt from getting to it. 

Siiould the back of your horse get sore by saddle galls, 
or other ittflamed tumors, wash the part affected with crude 
sal. ammoniac dissolved in vinegar or water; or with any 
ardent spirits alone, which must be done very frequently 



of the bladder should be cut ofT, and after the clyster is put 
into it through a funnel, it must be securely tied round one 
end of the tube; the other end after being made smooth, is to 
be well oiled and then introduced several inches into tlie 
anus; the liquid in the bladder is to be forced through tlie 
tube by pressure with the hand. 

When the clisteris given the horse should be placed wilii 
his hind parts much the highest, and if he v.ill not stand, a 
twitch should be put upon his nose. 



iS6 ON A JOURNEY, &C. 

to prevent matter forming; in which case, the sore will bt» 
more troublesome and difiicult to heal. You n.ust als©^ 
take special care to prevent any friction or bearing of th© 
pad 01 tlie saddle upon the tumor, which may be eft'ectually 
done by cutting a small slit or hole in that part of tlie pad 
whicli bears imir.ediately upon the tumor, and pull out so, 
much of the stuffing as will prevent any bearing ; this may 
be done without any essential injury to the pad, and eveia 
in various places if necessary. 

Cordial baits. JS% I.— Cummin-seeds, Anise-f^eeds, 
Caraway seeds, of each, 4 oz. Ginger £ oz. 

Treacle or molasses enough to make it of a propej" 
consistence for balls. The dose about 2 ounces. 

A'o. £.---Anni8e-seeds, Caraway-seeds, Sweet Fennel- 
seeds, and Liquorice Powder, of each, 4 oz. Ginger and 
Cassia, of each, 1| oz. Honey enough to form them in- 
to a mass. The dose about 2 oz. 

JVb. 5. — Cummin-seeds, Coriander seeds, Caraw ay» 
seeds, of each, 4 oz. Grains of Paradise, 1 oz. Casf-ia, 
I oz, Cai'damon-seeds and Saffron, of each 2 dr. Li- 
quorice, dissolved in white wine, 4 oz. Syrup of Saffron 
enough to form the mass. The dose about 2 oz. 

JVo. 4. — Powdered ginger, 4 oz„ Oil of caraways, 1 oz» 
Litjuorice powder, 8 oz. Treacle enough to form th^ 
mass. 

ALTERATIVES. 

These are medicines which produce their effects almost 
insensibly ; the following formulae will be found effica^ 
eious : 

Mterative Powders, JVo. 1. — Levigated antimony, 6 o^» 
Flower of sulphur, 8 oz. Mix for eight doses= 



CONDITION or THE ItoaaEo 1^?* 

JVb. 2. Powdered Rosin, 4 oz. Nitre, S oz. Tarta- 

rized Antimony, I oz. Mix for eight doses. 

JVb. 3.^Un\vashed Calx of Antimony 2 oz. Calomel, 
2dr. Powdered Anise-seeds, 4 oz. Mix for eight doses. 

Should a ball be thought more convenient than a pow- 
der, the ehange may be easily made by the addition of sy- 
3rup and Unseed powder, or any kind of flour or ineal* 



CHAPT^IR XIIL 



CONDITION. 

By the term condition is tc be understood not only a fat 
and sleek appearance in 'i horse, it implies also a proper 
degree of vigour, by which he is enabled to perform ex- 
traordinary labour, witliout being too much fatigued. Ev- 
ery defect with respect to condition miist originate either 
in disease or in bad grooming. Under the latter head must 
be compreliended feeding, exercise, and the general man- 
agement of the stabler ; the former will include various 
disorders, which will be concisely described, and the most 
effectual means pointed out for their removal. 

In treating of the anatomy and physiology of the inter- 
nal organs, an explanation has been given of that curious 
process by which the body is nourished, and enabled to 
perform its Various functions with regularity : from thence 
it will appear that the fidlowing circumstances are ne- 
cessa'-y to produce that degree of vigour and general 
healthiness of appearance which constitute good condition. 



135 coKDiTioisr or the house. 

1-st. That there is no impediment to mastication.— It 
sometimes happen that the molar teeth or grinders wear 
so irregularly as to have sharp edges, by which the in- 
side of the cheek is wounded: the pain which the act 
of chewing occasions in this case, induces the horse to 
swallow some part of the food unbroken, which being dif- 
licult of digestion, frequently passes through the body 
unchanged. This complaint may be removed by rasp- 
ing down the sharp edges of thte teeth. 

Tl)e lampas is said to be another impodiment to feed- 
ing (sec lampas,) and are theiefore removed with a red 
hot iron. This operation is certaiidy performed much of- 
tener than is necessary^ 

£d. That the saliva which is formed in the mouth pas- 
ses into the stomach : this juice being designed by nature 
to assist the stomach in its office of digestion. Horses 
that have acquired the vicious habit termed crib-hiting^ 
feififlcr great inconvenience from the waste of saliva which 
it occasions; the stomach being in a great measure depriv- 
ed of this liquid, performs its fur.ctions imperfectly ; hence 
arise flatulent cholic or gripes, general emaciation and 
delibity. The remedy commonly employed is a leather 
strap, buckled tight round the neck immediately beneath 
the jaw ; this, however, is seldom effectual ; a better me- 
thod is to cover the edge of the manger, and every other 
part he can lay hold of, \\ith sheep skins, (the wool side 
outward) until the liabit is destroyed. There arc other 
causes by w hich the energy of the stomach may be im- 
paired ; among these are excessive fatigue, bad food, de- 
fect in respiration oi* breathing foul air, taking too much 
food or water at once, or at an improper time; hots, fever, 



CONDITION" OF THE HORSCE. 139 

in short, the stomach is so important an organ in the ani- 
mal system, that scarcely any part can be materially in- 
jured without aflfecting it in some degree : and whenever 
the stomacli is hurt, tlie whole system seems to sympa- 
thize and partake the injury. 

Weakness of tite stomach is sometimes very easily cur- 
ed; tlie powers of nature indeed are often capable of re- 
storing its tone; at others we find the disease extremely 
obstinate, resisting the most powerful medicines. This 
difference depends upon the variety in the causes by which 
the weakness is induced. When it arises from loading 
the stomach with improper food, that contains scarcely 
any nutriment, such as straw, and where the horse has 
been fed in tliis way for a considerable time, the diet 
should be gradually changed to one more nutritious. Du- 
ring the time we are making this alteration, it is general- 
ly necessary to give one or two doses of laxative medi- 
cine, joined with aromatics (see laxatives,) to prevent any 
inflammatory affection of tlie eyes, lungs, or heels, or ac- 
coMing to the more fashionable language of grooms, to 
prevent humours from breaking out. Should the appetite 
appear deficient, tho cordial ball will be found of great 
service, given occasionally. When excessive fatigue is 
the cause of the weakness, which we often find after a 
hard day's run with the hounds, notliing is so effectual as 
tlie cordial ball, particularly in old horses ; it soon gives 
them an appetite, and renders them fit for work again 
much sooner than they would otherwise be. Where a 
speedy effect is required, the ball may be mixed with a 
pint of good beer or ale. 

If a horse after sweating from exercise or any other 

S 



14Q OOFDITION OF THE HOfiSE:^ 

cause, is allowed to drink freely of cold water, the st(v 
jnach is suddenly debilitated, and the whole systeip ie 
frequently affected in consequence ; hence arise flatulent 
cholic, suppi'ession of urine, shivering, quick pulse, and 
other symptoms of fever, (for the remedies in this case 
see flatulent cholic, suppression of urine and fever.) 

The stomach sometimes becomes weak, gradually, and 
without any apparent cause ; this is first indicated by the 
appetite failing, which is soon followed by general debility, 
emaciation, and unhealthy looking coat. The most ef- 
fectual remedies in this case are the tonic balls and a nu- 
tritious diet J the corn should be given more frequently 
than usual, but in small quantities : a little n alt on those 
occasions is extremely useful. The stable should be well 
ventilated, but not cold ; regular exercise will also be ve- 
ry beneficial, and should never be on.ittf di It should b© 
understood, however, that although exercise tends to pro- 
mote sb^^mgth^ if carried beyond the animal's power, it be= 
comes a cause of debility : it is highly necessary, there- 
fore, when a horse is in a state of weakness, to take care 
that his exercise is but moderate. 

W orms in the stomach and bowels are a frequent cause 
of leanness and debility in horses; and while they exist, 
every exertion ti) promote condition will be ineffectual 
(see worms.) 

3. That there is no defect in tbd organs of respiration. 
If the blood is not duly supplied with that vivifying prin- 
ciple, which is derived ftom the air by breathing, a great- 
er or less degree of debility must be the consequence ; 
hence a want of tone is always observable in the stomach 
axwi bowels of broken-winded horses, as well as deficien- 



CONDITION OF THE HORSE. Ml 

tjf in the muscular power in general. Tlie same evils 
Will rasult fro keeping a horse in too close a stable, 
where the air does not contain the usual proportion of 
this principle. 

4th. That the liver and pancreas are healthy, and that 
ihere is no obstruction in the tubes by which their respect- 
ive juices are conveyed to the intestines. The liver is 
very subject to disease, particularly iniiaintnation (see in- 
flam nation of the liver;) it may also have an unusual 
quantity of blo)! deternin-jd to it, whereby its action or 
secretion will be increased. This generally causes a 
p jrging, and a yellowness of the eyes and mouth (se« 
jaundice.) 

It is very probable that the internal surface of the in- 
testines nay someti ml^s be so loaded with maeus, that 
the in')uths of the laste'ds are in some measure plugged up 
ail r-nJered incapable of absorbing a sufficient quantity 
of nutriment or chyle, A dose of physic in this case 
is the best remedy. 

Having described those diseases which most common* 
ly prevent horses from acquiring condition, I shall pro* 
ceed to point out the many other disorders incident tc 
^hat useful animal. 



142 ON INrXAMMATlOlr 

CHAPTER XIV. 

^ Description of most Disorders incident to Horses^ 

INFXAMMATION AND FEVER. 

It was supposed by the celebrated Boerhave, and 
other physiologists of bis time, that inflammation depend- 
ed on a viscidity of the blood, which rendered it nnfit 
for circulating in the finer vessels, and that hence arose 
obstructions and those appearances by which the dis- 
ease is characterised : this opinion, however, has obtain- 
ed very little credit with modern physiologists, and 
is now universally rejected, it having been proved that 
bJood drawn from an animal labouring under in{!amma- 
tion, is more Jluid, and remains Jluid longer^ than that 
which is taken from the same animal when in health. 

The most prevailing opinion at present respecting in- 
flammation is, that it consists in an increased action of 
the heart and arteries, when general; whereby the blood 
circulates with unusual velocity, throwing the whole sys- 
tem into derangement; and when local, or existing in a par- 
ticular part, the increased action is also confined to the 
vessels of that part. 

W hen a part is inflamed, there arises in it an unusual de- 
gree of heat, generally attended with considerable tension 
and swelling; the sensibility and in'itability are always 
increased and produced by it in parts where it did not be- 
fore exist ; in bones and tendons, for example, scarcely 
any sensibility can be perceived when they are in a state 
of healtli; but when injiamed, it is roused to an alarming 
degree, and the most dangerous consequences niRy ensue 



ON INFLAMMATION. 143 

from it. Inflammation has four modes of termination ; 
the first is termed resolution, that is, when the disease, af- 
ter going a certain length, gradually disappears again ; 
.the second, suppuration^ that is, when matter is formed, or 
an abscess produced ; the third is named effusion, which 
implies an extravasion either of blood, coagulable lymph 
or serum ,- and the fourth, gangrene or mortification, by 
which is meant the death of the inflamed part. 

Inflammation of the external parts is generally occa- 
sioned by some mechanical injury, such as wounds, bruises, 
&c. sometimes, however, it rises, in consequence of an 
internal inflammation, or symptomatic fever, and is then 
to be considered as an effort of nature to cure the internal 
disease : thus we sometimes find in fevers, abscesses tak- 
ing place on the surface of tho body, by which the fever is 
considerably diminished, and geiicrallj terminates fa- 
vourably. 

Inflammation is often produced by plethora, or a re- 
dundancy of blood in the body ; in this case it is some- 
times ^e»ierai, the whole arterial system having its action 
increased ; this also may be considered as an effort of na- 
ture to get rid of the superfluous blood, and in such cases 
she must be assisted by copious bleeding ; it more com- 
monly happens, however, that the redundant blood is de- 
termined to some particular part, occasioning loml in- 
flammation ; in horses it very frequently falls upon some 
of the internal organs, and the lungs are peculiarly liable 
to suffer in this case; from this source, indeed, the most 
dangerous fevers arise. 

In the treatment of external inflammation, we should 
endeavour to bring it to the most favourabde termination. 



144 ON INTIAMMATIOK* 

that is resolution, except where it arises from an effort of 
nature to cure some internal disease ; it is then desirable 
to bring it speedily to suppuration. The remedies to be 
employed for resolving inflammation, are, local or gene- 
ral bleeding (see bleeding) purgatives, or fomentations, 
poultices, or the saturnine lotion made warm ; sometimes 
indeed, we have seen cold applications used with success, 
such as sal ammoniac dissolved in vinegar, golard, &c. 
"When inflammation takes place in teindinous parts or 
joints, the saturnine poultice has been found an useful re- 
medy, and in the latter case we have often found blisters 
extren^ely^fiicacious ; as in those cases the inflammation 
generjdly proves more troublesome, and as the pain which 
it occasions is often so considerable as to produce sympto- 
matic fever, it becomes necessary to employ without loss 
of time, the most prompt and efficacious meana for its re^ 
duction ; with this view we excite artificial inflammation 
in the contiguous skin and cellular membrane, which iare 
parts of far less importance in the animal economy, thah 
joints or tendons, and capable of bearing a considerable 
degree of inflammation without much inconvenience to the 
animal ; this is dpne by means of rowels and blisters ; and 
the inflammation thus excited, will tend in a considerable 
degree to diminish that which is going on in the more im» 
portant part. Should we fail in our endeavours to resiolve 
inflammation, it will probably terminate in suppuration ; 
and when it appears that the disease does not abate by the 
use of the remedies we have recommended, an assiduous 
application of fomentations and poultices, vill expedite 
the suppurative process, and afford great relief ta the 
animal. When the inflammation, or rather the swelling 



" iar iNriiAMMATION. 145 

"^^hich it occasions, arrives at tliis state, it is termed ao 
ubscess, in which, when the suppuration is couipKte, and 
it contains matter^ a fluctuation may be felt upon its being 
pressed by two fingers alternately ; when this point has 
been ascertained, an opening is to b? made with a lancet or 
knife, in such a way that the matter may be completely eva- 
cuated, and a future accumulation prevented; it is then to 
be Jrejised .vith digestive liniment or ointment. Should the 
wouiid appear indisposed to heal when this treatment has 
been pursued forashorttime, discharging a thin oflfensive 
matter, and wartting that red appearance by which *he 
healing process is indicated, the detergent lotion will soon 
remove those unfavourable appearances; the discharge 
will become whiter and thicker, and red granulations 
of new fiesh will sprout up ; should these granulations 
however become luxuriant^ constituting what is commonly 
■ termed proud Jlesh ; they are to be kept down by means 
of the caustic powder. It sometimes happens that when a 
part is inflamed and swollen, instead of going on to sup- 
puration, it degenerates into a hard and almost insensiblo 
tUinor J this depehds on the inflammation having termina- 
ted in effusicn of coagulable lymph, and is to be removed 
by stimulating embrocations or blisters. 

When iniliimmation runs very high, which is some- 
times the case, in violent bruises, or deep and extensive 
wounds of the lacerated kind, it may terminate, in gan- 
grene or mortification, which is generally attended with 
danger ; in this case the matter discharged, instead of 
lieing white and thick, consists of a dark coloured fluid of 
a 'leculiar offensive smell ; the constitution is generally 
affected, the pulse becoming quick, weak, and sometimes 



146 ON INFLAMMATIOIT, 

irregular, the appetite goes off, and there is a great de- 
gree of debility : wlien inflammation terminates in this 
way, if it arises from a wound, let it be dressed with di- 
gestive liniment, oil of turpentine, or camphorated spirits 
of wine ; the diseased parts should be scarified, and fo- 
mentations applied almost incessantly, until the mortified 
pai'ts appear to separate, and the matter loses in a great 
measure its offensive smell, appearing whiter and more 
thick. When the horse is weakened by the disease, and 
he loses his appetite, pai'ticularly if there is a copious dis- 
charge from the wound, one or two of the following cor- 
dial balls are to he given daily : 

Receipts for inflummatioiu 

^0. 1. — Yellow Peruvian hark, 1 oz. Ginger, powder . 
cd, 2 drs. Opium, 1 dr. Oil of carraways, £0 drops* 
Syrup or honey enough to make the ball for one dose. 

JVb. 2. — Yellow Peruvian bark, § oz. Powdered snake 
root, 2 drs. Powdered cassia, 1 1 dr. Oil of cloves, 20 
drops. Syrup enough to form the ball for one dose. 

(Q^The opium in the ball, No. 1, is to be omitted when 
the horse is costive, or if it appears to take off his appe- 
tite ; but when the disease is accompanied with a purg- 
ing, it is extremely useful. 

When any of the internal parts are inflamed, a fever is 
generally produced, the violence of which will depend 
upon the importance of the inflamed organ, as well as 
upon the extent of the inflammation ; some of the inter- 
nal parts being more essential to life than others, and 
when inflamed, occasioning of course greater derange- 
ment in the system. The only favonrabk terminations 



ON INFLAMMATION^ 147 

io wliicli internal inflammation can be brought, are rc« 
solution and eJGTusion; and as tiie first is by far the more 
desirable, the most desirable, the most vigorous measures 
ought to be adopted to effect it ; the most important re- 
medy in those cases is copious bleeding^ and the earlier it 
is employed the more effectual will it prove: the next re° 
raedy is external iiiflammation^ artificially excited by 
means of rowels and blisters. The fever powder and oc- 
casional clysters, are of considerable service. 

FEVER. 

The fevers of horses bear very little analogy to those 
of the human body, and require a different treatment. 
Writers on farriery have described a great variety of fe- 
vers, but their observations appear to have been drawn 
from the worJss of medical authors, and their reasoning 
seems to be entirely analogical. We ha,ve been able to 
distinguish only two kinds of fever, the one, an idiopathic 
or original disease, and therefore properly termed simple; 
the other, dependant on internal inflammation, and very 
justly denominated symptomatic (e\er : for example, if the 
lungs, bowels, or stomach were inflamed, tlie whole sys- 
tem would be thrown into disorder, and a symptomatic 
fever produced ; but if a ctelapse of the perspirable vessels 
happens to take place, the blood will accumulate in the in- 
terior parts of the body, and though inflammation is not 
produced by it, the unequal distribution of the blood alone 
will occasion that derangement in the system which con- 
stitutes the simple fever. The simple fever does not oc- 
cur so frequently as the symptomatic, nor is it by any 

means so formidable in its appearance, yet it is necessary 

T 



141 QN iNFLAMMAT lOitv 

to give it the earliest attention, for unless nature receive? 
timely assistance, she will be sometimes unable to get rid 
of the load which oppresses her; and the blood will accu- 
muJate in the interior part of the body, until inflammation 
in some of the viscera is produced, and a dangerous dis- 
ease established. The following are the symptoms of 
simple feVer:^— Shivering, succeeded by loss of appetite^ 
dejected appearance, quick pulse, hot mouth, and some 
degree of debility; the horse is generally costive and voids 
his urine with difficulty. Sometimes the disease is ac- 
companied with quickeness of breathing, and in a hv 
cases with pain in the bowelsj or syn;ptoms of cholic» 

Meceipts for Jever, 

JV*o, lo As soon as a horse is attacked by this disease, let 
him be bled freely, and if costive ness is one of the symp- 
toms, give a pint of castor oil, or the oil of olives, and let a 
clyster of warm water gruel or flax-seed tea be injected ; 
the fever powder is to be given once in tv.tive hours, and 
continued until its diuretic effect becomes considerable.- — 
Warm water and mashes are to be frequently off"i red in 
small quantities; warm cloathing, frequent hand rubbing, 
and a liberal allowance of Utter are also necessary, and 
when the fever runs high, it is advisable to insert rowels 
about the chest and belly, in order to prevent internal in- 
flammation from taking place. When the disease ap- 
pears to be going off", the horse looking more lively, and 
the appetite returning, let him be led out for a short time 
in some warm situation, and give now and then a mash of 
cut straw, with a small quantity of oats and shorts mixed, 
for the purpose of recovering his strength. 



61? SYMPTOMATIC FEVER, &C. 149 

FEVER POWDER. 

JVo. 2. — Powdered Nitre, 1 oz. Camphor and tartarised 
aiitidiony, of eacn 2 dr. Mix for one dose. 

JVj. 3. —Powdered Nitre, 1 oz. Unwashed calx of anti- 
mony, 2 dr. Mix for one dose. 

JVo, 4, — Antiinonial powder, 8 dr. Camphor^ 1 dr. Mix 
for one dose. 



CHAPTER, XV. 

On sijmptomatic fever, injlammation, ^c. 

The symptomatic fever is generally occasioned by high 
feeding with dry food, close stables, and a want of proper 
exercise; sometimes, however, a sudden transition from 
a cold to a hot temperature is evidently the cause of it; 
in this respect it is different from the simple fever, which, 
as before observed, sometimes arises from exposing a 
horse suddenly to a cold air, when he has been accustom- 
ed to a warm stable. Horses that are taken from camp 
or grass, and put suddenly into warm stables, are ex- 
tremely liable to those internal inflammations on which 
symptomatic fever depends, and many thousands have 
fallen victims to this kind of treatment. 

When a fever is symptomatic, it is not preceded by 
shivering, nor is it so sudden in its attack as the simple 
fever ; but when it is not subdued by an early application 
cf remedies, the symptoms gradually increase in violence 



450 ON SYMPTOMATIC FBVEtl, &Co 

until they present a very formidable appearance. Whew 
tlie disease however is occasioned by great and long con- 
tinued exertion, it generally comes on suddenly, and the 
complaint has a very dangerous appearance in its ear- 
liest stage. 

The symptomatic fever has many symptoms in com= 
]qnon with the simple fever, which are, loss of appetite, 
quick pulse, dejected appearance, hot mouth, and debility; 
and if to these are joined difficulty of breathing, and 
quick working of the flanks, with coldness of the legs and 
ears, we may conclude that an inflammation of the limgs 
is the cause of the fever. If the horse hangs down his 
head in the manger, or leans back upon his collar with a 
strong appearance of being drowsy, the eyes appearing 
watery and inflamed, it is probable that the fever depends 
upon an accumulation of blood in the vessels of the brain^ 
and that the staggers are approaching ^ in this case, how- 
ever, the pulse is not always quickened, sometimes indeed 
we have found it unusually slow. When the symptoms of 
fever are joined with a yellowness of the eyes and mouth, 
an inflammation of the liver is indicated. Sliould an in- 
flammation of the bowels be the cause, the horse is vio= 
lently griped. An inflammation of the kidneys, will also 
produce fever, and is distinguished by a suppression of 
lirine, and an inability to bear pressure upon the loins. 
When inflammation of the bladder is the cause, the horse 
is frequently staling, voiding only very small tpiantities 
of urine, and that with considerable pain. Extensive 
wounds, and particularly those of joints, will alsoj)roduce, 
symptomatic fever. Sometimes sevei'al of the inter)ial 

|)arts are inflamed at the same instant, and indeed wliein 

V ■ ■ 



OSr SYMPTOMATIC FEYER, &C, 151 

mflammation has existed for a considerable length of time, 
it is seldom confined to the organ in which it originated j 
the disease spreads to other viscera, and when more than 
one organ is inflamed, the symptoms will generally be 
complicated ; still, however, the essential remedies are 
the same, that is to say, copious and early bleeding, with 
rowels and blisters. 

Having now given a general description of symptoma- 
tic fev«r, we siiall proceed to treat of those cases sepa-= 
rately to which we have above briefly alluded, 

liiflammation of the Lyings. 

This is a very dangerous disease, and one to which 
horses are extremely liable ; the frequency of its occur- 
rence seems to be occasioned by improper management, 
and not by any natural defect in tl:e constitution of the 
animal; it may therefore be prevented by proper atten- 
tion in the grbomo Medical writers make a distinction 
between inflammation of the lungs and of the pleura ov 
the membrane, which covers tliose oigans, calling the 
former jjeripneumony, and tl)e latter 2)}eurisy ; this dis- 
tinction,, however, is not necessary in veterinary nosology, 
since we never fsiul those parts afiected separately in tlse 
horse. Tiie pi'ogress of this disease is often very rapirl, 
and unless proper remedies are eraployed at an early 
period, it frequently terminates fatally. Its .Tpproacli is 
indicated by the following symptoms ; loss of appetite, an 
appearance of dullness, and disinclination to motiors, iimi- 
guai quickness in the motion of the fxanks, hot mouth, and 
sometimes a cough. If tjie disease, by adopting an inci-t, 
or improper mode of treatment, is sunorcd to proceed, all 



152 Ok symptomatic fever, &c. 

these symptoms will increase, respiration will becomt 
extremely quick and laborious, the pulse more frequent, 
and at the same time weak. A striking appearance 
of uneasiness and anxiety may be observed in the an« 
imal's countenance, the nostrils are expanded, the eyes 
fixed, and the head inclining downward, the legs and 
ears become cold, and the debility is so considerable, 
that he is incapable of moving in the stall without great 
difficulty; he never lies down unless so much weak- 
ened as to be incapable of standing. The disease, 
however, is not always so rapid in its progress as we 
have here described it, and not unfrequently a considera- 
ble remission may be observed, which is occasioned pro- 
bably by an effusion of serum or water having taken 
place in the chest, and this remission is sometimes so con- 
spicuous, that we are led to give a favourable prognosis, 
the horse beginning to feed again, and the pulse becoming 
less frequent ; but this flattering ap})carance often proves 
fallacious, the disease soon returns with accumulated force 
and puts a period to the animal's life, I have seen cases 
where bleeding has not been performed with sufficient 
freedom, in winch the inflammation being checked in 
some degree, at lengtli terminated in a plentiful effusion 
of water in the chest ; when this happens the horse re- 
turns to his food, looks more lively, in short, the symp- 
toms of fever in a great measure disappear ; still howe 
ver, there is an unusual quickness in respiration, gene- 
rally accompanied with a cough, the hind legs swell, and 
the horse very rarely lies down ; a rough unhealthy ap- 
pearance may also be observed in the coat, the skin feel- 
ing as if stuck to the ribs, and the animal contiwues in a 



as SYMPTOMATIC FEVEB, &C. 155 

State of weakness ; after sometime the inflammation, ge» 
iierally returns, and tUen speedily ends in deatli. It some- 
times happens tn at the inflammation terminates in sup 
puration, in this case also the fever is in some degree les- 
sened, and the horse begins to feed a little, but he still re- 
mains in a very feeble state, has a weak cough, and dis- 
charges foetid matter from his nostrils; at length the dis^' 
ease again becomes violent, and soon puts a period to his 
sufferings* 

Receipts for hiflammatlon of the Lungs. 

1st. The first thing to be done when this dangerous 
disease is observed, is to bleed copiously, say three or four 
quarts, even till tlie horse begins to faint from loss of 
blood. We have known six quarts drawn at one opera- 
tion, and with the best effect ; sometimes indeed the dis- 
ease will be completely subdued by thus bleeding freely 
at its commencement. — Should the horse be costive, or 
even if the bowels are in a natural state, it will be advi- 
.seable to give a pint of castor oil, and inject a clyster of 
flaxseed tea or warm water gruel ; it will then be neces- 
sary, in order to divert the inflammation from this im- 
portant organ, to insert rowels about the chest and belly, 
and to blister the sides extensively ; let the legs be kept 
warm by almost constant hand-rubbing; and warm cloath \ 
ing, if in cool weather, must never be omitted. Nothing is 
more pernicious in this complaint than obliging the ani- 
mal to breathe the impure air and stimulating vapours of 
a close and filthy stable ; this is indeed so obvious a truth, 
that it would be unnecessary to mention it, if it were not a 
constant practice with grooms on this occasion to stop 



i54 ON SYMPTOMATIC IJi^ER, &Cc 

every crevice they can find, by which pure air might be 
admitted, and the noxious exhalations suffered to escape, 

2nd. If the disease does not appear to abate in twelve 
hours after the bleeding, particularly if it has become 
more violent, let that operation be i-epeated, and with the 
same freedom as at first j we need not be apprehensive at 
this early period of the disease, of any dangerous debility 
ensuing from the loss of so much blood ; on the contrary, 
it will tend to re-establish strength, by subduing the in- 
flammation on which the fever depends. In some cases, 
indeed, it has been found necsssary to bleed several times, 
and very plentifully ; it must be recollected, however,^ 
that when the fever has existed for sometime, and has 
nearly exhausted the horse's strength, bleeding seldom 
does good, and in some instances, has probably been the 
means of hastening death. When suppuration takes 
place in the lungs, though there is little probability of sav- 
ing the animal, his life may be prelonged by giving fre-= 
quently good water gruel and infusion of malt opium; salt 
of hartsiiorn, and other cordials, will also be ofservicCo 
We have generally given the lollowing ball on those oc= 
casions, and though we have never seen a horse recover 
after suppuration had taken place in the lungs, yet these 
remedies have certainly afforded considerable relief. 

Salt of hartshorn, 1 1 dr. Opium, 1 dr. Powdered ani- 
seeds, | oe. S^rup enough to form the ball for one dose. 

||3^ When the ftiode of treatment vt^ehave recommend- 
ed is adopted before the disease has gained much ground, 
it will generally succeed completely ; considerable we.ak= 
ncss will of course remain after the fever has been remov- 
ed, but that also will gradually go off, if proper attention 



ON SYMPTOMATIC FEVER, &C. 155 

is paid to the horse's diet and exercise. When the appe- 
tite begins to return, it will be adviseable to give small 
quantities of oats that have been softened by steeping in 
boiling water ; good water gruel will also be found ser- 
viceable in recruiting his strength ; tlie sweetest parts 
should be selected from the hay, and given frequently in 
small quantities ; malt is an excellent restorative on 
these occasions, but must not be given too freely. When 
the weather is favourable, let the horse be led out for a 
short time every day ; or if a small enclosure can be pro- 
cured, and the season of the year will admit of it, he may 
be turned out for a few hours every day, while the sun 
shines, taking care that he is well cloathed during that 
time; by these means he will be gradually restored to his 
original strength. 

Inflammation nfthe Bowels. 

This disease is not so frequent as the preceding, though 
equally dangerous, and generally more rapid in its pro- 
gress. Inflammation may attack either the peritonseal coat 
of the intestine, or that delicate membrane which forms 
the internal or villous coat ; in the former case the dis- 
ease will be attended with costiveness, but in the latter a 
violent purging is the most conspicuous symptom ; but 
which ever of these coats is first attacked, the inflamma- 
tion, in a short time generally spreads to the other. 

The peritonjeal inflammation begins with an appear- 
ance of dullness and uneasiness in the horse ; the appetite 
is considerably diminished, or is entirely lost, and the 
pulse becomes more frequent ; the pain and febrile symp- 
toms gradually increase ; he i* continually pawing with 



136 ON SYMPTOMATIC FEVER, &t, 

his fore feet, and frequently endeavours to kick his belly ; 
he lies down and suddenly rises again, and looks round to 
his flanks, strongly expressing by his countenance the 
violence of the pain he suffers j- his urine is commonly 
high coloured, and in small quantity, and sometimes void- 
ed with considerable pain; he is generally costive, and 
the pulse is remarkably small and quick ; the legs and 
ears become cold, respiration is very much disturbed, and 
sometimes, from the violence of the pain and the animal's 
Struggling, profuse perspiration breaks out ; at length 
roortification takes place, and is quickly succeeded by 
death. Sometimes the progress (tf this disease is remark- 
ably rapid, in one instance a complete mortification has 
taken place in the course of twelve hours, and that very 
extensively. 

When only the internal coat of the intestines is inflam- 
ed, there is generally a violent purging, accompanied with 
febrile symptoms; these, however, are seldom so conside- 
rable as in peritonseal inflammation, nor does the animal 
ajjpear to be in so much pain. This disease is common- 
ly produced by the improper use of physic, or by neglect- 
ing a horse during the operation of a purgative. 

In the treatment of peritona'al inflammation, early and 
eopioiis bleeding is the mofit important remedy. The effica- 
cy of artificial inflammation on the surface of the body is 
remarkably conspicuous in this disease; and we w ould re- 
commend covering the back with fresh sheep skins, which 
would soon excite and keep up for a considerable time, ft 
copious persj'iration on the part ; the whole of the abdo- 
men or belly should have the mustard embrocation care- 
fuiiy rubbed upon it, the stimulating effects of which may 



WN SYMPTOMATIC FEVER, &C. ISf 

lie promoted by covering the part afterwards with sheep 
SKitts or warm cloathing ; rowels also may be inserted 
ai)'iat the cuest and belly, putting into them blistering 
oiatinent instead of turpentine, or the common digestive, 
MTJiicii is usually employed for the purpose. Should the 
Iiorse be costive, which, as we have before observed, is 
ahnist always the case, give a pint or twenty ounces of 
castjr Oil, a.tid let clysters of flaxseed tea or water griiel 
b- iiijecte>i. J.3 siioui'i be alio^ved to drink plentifully of a 
w.i.' a .11 'iiijii jf Unseed or varn water alone ; and hand 
ru.iJifig t'} the le.^s, vith a liaeral allowaiice of clean lit- 
ter, sU<mld not be forgotten. If the disease does not abate 
in SiK hours after tiie bieeJiug, the operation must be re- 
pv'Ated; and if the costivencss continues ten or twelve 
hours ciftvu'the oil has been taken, give a Votij" dose, aid 
repeat the clysters, if tne disease continues and increa- 
ses in vi >!ence after al! these remedies have been proper= 
ly ap|)!ied, t'lere will be but little probability of recovery, 
particularly if the pulse has become so quick, weak, and 
flattering, that it can scarcely be felt, and there appears 
to be a reoiission or cessation of pain, or if the horse be- 
cones delirious ; these are always fatal symptoms, denote 
jng that n )rfirication is taking place, which is the certain 
harbinger of d ath ; but if the pain should continue after 
the above remedies have been fairly tried, the anodyne 
clyster may be injected. 

With respect to the causes of peritonreaHnflamfuationj 
the most common appears to be high feeding on dry pro- 
vender and want of exercise ; it is not unfrequently occa 
aioned, however, by putting a horse suddenly into warm 
jjftables when taken from camp or grass, the fatal conse^ 



158 ox SYMPTOMATIC FEVEli, &,C. 

quences of this management has often been experienced 
before the veterinary art had made sufficient progress to 
point out its impropriety and danger. 

In some instances the disease appears to have been j)ro- 
duced by the distension which the intestines have suffer- 
ed in flatulent cholic or gi-ipes, where that complaint has 
been neglected or improperly treated, or where the spasm 
has been so violent as to resist the operation of every re- 
medy. 

An inflammation of the villous or internal coat of the 
intestine, we have before observed, is most commonly oc- 
casioned by giving too strong physic, or by attention dur- 
ing its operation, and is generally accompanied with pro- 
fuse purging ; in this case a different treatment is requir- 
ed from that wc have recommended for peritoncel inflam- 
mation, and bleeding must not be employed unless the 
pulse is much accelerated and the febrile symptoms con- 
siderable ; the oil also must be omitted ; here the mus- 
tard embrocation and sheep skins to the back and belly 
are eminently useful. 

It is of consequence to make the hoi-se drink freely 
of fine water gruel or linseed tea, whicli if lie I'efuscs 
to drink must be given by means of a long necked bottle, 
introduced into his mouth, his head to be held up until he 
swallows. If the disease continues, notwithstanding these 
remedies have been carefully employed, let the anodyne 
clyster be injected, and if that fails, gi\c the anodyne or 
the restringent draft. It sometimes liapjtens when a 
horse has taken physic, that gripes and violent sickness 
occur before the purging takes place; in this case ly 
means of a clyster, a plentiful exhibition of thin water 



ON SYMpTL'OMATIC I"EVER, &C, 159 

gruel and exercise, will produce an evacuation and relieve 
the animal. Peiitonsel inflammation has sometimes been 
mistaken for flatulent cholic or gripes, but their appear- 
ances are very different, and they may easily be dis- 
tinguished by referring to the annexed table, in which 
their symptoms arc contrasted. 

Restringent dnifi. Opium, 1 dr. Prepared, chalk, | oz. 
Compound powder of ti-agacanth, 1 oz. Mint Water, i 
pint. 

Jlnody)w draft. Opium 1 1 dr. Water gruel 1 quarr. 
Mix for one dose. 

Mustard embrocation. Camphor, 1 oz. Oil ofturpen 
tine and water of pure ammonia, each 2 oz. Flour of 
mustard, 8 oz. To be made into a thin paste, and rubbed 
for a considerable time on tlie part. 

Anodyne clyster. Opium, i oz. Water gruel, or lin- 
seed tea, 3 pints. Mix for one injection. 

J tabky shewing the difference between flatulent cholic or 
gripes, and inHammation of the bowels. 

Symptoms of inflammation of the bowels. 

1. Pulse very quick and small. 

2. Lies down and suddenly rises again, seldom rolling 
upon his back. 

3. Legs and ears generally cold. 

4. Generally attacks rather gradually, is coninu)nly 
])receded5 and always accompanied by symptoms of fevej'. 

3. No intermissions can be observed. 

Symptoms of flatulent cholic. 
1. Pidse natural, though sometimes a little quickened. 



160 ON SYMPTOMATIC JEVEK, &C. 

2. Lies down and rolls upon his back. 

3. Legs and ears generally warm. 

4. Attacks suddenly; is never preceded, and seldom ac- 
companied h} any symptoms of fever. 

5. There are frequently short intermissions. 

Liflammation of the Stomach. 

The stomach like the intestines, may be inflamed either 
on its external or internal surface ; when the former is the 
seat of disease, the symptoms are nearly the same as those 
by which peritonseal inflammation of the intestines is in- 
dicated, and the same treatment is required ; the only dif- 
ference observable in the symptoms is, tliat in this case 
the pain seems to be more acute and distressing than in 
the other; the same difference, indeed, may be observed, 
between the large and small intestines; the latter being 
possessed of more sensibility than tlie former. 

When inflammation attacks the peritoneal coat of the 
stomach, it very soon diff'uses itself to the small intes- 
tines and neighbouring viscera ; or if the small intestines 
be its original seat, it frequently spreads to the stomach, 
and sometimes to the large intestines also. In examin- 
ing horses, therefore, that have died of these diseases, we 
seldom find the inflammation confined to one particular 
organ; it more commonly happens, indeed, that the v;holc 
of the abdominal viscera will exhibit morbid appearances^ 
but in different degrees ; those most contiguous to the 
part first diseased having suffered very considerably, 
whi'e such as arc more remote from it, are perhaps scarce- 
ly altered, for we can generally distinguish the original 
^eat of the inflammation. 



Oir SYMPTOMATIC FEVER, &e. 161 

An inflammation of the internal or villous coat of the 
titomacli is not a very common disease, and is generally 
occasioned either by poisons or strong medicines that 
have been swallowed, or by that species of worms termed 
bots. Wnen poisons or strong medicines, incautiously 
given, are the cause of this disease, it will of course Pome 
on suddenly, the pulse will be extremely quick and so 
weak, that it can scarcely be felt; the extremities will be- 
come cold, and there will be a peculiar dejected appear*- 
ance in the animal's countenance, respiration will be dis- 
turbed ; sometimes there will be a cougli, and always a 
high degree of debility. The treatment of this disease 
consists in giving oily or mucilaginous liquids freely, such 
as decoction of linseed, gum arabic dissolved in water, 
<&c. and at the same time medicines that are capable of 
decomposing or destroying the poison ; for this purpose 
the sulphurated rati is useful in doses of half an ounce, 
provided the poison be eit!ter mercurial or arsenicaL 
Clysters are to be injected, and if the disease is accompa- 
nied with purging, they should be composed of strong 
linseed decoction or water gruel. We once saw five ca- 
ses of inflamed stomach, all of them occasioned by poi- 
son, in which the above treatment was pursued ; four of 
ttiem perfectly recovered, and one died. — The inflam- 
mation which bots produce in the stomach is indicated by 
symptoms somewhat dffierent from those we have been 
just describing, indeed it may more properly be consid- 
ered as ulceration of the stomach than inflammation, 
since, upon examining horses that have died of this com- 
plaint, ulcers of considerable size have always been found. 
This disease generally comes on very gradually, the 



162 ON SYMPTOMATIC FETEI?-, &C. 

horse becomes liide-boiind, has a rough unhealthy cdat, 
gradually loses flesh and strength, though he continues to 
feed well, and has a frequent and troublesome cougli ; the 
disease perhaps will continue in this state for some time, 
and no serious consequences are apprehended ; its cause 
and seat are seldom suspected, medicines are given to re- 
move the cough, with common alteratives for the purpose 
of improving his condition. 

In some instances these insects are spontaneously de- 
tached, and expelled through the intestines : in such cases, 
if the stomach has not been much hurt by them, it will 
gradually recover, and the horse will be restored to his 
original strength and condition. It sometimes happens, 
however, that these worms produce such considerable 
mischief in the stomach, as to throw the whole system in- 
to disorder. The lungs are particularly liable to sympa- 
thize witli the stomach in this case, and frequently be- 
come inflamed in consequencei The inflammation thus 
produced in the lungs is extremely obstinate; and though 
it may be checked in some degice by bleeding, and the 
other remedies we have recommended for that disease, 
yet as the cause cannot often be removed, it generally 
terminates fatally. This symptomatic inflammation of 
the lungs may be distinguished from the idrophatic or 
original, by the following circumstance : — It is generall}- 
preceded by an unhealthy appearance in the coat, and a 
troublesome cough : the animal seldom bears bleeding 
well, the loss of any considerable quantity causing a ra- 
pid diminution of strength; whereas in the idiophatic in- 
flammation of the lungs, the strength of the pulse, as well 
as the whole system, is often increased by bleeding. 



QSf STH4i?T0MATic FEVER, 8CQ. 16S 

With respect to the remedies for this disease, those re- 
commended for inflammation of the lungs are the hest, 
b-it when the stomach has been considerably injured, 
there is little prospect of success., Infusion of malt has 
been recommended for the purpose of inducing hots to 
disengage themselves, (see Bots.) It is doubtful, howe- 
ver, whether any thing will effectually remove them; 
though they frequently come off spontaneously, particu- 
larly about the Spring. We have had an opportunity of 
examining the bodies of several horses that had been de- 
stroyed in this way; in all of them there was mortifica- 
tion and suppuration of ihe lungs, which appeared to have 
been the proximate cause of death; but on opening the sto- 
mach, an imtnense number of bots were found, many of 
them attached to the sensible part, and to the pylorus or 
beginning of the intestine; in every instance there were 
ulcers of considerable size found, in some the coats of the 
stomach had been nearly destroyed. It appeared very 
clearly, in all these cases, that the disease of the stomach 
was antecedent to that of the lungs. 

It must not be supposed, from what has been said on 
tiiis subject, that bots cannot exist in the stomach with- 
out producing all this mischief; on the contrary, they are 
often found in healthy horses that have been shot or other- 
wise destroyed; and it has been known that such horses 
have suffered no apparent inconvenience from them dur- 
ing life. In all these instances, however, they have been 
attached to the upper or insensible coat of the stomach.— 
Se6 BOTS. 

t 



164 ON SYMPTOMATIC FEVER, &C. 

Inflammatio7i of the Kidneys, 

This disease does not occur very frequently, and i* 
generally occasioned, it is believed, by an immoderate 
use of strong diuretic medicines. At tlie first attack of 
this complaint the horse constantly stands as if he want- 
ed to stale, sometimes voiding a small quantity of high co. 
loured or bloody urine; wlien tlie inflammation becomes 
more considerable, a suppression of urine and fever gen- 
erally takes place; if the loins are pressed upon, the ani- 
mal shrinks from it, and appears to feel great pain. In 
the first place bleed freely, then give a pint or twenty 
ounces of castor oil, throw up clysters of warm water, 
and cover the loins with sheep skins, having previously 
rubbed upon them the mustard embrocation ; should these 
remedies fail of procuring relief, repeat the bleeding; and 
should the oil not have operated sufficiently, let another 
dose be given. All diuretic medicines are to be carefully 
avoided, or any thing capable of provoking urine. 

Inflamniation of the Bladder, 

When the bladder is much inflamed, its irritability is 
so increased, that it becomes incapable of containijjg any 
urine, contracting upon every drop almost that passes in- 
to it from the kidneys ; in this complaint, therefore, the 
horse is attempting almost constantly to stale, but void;? 
only a few drops of urine, and that vvith considerable 
pain : it is generally attended with quick pulse and other 
symptoms of fever. Nothing is more beneficial in this 
disease then causing the horse to drink largely of linseed 
decoction, or any other mucilaginous liquid, and throw- 



ON SYJ«£PTOMATIC FEVER, &C. 165 

. |ng up frequently clysters of the same ; bleeding, and a 
dose of castor oil, are likewise highly necessary ; after 
the operation of the oil, let the following ball be given 
every sixth hour. Should no relief be obtained by these 
means, the horse continuing to void his urine frequently, 
in small quantities, and with pain, give one drachm ot 
opium twice a day, and omit the ball : costiveness tends 
very much to aggravate this complaint, whenever it oc- 
curs; therefore, let a clyster be injected, and a dose of oil 
given. 

Tht ball. — Powdered nitre, § oz. Camphor I dr. Li- 
quorice powder, 9 dr. Honey sufficient to form the ball 
for one dose. 

Inflavimation of the Liver, 

This disease is indicated hy a yellowness of the eyes 
and mouth, red or dark coloured urine, great weakness, 
and fever, generally, though not always, aecompanied 
with diarrhcea or purging ; the horse has a very languid 
appearance, and is almost constantly lying down : some- 
times the progress of this complaint is very rapid, spee- 
dily terminating in death ; at others it proceeds more 
slowly, the animal lingering for a considerable time; in 
this case it not unfrequeutly terminates in dropsy, or 
inflammation of the bowels. 

Bleeding can only be employed at the commencement 
of this disease with safety, afterwards it generally does 
harm, by inducing a dangerous degree of debility; the 
sides should be blistered, and if there be no purging, the 
ball, No. 1, given once in twelve hours, until it occasions 
moderate purging ; but if the bowels are already in a lax 



JitiG ON SYMJPTOMATIC FEVER, &Ce 

State, the ball, No. 2 or 3, will be better adapted to th$ 
eomplalnt, a»id is to be given in the same way. 

The hall. JVo. 1.— Calomel, | dr. Aloes, 1 dr. Cas- 
tile soap, 2 dr. Rhubarb, | oz. Syrup enough to form 
the ball for one dose. 

JVo. 2. — Opium, I dr. to 1 dr. Calomel, ] dr. Cas- 
tile soap, 2 dr. Syrup enough to form the ball for one 
dose. 

JVb. 3. — Opium and calomel of each, 1 dr. Emetic 
tartar, 2 dr. Liquorice powder, 3 dr. Syrup enough to 
form the ball for one dose. 

Titflammation oj the Eye. 

^ When the eye is inflamed it loses in some measure its 
transparency, appearing sometimes as if covered with a 
film, the lids are partially closed, and the hav.s becom*& 
more visible. — Should the inflananation have been brought 
on by some external injury, and particularly if it is not 
very considerable, washing ficquently with salt and watex* 
or molasses and water cold, will be sufficient to remove it; 
but in more violent cases it will be necessary also to blee^ 
moderately and give a laxative ball of succotrine aloe^, 4 
dr. castile soap, | o%. by these means inflammation aris- 
ing from external injury may generally be cured in a short 
time. The eyes often become inflamed in consequence of 
cold and feveis, in which cases the cause is to be cbicfiy 
attended : when Ihjit is removed the inflammation usually 
ceases. The most common cause, however, of this com- 
plaint, is high feeding, without sufficient exercise, or too 
violent exercise ; a dark anU badly ventilated stable, foul 
litter, &c. these cases require great care and attention, for 



ON SYMPTOMATIC FBVER, &C> i67 

unless proper remedies are employed on the first attack, 
the disease (though it appears to go off) will be frequently 
returning, and in all probability eventually produce blind- 
ness. The first remedy to be employed on this occasion, 
is bleeding, and the quantity of blood that is drawn should 
be proportionate to the violence of the inflammation, and 
the condition of the animal, say from two to three quarts* 
Should the vessels on the white part of the eye and inner 
part of the eye-lids appear to be distended with blood, 
great advantage will be derived from scarifying the latter 
with a lancefe. — A laxative ball, or half a pound of salts 
dissolved in three quarts of water, is to be given, and the 
bowels afterwards kept in a lax state by means of bran 
mashes. A seton placed immediately under the eye is a 
very useful remedy: but unless the operation is nicely per- 
formed, it frequently leaves an unpleasant mark behind; 
wiiicii would lead a person, experienced in horses, to sus- 
pectthat the eye Iiad been diseased, and might, thcrefori , 
diminish the value of the horse. This kind of inflamma- 
tion generally comes on rather suddenly, sometinics at- 
tacking only one eye, at others, both are affected ; as 
there is no apparent cause for this sudden attack of inflam- 
mation, the groom very commonly attribubs it to seeds 
or dust having fallen from the rack into the eye, and very 
little attention is paid to it; notwitlkstandiiig this neglect, 
the disease frequently goes off, and in some cases its di^r 
appearance is nearly as sudden as its attack: in a short 
time, however, it again appears as unoxpoctcilly as at first, 
and again perhaps goes off; in this uncertain way it may 
continue a considerable time, the eyes sometimes appear- 
ing transparent, and free from inflammation, at other?. 



168 ON SYMPTOMATIC FEVEK, &C, 

watery, inflamed, and opaque on the surface; at Icngtli 
the internal parts of the eye are affected, and a cataract 
produced. Whenever a horse's eye becomes inflamed, it 
is necessary to enquire into the cause of the inflammation; 
if it arises from a mechanical injury or any of the afore- 
said causes, and is not considerable, there will be great 
probability of its being speedily removed, by means of 
the remedies pointed out, if employed sufficiently early; 
but if they are neglected at the commencement of the dis- 
ease, though the inflammation, after some time appears to 
go off*, and the eye, to a superficial observer, seems to have 
recovered, yet the disease frequently returns and ulti- 
mately occasions blindness. Sljould the disease have oc- 
curred before, and particularly if the former attack was 
violent, there is still less chanci? of its being removed, and 
all our remedies may prove ineficctual. It frequently hap- 
pens that when botli eyes are inflamed, and a complete 
cataract forms in one of them, the other becomes perfect- 
ly sound and strong. It must be, observed that when a 
horse has suffered more than once from this disease, and 
is in low condition, evacuations must not be made too 
freely; there arc few cases, however, where moderate 
bleeding and a laxative ball, or a dose of salts are not re- 
quired. With respect to topical applications, or those re- 
medies wliich are applied immediately to the eye, much 
benefit is not generally deiived from them, except when 
the inflammation has abated considerably, and there re- 
mains an opacity or film on the surface, in which case, put 
a scruple of roach allum and a scruple of white vitriol both 
finely powdered, into a gill of spring v.ater and with a fea- 
ther put a drop oi* two into tlie eye morning and evening. 



ON SYMPTOMATIC FEVER, &Co 169 

Eye-WaUi\ excellent for weak Eyes, 
Put half a drachm white vitriol, half a draclim sugar ot 
lead into | pint of rose or spring water, apply a drop or 
two with a feather morning and evening. 

Do not use grease or oil about the eye, or blow powders 
of any kind into them; always prefer liquids. "Whenever 
the eyes are w eak, or in a state of inflammation, the va- 
pours which arise from foul litter, should be carefully 
guarded against; indeed, it is by no means an improbable 
conjecture that wlicn the eyes are weak, these irritating 
vapours may often prove the exciting cause of inflamma- 
tion. There is a cartilaginous body connected with thei 
eyes of horses, commonly termed the haw, W henever the 
eye is drawn into the socket, (which the horse has the 
power of doing by means of a muscle that docs not exist 
in the human subject) the haw is forced over the eye, so 
that when dust happens to adhere to the surface of the eye, 
he is enabled by means of this cartilage to wipe it off; and 
as light is painful to the animal when the eye is in a state 
of iufiammation, we generally find that organ, on such oc- 
casions, drawn more than usual into the socket, and con- 
sequently the haw becomes conspicuous on its surface. 
Some Farriers in this case Consider the haw as an usuaj 
excrescence, and the cause of the disease, they frequently 
therefore cut it ofi*. The celebrated Mr.Taplin consider- 
ed the haw as a preternatural enlargement of the corners 
of the eye. The haws should never be cut off; as blinrt- 
ne^s is jEfcnerally hastened by Dm truel operation* 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Of Strangles, or Throat Distemper, <§• Catarrh or Cold. 

This disease generally attacks young liorses between 
the 3d and 5th year of their age, and consists in an in- 
flammation and swelling of the glands under the tljroat, 
accompanied with cough and a discharge of white thick 
matter from the nostrils ; sometimes there is likewise a 
soreness of the throat and difficulty in swallo^ving. The 
inflamed glands commonly suppurate in a short time and 
burst, discharging a large quantity of matter; when this 
has taken place, the cough and other symptoms general- 
ly go off, the sore gradually heals, and the horse spee- 
dily recovers. In some cases the strangles assume a 
more formidable appearance, ^re attended with a con- 
siderable degree of fever, and the tliroat is sometimes so 
much inflamed, that the horse is incapable of swallow- 
ing either food or water : but however violent the at- 
tack may be, if a proper mode of treatment is adopted 
every unpleasant symptom may be easily removed, and 
a speedy recovery eftectcd. It is not a very uncommon 
circumstance for the strangles to attack young horses 
while at grass, and tiien they are frequently not per- 
mved until nature has nearly effected a cure. 

The approach of strangles may be known by a dul- 
ness of countenance, watery eyes, cough, and a slight 
degree of swelling in the glands under the jaw ; as soon 
as they are discovered, let the hair be carefully clipj ed 



stkanqi.es, &c, i:pi 

'dff ft^oni the inflamed glands and contiguous parts of the 
throat ; let a large poultice be then applied to the throat, 
in doing which it is necessary to take care that it is 
so secured as to be constantly in contact with the throat; 
for iinless this is attended to, the poultice will be but 
of little service. It will be found that by rubbing a small 
quantity of soine stimulating ointment on the inflamed 
glandi^, previous to the application of each poultice, sup- 
puration may be considerably promoted, for this pur= 
pose the following formula will be found useful : 

Camphor, 2 dr. Oil of origanum, 1 dr. Spermaceti 
ointment, 2 'oz. mix. 

(Q^ Wlicn matter is completely formed in the glands, 
which may be known by the tumor becoming larger, and 
by the skin feeling tense, and somewhat elastic, an open- 
ing should be made with a lancet, and its contents eva- 
cuated ; this plan is certainly preferable to that of wait- 
ing until it bursts spontaneously, as the animal is instant- 
ly relieved by it, and the cure more speedily effected. To 
evacuate the matter perfectly, it is necessary to use mod- 
erate pressure with the fingers ; and when this has been 
done, let a piece of lint, dipped in digestive liniment, bC 
inserted for the purpose of keeping the lips of the wound 
open, and allowing the matter to escape freely ; the poul ; 
tice is to be continued until the swelling is perfectly re- 
duced. When strangles attack so violently as to render 
the horse incapable of swallowing, and particularly if the 
swelling in the throat is not considerable, it will be ad- 
viseable to blister the throat, and keep the bowels open 
with clysters of flax-seed tea or gruel. It is very neces^ 

sary, in every case of strangles, to steam the head well,, 

W 



17£ gTRANGLES, &C, 

that is, to put hot bran mashes into the manger frequent- 
ly, so that the horse may inhale the vapours. 

QJf°lt is of consequence to distinguish cases of inci- 
pient strangles from common colds; in the latter, bleeding 
is an useful remedy; but in the former, it does much harm, 
by interrupting a process of nature. "We cannot, by any 
argument^ shew why bleeding should be improper in the 
strangles; indeed, if our practice were guided by theory 
only, we should be led to consider it as a case of common 
inflammation, and consequently adopt that mode of treat- 
ment which would tend to remove it most -expeditiously 
and prevent suppuration, and with this view we should 
have recourse to bleeding and purgatives; experience^ 
ho\\ever, certainly sanctions a different treatment, and 
has fully proved the propriety of using every means for 
encouraging suppuration. AVe have seen several hun- 
dred cases in which this plan has been pursued, and not 
one of them terminated unfavourably. Should a cough or 
any unpleasant symptom remain after the strangles are 
healed, let the following alterative ball be given every 
morning, until moderate purging is produced, and if it 
is found necessary, let it be repeated after an interval 
of four or five days. It is almost superfluous to add 
that great attention must be paid by the groom ; the head, 
neck, and chest, as well as the body, should be cloath- 
cd, warm water should be given frequently in small quan- 
tities, a large quantity of litter should be allowed, and 
hand rubbing to the legs should never be omitted. 
Mteratire Ball, 
Succotrine aloes, 1 dr. Emetic tartar and Castile soap- 
of each, 2 dr To be made into a ball for one dose. 



STRANGLES, &C. 173 

RECEIPTS 

From different Authors for the Strangles. 

.Vo. 1. If a larg.^ tumor appears under the jaw, apply b 
poultice made of mallow leaves^ four handfuls j white lilif 
rootSy one pound; three midling sized turnips ; boil them in 
a sufficient quantity of water^ till they become soft, then 
beat (hem lip well together ; then boil them again in milk 
to a thick poultice, adding to it two ounces of fiwseed, and 
half a pound of hogslard; stirring all well together. 
Spread on a piece of coarse cloth ; and make it fast about 
the swelling, with a packing needle and twine. When it 
is sufficiently brought to a head, open the tumour, and 
squeese out the matter, constantly applying the poultice 
warm ; and in a few days it will all run off. When the 
matter is quite drawn away, give the following purge. 

Maes ^ one ounce; ginger^ one drachm; rhubarb, one 
drachm ; made into a ball with castor-oil. 

Warm bran mashes should be given during the illness, 
with gentle exercise. 

JVo. 2. Bleed under the tongue, and fume with tiie decoc- 
tion of camomile, and poultice with bran, vinegar, salt, and 
hog's-Iard, and it will soon cure. Proved. 

JVb. 3. Take wine, one p'nt; Venice treacle, diapente, of 
each one. ounce; saffron, two drachms, mijiand give it to 
rlie horse. This is a very good cordial for any other dis» 
order where a cordial is proper. Apply outwardly the 
following poultice to the part: 

Take milk, one quart; Rye flour, and Indian meal, of 
each two handfuls; boil them over a gentle fire till they be 
thick; then add turpentine, four ouncQs, dissolved in the 
velks of t'vva or three eggs. 



174 CjVtamjh or coxd. 

It would be supei'fluous to give a particular desrriptiou 
of this complaint, since it is so well known, and its ap. 
pearances so generally understood, that scarcely any one 
can be at a loss to distinguish it from other diseases. It 
consists in an inflammation of the mucous membrane, 
which lines the internal part of the nose, throat, &c. some- 
times attended with a slight degree of fever; hence arise 
the cough and discharge from the nostrils, which are its 
principal symptoms. On the first attack of this complaint, 
Ijleeding will generally be found an effectual remedy, but 
if it is neglected until a considerable discharge has taken 
place from the nostrils, it seldom proves beneficial. A 
dose of fever powder is to be given every morning and ev- 
ening until the symptoms abate, or a considerable diuretic 
effect is produced, and then every second or third day only. 
Sometimes a swelling takes place in the parotid glands^ 
which is situated immediately beneath the ear. Should 
no unusual heat or tenderness be observed in those sweL 
lings, apply the stimulating ointment recommended for 
strangles, but if they feel hot, are painful and appear to 
be in a state of active inflammation, a poultice is the best 
remedy. If the eyes are inflamed and watery, a rowel 
should be inserted under the jaw, and if the inflammation 
in the throat is so considerable as to render the swallow- 
ing painful and ditlicult, a blister will afford great relief. 
Hot bran mashes should be given frequently, which will 
not only serve to keep the bowels open, but will act as a 
ifomentation to the inflamed membranes, since the horse 
will be constantly inhaling tjjevapoui- which escapes from 
them. Should hp be costive (which is not likely to hap 



CATAREH OR COLD. 175 

pen while he is taking bran mashes) let clysters be injected 
occasionally. The head and chest, as well as the body, 
should be well cloathed, the legs frequently hand rubbed, 
and a large quantity of litter allowed: by these means he 
will soon be restored to health. Should a cold be attended 
with a considerable degree of fever, or iftlie appetite goes 
ofT, and the flanks work quicker than usual, it is necessary 
to make some alteration in the treatment (see fever and 
inflammation of the lungs.) It is necessary to observe be- 
fore we conclude this subject, that the strangles on their 
first attack are sometimes mistaken for a cold; this may 
be productive of mischief, since bleeding is generally im- 
p roper in that complaint; if, therefore, a cold is accompa- 
nied with a swelling of tlie glands under the jaw, if they 
feel hot and are painful, and particulaily if the horse is 
young, we may conclude that the strangles are approach- 
ing, and treat it accordingly* 

Should the cougli remain after the other symptoms are 
gone off; give the ball. No. 1, every morning, until moder- 
ate purging is produced, and if it continues after this, let 
the ball. No. 2, be given evt-ry morning for a week. 

JVo. 1. Succotrine aloes, 1 dr. Caslilo soap and tartar- 
ised antimony, of each, 2 dr. To be made into a hall 
with syrup. 

JVo. 2. Powdered squills, l dr. Gum ammo)iiac, 3 dr. 
— . opium, i dr. Syrup enough to form the ball. 



1*6 iOCKED JAW, 6iC, 

CHAPTEIl, XVII 

Locked Jaw. Lampas and Roaring.' 

Tliis disease, \'ei"y fortunately occurs but seldom, and 
generally terminates fatally; it begins with a difficulty in 
mastication; at length the jaws become so completely and 
immoveably closed, tlmt neither medicines nor food can 
be got into the stomach; the muscles of the neck are ge- 
nerally in a state of rigid contraction, and the animal ap- 
pears to suffer great pain: it is often brought on by trifling 
causes sucli as Mounds of the foot, inflammation in the 
tail, from docking or nicking, Ǥt. and sometimes it at- 
tacks witliout any apparent cause. Tarious remedies 
have been tried in this complaint, but no effectual mode 
of treatment has yet been discovered; immersion in cold 
water, or even snow, is said to produce a temporary re- 
laxation of those muscles by which the jaws are closed- 
Opium and camphor have been strongly recommended. 
We have lately been informpd of a case in which a co|r»- 
bination of those medicines completely succeeded. In 
America and the West India Islands, where the disease is 
more frequent than it is in Europe, strong stimulants have 
in some instances been found effectual; it would be advi- 
seablc therefore to try the same psan in horses should 
opium and camphor fail. The best stimulants for this 
purpose arc spirits of hartshorn, etlic?, opium, and bran- 
dy, given internally. 



Hboken wind. 117 

Lampas, When the bars or roof of the horse's mouth, 
hear tiie front teeth, become level with, or higher than the 
teeth, he is said to have the Lampas^ and this is supposed to 
prevent his feeding. Farriers burn down this swoin part 
with a red hot iron made for the purpos^e. We belieVe 
this operation is performed much more frequently than is 
necessary, but we have never seen any bad consequences 
arise from it. 

Roaring. T{»is disease takes its name from a peculiar 
so'und in respiration, particularly when the horse is put in- 
to a brisk trot or gallop; it seems to arise from lymph that 
has been effused in tlie windpipe or Its branches, which be- 
coming solid obstructs, in a greater or less degree, the pas- 
sage of air. As a remedy for this complaint blistering the 
whole length of the windpipe has been recommended; It is 
believed, however, that this disease is always incurable. 



CHAPTER XYIll. 

BROKEN WIND. 

it seems to be universally allov;ed that tlus compiaini 
is incurable, though it will admit of considerable allevia- 
tion; and if its approach be perceived sufficiently carlVy 
may probably be prevented. Horses that appear to be 
iiu)st subject to it, arc those with voracious appetites, that 
eat even their litter, and keep themselves in good condi- 
i^on UDon a moderate allowance of corn; also such as ar*^ 



fed liighly, and at the same time not properly exercised. 
The lungs of broken winded horses are generally unu= 
sually large, with numerous air bladders on the surface^ 
this must have arisen from a rupture of some of the air 
ceils, for in that case some part of the air which is inspired, 
will necessarily get into the Cellular memhraneoi the lungs, 
and diffuse itself until it arrives at the surface, when it 
will laise tlje pleura so as to form the air bladders we oh-, 
serve. Tliis is the reason that the lungs of broken winded 
horses do not collapse when the chest is punctured, and 
this will serve to explain the peculiar motion of the flanks 
in broken winded horses, which does not consist, as Mr. 
L. asserts, in quick expiration and very slow inspiration, 
but quite the reverse. Air is received into the lungs rerij 
reMiltii which is manifested by a sudden falling of th6 
flanks, but is expelled slorvly, and rciih great difficulty, as 
may be perceived by the long continued exertion of the ab- 
dominal muscles. 

When the membrance which lines the windpipe and all 
its branches, has been effected with inflammation, it be- 
comes thickened in consequence, and the capacity of th6 
lungs will of course be diminislied: this will cause &qiiick- 
ness in respiration, but not that irregular or unequal kind 
of breatiiing, by w liich broken wind is characterised; the 
complaint which is tlius produced, is commonly termed 
thick wind, and the horse so affected, if made to move ra. 
pidly, wheezes almost like an asthmatic person, and isun- 
fit for any violent exercise. It not unfreciuently happens^ 
we believe, that this complaint proves a cause of broken 
wind, for when the membrane is much thickened, many 
of the finer branches Sf the windpipe are probably ob- 



ilROKEV SfVUB. IT9 

atructed in a greater or less degree, the violent coughing 
which usually accompanies this disease, will, under such cir- 
cumstances he very liable to rupture some of the air cells. 
Tiie same eifect may be produced by violent exercise when 
the stomach is distended with food or water. We believe, 
however, that a plethora or fulness of habit is most com- 
monly the remote cause of broken wind; in that case there 
is generally an undue determination of blood to the lungs, 
whereby the secretion within the air vessels is increased, 
and perhaps rendered somewhat acrimonious and viscid, 
exciting a violent and troublesome cough. 

Iteceiptsfor broken wind. 

J\*o. 1. Whenever a horse appears to be imperfect in his 

wind, if he coughs violently, particularly when exercised, 

with unusual working of the flanks; and if at the same time 

he appears to be in good health and spirits, let him be bled 

moderately, and take a laxative ball; by these means, as^ 

sisted by a bran diet and regular exercise, the lungs will 

soon be relieved, and the cough, if not completely removed, 

will be considerably diminished; then give the following 

ball every morning for a week, and take care that regular 

exercise is never omitted. It will be adviseable also to 

prevent the horse from filling himself too much with hay 

or water; the latter should be given five or six times a day, 

in small quantities; the common method of stinting « 

horse in water, when his wind is supposed to be bad, is 

certainly prejudicial; corn should be given sparingly, for 

high feeding tends very mnch to aggravate the complaint; 

bran is an useful diet, if mixed with corn, and cut hay or 

#traw. The vapours which arise from foul litter and th<5 

X 



589 AaOKfiN WfNI5» 

air of a close stable are extremely perntriou3. We hk^ 
gten very good effects from turning the liorse into a Viird 
or lot during the day, when the weather is favourable* 
T^hen the cough and other symptoms hare been removed, 
these means must be still persevered in, or the disease 
will probably return: regular and long continued exercise 
tends more than any thing to keep it off, but violent exer* 
cisc is extremely improper. Whenever costivehess occurs 
it should be removed by means of a clyster and bran 
mashes; and should the horse be disposed to eat his litter, 
it is to be prevented by means of a muzzle. 

The Ball. — Powdered squills, 1 dr. Gum ammoniac, | 
oz. Powdered aniseeds, 3 dr. To be made into a ball 
witli syrup, fof one dose, 

(To be given as a drencbi) 

JV*o. 2. Mix linseed and fenugreek frequently in his 
corn, and sometimes those of fennel, cal-raways, and an- 
nisej and boil in his water, three or four liandfuls of bar- 
ley, with a little liquorice or honey dissolved in it; but 
you must not often use the liquorice. Exercise him mc^re 
or less every day, but let it be moderately, and in clear 
^^^eather. 

If he be at any time seized witli an oppression, and a 
more than ordinary diflicuKyof breathing, he should have 
a vein opened in his flank; or on the inside of the thigh, 
from whence may be taken a small quantity of blood; but 
this must be done onlj when there is an absolute necessity 
for it; or the following bidis have been given and conti- 
nued with great success. 

Take of myrrh and gum benzion, of each four ounces ; 
gum arable, the roots of once, round birthwort, and tlie 



BROKEN WIND. l&i 

tfhavings of hartshorn or ivory, of each two ounces; ga- 
loii^al and zedoary, of each an ounce; fennel seeds, cum- 
min seeds, and fenugreek, of each an ounce and a half: 
Let these be beat into a fine powder, and made up into a 
stiff paste with honey, or syrup, or colts foot : then work 
into the whole an ounce uf the common balsam of sulphur, 
end let them be made into balls the bigness of a large wal- 
nut, whereof one is to be given every morning and after- 
noon, an liour before watering time. 

.AT?. .-3, The cause of this -iisordei', generally speaking 
is from galloping a horse off his wind, which 1 have fre- 
quently seen done by obstinate- groom.s, alter giving him 
as muck c;)kl river water as he could drink; from hence 
proceed more broken winds, than from any other cause 
whatever. 

Thf symptotns of a bj'okeii wind are, as I said before, a 
difficulty of breathing, attended with a dry cough, and an 
irregular motion of tlie flanks: the nostrils of the h(^rse 
will be wider than common; and you will sometimes, 
while standing in the stable, hear him blow at the nostrils, 
at the same time tossing up his head, as if just coming o5^ 
a gallop. 

Two ounces of assaftdida; two ounces of elecam- 
pane; two ounces of powers of coltsfoot; two drachms of the 
powder of sqidUs; one ounce of linseed powder. Make 
these into a paste witlj honey ^ and divide it into four balls. 
Give one morning and evening. 

The food to be given a broken winded horse should 
l>e the best that can be obtained; which, together with his 
water, should be given in small quantities, but rather of- 
tener than is common to feed and water horses in health; 



lafc BjaOKEN WJN». 

making it a general rule to give him nothing dry, alwa}'^ 
sprinkling his hay, oats, or whatever you give him, with 
clean soft water. 

JVb. 4. Jl Broken Wind may he cured if the following be 
applied on the discovery of it: Ji quarter of a 'pound of com- 
mon tar ^ and the like quantity of honey: beat them well toge- 
ther^ then dissolve them in a quart of new milk; let the 
hoi'se fast two hours before you give this drenchj walk him 
an hour after, and let him fast two hours; give tliis drench 
every second day, with warm meat and drink. 

JVo, 5. Take one ounce of liquorice-ball, dissolve it in one 
gallon of spring water, give your horse one pint thereof 
every morning, and take barley or wheat, and grow it until 
you see the cheat or beard begin to spring, and give your 
horse two or three quarts at a time; if you mix a little 
good wine with your liquorice w ater, it w ould be much 
better: be sure to sprinkle his hay, it is a certain remedy^ 
If you wish to stop the heaving of the horse's lungs for a 
few hours, put a good handful of his dung into a quart of 
new milk, stir it, and give it to tlie horse, but let him have 
no cold water or any drink; this w ill stop it for a fe\y 
lijours, perhaps a day. 

JVo. 6. Take l?oars dung, dry it to powder, and put a 
spoonful of it into two pints of milk just from the cow, 
and give it to him. If it does not make him sick, give, 
him two spoonfuls more of the powder, and in four or five 
times giving, it will perfectly cure him, It must be given 
every third day* Proved. 



JAUNDICE, &C, 18"^ 

CHAPTER XIX. 

■jfaundicCy Flatulent CholiCy Gripes or Fret. 

Jaundice. This disease is indicated by a yellowness of 
the eyes and mouth, dulness and lassitude; the appetite is 
generally diminished, the urine of a reddish or dark co- 
lour. Sometime? tiie complaint is attended with costive- 
ness, but more commonly with a purg;ing. This disease 
does not often arise from an obstruction in the biliary 
ducts, as in the human subject, but generally from in- 
creased action of the liver, whereby an unusual quantity 
of bile is secreted. InUammation of the liver is some- 
times mistaken for jaundice, but may be distinguished 
from it by the fever with which it is always accompanied. 

When costiveness is one of the symptoms of jaundice, 
give the ball. No. 1, every morning, until moderate purg- 
ing is produced; but if the bowels are already open, or in 
a state of purging, give tlie ball. No. 2, every morning. 
The horse's strength should be supported by an infusion 
of malt or water gruel. 

The ball. .JVo. 1. — Calomel, i dr. Aloes, 1 dr. Cas- 
tile soap, 2 dr. Rhubarb, 3 dr. To be made into a ball 
with syrup, for one dose. 

JSTo. 2. — Calomel and opium, of each, 1 dr. Columho 
root, powdered, 3 dr. Powdered ginger, | dr. Syrup 
enough to form the ball for one dose. 

Flatulent Clwlic^ Gripes or Fret. — Tliis disease gojej-al- 
ly attacks rather suddenly, and is brought on by various 
causes ; sometimes it is occasioned by drinking a large 



184 /AUNDICE, &.C. 

quantity of cold water when the body has been heated ^ 
and the motion of the blood accelerated by violeiii ex- 
ercise. In horses of delicate constitutions, that have been 
accustomed to hot stables and warm cloajhing, it. may be 
brought on merely by drinking water that is very cold, 
thougli they have not been previously exercised. Bad 
hay appears to be another cause of the complaint; but it 
frequently occurs without any apparent cause, and thru 
probably depends upon a sudden loss of energy in the sto- 
mach or bowels, occasioning a spasmodic constriction of 
the intestine, and a confinement of air. The air which 
13 thus confined, does not appear to be produced by fer- 
m- utation of the contents of the intestine, it is more pro- 
bably a secretion of the internal or villous coat, in con- 
sequence of its atonic state; this opinion, however, is 
founded merely upon analogy, the air having never beei^ 
examined* 

The pain and uneasiness which this complaint occa» 
sions are so considerable as to alarm those who are not 
accustomed to see it, and lead them to be apprehensive of 
dangerous consequences: but if properly treated, it may 
be easily and expeditiously removed. It begins with an 
appearance, of uneasiness in the horse, he is frequently 
pawing the litter, voids a small quantity of excrement, and 
makes fruitless attempts to stale ; the pain soon becomes 
more violent, he endeavours to kick his belly, and looks 
round to his flanks, expressing by groans the pain he la- 
bours under ; at length he lies down, rolls about the stall, 
and falls into a profuse perspiration ; after a short time he 
generally gets up, and appears tor a minute or two to be 
getting better, but the pain S09n returns, and the succeed' 



JAUNDICE, &C. 185 

rfig paroxism is generally tnore violent than the for- 
mer — tlie pulse is seldom much accelerated, nor are there 
)lny symptoms of fever. The disease will sometimes go 
off spontaneously ; it more commonly happens, however, 
When proper remedies are not employed, that the air con- 
tinues to accumulate, and so distends the intestine, as to 
produce inflammation of its coats : the distension has 
sometimes heen so considerable as to rupture the intestine, 
whereby the horse is speedily destroyed. 

As soon as this disease is observed, let one of the fol- 
lowing draughts be given, and a clyster injected, compos- 
ed of six quarts of water gruel or w arm water, and 8 oz. 
common salt. If the disease lias existed for several hours, 
an<:- the pain appears to be very considerable, particularly 
if the pulse has become quick, it will be adviseable to bleed 
three quarts, witli a view to prevent inflammation and 
remove the spasmodic contraction of the intestine. If 
the disease, however, is perceived on its first attack, the 
drauglit and clyster will generally be sufficient to cure it: 
but should no relief be obtained by these means in an 
hour or two, let the draught be repeated, and let the belly 
be rubbed for a considerable time with the mustard em- 
bh)cat5on. Should the disease be so obstinate as to re- 
sist even these remedies, which will scarcely ever l>appcn, 
give a pint of castor oil, with 1| oz. tincture of opium or 
laudanum; and if castor oil cannot he had, l| pint of lin- 
seed oil may be substituted; as soon as the horse gets i;p, 
let him be rubbed perfectly dry by two persons, one on 
ca-'i side, and afterwards let Ifim be well clothed. It is 
necessary in this complaint to provide a iaige quantity of 



1^ JAtJNDlCE, &d 

litter for the purpose of preventing the horse from injur- 
ing kimselt' during the violence of the paroxism. 

THE DjRAUGHT.— .M?. 1. Uaisam of capivi, 1 oz. Oil of 
juniper, 1 dr. Spirit of nitrous ether, | oz. Simple mint 
water, 1 pint. Mix for one dose. 

f To be given as a Drench. J 

JVo. 2. Venice turpentine 1 oz. Mix with the yolk of 
an t^^^ and add gradually Peppermint water, I pint. Spi^ 
rit of nitrous ether, | nz. Mix for one dose, 

JVU 3. Camphor 2 dr. Oil of turpentine, | oz. Mint 
water, 1 pint. Mix lor one dose. 

Or in case neither of the foregoing prescriptions can be 
bad (but not otherwise) use 

JVo. 4. Gin or other ardent spirits, 3 gills, diluted with' 
an equal quantity of warm wat^r, which may be repeated 
in half an hour if the pain does not subside. 

As this complaint is liable to orcur during a journey, in 
situations where the above remedies cannot be readily 
procured, 1 have annexed a formula for a ball, for the con- 
venience of those who are in the habit of travelling. If 
this ball is wrapped up closely in a bladder, it may be kept 
a considerable time without losing its virtues. 

THE BALL. — Castilc Soap, J dr. Camphor 2 dr. Gin- 
ger, \\ dr. Venice turpentine, 6 dr. To be made into a 
ball for one dose. 

JV*o. 5. In all cases of violent griping pains in the bow- 
els, bleeding is the first thing necessary, and that pretty 
freely, as that relaxes the whole system, and paves the 
way for other means, which are to empty the rectum, by 
taking out with the hand the hardened excrements that 
are lodged there; sometimes they appear softish, and the 



JAUNDICE, &C. liZ 

horse dungs frequently, from pain, in very sraall quanti= 
ties at a time; but generally they are very much hardened; 
in this case, the operation formerly mentioned (which is 
called back-racking) gives tiie horse great relief, by remov- 
ing the pressure from the neck of the bladder; the horse 
will then be able to stale; but the pain from the air that is 
pent up in the bowels may still remain; emollient clysters 
are then of great benefit, as they not only empty the in- 
testines of the excrements, which affords a passage for the 
wind backwards, but they act as an internal fomentation, 
by which means they contribute to remove the spasmodic 
constriction from the bowels, and prevent inflammation; 
they may be frc^iuently repeated, till the confined air finds 
a passage backwards by the anus; w-hen once this takes 
place, it frequently passes oh in great explosions, to the 
great relief of the horse. I have observed, in such cases, 
that the air they passed, from being long pent up in the 
bowels, was more inflammable than ordinary, so as to 
catch fire from a candle, if it happened to be near, and 
spread a blue flame for a considerable space around, and 
sometimes to singe the hair and eye-brows of the by-staii- 
dcrs who were withi)i its reach. 

All the different species of cholic pains, whatever cause 
they may proceed from, ought to be treated in the sam© 
manner, on their first attack; as it is a necessary step t» 
free the intestines from what may tend to aggravate, oi- 
add to the disorder. This becomes the more necessary as 
it is the only means that can be used with safety in horses, 
to clear the passages, and pave the way for medicines, 
which may be afterwards found necessary; at the same 

time, carefully avoiding the giving of medicines, by tUe 

Y 



188 JArNDICE, &c. 

mouth, that are either heating or irritating; if opiates arc 
found necessary, laudanum may be given, to the extent of 
a tabic spoonful at once in a pint of thin water gruel, by 
the mouth; the same quantity, if needful, may be repeated 
about three or four hours afterwards, or it may be given 
aher tlie intestines are cleared of excrement, in a clyster, 
increasing the quantity to two spoonfuls, or more: a se- 
cond bleeding may be necessary when the symptoms are 
violent. 

JSTo. 6. If a horse is taken with the gripes (which he 
will discover to you by often looking towards his flanks,) 
and cannot keep upon his legs, but rolls and beats himself 
about, as undoubtedly he is in very great misery, do not 
bleed him, unless his breath is very hot, but clothe him 
warm immediately, and, with a horn, give him half a pint 
of brandy, and as much sweet oil, mixed; then trot him 
about till he is si little warm; this will certainly cure some 
horses. If it does not cure yours, boil an ounce of beaten 
pepper in a quart of milk, and put half a ])ound of butter^ 
and two or three ounces of salt, into a bowl or bason, and 
brew tliera together; give it rather warmer than usual; it 
will purge him in about half an hour, and perhaps remove 
the fit. If it does not, omit half the pepper, and give the 
same in quality and quantity by way of clyster, adding as 
it cools, the yelks of four eggs. If he is very bad, and nei- 
ther will do, boil a pound of anniseeds in two quarts of 
ale, brew it upon a pound of honey; when it is almost 
cool enough, put in two ounces of disascordium, and give 
it, with a horn, at three doses, allowing about half an hour 
between each dose. If his fit abates, give him time to re- 
cover; but if all this does not give him ease, and you have 



JAU!i)DIC£, &C. 189 

a suspicion of worms or bots bred in liis gut, which indeed 
maybe tlis cause;tor they sometimes fasten in the passage 
from the stomach unto the great gut, stop it, and so tor- 
Hi nt him till he dies: then give him two ounces jEthiops 
nnncral, made into a ball, with an ounce of the powder of 
ainiiseeds and a spoonful of honey and it will cure him: 
BiU yju must not give this to a mare with foal. 

JSIa. 7. Take a quart of thin posset drink^ penny-royal^ 
pellitory of the wall, of each an handful; mallows and 
plaintain^ »f ^'arli an liandTuI; and cummin seeds and saxa- 
frage seeis of each one spoonful bruised, cammomile JlotV' 
ers one spoonful; boil them down to half the posset ale, 
take half a pint thereof, dissolve therein half an ounce of 
the electuary called Electuarim de haccis Unin. Proved, 

JVo. 8. Take one quarter of a pound of tobacco^ and boil 
it in a pint of water, which give to your horse, and it 
will cure either cholic, belly ache or botts. Proved. 

N. B. Any person who will give their horse one I'^af 
of tobacco cut fine, in his feed, once every two, three or 
four weeks, it will prevent the above n^vUied diseases. 

JVb. 9. The cholic or belly-ache, is a fretting, gnaw- 
ing or swelling of the belly or great bag, proceeding from 
windy humours, or from eating of green corn or pulse, 
hot malt grains without salt or labor, or bread baked bad- 
ly: and belly boulid is when a horse cannot dung. The 
cure of the cholic or belly bound is thus; — take a quantity 
of the herb dill, and boil it in his water that you give him 
to drink, but if he cannot dung, then boil in the water a 
good quantity of the herb fumitory, and it will make him 
dung without danger of horting. 



1^0 APOPIEXY OB STAepERS. 

JVo. 10. Boil one spoonful of Cummin-seeds ^^ith a fe'jjir 
cammomile flowers, in posset drink : it is a good drink for 
|he wind, for a horse that is costive in his body. ProveiL 



CHAPTER XX. 

Jlpoplexy or. Staggers, 

This disease generally begins with an appearance of 
drowsiness, the eyes being inflamed and full of tears, and 
the appetite diminished; the disposition to sleep gradually 
increases, and in a short time the horse is constantly rest- 
ing his head in the manger and sleepiiig ; the pulse is sel- 
dom much altered; costiveness and a deficient secretion of 
urine commonly attend this complaint. Sometimes the 
disease will continue in this state for several days; at 
others it assumes a formidable appearance very early, or 
even at its commencement, the horse ialling down and ly- 
ing in a state of insensibility, or violent convulsions coming 
on. Sometimes a furious delirium takes place, the horse 
plunging and throwing himself about the stable, so as to 
render it dangerous for any one to come near him. From 
this variety in the symptoms, writers on farriciy have 
divided the disease into the sleeping and the v:ad stag- 
gers. It has been supposed that the staggers are fre- 
quently occasioned by a diseased condition of the sto- 
mach. When the complaint originates in the stomach, 
the horse is generally in a state of debility previous to tlje 



APOFlEXy OR STAGGERS. i9i 

attack, the pulse is (juick and weak, there is a yellowness 
in the eyes and mouth, and should the stomach be consider- 
ably distended with air and food, the belly will be swollen 
and feel very tense, and respiration will be much distur- 
bed: it will also occasion very acute pain, which will be 
strongly expressed by the animal. In cases of this kind it 
must be obvious that bleeding is a doubtful remedy, and 
should not be en)ployed unless there are evident marks of 
^ongesticm in the brain: bleeding however^ has proved a so- 
vereign remedy, if employed with sufficient freedom^ before 
an effusion of water, extravasation, or inflammation haveta- 
ken place; for it appears evident that the first stage of the 
complaint arises from an accunmlation of blood in the ves- 
sels of the brain, which impedes, in some degree, the func- 
tions of that important organ; and if tlicse vessels are not 
relieved by copious bleeding, there will be either an effu- 
sion of water in its ventricles, an inflammation of the mem- 
branes, or a rupture of some blood vessel, and are conse- 
quently an extravasation of blood.— These arc the causes 
which give rise to tliose violent symptoms denominated 
mad staggers, and which frequently prove fatal. 

There is sometimes so sudden a determination of blood 
to the brain, that those dangerous symptoms make theii- 
appearance before any effectual remedies can be applied. 

Receipts fo7' the Staggers. 

From the view we have given of the staggers, it will apr 
pear, that the terms which fiirriers have adopted to dis- 
tinguish its different a])pearances, arc very inade<|uate; 
and that it would be better to consider the disease under 
the two following heads, viz. the idiophatic and the symp 



1&2 APOPXEXy OE STAGGEKlS. 

iomatic staggers. In the former, bleeding is the grand re. 
medy, and seldom fails affording relief if employed with 
freedom at the comiiiencement of the disease. It will be 
adviseable also to give the following purgative draft, and 
inject a stimulating clyster, composed of a gallon of water 
and 8 oz. common salt. Should the symptoms not abate 
in eight oi ten hours after the bleeding, there will be great 
probability of obtaining relief by opening the temporal 
arteries, and suffering tiiem to bleed freely. When the 
disposition to sleep is not removed by the first bleediisg, 
the head should be blistered, and a rowel inserted under 
the jaw. With respect to the symptomatic staggers, 
■which originate in a diseased condition of the stomach, a 
diffei'ent treatment must be pursued. In this case medi- 
cines of a stimulating and antispasn odic quality have been 
strongly recommended; of this kind are salt of liartshornj 
assafsetida, ether, fsetid spirit of ammonia, camphor, &c. 
&c. It appears, however, that an opening medicine is 
preferable, and for this purpose the following formulae is 
recommended: 

Aloes, 6 dr. ISIyrrh and ginger, of each, 2 dr. Castile 
soap, 8 dr. Simple mint water, 1 pint. Mix for onedose„ 

Its operation maybe assisted by a clyster. — Should this 
not succeed in relieving the animal, it will be adviseable 
to have recourse to one of the three following formulae: 

JV*o. 1. Foetid spirit of ammonia, I oz. Camphor, 1 dr. 
Mint water, 1 pint. Mix for one dose. 

JSTo. 2. Spirit of hartshorn, 1 cz. Powdered valarian, G 
dr. Mint water, 1 pint. Mix for one dose, 

. ^0. 5. Assafjetida, | oz. Camphor and salt of harts 



4JPOPLEXy OR STAGGERSo 193 

liopn, of each, I dr. To be made into a ball with syrup 
for one dose. 

Purgative draft. — Succotrine aloes, 1 oz. Castile soap, 
2 dr. Common salt, 4 oz. Water, 1 pint. Mix for one 
dose. 

Bleeding, it has been before observed, is seldom proper 
in symptouiatic staggers; but whenever the pulse is tolera- 
bly strong, and the disposition to sleep considerable, it 
should by iio means be omitted, 

JVo. 4. if a horse be strong, take, first, a pint of blood 
from the neckj and when you have done that, open one of 
the thigh veins, and from thence take a quart ; if the 
disease be simple, this will cure him : but keep him after- 
wards to a moderate cleansing diet, and by degrees har- 
den him with proper exercise ; if he is weak, bleed him 
less in proportion. After which, we recommend the fol- 
lowing clyster. 

Boil two ounces of the sorfrt; of the liver of antimony, 
made into a fine powder, in five pints of beer j after five 
or six wambles, remove it from the fire, adding a quarter 
of a pound of butter, or hog's lard, and give it him two or 
three times, if he will bear it, and it will cure him ; Rub 
Mm well down, and give him warm water during this 
course of physic, 

JVo. 5. The signs of this disease are ; The Horse will 
fuam at the mouth white, and will seem dull-headed, and 
will have at that time a blue film over his eyes, and will 
wander much up and down : be sure to let him blood on 
both his neck-veins, within one or two days after he com- 
plains, and in the third furrow ia the palate of his mouth, 
with the point of a Cornet-horn : You may run an awl 



354 APOPLEXY OR STAGGERS. 

into the gristles of his p.osc, something above his nostrils ; 
the bleeding at the mouth and the nose will ease the pain 
in his head. The cure is, take a handful of Rue, by some 
called Herb-grass, three cloves of Garlick, a spoonful of 
Salt, a spoonful of Vinegar, and two spoonfuls of ^qna 
vitoe. ; bruise all these together well, and then put the one 
half into one ear, and the other half into the other ear, 
with a little wool after it ; put the liquor in with a spoon 
first, and then the herbs, and then the wool; and then tie 
or stitch with a needle and thread the ears up very fast 
with two listing garters ; th en presently fume him at the 
nostrils through a funnel with the stalks and peelings of 
Garlick, beaten in a mortar with Mastick and Frankin- 
cense mixed together; of these make pellets as big as a 
bullet, and lay them upon a chafingdish of fresh coals, 
and the smoke will go up through the funnel into the 
head, and much comfort and cleanse the brain ; fume his 
head three times a day till you see him mend : At the 
same time beat Redrvood-sced, which groAvs in Winter- 
corn, by some called PappTj-sced, very sniall, and give as 
much of the powder at each nostril as will lay upon a six- 
pence, in two half hornfuls of any beer ; do this every 
morning : Or thus, if you caniiot get Popptj-seed, then 
give him white Poppy-water, which you may like^^ ise have 
at the Apothecary's, and give at each nostril a spoonful 
and a half at each time ; it will make him sleep so sound- 
ly, that you may walk upon him from the head to the tail, 
and he w ill not stir ; he will lay as if he were dead for a 
time ; his sleeping will mightily refresh him : After Tou 
have given it to him, you will see him, before he falls 
down, to buckle and sally, till at last he will tumble dow n. 



APOPIEXY OR STAGGERS. i^ 

Let him stand in a dark room and warm, where he may 
see no light; let liim have hursten oats, and mashes of 
ground malt ; let his drink be cold water ; that which 
you put in his ears, must remain there twenty-four hours, 
and no longer : Put wool, flax, lint, or a rag after it ; 
stitching is better than a garter, for that will make the 
hair come white. Proved a rare cure. 

JW. 6. To know this palsey, the signs are these: it 

either will take him in the neck, that he cannot put 

his head to the ground, or inthe after pai-tsthat he cannot 

rise; the sinews of his flank will be hard, if you feel 

them with your hand. The cure is thus: take six penny 

worth of the oil of Pef«r, and anoint the place grieved with 

it at one time, and dry it in with a hot iron. If you 

anoint the after part of him, then lay upon him the litter 

of a hot reeking Jtf^ric/v7«W, and lay a cloth over that to 

hold it on, renewing it four times a day. If it be in the 

neck, after you have anointed it and dried it in, make a 

thumb band of the longest hottest dunghill-litter that you 

can get, and wind it round fibout his neck something loose, 

that he may eat and drink. Let the thumb-band be so 

long, that it may reach from his shoulders to his cars. 

Proved. 
JVo. 7. I met with some horses whose disorders were 
in effect a composition of the whole disorders as above. On 
a circumspect observation of their symptoms and signs, it 
did not appear that one particular of these was the cause, 
but that they were all united, and with sharp fits of an in- 
termitting fever* They had been bad three days before I 
saw them, and had been bled in the neck; I immediately 

bled them in the mouth, and put some tar on their nos^ 

Z 



I9G APOPLEXY OK STAGGBB.S. 

trils, and ordered them to be cloathed and kept Warm ; 
I ordered a friction of goose-greasCj vinegar and honeys 
all melted together, and being hot, rubbed their pole? 
and napes of their necks therewith very painfully ; 
then added to this friction a little spirit of turpentine ^ 
and rubbed it well across their loirs against tfie hair; then 
ordered a man with a good wisp of straw to rub them well 
for near half an hour; this cheared them a little, and be- 
gan to set the blood and juices to work a little in their 
proper tone; then ordered some long dung to be got tliat 
would heat, and laid it on their loins, six or eight inche?. 
thick, and bound it close on: then I made a sovereign drink, 
of vs ild comfrij roots, elecampane, fennel-seeds, garhck, a 
good quantity of 7vorm luood, ditamj, spice-tvood, bark^ 
ginger, kouse-hoid bread, biiiter, honey, rosin, molasses and 
dear cider, prepared in the manner of the sovereign drink, 
for internal ailments, and gave it them: the same evening 
I used the aforesaid friction, rubbed them, changed their 
^ung, littered them with straw to keep them warm, and 
left them till morning, wlien I saw that they would recover 
with proper care taken, and that in a few days, and the 
disorder in a great measure broke. I followed the same 
that day and the next, and the day after I bled them in 
the mouth again, still doing as heretofore; after three 
days I gave the drink but once in two days, but continued 
the rubbing and friction, and the dung, renewing it twice 
a day, and they perfectly recovered in a little time, beyond 
the expectation of every pei-son that saw them; for every 
one concluded that it was not possible to recover them. 
There were other horses taken with the same disorder, 
which I was not >vilb, but most of them died. Those 



APOFiEXl* OR STAGGERS, i97 

things seem to be nearlj calculated for these disorders; 
bleeding in these cases once or twice, or three times, a 
little at a time, is of good cftectj the friction is certainly 
good, as it clears tlie liead and brain, opens the vessels, 
and causes perspiration in tliose parts; also strengthens 
the loius, and drives the disorder from tlie kidnies; the 
dung is a great help to the friction, as it keeps the loins 
and Jiidnies « arm for the friction to do its olHce, and in a 
manner to dra.v part of the disorder and fever outwardly^ 
Wiiicli you may see by the dew on the loins when yon re- 
ne^v your dung in its proper season; the drinii is a strong 
antidote against poisonous qifilities, or nourisl»cr of fee- 
ble stomachs; a strcngtlieaer of weak lungs, nerves and 
arteries; the rubbing witli the straw gives great circula- 
tion to the blond and juices, so that it mightily strength- 
ens the limbs, and frees them from stiffness; I am quite of 
opinion, that these remedies will work a cure in any of 
those disoi'ders, Prox^ed, 

N. B. Tliose disorders are inR?ctious; therefore sepa- 
rate the sound from the sick, and rub tar on tlieir nostrils 
and on tiieir bridle-bits, and let them drink with it; tar 
being often a preventer of infections, You may fume with 
a matcli of brimstone. 

Mi. 8. The signs are, dimness of siglit and reeling and 
staggering to and fro, thrusting Ids head against the wall, 
and forsaking his meat. Take a long straight stick, 
about as thick as a pipe stem, sirwoth it well, and cut a 
notch at one end, then run it ut) to the top of his head, job 
a little hard, turn the stick and draw it out, and he will 
bleed freely. It is bad to cord liim about the neck in this 
disease: when he hath bled well in the head, give Jiim this 



198 APOPXEXT OK STAGGERS. 

drink: an ounce of aniseeeds, an ounce of turmeric, beaten 
small, half a gill of aqua vitse, a pint and an half of mild 
beer, a pint of verjuice, or else a gill of wine-vinegar, heat 
them luke-warm, and give them to the beast in the morn- 
ing before he drinks. As soon as you have given it, take 
a handful of rue, beat it small in a mortar, and a little aqua 
vitse: put half the aqua vitse into one ear, holding it up- 
right in the hollow of your hand, and put half the rue af- 
ter it, and put wool or tow to keep it in; tie up the ear 
with a woollen list or garter, and do the same with the 
other ear; tie up his ears with your list together, and at 
twenty fours hours end untie them, and take out the wool 
and rue: next morning let him blood on both sides the 
neck, save a pint of it, mix itwith an handful of salt, and 
give it to the horse fasting: four or five hours after, give 
him sweet hay, and at night warm water and bran: after 
you have given him the firstdrink, tie up one of his fore- 
legs; strew good store of litter under him, and he will lie 
down and take his rest, and come to in a day or two, oi' 
else be soon dead: the vinegar will make him stale, and the 
aqua vitse will make him sleep: if he comes not to his sto- 
mach, give him honey and white wine, and the cordial, as 
you are directed in the receipt for a dry surfeit. Aftei- any 
sickness, give him bran and peas, or bran and beans, when 
able to eat: when you let blood in the head with your cor- 
net horn, let blood in the third furrow of his mouth, and 
let him bleed well, and let him blood in the gristle of lus 
nose, with a long bodkiu or awl. Froved. 



BIARRHAEA OR PURGING. 199 

CHAPTER, XXI. 

Diarrhtea or Purging, 

This is not a very common disease in tlie horse, and sd- 
<iom difficult of cure; it may be occasioned by a suppi-es- 
sion of perspiration, or by an increased secretion of bile; 
from whatever cause it may proceed, give in the first 
place the following laxative ball, and if the disease does 
not cease in two or tliree days, let the astringent ball be 
given. Warm clothing is particularly required in this 
complaint, and exercise should not be neglected; his water 
should be moderately warm, and given frequently in small 
(Quantities. AVhen a purging is accompanied with griping 
pains and fever, it is to be considered as a case of inllan.- 
mation in the bowels, and treated accordingly. 

Receipts for Diarrhoea or Purging. 

^0. 1. — Laxative Ball. Succotrine aloes, 4 dr. Pow- 
dered Rhubarb, 3 dr. Castile soap, 2 dr. To be made in- 
to a ball with Syrup for one dose. 

^0. 2. — JistriHgent Ball. Opiimi, 1 dr. Tartariscd anti^ 
rnohy, 3 dr. Powdered ginger, 2 dr. Syrup enough to 
form the ball lor one dose. 

JVb. 3. — Take a pint of red-wine, or claret, warm it 
and add an ounce of beaten cinnamon, and give it him 
a little warm ; you may add the yolks of two new laid 
eggs: once or twice is a cure: — give him warm water at 
night, and cokl water next day, and ride him upon it. 

JVo. 4. — Take a quart of red wine and set it on tho 
fire ; then put iiito it an ounce and -j. half of Eok-armo- 



200 DIARRHABA OR prRGING. 

Iliac, in fine powder, and two ounces and a half of the 
conserves of sloes ; stir tbem well togctlier ; tlicn take it 
from the fire, and add two spoonfuls of the powder of 
cinnamon : brew all well toe;cther, and give it to the 
horse. Let him fast two hours after it and eat no m ash- 
ed meat. Hay is good, so is bread antl oats if well mix- 
ed with beans or wheat, but not else. 

j\Tj, 5. — Take a little allum and bole-armoniac, finely 
powdered, put them into a quart of new milk, stir it till 
it comes to a curd, then give it to the horse with a horn. 
A pint of vejjuice is very good for a sucking foal. 

JN^o. G. — Take a quarter of a pint of Verjuice^ and as 
mucli Bole-armoniaf beaten to powder as a walnut; stir it 
well up and down in the Verjuice^ and give it to the beast. 

JVo. 7. — Our professors, or, perhaps with more propri- 
ety, our executors, generally manage it so as to kill the 
horse before tluy can remedy the disease. To their 
eternal shame, this is gcneraliy accomplished by their be- 
ing over hasty in stopping the complaint; and as a plea 
for their ignorance, on opening the horse, they will en- 
deavour to persuade you that his lungs were inflamed, or 
that his liver was quite rotten. The number of horses, 
whose deaths are the consequences of this injudicious and 
violent treatment, ought to deter every gentleman from 
trusting a favourite animal to such ignorant practitioners. 

Instead of stopping the disease on a sudden, it should 
ratlier be encouraged by gentle purges, to render the dis- 
cliarge regular and imiforni ; afterwards the flux and 
acidity of the stomach (which is nothing more than a pro- 
fusion of redundant bile) miist be corrected and destroy. 
cd by degrees, with alkalis and absorbent rocdicines. 



DIABETES, &C. 201 

CHAPTER, XXII. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE URINE, 

And DiabeteSy or Excessive Staling, 

The urine which is of a pale-yellow, rather thick, a strong 
smell, and sharp, is good sound urjne: if on the contrary, 
the horse is out of order. If the urine be of an high red 
colour, like blood, then the horse has had too great lieats, 
been ever-ridden, or ridden too early after winter grass; 
if the urine be of a high clear colour, like old beer, then 
the horse is inflamed in his body, and hath taken some 
surfeit. 

If the urine carry a white cream on tlie top, it shews a 
weak back, and consumption of seed. 

A green urine shews consumption of the body. Urine 
with bloody streaks, shews an ulcer in the kidnies; and 
a black, thick urine, shews death and mortality. 

This disease often proves extremely obstinate, and not 
unfrequently incurable; it is believed, however, that if at- 
tended to at its comniencement, a cure may sometimes be 
effected without much difficulty. The complaint at first 
consists merely in an increased secretion of urine, the 
horse staling frequently, and in considerable quantity; the 
urine is generally transparent and colourless like water; 
at lesigtii lie becomes feverish, the mouth feels dry, and he 
seems to sulTcr much from thirst; the appetite is diminish- 
ed, and the pulse becomes quick; the horse is generally 
hidps-bound. and gradually loses flesh and strengtiu Lime 



5102 DIABETES, ^'Ci 

water lias been r.nich recomiticnded as a remedy for this 
disease; it is sometimes given, however, without any good 
effect. Some recomnjend diaphoretic medicines, from 
a supposition that it depends in a great measure upon a 
suppression of perspiration. Bark and otlier tonics have 
also been considered as useful remedies. A number of 
cases have speedily been cured by means of the following 
ball : 

Receipts for Diabetes^ or Excessive Staling, 

JSX 1. — Ball for Diabetes. Opium 1 dr. Powdered gin- 
ger, 2 dr. Yellow Peruvian bark, I oz. Syrup enough td 
form the ball for one dose. 

But these were all cases, not attended with fever, nor 

had the horses lost much strength or become hide bound 
in any considerable degree, yet the disease was well 
marked, and would no doubt have produced all those 
symptoms, had it not been attacked as soon almost as it 
made its appearance. In all these cases the quantity of 
urine discharged was very considerable, the mouth was 
dry, and there appeared to be a constant tlJrst. It seems, 
therefore, highly necessary to attend to this disease at 
its commencement, since, if neglected at this period, it 
becomes extremely obstinate, and sometimes incurable. — 

Should the above remedy fail, try one of the following 

formulae: 
JVo. 2. Emetic tJirtar, 3 dr. Opium, 1 dr. To be made 

into a ball for one dose. 

JVo. 3. Salt of hartshorn, 2 dr. Opium | dr. Powdered 

ginger, 1 dr. Liquorice powder, 3 dr. To be made into 

a ball for one dose* 



Suppression or urine . £03 

^"o. 4. Salt of "steel | oz. Myrrh, 2 dr. Ginger, 1 dr. 
To be made into a ball for one dose. 



►:«c-:< 



CHAPTER XXIIL 

Suppression of Urine. 

Horses are often attacked with a difficulty in staling Qt 
inaking water, sometimes amounting to a total suppres- 
sion of that excretion ; this most commonly arises front 
spasms in the neck of the bladder, or from hardened ex- 
crement in the rectum or latter part of the intestines. 

Receipts for suppression of Urine. 

Let clysters of warm water be injected until all the 
hard excrement is discharged, then give the following ball» 

JV*o. 1. — Nitre, 1 oz. Camphor, 2 dr. Linseed or other 
meal, and syrup enough to form the ball for one dose. 

0^ Should there be any appearance of fever, or should 
the horse appear to feel pain when the loins are pressed 
upon, it is probable that the kidnies are inflamed ; in 
such cases the ball would be impropei", (See inflammation 
of the kidnies.) 

JVb. 2. — Take half a pint of white wine, an ounce of ivy- 
berries beaten to powder, let it steep in the wine all night, 
and give it to the horse in the morning fasting; do not 
heat it : ride him after it a mile or two, then tie him up 

to the rack for two or three hours after it. This is very 

A2 



a04 SUPPRESSION OF tRINE, 

good for the wind-cholic, and to make a horse stale free- 
ly ; do it every morning till you see him stale free ; it will 
cleanse the kidnies, and is good for the stone and gravel. 
These herries must he gathered when they grow black, 
about Shrove-tide. You may put a handful of nettle-seed 
to the berries and wine. Proved. 

JV*o. 3.— Boil the size of a walnut of castile-soap in ft 
pint of strong beer and give it him luke-waiini, it w ill 
make him stale. Proved, 

J\'o. 4.— Take a pint of claret-wine and put into it an 
ounce of ivy-berries and one ounce of parsley-seeds beat- 
en small, and give it him at any time : once doing is 
enough. 

JVo" 5. — Boil in the water which your horse drinks, a 
good quantity of the herb called hog-fennel, or loveage, 
and it will cure him. 

JVb, 6. Bleed largely w ithout delay -, then take Castile 
or yellow soap, tw o ounces ; nitre, one ounce ; ginger, in 
powder and camphor: divide this into two balls, and give 
one immediately; let it be repeated in two or three hours 
at farthest, if the first should not prove sufficiently suc» 
cessful. That not the least time may be lost, but relief 
given to the beast without unnecessary delay, the follow- 
ing clysier should be given him by means of a bag and 
pipe prepared for the purpose, all which might be going 
on at the same time : Take gruel, of moderate consistencej 
full three pints ; giim arabiac and nitre, in pow der of each 
one ounce ; oii of juniper, two drachms; liquid laudannm 
half an ounce; olive oil, a quarter of a pint; incorporate 
these well together, and let it be ijijected something more 
then blood warm. That the obstruction or cause of diM 



WORMS. 205 

culty in the urinary passages may be perfectly removed 
and restored to a proper tone, it will be adviseable to give 
one ounce ot gum arahiac, and half an ounce oi nitre, in 
the water which the beast diinlcs, every morning for a 
week or ten da^s, for the purpose of sheathing the pas- 
sages that may have slightly suffered through the severity 
of the disease in its progression. 

^0, 7. Sometimes a horse cannot stale, and will be in 
great pain ; to ease him, take half an ounce of anniseeds 
beaten fine in a mortar, one handful of parsley roots, boil 
those in a quart of old strong beer, and strain it off, and 
give it to him warm. 

CHAPTER, XXIV 

WORMS. 

There are three kinds of worms found in horses. Tht 
most common and mischievous reside in the stomach, and 
are named botts. They are of a reddish colour, and seldom 
exceed three fourths of an inch in length: at one extremity 
they have two small hooks by which they attach them- 
selves, and the belly seems to be covered with very small 
feet ; they are most frequently found adhering to the 
insensible coat of the stomach, and then they do not 
appear to cause any considerable uneasiness or incoii" 
venience; sometimes, however, they attach themselves 
to the sensible part, and do great injury to this import- 



^06 Tiyo^Ms^ 

ant organ, keeping up a constant irritation, and thcrebj' 
occasioning emaciation, a rough staring coat; hide 
bound, and a cough. Frequent instances happen of their 
destroying the horse by ulcerating the stomach in a 
considei*able degree ; and cases are recorded where they 
have penetrated quite through the stomach. It is aston- 
ishing with what force these worms adhere, and how te- 
nacious they are of life; they have been found to resist the 
strongest poisons; nor is any medicine yet discovered fully 
capable of destroying them, or of detaching them from 
their situation. It seems probable that this worm, like 
the cater pillar, undergoes several changes; it is said to 
be originally a fly, which depositing its eggs in the horse's 
coat, causes an itching which induces him to bite the part: 
in this way he is supposed to swallow some of the eggs, 
which by the heat of the stomach, are brought to maturity, 
and produce hots. When the hots are fit to assume the 
chrysalis state, they are spontaneously detached, and gra- 
dually pass off with thefocces. This is the most rational 
account given of their production. It has been asserted 
that the fly from which hots are produced, crawls into the 
anus of horses, and deposits its eggs tliei-e; that tlie >\ ojnis 
when hatched soon find their way furihcr vp the iniestiues, 
and often penetrate into tlic stomach. This account is li- 
terally copied by a late writer on Veterinary Pathology;^ 
but it appears rather strange that any one who has con- 
sidered the structure of the horse's intestines should for a 
moment give credit to it. It seems impossible indeed for 
this worm to crawl from the anus to the stomach; and as 
far as the best observations go, they arc never found resid 

* Byding's Vetei-inary Patholop-y. 



WORMS. £0< 

kigin the intestines; sometimes, indeed two or three are 
found, hut they are evidently proceeding towards the anns. 
to he expelled. 

Receipts for the Bots^ and other Worms. 

«?Vb. 1. Take yellow emetic mercury, 1 dr. Liqnoii* p 
jmd linseed powder of each, | oz. Syrup or honey sufli 
cient to form the mass, and divide it into two halls. 

The horse should he put upon a diet of hran hcforc this 
medicine is given; after which, let him take one of those 
balls, and the other about forty hours afterwards, and 
when you have waited about the same time for the opera- 
tion of the medicine, let the following brisk purge be 
gives : 

JVo. 2. Take Barbadoes aloes, from 6 to 8 dr. Calonicl, 
j dr. Venice tui'pentine sufficient to form the ball. 

Q^ By paying proper attention to tJic operation of this 
medicine, we may be able to judge if it has the desired ef- 
fect; but if, after it is over, we suspect there are still some 
worms remaining, a second course may he icpcnted in 
about a fortnight afterwards. 

The next worm we have to describe is very slender, af 
a blackish colour, and seldom exceeds two inclns in 
length ; tiiey are never found in the stomach, and very 
rarely in the small intestines, the largest ]»art of the ca- 
nal being generally the place of theii' jcsidciice; here 
they prove a constant source of irritation, occasioning 
loss of condition, a rough unhealthy looking coat, and 
frequently a troublesome cough. A variety of alterative 
medicines have been proposed for the destruction of liiesc 
worms, and some of them arc supposed to I'.c inrii]]il>Ie; it 



208 WORM a c 

is believed, however, that none of them are possessed of 
much efficacy, and ought not therefore to be depended 
upon. 

Tlie follow ing are the alteratives to which we allude :— 
Savin, rue, box, jethiops mineral, antimony, sulphur, eme- 
tic tartar, calomel, and vitriolated quicksilver; the two 
last, if given with aloes, so as to purge briskly, and par- 
ti', ul ail y the calomel, are excellent remedies; but given 
merely as alteratives, they do no good. 

JVb. 3. — The following ball has been found very effec- 
tual; giving the preceding night from half a drachm to a 
drachm of calomel. The calomel mixed with the ball 
will be foiuid equally efficacious ; the former method, how- 
ever, is generally preferred. 

JVb. 4. — Succotrine, aloes, 6 dr. Powdered ginger, 1| 
dr. Oil of wormwood, £0 drops. Prepared natron, 2 dr. 
Syrup enough to form the ball for one dose. 

(0^1t is often necessary to repeat this medicine, but 
there should always be an interval of ten days between 
each dose. 

The third kind of worm is of a whitish colour, frequent- 
ly seven or eight inches in length, and generally found in 
the lower part of the small intestines. These worms are 
not so common as the other, but appear to consume a 
considerable quantity of chyle, or the nutritious part of 
the food ; they may be got rid of by the same moans that 
we have recommended for the small blackish worm. 

We may always be satisfied of tlie existence of worms 
in the intestines, when a wliitish or light straw-coloured 
powder is obseiTcd immediately beneath the anus. Giv- 



WORMS, S09 

big one drachm and a half of aloes every morning until 
purging is produced, will sometimes destroy them. 

You may easily ascertain whether your horse is trou<. 
bled with worms, if you only obserre his motions; for he 
will stamp on the ground with either of his fore legs, and 
frequently strike at his belly with his hind ones, which 
look somewhat swelled, or projecting, and feel rather hard^ 
he will often look behind him, and at the same time groan, 
as if in very great pain. 

There are several ways to destroy these creatures; but T 
would recommend the following ball, as being the most 
efficacious. 

JVb. 5. Three drachms of rhubarb; half an ounce of 
liquorice powder; two ounces of ^^thiop's mineral; honey ^ 
sufficient to form the ball. 

JVb. 6. Take one gill of Bum^ and add thereto two 
ounces ofP%nm'ssfl/w, shake it well together, and give 
it to your horse ; it is said to be a present cure. 

JVb. 7. Take of red pecipitate, as much as will lay on a 
halfquarter dollar, and work it up into pills with sweet 
butter^ and give it the horse, and ride him after, and it 
will kill all the worms and botts. Froved, 

dn exceeding good drench for Bots and Worms^ or afoul 
Stomach, 

JVb. 8. Take an earthen pot, make a hole in the bottom 
arid stop it with a spile; put in a little sti*aw, and take about 
four or five lumps of white dung of a hen, and three pints 
of good ashes^ as much chimney soot^ and put all these into 
the pot; then put to it two quarts of hot xvater, cover the 
pot and let it stand one liour ; take out the spile and 



2l0 1»Y0RMS* 

draw oft' the liquor; then take a pint thereof and add to. it 
one gill of hog''s-lard; give it to the horse blood-warm, and 
this drink \\ill perfectly cleanse his stomach, kill the 
worms, and cause him to rope at the mouth abundantly, 
I would not advise it for a general drench, but in extreme 
cases. Proved. 

JVb, 9.' — For Bats, ^t. Tlie signs are- — the horse will 
te knotted under the upper lip; and when those knots ap- 
pear to have yellow heads, he is far gone. He wili 
he faint iliid sweat, standing in the stable, and sweat much 
at the roots of his ears, yet curable with a speedy reme- 
dy. But when he sweats at his fore bowels, and his breath 
smells very stong and hot, then there is danger of his ne- 
ver being cured. He v.ill likewise, if not very bady 
often rub his breech against a fence or post; look lean 
and jaded, the hair will stare; he won't thrive; often 
strike his hind feet against his belly; show signs of 
the cholick, lay down and stretch himself, get up has- 
tily, and immediately feed greedily. These are the princi 
pal signs: The cure is, if not incurable. First bleed him 
plentifully in the mouth, so as he may swallow down a; 
large quantity of blood; or for want of tliat, take three 
pints of milk and sweeten it well with molasses; then give 
it liim blood-warm, and let him stand near an hour, so as 
the bats may loose their hold, which they will immediately 
do, and hll themselves with the blood, or milk and molas- 
ses; then get one pint of lindseed-oil, give him one half, 
and the other next morning: It is so safe, that you may 
ride him or work him immediately; this oil kills them in 
an instant: I have known the experiment often tried by 
dropping a hot or worm into it, and they instantly died: 



WORMS. 211 

It has been tried by other coimnou oils, but the effect is 
not so soon, although it is believed that most oils will kill 
them, especially those that are of a close texture; there- 
fore if you use tlus remedy alone, and that before your 
horse is too far spent, which by the signs before recited 
you may readily know, as being taken from observation 
and experience, you need not loose any creature with that 
disorder, and your horse will afterwards thrive in an ex- 
traordinary manner; so that it would not be amiss to give 
a horse thereof once or twice in a year, especially in the 
spring, just before he goes to pasture. Also it will purge 
away molten grease and gross humor in a great degree, 
and in a manner prevent disorders of the like nature; the 
nature of its working has been found by experience to be 
quick and free from trouble. The origin or breeding of 
the bots has gone through divers speculations; but an in- 
genious friend informed me, tliat their progeny is actually 
fi*om the horse-bee in the summer season, and are some 
months before they come to maturity. The manner, he says, 
is thus: he having observed a horse to have voided a hot 
with his dung, immediately took part of the dung, with 
the bot, and some earth, and put all together in a glas.s 
tumbler, and covered the tumbler close, and by often view- 
ing, he found its wings, legs, and all parts to form, spring 
and grow, until it became a perfect bee, and that about 
the time those insects are first seen. His opinion is, that 
the horse imbibes them from the number of knits those in- 
sects fix on their coats, by nibbing and gnawing them- 
selves: The certainty of which way the horse receives 
them, I shall leave to the ingenious to judge, but recom- 
mpi^d the above remedy as certain. Proved. 



212 WORMS. 

N. B. The decoction of Savin^ and J^'itrc dissolved in 
it, well sweetened with Honey^ will Ivill worms oi* hots in 
horses: This deserves to be ranked with some of the best 
for bots or worms, and is very safe for children that have 
worms. The decoction of Savin and hickory wishes mix- 
ed with their feed, will both prevent theii* breeding and 
kill them. 

JVo. 10. turmerick and AnniseedSy of each an ounce, 
one penny worth of the flower of Brimstone, half a quar« 
tcr of a pint of Brandy or dqua Vitcn ; beat the Anniseeds 
and Turmerick small, and then put all together into a 
pint and a half of strong Beer, except i\\e, Brimstone, and 
that lay upon the top of the horn when you are ready to 
give him the horn into his mouth : give this drink fast- 
ing, and let him fast four or five Iiours after it, and stand 
upon the bit; give him to drink warm water at night, the 
next day cold water; ride him after it; this drink will 
work pretty strong. If he has not been lately blooded, 
let him blood in the neck-vein, and in the third furrow of 
tlie roof of his mouth, with the end of your cornet-horn. 
This drink at once giving will kill the bots, and take him 
off his faintness, and much cleanse and purge him of tough 
gross humours in his body, upon which the worms do 
breed. Culpepper saith, that Boxtree-leaves are excellent 
good to kill tlie bots in horses; they are hot, dry and 
binding; you may put in a handful of them into this drink. 

Proved. 

JVti. 11. Take as much black soap as a walnut, as much 

Jlower of brimstone and a little garlick bruised; put these 

in a pint and an half of strong new beer or sweet wort; 

steep it all night, and give it to the beast next morning 



WOBMg, 21$ 

fasting, and tie him up to the rack three or four hours af- 
ter; then give him warm water and what meat you please. 

Proroed, 

JVo. 12. Give him two ounces of ^thiop's mineral made 
into a ball, with an ounce of the powder of anniseedSy and 
a spoonful of honey. 

N. B. But you must not give this to a mare with foal; 
you may bleed her in the roof of the mouth. 

./V(j. 13. Take a quart of new milk^ and as much of the 
purest clarified honey as will make it extraordinary sweet; 
tiieti being biood wa/.n, give it to the horse very early in 
the aiorning, he having fasted all the night before; which 
done, bridle him up, and let him stand tied to the empty 
rack for more than two hours. 

Then take half a pint of white-wine^ and dissolve into it 
a good spoonful or more of Ua&k soap^ and being well in^ 
corporated together (the horse having stood two hours as 
aforesaid) give it him to drink, and let him fast other two 
hours more after it, and the worms will void in great 
abundance. 

JVT). 14. Take the soft downy hairs which grow in the 
ears of an horse, and which you clip away when you poll 
him, and the little short tuft which grows on the top of his 
forehead, underneath his foretop, and a pretty quantity of 
them, mix them well with a half gallon of sweet oats^ and 
80 give them to the horse to eat, and there is not any thing 
tllRt will kill worms more assuredly. 



214 HIDE BOUND. 

CHAPTER, XXV. 

Hide Bowui. 

This term implies a tightness of the skin, which feels 
as if it were glued to the ribs, the coat having at the same 
time a rough unhealthy appearance. Tjiis complaint is 
generally occasioned by worms, or want of attention in 
the groom ; it occurs sometimes, however, without any 
manifest cause ,• in such cases give the alterative No. 1, 
every morning, until moderate purging is produced, and 
if this does not succeed, try the alterative No. 2, which is 
to be given every morning for eight or ten days, taking 
care to assist its operation by warm cloathing, good 
grooming, and regular exercise, 

Mterative Balls. 

JVo. 1. Succotrine aloes, 1 oz. Castile soap, 9 dr. Pow-- 
dered ginger, 6 dr. 

Syj'up enough to form the mass,- to he divided into stx 
doses. 

JNT}. 2. Tartarized antimony, 2| oz. Powdered' ginger. 
1| oz. Opium, I oz. 

Syrup enough to form the mass, to be divided into 
eight balls. 

J\*o. 3. When a horse's skin sets so close to his ribs, 
that you can scarce raise it with your hand, he is gene- 
rally said to be hide-bound. But I do not mean to call 
this any disease, as it may be easily removed by liberal 
feeding. If thg.t should fail, you may ilicn very reasona- 



sUKFEIT AND MANGE. SI 5 

foly conclude tliat he labours under some internal disorder : 
in that case, recourse must be had to bleeding and purg- 
ing. 

J\'\). 4. First let him blood in tbe neck vain, then give 
him this drink; take of celandine two handfulsj if it be 
in the summer^ the leaves and stalks will serve, but in tlK' 
winter use the roots and all; chop them very small, and 
take one handful of worm-wood^ and rue as much, clioj) 
them likcvdse ; put all these into three quarts of strong 
becr^ and boU them till it comes to a quart; then take i! 
off and strain all the moisture from the herbs ; dissolve in 
the liquor tijrcc ouncrs of molasses, and give it the horse 
lasting, blood-warm ; then for a week together rub all the 
liorse's body over .with oil and bcei\ or hiifer and beer 
against the hair. Let his diet be warm mashes of malt, 
or burstcn oats, rijQ or harlcij, and he will soon rcco\cj:. 

JVU 5. Let tlic horse blood, and then give him. to 
drink, three or four mornings togetiier, a quart of new 
milk, with two spoonsful of honey, and one sijoonful of 
coarse inoZasses; let his food be either sodden harlejj, warm 
grains and salt, or homony split in a mill; iiis drink mashes. 



CHAPTER, XXYL 

Siirfcil avA Mange. 

^urfal. — Tills absurd tei'm is given by fan-icrs to a dis- 
ease of the skin, consisting in small tumours or knobs 
which appear suddenly in various parts of the liody, some- 



216 giTRTEIT AND MAN6E. 

times in consequence of drinking largely of cold Watcr,whcn 
the body is unusually warm : it appears frequently without 
any manifest cause. It may be easily cured by bleeding 
moderately, or giving a laxative ball ; sometimes, indeed, 
it goes off without any medical assistance. There is ano- 
ther disease of tiie skin of the same name, which is gene- 
rally more obstinate, and attacks horses that ai*e hide- 
bound and out of condition ; in this a great number of ve- 
ry small scabs are felt in various parts of the body ; the 
horse is frequently rubbing himself, and sometimes the 
hair falls off from tliose parts which he rubs. This com- 
plaint approaches to the nature of mange, and requires 
the same treatment, assisted by a generous diet, good 
grooming, and regular exercise. 

Mange. This disease is seldom met with, except in 
stables where scarcely any attention is paid to the horses, 
and where their food is of the worst quality ; it is thought 
by some to be contagious, and may in that way attack 
horses that are in good condition. It is known to exist 
by the horse being constantly nibbing or biting himself, 
so as to remove the hair, and sometimes produce ulcera- 
tion; the hair of the mane and tail frequently falls off, 
and small scabs may generally be obsei*ved about the 
roots of that which remains. The mange is, we believe, 
a local disease, and requires only the following ointment or 
lotion for its removalj in obstinate cases, however, it may 
be adviseableto try the effect of the following alterative : 

Receipts for Svifeifs and Mange. 

JVo. i. —Mange Ointment. Sulphur vivum, finely pow- 
dcred,4 oz. Oil of turpentine, 3 oz. Hog's lard, 6 oz. Mix, 



SURFEIT AND MAIVOE. 217 

No. 2, Oil of turpentine, ^ oz. Strong vitriolic acid, | 
oz. Mix cautiously, and add train oil, 6 oz. Sulphur vi- 
vnm, 4 oz. Mix. 

JVo. S. — Mange Lotiorii White helebore powdered, 4 oz, 
boil in 3 pints of water to 1 quart, then add muriate of 
quicksilver, 2 dr. that has been previously dissolved in 
3 drachms of muriatic acid. 

JVb. 4. — Merative Jor Mange. Muriate of quicksilver, 
I oz. Tartarised antitnony, 3 oz. Powdered anniseeds, 6 
oz. Powdered ginger, 2 oz. Syrup enough to form the 
mass, to be divided into sixteen balls, one of which is to 
be given every morning. 

Should they appear to diminish or take off the appetite, 
or create a purging, they must be discontinued two or 
three days. 

jVb. 5. — Surfeit. Having first taken a pint of blood 
from tlie neck, give the purge prescribed for the Molten 
Grease^ twice in nine daysj and the ball (recommended 
for the Jtfo/fon Grease, J every evening, except the day 
on which he takes the purge. 

M). 6. — Mange. Most farriers lay so great a stress on 
bleeding, that they do it in almost every disease, riglit or 
wrong, but particularly in this; thinking that in the mange 
the blood is full of corruption, they immediately proceed 
to drain away, from various parts of the body, as the 
head, neck, palate, mouth, tail, and sometimes from the 
flanks and shackle veins all at once, until the animal 
spirits the horse possesses are wasted. 

All that can be expected from bleeding in this distem- 
per, is to lessen the quantity of it, which will make a free 
passage for the circulation of the juices, wlioreby the dif- 



21 S SLRFEIT AND MAXGil. 

ferent secretions will be performed with considerably less 
friction : but do not suffer any man to bleed your horse in 
this distemper, unless it happens to be redundant in him. — 
Therefore, the following medicine should be given. 

JVo. 7. — Ball for the Mange. Cream of tartar, half an 
ounce; liquorice powder, half an ounce; flour of brimstone, 
one ounce; syrup of buckthorn, sufficient to form a ball- 
One of these balls may be given every morning on an 
empty stomacii; and anoint the inliamed parts v>ith the 
following ointment: 

Flour of sulphur, and white hellebore, in fine powder, 
of each three ounces; quicksilver, half an ounce; oil of. 
turpentine, two ounces; camphor, two ounces; hogs-lard, 
one pound; mix them all well together. 

Tiiis ointment being rubbed on the inflamed parts once 
a day, with a woollen cloth, will destroy it in a very shorf 
time; but it is not at all necessary to rub the skin, to a 
rawness, before you apply the medicine; for that method, 
instead of doing good, not only excites much pain, but 
more frequently proves prejudicial. 

JVo. 8. — Surfeit. If you ride hard, and go in hot, your 
horse will be oIThis stomach; then is your time to guard 
against a surfeit, which is always attended with the grease, 
the farcy, or both ; the symptoms are, staring of the coat 
and hide-bound. 

jYo, 9. — Staring oi the coat will appear the very next 
morning. To prevent which, as soon as you dismount, 
rub him well, cover him, pick his feet, throw a handful or 
two of oats before him, and litter him deep. Go imme 
diately and boil for a cordial, half a pound of anniseeds in 
a quart of ale, pour it upon half a pound of honey, into a 



bowl or bason; brew it about, till 'tis almost as cold as 
blood, then give it (with a horn) seeds and all. 

JVo. 9.— The Cure. Feed as usual; but keep him warm 
doathed; give him warm water that night, and next morn- 
ing. A mash will do well that night, and lest tlie cordial 
should not have force enough to carry off the surfeit, you 
must give him one of the following balls : 

Half an ounce of ^Ethiops mineral ; ditto of balsam 
of sulphur terib ; ditto of diapente* or powdered ani- 
seeds, mixed and made into a ball with honey or treacle. 
You may give him a pint of warm ale after it. 

To prevent stiffness, supple and wash his legs with 
greasy dish wash, or water and soap, as hot as a man can 
bear his liand in it, with a dish clout (by no means take him 
out of the stable that night) and grease his hoofs. 

*To make Diapente. Take a quarter of a pound of Aristo- 
lochia, a quarter of a pound of myrrh, half a pound of bay 
berries, the outward husk-peeled off. two ounces of white ivo- 
ry, two ounces of hartshorn ; the round root of Aristolochia i» 
the best, cut the outward rind and grate it small, do not dry 
it, but after you have grated it, beat it small by itself, or with 
the other things, in a mortar, then put them into a fine sieve 
and searse the finest out ; then put the biggest into a mortar 
again, and beat it very small, then searse the finest from that, 
and so do till you have made all very fine, then put it into a 
bladder, and keep it for your use. You may give an ounce 
of this at a time, altho' you give other thmgs vrith. it. An 
ounce of diapente is a good drink in a pmt of strong beer, 
for a new taken cold. Proved. 



C2 



aREASB OB SCHATCHSS* 

CH AFTER, XXVII 

Grease, or Scratches. 



This disease consists in an inflammation, swelling, an4 
consequent discharge from the heels, the matter having a 
peculiar, offensive smell, and the heels being sometimes itt 
a state of ulceration; the swelling frequently extends above 
the fetlock joint, sometimes as high as the knee or hoc k. 
When the inflammation and sw tiling are considerabh , ap- 
ply a large poultice to the heels (see Poultii e,) taking care 
to keep it constantly n;oist, by adding to it occasionally a 
little warm water; at the samctinic let a dose of physic be 
given. Alter three or four days the inflamniation and 
swelling will have abated considerably, the poultice niay 
then be discontinued, and the astringent lotion apj»lifd f.vc 
or six times a day. Should the heels be ulcerated, apply 
the astringent ointment to the ulcers; and if they are deep 
and do not heal readily, wash them w ith the detergent Io» 
tion previous to each dressing. Regular exercise is of the 
highest importance, but it is necessary to choose a clean 
and dry situation for the purpose. 

In slight cases of grease, the astringent lotion and a 
few diuretic balls will generally be found sufficient to ef- 
fect a cure; but when the disease is of long standing, and 
particularly if the horse has suffered from it before, there 
•Will be more difficulty in its removal; in such cases the 
following alterative powder may be given in the corn every 
day until it produces a considerable diuretic e/Tect ; in very 



GREASE OB SCHATCUES. 9.2M. 

dbstinate cases roweli in the thigli have been found use* 
ful. 

Though the grease is most commonly occasioned either 
by liigh feeding aud want of exeicise, or by neglect iii v.i% 
groom, tiierc are cases which seein to dejiend on general 
debilityo A hqrse is rendered more susceptible of it by 
being in a state of weakness, and the complaint sometimes 
O'Ves its continuance to this cause. \Vhen a horse ha^ 
Suifered mucli Ironi this disease, and particularly if he ap- 
pears to oe weak a-id out of condition, a liberal ^.llowance 
of corn Will tend to recover him, if assisted by the astrin« 
geut lotion and careful grooming ; in cases of this kind 
exercise is essenlially netebsary. It must be obvious that 
when tliis disease dejjends upon debility, a dose of physic 
would not be an eligible remedy, yet considerable benefit 
has so netimes bee i obtained by giving the following alter- 
ative every moj-ning until the bowels are moderately 
opened. 

Receipts for the Qrease or Scratches. 

JVo. t. — Alterative ball. Suecotrine aloes, 1 or. Cas* 
tile soap, 1 1 oz. Powdered ginger and myrrh, of each, 
|. oz. Syrup enough to form the mass, to be divided into 
six balls. 

This medicine, though of an opening quality, will im^ 
prove the horse's strength, and at the same time promote 
absorption. 

JVb. 2.-^Mterative powder. Powdered rosin and nitre, 
of each, 4 oz. Mix, and divide int eight doses. Give 
one daily. 

(P* Nothing tends so much U prevent grease and 
swelling of tlie legs, as frequent hi rubbing, and wash- 



j22S gbease oh scratches. 

ing the heels carefully with soap suds, as soon as a horse 
comes in from exercise. In inveterate cases of grease^ 
^here the disease appears to have hecome habitual in some 
degree, a run at grass is the only remedy; if a dry pas- 
ture be procured where a horse can be sheltered in bad 
weather, and fed with hay and oats, it will be found ex- 
tremely convenient, as in such circumstances he may per- 
form his usual labour, and at the same time be kept free 
from the complaint. In obstinate cases the mercurial al- 
terative will be of service, giving one ball every morning 
until the bowels are opened. 

JVb. 3. — Astringent lotion, or wash. Alum powdereii, 1 
oz. Vitriolic acid, 2 dr. Water, 1 pint. Mix. 

JVb. 4. Alum powdered, 4 oz. Vitriolated copper, | oz„ 
Water, 1| pint. Mix. 

(0* The strength of these lotions often requires to b e 
altered; where the inflammation and irritability of the 
part are considerable, they must be diluted with an equal 
quantity of water: but if the inflammation is subdued, and 
a swelling and ulceration remain, the alum solution can- 
not be made too strong. 

JVb. 5.— ^Astringent ointment. Gun powder 1 oz. Butter, 
2 oz. Mixed and made fine and smooth by the point of a 
knife or ispoon. 

Apply the ointment twice a day, the heels to be washed 
perfectly clean with strong soap suds at least t\\ice every 
day; this is a most eflBcacious remedy, and may even be 
iised upon a journey with almost certain success. 

JVb. 6. Venice turpentine, 1 oz. Hog's lard, 4 oz. Alum, 
finely powdered, 1 oz. 



GREAS£ OR SCRATCHES. S2S 

^^"o. f. — Mercurial alterative. Calomel, | dr. Alvert 1^ 
dr. Castile soap, 2 dr. Oil of juniper, 30 drops. To be 
made into a ball with syrup for on«^ dose 

JVb. 8. — If your horse's legs be swelled because the 
grease is fallen into them, and there is no outward ulcer, 
neither will the bathing with cold water and other out- 
Ward helps assuage it; — ^then take a piece of coarse 
woollen cloth, and make a hose somewhat larger than hi^ 
leg, to reach from the lower part of his pastern up to his 
cambril or knee, and make it close and strait at the pas- 
tei'n, and wide above. Then take half a gallon of winc- 
lees, or else the giounds or lees of strong beer, set thcni 
on the fire, and boil them well j then put to them a pound 
of clean hog's grease ; when melted and stirred well to- 
gether, take as much wheat-bran as will thicken it, and 
bring it to tlie body of a poultice : with this poultice as 
hot as t!ie horse can bear it, fill the hose, and close it al 
the top. 

Let tlic horse stand two days; the tliird day open tlte 
hose at the top, but stir not the poultice, only take mol- 
ten hog's grease, hot as the horse can suffer it, and 
with a spoon pour it into tlie poultice on every side, 
till it will receive no more : this will renew t!ie strength 
of the poultice : then close up the top of tlie hose, and 
so let the horse stand two or three days. You may 
then open the leg and rub it down, and if you find great 
occasion, you may apply a new poultice; if not, your cure 
is wrought. 

JVo. 9. — Now, if besides the swelling in tlie legs, your 
liorse hath ulcers, or chaps, or scratches, pains, mides, and 
the like: then you shall apply the former poultice in all res 



2^4 GB£AS£ OK SCRATCHEg^ 

pects as aforesaid ; after five or six days application, whca 
you take the poultice away, take a quart of old urine, and 
put to it liaif a handful of salt, as much of alum, and half 
an ounce of white copperas, boil it till all be mixed and 
incorporated together; then with this water very hot, 
wash the sores once or twice a day, and after a little 
drying, anoint them with the ointment called egyptia- 
cuni, made of eight ounces of vinegar, twelve ounces of 
honey, two ounees of verdigrease, an ounce and a ha'f of 
alum, boiled to that height till it comes to a red salve ; 
it will both kill the malignant humours, and heal and 
dry up the sores, 

JYq, 10. — Take eight ounces of hog's grease, of brim- 
stone, lime, gunpowder, each three ounces, eight ounces 
of black soap, and as much soot as will suflBce to hring 
them to a sahc; boil the hog's grease and soap together, 
and bring tlje other hard sini])les to a fine powder, and so 
mix all together, and make a black ointment : with this 
anoint the sores once a day, after they are cleansed and 
made raw. 

JVb. 11. Take train oil, nerve oil, oil of bays, of each 
half a pint, and the size of an egg of alum : — boil them 
well t( gether; and having cleansed the sores, and opened 
the poultice, if there be any, with this salve, anoint the 
place. It is a speedy care. 

JVo. 12. Take a small quantity of verdigrease, red 
lead, and §oap; mix them together and apply it : let it lie 
three days and nights. — You must cut the hair close. 
Or, Take soap and salt, mix them together in your hand, 
keep his feet dry, and tie a linen cloth about them, it will 



GREASE OB SCRATCHES 2^25 

naflre them. (?r. Take verdigrease and burnt alum, mix 
them together and apply it, keeping the horse dry. 

Proved 

JVb. IS. Take a lump of black soap, a little fresh hen's 
dung, five or six oyster-shells put into hot embers all night, 
and beaten to powder : mix all these together as an oint- 
ment, and apply it to the horse's sore heels every morn- 
ing and evening; the horse must not go into the water un- 
til you see he is cured. Always rub his heels very cleaR 
before you rub in the ointment, and you will find it a cer- 
tain cure by two or three dressing^. 

JVb. 14. At night let his heels and legs be bathed in beef 
broth, nei^t morning rub his legs clean and apply this oint- 
ment to heal it. Take a little of gilts grease, speck-oil, ver- 
digrease and tran-oil, put them all into a pipkin, set them 
on the fire, and stir them till they be melted; once a day 
anoint him with this ointment, till his heels be well; chafe 
it and rub it in with your hands, and keep him out of water 
and dirt till he be cured. 

JVb. 15. If your horse's legs swell, especially in the 
month of March, ride him into some rapid water up to the 
mid-leg, and let him stand a quarter of an hour; then when 
you set him up in the stable, take a whisp and a pail of 
"Water, and dash the water against his legs till they be 
clean. — This will cure when they are not broke out, but 
only swelled. FrovecL 

JVb. 16. Take a pail of fair water, wash his legs clean, 
and clip away the hair close to the skin as far as his legs 
are crannied, then wash his legs again, and let him stand 
till they be dry: take half a pound of honey, an ounce of 
ground pepper, ten heads ot garlic, put them into a bowl 



226 eHEASE OK SCRATCIlES 

and beat them together till they come to a salve. If thh 
scratches be on both legs, divide the salve into twohalves, 
lay them on two half sheets of grey paper, spread a broad 
piece of linen over the paper, and lay the plaisters to the 
hinder part of liis legs where the sores are, and sew them on 
fast, and close in the fet-lock, and as far up as his legs 
are scabby, and let theiii stay on two days: m^ke a small 
thumb-band of hay, and wind it all over his legs and over 
the plaisters. At two days end, wipe the chaps of every 
cranny and crack in his heels, then lay on a plaister, and 
do every thing as before : at two days end lay on anothci* 
fresh plaister, and let it remain three days; and when you 
take that off, if you see necessary, lay on a fourth plaister, 
and let it stay three days more; and by thus dressing it will 
dry quite up and be whole. Let him not go into the water 
all the time of his ciire. If one or two of the pocky farcy 
drinks were given, it would much further the cure, and 
dry up those humours in the body which feed the scratches 
m the legs. Proved. 

•V6. 17. Clip away the hair, then rub the sores till they 
tie raw, wash them with old urine, alum and salt, as hot as 
possibly it can be borne; then take the tops and buds of 
elder and green brier-berries, and boil them in | gallon of 
^weet wort, and add a good store of aluiii, being very hot; 
Wash his legs two or three times, knd it is a certain cure. 

JV*o. 18. — Colds^ glanders, sickness, molten grease, loost 
stomach, fainting; also to make a horse fat. Take of an- 
niseed, of cumming-seeds, oi fenugreek-seeds, of the fine 
aearsed powder of elecampane roots, of each two ounces? 
beaten and scarsed to a very fine dust ; then add to them 
two ounces of brown sugar candy beaten to powder, and 



GREASE OR SCRATCHES, W>7 

two ounces of! the Jlour of brimstone; then take an ounce of 
the best juice oUiquorish, and dissolve it on thefirein half a 
pint of white ivine : which done, take an ounce of the beat 
cliymical oil- of aniseeds^ and three onnces of the syrup 
0^ coits-foot ; then o\l saliad oil, of fine live honetj, and the 
purest syrup of sugar or molasses, of each a half pint ; then 
mix all these with the former powders ; and with as much 
fine wheat f^our as will bind and knit them all together : 
work them into a thick paste, and make thereof halls some- 
what bigger than French walnuts, hulls and all ; and so 
keep them in a close gally-pot, for they last all the year ; 
yet I do not mean tiiat you should keep them in the pot 
in balls ; for because they cannot lie close, the air may 
get in and do hurt, as also the strength of tlie oils will 
sweat outward, and weaken the substance ; therefore knead 
the whole lump of paste into the gally-pot, and make the 
balls as you have occasion to use them. 

Now for the use of these balls, because they are cordial, 
and have divers excellent virtues, you shall understand, 
that if you use them to prevent sickness, then you shall 
take one of these balls, and anoint it all over with sweet 
butter, and so give it to the horse in the morning, in the. 
manner of a pill ; then ride him a little after, if you please; 
otherwise, you may chuse and feed, and water him abroad 
or at home, according to your usual custom; and this do 
three or four mornings. 

If you use them to cure either cold or glanders, then 
use them in the same manner for a week together ; 

If you use them to fatten a horse, then give them for a 
fortnight together. 



^28 GREASE OK 8CKATCHE6. 

But if you use them in the nature of scouring, to take 
away n olttn grease or foulness, then instantly after his 
heat, and in his heat, you must use them. 

Again-if you find your horse at any time hath taken a 
little cold, as you shall perceive by his inward rattling ; 
if you tfike one of tl.ese balls, and dissolve it in half a 
pint of sflc/c, and so give it the horse with a horn, it is a 
present renjedy. 

Also to dissolve the hall in his ordinary water, being 
made milk-w arm, it worketh the like effect, and fatteneth 
exceedingly. 

To give one of these balls before travel, it prevents tir« 
ing; to give it in the height of travel, it refresheth wea- 
riness J and to give it after travel, it saves a horse from 
surfeits and inward sickness. 

For a sudden great Heat^ as in Hnntivg, Bacing, or hard 
Biding, that the Horse's Grease is Tiielted, 

JVb. 18.— This you shall know by the panting of the 
horse that night he comes in so hot ; for if he be over- 
ridden and his grease melted, you shall know it by th6 
panting at the breast and girting place, and heaving at 
the flank ; you shall sec the night he comes in, and th© 
next day morning, that his body will be mighty hot. For 
remedj, take and give this to purge him and cleanse him, 
and to qualify the heat and working of his body : Take 
one pint of sack, and put to it one ounce of diascordiunij 
beaten small — niix th^m together, and give it to the beast 
at any time cold, but in the morning fasting, is the best ; 
give him warm water for three or four days after : give 
him bursted oats, boiled barley, and mashes made of 



GREASE OR SCRATCHES. 22§ 

grw^^ malt; keep him well littered, and clothed warm. 
If he forsakes his meat, and you see he hath lost his sto- 
mach, to bring him to his stomarh again give him two 
ounces of hontif^ and half a pint of xi'hite wine mixed to- 
gether, and htated blood warm. In the morning after he 
bath drank cold water, you may give it him with a horn • 
it will make him stale, clear his bladder, and bring him 
to his stoniach again. After you have given him it, ride 
him a mile or two gently, and set him up warm ; at nigh* 
ride him a mile or two again, snd litter him well, and 
keep him warm. Thus do for three or four days, or a 
Week ; at three days end, give him the wine and honey as 
you were before directed. If you see notwithstanding all 
these means used, that he will not fall to his meat, and 
that he is bound in his belly, and dungs very small, then 
give him this cordial two or three times, two or three 
days betwixt each cordial giving. Take three pints of 
stale beer, household brown bread, the quantity of half a 
penny loaf; boil these two well together, then take it off 
the fire, and nut into it a quarter of a pound of honey ^ 
and a quarter of a pound of fresh buffer: give him this 
cordial blood-warm fasting, and ride him a mile or two 
every evening and morning, as well when you do not 
give it to him, as when you do; ride him fairly, and 
clothe and litter him up warm : this cordial will bring 
him to his stomach, and cause him to be loose-bodied, 
and dung soft, although he be weak, and have little or no 
stomach. Four or five hours after his cordial, the firs 
tiling you give him, boil him half a peck of oats and a 
pound nffennugreek together in water till they be burst- 
and the water wherein these were boiled, pour it from 



ii30 UREASE OK SCRATCHES 

the oats into another pail, and put some cold water to 
it ; and when he drinks, let him drink of this water; for 
the oats And fennugreek^ throw some of them into the man- 
ger hot, and if he he loth to eat them, then strew some 
'wheat bran upon it, and it is very likely he will eat all 
together. This course taken in every particular, will 
bring your horse to a stomach, and raise him suddenly. 

A fortnight or three weeks after he is thus melted, and 
that you have given him the former things, to give him 
this purge oi aloes, will do the heast a great deal of good 
in this case : I am confident it is good. Or give him as 
much of the powder of mechoacan as will lie upon a shil- 
ling, at three or four times : that is very good in a pint 
of wine, or a quart of strong ale. Proved. 

JVo. 1 9. — Ji purgation, when any horse is sick of his grease^ 
or any costiveness. Take a pint of good old wliitc-wine, 
and set it on the fire; then dissolve into it a lunip, half as 
big as a hen's egg, of castile-soap, and strain them well 
together on the fire: then take it off, and put into it two 
good spoonsful of hempseed, heaten into fiue dust, and an 
ounce and a half of the best sugar-candy beaten to fine 
powder, and brew all well together. Then having warmed 
the horse, to stir up the grease and other foul humours, 
give him this to drink, and w alk him up and down a little 
after it, to make the potion work; then set him up warm, 
and after a little stirring up and down in the stall, if he 
grows sickish, give liberty to lie down. After two or three 
hours fasting, give him a sweet mash, then feed as at 
other times. 

JV*o. 20. — For grease, fallen into the legs, to help them at 
tvicz dressing, and to help the scratches. Take of train oil. 



JiREASB Oil SCRATCHES. 231 

©f nerve oil, of oil de bay, of each half a pint, and the big- 
ness of an egg of alum; boil them all together; then having 
cleansed the sores, and opened the poultice, if there be any, 
with this salye anoint the griefs, and it is a speedy cure. 

JVb. £1. — For to cure the scratches. Take soap and salt, 
and mix them together in your hand, and keep his feet dry, 
and tie a linen cloth about them, and it will cure them. 

Proved. 

JSTo. 22. — Another. Take verdigrease and burnt alum, 
mix them together, and so apply it, keeping the horse dry. 

Proved. 

JVo. 23. I would reconnnend to those wh(» have conve- 
nience, of the most safe and certain remedy for this disor- 
der, to turn their horses into good pasture for two or three 
months, as that has been known to cure when all othci 
methods have failed. But to those who have not that 
convenience, I prescribe the following medicine. 

JVo. 24— A purge for the Grease. Succotrine aloes, 
two ounces; rhubarb, three dr. calomel, two dr. oil of 
aniseed, sufficient to make a paste. Divide it into two 
balls. 

After you have given both these balls, between which 
the space of four days should intervene, one of the follow- 
ing diuretics should be given every morning. 

JVb. 25. — 'Diuretic Ball for the Grease. Saltpetre, four 
ounces; nitre, two ounces; yellow rosin, four ounces; cas- 
tile soap, two ounces; salt of tartar, two ounces; honey 
sufficient to make the whole into a paste. Divide it into 
seven balls, and give them as above. 

The hair must be constantly cut close about his swelled 
heels, which must be kept very clean by frequently wash- 



232 QBEASE OB SCRATCHES. 

ing them with yellow soap and water; and when dry, rufc 
in the following, twice or thrice a day. 

JVb. 26. — A bath for greasy heels. To one pint of the 
spirit of wine, put one ounce of camphor. 

M>. 27. — The horse ointment. Putinto a clean pipkin, 
that holds about a quart, the bigness of a pullet's egg of 
yellow rosin; when it is melted over a middling fire, add 
the same quantity of bees-wax; when that is melted, put 
in half a pound of hog's lard; when it is dissolved, put in 
two ounces of honey; when that is dissolved, put in half a 
pound of common turpentine; keep it gently boiling, stir- 
ing it with a stick all the time; when the turpentine is 
dissolved, put in two ounces of verdigreasc; you must take 
off the pipkin (else it will rise into the fire in a moment,) 
set it on again, and give it two or three wambles, and strain 
it through a coarse sieve, into a clean vessel for use, and 
throw the dregs away. 

There is an extraordinary ointment for a wound or 
bruise in flesh or hoof, broken knees, gaul'd backs, bites, 
cracked heels, mallenders, or when you geld a horse, to 
heal and kee[) tlie flies away; nothing takes fires out of a 
burn or scald in human flesh so soon; I have had personal 
experience of it. I had it out of Degrey^ but finding it 
apt to heal a wound at the top, before the bottom was 
sound, I improved it, by adding an ounce of verdigrease. 

JV*o. 28. — Swelled and cracked heels. If his legs and 
heels should swell and crack, and become stiff" and sore, so 
that he can hardly be got out of the stable in the morning, 
and perhaps did not lie down all night; you may travel on, 
but walk him for the first mile or two very gently, till the 
swell ine; falls/and he begins to feel his legs. 



GREASE OE SCRATCHES 383 

„Vo. 29. — Cure. When you end the day's journey, wash 
his sore legs with warm water, and a great deal of soap; 
or foment his heels (first cutting away the hair very 
close) with old urine, pretty warm,for a quarter of an hour, 
by dipping a woollen cloth, or an old stocking into the 
urine, squeezing it, and then applying it to the part af- 
fected, having first well washed it with the urine. You 
may then prepare the poultice as follows : 

Make a poultice of any sort of greens, such as lettuce, 
cabbage, mallow leaves, turnip tops, or turnips themselves, 
the best of all; boil them tender, squeeze the water out, 
chop them in a wooden bow 1, with two or three ounces of 
hog's lard or butter; put this poultice into a cloth, and tie it 
on hot as soon as it can be got ready, letting it stay on all 
niglit. Feed him as usual, and offer him warm water in the 
house. About nine or ten o'^clock (that is, an hour or two 
after he is put up for all night, and fed) give him a ball. 

J\ra, 30. If a horse's legs and heels swell and crack, 
and become stiff and sore, wash them with hot water and 
Soap; then prepare the foregoing poultice, and tie it on hot, 
letting it stay on all night. — Feed him as usual, and offer 
him warm water. About tliree or four hours after he is 
put up for all night, and fed, give him the following ball : 

Half an ounce of *aS^/iiap's mineral; ditto of balsam vf 
sulphur terib; ditto of diapente, or powdered aniseeds, 
mixed and made into a ball with honey or treacle, and a 
pint of warm whiskey and water, beer or ale after it: and, 
in the morning, give him water in the stable, on ace )unt 
of the ball. A day or two after, take a pint of blood frem 
his neck. 



234 MA1XENDKE3 AND SEIXAKDEBS, 

CIJxVPTER XXVIII. 

Mallendcrs and Sellanders. 

"When a scurvy craiption appears on the posterior part 
of the knee joint, it is termed mallenders; and when the 
same kind of disease happens on the interior of the hock 
joint, it is named sellanders, 

JVo. 1. Should these complaints occasion lameness, it 
will be proper to give in the first place a dose of physic; 
let the hair be carefidly clipped off from the diseased part, 
and let all the scurf be washed off with soap and w arm 
water; a cure may then be soon effected by applying the 
following ointment twice a day. 

JVb. 2. The ointment. Ointment of wax or spermaceti^ 
t oz. Olive oil, 1 oz. Camphor and oil of rosemary, of 
each 1 dr. Acetated Water of litharge, 2 dr. Mix. 

tTVb. 3. Ointment of nitrated quicksilver, olive oil, of 
each, 1 oz. Mix. 

JVo. 4. Oil of turpentine, | oz. Vitriolic acid, 1 dr. mix 
cautiously, and add of oil of bay, S oz. Mix. 

JVo. 5.—Mallender. The mallender is a crack in the bend 
of the knee, it oozes a sharp humour like that at the heels 
or frush; a horse dare not step out for fear of tearing it 
wider; it is so painful it takes away his belly; it makes him 
step short, and stumble much. 

The samermethod, medicine, greasing and poulticing 
(which you used for swcU'd or crack'd heels,) will cure it. 



MAU.ENDERS AND SBILANDERS. 235 

JVTj, 6. Sellander and cure. The sellander is a crack hi 
the bend of the hoiighj and must be cured with the same 
things^and after the same manner. 

JVb. 7. Mallender, First clip away the hair which gro^'d 
tipon it and about it; then rub the scabs off with a hair- 
cloth, or the back of your scissors and knife. This rub- 
bing of it will cause it to run yellow matter. Take a linen 
cloth, and wipe away the filth Clean; then take four pen- 
ny-worth of the oil of riggrum, and mix it with a little of 
your own dung, and lay it on with a flat stick upon a lin 
en cloth, and bind it to for a Week: then make it clean, 
and dress it again — and it is a cure. After your first 
da-essing, you may ride him or turn him out. Proved. 

JSTo. 8. First rub it dry with a cloth, then anoint it 
with crown-soap and red mercury precipitate, mixed to- 
gether; when you have anointed it once, pluck the hairs 
which grow in it, and upon tbe edge of it, out; then dress 
him three times more, once in two dajs dress it ; then 
anoint it with salad oil, and it is cured. But always be- 
fore you anoint it, you must i ub it dry. Proved. 

JVo. 9. — Mallcnders aud Sellaiiders. If but newly ob- 
served, frequent washing with thin gruel, and rub it daily, 
with equal parts of camphorated spermaceti ointment, and 
mercurial mixed together: this may effect a cure; but if 
it is of long standing, a cure can only be expected by wash- 
ing it often with the above gruel, and rubbing it daily 
with mercurial ointment. 

JVb. 10. — Of the mallender, sellander^ paim, scratches , 
mellet, mules, crown-scabs, and such like. For any o* 
these you shall take verdigrease and soft grease, and 
grind them together to an ointment ; r«t it into a box 

E2 



2S6 GlANDERS. 

by itself; then take wax, hogs-grease and turpentine, 
of each alike quantity; melt them to a salve, and put 
them in another box; then when you conse to dress the 
sore, after you have taken off the scab and made it 
raw, you shall anoint it with the green salve of verdi- 
grease and fresh grease only, for two or three days; it is 
a sharp salve, and will kill the cankerous Immour: then 
when you see the sore look fair, you shall take two parts 
yellow salve, and one part green salve, mix them together, 
and anoint the sore therewith till it be whole, making it 
stronger or weaker, as you shall find occasion. 

jyo, 11. — Take a sponge, and wash the part with cop- 
peras water; then apply the green ointment, twice every 
day, which is a complete cure for the mallenders. 

CHAPTER, XXIX. 

GLAJ^DERS, 

This IS believed to be a contagious disease, and has 
hitherto proved incurable. The most essential thing to 
be known with respect to the glanders, is the method of 
preventing its being communicated to sound horses; and 
the appearances by which it noy be w ith certainty distin^ 
guisVved from othei' diseases. The symptoms are, a dis- 
charge from one or both nostrils, and a swelling of the 
glands undev the throat: if one nostril only is affected, it 
generally happt«js that the svAollen gland is on the same 



side of the tliroat: sometimes the disease remains in this 
state for a considerable time, at others the discharge in- 
creases, b Incomes of a greenish colour, and very foetid; 
ulceration takes place within the nose, and the swollen 
gland beco.nes harder, and feels as if closely attached to 
the jaw bone. A cold has sometimes been mistaken for 
th& glanders, but may very easily be distinguished from 
it. In olds, there is generally a certain degree of fever, 
the eyes appear dull or watery, the appetite is diminished, 
and there is almost always a cough. If the glands of the 
thrjat shoidJ swell, they are not so closely attached to the 
jaw bone, as in the glanders, but feel loose and moveable 
nnder the skin; they are also generally in a state of ac- 
tive inflammation, feeling hot, and softer than in the glan- 
ders: in colds, both nostrils are almost always affected; 
in the glanders, it frequently happens tbat the discharge 
is from one only. In colds, the nostrils are never ulcera- 
ted — in glanders, it always happens, though at different 
periods of the disease; sometimes ulceration takes place 
at its commencement, at others a month or t^o may elapse 
before it can be perceived. The strangles has been some- 
times mistaken for the glanders or s >rc throat, but in this 
disease the inflamed glands very soon suppurate and burst, 
whereby all the other symptoms are generally removed; 
whilst in the glanders the glands seldom or never suppu- 
rate: in order, however, to avoid all danger, it is advisea- 
ble, the moment a horse is perceived to have a discharge 
from his nose, to put him into a stable where he can have 
sio communication with other horses. 



23| f GLANDERS. 

Receipts for the Glqnders. 

JVo. 1. If the glands of the throat are enlarged and hi-^ 
flamed, apply a large poultice to them, steam the head 
three or four times a day, let him be well clothed, parti- 
cularly about the head, and give the fever powder, No. 2, 
every day, or once in twelve hours. Should the discharge 
arise from a cold, it will soon be removed by these means. 
When considerable ulceration is perceived in the nose, 
with the other concomitant symptoms of the glanders, the 
horse should be destroyed instantly. 

d^ The most effectual mode of purifying stables in 
which glandered horses have been kept, is to remove, 
or carefully wash every thing on which the horse may 
have deposited any matter; and afterwards to cover every 
part of the stable with a thick coat of lime and size. 

JVb. 2. Bleeding and purging are tlie only methods 
likely to afford relief in this case; and not even these, un- 
less resorted to before there becomes too great a dis- 
charge, 

1^ The following purging ball has been found beneficial in 
this distemper. 

Take one ounce of Barbadocs aloes, three drachms of 
rhubarb, one drachm of ginger powder, and half an 
ounce of iron filings; put them into a mortar, and mix 
them all well together, with a sufficient quantity of bran- 
dy to make it into a paste. Divide it into two balls, and 
give one in the morning fasting; the other ball n;ay bp 
given the third morning. 

The food should chiefly consist of good sweet old hay. 
and the oats should be ground. Mashea are very neces- 



GLANDERS. £3^ 

sary in this distemper; as also warm water^ith oat-meal 
in it. 

One ounce of tar, and one ounce of honey, dissolved in 
a quart of ale, may be given three or four times a week. 

JVo. 3. — Ji drink to dissolre and bring away the glanders^ 
Take of sweet wine, one quart; or for want thereof, strong 
beer; figs, four ounces well sliced; and two ounces of 
sliced liquorice; boil them well together, then put in gin- 
ger in powder, elecampane and pepper in powder, of each 
one drachm: When it is boiled enough, put in of treacle 
five ounces, and of butter the same quantity, and the 
yelks of two new-laid eggs beat well together; give it to 
the horse lukewarm, and order him as needful. ' 

JVb. 4. — A drink to bring awatj the glanders^ when other 
drinks have rotted them., and brought them to snppiiration. 
Take the best white wine vinegar, and tlie sharpest; put 
in it three whole eggs ; let them lie twenty-four hours; 
then beat them well together, shells and all, and give it to 
the horse. You may do so two or three niornitigs more 
or less, as yqu may find occasion; and this will clear off 
the glanders. 

JVb. 5. — Of the running glanders., or ninurning of the 
Chine. Take of auripigmentum, two drarlnns ; of tussila- 
ginis, as much made into powder; then mix them toge- 
ther with turpentine till they be like paste, and make 
thereof little cakes; dry them before the fire; then take 
a chafingdish of coals, laying one or two of tlie cake« 
thereon; cover them with a funnel ; and when the smoke 
ariseth, put the funnel into U.c horse's nostrils, and let 
the smoke go up into his head; which done, ride him till 
he sweats; do this once every morning before he be water 



240 GLANDERS. 

od, till the running at his nostrils cease, and the kernels 
under his cha^is be lessened. 

JVb. 6. — ^n approved aire. Take a quarter of a pint 
of verjuice, three spoonsful of salad oil, and two spoons- 
ful of Aqua vitee; put one half into one nostril, the other 
into the other nostril, being blood-warm; then ride the 
horse somewhat speedily for twenty or tliirty rods, and 
only spare him when he coughs; then set him up warm, 
and at noon give him a warm feed. Lastly, if you find 
hiui grow sick, give him warm milk from the cow. 

JVo. 7. Ji preparation before you give ike black drink for 
the glanders. First take blood from him, if you find it 
gross or phlcgmatick, for otherwise he cannot possibly 
mend; then instead of oats, give him every morning about 
four or five o'clock, wheat-bran prepared, for four or five 
days together, and the water to drink that the bran is 
sodden in, which is to qualify and dry up the moist and 
had humour abounding iii liim; and then let him blood in 
the neck, if you have not before. The next day rake 
liim with your hand, and then give him this clyster. Make 
a decoction of mallows one pir.t and an half, and put 
into it four ounces of fiesh butter, and of salad oil a 
quarter of a pint: administer it blood warm, with a 
strap of leather tied to his tail and put between his legs, 
and the other end fastened to the sursingle, so strait that 
the tail may be close to his tewcl or fundament, that he 
cannot pujgetill it be loosened: this done, mount his back, 
ride him gently an easy trot or foot-pace for half an hour; 
then set him up cloathed and littered, with the bit in his 
mouth tliree hours, during which time he will purge kindly, 
then give him white water aiqd hay, and at night a little 



GLANDERS. 241 

oats, for he must be kept to a spare diet: The next day 
mix well together the powder of brimstone and fresh but- 
ter, and anoint all along with two goose feathers, and run 
a thread through each of their quills' ends, that you may 
fasten the thread to the top of the head stall of his bridle, 
and run them up as high as you can into each nostril, and 
30 ride him an hour or two, and this will purge his head 
and lungs, and cause him to send forth much filthy matter; 
but when you sot him up, take them out, and an hour after 
give hay and white water, and bran prepared, which is 
mentioned in the beginning of this receipt: the next day 
give him his clyster again, and let him rest for that day, 
but ordered in all things as before; the next day use the 
goose feathers again, and order him as you did before : 
all this is but to prepare him for the following drink; 
but you must observe to keep him always warm, and let 
him be ever fasting and empty, before you give him any 
physic, and air him evening and morning if the sun shine, 
or if the weather be warm or calm: then three days after, 
give him this drink called the black drink. 

Tlit Mack drink for the Glanders. 
After having prepared your horse in the foregoing man 
ner, take new-made chamber-lie, and of the best and 
strongest white-wine vinegar, of each half a pint; then 
take of mustard-seed two or three spoonsful, and make 
mustard thereof with vinegar, and grind it well; then put 
your vinegar and chamber-lie to the mustard, and stir 
them well together; then take of tar and bay salt of each 
alike, as much as may suffice, incorporate them well 
together, and fill two or three egg-shells therewith. 
Having prepared these things, keep him over night to a 



24£ GLAWUEllf. 

very spare did, and the next morrring take and ride Idm 
first tiii he begins to sweat, then give liim the egg-shells 
filled with tar and salt, as before prescribed ; and as soon 
as he hath taken that, give him with a horn the afore- 
named drink made of chamber-lie, vinegar and mustard, 
all at the mouth, except two small liornsful which must be 
poured into his nostrils; which, when he hath taken, ride 
him again as umch as you did bofore, set him up, and 
cloathe and litter him warm, and so let him stand upon the 
bit till three or four o'clock: then unbit, and give him a 
Warm mash, and order him in all things, as is usual for 
horses taking pliysic. Give him this medicine or drink 
every other day, if the horse be strong; and if he be weak 
in body, once in three or four days. This is an infallible 
cul'e, in three or four times giving, if it be rightly given* 
though he be far spent. Proved, 

JVo. 9. Take a quai't of red vinegar, being no wine vine- 
gar ; put it over the fire, and put thereto two spoonsful 
of honf^y, two spoonsful of elecampane, beaten into fine 
powder, and searse it through a fine searser; and as much 
roch-alhim as tlic bigness of an egg, beaten into fine pow- 
der; half a pint of salad oil : put in your salad oil after all 
these have boiled together one quarter of an hour ; then 
take it off the fire, and let it stand until it be milk-warm; 
then give your horse six spoonsful in each nostril with a 
little horn ; after you have given this drink, ride him two 
01' three turns and no more ; then tie his head down to his 
foot for the space of four hours; then let h^m fast four 
hours; you must give this diink at nine several times, being 
ti ree days between-every drink; every second day after he 
hath had his drink, give him chicken's guts warm, rolled 



in beaten bay salt, and put them down his throlat, giving 
him warm water and wet hay all the time you give hina 
this drink, and this will amend the glanders, and the 
mourning in the chine. Proved. 

JVb. iO. — To cure the glanders^ running at the nose^ and 
all colds and rheums. First observe tbis^ when you give 
him oats put some honey to them, and rub them very well 
together between your hands, continue to do so until h© 
stops running at the nose. This is one of the best and most 
certaira cordials, for it disperses all the phlegm and choler, 
it also purgeth the head and brain, it purifieth the blood, 
it venteth evil humours, it causeth good digestion, and 
freeth a horse from glanders, colds, catarrhs, rheums, 
running at the nose, *cc. Proved, 

JVo. 11. Take a bag and draw it over the horse's head, 
then fume up his nostrils. with a lighted match; do so for 
three or four days, then let blood in the neck-vein, and 
give him the following drink. — Take one gill of vinegar, 
and two or three new-laid eggs, mix tliem well, and give 
them to the horse in tlie morning fasting, and ride him 
half a mile after he has taken it: rub bis poll well with 
goose-grease, for it is excellent for any thing of that kind. 
Tar and sweet oil mixed together, and tied to the bit,, is 
vfery good for a cough. 

JVb. 12. Some young horses with a cold or a surfeit 
will run a bluish matter at the nostrils, but that is no glan- 
der; on the contrary nature is relieving itselO when the 
matter from the nostrils is of a glewy cruddy nature, 
greenish, white or yellowish, or thif k, the glands under 
the jaws fallen, kernels one larger than the other, and se- 
veral small ones sticking close to thfe bone; those k^r^els 

F2 



244 . FARCY^ 

in the mourning of the chine are generally more spread. 

under the whole chaps, and loose in the midst of the two 

bones, just under tlie windpipe or wesand, the gleet at the 

nostrils is generally white and clotty; by these signs a 

glander may be known. The remedy; take goose grease, 

any quantity you like, and rub it on the pole and nape of 

the neck as occasion requires; this is the whole remedy: t 

have in a degree experienced its efficacy in some sort, in, 

this disorder, yet not in a desperate case with success, tf 

am quite of opinion, provided the disorder is not too faf 

advanced, that this remedy, and fuming at the nostrils 

with any of the fumes in this book laid down, or assafce- 

tida and castor, and two or three drinks of the decoctio* 

of sassafras root, a quarter of an ounce of gum guaiacum 

dissolved in it, given luke-warm, \vill perfect a cure spee- 

<jily, Tliis remedy seems to be nearly calculated for the 

disorder in desperate cases: the goose-grease thus used 

will cause any common running at the nostrils speedily t« 

evacuate, disperse and dry up, which I have proved; but 

shall leave further trial to the judicious. Proved. 

CHAPTER, XXX. 

FARCY, 

The farcy generally appears in tlie form of small tu 
mors or buds (as they are commonly termed) frequently 
in the course of the veins, from which they are erroneously 



FARCY. 245 

supposed to consist in a swelling of those vessels. These 
tumors generally burst, discharging a thin watery matter, 
and degenerating into foul spreading ulcers. The conti- 
guous glands are usually inflauied and swollen from an 
absorption of the poison. This disease sometimes makes 
its appearance in diffused swellings of the hind legs, sheath, 
or other parts of the body. The most common cause of 
farcy api>ears to be contagion, either from a glandered 
or farcied huis % for there can be no doubt that those dis- 
eases will reciprocally produce each other; whence we may 
conclude that they both originate from tlie operation of 
the same poison, which produces different effects accord- 
ing to the parts on which its noxious influence is exerted. 
There being certain parts only of the body which are 
obnoxious to this poison, its effects are always partial in 
some degree: thus we find the internal parts of the nose 
particularly liable to be effected by it; the skin likewise is 
very susceptible of its action, more particularly along the 
under part of the neck upon the veins, and on the inside 
of the fore and hind legs; and when the horse is suffered 
to live a sufficient time for the poison to acquire its high- 
est degree of virulence, or to produce its full effect, the 
lungs do not escape the contagion. The farcy may be 
either constitutional or local: if glanderous matter taken 
from a farcy ulcer is applied to the skin where the cuti- 
cle has been t«rn or abraded, a chancre or foul ulrer is 
produced, which may easily be distinguished from all 
others by its peculiarly foul appearance, the edges becom* 
ing thick, and the discharge consisting of a thin and ra- 
ther glutinous matter ; it generally spreads rapidly, and 
never looks red or healthy; the absorbents or lymphaticg 



246 IfAKCT. 

about the ulcer become inflamed and swollen from ab- 
sorption of its poisonous matter, the swellings produced 
in this way are oommonly mistaken for veins, and hence 
has arisen the opinion of the blood vessels being the seat 
of the disease : the glands likewise, to which those lym- 
phatics lead, become inflamed and . enlarged ; at length 
small tumors or hids appear in the course of these ab- 
sorbents, which are small abscesses arising from the in- 
flammation of those vessels. 

Thus far the disease is certainly locals and the consti- 
tution untainted ; the poison being arrested by the glands, 
and for a time prevented from mixing with the blood ; 
at length however it insinuates itself into the circulation, ■ 
and poisons the whole mass. At length the bones of the 
nose become carious or rotten, and finally the poison falls 
upon the lungs, and very soon puts a period to the suf- 
ferings of the unfortunate animal. Sometimes the pro- 
gress of the disease is extremely rapid, and destroys the 
horse in a very short time; at others it is remarkably 
slow, and continues in the same state for a considerable 
time, without affecting either the appetite or strength. 

In the first stage of the farcy, while it is perfectly lo 
cal, a cure may be easily accomplished; and nliuuld the 
disease be discovered quite at its commencemeiit, the ap- 
plication of the farcy ointment aided by half an ounce of 
nitre given in his feed or water morning and evening will 
generally remove it; which however, must be continued 
for some time. But should the disease have been ne- 
glected, or not perceived at its commencement, should tlio 
lymphatics be enlarged or corded^ (as it is termed by 
farriers) and the neighboring glands swollen, tl^e cure h 



hy no means so certain; iu that case some of the poison 
may have got into the circulation, though its effects liavc 
not been visible. Whenever therefore the farcy has been 
neglected at its first appearance, it will be advisable to 
give the following ball, once, twice, or even tliree times a 
day, if the horse's strength will admit of it, taking care 
to restrain its inordinate effect upon the bowels or kid- 
neys by means of opium ; at the same time it is ncressary 
to keep up the horse's strength by a liberal allowance of 
grain mixed with mashes ; malt has been found useful also 
on those occasions. During the time the horse is taking 
this strong medicine, great attention must be paid to him, 
he must be warmly cloathed if the weather is cold, have 
regular exercise, and never be suffered to drink cold water. 
The following balls indeed have proved so eflicai ious, 
there is seldom occasion to try other internal renicdics; 
unless however they are given for two or three weeks af- 
ter every symptom has been removed, the cure will sel- 
dom be permanent. 

With respect to that kind of farcy w!uch appears in 
the form of diffused swellings of the limbs or other parts, 
it seldom originates from hifection, and docs not often de- 
pend perhaps on the action of the glanderous p;>ison 
being merely common OBdematoiis swellings, such as 
accompany the grease; from tills wc may account lor 
the efficacy that has sometimes b'cn attributed to purga- 
tives and diuratics as remedies for the farcy. 

When large abscesses form in consequence of farcy, 
they do not re(|uire any pcculiai' treatment, but it is par- 
ticu'arly nccessaiy to support the horse's strength in 
those cases by means of corn and naalt. It has been sup- 



248 FARCYo 

posed that the farcy depends altogether upon debility, aijd 
medicines of the tonics or strengthening kind have been 
recommended for its removal. 

Eeceipts for the Farcy. 

vVo. 1. — Ball for Farcy. — Muriate of quicksilver, 1 scr. 
Powdered aniseeds, | oz. Syrup enough to form the ball. 

The quantity of muriate of quicksilver may be gradu- 
ally increased, as far as the horse's strength will allow. 
When violent sickness, purging, or excessive staling is 
produced by it, it will be advisable either to discontinue 
it for tvs o or three days, or to diminish the dose consi- 
derably. One drachm of opium will sometimes prevent 
such violent effects. 

JVo. 2. — Farcy Oinhncnt. — Oil of vitriol, 1 oz. Oil of 
turpentine, 2 oz. 

Mix carefully in an earthen, stone, or iron vessel, as it 
will boil furiously for a few minutes. — Add a little train 
oil, then apply this ointment to the buds or tumors twice 
or three times a day, well rubbed fn by a sponge or rag 
tied on the end of a small stick. 

.;Yo. 5. — After bleeding, moderate purging may be 
safely complied with. 

Purge for the Farcin. — Jloesy half an ounce ; rhiharb^ 
two drachms ; viercnrmis dulcis^ two drachms ; oil of 
carrarvaySy two drachms. Make it into a ball with a suf- 
ficient quantity of honey and flotir of sulphur. 

This is so mild, that it may be given to any horse, 
whether fat or lean, with safety, twice or thrice, letting 
him rest four or five days between each purge. 



FARCYc 249: 

T^e following drink should be given in the morning, 
and the ball in the evening, till the cure is completed. 

ji Drink jor the Farcin. — Dissolve one ounce of good 
molasses in a pint oitvarm ale^ and give it with a horn. 

Jt Ball. — Linseed in powder^oue ounce; verdigrease, two 
scruples ; sulphur, half a drachm. Form the ball with 
honey or molasses. 

Ointmentfor the Farcin.'— Oil of turpentine^ on« ounce ; 
spirits of wine, three ounces ; Flanders oil of bajjs, one 
pint ; camphor, one (junce, A little of this ointment should 
be rubbed on the buds twice a day. 

As the buds grow soft, and yield to the pressure of the 
finger, they should be opened with a lancet, in order that 
the matter may discharge, and to prevent its returning in- 
to the blood ; but I do not conceive it necessary, or even 
consistent with sound doctrine, or the rules of physic, to 
pierce or bore them with a red hot budding iron, nor to 
pull out the knots with pincers, and then to thrust tents 
into thein : the orifice made large enough, with a lancet 
for the matter to discharge is quite sufficient ; as the 
most simple sore may easily be changed to an ill-dispos- 
ed ulcer, by the use of tents. 

JVb.. 4. — First bleed in those veins that doth most feed- 
the farcy, then give liim this drink ; take one ounce of 
aloes, and boil it in three pints of water till reduced to a 
quart, then add to it one gill of molasses, and as much soft 
soap, and half as much yeast, and give it to ti;e lu.v&c 
lukewarm. Ride him a mile before and after it, and keep 
him warm for two or three days until the physic has done 
working, Frare/L 



.A'b. 5. — Take l]ii*ee quarts of strong beer, and dissolve 
in it six ounces of stone iime ; give it the horse in two 
drinks, one half at a time^ at two days distance, and it is 
a cure. Proved. 

JVo. 6. — For a farcy in the head, — If it be in the head 
and no where else, then bleed him in both the neck-veins 
in tlse morning before he hath drank ; then give him the 
former drinks for a pocky farcy, and no other drinks ; 
let him blood with your cornet-horn, in the third furrow 
in the roof of his mouth, and tie him up to the rack for 
five or six hours ; then give him a little clean hay, and 
at night some warm water and bran. If it be in his head, 
and no \^ here else, and some certain small buds do ap- 
pear, then do iKthing but bleed him in the neck-veins, and 
give him tlie drink, and bleed him in the palate of the 
mouth, and at the very same time apply the charge of 
soap and brandy hot, and heat it well in ; lay it not upori 
the head of the buds, but all over the swelling, and in a 
short time by using the driuk the farcy will die and the 
swelling will fail. Proved. 

So. 7. — To ewe ajbul, ra7ik, pocky farcion, ivhich runs 
■all over a horse, or many parhcidar part of his body. — An 
horse that hath the faicion, if his breath smells strong, 
and stinks, then do not meddle with him, for his lights are 
rotten, and there is no cure for him, and he is as full of 
them witliin as vdthout : if his breath be sweet, there is 
no doubt of the cure. For all knotted, budded farcions, 
separate the sound from the sick, for this disease is infec- 
tious, they will take it one of another. This disease Com- 
eth first of colds and surfeit. Give him a little hay at 
r.ight to keep his jaws from falling, the next morning let 



TARCY. I5i 

liiiTi blood on both sides of the neck, and let him bleed 

wieli, then give him this drink : one ounce of aristolochiag 

an ounce of turmeric, an ounce of aniseeds : beat your 

turmeric and aniseeds small, and grate the root of aris- 

tolochia, and put them all together with one handful or 

two of lung-wort or liver-wort, and rue, a handful of 

green or dry w^ormwood, a handful of green fennel, if not 

to be had, take two ounces offennfel-seed : cut the herbs 

small, pound the seeds, and put them all to steep in three 

pints of water, and let them lie all night ; next morning 

before you give it him, ride him a mile till he be warm, 

then give him it cold as it stood all night, and ride him st 

mile gently, set him up warm clothed and littered ; let 

him stand upon the bit seven or eight hours then unbit 

him, find give him a little clean hay, and at night warm 

water with some wheat-bran in it : the next morning ride 

him to the river and let him drink; and let him drink but 

once a day, but ride him well upon his watering, and at 

the end of three days, give him his former drink again* 

and order him as before : work him moderately the time 

of his cure. Be it winter or summer, keep him in the 

house vC'itli dry meat : when cured you may turn him out 

or keep him in : when he is cold, wash him twice a day 

up to the back, soak him well in the river, and at three or 

four days distance, if you see need requires, give him two 

or three drinks more, ordering him as before. As soon 

as you have given him the first drink, with the end of your 

cornet horn, let him blood in the furrow in the top of his 

mouth. These drinks will make him run at the nose 

much white or yellow matter, and they will make him 

spew much filth, and will purge and dry up all the gross 

G2 



15^ FARCY. 

humours in his body, and cleanse tlie blood. After these 
drinks, you shall see tlie farcions appear with red heads, 
and they will drop out of themselves, and where you see 
them ready to drop out, apply this medicine ; take half a 
pound of roche-alum, melt it on the fire, take it out and beat 
it to powder, and mix as much as you think will do with 
your fasting spittle, till it be like an ointment, and where 
you see they are ready to drop out, lay a little of this up- 
on the head of the bud, and where you see they are hard 
in the flesh let them alone, for some will die and the rest 
will drop out of themselves : ride him up and down in the 
river twice a day, as far as the swelling goes, a good while 
after the alum and spittle have taken place : tliese drinks 
will kill and dry up any pocky gangrene farcion even if it 
spreads all over him. Frothed. 

JVU 8. — For a farcy in the head^ If it be in the head 
and no where else, then bleed him in both the neck-veins 
in the morning before he hath drank ; then give him the 
former drinks for a pocky farcy, and no other drinks ; let 
him blood vith your cornet-horn, in the third furrow of 
the roof of his mouth, and tie him up to the rack for five 
or six hours ; then give him a little clean hay, and at night 
some warm water and bran. If it he in his head, and no 
yrhere else, and some certain small buds do appear, then 
cIo nothing but bleed him in the neck-veins, and give him 
the drink, and bleed him in the palate of the mouth, and 
at the very same time apply the charge of soap and bran- 
dy hot, and heat it well in ; lay it not upc« the head of 
the buds, but all over the swelling; and in a short time, 
hy using the drink the farcy wiU die and the swelling will 
fall, Proved, 



lABCY. 1 53 ' 

jVb. 9. — For a farcy that is broken out in the legs. Do 
not charge it except it swells above those buds up towards 
the bod);; in such case lay on the charge of soap and 
brandy all over the swelling, above the buds, to stop it 
from running higher, but not upon the buds below ; let 
blood in the neck veins, and in the third furrow ,of the 
roof of the mouth, and then give him one or two of the 
pocky -farcion drinks, at three da}s distance, till you see 
all the swelling kille<l and dried up with the charge of 
soap and brandy, and tlie drinks. Those buds that are 
hroken, lay the alu.ii and foisting spittle upon them, and 
they will dry and heal up : for those that are in the flesh, 
some will die in tlie flesh, and some will drop out. 

Proved. 
J\o, 10. — For a button farcy. You shall know it by 
these signs.. — The horse will be full of bunches and knots, 
as big as peas or nuts, they are in bubbles in the skin, 
and are easy to be seen. Fii-st, let blood on both sides 
the neck, and let him bleed well, then take a little house- 
leek, and beat it and strain it thro' a fine linen cloth, and 
put it into his ears ; then take an ounce of aristolochia, 
and grate it small, a handful of the tops of rue, the size 
of an egg of hog's grease, beat these three last togetlier 
till they be like a salve : as soon as you have put tlic 
houseleek into each ear, divide the others into two equal 
parts, put a part into each ear, and some wool after it to 
keep it in, then stitch his ears with a needle and thread, 
and tie a list hard about his ears that he may not sljake 
it out, then tie the list of both ears together a little strait, 
and tlicn cut a little hole in his forehead and raise the 
skin from his forehead the breadth of your hand round 



JfARCY. 

about the hole, then take a red dock root, slice it and put 
three slices into the hole, they will draw a great deal of 
corruption out of it which will scald the hair off, and 
when the strength of the root is gone, it will drop out of 
itself; then anoint it with a little fresh butter. After you 
put in the root, lay a plaister of Burgundy pitch over it 
to keep out the wind and cold ; let him fast seven oi 
eight hours, and let him stand upon the bit ; you shall se^ 
him slavtr, champ, and foam as if he was ridden : give 
Lim warm water and bran at night, let his ears be shut 
up for two days. The knots and bunches will fall in 
a short time, and the hair will come again ujion his 
forehead. 

JVo. 11. — First bleed the horse. Take red precipitate, 
in fine powder, two drachms; and make it into a ball with 
one ounce of Venice treacle, and give it the horse. After 
the ball, give the following drink: 

Take rue, two handsful; roots of madder, sharp pointed 
dock, of each four ounces; chips of guaiiicum wood, sas- 
safras, of each two ounces; boil them in two quart* of 
stale beer, to three pints, then strain it. Dress the knots 
with arsenic. 

Repeat the ball and drink, every third or fourth day, 
for three doses. 

JVo. 12. Take misletoe, stale piss, lioney, and black 
soap; infuse them together a day or two, then warm them, 
and wash your horse all over for six davs togetlier; and 
if the distemper is not got to too great a head, it will 
cure it. 

JVb. 13. Let him be bled on both sides the neck, and 
give this drink: 



FARCY. £55 

Take a gallon of fair water, and put into it a haiitlful of 
rue, and a spoonful of hempseed, being first bruised to^ 
gether in a morter, then boil tliem till half is consumed; 
when it is cold give it to him to drink, which, being re- 
peated will cure him, 

JN'b. 14. Steep the regulus of antimony in ale, with a 
little of the spice called grains of paradise, and a little 
sugar; of which give a liorse about half a pint at a time, 
two or three times, with about a day or two's intermission 
between each, and it will cure him. 

JVb. \5,^Farcyandfnish. Take half an ounce of Ro- 
man vitriol boiled in a pint of urine, two-pence worth of 
turpentine, two pence Avorth of bole-armoniac, and a hand- 
ful of rue. Give inwardly and repeat the dose, if requi- 
site, 

JV*o. 16. — For afarcion that lies all over the bodij of a 
horse. First, bleed those buds that do not die, wash them 
with the water you have for any old ulcer, and this will 
cure them and kill them. Wash them once a day, then 
take half a gallon of clear wafer, boil in it two spoons- 
ful of hemp-seed beaten to powder, and two handsful of 
rue cut small; boil all these together, till it come to a pint 
and an half, and give it tlic horse fasting; do this once in 
three days, or three times in nine days, let him stand in 
the niglit before, and not drink; you may give him three 
or four hours after it a mash, or warm water, then hay. 
This very drink given to a cow or bullock, after letting 
Llood in the neck, will make them thrive exceeding fast, 
if it be given them in the spring of tlic year, and then 
turned out to grass. If a cow or bullock do not thrive, 
|)nt is leaaij scurvy, hide-bound, and her hair stand right 



256 FARCY. 

Up, do but let blood, and give her this drink, and she will 
mend presently upon it. Proved, 

•A^o. 17. For a farcion onhj in the neck or head of a horse* 
First let blood in the neck-veins, then take two spoonsful 
of the juice of hemlock, and two siwonsful of the juice of 
houseleek, and mix them together, and put the one half 
into one ear, the other half into the other ear; you must 
mix two spoonsfid of salad oil with the houseleek and 
hemlock, and put them all together into his ears. Put a 
little wool, flax or tow after it, stitch up his ears, and at 
the end of twenty-four hours, unstitch them and take out 
tlie stuffing; give him a mash two or three hours after, and 
warm water to drink. You may give him any meat to 
eat, only wash the buds with the water for an old ulcer, 
till he be whole. Proved. 

JVo. 18. — Farctj. Bleed upon the first appearance iii 
proportion to the state and size of the Iiorse, and repeat it 
in four, five or six days, according to the state of the 
blood. Give liim different food from what he has been ac- 
customed to for three months before; and a few^ malt 
mashes at night, and a few old beans in his corn in iht^ 
morning. If they arc of a hard and watery kind, rub in 
a moderate quantity of the mercurial ointment upon the 
largest of them every other day for thrice; which follow 
with a daily washing of the following lotion for a week: 
Take corrosive sublimate, two dracluns; rectified spirits 
of wine half a pint; spring water, one pi.ut; ]iit this be well 
shaken together, and tlie part affected plentifully moisten- 
ed by means of a small piece of sponge constantly wet 
with the composition. After a few operations o! the fore- 
going give the horse a purge. 



"VVotJNDs. 857 

■A'o. 19. — For a ivater farcy. The signs to know it from 
» pocky-farcy are as follows: He will swell in bags as big 
as your Lead, sometimes mostly under the belly, and some- 
times about the chaps and under his jaws. Take a nail 
rod, bend it at the end the length of a fleam, so that it may 
a very little more than go through the skin: at the end 
make it red, and make a number of holes all over the 
swelling with it, the yellow water will run out, and the 
swelling suddenly fall away ; to qualify the heat of the 
iron rub a little soap upon it, and give him but one drink, 
such as you give forthc pocky farcion. The more you 
work any farcy horse, the sooner the cure. Jf he be poi- 
soned by any medicine, your often riding him into cold 
water will destroy the working of it. Give him warm 
water to drink, and let him stay at home tlic time of the 
cure. You may work any farcied horse with anotlier,bi:t 
let them not stand together, nor feed together^ to make all 
sure, give the sound horse one or two driuks as if for a 
pocky farcied horse, and those drinks will prevent a farcy 
oC the sound hprsc. Pmxrd. 

-•-.«• :j:o:o:-:.-^ -.0:0:0: ^ — 

enAi^TER, xxxr. 

The first necessary operation in wounds is to rcinuvt 
carefully all dirt or other extraneous mutter, ar^d if the 
wound be made with a clean cutting instiuineiit, and not 
complicated with bruising or laceration, the divided parts 
are to be neatly sewed together; and, where it can be 
'lone, a roller kept constantly moist with the saturnine U~ 



£5S Wotj^NUS 

tion, diluted with an equal quantity of water, is to oe a|»^ 
plied, in order to assist in retaining the parts in their si- 
tuationj this rollei" is not to be removed for several days, 
that the divided parts may have time to unite, and that the 
wound may heal by the first intention, as surgeons terra 
it, unless considerable swelling and inflammation come 
on; it then becomes necessary to remove the roller, and 
apply fomentations. This kind of union, however, can 
seldom be accomplished in horses, from the difficulty of 
keeping the wounded paits sufficiently at rest, and from 
their wounds being generally accompanied with contusion 
or laceration; yet it should always be attempted where it 
appears at all practicable. Fomentations and warm di- 
gestives then become necessary, in order to promote the 
formation of matter in the wound: should considerable 
swelling i id infiammation arise, moderate bleeding as 
near the alfectcd part as possible, and laxative medicines, 
or even a dose of physic are strongly to be recommended; 
and a poultice, if the situation of the part be such as to ad- 
mit of its application, will be found of great use. As soon 
as the swelling and infiammation sfcall have been removed, 
the fomentations and poultice are no longer necessary, and 
the digestive ointment only is to be applied; should the 
wound appear not disposed to heal, discharging a thin of- 
fensive matter, apply the detergent lotion previous to the 
digestive ointment. . 

When the granulations become too luxuriant, that is, 
when what is commonly termed proud flesh, makes its ap- 
pearance, the caustic powder is to be sprinkled on the 
wound — slight wounds generally heal with very little trou- 
ble, and sometimes without the interference of art ; and it 



WOUNDS. ^P 

is from this Girciimstance that many nostrums have ae- 
quired unmerited reputation : in wounds of this kind, tinc- 
ture of myrrh, or compound tincture of benzoiu may be 
used. 

Whenever a considerable' blood-vessel is wounded, and 
the hemorrhage is likely to prove troublesome, the first 
object is to stop the bleeding, which, if the wound be in a 
situation that will admit ot the application of a roller or 
bandage, may be easily effected ; for pressure properly ap 
plied is generally the best remedy on those occasions, 
and far more effectual than the most celebrated styptics : 
in some cases it becomes necessary to tie up the bleeding 
vessels; this is rather a difficult operation, and not often 
necessary. 

Punctured wounds^ or such as are made with pointed 
instruments, are generally productive of more inflamma- 
tion than those that have at first a more formidable ap- 
pearance; and if such wounds happen to penetrate into a 
joint, or the cavity of the chest or belly, the worst conse- 
quences are to be apprehended, unless it be skilfully 
treated. 

When a joint has been wounded; the synovia or joint- 
oil may be observed to flow from the wound ; the first 
thing to be done in those cases, is to close the opening; 
that has been made into the joint; for as long as it re j 
mains open, the inflammation will go on, increasing, and 
the pain will be so violent as to produce a symptomatic 
fever which has often proved fatal : the most effectual me- 
thod of closing the wound is by applying the actual caute- 
ry or red hot iron ; this will appear probably a very 

strange remedy to those who have not seen its effect, yet 

H2 



^60 - WOUNMS. 

it is certainly the most efficacious that can be employ^ 
cd, but is only applicable where the wound is of the 
punctured kind, and small; for when a large wound is 
made into the cavity of a joint; and particularly if it is of 
the lacerated kind, it is impossible to close it effectually, 
and death is frequently the consequence. As soon as the 
opening has been closed, it is of consequence to guard 
against the inflammation that may be expected to arise^ 
or to remove it if already present — for this, bleeding and 
purging are the most effectual remedies — a i*ow el in any 
convenient part near the affected joint, will be found use- 
ful also. Should the joint be swollen much, the following 
blister will prove very ejEcacious, and far superior to fo- 
mentations or poultices. 

Receipts for wounds^ 

JVb. 1.— -Oil of turpentine, 1 oz. To which add gradu« 
ally, Vitriolic acid, 2 dr. Hog's lard, 4 oz. Spanish flies, 
powdered, 1 oz. Mix. 

Wounds about the foot, from stubs, over-reaching, &c 
often prove troublesome when neglected ; as soon as they 
are perceived, care should be taken that no dirt gets 
into them — ^the detergent lotion and digestive ointment, 
or oil of turpentine alone, are the most useful applica- 
tions on those occasions. When the foot is wounded 
in shoeing, the nails being driven into the sensible partSj 
the compound tincture of benzoin or oil of turpentine 
is to be applied. When the tendons or their membranes 
arc wounded, considerable inflammation is likely to take 
place, which is to be removed by fomentation and the 
saturnine poultice ; purging is also of great use in those 



WOUNDS. 282 

ta^es, and when the wound is extensive, and the in- 
fldinuiation runs iiigu, bleeding likewise may be neces- 
sary. 
In extensive, lacerated, or contused wounds, the inflam- 

xaation i^oiQetiiiies terminates in aiortilication (see iniiain* 
mation), in S4cii ca-jes fjnie itations are tj be frequently 
applied, and tue horse's strength supported by means of 
ricn mashes and the cordial ball for mortification. 

AT?. 2.^-rTii heal a fVound in a Horse. There is np« 
thing better to lieal a wound in a horse, than tallow and 
turpentine mixed t')gether. 

JVo. 3. — An infallible Method of curing any Wound what- 
ever^ iy tiree kaxid sticks. If yo ir horse, oi* any bt-ast 
should be w uindiid in any part whatever, the cure is thus : 
Taice three hazel sticks of the last season's growth, each 
one a foot long, made smooth at the ends — ^with each one 
of which seared and probe the wound to the bottom, and 
then again, beginning with the one first used, and thus go* 
thro' three several courses of probing in all. Remember 
to lay eacli one, in their courses of operati(»n, after prob- 
ing, on clean paper. Having thas done, lay tbe sticks 
beside each other on tbe paper, with the bloody ends to- 
gether; then spread tar on so much of the paper, and on 
them asare bloody, and lay them thus up in the paper; af- 
ter which, if it is wint 'r, place it in the coolest part of a 
stove room, but if summer, in any place you please out of 
the damp or sun, with that part which has been used, to* 
warrls the east. Proved infallible, 

JVr). 4.— For a new TFound made with a Stake, or such 
like thing, Stub, or Fork. First, wash the wound well with 
Butter and Vinegar melted together, then take a chut an»i 



262 WOUNDSc 

tie it about a stick's end, and dip it in Siome Linseed-oil, and 
run it to the bottom of the wound, anoint it well, and in a 
short time nothing but this will heal it and kill the gan- 
grene of it. If the wind get into the wound, and cause it 
to swell, anoint it with the Oil of Populeon round about the 
dwelling : Train-oil and Verdigrease melted together, will 
heal and skin any wound well and quickly. Proved, 

J\ro. 5. — ^ perfect Drier of a green Wound, or any other 
Sore. Take Soap and unslacked Lime, and mix them well 
together; but before you lay it to, wash the wound or sore 
with -a little white Wine-vinegar, and then apply it. 

Proved. 

^^ A Marroiv-hone burnt and made into powder and 
strewed on a sore or Wdund, is a great drier 

JVo. 6. — A rare Green Ointment to heal any Wound, old 
or new, quickly. Take a handful of Water-betony^ as 
much of Comfry of Mugrvort, red Sage, Sage of Bethlehem 
by some called Jerusalem-sage, of Southern-uoood, of Hut 
by some called herb of Grace, of Posemary, of each of 
these an handful; boil all these in a pint of May Butter 
and as much Mutton-suet; and when it hath boiled awhile, 
take it off the fire and strain it through a cloth, and put it 
into a pot for your use. This ointment will last good a 
year. Proved. 

JVo. 7. — To draw out any thorn or nail in any place. 
Take house-snails, seeth them in butter, and apply them : 
they will draw out any thorn or nail : or the roots of reeds 
bruised and bound to the wounded place with a linen cloth. 
The horse njay run out, but to stand in is best. 

- Proved, 



^6; 



CHAPTER, XXXU. 
BRUISMS. 

In recent bruises, fomentations are the most essi-iitiai 
remedies — when they are violent, a considerable degree of 
inflammation may be expected to supen enc; it will then 
be proper to give a laxative ball, and to bleed moderately, 
as near the affected part as possible. 

If abscesses form in consequence of a bruise, discharg- 
ing large quantities of matter, particularly if tlic matter is 
of a bad colour and an offensive smell, the wound also ap- 
pearing dark coloured and rotten, indicating approaching 
mortification; the horse's strength must be supported by 
allowing him a large quantity of grain, and if he can be 
made to eat malt, it will be found still more effectual. If 
the appetite ^oes off he must be drenched with good water- 
gruel, and strong infusion of malt: it will be necessary 
also to give the cordial ball for mortification, once or 
twice a day. Stimulating applications to the part, sr.ch 
as camphorated spirit and oil of turpentine, equal parts, 
are of great use. 

Should a hard callous swelling remain in consequence 
of a bruise, the following embrocation is to be well rub- 
bed into the part twice a day; and if it does not succeed iu 
removing it, recourse must be had to a blister, 

Eeceipts for Bruises. 

JVo. 1. Camphor, | oz. Oil of turpentine, 1 o/.. v'^oap 
linament, If oz. Mix, 



264 BRUISES 

JVb. 2. Tincture of cantharides, I oz. Oil of origanum 
2 dr. Camphorated spirit, 6 dr. Mix, 

JVb. 3. CutSy treadSy bruises^ ^c. All cuts, and treads 
bruises, are cured by the following horse-ointment} not only 
soonest and safest, hut without leaving any mark : 

Horse-ointment. Into a clean pipkin, that holds ahou^ 
a quai't, put the bigness of pullet's egg of yellow rosin; 
when it is melted over a middling fire, add the same quan- 
tity of beeS'Wax ; when that is melted, put in half a pound 
of hog's lard; when that is dissolved, putln two ounces of 
honey ; when that is dissolved, put in a half pound of com. 
mon turpentine ; keep it gently boiling, stirring it with a 
stick all the time; when the turpentine is dissolved, put in 
two ounces of verdigrease : you must take off the pipkin 
(else it will raise into the fire in a moment) set it on 
again, and give it two or three wambles, and strain it 
tarough a coarse sieve, into a clean vessel for use, throwing 
the dregs away. 

This is an extraordinary ointment for a wound or bruise 
in flesh or hoof, broken knees, gaul'd backs, bites, crack'd 
heels, mallenders, or when you geld a horse, to heel and 
keep the flies away ; nothing takes fire out of a burn or 
gcald in human flesh so soon ; I have had personal expe- 
rience of it. I had it out of Degrey, hut finding it apt to 
heal a wound at the top before the bottom was sound, I 
improved it by adding an ounce of verdigrease, 

jV*o. 4. — To cleanse any^ wound. Take the roots of El' 
der and beat them to powder, and boil them w ith clear- 
honey : it is go )d to cleanse any sore, old or new. But 
take tiiis for a general observation, that before you dress 
any wound, let it be where it will about the horse, wash 



BRUISES. i£j6^ 

it clean first with white Wine-vinegar, and then dress it 
with your salve. Froved, 

JVo. 5. — Pricked. — Qravelled.^^The cure. If pricked or 
otherwise wounded to the quick ; open the hole with a pen- 
knife, and drop a little diachilon or melilot, thro' a pair of 
warm tongs' into the hole, to suck out the gravel, but the 
horse ointment is best ; cover it close with dry tow, fasten- 
ed in with a coujile of splints, and put his foot, as beforCy 
into a Iiot poultice. 

Repeat this till he is well ; which will be in two nights, iC 
you have not been too free with your penknife. 

JV*a. 6.— For a new hot inflammation sr soft swelling 
'whether broken or not. Anoint it with the oil of populeon, 
and rub it in cold with youi* hand once or twice a day until 
it be down. 

JVo. 7.— 'For a bruise or bite upon a horse's cods. First 
bathe them in warm whey or milk, let it be as hot as the 
horse can endure it, bathe it tliree or four days together 
then make a bag to keep his cods \s arm, and anoint them 
"With cold oil of populeon once or twice a day till you see 
the swelling to abate; apply the charge of crown soap 
and brandy to remove the rest, and to knit the veins 
and strings of the cods; lay it on hot and heat it in well; 
tliree or four days after, ride him into a ri^er or pit, up to 
the belly, and you will see it fall in a short time. If the 
cods be swelled much, and it had been long done and is 
hard, then do not meddle with it. Proved. 

(Q* To keep in tjour medicine, and keep out the wind. 
Over 3^our medicine lay a plaister of Burgundy pitch, and 
it will keep out the wind till you take down the swelling 
with oil of populeon. Proved^ 



9,66 FISTULA II? niE VftrilEttS. 

A'*o. S. — For an inward bruise with any fume oi' stuK 
Take a pint and an half of strong beer, and an ounce 
and an half of bole-armoniac, boil them a little together, 
and give it him with a horn hike warm. It is very good 
for an inward bruise of a beast. Proved. 

JVo. 9. — For a horse that hath torn his Jlesh about the 
belly or elsewhere. Take a pint of sharp white wine vine- 
gar, boil in it two ounces of bole armoniac; after it hath 
boiled a little, take it off the fire and put in a little butter, 
and bathe the place grieved once in two days, and in two 
or three times dressing it will cure. Provedr 



CHAPTER, XXXIIL 

Fistula in the Withers, 

This disease generally originates in a bruise from the 
saddle, and is at first simply an abscess, which by early 
attention and proper treatment may be easily cured; but 
\^hen neglected it degenerates into a fistulous sore, proves 
extremely difficult to cure, and cannot be removed without 
very severe treatment. 

As soon as the injury is discovered, fomentations should 
be applied in order to promote suppuration, and when 
matter is formed let the tumor be opened, so that its con- 
tents may be completely evacuated, and a future accumu- 
lation prevented; the sore may then be healed by dressing 



FISTULA IN THE WITHJEKS. £6f 

11 daily with digestive linament or ointment, but should 
they prove ineffectual, apply the detergent lotion until the 
sore assumes a red healthy appearance, and the matter 
becomes whiter and of a tliicker consistence. When the 
disease has been neglected in its first stage, and the mat- 
ter has been suffered to penetrate among the muscles, af- 
fecting the ligaments or hones of the withers^ it becomes 
kecessary to adopt a more severe treatment. The sinus- 
ses or pipes arc to belaid open with a knife, and if it is 
practicable, a depending opening is to be made, that the 
matter may run off freely; the sore is then to be dressed 
with the following ointment, which is to be melted and 
J)oured into the cavity while very hot. 

The sore is not to be dressed, until the sloughs which 
this ointment occasions, have separated from the living 
parts; which generally happens two or three days after 
the operation. If the surface of tlie sore looks red and 
healtliy, and if the matter appears to be whiter and of a 
better consistence, a repetition of this painful operation 
will not be required; the digestive linament or ointmeat 
being sufficient to complete the cure; but if the sore still 
retains an unhealthy appearance, and the matter continues 
thin and of a bad colour, the hot dressing must again be 
applied. 

Receipts for the Fistula. 

jyo. 1. — The ointment. Ointment of nitrated quicksU- 
Tcr,4 oz. Oil of turpentine, 1 oz. Mix. 

JVo. 2. Verdigrease, | oz. Oil of turpentine, 1 oz. Oint- 
iVient of yellow resin, 4 oz. Mix, 

I2 



268 FISTt'IA IN THE WITHERS. 

"^ JSTo. 3. — >in approved cure for a Fistula. Take twa 
large handfuls of the right Arsesmart, pound it, steep it in 
water all night, and lay it on the fistula or pole evil, then 
clap your hand on it and keep it there till you find the 
warinth come to your hand; then take the arsesmart and 
bury it, and throw the water yo« steeped it in, on the 
place you bury it; and as the arsesmart rots, the malady 
will sink; it is a cure which has been often proved. Once 
may do, but you may do it four or five times. 

N. B. The right arsesmart has a red stalk, bears a 
white flower, and by tasting, it will be very hot on the 
tongue. 

jYo. 4. — Of the imposthume in the ear, poll-evil, fistula, 
swell'mg after blood-letting, any galled back, canker in the 
withers, seifast, ivens, navel-gall, or any hollow ulcer. 
These diseases are so apparent and common, that they 
need no other description but their names: and the most 
certain cure is, to take clay of a mud or loam wall, straws 
and all, and boil it in strong vinegar, and apply it plais- 
terwise to the sore, and it will of its own nature search to 
the bottom and heal it, provided that if you see any dead 
or proud flesh arise, you eat or cut it away. 

JVo. 5. — How to make black ash lie for the curing of ul- 
cers, poll-evils, fstulas, and the like. Take of the tops and 
bark of black ash, and burn it in some clean place to ashes; 
then put those ashes into a vessel that has a hole and a 
spile in it; then put a little straw in the vesseJ, and the 
ashes on the straw; then pour on boiling water, and cover 
it up; let it stand three or four hours, then draw it off, and 
if it be not strong enough, which you may know by its 
slipperiness, put it on the ashes again; you may either 



riSTUXA IN THE WITHEKS. 269 

boil ii or let it stand" some time, but it will be the stron. 
ger fur boiling; then draw it off, and put it into a bottle 
for use. This lie, made warm, and put it into any ulcer 
or fistula, will of itself search, cleanse and heal it to admi- 
ration soon. 

J\o. 6. — For thti first coming of a fistula or poll- evil. 
Take tansey, worm-wood, and arse-smart, bruise them, 
and put some cold water on them, then put them into a 
bag, and lay it on the tumour, and there let it remain 
for three hours, then take it off, and bury it under the 
root of one of those herbs, and as it rots, tlue disorder 
will sink and remove. I have been credibly informed, 
that this will relieve these disorders, The oil of amber 
well rubbed in, is said to do the like, or the spirit of tur- 
pentine well heated in with a bar of iron. AVhere those 
disorders are hard, guaiacum-oil or palm-oil, are exceed- 
ing good to assuage and sink hard swellings and tumours. 
Rue boiled in milk, and salad-oil added to it, and given 
in the manner of a drench, is an exceeding good antidote 
against poison. Proved. 

JVo. 7. — For a Fistula. Tn sink, first sear the fistula 
with a hot Iron until the skin looks yellow; then make a 
plaistcr of rpsin, sheep's suet and brimstone, melted to- 
gether, and lay it on hot, but not to scald; if it is broke 
or is likely to break, then lay on a plaister of shoema- 
ker's wax, spread upon alum'd leather, on purpose to 
break it ; and when broke, take verdigrease, butter and 
salt, well mixt and melted together, and pour it scalding 
hot into the sore, and use this till the flesh looks red, and 
then tent with verdigrease, burnt alum, wheat flour and 
the yolks of eggs, well beaten and mingled together, till 



270 nSTUXA IN TItE WITHERS. 

it is healed : and to skin it, take barm and soot mixt to- 
gether, and spread it on the sore, and it is a perfect cure : 
Tlie searing, and plaister of rosin, soot and brimstone, is 
very good for windgalls. 

JVo. 8. — For a fistula or gangrene in thefoot^ by reason 
qfsome channel-nail which hath lain long and deep in tke 
foot, that breaks out above the hoof, and causeth the sole of 
the foot to come out, and the leg and pastern to swell very 
much. If the nail causes the sole of the foot to come out, 
and to break out above the hoof, and cause the pastern and 
leg to swell ; but if the sole of the foot be not come out, 
then do as you were directed formerly, by girting the fet- 
lock hard, and when you have taken out the sole of the foot, 
search the wound with a little tow at the instrument's eiwl 
to see how far and which way the channel nail went; when 
you see where the holes are, drop in ten or twelve drops of 
he oil of turpentine, and take a little line tow or lint at your 
instrument's end, dip it in the turpentine and put it in tent- 
Mays: then over this tent lay to the bottom of the hoof a 
handful of nettle-tops and a handful of salt, well beaten to- 
gether, stuft'his foot well with tow, and let it lie on twenty- 
four hours, and always when you dress it take off the 
shoe, and when dressed tack on the shoe again : dress it 
thus once a day w ith a tent dipt in turpentine, and lay to the 
sole first, and then the nettles and salt over that, till you 
see the sole come on a little, and when you see it a litile 
grown, then apply tlie following poultice but not before- 
and lay some tow over the poultice and over the tow a 
piece of leather, and over the leather splinters of wood j his 
shoe taken off and set on again, as you were shewn in 
another place; let him stand dry i)i the liouse till he be 



riSTULA. IX THE VVITHBRS. 2fi 

whole, which will, be in a few days : the poultice must, 
on the first dressing, lay on twenty-four hours, the se- 
cond dressing forty-eiglit hours, the third dressing forty- 
eight hours, and so continue till the sole of the foot he 
grown firm and strong again. The poultice is thus made. 
Take half a pint of salt beef or pork brine, and a quarter 
of a pound of kitchen grease, and boil them a pretty wliile 
together ; put some wlieat bran to it, and malve it not two 
thick nor two thin: when you have taken out his sole, 
and untied the .cord about the pastei-n, if it bleed much, 
then put a handful of salt into the bottom of the foot, with 
tow or flax between the sole of the foot and the shoe, and 
tlie splinters and a piece of leather over it to keep it in : 
at twenty-four hours, take it off and lay on tlie nettles and 
salt as before directed. Thus much for the cure of the 
sole of the foot: but mark what follows, vhich belongs to 
the foregoing receipt, which is, when the nail in the foot 
does not only cause the sole of the foot to come out but al- 
so breaks out above the hoof, and causeth a gangrene or 
swelling in the pastern, and so up the leg; in this case af- 
ter you have searched it with a little fine tow or lint at 
^rour instrument's end, then drop into the hole a few drops 
of oil of turpentine, and after that put in a tent dipt in the 
oil of turpentine, into the hole as far as you can, and im- 
mediately apply the poultice laid upon a large linen cloth, 
to the swelling in the pastern, and up the leg so far as the 
swelling goes, and bind it close on with another cloth that 
it may not come off: tie him close up to the rack for sevcri 
or eight hours that he may not pull it off with liis mouth: 
Jet it lie on twenty-four hours the first dressing, and foi'tl)-? 



272 flSaULA IN TUE WITHERS. 

other dressings, the time before mentioned, till the swel- 
ling be down and the sore be whole. 

Always put in a tent dipt in the oil of turpentine, before 
you lay this poultice to, or any other thing. If the hoof 
conies off and it swells and breaks out above the hoof; if 
all these happen togetlier, you must observe the distinct 
directions. Tlie cure of tliat in the sole of the foot from 
that which breaks out above the hoof, and apply each cure 
to each disease. In this case the poultice must be first 
applied above the hoof, because when the sole of the foot is 
taken out, you must not lay the poultice to the place till it 
be a little grown; and further, with great pain and con- 
tinual holding up his foot from the ground, his sinews in 
the bent of his leg will be shrunk; to remedy which, use 
the oil of swallows as you may see for a blood spavin, but 
if you cannot get the oil of swallows, if his sinews be knit 
or stiff, then rub in some trotters oil, which is made of 
sheeps-feet, but for want of either of these, boil some hog's 
grease and aqua vitse together, and rub it in cold with 
your hand. Proved. 

JSTo. 9. — Fistula. Is a deep hollow kind of ulcer, which 
oozes out a thin matter: it frequently proceeds from 
bruises and crushes of the saddle ; but oftencr from the 
"imskilful lical of a wound. 

The cure. — Search it with a slender leaden probe, 
which will bend wheresoever the concavity of the wound 
leads it : and when you have come to the bottom, let 
it be opened downwards, if it can be done, in order that 
the corruption may more easily discharge ; you will then 
with your fingers, feel if there are gristly kind of pipes^ 



or horny substanceSj which must be cut awaj^, and this 
fistula-water injected with a syringe twice a day. 

The Jistuld Water. SuUimate^ one drachm j white cop- 
j)eraSy two ounces : alum, three ounces : reduce them tb 
a powder, and burn them in a fireshovel ; this done, 
you are to reduce it to a powder a second time ; then pour 
three quarts of boiling water over it. 

After using this water, but not till it is quite cold, dresd^ 
the wound with the green ointment. 

CHAPTER, XXXlVo 
POLL-EVJL. 

This disease like the Fistula, generally originates in a 
bruise; and if neglected, requires the same severe treat- 
ment: it consists at first in an abscess in the poll, which 
by early attention might be easily cured: but if the matter 
is suffered to penetrate to the ligaments and bones, it fre 
quently proves more difficult of cure than the fistula. 

Mr. Taplin, in his Stable Directory, declaims against 
this method of treating inveterate cases of fistula and poll 
evil; it is certainly, however, the only effectual one that 
is known; and had this author but seen the effect of this 
remedy, as well as of that which he recommends before 
his book was written, it is probable he never would have 
favoured the public with the declamation above alluded 
*o. It is surely more consistent with humanity to rescw 



V 



274 fOtE-EVlE. 

an animal from a painful and gradually increasing diseas^, 
bv means of a severe operation, than to suffer him to lin- 
ger out a life of pain and misery, by adopting a mild, 
but inert mode of treatment. 

Receipts for the Poll-EriL 

JVo. 1. — Poll-Evil. The poll evil is a malignant swell- 
ing which arises on the nape of the neck, immediately be- 
hind the ears ; and is frequently occasioned by the friction 
of a halter or collar, and sometimes by a blow on the head 
from an inhuman driver, when a horse hesitates at passing 
any place or object. 

The cure Consists in the ripening and bringing it to 
matter, as in all other biles, tumours, &,c. which may be 
done by the following poultice. 

Ji suppurating poultice. Take mallow leaves^ four hands- 
ful J Tvhiie lily roots, one pound; three middling sized 
turnips ; boil them in a sufficient quantity of water, till 
they become soft ; then beat them up well together; then 
boil them again in milk, to a thick poultice, adding to 
it two ounces of linseed, and half a pound of hog's-lard ; 
stirring all well together. 

Spread the poultice on a piece of cloth, and bind it on 
the swelling, making it fast under the jaw with a packing 
needle and twine. It should be applied night and morn" 
ing; and when it is sufficiently ripened, open the tumour 
with a sharp knife, and clean the matter therefrom. A 
little of the oil of turpentine, made warm, may be poured" 
into the wound once a day ; dress and rub the swelling 
with the green ointment, keeping the neck covered with. 
ftanneL 



pori-EVii, 275 

JVV. 2.— To cure the Poll-Evil, and swelled neck from 
bleeding. Take ointment of marsh-mallows, four ounces; 
mercury sublimate corrosive, in fine powder, half an 
ounce; mix and apply it to the part. 

JVb. S. — For a FoU-Eril in the head of an horse* If you 
take it at the first swelling, then do thus: Take half an 
ounce of the oil of turpentine, and anoint the swelling 
therewith, so far as it is swelled, and let it sink in and 
take its course four or five days, in which time the skin will 
be shrunk up like a purse: at the four or live days end, if 
you See the swelling begin to fall, then take Burgujndy- 
pitch, and Black pitch, of each two ounces, and one ounce 
of Mastick, put them into a pipkin and melt them; then 
take a flat stick and spread it all over the swelling; then 
take the shearings of cloth or flocks, and do them thick 
on with your hand upot. the pitch till it he hot: when 
your plaister comes ofl', which may be a fortnight or a 
month after, if then you sec the oil and the plaister have 
killed the venom of it, and taken down the swelling, then 
do no more to it. Again, if you see, when your plaister 
comes off that it is too much swelled, or that there be 
any dead or proud flesh in it, cut it out; then fill the hole 
or wound with fine tow, or flax or hards, to dry the blood 
up, and there let it be five or six hours, then take it away, 
and put in some of the medicine which you use for a can- 
ker in the head, face or eyes, or nostrils of a horse. With 
this medicine dress it once a day at first, and as it begins 
to heal, dress it once in two days; this medicine will heal 
it suddenly. Cut a hole at the edge or lower part of the 
swelling, to lay it a draining, and it will heal a great deal 

sooner. Daub and throw on a good store of wheat bram 

K2 



2r6 POLI-EVII,, 

upon it when you lay it on; when yniip plaister com6S off, 
look upon the top of the poll-evil, to see how far the dead, 
proud white jelly flesh goes; cut it all out with your in- 
cision-knife, till you come at the red flesh which is sound: 
the veins will bleed much, and spin again when you come 
at the quick; but let not that hinder you from cutting out 
all the dead proud flesh, Which if you cut all out clean, 
you cannot do amiss, only take heed you do not cut the 
white pax-wax, which runs along the top of the neck, 
which some call a cress: it is white, and you may easily 
see it; if you cut that his neck will fall, and look basely, 
therefore have a care. There is a white pith in a poll- 
evil near the top of the neck by the pax- wax; take your 
nippers and pull it out, it will come out like a plug; there 
is no such thing in a fistula: wl.en you have pulled it out, 
put some of your medicine to it, and it will heal it apace. 
Let not the dead flesh be left in the wound, but cut it clean 
out, although the wounds seem never so broad. The same 
cure and the same way is to be used for a fistula. The 
beast must stand ih the time of the cure. Pro'i^ed. 

JS''o. 4. — For a Poll-Evil. The decoction or oil of snap- 
weed, two ounces, the oil of turpentine one ounce, mixt 
together, is an excellent thing for any fistula or poll-evil, 
either to heal it when broke, or to backen it, if near ripe 
to break it; but to ba cken, there should be an equal quan- 
tity of both. Proved. 

wVo. 5.~-^For a fistula or a poll-evil. These are both one 
disorder, altho' not both in one place ; take of old poke 
roots a good quantity, bruise "them well, and boil them in 
water, vinegar or chamber-lie, and add thereto soft soap a 
pint, and wash therewith scalding hot ; then take tincture 



JfOiL-EVll. S77 

at' myrrh and pour some in the wound in each hole after 
you have washed and dried the wound with tow, once in 
twenty-four hours ; your horse keep on low dry food, nor 
suff T him to run at pasture; for a speedy cure give him 
those drying drinks, viz. Take forge water and crocus 
martis, or the guaiacum shavings, sarsaperilla and stone 
raisins ; while he is imder cure, wet his bran with a strong 
decoction of sassafras I'oot, which may answer the end of 
the former drinks ; or once a week give him three quar- 
ters of a pint of linseed oil, and by a steady application 
of this external wash and tincture, those disorders may 
be removed in twenty days or less : The virtue of this 
tincture is so well known by surgeons and able farriers, 
that there is no occasion of scrupling its efficacy : If you 
have a horse before you whose fistula have been a run- 
ing ulcer for some months, and the bone is aflfectcd there- 
by, cut all the horny callous flesh away, until you come 
to the bone, and when bare, scrape the bone, and apply 
tents, of equal parts, of tincture of myrih and euphor- 
bium ; then fill the hole up with moulten snap-weed oint- 
ment, always using the decoction whilst any ulcer re- 
mains ; but if the bone keeps putrified and crumbled, or 
any string, sinew, or membrane is ulcered, putrified 
or affected, I say, in this desperate case, so long as it re- 
mains in that order, there will be no cure perfected ; you 
must get an iron in the form of a glazier's iron, the head 
thereof should be steel, finely filed, heated hot, and when 
the sparkling is off, then burn to the very bottom of the 
fistula ; then for once or twice you may use the snap-weed 
ointment, or a salve made with the high snake-root, which 
is not unlikely to draw out the fire and venom ; then use 



2f S SADDXE GALLS, OR WARBLES. 

the decoction of eupliorbium which will bring to use tht 
internals ; I am apt to believe by a constant application 
as is here laid down, a speedy cure will be soon perfected, 
N. B. You are caution'd, in incision, to beware of 
sinews and arteries. 



CHAPTER, XXXV. 

Saddle Galls, or TFarhleSc 

These consist of inflamed tumors, and are produced by 
the unequal pressure of the saddle: if neglected they be- 
come troublesome sores, and are often a considerable time 
in healing. As soon as a swelling of this kind is observed, 
let several folds of linen be moistened with one of the fol- 
lowing embrocations, and kept constantly applied to th^ 
tumor until it is reduced; but if matter has been allowed 
to form, let it be opened with a lancet, and afterwards 
dressed witli digestive linament or ointment. Sbould it 
appear not to heal readily under this tieatment, apply the 
detergent lotion made hot. When swellings of this kind 
are large and much inflamed, it will be advisable to bring 
them to suppuration as expeditiously as possible, by means 
of fomentations or poultices Should a hard swelling re- 
main after the inflammation is in a great measure removed. 
try the embrocation for strains, and if that does not suc- 
ceed, recourse must be had to a blister. 



SADDXE GALIS, OE WARBLES. £79 

Eeceipts for Saddle Galls^ or TVarUeSo 

JVb. 1. Water of acetated litharge, 2 dr. Distilled vi- 
negar, 5 oz. Spirit of wine, 4 oz. Mix. 

JSTo. 2. Muriate of Ammonia, | oz. Muriatic acid, 2 dr. 
Water, from 8 to 12 oz. Mix. 

JSTo. 3. Soap linament and water of acetated ammonia, 
of each 2 oz. Mix. 

JVb. 4. — Sore back and cure. If the saddle bruises Lis 
back, and makes it swell, a greasy dish-clout laid on hot, 
and a cloth or rag over it, bound on a quarter of an hour 
(with a sursingle) and repeated once or twice, will sink it 
flat. If it is slight, wash it with a little water and salt 
only. But you must have the saddle altered, that it press 
not upon the tender part, for a second brui^se will be worse 
than tlie first. If his furnituie docs not fit arid sit easy, 
it will damp him; but if nothing wound or hurt him, hfc 
will travel with courage. 

JN'b. 5. — For a horse new galled with a saddle or collar. 
>s soon as you take either the saddle or collar off 
wash the galled phice with water and si'lt, or urine and 
salt, and then sprinkle upon it wood ashes, or wall mud, 
which is the best. Or get the root of the herb clowns- 
wort; burn it to a coal, (not to ashes,) pound it to a pow- 
der, and, after washing the sore, strew on some of the 
powder, it will quickly heal the galls althoug!; they be 
almost rotten and putrified. 

N. B. The more you ride or work a hoise that is gal- 
led, the sooner he will heal; keeping the saddle or collar 
from the sore. 



iiSO- SITFASTS. 

CHAPTER, XXXVl. 

SITFASTS, A^^B SORES. 

Siffasts are occasioned by repeated bruises from the sad- 
dle, which instead of inflaming the skin, as most com- 
monly happens, causes it to become callous, and gives it 
somewhat the appearance of leather. The following 
ointment is to be applied until the callous part appears 
disposed to separate; it is then to be removed, which 
generally requires some force, and the sore which remains 
may be healed with digestive linamcnt or ointment. 

Receipts for Siffasts and Sores. 

JVb. 1. — Ointment for Siffasts. Ointmentof althca, 4 02, 
Camphor 2 di-. Oil of origanum, I dr. Mix. 

JS"'). 2. — Siffasts. Arc horny substances on the hor- 
se's back, under the saddle. They arc cured by taking 
hold of them with a pair of plyers, and cutting them out; 
taking care that you leave no part of them behind to 
gi'ow again ; and dress with the green ointment, 

J\ro. 3. — To heal a JVard-GoW, Sore Back, or a Siffasi. 
Take a quarter of a pint of Train-oil, and boil in it as 
much beaten Ferd%rmse as half a walnut; put it into a 
pot and keep it for your use : This very medicine will 
heal any Navel-Gall, Sitfast or Sore Back suddenly, and 
no flies will dare to touch or come near it ; if they do, 
they die presently. Proved. 

M. 4. — .3 plaisterfor a sore back. Take of wheat meal, 
what quantity you like, of sheep dung half as much, of rye 



STRAlSrS. 281 

atieal half as much as sheep dung, mix them al^, together, 
and boil them in spring water until they come to a thick 
paste; then take a piece of alian-d leather or tow cloth, 
and spread thereon, and so clap it on the sore: you must 
tie your hurse awhile, or otherwise he will gnaw the plais- 
ter off. If possible, you must let tlie plaister stay on 
till it comes off of itself, and it will cure him. Or 
make a plaister of soot, rye meal, whites of eggs, and 
honey; beat all together, and apply it as above, and it 
will cure it; but the other is the best. If there be any fil- 
thy matter in the sore, that must be first let out. For a 
new gall, when you take off your saddle, wash it with salt 
and water, or fair water, or what you may, but I recom- 
mend the water made for running ulcers. I say, \^htn 
you have washed, take of the root clowns-wort, or clow ih- 
wound-wort, burn it to a coal, not ashes, and pound it very 
fine, and strew the powder on the sore — this in a few days 
will cure any horse's back, if it be nearly rotten. 

'33^ The more you ride or w oi-k a horse that is gal- 
led, the sooner he will be w ell, if yon keep your saddle or 
collar from the wound. Proved 

CHAPTER XXXVIL 

STRJLXS, 

This is a subject with which every sportsman ought to 
be well acquainted, since his horses arc particularly lia- 
Mf. to such accidents. Strains mav affect either the mns- 



£82 STRAIKS. 

cles, liganents, or tendons. Muscular strains consist iu 
an inflani.nation of the muscles or flesh, occasioned by 
violent and sudden exertion. When ligaments are the 
seat of this disease, there is generally some part of them 
ruptured, whereby very obstinate and sometimes perma- 
nent lameness is produced ; in this case also inflammation 
is the symptom which first requires our attention : but 
tendons are the parts most frequently aff*ected, particu- 
larly the flexors of the fore leg or back sinews as they 
are commonly termed. — Tendinous strains are common- 
ly supposed to consist in a relaxation or preternatural 
extension of the tendon, and the remedies that have been 
recommended, are supposed to brace them up again ; how- 
ever plausible this opinion may be, it is certainly very 
erroneous ; indeed it has been proved by experiment that 
tendons are 7ieither elastic nor capable of extension, and 
from investigating their structure and economy, we learn, 
that were they possessed of these qualities, they would 
not answer tlie purpose for which they v/ere designed. 
From an idea that strain in the back sinews depends on 
a relaxation of the tendons, many practitioners have been 
apprehensive of danger from the use of emollient or re- 
laxing applications, than which nothing can be more use- 
ful at the beginning of the disease. 

Tendinous strains consist in an inflammation of the 
membranes in which tendons are inveloped, and the swel- 
. ling which takes place in those cases depends on an ef- 
fusion of coagulable lymph, by the vessels of the inflamed 
part. Inflammation being the essence of a strain, we are 
to employ such remedies as are best calculated to subdue 



STRAINS. £83 

if," and should any swelling remain, it is to be removed by 
stimulating the absorbent vessels to increased action. 

Strain of the Shoulder. — This disease is by no means so 
frequent as it is supposed to be, lameness in the feet being 
often mistaken for it; the difference, however, is so well 
marked, that a judicious observer will never be at a loss 
to distinguish one from the other, 

A shoulder strain is an inflammation of some of the 
muscles of the shoulder; most commonly, we believe, those 
by which the limb is connected with the body. The 
lameness which this accident occasions comes on rather 
suddenly, and is generally very considerable. When 
the horse attempts to walk, the toe of the affected side is 
generally drawn along the ground, from the pain which 
an extension of the limb occasions; in violent cases he 
appears to be incapable of extending it. 

When lameness arises from disease of the foot, it is 
generally very gradual in its attack, unless occasioned by 
an accidental wound, and does not at all hinder the exten- 
sion of the limb ; an unusual heat and tenderness may also 
be perceived in the foot; and as the horse stands in the 
stable, the affected foot will be put forward, that it may 
bear as little as possible of tlie weight of the body. 

Receipts for Strains. 

JVo. 1. — The first remedy to be employed on those oc- 
casions, is bleeding in the shoulder or plate vein; then give 
a laxative ball; and if the injury is considerable, let a row- 
el be put in the chest; by means of these remedies and rest, 
the disease will generally be removed in a short time ; a 

cooling opening diet, with perfect rest, will also be ne= 

L2 



284 STRAINS. 

cessary. When the inflammation and lameness begin tc 
abate, the horse should be turned into a loose stall; and 
after a week or two, he niay be sulTered to walk out for 
a short time every day; but should this ajipearto increase 
the lameness, it must be discontinued. The intention of 
moderate exercise, alter the in£ammation is in a great 
measure subdued, is to effect an absorption of any lymph 
that may have been effused, and to bring the injured mus- 
cles gradually into action. After an accident of this kind, 
particularly when it has been violent, the horse should 
not be rode, or worked in any way for a considerable 
time, as the lameness is very apt to recur, unless the injur- 
ed parts have had sufficient rest to recover their strength; 
if he can be allowed two or three month^s grass, it will be 
found extremely useful, provided he is prevented from 
galloping or exerting himself too much when first turned 
out ; it is necessary also to choose a situation where there 
are no ditches in which he may get bogged. With res- 
pect to embrocations and other external applications, 
they are certainly useless, unless the external parts are 
affected, and then fomentations may be employed witfe 
advantage. 

JVo. Z.~=^Strain of the Stijle. In this case the stifle joint 
will be found unusually hot, tender, and sometimes swoU 
len. The remedies are fomentations, a rowel in the thigl^, 
and a dose of physic. When by these means the inflam- 
mation of the joint has abated considerably, and at the 
same time the swelling and lameness continue, the embro- 
cation for strains, or a blister, should be aj^plied. Strains 
intlie hock joint require the same treatment. 

JVb. 3.— »S<rain of the Mp Jointy (commonly termed whirl 



STRAINS. 285 

>»ne or round hone. J Wheu lameness occurs in the hind 
le^y the cause of which is too obscure for the farrier's com- 
prehension, he generally pronounces it to be a sti'ain in 
the round or whirl bone; whicli, however, on an attentive 
examination, is often found to be an incipient spavin. It 
is advisable therefore in all such cases, that the hock 
joint be carefully examined; and if any unusual heat or 
tenderness be obsei-ved on the seat of the spavin, it is 
probable that the lameness arises from that cause, and 
that it may be removed by the application of a blister. 

JVb. 4. — Strain of the Jlexor tendons or back Sinews. A 
Strain of the bark sinews depends, as we have before ob- 
served, on an inflammation of the membranes in which 
. they are enveloped, and is sometimes complicated with a 
rupture of the ligaments which are situated immediately 
uiider the sinews. Wlien the lameness and swelling ai-e 
considerable, bleed in the shoulder vein, and give a dose of 
physic ; then let the saturnine poultice be applied so as 
to extend from tiie hoof to the knee, and let it be fre- 
quently m')isteued with the saturnine lotion. When the 
inflammation aui lameness have abated considerably, 
and a swelling still remains, apply the embrocations for 
strains, rubbing it well on the part twice or three times a 
day ; if this does not succeed, recourse must be had to 
a blister; it will be advisable also to turn the horse 
loose into a large stable or barn, and to give him this 
kind of rest for a considerable time : should he be work- 
ed too soon after the accident, the part is very liable to 
be injured again, particularly when it has been violent. 
These swellings sometimes prove so obstinate, tha^ 
even repeated blistering proves ineffectual; as soon hoviV 



286 STKAINS. 

ever, as the inflammation which caused tliem is complete- 
ly removed, they seldom occasion lameness; yet they vvili 
not admit of any violent exertion in the part, and are 
therefore always an impediment to speed. 

Sahirnine lotion. Acetated lead, 4 oz. Vinegar and 
water, of each, 1 pint. Mix. 

Saturnine jwultice. J inc hran, | peck. To be made 

into a thin paste with hot saturnine lotion ;; to this add 

as much linseed meal or boiled flax-seed as will give it a 

proper consistenre. 

JV'o. 5. — J^mbrocaiionfor Strains. Oil of I'oscmai y and 

camphor, of each, 2 dr. Soft soap, 1 oz. Spirit of wine. 

2 oz. Mix. 

J^'o. 6. — Soft soap, spirit of wine, oil of turpentine, and 
ointment of elder, of each, 4 oz. Mix. 

j\o. 7. — For a strain in the shoulder. Take two ouiiccs 
of oil of pompilion, two of spike, and two of linseed: rub 
them well together upon his shoulder, and warm them in 
with an hot iron: then let him be blooded in the shovildei., 
and hopple his fore-feet t(jgcther, 

^"o. 8. — A cure for a sinew-sprung horse. Tiike a pint 
of linseed-oil, boil it, and put in a small quantity of aqua 
vitse, stir them together and anoint } cur horse's legs there- 
with. 

•TVb. 9. St. Ajithonifs excellent medicine for a strain, <S,c. 
Take cummin-seeds, bruise then) well, and boil them with 
the oil of camomile; add to it as much yellow wax as will 
bring it to the body of a plaistcr, spread it on cloth or 
leather, and apply it very hot to the place. It is excellent 
also for mankind. 



STBAINS. £87 

JVo. 1 0. — Another for any desperate old strain, whether in the 
shoulders J joints, hips, or back sinervs. 1 ake a pint of the best 
aqua Adtse; of oil of bays, oil of swallows, and black soap 
each half a pint: work all tiiese together till they come to 
a thin ointment; tlien take camomile red sage, rue, and 
messeldine, of each an handful: dry them and rub them 
to fine powder; mix them with the ointment, and bring nV 
to a gentle salve. With some of this salve as hut as the 
horse can bear ii, anoijit the strain and hold a hot bar oi 
iron before it, chafing it with your hand as much as may 
be; thus do once a day, and in nine days the cure will be 
effected. 

JVb. 11. — ^n excellent remedy for any strai}i on tJic sine7i\ 
or soi'e proceeding from heat. Take the whites of six eggs, 
and beat them well with a pint of white wine vinegar, and 
an ounce of the oil of roses, and as much of tiie oil of mint, 
then take four ounces of bole-armoniac, us much sanguis 
draconis, and as much fine bean flour, or wheat-flour, as 
will thicken it: bring it to a thick salve, spread it about 

the affected part, and renew it as it dricth. 

JVo. 12. — Markham''s halm for any strain in the shoulder, 
or other part; or rvind-gall, pain or swetUng. Take tew 
ounces of the purest goose grease, and melt it; j)ut into it 
four Qz. of oil of spike, and an oz.of the oil of origanum: 
stir tliem very well togethei*, tiien put it up in a gaily pot. 
With this ointment very hot, anoint the grieved parf, and 
rub and chafe it in well, holding an hot bar «f iron before 
it; and thus anoint it once in two days; but rub it in tvvicfc 
or thrice a day at least, and give the horse moderate ex- 
ercise. This is infallible. 



288 STKAXNi. 

JVo. 13. — For a strain. Hog's grease is very good for 4 
sinew strain, or any other part of the horse. Proved, 

JVo. 14.— For a strain in the pastern^ backer sinews. A 
charge of crown soap and brandy applied hot, and heated 
well in, is very good: keep him out of the water for a week 
after, until you see him go well. This soap and brandy is 
an absolute cure for a new strain or swelling; but if it be 
old, and the swellng hard as a bone, first anoint it with oil 
of turpentine and beer; and two or three days after, apply 
the charge of soap and brandy, and it will take it quite 
down. Proved, 

JVb. 1 5, — For a strain in the coffin joint, or a sive hone in 
the socket of the hoof. Take oft' the shoe, then pare the 
bottom of the foot as thin as you can, till the blood almost 
appears: you shall know in what place the strain is in, by 
taking the foot in your band and wrying it to you and 
from you: if it be there, he will shrink at it much when 
you turn his foot: when you find where it is, make this 
poultice and lay it on hot., Take a pint of strong beef or 
pork brine, and a quarter of a pound of kitchen stuff 
grease; put them into a skillet and boil them together for 
half an hour; then put some wheat bran to it. and make a 
poultice of them, neither too thick nor too thin; then set 
on the shoe again, and put a good quantity of this poul- 
tice as hot as you can, into the sole of the foot; then stuff 
the sole with tow or flax, and either s])linter it with a flat 
dtick or with a piece of sole-leather, to keep them in, and 
Jet them stay in forty-eight hours; then take a long linen 
cloth and spread the rest of the poultice, scalding hot, all 
about the top of the hoof, the pastern, and up the leg so 
far as the swelling goes, and let it Ue pn forty-eight hours; 



stkAinsc 289 

at th6 end of which time take it off and lay on anbtler, and 
let it Slay on, and so likewise a third and fourth till you 
see hiua go sound, which will he in a very short time, if 
you have occasion t > ride him, you may after the third 
d/essiug ride him njoderately; a little before you set him 
up, wash his legs; and when they are dry, take off his 
sJioe, and lay the poultice to as before. 

J\o. 16. — For a strain in the pastern of a horse. Take 
grounds of beer, hen's dung, nerve oil, and fresh grease 
that never had salt in it, make a poultice thereof, and lay 
it on: this is admirable for a strain in the pastern or 
fetlock, and will make a speedy cure. Frored. 

JVb 17. — For a Strain. Take smallage, ox eye and 
sheep's suet, of each a like quantity; chop them all toge- 
ther, and boil it in old urine ; bathe the strain therewith^ 
tlien with hay ropes, wet Vvith cold water, roll up his log 
that is strained, and he will be able to travel the next 
day. N. B. Hay ropes boil'd in old urine, 1 have known 
to cure a strain. Or thus, take milk and boil it, and 
put as much salt into it as will tnrn it to a curd ; then 
strain it and apply the curd to the strain, and bind it 
on, renewing it every day, and it will cure any old si- 
new-strain. N, B. The scum of salts sod in old urine 
will cure any windgall.— Soap and stone lime is ac- 
counted one of the strongest causticks that is, by be- 
hig mixed together. 

JVb. 18.—.^ certain cure for a strain hidden or apparent. 
Take the dog-berry tree, by some called red willow, 
Iwhich commonly grows in meadows, and by creek sides; 
tliere are two sorts; that of the broadest leaf is ac- 
counted the strongest ; scrape oif the bark and boil it 



290 STRAINS. 

in sprijig Avater; then bathe the grieved place therc^vithj 
and take of the bark, thus boiled, and apply it to a 
Strain as you would a poultice, and let it leuiain twelve 
hours ; you must also, if the strain be greht, give of the 
liquor inwtirdly, by ^vetti]lg the bran or other food he 
eats with the boiled liquor ; and by thus doing, it is a 
certain cure in a week's time, let the strain be never so 
great, 

JS'o. 19. — For a sinew-strain. Take of oil de-bay, oil 
of nerve, and aqua vitse, mix't together, rub and chafe 
the strain therewith, and it will cure it : or thus : take a 
thumb band of hay, and wind it round the horse's leg; 
then take of the coldest water you can get, and teem 
it on the hay for a quarter or half an hour successive- 
ly, twice in twenty-four hours; then when the hay is dry, 
take it off. I have known it cure strains newly taken. 

Frored. 
JVo. 20. — For the nether-joint or any strain. Take 
^heat flower or meal, the clay of a wall and wine-lees, 
all mixt together, and spiead a plaister thereof, and put 
it on the strain, renewing it once in twenty-four hours ; 
for a new strain twice is a cure : the clay must have no 
lime in it. N* B. The clay alone boil'd in the wine, is a 
gpeedy cure for any sinew-strain. Proved. 

wVo. 21. — For a strain in the stifle. Take oil of 
turpentine, linseed oil, oil of peter, olive oil, and oil origa- 
num, of each otie ounce; half an ounce of oil de-bay, and 
half an ounce of nerve oil; shake them all well together, 
and anoint the grieved place once in twelve hours, and 
with your hand rub it well in, and it will take away his 
lameness in forty-fcight hours. 



STRAINS, SlH 

JV'V. Q'Z,—For a sinexv strain. Take a quart of millf 
boil it on the fire, and put as much salt into the milk ae 
will turn it to a hard curd, then bind it on hot to the strain, 
renewing it once in twelve hours, it will cure it. 

N. B. Wash or bathe the strain with warm vinegar, be- 
fore you put on the curd, to hasten the cure. 

JVo. 23. — ^general cure for any strain in the shoulder j 
or any hidden part. Fill a large earthen vessel with the 
herb arse-smart and brook-lime, bruised together: cover 
them all over with old urine; cover the vessel close, and 
set it in a cool place: when you have occasion to use it, 
take a pipkin, and put into it as much of the urine and 
herbs as you think you may want, and set it on the fire 
and let it boil well; then if the strain be in the shoulder, 
cut the foot off an old boot, so that you may draW it over 
the horse's foot quite up his leg to his elbow, keeping the 
lower part of the boot close to his leg as possible, and let 
the upper part of the boot be wide open, and stuff the mix- 
ture into it as hot as the horse can bare it; and lay it close 
and fast about his shoulder, especially before and behind, 
then draw up the upper part of the boot, fasten it to the 
horse's mane that it may not slip down, and do so once a 
day until it be cured. This medicine is so violent, that 
if there be any foul matter it must come forth; it will bring 
it to an head, and ripen, heal, and break it. Proved. 

JVb. 24. — Strains. All kinds of strains, whether in the 
shoulder, back, sinew, or wheresoever th^. may b^ are 
cured by rubbing a little of the following oil into the part 
twice each day. 

Strain oil. — Oil of turpentine, two ounces; camphorated 

spirits of wine, two ounces; tincture of Spanish flies, half 
M2 



ids BING-BONES. 

an ounce; oil of spike, two ounces; salad oil, three ouh" 
ces. Let all these be incorporated together, and preserve 
it in a bottle for use. 

(j3* Rowelling may sometimes be of service in strains 
of the shoulder; and if violent, it is absolutely necessary: 
but do not suffer one to be cut before you have tried the 
^ain oil. 

€HAPTER, XXXYIIL 

Are bony excrescences about the small pastern bon^ 
flear the coronet, or in an ossification of tlie cartilages 
of the foot (see anatomy of the foot;) if it be observed 
in its incipient state, a blister will probably be of ser\ice s 
but \^ben of long standing and large, and it has proceed- 
ed so far as to cause a stifi joint, there is but little chance 
of recovery. 

Receipts for Ring-Boiies. 

JSTo, 1. If the callosity of a ring-bone does not spread it- 
self below thecroiiet oi the hoof, and is hard and bony, you 
may then take it out by applying a caustic, thus ; shave 
off the hair close, and apply the caustic made of Sione- 
lime and soft Soap^ and let it lie on not more than twen. 
ty-four houi-s i in that time or less, if your caustic be 



BING-BONBS. 296 

good^ it will penetrate to the very root of tlie ring-bone, 
aid It will co.ije clean oat in t'ourteeu ov titteen days, 
la tiie mean wliile keep some of your suppling anil draw* 
iri-i salves to it, also keep it dean from lilth and dirt; 
an 1 wUen tlio ringbone is out, apply your healing salves, 
an J wash the wouiid with soap suds or lime water, op 
alu.n water, or whey, dressing once in twenty-four hours. 
When you see proud flesh arise, as it will, then scald it 
00* vith butter and salt, or burnt ^lum, or any of your 
eating powders, i hus do with care, and there will be 
no doubt of a cure. A ring-bosie at first coming is easi1^^ 
ly ;ured, sojiietimes by a mild Blister only ; if it should 
be tijstiniitf an 1 will gfo%y, then first fire gently and ap- 
ply i Blister plaister or two, and when they are dry, make 
a p J iltioe of oat-meal^ ail JWid vinegar^ and bind it on, and 
turn the horse to pasture, and it is a cure without much 
eye-sore. 

JVu. 2.— Take Trai.'i oii, one quart, which rub daily on 
the part affected until done, heating it well in with a hot 
iron every time of rubbing. This stops it from forming 
into sinews, sapides tlic joint, and makes the horse as 
whole and active as ever ; yet tlic appearance will not be 
entirely taken away. Piwed, 

J\*o. 3, — For a Rin^-Bone. It grows just upon the in-« 
gtep, upon the forepart of the hindej* let^, just about the 
hoof, in a hard knob as big as a walnut. The beast 
must be cast, or else tie up his contrary leg with a strong 
rope, till you strike four or five holes in the ring-bone, at 
the very edge of it. Let the holes he an equal distance, 
then take white mercury or arsenick powdered, as much 
as will lie on your fleme, and put it into each hole, bin^ 
tug it on for twenty -four hours. 



294 TH0R0V6H-riN, WIND-GAJLLS, &C. 

JVb. 4. — Take best quick lime, bruise it very fine, and 
lay it thick along the swelled place, and bind it on with a 
linen cloth fast to the foot, and lead the horse into the wa- 
ter a little while; aftei*wards unbind his foot and he is 
certainly cured. When you apply the lime let him be 
near the water side. Proved. 

JVo. 5. — Ring-Bane, is a hard swelling a little above the 
©oronet, which will cause the hair about that part to stare 
and look briskly. . 

The Cure. — Blistering will cure it, if recent; but if of 
long standing, recourse must be had to firing. 



CHAPTER, XXXIX. 

Thorough-Pin, Wind-Galls, Splents, Spavin, Curb, 

Thorough-Pin. — By this term is meant the swelling both 
on the inside and out-side of the hock joint. When one of 
the tumors is pressed with the fingers, the fluid which it 
contains is foi'ced into that on the opposite side — from 
this communication between the swellings the disease has 
probably obtained its name. 

It is generally a consequence of hard work, and there- 
fore difficult to cure; the only remedies are blisters and 
rest. 

Wind-Galls, consist in an enlargement of the mucous 
sacs, which are placed behind the flexor tendons for the 
purpose of facilitating their motion. The swelling ap- 



THOROUGH-PIN, "WIND-GALLS, &C. 295 

jiears on each side the back smew, immediately above the 
ietlock joint, if punctured they discharge a fluid resemj 
bling joint oil, indeed they frequently communicate with the 
cavity of the joint, and therefore cannot be opened with- 
out danger of producing an incurable lameness. Blisters 
are the only applications likely to be of service, and these 
seldom effect a cure unl.ss assisted by rest. This com- 
plaint does not often occasion lameness, and is therefore 
seldom much attended to; but as it is almost always a con- 
sequence of hard work, and sometimes renders a horse 
unfit for active labour; it diminishes his value considera- 
bly. 

Receipts for Wind-Galls. 

JVb. 1. Sometimes rollers or bandages applied to the 
legs will have a good effect, keeping them constantly 
moist with the following embrocation: 

Muriate of ammonia, 1 ounce. Muriatic acid | ounce, 
Water 1 quart. Or, a strong solution of sal. ammonia 
and vinegar. 

J^o. 2. These are little blebs, or small soft swellings on 
each side the fetlock, procured by much travel on iiard 
and stony ways: the cure is, to prick them and let out the 
jelly, and th en dry tlie sore with a plaister of pitch. 

J^o. 3. — The masler medicine^ for any Wind-Gall, Sinew 
Strain, Blood-Spavin, Splent, Curb, ^c. First, shave o ft* 
the hair, then take of cantharides, which is a fly the apo- 
thecaries make their blister-plaisters of, half a quarter of 
an ounce, mixed with a little nerve oil: spread that upon 
the grieved part, and tie the horse up eight or ten hours 
till it has done working. Next morning squeeze out the 



296 THOROUGH-PIN, WIND-GAtlS, &C. 

water with your finger and thumb; but take care not to 
brtak th** skin. If you think once does Mot do, the next 
cl>iy spread on some more, and do as before directed, and 
t.v.ce certainly will perfect the cure. 

li is best to spread the medicine on the grievance thin; 
t.ro or three tiays alter anoint it with salad oil, or fresli 
b-tter, or ncats foot oil, and it is a perfect cure. 

JYo. 4. — Strains, Uind-Galis, or Swelling. The follow<» 
in , .'i.im hath never failed for any strain in the shoulder, 
or oiler part, hidden or apparent; or any wind-gall, pain, 
or swelling whatever. Take ten ounces of the best and 
pUi'cst gouse-grease, and melt it on a fire; then take it off 
a I put into it four ounces of the oil of spike, and an oimce 
of the oil of origanum: stir them very well togetlier, then 
put it I p into a gallipot. With this ointment anoint the 
g i:^ved part; the ointment being made exceeding hot; and 
ruh and chafe it in with all painfulness, holding an hot bar 
of iron before it, and thus anoint once in two days, but 
ruh and chafe it in twice or thrice a day at the least, and 
g.ve the horse moderate exercise. Proved Jnfallible^ 

JV*o. 5,— For a Wind-GalL First, shave off the hair, 
then get the inner bark of white walnut as soon as it is 
off the tree, and clap it to the wind-gall, and there bind it 
on, and let it abide on for twenty-four hours; whilst that 
yemains, you should boil some of the bark in running wa- 
ter, and teem the liquor On the wind-gall, so as the bark 
may not dry; at the end of twenty-four hours take the 
bark from the windgall, and anoint it with fresh butter 
and hog's grease, and it is a cure. 

JVb. 6. — For Wind-Galls. They are very apparent 
about the fetlock joints of an over-ridden horse: first open 



THOROUGH-PIN, %VIND GALIS, (§"Co 297 

the wind gall with a lancet, making the orifice no bigger 
than tiiat tiie jelly may come out, then squeeze it a little 
to send it away: take a wet woollen cloth, lay it on the 
wound, and press upon it with a hot iron until it sucks up 
all the moisture from tiie wind-gall, and it is quite dry: 
then take pitch, rosin, and mastick, of each a like quan- 
tity, melt them together, and daub it over the wind-t;all 
▼ery hot, and then clap on a quantity of shearman's 
flocks, and there let it remain until it comes off of its own 
accord and the wind-gall will be cured. 

Splents are bony excrescences about the sliank-bone, 
that is between the knee and tetlock joint; they never oc- 
casion lameness, unless situated so near the knee or back 
sinews as to interfere with their motion. 

Meceiptsjor Splents. 

JVb. 1.— Many cases of lameness are attributed to 
splents, when the cause evidently exists in the foot. 

These excrescences may sometimes be removed by 
strong blisters : but the old method of bruising and punc- 
turing the part before the blister is applied, ought not to 
be attempted as it often does harm. 

JVo. 2. — -For any splent^ spavin^ ringbone^ curh^ or other 
hard knot or excretion. Having taken a view of the ex- 
cretion, clip away the hair a little farther than it ext nds, 
then take a piece of alum'd leather, made just as big as 
the place you have bared, and fit it to the sa-^ie : after- 
wards take a little shoemakers wax, and spread it only 
round the edge of the satne, leaving all the middle part 
empty. Then take of the herb called asparagus, bruise 



£98 THOROUGH-PIN, WIND-^GAILS &C, 

it in a mortar, and lay some thereof on the void place in 
the leather, and bind it fast on the bare place : if in the 
spring or summer time, when the asparagus hath full 
strength, let it lie two or three hours ; but if in the win- 
ter, then it is not amiss to revive the strength of the herb 
hy adding to it a drop or two of origanum, and let it lie 
a day. Be sure to tie up the horse's head for two hours 
for fear of biting it away. 

When you have taken away the plaister, anoint the 
place with warm train oil, and you shall find no excre- 
tion. 

JVo. 3. — For a splent. You must'cast the horse, then 
beat the place with a stick until it is soft, and fleme it 
in three or four places upon the splent, and squeeze out 
the blood with your stick and your finger and thumb. 
Take as much hog's grease as a walnut, and as much 
bole-armoniac and brimstone : beat these two last to pow- 
der, mix them with grease, spread it upon a sheet of grey 
paper, and lay it upon the splent, then heat a brick very 
hot and dry the medicine in with it, then melt some black 
pitch in an iron pan, and dip some flocks in it and daub it 
on close all over the splent that it may stick fast, and 
when the flocks come off, the splent w ill come out : but 
if the flock comes off before the splent, lay on more till 
the splent comes out; as soon as it comes out, wash it 
with a little white-wine vinegar, and then anoint it wilh 
salad-oil and turpentine melted together and cooled : use 
it once a day and the splent will come out and be whole 
in a week. It makes a great blemish, and takes away 
hair and flesh, and sometimes the hair comes no more. 

Proved^ 



THOROUGH- PIN, WIND- GALLS, &C. 299 

JVb. 4. — For a great splent. Beat it and fleam it, a@ 
you were directed in the other; then take as much crown- 
soap as an egg, and mix it with as much bole-armoniac, 
lay it on a piece of grey paper, and dry it in with a hot 
brick, as you did the former. It is much the same as the 
former. Frovcd. 

J^o. 5. — dn excellent receipt for a great or small splent. 
Take a piece of leather twice as broad as will cover the 
splent, then take cantharides (Spanish flies,) and beat 
tliem to powder : take one-eighth of an ounce of them, and 
a spoonful of nerve-oil, rub them well together, and lay 
them upon a piece of leather, and bind them on for eight 
or ten hours; then take it oft^, and stroke it down with 
your fingers and thumb twice or thrice a day, till you 
see it quite fallen. This medicine will dissolve. the splent 
into water, and it will sweat out water by doing it witk 
your finger and thumb every day. If it be a great splent, 
lay -it on twice ; if but a small one, once will serve. He 
must stand in all the time of the cure : you may ride 
him after you have taken the medicine off". Make no 
more than you use, for it will not keep. This medirino 
will not diminish, but sink it flat : it must not be applied 
to a splent that liath been touched before, where the swel<= 
ling still remains, and the hair is off", and skin very thin t 
it is too strong, and will soon eat the thin skin to pie^ 
ces in such a case. Proved^ 

JVo. 6. — OJ the splent^ curb ^hone-spavin^ or any knob or 
bony excretion or ring bone. A splent is a bony excretion 
under the knee or^the fore leg. The curb is the same be- 
hind the hinder hough. The spavin is the like on the in- 
side of the hinder hough; and the ring-bone is the like on 

N2 



300 THOROtGH-rlN, WIND-GAXIS, &C, 

the corner ofthehcof. — The cure is thus: upon tlie tojp 
of the excretion make a slit with your pen knife, near 
half an inch long, and then with a fine cornet raist- tho 
skin from the bone, and having made it, holloa, tlie com- 
pass of the excretion, and no niorej take a little iirit and 
dip it in the oil ot origanini), thrust it into the hole, and 
cover the knob, and so let it remain till you see it rot, and 
that nature casteth out the medicine and the cure. As 
for the ring bone you need ♦o do nothing more than to 
scarify it, and anoint it with the oil only. 

JVb. 7. — Jn approved and certain li.ethod to iche avay 
any splent. Take the root of elecr;n'].t;r;e, wash it clean, 
then lap it up in wet brown paper and roast it in hot mu 
hers till it be well done, and take Carey eu do not burn it; 
then rub and chafe the splent; and as hot as the hoise can' 
Bear, clap this root light on the splent, and bind it last, 
^nd in two or three dressings it will consume it quite. 
But i would not have you lay it on so hot as to scald.— 
Also, if you rub tlie splent with the oil of origanum, m^orn- 
ing and evening, it will take it away. 

jVb. 8. — Spknis. Let the splent be bathed with a sponge 
^et with the hot decoction of wormwood &c. for at least ten 
minutes daily: then the part moistened with the following 
solvent, wetting a small piece of tow with the same, and 
binding it slackly on the part with a small flannel roller; re- 
membering wiien the horse goes out, or to his exercise, that 
the application is renewed (after being dressed) upon his 
return to the stable: Take extract of saturn, and oil of 
origanum each half an ounce, cansphorated spirits of wine 
two ounces and an half; shake the two last well together, 
and add the extract^ letting the bottle be well and ok 



THOROUGH-PIN, WIND-GALiS, ^. 30X 

gtantly shaken at each time of using; if which precaution 
is not invariably used, the oil of origanum will, by disu- 
niting itself from tlie other articles, swim upon the sur- 
face, and by coming out, alone occasion loss of hair, which 
never does happen when the composition is properly sha^ 
ken and applied. Proved. 

JSf'o. 9. — Splent. The splent is a fixed callous excres- 
cence, oj- hard knob, growing upon the flat of the in or 
4)!i!side (and sometimes both) of the shank bone ; a little 
un ^Cy and not far from the knee, and may be seen and 
felt. 

To take it off, s'lave the part, and beat it with a stick, 
prick it with a nail in a flat stick, clap on a blistering 
pla ster as strong as you can -nake it, let it lie on three 
davsj then take it oflT, and rub the place with half a 
drachm of ttte oil of origanum^ and as much oil of vitriol^ 
mixed ; if the first <h)es not do, rub it a spcond time with 
the oils ; U you find any remains of the splent, apply a 
second blistering plaister for twenty-foui" hours ; walk 
him moderately, to prevent any swelling or excrescence 
from settling. 

Must young horses have splents, more or less, and 
they will occasion lameness while they are coming upon 
the bone, but after they are grown to the firmness of 
b^ones, they do not lame a horse, nor is such a horse 
worse for use, tho' he may not look so well to the eye* 
SPAVIJW — A Spavin is a swelling on the inside of the 
hock, and is of two kinds; the first is termed a bone spa- 
vin, consisting of a bony excrescence; the other a bog or 
bloo 1 spavin. The former often occasions lameness just 
before it makes its appearance, and then can be discovered 



30£ THOROUGH-PIN, WIND-GALLS, &C. 

only by feeling the part, which will be found unusually 
hot and tender. 

Receipts for the Sparin. 

JVo. 1. If a blister is applied and repeated at this pe- 
riod of the disease, it will generally prove successful; but 
when the disease has existed for some time, the cure is 
much more difficult; in sue h cases the skin should be irri- 
tated by caustic and the following day a strong blister ap- 
plied; after this two or three months rest (at grass) are 
absolutely necessary; this disease is, however, generally 
incurable. 

{ji;T» The bog spavin does not so often occasion lame- 
ness as the other, except when a horse is worked hard, 
which generally causes a temporary lameness, remova!)le 
l)y rest; but it does not often admit of a radical cure, for 
though it is frequently removed by two or three blisters, it 
generally returns when the horse is made to perform any 
considerable exertion. 

JVb. 2. — For any Splent, Sjjarin, Rivg-Bone, Cnrb, or 
awif other hard knot or excretion. First, having taken a 
View of the excretion, clip away the hair as far as the ex- 
cretion goetb and a little part more: then take a piece of 
alum'd leather, made just as big as the jilace you have 
bared, and fit it to the same proportion- Then take a lit-. 
tie shoe-makers wax, and spread it round about the very 
edge or verge of the same, leaving all the inward or mid- 
dle part empty, and not touched witli tlie wax, according 
to this figure O. Then take of the herb called asparagus, 
which hath the virtue to raise blisters, and bruising it in 
a mortar, lay some thereof on the leather, in ilic void and 



THOROUGH -PI?f, WIND- GALLS, &C. SOS 

empty place, which ouglit to contain the just quantity of 
tlje knot or excretion, and bind it fast thereon; suffering it 
so to lie (if it be in the spring or summer time, when the 
asparagus hath its fvill strength and virtue) two or three 
hours. But if it be in the winter, then it hath less virtue; 
then it is not amiss to revive the strength of the herb, if 
you add to it a drop or two of origanum, and let it lie a 
day; and be sure to tie up the horse^s head for two hours^ 
for fear of his biting it away. 

"When you have taken off the plaister, anoint the place 
with train-oil warai, and you shall find no excretion. 

JV*o. 3. — For a Spavin as hig as an egg. It grow eth 
upon the inside of the hough of the after-leg: first, beat it 
with a blood-stick until it be soft; then anoint it with six- 
penny worth t>f the oil of origanum upon the bone spavin 
which you bruised; put your oil into an oyster shell, or 
some such thing and rub it in with your lingers, no 
where but upon the place which you bruised : two 
days after the oil hath taken its couise, take two or 
three ounces of the oil of swallows, and anoint the cord- 
sinews in the bent of the leg to stretch and give li- 
berty to the sinews that are shrunk: lay on of the 
oil of swallows but half an ounce at a time, and lny 
it on no where else, but upon the sinews on the bent of the 
leg; after that the oil of swallows is well soaked in, you 
may ride him or work him: this oil of swallows doth much 
lengthen and give liberty to the sinews. At three or four 
days distance you may lay on half an ounce more. If 
blood hags come in the spavin-place at the game time the 
bone-spavin comes, then do not sear it with your iron by 
any means; only lay the charge of soap asul brandy hni. 



304 THOROUGH-PIN, WIND-GALtS, &C» 

on, and heat it well in with a har of iron, and for certaii 
it will cause it to fall. Proved, 

JVo. 4. To take it off, beat the bone with a bleeding 
stick, and ri}b it: then anoint it with the oil of origanum, 
tie a wet cloth about it, and with a hot brick applied to it, 
soak in the oil till it be dry. 

JVo. 5. For the blood and hone Spavins. For either blood 
or bone spavin proceed in the following way: For threq 
days lei the part affected be substantially batlied with the 
following bathing decoction : 

Take wormwood, lavender, rosc-mary leaves, canio« 
yn'le and elder flowers (for want of the flowers take the 
bark) of each four ounces — boil these in three gallons of 
water for half an hour, keeping them stirred below the 
surface; this done let the aff*ected parts upon all occasions 
be bathed witli sponges or flannels for full half an hou* 
night and morning, as hot as the horse can possily endure 
it; this to be succeeded by patiently rubbing it in down- 
wards with your hand for a considerable time, wrapping 
tha parts immediately round with a flannel roller; which 
done apply the horse ointment. Proved. 

JSTo. 6. — To cure a Bog-Spavin. First open the bog, whicfc 
will discharge a large quantity of matter; dress the sore 
with dossils dipped in oil of turpentine; putting into it, 
one ounce in three or four days, of a powder made of cal- 
cined vitriol, alum, and bole: by this method of dressing, 
the bog will decrease and come away, and the cure will 
be? successfully completed without any visible scar. 

jVo. 7. — Blood Spavin. Is a soft swelling on the in- 
side of a horse's hock, but not the master-vein, as is gen- 
erally supposed. It makes a horse take his leg very 



THOROrOH-PIN, WIND-GA1X8, &C» S&5 

stiff from the ground, and will sometimes cause him to 
go quite larae. 

The cure. First clip away the hair from the swelled 
part ; then with a piece of hard brow n soap, rub all round 
the outside of the spavin, leaving it untouched where the 
following blister is to be laid : so that it may act alone 
tipon it, and no other part. 

Blistering ointment. Hogs-lard, half an ounce; hees- 
ivaXy three drachms; sublimate in fine powder, one 
drachm; cantharides^ two drachms; be careful that they 
are all mixed together. Spread the plaister on a piece 
of white leather, auvl lay it on the spavin. 

This ointment may be repeated after the former one 
is done running, if you see occasion for a repetition, 
which genemlly completes the cure. 

JVo. 8. — Of the blood*spaviny or hongh-lovy^ or any other 
Unnatural swelling^ Jrom what caiise soerer it proceedeth. 
These two are postules or soft round swellings ; the first 
is of the inside of tiie hinder hough, and the other on the 
very huckle of the hough ; they are soft and very sore. 
The cure is thus :— -first bind up the vein above, and let 
it blood only from below ; then liaving tied it fast with 
thoemakers ends on both sides, slit the vein in two pie- 
tes, then take linseed and bruise it in a mortar, mix it 
With cow-dung, heat it in a frying pan, and so ajply it to 
the swelling only ; if it breaks and runs, then heal it 
with a plaister of pitch, and the horse vvill never be trou- 
bled with a spavin more. Jf the swelling comes by a 
strain or bruise, then take pitch grease and melt it, anoint 
the sore therewith, holding a hot iron near it to sink ia 



306 THOEOfeGH-PIN, WIND-GAIXS, &G» 

the grease, then fold a linen cloth about it, and it wili 
assuage all swellings whatsoever. 

CURB. — This term implies a swelling on the back 
part of the hock, which sometimes occasions lameness. 

Receipts for Curbs. 

JVo. 1. — Blistering and rest are the only remedies ; it 
is frequently necessary, however, to apply two or three 
blisters before a cure will be effected. 

JVo. 2. This Curb always groweth upon the back-part 
of the heel of the knee of the hinder leg, in a hard sub- 
stance; 1 shall give no Uiore signs, for it is easy to be seen: 
The remedy is this, first tie up the contrary leg as you do 
for a blood-spavin; then with an hot iron sear it length- 
ways down his leg upon the curb, till the skin look yellow; 
then draw your hot iron across it, as you did for a blood- 
spavin, in two or tliree places; then presently take an 
horse-nail and drive it tlirough a stick, so that the point 
of the nail may come a little through the stick, the breadth 
of a straw, or a little more: then set the point of the nail 
to the fired places, and strike it, some ten or twenty times, 
according as the burning goes in several places, and as 
you see occasion : then take a handful or too of salt, and 
rub it well in with your hand to stop the blood; and half 
an hour after, wipe the salt off, and apply the charge of 
soap and brandy hot on, and heat it well in with a bar of 
iron; and as your iron cools, slake it over it, to dry it in 
the better : let the charge lie on till it comes off of itself; 
you may ride him every day after three or four days; in 
the mean time, let him stand in the stable. Proved* 



IJISEAaES OF THE FOOT. SOf 

JVb. 3.— C«r6. Is a swelling of the great sinew beloVir 
the elbow of the hock, extending itself downwards to- 
wards the heel. It causes a horse to go tery stiff, and 
>soinetimes lame. 

The most effectual method of cure is, to draw a line 
down the middle of the curb with a cautery, ^nd after- 
wards apply the blistering ointment. 

CHAPTER, XL. 

DISEASES OF THE FOOT. 

The most frequent cause of lameness in the foot is a 
contraction of the horney matter that composes the hoof 
wliich is generally accompanied with an increased conca- 
vity and thickness of the sole. The cavity of the hoof 
being thus diminished, the sensible foot suffers a greater 
or less degree of compression, which occasions in it in- 
flammation and lameness. When we examine the bottom 
of a contracted foot, instead of being circular, it will be 
found of an oblong form, the heels and frog will appear 
as if they had been squeezed together in a vice. Some- 
times the frog has become rotten, and discharge an of- 
fensive matter. 

The sensible foot may also be compressed and inflamed 
by an increased thickness, and a consequent loss of elas- 
ticity in the hoof and sole; and in this case there is sel- 

02 



308 DISEASES OP THE roOT, 

dom any considerable alteration observed in the external 
form of the foot. 

We sometimes meet with horses that go perfectly sound, 
though their hoofs are much contracted; on the other 
hand we often see severe lameness produced by a slight 
degree of contraction. 

Receipts for diseases of the foot. 

JVb. 1. — In attempting to cure this disease, the first 
step to be taken is to remove carefully with a knife all 
the rotten parts of the frog, and apply tar to those which 
are sound: and oil of turpentine should be poured into the 
cleft of the frog; this will promote the secretion of hor- 
ney matter, and if assisted by pressure, will increase the 
solidity of that which is already formed. The quarters 
and heels are then to be rasped, particularly at the coro- 
net, and the superfluous parts of tlie sole removed with a 
buttcris and drawing knife. The toe is to be shortened 
as much as can be conveniently done, and if the heels arc 
too high, that is, if the crust at the heels is too deep, it 
will be necessary to reduce it with the butteris and rasp. 
It frequently happens, however, in feet of this description, 
4hat the heels are too low, in such cases they must be care- 
fully preserved, and when a shoe is applied, it should be 
made thicker at tiie heel than at the toe, and somewhat 
longer than that recommended for a sound foot. 

When the contracted hoof has been thus treated, the 
next thing to be done is to keep the foot as moist as possi- 
ble, and expose the frog constantly to pi-essure, either by 
ipeans of the artificial frog, or by reducing the crust at the 
heels. When these remedies have been persevered in for 



DISEASES OF THE FOOT. 309 

H short time, the frog will have acquired a certain degree 
of hardness and solidity; it will then be proper to turn 
the horse out into some soft meadow ground, without 
shoes, taking care that the bottom of the foot is occasion- 
ally reduced, so that the frog may constantly receive 
pressure. If the foot is examined after a short tiitie, it 
will be found that all the new formed hoof at the quarters 
and heels, that is all the horn that has been produced at 
those parts since the remedies were first employed, in- 
stead of growing down nearly in a perpendicular direc- 
tion, or obliquely inward, is forced outwards in its de- 
scent, so that the cavity of tlie hoof will be considerably 
enlarged, and the compression of the internal parts remo- 
ved. When the horse has been at grass a sufficient time 
for the new hoof to grew completely down, the shape of 
the foot will be found much altered; the heels instead of 
being narrow will be open and expanded, the frog will be 
considerably widened, and not squeezed together as be- 
fore, and the oblong form will be changed to one that is 
more circular; in short when the frog, during this time has 
been properly exposed to pressure, and the quarters so 
rasped as to be rendered suiliciently flexible, the hoof will 
be found very similar in its form to that of a colt. 

JVo. 2. — Injiammation and Lameness. In cases where 
a contraction of the hoof has already produced inflamma- 
tion and lameness, pai'ticularly if the la neness is not re- 
cent, it will be advisable to blister the pasterns previous 
to turning the horse out, and when the inflammation is 
very considerable, a laxative ball, with a cooling diet, will 
be serviceable. The cruel operation of drawing or tear- 
ing off the sole has been recommended a§ a remedy far 



310 DISEASES OF THE FOOT. 

contracted feet, but very little reflection will convince any 
one of its inefficacyj whenever it has been supposed to 
do good, the benefit has probably arisen from the long 
run at grass that becomes necessary after it, and then the 
advantage might have been equal, perhaps greater, had 
the operation been omitted. It has been observed before, 
that in contracted hoofs there is generally an increased 
concavity in the sole, whence we may reasonably conclude 
that it opposes the contracting powers, though in the end 
it is not capable of preventing the contraction from tak- 
ing place. Upon a liorse that has been lame from this 
disease a considerable time, it is difficult, if not impossi- 
ble, to perform a radical cure. When the lameness is 
not so considerable as to render the horse totally unfit for 
work; it will be advisable to apply a slioe that is thicker, 
wider, and longer at the heels than that recommended for 
a sound foot, and if the frog is tender and rotten, the bar- 
shoe will be found serviceable. It will be found useful also 
to keep the hoof as moist as possible, by making the horse 
stand in water or wet clay four or five hours during the, 
day, or in a bran poultice. 

In examining the feet of horses after deatlj, that hrve 
been thus diseased, we find generally that the laminae 
have been destroyed, the coffiin-bone injured, the lateral 
cartileges ossified ; in some cases, however, no appearance 
of disease can be perceived on the internalparts of the 
foot. 

(j;;J^ When the disease has gone so far as to injui-e ti.e 
laminae, cartilages, or coffiin-bone, there is not a possi- 
bility of removing it, which shews how necessary it is to 
^ittend to the feet of horses more than is commonly done; 



DISEASES OF THE EOOT. SH 

and that whenever any alteration is perceived to be going 
on in the shape of the foot, when the heels appear to be 
getting narrower, the frog squeezed together and dis- 
charging matter, in consequence of the compression which 
the sensible frog suffers ; it surely must he of importance 
to adopt such measures as will not only prevent the di;?- 
ease from going any further, but will also restore the 
foot to its natural healthy state; for when it has gone so 
far as to produce absolute lameness, the cure is by no 
means certain. How frequently do we meet with horses 
that are said to be tender in the feet, and lu w subject 
are they to fall in consequence of this tenderness, wliicli 
generally arises i'voni contraction of the crust ; in this 
case the sensible frog is exti^emely irritable and in{lai» 
ed, and the horney frog which nature designed for its 
protection being soft and rotten, and inadequate to its 
function, every blow that it receives must of course give 
the animal very considerable pain. V/henever there- 
fore any of those symptoms make their ai)pearance, and 
whenever the foot seems to be undergoing an alteration 
in formj injmediate recourse should be had to the mode 
of prevention we have pointed out. 

JVo. 3, — The next disease to be noticed is the flat or 
convex sole, or, as it is most commonly termed, the pum- 
mice foot. This disease most commonly occurs in heavj 
draft horses, and seems to arise from a weakness of the 
crust ; for when the sole lu'comes fat or convex, tlie crust 
also loses its proper form, and becomes flatten, appearinsj^ 
as if it had been incapable of supporting the animal's 
weight, and had therefore given way, allowing tJie inter- 
tjal foot to press so upon the sole as to give it the aiJlJear- 



312 DISEASES OF THE I'OOT. 

ance we observe. This explanation of the disease will 
perhaps appear the more probable, if we consider that 
when a horse is drawing a heavy load, not only his own 
weight, but great part of that wliich he is diawing also, 
is thrown ultimately upon his feet, and as the fore fret 
support by far the greatest share, it is not at all astonish- 
ing that the ci'iist should sometimes give way -, for though 
it possesses sufficient strength for the purpose of the ani 
mal in a state of nature— yet that strength is limited, and 
not always adcfjuate to the burthens which the crust has 
to sustain. When the sole becomes fiat or convex, it is 
rendered also thinner than it is naturally, and sometimes 
so much so as to yield easily to the pressure of the finger; 
the sole in this state is of course incapable of affording 
sufficient protection to the sensible sole, which is then 
closely in contact with it; and if it be exposed to pres- 
sure, lameness must be the consequence. It is almost su- 
perfluous to observe, that the flat shoe would be ill adap- 
ted to a foot of this description; it becomes necessary in 
this case to apply one that is concave on its external 
surface, that the sole may not receive any pressure from 
it, and of sufficient width to protect the sole as much 
as can be done from the pressure of the ground. In at- 
tempting to cure this disease, it is first necessary to take 
off the horse's shoes, and to make him stand on a flat 
hard surface ; this kind of pressure will harden the soles, 
and in the end render them thicker, particularly if tar be 
frequently applied to them, and although a radical cure 
may not be affected by this treatment, considerable ^.n^ 
vantage may be derived from it^ 



DISEASES OF THE FOOT. 318 

JVb. 4. — We sometimes meet with horses, particularly 
among those that are well bred, whose pasterns are re- 
markably long and oblique in their position, while the 
heels are very low and tha toe of considerable length ; if 
thin heeled shoes were applied to feet of this description, 
or if the toes were not kept short, the horse would be 
very liable to lameness, from the extraordinary pres- 
sure to which the ligaments and back sinews would be 
exposed ; the heels therefore of such horses are to be 
carefully preserved and the toes kept as short as possi- 
ble. The shoes which are applied should be made suffi- 
ciently thick and long at the heel to make up for the de- 
ficiency of horn in that part, in order to relieve the lig- 
aments and back sinews, and with the same view the 
toe should be made rather thin, and of the best steel. 
There is another liind of deformity sometimes observed 
in the foot, that is, the hoof loses its oblique form, and 
approaches towards the perpendicular, at the same time 
the heels become very high ; in this case it is neces- 
sary to reduce tlic crust at tlie heels, and apply the thin 
heeled shoe. 

JNU 5. — Hoof hound. Is a sinking in of the hoof at the 
coronet, and a contraction of the heels, which will be 
drawn tight together, like a ball ; so that they will become 
considerably smaller than the perfect ones; and if trial be 
made, by gently tapping them with a hammer, they wilE 
sound hollow. 

The best method of cure is to cut several lines, from 
the coronet downwards to the toe, all round the hoof; af- 
t.envards till them up with any greasy or softening mat- 
tfT. such as tallow and soap mixed together, or with pitch 



314 UlbEASJi^ OF THE roO'lT, 

But I would caution you against the farriers' mode of 
making the lines, or rases, with a red hot iron, to soften 
the hoof, as tlicy pretend : because that will make it more 
hard and brittle, immediately after the burnt part becomes 
cool : instead of that method, the cure must be sought for 
by constantly keeping the hoof mollified and softened, as 
hefore directed, that it may stretch and become as pliable 
as possible. I must also conjure you not to be prevailed 
upon to take out the sole ; as that is seldom attended with 
any good effect. 

JVo. C. — For a stub in the foot, or heel, an overreach ivith 
the toe oj'the ajier-foot, upon the heal ofthefore-foot, a tread or 
a cut above the hair, @r when a stone hath cut a Iwrses Leg, 
First wash the wound with fair water or with water and 
s;;lt ; when the wound is dry, take a big onion, or two or 
three small ones will answer tlie end as well, a spoonful 
of pepper beaten small, as much crown soap as the big- 
ness of an egg ; these three things must be beaten to a 
sla\e, and laid upon a linen cloth, and laid to the wound 
twenty-four hours, and at the end of that time dress it as 
you did before ; and so continue doing every twenty-four 
hours till it be whole. Tf this quantity of medicine be too 
little, make more. As you see it heal, dress it but once 
in two or tliree days. This onion salve will prevent a 
quitter-bone, if you lay it to before it break. 1 his salve 
is good to heal and cure all these hurts. Proved. 

jVo. 7. — For a Horse that is pricked in the shoeing and 
aj'terivards festered. First open it well, and take out all 
the corruption to the very bottom, so far as the nail did 
go ; then take three or four house-snails, a little salt, as 
much soap as a walnut ,; beat them all together, and lay 



DISEASES OF THE roo*. 315 

it to the place that was pricked twenty four hours, till 
you see it begin to healj then dress it but once in tw» 
days ; and in three or four dressings it will be whole. 
When you lay this medicine to the bottom of the foot, lay 
some flax, hards, or tow, over it, and over that a piece of 
leather, or splinters to keep the hards and medicine in. 
And if it break out or be soft at the top of the hoof, lay 
some of this medicine to, and bind it on with a linen rag. 

Proved. 
JVo. 8. — For any Founder^ Fretti%e^ Surhate^ or any im- 
perfection in the Feet. First pare thin, open the heels 
wide, and take a good store of blood from the toes ; then 
tack on a shoe somewhat hollow : after, take of the best 
Frankincense, and rolling it in a little fine cotton-wool 
or bombast, with an hot iron melt it into the foot, betwixt 
the shoe and the toe, till the orifice where the blood was 
taken be filled up. Then take half a pound of Hog's 
grease, and melt it on the fire; then mix it with wheat- 
bran, till it be as thick as a poultice. Then boiling hot, 
as is possible, stop up tlie horse's foot therewith ; then co- 
ver it with a piece of an old shoe, and splint it up, and so 
let the horse stand for three or four days; then if occa* 
sion serves, you may renew it, otherwise the cure is 
wrought. 

JVo. 9. — To make Hoofs gtow quickly ; and to he tough 
and strong. Take of the juice of Garlick seven ounces, 
of old Hog's grease two pounds, of x4ss's dung (for want 
of it Cow's dung) an handful: mingle them, and boil them 
all well together ; then with this both stop the horse's 
foot, and anoint the crownets of the hoofs and the effect 

is great. 

PS 



iJI6 DISEASES OJ THE FOOT. 

JVb. 10.— For Brittle Hoofs. Take Hng^s grease, Dog'e 
grease and Turpentine, mix them togetLer, and anoint 
the hoofs tlierewith. Dog's grease is an exceeding good 
thing for a hrittie hoof. 

JVI5. 11. -^Brittle Eoofs. Anoint them with an equal 
proportion of D( g's grease, 1 urpentine, and lai', all boil- 
ed together a little while, and it will make them grow 
stiong and tough ; put in the 1 urpentine but a little be- 
fore you take it off the fire. Proved, 

J\ro. 12. — To make hoofs that are hrittie grow quickly^ 
andtoihakethemfrm and strong. Take (;fgai lie se^cu 
ounces, rue three handfuls,(;f alum beaten to pcvvcler seven 
ounces, of old hog's-grease two pounds, of ass's-dung, or 
for want of it cow's dung, an hajidful; beat and cut thf m 
all small, and mix them all togetlier, and boil them all to- 
gether well ; then w ith this (;intn»ent step his fore feet, 
between his shoes and the Lottcm of his feet, and keep it 
on with a j.ifce of leather or sole leather of a shoe : Let 
it be betwixt his foot and shoe. And besides, you would 
do well to anoint the outside of his hoi>fs all over; do this 
till you see his brittle- hoofs to grow tough and strong; 
you will find the effect to be great. Proved. 

JVo. 13. — The lest receipt that can he for hrittie hoofs. 
Take drg's-grease a pound, and clarify it up with rosen:a- 
ry ; then mix it with half so much cow-dung, boil it, and 
hot or cold, vstop the horse"'s foot therewith. 

JVb. 14.-^0f the infirmities of hoof s^ cs false quarters, loose 
hoofs, hoof -hound, hoof -running, hoof-bnttle, hoof -hurt, hoof- ' 
soft, hoof hard, orgeneralhj to preserve hoofs. The hoof is 
subject to many iniirmities, as half-quarters, v\hich cometh 
by yi'ieking, and must be helped by good shoeing, wher^ 



SAND CRACKS COKWS kc, 317 

the shoe iniist bear on every part of the foot except upon 
tlie haif quarters. If the hoof be loose, anoint it with 
B J ri^u 'lily-pitch, and it will knit it : if it be cut clean olf, 
t / tail>)vv and Bai',^uridy-pitc!], melted together, vvill 
h i.ij a nevv one : if it be hound or straightened, it must be 
we:! op 'n'Ml iit the he^ls, the sole kept moist, and the cor- 
net -^tjointed vvithtlie fat of bacon and tar: if the frush of 
1 1' > tc ru;is vvitii stinking matter, it must be stopt with 
soot, ruj'pentine, and hol^-armoniac mixed together: if it 
be :)rit".!e and br')ken, then anoint it with pitch and lin» 
setvl-oit, lelted to a salve : if it be soft, then stop it with 
so ij) a;id ilie ashes of a !)urnt felt mixed together: if the 
h.) »fs be oar i, lay h >t burnt cinders upon tliem, and then 
stop them wito tow and tallow. And generally for the 
preservation of all good hoofs, rub them daily with a piec© 
of bacon. 

j^o 15. — For the loosening of the hoofs. Take eggs, and 
to every egg a spoonful of honey, and to every two eggs 
powdered rosin as nuch as will lay on the point of a case 
knife ; work tliem together, and thicken it with wheat 
gaeal ; then heat it just warm and apply it plaister-wise. 

Proved^ 

CHAPTER XLL 
Sand Cracks, Corns, Quittors, &e. 

Samd cracks. Are longitudinal fissures in the h)of, 
generally next the heels, beginning at the coronet. Horses,, 



318 SAND CRACKS CORNS &C. 

hoofs have become dry and brittle are most subject to 
them, and they generally occur in the hot and dry months 
of summer, and seem to be occasioned by a strong dis- 
position in the hoof to contract, at a time when it is dry 
and inflexible ; they do not always cause lameness, and 
are sometimes very easily cured ; but when the fissure or 
work is so deep as to reach the sensible parts, it often 
produces very severe lameness, and requires a considera- 
ble time to be completely I'emoved. 

Receipts for Sand- Cracks. 

Having rasped the quavter, let the crack be opened 
with a drawing knife, so that the actual cautery, or red 
Lot iron may be applied to it; this will cause a matter 
somewhat resembling glue to exude, which will tend to 
fill up the fissure, and protect the sensible parts that 
would otherwise be exj)osed. Oil of turjuntine will how- 
ever, generally effect a cure without burning. Our next 
object is to remove the contractile disposition of the hoof, 
without doing which eveiy other remedy would avail lit- 
tle ; this is to be effected by keeping the hoof constaistly 
moist, either by means of clay poultices, or by turning 
the horse out to grass in soft moist ground; but i)revious 
to this, it is necessary to rasp the bottom of that quarter 
■which is cracked, so that no part of it may apj car ujjon 
the shoe. 

CORJ\'S. Corns are generally the consequence of bad 
shoeing, or improper Uianagement of the foot, and may 
therefore be avoided by following the directions we have 
given under that hgad. 



SAND CRACKS CORNS &.C. 3j.i 

Receipts for Corns. 

jVb. 1. — When they do occur, it is necessary to remove 
the red part or corn, with a drawing knife, and to apply 
the shoe so that the tender part may not receive any 
pressure ; when it has been neglected, we sometimes find 
matter formed in this part, which often breaks ont at the 
coronet ; in this case it is necessary to make an opening 
for the matter in an angle between the bar and crust. 

The sore is to be dressed with compound tiitcture of 
benzoin, and the cavity to be loosely filled vvitli lint cr 
tow, which is to be kept in by means of a bar shoe, and 
spirits of turpentine poured into the wound frequently. 

JV'o 2. Cor7is, are found in the corner of the licel in the 
lioof, and must be cut out with a sharp knife ; w hich every 
country farrier can do. If cutting should not completely 
extirpate thpm, and they grow afresh, then you must 
touch them with a little oil of vitriol, and dress with the 
green ointment. 

^UITTOIi. This disease generally arises from a 
wound or bruise in the coronet, and if neglected, pene- 
trates under the hoof, forming sinuses in various dirc> • 
tions. 

Beceipis for ^nitiors. 

JV'o. 1. — The most effectual method of treating those 
complaints is to ascertain, in the first place, the direction 
and extent of the sinuses, and then to force into Wain 
with a strong probe some chrystalized verdigrease, rol- 
led up in thin blotting or silver paper. This, though ap- 
parently a severe remedy, will be found very cffecUial , 



SSO SAND CEACKS CORN 3 &C, 

whose Sublimate ami arsenic have been strongly recom-? 
mended as remedies for the quitter; indeed it is proba- 
ble that any caustic application would effect a cure. 

JVb. 2. — When a corn has been neglected and suffered 
to break out as the coronet, or when the foot has been 
wounded or pricked, as it is termed, by the farrier in 
shoeing, and this is not discovered until matter appears 
at the coronet ; though these may be considered a?^ cases 
of quittor, a different treatment is required from that we 
have just described; in those cases the cure greatly de- 
pends on making an opening for tlie matter in the b(.t- 
tom of the foot, where the nail which inflicted the inju- 
ry entered; or if produced by a corn, the opening must 
1)6 made in the angle betw^een the bar and crust. The 
best dressing on those occasions is the compound tinc- 
ture of benzjin and digestive ointment, or oil of turpen- 
tine alone : a poultice is sometimes required to soften the 
5iorney matter, and subdue any inflanunation that may 

exist in the foot. 

J\ro. 3. — Q^iiittor-honey is a hard round swelling, situat- 
ed upon the coronet in the inside of the foot. It is gene- 
rally attended with lameness ; and if it is neglected too 
long, will break, and ulcerate the foot. 

The easiest method of cure, is first to open it, and put 
a little oil of vitriol into it, which will so eat aJbout the 
bone, that you may, without any difHculty, thrust it out 
with your finger and thumb ; if you find it eats too much, 
you may easily put a stop to it with a little cold \a ater. 
When the bone is got out,heal up the wound with the green 
ointment, as you have beeu before instructed. 



SAND CRACKS CORNS &C. 821 

^ JVb. 4s — ^uittor. The sooner the swelling is ripened, the 
snore expeditious is the €ure; for which, make poultices of 
bread and milk, a small portion of barly meal, and plenti- 
fully mixed with white lilly root, pounded to a paste, with 
about half an ounce of turpentine dissolved in each; this 
should be placed upon the centre and surrounding parts 
(of a very considerable heat) every night and morning. 
"When you find tiie matter begin to come from the eifcct- 
ed part, after poulticing it, then it may be opened suffici- 
ently laige to let it run freely: this becomes the more ab- 
solutely necessary, as the longer it renjains in the humor 
tlie greater is its property of hardening, and powers of 
devastation in forming sinews in every direction. Daily 
rub it with a very small quantity of compound tincture of 
myrrh to cleanse the woui»dand strengthen the vessels to 
throw off the load that surrounds them ; alter having thus 
done once in tliree successive days, take yellow basiliconj 
one ounce and a half, red precipitate, three drachms, re- 
duced to powder, then mix it together : this spread thinly 
upon a piece of linen large enouah for the l>art, and lay 
it on; then cover the whole with a poultice of the afore- 
mentioned ingi'edients; after these have been on two days, 
take them off and apply the horse-ointment to heal it and 
then give him a pui-ge. 

JVb 5. — For a quittor-bone^ old or new. It always grows 
just above the top of the hoof, on the hinder foot, and 
souetimes on the instep just above the hoof, on the side 
of the foot : but be it in any place, cure it thus : take 
up the vein in the small of the leg; if the quittor bone be 
on the inside of the leg above the hoof, then take up the 
-^in 00 the inside of the leg; if on the outside, then take 



S^y SAND Cll'^CKS CORXS &Ci 

it up on Ihc outsitle : this is t}^^ ^"^^J to further the cure^ 
and make all sure by taking up the vein which feeds it : 
You may sec how to take up a vein, in the receipt for a 
blood spavin. After you have taken up the vein, let it bleed 
well, aid put into tlie wound some butter and salt; then 
with a little tow, or linen cloth, wound about your instru- 
ment's end, search the quittor-bone to the bottom, and 
^viiere you see the matter come out, put your instrument 
in : V iien y >u have searched the wound, and made it clean, 
put into it a piece of white arsenic as big as a small 
bean, and put a little tow in after it, and lay a little toW 
upon the top of tlie quittor-bone, with a linen cloth over it 
and a woollen cloth tied over all : then tie him up to the 
rack with a strong halter tih the anguish of the arsenic 
be over, for fear he come at it with his mouth ; let the ar- 
senic lie in for forty hours; then take out the tow, and 
you shall see the hole in tlie quittor-bone look black and 
■swelled more than it was oefore, it is the effects of arse- 
nic, therefore you need not feiir, but as soon as you have 
pulled off the clothes and tow, you may put his foot into 
a pail of cold water for a quarter of an hour, and let it 
soak, or if the river be near so that you can lead him into 
it, if it be clear water, so that no sand or dirt get into the 
wound, and let him stand and soak his leg there for a 
quarter of an hour, for his leg must be soaked once a day 
either in a pail of clean water or in the river, for a week 
together : take off his wet hard clothes, and tie on dry 
ones ; this is all you have to do till you see the core of th ' 
{^uittor-bone come out, then make this medicine to heal 
it. — Take a little good honey, put it into a pipkin, and 
^vhen hot, put in a little verdi grease, arid three or four 



SAND CEACKS CORNS &C. S2S 

spoonfuls of white-wine vinegar; boi! them together for 
half an hour, then take them off the tire, and when it is 
cold dip a little fine tow into it, and put it in the wouadj 
and lay a little dry tow over that, and a linen cloth over 
the whole, and bind them on with a string, and so dress it 
once a day till you see it begins to heal, and then dress it 
but once in two days; and as you see it heal dress it the 
seldoraer till it be whole. There will be a little bare 
space where no hair will come: put in arsenick but once, 
and although you tie him up to the rack, because his mouth 
should not come to the arsenick, yet give him meat for 
all. Do but remember those two last cautious, and you 
need not fear the cure for it will be speedy. If you meet 
with a quittor-bone that hath been long in other fai^riers 
hands, that hath so corroded and poisoned it, that it is 
much swelled about the pastern and leg: in this case, you 
must first take up the vein on that side of the leg that the 
quittor-bone grows on, to keep the humours back that feeds 
it, then put in as much arsenick as a bean, as you were 
before directed, and when the core is out, heal it with the 
same salve, and do every thing as before directed: but if 
there grows proud flesh in it whilst you are a healing of itj 
then scald it with butter and salt, and that will keep tho 
proud flesli down. An old hurt in the foot may come to 
be a quittor-bone, and break out above the hoof, but a 
quittor bone will never break out in the sole of the footo 
Except you take up the vein, it is a very hard thing to 
cure. After the core is out it will not be amiss, before 
you go about to heal it, to wash it with white-wine vine- 
gar, and then apply the healing saWe mentioned in the 
foregoing receipt, Ftoved. 

Q2 



J£4 THBUSH,' 

JVo. e.'^Oj hurts on the cornet, as the quiitor-bontormat" 
long. The quittor-bone is a hollow ulcer on Ihe top of 
the cornet, and so is tlie iiiatlong: the cure is, first to 
tent it with verdigrease till jou have eaten out the core, 
and made the wound clean, then you shall heal it up with 
the sanie salve that you healed the scratches. 

THRUSH. — -This disease consists in a discharge o£ 
foBtid matter from the cleft of the frog, which part is ge- 
nerally rotten, and so soft as to he incapable of affording 
sufficient protection to the sensible frog which it covers; 
hence arises that tenderness of the foot v\hich is so often 
observed. When this complaint attacks the fore feet, it 
is seldom, if ever, an original disease, but merely a symp- 
tom or effect* The cause is generally a contraction of 
the horney matter at the cjurrtrrs a).d h<els, bj which 
the sensible frog is eompressed aid iii€an:ed, the dis- 
charge which takes place in ccnsequrrce of this inflam- 
mation, and may be considered as an ineffectual effort of 
nature to cuie it; the discharge, bov^ever, certainly di= 
minishes the inflammation, and prevents it from coining 
so considerable as it otherwise would, for it often happens 
when it has been stopped by the injudicious application of 
astringents, or when it ceases spontaneously, that the in- 
flammation becomes violent, extends to the other parts of 
the foot, and occasion severe lameness, which generally is 
relieved or removed by a return of the discharge; but we 
are not to infer from this, that an atten>pt to cure thrushes 
is intproper, it only shews that it is necessary in the first 
jlace to remove the cause of tbe disease. 



THRUSH. S^5 

Receipts for a Thrush, 

JVb. 1. Rasp the quarters and the hoofs, keep them con- 
stantly moist by making the horse stand in clay for some 
part of the day, or bran poultice; taking care to keep the 
frog dry by means of tar if possible. When by tiiese 
means we Iiavc succeeded in removing in so ne measure 
^he compression and consequeijt inflammation of the sen= 
«ible frog, it will be advisable to ajiply oil of turpentine 
or some other astringent to the frog, which, if assisted by 
pressure and tar, w ill render that part firm and solid, and 
the dis barge will of course cease when the inflammation 
leavi's the sensible frog., 

(Q^ The best astringents for this purpose are a solution 
of white or blue vitriol, aliinj, &o. There are some ca- 
ses, however, of Thrushes which though occasioned by 
impression of the sensible frog, it is difficulty if not impos- 
sible, to eradicate. 

JVo. 2. With respect to those Thrushes which attack 
the hind feet, and which sometimes, though rarely, hap«. 
pen also in the fore-feet, independently of the above cause, 
a different treatment is required. When the discharge 
has existed for a considerable time, by stopping it hastily 
we frequently produce inflammation and swelling of the 
legs; still it is necessary to clieck the disease, since, if ne= 
glected, it sometimes degenerates into that dangerous dis 
ease termed canker. It is advisable, therefore, in such 
cases, to keep the bowels open by the following laxative 
ball, given every morniiig until the desired effect is pro= 
duced and repeated occasionally. — The best application 
for the frog is tar, and one of the above astringents. This 
treatment Avill be greatly assisted by two or three honvp 



S26 CANKER, &C. 

exercise every day, and frequent hand-rubbing to the 
legs. 

Lexative Ball. — Take aloes, 3 dr. Castile soap, 3 dr. 
To be made into a ball for one dose. 

Canker in the foot. This disease frequently origi- 
nates in a thrush, and most commonly attacks the hind 
feet ; it generally proves difficult to cure, and not unfre- 
quently incurable^ The frog is the part first attacked, 
which becomes soft and rotten, discharging matter of pe- 
culiar offensive smell ; the horney frog is at length totally 
destroyed, and the sensible frog, instead of secreting horn, 
forms a substance somewhat resembling shreds of leather. 
The disease soon extends to the sole and other parts of 
the foot, even to the coffinbone, and is then considered 
incurable. 

Receipts for the Canker, 

JV*o. 1. — The first thing to be done is to cut away 
freely all the diseased parts, and when the bleeding is stop- 
ped, let the following liniment be applied, and repeated 
every morning ; the dressings may be kept on by means 
of a bar shoe. Pressure on the diseased part will very 
materially assist in effecting a cure, if practicable ; when- 
ever the foot is dressed, such diseased parts as may again 
make their appearance are to be carefully removed, and 
to such as do not appear to he sufficiently affected by the 
liniment, let a little sulphuric or nitrous acid be applied. 
"When the parts which were diseased begin to look red 
and healthy, and the discharge loses that peculiar smell 
before noticed, becoming whiter and of a thicker consis-^ 
tence, there is great probability of perfect cure being ef- 
fected j and when those favourable apjicarances take place, 



CARKER, &C. 3^7 

3Gmc mild application will be proper, except to such paiis 
as do not appear to have entirely lost their foul appear- 
ance. 

JVo. 2 — Strong liniment. Oil of turpentine, 1 ez. Sul- 
pljuric acid | oz. Mix very cautiously. 

JVo. 3. — Mix. Red nitrated quicksilver, 1 oz» Ni 
trous acid, 2 oz. 

The former being dissolved in the latter, mix them cau« 
tiously with 4 oz. tar. 

JSTo. 4.— Mild liniment. Chrystalized verdigrcase, finely 
powdered, 1 oz. Honey, 2 oz. Powdered, bole and alum, 
of each, | oz. 

Vinegar enough to give it the consistence of a liminent, 
to be mixed over a gentle fire. 

JVo. 5. — Canker. For to cure the canker in a horse's 
Mouth. Take half a pint of the best white-wine-venegar, 
and half a pound of the best rock-aluin, and a handful of 
red sage, and boil tiicm all together, and so wash tlie hor- 
se's mouth and tongue. Proved. 

JVb. 6. — For a canker in the head. A canker is a dis- 
ease in the head, and sometimes will set upon the eyes, and 
sometimes in the nostrils : you shall know it by his raw 
ness, and it will run a yellow water. For remedy, take 
half a pint of salad-oil, one ounce of the oil of turpentine 
three ounces of burgundy pitch, and one penny wortfi of 
verdigrease beaten fine; put all but the vcrdigrease into 
a pipkin, and let them boil together a pretty while : then 
take it off the fire, and put in the vcrdigrease, and let 
them all boil together to a salve ; but if you have not a 
great care,, the verdigrease will make them all boil over; 
^0 prevent which, always have another pipkin standing by 



328 , CANKER, &C. 

in readiness, that if it boil over you may put some ini^ 
that; then put them together again, and set them upon 
warm embers, and let it gently boil till you see it come to 
a salve, being neither too hard nor too soft; you must stir 
it all the while it boils, then take it off, and keep it for your 
use. If you use this medicine for a canker in the nostrils, 
fii'sttie a rag about a stick's end, and dip it in some white 
wine vinegar and some salt, and run it up his nostrils to 
do off all tiie scales. When you have washed it dean, 
take a feather, and if it be not long enough tie two to- 
gether, and dip it in the cold salve, and run it up his nos- 
trils but once a day. If it be a canker in the head, face 
or eyes, take a little tow, and rub the canker till it bleed 
and when it Icaveth bleeding, anoint it with a feather dipt 
in the aforesaid salve, and strew some wheat bran upon 
the salve ; it will hold on the better. Dress it once a day 
till you see it heal, and then once in two or three days, 
whilst it heals up. Observe this rule in all outward curesj 
for it is needful. Let him stand in all the time of the 
cure. Proved. 

JV*o. 7. For Cankerous himours in the Feet. Take cow- 
dung, tar and hog's-fat, and make a poultice thereof, and 
as hot as possible[ (free from scalding) apply it round 
the hoof. Proved. 

w\ 0. 8. For a Canker or sore in any part of the body. Take 
a quantity of poke roots, and boil them in a quart of wa- 
ter until it comes to half a pint; then take six ounces of 
hog's fat, one gill of tar, and one ounce of the flower of 
brimstone, boil all together till the water is boil'd quite 
away; then use it for a common salve for any violent can- 
ker or sore. Proved, 



Chronic and other coreHS, &Co 529 

JVb. 9.— Of the canker in the nose^ or anij part of the lady. 
To heal any canker in what part soever it bej take the 
juice of Plaintain, as much Vinegar, and the same weight 
of the powder of Alum, and with it anoint the sore twice 
or thrice a day, and it v ill kill it, and cure it. 



CHAPTER XLII. 

Chronic, ^ other Coughs, Colds, Laxatives, «§• Blisters. 

Chronic Cough. — AVc have already noticed this comi.laint 
as one of tlie symptoms of a cold, hut did not at that tin.6 
give any particular directions tbr its ti-ciitment, because it 
generally ceases as soon as its cause (the cold) is removed. 
It sometimes happens, however, that the cougli continues, 
although every other symptom is gone off. This com- 
plaint, which from its long continuance, is distinguished 
by the term chronic, may he readily -accounted for, when 
it is recollected that what is called a cold, consists in an 
inflammation of the membrane which lines the nose and. 
throat; that this membrane also forms the internal surface 
of the windpipe and its branches. When the cold, there 
fore, has bee)i violent and improperly treated, the iniiam- 
mation is liable to extend to the windpipe, or even to its 
branches, causing an effusion of coagulable lymph from 
the membrane, which proves a constant source of irrita - 
tion. It is probable also that the inflammation may some- 
times render the membrane so vdiy irritable, or so alter 



330 CHRONIC AND OTHEll COUGHS, &C. 

its secretion, as to keep up a constant irritation and coiTgli, 
without any effusion having taken place. 

lieceiptsfor a Cough. 

JVo. 1. When a considerable quantity of coagulable 
lymph has been effused, it obstructs the passage of the air 
in respiration in some degree, causing that sonorous kind 
of breathing which is termed thickness of wind or roar= 
ing. Take from two to three quarts of blood from the 
iieck, then give one of the following alterative balls every 
morning, until purging is produced, and this if assisted 
by proper attention to exercise, diet, and grooming, has 
often effected a cure. Bran mashes with a little oats a,d- 
ded, is a proper diet. 

(l^ The chronic cough is frequently occasioned by 
worms in the bowels or stomach, and is then to be treat- 
ed accordingly (see worms.) 

JVo. 2. — Jllterative Balls. — Succotrine aloes 1 dr. to 2 
dr. Castile soap, 2 dr. Tartarized antimony, 2 dr; Sy- 
rup enough to form the ball for one dose. 

J\''o. 3. — Should the disease not submit to this remedy, 
try the following : Gum ammoniacum, 3 dr. Powdei'ed 
squills and opium, of each 1 dr. Camphor, 2 dr. Syrup 
enough to form the ball for one dose. 

This is to be given every morning, and continued five 
or six days. A stable properly ventilated, should be 
chosen, and the vapours of foul litter carefully avoided. 

Tar water has also been found beneficial in this disease. 

If this is given,^the horse should be permitted to drink 
plentifully of it for a fornight or more, during which time 
tio other drink should be allowed. 



CHKOJflC AJfD OTHER COUGHS, &C. 3Sl 

(j;y* The proper way to prepare it is, to put three ol* 
four quarts of tar into a wide vessel, open at one end and 
capable of containing eight or ten gallons, keep a suffi- 
cient quantity of soft water always standing on the tar for 
use. 

JVo. 4. Cough. I have been informed that an Indian- 
turnip, dry'd and finely powdered and mixt with Bran, 
is a certain cure for a cough. 

JV*j. 5. — Cough, shortness of Breath, Pursiness, or bro- 
ken wind. First, take three spoonsfuls of tar, sweet but- 
ter as much, beat and work thern well together; add fine 
powder of liquorish, annisceds and sugarcandy, till it be 
brought to a hard paste, then make it in three round 
balls, and put into each ball foUr or five cloves of garlic : 
give them to the horse, and warm him with riding both 
before and after his receiving the pills. He inust fast 
full two hours botli before and after. 

JVo. 6.— Take a piece of fat bacon, four fingers long, 
and almost two fingers square, then with your knife 
make several holes in it, and stop in them ay many cloves 
of garlic as you can ; then roll it in the powder of liquo- 
rish, anniseeds, sugarcandy and flower of brimstone, all 
equally mixed together. Give it ycKir horse fasting in 
the morning, at least twice a week, and ride him after it, 
and be sure you sprinkle all the hay he eats with water, 
and it will soon perfect the cure. 

JVo. 7 . — Take of the syrup of coltsfoot, two ounces of 

elecampane, anniseeds and liquorish root, half as much of 

each pounded into a fine powder; sugarcandy two ounces, 

divided into two equal parts ; then with sweet butter 

work the syrup and powdei-s with one part of the sugar- 

R2 



332 CHRONIC AND OTHER COUGHS, &€. 

eandy into a stiif paste ; then make balls or pills thereof 
and roll tliem m the otlier part of the sugarcandy; then 
give the horse one ball or two every morning fasting, ex- 
ercising him gently an hour after. Thus do for divers 
mornings till you find him mend, which he will do in ft 
short time. 

JSTo, 8. — For a Cough of the Lungs. To know this, the 
horse will cough hollowly and gruntingly ; he will hang 
down his head when he coughs ; his flanks will beat, he 
will fetch his breath short. For remedy, let him stand in 
the night before ; the next day in the morning fasting, 
give him a spoonful of the syrup of horehound, and a 
spoonful of the flour of brimstone, and put these into a 
pint and a half of strong beer heated blood warm, and 
give it to him fasting ; take him and ride him three or 
four miles presently upon it, till he sweat well : ride but 
a foot pace within a mile of home; be careful to set him up 
warm : litter and clothe him warm : let him stand in not 
above two or three nights, if it be in summer; after that 
turn him out from ten o'clock to three o'clock, for two or 
three days, and then turn him out for altogether: the more 
moderate you work him, the better he will thrive. It 
will take away his ^ough, clear his pipes, and make him 
thrive much after it. If there be a white, tliick, clayey 
water near, let him drink there; it is a warmer and more 
fattening water then any other ; give warm water not 
above twice. This drink will clear his pipes, and drive 
it from his lungs. You may put in as much of the powder 
of machoaohan, as will lie upon a shilling at three times. 

Proved- 



CHRONIC AND OTHER COUGHS, &C, 333 

JVb. 9. — For a straiigling in the guts, the cough of the 
lun^s, clearing the pipes^ and giving much Breath. If you 
be ta run your liorse for a wagjr, ,^ive hi.n two of these 
balls a week before. I make tlie.n thus : take as much of 
fresh or salt butter as the bigness of an egg and an half; 
part it in the midst as near as- you can, hollow it in the 
fashion of .a pie, mix and bray tog -ther with your butter 
half an ounce of anniseeds, beaten to powder, then make 
a pie of your biitter and ai.niseeds thus mixed and put in- 
to it three (luai'ters of a spoonful of syrup of horehound 
into each ball, and close up the ball close that the syrup 
may not couie onto Make your balls no bigger tlian a 
bai-ber's wash-ball, or but a little bigger; for it is not good 
to give balls too big : then warm a pint and an half of 
strong beer blood warm, and fill the horn with beer, and 
before you put it in, put in one of the balls, having pulled 
out his tongue with your left band before. When his 
tongue is out, put the balls into his mouth as far as you 
can, then give two hornsful of beer to wash it down; do 
the like with the next ball as you did with the first; then 
take his back and ride him for three or four miles a hand- 
g.Ulop, till he sweat well; for this reason, because the dis- 
eases, in this receipt, as tiiey come with a heat, so the 
speediest and best remedy is to drive them away with a 
heat. The second reason is, that a drink will take no 
mare place in a horse for heats and colds, than to give a 
horse a drink, and walk him about the yard. Therefore 
for diseases of this nature, ride him till he sweat soundly : 
a mile before you come at home, ride him but a foot pace? 
that he may be set up some thing cool; then tie him up 
to the rack J cover him with two cloths, stuff him and litter 



334 CHRONIC AND OTHEJR, COUGHS, ^G. 

him very warm, cover his head and body to keep him 
from the cold; let him stand four or five hours before he 
eat or drink ; then when you unbit him, give him a mash, 
or some water blood warm, or some clean hay, and take 
off one cloth, and keep him warm. If this will not do, a 
week after give him the same again; and give him warm 
water but two days after it, and then cold water, a week 
before your horse goes to grass; give it three or four times 
a year, and it will keep your horse in gallant health. It 
will fatten a horse. It will make him sick; but fear no- 
thing. If you give your horse too much at a time, tiiat it 
makes him extraordinary sick, give him a pint of milk as 
it comes from the cow, U' heat the milk blood warm. 

Proved. 
JVo. 10.— Fo7' an old Cold ivhuh caiiseth the horse to run 
sometimes at one nostril, and sometimes at both, and hath 
4one for a year together, and is knotted iviih kernels under 
his throat between his jaws. The cure is this: I'ake 
an ounce of turmeric, an ounce of aniseeds, beat them 
small, one ounce of lignum vita?, you shall have it at the 
apothecaries, a quarter of a pint of aqua vitje, a quarter of 
a pint of white wine vinegar, one handful of unset leeks 
beaten small in a mortar, wash tiie mortar with beer; put 
all these together with a pint and an half of strong beer; 
give them Ut the beast fasting blood warm, and litter and 
clothe him up warm; at the end of that time give a little 
^weet hay, and at night give him some water and bran; 
the next morning give him warm water and bran again, 
and presently after give him two ounces of honey, and 
half a pint of white wine blood warm: then ride him three 
or four miles after it, clotbe and litter him warm vjicn he 



OHRONIC AND OTHEK COUGHS, &,C. 335 

comes in; whilst he is abroad, boil him half a peck of oats 
with two ounces of fenugreek, and two ounces of corian- 
der-seeds, burst them all togetlier, and give it him; the 
third day morning, give him a cordial made of three pints 
of stale beer, and a quarter of a pint of honey, as much 
butter, a good piece of household bread: put in the honey 
and the butter after the bread and beer is boiled together, 
and give him this cordial fasting blood warm; the fourth 
day morning give him this drink, viz. one ounc>e of poly- 
podium, one ounce of bay-berries, an ounce of long pep- 
per, one ounce of brown sugar-candy; beat them all small, 
and put tliem into a quart of mild strong beer, heat it blood 
warm, and before you give it him ride him a mile, and 
then give it him, and ride him t.vo or three miles after it: 
clothe and litter him up warm. After he hath fasted fur 
four or five hours, give him bursten oats, with two oun- 
ces of fenugreek, and two ounces of coriander, as before; 
if you have no coriander, then take two ounces of caraway 
seeds, and give him that night of the oats and seeds, and 
put the water where the oats and seeds were boiled, into 
some cold water, and let him drink that and no other. 
When you have rested hinja week, then give him the first 
drink mentioned in this receipt, and foMow him as you are 
directed every day; in tiie third week give him the same 
things again, in t!ie same manner, and at the same dis- 
tance of days, in all points, as you did the first week, and 
in three or four weeks it will be a ( iiro. llie lust drink 
doth loosen the filth, and open the lights, and set them a 
running. The cordial, white wine and lioney, will keep 
Ifim to his stomach, help liim to void illth at t!ie nose and 
i[poutli,aml will nourish him witliin; they do cleanse ihe sto- 



336 CHROiriCAND OTHER COUtSHS, &C. 

mach breast and bowels, and do much waste the quinsy in 
the throat; they do cut the tough thick phlegns. if you or- 
der these things as you are in many places directed, and 
air him moderately once or twice a day, the horse will soon 
be sound again. The last drink of polypodium, long 
pepper, bay-berries, is a purger of the veins, blood and 
liver, and will stay tlie wasting of the body. That day 
morning you give him the first drink, apply the charge 
of soap and brandy, made in a salve, to the kernels be- 
tween his jaws, and in a week's time it will be fallen flat, 
and not break. Lay the charge on scalding hot, and heat 
it well in. If you sec the yellow matter to become wlute, 
there will be the greater hopes of the speediness of the 
cure. Proved, 

JVb. 11. — For an old cold. If you see cau«;e, take blood 
from the neck-vein otherwise not; then instead of giving 
him oats, give him wheat bran boiled in water after this 
manner, viz. set a kettle over tlie fire almost full of wa- 
fer, and when it begins to boil, put in your bran, and let 
it boil a quarter of an hour: then take it oflf, and let it 
stand till it be almost cold, and about four or five o'clock 
in the morning, give it him as hot as he can eat it, and 
for his drink give him the same water, and at night give 
him oats and white water to drink, and let him be cover 
ed and littered up warm. If it be in summer, let not the 
stable be too hot, tor that will take away his stomach, 
and make him faiiit. And when you give him this water 
at night, always give him as much of this powder as an 
egg-shell will hold amongst his oats, to which you must 
keep him eight days together, or longer if you shall see 
rausc ; the boiled bran is that w hich drieth up all his 



CHRONIC AND OTHER COUGHS, &Cc SBf 

corrupt and gross humors, which was the cause of his 
cold. Now, the powder is this, viz. Take of cummin, 
seeds, fenugreek, silerus montani, otherwise called sisi- 
lers, nutmegs, cloves, ginger, linseed, of each of these 
two ounces, quick-brimstone six ounces, make all these 
into fine powder, and mix them all well together ; it must 
be given him in his oats the quantity that was prescrib- 
ed before; but he must first be watered with white watt"; 
and then presently let him be well rubbed all over, and 
clothed and littered warm: and an hour before you give 
him his oats, put into his rack a little sweet wheat straw, 
and let him eat thereof an hour or better, and then, and 
not before, give him his oats mixed with powder; which 
having eaten, give him hay at your pleasure, and with do- 
ing thus his cold will be gone in a short time, and still 
sooner, if you air him an hour before sun-set, and art 
hour after sunrising, if the sun slune, mark that ; keep 
up his stomach with white wine and honey, and the cor- 
dials, and with what else you think best of. Frorcd. 

Now if this cold bring with it a violent cough, as often 
seen, then use this receipt following. 

JVo. 12. — For a cold with a violent cough. First give him 
the wheat bran boiled, together with the powder with his 
oats, as is directed in the foregoing receipt, but not above 
three or four days, or till you see he hath purged suffi- 
ciently, for the said powder disperses the corrupt and 
gross humors that are in his body, which do occasion the 
cough; and when you perceive that he hath purged suffi- 
ciently, keep him notwithstanding to his white water, 
which is no other thing than water made hot in a kettle, 
And then put i« some wheat bran or barley meal; let him 



338 CllRONiC AND OTHEll COl'GHS, &C. 

eat the bran as hot as he will, antl drink the water a little 
warm. But always an hour before you water him, take a 
stick a little bigger than your thumb and very nigh a foot 
long, and wrap a linen cloth about it four or five times, 
first dipped in oil of bays, and put into his mouth; and 
with some leather thong or piece of small cord, fasten it 
to either end of the stick, and so fasten it over his ears 
like the head-stall of a bridle, like as smith's do when 
they burn a horse for a lampas. Let him drink with 
this stick thus in his mouth, and so stand with it an hour 
after at the leasf, that he may lick and suck up the said 
oil ; and after three or four days are expired, and that 
you see he hath purged sulSciently, which is a little be- 
fore mentioned ; then wjien you give him the oats, give 
him amongst them this powder following viz. Fennel- 
seeds four ounces, fenugreek two ounces, and carda- 
mum one ouiice ; beat them but a little or else he will 
Mow them away when he eats his oats. Put one spoon- 
ful into his oats, and keep him warm, and use him as is 
prescribed in the foregoing receipt, ajid you will find it 
to do him much good. Froved. 

LAXJTIVES. 

This term is applied to opening medicines, that operate 
very mildly, and produce so gentle a stimulus upon the 
intestine, as merely to hasten the expulsion of their pre- 
sent contents, without increasing their secretions. Cas- 
tor oil seems to be the best medicine of this kind, though 
oil of olives and linseed will produce nearly the same ef* 
feet; the dose of the former is about a pint, but the latter 



BXISTERSi 339 

may be given to a pint and a half. When a laxative ball 
is required, the following will be found useful : 

Succotrine aloes | oz. Castile soap 3 dr. Syrup 
enough to form the ball for one dose. 

BLISTERS. 

Previous to the application of a blister, the hair should 
a cut from the part as closely as possible, the blistering 
ointment is to be well rubbed on it, and afterwards a small 
quantity is to be spread over the part with a warm knife. 
When the blister begins to operate, horses are very apt to 
bite the part, which, if suffered, might produce a perma- 
nent blemish; it is necessary therefore to guard against 
this accident by putting what is termed a cradle about his 
neck, or by tying liim up to the rack. When the legs ar© 
blistered, the litter is to be entirely swept away, as the 
straw might irrit ite the blistered parts. 

JVo. \.—BlisUnng. ointment. Spanish flies, powdered, 
I oz. Oil of turpentine, 1 oz. Hog's lard, 4 oz. Mix. 

JVo. 2. Oil of turpentine, 1. oz. To which add gradual- 
ly. Vitriolic arid, 2 dr. Hog's lard, 4 oz. Spanish flies, 

powdered, I oz. Mix. 

S2 



340 At)17NDEE, VIVES, ficc 

CHAPTER XLIIL 

Founder'^' Viv§s — Fig — Costivenesfs — Foal Cast — Mad 
Itch — Hunger Evil — To make a Star — Stop Bleeding at 
the J\\)se — Fibula or Pestilence. 

Receipts for Foundering, 

JV'o 1. — Of foundering in the feet. There be two sorts 
of foundering, a dry and a v>et: the day is incurable, the 
Wet is thus to be cured: first pare all the soles of his feet 
so thin that you can see the quick, then let him blood 
at every toe, and let him bleed avcH; then stop the vein 
with tallow and rosin, and having tacked hollow 
shoes on his feet, stop them \Nith bran, tar and tallow, as 
hot as possible, and renew it every other day for a \\ eek 
together; then exercise him well, and his feet will come to 
their true use and nimbleness. 

JVb £. — For the founder in the hodtj. If you find him lame, 
bleed him in every foot, and give him this drench: — boil 1 
oz. of aloes in three pints of water until reduced to a quart, 
then add one gill of molasses, the same of soft soap, and 
half as much yeast ; mix them together and give them to 
the horse lukewarm: ride or drive him a mile afterwards, 
when it has done working; then give him two ounces of 
the powder of elecampane, half an ounce of flour of brim- 
stone, rolled up in butter and a little honey, and made into 
balls: wash them down with good beer, ale, or wine, or 
old strong cider, until he be quite recovered. Let his food 
be clean and comfortable; give him cordials made of 
■white-wine and honey, and ho will soon recover. 



roUNDER, VIVES, &c. 341 

JVo. 8. — For a chest founder. To know this, he will go 
crimplin^, and stand stradling; and wish to lie down. 
Take a littie oil of pepper, and bathe it well into his breast; 
rub it in well at first, tlien dry it lightly with a hot iron. 
This is a perfect cure at the first trial. 

JVb. 4. — For any founder^ frettizey suriate^ or any imper- 
fection in the feet. Pare them thin, open the heels wide, 
and take a good quantity of blood from the toes ; then tack 
on a shoe somewliat hollow ; take best frankincense, and 
rolling it in a little fine cotton with an hot iron, melt it 
into the foot, betwixt the shoe and toe, till the orifice 
where the blood was taken from be filled up. Then take 
half a pound of hog's grease, and melt it; mix with it 
wheat-bran till it be thick as a poultice ; then stop up the 
hoFse's foot with it as hot as possible; cover it with a 
piece of an old shoe, and splint it up, and let the horse 
stand for three or four days : then if necessary you may 
renew it, otherwise the cure is wrought. 

jV^o. 5. — Of foundering in the body. . Foundering in 
the body is of all surfeits the most mortal and soonest 
gotten ; it proceedeth from intemperate riding an horse 
whea he is fat, aud then suddenly suffering him to take 
cold ; and there is nothing sooner brings this infirmity, 
than washing a fat horse : the signs are sadness of coun- 
tenance,' staring hair, stiffness of limbs, and loss of belly ; 
the cure is only to give him wholesome meat and bread, 
of clean beans, and warm drink, and for two or three 
mornings together, a quart of ale brewed with pepper 
aud cinnamon, and a spoonful of treacle. 

A^o. 6.-^For foundering of the body. This disease of 
ten proves of very had consequence, and is chiefly 



342 rOTJNDER, TITES, &C. 

brought upon the horse by means of unskilful, careless, 
immoderate keepers and riders ; the cure is, to bleed all 
his feet with a fleam on tlie top of the hoof, and then give 
Lim this drink ; take nine or ten cloves of garlick, of 
pepper, ginger, and grains of paradise, two penny-worth 
of each; bruise them well together, and put it into half 
a gallon of strong beer, and give it at two drinks, a quart 
at a time; and afterwards give him nourishing food and 
comfortable cordials, of which you have store in this 
book. Proved. 

jsTo. 7. — For foot foundering either old or new. First 
with a very sharp drawing-knife, draw every part of the 
soles of the horse's feet as thin as possible, even till you 
see the water and blood issuing forth ; and be sure to 
draw every part alike, which can hardly be done without 
a butteres, and at the very sharp end of the trush of the 
horse's foot you'll see the vein lie ; then with your knife's 
end lift up the hoof and let the vein bleed, which, as Jong 
as you hold open the hoof, will spin a great way forth j 
when it bleeds better than a pint, close the lioof, and so 
stop the vein, and tack on his foot a liollow shoe, made 
for that purpose; that done, clap a little tow, dipt in liopfs 
grease and turpentine, upon the vein veiy hard ,• then 
take two or three liard roasted eggs, hot out of the fire, 
hurst them in the soal of the horse's foot; tlsm pour n])oii 
them hog's grease, turpentine aijd tar, boiling liot, and as 
much flax, dipt therein, as will fill up the ];oiIovv shoe; 
then lay on a piece of leather to keep all in, ar.d splint it 
sure ; in tiiis manner dross all his four feet if till he foun- 
dered, otherwise no more than are; thus dress the horse 
three times in one fortnight, and without any fuitucr 



■ •a 



iOUNDER, VIVES, &C,. 54$ 

trouble you shall be sure to have the horse as sound as 
ever he was. Proved. 

JVb. 8. — For feet foundering. That foot which is foun- 
dered he will set before the. other. Pare it down to 
the quick, if he bleeds it matters not; then set on his 
shoe very hollow, and take flax or tow, and make a prct^ 
ty thick cake tliereof, spread Venice turpentine thick 
thereon, and lay it over the bottom of the hoof, and put a 
piece of the, upper leather of a shoe to keep it in ; in three 
days after lay on a plaister as before. If his hoof grows 
again, pare it to the quick, and every third day lay on 
a new plaister till you see him go better; he must run 
abroad in low grounds : this plaister will draw down the 
humours exceedingly. If he has not been fyimdercd too 
long, this will cure him in a month or very little more ; 
you may let him blood at tlie toes, and Ipt the place lie 
goes in be clean. Frovcd> 

Beceipts for the Vives. 

.ATo. 1. — Vives. For the vives, which is an indammatioTi 
of the kernels between the chap and the neck of the horse: 
take a penny-worth of pepper, swine's-grease a spoonfV.l, 
the juice of a handful of rue, vinegar two spo<mfuls : mix 
them together, and then put it equally into both ih-Q 
horse's ears, then tiatheni up \\\{h two flat lares, sliutthd 
cars that the medicine njay go down; wlii( h done, h^t iht, 
horse blood in the neck and in the teii}]>le-vcins, and it is a 
certain cure. 

J^o. Q.— lives. For the vives, first siiave off the hnir., 
then take Shoemaker's v.ax and sjnead it on a pioce of 
alura'd leather, and put this jhaslcr on the sore; do not 



344 rOUNDEK, VIVES, &C. 

remove it until it breaks : and then renew it, and it will 
both heal and dry it. It is cxeeeding good for a pole evil 
before it breaks. Proved. 

Receipt for the Fig, 

JVo. l--0fthejig. If a horse has received any hurt either 
hy stubb, nail, thorn, bone, splint or stone, either in the sole 
or any other part of the foot, and not well dressed or per- 
fectly cured, there will grow in the place a certain super- 
fluous piece of flesh full of little white giains, as you see in 
a fig; the cure is, first with a hot iron to cut the fig clean 
away, and keep the flesh down with turpentine, hog's 
grease and a little wax, molten together, laid in the sore, 
stopping the hole hard, with a little tow, that the flesh rise 
not, dressing it once a day till it be whole; or thus, after 
you have cut clean away the fig, then take the tops of 
young nettles and chop them very small, lay them upon a 
cloth just as big as the fig, and take the powder of verdi- 
grease and strew it upon the chopt nettles, and so bind it 
to the wound; thus dress it once a day until the hoof has 
covered the sore, and it is a most certain cure.] 

Receipt for Costiveness. 

JV*o. 1. — Costiveness. For costiveness in the body, take 
rye-straw, cut it fine; then scald some water and wet it 
well therewith^ then mix rye meal or bran with it, and let 
the horse eat i , as hot as he can, and it will quickly loosen 
him. Proved. 



FOUNDED, VIVES, &C. 345 

Receipts for Foal-Cast. 

JVb. 1. — Of the particular diseases in mares^ as Barren- 
aess Consumption^ Rage of Love, Casting of Foals, Rudeness 
to Foal, and hoxo to make a Mare cast her Foal. If you 
would have a mare barren, let good store oftli© herb ag- 
nus castus be boiled in the water she drinks. * If you 
would have her frnitful, then boil good store of mother- 
wort in the water. If she lose her belly, which shew- 
eth a consumption of the womb, you shall then give her a 
quart of brine to drink, mugwort being boiled therein. If 
your mare througli high keeping goes into extreme lust, so 
that she will neglect her food througli the violence of 
fleshy appetite, as it is often seen amongst them, yau shall 
house her for two or three days, and give her every morn- 
ing a ball of butter and agnus castus chopped together. 
If you would have your mare cast her foal, take a hand- 
ful of betony, boil it in a quart of ale, and it will deliver 
her presently. If she cannot foal, take the herb horse- 
mints, and either dry it or stamp it, and take the powder 
or juice and mix it with strong ale, and give it the niarCj, 
and it will help her. If your mare, from former bruises 
or strokes, be apt to cast her foals, as many are, you shall 
keep her at grass very warm, and once a week give her 
a warm mash of drink. This secretly knittcth beyond 
expectation. 

JVo. £. — For a mare thai has cast her foal Take two 
spoonsful of Diapentc and brew it well in wine, or strong 
beer, or else a cordial of honey, wine and anniseeds, well 
brewed together, and let her food be sweet mashes and 
comfortable drinks ; what hay slie cats, see that it be 
clean and sweet. 



346 FOUNDER, VIVES, &Ci 

Receipts for the Mad Itch, 

^"0. 1.— For the mad itch, first bleed in the neck; then 
take strong lie and vinegar, and boil it; then add to it gun- 
powder and copperas; make it very strong, then tie a 
clout to a stick and wash the horse where the sores are, 
and it never faileth of a cure]: you may wash with sour 
buttermilk and soot of the chimney mixed together. It 
lias cured, 

JV*o. 2 — For the mad itch. First you should give a dry- 
ing drink or two, made of forge water, crocus martis, Ve- 
iiice turpentine and flower of brimstone, or the drink for 
the pocky farcion, or the guiacum chips and forge water 
or any others of the drying drinks; then take soot, lime 
and soft soap, and train oil, and work them into a salve 
and anoint the horse therewith. Proved. 

'Receipt for the Hungry Evil. 

The hungry evil is an unnatural and over hasty gree- 
diness in an horse to devour his meat faster than he chews 
it, and is only known by liis greedy snatching at his meat 
as if he would devour it whole. The cure is, to give him 
to drink niiliv and whcatmeal mixed together, a quart at 
a time, and to feed him with provender by little and little 
till he fors akes it 

Receipt fa make a Star, 

JVo. 1. — To make a star in a horse'' s forehead, First^ 
with a pair of scissors cut away tlie hair close to the skin 
in such a place as you would have the form of a star to 
he J then take a piece of red brick, and rub it hard upon 



FOUNDER, VIVES, &C. 347 

every place, where you have dipt away the hair; rub it 
till it be at the roots of the hair, then wipe it ef'ean with 
a linen rag ; then make a plaister of Burgundy pitch, 
and spread it upon a linen cloth, no longer nor wider 
than the form of the star itself; then, a little before you 
lay it on, lay a hot iron upon the pitch to soften it, that 
it may stick on the better; then clap it to the place, as a 
plaister fit for the star, and lay a hot iron on the back of 
the plaister to heat it ; then over the first plaister lay ano- 
ther plaister a little broader, heating the second as you 
did the first, and so let it stick on till it comes off of it- 
self, which may be a month; when these plaisters come 
off, then to make tlie hair come white in the place where 
you would have the star be, take a little honey and but- 
ter, more honey than butter, and mix them together, and 
anoint the star once in three days, and do so for that dis- 
tance of days four or five times, and in a quarter of a 
year you shall see the thing desired : he may stand in 
the house or run abroad : you may work him or ride him: 
I know nothing to the contrary but that a man with this 
course taking, may make a mark in any form, what he 
pleaseth, and where he pleaseth, about the beast, whether 
in his buttocks, feides, or any other place, as well as the 
forehead. 

Receipt Jor bleeding at the nose. 

To stop Heeding at the nose.-Tha chief cause there 
of is the thinness of the vein in the head; you must let him 
blood in both plate-veins, then wind a thumb-band of 
wet hay about his neck, and throw cold water upon the 

thunib-band till yoii see the blood to staunch; the thumb- 

T9, 



348 EEARI, PlJf, &:c. 

band must be so long, that it may be wound from his ears 
to his breast very liglitly. 

Receipt Jor fehula or horse-pestilence. 

For a fehula, or horse-pestilence. — Take one ounce of 
storax, one ounce of benjamin, one ounce of betony, 
a quarter of an ounce of English saffron; these being 
beaten all to a powder, put them into a quart of new 
ale, and give it to the horse to drink. Let him not have 
any warm v^^ater, but keep him from any drink two days, 
and let liim eat grass, if to be had. 



CHAPTER LXIV. 



General Receipts for the cure ^c. of many complaints in 
Horses. 



A general salve for any sore swelling. Take turpen- 
tine, black soap, hog's grease, green treat, and pitch, of 
each a small quantity; mix and boil them well together, 
and apply it warm to the part affected. 

For pearly pin, web or film on the eye. Take a new- 
laid egg, roast it very hard, cut it length-ways and take 
out the yolk, fill the white full of white vitriol in powder, 
and close it up agiVirs Roast it again till the vitriol be 
melted, then beat the t^^, shell and all in a dish, strain 
it, and with the liquid dress the eye. 



rEARJL, FIN, &C. 349 

Jin approved cure for the pains, mules, rats-tails, and 
the like. Take half a pound of green vitriol, boil it in 
half a gallon of water, with aluin, mustard, sage, and 
hysop, of each an handful. Tlie night before you apply 
this, anoint all the sores with strong mustard after they 
are made raw ; next day wash them with the water, the 
cure is sure. 

To help a horse that galls between the legs. Take a raw 
egg, and crush it between the horse's leg^, rub the gall 
well therewith, after the sores are made dry. 

An approved, cure for the swift-cut, or any hewing on the 
legs whatever. Take a pint of white-wine, put to it two 
or three spoonfuls of honey, stir them well together, and 
boil them till they be well incorporated and brought to 
the body of an ointment. — Then take it from the fire, 
and add as much turpentine as lioney; stir all well toge 
ther, and strain it. With this salve somewhat hot, bathe 
the sores twice a day. It is a quick cure. 

Of pains in the withers. An horse's withers are sub- 
ject to many griefs and swellings, which proceed from 
cold humours, sometimes from bad saddles; therefore if 
at any time you see any swellings about them, take the 
herb called hart's-tongue, boil it with oil of roses, and ap- 
ply it very hot to the sore, it will assuage it, or else 
break and heal it. 

Of swaijing the hack, or weakness in the back. These 
two infirmities are very dangerous, and may be eased 
but never absolutely cured; therefore where you find 
them, take coleworts and boil them in oil, and mix them 
with a little bean-flour, chafe it into the back and it will 
strengthen it. 



350 PEABi, PIN, &C. 

OJ tired hones. If your horse be tired in journeying, 
or in any hunting match, your best help for him is to 
give him warm urine to drink, let him blood in the mouth, 
9,ncl suft'er him to lick up and swallow the same : then if 
you come where any nettles are, rub his mouth and 
sheath well therewith; then ride him gently till you come 
to the resting place, there set him up very warm, and be- 
fore you go to bed, give him six spoonfuls of aqua vitse, 
and as much provender as he will eat; the next morning 
rub his legs with sheeps feet oil, and it will bring fresh 
nimbleness to his limbs. 

To make hair grow quick. Take green walnuts, burn 
them to powder and mix the powder with honey, sweet 
oil, and wine, then anoint the place therewith, and it won- 
derfully increaseth hair very soon; or take southernw ()0(J 
and rusty bacon, and make it into a salve, and it will 
bring hair quickly. Ashes of de^d bees, mixt with any 
sort of oil, will do the like. 

Relief for a tired horse. Take a quart of strong beer, 
cider or wine, and put half an ounce of elecampane; brew 
it well together and give it to the horse with a horn, and 
it will make him very chearful : also tie a bunch of pen- 
ny-royal to your bit, and it will prevent your horse from 
tiring. Or thus, take off your saddle and rub his back 
with the herb arsesmart, and lay some under the saddle, 
and ride him, and with good feeding, and moderate usage, 
it will prevent your horse from tiring. Rub your horse' 
all over with rue, and no flies will come near him. 

Proved. 

To get horse colts. Take your mare to the horse before 
tlie full of the moon, and when the sign is a female. To 



PEARL, PJN, &C. 851 

get mare colts, cover after the full, and in the male 
signs. N. B. There be twelve signs, six male, and six 
female. 

Hoxv to make the powder of honey. Take as much un- 
slacked lime as you think iit, powder it, and take as 
much honey as will make it to a stiff paste; make it into 
a thick cake or loaf, and put it into an hot oven or a 
strong fire, and let it be baked or burnt red; then take 
it out, and when cold, pound it to a very fine powder, and 
use it as occasion shall require; this will dry, heal and 
skin any sore whatsoever to admiration. 

To draxv out a stub or thorn. Take the herb ditany, 
bruise it in a mortar with black soap, and lay it to the 
sore, and it will draw out the splint, iron, or thorn. 

Of the anburtj or tetter. I'he anbury is a bloody wart 
on any part of the horses body, and the tetter is a canke- 
rous ulcer like it. The cure of both is an hot iron to 
sear the one plain to the body, and to scarify the other: 
then take the juice of plantain, and mix it with vinegar, 
honey, and the powder of alum, and with it anoint the 
sore till it be whole. 

Of broken bones ^ or bones out of joint. After you have 
placed the bones in their true ])lace, take the root of Os- 
piond, beat it in a mortar with the oil of swallows, and 
anoint all tbe member therewith; then splent it, and roll 
it up, and in fifteen days tbe bones will knit and be strong. 

Of venemous wounds and bitings, as of a dog, boar^ ser- 
jtent, ^c. Take yarrow, calamint, and tbe grains of 
wheat, make it into a salve, and lay it to the sore, and it 
jft'ill heal it safely. 



PART II. 



DIRECTIONS AND RECEIPTS FOR THE CURE OF MOST 
DISTEMPERS IN OXEN, COWS, AND CALVES ; ALSO, 
A DESCRIPTION OF MANY COMPLAINTS INCI- 
DENT TO THEM. 



CHAPTER, I. 



Mvice to purcJmsers of Cattle — general drink either for Oa.\ 
CoxVy or Calf that is ill — a cure for the Murnan or Plague 
among Cattle — of the loss of appetite in Cows and Oxen — ■ 
a remedy for a Cow that is back-strained, or has the run- 
ning — of the distemper, called the tail. 

.Bdvice to purchasers of Cattle. — When you go to biij 
cattle, whether for the stall, the draught, or the pail, al- 
ways take the youngest, rather than those that are old 
and barren. And though some cattle are chosen by their 
strength and some by the greatness of their bodies, yet the 
best have commonly these properties: Large, well knit, 
and sound limbs; a long, large, and deep-sided body, 
white horned, broad foreheaded, great eyed and black; 



FOR THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS, &C. 853 

the ears rough and hairy, the jaws large and wide, the 
lips blackisii, the neck well browned and thick, the shoul- 
ders broad, the hide not hard or stubborn in feeling, the 
belly deep, the legs well set, lull of sinews, and straight, 
rather short than long, the better to sustain tlie weiglit of 
their body; the knees straight and great; the feet, one 
far from another, not broad, nor turning in, but easily 
spreading; the hair of all their body thick and short, their 
tail long and big haired. 

All country people know the benefit and advantages 
arising from the keeping of oxen, cows, and calves; and 
therefore we shall here only lay down some necessary ob- 
servations and receipts for the cure of such distempers as 
they are liable to. 

A general drink for either O.t, Cow^ or Calf, that is ilL 
Take three or four garlic heads, a quart of new milk, 
three spoonsful of tar, and two spoonsful of sweet oil; in- 
fuse them for some time, and give it at a dose. 

*i ewe for the Murrain^ or Flague among Cattle. Take 
of the herb of angelica, one handful; of rue, the same 
quantity, chop them together; then take of tar, half a pint; 
of soap, four ounces; and salt, half an handful; make it 
into a compound, and give it to every beast in the quaej 
tity of a small egg^ rubbing their noses with tar. 

Of the loss of appetite in Cows and Oxen. You may 
perceive this when cattle of this sort do not chew the cud, 
which is occasioned from the want of digestion, they then 
forbear their meat, and do not lick themselves as usual; 
their eyes are dull, and they have frequent belchingSo 
To cure this, or restore them to their appetite, use the fol- 
lowing medicine, viz. Take of rue and pellitory of Spain, 



S34 FOR THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS, &C. 

of each one handful; of featherfew, horebound, red sage^ 
and bay salt, of each a like quantity; put tbese ingredi- 
ents into five pints of ale-wort, and boil them for a sborl 
space; and then, straining off the liquor, give about a pint 
at a time, milk warm, to earh beast every morning not 
suffiering Ihem to drink till the aiteinoon. 

The neglecting of this distemper will occasion the beast 
to be violently pained, which one may perceive by its sud- 
denly starting from one place to another; which when you 
perceive, there is no better remedy than to tie his tail close 
by the body, as tight as possihle, giving him then a pint 
of strong white wine, with half a pint of olive oil, driving 
him afterwards a mile or two as fast as you can get him 
along; and after some little resting, drive him yet a mile 
further, which will occasion the medicine to operate. 

*3 remedy for a Cow that is back-strained^ or has the 
running. — lake comfrey, archangel, knot-gra3s, plantain 
and shepherd's purse, a handful of each; boil these, tied 
up in bunches, in about five pints of ale-wort; or, for want 
of that, in middling beer, free from the yest, till the liquor 
is strong of tl;e herbs; then add an onnceof aniseeds, and 
about aquarter of a pound of bole armoniac, finely pow- 
dered; when these have boiled again, put in half a pound 
of treacle; and \\ hen it is strained or passed through a 
sieve, give half the liqour to a cow in the morning, and 
the other half the morning following, not suffering her to 
drink until the afternoon. 

The distemper is not unlike the running of the reins 
in other creatures* 

OJ the distemper called the tail. — The disease called the 
tail, is by some farmers called the wolf. This is disco 



roL THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS, &C. 330 

vered by a softness between some of the joints of the tail, 
appearing as if the joints had been separated from one 
anotli^r, or some of the ligaments broken. 

You ought, particularly where you are apprehensive of 
this case, with your finger and thumb to feel between 
every joint of the tail; and where you find any division or 
openness between the bones, or any remarkable softness 
between the joints, to slit that part with a sharp knife 
lengthways, on the under side of the tail, about two inches, 
laying in the wound the following composition : 

Sea or common salt, wood-soot and garlic, well beaten 
and mixed together, of each a like quantity; binding them 
up with a bit of linen clotiu 

CHAPTER II., 

Of the Flux^ Of Lax, or Scour in Cattle — of the Ccnigh in 
Cows or Bullocks — of the Fever in a Cow or Bullock — of 
the stoppage of^irine in a Cow or Bullock^ and the metJiod 
of cure — 'the Kibe in a Bullock, and its cure — of the Tel- 
lows in a Cow or Bullock, which some call the Fantess, 

Of the flux, or lax, or scour in cattle , — When a beast is 
troubled with this distemper, you may be sure he wOl lose 
his flesh more in a day, than he can recover in a week or 
ten days. The remedy is, in the first place, to keep them 
from drinking much : and 2dly, to give them little meat 
the first day : or, as some would have, keep them fasting 
for twelve hours at least. There are several drinks 
which you may give them on this occasion, that have 

Us 



356 FOR THE CURE OF OXEN, CoWS, &C. 

been experienced to be extremely serviceable to them, 
such as the following, viz. The stones of grapes or raisins 
beaten to pow tier, to the quantity of a quai ter ot an ounce, 
and boiled in a quart of strong ale or beer, may be given 
warm in a morning. 

For want of this you may use as much of the inner bark 
of oak boiled with strong ale or beer wort, or stiong malt- 
drink, free from yest, strained after boiling, and giving 
them about a quart in a morning, being lirst sweetened 
with an ounce of coarse sugar well dried before the fire. 
Some choose to boil in this n ixture a handful of worm- 
wood, and an ounce of bole armoniac. 

We have another Receipt relating to the same case, 
which is likewise very successful, viz. 

Take rue, red sage, and Roman wormwood if you can 
get it, or otherwise, our comnjon woiniwood may serve; 
shred of each of these one handful, and boil them half an 
hour in ale-w ort, or good drink free from yest; then put 
in four ounces of bole armoniac, and about an ounce of the 
grains powdered, and a piece of butter without salt ; let 
these boil a little, and give half the quantity to a cow 
or bullock in the morning, keeping them from water two 
or three hours afterwards ; and then missing a day, give 
them the other half. 

Of the cough in cows or bullocks, — Some farmers, when 
they perceive this among their cattle, rightly judge, that 
if not soon removed, it may prove of dangerous conse- 
quence; and therefore, in the beginning, give them the 
following medicine, viz. 

A pint of barley-meal, the yelk of an egg, and two or 
three ounces of raisins, boiled in a quart of ale-wort, and 



rOR TILE CDRB OF OXEN, COWS, &C. 35? 

Avell mixed together, for them to take in the morning fast- 
ing; always supposing that the grosser parts must be ta- 
ken out of the draught before you give it to the cow or 
oxj as the raisins in tliis case, for example. 

Another method which is famous among the country 
people, is, to take a large handful of hyssop and boil it in 
water, afterwards straining the water from the hyssop, 
and mixing it either with wheat flour, or barley flour, and 
to give it the beast to driuk. Or else. 

You may boil hyssop in ale-wort, about the same quanti- 
ty, and give it a cow or an ox that has the cough, with 
good success. 

Sometimes these cattle, when they have the cough, will 
be led into a consumption of the lungsj to prevent which, 
fetter them in the dewlap, and give them two ounces of the 
juice of leeks boiled in a quart of ale. 

In desperate cases, boil the seeds of fenugreek, of an- 
nise, and bay berries, of each half an ounce ; and mad- 
der, two ounces, in two quarts of good ale free from the 
yest, till the liquor loses a fourth part. 

It must be noted, that the madder and seeds must be 
well beaten and mixed together before you i)ut them into 
the ale ; and after the liquor is passed through a sieve, 
while it is yet warm, sweeten it with treacle, and give it 
in the morning. 

Of the fever in a Cow or Bullock. — You may know when 
a cow or bullock, has a fever, by the watering of their 
eyes, their heads will be heavy, their pulsation quick, and 
their body much hotter than usual : Moreover, you may 
observe a viscous liquid to fall from their mouths. 



355 FOR THE CURE OF OXEN, CoWg, &C, 

The morning following let them hlood in the tail; and 
an hour after, give them the following medicine, viz. 

Take one handful of the young stalks of colewort, if 
tliey are to be had ; or, for want of these, as much of cab- 
bage leaves, savoy leaves, or tlie leaves of cuiled worts; 
boil these in a quart »>r three pints of common water, vsitli 
a little salt; and after straining it off, add a little fresh but- 
ter, stirring it till it is entirely dissolved; an ounce of trea- 
cle may likewise be mixed with tliis medicine, and given 
milk warm for four or five mornings successively, while 
they are fasting. 

Some farmers and others boil the colewort stalks in 
small beer, which is judged to be even better than the wa- 
ler and salt. 

Others boil barley or malt in water, and then boil the 
colewort stalks, and add butter and salt to the medicine. 

Of the stoppage oj urine in a Cow or Bullock., and the 
method of cure. — This distemper is supposed to be the gra- 
vel in the kidneys when it first appears. 

We have frequently, in examining the kidneys of oxen 
and cows, meet with rough stones in those pai-ts, even to 
the number of an hundred; in one of them, about the big- 
ness of a wlieat corn. 

But this gravel or stone, let us call it which we will, is 
sometimes found in the bladders or urinary passages of 
these creatures, and then it is best to kill them at once; 
for if you observe them two or three' days without water- 
ing, you may know it is not in the kidneys alone. 

If the distemper should happen to be in the kidneys, as 
you may perceive by the cattle's d^culty of watering and 



SOK THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS, &,C. 359 

groaning at that time, give them the, following medi- 
cine, viz. 

Boil of parsley, smallage, or green celery, sassafras, 
alexanders, and rue, of each one handful, in about two 
quarts of old beer; strain this oil', then pass it tlsrough a 
sieve when it is strong of the herbs; then put in of liquo- 
rice sliced, anniseed, cummin seed, coriander seed, and 
turmeric, of each an ounce; and boiling them again in 
the liquor till it is strong of the last ingredients, add fresh 
butter and treacle to it, to the quantity of a quarter of a 
pound of each. This will serve for two mornings. 

N. B. In this case some of the most curious will put 
in about a quarter of an ounce of fine oyster-shell powder, 
or two or three drachms of powder of crab's eyes. 

When the distemper is so far advanced that the very 
yard of the bullock is supposed to be stopped by gravel, 
it is advised by some of the farmers to cut them; but it 
lias been sometimes eased by putting a small wire up the 
penis like a cathether. 

The kibe which is an ulcerated chilblain, or chafe in tht, 
heel of a Bnllock^and its cure.- — One receipt for a kibe 
which has proved of very good use, is, first, to cut it with 
a sharp knife, and then to apply the following medicine, 
witl> fine tow, to the wound, viz. 

Take an ounce of vcrdigrease finely beaten and sifted; 
work this into a salve with two ounces of fine soap, and 
dress the kibe with it. 

Of the yellows in a Cow or Bulloch, which some call the 
pantess. — This distemper is called by some tlie gall in cat- 
tle, and may be known by the running of the eyes, ajid a 



S60 FOR THE CURE OF OXEN, fOWS, &C. 

large quantity of yellow wax in their ears: as also by a 
yellowness appearing under the upper lip. 

This distemper commonly proceeds from the cattle's 
eating- some unwholesome food, or from poor diet. The 
remedy for it is as follows, viz. 

Take of wood-soot, finely powdered, an ounce; plain- 
tain and rue, of each a handful; garlic, eight large cloves, 
stamped; hempseed, an ounce; of the tops of hemp, an 
handful; boil these in three pints of fresh human urine, or 
as much old beer; and when it has passed through a sieve, 
give about a quart of the liquor to a large bullock; then 
rub his tongue and the roof of his mouth with salt, and 
chafe his back with human urine. 



CHAPTER HI. 

The remedy for a beast disordered in his lungs — Of the 
Hide-bound, or the JHstemper called the Gargtit in kine — 
Of the Gargtjse — a general remedy for Cattle that lower 
or lose the Cud— for a Cow or Bullock thai is Clue- 
hound — for Oxen that are galled or bruised in the neck by 
the yoke — Of the scab in Cows or Oxen — of the Husk in 
a Bullocky^'c. 

When a Beast is disordered in his Lungs. The remedy. 

You may perceive this distemper in a beast by the great 

weakness in his legs so that he will hardly be able to 

stand, although he may seem fit and in good order for 

the butcher at the same time. The following medicine in 

this ease maj be used, viz. 



TOR THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS, &C. 361 

Bruise eight cloves of garlic, and take one handful of 
wormwood, with as much liverwort; boil these gently in 
a quart of ale, free from the yest, and passing the liquor 
through a sieve, add an ounce of madder, finely powder- 
ed; half a drachm of whole pepper and about a dozen 
cloves; which, as soon as they have boiled enough to give 
the liquor a pungency sufficient, clear them oif, and sweet- 
en it with two ounces of treacle, giving it to the cow or 
©X milk-warm. 

Of the Hide-bound, or the Distemper called the Garguty 
in Kine. This distemper shews itself commonly between 
the claws in cows or oxen, by blistering there. 

To cure which, you must first draw a hair line between 
the claws or hoofs, in the blistered part till it bleeds. 

You must then take a handful of the leaves of the plant 
called Moth-mullein; boil this in a quart of milk, and 
give it the cow in a morning fasting; or else boil it in ale, 
or alc-wort rather, because there ought to be no yest. 

Of the Gargyse. The distemper called the Gargyse is 
a swelling on one side of the eye, in manner of a bile, 
botch, or bubo. This is as dangerous a distemper as 
any that can attend cattle. Cut with a sharp pen-knife 
•r lancet ii\is swelling round about, as deep as the skin^ 
to prevent its falling into the muzzle of the beast, which 
will certainly happen, if not timely prevented by this me- 
thod, and prove mortal. 

When you have opened the skin, as above directed^ 
wash the wound with the following preparation, viz. 

Fresh human luine and salt must be gently simmered 
over a fire together, and when it is near cold, wash the 
swelling, and the part that has been cut with it. momf n,^s 



362 TOR THE CURE OT OXEN, COWS, &C. 

and evenings till the swelling abates ; at the same time giv- 
ing the beast, every other morning, some flour of sulphur 
in warm ale, or ale-wort. 

When you dress this botch, or bile, have particular re- 
gard to scrape off, or clean the bile and the wounded part 
from the little blisters or pustules, even till you come to 
the quick, and the sore has quite ceased running. 

When the swelling is quite gone, anoint the wound and 
sore part with nerve oil and honey boiled together, while 
the preparation is milk -warm, and it will soon heal. 

J^ general remedy for Cattle thatlotver^or lose the Cud.—' 
Take a handful of the inner rind of elder, a handful of rue, 
as much lungwort if it can be had, otherwise it may be 
let alone; chop them small, and put them into three quarts 
of ale free from tlie yest, or in as much ale-wort; boil these 
till they are soft, then stir them; then add half an ounce of 
long pepper, half an ounce of grains, half an ounce of li- 
quorice, half an oimce of annisecd, a quarterof an ounce 
ot cumminseed, an ounce of turmeric, and as much fennu- 
greek seed, all well beaten, with a quarter of a pound of 
madder; and while all these are boiling, take a large bowl 
dish, and put into it an handful of bay salt, twelve cloves of 
garlic, four new laid eggs, shells and all; grind all these 
together with a wooden pestle, till they are well mixed with 
some of the liquor; then add the whole body of the decoc= 
tion as hot as may be, letting the whole stand together till 
it is no warmer than milk from the cow, brewing it well 
together; give the beast half the quantity to drink, while 
it is yet warm, two mornings successively; keeping the ox 
or cow warm that takes it, for four or five hours after, be- 
fore you give it any water* 



FOR THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS, &C. 363 

For a Cow or Bullock that is due hound. — Take castile 
soap, half pound; to this add treacle and butter, of each a 
like quantity; put these into three pints of soft water 
wherein chalk has been issued, though some would recom- 
mend stand-lee; of either of these liquors take three quarts; 
and when the whole is dissolved and mixed, give half the 
medicine to your cow or bullock in a morning, before 
they have drunk, keeping them in a house till noon. Re- 
peat this medicine two mornings. 

If yet the beast should be too much bound in his body, 
or the medicine should not happen to operate, give him 
some balls made of butter and riff-sand. 

For Oxen that are galled or bruised in the neck by the 
yoke, — Take train oil, and grind it well with white lead, 
till it becomes a salve; with this anoint the grieved part^ 
and it will presently heal the sore, and discharge the swel^ 
ling. 

Of the scab in Cows or Oxen. — This distemper chiefly 
comes from poorness of diet, and is very infectious among 
cattle, spreading itself presently through a whole herd. 
It is sometimes occasioned by the want of vi^ater in sum- 
mer time. 

The best way of curing this, is, to make a strong decoc- 
tion of tobacco-stalks in human urine, and to wash the 
infected parts frequently with it; at the same time giving 
the beast the following drink : 

Take of rue, angelica, of each a handful ; shread these 
herbs small, and boil them in three quarts of ale with- 
out yeast, or new wort, and add an ounce or two 
of the flour of sulphur, with butter and treacle, of each 

three ounces; giving it to the bullock at two mornings. 

V2 



364 rOB THE CURE OF OXEN, CO>VS, &C. 

When this distemper happens to any bullock, it will 
soon reduce him to a leanrjess and poverty of flesh; 
wherefore bleed him, and you may give him the follow ing 
medicine, viz. 

Of old human urine a quart, in which mix a handful 
of hen's dung, or half a handful of pigeon's dung, and 
give it to the beast to drink. 

Of the Husk in a Bullock^ ^c. Take hyssop, the small- 
er centaury, celandine, marshmallows, of each one hand- 
ful ; boil these in ale free from yest, or in three quarts of 
alewort; then add about three ounces of cowspice, with 
treacle and butter, of each six ounces. This will make 
two doses ; to be given every other morning. 

CHAPTER IV. 



d Drink for a Bnllock that has the Bloody Scour , or iht 
Bloody Flux — Of lmpodhuHies — Of a Sinexv Strain — 
For an Ivfammation in thel.u vgs 0/ a Bulloch — Jin omt- 
mentfor Coxvs and Bullocks that have any sort or tcound 
about them — Another for a bullock or ( ov that Jias a 
swelling attending any wound — A water fur un old 
wound or sore in a Bullock or Cow. 

Ji Drink for a Bidlock that has the Bloody Scour^ o?- the 
Bloody Flux. Take of eldci- buds, or elder flowers, a 

handful; if the elder flowers are dry, take two ounces 

of them ; hyssop, nialhws, celandine, a handful of each. 

If the cow or bullock be large, boil these in five pints 

of old strong beer : but if it be for a small breed, boij 

these in three pints ; to which add aniseeds and liquo- 



FOR THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS, &C, 365 

rice, of each about two ounces, more or less, as the ul- 
lock is larger or smaller, with treacle and butter, of each 
six ounces; put to them madder powder, about two 
ounces. 

When you give your beast this drink, keep him warm, 
and give him warm mashes, in each of which about a 
quarter of an ounce of oak bark has been grated. 

While this distemper is upon him, do not suffer him by 
any means to drink cold water, but prevent his thirst by 
mashes only. 

Of T.nuostliumes. When any botch or boil appears up- 
on a bullock, take white lily roots, and boil them in a 
quart or three points of milk till they are soft ; then 
beat them with the milk till they become a pulp, and lay 
thein on hot to the grieved place, which will occasion itto 
become softer by degrees till it will be fit to open, which 
some do with a hot iron, and others with a fine penknife, 
washing well the part afterwards with brandy and wa- 
ter. 

To heal a wound of this kind, it is a common practice 
to use tar, turpentine, and oil mixed together. 

For a Sinew Strain. When a beast is strained in his 
sinews, or it appears that his sinews are weak, take 
marsli-mallows and chickweed, of each a handful; boil 
them in a quart of vinegar, adding three or four ounces 
of tallow ; or for want of vinegar, use the dregs of stale 
beer. 

With this mixture, while it is very hot, bathe the griev- 
ed parts. 

For an inflammation in the Lungs of a Bullock. A cow 
or bullock troubled with this distemper will discover it by 



S66 ¥OR THE CURE 0! OXEW, COWS, ,&C. 

holding its head higher than common, and drawing its 
'.^^^^(Wiiid with difficulty ; it will likewise be chiefly in a stand- 
ing posture, without caring to lie down, and will groan 
very much. 

The cure is to bleed it in the neck, and then give it the 
following dose, viz. 

Take lungwort, celandine, and hyssop, of each a hand- 
ful ; of the small centaury dried, half a handful ; elder 
flowers dried, an ounce; or for want of them, four ounces 
of elder tops ; Boil these well together in a quart of ale- 
wort, or, in lieu of that, in a quart of ale free from yest ; 
then press the lierbs, and strain the liquor from them, 
putting at the same time to it an ounce and half of cow- 
spice, or for want of that aniseed, and fenugreek seeds, of 
each one ounce, with about an ounce and half of liquorice 
sliced ; boil these together for a little while, and add of 
butter and treacle six ounces each, which will make a 
medicine to be given two successive mornings: 

The fettering of a bullock (in this distemper) in the 
dew-lap with hellebore has proved effectual. 

Jn Ointment far Cows and Bullocks that have any Sore 
or Wound about them. Take hog's lard finely rendered, 
six ounces ; honey, an ounce and half; bees-wax and ro- 
sin, of each half an ounce ; stir these over a gentle fire 
together till they melt. 

An Ointment for a Bullock or Cow thai has a Swelling 
attending anij Wound. Take of bogy's lard, lintseed oil, 
and red lead, of each three ounces. 

Melt the oil and hog's lard together then add the red 
lead, and stir it well off" the fire till the composition is 
cold. 



rOR TUB C¥RE OF OXEN, COWS, &C. 36? 

This salve being warmed, and dissolved with a hot 
iron, may be rubbed upon the swollen part once a-day, 
and it will certainly take the swellings; down. 

Jl Water for an old Woimd or Sore in a Bullock or Cow, 
Take of white copperas, three ounces ; roch-alum, one 
ounce and a half; bole armoniac, six or seven ounces; 
let these be finely pulverised and mixed together, putting 
them then in a glazed earthen vessel over the fire, and 
stir them for about fifteen or eighteen minutes; till they 
seem to be well incorporated. 

Take off then the mixture and let it cool ; after which 
beat the composition in a marble mortar, till it is reduc- 
ed to a fine powder. 

You must then boil three quarts of spring water, which 
should rather be that arising from a spring of chalk than 
any other ; and closely cover it while it is boiling. 

After the water has boiled for five minutes, pour it hot 
into a clean vessel, and mix with it about three ounces of 
the powder, stirring it well as soon as the powder is put. 
in. 

In two or three days this water will be well settled^ 
and then alter it, and preserve the clear liquor, in a 
bottle well stopped. 

When you have occasion to use this water, make it as 
hot as it can be endured upon the affected place, dipping 
a linen rag into it, and applying that to tlie wound ; 
which may be repeated at least twice, if not three times, 
the first day, and afterwards bind upon the sore a piece 
of linen cloth well soaked in the said watet'. 



868 FOR THE CURE OP OXEN, COWS, &,C. 

If the wound happens to he deep, even thou.sjh there 
may be a fistula, force in this water warm with a syringe, 
and it will even cure that distemper. 



CHAPTER V. 

^n Ointment/or a green -wound in a Bullock or Cow — Of the 
Haws or other diseases in the Eyes of Cattle which occa- 
sion Weeping or Infiammation ; or for the Pin or Tfoh — 
For the bite of a mad Dog, Viper, or Slow Worm — OJ the 
falling down of the Palate — A remedy for a Bruise in Cat- 
tle — Jl mixtiire for a lameness in a Cow or Bullock, or 
'when they are Shoulder Pitched, or Cup Sprung— Jl Brink 
for Cows and Bullocks that are Shrew-bitten or bitten by 
mad Bogs or Vipers. 

An Ointment for a Green Wound in a Bullock or Cow. 
The ointment of tobacco is of excellent use on this occa- 
sion, and is even good if any of the sinews are hurt ; there- 
fore a farmer who keeps a great number of cattle should 
not be without it, no more tl>an oil of turpentine. 

Bees-wax, rosin, fresh butter, hog's lard, with turpen- 
tine also, make an excellent plaister for fr<'sh wounds in 
cattle; and it is remarkable, that upon the application of 
this ointment, no flies or insects can come near the wound. 
Of the Hatv, or other diseases in the Eyes of Cattle which 
occasion Weeping or Ivfammation ; or for the Pin or Wab. 
When you perceive the eyes of cattle to be sore, and 
flowing with water, take of white copperas the quantity 
of half a dram, in the lump, and dissolve it in spring water, 



FOK THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS, &C. 369 

about half a wine pint ; wash tlie eyes of the beast with the 
waier twice or tiince a-day. 

But if the eyes are much inflamed, wash them with eye- 
brigiit water, mixed with an equal quantity of the juice of 
houae leek. 

Or, on the same occasion, where there is danger of a 
pin or wab, or when a beast has received any cut or 
stroke across the eyes, use tiie following powder, via. 

Take a new-laid egg, and having taken out half the 
white, lill it up with salt, and a little tine flour of ginger ; 
wrap this in a wet cloth, and roast it hard in some hot 
cinders or embers ; then beat it to powder, shell and all j 
and when it is linely pidverised, keep it closely stopped in 
a bottle for use. 

"When you use this powder, blow a little of it through a 
quill into the eye of the beast, especially in that which 
seems the most inflamed. 

For the Bite of a mad Dog, Viper, or Slow Worm, Take 
a pint of olive oil, and infuse in that four or five handfuls 
of plantain leaves, shred small, for eight or nine days ; 
then boil these together till tlie leaves grow crisp, and 
strain it into a glazed earthen vessel, and anoint the part 
with it frequently till the wound or sore is healed. This 
is an oil generally used by the viper-catchers. 

Some make the following plaister ; of bole armoniac, 
sanguis draconis, barley meal, with the leaves of plantain, 
shred small, or beaten together in a mortar, and then beat 
up with whites of eggs. This serves as a plaister to be 
l^id on fresh every morning and evening. 



3rO roR THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS &C. 

Of the falling down of the Palate. When a beast la- 
bours hard and wants water, he is commonly attacked 
with the falling down of the palate ; he will yet endea- 
vour to eat, but to little purpose. 

To remedy this, the beast must be cast, and you may 
then thrust up the palate with your hand ; and as soon as 
that is done, bleed him in the same place, and anoint the 
wounded part with honey and salt, well mixed together, 
turning him then to grass; for dry meat is by no means 
proper for him. 

w3 Remedy for brtiises in Cattle. Take brooklime, two 
handfuls ; chop it small, and boil it in tallow, or in hogs 
lard, for fifteen minutes, and apply it warm to the affect- 
ed place. 

^ Mixture for a Lameness in a Cow or Bullock^ or when 
they are Shoulder, pitched, or Cup-sprung. Take oil of 
turpentine two ounces ; oil of peter and oil of spike, of 
each the like quantity : mix these with six ounces of lint- 
seed oil, anoint the grieved place once every day till it is 
well. Or, 

Take nerve oil and lintseed of each a like quantity : 
mix them well together, and anoint the injured part once 
a-day, keeping the mixture warm while you use it, 

Ji IJrinhfor Cows and Bullocks that are Shrew-hitten, or 
bitten by mad Dogs or Tipers. Take of rue, the smaller 
centaury, box, and St. Johi^s wort of each one handful ; 
boil these in six quarts of ale-wort, till the liquor is strong 
of the herbs ; then strain it off, and add a quart of water to 
it, then add five ounces of flour of sulphur, and of cow-spice 

three large spoonfuls with one spoonful of oyster shell 
powder 
N. B. This will serve for six doses. 



FOR THE CURE Of OXEN, COWS, ^. 5t! 



CHAPTER VI. 

'M salve or charge for any wownd by a stub or thorn^ where, 
some parts of them are supposed to lodge in the 7V0und — 
For a beast that has a bone broken or misplaced — A purge 
for a Cow or Bullock — Of the breeding of milk in Cows, 
and the way to promote it— Of the rot in Oxen or Cows — 
A remedy for swollen cods in a Bull — For a Cow that 
pisses blood — Another for the same — For the blain in a 
Cow — For the black or red water in Cows^ a distemper 
nexttothe pissing of blood. 

A salre., or charge^ for any wound by a stab or thorn., 
where some parts ofthera are supposed to lodge in the wound. 
On these occasions take black snails from commons, or, 
as some call them, black slugs, with as much black soap; 
beat these together till they are well mixed, and make n 
salve, which apply to the wound. 

For a beast that has a bOne broken or misplaced. When 
the bone is set right, or put into its true place, use the 
following preparation, viz. 

Burgundy pitch and tallow, of each a like quantity; 
put to them as much lintseed oil as, when they are well 
mixed, will make a salve or charge, to be plaistered ovet 
the afflicted part. 

When this is laid on, splcnt it, and cover it with a wol- 
len cloth, and keep it on twenty days, in which time tlie- 
bone will be well knit. 

A purge for a Coxa or Bullock. Take butter, tar and 
honey, with a little castile soap -, mis these well together; 
and give the mixture in balls as big a?; a pigeon's egg : 

two balls in a morning. 

Wq 



S7Q JFOB THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS, &C. 

Of the breeding of milk in Cows, and the way to promote 
it. Draw whey with strong beer and milk ; in which 
boil aniseed, and coriander seed, finely beaten to powder, 
with an ounce of sugar-candy well pulverised ; give a 
quart of this medicine to a cow every morning, which 
will not only make her milk spring freely, but will great- 
ly increase it. 

Of the rot in Oxen or Cows. When this distemper at- 
tacks any beast, it will fall from its meat, quickly grow 
lean, and have a continual scouring. 

To remedy this distemper, take bay -berries finely pul- 
verised, myrrh, ivy leaves, featherfew and the leaves of 
eldev; put these into fresh human urine, with a lump of 
yellow clay, and a little bay-salt ; nsix them well togeth- 
er, and give a pint each morning warm to the beast. 

A remedtjfor swollen cods in a Bull. Take two quarts 
of strong old beer, in which put a handful of the young 
shoots of eider, with two handfuls of the bark taken from 
the woody part of the common black berry bush ; boil 
these gently till half of the liquor is consumed, thea 
strain it off, and keep it for use. 

When you use this, bathe the parts morning and even- 
ing with the liquor made pretty hot, and bind up the 
grieved part afterwards in a double linen cloth that has 
been dipped in the liquor. 

For a Cow that pisses blood. Take oak, shave off the 
outer bark, boil it in spring water till it is red ; as also 
comfrey, shepherd's purse, plantain, sage, green hemp or 
nettles, of each a handful ; and boil them w ith the bark ; 
strain it, and put a good handful of salt in the water ; as 
also some alum, bole armoniac, chalk, or the powder of 



1 



rOR THE CURE OF OXEN, COWS, &C. 373 

sea-coal. If your beast is weak, give less than a quart ; 
if strong, more ; once often serves, but twice will surely 
cure tlie beast. Give it lukewarm. 

Another for the same. Toast a piece of bread, and co^ 
ver it well with tar, and give it. It is occasioned, some 
say, by their brousing on oak leaves, &c. Put a frog 
down a cow's throat, and drive her next way into water, 
and she will directly piss clear. , It is a present cure. 

For the Main in a Cow. When first taken, they stare, 
and foam with their tongues out of their mouths ; then 
immediately prick her in the nose, or bleed her in the 
meek, which will keep her alive twenty-four hours ; then 
take a handful of salt in about a pint of water, and give it 
her, putting immediately a whole egg down her throat : 
sometimes they have it behind under their tail, when a 
blister will appear ; this is cured by running your hand 
down her fundament close fingered, and brought wide out| 
which breaks the blain within. If this is not presently 
discovered, it kills them. 

For the black or red water in Cows^ a distemper next to 
the pissing of blood. Take a piece of iron, heat it red hot 
in the fire, and put it into two quarts of milk ; then let 
the milk cool, and give it the beast blood warm, and it 
will bind up the bloody issue after two or three times 
giving. 



S74 rOR TUB LCJIE OF OXliN, COWS, &,i;< 

CHAPTER VII. 

¥or a Cew thai strains in Calving^ when her Calf-haulm, 
Udder^ or Bag, will come down, and swell as much as a 
blown Bladder — For a Cow, who, hy lying on the earth, 
and too soon drinking cold water after Calving her Calf- 
haulm swells and lies over the neck of the bladder, stopping 
the Urine, that she cannot stale or stand on her feet — For 
a Cow that cannot clean — To cure swellifigs or snarled 
Bags in a Cow — For a sucking Calf that scoureth — Di- 
rections how to feed Calves while they suck. 
For a Cow that strains in Calving, when their Calf-haulm^ 
Udder, or Bag, tvill come down, and swell as much as a 
blown Bladder. Take new milk, and strew therein lint- 
aced bruised to powder, or chalk, or pepper, but lintseed 
is best; put it up with your hand, and let her hinder part 
stand highest for two or three days. 

For a Cow who hy lying on the Earth, and too soon drink- 
ing cold Water after Calving, her Calf-haulm swells and lies 
over the neck of the Bladder, stopping the Urine, that she can^ 
not stale, or stand on her Feet. Take too sacks, or a wind- 
ing-cloth, put it under her body, fasten a rope to it, and 
put it over a beam in the barn, and draw her up that she 
cannot touch the ground with her feet ; then let a woman 
anoint her hand, and work the calf's haulm from the blad- 
der, that the water may have a passage. Give her warm 
bedding, warm drinks, and warm clothes. 

For a Cow that cannot Clean. Take a large handful of 
pennyroyal, and boil it in three pints of ale; then strain 
it, and put one pound of treacle into it, and let it just boil; 
take it off, and put a halfpenny worth of flower of brim- 



FOR THE CURE OF OXEN, GOWS, &C. S75 

stone into it, so give it in a horn to a cow. Instead of 
pennyroyal you may use southernwood. 

To cure Sivellings, or Snarled Bags in a Cow. Take rue 
and adder's tongue; stamp them together, and squeeze 
out tlie juice; mix this with a pound of fresh hutter from 
the churn without salt, and make it into an ointment. This 
is an excellent remedy. 

For a Sucking Calf that Scoureth. You must take a 
pint of verjuice, and clay that is burnt till it be red, or 
very well burnt tobacco-pipes ; pound them to powder, and 
searse them very finely ; put to it a little powder of char, 
coal, then blend them together, and give it to the calf, and 
he will mend in a night's time for certain. 

To feed Calves while they suck. Put to them a trough 
of barley meal, and it will wliiten and fatten. Some give 
them oats in troughs all the time of their sucking ; and the 
night before they have them to market, cut off a piece of 
the tail, and tie it up with a shoe-maker's end ; and, when 
at market, will give tliem a cram or two of flour mixed 
with claret, which keeps them from scouring. 



PART III. 



OBSERVATIONS AND KECEIPTS FOR THE CURE AND PRZVEK' 
TION OF MOST DISTEMPERS INCIDENT TO 
SHEEP AND LAMBS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Introductory ohservations — To prepare Tar to apply out- 
TLardiy to sheep J or the Scab or the Bay — To make 
Broom-Salve, an excellent remedy for the Scab, or any 
other distemper that appears on the skin of sheep — How 
to use the Broom Salve for the Ray and Scab in Sheep. 

Every farmer that buys sheep or lambs should take 
care that they be all in good health, and not buy more 
than his grass Avill feed ; for if he does some of the weak- 
est must starve, or tlie whole flock suffer for want of suf- 
ficient grass, which makes them eat poisonous weeds, and 
so perish for want of proper remedies to relieve them ; for 
which reason we have here laid down all the medicines 
that are necessary for sheplierds, he. to keep by them. 

To prepare Tar to apply outwardly to sheep, for the Scab 
or the Ray. Tar may be either mixed with the grease of 
poultry, or goose grease, or hog's lard, or butter that 
has been made up without sRlt : To every pound of tar 
you must use half the quantity of either of the former , 



¥0R THE CURE OE SHEEP AND XAMBS 377 

which may be well mixed together. Some choose to melt 
their butter to oil before they mix it with the tar, and it 
mixes the better, and is more healing. 

To make Broom Salve^ an excellent remedy for the scab, 
or any other distemper that appears on the skin of Sheep. — 
This salve is of great use to such as have large flocks of 
sheep ; it answers the end of prepared tar, and is much 
cheaper than tar, where broom is to be had. 

To make this, take twenty gallons of spring water, 
from a gravelly soil rather than any other, or in the room 
of that as much clear river or rain water ; put to this of 
green broom tops, stalks, leaves and flowers, shred small, 
about ten gallons, and let it simmer or boil gently till it 
becomes of the consistence of a jelly, or till it be pretty 
thick ; then add of stale human urine two quarts, and 
as much beef or pork brine made strong of the salt : and 
to these add about two pounds of mutton-suet, well melt- 
ed and cleaned ; stir these well together for about a mi- 
nute or two, till the suet is mixed ; and then strain all 
off" into such a vessel as you think convenient, to be kept 
lor use. 

How to use the Broom Salve for the Ray and Scab in 
Sheep. Tliis salve is very speedy and certain in curing 
the distempers called the Ray and Scab in Sheep. 

If you use either this or the other prepared tar to a 
sheep when it is in full stapple (that is, before it is shorn) 
divide tlie wool, that you may see the inflamed part, and 
anoint it well, and the parts about it, at least half an 
inch round ; then close the wool again, and the distemper 
will cease, and the wool not be discoloured. 



SrS FiR THE CUJRE OF SHEEP AND LAMBS. 

When a sheep is troubled with the scab, you may pre- 
sently discover it by its rubbing the distempered part 
against trees or posts, and with his horns ; and as sook 
as you perceive this, you should apply either of the pre- 
pared medicines. 

The broom-salve is also of great use in destroying the 
ticks or sheep lice, and the wool will not be the worse 
for sale. 

If you use this salve to sheep newly shorn, let it be 
warmed, and wash the infected pai-t with a spunge or 
woollen rag dipped into it. 

But as the scab in sheep proceeds chiefly from poor di- 
et, so when we apply this outward remedy, give them 
fresh and good pasture ; for good food will help the cure, 
as well as prevent the evil. Sheep delight in shifting the 
pasture often, and if thfey have plenty they will take only 
that which is wholesome for them ; otherwise they \<'ill 
be forced to eat such herbs as may prove injurious to 
them. 



CHAPTER IL 



To cure the skit ov looseness in Sheep- — To prevent and eUre 
the rot in sheep—To destroy Ticks or Tichells in Sheep, 
which annoy and spoil the skins of Sheep and keep them 
low in flesh — Of the foot, and the cure — Of the cough in 
Sheep— d remedy when sheep happen to swallow any ven." 
omous worm, horse-leech, poisonous herb. 

To cure the skit or looseness in Sheep. Take salt, al- 

iim or chalk, and give it in small drink or water, and it 

will knit and help them presently. 



FOR THE CURE OF SHEEP AND XAMBS^ 879 

To prevent and cure the Rot in Sheep. Take a peck or 
better of malt, and mash it as though you would brew it 
into beer or ale, and make eleven or twelve gallons of 
liquor; tlien boil in this liquor a good quantity of herbs^ 
viz. shepherd's purse, sage, comfrey, plantain, penny- 
royal, wormwood, and bloodwort, of each a good quantity, 
and boil them in the said liquor A'ery well ; then strain 
them forth, and put a little yest therein, after that put a 
peck of salt into it, and put it up in a vessel : Then givp 
it your sheep in wet weather, after April comes in, seven 
or eight spoonfuls a piece, once every week ; if it be dry 
weather, you need not so often ; and thus continue tili 
May or after, as you see cause, according to the dryness 
or wetness of the weather. Give them now and then a 
little tar mixed with herb de grace chopped, and it will 
cleanse the bowels of much corruption, and be healthful 
to the blood. 

To destroy Ticks or Tlckells in Sheep ^ which annoij and 
spoU the skins of Sheep, and keep them low in fiesh. Take 
the root of the common wood maple or acerminus^ cut it 
in chips, or grind it, and make a decoction of it in com- 
mon water ; the quantity of about an ounce to a pint of 
water, which must be drawn clear from the root as soon 
as it is cold. This water being applied to the skin of the 
sheep where the ticks happen to prevail most, is a certain 
destoyer of them. We need not tell a bred shepherd that 
the wool must be first gently opened with the fingers be- 
fore the liquor is applied. Some use a linen cloth that 
has been well soaked in it; others apply this with a 
spunge to the sheep immediately after they are shorn, to 
prevent the ticks for the future, and even to deati'ov the 



S80 Hon THE CURE OF SHEEP A^D LAMBS. 

eggs of the ticks which may remain upon the body of the 
sheep. 

Of the Worm in the Foot^ and the cure. The worm in the 
foot shews itself by a swelling between the two claws, 
tvhich makes the sheep go lame ; tlierefore when you find 
a sheep lame of any foot, examine between the hoofs, and 
if he is troubled with this distemper, you will find a hole 
big enough to admit a pin's head, in which you may ob- 
serve five or six black hairs about an inch long ; then, 
with a sharp pointed knife open the skin a quarter of an 
inch on each side the hole, and by pressing of it gently 
with your thumb above the slit, take liold of the black 
hairs with the other hand, and there will come out a worih 
like a solid piece of flesh, about two or three inches long. 
The wound must afterwards be anointed with tar to heal 
it, or you may use the broom-salve instead of tar. 

Of the cough in Sheep, When sheep are troubled with 
the cough and shortness of breath, bleed them in the ear. 
and take some oil of almonds and white wine, which mix 
well together, and pour into their nostrils about a spoon- 
ful at a time. You may observe, that when sheep are 
thus afflicted with a cough and shortness of breath, they, 
are subject to be scabbed about their lips; the remedy for 
which is, to beat hyssop and bay salt, of each a like quanti- 
ty together and rub their lips, their palates and their 
mouths with it, but if there should be any ulcereus.places, 
anoint them with vinegar and tar well mixed together. 

A remedy uchen Sheep happen to swallow any venomous 
worm, horse-leech^ or poisonous herb. When sheep have 
happened to eat any thing that occasions their body to 
swell, bleed them in the lips, and under the tail, giving 



roilI'llE CtJKE or SHEEP AND IdkMBS. 381 

them a large spoonful of olive oil, or sharp white wine 
vinegar, or two good spoonsful of human urine, from a 
sound person. 



CHAPTER IIL 

Jigainst the murrain — The red water in Sheep, and of the 
common cure for that distemper — For the wildfire in 
Sheep — Of sore eyes in Sheep, and the remedy — Of the 
tag, or belt in Sheep — Of the measles, or pox in Sheep — 
Of the blood in Sheep, and its remedy — Of the wood evil, 
and its cure—Jl cure for the dartars — To fasten loose 
teeth in Sheep or Lambs — Cutting or gelding of Lambs — 
Against the flowing of the gall — For the itch or scab in 
Sheep-A cure for the staggers m Lambs or young Sheep. 

Against the murrain. Take the dried flowers of worm- 
wood, or of rue ; mix them with common salt, and give 
them to such sheep as are infected, or are in danger of 
being infected. About a dram is enough for each sheep 
in a morning, in a spoonful or two of human urine. 

The red water in Sheep, and of' the common cure for that 
distemper. The red water is accounted one of the most 
dangerous distempers attending the flock, bringing what- 
ever sheep it attacks to death in a short time, unless it be 
discovered at the first coming; whereas in the rot, a 
sheep that happens to be taken with it, may live for a 
month or more. The remedy for the red water is to bleed 
the sheep in the foot and under the tail ; then apply to the 
sore places the leaves of rue and wormwood, or the tender 
slioots of either of them, bruised and well mixed with bay 



3^2 FOR THE CURE OF SHEEP AND LAMBS. 

salt, and give them by way of diet, fine hay, in the morn* 
ing& and evenings, or other dry meat sprinkled a little 
with salt. 

For the fVildJire in Sheep. This is as dangerous a dis- 
temper as any that can attend the flock, and was for a long 
time held incurable; but some of the most intelligent 
shepherds have made a salve which has done great ser- 
vice. Their medicine is made of chervil, bruised and beat 
up with stale beer, witli which the sore or afllicted pi ace 
must be anointed. Or, to take another method, which is 
as certain, prepare a wash made of common water one 
quarter of a pint; the quantity of a horse-bean of white 
copperas ; wash the sore part witij this water twice or 
thrice in an hour's time, and it is a certain cure. 

Of Sore Eijes in sheep ^ and the Remedy. Although sheep 
have a dulness in their eyes when rotten, yet sometimes 
they are subject to have a flux of humours which weakens 
their sight, and without timely help will bring them to be 
stark blind. Some of our shepherds use on this occasion 
the juice of celandine, w liich they drop into the eye : 
others use, with as good judgment, the juice of the leaves 
of ground ivy, which should be forcibly spirted out of the 
mouth into the sheep's eye ; or a decoction made of either 
of the foregoing plants in common water will do as well : 
and you may have always the same remedies ready at 
hand, without the trouble of seeking the plants when you 
have occasion for them. It is necessary, however, to ob- 
serve, that when you make these decoctions, about five or 
six grains of alum may be boiled in eveiy pint of water y 
or if yoi,i use white copperas in this case of the eyes, in- 



FOR THE CURE OF SHEEP AND LAMBS. 38S 

fuse about seven grains of the copperas in half a pint o/ 
fair water, it is a sovereign remedy. 

Of the Tag, or Belt in sheep. Sheep are said to be tag- 
ged or belt when they have a flux, or continued running 
of ordure, which lighting upon tlie tail, the heat of the 
dung, by its scalding, breeds the scab. The common cure 
for this distemper is. First to cut o(F or shear the tags of 
wool that are berayed, so as to lay the sore bare ; then wash 
the raw part with human urine, or strong beef or pork 
brine; then strew the place with fine mould, or dried 
earth ; and after that, lay on tar mixed well with goose- 
grease, or hog's lard ; repeat strewing of fine mould, and 
it is a certain cure, as far as outward application can act» 
This is the common receipt; but to give them as a diet, 
oats, fine hay, with a little sprinkling of bay-salt finely 
beat, and a small quantity of the powder of juniper-ber- 
ries, will certainly remove the cause. 

Of the Measles, or Pox in Sheep This distemper shews 
itself at first in the skin, in small pimples, either of a red 
or purplish colour, and is very infectious ; so that when- 
ever a sheep is attacked with it, it ought instantly to be 
removed from the flock, and put into a fi-esh-springing pas- 
ture. Tlie outward application used by the shepherds, is 
to boil the leaves of rosemary in strong vinegar, about 
three ounces of leaves to a pint of vinegar, and to wasli the 
pustules or sore parts with that decoction. 

Of the Blood in Sheep, and its Remedy. This disteni])er 
we take to be a sort of measles or pox, attended with such 
a degree of fever, as will not suffer any breaking out in the 
skin; for it is generally observed, that the skin of such a 
sheep is redder than any other sheep in any other distcm- 



SS4 FOR THE CUBS OF SHEEP AND IAMBS. 

fer. In which case you are to bleed him as you perceive 
Idm stagger, by cutting off the upper part of his ears 

9 

which is the most ready way ; and by blteding him -under 
the eye immediately after, which forwards the cure begun 
in cutting the ears ; for thereby the head is immediately 
assisted, and they will soon recover. Bui a^, from the 
beginning of the distemper to the death of the sheep, it is 
no^ more than five or fix minutes, so a shepherd ought to 
fee very watchful, and ready to bleed him, as soon as the 
foj:«going symptoms appear. Some would suppose this 
distemper to proceed from the sheep eating pennygrass, 
while others suppose it to be an over-fulness of blood from 
rank diet. 

Of the Wood evil and its Cure, The wood-evil is sel- 
dom or ever found among sheep that have their pasture 
ia low grounds : but for the most part amongst those that 
feed upon poor uplands, and grounds over-run with fern. 
The remedy is to bleed them in the vein under the eye. 

This distemper commonly happens about April or 
May, seizing the sheep in the neck, making them hold 
their heads awry, and occasioning them to halt in theii" 
going, and will be their death in a day or two, if the 
aforesaid remedy of bleeding be not timely used, and fresh 
pasture in low lands provided for them. 

If a lamb is seized with a fever, or any other sickness, 
take him away from his dam, for fear of her catching it : 
which done, draw some milk from the ewe, and put to it 
so much rain water, and make the lamb swallow it down. 
This is a certain cure for a sick lamb, if yon keep him 
warm. 



FOR THE CURE OF SHEEP AND lAMBiS, S35 

There is a certain scab on the chin of lambs, at some 
seasons, occasioned by their feeding on grass covei^ 
with dew; it is called by the shepherds the Davlars^ 
which will kill a iamb if not stopped. 

Ji Cure far the Darfars. Take salt and hyssop, in like 
proportion : beat them together, and therewith cltafe tli© 
palate of the mouth, the tongue, and all the muzzle : them 
wash the s cab with vinegar, and after that anoint it with 
tar and hog's grease mixed together. 

There is also a scabbiness that often happens to lamhs 
when tiiey are but half a year old : to cure which y«ffl 
must grease tliem with tar mixed with two parts of goose 
grease. 

To fasten Loose Teeth in Sheep or Lambs. When yoa 
observe their teeth loose, which you will see by their iM 
feeding ; then let them blood under the tail, and rub their 
gums with powder of mallow-roots. 

Lambs are generally yeaned in the spring, 'at whiclt 
time shepherds should take great care to cherish the 
ewes, that they may be strong and able to deliver their 
lambs, otherwise they will have many abortive or ^esA 
lambs. And if the ewes are not able to deliver themselvejs 
then the shepherd should be always ready to help them, 
by setting his foot on their necks, and with his hands fe 
pluck it gently from them. 

If a lamb is likely to die when first lambed, opea hfe 
mouth and blow therein, and he will soon recover. 

Cutting or Gelding of Lambs. The age of cutting is 
from three to nine days old, after which they are rank ©f 
blood, which v. ill fall into the cod in cutting, and tliei^ 
lie and kill them : to prevent which, put a little powder 



:^&tJ tOK THE CURE 01 SHEEP AND LAMBff. 

of rosin intothecodjaiidtliat will dry up the quarie blood, 

A sure way of cutting : Let one hold tlie lamb between 
his legs, or in his lap, and turn tlie lamb on his back, hold> 
ing all his feet upright together : if you see black spots 
in his flanks, do not cut him : for he is rank of blood, 
and will surely die. Let the cutter hold the tip of the cod 
in his left hand, and with a sharp penknife cut the top 
thereof an inch long quite away. I'hen with his thumbs 
and his two fore-fingers of both hands, slip the cod softly 
down over the stones, and then with his teeth holding the 
left stone in his mouth, draw it softly out as long as the 
string is ; then draw forth the other stone in like man* 
ner. Spit in the cod, and anoint his flanks on both sides 
of the cod, with fresh gi'ease, and so let him go. 

Against the Flowing oj the GalL When a sheep is 
troubled vith this distemper, he will stand shrinking with 
all his feet together; to cure which, give him half a 
spoonful of acqua vitae, mixed with so much vinegar ; 
and let him blood under the tail. The above remedy is 
also very good against the red water in sheep. 

For the Itch or Scab in Sheep, Take a small quantity 
of the herb bears-foot, with the root of chamelion noir 
which is the great thistle that has milk in it ; boil them 
together, and wash the scabby places therewith, and it 
will certainly cure tKem. 

A Cure for the Staggers in Lambs or young Sheep. — 
Take of long pepper, liquorice, aniseed, and hempseeds, 
of each a pennyworth J beat all these together, and mix 
with it some new milk and honey, and give each lamb or 
sheep two or three spoonsful milk warm. This should, 
if possible, be done in the month of May. 



PART IV. 



RECEIPTS ANI> DIRECTIONS FOR THE CURE O^ 
MOST DISTEMPERS IN HOGS. 



CHAPTER L 

Ititroductorrj observations and receipts for the cure of most 
common distempers incident to Hogs — Of the quinsey in 
Swine — Of the kernels in Swine ^ and the cure — Loathing 
of meat in Swine, or their discharging it involuntarily 
by vomit, and the remedy— Of the gar gut or blood in 
Swine. 

The hog is a hurtful and spoiling beast, stout, hardy 
and troublesome to rule ; however^ he is a very profita- 
ble creature, where they have convenience to keep him, 
such as on farms where there are large dairies : It is ne- 
cessary that to each cow there should be a hog for the 
offals of the dairy ; such as skimmed milk, or flit-milk^ 
butter-milk, whey, and the washings of the dairy, which 
will afford them food sufficient to nourish them; and as 
there needs no more to be said concerning swine, we 
shall now treat of their diseases, and the cure of them. 

Rules to know when Swine are in health. All swine in 
bealth curl their tails, for which reason the best swine- 
herds will by no means suffer them to be blooded in that 
part ; but in the ears and about the neck, when bleeding 



388 FOR THE CURE OB HOGS, 

is necessary. They are very subject to fevers, w'hic)i 
they shew by hanging their iieads, and turning them on 
one side, running on a sudden, and stopping short, which 
is commonly, if not always, attended with a giddiness, 
which occasions them to drop and die, if not timely pre- 
vented. When you observe this distemper upon them, 
you must strictly regard vvhicli side their head turns to, 
and bleed them in the ear, or in the neck, on the contrary 
side. Some would advise to bleed them likewise under 
the tail, about two inches below the rump. It is very cer- 
tain that this giddiness, or as some call it staggers, in a 
?iog, proceeds from an over quantity of blood, and by 
bleeding them in time they will certainly recover. 

In the bleeding of hogs near the tail, you may observe 
a large vein to rise above the rest. The old farmers used 
to beat this vein with a little stick, in order to make, it 
rise or swell. Open this vein lengthways with your fleam,, 
or fine penknife ; and after taking away a sufficient quan- 
tity of blood, such as ten ounces from a hog of about 
fourteen stone, or fifteen or sixteen from a hog of five 
and twenty and upwards ; bind up the orifice cither with 
bast taken from a fresh matt, or witli a slip taken front 
tiie inner bark of the lime-tree, or the inner bark of a 
willow, or the elm. After bleeding, keep them in the 
house for a day or two, giving them barley meal mixed 
with warm water, and allowing them to drink nothing 
but what is warm, water chiefly, without any mixture, 
I the paste made witli barley meal, some of the most cu- 
rious swine-herds will give about half an ounce a day of 
the bark of oak ground fine. 



roR THE CURfc OF HOGS. 389 

Of the ^uinsey in Swine. This is a distemper wLiclj 
swine at-e very subject to, and will prevent their feeding, 
and frequently happens wlien they are half fatted ; so that 
we have known after five or fix weeks putting up, that 
they have eaten near ten bushels of pease, three or four 
days of this distemper has reduced them to as ,^rcat pover- 
ty in flesh as they were in before they were put up to feed. 
Tliis distemper is a swelling in the tliroat, and is reme- 
died by bleeding a little above the shoulders, or beliind the 
the shoulders. But the method which we take to be the 
most certain, is to bleed them under the tongue, though 
sotue pretend that fettering is the most certain method" ^ 
cure. However, any of these methods will do. 

Of the Kernels in Sivine^ and the Cvre. The distemper 
called the kernels, is likewise a swelling in the throat : 
the remedy for which is bleeding them under the tongue, 
and rubbing tlieir mouths after bleeding with salt and 
wheat flour, finely beaten and well mixed together. If 
a sow happens to be with pig, and has this distemper 
upon her, give her the roots of the common field narcis- 
sus, or yellow daffodil. 

Loathing of Meat in Swine^ or their discharging it invO' 
hintarily btj Vomit^ and the Remedy. When swine dis- 
charge their meat by vomit, their stomachs may be cor- 
rected by giving them the raspings of ivory or hcart's-horn 
dried in a pan with salt, which must be mixed with their 
meat, which should be chiefly ground beans, or ground 
acorns ; or, for want of these, barley indifferently broken 
in the mill, and scalded witli the above ingredients. Mad- 
der is likewise good to be given them on this occasion, 
mixed with their meat. This distemper however is not 



390 FOR THE CURE OF HOGS. 

mortal, but has the ill effect of reducing swine in their 
flesh. It certainly prevents the distemper called the blood 
in swine, or the gargut, as some call it, which generally 
proceeds from their eating too much fresh grass when 
they are lirst turned abroad in the spring. 

Of the gargut or blood in Swine. This distemper among 
country people, is always esteemed mortal. Some call it 
a madness in swine. It shews itself most like the fever in 
swine, by staggering in their gait, and loathing their 
meat. In the fever, however, they will eat freely till the 
very time tiiey drop ; but in this, their stomach will fall 
off a day or two before the staggering or giddiness ap- 
pears. The cure for which is, to bleed the hog, as soon as 
yon perceive him attacked with the distemper, under the 
tail, according to the opinion of some. To make him 
bleed freely beat him with a small wand where the incis- 
ions are made ; Though it is seldom in this distemper 
that the blood does not come freely enough from the vein, 
if it be rightly opened. After bleeding, keep the hog in 
the house, give him barley meal in warm whey, in which 
mixture give him madder, or red oaker powdered, or bole. 



FOR THE CURE OF HOGS. 391 



CHAPTER II. 

Of the spleen in Sivine — Of the choler in Hogs^ the remedy — 
Of the pestilence^ or j)lagiie in Swine — Of measled . 
Swine — Of the distemper in the lungs oj Srviiie^ and its 
cure — Of the gall in Swine — OJ the pox in Swine — Mr. 
M. T, Surry^s remedy for the swelling under the throat — 
^ cure for the bite of a Viper, or mad Bog, in Swine — 
Of the tremor, or shaking in Swine, its cure. 

Of the spleen in Swine. As swine are insatiable crea- 
tures, they are frequently troubled with abundance of the 
spleen ; the remedy for which is, to give theni some 
twigs of tamarisk boiled or infused in water; or if some 
of the small tender twigs of tamarisk, fresh gathered, 
were to be chopped small and given them in their meat, 
it would greatly assist them ; for the juice and every part 
of this wood, is of extraordinary benefit to swine in most 
cases, but in this distemper especially. 

Of the Choler in Hogs,the Remedy. The distemper called 
the choler, in swine, shews itself by the hog's loosing its 
flesh, forsaking its meat, and being more inclined to 
sleep than ordinai'y, even refusing the fresh food of the 
field, and falling into a deep sleep as soon as he enters it. 
It is common, in this distemper, for a hog to sleep more 
than three parts in four of its time ; and consequently he 
cannot eat as nature requires him sufficiently for his 
nourishment. This is what one may call a lethargy, for 
he is no sooner asleep but lie seems dead, not being sen- 
sible or moving, thongli you beat him with the greatest 
violence, till on his own accord he, recovers. 



390. Ten THE CURE 01 HOGS. 

The most certain and approrcd remedy for it is the 
TQot of the cucumis silvestris^ or wild ciicuniber, as some 
call it, stamped and strained with water, given them to 
drink. This will immediately canse them to voirit, and 
soon after to become lively and leave their drowsiness. — 
When the stomach is thus discharo-cd, give them horse 
beans softened in pork brine, if possible: or, for want 
of that, in beef brine, or in fresh human urine, from 
some healthful person ; or else acorns tltaf have been in- 
fused a day or two in common water and salt, about a 
fortieth part of salt to the water. 

It would be necesary to keep them in the house during 
the time of the operation, and not to suffer them to go out 
till the middle of the next day, first giving them a good 
feed of barley meal mixed with water wherein a little bark 
iias been infused three or four hours. 

Of the Pestilence or Plague in Swine. This distemper is 
judged to be infectious, and therefore all swine that are 
taken with it, must immediately be separated from the 
lierd, and put into some house where none but the in- 
fected may come. In this, as well as in all other cases 
where swine are distempered, let them have clean straw : 
Give them when they are thus attacked, about a pint of 
good white wine, or raisins wherein some of the roots of 
the pollypody of the oak have been boiled, and wherein 
about ten or twelve bruised berries of ivy have been infus- 
ed. This medicine will purge them, and, by correcting 
their stomach, will discharge the distemper. 

If, after the first, another hog should he seized with 
the same illness, let the house or stye he cleaned well 
from the straw and dung of the first distempered hog. 



FOR THE CURE OF HOGS, 3§S 

At the first of his euti-ance give him some bunches of 
woi'inwood, fresh gathered, for him to feed on at his 
pleasure; ohserving every time that yua have occasion 
to bi'ing ill new distempered swine, to give them clean lit- 
ter and clean houses. 

The pollypody of the oak in white wine, as above di- 
rected, is likewise an approved reiuedy for the distem- 
per mentioned above, called the Choler. 

OfJIeaslcd Sivine. Swine, when they are troubled 
with this distemper, will have a much hoarser voice than 
usual, tbeir tongues will be pale, and their skin will be 
thick set with blisters, about the bigness of pease. As 
this distemper is natural to swine, the ancients advise, 
that you give the a their meat out of leaden troughs bj 
way of prevention. It is also a common practice, where 
this distemper prevails (for it is in some sort pestilential) 
to give the hogs an ijifusion of briony root and cummim 
water every morning in their first feed, by way of pre- 
caution. But the most sure way is to prepare the follov?^ 
ing medicine, viz. 

Sulphur, half a pound ; alum, three ounces; bay ber- 
ries, three quarters of a pint; soot, two ounces. Beat 
these all together, tie them in a linen cloth, and lay them 
in the water which you give them to drink, stirring them 
first in the water. 

Of the Distemper in tlioi Lungs of Swine^ and its Cure. 
Swine, as they are of a hot nature, are subject to a dis» 
temper wliich is called the thirst, or lungs^ according to 
some farmers. This is what we design to treat of, as it 
is a distemper j)roceeding purely from want of water, and 



S94 POK TUB CURE OF HOGS 

what they are never subject to but in tiie summer time or 
where wivtei- is wanting. It is frequently to the faimer's 
expense veij groaliy, when swine arc put up to be tatted, 
that ti»ere is not tiue care to give theni water enough; 
then tliey surely pine, and lose the benefit oitlieir meat. 
The remedy for this is to give them water fresh aud fre- 
quently otherwise it will bring them to have an over- 
heat in their liver, which will occasion this distemper, 
which the farmers generally term the lungs; to cure 
which, pierce both ears of the hog, and put into each 
oritice a leaf and stalk, a little bruised, of the black hel- 
lebore. 

Of the Gall in Swine. This distemper never happens 
but for want of appetite, and where the stomach is too 
eoh! to digest, as some authors say. Generally, as far 
as our experience teaches us, it happens to those swine 
which ai'e confined in nasty pens, and are neglected and 

starved in their food. The cure of this distemper is to 
give them tiie juice of cole>\ort or cabbage leaves, with 

honey and water about a pint. 

This distemper shews itself by a swelling that appearg 
tinder the jaw. 

Of' the Pox in Swine. This distemper is remarkabk- 
in such swine as have wanted necessary subsistence, and 
more particularly in such as have wanted water. Some 
have thought it to proceed from a veneral cause, where- 
by the blood has been corrupted. It appears in many 
sores upon the body of the creature, and whatever boar or 
sow happens to be infected with it, will never thrive, 
though you give them the best of meat. The cure is to 
give them inwardly about two large spoonsful of treacle. 



rOR THE CURE Or HOGS, 395 

in water that has first been made indifferently sweet with 
honey, about a pint at a time, anointing the sores with 
flour of brimstone well mixed with hog's lard : to which 
you may add a small quantity of tobacco dust, while you 
give the preparation of treacle inwardly. The swine thus 
infected should be kcj)t in the house, and quite free from 
the rest of the herd, till they are cured. 

Jir. M. T. of Surry's Eemedtjjor the Stvelling under the 
Throat. This distemper appears somewhat like the sxvel- 
ling of the kernels^ or what the ordinary farmers call the 
kernels in swine. The most immediate remedy is to open 
the swollen parts, when they are ripe for that purpose, 
with a fine penknife, or lancet, taking care that it is not 
in the least rusty ; and there will issue from thence a 
great quantity of foeted matter of a yellow or greenish 
colour.^ Wash then the part with fresh human urine, 
and dress the wound with hog's lard. ^ 

A Cure for the Bite of a Viper, or mad Dog in Swine. 
The signs of madness in hogs which proceed from the 
bites of vipers, slow-worms, or mad dogs, are nearly the 
same, viz. An hog, on this occasion, will paw with his 
feet, foam at his mouth, and champ or gnash with his 
Jaws, start sudderdy, and jump upon all four at intervals. 
Some of the country people have mistaken this distemper 
for the fever in swine; others have mistaken it for the 
staggers: But in neither of these do the swine paw with 
their feet ; the venomous bites alone giving them that di- 
rection. The most immediate cure or remedy for such 
bitings, if you can judge of their disaster presently after 
they are bit, is to wash the wound with warm human urine 
or warm vinegar ,• or, for want of either, with commoR 

Z9. 



596 rOR THE CURE OF UOGS, 

water and salt, watme.d, the quantity of salt one fortieth 
part to the water, and then searing oi buri.ingthe wound 
with a red. hot iron. 

It is necessarj , at the same time, to setter.the hog in 
the ear, with tlie common hellebore. 

It is convenient, w hen swine have been thus bitten, to 
give them the following medicine : 

Take of rue, the smaller centuary, box, St. John's 
wort, of each two handfuls ; vervain, a handful; these 
herbs should be boiled in four gallons of small beer, be- 
ing tied up in bunches. 

>Vheji you imagine that this decoction is strong 
enough, or has received the virtue of the herbs, pass the 
liquor through a sieve, or strain it through a course cloth ; 
then add to it about a gallon .of water, or as much as will 
make good the deficiency of the water boiled away ; add 
to this about two pounds of Hour of sulphur, and about a 
pound of madder finely beaten, and as much coriander- 
seed not beat ; of aniseeds about three quarters of a 
pound, and fine oyster shell powder well prepared, or, 
in lieu of that, the powder of crab claws, or lobster claws, 
about six ounces. This medicine will be enough for five 
^ and twenty hogs. 

Of the Tremor^ or Shakivg in Swine^ its Cure ; Take 
hyssop and mallows, in stalks, and leaves, about a hand- 
ful of each J boil then) in three pints of milk till the vir- 
tue of the herbs has sufficiently got into it ; then pass the 
liquor through a sic^e, or strain it, to le free from the 
herbs ; adding then of ntadder, two spoonsful, and about 
an ciiiiice of litjuorice sliced, with as much aniseed. — 
Give it two mornings togeiher. 



TOR THE CURE OF HOGS. S97 



CHAPTER III, 

Of the remedy for the staggers in a Hog — cy the murrain, 

and measles in Swine, the remedy — Soivs rvith pig — 

Gelding pigs and spaying sows — Gelding of Hogs — To 

feed a Hog for lard—d bath for the Swine's pox — 

Against vomiting. 

Of the remedy for the staggers in a Hog. This distem- 
per is to be cured tvvo ways, viz. either by a draught 
prepared of flour of sulphur and madder, ground or pow- 
dered, about an ounce of each boiled in new milk, and 
given at twice to tire hog fasting in the morning, two 
days following, if you take the distemper in the beginning : 
Or else, when it has already seized his head with violence, 
use the following preparation. 

Take of the common house-leek and rue, of each a like 
quantity; to which add bay-salt, enough to make their 
juices very pungent, when they are bruised together, 
which should be done in a stone or marble mortar, with 
a wooden pestle; when these are well stamped and mix- 
ed together, add a large spoonful of the strongest vinegar 
you can get, and put the mixture into the ears of the hog, 
stopping them both close with tow, wool, or cotton, so 
that it may remain in a day and a night. This, if the 
hog is not far gone, will recover him ; but if he is not 
quite well, the same must be repeated a second time ; and 
as sooti as the mixture is taken out of his ears, stop them 
with slieep vi?ool, or with cotton or tow that has been 
greased a little with oil of almonds ; for this will prevent 
his taking cold. 



398 roR THE CUHE OF HOSS. 

Of the murrain^ and measles in Swine, the remedy. Al- 
though we have already mentioned this distemper, and 
its cure, give us leave yet to insert another remedy, which 
has been higlily commended. 

Take of the flour of sulphur, half an ounce, and as much 
madder powdered or ground as it comes over j liquorice 
sliced, about a quarter of an ounce, and aniseed the 
same quantity, to tliis put a spoonful of wheat flour, and 
mix it in new milk, to give the hog in a morning fasting ; 
repeat this medicine twice or tlirice. 

If a hog has eat any ill herbs, such as henbane or hem- 
lock; to cure the same, give him to drink the juice of cu- 
cun)bers made warm, which will cause bim Co vomit, and 
so cleanse his stomach that he will soon recover. 

Sows with pig. Great care sliould be taken of the sows 
when they are with pig, and to shut them up ii>tl»e stye for 
fear of accidents ; but you should not put two together, 
because they will lie one upon another, and so hurt them- 
selves.; let them sarrow in the stye, otherwise -they will 
often cast their pigs, which is a great loss to the keeper. 

Gelding Figs ami sjmijing Sows. I'he boar pigs ouglit 

to be gelded when they are about six months old, for tJien 

they begin to wear strong in heat, and will make the 

stronger hogs. 

Sows should not be spayed till they are three or four 

years old : To do which, cut them in the mid flank, two 

fingers broad, with a sharp penknife, and take out the bag 

of birth and cut ir off", and so stitch up the wound again, 

and anoint it, and keep her in a warm style for two or 

three days ; then let her out, and she will soon grow fat. 



FOR THE CURE OP HOGS. 399 

Gelding of Hogs, In the spring and after Michaelmas, 
are tlie two best seasons to geld yojfr hogs : To do whicls, 
cut a cross slil in the nnddle of each stone, then pull them 
gently out, and anoint the wound with tar. 

■ To feed a Hog for Lard. Let him lie on thick, planks, 
or a stone pavement; feed him with barley and peas, but 
no beans, and let him drink the tappings or washings of 
hogsheads ; but for a change give himsome sodden barley 
and in a small time he will begin to glut ; therefoi'e, about 
once in ten days, give him a handful of crabs. Make liim 
drunk now and then, ai\d.he will fatten the better. After 
a month's feeding, give him dougli made of barley meal 
for about five weeks, without any drink or other moisture; 
by which time he will be fat enough for use. 

Jl Bath for the Swine'' s Pox. This is a distemper that 
often proves of very ill cofisequence, because, one infects, 
anotlier; it generally proceeds fi'om lice in their skin, oi* 
poverty; and they never v^ill thrive while tliey are trou- 
bled with it, Tlie cure for which is this : 

Take yarrow, plantain, primrose leaves, briar leaves, 
<)]d oaken leaves, water bctony, of each two handsful ; boil 
them in two gall')ns of running water till they are all ten- 
der, and then wash your hogs therewith ; and in twice oi: 
thi'ice using, it will dry tliem up. 

Jlgainst Vomiting. When you perceive your hog to 
oast or vomit, you may he sure his stomach is .5ot well ; 
and therefore give him some shavings of ivory mixed with 
a little dried beaten salt. Also beat his beans small, and 
put them in the trough with his other meat, thfit lie may 
i'eiid thereon before he goes to the field. 



PART V, 



RECEIPTS AND DIRECTIONS TO CL^E DISTEMPEUS IN DOGa 



CHAPTER I. 



Introdudorij Ohservatiovs and receipts for the Cure of most 
• Common Distempers incident to Dogs. 

As dogs are good servants, and faithful to their mas- 
ters so most roiintiy gnitlemen take great delight in them, 
and the dogs that are of service in sporting are generally 
taken great care of; but for want of knowing what re- 
medies are proper for their distempers, many a good dog 
is lost: For which rc'ason we have here laid down what 
remedies we have often given with great success, for their 
immediate relief in most common distempers. 

The dogs that are serviceable to the sportsmen, are the 
land-spaniel, the water-spaniel, the setting-dog, the Spa- 
nish-pointer, the otter-dog, the fox-hound, the beagle or 
tarrier, the blood-hound or buck-holind, the grey-hound 
and the lurcher. 

Tlie land-spaniel has a good nnse for finding out game, 
such as hares, or for perching of pheasants ; he will hunt 
close, and being broHe:ht up young to fetch and carry, is 
good company for a shooter : Youi* gun-spaniels will ajl - 



FOR THE CURE OF DOGS, 401 

ways Open as soon as they discover their game, and 
spring the.n ; so that they ought tt) be kept under Com- 
mand, and never range before the master out of gun- 
shot. 

. The water-spaniel, if he be of the right sort, has rough 
hair, and will naturally take the water when he is a pup- 
py ; at nine months old you may teacli liim any thing ne- 
cessary for his ofiice : His business is chietiy to hunt for 
ducKs, teal, widgeon, or wild^eese, in the fens, moors, 
or lakes, at the time when the young are just beginning 
to iiy J he must be learned to letch and carry, and by that 
means will bring to you what you shoot ; or will dive af- 
ter the young water-fowl, and bring them up. 

The settiiig-dog is spotted with liver-Golour and whitti; 
the use of him is to range the fields, and set partridges : 
. He is of the spaniel kind, and of middling size, has a 
very tender nose, and will quarter a field in a little time; 
If he is of a right sort, take him at nine months old, with 
a halter about his nex:k, with hobnails in it, and teach 
liim to crouch down at a dead partridge, if you can get 
one ; and especially learn him to suffer a net to be drawn 
over him without stirring, which can only be done by 
giving the discipline of a hob-nailed collar, and making 
the experiment of drawing a net oyer him at the same 
time. 

Tiie Spanish pointer is esteemed the incomparable, 
and even without teachings will point naturally at a par- 
tridge ; and as he is large, will range well, and stand high 
enough to appear above any high stubble ; when he points 
you may be sure of birds within gun-shoti 



4[ii lull THE CURE OF DOGS, 

The oiler dog is very rough in his hair, which is com' 
monly curled. They are of a large size, hut less docile 
than the spaniels, though they seem to be of that sort; 
Their delight is chiefly in water, and their use principal. 
ly in destroying of otters, whicii devour all the fish they 
can meet with. 

The fox hound is one of the largest kind of hounds ; he 
should particularly be strong in his loins, and liglit in his 
chest ; for iiis business is to run hard after liis game, and 
to hunt the fox. A gentleman should not have less than 
twenty couple of dogs in a pack, for many of them will 
tire in a long chase ; in some chases perhaps not three 
couple will be in at tlic death of the* fox. Some of these 
will hunt the hare, but it is best to keep the pack to one 
business. 

The beagle or tarrier is smaller than the fox hound, 
and twenty couple make a good pack. Enter these when 
they are about a year old. When these hunt at first, you 
may bring them under command by the smack ot a whip. 

The bloodhound, or buck hound is large and deep 
mouthed. This kind of dog will hunt dry foot, and when 
they have once singled out a deer, their nose is so fine 
that they never leave him till he is dead. 

The grey hound is a long fine shaped dog, made to run 
and has but little scent. A leash of grey-hounds is 
enough for any gentleman that will observe tlie law of 
the game ; one large one to turn the hare, and the two 
others low, and to bear well, so that they may easily take 
up the hare. 

Tlie smooth skinned sort will take a gate or stile, or 
run >vell in an open country j but the rough haired ones 



FOR THE CURE OF tlOGS 402 

are much the best for inclosed lands, because they will 
take any hedge, where they have strength enough to break 
through. 

Let your grey hound bitch be fall three quarters, and 
your dog a year old before you enter them, for fear of a 
strain ; Tlie bitches are always more eager after their 
game than the do^s. 

The lurcher is a small sort of grey hound, for coursing 
of rabbits chiefly ; he will sometimes take up a hare, but 
makes best sport with a rabbit. 

These are the sorts of dogs that are useful, and consid- 
ering the service and pleasure they are of to mankind, and 
the value of some of them, we see no reason why their 
health should not be regarded. 



CHAPTER II, 



jfb cure a Dog when he has been bit by a mad Dog, or 
a Viper; an approved remedy — To cure a Dog of the 
mange — To harden the feet of a Grey-hoimd not used to 
travel^ or the feet of a Setter or Pointer ichich has ranged 
too much — To cure Dogs wounded by staking themselves, 
or to stop a violent effusion of blood — To cure afresh wound 
in a Dog — To cure a Dog of convulsions — Ji purge for 
a Dog if tjou imagine he hath been been poisoned — To 
cure a megrim in a Dog — To cure films growing over 
the eyes of Dogs — Another receipt to cure the bite of a mad 
Dog— To kill ticks, lice, or fieas in Dogs — Another — For 
the worm under the tongue — For sore ears. 
To cure a Dog when he has been bit by a mad Dog, or a 

Viper; an approved remedy. When a dog has been bit, 

A3 



404 FOR THE CURE OF DOGS. 

then, as soon as can be, wash the wounded parts with hot 
vinegar, changing the vinegar two or three times, and 
cut or shave off the hair; then immediately light a piece 
of tinder, and lay it red hot upon each wound till the dog 
is thoroughly sensible of burning, then wash the wound 
every day with stale urine, and keep your dog muzzled 
and it will certainly cure him. 

If your dog is bit by a viper, wash the part clean witli 
liot vinegar or urine, and shave the place where the wound 
was, or cut the hair close and then anoint it with oil of 
vipers once a day, for fix or seven days ; but muzzle Iiim 
all the time, unless at the times that he should eat or drink 
and then keep him from licking ; and the same methods 
should be used with him as directed for the bite of a mad 
og- 

A dog that isbifc with a slow-worm, or blind worm, 
is in as much danger as if he had been bit by a viper. 

To cure a Bog of the Mange. Give him flour of brim- 
stone and fresh butter, and wash him with a liquor made, 
of human urine, a gallon, boiled half an hour, with a 
pound of tobacco-stalks boiled in it ; the butter and brim- 
stone must be given every morning fasting, and the out- 
ward application immediately after ; but you must muz- 
zle your dog, or by his licking himself, he will die. 

To harden the Feet of a Grey-hound not used to travel, or 
the Feet of a Setter or Pointer which has ranged too much. 
Wash their feet with warm alum water, taking care that 
the sand is out ; and an hour afterwards wash them with 
warm beer and butter. 

To cure Bogs wounded by staking themselves, or to stop a 
violent Effusion of Blood. If any of these dogs should hap- 



rOK THE eURE OF DOGS. 405 

pen to stake themselves by brusliing through hedges then 
Gilt off all tlie hair about the wounds, and wash them witii 
warm vinegar. 

If a (log receives a bruise in any joint, to cure him, cut 
off the hair about the place, and rub the part gently with 
the following mixture, viz. Two ounces of oil of spike 
and two ounces of oil of swallows, mixed ; but muzzle him 
when you lay it on. 

To cure afresh Wound in a Dog. If your dog happens 
to be staked, or wounded any other way than where the 
wound is, (and no large blood vessel broken) immediately 
apply some oil of turpentine; but secure the dog's, mouth 
that he does not bite you; for the turpentine will occasion 
a violent smart for about a minute ; but then you may be 
assured it will work a perfect cure. 

Where any wound is, the hair must be cut close to the 
skin, or else it would fret the wound, and make it mortify. 

If there be any deep holes in the wound, then take some 
fresh butter and burn it in a pan, and while it is iiot, make 
a tent with some scraped lint ; and when it is dipped in 
the warm butter, put the tent into the hole of the wound 
and change the tents every morning : By this means the 
wounds will soon heal ; and when you change them, wash 
the wounds with milk. 

But when you use tents to your dogs, you must swathe 
them with broad slips of linen, so that they may not get at 
their wounds; for they will else endeavour to remove them 
from their places. 

To Cure a Dog of Convulsions. He will first stagger, and 
then fall and flutter with his legs, and his tongue hang 



406 rOR THE CURB OF DOGS, 

out of his mouth : and then you must dip his nose and 
tongue immediately into cold water, and he will present- 
ly recover ; but it is likely he may have a second fit sooft 
after; then give him as much water as he will drink, and 
he will be well: This will save the trouble of bleeding 
him in the tail. 

^ Purge for a Dog if you imagine he hath been poisoned. 

Take oil of English pitch, one large spoonful for a 
large dog, or in proportion for a lesser; give it him in 
a morning, and it will carry off the malignity the same 
day. 

To Cure a Megrim in a Dog. When you find a dog to 
stagger as he walks, take him and open a vein under his 
tail, and he will presently recover. 

To cure Films growing over the Eyes of Dogs. When 
you perceive any film growing over your dog's eyes, pre- 
pare tlie following water to wash them with twice a day : 

Take the quantity of a large pea of white vitriol, and 
put it in about half a pint of spring water, and when it has 
stood a day, take a fine piece of linen cloth, and dip it in 
the said liquor, sque'^zing it a little, and then pass it over 
the dog's eyes gently five or six times; and after about 
a minute is passed, then with a little spring water wash 
his eyes again, and dry them; if you find the dog's eyes 
smart, do this tvvice a day. 

There is a necessity for dogs always to have water at 
their command ; for tliey are of a liot nature, and would 
frequently drink if they had an opportunity. 

Another Receipt to cure the Bite of a mad Dog. Take 
the root of liower de luce, one handful, bruise and stamp 



yOB THE CURE OF DOGS. 407 

it small, and put it into milk, and give it' to the 
dog ; A great many dogs, and keepers of dogs, have 
been cured by this recept. 

To kill Ticks Lice^ or Fleas in Dogs. Take beaten 
cummin, with as much hellebore, and mix them together 
with water, and wash your dogs with it ; or with the juice 
of cucumbers, if the above cannot be bad ; and anoint 
them with the lees of old dregs of oil olive. 

Another. Wash him with water wherein lime has been 
slacked, and some wormwood and carduns boiled with 
it, and anoint him with goose grease and soap. 

For the worm under the Tongue. In hot weather this 
sometimes causes madness in dogs; and therefore look 
under his tongue and you will see somctliing white, which 
draw out with a sharp bodkin, and anoint the wound 
with alum and honey. 

For sore ears. If the ears of a dog be only scabby, 
anoint them with oil of bitter almonds, and it will soon 
heal them ; but if they be sore within, then mix with the 
above tar and hog's grease, and it will make a perfect 
cure. 
N. B. A gretj-hound bitch goes six weeks with whelp^ and 

her whelps are twelve days blind ; but all other bitches 

go twelve weeks with whe.lp^ and their whelps are 0}dy 

seven days. 



AFFENBIX 



RECEIPTS AND DIRECTIONS, KNOWN TO BE EFFICACIOUS IS 

THE CURE OF MANY COMPLAINTS INCIDENT TO THE 

DOMESTIC QUADRUPEDS OF AMERICA, WHICH 

HAVE NOT APPEARED IN ANY BOOK OF THE 

KIND KNOWN TO THE PUBLISH ER OF 

THIS WORKo 



.A'b. 1 . — Cure for the Bots. — Considering it to be the du- 
ty of every individual to contribute all he conveniently 
«:an to increase the fund of useful knowledge among man- 
kind, I have thought proper to make known a sure and 
infallible cure for the bots in horses. This disorder 
proves fatal to more horses than any other to which tliai 
noble and favorite animal is subject. Its symptoms arc, 
stamping with the hind feet, looking round to the side, ly- 
ing down, wallowing, k.c. and likewise on the inside of 
the upper lip, are small white lumps which grow more pro- 
minent as the hot progresses in cutting the maw. To re- 
medy which, take one spoonful of common table salt, one 
spoonful of gunpowder, and two spoonsful of flour, then 
scrape tlie upper lip inside until it is raw and beginning 
to bleed ; and then rub as much of the aforesaid mixture 
on it as will stick to it, after which keep the horse in mo- 



APPENDIX, 409 

tion for some time. The writer has been in the habit of 
making use of this remedy, for a great number of horses, 
for more than fifteen years, and has never known it to fail ; 
and he is so well assured of its efficacy, that he has no doubt 
of its ever failing wliere the ma\N is not quite cut through. 
JTo 2.— Take a table spoonfull of unslacked lime, and 
let it be given with tlie water, or the feed of the horse, at 
night and morning, regularly, for three or four days, and 
-it will completely expel the bots. 

Another Cure. 
jVb 3.-- 'Make a drench, composed of half a pint of new 
milk, a gill of molasses, an ounce of coppiras, two table 
spoonsful of common salt and half a pint of warm water. 
Give this to the horse once or twice a day, for a few days 
and it will be sure to relieve him. 

Ciire for Found er.-~T^ke aS much steel dust as may 
be contained on the point of a table knife or as will lie on 
a quarter of a dollar, give it to the beast in a feed of wheat 
bran three or four times, three times each day. 

JVo 1. To cure the yellow Farcy, commonly called the yel~ 
Uiv water, in horses. The signs of this dangerous di- 
sease are ; the horse will hang; down his head and look 
sad, and the blood in the vein of the neck will, move up 
and down like the beating of the pulse, and the flesh in 
his mouth and veins in the whites of his eyes will all 
turn white, which will be accompanied with a deadness 
of hair, .a weakness at labour, and sliding to and fro in 
moving down a hill. 

To cure this complaint, you must first put a rowel in 
the breast, and at the same time bleed in the tail ; after 
which gi.ve barks as follows. Take one dollar's worth of 



410 APPENDIX. 

Spanish burline barks and half a dollar's worth of thu 
flower delate, which will niaive one table spoon about 
even full, to which add nine pence worth of tincture of tu- 
mor and mix ihem together : the . spoon will contain tlie 
whole, and give this to the horse at the time you rowel 
and bleed him. In two days after drench him with a pint 
of soft soap or yeast ; in three days after do the same, 
and again in five days the same. 

JVo 2. Give a horse that has the yellow water from a 
gill to half a pint of whiskey with a good handful of salt 
in it every day, and your horse in a week or two will be 
well 

JVb 1. To cure the Pollevil or Fistula. Mix an equal 
quantity of the spirits of turj)entine and the oil of Dra- 
gon's lieart together, with which bathe tlie part aJBfected 
first ; then burn five holes as in this figure * * not 
more than half way to the bone by any * 
means, for if you do, you will kill your horse * * or 
make him have a stiff neck; after which take six pence 
worth of Arsenick, and three pence worth of the powder 
of Core mix them together and put an equal quantity of 
this mixture in each hole and stop them up with black 
soap ; and when it comes out aniont the part with poke 
root stewed in hogs fat and he w ill soon be well. 

J\^o 2. Make a bag of Flannel that will hold | a gallon, 
fill it with ice and tie it on the place j let it stay on till 
the ice melts, and repeat it — This has never known 'o 
fail ; it w ill show its effects in a few days by the falling 
of the swelling. 

Positive Cure.for the Hydrophobia, Mr. Valentine Ket- 
tering, a native of Germany, but who for fifty four yeard 



APPENDIX, 411 

has been a resident of Pennsylvania, has communicated 
to the senate of Pennsylvania a sure cure for the bite of a 
mad dog — the remedy is as follows : Take the herb cal- 
led red chick-weed when ripe or in full bloom, gather and 
dry it in the shade; reduce it to powder; give a small ta- 
ble spoonful one time to a grown person in beer or water, 
the weight whereof must be one drachm and one scruple; 
the same dose for a child, but it must be administered at 
three different times ; also be eaten upon bread, with but- 
ter honey or molassas ; a large spoonful for a beast, the 
dose weighing two drachms and one scruple. The lierb 
must be cut fine and mixed with bran, when used green 
for a beast ; when given to swine, mix the powdered herb 
with any kind of meal in little balls. It has been given at 
the distance of many weeks from the time of biting, and 
has never been known to fail. The same red chick-weed 
is an excellent cure for cuts and wounds on the human 
body, to be used as follows : — when green, mash it, drop 
of the juice into the wound, and bind the herb, so mashed 
on. The proper time to sow the seed of this herb, is in 
tl»e beginning of April, and it must be sown thin. 

This plant is known in Switzerland or Germany, by the 
name of bauchheil rotlicr meycr, or rothcr huinerdarm ; 
in England, red pimpernel ; and by botanists it is called 
annagallies. 

J\''ote. — The editoj- and publisher, of this work mOst 

earnestly recommends the cultivation of the Red Chick 

Weed to every person who owns but a spot of ground 

large enough for a garden. The incomparable virtues of 

that herb shouM recommend it to every person. No one 

who is liable to be bitten bv a mad dog, or by any poi« 

B3 



412 APPENDIX-. 

onous serpent, spWer or any other reptile, should by no 
means be without it. Several years past it has been rais- 
ed in the neighborhood of this place, (Winchester) and 
invariably used, where it is known, as a remedy for tlie 
bite of mad dogs, snakes of the most poisonous kind, and 
spiders ; and where a cure could be known to be effected 
•n a short time, it has never, as we have heard, and we 
have enquired very diligently, failed to complete a cure 
almost instantaneously. We have been credibly inform- 
ed that it has, in a few hours, effectually cured the bite of 
a mad dog after the hydrophobia had commenced. 

To kill bots and all other ivorms^ and to keep a horse from 
being troiihled nith them — Mso, a preventive from 
any kindofcholic or griping pains, and to secure your horse 
against every inward complaint through the ijear, — Earl)" 
in the month of March take half a pound of whole or race 
ginger, and beat it as fine as you conveniently can in an 
iron mortar or otherwise ; and when beaten, add to it 
about a quarter of a pound of salt peter, the same quanti- 
ty of flour of sulphur and as much fenugreek seed, let the 
.'ieeds be broken or bruised ; of which mixture give your 
horse a large table spoonfid every morning for the two 
first weeks, and every other morning for the last two 
weeks in the month. 

To cure- the complaint in a tlorse vulgarly called the 
thumps. Give your hoise, if he is a large one, a quart of 
strong beef brine, but if he is small, a pint, and let him 
be walked about for an hour afterwards. It will probably 
make him very sick, and will cause him to sweat pro- 
fusely. It cures at once giving. Let his work and other 
exercises for some weeks afterwards be moderate. 



APPENDIX. US 

To cure the strangles^ or as some call it, the colt distemper^ 
without much trouble. Bleed once pretty freely, tlicn 
give the horse nothin^^ to drink but water, in which indi- 
go has been infused until the water is as blue as it is used 
to blue starch clothes with ; let his feed be grass, shorts 
or bran, and cut straw. Let this be continued, and in a 
week or tvVo, your horse will be as well ns ever, from the 
cough and every other symptom of the complaint. 

To cure the most inveterate congh in a horse, if he is not 
inwardly decayed. Take good clean tar and mix it with 
rye or indian corn meal, until it is thick enough to make 
into a ball, give your horse three balls of this mixture, 
each the size of a hulled walnut, every morning; and 
in two weeks, if not in less time, your horse will be com- 
pletely well. 

^ speedy a.nd sure remedy for a cut or wound in a horses 
fesh AVash the wound clean with castilc or rosin soap, 
and anoint it daily with the oil of spike, (use a quill that 
has. not been broke at the feather end.) Should the parts 
appear to swell or inRanie, wash it well round the 
sore (but not in it) with vinegar, in which hops have been 
boiled. You may work your horse every day if the 
wound will admit of it and in a few days he will be well. 

^ speedy cure for a lameness in a horse, occasioned either 
by the spaviyi, spleni or any other cause whatever Rub the 
part or parts affected severely, for at least five minutes 
each time, three times a day with oil of spike, and in less 
than ten days you may expect to have a sound horse. 

jyoie. — You are not to expect that this cure will re- 
jnoveoi' lessen the appearance of the bone spavin or splent. 



414 APPENDIX. 

To take off wind galls. Rub them well twice a day 
with spirits of turpentine, with a small quantity of oil of 
spike mixed with it ; and in a short time the wind galls 
will disappear. It will be expedient not to ride or work 
the horse hard for a few weeks after he is cured. 

Be careful that you confine the rubbing to the wind 
galls only, as the liquid will probably take the hair off, 
which may be easily remedied by attending to the direc- 
tions in this book for making the hair grow. 



TABLE 



OF DRUGS AND HERBS, AND WHERE THEY 
MAY BE HAD. 



»o:o:-;:>:o:o« 



A 

Aristoloclua longa, birthwort or hartwort, at the apoth- 
ecaries. Small S7irt/»'C-roof, nearly the same quality, dm- 
eos, or bishopsweed, in gardens. Mgelica roof^ or seed^ 
of the same nature. Jlrsesniai% common, that which 
bites the tongue is the best. Aunpiginentum, at the ai)oth" 
ecaries. Avens, a common herb in the woods grows iike 
agrimony, but smaller, .flsphodelles, see daffodills, in gar- 
dens. Aqua vitWy whiskey or brandy will do. Jinni- 
secds, common. Jgims castiis, or the chaste tree, at the 
apotheraries. Jlgrimomj, in the woods. Jlsh (blackj 
common, by runs and creeks. Moes, at tlic apothecaiies. 
Armoniac, at ditto. Agaric, at ditto. Arsenick, at ditto. 

Ahim. at stores. 

B 

Betony, in woods or gardens. Broom in gardens. 

Bears fool, or Mack-hellebore, common. Betomj-water, in 

flat, low groimd. Bay-tree, or berries, at the apothecaries. 



416 TABLE, &C. 

Brooklime^ in luns, water-cresses lias the same effect. 
JBeetSj coHimon in gardens. Barm, what works from new 
beer. Bevjamin., at the apothecaries. Brimstone, at 
stores. Bdellium, at the apothecaries. Box-tree, in gar- 
dens. Brandij-wine or sjnrits of wine, at the apothecaric^. 
Bole-armoniac, at ditto. 

c ■ 

Calamiiit or mountain-mint, common. Cumminseed, ai 
the apothecaries, fcnncl-sced may do. CartJiamus, in gar- 
dens, called by the common people in America, saffron. 
Colewort, in gardens. Cresses, two sorts, toMn and wa- 
ter. Cellendinc, in gardens. Coloquintida, at the apothe- 
caries. Casforitim, at ditto. Cantharides, or Spanish' 
Jiies, at the apothecaries. Cenise white or red-led, at dit- 
to. Tassifl, at ditto, Crocws-?na?'/is, at ditto. Cinnaniony 
at ditto. Copperas at stoes. the white at the apotheca- 
ries. Cardns-henidictus, in gardens. Caroline, at the 
apothecaries. Chick-weed, common. Columbine, in gar- 
dens. Clary, common. Comfry, common. Centaurij, 
common. Corriander-seeds, at the apothecaries. Carra- 
way-seeds, at ditto. Cardamus, common. Camoviile, 
common. Cndwoi^t, the rnnning club moss will answer. 
Clownswound-wort, and clow7isxvort, common. 

D 

Dill, in gardens. Bitany, see calamint, common. Vi- 
aphera, at the apothecaries. Bialthea, at ditto. Bock, 
fredj see red-dock, burdock, common. Biascordinm, a1 
the apothecaries. 

E 

Eupliorhium, at the apothecaries, (be careful of giving 
much inwardly, it is excellent for any wound.) Enula, 



f ABIE, &C. 417 

campana^ see elecampane, in gardens. Elm-tree^ common. 

Elder common. 

F 

Fenugreek, in apothecaries gardens. Figs, at stores 

Furmutory, common. Fools-foot,, see colts-foot. Fennel, 

in gardens, and wild. Frankincense, at the apothecaries. 

Fringe-tree, it grows by running water, and bears strings 

of white flowers in the spring, to be found near Brandy- 

TVine, in swamps. 

G 

Garlick, in gardens and wild. Groundsel sertion, or 
butter-weed, they grow in new cleared land, and by the 
side of roads. Guaiacum, lignum vitm, at the apotheca- 
ries. Gentian, at ditto two kinds. Galhanum, at ditto. 
Gerologtmdium, at ditto. Gum dragon, at ditto. Galls 
of aleppo, at ditto, see oak galls. Ginger, at stores. 

H 

Horseholm, see holly-tree. Harts-tongue^ found on 
rof.ks, and north-side of hills. Hog-fennel, see wild or 
garden loveage. hoar-hound, common. Hemlock, com 
mon. House leek, common, kigtaper, common, see 
millin. hyssop, in gardens. Horse-mint, wild mint. 
-Haj'is/iorn, deer horn, /to/iey, common, heild^ihc grounds, 
of beer. Hempsccd common. Hellebore, fhlackj in bo- 
tanists gardens. 

I 

Ivy, (^wallj see ivy-berries, /rz/, (ground) two sorts, 
common. Ivorjj (white) at the apothecaries. Juniper^ 
at ditto. 

L. 

Liver-wort, two sorts, common, Lignum vitoe guaia- 
cum, at the apothecaries, hng-pepper, see red pepper. 



418 TABIES, &C. 

Lavender-cottonj in gardens. Lillies^ ftvhitej in ditto. 
Lapis cahminaris, at the apothercaiies. Lime, cuntmun. 
Leeks, coiiinion. Liqiionce bally or stick, at the apothe- 
caries. 

Mother-wort, common. Jliigwort, common. Maiden- 
hair, common, in the woods. MecJwacan, at the apothe- 
caries. Melilot, conimon. Mercury, fherbj nearly of 
the nature of dock. Misietoe, common. Misledine, com- 
liion. Mithridate, at tJie apothecaries. Mustard, in gar- 
dens and wild. Mallows, white and marsh, common, 
Moss, iiiany kinds, common, Mastick, a gum at the apo. 
thccaries. Myrrh, at ditto, or in botanists gardens. 

N 

JS''ep, see catnnnt, common, good for many uses. J\''et- 
Iks, common. JWtmcgs, at stores. Aiit oil, at the a- 
pothccaries. 



Origannm, or wild majorum, common in the countiy. 
Osmflvul royaV^ or water-fern, consmon in low ground. 
oil oj hipeck, at the cuiriers, made of the shavings of 
leather, oxycrocemn, at the ap<;thecaries. Onions, com- 
mon. Ox Lye, in botanists gaidens. Olihanum, at the 
apothecaries. 

P. 

Fellitory, at tlie apolhccaricK, a plant not yet discover- 
ed here ; fume with brimstoriC in place of it. Folypodeum, 
common, tlic true sort grows on rocks. Pojmleoii, see 
poplar root, comnion. pemnpmjal, common, parscley 
in gardens, common. Tlaiitain n.any sorts, common, the 
while and broad mostly used for medicines. Poake, com- 
mon, raradicc'grains, at the apothecaries. Patch- 



TABIE &C. 419 

grease, or piece grease, made of shoemakers ends. Pitdi" 
white or black, common^ burgundy-pitch at the apotheca" 
ries. Pepper, round or black, at stores, precipitate, at 
the apothecaries, poppies in gardens, 

' Q 

Quicksilver, at thip, apothecaries. 

R 

Rac, in gardens, and wild. Rosemary, at the apotheca- 
ries, or in gardens. Rosin, at stores. Reddiskes, com- 
mon in gardens, sec horse reddisli. 

S 

Staves-acre, not yet discovered here ; spurge is of the 
same quality. Surewort, sec honey . suckle, common. 
SJicarmans-ftocks, what comes off the dressing of cloth at 
(he fidlers. SorvtJmtlc, common. Shepherds-purse, com- 
mon. Spurge, common, in gardens, see staves-acre. Si^ 
laris mountani, wild or garden loveage, common. Solo*- 
man^s-scal, see polygnatum, common. Sertion, see ground' 
sel or butter-weed, common. Sparcigns, common in gar- 
dens. Sage, common in gardens. Savin, a shrub in gar- 
dens. Sallow, sec white willow, common. SiicMvort, at 
the apothecaries. Snapwced, or the womens dyeweed, 
common in runs and wet ditches. Southernwood, in gar- 
dens, commonly called old man. Sanguinis dracoiiis, see 
dragons-blood, a gum at the apothecaries. Sloes, at ditto. 
Soap, common, castoel, or black, at the apothecaries. Sti- 
garcandij, at ditto. Sena, an herb, at ditto. Salad-oil or 
sweet-oil at stores. Salnitre, see saltpetre, at the apothe- 
caries. Sajfr'on, the best at ditto. Storax, at ditto. Snails; 
common. Sanicula, see senecle, white or black bears foot, 
fnmmon in the woods ; the black is nrarly of a quality 



42© TABIES &,C. 

with black hellebore ; the white is very good in salves^ for 
wounds, grows with a high stalk,, has burrs on the top, and 
smells very fragrant. Spuma-argenti^ at the apothecaries. 
Spuma nitre, at ditto. Sinatlage, an herb common. Sas- 
safras, common. Snakeroot, common, tall snake-root 
weed, in woods, see bistort. 

T 
Tansey, in gardens and wild, common. Termerick, 
common in woods. Taffiliginis, at the apothecaries, tar, 
common, Barbadoes-tar at the apothecaries. Turjyentine 
common, oil, or spirits of turpentine, or Venice- turp-eiitine, 
at the apothecaries. Trotters-oil, the oil of sheeps feet^ 
Tobacco, common. Train-oil, common. Treacle jean, at 
the apothecaries. 

Violets, in gardens, or wild. Vinegar, common. Vi- 
iriol, at the apothecaries. Verjuice, the juice of wild crab- 
apples. 

W 

Wine-spirits, at the apothecaries. Wine-lees, the set- 
tling of the cask. WoodrooJ, common, iloodroses, a 
shrub or brier, conineon. Walnut tree, common. })il- 
low, a sbr»ib, white and red common. Woodbine^ com- 
inon. Wax, bees-wax, common. Worm-wood, common 
in gardens. 

Y 

Yarrow, common in gardens. 



INDEX. 







Page. 




A 




Advice &c, to the purchasers of Horses^, from 


29 


A^e of Horses 




46 


Aiiatomy of the Horse 


from 


86 


Aesophagus 




95 


Alterative powders 


Nol 


136 


Ditto 


No 2 


137 


Ditto 


No 3 


137 


Anodyne draft 




159 


Anodyne clyster 




159 


Apoplexy or staggers 




190 


Receipts for the same 




191 


Ditto 


No 1 


192 


Ditto 


No 2 


192 


Ditto 


No 3 


192 


Ditto 


No 4 


193 


Ditto 


No 5 


193 


Ditto 


No6 


195 


Ditto 


No 7 


195 


Ditto 


No 8 


197 


A general salve for any 


sore swelling 


348 


Anbury or Tetter 




351 


Appetite, Loss of in Cows and oxen 


353 


Building and construction of stables, from page 


10 


Breed of Horses 




30 


Back of a horse 




43 


Blee<ling, renarks and directions concerning of, from ' 


119 


Broken wind from 




177 


Receipts for the same 


No 1 


179 


Ditto 


No 2 


180 


Ditto 


No 3 


181 


Ditto 


No 4. 


182 


Difto 


No 5 


182 


Ditto 


No 6 


182 


Bruises from 




263 


Receipts for the same 


No 1. 


263 


Ditto 


No 2 


264 


Ditto 


No 3 


«.64 



42^ INUEX. 

Ditto No 4 2(54 

Ditto No 7 265 

Ditto ' No 8 266 

Blisters 339 

Bleeding at the nose receipts for 347 

Back, ^^'eaknes5 in 349 

Bones Broken or out of Joint 35 1 

Bite of a Dog &c &c 351 

Back Strained, a remedy for a Cow that has &c 354 

Bloody Scour or flux in a Bullock 364 

Bite of a mad Dog Viper or Slow worm on cattle 369 

Bruises in cattle, remedy for 370 

Bones Broken or misplaced in cattle 371 

Breeding of Milk in Cows and the way to promote it 372 

Blood pissing, ol a Cow 37il 

Ditto 373 

Blain in a Cow 373 

Bags snarled or swollen in a Cow 375 

Broom salve, how to make for disorders in Sheep 377 

Broom salve, how to use lor disorders in Sheep 377 

Blood in Sheep and its remedy ' 383 

Bite of Viper or Mad Dog in Swine 395 

408 
409 
409 

6 

30 

34 

37 

from 82 

128 

136 

136 

136 

136 

137 

174 

306 

' 306 

306 

307 

318 

519 



Bots to cure in a Horse 


No 1 


Ditto 


Wo 2 


Ditto 


No 3 




C 


Clark's Introduction 


from 


Colour of horses 




Cheeks 




Chine of the back 




Cutting the legs in travelling 


Clysters 




Cordial Balls 


No 1 


Ditto 


No 2 


Ditto 


No 3 


Ditto 


No 4 


Condition from 




Catarrh or Cold 


from 


Curb 




Receipts for the same 


No 1 


Ditto 


No 2 


Ditto 


No 3 


Corns 




Receipts for the same 


Nol 



INDEX. 42S 

Bltto No 2 319 

Canker from 326 

Receipts for the same No 1 326 

Ditto No 2 327 

Ditto No 3 327 

Ditto No 4 327 

Ditto No 5 327 

Ditto No 6 327 

Ditto No 7 32S 

Ditto No 8 32S 

Ditto No 9 329 

Couglx's from 329 

Receipts for the same No 1 330 

Ditto No 2 330 

Ditto No 3 330 

Ditto No 4 331 

Ditto No 5 331 

Ditto No 6 331 

Ditto No 7 331 

Ditto No 8 332 

r)itto No 9 333 

Ditto No 10 334 

Ditto No 11 336 

Ditto No 12 337 

Costiveiiess, Receipts for No 1 344 

(Jattle, Advice to purchasers of 352 

Cough in Cows or Bullocks 356 

Cud, loss of in Cows or Bullocks . 362 

Clue bound, Cow or Bullock . 363 

Cup Sprung, in a Cow 37o 

Cods, swollen in a Bull 372 

Calving, a cow that strains in &c. 374 

Clean, a cow that cannot 374 

Calf sucking, that scoureth 375 

Calves to feed while they suck 375 

Coui^h in Sheep 380 

Cutting or Gelding- Lambs 385 

Choler in Ho.is 391 

Cutting Pigs and spaying Sows 398 

Cutting Hogs 399 

Convulsions in a Dog, to cure 405 
Cough, most inveterate in a horse, to cure ■ 413 

Cut or wound in a horses flesh 415 



42* , INDEX* 

D 



Docking 






80 


Diuretics 






126 


Receipts for the same 


Nol 




126 


Ditto 


No 2 




126 


Diarrhoea or Purging 






199 


Receipts for the same 


No 1 




192 


Ditto 


No 2 




199 


Ditto 


No 3 




199 


Dirto 


No 4 




199 


Ditto 


No 5 




200 


Ditto 


No 6 




200 


DiHo 


Nor 




200 


Diapente, how to make 






219 


D'ench. how to give 


from 




125 


Diabetes or excessive staling 




201 


Drink, general for Ox Cow or Calf 




353 


Darters in Sheep 






385 


Dof^s, Introductory observations on 


from 


400 


Dogs that have been bitten by a mad dog. &c. 


403 


Same 






406 


Diseases of many kinds, 


to prevent in a 

E 


Horse 


^♦'^l^ 

***« 


Ears of a Horse 




33 


Eyes of a Horse 






33 


Ditto 






42 


Ditto 






91 


Elbow to the knee 






35 


Eye water, excellent for 


weak eye* 
F 




U9 


Face of a Horse 




33 


Feeding, Exercise Sec. 


fuom - 




77 


Foot, Physiology of 


from 




101 


Fomentations 






126 


Fever, from 






147 


Receipts for the same 


No 1 




148 


Ditto 


No 2 




149 


Ditto 


No 5 




149 


Ditto 


No 4 




149 


Flatulent Cholic, Gripes 


or Fret. 


from 


183 


Receipts for the same 


Nol 




186 


Ditto 


No 2 




186 


Ditto 


No 3 




186 


Ditto 


No 4, 




186 


Ditto 


No 5 




IBS 



INDEX. 425 

Ditto No 6 188 

Ditto No 7 • 189 

Ditto No 8 189 

Ditto No 9 189 

Ditto No 10 190 

Farcy from S44 

Receipts for the same No 1 248 

Ditto No 2 248 

Ditto No 3 248 

Ditto No 4 249 

Ditto No 5 250 

Ditto No 6 250 

Ditto Nor 250 

Ditto No 8 252 

Ditto No 9 253 

Ditto No 10 253 

Ditto Noll 254 

Ditto No 12 25 i 

Ditto No 13 254 

Ditt© No 14 255 

Ditto No 15 255 

Ditto No 16 255 

Ditto No 17 256 

Ditto No 18 256 

Ditto No 19 257 

Fistula from 266 

Receipts for the same No 1 267 

Ditto No 2 267 

Ditto No 3 268 

Di'to Noi 268 

Ditto No 5 268 

Ditto No 6 269 

Ditto No 7 269 

Ditto No 8 '^TQ 

Ditto No 9 722 

Foot Diseases, from 307 

Receipts for the same No 1 308 

Ditto No 2 309 

Ditto No 3 Sll 

Ditto No 4 313 

Ditto No 5 313 

Ditto No 6 314 

Dittp N-» 7 314 



4&Q Index, 

Ditto No 8 Sis 

Ditto No 9 315 

Ditto No 10 316 

Ditto Noll 316 

Ditto No 12 316 

Ditto No 13 316 

Ditto No 14 316 

Ditto No 15 317 

Founder from S40 

Receipts for the same No 1 340 

Ditto "^ No 2 340 

Ditto No 3 34 

Ditto No 4 34 

Ditto No 5 «j41 

Dit ^06 341 

Ditto No 7 342 

Ditto No 8 343 

Fia, Receipt for No 1 344 

Foal Cast Receipts for No 1 f/ 

Ditto No 2 ^*^ 

Febula or Horse pestilence ?48 

Film on the Eye ^^ 

Flux in Cattle ft 

Fever in a Cow or Bullock "^^^ 

Feet of a Dog, to harden *"^ 

Films growing over the eyes of dog* 4Ub 

Founder in a Horse, to cure ^^^ 

G. 

Gate or Pace. 31 

Grease and Scratches from 220 

Receipts for the same No 1 221 

Ditto No 2 221 

Ditto No 3 222 

Ditto No 4. 222 

Ditto No 5 222 

Ditto No 6 222 

Ditto No 7 223 

Ditto No 6 223 

Ditto No 9 223 

Ditto Nolo 224 

Ditto No 11 224 

Ditto No 12 224 

Dittt« Ko 13 235 



INDEJt 



427 



BHto No 14 

Ditto ' No 15 

Ditto No 16 

Ditto No If 

Ditto No 18 

Ditto No 18 

Ditto No 19 

Ditto No 20 

Ditto No 21 

Ditto No 22 

Ditto No 23 

Ditto No 24 

Ditto No 25 

Ditto No 26 

Ditto No 27 

Ditto No 28 

Ditto No 29 

Ditto No 30 
Glanders 

Receipts for the same No 1 

Ditto No 2 

Ditto No 3 

Ditto No 4 

Ditto No 5 

Ditto No 6 

Ditto No 7 

Ditto No 9 

Ditto No 10 

Ditto No 1 1 

Ditto No 12 

Green ointment 

Gravelled No 5 

Galls between the legs 

Gargut or Hide bound in Cattle 

Gargyse in Cattle 

Gall or bruise on the neck of Oxen by the Yoke 

Green wound in Bullock or Cow 

Gall, the flowing of in Sheep 

Gargut or Blood in Swine 

Gall in Swine 



Head to breast 
Hoofs in general 



H 



D3 



225 
225 

225 

226 

226 

228 

230 

230 

231 

231 

231 

231 

231 

232 

232 

232 

233 

233 

236 

238 

238 

239 

239 

239 

240 

240 

242 

243 

243 

243 

264 

265 

349 

361 

361 

S63 

368 

386 

390 

S94* 

35 
S6 



428 I»DEX. 

Same 41 

Head, setting on 3f 

Same 4^^ 

Hock 41 

Heart and lungs 93 

Hide bound from 214 

Receipts for the same No 1 214 

Ditto No 2 214 

Ditto No 3 214 

Ditto No 4 215 

Ditto No 5 215 

Horse pestilence, Receipts for 348 

Hair, to make it grow 350 

Horse Colts, to get 350 

Honey Powder, how to make 351 

Hide bound or gargut in Cattle 561 

Husk in a Bullock 364 

Hogs, how to feed for lard 399 
Hydrophobia, a positive cure for either man or beast 410 

Hungry Kvil, Receipt for No 1 346 

Haw in the eyes of Cattle 368 

Inflammation from 142 

Receipts for the same No 1 146 

Ditto No 2 146 

Inflammation of the Lungs from 151 

Receipts for the same No 1 153 

Ditto No 2 154 

Inflammation of the bowels from 155 

Ditto of the stomach from 160 

Ditto of Kidneys 164 

Ditto of the Bladder 164 

Ditto of the Liver 165 

Ditto of the Eye from 166 

Imposthumes in Cattle 365 

Inflammation in the lungs of a Bullock 365 

Itch or Scab in Sheep 386 

Itch Mad, Receipt for 346 

J 

Jaws 34 

Jaundice 183 

Receipts for the same No 1 183 

Ditto No ^ 183 



INDEX. 429 

K 

Knees 36 

Kulneys 101 

Kibe in Cattle , 359 

Kernels in Swine 389 

L 

Legs 38 

Lungs 9l 

Locked Jaw, Lampas and Roaring from 176 

Laxative balls 326 
Lampas and 177 138 

Laxatives 338 

Lungs, disorder of in a Cow or Bullock 360 

Lower or loss of the cud in cattle 362 

Lameness in a Cow 370 

Lungs in swine Distempered 393 

Lameness in a Horse, to cure 413 

M 

Management of horses when travelling 48 

Same from 13r 

Mustard embrocation 159 

Mange from 215 

Receipts for the same No 1 216 

Ditto No 2 217* 

Ditto No 3 217 

Ditto No 4 217 

Ditto No 6 217 

Ditto No 7 218 

Mallenders and Sellanders from 234 

Receipts for the same No 1 234 

Ditto No 2 234 

Ditto No 3 234 

Ditto No 4 234 

Ditto No 5 2S4 

Ditto No 6 235 

Ditto No 7 235 

Ditto No 8 235 

Bitto No 9 235 

Ditto Nolo 235 

Ditto Noll 236 

Mules 349 

Murrain or Plague among'Cattle 353 

Mad Dofr bite, Cattle that are 370 

M'irrsi in in Sheep S8X 



430 INDEX. 

Measles or Pox in Sheep 383 

Meat, Loathing of in Swine 389 

Measles in Swine 393 

Murrain and Measles in Swine S98 

Mange in a dog to cure 404! 

Megrim in a do^ to cure 406 

N 

Nostrils 35 

Neck 43 

Nicking from 80 

Osteology or bones 86 

Old wound or sore in a Bullock or Cow 367 

P 
Pastern 36 

Same 40 

Pancreas 99 

Physic, remarks and directions concerning of from 123 

Poultice 127 

127 
273 
274 
275 
275 
276 
276 
101 
265 
348 
.349 
370 
371 
392 
394 
399 
406 
410 
410 

319 
319 

320 

320 



Pulse 




Poll Evil from 




Receipts for the same 


Nol 


Ditto 


No 2 


Ditto 


No 3 


Ditto 


No 4 


Difio 


J^o5 


Physiology of the foot 


from 


Pricked 


No 5 


Pearl, Pin, ^^eb or Fill 


n on the eye 


Pains 




Pallate, falling down of 


in Cattle 


Purge for Cuv/ ov Bulhi 


'Ck 


Pestilence or i'lague in 


Swine . 


Pox in Swine 




Ditto, a bath for 




Puree for a Dog tlat has been poisoned 


Pollevil, or Fistula in a 


Horse No 1 


Ditto 


No 2 




Q 


Quittors from 




Receipts for the same 


Nol 


Ditto 


No 2 


Bitto 


No 3 



Ju4»sx. 431 



Ditto 


No 4 


321 


Ditto 


No 5 


3£1 


Ditto 


No 6 


324 


Quinsey in swine 


R 


389 


Ribs 




43 


Running Horse, ordering 


and keeping of froui 


5S 


Rowels 




127 


Restringent Draught 




159 


Roaring 




177 


Ringbones from 




292 


Receipts for the same 


Nol 


292 


Ditto 


No 2 


293 


Ditto 


No 3 


293 


Ditto 


N^j4 


294 


Ditto 


No 5 


294 


Rattails 




349 


Rot in Cows and Oxen 




372 


Rot in Slieep, to prevent and cure 


373 


Red water in Siieep, and the cure 


381 


Stature or height 


o 


32 


Structure and functions of the internal organs 


91 


Shoeing, Practice of 


from 


113 


Symtouiatic Fever from 




149 


Symtoms of Inflammation of the bowels 


159 


Same, of flatulent cholic 


from 


159 


Strangles or throat (Jistemper from 


170 


Receipts for the same 


Nol 


173 


Ditto 


No 2 


J73 


Ditto 


No 3 


173 


Surfeit from 




215 


Receipts for the same 


No 5 


217 


Ditto 


No 8 


218 


Staring of the coat 


No 9 


218 


Ditto 


No 9 


219 


Scratches and Grease 


from 


220 


Receipts for the same 


No 1 


221 


Ditto 


No 2 


221 


Ditto 


No 3 


222 


Ditto 


No 4 


222 


Ditto 


No 5 


222 


Pitt© 


No 6 


222 



432 INDEX, 

Ditto Ko 7 223 

Ditto No 8 223 

Ditto No 9 223 

Ditto No 10 224 

Ditto No 1 1 224 

Ditto No 12 224 

Ditto No 13 225 

Ditto No 14 225 

Ditto ^0 15 225 

Ditto No 16 225 

Ditto Noir 226 

Ditto Nol8 226 

Saturnine Lotion ^t,^ 

Saturnine Poultice ~-, 

Saddle Galls and Warbles froiu ^^^ 

Receipts for the same No 1 J^ 

Ditto No 2 -^^9 

Ditto No 3 

Ditto No 4 

Ditto No 5 

Sitfasts and Sores from 



Strains from 



279 
279 
279 
28o 
28o 
Receipts for the same No 1 ao^ 

Ditto^ No 2 ^^^ 

Ditto No 3 

Ditto No 4 



280 
280 
280 

281 



Receipts for the same No I gg^ 

Ditto No 2 \ 284 

Ditto No 3 284 

Ditto No 4 285 

Ditto No 5 286 

Ditto No 6 286 

I>itto No 7 286 

Ditto No 8 286 

Ditto No 9 286 

Ditto No 10 287 

Ditto No ! 1 287 

Ditto No 12 287 

Ditto No 13 288 

Ditto No 14 288 

Ditto No 15 288 

Ditto No 16 g8fi 



INDEX', 



433 



Ditto No \T 

Ditto No 18 

Ditto No 19 

Ditto No 20 

Ditto No 21 

Ditto No 22 

Ditto No 23 

Ditto No 24 

Spients from 

Receipts for the same 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Spavin from 

Receipts for tlie same 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Sand Cracks from 

Receipts for tlie same 

Structure 

Sel landers see mallenders 

Soft swelling broken or not 

Star to make 

Swift cut 

Stub or thorn, to draw out 

Scab in Cows or Oxen 

Sinew strain in cattle 

Sore or wound in cattle 

Swelling attending any wound 

Shoulder pitched, a Cow tliat is 

Shrew bitten mad Dogs or Vipers, cattle that are 

Stab or thorn, salve fjr 

Sheep and Lambs, Observations on| &c. 



Nol 
No 2 
No 3 
No 4 
No 5 
No 6 
No 7 
No 8 
No 9 

No 1 
No 2 
No 3 
No 4 
No 5 
No 6 
No 7 
No 8 



N©^ 



289 

289 
290 
29J 
290 
S9l 
291 
291 
297 
297 
297 
298 
299 
299 
299 
300 
300 
301 
301 
302 
303 
303 
301 
304 
30i 
304 
305 
317 
318 
SI 
234 

26rv 

346 
349 
351 

363 
365 
566 
366 
370 
370 
371 
376 



434 Index. 

Scab or Ray in Sheep tar to prepare for 376 

Skit or Loosenesss in Sheep 378 

Sheep that swallow, Worms, poisonous herbs &c. 380 

Sore Eyes in Sheep 382 

Staggers in Lambs or young Sheep 386 

Swine, to know when they are in health 387 

Spleen in swine 391 

Staggers in a Hog 397 

Sows with Pig 397 

Sore Ears in a Dog 407 

Strangles or Colt distemper in a Horse 413 

Thighs or Gascoins 38 

Same 41 

Tail 39 

Ihorough Pin 294 

Thrush from 325 

Receipts for the same No 1 325 

Ditto No 2 325 

Tired Horses 350 

The same 350 

Tetter 351 

Thorn or stab in cattle 371 

Ticks or tickles in Sheep, to destroy 379 

Tag or belt in Sheep 383 

Teeth, to fasten in Sheep or Lambs 385 

Throat, swelling of in swine 395 

Tremor or shaking in swine 396 

Ticks, to kill in Dogs 407 

Same 407 

Thumps, to cure in a Horse 412 

U 

Urine and Diabetes from 201 

Receipts for the same No 1 202 

Ditto No 2 202 

Ditto No 3 202 

Ditto No 4 203 

Urine, suppression of 203 

Receipts for the same No 1 203 

Ditto No 2 203 

Ditto No 3 204 

Ditto No 4 204 

Ditto No 5 204 

Ditto No 6 204 



INDEX. ^3€ 

Ditto No 7 205 

Urine, stoppage of in a Cow or Bullock, &.c. 358 

View of a horse to know his quality 33 

Viscera of the abdomen 95 

Vives 343 

Receipts for the same No. 1 343 

Ditto No 2 343 

Venomous wounds, &c. 351 

Viper bite, Cattle that are 370 

Vomiting in Swine, a cure for 399 

W. 

Worms from 205 

Receipts for the same No 1 207 

Ditto No 2 207 

Ditto No 3 208 

Ditto No 4 208 

Ditto No 5 209 

Ditto No 6 209 

Ditto No 7 209 

Ditto No 8 209 

Ditto No 9 210 

Ditto No 10 212 

Ditto No 11 212 

Ditto No 12 213 

Ditto No 13 213 

Ditto No 14 213 

Wounds from 257 

Receipts for the same No 1 260 

Ditto No 2 261 

Ditto No 3 261 

Ditto No 4 261 

Ditto No 5 262 

Ditto No 6 262 

Ditto No 7 262 

Warbles, see Saddle Galls 278 

Wind Galls from 294 

Receipts for the same No i 295 

Ditto No 2 295 

Ditto No 3 295 

Ditto No 4 296 

Ditto No 5 296 

Ditto No 6 996 

Es 



H\ 



4S& INDEX. 

Withers, Pains in a49 

Wolf ia the tail of Cattle 354 

Wound or sore in Cattle, 366 

Water, black or red in Cows 373 ' 

Water drinking, lying on the Earth &c. for a Cow 374 

Worm in the feet of Sheep, to cure 380 

Wild fire in Sheep 382 

Wood evil in Sheep and Cure 843 

Wound by staging in a Dog to cure 404 

Wound fresh to cure in a Dog 405 

Worm und^r the tongue in a Dog 407 

Wind galls, to take off 414 

^ Y 

Yellows in a Cow or Bullock 359 

Yellow water in Horses, to cure No I 40S 

Ditto No 2 410 







1