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WITH 13 MAP» Ain> 12 PLANS 






'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where fhou art wrong, after their help to call 
Thee to correct in any part or all*. 



The Handbook to Canada is intended to help the traveller 
in planning his tour and disposing of his time to the best 
advantage, and thus to enable him the more thoronghly to 
enjoy and appreciate the objects of interest he meets with. 
The writer is Mr. J, F. Muirhead, M. A., author of the com- 
panion volume on the United States, who has personally visited 
the greater part of the districts described. 

No one is better aware than the Editor himself of the 
inevitable imperfections in the early editions of a guidebook; 
and the vast extent of the Dominion of Canada has made the 
preparation of the present volume a pecnliarhr difficult task. 
He nas not attempted to give more than a few suggestions 
and hints for the traveller's guidance in the less-known parts 
of the territory, where a journey still necessarily assumes 
something of the nature of an exploration. In such cases a 
book cannot take the place or perform the services of a living 
guide. The Editor hopes that the present volume will con- 
tinue to share in the advantages that accrue to the whole series 
of his Handbooks from the valuable and highly appreciated 
corrections and suggestions of the travelling public. 

In the preparation of the Handbook the Editor has re- 
ceived most material aid from friends in all parts of the 
Dominion. In particular he wishes to express his obligations 
to the Dominion and Provincial ministers and officials, to 
the superior officials of the leading Railway Companies, and 
to the librarians of the Parliamentary Library at Ottawa. 
Grateful acknowledgments are also specially due, in addition 
to those individuals mentioned throughout the Handbook, 
to Dr. Benjamin i^anc? of Cambridge (Mass.) ; Mr. W, D. Light- 
hally Mr, Albert J. Brown^ Professor Alexander Johnson^ Mr, 
C. H. Gouldy and the AbbS Verreau, of Montreal; Sir J. M. 
Le Moine, the Abbi Laflamrhe, Major William Wood, Mr. E. 
T, D. ^Chambers, Mr, Frank Carrel, and Mr. H. M, Price, 
of Quebec; Professor Mavor, Professor David R, Keys, and 
Mr. James Batn, of Toronto: Dr. Samuel E, Dawson, Dr. 
Reginald Daly, Mr. E. W, Thomson, Mr. W. D. Le Sueur ^ 
Dr. Doughty, and Mr: F. A. Dixon, of Ottawa; Mr. J. J. 
Stewart and Mr. F. Blake Crofton, of Halifax; the Rev. W. 
0. Raymond, of St. John; Mr. Frederick M, Stirling and 


«7ti^6iVoti^«e, of St John*s, Newfoundland; Mr, A, O. Wheeler^ 
of Calgary ; Mr. J. S. Eendrie and Mr. John T. Hall, of HamU- 
ton; the Itev. Father Lemieux, Tadonsac; Lieut. Col. Button 
and Mr. F. W. Heubach, of Winnipeg; Mr. W. E, Flumer- 
/e/^^f Vanconver; and Mr, Herbert Cuthbert, of Victoria. 

.The introdnctory articles by Sir John Bourinot, Dr. George 
Dawson, and Messrs, Fuller and Chambers wUl, it is hoped, 
be found of material valne to the tourist. An intelligent 
comprehension of the subjects of which they treat will nn- 
donbtedly add greatly to the zest of a visit to Canada. 

On the Maps and Plans the Editor has bestowed especial 
care ; and it is believed that in this respect tiie Handbook is 
more completely equipped than any other publication of the 
kind relating to Canada. Such merit as they possess is largely 
due to the kind and efficient cooperation of Mr. Edouard 
Deville, Surveyor General of Dominion Lands, and Mr, James 
White, Geographer of the Department of the Interior. The 
present edition has been enriched by three new maps and five 
new plans. 

The Populations are those of the census of 1901 ; but 
it should be borne in mind that these are often very much 
below the present figures. 

• Hotels. The Editor has endeavoured to Enumerate, not 
only the first-class hotels, but also the more deserving of the 
cheaper houses. The comfort of a Canadian hotel is, however, 
much more likely to be in die direct ratio of its charges than 
is the case in Europe (comp. p. xix). Although changes fre- 
quently take place, and prices generally have an upward ten- 
dencv, the average charges stated in the Handbook will 
enable the traveUer to form a fair estimate of his expen- 
diture. The value of the asterisks, which are used as marks 
of commendation, is relative only, signifying that the houses 
are good of their kind. 

To hotel -proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for lair dealing and courtesy 
towards travellers forms the sole passport to his commend- 
ation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded from his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned 
against persons representing themselves as agents |br Bae- 
deker's Handbooks. 




I. Money. Expenses. Passports. Gustom House. Time xi 

II. Voyage f^om Europe to Canada xli 

III. Railways. Steamers. Coaches xili 

IV. Plan and Season of Tour xvi 

V. Hotels and Restaurants xix 

VI. Post and Telegraph Offices xxl 

VII. Chief Dates in Canadian History xxii 

VIII. The Constitution of Canada, by 8W J, O. Bowinot . , xxvl 
IX. Oeographioal and Oeological Sketch, hy O, M Dawson xxxiii 
X. Sports and Pastimes , by £7^ T. D, Chambers and 

W, H. FuUer xlix 

XI. BibUography Ixi 

Qo^i^ I. Approaohes to Canada. 

1. The Trans-Atlantic Voyage 2 

2. From New York to Montreal 9 

3. From Boston to Montreal 17 

4. From New York to Quebec yi& Springfield 20 

5. From Boston to Quebec 21 

6. From New York to Toronto 21 

7. From Boston to the Maritime Provinces by Sea 22 

8. From Boston to St. John by Railway • 24 

9. From Portland to Montreal and Quebec 25 

n. New Bnuuiwiok. 

10. St. John 27 

11. From St. John to Fredericton 33 

12. From Fredericton to Woodstock 39 

13. From Woodstock to Grand Falls and Edmundston . • . . 40 

14. From St. John to St Stephen and St Andrews ..... 41 

15. CampobeUo and Orand Manan 44 

16. From St John to Montreal 46 

17. From St. John to Quebec (L^tIs) 48 

m. Kova Seotia. 

18. Halifax 50 

19. From Halifax to Sydney. Cape Breton. Bras d'Or Lakes. 

Louisbourg 59 

20. From Halifax to St John 71 

21. From Halifax to Yarmouth nnfrMi\e> '^^ 

Digitized by VjVjXjQ Ic 


Eoute Pago 

22. From Digby to Yarmouth 82 

23. From Windsor to Truro 82 

24. From HftUfAx to Quebec (Ltfvis) by BwlwAy 83 

IV. Pri&oe Edward Island and Kewfonndlaad. 

26. Prince Edward Island 97 

26. Newfoundland 102 

27. St. Pierre and Miquelon 124 

Y. Quebeo. 

28. Montreal 126 

29. From Montreal to Quebec 139 

30. Quebec .145 

31. Excursions from Quebec (Ltfvis, Isle of Orleans, Falls 

of Montmorency and Ste. Anne de Beauprtf, Loiette, , 
Chailesbourg, Lake Beauport, Lake St. Charles) . . .157 

32. From Quebec to Lake St John and Chicoutlmi 161 

33. From Quebec to Chicoutimi. The Saguenay 166 

VI. Ontario. 

34. From Montreal to Ottawa 174 

36. Ottawa 176 

36. From Ottawa to Kingston by Steamer 183 

37. From Ottawa to Montreal by Steamer 184 

38. From Montreal to Toronto 186 

39. Toronto 190 

40. From Toronto to North Bay. Muskoka District 197 

41. From Ottawa to Depot Harbour (Parry Sound) 203 

42. From Toronto to Detroit 205 

43. From Toronto to Niagara (and Buffalo) 208 

44. From Detroit to Buffalo 212 

45. Niagara Falls 216 

46. From Toronto to Owen Sound and Fort William .... 222 

47. From Toronto to Montreal by Steamer. The St. Lawrence 

River and the Thousand Islands 226 

48. From Montreal to Port Arthur and Fort WilUam .... 230 

49. From North Bay to New Liskeard. Temagami Region . . 237 

Vn. Western and North- Western Proyinees. 

50. From Fort WiUiam and Port Arthur to Winnipeg .... 242 

51. Winnipeg 245 

52. From Winnipeg to Banff 250 

53. FromWinnipeg to Edmonton via Canadian Northemjtail way 262 

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Route Page 

54. From Dunmoie Janctlon to Lethbridge and Kootenay 

Landing 266 

65. From Banff to Vancouver 268 

56. From RoTelstoke to Arrowhead, Robson, and Nelson. 

Kootenay Region 287 

57. From Vancouver to Victoria 289 

Vni. Alaska and the Yukon. 

58. From Victoria to Sitka. The Yukon Region 293 

Grand Trunk Pacific Railway 307 

Index r . 309 


1. Railway Map op Southbbn Canada; before the title-page 


2. Envibons op New Yom; p. 10 (1 : 210,000). 

3. The Mabitimb Pbovinobs; p. 58 (1 : 2,200,000). 

4. Nbwpoundland ; p. 103 (1 : 4,500,000). 

5. Pbovincb op Qubbbc, from Quebec to Ottawa; p. 138 


6. The Saouenay Riyeb and Lake St. John; p. 170 

(1 : 1,750,000). 

7. Pbovincb op Ontabio, from Ottawa to Parry Sound and Hamil- 

ton, p. 186 (1 : 2,000,000). 

8. Lake Ebie and Envibons , from Toronto to Saginaw Bay and 

Toledo ; p. 204 (1 : 2,000,000). 

9. St. Maby»s Riveb; p. 224 (1 : 400,000). 

10. Envibons op Banfp; p. 259 (1 : 282,000). 

11. The Selkibk Range; p. 275 (1 : 250,000). 

12. Coast op Bbitish Colxtmbia and Alaska; p. 292 

(1 : 4,500,000). 

13. Genebal Map op Bbitish Nobth Amebica; after the Index 

(1 : 20,000,000). 


1. Halifax (p. 60). — 2. Hamilton (p. 210). — 3. Monteeal 
(p. 126). — 4. NiAOABA (p. 215). — 5. Ottawa (p. 177). — 6. 
Quebec (p. 146). — 7. St. John (p. 27). — 8. Sault Stb. Mabie 
fp. 224). — 9. ToBONTo (p. 190). — 10. Vancouveb (p. 285Y — 

11. ViOTOBIA AND ESQUIMALT (p. 290). — 12. WINNIPEG (p. 245). 

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R. sa Room, Route; B. = Breakfast; D. =a Dinner; L. » 
Luncheon ; Rfmts. ss refreBhments. — N. ss North, Northern, etc ; 
S. = South, etc.; E. = East, etc.; W. = West, etc. — M. = 
English (or Ameiican) Mile; ft. = EngL foot; mln. =s minute; 
hr. ^ hour; ca. ^ circa, about. — Ho. ^ House; Hot im 
Hotel; Ave. s=s Avenue; St. = Street; R.R. = railroad; Mt. = 
Mountain. — U. S. = United States ; P. Q. s» Province of Quebec; 
Ont. = Ontario; N. B. = New Brunswick; N. S. =s Nova Scotia; 
P. E. L = Prince Edward Island; Man. s Manitoba; Alta. = 
Alberta; Sask. sa Saskatchewan; N. W. T. =a North- West Terri- 
tories; B. C. s= British Columbia. 

The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates 
the year of his death. The number of feet given after the name of 
a place shows its height above the sea-level. The number of miles 
placed before the principal places on railway -routes indicates their 
distance from the starting-point of the route. • 

AsTBBisKS are used as marks of commendation. 



*A daughter in her moiher'8 house, 
Bat mistresa in her own/ Kipling, 

I. Money. Expenses. Passports. Custom Honse. Time. 

Money. The currency of the Dominion of Canada ig arranged on 
a decimal system similar to that of the United States, the unit heing 
the dollar ($), divided into 100 cents (o.). Canada has no gold coins 
of its own, hut the gold coins of the United States are current at 
par and British gold coins pass at the rate of il, = $4. 862/3. The 
silver coins are the half-dollar (50 c). the quarter-dollar (26 0. a= ia.\ 
and pieces of 20 c, 10 c, and 5 c. The hronze coins are of the value 
of 1 c. (V2<^0 a^id ^ 0- (l^O- The cent, for purposes of calculation, 
is divided into 10 mills, but there are no coins of this denomination. 
The 20 c. piece, the main function of which seems to he the decep- 
tion of the unwary stranger by its resemblance to a 'quarter* (the 
Sovereign's head, however, has a wreath instead of a crown), is no 
longer coined, and is seldom met with, except in the Maritime Prov- 
inces and Newfoundland. The Oovemment Paper Currency consists 
of notes of the denomination of 25 c. (seldom seen and not now 
issued), $1, $2, and $4. The chartered and incorporated banks 
of the Dominion issue notes for $ 5 and multiples of that sum, 
which are payable at par throughout Canada. For practical purposes 
the dollar may be reckoned as 4«. and $ 5 as If., though (see above) 
the actual rate of exchange for il. is $4. 86^/3 (or $ 1 = ca. 4«. 2d.). 

The European or United States visitor to Oanada will find it convenient 
to carry his money in the form of letters of credit or circular notes, which 
are readily procurable at the principal banks. British and American silver 
coins circulate throughout the Dominion at a depreciation of 20 per cent 
(1«. or 26 c. U.S. currency =s 20 c); and travellers should be on their guard 
against accepting American silver coins at par value. In many of the 
larger cities, however («.^. Montreal), American silver is ^accepted at its 
face value. In a few places (comn. p. 87) French gold or silver coins are 
accepted at the rate of 1 franc = 16 e. Bank of England notes are usually 
taken at their full value in the larger cities, but United States paper is 
often refused. 

Post Office Orders (see p. xxi) afford a convenient vehicle for the trans- 
mission of small sums, and similar Money Orders are issued by the large 
Express Companies (p. xvi), which idso transmit money by telegraph. 

Ezpemies. The expenses of a visit to Canada depend, of course, 
on the habits and tastes of the traveller, but may be said, roughly 
speaking, to be much the same as those of European travel (except 
in respect of the greater distances to be traversed) and considerably 
less than those of the United States. The hotels which charge as 
much as $ 5 a day can be numbered on one^s fingers, and the average 
hotel expenses will not exceed $ 3 a day, while in some parts of the 
Dominion (e,g. Nova Scotia) they will be less than that. Persons of 


moderate requirements, by frequenting boaiding-houses instead of 
hotels and avoiding carriage-hire as much as possible, may travel 
comfortably (exclusive of long continuous journeys) for $4-6 a day; 
but it would be safer to reckon on a daily expenditure of $ 7-8 (28- 
32a.). An entire day (24 hrs.) spent in the train (i.e. a journey of 
400-800 M.) costs, with Pullman car accommodation and meals, about 
$ 16-20 (3-4{.). The expenses of locomotion can often be materially 
diminished by travelling by water instead of by land. 

Passports are not necessary in Canada. 

Cugtoin House. The custom-house examination of the luggage 
of travellers entering Canada is generally conducted courteously but 
oft^ with considerable minuteness. Nothing is admitted free of 
duty, except the personal effects of the traveller, and unusually liberal 
supplies of unworn clothing are apt to be regarded with considerable 
suspicion. The traveller should be careful to ^declare' everything he 
has of a dutiable nature (tobacco, cigars, spirits, photographic 
plates, etc.), as otherwise it is liable to confiscation. Persons visiting 
Canada for a limited time may bring in guns, bicycles, cameras, 
fishing tackle, and the like for their own use on depositing a sum 
equal to the duty, which Is returnable on departure tiom the country. 
If desired, articles may be forwarded In bond to any point in Canada 
where a customs-officer is stationed. 

In accordance with an Act of 1903 a head-tax of $ 2 may be levied 
on every foreigner entering tbe United States, with the exception of 
citizens of Canada, Ifewfonndland, Mexico, and Cuba. This tax is gene- 
rally included in the passage-money paid by travellers reaching the United 
States by sea, but Europeans may have to pay it each time they cross 
the frontier firom Canada. 

Time. For the convenience of railways and others a Standard 
of Time for Canada has been agreed upon and a system adopted by 
which the country is divided into five sections, each (theoretically) 
of 15® of longitude (1 hr.) and corresponding to the similar divisions 
of the United States. AUantic Time, or that of the 60th Meridian, 
prevails from the Atlantic coast to (roughly speaking) a line run- 
ning through Campbellton (p. 91). Eastern Time, or that of the 
75th Meridian, 1 hr. slower, extends thence to Fort William (p. 236). 
Central Time (of Meridian 90), extends thence to Brandon (p. 25l1. 
Mountain Time (105® long.) extends thence to Laggan Qp. 268). 
Pacific Time (120®) covers the rest of the country. Thus noon at 
Montreal is 11 a.m. at Winnipeg, 10 a.m. at Calgaxy, and 9 a.m. at 
Vancouver or Victoria. True local or mean solar time may be any- 
where from 1 min. to 30 min. ahead of or behind the standard time ; 
and in some cases, where the ordinary clocks keep local time and 
the railway clocks keep standard time, the results are confusing. 

n. Voyage from Europe to Canada. 

The chief routes from Europe to Canada are briefly described 
in R. 1 ; and the steamers of any of the companies there mention- 

m. RAILWAYS. xlii 

ed afford comfortable accommodation and speedy transit. The fareg 
yary consideiably according to the season and the character of the 
vessel; hnt the extremes for a saloon-passage may he placed at $60 
(12t.) and $ 600 (100^.), the latter sum securing a suite of deck-rooms 
on the largest, finest, and quickest hoats in the service. The average 
rate for a good stateroom in a good steamer may he reckoned at 
$66-126 (13-25«.). The intermediate or second cahin costs $40-65 
(8-13i.), the steerage $ 26-30 (5-61.). The slowest steamers, as a 
general rule, have the lowest fares j and they often offer as much 
comfort as the 'ocean greyhounds.' 

The average duration of the passage across the Atlantic is 6-9 days. 
The best time for crossing is in summer. Passengers should pack cloth- 
ing and other necessaries for the voyage in small flat boxes (not port- 
manteaus), such as can lie easily in the cabin, as all bulky luggage is 
stowed away in the hold. Stateroom trunks should not exceed 9 ft. in 
length, li/r*^ ft. in hreadth, and 15 inches in height. Trunks not wanted 
on board should be marked 'Hold* or 'Xot Wanted*, the others ^Oabin* or 
'Wanted*. The steamship companies generally provide labels for this 
purpose. Dress for the voyage should be of a plain and serviceable de- 
scription, and it is advisable, even in midsummer, to be provided with warm 
clothing. A deck-chair, which is a luxury that may almost be called a 
necessary, may be purchased before starting (from 6«. or 7$. upwards) but 
is now more often hired from the deck-steward (2-4«.)* If bought, it 
should be distinctly marked with the owner*s name or initials, and may 
be left in charge of the Steamship Co.*8 agents until the return-journey. 
Seats at table, retained throughout the voyage, are usually assigned by 
the Saloon Steward immediately after starting ^ and those who wish seats 
'at a particular table or beside particalar persons should apply to him. 
It is usual to give a fee of 10«. (2i/t dollars) to the table-steward and to 
the stateroom-steward, and small gratuities are also expected by the boot- 
cleaner, the bath-steward, etc. The customary fees are, of course, much 
lower in the second cabin. 

On arrival at Montreal, Halifax, or Xew York, passengers* luggage is ex- 
amined in a covered hall adjoining the wharf. After the examination the tra- 
veller may hire a carriage to take himself and his baggage to his destination, 
or he mav send his trunks by a transfer-agent or express man (see p. xvi) 
and go himself on foot or by tramway. Telegraph messengers and re- 
presentatires of hotels also meet the steamers. The traveller should know 
the exact telegraph -rates (comp. pp. xzi, 10), as mistakes (not to hi0 
advantage) sometunea occur. 

m. Bailways. Steamers. Coaches. 
Bailways. The Dominion of Canada now contains about 20,600 M. 
of railway, or about one-tenth less than the United Kingdom. Fully 
two-thirds of the entire amount are in the hands of the Canadian 
Pacific BaUway (8298 M. in 1905), the Grand Trunk Railway 
(3111 M.), the Canadian Northern System (1880 M.), and the 
Government (1449 M.). The capital invested in railways amounted 
in 1906 to about $248,666,000 (269,733,200^.), of which about 
20 per cent had been contributed by state and municipal aid. In the 
same year the railways carried 25,288,723 passengers and 50,893,957 
tons of freight. The total receipts were $ 106,467,199, showing a 
surplus of about 26 per cent over operating expenses. The standard 
gauge (4 ft. 81/2 in.) is in use by almost all the railways of Canada. 
— For a note on the new Grand Trunk Pacific BaUway j see p. 307, 

xiv ra. RAILWAYS. 

The equipments of the Canadian railways are similar to those of the 
United States lines, which, as is well known, are very different firom those 
of European railways. Instead of comparatively small coaches, divided 
into compartments holding 6-8 people each, the American railways have 
long cars (like an enlarged tramway-car), holding 60-70 pers., entered by 
doors at each end, and having a longitudinal passage down the middle, 
with the seats on each side of it. Each seat has room for two passengers. 
All long-distance trains are furnished with drawing-room (parlor) cars by 
day and sleeping-cars at night, which accommodate about 24-30 people in 
the same space as the ordinary cars, and are in every way much more 
comfortable. Second-class carriages are much more often provided in 
(3anada than in the United States, and emigrant carriages are also found 
on some long-distance trains. The second-class cars, however, are not 
recommended, and certainly do not rank higher than the third-class car- 
riages of Europe. Smoking is not permitted, except in the cars ('Smokers*) 
specially provided for the purpose and generally found at the forward end 
01 the train. Smoking-compartments are also ususklly found in the parlor- 
cars. The vexed question of whether the American or the European rail- 
way-carriage is the more comfortable is hard to decide. It may be said 
generally, however, that the small-compartment system would never have 
done for the long journeys of Ameri<^, while the parlor -cars certainly 
offer greater comfort in proportion to their expense than the European 
first-class carriages do. In comparing the ordinary American or Canadian 
car with the second-class or the best third-class carriages of Europe, some 
travellers may be Inclined to give the preference for short journeys to the 
latter. The seats in the American cars offer very limited room for two 
persons, and their backs ace too low to afford any support to the head; 
a single crying infant or spoiled child annoys 60-70 persons instead of the 
few in one compartment; the passenger has little control over his window, 
as someone in the car is sure to object if he opens it; the continual open- 
ing and shutting of the doors, with the consequent dbraughts, are annoy- « 
ing; the incessant visitation of the train-boy, with his books, candy, and 
other articles for sale, renders a quiet nap almost impossible; while, in 
the event of an accident, there are only two exits for 60 people instead 
of six or eight. On the other hand, the liberty of moving about the car, 
or, in fact, from end to end of the train, the toilette accommodation, and 
the amusement of watching one's fellow-passengers greatly mitigate the 
tedium of a long journey; while the publicity prevents any risk of the 
railway crimes sometimes perpetrated in the separate compartments of the 
European system. Bugs, as a rule, are not necessary, as the cars are apt 
to be over, rather tiiian under, heated. Little accommodation is provided 
in the way of luggage-racks , so that travellers should reduce their hand- 
baggage to the smallest possible dimensions. ~~ In the sleeping-car, the 
passenger engages a ffal/-S«eiion, consisting of a so-called ^double berth*, 
which, however, is rarely used by more than one person. If desirous of 
more air and space, he may engage a whole Section (at double the rate of 
a half-section), but in many cases a passenger is not allowed to mono- 
polize a whole section to the exclusion of those not otherwise able to find 
accommodation. Parties of 2-4 may secure Drawing Roomt^ or private' 
compartments. A lower berth is generally considered preferable to an 
upper berth, as it is easier to get into and commands the window; but, 
by what seems a somewhat illiberal regulation, the upper berth is always 
let down, whether occupied or not, unless the whole section is paid for. 
So far nothing has been done towards reserving a special part of the car 
for ladies, except in the shape of a small toilette and dressing room. The 
so-called Tourist Sleeping Oars, found on some lines, are fairly comfortable 
and may be used with advantage by those to whom economy is important; 
the Colonitt Cars have wooden bunks only, without bedding. — Dining 
Cars are often attached to long-distance trains, and the meals and service 
upon them are frequently better than those of the railway-restaurants. — 
Tickets are collected in the train by the Conductor (guard), who some- 
times gives numbered checks in exchange for them. Separate tickets are 
issued for the seats in parlor-cars and the berths in sleeping-cars ; and 


sucli ears generally have special conductors. Fees are not usual, except 
to the coloured Porters of the parlor-cars, who hrush the traveller's clothes 
and (on overnight journeys) boots , and expect about 25 c. a day. In 
Oanada the traveller is left to rely upon his own common sense still 
more freely than in England, and no attempt is made to take care of 
him in the patriarchal fashion of European railways. He should, there- 
fore, be careful to see that he is in his proper car, etc. The conductor calls 
*all aboard*, when the train is about to start, and on many lines a warning 
bell is rung. The names of the places passed are not always shown distinctly 
(sometimes not at all) at the itations, and the brakeman, whose duty it 
is to announce each station as the train reaches it, is apt to be entirely 
uhintelligible. A special word of caution may be given as to the frequent 
necessity for crossing the tracks, as the rails 'Are often flush with the floor 
of the station and foot-bridges or tunnels are rarely provided. Each 
locomotive carries a large bell, which is tolled as it approaches stations 
or level (*grade*) crossings. — The speed of (Canadian trains is generally 
lower than that of Enelish trains ; ana over a large portion of the country 
it does not exceed 20-25 H. per hour even for through-trains. 

The average rate of Far§ may be stated at about 3 c. per mile, though 
the rate is lower for season, ^commutation' (good for so many trips), or 
mileage tickets. The extra rate for the palace -cars (>/3-lc. per mile) is 
low as compared with the difference between the first and third class fares 
in England, and the extra comfort afforded is very great. Betum-tickets 
(^excursion* or *round trip' tickets) are UBuallT issued at considerable reduc- 
tions. The thousand-mile tickets, from which the conductor collects cou- 
pons representing the number of miles travelled, are a convenient arrange- 
ment which European railways might do well to introduce. A distinction 
is frequently made between Ujimited' and ^Unlimited' tickets, the former 
and cheaper admitting of continuous passage onlv, without ^stopovers'; 
and the latter being available until used and admitting of 'stopovers' at 
any place on the route. — At the railway-stations, the place of the first, 
second, and third class waiting-rooms of Europe is taken by a L<»dies* 
Room, to which men are also generally admitted if not smoking, and a 
Men's Room, in which smoking is usually permitted. 

Among the American Railway Terms with which the traveller should 
be familiar (in addition to those already incidentally mentioned) are the 
following. Railroad is generally used instead of railway (the latter term 
being more often applied to street railways, i.e. tramways), while the 
word 'Boad' alone is often used to mean railroad. The carriages are called 
Cars, The Conductor is aided by Braiemm, whose duties include attention 
to the heating and lighting of the cars. A slow train is called an Accomr 
modation or Wap Train, The Ticket Office is never called booking-office. 
Luggage is Baggage, and is expedited through the Baggage Master (see 
below). Depot is very commonly used instead of station, and in many 
places the latter word, when used alone, means police-station. Other terms 
in common use are t fwm-otil ss siding \ htmper = buffer *, hox-ear =s closed 
goods-car^ caiboose = guard's van \ freight-train s goods train; ears =s train ; 
to pull out Si io start ; ifoy station s small, wayside station ; eow-cateher = 
fender in front of engine ; switch = shunt ; switches = points. — The only 
general railway-guide of Canada is the International Railway Guide, pub- 
lished at Montreal monttily (price 25 c), which includes a useful gazetteer 
of Canadian towns and villages. Local collections of time-tables are 
everywhere procurable, and those of each railway -company may be 
obtained gratis at the ticket-offices and in hotels. The more important rail- 
way-companies publish a mass of 'folders' and descriptive pamphlets, which 
are distributed gratis and give much information about the country trav- 
ersed. These are often very skilftQly prepared and well illustrated. 

Luggage. Each patMenger on a Canadian railway is generally entitled 
to 160 lbs. of luggage Cbaggage') free. The so-called Chech System makes 
the management of luggage very simple. On arrival at the station , the 
traveller shows his railway ticket and hands over his impedimenta to the 
Baggage Master, who fastens a small metal or cardboard tag to each article 
and gives the passenger aSmllar 'checks' with corresponding numbers. The 


railway -company then becomes responsilile for the luggage and holds it 
until reclaimed at the passenger's destination by the presentation of the 
duplicate check. As the train approaches the larger cities, a Transfer Agent 
sometimes walks through the cars, undertaking the delivery of luggage and 
giving receipts in exchange for the checks. The charge for this is usually 
26 c. per package, and it is thus more economical (though a composition 
may sometimes be effected for a number of articles) to have one large trunk 
instead of two or three smaller ones. The hotel-porters who meet the train 
will also take the traveller's checks and see that his baggage is delivered 
at the hotel. In starting, the trunks may be sent to the railway-station in 
the same way, either through a transfer-agent or the hotel-porter; and if 
the traveller already has his railway-ticket they may be checked through 
from the house or hotel to his destination. Baggage, unaccompanied by 
its owner, may be sent to any part of the country by the Expreu Com' 
paniet (comp. p. 127), which charge in proportion to weight and distance. 
The drawbacks to the transfer-system are that the baggage must usually 
be ready to be called for before the traveller himself requires to start, 
and that some delay generally takes place in its delivery ; but this may, 
of course, be avoided by the more expensive plan of using a carriage. 

Steamers. The extensiye system of lakes, navigable liyers, and 
canals in Canada affords many opportunities of exchanging the hot 
and dusty railway for the cheaper and cooler method of locomotion by 
water. The steamers of the O.P.R. on the Great Lakes (see pp.224-226) 
rank with the flnedt passenger-steamers for Inland navigation in the 
world, and the boats of many other companies (comp. RR. 19b, 21b, 
26, 33, 43a, 47, 67, 58) afford fairly comfortable accommodation. An 
entire day on a steamer, including berth and meals, rarely costs more 
than $ 10 and often costs much less. — For the oceanic steamboat- 
lines connecting Canada with the United States in summer, see R. 7. 

Coaches. The ordinary tourist will seldom require to avail him- 
self of the coach-lines of Canada, for which he may be thankfiil, 
as the roads are generally rough, the vehicles uncomfortahle, and 
the time slow. The fares are usually moderate. Some of the coach- 
ing trips in the Far West (comp. pp. 281, 282) may, however, be 
recommended to those who do not object to rough it a little. 

Carriages. Carriage- hire is generally considerably lower in 
Canada than in the United States, and is sometimes distinctly cheap. 
Fares vary so much that it is impossible to give any general ap- 
proximation, but the data throughout the text will give the trav- 
eller most of the information he requires on this point. When he 
drives himself in a 'huggy* or other small carriage, the charges are 
relatively much lower than when he employs a coachman. 

Electric Tramways. There are ahout 60 electric railways in Ca- 
nada, with fthout 800 M. of track and carrying 22 million passengers 
annually. The most important are duly mentioned in the text. 

IV. Plan and Season of Tour. 

The Plan op Toub must depend entirely on the traveller's taste 

and the time he has at his disposal. It is manifestly impossible to 

cover more than a limited section of so vast a territory in an ordinary 

travelling-season: but the enormous distances are practically much 

" ' Digitized by V- 


diminished by the comfortable arrangements for travelling at night 
(oomp. p. xiv). Among the grandest natural features of the country, 
one or other of which should certainly be visited if in any wise 
practicable, are Niagara Falls (R. 45), the Canadian Pacific Railway 
from Banff to Vancouver (R. 56), and the Saguenay (R. 33). Less 
imperative than these, but also of great beauty and interest, are 
the St Lawrence from Kingston to Montreal (R. 47), the *Land of 
Evangeline* fR. 20), the Temagami Region (R. 49), the Muskoka 
District (R. 40) , the Great Lakes (R. 46) , the Kootenay Region 
(RR. 54, 56), Lake St John (R. 32), the St. John River and Grand 
Falls (RR. 11, 13), and the Bras d'Or Lakes (R. 19). Among cities 
the romantic 'ancient capital' of Quebec (R. 30) is first in attractior. 
and should be included in even the most flying visit to Canada; but 
Montreal (R. 28), Toronto (R. 39), Halifax (R. 18), and St. John 
(R. 10) are all interesting in their different ways, Ottawa (R. 35), as 
the capital of the Dominion, should by all means be included when 
practicable, and Winnipeg (R. 51), the youthful and prosperous 
capital of Manitoba, also deserves a visit The grand trip to Alaska 
(R. 58), though taking us beyond Canadian territory, forms a natural 
sequel to the journey across the continent and may be begun at the 
charming city of Victoria (p. 289). 

Season. The best months for travelling in Canada are, speaking 
generally. May, June, September, and October. For the mountain- 
region to the W. of Banff the month of August seems to be the 
driest and most favourable, although the smoke of forest-fires then 
often veils the view. The winter-months have, however, charac- 
teristic attractions of their own and for purposes of sport are often, 
of course, the best (p. liii). With proper equipment the traveller 
will find winter- travelling quite pleasant and easy; and, indeed, 
the only season that is really uncomfortable for the traveller is the 
thawing spell of early spring. 

Where the territory included is so vast and the possible combinations 
of tours so endless, it may seem almost useless to attempt to draw up 
any specimen tours. The following, however, though not intrinsically 
better than hundreds of others, may serve to give the traveller some idea 
of the distances to be traversed and of the average expenses of locomotion. 
It is, perhaps, needless to say that the traveller will enjoy himself better 
if he content himself with a less rapid rate of progress than that here 
indicated. A daily outlay of $8-10 will probably cover all the regular 
travelling-expenses on the under-noted tours ; and this rate may be much 
diminished by longer halts. 

a. A Week from Montreal. 

(Railway and Steamer Expenses about $ 20) Days 

Montreal (R. 28) iVa 

Mo treal to Quebec (RE. 29, 30) 2V2 

Quebec to LaU 8t. John (R. 32) 1 

Lake St. John back to Quebec vift the Saguenay (R. 33) IV2 

Quebec back to Montreal (R. 29) |A 

Babdxkbk^s Canada. 3rd Bdit. b 

Digitized bydOOQlc 

xyiii IV. PLAN OF TOUR. 

b. A Week in the Maritime Provinoet. 

(Fares 3 16-18) Daya 

Halifax (R. 18) 1 

Halifax vi& the Bvm d*Or Lakes to Sydney and back (R. 19) . . . . 3 
Halifax through the ''Evangeline Country" to Annapolie and JHgby (B. 20) . 1 

Digby to St. John (BB. 20, 10) I'/a 

[Or, instead of the Cape Breton trip, we may ascend the River St, John 
to Fredericton (B. 11 : 1 day) and retorn to St. John via St. Andrew (p. 26 aod 
B. 14-, 2 days).] 

c. A Fortnight from Toronto. 
(Fares $60-56) 

Toronto (B. 39) 1 

Toronto to Niagara by steamer (BB. 48, 46) 2-3 

Niagara to Toronto via Hamilton (B. 48) IV2 

Toronto to Montreal by the St. Lawrence (BB. 47, 28) 2V« 

Montreal to Ottawa (BB. 34, 85) IVt 

Ottawa to I^orth Bay (R. 48) Va 

Frdm North Bay to the Temagami and Cobalt IHeiricts and back (R. 49) 2 
North Bay to Toronto, with a side-trip into the Muehoka District 

(B. 40) ._^ ^ 

d. Three Weeks from Hontreal. 
(Fares $50) 
Montreal to Quebec^ Lake St. John., the Saguenay, and back as at p. xvii 

(BB. 28, 29. 30, 32, 33) 7 

Montreal to Ottawa^ the Temagami District^ the Muskoka District, and 

Toronto as above (BB. 34, 36, 48, 49, 40, 39) 8 

Toronto to Niagara and back as above (RB. 43, 45) 8V2-4Vx 

Toronto to Montreal by the St. Lawrence as above (B. 47) . . . . . 1V« 

e. Five or Six Weeks from Montreal. 
(Fares $220-280) 
Montreal to Quebec, Lake St. John, the Saguenay. and back as at p. xvii 

(BB. 28, 29, 80, 32, 83) 7 

Montreal to Ottawa (BB. 34, 35) 2 

Ottawa to Winnipeg (BB. 48, 50, 61) 3 

Winnipeg to Banjff' (B. 52) 4 

Banff to Laggan and Field (B. 65) 8 

Field to Glacier (R. 55) 2 

Glacier to Vancouver (B. 56) 1 

Vancouver to Victoria and back (B. 67) 3 

Vancouver back to Port Arthur vi4 the Kootenay Region (BB. 65, 66, 

64, 53, 48) 6 

Port Arthur to Owen Sound and Toronto via the Oreat Ltskes (B. 46) 8 

Toronto to Niagara and back as above (BB. 48.46) 8^/2 

Toronto to Montreal by the St. Lawrence (B. 47) IV2 

[Many travellers will prefer to vary their routes across the continent 
by returning through the United States (see Baedeker*s United States), In 
this case they are advised to omit the portion of the Canadian Pacific 
Bailway between Ottawa and Port Arthur and to reach the latter point 
via Toronto and Owen Sound (B. 46).] 

The Pedestrian is unquestionably the most independent of travellers, 
but there are few districts of Canada where walking-tours can be re- 
commended. Indeed, the extremes of temperature and the scarcity of 
well-marked footpaths often offer considerable obstacles, while in the 
Far West a stranger on foot might be looked upon with suspicion or even 
be exposed to danger from the herds of semi-wild cattle. For a short tour 
a couple of flannel shirts, a pair of worsted stockings, slippers, the articles 

V. HOTELS. xix 

of the toilet, a light waterproof, and a stout umbrella will generally be 
found a sufficient supply of impedimenta. Strong and well-tried boots are 
essential to comfort. Heavy and complicated knapsacks should be avoided ; 
a light pouch or game-bag is far less irksome, and its position may be 
shifted at pleasure. A more extensive reserve of clothing should not 
exceed the limits of a small portmanteau, which may be forwarded from 
town to town by express. 

Y. Hotels and Bestaurants. 

Hotels. The quality of the Canadian hotels varies considerahly 
in different localities. The best hotels of Montreal, Quebec, and 
Toronto, those under the management of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way (at Banff, Vancouver, etc.), and a few at fashionable watering- 
places (such as St. Andrews and Murray Bay) leave little opening for 
criticism. There are also fair hotels at Ottawa, Halifax, St. John, 
and some of the other large cities. The hotels in the smaller towns 
and in the country districts can seldom be classed as good, while 
sometimes (as in Nova Scotia) they are decidedly bad. A distinct 
process of improvement is, however, perceptible. The charges are 
considerably less than those of the hotels of the United States ; the 
height of $5 a day is reached only in a few instances, and $3-31/2 
will probably be found the average rate on an ordinary tour. The 
comforts often afforded by the smaller and less pretentious inns of 
the* old country can seldom be looked for from Canadian houses of 
the second oi third class, and the traveller who wishes to economize 
will find boarding-houses (see p. xx) preferable. When ladies are 
of the party, it is advisable to frequent the best hotels only. The 
food is generally abundant, but the cuisine and quality vary greatly 
(comp. p. xx). The service is often excellent, and in this respect 
Canadian hotels are, perhaps, superior, class for class, to those of 
the United States. 

The hotels of Canada are almost entirely managed on the American 
Plan, in which a fixed charge is made per day for board and lodging. 
Ko separate charge is made for service. The rate varies from about $4 
(in a few instances $6) per day in the best houses down to $1 per day 
in the smaller towns and country districts. Many of the hotels vary their 
rate according to the room, and where two prices are mentioned in the 
Handbook the traveller should indicate the rate he wishes to pay. Most 
of the objections to rooms on the upper floor are obviated by the ex- 
cellent service of 'elevators' (lifts). Very large reductions are made by 
the week or for two persons occupying the same room*, and very much 
higher prices may be pidd for extra accommodation. Throughout the 
Handbook the insertion of a price behind the name of a hotel ($4) means 
its rate on the American plan ; where the hotel is on the European plan 
(exclusively or alternatively) the price of the room is indicated (^. from 
$ 1). The above rates include all the ordinary requirements of hotel-life, 
and no ^extras' appear in the bill. The custom or giving fees to the ser- 
vants is by no means so general as in Europe, though it is becoming more 
common in the larger cities. In hotels on the American system the 
meals are usually served at regular hours (a latitude of about 2 hrs. being 
allowed for each). The dally charge is considered aa made up of four 
items (room, breakfast, dinner, and supper), and the visitor should see 
that his bill begins with the first meal he takes. Thus, at a $4 a day 
house, if the traveller arrives before supper and leaves after breakfast 
the next day, his bill will be $ 3 ; if he arrives after supper and leaves 



at the same time, $2; and so on. Ko allowance is made for absence 
from meals. Dinner is nsnally served in the middle of the day, except 
in large cities. 

On reaching the hotel, the traveller enters the Office, a large and often 
comfortably fitted-up apartment, used as a general rendezvoas and smok- 
ing-room, not only oy the hotel-gnests, but often also by local residents. 
On one side of it is the desk of the Hotel Clerks who keeps the keys of 
the bedrooms, supplies unlimited letter-paper gratis, and is supposed to 
be more or less omniscient on all points on which the traveller is likely 
to require information. Here the visitor enters his name in the ^register^ 
kept for the purpose, and has his room assigned to him by the clerk, 
who details a *bell-boy' to show him the way to his room and carry up 
his hand-baggage. If he has not already disposed of his ^baggage-checks* 
in the way described at p. xvi, he should now give them to the clerk 
and ask to have his trunks fetched from the station and sent up to his 
room. If he has already parted with his checks, he identifies his oaggage 
in the hall when it arrives and tells the head-porter what room he wishes 
it sent to. On entering the dining-room the visitor is shown to his seat 
by the head-waiter, instead of selecting the first vacant seat that suits his 
fancy. The table-waiter then hands the guest the menu of the day, from 
which (in hotels on the American plan) he orders what he chooses. The 
key of the bedroom should always be left at the office when the visitor 
goes out. Large hotels generally contain a barber's shop (shave 20-25 c ; 
elsewhere lO-loc), railway-ticket, express, and livery offices, book-stalls, 
a boot-black stand, etc. The charge for newspapers at the hotel book-stalls 
is often exorbitant {e.g. 5 c. for ale. paper), but newsboys will generally 
be found just outside the hotel. 

The following hints may be useful to hotel-keepers who wish to meet 
the tastes of European visitors. The wash-basins in the bedrooms should 
be much larger than is generally the case. Two or three large towels 
are preferable to half-a-dozen small ones. A carafe or jug of fresh drinking- 
water (not necessarily iced) and a tumbler should always be kept in each 
bedroom. If it were possible to give baths more easily and cheaply, it 
would < be a great boon to English visitors. It is now, fortunately, more 
usual than of yore for the price of a bedroom to include access to a 
general bathroom; but those who wish a private bath attached to their 
bedroom must still pay $ 1 (4«.) a day extra. 17o hotel can be considered 
first-class or receive an asterisk of commendation which refuses to supply 
food to travellers who are prevented from appearing at the regular meal-hours. 

Boarding Houses. For a stay of more than a day or two the 
visitor will sometimes find it convenient and more economical to live 
at a Boarding Howe, These abound everywhere and can easily be 
found on enquiry. Their rates vary from about $ 5 a week upwards. 
The keepers of such houses often receive transient guests, and they 
are generally preferable to Inferior hotels. — Fu/mUhed ApaHments 
are easily procured in the larger cities, from $ 3-4 a week upwards. 

Bestaurants. In some of the large cities the traveller will find 
a few fair restaurants, but, as a rule, he will do well to take his meals 
at his hotel or boarding-house. Restaurants are attached to all hotels 
on the European plan (p. xix). 

Soup, fish, poultry, game, and sweet dishes are often good; but 
beef and mutton are sometimes inferior to those of England. Oysters, 
served in a great variety of styles, are large, plentiful, and comparatively 
cheap. Wine or beer is much less frequently drunk at meals than in 
Europe, and the visitor is not expected to order liquor *for the good of 
the house'. Iced water is the universal beverage, and a cup of tea or 
coffee is included in all meals at a fixed price. Wine is generally poor 
or dear, and often both. Liquors of all kinds are sold at Saloons (public 
houses) and Motel Bart. Bestaurants which solicit the patronage of 


'gents' should be avoided. The meals on dining-cars and 'buffet cars 
are usually preferable to those at railway-restaurants. Tipping the waiter 
is not, as a rule, necessary or even (outside of the large cities) expected, 
but may be found useful where several meals are taken at the same place. 
The custom, however, is by no means so firmly rooted as in Europe and 
should not be encouraged. Oaf^s, in the European sense, are hardly found 
in Canada, but the name is often used as the equivalent of restaurant. 

VI. Post and Telegraph Offlcei. 

Post OMce. The postal service of Canada is carried on by the 
Dominion Government, and its regulations are essentially similar 
to those of Great Britain, though the practice of delivering letters at 
the houses of the addressees has not been extended to the smaller 
towns or rural districts. The service is, perhaps, not quite so prompt 
and accurate. The supply of letter-boxes is geaerally abundant, 
but the number of fully equipped post-offloes is much lower (pro- 
portionately) than in England. Stamps are sold at all hotels. 

The letter rate for places within the Dominion of Canada, Newfound* 
land, Mexico, or the United States is 2 c. per oz. Post-card 1 c. ; reply post* 
card 2 c. A 'special delivery stamp* (10 c), affixed to a letter in addition 
to the ordinary postage, entitles it to immediate delivery by special mes- 
senger in a dozen or so of the larger cities, where the free delivery system 
is in use. Books and other printed matter for Canada 1 c. per 2 oz. 
Merchandise for Canada and the United States 1 c. per oz., samples without 
value 1 c. per 2 oz. By the new Imperial Postage System letters to Great 
Britain and most other parts of the British Empire cost 2 c. per 1/2 oz. (1 oz. 
after Oct. Ist, 1907). Letters to other countries in the Postal Union cost 5 c. 

?er Vsoz. (loz. after Oct. Ist, 190T), post-cards 2 c., books and newspapers 
K. per 2 oz. Parcels to the United Kingdom 16 c. for the first lb. and 
12 c. for each lb. additionU. The registration-fee is 5 c. Undeliverable 
letters, originating in Canada, the United States, Mexico, or Newfoundland, 
will be returned free to the sender, if a request to that effect be written 
or printed on the envelope. 

Domestic Money Orders (including United States) are issued by money- 
order post-offices, for any amount up to $ 100. at the following rates : for 
sums not exceeding $ 6, 3 c. •, $ 5-10, 6 c. ; $ 10-30, 10 c. ^ $ 30-50, 15 c. j $ 50-76, 
25 c. ; $75-100, 30 c. Foreign Money Orders (including Great Britain) cost 10 c. 
for each $ 10, the limit being $ 100. 

In the year ending June SOth, 1905, the number of letters transmitted 
by the Post Office was 301,851,500, of post-cards 29,941,000, and of all 
other packages 60,463,338. 

Telegraph Otftces. The telegraph business of Canada to the W. 
of Quebec is mainly in the hands of the Of eat Northern Telegraph 
Co. and the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., while the Maritime 
Provinces are served by the Western Union Telegraph Co. of New 
York. In 1904 the Dominion contained 37,481 M. of line and 
180,137 M. of wire, while the number of despatches was 5,963,247. 
The rates within the Dominion vary from 26 c. to $1 per 10 words, 
and to the United States from 40c. per 10 words upwards. The rate 
to the United Kingdom is 26c. per word. — In 1904 Canada con- 
tained 214,406 M. of Telephone Wires, with about 100,000 sets of 
instruments. About 300 million 'calls' are made annually. The 
Bell Telephone Co. extends over Ontario, Quebec, and Manitoba, while 
other companies serve the Maritime Provinces and British Columbia. 

Yn. Chief Dates in Canadian History, t 

1492. Columbus discovers the islands of America. 
1497. Cabot discovers the mainland. 
1517. Cabot visits Hudson Bay (?). 

1534. Jacques Cartier enters the Bale des Ckaleurs (p. 90). 

1535. Oartier ascends the 8t, Lawrence (p. 128). 
1541-43. First unsuccessful attempts at settlement (p. 147). 

1598. Forty convicts left hy the Marquis de la Roche as settlers 

on Sable Island ; only twelve found alive after five years. 
1603. First visit of Samuel de Champlain (p. 147). 
1604-5. Port Royal (Annapolis) founded hy the Skw De Monta 

and Baron de Poutrincourt (p. 75). 
1608. Renewed visit of Champlain. Foundation of Quebec, the 

first permanent settlement of Canada (p. 147). 
1615. The first Christian missionaries, the RScollet Fathers, reach 

1625. Jesuits arrive at Quebec. 
1629. Quebec taken by the English (p. 147). 
1632. Canada and Acadia restored to France by the Treaty of 

St. Germain-en-Laye. 
1642. ViUe Marie (Montreal) founded by Maisonneuve (p. 129). 
1654. Acadia taken by the English. 
1659. Francois Xavier de Laval, the first Canadian bishop, 

arrives at Quebec. 
1667. Acadia restored to France. 
1670. Hudson Bay Co. founded (p. 247). 
1672. Frontenac appointed Governor of Canada or New France 

(white population about 6700). Served till 1682. 
1682. Be Labarre, Governor. 
1686. Marquis de Denonville, Governor. 

1689. Frontenac re-appointed Governor. 

1690. Sir Wm. Phipps, vdth a squadron from New England, 
captures Port Royal but is repulsed at Quebec. 

1698. Death of Frontenac (Nov. 28th). 

1713. Acadia (Nova Scotia), Hudson Bay Territory, and New- 
foundland given to England by the Treaty of Utrecht. 
1739. Population of New France 42,700. 
1745. Louisbourg taken by the New Englanders. 

1748. Louisbourg restored to the French in exchange for Madras 
by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

1749. Halifax founded (p. 51). 

1755. Expulsion of the Acadians from Nova Scotia (p. 73). 
1758. Louisbourg captured by the English for the second time. 

t This list is largely based on that in the Statistical Tear-Book of 
Canada, with additions by Mr. W. D. Le Sueur. r^^^^T^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIc 

Vn. HISTORY. xxiii 

1769. Fort Niagara taken by Gen, Prideaux (July 26tli). ■— Wolfe 
T7ins the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and captares 
Quebec (pp. 147, 164; Sept. 13-18tli). 

1760. Canada (pop. 70,000) surrendered to tbe British. 

1763. Formal cession of *Canada with all its dependencies' to 
Great Britain, by the Treaty of Paris (Feb. 10th). 

1768. Qen. Sir Guy CarUton (afterwards Lord Dorchester) ap- 
pointed Governor-General. 

1770. Prince Edwa/rd Island made a separate province (p. 98). 
1774. Passage of the ^Quebec Act\ giving the French Canadians 

the free exercise of the Roman Catholic religion and the 
protection of their own civil laws and customs and provid- 
ing for the administration of the criminal law as used in 
England and for the appointment of a Legislative Council 
by the Crown. 

1776. Outbreak of the American BevoltUion and invasion of 
Canada by the Americans ; capture of Montreal (p. 129) 
and unsuccessful attack on Quebec (p. 147). 

1776. American forces withdraw from Canada. 

1783. Second Treaty of Paris and deflnitiou of the frontier be- 
tween Canada and the United States. Foundation of 
St. John by the Loyalists (p. 29). 

The population of Canada at this time, including the Mar- 
itime Provinces, was aboat 165,000. It has been estimated that 
about 40,000 United Empire Loyalists — i.e. inhabitants of the 
United States who remained loyal to the British Crown — mi- 
grated into Canada* within a few years after the second Treaty 
of Paris (comp. pp. 47, 192). 

1784. New Brunswick made a separate province (p. 37). 

1791. Passage of the ^Constitutional Act\ dividing Upper from 
Lower Canada and providing each with a popular re- 
presentative body (Legislative Assembly) in addition to 
a nominated Legislative Council. 

1792. First meeting of the parliaments of Upper Canada (at 
Newa/rk; p. 208) and Lower Canada (at Quebec), 

1793. Slavery abolished in Upper Canada. 

1794. Toronto (York) is made capital of Upper Canada. 

1806. Pop. of Upper Canada 70,718; of Lower Canada 250,000. 

1812. War between Great Britain and the United States. Detroit 
captured by the Canadians (Aug.l6th). — Battle of Queers- 
ton Heights (Oct. 13th; p. 209). 

1813. York (Toronto) captured and burned by the Americans 
(April 27th). — Battles of Stony Creek (June 5th ; p. 211), 
Moraviantown (Oct. 6th"), Chateauguay (Oct. 26th), and 
Chrysler's Farm (Nov. 11th). 

1814. Battle of Lundys Lane (July 25th ; p. 220). — War ended 
by the Treaty of Ghent (Dec. 24th). — Pop. of Upper 
Canada 95,000, of Lower Canada 335,000. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

xxiv Vn, HISTORY. 

1818. London Convention, regulating the rights of Americans in 

the British North American Fisheries. 
1831. Phrase ^Family Compact'' comes into use to designate the 

oligarchic opposition to the popnlar demand for responsible 

government. — Pop. of Upper Canada 236,702; of Lower 

Canada 553,134. 
1836. Opening of the first railway in Canada (p. 129). 
1837-38. Canadian Rebellion (Wm. Lyon Mackenzie; Paplneau; 

comp. pp. 184, 192, 221). 

1838. Lord Durham J appointed Governor- General and High- 
Commissioner of Canada, prepares an important Report on 
the Canadian situation, recommending, inter alia, a 
Federal Union of all the Provinces and ihe introduction 
of responsible government He returns to England (Nov. 
Ist), on account of disallowance of ordinance respecting 
rebel prisoners and fugitiyes. 

1839. Lord Sydenham, Governor-General. 

1841. Union Act (passed by British Parliament in 1840), mak- 
ing one province of Upper and Lower Canada, with equal- 
ity of representation, goes into effect on Feb. 10th, with 
the understanding that Goyernment is to be ^responsible' 
to the Provincial Legislature (comp. p. xxvl). — First joint 
Parliament meets at Kingston (June 13th"). — Death of 
Lord Sydenham from an accident (Sept. l9th). — Pop. of 
Upper Canada 455,000 ; of Lower Canada 690,000. 

1842. Sir Charles Bagot, Governor-General. 

1843. Bagot (d. May 19th) succeeded by Sir Charles Metcalfe. 

1844. Montreal made seat of Government. 
1847. Lord Elgin, Governor-General. 

1849. Riots in Montreal over t)ie passage of the Rebellion Losses 
Bill; Parliament House burned. Seat of Government 
transferred in consequence to Toronto, 

1851 . Pop. of Upper Canada 952,004 ; of Lower Canada 890,261} 
of New Brunswick 193,800/ of Nova Scotia 276,854. 

1852. Seat of Government moved to Quebec, — Commencement of 
the Orand Trunk Railway, 

1854. Lord Elgin succeeded by Sir Edmund Head, Reciprocily 
Treaty with the United States (to last ten years). 

1858. Ottawa selected as the capital of Canada. — Decimal system 
of currency adopted. 

1860. Prince of Wales (Edward VII.) visits Canada. 

1861. Viscount Monck succeeds Sir E. Head. — Pop. of Upper 
Canada 1,396,091; of Lower Canada 1,111,566; of New 
Brunswick 252.147; of Nova Scotia 330,857; of Prince 
Edward Island 80,857. 

1862-63. Troops sent out in mid-vdnter by the British Government 
in connection with the ^Trenf affair. 

^ le 



1864. Convention at Oharlottetown, on the union of the three 
Maritime Provinces, adjourned to Quebec, at the instance of 
the Canadian Government, to consider the larger question 
of the union of all the British North American Provinces 
(Oct. 16-28th). 

1865. Seat of Government transferred to Ottawa (comp. p. xxiv). 

1866. Fenian invasion of Canada. Encounter at Bidgeway (Ont.). 

1867. The BritUh North America Act passed by the Imperial 
Parliament, effecting a union of the provinces of Canada, 
Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick under the name of the 
Dominion of Canada. The names of Upper and Lower 
Canada are changed to Ontario and Quebec, Lord Monck 
is first Governor- General of the Dominion j Sir John A, 
MacdonaU (d. 1891), first Premier. 

1868. North-West Territories purchased by the Dominion from 
the Hudson Bay Co. fox 300,000/. 

1869-70. LordlAsgar^ Governor -General. — Red River RebelUon 
quelled by Col, WoUeley (see p. 246). 

1870. Province of Manitoba admitted to the Confederation. 

1871 . TreaJty of Washington (May 8th). — British Columbia joins 
the Confederation (July 20th). — Pop. of the Dominion 

1872. Earl of Dufferin^ Governor-General. 

1873. Prince Edward Island joins the Confederation (July Ist). — 
Sir John Macdonald resigns and is succeeded by Mr. 
Alexander Mackenxie (Liberal). 

1876. Intercolonial Railway opened from Quebec to Halifax. 

1878. Marquis of Lome, Governor -General. — The Liberal 
Government defeated on the tariff, and the Conservatives, 
under Sir John Macdonald^ return to power. 

1879. Adoption of a protective tariff. 

1881. Pop. of the Dominion 4,324,810. 

1882. BoycU Society of Canada established by Marquis of Lome. 

1883. Marquis of LansdownCj Governor- General. 

1885. Second Biel BebeUion (p. 253). — Canadian Pacific RaU- 
way across the continent completed. 

1886. First through-train for the Pacific leaves Montreal on June 

1888. Lord Stanley of Preston (afterwards Earl Derby), Governor- 
General. — Treaty for the settlement of the Fisheries 
Dispute signed at Washington (Feb. 15th), but rejected 
by the U. S. Senate (Aug.). 

1891. Pop. of the Dominion 4,833,239. — Death of Sir John Mac- 
donald (June 6th). 

1893. Earl of Aberdeen , Governor - General. — Dispute about 

the Bering Sea Seal Fisheries settled by a Court of Arbi- I 

tration meeting in Paris, ^^^ t 

Digitized by V^OOgle 


1896. Liberals return to power nnder Mr, Wilfrid Laurier (after- 
wards Sir W, Laurier'), — Discoyery of eztensiye deposits 
of gold in the Klondike District (p. 303). 

1898. Earl of Minto , Govemor-General. — Canadian Government 
grants preferential tariff on British goods. 

1903. Alaska Boundary Treaty (see p. 296). 

1904. Earl Orey, Governor-General. 

1905. ProYinces of Satikatchewan and Alberta created. 

Yin. The CozLBtitution of Canada. 


the late Sir J. O, Bourinot, K,C.M,Q,, D,C,L.^ LL.D^ 

Olerk of the House of Gommonfl of Ouiadaf. 

The Britisli Nortli America Act , which received the assent of 
the Queen on the 29th of March, 1867, and came into force by royal 
proclamation on the 1st of July in the same year, gave a constitu- 
tional existence to the Dominion of Canada, which, at that time, 
comprised only the four provinces of Ontario and Quebec — previ- 
ously known as Upper and Lower Canada — and Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick, In the course of the succeeding six years, the prov- 
inces of British Columbia and Prince Edward Island were added to 
the Union, and a new province, under the name of Manitoba^ was 
carved out of the North West Territory. This vast North West 
Territory was, after the purchase of the rights of the Hudson's Bay 
Company in Rupert's Land, formally transferred to the Dominion 
by an Imperial order in Council (June 23rd, 1870), and the three 
provinces of Manitoba (1870), Alberta (1905), and Saskatchewan 
(1905) have been created out of the territory so acquired. The 
remainder of the territory is divided into the provisional districts of 
Keewatin, Yukony Franklin, MacKenzie^ and Ungava (comp. p. 253). 

Previous to the passage of the British North America Act, all 
the then existing provinces (with the exception of Manitoba — 
which , as just stated , was a subsequent creation — and the old 
colony of British Columbia, on the Pacific Coast) were in the pos- 
session of a complete system of parliamentary government, in all 
essential respects a transcript of the British system. Each province 
was governed by a Lieutenant-Governor, a Legislature of two Hou- 
ses, and an Executive Council, whose members continued in office 
only as long as they possessed the support of the majority in the 
Legislative Assembly, or popularly elected branch of the legis- 
lature. They had for years possessed complete control of their 
local and provincial affairs, subject only to the sovereignty of the 
Imperial State. In all the provinces the criminal law and the judi- 

t Events since this article was written for the original edition of the 
Handbook (1894) have necessitated a few verbal and othi^r changes. 

Digitized bydOOQlC 


cial system of England preTdled. The common law of England was 
also tlie basis of tlie jnrisprndence of all the piOTlnces, except Que- 
bec , where a million and a quaitei of French Canadian people 
•were and are still speaking the French language, professing the 
Roman Catholic religion, and adhering to the Coutume de Paris and 
the general principles of the civil law, as they obtained it from their 
ancestors, who first settled the proYince of Canada. Accordingly, 
when the terms of Union came to be arranged in 1864 by delegates 
from the seyeral provinces of British North America, it was found 
necessary to establish a federation bearing many analogies to that 
of the United States, in order to meet the wishes of the people of 
these provinces, especially of French Canada, and to preserve all 
those local institutions, with which the people had long been fami- 
liar, and which they could not be induced, under any circumstan- 
ces, to hand over to the sole control of one central Parliament. The 
resolutions of the Quebec conference were embodied in addresses 
of the several Legislatures of the provinces to the Imperial Par- 
liament. These resulted in the passing of the British North America 
Act of 1867, now the fundamental law of the whole Dominion, 
setting forth the territorial divisions , defining the nature of the 
executive authority, regulating the division of powers, directing to 
what authorities these powers are to be confided, and providing 
generally for the administratidn and management of all those mat- 
ters which fall within the respective jurisdictions of the Dominion 
and the Provinces. In accordance with this constitution , Canada 
has now control of the government of the vast territory stretching 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific to the N. of the United States, and 
is subject only to the sovereignty of the King and the Parliament 
of Great Britain in such matters as naturally fall under the juris- 
diction of the supreme and absolute authority of the sovereign State. 

If we come to recapitulate the various constitutional authorities 
which now govern the Dominion in its external and internal rela- 
tions as a dependency of the Crown , we find that they may be di- 
vided for general purposes as follows : 

The King. 

The Parliament of Great Britain. 

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. 

The Government of the Dominion. 

The Governments of the Provinces. 

The Courts of Canada. 

While Canada can legislate practically without limitation in all 
those matters which do not affect Imperial interests , yet sovereign 
power, in the legal sense of the phrase, rests with the government 
of Great Britain. Canada cannot of her own motion negotiate trea- 
ties with a foreign State, as that is a power only to be exercised by 
the sovereign authority of the Empire. In accordance, however, 
with the policy pursued for many years towards self-governing 

Diaitized bv* 


dependencies — a policy now practically among the 'conventions' 
of the constitution — it is nsual for the Imperial Government to 
give aU the necessary authority to distinguished Canadian statesmen 
to represent the Dominion interests in any conference or negotia-- 
tions affecting its commercial or territorial interests. The control 
over peace and war still necessarily remains under the direct and 
absolute direction of the King and his great Council. The appoint- 
ment of the Governor -General rests absolutely with the King's 
Government. The same sovereign authority may *disallow' any Act 
passed by the Parliament of Canada which may be repugnant to any 
Imperial legislation on the same subject applying directly to the Do- 
minion, or which may touch the relations of Great Britain with foreign 
Powers , or otherwise seriously affect the interests of the Imperial 
State. The Judicial Committee of the King's Privy Council is the 
Court of last resort for Canada as for all other parts of the British 
empire, although that jurisdiction is only exercised within certain 
limitations consistent with the large measure of legal independence 
granted to the Dominion. Canada is now represented on this Im- 
perial Court of Appeal. As it is from the Parliament of Great Britain 
that Canada has derived her constitution, so it is only through the 
agency of the same sovereign authority that any amendment can be 
made to that instrument 

The Preamble of the British North America Act, 1867, sets forth 
that the provinces are 'federally united*, with a constitution 'similar 
in principle to that of the United Kingdom'. The model taken by 
Canadian statesmen was almost necessarily that of the United States, 
the most perfect example of federation that the world had yet seen, 
though they endeavoured to avoid its weaknesses in certain essential 
respects. At the same time, in addition to the general character of 
the provincial organizations and distribution of powers, and other 
important features of a federal system, there are the methods of gov- 
ernment, which are copies, exact copies in some respects, of the 
Parliamentary Government of England. We see this in the clauses of 
the British North America Act referring to the executive authority, 
the establishment of a Privy Council, and the constitution of the two 
Houses of the Dominion Parliament. More than that , we have , in 
conjunction with the legal provisions of the British North America 
Act, a great body of unwritten law j that is to say, that mass of 'con- 
ventions', understandings, and usages which have been long in 
practical operation in England and govern the relations between the 
Crown and its advisers, the position of the Ministry and its depen- 
dence on the Legislature, and otherwise control and modify the 
conditions of a system of English Parliamentary government. 

The various authorities under which the government of the 
Dominion is carried on may be defined as follows : — 

1. The King, in whom is legally invested the executive author- 
ity; in whose name all commissions to office run; by. whose author- 
Digitized by VJOOQIC 


ity parliament is called together and dissolved; and in^vhose name 
bills are assented to and reserved. He is represented for all pur- 
poses of government by a Governor - General , appointed by His 
Majesty in Council and holding office daring pleasnre; responsible 
to the Imperial Government as an Imperial Officer; having the right 
of pardon f oi' all offences, but exercising this and all executive pow- 
ers under the advice and consent of a responsible ministry. The 
salary of the Governor-General ($ 50,000) is paid by Canada. 

2. A Ministry composed of about 13-16 members of a Privy 
Council; having seats in the two Houses of Parliament; holding 
office only whilst commanding a majority in the popular branch; 
acting as a council of advice to the Governor-General; responsible 
to parliament for all legislation and administration. 

3. A Senate composed of eighty -seven members appointed by 
the Crown for life, though removable by the House itself for bank- 
ruptcy or crime; having co-ordinate powers of legislation with 
the House of Commons, except in the case of money or tax bills, 
which it can neither initiate nor amend, though it may reject them; 
having no power to try impeachments ; having the same privileges, 
immunities, and powers as the English House of Commons when 
defined by law. 

4. A House of Commons of two hundred and fourteen members 
elected for five years on the very liberal systems of firanohise existent 
in the several provinces (in the majority of cases, registered manhood 
suffrage) ; liable to be prorogued and dissolved at any time by the 
Governor-General on the advice of the Cabinet; having alone the 
right to initiate nloney or tax bills ; having the same privileges, 
Immunities and powers as the English House of Commons when 
defined by law. 

5. A Dominion Judiciary composed of a Supreme Court of a chief 
justice and five puisne judges, acting as a Court of Appeal for all 
the Provincial Courts; subject to have its decisions reviewed on 
Appeal by the Judicial Committee of the Queen's Privy Council in 
England ; its judges being irremovable except for cause, on the ad- 
dress of the two Houses to the Governor-General. There is also an 
Exchequer Court (with one judge), with original exclusive juris- 
diction in all suits against the Crown, and also authorized to act as 
a Colonial Court of Admiralty. 

The several authorities of government in the Provinces may be 
briefly described as follows : — 

1. A Lieutenant' Governor appointed by the Governor-General 
In Council, practically for five years; removable by the same author- 
ity for cause ; exercising all the powers and responsibilities of the 
head of an executive, under a system of parliamentary government ; 
having no right to reprieve or pardon criminals. 

2. An Executive Council in each province, composed of certain 
heads of departments, varying from five to twelve in number ; called 


to office by the Lieutenant-Govemor; having seats in either branch 
of the local legislature; holding their positions as long as they re- 
tain the confidence of the majority of the people's representatives ; 
responsible for and directing legislation ; conducting generally the 
administration of public affairs in accordance with the law and the 
conventions of the constitution. 

3. A Legislature composed of two Houses — a Legislative Coun- 
cil and an Assembly — in two provinces (Quebec and Nova Scotia), 
and of only an Assembly or elected House in the other provinces. 
The Legislative Councillors are appointed for life, by the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor in Council , and are removable for the same reasons 
as Senators ; cannot initiate money or tax bills, but otherwise have 
all powers of legislation; cannot sit as Courts of Impeachment. 
The Legislative Assemblies are elected for four years in all cases, 
except in Quebec, where the term is five; liable to be dissolved at 
any time by the Lieutenant-Governor, acting under the advice of 
his Council; elected on manhood suffrage in Ontario, Manitoba, 
British Columbia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, and 
on a very liberal franchise in the other sections. 

4. A Judiciary in each of the provinces, appointed by the Gov- 
ernor-General in Council; removable only on the address of the 
two Houses of the Dominion Parliament. 

As regards the remaining territories (see p. zxvi), it is provided 
by the British North America Act that the Dominion is to exer- 
cise complete legislative control. The administration is entrusted 
to a Commissioner, appointed by the Governor in Council ; and the 
latter is also empowered to appoint an advisory Council of not more 
than four members. The Commissioner in Council may also be 
entrusted by the Governor in Council with certain limited legis- 
lative powers. The present Commissioner is the Comptroller of the 
North-West Mounted Police (p. 253). In consequence of the influx 
of a large population of gold-seekers, the territory of Yukon has 
been placed .under special provisions of government. A Commis- 
sioner, a Council (partly elective), and judges are appointed by the 
Dominion Government, under authority given by the Canadian 

Coming now to the distribution of powers between the Dominion 
and Provincial authorities, we find that they are enumerated in 
sections 91, 92, 93, and 95 of the fundamental law. The 91st sec- 
tion gives exclusive jurisdiction to the Parliament of the Dominion 
over all matters of a general or Dominion character, and section 
92 sets forth the exclusive powers of the provincial organizations. 
The classes of subjects to which the exclusive authority of the Do- 
minion Parliament extends are enumerated as follows in the Act: — 

The public debt and property. The regulation of trade and 
commerce. The raising of money by any mode or system of taxa- 
tion. The borrowing of money on public credit. /HPostaljMrvice. 


Census and statistics. Militia, military, and naval service and de- 
fence. The fixing of and providing for the salaries and allowances 
of oiyll and other officers of the Government of Canada. Beacons, 
buoys, lighthouses, and Sable Island. Navigation and shipping. 
Quarantine and the establishment and maintenance of marine hospi- 
tals. Sea-coast and inland fisheries. Ferries between a province 
and a British or foreign country , or between two provinces. Cur- 
rency and coinage. Banking, incorporation of banks, and the issue 
of paper-money. Savings-banks. Weights and measures. Bills of 
exchange and promissory notes. Interest. Legal tender. Bank- 
ruptcy and insolvency. Patents of invention and discovery; copy- 
rights. Indians and lands reserved for the Indians. Naturalisation 
and aliens. Marriage and divorce. The criminal law, except the 
constitution of the Courts of Criminal jurisdiction , but including 
the procedure in criminal matters. The establishment, mainte- 
nance, and management of penitentiaries ; and lastly, 'such classes 
of subjects as are expressly excepted in the enumeration of the 
subjects assigned by the Act exclusively to the Legislature of the 

On the other hand, the exclusive powers of the provincial legis- 
latures extend to the following classes of subjects : — 

The amendment from time to time , notwithstanding anything 
in the Act, of the constitution of the province, except as regards 
the office of Lieutenant-Governor. Direct taxation within the prov- 
ince to raise revenue for provincial purposes. The borrowing of 
money on the sole credit of the province. The establishment and 
tenure of provincial offices and appointment and payment of pro- 
vincial officers. The management and sale of the public lands 
belonging to the province, and of the timber and wood thereon 
(except in Alberta and Siskatchewan). The establishment, mainte- 
nance, and management of public and reformatory prisons in and 
for the province. The establishment, maintenance, and manage- 
ment of hospitals, asylums, charities, and eleemosynary institutions 
in and for the provinces other than marine hospitals. Municipal 
institutions in the province. Shop, saloon , tavern, and auctioneer 
and other licenses, in order to the raising of a revenue for pro- 
vincial, local, or municipal purposes. Local works and undertak- 
ings other than such as are of the following classes : — (a) Lines of 
steam or other ships, railways, canals, telegraphs, and other works 
and undertakings connecting the province with any other of the 
provinces, or extending beyond the limits of the province; (b) 
Lines of steamships between the province and any British or foreign 
country ; (c) Such works as, though wholly situate within the prov- 
ince, are before or after their execution declared by the Parlia- 
ment of Canada to be for the general advantage of Canada or for 
the advantage of two or more of the provinces. The incorporation 
of companies with provincial objects. Solemnisation of marriage in 


the province. Property and civil rights in the province. The ad- 
ministration of justice in the province, including the constitution, 
maintenance, and organization of provincial courts, both of civil 
and criminal jurisdiction, and including procedure in civil matters 
in those courts. The imposition of punishment by fine, penalty, or 
imprisonment, for enforcing any law of the province made in rela- 
tion to any matter coming within any of the classes of subjects 
above enumerated. Generally all matters of a merely local or pri- 
vate nature in the province. 

Then, in addition to the classes of subjects enumerated in the 
sections just cited, it is provided by section 93 that the Legislatures 
of the provinces may exclusively legislate on the subject of educa- 
tion, subject only to the power of the Dominion Parliament to make 
remedial laws in case of the infringement of any legal rights en- 
joyed by any minority in any province at the time of the Union (or 
since acquired by Provincial legislation) — a provision intended to 
protect the separate schools of the Roman Catholics and the Pro- 
testants in the provinces. The Dominion and the provinces may 
also concurrently make laws in relation to immigration and agri- 
culture, provided that the Act of the province is not repugnant to 
any Act of the Dominion Parliament; and under section 94 the 
Dominion Parliament may provide for the uniformity of laws relative 
to property and civil rights in Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brun- 
swick. [There have of late arisen in the Dominion Parliament and 
in the public press wide differences of opinion as to the proper 
interpretation and application of the educational clauses of the British 
North America Act.] 

The statesmen who assembled at Quebec believed it was a de- 
fect in the American constitution to have made the national govern- 
ment alone one of enumerated powers and to have left to the States 
all powers not expressly taken from them. For these reasons mainly 
the powers of both the Dominion and the Provindal Governments 
are stated, as far as practicable, in express terms, with the view of 
preventing a conflict between them ; the powers that are not within 
the defined jurisdiction of the Provincial Governments are reserved 
in general terms to the central authority. In other words, *the re- 
siduum of power is given to the central instead of to the provincial 
authorities'. In the B.N. A. Act we find set forth in express words : 

1. The powers vested in the Dominion Government alone. 

2. The powers vested in the Provinces alone. 

3. The powers exercised by the Dominion Government and the 
Provinces concurrently. 

4. Powers given to the Dominion Government in general terms. 
The conclusion we come to after studying the operation of the 

Constitutional Act, until the present time, is that while its framers 
endeavoured to set forth more definitely the respective powers of 
the central and local authorities than is the case vrith the Constitu- 


tion of the United States, it is not likely to be any more sncoessful 
in preventing controversies constantly arising on points, of legislat- 
ive jurisdiction. The efiPort was made in the case of the Canadian 
constitntion to define more fully the limits of the authority of the 
Dominion and its political parts ; but while great care was evidejitly 
taken to prevent the dangerous assertion of provinciftl rights , it is 
clear that it has the imperfection? of all statutes, when it is attempted 
to meet all emergencies. Happily, however, by means of the Courts 
in Canada, and the tribunal of last resort in England, and the calm 
deliberation which the parliament is now learning, to give to all 
questions of dubious jurisdiction, the principles on which the federal , 
system should be worked are, year by year, better understood, and 
the dangers of conflict lessened. 

The perpetuation of the Canadian constitution and th^ harmony 
of the members of the Confederation rest in a large measure on the 
Judiciary of Canada , just as the constitution of the United States ; 
awes much of its strength to the legal acumen and sagacity of a great 
constitutional lawyer like Chief Justice Marshall , and of the able 
men who have, as a rule, composed the Federal Judiciary. The in- 
stinct of self-preservation and the necessity of national union must 
in critical times prevail over purely sectional considerations^ even 
under a federal system, as the experience of the United States has 
conclusively shown us; but, as, a general principle, the success of ■ 
confederation must rest on a spirit of compromise, and in the. realdi- 
ness of the people to accept the decisions of the Courts as final and 
conclusive on every constitutional issue of importance. 

1%, OeograpMcal and ecological Bketcli, 

with notes on Minerals, Climate, .Immigra1;ion, and Native^ Races, 
by the late George Jlf. Dawson^ C.M.O.^ LL.D., FMM.y, 
Director of the Geological Survey of Canada. t - 

The name of Canada was first applied by Jacques Cartier, the dis* 
coverer of the St. Lawrence , to a limited tract of country in the 
vicinity of the Indian village of Stadacona, now the city' of Quebec. 
It is a name of native origin and of disputed meaning, but is' 
generally believed to have merely denoted a collection of houses — - 
a village. At a later date, it was employed to designate all the early 
settlements of France along the valley of the lower St. Lawrence,' 
and still later it became that of a great tract of country including 
what now forms the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, previously 
■ known as Lower and Upper Canada respectively. When to Canada, 
thus constituted, the Maritime Provinces were politically united in 
1867, the name became a general one, and it was subsequently still' 

f Some alierations have been made in this sketch by Dr. H. M, Ami 
and Mr, James WMU, in order to bring it up to date. ^ t 

Baedekeb's Canada." 3rd Edit. Digitized by V^OOglC 


further extended, with the growth of the Dominion, so as to embrace 
the whole of the North- West Territories and British Columbia. 
Thus, at the present time, the Dominion of Canada includes all 
parts of British North America excepting the island of Newfound- 
land, with its dependency of Labrador, which still remains a 
separate colony. 

The above is a matter of nomenclature, but in following the 
history of the occupation and growth of the country, it will be found 
that the extension of the old name, first applied to the vicinity of 
Quebec, was governed by the ruling physical features of the N. part 
of the American continent. Thus the existence of the River St. 
Lawrence, with that of its great estuary and the gulf, naturally 
resulted in the individuality of the Dominion of Canada, by afford- 
ing a highway of exploration and trade which extended into the very 
heart of the continent and along which explorers and traders had 
already penetrated very far, before the knowledge of the settlers of 
New England had extended much beyond the Appalachian Moun- 
tain ranges. 

Geographically, Canada and the Island of Newfoundland may be 
considered together, the area of the whole of British North America 
being, according to the latest computations, about 3,730,000 sq. M. 
This is somewhat greater than that of the United States with Alaska, 
and slightly less than that of Europe. 

Though more complicated than the United States in its physio- 
graphy and particularly in the outlines of its coast, Canada is sim- 
pler in this respect than Europe. The same or very similar types of 
geological structure, with their accompanying and dependent fea- 
tures of surface form, are very widely extended. Great distances 
may be traversed without any notable change of conditions, and no 
examination of a single province suffices to give an idea of the 

For the purposes of the present very brief and general descrip- 
tion, Canada may be treated of under three main divisions or regions, 
naturally contrasted not only in their present appearance but in 
respect also to their geological history. These are (1) an Eastern 
Region,- (2) a Central Region^ and (3) a Western Region, 

The Eastern Kegion may be defined as extending from the 
Atlantic coast to Lake Superior, and is farther bounded to the W. 
by a chain of great lakes which extends from the vicinity of the 
W. end of Lake Superior to the Arctic Ocean near the mouth of 
the Mackenzie River. This is characterized by a diversified surface, 
which is scarcely ever really mountainous, and was originally a- 
great forest land, save in the extreme N., where the rigour of the 
climate prevents arboreal growth. — The Central Division lies 
between the W. boundary of the last and the E. base of the Rocky. 
Mountain region. It is a great interior continental plain, which runs 
northward, with narrowing dimensions, to beyond theArctia circle. 

Digitized by VjOO 


Its S. part consists of open prairies, its N. of woodland. — The 
WeBtem Division is the Cordilleraii belt, the wide monntalnous 
border of the continent on the Pacific side, with yery yaried and 
very bold topography. 

These divisions, based alone on physiographical conditions , are 
very unequal in size, the eastern being much the largest and con- 
stituting in fact more than one-half of the whole area. It includes, 
in its S. parts, all the older and thickly settled provinces of the Do- 
minion, and requires, therefore, to be further subdivided and spoken 
of in somewhat greater detail. 

The Eastern Region of Canada , as above defined , is composed 
almost entirely of very ancient rocks belonging to the Archasan and 
Palaeozoic divisions of geologists. Throughout the later geological 
ages, these rocks, fully consolidated and set, have remained exempt 
from important disturbance or folding ; but have been subjected to 
yery prolonged processes of waste and wear, so that the surface fea- 
tures and relief of the whole region, as now seen, are the resultant 
of such denudation. The harder and more resistant rocks form the 
higher points. Beginning in the Labrador peninsula, running round 
to the S. of Hudson Bay and thence N.W. to the Arctic Ocean, is a 
broad belt of crystalline rocks of great antiquity, which may be re- 
garded as constituting the nucleus (or protaxis) of the N. American 
continent, and forming the ruling feature of all this E. division of 
Canada. Its surface, as it exists at present, forms a vast Irregular 
and hummocky plateau which seldom exceeds 1500 ft. in elevation. 
Except in the valleys of its S. parts and in the great alluvial 
deposits of the James Bay Basin, it offers little attraction to the 
agriculturalist, as the greater part of its extent is but scantily and 
irregularly furnished with an indifferent sandy soil. It is pre-emi- 
nently characterized by its immense number of lakes, large and 
small, and by its irregular and winding rivers with numerous rapids 
and falls. By these waterways it may be traversed in light canoes 
in almost any direction. From the upper Ottawa, Gatineau, Lifevroj 
and St. Maurice Rivers, rising within its area, a great part of the 
important timber product of Canada is brought. 

The Appalachian Mountain system, which gives form to the E. 
coast of the United States, is continued with reduced height through 
the Maritime or Acadian provinces of Canada and an adjacent portion 
of the province of Quebec to the S. of the St. Lawrence. The highest 
ridges of this system in Canada are the Shickshock Mountains, which 
border the lower estuary of the St. Lawrence and terminate in the 
promontory of Gasptf. Ridges of hard and often crystalline rocks 
belonging to the same system of elevation traverse New Brunswick ; 
while Nova Scotia may be regarded as a parallel elevation of iden- 
tical character. 

Nova Scotia is connected with the mainland by a neok of low 
land. A part of its shores upon the Bay of Fundy, together with 


Prince Edward Island , in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, are composed 
of rocks newer tlian those generally characteristic of the E. division 
of Canada. These are referable to the Permian and Triassic ages of 
geologists, and in the Annapolis valley as well as in Prince Edward 
Island support some of the most fertile farming-regions of the Acadian 
provinces. The surface of the Acadian provinces, though varied and 
uneven, is nowhere high. The most elevated ridges in Nova Scotia 
seldom exceed 1000 feet, while Prince Edward Island is everywhere 
low. The most striking feature of the Acadian provinces is their 
irregular and deeply indented coast-line — particularly marked in 
Nova Scotia — resulting in the importance of the fishing and 
maritime industries generally in these provinces. 

Newfoundland , in its geological structure and topography, is 
entitled to he classed as a terminal portion of the Appalachian 
system or range, but by reason of its N. situation is less fertile than 
the Acadian provinces of Canada , while its fisheries are relatively 
more important. 

The great valley of the St. Lawrence lies between the ridge-like 
elevations of the Appalachian system on one side and the base of 
the above described Laurentian plateau on the other. The prov- 
inces of Quebec and Ontario bordering upon it are thus especially 
attached to the hydrographic basin of the St. Lawrence, though a 
small portion of this basin is included within the limits of the 
United States. 

Above the city of Quebec, the base of the Laurentian highlands 
and the ridges of the Appalachian system diverge , and the river 
flows through an extensive low country — the St. Lawrence plain 
— of which the greater width lies on the S.E. side of the river. 
This plain extends to Kinggton (p. 227), near the outlet of Lake 
Ontario, and to Ottawa (p. 176), on the river of the same name, and 
in all comprises an area considerably exceeding 10,000 sq. M. It is 
based on horizontal beds of Ordovician rocks, generally limestones, 
and is a region of notable fertility, which for many years after the 
first settlement of Canada constituted its great granary. At Mont- 
real, and here and there in the plain to the S. and E., conspicuous 
^nd rather abrupt elevations of small extent (the so-called 'Monte- 
regian Hills') occur, which represent the basal remnants of volcanic 
vents of great antiquity breaking through the flat-lying rocks. 

Near the outlet of Lake Ontario, a narrow neck of the Laurentian 
country, constituting the Trontenac Axis', crosses the St. Lawrence, 
forming there the picturesque Thousand Islands (p. 228). Beyond 
this point, and to the S. of a line drawn from it to the N. part of 
Georgian Bay on Lake Huron, ^ lies the most fertile and densely 
populated portion of the province of Ontario, forming a great penin- 
sula and bounded to the S. and W. by lakes Ontario, Erie, and 
Huron, with their connecting waters. This may again be described 
in general terms as an extensive plain, for its eleyationa, though 

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higher than any of those met with in the lower St. Lawrence plain 
proper, never exceed 1800 ft. above the sea-level and are nowhere 
abrapt. Its area is approximately 26,000 sq. M. Its soil is almost 
everywhere fertile, and in its S. part the climate admits of the 
successful culture on a large scale of grapes, peaches, maize, and 
other crops requiring a long summer season with considerable 
warmth. Like the St. Lawrence plain it is based on flat or gently 
inclined rocks of the PalaBOzoic age, including strata from the 
Ordovician to the Devonian period, besides glacial and other ^ drift' 
of the Pleistocene age. 

The Great Lakes , forming the perennial reservoirs of the St. 
Lawrence, and constituting one of the most remarkable geographical 
features of North America, have an aggregate area somewhat exceed- 
ing that of Great Britain, or 94,750 sq. M. They stand at four dis- 
tinct levels above the sea, as follows: — Ontario 246 ft., Erie 
572 ft., Huron and Michigan 501 ft. , Superior 602 ft. Of the differ- 
ence in height between lakes Erie and Ontario, 167 ft. is accounted 
for by the falls of Niagara. The mode of formation of these vast 
fresh-water basins has been the subject of much discussion and 
difference of opinion, but in all probability they have been gradu- 
ally excavated by the denuding action of an ancient system of 
rivers, which, at a time when the continent stood higher than it now 
does, have formed extensive valleys by the gradual removal of 
the surface of their dr&inage-basins. Subsequent changes of level, 
together with the irregular deposition of superficial materials during 
the Glacial Period, which have not acted uniformly on different 
parts of the surface, have resulted in the flooding of these old 
basins. That extensive changes of level have occurred, is evidenced 
by the fact that the beds of some of the lakes are now considerably 
below the present sea -level. The honeycombed rocks constantly 
brought up by fishing nets from the bottom of (€,g,) Lake Huron 
also go to prove that the dissolving or gradual decomposition of the 
rock-materials has been a powerful factor in forming lake-basins. 

Beginning with the ancient nucleus of the Laurentian plateau, 
It will be observed that newer formations of Palseozoic age accu- 
mulated about its margins. At a later date these were ridged up and 
folded on the line of the Appalachians , while parts of them, now 
forming the plain of the St. Lawrence valley, remained compar- 
atively undisturbed. Long after these events, and when the whole 
E. division of Canada already constituted a stable dry land, a great 
inland sea extended through the centre of the contin^t from the 
Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. It is unnecessary to endeavour 
to follow the whole history of this sea , of which the earlier stages 
are yet imperfectly known ; but in the Cretaceous period, at approx- 
imately the time when the chalk-formations of Europe were being 
laid down, great horizontal beds of sediment were being deposited 
in this central region. At the close of this period , ttre^deposits 


ceased to be marine , and wide shallow lakes and estnarieg were 
formed in whicli beds differing somewhat in character were pro- 
duced. Together, these beds, scarcely disturbed from their original 
horizontal position, but more or less indurated, form the floor of the 
great inland plain which has been referred to as the Central Division 
of Canada. To some extent the original deposits have been cut away 
by rains and rivers, and in the latest geological period they have 
been very generally strewn with superficial materials due to the 
glacial epoch. Because of the still nearly horizontal position of these 
beds and their small degree of induration, the interior region of the 
continent is especially characterized by uniformity and want of 
salient relief. 

Along the S. boundary of this part of Canada, the inland plain 
has a width from E. to W. of nearly 800 M. Frbm the Red River 
and Winnipeg Lake, near its E. border, it may be described in the 
main as rising gradually toward the base of the Rocky Mountains, 
from a height of a few hundred feet above the sea-level to elevations 
of 3000-4000 ft. Plateaus or ridges, which reach some height, here 
and there locally diversify its surface, and of these, that bordering 
Manitoba and Winnipegosis Lakes is the most notable. It is further 
rather markedly divided by lines of escarpment, or sudden rise, into 
three Steppes or ^Prairie Levels^ differing somewhat in character; 
but in the main it is a nearly uniform plain, cut through by the 
deep valleys of several rivers and their many tributaries which flow 
down its long and light slope to the lakes at its E. edge. This 
description applies chiefly to the S. part of the inland plain of 
Canada. Farther to the N. it is generally lower, and is drained 
almost exclusively by the Great Mackenzie River, which debouches 
on the Arctic Sea. 

A line extended from the S. end of Lake Winnipeg to Edmon- 
ton (p. 264) on the North Saskatchewan, and thence in a S. direc- 
tion to the base of the Rooky Mountains, approximately defines the 
N. limit of the open prairie country. The borders of the prairie and 
woodland are very intricate in detail and even where the plains 
themselves are entirely treeless, belts of timber are usually found 
in the deep valleys of the larger streams. But to the N. of this line 
the surface is generally wooded, and prairie areas are comparatively 
small and exceptional. The soil, as might be anticipated from the 
geological conditions, is almost everywhere exceedingly fertile, but 
the natural prairie land offers much greater inducements to the 
agriculturist than does the forested area. The primary cause of 
the absence of trees from a large part of the interior continental 
plain, is undoubtedly the scanty rainfall of its W. and central tracts ; 
but the prairie has been extended by recurring fires far beyond the 
limits thus imposed. This has been the case particularly in the 
Canadian portion of this plain. To the S. of the International bound- 
ary, most of the region between the 100th Meridian and the Rooky 

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Mountains is too arid for ordinary agriculture, but to the N. of that 
line the arid region is found in a modified form and constitutes 
hut a narrow strip, while that of sufficient rainfall runs completely 
round it to the N. , forming a continuously fertile region from Mani- 
toba to the Rocky Mountains. Irrigation is being carried on success- 
fully in the semi-arid part of the Canadian plain, and will, it it 
hoped, ultimately diyest it of its present treeless character. 

The third of the divisions under which a broad sketch of the 
physiographical features of Canada is here attempted, is naturally a 
very well-defined one, embracing the wide belt of generally mount- 
ainous country that separates the central plain of the Continent 
from the Pacific Coast. In approaching the W. margin of the region 
of plain and prairie , the rugged outline of the Rocky Mountains 
gradually rises above the horizon. Towards the base of these mount' 
ains the heretofore flat-lying strata. of the plain are affected by a 
series of parallel folds giving rise to a corresponding system of ridges 
and subordinate elevations known as the ^ Foot- Hills' ; but the width 
of this intermediate region is seldom more than about 20 M. The 
main range of the Rocky Mountains proper, though not perfectly 
continuous, runs in a nearly direct line from the S. boundary of 
Canada to the Arctic Ocean, which it reaches, though in a reduced 
form, a little to the W. of the mouth of the Mackenzie. This range 
forms the E. border of the great Cordilleran belt, which has an aver- 
age width in Canada of about 400 M. and is a region of folding and 
upturning of rocks on a gigantic scale. The periods at which these 
disturbances of the earth's crust have occurred are comparatively 
recent in geological history, the Cordilleran mountains which have 
resulted from them standing in much the same relation, in respect 
to the older Appalachian Mountains and the still older Laurentian 
highlands of the E. , as do the Alps in Europe to the mountains of 
Wales and the Archaan ranges of Scandinavia respectively. Because 
of their comparative newness and the relatively small time to which 
they have been subjected to natural processes of waste and wear, 
the mountains are here bold and high and the scenery in general 
truly Alpine in character. 

The whole S. part of the Canadian Cordillera, as far N. as the 
60th parallel, is politically included in the province of British 
Columbia, while its N. portion is in Yukon Territory and in the 
W. half of the North- West Territories of Canada. The intricacies 
of its component mountain systems have as yet been imperfectly 
ascertained and but a portion of the whole has been subjected to 
survey, but its ruling features are nevertheless well known. The 
Rocky Mountains proper on its E. side, and the Coast Ranges, which 
border the Pacific, may be regarded as its most important because 
its most continuous elements. Between these bordering ranges lie 
less continuous, but in the main nearly parallel systems of mount- 
ains, which in some places are closely crowded together, while in 



others they separate in such a manner as to admit considerable areas 
of plateau land or low country. Of such areas the Interior Plateau 
of British Golumhia is the most important and best known. This 
has a width of about 100 M., with a length ffirom the vicinity of 
the 49th parallel to about 55® 30') of nearly 500 M. Its mean eleva- 
tion is about 3500 ft., but it is by no means uniform in this respect, 
and can indeed only be described as a plateau by contrast with the 
more elevated mountain tracts which bound it. Omitting from con- 
sideration other minor areas of plateau or low country, we find, far 
to the N., another extensive and relatively low country about the 
headwaters of the Yukon, in which isolated ranges of mountains of 
moderate height appear irregularly. 

The Pacific coast of the Gordilleran region , included in British 
Columbia and in part of Alaska , is remarkably intricate, recalling 
in its outlines the well-known coast of Norway. It is dissected by 
long and very deep and sinuous fjords which penetrate far into the 
Coast Ranges , while innumerable islands lie off it. Resulting from 
the last-mentioned circumstance is the fact that an almost continu- 
ously sheltered line of navigation exists from the S. end of Van- 
couver Island to Cross Sound in Alaska, a distance of over 800 M. 
This route, along the shores of British Columbia and Alaska, is that 
generally followed by the coasting steamers (see R. 68), and it 
abounds in fine scenery, though the most striking landscapes — 
those existing far up the several fjords — are seldom seen by the 
ordinary traveller or tourist. Beyond the main line of the coast and 
its immediate fringe of islands, Vancouver Island and the Queen 
Charlotte Islands may be regarded as constituting the unsubmerged 
and outstanding portions of an outer mountain range. 

The drainage system of the Gordilleran belt is remarkably com- 
plicated. Near the S. boundary of Canada , a narrow portion of its 
E. part is tributary to branches of the Saskatchewan River. Farther 
to the N., the width of that portion which drains to the E. increases, 
till the Peace, Liard, and Peel Rivers are found to draw much of their 
waters from country lying to the W. of the Rocky Mountains proper 
and to cut completely through this range. Beyond the 60th degree 
of latitude, the Gordilleran region declines gradually to the N.W. 
and is drained in that direction by branches of the Yukon , which 
eventually unite, and the resulting river, turning to the W., traverses 
the whole breadth of Alaska and discharges into Bering Sea. The 
Fraser River, with a total length of about 600 M., is the most 
important of those of the S. part of the Canadian mountain region. 

All th^se streams follow very sinuous and indirect courses , and 
they are generally swift, broken by numerous falls and rapids, and 
in consequence unsuited for continuous navigation. 

The line of the Canadian Pacific Railway is practically the only 
one by which the Gordilleran region of Canada is crossed by the or- 
dinary traveller, and the S. part of the province of British Columbia 

Diaitized bv* 


which is thns traversed, is its best known part. It may thus assist 
in forming a conception of the features of this region, which is so 
interesting from many points of view , briefly to note in their order 
the main features there found : — 

The Rocky Mountains proper have in this part of their length 
a width of about 60 M. They are chiefly composed of Palaeozoic 
rocks, among which limestones largely preponderate, and they justify 
the name by the abundance of bare, bold peaks, many of which ex- 
ceed 10,000 ft. in height. But as the vaUeys and passes by which 
the range is traversed stand at levels of from 4000 to over 5000 ft. , 
the actual height of these mountains does not appeal to the eye so 
forcibly as that of some lower ranges which rise from the level of 
the sea. 

After descending to the great valley through which the upper 
waters of the Columbia and its tributary the Kootenay flow in op- 
posite directions, the Selkirk Range is crossed. The valleys are 
here narrower, and the mountains, rising close at hand, are remark- 
ably picturesque and truly Alpine in character. The highest known 
summits in this range somewhat exceed 10,000 ft. A descent is 
then again made to the Columbia in a lower part of its course, after 
which the Gold Range, a less elevated and less picturesque mountain 
system, is crossed. This and the Selkirk range are notable examples 
of the discontinuous mountain systems already alluded to which lie 
between the main bordering ranges of the Cordillera. 

From the W. flanks of the Gold Range, after passing the Shuswap 
Lakes — which may be taken as typical of many important lakes 
of the Cordillera — the Interior Plateau of British Columbia is tra- 
versed. The wide valleys which here characterize this plateau are 
often very fertile, though irrigation (depending on the streams which 
are copiously supplied by the drainage of the higher levels) is gener- 
ally necessary to ensure successful agriculture. The barrier formed 
by the Coast Ranges, which interrupt the W. moisture-bearing winds, 
accounts for the comparative aridity of much of this region, as well 
as for its wide tracts of treeless country spread along the slopes of 
the valleys and over some of the higher parts of the plateau where 
cattle and horses find abundant and nutritious pasture. 

Leaving the plateau country, the line of railway next traverses 
the Coast Ranges by following the Fraser River, which in a series of 
cafions and gorges has cut its way to the Pacific. Many summits in 
this bordering system of mountains attain 7000 or 8000 ft. above 
the sea, while some reach a height of 9000 ft. 

Mineral Wealth. Closely connected with the geological structure 
of the country is the occurrence of mineral substances of economic 
value, and next to its physical features (also dependent on its geo- 
logical constitution), the distribution of such minerals is one of the 
ruling factors in regard to the determinations of centres of popula- 


tion. It is here only possible to mention a few of the more import- 
ant facts in connection with the mineral resources of Canada t. 

Coal , of the age of the Coal Measures or Carboniferous system 
of Europe, is found and extensively mined in Nova Scotia, particu- 
larly in the vicinity of Springhill, near Pictou, and in Cape Breton. 
The output in 1905 amounted to 5,646,583 tons. In New Brunswick 
and in Newfoundland , coal of the same character , but so far as 
known in much less quantity, is again found. 

In the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario coal is wanting, but in 
the Ontario Peninsula Petroleum is obtained from bored wells in 
considerable quantity, and Natural Oas has lately been found in 
abundance in certain places. These combustible materials are de- 
rived from rocks of Devonian, Silurian, and Ordovician age, older 
than the Carboniferous system. 

Beds of Lignite or Brown Coal, resembling that of Germany and 
Bohemia, underlie vast tracts of the great interior plain of Canada, 
where, because of their undisturbed condition, they are often very 
easily worked. On approaching the base of the Rocky Mountains, 
these fuels, in consequence of greater alteration, gradually change 
into true bituminous coals, which are abundant in the foot-hill 
region; while in certain isolated basins in the Rooky Mountains 
they have been still further changed into true anthracite. All these 
fuels may be classed as of Cretaceous age. 

In British Columbia, excellent bituminous coals of the same age 
are worked on Vancouver Island (output in 1905, 1,945,452 tons). 
Fuels of the same kind occur in the Queen Charlotte Islands, where 
anthracite is also found, but these have not as yet been utilized. In 
the inland portions of this province, both bituminous coals and lig- 
nites (the latter of Tertiary age) are represented. The Crow's Nest 
Pass Branch of the Canadian Paciflo Railway (p. 266) traverses one 
of these inland coal basins, which supplies the smelters of Kootenay 
(B.C.), Montana, and Idaho with excellent coke. — The N.W. 
Territories, Yukon, Alberta, and Saskatchewan yielded 786,617 tons 
of coal in 1904. Petroleum and natural gas fields also occur in 

It will be observed that both coasts of Canada are well supplied 
with coal, where it offers itself readily to commercial purposes and 
facilitates communication by sea. The whole coal- and lignite-bear- 
ing area of Canada which has already been approximately defined 
has been estimated at about 97,000 sq. M. 

Iron Ores are found in abundance and of many difi'erent kinds. 
They are worked to a limited extent in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, 
Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia. Ores of Copper and Lead 
are also widely distributed. Qold, in the form of auriferous quartz 
veins, is worked to a considerable extent in Nova Scotia, and al- 

t For details, see reports of the Geological Survey of Canada^ Ottawa. 

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luvlal deposits occur In Quebec. In the W. part of Ontario, parti- 
cularly in the vicinity of the Lake of the Woods and Rainy Lake, 
several mines are already in operation and many others are in course 
of development. In British Columbia alluvial or 'placer^ mining has 
long been carried on, and of late years both free milling and smelt- 
ing ores containing gold have assumed a great and increasing im- 
portance. Several of the rivers to the E. of the Rocky Mountains, 
in Alberta and Saskatchev^an, yield stream gold in remunerative 
quantities. The most striking recent development, however, is that 
of the Klondike region, which since 1897 has attracted so much at- 
tention to Yukon Territory. The alluvial deposits here have proved 
exceptionally rich, and the existence of valuable gold-bearing lodes 
is confidently anticipated. Silver, in greater or less quantity, is usu- 
ally associated with the ores of lead. Mines in the vicinity of Thun- 
der Bay, on Lake Superior, have produced a considerable amount of 
silver; and the recently opened silver mines of the Kootenay district 
of British Columbia are important. The still more recent discoveries 
in the Cobalt district, Ontario (p. 238), where large masses of native 
silver are associated with cobalt, nickel, and arsenic, are attracting 
attention. Other discoveries in the country to the N., and the 
opening (at an early date) of this area by the construction of the 
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, indicate this as one of the most prom- 
ising mining regions of Canada. 

Without endeavouring to enumerate the many mineral products 
of minor importance, the follovdng, which have already attracted 
considerable attention commercially, and which in some instances 
occur in Canada under peculiar conditions, may be specially aUuded 
to ; — Nickel, Large deposits of nickeliferous pyrrhotite are worked 
in the Sudbury district, to the N. of Lake Huron. — Asbestos, Ex- 
tensively worked in the .townships of Thetford, Coleraine, and Dan- 
ville, Quebec. — Mica, Worked particularly in the County of Ottawa 
and its vicinity, to the N. of the river of the same name, in the 
Province of Quebec. — Apatite (Phosphate) occurs in the Ottawa 
Valley, but the cost of extraction renders it at present unprofitable 
to work. — Plumbago or Graphite. Widely distributed; but the 
most important known deposits are those found in the region last 
referred to and in the same rocks of the Laurentian system. — 
Corundum^ the Emery of commerce, and ranking next to the 
diamond in the scale of hardness, occurs in considerable quantity 
in E. Ontario. — Salt. Obtained from bored weUs, in the form of 
brine, in the W. part of the Ontario peninsula. — Oypsum, Occurring 
in great abundance in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and also in 
parts of the Ontario peninsula. It is worked in all three provinces. 
— Platinum. Found in alluvial deposits in association with gold 
in certain districts in British Columbia. The quantity so far obtained 
amounts to only a few thousand ounces annually, but it is greater than 
that produced elsewhere on the continent. 

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Structural materials, including Building Stones of all kinds, 
Slate^ Clay suitable for brick-making, etc, are abundant, and their 
production annually represents an important part of the total mineral 
product of the country. It is not possible here even to designate 
the many varieties met with, the purposes to which they are applied, 
or the particular localities from which they come. Marbles, serpent- 
ines, granites, and other crystalline rocks afford many ornamental 
stones suitable for architectural uses. 

The total value of the mineral products of Canada in 1906 
amounted to $ 68,674,700 (13,714,940^.)- 

Climate. The climate of Canada as a whole is of the 'Conti- 
nental* type, with strongly contrasted temperatures between the 
summer and winter months; the only notable exception to this 
being found in a comparatively narrow strip along the Pacific coast, 
to the W. of the Coast Ranges of British Columbia. That part of 
Canada which has already been referred to for convenience as the 
E. division or region, is everywhere characterized by hot summers, 
with cold winters, during which snow lies upon the ground continu- 
ously for several months and most of the rivers and lakes are ice- 
bound. St. John's (Newfoundland), Halifax (Nova Scotia), and St. 
John (New Brunswick) are the principal ports on the Atlantic side 
which remain open to commerce throughout the year. The rainfall 
of all this region is seasonable and ample from the point of view of 
agriculture. The moisture-bearing winds come chiefly from the S.E., 
while both in summer and winter, dry winds from the N.W. are 

The central region, being farthest from the influence of any sea, 
presents the greatest range of temperature as between the summer 
and winter months, the difference between the means of these sea- 
sons often amounting to about 70° Fahr. As already stated , the 
rainfall is here comparatively light, particularly in the S. portion 
of the great plain. To this central region , the greater part of the 
Cordilleran belt may, in respect to climate, be attached; for though 
not far distant from the Pacific, the humid winds arriving from that 
ocean are effectively barred out or deprived of their moisture by the 
continuous elevations of the Coast Range. In the Cordilleran country, 
however, the bold topographical features cause the climate to vary 
much as between places not far removed and the conditions do not 
thus possess the uniformity of those of the great plains, and in the 
lower valleys the summer is longer and much less severe than is 
the case on the plains. 

The territory which borders on the Pacific has, as already indi- 
cated, an oceanic climate with small tange in temperature and very 
copious precipitation, particularly in the autumn and winter months. 
At Victoria, situated on the S. end of Vancouver Island, the climate 
much resembles that of the S. of England. Snow seldom lies upon 
the ground for more than a few days in winter, while in some sea- 
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sons hardy plants continue to bloom throughout the winter, and the 
thermometer has scarcely ever been known to touch zero of Fahrenheit. 

What has been said above of the climate of Canada refers to the 
S. and inhabited part of the great area of the Dominion. Far to the 
N., Arctic conditions prevail — a rigorous winter of extreme length 
with a short but warm summer. 

A noteworthy difference exists between the E. and W. parts of 
Canada in corresponding latitudes. Places on the E. or Atlantic 
coast have much lower mean temperatures than those found in the 
same degree of latitude in Europe ; while on the Pacific coast, the 
conditions are more nearly like those of Europe and again very dif- 
ferent from those of the Atlantic coast. The causes of these differ- 
ences are rather complicated. They depend in part on the direction 
of the prevailing winds, in part on the circumstance that while the 
E. coast of North America is chilled by a cold Arctic current, the 
temperature of the W. sea is maintained above the normal by a 
warm current, flowing past Japan and making the circuit of the 
North Pacific. The result of these combined conditions is, however, 
important, for while in the E. the agriculturally valuable part of 
the country is somewhat strictly limited to the N., it becomes ex- 
tremely wide in the W. ; rendering it pretty evident to the specu- 
lative geographer, that when the country shall have become fully 
peopled in accordance with its natural capabilities, the greater part 
of its population will lie to the "W. of its central line. In this re- 
spect Canada differs from the United States , in which the natural 
conditions seem to imply that the balance of population will con- 
tinue to be in favour of that part of the continent to the E. of its 
central line. 

From the description given above , it will be obvious that Ca- 
nada is separable, by physical and climatjc conditions, into regions 
which run approximately N. and S., with the general trend of the 
North American continent. The line of division between Canada 
and the United States is a somewhat arbitrary one , and each of 
the natural divisions is continued to the S. by a region more or less 
resembling it. The course of trade, or the exchange of products, 
thus takes an E. or "W. direction, and the means of communication 
once provided, the diversity of conditions forms in itself the strong- 
est material bond of union between unlike parts. One of the chief 
factors in tempering the climate of the fertile prairie of the interior 
is the fact that Hudson Bay, a vast body of salt water, 667,000 sq. M. 
in area, does not freeze over in winter. 

Immigration. Canada has as yet only begun to realize the possi- 
bilities of her position and her abundant natural resources. Before 
the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the great plains of 
the West and the province of British Columbia were exceedingly 
remote from the older and more thickly peopled provinces of the 
East. They were reached with difficulty, and the means of tians- 

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porting the products of tlie interior to the markets of the world were 
primitive or absent. The great area of prairie land, so eminently 
adapted to the growth of grain and the sustenance of domestic ani- 
mals, necessarily lay fallow; while, with the exception of gold ob- 
tained from the superficial deposits and beds of streams and coal 
adjacent to the coast, the mineral wealth of British Columbia re- 
mained unknown or unworked. All this is now in process of change. 
The vast fertile area of the interior of the continent is being more 
and more opened up by new railways (comp., especially, pp. 262, 
307) and is being peopled by immigrants from Europe, from the E. 
provinces of Canada itself, and from the United States, the Govern- 
ment and the railway companies offering every inducement to the 
intending settler t. The export of wheat, cattle, and other agricul- 
tural products from Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan is already 
large and is yearly growing in importance, and before many years, 
the last region of North America where ftee grants of land suitable 
for the growth of wheat can be obtained, will be owned and oc- 
cupied throughout. In the broken country of British Columbia, the 
'prospector' pursues his search for ores even in the farthest recesses 
of the mountains, and in the vicinity of the railway numerous 
mining-enterprises have been already established. 

To the immigrant unskilled in mining or other special pursuits, 
but not afraid of hard work, the farming and 'ranching* lands of the 
Western Provinces are the most attractive. It cannot be denied that 
many difficulties have to. be faced by a newcomer, particularly if 
ignorant of the methods of farming usually practised in Canada; but 
the rapidly rising tide of immigration from the British Isles and the 
United States proves that the value of the *wheat lands' of the 
Canadian West has been recognised. By those accustomed to agricul- 
ture and with a certain amount of capital, lands already under cul- 
tivation may often be purchased in the E. provinces of the Domi- 
nion at moderate rates, and the difficulties of a first establishment 
on new land thus obviated. 

Native Baces. The native races of North America are generally 
referred to as Indians j a misnomer of early date which it is now- 
impossible to eradicate. These people had, before the date of the 
discovery of the New World by civilized man, penetrated to and 
occupied every part of the continent; but where the natural resources 
available to them were small, the population remained exceedingly 
scanty, and a few families often required a vast tract of country for 
their support by the rude methods of hunting and fishing which, as 
a rule, were alone known to them. Within the limits of Canada no 
architectural monuments are met with resembling those remaining 
in Mexico, Central America, and Peru , as the result of the labour 

f Canada is now obtaining about 60 per cent of the immigration froni 
Great Britain to North America, as compared with 12-15>per cent a few 

years ago. Digitized by LjOOQIC 


of the half-civilized races of these regions. A few burial mounds, 
an occasional suryiving outline of some fortified work , with graves 
and scattered implements of stone or hone, constitute the traces of 
all former generations of the aborigines. In parts of the provinces 
of Ontario and Quebec, some rude agriculture was attempted by 
the natives even in prehistoric times, while on the W.- coast sub- 
stantial wooden lodges were buHt and a rudimentary form of art was 
manifested in the design of tools and implements and in carvings 
in wood. Elsewhere the inhabitants were little removed from the 
plane of savagery. The conditions of life were hard, and the cir- 
cumstances for the development of a better constituted society were 
wanting. Wars and midnight forays between adjacent tribes make 
up such legendary history as has survived , and in the absence of 
any means of chronicling events, history even of this kind soon 
lapsed Into mythology. 

The Indians weie divided into almost innumerable tribes, with 
distinctive names ; but by^ means of a study of their language it 
becomes possible to unite many of these under wider groups, which 
the tribal units would not themselves have recognised. 

Of these groups the Eskimo are the most northern and in many 
respects the most homogeneous. They held and still hold the whole 
Arctic littoral from Labrador to Bering Sea, but never spread far 
Inland. To the S. of the Eskimo two great races divided between 
them the greater part of Canada; the Algohkin (or Algonquin) and 
the Tinneh or Athapascan. 

The Algonkin peoples occupied a vast tract extending from the 
Atlantic coast to a line drawn from the mouth of the Churchill River 
on Hudson Bay In a S.W. direction to the Rocky Mountains. Of 
this stock were the Micmacs and Malieetes (or McUiseets) of Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick, the Abnakis, the Montagnais of the 
lands to the N. of the Gulf of St. Lawrence , the Ottawas , the 
Ojihwas to the N. of the Great Lakes, and the Cree$j in part in- 
habiting ihe great prairies and in part the adjacent woodlands to 
the N. The Black foot tribes of the extreme W. plains are also at- 
tached by language to the Algonkin race. To the N.W., the Tinneh 
peopled the entire inland region of the continent, Including the 
Mackenzie valley and that of the Yukon. Among their numerous 
tribal divisions may be mentioned the Beavers^ Loucheux, Kutchin^ 
Siccanies, and Tdeullies, 

Both the Algonkins and the Tinneh or Athapascans were hunt- 
ers and fishermen, often roaming over vast distances in search of 
food and skins , and they can at no time have been numerous in 
proportion to the extent of territory they covered in their migrations. 

Newfoundland was peopled by a race known as the BeoihukSy 
now entirely extinct and of which very little is known. The St. 
Lawrence valley, from the vicinity of Quebec to Lake Huron, was 
held by the Iroquois ov Huron-Iroquois , who appear to* have con- 


stitated a rather numerous population at the time of their discovery 
and were to some extent occupied in tillage, producing limited crops 
of maize, heans, pumpkins, and tohacco. They possessed fortified 
villages and were continually at war with the ruder Algonkin tribes 
to the N. 

The Dakota or ^Sioux' Indians, whose main home was to the S. 
of the 49th parallel, with their offshoot the Assiniboines or Stoneys, 
spread to the N., over a part of the Canadian great plains. 

The S. part of British Columbia was chiefly occupied by tribes 
now classified as belonging to the Salish stock, including the 8hu8~ 
waps , LillooeU , Okanagans , and others. These tribes marched to 
the N. with the Chilcotina and Takullies of Tinneh affiliation. 

In the S.E. corner of British Columbia the Kootaniea appear to 
form a distinct linguistic division; while on the Pacific coast several 
different languages were spoken , and such maritime tribes as the 
Haida, Tshimsian, Aht, and Kwakiool are found. 

As progressing settlement and the borders of civilization have 
encroached on the native tribes, these have been from time to time 
granted reservations, and arrangements have been come to with them 
by which they abandoned their claims to their wide hunting-grounds. 
The compacts thus entered into with the Canadian Indians have 
been observed , and since the early days of the French occupation 
there has been scarcely any active hostility between the whites and 
these people. 

In the £. part of Canada some bands of the Indians have now 
settled upon the land, others find a more congenial occupation of a 
nomadic character as voyageurs, or lead a gipsy-like existence and 
make a living by manufacturing bark canoes, snow-shoes, mocca- 
sins, baskets, and such like articles. A certain number still retain 
their character as hunters and trappers in the N. wilderness ; but 
those which are likely to be seen by the traveller have, by the ad- 
mixture of white blood , ceased to present in any notable degree 
their original characteristics. To meet with the Indian more nearly 
in his native state, one must go to Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan, 
the North-West Territories, or British Columbia. 

On the plains of the N.W., the extinction of the buffalo has 
within a few years deprived the native races of practically their 
whole means of subsistence, and the Government has been obliged 
to provide them with food and clothing, though on certain reserva- 
tions they are already taking to agricultural pursuits with more suc- 
cess than might have been argued from their original desultory mode 
of life. In the S. part of British Columbia the Indians are in some 
places proving to be industrious and capable of maintaining them- 
selves in various ways. Upon the coast of the same province , the 
native fishermen , where the circumstances are favourable, readily 
adopt any mode of life by which a fair remuneration for their labour 
can be obtained. They are largely employed in salmon canneries, 

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in Baw-mills, and in the fui-seal fishery, though in gome of theii 
more remote yillages they still remain much in their prisHne state. 
In the far N., the natives generally maintain their old habits , and 
though supplied with many of the manufactured products of ciyili- 
zation, they remain hunters, and depend for the means of purchas- 
ing commodities which they have now learned to prize upon the 
sale of peltries. These Indians , with a large part of the Eskimo, 
may be regarded as dependents on the Hudson's Bay Company, 
which to them represents Providence. 

It is now known that many of the estimates made at various 
times of the Indian population have been greatly exaggerated, but 
it is impossible to state even approximately what their number 
may have been at the time of the discovery of the continent. In 
most regions they have undoubtedly diminished very materially, 
but in some places the enumerations made .in late years show 
a stationary condition and in a few cases an actual increase. It would 
thus appear, that though in certain districts the aborigines may lose 
their identity by blending with the white population, they are not 
likely in Canada to disappear or become extinct. There are many 
avocations to which their habits and mode of thought peculiarly 
adapt them, and Canada includes a great area in which l^e lore of 
the Indians is likely to remain for all time the greatest vdsdom. 

The total number of Indians now included within the boundaries 
of the Dominion is estimated at about 107,000. 

X. Sports and Pastimei. 

E, T. D. Chambera and W. H, FuUer. 

Pishing. The Dominion of Canada may be justly regarded as 
the Paradise of the angler. Landing at the historic city of Quebec 
in the spring or early summer, the lover of Isaac Walton's gentle art 
will find himself within easy distance of hundreds of limpid lakes, 
varying from a few acres to miles in extent, set like gems in the 
midst of forests as yet hardly touched by the axe, and teeming with 
speckled trout, lake trout, and black bass, of a rapacity and size to 
thrill with joy the heart of the angler accustomed only to the shy and 
puny denizens of English streams. Most of these lakes are free to 
all-comers, but a few of the most easily accessible are in the hands 
of private parties who have formed flshlng-clubs, erected club-houses, 
and make a faint pretence of preserving the waters. The tourist, 
with any ordinary letters of introduction, will find no difficulty in 
obtaining permission to fish these lakes» the hospitality of Canadians 
in this regard being proverbial. 

Should, however, the visitor prefer to taste the delights of the 
wild wood unfettered by the restraints of civilization, he may en- 
gage a couple of guides, provide himself with a tent, abirch-bark 

Ba«dbkib'8 Canada. 8rd Bdit. Digitized by ^OOglc 


canoe, and a few simple cooking-utensils, and in a few hours find 
himself encamped beneath the shade of the ^forest primaval', ap- 
parently as far removed from the trammels of society as though he 
were in the intdrior of the 'Dark Continent'. The isost of such a 
trip will, of course, vary according to the requirements of the tour- 
ist, but it may be kept within very moderate limits. The wages 
of the guides will be from $1.50 to $2 per day A birch-bark 
canoe of the requisite size can be bought for about $ 20 and should 
be readily resold for about half its original cost; but, if preferred, 
the guides will provide this, as well as a tent, charging a moderate 
sum for their use during the trip. Cooking-utensils, including the 
indispensable frying-pan, which plays so important a part in Ca- 
nadian forest cookery, will cost only a trifle ; while for provisions 
the true woodsman will content himself with a flitch of bacon, a 
few pieces of fat salt pork, flour, tea, and such a supply of canned 
vegetables and fruit as his tastes and the length of his stay may call 
for. These, supplemented by the product of his rod and line, 
should amply suffice for the needs of a genuine sportsman, and as 
there will probably be a few scattered settlers in the vicinity of 
his camping ground from whom eggs, milk, potatoes, and, occasion- 
ally, butter may be procured, all the reasonable requirements of the 
inner man will be fully satisfied. Worcester sauce is, curiously 
enough, almost always taken. The sportsman should also be care- 
ful to furnish himself with a mosquito net for protection at night 
against the assaults of these little winged pests, which otherwise 
would prove a serious drawback to his enjoyment. 

The fishing for Trout (Salmo fontinalis ; speckled or brook trout) 
is at its best as soon as the ice is fairly out of the lakes — vis, about 
the middle of May and during the month of June and early part of 
July, when the fish are found in the shallow water and rise readily 
to the fly. Later, as the water becomes warm, they seek the deeper 
parts of the lakes and are only to be captured by deep trolling and 
bait-fishing, until towards the middle of September, when instinct 
impels them to the vicinity of their spawning-grounds. The angler 
in Canadian lakes need give himself but little concern about the 
character of the artificial flies he requires for his trip. A dozen 
varieties of medium size are all he will need, and these can readily 
be obtained in the local shops. The Canadian trout, unlike theii 
British brethren, are not fastidious. They, however, rank with the 
finest trout in the world for beauty of form and marking and for 
excellence of flesh. Specimens of 5-6 lbs. are considered large, but 
they sometimes reach, double that weight. 

Should the angler seek a nobler quarry, he can betake himself 
to the beautiful Lake St. John (p. 164), the home of the famous 
Ouananiehe .(*Wah-na-nish') , the fresh-water salmon of Canada. 
This is a true Salmo solar ^ which has never run down to the seer 
firom its original f^eah- water habitat. It bears a strong resemblance 

.. .Digitized by. doodle ;. . 


to its supposed progeny, — the salmon of the sea, whom it excels 
in rapacity and gameness, but it rarely exceeds six or seven pounds 
iu weight (comp. p. 164). 

The tributaries of the St. Lawrence, especially those on the N. 
shore of this noble riyer, have long been famous for their Salmon 
(Salmo salar) fishing. They are, however, almost entirely held by 
private owners ; and, as the pools are limited in number, it is not 
easy to obtain leave to capture this monarch of game fish. There 
are still, however, many fair streams where fishing may be hired 
by the day or for longer periods. The outlets of these rivers abound 
with Sea Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) of large size, which come in 
with each tide and afford fine sport to the angler, as they rise 
freely to the fly and are commonly taken from three to six pounds 
in weight. This fishing is open to all and is at its best from the 
latter part of June to the end of July, though the trout continue 
to run up the rivers for the purpose of spawning till September. 
These S. shore salmon and sea-trout streams are easily reached by 
means of the Intercolonial Railway (see R. 24), which forms a 
direct route to the fishing and summer resorts of the lower St. Law- 
rence and Bale des Chaleurs as well as to those of New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia. Both these last-mentioned provinces abound in 
lakes and streams, most of them well stocked with trout of large 
size. They are free to all legitimate fishermen. For some account 
of the fine salmon and trout fishing of the New Brunswick rivers 
Bestigouche, Nipisiguit, Miramichi, and Tobique, comp. pp. 90, 89, 
88, and 40. See also p. 38. 

The Lake Trout (S. namaycush ; also called salmon-trout, forked 
tail trout, and touladi) is the prevailing trout in Canada and some- 
times attains a weight of 40 lbs. It rarely rises to the fly, and is 
generally taken by trolling or by bait-hooks sunk near the bottom 
of the river. 

The Pike (Esox lucius) is similar to the English variety and i^ 
widely scattered. In some of the tributaries of Lake St. John it has 
been taken nearly 50 lbs. in weight. — The Maakinothge (Esox no- 
bilior), the largest member of the pike family, prevails extensively 
in the St. Lawrence, the Ottawa, Lake Memphremagog (p. 18), and 
many other waters. 

The Perch (Perca fluviatilis), the Ouitouche (Semotilus bullaris), 
and the Pidcerel or DorS (Stizostedium vitreum) are also widely 
distributed and afford good sport. 

As the traveller proceeds towards the W. he will find in the 
vicinity of Ottawa, the political capital of the Dominion, scores of 
lakes, similar in character to those already described, some of them 
abounding in Black Baas (Micropterus Dolomiei) from two to six 
pounds in weight, the larger size being by no means rare. These are 
most readily captured by trolling or fishing with a live minnow, 
though during the month of July they take the fly readily. Catches 



of thirty or forty of these game fish to a single rod in the course 
of a few hours are not uncommon; and the struggles of a five pound 
bass on a light fly-rod will afford the angler a sensation he will not 
readily forget. Their flesh is excellent eating. This region also has 
lately been made easily accessible by the construction of the Grace- 
fleld branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which has been ex- 
tended to the head-waters of the Gatineau river through a district 
hitherto trodden only by the lumberman and a few wandering In- 
dians (see p. 182). — Another famous sporting-district, heretofore 
difficult of access, has been opened up by the Parry Sound branch 
of the Grand Trunk Railway f comp. R. 41). This line runs from 
Ottawa to Parry Sound on Georgian Bay and passes through the 
famous sporting-districts of Muskoka and Opeongo. — The Rideau 
Lakes (p. 183) are also within easy reach of Ottawa and abound 
with black bass, pickerel, and lake-trout. 

All along the lines of the Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk 
Railways the tourist as he wends his way towards the N.W. will 
have ample opportunity of indulging his piscatory tastes. From 
Toronto the great range of the Muskoka and Kawartha Lakes lies 
open to the angler and can be reached with ease and comfort (comp. 
R. 40 and p. 187). All these lakes teem with fish, and the sportsman 
can either take up his abode in one of the numerous hostelries, 
with which the shores of the principal lakes are studded , or camp 
in comparative solitude on one of the many islands. — The waters 
of the Temagami region (p. 237) abound in trout and bass. 

Moving on to the W. along the line of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way, the traveller crosses numberless lakes and rivers, most of them 
abounding in fish. On many of the best fishing-streams, where the 
dense forest made access almost impossible except to the experi- 
enced woodsman, the railway company has cut * trails* (paths) lead- 
ing direct to the best fishing-points; but the angler will probably 
prefer to push on to Niplgon Station (p 236) , situated on the fa- 
mous trout river of that name. The reputation of this wonderful 
stream has been so widely spread among the followers of the gentle 
art, that detail is unnecessary. Suffice it to say that speckled trout 
three, four, five pounds in weight are common, while even eight- 
pounders are occasionally taken. Whitefish (Coregonus cltipeiformis) 
also afford fine sport in this district. They rise freely at small flies 
and run as high as three pounds in weight. They resemble much the 
grayling of the English streams , having very tender mouths and 
requiring skilful handling before they can be landed. Away onward 
from this point to Winnipeg there is a succession of lakes and 
streams, a description of which would be only a repetition of what 
has already been written. 

Most of the prairie streams and lakes near Winnipeg are well 
stocked with trout, pike, pickerel, black bass, and other fish. Far- 
ther to the W. , at Calgary (p. 266), fine fishing for-mountain-trout 


may be obtained in the Bow and its tributaries. Banff (p. 258) is 
another excellent sporting- centre , which offers the additional in- 
ducement of luxurious accommodation in its fine hotel. The Lower 
Kootenay River (p. 288), still farther to the West, teems with 
mountain-trout of fair size. The Canadian Pacific Railway Go. has 
built sereral fishing-camps on the river between Robson and Nel- 
son, each with accommodation for 6-8 persons , while camp-sup- 
plies may be obtained at the Company's store in Robson. There is 
also good fly-fishing at several points nearer the coast, notably at 
Coquitlan, 17' M. by train from Westminster Junction (p. 284), 
where there is a good hotel. The Capilano and Seymour creeks, 
across the bay from Vancouver (p. 284; ferry, see p. 286)» afford 
good trout-fishing. Large numbers of salmon are caught in the 
bay by trolling, as the Pacific Coast salmon will not rise to a fly ; 
but this mode of capture will hardly commend itself to the genuine 

Shooting. In the foregoing remarks reference has been made 
only to fishing, that being the sport most readily available to the 
tourist, and coming within the scope of an ordinary summer trip. 

Shooting in Canada does not, as a rule, commence before Sept. 1st, 
but it may be said here that in most of the districts already referred 
to , good sport with rifle and shot gun can be had in the proper 
seasons, which may be ascertained by a glance at the synopsis of the 
Game Laws of the various provinces annexed to this article (p. Ixi). 

Nothing can surpass the charm of a hunting-trip in the Canadian 
woods during the months of Sept. and October. The forest-trees 
are beginning to don their gorgeous fall livery ; the air, fresh and 
balmy during the day, is yet sufficiently crisp and bracing at night 
and early morning to make the blazing camp-fire thoroughly en- 
joyable; while the winged pests, which detract so much from the 
sportsman's enjoyment during the summer months, have beaten a 
retreat to their winter quarters. 

The chief ambition of the sportsman on his first visit to Canada 
will probably be to kill a Moose (Alces Americanus), the male of 
which is frequently 8ft. high, weighs 1500 lbs., and has horns 
weighing 60-70 lbs. and measuring 5-6 ft. from tip to tip. Good 
moose heads and antlers are sometimes valued at $ 100-300 , even 
in Montreal or Quebec. In Sept. and Oct. moose are often surprised 
and killed while wading in the cool waters of inland lakes, where 
they feed on the roots and stems of aquatic plants. Like the red 
deer (see p. liv) the moose 'yard' in winter, the yard consisting of a 
cedar or spruce swamp , round or through which they make beaten 
tracks in their rambling. They are thus easily traced by the guides, 
when once the yard has been discovered. A yard sometimes con- 
tains 40 or 50 animals. After a fresh fall of snow , hunters on 
snowshoes can easily overtake the moose, whose great weight causes 
them to sink in the snow. Indian and half-breed guides frequently 


attract moose by imitating their cry. The animal crashes passion- 
ately towards the sound and meets its doom. A repeating rifle is a 
necessity, for a wounded bull-moose will turn upon his assailant. 
In no case need the hunter expect to kill this monarch of the forest 
without the expenditure of much labour and skill, and a true eye 
and steady nerve are required for the final shot. 

Perhaps the moose-hunter cannot do better than make his first 
essay in Nova Scotia. There are three recognised sporting-districts 
in this province: the Northern, which comprises the counties of 
Cumberland and Colchester ; the Eastern , which includes portions 
of East Halifax, Guysborough, and Pictou; and the Western, which 
takes in all the country to the W. of a line drawn from Halifax 
to Yarmouth. Of these districts the last is probably the best; and 
moose are reported 'plentiful* and increasing in numbers. The 
Immense extent of wild and uncultivable land in Quebec and La- 
brador, stretching N. to Hudson Strait and Bay, is another enormous 
game preserve in which the moose occurs in large numbers. Moose 
abound in the country traversed by the Lake St. John Railway (R. 32), 
and one of the large feeders of Lake St. John is named Ashouap- 
mouchouan (p. 164), or 'river where they hunt the moose'. This 
noble game is also plentiful near liake AbitLbi (p. 240), and Mattawa 
(p. 232) is a noted centre for British and American moose-hunters. 

The Caribou (Tarandus hostilis), of which adults weigh 
300-600 lbs., is even more widely distributed than the moose, 
occurring In nearly all the unsettled parts of Quebec , Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick , and Ontario , as well as in the North West Terri- 
tories and British Columbia. In Quebec the most popular caribou 
grounds are on and about Les Jardins, near the headwaters of Murray 
Bay River and now included in the Laurentides National Park 
(p. 163). The name is derived firom the luxuriant growth of coarse 
grass, which is sprinkled with occasional clumps of bushes and trees, 
forming admirable screens for the hunter. The district is reached by 
a drive of 40 M. from Bale St. Paul (p. 167) and a subsequent tramp 
of a few miles through wood. Another excellent hunting-ground 
for caribou is at La Belle Riviere, to the S. E. of Lake St. John. In 
the wilds about Ungava Bay, peopled exclusively by Eskimo and 
Indians, the caribou is shot late in autumn by hundreds and thou- 
sands, the officials of the Hudson's Bay Co. at Fort Chimo depend- 
ing principally on its flesh for subsistence during winter. 

The common Red Deer (Cervus Virginianus) , which is much 
smaller than the caribou and by far the most graceful of the Ameri- 
can CervidiB, occurs in all provinces of the Dominion except Nova 
Sootia and Prince Edward Island. In Quebec it prevails on the S. 
of the St. Lawrence, towards the frontiers of Maine. To the N. of the 
St. Lawrence it occurs mainly in the W. part of the province, between 
the St. Maurice and the Ottawa, but of late years it has also been 
found in the country to the N. of the city of Quebec/^ Red deer are so 


plentiful in the Metapedia Valley (p. 91), that they sometimes lun 
for miles in front of the trains of the Intercolonial Railway (R. 24). 

The Black Bear (Ursus Americanns) is common all ovei Canada. 
It hibernates in winter, but may be met and killed at any other time 
of 'the year. Unless attacked , it usually flees before the hunter, 
but invades farm settlements at night, carrying off sheep and calves. 
It is often shot while swimming rivers. At Lake Timiskaming 
(p. 239) three sportsmen recently killed seven bears in one afternoon. 
It is abundant in the Saguenay country and near Lake St. John and 
the rivers that feed it. The fur is highly prized. 

The principal fur-bearing animals are the Beaver (Castor Cana- 
densis), the Mink (Putorius vison), the Otter (Lutra Canadensis), 
and the Marten (Mustela Americana). None of these may be killed 
between April 1st and Nov. 1st. 

The Canadian Hare (Lepus Americanns) is smaller than the 
English hare, being little larger than, a rabbit, and turns white in 
winter. It is not so plentiful as formerly, snaring being allowed 
and freely practised. 

Good fowling may be obtained in almost every part of Canada, 
though game-birds of all kinds are naturally scarcer in the vicinity 
of large cities. Duck and Snipe abound in Nova Scotia. English 
Pheasanti have lately been imported by the Halifax Fish and Game 
Club and into parts of Ontario and British Columbia; they are said 
to stand the winter well and to be increasing rapidly. New Brun- 
swick offers equal inducements to the sportsman. The best localities 
are traversed by the New Brunswick Railway, now embodied in the 
Canadian Pacific System (R. 16). On the upper Tobique (p. 40) 
and a few miles back in the woods moose and bear are numerous. 
A village of Abnaki Indians is located at the confluence of the 
rivers,, and the residents have a good reputation as reliable guides. 

In' the district to the S., W., and E. of Lake St. John (R. 321 
excellent sport may be had with moose, caribou, bear, duck, and 
Ruffled Cfrouse (Bonasa umbellus). These, added to the incom- 
parable ouananiche fishing (p. 1), should form a bill of fare cal- 
culated to satisfy the most exigeant sportsman. The districts ad- 
joining most of the summer-resorts on the lower St. Lawrence offer 
similar inducements. 

In the neighbourhood of Three Rivers (p. 139) and Sorel (p. 143) 
capital duck, snipe, and woodcock shooting may be had in the 
marshes bordering on the river, and a few days may profitably be 
spent in these localities. 

The Rideau Lakes and River (p. 183), within a short distance of 
the city of Ottawa, afford very fair sport with duck and snipe, while 
a short distance inland from the margin of the lakes a fair number 
of deer may be obtained. The easy access to this district from the 
city, though convenient for the tourist whosettime is limited, mili- 
tates to some extent against the increase ^f the gam^g GoOqIc 


The district already referred to as being opened up by the Qrace- 
field branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway (see p. lil) affords a new 
and almost yirgin field to the sportsman. The forests all along the 
line of the railway abound with deer, caribou, and bear, while a 
short distance to the N. of the terminus of the line, moose are siid 
to be plentiful. 

The region of Parry Sound (pp. 204, 198, 223), Georgian 
Bay (p. 223), and the Muskoka Lakes (R. 40) are now so much fre- 
quented by summer-Tisitors that good shooting is not so plentiful 
as it was a few years ago ; still , fair sport can be obtained by the 
tourist who desires to combine the comforts of civilized life with 
the pleasures of the chase. 

Sharbot Lake (p. 187), easily reached from Ottawa, is a noted 
place for duck, which seem to make it a resting-place during their 
journey to their breeding-grounds farther to the N. Very heavy 
bags are frequently made there. — All the extensive chain of lakes 
in the neighbourhood of the town of Peterborough (p. 187) and 
lying to the N. of the river Trent (p. 189) afford good sport for 
fowling-piece and rod. All these localities are accessible by means of 
the Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk Railways. — Farther to the 
"W., in a portion of the country lying between London (p. 207) and 
Chatham (p. 207), Wild Turkey may still be found. QuaU (Ortyx 
Yirginianus) abound in this district; but, as is usually the case 
in the neighbourhood of all populous towns , they are subjected 
to too much shooting and are likely ere long to become scarce. 
They afford excellent sport over good dogs. 

Below Chatham are the famous Lake St. Clair marshes (p. 207), 
where a good shot will frequently kill over a hundred big duck in 
a single day's shooting. The finest portions of the marshes are 
strictly preserved, but good mixed bags of woodcock, snipe, quail, 
plover, and duck may be made at other points on the lake. Wild 
geese are plentiful in the spring and are usually shot from 'blinds* 
erected on the line of flight. Hotel accommodation can be had in 
the neighbourhood. 

All the tributaries of the Ottawa River (RR. 37, 48) afford good 
sport for gun and rod and have the advantage of being within easy 
distance of central points. Ottawa is as good a point as any for the 
sportsman's headquarters , while farther up the main line of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway the thriving town of Pembroke (p. 231) 
offers an excellent ^point d*appuf, — Moving to the W. along the 
transcontinental line, we come to Mattawa (p. 232), a good starting- 
point for the big game country. Deer abound, as also do black bear, 
while moose are as plentiful as that noble animal can reasonably 
be expected to be (comp. p. liii). Guides, boats, and canoes can 
readily be obtained here. Lake Timiskaming (p. 239), easily reached 
from this point, is surrounded by virgin forests abounding in game, 
moose, caribou, and bear. — Following up the mainline of the rail- 

' ' ° ^ Digitized by^^ 


way, we reach Noxth Bay (p. 233); also a station on the Grand 
Trunk Railway, from which the new Timiskaming and Northern 
Ontario Railway mns into the heart of the picturesque Temagami 
country, where splendid sport with fur and feathered game may 
he had. 

From this point onwards to Winnipeg there is a succession of 
lakes and streams, fishing and shooting grounds, a description of 
which would only he a repetition of what has already heen said j 
hut as soon as the capital town of Manitoha is reached the con- 
ditions hecome entirely changed. Now we have a vast expanse of 
rolling prairie land, nearly 1000 M. wide, dotted over with numher- 
less lakes and swales which have for centuries past heen the resort 
of the migratory water-fowl on their journeys to their hreeding- 
grounds in the far North. Here the true sportsman, who enjoys 
watching the working of his well-trained dogs almost as much as 
the shooting itself, will find sport of a varied character and may 
safely count on a well-filled hag within a few hours' journey from 
Winnipeg. Duck and geese of every variety, Snipe^ Oolden Plover, 
and Prairie Chicken (Gupidonia cupido) ahound, while farther afield, 
in the extreme East of Manitoha, there is a fine country for moose. 
Taking the town of Winnipeg as a starting-point, the sportsman 
can have a choice of an infinite variety of trips according to the 
character of Ihe game he wishes to pursue. Everything necessary for 
these excursions can readily he procured at Winnipeg (comp. pp.249, 
250). Shoal Lake (p. 250) ahounds in wUd-fowl, while in the 
unsettled country to the N. of the lake are many Btack-tcNl Deer 
(Cervus macrotis) and a few moose and elk. Whitewater Lake, 
Lake Winnipeg (p. 250), and Lake Manitoha (p. 251) afford 
enormous hags of wild ducks, and hig game can he had in the 

Father to the W., near Maple Creek (p. 255) and Medicine Hat 
(p. 255), is what is known as the *Antelope Country'; and to the 
N. of Calgary (p. 256) is the *Red-deer Region', a fine one for hig 
game, though as yet seldom visited. 

Away through the heart of the Rocky Mountains, in the midst of 
the grandest scenery the world has to show, the ardent sportsman 
will find farther varieties of game. The Wapiti or American Elk 
(Cervns Canadensis) , moose, deer, carihou. Mountain Sheep {O^U 
Canadensis), Mountain Ooat (Haploceros) , and even the Qrizzly 
Bear (Ursus horrihllis), monarch of the mountains, may fall hefore 
his rifle. The construction of the railway through the Rookies has 
naturally driven hack the game some little distance from the track, 
hut there are numerous places along the line , whence the resorts 
of the hig game can easily he reached, with the help of local guides. 
The railway officials will always he found ready to give information 
and facilities to sportsmen. Laggan (p. 268) and Field (p. 271) 
are the host points, and Banff (p. 258) is also d"?^! ff^Ob^O'ft^lJ^® 


steamers ascending the Golnmbia from Golden (p. 273) aiford 
access to a fine game country. There is always a fair chance of 
meeting mountain goat and sheep in the Asulkan district (p. 276), 
where the railway company has erected a roomy chalet. 

On Vancouver Island, within a short distance of Victoria (p. 289), 
grouse and quail are plentiful; while a short journey into the in- 
terior of the island brings us to the ranges frequented by deer and 

It should be borne in mind by the sportsmen who propose to 
hunt the *big game' of Canada that repeating rifles of the heaviest 
make will be found the most desirable. 

In addition to the above article, the sportsman should consult the 
excellent pamphlets on shooting and fishing, published and distributed 
(usually gratis) by the Canadian Pacific, the Grand Trunk, the Inter- 
colonial, and other railway companies. 

Lacrosse is the national game of Canada and takes precedence 
of all others in the public estimation. It is a modern variation of 
the 'ball game' as originally played by some of the Indian tribes 
and described by various writers. It demands great skill, activity, 
and endurance, and is unquestionably one of the most attractive of 
all pastimes for the onlooker, being full of incident, simple in its 
nature, and *easily understanded of the people*. The National La- 
cro89e Vniorhj comprising representatives of the pring^pal clubs in 
Ontario and Quebec, regulates the dates and locality, and estab- 
lishes the rules, of the annual matches for the championship. A 
championship match usually brings together an immense crowd of 

The leading lacrosse clubs of Canada have recently adopted a rule 
allowing what is virtually professionalism. By its terms paid players may 
play with amateurs, but the former are to be styled ^employ^s' of the 
club to which they belong, and are, as such, to be in every way subser- 
vient to its orders. It is feared that this pernicious example may affect 
other Canadian sports. For the benefit of the English reader, it may be 
explained that there is no real analogy between this action and the playing 
of a professional on an English cricket team , since the paid lacrosae 
players are not instructors or coaches. 

The enthusiasm of the spectators for a favourite club is sometimea 
carried to excess, and some of the principal matches have lately been 
disgraced by a rowdyism which, if not put down with a strong hand. 
cannot fail to bring the game into disrepute. A match lasts V/2 hr., and 
a rest of 5 min. is allowed efter ^ach game lasting 3 min. or more. 

Cricket. The principal clubs are those of Toronto, Montreal, 
Ottawa, Quebec, Winnipeg, Victoria, St. John, and Halifax. There 
is an Associaticnj which selects players to represent All Canada in 
the annual match with the United States and against other visiting 
teams. The game, however, excites little general interest. 

Golf is played at Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Kingston, and 
Toronto. The Quebec Club is the oldest, dating from upwards of 
20 years ago (links, see p. 164). Montreal ranks next in seniority 
(p. 127), while the other clubs are of comparatively recent origin. 
Great interest has, of late, been taken in the game ; and visitlBg 


golfers may be assured of a varm welcome. Inter-Proylncial and 
International (with the United States) Tournaments promise to be 
annual events. The St. Andrews rules are generally followed. 

Hockey Is played in Canada only as a winter-game, and the 
expertness of Canadian skaters makes a well-oontested match an 
extremely graceful and interesting sight. There is much rivalry 
between the clubs of the different cities. Canadian players rank as 
the. most skilful in the world and are much sought after by United 
States Clubs. 

Skating can be enjoyed to perfection in Canada from Dec. to 
March. Almost every city or town has one or more covered skating- 
rinks (comp. p. 126), which are well attended by both sexes. Most 
of them are lighted by electricity ; and the fancy-dress carnivals 
held in them afford a unique and very attractive spectacle. 

Snowshoeing. Every town in Canada has its snowshoe club, 
and in the cities and larger towns they are numerous. Each club 
has its distinctive uniform of bright-coloured blanket-coat and 
'tuque* (cowl), so that a procession of snowshoers tramping across 
the snow on a clear moonlight night, rousing the echoes with their 
songs and choruses , is a most attractive sight , and one not to be 
witnessed outside of the Dominion of Canada. The art of walking 
on snowshoes is not quite as easy as it looks , but can be acquired 
after a little practice. 

Tobogganing is an extremely popular winter amusement in 
Canada with all classes, from the small boy who slides down a steep 
hill on his *bob-sled* to the ^ite of society who flock to Rideau 
Hall on Saturday afternoons to enjoy the facilities afforded by the 
viceregal slides. A toboggan* is constructed of thin pieces of board 
about 18 inches wide , curved upwards at one end and varying in 
length from 4 to 8 ft. , according to the number of persons it Is de- 
signed to carry. A long cushion is placed on it for the passengers ; 
and the firail conveyance rushes down the snow-covered declivity 
at the speed of an express train. The steersman, in the rear, 
directs its course with hands or feet. The sport is most exhilarat- 
ing and has a sufficient spice of danger to make it exciting. The 
toboggan is an invention of the Indians, who use it to drag burdens 
along the snow. 

Tachting and Boating. Toronto is the headquarters of these 
sports, its fine lake-frontage affording special facilities for regattas. 
A yacht club and several rowing-clubs are located here (comp. 
pp. 191, 197). Halifax and Montreal are other yachting - centres 
(pp. 50, 127), and there are rowing and canoe clubs at Ottawa, 
Lachine (p. 230), and other places. Numerous regattas, open to all 
amateurs, are held annually. The Royal St. Lawrence Yacht Club 
has eight times (in nine races) won the ^Seawanhaka International 
Challenge Cup', which is for *twenty*flve footers* what the America 


Gup is for large yachts ; but in 1906 it lost it to the Manchester 
Yacht Club of the United States. 

Curling is seen at its fullest perfection in Canada. In Quebec 
and E. Ontario metal 'stones' are in vogue instead of the granite 
ones commonly used in Scotland. Nearly all the Canadian rinks 
are in covered buildings ; and, as the ice is very carefully looked 
after, a nicety of play is attainable that would be a revelation to 
oldi-fashioned curlers accustomed to the rough-and-ready style of 
the open-air game. Montreal has three curling clubs (p. 127), each 
with a large membership and a commodious club-house. Ottawa 
has also three, including the 'Governor - General's Club', with a 
private rink attached to the viceregal residence (p. 180). Quebec 
has two important clubs. Many of the smaller towns also boast of 
rinks. Matches between the various clubs are frequent throughout 
the winter. The great event is the Winnipeg Bonspiel, held in Feb., 
to which curlers flock firom Milwaukee, St. Paul, and E. Canada. 
The rules observed are those of the *Royal Caledonian Curling 

Football flourishes iu Canada, and clubs exist in all the prin- 
cipal cities. The Rugby Union rules are most generally adopted, 
but the Association game is fast gaining ground. 

Cycling is not so much in vogue as it would be if the country- 
roads were better. Perhaps the best roads are found in the Maritime 
Provinces, especially near Halifax. There are clubs in most of the 
larger cities, and annual race-meetings are held. The chief organi- 
sation is the Canadian Touring Club. 

Motoring is steadily on the increase in Canada, though somewhat 
nterfered with by the inferiority of many rural roads. 

Bowling is practised in all the large cities , usually in clubs 
belonging to the athletic associations. 

Baseball has gained a good footing in Canada, and it is now fast 
increasing in popularity. 

Athletics. Several athletic clubs of considerable importance 
have their headquarters in Canada — notably those of Montreal, 
Ottawa, and Toronto — and are rapidly increasing in size and 
influence. They own commodious club-houses and extend a cordial 
welcome to all visiting athletes. 

Lawn Tennis still lags behind that of Great Britain or the 
United States. Clubs exist in most of the principal towns and 
cities, but there is not much general enthusiasm about the game. An 
annual tournament is> held under the auspices of the Canada Lawn 
Tennis Association; and the 'Queen's Tournament', which takes place 
in Aug. at Niagara-on-the-Lake (p. 208), also attracts many com- 

Horse Bacing. Flat races and steeple-chases take place in Mon- 
treal during spring and autumn, under the auspices o^^^;^ Hunt 


Club (p. 127) } but the most important race-meeting is that held on 
the late Queen Victoria's birthday at Toronto, when the *King's 
Plate' is contested. — Trotting races are frequently held both in 
summer and winter, but seldom possess more than a local interest. 

Summary of Fish and Game Law*. 
Close Season*. 

Ontario. For salmon, lake-trout, and whitefish, Kov. ist. to 30th. 
Speckled trout (brook or river), Sept. 16th to May 1st. Bass, pickerel 
and maskinonge, April 15th to June 15th. — Ducks of all kinds, Dec. 
15th to Sept. 1st. — Deer may be killed only between Kov. 1st and 
Kov. 15th. — Hunting-license for non-residents $ 25. 

Quebec. Salmon, Aug. 15th to Feb. Ist. Speckled trout, Oct. 1st to 
May 1st. Lake-trout, Oct. 15th to Dec. 1st. Ounaniche, Oct. ist to Dec. Ist. 
!Net-flshing is entirely prohibited. — Duck of all kinds, March 1st to Sept. 1st. 
— Caribou, Feb. 1st to Sept. 1st. Moose and deer, Jan. 1st to Sept 1st. 
The hunting of these animals with dogs is prohibited, and not more than 
one moose, two caribou, and two deer may be killed by one person in 
a season. The export of deer and all game birds is forbidden. Licenses 
for non-residents, $ 10 (fishing) and $ 20 (shooting). 

New Brunswick. Moose, caribou, deer, Nov. 80th to Sept. 15th. Cow- 
moose protected at all times. — Other provisions similar to those of 
Quebec. — License required from non-residents for hunting and shooting. 
Fee $60. 

Nova Sootia. Moose and caribou from Jan. 1st to Sept. 16th. "So 
person may kill more than two moose and four caribou during any one 
season. No hunting with dogs allowed. — Salmon, Aug. 15th to Feb. 1st. 
Trout, Oct. 1st to April 1st. — License required for non-residents. 

Prince Edward Island. Speckled trout, Oct. 1st tu Dec. Ist. Salmon- 
trout and whitefish, Oct. 15th to Nov. 30th. Smelts, April 1st to July Ist. 
Sturgeon, May 16th to July 15th. 

Hanitoba. Deer, Dec. 15th to Dec. Ist. — Duck of all kinds, Jan. 1st 
to Sept 16th. Woodcock, plover, and snipe, Jan. 1st to Aug. 1st. — Lake- 
trout and whitefish, Oct. 5th to Dec. 15th. Speckled trout, Sept 16th to 
May 1st. Maskinonge, April 16th to June 15th. 

North West Territories. Elk, moose, caribou, antelope, and mountain 
sheep, Nov. 16th to Oct. 1st. Limit, f^ix head to each person during one 
season. — Duck, geese, and snipe, May 6th to Aug. 2drd. Grouse, par- 
tridge, pheasant, and prairie chicken, Dec. 15th to Sept. 16th. — License- 
fee for non-residents $26 for a general license, $16 for a bird license. --> 
Speckled trout, Oct. 1st to Jan. Ist. 

British Columbia. Deer, elk, caribou, mountain sheep, and mountain 
goats, Dec. 15th to Aug. 81st Cow-elk protected at all times. — Grouse, 
partridge, pheasant, prairie fowl, and quail, Jan. 1st to Sept. 1st. Hen* 
pheasant protected at all times. — Trout, Oct. 15th to March 15th. 

XI. Bibliogn^aphy. 

The following is a very small selection of ihe most recent, inter- 
esting, and easily accessible books on some of the main topics on 
which visitors to Canada should be informed. A few of the best 
records of the impressions of English travellers are incladed. Numer- 
ous other works of local interest are referred to throughout the 
textof the Handbook. 

The visitor to Canada, who wishes thoroughly and intelligently to 
enjoy his tour, should certainly be familiar with the fascinating pages in 


which Francis ParkmtmiiA.. 1893) tells the romantic story of the rise and fall 
of the French Dominion in Canada. Arranged in the chronological order of 
their subjects, his works are as follows: — 'The Pioneers of France in 
the Xew World' (1612-1635)5 *a?he Jesuits in North America' (1834-70) j 
*La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West' (1643-89); *Gount Fron- 
tenac and New France under Louis XIV.' (1620-1701); ^The Old Regime 
in Canada' (1653-1763) ; *A Half-Century of Conflict' (1700-48)1 'Montcalm 
and Wolfe' (1745-64); and *The Conspiracy of Pontiac' (1763-1769). Mr. 
Parkman made extensive use of the Archives of the French Ministry of 
Marine, of the 'Jesuit Relations', of the accounts of the voyages of Gartier, 
Champlain, etc., and of French and Canadian state-papero of all kinds. 
^The Romance of Canadian History', edited by P. Edgar (1904), is a series 
of extracts from Parkmsn's works arranged so as to form a short con- 
secutive narrative. — For the utilization of more recently discovered manu- 
scripts bearing upon the heroic period of Canadian history, eomp. the 
works by Dr. A. 0. Doughty and by Mc^ior William Wood mentioned at 
p. 147. See also the annual 'Review of Historical Publications relating 
to Canada', by O, Jji, Wrong and JET. H. Langton. 

The most comprehensive history of Canada is that of William Eingt- 
ford^ LL. />., the- tenth and last vol. of which, reaching to 1841, was pub- 
lished in 1898. — Other histories are those of /. M. McMvilen (covering 
the period 1492-1892: new edit., 1892), Dent (1840^2: pub. 1P83), Bourinot 
(1760-1900; pub. 1900), A. O. Bradley (1900), C. F. Lucas (War of 1812} 
pub. 1906), F. X. Gameau (1492-1840; 4th edit., 1883), the Abb^ Ferland 
(1534-1763; 2nd ed., 1882), and Riveillaud (1504-1851; pub. 1888), the last 
three in French. The student may also consult Justin Winsor*s 'Narrative 
and Critical History of America'. Among the best manuals are 'The Story 
of Canada' by Sir J. O. Bourinot ('Story of the Nations' Series, 1896; 
revised and extended edition, 1901), and the 'History of Canada' by Prof. 
Claries Roberts (1897). Comp. also BourinoVs 'How Canada is Governed' 
(1896) and 'Manual of the Constitutional History of Canada', and Clemenfs 
^Canadian Constitution' (1892). 'The Makers of Canada' is a somewhat 
unequal series of biographies published by Morang d: Co. of Toronto. — 
Among other works that may be mentioned in this connection are Ooldv^ 
Smith's 'Canada and the Canadian Question' (1891), Sir Charles DilkeU 
'Greater Britain' (2nd ed., 1886), Bichard Jebb's 'Studies in Colonial Nation- 
alism' (1905), Prof. Seelep^s 'Expansion of England' (1883), Bradshaw's 
'Self-government in Canada and how it was obtained' (1903), and EoUand's 
'Imperium et Libertas' (1901). — F. A. accord's 'Handbook of Canadian 
Dates' (1888) and the 'Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs' (by 
/. C. Bopkins) may be found useful. 

Among descriptive works the first place may be givep to 'Picturesque 
Canada' (1884), a large and handsomely illustrated work, edited by the 
late Principal O. M. Orant, Among other more or less recent books of 
description and travel are 'Canada in the Twentieth Century', an excellent 
eneral account of Canada and Canadian life by J. 0. Bradley (1904) ; 
^Canada To-Day', by John A. Hobson (London; 1906); 'Canafiian Life in 
'Town and Country', by Henry J. Morgan and Lawrence J. Burpee (1906); 
'The Dominion of Canada', by Charles Marshall (1871); 'Canadian Pic- 
tures', bv the Marquis of Lome (1885); 'Canada as it is', by John Foster 
Fraser (1905); 'Ocean to Ocean', by Q. M. Grant (1877); 'The Barren Grounds 
of Northern Canada', and 'Through the Sub -Arctic Forest', by Warburton 
Pike (1891 & 1896); 'On Snow-shoes to the Barren Grounds', by Ccupar 
Whitney (1896); '(3amp- Fires in the Canadian Rockies', by Wm. T. Hor- 
naday (1905); 'The Great Lone Land' and 'The Wild North Laud', by Capt. 
W. F. Butler (1873-4) ; 'Sport and Travel in the Northland of Canada', by 
David T. Banbury (1904); 'New Land', by Otto Bverdrup (1904); 'Hudson 
Bay, or Every-Day Life in the Wilds of North America', by R. M. Bal- 
lantyne; 'Fifteen Years' Sport and Life in the Hunting Grounds of Western 
America and British Columbia', by W, A. Baillie Grohman (1900); '^y 
Track and Trail through Canada', by Edward Roper (1891); ^Through Canada 
in Harvest Time', by James Lumsden (1903); 'Travels and Adventures in 
Canada and the Indian Territories', by Alex. Benry (new edit., by James 


Bain; 1901); *The Great Dominion', by O, R, Parkin (1895) ^ 'Through the 
Barren Lands* (1896) and *A>-ross the Subarctics of Canada' (3nd ed., 1908), 
hjJ. B. TprreU: ^Canada, Britain's largest Colony', by A L. JJaydon (19U6) j 
*Our Canadian Heritage', by Wiffhfman (1905) | *d80D Miles across Canada', 
by /. W. C HaldaM (1900); ^Greater Canada', by E, B. Oa>om (1900>i and 
*The North-West Passage by Land', by Viscount Milton and W. B. CJuadle 
(TCh ed., 1867). It should be remembered that the older of the above 
books refer to conditions which have largely passed away. *New Lights 
on the Early History of the Great Northwest' is a reeen'ly published book, 
giving the MS. journals of Alex. Henry and David Thomson (1799-1814), 
edited by Ftof. ElUoU Coue*. — For works on the Canadian Rockies by 
Outrtxmy Bivifield A Collie^ and Wilcox y see p. 269, and for works on the 
Selkirk Mts. by Wheeler and Green ^ see p. 275. — The following recent 
French works may be noted: *Le Canada*, les deux races', hj Andri Sieg' 
fried (ICOB)? *La Colonisation de la Nouvelle- France', by EmUe Baloni 
(1906); *Au Canada et chez les Peaux-Bouges', by George Demanche (1905); 
and 'Paysages Canadiens', by Valbert Chevillard (1891). 

A good short geographical account of Canada is given by Dr. George 
it. Damon in the ^Geography of the British Colonies' in ^MacMillan's 
Geographical Series' (1892). See also Part II. of ^North America', by 8. E. 
Davson, in 'Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel' (new edition, 
1899), 'Historical Geography of the Briiish Colonies' (Vol. V., *CanadaO, 
by 0. C. Lttcat (1901), nnd 'Descriptive Sketch of the Physical Geography 
and Geology of Canada', by A. R. C. Belwyn and G. if. Dawson (1884). 

A work that is almost indispensable to the intelligent visitor to Canada 
is the excellent 'Statistical Year-Book of Canada', now prepared by Mr. 
A, Blue, Chief Census Officer of the Department of Agriculture, and issued 
annually. — The ^Reports' of the Geological Survey (list of publications 
supplied on application) and of the Department of the Interior also contain 
a great deal of matter of interest for the traveller, including accounts of 
exploration in wild and unvisited districts. — Accounts of the resources 
of the country are given in the 'Handbook of Canada', edited by Profeuors 
Wright and Mavor for the meeting of the British Association at Toronto 
in 1897, in 'Progress of Canada in the Century', by /. CasUU HopHns (1902), 
in 'C.inada's Resources and Possibilities', by /. Stephen Jeans (1904), in 
'Canada : the New Nation*, by H. R. Whales (1906), and in Professor James 
Mavor'^s 'Report to the Board of Trade on the North-West of Canada' (with 
interesting maps; 1904). — 'Canada, an Encyclopeedia of the Country', 
edited by /. C. HopHns (6 vols.; 1898-99). — Reports on Altitudes in 
Canada can be obtained from the Department of the Interior. 

Those interested in geological phenomena should be provided with 
*An Annerican Geological Railway Guide', by James MacFarlane (2nd 
edit., New York, 1890), in which the geological formation at every rail- 
way-station is given, with notes on specially interesting features. — Other 
useful books of reference are the 'Canadian Almanac' and the 'Commercial 
Handbook of Canada'. 

Haps. The leading General Maps of the Dominion are the 'Map of 
the Dominion of Canada' (85, 58, & 100 M. per inch), published by the 
Department of the Interior; the ^Ilailway Map of Canada', published bv 
the Department of Railways & Canals; and the 'Geological Map of Canada , 
issued by the Department of the Geological Survey. These maps can be 
procured by application to the Departments at Ottawa; and the last can 
also be obtained through a bookseller. 

The best maps of the Provisoes toe a 'Man of the Province of On- 
tario' (6 M. per inch), issued by the Post Otfice Department, Ottawa; 
'Quebec, with outline indications of adjacent provinces and states' (ITi/s M. 
per inch I, issued by the Department of Lands. Mines, d^ Fisheries, Quebec; 
^MacKinlay's Map of Nova Scotia' (71/3 M. per inch), published by A. W. 
MacKinlav, Halifax; *Map of Prince Edward Island^ (2^/2 M. per inch), 
published by G. Ballingall, Charlottetown; 'Loggia's Map of New Bruns- 
wick' (4 M. per inch), published by J. A A. McMillan, St. Jo^ ; 'Map 01 

Digitized by VjC^OQIC 


Manitoba, Alberta, k Saskatchewan (12>/i M. per inch), pablished by the 
Department of the Interior, Ottawa-, 'Map of British Columbia* 00 M. per 
inch), issued by the Department of Lands and Works, Victoria; 'Map of 
Yukon' (12 M. per inch), published by the Department of the Interior, 

Detailed Map* of yarious parts of the country on larger scales are 
published by the Department of the Interior and the Geological Survey, 
Ottawa , and by the Crown Lands Departments of the Provinces. These 
maps can be obtained only by application to the respective Departments, 
except those of the (geological Survey, which may also be procured through 

AdmrdUy CharU of the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts, of the Gulf and 
River St. Lawrence, and of the Great Lakes mav be had from the Ad- 
miralty or from the agents at Halifax, Quebec, Toronto, and Vilstoria. 

CharU of the Great Lakes, showing the Canadian coasts, are published 
by the Corps of Engineers, United States Army, and may be had firom the 
Chief of Engineers, Washington. 



Route Page 

1. The Trans-Atlantic Voyage 2 

a. From Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal .... 2 

b. From Liverpool to Halifax 4 

c. From Glasgow to Quebec and Montreal 5 

d. From Glasgow to Halifax and Portland 5 

e. From Antwerp to Quebec and Montreal 5 

f. From Liverpool to New York 5 

g. From Liverpool to Boston 6 

h. From Southampton to New York vi^ Cherbourg. « 6 

i. From Hamburg to New York 7 

j. From Bremen to New York 7 

k. From Havre to New York 8 

1. From Antwerp to New York vitt Dover 8 

m. From Rotterdam to New York 8 

n. From Glasgow to New York 8 

0. From Copenhagen, Chris tiania, and Chris tiansand 

to New York 9 

p. From Genoa and Naples to New York 9 

2. From New York to Montreal 9 

a. VilL Albany (or Troy), Saratoga, and Lake Champlain 9 

b. Via Troy, Rutland, and Burlington 14 

c. Via the Connecticut Valley 15 

d. Via Utica and the Adirondacks 16 

3. From Boston to Montreal 17 

a. Via Rutland and Burlington 17 

b. Via Lowell and Concord 17 

c. Via Concord, Plymouth, Wells River, and Newport 18 

From Newport to Magog, 18. From Famham to Ghambly 
and Montreal, 19. 

d. Via Portsmouth and North Conway 19 

4. From New York to Quebec via Springfield 20 

5. From Boston to Quebec 21 

6. From New York to Toronto 21 

7. From Boston to the Maritime Provinces by Sea .... 22 

a. From Boston to Eastport and St. John 22 

b. From Boston to Yarmouth 23 

c. From Boston to Halifax 23 

8. From Boston to St. John by Railway 24 

From Mc Ad am Junction to Woodstock, 25 j to St. Stephen 
and St. Andrews, 25. 

9. From Portland to Montreal and Quebec 25 

a. Via the Grand Trunk Railway 26 

b. Via the Maine Central Railroad 26 


Basdbkbb's Canada. 3rd Edit. 

1. The Trans-Atlantic Voyage. 

The following short account of the chief oceanic routes used by 
European visitors to Canada may he of service. For general hints 
as to the voyage, see p. xii. An interesting account of the Atlantic 
steamship - service is given in 'The Atlantic Ferry', by Arthur 
J. Maginnis (Sidi ed., 1900). Many steamers on the principal lines 
are now equipped with wireless telegraphic apparatus, allowing 
communication either with shore-stations or with passing vessels. 

The following list of the colours of the funnels ('smoke-stacks') of the 

Erincipal steamship-lines will help the traveller to identify the steamers 
e meets. Allan, red, with white band and black top; American^ black, 
with white band; Anchor y black (English flag); AUantie Tramporty red, 
with black top; Canadian Facile Railway^ buflF; Compagnie Oiniraie Tram- 
atlanHque, red, with black top (French flag) ; Ounard^ red, with black top 
and three narrow black bands ; Dominion, red, with white band and black 
top; Hamburg, buff or black (German flag); Holland-Ameriea, black, with 
green and white bands; Italian, black, with central white band; Leyland, 
red, with black top; North German Lloyd, buff; Red Star, black, with white 
band; Scandinavian, black, red, and black; White Star, salmon, with 
black top. 

The *day's run* of the steamer, given in nautical miles (7 'knots* = 
about 8 Engl. M.), is usually posted up every day at noon in the companion- 
way. The traveller should remember that his watch will gain V**/* ^^* 
daily in going W. and lose the same amount in going E. 

a. From Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal. 

This is the direct ocean -route from England to Canada and is that 
followed by the Allan^ Dominion, and Canadian Pacific RaUway''t Atlantic 
lines from the middle of April to the middle of November. Fare from 
about $65, second cabin from $40. Quebec is 2635 nautical miles from 
Liverpool and is reached in 7-9 days ; Montreal, 140 knots farther up the 
St. Lawrence, is reached in 10*12 hrs. more. The usual time on the Atlan- 
tic between Ireland and Belle Isle is 4-5 days. The turbine steamer 'Vic- 
torian'', of the Allan Line, has made the passage from Moville to Quebec 
in 51/2 days, while the G. P. B. 'Empress of Ireland' has reached Montreal 
from Liverpool in 6V4 days. Steerage passengers are landed at Quebec, 
but first and second cabin passengers have often the option of travelling 
thence to Montreal by special train or (recommended) of continuing the 
voyage up. the beautiful St. Lawrence. In fine summer weather this is 
probably the most satisfactory approach to Canada from Europe. Quebec 
time is 4 hrs. 45 min. and Montreal time is 4 hrs. 55 min. behind that 
of Liverpool. 

Liverpool, see Baedeker'' 8 Great Britain. Passengers usually board 
the. Atlantic steamers from the Landing Stage. As we pass down 
the wide estuary of the Afcrscy we see the crowded docks of Liverpool 
to the right, while to the left lies New Brighton, with its pier, fort, 
and lighthouse. The mouth of the river is marked by a lightship, 
which we reach in about 2 hrs. after starting. On leaving the 
Mersey, the steamer turns to the right (N.W.), passes to the S. of 
the Calf of Man (seen to the right), comes in sight of the coast of 
Down (Ireland) in about 9 hrs., passes through St Patrick's Channel 
(between Ireland ^n4 Scotland), and skirts the N. coast of Ireland, 


affording a view of the Island of Rathlln (left). [Sometimes, on a 
clear day, the steamer passes between Rathlln and the mainland, 
affording a distant view (1.) of the Giant'i Caweway.'\ Some 
steamers ascend Lough Foyle to (190 knots from Liverpool) Mo- 
viUCf the port of Londonderry^ where mail and extra-passengers 
are taken on hoard. On issuing from Lough Foyle, the steamer 
steers at first to the W. and then, after passing Malin Head, 
the northernmost point of Ireland, to the S.W. The last part 
of Ireland seen is usually Tory Island (lighthouse) or the Island 
of Arranmore, off the coast of Donegal, The general course fol- 
lowed across the Atlantic is considerably to the N. of that of the 
New York boats, lying (roughly speaking) between the parallels 
of 52° and 66** N. lat. The first land seen in the New World is 
the small island of BelU Isle, lying at the mouth of the Oulf of 
St. Lawrence. + 

We then thread the StraiU of Belle late, 12-20 M. wide, lying 
between the forbidding coast of Loftrador (see p. 117) on the right and 
the island of Newfoundland (see p. 102) on the left. After we leave 
the Straits, the GnU rapidly expands, but in clear weather land is 
almost continuously visible to the N. as far as Cape Whittle (see 
below). Beyond Bradore Bay the N. coast of the Gulf belongs to 
the Province of Quebec (p. 148). Numerous fine salmon - streams 
flow into the Gulf all the way from Belle Isle to the Saguenay, and 
many small fishing-stations may be seen along the shore. To the 
right, about 160 M. from Belle Isle, rises Cape Mekattinaj a bold 
headland. At Cape Whittle^ 80 M. farther on, our course bends from 
S.W. to nearly W. The steamer is now out of sight of land for about 
75 M., until Heath Point, at the E. end of the island of Anticosti, is 
seen ahead. 

Anticosti, dividing the St. Lawrence Onlf into two channels, lies at 
a distance of 25-70 M. from the coast of Quebec. It is 140 M. long and 
10-30 M. wide. The Dominion Government maintains important signal- 
stations here, and it also bears fonr lighthouses. The island was purchased 
in 1895 by Mr. Menier, the chocolate-mannfactnrer of Paris, who has ex- 
pended la^e sums of money in developing the fisheries and agriculture. His 
experiments have proved that the soil and climate compare very favourably 
with the mainland. The fisheries (cod, herring, lobster, and halibat) are 
very rich. There are three fair harbours, at EUi* Bay (where Mr. Menier has 
constructed a breakwater nearly a mile long), Fox Bay^ for small craft 
(with a lobster-cannery), and South West Point. The island is well tim- 
bered, and there is a good water-power. The stationary population (almost 
wholly French-Canadian) is about 700, but numbers of workmen come 
every summer to work at the fisheries and clearing of the land. There 
are two villages, Bate Ste. Claire (or English Bay) and Strawberry Cove. 
Mr. Menier's villa is at Ellis Bay. Salmon abound in all the rivers. 
Mr. Menier has stocked the island vnth moose, red deer, and other wild 
animals, and considerable quantities of bear, fox, and martin fur are 
annually obtained. Gomp. ^Monographie de Tile d'Anticosti"*, by Joseph 
Schmitt (Paris, 1904). 

t In May and June the steamers enter the Gulf of St. Lawrence round 
the S. side of Newfoundland. 

Digitized b%^^OOQlC 


Nataaliquany 80 M. from Cape Whittle, lies to the light, at the 
month of the liyer of the same name, one of the largest on the coast, 
and celebiated for its salmon. 

The steamer passes to the S. of Anticosti, between it and the 
Peninsula of Oaspi (p. 90). Beyond Anticosti the land on both sides, 
which again fades ont of sight for a time, belongs to Quebec. To the 
left (S.) is Cape Magdalen^ at the mouth of the Magdalen River. To 
the right lie Moiaic and the picturesque Bay of Seven Islands^ cel- 
ebrated in a ballad of Whittier. On Egg Island (right) Admiral 
Walker's fleet was wrecked in 1711 , 800 men losing their lives 
(see p. 147). Our course again lies nearly due S. — The St, Anne 
Mts.j culminating in Mt. Bayfield (3973 ft.), are seen to the left as 
we near the mouth of the St. Lawrence. 

We leave the Gulf and enter the noble St. Lawrence Biver (see 
p. 227) between Cape Chat on the left and the low Pointe de Monte 
(lighthouse) on the right, about 580 M. from Belle Isle and 130 M. 
from the W. end of Anticosti. The river is here 32 M. wide. About 
25 M. farther on, to the left, rise the Paps of Matane, The village 
of Matane lies at the mouth of the Matane River. The steamers not 
carrying mails take on the pilot at Father Point (p. 93), while the 
mail-steamers take the pilot on board and land the mails and passen- 
gers for the Maritime Provinces at Rimouski (see p. 93) , 80 M. 
from the mouth of the river, here 30 M. wide. About 10 M. beyond 
Rimouski are the little village of Bic (p. 94) and Bic Island. The 
outline of the S. shore here is picturesque. Farther on are Troie 
Pistoles (p. 94) and the Rosade Isles. Green Island^ 6^2 M". long, 
lies just below Cacouna^{^. 168). Nearly opposite, on the N. shore, is 
the mouth of the Saguenay (p. 170). From this point to (130 Engl. M.) 
Quebec and (310 M.) Montreal, see RR. 33, 29. 

b. rrom Liverpool to Halifax. 

This is the winter-route of the Allan, C. P. B., and Dominion Steamabip 
Lines. The Fumess Line plies fortnightly between Halifax and Liverpool, 
calling at St. John's, l^ewfonndland (comp. p. 102), and fortnightly between 
London and Halifax. The distance from Liverpool to Halifax is 2A80 knots 
(time 7-8 days). Halifax time is 4 hrs. 10 min. behind that of Liverpool. 
From Halifax the Dominion steamers go on to Portland (p. 24), the Allan 
boats to St, John (p. 27). Some of the Allan steamers ply direct to Portland. 

From Liverpool to Tory Island, see pp. 2, 3. The course across 
the Atlantic is more southerly than that above described, the first 
American land seen being Cape Race, the S.E. extremity of New- 
foundland, in 46® 40' N. lat. Thence we steer to the W.S.W. to 
(460 knots) Halifax (p. 50), on the E. coast of Nova Scotia, The 
mails are put on shore here, and also those passengers who wish 
to continue their journey by rail (special train to Montreal and points 
in the W. of Canada and the United States). 


CARNSORE POINT. /. Route. 5 

c. From Glasgow to Quebec and Montreal. 

This route is followed by some steamers of the Allan Line (see p. 2). 
The distance from Glasgow to Quebec is 2570 knots, the time taken 10-11 
days. Passengers may join the steamer at Glasgow or Greenock. The 
difference of time between Glasgow and Montreal is 43/4 brs. 

QUugow and the beautiful voyage down the Firth of Clyde are 
described in Baedeker's Great Britain. On leaving the estuary of the 
river, we round the Mull of Cantyre (right) and proceed to the W., 
along the N. coast of Ireland. Thence to Montreal, see R. 1 a. 

d. rrom Glasgow to Halifax and Portland. 

The Glasgow steamers of the Allan Line follow this route in winter. 
Distance to Halifax 2435 knots (9 days), to Portland 2895 knots (10 days). 
Portland time is 5 hrs. behind Glasgow time. 

From Glasgow to Tory Island, see RR. 1 o and 1 a ; thence to 
Halifax and Portland, see R. lb. 

e. From Antwerp to Quebee and Montreal. 

This route is used by some of the steamers of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway's Service (comp. p. 2). The distance to Quebec is 3146 knots, the 
time taken 11 days. Fare $60. The steamers go on to Montreal after 
landing third-class passengers at Quebec. The difference of time between 
Antwerp and Montreal is 5 hrs. 

Antwerp, see Baedeker s Belgium and Holland. The first part of 
the voyage is similar to that of R. 11, the latter part to that of 
R. la. 

f. From Liverpool to New Tork. 

This is the route followed by the Ounard and White Star steamship 
companies. The fastest steamers take about 6 days from port to port 
(comp. p. xiii), the slowest 8-9 days. The distance varies from 3000 to 
3100 nautical miles (ca. 3400-3550 Engl. M.), according to the course followed. 
New York time is 4 hrs. 48 min. behind that of Liverpool. The records 
for the fastest passages between Queenstown and New Tork are held at 

g resent by the Cunard steamer ^Lucania* (eastward passage in 6 days, 
hrs., 37 min. ; westward passage, 5 days, 7 hrs., 23 min.). Fare from $ 75. 
The new Ounard steamers *Lusitania* and ^Mauretania*, with turbine engines 
and four screws, are the largest vessels afloat (790 ft. long and 88 ft. wide-, 
displacement 45,000 tons ; 70,000 horse -power). It is expected that they will 
materialJy reduce the time of passage. For greater details of the ro tes 
to American ports, see Baedeker'' s United Slates. 

From Liverpool to the mouth of the Mersey, see R. 1 a. Farther 
on, in clear weather, we see the Welsh coast to the left (S.), where 
the Little and Great Orme's Heads are the most prominent points, 
backed by the distant Snowdon Group. A little later we skirt the 
N. coast of the Isle of Anglesey, then turn to the left, and steer to 
the S.W, through St. Georges Channel, soon losing sight of land. 
The Skerries, with a lighthouse, lie off the N.W. point of Anglesey. 

The first part of the Irish coast sighted is usually Camsore Point, 
in Wexford, the S.E. comer of the island, off which lies the Tuskar 
Rock Lighthouse. In about 12-16 hrs. after leaving Liverpool we enter 

6 Route 1. ST. ALBAN'S HEAD. 

the beautifal inner harbour of Queenstovm (about 250 Engl. M. from 
Liverpool), where a halt is made to take on board the mails and 
additional passengers. 

On leaving Queenstown, we skirt the S. coast of Ireland for 
some distance, passing several bold rocky headlands. The last piece 
of European land seen is usually the Fastnet Rock (lighthouse), off 
Cape Clear Island^ 60 M. to the S.W. of Queenstown, or, in clear 
weather, Dursey Island, with the adjacent Bull Rock Lighthouse, 

In crossing the Atlantic Ocean from E. to "W., the steamer 
descends through about 11 degrees of latitude (Queenstown 51® 
SO' N. lat.. New York 40® 42' 43*0. The course varies somewhat ac- 
cording to the season of the year and from other causes. The sum- 
mer route crosses the Banks of Newfoundland (see p. 113). The first 
American land sighted is usually either Fire Island or the Navesink 
Highlands, each with a lighthouse ; but before either of these we see 
the Nantucket Lightship (192 M. from the Sandy Hook Lightship), 
which communicates by the Marconi wireless system with Siasconset 
and reports incoming vessels. About 3 hrs. after sighting land we 
approach Sandy Hook Bar and enter the Bower Bay of New York. 

The voyage thence to New York, through the Narrows, past the 
Quarantine Station, and up the beautiful *New York Harbour (with 
the colossal Statue of Liberty, etc.), is described in Baedeker's United 
States, Custom-house formalities, comp. p. xiii. 

g. From Liverpool to Boston. 

This route is followed by weekly ateamera of the White Star Line and 
the Cunard SUamship Co. Ca75-2975 knots, in 7-10 days). The weekly 
cattle-steamers of the Leyland Line also carry a limitea number of first- 
class passengers in comfortable quarters and at moderate rates (ca. 10 days). 
Fare from $55. Boston time is 11 minutes ahead of that of New York. 

The route is substantially the same as that to New York (R. If). 
Boston, see p. 17. 

h. From Southampton to New Tork vi& Cherbourg. 

This is the route followed by the American Line (International Mercantile 
Marine Co.), sailing under the American flag. The distance from Southamp- 
ton to New York is 3075 knots, and the usual duration of the voyage is 
6V2-71/2 days. Passengers are conveyed by special train (10 a.m. on Sat.) 
from London to Southampton (l*/* hr.), where they embark directly from 
the wharf. The steamers then proceed to Cherbourg, to meet passengers 
from Paris (special train at 9.20 a.m. ; 6V4 hrs.), and leave this port at 5 p.m. 
Fares from $ 75, second cabin from $ 47.50. Southampton time is 4 hrs. 
54 min. ahead of that of New York. 

Southampton, see Baedeker's Great Britain. The steamer de- 
scends Southampton Water and passes through the Solent, affording 
a good view of the Needles to the left (lighthouse ; red flashing light). 
The time of the voyage is reckoned from this point. To the right 
is St. Albans Head. The steamer then crosses 1^ Cherbourg (see 

GOODWIN SANDS. /. Route. 7 

Baedeker's Northern France) and after leaving that port proceeds to 
the W. through the English Channel. Start Point (white flashing 
light) and Eddystone Lighthouse (one fixed and one flashing light), 
in Plymouth Bay, are seen to the right. The last point seen of the 
English mainland is Ldzard Head, in Cornwall, and the last European 
land sighted is the SciUy Isles (lighthouse), about 30 M. to the S.W. 
of the Land's End. — The rest of the voyage is similar to that de- 
scribed in B. If. 

i. From Hamburg to New Tork. 

The ExpsBSS Stbaiuzbs of the Hamburg - American Lint ply to New 
Tork ri& Soathampton and Cherbourg (7i/t^ days; from Southampton to 
Cherbourg. 78 M., in 5 hrs.-, from Cherbourg to New York, 3027 M., in 
6V2-7 days), and the Mail Stbamers run to New York direct (3505 knots, 
in 10-11 days). Fare from London from $ 70, second cabin from $ 50. 

The Express Steamers start from Cuxhaven, at the mouth of the Elbe, 
68 M. from Hamburg, to which passengers are forwarded by special train, 
while the other boats start from Hamburg itself (wharf at the Grosse 
Grasbrook ; see Baedeier''s Northern Qermany). At Cuxhaven, Southampton, 
and Cherbourg passengers embark by tenders. Passengers are carried be- 
tween London and Southampton and between Paris and Cherbourg free of 
charge, by special trains. New York time is 4 hrs. 54 min. behind that 
of Southampton and 5 hrs. 35 mki. behind that of Hamburg. 

The Hamburg- American Co. has also a regular line of emigrant-steamers 
(Hansa Line) from Hamburg' and Antwerp to Canada. Emigrants from 
Great Britain join the steamer at Antwerp. 

On the SS. ^Amerika' and 'Kaiserin Augaste Victoria" the passengers 
may be booked on the ^European plan\ receiving a rebate of $ 15-25 from 
the regular fare and paying for their meals in *Ritz's Carlton Restaurant* 
(B. or L. 75 c, D. $ 1). 

Leaving Cuxhaven, the steamer steers to the N. W. , passing the 
three Elbe Lightships and affording a distant view of the red rocks of 
Heligoland to the right. Various other German, Dutch, and Belgian 
lights are visible. The first English lights are those of the Galloper 
Lightship and the Ooodwin Sands^ while the first part of the coast 
to come in sight is usually near Dover. Farther on we pass through 
the Straits of Dover, with the English and French coasts visible to 
the right and left. The steamer of the direct service keeps on her 
way through mid -channel, while the express-steamer hugs the 
English coast, passes between the Isle of Wight and the mainland 
(with Portsmouth to the right), and enters Southampton Water 
(430 knots), where it generally anchors off Calshot Castle, to receive 
the British mails and passengers from Southampton (see Baedeker s 
Great Britain^ It next proceeds to Cherbourg (see Baedeker's 
Northern France"), to take on additional passengers and mails. The 
remainder of the route to New York is similar to that of R. lb. 

j. rrom Bremen to New Tork. 

The ExPBBss Stsambhs of the North German Lloyd (Norddeutteher 
Lloyd) run to New York (3500 M., in 6V2-7 days) vi& Southampton and 
Cherbourg, while the slower boats, calling alternately at Soathampton and 
Cherbourg, take about 10 days. The steamers start from (40 M.) Bremer- 


Jutven^ at the mouth of the TTeier, to which passengen are forwarded by 
special train. See Baedeker'^a Norfhtm Qermany. The 'Kaiser Wilhelm der 
Zweite* of this line holds the record for the quickest passage firom Cherbourg 
to New York (6 days, 12 hrs., 25min.) and vice versi (6 days, Shrs., 20 min.). 
New York time is 5Vz l^rs. behind that of Bremen. 

On leaying the mouth of the Weser, the steamer steers to the 
N,W., with the Jahdebusen opening to the left. Farther on it passes 
the Ecut Drisian Islands. The rest of the yoyage is similar to that 
described in R. 1 h. Southampton is 460 M. from Bremerhaven. 

k. rrom Havre to New Tork. 

This route is followed by the French steamers of the Compagnii Qini- 
rale Trantatkmtique. The distance is 3100 knots and the average time 
6-7'/i days. New York time is 6 hrs. behind that of Havre. 

Hawtf, see Baedeker's Northern France, The steamer steers out 
into the English Channel^ affording distant views of Cape La Hague 
and the Channel Islands to the left, and of the Scilly Isles to the 
right The farther course of the voyage resemhles that of the German 
steamers described in BB. li, 1 j. 

L From Antwerp to New Tork vi& Dover. 

This is the route of the Eed Star Une (3340^10 knots, in 8 days). 
The steamers sail every Sat. and call at Dover. Fare from $ 66, second 
cabin from $ 45. New York time is 6V4 hrs. behind that of Antwerp. 

Antwerp^ see Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. The steamer 
descends the West Scheldt, with the Dutch province of Zeeland on 
either side, passes Flushing, on the island of Walcheren (right), and 
enters the North Sea. In very clear weather the towers of Bruges 
and Ostend may sometimes be distinguished to the left farther on. 
Seyeral lightships are passed, and the first English land sighted is 
the high chalk cliffs of the South Foreland. The course after the 
call at Dover (see Baedeker's Oreat Britain) is similar to that of the 
German steamers (see BB. li, 1 j). 

m. rrom Botterdam to New Tork. 

This is the route of the Holland- America Line^ sailing under the Dutch 
flag (3280 knots, in 8-10 days). At low water the steamers start from the 
Hook of Holland. They call at Boulogne. Fare from $66, second cabin 
from $46. 

Rotterdam, see Baedeker's Belgium ar^ HoUand, The steamer 
descends the picturesque Maas for 2 hrs. and then crosses the North 
Sea to (10-12 hrs.) Boulogne (see Baedeker's Northern France), The 
rest of the yoyage is similar to that of B. 1 h. 

n. From Glasgow to New Tork. 

This is the route of the Anchor Line and of some boats of the AUan 
Line (2920 knots, in 7V»-9 daysj from Moville, 2820 knots, in 7-8 days). 
Passengers may join the steamer at Qlaseow, Oreenoek, or Moville. Fares 
$ 65-125, second cabin $ STVs-^^Vt. The di£ference of time between Glaagow 
and New York is 4V4 hrs. Some of the Allan Line steamers run io Boston. 

Digitized by dOOQ IC 

NAPLES. l.RouU, 9 

From Glasgow to Tory Island^ see R. 1 c. The general couise 
followed by the Glasgow steamers is considerably to the N. of that 
of the Liverpool boats, not joining the latter before the Bari69 of 
Newfoundland (p. 113). 

0. From Copenhageni ChriBtiania, and Christiansand to New Tork. 

The steamers of the Scandinavian-American Line ply from Copenhagen 
to New York (3705 knots) in about U days, calling at (275 knots) Christiania 
one day and at (165 knots) Christiansand two days after starting. ITew York 
time is 5V2 hrs. behind that of Copenhagen and Christiania. 

Copenhagen^ see Baedeker's Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. The 
steamer steers up the Cattegat, with Denmark on the left and Sweden 
on the right. At Christiania (see Baedeker's Norway'), at the head 
of the piclnresque Christiania Fjord, It embarks passengers from 
Drontheim, Stockholm, Gothenburg, etc. It then retraces its course 
through the fjord and follows the coast of Norway to Christiansand, 
where it is joined by passengers from Stavanger, Bergen, and the 
W. coast of Norway. Leaying Christiansand, the steamer steers to 
the W., round the N. coast of Scotland, passing through the PenUand 
Firth and within sight of the Orkney Islands, Farther on it turns to 
the S.W, and eventually joins the route described in R. 1 a, off the 
Banks of Newfoundland. 

p. From Genoa and Naples to New Tork. 

The Itidian Royal Mail Steamehip Co. (NavigaHone Oenerale ItcUiana) 
maintains, in conjunction with the steamers of La Veloce (Navigaeione ItaJiana 
a Vapore), a weekly service on this route, while some of the other great 
lines also despatch steamers to Italian por^ at more or less regular intervids. 
The distance from Genoa to New York is 4500 knots (13 days), from Naples 
to New York 4150 knots (12 days). New York time is 6 hrs. behind that 
of Italy. 

For the Italian ports, see Baedeker's Italian Handbooks. Leaving 
Genoa, the steamers steer to the S., along the coast of Italy, to 
Naples, They then turn towards the W., pass to the S. of Sardinia, 
and proceed through the Mediterranean Sea to Gibraltar, Beyond 
the straits, their course across the Atlantic to New York is slightly 
to the N. of W. They pass within sight of the Mores. 

2. From New Tork to Montreal. 

a. Yi& Albany (or Troy), Saratoga, and Lake Champlain. 

884 M. Nkw Yobk Gentbal & Hudson Bivbr Railsoad to (143 M.) 
Albany in 2*/4-4 hrs.*, Dblawabb & Hudson Railhoad thence to (191 M.) 
Rmtee'e Point in 6-6«/4hrs. ; Grand Trunk Railway thence to (60 M.l Montreal 
in IVa hr. (through-express in 108/4-1274 hrs. ; through-fare $ 10.65, parlor- 
car $2, sleeper $2; best views to the left as far as Albany, then to the 
right). Luggage checked through to Montreal is examined by the custom- 
house officers on arrival. — This is tiie shortest and most direct route 
from New York to Montreal. Those who liave not seen the Hudson should 
go by 8IBAM.E to Albany. ^^^^^^^^^ .,GoOgIe 

10 BouU 2. NEW YORK. 

The United States portions of this and the following routes are 
given in the merest outline, and the reader is referred for greater 
detail to Baedeker's United States. 

New York. — Hotels. Below 14th St. : Lafayette- Brevoort House^ B. 
from $2^ A$ior H<nue, R. from $ li/z; Broadway Central, from $ 2Vs, B. from 
$ 1 ; St. Denis^ R. from $ 1 \ Lafayette (French), R. from $ 1, etc. — From 
14th St. to 26th St. (incl. Union Sq. and Madison Sq.) : Fifth Avenue Hotel, 
from $ 5t R. from $2^ Hoffmann House, R. from $2^ Everett House^ R. from 
$ IV2; i^etff Amsterdamy R. from $ 1 ; Weatminater, from $3V2i R. from $ 1; 
Albemarle, R. from $2, etc. — Above Madison Square: * Waldorf- Astoria, 
R. from $21/2; * Holland House, R. from $2^ *St. Regis^ R. with bath from 
$65 Knickerbocker, R, with bath from $ 21/2; Hotel Gotham^ R. with bath 
from $4-, Belmont, close to Grand Central Station, R. from $2, with bath 
from $3*, Hotel Astor^ R. from $2V2, with bath from $ S'/g; Savoy, from 
$5, R. from $2) * Netherlands R. from $2^ Plaza, from $5, R. from $2*, 
Majestic y R. from $2Y«; Buckingham, R. from $2; Manhattan ^ R. from 
$2; Imperial, R. from $ 2; Murray Hill, from $4V2, R. from $ 1V«; Vendome, 
R. from $2 5 Cadillacy Grand Union, R. from $1; *Park Avenue, from $3V», 
R. from $1; Marlborough, $ 3V2, R. $ IV2; and many others. — Boarding 
Houses ($ 8-30 per week) and Furnished Lodgings ($ 4-15 per week) are 
easily procured. 

Elevated Railroads. The four Elevated Railroads of New York traverse 
Second, Third, Sixth, and Ninth Avenues from end to end of Manhattan 
Island. The uniform fare for any distance is 5 c. (children under five free), 
and stations occur at frequent intervals. Trains run every few minutes 
during the day, and on Third, Sixth, and Ninth Avenues also during the 
night at intervals of 10 minutes. 

Rapid Transit Railroad or New York Subway {Inlerborough Rapid Transit 
Cb, 13-21 Park Row). An important addition to the transit-facilities of the 
city is afforded by this underground electric railroad, opened in 1904. It is 
21 M. in total length, and extends from City HaU to (14 M.) Kingshridge, 
Spuyten Duyvil Creek, on the W. side of the city, and to (14 M.) Bronx Park 
on the £. side. The uniform fare is 5 c. and there are frequent stations. 
Express trains to 96th St. in 13 min., local trains in 21 minutes. 

Tramways (mainly electric) traverse nearly all the avenues running 
N. and S. and most of the important cross-streets (uniform fare 5 c.). The 
cars nominally stop only at the upper crossings going up, and at the lower 
crossings going down town. An omnibus (^stage'; fare 5 c.) runs from 
Bleecker St. up Fifth Ave. to 89th St. 

Carriages. The cab - fares of New York are high. Hackney Carriages 
(1-4 pers.), usually with two horses, $ 1 for the first mile and 50 c. for 
each i/s M. additional ; per hr. $ I'/z, each additional Vx hr. 75 c. ; waiting 
40 c. per 1/4 hr. Cabs and Hansoms (1-2 pers.), 60, 25, $ 1, 60 c, 25 c. One 
runk, not exceeding 50 lbs. in weight, free; extra luggage 25c. per piece, 
hildren under eight years of age free. — The Pennsylvania and the Kew 
York Central Railways have special cab-services at lower rates. 

The Excursion Brakes, Automobiles, and Steam Yacht of the 'Seeing 
New York' company afford an excellent method of making a first general 
acquaintance with the city. Particulars on application at the office, Fifth 
Ave. side of Flat-iron Building (p. 11). 

Post Office, City Hall Park, open day and night, on Sun. 9-11 a.m. ; 
d\BO ^b District Stations , iOD Sub -Stations (in druggists' shops), and in- 
numerable letter-boxes. — Telegraph Messages may be sent from all the 
chief hotels (to New York or Brooklyn 20 c. per 10 words, to other parts 
of the United States 25c.-$l per 10 words, to Ontario or Quebec 40*;. per 
10 words. Nova Scotia or New Brunswick 50 c, Manitoba 75 c, Nev .ound- 
land $ 1.10, British Columbia $1-4^ to England 25 e. per word). 

Theatres. New York contains 40-50 theatres, among the chief of which 
are the Metropolitan Opera House, the Academy of Music, DalyU^ Madison 

Digitized byCjOO^lC 




NEW YORK. 2, Route. 11 

Square, New Anuterdam, Lyric^ Majestic^ Wallaek'ty New Lyceum^ Broadtoayy 
Fifth Avenue^ and Casino. The Madison Square Garden and the Hippodrome 
are also prominent places of amusement. 

British Consul- General, Sir Percy Sanderson, C. M. 0., 17 State St. 

New Yorkf the largest and wealthiest city of the New "World, with 
31/2-4 million inhah. (3,437,400 at the census of 1900), is situated 
on New York Bay, in 40® 42' 43" N. lat. and 74® 0' 3" W. long. It 
now consists of the boroughs of Manhattan, The Bronx, Brooklyn, 
Queens, and Richmond. Manhattan or New York proper, with about 
2,000,000 inhab., consists mainly of the long and narrow Man- 
hattan Island, which is bounded by the Hudson or North River on 
the "W. and the East River on the E., while it is separated from 
the mainland on the N. and N.E. by the Harlem River and Spuyten 
DuyvU Creek. The older and lower part of the city, devoted almost 
entirely to business, is irregularly laid out and contains many narrow 
streets; but above 13th St. the streets are wide and laid out at right 
angles to each other. 

New York was founded by the Dutch in 1624 under the name of New 
Amsterdam, and passed into English possession 50 years later. Greater 
New York, as above described, was constituted in 1897. 

The most important business-street of New York is Broadway, 
which runs from Battery Park (with Aquarium'), at the S. end of 
Manhattan Island, to (5 M.) Central Park (p. 12). Among the chief 
buildings in or near it, enumerated from S. to N., are the large 
new Custom HousOy at its S. extremity ; the huge Produce Exchange 
(right); the Washington Building (left); the Exchange Court Build- 
ing (right); the Manhattan Life Insurance Co. (r. ; *View from tower, 
360 ft. high); Empire Building (left); * Trinity Church (1.; 1839- 
46) ; the Union Trust Co. (r.) ; the Equitable Life Insurance Co. (r. ; 
*View from the roof); St. PauVs Church (1.) ; St. Paul Building (1.); 
the FOBt Office, the *City Hall, the Court House, the Park Row 
Building (30 stories ; *View from towers, 387 ft. high), and several 
large Newspaper Offices, all in City Hall Park (to the right) ; and 
* Grace Church (r.; cor. of 11th St.). At 14th St. Broadway reaches 
*TJnion Square, with its statues and fine shops ; and at 23rd St. it 
reaches "'Madison Square, also embellished with statues and sur- 
rounded by handsome hotels and other buildings, including the new 
""Appellate Court House (cor. of 26th St.), and the curious Flat Iron 
Building, at the point of junction of Broadway and Fifth Avenue. 
Farther on, Broadway passes numerous theatres and hotels and 
reaches Longacre Square, with the tall building (375 ft.) of the 
New York Times, beyond which it is somewhat uninteresting. 

Among the streets diverging from Broadway are Wall Street, the 
Lombard Street of New York, with the Stock Exchange (10-3), the U. S. 
Sub-Treasury,, and the Old Cvstom House; Liberty Street, with the *New York 
Chamber of Commerce building, erected in 1903 j the husy Fulton Street; Fark 
How, at^City Hall Park, leading \o Five Points and the Bowery; Astor Place 
(r.), leading to the Mercantile Library^ the ^^ Astor Library, and the Cooper 
Union; Foubteenth Street, a busy shopping-resort, with Tammany Hall; 
and Twenty-Third Street, a more fashionable ahopping-resort, containing 

12 Route 2. NEW YORK. From New York 

the substantial building of ttie Yoimg Men's C?uHttian Association. — At Park 
Bow starts the famous 'Brooklyn Suspension Bridfo, crossing the East 
River in one main span of 1600 ft. (total length, incl. approaches, 5990 ft.)i 
at a height of 136 ft. above high water. It commands a splendid *View of 
New Tork, Brooklyn, and the Harbour. [Farther up the East River are 
the WiUiamstntrff Bridge, completed in 1904, and the unfinished Manhattan 
Bridge and BlackwelVs Island Bridge, all three notable structures.] 

•Fifth Avenue, the chief street in New York from the etandpoiut 
of wealth and fashion, runs from Washington Square to (6 M.) the 
Harlem River (p. 13). Between 40th and 42nd Sts. is slowly rising 
the new building of the •Kew York Public Library, which will be 
one of the greatest architectural monuments of the city. Above 42nd 
St Fifth Avenue consists almost wholly of fine private houses, dubs, 
and cbuTches, including the Synagogue ofEmanU'El, the restaurants 
of Delmonico and Sherry, the Dutch Reformed Church, *8t. Patrick's 
Cathedral (B. C), the ^Varhderbilt Mansions, and the Fifth Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, At 59th St.,where Fifth Avenue reaches Central 
Park (see below), is a fine *Statue of Qtneral Sherman, by St. Gau- 
dens. Between this point and 110th St. the avenue skirts the E. 
side of the park, passing, among other handsome buildings, the 
* Lenox Library, with its valuable collections of rare books and 
MSS., pictures, and sculptures (adm. 9-6). 

Other fine streets, running parallel with Fifth Avenue, are 
*Madi8on Avenue and Park Avenue, the former vying with Fifth 
Avenue as a residence-street and the latter containing many hand- 
some charitable and educational institutions. The Tiffany House, at 
the corner of Madison Ave. and 72nd St., is an interesting specimen 
of curious yet beautiful architecture. 

•Central Park, occupying the centre of Manhattan Island, covers 
840 acres of ground and is very beautifully laid out. It is adorned 
with numerous monuments, the most important of which is *Cleo^ 
pair a* s Needle, brought from Alexandria in 1877. 

On the W. side of Central Park, between 77th and 81st Sts., 
stands the ^American Huseum of Natural History, a large build- 
ing containing highly interesting collections (adm. daily, 9-5 j fee on 
Mon. & Tues. 26 c). 

The ^^Metropolitan Huseum of Art, on the £. side of Central 
Park, opposite the 81st St. entrance and near Cleopatra's Needle 
(see above), should be visited by every traveller in New York (adm. 
daily, 10 to dusk ; on Mon. and Frid. 25 c. , at other times free \ 
also on Mon. & Frid., 8-10 p.m., and on Sun. afternoon). 

Among the chief features of the museum are the Cesnola Collection of 
Cyprian Antiquities; \Il& Ancient Pictures, including good examples of Rem- 
brandt, Van Dyck, Frans Hals, Velazquez, Rubens, Van der Meer, and 
Jacob van Ruysdael ', the Modern Paintings of the French (Meissonier, Detaille, 
Corot, Rosa Bonheur, etc.), German, English, and American schools; the 
Collection of Glass; an Etruscan Biga; the BoscorecUe Frescoes; and the 
Musical Instruments. 

The stately *Biverside Drive or Park, extending from W. 
71st St to W. 127th St. (ca. 3 M.), commands plendmi views of 

to Montreal, PLATTSBURG. 2. Route, 13 

the Hudson. Here, opposite 89tli St., is the Soldien and Sailors 
Monument, in the form of a small Greek circular temple of white 
marble. Near the N. end of the Drive is the sumptuous Tomb of 
General Vlyues 8, Grant, — Not far off are Momingside Heights^ 
with 8t, Luke^s Hospital and *Columbia University, one of the 
leading colleges of America. — At the comer of Morningside Avenue 
and 112th St. is the new Episcopal Cathedral ofSt. John the Divine, 
the building of which has not advanced very far. 

The visitor to New York, with a few days to spend, will find many 
other objects of interest both in the city itself and in its environs (see 
BaedekerU VMted States). 

The train starts from the Grand Central Depot (42nd St.), crosses 
the Harlem Rioer (p. 12), and runs to the W. to (11 M.) Spuyten 
Duyvil, beyond which it skirts the E. bank of the fluc?«on (♦Views). 
16 M. YoTikers; 26 M. Tarrytown; 31 M. Ossining, formerly Sing 
Sing, with the large New York State Prison ; 41 M. PeekskUl; 69 M. 
Fishkill; 74 M. Poughkeepsie , the seat of Vassar College; 116 M. 
Hudson, Opposite rise the CatsTcills. At (142 M.) Rensselaer we 
cross the Hudson. 

143 M. Albany (*Ten Eyeh, New Kenmore, Stanwix Hall), the 
capital of New York Stete, with (1900) 94,150 inhab. and a hand- 
some * Capitol, — The train now follows the W. bank of the Hudson 
to (159 M.) MechanicvUU, where we turn to the left (W.). — 180 M. 
Saratoga Springs (United States, Grand Union, Congress Hall, Wind- 
sor, Kensington, Worden, and many others), one of the most noted 
inland watering-places in the United States, with about 30 saline 
mineral springs (season, July and Aug.). — Beyond Saratoga the 
train runs to the N.E., crossing the Hudson again at (197 M.) Fort 
Edward, whence a railway runs to (14 M.) Caldwell, at the head of 
Lake George, — 219 M. Whitehall, at the S. extremity of *Lake 
Champlain» the W. bank of which we now follow. 241 M. Fort 
Ticonderoga, the junction of a line to (6 M.) Baldwin, at the foot of 
Lake George, and the starting-point of the Lake Ghamplain steamers. 
At (269 M.) Port Henry the Adirondack Mts. are seen to the left. 
270 M. Westport; 298 M. Port Kent, the junction of a line to the 
(2 *M.) wonderful *Ausahle Chasm, — 306 M. Hotel Champlain 
Station, for the large and finely fltted-up *Hotel (200 ft.; $5) of 
that name, commandingly situated on Bluff Point, overlooking Lake 

309 M. Plattsbnrg (Fouquet House), a town of about 8500 inhab., 
on the W. shore of Lake Champlain , is a convenient point for ex- 
cursions on that lake and is also one of the gateways to the Adiron- 
dacks. — Our line now leaves Lake Champlain and traverses a some- 
what monotonous district. 319 M. West Chazy is the junction of an 
alternative route to Montreal. ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ GoOglc 

14 Route 2. BURLINGTON. From New York 

At (334 M.)BonBe*B Point ( Windsor, $2V2-3), at the N. end of 
Lake Champlain, we enter the Province of Quebec in the Dominion 
of Canada (cnstom-house examination of hand-baggage). We now 
run over the tracks of the Grand Trunk Railway, near the left hank 
of the Richelieu y the discharge of Lake Champlain. The country 
traversed is a flat alluvial plain. 

357 M. St. John's (St. John's^ Windsor ^ Canada House, $2; Rail. 
Restaurant; U.S. Consul, Mr. Chas. Deal), on the Richelieu, is a 
quaint French-looking little town of (1901) 4030 inhab., with some 
manufactures and a local trade in grain, produce, and lumber. It 
was at one time of considerable importance as a fortified post com- 
manding the line of approach by the Champlain Valley, and it was 
one of the chief bases of supply for the troops of Carleton and Bur- 
goyne in the campaigns of 1776-7. The grass-grown fortifications, 
the old Colonial houses, and the large Lunatic Asylum contribute to 
its picturesqueness. — 864 M. Lacadie; 372 M. Brosseau's; 376 M. 
Golf Links ; 378 M. 8t, Lambert, the junction of three lines of rail- 
way (G.T.R., Q.S.R., and C.V.R.). The train now crosses the 
St. Lawrence by the Victoria Bridge (see p. 137) and sweeps round to 
the left, passing the suburban stations of (381 M.) Point St. Charles 
and (382 M.) St. Henri 

384 M. Montreal (Bonaventure Station), see p. 125. 

b. Yi& Troy, Rutland, and Burlington. 

397 M. Kew York Central & Hudson River Railroad to (149 M.) 
Troy in 4-5 hrs. 5 Boston & Maine R. R. thence to (90 M.) White Creek in 
IVs hr. ; Rutland R. R. thence to (188 M.) St. John's in 6V2 hrs. ; Canadian 
Pacific Railway thence to (30 M.) Montreal in 2/4 hr. (through-trains in 
I2V2-I3 hrs. 5 fares, etc, see p. 9). 

From New York to (142 M.) Rensselaer, see R. 2 a. 

149 M. Troy {Fifth Avenue, $2V2-3; Mansion Ho., $2-21/2; 
Windsor, R. from $1), a busy industrial city of (1900) 60,651 in- 
hab., lies at the head of the steam-navigation of the Hudson, and 
is an important railway-centre. 

Our train here turns to the right (N.E.) and runs over the 
Boston ^ Maine R. R. to (179 M.) White Creek. We then run towards 
the N., with the Qreen Mts. at some distance to the right. 202 M. 
Manchester, at the base of Mt. Equinox (3816 ft.)j 234 M. Rutland 
(Rail. Restaurant), in the centre of the marble-quarries of Vermont. 
Farther on, views of the Green Mts. are obtained to the right. — 
301 M. Burlington {Van Ness House, $2-3), the chief city of Ver- 
mont, with (1900) 18,640 inhab. and an immense lumber-trade, is 
finely situated on the E. bank of Lake Champlain. The University 
of Vermont here is attended by 600 students. 

To the N. of Burlington the line crosses the beautiful islands of 
Lake Champlain, with the aid of long embankments. 314 M. South 
Hero; 318 M. Grand Isle ; 326 M. North Hero. Theiiue now returns 

to Montreal. NEW HAVEN. 2. RouU. 15 

to the mainland. 332 M. UU La Motte. At (;336 M.) AUmrgh hand- 
baggage is examined by the Canadian custom-house officers. A little 
farther on we enter Quebec and run along the E. bank of the Riche- 
lieu (p. 14). 344 M. Noyan is the junction of the Grand Trunk 
Railway to Ottawa and of the Quebec Southern Railway to St. Hya- 
cinthe (see p. 141). 348 M. ClarencevUle (U. S. Con. Agent). At 
(366 M.) IbervillCy the junction of a line to Quebec (p. 141), we 
cross the Richelieu to (367 M.) St. John's (p. 14), where we join 
the Canadian Pacific Railway. — Hence to — 

397 M. Montreal (Windsor Street Station), see pp. 47, 48. 

c. Yifc the Connecticnt Valley. 

450 H. Ksw ToBK, New Haven, A Hartfobd Bailroad to (136 M.) 
Springfield in S^At-lVs hrs.} Connecticut & Passdmpsic Division of the 
Boston Sl Mains B.B. thence to (50 M.) South Vernon in 1V4-2 hrs. ; Central 
Vermont B.B. thence to (10 M.) Brattleboro in 1/3 hr. ; Connecticut Biver 
Division of the Boston & Maine B.B. thence to (64 M.) White River Junction 
in IV4 hr. ^ Central Vermont B. B. thence to (163 M.) St. John's in 5^ hrs. ; 
Grand Trunk Bailwat thence to (27 M.) Montreal in V«-l hr. (through-fare 
$10.65; sleeper from Springfield $2; express from Kew York to Montreal 
in 13i/4-15V« hrs.)- 

The train starts from the Grand Central Depot (p. 13), crosses 
the Harlem^ and farther on runs to the N.E., skirting Long Island 
Sound. 28 M. Greenwich^ in Connecticut; 33^/2 M. Stamford; 66 M. 
Bridgeport. — 73 M. New Haven (New Haven House; Rail. Restau- 
rant)^ a city of (1900) 108,027 Inhab., is well known as the seat of 
Yale University (3000 students). — 110 M. Hartford (*Allyn 
House ; Rail. Restaurant), the capital of Connecticut, with (1900) 
79,850 inhab., has a handsome *Capitol and other public buildings. 
— 136 M. Springfield (Massasoit House; Worthy House), an in- 
dustrial city of Massachusetts, with (1900) 62,059 inhab., is best 
known for the rifles made in the V. S. Armoury here. 

Our train now diverges to the left from the line to Boston and 
ascends the beautiful ^Valley of the Connecticnt (views mainly to 
the right). 144 M. Holyoke, with large paper-mills; 153 M. North- 
ampton, the seat of Smith College (for women ; 1000 students) and 
other well-known educational establishments ; 186 M. South Vernon; 
196 m. Brattleboro. At (220 M.) BcMoio* Faito (Rail. Restaurant! we 
cross the Connecticut, recrossing it at (246 M.) Windsor. — 260 M. 
White River Junction (Rail. Restaurant) is the junction of an alterna- 
tive route to Montreal via WelU River and Newport (see R. 3 c). 

Our line (Central Vermont R.R.) ascends the picturesque ♦ Kaiie 2/ 
of the White River ^ which flows through the Green Mts. From 
(325 M.) Montpelier Junction a short branch-line runs to Montpelier, 
the capital of Vermont. — 335 M. Waterbury is a good centre for 
excursions among the Green Mta. (Mt. Mansfield, CameVs Hump, etc.). 
Farther on. Lake Champlain (p. 13) comes into sight on the left. — 
357 M. Essex Junction; 381 M. -5ft. Albans (Rail. Restaurant) ; 393 M. 

16 Route 2, UTIOA. 

Highgate Springs. A little farther on we enter Quebec. Beyond 
(405 M.) Staribridge fU. S. Con. Agent) we see the Rougemont 
and Beloeil MU. (p. 136) to the right, rising as isolated masses from 
a level plain. Crossing the wide Riehdieu (* Views to right and 
left) at (423 M.) 8t. John's, we join the route described at pp. 13, 
14 (G. T. R.), 

450 M. Montreal (Bonaventore Station), see p. 125. 

d. Yik TJtica and the Adirondackf. 

470 M. Kbw Yobk Cbmtbal & HubsoM Biybb Bailroad in 12Vs-15 hrs. 
(fares as in B. 2 a). — This ronte crosses the Adirondacks and forms a 
convenient approach to many points in that district. Travellers inay also 
approach Montreal during summer by steamer *Paul Smith' from BeauhaV' 
nois^ descending the St. Lawrence through the Coteau, Cedars^ Split Eock, 
Ccucade^ and Leukine Rapid* (comp. B. 47). 

From New York to (143 M.) Albany, see R. 2a. We now turn 
to the left (W.) and leave the Hudson. 146 M. West Albany; 160 M. 
SchenSctady. We ascend the smiling * Mohawk Valley. 176 M. 
Amsterdam; 217 M. Little Falls, in a romantic gorge ; 224 M. Her- 

At (238 M.) TJtica (Butter field; Rail. Restaurant) our line diverges 
to the right from the Buffalo line and runs to the N.W., across the 
W. side of the Adirondack Wilderness. 255 M. Trenton FaUs (Hotel 
Trenton, $ S'), with a series of beautiful *Waterfalls, having a total 
descent of 310 ft. 290 M. Fulton Chain^ the junction of a branch- 
line to the Fulton Lakes ; 295 M. Clearwater, the junction of the 
Raquette Railway for Raquette Lake and Blue Mountain Lake; 
338 M. Childwold; 3451/2 M. Tupper Lake Junction , IV2M. from 
Tupper Lake Village (AUamont, Iroquois, $ 2), the terminus of the 
New York & Ottawa R.R.(p.l82)j 360 M. Saranac Inn Station. From 
(363 V2 M.) Lake Clear a branch-line runs to (5 M.) Saranac Lake 
and (16 M.) Lake Placid. 368 M. Paul Smith's; 380 M. Loon Lake, 

At (405 M.) Malone the train crosses the Rutland R. R. and con- 
tinues to run towards the N. Beyond (413 M.) Constable we enter 
Canada. 419 M. Athelstan; 423 M. Huntingdon. At (435 M.) Valley- 
field, a busy little industrial town (11,055 inhab. in 1901), we reach 
the St. Lawrence, along the S. bank of which we now run to the 
right. 448 M. Beauharnois (see above) j 456 M. Chateauguay, where 
the French Canadian militia under De Salaberry gained an impor- 
tant victory over the Americans in 1813 (battlefield marked by a 
monument erected in 1895). At (461 M.) Adirondack Junction we 
connect with the Canadian Pacific Railway. 

470 M. Montreal (Windsor Street Station), see p. 125. 


3. From Boston to Montreal. 

a. Yifc Bntland and Bnrlington. 

330 M. Boston & Maine Sailboad (FiTCHBtiBa Division) from Boston 
to (lU M.) Bellows Fall* in 3V4-4 brs.; Rutland Railroad thence to (186 M.) 
St. John's in 6>/4-7 hrs. -, Canadian Pacific Railway thence to (30 M.) Mont- 
real in 8/4-1 lir. (through-fare $9; parlor-car $lVs) sleeper $2). 

Bofton (ToMfatn«, Somertetj Vendome^ Brunswick^ Parker HousCj 
YoungUj BellevuCy etc.), the capital of Massachusetts, the chief town 
of New England, and one of the oldest (1630) and most interesting 
cities in the United States, lies at the head of the beautifa *Ma88a' 
chvaetU Bay, about 200 M. to the N.E. of New York. Pop. (1900) 

Among the sights of Boston which even the most hurried traveller 
should take in are the State House^ the Old State Bouse, the Old South 
Meeting House, Trinity Church, the Public Library , the Museum qf Fine 
Arts, the Subway, the S7iau> Monument, and the Common. Those who have 
a little more time should include the handsome residence-quarters of the 
Back Bay, the new Christian Science Temple (1908), some of the picturesque 
suburbs, and the neighbouring city of Cambridge, with Harvard University, 
the oldest (1636), richest, and most famous of American seats of learning 
(6000 students). Boston Harbour, with its numerous islands, is also well 
worth seeing. — For details, see BaedeierU United States. 

On leaving Boston, the train crosses the Charles, affording a view 
(right) of Bunker Hill Monument, commemorating the battle of June 
17th, 1775. — 10 M. Waltham, with cotton-mills and a large watch- 
factory; 20 M. Concord (Thorean House, Colonial, $21/2), sacred 
for its associations with Hawthorne , Emerson, and other men of 
letters; 50 M. Fiichburg (Johnsonia, firom $2V2)» on the Nashua 
River. Farther on, Mt Waehuaett (2108 ft.) rises to the S. Near 
(82 M.) Troy (not to be confounded with the city mentioned at 
p. 14), Mt. Monadnock (3186 ft.) is seen to the right. 92 M. Keene. 

From (114 M.) Bellows Falls (p. 15) we run to the N.W. to (167 M.) 
Rutland (p. 14) and (234 M.) Burlington (p. 14). Hence to — 

330 M. Montreal (Windsor Street Station), see R. 2b. 

b. Yi& Lowell and Concord. 

385 M. Boston A Mainb Railroad to (145 M.) White River Junction 
in 41/4-43/1 hrs.; Gbntbal Vermont Railroad thence to (163 H.) St John's 
in 5-6 hrs.; and Grand Trunk Railway thence to (27 M.) Montreal in 
■/4-I hr. (fares, see above). 

Boston, see above. We cross the Charles and run towards the 

N.W. 26 M. Lowell (St. Charles, Richardson, $3), the fourth city 

of Massachusetts (pop. 94,969) and one of the chief industrial cities 

of America (woollen goods, carpets, etc.) ; 39 M. Nashua (Tremont, 

$ 2-2 V2 i Rail* Restaurant) j 56 M. Manchester (New Manchester House, 

$21/j-3V2; Rail- Restaurant), a cotton - making city (56,987 in- 

hab.); 74 M. Concord (Eagle, $272-472; RalL Restaurant), the 

capital of New Hampshire (19,632 inhab.) and home of Mrs. Eddy. 

145 M. White River Junction (Rail. Restaurant), and thence to — 

335 M. Montreal (Bonaventure Station), see R. 2 c^ j 

Babdrkeb^s Canada. 3rd Edit. Digit zed by V^OOglC 

18 Routes. NEWPORT. From Boston 

c. Yik Concord, FlymontlL, Wells Biver, and Newport. 

843 M. Boston A Mains Railroad to (235 M.) Newport in T^/s-S hrs.*, 
Canadian Pacific Railway thence to (108 M.) Montreal in 8V2-4Vs hrs. (fares, 
see p. 17). — This route runs via Lake Winnipesauiee and also forms one 
of the approaches to the White Mts. (views to the right.)* 

Montreal may also be reached from Newport by the Grand Trunk 
Railway via Starutead Junction ^ Mauawippiy Lennoxville^ and Bherhrooke 
(comp. R. 4). 

From Boston toii(74 M.) Concord^ see R. 3b. Our line now crosses 
the Merrimac and runs towards the N. 104 M. Lakeport, at the head 
of an inlet of *Lake Winnipesankee, is the junction of a line to 
(17M.) Alton Bay^ one of the favourite resorts on that lake. Farther 
on we skirt the W. bays of Lake Winnipesaukee. 109 M. Weirs is 
another popular summering-place. 112 M. Meredith is 5 M. from 
Centre Harbor^ perhaps the pleasantest point on Lake Winnipesaukee. 
— 126 M. Plymouth {*Pemigewas8et Houses $ 3-4 ; meal-station) is 
the starting-point of the line to (21 M.) North Woodstock^ at the S. 
end of the *Franconia Notch ( White Mts,), Farther on, Mt, Moosi- 
lauhe (4810 ft.) is conspicuous to the right. — 169 M. Wells River 
(Rail. Restaurant), on the Connecticut, for lines to Montpelier (p. 15) 
and the White Mts. Beyond (181 M.) Bamet we ascend along the 
Passumpsic, crossing the stream repeatedly. — 190 M. 8t. Johns- 
bury, the junction of lines to Fdbyans and the White Mts. (comp. 
p. 19) and to Maquam, on Lake Ghamplain. 

236 M. Newport (700 ft. ; Memphremagog House, $ 2-3 ; The Palace, 
$1-11/2), a village with (1900) 3113 inhab., is prettUy situated at 
the head (S. end) of Lake Memphremagog and is a good centre for 
excursions. Good view of the lake from Prospect Hill, Jay Peak 
(4018 ft.), 12 M. to the W., commands a wide prospect. 

*Lake Hemphrem&gog ('beautiful water*; 682 ft.), a lovely sheet of 
water, 80 M. long and 2-4 M. wide , lies one-fifth in Vermont and four- 
fifths in CSanada. It is enclosed by rocky shores and wooded hills, and 
its waters abound in lake-trout (8almo eon/inis), pickerel, perch, and bass. 

A small steamer plies daily between Kewport (see above) and Magog, 
at the K. end of the lake (there and back about 6-7 hrs.). Passing Indian 
Point and the Ttoin Sitters, we cross the Canadian line near Province Island. 
On the W. (left) shore we stop at (12 M.) the OvfVe Bead Hotel (3 2-3), at 
the foot of the prominent Owl's Head (3270 ft.), which is ascended hence 
in 2-2V2 hrs. The *View includes, on a clear day, Montreal and the Green, 
White, and Adirondack Mts. Farther on, the steamer passes Long Island 
and calls at some small landings. On the E. shore are the country-houaes 
of several wealthy Montrealers, and on the W. rises Mt. Elephantus (Bevere 
House). Oeorgeville (Lake Hall), on the E. bank, 20 M. from Newport, is a 
quiet and inexpensive watering-place. — Magog (Pari House), at the K. 
end of the lake, at its outlet through the Magog River^ affords good fishing 
quarters and is connected by railway (C.P.K.) with (19 M.) Sherbrooke 
(jp. -47). Mt. Orford (4500 ft.), 5 M. to the W., affords a good view of the 
Canadian pine-forests to the K. and W. 

Beyond Newport our line runs towards the N.W., following the 
valley of the Missisquoi and entering Canada (Quebec) near (252 M.) 
Mansonville. Beyond (268 M.) Glen Sutton we re-enter Vermont. 
Jay Peak (see above) rises to the left. At (266 M.) Richford, the 
junction of a line to St. Albans we turn to the N./and finally leave 

Diaitized bv* 

to Montreal, PORTSMOUTH. 3. Route, 19 

Vermont. At (278 M.) Sutton Junction we again turn towards 
the W., the line in a straight direction going on to St. OuiUaume 
(see below) viSi Drummonduille (p. 140). — 300 M. Famham (Rail. 
Restaurant), on the Yamaskay is the junction of lines to Stanbridge, 
St. Guillaume, Foster (p. 47), Sherbrooke (p. 47), and Montreal via 
Chambly (see below). 

Fbom Farmham to Chamblt and Momtrbal, 39 M., Central Vermont 
Railway in lV2-2«/4 bra. (fare $1.30). — Bevond (7 M.) 8t. Brigide Road 
we see Sheford Mt. (p. 136) and Yamaska Mt. (p. 136) to the right, and 
Monnoir or Ml. Johnson (p. 136) to the left. From (14 H.) Marieville a 
branch-line runs to the right to (6 M.) Rougemont, at the foot of the hill 
of that name, and to (9 H.) St. Cesaire. Kear (19 H.) Chaniblp Canton we 
cross the Richelieu^ obtaining a good view of the 81. Louis Rapids. — 20 H. 
Ohambly Basin, on an expansion of the Richelieu, was the site of one of 
three forts erected by the Marquis de Tracy (p. 129) in 1665 to protect the 
river against the Iroquois. This wooden fort was replaced in 1709 by a 
stone fort, the ruins of which are seen to the right as the train leaves the 
station. Chambly Fort was captured by the Continental troops in 1775, 
apparently without resistance. Later it was regularly garrisoned, and in 
1776-77 it formed one of the chief bases for the troops of Carleton and 
Burgoyne. The fort was finally abandoned in 1838. Chambly contains a 
bronze statue^ by L. P. Hubert (p. 131), of Col. de Saldberry^ who, at the 
head of a body of Canadians, defeated an American force at Chateauguay in 
1813. — 32V3 M. St. Lambert, and thence to (39 H.) Montreal, see p. 14. 

The rest of the route to (313 M.) St. John's and — 
348 M. Montreal (Windsor Street Station j p. 125) is the same 
as that described in R. 16. 

d. Yik Fortsmoath and North Conway. 

865 M. Boston and Mains Railroad to TUO M.) North Conway in 5-5Vs 
hrs. ; Mains Central Railroad thence to (50 M.) Lunenburg in 2V2-2V4 hrs. \ 
St. Johnsbdrt & Lakb Chauplain Railroad thence to (22 M.) St. Johns- 
bury in Vi'l hr. ; Boston A Mains Railroad thence to (44 M.) Newport in 
lV2-2hrs.; Canadian Paoifio Railwat thence to (109 M.) MontrecH in 
4-4V2 hrs. (through-fare $ 9). — This line forms the shortest and quickest 
approach to the White Mts. and is also one of the regular routes to Lake 

Boston, see p. 17. The line crosses the Charles and runs to the 
N., near the sea. 11^2 M. Lynn; 16 M. Salem, a qnaint old New Eng- 
land town, the scene of the 'Witchcraft Delusion' of 1692; 18 M. 
Beverly, the junction of a line to Manchester, Gloucester, and other 
points on the beautiful ''North Shore"*; 37 M. Newburyport; 46V2M. 
Hampton, for Hampton Beach ; .49 M. North Hampton, for Rye Beach, 

57 M. Portsmouth (^Rockingham, from $ 4), a quaint old seaport 
with 10,637 inhab. and a government navy-yard. The peace be- 
tween Russia and Japan was concluded here on Sept. 5th, 1905. — 
At (67 M.) Conway Junction our line diverges to the left (W.). 
80 M. Rochester. From (98 M.) Sanbomville a line runs to (12 M.) 
Wolfeborough , on Lake Winnipesaukee (p. 18). Farther on the 
Ossipee and Sandwich Mts. are seen to the left. 135 M. Conway. — 
140 M. North Conway (*Kearsarge House, $ 3-6), a favourite resort 
on the S. margin of the White Mts., one of the most picturesque 
and frequented districts in New England. To the left rises Moat 


20 Route 4. NORTH HATLEY. 

Mt,^ to the right Mt. Kearsargt. — From (145 M.) Glm Station 
coaches run to (3 M.) Jackson. Beyond (158 M.) Bemis the line 
bends to the N.W. and enters the famous * Crawford or White 
Mt. Notch , a narrow defile flanked by lofty mountains. 165 M. 
*Crawford Home (from $ 472)» a favourite resort at the other end of 
the Notch. 169 M. Bretton Woods, the station for the large * Mount 
Washington Hotel (from $ 5). At (170 M.) Fabyan's (Fabyan House, 
from $4^2) we connect with the railway to the summit of *Mt. 
Washington (6293 ft.), the highest mountain in the United States 
to the E. of the Rockies and N. of Garolina. 173 M. Zealand^ the 
junction of the line to BetJdehem and the Profile Howe, 

At (180 M.) Quebec Junction the Quebec (Upper Goos) Division 
of the Maine Central R.R. diverges to the right, connecting with the 
Canadian Pacific Railway at Cookshire Junction (p. 46*) and with 
the Quebec Central Railway at DudsweU Junction (p. 21). 

From Quebec Junction our line goes on to (187 M.) Scott Junc- 
tion, (1^0 M,) Lunenburg, and (^i^M.^St.Johnsbury. Thence to — 

365 M. Montreal (Windsor Street Station), see R. 3 c. 

4. From New York to ftnebec yi& Springfield. 

547 H. Kbw Toek, Kew Haven, Sl Habtford Bailboad to (136 M.) 
Springfiad in SVa-iVa brs. \ Boston & Mains R. E. thence to (110 M.) Windior 
in 4 hrg. ; Gbntbal Vbemont S. E. thence to (14 H.) White River Junction 
in Vs hr. ; Boston A Mains R. B. thence to (145 M.) Sherhrooke in 5Vs brs. ; 
Qubbbo Gbntrai. Railway thence to (142 M.) Quebec in 5 hrs. (in all 
19-20 hrs. 5 throngh-fare $ 12 5 sleeper from Springfield $ 272)- 

Passengers may also proceed to Quebec via Boston (see R. 5). 

From New York to (260 M.) White River Junction, see R. 2 c. 
Beyond White River Junction we continue to follow the Connec- 
ticut River to (301 M.) Wells River. Thence to (367 M.) Newport, 
see R. 3 c. 

Our line now diverges from the route to Montreal and bends 
towards the N.E. A glimpse of Lake Memphremagog (p. 18) is seen 
to the left. We enter Canada, 372 M. Stanstead Junction (Canadian 
custom-house), for a short line to (4 M*) Stanstead (U.S. Agent) 
with a Wesleyan college (300 students); 375 M. Smith's Mills; 
379 M. Libby's Mills; 384 M. Ayers Flats; 386 M. Massawippi. — 
393 M. North Hatley (*Glen Villa, 3 M. from the rail, station, 
from $ 3; boarding-houses of Nelson Le Baron, McKay, Miss May, 
and others, from $ 7 a week), pleasantly situated on Lake Massawippi 
(14 M. long), a small village with about 300 inhab., is now much 
visited in summer. Its attractions include beautiful drives round 
the lake, canoeing, fishing, and an excellent golf-course. — 397 M. 
Capelton. — 402 M. Lennoxville, see p. 47. 

405 M. Sherhrooke , see pp. 47, 19. We here cross the Can. 
Pacific Railway and reach the lines of the Quebec Central Railway, 
which we follow to Quebec. Most of the country traversediis heavily 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ROCHESTER. 6, Route, 21 

timbered and scantily peopled. — 415 M. Ascot; 421 M. East Angus. 
At (429 M.) Dudswell Junction (Rail. Restaurant) we connect with 
the Maine Central Railroad (comp. p. 20). 432 M. Marhletonj with 
lime-pits and marble-quarries; 441 M. Weedon; 462 M. Oarthby, 
on Lake Aylmer; 462 M. Colerairie. — 470 M. Thetford^ with famous 
asbestos-mines, the largest of which (^Bell's Mine') has an area of 
several acres and reaches a depth of 160 ft. The processes of quar- 
rying and preparing the asbestos are interesting. — Numerous char- 
acteristic French villages are passed, with red-roofed houses and 
prominent churches. From (499 M.) Tring Junction a line runs to 
(60 M.) Megantic (p. 46) and from (503 M.) Beauce Junction another 
runs to (16 M.) Beauceville. Our line now for a time follows 
the valley of the ChaudilrCj the route by which Benedict Arnold 
reached Quebec in 1775 (p. 147). 626 M. St, Anselme, in the 
Etchcmin Valley; 641 M. Harlaka Junction (p. 96). From (646 M.) 
Levis passengers are ferried across the 8t, Lawrence to (547 M.) 
Qfuhec (see p. 141). 

5. From Boston to ftnebec. 

417 H. Boston & Mains R.R. to (275 M.) 87uirhroohe in 10-11 hrs.*, 
Qdbbbo Ckntbal Railway thence to (142 M.) Qitaee in 5V4-10 lirs. (in 
all 16-21 hrs. \ throagh-fare $ 11 \ sleeper $ 2). 

From Boston to (235 M.) Newport ^ see R. 3c; thence to 
(417 M.) Quebec, see R. 4. 

6. From New York to Toronto. 

531 H. Kew Tobk Cbntbal &, Hudson Riveb Railboad to (446 M.) 
Niagara Falls in 9-I6V2 hrs. ; Gband Tbunk Railway thence to (85 H.) 
Toronto in 2V«-3 hrs. (in all 12-20 hrs.; through-fare $ 11.85; sleeper $3). 

Alternative routes to Niagara Falls are offered by the Weit Shore, the 
Delaware^ Lackawanna^ A Western, the Erie, and the Lehigh Valley Rail- 
ways, all of which are described in Baedeker's United States. A pleasant 
alternative route from Niagara Falls to Toronto is afiforded by the steamer 
across the Lake of Onturio (see p. 205). 

From New York to (238 M.) Vtica, see R. 2d. — Our line con- 
tinues to run towards the W. 262 M. Some. Beyond (291 M.) Syracuse 
(^The Yates, $4-5, R. from $1} Rail. Restaurant ;ipoi^. 108,374), to 
the left of the railway, we see the steel lowers' of the aluminum 
cable bringing power (90,000 horse-power) to that city from Niagara 
Falls. 349 M. Palmyra. At (371 M.) Eochester (*Powers Hotel, from 
$ 3 ; Rail. Restaurant; 162,608 inhab.) the direct railway to Niagara 
Falls diverges from the line to Buffalo (p. 216) and runs vi4 (427 M.) 
Lockport and (444 M.) Suspension Bridge. Through-passengers to 
Toronto, who do not want to stop at Niagara, proceed across the 
bridge into Canada (small articles of baggage examined). The route 
from Suspension Bridge to (83 M.) Toronto is described, in the 
reverse way, at pp. 209-211. 

For Niagara Falls, see p. 215. ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ GoOglc 

7. From Boston to the Maxitime Provinces by Sea. 

The following routes are largely nsed In summer, especially by 
those who are fond of the sea. Round Trip Excursion Tickets are 
issued at moderate rates by all the companies, acting in connection 
with the railways of the Maritime Provinces and offering a great 
variety of routes. Full information as to these is furnished on ap- 
plication. The data below refer to the service of 1906 and are, of 
course, liable to alteration. See the advertisements in the daily 
papers or apply to the steamboat-companies. 

Lovers of the sea may also go all the way from New Tori to the Mari- 
time Provinces hy steamer, either via the Dominion Atiantic Railway^s hoat to 
Yarmouth (see p. 23) or by the Red Cross Line to Halifax (50 hrs. ; fare $ 16-20. 
including stateroom-berth). The latter steamer (starting from Pier B, foot 
of Richards St., Brooklyn) goes on to St. John's, IJewfoundland (comp. p. 102). 

a. rrom Boston to Ea4itport and St. John. 

320 M. Stkameks of the Eastern Steamship Co. (International Division) 
ply 1-6 times weekly (ace. to the season) to (260 M.) Eastport in 16-17 hrs. 
(fare $4.76) and to (320 M.) St. John in 18-20 hrs. (3 6; stateroom $1-6; 
meals k la carte). The steamers sail from Union Wharf, those for St. John 
direct at noon, and those calling at Portland (p. 24) and Eastport at 9 a.m. 
Baggage is examined by the custom-house officers on board the steamer, 
between Eastport and St. John. The latest information should be obtained 
from the agents of the company (Union Wharf and 293 Washington St., 
Boston) or from the daily papers. The steamers are comfortable and well- 
equipped, especially the 'Calvin Austin' of the direct line. 

Railway Route from Boston to St. John^ see p. 24. Eastport is also 
reached by following this route to St. Andrews (p. 42), and thence by 
steamer down the St. Croix (p. 43). 

Boston^ see p. 17. The pleasant sail through Boston Harhour 
i described in Baedeker^s United States, to which reference is also 
made for the route from Portland to Eastport. The direct steamer 
(see above) soon passes out of sight of land, and it is only on the 
longest days of summer that the coast of Maine becomes dimly 
visible to the left before nightfall. Grand Manan (p. 45) , with 
its fine cliffs, is passed in the dark. When the tide serves, the 
steamer reaches Eastport by the Narrows, between Luhec on the left 
and the island of CampoheUo (p. 44) on the right. At the entrance 
of this channel is Quoddy Head Light (1.), marking the E. limit of the 
United States. When the tide is unfavourable, we pass outside Oampo- 
bello and approach Eastport from the E., Yrith Deer Island to our right. 
Lubec iHillside House, $ 2-3; Merchants^ Hotel, $ 2), at which the steamers 
call in summer both going and coming, is a pleasant little watering-place. 
The Toung Men's Christian Associations of New England hold encampments 
at (7 M.) North Lubec (Kemattano, $272-3) in summer. 

260 M. Eaftport (^Quoddy House, $2-3), the easternmost settle- 
mentin the United States, with (1900) 6311 inhab. and an abandoned 
fort, is finely situated on an island in Pa^samaquoddy Bay, connected 
with the mainland by a bridge. Passengers for CampoheUo (p. 44), 
Grand Ma/nan (p. 45) , St. Andrews (p. 42) , and points on the 
St. Croix (p. 48) leaye the steamer here. omze6^yGoOg\e 

CAPE SABLE. 7. BouU, 23 

After lying for about V2 ^'' &^ Eastport, the steamer once more 
heads for theE. , crosses the neck of Passamaqnoddy Bay, and ascends 
through the Bay of Enndy, noted for its strong tides and currents 
(comp. p. 76). The coast of New Brunswick is in sight to the left 
all the way to St. John (3 hrs.). As we enter St. John Harbour, 
Partridge lalandy with its lighthouse, fog- whistle, and quarantine 
station, lies to the right, while the roofs and spires of West End 
(^Carleton; p. 32) are seen to the left. Our steamer threads its way 
amid the shipping of the busy lumbering port and lies to at Beed''8 
Point Wharf (Plan of St John, D 3). St. John makes a parti- 
cularly picturesque effect as seen from the water. 

320 M. St. Jolm, see p. 27. 

b. I^om Boston to Tarmonth. 

230 M. Stsambiis of the Dominion Atlantic Railway ply daily in sum- 
mer, except Sat., in 15 hrs., leaving Long Wharf, Boston, at 2 p.m., and 
reaciiing Yarmouth (Lower Wharf) about 7.80 a.m. next day (fare $ 4 ; state- 
room 3 IVs-^) meals 76 c.). These steamers, which are fine boats with twin 
screws and electric lighting, make direct connection with the Digby and 
Halifax trains of the Dominion Atlantic Railway (see RR. 20^ 22). Through- 
tickets sold to all important points in the Maritime Provinces and 17ew- 
foundland. Agent, /. F. Matter i^ Long Wharf, Boston. — Baggage is exam- 
ined by the custom-house officers on the wharf at Yarmouth. 

This company also maintains a direct weekly service by sea between 
Neu> York and Yarmouth, the steamer 'Prince Arthur* leaving the former 
port (Pier 14, East River) on Sat. at 11 a.m. and reaching Yarmouth on 
Sun. evening (fare $16; stateroom from $2). 

Boston and Boston HarhoWy see p. 17. On passing Boston Light, 
the steamer steers in an E. N. E. course and soon loses sight of 
land. Early risers will obtain a good view of Yarmouth while sailing 
up the harbour. 

230 M. Tarmonth, see p. 80. Connection is made here with 
the Dominion Atlantic and the Halifax & South-Westem railways, 
with coaches to various points not accessible by railway, and with 
steamers to Barrrngton, Shelbume, Lockeport, Lunenburg^ Halifax^ 
and St. John (comp. pp. 28, 80, 81). 

c. rrom Boston to Halifax. 

390 M. Stsaubss of the Canada Atlantic d: Plant Steamship Co. in 29 hrs., 
leaving Boston (Commercial Wharf) 2-8 times weekly in summer (June-Sept.) 
and once a week in winter (fare 3 7, including berth; stateroom -berth 
$1-2*, meals 60-75 c). Through-tickets sold to all important points in the 
Maritime Provinces. — The boat leaving Boston at noon on Tues. goes 
on from Halifax (at 8 p.m. on Wed.) to (570 M.) HawkeOmry (p. 62 j through- 
fare $ 9-, stateroom-berth $2) and (660 H.) Charlottetown (p. 98; through- 
fare $10; stateroom-berth $2-3). Baggage is examined on arrival at the 
wharf. General Manager, A. TT. Perry , Commercial Wharf, Boston. 

On leaving Boston Harbour (p. 17), the steamer heads to the 
E.N.E. and soon loses sight of land. The first points of Nova Scotia 
sighted (to tho left) are Seal Island and then Cape Sable. Beyond 
this point the steamer skirts the ragged S.E. coast of the>peninsula. 

Digitized by VjOO 

24 Routes. BANCfOR. 

wMch is generally visible to the left (comp. R. 21). After passing 
Cape SanibrOf we enter Halifax Harbour between the lights of Che- 
hucto Head (1.) and Devil Island (r.). A little farther on we pass to 
the W. (1.) of Macnab'8 Island (p. 56) and Oeorge^s Island (p. 66) 
and draw up at the Halifax Wharf (p. 50). The views as we ascend 
the harbour are very fine (comp. p. 56). 

For the steamboat-route from Halifax to Hatokethury^ Fietou^ and Char- 
lottetownj see p. 63. 

8. From Boston to St. John by Eailway. 

448 M. Boston A Hums Railboad to (108 M.) Portland in 3 hrs.: Maimb 
Central Railroad thence to (250 M.) Vane^oro in 6-8 hrs. ; Canadian Pacific 
Railway thence to (90 M.) St. John in 3-3V4 hrs. (throagh-express in 14- 
16 hrs. ; fare $8.60; sleeper $2723 parlor-ear $2). — In summer throagh- 
cars run from Boston to Point du Chine (p. 87), connecting with the steamer 
to Prince Edward Island (comp. p. 97). 

For details of the United States portion of this route, see Baedeker** 
United States. 

Bottonj see p. 17. The trains start from the North Station, — 
11^2 M. Lynn; 13 M. Swampacottj 16 M. Salem; 18 M. Beverly ^ 
the junction of a branch-line to Gloucester and Bockport; 37 M. iVcio- 
huryport; 57 M. Portsmouth (see p. 19); 83 M. Kennebunk; 92 M. 
Biddeford; 93 M. Saco, these ty^o on the Saco River; 97 M. Old 
Orchard Beach. 

108 M. Portland (^Lafayette, Congress Square, Falmouth House, 
Preble House, $3-5), the largest city in Maine, with (1900) 50,145 
inhab., is finely situated on a hilly peninsula projecting into Ca^co 
Bay, The poet Longfellow (1807-82) was a native of Portland, and 
the house in which he was bom and that in which he afterwards 
lived are among the sights of the town. 

Some of the trains between Bo.ston and Portland run by the so-caUed 
'Western Division', vi& Andover, Lawrence, Haverhill, and Dover. 

138M. Bmnswick (Brunswick House, $ l-lt/2} Rail, Restaurant), 
a town of (1900) 6806 iuhab., at the head of the tidal waters of the 
Androscoggin, is the seat of Bowdoin College (360-400 students). — 
159 M. Iceboro, with huge ice-houses. 

171 M. AxigXLBt& (Augusta House, Cony House, $2-3), the capital 
of Maine, with (1900) 11,683 inhab. and a fine State House, lies 
on both sides of the Kennebec. — Beyond Augusta we follow the 
Kennebec to (190 M.) Wateroille. — 218 M. Newport is the junction 
of a railway to Dexter, Dover, and Moosehead Lake (p. 46). 

245 M. BsLRgOT (Bangor House, $2V2-4; Penobscot Exchange, 
from $2; Rail, RestaurarU), an important lumber-trading town, 
with (1900) 21,850 inhab., at the head of navigation of the 
Penobscot River, is more fully described in Baedeker's United States, 
It is the junction of a branch - railway to (60 M.) Mt. Desert 
(see Baedeker's United States). — 269 M. Oldtown; 277 M. Passa- 
dumkaeg, ^ y 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

GORHAM. ' 9. Route. 25 

At (301 M.) McUtawamkeag (comp. p. 46) we cross the Penobicot 
(p. 46) and join the 0. P. R. line from Montreal to St. John (R. 16). 
For the next 55 M. the line passes through a wild and sparsely 
settled region, at first following the Mattawamkeag River, 

368 M. Yanceboro (Rail, Restaurant) is the frontier-station, 
where the hand-baggage of passengers from the United States is 
examined. The time changes here from the 'Eastern' to the 'Atlantic' 
standard (one hour in advance ; comp. p. xil). — Beyond Vanceboro 
station we cross the St. Croix and enter New Brunswick (p. 36). — 
From (366 M.) McAdam Junction (*McAdam Station Hotel, from 
$2y2» nieal 75 c.) lines run to the N. to Woodstock and to the S. to 
8t, Andrews, 

Faou HgAdau Jdnction to Woodstock, 62 M., C.P.R. in 2-3 hrs. — 
The train runs to the K. throngh a wooded district. 22 M. Canterbury^ 
near Skiff Late, with its landlocked salmon. Farther on we cross the £el 
River. From (40 M.) Debec Junction a branch-line runs to (8 M.) HoulUm^ a 
small town in Maine. About 6 M. farther on we come in sight of the St. John^ 
of which we have views to the right. — 62 M. Woodstock, see p. 40. 

Fbou HcAdam Junction to St. Stkphbn (34 M.) and St. Andrews 
(43 M.), C.P.R., in lV4-274hrs. — This line runs towards the S , through a 
dreary and featureless district. At (14 H.) Wait Junction it forks, the right 
branch running to (34 M.) St. Stephen (p. 43) and the left to (42 M.) 
St. Andrews (p. 42). 

375 M. Magaguadavic (pron. *Magadavy'), on a lake of the same 
name. About 8 M. to the S. of (385 M.) Harvey lies Lake Oromocto, 
an angling-resort. From (386 M.) Fredericton Junction a line runs 
to the N. to (22 M.) Fredericton (comp. p. 38). The remaining sta- 
tions are unimportant. As we near St. John the line skirts the *Long 
Reach' of the 8t, John River (1. ; comp. p. 34) for some distance, 
and we finally enter the city by a fine cantilever bridge, crossing 
the river just above the Suspension Bridge (p. 32). 

448 M. 8t. John, see R. 10. 

9. From Portland to Montreal and ftnebec. 

a. Yik the Grand Trunk Bailway. 

Grand Tbunk Railway to (297 M.) Montreal in 10V2-12 hrs. (fare $7Vsi 
drawing-room car $iY2, sleeping-herth 32); to (318 M.) Quebec in 11-14 hrs. 
(fares $8Vs, $2). This route forms a pleasant approach to Canada, skirt- 
ing the K. margin of the White Mts. (p. 19; views to the left). From 
Boston to Canada by this route takes 3-4 hrs. more. 

Portland, see p. 24. — The train crosses the Fresumpscot River 
and intersects the Maine Central R.R. at (11 M.) Yarmouth. As far as 
(27 M.) Danville Junction the Maine Central R.R. (see p. 26) runs 
parallel to our line (left). Beyond (62 M.) BryanVs Pond (700 ft.) 
we enter a mountainous district. 70 M. Bethel (1000 ft.). We now 
obtain views of the White MU. (p. 19) to the left. — 91 M. Oorham 
(860 ft. ; * Alpine House; meal-station) is the chief gateway to theWhite 
Mts. from the N. — We now follow the Androscoggin. Picturesque 

26 Route 9. FRYEBURG. 

scenery. 98 M. Berlin; 134 M. North Stratford. 149 M. Island 
Pond (1500 ft. ; Stewart House, $ 2; Rail. Restaurant) is the American 
frontier-station (hand-baggage examined). At (165 M.) Norton Mills 
we enter Canada and begin to descend the Coaticooke, 174 M. Coati- 
cooke (U.S. Consul). — 193 M. LermoxvUle (see p. 47) is the junc- 
tion of the Passumpsic Division of the Boston & Maine R.R., and 
(196 M.) Sherbrooke (p. 47) is the junction of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway to Lake Megantic^ Moosehead Lake^ and St. John fR. 16). — 
We now follow the St. Francis to (221 M.) Richmond (p. 141), where 
our line forks, the left (main) branch running to (76 M.) Montreal 
(see R. 29 b) and the right to (97 M.) Quebec (see R. 29 b). 

b. Yi& the Maine Central Bailroad. 

Railway to (286 M.) Montreal in 12-16 hri. (fare $7Vf, parlor-car $ IV*, 
berth $2); to (321 M.) Quebec in W/t hrs. (fare $81/2; parlor -car $ IV*)- 
This line traversea the centre of the White Hta. (seats to the right} ob- 
servation-cars attached to the trains in the mountain-district). Through 
parlor and sleeping cars run from Portland to Montreal and Quebec. 

Portland^ see p. 24. The train starts from the Union Station, 
crosses the Presumpscot twice, and runs towards the W. 17 M. Se- 
bago Lake\ 50 M. Fryeburg. 60 M. North Conway y and thence to — 

286 M. Montreal (Windsor Street Station), see R. 3d. 

The train to (321 M.) Quebec (p. 146) diverges at (100 M.) 
Quebec Junction (p. 20) and runs vil Lancaster^ Colebrook, Cookshire 
Junction (p. 46), and Dudswell Junction (p. 21). 





Route Page 

10. St. John 27 

Environs of St. John 33 

11. From St. John to Fredericton 33 

a. By River 33 

Waahademoak Lake. Grand Lake 85 

Excursions from Fredericton 88 

b. By Railway 38 

12. From Fredericton to Woodstock 39 

a. By Railway 39 

b. By River 39 

13. From Woodstock to Grand Falls and Edmundston . . 40 

The Tobique 40 

From Grand River to the Restigouche 41 

14. From St. John to St. Stephen and St. Andrews ... 41 

a. By Railway 41 

b. By Steamer 42 

15. Gampobello and Grand Manan 44 

a. Gampobello ,...■. 44 

b. Grand Manan 46 

16. From St. John to Montreal 46 

Moosehead Lake 46 

17. From St. John to Quebec (L^vis) 48 

From Salisbury to Albert 48 

10. St. John. 

Arrival. The Intsbgolonial Station (PI. E, 2-, Rail. Resiawan()y also 
nsed by the C. P. R. and other lines entering St. John, lies at the N. end 
of the city, '/a-Va ^* ^^^^ the chief hotels. The New Brunswick Southern 
Line for St. Stephen (B. 14) has its terminus at West End^ formerly Carleton 
(comp. pp. 32, 41). — The Transatlantic steamers land in winter at Sand 
Point (PI. C, 3), on theW. side of the harbour, but in summer, most of them, 
like the Boston and Digby boats, land at Reed^s Point (PI. D, 3); the steamers 
for Eastport and Grand Manan (R. 15) land at TumbuWs Wharf (PI. D, 2). — 
Cabs (see below) meet the chief trains and steamers. 

Hotels. *BoTAL (PI. b; E, 2), King St., perhaps the best hotel in 
the Maritime Provinces, $3-4; Duffsbin Housb (PI. a; E, 3), Char- 
lotte St., cor. of King Sq., from $2.50; Victobia (PI. c-, E, 2, 3), 21 King 
St., $ 2V2-3; Nbw Victobia (PI. d; D, 3), 342 Prince William St., $2-2»/2 ; 
Clifton (PI. e; D, 3), Princess St., cor. of Germain St., $2-2V2; Pabk 
Hotel (Pl. fj E, 3), 47 King Square, $2-2Vj; Cabvbll Hall (PI. g; E, 2), 
71 Waterloo St., an excellent private boarding-house. 

Tramways (electric) traverse the chief streets and run via Indiantoum 
(p. 33) and Douglas Ave. to the Reversible Falls (p. 32) and Seaside Park 
(p. 32), and via Paradise Row to Rockwood Park (p. 33); uniform fare 5 c. 

Oabs. Per drive within the city, 1 pers. 30 c., each addit. pers. 25 c.; 
per 1/2 hr. 50 c.; ordinary luggage free. 

Observation Oars (automobiles and buckboards), calling at the hotels 
about 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., make a round trip of 2 hrs. yitk Rockwood Park, 
Mt. Pleasant, the Falls, the MartelloTower, and the West End Ferry (fare 50 c.). 

28 Route 10. ST. JOHN Situation. 

Steamers. Fert*y Steamers ply every >/4 hr. from the foot of Princess St. 
(PI. D, 2) to West End {Carleion; fare 2 c.). — River Steamers^ starting from 
Jndiantoton (beyond PI. D,l), run to FredeHcton and intermediate points (see 
B. 11); to points on the Kennebecasis (p. 34); to BelleUle Bay (p. 34); to 
Washademoak Lake (see p. 86); to Hampton (p. 48); and to Orand Lake 
(p. 35). — Sea-going Steamers run to Eastporty Portland, and Boston' (Bee 
E. 7a); across the Bay of Fundy to Digby (R. 20a); to Yarmouth (p. 80), 
Halifax (p. 50) , and other I^ova Scotia ports (every Thurs. at 6 p.m.) : to 
Orand Manan (p. 45) ; to Parrshoro (p. 85) and Kingsport (p. 74) ; to Jfew 
York (p. 10); to London; to Anttoerp; and to various other ports. 

Places of Amusement. Opera House (PI. E, 2), 203 Union St. — Concerts, 
etc., are given at the York Theatre (PI. E, 2), Carleton St., West End City 
Hall (PI. B, 2), and Union Hall, North End (Portland). — Shamrock Club 
Grounds, near Port Howe (p. 31); St. John Club Athletic Grounds, in the 
E. part of the city. — Skating Rinkt, Queen Square and City Boad; St. 
Andrew/* $ Curling Club (PI. D, 3), Charlotte St.; ThistU Curling Club, Gold- 
ing St. (PI. F, 2). — Moosepaih Trotting Park, see p. 33. — Union Club, 
Germain St. (PI. D, 3). — St. John Qolf Club (PI. P, 1), just to the N. of 
the town. 

Oonsuls. United States, Mr. Qebhard Willrieh; German, Mr. Robert 
Thomson ; French Consular Agent, Mr. Conrad de Bury ; Italian, Mr. Charles 
McLachlan; Austrian and Scandinavian Vice-Consul, Mr. P. W. Thompson. 

Tourist Information Bareaa, 85 Prince William St. (literatore, maps, 
and information gratis). 

Post Oface (PI. D, 2), Prince William St. (open from 6.30 a.m. to 9 p.m.; 
Money Order Office 9-4). 

8t. John, the largest city and commercial centre of New Brun- 
swick and one of the most important ship-owning cities of Canada, 
is picturesquely situated in 45^14' 6" N. lat. and 66^3' 30" W. long., 
at the point where the River St. John pours its waters into the Bay 
of Fundy. The population in 1901 was 40,711, giving it the eighth 
place among the cities of the Dominion. The main part of the 
city, which is well built of red brick and regularly laid out, lies 
on the E, side of the harbour, but the thriving suburb of West End 
or Carleton (p. 32) is situated on the W. side. The site of the city 
is a rocky and ridgy peninsula, through which streets could be cut 
and levelled only by dint of prodigious labour and expense ; and 
the visitor is met every here and there by protruding masses of slaty 
rock which remind him of the patience and energy of the original 
settlers. The deep and commodious harbour is open for navigation 
all the year round. In the world of commerce St. John is chiefly 
known for its immense shipments of lumber, but it also carries 
on a considerable trade in plaster, lime, fruit, flour, furs, hay, and 
other articles, besides important fisheries. Its manufactures include 
cotton and woollen goods, steam-engines, machinery, brushes, leather, 
and paper. King Street (p. 30) is the chief business-thoroughfare, 
while the finest private residences are chiefly in or near Queen 
Square (p. 30), Germain Street (p. 30), Coburg Street (PI. E, 2), 
and Carleton Street (PI. E, 2), at Mt. Pleasant (p. 3^1), and in Douglas 
Avenue at North End (p. 31). 

History. St. John owes its name to Champlain and De Monts, who 
first visited the harbour on the day of St. John the Baptist (June 24th), 
1604, finding here a settlement of Micmac Indians, on Navy Island (p. 32). 
The first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick was made in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

History. ST. JOHN. 10. Route. 29 

1681-5, when Charleg de la Tour, who had received a grant of this part of 
Acadia, bnilt a fort on St. John Harbour. La Toar here carried on a 
Incratiye far-trade with the Indians for some time, but unfortunately be- 
came involved in a dispute with his rival and enemy, D*Aulnay OhamUay 
of Port Boyal (p. 76), who had the more powerful influence at his back 
in France. In 1648 Chamisay attacked Fort La Tourf with six ships and 
500 men. La Tour, however, succeeded in escaping in a friendly ship 
from La Rochelle, and returned from Boston with so powerful allies that 
Chamisay had to raise the siege and retreat. Two years later, taking ad- 
vantage of a moment when La Tour was absent and the garrison weak, 
Charnisay returned to the attack; but met with an obstinate resistance 
from the heroic Huguenot wife of La Tour, and finally gained his point 
only through the treachery of a Swiss sentinel. He hanged the whole 
garrison before the eyes of Hme. de la Tour, who, soon after, died heart- 
broken (see Whittier'** ballad). Chamisay destroyed La Tour^s fort and built 
another one on the opposite side of the harbour. He died in 1650*, and 
La Tour ultimately regained possession of his lost domain by marrying 
his widow (1653). In 1654 Fort La Tour, with the rest of Acadia, was 
seized and occupied (till 1670) by an expedition despatched by Oliver Crom- 
well. Between 1690 and 1758 the mouth of the St. John was the scene of 
several naval encounters between the French on the one side and the British 
or New Englanders on the other ; but it was not till the latter year that the 
post wa9 captured by an Anglo-American force. The fort captured at this 
time was renamed Fort Frederick. In 1759-66 a few New Englanders, led by 
Mesirt. Simondt, White, and Peabody, formed a small settlement here; and in 
1777, after the destmction of Fort Frederick by American privateers in 1776 
the fortification known as Fort Howe (p. 31) was erected. The real foun- 
dation of the present city of St. John dates, however, from 1783, during which 
year a body of about 10,000 Loyalists landed in the harbour. New Bran 
swick was made a separate province the following year, and its first Legis- 
lature met at St. John on Jan. 8rd., 1786. The settlement was at first 
called Parr Town, after the then Governor of Nova Scotia, but it was 
soon rechristened. The charter of St. John, dates from May 18th, 1785, 
making it the oldest incorporated town in Canada. The seat of govern- 
ment was removed to Fredericton in 1788 (see p. 86). In 1824 St. John 
contained 8000 inhab. and possessed 16,0(X) tons of shipping. In 1889 these 
figures had risen to 9000 and 80,630. The population in 1851 was 27,745, in 
1^1 it was 28,805, and in 1891 it was 39 179 (including Portland). In 1837, 
and subsequently, the city was visited by destructive conflagrations; but 
the memory of these has been entirely swallowed up by the Qreat Fire of 
1877 (June 20th), which swept away fully one-third of the city, rendered 
15,000 people homeless, and destroyed property to the value of $29,000,000. 
Since then the city has been rebuilt on a much more substantial scale; 
but traces of the fire can still be seen in the shape of vacant sites. 

General Benedict Arnold lived and carried on business at St. John from 
1786 to 1791. 

In 1905 the total value of the exports of St. John was $13,548,041 
(including lumber to the value of $ 3,981,449), of the imports $ 5,582,477. 
In the year ending June 30th, 1905, its harbour was entered and cleared 
by 2823 vessels of 1,558,855 tons. Alewives, shad, lobster, and salmon are 
caught in the harbour to the annual value of $ 120,000. In 1901 the city con- 
tained 187 industrial establishments, employing 4688 hands and producing 
goods to the value of $ 6,712,770. The extreme range of temperature is 
from about 15* below zero (Fahr.) to 85* above. 

King Square (PI. E, 3), near the centre of St. John proper, may 
be conveniently taken as the starting-point of our walks about town. 
The square , which is planted with trees , contains a fountain and 

t The site of this fort is disputed, but the weight of evidence seems 
in favour of Parkman and Qanong, who place it on the E. side of the 
harbour, probably at Portland Point (PI. D, 1). /^^^^T^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIc 

30 Route 10. ST. JOHN. Custom House. 

two monnments : — one commemorating the landing of the Loyalists 
in 1783 (p. 29) and the date of the city charter (1785), the other 
to the memory of a brave youth, J. F. Young (d. 1890) , who was 
drowned in the endeavour to save another's life. On the E. side of 
the square are the Court House (PI. E, 3) and Gaol. On the W. 
side is the Market (VI. E, 2). — To the E., King Square is ad- 
joined by the Old Gbavbyaed (PI. E, 3) , its paths now used as 
public walks and lined with many old tombstones and quaint epitaphs. 

The wide King Street (PI. D-F, 2, 3), with many of the principal 
shops, banks, and hotels, descends from King Sq. towards the W., 
crossing Market Square, where carters congregate with their 'slovens* 
(curious low-hung carts), and ending at the Market Slip (PI. D, 2}, 
which was the landing-place of the Loyalists (p. 29). — Pbincb 
William Street (PI. D,E,2, 3), running to theS. from Market Sq., 
passes the Bank of Montreal (PI. 2 ; D, 2) j the Post Office (PL D, 2), 
at the corner of Princess St. ; the substantial stone building of the 
City Hall (PI. D, 3), opposite the last; the Bank of New Brunswick 
(PI. 3 ; D, 2, 3); and the large and handsome Gnstom House (PI. D, 3), 
with its dome and towers (views from roof). The street ends at 
Reed's Point Whabp (PI. D, 3). — We may continue our walk 
from this point along the water's edge to the Military Grounds, 
with the Exhibition Buildings (PI. D, 4), where largely attended ex- 
hibitions are held every second year (autumn). 

In Hazen Av^e., running to the K. from Market Square, is the new 
Public Library (PI. 9; E, 2), in a building presented by Mr. Carnegie and 
opened in 1905. It contains about 16,000 volumes. — The new quarters 
of the Young Merd Christian Association are also to be in this street. 

Returning from the Military Grounds towards the centre of the 
city via Charlotte Street (PL D, E, 3, 2), we soon reach Queen 
Square (PI. D, 3) , among the houses of which may be mentioned 
that of the late Lieut. Governor Boyd (d. 1893 ; N. side) and the 
effective and well-proportioned residence of Mr, Simeon Jones (N.E. 
angle), used by the Prince of Wales on his visit in 1901. On the 
N. side is the Queen Square Methodist Church, and on the W. side are 
the Skating Rink and the rink of St. Andrew's Curling Club. In 
Queen Square is an old cannon, a relic of the period of French oc- 
cupation, believed to have come from the ramparts of Fort la Tour 
(p. 29) and presented to the city by the New Brunswick Historical 
Society in 1906. — In Charlotte St., farther on, to the left, stands 
the large *Trinity Churcli (PI. E, 3), the front of which is turned 
towards Germain St. This handsome building, with its tall steeple, 
occupies the site of the church built by the Loyalists in 1783, 
which was destroyed by the great fire of 1877. 

The Interiob is noticeable for its roomy chancel, beautiful reredos, 
and good stained- glass windows. At the W. end of the church is an old 
carved wooden British Coal-of- Arms ^ brought by the Loyalists from the 
old State House at the evacuation of Boston in 1776. 

Germain Street (PL D , E, 3, 2) , running parallel with and 
between Prince William St. and Charlotte St., conMnsmjamy hand- 

Fort Howe HiU. ST. JOHN. 10. Route. 31 

some private residences; a large Baptist Church (PL D, 3); St. An- 
drew's Presbyterian Church (PI. D, 3); the handsome Union Club 
(PI. D, 3); the rooms of the Church of England Institute, adjoining 
the last; and the city quarters of the Royal Kennebaeasis Yacht Club 
and the Masonic Temple (PI. E, 2), adjoining Trinity Church. At 
the N. end of the street is 8t. John% or the Stone Church (PI. E, 2), 
the oldest church-huilding in the city (1824 ; interior practically 
unchanged). The bell is on the outside of the top of the tower. 
The Stone Church is adjoined by the York Theatre (PI. E, 2). — 
Adjacent, in Union St., are the new High School (PI. E, 2) and 
(opposite) the fine rooms of the Natural History Society, containing 
many interesting relics and specimens. 

Among the other buildings of note in the part of the city to the S. of 
King St. are the Home for IncvrdbU$ (PI. E, 3, A); the Wiggint Atylum 
for Male Orphans (PL E, 4), a handsome building of red and grey sandstone ; 
the Jliater Miserieordiae Hospital^ Sydney St., opposite Orange St. (PI. E, 3)^ 
the Centenary JlieViodist Church (PI. E, 3), a handsome building with a seating 
capacity of over 2000^ the Leintter Street Baptist Church (PL E, 3); 8t. David's 
Presbyterian Church (PL E, 3), Sydney St.; St. John the BaptUVs Church 
(PL D, A; R. C.) and St. Jameses Church (PL 0,4? Epis.), Broad St.j the 
Victoria School (PL E, 8) and the Madras School (PL D, 8), Duke St. 

Waterloo Street (PI. E, F, 2), beginning at the N.W. angle of 
the Old Graveyard (p. 30), leads to the *Boman Catholic Cath- 
edral (PI. E, F, 2), a large Gothic building of marble and sandstone, 
200 ft. long, with a lofty spire. 

The architecture of the Imtbriob is simple and severe, and the stained- 
glass windows are unusually good for a modern church. The transepts 
are 110 ft. long. Over the S.E. door is a basrelief of the Lord^s Supper. 

Adjoining the cathedral, in Cliff St., are the Bishop^s Palace and an 
Orphan Asylum. On the other side of the cathedral is a large building 
occupied by the Sisters of the Oood Shepherd, with a home for fallen women. 

Farther on, Waterloo St. passes the City Hospital (PI. F, 2), a 
circular building with two large wings on a commanding height 
(view). The street ends at the Marsh Bridge, at the head of Court" 
enay Bay, the arm of the sea to the E. of the St. John peninsula. 

The old city of St. John is separated from Hoith End (Portland) 
and the heights of Mt. FUasant by a deep ravine traversed by the 
Intercolonial Railway (comp. PI. E, F, 2) . In the valley are the 
Skating Rhik, St. Paul's Church (PI. E, F, 2), Holy Tnnity Church 
(PI. E, 1), and St. Stephen's Church (PI. E, 2). The visitor should 
not omit to cross the valley (easiest route vial Coburg and Garden 
Sts., PL E, 2) and ascend the opposite heights for the sake of the 
view from the summit. 

The ♦View includes the city, with its fine harbour and Courtenay Bay; 
the suburb of West End or Carleton (see p. 82), on the opposite side of 
the harbour*, Lily Lake and Rockwood Park to theE.^ the irregular wood- 
clad limestone hills to the K., with stretches of the Kennehecdsis, etc. 

Another good point of view is *rort Howe Hill (PI. D, E, 1), a mass 
of limestone crowned by the remains of the old fort of that name 
(p. 29). An old well here, once used by the garrison, is now choked 
with rubbish. Here, too, is Jenny's Spring, so named froi 

32 Route 10. FALLS OF THE ST. JOHN. 

tion that it was heie that Gobbett, then a soldier in the 54th regi- 
ment, fell in love with his future wife, then a girl of thirteen. 

**In about three mornings after I had first seen her, I had, by an invita- 
tion to breakfast with me, got up two young men to join me in my walk*, 
and our road lay by the house of her father and mother. It was hardly 
light, but she was out on the snow, scrubbing out a washing-tub. *ThaVs 
the girl for me% said I, when we had got out of her hearing'" (Gobbett). 
About six months later Cobbetrs regiment was removed to Fredericton, 
while the girl returned to England. He sent her the whole of his savings, 
amounting to 150 guineas, begging her *^not to spare the money, but to 
buy herself good clothes, and to live without hard work'*. Nevertheless, 
when he returned to England at the end of four years, he found his 
"little girl a servant of all work at five pounds a year, and without hardly 
saying a word about the matter, she put into my hands the wAoIe of my 160 
guinea* unbroken^". It is satisfactory to know that their marriage waa as 
happy as it should have been. 

West End (formerly named CafUton)^ a busy but not especially 
attractive suburb, except for the view it commands of St. John, is most 
easily reached by steam-ferry (2 c. j PI. C, D, 2), a trip which affords 
a good idea of the busy life of the Harbour, The salmon-weirs are 
a conspicuous feature at low water. A little above the ferry is Navy 
Island (PI. C, 1, 2), 'opposite which* La Tour built his fort (p. 29). 

On the highest point of West End is a Martello Tower (PI. A, 3), con- 
structed in the war of 1812 , the *View from which well repays the small 
trouble of reaching it. It contains a small collection of relics (open 10-12, 
2-6, and 7-9 s adm. 10 c). The walls are 6 ft. thick. Some of the West 
End Chvrchet , such as the new B. C. Church of the Assumption (PI. A, 3), 
are rather handsome buildings. A large Grain Elevator (PI. C, 3), at the 
West End termination of the G.P.R., is a conspicuous object. About 
Vs M. to the S.W. of the 31 artello Tower is the Bay Shore, a bathing-beach 
and popular resort, with the new Seaside Park (beyond PI. A, 1, 2). — 
On Lancaster Heights, beyond West End , is the New Brunswick School for 
the Deaf (1903), affording a good view of the city, harbour, and falls. 

Last, but by no means least, among the lions of St. John are the 
famous *FalIs of the Biver St. John (PI. A, 1), the chief character- 
istic of which is well denoted by the epithet 'reversible*, appUed to 
them by an American humorist. They are most directly reached by 
the electric cars which run along Douglas Ave. (PI. B-D, 1). The 
best views of them are obtained from the Suspension Bridge (PL A, 1), 
which hangs directly over them, with a span of 640 ft. and a height 
of 70 ft. above high-water, and from the large lumber and pnlp 
mills on the bank. 

The River St. John, which is at places 4-5 M. wide (comp. p. 33), here 
makes its way into the sea through a channel only 450 ft. across, hemmed 
in by limestone cliffs 100 ft. high. At low tide the river falls about 15 ft. 
into the harbour*, but the strong and impetuous Bay of Fundy tide, 
which here rises about 25 ft., counterbalances this fall at high water and, 
indeed, entirely 'reverses' it. At a little more than hiJf-tide the river here 
is level and easily navigable. 

The visitor who has sufficient time at his disposal is strongly advised 
to visit the Falls both at high and low water, m order to have ocular 
proof of this very remarkable phenomenon (time* cards obtained at the hotels). 

Just above the Suspension Bridge is the fine Oantilever Bailway Bridge 
of the C.P.R. (see p. 25), 120 ft. above low water. It cost $600,000. 

Just beyond the Suspension Bridge is the large building of the 
ProYincial Lunatic Asylum (PL A, 1), whichf idth its farm-annex, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

RIVER ST. JOHN. 11, Route 33 

accommodates nearly 500 patients. — We may easily combine a visit 
to the Falls with that to West End, as the Lnnatic Asylum is only 
about 3/4 M. from the Martello Tower (see p. 32). 

Adjoining Douglas Avenue (see p. 32) is the Biverview Memorial 
Park (PL B, C, 1), with a monument commemorative of the South 
African War (1899-1900). 

Envj^ns of St. John. 

One of the favonrite drives of the St. Johnians is the Mabsh Road, 
beginning at the Marsh Bridge (p. 31) and following what is supposed to 
be an ancient channel of the St. John Biver. This road passes {V/i M.) 
the Fern Hill Cemetery and the (IV2 M.) Jioosepath Racing Park and may be 
followed along Kennebeedtis Bay to (6 M.) Rolhetay (p. 48). — The first 
road to the right beyond the Marsh Bridge leads to (2 M.) the Roman 
CatlioUe Cemetery^ (1 M.) the Silver FalU, and (7 M.) Loch Lomond (Ben Lo- 
mond House), which is much frequented for boating, fishing, and shooting. 
— Rookwood Park, about Ujt M. from King Sq., yi& Mt. Pleasant (see 
p. 31), contains 12 M. of driveways, a public garden, a small zoological 
collection, and *Lily Lake, a charming little boating and skating resort. — 
The Shobb Road to Mispbo diverges to the right from the Loch Lomond 
road, Va M. from the Marsh Bridge, and skirts Courienay Bay, which at 
low-water is an expanse of dark sand. In about »/4 M. we pass the Alms 
House, opposite which are the large buildings of the Reformaiory A In^ 
dustrial School. Mispec Point is about 9 M. from the city, and the village 
of Mispec, with a large pulp-mill, is about 1 M. farther on. — The Mahogany 
Road (a cdrmption of the Indian Manauoagonish), beginning beyond the 
Suspension Bridge (p. 32), runs through the village of Fairville (2000 inhab.) 
and thence to the S.W. to (7 M.) Spruce Lake (p. 42). It affords good views 
over the Bay of Fundy (p. 76). 

From St. John to Fredericton and other points on the St. John River 
and its tributaries, see R. 11 a*, to Fredericton by railway, see R. lib; 
to Halifax via the Bay of Fundy, see R. 20 a; to Halifax by railway, see 
R. 20 b; to Moncton and Quebec, see R. 17; to Montreal, see R. 16; to St. 
Andrews and St. Stephen, see R. 14; to Campohello and Or and Manan (by 
steamer vi& Eastport), see R. 15; to Portland (Boston) by railway see 
R. 8; to Boston by sea, see R. 7a. 

11. From St. John to Fredericton. 

a. By Biver. 

84 M. Steamer of the Star Line in 6-7 hrs., starting daily (except Sun. 
from Indiantown (comp. PI. D, 1) at 8.30 a.m. (fare $ 1 ; meals 50 c. ; return- 
tickets, available from Sat. to Mon., at a single fare; day return- ticket, 
available by G.P.R. train leaving Fredericton fur St. John about 9 p.m., $ 2). 
The 'Victoria* is the faster and better boat of the two engaged in the service. 
This is a pleasant trip for those who have time for it, especially when the 
banks glow with the rich colours of the autumn- foliage. The words 
right (r.) and left (1.) are used In the following description in reference 
to persons ascending the river. Many of the in^rmediate landings are 
made by small boats. Some of the side-trips, such as those up the Kenne- 
beedsis and to Grand Lake, are also attractive. Full particulars as to the 
small steamers engaged in these services will be found in the daily papers. 

The St. John, 460 M. in length and much the largest river in New 
Brunswick, r^ses in the great forests of the N. part of Maine and flows 
at first towards the N.E. and afterwards to the 8.E. For about 70 M. it 
forms the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick. It is navigable 
for steamers of some size up to (84 M.) Fredericton, and for smaller vessels 
to Woodstock, 65 M. farther up, or even to Grand Falls, nearly 220 M. 
from the sea. *It is noteworthy that, though the general course of the 

BAaDEKEB's Canada. '3rd Edit. 3 jOOglC 

34 Route 11. LONG REACH. From St. John 

St. John is nearly parallel to the line of theE. coast of New Brnnswick, 
it cuts across the principal lines of elevation and the nsnal N.E. and S.W. 
trend of the rocks of the province upon which the positions of these eleva- 
tions depend' (0. M. Dawion). The St. John drains nearly hiJf of the 
entire area of New Brunswick, besides a large tract of Maine. Among 
its chief tributaries are the 8t. Francis, the Madawasia, the ArooMtook, 
the Tobique, the UFathwaak, the Oromocto^ the Wa»7iademoak , the Salmon, 
and the Kenn^ecasit. A large part of its basin is covered with pine and 
other forest, and immense quantities of timber are floated down the river. 
It received its present name from De Monts in 1601 (comp. p. 28); the 
Indians called it Ouygoudy ('highway') or Looshtook Clong nver'). 

St. John, see p. 27. In order to escape the FaUa (p. 32), the 
steamers start at Indiantown, a snhnrb jnst above the Suspension 
and Railway Bridges (p. 32), reached by electric car (5 c.). As 
we leave we enjoy a fine retrospect of the city , with the bridges 
spanning the gorge through which the St. John forces its way to 
the harbour. The banks, at first, are high, steep , and picturesque, 
with numerous lumber-mills, limestone-quarries, and lime-kilns. 
Near the promontory named Boards Head (r.), about 8 M. from 
Indiantown, the river expands into Grand Bay, about 5 M. across, 
while behind (1.) lies South Bay, with its numerous saw-mills. To 
the right opens ^Kennebeo&Bis Bay, the estuary of the Kennehtcatis 
River (p. 48), with Kennebecasia Island, 

This bay, which also receives the waters of the Hammond Biver, is 
1-4 H. wide and navigable for large vessels for 20-25 M. It contains many 
islands and includes the famous St. John rowing- course (comp. p. 48). 

Beyond Grand Bay the river again contracts. Its windings often 
close up the apparent channel and make it look like a series of lakes. 
The hills which enclose it are here about 200-400 ft. in height. The 
railway (p. 24) is seen to the left. 

9 M. (L) Brundage^B Point, one of the landings for Westfield, 
a favourite little summer-resort at the mouth of the Nerepis, with a 
sandy beach. — The river here bends to the N.E. (r.), and we enter 
the so-called Long Beach, a straight stretch of the river, 16 M. long 
and 1-3 M. wide. To the left rises the ridge called the DeviVs Back, 
River-craft of various kinds are met here, including small tug- 
steamers drawing enormous timber-rafts. 

10 M. (1.) Woodman 8. — 11 M. (1.) Nat, Belyea's, with a light- 
house. — 12 M. (r.) Carter's, — 17 M. (1.) Pitt's Landing, — 171/2 M. 
(r.) Laskie*s Landing. — 20 M. Brown's Flat (1.), with summer 
cottages. — 2OV2 M. Pugsley's Island, — 22 M. (r.) Cedars (Cedars, 
$ 2-272)- — 25 M. (1.) Oak Point, a pretty little hamlet with a light- 
house and church. Numerous islands stud the river here. 

Just beyond Oak Point , to the left, is a long narrow peninsula 
named The Mistake^ so called because the inlet between it and the 
W. bank is apt to be taken for one of the channels of the river. 

26 M. (r.) SterritVs, at the mouth of Kingston Creek, an arm of 
BelleisleBay (14 M. long and 1 M. wide), which here opens to the right. 

29 M. (r.) Palmer's Point. — The river now bends again to the 
N.W. (1.). 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

to Fredericton. ' GAGETOWN. 11. Route. 35 

30 M. (1.) Evandale (Vanwait's Hotel, $11/2). — 30V2 M. (r.) 
David VanwarVs. — 31 M. John AUen^s , at the foot of Spoon Island. 
On the mainland at this point are some famous granite-quairies. — 
32 M. (r.) Black's. — 33 V2 M. Case's^ near the head of Spoon Island. 
— 34 M. (1.) Hampstead (Vanwart's Hotel, $ IV2)) nearly opposite 
the end of Long Island, a fertile hay-growing strip, 6 M. long, with 
fine elms and two ponds. — 34 M. (r.) Wickham, 

About 2 M. above this, to the right , partly concealed by Little 
MusqtLash Island, is the mouth of Washademoak Lake. 

Washademoak Lake, really an expansion of the river of that name, 
25 M. long and Vs-S M. wide, is visited more or less regularly by a small 
steamer from St. John, but offers few inducements to the tourist. 

40 M. (1.) Otnabog, at the outlet of the lake of the same name, 
nearly opposite the upper end of Long Island. — 42 M. (1.) McAl- 
pin^s (Halfway Clump), opposite Upper Musquash Island. — 47 M. 

ir.) Buzia's or ScoviVs Point (lighthouse). — 50 M. (L) Oagetown, 
Simpson's, $2), behind the peninsula of Grimross Neck, is the 
principal place on the river between St, John and Fredericton (pop. 
926). It is shire-town of Queen's Co., is beautifully situated, and 
has several churches and public buildings. 

To the right, at this point, on the other side of the peninsula, is 
the mouth of the Jemseg River, the outlet of Orand Lake (see below). 
A small steamer plies regularly from St. John to Grand Lake (see 
daily papers). After quitting the St. John River, it ascends the slow and 
winding Jemseg, the mouth of which was once guarded by a strong fort 
erected by the French in 1640. Half-a-century later M. de ViUebcn, Gov- 
ernor of Acadia, made his headquarters here , an honour that was trans- 
ferred to Kashwaak (Fredericton) soon after. — Grand Lake, which is 
30 M. long and 3-9 M. wide, is surrounded by a farming and coal-mining 
country. The usual terminus of the steamer is CMpman, about 10 M. up 
the Salmon River, which flows into the N. end of the lake. 

The hills bordering the St. John now disappear, and the rest of 
the trip passes through a fertile *intervale' district, overflowed by 
the spring freshets. The river bends to the left. 53 M. (1.) Grimross 
Canal. — 56 M. (1.) Gunter^s. — 60 M. Upper Gagetown, with a pier. 

Opposite Gilbert's or Maugerville Island we call at (64 M.) Shef- 
field (r.), with its quaint church, and at (66 M.) Sheffield Academy, 
with the building formerly used as a school. The river here flows 
nearly E. and W. To the left we have a charming view of (68 M.) 
Burton, with its church-spire rising from a sea of green foliage. 
Opposite (r.) lies Upper Sheffield. — "We now pass Middle Island and 
reach (71 M. ; r.) Maugerville, the first English settlement in New 
Brunswick (1763). In 1776 the majority of the inhabitants declared 
in favour of the Colonies and against Great Britain — a declaration 
that entailed no serious consequences, even to themselves I 

73 M. (1.) Oromocto (Riverside Hotel, $ 1 V2), *» attractive vil- 
lage with a good wharf, at the mouth of the Oromocto, in which 
trout and pickerel may ip caught. A fort for protection against the 
Indians was erected here. Opposite lies Oromocto Island: ^^^}^ 

36 Route 11. FREDERIOTON. From 8t. John 

From about this point all the way to Fredericton the river is 
lined with timber-booms, anchored by stone-fllled piers. The *8hear- 
booms^ attached to the main booms , are for oatching passing logs. 
Lnmbermen are seen at work in all directions, and tiny tug-boats 
are hauling log-rafts. Indians in birch-bark canoes may be encoun- 
tered here, if not lower down. 

75 M. (r.) Upper MaugervUle. — 79 M. (1.) Olasier's, 

The first part of Fredericton to come in sight is the University, 
on the hills to the left. Then the Cathedral spires and the dome of 
the Parliament Buildings are seen over a low point to the right. 
About 1 M. before reaching the city we pass a busy saw-mill on the 
left. Finally we pass through the 'draw' of the fine Railway Bridge 
and moor at the wharf to the left , between the bridges. On the 
opposite bank (r.) lie Oib$on and St. Mary's (see p. 38). The 
hotels, which are within a few hundred yards of the wharf, send 
carriages to meet the steamer (no charge). 

84 M.(l.) Fredericton CBarfccfJIowsc, Queen, $2-3725 Windsor, 
$ 2-2^/2 J cab 25 c per drive within the city ; U.S. Agent), the 
capital of New Brunswick, is a very attractive little city of (1901) 
7117 inhab., pleasantly situated on the right bank of the St. John, 
with wide elm-shaded streets, good shops, and many handsome 
buildings. The five main streets, running parallel with the river — 
Queen, King, Brunswick, Oeorge, and Charlotte — were laid out in 
1785 and were named by Governor Carleton in honour of the reign- 
ing family of Great Britain. Two new streets (Saunders &n6. Aberdeen) 
have since been added. The main raison d^Ure of the city is the 
presence of the Provincial Government Offices, but it also carries 
on a few manufactures and a large lumber-trade, while it is the 
distributing point for the surrounding country. It is an important 
centre for the sportsman (see p. 38). Fredericton is the seat of a 
cavalry-school and of a company of active militia. The river, here 
3/4 M. wide, is crossed by a railway-bridge (p. 89) and by another 
for carriages and foot-passengers. 

In 16^ Oovernor Villebon (p. 36) transferred hia headquarters from 
Jemseg to the mouth of the Nathvoaak (p. 88), opposite Fredericton , in 
order to be nearer his Malicete allies, and built here a strong fort and 
stockade , which successfully resisted an attack by the New Englanders 
in 1696. In 1698, however, the garrison was removed to the fort at the 
ipouth of the river St. John (p. 29), and in 1700 Fort Nashwaak was 
destroyed and abandoned. The village at 8t. Anne"** Point, on the opposite 
bank, was founded about 1740, and in 1757 it received many Acadian re- 
fugees from Nova Scotia. When the British took possession of New Brun- 
swick (see p. 87), the name of St. Anne was changed to Fredericton by 
Governor Carleton in 1785, and in 1787 it was made the capital of the 
province, partly because St. John was considered too open to attack, but 
chiefly to encourage the settlement of the lands in the centre of the Province. 

The Province of New Brunswick, of which Fredericton is the capital, 
is about 200 M. long from N. to S. and 160 M. wide from E. to W. Its 
area, 27,500 sq. M., is a little less than that of Scotland. On the N. it is 
bounded by the Province of Quebec, on the W. by the State of Maine, on 
the S. by the Bay of Fundy, and on the E. by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 

to Fredericton. FREDERICTON. 11. Route. 37 

while at its S.E. angle it connects with Nova Scotia by the narrow Isthmas 
of Chignecto (see p. 86). It has a coast-line of about 500 M., with namerous 
bays and excellent harboars. The chief rivers are the St. John (p. 33), 
the Miramichi (p. 88), and the Eatigouche i:^. 90). The surface consists 
mainly of undulating plains and hills, with no mountain-ranges properly 
so called, and much of it is still covered with forest. Perhaps two-thirds 
of it are available for agriculture, but so far only about one-tenth has 
been cleared and occupied. All the ordinary British cereals and roots are 
successfully grown. Along with agriculture, fishing and lumbering are the 
chiefpursuits of the inhabitants, of whom there were 321,263 in 1891 and 
331,120 in 1901. The fisheries employ 10,000 men and are surpassed in 
value by those of Nova Scotia and British Columbia only. The mineral 
resources include coa^, iron, gypsum, copper, and manganese. About one- 
third of the population is of English origin, one-third Irish, one-sixth 
French, nearly one-sixth Scottish. The Indians number about 1400. — 
New Brunswick was included in the grant of ^Acadia^ made to De Monts 
in 1603 (comp. p. 63), but in 1713 the French tried to restrict this name 
to Nova Scotia, and it was not till 1763 that New Brunswick became an 
undisputed part of the British Empire (comp. p. 86). Many of the Kova 
Scotia Acadians took refuge in New Brunswick in 1756 (see p. 95). New 
Brunswick was made a separate province in 1784 (p. 63) and Joined the 
Dominion of Canada in 1867. — iTew Brunswick offers some of the best 
fishing and shooting in Canada (comp. pp. 86, 38, 1). 
I ' The chief street, with the best shops and many public buildings, 
is QuBBN Stkebt, running along the water-front for I1/2 M. Follow- 
ing it to the left (S.E.) on coming from the steamboat-wharf, we 
pass the Queen Hotel (r.) and Court House (1.) and reach the Par- 
liament Bnilding, a handsome stone structure, with a Corinthian 
portico, small dome, and mansard corner -towers. The adjacent 
building of purplish sandstone contains the Bepaftmental Offices, 

The Assembly Hall, on the groundfioor to the right on entering, con- 
tains portraits of George III. and Queen Charlotte, the Earl of Sheffield, 
etc. The Legislature, which consists of 46 members, including the Speaker, 
generally meets in February. — The Supreme Courts to the left, contains 
portraits of the Chief Justices of New Brunswick. — The Hall of the Legis- 
lative Council^ upstairs, became the Supreme Court Boom when New Brun- 
swick declared for a single legislative chamber. — The LQ>rary^ at the back 
of the main building, contains a set of the plates of Audtibon'^s 'Birds^ and 
other valuable works. — An excellent *View is obtained from the Dome. 

In the Crown Land Office^ in the Departmental Building, is a copy of 
the ^Atlantic Neptune', published for the use of the British Navy in 1770. 

A little way beyond the Parliament Building, in a pretty wooded 
^close', stands ^Christ Ghuroli Cathedral, a small but beautiful 
Dec. (iothic building of grey stone , with a spire 180 ft. high. It 
was built in 1849, through the exertions and largely at the expense 
of Bishop Medley (d. 1892), who is buried to the E. of the choir. 

The *Interior, with its shallow transepts and spacious choir, is simply 
but tastefully adorned and makes a pleasing impression. The Stained 
Olass Window at the E. end was a gift of the Episcopalians of the United 
States. Behind the organ is a tablet to Major- General Smyth (d. 1823), 
Lieutenant-Qovernor of New Brunswick. — Services on Sun. at 8, 11, and 7; 
holy-days at 11a.m.; week-days at 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. 

If we turn to the right (N.W.) on reaching Queen St. from^the 
wharf, we pass (right) the Officers* Square, with its green lawns 
the Officers* Quarters, the Post Office, the Barracks y the Normav 
School, and the City Hall, Farther on , in the same direction, we 
pass the wooden Victoria Hospital, an institution due te-theactivity 

38 Route 11. FREDERICTON. 

of Lady Tilley, and reach Oovemment House, formerly the residence 
of the Lieutenant-Governor. Opposite lies WUmot Park, presented 
and endowed by Mr. E. H. Wilmot. About V2 **• farther out is the 
Hermitage, formerly the residence of the Hon. Thos. BaMie; the 
mansion was burned down some time ago, and the attractive grounds 
have been secured as the site of a Roman Catholic institution. 

Drivers may follow this pleasant road along the river to (4 M .) the 
village of Springhill (p. 89). 

At the back of Fredericton rises a series of wooded heights, on 
the southernmost of which, IV2M. from the centre of the city, stands 
the University of Hew Bnmswiok, a substantial stone building 
dating from 1828 (140 students). It should be visited for the sake of 
the *View from the cupola. It has an excellent geological museum. 

Other noticeable buildings are the Presbyterian and Methodist 
Churches and the little Anglican Christ Church (formerly 8t. Ann'^s). 

No visitor shonld omit to cross the river by the road-bridge (p. 36), 
which begins behind the Post Of&ce and leads to the village of St. Uarp^t, 
below the mouth of the Nashwaaitit Clittle NashwaaV). It is adjoined 
by a small settlement of Malicete Indians, whose services as canoe-men 
and guides are in demand among sportsmen. [The white guides, of whom a 
list is published by the New Brunswick Tourist Associalioo, are co'Visidered 
the best, while the Micmac Indians, on the K. shore, are also good.] To the 
8. of St. Mary's, at the mouth of the Nathwaak, lies Cfibson, a lumbering 
village with about 1000 inhabitants. A drive hence up the Nashwaak 
leads to (3 M.) the model town of Karyivllle, the seat of the large lumber- 
mills of Mr. Alexander Gibson , the *Lumber King of New Brunswick^ 
who employs altogether about 200O men. The points of interest here in- 
clude the Saw MilU^ a large Cotton Mill, the rows of neat little houses of the 
employees, and the somewhat fantastic octagonal Church, — Gibson and 
Marysville are stations on the Fredericton Section of the Intercolonial Railway 
(see p. 89), and Gibson is also on the C P.R. line to Woodstock (see p. 39). 

A favourite drive leads along the S.W. side of the river past Kings- 
clear (p. 39), crosses the river at (9 M.) Crock's Point, and retumg down 
the E. bank vi& Keswick, Douglas, Nashwaaksis, and St. Mary^s. 

A delightful canoe-trip may be taken up uie Nashwaaksis (see above) 
to (12 M.) its pretty Falls. 

Fredericton ig a good starting-point for caribou-shooting, the best 
Fcason for which is in December, after the first snow. Guides, equipments, 
and camp -supplies are easily obtainable here. Good fishing of various 
kinds is also accessible hence. Information may be obtained on applica- 
tion to Mr, L. B. Knight, Chief Game Commissioner for the Province of 
New Brunswick, or from Mr. R. P. Allen, of the N. B. Guide Association. 

From Fredericton to CTuttham (Fredericton Section of Intercolonial Rail- 
way), see p. 89; to Woodstock^ see B. 12. 

b. By Bailway. 

67 M. Canadian Pacific Railway in 2-2V2 hrs. (fare $2). 

From St. John to (45 M.) Fredericton Junction, see p. 25. Our line 
here diverges to the right (N.) and runs through a wooded district, at 
some distance to the W.of theiJivcr Oromocto (p. 35). None of the inter- 
mediate stations are important. 53 M, Rusiagomis', 57 M. Waaais; 
61 M. Glasiet; 63 M. Dodk; 64 M. Victoria; 66 M. Salamanca. 

67 M* Fredericton, see p. 36. The Union Railway Station lies 
at the E. end of the city, ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


12. From Fredericton to Woodstock. 

a. By Bailway. 

65 M. Canadian Pacific Railway in 4V« hrs. (fare $2.10). 

Fredericton^ see p. 36. The train crosses the St. Johth by a fine 
cantilever steel bridge (view), 8/4 M. long, to (2 M.) Oihson (p. 38). 
It then turns to the left (W."), passes (3 M.) St. Mary's, and crosses 
the Nashwaaksis (p. 38) at (4 M.) Douglas. Fine views of the St. 
John are enjoyed to the left; Springhill (see below) is visible on 
the opposite shore. At (14 M.) Keswick we turn to the right, quit 
the St. John, and ascend the left bank of the Keswick. Some pleas- 
ant bits of scenery are passed at first, but farther np the valley is 
dreary and unattractive. The line gradually bends round to the W., 
crossing and recrossing the stream. 18 M. Cardigan ; 22 M. Zea- 
land; 31 M. Upper Keswick; 41 M. Millville;A:S M. Woodstock Bead ; 
45 M. Nackawic; 54 M. Shewan, At (59 M.) Newhurg Junction (Rail. 
Restaurant) we join the line fromWoodstock to Edmundston (see R. 13) 
and follow it towards the S., with the St. John River to the right 
Beyond (62 M.) Upper Woodistock we cross the St. John by a long 
wooden bridge and reach — 

65 M. Woodstock (see p. 40). 

b. By Biver. 

In spring and autumn , when the water is high enough to permit it, 
a 'stem- wheel' steamer plies up the St. John to Woodstock (64 M.-, fare 
$ 1.50, meals 40 c). The scenery is attractive. 

Fredericton, see p. 36. The steamer at first runs towards the 
W., passing (5 M. ; 1.) Springhill, Sugar Island (r.), and (9 M. ; 1.) 
Lower French Village^ an Acadian settlement opposite the mouth of 
the Keswick (see above). The river then turns to the S.W. 

17 M. Upper Kingsclear, — 20 M. (r.) Lower Queensbury. The 
river here turns again to the N.W. — 22 M. (1.) Lower Prince Wil- 
liam. — 23 M. Bear Island. — 25 M. (1.) Prince William, 

30 M, (r.) Upper Queensbury. The river bends to the right. 

40 M. (1.) Pokiok, picturesquely situated at the mouth of the 
river of that name, the outlet of Lake George. In descending to the 
St. John this stream forms a fall 40 ft. high and cuts its way through 
a narrow gorge Y4 M. long. — The St. John once more turns to the W. 

44 M. Meductic Rapids, which in low water the steamer ascends 
with some difficulty. 

45 M. (1.) Lower Canterbury, near the mouth of the Sheogomoc 
River, — 47 M. (r.) Southampton. — 51 M. (1.) Upper Canterbury^ 
at the mouth of Eel River, 

About 4 M. farther on, beyond (55 M.; r.) Northampton, is the 
site of the old Meductic fort and Indian village (1.), which have 
existed from time immemorial and were described by English and 
French writers more than two centuries ago. The river here flows 
almost N. and S. Digit zed by GoOglc 

40 Route 13. ANDOVER. 

67 M. (1.) Lower Woodstock. 

64 M. {l.jWoodBtook (CarlUU, $2-2V2> Aberdeen, $1V2J U. S. 
Consul, Mr, Frank C. Denison), a town of (1901) 3644 inhab., pleas- 
antly situated on a Mgli bluff, at the confluence of the St. John and 
the Meduxndceag, is the centre of a thriving agricultural district. 
It also possesses saw-mills, foundries, and factories, but the ad- 
jacent iron-mines are no longer worked. The drives in the vicinity 
of the town are picturesque and the roads excellent. A handsome 
iron bridge with stone piers spans the river to Oraftoriy on theE. side. 

From Woodstock to McAdam Junction^ see p. 26^ to Orand FaU$ and 
Edmundaton^ see B. 13. 

13. From Woodstock to Orand Falls and Edmnndston. 

113 M. Canadian Pacific Railway in 62/3 hrs. (fare $3.50). This line 
runs through a picturesque district, and the Grand Falls are well worth seeing. 

From Woodstock to (5 M.) Newhurg Junction^ see p. 39. Our 
line now runs to the N., hugging the E. bank of the 8t. Jo^n (views 
to the left). 12 M. Hartland; 16 M. PeeL — 23 M. FlorencevUle ; 
the prettily situated village is on the opposite side of the river. About 
6 M. to the S.W. rises Afar* HUl (1200 ft.). — The scenery improves. 
26 M. Bristol is only 15 M. by road from the upper waters of the 
main arm of the Miramichi (see p. 88). At (40 M.) Muniac we 
cross the stream of that name. — From (48 M.) Perth the Tobique 
Valley Railway runs to (28 M. ; fare 95 c) Plaster Rock, with its rich 
deposits of gypsum. There is some talk of extending this line to 
Riley Brook, — The train now crosses the St. John to (49 M.) Andover 
(Perley's Inn, $ lV2-2)i ^ village of about 700 inhab., forming the 
headquarters of the anglers of the Tobique district. 

About 1 M. above Andover, on the opposite side of the St. John, is 
the mouth of the *Tobiqae, a famous stream for salmon, trout, and scenery. 
Guides ($ 1-1 Vs per day) and canoes may be obtained in the Malicete vil- 
lage at the mouth of the river or by consulting the list of white guides 
prepared by the New Brunswick Tourist Association (better). The enthusiastic 
angler may push his way up to Nictor or Nictau Lake, at the headwaters of the 
Tobique (a week^s journey), whence a portage of 8 M. will bring him to the 
headwaters of the Nipisiguit (p. 89). Thence he may paddle in 6-6 days 
to the Great FalU of the Nipisiguit^ 20 M. from BatJwrst (comp. p. 89). Near 
Nictor Lake is Bald Mt. (2500 ft.), the highest point in l^w Brunswick. 

Near Johnville, not far from Andover, a cave was discovered in 1906, 
conlalDing human bones and relics of the 17-18th centuries. 

From (54 M.) Aroostook Junction a branch -line runs up the 
valley of the Aroostook to (7 M.) Fort Fairfield, (19 M.) Caribou, and 
(34 M.) Presque Isle, three small towns in Maine (2-3000 inhab.). 

The so-called ^Aroottook War\ in 1839, arose from disputes about the 
boundary between New Brunswick and Maine, but did not pass beyond 
the stage of ^mobilisation of forces^ on both sides. The ensuing diplo- 
macy adjudged the Aroostook Valley, which had been largely settled by 
New Brunswickers , to the United States. The valley aflFords excellent 
fishing and also bear, moose, caribou, deer, and duck shooting, llie 
name will be familiar to all admirers of HowelW *Lady of the Aroostook*. 

The line crosses the Aroostook and continues to follow the 
St. John, which now flows to our right — 73 M. Grand Falls (Our2e3d, 

Digitized by ^ 

GI^AND FALLS. 13. RouU. 41 

well spoken of, $2), a small town with 1900 inhab., attracts a 
nnmber of summer-Tisitors by its fine scenery, beautiful woods, 
and cool climate. The town, through which runs a wide grassy ayenue 
named Broadway, occupies a high plateau surrounded on three sides 
by the river and on the fourth by a ravine. Partridge and duck 
shooting are popular in autumn. 

Opposite the town are the *Chrand Falls of the St. John, where the 
river suddenly contracts and plunges into a rocky gorge from a height of 
74 ft. These falls rank with the finest on the continent in everything bat 
size, and their environment is very impressive. A good distant view of 
them is obtained from the J^pemion Bridge^ which crosses the river about 
200 yds. below, while a nearer view is obtained from the old mill or by 
descending the steep steps to the bottom of the ravine. — The ravine is 
about */« H. long and 360 ft. wide, while its sides of dark calcareous slate 
rise precipitously to a height of iOO-250 ft. It contains several lesser falls 
ahd rapids, with a total descent of 50 ft. more. Among the subordinate 
points of interest in it are the Cave, the Coffet Mitt, and the Willt. The 
visitor should try to see the falls when lumber is passing over them. — 
A romantic Indian tradition (not, however, by any means confined to this 
district) narrates that an invading party of Hohawks captured two Malicete 
squaws, whom they forced to act as their pilots down the river. The 
women assured them that the stream was free from falls or rapids and 
that the noise they heard was that of a tributary stream. The Hohawks 
consequently did not realise their danger till too late, and their canoes 
were all swept over the faJls — the heroines losing their own lives but 
saving their village from destruction. 

The railway crosses to the left (E.) bank of the river a little above 
the falls and continues its course towards the N.W. (views to the 
left). The river now forms the boundary between New Brunswick 
and Maine , and we soon reach the Acadian district mentioned at 
p. 95. — 86 M. 8t. Leonard's. — 90 M. Grand Rher lies at the 
mouth of the river of that name. 

This forms the beginning of a canoe and portage route to the head- 
waters of the Bestigouehe (p. 90), which are withih about 16 M. of this 
part of the St. John. Guides and canoes are generally brought from the 
Malicete settlements at the mouth of the Tobique (p. 40) but may also 
be obtained at one of the Acadian villages (best guides those named in 
the list of the N.B. Tourist Association). 

102 M. OreenRioer-y 106 M. St. BasU, with a large Roman Catho- 
lic church and convent. — The train continues to hug the river, 
which here sweeps round to the W., and soon reaches — 

112M. Edmnndston (see p. 95). Route hence via Lake Temis- 
couata to Riviere du Loup (in the reverse direction), see p. 95. 

14. From St. John to St. Stephen and St. Andrews. 

a. By Bailway. 

St. Stephen is reached by the Nbw Brunswick Southebn Bailwat (82 M.) 
in 4Vs hrs. (fare $ 1.76) or by the Canadian Pacific Railway vi& McAdam 
Junction in i hrs. St. Andrews is reached by the G. P. B. vi& McAdam 
Junction (comp. p. 25) in 41/4 hrs. (fare $2.60). 

In fine weather the steamboat voyage (B. 14b) is preferable to the 

8U John^ see p. 27. The train of the Shore Line starts from 
West End Ferry (p. 32), on the W. side of the harbour^ ^j^Jgns 

42 Route 14. ST. ANDRE\¥S. From St John 

to the W., following the general line of the coast but affording com- 
paratively few views of the Bay of Fundy (p. 23). — 8 M. Spruce 
Lake (p. 33); 17 M. Musquash, a village with (1901) 741 inhab., at 
the head of a small harbour; 24 M. Lepreaux, at the head of Mace^s 
Bay. Point Lepreaux, 7 M. to the S., is provided with a lighthouse. 
At Beaver Harbor, 5 M. from (38 M.) Pennfield, is the Paul Hotel 
(well spoken of), frequented for shooting and fishing. — 47 M. 
St. George M^'c^fw, $1V4; ^•'5. Agent), a small seaport, with (1901) 
2892 inhab., at the mouth of the Magaguadavic (locally pronounced 
^Magadavy'), which is here compressed into a chasm 30 ft. wide 
and plunges into the harbour from a height of 50 ft. St. George 
exports lumber and fine red granite, quarried in the neighbourhood. 
Good trout-fishing is obtained in Lake Utopia, 1 M. to the N. — 
63 M. Bonny River (Sullivan, $ IY2)) a good trout-fishing centre; 
62 M. Dyer's, 

At (68 M.) St. Andrews Crossing we intersect the C.P.R. line 
from McAdam Junction to St. Andrews. The distance to the latter 
place, which is described below, is 17 M. 

We now pass (77 M.) Oalc Bay, at the head of the inlet of the 
St. Croix River so called (see p. 43), and soon reach — 

82 M. St. Stephen (see p. 43). 

b. By Steamer. 

A steamer of the Eastern S.S. Co. pliea thrice weekly in sammer from 
St. John to Eattpoft, where it connects with steamers for St. Andrews 
(through-fare $1.30) and Calais (ior St. Stephen; $1.50^ 5 hrs. in all). See 
daily papers or enquire at the steamboat-office. 

St. John, see p. 27. On leaving the harbour, the steamer runs 
well out into the Bay of Fundy (p. 23) and steers a little to the S. 
of W. Beyond Split Rock Point opens Musquash Harbour (see above), 
and farther on is Point Lepreaux (see above), with its double light 
and steam- foghorn. We then cross the wide entrance of Mace's 
Bay (see above), leaving Deer Island (p. 22) to the right. 

At Eastport (see p. 22) we change to a steamer of the Frontier 
Steamboat Co., which steers to the N., passing between Moose Island 
and Deer Island (see above), and beyond Pleasant Point (1.), the 
chief settlement of the Passamaq noddy Indians, enters Pa^sama- 
quoddy Bay. Beyond Navy Island we enter the St. Croix River, 

St. Andrews (* Algonquin^ a large summer-hotel, $ 3-6 ; Kennedy's, 
$2; Central Exchange, $2; U.S. Agent, Mr. O.H.Stickney), a seaport 
and summer-resort, with about 1390 inhab., is finely situated on 
a peninsula between Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. Oroix River, 
here 2 M. wide and separating New Brunswick from Maine. The 
town lies on a gentle slope, rising to a height of 150 ft., while a 
little farther back the hills are 100 ft. higher. Its attractions include 
good sea-bathing and boating, golf-links, a summer climate cool and 
comparatively free from fog, sea and fresh-water fishing, lobster- 

to St. Andrews. ST. STEPHEN. 14. Route. 43 

spearing, and fair roads for riding or driving. It is frequented by 
many visitors from "both Canada and the United States. A fine "boat- 
ing and bathing lake has been formed by a dam at Katie's Cove. 

St. Andrews, wliicli was founded about 1783, lias a good liarbonr and 
farmerly carried on a brisk trade with the West Indies. 

One of the chief points of interest near St. Andrews is the Chamcook 
3ft., 4 M. to the N., the base of which may be reached by road or railway. 
The top commands a fine *View of Pauamaquoddy Bay. — Excursions may 
also he made to Douced Island (see below) and to the little American 
village of Robbinston, on the opposite side of the St. Croix. — Longer trips 
may be made to Ecuiport (steamer daily in summer), Campdbello (p. 44), 
and Grand Manan (p. 45). — From St. Andrews to McAdam Junction^ see p. 42. 

The sail up the St. Croix Biver from St. Andrews to St. Stephen 
(17 M.) is interesting and picturesque. To the left is seen the village 
of Rohhinston (see above); to the right rises Chamcook Aft. (see 
above). About 5Y2 M. above St. Andrews we pass (left) Doacet's 
Island, the site of the first settlement in Acadia. 

In 1604 the Sieur de MonU, to whom Henry IV. had made a grant of 
Acadia, arrived in the St. Croix River at the head of an expedition which 
included Champlain among its members and fixed upon the grassy Isle 
St. Croix (now Doucet's Island) as the site of his settlement. A group of 
wooden dwellings, defended by two batteries, was erected, and grain and 
vegetables were planted. The crops, however, failed to ripen, and the 
extreme cold of the winter was more than the ill-fed and ill-housed French- 
men could stand. Scurvy broke out and carried off nearly half of the 80 
settlers. When a supply-ship arrived in June, 16(6, the island was aban- 
doned, and the unfortunate colonists took refuge in Port Royal (p. 75). 
The only present inhabitants of the island are the keepers of the lighthouse. 

In 17U8, when it was agreed that the St. Croix should be the boundary 
between New Brunswick and the United States, the latter country claimed 
that the Magaguadavic (p. 42) was the stream in question. The discovery 
of some remains of the settlement of DeMonts, however, settled the matter 
beyond dispute. 

About 41/2 M. farther up, the river bends to the left (W.), while 
Oak Bay opens out to the N., in the direction we have been moving 
in. It has been supposed that the arrangement of the river and its 
arms here suggested the name 'Croix*. To the left rises the DeviVs 
Head (a corruption of DuvaVs or D'OroiUe's'). In 2^/2 M. more we pass 
the fishing- village named The Ledge, and 4 M. beyond this lies — 

St. Stephen (Windsor, Queen, $2; U.S. Consul, Mr. C, A. 
McCullough), a busy little town with (1901) 2840 inhab., at the 
head of navigation on the St Croix. Its chief activity is in shipping 
lumber, but it also carries on a general trade and has a few manu- 
factories. About 2 M. above St Stephen is the sister-town of Mill- 
town (2044 inhab. in 1901), and on the opposite shore of the river 
(bridge) is the American town of Calais (American House, Border 
City, St Croix Exchange, $2), with (1900) 7656 inhab. and similar 
interests to those of St Stephen. The cemetery of St Stephen is 
shaded by fine white pines, many of which are remarkable for their 
curious form. 

From St. Stephen to McAdam Junction, see p. 25. — Steamers ply 
regularly in summer from St. Stephen to St. Andrews (p. 42), Eastport (p. 22), 
Campobello (p. 44), and Oremd Manan (p. 45). ^ , 

Digitized byCjOO^lC 


15. Campobello and Grand Manan. 

These two islands are conveniently treated of together, as they 
are both reached vil Eastport (p. 22) , the routes to which town 
are indicated at pp. 22, 42. 

a. Campobello. 
Small steamers ply from Eastport to (27$ M.) CampcMlo at frequent 
intervals 0/shr. ; fare 25 c.)) while the Grand Manan steamers (p. 46) also 
touch at Campobello. Tickets are issned to Campobello from all important 
points, and baggage may be checked through. The ferry-steamers connect 
with all passenger-steamers calling at Eastport. 

Campobello (Tyn~o-Coed Hotel ^ with its annex the Tyn-o- 
Mats, $3V2-5; OwenHotelj $2-2V2J TJ.S.Agent), an island 9-10 M. 
long and 2-3 M. wide, lies between Pasaamaquoddy Bay and the Bay 
of Fundyy just on the Canadian (New Brunswick) side of the inter- 
national boundary. It is Irregular in shape, and its shores abound 
in picturesque cliffs, chasms, fjords, and beaches. The interior is 
covered with a dense growth of firs and larches, affording a pleasant 
shade for the numerous walks and drives that have been made through 
it in all directions. The climate is cool in summer, ranging from 
50^ to 75** Fahr. From 1767 to 1880 the island belonged to Admiral 
William Owen and his descendants, but in the latter year it was 
purchased by a syndicate of New Yorkers and Bostonians, who have 
spent large sums on its development, and it has lately become a 
favourite summer-resort. There is a golf-course. In 1901 the number 
of resident inhabitants was about 1200. 

Excursions. To Hei-ring Cove Beach^ \*j\ M. The shady road crosses 
Lake Glen Severn by a bridge 600 ft. long. The crescent-shaped beach is 
3 M. long. We may return from its farther end by the Herring Cove 
road, or by a bridle-path diverging to the left from that road and travers- 
ing the wood. — To *ffe€td Harbor, 10 M. The road leads partly along 
the coast and partly through the well-wooded interior. It passes the 
famous Cold Spring y with a uniform temperature of 44% and Bunker Hill 
(300 ft.), the top of which, reached hy a bridle-path, affords a 'View of 
Grand Bfanan, the Wolves, and (on very clear days, with a telescope) 
Nova Scotia. A detour may be made from this road to (2 M.) ^Schooner 
Cove^ whence a path (good for s/4 M., when the Head comes in sight; 
difficult trail thence) leads to (2 M.) Nancp Head^ a fine cliff, 210 ft. high, 
with a pretty beach at its foot. Following the Head Harbor road a little 
farther, we may diverge to the right to Mill Cove. (If we include tills 
point, it is wise to bring luncheon and devote the whole day to the ex- 
cursion.) — Nine Mile Drive (3 hrs.). We follow the Glen Severn road for 
1 M. and then the Raccoon Beach road to the (ii/t M.) Raccoon Beach, 
whence we may visit the wild Southern Head on foot (6 min.). Return- 
ing to the road, we follow it to the right for 5 M. and return by either 
the Fitxwilliam Road or the Narrows Road. — To ^ Man -of' War Head 
(31/4 M.^ fine views). We proceed through Welchpool^ the largest hamlet 
on the island, and then bear to the right over the North Road. The head 
is a high rocky bluff at the entrance of Harbor de Lute, commanding a 
good view. — To Eastei'n Head. From the end of the Herring Cove road 
we descend rapidly to the left and cross a beach. A few minutes farther 
on we follow a path to the right which leads to (20 min.) the summit 
(300 ft.^ ^View). — Other points of interest are ^Friar's Head, Robhuan^s 
Ravine, Jacob"* Ladder, Meadow Brook Cove, etc. r^^^^I^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

GRAND MANAN. 15. Boute. 45 

ExGUBSiONS BT Watbb may be made to Dennytirilk^ Calais (p. 43), 
St, Andrea* (p. 42), up the Magaguadavic River to St. George (p. 42}), Grand 
Manan (see below), St, John (p. 27), and Mt. Desert (see Baedeker*s United 

SaiUngt Bowing^ and Canoeing are safe (though some knowledge of the 
tides is desirable), and the Fishing is excellent. 

b. Grand Kanan. 

A steamer of the Grand Manan Steamboat Co. runs four times weekly 
in summer (twice in winter) from Eagtport (p. 23), touching at Campdbello 
(p. 44), to (12 M.) North Head, on the island of Grand ifonon (2 hrs. ; fare 
$ 1). A weekly steamer also plies from St. John (p. 27) to Grand Manan via 
Eastport and Gampobello. 

Grand Kanan (accent on second syllable ; U.S. Agent, Mr.W. A. 
Fraser'), an Island belonging to New Brunswick bnt lying about 8 M. 
from tiie coast of Maine, near the entrance to Pasaamaquoddy ^ay 
(p. 22), is 22 M. long and 3-8 M. wide and in 1 901 contained 2671 in- 
habitants. It possesses some of the finest cliff-scenery in America, 
while its cool (though somewhat foggy) climate and its fishing are 
additional attractions to summer-visitors. The Island is traversed 
from end to end by an excellent road. The main occupation of the 
people is the cod, haddock, pollock, halibut, and herring fisheries. 

North Headj the chief village and harbour of the island, lies on 
FlaggU Cove, near the N. end of the E. side. In the vicinity is the 
Marathon House ($ 1^2)1 the chief hotel on the island. 

Following the road to the N. , we pass Sprague'a Cove or Peites'a 
Cove, below SwaUowtail Head, and (2V2 M.) Whale Cove, with a 
beach where porphyry, agates, and jasper may be picked up (fine 
views). A little farther on is the Old Biahop or Biahop^a Head, the 
N. extremity of the island. 

The finest cliffs are at the S. end of the island. The road to 
them from Flagg's Gove follows the shore more or less closely to 
Caataliaj Woodward^ a Cove, and (5 M.) Or and Harbor, the last a 
place of considerable trade. It then leaves the sea for a time, but 
regains it at (51/2 M.) Seal Cove, the first place settled in the island, 
whence it is continued to (4 M.) Deep Cove, From this point roads 
lead to (1 V2 M.) *8outh Weat Head (lighthouse), where the cliffs rise 
to a height of 300-400 ft., and to (2 M.) the Southern Croas. 

The W. coast of the island consists of an almost unbroken range 
of cliffs, 200-400 ft. high. A road crosses the island from Castalia 
(see above) to *Dark Harbor, near which is Money Cove, where 
Gapt. Eidd is fabled to have deposited some of his treasure. A little 
to the N. is Indian Beach, where a number of Quoddy Indians pass 
the summer engaged in the porpoise-fishery. 

A number of small islands fringe the E. coast of Grand Manan, 
while a little to the S. of it are Qannet Rock (the scene of many 
terrible shipwrecks) and the Seal lalanda, each with a lighthouse. 



16. From St. John to Montreal. 

482 M. Canadian Pacific Railwat CShort Line^ in ibytYkta. (fare $ 14.40^ 
sleeper $ 250). This line traverses a good sporting dibtrict. 

From 8t, John to (147 M.) Mattawamkeag (see below), see R. 8. 
The Maine Central R.R. to Bangor and Boston here diverges to the 
left. — 154 M. Chester; 168 M. Seboois; 180 M. Lake View. At 
(190 M.) Broionville Junction we cross the Bangor & Aroostook Rail- 
way. — 207 M. Onawa lies on the pretty lake of that name. About 
5 M. to the S. lies Lake Sehec, Beyond Onawa we run through an 
excellent sporting district, with numerous lakes and woods. 

222 M. Oreenville {Moosehead Inn, Evoleth Houses $ 2-3), at 
the S. end of Moosehead Lake (see below), the chief centre of the 
spi^rtsmen and anglers who frequent the district (guides, canoes, 
etc.). It is the junction of a railway to Bangor (see Baedeker's 
United States). 

*Koosehead Lake, the largest in Maine, with 400 miles of shore-line 
(35 M. long, 1-15 M. wide), lies about lUOO ft. above the sea and is drained 
by the Kennebec River. Its waters abound in trout and other fish, and 
the forests surrounding it are well stocked with moose, caribou, deer, and 
ruffled grouse. Black flies and mosquitoes are very troublesome here in 
June and July. — From Greenville a small steamer plies in summer to (17 M.) 
Mi. Kineo (1760 ft ; *View), which projects into the lake on the E. side, 
so as to narrow it down to a channel 1 H. across. The *Mt, Kineo Houl 
(from $3^ 500 beds) is a favourite resort of anglers and their families. 
Opposite Mt. Kineo is Bireh Point (see below). The steamer goes on from 
Ht. Kineo to (18 M.) the N. end of the lake, whence a portage of 2 M. leads 
to the upper waters of the Penobscot River. Other steamers make the round 
trip every week-day. Enterprising travellers may descend this river and 
the lakes strung on it in birch-bark canoes (with- guides) to Mattatcamkeag 
(see above; 6-8 days). Canoe -trips may also be made from the head of 
Moosehead Lake viR the Allagcuh and St. John Rivers to Fo rt Kent or Van 
Buren (see Baedeker's United States). A good view is obtained to the E. 
of Mt. Ktaadn or Katahdin (5200 ft.), which is also visible from Moosehead 
Lake (to the N.E.) in clear weather. Many other steamers ply on the lake. 

Beyond Greenville the train runs along the W. side of the lake. 
Near (234 M.) Moosehead (inns; guides) we cross the Kennebec and 
have a last view (right) of Moosehead Lake. At (241 M.) Askwiih we 
cross the new railway from Bingham (Maine) to Birch Point, on the 
W. side of Moosehead Lake. Various small lakes and stations are 
passed, all frequented for shooting and fishing (views to the right). 

At (290 M.) Boundary we leave the State of Maine and enter 
Canada. 307 M. Megantic (Victoria, $2; U. S. Con. Agent; guides), 
on Lake Kegantic, a sheet of water 12 M. long and 1-4 M. wide, 
a favourite resort of anglers and sportsmen. To the S.E. of it lies 
the little Spider Lake, with the club-house of the Megantic Fish 
and Game Club. Megantic is connected by the Quebec Central 
Railway with (60 M.) Tring Junction, for Levis and Quebec (see 
R. 4). — We now ascend a heavy grade, through a, well-wooded and 
sparsely-settled district, to (332 M.) Scotstown, a lumber-settlement. 
At (364 M.) Cookshire (U. S. Agent) we cross th^ Maine Central 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

SHERBROOKE. 16. Route, 47 

Railway. — 370 M. LennoxvillCy a village -with 1120 inhal)., is the 
seat of Bishop's College (180 students) &nd Bishop's College School^ 
two well-known episcopal institutions, recently rebuilt since their 
destruction hy fire (seen to the right of the line). It is the junction 
of a line to Newport (p. 18). The stretch beyond Lennoxville, with 
the St. Francis River to the right, is very picturesque. 

376 M. Sherbrooke (Magog House, $2-3V2j New Sherbrooke, 
$2-21/2) <3Tand Central, Contirumtal, Albion, $iy^2; V. S. Consul, 
Mr. Paul Lang), a city with (1901) 11,766 inhab., very attractively 
situated at the confluence of the St. Francis and the Magog, mainly 
at some distance to the right of the railway, is the chief place in the 
so-called ^Eastern Townships' (see below), which the railway now 
traverses. It is the see of a Roman Catholic Bishop, has a college 
with 250 students, and carries on numerous manufactures and a 
trade in lumber. Within the town are the picturesque Rapids of the 
Magog. We here cross the Quebec Central Railway (see p. 20) and 
the Grand Trunk Railway (see p. 26). 

The Eastern Townships were originidly settled by United Fmpire Loya- 
lists, who adhered to Great Britain at the American Revolution, and form 
the 'English' portion of the province of Quebec. 

As we leave Sherbrooke we cross the river Magog, the outflow 
of LakeMemphremagog (see below), and skirt it as it flows through 
its picturesque wooded channel to the left. 

394 M. Magog (p. 18) lies at the N. end of *Lake Memphre- 
magog (see p. 18) and is called at by the steamer that makes the 
circuit of the lake. To the left we obtain a good general view of 
the lake, with its encircling mountains. At (412 M.) Foster (p. 19) 
we cross the Sutton Junction and Drummondville branch of the 
0. P. R. — 432 M. Brigham Junction, for the Montreal and Boston 
Air Line to the White Mts. and Boston (R. 3 c); 438 M. Farriham 
(Rail. Restaurant; see p. 19). From (451 M.) Iberville a branch- 
line runs to St. Hyacinthe (p. 141) and Sorel (p. 141). At (462 M.) 
St. John's (see p. 14) we cross the Richelieu (views). 456 M. Lacadie; 
463 M. St. PhiUppe; 468 M. St, Constant. — 473 M. Adirondack 
Junction, the station for Caughnawdga C1200 inhab.), at the S. end 
of the Lachine Bridge (see below), to the left. Caughnawaga is an 
Indian reservation and the home of the half-breed Iroquois remnant 
of one band of the Six Nations (comp. p. 210). 

These Indians are famous as lacrosse-players and boatmen; and a band 
of fifty of them did excellent service in the latter capacity on the British 
expedition that ascended the Nile in 1884. The town-walls, built by the 
French in 1721, are almost intact on three sides of the older part ol the 
village, round the Church. The Pi'esbytery, built in 1725, contains the once 
miracle-working remains of the Mobawk Saint Tehgahkwfta, the room and 
desk of the historian P^re Charlevoix, and some valuable vestments. 

"We now cross the St. Lawrence by the light and graceful "^Lachine 
Bridge (views), built of steel, on the cantilever principle. The 
channel-spans are each 408 ft. long. Below, to the rUht, are the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

48 Route 17. ROTHESAY. 

*Lachin6 Bapids fp. 230). Just beyond the bridge is the little town 
of Lacbine (p. 230; left), with its large convent. From (477 M.) 
Montreal Junctionj where our line is joined on the right by the lines 
from Toronto, Ottawa, etc., the train runs towards the E. to — 
482 M. Montreal (Windsor Street Station ; see R. 28). 

17. From St. John to Quebec (Livis). 

677 M. iNTEECOLONiAL RAILWAY in I6V4-I8V2 hrs. (fare $ 11.75; sleeper 
$ 2.50). [To Montreal in 21-28 hrs. ; fare $ 14.50, sleeper $ 2.50.] 

8t. John, see R. 10. The first part of the line, running along 
the bank of the Eennebecasis Bay and River, is picturesque and 
interesting, but beyond Sussex it traverses a well-settled farming- 
district offering no scenic beauty. — The railway runs for a mile 
or two through a marshy valley till it reaches the bay. 3 M. Cold- 
hrookj an industrial suburb of St. John. At (7 M.) Biverride we 
overlook the Kennebecasis Rowing Course, the scene of many famous 
races. 9 M. iJot/iwai/ (Belleview, $lV2-2; Kennedy, $1V2), delight- 
. fully situated on the E. shore of KennebecasU Bay, is perhaps the 
most popular summer-residence and resort of the St. John people. 
The bay now gradually contracts into the Kennebecasis Biver. — 22 M. 
Hampton (Heath Hall, $172-2), with 2026 inhab. and the summer- 
homes of many citizens of St. John, is the junction of a line running 
to the S. to (28 M.) Quaco and (30 M.) St. Martin's (Kennedy's, 
ay^ii on the Bay of Fundy. — 33 M. Norton is the junction of a 
branch-line to (46 M.) Chipman, on Grand Lake (p. 36). 40 M. 
Apohaqui, with mineral springs. 44 M. Sussex (Depot House, $ l^/g) 
is a busy little town with 1400 inhab. and a military camp. The 
railway now ascends to (55 M.) Dunsinane (160 ft.), on the *height 
of land' between the Kennebecasis and the Petitcodiac River (see 
below). We then descend to (66 M.) Petitcodiac (Mansard Honse, 
$ 1-2), on the river of that name, the junction of lines to Elgin and 
Havelock, The latter is near Canaan Biver, a good trout-stream. — 
72 M. Biver Qlade, near the Pallet Biver Falls. — 76 M. Salisbury, 
a village with a few hundred inhabitants. 

Fbom Salisbdbt to Albebt, 45 M., Salisbury A Harvey RaUaay in 
3 hrs. (fare $ 1.35). This line rnns towards the S.E. and reaches the 
Petitcodiac, flowing between its fertile salt-marshes, at (24 H.) HiUshoro 
(Empire House, $ IVa)) a town of (1901) 2907 inhab., with manulactures 
and exports of plaster. The singular ffopetcell Cape Rocks are most easily 
reached from this station (8 H.). — 29 M. Albert Mines was once important 
for its mines of ^Albertite' coal, perhaps the most valuable coad ever known 
(now exhausted). 42 M. Hopewell Hitl^ near Hopewell Cape (p. 87); 44 M. 
Riverside; 45 M. Albert (terminus), all on or near the arm of the Bay of 
Fundy into which the Petitcodiac flows. Harvey lies 3 M. from Albert. 

The next station of importance is (89 M.) Honcton (p. 87), where 
we join the main line of the Intercolonial Railway from Halifax. 

From this point to (677 M.) Quebec, see R. 24. 



Route Page 

18. Halifax 50 

Environs of Halifax 58 

19. From Halifax to Sydney. Cape Breton. Bras d'Or Lakes. 
LouisbouTg 69 

a. By Railway 69 

From Ferrona to Sunny Brae 59 

From Stellarton to Pictou 59 

Antigonish Mts. and Arisaig Peninsula 61 

From Point Tupper to St. Peter's 02 

From Point Tupper to Inverness 62 

b. By Steamer 63 

Arichat 65 

Environs of Baddeck. Whycocomagh 66 

Sydney Coal Fields 69 

Louisbourg 69 

20. From Halifax to St. John 71 

a. Vi&Dlgby 71 

Evangeline District 73 

From Eentville to Eingaport 74 

From Eingsport to Parrsboro 74 

b. Vi& Mabone, Bridgewater, Middleton, and Victoria 

Beach 77 

c. Vi&Moncton 77 

21. From Halifax to Yarmouth 78 

a. By Halifax and South Western Railway .... 78 

Lake Rossignol 79 

b. By Steamer 80 

22. From Digby to Yarmouth 82 

23. From Windsor to Truro 82 

24. From Halifax to Quebec 83 

Environs of Truro 84 

From Oxford Junction to Pictou. Parrsboro. Joggins 

Shore 86 

Ghignecto Ship Railway. Fort Beausj^our and Fort 

Lawrence. From Sackville to Cape Tormentine and 

Cape Traverse 86 

Shediac and Point du ChSne. From Moncton to Buc- 

touche. Bichibucto and St. Louis 87,88 

The Miramichi 88 

From Chatham to Fredericton 89 

From Gloucester Junction to Shippegan 89 

The Bestigouche. Bale des Chaleurs. Oasp^ Peninsula 90 

From Matapedia to New Carlisle and Pasp^biac ... 91 

littie M^tis 93 

From Riviere du Loup to Connors 95 

Babdskxb's Canada. 3rd Edit, Digitized4^00QlC 


18. Hal i fax. 

ArrivAl. The Intercolonial Station (PI. E, 1), at wbicli all trains arrive, 
lies on the N. side of the city, abont 1 H. from the principal hotels. 
Gabs and hacks meet the train (fare 60 c. for 1-2 pers., 26 c. for each addit. 
pers., V2 <^^* of luggage included), and the tramway along Lockman St. and 
Barrington St. passes close to the station and near the hotels. The hotels 
do »ot generally send omnibuses or representatives to meet their guests. — 
Cabs are also in waiting on the Steamboat Whctrvet (fare 26 c. each pers.). — 
It should be remembered that Nova Scotia time, as observed at Halifax 
and throughout the province, is the Atlantic Standard time, 1 hr. ahead 
of Eastern Standard time (p. xii). 

Hotels. Halifax Hotel (PL a; E,4), 97-103 Hollis St., recenUy refitted, 
$21/2-3; Queen (PI. b; E, 4), 114-115 Hollis St., $2-2i/t; King Edwabd 
(PI. e i E, 1), opposite the railway-station, $ IV2-2V25 Waveeley (PI. c ; D, 5), 
174 Pleasant St., $2V«i Gbosvknob, 7 Hollis St. (PI. D, 4). these two fre- 
quented by many who prefer quiet*, Acadian (PI. d; B, 4), 88 Granville 
St., $ 11/4; Cableton (temperance), 63 Argyle St. (PI. E,4), $2Vt, B. from 
$1 J Albion (PI. f-, E, 4), 20 Sackville St., $M»/t; Boyal (PI. gj E, 3), 
119 Argyle St., $ IVi-lVai Lobnb, 81 Morris St. (PI. D, 5), $ IV2. — •BiBOHAm- 
Bloomingdalb, two houses in charming grounds on the North West Arm 
(p. 59), V4-V2 ^^' ^7 tramway from the centre of the city, adapted for a 
long stay, ^2%-S. 

Bestauyants. Mitchell (confectioner). 25 George St. ; Teat^ 82 Barrington 
St. : Bamsj 32 Salter St. ; Woolnough. 16B Hollis St. 

Oabs. For each pers. IH. 26 c., li/tM. 30c., 2H. 40c., 2VflH. 45c., 
3 H. 50 c.; half-fare in returning; 1/4 hr. waiting free, each addit. >/4 hr. 
16 c.-, per hr. 76 c.; with two horses $1. Between midnight and 6 a. m. 
(7 a. m. in winter) by agreement, not to exceed double fare. From railway- 
station or wharf, see above. — Tramways traverse the entire city from N. 
to S., with various branch-lines (fare 5c. ; six tickets 25c.). — Observation 
Carriages (Robinson't Tourist Sertfice), leaving the Post Office (p. 54) at 
9.30 a.m. and 2.30 p.m., take in all the points of interest (8 hrs. ; fare 5Uc.). 

Steamers ply regularly from Halifax to Itince Edward hland (p. 9T), 
Sydney (p. 67), Port Mulgrove (p. 61), Newfoundland (p. 102), Bridgewattr 
(p. 81) , Lunenburg (p. 81) , St. Pierre and Miquelon (p. 124) , Yarmouth 
(p. 80), Boston (B. 7c), New York, Baltimore^ Liverpool (see B. lb), London 
(B. lb), Okugotc (B. Id), Havre, Bermuda^ Jamaica^ Mexico^ Havana, and 
many other ports. — Ferry Steamer to Dartmouth (p. 68) every 1/4 hr. — 
Harbour Excurtion Steamer s^ see p. 59. Gomp. also advertisements in news- 
papers and at hotels. 

Amusements. Academy of Music (PI. D, 4), Barrington St.; Orpheus 
Hall (concerts, etc.), Granville St. — Skating Rink^ Tower Boad rmilitary 
concerts); Curling Rink, Tower oad; Oarrison Cricket Ground, Qninpool 
St.; Wanderers^ Amateur Athletic Association, see p. 57; Studley Quoit CUA. 

— Begattas held weekly in summer by the boating-clubs mentioned below. 
Royal Nova Scotia Yacht Squadron (PI. D, 6), at the end of Pleasant St. ; 
Wanderers^ Boat Club, at the foot of Morris St. (PI. E, 6); Lome Amateur 
Aquatic Club; North West Arm Routing Club; Halifax Amateurs Boating Clnb. 
Small boats may be hired at the North Slip (PI. E, 2), at the Ferry Slip 
(PI. E, 4), and at Luke^s, Freshwater Esplanade (PI. D, 6). — Bcmd Concerts 
in the Public Gardens (Sat. afternoon) and at Green Bank (entr. to Point 
Pleasant Park, p. 66). — Anglers s ould consult the pamphlet issued gratis 
by the Board of Trade (see p. 51). 

Olubs. HaHfax Club (PI. 5; E, 4), 172 Hollis St.; City Club (PI. 4; 
D, 4), 32 Barrington St. ; Saraguay Country Club, on the North West Arm; 
Micmac Country Club, on the Sambro Boad; Royal Nova Scotia Yacht Squa- 
dron, see above. 

(Jonsuls. U. S. Consul-General, Mr. William R. Holloway, Herald Building, 
cor. of Granville A George Sts. — French Consular Agent Mr. 0. E. FraneJUyn, 
193 Upper Water St. — Austrian Consul, Mr. H. L. Chipman, 18 Sackville St. 

— German Consul, Mr. McCallum Grant. — Italian Consul, Mr. W. J. Fisher, 
St Paul Building, Barrington St. r^^^^A^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIc 





Situation. HALIFAX. 18. Route. 51 

Post Office (PI. E, 4), Hollis St., corner of George St. (open 5 a.m. 
to 11 p.m.). 

Information Bureau. Visitors desiring informat'on about the city and 

firovince are invited to call at the rooms of the Board of Trcule. cor. of 
oilis St. and Sackville St. (PI. E, i). 

Halifax , the capital and largest city of Nova Scotia , is beau- 
tif uUy situated on the S. E. coast of the province, in 44® 69' 22" N. 
lat. and 63® 35' 30" W. long., on the E. slope of a small rocky pen- 
insula, enclosed by its splendid harbour (see p. 56), Bedford Basin 
(p. 83 J, and the so-called N. W. Arm (p. 69). It is the chief naval 
and military headquarters of British North America and was long 
the only garrison of British regular troops in Canada. The military 
command of the city vp^as taken over by the Dominion Government 
in 1905-6, and the garrison now consists of Canadian troops. The 
formidable fortifications of the town and harbour have won for 
it the name of the ^Gronstadt of America* (see p. 63). Halifax is 
also the seat of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Halifax and the 
AngUcan Bishop of Nova Scotia. Its position as the chief winter- 
harbour of Canada, as the nearest American port to Great Britain 
(2170 M. to Cape Clear), and as the E. terminus of the Canadian 
railway- system makes it of great commercial importance ; and it also 
carries on various manufactures (see p. 52). The proximity of the 
coal-fields of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton makes it an invaluable 
coaling-station for the British fleet, while its fisheries are also very 
extensive. In 1901 Halifax contained, exclusive of the Imperial 
troops, 40,832 inhab. (one-third Roman Catholics), giving it the 
seventh place among Canadian cities. 

The city, which covers an area 3 M. long by 1 M. wide, is laid 
out with considerable regularity but makes on the whole a rather 
dingy and shabby impression. Few of the streets are paved , and 
many of the buildings are still flimsy-looking wooden structures, 
though great improvements are now in continual operation. Hollia 
and Barrington Streets, the chief business-thoroughfares, are lined 
for the most part by substantial buildings j and some of the chief 
residence-streets, with their shady avenues, are very attractive. The 
great beauty of the situation and environment, however, entirely 
outweighs any defects in detail. The characteristics of the social 
life of what claims to be *the most British city in America' have 
been largely influenced by the presence of the British naval and 
military officers} while the red- coats and blue-Jackets still form a 
picturesque element in the streets. Halifax is said to be one of the 
richest, as it is one of the most charitable, cities of its size on the 
Continent. The climate is healthy and not so extreme as that of in- 
land points on the same parallel (range from —10® to +90®Fahr.). 

History. The fact that the safe and capacious Bay of Chebueto ('chief 
haven**) was the American rendezvous of the ill-fated expedition of 
D^Anville in 1746 led to the demand of the Massachusetts colonists that 
a point of such strategic importance should be occupied by Imperial 
forces. The British Lords of Trade saw the wisdom of acceding to ^j^ 

52 Route 18, HALIFAX. HUtory. 

request and accordingly sent oat a body of 2376 emigrants, under the 
Hon. Edward ComwallU^ Oovemor of Kova Scotia, who landed in Jnne, 
1749, and gave the name of Halifax to the new settlement in honour of 
the Earl of Halifax , then President of the Board of Trade and Plan- 
tations. In spite of the nominal submission of the Acadians and Indians, 
these allies for a time did all in their power to harass the infant colony ; 
and in 1761 the savages destroyed th^e village of Dartmouth (p. 58), 
which had been planted on the oilier side of the bay. In 1761-62 about 
600 Germans were added to the population (comp. p. 68). Halifax grew 
steadily in importance as a naval station \ it was the rendezvous of the 
powerful fleet and army that captured Louisbourg in 1753 (see p. 70) 
and also of Wolfe's armament botn before and after the siege of Quebec 
(1759). During the American Revolution, Halifax was one of the chief 
bases of operation against the revolting Colonies, and the war of 1812-3 
also brought considerable benefit to the town. During the American 
Civil War, Halifax Harbour was the starting-point of numerous blockade- 
runners, and many of its citizens are said to have laid the foundations 
of their fortunes at this time. The population of Halifax was estimated 
at 6000 a few years after its founaation, but afterwards sank to 3000. 
through the attraction exercised on the citizens by the l^ew England 
colonies. At the close of the American Revolutionary War the population 
rose to 12,000, but it was not much more than a third of this seven years 
later. During the present century the growth has been steady though 
comparatively slow. The population rose from 14,^22 in 1838 and 20,749 
in 1851 to 26,126 in 1861, to 29,682 in 1871, to 36,100 in 1881, and to 38,566 
in 1891. — The Halifax Ocuette^ established in 1752, was the first Canadian 

Industry and Commerce. The chief imports at Halifax are manufactur- 
ed articles from England, produce from the United States, and sugar 
and molasses from the West Indies. The exports include dried fish, lob- 
sters, lumber, apples, agricultural and dairy produce, whale and seal oil, 
and furs. The total value of its exports in the year ending June SOth, 
1905, was $8,4U,149 (1,688,830;.) and of its imports $8,187,740 (1,637,660{.) 
In the same year the vessels that entered and cleared the port had a total 
burden of 2.859,513 tons. — The industries of Halifax include iron-found- 
ing, brewing, distilling, sugar-refining, and the manufacture of machinery, 
agricultural implements, cotton and woollen goods, paper, musical instru- 
ments, gunpowder, tobacco, soap, candles, brushes, paint, chocolate, and 

The Province of Nova Scotia, of which Halifax is the capital, has 
an extreme length of 360 M., with an average breadth of about 66 M. Its 
area is 20,600 sq. H., equal to more than two-thirds of that of Scotland. 
The province, which consists of the peninsula of Nova Scotia proper and 
of the large island of Cape Breton, is almost wholly surrounded by water, 
being connected with the mainland (New Brunswick) by a low isthmus 
about 15 M. wide. No part of Nova Scotia is more than 30 M. distant 
from the coast. The surface is considerably varied in contour but nowhere 
exceeds 1200 ft. in height. The chief features are the Cobequid Hts. (jp. 84) 
and other ridges running parallel with the length of the peninsula. The 
coast-line towards the Atlantic is very irregular and contains many good 
harbours. On the W. side it is more even. The E. or seaward side of 
Nova Scotia is for the most part barren and rocky; the best lands, such 
as the fruitful Annapolis Valley (p. 75), are on the side nearest the 
mainland. About one-sixth of the entire area is in crops or under pastur- 
age. Wheat, oats, and fruit (especially apples) are among the chief 
products of the soil. Cattle-rearing and dairy-farming are also carried 
on. Lumbering is less important than formerly, owing to the exhaustion 
of the best timber. Manufactures are comparatively undeveloped. The 
mineral wealth of the province is great, including coal (comp. pp. 69, 60, 
86), iron, gypsum, and gold. One of the chief industries of Nova Scotia 
is the fisheries, which are very large and valuable, employing over 14,000 
boats and 25,000 men. The value of the total catch in 1903, chiefly con- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Citadel. HALIFAX. 18. Route. 53 

sisting of cod, mackerel, lobsters, herring, and haddock, was $ 7,841,602, 
or nearly one-third of that of the total catch of Canada. In 1905 Kova Scotia 
owned 2066 ships of 211,972 tons burden, or about 80 per cent of the total 
shipping of Canada. The population of the province m 1901 was 459,674, 
the Dulk of whom consist, in nearly equal proportions, of persons of 
English and Scottish descent, after whom come the Irish, French, and Ger- 
mans. — Nova Scotia was originally colonized by the French, whose 
first settlement was made in 1605 (comp. pp. xxii, 75). Along with New 
Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, it was included under the name 
of Acadia (PAcadie or La Cadie) , a name derived from a Hicmac word 
*ak^de% indicating 'abundance'. The exact scope of this title, however, 
was hotly disputed when Acadia was ceded to the English (see p. 86). The 
name of Nova Scotia first appears in a charter granted by James L to Sir 
William Alexander in 1621. The present French inhabitants of the pro- 
vince are descendants of the original French settlersf most of whom, 
however, were expelled in 1755 (comp. p. 73). Among other outstanding 
events in the history of the province are the two sieges of Louisbourg 
(1745 and 176S; see p. 1% the foundation of Halifax in 1749 (p. 52), and 
the immigration of the United Empire Loyalists about 1784 (comp. p. 79). 
Prince Edward Island was separated from Nova Scotia in 1770, and New 
Brunswick in 1784. Nova Scotia was one of the four provinces which 
originally joined in the Confederation of 1867. 

The most conspicuous single feature in Halifax is undoubtedly 
the *Citadel (PI. D, 3), which occupies the crown of the peninsula, 
255 ft. above the sea; and tourists cannot better begin their 
Tisitation of the city than by seeking the view which this elevated 
site commands. Those who start from either of the two chief hotels 
in Hollis St. reach the citadel most directly by ascending Sackville 
Street (PI. D, 4), near the head of which, to the right, at the corner 
of Brunswick St., stands Halifax County Academy or High School 
(PI. D, 4), a large and handsome building in red brick. Opposite, 
and adjoining each other, are the extensive Barracks of the Royal 
Carmdian Engineers and ArtiUery (PI. D, 4). Strangers are usually 
allowed to enter the citadel on application at the guard-house (gratu- 
ity to guide for 1-2 pers., ca. 25 c. ; no cameras allowed). A good 
idea of its strength may be obtained by an external survey of its 
glacis, its deep moat, its heavily-armed bastions, and its massive 
masonry. On the slope below the entrance is a small structure 
erected as a Town Clock^ and now occupied by Government. 

The original defences of Halifax consisted of a wooden palisade and 
block-houses, the lines of which are roughly indicated by the present 
Salter, Barrington, and Jacob Sts. (comp. PI. D, E, 3, 4). A systematic re- 
construction of the entire series of fortifications was begun at the time 
of the Revolutionary War. Citadel Hill seems to have been first regularly 
fortified about 1778, but the nucleus of the present fortress is due to the 
Duke of Kent, who was Commander of the Garrison in 1794-7, while 
almost every subsequent year has seen alterations and additions. The 
Imperial garrison of Halifax usually amounted to about 2000 men, but it 
is now somewhat reduced. 

The *Yiew from outside the S. E. bastion includes the central part 
of the city; the beautiful harbour, with its shipping and fortified islands 
(comp. p. 56) \ the town of Dartmouth (p. 58) , on the opposite side of 
the harbour, with its large lunatic asylum ^ the fortifications at the mouth 
of the harbour; and the distant ocean beyond. By walking round the 
outside of the ramparts, we may survey every part of the city in turn, backed 
by the North West Arm (p. 59) towards the W. and by Bedford Basin 

54 Route 18, HALIFAX. Pafliament Building. 

(p. 83) towards the N. At the S. W. base of the Gitftdel HiU lie the 
Pahlic Gardens (p. 67) and the Athletic Grounds of the Wanderers' 
Club (p. 67); to the W. are the Common (p. 67) and the Garrison Cricket 
Grounds (p. 60). 

From the Citadel we may now return to Hollis St. yi^ Bwking- 
ham Street (PI. E, 3), noticing the Glacis or Pavilion Barracks 
(PI. D, E, 3), at the N. end of the glacis, with the quarters for the 
married men. Following Hollis Stbbbt (PI. D, E,4,5), with its banks, 
insnrance-offlces, and shops, towards the S. (right), we soon reach 
(leftj the Dominion Building, a substantial pile of brown freestone 
on a granite basement, containing the Post Office (PL D, 4). Just 
below the Dominion Building, at the corner of Bedford Row and 
Market St., is thfe new Custom House (Fl. E, 4), a handsome struc- 
ture of native freestone. Opposite, in the 0. P. R. building at the 
S. corner of Market St., is the Brovineial Museum (PI. 7; E, 4). 

The maseam (open free on week-days, 104) contains specimens illustrat- 
ing the zoology, botany, and mineralogy of Kova Scotia, Indian curios, 
historical relics, and a few portraits. A gilt pyramid represents the amount 
of gold produced by the province in i862-9a (valued at $ iO,800,90Q). 

Nearly opposite the Dominion Building stands the ^Provincial 
Parliament Building (PI. 6; B, 4), a sombre but somewhat im- 
posing stone building, finished in 1818 and surrounded by a small 
tree-planted square. The Legislature generally meets in February. 

At the S. end of the building is the Chamber of <A« Legittative Council, 
with portraits of George II. and Queen Caroline) George III. and Queen 
Charlotte, WiUiam IV., Sir Thomas Strange (by BenJ. West) , Judge Hal- 
iburton ('Sam Slick^; p. 72), Sir W. Fenwick Williams (a native of Nova 
Scotia), the heroic defender of Ears, and Sir John Inglis (a native of 
Halifax), the defender of Lucknow. Here also is a tablet to the memory 
of John Cabot (d. ca. 1498). — The House of Aitembly, at the K. end, has 
portraits of Joseph Howe and J. W. Johnston. — The Library, in the centre 
of the building, contains a good collection of books relating to Kova Scotia 
and some interesting MS. records. — In the small Council Chamber is the 
table round which Cornwallis and his associates assembled when holding 
the first meeting of the new Council of Kova Scotia on board the ^Beaufort' 
(July 14th, 1749 i comp. p. 62). 

To the N. of the Parliament Building is the South African Mc 
morial (PI. 8; E, 4), commemorating Nova Scotians who fell in the 
Boer War (1899-1902). In a corresponding position to the S. is a 
Statue of Joseph Howe (1804-73; PI. 9, E 4), *joumali8t, orator, 
poet, statesman, prophet, patriot, Briton'. 

A little farther along Hollis St., to the right, is the substantial 
home of the Halifax Club (p. 50), while on the opposite side of 
the way, in the next block, are the Queen and Halifax Hotels 
(p. 50). To the right, near Bishop St., are the grounds of Govern- 
ment Honse (PI. D, 4), the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor, 
the front of which faces Pleasant Street. The building dates from 

About 74 M. farther on, Hollis St. ends at the Engineers' Yard 
(PI. D, 5), usually known as the Lumber Yard. In the meantime 
we may turn to the right and follow Pleasant Street (PI. D, 5) back 
towards the centre of the city. To the left lie the Presbyterian 

St. Paul's Oiurch, HALIFAX. 18. Route. 55 

Ladies* College and the Waverley Hotel (PL c, D 5 ; p. 50). A little 
farther on, to the right, is Oovemment House (p. 54), opposite 
which is 8t, PauVs Old Churchyard (PI. D, 4), with a monnment, 
surmounted by a carved lion, to the memory of two Nova Scotian 
officers killed in the Crimea. 8t» Matthew*8 Ptesbyterian Church 
(PI. 1 ; D, 4), to the right, has a lofty spire. It is adjoined by the 
Brigade Office and the Academy of Music (PI. D, 4; p. 50). Oppo- 
site the last is the Otebe Houte^ the residence of the clergy of the 
adjacent *8t, Mary's Cathedral (PI. D, 4; R. C), in Spring Garden 
Road, the most conspicuous ecclesiastical edifice in Halifax, with 
an elaborate granite facade and a tall white spire. The interior is 
decorated with painting and gilding. 

Spring Garden Road (PL 0, D, 4) leads to the W. from this pointy pass- 
ing the Court House (PI. D, 4), with the County Oaol behind it; Bellevue 
Houtey the ofAcial residence of the Ck>mmander-in-chief, at the corner of 
Queen St. (PL D, 4); and the Fint Baptist Church (PL D, 4). Farther np 
it skirts the Publio (hardens (p. 57). 

Pleasant St. now changes it name to Barrington Street (PI. D, 
£, 4, 3). To the right diverges Salter St., with the Masonic Hall. 
To the left (No. 32) is the Qty Club (PI. 4, D 4; p. 60), between 
St. Mary's HaU and the Church of England InstituU (PI. 2; D, 4). 
We then cross Sackville St. (p. 53), pass the St. Paul Building^ 
and soon reach the Qrand Parade^ occupying a terraced site but- 
tressed by a wall of massive masonry. At the S. end of the Parade 
stands St. Fanl'B Churoli (PI. E, 4), a large wooden structure, built 
in 1750 (the year after the foundation of Halifax) on the model of 
St. Peter's, Vere St., London. 

Strangers should visit the interior of this old church for the sake of 
its interesting collection of mural tablets and monuments to the memory 
of distinguished Haligonians, Kova Scotians, and others. In the E. gallery 
is that of Baron de Seitz, a Hessian officer who died here in 1778 and was 
buried in St. Paul's in full regimentals. 

St. Paul's was long used as the cathedral of Halifax, but in later years 
the pro-cathedral was St. LukeU^ which Was burned down in 1905. 

At the opposite end of the Parade stands the handsome new 
City Hall (P1.E, 3, 4), occupying the site of the original building of 
Dalhousie College (p. 57). — Farther on, Barrington St. becomes 
Lockman Street (PI. E, 3, 2) and runs out to the Railway Station 
(PI. E, 1), beyond which it makes a final change of name to Camp' 
bell Road (PI. E, 1). 

QranvUle Street (PI. E, 4), parallel to and between HoUis St, 
and Barrington St., is one of the chief business-streets of Halifax 
and contains some important shops, newspaper -offices, etc. At 
its intersection with Prince St. stands the substantial building of 
'the Young Men's Christian Association (PI. 3;E,4), with its reading- 
room and library. 

Lower Water Street (PI. D, E, 5, 4), beginning at the Engineers* 
Yard (p. 54), and Upper Water Street (PI. E, 3, 2) skirt the water- 
side, with its innumerable docks, wharves, and warehouses. The 
Green Market ^ held at the corner of George St. ^on^ Sa 

56 Route 18, HALIFAX. Harbour, 

should be visited. Tlie French Acadian, the native Micmac, and 
the dusky African, selling their wares here, combine to make & 
scene full of colour and interest. At the point where Lower Water 
Street ends and Upper Water St. begins extends Ordnance Yard 
(PI. E, 3), with its large stores of guns, ammunition, and other 
warlike material. Farther on, opposite the Long or Railway Wharf, 
is a Grain Elevator (PI. E, 2), with a capacity of 500,000 bushels. 
— To the right, a little farther on, is the Dockyard (PI. E, 1, 2; 
strangers usually admitted on application; gratuity to guide, for 
1-2 pers., ca. 25c.; no cameras allowed), I672 acres in extent, 
founded in 1758 and surrounded by a high stone wall. It contains 
extensive store-houses, machine-shops, and magazines, and all the 
usual appliances of a flrst-class dockyard. The Hospital Yard, with 
the Marine Hospital (PI. E, 2), practically forms part of the Dock- 
yard. — Opposite lies the Intercolonial Railway Station (PI. E, 1). — 
A little farther to the N. is the huge Dry Dock, the largest in Canada, 
being 610 ft. long and 102 ft. wide. It cost $1,000,000. 

The •Harbour (PI. 0-E, 1-7), 6 M. long,with an average width 
of 1 M., affords excellent deep-water anchorage at all states of the 
tide and is effectively sheltered by Macnab*s and George's Islands. 
On the N. it communicates with Bedford Basin (p. 83) by a deep 
channel known as the Narrows, The harbour is usually alive with 
all kinds of shipping, and on a bright day presents a sight that will 
linger long in the memory. Halifax is occasionally visited by British 
men-of-war during the summer. Visitors are generally welcomed 
on board and may take boat at the North Slip (PI. E, 2; fare 25 c.). 
The harbour-fortifications are of immense strength. The green and 
inoffensive-looking George's Island, opposite the Ordnance Yard, is, 
perhaps, under modem conditions of warfare, a more formidable 
fort than the citadel itself. It interlaces its fire with Fort Clarence, 
on the opposite shore. On Maenab's Island, at the mouth of the 
harbour, is Wince's Battery Fort, which crosses its fire with that of 
York Redoubt, situated on a high bluff on the W. shore. On Sanibro 
Island, off the mouth of the harbour, is Fort Spion Kop. There are 
other strong batteries in Point Pleasant Park (see below), while the 
entrance is further protected by an extensive system of submarine 
mines and torpedoes. 

The ♦View of Halifax from the harbour is in its own way as fine as 
that from the citadel and should be secured by every visitor (afternoon light 
best) sunsets often superb). The view may also be enjoyed from a small boat 
(see p. 50) or firom the deck of the ferry- steamer to Dartmouth (see p. 58). 
Excursion steamers, see p. 58. 

The S. continuation of Pleasant St. (see p. 54) leads through the* 
district of Freshwater to ♦Point Pleasant Park (Pl.B, C, 6, 7; tram- 
way to Green Bank, PI. C, 6), occupying the extremity of the penin- 
sula on which the city lies and recalling in its location Stanley Park 
at Vancouver (p. 286). The park, which is 160 acres in extent, 
is traversed by numerous excellent roads and paths, andj the drive 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Dalhousie CoUege. HALIFAX. 18. RotUe. 57 

round its outer margin commands exquisite views of the harbour 
and of the N. W. Arm (p. 69). Several masked batteries are con- 
cealed among its groves of pine and fir, and on the summit of the 
ridge is an old martello tower known as the Prince of Walea' Tower. 
On the N.W. Arm (p. 59), just beyond the W. limit of the park, is 
the old Penitentiary (PI. B, 6), now used as part of the works of the 
People's Heat & Light Go. 

We may leave the park by the Young Avenue ErUrance (PI. 0,6), 
with its handsome gates, and make our way via the shady South 
Park Street (PI. 0, 5, 4) to the Public Gardens, passing the Cem- 
etery of the Holy Croat (PI. 0, D, 4, 5; with a chapel said to have 
been erected in one day), the School for the Blind (PI. 0, 4; visi- 
tors admitted on Wed. afternoon^ , and the Old Exhibition Building 
(PI. 0, 4j skating-rink in winter). 

The "Tnblic Gardens (PL 0, D, 3, 4), about 14 acres in extent, 
and somewhat recalling the Boston Public Garden, deservedly 
form one of the chief sources of Haligonian pride, and present a 
highly attractive picture, vrith their beautiful shade -trees, well- 
trimmed sward, picturesque lake, and gay flower-beds. The show of 
flowers is especially brilliant in Aug. and the first half of September* 
A military band plays here in summer on Sat. (4-6 p.m.), and il- 
luminated evening- fetes are held from time to time. 

On the N. the Public Gardens are adjoined by the Athletic 
Orounds of the Wanderers* Club (PI. D, 3), and beyond these stretches 
the Common (PI. D, 2, 3), a piece of Government property on which 
sham-fights and military reviews are occasionally held. At the N.W. 
. comer of the Common is a large Drill Hall and Armoury (PI. D, 2), 
a massive turreted structure in Nova Scotia sandstone, completed 
in 1899 and making an imposing appearance. 

Farther to the N.W., at the comer of Windsor St. and Almon 
St., is the New Exhibition Building (PI. 0, 1) , where an agricul- 
tural and industrial fair is held every autumn. 

To the S. of the Public Gardens stands the Convent of the Sacred 
Heart (PI. 0,4), beyond which are the grounds containing the large 
Poor Asylum (PI. 0, 4) and the Victoria General Hospital (PI. 0, 4). 
— Spring Garden Road (p. 54), skirting the S. side of the Gardens, 
ends on the W. at Robie St., where are a Methodist Church and 
St. Stephen's or the Bishop's Chapel (PI. 0, 3). 

A little to the S. of this point, in the block enclosed by Robie, 
Morris, Oarlton, and Oollege Sts., stands ^Dalhonsie College (PI. 
0, 4), a large and handsome building of red brick , with a central 
tower, erected in 1886-87. The Medical CoUege Building is in the 
adjoining block. 

Dalhousie College and University was founded in 1821 by the Earl 
of Dalhousie, then Governor-Qeneral of Canada. The original endowment 
was derived from funds collected at the port of Castine, in Maine, during 
its occupation by the British in 1812-14. Since then its endowments have 
been greatly increased by the liberality of Mr. Oeorge Muwro (of New York), 

58 Route 18, DARTMOUTH. 

Ml'. Mexander McLeod^ Sir William Young, and other generous Kova Sco- 
tians. The nresent charter of the University, which is undenominational, 
dates from 1863, with subsequent modifications. The President is Dr. John 
Forrest. The original building of the college stood on the site of the 
Oity Hall (see p. 65). 

The University includes faculties of arts, law, medicine, and science, 
and is attended by about 360 regular and special students. It is well 
appointed in every way and possesses excellent laboratories and a good 
law-library. The "Collection of Nova Scotia Birds, including a specimen 
of the rare red duck (Fulizula Labradora), is of great interest. The valu- 
able Akint Collection of books and pamphlets relating to the £. Prov- 
inces of British North America has been temporarily deposited in Dalhousie 

Qottmgm Street (Pi. D, 3, 2, 1) leads towards the N. from Citadel 
Hill. Immediately to the right is the Military Hospital (Pi. D, 3), 
with the Oarrison Chapel (PI. E, 3) behind it. Farther out are the 
Old Ladies^ Home^ the Old Men^s Home^ and the Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum (PI. D, 2; r.). Still farther on, to the right, in pleasant 
grounds, lies Admiralty House (Pi. D, 1), formerly the residence of 
the Vice- Admiral in command of the station. Just beyond this, on 
the same side, is the entrance to the large Wellington Barracks 
(PI. D, E, 1), which have accommodation for about 1200 men (comp. 
p. 53). About 1/4 M. farther on is a hill crowned by the small Fori 

We may vary our route in returning from this point by following 
North Street and Brunswick Street (PI. E, 2, 3). The latter contains 
the Old Dutch Church (1.) , a tiny edifice erected in 1755 for the 
use of the Qerman Lutheran immigrants (p. 52). Nearer the centre 
of the town are St. John's Presbyterian Church, St. George's Church 
or the Round Church (PI. E, 2; r.), St. Patrick's Roman Catholic 
Church (PI. py 2; 1.), and the Universalist and Methodist Churches 
(PI. E, 3).' 

Environs of Halifax. 

One of the favourite drives from Halifax is that along Bedford Basin 
(p. 83) to (9 M.) Becjford (p. 83). To the right, just beyond RoeiitHfham 
(p. 83), we pass (0 M.) the site of the JPHnce't Lodge, the residence of 
the Duke of Kent (p. 6^, of which nothing now remains except a few 
traces of the foundations and the band-rotunda. This drive may be con- 
tinued entirely round Bedford Basiu (26 M.), following a beautiful chain 
of lakes to Dartmouth (see below) and crossing thence to the city by ferry. — 
Another drive leads to the Dutch Village and the (3M.) Dingle, at the head 
of the K.W. Arm. About 4 M. beyond the Dingle, on the road to St. Mar- 
garets Bay, is the Rocking Stone, a huge mass of granite weighing 160 tons, 
which can be easily moved by a small wooden lever. — The Chain Lakes, 
the source of the water-supply of Halifax, lie 3 M. to the S.W. 

Dartmouth (Acadian House), a town with 4806 inhab., on the E. side of 
Halifax Harbour, is reached from Halifax by ferry-steamers plying every 
1/4 hr. (fare 6 c. ; wharf at the foot of George St., Pl. E, 4). [It may also be 
reached by railway, vii Windsor Junction, in IV2 hr. (see p. 81).] It 
j^ossesses a large sugar-refinery, rope-walks, a marine railway, and a skate- 
factory. About iVs M. from the town, on a height overlooking the har- 
bour, is the large Aft. Hope Lunatic Asylum. Below Dartmouth lies Fort 
Clarence, commanding the entrance to the Eastern Passage, a narrow channel 
with numerous shoals, supposed to be impassable for large vessels until 
the Confederate steamer ^Tallahassee' proved the contrary by making her 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




HOPEWELL. 19,BouU. 69 

escape through it in 1863. A pleasant drive may be enjoyed among the 
lakes to the K. of Dartmouth, a favourite skating-resort in winter. About 
4 V. to the "N. of Dartmouth are the Waverley Qold Mine*. — Cow Bay^ 
7 v. to the S.E. of Dartmouth , has a fine beach and is resorted to for 
sea-bathing (good surf). 

Small excursion - steamers ply daily in the harbour in summer (fare 
50 c), passing MacnaVt Ulandip.lX), a favourite picnic-resort, with a sandy 
beach, a lighthouse, a fort, and a rifle-range. — From Hacnab^s Island 
the steamers go on up the *North West Arm (PI. A, 2-7). formerly called 
the 8<Mdwich River^ a charming sheet of water, about 3i/s M. long and 
Vs M. wide. On its K.E. shore lie many of the most attractive summer- 
residences of Halifax. At its head lies MeMlle Island^ with the military 
prison, in which American prisoners-of-war were confined in 1812. The 
Arm is a favourite boating-resort and also a£fords some fishing. Public 
Bathi have been recently erected here and also on the Bedford Basin side 
of the peninsula. 

From Halifax to BridgmoaUr and Yarmouth^ see B. 21^ to Windtor^ 
Annapolis^ and 8t. John^ see B. 20; to Moncton and Quebec^ see B. 24; to 
Cape Breton^ by railway and steamer, see B. 19 ; to Pi-inee Edward Island, 
see B. 26; to New/oiindlandi see B. 26; to Boston by steamer, see B. 7 c. 

19. From Halifax to Sydney. Cape Breton. 
Bras d'Or Lakes. Louisboorg. 

a. By Bailway. 

277 M. Intbboolonial Bail WAT inlOhrs. (fare $7.55; parlor-car $1). 
Passengers for Pictou and Mnee Edward Island (B. 25) diverge at Stellarton 
(see below). Travellers are strongly recommended so to arrange their 
plans as to make the part of the trip between Mulgrave and Sydney by 
steamer through the Bras d'Or Lakes, either in going or returning. The 
railway-company does not profess to make connection with the steamers, 
but it is often possible to catch the boats on Tues. and Frid. (p. 63). — 
Dining-cars are attached to all express trains from Halifax to Mulgrave, 
and there is a buffet -service between Point Tupper and Sydney. The 
meals provided at Orand Narrows (p. 63) are good. 

From Halifax to (62 M.) Trwo, see R. 24. The line to Sydney 
here diverges to the right (N.E.) from that to Moncton (for St. John 
and Qaebec, RR. 20 c, 24) and ascends the valley of the Salmon 
Bher, which flows to the left between picturesque banks of red 
sandstone. Beyond (75 M.) RioersdaU we quit the river. 91 M. 
Olengarry; 97 M. Hopewell (Scotia Ho.), with a small spool- 
factory and a woollen-mill. — 99 M. Ferrona, 

Fbom Fxbbona to Suimr Brab, 13 M., railway in 1 hr. The inter- 
mediate stations are JSpringville, Brtdgsville^ and 8t. Paul. From (13 M.) 
Sunny Brae (Biverside) there is some talk of extending this line to Guysboro 
BarboWi so as to connect it with the proposed terminus of a fast transat- 
lantic service (comp. p. 61). 

A little farther on we reach the East River (right), which we 

foUow to (103 M.) Stellarton J a prosperous mining village with 

about 1600 inhab., depending mainly on the Albion Coal Mines. It 

\ is the junction of the branch to Pictou (see below). 

i Fbok Stbllabton to Pictou, 14 M., railway in */4 hr. (fare 46 c). — 

! This line runs at first towards the W., passing (3 M.) WesMlle (Dufferin), 

with its coal-mines (see p. 60), and near (8 M.) Sylvester cro8ses4he Middle 

[ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

60 Route 19. NEW GLASGOW. From Halifax 

River, affording a distant view of Pictoa to the right. It then turns to the 
right (N.)i skirting the Middle Eiver, crosses Pictou Harbour by a long 
bridge (♦View), and reaches — 

14 M. Fiotott (Wtaiaee, $2: Aberdeen, $1; IT, 3. Agent)^ a picturesquely 
situated little town of (1901) 3235 inhab., with a large trade in coal and 
several manufactories. Of late years, however, it has been supplanted to 
some extent by Kew Glasgow (see below). Its excellent harbour opens above 
the town into three arms, receiving the waters of the Eaai^ Middle, and 
Weet Rivert (comp. above and below). Immediately opposite lie Uie coal- 
wharves of Pictou Landing (see below). Pictdu affords excellent bathing, 
boating, and fishing. The principal building of the town ia the Pictou Academy ^ 
founded in 1818 on the model of Edinburgh University and now attended 
by 160 students. It stands near the highest part of the town and com- 
mands a fine view. Among the graduates are Sir William Dawson 
(p. 135) and Principal Grant. A lobster -hatchery here turns out about 
150 miUion young lobsters every year. Pictou, which occupies the site of 
an ancient Indian village, was settled in 1768 by a colony of Philadelphians, 
but made no great progress till 10 years later, when the first of several 
bands of Scottish Highlanders arrived. It is one of the chief centres of the 
legends of the Micmac demigod Glooscap (comp. p. 74). — The Pictou Coal 
Field covers an area of about 85 sq. M. and is noted for the unusual de* 
velopment of some of its beds. The 16 seams known vary in thickness 
from 3 ft. to 38 ft. 

■Stellarton is 'also connected with Weetvitte (p. 59), New Olcuffow (see 
below), and (8 M.) Trenton by an electric railway. 

Steamers from Pictou to CSUarlottetown^ P. E. I., see B. 25. — Steamers 
also ply from Pictou to the Magdalen Islands (p. 102), calling at Oeorgetown 
(p. lOl) and Souris (p. 102), and to Cheticamp, in Gape Breton, calling at 
Port Hoody Mabou Mouth, Margaree (p. 66), and Pleasant Bay. — In winter 
the iron steamers 'Hinto' and ^Stanley" ply from Pictou to Qeorgeiown 
and Charlottetown (comp. p. 97) 

1 06 M. Hew Glasgow (30 ft. ; Vendome, Norfolk, Windsor, $ 1 V2-2, 
all unpretending; railway-meals at the last 50c., but see p. 69), 
a new and thriving little town of (1901) 4447 inhab., on the East 
River, with coal-mines, iron and steel works, ship-building yards, 
glass-works, and various other substantial indications of a pros- 
perous future. Iron, coal, and lime all occur in the district in con- 
venient proximity. A short railway, mainly for shipping coal, runs 
from New Glasgow to (8 M.) Pictou Landing (see above). 

About 2 M. from New Glasgow (station on the railway to Pictou 
Landing) are the interesting works of the Nova Scotia Steel Co., long the 
only steel-works in Canada, with open-hearth converters, fine rolling- 
mills, steam-hammers, etc. Including those in its iron-works, coal-mines, 
and glass-works, the company employs about 1500 men. In 1893 the first 
steel steamer of Kova Scotia was constructed and equipped at New Glasgow, 
these works supplying her shaft and other castings. — Among the coal- 
mines of the neighbourhood may be mentioned the Dt'umnumd Pit, near 
Westville, which is entered by a slope 5000ft. long, employs 650 men, 
and produced 265,550 tons of coal in 1904. Its winding-engine (500 horse- 
power) will interest experts. — The rusty line running to the Albion Mines 
(p. 59) is the oldest railway in America, and its original locomotive, the 
'Samson% is still preserved. — An excellent *View of the town and district, 
extending to Prince Edward Island, is obtained from Eraser's Mt., the top 
of which is about IVt M. from the town by road. — A small steamer 
plies down the Bast River (which is tidal to a point some distance above 
New Glasgow) to (10 M.) Pictou (see above), affording a very pleasant trip. 

Beyond New Glasgow we traverse a somewhat uninteresting dis- 
trict. We cross the Sutherland River and the French River, before 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

to Sydney. MULGRAVE. 19. BouU, 61 

Teaching (119 M.) Merigomish, where we have a view to the left of 
Merigomish Harbour. The line then ascends to the top of a ridge, 
affording a view of I^dmont Valley (left), with retrospects (also to 
the left) of Northumberland Strait. Beyond tlie highest point (420 ft.), 
near (127 M.) AvondaU, we descend rapidly to (129 M.) Barney's 
River, (133 M.) Marshy Hope, and (141 M.) Brierley's Brook. A little 
farther on we come in sight (r.) of the attractive little town of (147 M.) 
Antigonish (accent on the last syllable; Merrimac, Queen, $ 1 V2-2) j 
with the large and handsome Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Ninian, 
the College of St. Francis Xavier (145 students), and an Academy 
for Qirls. The town lies at the head of a picturesque hut not very 
useful little harhour and contains (1901) 2428 inhah., mostly of 
Highland blood, some of whom still speak Gaelic. It carries on a 
trade with Newfoundland and is the distributing-centre of a fine 
farming and dairy district. Many pleasant drives and walks may be 
taken in the neighbourhood. 

The Antigoniih Mtt., in the Aritaig Peninmla, to the N.W. of Anti- 
gonish, reach a height of 1000 ft. and afford good views. The coast-village 
of Aritaig^ with its long wooden pier, is a genuinely Highland colony. 
Cape St. Oeorge, forming the extremity of the peninsula, bears a powerful 
lighthouse. — About 6 M. to the S.W. of Antigonish is Oaspereau Lake. — 
Coaches run from Antigonish, vi& College Lake and LochoX>er, to (35 M.) 
Sherbrooke (Sherbrooke Ho.), at the mouth of the Bt. Mary^e River, 12 M. 
from the Atlantic Ocean and the headquarters for a fine fishing-district. 
A little gold-mining is also carried on near Sherbrooke. 

To the left, as we leave Antigonish, rises the Sugar Loaf (760 ft.), 
a fine point of view. We cross the West River and skirt the har- 
bour. 156 m. Pomquet, vdth its harbour (1.). From (159 M.) 
Heatherton a coach runs to (20 M.) Ouysboro (Grant's Hotel), a 
flshing-town near the head of Cheda^cto Bay. [It has recently been 
announced that the Provincial Government has granted a subsidy 
for the construction of a new railway from Halifax to Gnysboro 
along tbe E. shore of Nova Scotia , to be called the Nova Scotia 
Eastern Railway.] Beyond (162 M.) Afton we have views of the 
blue St. Oeorge's Bay , to the left. 167 M. Tracadie, an Acadian 
settlement with a small harbour, contains a Trappist monastery and 
a convent of Sisters of Charity. 175 M. Harbor au Bouche, another 
Aoadian settlement. We come in sight of the Out of Canso (see 
p. 64; left) near (179 M.) Cape Porcupine (600 ft.). We skirt the 
strait for a few miles , with views of Port Hastings (p. 62) and 
Hawkesbnry (p. 62) on its opposite side, and reach — 

185 M. Mulg^ave or Port Mulgrave (Seaside Hotel, $1V2J ^^f- 
ray Ho., $ IV2 j ^» 'S* Agent), a small port on the Gut of Canso, with 
about 810 inhab. and some fishing - boats. Good bathing and fair 
fishing may be had in the vicinity. After stopping at the station 
the train backs down to the wharf, whence a ferry-boat conveys it 
across the Strait of Cansd to (10 min.) the pier of (186 M.) Point 
Tupper (Revere Ho.), where we reach Cape Breton. Here another 
engine is attached to the train for the mn to Sydney. ^ y 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

62 Route 19, HAWKESBURY. ^ From Halifax 

It is proposed to span the Strait of Ganso by a hage cantilever bridge *, 
but the realization of this project is still in the dim fature. 

The island of Gape Breton , forming the N.E. part of the province of 
Nova Scotia (comp. p. 62) , is about 100 H. long and 80 M. wide and in 
1901 contained 97,605 inhab., nearly all of Scottish Highland descent, ex- 
cept about 15,0CX) French Acadians in or near Isle Madame and on the 
N.W. coast. There are also about 600 Micmac Indians (p. 91). The entire 
centre of Gape Breton is occupied by a land-locked and almost tideless arm 
of the sea known as the Brat cTOr Laka (see p. 63), which opens to the 
N.E. by two narrow passages. Indeed, since the narrow isthmus of St. Peter''s 
has been pierced by a canal, Gape Breton may be said to consist of two 
islands. The rocks of the carboniferous system cover about one-half of 
the total area of Gape Breton, and its great wealth consists in its exten- 
sive and valuable deposits of coal (comp. p. 69). Large deposits of gyp- 
sum have also been found, and copper is mined near Sydney. The fisherie9 
employ about 10,000 men and have an annual catch valued at $ 1.500,000. 
The chief attractions of Gape Breton to the tourist are its delightful sum- 
mer-climate and the scenery of the Bras d*Or Lakes, which, while not 
especially striking or grand, has a charm of ita own that will hardlv fail 
to make itself felt. Many will find an additional attraction in the site of 
the fortress of LouUbourg (p. 69) , the scene of such desperate struggles 
for the mastery of the New World. Better hotels are much wanted 
throughout the island. 

The name of the island is taken from that of its E. cape (p. 69), 
which was probably so called in honour of its Breton discoverers, though 
some attribute the discovery to the Basque fishermen and find the real proto- 
nym in a Gape Breton on the S.W. coast of France, near Bayonne. How- 
ever that may be, the name, which is probably the oldest French name in 
American geography, seems to have been affixed to the cape early in the 
16th cent., while there is no record of the date of its extension to the 
island. Cape Breton was included in a general way in the 'Acadia^ of 
French Ganada, but, save in connection with settlements made by Mehoktt 
Dmys, Bietir de Frontae (see p. 65), its name scarcely appears in the history 
of the 17th century. The peace of Utrecht (1713), however, called it into 
new importance. A few Acadians, from the parts of New France that had 
been ceded to England, took refuge in Gape Breton, which the French 
renamed Itle Royaie^ while the former Governor of Newfoundland trans- 
ferred his headquarters to the fine harbour where was soon commenced the 
powerful fortress of Louisbourg (see p. 70). On the final conquest of Ganada 
Dy the British, Gape Breton was annexed to Nova Scotia, but from 1784 
to 18^ it formed a separate province, with Sydney (p. 67) as its capitaJ. 

All students should consult the 'Historical and Descriptive Account of 
the Island of Gape Breton", by Sir /. O. Bourinot (Montreal; 1892), which 
includes an admirable bibliography. 'Gape Breton at the beginning of the 
20th Gentury\ by C, W, Vernon (Toronto; 1903), aflfords the best scenic 
descriptions and accounts of natural resources. 

Leaving the wharf at Point Tupper (see p. 61), the train runs 
to the E. and in a few minntes reaches (186 M.) Hawkesbwy JunC' 
tiofif where branch-lines diverge to the right and left. 

Fbom Point Tuppeb (vii Hawkbbbubt Junotioh) to St. Pbtbb's, 81 M., 
raUway in IV4 hr. (fare 95c.). This line runs to the S.E., passing (8 M.) 
Chapel Platform, (10 M.) Evanston^ (12 M.) Basin Road, (19 M.J Grand Ante, 
and (25 M.) Sporting Mountain, — 81 M. St. Peters, see p. 102. 

Fbom Point Tdppbb to Invbrnbbs , 61 M., railway in S'/s ^^8. (fare 
$ 1.85). This line, chiefly used for the transport of coal, runs to the N. 
along the coast. — 1 M. Hawkesbury (American So., $1V4) Farqvhar; 
U. 8, Agent), a village with a good harbour and a splendid view of the 
straits. It is connected with Mulgrave by ferry and is called at by the 
Plant Line steamers (p. 63). 47 M. Port HasUngs (Caledonia) opposite Gape 
Porcupine, a summer- resort with good walks and boating. 8 M. Troy; 
12 M. Oreignuh; 16 M. Oraigmore; 28 M. Judiqitet 27 M. C(^erine'* fond, — 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

to Sydney. GRAND NARROWS. 19. Route. 63 

S2 M. Poit Hood (Oldsmith Hotel), a small harbour with (1901) 1660 in- 
habitants. A hill at its K. end affords a fine view of Cape Mabon (K.), 
Cape St. George (W.), and (on a clear day) Prince Bdward Island (W.). 
Steamers ply hence to Pictou (p. 60), Canto (p. 64), and PUcuant Bay. — The 
train now leaves the coast for a little. 87 M. QUncoe^ named after Scot- 
land's ill-fated glen. At (U M.) Mdbau (Cameron House), one of the love- 
liest spots on this coast, we cross the Mahcu River. Mabou Coal Minet^ 
IVs M. to the N.W., are reached by a branch-railway. Kear (47 M.) Olen- 
dyer^ with its picturesque woods and gorge, we pass round the so-called 
Bnake Curve. o6 M. SiratMorne^ the centre of a picturesque country, lies 
close to Loch Ban, the IT.W. arm of Lake Akulie (p. 66). — 61 M. Inver- 
neta (/nvemsM, Imperial^ Grand Central, $ 1-1 VsO* formerly called Broad 
CSove, is an important coad-mining town with (1901) 1543 inhab., a fine 
beach, and splendid bathing. A drive may be taken to Margaree Valley 
(p. 66), 12 M. to th^K.E., while on the coast, 86 M. to the K., is Chetieamp, 
a French fishing-settlement, with a conspicuous B. C. church and scenery 
rivalling that of Ingonish (p. 69). 

Beyond Hawkesbury Junction the train for Sydney rnns to the 
N. through a somewhat featureless district. Numerous small ponds 
are passed, some of which are 60-100 ft. deep; and here and there 
are the birch-lodges of Micmac Indians (p. 91). We cross McDonald' $ 
Qvlch, near (200 M.) West Bay Road, by a steel trestle 90 ft. high 
and 940 ft. long. Beyond (207 M. ) River Denys we reach the bank 
of the €hr«at Bras d'Or Lake (see p. 65), of which we have good 
Tiews to the right. 216 M. OrangedaU. — At (231 M.) lona we 
reach the narrow Barra Straitj connecting the Great and the Little 
Bras d^Or, and cross it by a fine iron bridge to (232 M.) Cfrand Nat" 
rows, with the plain but comfortable little Grand Narrows Hotel 
($1V2~2)> "'^here certain trains stop for meals (50 c.). Good boat- 
ing, bathing, and fishing may be obtained here. 

Steamer from lona to Baddeck, see p. 64. The 'Richmond* (see below) 
goes on from Grand Narrows to Marble Mountain (p. 65) and Johnson'' t Harbour, 

Beyond Grand Narrows the train hugs the Little Bras d'Or Lake 
(see p.65) for about 30 M. (views to left). 241 M. 8henacadie. 260 M. 
Boisdale, opposite Boularderie Island (p. 67). Important deposits 
of graphite have lately been discovered here. French Vale (560 in- 
hab.), about 4 M. to the S. of (266 M.) Barachois, At (261 M.) 
George's River we cross the stream of that name and ascend on its 
right bank, leaving the lake. At (264 M.) North Sydney Junction 
we reach the head of the N. arm of Sydney Harbour, where a 
branch -line connects with (268 M.) the station for North Sydney 
(3/4 M. from the town ; see p. 68). The train of the main line con- 
tinues to (267 M.) Leitche's Creek and (277 M.) Sydney (see p. 67). 

b. By Steamer. 

A steamer of the Canada Atlantic is Plant 8. 8. Co. runs weekly from 
Halifax through the Gut of Canto to Charlottetown, P. £. I. (comp. p. 97), 
calling on the way at Hauketbury, which it reaches in about 13 hrs. At 
Hawkesbury it connects with the (3ape Breton Railway (see B. 19 a) and 
with the steamer ^Bichmond' of the Richmond 8teamiboat Co. The latter 
starts every Tues. & Frid. at 2 p.m. for (5 hrs.) 8t. Peter's (p. 66), where it 
stops for the night, going on next day to Grand Narrovat (see above*, through- 
£ar« $ 1.75). The voyage through the Bras d'Or Lakes is continued by th^ 

Digitized by * 

64 Route 19. STRAIT OF OANSO. From Halifax 

steamer rnnaing thrice daily from lonoy opposite Grand Narrows (p. 63), to 
(I1/4 hr.) Baddeck (p. 66; fare 60 c.). From Baddeck a steamer of the Bnu 
d^Or Steamboat Co. plies on Hon., Wed., and Frid. (10 a.m.) to North Spdnev, 
which it reaches at 3 p.m. (fare $ 1; throngh-fare from Halifax hy steamer 
3 6.50, by railway and boat $ 7.50). On the return-voyage the steamer leaves 
Sydney at 7 a.m., and the route is retraced in the same way (nights at Bad- 
deck and St. Peter's). The steamboat-lines do not profess to make connec- 
tion with each other, and they are run rather in the interest of the local 
traffic than for the convenience of the tourist. Nevertheless the scenery 
of the Bras d'Or Lakes is so attractive, that travellers are recommended to 
make at least part of the trip through their quiet waters. The voyage from 
Halifax to Hawkesbury is hardly recommended except to those who are spe- 
cially fond of the sea. — Other steamers ply daily from Mulsrave to Arichat 
(p. 65) and Canto (see below), 4 times weekly to Ouptboro (p. 61), and weekly 
to Fort Hood, Margaru^ and Chetieamp. — The Bt, Pieire and MiquOon Bteamen 
(see B. 27) run through the Bras d^Or Lakes, calling at Baddeck and Sydney. 

The above were the arrangements for the summer of 1906, bnt are 
liable to alteration. The traveller is, therefore, advised to consult the 
Halifax daily papers or apply at the offices of the steamboat- companies 
for the latest information. 

For a general description of Gape Breton, see p. 62. 

Leaving Halifax Harbour, the steamei rounds HarUand Pointy 
passes the entrances of Cow Bay (p. 59) and Cole Harbour j and 
runs to the E., along the coast. Like that to the W. of Halifax (R. 21b) 
this shore is frayed by innumerable small Inlets and lined with myri- 
ads of islands ; hut few points on it come within the purview of 
the ordinary tourist. Our steamer passes most of it at night and 
makes no stops before reaching the Strait of Canso. Beyond Cape 
CansOj the easternmost point of Nova Scotia proper, we turn to the 
W. and cross the broad waters of Chedabnoto Bay. The small sea- 
port of Canso (U. S. Agent), at the point, has (1901) 2367 inhab. 
and is the W. terminus of some of the Atlantic cables. To the N., as 
we cross the bay, is the island of Arichat (p. 65). Beyond Cape 
Argos and Eddy Point (both to the left) we enter the Gut or Strait 
of Canso or Canseau, a narrow but deep channel, 15 M. long and 
about 1 M. wide, separating peninsular Nova Scotia from the island 
of Cape Breton (p. 62). It is much used by sailing-vessels, which 
thereby avoid the long and sometimes dangerous voyage round the 
E. extremity of the province. The banks of the channel, which 
was ^excavated by the currents of the drift period', are hilly, covered 
with trees, and dotted with villages. To the left, 5 M. below Mul- 
grave, is the site of Terminal City, where an American syndicate 
has blocked out a large city , intended — some day — ^to be the ter- 
minus of a line of swift steamers to Europe. 

Beyond Hawkesbury (p. 62), on the E. side of the strait, the 
steamer goes on through St. Oeorge's Bay and Northumberland Strait 
to Charlottetown (p. 98). Passengers bound for Cape Breton by water, 
however, leave the steamer at Hawkesbury (p. 62) and join the steamer 
of the Richmond Steamship Co. This boat retraces .part of the route we 
have Just traversed, but, instead of crossing Chedabucto Bay, steers 
to the left, and threads the narrow Lennox Passage^ between Cape 
Breton on the left and the islands of Janvrin and Arichat to the right. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

to Sydney. BRAS D'OR LAKES. 19. Route. 65 

The island of Ariohat or Isle Madame^ 15 H. long and 5H. wide, eon- 
tains about 4700 inhab., mainly Acadians. The chief place is the little 
fishing-town of Arichat (Sea View Ho.; U. S. Agent; 600 inhab.), on the 
S. side of the island. The island is frequented by a few summer-yisitors 
in search of good boating and fishing. Steamer to Mulgrave, see p. 64. 

Leaving Lennox Passage, the steamer ascends St. Peter's Bay, 
which is separated from St, Peter's ItUet, part of the Great Bras 
d'Or Lake, only by a small isthmus about Vj M. across. Through 
this has been cut a short canal, 26 ft. wide and 13 ft. deep, which 
has practically divided Cape Breton into two large islands (comp. 
' p. 62). Adjoining the canal is the small -nllage of St. Peter's (inns), 
founded originally by the French in 1636 but now occupied by 
Scottish Highlanders. 

A steamer runs hence to £att Bay (see below) twice a week in summer. 

At the mouth of the narrow St. Peter's Inlet are a number of 
islands, on the largest of which (seen at some distance to the right) 
is a Roman Catholic chapel. Here, on St. Anne's Day (July 28th), 
the Micmacs (p. 91) of Cape Breton hold a grand festival, accom- 
panied by various singular celebrations, which it will repay the 
carious visitor to attend. 

The Great Bias d'Or Lake, which we now traverse, has an ex- 
treme length, from the head of West Bay to the head of East Bay, 
of about 45 M., and an extreme width of about 20 M. Its depth 
varies from 90 ft. to 350 ft. The name is said to be, not French, 
but a corrupt form of an Indian or Spanish word (possibly from the 
same root as Labrador), sometimes locally pronounced 'Bradoore*. 
It is surrounded by agreeably diversified and wooded hills (5-600 ft. 
high), and Charles Dudley Warner describes it as more beautiful 
than he had imagined a salt-water lake could be. The combina- 
tion of its sheltered inland position with the ozone of its salt-laden 
breezes makes the summer climate very delightful. 

The course of the steamer lies almost due N. across the lake. 
To the left (S. W.) opens the West Bay^ with its numerous is- 
lands. [On this bay is Marble Mountain, with limestone quarries 
affording material used by the Dominion Iron & Steel Co. (steamers, 
see p. 63).] To the right (N. E.) is the long East Bay, with the 
Micmac village of Escasoni near its head. To the W. (1.), beyond 
the West Bay , are Malagawatch Harbour and the estuary of the 
Denys River (comp. p. 63), the latter named for its discoverer 
Nicholas Denys, Sieur de Fronsac, who was afterwards appointed 
Governor of Cape Breton (1654). The only stop made by the 
steamer on the Great Bras d'Or is at the Grand Narrows (see p. 63), 
where it connects with the Little Bras d'Or Lake. The channel 
is crossed by the fine seven-spanned railway-bridge mentioned at 
p. 63. Passengers for Sydney must generally trans-ship here to the 
steamer plying from lona (p. 63) to Baddeck (comp. pp. 63, 64). 

The Little Bras d'Or Lake, excluding the long narrow arms 
connected with it, is about 10 M. long and 5-6 M./wide. Jts 

Baedbkb^s Canada. 3rd Edit. Digit zed b^^OOglC 

66 Route 19, BADDECK. From Halifax 

greatest depth is nearly 700 ft. Its attractions are similar to those 
of the Great Bras d'Or, but the smaller scale makes them even more 
fascinating. It 'offers many a charming vista of cliff where the 
gypsum mingles its white with the dark green of the overhanging 
spruce, and where the land rises into lofty hills, with their slopes 
dotted by cottages on little patches of meadow* (Bourinot). The 
steamer steers to the N., crosses the mouth of 8L Patricki's Channel 
(1. ; see below), and reaches — 

Baddeck (^Telegraph Ho.^ Bra^ d'Or Ho., both mediocre, $ 1 Vr^J 
Mrs, Angus Mackenzie* Sy well spoken of, $ 1 V2)j * village with about 
1235 Highland inhab., situated on rising ground at the mouth of a 
pretty little bay. The name, accented on the second syllable, is a 
corruption of the French form Bedeque^ from an Indian word Ebedek, 
The fame of this little village was made by Charles Dudley Warner 
in his amusing booklet 'Baddeck ; and that Sort of Thing*, and it 
is now frequented by quite a number of summer- visitors , in spite 
of whom it retains much of its native unsophistioation. Both English 
and Gaelic services are still held in what Warner called the *double- 
barrelled' church (Presbyterian). Mr. George Kennan^ the Siberian 
traveller, has a cottage here ; and Mr. A. Oraham Bell (of the *Bell 
Telephone*) has built himself a beautiful summer-home on Red 
Point, immediately opposite the village, the red roof of which is 
conspicuous to the right as we approach the wharf. Many pleasant 
walks and drives may be taken from Baddeck, and the facilities for 
boating trips are unexcelled. Fair fishing for brook-trout^ sea- trout, 
and salmon is within reach. 

One of the pleasantest drives is that round the head of Baddeck Bap 
to (7 H.) Mr. BelPt House (see above). On the outskirts of the village 
we pass Mr. Kennan't Botue (I.). This drive may b'e continued along ttie 
l^orth Shore viH Cape Smoky to Ingonieh (p. 69) or even to Aepy Bay (p. 6tf). — 
Another pleasant round of about 10 M. may be made through Baddeck 
Rivet Valley (falls). — A visit should also be made to *St. Anne's Bay. 
which lies about 10 M. to the K. of Baddeck and has been highly praisea 
by Mr. C. D. Warner. — A splendid drive of about 25 M. (carr. 35) leads 
to Whycocomagh, which is^erhaps, better reached by steamer (see below). 
About 6 H. to the K. of Whycocomagh is Lake Ainslie^ the source of the 
Margaree. — Another picturesque road (carr.; 25 M.) leads to the Mat*- 
garee River, famous for its trout and salmon fishing. Margaree Harbour^ 
at its mouth, is one of the fishing-stations of the great Jersey firm, Bobin 
& Go. (comp. p. 92). — The romantic Uuge-Ban FaUe (the highest 76 ft.) 
are reached from Baddeck (9 M.) by a good road. — About 12 M. above 
Baddeck is a Micmae Reservation; and in summer there are generally a 
few lodges of the<ie Indians close to the village, where their peculiarities 
may be studied and their baskets and bead-work purchased. — The in- 
defutigable traveller may also reach Mabou (Murray Ho.) and Port Hood from 
Baddeck by a stage-drive of 9-10 hrs. r50 M.). 

The steamer to and from lona (Grand Narrows f see p. 63) connects 
with the express-trains in both directions. — The steamer from Sydney 
(comp. p. 67) runs on from Baddeck up the beautiful 8t. Patrick's Channel 
and Whycocomagh Bay to (25 M. ; fare % IV2, from Baddeck 76 c.) Whyod- 
comagh {*Bay View^ fair, $ IV2), a small village near the foot of the double- 
peaked Salt Hill (720 ft.). Opposite rises Indian Head (930 ft.). — A steamer 
also plies fortnightly in summer via Grand Narrows to Bast Bay (p. Hd), 
calling At Irish Cove and Big Pond. C^r\r\n]o 

Digitized by VjOOQIc 

to Sydney. SYDNEY. 19, RouU, 67 

Leaving Baddeck Harbour, the Sydney steamer rounds Red Point 
(with Mr. BelFs house) and steers to the N.E. through the channel 
known as the Oreat Bras d*Or, which is about 22 M* long and about 
1 M. wide. To the right lies Boularderie lalandj 28 M. long and 
2-3 M. broad, on the other side of which is the Little Bras d'Or or 
8t, Andrew*s Channelj which is 25 M. long and throughout a great 
part of its length 3 M. wide, the epithet 'little' apparently applying 
only to its narrow and tide-swept outlet on the Atlantic. The hills 
on the Peninsula of 8t, Anne, to the left of the Great Bras d'Or, 
attain a height of about 1000 ft. The steamer issues from the chan- 
nel and reaches the Atlantic Ocean between Cape Dauphin on the 
left and Table Head on the right. To the N. lie the Ciboux Islands, 
We now have about 20 M. of open ocean, rounding Point Aconi, 
the N. extremity of Boularderie Island, before entering the mouth 
of Sydney Harbour J which we reach beyond Cranberry Point, As we 
ascend the harbour we see coal-mines on both sides of us. We first 
call at North Sydney (p. 68), which lies to the right, in the N. W. 
arm, and then ascend the S. arm, on the left, to Sydney, 

Sydney. — Hotels. Sydney Hotbl, $ 2V3-3Vs i <^band, near the statioo, 
$1V2-, MiNxa, QtjBKN, both in Charlotte St., $11/2; Alponsb, Victobu, 
George St., $ iVa- 

Electric Tramways traverse the chief streets and run to (13 H.) Olace 
Bay Cp. 69). 

Steamers run from Sydney to Baddeck and Whycocomagh (Tnes., Thars., 
& Sat.; comp. pp. 64, 66); to Ingonish and Bay St. Lawrence (see p. 69); to 
EnglUJUoim^ in St. Anne^s Bay (27 M. to the N.W. ; fare $ 1) ; to Quebec and 
Montreal (p. 126); to 8t, John'e (p. 109) ; to HcAifax (p. 50); and to St. Pierre 
and Miquelon (p. 124). 

U. 8, Consul^ Mr. George K. West; French and Oerman Consular Agente. 
— Sydney Lyceum (theatre). 

French gold and silver coins are often met with in Sydney, put into 
circulation by the crews of French men-of-war, which frequently visit the 
port in summer (comp. p. xi). 

Sydney, an important seaport with (1901) 9909 inhab. (now ca. 
14,000; including natives of the United States, Great Britain, Ire- 
land, Germany, Scandinayia, Italy, Hungary, and China), is finely 
situated on the S.W. arm of one of the best harbours on the Atlantic 
coast, which, however, is ice-bound in some years for about two 
months. Its chief trade is in coal, iron, and steel, large quantities 
of which are produced in the district, but it also carries on a con- 
siderable general trade. From 1784 to 18,20 Sydney was capital of 
the separate province of Cape Breton (comp. p. 62). It is frequently 
Tisited by vessels of the British and French North Atlantic Squad- 
rons. The town has increased rapidly of late years owing to the 
enterprize of the Dominion Iron & Steel Co. (see p. 68). Char- 
1.0TTB Street is well and soUdly built, including such substantial 
structures as the County Court House, the Post Office, the Bank of 
Montreal, the Royal Barik of Canada, the Union Batik of Halifax, 
and -various business-blocks. The harbour affords excellent yacht- 
ing, and many pleasant drives may be taken in the vicinity (e,g, 


68 Route 19. SYDNEY. From Halifax 

to Forks Lake, Sydney River , and Crawley^s Creek), The Royal Cape 
Breton Yacht Club holds a weekly regatta in summer. Sydney is 
also the starting-point for a visit to LouUhowrg (see p. 69). At 
the end of the peninsula is Victoria Park (fine view), with the 
remains of the barracks of the garrison formerly maintained here. 
The Dominion Steel Worki, recently established near Sydney, cover 
over 600 acres of land and employ more than 3000 men. There are 
also large tar, chemical, cement, and nail works, 

^Every visitor should see a cast made (at the Dominion Steel Works). 
At night, as the molten slag rashes out and is conveyed to the water front, 
the scene is one of strangely weird fascination. Seen from the deck of the 
ferry steamer it reminds one of the infernal re^ons. The sky is sud- 
denly illuminated with the red blaze, throwing into striking relief the 
huge furnaces and chimneys, and making the silvery radiance of the in- 
numerable electric lights pale into insignificance. A stream of molten lava 
is then seen descending the slope to the harbor, and when its fiery heat is 
cooled in the water, clouds of snowy eteam ascend from it.^ (A, Jf, Vernon.) 

Sydney Harbour was originally named Spanith Bay^ and has been 
known to British navigators since the 16th century. Le Moyne d'lber- 
ville, founder of Louisiana, sailed hence in 1692 on his expedition to the 
Bay of Fundy and the coast of Haine. Adm. Walker took refuge here after 
his pusillanimous withdrawal from the expedition against Quebec in 1711 
(p. 147) and asserted the British claim to Gape Breton by erecting a wooden 
cross, with an inscription, on the shore. A naval contest off the mouth of 
the harbour in 1781 resulted in the defeat of four small British vessels by 
two French frigates. The town of Sydney was founded in 1784. — In 1906 the 
harbour was entered and cleared by 8600 vessels of 1,446,546 tons' register. 

One of the pleasantest Dbivss from Sydney is that along the low 
cliffs overhanging the harbour to (12 M.) Low Point Lighthoute. Another 
may be taken along the S.W. Arm. Short steamer-trips can be made to the 
Little Brat d* Or, 8(. Anne, etc. 

From Sydney a steam-ferry plies hourly across the harbour to 
(5 M.) North Sydney (Belmont, $ 2j Vendome, Albert, $ 11/2), 
another coal-shipping port with (1901) 4646 inhab. and a long pier. 
Steamer to Newfoundland, see p. 102; to St. Pierre and Miquelon, 
see p. 124. Steamers also ply to Montreal, Quebec, Halifax, Char- 
lottetown, and St. John's. For the Bras d'Or steamers, comp. p. 67. 

A pleasant drive may be taken across the peninsula to the shore of 
the Little Bra» d^Or, whence we may return viS. Sydney Mines (see below) and 
along the harbour. Another good drive leads along OiorgeU River to 
Long Itland and Barachoie. 

From North Sydney the electric tramway runs to the E. to 
r3 M.) Syd/ney Mines, a coal-mining place with (1901) 3191 inhab. 
(now 7000), coal-mines, and the blast-furnaces of the Nova Scotia 
Steel and Goal Company. The rows of the one-story houses of the 
miners, built of brick with old-fashioned panes of glass, present 
a quaint appearance. The tramway between North Sydney and Syd- 
ney Mines skirts the harbour, of which it commands a fine view, 
while in the evening a brilliant and weird effect is produced by 
the furnaces of the Dominion Steel Company on the opposite side 
of the harbour. — Lloyd^s Cove^ to the E. of Sydney Mines, has 
the receiving hut of the Western Union Cable Company. 

A Steamboat of the Bras d'Or Co., leaving the Sydneys on Tues. and 
Frid., plies to the K. along the coast, visiting some of /the finert scenery 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

to Sydney. LOUISBOITRG. 19. Route. 69 

in Gape Breton (fare to Ingonish $1.35. to Keil's Head $1.60, to Aspy 
Bay $ 1.76, to Bay 8t. Lawrence $ 2). At a distance of about 28 M. in a 
straight line from North Sydney we reach *Old Smoky Head (Cap Enfumi). 
rising to a height of 1200 ft. and so called from the smoke>like doad of 
mist which often enrelops its summit. On doubling the cape we i*each 
the lovely village of Ingonith or Inganiche^ situated on the so-called North 
and South Bay»^ separated by Middle Head. A narrow sand-bar separates 
the outer part of Sonth Bay from the dark waters of the inner harbour, 
and the houses on this spit were almost wholly destroyed by wind and 
wave in two terrific storms in the winters of 1894 and 1895. Among the 
lofty hills surrounding the bays is FraneyU Chimney (1892 ft.), the highest 
point in Gape Breton. — Beyond Ingonish the steamer goes on to (47 H. from 
Sydney) Neirt Head and (on some trips) to (59 H.) Atpy Bay and (70 M.) Bay 
St. Lawrence, at the extreme N. end of the island, where the scenery vies with 
that of Ingonish. — Gomp. ^From Blomidon to Smoky% by FrankBollee (1894). 
The Sydney Goal Fields cover an area of about 900 sq. M., besides 
which the deposits are known to extend for 6 M. under the sea. It is 
estimated that the total quantity of coal in this area amounts to at least 
10 billion tonS) and its value is enhanced by its proximity to the harbours 
of Sydney and Louisbourg. The coal, the first cargo of whicn is said to 
have been shipped to Martinique in 1735 and which has been more or 
less regularly worked since 1784, is of an excellent bituminous quality, 
and is readily sold at a remunerative price. In 1905 the total yield of the 
Sydney district was fully 4,000,000 tons. About 11,000 men are employed 
in the mines. The Domini(M Coal Co., a syndicate of Canadian and United 
States capitalists, with its headquarters in Montreal, has acquired moHt of 
the working mines in the district to the 8. of Sydney, while the peninsula of 
K. Sydney is practically owned by the If ova Scotia Steel ds Coal Co. (formerly 
the General Mining Association). The chief pit of the former organization is 
Dominion No. 2 Colliery (with the largest coal-shaft in the world), while the 
oldest coal-pit is that of the Nova Scotia Steal sl Goal Co., Sydney Harbour, 
the workings of which extend a long way under the sea, the vessels which 
enter the harbour passing over them. This pit, which yields 600,(X)0 tons 
of coal annually, is the deepest in the neighbourhood and will repay a visit. 

Fbom Stdmbt to Lodisboubg, 42 M., railway in IV2 hr. (return-fare 
$1.20). This railway follows the coast- line pretty closely, while the direct 
distance by road is only 24 M. At or near most of the stations are large 
coal-mines worked by the Dominion Goal Co. (see above). 10 M. Dominion; 
12 M. Caledonia; 13 M. Bridgeport. — 15 M. Olace Bay {Hotel, $lVr2), with 
a fine beach, has recently progressed very rapidly owing to its coal-pits, 
and in 1901 contained 6945 inhab. (now 12,000). The annual production 
of its mines now amounts to 3,000,000 tons. A little to the 6.W. of 
Glace Bay is a station of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph, from which 
the first message from Canada to England (addresied by Oovemor-General 
Minto to King Edward) was despatched on Dec. 2l8t, 1902. Glace Bay 
may also be reached from Sydney by electric car (p. o7). — 22 M. Fort 
Morien, formerly known as Cow Bay, has an excellent beach and a good 
harbour, protected by a breakwater constructed at a cost of $260,000. 
Pop. (1901) 1453. — At (29 M.) Mira we cross the Mira River, between 
Mira Lake, on the right, and ifira Bay, on the left. During the summer 
season a small steamer, connecting with the trains of the Sydney and 
Louisbourg Railway, plies up the picturesque Mira for a distance of about 
bOH. Sangaree Island has a good bathing-beach. The river has also much 
of historic interest, with remains of old French brick-kilns, abandoned 
sloops, and burying -grounds. The Huna' occurs in Mira Bay and at the 
mouth of the Mira River, affording excellent sport to fishermen. — 33 M. 
Catalone, on Catalans Lake. To the S.E. of the last lies Cape Breton, from 
which the island takes its name (see p. 62) ; and offshore lies the island 
of Scatarie, the easternmost part of the Maritime Provinces. — 42 M. 
LouUhourg, see p. 70. ^g,,^^^ ^^ GoOglc 

70 Route 19. LOUISBOURG. 

The present town of Lonitbourg (Loui^ourg Hotel; Mc Alpine. Ho. ; U,S, 
Agent) lies near the middle of LouUhourg Harbour^ a safe and deep haven, 
2 M. long and Vs ^- ^ide, lying about 6 M. to the S. of Cape Breton. Close 
by are the remains of the so-called Grand Battery, while the remains of 
the fortiffed city of the French era are on the S. W. arm of the bay. ItB 
inhabitants, about 1600 in number, were formerly mainly engaged in the 
cod-fisheries of the Banks of Newfoundland, but since the construction of 
the railway the place has become a large coal-shipping port. Two French 
cannon, recovered from a sunken man-of-war in the harbour, are now 
kept in an enclosure near the railway- station. 

History. By the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) France was left in possess- 
ion of the island of Cape Breton, the importance of which, as the key 
to Canada, the French determined to emphasize by the construction of a 
fortress of the first rank. The bay then known as the Havre-aux-AnglaU 
was chosen as the site of the new city, and over $10,000,000 were ex« 
pended in gigantic fortifications. The population grew rapidly, mainly 
by the concourse of the French from Newfoundland and the Acadians 
from Nova Scotia, and Louisbourg soon became a name and place of 
great signigcance. It was the American rendezvous of the French navy 
and the headquarters of a fishing-fleet employing large numbers of men. 
On the outbreak of the war of 1744 the New England settlements de- 
termined to attack this ^Dunkirk of America* , a standing menace to their 
trade and fisheries -, and an expedition of 4900 men, under William Pepper- 
rell, a merchant of Eittery, was fitted out in 1745 for the purpose. To 
the amazement of the world this force of Colonial militia, with the co- 
operation of the British West Indian Squadron under Commodore Warren, 
succeeded in capturing the supposed impregnable fortress after a siege ox 
seven weeks — one of the most extraordinary feats in the annals of warfare. 
Pepperrell was created a baronet for his services. Louisbourg was, however, 
given back to France by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1749). War brokTe 
out again in 1756^ and in 1758 an army of 11,600 men and a powerful fleet 
were sent out from England to operate against the French in Canada. This 
expedition entered Oabarue Bay^ to tiie 8. of Louisbourg, where Pepperrell 
had also landed, in June^ and two months later, in spite of all Uiat had 
been done to strengthen it against such an emergency, the city was surren- 
dered once more, with 5600 prisoners-of-war and a large quantity of naval 
and military stores. Wolfe commanded one of the divisions of the British 
army and greatly distinguished himself in the siege. As Halifax had been 
selected as the British military headquarters for the Acadian provinces, 
the works of Louisbourg were entirely destroyed and its site deserted. 

The ruins of the French city and fortress lie on PoiiU Boehe/ort^ on 
the S. W. side of the harbour. The destruction by man and time has 
been so complete that comparatively little now remains to outward view. 

*6reen mounds and embankments of earth enclose the whole space, 
and beneath the highest of them yawn arches and caverns of ancient 
masonry. This grassy solitude was once the ^Dunkirk of America*; the 
vaulted caverns where the sheep find shelter from the rain were case- 
mates where terrified women sought refuge from storms of shot and 
shell, and the shapeless green mounds were citadel, bastion, rampart, 
and glacis. Here stood Louisbourg: and not all the efforts of its con- 
querors, nor all the havoc of succeeding times, have availed to efface it. 
Men in hundreds toiled for months with lever, spade, and gunpowder in 
the work of destruction, and for more than a century it has served as a 
stone quarry ; but the remains of its vast defences still tell their tale of 
human valor and human woe' (Parkman). 

^If we take a position on the site of the King^s bastion, the most pro- 
minent point of the ruins, we see to the southwest the waters of the 
spacious bay of Gabarus. Immediatelv below us are the remains of the 
casemates where the women and children found a refuge during the last 
siege .... It is quite easy to follow the contour of the fortifications until 
they come to the old burying-grounds near Rochefort and Black Points, 
where hundreds of New Englanders and of French and English soldiers 
found their last resting-place in 1745 and 1758. No tombstone or cairn or 

WINDSOR. 20. Route. 71 

cross has been raised •, the ground has never been blessed by priest ; the 
names of the dead are all forgotten; Frenchmen, Englishmen, and Colonists, 
Catholics and Pnritans, now sleep in close proximity to each other, re- 
gardless of the war of creeds, beneath the green sward^ (Bourinot). 

The British lines in 1758 formed a semicircle round the city on the 
W. i the Burying Ground^ above referred to, lies to the E. of the city, 
near the extreme point. One of the strongest works was on the island 
in the month of the harbour, but it was silenced by Wolfe with a battery, 
of which the remains may still be seen on Lighthouse Pointy the N.E. arm 
of the harbour. 

A simple monument to commemorate the capture of Louisbourg was 
erected here by the Society of Colonial Wars in 1896. 

A small steamer plies in summer to the interesting fishing-village of 
Odbarus (1116 inhab.). to the S.W. of Louisbourg (comp. p. 70). 

Visitors to Louisbourg should be familiar with Parbman^s account of 
the two sieges, given in 'A Half-Century of Conflict' (chaps, xviii-xx) 
and ^Montcalm & Wolfe' (chap. xix). See also Bourinot (Op. cit., p. 62), 
Vernon (Op. cit., p. 62), and Kings/ortPs *History of Canada' (vols, iii and 
iv). Perhaps the fullest account of the second siege is in the Abbi Cat- 
grain's 'L^vis et Montcalm' (Quebec; 1892). 

20. From Halifax to St, John. 

a. Vi& Digby. 

Dominion Atlantic Railway to (150 M.) Digby in 4V4.-6 hrs. (fare 
$4.10', parlor- car $1), and Steamer of the same company thence to (ca. 
60 M.) St. John in 28/4-3 hrs. (through-fare 35.75). 

The railway traverses the picturesque 'Evangeline' district, rich in 
historic and poetic association, and the traveller will do well to stop o(T 
for a night or more at Wolfville and Eentville. The railway is well 
equipped, and its officials are notably courteous. The 'Flying Bluenose' 
express leaves Halifax , under present summer arrangements , daily at, 
8.30 a.m. Beyond Digby the railway goes on to Yarmouth^ to which through- 
carriages run from Halifax (comp. p. 78). — The run across the Bay o/Fundy 
is seldom rough in summer; and the steamer is large, speedy, and safe. — 
Tlie traveller may dine or lunch either in the bufifet-car or on the steamer. 

Notman (comp. p. 127) publishes good photographs of this route. 

From Halifax to (14 M.) Windsor Junction , see p. 83. Our 
line here diverges to the left from the route to Moncton and Quebec 
(R. 24) and runs towards the N.W. Beyond (27 M.) MU Uniacke, 
to the right, is Vniacke Place, an old-fashioned house between two 
small lakes. About Si/g M. to the N. are the small Mi. Vniacke 
Gold Mines. — To the left lies the pretty Five Island Lake. — 37 M. 
Ellershouse was founded by a German, Herr von Ellershausen, whose 
fine house stands to the left, and has lost its prosperity since his 
departure and the closing of his pulp-mill. — Mt. Ardoise (*Ardice' ; 
700 ft.) may now be seen rising to the right. We cross the pictur- 
esque St. Croix, 40 M. Newport, with gypsum -quarries. As we 
enter Windsor we see King's College (p. 72) on the hills to the left. 
-The grass -works of old Fort Edward (p. 72) rise just above the 
station, on the same side. 

46 M. Windsor (Victoria, $lV2-2; aifton or Sam Slick Ho., 
$ 11/2; U. S. Consul, Mr, J, T, Hoke), a prosperous little town and 
port, with (1901) 3398 inhab., lies on a point betwfi0n the Avon 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

72 Route W, HANTSPOBT. From Halifax 

and the 8t, Croix^ which unite in a wide estuary below the town 
as they flow (under the name of Avon) into the Bay of Minas, It 
takes the third place among the ship -owning ports of Canada 
fl08 vessels of 45,276 tons in 1906) and exports large quantities 
of gypsum from the quarries of the vicinity. The town also con- 
tains an iron-foundry , a cotton-mill , a plaster- mill (for grinding 
and calcining plaster), and other factories. It is the seat of King's 
College (see below). — In 1897 Windsor was visited by a terrible 
conflagration, which swept away 400 buildings, destroyed property 
to the value of $3,000,000, and left three-fourths of its inhabitants 

To reach Eing^s College we follow Water St. from the station to 
(3 min.) Oerriih Street^ which we follow to the left, passing the Post 0/Jice^ 
to (2 min.) Gray Street. Here we torn to the right and at the (3-4 min.) 
cross-roads take the second road to the left, with the plank side-walk. 
In about 3 min. more a gateway to the right, with a small lodge, admits us 
to the groands surrounding the Clifton or Sam Slick House (now a hotel, 
p. 71) , an unpretending wooden cottage < which was the home of Judge 
Thomas 0, ffaliburton ('Sam Slick' -, 17§7-i865), a native of Windsor. (By 
crossing the field in front of the house we reach a view-commanding path, 
high above the Avon, by which we may return to the town.) — Continu- 
ing to follow the plank-walk from the entrance to the 'Sam Slick House% 
we reach, passing a bridge over a ravine with some disused plaster-quarries 
and through two gates, the (10 min.) plain old wooden building of KiBg''B 
Oollege, with its Ionic portico. This college was chartered by George ni. 
in 1785 and is now attended by a mere handful of students. The library 
and chapel are of stone. A good "^Yiew is here obtained of the town and 
its rivers. Close by are the CoUegiate School , for boys, and Edgehill^ a 
church-school for girls (75-100 pupils). — Other good points of view are the 
cupola of the Court House, a conspicuous red building on an adjoining hill, 
and the grassy ramparts of the abandoned Fort Edward (1769), just above 
the station. 

Windsor, the Indian name of which was Pigiguit or Hsiquid ('junc- 
tion of the waters'), was a thriving Acadian settlement before the expul- 
sion of 1755 (see p. 73). 

From Windsor to Truro^ see B. 23. 

The railway runs through Windsor on the street -level and in 
quitting it crosses the wide Avon by an iron bridge 1400 ft. long. 
To the right is the road-bridge. The beauty of the view here 
depends largely on the state of the tide. At full tide we see a large 
and powerful river, with waters of a strange reddish hue; at low 
tide there is little but slimy expanses of red mud — *an ugly rent 
in the land* — recalling, though on a larger scale, the similar ef- 
fects on the English Avon, at Bristol. We now leave the Avon for 
a little, but regain it near (53 M.) Hantsport (American Hotel, $ 1 74), 
a small but busy little ship-building port. Its shipping is owned 
almost entirely by the Metars. ChurchiUy among the wealthiest and 
largest ship-owners in the Dominion. We now skirt the wide estuary 
of the Avon, enjoying flue views, on our right front, over the Minas 
Basin. As we near (58 M.) Avot^ori, the bold C<q>e Blomidon (see 
p. 74) comes into prominence on the W. side of the basin, forming 
the dominant scenic feature for the next 10 M. 

We now turn to the left (W.), leave the Avon^and cross the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

to St. John. EVANGELINE DISTRICT. 20. Route. 73 

moath of the Oaspereau at (60 M.) Ilorton Landing, The high tide . 
of the Bay of Fundy (p. 76) is well exemplified at the wharf heie^ 
— We then traverse the *Comwalli8 Valley^ the beginning of the 
so-called ^Garden of Nova Scotia\ with its extensive fruit-orchards 
and fertile pastures. In the blossoming season this is a veritable 
paradise. We have also reached the *Land of Evangeline' (see 
below). At (61 M.) Grand Pri we see, to the right, a group of old 
willows marking the site of Evangeline's village. 

64 M. Wolfville (Acadia Seminary Hotel, well spoken of, $2- 
2V2; Boyal, $2} * Kent Lodge, $2; Acadia ViUa; Hillside Hall, 
$ 2), a small town vath (1901) 1412 inhab., engaged in ship-build- 
ing and farming , is the best centre from which to visit the *Evan- 
geline District', though it still lacks a first- class botel. It is the 
seat of an important Horticultural School and of Acadia College, 
a flourishing Baptist institution (co - educational; 160 students), 
situated on a hill at the W. end of the village. The •View from 
the front- steps of the latter (or, still better, from its belfry) in- 
cludes the Oomwallis Valley, backed by the North Mt. (p. 74), 
ending in Cape Blomidon, the Minas Basin (p. 86), and the mead- 
ows of Grand Prtf (see below). The village seen to the N., across an 
arm of Minas Basin, is Kingsport (steamer, see p. 74). Near Acadia 
College are Schools for girls and boys and a Manual Training Hall. 

Evangeline District. The following round-drive of 10-12 M. will give 
a very fair idea of the district celebrated by Longfellow in ^Evangeline' 
(fare for 1-2 pers. about $2, 8-4 pers. $3). — We ascend to the top of 
the ridge behind the town and follow the road along it towards the £. 
Behind this ridge lies the beautiful * (7a<|7^eat( Fa/fey, recalling to some extent 
the valley of the Dee, near Aberdeen ^ and the traveller should alight 
from his vehicle, near the little French burying-ground , and walk to the 
brow of the hill , in order to enjoy the view. Large quantities of the 
small fish called 'gaspereauz' or ^alewives^ (^Alota vemalU; a kind of 
herring) are taken in the winding Gaspereau , for export to India; and 
trout may be caught in Gaspereau Lake. Numerous orchards are seen, 
forming a lovely sight in the blossoming season (first week in June). — After 
following the ridge for 21/2-3 M. we descend to the left towards the hamlet 
of Grand Frd, passing the cross-roads supposed to be the site of ^Basil's 
Forge". The site of the French village, close to the station (see above), 
is marked by a clump of venerable willows, an old well, and the cellars 
of a few cottages. From this point we may drive to the N., across the 
expanse of fertile dyked meadows that gave name to the village ', and the 
heart of the agriculturalist will rejoice in the splendid crops of hay with 
which they are covered. To the right, near Horton Landing (see above), is 
the point where the Acadians embarked on their expulsion. Ahead of us 
we obtain fine views of Cape Blomidon (p. 74), across the Minas Basin. On 
the seaward side of the ^Graat Meadow^ is Long Island, a fertile ridge 
Occupied by near a score of small farms, but no longer an island since 
the construction of reclaiming dykes. If desired, we can here drive right 
down to the beach before returning to Grand Pr^ Station and so back to 
Wolfville by the lower road. The reader of *Evangeline" must be warned 
that he need not look for 'the forest primeval — the murmuring pines 
and the hemlocks'. 

The Expulsion of the Acadians in 1755 has been represented by Park- 
men and otiier authorities as a simple act of self-preservation on the part 
of the British on account of their irreconcilable hostilitv to British rule. 
Recent researches made by Dr. Doughty (pp. Ixii, 147) seem Jo^ipove 

74 Route 20. KENTVILLE. From Halifax 

pretty conclusively tbat this was not the case. The expulsion was rather 
the work of arbitrary provincial authorities (Cornwallis and lAwrence), 
trho apparently acted without the knowledge of the Home Government, 
declined to recognize the pledge given to the Acadians that fhey should 
not be called on to bear arms against the French or Indians, and refused 
them permission to emigrate elsewhere. — Comp. also the histories of 
Acadia by Hamnay and Edouard Richard. The 'Story of Acadia\ an extract 
from Hannay's history, is distributed gratis by the Railway Co. 

Another historic association with Grand Pr^ is the surprise, defeat, 
and capture of the Massachusetts regiment of Col. Noble by the French in 
1747 (see Parkman't 'Half-Century of Conflict', chap. xxii). 

A favourite drive from Wolfville leads through the fertile OomwaUia 
Valley, passing Port Williams (see below), to (13 M.) the point called the 
^Look'OJTi which affords a fine view over the Minas Basin. From this point 
the drive may be prolonged for about 8 M. to the top of Cape Blomidon 
(see below). The farms in the Cornwallis Valley are larger and more 
pretentious than those of the Gaspereau Valley. 

Beyond Wolfville the train ascends along the Cornwallis Rivery 
views of which are obtained to the right. 66 M. Port Williams (Port 
Williams Hotel, Village Ho., $1), considerably to the right of the 

71 M. Eentville (Aberdeen Hotel^ near the station, $2; Porter, 
$2; American^ $174* RaU, Restaurant) is a very attractive little 
town of (1901) 1731 inhab., on the Cornwallis River, with the head- 
quarters of the Dominion Atlantic Railway and several mills and 
factories. Excellent fishing and shooting are obtained in the vicinity. 

Fkom Kentvillb to Kingspobt, 14 M., railway in 'A hr. (fare 47 c). 
— This branch-railway descends the fertile CornwaUi* Valley (comp. p. 73), 
between rows of apple-trees, to (11 M.) Canning (Waverley, $ 1V«) and 
(14 M.) Kingtport ((Central Ho., $ l^/s). Canning may be made the start- 
ing-point of a delightful drive to the Look-Off (comp. above) and (9 M.) 
*'Cape Blomidon, the massive promontory, 670 ft. high, in which the NotHh 
Mountain (see p. 76) ends (•View from the top). A small steamer plies weekly 
(Mon.) from Canning to St. John (p.. 27). Kingsport, with its fine sandy 
beach , nestles in a recess of Minas Basin and promises to become a fa- 
vourite seaside-resort. 

A very charming excursion may be made from Kingsport by the daily 
steamer of the Dominion Atlantic RaHway Steamthip Line to Parr^oro (IV2 hr.). 
The boat passes close to the foot of Cape Blomidon^ affording the best view 
of this majestic promontory. Between Blomidon and Caps Sharp^ where 
the strait between the Minas Bay and Minas Channel is only 4 M. wide, 
the tide rushes with tremendous velocity. Away to the W. lies Cc^pe 
Splits twisted into its present position, says Micmac legend, by the demi- 
god Olooicap, whose favourite haunt was the Basin of Minas. As we ap- 
proach Patrsboro (see p. 86) we obtain a good view of the rugged Cum- 
berland coast, off which lie the Five lelandi (p. 86), while in the bock- 
ground rise the Cobequid Hills (p. 85). From Patrsboro the steamer crosses 
the Basin of Minas to Wolfville (p. 73). 

Stage-coaches run twice weekly (Tues. & Frid.) from Kentville to (25 M.^ 
New Ross, where they connect with another line for ('21 M.) Chuter (p. 78), 
passing Oaspereau Lake and running through a picturesque district to the 
Atlantic Coast. — Other pleasant drives may be taken to (11 M.) Halts 
Harbour, to (13 M.) Baxter's Harbour, and to (16 M.) White Waters. Hall's 
Harbour, which is a good place to witness the Bay of Fondy tide (p. 76), 
is named from a landing made here by an American privateer in the war 
of 1812. 

Beyond Kentville the train passes through a fruit-growing dis- 
trict, with several small stations. Near (83 M.) Bapvoick (Berwick, 

Digitized by VjOO 

to St. John. ANNAPOLIS. 20. Boute. 75 

Old Homestead, $1V4)> ^^^^ its camp-meeting grounds, we pass 
from the Gornwallis Valley to the *AimapoliB Valley, the 'Garden 
of Nova Scotia'. From (88 M.) Aylesford a coach runs to the S., 
passing the Aylesford Lakes, to Dalhousie. — 98 M. Wilmot is the 
station for the Wilmot Spa Springs (Hotel, unpretending), 3 M. to 
the N., and the junction of a branch-line to the (3*72 M.) Torbrooh 
Iron Mines. — 102 M. Middleton (MiddUton, Spa, $lV2i Ra^- 
Sestaurant), with (1901) 969 inhab. , is the junction of th& Halifax ^ 
South Western Bailway (see p. 77). A pleasant drive may be taken 
hence to Margaretsville and Tort George, on the Bay of Fundy. 

Beyond Middleton , the Annapolis Valley , clearly defined by 
the ridge of the North Mountain (500-700 ft.) to the right and that 
of the South Mountain (300-800 ft.) to the left, is very attractive, 
especially in the apple-blossom season (early in June). The Anna- 
polis River flows to the left. 108 M. Lawrencetown. At (111 M.) 
Paradise, over the name of which Mr. C. D. Warner makes some 
perfectly uncalled-for merriment, we cross the river, which now 
flows to the right and rapidly increases in width. — 116 M. Bridge- 
town (Grand Central Hotel, St. James, $ 1V2)> * small town with 
(1901) 858 inhab., at the head of navigation on the Annapolis River. 
To the left lies Bloody Brook, the scene of a massacre of New Eng- 
land troops by the French and Indians. Between this point and 
Annapolis we have deHghtful views to the right over the widening 
and winding river, with the hills beyond. — 124 M. Boundhill. 

130 M. Annapolis or Annapolis Royal (Hillsdale, Queen, $2; 
Clifton, American, McLeod, $lV2i ^* ^' Agent), a small seaport 
with (1901) 1019 inhab., finely situated at the head of Annapolis 
Basin, is the oldest European settlement in America to the N, of 
Florida (see below). It carries on a brisk trade in fruit, and is fre- 
quented by summer-visitors for its scenery and pleasant climate. 
The chief lion is the old Fort, now dismantled, which dates back to 
the 17th cent, and covers nearly 30 acres of ground. Like Fort 
Edward (p. 72), it is Dominion property. The grassy ramparts com- 
mand a charming *View over Annapolis Basin. A monument was 
erected here to the Sieur De Monts (see below) in 1904. Some of 
the older houses are quaint and picturesque, but none date from 
the French period. 

De Monts and Ghamplain visited Annapolis Basin in 1604, and the 
Baron de Poutrincourt, a member of the expedition, was so impressed with 
the charms of nature here that he secured a grant and named it Port 
Royal. In the following year the survivors of the ill-fated settlement of 
St. Croix Island found refuge at Port Royal, and in 1606 Letcarbot arrived 
from France with a fresh body of settlers. The colony was abandoned 
in 1607 on the revocation of De Monts** privileges by the King of France. 
In 1610, however, Poutrincourt led another expedition to Port Royal, which 
flourished for a time, living on the most friendly terms with the Indians 
and converting a number of them to Christianity. This promising colony 
was destroyed in 1613 by a Virginian expedition under Argall, at the 
instigation of the Jesuits, with whom De Poutrincourt had quarrelled. 
The site lay vacant for some years, but was ultimately re-occupied by 

76 Route 20. DIGBY. From Halifax 

fhe French ; and its history for the next century and a half is an endless 
record of attack, capture, and recapture, which prevented the 
acquiring anything beyond strategic importance. It was from Port I 

record of attack, capture, and recapture, which prevented the place 
acquiring anything beyond strategic importance. It was from PortBoyal 
that Ghamisay sailed to attack La Tour at St. John (see p. 29). In 1710 

Port Royal was finally captured by the New Englanders and re-named 
Annapolis (after Queen Anne)) but their tenure of it was very precarious 
until after the expulsion of the Acadians in 1755. The last warlike scene 
took place here in 1781, when two American cruisers captured the fort 
and plundered Uie town. 

Beyond Annapolis the railway runs towards the S.W., skirting 
the shore of the fine ^Annapolis Basixii which, 16 M. long and I1/2- 
5 M. wide, is enclosed between the 'gracefully moulded and tree- 
covered' heights of the North and South Mountains (see p. 75).' 
In mid-channel lies Ooat Island. We have a good view of the old 
fort to the right as we leave the town. 138 M. Clementsporty at 
the mouth of the Moose River j a village of 800 inhab., near which 
are iron-mines. At (144 M.) Bear River (Hotel, $ li/2) we cross the 
stream of that name by a bridge 90 ft. high and nearly ^2 ^* long. 
This district is famous for its cherries. The train now sweeps to the 
right (N.), round the S.W. end of Annapolis Basin, and reaches — 

150 M. Digby (The Pines, $2-5j Myrtle Ho., $21/2-31/2; Man- 
hattan, $ 2-3 i Trefry Ho., $ 1 1/2-^* '^©U spoken of ; Dufferin, $ 1 72-2 ; 
Waverley, $1^/2; ^f^^* Restaurant; V. 8. Agent) , a popular little 
watering-place on Annapolis Basin , near Digby Out (see below), 
with (1901) 1150 inhab. and a long pier. The bathing, boating, and 
fishing are good. Excursions are made to Digby in the fruit-season 
for the sake of its cherries (July), while its herrings, known as 
*Digby Chickens', are famous throughout the Acadian provinces. 

The so-called *Bear River Drive from Digby (fare $ 21/2) leads through 
the Acacia Valley and back by the Bear River. — Another interesting 
drive may be taken to the Lighthouse (see below j fare $ 2Vs). 

Passengers for St. John change carriages at Digby and take the 
transfer-train to the pier, where they board the steamer ^Prince 
Rupert\ which belongs to the Dominion Atlantic Railway Co. This 
fine boat performs the run to (50 M.) St. John In 2^/4-3 hrs. 

On leaving Digby, the steamer passes out into the Bay of Fundy 
by the curious *Digby 6at» a gap or cleft in the North Mountain, 
2 M. long and 72 M. wide, with steep rocky sides 400-600 ft. high. 
The tide rushes through here with great velocity, and it is also 
usually swept by strong winds. On either side are small fishing- 
hamlets, and on Point Prim, to the left, is a lighthouse. To the 
right is Victoria Beach (p. 77). — The Bay of Fnndy, which we 
now cross (from Digby Gut to St. John, 45 M.), is a gigantic inlet 
of the Atlantic Ocean, 170 M. long and 30-50 M. wide, between 
the S.W. arm of Nova Scotia and the opposite coast of New Brun- 
swick. The name is probably derived from the Portuguese *Baya 
fondo' (deep bay). 

*The Bay of Fundy is celebrated for its tides, which are probably the 
highest in the world, the difference between high and low water being 
from 10 to over 50 feet in some places. At low tide muddy flats, often 
miles in extent, are laid bare, and the long estuaries of the rivers and 

to 8t. John, MIDDLETON. 20. Route. TJ 

streams are completely drained. The extraordinary height of the tides in 
this bay is due to its fannel-shaped form, and is greatest towards its nar- 
row upper extremities , where in some places a dangerous hroken wave 
or 'bore^ is produced by the rising water^ (0, M. Dawson). 

As the steamei advances, we enjoy a good retrospect of the long 
ridge of the North Mt. (p. 75). To the left are the Lurcher RockSy 
marked by a lightship. As we approach the New Brunswick coast, 
Cape Spencer, with its lighthouse, appears to the right. Farther on, 
on the same side, is Mispec Point, beyond which we enter the fine 
*Harbour ofSt, John, passing Partridge Island, with its light, on the 
left. On the W. (1.) side of the harbour is West St, John or Carle- 
ton, with its church-spires, grain-elevator, and martello tower. Our 
steamer lands at the new pier at Reed^s Point (PI. D, 3). 

St. John, see R. 10. 

b. Vi& Kahone, Bridgewater, Middleton, and Victoria Beach. 

Halifax A South Wbstebn Railway to (175 M.) Victoria Beach in 6 hrs. 
(fare $ 5.76). The railway part of this route was opened in the autumn 
of 1906. 

From Halifax to (70 M.) Mahone and (81 M.) Bridge/water, see 
R. 21a. Our line now diverges to the right from that to Yarmouth 
(R. 21a) and runs towards the N. 92 M. Riversdale. From (98 M.) 
New Germany , a German settlement, a branch-line runs to (15 M.j 
Brookfield Mines (gold) and (22 M.) Caledonia, near Lake Rossignol 
(p. 79) and Fairy Lake (good fishing). 105 M. Cherryfield; 108 M. 
Springfield} 126 M. Alpena, not far from Fales Lake; 131 M. Nictaux, 
near the Nictaux Falls and the Torhrook Mines (p. 75). 

At (136 M.) Middleton (p. 75) we cross the Dominion At- 
lantic Railway (R. 20a). — Our line now bends to the left and runs 
towards the W. along the N. side of the Annapolis River and Basin 
(pp. 75, 76), parallel with the Dominion Atlantic Railway. 144 M. 
Clarerhce; 149 M. Bridgetown (p. 75)^ 163 M. Upper Oranville; 
159 M. Oranville Centre; 163 M. Oranville Ferry, opposite Anna- 
polls (p. 75) J 168 M. Karsdale, named in honour of the heroie 
defence of Kars In 1855 by Sir WUliamFen\Dick WiUiams (1800-83), 
a native of Annapolis. 

176 M. Victoria Beach (p. 76) is a rising watering-place on the 
E. Bide of Dighy Gut (p. 76). 

c. Vi& Koncton. 

275 H. Intercolonial Railtoay in 9-12 hrs. (fare $6; parlor -car $1, 
sleeper $2). By this route travellers can pass between Halifax and St. 
John by land, without change. 

The places passed on this route have been already described. 
From Halifax to (186 M.) Moncton, see pp. 83-87 ; fromMoncton to 
(275 M.) St. John, see p. 48. 



21. From Halifax to Tarmouth. 

a. By Halifax and South Western Bailway. 
247 M. Halifax £ South Western Railwat. This new line was 
not yet open for through-trains when the Handbook went to press, but 
trains were running between Baiifax and Liverpool (p. 79) and between 
Barrington (p. 80) and Yarmouth (p. 80). The through-fare will be about 
$6, while the time taken will be about 7 hrs. 

Halifax^ see R. 18. On leaving tlie city the railway diverges to 
the left from the Intercolonial Line to Moncton (R. 24) and the 
Dominion Atlantic Railway to Digby (R. 20a), at the point where 
the Narrows broaden into Bedford Basin, and runs toward the S.W. 
To the left are seen the dome of the exhibition building, the citadel, 
and the N.W. Arm. The line at first traverses a rough country, 
necessitating many heavy stone cuttings, past numerous lakes 
(left) from which Halifax receives its excellent water-supply, and 
at (20 M.) French Village reaches the beautiful 8t, Margarets Bay. 
It skirts the shore of the bay, affording fine views to the left and 
passing (24 M.) St. Margaret's Bay Station and (29 M.) Ingram 
Port. Beyond (35 M.) Huibbards (Gainsborough , well spoken of, 
$1^2; Somerset, $1V2)> * delightful summer-resort, the railway 
leaves St. Margaret's Bay and proceeds through a wooded district 
to (42 V2 M.) East River ^ on the E. shore of Mahone Bay, At (48 M.) 
E(ut Chester the isles of Chester Basin begin to appear, said to 
equal in number the days of the year. 

51 M. Chester (Hackmatack Inn^ $81/2; Lovett Ho., $2) is 
prettily situated on a hill, overlooking Mahone Bay, and is a 
fashionable Nova Scotian summer-resort on account of its scenery, 
boating, bathing, and fishing (sea and fresh water). The village 
was founded by New Englanders in 1760 and now contains about 
1800 inhabitants. Mt, Aspotogan (500 ft.) is a fine view-point. — 
About 4 M. to the S.W. is Oak Island, firmly believed by many to 
be the repository of Capt. Kidd's Treasure. Various companies have 
been formed to dig for the gold. 

The line continues to encircle the shore, passing (56^/4 M.) 
ChesUr Basin (Bay View, $ 1), until at (60 M.) Western Shore we 
get a view of Chester to the left, directly across the beautiful bay. — 
70 M. Mahone or Mahone Bay (Royal, $ IV2J Aberdeen, $ 1) is a 
small town charmingly situated at the W. end of Mahone Bay. 

Fbom Mahone to Lunenbubo, 7 M., branch- railway in 1/2 hr. — Lunen- 
burg (King's Hotel, 32j U.S. Aeent, i£r. D. M. Owen), a prosperous seaport 
on Lunenburg Bay, with (1901) 2196 inhab., was settled in 1753 by German 
immigrants (comp. p. 52), and still largely retains its German character. 
It has a good harbour, shipbuilding yards, and a large fisbing-fl€et, and 
exports large quantities of fish. Comp. ^History of the County of Lunen- 
burg', by M. B. Det BrUaj/ (2nd ed., 1895). — On the S. side Luncn- 

SHELBURNE. 21. Route. 79 

buii; Bay is bounded. by the Ovens Peninsula^ so called from the curioug 
cayerns which penetrate tbe clifif for hundreds of feet. A considerabls 
quantity of gold was formerly found on this peninsula, but little minine 
is now done. 

From Mahone the railway makes a loop to the N. to — 

81 M. Bridgewater (Fairview, $2j Rail, Restaurant; U. S. Agent, 
Mr, W. H, Owen), situated on both banks of the La Have River, a 
thriving port of (1901) 3000 inhab., with a lumber-trade and various 
manufactures. It is the headquarters of fhe'Halifax ^ South Western 
Railway (p. 78). The excellent supplies of water and electric light 
are furnished by the town-government. Good trout-fishing is to be 
had in the neighbourhood. 

From Bridgewater to MiddieUm and Yidoria Beach^ see B. 20b. 

Small local steamers ply on the La Have River between Bridgewater 
and Riverport and La Have Island, 

Leaving Bridgewater station, the train crosses the picturesque 
La Have River just above the town and ascends from the valley 
between hill-tops crowned with homesteads. 89 M. ConqueraU is 
the station for a place of that name several miles distant on the La 
Have. 99 M. County Line marks the boundary between Lunenburg 
aiid Queen's counties. 103 M. Medway (Revere, $1V2)» ^ M. from 
the station, is a prosperous flshing-town on a bay which juts in from 
the Atlantic. Beyond (110 M.) Brooklyn the train skirts Liverpool 
Bay and reaches — 

112 M. Liverpool (Mersey, $ 2; U. S. Agent, Mr. J, M. Mack), 
a small seaport on the Mersey, with (1901) 1937 inhab., a trade in 
lumber and fish, ship-building yards, and several manufactories. 
It is pleasantly situated on a spacious harbour, with numerous fine 
old residences that give the place an air of distinction. 

The inland portion of the E. half of the peninsula of Kova Scotia is 
thickly studded with lakes, the largest of which is Lake Rostignol (12 M. 
by 8M.), about 20 M. from Liverpool. These lakes, with their connecting 
streams, afford excellent fishing, and are easily explored, with competent 
guides, in canoes or flat-bottomed boats. They may also be approached 
£rom Annapolis (p. 76) or from some of the intermediate stations on the 
Ifiddleton section of the Halifax & South Western Railway (p. 78). An arm 
of Lake Rossignol is bordered by the beautiful *Indicm Gardens, a natural 
park fuU of English oaks. 

Beyond Liverpool the railway proceeds in the same general S.W. 
direction. 124 M. Port Mouton, on Port Mouton Bay, which was 
visited by De Monts in 1604 and named to commemorate the loss of 
one of his scanty supply of sheep. — From (151 M.) Fronde's Point 
a small steamer plies to Lockeport, a flshlng-centre with a superb 
beach. The line now turns to the N., and beyond (157 M.) Oreen 
Harbour bends to the N.W. 

163 M. Shelbnme (Atlantic Ho., $2; U. S. Agent, Mr, Edward 
M, Bill), a small fishing and ship-building port, with (1901) 1445 
inhab., lies at the head of a safe and beautiful harbour. About 1785 
its population rose to 12,000, through the immigration of United 
Empire liOyalists, and for a brief space it seemed as if Shelbunie 

80 Route 21. YARMOUTH. From Halifax 

. were going to outstrip Halifax. Beyond Shelburne the line again 
trends to the S.W. 188 M. Port Clyde (McKay*s Hotel). 

196 M. Barrinifton (Scotia, Christie; U. S. Agent, Mr, T, W. 
Robertson) lies at the head of Barrington Bay, with (1901). 784 in- 
hab. and considerable fisheries. — 199 M. Barrington Pcusage, 

From Barrington Passive a steam-ferry plies to Clark"* Harbour (p. 81) 
and other points on Cape Bable Island. 

Beyond Barrington Passage the railway (formerly the Coastal 
Railwayof Nova Scotia) turns to the N.W. 207 M. Wood^s Harbour; 
218 M. East Pubnico, — 220 M. Pubnico (various small inns, $ 1), 
on Pubnico Harbour (j^. 82), a sporting-resort, was founded about 1650 
by the Baron Pobomcoup, whose name it represents in a corrupted 
form, — 224 M. Lower ArgyU; 226 M. Central Argyle; 230 M. Argyle 
(Frost's Hotel), a good centre for shooting (blue-winged duck, etc.) 
and fishing. Fine view to the left of *Tusket Bay, with its innumer- 
able islands. 236 M. Belleville, a French Acadian settlement ; 239 M. 
2V4«fce* (American House, $1V2; Village Ho., $1), the station for 
Tusket River and Lakes (excellent fishing for salmon, trout, and ale- 
wives; comp. p. 82); 241 M. Pleasant Lake-, 245 M. Arcadia. 

248 M. Yarmouth (Orand Hotel, well spoken of, with a fine 
view of the town, harbour, and environs, $ 2^2*3 Vsj (?Mc«n, $ 1V2-3 ; 
U. S. Consul, Mr. E, A, Creevey), a prosperous seaport with (1901) 
6430 inhab., ship-building yards, manufactures of woollen cloth, 
cotton duck, and sail-cloth, and a large trade in fish, lies at the 
head of a small harbour near the S. extremity of Nova Scotia. It 
claims to be the most active maritime place of its size in the world, 
ranking fourth (after Montreal, St. John, and Windsor) among the 
ship-owning cities of Canada. It is frequented by a considerable 
number of summer-visitors, and is noted for its beautiful hedges. 
There is a service of electric cars, extending to MUton, Battery 
Point, and other neighbouring resorts. The favourite short excur- 
sion is by steam-launch to the prettily laid out Bay View Park 
(restaurant), with its charming views. At the entrance to Yarmouth 
Harbour, behind Cape Fourchu (p. 82), lies MarfctoruZ (Markland 
Hoteli 180 ft. above the sea, $1V2)» reached by steamer from Yar- 
mouth in i/2 hr. and affording good bathing and deep-sea fishing. 

From Yarmouth to Boston, see B. 7b; to Eali/ax and intermediate ports 
by sea see B. 21 b. Steamers also ply from Yarmouth to St. John (B. 10) 
and other ports. — Coaches ply to several places not accessible by railway 
or steamer. Excursions may be mad^ to the Tusket District (p. 82), Port 
Maitkmd, and other points. 

b. By Steamer. 
The steamer ''Senlac\ owned by Wm. Thomson tt Co. of St. John, leave 
Halifax every Hon. at 6 p.m. for Yarmouth (fare $ 6), calling at various in- 
termediate points and leaving Yarmouth for 8t. John (through -fare $6; 
return-fare $ 10.50) on Wed. morning. The steamer *Bridgcwater' of the 
Coastal Packet Co. plies twice weekly to Bridgewaier ($ 2). The above fares 
do not include meals. The E. coast of Nova Scotia, which these steamers 
skirt, is indented by numerous bays and fringed with thousands of rocks 

•>^d islets. Digitized by Google 

to Yarmouth. BARRINGTON BAY. 21. Route. 81 

Halifax^ see R. 18. The steamer descends the harbour, passing 
George^s Island (p. 56) and Macndb's Island (p. 66). At Herring Cove 
(r.) is a cairn commemorating Oeorge Brown, the oarsman, a native 
of the place. We then round Chebucto Head and Cape Samhro, and 
steer towards the W, Numerous shipwrecks have occurred here. To 
the right, farther on, opens the wide St. Margaret's Bay (p. 78). 
Straight ahead of us is the large Mahone Bay (p. 78), with the 
towns of Chester (p. 78) and Mahone (p. 78), at which some of the 
smaller steamers call. 

The course of the Bridgewater boat is laid for Cross Island Light, 
to the S. of Mahone Bay, passing which (left) we enter Lunenburg 
Bay (p. 78). 

45 M. LunenboTgy see p. 78. 

The Bridgewater steamer now rounds OvemHead, steers between 
Bote Head (r.) and Cross Island, passes Point EnragS, and runs 
between Calf Point (r.) and Ironhound Island (1.) with its light- 
house. It then ascends the long, narrow estuary of the *La Have 
Biver to — 

67 M. Bridgewater (see p. 79). 

Rounding Cape La Have, on an island off the mouth of the river, 
the steamer steers to the S»W., passing near Port Medway, Farther 
on, Coffin Island, with its lighthouse, marks the entrance to Liverpool 
Bay, near the head of which, on the river Mersey, lies — 
105 M. Liyerpool (see p. 79). 

The next bay of any size beyond Liverpool Bay is Port Mouton 
(see p. 79). Farther on are Ldtth Hope Island (revolving red light), 
Port Joli, Lockeport (see p. 79), Carter^ s Island (red light) , and 
ChiU Bock Ledge (white light). We then cross the wide estuaries of 
Oreen Harbour and Jordan Biver, pass Bony's Point and Qovemment 
Point, and begin to ascend the sheltered Shelbume Harbour, leaving 
McNutfs Island^ with its two fixed Vhite lights, to the left. 
145 M. Shelbume, see p. 79. 

In leaving Shelburne Harbour the steamer rounds Cape Boseway, 
the S. extremity of McNutt's Island. Farther on we pass Negro 
Island (red and white flashing light), off the mouth of the Clyde; 
Blanche Island} and Port Latour, with some relics of the fort of the 
Sieur de la Tour. Beyond Baccaro Point (red light) we turn to the 
right and ascend Barrington Bay. To the left lies the sandy Cape 
Sable Island, supposed by some to be the ^Markland^ on which Leif 
Ericson landed in 994. The Acadian settlement which afterwards 
occupied the island was broken up in 1758, and about 25 years later 
Tvas replaced by New England Loyalists. There is a summer-hotel 
($ 1 1/2) at Clark's Harbour, a village on the island. Cape Sable itself, 
tlie scene of many shipwrecks, is an islet to the S. of the larger island. 
173 M. Barrington, see p. 80. 

The steamer leaves the open sea, and steers towards the N.W. 
To the left, at some distance, lies Seal Island, the 'Elbow of the 
Bakdkkxb'8 Canada. 3rd Edit. 6 ^ ^ 

82 Route 22, WEYMOUTH. 

Bay of Fundy', with its fixed wMte light. To the N. open Pubnico 
and Abv^tic Harbour$, 

"We now cross the estuary of the Tuiket Biver and thread the 
singular and beautiful archipelago of the *Tu8ket Islands, A little 
later the steamer passes Jebogue or Chebogue Point and enters Yar- 
mouth Sound. To the left is Cape Fourchu, with its powerful light. 

218 M. Yarmouth f see p. 80. 

22. From Digby to Taxmouth. 

67 M. Dominion Atlanxic Bailwat in 2V4-5 lirs. (fare $2; parlor- 
car 45 c.). Through-train from Halifax to (217 M.) Yarmouth in 7-9 hrs. 
(fare $65 parlor-car $1.25). Comp. p. 71. 

Digby, see p. 76. Beyond Digby the train crosses the isthmus 
between Annapolis Basin and *8t. Mary's Bay and then skirts the 
shore of the latter (views to the right). Across the bay are the 
hills of Digby Neck, a long narrow peninsula forming the S. pro- 
longation of North Mt. (p. 75) and itself prolonged by Long Island 
and Brier Island. — 22 M. Weymouth (Weymouth Ho., Goodwin's, 
$11/2; 685 inhab.), settled by Loyalists and the most important 
place between Digby and Yarmouth, is a good starting-point for 
St. Mary's Bay (see above) and the Tusket fishing-region (see above). 
The line bends inland and follows the Sissibou River (falls, near 
Weymouth) to 8t, Bernard's y regaining the shore of the bay at 
(24 M.) BeUiveau, 

The district of Clare, through which the railway now runs, is 
peopled by returned Acadian exiles, who have preserved their French 
characteristics almost unimpaired. They are settled chiefly along 
the beautiful St. Mary's Bay (see above), of which glimpses may 
be had to the right. The train passes several small stations and 
beyond (37 M.) Meteghan (1214 inhab. ; 5 M. from the railway) turns 
inland, running first to the S. E. and then to the S. Several other 
insignificant stations are passed in the region of lake and forest 
between this point and Yarmouth. 

67 M. Yarmouth, see p. 80. 

23. From Windsor to Truro. 

58 M. Midland Extension of Douinion Atlantic Bailwat in 2-4 hrs. 
(fare $ 1.75). This railway is of some importance as forming the central 
section of a trunk-line from Yarmouth to (444 M.) Sydney (no through-trains). 

Windsor, see p. 71. Leaving Windsor the train diverges to the 
left from the Dominion Atlantic line to Halifax, and follows the 
8t, Croix River (left), with wharves for shipping to New York the 
plaster produced in the Wentworth Quarries (to the right). We cross 
the river near (6 M.) Brooklyn (Gibson's), beyond which the line 
bends somewhat to the N. Farther on it crosses the Hebert Biver, a 
small tributary of the St. Oroix. From (10 M.) ScotHsh ViUage (Mrs. 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

BEDFORD. 24. Route. 83 

Nelson's), 1 M. from tlie station, a daily stage inns to (15 MJjWaltonf 
an attractive place on the Basin of Minas (p. 72). 

Beyond (12 M.) MosherviUe the railway enters the valley of the 
Kennetcodk River, which it ascends for nearly 25 M. 19 M. Cla'/ksvilU 
(Mrs. Clark's), with a productive antimony-mfne, is the station for 
(3 M.). West Qore and (8 M.) Upper Rawdon. As the train proceeds 
np the valley it crosses and recrosses the river hefore reaching 
(26i/2 M.) Ker^netcooJc (Barrow*s, Singer's). Here connection may 
be made by carriage with (8 M.) Noel and (15 M.) Tenrucape Mines, 
on Gobeqnid Bay. The Minas and Cobeqnid shore thus made acces- 
sible is a pleasant one for the tonrist to visit. Manganese-mines 
and gypsnm-qnarries are found there, and borings have also been 
made for oil. 

At (30 M.) Patterson (Mrs. O'Brien's), a farming community, the 
train leaves the Eennetcook River (here insignificant). Beyond 
(36 M.) Burton's we cross the Five Mile River, which flows into the 
Shubenacadle. — From (40 M.) South Maitland (Midland House) 
a stage runs to (5 M.) Maitland (Commercial ; Mrs. Dart's), formerly 
a large ship-building port, whence a steamer rnns fortnightly to 
Parrsboro (p. 74). The (8 M.) Noel Shore (comp. above) may be 
reached by the same stage. — Between South Maitland and (42 M.) 
Cheen Oaks the train crosses the Shubenacadie River by a costly steel 
bridge, having five spans and a draw, which proved very difficult to 
build owing to the height and strength of the tide. Beyond (46 M.) 
PtineeportRoad (2 M. from Princeport) the train approaches Cobequid 
Bay, and after leaving (51 M.) Clifton it affords excellent views of 
the bay, and the Cobequid Mts. on the opposite shore. At (63 M.) 
McNutts Creek we reach the Salmon River (left), the bank of which 
we follow to — 

68 M. Truro (see p. 84). 

24. From Halifax to Quebec (Livis) by Railway. 

674 M. Imtbboolonxai. Railwat in 19V3-21V2 brs. (fare $14.86; sleeper 
$ 4). [From Halifax to (837 M.) Montreal in 24-27 hrs. ($ 18.45; sleeper $ 4).] 
This railway, owned and managed by the Dominion Government, gives access 
to the summer-resorts of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, 
and to many of the famous fishing-rivers of New Brunswick, traverses the 
picturesque valley of the Matapedia, and skirts the S. shore of the St. Lawrence. 
It connects at different points with steamers to the Gasp^ Peninsula and to 
Prince Edward Island. The railway uses the 24- hour system of time 
nutation {p. 236), and its trains run on E. Standard Time between Montreal 
and Campbellton (N. B.) and on Atlantic Standard Time (1 hr. earlier) in 
the Maritime Provinces (p. xii). 

Halifax, see p. 60. Beyond (4 M.) Rockingham (hotel), with 
a laige convent-school for girls, the train skirts the shore of the 
beautifnl Bedford Basin (views to the right). — 9M. Bedford (Bed- 
ford, Bellevue, $lV2-^)i at the head of Bedford Basin (p. 68), is a 


84 Route 24, TRURO. From Halifax 

favourite summei-resbrt of the Haligonians. — We cross Rocky 
Lake. To the right diverges the short hranch-line to (13 M.) Dart- 
mouth (p. 58). At (14 M.) Windsor Junction the Dominion Atlantic 
Railway diverges to the left (see R. 20a). We next pass Long Lake, 
on our right. A little farther on, at (23 M.) Grand Lake Station^ the 
lake, well stocked with whiteflsh, lies to the left. Near (28 M.) 
Enfield are the Oldham and the Renfrew Gold MineSj both profitably 
worked. — For some distance before reaching (40 M.) Shubenacadie 
(accent on ante-pennultimate) we have on our right the river of 
that name and we cross it just beyond the town. Stages run hence 
to (18 M.) Maitland (p. 83). — The line proceeds to the N.E. and 
N. through a district of no great interest. 45 M. Stewiacke, on the 
Stewiacke River; 54 M. Brookfield. 

62 M. Tniro(55ft.; ^Stanley Ho,y Learmont, OranvUle, $2; 
Victoria, $172} Rail. Restaurant), a town of (1901) 5993 inhab., 
with manufactures of hats, hardware, iron and steel castings, machin- 
ery, saddlery, boots and shoes, woollen goods, and condensed milk, is 
also the centre of a large agricultural district and a railway-junction 
of some importance (comp. RR. 19a, 23). It is situated on the Salmon 
River, about 2 M. from thQ head of Cobequid Bay, the easternmost 
arm of the Bay of Fundy, and was founded in 1761 as a colony of 
Scoto-Irish settlers from New Hampshire. The streets are well laid 
out and shaded with fine trees ; and altogether the little town makes 
a very pleasant and friendly impression. Among the chief buildings 
are the Po$t Office; the Normal School (about 200 students), with a 
statue of Dr. Forester, its former principal and a prominent edu- 
cator, in front of it; and the Truro Academy, A good view of the 
town and neighbourhood is obtained from the roof of the Exhibition 
Building, The * Victoria or Joseph Howe Park (reached by crossing 
the overhead bridge at the railway-station), in a beautiftil little 
wooded glen. Is one of the most attractive municipal pleasure-grounds 
in America. About 1 M. up the stream are the picturesque little 
*Joe Howe Falls, 

The Salmon Biver, where it enters the bay, 2 M. from the city, is 
spanned by ihe Board-landing Bridge, a good point to view the tidal phenom- 
ena of the Bay of Fundy (p. 76). About 10 M. down the bay lie Savaffe^s 
Island (with an old Acadian and Indian burial-ground) and Old Bams, the 
site of an Acadian settlement. — Penny* s Mt., SVs H. to the N.E. , com- 
mands a delightful *View, including the Cobequid Mts. (p. 86) and North 
Mt. (p. 75), with Cape Blomidon. — The streams near Truro afiford some 
fair fishing. Moose occur in the Stemacke Mts,, about 12-15 M. to the E. 
(Indian guides obtainable at Truro). Partridge, snipe, and wild-fowl are 

From Truro to Stellarton (Pictou) and Cape Breton, see B. 19a; to Windsor, 
see B. 23. 

Beyond Truro we obtain views of Cobequid Bay before reaching 
(73 M.) Debert, — From (79 M.) Londonderry (320 ft) a branch- 
line runs to (3 M.) the important Acadia Iron Works, The London- 
derry mines produce both Limonite and Spathic ores, which are 
smelted together and produce a good quality of pig-iron. — We 

to Qutbec. AMHERST. 24, Route. 85 

cross FoUeigh Valley by a viaduct, 600 ft. long and 82 ft. high, and 
ascend the Cohequid Hills (400-1000 ft.), which run E. and W. 
through this part of the peninsula for about 100 M. Passing FoUeigh 
Lake (610 ft.), the highest point of this part of the line, we descend 
to (91 M.) Wentworth, We enjoy a charming view of the ♦ Wentworth 
Valley i below us, to the right, before reaching (96 M.) Westchester, 
Leaving the Gobequid Hills behind us, we now traverse a thickly- 
wooded district to (108 M.) Oxford Junctiont the starting-point of 
the Oxford ^ Pictou Branch of the railway (see below). 

The chief stations on this branch are (8 M.) Oxford (Oxford Ho.), with 
woollen mills} 16 M. Pugwcuh Junction, for a side-line to (6 M.) Pugwcuh 
(Central, $ IVa; Acadia, Minto, $ IV^i Oer. Oonsnlar Agent), a seaport and 
watering-place on Northnmberland Strait (p. 98), almost destroyed by fire 
in 18985 23 M. TToltoce (Wallace Ho. i Hillside, 311/4)5 35 M. Tatamagouehe 
(Stirling Ho.. $ iV4)i on a beautiful bay, well seen from the railway, with 
oyster-beds, boating, and fishing; 47 M. Biver John (Riverside), yet another 
popular little summer-resort 5 and (67 M.) Brown"* Pointy the junction of 
the short branch-line firom Pictou to Stellarton. — 60 M. Pietou is described 
at p. 60. 

The next stations on the I.C.R. are (111 M.) River Philip, 
(115 M.) SaU Springs, and (121 M.) i^inghill, the last the junction 
of the Oimberland Railway to (32 M.) Parrshoro (see below). 

Pamboro (Orand Central, $lV4i Queen^s, $ l-iVii Evangeline^ $ IVti 
these three indifferent \ Brodrick^s, $ 11/21 at Parrsboro Pier, about 1 M. from 
the town, well spoken of ^ IT. 8. Com. Agent), a small lumber and coal- 
trading port on the Basin 0/ Minus, with (1901) 2705 inhab., is frequented 
as a summer-resort, for its fishing, shooting, and other attractions. Some 
of the best caribou and moose shooting in Kova Scotia is within reach 
of Parrsboro, and bears are also occasionally seen. The harbour is shel- 
tered by Partridge Island (fine views). Pleasant walks or drives (good 
roads) may be taken to the Moose River Falls, Cascade Valley, the Five 
Islands, Advocate Harbour (coach), Cape d^Or, and other points. The geol- 
ogist will find much to interest him in the coast. Steamers ply from 
Parrsboro to Kingsport (p. 74). Cape Blomidon (p. 74) is* about 8 M. distant. 

The Springhill Coal Mines, about 5 M. f^om Springhill Junction, on 
the railway to Parrsboro, have an annual output of about 600,000 tons. In 
1894 a monument was erected at the adjoining town of Springhill (Royal 
Hotel) to commemorate 125 miners killed by an explosion in 1891. 

The next stations on the main line are(127M.) Atftoi and (130 M.) 
Maccan, From the latter, which is situated amid coal-fields, a short 
branch-railway runs to (12 M.) Joggins, another coal-mining place. 

The Jogglna Shore, extending along Chigneeto Bay, has fine cliffs, 100- 
400 ft. high, and exhibits wonderful petrified forests and sections of car- 
boniferous strata, which have been visited and described by Sir Ghas. 
Lyell, Sir William Dawson, and Sir W. E. Logan. 

The railway now proceeds to (134 M.) Nappan, the seat of a 
Government experimental farm, and runs towards the N. 

138M. Amherst (55 ft. ; TerraceHo,, $2; Amherst Ho., fiy 2-"^), 
one of the most progressive and important towns of Nova Scotia 
with (1901) 4964 inhab., lies not far from the head of Cumberland 
Basin, an arm of the Bay of Fundy, It contains many substantial 
buildings and carries on a brisk trade in lumber and in the produce 
of the fertile marshes all round it. It is likewise a flourishing nwiui- 

86 Route 24. SACKVILLE. From Halifax 

facturing town, possessing car-works, engine and machine works, 
a boot and shoe factory, and other industries. Pleasant drives may 
be taken to (17 M.) Tidnish, a summer-resort on Northumberland 
Strait where boating and. deep-sea fishing may be enjoyed, to Baie 
Verte, to Fort Beausijour (see below), etc. 

Near (141 M.") Fort Lawrence Station was the W. terminus of 
the proposed Chignecto Ship Railway (see below). 

The object of this railway was to save ships the long detour necessary 
in going from the Bay of Fundy to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It was in- 
tended to lift ships of 1000 tons* burden on to a huge ship-carriage by 
powerful hydraulic presses and then haul them across the isthmus by loco- 
motives. After absorbing large sums of money, the scheme has been 
abandoned. The works are most conveniently «visited by carriage from 
Amherst (p. 85). 

We now cross the Missiguash (see below) and enter New Brun- 
swick (p. 36). We see the remains oiFort Beatuejour (see below), 
on the right, before crossing the Aulac and reaching (144 M.) the 
town of Aulac. No vestiges of Fort Lawrence (see below) remain. 
The Chignecto Peninsula, which we are now crossing, connects Nova 
Scotia (Acadia) with New Brunswick and was the scene of some of 
the last struggles between the French and British nation alities in 
Canada (1755). 

The French insisted that ^Aeadia\ which they had ceded to Great 
Britain, comprised only the peninsular portion of the Maritime Provinces 
and that the Missiguash (see above) was the boundary between the French 
and British possessions. The strong Fort Beausijour was built to the N. 
of that river, to defend the frontier. The warrior-priest Le Loutre made 
this his headquarters and was indefatigable in his exertions to persuade 
or force the Acadians of the isthmus to renounce their British allegiance. 
The British built Fort Lawrence^ on the other side of the Missiguash. 
In 1755 Gol. Monckton succeeded in capturing Fort Beaus^jour, the name 
of which was changed to Fort Cumberland; and it was afterwards allowed 
to fall into decay. 

Beyond Aulac the I.C.B. traverses the famous Taniramar or 
Tintamarre Marshes , containing about 40 sq. M. of exuberantly 
fertile salt-meadows, reclaimed, like the polders of Holland , from 
the sea by dykes. Through the midst of the marshes , which bear 
splendid crops of hay, runs the Tantramar River, the appearance of 
which varies greatly at low and high tide. — 148 M. SaekviUe (Brun- 
swick, $172-2), a small ship-building town with about ISOOinhab., 
is the junction of a railway to Cape Tormentine (see below). It is 
the seat of Mt. Allison CoUege, a Methodist institution with 125 
students, and exports cattle and hay to England. 

The New Bsunswick & Pbincb Edwabd Island Bailwat, running from 
Sackville to (36 M.) Cape Tormentine^ is of importance as the winter mail 
route to Prince Edward Island. The steamers to Summerside and Ohar- 
lottetown (see p. 97) have to cease running in winter on account of the 
ice, and their place is taken by the *Minto' and 'Stanley", two strong iron 
boats specially built for forcing their way through the floating ice, which 
ply from Pictou to Gharlottetown and Georgetown (comp. p. 97). Oc- 
casionally during the winter even these steamers are unable to make their 
regular trips, and recourse is then had to strongly-built row-boats with 
two keels (like the runners of a sleigh), which are propelled through the 


to Quebec. MONCTON. 24. Route. 87 

water or over the ice as occasion demands ; and these follow the shortest 
route hetween the mainland and the island (from Gape Tormentine to Cape 
Traverse, 10 M.). 

The railway now runs athwart the peninsula between Cumber- 
land Basin and Shepody Bay. — 160 M. Dorchester (Windsor Ho., 
$ IV2-3), a small port at the junction of the Memramcook with the 
Petitcodiac, with about 1260 inhab., exports grey sandstone from 
the neighbouring quarries. The prominent stone building on the 
hills aboye the town Is the Penitentiary of the Maritime Provinces. - — 
The railway now turns to the N. and runs through the valley of the 
Memramcook, passing (165 M.) CoUege Bridge, the station for 
St. Joseph's College (R. C), and (167 M.) Memramcook^ a flourishing 
Tillage, the centre of a farming district peopled by Acadian French. 
At (179 M.) Painsec Junction diverges a branch-line to (11 M.) 
Point du Chtru, one of the chief starting-points for Prince Edward 
Island (com p. p. 97). 

On this branch lies (9 M.) Shediao {Weldon, $11/^, a small bathing- 
resort on Shedicte Bay, famous for its oysters and its fine sandy beach. 
Anglers may catch brook-trout, sea-trout, bass, and mackerel. — 11 M. 
Point du CMne (Point du Chgne Ho., $ li/s) is a small village on a sandy 
point, with long piers running out into deep water. Steamer hence to 
Summertide, P. £. I., see p. 97. 

186M. Moxiotoii(40ft.; Brurmpfcjk, $2-272; lfm<o, from $2} 
American, from $2; Rail. Restaurant; U. S. Consul, Mr. 0. Beutel- 
spacher^j the second city in New Brunswick, with (1901) 9026 inhab. , 
has manufactures of iron castings, machinery, locomotives, leather, 
cotton, wooden waies, woollen goods, and flour, lies at the head of 
navigation of the Petitcodide River, and is a railway-centre of con- 
siderable importance. It is the headquarters of the Intercolonial 
Railway, whose plain but substantial General Offices are, perhaps, 
the most noteworthy building of the enterprising little city. There 
are also some solid stone business-blocks and good churches. The 
Petitcodiac flows into the Bay of Fundy (p. 76), and the tide ascend- 
ing its estuary comes in the form of a *bore' or tidal wave 4-6 ft. 
high. The difference between extreme high, and* extreme low, 
tide at Moncton is 30 ft. A small steamer occasionally sails down 
tbe river to- the Bay of Fundy, stopping at Hillsboro (p. 48). — 
Pleasant drives may be taken to (17 M.) Shediac (see above), and 
to (24'M.) Hopewell Cape, with its remarkable rocks of red sandstone, 
sculptured into fantastic shapes by the powerful tides. 

F20M MoMCTON TO BncToncHE, 32 H., Moncton & Buctouche Railway in 
2 hrs. (fare 96 c, second class 65 c). — This railway runs towards the N. 
The intermediate stations are unimportant. Buctouche, an Acadian ship- 
building village of 5(X) inhab., at the mouth of the Buctouche River, attracts 
a few summer-visitors. 

At Moncton the Intercolonial Railway forks, the main line going 
on to Quebec and Montreal, while the line to St. John (see R. 17) 
diverges to the left. 

From Moncton the line at first runs for a short distance towards 
the N.W. and beyond (194 M.) Berry's Mills turns *0(*^f)SvTle'^* 

88 Route 24. NEWCASTLE. From Halifax 

(205 M.) Canaan we cross the river of that name. 214 M. Coal 
Branch; 2i7M,Adam8viUe; 223 M. Harcourt, the station foTWeld- 
ford. — From (232 M.) Kent Junction (Walsh Ho., $1) the Kent 
Northern Railway runs to (27 M.) Richihucto (fare $1) and (34 M.) 
8t, Louis (fare $1.25; see helow). 

Bichibncto (Kent^ $ 11/2; U. S. Com. Agent) is a town of (1901) 3879 inhab., 
at the month of the river of the same name, with ship-yards and a trade 
in timber. It is also frequented to some extent for sea-bathing. — 8t. Louis 
is a typical Acadian settlement, with a fine church, a convent, and a sacred 
well to which pilgrimages are made for the healing of ailments. 

The district now traversed is scantily se tied and of little in- 
terest. — At (258 M.) Chatham Junction we intersect the line from 
Chatham to Fredericton (p. 89). From (260 M.) Derby Junction a 
branch-line runs along the bank of the S. W. Miramichi to (14 M.) 
Indiantown. To the right lies Beaubair Island (see below). The 
train now crosses the arms of the Miramichi (see below), just below 
their confluence, by two bridges, each 1200 ft. long. 

264 M. Newcastle or Miramichi (130 ft. ; Miramichi, $ 2-21/2} 
Waverley, $ lV2~^j ^' '^' (^om. Agent), a ship-building and timber- 
trading town of (1901) 4130 inhab., is situated on the left bank of 
the Miramichi, at the head of deep-water navigation. It is also the 
centre of a fishing and hunting district. — On the opposite (S.) 
shore, 6 M. lower down and reached either by steamer or railway 
(see p. 89), lies Chatham (Adams Ho., $lV2-2; Bowsers, $1V2) 
Fr, Cons. Agent ; Qer. Consul), the chief place on the Gulf coast of 
New Brunswick, with an excellent harbour, ship-yards, pulp-mills, 
foundries, and a large lumber-trade. Like Newcastle, it is a famous 
resort for sportsmen. Pop. (1901) 6624. The most conspicuous build- 
ings are the Roman Catholic Cathedral, the College of St. Michael, 
the Convent, and the Hospital (all of wood). 

The Miramichi (a corruption of an Indian name of unknown meaning; 
accent on the last syllable), on the estuary of which these towns lie, is 
second to the Bestigouche alone am9ng the salmon-rivers of New Brun- 
swick. It is formed by the junction, a little way above Newcastle (see 
above), of the Norlh-Wezt Miramichi and the South- West Miramichi ^ and 
each 01 these has an extensive network of tributaries, some of which over- 
lap the tributaries of the St. John. The best salmon-pools are on the 
S. W. Miramichi (which is really the main river) and its branches, but 
good fishing is obtained throughout the entire system. The district drained 
by the Miramichi is, perhaps, 6000 sq. M. in extent, and much of it is stiU 
almost unexplored. It is covered by forests, which harbour large quanti- 
ties of game and yield much valuable spoil to the lumberman. In 1826 
it was swept over by one of the largest forest-fires on record, which de- 
vastated 8,000.000 acres of wood, destroyed property to the value of 
$ 1,000,000, and caused the death of 160-200 persons. 

Miramichi Bap was visited by Jacques Cartier and is frequently men- 
tioned in the history of the French and English struggle for Canada. Beatir' 
bair Island (see above) was occupied by a French town , destroyed by 
the English in 1759. — Burnt Church, on the N. shore of the Bay, commem- 
orates in its name another act of destruction and is to-day one of the 
chief gathering-places of the Micmac Indians (p. 91). — A little to the 
N. of Burnt Church lies Tabusintac, at the mouth of a river that aflfords 
good sea-trout fishing. ^ 1 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

to Quebec BATHTTRST. 24. BouU, 89 

Fbom Chatham to Fbedericton, 120 M., Fredericton Section of the 
Intercolonial Railway in 5 hrs. (fare $8.60). — This line intersects the main 
line of the I.C.B. at (12 M.) Chatham Junction (p. 88) and ascends the 
valley of the 8. W. Miramiehi (p. 88), crossing fjrom the right to the 
left bank of the river at (32 M.) Blackville. At (56 M.) Doaktown it re- 
crosses the river. 68 M. Ludlow. Beyond (72 M.) Boiestown the railway 
turns to the left (8.) and leaves the Miramiehi. At (94 M.) Crost Creek it 
crosses the watershed to the valley of the Naehwaak^ along which stream 
it descends to (117 M.) Marysville, (119 M.) Gibson^ and (120 M.) FredericUm 
(p. 36), crossing the 8t. John by a fine steel bridge (p. 36), 2100 ft. long. — 
The actual £. terminus of this line is at LoggieviUe^ 5 M. &om Chatham. 

Between Newcastle and Gloucester Junction the railway tra- 
verses a thinly-peopled region, which offers many attractions to the 
sportsman in the shape of moose, caribou, bear, partridge, and trout. 
274M.BcavcrBfoofc, -2851^1. Bart%bogue{hiOii.)\ 1% "Hi. Red Fine, 

303 M. Gloucester Junction is the starting-point of a line run- 
ning to the E. to SMppegan (see below). 

Fbom Glouobstbr Junction to Shippbqan, 70 M., Caraquet A OvJf Bhore 
Railway, in 4 hrs. (fare $ 2.10). — The linepasses (5 M.) Bathurst (see below) 
and follows the coast of Bav Ghaleur (p. 90). The intermediate stations in- 
clude (25 M.) New Bandon^ (31 U.) Grand Anse^ and (50 M.) Caraquet iHotel, 
$2), a quaint Acadian settlement and important fishing-station. — From 
(62 M.) PokemoucJie Junction a branch-line runs to the S. to (U M.) Tracadie^ 
with a lazaretto for lepers maintained by the Canadian Government, and 
(18 M.) Traeadie Mills. — 70 M. Shippegan (Botel) has a fine harbour and 
important fisheries of herring, cod, and mackerel. It is one of the numerous 
places that have been mentioned as the American terminus of a new and 
short Atlantic service. 

Off the coast here lies Shippegan Island (comp. p. 90), which affords 
good wild-duck shooting in autumn. Still finer shooting (geese, ducks, 
plovers, etc.) is afforded by the island of Mscou (p. 90) , to the N. of it, 
which is reached by boat from Caraquet. 

From Gloucester Junction the railway continues through the 
big game and salmon-fishing region of the North Shore to — 

308 M.Bathurst (40ft i Sweeney Ho,, iiy 2-*^ yRobert$on%$ 1^2) 
White House, $1V2; U.S.Agent)^ a busy flshing-to^n and lumber- 
exporting centre with about 2500inhab., on a small peninsula pro- 
jecting into Bathur$t Harbour, which opens out of Nipisiguit Bay, it- 
self a recess of the Bay Ghaleur. It is also a growing summer-resort, 
with numerous cottages. The railway-station is about Y2 ^' ^^om the 
town. Four rivers flow Into Bathurst Harbour, one of which, the 
N^isiguit, affords the finest salmon-fishing in New Brunswick and 
Is famous among salmon-streams the world over (the fishing-privileges 
are leased, but are sub-let by the day, week, or month at reasonable 
rates). About 7 M. above Bathurst are the Pabineau Falls or Rapids, 
while 13 M. higher op the river forms the Grand Falls, consisting 
of four leaps with a total height of 140 ft. Another favourite point 
Is the Tite-h'Gauche, or Fairy River, with its small but picturesque 
falls (7 M.). 

Beyond Bathurst we cross the Tite-h-Gauche, and, farther on, 
the Nigadou. 320 M. Petite Roche. 337 M. Jacquet River (Bay View, 
$ 1) and (352 M.) Charlo (Bay Shore, $ 11/4) are angling-resorts. 
The railway now skirts the S. shore of the Bale des Ghaleurs (vLews 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

90 RouU2d, GASP£ PENINSULA. From Halifax 

to the right). 368 M. Eel River. Mt. Tracadiegash (p. 92) rises on 
the farther shore of the bay. 

362 M. Dalhdusie Junction is the diverging point of a short line 
to (7M.)I>aUiouBie(Afttfp?ii/£ro., $lV2-2)» a port of entry situated 
at the point where the estnary of the Restigouche merges in the Baie 
des Ghaleurs, and one of the most popular and attractive marine 
resorts in the Maritime Provinces. It also carries on a considerable 
trade in lumber, preserved salmon, and lobsters. Pop. (1901) 2183. 
The large and sheltered harbour offers safe facilities for boating, 
while smooth beaches and water of mild temperature invite the bather. 
Pleasant walks and drives may be taken amid the adjacent hills, 
and the fisherman will find no lack of opportunity to test his skill. 
MuDaXhousU (715 ft.), 2 M. from the town, is a good point of view. 

The Bestigoaehe Biver, at the mouth of which Dalhousie lies, claims 
to be the best salmon-fishing river in the world, and advances some 
strong evidence in favonr of this assertion. The largest salmon known 
to have been caught in it weighed 54 lbs., and the average weight is 
about 22 lbs. All the best reaches of the Restigouche itself and its numer- 
ous tributaries are leased to individuals and clubs (many American), 
and the total annual rental for fishing-purposes amounts to about $ i2,0(X) 
(2400<.). When the expenses of living, guides, canoes, keepers, and so 
on are added to this, it has been estimated that each salmon caught costs 
$ 25-36 (5-7/.). Among the chief tributary streams are the Malapedia (see 
p. 91), the UpscUquiteh (abounding in trout and salmon), the Patapeiia^ 
and the Quatawamkedgewick (usually known as the *Tom Kedgewick*). The 
headwaters of the Restigouche, which is 130 M. in length, are within 16 M. 
of the St. John River (between Edmundston and Grand Falls), and the latter 
can, indeed, be reached by canoe with a portage of oiUy 3 M. (comp. 
p. 41). The estuary of the river, extending from Dalhousie to Matapedia 
(p. 91), is very picturesque and measures 4 M. across its widest part. 
About 21/2 M. above Campbellton. on the (Quebec side of the river, is Point 
Bourdoy about 3 M. above whicti lay the French town of PeHt Roehelle^ 
destroyed by the British fleet under Commodore Byron in 1760. 

The Baie d^ Chalears, or Bay Chaleur, was so named by Jacaues 
Gartier, who discovered it in the hottest part of the year 1636. Its Inaian 
name is Eketuam Nemcutchi Csea offish^), a name which it amply justifies 
by the wealth of its fisheries (cod, herring, mackerel, tunny, etc.). The 
bay, which is 85 M. long and 16-25 M. wide , is said to be entirely free 
from shoal or reef dangerous to navigation. The entrance is partly pro- 
tected by the two large, low, wooded islands of Shippegan and Mitcou (see 
p. 89). The bay was the scene of the crime which forms the subject of 
Whittier's poem 'Skipper Ireson's Ride\ 

On the IT. the Baie des Chaleurs is bounded by the Peninsula of 
Oaspe, an elevated plateau (ca. 1500 ft.) forming the K.E. terminus of the 
Appalachian system of mountains. Above the general level stand out the 
Shickthoek MU.. running through the centre of the peninsula and attaining 
a height of 3500-3800 ft. The peninsula is thinly populated (ca. 20,000), 
the settlements being confined to the coast. Its industries are lumbering 
and fishing. Travellers who wish to see something of the peninsula may 

Eroceed by steamer (Quebec 8.S. Co.) from Quebec to Gasp^ (see p. 91} ^ 
ut those who object to this long voyage can visit the most interesting 
points from Campbellton (p. 91) via the steamer ^Lady Eileen*, sailing 
twice weeklv through the Baie des Chaleurs to Oaspi (176 M., in lo^/t hrs. ; 
return-fare $ 10, berth and meals included). 

The points called at include CaW«fon (p. 92) ^ Maria {p, 92); N»0 Bich- 
mond (44 M ; p. 92); Caplin: Bonaventure ; New Carlisle (78 M.; p. 92); 
Paspibiac (p. %'i)\Pori Daniel (102 M.), with a fine harbour; Newport; Pabot ; 
Or and River; and Barachoi* (lo2 M.). The steamer then rounds Cape Despair 

to Ouehec. OAMPBELLTON. 24. BouU. 91 

or Ccqf d*E»poir^ calls at Cape Cove^ and a few miles farther on passes 
between the lofty dlfifs (400-500 ft.) of Bonaventure Island, on the right, 
and the Perci Rock (L« Rocher Perei)^ on the left. The latter, a huge mass 
of red sandstone, 290 ft. high and 1500 ft. long, is one of the lions of the 
Gasp^ coast and derives its name from the arch or tunnel (ca. 50 ft. high) 
by which it is pierced. A second arch fell in some years ago. The top of 
the rock is occupied by swarms of sea-gulls and cormorants. The rock 
figures in a story by Sir Gilbert Parker, entitled ^The Gunner of Perc6 
Rock*. The steamer calls at the cod-fishing village of Perctf, behind 
which rises the conspicuous Mt. St. Anne (1230 ft.). It then crosses Mai 
Bay to Point St. Peter. This forms the 8. extremity of Oatp4 Bap. which 
we now ascend, with the dangerous beach of Orand Oreve to the rignt, and 
DougUutowh at the mouth of the St. John^ on tb e 1 eft. Cape Oasp4, 690 ft. high , 
is the ^. horn of the bay and the E. extremity of the peninsula. To the 
left, above Douglastown, opens the secure harbour of Oasp4 Baein. on which 
lies the destination of the steamer, Oaspe or Oaspi Basin (176 M. ; Baker 
So., $11/2-^9 U- ^' Oonsul, Mr. A. F. Dickson; Ft. Cons. Agent), a small 
port with about 1800 inhab., including York and Oatpd Sands, and important 
fisheries of salmon, mackerel, and cod. It is frequented in summer for the 
excellent angling in the York and Bartmouth rivers and the good boating 
in the Basin. Cartier landed here in 1534, taking possession of the country 
in the name of the King of France. In 1627 a French fleet under Adm. 
de Boquemont was destroyed in Gasp€ Basin by the Kirkes (p. 147). In 
1760 Gasp^ was captured by Commodore Byron. — From Gasp^ travellers 
may either return to Campbellton (see below) or go by steamer to Quebec 
(comp. p. 145). For the latter route, see pp. 166, 4. The island of Anticosii 
(p. 3) is about 40 M. from Gape Gasp^. 

From Dalhousie Junction the railway runs to the W. to (371 M.) 
Campbellton (Royalj Waverley, $lV2-2; U. S. Consul, Mr. J. S. 
Benedict), a town at the head of deep-watei navigation, with about 
4000 inhab., carrying on a trade in fish and lumber. It is visited 
to some extent as a summer-resort, for which its beautiful situation 
admirably fits it, but still lacks a flrst-class hotel. It is also a 
favourite starting-point for fishing, hunting, and canoeing trips. 
The time changes here from the Atlantic to the Eastern standard 
(see p. xii). The Sugcur Loaf (950 ft.), rising behind the town, 
commands a charming view. 

At Cross Point or Mission Pointy opposite Campbellton, on the N. bank 
of the Bestigouche, is one of the chief villages of the Micmac or Souriguois 
JndUmti with about 600 inhab., few of whom are of pure blood. The Hie- 
macs, a nomad tribe of Algonquin stock, are scattered throughout the 
Haritime Provinces, and in the peninsula of Gasp^, to the number of 
about 7(X)0. They are excellent sportsmen and fishermen and afford ad- 
mirable service as guides and canoe-men. 8ee 'Legends of the Micmacs", 
by the Rev. Silas T. Rand. 

Just beyond Gampbelltou the train threads the only tunnel on 
the line (though there are a great many snow-sheds), and runs up 
the narrowing estuary (♦Views to the right). We enter the province 
of Quebec (p. 148) just before crossing the Restigouche by a bridge 
300 yds. long. 

384 M. Matapedia or Metapedia (35 ft. ; Ferguson s, $ lV2)j 
beautifully situated at the 'meeting of the waters' of the Matapedia 
and the Restigouche (p. 90), with the headquarters of the Restigouche 
Salmon Club, is the junction of a railway to New Carlisle (see below). 

Fbom Matapedia to 1Tb w Gabliblb and PASPfisiAC, 98 M. , Atlantic 
Jt Lake .Superior Railway in S'/a hrs. This line skirts the N. shore of the 

92 Route 24. OAUSAPSCAL. From Halifax 

Bale des Chaleurs (p. 90) and, as its ambitious name implies, is supposed 
to form a connecting link in the direct commonication between the Atlantic 
and Lake Superior. It is to be extended to Gasp^ Basin. — Most of the 
stations are unimportant. 22 M. Point La Oarde, — 86 M. NouvelU^ in the 
valley of the trout-river of that name; 44 M. CarUton (Callen, Landry, 
$ lV2)i a summer and bathing resort, with good boating, fishing, and 
shooting, near the base of Mt, Tracadiegash. 63 M. Maria and the following 
stations are on Catoapedia Bav^ which receives the waters of the Oreat 
Cascctpedia JUver, a famous ssdmon - stream. 68 M. New Richmond (Cas- 
capedia Ho., $ 1), with good bathing, boating, and fishing, has been a 
favourite summer-residence of several Governors-General. 79 M. Caplin. — 
98 M. New Carlisle (OaldweU, Menard, $ IVs)- A^acent is Paspebiac iClement, 
Doucet, $lV2i U, a. Com. Agent), a village of (1901) 1759 inhab., with a 
good harbour. It is one of the main seats of the great fishing-house of 
Bobin A Co., whose headquarters are in Jersey. 

"We now leave the English-speaking country and enter a French- 
Canadian district. The characteristics of the Inhabitants of this 
region are well described in the following quotation from a pamphlet 
by W, Kilby Reynolds. 

''A quiet people are these habitants of the Lower St. Lawrence, 
simple in their tastes , primitive in their ways, and having an abiding 
devotion to their mother tongue and mother church. The opening-up of 
the country has changed them a little, in the larger villages, but as a 
whole they are much as they have been for the last two hundred years. 
Their ways are nearly as the ways of their fathers. The railway and 
telegraph of the nineteenth century run through a country in which hun- 
dreds of people are to all intents and purposes in the seventeenth century. 
Not to their disrespect be this said, but as showing the tenacity with 
which they adhere to their language, manners, and customs. They are 
as conservative as any people on earth. Where innovations are thrust 
upon them by the march of progress they adapt themselves to the changes; 
but where they are left to themselves ttiey are happy in the enjoyment 
of the life their fathers led, and are vexed by no restless ambition to be 
other than they have been. Their wants are few and easily supplied; 
they live peaceful and moral lives; and they are filled with an abiding 
love for their language and a profound veneration for their religion. By 
nature light-hearted and vivacious, they are optimists without knowing 
it. Inured to the climate, they find enjoyment in its most rigorous sea- 
sons. French in all their thoughts, words, and deeds, they are yet loyal 
to the British crown and contented under British rule. The ancient laws 
are secured to them by solemn compact; and their language and religion 
are landmarks which will never be moved. In places where the English 
have established themselves, some of the habitants understand the language 
of the intruders, but none of them adopt it as their own. The mingling 
of races has a contrary e£fect, and the English tongue must yield to the 
French. There are many Englishmen in this country whose children do 
not understand a word of their father's native tongue; but there are no 
Frenchmen whose children are ignorant of the language of France. 

Where the advent of the tourist has not robbed the native of his 
simplicity of character , he is likely to make a favourable impression on 
the stranger. He is the type of a peculiar people, many of whom are in 
very humble circumstances. Among the elders books are often sealed 
mysteries ; it is enough for them to know what their church teaches, and 
for them to obey it. Their condition of life is not such as conduces to 
refinement, but they have much of that true politeness which is dictated 
by sincerity, and they seek to fulfil the stranger''s wishes as a matter of 
plain duty". 

394 M. Mill Stream; 406 M. Assametquaghan; 412 M. Pleasant 
Beach, — 419 M. Causapscal (Fortin, $ 1 72)» ** *^e mouth of that 
river, Is the chief angling-resort in the valley. Good>tH>ut-flshing is 

Digitized by VjOO • 

to Quebec. ' RIMOUSKI. 24. RouU. 93 

obtained in various small lakes. The shooting-lodge in which Lord 
Mount Stephen used to entertain the Princess Louise has been sold 
to the Restigouche Salmon Olub. — 426 M. Salmon Lake; 432 M. 
Amqui at the junction of the riyer of that name with the Matapedia. 
— From this point we ascend the beautiful ♦ VaUey of the Mata^ 
pedia or Metapediacy hugging the river closely for about 60 M. and 
crossing it 3 or 4 times. The valley is enclosed by wood-clad hills 
600-1000 ft. high, which approach each other so closely at places 
as barely to leave room for the river, the railway, and the well-built 
highroad. The river forms innumerable rapids and is one of the 
most famous salmon-streams in Canada. As usual , the salmon- 
fishing is all in private hands and strictly preserved ; but good trout- 
fishing and fair though simple accommodation may be obtained at 
almost any of the stations along the line. 440 M. Cedar Hall^ at the 
moutb of the Matane River, 447 M. SayabeCj near the N. end of 
Lake Matapedia (16 M. long), which we see to the right. We now 
ascend to the highest point of the line, near Lake Malfait (750 ft.), 
and descend rapidly on the other side to (467 M.) Little MetU 
Station (bQO ft,). 

Little Metis (Seaside, Cascade^ TwHff Eall^ $ 1V2-2) lies on the St. Law- 
rence, 6 M. tp the N. of the station, and has become a favourite summer- 
resort, affected, according to ^Picturesque Canada", by 'the scientist, the blue- 
stocking, and the newly-married\ It has a good sandy beach, on which 
the salt waves of the St. Lawrence, here nearly 40 M. wide, roll in with 
something of an oceanic effect. Among the cottages is the tasteful fishing- 
lodge of Lord Mount Stephen. The Grand and Little Uitii Rivers contain 
salmon and trout (the latter free to all-comers), and good trout-fishing is 
to be had in the Miti* Lakes. Partridge, wild-fowl, and caribou are found 
in the woods and on the shore. Pleasant drives may be taken to (7 M.) 
the falls of the two rivers above named and to other points. 

471 M. St, Octave is the station for Grand Mitii, with its mixture 
of Scottish Presbyterians and French Catholics. The line now ap- 
proaches the St. Lawrence. We cross the Mitis River and bend to 
the left(S.). — 476 M. Ste. Flavie (250 ft.; Mt. Joli, $11/4). — 
490 M. St, Anaclet is the station for Father Point (p. 4), where 
outward-bound vessels discharge their pilots. 

494 M. BimoiLBld or St. Oermain de BimouBki (80 ft. ; Lenghan 
Hotel, $ 1-1 V2; 8t, Germain, $ I72; Rimowiki, $ IV4; U. S. Consul, 
Mr, E, N, Gunsaulus), a small town with (1901) 1804 inhab. and a 
trade in lumber, is best known as the port of call of the ocean- 
steamers, where passengers and mails from (or for) the Maritime 
Provinces embark or disembark (comp. p. 4). It is the seat of a 
Roman Catholic bishop and possesses a substantial stone cathedral, 
convents, a seminary, etc. The long Pier juts out into the water for 
nearly a mile and is a favourite promenade of the summer- visitors, 
most of whom are French. The Rimou$ki River is an important salmon- 
stream, but is under lease. Good trout-fishing and shooting are, 
however, easily obtained. The harbour is protected by St, Barnab4 
Island, to which attaches a romantic legend. 



94 Route 2d, RIVlfeRE DU LOUP. From Halifax 

We cross the deep and narrow gorge of a small stream flowing 
into Bic Harbour just "before reacMng (606 M.) Bic or 8te. Cecile 
du Bic (Bic House, $1V2» Hattie Bay Ho., $1; boarding-house 
of Mme. Pineau), charmingly situated on a bay of the St. Lawrence, 
with a background of hills (1300 ft) and a foreground of islands. 
It is visited in summer by a few lovers of quiet, picturesqueuess, 
and fishing. 

Ulilet au Massacre, near Bic, derives its name from the story that 
200 Micmac Indians were here slaughtered by the Iroquois , who built a 
fire in the mouth of the cave in which their victims had taken refage. 

Just beyond Bic the railway passes one of the most romantic 
pieces of scenery in its whole extent, running on a shelf cut out of 
the steep hills surrounding the village, with the cliffs rising 250 ft. 
above the train on the left, while below, to the right, lie the low- 
lands adjoining the St. Lawrence, as well as the river itself, here 
25 M. wide. — 514 M. St. Fabien (440 ft.). — About 3 M. to the 
S.E. of (524 M.) St. Simon is the pretty lake of that name, well 
stocked with fish. — 533 M. Trots Pistoles (100 ft. ; Lavigne^s Hotel, 
$ 2 ; Dery's Hotel, $ IV4), a village with (1901) 2595 inhabitants. 
It is frequented to some extent by summer-visitors , and good Ash- 
ing may be enjoyed in the Trois Pistoles and other waters of the 
district. Just beyond it we cross a high bridge over the pretty 
Rivihre Trois Pistoles, At (543 M.) Isle Verte (Desjardins, $ 1 V2) 
we are close to the St. Lawrence. — 562 M. St, Arshne is a con- 
venient point from which to reach (12 M.) Lake St, Hubert for 
fishing. — 554 M. Cacouna Station^ 21/2 M. from the fashionable 
watering-place of Cacourha (p. 168 ; cab 50-75 c, bargaining advis- 
able). — We now reach the station of — 

560 M. Biviere du Loup or Fraserville (320 ft. ; Commereial, 
Vict(yria, OpUr, Chdteau Grandville, $ 2-2V2; BeUevue, $ IV2; 
Venise, Maison Blanche, $ IV4, these two near the pier at Pointe It 
Pic, see p. 168), a town of (1901) 4569 inhab., picturesquely situated 
on high ground on the Rivihre du Loup, a little above its confluence 
with the St. Lawrence (steamboat-wharf, see p. 168). It is a railway- 
centre of some importance (see p. 95) and is also frequented as a 
summer-resort on account of its facilities for bathing, boating, 
shooting, and fishing. 

The name of Biviere du Loup is said to be derived from the seals (loups- 
marins) that used to frequent its shoals, while Fraserville is in honour of 
the family of Fraser (long since Gallicised; comp. p. 168), in whom the 
seigneurial rights have for many years been vested. — The most conspicu- 
ous building in the town is the Pwish Ohurch, a large edifice with a lofty 
spire. — A short way above the railway-bridge the Bivi&re du Loup de- 
scends about 200 ft. in a series of picturesque *FaIls. — Good trout-fi!shing 
may be had in many lakes and streams within easy reach of Biviere du 
Loup. The salmon-fisheries are generally leased to private individuals, 
hut a stranger can often obtain permission to try his hand. The adjacent 
woods abound in partridges, and water-fowl frequent the St. Lawrence and 
other rivers in great number. Caribou may be shot at no great distance. In- 
formation and guides may be obtained at the hotels. ^ . 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

to Quebec, KAMOURASKA. 2i. Route. 95 

Faou BiviftBB DD Loup to Connoss, 113 M., TemUeouata Railway 
twice daily in byz-V/t hrs. (fare $ 8.8Q). Connection for Woodstock, 
Fredericton, and St. John, see below (carriages changed at Edmundston 
and McAdam Janction, where time is allowed for luncheon and sapper). 

— This picturesque line runs to the 8.E., through a district rich in 
interest for the angler and sportsman. Beyond (43 M.) Cdbano we reach 
the W. bank of Lake Temiscouata, a narrow sheet of water, about 22 M. 
long, abounding in large -sised trout and Huladi\ a heavy fish of the 
salmon family. Good shooting is obtained on its banks. The Tuladi Rivoty 
entering the lake from the N.E. , is famed for its trout. —MM. Clou- 
tiert Platform (Gloutiers Hotel) and (52 M.) Notre Dame du Lae (Stone Ho.; 
Bail. Bestaurant) are favourite sporting-quarters. — Beyond the lake we 
follow the Madawaska River Qeft) and soon enter New Brunewich (p. 36). 
The Madawaska Valley is mainly peopled by descendants of the Aca- 
dians, who settled here after their expulsion from Nova Scotia (p. 78). — 
At (81 M.) Edmundston (Hebert Ho., $ IVs; U.S. Agent), situated at the 
confluence of the Madawaska and the St. John, we connect with the 
C.P.B. for Woodstock, Fredericton, and St. John (see pp. 41, 40). — Our line 
now turns to the right (W.) and skirts the N. bank of the St John, here 
forming the boundary between New Brunswick and Maine. 89M. iSX. Hilairey 
opposite Fremhville (Me.); 101 M. CkUre^ opposite Fort Kent (Me.; ferry). 

— 113 M. Connors (Hotel Oonnors, $ lVs-2) a£fords good headquarters for 
sport in the St. Francois River District. 

From Biviire du Loup to Quebec and the Saguenay by steamer, see B. 33. 

666 M. Old Lake Boad is the station for Notre Dame du Portage, 
so called from the short * portage* here (ca. 25 M."J between the 
St. Lawrence and the headwaters of the St. John (p. o3). — 671 M. 
8t. Alexandre ; 576 M. 8t. Andri; 579 M. Ste. Helene; 582 M. Dorsaini. 
685 M. 8t. Paschal is the station for the quiet watering-place of 
Xamoaraska [8t. Louis, Windsor, Ward's, Lahrie's, $^/4-l), which 
lies 6 M. to the N.W., on the St. Lawrence, and affords good salt- 
water bathing. It possesses a large church and convent. Off-shore lie 
the Kamouraska Islands (p. 168). — 691 M. St. Philippe de Neri, — 
696 M. Rivilre Oudle is the home of the Ahhi Casgrain, the historian 
and antiquarian, and the scene of his romance *La Jongleuse*, based 
on the history of Mme. Houel) who was captured here by the Iroquois 
in the 17th century. 

A short branch-line connects Quelle with (7 M.) Riviire Quelle Wharf 
(Laurentide Hotel, from $ li/sf unpretending but well spoken oQ, whence a 
steamer crosses the St. Lawrence Biver to Murray Bay (p. 168), thus affording 
the shortest route (open all the year round) from Montreal to Murray Bay 
(cump. B. 29b). 

600 M. St. Anne de la Pooati^re [Uiehaud Blanehet, $ 1) is a 
flourishing little town on the St. Lawrence, with a college (850- 
400 students } museum ; agricultural school and model farm) and 
a large Convent of the Grey Nuns. — 616 M. 8i. Jean Port Joli, the 
chief scene of De Qasp6's story, *Les Anciens Canadiens' ; 620 M. 
Trois Saumons; 624 M. L' Islet; 628 M. UAnse h Giles; 631 M. 
Cap 8t. Ignace. — We obtain a view of Cap Tourmente (p. 167), on 
the other side of the St. Lawrence, and cross the Rivilre du 8ud, 
which forms a small waterfall here, just before reaching (638 M.) 
8t, Thom<u or Montmagny (Commercial, Cote, $ IV2; Montmagny, 
$ 1), a town of (1901) 1919 inhab., with its college, convent, and 
large chuzch. — The Laurentide Mts. (p. 139) are now^^en^j)^the 

Digitized by V ^ 

96 Route 24. ST. CHARLES. 

right, beyond the St. Lawrence ; the river Itself is not visible, the 
plain stretching apparently to the foot of the mountains. 642 M. 
8t. Pierre; 646 M. St. FranQoU-, 661 M. St. Valier (p. 167); 654 M. 
St. Michel (p. 166> Beyond (661 M.) St. Charles, the junction of a 
direct line to Ghaudi^re (p. 141), we traverse a fertile champaign 
country and again come into sight of the river. Beyond (670 M.) 
Harlaka Junction several snow-sheds are threaded. 672 M. St. Jo$eph. 
The line skirts the St. Lawrence pretty closely and we enjoy good 
views (right) of the river, the S. side of the Isle of Orleans (p. 157), 
and the Montmorency Falls (p. 159). 

674 M. Livii and ferry thence to Quebec, see pp. 145, 157. 

y Google 


Route Pa^e 

26. Prince Edward Island 97 

From Charlottetown to Tignish 100 

From Charlottetown to Murray Harbour 101 

From Charlottetown to SourU 101 

From Hount Stewart to Georgetown 101 

Hagdalen Islands 102 

26. Newfoundland 102 

a. St. John's 109 

Walks and Drives in the Neighbourhood of St. John's. Ill 

b. From St. John's to Renews. Cape Race . . . .113 

c. From St. John's to Bonne Bay by Sea 114 

d. From St. John's to Griguet . 115 

e. From St. John's to Battle Harbour and the Coast 

of Labrador 117 

Grand Falls of Labrador 118 

f. From St. John's to Battle Harbour via Bay of 
Islands 118 

g. From St. John's to Port-aux-Basques 119 

From Brigus Junction to Harbour Grace and Gar- 

bonear 120 

From Garbonear to Glarenville. Heart's Gontent. 

Placentia 120 

From Port Blandford to Bonavista Bay 121 

27. St. Pierre and Miquelon 124 

25. Prince Edward Island. 

Approaches. The fine steamer ^Northumberland' of the Ckarlottetoum 
Steam Navigation Co. leaves Ptctou (p. 60) every week-day in summer for 
(50 M.) ChafloUetoum^ on the arrival of the morning-train from Halifax 
(4-6 hrs. ; fare $ 2; meals 50 c; comp. B. 19). — The new and fast steamer 
^Empress* of the same company leaves Point du Chine every week-day, on the 
arrival of the morning-train from St. John and Boston and (in summer) 
of the 'Ocean Limited' from Montreal, for (36 M.) Summerside (2-3 hrs. ; 
fare $ IV25 comp. p. 87). — In winter the specially-built steamers 'Minto' 
and 'Stanley' ply from Pictou to Gharlottetown and Georgetown, when 
the ice permits. When they cannot run, the mails are transferred to the 
ice-boat service mentioned at p. 86. A tunnel is in contemplation. — 
Charlottetown may also be reached by steamers of the Quebec 8. 8. Co. 
from Montreal and Quebec or by steamers of the Canada Atlantic de Plant 
S, 8. Co. from Halifax vi& the Strait of Ganso (comp. p. 63). — Steamers 
also sail from Pictou to Georgetown and Bouris (comp. p. 60). 

On leaving Pictou Harbour (p. 60), the Gharlottetown steamer steers 
to the left (N.W.), passing through the Caribou Channel., with Pictou Island 
(4 M. long; lighthouse) at some distance to the right. Caribou Islandy close 
to the mainland, on the left, also has a lighthouse. As we approach the 
other side of Northumberland Strait, dividing the mainland from Prince 
Edward Island, we see Prim Pointy to the right, a flat promontory, with a 
lighthouse. This marks the entrance to Hillsborough BcCy^ across which we 
steer, a little to the W. of N., towards Charlottetown Harbour. The bright 
red beaches of the ialand. due to the red sandstone which is the predomi- 
nant factor of its geological structure, contrast strikingly with its green 

Babdsksb's Canada. 3rd Edit. 7 

98 25. Route. CHARLOTTETOWN. Prince Edward 

foliage as we near the shore. We enter the harbour by a narrow channel 
between Blockhouse Point on the left and Sea Trout Point on the right. 
The harbour receives the waters of three rivers : — the Elliott on the W. 
(1.), the York on the N.W., and the ffilltborouffh on the N.E. (r.). Charlotte- 
toton^ see below. The hotels are within a few minutes* walk of the pier. 
From Point du Chine (p. 87), on Shediae Bay^ the course of the steamer 
across Northtmiberland Strait^ here 12-20 M. wide, is about N.B. The first 

f)art of Prince Edward Island to come in sight is Cape Egmowt^ with its 
ow cliffs of red sandstone. Summertide (p. 100) lies in the middle of 
Bedeque Bap. To the right lie Indian Point and Indian Island. 

Obnesal Sketch. Prinee Edward Island, the smallest province of the 
Dominion of Canada, 150 M. in extreme length, 85 M. in extreme breadth, 
and 2133 sq. M. in area, lies in the S. part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
is separated from the mainland by the Strait qf Northumberland, 9-25 M. 
wide. The surface is level or slightly undulating and nowhere exceeds 
500 ft. in height. The red soil, underlain by red sandstone rock, is fertile, 
and the island, one half of which is under cultivation, has a fair claim 
to the title 'Garden of the Gulf*. The natural richness of the soil is rein- 
forced by *mu8sel-mud' formed by vast deposits of decomposed shell-fish 
on the shore. Its scenery is hardly of a nature to repay a veteran trav- 
eller, but those who wish a quiet , cool , and inexpensive summer-resort 
with good boating, bathing, fishing, and (in autumn) shooting, will find 
many spots on the island to suit them. The waters surrounding its shores 
are warmer than those of the Bay of Fundy or the Maine Coast, being 
shallower and sheltered from the influence of arctic currents, and there- 
fore much more suitable for bathing. Prince Edward Island is twice as 
densely populated as any other province, containing (1901) 103,260 inhab. 
or 48 to the square mile. About two-fifths of these are of Scottish descent, 
the rest being English, Irish, and Acadian French. There are also a few 
hundred Micmac Indians. About 45 per cent of the inhabitants are Roman 
Catholics. The chief occupations are agriculture and fishing; manufactures 
are unimportant and local in character. — Comp. 'Handbook of Prince 
Edward Island' by TT. H. Croukill (3rd ed., 1906). 

HiSTOBT. Prince Edward Island is said, on very slight grounds, to 
have been discovered by Cabot in 1497. It is also said to have been visit- 
ed by Champlidn on St. John^s Day, 1606, and to have been called by him 
Isle St. Jean. The Indian name was AbeffweU or Epayguit, meaning 'anchored 
on the wave". The island was included in the French domain of Acadia, 
but* received no permanent European settlers till the cession of Nova 
Scotia to England (1713), when a ffew Acadians moved over here. In 1760, 
when it was formsilly ceded to the English, it contained over 4000 inhabi- 
tants. The island was at first annexed to Nova Scotia, and granted to 100 
English and Scottish gentlemen, whose efforts at colonizing were not very 
efficacious. In 1770 it was made a separate province, but its name was not 
changed to its present form, assumed in compliment to the Duke of Kent, 
till 1799. In 1803 the Earl of Selkirk sent over 800 Highland colonists, and 
from then till 1860 the immigration was considerable. The province 
joined the Dominion of Canada in 1873. 

Charlottetown {Victoria, $2 1/2; Queen ^ well spoken of, 
$ 1 V2-2 ; Revere Ho. , $ 1-1 1/2; Lenox , Alexandra^ two private board- 
ing-houses; U. S. Consul, Mr. D. J. Vail, Haviland St.), the capital 
of Prince Edward Island, is pleasantly situated on the S. side of 
the island, on an excellent harbour formed by the confluence of the 
Hillsborough or East (bridge, see p. 101), the York or Notth^ and the 
Ellioit or West Rivers. In 1901 the town contained 12,080 in- 
habitants. It is regularly laid out, and the width of the main streets 
(100 ft.) gives it a spacious and inviting air. Most of the buildings 
are of wood, but there are also many substantial structures of brick 
and stone. Charlottetown is the chief port of the island and carries 

Idand. CHARLOTTETOWN. 25. Route. 99 

on a large export-trade in farm-produce and fish. It also has some 
woollen-mills. — There is a Touritt Information Bureau^ in Apothe- 
caries' Hall, comer of Queen St. and Grafton St. (open 7 a.m. to 11 p.m.). 
Fort la JoUj as the French called Oharlottetown, appears about 1750 
as the seat of tne execative of the island, with a fort and a small garrison j 
but no houses seem to have been erected on the site of the present city 
till 1768, under British rule. In 1775 the small capital was taken and 
plundered by two American cruisers, but Washington rebuked the officious 
privateers and sent back the captives and their property. In 1864 Char- 
lottetown was the seat of the conference at which the project of Canadian 
confederation first took definite shape. 

The focus of Oharlottetown life and activity is 'Qubbn SauAiRs, 
in which stand the principal public buildings, surrounded by grounds 
adorned with tasteful flower-beds. In the centre is the Provinoial 
Building, a substantial stone structure, containing the Legislative 
Assembly (2nd floor), with portraits of P.E.I, statesmen, and the 
Legislative and Dodd Public Libraries. To the right (E.) rises the 
Court House J from the flat roof of which, as from the cupola of the 
Provincial Building, an excellent 'View is obtained of Oharlottetown 
and its surroundings. In front of these buildings stands a monu- 
ment to soldiers who served in the South African War (1899-1900). 
To the W. of the Provincial Building are the Post Office and the 
substantial new Market House (market-days, Tues. & Frid.). Round 
the square, especially on the S., W., and N. sides, are the best 
shops of Oharlottetown. Band-concerts are frequently given in Queen 
Square on summer-evenings. 

In Great Oeorge St.j a little to the S. of Queen Sq. , rises the 
large and imposing Cathedral of St. Dunstan (R.O.). 

To the E. of Queen Square is Hillsbobough Squabb, with the 
\bx%q Convent of Notre Dame. Adjacent, in Weymouth St., is the 
united Prince of Wales College ^ Normal School, 

From the S.W. corner of Queen Square we may proceed along 
Queen St. to the City Building, and then follow Kent St. to the left, 
passing Bochford Square, West Kent School, and the Armoury (all on 
the right), to the Park Roadway, with the Oovemment House (r.j. The 
Park Roadway leads past Fort Edward, round the water-front, and 
through Victoria Park, with Its cricket and lawn- tennis grounds. 
We return by the same route in order to enjoy the view of the harbour 
and of the city, above which rise the two prominent spires of 
St. Dunstan. If we are driving, it is best to return by way of 
Brighton Road to Queen Square. 

On the heights on the N. outskirts of the city is the College of 
St. Dunstan, a large school for boys. 

The large Lunatic Asylum occupies a point projecting into the 
£a«t River, and near it is the Trotting Park. The Belvidere Oolf 
Liriks lie 3 M. to the E. of the town. 

The roads in the vicinity of Oharlottetown are good and afi'ord opportuni- 
ty for pleasant if not especially picturesque drives (livery-rates very moder- 
ate). Among the favourite drives are those to (10 M.) Poienal (Florida, $ IVt). 


100 Route 25. . SUMMERSIDE. Prince Edward 

on Hillsborough Bay, Hampton (see below), Keppoch^ (12 M,) Brackley Beach 
(p. 101), and (18 M.) Traeadie Bay (p. 101; fare $ 4). — The water-trips are 
more inviting. A small ferry-steamer (bridge, see p. 101) crosses half-honrly 
to Southport, on the opposite side of the Hillsborongh River (view from Tea 
Hill). Another ferry runs hourly to Rocky Foint^ a favourite holiday-resort, 
where there are an Indian encampment and the relics of Fort La Joie^ the 
early French capital of the island. — A steamer running to (18 M.) Orwell 
gives a good view of Hillsborough Bay. — Steamers also ascend the East 
River (to Mt. Stewart; a very pleasant trip) and the West River and run to 
Hampton (Pleasant View Hotel, $ 1). — A somewhat longer excursion, very 
popular with the people of Gharlottetown, skirts the shore to the W. to 
Crapaud. — Boating and Sailing can be exg oyed in the harbour, rivers, and bay. 
Railway Excursionty see below. 

The narrow-gauge Prince Edward Island Railway runs from 
one end of the Island to the other, with a winding course of nearly 
170 M. and various branches. Gharlottetown itself is 6 M. to the S. of 
the main line, but through-trains run from it to each of the termini. 

Fbom Chablottbtown to Tignish, 117 M., in 6-73/4 hrs. (fare 
$ 3.60) ; to (49 M.) SuMMBRsiDB in 2V4-3 hrs. ($ 1.45). — Leaving 
the station, at the E. end of the city, the train turns to the left (N.), 
quits the Hillsborough River , passes 8t. Dunstan^s [see p. 99) and 
(3 M.) Cemetery Station^ and joins the main line at (5 M.) Royalty 
Junction. Here it turns to the left and runs towards the W, througli 
a fertile agricultural district of no marked features. Numerous com- 
fortable farm-houses are seen, seldom clustering into villages. At 
(10 M.) MUton we cross the headwaters of the York River. 17 M. North 
Wiltshire. Several snow-fences are passed here and at other parts 
of the line. — 21 M. Hunter 12ii7€r (Macmillan, $1) is the station 
for (7 M. ; stage) Ruatico (Orby Point Hotel, $ 1.30), on the N. shore 
one of the best bathing, boating, and fishing resorts in the island, 
with a good sandy beach. Farther on, the Hunter River flows to the 
left of the railway. — From (32 M.) Emerald Junction a branch-line 
runs to the left to (12 M.) Cape Traverse, where it connects with 
the winter mail-service to Cape Tormentine (see p. 86). — From 
(41 M.) Kensington (Clark, $11/4), a thriving village with 6-600 in- 
hab., the quaint station-house of which is made of small round 
stones of the field, coaches run to (7 M.) Malpeque, at the mouth 
of Richmond Bay , with the North Shore Hotel ($ 1-2). The head 
of OrenviUe Bay is seen about 4 M. to the N.E. The so-called Mai- 
peque oysters have an excellent reputation. — Beyond Kensington 
the* line runs to the S.W. and near (45 M.) New Annan reaches 
the narrowest part of the island , where the inroads of Richmond 
Bay on the N. and Bedeque Bay on the S. reduce its width to 3i/2 M. 

49 M. Snmmerside (Clifton, $2; Queen, $1^2? Victoria; U.S. 
Agent), a thriving little seaport of (1901) 2876 inhab., with an 
export-trade in farm-produce and the well-known Malpeque oysters 
(see above), is the terminus of the best steamboat-service between 
Prince Edward Island and the mainland (comp. p. 97). The train 
runs on to the wharf, alongside the steamej. ^.^^^ (^qqqI^ 

Island, TIGNISH. 25, Route. 101 

The line beyond Summerside calls for little remark. 64 M. 
Miacouche, with its two-spired church, to the right ; 61 M. Wellington f 
71 M. Port Hill Station^ ahout 3 M. from the ship-building village 
on Richmond Bay. At (80 M.) Portage the island is only 4 M. wide. 
The N. end of the island, which we now reach, is largely inhabited 
by Acadians (p. 98). — 104 M. Alberton (Seaforth, Albion Terrace, 
$11/2; U.S. Agent), on the attractive Caseumpec Bay, seen to the 
right as we approach, is a prosperous ship-btfilding and fishing 
village (800 inhab.). The train backs out of this station, which is 
one of the N. termini of the line, and runs towards the N. 

117 M. Tignisli (jBeWcviWc, McKenna, $1V2)' *^® terminus of 
the railway, is a small village (450 inhab.) but of importance for 
its fisheries. The inhalJitants, who are French and Highland Roman 
Catholics, support a large church and convent. 

Tignish is about 8 M. from North Capty the northernmost extremity 
of the island (lighthouse-, 47*" 3' N. lat.). 

From OHAaLOTTBTOWN toMubbat Habboub, 48 M., railway in 
33/4 hrs. (fare $1.45). This new line, opened in 1906, traverses a 
rich agricultural district. — Leaving Charlottetown, the train crosses 
the Hillsborough Elver by a fine steel bridge, 8/4 M. long. 2 M. 
8outhport (p. 100); 9 M. Mt. Albion; 13 M. Lake Verde; 20 M. Vigg; 
32 M. Melville; 40 M. Hopefield; 44 M. Murray River. — 48 M. 
Murray Harbour, on the estuary of the Murray River, near Cape Bear, 

Fbom Ghablottbtown to Soubis, 60 M., railway in 3-4 hrs. 
(fare $ 1.80) ; to Geobgbtown (46 M.) in 2'Sy^liiB, (fare $ 1.40). — 
From Charlottetown to (5 M.) Royalty Junction, see p. 100. Here we 
turn to the right (N.E.j and ascend the fertile valley of the HiUs- 
borough Rioer (not visible at first). — 9 M. York is the station for the 
small seaside-resorts of BracJdey Beach (Shaw's, Sea View, $ I-IV2) 
and Stanhope (Mutch's j Cliff, well spoken of, $ 1 V2-2), noted for its 
interesting ♦Cliff. — 14 M. Bedford is the station for the *Acadia 
Hotel (good cuisine; $2), situated 41/2 M, to the N., on Tracadie 
Bay, the site of an early Acadian colony (carriages to meet the 
trains during the season). The attractions of this resort include 
golf-links, a good sandy beach, and mackerel-fishing in the bay. — 
Beyond (17 M.) Tracadie we see the Hillsborough to the right. — 
22 M. Mount Stewart (Clark, Manson, $ 1), a ship-building village 
with 600 inhab., near the head of the Hillsborough River, is the 
junction of the branch-line to Georgetown (see below). 

FsoH HouNT Stewaet to Georgetown, 24 M., railway in V/i-i^/t hr. 
— This line crosses the Hillsborough and runs towards the S.B. The chief 
intermediate station is (18 M.) Cardigan, at the head of navigation on the 
Cardigan River. — 24 M. Georgetown (Aiiken, Tapper, $lV2i U.S. Agent), a 
small seaport with (1901) iW inhab., situated on a peninsula between 
the rivers Cardigan and Brudenell, It carries on a brisk trade in agri- 
cultural produce. Steamers ply hence to Lotoer Montague, Charlottetown 
(p. 98), Pictou (p. 60), and the Magdalen Islands (p. 102). 

The Souris train keeps to the N. of the Hillsborough River and 
runs towards the E. Beyond (31 V2 M.) Morell^ on the Morell River 

102 ROUU25. SOURIS. 

(good fishing), we skirt 8t, Peter's Bay (left). 881/2 M. 8L Peter's 
(Bayview Hotel), a village with 500 inhab., at the head of the bay, 
carries on a considerable trade. The sea-trout in the bay afford 
good sport. 

60 M. Souris (Sea VieWj Impericd, $ 11/2; ^^-S» Agent), a village 
with (1901) 1140 inhab., lies on Colville Harbour, It carries on a 
trade with the French island of 8t. Pierre (p. 124), and steamers 
ply hence to Pictou (p. 60), the Magdalen Islands (see below), and 
various Cape Breton ports. It is about 14 M. from Eatt Pointj the 
end of the island in this direction. 

About 50 H . to the N. of East Point, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, are 
the Kagdalen Islands, reached in about 16 hrs. by a steamer sailing from 
Pictou (p. 60) on Hon. & Thurs. and calling at Georgekwn (p. 101: Thurs. 
only) and Sourit (see above). They are sometftnes visited for the sake 
of me sea-trout fishing ; but the accommodation for tourists is of the most 
primitive description. Of the thirteen islands, which have a total popu- 
lation of about 5000 hardy Acadian fishermen, the largest is Co/Jln Island^ 
and the most important Amherst (Shea Ho.; Koel). During the cod and 
mackerel fishing-seasons the islands are frequented by hundreds of Canadian 
and American boats. The industries of lobster fishing and canning are 
also important,and in winter seals are sometimes captured on the floating 
ice. The Bird Isles are haunted by immense numoers of sea-birds of 
various kinds. Deadman's Isle^ besung by Tom Moore, lies about 8 H. to 
the W. of Amherst. See *In and Around the Magdalen Lslands*, a pamphlet 
by A. M, Pope, 

26. Newfoimdlandn 

Approaches. SL John's (p. 109) is reached from Halifax (p. 60; 490 M.) 
in about 2 days by the steamers of the Red Cross lAnSy sailing every 7 days 
(saloon fare $ 18) , and of the Fwmess Line^ sailing fortnightly (fare $15). 
Steamers of the Allan Steamship Co. (agents at St. John's, Shea A Co.) 
call at St. John^s fortnightly on their way from Glasgow and Liverpool to 
Halifax and Philadelphia, but do not call at Halifax on their eastward trip 
(fare from St. John's to Halifax $20). The vessels of all three lines are 
reported to be safe and comfortable. — From Montreal (p. 125; 1070 M.) 
St. John's is reached in about 6 days by steamers of the DoheU Line (fare 
$26), sailing fortnightly. —From ITm York (p. 10; 1100 M.) St. John's is 
reached by steamers of the Red Cross Line in 5-6Vs days, including a 
'stopover* of Vj-l day at Halifax (comp. above; fare $84). — From 2;<»«r- 
pool (1930 M.) St. John's is reached in 7 days by steamers of the Allan Line 
and the Fumess Line (see above), each sailing fortnightly (fare $ 45-60). — 
From Glasgow St. John's is reached in 7 days by fortnightly steamers of 
the Allan Line (fare $ 60). — Newfoundland is also reached from all parts 
of the United States and Canada by the steamer 'Bruce*, sailing thrice 
weekly between North Sydney and Port-aux-Basques, in close connection with 
the Intercolonial Railway and the Eeid Newfoundland Co. (see pp. 68, 118). 
The sea-trip on this route takes 6 hrs. only. The whole journey from North 
Sydney to St. John's takes 36 hrs. (fares $ 12.60, $ 6.35). 

General Sketch. The large island of Newfoundland ft occupies a pe- 
culiarly commanding position off the shores of the Dominion of (3anada 

i This account of Newfoundland was originally supplied by the late 
Rev. Dr. Moses Harvey, author of 'Newfoundland, the Oldest British Colony", 
but has since been materially revised and lengthened. 

+t The natives usually accent the word on the last syllable (*New- 
funland'), the English on the second, the Americans on the first. The first 
pronunciation is preferable, the second allowable, the third inadmissible. 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 26, Route. 108 

Stretching right across the entrance of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, it affords 
access to its waters both at the H^. and S. extremities. The S.W. shore, 
at one point, approaches within 50 M. of Gape Breton, while its N. ex- 
tremity is within 12 M . of the coast of Labrador, from which it is separ- 
ated by the Straits of Belle Isle (p. 3). It might be compared to a 
huge bastion, thrown oat into the K. Atlantic, which, if duly rortified and 
armed, could be made the Gibraltar of the surrounding seas. Cape Bpear^ 
its easternmost projection, is but 1690 M. from the coast of Ireland, so 
that it forms as it were a stepping-stone between the Old and New 
Worlds. In regard to size, it ranks tenth among the islands of the globe. 
Its greatest length, from Cape Ray on the S.W. to Cape Norman on the N., 
is 317 M. ) its greatest breadth, from Gape Spear to Cape Anguilley is almost 
the same. It lies between 46" 36' b^^ and 61" 39* N. lat. and between 
52" 3r and 59" 24' 50" W. long. Its area is 42,000 sq. M., or about one- 
sixth larger than Ireland and almost equal to the State of New York. Its 
circumference, measured from headland to headland, is about 1000 H., 
but so deeply indented is it by bays and arms of the sea, that its coast- 
line is almost double that extent. In shape it is roughly triangular. 

A glance at the map shows that it is almost cut in two by the larg. 
bays of Flacentia and Trinity, The S. peninsula thus formed is callee 
Avalon and is joined to the main body of the island by an isthmus whicd 
at its narrowest point is but 3 M. in width. A long narrow peninsulah 
called Petit Nord^ stretches northerly to the Straits of Belle Isle. The S.E, 
peninsula, having an extensive frontage on the Atlantic and many fine har- 
bours ana bays in proximity to the best inshore fishing-grounds and the 
Great Banks, is by far the most thickly populated and commercially im- 
portant part of the island (comp. p. 110). 

The coasts of Newfoundland are guarded by ramparts of rock, rising 
in bold cliffs and headlands to a height of 300-400 ft. At frequent inter- 
vals, however, this repellant wall is cleft by deep Qords, often 30-50 M. 
wide at their mouths and running 50-90 H. into the land , while smaller 
branches diverge on either side. These splendid bays are not only of 
immense economical importance, as bringing the fish, so to speak, up 
to the very doors of the fishermen, but are also possessed of such grand- 
eur of scenery as will rank them, when better known and more acces- 
sible, as the equals of the best that Norway has to show. 

On leaving the rugged coast-line we find the outer interior of the 
island to be a hilly country with eminences of no great elevation. Around 
the heads of nearly all the bays are large tracts of good land, covered 
with fine timber and fit for agricultural and grazing purposes. The inner 
interior is an elevated undulating plateau traversed here and there by 
ranges of low hills , the surface being diversified by valleys , woods, 
countless lakes and ponds, and numerous marshes, which are generally 
shallow and could easily be drained. Fully a third of the surface of the 
island is Covered witli these lakes and lakelets, which abound in trout and 
land-loejked salmon. All the great hill-ranges have a N.E. and S.W. direc- 
tion, and all the other physical features, such as bays, lakes, and rivers, 
have ^ similar trend, the cause of this conformation being doubtless 
glacial action. The principal mountain-ranges are the Long Range, ruoning 

Sarallel with the W. coast ; the Cape Anguille Range or False CMch^ in the 
.W. comer 5 the Blomidon or Blouf-me-doton Mts.^ adjoining the Bay of 
Islands (W. coast): and the Sawyer Mts. and other heights in the peninsula 
of AValon (see aoove). A set of remarkable isolated, sharply - peaked 
summits, known as ^Tolls'*, are distributed over the interior, rising abruptly 
at intervals out of the great central plateau, and forming admirable 
landmarks for the Indian or the sportsman. 

The three largest rivers are the Exploits, the Humber^ and the Oan^ 
der. There are numerous smaller streams fairly entitled to rank as 
rivers. It is along the valleys traversed by the various rivers that the 
greatest extent of fertile lands and the heavy forest-growth are found ; and 
now that these valleys are made accessible by the new railway across 
the island, it may be expected that they will become the seats of a large 
agricultural population. At present, agriculture is carried on upon a com- 

104 Route 26. NEWFOUNDLAND. Minerals. 

paratively small scale, the attention of the people being mainly deyoted 
to the fisheries. The area of land at present under calture does not exceed 
130,000 acres. The reports of the Geological Soryey show that in the 
great viJleys alone there are nearly 8,000,000 acretf fit for settlement and 
capable of sustaining a large populations while the aggregate of areas 
elsewhere of arable and grazing land is 2,000,000 acres. There are, how- 
ever, vast areas which are hopelessly barren, while the interior proper is 
yet out partially explored. 

Qrand Lake (p. 122), the largest in the island, is 56 M. in length and 
192 sq. M. in area. Red Indian Lake (near the centre of the island) is 37M. 
long, with an average width of 2 M. Gander Lake (p. 121), through which 
alriver of the same name flows, is 83 H. in length. The scenery around 
these lakes is generally very fine. 

Kinerals. Among the copper-producing countries of the world Kew- 
foundland takes a high place. Iron -pyrites of the best quality is found 
in many localities ; and from a mine in Pilley^i IsUmd, in Ifotre Dame Bay 
(p. 116), this ore is now shipped in large quantities. Rich deposits of lead, 
holding a large percentage of silver, are found in PlacenUa (p. 120) and 
Port-au-Port (p. 115). The carboniferous rocks are largely developed in 
8i. Qeorge"* Bay (p. 115), where there is a coal-area 25 M. wide by 10 M. 
in breadth. Promising coal-seams were worked near Grand Lake, and 
extensive deposits have been discovered in Codroy Valley (p. 123). Large 
deposits of iron ore have been found at Conc^Hon Bay and Bay de Verde 
(comp. pp. 119, 120). Petroleum and asbestos have also been recently dis- 
covered. Gold ocQurs at Cape Broyle (p. 113) and in Ming't Bight (between 
Notre Dame Bay and White Bay). Gypsum, mirbles, roofing-slate, and 
building-stone are abundant in several localities. — The total value of 
minerals exported in 1903-4 was $ 1,288,565. 

Fisheries. The cod - fishery of Newfoundland is the most extensive 
of the kind in the world, and its average annual value (about $6,000,0(X)) 
amounts to three-fourths of the entire fishery-products. The export of 
dried cod per annum averages 1,360,000 quintals or cwts. The seal-fishery 
is next in value. The number of seals taken in different years varies 
greatly. In 1901-2, 528,120 skins were exported, valued at $420,869, being 
more than thrice as great as the value exported in 1897-98, and one-and- 
a-half times the value of 19034. The catch of 1906 was also large. The 
value of canned lobsters exported annually is about $ 410,000. The centres 
of the herring-fishery are Labrado)' (p. 117), St. GeorgeU Bay (p. 115), Fortune 
Bay (p. 114), Placintia Bay (p. 114), and the Bay of Island* (p. 115). The 
value of the salmon-fishery is about $ 75,000 per annum. The number of 
persons engaged in catching and curing fish is about 55,0(X). The riches of 
the encompassing seas are seemingly inexhaustible. At a day^s sail from 
the E. shore are the Great Banke (p. 113), 600 M. long, with their swarming 
fish-life, while the whole Atlantic coast of Labrador, 1100 H. in length, 
is under the jurisdiction of Newfoundland and as a fishing-ground is of 
incalculable value. Whale-fishing was also revived some years ago, and 
1275 whales were caught in 1903-1, yielding 1,788,304 gallons of oU. besides 
other products. Since then, however, the whale-fishery has steadily declined. 

Imports, Exports, and Bevenue. In 1904-5 the total value of the ex- 
ports was $ 10,699,342 ; of the imports $ 10,279,293. The revenue for the 
same year was $ 2,295,960, and the public debt $ 22,045,388. 

Olimate. The climate of Newfoundland, being insular, is variable and 
subject to sudden changes. The intense summer heats of the United 
States and Canada and the fierce colds of their winters are alike unknown. 
It is but rarely, and then only for a few hours, that the thermometer 
sinks below zero (Fahr.) in winter ; and in summer it is but seldom that 
80* are reached. That the climate is salubrious is evidenced by the ro- 
bust healthy appearance of the people, and the great age to which num- 
bers of them live. The Arctic current, washing the E. shores, shortens the 
summer. Fogs are confined to the Great Banks and to the 8. and S.S. 
shores. The weather in W. Newfoundland is very fine and the vegetation 
generally a month in advance of that on the £. coast. The summer. 

History, NfiWFOtTNDLAND. 26. ttoute, 105 

though short, is generally delightful. The heat is never oppressive, the 
nights are cool \ days bright and balmy often sncceed each other for 
weeks together. Those who wish to escape from the relaxing and op- 
pressive heats of the continent will find an agreeable refuge here. 
September and October are generally pleasant months, in which the 
sportsman can enjoy himself in pursuit of caribou, grouse, snipe, curlew, 
etc. Tornadoes and cyclones are unknown, and thunder-storms are rare. 
Usually the autumn is prolonged into November, and the snow seldom 
covers the ground permanently till near Christmas. 

Population. According to the census of 1901, the population is 
234,931. In this are included 8947 white residents in Labrador and 1400 
Eskimo. The people are entirely derived from Saxon and Celtic stocks. 
The representatives of the former number 148,942, of the latter 76,909. 
They are a vigorous , hardy , energetic people. The great bulk of them 
lead a healthy open-air life , engaged in the fisheries. They are kindly, 
simple in their manners, quick and intelligent, law-abiding, and noted 
for their friendliness towards strangers. Their fishing-settlements, villages, 
and hamlets are sprinkled all around the shores, often in the most curious 
and picturesque situations among the clefts of the rocks. Their fishing- 
stages and ^flakes' for drying codfish constitute a special feature at iJl 
the fishing-centres. — The Beothiks or BeothukSy the aborigines of Newfound- 
land, were a branch of the Algonquin race (comp. p. xlvii). Though once 
numerous and powerful, they have gradually disappeared before the ad- 
vance of the white man, and no living Beothik has been seen since 1823 
(comp. p. 111). 

History. Newfoundland was discovered by John Cabot in 1497. There 
is little doubt, however, that it had been known 600 years previously to 
the Norsemen, who named it EMuUmd , or the 'land of naked rock8\ 
When Cabot made his discovery he was in the service of Henry VII. of 
England, from whom he had obtained a patent authorizing his search for 
new lands; and his ship was manned by Englishmen (largely from Devon). 
He was the first discoverer of the continent of North America. Thus by 
right of discovery, Newfoundland belonged to England. 

Judge Prowse (see p. 109) divides the history of Newfoundland into four 
main epochs. The first of these, lasting from 1497 to about 1610, he de- 
scribes aa a time when the island ^was a kind of no-man^s-land 

frequented alike by English and foreign fishermen, ruled in a rough way 
by the reckless valour of Devonshire men, half pirates, half traders." 
English fishermen frequented the island from the year after CaboCs dis- 
covery, and the news of the abundance of fish in Newfoundland waters 
very quickly reached the ears of the Portuguese and of the French fisher- 
men of Normandy and Brittany. All these hardy mariners were soon 
busily employed in taking cod on the Great Banks and near the shore, 
and they were followed in 1642 by the Basque or Biscayan fishermen, 
who gave the name of Bcuxalaos (Ncod-lands*) to Newfoundland and the 
neighbouring coasts. In 1678 no fewer than 4(X) fishing-vessels were employ- 
ed, of which 150 were French and only 50 English; but the latter, though 
in 80 marked a minority, seem to have been more or less recognized as 
the rulera of the fishing community. In 1600 there were 200 English vessels 
at work, which employed 10,000 men and boys, as catchers on board and 
cnrers on shore; and the Newfoundland fisheries became the stay and 
support of the W. counties of England, being worth 100,000 1, annually — an 
immense sum in those days. Thus the attraction which first led Englishmen 
to these W. seas and first induced them to colonize the new lands was the 
immense fish-wealth in the waters around Newfoundland. The same im- 
pulse brought the French to the St. Lawrence and led to the long struggle 
between the two nations. Ilie fisheries laid the foundation of the empire 
won by England in the New World. 

The second great period extends from 1610 to 1713 and may be de- 
scribed as an era of 'struggle between the permanent settlers and the 
Western adventurers, or ship fishermen from Devon". After the days of 
Cabot, various attempts were made to colonize the island, but none proved 
successful. The most conspicuous of the attempts were made by Sir George 

106 Route 26. NEWFOUNDLAND. EUtory. 

CalverU afterwards Lord Baltimore, and at a later date by Sir David Kirke 
in 16S» (comp. p. 113). Previously, however, in 1615, Captain Richard 
Whi(boum«i mariner, of Exmonth, Devonshire, was sent ont Dy the British 
Admiralty to regulate matters among the fishing-population, which had 
greatly increased. He wrote the first book on Newfoundland ('Westward 
Ho ! for Avalon'), which is now rare and valuable. In 1583 Sir Humphrey 
Oilberty half-brother to Sir Walter Raleigh, landed in Newfoundland, armed 
with letters patent from Queen Elizabeth authorizing him to colonize 
the island and exercise jurisdiction over all the neighbouring lands within 
200 leagues in every direction. He was, however, lost at sea on his return 
voyage, so that nothing came of this attempt at colonization. Meantime, 
however, the hardy industrious fishermen were forming settlements around 
the shores of the island, increasing in numbers and trying to make homes 
for themselves. But the difficulties they had to contend with in doing so 
were of a very formidable character. The fisheries had all along been 
carried on by merchants, ship-owners, and traders, who resided in the 
W. of England. For their own profit and advantage they wished to establish 
a monopoly and to retain the harbours' and shores for their own servants, 
whom they sent out to carry on the fishery each sununer and to return 
before winter. Hence their aim was to prevent settlement, the building 
of houses , and the cultivation of the soil. Being wealthy and influential 
men, they nad the ear of successive English governments, whom they 
induced to pass laws to enable these 'Merchant Adventurers', as they 
were called, to accomplish the end they had in view. They were suc- 
cessful, too, in misleading the nation by false statements about the bar- 
renness of the soil and the necessity of preserving the fisheries as a 
nursery of seamen for the Boyal Navy. Hence laws were passed prohibiting 
masters of vessels from carrying out any settlers, and binding them to 
bring back at the close of each fishing-season the fishermen who went out 
in spring. When it was found that settlement went on in spite of these 
restrictions, an order was issued to bum down all the houses — an edict 
which the humanity of the English Commissioner happily made him hesitate 
to put in execution and which, on strong remonstrances to the King, was 
revoked. The 'Fishing Admirals'*, aa the representatives of the merchants 
were called, long oppressed and robbed the people, taking possession of 
the best fishing-grounds and driving the inhabitants from their own fields. 
At length a better day dawned. England found out her mistake and 
the deception that had been practised on her. The country ceased to be 
a mere fishing-station and was at last reeognized as a colony of the British 
Empire. The third great period, that of the colony under naval gover- 
nors (1711-1832), may be said to begin with Captain Crowe (1711), though 
Captain Osborne was the first to receive a formal appointment (172U). 
The Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, ended the long struggle between the 
French and English fishermen. In carrying out their plans for founding 
an empire in ^e New World, the French statesmen had been eager to 
obtain possession of Newfoundland. They knew that holding it, they could 
control the fisheries and also command the narrow entrance to the St. 
Lawrence and their possessions in Canada. They obtained a footing, at 
length, on the S. shore and founded Placentia (see p. 120). During the 
long wars between the two nations, the French sent out several expeditions 
for the conquest of the island, but without success. Their presence and 
encroachments, however, were a constant source of loss and annoyance 
to the settlers. By one of the articles of the Treaty of Utrecht France 
agreed to surrender all her possessions in Newfoundland and to evacuate 
Placentia. The sovereignty of the whole island was thus secured to 
England, and the French renounced all territorial rights. Unfortunately, 
however, the treaty gave them certain privileges that led to a long series 
of disputes which were not settled till just the other day (see pp. l(/7, 108). 
In 1729 the resident population was 6(KX). Some semblance of civil govern- 
ment was now gradually introduced. Improvements came very slowly. In 
1750 a court for the trial of criminal cases was established. Till then all 
criminals had been sent to England for trial. It was not till 1792 that 
a Supreme Court for the whole island was appointed, with power to try 

CaruUtution. NEWFOUNDLAND. 26, RouU. 107 

all offenders and determine suits of a civil nature ; and its jurisdiction, 
moreover, was not completely established till 1826. It was not till 1813 
that houses could be erected without the written permission of the governor 
or that grants of land could be made. Ko other British colony was ever dealt 
with so harshly. Kot without reason did Lord Salisbury describe the colony 
as having been throughout its career *the sport of historic misfortunes'. 

Still, the sturdy fishermen held their ground, contended for their liber- 
ties, and continued to increase in numbers. In 1763 the population num- 
bered 13,000, in 1804 it reached 20,000. An agitation for a local govern- 
ment commenced, and in 1882 ^representative government' was granted. 
The first local Legislature was opened in 1833. This marks the opening 
of the fourth or modern period. In 1854 the privilege of self-government 
was completed by the concession of 'responsible government'. 

The progress of the colony during the last six^ years has been steady 
and substantial. Civilizing infiuences have been at work. An educational 
system has been established and, of late, considerably improved. Agri- 
culture has been encouraged, and manufactures of various kinds com- 
menced. In 1808 the first Atlantic cable was landed on the shore of Tri- 
nity Bay (p. 116). In 1884 the first railway from St. John's to Harbour 
Grace was opened (p. 120). In 18^98 the line was extended across the 
island to Bay of Islands and St. George's Bay, having its W. terminus at 
Port^aux-Basoues, 90 M. from Gape Breton (comp. p. 119). In 1894 the failure 
of two local banks entailed great losses on the community. 

Belation to Canada. Judging by the geographical position of the is- 
land, it would seem that by 'manifest destiny' it belongs to the Dominion 
of Canada, and should long since have become a member of that great 
confederacy of British provinces. The bulk of its people, however, seem 
to think differently, and have hitherto declined to unite with Canada. 
Attempts were made in 1869 and 1895 to bring about a union, but without 
result. Since that date Confederation has not been made a political 
issue. The sentiment of loyalty to the flag of England is strong, and 
no proposal of annexation to the United States has ever yet taken shape. 
The position of the island, as holding the key of the St. Lawrence, and 
thus being essential to the rounding off and safety of the Dominion, 
precludes the idea that it would ever pass from under the flag of England. 

Oonstitntion. The form of government which now regulates the affairs 
of the Colony, and which is working on the whole satisfactorily, is that 
known as 'Responsible Government'. It consists of a Oovemor, who is 
nominated by the Grown, his salary of $ 12,000 a year being paid by the 
Colony ) an Exeeutim Coundl^ chosen by the party commanding a minority 
in the Legislature, and consisting of seven members, the Governor being 
President or Chairman ^ a LegUlative Council of fifteen members, nominat- 
ed by the Governor in Coundl \ and a House of Assemblpy at present con- 
sisting of 36 members, elected every four years by the votes of the people. 
There are 18 electoral districts. The members of the House of Assembly 
are elected by ballot. All males on reaching the age of twenty-one are 
entitled to vote. The members of both branches of the Legislature are 
paid. The Legislature meets once a year. Acts become law after passing 
both chambers and receiving the assent of the Governor. 

The French Treaty Bights in Newfoundland. The sovereignty of the 
island, as has been stated (see p. 106), belonged wholly to Great Britain, 
but, in virtue of certain ancient treaties, the French had the privilege of 
taking and drying fish on that portion of the coast which extends from 
Cape Rapt round theW. and N., to Cape 81. John on the N.E. shore. They 
had no right to occupy permanently, or to settle on any portion of the coast, 
or to erect any buildings, except such huts and scaffolds as might be ne- 
cessary for drying their fish. French fishermen were not permitted to winter 
on the island. The treaties in which these concessions w^re made to the 
French are those of Utrecht (1713), Paris (1763), Versailles (1783), and the 
second treaty of Paris (1816). A serious difference of opinion existed for 
more than a century between England and France as to the proper inter- 
pretation of these treaties, the language of which is often obscure. The 
French contended that the treaties gave them the exelueive right to the 

108 Route 26, NEWFOUNDLAND. Sport, 

fisheries, and also to the ase of the shore, so that British subjects could 
not lawfully fish within those limits, or occupy the land for any purpose. 
Had this contention been well founded, it would have entirely closed up the 
best half of Kewfouhdland against its use by British subjects, in order that 
along a coast 450 M. in length a few French fishermen might, during three 
or four months of the year, catch and dry codfish. Such a dog-in-the- 
manger policy would have prevented either party from cultivating the 
land, or carrying on mining or lumbering operations. England and her sub- 
jects in the colony always repudiated this interpretation and maintained 
that they had a concurrent right of fishing wherever they did not interfere 
with the operations of French fishermen; and also that they had a right 
to settle on the land and develop its resources. In point 6t fact, over 
17,000 British subjects settled on the Treaty Shore. Custom-houses were 
erected, magistrates appointed, and law-courts established on this co&stt 
and two members elected by the inhabitants represented them in the local 
legislature. This, of course, added considerably to the complications of 
this vexed question. However, by the Anglo-French trtUy of 1904, the 
French formally resigned their former rights in Newfoundland, in return 
for a sum of money, a free hand in Morocco, and a concession in West 
Africa, and the islanders now have entire control of their own island. 

The French Shore question has been replaced by a new difficulty 
arising from the failure of the U.S. Senate to ratify the so-called Hay 
Bond Compact, by which freedom for the purchase of bait by American 
fishermen would have been secured in exchange for a reduction of the 
tariff on numerous articles imported into Newfoundland firom the United 
States. In 1905 and 1906 acts were passed by the Newfoundland Govern- 
ment to prohibit the exportation of bait and to prevent the hiring of 
native Newfoundlanders for the crews of foreign vessels. The result of 
this has been to inflict great injury on the American fishing-fleet and the 
French fishing-industry at St. Pierre has been practically ruined (comp. 
p. 124). 

Sport. The chief objects of the chase in Newfoundland are the Cari- 
bou (Rangifer tarandus Terra-nova€) and the Partridge or Willovo Orottse 
(Lagopus allms). The season for the former lasts from Oct. 20th to Feb. 
1st and from July 31st to Oct. 1st, that for the latter from Oct. 1st to 
Jan. 12th. Non-residents of the Colony require a license for shooting 
caribou (fee $50-80). Not more than three stags and one doe may be 
killed by one sportsman in the same season. Other game includes hares, 
rabbits, wild geese and ducks, curlew, snipe, plover, otter, and beaver 
(close time for otter and beaver April 1st to Oct 1st). Salmon (dose lime 
Sept. 15th to Jan. 15th) are found in all the principal rivers, and Trout 
(close time Sept. 16th to Jan. 15th) abound in all the streams and lakes. — 
Lists of licensed Guides are given in the guidebooks of Judge Prowse and 
the Railway Co. (p. 109). 

Koney. The monetary system of Newfoundland is similar to that of 
Canada, and Canadian coins pass at full value (see p. xi). British gold 
coins pass current at the rate of 1/. =: $4.86, while U. S. gold coins 
and bills are taken at their face value in ordinary trade. British silver 
coins circulate at the rate of U. = $4.80. 

Poatal Information. The letter-rate of postage within Newfoundland 
is 2 c. per oz. \ to Canada, Great Britain, and certain British Colonies 2 c. 
per Vsoz. } to the other countries of the Postal Union 5 c. per >/soz.| 
letters for delivery within the city 1 c. per oz. Parcels to Canada cost 
15 c. per lb., to the United States 12 c. per lb., to the United Kingdom 
24 c. for Bibs., 48 c. up to 7 lbs. The other regulations are similar to those 
of Canada (p. xxi). — The Telegraph Bate from St. John's to places in 
Newfoundland varies from 20 c. for 10 words and 2 c. for each additional 
word to 50 c. per ten words and 4 c. per additional word. The rate to 
the nearest parts of Canada and the United States are $ 1-1 V4 per 10 words 
and 9-11 c. for each additional word to Great Britain 25 c. per word. — 
Expreu Orders issued by recognized express companies, are cashed at their 
face value by the Newfoundland Expreu Co. in any part of the island. 

Newfoundland. ST. JOHN'S. 26. Route. 109 

Bibliography. The best history of Newfoundland is /). W. Protetes 
^History of Newfoundland from the Records' (2nd ed., 1896). The reports 
of the Newfoundland Geological Survey and the official ^Tear Book and 
Almanac of Newfoundland' will be found useful. Among other works that 
may be mentioned are ^Newfoundland: the Oldest British Colony', by 
Jogeph Hatton and Rev.^Mo$e$ Harvey (1883), BonnycastleU *Newfoundland' 
(1842), BeckU$ WilUon''» 'The Tenth Island' (1897), Prof. J, B. Juket^ 'Ex- 
cursions in and about Newfoundland' (1842), and 'The Newfoundland 
Guide Book', edited by 2). W. Frowte (London, 1905). The Reid Newfoundland 
Co. also issues a yearly guide (gratis) to Newfoundland and Labrador. 

a. St. John's. 

The approach to St. John's t by sea excites the admiration of even 
the most blas^ traveller. As the steamer skirts the iron-bound coast, 
it suddenly tarns towards the shore and appears as if about to dash 
itself against the rocks. Presently, however, a narrow opening ap- 
pears in the wall, and as the vessel glides through this, we see above 
us huge cliffs of dark-red sandstone piled in broken masses on a 
foundation of gray slate rock. On the right towers an almost per- 
pendicular precipice, 300 ft. high, above which rises the crest of 
Signal Hill (608 ft.), with the station for signalling vessels as they 
approach the harbour. On the left the rugged hill attains a height 
of 600 ft. , and from its base juts out a rocky promontory bearing the 
Fort Amherst Lighthouse. The *Nafrow8j or channel leading to the 
harbour, is 72^^' lo^g> ^^^ a* t^^c narrowest point, between Pancafcc 
and Chair Rockt — across which in olden days a chain could be drawn 
to shut out hostile cruisers — it is only 600 ft. wide. It is not till near 
the end of the Narrows that the city becomes visible. Beyond the 
channel the harbour trends suddenly to the W., so that it is com- 
pletely land-locked and safely sheltered from the waves of the At- 
lantic. Yessels of the largest tonnage can enter at all periods of the 
tide, the rise of which does not exceed 4 ft. The harbour Is fully 
1 M. long and nearly 1/2 ^^ wide. 

St. John's. — Arrival. Cuitom- House Officers meet the steamer to ex- 
amine and pass the passengers' luggage. — Cab$ also meet the steamers 
(fare to hotel, incl. ordinary luggage, 40-500.). 

Hotels. OsosBiB Hotel, $1V2-2; Goohbanb House, Balsam House, 
from $ 2V«; Waveblet? Tbemont House, City, unpretending, $ I-IV2. None 
of the hotels are flrst-class. — Board and Private Lodgings can be easily 
obtained. — Good Port Wine is a specialty of St. John's. 

Oaba: 30-50c. per drive within the city; 80c. per hr.; $4-6 per day. — 
Bleotrio Oars run past the railway-station along Water St. and make the 
circuit of the city by way of the Military Road along the crest of the 
ridge. — Kail Waggons run to Portugal Cove^ Petty Harbour^ Ferryland^ 
Torbay, etc. — Steamers ply to various points on the l^ewfoundland coast 
(comp. pp. 114, 115), to Labrador (see p. 117) , to Halifax (see p. 102) , to 
" ' (see p. 102), to Sydney (p. 67), to New York (see p. KW), to Liverpool 
}2), to Glasgow (see p. 102), and other ports. 

Montreal . 
(see p. 102), 

+ This is the recognized official spelling, though the weight of the 
older authorities is in favour of St. Johns (without the apostrophe), follow ^ 
ing the analogy of St. Ives, St. Kitts, and similar names. 3 0(3QIC 

110 Route 26. ST. JOHN'S. Newfoundland. 

Po«t Office, Water St. (open 7.90 a.m. to 9 p.m.; oomp. p. 106). — 
Telegraph Office, Water St. (open 8.80 a.m. to 9 p.m.). — Anglo-Ameziean 
Telegraph Oo., Exchange Building (open 8.80 a.m. to 9 p.m.) 

Bai^B. Bank of Montreal; Bank of If ova ScoHa; Aferchantt* Bank; 
Royal Bank of Canada; Oovemnteni Savings Bank fall open 10-3). — Three 
daily papers are published: the Dailp New^ the Evening Herald^ and the 
Evening Telegram (Ic. each). There are also three weekly papers: the 
Free Press* the Trade Review^ and the News. 

OoubxlLb, U.S., Mr. G. 0. Cornelius; German, Mr. Kenneth B. Prowu; 
Italian, Mr. Henry J. Stabb; French Vice-Consnl, Mr. J. F. Rigoreau. 

St. John^s, the capital of Newfoundland, is situated on the £. side 
of the peninsula of Avalon (p. 103), in 47*»33'3" N. lat. and 62<> 
46' 10" W. long. , 60 M. to the N. of Cape Race (p. 113), 600 M. 
from Halifax, 1070 M. from Montreal, 1100 M. from New York, and 
1700 M. from Queenstown (about 1000 M. nearer than New York). 
The ground on which it lies rises f^om the N. side of the harbour, 
and in picturesqueness of site it is unexcelled by any city on the 
American continent The three chief streets, ofwhiohWATBBSTRBBT 
is the most important , run parallel with the harbour. On the S. 
side of the harbour the hill springs so abruptly from the water's edge 
as to leave room only for a few warehouses and oil-factories. The 
attractive shops and houses of Water Street are of brick or stone, 
but in other parts of the city most of the buildings are of wood, pre- 
senting a very dingy and unattractive aspect. The population of St. 
John's in 1901 was 29,694 or nearly one-seventh of lie entire popula- 
tion of the island, and it is now estimated as at least 36,000. 

St. John^s, founded soon after the discovery of the island, gradually 
grew from a few fishermen's hats, clustering round the harbour, to a 
town stretching up the slope to the "S. and along its crest. By 1836 its 
population was 15,000. In 1846 a great fire destroyed about two-thirds of 
the city, which was rebuilt on a much improved plan. On July 8th, 1892, 
St. John^s was visited by another terrible conflagration, which swept 
away fully half the city, including the Ohurch of England OathedriJ, 
St. Andrew's Presbyterian Ohurch, and the massive warehouses of Water St. 
About 11,000 persons were left homeless, and property to the value of 
$12-16,000,000 was destroyed. This terribje calamity awoke a lively 
sympathy in other lands, and contributions poured in from Oanada, 
England, and Uie United States. The people of St. John*s set themselves 
with great energy to the task of re-erecting their burned city, and nearly 
all traces of the fire have disappeared. The streets have been widened, 
and the new buildings are much superior to the old. An efficient fire- 
department has been created to lessen the danger of a repetition of the 

The chief business interests of St. John^s are, of course, its fisheries 
and its whale and seal oil refineries, but of recent years it has made fair 
progress in manufactures, and it now contains iron-foundries, machine- 
shops, shoe, furniture, tobacco, and soap factories, breweries, tanneries, 
and a large and well-equipped rope-walk. — The strawberries grown near 
St. John's have an exceptionally fine flavour. 

The most conspicuous building in St. John's is the Boman 
Catholic Cathedral (St. John the Baptist), which occupies a com- 
manding site on the summit of the hill on which the city is built. 
It is in the form of a Latin cross, 237 ft. long and 180 ft. wide across 
the transepts, with two towers, 138 ft. in height. It Is richly or- 
namented with statuary and paintings and presents an impressive 

Newfoundland. ST. JOHN'S. 26, Route. Ill 

appearance. Adjacent to it are the Bishop^s Palace^ St Bonaven- 
ture College, and b. Convent, the whole group of buildings having 
cost about $500,000. — The ^Church of England Cathedral, aboat 
halfway np the slope, is olie of the finest ecclesiastical edifices in 
British Ameiica. It was designed by Sir Oilbert Scott in an Early 
English style, and is also dedicated to St. John the Baptist. Unfor- 
tunately it was greatly injured in the great fire of 1892, but has 
been restored. 

On the MiLiTABY Road, running along the crest of the ridge, 
stands the Colonial Bnilding or Honse of Farliamenti containing 
chambers for the two branches of the Legislature. It is 110 ft. long 
and 85 ft. wide, and was built in 1847 at a cost of 100,000«. Its 
Ionic portico is borne by six massive columns, 30 ft. high. — To 
the E. of it is Oovemment House, a plain, substantial, and com- 
fortable residence, erected by the Imperial Government in 1828, 
at a cost of 30,000i. It is surrounded by well-kept grounds. 

A fine Court Honse, of native stone, was opened in 1904 in Water 
St. (see p. 110). — The Post Oface, near the middle of Water St., 
is a very creditable building, completed in 1887. The upper portion 
is devoted to the purposes of a *Puhlic Museum, 

The museum, which is well worthy of a visit, contains interesting 
relics of the Beothikt , the extinct aboriginal inhabitants of Newfound- 
land (comp. p. 105)^ stuffed specimens of the caribou, bears, seals, birds, 
and fishes of the island} and a collection illustrative of its timber, mineral 
wealth, and geological formation. 

At the E. end of Water St. stands the Custom House, which 
has been rebuilt since the fire of 1892. 

The Penitentiary^ a solid granite building, and the Hospital are 
on the outskirts of the city. 

The large Fish Stores, in Water St., and "^ the OH Factories, on the 
S. side of the harbour, will well repay an examination. 

The Dry Dock, at the head of the harbour, built, of wood, in 
1884, at a cost of $ 550,000, is 600 ft. long and 130 ft. wide, with a 
depth of 25 ft. on its sill at low water. It is thus able to accommo- 
date all but the very largest ocean steamers afloat. 

Walks and Drives in the Neighbourhood of St. John's. 
1. Signal Hill. The top of ♦Signal Hill (508 ft.), overlooking the 
Narrows (comp. p. 109), is reached in a walk of V* ^r., or by a carriage 
drive. At the height of 350 ft. two small and deep lakes are passed. At 
the summit is the Cabot Tower» erected as a monumeht to John Cabot, the 
discoverer of the island (1197), and used for signalling to ships at sea. 
The foundation-stone was laid in 1897 in commemoration of Queen Vic- 
toria's Diamond Jubilee. The custodian will point out and describe the 
•View from the top of the tower, which on a clear day is very fine. On the 
one side is the broad Atlantic. Looking to the N. we see Sugar Loaf, Red 
Head (700 ft.), Logie Bay, Toi'baff Head^ and the serrated range of hills on 
the 8. side of Conception Bay. The dark perpendicular sea-wall, with numer- 
ous indentations, runs up to Cape St. Frond*. A fine sweep of country, 
dotted with numerous glittering lakelets and farm-houses and fringed with 
sombre groves of fir, stretches away to the N. W. The great chasm which 
forms the entrance to the harbour is seen below, guarded by precipitous 

112 Route 26. QUID! VIDI. Newfoundland. 

rock-masses. The remains of tbe batteries which once commanded the 
narrow entrance are visible on their rocky platforms. Fort Amherst and 
Cape Bpear Lighthouses and Fresh Water Bay^ with its fishermen's cottages, 
are seen to the S. A bird^s-eye-view is presented of the harbour, with 
the whole city lying along the N. slope and crowned by the Roman Cath- 
olic cathedral. A lower peak called Ctallows Hill stands out prominently. 
Here in the olden time criminals were executed in sight of the whole 
city. — In 1762 Signal Hill was the scene of a brief but bloody struggle. 
For the third time the French had then got possession of St. John's. Lord 
Golville was sent from Halifax with a squadron to drive them out. Colonel 
Amherst landed a force from the fleet at Torbay and marched overland 
to St. John's. Up the rugged heights from Quidi Vidi (see below) the Eng- 
lish soldiers charged to capture Signal Hill, the key of the position. The 
French fought desperately, and having a great advantage from their 
position succeeded several times in repulsing their foes. At length a 
company of Highlanders with fixed bavonets dashed up the heights and 
swept all before them. Signal Hill being won, the French saw that all 
was lost, and their fleet crept out of the harbour in a fog and escaped. 
St. John's never again fell into the hands of the French. — The red 
sandstone which caps the hill belongs to the Huronian system of rocks, 
corresponding to tibe English Cambrian, which is developed all over the 
peninsula of Avalon. The hill itself is strewed with large boulders holding 
jasper fand other water- worn pebbles, showing that they once formed the 
margin of an old Silurian sea and that by foldings and various earth- 
movements the sea-bottom has become a hill 620 feet above the level of ' 
the water. Here, too, are seen striations on the rock-surfaces showing 
that at a later period they were under glacier action. Geologists tell us 
that the whole island was once in the same condition in which Greenland 
now is — under a great ice-cap many hundreds of feet in thickness. 

2. Quidi Vidi. Close to St. John's lies Quidi Vidi Lake, Vs H. in 
length , on which an annual regatta is held. The village of ^^juidi Vidi 
is a typical fishing- villi^e, where can be seen in perfection the stages 
projecting over the water of the little harbour, at which the fishermen 
land their fish, and the 'flakes^ on which the cod are dried. During the 
fishing- season the visiter should time his arrival at the village for about 
p.m., when the boat-loads of fish come in and the whole process of 'split- 
ting', 'heading% and 'salting' can be seen. The small harbour is connected 
with the ocean by a narrow gut, only deep enough for fishing-boats. All 
around rise steep red cliflfs in fantastic shapes. These, with the fishing- 
boats, stages, and flakes, make a strikingly characteristic picture. Artists 
find this the most attractive spot about the city. A little river flowing 
through the lake forms a pretty cascade as it tumbles over the rocks into 
the harbour. Visitors will enjoy a chat with the sturdy fishermen and 
their wives. Their insular peculiarities, linguistic oddities, and quaint 
views of things form an interesting study. 

3. LoGiB Bat and Torbat. The road runs to the N. to (2 M.) Virginia 
Watery a pretty little lake embosomed in woods, and (4 M.) Logie Bay, with 
its striking coast scenery. Outer and Middle Coves^ 2 M. farther on, are 
scarcely less remarkable. The thriving village of Torbay (1495 inhab.), 8 M. 
from St. John's, is one of the most picturesque spots on the coast, with a 
handsome Boman Catholic church, a convent, excellent school-houses, and 
a large public hall. This 17. coast is characterised by the massive grandeur 
of its perpendicular clifi's, often sculptured into forms of stem beauty. 

4. PoBTuoAL CovB, 9 M. The road winds towards the N., along the 
shore of Windsor Lake, which supplies the city with water, and then 
through a little valley of rare beauty. At the end of the valley the bright 
waters of *Oonception Bay (p. 119) come into view. On the S. shore of the 
bay lies the fishing-village of *Fortugal Oove (1000 inhab.), perched amid 
the clefts of the rocks, a little waterfall tumbling over the clifi's into the 
sea. Cortereal discovered this bay in 1501 and named the roadstead after 
his country. The return to St. John's may be made via 8t. Philip's (Broad 
Co9e) and the Thorbum Road (a charming drive). — Good trout-fishing may 
be obtained in ponds along iJl of the above routes. 

Newfoundland. PETTY HARBOUR. 26. RouU. 113 

b. l^om St. John's to BenewB. Cape Bace. 

64 M. A Mail Waooon plies twice a week from St. John'^s to Renews 
(see below) in 24 hrs. (fare $4), bat visitors will find it much more 
comfortable to hire a carriage (fare about $4 a day). The road is good 
and the views are often superb. The hotel-accommodation is, however, 
very primitive , and it is advisable to start with a well-filled luncheon- 
basket. The 'Barrens' along this route are famous for their 'partridge* 
(willow-grouse) shooting, the season for which begins on Oct. 1st. 

The first part of the road is excellent and affords many beautiful 
views. 4 M. Bldckhead, a village near Cape Spear^ the easternmost 
point of N. America (comp. p. 103). 

9 M. Petty Harbour, a charming village with (1901) 1771 inhab., 
situated at the mouth of a deep ravine through which flows a clear 
stream into the snug little harbour, fringed with fish-flakes and shut 
in by towering precipices. The electric power-house for lighting 
St. John^s and running its street-railway is stationed here. 

About 3»/t M. to the S. of Petty Harbour is *3%e Spouf — a funnel- 
shaped opening from above into a cavern which the sea has scooped 
out. In stormy weather, the sea, rushing into the cavern, hurls the 
spray and foam aloft through the opening, presenting a curious sight, 
visible at times for miles around. 

Beyond Petty Harbour the road runs along the so-called ^Straight 
8horeofAvalon'to{Q.0U.')BayofBuUs, Mo6i^C24M.), and (39 M.) 
Cape Broyle. 

At (44 M.) Ferryland, a little town with (1901) 536 inhab., Sir 
George Calvert^ afterwards Lord Baltimore, built a fort and a fine 
mansion in which he resided for two years with his family. Here, 
too, Sir David Kvrke took up his residence in 1638, armed with the 
powers of a Count Palatine over the whole island. 

51 M. Feirmeuie, a village of 560 inhab., with its deep and safe 
harbour j 54 M. Renews (580 inhab.). 

Cape Bace, the S.E. point of the island, where many a gallant 
ship has met her doom, lies about 10 M. to the S. of Renews , from 
which it may be reached by road, boat, or steamer (comp. p; 114). 
Round its grim rocks swift conflicting currents circle ; dark fogs brood 
here in summer for weeks together, so that the navigator has to shape 
his course mainly by the soundings. The dangers to navigation have 
been greatly lessened by the erection of a powerful fog- whistle on 
the Cape j and it is also a Marconi Wireless Station. Its lighthouse 
is 180 ft. above the sea-level and can be seen at a distance of 20 M. 

About 50 M. to the E. of Cape Race are the Great Banks of Newfound- 
land, famous for their cod-fisheries. They are about 600 M. long and 
300 M. wide, while the depth of water upon them ranges from 10 to 160 
fathoms, with an average of 40 fathoms. Marine life of all kinds is abund- 
ant on the Banks, and cod and other fish resort to them in immense 
numbers. The vessels frequenting the Great Banks are known as ^bankers'* 
and are larger and better fitted out than those of the coast-fisheries. The 
fishermen on the Banks, who, it is estimated, number 100,000, are of various 
nations and ply their hard labours shrouded in dense fogs and often in 
dangerous proximity to icebergs. A graphic idea of life on the Banks is 
given by Mr. Rudyard Kipling in his 'Captains Courageous' (1897). 

Babdekbb's Canada. 3rd Edit. 8 

114 RoiUe26, PLACENTIA BAY. Newfoundland. 

c. From St. John's to Bonne Bay by Sea. 

651 M. Mail Stbahes 'P&ospbbo' of the Bowring Brothers Ooastal 
Mail Service every alternate Wed., reaching Bonne Bay in 6-6 days (fares 
S 15, $ 8Vs, including stateroom and meals). The round trip takes about 
10 days, and those who prefer may land at one of the 24 intermediate 
ports and spend a few days in fishing, sketching, or photographing. 

The steamei makes its first call at (33 M.) Ferryland (p. 113), 
then rounds Cape Race (p. 113) and enters the fine harhcurof (75 M.) 
Trepassey (800 inhah.), the landing-place for Cape Race. Beyond 
CapeJPine and St. ShoWsj the scene of many shipwrecks, we ascend 
St. Mary^s Bay, 25 M. wide and 35 M. deep, the first of the great 
bays which indent this coast. The village of St. Marys, on its E. 
shoie, with 500 inhab., is largely engaged in fishing and has a farm- 
ing district around it. 

Leaving St. Mary's Bay, we steer round Cape St. Mary and enter 
*Flacentia Bay (comp. p. 121), the largest bay of Newfoundland, 
with a length of 90 M. and a width (at its mouth) of 55 M. It 
contains several clusters of islands, one of which, Great Merasheen, 
is 21 M. long. The scenery of the bay is very fine. The steamer 
calls at (140 M.) Placentia (see p. 120), Burin (190 M. ; Capt. Holbers ; 
Bennett Hotet), Great St. Lawrence (800 inhah.} Sea View), and 
Lamaline (650 inhah.; Miss Pittan's). Burin, vrith (1901) 2719 
inhah., is a husy and prosperous place, with a land-locked harbour, 
extensive fisheries, and a trade vnth St. Pierre (p. 124). 

We next' round the end of the peninsula of Burin, between 
Placentia Bay and Fortune Bay. To the left, as we approach the 
entrance of the latter, lie the French islands of St. Pierre and 
Miquelon (see R. 27). — Fortune Bay, 65 M. long and 35 M. wide, 
is noted for its extensive herring-fishery and is much frequented by 
American fishing-vessels. It was the centre of the bait-carrying traffic 
with St. Pierre. The ports called at within the bay are (260 M.) 
Fortune (950 inhah.). Grand Bank (1427inhab.; Mrs. Footers), 
Great Jervois, BeUeoram, St. Jacques, and (283 M.) Harbour Breton 
(800 inhab.; Mrs. Macdonald's). 

A little farther to the W. the steamer enters ^Hermitage Cove and 
*Baie d*Espoir (corrupted into Bay Despair), the scenery of which is 
pronounced hy many travellers the finest in the island. 

From this point to Gape Ray extends a straight line of coast, 
150 M. in length, indented by numerous sn\all inlets and fringed 
with islands. Among the latter are the Penguin Islands (seen to the 
left) and the Burgee Islands, on the largest of which Capt. Cook 
observed an eclipse of the sun in 1765. — 370 M. Burgeo, a village 
with (1901) 946 inhah., on one of the Burgeo Islands, is one of the 
most important places on the S. coast. 

In few places can be seen more romantic villages than Burin, Harbour 
Breton, Burgeo, and Rose Bla^he (p. 115). The effect of the pond-like 
harbours, surrounded by rugged hills, is enhanced by the haphazard way 
in which the cottages are dotted down among the rocks, wherever a foot- 
hold can be obtained. The whole coast is a paradise for artists. 

Newfoundland. BAY ST. GEORGE. 26. Route. 115 

405 M. La Poile (60 inhab.) , the next point stopped at , lies 
at the head of one of the chief inlets of this coast. — 419 M. Rose 
Blanche is a highly picturesque little village on another small hay. 

446 M. Fort-anz-BasqaeB (Sea View Hotel; V. 8, Agent), with 
(1901) 1052 inhah. (including Channel) j has a splendid harhour, 
open all the year round, and is a place of considerable importance as 
the terminus of the transinsular railway (see p. 119). 

Rounding Cape Bay, the S.W. point of Newfoundland (p. 103), 
the steamer now turns to the N. and passes along what is popularly 
known as the French Shore (p: 107). Opposite Cape Ray, on the 
Gape Breton shore, is Cape North, the two capes guarding the en- 
trance of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. From Cape Ray to Cape AnguUle 
the coast is singularly rugged and inhospitable in appearance. The 
Great and Little Codroy Rivers enter the sea between these two 
points after flowing through a fertile valley 40 M. in length. The coast 
is backed here by the Long Bange (p. 103), extending with inter- 
ruptions nearly to the N. extremity of the island. 

The fine ♦Bay St. George (9100 inhab.; p. 123) is now en- 
' tered. Its fertile shores are rich in minerals, coal-beds, and forests. 
One day it will be the garden of the colony. The steamer calls at 
(516 M.) Sandy Point and then rounds the peninsula of Port-au-Port, 
noted for its lead deposits. It is a paradise of geologists, who have 
chiselled from its rocks some of the most gigantic Cephalopoda in 
existence. Petroleum has been discovered here, as well as farther 
up the W. coast, and there are indications that it extends over a 
wide area, but as yet little boring has been done. 

The (610 M.) ♦Bay of Islands (1500 inhab. j BrUish American 
Hotel, Victoria Place, $1-11/2) comp. p. 122), with its magnificent 
scenery, now opens to the right. Its three arms run 20 M. inland, 
one of them receiving the *Humber River, the second largest river 
in the island. As its name indicates, it has numerous islands. 

The Hamber is noted for its beautiful scenery, the marble beds along 
its banks, and its pine-forests, many of them now cut down. 

651 M. ♦Bonne Bay (1137 inhab. ; Mrs. Halfyard's House; comp. 
p. 119), the terminus of our voyage, lies about 40 M. to the N. of the 
Bay of Islands, and its scenery is considered by some even finer. 
It has two long arms communicating with lakes at some distance 
from the coast by means of their respective rivers. 

d. From St. John's to Grigaet. 

460 M. Steahbb *Portia^ of the Bowring Brothers Ooastal Hail Service, 
every alternate Wed., reaching Origvei^ on the extreme N.E. coast of New- 
fonndland, near Labrador, on the fifth day (fare $ 10.60.) This trip may be 
recommended to those who are fond of the sea and not afraid of a little 
rongh weather, as the scenery at many points is sublime, and the monot- 
ony of the voyage is broken by many stoppages at interesting places. 

After clearing St. John*s Narrows (p. 109), the steamer passes 
Torhay Head {i^. Ill); Cape St, Francis, with its restless waves 

116 Route 26, BAY OF TRINITY. Newfoundland, 

breaking upon the ^Brandies*, as the outlying rooks are called ; the 
mouth of Conception Bay (p. 119) ; the grim cliffs of Bcuicalieu Is- 
landj the resort of myriads of sea-fowl ; and Orates Point, It then 
enters the great ♦Bay of Trinity (comp. p. 120), 70 M. in length. 
Touching at (47 M.) Old Perlican, it crosses to (68 M.) Trinity 
(1459 inhah. ; Royal Oaks, Sea View, $ 1), which possesses one of 
the finest harbours in the world and a whaling- industry. 

Round the shores of Trinity Bay about 21,0S) people are clustered, 
nearly all of them engaged in the fisheries. Many of them spend the sum- 
mer in Labrador. The first Atlantic cable (1858) was landed at Bay of Bulls 
Arm at the head of this bay (see p. 107); and the existing cables emerge 
from the ocean at HearCs Content (p. 120), on its £. shore, after traversing 
the great submarine plain of 1600 M. between Newfoundland and the coast 
of Ireland. — Dildo Island formerly possessed a Government Hatchery for 
the artificial propagation of cod. 

The next call of the steamer is made at (87 M.) Catalina (1835 
inhab.), a harbour of refuge at the N. entrance of Trinity Bay. — 
We next reach Bonavista Bay (comp. p. 121), having around its shores 
a population of 20,500. Much of the land is under culture. — 107 M. 
Bonavista, its principal town (3696 inhab.), is a thriving place. 

Most authorities hold that Bonavista was GaboVs 'Prima Vista' of ' 
1497 (comp. p. 105), though there is some evidence in favour of Gape 
North, on Gape Breton Island, as his real land-fall. 

116 M. Kings Cove (600 inhab.). — Beyond (148 M.) Greens- 
pond (1353 inhab.), situated on an island with fine fishing-grounds 
around it, the steamer*s course is shaped for (214 M.) Fogo (1118 in- 
hab.), a harbour on an island of the same name, in Notre Dame 
Bay (comp. p. 121). The prosperous town of (232 M.) Twilling ate 
{^^Toulinguet^; 3542 inhab.), also on an island in Notre Dame Bay, 
is next reached. — 249 M. Exploits (500 inhab.), near the mouth of 
the Exploits River^ which is famous for its salmon (p. 121). — 
260 M. PiUexfs Island is noted for its iron-pyrites mine, with ore of 
fine quality. — We are now in the famous copper-mining region, 
and extensive mining-operations are carried on at (293 M.) Little 
Bay, (309 M.) BetVs Cove, and (317 M.) TUt Cove (1370 inhab.). 

Proceeding on her N. route, the steamer now approaches an 
important landmark : Cape St. John , the N. headland of Notre 
Dame Bay and the N.E. boundary of the French Shore. Here we 
glide along a vast wall of rock, 400-500 ft. high and 6 M. long, the 
summits presenting every imaginable shape into which rocks can 
be torn or sculptured. The points touched at between Cape St. John 
and the N. end of the island are (349 M.) Coachman^ s Cove, (399 M.) 
Conche, and (435 M.) St. Anthony. The last, with its fine harbonr, 
contains a hospital and orphanage of the Royal National Mission to 
Deep Sea Fishermen, a fox-farm, and some collections of local interest. 

450 M. Origniet, the terminus of the voyage. 


Newfoundland, BATTLE HARBOUR. 26, Route. 117 

e. From St. Jolin's to Battle Harbour and the Coast of Labrador. 

The Steameb ^Virginia Lake' of the Reid Newfoundland Go. runs fort- 
nightly (in summer) from St. John's to (495 M.) Battle Harbour and various 
Soints on the Labrador Ck)ast, going on some of her trips as far as Nattif 
70 M. beyond Battle Harbour. 

The fare is at the rate of $ 2.25 per day. A fortnight is required for 
the trip to and from Nain (from St. John's), and the total cost is $ 38, in- 
cluding stateroom and meals. The fine scenery and the invigorating at- 
mosphere make this trip hi^ly enjoy A>le to those who do not object to 
rough it a little. Bound trip, see B. 26 f. 

From St. John's to Origuet, see R. 26 d. On most of her trips 
between St. John's and Battle Harbour the *Virglnia Lake* calls 
only at Harbour Grace (p. 120), Catalina (p. 116), King's Cove 
(p. 116), TwUlingate (p. 116), and Tilt Cove (p. 116). 

After leaving Tilt Cove and ronndlng Cape St, John (p. 116), 
to the N. of Notre Dame Bay (p. 116), the steamer sails due N. 
until, 10 M. beyond Griguet(p. 116), it passes Cape Bauld, the N. 
extremity of Newfoundland — a dreary, desolate scene. Here, at 
times, great processions of stately icebergs may be seen moving to 
the S. through the Straits of Belle Isle (p. 3). 

We now steer across the E. entrance of the straits, passing Belle Isle 
(p. 3), a barren and desolate little island, 9 M. long and 3 M. broad. 

Early mariners called it the '/«fe cf Demons*, imagining that they heard 
here 'a great clamour of men's voices, confused and inarticulate, such as 
you hear from a crowd at a fair or market-place*. The grinding of the 
ice-floes and the crash of the lofty bergs duriug a gale would be quite 
sufficient to give rise to these superstitious fancies. 

Soon after passing Belle Isle the steamer reaches (495 M.) 
Battle Harboar (ca. 100 inhab.), a sheltered roadstead on the coast 
of Labrador (p. 3), between Battle Island and Great Caribou Island, 
It is a great flshing-centre, and during theflshing-season it is crowded 
-with boats and presents a very lively scene. The Deep Sea Mission 
(see p. 116) has a settlement and hospital here. 

The principal ports of call in Labrador beyond Battle Harbour 
are Spear Harbour, Francis Harbour^ Square Island, Dead Island, 
Venison Island, Bolster^s Bock, Punch Bowl, Sandy Islands, Bateau, 
Domino, Indian TickUi, Grady, Long Island, Cartwright, Pack's 
Harbour (a Hudson Bay Co.'s post), Indian Harbour, Smoky Tickle, 
Emily Harbour, Rigolet (Hudson Bay Co.), Holton, Cape Harrison, 
Long Tickle, Maggovick Mission Station, Tumavick, Hopedale, and 
Nain (about 300 inhab.), the last two Moravian mission-stations. 
The missionaries stationed here are Germans, but most of them speak 
English. They willingly receive and entertain strangers. A fort- 
night may be agreeably spent at Nain or Hopedale, awaiting the 
return of the steamer. An opportunity is thus afforded of seeing 
the Christianized Eskimo who live around these stations. 

In the flshins-season there are on the Labrador coast some 20,000 per- 
sons, many of them women and children, living in rude temporary huts 
on shore or on board the fishing-crafts, exposed to great hardships and 

t Tickle is a local name in Labrador for a narrow chani 

Digitized by 


118 BouU2e. GRAND FALLS. Newfoundland. 

perils. Many cases of sickness and accident occur, and these were at 
one time very inadequately aided by the doctor of the mail -steamer. 
The attention of the MUiicn to Deep Sea Fiehermen in England haring been 
called to the condition of the Labrador fishermen, their mission-ship ^AJbert' 
was sent there in 1892 in charge of Dr. Qrenfell. She returned in 1893, and 
as a result of the mission two excellent hospitals have been established, 
at Battle Harbour and Indian Harbour. A doctor and trained nurse are placed 
in charge of each. In addition Dr. Grenfell cruises along the coast during 
the fishing-season on the steam-ya9^t ^Strathcona* (the ^H of Sir Donald 
Smith, now Lord Strathcona), ministering to the sick, relieving the poor with 
donations of food and clothing, and carrying severe cases to the hospitals. 
QsAND Falls. Rigolet (p. 117) is the only port of call for the steamer 
in ffctmilion InUt^ which is 30 M. wide at its mouth, while its head is 150 M. 
from the sea. Here Orand River^ which flows from the interior of Labrador, 
discharges its waters. The ♦•C^rand Falls on this river were re-discovered 
in 1891, by Messrs. Bryemty Kenaston. Careify and Crole (in two separate 
expeditions), and they were again visited by Mr. A. P. Low* at the head 
of an expedition of the Canadian Geological Survey, in 1894. The falls 
present a most magnificent spectacle. The river leaps Irom a rocky plat- 
form into a huge chasm. The roar is deafening and can be heard at a 
distance of 20 H. An immense column of mist rises to a great height, 
showing a beautiful rainbow. The height of the falls was found on accurate 
measurement to be 316 ft. The canon into which the river plunges is 12 M. 
in length, and below the falls the cliffs along its banks are 400^500 ft. high. 
The banks gradually narrow above the falls, and where it makes its final 
plunge the river is not more than 200 ft. in width. On reaching a pool 
about 4 H. above the falls, the comparatively still river of the plateau 
rushes down a descent of 200 ft. in a strone rapid, and below the falls it 
descends 300 ft. more in similar fashion. Hence the total descent within 
a few miles is 800 ft., while that from the rapids above the falls to the 
sea is about 2000 ft. The first white man who saw these falls, in 1889, 
was a Scotsman named McLean, an official of the Hudson Bay Company. 
No one is known to have visited them in the interval, and the accounts of 
them were considered mythical. Anyone wishing to ascend Hamilton Inlet 
has occasional opportunity of doing so by means of a small steamer which 
carries the mails to the Hudson Bay post at North West River and to the 
lumber mills at Kenttnou River. The trip up the river from these places to 
Grand Falls is at present only for the more venturesome, till a more prac- 
ticable route is opened and present difficulties removed. But this can be 
a question of a short time only, and Grand Falls wiU doubtless become the 
chief objective point on the Labrador Coast. See Mr. Low's Beport (18^. 
Rigolet (p. 117) was the starting-point of the ill-fated expedition con- 
sisting of Leonidas ffubbard, assistant editor of 'Outing\ A. DUlon Wallace^ 
a New York lawver, and George Elson. an Indian guide, which staited out in 
the summer of 1903 (inadequately equipped according to experienced hunters 
and trappers of the country) to explore the interior of Labrador. It resulted 
in the death of Hr. Hubbard from starvation on Oct. 18th. See 'The Lure of 
the Labrador Wild', by Mr. Wallace, the survivor. Mrs. JSTaftftard, widow of the 
explorer, led another expedition to Labrador in 1905, in which she succeeded 
in her purpose of showing that her husband's scheme was entirely feasible. 

f. From St. John's to Battle Harboar vi& Bay of Islands. 

87678 M. Beid 17BWF0UNDLAND COMPANY Bailwat to (841/2 M.) Pkxcentia 
in 4Vs-5V2 hrs. The Steameb *Glencob' of the same company leaves 
Placentia every Sat. for (806 M.) Port-aux-Basqws, citing at intermediate 
ports (3V2-4 days ; return-steamer on Wed.). From Port-aux-Basques to (144 M.) 
Bay of Islands y B.N. Co. Bailwat in 7 hrs. From Bay of Islands the 
Stbambb 'Homs' of the came company leaves every Wed. on arrival of 
trains from St. John's and Port-aux-Basques for (842 M.) Battle Haftour, in 
8yr4 days. The return -steamer is due at Bay of Islands on Tues. night. 
The round trip takes about 15 days, if continuous (through single fare, 
1st class, ^24.BQ). v a --• -, 

Digitized by V 

ids on Tues. night, 
tirough single fare, i 

y Google I 

New/bundland, PORT SAUNDERS. 26. Route. 119 

By this, the so-called Western RouU^ connection may be made at Battle 
Harbour with the steamer 'Virginia Lake", either for the coast of Labrador 
or retoming down the E. coast to St. John^s (see B. 26e), thus completing 
the round of the island. The round trip in this case takes about 12 days, 
if continuous (return- fare $ 39.30). The vessels are strongly built and well 
officered; the food and accommodation are good. 

From St. John's to (641/2 M.) Placmtia Junction and (841/2 M.) 
Placentia^ see R. 26 g. 

From Placentia to (306 M.)Por<-aux- Basques by steamer,see R. 26o. 

From Port-anx-Basques to (144 M.) Bay of Islands by railway, 
see R. 26 g. 

After leaving Bay of Islands (or more properly the Humber 
Month) the steamer calls at (4 M.) Curling (p. 122), which is the 
best place to embark. Sailing to the N., the first place of call is 
(40 M ) Bonne Bay (p. 116). 

Beyond Bonne Bay the steamer still steers to ♦he N. 120 M. 
Port Saunders , in Ingornachoix Bay^ is of interest to sportsmen. 
Near it is Hawke Bay, with the large private cabin of Mr. Pratt of 
New York ('The Firs'). 

Above Ingornachoix Bay calls are made at (160 M.) Bartleit's 
Harbour, (168 M.) BHg Bay, (176 M.) Current Island, (211 M.) 
Salmon River, (21 4 M.) Bonne Espirance, (222 M.) Middle Bay, 
and (236 M.) Flower Cove, on the Newfoundland coast. The steamer 
now crosses the StraiU of Belle Isle (pp. 3 and 117) to (244 M.) 
Blanc Sdblon, on the mainland, at the boundary between Quebec 
and Labrador. 

Sailing to the N.E. through the Straits of Belle Isle, with their 
succession of maritime pictures, the steamer touches at (263 M.) 
Forteau, (269 M.) Lance au Loup, (279 M.) West 8t, Modeste, 
(291 M.) Red Bay, (321 M.) Chdteau, and r331 M.) Chimney TickU, 
on the N. side of the straits. Rounding (336 M.) Cape St. Charles 
it finally enters (342 M.) Battle Harboar (comp. p. 117). 

g. From St. John's to Fort-anx-Basqaes. 
Harbour Grace. Plaoentia. 

648 M. RaiD Newfodndland Oompamt Railway in 28 hrs. (fares $ 14, 
$ 8; return-fare $ 24 j sleeper $3). — This railway, forming the grand trunk 
line of Newfoundland , was completed and opened for traffic in 1898. It 
opens np the most important farming, lumbering, and mining districts of 
the island, and forms the final link in the main travel-route between New- 
fonndland and the American Continent. Its W. terminus, Port-aux-Basquet^ 
is connected with the Canadian railway system at (90 M.) North Sydney (p. 68) 
by the steamer 'j^rvce', which performs the passage across the Cabot Strait 
thrice weekly in 6 hrs. (fares $ 3.6, $ 2.6). This steamer is specially built 
to cope with ice, and has succeeded in keeping the communication open 
throoghout the winter. By this route Halifax is 45 hrs., Montreal 68 hrs., 
Boston 72 hrs., and New York 77 hrs. from St. John's. 

The railway-station is at the W. end of St. John's (p. 109). The 
train runs at first towards the W. and soon reaches the shore of 
^Conception Bay, which it skirts towards the S.W. (•Views to the 
right). A remarkable deposit of brown hematite iron^ore has re- 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 

120 Route 26. HARBOUR GRACE. Newfoundland, 

cently been discovered on BeU Isle (6 M. long), in tMs bay, and is 
now being shipped at tbe rate of 15,000 tons daily to snpply the 
Dominion Iron ^ Steel Co. and the Nova Scotia Steel ^ Coal Co, at 
the Sydneys. — 15 M. Topsaily a pretty village with comfortable 
boarding-houses, is a favourite summer and bathing resort and has 
been somewhat ambitiously styled the ^Brighton of Newfoundland*. 
— 18 M. ManuelSf with a fine beach, is also a popular holiday- 
resort. A deposit of talc has recently been discovered in the vicinity, 
an aerial tramway has been built, and the first shipment was made 
to the American market in 1904. — 22 M. Kelligrews is another 
favourite place of outing for the people of St. John's^ 27 M. Seal 
Cove. — 33 M. Holyrood, at the head of the bay, presents some 
striking scenery, especially in the sea-arms. 

Holyrood is about 15 M. from the SalmonUr River^ in which good sal 
mon-fishing is sometimes obtained. 

The line now runs inland. 39 M. Avond'ale. — 44 M. Brigw 
Junction is the starting-point of the branch-line to Harboai Grace 
and Carbonear (see below). - . 

Fboh Bbigus Junction to Gabbonbab, 38 M., railway in jiys hrs. (from 
St. John's in 41/2 hrs.; through-fares $ 2.45, $1.70). The line runs towards 
the N. — 11 M. Brigtu (Cabot Ho., $ 1), a thriving little seaport with (1901) 
1162inhab.; ITVx M. Clark's Beach; 211/2 M. Bay Roberts; 24 M. JS^aniard's 
Bay; 26Vs M. TiUon (see below). 

31 Vs M. Harbour Grace iOordon Lodge, Cochrane Ho,, $ ii/s), the second 
town of the island, with (1901) 5184 inhab., is a clean, well-built little place, 
finely situated on the W. shore of Conception Bay. It carries on a large 
trade. The handsome Roman Catholic Cathedral, destroyed by fire some 
years ago, has been rebuilt. — 88 M. Carbonear (8708 inhab.). 

Fbom Cabbonbab to Clabenvillb, 148 M. (fare $3.80). The steamer 
'Ethie' of the Reid Newfoundland Go. connects at CSarbonear every Tues. 
and Sat. with trains from St. John's and runs to ports in Trinity Bay. 
The steamer first calls at (13 M.) Western Bay (1000 inhab.) and (25 H.) Bay 
de Verde in Conception Bay, and then crosses the mouth of Trinity Bay 
to (55 M.) Catalina (p. 117). Here it turns to the S. and steers along the 
W. coast of Trinity Bav to (76 M.) Trinity (see p. 116), New Bonaventure (^lA.), 
British Harbour (93 M.), and (lOS M.) Britannia Cove^ with noted slate- 
<iuarries. It then steers through Bmith Sound, to the N. of Random Island. 
180 H. Fox Harbour; 136 M. Hickman's Harbour. — 148 M. Clarenville lies 
on the railway (see p. 121), opposite the W. side of Bandom Island. 

On its return-trip from Clarenville (Mon. & Frid.) the steamer crosses 
Trinity Bay to Heart's Content (1075 inhab.), which lies on the E. shore, 
and is now world-famous as the W. terminus of the Anglo-American Co.'s 
cables. The officials here are most courteous and attentive to strangers and 
ready to explain all the mysteries of telegraphy. — This place may also 
be reached by a pleasant drive (11-18 M.) from Harbour Grace or Carbonear 
(see above). 

57 M. Whitboume Junction fhotel), for another branch-line to 
Harbour Grace, passing (10 M.) Broad Cove (p. 112) and connecting 
with the branch described above at (22 M.) TiUon. 

At (64i/2 M.) Placentia Junction diverges the branch -line to 
(20 M.) Placentia (through-fares from St. John's $ 2.50, $ 2, $ 1.70). 

This line runs to the 8.W. past (12 M.) Ville MatHe. 

Placentia {Bradshaw^s Inn, $1, unpretending, but clean and comfort- 
able), a quaint little town with 1300 inhab., on the bay of its own name 
(comp. p. 114), was founded and fortified by the French, in 1660 and held 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Newfoundland, NOTRE DAME BAY. 26. Route. 121 

by them till 1713 (comp. p. 106). It lies on a shingly beach and is sur- 
rounded by exquisite scenery, especially along the arms of the sea, one of 
which runs 10 M. inland. In July they abound in sea-trout of the finest 
quality. The remains of the Oldest Protestant Church (Ch. of England) in 
the island are here, but in a most dilapidated condition. It contains a 
handsome silver communion-service presented to it by William IV., who 
visited Placentia when a midshipman. On one of its old Tombstones is 
an inscription in the Basque language, the Basques having been among the 
earliest fishermen on the coast (comp. p. 105). — The old Court House is 
close to the church'. Other objects of interest are Castle Hilly with remains 
of the French fortifications} Point Verde (SM.)} and Lily White Pond (5 M.), 
famous for its trout. 

Placentia Bay. The steamer lArgyle' of the Beid Newfoundland Co. 
plies on Placentia Bay, leaving Placentia every Mon. on the arrival of the 
train from St. John's, for all points on the inner bay, and every Wed., 
on the arrival of the train, for all points on the outer bay. 

The steamer *Prospero' leaves Placentia every Wed. ^p. 114) and the 
*Glencoe' every Sat. (p. 118) for Port-aux-Basques (p. 115). 

Beyond Placentia Junction the train luns tluougli a wild, lugged 
district, traversing the narrow isthmns that connects the peninsula 
of Avalon with the main body of the Island. 82 M. Tickle Harbour; 
90 M. Rantem; 92 M. La Manche ;iOi M. Amold^s Cove; 105 M. 
Come-by-Chance j 118 M. Northern Bight; 133 M. Clwrenville (steamer 
to Hearths Content and Carbonear, see p. 120); 136 M. Shoal Hot- 
bour; 145 M. Thorbum Lake. — At (153 M.) Port Bland ford, where 
good sea-bathing and salmon and trout Ashing may be obtained, the 
scenery improves. 

The steamer ^Dundee' of the Beid Newfoundland Oo. connects at Port 
Blandford with trains from St. John's and Port-aux-Basques every Mon. and 
Frid. and makes a coipplete cir cuit of the beautiful Bonavista Bay (comp. 
p. 116), calling at 21 ports, and taking about 3 days for the trip. 

166 M. Terra Nova (Stone's, $ 1 Vl)) <>'i * 1*^^® of the same name, 
is one of the best hunting-resorts in Newfoundland, while the Terra 
Nova River is noted for its salmon (touring parties must take their 
own outfits with them). 183 M. Alexander Bay. — At (191 M.) 
Qanibo (Gambo Hotel), the centre of another good hunting-district, 
we cross the fine river of that name by a steel bridge. The river con- 
tains excellent trout, while Lake Qambo is famous for its land-locked 
salmon. — 206 M. Benton, — At (233 M.) Olenwood the train cros- 
ses the Oander River. To the S. lies Oander Lake, a fine sheet of 
water 33 M. long, on which good boating may be had. It is sur- 
rounded by dense forests, in which much lumbering is done. — From 
(247 M.) Notre Dame Junction a branch-line runs to the N. to (9M.) 
Lewisporte (350 inhab. ; Somerset Ho., Lewisporte Ho., primitive). 

At Lewisporte the train connects with the steamer 'Clyde' of the Reid 
Newfoundland Co. for the trip round Notre Bame Bay (comp. p. 116). 
The steamer leaves every Mon. for the S. side, returning every Wed. 5 and 
leaves every Frid. for the N. side, returning every Sunday. This is one 
of the most beautiful trips in Newfoundland. The steamer winds in and 
out among the hundreds of islands that fill the bay, affording a fine pano- 
rama of picturesque fshing-villages and majestic coastal scenery. Ther 
are numerous points of call. 

256 M. Exploit8j on the Exploits River, the longest in the island 
(200 m.; comp. p. 116). The lino now follows the v^ey of this 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

122 Route 26. GRAND LAKE. Newfoundland. 

river, whicli contains much useful timl)er and large tracts of good 
arable land. The scenery is attractive , and beautiful wild-flowers 
flank the railway. — 269 M. Bishop's Falls; 284 M. Rushy Pond; 
296 M. Badger Brook. — From (312 M.) MUlertown Junction a 
branch-railway runs to (14 M.) Millertowny with the mills of the 
Harmsworth Pulp Co,, belonging to the well-known London news- 
paper owners. — 317 M. 8t, Patrick's Brook is a famous hunting- 
resort. In this vicinity the caribou in migrating cross the railway, 
going S. in Sept. and N. in May. — 324 M. West Brook, The train 
now leaves the Exploits River Valley. — At (336 M.) Oaff Topsail 
(1700 ft.) we reach the highest point of the line, on the watershed 
between the Exploits and Grand Lake. The so-called ^Topsails^ are 
three singular granitic eminences springing from the level plateau. 
Granite boulders strew the ground , and granite-quarries are worked 
here. — The train now follows Kitty's Brook and soon enters the 
spacious Humber Valley j which contains much fertile land and 
large deposits of marble. The scenery is also very fine. At places 
the river is lined by cliffs of marble and limestone, several hundred 
feet high. For the next 100 M. or so scarcely a house is seen from 
the train. Indeed this paucity of houses is characteristic of nearly 
the whole line, the explanation being that the settlements of New- 
foundland are nearly all on the coast and that the railway has been 
built, not to meet the wants of a settled population, but to open up 
the interior of the island for industrial enterprise. 

365 M. Orand Lake Station, a coal-mining point, lie son *Orand 
Lake, a fine sheet of water, 56 M. long and 6-6 M. wide, with an 
island, .22 M. long, in its centre. There is a good sportsman's hotel 
here. Numerous cascades descend into the lake from the densely- 
wooded shores and from the island. Deer abound in the plateaux 
overlooking the lake and in the neighbouring White HiU Plains. — 
376 M. Deer Lake Station (no house), where sportsmen leave the 
train for fishing and hunting on the upper Humber River, the 
entrance to which can be seen on the opposite side of the lake. The 
first pool sought is that below the (20 M.) Orand Falls, Leaving 
Deer Lake Station, the train runs along the banks of the ^Lower 
Humber Rivet, For the next 14 M. it broadens almost into a lake, 
with foliage-laden banks, and then for an equal distance rushes 
through a deep defile, with scarred and treeless cliffs towering many 
hundred feet in grim majesty. 

The Humber discharges its waters into the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
at (404 M.) Bay of Islands, or, more properly, Humber Mouth 
(comp. p. 115), the former name belonging by rights to the entire 
district. Here the steamer 'Home* of the Reid Newfoundland Co. 
leaves every Wed., on the arrival of the train, for Battle Harbour 
(pp. 117, 119), connecting there with the steamer * Virginia Lake* 
for the coast of Labrador or for the E. coast route to St. John's 
(R. 26e). — 408 M. Curling or Birchy Cove (Mrs. Petrie, $ li/a) a 

Newfoundland. SPRUCE BROOK. Q6. Route. 123 

beautifal spot witli a brancli of tlie Bank of Montreal. A good hotel 
is mucli needed for snmmer-Tisitors. 

Bay of Islands and Bonne Bay are destined to be the chief tourist 
resorts of the W. coast of Newfoundland on account of their beautiful 
scenery, which has been characterized as the finest in North America. 
The railway between the Humber Mouth and Port-aux-Basques also makes 
accessible more good salmon and trout fishing streams than can probably 
be found in the same distance anywhere else in the world. 

A valuable deposit of slate has been found at Bay of Islands, and is 
now being shipped to England. There are similar deposits in Trinity Bay, 
Bonavista Bay, and Placentia Bay. 

427 M. Howards, in a mining-district. — 430 M. Spruce Brook 
(♦Log Cabin Hotel, $ 21/2, with tennis conrts, canoeing, boating, 
flsbing, etc.). The charming rustic hotel here is much frequented 
by tourists with ladies in their party. It is situated near 8t, George's 
Lake, a beautiful sheet of water about 8 M. long by 2-3 M. wide, 
surrounded by high and timber-covered hills. The next station 
(439 M.) Harry's Brook, also has excellent salmon-fishing. — 453 M. 
Stephenville is the point of departure by water for Sandy Point, the 
centre of the great herring-fishery of Bay St, George (comp. p. 116). 
This fine bay, a favourite summer-resort, is adjoined by deposits of 
coal, lead, iron, gypsum, and asbestos. — The railway crosses the 
head of the bay to (460 M.) St George's (*St. George's Hotel, $ 2, 
resembling the Spruce Brook Log Cabin; Nandini's, $ 1, for sports- 
men), with bathing, boating, fishing, and golfing. Three rivers 
unite here and empty into Bay St. George : Harry's Brook, Bottom 
Brook, and Southwest Brook, all excellent salmon -streams. The 
bay may still be seen from the railway, which now in places passes 
over a flat and treeless waste of sand-dunes. — At (474 M.) Fishel^s 
the train enters a section known as *The Rivers on account of 
the many streams that traverse it. 481 M. Robinson^ s. — 486 M. 
00665 (farm-house). The Crabbs River has splendid salmon and 
trout fishing. There are good roads and fine Highland scenery in 
the vicinity. — 504 M. North Branch and (513 M.) South Branch 
are the stations for the Grand River Codroy, a fine stream about 
35 M. long, with good salmon - fishlufe in the early season (June 
15th-July 16th). The train now runs behind the Anguille Hills. 
523 M. Doyle's, a favourite resort for sportsmen. At (528 M.) Little 
Bivcr (Tompkins, $174) excellent salmon and trout fishing may be 
had from June 15th till the end of tbe season on the Little Codroy, 
a favourite river with American anglers. We next traverse several 
miles of rocky barrens. 

548 m. Port-aux-Basques, see p. 116. Steamer to North Sydney, 
see p. 119. Steamers to Placentia, see R. 26 c and R. 26f ; to Bonne 
Bay, see R. 26c. 



27. St. Pierre and Miqnelon. 

A steamer of the SociiU St. Pierraise dt NavigaHon h Vapeur and 
the 'St. Pierre Hiquelon^ of the Plant Line ply fortnightly from Halifax to 
the French islands of St, Pierre and Iffquelon. taking aboat 2 days to the 
voyage (fare $12). The steamers rnn to Sydney throngh the Br<u d*Or 
Lakes by the route described at pp. 63-67, except when prevented by ice, 
and cross thence to St. Pierre^ a distance of about 100 M. 

Tlie Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, ceded by Great Britain to 
France as a shelter for her fishermen hy the Treaty of Paris (1763) 
and now the only lelics of the once great French empire In Ameiica*, 
are situated at the month of Fortune Bay (p. 114), about 10 M. 
from the peninsula of Burin (p. 114), the nearest part of Newfound- 
land, and about equidistant (135 M.) from Cape Race (p. 113) and 
Cape Ray (p. 115). Great Miquelon Island^ about 12 M. long, is 
connected by a sandy isthmus with Little Miquelon or Langlade Is- 
land^ which is about the same size. The island of iSf*. Pierr^is much 
smaller, being only about 4 M. in diameter, but it is much the 
more important of the two, containing the capital and the only good 
harbour. The two islands, which contained in 1902 a resident pop- 
ulation of 6482, of whom about 5900 were in St. Pierre, were of 
immense importance to France as the station from which she carried 
on her fisheries on the Banks of Newfoundland. The fisheries along 
the so-called French Shore (p. 108) have, however, dwindled till 
they are now visited only by 8-10 French vessels in the course of 
the year, while, since the bait-selling regulations (see p. 108), the 
Banks fishery has also been practically ruined for the present. The 
export of cod from the islands in 1905 amounted to 13,027 tons 
(metric); the number of fishermen employed fell from 3178 in 1903 
to 1900 in 1906. The fisheries are supported by large bounties. 
Vegetation on the islands is of the poorest description, only a few 
garden vegetables being grown. Dense fogs prevail in summer and 
often hang over the islands for days together. 

The town of St. Pierre (Hotel Joinville, $2; Pension Co$te, 
$ 1 V2, weU spoken ofj British Consul, Mr, Arthur W, W.Woodhouse), 
which lies on the E. side of the island, is the seat of the Governor 
of the Islands and is the landing-place of two transatlantic cables. 
During the fishing-season it presents a very busy aspect, its road- 
stead often containing scores of fishing - vessels , while hundreds 
of fishermen are temporarily added to its small population. The 
chief buildings are the Governor's House j the Court of Justice^ the 
large Church and Convent, the Hospital^ and the Schools. Altogether, 
the little town is unique in character, and the visitor will find much 
to Interest him in it and in the customs and manners of the fishermen 
who frequent it. He may either return by the same steamer after 
3 days or wait 17 days for the next one. 



Route Page 

28. Montreal 125 

Environs of Montreal 138 

29. From Montreal to Quebec 139 

a. Vi& tlie Canadian Pacific Railway (N. Shore of the 

St. Lawrence) 139 

Shawenegan Falls 140 

b. Via the Intercolonial RaUway (S. Shore of the 

St. Lawrence) 140 

c. Via the Grand Trunk Railway (S. Shore of the 

St. Lawrence) 141 

d. Via the Canadian Northern Quebec Railway . . 142 

From Joliette to Hawkesbury 142 

e. Via the St. Lawrence 142 

Abenakifl Springs 143 

From Sorel up the Ricbelieu River to Cbambly 143 

30. Quebec 145 

31. Excursions from Quebec 157 

a. L^vis 157 

b. Isle of Orleans 167 

c. Falls of Montmorency and Ste. Anne de Beaupr^ 158 

d. Lorette. Charlesbourg. Lake Beanport. Lake St 
Charles 160 

32. From Quebec to Lake St. John and Chicoutimi . . .161 

Chateau Bigot 162 

Falls of Lorette 162 

Laurentides National Park 168 

Grand Discharge. Ouiatcbouan Fallfl. Pointe Bleue 166 
From the Island House to Chicoutimi by River . 165 

33. From Quebec to Chicoutimi. The Saguenay .... 166 

Excursions from Murray Bay 168 

Cacouna . 168 

28. Montreal. 

Railway Stations. Bonaventure Station (PI. D, 6, 7), St. James St., for 
trains of the Grand Trunk Railway, Intercolonial Railway, Central Ver* 
mont R.R., Delaware A Hudson R.R., etc. : Windsor Street Station (PI. C, 6), 
Windsor St., the chief station of the Canadian Pacific Railway, also used 
by the Adirondack line of the New York Central R. R. (p. 16); Viger Square 
Station (PI. E, F, 4), on the E. side of the city, for the Quebec. Ottawa, 
and N. local trains of the C. P. R. — Steamers, see p. 126. — Cabs, see 
p. 126. The omnibuses of the chief hotels meet the trains and steamers 
(fare 26 c). 

Hotels. •Windsor (PI. a; C, 6), excellently situated in Dominion 
Square, with 800 beds, $ 3V«-5 (extension in progress, with rooms on the 
European plan); •Place Vigeb Hotel (PI. f; E, 8), Viger Sq., owned by 
t«he 0. P. R., $3-5,*R. from 311/2; 'St. Lawrence Hall rPl^j; D, E, 5), 

Digitized by dC)OQlC 

126 Route 28. MONTREAL. 

St. James St., recently enlarged and improved, good cuisine, $2Vt-4, R. 
from $ 1 i Corona (PI. d-, B, 7). 468 Guy St., adjoining His Majesty's Theatre, 
B. from $1, with bath from $2, well spoken of; Qubbn's Hotbl (PI. c, 
D, 6), cor. of Windsor St. and St. James St., opposite the Bonaventure 
Station, commercial, $ 2Vs-3Vs-) Cabslakb Hotel, St. James St., opp. the 
Bonaventure Station , commercial, R. from $ 1 ; St. James Hotel (PI. h ; 
D, 6), opp. the Bonaventure Station, $2-8, B. from $1, commercial; Albion 
(PI. i; E, 6), Ul McGill St., $2-2V2. — Boarding Houses ($6-10 a week): 
Mrs Richardson^ 28 HcGill College Ave.; Llewelyn Hotel, 17 McGill College 
Ave. ; Y. W. C. A.^ opposite the Windsor Hotel (for ladies, from $lVi); Mrs. 
Benoit^ iSVz Osborne St., $1; Mrs. Squire^ Mrs. Evam^ 8i0 £ 897 Dorchester 
St. — Lodgings are also easily procured. 

Restaurants. Bodega^ i7« Kotre Dame St. (good wines) ; Freeman^ 154 
St. James St. ; C. M. Alexander^ 219 St. James St ; John F. AUxand«r^ 2368 
St. Catherine St.: Oxford Cafi^ 36 University St. ; DaviUy 188 St. Peter St.; 
GriU Rooms of *at. Latorence and Windsor Hotels (p. 125); Corona Ifota, see 
above ; at Morgan" s^ the John Murphy Co.^ and other departmental stores ; 
at the railway-stations. 

Sleetrio Tramways traverse tlie city in various directions, and ex- 
tend to Mount Royal (p. 186), to (i/s hr.) Summerlea (Lachine; pp. 188, 
280), and to various other points in the Island of Montreal. Fare D e. (six 
tickets 25 c.), to the extra-mural points 10 c, to Lachine 15 c, to Bout de 
risle 25 c. 

Oabs (good and cheap). With one horse, 1-2 pers. for >/« hr. ^ c. >^ hr. 
40 c, 1 hr. 75 c, each hr. addit. 60 c.; 84 pers. 40 c. 60 c, $1, 75 c. 
With two horses : 1-2 pers., 50 c, 65 c, $ 1; 3-4 pers., 65 c, 75 c, $ 1.25. 
Trunk 10 c. ; small articles free. Double fares from midnight to 4 am. 
The cabmen of the Montreal Hackmen's Union (identified by but^n with 
M. H. U.) may be recommended. 

Observation Oars start from the Windsor Hotel daily in summer at 
10 a.m. and 2 p.m., visiting the chief sights of the city and encircling Mt. 
Royal (2 hrs. ; fare 50 c). 

Steamers. 1. Steam Febsies ply at frequent intervals to 8t. Helen" s Is- 
land (p. 137), 8t. Lambert (pp. 14, 18S), Longueuil (p. 188), and Laprairie (p. 138). 
— 2. RivEB Steamebs, belonging to the Richelieu A Ontario Ifavigation Co. 
(228 St. Paul St.), the Ottawa Co. (161 Common St.), and other lines, ply 
regularly from Montreal up or down the St. Lawrence to Quebec (see R. 29 e), 
Three Rivers (p. 139), the Saguenay (R. 83), Beauhamois (p. 122), Cornwall 
(p. 229), Kingston (R. 47), Toronto (p. 188), and other ports ; up the Ottawa 
to Carillon (p. 185) and Ottawa (p. 176); to ports on the rivers Richelieu 
(p. 143) and Yamaska (p. 141), etc. — 3. Labgeb Steamebs run to Char- 
lottetoton^ Pietou^ and Bt. John's (Newfoundland), and to other ports in 
Gasptf, the Bale des Chaleurs, the Gulf of St. Lawrence , Prince £dward 
Island, and Cape Breton (Quebec Steamship Line, etc.). — 4. Ocean Steamebs 
run to Liverpool (Allan Line, Dominion Line, C. P. R. Atlantic 8. 8. Line, 
etc. ; comp. R. 1 a), to Glasgow (Allan Line ; comp. R. 1 c), to London^ to 
Bristol, to Hamburg, to Antwerp, and to other transatlantic ports. 

Amusements. His Majesty" s Theatre (PI. B, 7), Guy St., the chief theatre 
of Montreal, seats from 25 c. to $lVs) Thidtre des NowvauUs (PL D, 4), 
1861 St. Catherine St. (well-acted modern French plays): Academy of Music 
(PL 2; C, 5), Victoria St. ; TMdtre Frangais (PL D, 4), 1889 St. Catherine St. ; 
Theatre Royal (PI. D, 5), Cotd St., 10-50c. — Arena^ St. Catherine Si, cor. 
of Wood Ave., for concerts, light opera, sports, etc. ; Victoria Hall, Drum- 
mond St., for concerts ; i/bnutnent National (Pi. H, A), 218 St. Lawrence Boule- 
vard, for concerts and entertainments ; Stanley Hall, 96 Stanley St., behind 
the Windsor Hotel. — Sohmer Park (PI. F, 3), in Hotre Dame St., on the 
bank of the river, a sort of ^al fresco* music hall, with variety-entertain- 
ments (adm. 10 c, menagerie 10c. extra); Dominion Park at Longue Pointe 
(p. 143), a similar resort (both reached by electric car, fare 5c.). — Con- 
certs are given by the Montreal OratoHo Society and the PMlharmonie. 
Society. — Crystal Slating Rink (PI. C, 7), Dorchester St.; PHnce Arthur 
Skating Rink (PI. B, 3), Duluth Ave.; Stadium Skating Rink (PI. C, *X), 805 St. 
Hubert St. — Tobogganing is exgoyed in winter at the Park Slide (^l. A, 6), 

Digitized byCjOO^lC 


MONTREAL. 28, Route, 127 

I the W. slope of Mt. Royal Park. — Lacroue^ the Canadian national gan^e 
>nip. p. Iviii), may be well seen at the grounds of the Montreal Amateur 
%letie Auociatiim ^1. B, 6) or of the Bhamroek Club (matches usnally on 
i. in summer and autumn). — Caledonian Curling Rink^ Burnside Place ^ 
istle Curling Rink, Ste. Honique St. (PI. C, D. Q)\ Montreal CurUng Club, 
Bt. Luke St. — The Montreal Snow Shoe Club (^Tuque Bleue*) gives torch- 
It parades in winter from McGill College Gates to Outremont (pictur- 
ue blanket uniform). Other snowshoe clubs are Lt Montagnard (the 

if French snowshoe club), St, Oeorge't (with a good club-house on the 

intain), Argyle, and Holly. — Yachting and Boating are carried on on 
ISt. Lawrence at Longueuil (p. 138), Ste, Anne (p. 185). Laehine (p. 280), 

\ and there are also clubs for Cricket, Oolf (grounds at Laehine, St. 
Hibert, Dixie, Outremont, etc.), Football, Hockey, Bicycling, Tenni; etc. — 
\ Montreal Hunt claims to be the best in America (meets thrice weekly 
6ept.-Dec.; wild fox). The fine Kennel* of the club are on the Cote 
Catherine Boad, Notre Dame des Neiges. The Canadian Hunt Club has 
headquarters at Slocum Lodge, opposite St. Lambert (p. 14). — Horse 

inff is carried on, in summer and autumn, at the Behritnier Park and 

Bei-Air Racecourse, both reached by railway. 

Exhibitions of Paintings are held in the Art Oallery (p. 134). Among 
i best priTate collections are those of Lord Strathcona, Sir W, C, Vam 
me^ Mr. R. B, Angus, Mr. James Ross, and Sir George Drummond, 

Newspapers. The following are among tbe chief papers published at 
Utreal. English : The Oazette, founded in 1777 and published continuously 
Be ±196, is the oldest still existing paper in Canada (Conservative; 2 c.) ; 
t Herald (Liberal ^ 1 c); The Star (Ic); The Witness (Ic.) ; The True 
tness (Irish and Home Rule; 5 c). French: La Patrie (Lib.; 1 c); Le 
tada (Lib. ; ic)\ La Presse (Con. ; 1 c.) ; VAurore (French Prot. weekly ; 
fe.). — Numerous weekly, monthly, and quarterly periodicals are also 
fblished in both languages. 

Olnbs. Mt. Royal (PI. B, 6), Sherbrooke St., cor. Stanley St. -, St. James 
I. 8& C, 6), 831 Dorchester St.; St Denis Club, 88 St. Denis St.; Canada 
lb, in Board of Trade Building (p. 187); Montreal Club, Canadian Pacific 
legraph Building; Club Canadien de Montreal^ 350 Lagaucheti^re St. — 
>ntreal Amateur Athletic Association^ 260 Peel St. (PI. B, 6), with gym- 
lium, library, etc. (strangers admitted for one week on introduction by 
member); grounds, with cinder-track and club-house, on St. Catherine 

West (comp. above). — National Amateur Athletic Association (French), 
th grounds in Ontario St. East (sec, L^onBoUand, 6 St. Vincent St.).— 
rest is Stream Country Chib, on Lake St. Louis, at Dorval (p. 186). 

Oonsnls. U. 8. Consul-General, Major Church Hou>e, 260 St. James St. ; 
leneh Consul-General, Mr. Dallemagne; German Consul, Mr. Franksen. 

Fur Shops. Henderson, Robertson, St. J&mta 8%. (Nos. 229 Jk 283); Samuel, 
, Catherine St.; Desjardins (French), 1533 St. Catherine St. — AX 'Our 
wulicrafte Shop\ belonging to the Canadian Handicraft OuUd, may be 
irchased specimens bf Habitant, Doukhobor, Galician, and Indian work. 
, Photographs of Canadian scenery, etc, may be obtained of William Not- 
N> A Son, Birks Building, Phillips Square, opposite the English Cathedral, 
I at the Windsor Hotel. 

Baths. Turkish Baths, 140 Ste. Honique St. (Turkish bath $ 1 ; plunge 

swimming bath 25 c.); Mt. Royal Sanatorium, 45 Metcalfe St., opposite 
indsor Hotel (Turkish, electric, and other bath.4); Laurentian Baths, 
1-210 Craig St. ; plunge baths at the Y. M, C. A. Building (p. 133), Dominion 

Ix^oimiridng Baths on St. Helen's Island. 
Post Office (PI. £, 5), St. James St., open 7.30-7 (mails to Great Brit- 
four times weekly, to the United States twice daily ; comp. p. xxi). — 
egraph Offices. Great Northwestern Telegraph Co., 6 St Sacrament St.; 
adian Pcieific Railway Co.''s Telegraph, 4 Hospital St a, both with many 
ach-offices. — Bell Telephone Co., 1760 Notre Dame St. — Dominion 
>ress (h., 187 St. James St ; American Express Co., National Express Co., 
1 Canadian Express Co., all at 94 McGill St. (G.T.R. BuildingjI j 

128 Route 28. MONTREAL. SUuation. 

Tourist In/ormaaon Bureau (of the ^Montreal Biuiness Men's Lea{g:ue'), 
Leeming-Hiles Bailding, St. Lawrence Boulevard, near Notre Dame 8t. 

The Streets of Montreal are supposed to have both the English and 
French forms of their names at the comers generally the French in the 
E. part of the town and the English in the w.). The streets running E. 
and W. are distinguished as ^Weit' or *East' with reference to St. Lawrence 
Boulevard, where the numbering begins. [As this, however, is a very re- 
cent innovation, the old numbers of the houses are still partly in use.] 

Principal Attractions. ^Notrt Dame Church; 8t. Jameses Cathedral; 
EngUsh Cathedral; * Mount Royal Park, with •View, ^'Hdtel Dieu; Gr«y 
Nunnery; Chdteau de Ramezay; Botuecours Market; Art Gallery; Natural 
History Museum; Fraser Institute; McOill University^ with Redpath Museum; 
Board of Trade; Bank of Montreal; ''Victoria Bridge. 

Montreal {i^lit,\ the largest city and chief commercial centre of 
the Dominion of Canada, is situated on the S.E. side of the triangular 
island of the same name, formed by two of the branches into which the 
Ottawa divides as it flows into the St. Lawrence. The island is about 
30 M. long and 7-10 M. wide. The city, which covers an area 41/2 M. 
long and 2 M. wide, is built upon a series of gently-sloping terraces, 
culminating, 2 M. from the river, in the hill of Mont Rial or Mt. Roy at 
(900 ft above the sea), from which it derives its name. It is about 
400 M. from New York, 980 M. from the Straits of Belle Isle (p. 103), 
and 2750 M. from Liverpool (300 M. nearer than New York). Though 
not even the capital of its own province (Quebec), Montreal exer- 
cises great political influence , and it is the seat of the chief banks, 
trading corporations, universities, hospitals, convents, and seminaries 
of Canada. In 1901 Montreal contained 267,730 inhab., an increase 
of 20 per cent over 1891. More than half were of French extraction, 
one -sixth Irish, one -seventh English, and one - thirteenth Scottish. 
About three-fourths of the population are Roman Catholics. With its 
suburbs, it now contains at least 350,000 people. The French mainly 
occupy the E. quarters of the city, the dividing line being St. Law- 
rence Boulevard. The streets in the lower part of the town are ir- 
regular, narrow, and dingy, but those of the upper part are broad 
and well-built. The chief business- streets, with the best shops, are 
Notre Dame Street^ St. James Street, and St. Catherine Street, all run- 
ning parallel with the River St. Lawrence ; the streets immediately ad- 
joining the river are also the scene of great bustle and activity. The 
handsomest residences are in the N.W. part of the city, adjoining the 
slopes of Mt Royal. Most of the public edifices and many of the 
private residences are built of a fine grey limestone, quarried in the 
neighbourhood. The climate of Montreal is warm in summer and 
cold in winter, the thermometer often marking 80** Fahr. in the 
former, and sometimes, though not often, descending to 20** below 
zero in the latter. The mean annual temperature is 42° 

History. Situated in the French-speaking, Roman Catholic province 
of Quebec, within 45 H. of the frontier of the British and Protestant 
Ontario, Montreal partakes of the character of both and forms a mi- 
crocosm of the cdmposite Dominion of Canada. The French and Anglo- 
Saxon elements remain curiously distinct, socially as well as geographically. 
We first hear of the island of Montreal in 1536, when Jacques Cartternacended 
the St. Lawrence and visited the flourishing Indian to^n of Soehelaga 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

History. MONTREAL. 28. Route. 129 

(^Ho8h*e la-ga"), which lay at the foot of the mountain and has its name pre- 
served in that of the E. ward of the modern city. {A tablet in Metcalfe St. 
(PL B, C, 5), near Sherbrooke St^ marks what is supposed to have been 
the site of Hochelaga.] When Champlain visited the spot seventy years 
later Hochelaga had disappeared, as the result of a war between the 
Hurons and the Iroquois. The town of Ville-Marie de Montreal was founded 
in 16^ by Paul de Chomedy^ Sieur de Maitonneuve, for *La Compagnie de 
Montrear. "The main point to be remembered in connection with the 
early settlement of Montreal is that it was the result of religious enthus- 
iasm. . . It was an attempt to found in America a veritable ^Kingdom of 
God* as understood by devout Roman Catholics. The expedition was 
fitted out in France solely for that purpose , and the inception of the 
enterprise has many romantic particulars of Voices and revelations* and 
^providential occurrences* by which the zeal of its founders was supported 
and stimulated** (8. E. Dawson), During the early years of its existence 
the little post of Ville-Marie was engaged in an almost constant struggle 
with the Iroquois, and in 1660 the whole island outside the palisades of 
the town was overrun by the Indians. In 1663 the Company of Montreal 
abandoned the island and seigneurie pav pur don to the Seminary of St. 
Snlpice, which still retains the position of Seigneur. Two years later 
the Marquis de Tracy arrived from France with the famous Carignan- 
Sali^res Regiment, with which he did much to break the power of the 
Indians. By 1672 the town had a population of 1500 souls , and it soon 
became the entrepdt of the fur-trade with the West and the starting- 
point of numerous military and exploring expeditions (La Salle, Joliet, 
Hennepin, etc.), earning a true clsdm to the title of ^Mother of Cities*. 
In 168o the city was surrounded by a wooden palisade 16 ft. high, which 
was replaced in 1721-26 by a bastioned wall and ditch; the citadel was 
also built at this time. [The wall ran from Victoria Sq. (PI. D, 5, 6) to 
Viger Sq. (PI. E, 4), in the course indicated by the present Fortification 
Lane (PI. D, 6), and extended down to the river on each side.] Montreal, 
then containing 4000 inhab. , was the last place in Canada held by the 
French, but was surrendered to the English a year after the capture of 
Quebec (Sept., 1760). In 1776-76 the city was occupied by the troops of 
the Continental Congress under Montgomery, but the citizens resisted all 
Franklin*s attempts to persuade them to join in the revolution against 
British rule. Since then the history of Montreal has been one of uneventful 
CTOWth and prosperity. In 1809 the 'Accommodation*, the second steamer 
in America, was built at Montreal and began running regularly to Quebec 
Montreal was made the seat of the Canadian Government in 1844, but lost 
this dignity after the riot of 1849. in which the Parliament Buildings were 
destroyed by the mob. The British garrison was removed in 1870. 

Among the events which mark epochs in the city*s prosperity were 
the opening of the Lachine Canal in 1826: the incorporation of the 
Cbamplain A St. Lawrence Railway, from Laprairie to St. John*s, in 
1832 •, the formation of the Grand Trunk Railway (1852) and the construc- 
tion of the Victoria Bridge (1H69); the establishment of the Allan Line of 
Ocean Steamers in 1866; and the completion of railway communication 
with the Pacific Ocean via the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1BS6. The 
population of Montreal rose from about 10.000 in 1800 to 57,716 in 1851, 
to 90,328 in 1861, to 107,226 in 1871, to 165,337 in 1881, and to 216,650 in 
1891. — Comp. ^The Jesuits in North America*, hj Francis Parkman; 'The 
Old Regime in Canada*, by the same*, the ^Semi-Centennial Report of the 
Montreal Board of Trade' (1893)*, 'Montreal after Two Hundred and Fifty 
Years*, by W. D. Lighthail; and *Montreal, Past and Present*, by Alfred 
Sandham (out of print). 

A number of the most interesting historical sites in Montreal have 
been marked by tablets erected by the Ifumistnatie de Antiquarian Society. 

Gommerce and Industry. Montreal is the chief port of entry of Ca- 
nada, lying at the head of ocean navigation (open for seven months in the 
year) and at the foot of the great river, lake, and canal navigation ex- 
tending to the West. The canals aff'ord a continuous inland waterway 

Baedekkb*8 Canada. 3rd Edit. Digitized by V^OOglC 

130 RovU 25. MONTREAL. ^^otre Dame, 

from Port Arthur, at the head of Lake Superior, to Montreal, a distance 
of 1220 M. and here they connect with several lines of transatlantic steamers. 
These facts, taken in connection with its extensive railway-communicstions. 
account for the volume of its trade, which in the year 1905 was valuea 
at $154,131,963 (3O,826,C0W. ; imports $80,345,420, exports $73,786,648). 
The tonnage of sea-going vessels entering the harbour in the same y«ar 
was 1,940,056, four-fifths of which were British, while the tonnage of the 
river-craft amounted to 2,185,551. The chief exports are timber, grain, 
flour, cattle, phosphates, apples, butter, and cheese^ the imports include 
iron, glass, tea, wine, groceries, and numerous manufactured articles and 
*dry goods*. In 1905 the port awned 605 vessels, of 98,550 tons. — The 
manufactures of Montreal, with an invested capital of about $86,000 000, 
embrace boots and shoes, clothes, sugar, tobacco, beer, machinery, rubber, 
packs, tool?, silk, cotton, woollens, paints, carriages, and electrical goods, 
and there are numerous large ilour-mills and saw-mills. They employ 
60 000 hands, and their total value maybe estimated at at lea't $80,000,000 
(16,000,000/.). In 1906 the municipal assessihent was $182,501,262 (36,5CO.C00/.). 
The Bank of Montreal (see below), in St. James St, claims to have the largest 
capital and rest (upwards of $25,000,000) of any bank in N. America and 
to be the fifth-largest in the British Empire. 

On the S. side of the Place d'Abmes {V\. E, 5), in the business- 
quarter of the city, stands the Gothic *Charo]i of Notre Dame (Pi. 
E, 6), built in 1824 by James O'Donnell, opposite the site of an 
earlier church of 1672. It is one of the largest ecclesiastical edifices 
in A.merica, being 255 ft. long and 135 ft. wide, and can easily con- 
taiw 12,000 worshippers. The two towers are 227 ft. high. 

The Intebiob is adorned In a rather florid style, but offers compar- 
ativfily little of interest except the wood-carving in the Choir^ the stained- 
gl^ windows of the BaptUtery^ the large Organ^ and the somewhat over- 
ornamented Lady Chapel^ behind the choir. 

The 3. W. TowEB contains a fine chime of 11 bells, one of which, 
*Le Gros Bourdon', weighing upwards of 12 tons, is the heaviest in America. 
The top of this tower (adm. 25 c. ; elevator) commands a magnificent *View 
of Montreal, which the visitor is strongly advised to enjoy before continue 
ing his exploration of the city (comp. p. 186). Mr. W. D. ffowelU describes 
it as follows: — ^30 far as the eye reaches it dwells only upon what is 
magnificent. All the features of that landscape are grand. Below yon 
spreads the city, which has less that is merely mean in it than any other 
city of our continent, and which is everywhere ennobled by stately civic 
edifices, adorned by tasteful churches, and skirted by fuU-foliaged avenues 
of mansions and villas. Behind it rises the beautiful mountain, green 
with woods and gardens to the crest, and flanked on the east by an endless 
fertile plain, and on the west by another expanse, through which the Ottawa 
rushes, turbid and dark, to its confluence with the St. Lawrence. Then 
these two mighty streams commingled flow past the city, lighting up the 
vast champaign country to the South, while upon the utmost southern 
verge, as on the northern, rise the cloudy summits of far-off mountains* 
('Their Wedding Journey*, chap. viii). 

Adjoining Notre Dame on the W. is the Seminary of St. Sulpice 
(PI. 4 ; E, 5), one of the oldest buildings in Montreal, dating from 
1710 (memorial tablets). The E. wing has been rebuilt, and the main 
central entrance has been swept away. This edifice is now used for the 
business-offices of the Seminary (comp. p. 129), while its educational 
work is carried on in the building described at p. 135. — The other 
buildings surrounding the Place d'Armes include yarious banks and 
insurance-offices, among which, opposite the Seminary of St. Sul- 
pice, is the Bank of Montreal^ with its Corinthiaiv^ortico* its im- 

(Ml de Ramt%ay. MONTREAL. 25. Route, 131 

posing *GuaBtavino' dome (72 ft. in diameter), and its handsome 
interior, one of tlie riohest corporations in America (comp. p. 130). 
Adjoining the Bank of Montreal, at the corner of St. James St. and 
St. Francois Xavier St., is the Post Office (PI. E, 5; p. 127), a build- 
ing of grey limestone with a mansard roof. At th^ comer of Notre 
Dame St. is the New York Life Insurance Building (view from t»wer). 
In the middle of the Place d'Armes is a spirited *Statue of Maison- 
neuve (p. 159), by Hibert^ erected in 1895. At the comers of the 
pedestals are figures of Jeanne Mance (p. 136), an Iroquois warrior, 
Charles Lemoyne, the leading colonist of Ville-Marie (p. 129), and 
Lambert Olosse, the first town- major of Ville-Marie, who fell 
fighting the Iroquois. A tablet on the E. side of the square marks 
the house of the Sieur Duluth (1675), who gave his name to 

Following NoTRB Damb Strebt (PI. D-F, 6-2) to the E. from 
the Place d'Armes, we soon reach (left) the Court House (PI. E, 4), 
a large edifice in a classical style, with a central dome, and the City 
Hall (PI. E, 4), a huge building with mansard roofs. — Opposite 
the City Hall stands the interesting old Ch&teau de Samezay, a 
low, rambling building, dating from about 1705, opened in 1896 
as a Civic Museum under the control of the Numismatic and Anti- 
quarian Society (curator, R. W. McLachlan; open free daily, 10-6; 
catalogue 25 c). 

The building was erected aboat 1706 by Claude de Ramezay^ Governor 
of Montreal (170B-24). Later, under the name of 'India House", it became 
the headquarters of the far-trade in Canada. It was the official residence 
of the British Governors (*Govemment House") from 1724 to 1837, and in 
171^76 it was the headquarters of the Continental Army and Commissioners 
(Franklin, Chase, and Charles Carroll; comp. p. 129). In 1837, when par- 
liamentary government was withdrawn from Canada, the chateau became 
the seat of the Special Council that legislated in its stead; and in i84o« 
when Montreal became the seat of government for the United Province of 
Canada, it wai used for departmental offices. On the transference of the 
seat of Government to Ottawa in 1849, Government House was successively 
occupied by the Law Courts, a normal school, and the medical branches 
of Laval University. It was sold to the city in 1893. 

The contents include a bell and other relics of Louisboui^ (p. 69); 
old views and engravings; French Canadian relics; Indian articles. In 
the basement are substantial vaults, with an old oven in the side of the 
fireplace. [Some of the rooms, including one furnished in the style of an 
old Canadian farm-house (the dwelling of a 'habitant', p. 132), are not usually 
shown except to purchasers of the catalogue.] — The ch&teau also contains 
a Free PubHic Library^ with a special 'Montreal* department. 

At the back of the Court House and City Hall extends the Champ- 
db-Mars (PI. E, 4), formerly the parade-ground of the British 
troops, but now somewhat neglected-looking. — In front of the Court 
House and City Hall is Jacqubs Cabtier Squabb (PL E, 4), with 
a column surmounted by a statue of Lord Nelson, erected in 1808. 

At the S. end of the square, near St. Paul St., stood the mansion of 
the Marquis de Vaudreuil^ last French Governor of Canada. — The 
Hubert Laeroix House in 8t, Jean Baptiste St. (No. 25; PI. E, 5), now oc- 
cupied as a warehouse by Messrs. Kerry, Watson, & Co.. is a good example 
of the dwelling of a rich Montreal merchant towar(ls the close of the 

g, .oog[e 

132 Rdute28. MONTREAL. Bontecoun Market 

17th century. — 8i, Amabk and St. Vincent SU. (PL E, 4, 5) also contain some 
interesting old Frencli houses. 

Tlie lower end of Jacques Cartier Sq. abuts on the riyer. By 
turning to the left, we soon reach *BonBecour8 Market (PI. E, 4), 
a large building fiearly 500 ft. long. This should be visited on Tues. 
or Frid. between 5 and 10 a.m. , when it is crowded by the ^Habitants* 
of Lower Canada, offering their farm produce for sale, or buying 
clothing, shoes, trinkets, rosaries, etc. 

To the E. of the market stands the quaint little church of Notre 
Bame de BonsecourSf founded by Sister Marguerite Bourgeois in 1657, 
dating in its present form from 1771, and sadly spoiled by a recent 
tasteless restoration. Some years ago it was nearly swept away to 
make room for a railway-station, but was saved by the intervention 
of a few Protestant lovers of historical association. Inside, suspended 
from the ceiling, are several votive offerings in the form of ships. 
View from the tower (adm. 10 c). 

A little to the N. ^f this point is Yigbb Squabb or Garden 
(PI. E, 3, 4), the chief promenade of the French quarter (good 
music on summer evenings). It contains a statue of J. 0. Cheruer 
(b. ca. 1806, killed at St. Eustache in 1837), unveiled in 1895. 
Here, too, are the large Place Viger Hotel (p. 125) and the Viger 
Square Station of the C.P.R. (p. 125). A tablet on the latter marks 
the site of the old French citadel. 

We may now follow Commissioners Street (PI. E, 4-6) to the 
W. along the river to the (1/2 M.) Custom House (PI. E, 5), a tri- 
angular building of grey limestone, with a clock-tower, situated on 
the spot where Maisonneuve made his first settlement (p. 129 ; memo- 
rial tablets). A Uttle farther to the W. are the Examining Wafter- 
house and the Harbour Office (PI. E, 6). 

The. walk between the Bonsecours Market and the Custom House 
affords a good view of the Harbour, with its wharves and shipping. The 
river-front is protected by a solid stone embankment, IV2 M. long, begin- 
ning at the Lachine Canal (PI. £, 7). The wharves, including those of the 
Allan, Dominion, C. P. B., Richelieu & Ontario, and other important steam- 
ship lines, lie about 10 ft. bcdow the level of the embankment, the object 
of this arrangement being to allow the ice to pass over them, when it 
breaks up at the end of winter. [The so-called *Ice Shove* is a very striking 
and imposing sight, but it is only by accident that one sees it, as it is 
impossible to predict its appearance.] Plans are in contemplation for the 
construction of large wharves jutting out into the river, and this has in- 
volved the building of a long Quard Pier or Jee Breakieater , stretching 
to the E. from the N. end of the Victoria Bridge. Vessels drawing 27Vs ft- 
can reach Montreal at low water, and the channel is usually unobftrncted 
by ice from May to November inclusive. Comp. p. 228. 

From the Examining Warehouse we now ascend McGill Street 
(Pi. E, 6), passing the substantial Or and Trunk Railway Building 
(PI. E, 6), to (V3 M.) Victoria Square (PI. D, 5, 6) , occupying 
the site of the old hay-market. It is embellished with a colossal 
bronze statue of Queen Victoria ^ by Marshall Wood. To the N. 
of the square, at the corner of Lagaucheti^re St. and Beaver Hall 
Hill, stands the. Presbyterian Church of St. Andrjew (PI. J), 5). A 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

8t. James's. MONTREAL. 28, Routf. 133 

house to the E. of the square bears a tablet marking it as the 
residence of James McGill (p. 135). 

SL PairieVt Chureh (PI. D, 5), in St. Alexander St., to the E. of this 
point, is the chief church of the Irish Roman Catholics of Montreal. 

Following Lagaucheti^re St. to the left (W.), we Aach ♦Dominion 
SauABB (PI. G, 6), the finest square In the city, embellished with 
tasteful flower-beds and with two Russian guns captured at Sebas- 
topol. Near the middle of the S.E. side is a statue of Sir John A. 
MacdoncUd (d. 1891 ; p. xxv), erected in 1893, and to the N.W. is a 
monument commemorating the Canadians who fell in the South 
African War of 1899-1900. At the S.E. corner of the square is the 
ArchhUhop^s Palace^ to the N. of which stands the imposing ♦Cathedral 
of St. James (PI. G, 6), almost invariably (though quite erroneously) 
known as St Peter's^ a reproduction on a reduced scale of St. Peter's 
at Rome, founded in 1868 and not yet completed. It is 333 ft. in 
exterior length, 222 ft. in width across the transepts, and 80 ft. high 
to the ridge of the roof. The portico, with its huge Corinthian pil- 
lars, is an effective feature. Over the facade is a row of colossal 
bronze statues of saints. The dome is 260 ft high and 80 ft. in diam- 
eter; it is surmounted by a cross 18 ft. high. The interior produces 
an effect of great light and space. The exterior, with its small and 
rough-faced stones, has a rather mean and prison-like appearance. 

— Adjoining the N.W. corner of St. James's is a statue of Monsignor 
Bourget (1797-1883), second Bishop of Montreal, by J. B. Picher, 
with groups of Religion and Charity on the pedestal. To the N. of 
St. James's, at the comer of Dorchester St., is the building of the 
Young Mens Chmtian Aisociation. On the W. side of Dominion 
Square are the Windsor Hotel (p. 125), the Dominion Square Methodist 
Church (PL 1 ; C, 6), and the handsome SU George's Church (Epis. ; 
PI. 0, 6). The huge and amorphous structure behind the Windsor 
Hotel is the Victoria Skating Rink (p. 126). 

In Windsor St., just helow Dominion Sq., is the handsome, castle-like 
*Windsor Street Station (PI. C, 6) ot the Canadian Pacific Railway ; and at 
the foot of Windsor St is the Bonaventure Station (PL D, 6, 7) of the 
Grand Trunk Railway, also a spacious structure. 

In Drummond St., near Bumside St., is the new building of the Natural 
History Museum (PL 5*, B, 6), containing collections of Canadian natural 
history and ethnology (adm. 10 c ). 

St. Cathbkinb Street (PL B-F, 7-1), bounding Dominion Sq. 
on the N., leads to the E. to ♦Christcliurch Cathedral (PL C, 5 ; 
Epis.), a well-proportioned and effective structure in the Decorated 
Gothic style, erected in 1859. It is 212 ft. long and 100 ft. wide across 
the transepts ; the spire is 224 ft. high. The octagonal Chapter House 
groups well with the Cathedral. In the rear are Bishop^s Courts the 
Bishop's Palace, and the Rectory. Adjoining the cathedral is a Mc' 
mortal of Bishop Fulford, Bishop of Montreal (1850-68), and first 
Metropolitan of Canada. 

Near this point, in Cathcart St., is the Victoria Rifles Armoury (PL C, 5). 

— A little farther on, at the comer of Dorchester St., is the Fraser Institute 

IM Route 28. MONTREAL. Art Oallery. 

PI. C, 5), wWch contains a free public library (35,000 vola.) and a small 
collection of pictures. 

A little farther on, at the corner of Phillips Square, is the Art 
Gallery (PL 0, 5), much enlarged in 1893 and containing a collec- 
tion of painting, bronzes, etc. (open 10-4 j adm. 25 c.). Spring 
and antumn exhibitions of art are held herie, and fine loan collec- 
tions are frequently on view. Among the permanent possessions are 
specimens of Corot, Diazy Koekkoek, Verhoeckhovenj Villegas, RouUet, 
Vernier J W, B. Baker, Henry Bright, J. M, Barnsley, Cooper, Tholen, 
F, M. Boggs , Henner, Richet , Troyon, Hoppe, Israels, Laugee, 
Mauve, and P. de Hooghe. 

The *St, James MethodUt Church (PI. C, 5), at the corner of St. 
Catherine St. and St. Alexander St., is one of the handsomest in 
the city, with two square towers of unequal height, surmounted by 
lanterns and spirelets. 

Bleury Street , which leads to the S. from St. Gatberine St., a block 
farther on, contains tbe Church of the Getii (PI. D, 6), or Jesuit Chvrch, 
somewhat in tbe style of tbe church of that name in Borne. It is noted 
for its music (esp. on San. evening), and the interior is adorned with 
elaborate frescoes in grisaille. Adjacent is tbe Jesuit College of St. Mary, 
attended by about 400 students and containing a collection of archives. 
Near St. Mary's College is the Protestant House of B.tfuge (PI. D, 5). 

A little farther on, to the left, is the Nazareth Asylum for 
Blind Children (PI. D, 4), the small chapel of which has a good 
facade in the Norman style and contains frescoes by Bourassa (see 
below). At the next corner is the St. Francois Xavier Orphan Asylum 

About Ys M. farther on, at the corner of St. Denis St. (right), 
stands the *Cliaroli of Notre Dame de Lonrdes (PI. D, 3), built in 
1874 to commemorate the Apparition of the Virgin at Lourdes. 

The church consists of a nave, with narrow aisles, transept, and choir, 
and is in a Keo-Byzantine style such as is seen in some of the churches 
of Venice. The central dome is 90 ft. high. It was designed by the 
Canadian painter and architect Napoleon Bourassa, who has adorned it 
with a series of well-executed frescoes, emblematical cf tbe predestination 
and immaculate conception of the Virgin. The Basement Chapel (reached 
by passing to tbe right of the choir into the vestry and then descending) 
represents the appearance of the Virgin to the peasant-girl Bernadette Soil- 
birous at Lourdes in 1858. 

On the opposite side of the street stands the R. 0. Church of St, 
James (PI. D, 3), with a graceful tower. Behind St. James, in Mig- 
nonne St., is the Reformatory (PI. D, 3). 

If we follow Dorchester Street to the W. from Dominion 
Square, we soon pass the handsome American Presbyterian Church 
(PI. 0, 6) and the Crescent Street Presbyterian Church (PI. 0, 6) 
and reach (1/3 M.) the *Grey Nannery (PI. B, 7), a large hospital 
and asylum for foundlings, orphans, the aged, and the infirm, found- 
ed in 1738 and under the management of the Grey Sisters (Soeurs 
G rises). The buildings on the present site (entr. in Guy St J date 
from 1871. This establishment, consisting of 700 professed sisters 
fin4 310 novices, lay sisters, and postulants, is one o( the most popu- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

McOill Vniveraity. MONTREAL. 28, Route. 135 

lous conventual institutions in the world. Noon is the best time for 
visitors (formal reception on New Year's Day). The red cross in one 
comer of the grounds (adjoining Dorchester St.) commemorates a 
double murder committed near this spot. The daughter of Ethan 
A^en (1738-89) of Vermont was a sister of this nunnery, and her 
name is associated with a romantic legend. • 

Guy St. leads to the N., past the entrance of the Grey Nunnery, 
to (Va M.) ♦Shbrbbookb Street (PI. A-D, 1-7), perhaps the hand- 
somest residence-street in Montreal. The sleighing scenes here in 
winter are probably unequalled outside of St. Petersburg. Following 
the street to the left (W.) for a short distance, we reach (right) the 
College de Montreal, or Petit Siminaire (PI. A, 7), and the Qrand 
Siminaire, together forming the educational portion of the seminary 
of St. Sulpice (comp. p. 130), and consisting of a main building 725 ft. 
long, witb three subsidiary buildings in front and two behind. The 
College gives a complete course in the ecclesiastical sciences. It 
occupies the site of the old Fort de la Montagne^ two of the towers 
of which, erected for defence against the Indians, are still standing 
(memorial tablets.) There were originally four of these towers, con- 
nected by a curtain- wall pierced with loopholes. On the hillside 
above is a large College of Philosophy^ for the study of philosophy and 
natural science. The three institutions are now attended by 675 
students, most of whom are preparing for the priesthood. 

To the W. of thia point lies the saburb of Westmount, including the 
W. half of Mt. Royal (p. 136), Westmount Park, a Public Library, and a 
Public Hall. The views from the higher part) of the district (reached by 
the Guy St. cara) are very fine. 

We may now retrace our steps to the E. along Sherbrooke St., 
passing the new ErMne Preslyterian Church (PI. B, 6), at the corner 
of Ontario Ave., and in 8/4 M. reach the grounds of *MoOiIl Uni- 
versity (PI. B, 5), one of the leading universities of Canada, now 
attended by 1200 students, taught by nearly 200 professors and lec- 

McGill College was founded in 1821 with the bequest of James MeOill 
(1744-1813), a native of Glasgow (who is buried ia front of the main build- 
ing), and has since been richly endowed by other public-spirited citizens 
of ifontreal. It now includes the four faculties of Arts, Law, Medicine, 
and Applied Science; and with it are affiliated the Diocesan, Wcsleyan, 
Presbyterian, and Congregational Colleges of Montreal, Morrin College at 
Quebec (p. 153), the Stanstead Wesleyan College at Stanstead, and Van- 
couver College at Vancouver. The course in Arts provides for the edu- 
cation of women in separate classes. The university owes much of its 
success to Sir William Dawson, the eminent geologist, who was its prin- 
cipal till 1893, when he was succeeded by Dr. William Peterson. 

The buildings include the original McOill College; the Workman 
Building, the McDonald Physics Building, the McDonald Engineering Build- 
ing, and the McDonald Chemistry ie Mining Building (opened in 1898), all 
unsurpassed in America for completeness of equipment; the "Redpath Museum 
(PI. B, 5; open 9-6; adm. 10 c), containing valuable collections of natural 
hialory (lifesize model of a megatherium, etc.) ; the Redpath Library^ facing 
MCTavish St., with accommodation for 250,000 vols. ; ih^ Medical Building ; 
the Observatory; the Royal Victoria College (PI. C, 5), a residential college 
for women students, endowed by Lord Strathcona and opened in 1899 (with 

136 Route '28, MONTREAL. Mount Royal Park, 

a statue of Queen Victoria, by the Princess Louise, in front of the entrance); 
and the Contervatoriwn of Mtuic^ opened in 1904 and situated just to the 
S. of Victoria OoUege. The Preibyterian and WedByan Colleger are within 
the same enclosure as McGill College, and the Congregational College 
(PI. B, 5) is on the other side of McTavish St. The MeQill Normal School 
(PI. 3; D, 6), Belmont St., is also affiliated to McGill University. — Ih 
SberbroQke St., at the corner of HcGill College Are., opposite the main 
entrance to HcGill University, is Strathcona Hall (PI. C, 5), the T. M. C. A. 
of the University. The Studentt' Union^ a handsome building erected by 
Sir William McDonald at a cost of $ 225,000, lies close by, at the comer 
of Victoria St. 

Behind tRe grounds of McGill University, on the side of Mt. Royal, 
is the Main Reservoir fPl. B, 5) of the city water-works, with a 
capacity of 36,500,000 gallons. Beyond this, in Pine Ave., are the 
handsome buildings of the Boyal Victoria Hospital (PI. B, 4), 
opened in 1894, with accommodation for 250 patients. It cost 
over $1,000,000 and is a gift from Lord Mount Stephen and Lord 
Strathcona. Adjacent is a new Nurses* Home, 

By following Pine Ave. towards the right (E ), we reach the 
(1/3 M.) *Hdtel Dieu (PI. B, 3, 4), a large hospital under the care 
of the Hospltali^res de St. Joseph. 

This institution was founded in 1644 bv Mile, Manee, one of the 
original settlers of Montreal, with the aid or funds contributed by Mme. 
de Bullion, a French lady of rank. The nresent buildings, in which 
3000 patients are treated yearly, date from 1861. The original site, in St. 
Paul St., is now covered by a group of warehouses known as Nuns Build- 
ings (PI. E, 5). Eighty of the nuns are cloistered and do not go outside 
of the grounds. — Opposite the Hdtel Dieu is the Montreal School of 
Medicine and Surgery (French). 

At the H6tel Dieu we are in convenient proximity to the Moun- 
tain Elevator (PI. A, B, 4; 6 c.) ascending to *Moimt Boyal Park 
(PI. A, 3-6), which may also be reached by a winding roadway or 
by long flights of steps ascending from the head of Peel St. (PI. B, 
5) and near the elevator. The park, covering 460 acres, is one 
of the most beautifully situated in America, and its natural advan- 
tages have been skilfully supplemented by the taste and experience 
of Mr. F. L. Olmsted. The mountain consists of a mass of trap-rock 
thrown up through the surrounding strata of limestone. 

From the top of the Incline Railway we reach the Outlook Platform 
by taking the path to the left and then following the drive. [A path be- 
ginning just on this side of the platform descends to the head of the Peel 
St. Steps.] The **View of the city and its environs from the platform is 
superb. The air of distinction which differentiates Montreal from most 
American cities is, perhaps, due to the number of church-spires and large 
charitable or educational institutions, together with the comparative unob- 
trusiveness of merely commercial buildings. Beyond the city flows the 
St. Lawrence , with the Island of St. Helen and the Victoria Bridee. 
The hills on the other side of the river, named ft>om left to right, in- 
clude Montarville, Beloeil (p. 138) or St. Hilaire, Mt. Bougemont, with 
Mt. Tamaska behind it, Mt. Shefford, and the conical Mt. Johnson or Mon- 
noir. The Adirondaeks are visible in the ilistance to the S.W. and the 
Green Mts. to the S.E. 

Drivers usually extend their trip so as to include the large ProUstmii 
and Roman Catholic Cemeteries (beyond PI. A, 8), lying to the IT. of the park 
(the latter with a ^Route de Calvaire", with the Stations of the Cross). The 
lielvedcrej on the hill rising above the cemeteries, commands a fine view of 

Victoria Bridge. MONTREAL. 28, Route, 137 

tbe lower valley of the Ottawa, with the Lake of the Two Mts., Lake St. 
Lonia, and the whole island of Montreal. The cemeteries may also be 
reached by electric tramway (Park and Island Railway; fare 10c.)> 

Montreal possesses another pleasant park on the Island of St. Helen 
(beyond PI. F, 4), which was named after Champlaln^s wife, the first European 
lady that came to Canada. It is reached by a small steamer plying from 
Bonseeours Wharf (PL F, 4). A fort and barracks , formerly used by the 
British troops, still remain. — Lafontaine Park (PL C, D, 1, 2), with its arti- 
ficial lake, may also be mentioned *, it has an area of tt5 acres. 

One of the chief lions of Montreal is the *Victoria Bridge (beyond 
PL F, 7), a pennit to examine which may be obtained at the offices 
of the Grand Trunk Railway (p. 132). 

The Victoria Tubular Bridge^ which was designed by Robert Stephenson 
and A. M. Boss and built in 185i-69, was on the same principle that had 
been successfully applied by Stephenson a few years earlier in the Brit- 
annia Bridge over the Menai Strait. It was I'/i M. in length and consisted 
of 24 tubes supported by 24 piers besides the terminal abutments. Th& 
tubes, which were of wrought iron, were 16 ft. wide and 18Vi-22 ft. high. 
They were traversed by a single line of railway. The total cost of the bridge 
was $ 6,800,000 (1,260,000 {.). This bridge, long regarded as one of the 
greatest bridges in the world, finally proved inadequate for the traffic 
and was replaced in 1898-99 by the Victoria Jubilee Bridge^ a pin- connected 
tmss-bridge with 25 spans, accommodating two railway-tracks, together 
with two roadways and two footpaths. The new bridge rests on the same 
piers as the old one, and was constructed over and around the latter 
without disturbing the traffic. The engineer was Mr. Joseph Hobson. The 
total cost was $ 20.000,000 (4,000,000 {.). — Kear the K. end of the bridge 
is the Immigrants' Burial Ground^ containing a memorial to 6000 immi- 
grants who died of ship's-fever in 1847-8. 

Among other buildings, of more or less interest, not included in 
the foregoing survey, are the Montreal General Hospital (PI. D, 4), 
in Dorchester St., at the corner of St. Dominique St ; the Alexandra 
Hospital (beyond PL D, 7), in Oharron St., Point St. Charles, 
opened in 1906, and the St. Paul's Hospital^ in Sherbrooke St. East 
(beyond PL D, 1), subsidized by the city for infectious diseases 
among the English-speaking and the French-speaking inhabitants 
respectively; the Notre Dame Hospital (PL E, 4), Notre Dame St. ; 
the Jacques Cartier Normal School (PL D, 1, 2), in Sherbrooke St. 
East; the Peel Street High School (PL 0, 6); the Aberdeen School 
(PL 0, 3), St. Denis St. ; the Church of St. John the Baptist (PL B,<2); 
the Hochelaga Convent^ on the St. Lawrence, below the city ; the 
Synagogue (PL 0, 6), in a pseudo-Egyptian style, in Stanley St. (site 
of first synagogue in Montreal marked by a tablet near Notre Dame 
St., to the W. of the Court House); the * Board of Trade Building 
(PL E, 6), St. Sacrament St., a large edifice of red sandstone in a 
modified Renaissance style, rebuilt since a fire in 1900, at a cost of 
$ 600,000 ; and the Sovereign Bankj a ten-story building in St. James 
St To the N.W. of the city, on the slopes of Mt Royal, stands the 
VUla Maria Convent of the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre 
Dame, occupying Monklands^ a former residence of the Governors- 
General of Canada. The sisters of this order have jibout 46,000 girls 
in their schools throughout Canada. The adjacent Maison M^re of 
the order, with, its finely decorated church, was burned do^ in 

138 Route 28. MONTREAL. 

1893, but a new building to take its place is being erected in Sher- 
brooke St., between Atwater Ave. and Elm Ave. (beyond PI. A, 7). 
-- Tbe Laval University Building (p. 152). at 185 St. Denis St., a 
Renaissance straoture with a frontage of 190 ft., includes the Facul- 
ties of Law, Medicine, and Arts; its Theological Faculty is at 1197 
Sherbrooke St., its Polytechnic School at 1999 St. Catherine St., 
and its Veterinary Department at 378 Craig St. The Montreal branch 
of Laval has about 1000 students. — Among the finest private ilesi- 
dences in Montreal are those of Mr, RoVert Meighen^ Mrs. J. C. Mcln- 
tyre, Mr. R. Reford, Mr. C. R. Hosmer, and Mr. R. B, Angus, all in 
Drummond St. (PI. B, C, 5, 6; No3. 140, 317, 260, 302, & 240); 
Sir Montague i4Man(Ravenscrag); Lord Strathcona^ 1167 Dorchester 
St.; Mr. James Ross, 360 Peel St. ; and Sir Oeo. A, Ihummond, 
874 Sherbrooke St. 

Other historical points marked by tablets are the House of La Salle 
(1643-87), at the cx)rner of St. Peter and St. Paul Sts. (PI. E, 6) ; the 
House of La Motte Cadillac^ founder of Detroit, in St. Lawrence 
Boulevard (on Leeming-Miles Building ; PI. E, 6) ; the site of the 
residence of Sir Alex, Mackenzie, discoverer of the Mackenzie River 
(1793), in Simpson St. ; the birthplace of Pierre (d'IberviUe) and 
Jean Baptiste (de BienviVe) Lemoyne, the discoverers of the mouths of 
the Mississippi (1699), in St. Paul St., to the E. of Place Royale 
(PI, E, 5) ; and the fjorth- West Fur Company's Stores, Vaudreuil St. 

Environs of Montreal. 

Perhaps the most popular short excursion from Montreal is that to 
the *Bapid8 of Lachine, described at p. 230. Trains leave the Bonaventure 
Station (PI. D, 6) for (8 M.) Lachine (p. 230) about 8 a.m., 1.30 p.m., and 
5 p.m., to connect with the steamers about to run the rapids. The electric 
tramway to Sumtnerlea (see p. 126) passes within 250 yds. of Lachine Wharf 
(fare 15 c, from (3ity Limits 10 c). Tbe drive to Lachine is also pleasant. 
Drivers should go by tbe upper road, passing the aqueduct and wheel-house 
of the Montreal Waterworks, and return by the lower road, skirting the 
river and affording a good view of the rapids. — Another favourite point 
for a drive (electric car) is (7 M.) tbe SauU-awRicollet, a rapid on tbe Eivifcre 
des Prairies or 'Back River*, to the l^.W. of the city, so named from a 
B^coUet priest drowned here by the Hurons in 1626. These drives afford 
some idea of the fertile Island of Montreal, with its famous apple-orchards 
('Pomme Grise', *Fameuse', etc.). — Laprairie, a village with about 1460 
inhab., on the 8. bank of the St. Lawrence (ferry thrice daily), 8 M. to 
theS.W. of Montreal, was the starting-point of the first railway in British 
N. America (comp. p. 129). It possesses an old fort, attacked in the *Battle 
of Laprairie* (1691) by Col. Peter Schuyler and his New England troops. — 
Lonaueuil^ opposite Hochelaga (p. 128), with 2835 inhab., and Si. Lambert 
(p. 14) are frequented for rowing and sailing (ferry). — An excursion should 
be made to *Beloeil Mountain or Mt. St. Hilaire (1600 ft.), which rises 
about 16 M. to the E. and commands a fine view of Montreal, the St. Lawrence, 
Lake Champlain (40 M. to tbe 8.), etc. It is reached by tbe Grand Trunk 
Railway to (22 M.) St. Hilaire (not Beloeil). St. Hilaire may also be reached 
twice weekly by steamer (Richelieu & Ontario Navigation Co.), via Sorel 
and the Richelieu River (comp. p. 143 \ 16 hrs.). Close by is a pretty lake, 
which affords boating and bathing. Beloeil Mt., like Roagemont (p. 16) and 
Mt. Royal itself, is a mass of eruptive rock, protruding through the surround- 
ing limestone. — Other pleasant points for short excursions are Caughnawaqa 
(p. i7), SU. Anne (p. 185), Montarville, Varennes (p. 148), and VercMres (p. 148). 





THREE RIVERS. 29, RouU. 139 

Longer excursions may be made to Chanibly (p. 19), Lake Memphre- 
magog (p. 18), Lake Champlain (p. 13), Ausable Chasm Q>. 13), the Adirondack$ 
(pp. 13, 16), the White Mountains (p. 19), Carillon^ on the Ottawa (p. 185), etc. 

The geologist will find much to interest him in the district round Mont- 
real, in the immediate vicinity of which the Pleistocene, Lower Helderberg, 
HudJson Biver, Utica, Trenton, and Qiazy formations are all represented. 
Mt. Koyal is an intrusive eruptive mass, mainly of diabase. 

From Montreal to 8t. John, see B. 16 ; to (2t/«6«c, see R. 29 \ to Ottatoa^ 
see RR. 34,37^ to Toronto^ see RR. 38,47; \o New York, see R. 2; to Boeioh^ 
see R. 8 j to Portland^ see R. 9} to Port Arthur and Fort William, see R. 48. 

29. From Montreal to Quebec. 

a. Yik the Canadian Pacific Bailway (N. Shore of the 
St. Lawrence). 

173 M. Canadian Pacific Railway in 4V«-7>/» hrs. (fare $ 4.50 ; sleeper 
$ 1.50; parlor-car 76c.). This is the most direct route between the two 
cities. The trains start from the Viger Sq. Station, connection in some 
cases being made from Windsor Street Station. 

Montreal^ see p. 125. ^he train passes the suburban station of 
(1 M.) Hochelaga (p. 128), crosses the *Back River' at (10 M.) Sault- 
aU'RScollet (p. 13iB), and diverges to the right (E.) from the main 
transcontinental line at (13 M.) St. Martin Junction (Rail. Restau- 
rant). At (18 M.) St, Vincent dd Paul is the large Provincial Pen- 
itentiary. We cross the N. branch of the Ottawa at (24 M.) Terre- 
bonne, with its large limestone quarries. 

The line now runs between the St, Lawrence on the right and 
the Laurentide Mts. (average height ca. 1600 ft.) to the left, the 
mountains being at first 30 M. from the river but approaching it 
more closely as we proceed. The district traversed is perfectly flat 
and carefully cultivated. The long narrow fields into which it is 
cut up are due to the French custom of equal subdivision of estates 
and the desire to give each heir a share of the river-frontage. The 
churches and presbyteries, with their shining tin spires and roofs, 
are the most prominent buildings in the numerous villages. 

40 M. Vaucluse. From (49 M.) Joliette Junction a branch -line 
runs to Jolielte (p. 142). 67 M. Berthier Junction, for Berthier 
(1364 inhab.); 71 M. MaskinongS. — Near (75 M.) LouiseviUe 
(1565inhab.) are the St. Leon Springs (Hotel, $2-3), a frequented 
health-resort, the water of which is bottled and much used through- 
out Canada. The springs may also be reached by steamer. — 81 M. 
Yamachiche; 88 M. Pointe du Lac, 

96 M. Three Elvers or Trois Rivitres (Ildtel Dufresne, $2-2V2i 
Dominion Hotel, $1V2? Sanatorium^ for hydro- electric treatment, 
French; Rail, Restau/rant; U. S. Consul, Mr, James H. Worman), one 
of the oldest towns in Canada, having been founded in 1634, lies at 
the mouths of the St, Maurice River, and at the head of tide-water 
in the St. Lawrence. It is the outlet for an important lumbering- 
district, and manufactures stoves a?id car-wheels from >^e bog-iron 

Digitized by VjOO 

140 RouU29. DRUMMONDVILLE. From Montreal 

ore of the district. Pop. (1901) 9981. The Cathedral is a building 
of some pretensions, and there are other large Roman Catholic in- 
stitutions. The College has 300 pupils. Benjamin SuUe, the French- 
Canadian historian, is a native of Three Rivers, and has celebrated 
its historic associations in his * Ohronique Trifluvienne'. 

The 8i. Mcwriee River is about 300 H. long and drains a very large 
atea. Its lower course is a succession of falls and rapids ; and a pleasant 
excursion may be made to the *£lhawinigaH or Shaioenegan Fall* (150 ft. ^ 
see below). Good fishing and shooting may be obtained along its course 
(guides, etc., at Three Rivers). 

On the S. shore of the St. Lawrence, opposite Three Rivers, lies Dou- 
eeVt Landing (p. 144). 

We now cross the St. Maurice to (98 M.)PMca Junction, whence 
a branch -line runs visl Oameau Junction (p. 142) to (27 M.) 
Qrandes Files, 

Lac iL la TortuB (19 H.; Shawanegan Ho.), on this railway^ may be 
made the starting-point for a visit to the above-mentioned Shawinigan 
Falls. The nearest station to the falls is, however, that mentioned at p. 142. 

108 M. Chamiplain; 115 M. Batiscan, at the mouth of the river 
of that name (comp. p. 163); 119 M. 8te. Anne de la Ferade^ at the 
mouth of the 8te, Anne River, with a large two - towered church 
(right); 131 M. Lachewoittre; 134 M. Deschamhault ; 137 M. Fort- 
neuf, with wood-pulp mills. At (147 M.) Font Rouge we cross the 
Jacques Cartier River j famous for its salmon. 160 M. Belavr; 166 M. 
Lorette or Ancienne Lorette, about 3 M. from Indian Lorette (see 
p. 162). As we approach Quebec our line is joined on the left by 
that from Lake St. John (see R. 32). 

173 M. Quebec, see R. 30. 

b. Yik the Intercolonial Bailway (8. Shore of the St. Lawrence). 

164 M. Intbbcolonial Railway in 4Vr7 hrs. (fare $ 4.95 i sleeper $ 1.60, 
parlor-car 75 c.). The Ocean Limited Exprese (4^/2 hrs.) runs in summer 
only} clocks and time-tables follow the 24-hoar system (comp. p. 83). 

The trains start from the Bonaventure Station, cross the St. Law- 
rence by the Victoria Bridge , and follow the tracks of the Grand 
Trunk Railway to (351/2 M.) 8t. Hyacinthe (see p. 141). The Inter- 
colonial Railway here diverges to the left and runs in an almost 
straight line all the way to L^vis. — 38 M. Ste. Rosalie; 44 Af. 
St. Edward; 54 M. 8t. Euglne; 61 M. 8t. Germain, 64 V2 M. Drum- 
fnondviUCy a thriving little manufacturing town, with 1450 inhab., 
is supplied with excellent water-power from Lord's Falls on the 
8t. Francis River, which is crossed here by two steel bridges (comp. 
p. 19). — 84 M. St. Leonard, the junction of a branch -line to 
(14 M.) Nicolet (p. 144); 92 M. Aston, the junction of a short Une 
to Doucet's Landing (p. 144); 117 M. Villeroy, for short branches to 
Lyster(S.; p. 141) and St. Jean des Chaillons (N.; p. 144J. Be- 
tween Villeroy and (133 M.) Laurier the region abounds with cari- 
bou and deer. — lo4 M. Chaudihre. A glimpse of the Ghaudidre 
Falls (p. 141) is obtained here. At (154V2 M.) Chaudihre Junction 

toQuebet. BELOEIL MT. 29. Route. 141 

the line connects with the Grand Trunk Railway for Sberbrooke, 
LennoxviUe, and Portland. From Chandl^ie to (163 M.) Livis and 
(164 M.) Quebec, see R. 29 c. 

c. Yik the Grand Trunk Bailway (8. Shore of the St. Lawrence). 

174 M. Gkand Tbcnk Railway in 6«/2-12 hrs. (fares as in R. 29 a). 

From Montreal (Bonaventure Station) to (61/2 M.) 8t, Lambert, 
see p. 14. From this point the line runs to the left (E.) through a 
pleasant, somewhat English-looking district of woodlands, pastures, 
and farms. Just beyond (21 M.) Beloeil we cross the Richelieu (♦View) 
and reach (22 M.) St. Hilaire, the starting-point for an ascent of 
Beloeil Mt. (comp. p. 138), which here rises to the right of the line, 
though it first comes into view on our left front. Otterburn Park, 
on the Richelieu, at St. Hilaire, is a favourite picnic-ground. — 
The next point of interest is (3672 M.) 8t. Hyacinthe (Yamaska, 
$2; U, S. Consul), a pretty little French-Canadian city of (1901) 
9210 inhah., with a Roman Catholic cathedral and a large Domin- 
ican college. Its manufactures include leather, shoes, woollen 
goods,' and milling machinery. The town was devastated by fire 
in 1903, but has been rebuilt. The Quebec Southern .Railway runs 
hence to the N. to (36 M.) Sorel (p. 143) and to the S. to (29 M.) Iber- 
ville, (42 M.) HenryvilU, and (52 M.) jfjfoyan Junction. — Beyond St 
Hyacinthe station we cross the Yamaska River. The country traversed 
is now rather featureless, with a good deal of scrub-wood. Yamaska 
Mt. is seen to the right, 12 M. distant. Beyond (48 M.) Upton we 
cross two small streams. 64 M. Acton; 66 M. South Durham. ^ 

At (76V2 M.) Richmond (2057 iuhab.; St. Jacob's Hotel, $lV2i 
Rail. Restaurant) , in the 'Eastern Townships' (p. 47) , with the 
College of St. Francis (110 students), our line diverges to the left 
(N.E.) from that to Portland (p. 26) and traverses a thinly-peopled 
district. 881/2 M. Danville, Farther on we cross the Nicolet. From 
(108 M.) Arthabaska (U. S. Agent) a branch - line runs to the left 
(N.") to (36 M.) DouceVs Landing (p. 144), connected by ferry with 
(2 M.) Three Rivers (p. 139). 117 M. Stanfold; 123 M. Somerset, a 
local market, with a trade in lumber; 131 M. Ste. Julie. At (136 M.) 
Lyster (p. 140) we cross the Bicancour. 152 M. St. Agapit. At 
(164 M.) Chaudiere (U. S. Com. Agent) we cross the Chauditre, a 
rushing stream which forms a waterfall, 130 ft. high, a little to the 
left (top visible from the railway ; now marred by factories"). The 
new bridge of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (see p. 307) is 
visible to the left. The heights of Quebec are now also seen on 
the same side, the various features in and near the city becoming 
more and more prominent as we proceed. The huge red Chllteau 
Frontenac Hotel (p. 145) is very conspicuous. 

From (173 M.) Livis (p. 157) passengers are ferried (fare 3 c.) 
across the St. Lawrence to (174 M. Quebec (R. 30). Hotel -ppters 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

142 Route 29. JOLIETTE. From'Montreal 

meet the trains at L6vis and will take charge of the baggage-checks. 
Cabs and omnibuses meet the steamer on the Quebec side (p. 145). 

d. Vi& the Canadian Northern Quebec Bail way. 

195 M. Canadian Korthbrn Quebec Railway in lO'/z hrs. (fare $ 4.60 
in summer, $ 4.90 ia wInteiO. This line runs to the N. of and more or 
less parallel with the Canadian Pacific Railway. 

Montreal (Windsor St. Station), see p. 125. The train hugs the 
bank of the St. Lawrence as far as (14 M.) Charlemagne , where it 
crosses the N. branch of the Ottawa. It then quics the river and 
bends inland. 21 M. V A$somption ; 24 M. UEpiphanie, the junction 
of a short line to St. Jacque$. 

36 M. Joliette ( Victoria; Chdteau QuUbaultJ, a small town with 
(1901) 4220 inhab., is a railway -junction of some importance. 

Fboic Joliette to Hawkesbubt, &7 H., railway in 6-6iAt hrs. This line 
runs towards the S.W., passing (26 M.) Jfew Glasgow^ to <%3 M.) Si. J6r6fM 
Junction (for St. Jirdme; 3619 inhab.), where it crosses the Canadian Pacific 
Railway from Montreal to Nomining (see p. 175). At (53 M.) Lixchute 
(p. 175) we again cross the Can. Pac. Railway. The train now runs along 
the N. shore of the Ottawa to (66 M.) Orenville (496 inhab.) and (67 M.) 
Hawkeibury (p. 174). 

Lines also run from Joliette to the 1).E. to St. Filix de Ydloit and 
St. Oabriel de Brandon (Mastigouche Ho., a resort of anglers), and to the 
S. to Joliette Junction^ on the Canadian Pacific Railway (p. 139). 

Beyond Joliette we continue to run towards the N.E. 54 M. 8t 
Barthelemi; 82 M. St. Boniface. — 90 M. Shawinigan Junction^ for 
a short branch -line to (5 M.) Shawinigan Falls (see p. 140). — 
94 M. Grand M^re (^Laurentides Inn^ well spoken of; Bail. Beatau- 
rant), a small town on the St. Maurice^ with extensive water-power 
and large paper and pulp mills. Pop. (1901) 2611. — The railway 
then crosses the St. Maurice just below the Orand Mire Falls (view). 
At (98 M.) Qarneau Junction we intersect the 0. P. R. line from 
Three Rivers to Grandes Piles (pp. 139, 140). 105 M. St. TUe; 
113 M. Ste. Thlcle; 121 M. Lac au SahU; 126 M. Notre Dame 
des Anges; 130 M. Bousseau's Mill. — 138 M. Bivitre (i Pierre and 
thence to — 

195 M. Quebec, see p. 145. 

e. yik the St. Lawrence. 

180 M. Stbamebs of the Richelieu A Ontario Navigation Co. leave their 
wharf near Bonsecours Market (PI. E, P, 4) every evening at 7 p.m. in con- 
nection with the boat arriving from Kingston (R. 47), and reach Quebec 
next morning about 6.30 a.m. (fare $4; berth 75c. or $1. parlor-stateroom 
from $21/2; B. or S. 75 c., D. $1). There are no Sun. Doata between the 
beginning of Oct. and the end of May. The long days and short nights 
of a Canadian summer enable the traveller by this route to see a good 
deal of the river scenery. The banks are usually flat and offer little ^ of 
interest except the innumerable French villages, with the shining tin- 
sheathed spires and roofs of their churches and presbyteries. Near Quebec, 
however, the scenery is more picturesque. The names of a number of the 
towns and villages along this part of the St. Lawrence are of frequent 
occurrence in accounts of the campaigns of 1775-6 (comp., e.g., Vol. VI of 
Kingsfoi'd'e 'History of Canada*). 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

to Quebec. SORJEL. 29. Route. 143 

Montreal^ see p. 125. As we leave, we obtain a good view of 
the city and of the *superb water-front with its long airay of docks 
only surpassed by those of Liverpool' (Howells), 

To the right lie St, Helen's Island (p. 136) and the small lU 
Ronde, On the S. bank, opposite Hochelaga (p. 139) ,lies LongueuU 
(p. 138), with its pier. 

7 M. (left) Longue Pointey with Dominion Park (p. 126j and the 
extensive works of the American Locomotive & Machine Co. 

7V2 M. (right) BoucherviUe. The register of the parish- church 
contains an entry of the baptism of an Indian baby by P^re Mar- 
quette on May 20th, 1668. The low marshy islands here are fre- 
quented for duck-shooting and sometimes cause disastrous inunda- 
tions by damming up the ice descending the river. 

8Y2M. (\eit)Pointe'auX'Tremhle8, with a church dating from 1704, 

14 M. (r.) Varennes, with mineral springs, a miracle -chapel, 
and a 'Calvaire', is frequented as a summering-place, and has a 
large modern church, with two towers and elaborate internal de- 
corations. Yarennes, which also possesses a commercial college and 
a convent, celebrated its 200th anniversary in 1893. Sir George 
Cartier (p. 179) and other well-known Canadian politicians were 
natives of Varennes. — (1.) Bout- de-V Isle j at the mouth of the N. 
branch of the Ottawa (Rivilre des Prairies), which enters the St. Law- 
rence amid a group of low wooded islands. 

16 M. (1.) Repentigny. — 22 M. (r.) Vercheres, with an old French 
wind-mill and a romantic legend. — 23 M. (I.) SUSulpice. — 28 M. 
(r.) Contrecoeur. — 29 M. (1.) Lavaltrie. — 35 M. (1.) Lanoraie, 

43 M. (r.) Sorel (Brunswick, Carlton, $ lV2i U. 8. Agent), a 
small city Of ri901) 7057 inhab., lies at the mouth of the Richelieu 
(pp. 14, 19, 47), carries on a considerable country- trade, and pos- 
sesses several shipbuilding-yards and foundries. It is named from 
Capt. De Sorel of the Carignan-Sall^res Regiment (p. 129), who built 
a fort here in 1665. Good fishing and snipe -shooting are obtained 
in the neighbourhood^ — Opposite lies Berthier (p. 139; ferry). 

From Sorel the ^Shore Line' of the Quebec Southern Railway runs via 
(10 H.) Yamaska to (17 M.) Bt. Francois du Lac, the station for Abenakis 
Springs {Hotel, $2, bath 30 c.), a summer-resort, much frequented by the 
Hontrealers. It may also be reached by steamer up the St. Framois (see 
below) or hy railway from Montreal (Bonaventure Station 1 3-4 hrs.). 

A steamer of the Richelieu A Ontario Nav. Co., leaving Montreal on 
Tues. & Frid. at 1 p.m. and Sorel at 5 p.m., ascends the RicJielieu River 
from Sorel to Chambly, arriving at 7.30 a.m. on the following morning 
(through return-fare $6 or $6, incL meals and betiih). The river is narrow 
and the scenery picturesque. The boat lies to from 10.30 p.m. to 4 a.m. 
at St. Mare. St. Hilaire (see p. 138) is reached at 5 a.m. Beyond Beloeil is 
the Beloeil Bridge^ an iron draw-bridge 12C0 ft. long. — Chambly^ see p. 19. 

Beyond Sorel the St. Lawrence expands into Lake St. Peter, 
26 M. long and 9 M. wide. The lake is shallow, but a deep channel 
has been dredged through it. Huge timber-rafts may be met here. 

67 M. (r.) 8t, Francois, at the mouth of the river of that name. 
- 65 M. (1.) L,yui.^m (p. 139). o:,.,...,GoOgIe 

144 Route 29, CAP ROUGE. 

76 M. (r.) Nicolet^ (Canada Hotel, $172), "^^^ (1901) 2225 in- 
hab. and a large college (300 pupils), lies at the mouth of the river 
of its own name (p. 141). A new cathedral, a parish church, a 
convent, and a home for priests were all burned down in 1906. 
Nearly opposite is Pointe du Lac, at the lower end of Lake St. Peter. 

88 M. (I.) Three Bivers (see p. 139) lies at the mouths of the 
8t, Maurice and at the head of tide-water, about midway between 
Montreal and Quebec. Opposite lies Doucet's Landing (p. 140; ferry). 

104 M. (1.) Champlain. — 109 M. (I.) Batiscan (p. 140), with 
two lighthouses. — 116 M. (1.) 8te,Anne de la Perade, with a large 
church. — 124 M. (r.) St.Jean des ChaUlons. — 129 M. (I.) Gron- 
dines. — 137 M. (r.) Lot6mler«. — 138 M. (1.) Deachambault (p. 140). 

143 M. (1.) Portneuf, Opposite is Point Platonj near which is 
the residence of Sir H. G. Joly de LotbiniSre. The river bends to 
the right and forms the Bichelieu Rapids, The scenery improves, 
the Laurentide Mts, (p. 139) approaching the river on the left. 

163 M. (1.) Les EcureuilSy near the mouth of the Jacques Cartier 
River (v. UO), 

160 M. (1.) Pointe aux Trembles^ a small village where many 
Quebec ladies took refuge during the siege of the city by Wolfe (1759) 
and were captured by his grenadiers (comp. Sir J, M, Le Moine'a 
'Tourist's Note-book'). 

167 M. (1.) St. Augustin, — 173 M. (1.) Cap Rouge (pronounced 
'Carouge') lies at the mouth of the river whose valley forms the W. 
boundary of the Quebec plateau (comp. p.. 157). Jacques Cartier 
wintered here in 1540-41, and Roberval made an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to establish a settlement here a few months later (see p. 147). 
About 1500 of Wolfe's troops descended with the tide from Cap 
Rouge to Wolfe's Cove on the morning of Sept. 13th, 1759 (p. 147). 
Nearly opposite is the mouth of the Chauditre (p. 141). The steamer 
here passes under the flue steel bridge of the Grand Trunk Pacific 
Railway (see p. 307). 

Quebec now soon comes into sight, magnificently situated on a 
rocky plateau rising perpendicularly from the river. To the left, at 
SiUeryj is Wolfe's Cove (p. 154), where the famous landing was ef- 
fected in 1759. The cove may be identified from the steamer by the 
tall chimney standing at its mouth. The N. shore is lined with 
timber 'booms' and rafts. As we pass Cape Diamond we see, high 
up on the cliff , a large inscription indicating the spot, on the roa^ 
below, where Montgomery fell (p. 148). Opposite is Point LSvit 
(p. 157). 

180 M. Quebec, see p. 145. 

t The final t is sounded by the French Canadians in proper names 
of this kind. 







30. Quebec. 

Arrival. Travellers arriving by the lines on the North Bank (RR. 29a, 
29d) run into the Canadian Pacific Railway Station (PI. E, 8), on the N. side of 
the city. Passengers by the S. Shore Lines (RR. 29b, 29c) are ferried across 
from Livi* (p. 157) to the Ferry Wharf (PI. F, 4). The St. Lawrence River 
Steamers (R. 29e) lie to at the Champlain Market Wharf (PI. F, 4). These 
are in the lower part of the town, from which the upper town, with the 
hotels, etc., is reached by steep streets or flights of steps crossing the lines 
of fortification. Hotel Omnibuses (25 c.) and Cah$ (see below) meet all the 
chief trains and steamers. 

Hotels. ♦Chateau Frontbnao (PI. a \ F, 4), a picturesque building on 
Dnfferin Terrace, commanding beautiful views, and fitted up in a tasteful 
and homelike style, $4-7 (reduced rates in winter; apt to be somewhat 
crowded in Aug.); New St. Lodis Hotel (PI. c; E, 4), 31 St. Louis St., 
near Duflferin Terrace, $272-4-, Victobia (PI. e; E, 3), Palace St., from 
$2Va; Clarendon (PI. b; E, 4), in a quiet situation at the corner of Garden 
and St. Anne Sts., $21/2-4; Kino Edwabd Hotel, 9 Desjardins or Garden St. 
(PI. E, 4), $iy5r3, R. from $1; Blanchabd's (PI. f; F, 4), in the Lower 
Town, facing Notre Dame des Victoircs (p. 155), $ 1V2-2.— Boarding Houses 
($7-10 a week): Mitt JoneSy 41 D'Auteuil St.; Miss Bickell, 3 St. Louis St.; 
Mitt Silly 40 Desjardins St.; Mrs. DougkUy 18 St. Anne St.; Miss Tremaine, 
10 St. Ursule St. ; Mrs. Henchey^ 33 St. Anne St. ; and many others. Fu^'nished 
Lodgingi are also obtainable. 

Restaurants. At the hotels ; Auditorium ^ 144 St. John St., cor. of Glacis 
St. ; Valiquet, Fabrique St. ; Clttb VenddmBy 37 St. Joseph St., St. Roch. — The 
Little Shopy in the old Duke of Kent's House, 25 St. Louis St. (near St. Louis 
Hotel), for afternoon tea (old furniture, relics, woollens, etc., for sale). 

Sleetrio Tramways traverse the chief thoroughfares and pass all the 
principal buildings of the city. They form two complete circuits, one in 
the upper and one in the lower town , connected by transverse lines at 
Palace Hill and the Cdte d'Abraham (PI. D, 3). Fare 5c., incl. transfer. 

Carriages ('Wagons') with two horses, within the town, per drive, for 
1/4 hr., 1-2 pers. 50 c, 3-4 pers. 75 c. ; for 1/2 hr., 65 c, 75 c. : per hour $ 1 and 
$1V4. With one horse, 25 c., 40 c., 40 c., 60 c, 75 c., $ 1. The Caliche 
(or calash) is a curious high two-wheeled vehicle for two persons, with 
the driver perched on a narrow ledge in front. For each trunk 10 c. j smaller 
articles free. Fare and a half between midnight and 4 a.m. Longer drives 
according to bargain. The drivers ('carters*) urge the horses by the cry 
'marche done*. The best carriages are obtained in the Upper Town, the 
cheapest in the Lower Town. 

ferries ply every 10 min. (wharf, PI. F, 4) to LMt (fare 3 c. in sum- 
mer, 10 c. in winter) and at frequent intervals to Sillery (p. 155 ; 10 c), 
8t. Romuald (p. 167), and the Isle of Orleans (p. 167). 

Steamers run regularly from Quebec to Montreal (daily, at 5.30 p.m.; 
R. 29e.) ; to Oasp4 (p. 91), Charlottetoton (p. 98), Summerside (p. 100), and Pictou 
(p. 60); to the Sagttenay (R. 33); to various small ports on the St. Lawrence; 
to Liverpool^ Glasgow^ and Antwerp (see R. 1) ; to London ; to Bermuda and 
the West Indies^ etc. 

Shops. Furriers: Renfrew dt Co., 35 Buade St.; Paquet, 165 St. Joseph 
St. — Sporting and Fishing Gear: Chinic Hardware Co., cor. of St. Peter 
and Mountain Hill Sts.; Young^ Bridge St. Ill; Shaw & Co., St. John and 
Sous-le-Fort Sts.; J. P. Bertrand. cor. of St. Joseph and Dorchester Sts. 

Places of Amusement. Auditorium (PI. E, 3), St. John St. ; Tara Hail, 
119 St. Anne St. ; Jacques Cartier Hall, St. Roch. 

An Elevator (3 c. ; PI. F, 4) runs from Little Champlain St. (Lower 
Town) to Dufiferin Terrace. 

TTnited States Consul, Mr, Wm, W. Henry, 66 St. Ursule St. 

Post Office (PI. F, 4) , at the corner of Buade and Du Fort Sts. (8-4). 

Probably the best general account of (Quebec is 'Quebec under Two 
Flags*, by A. G Doughty and N. E. Dionne ($2 50). Small guidebooks (25 c. 
each) are issued by E. T. D. Chambers and F. Carrel. .. ^^ C^ 

' ^ Digitized by \ 

Baedeebb's Canada. 3rd Edit. 

146 Route 30. QUEBEC. Situation. 

Clubs. GarrUon Club (PI. E, 4), 48 St. Louis St. *, St. Lows Clttb (PI. E, 4), 
nearly opposite the St. Louis Hotel (p. 145); QuAee Riding CMby Ste. Foye 
Road, 1 M. from the Toll Gate (PI. B, C, 3), for hunting, etc. 

Queb$c^ superbly situated on a piomontory formed by the con- 
fluence of the St. Lawrence and the 8U Choflety is, perhaps, the most 
picturesque city in North America, appealing at once to the most 
blas^ tourist by the striking boldness of its site, the romance of its 
history, and the extraordinary contrast of its old-world appearance 
and population with the new world around it. It is now also fre- 
quented in winter, for the sake of its winter scenery and sports. 

It consists of a Lower Totm, lying on the narrow strips of leyel 
land fringing the ri^rer banks, and of an Upper Toton, perched on the 
top of a rocky bluff, rising almost vertically on both sides to a height 
of 200-350 ft. above the water. [The name *Lower Town', however, 
does not technically include the large districts of St Roch and St, 
Sauveur; comp. pp. 156, 157.] In shape the city is a triangle, 
bounded by the two rivers and the Plains of Abraham (p. 154). The 
older portion of the Upper Town is still surrounded by a massive 
wall, but the city has now spread considerably to the W. of the 
fortifications. At the S. angle of the wall, on the highest point of 
the plateau, is the famous Citadel (p. 149). 

'Unexampled for picturesqueness and magnificence of position on the 
American continent, and for the romance of her historic associations, Quebec 
sits on her impregnable heights a queen among the cities of the KewWorld. 

At her feet flows the noble St. Lawrence, the fit highway into a great 
mpire, here narrowed to a couple Of miles^ breadth (really less than 1 V. 
— Editor), though lower down the waters 'widen to a score of miles, and 
at the gulf to a hundred. From the compression of the great river at this 
spot the city derives it« name, the word signifying, in the native Indian 
tongue, the Strait. On the east of the city, along a richly fertile valley, flows 
the beautiful St. Obarles, to join it« waters with those of the great river. 
The mingled waters divide to enclasp the fair and fertile Isle of Orleans. 

The city as seen from a distance rises stately and solemn, like a 
grand pile of monumental buildings. Clustering houses, tall, irregular, with 
high - pitched roofs, crowd the long Iftie of shore and climb ' the rocky 
heights. Great piles of stone churches, colleges, and public buildings, 
crowned with gleaming minarets, rise above the mass of dwellings. The 
clear air permits the free use of tin for the roofs and spires, and the dark 
stone-work is relieved with gleaming light. Above all rise the long dark 
lines of one of the world's famous citadels, the Gibraltar of America'. 

(Charlet Marshall,) 

Quebec, with 68,840 inhab., was the third city of the Dominion 
of Canada at the census of 1901, though now, doubtless, outstripped 
by Winnipeg (p. 245). Of its inhabitants nine-tenths are French 
and Roman Catholic. The chief business of the city is the exportation 
of timber (comp. p. 148), grain, and cattle. It is the port of entry of 
the Atlantic steamers in summer, and the landing-place of immi- 
grants. Various manufactures are carried on in St. Roch. The streets, 
as a rule, are narrow and irregular, and the quaint houses resemble 
those of the older French provincial towns. The best shops are in 
St. Joseph St. and Crown St., in St. Roch, and in or near St. John 
St., Fabrique St., and Buade St., in the Upper Tows* , 

History. QUEBEC. 30. Route. 147 

History. In historic interest Quebec almost rivals Boston among the 
cities of the New World, and it excels the New England city in the fact 
that its historic sites are constantly in view and have not been obscured 
by later alterations. When Jacques Cartier (see p. 128) ascended the St. 
Lawrence in 1585 he found the Indian town of Stadaeona occupying part 
of the pre5>ent site of Quebec, and spent the winter in huts erected near 
the Dorchester Bridge (PI. E, 1). On returning to France he carried with 
him the chief Bonn aeona^ who unfortunately died in Europe. On his second 
visit, in 1541, Cartier wintered at Cap Rouge (p. 144). An unsuccessful attempt 
at settlement was made by the Sieur de Roberval in 1549. The real founder 
of Quebec was Chamolain (p. 129; comp. p. 151), who in 1608 established a 
small post here, which gradually added agricultural settlers to the original 
fur-traders. In 1629 the little settlement was captured by Sir David Kirke 
(or KeriO, but it was restored to France three years later. In 1663 Quebec 
contained about 800 inhabitants. A little later (1690 and 1711) two un- 
successful attempts were made by English fleets to capture the city. In the 
first case Sir William Phippt^ Governor of Massachusetts, was defied by Gover- 
nov Frontenac and retired without doing serious damage. In 1711 the fleet 
under Sir Hovedm Walier was wrecked at Egg Island (p. 4; comp. p. 68). 

In 1759, however, Quebec finally came into the possession of Great 
Britain through the daring of General Wolfe and a victory described by 
Major Wood (see below) as marking ^three of the mightiest epochs of 
modem times — the death of Greater France, the coming of age of Greater 
Britain, and the birth of the United States'.f The British fleet, under 
Adm. Saunders^ anchored off the Island of Orleans (p. 157) on June 26th. 
The French army under .the Marquis de Monteahn^ 13,000 strong, was en- 
camped on the shore at Beauport (p. 168). Gen. Monckton seized the heights 
of L^vis and from them bombarded the city. On July 9th Wolfe established 
a camp at Montmorency (p. 159), and on July 31st he attacked the French 
lines, and was repulsed with heavy losses. A long delay then ensued owing 
to Wolfe's illness, but on the night of Sept. 12-I3th the English troops, who 
had in the meantime been carried by the ships above Quebec, stole down 
the river in boats under cover of the darkness, effected a landing at the 
Foulon (now Wol/e*s Cove) below Sillerp (p. 156), scaled the apparently in- 
accessible cliffs, surprised and overpowered the French sentinels, and form- 
ed their line of battle on the Floins of Abraham (p. 154). Montcalm hastened 
across the St. Charles, and battle was joined by 10 a.m. (Sept. iSth). Both 
leaders, as is well known, fell on the field, Wolfe dying on the spot (p. 154), 
while Montcalm, mortally wounded, was carried into Quebec (p. 154). The 
British were successful after a short struggle \ the French troops retreated, 
and the city surrendered on Sept. 18th. According to the official reports the 
numbers actually engaged were 3110 British (including 200 left at the Anse 
au Foulon or Wolfe's Cove) and 5000 French, the latter number including 
Indians. The following spring Gen. Murray^ left in command at Quebec, 
was defeated on the Plains of Abraham by a French army of 10,000 men 
under De Ldvis and was besieged behind the city-walls until relieved by an 
English fleet on May 15th. Comp. Parkman^s ^Wolfe and Montcalm% the 
Altbi Casgrain^s ^Montcalm et Levis', Vol. IV of Kingsford's *History of 
Canada'. Dr. James Douglas's *01d France in the New World' (1905), Dr. A. 0, 
Doughty s 'Siege of Quebec' (6 vols.), and Major William Wood's 'The Fight 
for Canada' (Sth, definitive ed., 1^5 ; Amer. ed., 1906). 

In 1775 Gen. Benedict Arnold made his famous march through the 
Chaudiire Valley (p. 21) and reached the Heights of Abraham by the way 
Wolfe had pointed out (Nov. 14th). On Dec. 1st he was joined by Qen. 
Montgomery^ who took the command; and on Dec. 31st the Americans 

+ Major Wood points out in a very interesting and convincing manner 
how largely this victory depended on the naval power of Great Britain, 
Wolfe's army being 'nothing else but a great landing-party'. The tradition 
that Wolfe recited Gray's *Elegy' as the boats dropped down the stream 
is wrong. He recited the Elegy while reconnoitring irom a boat, on the 
afternoon before, adding, 'Gentlemen, I would rather have written that 
poem than beat the French to-morrow\ ^OOqIc 

10* ^ 

148 Route 30. QUEBEC. Dufferir. Terrace, 

made a determined b.ut yain attempt to take the city, Montgomery falling 
before a barricade in Ghamplain St. (spot now marked by a bronze tablet). 
Comp. Vol. VI. of Kingsforcrs 'History of Canada*. 

Since then the history of Quebec has been comparatively uneventful, 
though it has been visited by many destructive conflagrations and by 
several severe epidemics of cholera. For some years it was the capital 
of United Canada (p. xxiii), and in the old Parliament House here, in 1864, 
took place the famous Confederation Debate , following the congress at 
Gharlottetown (p. 99). The progress of Quebec has been by no means so 
rapid as that of other large Canadian and American towns, its population 
rising slowly from 42,052 in 1852 to 62,446 in 1881, since which it has 
been nearly stationary. 

The -'Royal William"*, the first vessel to cross the Atlantic wholly 
under steam (1833), was built at Quebec in 1831. 

The Province of Quebec has an area of 347,350 sq. M. (about thrice 
that of the British Isles), with an extreme length of 1000 M. and an extreme 
width of 600 M. In shape it is roughly triangular, the base abutting to 
the S.W. on Ontario while the apex extends to the N.E. to the Strait of 
Belle Isle. On the E. it is bounded by New England and New Brunswick, 
while to the K. and N.E. it marches with Ungava and Labrador. The St. 
Lawrence divides it into two very unequal parts, the portion cut off to the 
S.E. of the river being only about 50,000 sq. M. in extent. The most fer- 
tile part of the province is the plain of the St. Lawrence, of which 10,000 
sq. M. are within Quebec; and the ordinary cereals and roots, hay, apples, 
plums, and various other crops are successfully cultivated. To the H. 
extends the huge and rocky Laurentian plateau, with its vast forests and 
innumerable lakes. To the S.E. of the St. Lawrence is the extension of 
the Appalachian system known as the Notre Dame Range, presenting an 
undulating surface and comprising much land suitable for agriculture or 
cattle-raismg. Agriculture is the chief occupation of the population, and 
the lumber- business is also important. The province contains no coal, but 
asbestos, phosphates of lime, copper, gold, iron, and other metals are ob- 
tained in larger or smaller quantities. Fishing is carried on in the Gulf 
and Estuary of St. Lawrence. The manufactures of the province, which 
are steadily increasing in importance, include leather, cloth, cotton and 
woollen goods, iron and hardware, sugar, chemicals, soap, etc. In 1901 
their total value was $152,611jl^. The trade of Quebec, owing to its po- 
sition on the St. Lawrence, is very important. Other large navigable 
streams are the Ottawa, the Richelieu, the St. Maurice, and the Saguenay. 
In 1901 Quebec contained 1,648.898 inhab., about four-fifths of whom were 
French. — Quebec was originally settled by the French (comp. pp. 129, 147, 
90), and it was not till after the American Revolution that any large num- 
ber of British colonists established themselves here (comp. p. 47). At the 
time of the British conquest (1763) the name of Quebec extended to the 
whole of Canada or New France, outside of the Acadian provinces; but 
in 1791 it was divided into the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada 
(comp. p. 192). These were re-united, as the Province of Canada, in 1841, 
and m 1867, on the establishment of Confederation, the province of Quebec 
assumed its present name and form. Perhaps the most notable fact in the 
later history of the province has been the extraordinary increase of the 
French Canadians, who did not number more than 70,000 at the cession of 
Canada. Large numbers of them have migrated to New England. 

The stranger in Quebec should undoubtedly begin his yisit with 
a walk round the walls and the view from Dufferin Terrace. 

*Diifferiii Terrace (PI. E, F, 6, 4) consists of a huge wooden plat- 
form, ^4 M. long and 60-70 ft. wide, erected on the edge of the cliffs 
on the S.E. side of the city, 185 ft. above the Lower Town and the 
St. Lawrence. The site was levelled and the first platform was erected 
by the Earl of Durham, but the Terrace was rebuilt and enlarged in 
the governorship of the Earl of Dufferin and opened to the public in 

Citadel. QUEBEC. 30. Route. 149 

1879 by the Marquis of Lome and the Princess Louise. The N. end, 
howeyer, is still sometimes called the Durham Terrace. On the Terrace 
are five kiosques and a hand-stand (frequent concerts). At its N. end, 
adjoining the Chateau Frontenac (p. 150), is a Statue of Champlain 
(PL Oh., F4; 1567-1635), by Paul Ohevr^, unveiled in 1898. The S. 
end of the Terrace is railed off as dangerous, a disastrous landslide hav- 
ing occurred here in 1889. On the W. Dufferin Terrace is adjoined by 
the Govbrnor's (tARdbn (PI. E, F, 4), with the Wolfe and Montcalm 
Monument (1827), bearing the neat epigrammatic Latin inscription : 
Mortem Virtus Communem 
Famam Historia 
Monumentum Posteiitas 

The **View from Dufferin Terrace is superb. At our feet are the 
winding streets of the Lower Town, including Champlain St., where Mont- 
gomery fell (p. 148). Beyond is the noble 8L Launrenee^ here about 1 M. 
wide, with its fleets of trading vessels and steamers, its wharves and docks, 
its timber- rafts and ^coves*. On the opposite side rise the heights of 
Livis (p. 157), with three huge forts (that to the right alone distinctly 
visible) and its conspicuous churches and convents. Looking towards the 
left (N«E.), we see the confluence of the St. Lawrence and the St. Charles 
and the fertile Isle cTOrl^ans (p. 157). Several villages are visible along 
the banks of the St. Lawrence, with Cap Tourmente (p. 167) looming dimly 
in the distance (35 M.). A cloud of mist marks the site of the Mont- 
morency Falls (p. 159). Behind these (to the K.) rise the Laurenlide Mts, 
(p. 139). Immediately to the N. of the Terrace are the Post Office and 
Laval University. Among the most conspicuous buildings in the Lower 
Town are Champlain Market (p. 156), immediately at our feet ; the church 
of Notre Dame de* Victoires (p. 155), just to the N.; and the Custom House 
(p. 156), at the mouth of the St. Charles. 

This view should be seen, not only by daylight, but in the dusk and 
also after the city lights are lit. 

The Elevator mentioned at p. 145 adjoins the N. end of the Terrace. 

From the S. end of Dufferin Terrace the newl*Oitadei "Walk (Pl.E, 5; 
fine views), constructed in 19(X), leads round Cape Diamond (p. 144), below 
the walls of the Citadel, to the Cove Fields. 

In winter a toboggan-slide is erected, reaching from the King's Bastion 
to the other end of Dufferin Terrace. 

At the S. end of Dufferin Terrace, adjoining Cape Diamond y 
the highest point of the plateau (350 ft.), stands the Citadel (PI. 
E, 4, 5), a strong fortification, covering 40 acres of ground and dating 
in its present form from 1823. It is entered by a road diverging from 
St. Louis St. at -Sf^ Louis Gate (see PI. E, 4), ascending across the 
glacis to the C^ain Gate, and then leading along the trenches. It may 
be reached from the S. end of Dufferin Terrace by paths ascending 
across the green glacis and steps descending to the moat through 
a redoubt. No order of admission is now required, but at the Dal- 
hotuie Gate, leading from the moat to the inner works, the visitor 
is met by a soldier to act as guide (fee discretionary). 

The present Fortifications of Quebec were constructed in 1823-32 and 
followed to some extent the lines of the French works of 1716. The earlier 
works enclosed a much smaller area. In the French period there were 
apparently three Citp Gates, one of which, the St. Louis Gate, is now repre- 
sented by a modern structure, while the St. John and Paiaw Gates have 
been entirely swept away. The Hope and Prescott Gates were added by 
the English, but no longer exist. Kent Gate, to which Queen Victoria con- 

150 Route 30, QUEBEC. 8t. John Gate. 

tributed, is wholly modern. See also below. The Citadel and other forti- 
fications of Quebec, being by no means equal to the demands of modem 
warfare, were reinforced some years ago by the erection of three detached 
forts at L^vis (p. 157). Those in turn were recognized as inadequate, and 
two new and powerful forts are being constracted at Beaumont (p. 166), 
9 M. below the city, to command the channel of the St. Lawrence. 

Since the withdrawal of the British troops in 1871 the Citadel has 
been garrisoned by Canadian troops. It encloses a large parade and drill 
ground, surrounded by barracks and magazines under the walls. ITumerous 
heavy guns are mounted on the ramparts. In the centre is a diminutive 
cannon captured at Bunker Hill (1775). The large stone building is the 
Officers'' Quarters^ at the E. end of which, overlooking the river, is the 
O&vemor-OeneraVs Residence^ usually occupied by him for short visits every 
year. The W. Ramparts overlook the Plains of Abraham (p. 104), and 
the **View from the King^s BatHon, at the N.E. angle of the ramparts, 
rivals that from Dufferin Terrace. 

We now return to the St. LouiB Gate (PI. E, 4), a handsome 
structure in a medieval style erected on the site of the old gate in 
1878-9, ascend the steps, and begin here our circuit of the ♦Walls 
(3 M.). About 15 yds. to the S. of the gate (inside) is a tablet 
marking the grave of Montgomery's companions (p. 147). To the 
right, within the wails, lies the Esplanade (PI. E, 4), with a few 
mortars and dismounted cannon and a South African War Monument 
(PI. A.W; E, 4), by McCarthy. To the left rises the large new Par- 
liament Building (p. 153). In about 4 min. we reach the Kent Gate 
(PL E, 4), a Norman structure erected in 1879 to relieve the pres- 
sure of traffic (see p. 149). It was named in honour of the Duke of 
Kent, father ,of Queen Victoria, who lived in Quebec from 1791 to 
1794. To the left is the Montcalm Market (PI. E, 3), to the right 
the Church of the Congregation, one of the oldest in the city. We 
now obtain a view, in front, of the St. Charles River and the 
Laurentide Mts. The St. John Gate (PI. E, 3), erected in 1867 on 
the site of one of the original French gates, was removed in 1897 to 
make way for the electric tramway. Beyond its site we have to leave 
the walls for a space, this angle of the fortifications being occupied 
for Government purposes. We regain the line of the walls at Palace 
St. , where we cross the gap left by the removal of the old Palace 
Gate (Pl.E, 3 ; see p. 149) and have the huge mass of the Hdtel Dieu 
(p. 152) to the right. As we proceed we overlook the quaint Lower 
Town, with its narrow streets and numerous factories. Famille 
St. marks the site of the old Hope Gate (PI. F, 3; see p. 149). A 
little farther on (about V4 l^r.'s walk from St. John's Gate) we reach 
the "^Grand Battery (Pi. F, 4) at the N.E. angle of the walls, on the 
cliff named Sault-au-Matelot, another fine point of view, overlooking 
the Docks and the confluence of the rivers. Behind us, at this point, 
are the solid buildings of Laval University (p. 152). Our course now 
leads towards the S. to Dufferin Terrace and the Citadel (seep. 149). 
The Prescott Gate (p. 149) was at Mountain Hill St. (PL F, 4). 

At the N. end of Dufferin Terrace stands the *Cli&teaii Tron- 
tenac Hotel (p. 145), a large and handsome structure, erected in 
1893 in the French Baronial style, from the designs of Bruce BricCj 

Anglican Cathedral, QUEBEC. 30. Route. 151 

and consisting mainly of light-red brick, with copper roofs. It occu- 
pies the approximate site of the old French Fort 8t, LouU^ built by 
Ohamplain in 1620 and burned down in 1834, a stone from which, 
bearing a Maltese cross, has been immured above the main entrance. 
The walls of the dining-room are hung with good tapestry, repre- 
senting the foundation of Rom6 ; and the other interior decorations 
are also in excellent taste. This fine hotel faces the Placb d^A&mes 
(PI. F, 4), the parade-ground and fashionable promenade of the 
French period. On the W. side of the Place is the Anglican Cathe- 
dral (PI. F, 4), a plain edifice of 1804, with a spire 150 ft high. It 
contains communion-plate given by George III, the colours of the 
69ih Regiment, and mural memorials to Bishop Mountain, first incum- 
bent of the see, the Duke of Richmond (d. 1819), Governor-General 
of Canada (buried below the altar) , and others. Adjacent are the 
Rectory and the Chapel of All Saints. To the S. of the Cathedral, at 
the corner of St. Louis St., is the handsome Court House (PI. F, 4). 

The short Du Fort St. leads to the N. from the Place d'Armes 
to the Post Ofaoe (PL F, 4; p. 145), a substantial stone building at 
the comer of Buade St., erected in 1873. 

The Poit Office oecnpie* the site of the old Chien cTOr Building; and 
a stone from the old building, bearing the carved and gilded figure of a 
dog, haa heen built into the front-wall. Below is the inscription: 
*Je suis un chien qui ronge Tos 
En le rongeant je prends mon repos. 
Un temps viendra qui n^est pas venu 
Que je mordrai qui m^aura mordu/ 

The story goes that the house belonged to a rich merchant named 
Fhilibert^ who had been wronged by Jntendant Bigot (see p. 156) and chose 
this way of expressing his hatred. Philibert was afterwards killed by an 
officer quartered on the Chien d'Or by Bigot, but was revenged by his 
aon, who slew his father's murderer in Pondicherry many years later. 
Comp. 'The Golden Dog*, a historical novel by W. Kirhy. Dr. Doughty 
has, however, shown, in bis *Quebec under Two Flags* (p. 146), that this 
version of the story is not quite accurate. At a later date the house was 
occupied as an inn by Sergeant Miles FrenUce^ whose pretty niece, Miss 
Simpson^ so captivated Commander Horatio Nelson of H. M. S. ^Albemarle* 
in 1782, that the future hero of Trafalgar had to be spirited away by his 
friends to prevent him marrying her. 

In front of the Post Office is a new Monument to Bishop Laval 
(PL L., F 4 ; p. 152), by Hubert, to be completed in 1908. 

Following Buade St. towards iHe left, we pass the Archbishop^s 
Palace and the Basilica (PL F. 4) or Roman Catholic Cathedral, 
founded in 1666 but dating in its present form from the second half 
of the 18th century. It occupies in part the site of the Chapelle de 
la RecouvrarusCj built by Champlain in 1633. 

The interior is gay with white paint and gilding. Among the numerous 
paintings are a ^Crucifixion, by van Dych (on the first pillar on the N. 
side of the nave, next the choir); a St. Paul, by Carlo Maratti (in the 
choir) ; and examples of B^tout^ Blanehard^ Vignon^ and Plamondon. The 
high-altar-piece is apparently a copy of Lebrun. The bishops of Quebec, 
including Laval, and four French governors, including Frontenac, are com- 
memorated by tablets. The collection of vestments may be seen on appli- 
cation to the verger. The red hat of Card. Taschereau (d. 1808) hangs from 
the roof, in front of the chancel. Digitized by GoOglc 

152 Route 30. QUEBEC. Laval UniversUy. 

According to the most recent investigations the Chapelle de Champlain^ 
built in 1636 over the tomb of the hero, lay in the Oimetihre de la Mon- 
ag ne, to the E. of the Basilica, below the site of the old Prescot^ Gate. 

Opposite the front of the Basilica is the City Hall (Pi. E, F, 4), 
an Imposing building, 200 ft. long, erected in 1894-96. It occupies 
the site of a Jesuits' College, founded in 1637. One of its fine rooms 
contains a collection of portraits of distinguished Canadians. 

To the N. of the Basilica extend the huge buildings of the ♦Sem- 
inary of Quebec and ♦Laval University (PI. F, 4). 

The Seminary of Quebec was founded in 1663 by Francois de Mont- 
morencv Laval, first Bishop of Quebec, and the picturesque group of build- 
ings composing it date from 1666 to 1880. It is divided into Le Grand 
Siminaire, for the education of priests, and Le Petit Siminaire, for the 
general education of boys. In 1852 the Seminary founded the llniverzity 
of Lavaly which received a royal charter the same year and one from Pope 
Pius IX. in 1876. It possesses Faculties of Arts, Theology, Law, and Medi- 
cine. The Seminary is attended by 500, the University by 800 students. 
The main entrance to the University is at the Grand Battery (p. 150), but it 
is also reached from the Seminary through the Theological Hall and Priests* 
Dwellings. For the Laval University buildings at Montreal, see p. 138. 

The University, which contains many objects of interest, is open to 
visitors daily. Sun. and holidays excepted (fee 25 c. ; Thurs., 1-4, 10 c). The 
PicTUBE Gallekt (catalogue provided) is, perhaps, the most important in 
Canada, and contains works by or ascribed to Van Dyck (No. 74), Teniers 
(90, 91), Tintoretto (20), Salvator Rosa (18, 116, 117), Vemet (123), Albani (103), 
Honthorst (49-53), Parroeel (97, 98), Romanelli (11), Simon Vouet (12), Boucher 
(104, 105, 110), L. Carracd (29), Pierson (89. Portrait of Calvin), Schalcken (80), 
Opie (78), Paul Bril (94), A. van Ostade (131), and Domenichino (120). In the 
Legtdbb Hall are works by Maratta (4), N. Poussin (10), Baroccio (22), and 
Schidone (29), and in the Fibst Antbboom is a landscape by Gainsborough 
(11). — The Begbptiom Hall contains interesting portraits (Bishop Laval, 
Queen Victoria, etc.) and other pictures. — The Minbbalooigal and Geolog- 
iGAE. Museum illustrates the mineral resources of the Dominion and includes 
a good collection of Canadian and foreign marbles. — The Ethnological 
Museum includes an interesting series of Indian skulls. — The Collections 
OF Katubal Histobt, Scientific Instbuments, and Coins also repay 
inspection. — The Museum of Religion contains the tomb and fragments 
of the coffin of Bishop Laval (see above), autographs of Louis XIV. and 
Colbert, and other souvenirs. — The •Libbaby, with 150,(X)0 vols., is very 
rich in works relating to Canada. Among its rarities are works given by 
Queen Victoria and a Book of Hours with the signature of Mary, Queen 
of Scots. — The Pbomotion Hall, in which the graduation-ceremonies 
take place, can seat 1500 people. — The Seminabx Chapel contains an 
Ascension by Philippe de Champaigne^ a modem Roman mosaic (after Titian's 
^Mater Dolorosa*), presented by Pope Leo Xlll., and some relics of San 
Carlo Borromeo. 

The American officers taken prisoner in the siege of 1775 (p. 147) were 
confined in Le Petit St^minaire. 

Another of the great Roman Catholic institutions of Quebec is 
the large *H6telDieu Convent and Hospital (Fl: E,F, 8), the impos- 
ing buildings of which are seen a little to the W. (entr. in Palace St.). 
It was founded by the Duchess d*Aiguillon, niece of Card. Richelieu, 
who placed it under the charge of the Hospitali^res nuns. The build- 
ings date from 1664 to 1762, and have been lately extended. 

The Convent Church (entered from Charlevoix St.) contains a prayin'g 
Monk by Zurharan, a St. Bruno by Mustache Le Sueur, and other paintings. 
Good singing at the Sun. services. — Among the relics of the convent are 
a silver bust enshrining the skull of Jean de Breboeu/, si^suit missionary 

:ed by VjOO 

Ursuline Convent, QUEBEC. 30. Route, 153 

tortured to death by the Iroquois in 1649, and the bones of his fellow- 
martyr Lakmant (comp. ParkmaiCt ^Jesuits in Korth America*). 

On a house at the comer of Palace St. and St. John St. (P1.E, 81 
is a wooden figure of General Wolfe, erected a few years ago in 
place of one dating fr<^m 1771. The old effigy is now in the reading- 
room of the Literary '& Historical Society (see below). — We may 
now follow St. John St. to St. Stanislas St. and proceed to the left 
to the handsome Methodist Church (PI. E, 3, 4). — At the corner of 
St. Stanislas St. and Dauphin St. is Morrin College (PI. E, 4), a 
gmall Protestant institution, affiliated to McGill University (p. 135). 

This college was originally used as a prison, and the old cells are 
still shown in the N. wing. — Morrin College is also the home of the ^Littrarp 
of the Qu^ec Literary and HMorieal Society.^ containing a valuable collection 
of books relating to Canada (25,000 vols.). 

Descending St. Anne St. towards the E. and turning to the right 
into Garden or Des Jardins St. , we reach the *TJrBnline Convent 
(PI. £,4; Tisltors admitted in summer to parlours and chapel, 9-11 
and 1-3.30). The convent was founded in 1639 by Mme. de la Peltrie 
and Marie de I'lncamation, the *St. Theresa of the New World', The 
present buildings, which, with the enclosed gardens, cover seven 
acres of ground, date from 1686. 

The chapel (rebuilt in 1908) contains paintings by Philippe de Qiampaigne^ 
Sesiout^ Prudhomme, and other French artists, and two beautiful ivory 
crucifixes. Montcalm (p. 154) is buried here, in a grave made by a shell 
which burst in the chapel during the bombardment of 1759. His skull is 
preserved under gla^s. The shrines contain bones from the Roman Cata- 
combs. Before the statue of the Virgin burns a votive lamp which has 
not been extinguished since it was given by Madeleine de Repentigny in 
1717. The present jewelled holder was sent from France in 1903 by de- 
scendants of tile Repentigny family. Specimens of embroidery and painting 
by the nuns may be obtained in the reception-rooms. 

No. 65 St. Anne St.. overlooking the Ursuline Convent Garden, is the 
house where Mr. Howells lived while collecting material for ^A Chance 
Acquaintance". Comp. chap. iv. of that charming volume. 

The short Donnacona St. leads back to St. Louis Stbbet (PI. 
E, 4), which we now follow to the right (W.), past the Garrison Club 
(PI. E, 4). Montgomery (p. 147) was laid out in the house formerly 
on the site of No. 72 (on the right). We soon reach the St Louis 
Gate (p. 149), just outside which, to the right, in a commanding 
situation, 280 ft. above the St. Lawrence, stand the Parliament and 
Departmental Buildings (PI. D, 4), an imposing French Benais- 
sance edifice in grey stone, erected in 1878-92. The central tower 
is 160 ft. high. 

The bronze group in front of the building, the statues in niches on 
the fa9ade, and the groups on the roof are the work of the talented 
native sculptor Hibert, Maisonneuve (p. 129), Cartier (p. 128), and Champlain 
(p. 147) are commemorated in conspicuous inscriptions. 

The Interior is handsomely fitted up, with wooden panelling on the 
staircase bearing the coats - of - arms of distinguished French Canadian 
families (not always quite accurate). The rooms of the Legielative Assembly 
and the Legislative Council are spacious and convenient (public admitted to 
the galleries; reserved seats on application to the Speaker). 

Visitors should ascend to the top of the tower, which affords a 
splendid ••View of the city, the two rivers, etc. (comp. pp. 149, 146). 

154 Route 80, QUEBEC. Wolfe's Monument, 

To the left are the Skating Rink (PID, A) and Drill Hall (P1.D,4). 
In front of the last is a Monument to Major Short and Sergeant Wal- 
lick (PL D, 4), who perished in a gallant attempt to stem a conflagra- 
tion in 1889. We now continue our walk along the Gbandb All^b 
(PI. A-D, 4), in order to visit the battlefield of 1769. The open 
ground behind the houses to the left, between the road and the edge 
of the cliff, is known as the Covb Fields (PI. 0, D, 4, 5) and is used by 
golfers. It is Government property. The remains of old fortifications 
traceable here are all of British origin, dating from 1783, 1804, and 
181 1 . The two Martello Towers (PI. C, 4, 5), at the W. end of the Cove 
Fields, date from about 1812. [There are other two towers to the N. j 
PI. 0, 3. The large building near Tower 1 is a Rifle Factory (PI. C, 5).J 
A steep flight of steps descends from the Cove Fields to the pro- 
longation of Champlain St. (p. 156). To the right is the Franciscan 
Convent (PL C, 4), erected in 1897, near which Montcalm's forces 
assembled on Sept. 13th, 1769 ; and on the same side lie the grounds 
and club-house of the Quebec Amateur Athletic Association, About 
Va M. beyond the Martello Towers is the District Oaol (PI. B, 4), a 
large and massive building. To the N. of this (reached from the Grande 
AlMe by the road to the left a little short of the toll-gate, about 
1 M. from the St. Louis Gate) stands Wolfe's Monument (PL B, 4), 
a tall column rising from a square base and bearing the inscription : 
'Here died Wolfe victorious, Sept. 13. 1759'. A little to the S.E. of 
the Gaol is the Quebec Observatory (PL B, C, 5). 

To theW. of this point stretch the Plains of Abraham (PL A, B, 
4, 5), so called after Abraham Martin, royal pilot of the St. Lawrence, 
who owned some ground in this vicinity about the middle of the 
17th century. Wolfe's Cove (p. 144) is about IV4M. farther on, below 
the cliff. The Racecourse (PL A, B, 4, 5), which occupies part of the 
Plains, has been converted into a Public Park, 

At the date of the battle the Plains stretched without fence or en- 
closure up to the walls of the town and to the Cdte Ste. Genevieve. The 
sarface was sprinkled with bushes, and the flanking woods were denser 
than at present, so affording more cover to the French and Indian marks- 
men. The nofition of the front of the French army at the opening of 
the battle (10 a.m.) may be indicated by a line drawn from MarteUo Tower 
Ko. 4 (PL C, 8) to the St. Lawrence. The British line was about >/« M. 
farther to the W., where De Salaberry St. now runs (PL C, 3, 4). The French 
then advanced until within 40 paces of the British. Wolfe was at the head 
of the British right wing, near the St. Louis Boad, and Montcalm at the 
head of the French centre. The battle was hotly contested for about 1/4 hr., 
but the French troops, consisting largely of militiamen, gave way at last 
before the impetuous charge of the Louisbourg Grenadiers and 28th Regi- 
ment. Wolfe was hit three times, receiving his third and mortal wound 
at the moment he gave the order to advance. He fell about 2G0 yds. nearer 
Quebec then the Monument, the latter occupying the spot whither he was 
carried to breathe his last. Montcalm was first struck by a musket-ball 
and then by a discharge of the only field-piece the British had brought 
into action. He was carried into Quebec and died about four 0^ clock the 
next morning. Comp. pp. 153, 147. 

The Battle of Ste. Foye or Foy (April 2Sth, 17C0), in which Gen. 
Murray was defeated by the Chevalier de L^vis (see p. 147), took place to the 
K. of the Plains of Abraham; and the spot where the struggle was fiercest 

Lower Town. QUEBEC. 30, Route, 155 

is marked* by the Ste. Foye Monument (PI. Ayd>\ erected in 1860 on the Ste. 
Foye road, about 1 M. from the St. John Gate and Vi M. to the N.W. of the 
Wolfe Monument. It is inscribed: *Aux Braves de 1760, ^rigd par la So- 
cidt^ St. Je:in Bapt'ste de Quebec, i860.' A visit to this point is easily 
combined with the excursion to the Wolfe Monument, by following the 
second cross-road to the right beyond the latter and returning to town by 
the Ste. Foye Boad and St. John St. (a round in all of about 4 M.). 

In St. Matthew^s Ohurchyafd (PI. D, 3), in St. John St., is the tomb of 
Thomas Scott, brother of Sir Walter and for a time believed to be the author 
of 'Wavcrley\ — In St. Cyrille St., a little to the S. of the Sfe. Foye Road, 
is the new Jtffrey Hals Hospital (PI. C, 3). 

Following the Grande AUtfe for about II/4 M. beyond the Wolfe 
Monument , we reach (left) the entrance to the beautiful grounds 
of *Spencer Wood, the residence of the Lieutenant-Governor of 
Quebec. The cliffs behind the house afford a splendid view , with 
Wolfe's Cove (p. 154) lying at our feet. 

The grounds of Spencer Wood are adjoined on the W. by those of 
Bpenoer G-range (fine vineries), the home of Sir J, M, Le Moine, the author 
of numerous interesting works relating to Quebec and Canadian history. 

Spencer Wood adjoins ML Hermon Cemetery (Prot) aud St. Pa- 
trick's Cemetery, beyond which, 31/2 M. from Quebec, is the village of 
SUlery, with its large convent, school-house, and timber-coves. We 
may return hence to the city by a small steamer (10 c). 

A pleasant afternoon stroll may be enjoyed by taking the steamer from 
Quebec to Sillery and following the shady road under the cliffs and along 
the river to (2 M.) Wolfe's Cove. Here we ascend the road to the left, 
bringing us out on the Grande AU^e, just to the £. of Spencer Wood and less 
than 1 M. from the Wulfe Monument (p. 164). This walk affords fine views 
and has the historic interest of following the route of Wolfe's forces. 

To visit the Lower Town of Quebec, we may follow Mountain 
Hill St. or C6te de la Montagne (PI. F,4) and descend to the right 
by the picturesque Champlain or Breakneck Steps, which lead to 
what is, perhaps, the quaintest and busiest part of the riverine dis- 
tricts. Hard by is the unpretentious church of Notre Dame des 
Victoires (PI. F, 4), erected close to the site of Ohamplain's origi- 
nal Habitation de Quebec (1608 ; p. 147). 

The name refers to the deliverance of the city from the English at- 
tacks of 1690 and 1711 (p. 147); and tablets on either side of the door 
(inside) bear the following inscriptions , which reflect a pleasant light on 
the magnanimity of the Government that overlooks them. 

1688. Poss ds la Ihrs Pierre par le Marquis de Denonville Oouverneur. 
Innocent XI Pape. Louis XIV Roi de France. L*6glise est didiie 
b, Venfant Jisus. 

1690. Difaite de Vamiral Phips. Uiglise prend le litre de Notre Dame 
de la Vietoire. 

1711. Dispersion de la flotte de Vamiral Walker. Viglise prend le litre 
de N. D. des Victoires. 

1709. Incendiie pendant le siige. 

1766. Radtie. 

i8SS. Restaurie d f occasion du 2iime Centenaire. 

Just to the S. of Notre Dame des Victoires is Sous-le-Fort Street 
(PI. F, 4) , recalling the narrow mediaeval streets that survive in 
Bristol (e. g. the Pithay) and many Continental towns. Sous-le- 
Fort St. ends at the foot of the elevator leading to Dufferin Terrace 
(PI. F, 4 ; see p. 149), whence Liftic Champlain Street (P1.F,4, 5), the 

156 Route 30, QUEBEC. 

scene of Montgomery's death (p. 148), leads to the S. along the base 
of the cliffs. Between Little Ohamplain St. and the river stands the 
large Cliamplain Market (PL F, 4), near the wharves of the river- 
steamers. By continuing our walk towards the S. (W.), through 
Champlain Street (PL C-E, 5), with a tablet (on the cliff) commem- 
orating the 'Undaunted Fifty' who here repulsed the attack of 
Montgomery (pp. 147, 148), we may visit some of the large timber 
'coves' that line the river farther up. 

Moving in the opposite direction (N.) from Notre Dame des 
Victoires, we may follow the busy St. Pbtbb Stbbet (PL F, 4), with 
its shops , banks , and warehouses. Near the end of St. Peter St. 
8t. Andrew Street (Pl.F, G, 4) leads to the right to the Custom House 
(PLG,4), a Doric building, at the junction of the St. Lawrence and 
the St. Charles. To the N. of this point lies the capacious Louise 
Basin (PL F, G, 3), with a wet dock 40 acres in area and a tidal dock 
of half that size. On the Louise Embankment (PL F, G, 2, 3), forming 
the outer wall of the docks, is the Immigration Office (PL G, 3), 
with the barracks in which immigrants are cared for until they can 
be forwarded to their ultimate destinations. — Sault-au-Matelot 
Street (PL F, 4) and ^Sous-le-Cap Street (PI. F, 3, 4), to the left of 
St. Peter St., below the walls, are two of the quaintest old streets 
in the city. A tablet in the former commemorates the Canadian force 
which here repulsed the attack of Arnold (pp. 147, 148). 

St. Paul Street (Pl.F, 3, 4), diverging to the left near the end of 
St. Peter St., leads to the W. between the cliff and the docks, pass- 
ing near the stations of the Lake St, John (PL F, 3), the Mont- 
morency ^ Charlevoix (PL F, 3) , and the C, P, Railway (PL E, 3). 

At the corner of Nicolas Street (leading to the left from St. 
Paul St.) and St. Valier Street is BoswelVs Brewery (PL E, 3), on the 
site of the palace of Intendant Bigot, parts of the old walls of which 
may be seen in the court (plan at the Historical Society, p. 163). 

The Intendant was the head of the civil administration of the French 
colony of Canada, as the Governor was of its military administration. 
Bigot, who was appointed Intendant in 1748, did much, by his profligacy, 
oppression, extravagance, and dishonesty, to min the resources of the 
colony and hasten its fall. Kear the palace stood the so-called ^Friponne* 
('swindle'), a large storehouse erected by Bigot to hold the goods arriving 
from Bordeaux until sold to the King or the citizens. Gomp. Parkman^s 
'Montcalm and Wolfe* (chap. xvii). 

St. Paul St. is continued, beyond St. Roch Street (PL E,2, 3), by 
St. Joseph Stbeet (PL C-E, 2), forming the dividing line between 
the industrial ward of St, Rochj to the right, and the artizans* 
dwellings of the Jacques Cartier Ward , to the left. The former 
is supposed to occupy the site of Stadacona (p. 147; monument). 
The Church of St. Roch (PL D , 2) is a large but uninteresting 
edifice. On the banks of the St. Charles, which here makes an 
abrupt bend round Hare Point, are the St, Charles Hospital (PL D, 1) 
and the large General Hospital (PL C, 1). The latter occupies the 
site of the house of the Rtfcollets, in which they received the 

ISLAND OF ORLEANS. ^i. Route. 157 

Jesuit missionaries in 1626. Close by, on a peninsula formed by a 
loop of the St. Oharies River, is the Victoria Park (PI. C, D, 1), 
with a monument to Queen Victoria by Marshal Wood. Beyond St. 
Roch is the district of St, Sauveur^ with its imposing Church. 

The chief points of interest in the Environs of Cluebeo are enumerated 
in the following route. A favourite drive leads round 'the plateau of Quebec 
(about 20 M.), going out to Cap Rouge (comp. p. 144) by the St. Louis Koad 
and returning by the Ste. Foye Road. 

From Quebec to Montreal^ see S. 29 ^ to Boston^ see R. 5 ^ to Portland^ 
see B. 9^ to Lake St. John^ see R. 32^ to the Sagumayy see R. 33^ to Hali- 
fax^ see B. 24. 

31. Ezcnrsiomi from Quebec. 

a. L^via. 
Ferry Steamers ply at intervals of about lOmin. from the L4i»U Wharf 
(PI. F, 4). not far from the Ghamplain Market, to (>/« M.) LMs (6 min. ^ 
fare 3 c. m summer, 10 c. in winter). 

L^vis or Point L^vifl (KenneheCj Terminw, $ 1-1 Vs? ^« ^- ^9^Vi 
a city of (1901) 7783 inhab., is finely situated on the heights on the 
E. bank of the St. Lawrence, opposite Quebec, and should be visited, 
if for no other reason, on account of the grand *View it affords of 
that city. It is the terminus of a branch of the Grand Trunk Railway 
and of the Quebec Central Railway (comp. pp. 141, 20), and it is also 
a station of the Intercolonial Railway (pp. 140,83). The heights above 
the town are now occupied by three enormous forts of earthwork and 
masonry, erected some years ago at a cost of nearly $ 1,000,000 each. 
So far, however, they have neither been armed nor garrisoned. The 
vrive round these forts is interesting and affords a series of delightful 
dlews. Excellent views are also afforded by the electric cars, which 
mn from the ferry to the market-place and also to St. Joseph and 
St. Romuald (see below).* The Lome Graving Docfc,near the N. end 
of Ltfvis« is almost 500 ft. long and admits vessels drawing 26-26 ft. 
of water. Some of the Churches and Colleges are large and conspicuous 
buildings. — Ltfvis is adjoined on the N. by Bierhville and St. Joseph, 
and on the S. by South Quebec and St. Romuald or New Liverpool 
(3589 inhab.), all sharing in the large lumber-trade of Quebec (direct 
ferry, see p. 146). The *Church of St. Romuald is adorned with good 
paintings by Lamprecht of Munich. 

The Chaudih'e Falls (see p. 141) are 4 M. 1o the S.W. of St. Romuald 
(cab 31V«)» but they have been sadly marred by the erection of mills. 
About halfWay between St. Romuald and the falls we cross the Chaudi6re 
at a point called the 'Basin\ The sail to St. Romuald affords fine views of 
the bold shores of the St. Lawrence. 

b. Isle of Orleans, 
steamers, starting from the Champlain Wharf, ply at frequent intervals 
to (4 M.) Ste. PiironiUe, on the ItU of Orleans (Vshr.j fare 10 c). 

About 4 M. below Quebec the St. Lawrence is divided into a 
N. and a S. channel by the Island of Orleans (Isle d'Orlians)^ 
20 M. long, 6 M. wide, and 70 sq. M. in area. The short steapaboat 

158 Route 31, BEATJPORT. ExcursioM 

voyage to it affords, perhaps, tlie best *View of the city of Quebec, 
while to the N. are seen Beauport (see below) and the Montmorency 
FaUs (p. 159), backed by the Laurentide Mu. The Indian name of 
the island was Minego^ and it was called Isle de Bacchus by Jacques 
Cartier (1635) on account of the numerous grape-vines he found on 
it. Wolfe established part of his camp here during his siege of 
Quebec (p. 147). The island is occupied by about 4000 'habitants', 
who raise large crops of potatoes, make cheese, and possess fine or- 
chards of apples and plums. The steamer calls at 8te, Pitronille de 
BeaulieUj a village of 220 inhab., with a pleasant little hotel (Cha- 
teau Bel- Air), a park, and other attractions, which draw many 
summer- visitors. On the N. shore of the island lie the hamlets 
of 8t Pierre and 8t, Famille, on the S. shore those of 8U Fran^oiSf 
8t, Jean, and 8t. Laurent. Miranda's Cave, on the S. shore, is a fa- 
vourite picnic-resort The churches date mainly from the middle 
of last century; the Nunnery of 8t, Famille dates from 1685. Fine 
views are obtained of the l>aurentide Mts. from the N. shore. 

c. Falls of Montmorency and Ste. Anne de Beauprd. 

21 M. RA.ILWAT (Quebec RaUvoay, Lighi^ ds Power Co.) in 1 hr. (return- 
fare to Montmorency 20 c, or, including ttie use of the elevator, 30 c. ^ to 
Ste. Anne 60 c.)* This railway was originally intended mainly for the ac- 
commodation of pilgrims and pilgrimages, but is now also used lai^ely by 
tourists. It lies between the road and the riyer. The service is now mainly 
electric, though there are also a few sieam trains. This excursion, as far 
as the Montmorency Falls, is also often made by road (can*, there &, back 
about % 3 for 1-2 persons), and thus both road and railway are described 
below. The pedestrian who understands French will find much to interest 
him throughout the Cdte de Beaupri. The inns are primitive but clean. 
— Gomp. ^Jl Chance Acquaintance", by W. D. EowelU. 

a. BoAx> TO Montmorency (6V2 M). We cross the 8t, Charles by 
the Dorchester Bridge (PI. E, 1, 2), erected in 1789 and named after the 
then Governor-General of Canada. To the left is seen the 8t, Charles 
Hospital (p. 156). The road then turns to the right and runs parallel 
to the St. Lawrence. It is lined nearly all the way with the cottages 
of the ^habitants', generally standing askew to the road so as to 
present their gable-end to the E. wind. The visitor will notice the 
open-air ovens for baking bread, such as are common throughout 
French Canada. Behind the houses are the long narrow strips of their 
farm-lands (comp. p. 139), stretching on the right down to the river. 
Good views are enjoyed of Quebec, L^vis, and the Isle of Orleans. 
To the right lies Maizetets, a farm-house belonging to Quebec Seminary 
and forming the regular holiday- resort of the pupils. To the left, 
farther on, about 2 M. from Dorchester Bridge, is the large Ptovineial 
Lunatic Asylum, On the same side, V2 M. farther on, is a Temper ^ 
ance Monument. — 1 M. (r.) Church and Presbytery of Beauport, The 
church is a large edifice, the handsome towers of which have been 
rebuilt since a fire in 1888. Montcalm had his headquarters in 1759 
at the manor-house of Beauport, one of the ruinous buildings seen to 

Digitized by * 

from Quebec, FALLS OF MONTMORENCY. 31, Route, 159 

the left, and at the De Scdabtrry Manor, since destroyed. Beauport 
is a long straggling village with about 1500 inhabitants. 

About 3 M. beyond Beauport Church we reach the entrance to 
the Kent House Hotel {^1-^'^ luncheon 75 c., D. $ 1), which was built 
as Haldimand House by General Haldimand in 1780 and derives its 
present name from having been occupied by the Duke of Kent in 
1791-94. It now belongs to the QuebeQ Railway, Light, & Power Co. 
and stands in pleasant grounds containing a rustic theatre, a deer- 
park, and a menagerie of Canadian wild animals (adm. 25 c; free 
to railway-passengers). The hotel commands a view of the falls, 
to which a direct path leads. 

Beyond the Kent House Hotel the road crosses the Montmorency 
River and reaches Bwreau^s Inn, and the grounds on the E. side of 
the falls (entr. opposite the inn ; ♦View of Quebec and its environs). 
Adm. to the grounds round the falls 25 c. (free to railway passengers), 
An interesting collection of historical cannon may be seen from the 
road in the grounds of Montmorency Cottage^ near the head of the falls. 

The farm-house in which Wolfe lay ill for two weeks, and from which 
the wrote his celebrated despatch to Pitt on Sept. 2nd, 1759, is about Vs ^* 
beyond Bureau's and 200 yds. down to the right. 

b. Railway to Montmorbnot and Stb. Anne (21 M.). On leav- 
ing Quebec the train crosses the 8t, Charles by a long swing-bridge 
(views) and stops at (^2 M.) LimoUou Junction^ for the village of 
HedleyvilU, It then runs along the bank of the 8t, Lawrence, afford- 
ing views of the Isle of Orleans (p.'157"). i^k M. Maizerets (p. 158) ; 
2 M. Mastai; 21/2 M. Beauport (p. 158); 0I/2 M. Beauport Church 
(p. 168) ; 53/4 M. 8t,Gregoire, — 61/2M. Montmorency, with the power- 
house of the railway, which also supplies power to the adjacent 
cotton-mills and light to Quebec. — The train now backs up to the 
(63/4 M.) Montmorency Falls Station, whence an elevator *(276 ft.) 
ascends to the road near the Kent House Hotel (see above). 

The *Falls of Montmorency, known to old French peasants as La 
Vaehe , are formed by the Montmorency River just before its confluence 
with the St. Lawrence and, are 265 ft. high and 160 ft. wide. In spring or 
after heavy rain they are very imposing. A good near view of the falls 
from above is obtained from a summer-house on the W. bank, built ori- 
ginally by Oen. Haldimand (see above), at the suggestion of the Baroness 
Biedesel, wife of the commander of the Hessian troops in the Revolutionary 
War (see her ^Letters'*). Above the falls are the remains of a suspension- 
bridge, which fell in 1856, carrying with it a peasant and his wife who were 
driving across it at the time. Two fine ice -cones used to be formed at 
the foot of the falls in winter, aflTording royal sport to Quebec tobogganers, 
but there is now so little spray, owing to the fact that great part of 
the water is withdrawn to generate the electric light with which Quebec 
is illuminated, that the cones are insignificant. 

The famous Natural Steps, 1 M. farther up the river, long formed an 
attraction scarcely second to the falls but were submerged in 1906 as a 
result of a dam constructed by the railway-company just below them. The 
scene recalled the Sfrid at Bolton Abbey or the Linn of Dee near Braemar 
(see Baedeker'*s Great Britain). 

It was at Montmorency that Wolfe delivered his unsuccessful attempt 
on Montcalm in 1759 (see p. 147), the centre of the attack being the en4 
of the road known then and now as the C6te de Courville. (^ooalp 

160 Route 31. STE. ANNE DE BEAUPRlfi. 

The railway now crosses the Montmorency River (p. 159), afford- 
ing a good view of the falls to the left. 7 M. Little ViUage. — 10 M. 
VAnge Oardien , with its old church , prettily situated in a small 
valley, offers good snipe and partridge shooting. The hills approach 
more closely. — Near (16 M.) Chdteau Richer ^ with its orchards and 
good shooting, are the romantic falls of the Sault & la Pace, about 
110 ft. high. — I8V2 M. Rivitre des Chiena; 20i/2 M. EglUe SU. Anne, 
the nearest station for visitors to the church (see below). 

21 M. Ste. Anne de Beanpri, or La Bonne 8te, Anne (Regina 
Hotel, $ 2 J also several small inns), a village with about 2000 inhab., 
said to have been founded by Breton mariners about 1620, is the 
most famous place of pilgrimage in America to the N. of Mexico 
and is visited annually by many thousands of pilgrims (200,000 in 
1905). The present Church of Ste. Anne^ opened for public worship 
in 1876 and created a Basilica by the Pope in 1887, is a large and 
handsome building, with towers 168 ft. high. It contains some relics 
of Ste. Anne , numerous ex voto offerings and crutches left by those 
who have undergone miraculous cures, a statue of St. Anne (with 
the Virgin) on an onyx column, and a good altar-piece by Le Brun, 
The historical relics in the vestry are shown from 11 to 12. The 
enthusiasm is at its greatest height on Ste. Anne^s Day (July 26th). 
The original church of 1658 (the eleventh church built in Canada), 
threatening to fall into ruin, was taken down in 1878 and re-erected 
with the same materials on its former site, near the new church. 
Opposite the Presbytery , at the E. .end of the main church, is the 
brilliantly decorated Scala Santa Chapel (finished in 1893), the plat- 
form in firont of which commands a superb *View. Miraculous healing 
powers are also ascribed to a neighbouring well. 

The *FaU8 of Ste. Anne, formed by the river of that name, 3-4 M. 
above the town , consist of a series of picturesque plunees ^ one of which 

is 130 ft. high. The path to the falls is not easily found without a guide. 
B Seven FaU» of Bt. Firiol, 7 M. farther on, are still more picturesque. 
The Ste. Anne Mts.j a part of the Laurentide range, culminating in a 

summit 2685 ft. high, rise about 5 M. from the village. 

Beyond Ste. Anne the railway goes on to (2 M.) Beaupri and (4 M.) 
St. Joaefdm. About 5 M. farther on (30 M. from Quebec) is Cap TourmenU 
(p. 167 •, •View). 

d. Lorette. Charlesbourg. Lake Beanport. Lake St. Charles. 
Larette is most quickly reached by railway (see p. 161), but the vis- 
itor of leisure is advised to drive, at least one way. Charlesbourg and 
Chdteau Bigot may easily be combined in the same drive. The distance 
to Lorette, via either the Little River or the Charlesbourg road, is about 
8M. The fare to Lorette and back direct should not exceed 75c. to $1.50 
per head (with a minimum of $ 1.50)^ and the ddtour to Chateau Bigot 
may cost about 50 c. extra. The bridge-toll may be saved by hiring the 
carriage on the far side of the St. Charles. 

The so-called ^Little River Road^ to Lorette begins at the end of 
the tramway-line in St. Sauveur, crosses ScotVs Bridge (beyond 
PI. A, 1), and follows the E. (N.) bank of the St. CharUs. Or we 
may follow the W. (S.) bank for 2 M. more and then cross the river. 

LAURENTIAN MTS. 32, RouU. 161 

The Charletbourg Road crosses the DorchesterBridge (PL E, 1 ,2 ; p. 168) 
and runs towards the N. W. (the Montmorency road diverging to the 
right; see p. 158). To the left, near the confluence of the Lairet with 
the St. Charles, isthe small Jacques Cartier Monument^ marking the 
supposed spot of Gartier's settlement in the winter of 1535-36 ' 

(p. 147). 

4M. Chirlesbourg, see below. Chdteau Bigot (see below) lies about 
2 M. to the E. — Opposite the ehuroh the Lorette road turns to the left 

8 M. Lorette, see p. 162. 

The ranning on from Oharlesbonrg in the direction hitherto 
followed leads to (8M.) Lake Beauport (Hotel; 12 M. from Quebec), a sheet 
of water i M. long and Vi-Vs ^' wide, frequented by fishing and pleasure 
parties from Quebec. The road to it passes the village of St. Pierre and 
crosses the 'Br<il^\ a district devastated bv a forest-fire. 

About 4 H . to the N. of Lorette, and 12 M. from Quebec, lies Lake 
St. Oharlesi another popular angling-resort, 4 M. long and i/a M. wide. 
Beyond Lorette the road to it crosses the BeUevue Mt. (view). Lake St. 
Charles is the source of Quebec^s water-supply. 

32. From Qnebec to Lake St. John and Chicontimi. 

258 H. Qdbbeo & Lake St. John Railway to (189 M.) Roherval in 8 hrs. 
(fare $6.70, parlor-car 75 c., sleeper $1.50); thence to (64 MO Chicoutimi 
in 2^8 hrs. (through -fare $6; parlor-car from Roberval 50 c.. sleeper 
$ 1.50). Luncheon is served at Lake Edward (p. 163), reached at 1.20 p.m. 

This route, crossing the Laurentian Mis. (p. xxxvi) and traversing one 
of the wildest and least-trodden districts yet reached by railway, may be 
combined with the Saguenay trip (R. 33). In this case the traveller is 
recommended to proceed to Roberval, pass one or more nights there, and 
then go on to Chicoutimi, where he joins the Saguenay steamer (p. 172). 
As the through-train to Roberval starts in the morning, while the steamer 
ascends the Saguenay by night and descends by day, he will thus see all the 
scenery by daylight. As at present arranged, he leaves Quebec by train 
at 8.45 a.m., reaching Roberval at 4.55 p.m.; leaves Roberval at 7.10 p.m., 
reaching Chicoutimi at 9.65 p.m.; and leaves Chicoutimi early the next 
morning (comp. p. 172). The fare for this ^round trip' is $ 10, meals and 
berth on steamer extra. An objection raised by several travellers against 
the round trip is the uncomfortably early hour at which the steamer 
has to leave Chicoutimi (comp. p. 172). It may also be noted that between 
. Lake St. Joseph (p. 162) and Eiskisink (p. 163) the beauty of the country 
on both sides of the railway has been sadly marred by forest-fires. It is 
hardly advisable to make the round trip in the opposite direction, as the 
steamer ascending the Saguenay passes the finest scenery by night. — For 
the fishing at Roberval and other points on the Quebec A Lake St. John 
Railway, see p. 164. 

Quebec^ see p. 146. The train leaves the station in t. Andrew 
St. (PI. F, 3) and crosses the St. Charles by an Iron bridge 1100 ft. 
long (retrospect of the city). — From (V2 M.) Limoilou Junction 
(HedUyville)y at the other end of the bridge, the line to Montmo- 
rency and Ste. Anne diverges to the right (see p. 158). 

Oar line begins almost at once to mount the slopes of the Lau- 
rentian or Laurentide Mts. (pp. xxxn, 139). The hills at first are 
seen mainly to the right. — 3M. Charlesbourg, a prosperous village 
with (1901) 2612 inhab., surrounded by orchards, contains the 

Babdbkbb's Canada. 3rd Edit. H 

162 Route 32. ST. RAYMOND. From Quebec 

Bummer-homes of many Qnebeckers. It lies high and commands a 
fine view. 6 M. CharUabourg West, 

About 2 M. to the E. of Gharlesbourg are the scanty ruins df Ohiteau 
Bigot or the HemUtage^ a country-seat of the Intendant Bigot (p. 156). 
, 'The ruin itself is not of impressive size, and it is a chateau through 
grace of the popular fancy rather than through any right of its own^ 
(Howell*). The romantic and probably baseless legend of the Indian 
maiden Garoline, who is said to have been murdered here, Kosamond-like, 
by the jealous Mme. P^an, another favourite of Bigot, is given at length 
in *The Golden Dog% by W. Kirhy. See also *L'Intendant Bigot', a French 
romance by Jo*eph Marmette. Researches made in 1897 seem to indicate 
that this ch&teau really belonged to Bigot's predecessor, Intendant Begon, 
to whom the ground was ceded by the Jesuits in 1716. 

9 M. Indian or Jenne Lorette (450 ft.), a pretty little yillage, 
occupied by about 300 Gbristianlzed Burviyors of tbe ancient Hnions, 
€0 crossed, however, by intermarriage witb tbe French Canadians 
that there is probably not a single fall-blooded Indian in the vil- 
lage. Comp. HowelUl'a *A Chance Acquaintance' (chap. xiii). 

A visit to Indian Lorette, to which the Hurons were removed in 1697, 
is one of the favourite short excursions from Quebec (comp. p. 160). The 
Indians live by hunting and trapping, by acting as guides for sportsmen, 
and by making bead-work, baskets, snow-shoes, moccasins, and toboggans. 
Visitors are usually welcome at the houses of the Head Chief and his ool- 
leagues, of whom Tsioui ('Seewee') is the only Protestant. French is the 
language of the village, though a few of the Indians also speak English. 
The. Church, a reproduction of the Santa Oasa of Loretto, was erected 
150 years ago and contains a copy of the Loretto figure of the Virgin. 

The Si. Charles River flows past the village, forming the romantic 
*Fall* of Lorette (ca. 100 ft.), a good view of which is obtained from the 
road. A steep and rough path also descends to the brink of the lower 
part of the cataract. — The river separates Lorette from the thriving French 
village of 8t. Ambroite, with (1901) 1555 inhab. and a large church. — Both 
villages afford good *Views of Quebec. 

17 M. ValcartieTj largely settled by English military men, with 
about a score of Waterloo veterans in its graveyard. About 4 M. 
farther on we cross the Jacques Cartier River (p. 140 j *View, best to 
the right) and reach (18 M.) St. Oabriel. Snow-breaks are seen 
here and at intervals farther on. Beyond St. Gabriel we traverse & 
district overgrown by scrubby forest. 21 M. St, Cathtmne'a. — 23 M. 
Lake St. Joseph (^Lake St, Joseph Hotels a large house much fre- 
quented in summer, $3-4 per day, $14-21 per week; Lake View 
House, $ 1V2'^> ^ ^' from the station). The lake, of which we cross 
the outlet, is 8 M. long and lies to the right. It is navigated by a 
small steamer and affords good boating, bathing, and fishing for 
black bass, trout, and lake-trout (touladi). Regattas are held here 
In summer, and a delightful canoe or boat trip may be made up the 
Rivihre aux Pins. The Lake St. Joseph Hotel is reached by a spur- 
line, with a private station. — Farther on we skirt the pretty *Lake 
Sergent (r.). — 31 M. Bourg Louis, 

34 M. St.Baymond (460 ft.; Hotels'), a village with 1272 inhab., 
prettily situated on the Ste. Anne River and surrounded by mountains, 
is another good angling -centre. It is the station for the TowiU 

' le 


to Chicoutimi. LAKE EDWARD. 82. Route. 163 

Fish ^ Game Cluh. The scenery of the N. branch of the Ste. Anne, 
known as the Little Saguenay^ is wild and picturesque. 

The district now traversed contains few settlements except the 
modest little houses of the various fishing - clubs, which have ac- 
quired the fishing-rights of the innumerable lakes and streams with 
which the country abounds. Caribou and other shooting is also en- 
joyed here. — 57 M. Bivilre h Fierre (710 ft), a lumbering-settle- 
ment, is the junction of the Great Northern Railway of Canada (see 
p. 142). 

We cross the Riviere ^ Pierre on leaving the station of that name, 
and about 10 M. farther on we reach the beautiful brown Batiscan, 
the left bank of which we now follow for about 30 M. The opposite 
bank of the river often rises in vertical rocky cliffs, hundreds of 
feet high, while the water flows past in alternate stretches of turmoil 
and placidity. The railway follows its windings, often rounding 
abrupt curves. 69 M. haurentideSy vdth an angling-club; 76 M. 
Miguick. — From (79 M.) La Tuque Junction a new branch-line 
runs to (40 M.) La Tuque, at the head of steamboat-navigation on 
the 8t, Maurice River (p. 140). This line skirts the N. shore of 
Lake Wayagamak, — Beyond (86 M.) Beaudet we cross and leave 
the Batiscan. 93 M. Stadaconay with a lake and club-house (left) ; 
101 M. Pearl LakCy another good angling-station; 107 M. Triton 
Cluby with an attractive club-house. 

Within 6 M. or so of this part of the railway is the W. boundary of 
the Laurentides National Park, established by the Quebec Legislatnre in 
1895 for objects similar to those aimed at in Algonquin Park (p. 204). 
Its area is 2640 sq. M. Admirable trout-fishing is afforded by the Jacguet 
Oartier Lake and River; caribou abound in the famous hunting-ground 
known as the ^Oreat Barrens*; there are also not a few moose; and good 
partridge (ruflfed grouse) shooting is obtained in the 8. part of the Park. 
The license-fee for fishing in the Park is $ 10, plus $ 1 per day ($ 4 per 
day at Jacques Gartier Lake)*, the shooting-license is $ 26, plus $ 1 per day 
($ 2 in the ^Barrens', with the use of a comfortable shooting-lodge). One 
bull moose and two caribou are allowed for each gun. A charge of $ 1 
a day is made for the use of canoes and camp -equipments. Guides 
(Jos. Isabel, J. Filion, Beaulieu, Minguy, etc.) charge $ iys per day. 

112M. Lake Edward (1210ft.; Laurentides House, meals 75 c, 
described as mediocre), or Lac des Grandes Isles, where the train 
halts for luncheon, is a large and fine body of water, 20 M. long 
and studded with countless islands. It is well stocked with fine trout, 
often 5 lbs. in weight, the fishing for which is free to all patrons of 
the railway. Excellent fishing is also obtained in the Riviere auxRats, 
the Jeanotte (the lake's outlet), etc. Guides and camping-outfits 
may be obtained at the hotel. Small steamers ply on Lake Edward. 
, About 13 M. beyond Lake Edward the railway reaches its highest 
point (1500 ft. above the St. Lawrence) and begins to descend to- 
wards Lake St. John. — At (134 M.) Kiskisink (1320 ft.), a fine lake, 
9 M. long, lies to the right. Close to the line is the club-house of 
the Metabetchouan Club. 150 M. Commissioners Lake, The small but 
picturesque lake to the left is Lac Gros Visons. — 160 M. Lake 


164 RouU 32. LAKE ST. JOHN. From Quebec 

Bouchette (1076 ft.), also to the left, is connected, on the W., with 
the Lac det Commi»8aire$, and both waters are leased by a dub of 
Connecticut anglers. — 163 M. Ddblonj 164 M. 8t, FVaneis de Sales, 
Lake St. John (see below) now comes in sight on the left front. 

At (176 M.) Chambord Junction, near the S. bank of Lake St. 
John, the railway divides into two branches, the one running to the 
left to (13 M.) Roberval, the other to the right to (51 M.) Chicou- 
timi. In the meantime, we follow the former branch, leaving the 
other to be described at p. 166. 

The Roberval line skirts the S.W. shore of Lake St. John, of 
which it affords fine views to the right. At (183 M.) Ouidtehouan 
FalU we cross the Ouiaichowin and obtain a good view of its falls, 
about 1 M. to the left (see p. 165). — About 6 M. farther on we 
cross the rapid OuiaUihouanklie^ or Little Ouiatchouany and reach — 

189 M. Boberval (350 ft.), a prosperous lumbering-settlement, 
with 1260 inhab. and two or three saw-mills. The most conspicuous 
building is the grey stone Nunnery, 

Beyond the village the train runs on for about 1 M. more to the 
platform in front of the *Hotel Boberval ($ 3-6 ; 300 guests), 
a large and well - equipped summer-resort , with electric lights, 
billiard-room, bowling-alley, and other conveniences. It commands a 
fine view of Lake St John, the opposite end of which, 25 M. distant, 
can be descried in clear weather only. The steamboat -wharf is 
about Vs M. from the hotel. 

Lake St. John, the PHeouagami or ^Flat Lake* o the Indians, 
is an almost circular sheet of water, with a diameter of about 25 M., 
surrounded by low wooded hills. It is well stocked with fish, in- 
cluding the ouananiche (see below), pike, dorl, and trout. A number 
of rivers flow into the lake, the largest of which are the Peribonkay 
the Mistassinij and the Ashouapmouchouan. It empties at its E. end 
by the Or and Discharge or Dicharge du Lac St, Jean (see below), 
forming the upper waters of the Saguenay. The Lake St. John Valley, 
now containing about 60,000 inhab., possesses a fertile clay soil, 
which produces good crops of wheat, oats, and potatoes, and raises 
considerable quantities of livestock. The valley is one of the leading 
districts in Quebec for cheese and butter. The climate is said to be 
not more severe than that of Montreal, and the snow-fall is rather 
less. The settlers are almost wholly French Canadians. 

The Fishing in Lake St. John and its tributary rivers has been leased to 
the Management of the Hotel Boberval, and is free to all its patrons. The 
chief sport is afforded by the Ouananiche (^wahnaneesh"), a kind of fresh- 
water salmon peculiar to this district, which ranks with trout and salmon 
in its gamy qualities. The usual weight is2-4lbs., and fish above 6-6 lbs. 
are rare, though they are sometimes caught weighing as much as 8 lbs. 
In May and June the ouananiche may be caught in the lake, especially 
near the Hotel Roberval and at the mouth of the Metabetchouan (p. 166) \ 
later the scene of the sport is at the Grand Discharge (p. 165) and up 
the rivers Ashouapmouchouan, Mistassini, and Peribonka. See *The Ouan- 
aniche and its Canadian Environment^ by E. T. D, Chambers. Fishing and 
camping outfits, including canoes, provisions, and two guides, are provided 

to Chicoutimi, POINTE BLEUE. 32. Route, 165 

at the hotel for $ 7 a day for each person. Guides receive about $ IV4 - 
iVs per ^7 (incl. use of canoe) and 76 c. for their board. Fishing and 
shooting excursions up the Mistassini, etc., are often made in this way. 

The favourite trip from the Hotel Boberv^al is that by steamer across 
Lake St. John to the G-rand Discharge (25 M., in 2 hrs. ; fare 75 c, re- 
turn-fare $ 1.25). [The steamer bums wood, and passengen should be on 
their guard agednst sparks from the funnel.] — The general course of the 
steamer is a little to the N. of E. As we leave we enjoy a good retrospect 
of Boberval and a distant view (r.) of the Oviatchouan FtUls (see below). The 
E. end of the lake, at the entrance of the Grand Discharge, is thickly 
sprinkled with the *'-Thousand Islands of the 8agumav\ at one of which, 
with the little fishing-hotel named the Island House ($ 2), the steamer 
halts. Passengers who wish to fish or to make the canoe-trip to Chicou- 
timi (see below) remain here, while others return to Boberval in the after- 
noon. The Grand Discharge is on the N. side of the Island of Alma^ while 
on its S. side, about 3 M. distant, is the Littte Discharge (Petite Dicharge). 
The two unite, forming the Ri^er Baguenay (p. 170), at the B. end of the 
island, which is 9 M. long. 

An excursion by road (carr. $ 2-4) should also be made to the *Ouiat- 
chouaa Falls (comp. p. 164), which are about 280 ft. high and very pictur- 
esque. Walkers may follow the railway, which is well ballasted, to (7 M.) 
OuiaUshouan Falls Station (p. 164) and there take to the road. A path, leaving 
the road to the right, just beyond the bridge over the Ouiatehouan Wee^t- 
chouan*), leads through wood to (1 M.) the foot of the falls. 

About 8>/s M. to the N. of the Hotel Boberval is the interesting Indian 
reservation of Pointe Bleue, inhabited by about 6iX) Montagnais (p. xlvii), 
who make their living mainly as guides, trappers, and canoe-men. They 
are very dark in colour and of much purer blood than the Lorette Indians 
(p. 169)) uid their village offers many points of interest. It includes a 
Roman Catholic church and mission-house, an Bpiseopal church, and a 
store of the Hudson Bay Co., with a stock of furs. — This drive may be 
extended to (8 M.) 8t. iVtms, a prosperous farming settlement. The roads 
are not good, and the universal vehicle is the buckboard Cplanche"). 

Among other points to which excursions are sometimes made from 
Boberval are the stations of the 'Eastern Extension' of the railway (from 
Chambord to Chicoutimi; see p. 166) and the Trappist settlement on the 
Mistassini, 20 M. from its mouth (accessible by steamer). 

Fbom the Island Housb to Chiooutxmi bt Bivbb. This trip (ca. 45 M.), 
which is performed in one long day, with an early start, is recommended to 
travellers who can stand a little fatigue and are not too nervous for the 
shooting of the rapids. Ladies often make the descent. There are 8 or 9 
portages, from l(X)yds. to V4 M. long. Each traveller requires a canoe 
with two guides, the charge for which, including allowances for the guides' 
board and their return-journey, is about $ 10-12. To this the traveller's 
own board has to be added, and the last 10-12 M., from the Qrand Remou 
to 8te. Anne de Saguenay (p. 172 ; ferry thence), are generally accomplished 
by carriage (ca. $2), so that the expenses of the trip may be put at about 
$ 15-17. The scenery all along is striking and picturesque, while the *run- 
ning the rapids', which the dexterity of the canoe-men renders practically 
safe, is a novel and exciting element of interest. It is not necessary to 
take provisions, as inns are reached at convenient intervals. 

The country to the N. of Lake St. John is still very imperfectly - 
known, though the Jesuits penetrated to Lake Mistassini in 1672. Mr. A. P. 
Low, of the Canadian Geological Survey, surveyed this lake in 1885 and 
found it to be about 1(X) M. long and 12-15 M. wide, although much greater 
dimensions had been claimed for it. In 1892-96 Mr. Low surveyed and 
examined diffierent parts of the Labrador peninsula, including a route from 
Lake Mistassini to the headwaters of the Koksoak River and down this 
river to Uhgava Bay, thus traversing the centre of the peninsula from S. 
to K. It is possible to travel in almost any direction throughout this great 
tract, though considerable difficulty is offiered by the numerous and long 
portages. The lakes and rivers abound in fish, but large game, with the 
exception of the caribou, has become scarce, and even this animal is now 

166 R6ute32. ST. JEROME. 

abundant only in the far north. — There is some talk of a railway from 
Boberval to Jamet Bay. 

Feom Ohambord Junction to CJhicoutimi, 51 M., in IV4 hr. — 
The Chicoutimi line from Chambord runs towards the E., at first 
skirting the S. shore of Lake St. John Qeft), Ahout 6 M. from 
Chambord we cross the Metabetchouan, the chief S. affluent of Lake 
St. John (90 M. long), which forms a series of fine falls a few 
miles higher up. Upon the E. hank lies an old fort of the Hudson 
Bay Co. — 10 M. 8t. JSrdme, at the mouth of the KooshpiganUke^ 
carries on a brisk trade in cheese and butter. The line trayerses a 
farming-district, still showing here and there traces of the dreadful 
forest-fire of 1870. — Near (16 M.) 8t. Oideon we cross the wide 
Belle Bivi^re^ beyond which we leave the lake and turn to the right. 
— 22 M. Hibertville Station^ about 4M. from the large and thriying 
village of that name (2023 inhab.). Beyond this point we thread the 
narrow and picturesque Dorval Pasa^ about 1 M. long. To the S. of 
this part of the line lies Lake Kenogami (p. 172 ; not visible). — At 
(41 M.) Jonquihre we cross the Bivihre aux Sables, Farther on, 
about 4 M. before reaching Chicoutimi, we obtain a splendid •View 
of the Saguenay , running about 300 ft. below us to the left On 
the high bank of the N. shore lies the pretty village of 8te. Anne 
de Saguenay (p. 172). The line now descends rapidly (maximum 
grade 1 : 66) and, on entering the town, crosses the Chicoutimi Biver 
(p. 172), with its falls, by a bridge 60 ft. high. 

51 M. Chicoutimiy see p. 171. 

33. From Quebec to Ghicontimi. The Sagnenay. 

226 M. Stbambb of the Bidkelieu A Ontario Navigation Co. daily in sum- 
mer in 22-24 brs., leaving about 8.30 a.m., on the arrival of the Montreal 
steamer (B. 88), and reaching Chicoutimi early next morning at an hour 
varyine with the tide (fare $4.50, return-fare $8; stateroom extra; D. $1, 
B. or 8. 75 c.). 

The scenery of the Sagnenay is very imposing, and no travellers of 
leisure should miss this trip. Thev may, however, combine with it a visit 
to Lake St. John, in the manner indicated in £. 82. Warm wraps should 
be at hand, as the Saguenay can be cold even at midsummer. On the 
following route the steamer stops regularly only at Lw Eboulemmtt, Murrap 
BaUj TadotttaCi and Ha Ha Bay. 

Quebec^ see p. 146. As the steamer leaves, we enjoy a splendid 
retrospect of the city, while the fort-crowned heights of Livis (p. 167) 
rise to the right. To the left lies the Beauport Shore (p. 168), with 
its long line of white houses. A good distant view of the JIfont- 
morency Falls (jp. 169) is obtained on the same side, before the 
steamer enters the South Channdj between the Island of Orleans 
(p. 157) on the left and the mainland (S. shore of the St. Lawrence) 
on the right. On the former, above which peers Mi. Ste. Anne (p. 160), 
are seen the villages of St. Laurent, St. Jean, and St. Francois; on 
the latter lie Beaumont^ St, Michel de BeUeehasse (with a church con- 

ST. IR^N^E. 33. Route. 167 

taming pictures ascribed to masters of the first rank), St. Valiert 
and Berthier. Two important new forts are being built at Beaumont 
(comp. p. 150). As we clear the end of the Isle of Orleans, about 30 M. 
from Quebec, Cap Tourmente (p. 160) comes into sight on the left, 
raising its huge bulk 1960 ft. into the air. The course of the steamer 
now lies near the N. shore, which is lined by the black forms of the 
Laurentide Mta. (p. 139), here abutting closely on the river. Among 
the most prominent points are Cap Rouge^ Cap Gribatme (2170 ft.), 
Saut au Cochon^ and Cap AfaiUard. Between us and the S. bank 
lie a number of islands, the largest of which are Reaux Jslandy Orosse 
Isle (quarantine-station), and the twin Jsle aux^ OrueSy or Crane 
Jslandj and Qoose Island, which are together 12 M. long, and are 
frequented in spring and autumn by wild geese and other waterfowl. 

44 M. (1.). St, Francois Xamer, at the mouth of the Bouchard, 
3Y2 M. below Cape Maillard, is the only village on the inhospit- 
able N. shore for nearly 30 M. The river is here about 13 M. wide, 
and the S. shore is hardly visible from the steamer. 

53 M. (1.). St, PauVs Bay, or Baie St. Paul, opening out beyond 
Cap Labaie, receives the waters of two small rivers, the Moulin and 
the Gouffre. The town, on the latter river, has about 2500 inhab. 
and is frequented by a few summer- visitors (simple boarding-houses). 
— The E. arm of the bay is formed by Cap Corbeau. 

To the right, opposite St. Paul's Bay, lies the Isle aux Coudres 
(* Hazel Island'), so named by Oartier in 1535. It is about 6 M. 
long and 2^/2 M- ''^ide and contains (1901) 1066 inhab., who are 
said to be, perhaps, more purely medisBval French than any other 
group of Canadians. The island has belonged to the Seminary of 
Quebec (p. 152) since 1687. In 1759 it was occupied by Wolfe. 

61 M. (1.) Les Eboulements , a quaint little village, clustered 
round the handsome church of Notre Dame, nearly opposite the E. 
end of the Isle aux Coudres and about 1000 ft. above the river. Over it 
towers the dark mass of Aft. Eboulement (2550 ft.). Pop. (1901) 2369. 

This part of the N. shore of the St. Lawrence has been frequently 

visited hv seismic disturbances of considerable violence, and traces may 
still be observed here of the landslides of 1663, a year of many earthquakes 
and strange meteorological phenomena. The old village of Les Eboule- 

ments stood on the shore, about 3 M . to the E. of the quay { but the river 
made such encroachments on it that it was removed to its present picturesque 
but windy site about 80 years ago. This fact has already given rise to a 
romantic legend about a submerged town and church, sometimes visible 
beneath the St. Lawrence. 

73 M. (1.) St.IrinSe (Charlevoix, $2-2V2; several boarding- 
houses), a small watering-place with (1901) 1059 inhab. and the 
summer-homes of various Montrealers and Quebeckers. This part 
of the St. Lawrence is much frequented by white whales (^Beluga 
BorealiSf often misnamed white porpoises), which attain a length of 
15-20 ft. Their skin makes a very valuable leather, while 60-100 gal- 
lons of oil, worth $ 1 a gallon, is procured from an ordinary carcase, 
Halibut^ sturgeon, salmon, and smaller fish aboun^^jyGoOQlc 

168 Route 33. MURRAY BAY. From Quebec 

80 M. (I.) Pointe d PiCj the landing-place for Mnrray Bay 
(^ Memoir Richelieu^ a large house, with swimming and other baths, 
from $4; Lome House j $2; Warren' $, well spoken of, frequented 
mainly by ladies and children, $ 1-1 V2) numerous boarding-houses), 
the chief watering-place on the N. shore of the St. Lawrence and 
one of the most frequented summer-resorts in Canada. Its French 
name is Malbaie. The town proper, with (1901) 2673 inhab., lies at 
the head of the bay, on the Murray River; but the summer- visitors 
congregate at Pointe d, Pic and Cap d, VAigle, the two horns of the bay, 
each about 3 M. from the town. Board may be obtained in the farm- 
houses for about $ 5-7 a week, but the ^habitant^, who is an inveterate 
bargainer, invariably asks more than he expects to get. — In sum- 
mer a steam-ferry (li/4hr.) plies to Riviere OueUe, connecting there 
with the railway from Montreal (comp. p. 95). By this route Murray 
Bay may be reached from Montreal in 10^4 hrs. (through-fare $5.50, 
sleeper $ 2). 

The bay was explored in 16U6 by Ghamplain, who named it La Malle Bale, 
on account of Hhe tide that runs there marvellously. On the British con- 
quest of Canada the district was granted to two Scottish officers, who quickly 
peopled it with Highland families. The descendants of these Scots, how- 
ever, became thoroughly French in language and customs and are hardly 
to be distinguished from the other inhabitants of Lower Canada. The 
names of Fraser, Blackburn, Warren, and HacDougall are still common 
among descendants who speak nothing but French. Several American 
prisoners-of-war were confined here in iT76. 

The attractions of Murray Bay include wild and fine scenery, fair boat- 
ing, bathing (rather cold), golf, bracing air. and excellent fishing. The last 
is eigoyed mainly in the Hurray Biver and in some small lakes (Cfrenelle^ 
Comporti, MoHm, etc.) within easy reach. Among the chief points for walks 
or for drives in a ^caUche^ (see p. 115) are the Lovw Frcuer Falls and the 
Chute Detbimsy each about 5 M. ofi", and the curious TVotf, 4 M. farther. 
The * Upper Fra$er Falls, 8 M. from the Lower Falls, and reached by a 
different road, deserve a visit. The Fetit and the Orand Rttisssau are 
reached either by the Quebec road or by boat. The district abounds in 
points of geological interest, including the regularly -shaped mounds of 
stratified sand and clay due to the action of land-slides. The country a 
few miles back from the river is an almost unexplored wilderness of 
ragged hill and forest, into which the enthusiastic tourist or sportsman 
may penetrate with Indian guides and camping-outfit. Caribou and bear 
are among the possibilities of the game-bag. — About 9 M. up the river 
is the settlement of 8te. Agnes (1688 inhab. in 1901). 

From Murray Bay the steamer steers diagonally across the river, 
here about 14-15 M. wide. Kamouircaka (see p. 95) lies on the S. 
shore, nearly opposite Murray Bay and concealed by an archipelago 
of small islands. Our course leads between the high and rocky PU- 
grim /stonds (lighthouse ; r.) and the long and nanow Hare Island (I.). 

110 M. (r.) Point a B«afiZiett (Bellevue, Venise, $ 1V2-2), the 
landing-place for Oacouna and for RivHtre du Loup (p. 94), which 
lies about 2^2 ^> ^'^^ ^^^ ^n^ of the long pier and makes a very 
picturesque effect, with its large church and white houses, as seen 
from the river. 

Oaconiia iUantion House, Duff erin House y $ l^^-2; SiroiSy Mme. MichaudUj 
and many other boarding-houses), 6 H. from Point a Beaulieu (carriage 
$ 1-2, bargainini; advisable), lies on a bank rising about 100 ft. above the 

to Chicoutimi. TADOUSAC. 33, RovU, 169 

St. Lawrence, and claims to be the most fashionable summer-resort of 
Canada. Its situation commands a fine view of the broad St. Lawrence, 
backed by the dark Laurentian Mts. (especially beautiful at sunset) ; and 
a smooth sandy beach gives good opportunity for bathing. The scenery 
around it is less rugged than that of Murray Bay, and the water is some- 
what less chilly. Fair trout-fishing is obtained in (3M.) Trout Brook, but 
better sport is afforded by the lakes, 12-15 M. distant. Many Canadian 
families have pleasant summer-cottages here, and the gaiety of the place 
centres, perhaps, round these rather than round the hotels. Cacoana is 
much quieter and simpler than the fashionable resorts of the United States, 
and the name of the ^Saratoga of Canada', sometimes given to it, is very 
misleading. — The village contains 600 inhab., nearly all French; and 
near it, on the beach, Is a small settlement of Indians, of whom souvenirs 
may be purchased. 

The steamer now heads across stream (N.W.) for the month of 
the Saguenay. A good view of Gacouna (p. 168) , 3-4 M. distant, 
is obtained to the right. Away to the left are Hare Island (p. 168), 
the Brandy Pots, and Whit^ Island. About halfway across we pass 
near Red Island (r.), with its lighthouse and light-ship. 

132 M. Tadons&o (*Tadou8ae Hotel, from $3; Saguenay ^ $ 1 ; 
boarding-houses), a village of 5-600 inhab., picturesquely situated 
just below the confluence of the St. Lawrence and the Saguenay (see 
p. 170), and now frequented as a summer-resort, is of special interest 
as the oldest continuously occupied European settlement in Canada. 
The Bay of Tadousac, opening towards the St. Lawrence, affords a 
safe and commodious little harbour, but the steamboat- wharf is iii 
the Anse hVEau, a small creek in the Saguenay, opening to the S.W. 
and separated from the bay by a small and rocky peninsula. On the 
opposite (S.) side of the Saguenay rises Pohhte Noke (400 ft.). 

Tadousac derives its name ('nipple') from the 'mamelons' or 
rounded hills by which it is enclosed. The bathing here is good, 
though cold, and boating is much in vogue in the sheltered bay on 
the St. Lawrence. Good fishing is to be had in numerous small 
lakes, 3-4 M. inland, and sea-trout are caught in the Saguenay^ 
The golf-links are pleasant. 

Tf dousac was visited in 1635 by Jacques Cartier, who heard strange 
storiea of the Saguenay from the Indians he found fishing here. A trading- 
post was established here in 1589 by Pontgrav^ and Chauvin, and Champlain 
visited it in their company in 1603. For scores of years to come this was 
the chief meeting-place and market of the French fur-traders and the In- 
dians. The Basque, Norman, and Breton mariners, who had long frequented 
the Banks of Newfoundland fn. 105). also found their way to Tadousac 
in pursuit of whales. In 16!^ the little settlement was occupied by Sir 
David Eirke, and it was thence he sent his brothers to capture Quebec 
(p. 147). In 1661 the garrison was massacred by the Iroquois, and in 1690 
three French frigates found refuge here from Sir William Phipps (p. 147). 
Later it became a post of the Hudson Bay Co. Tadousac also plays a 
prominent part in the story of the early efforts of the French missionaries, 
the first mission being established here in 1615 bv the B^coUet Father 
Dolbeau. The Jesuits had charge of it from 1641 to 1782. 

The most interesting spot in Tadousac is, for most visitors, the quain 
little *CJuip€l of th$ Juvit Miuion, which was built in 1747-50 on the site ot 
a more ancient church and still preserves the primitiveness of itstoriginaf 
aspect. It contains some interesting relics ana also the tomb of Father de 
la BroMMy the last Jesuit missionary, of whose death a picturesque legend 
is current. The bell is that of the original chapel and has seen nearly 

170 Route 33. THE SAGUENAY. 

three centuries of service. Close to the chapel, which oTcrlooks the Bay 
of Tadoosac, is the large Tadousac Hotel (p. 169) \ and not far off are the 
plain bat sabstantial old buildings of the Hudaon Bay Co, The villa which 
Lord Dufferin built for himself in 1873 also faces the bay. Adjoining the 
Anse k TEau is a Government Pisdcultural Station^ with a pool in which 
numbers of large salmon, kept here for breeding purposes, may be seen. — 
Opposite Tadousac is the small settlement of St. Catharifui'* B<xy. 

The ^Saguenay, which the steamer now ascends, is one of the 
chief tributaries of the St. Lawrence and unquestionably one of the 
most remarkable rivers on the American continent. From the point 
where it takes the name Saguenay, as it issues from Lake St. John, 
it is about 110 M. long; but its real source is to be found at least 
200 M. farther up , in the headwaters of the large rivers flowing 
into that lake (p. 164). The lower part of the river, bordered by 
hills and precipices of sombre and impressive grandeur, has been 
aptly described as ^a tremendous chasm 4eft in a nearly straight line 
for some sixty miles'. Its breadth varies from V2 M. to 21/2 M. ; 
its depth is immense, its bottom being at least 600 ft. below that of 
the St. Lawrence at their confluence. The striated cliffs of gneiss 
and syenite are but scantily relieved by vegetation, and, save for an 
occasional white whale (p. 167), no animal life is visible. The 
scenery is grand but sombre. 

*To speak strictly, the Saguenay is not a river at all but a true Qord, 
consisting of the deeply-eroded bed of a glacier into which the sea pene- 
trated on the melting of the ice. This glacier was formed originally in a 
much shallower river-valley, apparently located on an ancient ^fault' or line 
of weakness in the Archean rock. The trough 1 the Saguenay is thug of 
the same origin as the very similar troughs in N. Labrador, Baffin Land, 
Greenland, and Norway^ (Reginald Daly). 

For the first few miles after we leave Tadousac the cliffs on either 
side are 600-1100 ft. high. 

136 M. fr. ; 4 M. from Tadousac) Pointt La BouU (600 ft.). 

142 M. (1.) St. Etimne Bay, with Pointe Brisc-Culottet as its 
N. arm, beyond which the river bends to the left (W.). 

147 M. (r.) Mouth of the 8te. Ma^guerite^ the chief tributary of 
the Saguenay and famous for its salmon-fishing. 

149 M. (1.1 8t, Louis JslCy a tree-covered mass of granite. The 
river is here 1200 ft. deep. To the right, just above, is a group of 
islets at the mouth of the Rioihre d Rouge or Atoeas. 

153 M. (1.) Mouth of the LUtU Saguenay Rher. 

157 M. (I.) St. John's Bay (An$e St. Jean), with the mouth of 
the St. John River, a hamlet, and a small waterfall. 

164 M. (1.) **Cape Eternity (1700 ft) and (165 M.; I.) •*Cape 
Trinity (1500 ft.), with the deep and narrow Eternity Bay between 
them, form the culmination of the sublime scenery of the Saguenay. 
The former of the two huge masses of rock slopes gently backward 
from the stream and is densely clothed with pines, but Cape Trinity 
rises perfectly sheer from the black water, a naked wall of granite. 
Its name is derived from the three steps in which it climbs from 
the river. Near the top are a cross and a gilded statue of the Virgin, 


Digitized byCjOO^lC 

CHICOUTIMI. 83. Route. 171 

The steamer runs close to the precipice, the steam-whistle is blown 
to show the marvellons echo, and passengers try their strength in throwing 
stones at the apparently easily-reached wall. — The front of the cliffs is 
defaced with the advertisement of a Quebec tradesman, whom, it is hoped, 
all right-minded tourists will on this, account religiously boycott. 

I66V2 M. (1.) La Niche, or Statue Point, *where at about 1000 
feet above the water, a huge, rough Gothic arch gives entrance to 
a cave, in which, as yet, the foot of man has never trodden. Before 
the entrance to this black aperture, a gigantic rock, like the statue 
of some dead Titan, once stood. A few years ago, during the winter, 
it gave way, and the monstrous statue came crashing down through 
the ice of the Saguenay, and left bare to view the entrance to the 
cavern it had guarded perhaps for ages' (from the Times), 

172 M. fr.) Trinity Bay. 

175 M. (1.) Le Tableau , a cliflf 900 ft, high, presenting to the 
river an immense smooth front like a canvas prepared for painting. 

181 M. (r.) Descente des Femmes, a cove said to owe its name to 
the story that a party of Indian squaws managed to reach the river 
through this ravine and so procured help for their husbands, who 
were starving in the back-country. 

187 M. (r.) Cape East. The river here is about 2 M. wide, and 
at ordinary spring-tides the water rises 18 ft. 

Opposite Cape East opens Ha Ha Bay, 7 M. long and 1-2^2 M. 
wide. The steamer usually ascends this bay, either in going or com- 
ing, to (195 M.) St. Alphonse (McLean's Hotel, from $2), in the 
N.W. angle of the bay, near the mouth of the Wabouchbagama 
(930 inhab.). 

If time allows, visitors may drive from St. Alphome round the head 
of the bay, crossing the River JUars (salmon) , to (3 M.) 8t. AUxis^ with 
its busy lumber-trade. — Chieoutimi (see below) is 12 M. from St. Alphonse. 

The steamer now returns to the Saguenay and steers to the left 
round Cape West, opposite Cape East. 

212 M. (r.) High Point. — 216 M. (r.) Pointe Roches. 

220 M. (r.) Mouth of the River Orignal. ' Beyond this there are 
farms and houses on both sides, and the river narrows to Y2 M. 

227 M. (r.) Cap St. Francois, just below the Anse aux Foins. 

226 M. (1.) Chieoutiini(^Chdteau Saguenay, second-rate, from $ 3 ; 
Chieoutimi, $ 1.26), a busy little lumbering and pulp-making town 
of (1901) 3826 inhab., is picturesquely situated on the S. (right) 
bank of the Saguenay, at the head of navigation and the mouth of 
the Chieoutimi River. The name means 'deep water'. Among the 
most prominent features of the town are the large and high-lying 
Roman Catholic Cathedral, Church of the Eudist Fathers,College, Sailors' 
Hospital, and Convents. On the Chieoutimi River, near the railway- 
bridge (p. 166), once lay the huge Price Lumber Mills, long one of the 
largest establishments of the kind in Canada, but this industry has 
now been transferred to Jonqui^re and Metabetchouan. The Price 
family was identified with the welfare of Chieoutimi for about 

172 Boute 33. CmCOUTIMI RIVER. 

60 years; and a fine monnment has been erected by the citizens, in 
front of the hospital, to the memory of WUliam Price (d. 1881), 
known as the *King of the Saguenay*. The Chieoutimi Pulp MiUs 
turn out 70,000 tons of pulp annually, all of which is shipped to 
Europe. Near the old lumber-mills is a Chapely erected in 1893 
upon the site of an older building of 1727 and of the original little 
Jesuit chapel planted there for the Indians in 1670. Some inter- 
esting relics were discovered in digging the foundations of the new 

Railway from Chieoutimi to Chembord Junction (for Boberval and 
Quebec), see p. 166. — Descent of the Saguenay by Canoe from Lake 8t. John 
to Chieoutimi^ see p. 165. 

The Chieoutimi River rises far to the S., near Lake Jacques Cartier^ and 
flows to the N. to Lake Kenogami (15 H. long and 1 M. wide). Thence it 
descends nearly 600 ft. in its coarse of 18 H. to the Saguenay, forming a 
picturesque * Waterfall^ 45 ft. high, just above the town of Chieoutimi 
(comp. p. 166). It affords good trout and salmon fishing. 

On the high bank of the Saguenay, opposite Chieoutimi, lies the small 
village of 8ie, Anne de Saguenay. 

The steamer leaves Chieoutimi between midnight and 6 a.m. , about 
1 hr. after high-water. 



Route Page 

34. From Montreal to Ottawa 174 

a. Yik Canadian Pacific Railway Short Line .... 174 

b. Via Calumet • 176 

c. Vi& Grand Trunk Railway 176 

35. Ottawa 176 

Environs of Ottawa 181 

From Ottawa to Toronto, to Prescott, to Waltbam, to 
ManiwakL to Smith's Falls and Brockville, to Corn- 
wall and Tupper Lake 183 

36. From Ottawa to Kingston by Steamer 183 

37. From Ottawa to Montreal by Steamer 184 

38. From Montreal to Toronto 186 

a. Vi& Canadian Pacific Railway 186 

From Peterborongh to Lakefleld. Kawartha Lakes . 187 

From Peterborough to Haliburton 188 

b. Via Grand Trunk Railway 188 

Picton and the Prince Edward Peninsula 189 

Scarboro Heights 190 

From Scarboro Junction to Goboconk and to Jackson's 

Point. 190 

39. Toronto 190 

40. From Toronto to North Bay. Muskoka District ... 197 

Collingwood. Penetang. Lake Simcoe 198 

Lake Couchiching *.» . . 199 

Huntsville Lakes and Lake of Bays 200 

The Maganetawan 200 

I. From Muskoka Wbarf to Rosseau 201 

II. From Muskoka Wharf to Port Cockburn .... 202 

III. From Bracebridge to Bala 203 

41. From Ottawa to Depot Harbour (Parry Sound) ... 203 

Algonquin Park 204 

42. From Toronto to Detroit 205 

a. Via Grand Trunk Railway 206 

b. Vi& Canadian Pacific Railway 206 

43. From Toronto to Niagara (and Buffalo) 208 

a. By Steamer • . 208 

b. By Grand Trunk Railway 209 

Burlington Beach 210 

From HamUton to All and ale 210 

From Hamilton to Port Dover. Welland Ship Canal 211 

c. By Canadian Pacific Railway 212 

44. From Detroit to Buffalo 212 

a. Via Michigan Central Railroad 212 

b. Vi& Grand Trunk Railway 213 

c. By Steamer 214 

45. Niagara Falls. .' 215 

Digitized by CjWU vie 


Rcmte Page 

46. From Toronto to Owen Sound and Fort William . . 222 

Elora 222 

From Owen Sound to Sault-Ste-Marie by the North 

Channel 223 

The St. Mary'B or Soo Ship Canal 225 

47. From Toronto to Montreal by Steamer. The St. Law- 
rence River and the Thousand Islands 226 

48. From Montreal to Port Arthur and Fort William . . 230 

From Mattawa to Timiskaming 232 

Lake NipisBing 233 

From Sudbury to Sault-Ste-Marie 233 

Michipicoten and Moose Rivers 234 

Nipigon River and Lake 235 

From Port Arthur to Gunflint 286 

49. From North Bay to New Llskeard. Temagami Begion 236 

Lake Timiskaming 239 

34. From Montreal to Ottawa^ 

a. VUL Canadian Pacific Bailway Short Line. 

112 M. Railway in 3-8»/2 hrs. (fare $3.50; parlor-car 60c.; sleeper 
$ 1.60). Thig line, opened in 1898, affords the shortest and most direct route 
between Montreal and Ottawa and also forms part of the transcontinental 
through-route described in BR. 48, 50, 62, it b6. 

From Montreal (Windsor St. Station) to (24 M.) VaudreuU, see 
p. 186. Our line now turns to the N.W. and skirts the S. bank of 
the Ottawa Bi«er^ which here forms the *Lake of Two Mountains 
(p. 186 ; views to the right). 

27 M. I$U Cadieux; 30 M. Como (p. 185); 33 M. Hudson (p. 186). 
On the opposite side of the Ottawa, high up among the trees, is seen 
the white building of the Trappist convent of Oka (p. 185). — 37 M. 

41 M. Rigaud (hotels and boarding-houses), a village prettily 
situated at the base of a wooded hill surmounted by a gilt cross. 
About halfway up is a small sanctuary, covered with a gilt dome and 
approached by a *Roate de Oalvaire*. The flat summit of the hill, 
known as the ^Devil's Garden', is strewn with curious rounded 
boulders (the d^ris of an ancient moraine). Rigaud is the junction 
of a short line to (7M.) Port Fortune, nearly opposite Carillon 
(p. 175). — Our line now turns to the left (W.), quits the river, 
and enters the province of Ontario. 49 M. 8t, Euglne; 64 M. Stardale. 
— 58 M. Vankleek Hill is the junction of branch-lines to (7^/2 M.) 
Hawkesbury (to the N., on the river; 4150 inhab. in 1901) and to 
(131/2 M.) OUn Robertson (S.; p. 176). — 61 M. McAlpin, The 
country traversed is uninteresting but well adapted for farming. 

66 m. Caledonia Springs (168 ft.; ^Caledonia Springs Hotel, 
belonging to the C.P.R., from $3; Lake Cottage, Victoria Cottage, 
$11/2)1 * resort frequented for its alkaline-saline ^ringSjj which 

Digitized by VjOOVI^ 

GI^ENVILLE. 34, Route. 175 

are especially efficacious in gout, rheumatism, and affections of the 
digestive organs. — The railway runs hence for the most part through 
uncleared woodland, marred at places byforest-flres. — TOM. Alfred; 
76 M. Plcmtagenet (C.P.B. Hotel, Wilson's Hotel, $3-4), a O.P.R. 
divisional point, with mineral springs ; 80 M. Pendleton ; 86 M. The 
Brook; 89 M. Hammond; 96 M. Leonard; 99 M. Navan; 106 M. 

112 M. Ottawa (Central Station), see p. 176. 

b. Vi& Calumet. 

121 M. Canadian Pacific Railway in 4Vs ^ts. (fares as at p. 174). 

Montreal, see p. 126. The train runs through the E. part of the 
city to (6 M.) Mile End, passes the Convent of the Sacred Heart (on 
the hills to the right), crosses a branch of the Ottawa at (10 M.I 
Bordeaux, and diverges to the left from the line to Quebec at (13 M.J 
St MaHin Junction (p. 139). At (18 M.) Ste. Rose, a French vU- 
lage, frequented as a summer-resort, we cross the northernmost branch 
of the Ottawa. The valley of the Ottawa, which we now follow, is 
occupied mainly by long narrow French farms. We cross numerous 
streams. — 20 M. Ste. ThirUe Junction, 

From Sts. TsfiBftss To Nomining, 104 M., railway in 4s/4 hrs. (fares 
$3.55, $2.60). This line runs to the N.W., penetrating the Laureniian Mi*. 
and affording access to several favourite sporting resorts. — 8M. 8t. Janvier; 
14 M. St. Jirdme, also a station of the O.N.Q.R. (see p. 142); 25 M. Montfort 
Junction^ for the G.N.Q.R. line from Montreal to Montfort, Sixteen Island iMke, 
and Bub9rdeau. — 34 M. St. Margaret; 38 M. Vai Morin (Laurentian Lodge, 
$ 2); 44 M. Ste. Agathe, a sporting centre -, 57 M. St. Fauttin; 65 H. St. Jovite; 
71 M. Mont Tremblant; 81 M. Ltibelle ; 95 M. Annonciation. — 104 M. Nomining 
(Gauthier, $ IVa), on Lake NomiMng. 

From Ste. Th^r^se branch-lines also run to (8 M.) St. Ewtaehe and (15 M.) 
St. Lin, the birthplace of Sir WilfHd Laurler (b. 1841). 

28 M. St. Augustin; 33 M. Ste. Scholastique; 38 M. St. Hermas. — 
44 M. Lachute, with mills and (1901) 2022 inhab., is the station for 
St. Andrews. At (68 M.) Orenville (Victoria; p. 186) we reach the 
Ottawa, thft N. bank of which we henceforth follow pretty closely 
(views to left). From Grenville a short railway runs to Carillon (p. 174). 
The Laurentian Hills (p. 161) rise to the right 

60 M. Calumet (Rail. Restaurant), at the confluence of the Ottawa 
and River Rouge. — 71 M. Fassett; 76 M. MontebeUo (p. 184); 79 M. 
Papineauville (v. 184). At (84 M.) Plaimnce we cross the North 
Nation River. 91 M. Thurso ; 94 M. Lochaber. Just beyond (100 M.) 
Buckingham (2936 inhab. in 1901), whence a branch-line runs to 
the N. into a district of phosphate, mica, and plumbago mines, we 
cross the Ltkvre Rioer, with its fine rapids (best view to the right). 
115 M. Oatineau. As we approach Ottawa we obtain a fine view of 
the Parliament Buildings (p. 177) and cross the Oatineau River, 
In crossing from (119 M.) Hull (p. 180) to (121 M.) Ottawa (R. 36; 
Union Station) we see the top of the Chaudiere Falls (1.; p. 180). 


176 Route 35, OTTAWA. HoUU, 

c. Yik Grand Trunk Railway. 

116 M. Railway in 8-4 hrs. (fares as at p. 174). This line traverses 
Ontario, keeping to the S. of the Ottawa. 

From Montreal to (37 M.) Coteau Junction, see p. 188. Lines 
diverge here to Valleyfield (jp, 16), Rouse's Point (p. 14), andflft. Al- 
bans (p. 15), At (44 M.) 8t. Polycarpe Junction, with the usual 
tin-spired church (left), we cross the C.P.R. (see p. 186), and beyond 
(48 M.) 8te, Justine^ we leave Quebec and enter Ontario. 54 M. Qlen 
Robertson (p. 174) is the junction of a line to (131/2 M.) Vankleek 
HUl (p. 174) and (21 M.) Hawkesbury (p. 174). — 61 M. AUxandria 
(Grand Union, Commercial, $lV2)j » ^^sy little place, with (1901) 
1911 inhab. and some mills and factories. — We now descend pretty 
rapidly to (68 M.) Greenfield and (72 M.) MaxvOU (lumber). 78 Bt 
Moose Creek, with numerous freight -car side-tracks. At (86 M.) 
Casselman (Royal Hotel) we cross the North Nation River, Large 
stacks of bark are seen at (94 M.) South Indian, the junction of a 
branch-line to (8 M.) Hammond, (12 M.) Clarence Creek, and (16 M.) 
Rockland, — 105 M. Eastman's Springs (Hotel, $1V2-^) "« fre- 
quented by the Ottawans. — We have a good view of Ottawa to the 
right as we near it, crossing the C.P.R. and the Rideau River, 

116 M. Ottawa (Central Station), see below. 

35. Ottawa. 

Hallway Stations. Union Railway Station (PI. A, 3), Broad St., for {he 
G. P. R. trains to Montreal, Toronto, and the West; Central Railway Btation^ 
to the 8. of Sappers Bridge (PI. D, 8), for the Grand Trunk and New Toric 
&, Ottawa railways and for the G.P.B. ^Short Line' to Montreal. 

Hotels. BussBLL House (PI. a; D, 8), Sparks St, near the Parliament 
Buildings, $2>/s-4, B. from $ 1; Grand Unioit (PL b: D, 8), City Hall So., 
$2-3; WiNDsoB (PL c; D, 8), cor. of Queen St. and Metcalfe St., $2-3; 
Brunswick (PL d; D, 8), 122 Sparks St., $ IVs, unpretending. The hotels 
are apt to be crowded during the Parliamentary session (usually Feb.-May), 
and it is then advisable to order rooms in advance. Ottawa is still much 
in need of a really first-class hotel, but it is hoped that the railway-com- 
panies will soon supply this want. — Boarding Houtes ($5-8 per week) 
&nd Fumisfied Apartment* (from $2 per week) are numerous. Information may 
b6 obtained at the T. M. G. A., cor. of Queen and O'Connor Sts. (PL D, 8), 
or at the T. W. G. A., cor. of Metcalfe St. and Laarier Ave. West (PL D, 4). 

Bettaurantt. At the above-named hotels; Bodega, 34 Wellington St.; 
Qwen't, 15 Elgin St., unpretending, D. 25c. ; Walker, Bvmt, Sparks St. (Nos. 
73,78; these two confectioners); Railway Restaurant*. — Mi** Stewart" * Tea 
Room*, Sparks Si 

Oabt. Within the area bounded by the Ottawa Biver and George 
St. (N.), William and Nicholas Str. (E.), Laurier Ave. (S.), and Bank St (W.) 
the fare for 1 pers. is 25 c. for each addit. pers 15 c. Outside this area 
and within 8 M. of the city limits the charge is 50 c. per 20 min. for 
1-2 pers., 75 c. for 34 pers., each 20 min. additional 25 c. Per hour, with 
one horse, $ 1, each subsequent Vi hr. 20 c. ; with two horses $ 1.25, 26 c. — 
Beasonable baggage free. — One-half more from 11 p. m. to 7 a. m. 

Tramways (cars lighted, heated, and propelled by electricity generated 
by the Chaudi^re Falls) run through the chief streets, passing most of the 
important public buildings, and to Rideau Hall (PL G, 1), RoekcUffe Park 
(p. 181), etc. IJniform fare 5 c. — Electric Railway* also run to Hull (p. 180; 
5c.; thrice hourly), Britannia (p. 182; 5 c.), Aylmerfi^. 182: jlOc), etc. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





Situation. OTTAWA. 36. Route. 177 

Steamers ply down the Ottawa to Orenvilk and Montreal (see B. 37) and 
throngh the Aideau Canal to (120 M.) Kingston (see p. 227). 

Bidean Olnb (PI. D, 3), 84 Wellington St., opposite the Parliament 
Baildine. — Theatres. Rvtsell Theatre (PI. D, 3), behind the Bassell House; 
Cfrand Opera Bow (PI. D, 3), Albert St., between O'Connor and Metcalfe 
Sts. •) Vaudeville Theatre (PI. 0, 3), Sparks St., to the W. of Bank St. 

Post Office (PI. D, 3), Wellington St. (open 8-8). 

General Oonsnl of the United States, Mr. J. G. Fetter, 26 Wellington St. 

Ottawa^ the capital of the Dominion of Canada, the residence of 
the Govemor-General, and the seat of the Supreme Court, is situated 
on the right hank of the Ottawa^ at its confluence with the Rideau^ 
hoth rivers forming picturesque falls opposite the city (see p. 180). 
It fronts on the Ottawa for a distance of ahout 2 M. , rising in the 
middle in a cluster of hold hluffs (160 ft), crowned by the noble Par- 
liament Buildings (see below). The city, which lies in 45**26' N. lat. 
(about 5 M. farther to the S. than Montreal), is divided into an Upper 
and a Lower Tovm by the Rideau Canal^ connecting it with Kingston 
(see p. 227). To the S. of Parliament Hill lies the commercial part 
of the town, including the lumber-district round the Chaudi^re Falls 
(p. 180). J^arhs Street (PI. B-D, 3) is the chief retail business street, 
containing the best shops. Ottawa is also important as the seat of a 
busy trade in lumber, and its growth has been very rapid, the pop- . 
ulation rising from 14,669 in 1861 to 27,412 in 1881 and 69,928 in 
1901. The inhabitants are divided nearly equally between the French 
and British races and the Protestant and Roman Catholic faiths. 

The first settler at the portage round the Chaudi^re Falls was Philemon 
Wright of Wobnm (Mass.), who established himself on the Quebec side of 
the river (in what is now Hutty p. 180) in 1800. About a score of years 
later he transferred his claim to the hills on the opposite side of the river 
to a teamster named Sparks, in lieu of a debt of $200. In 1827 the Rideau 
Canal was constructed, at a cost of $2,600,000 (600,000<.), to connect Lower 
Canada with Lake Ontario and obviate the necessity of vessels ascending 
the St. Lawrence under the enemy's fire. The settlement which grew up 
at the lower end of this canal was named Bytown, after Col. By, the engineer 
officer who had made the surveys for the project, and on its incorporation 
as a city (1854), when it had 10,000 inhab., assumed the name of Ottawa. 
In 1868 Queen Victoria put an end to the conflicting claims of Montreal 
and Quebec, Kingston and Toronto, by selecting Ottawa as the official 
capital of the Dominion of Canada. 

Selected arbitrarily, like Waphington, Ottawa has followed Washington's 
example in attempting to make itself worthy of the position to which it 
has been raised, and already ranks as one of the handsomest and best- 
kept cities of the Dominion, with abundant promise of rapid improvement 
in every direction. Like Washington, too, Ottawa has become the scientific 
centre of the country and the headquarters of the chief scientific societies 
and collections; while the presence of the Governor-Qeneral makes it, 
during the sitting of Parliament, a natural focus of cultivated and fashion- 
able society. — The annual valae of the produce of the saw-mills of Ottawa 
(260,000,000 ft. of lumber) is about $ 6,000,000. In 1906 the city's valuation 
for civic assessment was $37,973,180. The value of its trade in 1905-6 
was $5,639,024. The total available water-power within the city limits is 
100,000 horse-power, within a radius of 45 M. about 920,000. 

See the excellent account of Ottawa by F. A. Dixon in 'Picturesque Canada'. 
The most conspicuous single feature in Ottawa is the magnificent 
group of ^Government Buildings (PI. D, 3), commandingly situated 
Babdek£b's Canada. 3rd Edit. 12 

178 Route 35. OTTAWA. Qovemment Buildings, 

on a bluff overlooking the Ottawa, and covering an area of four 
acres. They were erected in 1869-66, at a cost of over $ 6,000,000 
(1 ,000,000 i.), and are in a *style of architecture based on the Gothic 
of the 12th cent., combining the elements of grace and simplicity 
which the climate of the country seems to require. A cream-coloured 
sandstone from the neighbouring district, to which age is fast adding 
fresh beauty of colour, with arches over the doors and windows of a 
warm red sandstone from Potsdam and dressings of Ohio freestone, 
has been happily employed — the effect of colour, apart from form, 
being most grateful to the eye' (Dixon). The architects were Fuller 
^ Jones (Parliament Building) and Stent ^Laver (Departmental Build- 
ings). The buildings are surrounded by beautifully kept lawns, diver- 
sified with flower-beds. The central building, with its fine tower 
(220 ft high), is 470 ft. in length and is occupied by the Houses of 
Pafliament ; the two wings harbour the various Ministerial Of/Ices, 
Behind the main building is the ^Library of Parliament , a beautiful 
polygonal structure,with a dome supported by gracefulflying buttresses. 

'As regards purity of art and manliness of conception, their (i.e. the 
architects*) joint work is entitled to the very highest praise. ... I know no 
modern Gothic purer of its kind or less sallied with fictitious ornamenta- 
tion. ... I know no site for such a set of buildings so happy as regards 
both beauty and grandeur' (Anthony Trollops). 

The Interior is neat and plain in ita appointments, but there are good 
stone carvings at various points of the halls and corridors of the Parliament 
Building. The Senate Chamber^ to the right of the entrance, and the Souse of 
Commons^ to the left, are commodious and business-like apartments. Daring 
the sitting of Parliament visitors are admitted to the public galleries by 
a Member^s order, which strangers can generally procure on application to 
one of the messengers; admission to the Speaker*s gallery requires a Speak- 
er's order. The corridor of the Senate has portraits of ex-Speakers, while 
the Commons Beading Boom contains portraits of ex-Speakers of the House. 
In the Bailway Committee Boom of the House of Commons is a large 
picture, by Q. Harris, of the statesmen who brought about the Confederation 
of the Dominion in 1S67, with portraits of Sir John Macdonald, Sir Charles 
Tupper, Sir Alexander Qalt, Hon. Geoi^e Brown (p. 195), Sir Alex. Camp- 
hell, Hon. Thos. D'Arcy McGee, Sir George E. Cartier (see p. 179), Hon. 
Joseph Howe (p. 95), Sir S. Leonard Tilley, Hon. Wm. McDougall, and 
others. *Few of the speeches delivered in the House can be called in- 
spiring. In fact, when not personal, they are prosaic. This can hardly 
be helped, for a Canadian Parliament, like Congress in the United States, 
deals, as a rule, with matters from which only genius could draw inspi- 
ration. The French-Canadian members, in consequence, probably, of tne 
classical training that is the basis of their education, are far superior to 
their English-speaking co^frires in accuracy of expression and grace of 
style. Even when they speak in English these (lualities are noticeable' 
(Dixon). — The building to the right (E.) contains the departments of 
State, Finance, the iW«y Council^ Justice, and the Auditor Oeneral, and the 
Indian Section of the department of the Interior; also the Of/lce of the Oover- 
nor-Oeneral. The left wing, the upper floor and roof of which were destroyed 
by flre in 1897 and since rebuilt, is devoted to the departments of Public 
Works, Bailttays, Marine and Fisheries, Inland Revenue, Trade and Commerce^ 
and Customs. The Post-Master OenercU, the Minister of Agriculture, and the 
Department of the Interior have their quarters in the *Langevin Block or ITme 
Departmental Building (Fl. D, 3), a handsome and substantial structure at 
the corner of Wellington St. and Elgin St., constructed in 1883 at a cost 
of $787,000. [Flans are now being prepared for a new Departmental 
block on the E. side of Minor's Hill Park, bounded by Mackenzie Ave., 

IrUerprovincial Bridge. OTTAWA. 35. Route. 179 

Suflse : St., Eideau St., and St. Patrick St. (comp. PI. D, E, 8).] The Govern- 
ment Archives^ a yalnable and interesting series of wnich has heen edited, 
calendared , a d published, are housed in a new building in Sussex St. 
(see'*?. 180). The department of JfiUtia has its headquarters in Wood's Build' 
*V(P1. D, 3), Slater St. — The only part of the interior- of the Dominion 
Baildings on which adornment haa been lavished is the *Librar7 {A. D. 
Be CeUes and M. J. Orifjln^ joint librarians), which is one of the most beau- 
tiful and convenient structures for its purpose in America. It now contains 
250,000 vols., including many on Canada, and is free to the public a« a 
reference-library (9-4). The book -cases ana panelling are of Canadian pine, 
adorned with excellent carving and the arms of the Dominion and prov- 
inces. The library, which is lighted by electricity, also contains a statue 
of Queen Victoria and busts of King Edward and Queen Alexandra. 

The central Tower affords a fine *View of Ottawa, the river, the Chau- 
di^re Falls, etc. — Qood views are also obtained from the walks laid out in 
the Parliament Hill grounds, especially from the so-called * Lovers^ Walk, 
skirting the outside of the blufis, and from the arbour behind the library. 
In the W. part of the grounds are statues of Queen Victoria (erected in 1900 to 
commemorate the sixtieth anniversary of her accession), Alexander Mackenzie 
(1&22-92), and Bir George Etienne Cartier (1814-73), while on the E. side is one 
of Bir John Maedonald (d. 1891). All of these are by Hubert (with the help 
of Hamilton MacCarthy in that of Mackenzie). Kervous visitors should note 
that a time-gun is fired at noon near the Maedonald statue. 

The modest little building at the S.W. corner of Parliament Hill is oc- 
cupied at present by the SupremeOourt of Canada (PI. C,8), until more worthy 
permanent quarters are prepared for it. 

In winter the river below the Parliament Buildings is frozen hard, and 
trotting-races and other sports are held on it. 

Parliament Square Is separated from Wellington Stbeet (PI. 
B-D, 3), with its handsome banks and offices, by a low stone wall 
with fine iron-work railings and gates. In Wellington St., opposite 
the main entrance to the Parliament Grounds and the end of Met- 
calfe St. (Pl.D, 3), is a figure of Sir Oalahad, by Keyser, erected to 
commemorate the gallant self-sacrifice of Henry A. Harper in 1901. 

The pretty littie ^Major's Eill Park (PI. D, 2, 3), to the E. of Par- 
liament HiQ, commands good views of the river. It contains a monu- 
ment to two Ottawans who fell in the Riel Rebellion (p. 242). On 
Nepean Pointj at the end of Major's Hill Park, is the Saluting Battery 
(guns of 1797). At this point the Ottawa is crossed by the impos- 
ing ^Boyal Alexandra or Interproyinolal Bridge (PI. D, 1, 2), 
completed in 1902 at a cost of $ 1,260,000. It is composed of one 
cantilever span (556 ft. long), two anchor arm spans (each 247 ft. 
long), and two truss spans (247 ft. and 140 ft.). It comprises a single 
railroad-track, two tram way- tracks, and two roadways. A walk across 
this bridge and back is recommended for the fine views it affords. 

At the S. end of Major's HiU Park the Bideau Canal (p. 177) is 
crossed by the Dufferin Bridge and the Sappers Bridge (PI. D, 3), 
forming an acute angle with each other. From the former a striking 
view is obtained of the six locks by which the canal makes its final 
descent to the Ottawa River. 

Following Sussex Stbbet (PL D, 2, 3) to the left (N.) from the 
end of the Sappers Bridge, we soon reach the office of the Oeological 
Survey of Canada (PI. D,3), containing a very interesting and unusually 
well-arranged *Museum (open, free, 9-4). Director, Mr, A\^xA^' 

180 Route 35, OTTAWA. Rideau Hall. 

Farther out, in the same street, in the midst of a French popula- 
tion, is the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Notre Dame, or the Baailica 
(PI. D,E, 2), with its twin towers, 200 ft. in height. It contains a paint- 
ing ascribed to MurUlo, In front of it is a Statue of Bishop OuigtteSf 
first Bishop of Ottawa (1848-74). — Nearly opposite is the Oovem- 
ment Prmting Bureau, a large brick building (King's Printer, Dr.S. E, 
Dawaori). A little farther on are the Orey Nunnery (r. ; PI. D,E, 2), 
the new Archives (1. ; PI. D, 2), and the new Mint (1. ; PI. D, 2). 

Beyond the Mint Sussex St (tramway) bends to the right, and 
we reach the point where the Rideau forms the pretty little *curtain- 
like' Rideau Falls (30 ft. high ; PI. F, 1) as it joins the Ottawa. [To 
see them we have to pass through a lumber-yard j they are best seen 
from a boat on the Ottawa.] Adjacent is the Edwards Saw Mtt, a visit 
to which is full of interest. — Crossing the bridge and following the 
prolongation of Sussex St, we soon reach the grounds of *Bideau 
Sail (Pi. G, 1), the residence of the Governor-General of Canada. 

Bideau Hall is a large, rambling, and plain bat comfortable edifice. 
The grounds are pretty, but not bo fine as those of Spencer Wood (p. 155). 
They contain a Skating Pond and Toboggan Slide, which present a very gay 
and lively scene in winter. The Princess Vista^ cut through the woods 
at the instance of the Princess Louise, affords a charming view of the 
Ottawa and the mountains beyond it. 

Another pleasant route to or from Bideau Hall is afforded by King 
Edward Avenue (PI. E, 1-^ and the Minto Bridget (PI. F, 1). 

EarneeUffy on the cliffs overlooking the river, near the lodge of Bideau 
Hall, was the home of Sir John Maedonald (p. 179) in his later years. 

From Rideau Hall we may go direct by tramway (p. 176) to the 
Ghaudi^be Bbidgb (PI. B, 2), just above which are the fine *ClLau- 
di^re Falls, where the Ottawa, narrowed to about 200 ft., descends 
50 ft. over ragged ledges of rock. 

The water-power here is used by countless Saw Mills, a visit to one of 
which will be of great interest to the visitor unacquainted with the mar- 
vellous perfection and delicacy of the machinery for converting rough forest- 
trees into trim yellow planks and shingles. Thousands of logs are floating in 
the adjacent ^booms*; and the surface of the smoother parts of the river is 
covered with saw-dust shining like gold in the sunlight. It is estimated that 
there are usually 125,(XX),(XX) ft of lumber on the Chaudifere *piling grounds*. 

Near the falls are the Timber Slides, by which the lumber from the 
upper river descends to the navigable water below. The squared logs are 
made up into ^cribs' just fitting into the slides*, and it is one of the re- 
cognized items of a visit to Ottowa to Vun the slides* as a passeneer on 
one of these rafts. This is an exciting experience, unattended by cDamger, 
and permission to go down is easily obtained from those in charge. 

. On the opposite side of the river here Tin the province of Quebec), is the 
suburban town of Hull, with (1901) 13,993 inhab., most of whom are con- 
nected in one form or another with the lumber-industry or with the laz^ 
Eddy Pulp and Paper Mills. It i3 connected by electric tramwav with Ottawa 
(via the InterprovinCial Bridge, p. 179) and with Aylmer (p. 182). Bailway 
stations, see pp. 175, 182. Near Hull are the large works of the International 
Portland Cement Co. 

At the comer of Queen St. and O'Connor St. stands the building 
(PI. C, D, 3) which is occupied, in somewhat curious juxtaposition, 
by the National Art Gallery and the risheries Exhibit (open, free, 
10-5, on Sat. 10^2). [A large new building, the Vktona Nfitional 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 

Art Gallery. OTTAWA. 35. Route. 181 

Museum, is in course of erection in Appin Place (PI. D, 5), at a cost 
of $ 1,250,000, and is intended to house all the national collections.] 

The Fitheries Exhibit occupies the groundfloor and the hasement, the 
process of breeding and hatching fish being shown in the latter. 

The National Art Oalkry is small and contains chiefly Canadian works; 
Among its contents are Time, Death, and Judgment, by 0. Wattt, R. A. ; 
a small painting by Maratta; a portrait of Hiss Montalba, the artist, by the 
Princesi Louise; portraits of Sir John Macdonald (by Patterson), the Harqnis 
of Lome (by Millais), and Dr. Kingsford, the historian (by C. E. Moss); 
Mortgaging the Homestead, by Q. A. Beid; Cape Trinity (p. 170), by L. R. 
O^Brien; a copy of West's Death of Wolfe? Beacon Light in the Harbour 
of St. John's, by H. Sandham; Teacher *talking over' the Trustees of a 
Back Settlement School, by R.Harris; Death of Nelson, by O.P.Reinagle; 
Nude girl, by Paul Peel; Al fresco concert, by E. W. Qrier; Shipping, by 
J. Hammond; Ambuscade, by Roy; 'C'est toujours le mSme Chanson', by 
Paul Ouillot; The Charge, by if. Chartier; Group by H. Tenkate; Westminster, 
by F, Bowles; Dreaming, by 0. A. Reid; and landscapes by John A. Eraser^ 
0. R. Jaeobi^ Mower Martin, Melbye, Homer Watson^ Wm. Raphael, F. M. Bell 
Smith, R, O'Brien, F. S, Challener, Wm. Hope, and Forshaw Day. 

Among the other principal buildings of Ottawa not yet mention- 
ed are the ^Carnegie Library (PI. D, 4), at the comer of Laurier Ave. 
and Metcalfe St., opened in 1906 (librarian, Mr. Burpee); Ottawa 
University (PI. E, 4), a Roman Catholic institution with 500 students 
(including the academy), rebuilt since a destructive fire in 1903; 
the Normal School, the Brill Hall (with a museum of military relics), 
and the Collegiate Institute, aU in Gartier Square (PI. D, 4) ; the City 
HaU (PI. D, 3), with a Boer War Monument in front of it; the Court 
House and Oaol (PI. E, 3); the Lady Stanley Institute (PI. G, 3); 
the Contagious Diseases Hospital (PI. F, G, 5) ; and various other Hospi- 
tals and Nunneries. — The Water Works (PI. B, 3) are interesting. — 
^Rockcliffe Park, IY2M. to the N.E. of the city limits, is reached by 
a charming road leading from the entrance to Rideau Hall through 
green fields and shady groves (tramway 5 c). It affords beautiful 
views of the Ottawa and is about to be greatly extended. About 
2 M. to the E. of it is the Dominion Rifle Range, the scene of the 
annual meeting of the Dominion Rifle Association, where the crack 
shots are chosen for the team that represents Canada at the inter- 
national shooting-contest at Bisley (England). — Lansdowne Park, 
at the opposite end of the city, is the scene of the Central Canada 
Annual Exhibition, the chief lacrosse - matches , etc. It is best 
approached by the beautiful new ♦Canal Deivbway, beginning 
at Cartier Sq. (PI. D, 4) and skirting the Rideau Canal, but it may 
also be reached by tramway (5 c.) or canal-steamer (10 c). — Strath- 
cona Park (PI. G, 4) is new ; and the Ottawa Improvement Com- 
mission is hard at work in beautifying the city in various other ways. 

About 1 H. to the S.W. of the city lies the * Central Government 
Experimental Farm (467 acres) , where information can be obtained as to 
the soil and vegetable productions of the various parts of the Dominion. 
It is situated on high ground and affords some fine views. The farm 
is open to visitors daily, the buildings daily except Sunday. Director, 
I>r. William Saunders. It is pleasantly reached viE the extension of the 
just-mentioned Driveway. The electric tramway ends about 1 M. from the 
farm. Some idea of the extent to which the work of the farm comes into 

182 Route 35. OTTAWA. 

contact with fanners throughout Canada may be gathered from the fact 
that in 1904 no fewer than 55,366 letters were received and 876,196 letters, 
hulletins, and reports were sent ont. — On the grounds of the farm is the 
Dominion Astronomioal Observatory, a substantial stone building, the ad- 
mirable equipment of which includes a 15-inch equatorial telescope. Director, 
Dr. W. F. King. Visitors are admitted on week-days, 9.30 to 4.30, and on Sat. 
evening after dark. — Among other points of interest in the environs are 
the Bulphuv Spring »^ 5 M. from the city, on the road to Montreal { the 
Cascades of the Oatineau River (10 M.), reached by road or railway; Kettle 
Island Park^ 2 M. distant (steamer at frequent intervals); Britannia (see 
below!); and Aylmer (see below). — Good shooting and fishing can be 
obtained within easy access of Ottawa (comp. pp. li, l\r, Ivi). 

From Ottawa to Montreal^ see BR. 84, 87; to Winnipeg^ etc., see BR. 
48-54 ; to Parry Bound, see B. 41 ; to Kingston vift the Rideau Lakes, see B. 86. 

Fbom Ottawa to Toronto, 256 M., Can. Pac. Railway in 8-9 hrs. (fare 
$7.85, parlor-car $1, sleeper $2). — From Ottawa to(46M.) BmUh's FaUs^ 
see below I thence to (256 M.) Toronto^ see pp. 186-188. 

From Ottawa to Prescott, 52 M., CancuHan Pacijic Railway in 2-8 hrs. 
(fare $2.10). At (81 M.) Kemptville Junction (p. 186) we intersect the G. P. B. 
line from Montreal to Toronto (see B. 88 a). — 52 M. Prescott, see p. 229. 

From Ottawa to Waltham, 81 M., Canadian Pacific Railway in 81/4 hrs. 
(fare $2.80). — This line follows the N. bank of the Ottawa above the 
capital. — 10 M. Aylmer (Yietoria. $ 2-3; Brown Ho., Ketmedy Central, $ l>/«), 
on Lake DeschSnes, with (1901) 2204 inbab., is a favourite resort of the 
Ottawans. It may also be reached by electric railway (p. 176). Queen'' s Park 
here offers various popular attractions. Steamer to Britannia, see below. — 
69 M. Fort Coulonge lies nearly opposite Pembroke (p. 231). — 81 M. Waltham, 

From Ottawa to Maniwaju, 83 M., Can. Pac. Railway in 8V4-6 hrs. 
(fare $2.70). This line ascends the pretty ^Gatineau Valley, with its wealth 
of lumber and sporting facilities. — The train crosses the Interprovincial 
Bridge (p. 179) to (2 M.) Hutt (p. 180). 9 M. Chelsea; 18 M. Kirk's Ferry; 
17 M. Cascades ; 28 M. Wakefield; 81 M. Farrellton; 36 M. Low; 48 M. Kasa- 
batua; 50 M. Aylwin; 60 M. Oracefield (King Edward, $1); 68 M. Blue Sea; 
73 M. Burbridge. — 83 M. Maniwaki (Laurentian, Maniwaki, $ IVs). There 
is some prospect of running a line across from this point to Komining Q>. 175). 

From Ottawa to Smith's Falls and Brockvillb, 74 M., Can. Pac. 
Railway in 2>/4-4 hrs. (fare $2.45). — As we leave Ottawa we have good 
views of the Ottawa River to the right, with its burden of lumber. — 6 M. 
Britannia, a summer-resort on a bay of the Ottawa, has a popular park, 
with a good bathing-beach, boating, a long pier, band-concerts, and vaude- 
ville performances. Britannia may also be reached by electric car (p. 176), 
and a , steamer plies across the bay to Aylmer (see above). — Farther on 
we soon lose sight of the river. At (28 M.) Carleton Junction (Bail. Bestan- 
rant) we diverge to the left (8.) from the transcontinental line (see p. 231). 
At (46 M.) 8mith*s Falls (Bail. Bestaurant) we cross the C.P.B. line from 
Montreal to Toronto (B. 38 a). 63 M. Wo^ord; 69 M. Fairfield. — 74 M. 
BrockvUle, see p. 229. 

From Ottawa to Cornwall and Topper Lake, 129 M., New York A 
Ottawa Railway in 4>/4-5 hrs. (fare $9.50). — This line runs from Ottawa 
(Central Station) towards the S.B. 5M. Hawthorne; 7 M. RamsayviUe; ISys M. 
Edwards; 20 M. Ruuell; 23V2 M. Embrun; 27V2 M. Cambridge. At (31 Vs M.) 
Crysler we cross the Petite Nation and at (38 M.) Finch (p. 188) we inter- 
sect the G. P. B. (B. 88 a). 42 M. Newington; 481/3 M. Black Rher. — At 
(57 M ) Cornwall (see p. 229) we cross the St. Lawrence and enter New York 
State. 63V2 M. Helena; U^t M. Moira; 86 M. St. Regis Falls ; 97 M. SpHng 
Cove; 107 M. Brandon. — From the present terminus, (129 M.) Tiwer 
Lake, in the Adirondack Mts., this line is to be eventually extended to 
Korth Greek, where it will join a continuous railway route to Hew York 
(comp. BaedekerU United States). 



36. From Ottawa to Kingston by Steamer. 

145 M. Stbambr op thb Bidbau Lakes Nayiqatioh Co., thrice weekly 
in 26 hrs. (fare $ 3.80; berth $ 1.50; meals 75 c. each.). 

This is a favourite tourist-route, passing through some fine scenery 
and no less then 36 locks. The Rideau Lakes consist of a chain of ten 
lakes, through which the steamer passes. They were used by the British 
Government in the war of 1812 for the transport of military sappUes, and 
in 1832, by the deepening of the connections between the lakes, and the 
building of the locks, the lake-system was made available for navigation 
all the way from Ottawa to Kingston, on Lake Ontario. The excellent 
duck-shooting and bass-fishing of the district attract many sportsmen and 
anglers. Fair accommodation may be had at many of the villages en route. 

Ottawa, see p. 176. Ou leaviug the Canal Basin we pass Lans- 
downe Park (p. 181). At (4 M. \ r.) Hogshaek (so called from the 
shape of the ridge skirted by the canal or from the many ronnded boul- 
ders in the stream) we quit the canal, pass through two locks, and 
enter the Rideau River. — 8 M. (1.) Black RapidSy with a lock and 
an immense dam. From (16 M.) Long Island to (44 M. ; r.) Bur-^ 
riifa Rapids (O'Neill House, $ I1/2) we steam through Long Reach ^ 
affording the longest continuous run of the route (28 M.") — 49 M. 
(r.) MerriekviUe. — The district near (57 M. ; r.) Kilmarnock is a 
noted duck-shooting ground. 

65 M. (r.) Smith's Falls (see p. 186) lies nearly halfway from 
Ottawa to Kingston. Beyond Smith's Falls we thread the so-called 
'Nalrows', passing (74 M.) Rideau Ferry, and enter *Big Bideau 
Lake, 21 M. long and 6 M. wide, with its numerous islands. About 
halfway down the lake the steamer turns to the left, enters German 
Bay J and calls at (86 M. ; 1.) Portland (Garrett's Rest, Commercial 
House, $ IV2-2), a pleasant summer-resort. Beyond German Bay 
we past through another cut, also known as the ^Narrows', and enter 
Littte or Upper Bideau Lake, 6 M. long, 495 ft. above the sea, and 
225 ft. above Lake Ontario. — 97 M. Westport (several boarding- 
houses), the terminus of the Brockville and Westport Railway (see 
p. 188), is a flourishing little village on the W. shore of Little 
Rideau, with Wolfe Lake to the W. of it. Leaving Westport, the 
steamer retraces its way across the lake to (103 M. ; 1.) Newboro 
(New Rideau, $ 2-3), between the Little Rideau and Mud Lake, 
which marks the ridge of a watershed, the waters in one direction 
running towards Kingston and in the other towards Ottawa. It is 
a favourite resort of sportsmen and anglers. 

115 M. (1.) Jones Falls (Hotel Kenny, $ IV2-2), at the end of 
Sand Lake, is one of the most attractive spots on the route. There 
are four deep locks, and a fine horseshoe-shaped dam 400 ft. long 
and 100 ft. high, constructed at a cost of 80,0002. The falls f^om 
which the town takes its name are small but picturesque. — After 
leaving Jones Falls we pass through the small Whitefish Lake, and 
come to Little and Big Cranberry Lakes, the last of the chain. 

At (127 M. ; 1.) Brewers Mills Locks we enter a stretch of 10 M. 
formed by backing up the waters of the Catarfiqui River, and known 

184 Route 37. . THURSO. From Ottawa 

as the 'Drowned Lands'. The channel is narrow and rocky, and at 
one place a rock, supposed to resemble the profile of the Duke of 
Wellington, projects from the bluff. 

Entering the Cataraqui River proper, remarkable for its winding 
course and beautiful scenery, we pass (139 M. ; 1.) Kingiton Mills, 
and reach — 

146 M. Kingston (see p. 227). 

Connection is made here with a steamer crossing the St. Lawrence to 
Clayton, New York State (see Baedeker" i United States). 

37. From Ottawa to Montreal by Steamer. 

ISO M. Stbambb ^Empbbss* of thb Ottawa Stbam Navioatiok Go. daily 
in summer, starting about 8 a.m., in lOVs-H hn. (fare $2.50; return-fare 
$4; round trip, allowing one way by railway, $5; meals extra). In the 
reverse direction passengers leave Montreal by train at 8 a.m. and join the 
boat at Lachi9te (p. 280), and the trip thence to Ottawa takes about 10 hrs. 
The trip downstream is, however, preferable, as it includes the exciting 
passage of the Lachine Rapids (see p. 230). The steamers are comfortable 
and contain fair restaurants. — A local steamer CVictoria') also plies from 
Ottawa to Thuno, starting at 4 p.m. and returning next morning (fare 26 c.; 
round trip to Cumberland by the 'Victoria' and back by the *Empress* 40 c). 

The Ottawa, the Qrand River of the early voyageurs, is the largest 
tributary of the St. Lawrence, being 615 M. long and draining an area of 
80.000 sq. H. It rises in the W. part of the province of Quebec, about 
200 M. in a direct line to the N. of Ottawa, and flows first for 180 H. 
towards the W., then to the S., S.E., and E., thus making a large U- 
sbaped loop open to the £. It forms the boundary between Quebec and 
Ontario for about 400 M., and falls into the St. Lawrence at the Isle of 
Montreal. The Ottawa is navigable for 250 M., the rapids and falls being 
avoided by canals. It is very picturesque and is fringed with magnificent 
forests, yielding some of the finest timber in the world. Some of the nu- 
merous tributaries are of considerable size. 

Ottawa, see p. 176. As we leave tbe wbarf we have a good view 
of tbe Chaudihre Falls (p. 180) and the Parliament Buildings. Large 
lumber-yards line the banks. About 1 M. below the city the Ottawa 
is joined on the left (N.) by the Qatineau, a strong and important 
lumbering-stream. — 8M. (1.) East Templeton. — 20 M. (r.) Cumber- 
land, — 21 M. (1.) Buckingham (p. 175) ; the village lies on the Lftwc, 
4 M. above the steamboat-landing. — 26 M. (r.) Rockland (Toque's 
Hotel), with saw-mills. — 29 M. (1.) Thurso (Ottawa Beach Board- 
ing House). The Thurso Islands are a fayourite resort of excur- 
sionists. A little farther on we pass the mouth of the North Nation 

p. 175), opposite which is that of the smaller South Nation. — 

.6 M. Wendover. — 40 M. Treadwell. 

41 M. (1.) Papineauville (Chabot's Hotel) was named for Louis 
Joseph Papineau (see below). — 46 M. (L) MonteheUo (hotel and 
boarding-houses) contains the pretty tree-shaded ch&teau in which 
Louia Joseph Papineau (d. 1871), the leader, in Lower Canada, of the 
unsuccessful rebellion of 1837-8 (see p. 192), lived after his return 
from banishment. Most of the reforms for which he fought were 
afterwards secured by constitutional means ; but after his pardon, 
he, unlike his fellow-leader Sir George Cartier (p. ^91 Ufred in 

to Montreal. OKA. 37. Route, 185 

retirement and took comparatiTely little part in politics, though he 
was a member of the legislative assembly from 1848 to 1854. — 
59 M. (r.) UOrignal (Ottawa Hotel; L'Orignal Hotel) is the landing- 
place for (10 M.) Caledonia Springs (p. 174 ; can. to meet steamer 
on application to Manager of the Caledonian Springs Hotel). 

64 M. (1.) OrenviUe (p. 175), which we reach about noon, lies 
at the head of the Long SatUt, Chute au BlondeaUf and Carillon 
Rapids, Vessels avoid the rapids by two short canals; but the 
steamboat-passengers, to prevent delay, are transferred by a broad- 
gauge railway (5 ft. 6 in.) from Grenville to (13 M.) CarUlon^ where 
another steamer ('Sovereign') meets them. The Ottawa is crossed 
here by the bridge of the Canadian Northern Quebec Railway from 
Joliette to Hawkesbury (p. 142). 

The river at this part of its coarse is very deep and narrow, and its banks 
are steep. The Long Saolt Pass is hallowed by the memory of the young 
DauUxe or DoUard. 8ieur dei Ormeaux, and his sixteen comrades, who here 
laid down their lives to save Ville Marie (p. 129). The Iroquois had de- 
termined to drive the French into the sea, but the obstinate resistance 
offered by the gallant little body of Frenchmen in the small palisaded fort 
they erected on the S. bank of the river here, about halfway between 
OrenviUe and Carillon, daunted them so that they gave up the enterprise. 
About 800 Indians joined in the attack, and everyone of the Frenchmen 
perished. Comp. the ballad by Mr. Oeorgt Murray. — On the S. shore 
lies Hawkesbury (p. 174). 

77 M. (1.) Carillon (Sovereign Hotel ; Kelly's ; Bellevue Boarding 
House, well spoken of) lies at the foot of a small hill affording a 
charming view (golf-links). Below this point both banks are in the 
province of Quebec. A little farther on the Ottawa expands into 
the pretty *Lake of Two MauntainSf which extends hence, with a 
width of 3-5 M., all the way to the Island of MontreaL — 82 M. (r.) 
Rigaud (p. 174). — 88 M. (1.) Pointe aux AnglaU. — 92 M. (r.) 
Hudson (Hudson-on-the-Lake Hotel). — 93 M. (1.) Como (Pens. 
Brasseur), a summer-resort. 

94 M. (1.) Oka (hotels and boarding-houses), a village inhabited 
by some remnants of the Iroquois and Algonquin Indians, lies on the 
N. bank , at the base of the *Two Mountains' which give name to 
the lake. Mt. Calvary, the higher of the two, is ascended by a *Route 
de Calvaire', with shrines marking the seven ^Stations of the Cross' 
(fete and pilgrimage on Sept. 14th). On the other hill is a Trappist 
Monastery^ the monks of which, living under the most rigidly ascetic 
rules, cultivate a large farm. Their cheese (Tort du Salut') has a 
wide reputation. Stages meet the steamer to take visitors to the 
monastery, to which, however, men only are admitted. 

The lake now expands, and the river divides into the four chan- 
nels through which it joins the St. Lawrence, forming the islands of 
Perroty Montreal, and Jesus. We follow the main channel, between 
the isle of Perrot on the right and that of Montreal on the left. 

103 M. (1.) Ste. Anne da Boat de VUe or de Bellevae (^Clarendon 
Hotel, $2-o; Raymond, Canada, Ste, Anne, $1-1V2)> a quaint and 
picturesque French village with about 360 inhab., situated at th|j^. 

186 RouU 38. SMITH'S FALLS. 

end of the Isle of Montreal, has been immortalized by Moore's 'Canadian 
Boat Song'. The little white church near the canal is the one to 
which Moore refers, while the honse in which the poet lived is also 
shown. Just beyond are the picturesque remains ofChdteau BoishriafU 
or Smnevaie (1699), in the grounds of Sir John Abbott (d. 1893), 
late premier of the Dominion. Ste. Anne, which is also a station 
of the 0. P. R. (see below) and the G. T. R. (see p. 188), affords 
good boating, fishing (black bass, maskinonge, and dor^ or wall- 
eyed pike), and shooting (ducks and partridges). It attracts many 
summer-visitors, and near it are the summer-homes of several wealthy 
Montrealers. — The steamer now passes a short canal, with one lock, 
shoots under two railway-bridges, and reaches Lake 8t. Louis (p. 230). 

121 M. (L) Lachine^ and thence via the *Lachine Bapida to — 

130 M. (1.) Montreal, see R. 47. 

38. From Montreal to Toronto. 

a. Yik Canadian Faciflo Bailway. 

838 M. Railway in 10-11 hrs. (fare $10; sleeper $2, parlor-ear $i) 
Bu£fet-caT8 on all trains. Through-tickets are issaed to western point* yi& 
Toronto by the *Lake Route' (see B. 46); these are interchangeable with 
direct railway-tickets (see R. 48). 

Montreal (Windsor St. Station), see p. 125. As we leave we 
have a good retrospect of the city (left). At (6 M.) Montreal Junc- 
tion (p. 48) the line to Boston diverges to the left (see p. 19). 
A little farther on we see Lachine (p. 230) and the St. Lawrence 
Bridge of the 0. P. R. to the left. 10 M. Doroalj with golf-links 
(p. 127). At (21 M.) Ste. Anne de BelUvue (p. 185) we cross one of 
the arms of the Ottawa and leave the Island of Montreal, and at 
(24 M.) VaudreuU (Central Hotel) we cross another mouth of the 
Ottawa. This is the diverging point of the * Short Line' to Ottawa 
(R. 34a). Our line now leaves the river and runs towards the S.W. 
through the fertile district between the St. Lawrence and the Ottawa. 
Many orchards and tracts of woodland are passed. At (41 M/) St. Poly- 
carpe Junction we cross the Grand Trank Railway (p. 176). Near 
(47 M.) DalhousU MiUs we enter Ontario (p. 192). 63 M. AppU HUL 
At (79 M.) Finch we intersect the *New York & OtUwa Railway' 
(p. 182). S7U.Che8terville]^^ M.Winchester. At (108 M.) ^«mp«- 
ville Junction we intersect the O.P.R. line from Ottawa to Prescott 
(see p. 182), and at (120 M.) Merrickville we cross the Bideau River 
by a long iron bridge. 

129 M. Smith's -FaJU (Bideau, $2; Bussell Ho., $1V2J ^a'^- 
Bestaurant), a brick-making and manufacturing town of (1901) 5155 
inhab., on the Bideau Canal (see p. 183), is the junction of lines to 
the S. to Brockville (p. 229) and to the N. to Carleton Junction (for 
Ottawa and the main transcontinental line of the O.P.R.). To the 
left lies Big Bideau Lake (p. 183). — 141 M. Perth (BicksEo., $ ll/a), 
a small town with (1901) 3588 inhab., several mills, a manufactory of 





PETERBOROUGH. 38. Rouie, 187 

railway rolling-stock, and some good quarries and phosphate-mines. 
The country traversed is unattractiTe. — From (166 M.) Sluirbot Lake 
Junction lines run to the S. to Kingston (p. 227) and to the N. to 
Renfrew, Good shooting is obtained here (comp. p. It) and the 
scenery is attractive, with lakes on both sides of ^e railway. — 
207 M. 2\ceed (Hoyck's Hotel, $ IV25 1168 inhab.), on the Moira, 
is the junction of a line to Napanee (p. 189) and Kingston (p. 227). 
To the left lies Lake Stooo, At (216 M.) Jvanhoe we cross a branch 
of the G.T.R. ; and at (225 M.) Central Ontario Junction we intersect 
the Central Ontario Railway, running from Ptcton (p. 189) and Trenton 
(p. 189) to various iron-mines in the N. 238 M. Havelodc^ a railway 
divisional point, with (1901) 984 inhab.; 244 M. Norwood (King's j 
McGregor's), with (1901) 946 inhabitants. 

262 M. Feterboroagh (Orim<a2 Hotel, $ 2-2V8 > National, $ 1 1/2-^ ; 
V, 8, Agent), an important railway-centre and industrial city, with 
ri901) 11,239 inhab., lies on the Otonabee, which here descends 
160 ft. within a few miles and affords the motive power for numerous 
mills, large electrical engineering works, and other manufactories. 
The country of which this is the focus is full of pretty lakes and 
rivers, offering much to attract both tourist and sportsman. The so- 
called *Rice Lake' or ^Peterborough' canoe originated here. 

Peterborough also lies on the so-called Trenton Waterwap (p. 189) ^ and 
the Hydraulic Lift Lock here is the largest in the world and of great 
interest to engineers. The lock consists of two huge steel chambers or 
pontoons (140 ft. by 83 ft.)* working up and down between guiding towers. 
The vessel enters one of the chambers and is raised 66 ft. by loading 
down the other chamber with water. The operation takes 12 minutes. 

Bice Lake (Jubilee Point Hotel, $ 1), with its maakinonge and baas 
fishing, lies about 10 M. to the S.E. This district was the headquarters 
of the Mittietauffa Indians, a branch of the Ojibwas. 

Fbom Petbrborouoh to Lakbfibld, 9 M., Orand Trunk Railway in 
Vs hr. This line forms the shortest approach to the pi^uresque district of 
the *Eawartha Lakes (600 ft. above Lake Ontario), which is now rapidly 
coming into favour as a shooting, fishing, and summer resort. — Lakefleld 
{^Lakefleld Ho., $ IV^ lies at the point where the Otonabee River begins to 
expand into Lake Katchewanooka, the first of the Kawartha Lakes, and is the 
starting-point of a steamer which plies through the whole chain of lakes 
to (70 M.) Chhoeonk, at their W. extremity (see p. 188). 

[Stbambr Boutb or Kawabtba Lakes. On leaving Lakefield and Lake 
Katchewanooka, the steamer enters Clear Lake Oock) and calls at Young's 
Foint (Lakeview Ho., Carleton Ho., $ 1). — From Clear Lake we pass into 
•Stony Lake, with its 800 islands and the resorts of Halls Glen (Victoria 
Ho., $ 11/^-2), Stony Lake, the Mt. Julian Hotel ($ 1), and the Vicmede ($2). 
— In passing from Stony Lake into the £. bay of inckhom Lake we call 
at Burleigh Falls (Inn, $ IV2). At the narrow strait leading to the main 
part of the lake are HaWs Bridge (1.-, Buckhom Hotel, $ 2) and the Buck- 
horn FaUs (r.) — Through the Oannon Narrows we next reach Pigeon Lake, 
with some large wooded islands. — Boheaygeon (Boyal, Bockland. Beach- 
wood, $ IV**^) one of the chief resorts on the lakes (see also p. 188), lies 
on an island between Pigeon Lake and Sturgecn Lake. Here the fteamer 
calls at Sturgeon Point, Plecuant Point, and FeneUm Falls (Hotel Kawartha, 
9 2-6^ railway, see p. 188). — We next cross the smaller Cameron Lake, 
reached by a lock with a rise of 28 ft., and from this we pass into Balaam 
Lake, at the entrance to which lies Roeedale, a good camping and fishing 
place. The steamer now turns to the N. and reaches the end of the route 

188 Route 38, BROOKVILLE. From Montreal 

at Coboconi (PatUe Ho., $ 1), which is also the terminus of a railway ran- 
ning to LomemUe Junction (p. 190) and Scarboro Junction (p. 190).] 

Fbou Pbtesbobouoh to Halibubton, 79 M., Grand Trunk Rctihoay in 
6 hrs. This line diverges to the right at (23 M.) Lindsay (Benson Ho., 
$ IV2 2; U. S. Agent i pop. 7033 in 1901) from another line going on to 
Lake Simeoe (p. 198), and runs to the K. through the district of the Ka- 
toartha Lakes (see p. 187). Steamers ply from Lindsay via the Bcugog 
River to various points on the lakes. — 30 M. Cameron^ on Btwrgeon Lake 
(see p. 187). At 0t M.) Fenelon Falls (see p. 187) we cross the strait con- 
necting Sturgeon Lake with Cameron Lake. 43 M. Bwnt River; 56V2 M. 
Kinmount; 66 M. Oelert; 72 M. Dysart. — 79 M. Haliburton (Queen's, Grand 
Central, $ 1). 

A stage also runs from Peterborough to (6 M.) Chemong Park (Hotel, 
$iV^t on Chemong Lake^ the southernmost of the Eawartha Lakes (p. 187). 

The district now traversed is feitUe and highly cultivated. Near 
(280 M.) Manvers we cross a branch of the G.T.R. From (292 M.)# 
Burketon Junction a branch-line mns to Lindsay (see above) and 
(39 M.) Bobcaygeon, forming another convenient approach to the 
Kawartha Lake Region (seep. 187). 301 M. Myrtle, near Lake Scugog, 
is the junction of lines to Whitby (p. 190), Port Perry (a summer- 
resort on Lake Scugog, with the Sebert and St. Charles Hotels), 
Manilla^ etc. 318 M. Locust Hillj 334 M. Leaside Junction, 

338 M. Toronto, see R. 39. 

b. Yi& Grand Trunk Bailway. 

333 M. Railway in 71/2*11 hrs. (fares as at p. 186). The best train is 
the international Limited', starting at 9 a.m. This line skirts the 8t. 
Lawrence and Lake OntaiHo for a great part of its course. 

Leaving Montreal (Bonaventure Station ; p. 125), the train runs 
to the W., passing (2 M.) 8t, Henri (p. 14) and (7 M.) Convent. 
At (8 M.) Lachine, where we have a fine view of the C.P.R. bridge 
(p. 47) to the left, we pass under the 0. P. R. Farther on we hug 
the broad St. Lawrence, The country is flat and fertile. The O.P.R. 
runs parallel with our line for some distance. 20*/2 M. 8t. Anne's 
(p. 186) ; the village lies mainly to the left. At (241/2 M.) Vau- 
dreuU (p. 186) we cross an arm of the Ottawa. At (37 M.) Coteau 
Junction the lines to Ottawa (p. 176) and to Valleyfield (p. 16) and 
8t, Albans (p. 15) diverge to the right and left. Our line continues 
to skirt the St. Lawrence, of which we have fine views to the left. 
54 M. Lancaster. At (67 M.) Cornwall (p. 229 ; Rail. Restaurant) 
we connect with the 'New York & Ottawa Railway' (p. 182). 81 M. 
Farran'8 Point ; 92 M. Morrisburg (p. 229) ; 113 M. Prescott (p. 229), 
the starting-point of a ferry to Ogdensburg (p. 229) and the junction 
of a line to Ottawa (see p. 182). 126 M. BrockviUe (280 ft ; p. 229), 
the junction of a line to Smith's Falls (p. 186) and Ottawa (J. 186). 
Just before (129 M.) Lyn a line diverges to the right for (41 M.) 
Westport (comp. p. 183). — The line now quits the river for a 
time, running through hop-gardens and grain-fields. 146 M. Lans^ 
downe. Beyond (155 M.) Thousand Islands Junction^ for a short line 
to (6 M.) Oarutnoque (p. 228) , we cross a stream ^nd at (169 M.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

to Toronto. COBOURG. 38, Route, 189 

Bideau we cross the moutli of the Bideau Canal (see p. 183). A 
little farther on we see Kingston (p. 227), 2-3 M. to the left, with 
its church-spires, martello tower, college, fort, etc. ilQ.'M., Kingston 
Junction^ for a short line to (3 M.) Kingston. Farther on , the line 
again bends inland. We cross a pretty little river in entering (198 M.) 
Najtanee (Canijpbell Ho., $ lV2-2> U.S. Con. Agent), a grain-trading 
town with (1901) 3143 inhab., embosomed in trees. 

Napadee is the junction of the Bay of Quint4 RaHioay to (9 M.) Seseronto 
(Qwen, Deseronto ffo., $ IVz-^i ^- S. Jgent)^ a flour and lumber tradiog town 
(3527 inhab. in 1901), at the end of the beautiful *Bay of Quinti^ an arm 
of Lake Ontario. Der^eronto is lighted by gas made from the sawdust of 
ita lumber-mills. Near it is the attractive Forester^t Iskmd Park (hotel). 

218 M. ShannonvUle. — 220 M. BellBvme (Quinti, $ 2-3} Anglo- 
American^ $ 1-1 V2; U. S. Consnl, Mr. M. J. Hendrich), a bnsy in- 
dustrial city of (1901) 9117 inhab., on the N. shore of the Bay of 
Quints, of which we have views to the left farther on. It is the junction 
of a line running to the N. to Ivanhoe (p. 187), Madoc (27 M.), etc. 
Albert College here has 326 students. The favourite summer-resort of 
the Bellevillians is at Missiasaga Point (Hotel, $1-2), on the other side 
of the bay. — 232 M. Trenton (Aberdeen^ 8t. Lawrence, $172-2; 
Gilbert Ho.^ $ lV2)j »* t^c mouth of the wide and picturesque Trent^ 
the outlet of Bice Lake (p. 187), and near the W. end of the Bay of 
Quints, is a town of (1901) 4217 inhab. and the junction of the 
Central Ontario Railway, running to the left to (30 M.) Fieton and 
to the right to (74 M.) Coe Hill and other mining-stations. 

Kcton (Royaly Tecunueh, Olobe^ $ IV2 i Oerm. Cons. Agent), a town of 
(1901) 3698 inhab., lies at the W. end of the Frince Edward Fmimula, 
which encloses the Bay of Quints (see above). The picturesque and varied 
shores of the peninsula may be visited by steamer. In the highest part 
of it is the '^Lake of tJie Mountain, with no known affluent. At Big Sandy 
Bay (Glen Island Ho., $ IV2) are curious white Sand Banks, which are 
encroaching on the land at the rate of 150 ft. every winter. *The active 
agent in the movement appears to be the drifting snow which entangles 
the sand and carries it forward. On the hottest day snow may be found a 
short distance down* (Picturesque Canada). 

Trenton is also the starting-point of the so-called Trenton Waterway, 
a mainly natural water-route extending to (2(X) M.) Midland (p. 199), on 
Georgian Bay. 

Farther on, the line skirts the N. shore of Lake Ontario (p. 208). 
241 M. Brighton; 249 M. Colbome. — 264 M. Cobonrg (Arlington, 
Cedamere, Baltimore, Columbian, $2-272; Dunham Ho,, $1V2; 
Bail, Beataurant), a manufacturing town of (1901) 4239 inhab., with 
car-works and breweries, was formerly the seat of Victoria College 
(p. 196). A short line runs to the N. to (1472 M.) Harwood, on 
Bice Lake (p. 187). — 270 M. Port Hope (Queen, $2,81, Lawrence 
HaU, $172-272; U. S. Consul, Mr. H.P.DiZi; is a brisk little lumber- 
port T^ith (1901) 4188 inhab. and various industries. A branch- 
line runs hence to Peterborough (p. 187), Lindsay (p. 188), and 
other points ; and a steamer plies daily to Bochester (see Baedeker^s 
United States'), — 286 M. Newcastle; 290 M. BowmanvilU (2731 in- 
hab. in 1901) J 299 M. Oshawa (Queen, Commercial, $ IJ/a:^^^'^ 

Digitized by > ^ 

190 Route 39. TORONTO. 

nhab. in 1901). — 303 M. Whitby (2110 inhab. in 1901) is the 
unction of a line to (IOV2 M.) Myrtle (p. 188) and r33 M.) Manilla 
(for Lindsay and HaWmrton; comp. p. 188). — 309 M. Pickering^ 
on a small lake; 316 M. Port Union. — 324 M. Scarboro Junction, 

Near Scarboro Junction are Scarboro E«ighU or Bluffi^ consisting of 
picturesque clay difls descending to Lake Ontario^ and offering a most 
interesting instance of inter - glacial aetion. They lie about 1/2 M. firom 
the terminus of the Scarboro branch of the Toronto and Tork Badial Rail- 
way (p. 191) and are frequently visited from Toronto. The Toronto Hunt 
Club (p. 191) is situated here. 

Fbou Soabbobo Junction to Cobogonk, 77 M., Orand Trunk Raiiwap in 
4Vs hrs. — 5M. Agineourt; 13 M. Markham. At (20 M.) StouffvWe JfmcUon 
the line to Jackson s Point (see below) diyerges to the left. 32 M. Uxhridge; 
42 M. BlackwaUr Junction, At (55 M.) Lomeville Junction we cross the line 
running from Lindsay to Lake Simeoe and Midland (comp. pp. 187, 188). 
60 M. JBldon; 66 M. Kirkfitid. — 77 M. Coboconk^ on Balsam Lake (comp. p. 187). 

Fbom Soabbobo Junction to Jackson^s Point, 47 M., Orand Trunk 
Railway in 2 hrs. (fare $2.20). At (20 M.) Siouffville Junction our train diyerges 
to the left from the line described above. 321/2 M. Mount Albert; 45 M. 
Sutton. — 47 M. Jackson s Point (Lakeyiew Hotel, Pine Plaza Hotel, $ ii/i^, 
a pretty little village on the shore of Lake Simeoe, nearly opposite Barrie 
(p. 198). 

328 M. York; 829 M. OolfOrounds; 331 M. Queen Street East, 
within the city- limits of Toronto. 
333 M. Torontd, see R. 39. 

39. Toronto. 

Arriyal. The Union Railway Station (PI. D, 8, 4) lies on the lake-front, 
within a stone^s throw of all the leading hotels except the King Edward. 
The Steamboat Wharves are at the foot of Yonge St. (PI. E, 4). [A new 
and more convenient railway-station, to the E. of the present one, is in con- 
templation.] — Hotel Omnibuses (25 c.) and Cabs (see below) meet the trains 
and steamers. Baggage may be sent to the hotels by the transfer-agents 
or the hotel-porters. 

Hotels. *KiNO Edwabd (PI. h \ E, 8), at the comer of King St. and 
Victoria St., a large and elaborately fltted-up house, with 400 rooms, from 
$3V2t R> from $11/2; *Qubbn^8 (PI. a; D, 8), pleasantly and quietly situated 
in Front St., $3-5^ Rossin House (PI. b-, D, 3), York St., well spoken of, 
$2V«-4-, •Ablington (PI. e; D, 8), cor. of King St. and John St., $2-3? 
Palmbb House (PI. c$ D, 8), cor. of York St. and King St., $2-2Vs; Walksb 
House (PI. d; D,8), cor. of York St. and Front St., $2-8; Iboquoi8(P1. g; 
D, 8), cor. of King St. and York St., B. from 50 e. ; Elliott House (PL f ; 
D, 8), cor. of Church St. and Shuter St. ; Lucas Tbmpbbance Hotel, to the 
N.W. of the City Hall. Those who wish for quiet should ask for rooms 
away from the street-car lines. 

Bettaurants. *McConkey, 27 ELing St. West; Grill Room of ihe King 
Edward Hotel (see a,hove)\ St. CharUs Hotel Grill Room, N.W. cor. of Yonge 
and Melinda Sts., opposite Traders' Bank (p. 193); NatmiUCs Lunch Rooms, 
64 A W King St. W., 152 <fe 781 Yonge St., 68 Jarvis St., 470 Spadina 
Aye., 1406 Queen St. W., etc.; Hew Carlton Restaurant, D. 25c.*, Railway 

Oaba. For cab-hiring purposes the city if divided into three districts, 
the first bounded by Bathurst, Bloor, and Sumach Sts.. the second by Dh^- 
ferin St., the H. City Limits, and Pape Avenue, the third by the Jfunieipal 
Limits. (Jab within Division I, with one or two horses, 50c. for 1-2 pars., 
each pert, addit. 25 c.; within Div. n, 75 c. and 25 c; within Diy. Ill, 
$ 1, 25 c. Per hour, with two horses, 1-4 pers. $ 1.25 X$ 1 for each addit. 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

iland. Tb€ streete 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


TORONTO. 39. Route, 191 

lir.)t with one horse, 1-3 pers., $1 (75 c. for each addit. hr.). Fares fifty 
per cent hieher from midnight to 6 a.m. One trunk and small articles 
carried inside free, each extra trunk 5 c. 

Tramways (electric) traverse the principal streets and reach various 
suburban points (fare 5c.; liberal system of transfers), carrying at least 
100,000 passengers daily. The Belt Line^ running in both directions viit 
King, Sherborne, Bloor, and Spadina Sts., affords a good general view of the 
city. It is better to take the car mnning to the E. on King St. — Sleetric 
Bailwaya run from the termini of the tramways to Mimic and Long Branch 
(ev. Va hr.), We$ton^ Lambton^ Newnarhet^ Munro A Victoria ParJcsy Port Oredil 
(p. 209), etc. 

Observation Coaches, calling at all the chief hotels, drive round the 
chief points of interest in and near the city twice daily (ca. 9.80 a.m. & 
2.S0p.m.s 8 hrs.; fare $ 1). — Small Steamers ply at frequent intervals 
'to the Island (p. 197), the Humiber (p. 198), Long Branch and Lome Parh^ 
Victoria Park (p. 197), BowmanviUe^ etc. Larger boats ply to Hamilton 
(p. 209), to Jfiagarct-on-the-Lakt and Leidaton (comp. p. 209), to Port Dot- 
hwtie (p. 211) and 8t. Catharinit (p. 211), etc. The steamer for Kingston, 
the 8t. Laurmct^ and Montreal (see B. 4*0 leaves Geddes Wharf (PL E, 4) 
every afternoon about S.SOp.m. 

Places of Amusement. [A large new theatre is planned.] Princess Theatre 
(PL 1 5 D, 8), 167 King St. W. ; Grand Opera House (PL E, 8), Majettie (PL D, 
£, 8), Adelaide St. W. ^ Shea's, 93 Yonge St. •, Massey Music Hall (PI. E, 2, 3), 
see p. 194. — Good Concerts are given by the Mendelssohn Choir , the National 
Chorus^ the Toronto Mate Chorus CM>y and other societies. — Lacroue 
Oroundsy at Bosedale (p. 197); Baseball Grounds (PL G, 8), Eraser Ave., 
cor. of King St. E. ; Racecourse at Woodbine Park, to the E. of the city ; 
Cricket Ground^ on University Lawn ; Go\f Links at Lambton (see above ; open 
to guests of ^ng Edward Hotel), East Toronto, Bosedale, and other ad- 
jacent points. — Curling is another favourite pport (numerous rinks). — 
Rowing and Bailing are carried on with great ardour in Toronto Bay and the 
Humber. Among the chief clubs are the Royal Canadian Yacht Club, the 
Toronto, Don, and Argonaut Rowing Clubs, and the Canoe Chtb. In winter 
Ice Boating is practised. — Horse Show at the Armouries (PL D, 2, 8; p. 195; 
usually about Easter). — Bands play in the public parks and gardens 
daring summer. 

Clubs. National (PL J>, 8), 98 Bay St. ; Toronto (PL D, 3), 107 WeUington 
St. W.; Albany (PL 5; E, 3), 91 King St. E.; DeuUeher Verein (German), 
cor. of Church A Wood Sts. ; Lieder-Kr ant-Halle ^German), 267 Richmond 
St. W., with summer-premises on the Island (p. 197); Toronto Hunt Club, 
at Scarboro Heights (p. 190), Kingston Road, with charming grounds. 

Art Exhibitions at the rooms of the Ontario Society of Artists (PL 7; 
D, 3), 166 King St. W., and at the Normal School (p. 194). 

newspapers. Homing : Globe (Lib. ; 1 c), Mail A Empire (Cons. ; 1 c), 
World (Cons. ; 1 c). Evening; Globe (1 c), Mail A Empire (1 c), News (Ind. ; 
1 c). Star (Lib. ; 1 c), Tdegram (Lab. ; 1 c). 

Post Office (PL E, 3), Adelaide Street B. (open 7-7). Temporary office 
at cor. of Front St. and Lome St., opposite the Queen's Hotel (comp. p. 194) 

Consuls. United States, Mr, R. S, Chilton Jr., 26 Adelaide St. W. ; Ger- 
man, Mr. Samuel Nordheimer, 15 King St. E. ; Frendi Consular Agent, Mr. 
Augusts Bolts, 47 Colbome St. 

Toronto (260-350 ft above sea-level), the *Oueen City', the capital 
of Ontario and the second city of Canada, lies on the N. shore of 
Lake Ontario, in a large and sheltered bay between the rivers Don 
and Humber, The bay is formed by a narrow sandy Island (see p. 197), 
about 6 M. long, enclosing a fine harbonr 31/2 s<l. M. in extent, with 
a narrow entrance at the W. end and a cut on the S.E. side. The city 
extends along the lake-front for about 8 M., and its site slopes grad- 
ually upwards to an ancient lake-margin 3 M. inland. T^e street 

Digitized bydOOQlC 

192 Route 39. TORONTO. History. 

(some of them poorly paved) are laid out at right angles to each 
other, and the buildings are generally substantial and often hand- 
some. Yonge Street, running to the N. from the water's edge and 
extending under the same name to Lake Simcoe (p. 198), 40 M. 
distant, divides the city into an E. and W. half. The chief business- 
streets are Yonge St., King Street, Wellington Street, and Front Street, 
the last three running parallel with the lake-front. The fashionable 
residence-streets are St, George Street, to the W., and Ja/rvis Street 
(pretty lawns and gardens) and Sherboume Street, to the E. Rose- 
dale (p. 197) is rapidly becoming a fine residential quarter, and 
Bloor Street contains some handsome dwellings. In 1901 Toronto 
contained 208,040 inhab., mainly Protestants of British stock. The 
population is now estimated at 260,000. 

History. The name Toronto (^place of meeting*) is first heard of as 
applied in the 17th cent, to the cotintry of the Horons, between Lake 
Simcoe and Lake Huron, but was afterwards naturally enough transferred 
to Fort BouilU, a small French trading-post erected about 1749 at the 
starting-point of the river and portage route from Lake Ontario to the 
Toronto district (site marked by a pillar in the Exhibition Grounds, PI. 
A, 4). The present city was founded by the United Empire Loyalists, 
under Major-Oeneral Simeoe, in 1798, under the name of York, and became 
the capital of the new province of Upper Canada the following year. The 
settlement grew at first but slowly, and contained only 900 inhab. at the 
outbreak of the war of 1812, in which it was twice sacked by the Amer- 
icans. After this, however, its growth was more rapid and in 1834, when 
it received its city charter and changed its name to Toronto, the popula- 
tion of York was fully 10,000. William Lyon ifackentie, leader of the un- 
fortunate rebellion of 1837 (comp. p. 184), was one of the early mayors of 
Toronto. The later increase of Toronto has been phenomenal even among 
American cities. From 44,821 in 1861 the population rose to ^6,416 in 
1881, while in the next decade it was more than doubled. In April, 1904, 
the wholesale district of Toronto (PI. D, E, 3) was visited by a destructive 
fire, which spread over 14 acres and consumed property to the value 
of $ 10,000,000. It is hoped to erect a new railway-station and other public 
buildings on the site thus cleared, between the present Union Station 
and the Custom House ; and other contemplated city improvements include 
the construction of boulevards running diagonally to the K.E. and N.W. 
suburbs. — Toronto is as predominancy British and Protestant as Quebec 
(p. 145) is French and Boman Catholic, each city forming an epitome of the 
province of which it is the capital. It is the centre of Ontario, commer- 
cially, religiously, and educationally as well as politically, and has sub- 
stantial grounds for the claim it sometimes makes of being the *Boston 
of Canada''. Toronto contains about one church for every 1000 inhab., 
and Sunday is very strictly observed. — Comp. 'Toronto of Old*, by 
Dr, Bcadding, and ^Landmarks of Toronto", by /. R, Robertson. 

Trade and Indnatry. The position of Toronto as the outlet of the 
Canadian share of the Great Xorth-West makes it of high commercial 
importance. The chief articles of export are timber, horses, wool, bacon, 
grain, clover and grass seeds, and various manufactured articles. The 
value of its imports in 1905 was $ 53,194,065. Its manufactures include 
foundry-products, stoves, leather, flour, whiskey, and beer, and have a total 
annual value of about $70,000,000. The agricultural machinery works of 
Mcuuy it Harris and the distillery of Oooderham A Wortt are widely knovm. 
The assessed value of taxable property in Toronto is about $ 160,000,000. 

Ontario, the province of which Toronto is the capital , is the richest 
and most populous in the Dominion, containing (1901) 2,182,987 inhab. 
or about 40 per cent of the total population of Canada. In size it ranks 
next to Quebec, with an extreme length of fully lOpO^ H.. aibreadth of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

8t. Jama's. TORONTO. 39.nou%t, 193 

700 M., and an area of 222,000 sq. M. It is bounded by Hudson Bay on 
the K., K.B. Territory and Quebec on the K.E. and E., the St. Lawrence 
and the Great Lakes on the S.E., S., and S.W., and Manitoba and Keewatin 
on the W. and K.W. Its surface and soil display a great variety of con- 
figuration and quality, but a large proportion of the province is suitable 
for agriculture, which forms the chief occupation of its people. The 
richest, most thickly peopled, and most highly cultivated part of the pro- 
vince is the so-called Peninsula of Ontario (p. 205). The chief crops are 
wheat, barley, oats, Indian corn, turnips, and potatoes, while fruit-grow- 
ing, stock-raising, and dairy-farming are also successfully prosecuted. 
The huge and valuable forests make lumbering one of the chief industries. 
The minerals include gold (p. 243), silver, copper, iron, nickel (p. 233), 
* cobalt (p. 239), gypsum, phosphates, marble, salt, natural gas, and petro- 
leum. The long coast-line of the Great Lakes (ca. 1700 M.) affords excellent 
shipping facilities and has fostered an important trade. Many manufactures 
are also carried on, and the lake-fisheries are by no means inconsiderable. 
— Ontario was largely founded by the United Empire Loyalists after 
1783 (comp. p. 192). It became a separate province, under the name of 
Upper Canada, in 1791 \ was re-united with Quebec in 1841 ^ and once more 
became an independent province, with its present name, in 1867. 

Taking the Union Station (PI. D, 3) as the starting-point for oni tour 
of the city, we may first follow Fbont Stkbbt (PI. C. D, 3), with its sub- 
stantial warehouses and the Queen's Hotel (p. 190), to the E. to its' 
junction with Yonoe Street, where stand the Bank of Montreal 
(PI. E, 3) and the Board of Trade (PI. 4; E, 3), both to the left. To 
the right rises the Custom House (PI. E, 3), in an Italian style, and 
behind this, at the lake-end of Yonge St., is the Customs Warehouse, 

Following Yonge St. to -the left, we cross Wellington St., with 
the Bank of British North America (right) , pass the Office of the Qlobe 
(PI. E, 3), one of the chief organs of Canadian Liberalism (1.; at the 
corner of Mellnda St.), and the ten-story building of the Traders 
Bank of Canada (r. j PI. 6, E 3), said to be the highest business-edifice 
in the British Empire, and soon reach King Stbebt (PI. A-G, B), 
the crossing of these two busy thoroughfares forming the practical 
centre of the city. 

From Yonge St., a little to the K. of King St., the Yonge St. Arcade 
(PI. £, 3) runs through to Victoria St. — In Temperance St., leading to 
the left from Yonge St., is the Ontario Veterinary College (PI. 3 *, E, 3), largely 
attended by students from all parts of Canada and the United States. 

In the section of King St. between Yonge St. and Bay St. (to the left 
or W. of Yonge St.) are the Manning Arcade, the handsome building of the 
Canada Life Assurance Co (PI. 8 ; D, 3), the Bank of Commerce (at the corner 
of Jordan St.), and the Bank of Nova Scotia (No. 39), by Darling, with a 
beautifully proportioned hall. At the corner of King St. and Bay St. stands 
the Office of the Toronto Mail & Empire (PI. D, 3). 

We now follow King St. to the right (E.), passing, at the corner 
of Victoria St., the imposing Kino Edwabd Hotel (PI. h, E 3; 
p. 190), with interesting frescoes by Mr. William Dodge in its hall. 
Farther on stands St. James's Cathedral (PI. £, 3), a large Early 
English building , with some monuments and good stained - glass 
windows (Sun. services at 11 and 7; Wed., 8 p.m.). The spire, 
316 ft. high, contains a chime of bells and an elaborate clock (view ; 
adm. to tower 10 c). A few yards beyond the cathedral is the 
Bt. Lawrence Hall or Market (PI E, 3), recently extend6^QQ[^ 

Babdbkeb's Canada. 3rd Edit. 13 

194 Route 39. TORONTO. 8t. MiehaeVs 

From St James's Cathedral we follow Ohuboh Street (PL E 
1-3) to the N., Glossing Adelaide St. E., at the corner of whichv 
(right) is the excellent Free Public Library (Pi. E, 3), with 120,000 
vols, and a good reference-department. Connected with it are four 
Branch Libraries. — At the corner to the left stands the Post Office 
(PI. E, 3), burned down in 1906, but at once rebuilt. 

In Richmond St., between Tonge St. and Church 8t., is the huge red 
Cot\federaHon Life Attodation Building. 

In the square enclosed by Church, Queen, Bond, and Shuter Sts. 
stands the Metropolitan Methodist Chnrch (PI. E, 3), with its. 
square tower and numerous pinnacles. It contains a great organ and 
an echo organ, having together 133 stops. On the N. side of the 
square are the new stone Parsonage of this church and the Methodist 
Deaconesses' Home. On the opposite side of Shuter St. is the R. 0. 
Cathedral of St. Michael (PI. E, 2), with its graceful spire, stained- 
glass windows, and interior polychrome decoration. 

To the W. , at the comer of Shuter and Victoria Sta. , is the large 
ifoMtev Music Hall (PI. E, 2, 3). for which Mr. H. A. Massey presented the 
city with $100,000. 

Farther out, Church St. passes the large *Normal and Model Schools 
(PI. £, 2), which stand in pleasant grounds and include a library, an edu- 
cational museum, a lecture-hal], an important archeeological collection 
(transferred from the Canadian Institute, p. 195), and a gallery of art, with 
copies of the old masters, sculptures, engravings, models of Egyptian 
and Assyrian antiquities, views illustrating Canadian history, etc. (open, 
free, 9-6; catalogue 25 c.). They are attended by about 800 students. In 
front is a bronze Statite of Dr. Syerson (1803-82), the founder of the edu- 
cational system of Ontario, by H. MacCarthy. The buildings also contain 
the offices of the Provincial D^artmeni of Education. 

In the meantime we follow Queen Stkbbt (PI. A-G,3) towards the 
W. To the right, facing the end of Bay St., stands the ♦City Hall and 
Conxt House (PI. D, E, 3), a large pile in a modern Romanesque 
('Richardsonian') style, built by Lennox in 1891-99, with a lofty 
tower (300 ft. high ; view) and huge clock. The building cost 
$ 5,000,000 and contains some interesting frescoes (by O. A. Beid") 
and portraits (W. L.Mackenzie, p. 192, etc.). The stained- glass 
window opposite the Queen St. entrance is d308q. ft. in area and 
represents the union of commerce and industry. 

A little to the S., at the comer of Bay St. and Richmond St., is the 
posing Ten^le Building (PI. D, E, 8), finished in 1896 and containing the 
Canadian headquarters of the Independent Order of Foresters. Oron- 

hyatekha, the Supreme Chief Banger, is a Mohawk Indian. The Order 
numbers about 800,000 members and has courts in all parts of the British 
Empire and in various foreign countries. 

Farther on in Queen St., on the same side as the City Hall, between 
Chestnut St. and College Ave., is *Osgoode Hall (PL D, 3), the seat 
of the Superior Courts of Ontario, a building in the Italian Renaissance 
style, erected at a cost of $300,000 and named after the first Chief 
Justice of Upper Canada. It contains an extensive legal library (25,000 
vols.) and some good portraits and is the seat of the Law School. 

•UiovERsiTT Avenue (PI. D, 2, 3), with its double row of elms 
and chestnuts, leads hence to (2/g M.) ♦Queen's Park (PI. D, 1), a 

University, TORONTO. 39. Route, 195 

wooded tract 40 acres in extent, originally belonging to the Toronto 
University but now reserved as a public pleasure-ground. The large 
red buildings to the right, in University Avenue, are the Armouries 
(PI. D, 2), erected by the Dominion Government for the Toronto 
militia. At the S. end of the park stand the massive buildings 
of the Provincial Parliament (PI. D, 1), erected in 1888-92 at a 
cost of about $ 1,300,000. They are in a *neo-Grecian' style, from 
the design of Waite of Buffalo, and, but for the roofs, make a digni- 
fied and imposing appearance. The interior is admirably fitted, up. 
Admission to the House of Assembly, comp. p. 153. Near the Par- 
liament Building are a Monument (PI. 35) to the memory of Canadian 
volunteers who fell in the Fenian raid of 1866 j a Statue of Queen 
Fictoria (PI. 32), byRaggi, with panels by Alward and Banks; statues 
of the Hon. George Brown (PI. 33; 1818-80; sculptor, Birch), a 
distinguished Canadian statesman and founder of the ^Toronto Globe' 
(p. 193), of General Simcoe (PL 31; p. 192), by Alward, of Sir 
Oliver Mowat (PI. 34; by Alward), and of Sir John Macdonald 
(PI. 29; p. 133), by Hamilton MacCarthy; and a Monument (PI. 30 ; 
by Alward), commemorating the North West Rebellion of 1885. — 
To the W. of the park are the extensive buildings of the *Univer8ity 
cf Toronto (PI. D, 1), forming, perhaps, the finest ensemble of 
college architecture in the W. hemisphere. The main building, or 
University College (PI. 14), in the Norman style, with a massive central 
tower, was finished in 1869, at a cost of $ 500,000 (architects, 
Cumberland ^ Storm) ^ but was unfortunately burned down in 1890. 
Since then, however, it has been rebuilt in substantially the same 
form as before (architect, DicJi). Within the University Grounds are 
the new Convocation Hall {"PL 19; an imposing circular building 
with a fine facade), the new Medical Building (PI. 16), the Engineer- 
ing Building (PI. 21), the new Museum {^l. 24; good Egyptian, 
Cretan, and Palestine collections), ihQ School of Practical Science 
(PI. 12), the Library (Pi.. 15 ; portraits of Goldwin Smith, Sir Daniel 
Wilson, Edward Blake, etc.), the ChemUtry Building (PI. 22), the 
Biological Building (PI. 17), and a weU-equipped Gymnasium (PI. 13). 
— Facing the University Grounds is the Canadian Institute 
(PI. 23; D, 2), with a valuable scientific library (8000 vols.) and 

The Main Entrance to University College, with a handsome portico, 
is in the tower, on the S. The E. and W. wings are entered from a 
spacious vestibule, with fine stone pillars and carving. On the second 
floor are two lofty and well-proportioned HalUy with noteworthy wood- 
carving. The Senate Chancer, in the E. wing, is approached by a stair- 
case with a dragon carved in wood. The W. wing contains Laboratories, 
etc. The 'View from the Tower (key kept by janitor ^ gratuity) includes 
the whole city and its environs. — A fine Campus (Fl. D, 1) has been laid 
out to the X. of the main building. 

The University fof Toronto, together with University College, now 
attended by 2200 students, offers a complete course of training in arts, 
medicine, and engineering. Affiliated with it, but not forming part of the 
State institution, are the Presbyterian Knox College (PI. C, 1), in Spadina 


196 Route 39. TORONTO. Trinity College. 

Aye. (probably to be removed to Queen^s Park) ^ the Episcopalian Wpeliffe 
College (PLll) D, 1), behind the University; the Roman Catholic St. MiehaeVs 
College (PI. D, 1), in St. Joseph St.*, the Royal College of Dental Burgeon* 
(PI. 28i D, 2), Oollege St.; the OntaiHo College of PharmaeVi Gerrard St.; 
the Conservatory of Mueic (PI. 27, D 2; 1400 papils), CoUege St,, cor. of 
University Ave.; the Toronto College of Mttticy Pembroke St.; and Ewon 
Episcopalian College^ London (Ont.). 

Victoria University (PL 14; D, 1), in the N. part of Queen's Park, is an 
Important Methodist institution, federated with the University of Toronto 
(400 students). — HcMaster University (PL 10; D, 1), a brick and stone 
building to the N. of the park, facing Bloor St, is an independent Baptist 
institution, with faculties of arts and theology (2(X) students). KearMcMaster 
University is the Dominion Oovernmental Observatory (PL 9; D, 1), recently 
removed to this site from the University grounds. 

Queen's Hall (PL 25; D, 2) and Annesley Hall (PL D, 1) are dormitories 
for girl-students. 

At the N.W. comer of St. George St. and College St. stands the new 
Oamegie Library (PL C, 2), for which Mr. Andrew Carnegie has given $ 850,(XX). 

Making a fresh start from the Union Station (Pl.D, 3) and ascend- 
ing SiMCOB Stbbbt (pi. D, 2, 3), we see to the left, beyond Welling- 
ton St., Oovemment House (PI. D, 3), the residence of the Liente- 
nant-Govemor, situated in pleasant •Grounds (admission on written 
application to tiie A. D. 0. in waiting). To the right, at the corner 
of King St., is the Presbyterian * Church of St. Andrew (PL D, 3), 
in a modified Norman style. 

On reaching Qxtbbn Stebbt Wbst (PI. 0, 3), we may turn to the 
left and in a few minutes come to John Street, which leads to the 
right to The Orange (PI. D, 2), an interesting old Colonial mansion 
occupied by Professor Ooldwin Smith. The Grange was closely asso- 
ciated with the famous 'Family Compact' (p. xxiv). — About li/4 M. 
farther along Queen St., to the right, is Trinity College (Tl. B, 3), 
an Anglican university founded by Bishop Strachan in 1851, when 
University College was secularized, with faculties of arts, law, and 
theology (150 students). The building is in the late-Gothic style 
and stands in pleasant grounds. Trinity College was federated with 
the University of Toronto in 1903. — A little farther on, to the left, 
is the huge Provincial Lunatic Asylum (PI. A, 3), with 40 acres 
of ground and accommodation for 700 patients. 

Queen St. ends, I1/2 M. farther on, at High Park, a well- wooded 
tract of 350 acres, much frequented by holiday-makers. The mauso- 
leum of the donor, Mr. J. O. Howard (d. 1890) , is enclosed by 
part of the old railing that surrounded St. Paul's Cathedral, London. 
The park is bounded on the W. by the Humber Biver (p. 191), ftom 
the mouth of which a ferry-steamer plies to Yonge St. Wharf (¥1. E, 4). 

At no great distance from the Lunatic Asylum are the Mercer Rtfortn- 
atory (PL A, 8) , the Central Prison (PL A. 8), and the Exhibition Grounds 
(PL A, 4). The last are the scene of an important National Exhibition or 
*-Fair\ sometimes attended by 500,000 visitors. Varions substantial build- 
ings have been erected for this exhibition, and the grounds have recently 
been extended by the inclusion of part of the adjacent Oovemment prop- 
erty. By the water's edge, to the S.E. of the Exhibition Park, is the New 
Fort (PL A, 4). connected by a road with the Old Fort (PL B, 4), nearer 
the centre of the town. In the capture of the latter in 1818 the American 
leader, Oen. Pike, was kiUed. DigitzedbyGoOglc 

Tha Island. TORONTO. .39. Route. 197 

The Horticaltaral or Allan Gardens (Pi. E, 2; open till dark) 
lie to the N.E. of the Normal School (p. 194). To the W. is the 
Toronto Collegiate Institute (PI. £, 2) , the oldest secondary school 
in Ontario. 

[There are two other schools of similar rank in the city, one in Har- 
bord St. and one in Jameson Ave. Other important schools are the Tech- 
nical High School (PI. 26; D, 2); St. Andrew^* College^ at Rosedale ; St. Mar- 
gareVe, in Spadina Ave. •, and HavergcU flail, in Jarvis St. (the last two 
for girls).] 

Among the other places of greater or less interest in Toronto 
may be mentioned the imposing buildings of the Upper Canada 
College (beyond PI. D, 1), a high-class school for boys, with about 
300 pupils (♦View from the tower) ; the General HospUal (PI. F, 2^ ; 
the Home for Incurables (beyond PL A, 3 ; good view from tower^ ; 
the St. Alban^s Cathedral (beyond PI. G, 1 ; chancel only completed) ; 
Bond Street Congregational Church; Jarvis Street Baptist Church; 
and the Church of Our Lady of LourdeSy at the comer of Sherbourne 
and Earl Sts. (PI. E, 1). 

The ^Island (PI. C-F, 6, 6), which shelters the harbour (see p. 191), is the 
Margate or Coney Island of Toronto and is frequented in summer by large 
crowds (ferries from Church St.. Yonge St., York St., and Brock St., plying 
to Hanlan^t Pointy at the W. ena, and to Island Park^ in the centre ; return 
fare 10 c.)' Like Coney Island, it is nothing but a large sand-bank, fringed 
with flimsy summer-cottages and studded with merry-go-rounds, band- 
stands, dancing-pavilions, and the other paraphernalia of a Cockney Par- 
adise. At the S.W. comer are a Lighthouit and a GJiHdren*s Summer Hos- 
pital (PI. C, 7), and at the £. end are some attractive cottages. In the 
middle is one of the club-houses of the Ropal Canadian Yacht Club. Tjie 
hotel at Hanlan^s Point was once owned by Edward Hanlan, at one time 
champion sculler of the world. At night the el^ectric lights of the Island 
produce a very picturesque effect as seen from Toronto. 

Perhaps the pleasantest short drive from Toronto is that across the 
bridge over the * Ravine of the Don {Riverdale Park; PI. G, 1, 2), on the 
N.B. side of the town, to the pretty suburb of Rosedale (PI. F, G, 1), where a 
lacrosse match is generally going on on Sat. in summer (comp. p. 191). In 
the vicinity are three picturesque Cemeteries. — Excursions may also be 
made by steamer or electric railway to Lome Park (Hotel Louise, $ 1V«) 
and Long Branch (Long Branch Hotel, $ lVs-2), lying beyond the Humber 
(p. 191), and to Victoria Park, Munro Park, and Scarboro Heights to the 
E. (comp. p. 190), Reservoir Park (to the N.), and Grimsby Park (Lake View 
Ho., $ lVf2). 

From Toronto to Hamilton, Niagara, and Buffalo, see B. 43; to Montreal, 
see RR. 38, 47 •, to Detroit, see B. 42 ^ to the Muskoka Lakes, see B. 40. 

40. From Toronto to North Bay. Muskoka District. 

227 M. Gkand Teunk Railway in 8-13 hrs. (fare $6.85i sleeper $2). 
This line affords the main access to the beautiful ^Muskoka Lake District 
(see p. 201). Through-carriages run to Muskoka Wharf (p. 200; fare $3.40, 
sleeper $1.50, parlor-car 50 c); and return-tickets are issued at reduced 
rates to all the principal points on the lakes (to Beaumaris and back 
$ 5.75, all round the Muskoka Lakes $ 7.55, etc.). Similar tickets are issued 
at Hamilton, London, Niagara, Port Huron, and Detroit. 

Toronto, see R. 39. The line luns towards the W. (view of the 
Lunatic Asylum to the right and Home for Incurable^ to the left)^ 

198 Boute 40. ALLANDALE. From Toronto 

then turns to the N. and quits the city precincts at (4^2 M.) Daven^ 
port. To the left is the valley of the Hurriber (p. 191). About 3 M. 
beyond (23 M.) King we cross the watershed between Lakes Ontario 
and Huron (1000 ft. above sea-level). The Vale of Aurora^ through 
which we now pass, recalls an English landscape. 30 M. Aurora 
(1590 inhab.) ; 84V2 M. Newmarket (Forsyth Hotel, $ IV4-I V2)» with 
(1901) 2125 inhab. and some manufactories. To the right, a little 
farther on, are the headwaters of the Holland River^ part of the old 
canoe and portage route from Toronto to Lake Slmcoe (comp. 
p. 192). — 38 M. Holland Landing, a place of some importance in 
the pre-railway days. On the viUage-green (not visible from the 
train) is a large anchor, brought from England and destined for 
service on the Great Lakes, but stranded here owing to the declara- 
tion of peace between Great Britain and the United States (1815). — 
We cross the Holland River at (41 M.) Bradford (Hulse Ho., Queen's, 
$ 1), frequented by sportsmen and anglers (maskinonge, etc.). — At 
(52 M.) Lefroy (Lefroy Hotel, $ 1) we have our first view (right) of 
Lake Svmcoe (see below). BoacK'a Point, seen across the narrow S. 
arm of the lake (ferry), is a favourite summer and fishing resort. 

63 M. AUandale (Bail, Bestaurant), situated at the end of Kem- 
penfeldt Bay, the narrow W. arm of Lake Simcoe, is the junction of 
lines to (95 M.) Hamilton (p. 209), Penetang (30 M.) , and (52 M.) 
Meaford, The monument in the station-garden commemorates Col, 
Ckimberland, long General Manager of the N. & N.W. Railway. 

The line to Meaford (Paal^s Hotel, $ 1V2-2; 1916 inhab.)« on NottavKuaga 
Bay. tbe S. compartment of Qeorgian Bay (p. 223), passes (321/2 M.) Oollix^- 
wood (Grand Central, $ 2-21/2*, Qlobe^ $ lVs-2; U. 8. Consul, Mr, R. B. Mother), 
another flourishing lake-port, with (1901) 5755 inhab., whence steamert ply 
to points of importance on Georgian Bay, Lake Haron, and Lake Superior 
(coinp. p. 223 ; fares as from Owen Sound, p. 222). 

Penetang or Penetanguithene (580 ft.; *Th6 Penetanguithene, from $2: 
Northern, $ l-lVz), with (1901) 2422 inhab., lies at the head of an inlet of 
Georgian Bay, 2V3 M. from Midland (p. 199). It wet formerly the Canadian 
naval station on the Great Lakes but was dismantled on the convention of 
mutual disarmament with the United States. It is now frequented as a 
summer-resort and by sportsmen (Indian guides $ 2 per day). The Jesuit 
establishment here dates from 1634. Steamers ply hence to Sana Souei (Sans 
Souci Hotel, $2-2V2)i Parry Sound (p. 204), and other places in the Parry 
Archipelago, etc. 

64 M. Barrie (Queen's, $172-2; Barrie Ho., $ 1 1/2; ^- S. Agent), 
a flourishing little city and summer-resort, with (1901) 4894 in- 
hab., is prettily situated on the N. side of Kempenfeldt Bay. It is 
the starting-point of the Lake Simcoe steamer (see below). 

«Lake Simcoe (710 ft.) is a beautiful sheet of water, about 80 M. long 
and 26 M. wide (if we measure up to the heads of the long narrow bays 
on the S. and W.). It affords good boating and fishing and has sevenl 
pleasant summer-resorts and private residences on its banks. In this 
neighbourhood took place the chief events of the great war between the 
Harons and Iroquois, in which the former barely escaped extermination. 
A few Hurons still inhabit Serpent Island, near the S. end of the lake. 
The Mississaugas later on drove the Iroquois out of the district (see p. 199). 

The steamer from Barrie calls at (9 M.) Big Bay Point (Peninsular 
?ark Hotel, a favourite summer^resort, $ 2), at the iunction of Kempen- 

to North Bay. ORILLIA. dO, Route, 199 

feldt Bay with the main hody of the lake, and then proceeds to the N., 
passing through the Narrom^ to Orillia (see below). — Among the chief 
resorts on the lake are Sutton West and Jacktoiis Pointy on the S. shore, 
reached by direct railway from Toronto (56 M. ; comp. p. 190). — Another 
is Morton Park, reached by ferry from Lefroy (p. 198). — Strawberry Island 
is reached by steamer from (7 M.) Orillia (see below). 

Beyond Barrie the railway skirts the W. shore of Lake Slmcoe 
fviews to the right) and reaches (86 M.) Orillia (800 ft. j OrUlia Ho,, 
$ 1 72-^ ; ^<^iy ^o.> Victoriay $ 1-1 ^/i ; numerous boarding-houses ; 
U. S. Consul, Mr, E. A, Wakefield) , a pleasant little town and 
summer-iesort, with (1901) 4907 inhah., situated at the head of Lake 
Couchiching (see helow). It contains a small Town Park, in the 
grounds of the old Lunatic Asylumy while 2 M. off, on a point 
stretching out into the lake, is the attractive Couchiching Beach Park, 
There is a fair golf-course, while the lake affords excellent boating. 

*Lake Oouchiching (%ake of Many Winds*) , about 14 H. long and 
2-3 M. wide, is connected with Lake Simcoe by a narrow strait, crossed by 
the railway (see below). Steamers ply regularly from Orillia to WQshago (see 
below). The lake affords good fishing for bass, salmon-trout, maskinonge, 
and pickerel. 

From Orillia a branch line runs to the K.W. to (32 M.) Midland (Glad- 
stone Ho , Queen^s, Hewis Ho., $lV2-2; U.S. Agent), a good fishing-resort 
(boat 50 c. per day, guide $2), near Penetang, on Georgian Bay (steamers). 
It has a good harbour, dominated by two huge elevators. A steam-yacht 
runs from Midland to (15 M.) the Victoria House at Honey Harbour,, — In 
the other direction this line runs to Beaverton, Lindsay, and Peterborough 
(comp. p. 188). 

As we leave Orillia, we see the large District Lunatic Asylum 
to the right. The train crosses a swing-bridge over the ^Narrows' 
connecting Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching, passes (88^/2 M.) Atherley 
Junction, and runs along the E. side of Lake Couchiching. Near Ather- 
ley are Orchard Point Summer Resort ($1V2"^) ^^^ ^^^ Royal 
Narrows Hotel ($ 172-^)' — 92 M. Rama is the reservation of the 
last of the Ojibwa Indians, the remnant of the tens of thousands 
that once occupied this district. To the E. of (94 M.J Longford lies 
Lake St, John, — 99 M. Washago (Northern Ho., $1; steamer, see 
above) lies at the foot of Lake Couchiching. The Severn, which here 
issues from the lake and drains into Georgian Bay, is famous for its 
fishing and for the game on its banks. From (100 M.) Severn the 
canoeist can reach Gravenhurst (see below) via the Severn, Sparrow 
Lake (Stanton Ho. , $ 1-2), etc. (canoes and guides, ohtained at Rama 
or Orillia, $2 a day). — Beyond this point the limestone formations 
through which we have heen passing give place to red granite. 
Beyond (106 M.) Kilworthy we pass through the Granite Notch and 
reach the Muskoka District (see p. 201). 

Ill M. Gravenhiirst (^Minnewaska , $2; Fern Olen, $2; many 
boarding-houses), a village with (1901) 2146 inhab., prettily situated 
at the foot of Muskoka Lake, is the chief gateway to the beautiful 
district described at pp. 201-203. All needful camp-supplies can be 
obtained here. Gravenhurst has two Sanatoria for consumptive 
patients (comp. p. 201). — A short branch-line runs ta> the left to 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 

200 Route 40. BURK'S FALLS. Muskoka Lake 

(1 M.) Mwikoka Wharf (comip, pp. 197, 201). —Beyond Gravenhurst 
the North Bay line diverges somewhat from Muskoka Lake, of which 
the railway affords no other view, — 1211/2 M. Bracebridge (Queen's^ 
BritUh Lion, Albion^ Dominion^ $ 1-1 V2)) where we cross the Muskoka 
River^ is anoiher gateway to the Muskoka Region, the steamers as- 
cending the river to this point (comp. p. 203). 

The fine *8outh Falls of the Muskoka, about 3 M. from Bracebridge, 
descend 180 ft. in two leaps. — The High FalU^ 4 M. distant, are also 
worth visiting. — The North Branch Falls ^ near the town, have been 
spoiled by lumber-mills. 

Farther on, the river flows to our right. Good roads lead from 
(135 M.) Utterson (Commercial, $ 1) to (ca. 5 M.) SkeUton Lake 
(Newport Ho., $ 1-1 V2J and Three MUe Lake (p. 202). Mary Lake 
(Grunwald, on the W. bank, $1-2; Clyffe Ho., McInnesHo., at 
Port Sydney, $ 1) lies 21/2 M. to the E. — Passing the tiny Round 
Lake (L), we reach (146 M.) Huntsville (^Kent Ho., $11/2; Vernon 
Ho., Dominion Ho., $1), situated between Lake Vernon (1.) and 
Fairy Lake (r.), two of the chain of lakes on the Muskoka River. 

Small steamers ply twice daily in summer through the Hunttville Lakes 
and the adjacent *L€Ute of Bays, all of which abound in speckled trout 
and are becoming more and more frequented by sportsmen and summer 
visitors. Among the chief resorts are Fairy Lake Hotel ($ 1 V2-2) ; Deerhurst 
Hotel ($ IVz-S) and La Portage Hotel ($ IVz-S), on Peninsular Lake; Dtoighl 
(Bonvllle, $2; Goldie Ho., $1); Fox Point (Cunnington, $111/2); Por* 
Julian i i?ay«otlJe (Manitoba, Richards, etc., $ 1); and Z>or««< (Fairview, Dorset 
Ho., $ 1-172)1 the terminus of the steamer-route, 18 M. from Huntsville. 
To the E. of Dorset (stage) are Hollow Lake and KimbalPs Lake^ also fre- 
quented by sportsmen. Canoeists can make pleasant trips on all these 
lakes, the island scenery of which vies with that of many more famous 

Before reaching (164V2 M.) Novar we cross the N. branch of the 
Muskoka. At (161 M.) Scotia Junction we intersect the Grand Trunk 
Railway from Ottawa to Parry Sound (see p. 204). In approaching 
(16672 ^0 Katrine, another pleasant centre, we cross the 8. Magane^ 
tawan River. — 171 M. Burk's Falls (^Burk Ho., $2; Clifton Ho., 
$ 1-1^/2), a large village on the N. bank of the Maganetawan, a little 
way below the junction of its N. and S. branches, is the starting- 
point of the interesting trip down the Maganetawan, which sportsmen 
will find especially remunerative. 

Two steamers descend the Maganetawan daily to (15 M.) Maffandttwan 
(Klondike, $ 1), on Lake Ceeebe (iGbO ft. ; pron. 'Seseeb^; Cecebe Ho., 3 !)> 
and to Port Huron (hotel) and (40 M.) Ahmie Harbour (Gliffbourne Ho., $ 1), 
on Lake Ahmie (Forest Ifook, $lVs-2; return - ticket from Toronto to 
this point $8.60). The canoeist may go on (with guide; numerous port- 
ages) all the way to Port Byng, 65 If. farther on, on Georgian Bay, or ho 
may explore the various affluents and ramifications of Uie Maganetawan. 
The scenery is picturesque, and the opportunities for fishing and shooting 
(deer, etc.) are excellent. The canoeist should, of course, be prepared 
to camp out at night, though he may occasionally find quarters in a farm- 
house. From Byng Inlet steamers ply to Parry Sound, Penetang (p. 198), etc. 

Our line continues to run towards th« N. 183 M. Suniridge 
(1115 ft. ; Grand Central, $ 1), on 8t(yny Lake (r.). Beyond (188 M.) 
Bou^h River (1180 ft; Mecunoma, Queen's, $ 1), th^ highest point 

Digitized by dOOQ IC 

Region. BEAUMARIS. 40. Route. 201 

on the railway , we cross that stream, which, in spite of its name, 
0OWS toward the N. to Lake Nipissing. 199 1/2 M. Trout Creek, 13 M. 
from the N.W. corner of Algonquin Park (p. 204) ; 207 M. Powassanf 
219 M. Callander (White Ho., Pacific Hotel, $1-1V2), on ^^^ S.E. 
bay of Lake NipUsing (p. 233), with good fishing and duck-shooting. 
At (223 M.) Nipissing Junction we join the C.P.R. (R. 48). 
227 M. North Bay, see p. 233, 

The so-called *Mnskoka Lake Begion, in the highlands of On- 
tario, occupies, in its widest sense, an area of about 10,000 sq. M., 
between Georgian Bay (Lake Huron) on the W., Lake Nipissing on 
the N., and Lake Simcoe on the S., with a somewhat indefinite 
boundary-line on the E. Within this district, which has a mean 
altitude above the sea of about 800 ft. (200 ft. above Lake Huron), 
there are, perhaps, 800-1000 lakes and ponds, connected by in- 
numerable streams. The Muskoka District proper includes the three 
connected lakes described below: Muskoka, Rosseau, and Joseph, 

The scenery of Lakes Muskoka, Bosseau, and Joseph is full of variety 
and charm, and the air is pure and bracing. Immunity from hay-fever 
is alleged to be unfailing. About 400 islets are scattered throughout 
the three lakes. Excellent fishing for bass, pickerel, maskinonge, and 
salmon-trout is ei^oyed in the lakes themselves or in adjacent waters, 
while the forests on their hanks contain deer, grouse, and many other 
kinds of game (game-laws, see p. Ixi). The facilities for boating, canoe- 
ing, and bathing are ample. Numerous small hotels and boarding-houses 
afford fair accommodation at moderate prices (see p. 202), and there is 
now at least one first-class modern hotel. The hotels are often crowded 
in summer, so that it is advisable to secure rooms in advance. The 
services of a good guide for fishing or sporting expeditions cost about 
$ 2 a day ; a man or boy to row may be obtained for $ 1-1 Vs- Steamers 
ply regularly in summer from Mmkoia Wharf (p. 200) to the ends of Lakes 
Bosseau and Joseph, calling at intermediate points; another runs from 
Braedfridge to Bala (p. 203). Only the regular landings are mentioned at 
pp. 202, 208. 

L Fbom Muskoka Whabp to Rossbau, at the head of Lake 
Rosseau, 33 M., Steamer in 48/4 hrs. (fare $1 ; D. 40 c.). — Mus- 
koka Wharf (ip. 200) lies at the end of the narrow S. bay of ♦Mus- 
koka Lake (800 ft), the southernmost and largest (20 M. long, 
2-8 M. vfide) of the three lakes. The steamer starts at present at 
about 2 p.m., on the arrival of the express from Toronto (comp. 
p. 197). To the right, before we leave the bay, is a large Sanatorium 
for Consumptives. On entering the lake proper the steamer steers 
along its E. side, passing between two large islands and the mouth 
of the Muskoka River (p. 200). Numerous summer cottages and 
camps sprinkle both mainland and islands. 

13 M. (r.) Beaumaris (Hotel, $2V2-3V2), on Tondem Island, 
separated from the mainland by a narrow channel. Opposite , on 
the mainland, at Milford Bay, is MUford Bay House ($lV2-2)' 
The steamer now steers into Indian River, connecting Lake Muskoka 
with Lake Rosseau. On the left lies (21 M.) Fort Carling (Stratton 
Ho,, Port Carling Ho., $ lV2-^)» t^e °^ost central vilUge on the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

202 Route 40. ROSSEAU. 

three lakes and called at by all the steamers. It has three churches 
and stores where all kinds of supplies may be obtained. We now 
pass through the locks connecting the two lakes and enter *Lake 
Bossean (805 ft.), which is 12 M. long and 1-6 M. wide. Like its 
companions, it is dotted with innumerable islands. Our first call is 
at(24M.) Windermere (Windermere Ho., $2; Waskada, $lV2-2V2i 
Fife Ho., $ IV2), on the E. bank, with two churches, a mechanic 
institute, a library, and a group of cottages erected by the Winder- 
mere Club. A little farther on we pass the mouth of the Dee (r.), 
which canoeists may ascend to (2 M.) Three Mile Lake (p. 200). To 
the right, beyond this, lies Rosstreoor ($ 1). On an island to the left 
is the new *Boyal Mnskoka Hotel (from $ 3 up) , a large house 
with modern equipment and room for 300 guests. There is a golf- 
course in connection with the hotel. We then thread the narrow 
strait between Tohin Island and the mainland and pass Juddhaven 
(1.; Ernescliff, $1V2-2V2; The Bluff, $1). Opposite (r.) openg 
Skeleton Bay^ into the head of which flows the Skeleton River^ the 
outlet of (4 M.) Skeleton Lake (p. 200 ; Newport Ho., $ 1-1 V2). Just 
before reaching Rosseau the steamer stops at the Maplehu/rst Hotel 
($ 2), on the left bank. — 33 M. Bosseau (^Monteith Ho.y commercial, 
$2; Rosamoynef $ 172"^)) * small village, much resorted to by sum- 
mer-visitors and anglers. A charming excursion may be made up 
the ^Shadow River ^ which enters the bay here and is so called from 
its magical reflections (best in autumn). The Bridal Veil Falls, on 
an affluent of the Shadow River, are picturesque. Coaches run from 
Rosseau to (7 M.) Port Cockbum (p. 203) and (12 M.) MapU Lake 
Station (p. 204). 

11. From Muskoka Wharp to Port Cookburn, at the head 
of Lake Joseph, 48 M., Steamer in 6V4 hrs. (fare $ 1.26; D. 40 c.). 
As far as (21 M.) Port Carting this route coincides with that above 
described. On leaving the Indian River, the Lake Joseph steamer 
turns to the left and steers through Venetia, the island-dotted S. 
part of Lake Rosseau. 23 M. Femdale House ($ 1 Y2), on an Inlet 
to the left We then cross to Woodington (Woodington Ho., $ li/2) 
and (26 M.) Cleveland's (Cleveland's, Paignton Ho., $ I-IV2). 
on the opposite shore, whence we turn to the S. again to (28 M.) 
Gregory, at the mouth of the Joseph River , one of the channels 
leading to Lake Joseph. The steamer, however, crosses to (30 M.) 
Fort Sandfleld (^Prospect Ho., $2), on a short canal made to im- 
prove the navigation between Lake Muskoka and *Lake Josepli 
(800 ft.), 14 M. long and V2-3V2 M. wide. The first stops made 
here are (33 M.) Redwood and (36 M.) HamiFs Point (Hamil's 
Hotel, $172)* tli© latter dividing the main lake from FooVs Bay 
and Bass Lake. The steamer then steers up the middle of the 
lake to (39 M.) the island of Yoho , beyond which it calls at the 
(43 M.) StanUy House ($2), on the E. bank. [To the N.E. of 
Yoho lies Portage Lake, connected with Lake Joseph and leading 

ARNPRIOR. 41. Route, 203 

by easy portage to Crane Lake.} — 48 M. Port Coekbnm (Summit 
Ho., $ 2), at the head of Lake Joseph, is an excellent centre for 
anglers, being within easy reach of innumerable small lakes and 
streams. A stage-coach runs hence daily in summer to (8 M.) Maple 
Lake Station (p. 204), on the Grand Trunk Railway (for Parry 
Sound). A stage also runs hence to (7 M.) Rosseau (p. 202). 

Another charming point on Lake Joseph, called at occasionally by the 
regular steamers, is Crai^fie Lea (hotel, $ iVv2;, on the E. hank, at the 
entrance to the pretty Little Late Jos^h. 

III. From Bracbbbidgb to Bala, 21 M., Steamer twice daily in 
2 hrs. (fare 60 c.) From Bracehridge (see p. 200) the steamer de- 
scends the Muskoka River, passing Alport (r.), to (6 M.) Muskoka 
Lake. Here it turns to the N. and calls at (12M.) Beaumaris (p. 201), 
where it connects with the Lake Joseph and Lake Rosseau boats. 
We. then cross the lake towards the W., calling at (16 M.) Mortimer's 
Point. — 21 M. Bala (Windsor Ho., $lV2-2; Musquash Lodge, 
$1-172)) the terminus of this route, lies on the E. bank of Lake 
Muskoka, at the outflow of the Musquash or Muskosh River, which 
carries the waters of the Muskoka lakes to Georgian Bay. Just after 
leaving the lake the river forms a fall 20-26 ft. high, below which it 
divides into two branches, that to the right taking the name of Moon 
River. Good fishing is obtained in both branches and in many small 
lakes near Bala. 

41. From Ottawa to Depot Harbour (Parry Sownd). 

264 M. Grand Tbcnk Railway (Ottawa Division) in 9-10 hrs. (fare $ 8.80; 
sleeper $ 2). This railway forms a direct line of communication between 
Ottawa and Lake Huron (Georgian Bay) and is also the shortest route from 
Ottawa and Montreal to the Muskoka District (p. 201). It runs through the 
Algonquin Kationsil Park (p. 204). 

Ottawa, see p. 176. The train starts at the Central Station and 
at first runs towards the S. It then crosses the Rideau Canal (see 
p. 183) and the 0. P. R. (p. 230) and runs towards the E. — 14 M. 
South March; 20 M. Carp (the village some distance to the S., on 
the river of the same name). We cross the Carp near (29 M.) Kin- 
burn. 33 M. Oaletta, on Indian River. 

38 M. Arnprior (Charleston, Devin Ho., $ IV2; ^- S. Agent), a 
small and thriving town, with (1901) 4152 inhab. and productive 
marble-quarries, lies on the S. bank of the Ottawa, near the ex- 
pansion of the river known as the Lac des Chats. Good bass-fishing 
is enjoyed here. Below the lake the river forms the fine *Falls 
or Rapids of the Chats. — Arnprior is also a station on the C. P. R. 
(see p. 231). 

The railway now skirts the S. bank of the Ottawa for a short 
distance and then diverges to the left. 46 M. Glasgow; 60 M. Ooshen. 
— At (55 M.) Renfrew (p. 231) we intersect the C.P.R. (R. 48). 
We now ascend along the right bank of the Bonnechere River. 61 M, 

" ^ DiaitizedbvV 

204 Route 41, PAKRY SOUND. 

Admaston; Q7M. Douglas; 70 M. Caldwell; 77 M.Eganville, Graph- 
ite of good quality has been found in this yioinity. — 85 M. Golden 
Lake Station^ at the E. end of the lake, is the junction of a line run- 
ning to the N. to Pembroke (p. 231). — 94 M. Killaloe ; 102 M. Wilno ; 
109 M. Barry* 9 Bay, To the left lies Bark Lake; to the right (at some 
distance) is Little Opeongo Lake, — At (130 M.) Madawaska (Rail. 
Restaurant) we enter the valley of that stream, which runs to our 
left. — 145 M. Whitney, — Beyond (156 M.) Rock Lake the rail- 
way enters the Algonquin National Park (see below), across the 
S.W. comer of which it runs (comp. Map at p. 186). 

Algonquin Park, a picturesque tract of rock, forest, and water, was 
set apart by the Government of Ontario in 1893 for the preservation of 
game and forests and as a public pleasure and health resort. It lies on 
the watershed between the Ottawa and Georgian Bay and comprises an 
area of 2000 sq. M. (ca. 45 M. square). Its fine timber includes white and 
red pine, black birch, maple, hemlock, ironwood, beech, black ash, bass- 
wood, cedar, spruce, tamarack, and alder, while animated nature id re- 
presented by the moose (rare), deer, beaver, bear, wolf, mink, otter, martin, 
musk-rat, partridge, duck, trout, bass, whitefish, pike, chub, etc. It con- 
tains the fountain-heads of the rivers Muskoka, Ifadawaska, Petawawa, 
Bonnechere, and Amable du Fond, and also innumerable lakes, among 
the largest of which are the Great Opeongo, Trout Lake^ Misty Lake, Smoke 
Lake, Island Lake, and Manitou Lake. Many rough roads (for portages) 
have been recently made, and shelter-huts have been built at convenient 
points (comp. Hap issued by the Ontario Government). Licenses to fish 
(3 2) or make a tour through the park may be obtained on application to 
the Superintendent, Mr. Q. W. Bartlett (Algonquin Park, Ont). The charge 
for guides is $2V2 per day, with canoe. 

The railway - stations within Algonquin Park are (168 M.) 
Algonquin Park, (170 M.) Canoe Lake, (182 M.) BriU6 Lake, and 
(190M.) Rainy Lake (1630 ft.). —200 M. Ravensworth (inn). 207 M. 
Kearney (Kearney Ho., Ottawa Ho., $1) has good trout-flshing and 
is said to afford excellent deer and partridge shooting owing to the 
overflow from the protected area of Algonquin Park. — At (213 M.) 
Scotia Junction (p. 200) we intersect the Grand Trunk Railway from 
Toronto to North Bay (R. 40). The line now bends towards the S.W. 
— 224 M . Sprucedale (inn) ; 236 M. Seguin Falls; 242 M. Edging- 
ton. — 245 M. Maple Lake (Maple Lake Ho., $ 1V2-^) ^orms the N. 
gateway to the Muskoka District (R. 40) , stage - coaches running 
hence to (8 M.) Port Cockburn (p. 203) and (12 M.) Rosseau (p. 202). 

From (257 M.) James Bay Junction a short branch-line runs to 
(3 M.) Parry Sound (Belvidere, $2-21/2; Mansion Ho.^ $ lV2-2j 
V. 8, Agent), a smalltown with (1901) 2884inhab., situated on the 
shore of Parry Sound, at the mouth of the Seguin River, opposite 
Parry Island, It is called at by the steamers of the Northern Nav. 
Co., which put it in communication with Collingwood, Midland, 
Penetang, and other points on Georgian Bay (comp. pp. 198, 223). 
Sailing and steam '7achts may be hired here for excursions. 

The next station on the main line is (260 M.) Rose Point (Hotel, 
$2-3), whence a ferry plies to Parry Sound (see above). The ter- 
piinus of the line is at (264 M.) Depot Harbour, on^arry Island. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 






42. From Toronto to Detroit. 

a. Yi& Orand Trunk Bailway. 

230 M. Railway in 6-8 hrs. (fare $6,605 sleeper $2, parlor-car $1). 
From Montreal to Detroit by this route in 18 hrs. (fare $ 16: sleeper $ 3.50). 

Through-cars also run by this route from If ontreal (23 hrs.) and firom 
Toronto (13 hrs.) to Chicago (fares $ 18, $ 12.40; sleeper $5, $3). Tickets by 
this line are also available vi& Hamilton (comp. R. 44 b). — Trunks checked 
through to points in the United States are examined by the custom-house 
officers on arrival or departure : hand-baegage is examined in crossing the 
St. Glair River. 

This line traverses the Peninsula of Ontario, between Lake Erie and 
Lake Huron, a district of great fertility but of little interest to the 

Toronto, see R. 39. The train traTerses the S.W. part of the town, 
passing the suburban stations of (2 M.) North Parkdale (p. 206) and 
(6 M.) Toronto Junction (6091 inhab. In 1901), and for some time 
runs parallel with the C.P.R. Beyond (8 M.) Weston we cross a stream. 
21 M. Brampton (2748 inhab.). We cross the Credit River before 
reaching (26 M.) Georgetown (Bennett House, $ 1-1 V2 J 1313 inhab.), 
where we cross the line running to the N. from Hamilton to Beeion 
Junction (sQQ p. 211). Orchards and hop-flelds are passed. At (41 M.) 
Rockwood we bend to the left (S.W.). — 48 M. Guelph (Royal, 
Wellington, $ 1 1/2), a flourishing Uttle city with (1901) 11,496 inhab., 
manufactures organs, pianos, sewing-machines, and carriage-gear. It 
is well known for its Agricultural College, the *Cirencester of Canada' 
(left; 135 students). Attached to the college is an experimental farm 
of about 650 acres. Guelph is the junction of lines to Oalt (p. 206) and 
Harrishurg (p. 2141 and to Wiarton (on Georgian Bay), Southampton 
(Commercial, $ 11^), and Kincardine (Park, Royal, $ 1 ; 2077 inhab.), 
three small ports on Lake Huron. — From (62 M.) Berlin (American 
Ho., $172; 9747 inhab. in 1901), in a district largely settled by 
Germans, short lines run to Waterloo (Zimmermann Ho., $172) 
and Oalt (p. 206). 82 M. Shakespeare. 

88 M. Stratford (Windsor, $2; Albion, $172-^; ^a«. Restow 
rant), an agricultural and industrial city with (1901) 9959 inhab., is a 
railway-centre of some importance, lines radiating hence to all points 
of the compass. Among them is one to (46 M.) Goderich (Hotel 
Goderich, $2-3; Bedford, $172-2; U. S. Com. Agent; 4158 inhab. 
in 1901), another port on Lake Huron, with good boating, bathing, 
and fishing. On the opposite side of the harbour (3 M. by road) is 
Meneseiung Park, with a hotel ($21 — 98 M. St, Mary's (National, 
Windsor, $ 1), a small town with (1901) 3384 inhab., prettily situated 
on hills rising from the riyer Thames (omn. from station to town, 
172 M., 16 c). It is the junction of a branch-line to (22 M.) London 
(p. 207). — From (116 M.) Lucan Crossing lines run to Goderich 
(see above) and London (p. 207). 128 M. Parkhill (Hastings Ho., 

206 RoxUe 42. SARNIA. From Toronto 

$1^2; 1^30 inbab.). Several small stations aie passed, witb names 
^dicating tbe Scottisb origin of tbelr settlers. 

170 M.Saniia (Tunnel Station; Vmdome, $ 2-21/2 ; BeUhaniber, 
$ 1V2-2; U. S. Consul, Mr, Neal McMitUm\ a brisk little port with 
(1901) 8176 inhab., lies on the St. Clair River, close to its mouth in 
Lake Huron. The train now enters the United States (Michigan) 
by a Tunnel, IVe M. long, under the river. 

The tunnel was constructed in 1888-91 at a cost, including the ap- 
proaches, of $ 2,700,000 (540,000 1.). It consists of a cast-iron tube, with an 
inside diameter of 20 ft., and was designed by Mr. Joteph Hobson. The 
length of the tunnel proper is 6025 ft., of the open portals or approaches 
5600 ft. Throughout its entire length it perforates a bed of blue clay, with 
sand above and rock below. The engines used to take the trains through 
the tunnel have ten driving-wheels and weigh nearly 100 tons. 

Examination of baggage, see p. 205. The time changes here from the 
Eastern to the Central standard (comp. p. xii). 

Steamers of the Northern Navigation Co. run from Sarnia through Lake 
Huron to Mackinao Itland (p. 224) and (24 hrs.) Sault Ste. Marie (p. 224), 
going on thence to points on Lake Superior. 

173 M. Port Huron (Tunnel Station; Harrington, $21/2-31/2; 
Windermere, Four Oahles, $ 2-21/2 J RaU. Restaurant), with (1900) 
19,158 inhab., lies opposite Sarnia, on the W. bank of the St. Clair 
River, and at the mouth of the Black River. It carries on a brisk 
trade in timber and fish. Large quantities of salt are produced here, 
and it is said that a bed of rock-salt, 100 ft. thick, underlies the 
locality. — Our line now turns to the left fS.). 195 M. Lenox; 210 M. 
Aft. Clemens (Avery, $3-5; Park, $2-4; Colonial; Eastman), a 
favourite summer-resort of the Detroiters. Lake 8t. Clair lies some 
distance to the left. 215 M. Fraser; 227 M. Milwaukee Junction; 
229 M. Qratiot Avenue. 

230 M. Detroit {CadUlac, from $3; Russell Ho., $ 3-5; The 
Wayne, $2-31/2; Ste. Claire, $21/2-31/2), the chief city of Michigan, 
with (1900) 285,700 inhab., lies on the N. bank of the Detroit River, 
connecting Lake Erie with Lake St. Clair, and is fully described in 
Baedeker^s United States. 

For the rest of the route from Detroit to Chicago, see BaecMterU 
United States. 

b. Yi& Canadian Pacific Bailway. 

281 M. Railway In 7-71/2 hrs. (fares, etc., as at p. 205). Hand-baggage 
is examined in crossing the Detroit River. Through-cars run by this route 
from Montreal and Toronto to Chicago (fares, etc., as at p. 205). Thia line 
also traverses the peninsular part of Ontario. 

In leaving Toronto (R. 39) the train passes the suburban station of 
(3 M.) Parkdale (p. 205). At (5 M.) Toronto Junction (p. 206J the 
line to Owen Sound diverges to the right (see R. 46). From (22 M.) 
StreetsvUle Junction a line runs to (33 M.) OrangevUle (p. 222). At 
(33 M.) Milton we cross a branch of the G.T.R. From (40 M.) Ouelph 
Junction a branch-line runs to (15 M.) Ouelph (p. 205). — 57 M. 
Gait (Queen's, American Ho., $ II/2; U. S. Agent), a brisk little city 
of (1901)7866 inhab., with manufactures of edge-tools and woollen 

to DetroU, LONDON. 42. Route. 207 

goods, Is the junction of lines to Berlin (p. 206), HarrUiburg (p. 214), 
and Quelph (p. 205). It was named after John Qalt (1779-1839), 
the Scottish novelist, author of *the Provost*, etc., and father of Sir 
Alex. Gait (d. 1893 j p. 178) and Sir Thomas Gait (d. 1901). 

About 4 H. to the N. of Gait, on the railway to Guelph and also 
reached by electric tramway, lies Preston {Hot. del Monte. $ 1V2-2), visited 
for its mineral springs, which are efficacious in gout and rheumatism. 

At \lb M.) Lrumho we cross the G.T.R. — 88 M. WoodBtook 
{Boyal, O'Neill Ho., Thompson Ho., $ 1 V2), a city with (1901) 8612 
inhab., makes agricultural machinery and furniture and is the focus 
of numerous railway-lines (to St. Thomas, Stratford, etc.). Wood- 
stock CoUege has about 150 students. — 102 M. Thamesford; 113 M. 

116 M. London (Tecumseh Ho., $2-3; Giigg Ho., $11/2-^; 
Rail. Restaurant), the ninth city of Canada, with (1901) 37,981 inhab., 
is the central point of what is, perhaps, the richest farming-district 
in the country and carries on a large trade in agricultural produce. 
Its Industries include petroleum - refining and the manufacture of 
agricultural machinery and furniture. It lies on the pretty river 
Thames, in the county of Middlesex; and the association with its 
mighty protonym is further maintained by the names of its streets 
and bridges (Piccadilly, Pall Mall, Kegent St., Oxford St., Blackfriars, 
Westminster). The city is well built and contains handsome churches 
(St. Paul's, etc.), public buildings, colleges, and an opera-house. 
The Western University, established in 1895, is attended by about 
200 students. London is the junction of lines to St. Thomas, St. 
Mary's, Goderich, Samia, Hamilton, etc. Pleasant excursions may 
be made in the environs. 

Beyond London the line bends round to the left (S.W.), running 
parallel with the G.T.R., which follows almost the same route from 
this point to Windsor. Between (126 M.) Komoka and (140 M.) 
Appin Junction we cross a branch of the Michigan Central B.R. — 
180 M. Chatham {HoUl MernU, $1V2; Raymond Ho., McDonald 
Ho., $ 1), also a station on the G.T.R. and the P^re Marquette R.R., 
is a flourishing agricultural centre with (1901) 9068 inhabitants. 
Our line crosses the Thames and the G.T.R. here and henceforth runs 
to the S. of them. Farther on we skirt the S. bank of Lake St. Clair. 
210 M. Belle River. At (223 M.) WalkervUle Junction we cross the 
Plre Marquette R.R. (see below). 

This line runs to the N. to (3 M.) WalkervUle, on the Detroit Biver, 
with its large distilleries (ferry to Detroit). On the S. it runs to (27 M.) 
Kmgsville (The Mettawas, $4-5; Middough^s, $ I-IY2) and (35 M.) Leamington 
(2451 inhab.), on a bay of Lake Erie, the former frequented as a summer- 
resort. Point Pelie, to the S.E. of Leamington, is the southernmost point 
in Oinada, except the island of the same name (p. 214). 

228 M. Windsor (International Hotel, $ 1-2; U. S. Consul, Mr. 
H. A. Conant), with (1901) 12,153 inhab., lies upon the St. Olair River, 
immediately opposite Detroit, and contains the suburban homes of 

208 43. Route. NIAGARA-ON-THE-LAKE. From Toronto 

many of its citizens. It is the W. terminus of the G.T.R. and G.P.R. and 
is also a station on the Michigan Central R.R. from Buffalo to Chicago. 
The trains are transported across the river, here */2 M. wide, by large 
steam-ferry-boats. The surrounding country produces large quantities 
of pears, peaches, and grapes. 
231 M. Detroit, see p. 206. 

43. From Toronto to Niagara (cmd Buffalo), 
a. By Steamer. 

Stsambbs of the Nicigara Navigation Co. leave Toronto 6 times every 
week-day for £«irifto», calling at Niagara-on-tho-Lake and Qiueen^on and 
taking 2Vs-d hrs. to the trip. The distance is about 42 M., of which 85 11. 
are on the Lake of Ontario and 7 M. on the Niagara River. Lewiston is 
7 M. 0/3 hr.) from Niagara by railway (through-fare $1.66; restaurant on 
board the steamer). Through-tickets are issued by this route to Buffalo 
and other points in the United States. Baggage is examined by custom- 
house officers on the steamer. A small river-steamer runs hourly between 
Lewiston and Niagara. 

Travellers who wish to combine a lake- voyage with a visit to Hamilton 
Cp. 209) may take the steamer ^Turbinia* to that city (86 M., in 2 hrs.) 
and proceed thence by train as in B. 48b (fare to Hamilton 75 c). The 
'Turbinia' calls at Burlington Beach (p. 210). 

The steamer starts from the "iongt St. Wharf (PI. E, 4) , passes 
the W. end of the island, and then steers nearly due S. across Lake 
Ontario. In summer the water is usually calm. 

Lake Ontario (247 ft. above the sea), the easternmost and lowest of 
the Great Lakes, is 197 M. long and 80-70 M. wide, with an area of 7260 sq. M. 
Its greatest depth is 788 ft. It receives the waters of the Upper Lakes 
through the Niagara Biver and discharges at its E. end into the St. Law- 
rence. The shores are generally low, with few peninsulas or promontories, 
and possess many excellent harbours. There are few islands of any aise, 
the most important being Wolfe Island, at the outlet. The first sailing- 
vessel on Lake Ontario was built for La Salle at the *Oabins^ (now King- 
ston) in 1678. Ghamplain named the lake Lake St. Louity and it was after- 
wards known for a short time as Lake Frontenac. 

On reaching the opposite shore the steamer makes its first stop at 
Niagara -on -the -Lake {Queeri's Boyal Hotel, from $3; The Oban, 
$ 2-3), a favourite watering-place situated on the left (Canadian) 
bank of the Niagara Biver, at the point where it enters Lake Ontario. 
Pop. (1901) 1258. Good boating, bathing, and fishing are obtained 
here. Niagara-on-the-Lake was originally named Newark and -was 
the first capital of Upper Canada (see p. xxiii). Some remains of 
the old Fort Missasaga are still visible. An important Lawr^ Termii 
Toumamer^t (Canadian Championship) is held here in summer. On 
the opposite bank lies Youngstown, with the white Fort Niagara, 
first established in 1678 and now garrisoned by U. S. troops. Pas- 
sengers who prefer it may disembark at Niagara-on-the-Lake and 
continue their journey by the Michigan Central R.R. on the W. bank. 

Between its mouth and Lewiston the Niagara River runs be- 
tween high wooded banks. The steamer first calls at Queenston, a 
village on the Canadian shore, and then crosses to* its., terminus at 

' Digitized by VjCTU 

to Niagara, HAMILTON. 43, Route 209 

Lewiston (American Ho., Frontier Ho., $2), a Tillage of 700 inhab., 
on the E. or American bank of the river. A fine snspension-bridge, 
erected in 1899, 800 ft. in span, and traversed by an electric tram- 
way, connects Lewiston with Queenston. 

The Battle of Qitemtton Heights^ fought between the Americans and 
Canadians on Oct. 13th, 1812, ended after a severe straggle in the a access 
of the latter. They paid for their victory with the loss of their leader Sir 
Isactc Brock, and the spot where he fell is marked bv the Broek Monument 
(190 ft. high), the top of which commands a splendid *View, sometimes 
inclading a dim vision of Toronto. 

Passengers leave the steamer either at Queenston or Lewiston, 
finishing their journey in the one case by the Niagara Falls Park 
and River Electric Railway (p. 215), and in the other by the Gorge 
Electric Line (p. 215; New York Central R.R. tickets accepted) or 
by the New York Central R.R,, which runs along the E. side of the 
Niagara gorge, affording fine *View8 of the Lower Rapids and the 
Whirlpool (comp. p. 221). 

7 M. Niagara FaUs (N. Y.), see p. 215. 

Beyond Niagara Falls the railway goes on, following the river 
pretty closely, to (11 M. from Niagara Falls) Tonawanda and (22 M.) 
Buffalo (see Baedeker^s United States). 

b. By Orand Trunk Eailway. 

Grand Trunk Railway to (82V4 M.) Niagara Falls (Ont.) or (82S/4 M.) 
Suspension Bridge in 2-3 hrs. (fares $2.60, parlor-car 50 c.). Passengers for 
Niagara Falls (N.Y.) and Buffalo shoald enquire whether it is necessary 
to change carriages at Suspension Bridge and complete their journey by 
the N.Y.O.B.E. (through-fare to Niagara Falls $2.65. to Buffalo $3.15). — 
Luggage checked through to U.S. points is examined either before starting 
or on arrival ; hand-baggage is examined in crossing the Bailway Bridge 
(see p. 211). 

Toronto^ see R. 39. The train runs to the W. along the water- 
front, skirting the Exhibition Grounds (p. 196) and passing the sub- 
urban stations of (272 M.) South Parkdale, (41/2 M.) Swansea, 
(6V2 M.) Mimico, and (7 M.) New Toronto, Farther on it continues 
to run near the lake. 9 M. Long Branch (p. 191) ; 11 M. Rifle Ranges; 
13 M, Port Credit, with golf-links (electricline, see p. 191)); 15 M. 
Lome Park; 16 M. Clarkson's, The country is fairly diversified. 
21 M. Oahville (Canadian Hotel, Oakville Ho., $1V2), ^ith (1901) 
1643 inhab. and large strawberry-gardens. At (311/2 M.) Burlington 
Crossing a branch-line diverges to the left, leading to Hamilton via 
Burlington Beach (p. 210) but used by freight- trains only. 32 M. 
Burlington; 35 M. Waterdown. The fertile fruit-growing country 
we are now traversing is known as the 'Garden of Canada'. 

39 M. Hamilton. — Hotels. Royal (PI. b 5 B, 3), 79 James St. North, 
$2Vt-4< Waldorf (PI. a-, B,3), $2-3; Osbobnb(P1. c-, B, 3), $2*, Commbbcial 
(PI. d ', B, 3), $ lV2i Stocktabd (PI. f 5 D, 2), $ I-IV2. — Railway Restaurant. 

Tramways traverse thechief streets (5 c.). — Cabs 25 c. per drive witMn 
the city for each pers. ; per hour, 1-4 pers., $ 1. — Post Office, 2 John St, 
South (7-6). — Grand Opera House, James St. North. — Hcmilton Club, 
James St. — U. S. Consul, Mr. James M. Shepard. Digitized by VjOOglC 

Babdbkss^s Canada. 3rd £dit. 11 

210 Route 43. HAMILTON. 

HamUlon (256 ft.), the sixth city of Canada, with (1901) 62,634 
inhab., was founded about 1810 and is pleasantly situated on HamU' 
ton Bay, at the W. end of Lake Ontario, on one of the steps oi ter- 
races which surround the lake and seem to have at one time formed 
its shore. It carries on a very considerable commerce by land and 
water and has some claim to the title of the 'Birmingham of Canada* 
in virtue of its numerous industries (value of products in 1901^ 
$ 17,122,346} hands employed, 10,196). The products include steel, 
iron, cotton, and woollen goods, agricultural machinery, elevators, 
boots, and many other articles. Its harbour is formed by Burlington 
Beach, a sand-spit 5 M. long, resembling the island at Toronto (see 
p. 197), through which a short canal has been dug. Behind the 
town rises the so - called Mountain (250 ft.) , part of the 'Niagara 
Escarpment* (*View ; inclined railway to the top, 5 c). Hamilton is 
well laid out and contains many substantial public and private 
buildings. It is the centre of the fruit district of W. Canada and 
the seat of bishops of the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches. 

Near the centre of the city lies the pretty triangular park named 
the ♦Gore (PI. B, 3), formed by the convergence of York, James, and 
King Sts. Round it are grouped many of the principal buildings of 
the city, including the Post Office (PI. B, 3), the Bank of Hamilton 
(PI. B, 3), the Cuitom Howe (PI. 3; B, 3), the Bank of British North 
America (PI. 1 ; B, 3), and the offices of the Canada Life Auurance Co, 
(PI. 2 ; B, 3) and the HamUton Provident ^ Loan Society (PI. 5 j B, 3). 
The School Buildings are unusually handsome and substantial, and 
many of the Churches are also fine. Other important edifices are the 
aty Hall (PI. B, 3), the Court House (PI. B, 3, 4), and the Free Public 
Library (PI. 6; B, 3). On the top of the Mountain stands the large 
Oovemment Lunatic Asylum (beyond PI. A, 4). Many of the hand- 
somest private residences are near the base of the Mountain j one of 
theflnestis Wesanford (VL7-, B,3),thehomeoftheHon.W.E.Sanford, 
with good art-collections. Among the chief industrial establishments 
of Hamilton are the Hamilton Steel ^ Iron Co. (with a blast fur- 
nace with a capacity of 260 tons a day), the International Har- 
vester Co. (1800 hands), and the Canadian Westinghouse Co, — 
Dundum Park (VI, A, 1, 2) affords pretty walks and contains Dundum 
CastUy with a historical museum. Hamilton has, perhaps, the best 
Racecourse in America (beyond PI. D, 3). 

Burlington Beach (^Hotel Brant, $ 2; see above) is, like the Island at 
Toronto, a favourite summer- resort of the townspeople. It is reached 
by the Hamilton Radial Bailway (electric) and is also called at regularly 
by the steamer between Hamilton and Toronto (comp. p. 308)} the steam- 
boat-wharf is 1 M. from the centre of the town (tramway 5 c, eab for 
1-2 pers. 50 c). 

Another pleasant short excursion may be made to (6 M.) Duidat (p. 214), 

Fboh Hamilton to Allandale, 91 M., Grtmd Trunk Railway -n 44Vt hrs. 
(fare $ 2.85). — This line crosses Burlington Beach, and diverges ^o the left 
at (11 M.) Burli$kgton CrosHng (p. 209) from the above-described line to 
Toronto. At (21 M.) Milton (p. 206) we intersect the G.P.B. from Toronto 
to Detroit; at (82 M.) Georgetown (p. 206) we intersect the G.T.B. line 



ST. CATHARINE'S. 43. Route. 211 

from Toronto to Port Huron ; and at (48 M.) Car dwell Junction we connect 
with the C.P.R. branch to Owen Sound (E. 46). — At (66 M.) Beeton^ famous 
for it3 honey, the line forks, the left branch leading to (41 M.) Collingwood 
(p. 198), while the right branch runs to (91 H.) AUandalOi where It unites 
with the line to the Mutkoka District described at p. 198. 

Fbom Hamilton to Pobt Doveb, 40 M., Grand Trunk Railway in 3 hrs. 
(fare $ 1.25). — Port Dover is a small harbour on Lake Erie. 

Stbahbb from Hamilton, via Toronto, to the 8t. Lawrence and Montreal^ 
see p. 226. 

From Hamilton to Detroit, see B. 44 b. 

Beyond Hamilton the train rans towards the £., parallel with the 
S. shore of Lake Ontario, frequent views of which are obtained to 
the left. 46 M. Stony Creek; 50 M. Wmona; 66 M. Grimsby; 57 M. 
Grimsby Parkj a summer-resort with a large Methodist camp-meeting 
ground. The district we are now traversing is one vast orchard, pro- 
ducing large quantities of peaches and other fruit. 65 M. Jordan. — 
71 M. St. Catharine's (The Wellandj a combination of hotel and 
sanatorium, $2V2"3V2} including baths, massage, etc.; Grand Ctn- 
tral, $11/2; t/. S. Agent), a prettily-situated little city with (1901) 
9946 inhab., lies to the left (N.) of the railway, on the Welland 
Canal (see below). It carries on ship-building and other industries, 
which are greatly facilitated by its cheap and abundant electric 
power. Its saline springs, efficacious in rheumatism , gout, skin- 
diseases, and nervous prostration, attract numerous visitors. The 
Bishop Ridley College is a Church of England institution attended 
by about 160 boys. 

The Welland Ship Oanal, originally built about 1824 and reconstructed 
in 1876, runs from Port Dalhotiiie^ on Lake Ontario, to Port Colbome, on 
Lake Erie, a distance of 26V4 M., and affords an outlet from the Upper 
Lakes to the St. Lawrence and the sea for vessels of 15(X) tons. The canal 
is 14 ft. deep and 100 ft. wide at the bottom; it is to be deepened to 20 ft. 
About 1,600,0(X) tons of goods are annuaUy carried through it. 

St. datharine's is also connected by railway with (3 M.) Port Dalhoiuie 
(also electric tramway) and (22 M.) Port Colborne. 

At (73 M.) Menitton (1710 inhab.) the train crosses the Welland 
Canal (see above) by a bridge. 

Near Merritton is the battlefield of Beaver Dams (June 24th, 1813), 
marked by a small monument, where Ensign Fitzgibbon, with iX) British 
soldiers and 200 Indians, captured an American force of 660 men. The 
British outpost here was warned of the American approach by the heroism 
of Mrs. Laura Secord, who traversed 20 M. of Indian-haunted forest alone 
and on foot. 

The Canadian town of (821/4 M.) Niagara Falls (Lafayette, 
$ 21/2-3 V2; Hotel Rosli, $272-3; U. S. Consul, Mr. W. H. H. Web- 
ster), with (1901) 4244 inhab. fincluding Clifton), Ues at the W. 
end of the Railway Bridge (p. 220). It is a manufacturing place 
(value of products in 1901, $422,728) and is not very conveniently 
situated for visitors to the Falls (see, however, the note on the 
electric railway at p. 215). The new Collegiate Institute is a hand- 
some building. 

The train moves slowly across the bridge (unobstructed view of 
the Whirlpool Rapids, p. 221) to the (823/4 M.) Sxtspensiorh^^JiJ^ 

14* ' ^ 

212 Route 44. ST. THOMAS. 

Station^ (hand-baggage examined, see p. 209), where passengers 
sometimes change carriages for the N. Y. 0. line to (2M.) the American 
town of Niagara Falls (see p. 215). 

c. By Canadian Pacific Railway. 

99 M. Canadian Pacific Bailwat to (82 M.) Welland in 2 hrs. •, Michi- 
gan Centbal Railboad thence to (17 M.) Niagara FalU (N.Y.) in V* br. 
(fares, etc., as at p. 209). 

Between Toronto and (39 M.) Hamilton the C. P. R. trains run 
oyer the lines of the G. T. R. (R. 43 b). 

Beyond Hamilton the train follows the tracks of the Toror^to^ 
Hamilton^ ^ Buffalo Railway^ which runs in an almost straight line 
(S.E.) to Welland. — 43 M. BartonvUU; 46 M. Stony Creek; 55 M. 
Vinemount; 60 M. Grassie's; 63 M. Smithville; 71 M. Silverdale; 
78 M. ChantUr's. At (82 M.) WeUand (p. 213), on the Welland 
Canal (p. 211), we cross the line from St. Catharine's to Port Col- 
borne (p. 211). Hence to (99 M.) Niagara Falls^ see p. 213. 

44. From Detroit to Buffalo. 

Detroit and Buffalo are both in the United States , but the direct 
routes between them pass almost wholly through Canadian territory. 

a. Vi& Michigan Central Bailroad. 
261 M. Railway CNiagara FalU Routs') in 6-7 hra. (fare $ 7, sleeper 
$ 2). This line runs along the N. shore of Lake Erie, through Ontario, 
and affords a good view of Niagara Falls (see p. 213). It forms part of 
one of the great through - routes between Kew York and Chicago (see 
Baedekar's United States). Luggage checked through to United States points 
is not examined; luggage from Canadian points is examined in crossing 
the Cantilever Bridge (p. 220). 

From Detroit (p. 206) we cross the Detroit River to (1 M.) Windsor, 
as described at p. 208. The line runs at first towards the S.W., but 
turns abruptly to the left at (15 M.) Essex Centre, the junction of a 
branch-line to (16 M.) Amherstburg (Lakeview Ho., $lV2j ^- S. 
Consul, Mr. C. W. Martin; 2222 inhab.). The country traversed is 
flat and fertile, without great scenic attractions. The section between 
Fargo and St. Thomas is almost absolutely straight, forming one of 
the longest railroad-tangents in the country. From (31 M.) Comber 
a branch runs to (14 M.) Leamington (p. 207). At (57 M.) Fargo 
we intersect the Erie & Hnron R.B. 68 M. Ridgetown (Benton Ho., 
$ 11/2; 2405 inhab.); 91 M. Button. 

112 M. St. Thomas (Grand Central, $2-21/2; Columbia, $1V2; 
U. S. Consul, Mr. M. K. Moorhead), a thriving city of (1901) 11,485 
inhab., with various industries and a trade in agricultural produce, is 

t This name is somewhat of a misnomer since the construction of the 
new bridge (see p. 220). ^.^.^^^^ ^^ GoOglc 

BRANTFORD. 44, Route, 213 

the janction of lines to QUncoe, London (p. 207; 15 M.), Toronto 
(p. 190), etc. A short branch -line runs to the S. to (8 M.) Port 
Stanley (Fraser's Hotel , $ 1-2) , a harbour and summer-resort on 
Lake Erie, with a fine sandy beach. — Near (131 M.) Brownsville 
is the large jLactomen Factory, for the production of dried milk. 
Farther on we cross two branches of the G. T. R. — From (159 M.) 
Waterford a line runs to (17 M.) Brantford (Kerhy Ho,, $ 2 ; Com^ 
mercialy $ li/2; V, 8. Agent), a city of (1901) 16,619 inhab., with 
manufactures of agriculturtd implements, stoves, waggons, and 
bicycles. It is named after the famous Mohawk chief Brant, who 
remained loyal to England at the American Revolution and migrated 
hither, with part of his tribe, after the close of the war. A fine 
monument to him has been erected in Victoria Square. Brantford, 
which is known for its high-class schools, is the headquarters of 
the amalgamated tribes of the Six Nations. Brant is buried in the 
old Mohawk Church, 2 M. from the city, where services are still held 
in the Mohawk dialect The Bow Park Farm, with its famous 
thoroughbred stock, lies 3 M. from the city. — At (171 M.) Hagers^ 
vUle we cross the G. T. R. line from Hamilton to Port Dover (see 
p. 210) and at (185 M.) Canfield the G. T. R. line from Buffalo to 
Goderich (p. 205). — 213 M. VF«Wand (Dexter Ho., Arlington, $ IV2), 
with (1901) 1863 inhab. and large cordage-works, is one of the pros- 
perous little settlements that have sprung up along the Welland Canal 
(p. 211). From this point a short line runs direct to (23 M.) Buffalo, 
Yi& Bridgeburg and the International Bridge, but our line turns to 
the left (N.E.) and reaches the Niagara River at (223 M.) Falls View, 
where all trains stop five minutes to allow passengers to enjoy the 
splendid *View of Niagara Falls (p. 216). The train then runs to the 
N. to (225 M.) VictoHa Park (p. 219), and (226 M.) Niagara Falls, 
Ont, (p. 211), whence it crosses the Niagara by the Cantilever Bridge 
(p. 220 ; ♦View of the rapids) to (227 M.) Suspension Bridge (p. 212). 
Thence to (229 M.) Niagara Falls, N. Y,, and (251 M.) Buffalo, see 
pp. 212, 209. 

Beyond Niagara Falls (Ont.) the Michigan Central B.R. runs to the N. 
to (6 M.) Queeruton (p. 208) and (13 M.) Niagara-on-the-Lake (p. 208). 

b. Vifc Grand Tnrnk Bailway. 

255 M. Railway in 7-8 hrs. (fares, etc., as at p. 212; parlor-car $ iVO- 
This line runs via London, Hamilton, Suspension Bridge, and Niagara 
Falla (N. Y.). 

From Detroit (p. 206) we cross to (1 M.) Windsor (p. 207) as 
at p. 208. From Windsor to (110 M.) London (p. 207) the route is 
substantially the same as that followed by the C.P.R. (R. 42 b). The 
chief intermediate station is (46 M.) Chatham (p. 207). 

Beyond London the line continues to follow a general N.E. di- 
rection. 130 M. Ingersoll (Atlantic Hotel, $11/2). At (138 M.) 
Woodstock (p. 207) we touch the C.P.R. line to Toronto and cross 
the G.T.R. line to Goderich (p. 205). 157 M. Paris (Arlington, 

214 Route 44, LAKE ERIE. 

$11/2; U- S. Agent)} 167 M. Harrisburg (Rail. Restaniant), a rail- 
way-junction of some importance (comp. p. 205). — 180 M. Dundas 
(Riley Ho., $ IV2), a town with (1901) 3173 inhab., is older than 
Hamilton and was at one time a rlTal. The scenery here is very 
attractive. — 186 M. Hamilton (Bail. Restaurant), see p. 209. 

From Hamilton to (230 M.) NiagaralFalls (N.Y.) and (255 M.) 
Buffalo, see pp. 211, 209. 

c. By Steamer. 

The large and admirably equipped steamers of the Kobthbbn Steam- 
ship Co. ply from Detroit to Cleveland (fare $ 2.26) and Buffalo ($ 4.75), 
twice weekly, taking 18-20 hrs. to the journey. Meals a la carte. — The 
smaller and slower steamers of the Anchor Line ply thrice fortnightly, 
taking about one day (fare $ 6V«i including berth and meals). They ciJl 
at Cleveland ($ 3) and Erie ($ 5). Warm wraps should be taken even in 
midsummer. For fuller details and an account of the voyage all the way 
between Buffalo and Chicago^ see Baedeker^ United State*. 

Detroit, see p. 206. The steamer first descends the Detroit River, 
which varies in width from 4 M. at its mouth to V2 M. opposite De- 
troit. It generally presents a very animated sight ; and some idea of 
the traffic on the Great Lakes may be gathered from the fact that 
at least 60,000 vessels pass Detroit yearly in the seven months 
during which navigation is open, carrying about 60 million tons of 

• Lake Erie (573 ft. above the sea), which we reach about 18 M. 
from Detroit, the second (counted from the E.) of the Great Lakes, 
is 250 M. long and 40-60 M. wide, with an area of 9900 sq. M. 

It is by far the shallowest of all , having an average depth of 86 ft. 
and a maximum depth of 210 ft. It communicates with Lake Huron by 
the Detroit River (see above) and pours its waters into Lake Ontario by 
the Niagara Biver (see p. 216). It is the scene of a very basy navigation. 
The first vessel to navigate the lake was built on the Niagara Biver by 
La Salle in 1679, and the first steamboat was launched in 1818. 

The steamer passes the *Put'in'Bay Islands, a favourite summer- 
resort (several hotels), about 20 M. from the mouth of the Detroit; 
the largest is Pelee Island, 8 M. from Foini Pelie (p. 207) and belong- 
ing to Canada. "We then steer for the S. (U.S.) shore. 

66 M, (from Detroit) Sandusky is passed without a stop. The 
coast farther on is varied and picturesque. 

115 M. Cleveland (580 ft.; Hollendm, R. from $1; Euclid, 
R. from $ 1 ; Colonial; Forest City, $ 2-3) , the largest city of Ohio, 
with (1900) 381,768 inhab. and large iron and steel works, is fully 
described in Baedeker's United States. 

Cleveland is one of the most beautiful cities on the Great Lakes, and 
is seen to advantage from the steamer. The Oarjleld Memorial, over the 
grave of President Garfield, is conspicuous to the E. of the city. 

Beyond Cleveland the steamer runs near the well-wooded shore. 

210 M. Erie (Reed Ho., $ 2-4i/2; LUhel Ho., $2-2J/2; Vnion 
Depot Hotel), a shipping-port of Pennsylvania, with (1900) 62,733 
inhab. and a good harbour, sheltered by Pres^e/^te, was the head- 



NIAGARA FALLS. ib.BouU. 215 

quarters of Commodore Ftffy when he defeated the Anglo-Canadian 
fleet in 1813. This is usually the last point touched at, Dunkirk and 
other places being passed over; 

290 M. Buffalo [Iroquoit^ $4-5, R. f^om $ IV2; Lenox, R. from 
$11/2; La fay tile; OeneaeeHo,, from $3, R. from $ IJ, see Baedeker' 9 
United States. 

45. Niagara Falls. 

BaUway Btationi. New York Central (PI. 0, 4), cor. of Falls St. and 
Second St., also naed by the Michigan Central, West Shore, Lehigh Valley, 
and the R. W. A O. Railways ; Erie Depot (PI. C, 4), cor. of Niagara St. 
and Second St. — The Canadian lines make connection for Kiagara Falls 
at Sutpeniion Bridge (PI. C, 1 ; p. 212), 2 M . to the K. ; and there are 
also stations on the Canadian side at Niagara FalU {Ontario; PI. B, 1), 
Victoria Park (PI. A, 3), and FalU View (PI. A, 6; comp. p. 218). — Nia- 
gara Falls, N.Y., is also connected with Suspension Bridge by tramway (5 c.). 

Hotels. Intbknatiomal Hotbl (PI. a; B, 4), $3-5V2t Cataract Hotel 
(PI. b; B, 4), close to the river, $3-6V2, these two under one manage- 
ment (all meals served in the International) ; Pbospeot House (PI. c; C.4^, 
$ 3V2-6*/ai Kaltenbach (PI. d; C, 4), German, well spoken of, from $ 3; 
IMPEBIAL (PI. e; C, 4), $272-45 To WEB (PI. f; B, 4). $ 2V24. The first 
two are open in summer onlv. These are all on the American side, in 
the city of Niagara FalU (p. 217). — 'Clifton Hodsb (PI. h, A 4^ re-opened 
in 1906), on the Canadian side, near the Upper Steel Arch Bridge, with a 
fine view of the Falls, from $ 4, with bath from $ 5; Lafatbtte (PL c\ 
A, 3), opposite the Canadian end of the Upper Steel Arch Bridge, $ 2*7^- 
8V2, both open all the year round. 

Carriages. The former extortionate charees and impertinent demeanour 
of the Niaeara hackmen have been somewhat abated, but the cab-touts 
at the station are scarcely to be trusted. The rates are $ IVs for the first 
and $ 1 for each addit. hr., with two horses $ 2 and $ £1/2 ^ but it is 
always advisable to make a distinct bargain with the driver, and lower 
terms than the legal rates may often be obtained, especially by a party. 
It should be expressly stipulated who is to pay the tolls in crossing the 
bridges, etc. 5 and the driver should be strictly enjoined not to stop at 
the bazaars or other pay-places unless ordered to do so. A single-horse con- 
veyance should not cost more than $3 for half-a-day or $0 for a whole 
day, and small carriages for 1-2 pers. are generally obtainable for $ 1 per 
hour. — Park Vane make the round of the American Reservation at frequent 
intervals (fare 25 c., for Goat Island 15c.), and passengers are entitled to 
alight at any number of points and finish the round by any subsequent 
vehicle on the same day. — Omn%bu$ from the station to the hotels 25 c. 

Slectrio Tramways. The Imtebmational Bailwat runs along the 
Canadian bank from Qiueenston (p. 208^ see PI. B, 1) to (IIV2M.) Chippawa 
(beyond PI. C, 6 5 p. 221 \ fare 45 c), taking 1 hr. to the trip. The inter- 
mediate stations are Brock's Monument (p. »)9; fare 10 c), the Whirlpool 
(p. 221 \ 20 c), Niagara FalU Town (p. 211 ^ 25 c), and Niagara FalU Park 
(p. 219} 30 c). The Niaqaba Gorge Railboad C Great Gorge Route'), on 
the American side, runs through the goige and along the brink of the river 
to (7 M.) Lewiiton (p. 208; fare 60 c, there and back 75 c), and thence on to 
Toungstown and (14 M.) Fort Niagara (p. 208; 65 c, 95 c). — These lines 
afford admirable views of the rapids, gorge, and falls. Visitors are recom- 
mended to take the Canadian line to Queenston. cross the suspension- 
bridge to Lewiston and return on the American side (or vice vers& \ round- 
trip fare $ 1). This is known as 'The Niagara Belt Line". Evening- 
excursions are sometimes arranged, with search-light effects on the rapids 
and whirlpool. 'Stopovers' are allowed on these lines without extra 
charge. — An electric railway also runs from Niagara io Bi^falo (i^/ihr.; 
fare 35 c, return-fare 50 c). C^r\r\n]o 

' ' Digitized by VjOOyic 

216 Route 45. NIAGARA FALLS. Reservations, 

Feei. Since the establishment of the American and Canadian National 
Parks and Reservations, most of the former extortionate fees have been 
abolished; and any visitor who is able to walk a few miles can see all 
the chief points at very little cost. Ooat Island and all the best views 
of the Falls are free; and the only extra expenses which the visitor is 
advised to incur are the trip in the ^Maid of the Mitt^ including the visit 
to the Canadian side (50 c.), the Cave of the Wind* ($1; or the similar trip 
on the Canadian side, 50 c.)} and the view of the Whirlpool Rapids (50 c). 

Photographs. Among the best photographs of Niagara are those of 
Zyhach & Co., Niagara Falls, Ontario (p. 211). 

Reservations. The New York State Reservation at Niagara comprises 
107 acres and was opened in 18S5. It includes Prospect Park and Ooat 
Island. — The Qmen Victoria Niagara Falls Park, extending along the river 
on the Canadian side all the way from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario, covers 
787 acres ; the Park Reservation in the immediate neighboorhood of the 
Falls contains 196 acres. 

Plan and Season of Visit. The description in the text follows the 
best order in which to visit the Falls. The American side is seen to 
greatest advantage in the morning, the Canadian side in the afternoon, 
the sun being then at our backs as we face the Falls. The Whirlpool Ra- 
pids are best seen from the Canadian side. It is possible to see all the 
chief points in one day, but it is better to allow 2-3 days for the visit. Hay, 
the first half of June, the second half of Sept., and Oct. are good seasons 
to visit Niagara, which is hot and crowded in midsummer. No one who 
has an opportunity to see them should miss the Falls in the glory of 
their winter-dress. 

The ♦•PallB of Niagara (^Thunder of Waters'), perhaps the 
greatest and most impressive of the natural wonders of America, 
are situated on the Niagara River , 22 M. from its head in Lake Erie 
and 14 M. above its mouth in Lake Ontario. This river forms the 
outlet of the four great Western lakes (Erie, Huron, Michigan, and 
Superior), descending about 330 ft. in its course of 36 M. and af- 
fording a channel to a large part of the fresh water of the globe. 
Its current is swift for about 2 M. after leaving Lake Erie, but be- 
comes more gentle as the channel widens and is divided into two 
parts by Orand Island (p. 221). Below the island the stream is 2 V2 M. 
wide. About 15 M. from Lake Erie the river narrows again and the 
rapids begin, flowing with ever-increasing speed until in the last 8/4 M. 
above the Falls they descend 55 ft. and flow with immense velocity. 
On the brink of the FaUs, where the river bends at right angles from 
W. to N., the channel is again diTided by Ooat Island, which occupies 
about one-fourth of the entire width of the river (4770 ft.\ To the 
right of it is the •American Fall, 1060 ft. wide and 167 ft high, 
and to the left of it is the **Canadian or HorseBhoe Fall, 158 ft 
high, with a contour of 2550 ft The volume of water which pours 
over the FaUs is 12 million cubic ft. per minute (nearly 1 cubic 
mile per week), of which probably nine - tenths go over the Cana- 
dian FaUt. The cloud of spray and vapour hanging over the Falls is 
visible for miles. Immediately at the foot of the Falls the water is 
80 smooth that it generally freezes over in winter, forming the so- 
called *Ice Bridge'. The river then contracts to 1000-1250 ft., and 

t The International boundary passes near Terrapin Boclc (p. 219), thus 
leaving a small part of the Horseshoe Fall in American -territor v. 

HUtory. NIAGARA FALLS. 45. RouU, 217 

rushes down foaming and boiling between lofty rocky walls. Two 
miles farther down it is barely 800 ft wide, and at the Whirlpool (p.22i) 
the huge volume of water is compressed into a space of 250 ft. Within 
7 M. these lower rapids descend over 100 ft., but at Lewiston the 
river once more becomes wider, smoother, and navigable. 

The gorge through which the river runs has been formed by the action 
of the vast body of water rushing through it, and the Falls themselves 
are receding up the river at a rate which in 1842-90 averaged 5 ft. per 
annum in the centre of the Horseshoe Fall and 2/3 ft. in the American Fall. 
The rocks pasred through by the receding falls are sandstone, shale, and 
limestone. At present the formation over which the water pours is iime^ 
stone, with shide lying 80-90 ft. below it) and the frequent fall of great 
masses of limestone rock is undoubtedly occasioned by the erosion of the 
underlying shales. At the Whirlpool the continuity of the rock-formation is 
interrupted, and the whole wall of the ravine is formed of drift. Geologists 
tell us that a farther retrocession of about 2 M. will cut away the layers 
of both limestone and shale and leave the falls stationary on the sand- 
stone, with their height reduced about 60 per cent. 

Niagara Falls appear under the name of Ongiara in Sanson*s Map of 
Canada (Pauris, 1657), but the first white man known to have seen Niagara 
Falls was Father Hennepin^ a member of La Sailers party in 1678. He 
described them as *a vast and prodigious Cadence of Water, which falls 
down after a surprizine and astonishhig manne r, insomuch that the Uni- 
verse does not afford its Parallel . . . The Waters which fall from 
this horrible Precipice do foam and boyl after the most hideous manner 
imaginable, making an outrageous Noise, more terrible than that of Thun- 
der ; for when the Wind blows out of the South, their dismal roaring may • 
be heard more than 16 leagues off^. The sketch he made of the Falls 
shows several points of diflference from their present state. 

The Indians have a tradition that the Falls demand two human victims 
every year^ and the number of accidents and suicides is perhaps large 
enough to maintain this average. Many lives have been lost in foolhardy 
attempts to cross the river above Goat Island. 

The American city of Niagara Falls (hotels, see p. 215) closely 
adjoins the river and in 1900 contained 19,457 inhab. (as compared 
with 5602 in 1890). The chief source of its prosperity has long been 
the influx of sightseers ; but it is now, thanks to the tapping of the 
Falls by tunnels and power-canals (see below), rapidly becoming an 
industrial centre of great importance. It is estimated that about 
700,000 tourists visit the Falls yearly. 

Within the past few years the authorities of Canada and the United States 
have authorized the subtraction of water from Niagara for industrial pur- 

goses to the extent of no less than 760,000 horse-power; and already 80,000 
. p. is ready for use on the Canadian side and 140,000 h. p. on the American 
side. So far the general appearance of the Falls has been little marred by 
these operations (except for the intrusion of power-houses and distributing- 
stations on the Canadian shore); but a good deal of apprehension exists as 
to the possible diminution of the grandeur of Niagara, and it is hoped that 
an international agreement may be arrived at to secure a modut operandi 
that will satisfy at once the demands of the industrialists and those of the 
lovers of natural beauty. On the American side a tunnel (PI. B-D, 4), 29 ft. 
deep and 18 ft. wide, has been excavated through tbe solid rock from a 
point just below the Upper Steel Arch Bridge to a point about 11/4 M. above 
the Falls, where it is I06 ft. below the level of the river. It passes below 
the city at a depth of about 200 ft. A short canal diverts a portion of the 
river to the head of the tunnel, where a maximum of 120-150.000 horse- 
power is attained. A similar tunnel on the Canadian side is 2000 ft. long, 
26 ft. high, and 231/2 ft. wide. The largest steel flume in the world, 18 ft. 

218 Route 45, NIAGARA FALLS. Cave of tJu Winds. 

in diameter, rans below the Canadian National Park, carrying enoogh water 
to develop 60,000 horse -power. The farthest point to which the power of 
Niagara has so far been transmitted is Syracuse, 160 M. distant. The power 
derived from Niagara is used not only in manufactoring but also for the 
lighting of several towns and for hnndreds of miles of electric railways. 

The traveller should undoubtedly visit one of the power-houses, where he 
will receive an impression of weird force hardly unworthy of mention be- 
side that produced by the Falls themselves. The intake-canals , the wheel- 
pits, the huge ^penstocks* or vertical inlet-pipes, the turbines, the generators, 
etc., are all full of interest even for the non-professional visitor. The power- 
house of the Niagara Fall* Co. (80,000 h. p.; adm. 25 C; guide), on the 
American side, is easily reached by the Buffalo trolley or any of the cars 
marked Tower House\ The Ontario Potoer Co. (50 c.; p. 220) and the Cana- 
dian Niagara Power Co. (25 c.), both on the Canadian side, also admit visitors. 
— With the Niagara Falls Co. Power House may be combined a visit to the 
Natural Food Conservatory (PI. C, 4), in Buffalo Ave. where the well-known 
shredded-wheat biscuits are made. Besides the processes of manufacture, 
the visitor will find many features of interest in the arrangement of the 
factory, including the employees' dining-rooms, the marble bathroom, and 
the auditorium. Guides are provided to show visitors over the huge building 
(no charge). Splendid view from roof-observatory. 

We may begin our visit to the Falls by entering Prospect Park 
(PI. B, 4), 12 acres in extent, which adjoins the gorge close to the 
American Fall. At ^Prospect Point, protected by an iron parapet, we 
stand on the very brink of the Fall and see it dash on the rocks below. 
. Hennepin^s View, a little to the right (N.), commands a good general 
*View. Near the point is the SupermtendenVs Office, whence an 
Inclined Railway (6 c.) and a Flight of Steps descend to the bottom 
of the gorge and the dock of the ^Mald of the Mist' (p. 220). 

Following the parkway to the left (W.) from Prospect Point, we 
reach (3 min.) the Ooat Island Bridge (360 ft. long) , crossing the 
right arm of the river, a little above the American Fall. It commands 
a fine view of the * Upper Rapids. To the right are several little 
rocky islets, including Averifs Rock, where an unfortunate man found 
foothold for 18 hrs. before being swept over the fall by the impact 
of a boat let out with ropes in an attempt to save him. The bridge 
ends at Oreen Island (PI. B, 5), whence another short bridge crosses 
to *Goat iBland (80 acres in extent). . Here we follow the path to 
the right to (4 min.) *Luna Island (PL B, 5), a rocky islet between 
the main American Fall and the *Centre Fall, named from the lunar 
rainbows seen here at full moon. The continuation of the path 
along the W. side of Goat Island leads in a minute or two more to 
the Biddle Stairs (free) and the office where a guide and dress are 
obtained for a descent to the *Cave of the Winds (PI. 'C. of W\, B 5; 
fee $ 1 ; small gratuities expected). 

Everyone should descend the stairs and follow the path along the 
foot of the cliffs towards the base of the Centre Fall \ but only those of 
strong nerves should attempt the trip through the Cave of the Winds, 
which, however, is said to be safe and is often made by ladies. For those 
who can stand it the experience is of the most exciting and pleasurable de- 

scription. After passing over the gangways and bridges amid the rocks 
and spray in front of the Centre Fall, we are conducted through the 
*Cave of the Winds* behind it, where the choking, blinding, and deafen- 

and spray in front of the Centre Fall, we are conducted through the 
*Cave of the Winds* behind it, where the choking, blinding, and deafen- 
ing tumult of wind and water defies description. The visitors grasp each 

Canadian Rapids. NIAGARA FALLS. 45, Route, 219 

other by the hand and sidle through on a narrow ledge, with a perpen- 
dicular wall of rock within an inch of their noses and the mighty volume 
of the fall at their backs. 

Beyond theBiddle Stairs the path on Goat Island leads to 
(4 min.) Porter's Bluff (PL A, 6J, overlooking the Horseshoe Fall, 
the Canadian Rapids, and the gorge below the Falls. A staircase and 
bridge descend hence to ♦♦Terrapin Rock (PL A, 6), on the edge of 
the Horseshoe Falls, affording the best view of these from this side. 

*The river here is evidently much deeper than the American branch, 
and instead of bursting into foam where it quits the ledge, it bends sol- 
idly over and falls in a continuous layer of the most vivid green. The 
tint is not uniform-, but varied, long strips of deeper hue alternating with 
bands of brighter colour . . . From ail this it is evident that beauty 
is not absent from the Horseshoe Fall, but majesty is its chief attribute. 
The plunge of the water is not wild, but deliberate, vast, and fascinating* 
(Tyndatl). ■— A condemned warship sent over the Fall in 1829 drew 18ft. 
of water, but passed without touching the ledge. 

Our path next leads along the S. side of Goat Island to (7-^ min.) 
the series of bridges leading to the •Tfcree Sister Islands (PL B , 5), which 
afford the best view from this side of the imposing ♦Canadian BapidB 
(PL A, B, 6), running at the rate of 30 M. an hour. The Third Sister 
is adjoined by a smaller rock known as the Little Brother, 

We may now return through the centre of Goat Island to (5 min.) 
the bridge leading to the mainland, but those who have time should 
follow the path to (4 min.) the 'Parting of the Waters' at the head 
of Goat Island (PL 0, 6), where we obtain a good view of the broad 
and quiet river above the cascades , with Grand Island (p. 221) in 
the background. Thence the path leads back along the N. side of Goat 
Island, affording a view of the American Rapids (PL B, 0, 6), to 
(5-6 min.) the bridge. 

We may now cross to the Canadian side of the river by the ♦Upper 
Steel Arch Bridge (PL B , 4;, about 250 yds. below the American 
Fall, erected in 1897-98 to take the place of the suspension-bridge 
formerly at this spot. The main span, the largest of the kind in the 
world , is 840 ft. long, while the flanking spans increase the total 
length of the bridge to 1240 ft. It is 49 ft. wide. An electric 
tramway crosses in the centre, and on each side are carriage-ways 
and footpaths. The bridge is 195 ft. above the level of the water. 
Bridge-toll 10 c, return 15 c, incL tramway-fare. — Just below 
the bridge , on the American shore , is the mouth of the tunnel 
described at p. 217. On the bank above is a group of mills and 
factories, run by the power of a surface-canal. 

On reaching the Canadian end of the bridge , we turn to the 
left and reach (3 min.) the entrance to the *Qaeen Victoria Niagara 
Falls Park (PL A, 4-6), which extends along the river for 21/2 M. 
(electric railway, see pp. 215, 209). The park contains a good bronze 
statue (by Dunbar) of Colonel Qzowski (1813-99), its chief promoter. 
Splendid general views are obtained as we proceed of the Falls and 
the gorge, especially from the (3 min.) ^Ramblers Bes^fPl. A^^ and 

220 BouU 45. NIAGARA FALLS. TabU Rock. 

(4 min.) *In8piration Point (PI. A, 4). To the right, 3-4 min. farther 
on, are Picnic Grounds and a Restaurant; and in 3 min. more we reach 
the entrance to the power-house of the Ontario Power Co. Just 
beyond are the Table Rock House and ** Table Bock (PI. A, 5), 
which affords an indescribably grand view of the Horseshoe Falls. 
Beautiful rainbows are seen on the spray in the afternoon. The roar 
of the water is deafening. 

The name of Table Rock still adheres to this point, though the last 
portion of the overhanging ledge that gave rise to it fell into the abyss 
in 1860. — An elevator here affords an opportunity to those who wish to 
go under the Falls (25 c., with dress 60 c.). This trip does not necessitate 
the removal of clothing, but only the protection of oil'Skin suits. It has 
lately been improved by the construction of a tunnel (800ft. long) and now 
affords imposing 'Views of the Falls from behind and below. 

Visitors with time to spare may extend their walk through the Park 
above the Falls to (1 M.) *I)ufferin Islands (PL B, 6), enjoying the best 
views of the Canadian Bapids (p. 219). No time need be wasted on the so- 
called Burning Spring (adm. 60 c). — Fall* View Station of the Michigan 
Central B. B. (PI. A, 6^ see p. 213), lies just outside the Park. — A road 
diverging near Table Bock leads to Lundy*» Lane^ where a bloody but 
somewhat indecisive struggle took place on July 25th, 1814, between the 
Americans and the Anglo-Canadians. The latter, however, were left in 
possession of the field, the Americans retiring on Fort Erie. A monument 
has been erected to the Canadians who fell in the battle. 

No one should omit to take the **Trip in the little steamer the 
Maid of the Mist^ which starts near the foot of the Inclined Railway 
descending from the end of Prospect Park (see p. 218), steams up 
the river nearly to the foot of the Horseshoe Fall, and touches at a 
wharf on the Canadian side (fee 50 e., incl. water-proof dress). The 
**View it affords of the Falls is one of the best to be had; and the 
trip is perfectly safe. Passengers may disembark on the Canadian 
side (where an incline ascends to the National Park) and return by 
any later trip of the steamer the same day. 

The river and its banks below the bridge offer many points of 
great interest. The Lower Rapids and the Whirlpool (p. 221) are 
both seen to greatest advantage from the Canadian side. 

From the N. end of the bridge we follow the road (electric railway, 
see p. 215) descending along the edge of the cliff to (2 M.) the 
♦Cantilever Bridge of the Michigan Central RaUroad (PI. B, 0, 1), 
one of the first examples of this method of construction, completed 
in 1883. It is entirely of steel and has a total length of 900 ft The 
two cantilever arms, 395 ft. and 375 ft. long, are connected in the 
centre by a fixed span of 125 ft. It is 245 ft. above the water. About 
100 yds. below this bridge is the *Lower Steel Arch Bridge of the 
Grand Trurik Railway (PI. B, 1), erected in 1897 on the site of the 
former Railway Suspension Bridge (comp. p. 212), with a roadway 
below the railroad track (toll 10 c, incl. return). The length of this 
bridge, including approaches, is 1100 ft., half of which is absorbed 
by the arch itself. The highest point is 226 ft. above the water. It 
commands a fine view of the Whirlpool Rapids (p. 221), but the 
view of the Falls is obstructed by the Cantilever Bridge, 



Whirlpool. NIAGARA FALLS. 45. Route. 221 

A little below the Steel Arch Bridge is the entrance to the so- 
called. Rapids Park, where we descend an Inclined Railway (50 c.) 
to view the *Whirlpool Bapids, which in their own way are as 
wondeiful as the Falls. The immense volume of water is here forced 
to flow through so narrow a channel (300 ft.) that it actually as- 
sumes a convex form, the centre of the river being 20 ft. higher 
than the edges. 

The impression of force is overwhelming. *The surges did not look 
like the gigantic ripples on a river's course, as they, were, but like a 
procession of ocean billows \ they rose far aloft in vast bulks of clear 
green, and broke heavily into foam at the crest^ (Eovellt), 

It was in an effort to swim down these Bapids that Capt. Webb lost 
his life in 1888, but since then several persons have passed through them 
safely in barrels. The old ^Haid of the Mist* was successfully piloted 
through the Bapids to Lewiston in 1861. Blondin and others have crossed 
the gorge above the Bapids on ropes of hemp or wire. 

Near the wooden staircase ascending to the DeviTs Hole is a tablet 
commemorating an Indian massacre in 1763. 

We may now cross the railway-bridge and return along the American 
side (tramway, see p. 215). 

About 1 M. below the Railway Bridges is the ^Whirlpool (beyond 
PI. B, 1), of which w^ get a good distant view from the top of the 
cliff. The river here bends suddenly at right angles to its former 
course, and the Whirlpool is occasioned by the full force of the cur- 
rent impinging against the cliffs of the left bank. ^;U:' 

^Here within the compass of a milt, those inland seas of the North, 
Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and the multitudes of smaller lakes, all 
pour their floods, where they swirl in dreadful vortices, with resistless 
undercurrents boiling beneath the surface of that mighty eddy. Abruptly 
from this scene of secret power, so different from the thunderous splen- 
dours of the cataract itself, rise lofty cliflb on every side, to a height of 
two hundred feet, clothed from the water''s edge almost to their crests 
\eith dark cedars. Noiselessly, so far as your senses perceive, the lakes 
steal out of the whirlpool, then, drunk and wild, with brawling rapids, 
roar away to Ontario through the narrow channel of the river. Awful as 
the scene is, you stand so far above it that you do not know the half of 
its terribleness : for those waters that look so smooth are great ridges and 
rings, forced, by the impulse of the currents, twelve feet higher in the 
centre than at the margin. Nothing can live there, and with what is 
caught in its hold, the maelstrom plays for days, and whirls and tosses 
round and round in its toils, with a sad maniacal patience* (HowelU). 

The BivsB BoAD ascends along the American side of the river from 
Goat Island Bridge to (1 M.) the Old French Landing, where La Salle and 
Father Hennepin are said to have embarked in 16^78 after their portage 
from Lewiston. Nearly opposite, on the Canadian shore, is tbe village of 
Chippawa, where the Americans defeated the English in 1814. This is the 
terminus of the Electric Railway (p. 215). About 1 M. farther up is the 
Schlouer Landing^ fortified by the French in 1750 and by the English in 
1761 . Navy Island, near the Canadian shore, gave shelter to the Insurgents 
of the 'Mackenzie War* (1887-88 1 comp. p. 192). Just above is Grand Is- 
land (26 sq. M. in area: comp. p. 216 ; Bedell Ho., a popular summer-hotel, 
$ 2-3), where Mi\jor Noah in 1820 proposed to found the city of Ararat, as 
a universal refuge for the Jews. Opposide Grand Island, on the American 
shore, 5M. above the Falls, is the mouth of tbe Cayuga, where La Salle 
launched the *Griffon', the first vessel to navigate the Great Lakes (1679). 

The Observation Trains of tbe N.Y.C.B.B. between Niagara Falls and 
(7 M.) Letpiston (return fare 25 c.) afford admirable * Views ^ the left) of 
the gorge of the Niagara (see B. 43 a). Digitized by GOOQ IC 

222 Route 46, OWEN SOUND. From Toronto 

About 8 M. to the N.E. of Niagara Falls is the RwrvaHon of the 
Tusearora Indians (baskets, etc., for sale). 

From Niagara to Buffalo^ see p. 209 ; to Lewiston^ Niagara-on-fhe-Lake^ 
and Toronto^ see B. 43 a; to Hamilton^ see B. 43 b ; to Quemtton^ see p. 300 ; to 
Detroii^ see B. 44. 

46. From Toronto to Owen Sound and Fort William. 

677 M. Canadian Pacific Bailwat to (122 M.) (horn Sound in 4-6 hrs. 
(fare $3.65; parlor-car 50 c.); Stbambb thence to (555 M.) Fort Wilttcm 
in 45 hrs. (fare $ 17.50, incl. meals and stateroom ; through-fare from Toronto 
to Fort William $21.15, from MontreaJ $28.45). 

This forms part of the so-called 'Lake Roate^ of the Canadian Pacific 
Bailway; and tickets from Eastern points to Fort William or points farther 
to the W. are available either by this route or by railway (B. 48). Trav- 
ellers who are not pressed for time are strongly advised to prefer the 
*Lake Boute', as they miss comparatively little of interest on the rail- 
way between Montreal and Fort William and gain an opportunity to see 
something of the scenery of the Great Lakes, the Sault-Ste-Marie Oanal, etc. 
The 0. P. B. steamers, leaving Owen Sound on Tues., Thurs., A Sat., are 
among the finest vessels for inland navigation in the world, affording 
excellent accommodation, service, and cuisine. The season of navigation 
lasts from about May Ist to Oct. 1st; and in summer the water of the 
lakes is generally smooth. — In compliance with the laws of Ontario, no 
wines or spirits are sold on the steamers. 

Toronto^ see p. 190. The train (boat-express at 1.50 p.m.) passes 
(2 M.) Parkdale (p. 205) and (5 M.) Toronto Junction (p. 205) and 
runs towards the N.W. At (9 M.) Weston (430 ft.) the G. T. R. Une 
to Port Huron diverges to the left (R. 42 a), and at (35 M.) Cardwelt 
Junction we intersect the 0. T. R. line from Hamilton to Allandale 
(p. 210). We now traverse the district of the Caledon Mts. , a low 
range running N. and S. 46 M. MelvUle Junction, — 49 M. Orange- 
viUe (1395 ft.; Queen's, iV/21 ^o,^- Restaurant), a town of (1901) 
2511 inhab., with mills, factories, and a grain and timber trade, is 
the junction of branch-lines to (73 M.) Wingham (2392 inhab. ; U. S. 
Agent), Teeswater (74 M.), Flora (34 M.), etc. 

Elora (Commercial Hotel, $1V2), a village with (1901) 1187 inhab., lies 
on the Qramd River, which here cuts its way through a picturesque lime- 
stone ravine, with walls 1(X) ft. high. Elora contains a small Museum illus- 
trating the natural history and geology of the district. This was the land 
of the Attiwandaroni or Neutral Indians, interposed between the Hurons 
and the Iroquois. 

Beyond Orangeville the train crosses a fertile and well-tiUed 
plateau (1600-1700 ft. above the sea). Numerous lakes are passed, 
often affording good trout-fishing. At (76 M.) Dundalk (1700 ft) 
we reach the highest point of the line and begin to descend. Near 
(87 M.) Flesherton (1557 ft.) are the *Eugenia Falls. 93 M. Mark- 
dale (1357 ft.) ; 109 M. Chatsworth (944 ft). Beyond (115 M.) Rock- 
ford (913 ft.) we come in sight of Georgian Bay, to which we de- 
scend rapidly. 

122 M. Owen Sound (586 ft-, Patterson Ho,, $2-272; King"$ 
Royal, $ 2-3 j Seldon's, $ 2-2V2 J Queen\ $ 1-1 V2; ^ai^. Restaurant ; 
V* 8, Agent), a rising Uttle lake-port with (1901) 7497 inhab. and a 

to Fort WiUiam. LAKE HURON. 46, Route. 223 

well-sheltered harbour, lies at the mouth of the Sydenham River, at 
the head of Owen Sound, an inlet on the S. shore of Georgian Bay, It 
enjoys some reputation as a summer-resort owing to its pretty scenery 
[IngaUs and other waterfalls, etc.) and its facilities for boating, bath- 
ing, fishing, and shooting. Good quarries and brick-fields occur, and 
^ various industries are successfully carried on. Among the principal 
buildings are the High School, the Town Hall, and the Court House. 
Fkom Owbn Sound to Sadlt-Stk-Mabis bt thb "Sobtr Chanmbl, 485 M. 
Steamers of the Norihem NavigaHon Co.^ starting from ColUngwood (p. 198) 
on Tues., Thors., A Sat, leave Owen Sound about 11 p.m., on the arrival 
of the evening-express from Toronto, and ran to the », through Georgian 
Bay and the ^North Channer (between the mainland and Manitoulin Island), 
calling at many points on the N. shore of Lake Huron. The voyage takes 
about 2Vs days, and ample time is generally allowed for landing at the 
various ports. The steamers and their accommodation are good, and the 
trip is healthful and enjoyable in summer (fare $ 10, return-fare $ 18). — 
The Tues. boat runs due K. thorough Georgian Bay (p. 198), while the 
others run via Parry Sound and the N. Shore ports (comp. pp. 198, 204). 
The other points called at hve Killameg (196 M. from Collingwood; Hotel, 
3 lV«-2), at the foot of the La aoche Mt$. (755-1180 ft), on the N. shore 
of Georgian Bay, at the beginning of the North Channel; Manitowaning 
(226 M. ; The Manitou, $ 1-1 Vt)} nearly opposite, on Grand Manitoulin Ji- 
2af>d (p. 224), where Indian souvenirs, etc., may be purchased (good trout- 

on me island; apanun laver [pa in.j, on tne mainland (^see p. Axi)\ sser- 
pent River (341 M.): Algoma Mills (p. 233; 349 M.); Blind River (357 M.); 
Theualon (p. 233; 413 M.); Bruce (p. 233; 425 M.); and Hiawatha Camp, 
The steamer calls at the Canadian town of 8ault-8te-Marie before cros- 
sing to its terminus on the American side (p. 224). In July and Aug. the 
steamers go on from the Soo to Mackinac (p. 224; fare $14; round trip, 
in 6 days, $25). 

Steamers of the same company ply from Collingwood, Penetang (p. 198), 
and Midland (p. 199), through the 'Inside Channel\ to Parry Sound, French 
River, Byng Inlet, Killamey, etc. (comp. pp. 198-200). 

Lake Huron (580 ft above the sea) , across the waters of which 
the next part of our route leads (steamers, see p. 222), is 250 M. long 
and 50-200 M. wide, with an area of 23,800 sq. M. Its greatest depth 
is 1700 ft The Saugeen Peninsula, jutting out from the S., and the 
Grand Manitoulin Island, on the N. , approach within 20 M. of each 
other and divide the lak6 into two portions, of which that to the E. is 
known as Georgian Bay (130 M. long and 60 M. wide). The W. shore 
of Lake Huron is low and little varied in outline (with the exception 
of the deep Saginaw Bay) , but the N. and E. coasts are rocky and 
indented, often showing bold limestone cliffs. The lake contains an 
enormous number of islands (estimated as high as 36,000) , espe- 
cially along the E. shore of Georgian Bay (Parry Archipelago) and 
in the *North Channel', between ManitouHn and the mainland. The 
E. and N. shores of the lake belong to Canada, the W. to Michigan. 
The name Huron (from hure, *wild boar') was applied by the French 
to the Wyandotte Indians on account of their manner of dressing their 
hair. *Huronian', as applied to a series of primary or crystalline rocks, 
was originally used to describe the beds of this series overlying the 
Lauientian formations on the N. shore of Lakes Huron and Superior, 

224 Route 46. SAULT-STE-MARIE. 

On leaving Owen Sound, the 0. P. R. steamer runs along the W. 
side of Georgian Bay (p. 223), steering a little to the W. of N. 
To the left lies the Saugeen Peninsula, jutting out into the lake for 
about 50 M. and forming geologically the termination of the so-called 
^Niagara E8carpment\ running from Niagara Falls to Cape Hurd. 
When clear of the peninsula, the steamer turns to the left (W.) and 
enters Lake Huron proper hy the channel mentioned above, between 
Cape Hurd J the extremity of the Saugeen Peninsula, on the left, and 
the Grand Manitoulin on the right t 

The Grand Manitoulin leland, which lies to the N. of our course 
as we cross Lake Huron , is 80 M. long and 30 M. wide across it8 
widest part It is inhabited by a number of Ojibwa Indians, and 
along its N. coast are several Tillages frequented as summer-resorts 
(comp. p. 223). Our steamer passes it in the night, and we con- 
sequently see little of it 

Early next morning the steamer threads the narrow Detour Pas- 
sage , between Michigan on the left and Drummond Island on the 
right, and enters the beautiful *St, Mary's River (65 M.), connecting 
Lake Huron with Lake Superior. Farther on 8t, Joseph IslaruL lies 
to the right, with first 4he mainland and then Encampment Island to 
the left We next pass the rapids between Sugar Island (1,) and the 
mainland (r.) , traverse the expansion of the river called JBear Lake 
or Lake Qeorge (9 M. long and 3-4 M. wide), and finally turn to the 
left (W.) round the N. end of Sugar Island and enter the Sault-Ste- 
Marie Canal, by which we avoid the 8t, Mary Rapids (r.). 

397 M. ^275 M. from Owen Sound) Sanlt-Ste-Marie (615 ft; 
Iroquois, $^-5; Park, $3-5; Manitou, $2; Rail, Restaurant), a 
thriving little city with (1900) 10,538 inhab., originated in a French 
mission established here in 1641. Its position on the Soo Canal 
and at the convergence of several railways gives it considerable 
commercial importance. Among the chief buildings are the Custom. 
House (PI. 1), the Post Office (PI. 2), the City HaU (PI. 4), the 
Carnegie Library (PI. 6), and the Court House (PI. 5). To the W. 
lies Fort Brady, a U. S. military post (comp. Plan). Frequent steam- 
ferries cross to the Canadian Sanlt-Ste-Marie (International Hotel, 
$2-3; Algonquin, from $2, well spoken of^ CornwaU, Leland, 
$ 11/2; t7. S, Com, Agent), a town with (1901) 7169 inhab., a huge 
pulp-mill, chemical works , a Bessemer steel plant, electric smel- 
ters, and large iron-ore docks. 

One of the things to *do* at the Soo is to shoot the Rapid* in a canoe 
guided by an Indian , an excitine but reasonably safe experience (enquire 
at hotels). There is good trout-fishing above the Bapids and in the neigh- 
nd "' ' " " ' *" * " ' 

bouring streams, and the Indians catch whitefish with scoop-nets below 
the Bapids. — The island of Maekinae (see p. 228 and Baedeker'* United 
Statee) is easily reached from the Soo. — From Sault-Ste-Marie to DuhUh 

t The channel is actually narrowed down to about 5 Mr by the islets 
lying oflfCape Hurd and the 8. end of Manitoulin. edbyGoO^Ic 



LAKE SUPERIOR. 46. Route, 225 

by railway and by steamer along tbe S. shore of Lake Superior, see Baedeker^i 
OMted States. 

Tbe old *Bt. Kary^s or Boo Ship Canal was constructed by tbe State 
of Micbigan in 1858-5 and was 1800 yds. long, 100 ft. wide, and 12 ft. deep, 
witb two locks, eacb 850 ft. long. Tbe present canal, constructed by tbe 
U. S. Government, is 2330 yds. long, 108 ft. wide at its narrowest part (tbe 
movable dam), and 16 ft deep. Its original lock is 515 ft. long, 80 ft wide, 
and 89V2 ft- deep. It has a lift of 18 ft. and can hold two large lake-steam- 
ers. Tbe total cost of tbe canal enlargement was $2,150,000 (430,0002.). 
Even this, however, proved inadequate for tbe increasing traffic, and an 
enormous new lock, on the site of tbe two old locks of 1855, was opened 
in 1896, having a length of 800 ft., a breadth of 100 ft., an.d a depth of 
431/4 ft. It can accommodate vessels drawing 20 ft. The cost of this new 
lock and the accompanying enlargement of the canal was about $ 5,000.000 
fl,C0O,00Or). Tbe lock can be filled or emptied in 7 minutes. — A Ship 
Canal has also been constructed on the Canadian side of the river, to avoid 
the discriminating tolls levied on vessels bound for Canadian ports. This 
canal, which was completed in 1895, is about 2/3 M. long and includes a 
lock 900 ft. long and 60 ft. wide, with 20 ft. of water on tbe sUl. Its total 
cost was about $3,750,000. A second Canadian canal has been projected 
to be 1400 ft. long and 80 ft. wide. 

The annual tonnage of the vessels passing through tbe Soo Canals is 
about twice as great as that passing through the Suez Canal. In 1905 
the canals were passed by 21,679 vessels, with an aggregate tonni^e of 
36,617,699 tons fSuez Canal in the same year, 4115 vessels of 18,308,498 tons 
gross, 13,132,694 tons net). The proportion of the freight tonnage carried 
by Canadian vessels is about 15 per cent. The traffic of 1906 was considerably 
greater than that of 1905. 

The passage of the locks at Sault-Ste-Marie takes fuUy an hour, 
which passengers may spend in visiting the town. In emerging from 
the canal we pass under the fine railway-bridge of the C.P.R. line 
tiom Sudbury to Sault-Ste-Marie (see p. 233) and a movahle dam 
forming a road-bridge. A little farther on, between Point Iroquois to 
the left (U. S.) and Gros Gap to the right (Canada), we leave the 
St. Mary's River and enter Whitefiah Ba , forming the S.E. end of 
Lake Superior. 

Lake Superior (600 ft. above the sea), the highest of the Great 
Lakes, is the largest body of fresh water on the globe, being 380 M. 
long and 160 M. in extreme width, with an area of 31,600 sq. M. 
The mean depth is about 900 ft The lake receives the waters 
of 200 streams and contains numerous islands, chiefly near its 
E. and W. ends. Its coast-line (ca. 1500 M.) is irregular and general- 
ly rock-bound, some of its cliffs and hiUs being very picturesque. 
The water is singularly clear and bitterly cold even at midsum- 
mer. Lake Superior whiteflsh (Coregonus clupeiformis) are excellent 
eating, and the traveller should not miss the opportunity to taste 
them furnished by the steamer's bill-of-fare. Other varieties of fish 
are also abundant. 

Whitepah Pointy to the left, with its lighthouse, marks the end of 
Whiteflsh Bay and the beginning of the lake proper, across which we 
now hold a N.W. course for over 200 M., soon passing out of sight 
of land. The flrst land we come in sight of next morning is Isle 
Boyale^ a rugged, rock-bound island, 50 M. long, lying near the N. W. 

Babdbkeb's Canada. 3rd Edit. 15 

226 Routed?. CHARLOTTE. 

shore of the lake. It is supposed to contain vast deposits of copper, 
and is called at weekly by a steamer from Duluth. Our course bends 
to the left (W.) and passes between this island and the mainland. 
To the right rises the fine promontory of *Thander Cape, a huge 
volcanic mass rising 1300 ft. above the lake. Near its foot is the 
tiny Silver Islet^ which yielded between three and four million dollars 
worth of the precious metal before being drowned out by the waters of 
the lake. Passing Thunder Point, we enter Thunder Bay, the mouth 
of which, to the S. (1.), is closed by PU Island, The steamer generally 
calls at Port Arthur (p. 236), if the state of the water allows, before 
entering the Kammiitikwia River and reaching its terminus at — 

555 M. (280 M. ftom Sault-Ste-Marie) Fort WiUiam (see p. 236), 
where we join the C. P. R. for Manitoba, the N.W. Territories, and 
British Columbia. 

The N. shore of Lake Superior, of which we see so little from the 
steamer, is very picturesque at places but is not accessible except by small 
boat. Almost the only settlement on it between 8ault-Ste*Marie and Nipigon 
is Michipicoten^ a post of the Hudson Bay Ck). Deposits of gold-bearing 
ore have been discovered at Xoite Wawa^ about 5 M. from the Michipicotm 
River. Miehipieotm Jslcmd lies about 86 M. farther to the W. Comp. also 
p. 234. 

Steamers ply regularly from Fort William to Duhtth (see Baedeker't 
United States), skirting the N.W. coast of Lake Superior. 

47. From Toronto to Montreal by Steamer. 

The St. Lawrence fiiver and the Thousand lelandB. 

389 M. Mail Stbamsb of the Richelieu A Ontario NavigaHon Co. daily, 
leaying Toronto at 3 p.m. and reaching Montreal at 6.30 p.m. on the 
following day (fare $ 10, meals extra). This is the line described in the 
text. — Another steamer of the same company, starting from Hamilton (p. 209) 
at 4.80 a.m. on Tues., Thurs., & Sat., leaves Toronto at 4.80 p.m. and 
reaches Montreal at 12.30 p.m. on Thurs., Sat., A Mon. (fare $8.75. from 
Toronto $ 8 \ meals extra). This steamer skirts the N. shore of Lake On- 
tario to Kingston (p. 227), calling at Port Darling (for Bownumville, p. 188), 
Port Hope (p. 189), Cobourg (p. 189), Brighton, Trenton Q). 189), Belleville 
(p. 189), Northport, Picton (p. 189), and Cressy. Beyond mngston it follows 
the Canadian shore to Broekville (p. 229). whence its course is practically 
identical >Vith that described below. ~ As the sail through Lake Ontario 
offers no special attraction, many travellers prefer to leave Toronto by 
the evening train of the O.T.R. (about 9 p.m.) and Join the steamer at 
(178 M.) Kingston, which the boat leaves about 6 a.m. (through-fare as 
above $ fare from Kingston to Montreal $ b.^). This, however, involves 
leaving the sleeping-car at a very early hour (2.20 a.m.). Passengers who 
make the St. Lawrence trip from American soil may join the steamer 
at Charlotte (p. 227) or at Clayton (see p. 228, and comp. BtudAer^s United 
States). — In the reverse direction the steamers leave Montreal at 2.15 p.m. 
and Kingston at 5 p.m., reaching. Toronto at 6.30 a.m. Passengers may, 
however, take the G.T.R. train at 9 a.m. on the following morning, over- 
taking the steamer at Preseott (p. 229; 11.20 a.m.), before the Thousand 
Islands are reached. 

Leaving Toronto (p. 1901, the mail steamer steers to the S.E. 
across Lake Ontario (p. 2081 and makes its first si 

Digitized by 

KINGSTON. 47, Route. 227 

96 M. (11 p.m.) CharlotU (European Ho., Latta Ho., $2), a 
small lake-port in the State of Nev York, connected by a short rail- 
way with (7 M.) Rochester (see Bctedeker's United States'), 

The steamer now heads to the N.W. and crosses the lake to — 

185 M. (6 a.m.) Kingston (275 ft.; *British American, $2-4; 
Randolph, $2; Iroquois, $1-2; Anglo - American, $1-1^/2; U.S. 
Consul, Mr, H, D, Van Sant), the 'Limestone City', a prosperous place 
with (1901) 17,061 inhab., finely situated on the Cataraqui River j at 
the point where the 8t, Lawrenct leaves Lake Ontario, and making 
a brave and imposing show with its grey stone batteries and Martello 
towers. It contains locomotive-works and other factories, and much 
of the produce brought down from the Upper Lakes is here trans- 
shipped to barges for carriage to Montreal. It is also the outlet for 
the traffic of the Rideau Canal (p. 183). 

Kingston plays a role of some importance in the history of Canada. 
Count de Frontenac, Governor of Canada, established Fori Frontenae at this 
point in 1683 and fntrnsted it to the care of the Chevalier de la Salle, who 
here built the first vessel to navigate Lake Ontario (p. 208). The settle- 
ment was soon afterwards distroyed by the Iroquois, hut was restored by 
Frontenac in 1695, since which time it has been the key of the Upper 
St. Lawrence. The name Kingston was given to it by United Empire 
Loyalists after the American Revolution. During the war of 1812 Kingston 
was the rendezvous and arsenal of the naval force on Lake Ontario. From 
1841 to 1844 it was the seat of the Canadian Government. 

A small steamer plies regularly from Kingston to (15 M.) Cape Vincent 
in New York State (see Baedeker's United Siatee). — Steamer Route to Ottawa, 
see p. 188. 

Kingston is the seat of the Univbrsitt op Queen's College, one 
of the leading universities of Canada, attended by about 1000 students, 
some of whom are women. — Here is also the Royal Military 
College, the *Woolwich Academy* of Canada, with 80 cadets. — 
Fort Henry, begun in 1812, is the strongest in the Dominion after 
those of Quebec and Halifax, but could offer no effective resistance 
to modern ordnance. It is not garrisoned. — The THe du Pont Bar- 
racks contain a battery of artillery. — Among the other large build- 
ings are the Provincial Penitentiary, the Lunatic Asylum, the City 
Hall, the Court House, and the Post Office, At the main entrance 
of the City Park is a bronze Statue of Sir* J. A. Macdonald, by Wade 
(a replioa of that at Montreal, p. 133). 

The St. Lawrence Biver, which we have now reached, has a 
length, measured from its farthest source to the E. end of the island 
of Anticosti (p. 3), of 2100 M. and drains an area of 530,000 sq. M. 
Its upper portions are, however, known as the St, Louis, the St. Mary^s 
(p. 224), the St, Clair or Detroit (p. 206), and the Niagara (p. 216) ; 
and the name usually attaches only to the stream as fin^y issuing from 
Lake Ontario and draining the Great Lakes, which between that lake 
and the Pointe de Monte (p. 4) is about 500 M. long. It pours more 
fresh water into the ocean than any other river except the Amazon. 
In its upper course its width is 1-7 M., while below Quebec it ex- 
pands to 20-30 M. The river is nayigable for large ocean-^vesaelMo 

16*^ d 

228 BouU 47, ALEXANDRIA BAY. From Toronto 

Montreal, and for river-steamers (with the aid of canals to avoid the ra- 
pids) all the way to the Great Lakes. During 4-5 months all navi- 
gation is stopped by ice. *The whole history of Canada is intimately 
connected with this great river, by means of which pioneers starting 
from Quebec or Montreal had overrun a great part of the interior of 
the continent before the settlers of the Atlantic coast had crossed the 
Appalachians' (G. M. BawBon), 

Reference may be made to *Tbe St. Lawrence Basin and its Border 
Lands', by S. E. Dawson (London, 1905), and to 'The St. Lawrence Biver', 
by Q. W. Browne (1906). 

On leaving Kingston our steamer almost at once begins to traverse 
the expansion of the St. Lawrence known as the *Lake of the Thou- 
sand Islands, which is 40 M. long and 4-7 M. wide and contains 
about 1700 islands, big and little. Many of these islands are favourite 
summer-resorts, with hotels and boarding-houses, while others are 
private property, with the country-houses of rich Americans and 
Canadians. The voyage through them is picturesque, and many of 
the islands are illuminated at night. Our course at first lies between 
Wolft or Long Island (r.) and Howe Island (1.). 

210 M. (r.; 7.20 a.m.) Clayton (flu6 fcard, $2-21/2; IzaaJc Wal- 
ton, $2-2^/2; Herald Ho,, $iV2"^)» * "village and summer-resort 
with (1900) 1913 inhab., is the terminus of the Rome, Watertown, & 
Ogdensburg R.B. from (108 M.) Vtica (comp. Baedeker^s United 
Stcctes"). Opposite is the large Ormdstone Island, behind which, on 
the Canadian shore, lies Oanaru)que. 

Oananoque (Oananoqtte Itm, $ 272-4 1 International, $2), a town with 
(1901) 3526 inhab., affords pleasant headquarters for those who wish to 
explore the Thousand Isles at leisure. It is not called at by our boat, 
but a smaller steamer makes regular trips among the islands. — Gordon 
Island, a little below Gananoque, has been transformed into a public park. 

213 M. {l^ Bound Island, with the large Hotel Frontenae ($5). 

216 M. (1.) Thonsand Islands Park (Columbian, $3-4: Murray 
Hill, $3-4; Grand View Park, $2-21/2} New Welksley, $2-2V2), 
a great Methodist resort, at the W. end of Wellesley Island, 

226 M. (r.; 8 a.m.) Alexandria Bay {Crossmon, $ 4-5; Thousand 
Isle Ho., $4-5; Edgewood, $21/2-4; Marsden Ho,, $21/2-31/2), the 
chief resort among the Thousand Islands, lies on the American 
shore, opposite Wellesley Island, and counts pretty scenery and good 
boating and fishing among its attractions. Among the most promi- 
nent -villas on the neighbouring islets are those of the late George 
M, Pullman (d. 1897) and H, H. Warner (of the *Safe Cure'). — 
Westminster Park (Hotel Westminster, $ 2-4) lies at the E.. end 
of Wellesley Island, opposite Alexandria Bay, and is reached by 

Farther on we pass the Summerland Islets (1.) and the long Gre- 
nadier Island (1.), leave the Lake of the Thousand Isles, and reach 
the open river, here about 2 M. vdde. For some distance now the 
voyage is monotonous and uninteresting. ^ j 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

to Montreal. CORNWALL. 47, Route, 229 

261 M. (1.) BrockviUe (Strathcona, $21/2-372; Revere, $2-21/2? 
St. Lawrence Hall, $11/2-2; Orand Central, $11/2; U. S. Consul, 
Mr. E. 8. Hotchkiss), named after Gen. Brock (p. 209), is a Canadian 
city with (1901) 8940inhab., numerous manufactures, and good 
fishing. This port is not invariably called at. See pp. 182, 188. 

266 M. (1.) Prescott (Daniels Ho., $2-3; U. S. Consul, Mr. Martin 
R. Sackett), with (1901) 3019 inhabitants. Passengers are here 
transferred from the lake-steamer to the river-steamer. — Opposite 
lies — 

Ogdensbnrg (Seymour Ho., $2-3; Windsor, Norman, $2), a 
city at the mouth of the OawegatchU, with (1900) 12,633 inhab. and 
a trade in grain. [The steamer does not call here.] — About 1 l^T. 
below Prescott, on the Canadian shore, are the ruins of a stone Wind- 
mill, in which a body of ^Patriots', under Von Schultz, a Polish exile, 
maintained themselves for a few days against the Canadian forces in 
1837. — To the right, on the American shore, the buildings of 
the Point Airy New York State Asylum for the Insane are conspi- 
cuous. — Chimney Island, 4 M. farther on, has the remains of a 
French fortification. 

About 9 M. below Ogdensbnrg we pass through the OaUops or 
Galoups Bapidt, 71/2 M. long, which are followed, 41/2 M. lower, by 
the Bapide Plat. Neither of these is very noticeable, though each is 
avoided by a canal (Canadian side) in going upstream. Between the 
two rapids we pass tiie narrowest point in the river (500 ft.). Numer- 
ous islands. On the left bank lies Morrisburg (St. Lawrence Hall, 

About 36 M. beyond Prescott we enter the *Long Sault Bapids, 
between the Canadian shore and Long Sault Island. The rapids are 
9 M. long and are tumultuous enough to give a slight suggestion 
of danger to the process of ^shooting' them. They are avoided in 
ascending by the Cornwall Canal, 11 1/2 M. long. Part of the water 
of these rapids is to be deflected into a great power-canal. 

314 M. (L; 1 p.m.) Cornwall (Bossmore Ho., Balmoral, Du- 
quette, $11/2-2; U. 8., Agent), a manufacturing town of (1901) 
6704 Inhab., at the foot of the Long Sault Rapids, is a station on 
the New York & Ottawa Railway, which crosses the St. Lawrence 
here (comp. p. 182). The Cornwall Lacrosse Club is one of the best 
in Canada. — The boundary between the United States and Canada 
bends away from the river here, and the Indian village of St. Begis, 
almost opposite Cornwall, is in the Province of Quebec. The Adiron- 
dack Mts. (p. 13) are now visible to the right. 

The steamer now steers a^oss the river to Stanley Island (Algon- 
quin Hotel), near the American shore. — Below this point we 
traverse the expansion of the river named Lake St, Francis, 28 M. 
long and 6-7 M. wide. Both banks are now in Quebec. 

At (346 M.) Coteau Landing the river is crossed by the fine 
iron bridge of the Grand Trunk Railway. Opposite Coteau is Valley- 

230 Bouted7. LACHINE. 

field (p. 16). [Stanley Island and Cotean Landing may be omitted 
if the steamer is late.] We now enter a series of rapids "which follow 
each other at short intervals, with a combined length of about 11 M. : 
Coteau Rapid , Cedar Rapid, Split Rock Rapid , and the ^Cascades, 
These are avoided, in going upstream, by the Soulanges Canal^ 14 M. 
long, with four locks (lockage 82^2 ^0- ^^^ l^gQ Roman Catholic 
churches of the villages that line the banks are now very conspicuous. 

359 M. Beauhamois (1976 inhab. in 1901), at the foot of this 
series of rapids, lies opposite the mouths of the two westernmost 
arms of the Ottawa River, which here enter the St. Lawrence, enclos- 
ing the island ofPerrot (p. 185). To the left lies Ste, Anne (p. 185). 
^Neither of these points is touched at. — The Lake of 8t, Louiiy 
which we now traverse, is 12-15 M. long. 

On leaving Lake St. Louis we pass (375 M.) Laohine (Harvey 
Ho,, $lV2-2), a pleasant little tovm with (1901) 5561 inhab., fre- 
quented in summer for rowing and sailing. The name seems to have 
been given to it in 1669 in derision of those of La Sailers men who 
had deserted and returned to the point on the Island of Montreal, 
whence, three or four months before, they had set out to find a route 
to *China' (comp. Parkman's *La Salle ; and the Discovery of the 
Great West'). Near the head of the aqueduct stands the house built 
by La Salle. In 1689 Lachine was captured and destroyed by the 
Iroquois, who put all the inhabitants to death, many of them at the 
stake. It is believed that 200 persons lost their lives on this fatal 
night. Opposite lies Caughnawaga (p. 47). 

The famed ^Lachine Baplds, the shortest (3 M.) but most vio- 
lent Qf all, form an exciting and dramatic close to our voyage. The 
rapids begin just below the fine bridge of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way (p. 47). The Lachine Canal, for the use of vessels going up- 
stream, is 8Y2 ^* lo^S ai^d ^as ^^6 locks, affording a rise of 45 ft. 
Soon after leaving the rapids we pass under the ^Victoria Jubilee 
Bridge (p. 137). To the left lies — 

389 M. Montreal (p. 125). 

48. From Montreal to Fort Arthur and Fort William. 

996 M. Canadian Paci'fic Railway to Fort William in S2 hra. (fares 
$ 29.56, $ 22.40; sleeper $ 6; tourist-sleeper $8). The toarist-cars are quite 
comfortable in travelling from W. to £., but in the reverse direction they 
are apt to be filled with emigrants, cooking their own food. The Pulman 
cars are reserved for holders of first-class tickets. 

This line forms part of the great Transcontinental Railway route of 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, the only railway corporation which crosses 
the entire American Continent from E. to W., a distance, from Ha^fax 
(p. 50) to Vimcouver (p. 284), of 3662 M. (6V2 days; fare $92.50, or, for pass- 
engers booked through from Europe, $ 77.50: sleeper $22, tourist-car $ 11). 
The distance from Montreal to Vancouver is 2904 H., accomplished in about 
4 days (fare $77.75 or $62.40; sleeper $18, tourist-car $9). ILondon is 
thus brought within 1(^11 days of Vancouver and thre^ weeks^ of Japan.] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

PEMBROKE. 48. Route. 231 

The ^Imperial Limited* leaves Montreal every morning (9.40 a.m.), and the 
^Pacific Express" every evening (9.40 p.m.), and sleeping-cars run through 
to Vancouver without change. In addition to these two daily trains the 
^Over Seas Limited* leaves Quebec immediately after the arrival of the 
G. P. R. steamer and runs through to Vancouver, connecting there with the 
G.P.B. steamer for Japan and China. Thus passengers can travel under 
G. P. B. management from Liverpool to Hongkong with only two changes. 
Holders of through sleeping-car tickets to Vancouver or Mission Junction 
(p. 284) from any point to the E. of Winnipeg will be furnished, on appli- 
cation to the porter, with checks for 'stopover* at Winnipeg, Banff, Laggail, 
Field, Glacier, Bevelstoke, Sicamous Junction, or North Bend. Good meals 
are provided on dining-cars (D. $ 1, B. «fe L. a la carte). In excellency of 
rolling-stock and road-bed, in punctuality of service, in the comfort of its 
sleeping-cars, and in the courtesy of its employees, the G.P.B. stands very 
high among American railways. 

Travellers for pleasure, who have plenty of time at their disposal, are 
advised to go from Montreal to Winnipeg vi& Ottawa, Toronto, and the 
steamer-route described in B. 46, as there is comparaUvely little of interest 
on the direct railway journey. G.P.B. tickets from Montreal to Winnipeg 
and all points to the W. of it are available by either route. From Win- 
nipeg to Banff the railway runs through a prairie-region of wheat-fields 
and cattle-ranches (comp. p. 251); while the last 600 M., from Banff to Van- 
couver, display a grandeur and variety of scenery such as is seen, on so 
ample a scale, on no oUier railway in the world (comp. BB. 52, 06). 

The 'Annotated Time Table* of the G.P.B., supplied gratis to passen- 
gers on application (interleaved, if preferred), is the handiest and most 
practical publication of the kind known to the Editor. 

For the G.P.B. steamship line to Japtm^ see p. 285. 

From Monireal (Windsor St. Station) to (112 M.) Ottawa^ see 
R. 34 a. The train tben runs at first towards the S.W., soon leaving the 
Ottawa^ with its log-legions. At (144 M.) Carleton Junction (Station 
Hotel, with restaurant, $ 1 1/2), on the Mississippi Biver^ our line turns 
to the right,(N.W.), while the line to BrockvUle (see p. 182) diverges 
to the left (S.E.). The town of Carleton Place has large saw-mills 
and railway- workshops. Pop. (1901) 4069. Lake Mississippi^ 21/2 M. 
tf the S.W., contains bass and pike. — 151 M. Almonte^ with thriving 
woollen -mills and (1901) 3023 inhab.; 160 M. Pakenham, At 
(168 M.) Amprior we connect with the Grand Trunk Railway (see 
p. 203). 

. For the next 150 M. we follow the S. (right) bank of the Ottawa, 
which forms the boundary between Quebec (N. bank) and Ontario all 
the way from Lake Timiskaming (p. 239) to a point near its mouth. 
This part of the valley is inhabited by Highland, English, and Ger- 
man settlers, who gain a livelihood by farming and the timber-in- 
dustry. Good fishing, for maskinonge, trout, and bass, is afforded by 
the Ottawa itself and by its tributaries. 173 M. Sand Pointy a sum- 
mer-resort. — 186 M. Renfrew (3163 inhab. in 1901), the junction 
of lines to (23 M.) EganviUe and to Sharbot Lake (p. 187) and (104 M.) 
Kingston ^. 227), is also a station on the Parry Sound Railway 
(p. 203). A large creamery at Renfrew produces about 2000 lbs. of 
butter per day. We now cut off a bend of the river, enclosing the 
little Mttsk Bat Lakes between it and the railway. 

221 M. Pembroke (Copeland House, $2-272), a^^ industrious little 
town of (1901) 6166 inhab., with saw-mills and factories, is the chief 

232 Route 48. MATTAWA. From Montreal 

place in the npper Ottawa Valley. It lies on the expansion of the 
river called AUumette Lake^ opposite the UU des AUumettes, A little 
lower down are Lake Cotdonge, with Fort Cotdonge on its N. bank, 
Calumet Island, and the *Calumet Falls, 

Samuel de Champlain^ the *Father of New France', succeeded in 
ascending the Ottawa Valley as far aa the Isle des AUumettes in 1618. 
Here he discovered that his guide Vignau was an impostor, who had 
never been farther up the river than this point. The Algonquin (Ottawa) 
Indians whom he found here were friendly, but he was unable to secure 
their help in pushing his way westwards to Lake Nipi$$ing (jp. 283). Oomp. 
Parbnan^t ^Pioneers of France*. 

The river is navigable for some distance above and below Pembroke, 
which is an excellent centre for trout-fishers. The scenery of the *Nar- 
rows, at the head of Lake AUumette, and of the so-called *Deep River^ 
higher up, is very fine. 

Beyond Pembroke the valley contracts and hills rise on either 
side. The district is still very thinly settled. The railway cuttings 
for many miles to the W. of this point show excellent sections of 
the Laurentian formations. The rocks shown *are for the most part 
highly characteristic red, gray, and dark-banded gneisses j felspathic 
and homblendic, and frequently garnetiferons and micaceous. There 
are also some large bands of gray and white crystalline limestone* 
(Selwyn). — 243 M. Chalk River (Rail. Restaurant), a railway divi- 
sional station ; 252 M. Bass Lake-, 271 M. RocUiffe, 281 M. BUselt 
and (294 M.) Deux Rivihres (Western Hotel) are excellent points for 
trout-Ashing. The latter is 10 M. from the N.E. comer of Algonquin 
Park (p. 204). Picturesque scenery. 

315 M. Mattawa (565 ft. ; Mattawa Hotel, $ 1), a town with 
(1901) 1400 inhab., at the confluence of the Ottawa and the McOtawa^ 
was formerly a fur-trading post of the Hudson Bay Co. and is now 
a distributing point for a large lumbering-district and a favourite 
resort of sportsmen and anglers (comp. p. Ivi). The name is an 1^- 
dian word, meaning *The Forks'. 

Guides, canoes, fishing-tackle, ammunition, and supplies may be ob- 
tained here by those who wish to shoot or fish in the vicinity. The game 
includes black bear, deer, wolves, lynx, wild-cat, wolverine, and wood- 
grouse. H oose and caribou also occur. Excellent fishing for bass and trout 
may be obtained in the Mattawa River and the innumerable other small 
streams and lakes in which the district abounds. Oomp. the pamphlet on 
*Fishing and Shooting' issued gratuitously by the O.P.E. 

From Mattawa to Timiskamino, 39 M., railway in 2V2 hrs. (fare $ 1.56). 
This railway runs to the foot (S. end) of Lake Timiekaming (p. 289), and 
the scenery along the route is very picturesque. — From (37 M.) iSpawa 
Junction a branch-line runs to (9 H.) Kipawa, on the lake of that name. — 
39 H. Timiekaming, and steamers thence to points on the lake, see p. 289. 

The nearest point of Algonquin Park (p. 204) is about 12 M. to the S. 
of Mattawa. 

Beyond Mattawa the train leaves the Ottawa and runs to the W. 
through a wild district of lakes and streams. 341 M. Bonfield was 
the point originally fixed on as the E. terminus of the transconti- 
nental railway, but on the work being transferred firom the Govjem- 
ment to the Canadian Pacific Co. Montreal was selected instead. 
356 M. Nipissing Junction (see p. 201). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

to Port Arthur, SUDBURY. 48, BouU. 233 

360 M. Korth Bay (660 ft.; Pacific Hotd, Queen'i, from $ 2, 
both indifferent; Bail. Restaurant; U. 8. Agent), a bright little town 
with (1901) 2530 inhab., lies on the N.E. bank of Lake Nipissing 
(see below). It is the terminas of the G. T. R. line to the Muskoka 
District and Toronto described in R. 43, and of the line to the Te- 
magami Region, described in R. 49. A small steamer plies to 
various points on Lake Nipissing (see below). Information as to 
shooting and fishing may be obtained from Mr, 8. A. Huntington, 
Fishery Overseer and Game Warden at North Bay. 

Lake Nipisiing (640 ft. above the sea), 55 H. long and 10-20 M. wide, 
is very irregular in shape, with numerous promontories and islands. The 
first white man to see it was the R^collet friar Le Caran in 1614, and 
Ghamplain reached it on his second Ottawa expedition in the following 
year. Steamers ply regularly on the lake, and boats for rowing and 
sailing can be hired. Its waters abound in maskinonge, pike, bass, 
and pickerel; and good shooting and fishing may be obtained in the sur- 
rounding country. North Bay has thus acquired some reputation as a 
centre for sportsmen. The Mpissings, a tribe of Algonquin Indians en- 
countered on this lake, were known by the French as the '8orcerers\ 
on account of their reputed intercourse with demons and their skill in 
the black art. 

About 3 H. to the E. of North Bay (good road) lies Trout Lake (De- 
laney^s Hotel, $ 1V2-2), 11 M. long and 1 M. wide, the headwater of the 
Mattawa. It is a favourite resort, well stocked with bass, grey trout, and 
speckled trout. The lake also possesses a wonderful echo. 

Lake Nipissing is drained by the French River, which issues from it 
on the S.W., and flows into Lake Huron after a course of about ^ M. The 
name commemorates the fact that this was the route by which the early 
French explorers first reached Lake Huron (see p. 228), being debarred by 
the hostility of the Indians from crossing Lake Ontario. This route, vi& 
the Ottawa, Lake Nipissing, and the French River, formed the regular ap- 
proach to the Upper Lakes for 150 years. The scenery of the French 
Biver is highly picturesque. 

The train skirts the N. shore of Lake Nipissing, passing a reser- 
vation of Nipissing Indians at (375 M.) Meadowside and crossing 
the Sturgeon at (384 M.) Sturgeon Falls. 409 M. Hagar; 428 M. 
Wanapitei (775ft.); 433 M. Romford, — 440 M. Sudbury (850 ft.; 
Hotel; Bail, Restaurant; U, 8. Agent), with its smelting-works and 
(1901) 2027 inhab., lies in the midst of rich deposits of nickeliferous 
pyrrhotite, containing on an average about 2^4 per cent of nickel. 
The amount of the ore produced in 1904 was 203,388 tons, yielding 
nickel to the -value of $1,516,747. Copper, cobalt, and platinum 
are also procured from the ore. Sudbury is the starting-point of a 
line to Sault-Ste-Marie (see below). 

Fboh Sudburt to Sault-Ste-Maeib, 182 M., in 5V2 hrs. (fares $ 5.50, 
$ 4.90; sleeper $1.60). Through-carriages run by this route from E. points 
to St. Paul, H inneapolis, and Duluth. — Most of the intermediate stations 
are unimportant. 7l H. Spanish is the station for (3 H.) Spanish Biver, 
a lumbering-port on the N. bank of Lake Huron. Our line reaches Lake 
Huron at (95 M.) Algoma, another timber- trading place. The long island 
of Manitoulin is seen on the other side of the Iforth Clumnei, 4-6 M. distant 
fcomp. p. 224). 182 H. Thessalon iq,ueen% $ li/s*, 1205 inhab.) ; 142 M. Bruce^ 
with deserted copper-mines. The Desharats Islands^ in Lake Huron, opposite 
(151 M.) Desbarats (Hiawatha, $ 2; Kokomis Lodge, $ 1), have become a 
popular resort. 164 H. £koba. — 179 H. SauU-SU-Marie, Ontario (comm. 

Digitized by VjOOQIc 

234 Route 48. HERON BAY. From Montreal 

?. 2^4). The train then crosses the SauU River and Canal by a fine bridge, 
M. long, and reaches — 
182 M. Sault-Ste-Karie, Michigan (see p. 224). 

Beyond Sudbury our train runs towards the N.W., through a 
sparsely-peopled forest-clad region, seamed with small rivers and 
dotted with innumerable lakes. For about 70 M. the rocks passed 
over belong to the Huronian system. To the right, about 3 M. from 
Sudbury, is the Murray Nickel and Copper Mine. At (468 M.) 
Larchwood (868 ft.) we cross the Vermilion River. The oval de- 
pressions visible in the surface of the sandstone rock here are locally 
known as ^Nanabozhoo's Snowshoe Tracks'. As we near (464 M.) 
Onaping (1050 ft.) a gUmpse of the high falls (150 ft.) of the Ver- 
milion River is obtained to the right. To the left, beyond Onaping, 
lies Windy Lake or Lake Makoping. 475 M. Cartier (1365 ft.) is a 
divisional station. Beyond (496 M.) Pogamasing (1165 ft.) we cross 
the Spanish River j which here runs between cliffs of red hornblende- 
granite, 300 ft. high. 629 M. Bisco lies on a lake of the same name. 
The line now follows the 'height of land', or watershed, between 
Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes. At (661 M.) Wom^m River we 
cross the stream of that name, and beyond (578 M.) Ridout the 
Apishkaugama. From (569 M.) Wakami canoe-trips are made by 
the Mississauga River to Lake Huron. 612 M. Chapleau (RaiL 
Restaurant), a divisional station, on Lake Kabequashesing, to the N. 
of the watershed ; 642 M. Wayland, with iron-mines. — At (672 M.) 
Missanahie (1105 ft.), where we cross Dog Lake, a very short portage 
connects the streams flov^ing towards the N. with those descending 
to Lake Superior. 

This was an important point for the fur-trade long before the railway 
was constructed, the Miehipicoten River, connecting it with Lake Su- 
perior, and the ifoose River, running K. to James Bay, forming a natural 
highway between the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay (comp. p. 226). Large 
quantities of furs are still brought hither from the K. by the Moose 
River. The Miehipicoten affords good fishing. — Some gold mines are 
operated a little to the S. of Missanabie. 

Beyond Missanabie the construction of the line was attended with 
considerable difficulties, overcome by skilful engineering. Numerous 
rock-cuttings are passed. The extensive yards at (744 M.) White 
River (Rail. Restaurant) are for resting cattle on their way to the E. 
We then follow the White River (left) for some distance, and cross 
it beyond (760 M.) Bremner. To the right lies Round Lake. Farther 
on we cross the Big Pic River by a lofty iron bridge and reach (800 M.) 
Heron Bay (708 ft.), at the N.E. comer of Lake Superior (see 
p. 225). 

For the next 200 M. the railway follows the N. bank of Lake 
Superior more or less closely. The scenery is very striking, and the 
traveller should rise early in order to enjoy it. At many points the 
line runs on ledges cut out in the side of the fine granite cliffs, 
which border the shore and often rise to a height of hundreds of feet. 
Numerous tunnels and bridges are necessary, andr^he httcdness of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

to Port Arthur. NIPIGON. 48. Route. 235 

these ancient and finely colonred rocks immensely increased the en- 
gineering difficulties of this part of the railway. The lake is not always 
in sight, hut numerous views of its vast blue expanse are enjoyed. 
Innumerable streams flow into its waters from the N., nearly all of 
them affording good sport to the angler. Trails to these rivers, see 
p. lii. — 808 M. Peniruiula (inn) ; 819 M. Coldwell. Farther on we 
cross the Little Pic Rwer and reach (826 M.) Middleton. — 844 M. 
Jack FUh, at the mouth of the river of the same name and on a fine 
sweeping bay, is an excellent fishing-station, both for river-trout and 
for the whitefish (p. 226), sturgeon, and lake-trout of Lake Superior 
itself. A little farther on rises Ogilvie^t Butte^ one of the most striking 
of the numerous basaltic protuberances which interrupt the granite 
formations of the shore. — At (863 M.) Schreiber (RaU. Restaurant) 
information as to fishing and guides may be obtained from the 
Divisional Superintendent or the Divisional Engineer. At (877 M.) 
Rosiport (646 ft.) we reach the beautiful *Nipigon Bay^ cut off from 
the main body of the lake by a chain of islands. 894 M. Gravel is 
another good angling-resort. 

926 M. Nipigon (Taylor's Hotel, $2) lies at the mouth of the 
Nipigon Btucr, the largest river flowing into Lake Superior and one 
of the most famous trouting-streams in Canada. Adjacent lies Red 
Rockj a post of the Hudson Bay Co. The railway crosses the river 
here by a bridge 780 ft. long and 86 ft. high. 

The l^ipigon issues from Lake ^Nipigon (see below), to the N. of Lake 
" ■ 'OM. (- - — - 

Superior, and in its course of about 40 H. descends 300 ft. and forms three 
small lakes. It abounds in speckled trout, which not unfrequently reach 
a size of 5-8 lbs. One of the favourite resorts of fishermen is Camp 
Alexander, about 12 M. from Nipigon Station, with which it is connected 
in the fishing-season (June 16th-Sept. SOth) hy a steam-launch. 

*Lake Nipigon (900 ft. above the sea), measuring about 70 M. by 50 H. 
in its longest diameters, is very irregular in shape and contains numerous 
islands. It is well stocked with whitefish and trout and is a veritahle 
paradise for anglers. The scenery is very fine. 

Anglers who mean to fish in the ^Nipigon region are advised to apply 
beforehand to the Hudson Bay Go.'s Manager at Red Bock and inform him 
of the size of the party and of what is wanted in the shape of guides, 
canoes (50 c. per day), camp-outfit, and the like. The guides are generally 
Indians (fee % 2-2Va per dAy). One canoe and two Indians will suffice 
for two anglers, and the total expense for each person need not exceed 
$4 per day. Black flies and mosquitoes are troublesome, especially in 
the early part of the season, and protections against their bites are dis- 

About 31/2 M. beyond Nipigon the train rounds the cliff known 
from its colour as Red Rock. To the left we ^njoy a good view across 
the bay , with the islands of La Grange j l$le Verte^ and St. Jgnace. 
We then intersect the neck of the promontory jutting out between 
Nipigon Bay and Black Bay , skirt the latter , and strike direct for 
Port Arthur, crossing the Black Sturgeon River. Black Bay is bounded 
on the W. by the bold Thunder Cape (p. 226), sheltering Thunder 
Bay, of which we obtain pleasant glimpses. 944 M. Wolf; 969 M. 
Pearl; 977 M. Mackenzie. r^r^^rrl^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIc 

236 Route 48. FORT WILLIAM. 

992 M. Port Arthur (610 ft. ; Mariaggi, $2-7; Algomay $2-3; 
Rail, Rtstawani), a small lake-port, with (1901) 3214 inhab. (now 
7600J, lies on the W. shore of Thunder Bay in a district rich in gold 
and silver. It is the lake-terminus of the Canadian Northern Railway, 
which here possesses the largest grain-elevator in the world, com- 
prising two metal-clad working-houses and two tile storage-annexes, 
with a total capacity of 7,000,000 bushels. Boating and Ashing are 
obtained in the bay, which, however, is subject to squalls. Steamers 
run hence to Duluth (see Baedeker's United 8tate$), An electric 
tramway connects Port Arthur with Fort William (see below). 

Faoh Post Abthub to Gunflint, 86 M., Canadian NortMm Bailway in 
7-8 hrs. This line passes (8 T/L.) Fort William and runs towards the 8.W. 
20 M. Stanley^ the nearest station to the (3 M.) KakaUka Fall* (p. 242). 40 H. 
Silvw Mountain; 56 M. 8and Lak€; 71 H. North Lake. — About 6 M. from 
the present terminus are the Ounjlint Mine* in the Iron Range^ an important 
iron-producing district in Minnesota (comp. Baedeker^e United States). 

995 M. Fort William (607 ft; Empire, *Kaministiquia Hotel, 
$ 2-3; Avenue, $ 2; U. 8. Agent), the lake-port of the W. section 
of the C. P. R. and the terminus of the E. division, lies on the wide 
and deep Kamvnistikwia, just above its mouth in Lake Superior. 
Pop. (1901) 3997 (now 7500). This is the point at which passengers 
who have crossed Lakes Huron and Superior by steamer (see R. 46) 
rejoin the railway. The wharf is connected with the railway-station 
by a lofty foot-bridge. Adjacent are several immense Grain Elevators, 
Large quantities of grain from Manitoba and the North- West are 
shipped here for carriage on the Great Lakes. The picturesque 
situation of Fort William, in conjunction with its boating, fishing, 
and shooting facilities, attracts many summer- visitors. Adjacent 
rises the abrupt Mcickay Mountain (see below). 

A small post was established here by Du Luth towards the close of 
the 17th century, but was afterwards abandoned. In 1801 it became a 
port of the Hudson Bay Oo., and the old fort is still preserved as an en- 
gine-house. The Kaministikwia and its connecting waters formed a canoe- 
route by which the Indians of the North- West brought their furs to the 
traders. It was by this route that Col. Wolseley transported his forces to 
Fort Oarry in 1870 (see p. 246). 

Maekay Mt. (see above) affords a fine view of the lake, town,