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Full text of "Dorothy Filene Collection 1888-1972 bulk: 1900-1962"

AR 7202 

Filene, Dorothy 
Dorothy Filene Collection 



LEO BAECK INSTITUTE 

Center for Jewish History 

15 West 16th Street 
NewYork. NY 10011 

Phone: (212) 744-6400 

Fax:(212)988-1305 

Email: lbaeck@lbi.cjh.org 

URL: http://www.lbi.org 



Date: 7/29/2009 



Sys#: 000198663 



Box: 2 



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Dorothy H* Fllene 



Course 81 

Education and Social Progress 

Mr. Llnderrah 

Dece ber 23rd, 1941 



o 



heport on Nathanial Cantor's 

••what Is A Kormal Mind'* 



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and 
SoEe Personal Thou(?hts 
Evolving; rj?om This heading 



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imthanlel Cantor In his analysis •/;hat la The 
KorTial Mind** conipares the norr!:al Tiind to the healthy body* 
No one Is xeally healLhy, everyone nas different pains but 
atlll functions normally In dally life; thus in -ental 
life In si>lte cf various worries and possible Jil imitations 
are we still able to function adequately. 

liapplness and adjust rent lave been the standards 
used up to date In leasurln.v the nornal -^Ind; both lack 
definitlona in their: :elves . Cantor suggests t .at our 
feeling and attitudes are basic in deflnln, the normal -^inl. 

In tryln.. to define tae concept ^nor-al*^ for our 
nental life Cautor uses the negative nethod. He explains 
that an abnorn-al mind can be observed from abnormal behavior 
the behavior is symptonatic of our needs which have been 
frustrated by cultural de ands and by individuals with mhova 
we nave cone into contact. In order to rr.alntaln the norral 
niental balance we try to obi^in protection and security at 
the cost of curtallin:- 8elf-ex,:resslon and by submitting to 
authority. When this is done is a moderate de^rree the in 31. 
vidual functions nDr-ally; if either restraint from self- 
expression or sub-lsslon to authority is exa^;^:e rated, we 
find traits like fear, lepeidency, lac;c of initiative, or 
anxiousness and restl ssness. In analyzing the abnormal in 
tnis way Cantoi confirns the basic law acknowled ed by a 



• 



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a majority of present psychiatrists: the abnorrral as a 
deviation froT; the nornal is a questlo . of degree not a 
question of -Ind. 

Cantor discusses the vital probleir of the 
develop;.';ent of insecurity and concludes that this is due 
aialnly to the fact that security has its roots In affection 
(emotional relationshipff) while our present culture 
apparently bases security on achievement* In fact ve 
acaleve thrcu h certain abllitleSp and ac "ileve-^ent In our 
present economical and cultural setting Is extre ely 
difficult and obvlouGly calls for a steadily mounting 
insecurity* The noraial individual uses ils strivin for 
success as an addition to his security, the abnorital uoes 
the stru^.rle for achieve :ent (competition) as a substitute 
for his lack of affection. In tie achieve-:ent area, the 
individual faces a two-fold danger in his atte-pt to eicape 
insecurity* He may be afraid to fail, on t'^e other hand he 






ay be afraid cf tiae hostility of others in case that he 



succeeds too //ell* 



Cantor states that trje ladividual faces cultural 
pressures tarou^h the following cauflicts: 



stimulated nee .s 
Individual effort 
corr petition 



their frustration 



institutional pressure 
co-operation 



9) 



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.^M^.. »■■ .- !,■, ■ .I rS 



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To maintain or attain a ncr-ral xlnd, we need 
economic security and an opportunity for creative self- 
expression, Tne normal Indl'/ldual has a dynamic balance 
between need for self-expression and self-repression and 
possesses Intemal freedom and lack of disruptive fear. 

Cantor concludes that it is the tragic inad- 
equacy of our pr sent cultural l:fe and its institutions 
that they fail to nieet the basic needs of hUTian drives 
and thus hamper the development of a ncr^-al perse nail ty* 



0) 



0) 



In reading Cantor's article on the normal mind, 
I tried to link it up ;ith the present situation and the 
question of trie "nor al** reaction of people to sudden 



erLergencles and danger. Th- proble n arises 



• •• 



ho is re- 



acting more efficiently in erergency situations 

a) the individual havinr a rich background 
in practical experience as how to face danger, and already 
has acquired a certain set of habits which function 
automatically, 

b) the ature individual 7/ho las hardly 
expsiienced emergeriCles, but has farrillarized himself with 
the idea rrentally. I.e. has thought throughtthe best 
possible reactions, 

c) the youn^ inexperienced individual with 
little forral education, whose nervous syste:! has not been 
overstrained, and who acts mostly b impulse? 



•' ^1 



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\ 



Keallzln, that this classification Is rather 
artificial, and tnat probably no such clean cut separation 
exists, the fact re ains that certain qualities are pre- 
dominating in certain groups of people. Golne back to 
Cantor's analysis, the proble'r of efficient reaction to 
errergencles is noL a question of normal or abnor-^al but 
rather a question of varying dej^ees. 

Loo<ing at the a) group, we find certain common 
factors on bota tie positive and tae nagative side. The 
individual who nas faced errergencies frequently qualifies 
better fcr the present situation in-as-n:uch as t'le 
ea:oticnal strain of experiencing:: the new is eliminated} 
also certain actions w ,lch have beco-e automatic have con- 
ditioned the '.ind free to plan quickly and cooly. It has 
been observed that a certan fatal is:: which these individuals 
have acquired due to trielr experlencees proves to be extre nely 
helpful. To illustrate this, it is Interesting to find that 
among the recent immigrant group in the United States, a s^eat 
nuirb r of people have gone about preparing for civilian 
defense with fUrprislnrrly little disturbance, rather quickly. 
Two days after the declaration of war, I was surpri ed to 
find the homes of recent newcmers cc^pletely converted into 
"light proof" apartnents, the owners arazlnely cal-n and 
quietly ftMnatnslbly plannint": how to face things beat. 

On tne other hand, a very great a-^.ount of continued 
ex.erience of this *tind nay make an individual unfit for 



-6- 



9 







eir.eri;,enclea. This xefeis in particular to people whose 
nervous ayste-" has suffered but who are not actually 
physically ill. Two days a. o, during a meeting at Inter- 
national House, a tea-roinute black-out rehearsal was 
carried out without previous announce .ent, A girl who 
had arrived from London e i^;ht rnonths aj^o became emotionally 
upset, talking excessively about her terrible London exper- 
iences, and her expressed fear almost i-ot t'-.e other people 
Involved • In tliese cases the damage on the nervous syste^n 
is so predominant that it excludes the efficient automatic 



reaction. 



With regard to ^roup b), tit see:S to -e that 



% 



intellectual preparation for emergencies may be helpful for 

facln^ situations sensibly, but in fact the newness of 

will probably be 
events are so oveiwheLning that our nental system will not 

be able to controll our eniotional reactions. 

while |he individual of group c) brings the great 
asset of a healthy nervous system, his lac' of foresight and 
his possible tendency to act with "coTirnon sense** and be very 
courageous without thinking logically, T.ay prove dangerous 
for hinself and for his fellow-'nen. 



G) 



During a period of concentrated practical pre- 
paiaticn for emergencies, tnere is a tendency to push into 
the bacKgrouni so-called purely acadeiic subjects. It see^s, 
ho^^ever, that they play a much more doniinant role than is 



-7- 



o 



reallzid durlntr the first period of exclte-^ent. fsychol- 
Ot£lcal studies and tests, fcr instance, will be a helpful 
tool in preparing the public more sensibly and efficiently 



O 



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^v 



The New York School of social Work 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



BEADING LIST ^ COURSE 30 - PUBLIC '.ffiLFARE 



Gene ral 



Stevenson, Marietta Public Welfare Administration. 



Kurtz, Russell 
Taylor, Rath 



Porter, Rose 



Current Magazines 



The Public Assistance Worker. 

Problems the Public Welfare Field Presents to the 
Professional Worker - Bulletin of The New York 
School of Social Work, Alumni Number 1934. 

The Organization and Administration of Public Relief 
Agencies, pamphlet published by Family Vi'elfare Asso- 
ciation of America, 130 East 22 Street, New York. 

Consult current files Social Service Review, The 
Survey, and Fortune for October 1937 - article on 
Unemployment in 1937. 



Relations with Private Agencies 



Kelso, Robert W, 
Swift, Linton B, 



Devine 



The Science of Public Welfare, Chapter 8 and p. 139. 

New Alignments, pamphlet published by Family Welfare 
Association of America, 130 East 22 Street, New York 

Principles of Relief, pp. 293-297. 



Settlement Laws and Transients 



Abbott, Edith 



Abbott, Edith 



N.Y. State T.E.R.A. 



Hirsch, Harry M. 



The Crisis in Relief, The Nation, October 11, 1933, 
p. 400. 

Abolish the Pauper Laws, Social Service Review, 
March, 1934. 

Manual on Legal Settlement for Public Welfare Agencies 
in New York State, February, 1936. 

Our Settlement Laws, N.Y. State Department of Social 
Welfare, 1933. 



Units of Local Administration 



Jackson, Hugh R. 



Welfare Administration in New York State Cities 
(Conference of Mayors, etc. 1933) 



^^4 



H ' 



\ • 



^ 2 - 



Readin,? List ^ Course 30 ^ Public Welfare 



Colby, Mary Rath 



Lundberg, Emma 0, 



The County as an Administrative Unit for Social Work, 
Bulletin 224, U,S. Children' s Bureau. 

County VTelfare Boards and Emergency Relief, reprint 
from Social Service Review, Vol. VIII No. 2, June, 1934. 



State Administration 



Millspaugh, Arthur C. Public Welfare Administration. 

Chickering, Martha. The States Look at Public Welfare, Survey, 

May Midmonthly 1937. 



G-ovemor's Commission (N.Y.) 
on Unemployment Relief 



Report December 28, 1935 (recommendation 
for abolition of State Board of Social 
Welfare). 



Federal Administration 



The President's Committee 
on Admin. Management 
Pages 33-36 

Also 



Report January, 1937 - Administrative 
Management in the Government of the 
United States. 

Publications of the Social Security Board. 



1 

39 



ALWAYS OPEX FOR EVERYONE! 



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VOLUNTARY 

WELFARE and HEALTH AGENCIES 



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Donated by \Jl 
Arthur Szyk 



c4^'H>*^ ^i^-r-'^''''^*^ 



Annual Meeting, Febrnary 19, 1942 



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THE GREATER NEW YORK FUND 




KEEP THE HOME FRONT STRONG! 



F 11^ III 
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F we do not sacrifice to meet home needs now, if we 
let troubles multiply at home with the idea that such a 
policy will give us added strength against the enemy in the 
air, on the sea, and on land, we may win the war hut we 
will handicap ourselves tremendously when we come to the 
peace that we also must win. 



A gift to the Greater New York Fund contributes to 
the total defense on which our lives must be built todav, 
because it arms our city — our city against the wearing away 
of strength by illness and sapping of courage by family 
breakdown. It gives our boys and girls a chance to grow up 
clearsighted, vigorous, loyal, steel-spirited as well as steel 
muscled. If these boys and girls must fight in their turn, 
they will be equal to it; but they will also be equal to the 
tremendous task of rebuilding the world when the fighting 
is over. 

Douglas P. Falconer 



t 



THE CHAIRMAN COMMENTS 
. . . ON THE 1941 CAMPAIGN 



4 



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4 



OW that it is over I can say frankly, that I have never been connected with 
a campaign in which there was more honest cooperation on the part of my fellow 
workers than in this one. Everybody worked hard — all did their best to accomplish what 
I asked, with the result that we raised five hundred thousand dollars more than in any 
year of the Fund's history. The total, as you now know, was four million, two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars. 

That isn't as much as I had hoped for or as much as it is possible to get. But 
it represents progress. If some of the restrictions we worked against were not there, we 
would have done better. Everybody realize this. 

Some of the figures developed from this campaign are gratifying to me. I feel 
honored that two thousand more firms were added to the list of Fund contributors and 
I know that I express the feeling of the whole community when I say "thanks" to these 
new contributors and also to life insurance companies who were able to throw off legal 
restrictions and join us for the first time. 

Floyd L. Carlisle, who operated as a committee of one, did a splendid job in the 
field of special gifts. He personally handled eighty-seven prospects and got $173,000 in 
additional money for the Fund. 

I found, in those weeks of campaigning, that the Greater New York Fund is fine as 
far as it goes. But it does not go far enough. 

Everyone I talked with expressed enthusiasm for the cooperative idea embodied 
in the plan of the Greater New York Fund. 

I have in mind for example the advertising group. At its luncheon one of the 
committee said to me: 

"If you'd really bundle all the local charities into one annual appeal so that 
evervbodv could use one channel for making gifts, we'd go to our industries and really 
go to town." 

Those men wanted to know why it is necessary to have so many campaigns on 
behalf of local welfare and health agencies when other cities have only one. 

This same feeling was expressed by many other groups. 

You will recall, Mr. President, that I wrote to you on this subject last June, and 
that you, Mr. Gifford and I appointed a committee with Mr. W. Randolph Burgess as 
chairman, to look into it and to make a report. 



This committee did excellent work and its recommendations will be of great in- 
terest to everyone here. I'm sure the Fund would be glad to send a copy of this report 
to anyone who wishes it. 

I wrote to Mr. Blaine because I wa impressed with the community value of 
such a cooperative effort as the Greater New York Fund. I found that the business 
community is baffled by what it regards as the failure to set up a plan of cooperation 
that will reduce the number of competitive campaigns. Businessmen are asked to serve 
on all of these campaigns and the demand on their time has grown to a point which 
is serious, particularly with so many of them being drawn into the Nation's war effort. 
This situation has been and will continue to be increasingly aggravated by the many 
national campaigns and the appeals for the relief of sufferers among our allies. 

I know everyone is as glad as I am that John W. Hanes has accepted the leader- 
ship of the 1942 campaign. We could not have made a better choice. John Hanes knows 
what it is all about. He has been connected with efforts on behalf of local institutions 
and he has always shown a great interest in the welfare of his fellow men. 

He knows what a campaign chairman should do. He knew about it when he took 
it on and, if he didn't believe he could do it, he wouldn't have taken it. 

Of one thing I can assure him. He will have the best cooperation of the finest 
groups of workers in the city of New York. They stood by me and pushed with all their 
might and I want everyone of them to know that I am deeply grateful. 

At the end of the 1941 campaign I said I was not through with the Fund. And 
I'm not. You can count on me for the duration. 

I have enlisted to serve in any capacity John Hanes chooses for me. And that's 
not all. This is not just my own enlistment. With full confidence and without fear that 
anyone will oppose it, I hereby enlist everyone who worked with me so faithfully in the 
last campaign. 

So far as the giving public is concerned, I know that it has a great heart. It is 
patient and cooperative. But, in these times, the donor should be given a break. The 
public will be glad to know that thoughtful, progressive minds are at work solving this 
problem. I sincerely hope a plan will be worked out to relieve him of the strain of 
competitive campaigns and that New York will soon have the same efficiency in its 
appeals for private welfare and health services as most other American cities. 



i 



James A. Farley, 
Chairman 1941 Campaign 



% 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS 



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i 



ODAY, the Greater New York Fund starts its fifth year. The nation is at 
war. We are mobilizing a great miUtary organization — mobiHzing industry to equip that 
organization — and mobiHzing citizens for defense. 

Changing and increasing demands are being made upon our public and private 
agencies and hospitals. The problem of financing these voluntary services is rapidly 
becoming more acute. Taxes are getting higher and higher. Men and women who serve 
on Boards of Directors and who volunteer to help in the many competitive fund-raising 
campaigns are being rapidly absorbed into our military and governmental organizations 
and civilian defense. Such time as they can give must be used efficiently. 

The demand today is to simplify all phases of our national life — to conserve ma- 
terials and to streamline our uses of manpower. This demand is producing revolutionary 
changes throughout our social structure. Voluntarily supported charities cannot escape 
these changes. 

Therefore, let us glance backward for a moment over the road which we have 
travelled, before attacking the difficult problems of the immediate future. 

In December, 1937, after years of careful study and conference, the Greater New 
York Fund was offered to the city and its agencies through a document known as the 
"Tentative Plan". Let me quote from that document, to refresh your minds as to con- 
ditions here in 1937: 

Our study has revealed a startling paradox. 

On the one hand, we find much unnecessary suffering. The total social 
welfare and health programs, public and voluntary, are inadequate to meet the 
needs of the poor, the sick, the handicapped, the aged, the mentally ill and those 
in other forms of trouble. Some agencies are working with inadequate staffs and 
offer a poorer quality of service than is required. Some sections of the city are 
much less adequately served than other sections. There are nearly one thousand 
voluntary social welfare and health agencies in the city, including hospitals, and 
while each is doing the best it can, the whole field lacks unity and cohesion. 
Most of these difficulties are caused by inadequate financial support and by the 
lack of broad city-wide planning. 

On the other hand, there are large groups of people and organizations 
willing and able to help their distressed fellow citizens, but prevented from doing 
so by the lack of sound organization of the social welfare and health agencies 
of the city. 

These potential contributors fall into two groups: (1) Organized business 
concerns; (2) Employee groups. 



(1) Both the federal and the state governments have recognized the pro- 
priety, and established the legality of corporate and business gifts to 
social welfare and health services. In many communities such gifts are 
made in generous amounts. In New York City we have made it almost 
impossible for such gifts to be made. To ask each business concern to 
acquaint itself with the work and relative needs and merits of the 
nearly one thousand agencies is absurd. Many business concerns have 
given up the task and refuse to contribute to any; others have picked 
a few agencies, more or less arbitrarily in some instances, and refuse 
all other requests. The total of such giving is substantially below what 
might reasonably be expected from this great business and industrial 
center, if a rational plan for such giving could be adopted. 

(2) A similar situation exists for many employee groups. These people are 
generally of small means, individually, but in the aggregate they rep- 
resent a very large income group. The individual agencies cannot seek 
gifts from this enormous number of people in their homes. The cost 
of such solicitation would be prohibitive. Neither can the business 
concerns permit constant interruption of work for solicitation at the 
place of business by a succession of separate agencies. 

But hundreds of thousands of such people would be glad to contribute, 
and their concerns would be glad to assist, if the appeal for all bor- 
oughs, all faiths, all needs, could be made once a year and only once. 
Especially generous will be the response, if this annual request is based 
on a careful review of the needs of all groups, and if the funds so 
subscribed are equitably distributed among the necessary services. 

This plan is offered to resolve this paradox and to bring together the serv- 
ices needed by people in distress and the contributors able and willing to help. 

The agencies in New York City have worked together for many years through 
the Welfare Council, the United Hospital Fund, and through their various fed- 
erations. They have demonstrated the capacity for cooperative team play, with- 
out which any federated financial plan would fail. 

We believe the time has come for a further forward step in cooperative 
effort. This plan is not offered as perfect, nor as a final and completed docu- 
ment. As the plan is tested by experience, it should be amended, but it is offered 
now m the conviction that it provides a basis on which a substantial and helpful 
begmning can be made and in the belief that the time has come for such a united 
effort. 



This plan was adopted, and the Greater New York Fund commenced to function 
in February, 1938. It was a new idea, and in a vast, complex city like New York, it 
takes time to establish roots and to grow toward maturity. Happily, each successive year 
has shown progress for the Fund. In our first campaign in 1938, 6,399 corporations and 
firms made contributions to the Fund. Last year, under the inspiring leadership of Jim 
Farley, 11,638 such gifts were made. 



% 



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I 



The growth of employee group support has been slower, for obvious reasons, but 
it too has shown real progress. One of our problems has been the fact that a million 
and a half workers of this city are members of many trade unions, most of which had 
taken little interest in our member agencies before the Fund was organized. But as the 
work of these agencies has been explained by us to organized labor, their sympathetic 
understanding has deepened, and now I am confident that the future will show greatly 
increased support from that important group. 

When the Fund was established, we all recognized that it was not only an ex- 
periment, but also that it was a compromise between conflicting ideas. Some people 
wanted to establish a full Community Chest in this city. Some preferred that each 
agency or group of agencies should continue to seek its finances independently. How- 
ever, all recognized that the experiment of the Fund was worth while and agreed to 
make changes slowly, with the advent of experience. 

Each year, since 1938, that experience has been reviewed, and consideration has 
been given toward working out a more comprehensive and completely satisfying plan. 

Last June, Mr. Farley, Mr. Gifford, and I appointed a committee of representa- 
tive citizens to study the possibility of improving fund-raising methods in this city. 

The formula of solicitation for the Fund, as you know, has been a complicated 
one due to our earnest eff'ort to satisfy all groups, but it has never been satisfactory. 
This committee worked through the hot summer months, and without coming to a final 
conclusion, in a memorandum to our Executive Committee, raised the question as to 
whether or not New York City was now ready for a full Community Chest. 

This suggestion, together with suggestions of changes in quite different directions, 
has been referred to the Welfare Council for study. 

Under the able chairmanship of the Council's President, Mr. Alfred H. Schoellkopf, 
a committee is now studying these problems. I want you all to know of the existence of 
that committee, because it is attempting to solve problems which belong not only to our 
member agencies, but to the entire community. 

These essential services, running from child care to care for the aged— our great 
voluntary hospital system — our recreational services — our programs for youth— these and 
many others are a part of the life blood of this great city, and their financing is a 
matter of deep concern to all of our citizens. The Boards of Directors of the Greater 
New York Fund, of the United Hospital Fund, of Catholic Charities, of the Jewish 
Federation, of the Protestant Federation, and of the non-sectarian groups^all are deeply 
concerned. So too are the thousands upon thousands of individual contributors, as well 
as corporations, firms, and employee groups, who support those services and participate 
in their benefits. 



In these momentous days of war and of inevitable change in our national econ- 
omy, which will drastically reduce the income of the individual, I consider that I would 
be derelict in my duty as President of this Fund, if I did not call to the attention of 
the Boards of Directors of our health and welfare agencies and of the eight million citi- 
zens of New York, who support and receive benefits from these agencies, the immediate 
and urgent need of considering the advisability of new methods for financing our 
charities. 

I have said many times during the last twelve months — and I repeat today — that 
when our citizens feel the full impact of war taxation, the ability of voluntarily sup- 
ported agencies to raise funds from individual contributors, other than those received 
through the Greater New York Fund from corporations and employee groups, will be 
sharply curtailed. This, of course, would mean a curtailment of agency services to the 
public, and would constitute a serious threat to the social well-being of our city, unless 
in some other manner we are able to widen the base of support. 

Speaking for myself — and not for any member of the Fund's Board, or the mem- 
bers of its Executive Committee — it is my conviction, because of present-day conditions 
which did not exist in 1938, that the time has come when all of us should give serious 
consideration to converting the Greater New York Fund, as it is presently constituted, 
into a full Community Chest in 1943. 

I believe that if the important agency groups of this city will join in the forma- 
tion of a Community Chest — one annual appeal to all individuals and all businesses in 
Greater New York for all local charities — and if they will strengthen the Community 
Chest by merging their own fund-raising organizations with the Chest, more people will 
contribute, and more money will be raised than under the present competitive system 
of financing our charities. 

There is no diflFerence to our agencies between the dollar saved and the dollar 
given. Both have the same purchasing power. While the present costs of raising money 
by the various agencies are in line, generally speaking, I believe that these costs could 
be reduced materially, if we had one fund-raising agency in the place of the number 
which now exist. After all, it is the public which support our charities, and if we can 
save them money in the cost of raising it, I believe that it is our obligation to do so. 

This problem of obtaining money is so serious, that 1 believe the public, to whom 
we appeal, should have a voice in determining how charitable funds should be solicited. 

I think you will all agree that today pretty much the same men and women so- 
licit for the various major campaigns. If we can reduce our activities to one solicitation 
a year for all charities, I am sure that these loyal workers will be truly grateful, and 
that their resulting efforts will be even more productive than heretofore. 



^ 



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I feel that the great giving public would welcome a truly city-wide appeal once 
a year, and I am confident that thousands of New Yorkers who never are approached to- 
day by anyone, would readily and gladly contribute to a Community Chest. 

To determine public sentiment, I would suggest that Mr. Schoellkopf's committee 
devise a simple set of questions similar to those used by the Gallup Poll, retain Dr. 
Gallup or a similar organization, and test the public reaction to a Community Chest. 

In this democratic form of government, which we hold so dear, you and I believe 
in the maintenance of our free institutions. The voluntarily supported health and wel- 
fare agencies are the free institutions of a free society, and as such they must be sup- 
ported. But they cannot render service upon a scale commensurate with their respon- 
sibilities in this city, if we do not find ways and means of raising sufficient money. 

I hope that all of you will give careful thought to these remarks. I trust that 
you will go even further and write Mr. Schoellkopf, giving him the benefit of your 
judgment on the subject. 

In closing, let me reiterate that my remarks on a Community Chest are my own 
-and mine alone. I speak for no one else. I should like to see a Chest in 1943 and 
have it tried out for the duration of the war. If it does not measure up to expecta- 
tions, we can revert either to the present or perhaps to some other system of fund-raising. 

James G. Blaine, 
President 



« 



=K;^L??Kirs;rx;.- ffr.?fc i;nr,sx:t.rcr^-"' -' "• 



OFFICERS . . . 
AND DIRECTORS. 



President 
James G. Blaine 



Vice Presidents 



John S. Burke 
Barklie Henry 
Thomas S, Lamont 

Secretary 
George J. Hecht 



Bayard F. Pope 

David H. McAlpin Pyle 

Paul Felix Warburg 

Treasurer 
William S. Gray, Jr. 



Honorary Treasurers 
George J. Gillespie John M. Schiff 

Chairman of the Executive Committee 
Walter S. Gifford 



f 



Executive Director 
Douglas P. Falconer 



Board of Directors 



WiNTHROP W. AlDRICH 

Dr. Frank L. Babbott 

Dr. George Baehr 

Mrs. August Belmont 
*James G. Blaine 

Cornelius N. Bliss 
*Miss Bess Bloodworth 

Mrs. Sidney C. Borg 

John A. Brown 

Joseph H. Burkard 
*JoHN S. Burke 

Edmond Borgia Butler 
♦Benjamin J. Buttenwieser 

Floyd L. Carlisle 
*JoHN A. Coleman 

Martin Conboy 

Stuart M. Crocker 

Joseph Curran 
* Cleveland E. Dodge 

Mrs. Mary Childs Draper 



David Dubinsky 
Frederick H. Ecker 
Hon. James A. Farley 
Homer Folks 
Leon Eraser 
Harvey D. Gibson 
George J. Gillespie 
George J. Hecht 

*Barklie Henry 
Daniel P. Higgins 
Henry Ittleson, Sr. 
Rev. John H. Johnson 
The Rt. Rev. Monsignor 
Robert F. Keegan 

*Thomas S. L\mont 
Thomas W. Lamont 
Samuel D. Leidesdorf 
Thomas J. Lyons 
John P. Maguire 
George V. McLaughlin 
Albert G. Milbank 



Assistant Executive Director 
Arch Mandel 



*Michael C. O'Brien 
Dr. Eugene H. Pool 

* Bayard F. Pope 
Jacob S. Potofsky 
Charles Pratt 

The Hon. Joseph M. Proskauer 

* David H. McAlpin Pyle 
Stanley Resor 

Mrs. Anna Rosenberg 
Walter Rothschild 
John M. Schiff 

* Alfred H. Schoellkopf 
Hon. Alfred E. Smith 

*Jack L Straus 

Percy S. Straus 

Solomon M. Stroock 

Mrs. Adrian VanSinderen 
*Paul Felix Warburg 

Matthew Woll 

Owen D. Young 



* Chairmen of the Business Councils 

WiNTHROP W. Aldrich— Ciry-ITicfe Council George Farkas— Bronze 

Hugh Grant Stkavs— Brooklyn Hon. Charles P. Sullivan— C>iieens 



* Members of the Executive Committee 



A 



(15MS— 6268) 



34 



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THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 



122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 



NEW YORK. N. Y. 



HEADING LIST - COUHSS 4 



Kle5.n, Philip and Collfiboratora 
/)lTorton, W»J« 






Swift, Linton B. 
McLorn, Trc^ciQ 



jbp '♦1 ^t f Byin^-ton, Marr;arct 



Coylo, Grace 

Tlio Hartford Survey 



% 



vi 



The Providonco Survey 
Proctor and Shuck 



McMillon, A* Woyno 



Social Planiiinr: 



Deardorff, Neva, R# 



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Socirl TTork Yotir Book 1939 
Con-nunity Ghosts & Councils, Inc 



^ 



'^^- W^ ty^^'^UjxJx \^t^o-<s4^ 






A Social Study of Pitts"buri;h 

Cooperative Movenont in Social Work, 
pr-Tticularly chapters 3, 9, 10, 13. 

New Alic^nnents, pp 61-68 

Councils of Social A6^encios 

A Study of the Social Welfare Pro/pran 
of yonkers, New York 

Soci«?J. Process in Or^^rJiized Groups 

A Stucly of the Several Services 
rinancod "by the Hfirtford Coniaunity 
Chost, Inc., and Their Relationship 
to the Social and Health Program of 
the Goa*mnity« 

A Study in Connunity Planning 

• 

The yinancing: of Social Work, Chapter 
V and the forewcixd 

The Council of Social A,:^encies and 
Corri'nanity Plannin^i: (National Confer- 
once of Social Work, 1932, pp 402-415) 

Panphlct issued ty Connunity Chest 
and Councils, Inc. 

Social Study 'by Councils of Social 
Agencies and Connunity Chests, (social 
Service Review, June, 1937 

Councils in Social Work 

The Stanford Survey, June 1938 



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■ i 

The new York School of Social Work 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 
122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 

NEW YORK, N. Y. ^ J 

BEAJINa LIST ■» COimSE 4 ^^^^^^'"^^^'^^J^jA 

Books I 

Klein • • -A Social Study of Plttsturgji 

y Norton ••••••.*•• Cooperative Movement In Social Work 

Svdft New Alignments, pp. 61-68 

. Coyle • Social Process In Organized Groups 

Proctor and Shuck The Financing of Social Work. Foreword and 

Chapter V . ?:. 

JIaclver •••••••••••• ....^Community, pp« 340-355 

Follott ••• ••New State, Chapter XXII and XXIII j|^ 

Tollett • Creative Experience, Chapter IX 

Stolnor •.•♦Comnrunlty Organization, Chapter XI 

Warner and ^een ...American Charities, Chapters 31 and 32. 

^^ •....•.•...•.•••..National Conference Proceedings, 1930, p« 408 

N If w ^ 1940^ p« 400 

King .••••••• • .Social Agency Boards 

Sv/lft •••• .••••••••••Moke Your Agency More Effective 

Atv/atar • ..Problems of Administration in Social Work 

Street Social Work Administration 

Bulletins and Surveys 

Ooonunity Chests tuid Coxxncils, Inc. 

A. Bullotin # 100, 7f*-Lat CoToncila of Social Agencies Do* 

B. Social Planning, pp. 1-7, 23-37 
C« Connunity Chest Cnarpaigns, 1932 

D. Yestordtijr & Todoy With Oonmvmity Ghosts ^ c. j i 

3. Qaections and Answers About Comunity Ghosts & Councils of Social 



4 



-^ 



Bulletins and Surveys (continued) 

Certificate of Incorporatlont By-LaWS, and Description of Divisions, Rlclunond 
Coimunlty Council^ 1940 • 

Constitution of Council of Social Agencies, Itochestor. * 

Social Planning, The Growth of an Idea, Boston, 1937 



The Welfare Council of Nev/ York City, Conponent Units and Structure, Jan. 1941 
Planning for Action 194041, Septonber 1940, Rochester. 
Greater New York Fund material* 



"^iHH/i 



Horfolki Survey, 1941. 

Hochester Series of Surveys, Analysis of Roconnondatlons and Progress Reports. 

(See Outline, Session II 

Regional Councils in New York City (student project) Drowne and McClaf forty. 

Tower Grave Area Project, St# Louis, Missouri. 

Loo and Pettit - Interrelation Report in Pourtoen Anerican Connunities. 

National Social Work Coxmcil ^ Services and Support of Eleven National Agencies 

A.A.S.G.\7. - Board and Staff Relationships. 

Pelsor, Kurt I "The Place of Mergers in Connunity Planning" 

T7orklng Togetlier: Association Press 

Lia^ett, David: "Can Councils of Social Agencies Click?" A.C.C.& C .Bulletin, 1941 



# 



Notes: 1 Pron tine to tine nineographed naterial will be distrihuted in class 

in connection v/ith particular areas under discussion^ 

2 A special "box Is naintained in the library, containing current reports 
of work, annu£il reports, and other bulletins of Interest in tlois 
field. It is helpful as a current resource for students desiring to 
do extra readings 



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The new York School of Social Work 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK. N. Y. 



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COURSE 4 



Comiaunity Planning tuid Coordinating of Social Work 



1941 



*/ 



Cojectives ; 

!• To provide an understanding of the principles underlying t he cooperative 
movement in social work. 

c. To provide the student with "pegs^' for understanding that the agency in 
which ho works is one unit in a total plan, and to stimulate an awareness, 
practical appreciation of, and participation in, teamwork • 

3. To trace the origin rind function of the agencies "bringing a"bout coordination,, 
such as Councils, toth city-wide and regional, Community Chests, national or 
state r-gencies, and professional social work associations* 

4^ To present the methods of procedure and function common to social planning 
a^id centrcil financing* 

5f To stress the importance of integrating all social forces in a community to 
the end that a non-dviplicating, balanced social program will effectively meet 
human needs. 

6« To suggest myethods for effectively interpreting social work in terms of 
coordination. 

7t To suggest steps for research as a "basis for sound planning, and v/a^-s in which 
research is geared to planning* 



Methodology: 

As in Course ••**3", references, records of commionity situations, and current 
materials are used as the "basis for discussion. While Course "3" dealt in large 
measure v/ith process, this course will deal with actual structure, organization 
and function. Assuming that students in this course have had more contact with 
the field, it will "be posri"ble to have certain situations presented by them. 

VU>V l^'^ Term Paper : Due at the 9th session . Choose some current problem in comraiinity 

planning and discuss it realistically, being careful to point out 
the exact nature of the problem, agencies involved, procedures 
I'ollowed, and final result. 



V 



ICote : Actual names and places can be changed if the student wishes. The 

papers will be returned- Some of the papers may be mimeographed and 
used as a basis for discussion at one of the closing sessions. 

Term Seference: Coyle - Social Process in Organized Groups. 



- 2 - 



vV 



M 



3 



I, The Rise of Community Planning 

A. Primaiy groups first - neightorliness, 

B. Specialization appears 



1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 



5. 
6. 



Sources of support. 

Forniulation of program. 

Dangers of competition and duplication. , 

Social agencies as special interest or «hobby" groups based 

on a common interest of a number of citizens who wanted 

to solve a problem and "do good". 
Strictly autonomous bodies. 
Value in freedom of development both in program and personnel. 



C Growth of agencies leading to: 

1. Emergence of social work as a profession and the need for 

common standards. A.A. S.w. • 

2. Assumption by public agencies of recognized services. 

3. Initiation of Chests and Councils as a way of developing 

sound unification of program and function. 

4. Expansion of national agencies designed to give direction 

to program and dignity to standards of work. 

5. Realization by social ^vorkers themselves that the profession 

had to be unified - not made unifom - and that uncoordinated 
soecialization would lead to confusion and loss of puolic 
confidence. 
6^ Creation of Conferences of Social Work. 



References; 



Uorton ^ Cooperative Movenent in Social Work, Chapters I, II, V. 



SESSIOiJ II 



Assignnent: 



Preppi^ in writing a brief state-ient of a situation you know 
involving a problem of relationship between two or more social 
agencies. Point out; 

(a) Factors which made it a problem, 

(h) Steps followed in arriving at a solution. 



Eefcrences: 



{!J 



llaclver - Community, pp. 340-355, •• • 
Topic ; Stages in Coordination 

1. Chest and Council development stemming from the War of 1917-18, 
and agencies attendant appeals for public funds and pu.blic favor, 



I I 



- 3 - 






2* Post-war development of ''Comraunity Chests". 

(a) Trend toward coordination of planning and financing. Is 
either possit)le without the other? 

3, CoraiTiunity problems at this time, such as: 

(a) Overlapping of function. 

(h) Kxtrome differences in standards of woik and purposes. 

(c) Financial rivalry. 

(d) Lack of direction and objectives. 

Consider kaclver's definitions of cooperation and competition; the 
omergence of common out of like interests. 



References: 



Norton - Cooperative Movement in Social Work, Chapters III, IV, VI. 



■■If 



SESSION III 

Topic ; Coordin ation and the_G rgup^ Pjrojce_s s 
Assiisynonti Road Eastern District Council Record 

Rofcr ouces;; 

Folic tt - iNlew State. Chapters XXII and XXIII 
Follctt - Creative Expc rience, Chapter IX 



Discu ssion to-^ics t 

1, What factors In this community influenced the decision to create 

a district organization? 

2. Whr.t miglit be achieved by the social workers through its orgnnizar- 

tion? Were there any common interests on which to build joint 

action? 

3, Wliat specific problems in the Eastern District mi^t it help to 

solve? 

4. Note the steps taken prior to the meeting of llarch 18th; in 

what vrnys was likenindedness in the district furthered by 
this meeting? 
5^ What use of skills in developing leadership are to be noted in 

this record? 



\i 



II I I 



♦», 



PaTlTAM V^LEY 



•t mm • i f I 



Part II 



\ 



Miss Fairfax - a social worker enployed "by the Welfare Board of Colton. 

Miss Renington - one of her saiccessors, 

Mr. Eansoii - a 'lenloer of the Colton T/elfare Board residing in Patnar V-Jley, 

Colton ^oniTonity Council - a federation of reyjresentatives from all community groups 

in Colton started by Miss Fairfax 1932-1934. 

Colton Citizens* Ass'n. «. an organization of voters and taxpayers of Colton started 

in 1939. 

Putnam Valley Ass'n. - a pi'oposed organization of all residents of the Valley under 

discussion in 1940, 

Early Days of the De-pression 

In the late 1920' s nearly every family in Futnam Valley possessed an auto- 
mobile and sou^^ht their recreation at the movies or parties in Colton, Norfolk, or 
Winston. Those living in the upper end of the Vrlley on the west bank of the Putnam 
River ame to be more; and more closely related to Colton where they voted, shopped, 
and att.3nded tov/n meetings. In 1931 there ^vae an Unemployment Committee appointed by 
the First Sflectmnn of Colton on '»^hich Putnari Valley was represented by Mr. Ransom, a 
retired basiness man tho had bought the old \7heeler Homestead on the death of John 
Wheeler. For a timo this Committee crutched along with f'^juds raised by private sub- 
scription and the excellent part-time help of the public health nurse employed by 
the Visiting ilurses' Association. The nurse, ho\?ever, recommended that a full-time 
social vorker '.7as needed. A public- spirited citizen agreed to give $1,800 for one 
year during which tine the value of her services should be demonstrated to the Town, 
The ste idily increasing load of cases, 200 in January 1932, was obviously too numerous 
for the First Selectman to handle with all his duties as Road Superintendent and head 
of the Town government generally. Miss Fairfax, the new worker, after graduating from 
college, had taken courses in case work, community organization, and mental liygiene in 
a school of social work. She had served as secretary of a Travelers Aid Association 
and don^^ a conimnity education job for the State Division of kental Hygiene organiz- 
ing com-Tunity clinics attended by an itinerant psychiatrist furnished oy the state. A 
reduction of the state budget had recently eliminated her position. She was recom- 
mended to Colton by the Joint Vocational Service with which she was registered in 
]Jew York. 



i 




Formin^g: the ComrTunity Council 

Miss Fairfax cane to Colton convinced that, in spite of the time cons"ur.ed 
in caring for her mounting case load, she must find some way to make the rank and file 
of citizens in Colton understand more about the social problems she was facing so that 
they would be willing to finance the cost of attacking them. 

She had once been a member of the Council of Social Agencies in the capitol 
city of the state and visualized something similar for the small town of Colton. It 
was now a tovfn of 5000 people covering a rural area approximately square and about ten 
miles wide each way. The only social service a^^encies were the Visiting Nurses^ 
Association, with tv.'O excellent public health nurses, an inactive Red Cross chapter 



^ 2 



with no staff, and one iDoy scout troop and one girl scout troop. When, however, she 
listed all the fratemrl bodies and niscellc-ijieous cluts and societies there were an 
even hundred. She obtained the selectnan's reluctant consent to preside at a meet- 
ing of ropruscntatives frori these societies to "be held in the Town Hall. Hov/ever, 
he declined to issue the invitation and she issued it herself signing herself "Town 
Social 'Torkor^t Each club ^ras asked to select t-ro representatives at its first 
meeting to comej and discus?^ the advisability of foniing a "Connunity Council". The 
neeting \7as crov;ded. The Selectnan nade a gKicious and rather hunorous and non?- 
connittal speech in -Mch he introduced Liss Fairfax to explain what a "Community 
Council" was. She suggested that it night consist of those present representing 
their orgrnizations an.d that it nould v/ork through connittees for the general benefit 
of the town. She cited tetter cooperation in giving of Christmas baskets as one 
project they night undertake. Several persons spoke in favor of her plan. A conw 
mittee 7as appointed to draft by-laws to be subnitted a nonth later. On that date 
Miss Fairfax again had to do nost of the talking but by-laws were adopted and a 
popular business nr-n and ex-postnaster was elected chaimc?Ji sonewhat to his surprise. 
Miss Fairfax found it a difficult task to pl(\n a nonthly progran for the Council at 
first but it brought her to the attention of the various orgfinizations and she was 
besieged with invitations to speak before then explaining her work. Fortunately, she 
was a fluent spealcer, with an infomal rou^^h and ready nanner and a sense of hui^ior. 
She was unusually successful in er^plaining in sinple terns the neaning of social work 
and ^7hat snc was trying to acconplish. 



In hay 1933 the Legislature passed the "Social \7orker6» Relief Bill". This 
v^as one bill \:hich the social workers of the county, working with others fron the 
rest of the state Ifir.d been pronoting. lass Fairfax got three nenbers of the Conrruni- 
ty Council to go v/ith her to the hearing before the legislatui'e. The Council v;ith 
sone reluct^jice had passed a vote endorsing the bill, T;hen Miss Fairfax, explained 
tliat it carried with it no appropriation fron the state, except $10,000 for adminis- 
trative expenses. It was passed in anticipation of Federal Aid and reversed the 
staters traditional attitude on this point. The First Selectnan of Colton, after 
listening to prolonged discussion in the Connunity Council, finally changed his mind 
and sail that if other states and towns v/ere going to receive Federal grants, his 
state c'lnd to^m "night as well get theirs". 

Keanv/hile the year's denonstration for which Miss Fairfax's salary had been 
contributed, was drav:ing to a close. The donor declined to renew the gift and the 
Selectnan made no effort to get a town appropriation for Miss Fairfax's salaiy. Al- 
though he had found her help invaluable, she had incurred the ennity of an important 
political figure in Colton and the Selectnan let it be known that he would nake no 
effort to retain her when the year was out and the money for her salaiy v/as exhausted. 







The person whon she liad offended was a Miss Prescott, who was active in 
local politics and, sone said, aspired to succeed the present postnaster. She had 
organized a political club largely anong the Itrilians and was a delegate fron it to 
the Coniunity Council, ^hien Iviiss Fairfax proposed that the Council sponsor "connuni- 
ty gardens", Hiss Fix^scott was appointed chaimaxi of the connittee in charge. As a 
matter of fact she ran the v?hole project single-handed, resented any suggestions fron 
Miss Fa.irfax and at each neeting of the Council throughout the spring, sunixier, and 
early frj.1, insisted on naking a lengthy report of the progress of the gardens which 
in eacn instance vvas reported in full in the local paper featuring Miss Prescott as 
if she iiad proposed the enterprise and was sololy responsible for it. 

ivleanvmile Colton had received reinbursenent for a share of its relief ex- 
penditures fron the nev/ State Relief Conraission administering Federal funds. A field 
ecretar^' inspected the noiic, called on the Selectnan and told hin that under the 






I I 



- ? - 



(^ 



rules of the Comiaission no town of over 5,000 inimbitants could continue to get 
Federal funds without a "trained worker" in cLar^^e. The state would approve Miss 
Fairfax "but unless someone of approximately her training and experience were con- 
tinued in char^^e, the f\inds from the State Commission would stop. The field secre- 
tary also suf:p;ested thpt the Selectman appoint a Board of Public Welfare to sponsor 
the worl^ 



K. 



The Board of Selectmen authorized the creation of a Board of PuIdIIc Welfare 
of five plus the First Selectman as chairman. On recommendation of this new Board a 
special appropriation was made to continue the social worker* s salaiy when the grant 
of private funds ran out and Miss Fairfax was continued in office. The Selectman 
appointed Miss Fi-escott as one member of the Board of Public Welfare. 

The Board an d t he Soc ir l Worker Di s a/^ree 

In J^muaiy 1934 Miss Fairfax ftiund that she and her new Board were in dis- 
agreement as to the amount of rt^lief and service to be given to a particula,r family. 
Miss Fr^scott accused her of insubordination njid violating the directions of the 
Board. Miss Fairfax promptly offered her resignation. The following day the Select- 
man accepted it, althou^^h the Board passed a vote absolving Miss Fairfax from the 
charge of disobeying its oi^ders* 

Proble nq Faci^.^ Mr. Han son and Mi ss H emin^^ton 

(a) By the frll of 1938, t'70 successors to Miss Fairfax had come and gone 
due to "incompatibility"- with one or another member of the Board, On October first 
of that year Ivliss Rerain/^ton v/as appointed. She had more case work training and ex- 
perience tiian Miss Fairfax but loss flare for community leadership and public speak- 
ing. She found the Community Council virtually dead. Should she try to revive it? 

(b) Mr, R^insom told her tliat the Welfare Board iiad little conception of 
what its duties ought to be or where the fictivities of the Board members should stop 
and those of the social worker begin, Wliat should Miss Hemington and Mr. Ransom do 
to remedy this situation? 

( c) In May 1939 a Colton Citizens^ Associr.tion was organized, composed of a 
large n-xaoer of local business men and commuters who T7ere voters and taxpayers in 
Colton. Mr. Ransom and several of his neighbors in Putnc'^im Valley were members^ At 
first the Association was very critical of the ajnount of money spent by the Welfare 
Board. Hov/ could this bo obviated? 

(d) In the frll of 1939 several relatively new comers to Putnam Valley, 
artists and com^iiuters for the most part, began to discuss the formation of a Putnam 
Valley Association. Mr. RnJison attended a preliminary meeting at which these plans 
^^ere discussed. Members of the Beach and 7/hoeler fai.ailies had been invited and were 
present with a few others who rvere neither artists nor commuters. Most of those who 
spoke appeared to be opposed to Albert Jackson and his plans for real estate promotion 
in the Valley. Should Mr. Ransom join the new orgrr^ization? How should it be organ- 
ized? .Tliat should be its chief pui'pose? 







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THE NEW YORK School of Social Work 

122 BAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



THE OIvEELST SOCIETY 



^1 



Imagine that you are a member of the executive committee of the Council of 
Social A-encies of the City of Eairhaven. Your committee has "been asked oy the budr^ 
get committee of the Community Fund to recommend whether it shall continue to make 
an finnua3. appropriation to the Council of Jewish Women. The appropriation is to pro- 
vide milk and eggs for undernourished children in dependent families under the care 
of the Jewish Welfare Bureau.. (This milk and egg fund has caused the agency admin^ 
istering' it to he facetiously known as "The Omelet Society".) 

Heretofore there have been four Jewish agencies in the Community Fund. 
Each has been receiving an appropriation to do relief work among dependent families, 
using only untrained volunteers. This year three of these a,'jencies: the Sisterhood' 
of the Laurel Avenue Temple, the South End Ladies Aid Society, and the Daug-hters of 
Israol, liave combined to fom the Jewish Welfare Bureau which has employed a trained 
case worker. Tho Council of Jewish Women was nlso invited to become a constituent 
momber of the Jewish Welfare Bureau but declined. The reason given was tiiat as a 
brfinch of a national organization it could not unite with these local agencies for 
fear of losing its identity. 

The Council of Jewish Women i;^ composed chiefly of the orthodox Jewish ele« 
mont and of members of the race who loave only been in this country one or two genera^ 
tions* The head of the new Jewish Welfare Baroau is Mrs. Jacob Stein. She was 
formerly president of the Sisterhood of the Laurel Avenue Temple. She represents the 
refomed Jev/ish element and those whose families have been in ths country for several 
generations. There is strong factional jealousy between these two groups, Mrs. Stein 
is an unusually intelligent person of refinement and quiet dignity. Before she 
married Jacob Stein and came to live in Eairliavcn she had been rm active volunteer 
and board member in many socicd agencies in a larger city. She knows good case work 
stand^ards. She is a member of the board of the Eairhaven E.-^jnily Welfare Society. 
She rac':k:es an excellent president of the new Jewish Welfare Bureau rjid through her 
influence good standards are being adopted. 

Schism in the Jewish C onmuni ty 

Her husband, Jacob Stein, on the othor hand is a storm center. Ho is a 
trial lawyer of domineering nature, proud and autocratic. While he is generally re- 
garded by Christifins as the leading Jewish citizen of Eairhaven he is bitterly hated 
by perhaps half tlie Jewish residents, particularly the "new comers" and the orthodox. 
He was active in organizing the Community Eund and was promised by some of the busi- 
ness men who woilced with him in this enterprise that he should be on the Mdget Com- 
mittee, A later set of officers of the fund have prevented this, believing that Mr. 
Stein is not "judicially ^ainded". Mr. Stein resents this and feels that he has not 
been treated faiily. He has been the moving spirit in orgrjiizing the Jewish Welfare 
Bureau. He sees it not merely as a case working agency but as a federation of all 
Jewish agencies. Thus he has represented to the YlffiA and the Hebrew Orphaii Asylum 
who are not yet in the Community Eund that by becoming constituent members of the 
Jewish Welfare Bureau they will be sure to be admitted with it as participating 



- 2 - 



^^ 



monberr. of the next Comnanity Fund campaign. The YMKA n^reos and becomes a ncn'Scr 
of the Jewish TTolfare Bureau at least teclrinically, pn;^^ing dues to it and being joint- 
ly houced in the sane building. 

The Hebrev: Oiphan Asylun represontin/:^ the orthodox Jews and the "new 
comers" declines to join and nnkes direct application for admission to the Conmunity 
Fund. Mr, Stein recommends that they bo refused admission. Srji Goldstein, a young 
lawyer v/ho is on the Board of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum -and v/hose wife is treasurer 
of the Council of Jewish Women thus characterizes Mr, Stein's failure to force all 
the Jc77ish a;:i:encies into his proposed federation. "The trouble v/ita Stein is timt 
he thinks his nai:ie is Moses and it is only Jacob". 

Shal 1 there bo a "Clooed Door" Foliar ? 

The Superintendent of the Fairhaven Hospital 'jhich is the lar/;;est recipient 
of TAipport from the Community Fund, urges tli^\t as the last cruipaign fell wny below 
the nark sot, a "closed door" policy should be adopted for the next caj.:paign and no 
new agencies admitted to the Fund until those a3.ready in are adequately financed. 

The chaiiTian of the 3ud;^et Committee, an eminent judge, questions whether 
even the new Jewish Welfare Bureau should be admitted althou^li the throe relief- 
giving a^oncies which united to form it were alread;!^ membeiT. of the Fund. He ui'ges 
that Jewish dependent fnmilies crxn bo cared for by referring them to the Family Wel-= 
fare Society Y;hich is non-^sectari^iji. 

Biipli cation of Visitation 



Monjiwhile in d/iily case work an acito issue is arising between the cli.air- 
wompn of the "milk nnd eggs committee" of the Council of Jewish Women and the nev7 
case worker might draw upon the milk nnd Qgg fund for any families under her care who 
had undernourished children. It was a-lso agreed that no grants from the fund would 
be made except upon investigation 'by the Jewish "inTelfare Bureau. But the chairwomaia 
of the milk nnd eggs committee insisted on visiting the families concerned in addi- 
tion to case v/orker. This duplication of visitation annoyed the families and differ^- 
ences arose between the representatives of the tv;o societies as to case work policy, 
amount of relief to be granted, etc. 

The cliaininn of the Budget Committee questioned the need of granting any 
appropriation to the Council of Jewish T/omen, saying th?.t if it were to be sxjent by 
the Jewish Welfare- Bureau, it would be simpler to grant it directly to tlvat organiza^ 
tion in the first place by m.erc;ly gi-antin,.- a lar^:er appropriation for relief. The 
Budget Committee took the view tiiat the qTiestion of whether t'lny appropriation at all 
should be made to the Council of Jewish Women was primarily one of social service 
policy ,*nd the matter has therefore been referr^'^d to the executive committee of the 
Council of Socirvl AfCencies for its re commend;.iti on to the entire Council. 

# 
Qiiicstions to be d ea. lt wi th; 



''? 



1, Is it desirable to liave the relief fund of the Jewish Welfare Bureau supplemented 
by the "milk and egg*< fund of the Council of Jewish Women, instead of merely en- 
larging the relief fund of the Jewish Welfare !3ureau? 

2. Is it juotific'ible for the officers of a Community Fund or a Council of Social 
Ai'^'oncies to seek to coerce a member njr^oncy into changing its program or dis- 
co?itinuing fci activity which daplicatos that of another jigency? 



» 



- 3 - 



•^!l 



3. If expulsion is necessary or desira.bl 6,137 vote of wlia.t "boj^r should it be 
effected? 

4. Should the Council of Social Agencies and the Community F-'ond decline to recog- 
nize and admit the new Jewish Welfare Bui*eau "because it would thus be indirectly 
admitting the YMHA which had not been in the Fund before, i.e. should there be a 

• "closed door" policy? 

5. Should the Council of Social Agencies and the Community Fund decline to recog- 
nize and aduit the new Jewish Welfare Bureau because it duplicates the Family 
Welfare Society i.e. why divide case work on a sectarian basis? 



Admission should be refused because 



Admission should be granted because 



6, Should the Yl/IHA be admitted directly keeping the Jewish Welfare Bureau as a case 
woiicing agency? 

7. Should the Jews have a representative on the Budget Committee? 



<♦ 



8/40 



- 4 - 



t 



YOU^TCr MSN AiTO WOMEy : 3,712 yaun^z ncn aiid v/onon took part in the educational classes, 
Gluts, and physical giX)ups of the YMCA and WCA during Deconher 1932. The annual 
Chost o,ppropriation for this service for 1932 vras $26,456, 



APPENDIX 



?AI3^HAVEN SOCIAL AGENCIES 



O fficial Deipartncnt s 



Board of City Clinics 
Board of Hocroation 
Dopartnont of Education 




Private Or^?:anizations 

I r J. T- , ■ ., ,- ■>. 



Dopartnont of Health 
Departnont of Public iTclfa.ro 
Juvenile Court 



Original Chest Appro-- 
priation for 1935 



To "be revised 
as follov/s: 






A r iuilULUi IlLd Ci i Uii^ 

Boys Cluh 

Boy Scouts 

Catholic Charitable Burcou 

Day ilursory Association 

Fairhaven Hospital 

Pairhaven Mission 

Fanily Welfare Society 

Hrhrrn Orphan Anjlin 

Hone for Little Wanderers 

Jewish Wclfo.re Bureau 

Mnntnl Hvp-ienG Society 

Protestant Orphan Asylum 

Qp.ee ns Daughters 

Salvation Amy 

St. Vincent's Hospital 

Traveler' s Aid 

Visiting Nurse Association 

Women's Protective Association 

Comianity Chesi; and Council 



$ 16, 


525 


21, 


500 


12. 


126 


56, 


022 


24, 


200 


30, 


000 


12, 


972 


85, 


775 


4, 


962 


s, 


873 


9. 


828 


14, 


319 


?, 


,505 


6. 


,988 


4, 


,500 


9. 


,370 


24, 


,000 


3, 


,528 


25, 


,252 


9. 


,618 


13, 


,967 


21. 


,797 


?8, 


,001 


$446, 


,628 



$ 223,000 



*lTot included in the first Chest canpaign when the total budget for 1921 :7as 
$208,131. 







8/40 



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THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 



122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 



NEW YORK. N. Y. 



PAIHHAVEIT PBDTECTIVE ASSOCIATION 



r irln of the Society 

In 1911 a Crime Cornrnisslon was ap-r^iointed "by the feyor of Fairhaven to 
investigate whether the segregated area for houses of prostita:tion should 
be continued. Hearin^;s were held, national experts were called to testify 
and ultimately abolition of the area and suppresr^ion of such conriercialized 
vice was recommended and adopted oy the city aiithorities. The houses in 
the restricted area were demolished, the city purchasing the area for a 
central Plasa for the parking! of vehicles. 



Some of the citir^ens who served on the crime corar^iission, fearing: that 
the prostitutes would be \mablo to get employment and must be cared for 
or.£;?inized the Protective Association to care for them. A house was pur 



chased as a shelter for such women. Tae head of a similar agency in Hew 
York v/as invited to address the new society and to advise what should be 
the oualifications for a "sr)eciall zed case wor>::er with girls". Efforts 
were mr.de to secure such a wor3-:.er withai?.t success and ultimately a woman 
of 50 v;ith no cr.se woik exoorionce was emoloyed. 

An Untr'^ined Worker is Chosen 



I 



Miss Jones, the workerj had been matron or housekeeper in an institu- 
tion for such women in another citj^ but had had no experience or rosponsi-- 
bility except for the physical velfare of the women, the m.eals, chambenvork, 
purchasing;, etc. She was sentimental, individualistic and inclined to ad- 
vertise herself and to a lesser extent her organization by talks before 
various '.^omen's groups and church organizations. 

TTf.en the house was opened for service, no clients ccine. It was dis— 
covered that the foirner inmates of the houses of prostitution had promotly 
left to^^ii ooid pone to other "wide ooen" cities. So the chief work for 
which the society had been organized, disappeared overnight as it wore» 
Miss Jonor^, however, made the accriaintance of a Mrs. Taylor who had re- 
cently organized a Travelers Aid Society with little reference to standards 
advised by that National Society. Mrs. Taylor referred all cases vfhich 
she c.'une in contact with, whether at the station, through her church work or 
elsewhere, to Miss Jones and soon the two wert- enmged in amateur case work 
on many caso^j w>iich could have been better handled if referred to the C.G.S# 
A bitter feeling of misunderstanding and opposition grev/ up betwe^;,n the 
other social agencies on the one hand and Mrs. Taylor and Mis« Jones on the 
other. 

Relatio ns to the CoLTTo ni ty Che st 

Almost from its organization, Mr. Bronson Price had been President of 
the Protective Association. Ho was not socially-minded and wrxs not very 
influential socially or as a business man. He was a liability rathr.r than an 



-?- 



# 



asset to the orfr-an^. zation in raising: money. He had a brother In Cleveland 
and hear^n^-. of the advantages of the Conrnunity Chest method of financing 
social work, helped to r»roraote a Financial Federation for Palrhaven with 
the iilterio?' purpone of iiia"k:ing It easier to <f:et money for his or^n^zation» 

At first he felt that his purpose had been attained but as the cost of 
food inc reaped he could not obtain a larger ^rant from the Bridget CoiT^nittee 
becauf?e of the general belief among the ot:::Or social agencies that the Pro- 
tective Association was of slight value. Paillnf to secirre a larger 'oi^.d- 
get, i'.iar^ Jont:;B resigned to return to her old wo*. Meanwhile a reor^^^ani- 
zation of the Trswelors Aid had brough.t about cooperation with the CtOtS. 
and deprived the Frotectivo Association of most of its cases. A no;w T^or'.rer, 
Krf^- Blotchford, was secured; she war> also of the oitron typo and socured 
no bc-tter cooT)'.-ration# The other a^rcncles used tho Protoctive Association 
only to shelter their cases tenporarily, chiefly for children. Mr?.. Blotch- 
ford objectod. 



# 



/ 



At. I:ive sti.f:rtio n ComrAttee is A ppointed 

Finally kr. Price hoT)in^ to force the hand of the Budget Committee, 
appealed to the President of the Financial Federation to appoint a cornraittee 
to invest ig'.vtt, the orgfuiiization and advis=;.- whether it should be abolished 
or enlarged. The committee was appointed althou^ the secretary of the 
Finr.ncial Federation who was also secretary of the Council of Social Agencies 
urfipd that the chairm??.n of the Council of Social Agencies should have been 
the one to make the appointment and that tl;e report of the committ-"o should 
bo act'-'-d on by the Council of Social Agencies as a social service policy 
rather than a fiscal one. The committee consisted of two business men; one 
of whom was on the board of the C.O.S., and the secretary of the Coraiiiunity 
Chost. EeDrescntativos of all private and -oublic a^?:encies (some 15 in num** 
ber) that had rany relation with the Protective Association appeared before 
thf> committoc- rad gave their opinions as to the worlc of the Association and 
what should be its future. Som.e thought it should "be abolished. Others 
said it was a convenient place to Wpar?-:" homeless clients temporarily. The 
probation of-hVcer of the Juvenile Court said it was necessary becaui'.e there 
was no detection home for the court and the Protective Association vrould take 
girls from the co\irt if compensated therefore. 

Tlie officers of the Association aprA'ared before the Committee -xad. stated 
that k'rs. Blotchford had brokn down in health because the budget wis not 
lar.'re enough to employ an assistant. Her doctor advised her not to r-tum 
to the positiop and the Association v/ishcd the coramKtee to recommend more 
money so that they could hire a l:'.rgor and better staff. 

IXD'^rts from Ne\7 York and other cities testified that any industrial 
city of 1J50,000 inhabitants (like Fairhaven) needed a "jrpecialized case work- 
ing agency for girls*' Vv'hich would supplom.ent the general case woricing agencies 
but not d^^plicate them. Tliey stated that such an agency must have a srpecial- 
ly trained v/orkr.r in charge who should live outside the house and sh-ould not 
be ch-arged v/ith the housekeeping details. Tae salary necessary to obtain 
such^ a worker ';7ovl&. have to be $600 or $C00 more than the Association had 
bjeen «T>aying« 

y \ 

^ ^P'.e investigating comiriitte(: re^quested the cooperation of the Council of 

Sociar, Afi:e]icies in the stiidy. Tuereupon the "Case Woik Division" of the 



4% ^ 4 



-3* 



4^ 



a 



CoTiiicil met with the corimitten in joint session. Tl^^e executives of the 
following' agencies were present: 



P.nnily vTclfare Society 
Jewifji^ Vlelfnre Bureau 
Departuent of P-ablic Cmiritiei3 
.\inerica.n Red Cross 
Travelers Aid Society 
Churoh Uls?ioti of Eelp 

Point? to be considered 



Catholic Charitable Bureau 
Visiting ITurse Ast^-ociatlon 
Home for Little Wanderers 

(a child placing agency) 
International Institute (YWCA) 
Juvenile Court (probation of;.'icer) 



If ,70u had buen one of these executives what would hava been your ad- 
vice on each of the following points? Come prepared at the next ses^.don 
to sug^./:^?it what would be the ar^.unents on f ach point, both pro and con. 
Also su^J!^C3t other points which should be considered. 

1. Should the protective Association be continued norely as a tc^mporary 
shelter for transient women and ^Irls? 

?. Sboulc it becomo on expert cane working a^rency for ^irls? 

3. If such e:3cpert work is needed in Fairhaven, could this bo supplied by 
addin.e such a soociali'^t to the Pamily Welfare Society's staff? 

4. Does 'such work denand f^ecial training; or can it be performed by any^ 
one capahle of doing family case work? 

5. Could other social a^vencios be con^i^ llud to rcf r cr.i'=?os to the protective 
Association? 

64 Should the Protective Association b: entirely abolished? 

7. If not, should its ctppropriation be increased? 

8. Should these questions be decided: 

a. by the board of the Financial Federation 

b. by the B^adget Comri:ittee 

c. by the Council of Social Agencies 

9. S^iOald the investigating committee h£.ve been cxppointed by the CliaiiTiaii of 
tno Finrncin.l Pede^ration or by the chairman of the Council of Social 
Afencieii? 

10. aiould there have boon one Toresident over both vh^o could have made the 
appointment? 



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THE New York School of Social Work 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK. N. Y. 



PROPOSED COMMraiTY CHEST FOR STAMFORD 



Introdu ctory 

A committee organized "by the Stamford Charafcer of Commerce on Jftn\iary 10, 
1929, reported in September in favor of establishing a Community Chest. The Com- 
mittee which made the study consisted of the President of the Family Welfare Society 
as Clxairmon of the Committee, one representative from each of the following agencies, 
and five members at large: 



V,W.C.A. 

Boy Scouts 

Girl Scouts 

Boys Club 

Visiting Nurse Association 

Stanford Day Nursery 

Chamber of Commerce 



« 



Stanford Jewish Center 

Fa^nily Welfare Society 

Salvation Aitiy 

Stamford Hospital 

American Red Cross 

Y.M.C.A. 

Stamford Children's Home 

Hone for the Aged 

The Problem before the Council of Social A<g:encies 

The report of this Committee recommends that each of these agencies send 
two representatives to an organization meeting to be called in the near future 
(December or January) to act upon this report and (if they act favorably) to, 
themselves, constitute the original board of directors of the Stanford Coanunity 
Chest, The report makes no mention of the existing Council of Social Agencies 
which has existed for several years but whose meetings are attended only by social 
workers as a rale. 

Assuming for purposes of discussion that the class is this Council of 
Social Agencies, it is suggested that the following points be considered: 

1# Shall social workers on the Council endeavor to have their 
representative boards act favorably or unfavorably upon 
the Committee's report? 

2. In deciding this, consider what are the chief advantages and 
disadvantages of any community chest. 

3. What radically different forms of community chest organization 
are there and lias national experience indicated that the form 
of organization recommended by this Committee is a desirable 
one? 

4. Should the Council of Social Agencies continue as a separate 
organization after the fomation of a chest or should it become 
a constituent part of such a new organization? 



• .:•. '* 



- 2 - 



i 



5. If the delegate fron your society is instracted to vote for 
the chest plan, what provisions of prinaiy inportance would 
you ask hin to be sure to have included in the proposed con^ 
stitution and hy-^laws which are to he adopted^ as tot 



a. 
d. 



Who shall sit on the Board of Directors? 

How the Budget Comittee shall "be chosen and 
to whon it shall report? 

What the relation "between the Coiincil of Social 
Agencies and the Board of Directors shall he? 

What body shall consider and decide the najor social 
service problems, such as whether there is a need 
for organizing a new social agency or for fundanentally 
revising the progran of work now performed by an exist- 
ing agency? 



Reference Reading 

Norton, ^The Cooperative Movonent in Social Work", Cliapters 3, 9, 10 and 13. 

Procter and Schack, »<The Financing of Social Work»\ Ihe Foreword by 
Mortimer Schiff^ opposing chest plan, and Chapter 5* 



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The New York School of Social Work 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 

NEW YORK. N. Y. 



rOMOlTA SERVICE LEAOJE 



Jot a, rrjuiDer of years the city of Fonona had an agency known as the Girls Service 
Societ-, an agency set up for the purpose of giving help and intensive case vrork 
gaidance to the difficult individual problems arising among older adolescent girls, 
mainlv oetween the ages of 16 -• 25. The staff consisted of trained social workers, 
but used as well a iromoer of volunteers who established "friendly counsel" contacts 
with the girls under care. 

The persistence of the depression, and its attendant increase in youth problems, 
led to an expressed demand "oy the community tliat this service be extended to boys 
as well as ^^-irls and that the a^ncy be reorganized to that end. Accordingly, the 
agency, in cooioeration with the Council of Social Agencies, determined upon a plan 
of having a thorough study made of its function to date, its purpose, and its con-- 
ceivable role in an expanded situation. It was decided to engage as surveyor, the 
executive of the local mental hygiene agency who in a variety of capacities had 
intimate contact with youth problems and youth serving agencies. 

A sunroaiv of the recommendations released in the study follows: 

1. Tliat the Gii-ls Service Society reorganize itself to deal with boys as 
well afi girls. 

A corollarj^ of this recommendation is that the agency change its name 
to a title indicative of its new f^unction, and attractive to yamig 
people seeking a helpful service. 

2. Tl^at in order to deal with these difficult adolescents, the primary 
responsibility for the -rork should be in the hands of trained social 
r;orkers. 

3. The value of volunteer service with certain cases cannot be minimized* 
This should continue for boys and girls in some cases, under the im- 
mediate supervision and guidance of the case worker concerned. 

4. The primary emphasis of the agency should be upon personal counseling 
of a skilled sort. Other services should build from this keystone^ 
It pre^pposes a more adequate diagnosis of individual problems. 

5. Job placements should be made through recognized public emploj^ent 
services. A close cooperative relationship in this field is imperative. 

6. To start the kind of service above recommended it is suggested tliat 
funds be requested from the Community Chest to cover the follomng: 

(a) An executive, trained in the type of service to be given as 
outlined. 

(b) Pour social case workers with qualifications as noted in rec^ 2 
and 4. 



% 



- 2 - 



(c) A small fund for emergency financial assistance. 

(d) Adequate funds for clerical help and overhead expense. 



4t 



NEXT STEPS 

This stud;', complete nAth recommendations, was next considered ty a special commit- 
tee convened under the auspices of the Council of Social Agencies, working in close 
conjiinction with the agency, the surveyor, and related agency heads. After careful 
consideration the recommendations were in the main followed, a specific plan out- 
lined, and the request placed before the Community Chest. Accordingly, six months 
after the study the Pomona Youth Service Society was set up to do an experimantfyl 
piece of rork in the area outlined with the older adolescents. A professional 
staff of three workers and one secretary was engaged. The agency was to he non- 
sectariaii. 

■ ft.B2AS OP 5SRVIC3 

The coTsnonest orohler. coming to the agency was in the field of vocational guidance 
and unet-TDlo^.Tient - a logical one resulting from economic insecurity in tnis age 
group. Other iDroolens sprang from disturbed home situations and character diffi- 
culties. BeferrrJ-s came from high schools, public and private agencies, and in- 
dividuals. The "personal interview" method of approach was most commonly used. 

The .venc- -rorked closely with public and private employment services, with family 
and gi-ouo^joiic agencies, and the schools. A major challenge became one of a pro- 
gram of individualized training and placement on special jobs. The agency niso 
availed itself of psychiatric service as needed by using a psychiatrist from the 
staff of the local tlental Hygiene Society. 

OTHER FACTOPJS 

Almost coincident vdth this experiment the community became the recipient of sur- 
veys, conducted by survey directors from the outside, in the graap ^ork a:id f nmily 
service fields. Tlie former surveyor brought in one recon-endation to the effect 
that - "each of the group work agencies have upon its staff at least one individual 
"ith training in r-sychiatric social work or in clinical psychology' as well as in 
group ^7ork" to establish and maintain relations with such agencies as the i^omona 
Youth Service Society. 

The f'jmilr n^-oncy sur/eyor ^ras even more s-oecific in pointing out that "In the 
present dnveloment of case woric there is no reason to think of 'jnouth' ojay more 
tiian the unmarried mother, as being n unit problem with a separate set of tecor- 
niques. It T70uld be unfortunate if 'youth' agencies should widen the gjrps between 
family and children's roi^ whicn 'mergers' all over the countiy arc tr-/ing to 
bridge." In line with this str.teaent a reconnendation was made as follows: 
1 Attention todaj' is being focused on youth; but most youth service should be 
carried on in a decentralized wo;/ within the us-ual type of social agencies with 
approT^riatc royources. A scparr.te agency does not seem to be necosRar/, 



II 



_ 3 - 



€ 



TH5 FJTUHE 

In confomity vdth estaHished pattern these recommendations were turned over to 
the Council of Social Agencies for translation into action, study, or otherwise to 
"be disposed of. Because of the unusual nature of this experimental piece of woifc 
oy the Ponona Youth Service Society, and its connection with the a"bove recorar.ienda- 
tions a special subcommittee of the central planning agency was created to study 
all raatters and make a report. 

The appointed su'o- commit tee consisted of six people - the chairman was a group 
wo lie a^:enc"'' executive, t-ro ^onen nenhe rs ^er^ from boards of private agencies, a 
man public welfare official, and a nan superintendent of a children* s agency. The 
sal)- commit tee outlined its job as follows: 

a# To review the experimental work of the agency. 

b. To relate this review to the recommendations made by the surveyors. 

Houghly, they outlined their course of procedure to be - 

a. :.:eetins of sub-committee alone to study all progress to date. 

b. A series of meetings with the agency executive and members of the 

agency executive committee regarding the role of the agenc;^;' from 
the agency point of view. 

c. Meetings rith executive of the group rrork and family agencies (separately) 

regarding tne recommendations as they saw them. 



Q 



;ijestiojts roR sisa'ssioN : 



t 



1, That principle of community planning do you see in this record? 

2# Do you think the method of procedure should have been handled in a 
differ«;mt va^fl 

3» TTlio decides the role an agency is to play in the comniunity social work 
program? 

4. Should the Community Chest have taken a more active part in the planning 
x)rocess? 

5. Docs this i\^cord give evidence of Tjo^rs in wriich a community planning 
bod-- operates? 

6. Do the recomnendp.tions of the s-urNrr-yors rc^veal new trends in social 
agency function? 

7. Doc 3 this agency fall into the category of extreme specialization? 

8. Tould this agency lend itself to merger within the family or group 
woik field? Or, would it better be merged in the mental hygiene field? 

3g prepared to discuss these q'j.estions at the next class session. 



I I 



^ 



THE NEW York School of Social Work 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 

NEW YORK. N. Y. 

Ana lys is of varioii s ob.leculons to a 
Cominunity Chest for New York City * 



The authors of this memorandum commenced hy reviewing the twelve stock 
a^^•:llments a^^rdnst rny commfimity chest as presented oy Joseph Lee, of Boston, in his 
hiFtoric cle^^p.te with TTilliam J. Norton, of Detroit, pul3lished in the Survey Magazine 
in 19:]8# (Volume 59, Pa^e 749; Vol^jime 60, Page 90.) TTe have tried to restate them 
as th::; lid^ht "be all.-^ged to apply in New York City in 1941 and have tried to re- 
arrnntic th?jn so thf't they are listed "below in the order in which we think they have 
the 5!;ro.n5tesi: validity. In most instr.nces this validity depends upon how such a 
chest migh^t le admini^.tered. Wc have, therefore, tried to s^JJggest certain reserva- 
tions or conditions which an agency might insist on hefore consenting to join any 
such plnn for joint financing. 

1. "The chest plr.n docs not increase thoughtful giving. •^ ^fe think the 
most valid oojection to the chest method of joint fin^.ncing is thf^t con- 
trimitors would tend to give "for New York" or for social work generally 
rr.ther than for fnmily welfare service or for the Community Service 
Society specifically. It is generally admitted thpt it is harder for a 
^iver to acquire an intense enthusiasm for the general program of many 
£\gencies, thr'n for one specific piece of social work. 

For this reason, if the Chest plan is adopted a memlDer agency should 
insist on the maintenance of personal relationships with givers as far as 
is possihle^ For this reason the method for encouraging "design^.tions" 
is desirahle. Givers should he encourpged to indicate on the hack of the 
pled^^e card the agencies in which they have a special interest* The npjnes 
of sixch givers should be furnished agencies for intensive cultivation 
thro^j^yhout the year. The agencies diould insist upon a chest policy v/hich 
would encourage the maximum of publicity r-nd interpretation by each n^.;ency 
on its own initiative, with adequate funds for publicity in its budget, in 
addition to the joint publicity efforts of the chest. 



2. 



W 



"The chest plan results in coercive giving." It is even alleged to 
bo tax^ation without representation. There is sound basis for this criti- 
ciSiH, particularly in the intensive canvass of factories by foremen who 
nre ovcr-zoalous to mrVze ar effective showing for their departments. In 
such cases there may be an implied threat of dischTurge if the worker 
refuses to give, or does not give as much as the foreman thiriks he should. 

A member a^^^icncy should inrist on campaign policies which will reduce this 
d^n::;cr to r. mininum. It is doubtful whether it can be entirely eliminated. 
Coercivf' c.?jnprigning is bad strategy as well as bad ethics. The best 
crjnpaignrrs rerlize that as a matter of self-interest it is fatal to plans 
for building up a steadily increasing good will toward the chest ajid its 
member agencies. It causes resistance which has a serious effect on later 
campnlgns. One partial cure is to encourage employee groups to solicit 
themselves throu^::h representatives of their own choosing* l>/en here there 
is still some da.nger of coercion by the majority over a minority who mpy 
be opposed to the chest or to social work^ 



A 



'# 



^ 2 - 

3« "Tl'ie chost is rAitocratic in control." This is frequently 30 espocinlly 
where the chef^t is or^^nj-iized as a "{"ivers' chost," without adequate rep- 
ress ontrt ion fron the momlDer r^encies* 

A rr.er^^eT p<:sor.cy should insist p.s a condition of joining a chest on a plan 
'by which there would ho adequate representation of memher agencies and of 
Various lar^e minority groups in the cominunity. Bv^cause of the size of 
Nov York City rnd the lar^e number of agencies and groups, this will he 
iriore cornplicpted th^n in any other city in Americ?*. Representation on 
the .governing hoard will have to ho indirect rather than direct, that is, 
every moiriher agency and every group cajrmot he directly represented because 
it wo\ild m«ike the ^overnin{; hoard too large. Ingenuity will have to oe 
used to provide a system of representR.tivo government. Under these circiom- 
stances the danger of an oligarchy controlling is increasir^^ly possihloi 
and 'ould have to he watched with great vigilance if it is to he prevented. 
There are potentialities for nntocracy in rny agency plpji of adninistration. 
Tliis danger is magnified in considering a community chest because central- 
ization enters the picture and extends the potentiality for autocratic 
cortrol. A shrewd manipulator car* mrke ari:y plan autocratic* This factor, 
a.s \ie all know full well, is an inherent dpjiger in a.ll affairs that are in 
any way related to human nature. Tiie srjf cguards rest with the constituency, 
which in this crse would he the participating agencies. 

4» "The chest took control from those v;ho are socially minded Pjid trans- 
ferred it to the business group." This is true, at least in the sense 
tha.t majiy leaders in business, industry, finance and labor who were never 
active in social agency mar^agement , nre being drr>wn in to the m?^Jir.gement 
of chostsf Tliere is some danger of ''money mindedness" replacing "social 
mindodnoss", or at least seriously outstripping it in matters of adminis- 
tration pnd hrindling of approprirtions. 

An af":ency j'^>ining a chest should not try to prevent this activity of busi- 
ness leaders as it is obviously desirable that more leaders in various 
fields of comTiunity life* should be exposed to relationship with social 
v-7rrk. However, this nrkes it importrjit to maintain adequate representation 
from asoncy borrds, as discussed abo^^e, lest too rapid drawing in of com- 
munity lenders unfamiliar with social work may result in unwise action, 
through ignorance, before they become "socialized" by contact with the 
progrrm r.Dd with others who have already acquired social vision by serving 
on r;*ency boards. 



5* 



'» 



"The chest exercises autocrptic control over budgets." It is true 
that r chest bud^set committee exorcises a very powerful control over the 
development of agency programs and, therefore, over service to clients* 
It is important t/iat the budget connittee be impartial and be capable of 
mokin{;: difficult decisions between the needs of various ppxts of the 
social ?">/;cncy pro^^?^.m of the city. This body can not be a strictly 
delegate bod;^% in the deliberations of v;hich each agency has a voice. 

The important thing for an agency to insist upon in this regard before 
joining a criest, is th?t the budget committee's decision shall be 
tentative and always subject to approval by the governing board, on which 
each agency should have direct or indirect representation. The right of 
appeal should be expressly rjaarnjiteed. Furthermore, the budget committee 
decisions, even after rpproval by the governing bonrd should be binding 
on the member ogency only a.s to the total amount granted, rjid as to certain 
major conditions agreed upon between the budget committee F>nd the agency 
during the hearings. The detrils of the budget as approved by the budget 



- 3 - 

committee should be regarded as advisory only and member agencies should 
exj^ressly stipulate that they are to have freedom to make minor adjust- 
mentr. within the "budget. Member agencies should relinquish only so much 
sovereif^-nty as is necessary for the common good and for the effective 
atoinistration of the chest structure. Beyond that, the needless sapping 
of a/^ency initiative weakens the whole structure. Budget committee should 
mcike provision for rotating terms of office, and should have the benefit 
of the service of the community social planning body in giving a social 
analysis of budgets. 

&• "The chest takes from the poor rather than from the rich." Years of 
chest aclministration now prove that this is not so, except in the senr>e 
thrt the whole philosophy of the community chest is based on the assump- 
tion that everybody in the community should be asked to give according 
to his means. This was a new idea when the chest was initiated pjid the 
great growth of chests in the early d^ys resulted from the tremendous 
incro/^-se in the number of givers, persons who had never been approached 
by social agencies before. 

It is necessary, re discus?,ed r-uove, to be ever vi.^ilp.nt against the 
coercion of smr.li givers. The n^imbor of large gifts will necessaxily 
be continually increased, but more pr.rticularly the growth will come 
from those in the "middle", that is, not from those of great wealth whoso 
visibility has caused them to be cultivated in the past, but from those 
of slightly less wealth who have never been cultivated by the loss effec- 
tive method of competitive agency approach, and who have not, therefore, 
developed a sense of social responsibility. The chest exerts a type of 
"social coercion" on this group but; the pressure here consists in mrking 
t^ivi>^-' to social work "fashionable". 



L 



7. "The chest has reduced agency board members' interest." This has 
proved to be true only in the sense thrt agency board members whose major 
interest ras in finance frequently trpjisforred this interest to the chest 
itself, and becrme, therefore, more a,ctive in the councils of the chest 
than in the individu^^l ??>gency program. 

An agency joining a chest should bo prepared for this and should probably 
v/eicomo this result. It should give the agency a chance to rebuild its 
board vdth persons chosen less with a view to increasing contributions and 
more from the strndpoint of those who will give time and effort to agency 
problems other than finance. It will be necessary, of course, for the 
agoncy to adopt rn up-to-date method for rotation of boprd membership, if 
it is to mrke the best use of this opportunity to improve the character 
of its board as a result of the chest plan. It must be understood that it 
will still be necessary to maintain prestige and representation of important 
groups. 

« 

8» "The chest has standardized social work at a noint of mediocrity." 
Tliis allegation is based on the fact that in many cities whien the chest 
was first formed, there was an undiscriminating effort to get all social 
agencies to Join without much consideration a-s to standards of work. While 
the chests were prospering in the early ^rears, due to the rapid increase in 
the mribor of givers on this new basis, there was a tendency to continue to 
finance sub-standard agencies at the level at which they were originally 
taken into the chest. 



The cure for this situation lies primarily in an active and welL-staffed 
Council of Social Agencies or Welfare Council. The desperate pressure for 



^ 



- 4 - 

funds during the depresnion period forced aost chest cities to reassess 
social a^'ency pro^rans, and in ranjiy cities restiltcd in su'bstaTitip.l im- 
provement in a^jency performancot In New York City, a social agency 
"before joinirg in any chest plan, should insist that the Wclfcxe Council 
servo as the planning arm and that agencies be admitted only after study 
and raconmendation by the Welfare Council • 

9. "^Chents have killed both good and bad agencies." This a.llcgation by 
Jcsei)!'! Lee, was based primarily on the Columbus situation in which the 
Faxdly TTelfnre Society was killed^ It is true that in nany chest cities, 
partici^larly in those without a well led Council of Social Agencies, 
tixerc hafi been an effort to reduce the number of agencies and thus sa.ve 
nor.ey without careful consideration as to which programs should bo dis- 
contiroicd. There was a tendency in some chests for the older and bettor 
established agt?ncies to urge a "closed door" policy - that is to oppose 
adriitting new aiT^encies to the chest drive on the ground tha.t there was 
rot enoueib. money to go around for those already in. The operation of a 
strong chest campaign malces it difficult for nev/ movements to finance 
therxselvos. 



f 



As a condition of joining a chest, a social agency should insist upon 
a liberal social planning policy to be implemented by a Welfare Coun- 
cil or Council of Social Agencies. Such a council should be as con- 
cerned p-bout gaps in social service which may require the establishment 
of new agencies, as in maintaining existing agencies. The chest should 
be guided by the council's recommendations in this regard, and have an 
affiniative policy for financing new services. 

10« "A chest driv.? increases case loads." This is a uniform experience 
in chest cities. The intensive solicitation of gifts makes givers more 
"agency conscious" ajid there is a tendency immediately after the drive to 
refer clients to chest agencies, with the implication that "we have con- 
tributed to these agencies and now we ha^'e a right to procure service from 
them for our friends." 

Although this result nay be embarrass sing, it is not one which should be 
regarded entirely as disadvr^ntageous. The chief trouble is that enthusi- 
astic but poorly informed cajnpaigners stimulate givers to refer cases un- 
wisely. For cxpjnple, there will bo a tendency to refer many relief cases 
to private f nmily agencies when they should go to the public welfare de- 
partment* The best c^are for this is more careful instruction and educa- 
tion of volunteer canvassers. This is difficult to rccomplish during the 
hectic period of the campaign, but on the other hand such volunteers are 
more willing to accept such education when thoy need the infoniation to help 
them to neet questions from their "prospects", thaji they would be at any 
other time. 

11. "The chest plan ha.s tended to reduce the earned income of the agency." 
This result w?>s feared when the chest plan was first r.dopted. The assump- 
tion \7r.s that the agency ?;ould be lax in exacting a fe« from those who 
could afford to pay something for services. Nationa.l experience over the 
years has dispr-^.ved this point. Obviously an adequa.te system of budget 
hearings results in strong pressure by the budget committee on each agency 
to increase its own earnings as much as possible so to reduce the deficit " 
to be finpxiced 'by the chest. 



€■ 



- 5 - 

!:?• "The chest has made it hard to raise capital funds. »^ It was originally 
feared that endovTiTients to member agencies would shrink "because persons of 
wealth would no longer feel it necessary to bequeath funds to support these 
agenctes "because of chest support. Experience has shown no such shrinkage 
as a result of the chest plan, hut the annual drive for the chest may 
interfere with ce^TpaigTiS for capital funds. Wise chest administration 
generally adopts an affirmative attitude on this question and seeks to 
schedule such campaigns so that not too mpny of them will he held in one 
I'eEiV. In most chest cities, it is possible for an agency in need of 
crpitnl funds to secure formal approval of the chest giving priority to 
that a^'cncy pnd protecting it from competition from other ngencies who 
might otherwise seek to raise funds at the spjne time. 






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THE IIEW YOEK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL TOHK 



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March 13, 1942 



TO: TiiQ Clio-irmnn and the Vice Ghairnan 

FEOII: Tl-e ExGCutlvo Diroctor 

SUBJECTS Siijnmu.ry of Dovelopmont of Neighborhood Councils and Branch 01 lice 



s 



It vdll he recalled ttiat at the moGting of group representatives at the New York 
TiEicr. Hall on Jcxnuary 7, 1942 discussion from the floor indicated the need for os- 
tallishiug an official policy in relation to so-called neighhorhood defonse councils, 
ScvGi-al hoA already beon tentatively orgrmized in Manhattan vdthout official sanction 
and the movement was commencing also in Qjieens and in the Bronx, In Brooklyn the 
CDVO 'v-id ascumed renponsibility and was promoting their development on a precinct 
haais. On January 9. 1942 the Greater New York Office accordingly roauestcd the 
Ma^-or to ostablish on official policy. 

Vot e to Est ablish Branch Offices , , . <. 4.v,« rr.o^*^y 

The mtter v^JTriFther discussed at a meeting of all borough chairmen at the Greater 
No^7 York Office on January 12. It was the sense of the meeting that each borough 
office had Jurisdiction to establish branch offices and that in doing so it should 
incsist as a prerequisite that a neir^borhood council be establishea representative 
of all organized groups in the neighborhood. A formal resolution was passed: 

"That borough chairmen be responsible for the decentralization of their 
neic^xborhood activities; that they select organizations to participate 
in formation of such units as seem ad\'isablo in each borough, and that 
those units are not to do placement, but are simply to recruit and en- 
roll volunteers, that the uniform name of these units be Civilian Defense 
Volunteer Office , Branch" • 

Thereafter every borou^ office proceeded to promote the establisliment of such 
councils raid branch offices within their jurisdiction. Brooklyn continued to use 
the -orecinct. The Chairman of the Uanliattan CDVO requested the Executive Director 
of the Greater New York Office to submit an outline for the next steps in orgnniz- 
ine- such councils. Tais plan was very largely based upon a nineographed plan al- 
rokdy in use in Brooklyn except that the use of the police precinct as the area for 
orgr^Jiization was not recommended. Progress in organization of branch offices and 
neieliborhood councils in each borough to date nay be summarized as follows: 

S ro o"'""!l-'^Ti 

ThTl^^lyn Borough Office requested Mr. Milton Hayes, a Wall Street lawyer who 
lives in Brooklyn and load been "active in the Willkie campaign, to direct the organi- 
zation of branch offices and local councils on a precinct basis. He associated '.vith 
hinself several young lawyers who had also worked with him in the political campaign 
and who knew neighborhoods in Brooklyn from this standpoint. The plan which they 
followed was substantially the sane as the last tliree pagee of the Appendix, en- 
titled "Plan for the Establislinent of a Branch Office and Local Councilo "The first 
branch office was opened on January 7. 1942 in Precinct 79, knovm as the Bedford- 
Stuyvcsant Office and located at 495 Gates Avenue vdth Judge Milton Uecht as Chair- 
nan. Local councils .are now established in all the 29 precincts and branch offices 
have actually been opened in all e::cept 9 precincts. When interviewed on March 3. 
1942. Mr. Ej:^es stated that he was still using 20 of his originrJ. field representa- 
tives to keep in touch with the development of these branch offices and their local 
councils. Mrs. Dagnar Edwards is giving full-time service in the Borough Office 
to these community progrtms. 



* See Appendix 



i 






-2- 

^h^M^SSttnn Office placed Mrc. Ethel C. Phillips in charge of the dovelopnent of 
branch offices but decided against the use of the precinct as the area of organi- 
zation. The attached nap will show the proposed 12 districts. In only o^o case. 
the Clinton District, is the area the sruno as the police precinct.^ The Chcl.ca 
District coiUDrisos two coiiploto precincts. The East Midtown District cor.iiDrir.cs 
thr 



nroclnots. All tho cthor districts cut across proclnot linos to a e"_.r.t 



P 



extent and contain fron one and two-t];irds precincts (East Harlcn) to six ^nd one 
third precincts (Lower East Side) except tliat the Inwood District above Dycknan 
St consists of about half of Precinct 34 and the Washington Heights D^^J^^^^^^?; 
ncdiatoly south thereof contains tho southern half of Precinct 34 and the northern 
ono-t:iird of Precinct 30 above 155th Street. Organization neetinp are^ being stinu- 
latod in nor>Tl7 all of those areas. Tho only branch office which nas occn offici- 
al!- o^,oncd is t:vxt in tho Chelsea District (No.4). Mr. Aubrey ^^^^ "^ , J^l.r.. 
field rc-,:.rosentativo in negotiating this devclopncnt and the first official meeting 
was >.eld on Friday. March 3. at which the now Chelsea Defense Council convened with 
roprosontativos fron tho tianliattan Office .and received prclininary reports f^^n all 
the new branch office chairnan. Tho now Chelsea Office expects to enroll volunteers 
as soon as tliey can thorouglily organize their office procedure. 

tFTb-oiix Office has selected the aono rather tlvan the precinct as its goo^graphical 
unit of organization. This noans that they plan to have 34 branch offices, norc 
than in an;' othor borougli. 

Five brr-nch offices have actually been opened: - Parkchcster - opened 1/8/42 - 
Precinct 43, Zone 2; ^'akefield - opened 2/2l/42- -Procinct 47. Zones 2 ^ji 
ForcJ-an - opened l/3l/42 - Precinct 46, Zone 2, West Trcnont - opened o/13/4^ 
Precinct 44, Zone 2; Crotona Park - opened 3/9/42 - Precinct 48, Zone 4. 

A zor.c contains api3ro>dnatcly 50.000 people but in one of the ■"-^orc congested areas, 
Precinct 42. Zone 1, thoro are 70,000. Mr. Barnard Sachs (whose office is at 425 
Pourt> Avenue, Kanliattan - Ashltmd 4-6280 - but who lives in the Bronx) is Chairnan 
of the connittoe of connunity loaders engaged in the cstablishnont of those brqnch 
offices. He states tl;at two norc, Bclnont and Soundviow, will open next week; that 
there are fivo others that are approxinately ready for authorization and four others 
that liave hold connunity noetings in preparation for orgtmization. Tlus leaves 
twelve zones x:hoTO a local connunity leader has recently been assi-ncd to connoncc 
organization and five zones as yet unassigncd. 

In a conference with Mr. Sachs on March 12 he told us that there is a Ucst Bronx 
Defense Council set up to cover a large portiion of the Borougla. It was tarough his 
activity in this Council tho.t ho cane to the notice of tho Borour^la CDVO. Uliethor 
the 7est Bronx Defense Council will bronk up into the separate zone conmttecs or 
will continue as a separate organization covering a larger area is yet to be do- 
cif cd. There is also an Rast Bronx Defense Council which has boon organized and its 
relation to tho CDVO Councils and tho various zones throu^-^liout tho eastern part of 
the Borough is still to bo doternined. 

Q ueens -.^ - • j.. n^ 

LiT3^rookljTi, Queens 1-^s adopted tho precinct as tho unit of or^gcmzation. On 
March 9 tho Borou,-^ Chairnan, Mrs. Adikes, inforncd no that there are 4 Precinct 
branches established but not really functioning as yet. They arc Rockaway, Ridge - 
wood, Astoria and Baysido. Tlio first one to bo opened was Rockaway where origin- 
ally one branch was established. It is now intended to divide tho area so that 
t'^ore will bo a separate br^^Jich office for each of the 2 precincts m the Rockaways. 



n 



'V; 



% 



» 



Rlchi . iond 

Rlchnoncl jACi not adoptod the precinct as their basis for eotaolishin,- l3r(?.nch officos# 
They oy.'OiiCd a Lrraich in Tottonvillo two v/ooks a(;o and havo since csta"blishod two 
othorn, one in tho Uatdstratos Courthouse, T7ost Bri:^:ton, and the other at the 
AVTS in Great Kills. Mrs. Carcw states that their nethod of orcanization was to 
ask ncnbcrs of their Borouj^h-wido Advisory Council who lived in these localities to 
act as a tonporary or'caui nation cor.r.iittcet V.Tien the local connittoc \k\z conpleted, 
it chose its o\/n officers. Volunteers oni'ollod at these "branch of^/ices loave "been 
placed oiilv- in positions v/ithin the noii^borhoodt 

Conc lusions 

If tr.e present plans of tho "borouf-h offices arc conaunnated,thorc v/ill he at least 
67 Lr; .nc>. ofiices throu,.-hout the 5 borour^lis and tho nunbor nay exceed 80 if the 
zone continues to bo used as the unit in the Bronx. Manhattan onvisa;;os sub^ 
offices under sono of their branches. All borou.^h plans assume the orrsanization 
of a representative council of local citizens, whether those will becone and rc- 
nain active, or v/ill bo merely "paper" or/^anizations, will depend upon the ability 
of locrl and borou/:h leadership. They arc bcinr; called local "defense councils" 
althour:h neither the M-ayor nor the City^widc Defense Council has established any 
policy in reference to then or authorised the use of the nano. 

It is o;.;vious that, in addition to facilitatinr the enrollment of volunteers, such 
local coimcils have nany other advanta-^os, anonr; which nay be listed the following: 

a) They tond to relate local citii^ens more closely to the war effort and thus 
increase unity and norale. 

b) They nay servo as effective plannin,^ machinery for better protection of tho 
neifv.borhood and for stimulation of tho protective services in the area. 

c) Thoy c:'.n servo as an effective information center on all natters rela-ted to 
winnin;^; the wr-r and riaintainin.;: civilian morale. 

d) They cm coordinate and r^ive direction to tho viany new orr^anizations that are 
C5prin;;in,j; up rjll over the City duo to every citizen* s desire to have a part in 
t]:.e war effort, nany of which novencnts are unwise. 

e) They can serve as a neans of interi:>retin;.T local public opinion and local needs 
to City authorities and likewise cm interi^rot municipal and federal re;julations 
to th-o neighborhood. 

f ) They juay liavo fai'-rcachinj advantages after t]-,e v/ar. 

Recommendations 



Durin;: this liasty survey nany tentative recorxiendations hxive omeri^ed. Some of then 

are listed bolo\/S 

1) TV.e Greater New York CDVO should add to its staff a qualified person whose sole 
duty it should be to keep in touch with and r;ivo leadership to the noifiiborhood 
council movement. He should serve as a clearing house for information between 
those workin; in this area in each borouri^ and should brin,^ them together from 
time to time so t'^at they can learn from each other *s exp.eriencc. 

2) Each borour;h office s>.ould have one similar person in char.^e of this development 
workinr; throu^ii an ade iuato staff of carefully chosen field representatives. 

3) The Success of the whole novement will depend upon the selection and stimulation 
of those field representatives. Only o>r[)orie3iced persons will do. They can pro- 
bably -jorrorm their duties in the late afternoon or ovonin,-. They vail stimulate 
and ry±(\o the ncij:hborhood councils and act as liaison officers v/ith the borouj-^h 

office. 

4) The key person in each nei.-hborhood council should be an Executive Director or 
3ecrot:\ry. He should be able to /^ive more time than the Chairman but mij-^it servo 
less than full tine. He is not to be confused with the office manager who must 
serve full tine. The most important qualification for Executive Director is that 
he sh.all b'we demonstrated his ability to plan and direct committee work and can 
i^do the Cliairnan in plaiminr- and conductin,; successful council moetinf^s. 

Respectfully submitted, Clarence Kins, 

Executive Director. 



' > 



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p' 



A PHSiroiX 
CITILLiN DEZfilTSS VOLITNTEER OFFICE OF GEKITER 1^7 YQHK 

420 Lcxinr'ton iiVouuo,N#y.C# 

January 23 , 1942 

TO: Eor u.-;l: Chairnon 

FRO:!: Clr.roncc Kinr.f Exocutivo Director 

SUBJijCI: Proposed Noxt Stops in Planning'' Ncij-^hLorhood Councils* 

The I/Ianhattan Office recently requested the Executive Director to outline a policy 
which they mi^ht follow in establishing neightorhood councils and branch of f ices • 
It is set forth below with the hope that you may find it of some value in making 
plans in your Borough, although it is realized that modifications v/ill be necessary 
in each Borough: 

1) It v/ould be unv/ise for the present to try to fix arbitrary boundaries. It would 
be bettor to select important center s leaving the probable conflict as to ultimate 
boundr-ries for later negotiations* 

2) i^eithcr police precincts nor health districts will in all instances prove the 
ide:.a area, although the latter is preferable to the forncr^ A grouping of 2 to 5 
police precincts may prove v/isco 

3) It would be well to experiment in two or three of the neighborhoods v/hich are 
ripe for organization before solidifying a policy for the whole island* For ox- 
amplo, Chelsea, Yorkvillc, the Lower East Sido, or some other similar selection 
mi^t be deternined upon as a beginning* In selecting the places to begin with, 
it would be well to choose neighborhoods whore (a) council organization is already 
advanced, (b) \,horo there is skilled professional leadership available* 

4) Rce-lonal councils already established under the Tfolfarc Council should neither 
bo acdoptod as such, nor ignored in planning the new councils. They should have 
representation in the new structures, but should not dominate them as it is essen- 
tial that the cou-ncils shall become organized as citizens' councils, broadly repre- 
sentative of other interests, including social v/ork* 

5) Eventually criteria will have to bo established which would liavc to be met by 
an;y- such new council before it could receive the stonp of approval of your office* 
Some of tl.ese criteria might bo as follov/s: 

(a) Ado mate representation of all coanunity groups in the neighborhood* 

(b) Ho exploitation for political p^orposcs. 

(o) No none:>*raising efforts of a t^ipc which might bring the novonent into 

disrepute* 
(d) No overlapping of boundaries v/ith an adjoining neighborhood coui-iCil« 

6) 'The attached PLAH FOR THE ESTA3LISH1ENT OF A BRAITCE OFFICE Al© LOCAL COUNCIL, 
mirjht be issued as a guide to those neigl^.borhood groups that are now forming and 
will be seeking your approval as local cr^uncils, I have c-pied it from the Brooklyn 
pl-n which I tliink is excellent but have made a few minor modifications* 

7) It would be well to call togo t:\or sonn vn Advisory Committee on neighborhood 
Cour.cils conijosed of experienced persons wiio liave already done sonc constructive 
thinkinv-c about this auostion* 



8) As skilled personnel to operate this plan is the first essential, efforts should 
be r.ade to secure the services of rn expert in connuiiity or^pjiization who Cc?ji give 
at least .'.ilf time to acting as adviser to the Borough office and supervising the 
"councillors" or field representatives who will serve as liason officers between 
the Boroujli office cjid neif^hborhood councilse 



(* 



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PIuilT ?Qa THE EST/lBLISHMEITO OF A BR.'^NCH OFFICE iiiro LOCId, COUrlCIL 

The Inr-e area and huge population of our Borough necessitates the decentralization 
of Civiiir.n Defonso activities in order that all people in the corumnitios can do 
their sh,ai'e. Therefore, plans and procedures Imve teen devised to organize Branch 
Of .'ices under noishborhood councils and local leadership, v/ith the approval of the 
Borouj^:. Office. The officially designated local council has the responsibility for 
the operation of the Branch Office. 

T-'ie i;Ui'3iosesof the Branch Office and Local Council ar«: 

1. i'o recruit and enroll nen and v/onen volunteers for Civilian Defense. 

2. To bo the informtion and coordinating center for Civilian Defense activities. 

3. To stren,;5'thcn noralo and pronoto unity. 

T'-o Br.-,nch Office is an integral part of the defense organization and as such it 
fur.ctions as a separate unit under the Borough office. As the Branch ofiicc is a 
co-oraiv.r>.tod service bclonsing to the whole comunity, it is acixiinistcrcd by a 
Cou:-.cil corjpor.ed of nen and wonon representatives, as far as practic-.l, of leading 
or,::ani'/.ations and comunity .^xoups - nonon's or.-anizations, churc.^ sfoups, social 
o,Toncic3 and boards, fraternal orders, and civic organizations. The board should 
be strictly non-political in character. 

A ncoting of representatives of all groups whose honos or place of business arc in 
a neifraborhood, is called by one or nore responsible loaders. EoL^hasis should bo 
on rekclenco rather tlum business addresses. A list of invited or^-anizations and 
re.-'osontativcs should be sent to the Borough Office with the request to have a 
councilar attend this necting to advise with the group on procedures ^^^ J^^J^-" 
tablishucnt of a local council. The purpose of the prior organization nectin..s are 
1) .0 educate the ncnbers on the purposes and functions of a Brancxi Office, 2) to 
nirJce certain that the officially designated council will bo a true cross-section 
of the conuiranity. 

If the nooting is not sufficiently ropresontntive, another nccting to which repre- 
sentatives of other gToups should be invited, is to be scheduled. The Borour^h 
Of. ice should be advised of each successive necting in order to have a councilor 
present and to coor'^dnato noetings of other groups in the neighbor.iood to the end 
t-iat when all representatives of interested .^oups are brou,-;ht togctner a tenporary 
or.'^mzation can be set up. with the usual officers or at least a chairnan proton, 
rjid a pre-organization conriittcc. 

T^cn the r.re-or.-,-.uiization connittee is reacV to hold its first general, open public 
Setin; s.it application to represent the connunity r.ust bo ^'^^'^'i^':^,^ 
Ofyico. This approval will be in the nature of tenporary certification. If approvea 
then a . -encral noeting should be planned as soon as possible to which J^^ll ^^J;^- 
vited re-.rescntatives fron every social, religious, civic, and charitable organi- 
zation in the precinct, nar^y of whon have had a voice in setting up t.ie P^c- 
o;ganization cinnitteo! To t^.is nectin., a representative 'l^^\f}lXTfoZtary 
should be invited to spo-^i: on Civilian Defense and tho opportunities for voluntary 
s"e°vlce. Also representatives fron th.e PoliceDepartnent, fron the Fire D^partnent, 
^r'on Se Dei^a^tnent of Health, fron the Red Cross, and other service organization,, 
ctc^ should be invited to explain briefly his om activities and how they fit into 
Civilian Defense. ; 

A crrefully prepared agenda should bo worked out by the teni-)orary officers boforo 
te -onerai necting. This should include a slate of the pcrnanent ofticers. As 
t'-e Ser of interested connunity groups will be too large to nrke it practical 
to buUd an executive comittee on a representative basis, a council should be 
f or ^ed of peor.le who are conrmnity leaders and officers of every conr^nity organi- 
zation. F^n 'this council an executive connittee of fron 12 to 25 nenbers should 



1 ■*-! 



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Tdo cl.cctofl to be roflponsiblc for tho nvcr-.nll aclninlstration. Allov/e.nco should bo 
ncAo for nouino.tions fron tho floor. Tho a.-;cnda should include discussion as to 
tho locr.tion of tho Brtmcl^ Offico, its financin-, its furnishing, 

Roat-froc ouartors, if possible, should bo aocurod. Ul-.crc advice is necessary, tho 
Boroui; Office v/ill bo t^lad to help. The Brnnch Office should bo conveniently 
loc;\tca and l:avo sufficient spaco to provide adoquatcly for privacy in intorviewing 
arc! rc.-istorin.'- voluntoors, and for necessary filings oquipncnt r>Jid furnisliinr^js. 
The ovmor ufiy bo induced to furnish heat and oloctricity. Parniturc can bo borrovxod 
fron V-o jionbors of the council or fron furniture dealers in tho ncifjliborhood, 
q,iip,rtoru should bo brl,-;lat and attractive, decorated by a fla/5, dofonso posters, .and 
rjiy c)t::or natorial which will ntikc tho civilians realize tho urgency of the dcfonso 
pro T ■-. E-cpcnsos nust bo kopt do\7n to a nininun, for each offico nust bo solf- 
sup ^orti:v-> Iho only cash expenditures nay bo for such itcns as toloiohono, station- 
cry, ;. 'rintin/j, postage and office supplies. Even printing nay bo donated,. 

It is i:ii.ortant at this point to secure a fo^7 qualified volunteers v/ho ui 11 help 
in uramin-- tho office for the job of intorvic^7inf; and onrollin,- people for Civilian 
Dofonso v/ork. The Borou^^ Offico ;vill arran,-o to train those volunteers for this 
tank in order thtit, as soon as posniblo after tho Branch Offico lias boon approved 
c-rd cst.";Dlishod. it v/ill bo in a position to function as an onrollnont center. 
Ti.cne voluntoors in turn vdll be able to train others to carry out this prinary 
function* 

After tho .-oncral nootin,- the list of officers raid nenbers of the oxocutivc con- 
nittco raid tho council, 'Tith nojacs of or,-;anizations tiioy represent, should bo sent 
to the Borou.-la Office. If tho list iioets with the approval of the Borouii Office, 
tho r>ffice will bo certified as tho official Branch for Civili-Ji Defense Uork. 
-Trilo it is desirous tlaat each council should havo as nuch autonor-iy as possible, 
t'"'o Borouiiii Offico reserves tho ri.^^t to add or substract fron tho executive cort- 
nittoos of tho council. Also the Borour^. Offico vdll require periodic financial 
reports* 

T'^o official nano shall be "CIVILLUT DEISNSE VOLUilTEEH OFFIGE'^='-:":<'^'^^**BIL-^TCH". 
Stationery, posters, etc., rx^r also carry tMs official n;ino vdth the words 
'U\f filiated \7ith tl^o Manhattan Civilian Defense Volunteer Office." 

It is suQiOstod that each local council adopt tho followin,- orr^raizational sot-up: 

O-o or -lore honorary chairnan who should bo very outstandin" citizens of whon 
actual v/ork is not necessarily expected, but tJio wcir^ht of whose na3:ios will lend 
sta'jility to tho council, should bo selected. 

r-o c'T.i-viiai should be t]ae responsible v/orkinr; head and ho or Ms representatives 
should bo the liason between the locrvl council and tho Borou;h Office, 

Tl-oro c^.ould bo one or norc vicc-chairmn, troas^arer, financial secretary, record- 
in,- socrotnry, and executive secretary wit]- tho respective usual duties. 

All of t>-o above, wit]; the cxcortion of tho honorary clnfxirnon who arc nenbers ox- 
officio ' sliall bo nenbers of tho executive connittoo. Tho job of tho executive con- 
nittco is supervisory and advisory on the various problons and at tl:c outset noot- 
in.-s sl-ould bo hold frequently- later twice a nonth n^oy prove suflicient. ihc 
c;-.airnan, v/ith tho advice and consent of tho executive connittoo, s.-.ould appoint 
t:'.e cloairnon and loadin™ ncnborc of v/orkin," connittoeo, includin.;;: 

1, Adninistration, 2 Jinanco, 3 Eocruitin,- and 
onrollnent, 4 Informtion Service, 5 Civilian 
Dofonso Education, 6 Conservation, 



<". 



7 



Additional comittocs "based upon the particular needs of the connunity and upon 
the sufif-estion of the Borou/];h Office to care for an expanded Civilian Defense 
pro{^r.?xi ecu "bo addedl 

Functions of Connittees 



Adi'iinlstrp.tion Connittoe: 



1. 



To secure suitable quarters and furnishin.'^s for the office if those have not 

clrcac'iy boon providod# 

To secure the necossrjiry personnel for the operation of the office for at 
least 6 flays a week fron 9 A#M# to 10 P.M. or at least fron 1 P.Ivit to 10 P.M. 
It is sua;osted that wherever possible the services of a full tine volunteer 
executive secretary "bo obtained v/hose duties consist chiefly in ovr^.nizinr:, 
the office and guiSlnr; its relationships. The principal qualifications are 
taeroforej adninistrativo ability^ kno\7ledf;o of connunity ori:;anizations, 
initiativoi leadership, ability to nako r^ood contacts with people* This 
volunteer nust "bo acquainted with the entire proj^an of Civilian Defense 
activities. If it is not possihlo to secure a full tirao voluntecri an 
alternate su^-^/^estion is to appoint two or nore part tine persons in order 
to have a responsible and trained person in attendance at all tines* T he 
office should have as nany clerical workers, stenographers, typists^ nesson- 
r.-ers as are necessary to handle the voluno of work. 
To keep tlae office stocked with supplies. 

To generally supervise the office to the end tluit the purposes for its 
eatablishnent are carried out. 



(i 



Finance Oo nnittee; 

»||1 ■ I ■■■■■ . ■■ H I I II ■!■■ 

1. To raise the nininun amount of funds for the proper functionin,:; of the office. 

2. To audit expenditures. 

3. To submit periodic financial reports to the Borou,-ii office. 

Hecruitinr: Enrollnent Connittoe: 

Note: The work of this coronittee is the nost inportant injiediate task of the 
local council. 

1. To interview and enroll volunteers at the local office so as to nokc available 
to t;;e Civilicm Defense prOf-,ran the best volunteer skill in the comuility. 

2. To furnish conpetent workers for the enrollnent joh who vail be trained by 
the BoroUt';!i Office. 



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BEUL.*tH MCHDHiGE 



Heading is a city v/ith a population of aToout 110,000» It is the comit7 scat of 
Berks County uhich has a population of 231,000« 

The "back-ground of tho lar^^^r r^roup of residents ia Pcnna* Dutch^ althou.'ii little 
is si.okon ainon"; tho city and to\7n children* They are proud of their iDaclccp.'^'^und^ 
''\ro voiv tMrfty, una.^.Tessirc,^ nattor-of-fact* They exert little oner:y to find 
out t;:iiv:s for tiaenselves "but are very stubborn atout natters thrust upon then.. 

In tl'.o last three years there has "been more activity in i'i;ottin.'^ soci-:^! v/ork before 
the lUulic an a result of tho activity of the Council of Social Af':encies« I fool 
that tl^c interested group is far too snail to carry tlie pro,^an to its li:.iit9« 
Uicro has "been an effort nado tov/ard lay participation^ and I feel that ;Toup has 
nade aore strides than tho professional* There has bcon a continual striving on 
the part of the professional workers to thjrow noro responsibility tov/ard tho less 
active of their group^ and this. has been hjard* 



w 



The Social -orker's Club is an or:7:inization of long standing, which has nade nany 
efforts to pronote better social work. Ueotings are held nonthlyj they arc varied 
to ncet social and professional needs. The controlling^; f-^roup has nado nunerous 
attoupts to brin.: the newer r;roup into power, but with little success* About lialf 
the nei'Aership arc public welfare v/orkors, and this group is constantly shifting.. 
Out of a paid nonbership of about 100, the nomal attendance, tho last I knew, was 
about 25t Of this group the najority arc fron private ac-Tcncies. The fault really 
lies in the nenborsliip for the progTans have been nost interesting and inclusive. 
The public workers are very apathetic which na^^- be duo to the gTcat pressure and 
uncertainty under wliich they work* 

In 1223 tho first effort v/as nade to or^'jinizo social work. The inpetus ccxio fron 
various organizations Including tho Kiawanis, Lions Club and Elks* Sin article ap- 
peared in tho local papers stressing the need for coordination, oaid listing agen- 
cies in v/hJLch there wa.s narked duplication. Tho writers cane directly to the point 
stating t'Oat tho objection to or,?:anization seonod to lio aaon; the Charities then- 
sclveq* Sono reasons for objections werot 

1*^ They !iave been conpetitors of nany years standing* 
2^ Il:.cy don*t like to get together for fear of losing soncthing* 
Zm. There is a personal habit of aninosity between conpetitors* 

4:^ Soae are so popular that it is easy for then to raise nonoy - they are unwilling 
to !\ave the loss popular cone under their v/ings and got noney by iti^ 



5^ Eicy arc afraid of ultinate injustice on tho part of tho connittee* 

In 1920 there v/erc 86 orf-pnizations interested in social work% Sone v/ere not 
charities in tho strict sense of tho word such as the Hose Coripanies c?jid Playr^oiind 
Association, but wore duplicating tho work of the charities. It v;as felt that with 
funds fron a good chest, ways of helping tho "lane duck" could be worked out, and 
noM charities could be established when needed* 

Shortly after that, what is now the Council of Social At-^encics was or:7?jxizcd, and 
frou that fToup developed the 7/elfaro Podcration.. A paid director was appointed 
lia^ 1,. 1925* On Ury 16, 1925 the Council of Social Agencies of the Reading Berks 
County :;olfare Poderation was reorganized* Until Decenber 1, 1939 there was one 
organization* For a period of two nonths in the year,. 21 agencies which dealt ox- 
clusively r/ith tho poor and health needs, wore listed as Chest AgencieS|^ and tho 



II II 



■ _^ I I 



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^1.1-. c-^-<-3veo rround them. This ms very confusing since dvu-ing ca^npaisn ^i"'^ ^^^^ • 
cirxG co.^3.'.«-o. ..jouna wom. a ^ relfare Federation isas considered suc- 
the federation was kno;m as the Chost. The Yeii'Ure ^^^^^"r;" -nl-jinine and co- 
ccssful. Heorganization came ahout as a need for ^o'^J J^^^^^^^ ?f tSo fo^ral 
oporc.tion r^ong the agencies ^7as noted. I7ith growth in *J^ "°^^ ^^^^^i/^^^'^^ch 
coa-aittocB creating moro meetings and l..y ^^^^f P^*'°^ *,J° f^pi^^ing and ^nanc- 
for one person, especially since the agency had *^°^^^f ^J^^j^fJ^Sj^fetorate. they 
\.-,c- T+ H'-fi decided that whilo there needed to bo an interlocKing airt.<^^ux , 
iiig,. It W..S aeciaoa ^aav . *«. . constitutions wore adopted by 

could still be separate orgaiai -nations. In 193y the ^o^^J^^J^ J^ chrr^o as far as 
ocX5h orscni.ation. and growth has been noted as a result of the ch,^. 
ir.to::ijrotation to the comnninity is concerned. 

orf,.r.Uatlon. each rtth Its onn f ;Jf i^°- Jf J^ foSo°od ^y ^kczl to as=i.t 

mit nf t'lc ^"oor. tho Executive of the Councii is Dorrowuu uj^ wi 
with ta! lipali.; from tine to time he is given special assignments. 

on tho Closing night of tho campaign a bo.ard of J^^f -^J%J;J:ir,^;\f^n'embers 
c-'xroaifeT. v/orkers to represent the contributors. ^^^^ ^°^%;;*;yfr4cios liko- 
te servo en the Board of Trustees. ^J° -^f^^Velo^Jd of Sr^ste^sKas the power 
wise select nine members to serve on the Board. The ^2?^'^.^^^{'^^^ . ^.o^i^^ 2I. 
to select t::roe more uonbcrs to sit with thorn mnking the total aer..b.r...ip 21. 

T^reo persons selected by the Board of Trustees of the Chest are ^olocted to serve 

CouiiCil is a ncnbor agoncy of tho Choct* 

A. m n^n^«Y*rt AT* ->-»nT nations in the Count;" desiring 
Monbership in tho Chost is open to all ^'^^^^^ ^^J^^^^.'^^'g^t^ct to the apT)roval 

r. ?-f r^sroAV'r.r4r.^ :°.--ir.c^is r =r sto ^^^ 

of finr.ixcinc sucl-. as submitting a budget and o^ur.1 report rather tUan on t.oir 
r/orth to the conriunity*. 

Bon-oors:.lp in «-.= Council 1^-^- /^ °- '"^ ^rf.lit^^^l'^T^^-^^^ ^^ aL* 

for six :-.:onths« 

Since t:..c.o ..0 no 3t.-n^.e for -colons *onoms ^^^^^^ ^ "^^Jif, 
tj- finr^cir.1 rcsulations. how can n "^^^ °""'2^'° .tocS^rSo is an oa:ollont o,^ 

ronnans tliic eano f ran a dopondahlo «°?^'='=:. „;-^,^™!?f „„„t^' It tt,o Board. 
Dhcst in Jmio 1935 nith nliat tho Cotmunity thou#t was tho approve oi 

t;.c Evangelical Chnrch. It was "Isl^^ljy » "'i^fjuvo Juliet Sor used it as 
(».V door of hlossl^ Zr'f'o^lTiZli h!i po" ftLuxds. and evidently 

^IirSrStltr "re^j^rtlcnsf S had he„n self -P|-"J^ -Jii^'^.tS^^ °?er 

x^ 4.' p%.a+ Tn iq?3 Mrs. Fnlson. then Director of Slcit^iton Jirrns, c. soau. x u 
to the Ciiost* Xn iy<:Jo Hrs# ^..xt^^Mf 4.4^^ 4^ uomUn-r^ She roconiiended that 

Sit: T. l'Z.Z:^^'?^%r:.:^r^ ^i'^U^.^ ne..t nothi., tc 
thon« 



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\^i^on tl-.c Fcdoration '.Tae fornodi cvon with all this fcolin^T about the Anchorage, it 
v/as aiaittcd to the Chest, ©lo .^irls placed there ncrc both delinquent and no^-lect- 
ed'. T'-iB naturrlly v/as dan^-crous -Tithout proper supervision. Hoy;cvcr, nianj^ of the 
rirls turned out v,cll. The principal of the Girls Higii School sho^7cd cji interest 
in oo-!o v;ho are now teachers in tho Rea^iine School systen. Others -lave ..ao-c ox- 
cello::t adjustnonts in the Conrrunity. Tho girls appeared to be nappy. 



As bine -oroAroBsed the old board nenbero norc replaced. AccorrUnr; to uro. ^liUcr, 
one OT- t'^c -oun-er Board oonbers, these new nonbors wore influenced by t^'-o Ex. 
Director of' tho"'Chost, who vas an ardent objector, and tho Ex. Socrctrj:y of the 
Chilc^'cnts .lid Society. ^Tnon they nero in tho najority, thoy voted to J-^^^ *^° 
institntion diobandod. At tho tine this occurred thoro was a split in t... boarc oi 
directors, and nuch rosentnont. Kio new nonbors had presented a plrji vuoroby all 
tho ., Iris could be absorbed by tho C.A.S. No sooner wero the aoors of t/.o .mcora^c 
closed thr^- this plan fell throu;^. 

Havii^G no detention hone in tho county mi a children's agency unable to absorb tho 
surplus, th-o pro;?rr..n for ,^rls bocrno sonowhat janned. In recent years ton yofJ>^^ 
Sirls .4e beinG placed in t.ho House of the Good Shepherd, v;hcre a State GU clinic 
U locrtcd. BeccLe of facilities there these children can not be entirely ^^^P^^jcttod 
frou other iiuiates vzho aro .^rls v/ith lon/5 records of sex experience. Protestant as 
well as Cathx)lic -iris aro adnittcd. Attendance at services is covipulsory, and that 
loads to controversy. 

It -lai- be l^iportant to know that tho no^^lccted child has Imd a s^vall place in tho 
co.x:u^.ity pro.=;raxu There is no protective a.^ency. r^d little cooperation between 
the fc.:il;- and children's aconcics duo to lack of understancane <f/^^%l^'lll ... 
function. Tl:o Panily Agency, which ::as a broad intorprotation of fimction and which 
acco-oted nany of those cases until thoy wore at a loss as to how to dispose of then 
has trken a load in this area. Recently tMs situ..tion was ^^^l^^^-J,,^^"^! ^-^j^I^'^g- 
On.of its neotin,5s w..s dovotcd to the study of tho «No,-;lectod Child". Followins this 
nectinn a con:.iittce was appointed to studj' the situation further. Follo'.7in,| °- 
nuiaber of noetinfcs. their su.:^.5estion8 woro brou^it before the judge, one. all agencies 
were ,iven autliority to bring cases into cou;:t. This soncwhat eased f-° f ^^^^^^^J 
but is bringing Bculali .^nchora,.'o into tho foreground again. Tho C....S. i. swa-ipoa 
vit\ cr.scs, and lias difficulty in findin,-; places for these children, especially with 
a lack in detention hone facilities. Tlio fanily agency sees armlpxation as a 
possible solution for sone problcns. ^ith closer cooperation witii the fP^-^ili-s by 
persons nualified in the field, there nay be loss need for brer^kmg .loaes, Tho 
a.-oicv like-.. d 80 hcs been interested in a revival of tho anchorage, 

TJl^en Boul-i Anclaorage was dropped fron the Chest, its Board of Trustees continued 
to fu.-ction. Persons interested in tho nonory of lirs. Limdis contmueo. to will non.y 
to the Board. Tl-:c property h^s never been sold, and lias ronainod vacrjit. Tne Board 
has several thousand dollars to its credit, in addition to the property .'-J-ic/. is free 
fro- a nort-a -0. People h.ave oxprcssod an interest in purchasin.; the property. Tno ^ 
nost rocont'^reiucst cane fron a retired ninistcr w!io wanted to use it for 'hoallelujah. 
nceti:v;s» 

Tl-o ol.' rvnd now board never sccnod able to get together. Eecently^onc of ^tho riajor- 
itV ne.-.bers was admitted to a ncntal hospital, so Mr. Jones, Presiaent 01 tno Board, 
cois^ilted Mrs. Illllor on tho natter nf soiling tho property. She had not been con- 
sulte: before he ordered that the building be painted, and enjoyeo. .-.aving this tino 
to rc'iuest sonc cooperation fron hin. She objected to his plan Ir^dn;.; .xcrs before 
hin. Having no alternative ho suggested t!iat she have a survey nauo as to tr.e need 
for reestablishing a detention hono. 

TTho- '-rs. Miller was last soon, she had consulted the School Probation Officer, C.A.S. 
So'cL'i -Jolfaro Loa-,-uo. Guidance Institutc.Public Assistance Dopt., Huiiane Society, 
and Police Deixirtnont. All stressed the nocd for a detention hone. The present Ex. of 
tho C.*^.S. needed a place for tho unriarried vcnerorl pre.gncjit girlj D.f..i. laces a 



II 



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-4- 

/jroat ncod for cp,ro for the no^^'loctcd child; the School District, at the tine of 
the call, had throe tjirls in nood of carot After a noGting with the Boax^d, Mrs* 
Miller plans to toko the r-iattcr "boforo the Jud/:^o of the Juvenile Court# TTith his 
porniGr>ion, plans can bo continued for reoctablishln^i a refuge of sono kind. 

Lire. Lliller is aware of the difficulties in the old institution* She as r.iany others 
in the community fool that souething shoiild have "boon done about corrocting sono 
of tlio faults, boforo autoiiatically dropping- it, vdthout ostablishinG sonothing to 
ncot the noods* Should there bo a now institution, it should be run under the 
supervision of an at;;oncjr; should be away fron the center of tlic city, where the 
rtLrls could iiave sone f reedon; should be run as a tenporary detention hono# 

Hany cmcstions arise fron such a situation: 

;7a3 the Director of the Chest within his rights in subtly disbanding the institu- 
tion? Had the standards of the Chest been bettor, v^uld this have been necessary? 

Should tho Anchorage have been disbanded without first checking on all availa;^nle 
resources? Tirould this have happened in a well planned sot-up? 

Will ainal-^imtion be a solution to the problon of Child care in Rcarling? 

What arc the advantages of a detention hone? 

Wha.t are the dangers in sotting up a now hone? 

Can it bo done with the present Board* 

Shoui:. this agency have boon a(kiittcd to tho Chest in tho beginniig? 



II 



MSMORANDmi 

Prepared for Reference Use In Connection with 
Conference on Health, Welfare, and Defense 
To Be Held in Nev/ York December 5, 1941 Under 
Auspices of the National Social Y/ork Council 



No, 11 



PROBLEITS AFFECTING TH2 SECURITY OF FAMILIES 
AND INDIVIDUALS IN CONGESTED DEFENSE CENTERS 

Submitted by Helen R* Jeter 
Secretary, Family Security Committee 
Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services--- 



The Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services receives re- 
ports from regional committees, from the regional representatives of 
the several Federal agencies included in the Federal Regional Advi- 
sory Councils, from national private social agencies, and in some in- 
stances from State and local public agencies on social and health 
conditions in connection v/ith defense activities tliroughout the Nation, 
Comprehenaive reports have been prepared by the regional offices for 
a niomber of defense areas based upon the information furnished by a 
group of technical representatives of various agencies; because of 
the magnitude of the task, however, these comprehensive reports are 
not yet available for all areas. 

The actual definition of a Defense Community or a Defense Area 
depends upon the action of several Federal authorities. Upon recom- 
mendation of the Defense Housing Coordinator in the Office for Emer- 
gency Management, the President of the United States designates a 
locality as a Defense Area for purposes of defense housing. By 
agreement between the United States Army and the Work Projects Ad- 
ministration areas are designated for the purpose of defense work 
projects. Under the authority of the Director of Defense Health and 
Welfare Services, a list of Defense Communities is issued for the 
guidance of Regional Directors in their coordination of defense health 
and welfare services, A revision of this list, now in process, will 
include about 1,000 communities and v/ill be the most comprehensive 
defense list ever published. 

Defense areas do not always follow the same pattern. For ex- 
ample, city A is a small city with a few non-defense industries. It 
had a population of 17,428 on April 1, 1940, A year later, in April 
1941, it was estimated that the population had grown to 27,600. This 
tremendous increase may be attributed to the expansion of the Army 
camp v/hich is situated ten miles from the city. On August 15, 1941, 
the camp had a total force of 52,880 men, and it is expected that the 
number may reach 100,000. City A is the only large urban area acces- 
sible to the camp and, inasmuch as there are no defense industries in 



^'^ Miss Jeter states that this Memorandum was "prepared by the staff 
of the Family Security Comm.ittee v/ith the assistance of the staffs 
of the Health and Medical Committee, Recreation Section, Social 
Protection Section, and Office of Education." 



- 2 - 



the city, families of soldiers, construction vorlcers, and camp fol- 
lowers undoubtedly comprise a large part of the new inhabitants • 



Town 
the 1S40 
early spr 



B presents an entirely different pattern. According to 
Census, the population of the town was only 515. In the 
ing of 1941, hov/ever, the V/ar Department awarded contracts 



for the construction of a bag loading plant which will operate in 
conjuncti 
the plant 
pared for 



gan. 



By 
v/ere hous 

cilities 



on with a smokeless powder plant. The cost of constructing 
was approximately $9,500,000. The town was totally unpre- 
the influx of the v/orkers who arrived when construction be- 
summer, • the population increased from 500 to 6,000. Workers 
ed in 600 trailers and temporary dormitories* All the fa- 
of the town proved inadequate to meet the situation. 



City C is a major defense area situated on a seacoast and having 
a population of 203,541 according to the 1940 Census. Located in the 
city or adjacent to it are various Naval and military establishriients, 
including a military reservation, Naval training station, I'^arine 
Corps base, destroyer base. Navy fuel depot, and Navy and Army air 
stations. In addition to these military establishments there are 
four large aircraft plants located in this area. In spite of the 
considerable number of persons residing in the locality, there was a 
lack of skilled workers for the aircraft plants as early as July 1940. 
As a result there has been a tremendous in-migration into this area 
encouraged to a great extent by the aircraft companies which will be 
employing 35,000 men before the end of 1G41. In 1940 it was esti- 
mated that the population of the city would reach 320,000 by 1960. 
Now it is estimated that the population will reach this figure by 
July 1942. According to the City Manager, this sudden growth has* 
meant a disorganization of practically all municipal services » 

Prom another point of view, any community in the Nation ma;^ be 
considered a defense area if a single one of its citizens has been 
selected under the Selective Service Act for induction into military 
service. Thus, the problems of camp coimnunities - the lack of rec- 
reation, of resta\u?ants , of accommodations for visitors, of facili- 
ties for handling social and medical problems - and the questions of 
adequacy of the pay of soldiers and what to do about family depen- 
dency may be reflected in every home in the United States. 

Because not all social and health problems and important services 
are to be found in every defense area and because no one actual sit;?.a- 
tion has been reported upon completely enough for study purposes, this 
memorandum resorts to the device of building up a composite picture 
from the reports from several different areas. In the following pages, 
therefore, there is presented a brief but composite report on health 
and welfare problems in a fictitious community designated as Defense- 
ton, U.S.A. While many of the conditions reported upon are true of 
one actual community, others with which they have been combined are 
borrowed for this purpose from the reports of other communities. Thus, 
although the parts may be true, the whole is fictitious and any simi- 
larity in the whole to facts about organizations or places is purely 
accidental. 



i—i I I 



s> 



<» 



- 3 - 



A POSSIBLE MEMORANDm 



TO: 



FROM: 
DATS: 
SUBJECT : 



Executive Cortmiittee, 

Welfare Federation of Defenseton, U.S.A. 

John Smith, Executive Director 

September 30, 1941 

Health and 7/elfare Problems in Defenseton and Responsibil' 
ities of the 1/Velfare Federation in Relation to the Local 
Defense Advisory Council of Defenseton. 



In accordance with your request, I am submitting a report re- 
garding the health and welfare problems created by the defense ac- 
tivities. This report touches upon problems, the various local 
agencies existing to meet these problems, and Federal and State ser- 
vices and facilities made available • 

When this community was designated by the President as a defense 
area, the LTayor of Defenseton, at the request of the Governor, ap- 
pointed the Local Defense Advisory Council to act in an advisory 
capacity to him and to the State Defense Advisory Council regarding 
the problems created by the defense activities in the community. The 
Mayor appointed me as a member of the Local Defense Advisory Council 
to represent the interests of the V/elfare Federation in social and 
health matters connected v;ith defense. It will be obvious to you 
that health and welfare are not the only aspects of defense with 
which the Defense Council is concerned, and one question that immedi- 
ately confronted us was v/hether operations in the field of health and 
welfare should be brought under the direction of the Defense Council 
or whether the Council should expect existing organizations to ex- 
pand their activities for defense purposes. It was soon decided that 
the Defense Council should not take direct responsibility for health 
and welfare operations but should receive reports and recoiTimendations 
from your representative and should refer to you any defense matters 
affecting health and welfare for action by the appropriate agency. 

You will remember that the activities of six of our existing 
committees of the Welfare Federation, therefore, were expanded to in- 
clude defense activities, and it has been considered tViat these com- 
mittees act in behalf of the Local Defense Council, clearing their 
reports and recommendations through this body. The committees are: 
Family Welfare Committee, Child V/elfare Committee, Health and Hos- 
pital Committee, Volunteer Comjnittee, Housing Committee, and Group 
Work Committee. We have also organized a new Committee on jlducation 
since school problems in relation to defense have been of great 
importance . 

The chairmen of these committees have met from time to time and 
have from the beginning believed that some comprehensive survey is 



- 4 - 



•y 



needed of problems, of servicos rendered by existing agencies, and 
of the possibility of their contribution tov/ard meeting defense prob- 
lems. The facilities for making such a study were not at first avail 
able. As you know, the State Department of Public Welfare adminis- 
ters only the categories of assistance under the Social Security Act 
and, although the director is interested, he does not see any possi- 
bility under the State law of assigning any personnel to assist v/ith 
such a study. Recently we have heard that the Family Security Com> 
mittee of the Federal Regional Defense Advisory Council may be able 
to assist us. 



/ 




The study would cover a large proportion of the 80 member agen- 
cies of the Welfare Federation with particular emphasis on the prob- 
lems that family and child v/elfare agencies, hospitals, clinics, and 
group work agencies are now meeting as a result of defense activity, 
their resources for future service, and questions of division of 
responsibility among public and private agencies and possible v;ays 
of meeting problems that are not now being met. 

In the absence of any such comprehensive data, I am reporting 
to you on problems and services discussed by the committees of the 
Federation which I have just mentioned. 

Growth of Industrial Activity 

The defense program has brought increasing industrial activity 
to Defenseton, and as a result of this increase the city has become 
one of the boom towns of the country. The community at first wel- 
comed this new prosperity v;ith no thought for the increased problems 
that must necessarily accompany any sudden expansion of a community. 
However, there has been an increasing awareness of these problems and 
today there is realization that increased responsibilities must nec- 
essarily accompany increased prosperity. 

According to the U. S. Census, April 1, 1940, the total popula- 
tion of the county was 255,000, of which 167,000 resided within the 
city limits of Defenseton itself. Slightly over one-third of the 
population of Defenseton is Negro. The Census also indicates that 
between 1930 and 1940 there have been significant shifts in the pop- 
ulation of the county. The population of the city increased 9 per 
cent in this decade, and the population of the county increased 30 
per cent* These increases reflect the movement from the city to the 
periphery, v;hich occuj?red in many other cities during this decade. 

Defenseton, because of its location near a hydro-electric plant, 
has in recent years attracted many manufacturing firms. Early in 
1940 there were two rayon and three cotton textile mills and a rela- 
tively small aircraft plant. 

In the past year, the aircraft plant has been expanded from 
120,000 to 700,000 square feet as a result of defense awards which, 
to date, amount to about ii^50,000,000. 

Employment in this industry has increased to 7,500, an increase 
of 6,500 workers over the previous year. At least 4,500 of these new 



I i 



- 5 - 



'V. 



/ 



employees have come from outside the commuting area. The management 
anticipates that an additional 2,500 to 3,500 persons will be added 
to the payroll before January 1, 1942* All of these workers will 
have to be imported because the State Employment Office reports that 
the skilled labor supply in this area has been exhausted. 



On the basis of information regarding the 6,500 workers vrtio have 
been employed recently in the aircraft industry, it is safe to estlniate 
that at least one-half of the new workers will bring their fajiiilies 
to Defenseton. 

In addition to the expansion of the aircraft industry with an 
influx of industrial v/orkers, about 12,000 persons have LriTinigrated to 
Defenseton for employment in the other manufacturing industries, con- 
struction v;ork, restaurants, stores, and other service industries* 

Late in 1G40, the Army also began construction of a large Army 
cantonment in the county, about 30 2niles from this city* Camp Q was 
completed in June, and, at the present time, 20,000 men are stationed 
there. Families of military personnel are moving into Defenseton, 
It is estimated that the combined civilian and military population of 
the county will be approximately 320,000 in December 1941, of which 
200,000 will be residing in Defenseton, 

Housing 

The U, S. Census reported that in April, 1940, there were only 
1,645 vacant family dwellings for sale or for rent in this city^ a 
vacancy rate of 3*4 per cent, one of the lowest in the country • Even 
though there has 'oeen a large emigration from the city to the outlying 
tov/ns in recent years, the housing problem has been acute. The slum 
clearance projects have improved conditions in one white neighborhood 
and in the Negro section, but the number of dwellings available for a 
monthly rental of $25 or less has been limited. 

The sudden influ?c of v;orkers for the construction work at the 
aircraft plant and the large numbers of men v/hc sought shelter here 
during the construction of the Army camp created a situation with 
v/hich the city alone could not deal. 

In November, 1940, the VVPA, at the request of the Defense Housing 
Coordinator in Washington, made a survey of about 26,000 dwelling 
units in the predominately substandard areas of Defenseton, This sur- 
vey revealed that 19,000 of these dwellings were not fit for human 
habitation. In January, 1941, the V/PA made a sample survey of the 
city and, at that time, shov/ed that the vacancy rate was 0,7 per c 



the Incoming v/hite v/orkers , 



ent 
.nt 

er $50 
le for 



The Bureau of Labor Statistics, at the request of the Defense 
Housing Coordinator, surveyed the coiixnunity in April, 1941, to deter- 
mine the effect of the acute housing shortage on rents. This report 
revealed an appalling situation v/hich was working grave hardship on 



- 6 ^ 

the low- income groups in the coi-nraunity and wais most unfair to the 
incoming defence worker and to the families of the Army officers and 
enlisted men at Camp Q. 

In 14 per cent of the homes renting for less than '^30 there was 
a 15 per cent increase in rent from October, 1959, to April, 1941# 
In four per cent of the homes renting at $30 or over in October, 1939, 
there was a 10 per cent increase during the same period. 

Both of these surveys brought action from Washington. The De- 
fense Housing Coordinator recommended to the President of the United 
States that the following housing units should be provided in 
Defenseton; 300 family units, renting from ^^20 to |)30 per month; 
200 family units, renting from ^35 to |40 per month. These units are 
now under construction by the Defense Homes Corporation. In addition, 
200 demountable dormitory units and 450 trailers will soon be avail- 
able to provide temporary housing for civilian aircraft workers. 
The construction of these units has been undertaken by the Farm 
Security Administration. The Coordinator also recommended at least 
800 additional family units to be constructed by the Federal Works 
Agency to provide for the families of aircraft workers and also pro- 
posed that private enterprise construct approximately 450 units with 
monthly rentals of from .$20 to $40. 

To assist in the control of the rent situation, the Mayor of 
Defenseton wrote to Washington in Februarj* to ask for advice. The 
Office of Price Administration immediately Sent a representative of 
the Division of Rent Control to confer with the Mayor and the Local 
Advisory Defense Council. Upon his advice, a Fair Rent Committee was 
organized by the Council and a "fair rent date" was established as of 
June 1, 1940. 

Tho Fair Rent Committee has been most helpful to the v/elfare 
agencies in the community. In January, 1941, evictions of relief 
families and of fa;nilies of V/PA workers had reached an all-time high. 
The limited welfare budgets of both the public and private agencies 
v;ould not permit increases in grants to ?neet exorbitant rent in- 
creases. After the Pair Rent Committee was organized and after it 
selected the fair rent date, the mmber of evictions decreased to a 
normal level. The Fair Rent Committee, although acting without any 
legal authority, has been able to control the rent situation because 
of the landlords' response to community pressures. They have found 
that it is better to cooperate with the Committee than to have their 
names blazoned in the daily papers. 



Sanitary Facilities 

Another problem with which we 
lem of providing an adequate water 
homes are being erected. For this 
tv/elve-inch v/ater pipe is needed, 
posal plant must be expanded. The 
cost of expanding these facilities, 
proved by the Regional Director of 
vices and recommended by him to the 



have been confronted is the prob- 
supply in the areas where defense 
purpose at least 4,500 feet of 
In addition, the sev/erage dis- 
City is unable to meet the entire 

and an application has been ap- 
Defense Health and Welfare Ser- 

Pederal Works Agency for Federal 



- 7 - 



r 



assistance under the Coniinunity Facilities Act (Lanham Act). It is 
anticipated that the Federal Government v^rill pay three-fourths of 
the cost of the construction. 

Health and Medical Care 

In Defenseton, the hospital bed capacity in September, 1C41, v/as 
500. In order to meet the hospital needs of the incoming defense 
workers, the Health and Hospital Committee has recommended that the 
city request aid under the Community Facilities Act for a 225-bed 
hospital and a 60-bed nursing home. The increasing birth rate in the 
community requires low-cost obstetric care for the wives of defense 
7/orkers. 

There is a great need for an out-patient department of the city 
hospital in the nev/ residential area near the aircraft plant. It is 
recommended by the Health and Hospital Committee that such an out- 
patient department be constructed v;ith the aid of Federal funds and 
maintained under local public auspices in order, primarily, to render 
pre-natal, post-natal, and pediatric services at a nominal fee. 

The proximity of Caiiip Q makes Defenseton of special interest to 
the Federal Government^ Although there has been no segregated vice 
district here for many years, we believe that conditions with regard 
to control of prostitution have not been ideal, and during the past 
few months, under the heavy influx of new population, conditions have 
become serious. The Secretary of V/ar could request the invocation of 
the May Act if local law enforcement officials failed to bring about 
improvement in conditions. The Police Department, however, is yield- 
ing to Federal policy in response to suggestions from representatives 
of the Division of Social Protoction of the Office of Defense Health 
and V/elfare Services. In addition, the City Health Department is 
cooperating by opening a venereal disease clinic and by providing for 
treatment of women with venereal infection in the detention ward of 
the county hospital. 

Education 

In the school year ending June, 1940, approximately 23,000 white 
children and 4,000 Negro children v;ere enrolled in Defenseton schools 
which had seating capacities of 50,000 and 4,200, respectively. Dur- 
ing the past decade there had been a general decrease in elementary 
school enrollments . 

By September, 1941, the enrollment of white children had in- 
creased by 3,000 and the enrollment of Negro children by 1,200, thus 
overtaxing both white and Negro schools to such an extent that some 
of the buildings were required to operate in two shifts in the lower 
grades . 

Under the Community Facilities Act, additional classrooms to 
accommodate the 1,000 v/hite children are to be added to existing build' 
ings . A new IS-room elementary-high school building is now being con- 
structed to alleviate the pressure in the Negro schools. The need for 
these additional facilities was agreed upon by the Defenseton Super- 



- 8 - 

intendent of Schools, a representative of the State Departinent of 
Education, and the regional representative of the U. S, Office of 
Education, and was approved by the Regional Director of Defense 
Health and V/elfare Services, Further, the need was recommended to 
the Federal IVorks Agency by the Federal Security Agency in the "cer- 
tificate of necessity" Issued by the U. S. Office of Education, and 
was approved by the President. 

Recreation 

• 

In this community, as in other communities located near Army 
camps, the efforts of the group work agencies, the women's clubs, and 
the denominational clubs wore directed, in the beginning, toward en- 
tertaining the man in uniform^ These efforts, although notev/orthy, 
did not meet the problem created in Defonseton by the influx of 
10,000 defense workers and 12,000 other civilian workers v;hose recre- 
ational needs are very similar to the needs of the normal residents 
of the city. In other v/ords, the coiTimunity needs more parks, play- 
grounds, recreational equipment, and leadership, and the existing' 
agencies must expand their present programs to meet the new problems. 

Early in 1941 the Regional Representative of the Division of 
Recreation, Office of Defense liealth and V/elfare Services, conferred 
with the Mayor and the Defense Advisory Council to determine the best 
possible organization of the community'' for recreation. After this 
conference, the Defense Council appointed a subco?nmittee on recreation, 
including a representative of the City Park Department, the City 
Recreation Department, and the City Departm.ent of Education. The 
chairman of the Group Work Committee of the Federation was appointed 
chairman of the subcominittee. 

The Group Work Committee of the Federation has surveyed the fa- 
cilities available in the member agencies and has reported that the 
YMCA, YJiCA, and the Jev/ish Comjnunity Center have recently increased 
their recreational activities by adding personnel whose salaries are 
paid from USO funds. Recreational programs for the unemployed wives 
of defense v/orkers, for the wives of the military personnel from Camp 
Q, and for newly emplojred young men and women have been added to the 
previous programs of these agencies* 

The problem now facing th.e USO-participating agencies, other 
group work agencies which are cooperating in the recreation program, 
and the Department of 3ducation is the need for professional personnel 
to plan and conduct the recreational activities.^ 

The Central Volunteer Bureau, which had been organized by the 
Federation prior to the defense program and v/hich is now taking re- 
sponsibility for recruiting volunteers under the plan of the Office 
of Civilian Defense, has been cooperating with the recreation agencies 
in supplying volunteers interested in supervising children's game 
programs and in conducting recreation for wives of defense workers 
who have recently moved into the community. The trained staff of each 
agency is conducting an orientation course for the volunteers so that 
their services will be directed into the proper chann.els. This has 
relieved the personnel situation to some extent* 



- 9 - 

The Central Volunteer Bureau has also recruited several groups 
of girls to act as dance partners at the soldier dances. 

In addition to the facilities of private agencies, the Army (to 
which the job was delegated by the FM) is constructing, under the 
CoiTXtnunity Facilities Act, a large building at the corner of Park 
Street and Andover Road on ground donated by a prominent citizen of 
Defenseton. This building, v/hich was recommended by the Recreation 
Committee and approved by the Regional Defense Advisory Council, will 
be leased rent-free upon completion to the USO agencies for recrea- 
tion activities of defense workers, their families, and soldiers. 

The Park Department has recognized the need for expansion and 
improvement of the park system. The plans now bein,5 considered by 
the Department will provide adequate outdoor recreational facilities 
next sijimner. 

It has been brought to the attention of the local Housing Au- 
thority that one defense housing project is naaring completion and 
that no provision has been made for either outdoor or indoor recrea- 
tional facilities. The Federal Y/orks Agency may, under the Lanham 
Act, use some of its appropriation for such piu?pose. The second 
housing project now under construction will include adequate recrea- 
tional facilities. 

Relief Needs 



Increased activities in defense industries have provided employ- 
ment for many persons formerly dependent upon relief. However, there 
still remain many individuals in need of assistance. The majority of 
these persons are those who are either marginally unemployable be- 
cause of age, lack of skill, or mental or physical handicaps, or em- 
ployable but denied emplojmient because they are aliens or members of 
minority groups. The large manufacturing industries have refused to 
employ Negro workers ♦ The aircraft factory, in addition, has barred 
Negro youths from its defense tre.ining program and has advertised 
throughout the county for white workers to come into this area* 

V/hen we compare the statistics en the number of cases receiving 
public and private aid in the city in September, 1939, and September, 
1941, v/e find that contrary to general expectation, the total number 
on the rolls has not decreased. Not only have the nuxiber of recipi- 
ents of the special types of public assistance under the Social 
Security Act increased but also there has been a slight increase in 
the number of cases receiving general relief. However, this increase 
is of little consequence since the total number of cases receiving 
general relief is so slight--240 in September, 1941. Approximately 
60 cases were aided during the same month by the American Red Cross, 
the Jewish Service Bureau, and the Catholic Charities. 

The WPA is the only program showing a reduction in its rolls, 
decreasing from 2,400 in September, 1939, to 1,800 in September, 1941. 



- 10 - 

reduced to such an oxtont that the sewi^ig room project was eliminated 
and the school lunch program was cvirtailod drastically. At present 
there are approximately 400 persons certified for work v/ho cannot be 
placed on the \7PA rolls. These persons receive only Federal stjt- 
plus commodities. 



It is apparent that there is a group of considerable size in 
this city in need of assistance but not receiving it. This State is 
among the twelve In the United States which have no Stato-supervisod 
general relief program or no State financial participation. To be 
eligible for assistance in the county a person must have legal 
settlement which is acquired only after three years' residence in the 
county. The appropriations for relief have been limited to such an 
extent that during the past year only $30,000 v;as expended for re- 
lief in the county, an average of loss than |10 per case per month. 
This relief v/as given in kind only. Including Federal surplus com- 
modities. No cash relief has been given in this county since the 
liquidation of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in 
December, 1935. 

A very serious situation exists in Defenseton today among those 
families who have come here in the hope of obtaining ©mplo^nnent but 
who have been unable to find work. Because of the residence require- 
ment, the local public agency cannot give them assistance and they 
are dependent on the private agencies in the city. The Travelers 
Aid Association is doing all it can to assist those families in re- 
turning to their homos, but this agency's function is limited to 
temporary care and its funds are inadequate even for that so t^iat 
cannot assume responsibility for all transients. There are, in 
addition, some persons v/ho have moved here in order to be near a 
relative stationed at Camp Q and who do not wish to leave the city. 
The Rod Cross is trying to make arrangements and give temporary as- 
sistance, but if they cannot find emplo;^nnent thoir situation is 
serious . 



it 



When the construction work now being carried on in this area is 
curtailed, wo may anticipate additional requests for assistance from 
those families of construction workers who were unable to accumulate 
a sufficient reserve to carry them, until they can find new employ- 
ment. Few of those families will have legal settlement^ 

The Travelers Aid is giving financial aid to those men arriving 
in the city who need money to carry them to their first pay day. In 
most instances there is the understanding that such assistance will 
be repaid. 

Until the defense housing units are completed, the housing situa 
tion for relief clients will be very serious. Moreover, about a 
thousand families are living in trailers and shacks on the outskirts 
of the city. These trailer camps, v/hich should not be confused with 
the trailers to be constructed by the Farm Secm^ity Administration, 
lack adequate sanitary facilities and are a menace to public health. 
Located as they are beyond the boundaries of the city, the;/ are not 
subject to the supervision of the City Health Department, 



- 11 - 



The rising cost of living is 



working 



a 



greater hardship on re- 
lief clients than on any other group. The most spectacular rise in 
prices has been the increase in rentals. The Department of Public 
Welfare has been forced to move many families into small dilapidated 
shacks, frequently without sanitary facilities. The Department has 
been moving some of its clients to the country whenever it is possible 
to do this. 

Increasing food and clothing costs are another concern of the 
Department. This problem is intensified by the fact that the V/PA 
sewing project has been discontinued and the school lunch program has 
been civptailed. Because of the limitation on funds, it has been im- 
possible to increase relief grants. 

It is impossible to determine the future relief needs of De- 
fenseton, but it is probable that the present assistance program will 
be inadequate to meet future needs. The Family Welfare Committee has 
supported a recommendation that a category of general public assist- 
ance be added to the Social Security Act.^'^ Under such Federal legis- 
lation, it is probable that the State legislatiu^o would provide for 
State participation. Federal funds as well as State funds are nec- 
essary to provide an adequate general relief prograini which v/111 aid 
all persons in need regardless of residence. A new threat is the 
prospect of "priorities unemploj^Tnent" resulting from shortages of 
supplies for certain of our non-defense industries. 

Oth er Social Services 

Child V/elfare .--The Child Welfare Comm.ittee reports that it is 
becoming increasingly difficult for the public and private foster-care 
agencies to find adequ.ate homes for the foster care^ of children be- 
cause boarding defense workers provide a more lucrative source of in- 
come. In addition, there is a growing tendency for foster-home 
mothers to enter private emi^lojanent . 

There have been a few instances where families have been unable 
to find adequate housing and therefore believed that the only solu- 
tion was to petition for coimnitment of their children. The illegiti- 
macy rate also appears to be increasing. 

The increase in the number of working mothers has accentuated 
greatly the demand for day nursery care. 

Other Serviced . --The Department of Public Welfare has been co- 
operating with the local Selective Service boards by making depen- 
dency investigations prior to inductipn for only those cases knovm to 
the Department. Although this work has placed an increased burden on 
the staff of the Department, the peak of these investigations has 
been reached and it is not anticipated that the momber of investiga- 
tions will be large unless the military forces are greatly increased. 

The AiTierican Red Cross is responsible for providing services to 
families of men in the armed forces and for making investigations of 



■5^ A copy of this recommendation is included in the material contained 
in this folder. - 3d, 



- 12 - 



U 



<*-. 




Conclusion 

Inevitably there will be questions raised about the extent of 
the Vvelfare Federation's responsibility for defense activities, about 
the strain on our existing resources, including the added burdens 
placed upon staff members who serve as secretaries to these coiTirnittees, 
and about our relationship to the Local Defense Advisory Council. 
These questions are still under discussion, and I believe that no one 
outside Defenseton has a better answer to give than we o^Jirsolves can 
arrive at. The trend of national policy in relation to international 
affairs indicates that a total defense program will rest upon the 
participation of all organizations and individuals. The Federal 
Director of Defense Health and Welfare Services is pursuing the 
policy of using existing agencies. It seems clear to me that respon- 
sibility for meeting welfare problems in this community in defense 
as well as in peace time rests squarely upon the shoulders of this 
Executive Coiranittee. It is our task to say to what extent public 
funds--.from Federal, State, and local sourcos--are needed, to what ex- 
tent we need additional legislation to enable the public welfare 
authorities to operate more efficiently and more completely, and to 
what extent private social agencies can cooperate. It is also ou^ 
task to raise funds from private sources for the part of the program 
that seems to us appropriately the sphere of the private agency. 

We are carrying out a responsibility that the Lqcal Defense 
Advisory Council has agreed is properly our own. Wo can be thankful 
that no new social work machinery has been created loQally to com- 
plicate our task. 

One of our first recommendations should be to the Governor and 
the State Legislature for a strengthening and broadening of the 
responsibility of the State Department of Public V/jlfare. In this we 
have the cooperation of the Regional Director of Dofonso Ilealth and 
V/elfare Services and the Regional Defense Advisory Council. State 
participation in our local public v/olfaro program" should follow. 
Additional public funds and a broadening of the authority of our 
county v/elfaro department are needed to meet some of the problems that 

difficulty by our private agencies. 



are now being met 



wit:h groat 



Some of our ii7i:nediate problems lie in the field of working out 
relationships among private agencies. The functions of the USO and 
the Red Cross need further definition and interpretation to the com- 
munity. The suggestions of the Defense Advisory Council for addi- 
tional use of volunteers by our member agencies lay other tasks of 
organization and interpretation upon us. 



It is also obvious that we do not yet know the full extent of 
welfare problems created by defense activity. We are just on the 
verge of "priorities unemplo:/ment . " It takes very little imagination 
for most of us to know what will happen to employment in the post- 



I I 



4. A 



- 15 - 



emergency period and v;e knor equally well how hard it is to make the 
community understand that. 



It is Important for us to devise some Triethod of studying our 
present defense problems and soma v/ay of being notified quickly of 
new problems that need a coordinated method of attack. In the final 
analysis, our organization is one that has "oe^n created to stand by 
and to be ready to meet any kind of new emergency for social v/elfare. 



/i 



( 



■ & i 



\ 



6-3-V^ 



\ 



-( 




T 



BEUL'JJ MCHDRxGE 



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<s. 



RcaCJun,z Is a city vdth a population of alnnut 110,000# It is the comity scat of 
Berks County v:l:ich has a population of 231^000« 

The l:rx:k -round of the lar,.,'or ^iroup of rcsi'lonts ia Pcnna* Dutch, althourji little 
is spoken r.non- the city and tovm chil^'Ton* Thoy arc proud of their l:r,c3c/:;rnund, 
?.ro vor- th.irfty, unai,^essive, natter-of-fact# Tlioy exert little cner:y to find 
out t::ii\ :s for tiionselvcs tut are very stubborn about natters thrust uj:^on then* 



In tl.o last three years there has been nore activity in t'^ottin.- soci-1 v/ork before 
the puulic an a result of the activity of the Council of Social Ardencies* I fool 
that^ the interested ii:roup is far too snail to carry tlic pror,Tan to its li:.iits# 
•rxicro has been an effort nade tov/ard lay participation, and I feel th.at "Toup has 
nadc raorc strides than the professionals There has boon a continual strivin-; on 
the i:art of the professional vrorkors to t:iro\7 noro responsibility tnvcjrCi the less 
active of their G'^^oup, and this has been liard* 

The Social 'Worker's Club is an or^-anization of Ion,- standin.-, r/hich has nadc nany 
efforts to pronote better social work. Ueotinr;s arc held nonthlyj they arc varied 
to ::icot social and professional needs. The controlling: r^oup has r.ir.dc nunerous 
attoupts to brin.: tlie newer .-^oup into power, but v/ith little success# About half 
the no:Aership are public welfare workers, and this r*;roup is constantly shiftin/^. 
Out of a paid nonbership of about 100, the nomal attcnd^inco, the last I loicw, was 
about 25/ Of this croup the najority are fron private a-cncies. The fault really 
lies in the nenborshlp for the pro/;,Tans have been nost interesting mid inclusive. 
The public workers are very apathetic which nay bo due to the ,'r,Toat pressure and 
uiicortrlnty under w]J.ch they work* 

In 1^^23 the first effort was nade to or.:,rmize social work. The inpotus ccxio fron 
vc>j7ious organizations including; the Kiawanis, Lions Club and Elks* am article ap- 
peared in the local papers stressing the need for coordination, and lis tin.- a^en- 
cios ill whJ.ch tliere was narked duplication. The writers cane directly to the point 
statin-:: t;iat the objection to orr?p.nization soenod to lie anon; the Charities then- 
selves* Sono reasons for objections v/ero: 



1» Eiey h^ave been cor:ipctitors of nany years standing* 

2% Iliey Cjo'iL^t like to ,::ot toscthor for fear of losin.3 sonothinf> 

3# There is a personal habit of aninosity between conpetitors. 

4# Soae are so popular that it is easy for then to raise nonoy - they are unwillin/^ 

to -'\ave the loss popular cone under their winj:5S and j^ot noney by it* 
5* Tl^ey arc afraid of ultinato injustice on the part of the connitteo. 

In 1920 there were 86 orj^anizatlons intercstod in social work# Sone were not 
cl-iaritics in the strict sense of the word such as the Hose CoiTpanios rjid PlnyfTround 
Association, but were d\jplicatin/i; the work of the charities. It was felt that with 
funds fron a j-ood chest, wnys of helpin,- the "lane duck" could be worked out, ond 
new cl:r,rities could bo established when needed* 

Shortly after that, what is now the Council of Social A.ioncics was orr^inized, and 
froa tliat ,-:roup developed the T/olfare Pedoration. A paid director was appointed 
lic^ 1, 1925. On May 16, 1925 the Council of Social Ar;oncies of the Roadin^-^ Berks 
County V.'olfaro Podoration was reorganized*- Until Deconber 1, 1939 t!iore was one 
organization* For a period of two nonths in the year, 21 a.';cncies which dealt ox- 
cluGivoly with the poor and health needs,, wore listed as Chest Ar:cncies, and tho 



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a.;..c cL .,..M ..oun. the. ^f ^ "":/7,;?s:ixrrn'^/ss-nr^ • 

the ?GdGration was kno\m as the Ghost. The Welfare ^°^®^°^^ ° T,l-^jming coid co- 
ccssful. Reorsanization cuine ahout a. a nood ^ °^^ ^^'^^ ^^^^ork of ISo f o^ral 
opor..tion .-.^^ong tho agoncios was noted. ^^^^^ growth in *J° "^^^J^*^^ ^,„ ^^eh 
comittoce creating more meetings and lay P^J^^f ?^*^°^,Sons plo^-Sg ^.nd financ- 
for one person, especially since the agency had *;'°^^^f^°J^'j|;^airfctorate, they 
ing. It was decided that -^ile there needed to ^°^^^^f,f,^°J^^^^^^^ ,aopted by 
could still he separate orgoni 'nations. In 1939 *^° °°!'!'^;, .. ^ ^^ f^j, as 
occh or^^tnimtion, and growth has been noted as a result of th. ch.^^. 
ir-torprotation to the community Is concerned. 

Undor the present set-up the Chest -d Council of Social ^^^^X^^!^ 

^St'^^-^l^^^^^S'^^^^^^ fo^f b^- Chest to assist 
^itl- tho cJ:;ail.rfrem tine to time he is given special assxgnments. 

on tho closing ni,^t of tho canpai^ a board of JB f octorB is -^loetod fr^^^^^^^^^ 
c.x,aign workers to ropresen the ^^or^^^'^^^^^l^^^^^^ the agor.cies like- 

to serve on the Board of Trustees, T-io -^SU^^^^ ° ^ ^ Trustees has tho power 
vase select nine nonbers to ^0^^° J^J^^ t?^ An^in/tl^ total^.e.<ber.hip 21. 
to select tl^xee nore uenbcrs to sit T.;ith ti.cn naKxnt, *uu 

1 ^f.^ y.^ +1-0 Bn-^rd nf Trustees of the Chest arc selected to serve 
Throe pcrsoiis selected by the Boara ''^ f^"*;^" , A^nncic?. This is the only con- 

CouiiCll Is a nenbcr agency of tho Chest. 

Heubership in the Chest is open to all ^olf^^ ;if^\lf^'ri^^^^^^ 

to participate in tl'-o Chest and *« -ceive appropr^^^^^^^^^ ^J^^^^^ 

of t:ie Trustees by a tv/o-tnirds vote. ^"° ^^^^;^""°''_™^rt rather than on their 
of finiJicina sue!-, as subnitting a budget and annual r^pori; ra^i 

worth to the connunity. 

Mo.bers:-ip in the Council ^^^^^^^ ^^^ e^i^Xi-n^^^iUcflS aW 
principles laid down i\*;%?;fJ,r*i°!;,^°^i^;orSod Council was not adnitted 
acL^iscions, for I renenbcr *'^^^\*^'°/^^:°f ^^^if^^ °f one year, and had a^ executive 
imtil after it :iad boon in existence for a pcrioa 01 one y^ , 

for six nonths. 

• t -. vor^•^.p•^fc -Tron the C^^ost cxceiDt abiding 
Siuce there are no sta^.dards for r°«°^f;^"^^°^^ f,*^, ^rSndesira?le a,,ency as long 
by finr>iicial regulations, how cr^ a ^hcst elininate ^^ excellent ex- 

4. v^^oV,^^l <n Time 1907 by Ilrs. Landis. or. pjdont nenbcr of 
Bculrh ;^.chora,:o wa.s ostablishod in J^"° i^"/ .°-!^ *'^ /f.^ waywajd and f^aien girls. 
t:-.e Evan.,olical Cl^ch. It was original^ a ^^-^^^^^^^J^^^^^^ ^..^er used it as 

^''■^ '■''' ^' ^feft^o^: Jrre'' T'^c^lnsti utlo^ hS^pSl^'ftLards . and evidently 
a tonporarjr detention -o^'°« ^"° it had boon self supporting mitil its amission 

"'\"'^\- '^ft 'Tn\92rHfs ? "son Son Director of'llei.v.ton F.xns. a school for 
to tlic Cnost. In ly-do urs« * '-^^J^**» j4.„^+*^r» 4-^ Pon-dirj^. She roc on: 1011010(1 that 

delinnuent ,-lrls, nado a study of the f ^^^^^j/^/^^i^'J*^ ^^itin.^ teacher. Tho 
the .-^chorage b6 discontinued and f °J^^^^,^^^.*^,°32?ie^onon. unaware of' the 
Sit! ofa ^:^:^Z:l^.^^ S ^ecoanena^tion ne..t nothing to 
thon« 



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'71^ >r V-"c Vceoration ■.v,.s forr.cd. cvon witf. all this fcolin.i about the .Vnchoragc, it 
;^. aiSttod to the Chest. Th.c .irU placed there .ere both ^^^;^\;;± ^^^'' 
od. T-is natui-alU' v/as dxin^-crous •./ithout proper supervision. Ho /over, r.v.ny of the 
gi^lB turned out uell. The principal of the Oirls Hi.^a School shoyedc^ interest 
in oo->.o rrho are now teachers in the Reading School systcn. Otl^crs .lo.vc .:ar...c .x- 
ccllont adjustnonts in the Coni-iunit/. The girls appcarou to to nappy. 

As tir.0 -ororTosscd the old board ncnbcrs wore replaced, AccorcUiv: to Hrs. lliller, 
one of the -oungor Board ^lonbors, those new nonbors were influenced by the Ex. 
Director 0/ thc'Chcst, who vc.s an ardent objector, and t-J^x, Secretary of the 
Chil^Tcn«8 .lid society. Tnen they wore in the rvajority. they voted to ^^^ 
institution edsbandod. At the tine this occurred there "^%^/P^iJ4\*":,°^.''Sl 
directors, rml mch rcsontnont. The new ncnbors ha.d presented a P^^-^;'-,;°^°^J^.:^;;_,^ 
the irlo could bo absorbed by the C.A.S. Ho sooner were the aoors of t„o ..nc..ora,,c 
clocod thrji this plan fell throu.-^. 

H-vi— no detortion hone in the county p^d a childron»s agency unable to absorb the 
^^^^^;^^;^or ,3irls boca./sonowhat jaxuned. In recent years ton year old 
^..,T„ „1. v^ttv Blaccd in the House of the Good Shepherd, where a State GU clinic 
f;ioc;^rod! tecaS: of facilities there these children can not bo f^^^^^^^ 
f^o" other iiuvates who are girls with lon,^ records of sex ^^^^^^IJ!"- !^°!^^'^f ^St 
well as C,:^t;-^lic :^irls arc adiaittcd. Attendance at services is coLipulsor, . and that 

leads to controversy. 

It -!->'- bo inportant to know that the no^loctod child has luid a six-ai place in the 
ct- ;:.^iit ' IfoZl'U There is no protective agency, r^d little cooporationb etweon 
°^':'J-:^.^>v/'^"f ;tudren«s aGoncios duo to lack of understanding; of each others 
'fi^ilon^ £0 i^l^. .Mch ::as a broad ^^f ^P-f J^w^rdi't^L^f Ihen' 
accoptod .^^ Of ^^^ZT^^;^:^^i^r^,::^:Z^ ^i^ ^ C.A.S. 
orofits neXs w- s'dee^ied t^thf sU of the ^e.lccted Child", following this 
ne^tk ' co^iittce was appointed to stud,^ the situation further. Pollo'.7ini a 
n^ibe? of nectinGS. their^ susjostions were brou.^.t before the ,udso. ano. -^l^g-^^^^ 
wore ,iven autl^ority to brin., cases into court. Thds «o"°"^-^* ^^^J s is s^^iod 
but is brin-^nc Boulrh Anchora^je into the foreground again. The C^.S. i^''"^^°^ 
Sth ccoes i^ loas difficulty in finding places for those f^^^^J^^ "^'^ 
a lack in detention hone facilities. Tho tonily agency sees ^^-^^^'^^^^^.^J^.^^ ^^ 
possible solution for sone problens. With closer cooperation "^ J^: „* ;° f^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
porcons lualified in the field, there noy bo less need for brorki.ig .loaos. The 
a.-o:icv likov.dse lias boon interested in a revival of the anchorage. 

TJl^on Boulr:. Anchorage was dropped fron the Chest, its ^^^^^^ ^^J^jJ^^J tr^irnoney 
to fmiction. Persons interested in the ncnory of Ilrs. Landis contiuued ^o ^11 "^"-^ 
to the Board. Tl.e property loas never been sold, and ms l^^'^^'l'^tT^^l^^^ 
has sovoral thousand dollars to its credit, in addition to t.ae P^°^^.<^^*^^^: ^^^^'^ J^ 
frvi -loi-t •-> -e. Pooplo luivc expressed an interest in purchasin.- the .^I'opo.-t^.. . The 
nost "oconrieaurst car.e fror?a retired ninister who wanted to use it for "Ivxllelujah 

ncoti:i;:;s» 

T-o ol'^ -^C new board never scenod able to get together. Recently one of the najor- 
l%- ni^b^rs was adnitted to a nental hospital, so Mr. Jones. President 0. the Board, 
ca-s-oito? Lsriailer on the natter of selling tl^e property. She had not ^cen con- 
r,?it^'^ b 'fore he ordered that the buildinc bo painted, and enjoyed .-.avxng this tine 
:fro';u;tso^; coloration fron hin. She objected to his plan ^^^^ ^^^ 
hin^ Having no alternative ho sug.^estcd that she have a survey naao as to t..o need 
for reestablishing a detention hone, 

nhon v:rs. Miller was last seen, she had consulted the School Probation Officer C.A.S, 
S^^ci-'i -JolfLo Loa.-,uo. aiidance Inctitutc.Public Assistance Dept„ Hunr.ne Society, 
a^ pil ce Deix^tnontl All stressed the need for a Jo*-*^'^^^-;-- ^^°/^°^°f,,f * '' 
tl e cl..S. needed a place for the unnarricd vcnererl pre.^nant girlj 33.P.A, faces a 



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.-roat iicod for cnro for the nof^loctcd child? the School District, at the tino of 
the call, had throe tjirls in need of cnro. After a nocting with tho Board, Mrs. 
Miller plans to toko tho mttor "before tho Jud/:;o nf the Juvenile Covirt. !7ith his 
porni anion, plans can ho continued for reestablishing,- a refuge of sono kind, 

Mro. :,Iillcr is awaro of the difficulties in tho old institution. 8ho as i.iany others 
in the corinunity foci thxit sonethin^ shoiad have been done about corroctine sono 
of the faults, hoforo nutomtically dropping it, without ostahlishins sonothing to 
ncot t::c nocds. Should thoro to a now institution, it should he run under tho 
suuorviaion of on agency? should ho away fron tho contor of the city, v/hcro the 
.'Iris could liavo sono froodon? should he run as a tenporary detention hone. 

liaiiy rmoGtions ariso frou such a situation! 

VZas the Director of tho Chost within his rights in subtly disbandins the institu- 
tion? Had the standards of the Chost boon better, \70uld this have been necessary? 

Should tho i\nchora,'^e have been disbanded uithout first chocking on all availa^^^le 
resources? 17ould this laave loapiDonod in a v?cll planned set-up? 

Will aiialj^ar-iation be a solution to the problen of Child care in Readinc? 

Uhat are the advantat^es of a detention hone? 

TThat are the dant^jers in setting up a now hone? 

Can it bo c'tono with the present Board. 

Should this a/:oncy have been atoittod to the Chost in tho beginniit;? 






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A CSMTRAL VOUJITTEBE OT-^Tr.ir. ffnp T^RTPrTTOTATER COJOTY 



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Thongh, as is conmon in the social studies and fields, there is no complete 
agreement as to the definition of Coinmnity Organization ^ork there ^^ fV^^^^ff 
core of agreoment ^Thich considers this field as one of balancing the °°r^i*y/ [^ 
sources Ath its needs. This concept, however, in its impersonal tone ^°«^J^°J f ^^ 
sufficient stress to the importance of individuals as the agents of the community 
organization process. 

' In this regard, I think, the record of the establishment of the Central 
Volunteer Office in Brig!itwater County is illuminating, for it shows how witn communi- 
ty recognition of the need for such an organization and with the community resources 
to coioe'with the prohicm the creation of the Office was delayed until one particular 
key individual personality was also enlisted on the side of commonity development. 

The movement for a volunteer office to cooperate with the county's defense 
program started on March 23. 1941. when Miss Helen Howard a ^emher of ^^f J^^^°^^ 
Orgrrization of Volunteers from the city of Westville. asked Miss SLizabetxi Dohhs, 
Executive Secretary of the Brightwater County Federation of Social Agencies, about 
the possibility of the Federation's sponsoring such an office. This Organization of 
Volunteers offered $500.00 as gift-aid toward establishing a volunteer office. 

As a member of the Westville group of the National Organization of Volun- 
teers Kiss How.^d was aware of a good amount of confusion as to volunteer P^^Ji^ipa- 
tion in the defense prograjn; the National Organization of Volunteers, the Nf i^^J 
Voluntary Women's Lea^ao, the County and the local defense councils, and other groups 
were all requesting cooperation njid assistance from her group. Another source of her 
interest ;7as the permeation of the National Organization of Volunteer groups with the 
idea of volunteer bureaus in connection with defense organization, which originated 
in the Organization's nationa-l office. 

Miss Dobbs brought the matter up with the Board of Directors of the Council 
who took no formal action but gave its'^olessings" to the idea. Miss Dobbs then set 
out to investigate the possibilities for creating the new agency. 

At this time the situation with respect to the County Defense Council was 
as follows. The members consisted of a representative of each town and city appoint- 
ed by the s^ipcrvisor or supervisors of such political divisions. The chairman of the 
Defense Coixncil, elected by the other members, was Mr. Francis Leeds, a raomber of the 
doninnxt political party of the county. Mr. Leeds, a dominating character, oclieved 
in the amy idc- of centralized authority in times of emergency; accordingly he 
attested to and frirly well succeeded in making the Defense Council pretty nuch of a 
rubber strap. At the tine of this story ho was seeking the nomination for an office 
in a political unit of the county. 

His niDpointncnt of Mrs. David Bruce as chairman of the Vlelfpxe Committee of 
the Defease Council was a disappointment if he had expected her to be a yes man too 
for s>>e was a very capable, intelligent, "broad-gmged" woman who took her job earnest 
ly. Some people thought that Mr. Leeds was actually displeased with the interest in 
defense she was stirring up among the welfare groups. 

Ir pny case, Mr. Leeds later appointed Mrs. Richard Gordon as chairman of 
the Committee on Women's Participation because, as he expressed it, Mrs. Bruce had 
failed in her job. Some believed, though, that this appointment had been for the 
purpose of pushing Mrs. Bruce out on a limb and also, incidentally, to get the 
National Voluntary Women's League in the county, of which Mrs. Gordon was chairman 



- 2 - 

checkmated. Mrs. Gordon, however, Ironically turned out to "be as al)le and serious 
as Mrs. Bruce, and the two women worked well and sympathetically together. 

'^ But to get back to the beginning of the movement for a volunteer off ice. 

Miss Dohbs had a luncheon meeting with Mrs. Bruce to discuss the matter. Subsequent- 
ly, on i^ril 15, 1941, Mrs. Bruce wrote to Miss Dobbs: 

• 

"After leaving the luncheon meeting the other day where 
T;e discussed the placement bureau idea, I managed to get 
llr. Leeds long enough to outline the general idea to him. 
He wanted to meet with Miss Howard, Mrs. DeMarcus (also a 
mrmbcr of the Westvillo group of the National Organization 
of Volunteers) and you one day this week to discuss the 
plpn." 

Before attending this meeting, however. Miss Dobbs had a conference with 
Mrs. Pendleton. Executive Secretary of the KPtional Organization of Volunteers, for 
the purpose of getting advice from her e:q>erience with volunteer bureaus in other 
communities. 

Then on April 31, 1941, Mrs. Bruce, Miss Dobbs, and the two representatives 
of the Westville Or^«nizntion of Volunteers met with Mr. Leeds. The group Presented 

Mr. Leeds for his inform.^tion a memo regarding its ^f f f J/^ !«'^^?f,*^^^4°^nnr* 
the purposes and functions of a volunteer bureau, and details of administration and 

personnel called for. 

Miss Howard, the day following the meeting, described her reactions in a 
letter to Mrs. Pendleton; 

"Mr. Leeds was not exactly receptive end when he didrlt even 
bother to glance at the plan, Dorothy DeMarcus nnd I were 
really indignant." 

However, she added: 

"Mrs. Bruce is proving a good ally nnd did much to smooth 
do%Tn Mr. Leeds' feathers." 

I'is^ Dobbs later, in Federation notes, described Mr. Leeds in this meeting 
rs "opc"-r.inded but not enthusiastic". Mr. Leeds, who had had little contact with 
T7elfare programs and agencies, had not been convinced of the need for a volunteer 
office but 5ad strted that if the social V7eifare. health, a^d recreation?! agencies 
wanted one Pnd vrauld use one he would consider the proposal on evidence proving this 
situation. 

Therefore, since Mr. Leeds had. in effect, asked for evidence, the next 
step was to produce it. Accordingly on Mry 12, 1941, a meeting ''^s^ eld of ^^P^^^ent- 
atives of social welfprc, herlth, r,nd recreational agencies to consider the desirabxU 
ity and need of a centrrl volunteer office. Out of twenty-five agencies xn.it ed 15 
sent representatives nnd 7, unable to do so. sent messages in favor of establishing 
such an office. 

The discussion wps unanimous that volunteers were then needed ejid that 
still more would probrbly be needed as defense activities developed; that a central 
volunt^r office was desired as the best way of meeting that need and that the off ice 
would S used: and that any plans for such nn office should be made in cooperation 
with the County Defense Council and fit in with its plans. 



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Within the next week n follow-up committee fron this meeting net a^J 
a.-roe. to Tenf Srf leS a letter telling him of ^^J ^-^J^f J -trA^K^ fe 
The corx^ittee also discussed and agreed upon ^ °^f Jj^^^^^^f ""J^^^^ ^ volunteer 
bureau, a copy of which wns to "be enclosed in the letter to Mr. Leeds. 

About ten d^ys Inter. May 31. 1941. a meeting was held with ^^P'^^^J^^^^J^^ 
of voluntctr organizations ^ Junior Leagues. Lions. ^Jf ^' ^f^J^^^^^ 'tc. !! to" 
al Somen's Cluhs. local sections of the National Council of Jewish Women, etc. 
discLLss plans for a volunteer burerai. 

Here it was unanimously agreed that the groups present f f J^^' "^\ ^^ 

teow/hy letter tfllr, Leeds the recommendations of this meeting and the one on kay 
12. 

Then attending a meeting at the State Cepitol on JMne 7. 1941, in order to 
meet Mrs. Sre^tTtraterf head of ^^-nU Division of the State Cou^^^^^^^^ 
yiss Do-bbs learned that the proposal for a volunteer office was in line r/itn tne T;ninK, 
ing of the stale Defense CouLil and the National Office of Civilian ""^^'^Itf^ition 
hy the Sy, Mrs. Atwater»s duty "to coordinate and stimulate volunteer participation 
in the defense program." according to the Governor. 

At this meeting the representatives of the federations of social agencies 
invitea to meet Mrs. Atwater pledged themselves not to set up volunteer 0^^^°^.^ 
separate from the defense councils, and. where such bureaus were already established, 
to cooperate vfith the defense council. 

The ^trtus of the proposed volunteer office in early June, about three and 
. half nonfis ^ter the first step was taken, is vividly described by the ^oHo^i^S 
quotation from the lettei; dated June 11, 1941. of Miss Howard to Miss Maxy Prater of 
the National Organization of Volunteers' national office. 

"From what Miss Dobbs tells me. Mr. Leeds' thinking has not 
developed beyond the point it had reached when we talked with 
him or April 21. The only services he sees as being of impor- 
tance on his horizon are the sane old ones, fire, police, sani- 
tati'^n. He still admits knowing nothing about the social serv- 
ices, but, bt-ing a very poor listener, he does not give anyone 
an opportunity to further his education along these lines. Ee 
still cannot see the relationship between the existing services 
rvA the omer-ency services and, I gather, feels that a Central 
Volunteer Office could only serve the social agencies and should 
be set up completely under the auspices of the Federation of 
Social Agencies, indicating that he not only doesn't listen, but 
neither does he read." 

About this same time the Westville Organization of Volunteers listed for 
the State Defense Council the volunteer openings in Brightwater County, revealing a 
mmb or .nd variety of needs, such a^ filing records, leading Girl Scout troops, sell^ 
ins in shops, taking temperatures in hospitals, etc. 

Further ercn^ara^ement as to the soundness of the idea of a volunteer office 
was received or June 17. 1941, in a letter from Mrs. Atwater to Mrs. Evelyn Donahue. 
IssisS.t Secutive Sec;ctary of the Federation who was left in charge of the Federa- 
tion of Social A«-encie8 during Miss Dobbs' vacation. 



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The letter stated: 

"Relative to your Central Office for Volunteers, may I 
give you some advance information. The Office of Civilian 
Defense will very shortly recommend the establishment of 
just such Bureaus all over the United States. They will he 
called 'Civilian Defense Centers' and their function will 
he identical with your proposed Central Volunteer Office 
plus Mr. Leeds' 'Defense Volunteers'; so you see you are 
completely on the right track and eventually your Office 
Fiiid his Volunteers must come under a unified head." 

The fxccurn.cy of the "advance information" was brought out hy a telegram 
sent to the County Federation of Social Agencies on June 22, 1941, hy Mrs. Pendleton, 
now of the Office of Civilian Defense, Washington, D#C., who had known the county 
situation. She was working on a manual on volunteer bureaus. 

"Your plans for Brightwater essential to help me"i the 
telegr^jTi read. 

U-XB. Donr^huo conferred this same d=iy with Mr. Leeds regarding an answer to 
the telegrrm. He ?^reed readily to call together a joint committee of representatives 
as soon as possible to disc^ass the matter. 

The joint committee of representatives of the Brightwater County Defense 
Council njid the Brightwater Federation of Social Agencies, appointed by each of these 
organizations to consider drawing up a det riled plan for the Office, then met on June 
29, 1941, to discuss the establishment of a volunteer office. Mr^ Leeds, present at 
the meetin^^, "expressed interest" but made it clear that such an office must make re 
attempt and formulate no plan which would have to do with the selection and training 
of volunteers for emergency defense such as firemen and policemen. 

Mr* Leeds agreed to submit a plan for a central volunteer office to the next 
meeting of the Brightwater County Defense Council, to tpke place early in July, and ho 
appointed Mrs. Bruce to work with the Brightwater Federation on the ple^Ji, which he 
reouested to outline specifically the function of the Office, the scope of the service 
to bo covered, and the plan for operation. The committee agreed to submit their plan 
through Mrr^. Brace. 

Tliis some da;," the committee met to formulate the plans for the new Office. 

In an effort to help obtain favorable considerr»tion of the plan for the 
Office on the part of the County Defense Council in its scheduled meeting Miss Howard 
on Juno 21, 1941, sent a suninary of the background of the situation to Mr. Brett and 
to Judge Mckclas of the Westvillo Defense Council (as chairman of the Westville 
Defense Council Judge Kickolas served on the County Defense Council) • Both these men 
had at tines disagreed with Mr. Leeds' method of administration. 



Her nomorrnda to then stated: 

"Those interested in the movement feel that it is very 
importrnt that you both be present at that meeting ?>jid 
that you have some background knowledge of the steps T/hich 
have been tf^kon. . . (for) Wc arc counting on your support." 

Also preparatory to this Defense Council meeting the members of the Joint 
Committee Lad conferred on July 3, 1941, on the details of the plan to be submitted 
to the Council. The Volunteer Office, as the Committee outlined it, was to recruit. 



- 5 - 






in soT.c casoc5 tvr^in, rnd plr.ce volunteers for the rgencics In the county which re- 
quired the services of volunteers. The '^agencies" were to include esta^)lished social 
welfare, health, and recreational agencies; defense projects in health, welfrxe, and 
recreational activities; and such other agencies and orgfmizations which would wish 
to request service* 

The Comnittee reconmended that a hoard he appointed jointly by the Bright^ 
water County Defense Council and the Brightwater County Federation of Social Agencies 
to toko responsibility for the establishment of conunittees on personnel ^md rales, 
finance, public relations, training courses, job findings and placement, recruiting 
and enrollment and for the appointment of an executive secretary. 

The Executive Committee of Brightwater County Defense Council, then, held 
its scheduled meeting on July 5, 1941. The following da^' Mrs. Bnice on the telephone 
told ydss Dobbs about the outcome. The unanimous opinion of the Executive Committee, 
she explained, was that a Volunteer Office had nothing to do with the program of the 
Defense Council; they agreed that the job of the Defense Council was to stick to 
civil protection. This was on "unofficial" report. 

Mrs. Bruce had made clear to Mr. Leeds that it was his responsibility to 
give officirl notice of the action of the Defense Council to the Federation. He 
replied he would talk to her about this natter at some later da.te. However, the 
Federation of Social Agencies never received rny official information as to this 
stand of the Defense Council. 

For this sene meeting Mrs. Bruce had presented to Mr. Leeds a copy of the 
material the Joint Connittee had prepared, and he had shown it to the other members. 
Mrs. Bruce thoufght they were "not impressed." She was of the opinion also that this 
matter had been discussed with members of the Exec^itive Committee before the meeting 
and. she was "pretty sure," Mr. Leede' disapproval had influenced the persons present. 

Followinr this turn of events Miss Dobbs asked the advice of Mrs. Bruce. 

"TVe can stir up interest and promote the idea and bring pressure from vari- 
ous sources which Mr. Leeds could not withstrnd, " she said to Mrs. Bruce. "But I 
hate to use this method except as a last resort. Our only alternative, though, is to 
lie low r.n(L perhrps lose our chance." 

Mrs. Bruce, however, replied that she did not think the matter dead and 
counseled letting it ride for a while, and the Federation decided to follow her ad- 
vice. 

For some time afterwards, then, nothing hpppenod to further the creation 
of the Office and on August 19, 1941, Miss Dobbs wrote to Mrs. Atwater about the 
sitiiaticn: 

"As with everything else, we have to begin where we can and 
in the way that is acceptable to those who have accepted re- 
sponsible appointments. I hope very much that in the end 
these various local endeavors will not be unrelated. • • I om 
not worried about the fact that we do not seem to be moving 
faster for I think we are probably going as fast as we c?x in 
order to convince various groups as we go alon: 



n 



The tempo of affairs, though, picked up a little in the end of August, 1941 
Miss Dobbs was invited by Mrs. (rcrdon to address the first meeting of the Women's 
Division of the County Defense Council. On this occasion Miss Dobbs spoke on the 
progress of the movement for a volunteer office and declared that the Federation 



\ 



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•w - - 6 - . 

of Social Agencies was pledged not to atart a volunteer office except in conjunction 
with the Defense Council. She thus put the Federation of Social Agencies on record 
with this section of the Defense Council as desiring to cooperate with them and as 
not contemplatinc any competition for them. 

Shortly afterwards Mrs. Atwater was expected in the city to take care of 
some "business connected with the regular duties of her joh. Just previous to this 
she called Miss Dohhs to ask that the latter arrange for a meeting of Mrs. Gordon, 
Mrs. Bruce, and Mr. Leeds in the office of the County Federation of Social Agencies. 
Miss Dobhs, though willing to do so, Relieved that the invitation coming from her 
would not be as politic as if coming from Mrs. Atwater. So the latter herself in- 
vited the persons to meet in Miss Dohlis' office. The location of the meeting, though, 
was a tactical error that had not "been corrected. 

The reason for this conference, Mrs. Atwater explained to Miss Dohhs, was 
the clearing up in her mind whether there wore sub rosa tactics to ally the National 
Voluntary Women's Lepg^ae with the County Defense Council. Or^tcnsibly, though, she 
was "*ju3t in the neighborhood". 

No decisions came from this meeting, held August 30, 1941, but Mrs. Atwater 
said a considerable amount for the volunteer office. She made clear that volunteer 
offices would be eventually established all over the state, and she offered her 
assistance to this county when it was ready to set up its bureau. 

Again nothing hp.ppened; mmy persons thought the idea and prospect for a 
volunteer office had died. But on October 19, 1941, Mrs. Gordon came to Miss Dobbs 
to ask her to meet in the office of Dr. J??jneson, County Commissioner of Health. Miss 
Joan Conant, County Commissioner of Public Welfare, Mrs. Bruce, Mrs. Gordon, Miss 
Dobbs, and Dr. Jameson made up the group meeting then. 

"We have to do something about the Volunteer Office," were Mrs. Gordon's 
openinv5 v;ords to the group. "I wmt this group to drpi*t a letter making Mr. Leeds 
an offer thrt the County Federation of Social Agencies is willing and able to estab- 
lish rjid operate a volunteer office for a trial period of four months." 

"Wait a moment", Miss Dobbs interrupted. "The Federation is willing but 
not ablo to do so without time to get money." She then explained that it was esti- 
mated a sum of $2,500 would be necessary to operate the bureau for the first four 

months. 



The astounding thing that next happened was thpt one person present there- 
upon offered to underwrite $1,500. The Wcstville chapter of the National Organiza- 
tion of Volunteers had in the beginning offered $500.00 also. 



to Mr 



The group then drafted the letter, and the same day Mrs. Gordon delivered 
Leeds. All the members present had signed the letter except Miss Dobbs, 



it 

who felt to do so would weaken not strengthen the cause 



Mr. Leeds accepted the offer and stated that as soon a.s he found space to 
locate the Officr, uhich he stipulated was to be housed in the same office as the 
Defense Council, he would write the County Federation of Social Agencies to gp aiiead 
with its plans for the experimental period. (The Federation was on the fifth floor 
and the Defense Council on the tenth floor of the same building, oy the way)» 

Mr. Leeds at this tine asked Miss Dcbbs to notify him tho followinf^ morn- 
ing as to how much space would be needed by the Central Volunteer Office; she gave 
him the information immediately, however. Mr. Leeds then gave "every indication" 
that he would secure tho space that day. Then, two days later Miss Dobbs had an 



I 



- 7 - 

opportunity to o"btain cards printed for tho office very inexpensivelyt t)ut the order 
had to he placed iininediRtely^ So she asked Mr. Leeds if it were safe to £p rJiead to 
order them. He answered in the affirmative and even suggested that space on the 
cardf^ ho reserved for insertion later of the room nunher of the Office. 



"I hope to have this space soon," ho added. 

Here, then, were two checks that Mr. Leeds was in earnest. 

But no authorizing letter came. And until it did the Federation of Social 
A<::ercics did not feel safe to go nhead with the organization and estahlishment of 
the Control Volunteer Office. 

Then one dn^^ in Itovenher Mrs. Bruce asked Miss Dohbs ahout the process of 
the Office. Sl^e \7as surprif^ed to hoar Miss Dohhs say that no letter had as yet heen 
received from Mr. Leeds. Miss Dohbs then informed her that space was avaiiahle for 
the Office on the same floor as the Federation f»jid that the Federation had lien on 
it. 

Gcin.j to Mr. Leeds Mrs. Bruce explained about the room space available. 
His reaction was one of impatience: 

"Why I thou£yht that thing had been set up and Q^inc long o<i*o." 

Mrs. Bruce thereupon reminded him about the proviso regarding the letter of 
authority ho was to have sent. 

■Fr.ese few b\it important words necesspjy finally to give Brighton County a 
central volunteer office cane by mail November 25, 1941, in the following belyingly 
insi,<^.if icant dress: 

"I an sorry I didn't attend to tho matter of getting space 
for the volunteer office. But until I do I would suggest 
that your Federation begin this operation in its own quarters. 

Very truly yours, 

Frnncis Leeds 

Chairman 

Brightwater County Defense Council" 

This letter satisfied the Board of Directors of the Federation of Social 
Ae,'encies since there was written evidence that Mr. Leeds had authorized the setting 
up of the Office under Defense Council A,7-encios. Accordingly, nn orgpjiizinrj commit- 
tee immediately proceeded to set up the Brightwater County Central Volunteer Office. 
This was opened on December 1, 1941. 



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The new York school of Social Work 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 

NEW YORK. N. Y. 

COURSE 4 
ASSIGiOfillTTS CONTIMJEP 



S3SSI0:J IV 



Assi^rament: Read Northwood Revised Record 



(it'{^-ip^^ ) 



Read Fairhaven Protective Association Record (will "be distributed 

in class) 



Reference s s 



Steiner - ComiAunity Organization, Chapter XI 

Coyle - Social Process in Organized Groups, Chapters 2 and 8, 



DiRCussionJ 



1. ¥hat factors in Northwood had bearing on the development of 
its social, woiic program? 

2. ^That problems were revealed in Mr, Jones' study; in what ways 
might" a Council aid in their solution? 

3. Consider the steps by which changes should be made in the pro- 
gram of social work in any community as revealed in Northwood. 

4. Was the study by Miss Smith a valid basis for bringing about 
changes in the program of the children's agencies? 



Hoto: 



Student presentation on above points. 



S5SSI0IT V 



J 



~i 



Assignment ; (All of these records will be distributed in class) 

1. Read '♦Constructive Planning in Retrenchment" Record, and write a 
paper proposing a solution for the question presented. 

2. Read "Pomona Service ^ea^e" Record, and consider questions at 
the end. 

3. Head ''Blaine County T^elfare Council" Record- to be discussed. 

Disc^assion; 

1. Horr is a social work program raplanned? Who does it? 

2. TJlrnt leadership shoild a CourxCil of Social Agencies assume in 
providing a balanced social work program of essential service? 



,* 



-»* 






r 



SESSION VI 

Topi. c : A Govmcll of Social A gencies In Action 



I, Struct\ire (Constitution) 

A* Form of organization 

B. Board of Directors and staff 

C. Relation to member agencies 

1 Public 

2 Private 

D. Standards of agency membership 



t' 



lit yunctlon 

A. Planning Divisions 

1 Sections and comnittoes 

B. Administrative Departments 

1 Social Service Exchange 

2 Public Relations 

3 Volunteers 

4 Research 

5 Information and Reference 

III. Central Planning 

A« Relation to member agencies 
' B. Direction to planning for action^ 

' IV* Relation to central finance Tpodj^ 

' A* Separate 

" B# Particular function of a combined program 



Discussion; 



> 



1. Shculd this type of organization be calledS 

(a) a Council of Social Agencies, or 

(b) a Community Council 

(see reference #1) 

2. Hho determines membership in such a body? 
What is a "qualified" agency? 

3. Can a majority of agencies compel ono member agency to 
change its program? 

4. How can social planning acquire the degree of prestige com.- 
monly attached to joint financing? 

5. Should a Council handle mixed questions involving finance and 
social planning? 

6. Has a Council any responsibility for seeking to build up 
' standards in public or private agencies? 

7. Is a mere "majority" vote in matters pertaining to social 
planning satisfactory? 



4 



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RoferencGs: 



Asslf^nnent: 



< 



1 (a) Certificate of Incorporation, By-Laws, and Description 
of Divisions, Blchmond Community Council, 1940. 

(b) Constitution of Council of Social Agencies, Rochester, 
New York 

2 Bulletin #100, "What Councils of Social Agencies Do". Community 

Chests and Councils, Inc. 
also 
Social Planning - in Community Chests and Councils pp 1-7, 

23-37. 

3. Social Planning, the ttrowth of an Idea, Boston Council, 1937, 

4. The Welfare Council of Now York City, Component Units and 

Structure, Jan, 1941» 

5. Planning for Action 1940-41, Septeotor 1940, Bochcstor 

Council of Social Agoncios. 

Road Omelet Society Record (will he distributed in class) 



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AR 7202 

Filene, Dorothy 
Dorothy Filene Collection 



LEO BAECK INSTITUTE 
Center for Jewish History 

15 West 16th Street 
NewYork. NY 10011 

Phone: (212) 744-6400 
Fax:(212)988-1305 
Email: lbaeck@lbi.cjh.org 
URL: http://www.lbi.org 



Date: 7/29/2009 



Sys#: 000198663 



Box: 2 



Folder: 2 



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g^ Kropotkln: Mutual Aid, a Factor of Evolution , 

This book was published In 1914, and it is fascinating ' 

i n human relations/ 
to see how timeless the conflict/between mutual aid and self- 

4 

assertion of the individual really is. Inspite of the two 

since )^)U/J^ 

world wars we have witnessed ifi/^M^j^U this problem tHi^MiA 

MMM/ ]l-i^/y^%^/)^i>/^t/ '^^ still as unsolved as it was 30 and 
3000 years ago. 

Although K. mentions the aspect of self assertion , of 
the individual's struggle against his group and of groups 
against other groups, he claims that history merely records 
the epoch of struggle (war) but does not tell us about the 
accomplishments of mutual aid. pa^^e 250 bottom It becomes 
very clear from this book that K. opposes two institutions 
of present day culture - war and state. The way he looks at 

I. 

the state it is not an association in the Maclver terminologji. 

He is a pascifist and an anarchist - obviously a philosophical 
pascifist and anarchist* 

K. gives a very detailed' description of the evolution of 
mankind, emphasizing all though the book that the driving power 
all the initiative for development is mutual aid. 

He starts with discussing the animal kingdom where 1000 
different species practice mutual aid; those animals acquiring 
habits of mutual aid are tne ones fittest to surviire. He 
opposes Darwin's point cf view of the survival of the fittest 
through struggle (competition). Adaptation he believes has 
a stronger influence on maintaining of the species, for instance 
adaptation to climate, or change through migration.- He gives the 
clu example of the ants who practice mutual aid in their community 
and thus attain well being and safety. Their self-devotion has 

grown into a hab>$lt. He mentions the beetles who do not eat 

before 

MiScJl«x5c^i^x calling their fellow beetles for a meal, etc. 



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Dean of ^ 
K. cites Kessler, ^/j^tf>fMll>f/^lL St, Petersburg University, 

a scientific follower of Darwin. Kessler states that all orgaAic 
beings have two essential needs; that of nutrition and that 
pf meintaining the species; the former bring;(s them struggle 
the latter calls for mutual support. - The higher animals 
practi ce mutual aid through common hunting, protection, 
nesting, migration. K. raises the question on what brings 
animals together - the needs of mutual protection or simply 
the pleasure of feeling surrounded by their congeners - and 
it seems to me the sa-;;e questions has not been solved for 
mankind either. 

iVith regard to the human species, K. opposes Hobbes 
who took the position that marikind started life in form of 

t 

fa.ailies, and says that the family is only the |)ate product 
of human evolution.' He opposes Hobbes idea of struggle as 
the fundamental drive for human evolution, and cites Darwin 
who said that famn does not come from the Isolately living 
unsocial gorilla but from the weak but sociable chimpanzee. 

K. believes that primitive tribes existing; today are 
not degenerated specimen but have still post-glacial character. 
The first stage of human itfK social life is examplified by 
the savages, -^'he life of the primitive folk is characterized 
by their extreme devotion to their community - individualism 
is a modern growth. K. tells about a variety of examples 
which affirm his theory that man originally identified his 
life with that of his tribe; each for all was the common 
principle; appearance of s -parate families admldst the tribe 
was considered as disturbing established unityl k latpr stage 
knew the"communal marriage". K. speaks of the Hottentots sho 



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are so sociable that they would not eat when alon^e but call 

for company of the others, (Spengler: Decline of the Occl'lent 

the future man Is described as being so "cultured'* as not to 

eat in company) . All primitives have a/ so-called "long house" 

the Grande maison for gatherings, dancing etc. The life of the 

esktmo is based on communism and they have such a high esteem 

for ifefitxKfciOKrxjiRjrxHiaxtkai sociability and refined manners that 

if at a meal a person is greedy he will get all the food to 

shamehim. Since tks an Bskomo woman is expected to know cookine"^ 

sewing etc., the greatest abuse a child would say in fighting 

with a play mate is "your mother cannot sew". In some tribes 

the old men consider it their duty to die so as not to be a 

burden to the community. A man digs his ovn grave and gives 

a farewell party to his kinfolks before he takes his own life.- 
In praising the high social standards of the canibals as com- 

^i/^/mMf/Hl^/^f/miif/Mm^ K. mentions the fact 

pared with our present standards 

that canibals never eat members of their own tribe but only 

those of other clans. It seems to me K. should have given us 

some credit too, after all we have a great deal further - we 

don't eacher at all, not sKiy even ourennemies . 

While the common bond uniting the canibals is ther common 

ancestry, there is a new tie as man's social development goes 

on: the common territory; the land became identified with 

its inhabitants. Law, morality and fact could not be separated, 

and the moral authority of the commune was untouchable. The 

major representatives of these village communities wer e the 

Barbarians whom K. pictures as a man living under a wide series 

of institutions, most considered how , he may be most useful to 

his tribe; not at all a blood thirsty savage who likes to kill, 

but a man who piously handed down his institutions from generation 

\ 1 



-4- 






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to generation. A quarrel between two individuals i[as treated 
as a communal affair. K. concludes that the more fully the 
communal possession of ;l^// land the better and gentler the 
habits of men. 

K. speaks of the evils of the feudal system of the 
medaevial epoch which he traces back mainly to the spparation 
of the law from' the community life; compensation teplaced 
the blood revenge for any wrong doings. When a feud broke 
out xafing between two tribes with different laws it became 
hard to find an arbitrator; these were finally chosen from 
among the families who were keeping the law of old in its 
purity and knew it through songs, sagas etc. Thus develped 
a cast of arbitrators. The law becam0 the basis for government, 
the authority of kings of based on law, not on military or economic 



powers • 



free 



K. describes the medaevial city as a perfect example of 

a community for mutual aid; the city served the community, 

for Instance it Bought food for its citizens. The guilds were 

the main representatives of community interest, each member 

belonged to either a professional or craft trade and as long 

as they lived their free lives there was no trouble. Only 

when the State stepped in to confiscate the property in favor 

of its own bureaucracy did xsutxx actual conflict start. K. 

considers as one of the fundamental mistakes of the cities to 

base their wealth on commerce and industry KinAx±si while neglecting 

agriculture. The communal institutions were bound to decay because 
all the early city ideas were abandonned - 
tkKxMt>t3tXx&JcJ&XxiAft9(xi(£ self reliance, sovereignty of each group 

construction of the political body from the simple to the compli- 
cated. Instead salvation was sought for In a centralized state 
placed under semi Devlne authority ; "one man the savior of society" 



..5- 



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When K. speaks of mutual aid among ourselves, that is in 
our times, he discusses the fact that the state has abandonned 
direct mutual aid. Again he compares us we the Barbarians who 
did not eat without asking be gore whether everyone else wanted 
to share the food - we pay taxes. 

Village communities had lived over 1000 years; they had 
steadily improved when not ruined by war. The growth of 
industry made the value of the land greater, and the power 
of mobility destoryed the village community. Laws were passed 
preventing the gull;ls to combine; the state took over control 
of the craft and trade. Still the unions survived , and there 
was a revival around 1840. Strike is the expression of our 
time fmc in practicing mutual aid within a group. ' ' 

K. mentions a variety of examples showing that Koxxunity 
illKxlaxjpraB the principle of mutual aid is the basis of many 
communities. The greater part of the meadows and forest in 
Switzerland are communal land. Buergernutzen page 179. 
give example of Moshav in Palestine.' According to K. progress 
both in agriculture and technical fields are outstanding in 
sections with the communal possession way of life. 

It became clear to me that K. is not merely an anarchist 
but a philosophical anarchist. Sometimes his ideas seem so 
remote from reality. He forgets that in our stage of industrial 
development (even in 1914) the unions cannot live the life of 
a sqiall guild; also he seems to underestimate that in a large 
asso4(kation like a un;lJion of today there is thKxxacixKxii a similar 
danger for bureaucracy as he sees it la. the state. Th e idea 
for which the guild stood became too remote in a big association 
There is a fundamental danger within each human that *ith the 



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growth of any organization the idea becomes more distant to 
the individual, and thus maintaining of contact a hard endeavor 
tor the individual. 

K. states that the fundamental drive in man is tExiHi±t« 
that of mutual aid to his fellow-man, H«x5±xMxtla±xx3i He 
unites because he is unhappy when alone. I should at least 
like to raise the question whether this drive fax is not • 
much dependent on factors like feB.v.il>//Mmf4 K. mentions 
poverty as being a decisive factor for Increasing an willingness 
for mutual aid. (mine;? workers aiding their comrade, mutual 
aid in slums. 



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Hunter College of the City of jMew York 

ft 

Department of Speech and Draiiiatics 



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Speech 41.2 
December 1940 



HiniTER COLLEGE OP THE CITY OF IIEW YORK 
Departnent of Speech and Draimitics 



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1. Lips 

2, Teeth 

5« Upper Gums 

4« Front or hard palate 

5# Pack or soft palate 



6# Urula 



?• Nasal CaTity 
8» Tongue 

9t Tip of Tongue 
10. Blade of Tongue 



11. Frort of Tongue 



12. Back of Tongue 



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13. Pharynx - Throat 
1-^. TpiclottiG 
15 • Larynx 

16. Vocal Kclds 
Voor^.l Gcrds 

17. Trachea or windpipe 

18. Oesophagus 

food passage 



19. Mouth 



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HUNTER COLLEGE OF THE CITY OP IJEW YORK 
Department of Speech and Dramatics 




1# Lips 

Z. Teeth 

5t Upper Gums 

4« Front or hard palate 

5» Back or soft palate 



6. Urula 



?• Nasal Cayity 

8» Tongue 

9. Tip of Tongue 

10. Blade of Tongue 



11 • Front of Tongue 

12. Back of Tongue 

13. Pharynx - Throat 

14. Epiglottis '>isLe^ ^-i-<vi 
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17. Trachea or wiijtdpipe 

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food passage 



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HUNTER COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF HEW YOPX 
Department of Speech and DrainaticB 

THE PRO^njNCIATION OF WORDS 



Cont aining; ^^ng" in which ^*n^^ s T j , p>nd *V/^ » g or is silent 
(Such words as "danger" or "ungenerous" do not belong in this category) 



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Analysis of n 

In En^:,lish, "n" represents two sounds: 

tip of tongue nasal n in "in"; 
back of tongue nasal 7) in "ink", 
"n" =n also in "rank", "bunk", "rancor", "uncle", and the like. From these examples 
we see "'that "n" may equal rj v/hen there is no "g" in the spelling. 

"n" may also equal i) wYi^n "g" (present in the spelling) is silent* There are cer- 
tain practical rules^which help to determine whether a "g" is silent or not. 

II 

"ng" Rules 



Rule 1 



"n" = T 



9 



( All words ending in "ng", 'hgue", "ngth", "ngthen" 



and 



TT^TT • 



g" is silent 



( 
( 
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Rule 2 (See III) 

a - All words thot have ondod in "rg" to which a suffix has 
boen added. 



B 



"n" 



D 



and 



Bag 



except the J4. "danger" suffixes: 

"ate", "al" (always preceded by g) 

"er" and "cist" (preceded by g only after adjectives 

and adverbs.) 

Rule 2 (Sae III) 

All cases not falling under Rule 1 or 2 (except "ginghejn" in 
v/hich "g" is silent). 

Ill 



( b - 

( 

( 

( 

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Procedure for Determining ^hat Words belong to Hulo 2 and TOiat to Pule 3; 



1 

2 

3 



h- 



Determine the meaning of the v/ord in question. 
Separate the p^.rt ending in "ng" from v/hat follows. 

a. Is the par+- ending in "ng" a v/ord? 

b. Tias this word a meaning rulated to the meaning of the 
whole word? 

If tha answer to Jb is "yes", the word in que5:tion belongs 
to Rule 2; if "no", the word belongs to Rule J. 



ie:2U.U):mel 



• 



liunter College of ths City of Hew York 
Department of Speech and Dramatics 



E-XERCISSS FOR m?. CONTROL OF 



^ 



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g 



1, With the mouth easily open, the tip of tonpie resting lightly 

against the lower front teeth, the back of tongue raised toward 
the soft palate but not brrcod against it, sing n , feeling 
as though the tone wero escaping between the back of tongue and 
the soft palate as well as through the nose. 



% 



2. a - 



b - 



Chant r)-a:;ti-i:;ri-u:^ lotting the back of tongue 
rest lightly af^aiiii^t the" soft palate as the rj is prolonged. 
Separate tongue and pelat^) so c>lov:ly thet n seems to blur 
into a: as tho transition from n to a: is mado# 

Press the back of tong;uri against the soft palate as n is 
hummed, then separate suddr.nly and find g inserted between 
xj and the following vo^Yel: i] - gat j xi - gi: ; n - gu:. 
There are three sounds in each group heroi 






10/8/40 :mes 



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HimiRR COaFGT') OF TilS CITY OF W^ YORK 
DcpartEient of Speech and Dramatics 



tt^^n 



ng" Phrases 



# 



airoing at 

answering it 
anything else 
bring up 
bringing in 
calling about 
cling on 
coming out 
counting out 
drenming of 
dravfinp; it 
dvre llinfT at 
catin'f, all 
finding out 
fluttering about 
getting off 
going over 
hang; up 
hanger-on 

having asked 
helping Ida 
infringing on 
jumping along 
King of England 
linger on 
Long Island 
lon^, ago 
looking in 
looking over 
morning hours 
moving in 



reatling a book 
reclining on 
ring it 
running away 
seeing your 
8inf;er is 
Birfgling out 
skating easily 
slangy speech 
so?riething is 
sitting on 
speaking accurately 
speaking English 
standing on 
stronger than 
swi/aming often 
springing along 
tharJcing all 
thinking about 
tono*ue aches 
trailing along 
tripping up 
trying on 
T^aiting around 
wanting Anna 
wanting it 
working on 
welder ing about 
wrong attitude 



6/2S/32:C^F 



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t/^ angry 
^aii^lar 
u bilingual 
t^ congunial 
•- derang^ 
^ dingy 
(^ dipthongal 

English 
I/" fungous 
w/ incongruous 

inextinguishably 

infrangible 

int^enuous 

inglorious 
/ kingly 
V long 

/maipy 
v^ middling 

>/punf-;ent 

s/songuinQ 

/ single 

singular 
/stingy 
/strange 
V strong 
/taiigiblc 

ungainly 

xingodly 

imgracoful 

young 

younger 

youngest 

longer 

longest 

strong 



young 



er 



along 

smituningly 

wittingly 

angel 

anger 

lon^ngly 

ar range 

avengo 

bung 

congener 

eoixgregation 

congress 
contingcnoc 

danger 

diphthong 

dungooit 



^^ngino 

cvr;41goliot 

fang 
fl^Ajningo 

fleuig© 
finetjr 
fringe 
i\ingus 



(;anclior. 
gangrono 
ginger 

Ivr^ngcr 

;^Cveni^v(;ly 

l:^r1*4nger 

hingo 

hingi:;g 
hu-:ig.or 

ingct 

iiigrato 

in/^atitudo 

isinglass 

jai^gle 

juuglo 

Jranguroo 

king 

juaiiganese 

Jjiango 

mc-;.)':ger 

mango 

nightingale 

orang-'Outaug 

pasi;c2ic:cr 

I>ongco 

porringci* 

ri.;gloador 

rinrlot 



G 



hii'.^;le 



singGOj-g 

slraig 

sling 

songster 

5piU:glo 

sponge 

starling 

strongiiold 

syringe 

eyringa 

tuiigent 

thii'g 



tiirong 

tinge 

tongue 

vanguard 

vengeance 

wrangle 

wrong 

belong 

bring 

bungl G 

challenge 

cling 

corm::ingle 

congeal 

conglomcrato 

congratulate 

cringe 

dangle 

disarrange 

distinguish 

elongate 

endanger 

ongondv^r 

ovcvngelize 

extingtsiish 

fling 

flung 

hxing 

huaig 

jingle 

lengthen 

laoiiglo 

iplnglo 

plunge 

engage 

singe 

singing 

siii going 

sting 

strongthon 

Qtring2( 

stung 

tangle 

tingle 

olingingly 

ranging 

Infjorsoll 

4nglo-»Sa5con 



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THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 






TfWADjva LI S!iy COURSE 32^ GOTEHTMBUT AND SOCIAL WOHE 



General 




Beard, Charles A« 



%A^X. 



American Gtovemment and Politics (especially 
Part II and final chapters) 



Ogg, r#Af and ftiy, P»0. Introduction to American Government 



(k^,l6 MonrOi W^B* 



Brandeis, Justice Louis Dt 



Pound, Eoscoe 
Ihite, Leonard D« 



Van Kleeckt Maiy 



Mangold, George B« 
Current magfizlnos 



Chapin, r. Stuart 



The Invisible Government 

Uie Curse of Bigness (read pp# 116-326 on 
Die Living Law) 

(Che Spirit of the Conmon Law 

Introduction to the Study of Public Adminis- 
tration, pp. 206-366 

Illusions Regarding Government, Bie Survey, 
June Midmonthly 1934 (compare with Letter of 
Lord Macaulay - The Darabillty of American 
Institutions - to be secured from instrac- 
tor) . •• 

Organization for Social Welfare, pp. 21-43 

Consult the current files of the National 
Municipal Review, The American City, Public 
Management , etc • . . , 

Contemporary American Institutions, pp •13-66 



pie Spoils System and the Merit System 



w/^ St ef fens, Lincoln 



An Autobiography 



^ 



^>0 



Report of the Commission of . , «. ^n^ v ;i v^ /^ 

InqD^iiry on Public Service ^Setter Government Personnel, Published by ^ 

Personnel Uhittlesey House 



Rogers, Idndsay 



Mo riam, Lewi s 



Working for the Government and Training for 
the Public Service, New Republic, November 
7 and 13, 1935 

Public Service and Special Training 



II I I 



' • >k4 



Beading List, Course 32, page 2# 



Taxation 



t 



Battenhelm, Harold 



Cole, G«D»H* 
Simpson, Herbert ?• 



Loland, Simeon E« 



Hodes, Bamet 



miat Do We Wont from TaKCS? - Sarrey Graphic 
Jbigiist 1934, pp* 372-5 

Public Tinance and !Caxation 

Ttaacation and Its Implications for Social Woik, 
Proceedings of Bie National Conference of Social 
Work 1934, pp. 49-69 

yederal, State & Local Government Belationshlps 
in re Public Welfare. Social Service Review, 
September 1933. 

It's Your Money • Beilly & Lee Co., Chicago, 1935. 



Irederic, iathorine A. Taxes and Tax Trends • Kational League of Women 

Voters, Washington, D.C# - price 50^ 



^Vi^) ^^^ 



t 



King, Clyde L* 
Berle, A* A. Jr. 
Seligoiism, E.H.A. 
l/^Hlgh, Stanley 



Taxbits 



Public rinance, Chapters III and XI 

Bsvenue and Progress, Survey Graphic, October 1935 

Essays in Taxation, Chapters 1, 9, 10 

Jace YoTir Taxes, Survey Graphic, May 1937 



\am^ 



^ 



Monthly publication of Tax Policy League 
309 East 34 Street, New Yoifc .^^ 

j/Jensen, Jens P* Government ^fihance, 1937, pp. 205-441 



Local Govemmont 

MacDonald, Austin P. American City Government and Administration 



Cottrell, Edwin A. 



Morgenthau, Henry Jr. 



Hoan, Daniel W» 

ffairlie, John A« and 
I^eler, C« M» 

Askew, J. Thomas 



1 



Atkinson, R«C« 



Chronic Political Indigestion, Public Management, 
July 1934 Editorial 

Bigger and Better Goveiwnent Wanted, National 
Municipal Itevlew, September 1933, p. 434 

City Government 

County Government and Administration 

County Consolidation and the Cost of County 
Govomment, The American City, February 1934, 
pp# 5B— 7 

Principles of a Model County Government - National 
Municipal Eeview, September 1933 (Supplement) 
pp. 469 - 470 



k ^>of 



o 



state Gtovemment 



immmm^ 



Mac Donald, Austin !• 
Ullloughby, W.y# 
Brookings Institution 



Iteadlng List, Course 32, page 3« 



American State Government and Administration 
Principles of Legislative Org^lzatlon and Admin 
Sarveys of State Governments* 



.•'•^A 

^J 



-^ 



Federal Government 

UetcDonald, Austin T« 



Plnchot, Glfford and Ex« 
President HoOver 

V^Key, V.O. Jr« 



Federal Aid 
w Federal Aid, Survey, January 1932 



The Administration of Federal Grants to States 



II 



I I 



r7| 



Course 71 
Mr. King 



Government and Social Work 



March 26, 1940 



I How much do we need to know about government and politics to 
do social work In 



a) 
b) 
c) 



private agency- 
public agency under a merit system 

" " '* spoils system 



II 



II To what extent is ours a government by 

a) majority 

b) plurality 

c) minority 

d) a boss 

III Must Improvements in Law and Government always lag behind 
consent of the majority? 



t 



Private agency has to be in constai;it touch with public agency so 
as to understand the public agency s difficulties in dealing with* 
masses of people und a strict ruling. 

Public agencies should not be too much protected so that they wll 1 
be able to make changes possible. 

Some people say majority always lags behind minority and law. Others 
state that law lags behind majority. 



(Schedule for next weeks:) 

April 2: Handicaps and advantages of working for civil service 



April 9: 



May 7: 
May 14: 



Social worker in State Government 



April 16: Invisible Governm.ent 
April 23: Spoils System 
April 30: Merit System 



Taxation 

Federal Government (Paper due) 



f 



Course 71 
Mr, King 



April 2, 1940 



m 



I To what extent must new enterprises always be demonstrated 
with private punch before Government takes them over? 

II What are the chief advantages and disadvantages of operating 
social work under Government? • 



Advantages of social work under government: 



more funds 
more stability 



Disadvantages " 



ti 



ti 



II 



insecurity, due to partisan 

politics 
rigidity 
it is harder to limit intake. 



How far can government go v/ith th'ngs the majority is not yet 
ready for? 



.<■ 



f 



Fairhaven Mental Hyp-iene Clinic, 



i 



Contributors 

(32.000) 



Council of Social 
Ap:encies 



Family Welfare 
Society 



Ag( 



I 



V.N. A. 






/[Mental ', 
/ ) Hygienei 
I ( Spcietyi 



T 
I 
I 



Voters 
(26.000) 



Boaid of 
Education 




May or 



Board of 
Aldermen 



-V-tft**^ 



» -*^: ^*-«i*^ ^o.^^ 

Council of <^ <Ko*i A^ g^Pt-oK 



Education 






Health 
Comm . 



Board of 

Public 

Welfare 



i^ispensary 
Board 



Cornm. of 

Public 

Welfare 



t^,^,,^ j^sycn. bociai workerj 
^^^'^^^ ' Psychiatrist i. 



(♦ 



m 



Course 71 
Mr. King 



April 9, 1940 



Dr. Mc Combs lecturing: Maine Welfare Situation. 

33 000 square miles, much wild land, unorganized. Neither Iniustral 
ly'nor agriculturally is Maine self-sufficient; it is poor. Its 
majority is republican. It consists of 16 counties which are 
different in size and population, and ten mayor cities. Vain 
agriculture and indlstries : potatoes, shoes. Small farms. People 

corn 
are very independent, do not change their minds easily. 

Admistration in hands of governor and Council (consisting of 7 men). 
Council is elected by legislature. Administration is determiined 
by tovernor with advice of Council. KKiiiUQt represent geographical 
districts. Council represents County 

council districts 1. health, 2social welfare, 3 old age security. 
There is a Depart'i^ent of Health and 7/elfare. 




advancem.ent . 

Dr. Mc. Combs is against old age security act. 



^ 



» 



Course 71 
Mr. King 



April 16, 19^0 



1. How much should social workers Imow about raanipulnting hidden political forces, 

2. To v/htit extent r.hould they manipulate them? 

3. '/'/hc-it are the advantages and disadvantages of meeting health welfare 



in one department 



locally 

state government 

federal* 



i. Iti hard to get staff v;hich is trained for both health and case ork. They 
are expensive anu di ficult bo find. 



Merger Bill 



> 



^tl 



9t4h 



State Boss 



Governor 



Council of 
Social Agencies 

/ 



Vice \ 
\ Presid. 



Voters of State 



Legislature 




\ 



\ 



of City 



4 

Mayor i 



\ 



V 



) 



/ 



He&:i-th \ Board of 



/ 



\ 



\ 



Coram 



\ 



Char it ie 



s 



/ 



Cit?/- Boss 



^ 



/ 



Board of 

?ub3. ^"ejf, ^ Fire 

V Deot 



Snne rint, / 

/ 






\ 



\ 



\ 



Disiens. 
Be? rd 



Commit, of 
I\ibl. ^"ejf. 

^r K- 

/ ^ 

— ^- _. V \ 

Botrd of . Biuervi of 



Cierk 



( Her] til 

s — . 



vnr 



"elf t' re 



\ 



— \ 
/ 



Police 
Dpt. 



» 



April 23, 1%0 



I HoA7 cm socicl worker? learn hov; politicrl forces are mrnirjulrted by others 
in their conmiunity? 

II To v;hat extent can ann should they mc^nipulfte then? 



I SocirO. "orkers mur.t le'-m to get information from people v/ho knov/ more about 
it. A profepsicnal organization can reprcKent the Gocirl v;orker in as far 
as political opinion i: concerr.ed. (Government, civil service officials who 
ar-^ not allowed to join political parties can, however, have their professioal 
organizations benresont them). The fact that these government employees are 
denied the right^ of joining a party may lead to denying them part of the right 

of citizenship. 



m 



State Boss 



Voters 



Editor of City Ilevrs 
(neir:hborinf': Cityl^ 



e.f?:islature 



Cities* Committee 



Governor 



Health Dpt 



Charity Dpt 



Mr. 7 

I 

\ 



Mr. Y. 



^ I^V^o 




Dis ens ary 



(Q 



9> 



ViT. King 
April 30, 1940 

I Under the Spoils System should social T^orkers every work for the appoint- 
ment of a particular candidate? How? 

II How can they «waken the community to the need for qualified workers through 
the merit system? 



Falrhaven Juvenile Court 



© 



state ^3083 

\ 
\ 



Uovemor 



. ix)ara or • 
\ apportion, need 

\ 



unlor Judge 
tpart time) 



voters 



Leg! slatui*e 



New City Boss 



/ 



/ 




Mayor / 



/ 



/ 



/ 



Ibenior Juage 
(part time) 



I What are the chief defects in the present Civil Service (merit) system in 
the U.S.A.? 

Residence requirements 

Eaaraens are not accurate testing 

Low snlarios, lack of standard 

lack of prestige 

protection of the unfit 

rigidity 

lack of promotion 

non- adequate funds 

• 

II How can they be overcome? 

III Should all **non-policity making** officials be chosen for career service 

by the merit system? (no, because voters should be able to change policy). 



pf 



9> 



May 13, 1940 

1. How much do Social workers need 

to knov: about taxati ^n more than other people? 

Z. From the social v/orkers standpoint which kind of tax is *'best2? 

3* Should taxation be 'Mlrect^^ or indirect'*? Why? 

4, What shOMld be mayor 

secondary purpose of taxation? 



ft 



Real property tax 

Personal 

Sales 

-'■ncome 

Inheritance 

Poll 

Customers 

Pay Roll 



O) 



Revenue only 

Protection 

Redistribution of wealth 

Te feel oarticipation 

For federal regulation 

Equalization between states. 

Vfe have to know about taxation, ^e have a greater responsibility 
than average citizen because of our position. 

Indirect taxes are effecting lower classes. 

Poll tax is the head tax for any citizen over 21. 

Personal property is the hardest to cellect. 

Real property tax unearned wealti coraes fron growth of commmnity, 
ovTiingof land that becomes valuable throu^-h expanding of community 
Tooay it is not only v^ealth by also obligation v/hich one can not 
meet (mortgages. | 



Q) 



/ 



f) 



a) 

b) 
c) 



May 21, \9hO 



If we could write a "Taxplank" for party platforms what would 

we say to: 
income taxes? Federal? State? 

sales taxes? General? Mixuries? Gsollne? 
Customs duties? 



II A'hat relation would it have to the proposed plank to ''return relief 

to return relief aiministration to the States?" 

III »Vhen should relief be financed b bonds irstea of taxes" (for 

te-Tiporary purposes mainly) 



read: 



Social Work today ^'ay 1940 



Karl Lundberg: "Taxation as a 

Social instrument" 



Mr, Stipe substituting: ?Jr. Kin^ 



May 28, 194o 

(worker at the C.8.S. CoTmittee 
on Youth and Justice) 



9) 



June 4, 1940 

In a city where arpointment of the Juvenile Court Judp-e depends on who 
is elected governor 

1 Shall social workers work fcr the re-elect J on of the present p-overnor 
because the present Judge pro-^ises "reform"? 

2 Work to elect a new governor who has made no promise to reform the cout 

3. Be neutral but work for a law fixing: qualifications for Juvenile 

court Judge? 



o: 



d 



Mary Van Kleeck: 



Illusions regarding government. 
The Survey Journal of Social Work 
June Midmonthly 1934 



April 1, 1940 



o 



Social workers have turned to the political system as to 
a source of funds which private agencies can no lonp-er provide. 
Government is expected to protect ap:ainst unemployment, old a^e, 
widowhood, sickness, or factorswhich Interfere with the normal 
process of self-maintenance. Social work seems to change its 
base from, private to governmental sources. 

I Social workers in the past have not committed themselves to 
any party ; their attitude has been nonpartisan; they have 

tried to fit in their pro^-^ram in any party; because when their 
Ideas become laws administered by the government they feel this 
expresses the will of the whole people . 

II Another point of view: Government is dominated by the 
strongest economic power and serves the group possessing this 

power, and its social laws also serve only a small group of people 

Our illusions regarding government arise out of a refusal to recog 
nize conflicts like different Interests between labor and capital. 

• 

In a government controlled by strongest economic party we must 
recognize three conflicting interests: Capital wishes to maintain 
prof it , resists taxation, derrands curtailment of social service in 
government and demands suppression of workers strugprle. Governmert 
must please both, the property owners (because they contribute) 
and the rising discontent of the unemployed and poorly paid workers. 

Social v;orker serves both those v/hc ov/n and control the economic 
system, and those v/ho are served. 

It is rather the economic and political system that cause social 
problems not certain groups of people. Social workers, therefore, 
asked for federal employment project serving qualified workers 
rather than neediest workers. 

Social worker should be closer associated with workers' groups than 
with Board of Directors; they should be more aggressive in action 
and be able to formulate their purposes. -New Deal program loaned 
large sum to industry, thus protect in[:^ claims of property upon the 
economic system - but it couli not distribute purchasing power to 
the workers. 




Mary Van Kleeck says that up to that time (193^), some social loans 
in the U.S.A. were made to sustain property by credits. 

Social workers should unite v/ith other workers, and so acquire the 
necessary knowledge to define their purposes. 



^ 



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The New York School of social work 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



BIBLIOaSAFHY FOE COURSE #83 




1. 






3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 
7. 



TIE ART OF COIIFEEEIICE - TrarJc Walser - Harpers 1933 - $3.00. 

TBAIin^^a FOR GBDUP EXPERIENCE - Alfred D. Sheffield - 1929 Put out ^y the 
^ Incfaiiy - 129 E. 52nd St. May he availahle at the Assoc. Press. 

CHSATIVS DISCUSSION - Alfred D. Sheffield - 1927 - Assoc. Press. 50/ 

JOINING IN PUBLIC DISCUSSION - Alfred D. Sheffield. - Geo. H. Doran Co. 1922. 

ROW TO LEAD DISCUSSION - Leroy C. Bowman - Women's Press - 35/ 

HANDBOOK FOR DISCUSSION LEADERS - Geo V. Denny - Town Hall Advisory Service 

HOW TO CONDUCT GROUP DISTOSSION - Extension Service - College of Agriculture, 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. Circular f276. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE INSTITUTE FOR PROPAGANDA ANALYSIS ( ^^ .»4z,.-<«^ S Sc^ ^^ 

COOPERATIVE DISCUSSION CIRCLES - Ohio Farm Bureau - 620 E. Broad St. 

Columous, Ohio. 10/ 

PROCESS OF GROUP THINKING - Harrison Elliott - Assoc. Press. '°i ^S 
11. THE NEW STATE - Mary Follett 
«p.i> y 12.W/CHILD STUDY DISCUSSION RECORDS - Quilliard - Child Study Assoc.. 221 W. 57 St. 

13. DISCUSSION: A BRIEF GUIDE TO METHODS - U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 1935. 

14 AN AlfflRICAN ANSWER TO INTOLERANCE - Teacher's Manual #1 1939 - Council Against 

Intolerance in America- Lincoln Building, N.i.C. J! ree 

15. ADULT EDUCATION FOR SOCIAL CHANGE - Thomas K. Brown, Jr. Editor gt 

Order to - J.Howard Branson. Social Order Committee. 311 S. Juniper St, 

Philadelphia 



8. 

9. 



10. 



/ 



16. 



>AJ,y;< 17. 



18. 




19. 



TALKING IT THROUGH - A MANUAL FOR DISCUSSION GROUPS - Com. on Planning - 
Natiomd Education Assoc. - 1201 16th St. ,N.W. . Washington. D. C. 

DISCUSSION I.STHODS FOR ADULT EDUCATION - Thomas Fansler (about 75/) American 
Assoc, for Adult Education - 50 S. 42nd St., N.i.C. 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS COMMITTEE - 30 Rockefeller Plaza - $3. subscription purchases 

35 pamplilet ^ -^^w^t^we-t^v^ ^ypi-^u^ \j2,p^y^ ) 

PUBLIC AFFAIRS - SIZE 16 by Margaret Hiller Parts 1 and 2 75/ 
No. 1 through 12 ® .25 $3.00 



'^^^■^-i^^^U^x.^^ %^x,<s^^.<^ <^i'aci^ci^'(9ti. ( J-^-^tf'^^K^^J U . k/. ^-^^a^-c^ <^-i '" 



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II 



Course 88 

Mr, Bernstein 



(A 



Group Discussion Materials and Methods. 



March 29, 19^0 



(P 



Difference between debate and discussion: Debate is more formal; 
it is not that much for the whole audience, and it is not very 
flexible; the debaters are interested in winning the debate; as 
a whole a debate is. onfjoimore intellectual basis . 

Members of the class ave their point of interests in the program 
of this course* It was decided to deal with both discussion 
problems, for case and for group worker, disdussing problems of 
board m.eetings as well as practical group work situation dis- 
cussionj^-problems ♦ 

Some groups where discussion methods are used: natural groups, 
interest groups, house concil, classes, boards. 

Which factors are important for good discussion? 

common interests 
competence of capacity- 
common sense of values 
flexibility 

ability to follow each point 
decision about purpose of the group 
mutual respect 
sense of procedure in common. 



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II 



II 



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Course 88 
Mr. Bernstein 



April 2, 1940 



<*^ 



Considerations for discussions: 



Controlled idscussion is important. 

Organizing of material to give people something and make them 
able to i^articipate in action* 



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fj 



Is there some area where the group needs some help - then call 
in a speaker as expert. 

Availability of material. 

Size of the group is important in order to have a good inter- 
action. Larger groups usually are subdivided because smaller 
groups get more opportunity for individuals to express themselves 

The turn the group is going to take, action or just discussion. 

Planning of other activities - trips, movies, speakers, social 
affairs. 

definition of role of leader. 



Stimulation of discussion: 

1. by stijbring people up through any exciting wrong statement, 
in order to cause argument. 



) 



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ToDics for Discussio ns in Class: 

— i^B^afc— ^W^M I I ■■■■■! 11. ■■ ■■ 

Freedom of Speech 

Professor Russell, Academic Freedom 

Election 

Transit Workers Union 

Education in Group Work 

Negro i^roblem 

Unions and Professional Organizations 

Social Security 

H\imor in Demootacy 

War Foreign Affairs: (Miss Patzef, Mr. V/inslow) April 16th 

Character of this v/ar in its relation to 1914 war? 

What should Americans attitued be toward the war? 

V/hat forces are tending to involve America into the present war? 



) 



V 



^ 



Course 88 



Mr. Beinstein 



April 9, 1940 



Discussion: Education In Group Work 

At starting point: be specific in aim, also in definition of topic. 

Intergration of thinking and feeling 

Challenge of clarifuing Ideas 

Movement in discussion 

Use of authorlt4es and facts 



^> 



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Course 8S 
Mr. Bernstein 



Miss Kaiser 



^ 



Discussion about "Which forces are tending to involve America in the present war?" 



A:ril 23, 1%0 



4) 



Record Social Problems drov ip 

Deprees of interes. Leader can face indifference or resistance. People talk 
but do not relate tal'<ing to expereince. Tnir; leader could n-t express himself 
well encou^h in wirting as to give a tnue picture of thn good work he dxd. 
His work was better than the ricord indicate^d. The pattern of the group changed 
ifh durinf^ that ti-e, it st- rted to be different during the meeting of fascism;^ 
The speaker on. fascism hr d materiel to present, so the group taliced to the speaker; 
leader failed to bring something up on the interest one member of the group ex- 
pressed in ODDOsing the speaker; he conlr- have arranged to have a -peaker of the 
ooposition o-'at lea. t furnish material for discussing the other side of the picture. 
This grouo loves to argue; letder h- ;- res.onsibillty not to let^ve it just as a argue- 
ment, not' just having people let have fun, but give the. meeting so e meaning. 

Rol*- of the leader: He h d the final responsibility more than ir, a frie. dly groiip, for 
instance. He got them altogether ,and Aid hold them together. He could have planned 
mo-e for speakers, ahead of time, end more carefully. He co'ild have assumed a more 
active role. T is record give.- a little of process in discussion groups. The leader 
had to be a teacher. There -as continuity. There war. a sense of stimulating things, 
also follow up things giving them som- method in thinking. Selati nship with the 
leader v;as a good nne; there was a gret-t deal of integr.'.tirm. 

Dangers of discussion groups: Discussion may become too vital, and may tenr^ to have 
too many scattered talking. Discussion may beome rather dull, if one sticks too 
much to M/^ procedure. A decision rhouL: be reached in some form after any ais- 
cussion, in order to educate group for one particular point. 

Discussion leader must be able to move only ; s fa;-t as group moves; even if he knos 
a q icker way to solve the problem. The quention of timeing ir very important, also 
the leader has olso to sense when to say the right thing. 

In this record there was no organization o the differend material the members brought 

oul^ o: 
ation. 



their on exiDerience; each gave hir; ovm story, but there was little co-ordin- 



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Mr. Bernstein 



April 30, 1940 



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Sokrates-Baifro DieAogge 

Sokratic luethod: to find out what lies behind stat .ments; dialectic process, 
teaching metlod. Criticism: he is master in use of irony; he know far ahead 
what is goir.g to come in course of dialogue. Sokrates his different fundamental 
assumptions as we have; emphasis is put on intellectual aspects. We want to 
develop the personality as a *hole rather thar: intellect only. Sokrates was 
not interested in relationships but rather in truth as such, while we want to 
have -riendlyx«±«±±« relationship with partner or group. uokrates deals 
with general huir.aii concepts rather than vrith facts. His metr.oa is most effective 
in teaching, less in social group^ discussion, -^his is a for of discussion 
preferably for a croup where one person is in a center position, respected by 
and recognized by everyone. 

Standards according to v»hich we cay Ju d ge i^hether a discussion is fiood or not; 

1. Participation 

a) attendance 

b) talking 

c) good listener 

d) atmosphere 

£• Respect und understanding for others ♦ views 

3. Intigration 

4. Individual Satisfaction 



5. Relevance - Continuity 

6* Knowledge - Skill 

7. Use and handling of facts and datas. 



I 



(8) Action 

Deliberation 



exploratory; progressive; tempo; deliberation of individual 



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^a^mi^t 



V 



THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



OUTLINE OF LSCTUEE OK VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE THROUGH GROUP WORK 

T^jr Louis H» Sotel at the 
Now York School of Social Work, May lOth, 1940 



iK)|i«>i(>|i4i>|( 



A« Introductory 

It Group work agencies are concerned with vocational services 
in addition to vocational gaidfince» 



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2. Vocational services may and often do include - Jol) placement; 
vocational education and vocatioma guidance "both individual 
£md ^youp> 

3. Though vocational gaidance more formally defined ("The process 
of assisting an individual in the selection of a career; the 
preparation for it; entering upon, and making progress in it.") 
includes all of the services listed ahove, when used here, it 
deccrihes the more restricted process of helping an individual 
in the selection of a career • 

B» Type of Vocational Services Now Carried on hy 
Group Work Agencies 

The services now mid historically offered "by group work and 
character building agencies range from the highly individualized 
specialized prograJiiG of Y^M.C.A- and Y.W-CA'e - which often 
provide joh finding facilities, individual guidance, trade, 
clerical and technical training - to the more specialized group 
methods in guidance illustrated "by the work of the 92nd Stt 
Y.lvI*H.A*, the Waterloo (Iowa) Plan for Vocational Guidance. 
They include also the more special interest techniques of such 
agencies as the Boy Scouts of APiorica; Metropolitan Junior 
Achievement. 

C. Limitations in 9XI vocational services ^ 

1. Vocational guidance or services are not panaceas for economic 
dislocation. 

2. The total numher of joh opportunities is only insignificantly 
affected hy guidance and placement • 

3. The "basic soci^^d and economic conditions of our time, limit or 
open the possihilities in guidance. 

4. Vocational guidance is further limited in its effectiveness 
hy the relatively undeveloped techniques of guidance itself, 
(a coLTparatively new profession). 



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I^» Possib il ities in Guidanc e 

!• The very economic difficulties which young people face - 
ere their own justification for some effort at sound 
vocational guidance. The severe competition for each jot 
opportunity available necessitates help in meeting that 
conrpetition» 

2* Since career choices axe hoing made constantly with or 
\Yithout guidance - sound advice should ho only helpful. 

Z. There is oh.iectivo evidence of the values in guidance in 
the following - 

♦ Worcester Boys' Cluh Study 

- Methods of Choosing a CcU^eer - F^M. Earle - 1932 

S. Particular Role of &roup Work Ac-^oncy 
in Vocational Adjus t mo nt 

1* In rny particular community and for ^\ny particular agencyj 
this will depend upon locrl circumstances; existing facilities 
within the community; nature of the constituency fmd niemher- 
ship of the agency; the special purpose or philosophy of the 
agency and similar factors* 

2. The very nature of group work and its relationship with its 
participants provides a good medium for a limited hut helpful 
type of vocational guidance? - 

a - It maices possihle a knowledge of immeasurahle^ 
suUle per sonality factors; extremely importaJit 
in vocational adjustment. 

h - It offers s pecific pseudo-vo cational hohhy 
activity which can he used as try-outs of 
aptitudes, interests and as pointers to 
r>ppropriate careers. 

c - It permits close rapport with home, school, 
joh and other influences 

d - It can ho effective as a motivating force 

tow^irds vital , ipositive interests - a sine qua 
non for vocational growth. 

3, The objectives of a group vocational guidance program 
should he as follows: - 

To develop a rcrlistic orientation of youth 
tov;ard economic adjustment through study and 
disciission of the hasic causes underlying 
economic a.islocation generally and occupational 
maladjustment specifically. 



a -- 



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b* develop attitude of plsaifullixess in cjiraer selection. 

c, offer a "bettor kno\7led^c of mcinberts o\7n personality 
via self analysir. in the group. 

d. develop a bettor knowledge of the v/orld of work, its 
occupations, industries, ocononic trends, ond widening 
of vocational horizons* 



e 



• provide knowledge of ccminunity resources for guidance 
and training - placement and occupational information. 



f . develop ability to relate these towoxds a happier choice 
of careerst 

g. refer individuals t o proper community sources. 

4, Below are a fov; guiding principles which cm Tdc helpful in the development 
of guidroice tlxron^h groups t - 

a. point the nornal group activities in vocational direction 
throU:-h specific notivation. Use the special intarest 
gi'oup,' the general cluh, ■buildin.T-wido mass activities, 
center newspaper, etc. 

Td. develop specific devices such as career conferences, 
occupational foniraa and groups, trips and expeditions 
of occupational significance, special bulletin tcords, 
special sections in the center li"brary, hohby exhilsits, 
series of articles in center paper and the like. 

c. apply principles of self guid^uice ("menibcr choice") in 
line with principle of creative and progressive education 
in group work. This is conpletely in lino with nodern 
concepts of vocational guida;ice as illustrated in the^ 
folloT/ing. Vocational ^nxidance was doscritod as "seeing 
throur>. Johny and seeing Johny through." This has teen 
changed to "helping Johny to see through hinself and 
helping him to see hinself through". 

d, undertake the i=Toup guidance progrcn only with the help and 
advice of experts in the vocational service field. ISherc 
there are specialized anencies for this purpose, the progran 
should Tso worked out cooporativosly. 

In sunnpry, the prograjn of the group work fv-ency in vocational guidfUice should 
•be rea3.istically' related to the United objectives of a group guidance pro- 
gram. "Its grasp should not exceed its reach." 



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May 10. 1940 
Vocational Services through group work a gencies.^ Lecture by Sobel> 

Battleground and oriebtation material in vocation service, definition: 
Vocational service includes any direct effort for vocational adjust- 
ment, as placement, \?ocational training, vocational advice (selection 
of occupation), fact finding in occupational trends. Vocational 
Guidance: Process of helping an individual to select a vocation, 
preparation, entering, making process in occupation. 

The Y*s have developed a complete vocational program; so have the 
boy scouts, Metropolitan Junior achievement, Jev/ish community Center 
of Detroit. 

Limitations 'n ^heprogram: It can not solve the unemployment problem, 
because this is a basic economic problem. Employment services do not 
create jobs, neither do vocational guidance services create jobs. 

Values: Most people are working. They are deciding about their 
future professions,; vocational guidance ought help in making these 
decisions. There are more occupations than ever before because pf 
soecializationg Vocational guidance wants the individual to under- 
stand himself in relation to job market. This can not insure success 
but it can help to ^-.ake dicisions more a choice than a chance question. 



Particular role of ^ r 

work can ,:,et the more 

to be r:otten in any o 

situation. Hobby act 

vjhat a^boy can do tec 
and school ^g ^^^^^ 

Group experience of i 
v/ork by stimulating i 



oup v/ork depends on local situation. Group 

settled personality factors which are so hard 
ther v/ay. Play situat-^'on often equals work 
ivities give opportunity to get evidence for 
hnically and dreatively. Connection with home 
as in no other setting, it is also inforaial. 
ndividual helps individual to find place to 
nterest through' group v/ork devices. 



Objective and guidance principle in group work, development of 
realistic orientation; making plans; developing of welf knowledge 
in relation "o work situ. Mon; knowledge of occupation, rnov/ledge odt 
community resources. 

Principle to use facilities of the bailings for occupational possib- 
ilities. Initiative of individual tov/ards choice of profession 
using coinmunity resources. 



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Dr. Saml er 
May 17, 1940 



Group 



\retho'ls in Vacatlor.al Guidance and Vacatlonal Planning . 



Limitations of vacaticnal guidance 



1 it v'ill not solve social problems 

2 ' " " " " individual problems 



I ^ 



Techniques in vacatlonal {guidance: 



1. 
2 



. special vocational sul "lance department 
. vacatlonal guidance department in othe 



r .croups 



Goals : 



Inf orrriation 



1. stin.ulate interest in plannin.? as such 

2. widen occupational horizon within groups 

3. present honest local and authentic occupational 

4. to make progress in selfevaluatlcn. 

,. „... .ni.r.., ., .....1 ...,..«.. <~i;"','„sn;.!;m,;r"' 

to group members) visit of 
different Industries), 

•^ to the younp-er) 

movies, trios, /// articles in own paper; 
interviews ?/ith coneilor where personal 
traits should be pointed out and emphasised 
compared to general economic condition. 
Workin.^ out of questionaires . 



References : 



Occupation. Oe=en,ber 1939. ^'r . Dunsmoor. How to cona^ct_^^^ 



// The Inor Grour^ - Guidance Series 
H>C. H^cKown : Home ^^oom Guidance 
!/>/!. Brewer: Education as guidance. 



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May 21, 19^0 



Freedom of Speech (panel discussion) 



Good will hour 



Hay 28, 19^0 



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Sex Fducation 

In the 1920 ies, t ere was a breaHni?; iown of taboos, con- 
cerning sex education. Great ieal of re-^dinp was done, but 
there v/as net as -uch interrelation as is today, it was T.ore 
isolated. 

1. advisability of doing sex education 

2 . pnppose of 

3. ap:,e levels . 

4. general problems (conflict with community problems} 

1. danger of j^^roup disci.'ssion of sex: One T.ay not have the 
opportunity to follow t'^rough with individual, still 

individual "-:ia-ht be troubled without having the benefit cf 
help. Group experience is at least better than street 
corner" experience . 

2. cultural pattern: to have Tate of opposite sex, to 
found a farallv, etc. The general ideal is usually 

accepted by everybody, even by the violate: s. It is the 
purpose of sex education to bring facts so that individual 
can mal^e their own conclusions. Group leader is carrier 
of social ideas for the group, he is carrier of social 
norms and standards. 

3. nursery years. One shoul l give the child an ele^iantary 
sex vocabulary, also co-npare with aninals and flowers. 

Still one has tc have in rind the parents, co-education in 
these 'years is quite good. One should remove the rr^ystery 

about different sex. 

six to adolescent time. experimentation, so-^ti'-es in 

homosexuality. Co-education is low at t^-'ls point of 
development', group teaching is difficult. 

adolescence, best period for group sex education. 

In agencies should be teachers cf both sexes, as well 
as boys and girls. Wernbers should have faciliti' s to approach 
opposite sex (dancin.-). There rust be a definite policy of 
ap:ency as to rdddinf^", kissing games, etc. Agercy Trust realize 
thatit also has tc deal with community, and has tc explain to 
the youngsters that diff'-rr-nt things car. be "lone in family 
which can not be done in the agency . 



Bibli ography ; 



1. 



2. 



New Patterns In Sex Education, by Strain, 
Frances (up tc adolescence age) 

Hir/h School Sex Education (20/) 
U.S. Public Health Service. Benjamin 
Greenberg, J. Kankonen 



I I 



e 



Bibliography in Sex Education (continued) 



3. We grow up, by i^^ankonen, 

U.S. Public Health Service, 



to be bou/rht at Government 
Printing efflce 



4. American Social Hygiene Association 50 V/est 50 Street 

Several pamphlets • 



June 



6 



1Q40 




Discussions about sex education shoull be incidental. It is 
important in the beginning of the process to create a place 
with a pleasant atmosphere, l^/ethods : ^niversalizin-T the 
whole problem so as not to give the adolescent t"e feeling 
that this is his prsonal problem. Necessity of vocabulary. 
Often it might be good to call an outs.ldf^r, p.o^etlres a 
phyaiciaj^ is good, but not all physicians are crcod psychol- 
ogists. The guiding idea must be: when to start ilscussion, 
when to J)ut v/hich quest 'on. In. ividual has to be nrctected 
from the -roup. The leader has scmetim-s to inters ret indiv- 
idual opinion to the group. If individual S'^ows 3,nxletJ^y 
leader should follow up troubl s of th-- Indlvl-ual. Reading: 
is helpful, i-eader may have di^'f lenity wit-- community. 
Leader should know ^men to gi e ^^iscussion to t^-^e rrcup, how 
to keep th'- discussion moving, number and dea;ree cf partic- 
ipation, encourage respect for facts, outsi le resources 
(speakers, trips, etc.), focus to be clear what cn^ is talking: 
about, sum.marize, authorotiy of leader in givinr his persenal^" 
cpinio^i or staying neutral, encourage evaluation. 

June II, 1940 
Report abcut t'^e A^rerlcan Discussion League 



Hecommandatien for this course, for the riext quarter: (made by class 

c o^' m i 1 1 e e ; 
reducing- of numbers of a'.scussion by class rr.e^bers 
more reports from th^ outside about discusclcns. riot too much 
report of class members about their experience variety 
more definition whetiier the idea is 'o have -^cre a 
process couise or more a courre fci crntents. 



1 
2 
3 

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VMICII FORCES ARi', TiaiDL.G TO INVOLVl idmUCk Hi THE PilEbENT EUROPEAli ViAR? 



I €1 



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"Vi'e of this hexoisphere ho.ve no neea to seek a nev^ interna tioruil order j we have 
already found it", said tho President yesterday when he addressed th.; Bot.rd of the 
Pan-American Union. "IVe v;ani to live in peace, and iiiake that peace sec^are". But 
the President also declared: that tne New World coula protect peace, anu it must 
meet force with force, if challenged. 

It may be a poinl of this aiscussion to finu out how much the U.S.A. is in- 
volved in th interdependency of the continents. Even it she wants to maintain 
peace; how much influence do have foreign politics and ideology carried over from 
the continent throu^^n literature, newspapers, radio, etc.? IIo\. great ib the danger 
of expansion of Fascism over tho- bounaariet> of ii^urope. Let u^ realize th^t fascism 
is no longer a German of Italian movement; let u^ realize tiiat the wiiole movement 
is organized equally well in many countries oi the \yestern Hemisphere. Is there a 
danger of a grov/ing of thi. movement in the U.S.A., as it ha^ been prepared for by 
foreign agents ana well organized propaganda, Goula a movement like that start even 
before foreign troops lc.na iii t.xis country? Ho., great i. the influence of mouern 
technioue on spreading tho war over European boundaries? How si^oon could aevelop- 
ment of speed ana carrying capacity of air craft ana tne steadily increasing better- 
ment of sea-war-fare include America in tue world dilema, inspite of her desii^e for 
neutrality and peace? 

How strong, aside from the political forces, are the economic factors in re- 
gard to America' 3 participation in the European vfar? It i^ believed thi.t while 
Geriaany, for instance, v/as driven into a war bece.use she did need more "Lebensraum" 
for her citizens, Auierica hao enough territory, and her economic problems and needs 
are a matter of internal control. In this connection it should be interesting to 
discuss the unemployment situation as a possible factor for pro-war inoveiuents. 
There does not seen to be any doubt thtct, as far as traue is concerned, it will be 
almost impossible for America to be isolatea from E^irope for any length of time; 
the lack of m^irkets for export, especially ii* for in..tance Germany is succussful 
in workii.g with bouth American, v/ill curtail U.S.A. 's business considerably; so 
will the difficulty of importing of raw m^^.terial for industrial purposes (iiuport of 
iron from Sweden). The concentration of golu in the U.S.A. iu another dangerous 
economic factor. Nobody c..n overlook the actual advantage obtained by the enourmouB 
orders from th beligerents which AmeriCc. iills on a cash and carry basis, at the 
present time. V.liether or not the financial profit will be a real one in terms 
of not only the next few years but in terms of tho next decades - that is another 
point Oi discussion; aiso if granting of credits, in case America ..hould join the 
war, would be a profit and lead Ameriaai/oo prosperity. A comparison witii the sitUi;L- 
tion of I9IA-I9I9 niay be v.otth while to be discussed. 

Fightiiig for civil liberties may be another reason for America's participation 
in the European war, ana this force may easi^-y be activated by incidents happening 
in the coui^se of any war, like sinking o. the Lousitanic., Athenic,, seizure of mail, 
etc. 

In talking about all these problems, it might be anothur focus of this meeting 
to scrutinize how far an individual in our days can be able to have a p :rsonal 
^on partisan opinion about the ^mr situation; \^hether it is at all possible for us 
to abstract war proi^ganda .hich is served to everyon.. aaiiy through press and radio, 
from personal v/orld-philosophy whicn has been formed on the basivi of iiiformation 
strongly inf ..uenced by propaganda activity. Vftietiier there is any non-p/irtisan in- 
formtion available except that aci^uired by p-jrsonal observ^.tien ana experience. 



// 




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-2. 



One may look at thi.s wur as at a continucition oi tho 191^*- war. ihe 
Tre;ity of Versailles h -s not oolved political ana economic -luestioxis, anu. if v/e 
look at tho countries -^hich did v/in the first p. rt of this ..ar, in 1919 > v/e have 
to realise that even to Hlnglanu and U.S.A. (not to speak of the othc;r countries 
that aid win in 1919) has the war brought any ^roi:':jor±ty. 

In suimnriaing for tho discussio , I would suggest to tallc about the 
folloY/in^j points: 

Which are tne political factors which may envolv3 American in a war? 



It 



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economic 



It 



financial " 



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Hov. much is the individual informed about actual happeniiigs so he can 
intellig:^ntly state hiu opinion toward thii^ problem of war? 



i 



•Uii^Ha«rt>uta 



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THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK. N. Y. 




C OURSE #8 - IIJTROIUCTION TO SOCIAL GROUP WORK 

VIW^R ;XT*^TTa? 1939-4» 



• • 



H.' 



TOP I CS UTT) ASSlGHtlSm'S 



^l 



Session I - Topic jan.^ - Objectives and Scope of Course 

Assicnnont for Session II 

Coyla - Social Group Work - Social Work Year Book 1939 
pp 461-4 

or 

NoT-zstettor - Wliat is Social Group Work - Proceediric'^s National 
Ccnferonco of Social Work 1935, pp 291-299 



BuGch -» Leadership in Group Work, C'lapter I 



Session II - Topic jfui* 11« - Scope and Function of Group Work as a Pro- 

cedurc in Social Work. 





Assir:nr.iont for Session III 

v^ Coyle «- Social Process in Organized Groups, Cliapter 1 & 2 

Goyl t ? ^ Studios in Group Beha v ior - Jo'R^^or Rocorr?. U>^^ ^.^^o-^^cf^-^,^,^^;^^^^^^ 

^ Written Assir:T^inont -* Write a brief analysis of the Arspor Clu"b in 
terns of the fcllowin/^ factors - 
1. Basis of fornation of ^Toup 

purpose of croup as conceived by 

1. Mentors of Group 

2. Agency -^ ''^'^"^.yui^^_.--y\r.^ \<^\ 



n 






3. Cultural factors in coronunity" settin/;;. ^ ^^S 

4. Porn of riroup or.^anization and nature of f^G\xg relationships. 

5. Sii^nificancc of ^'^roup to individual nenbers 

6t Relationship of i^^roup to other ^^oups in agency and coniiunity. 



Session III - Topic for Jcjatt^ry 18 - The Nature of the Group as the Social 

Unit with which Group Tfork is concerned. 

Assi':nLient for Session IV 



Lieberaan - 



Coyle - 



Group Work Ains and Progressive Education in New 
Trends in Group Work -* pp 62-86 
Studios in Group Behavior, Chapter I 



I 



■ *l ^IBI— ■^♦•■ — ■ 



-2~ 

sessi on IV - Topic for jan^ry 25 - The Eolo and Fanction of the Group 

Leader. 

AgsL-rnra ent for Session V 

Read Ti^::ers Record and be prepared to discuss the nothods and 
technique of the ^^oup leader in 

1. EstablishinG relationship within the r^oup, 

2. Discovering^ and stinulatin^^ interests. 
3* Guiding development of prOeHTan 

A. Dealin.- with probleus of /?-oup organization and re- 
lationships. 



Sossion V -^ 



Topic for ISobrxitixy 1 - Method and Techniques of Group Leader- 
ship t 



s 



m 



Assic'^nnent for Session VI 

Svendsen -^ Group Work as Individual Guidance in New Trends in 
Group Workt 

Slav-son r* Creative Group Education. - Chap. I 
Read - Senior Deb. Rer.ord 
W!ritten Assircnnent - 

Select any individual in senior Deb . . Record , - Describe - 
group leaders' analysis of need and their techniques in utiliz- 
ing':; the sroup experience toward meeting need« 

Session VI - Topic f or J^bruai-y 8, -r Group Leaders Function in neeting needs 

of Individual Monbers of Group. 



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4 



The New York School of social work 

122 EAST TWENTY -SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK. N. Y. 



9ntTRS E 4eP - I^THQIUCTIOK ^ snni^ GBQUF WOBK 

fflUTER gJABgER 1939-^40 

TnPTns A^ro ASSTn^tJMTayprs (CONT'D.) 





SESSION yi ~~ Topic for Te' braary 8th 

(Jroup Leader' 3 function in Meeting Needs of Individual Members of Group. 

jlssignraent for Session VII; U-yu^a^^ pJi-9H/^, 4 \ % ■f'- 

Methods of group organization. ^ -7'^ ^^^ Or^\^ ^T <r / S^d—. '— Tf 
Suggested list of agenciesS 

A social settlCTient 
Public comraunity center 
y.W.CA. 

Y.M.G.A, 

Suggested reference material: 

Pendry, E.E. & Hartshorne — "OrganizatioiB for Youth" 
Directory of Social and Health Agencies in N.Y.C. 
Histories, Reports or Program nfmuAls of agencies 
Interviews with staff nenbers 



<ti 



Y.M.(W.) H.A. 
^ Club 
Scouts 



SESSI' 



a^JOt^ U^e^\J^ \Ajat^ 



16 th 



Organizational Aspects of the Group Woik Field 
Assii^nnent for Session _Vin. 



Coylo, Grace 



- "Case Work and Group Woric", Survey Midmonthly, April 1937. or 
in Lowr^'-'s Readings in Social Case w'oik. 
iCoiser. Clara A. - "Coordination of Group V/orlc rnd Case fforic Services 

in New Trends in Group work. ., m ^ 4 

Svendscn. i.Iarer.rot - "Gx.)up Woric as Individu.^1 Guidance" in .Tew Trends in 

Group Work, 
Schwar^^ Record, 

SESSION VIII >-- Topic for Fob rag\n- 39th 

Inter- relationship of Cnsc Work and Group Woifc 

l^<^c^\frpmc>int f or Session IX : 

Slavson - "The Group in Development and in Therapy « - K.C.S.^. Proceedings, 

1938, p. 339. 
The Northfield Rocord, 



K#v I 



^ 2 -- 




gg^gg^Q^T i:C >-» Topic for March 7th ; 
Therapeutic Aspects of Group Work. 
Assignment for Session X , 



Coylo 
Bockt^l'n^xn 



- Group Work and Social Change in Proceedings of N.C^S.W^ 

1935, pp. 39:^405. 
« Group Work Agencies Relation to Pressure Groups - 

Proceedings of New Yoik State Conference of Social 

Work, 1938. 



SESSION X -Topic for March 14th ; 
Group Work i-md Social Action, 
As3iv<>:nnent for Session XI ; 
TTritten A ssi A-nniont - 

Select and discdss any situation in your experience as a social worker in which 
an understanding,' of group woric principles and nethods would 

- - . . ■ *-■ 



mm u$iJ * Ji> » 



(1) contrilute to your insight in analyzing the social implications of 
the situation, 

(2) Add to your skill in meeting the yrohleras involved in the situation. 
SESSION XI - Topic for March 2lst: 

Application ''•f Group Woik to Various phases of social work practice. 

1) Administration. _ 

2) Comimmity Organization . 



C 



Course 6 P. 
Klara Kaiser 



January 5, 1940 

Intrrductlon to Social Group Work 



f^ 



This course Is in between a method course and an Inform- 
ation course; It is not much of a course on skill. - Turposes : 



I^ 



II 



III 



Assist the student of social work to secure 

an understanding of practice and of grou# work. 

develpprnent of awareness of significance of 
group activity • 

Providing of a basis for an effective coordinaticn 
for sources to people in group v/ork agencies. 



/x\) 



. Different;^ points to be discussed: Groups or individuals. 
Groups work, as practiced in community. Relationships of approach 
by the group worker and the case worker. Problems in the whole 
coordination with other functions. 

The complete chancre in concept of leisure has been resp- 
onsible for change in attitude toward social work. In former times 
leisure was only'^the time ^X')^/. to prepare for next day's work; now 
the importance of leisure has been realized, for the individual 
and for siclety. The relief organizations were interested in group 
work; there was also the desire to help people who had suffered from 
the depression. The whole movement is "iue to the fundamiental desire 
of men of our time to have collectives; it is a cultural movement 
as well as a political one. C creating of unions etc.) 

Group work is not different from education, it lb education. 
Group work is a self determining unit, at least more than a public- 
ly administered agency. Some groups have to be administered by 
the State. 

The way groups function in group relationships. There are 
voluniary and non vol. groups. Every group is a part of a 
larger group. Often the groups where individuals are emotional 
are the miost resuliAt^ ones. 



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■ I - J. 11 . j iw— — wmoiBKi 



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Courf>6 8 P 
Clara Kaiser 

Introduction to Social Group Work. 



January I'ii^ 1940 



Scope and Function of Group l^ork as q Procedure in Social ffork> 



Group work is both a) process b) fields of practice which means kinds 
of settings and organizations group work is providing to agency function* 

Case work (that is individualizing of people's needs) in some respect 
is similar to group work: ' v % 

Both have to recognize the distinction practice and process* 

Neustetter^a definition of group work : Group v/ork has a method 

way of providing of environment conditions that make possible development ^/ 
///////X and functioning of the groups itself* 

Coyle's definition of group work is similay She emphasizes it is 
a voluntary process, and leisure time of individuals* 

Clara Kaiser's definition t Group work is a conscious directed effort to 
aid individuals in furthering their individual interests and their 

group participation, and to aid groups of people to further their common goal* 

Practice, and method, and whole area of social 
work, and identity of interests between 
leader and group, and directed purpose* 






(terninations: designated leadership; conscious purpose of group* ( 

(fundamental factors for group work: Purpositive ^jray to meet the needs of the 
people under a leadership; conscious process is the basic process in group work; 
differing interests of individuals or common interests of individual on v/hich 
emerge group activitiesj group work does not pertain only to ^fif^^ji leisure time* 



Dual Concern of Group #ork: ^"^ith the individuals and the Group* 



1. 

a. 



basis and purpose of the group; 

capacity for group participation and cooperative activity of tno group members; 

di depends upon objectives of agency to sponsor the group; 

;^ depends upon skill of tne leader, and acceptance of the leader by the group* 



Course 8 P. 
Miss Kaiser 



January 18th. 1940 



a 



Analysis of Lhe Arspor Club 

remarics after handing in of written work: 

The "WE" feeling - like Neustetter calls it - is very strong 
in the Arspor Club. 

Tne members of group lack maturity. 

Strong r lationship between the leader ani individual, and 
interaction among zhe group members. 

Group control, leader control, community control. 

A good leaier will let iifterent members have leadership for 
certain acti/iLies. 

Conflicts within the group, conflicts with the authority, 

conflicts with the agency. 



v) 



^v*> 



1. 

2. 

3- 



natural groups (following groups) 
interest groups ( interest in one particular craft) 
formed groups (staff member feels the necessity, and 

organizes the group) . 



Superior, aifferent interest might cause formation of sub- 
groups, (national, religion, or more developed educaLional 

ambition) 



January 25th. 1940 



Role and function of thn group leader. 



!• Role of leader in relation to th= group compared lo other 

persons who have responsibility in the group: stimulation, 
counsellor, interpreter to agency, teacher, itediator, resource 
parentjsubstitute, authority, confidante, participant. 

Determination of the role oi the group leader is dependent 
upon what a) group wants rrom leader b) agency wants from leadey, 

c) common area oi experience and Interest between leaier and group, 

d) skills of leader. 

^2. Funcuion of leader: 

a. development of individual C3?)acity or leadership within the 
group to further the common ends or the group as well as to 
meet the needs of individuals. 

b. development of interest into activity. 

c. adjustment of indiviiual to the group. 

d. help the, group to increase capacity of self -direction and 

self determination* 

e. technic of leader oo relate nimself to the group, 
f • nelp in planning a program. 

g. creating of relationship to other groups. 



\ 



Course 8 P# 
Miss Kaiser 



February 1, 1940 



» V 



^ 



Tiger Record Analysis 

Relation of fi-roup to ag:ency: setting : 

The agencies have a apecific imderlined philospphy and purpo2:;e. This 
agency encouraged Jev/ish patternsip emphasis on intergroup activity; 
both interest groups axici c]ub grouos; they v/ant to broaden the scope 
of interpretation; the agency had a democratic policy; the toxai 
agency program did provide for a wide age range, so members could 
retain affiliation with the agencz for a longer time. The group knew 
that they would get a leader from the agency* 

Group itself : 

All came from the same type of family, had sticked together for some 
time before; they have similar interest and background. The fact 
that they had not organised before they entered College may be due to 

emphasis Collgge life stressed for organiying. "^he fact that there 
was so little conflict within the group may be due to the discussions 
the boys had outside the center. Members attend meetings regularly, 
concentrated activities on one day. 

Leader's Function: 



He e^stablished relationship J he was measuring the group's reaction 
in terms of his own reactions; he is rather self=conscious# He is 
able to establish a friendlz and mutual good relation with the group. 
He remained inactive while members elected their officers, etc. He 
tries to meet boys outside of meetings (gym, etc.) Stimu3}ation of 
interest . Leader actuallz suggests, and. even wants to redirect group 
interests; he always wants to put the Jewish education in the fore= 
grcund. He tries too much to iniluence group with Jewish, especially 
Palestinian problems. He kept interest of boys in a very narrow 
channel (always Jewish). Leader neglected to find other resources 
of interest, for instance bringing in outsiders for lectures. 
He had not developed a skill to see the aifferent interests in the 
group, and could not bring the comm.on intere'st of group and agency 
together, "^he leader more stimulated interest then discovered inter= 
est. 

Activities; 

Sports and social activities, attending of house ..eetings, active use 
of ^3crap book to express interests and their united feeling as a group 
'■^'here v/as in large a wide range of activitz and considerable 
coope ation with other groups. 



u 



evelopment of the rtoup furthered bz the leader ana handicaped by leader . 



Leader v/as a handicap for the group because of his presence ih the 
business meet ngs of boys who spent much time for minor things. Leader 
was mpt very resourceful. 



. •;'■> -kj 



C6urse 8 P 
Miss Kaiser 



February 8, 19^0 



-> 



I 



Characteristics of group and case worj^ers : 

Group workjier has responsibility for 'group as Inter- 
acting unit as well as for the Individual members; she has 
to harmonize the Individual need and group need. 

There Is always competition of individual members • 
The knowledge of Individual and education of individual has 
to be In the Interest of group. 

Purpose laxiUiKXiaiKiJaUUUii^ Is different* The case 
worker Is the instrument the agency provided to meet need 
of individual. The group worker is only a part in meeting 
meeds of individual. Group work Is more prevention, 
case work more therapy. 

The approach of group worker to individual is different 
from the one of case worker to indiiridual. ' ^ 

The relationship of group worker to individual is more 

personal because of common practical experAince; it is more 

Impersonal bedause of the relationship to the whole group; 

It also can not have the intensity of the case work relation- 
ship to his clients 

The contact with the Individual in the group starts 
from the situation as it arises in the group life. 

In children's groups 1* is easier to make home visits 
at the house of the members because of necessity to contact 
parents. 



•> 



Course 8 P 
Miss Kaiser 



February 15, 19^0 



• 



e 



% 



Discussion about ^.embers of the Senior Deb Club. 

Leader missed the opportunity to utilize the national background 
(Polish) of the members. 

discussion about different Group Work Ap:encies. 

i^oy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Settlement Houses. PolicX;tJy of the 
agency. 

February 22, 1940 
WashlngtoAs birthday . 

February 29, 1940 
Interrelationship of Case ^'^ork and Group Work. 

There is a greater understanding nov/ of the functions of the 
different agencies' experience in the group work and case work field. 
There are differences in organization set-up. Group Work Agency often 
does not want to be identified with case work aprency, especially relief 
agency. Group Work Agency employs un-professional staff' to a P-reat 
extent. There is also more use of the personality of the social worker 
in the group work agency. The in- take policies are different in case- 
and group-v/ork agencies. 

To overcome iif f iculties , it might be helpful to exchange 
records between the groupwcrk agency and the case vork agency T, and 
to introduce and prepare the individual for the resources the other 
agency has . 

Northfield Record. 

£roup 
How the agency uses group work as a method in terms of/therapy 

study of social relationship 

supplying experience for the individual - experience they have 

missed in their develppment. 

the group may provice possibilities for the individual to develop 

latent talents and interests. 

the group may be used for wider opportunity to meet other groups 
and people. 

reasons for case worker to start the group: 

experimentation 

to provide some outlet for these people 

to make something more out of the agency but a pure relief agency. 

to give reputation to the agency within the community 

Ways in which the different orpc.anizatitns differ in the community. 



1. 
2. 

3. 
4. 



1* 
2. 

3. 
4. 



The group work field differs sharply with regard to fundamental 
philosophy and purposes. Group work field is sectarian to a great 
extent; this is not the case in the public agencies; each croup - 
work agency thinks that it's work is very original and one^has to see 
one particular agency in order to learn about^crroup work; thus little 
generalization has been done. Affiliation and^association is different 



1^ I 



i 



%' 



@ 



In different communities. Basis of the p;rouping among the member: 
small groups with different interests; who want Just association; 
others emphaeize the interests; others have Just individual parti- 
cipation; others pi^ysicial facilities. Difference in methods of 
financial support: tax support; community funds; income from 
members; self supporting. Affiliation of agency with national body. 
difference of agencies in questions of policy : membership partici- 
pation. Difference in personal!: lay and professional employees, 
the professional people should train the others. They all have in 
common: They provice facilities for the group; they recognize the 
social value of the agency for the group. 

The settlements do not regard themselves as p-roup work agencies. 
They feel they have a much broader function, namely community organ- 
ization; they believe they do interpretation. There is lesss social 
action now in the social settlements, but rather community action. 

March 14, 1940 
Responsibility and equipment of workers in social work. 

Many non-professicnal people wtork with individuals. The partic- 
ular focus an 1 purpose of work should be toward: study and experience. 

« 

Little is known about social maladjustment and group therapy. 
*^ometlmes, group experience rather hurts than helps. 

In Institutional settings It is equally Important to individual- 
ize, ani to em.phaslze group relati-^nship. 

Group work and social action. 

Use of group for individual;^ needs, and for acquiring wider 
sx^osstx social practice. Henry Street Settlement: f.i. Housing 
Project. Y.W.H.A: f .1. Improvement of working conditions for 
working women. 

Relationship of pToup work and social action. 

*^ome people say, group work in Intself requires dCTiocratic 
principle. Others say, that group work agencies have to be carrier 
of social values (writing and perform.ing of plays similar to Pins 
and Needles, as means of interpretation of social needs. 



9 



^\ 



Course 8 P 
Miss Kaiser 



March 21, ;9A0 



• 



@ 



Groups that are formed around social work agencies: Boards • Staff. 
Professional workers. Clients or members. 

Inter Agency Groups. 

Money raising groups. 

Professional and protective organizations of social workers. 

The role of the executive social v/orker In relation to her Board Is to 
some extents similar to her role within the group. 

The role of the Staff Group with supervisor or head worker. 

Things which are important for any p:.roup settinp-: 

Groups work principle ani methods can help to £et an undrstaniing of 
social work operatlnr factors. 

What is the social experience of the group (culture, economic situation) 

Affect the -parlous members of the group have, and the role they play in 

group. 

Kinds of things that ai e Important for lncreasln^|:y effectiveness (techn- 
niques to utilize different factors). 

Principles underlying group form.atlon i/ltself, for instance danger of too 
great homogenity. 

Organization and procedure; structure can affect effectiveness. 
Ways in which worker may make available resources for the group. 






# 



Aim of this course v;as to assist the student and worker in social work 
field to give some understanding X/ i^ examining the field of practice 
to explairi a better use that can be made of the resources of the agencies. 
Significance of group work in relation to entire field of social work. 



:+-tnEa^ 



w 



# 



2. 



3. 



4. 



S.R, Slavs on : The Group in Development and Therapy 

(N.C.O.S.W. 1938 Page 339) 

Kaiser 8P. 
March 7, 1940 

In co-operative or non-competitive groups, self-destruction is 
almost unknown. 

The different groups the normal individual has to Join in it's 
development: 

1. In the family group, the child gets the feeling of acceptance. 
The school developdthe social development, and the growing 

' personality. 

The voluntary one-sex-group provides identification with 
other people outside of the family, and re-inforcemenjz; of one's 
biological destiny. 

Groups of both sex. The sexes approach eachother in groups much 
more easily than individually. 

5. Occupational groups. 

6. Adult voluntary groups. 

In looking for a job (5), the individual tries to establish 
himself within the community; after he has found a job he 
has to be recggnized within the occupational group. The 
same holds true for adult voluntary groups. 

7. Finally, the founding an:i supporting of a family is the 
objective of every nor-nal individual; the average person acquires 
responsibility through the awareness of the needs of children. 

•'"ithin these groups the following functions have to be developed: 

1. m.otive of acceptance 

2. socializing of personality from self-loving to consideration 
of others. In the first of the above mentioned groups, the 
individual is educated, in the later ones he has to make the 
adjustment himself. 






Methods to pass throughout all these stages: 
ways successful in teaching clients; often he has 
of things he might have missed before • 

Needs of children: 



Woids are not al- 
to have experience 



% 



1. security has to be provided 

2. ego must be built up 

3. creative dynamic drives must find expression 

4. experience in group relation. 



Clara Kaiser: 



^P* 




Co-ordination of Group Work and Case Work Service 
(New Trends of Group Work. Relation of Group and 

Case Work) . 

* 

February 29, 1940 
Kaiser 8 P. . 



the w 

keep 

hinte 

than 

depre 

aware 

than 

speci 



Serving, the human needs Is stll] the chief crlt 
ork of social agencies must be evaluated. But 
upward with changing philosophy. Sometimes, sp 
d the effectiveness of social work. Prevention 
program and technique. This became obvious dur 
sslon. Both the case worker anj. the grouj:) work 
of the danger that competence should not becom 
serving the common need. Co-ordination is the 
allzatlon. 



erlon by which 
social work must 
eclalizatlon 

is more important 
Ing and after the 
er have to be 
e more significant 
key not now in 



Reasons for lack of co-orlination in approach and practice: 

Group worker meets client at the point of his effective functioning; 
Case worker meets him at a point of certain inability to meet certain 
inadequacies in his environment or in himself. 

Group wokker is part of the group, and his relationship and acting is 
affected by the behavior of all the members of the group; the case 
worker deflves his unaerstaniing of the individual response and be- 
haviouE as experienced in private interviews. 

While case work already has a method of recording facts ani inter- 
pretation, groups work agencies have started this only very recently; 
thus mutual exchange has been limited. 

In a group work agency the professional social worker does m.aitnly 
administrative work, organization, supervisory work, while the 
actual group leadersBiip is done by non-professional people. In a 
case work agency the direct client relationship is carried out by 
professional people . 

Fundam.ental principles for co-ordination: 

Since groups and case v/orker often are concerned with the needs of 

the sam.e person anl with the same problems of general care (housing, 

wages, recreation) mutual confidence is essential. 

There must be effective Joined planning by social agencies in differeit 

and in same field. Each agency must have an understanding of under-' 

lying principles of different agencies. 

A method must be j.eveloped to refer Individuals and groups to the 

tight agency. 
Case wor:^ agencies have a gocl methoi of procedure for referrals. 



# 



-** i liiii Hi 



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S.R* SiavBon: 

Creative Group Education 

Chapter I The Group In Personality Development 

Course 8P 

Kaiser 

February 5, 19^0 

As a result of enlightened group work social process 
emerges, self-control is/ learned, and consideration for others 
is acquired. 



J! 



M 

protect 
seeks t 
resist 
that ev 
Group 3 
of the 
parti cl 



odern group work no longer has lt*s main objective the 
ion of the individuals from their environment but rather 
o advance and guide It's development so that it can 
the evils of his environment, and can reconstruct 
Ironment in the interest of human happiness, 
hall direct the orderly and wholesome development 
human personality, and make the inlividual capable of 
pating in a progressive and evolving society. 



The group leader can not control and direct the condi- 
tions that make for" orderly development of personality*! He 
Is up against the school and the home. But, In spite of these 
handicaps, he can ^fkfjt]Lx>/ lyid.^ft^'^^lji help to develop indivi- 
duals In making them, capable of refelctlon, self-direction, 
and group participation. T hese are the four ma.lor contribu - 
tions of all group education: 

1. to establish satisfying affective relations with members. 
In addition: group acceptance and recognition, security, friend- 
ship, admiration, a sense of belonging, and communication. 

2. to rpovlde ego satisfaction to the individual member. I.e. 
to enhance his feelings of self-esteem and welf-worth. 

3. to give expression to the creative -dynamic drives of the 
individual. Group education must include creative work for 
the individual as well as group projects and shared socll res- 
ponsibility because the human Dody seeks %f!> discharge through 
some form of physical, intellectual, or emotional actlvlt;fcy. 

4. to engender emotions and to establish attitudes that en- 
able the individual to be of social usefulness and a valuable 
group participant. The attitudes of the child must become so- 
cialized, the nature of his physical and human environments 

must be Interpreted so that the individual may obtain an Intellect- 
ual view of their nature, and understand the methods of controlling 
them. * ' 

Slavson differentlat es_t hree categories o f groups : 

1. the compulsory group (school, occupational group, army, 
sometimes family) 

2. motivated group (national club organizations, military 
organizations, church groups - membership is voluntary, out in- 
fluenced Dy exteinal conditions as recognition, regards, appro- 
bation, public or official attention, rank, uniform.) 

3« voluntary group (play group, free street pang, special 
Interest group, sex-motivated group, political-social refDrm- 
rellglous group. These she call trae primary groups. They 
satisfy some inner need.). The voluntary group offers opportunity 
for the true face-to^face experience. 






Jk 



Margaret Svendsen: „ \ 

iSroup ^'ork as Individual Guidance (from New Trends In Group Work; 



pp 199 - 209 



Kaiser 8P 
February 4, 1940 



There are three steps by which the human Infant emerges from 
a state of complete dependency to one of confidence In himself 
and ability to carry forward Independently and co-operatively. 

1. feeling himself completely accepted by an adult (feelings and 

opinions) 

2. opportunities for discovering and testing his abilities that 

lead to the acquisition of Individual and co- 
operative skills 

3. assuming responsibility and face the consequences of his own 

performances . 



m 



The leader has to realize that he can not expect too much of a 
group, I.e. sometimes a group Is not yet ready for cooperative 
activity, so he has to Indroduce Individual activities (crafts) 
until a higher stage of social development Is reached. 

On the other hadd, the leader Is often Inclined to carry too much 
responsibility. 

The leader should not discipline an aggressive child but rather 
this should come from the other children. 

Very often the child behaves the same way toward the group leader 
like he does toward h*s parents.; the group repeats the famllly 

Bltua/tlon. 

The case worker should refer the child to a particular person 
at the group work agency, so that the child knows someone Is ex- 
pecting him. An experienced person should do the Intake work 
at the group work agency. 

For problem children Individual help within the group Is necessary 
Svendsen calls these groups the protected group; children may be 
transferred from these rpotected groups to reguslar groups, when 
ready. She raises the question )^>i;t^yf as to whether there should be 
a case worker on the staff of a group work agency to recognize . 
dlhnd ehlvh Inflvsyr t^hat a child needs Individual attention. 



^) 



I^> — I l^l*l 



\) 



- / 



m 



#• 



Vtf 



Joshua Lleberman: 

New Trends in Group Work 



Part II 



Group Work Aims and Progressive Education 
pp 62-86 



Kaiser 8P 
January 25,^0 

The alms of groups work are the same as the ones of progressive 
education: character development and preparation for citizenship. 
But the )ieducatlonal procedure is different; the old technique of 
teaching ha^ hindered the group work aims. Environment is a main 
factor in educational procedure, rather than instruction. 
Propyessive Educational Procedure applied to R roup work requires; 

1. A leadership, capable of respefeting the Individuality of younger 
people and possessing psychological insight, educational under- 
standing and social vision. 

2. A rich environment, stimulating to interest and creative effort. 

3. A plan that encourages the expression of individual interests 
and purpose on the part of the young people involved in the 

educatiipm process, rather than the execution of a program or training 
for specific ends. 

4. Freedom for individuals * and groups to make and execute plans at 
their own pace and on their own level. 

§. The absence of formalization and of superimposed or artificial 

standards and stimuli. 
6. Opportunity for Irital group experiences and the growth of social 

vision. 
jEducational M^thodj rf 

Interest and environment should be used in controlling behavior rather 
than relying only on disciplinary action. The leader must be familiar 
with the children's interests, problems, backgrounds and need for ad- 
justment* 

• 

Leadership 

Academic education is not sufficient training for effective child 
guidance; specific training is necessary for leadership in profession- 
al group work, and a supveryision of the experienced leader as well as 
of the new ones . 

Group Directio n 

The leader should know the interest that the members of the group have 
in common, their purposes, their ability to function as a group, their 
readiness for democratic procedure. His methods have to be determinded 
by his findings. 1. with a group that knows what it wants and pro- 
ceeds to put their wishes in/6to action the leader has little to do, 
only trying to broaden their purposes, ]Afi)iXAl^ arranging for favorable 
environments. 2. another type of group can not find it*s starting 
point; the leader must help to clarify their ideas, and develop a 
feeling of security. ?• another type has no group experience and 
are accustomed to direction; thyy expect the leader to tell them what 
to do and to take active part in their activities. 

Qroup Headquarters . 

Meeting rooms should be in accordance to the children's home, not too 
elegant, not too ugly. If possible it should give the children a cha 
chance to furnish it as to their own taste. This will vitalize the 
group, this mAy serve as an opportunity for vital social experience 
and the growth of group purpose. • 



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Joshua Lieberman: 

New Trends In Group Work ' - 2 • 

Part II (continued) 

Propyam Development 

More than freedeom to decide for their own program is needed in 
progressive educational group work. The leader must guAde them 
so that they function on their original line, their plansmust re- 
flect their individual and group interests* The groups do not 
have to be gifted in any special direction. It is up to the leader 
to be gifted with insight and understanding of the group's needs and 
capacities, and the ability to utilize spontaneous occurences and 
Inattlcualte impulses for the group's growth (planning of a party 
to be used for developing interest in acting, singing, decorating, 
cooking, sewing, etc*) Special activities are most essential; the 
main purpose of the group, however, is that these activities serve 
to enlarge the field for individual expression and provide addition^ 

opportunites for achievements / 

■ 

Responsibility and Self -government. 

The formal right of self-government (electing of officers, etc.) is 
not enough for self governing. But members must be free to function 
on their own level and be active enough to do so. 

The Individual 

The group is a voluntary unit, motivated by friendship, by group 
purpose and an enthusiastic wish to participate. 

The leader must know the children who need the group's censure or 
praise, and the ones w ho feel inadequate and need protection from 
the group's pressure. Leader may make a study of the home environ- 
ment of the children, improve home relationships. Disciplinary 
problems practically disappear in the presence of purposeful actlvitry. 

Importance of a Soc i al Goal 

It is not sufficient to occupy the members of the group, the group 
Is not merely recreational agency. Rather the group should consider 
It its purpose to stimulate young people Intellectually and inspire 
them to socially constructive effort* Training for citizenship. 



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JoBhua Lieberman: 

New Trends In Group Work . 

Part II Group Work Alms and Progreeslve Education 



- 3 - 



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Suggested Basis for an Educational Evaluation of Group Work 



'"^f 



(^ 



1. The Objectives of the Sponsoring Adult Groups Responsible for 

the Organization 

a. Personality development 

Are the adult alms ccncerned with a wholesome emotional devel 
opment of the group member? 

Do the adult aims Include the stimulation of each group member's. 

creative capacities? 

b* Citizenship 

Oo the adult objectives Include the cultivation of those quali- 
ties that are essential to a tolerant, fearless, clear thinking, 
constructive citizenship? 

2. The Quality of Goup Leadership 

a. Are the leaders emotionally mature people? 

b. Have they any understanding of personality problems? 

c. Have they any educational experience? 

d. Are they versatile individuals? 

e. Are they Interested in current social thought and movement? 

f . Have they an Inquiring and experimental viewpoint? 
g* Do they devote sufficient time to their groups? 

h* Is the supervisory staff equipped to guide leaders irl the de- 
velopment of newer educational practices? 

« 

3. Are The Group Centers Suited to Children's Needs? 

a. Are they simply furnished? 

b. Are they adjustable to the variety of childhood Interests? 

c. Can the children feel free to arrange, decorate, furnish and 

otherwise to improve their quarters? 

d. Do they feel a sense of ownership in their meeting place? 

e. Does the meeting place Include tools and materials for creative 

handicraft activity? 
f* Are there such facilities as a library, a playground, gymnaslunj 
workshlp, art studio, etc? 

4* The Nature of Group Membership 

a. Have the members of the group any common interests? 

b. Is the group co-educational? if not, have the sexes an/y 

shared activity? 

5. Educational Method 

a. Is the individuality of each member respected in the conduct and 

developrnent of the program? 

b. Is the leader aware of each member's needs in Individual ex- 

pression and social adjustment? 

c. Does the leader make a study of the member*s latent as well as 

observable interests, help the children articulate them and 
make use of them in the procedure? 

d. Does the leader cultivate the Interests he discovers, help 

the group to integrate them in Its purposeful activity and 
stimulate the growth of purpose to larger and increasingly 
wotth while areas? 
, e. Is the environment rich in stimulating material? 



•1 



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Joshiia Lieberman: 

New Trends In Group Work „♦*«« 

Part II Group Work Alms and Progressive Education 

6. Program 



- 4 - 



(• 



a. 
b. 

0. 



d. 

e. 

f . 



What 13 the degree of group an' Individual Intlatlve In devel 

oDlnpc the program? , . ^ ^ « 

Is th program an outgrowth of group ani Individual interests? 
Are the actvlty possibilities open to groups rich In content, 

with a great variety of opportunity for Individual expressb 

pr© s s X ox* 

Does the program contain activities that contribute to cultural 

enrichment? 
Does It Increase soclal-mlndedness? ^„„^o+i^fl 

Is the cultivation of skill In nature lore, athletics, dramatics 
and so on made an end In Itself, or are these special 
activities used as a means to Individual achievement and 
the enrichment of personality? ' 

the various elements In the program developed within each 
group or are they In the hands of specialists? 



1 



'! 



g. Are 



m 



7. Responsibility and Self -Government 

^ a Do the groups have any responsibility for the r meeting quarter* 
%\ Do they havS full responsibility for th«ir groupprocedure and 

c Do thriSlviduals m the group have sufficient opportunity to 

participate 4i a democratic group procedure? 

d. Are there opportunities for inter-group activity and active 

democratic participation on the part of members m inter- 
group processes and responsibilities? 

8. Opportunities for Social Experience . 



< / 



a. 

b. 
c. 



d. Are 



e 



Do the group actlvltes for young people include the discussion 

of social problems and processes? ^* ^^ 

Is there opportunity for participation in co^^^'^^^-y ®^^°^' . ^,. 
Do the groups have contact with people of other racial, rellg4o\«, 

and economic groups? v,«^«„«v, 

there other efforts to enlarge the members social horizon 
so that they can become aware of the world they live in, ^ 
and to cultivate a socialized viewpoint so that the growing 
genaratlon may be prepared to cope with the problems of a 
responsible citizenship? „„ ^ ^ t*« 

What ooportunlties does the organization offer to young adults 

forserlous responsibility In the affair of the organlzatKn 
tlon and tbe community? 



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Grace Coyle 

Studies in Group Behavior 



Chapter I 

The Group Leader and His Function 



Kaiser 8P 
January 22, 19^0 



i 

■ 



The Objectives of the Group Leader: 

The group give an opportu/inlty to every member 
(leader and led, cooperative and recallcitrant, autocrat 
and democrat) to try themselves out and to discover which 
kind of relationship will yield them the greatest satisfaction. 
This "natural" process is observed and partly controlled by 
the group leader, and his function is to affect it to lead it 
to the growth of socially desirable attitudes and to experience 
in mutually developing relationships. (Social Adjustment) 

The group provides opportunity for development of new 
Interests and broadening of knowledge. 

The group prepares for future participation In community 
affiirs. As the members mature the^y must find their way into 
some part in the community. The members can learn how to parti- 
cipate in the economic, social and political currents about them. 

The Relation of Leader and Group: 

First the leader must gain acceptance with them. He 
must learn to accept the fluctuation of feeling from the group 
and to build a steady cordial relationship out of mutual respect 
and common interest. Though he should no be the center he must 
be a vital part of the group. He must have something positive 
to contribute to the group's life; the wider his experience the 
more valuable a resource he may be for the group. / 

The leader is also the bearer of certain social values; 
he is the representative of social standards within the groups. 
He will function most effectively when he represents these values 
in a convincing way, and when he asserts his authority. 

The following fundamental questions are in the re;([lationship 
of the leader to his group: 

1. Does the leader establiej^ and maintain and effective 
relationship with his group? 

2. What positive contribution does he make to its 

activities? 
3* Does he adequately and convincingly representsignificant 

and constructive values? 
4. Does he preserve a sincere relation to his group? 



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Grace Coyle 

Studies In Group Behavior 



Chapter I 



- 2 . 

Kaiser 8P 
January 22, 19^0 



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The Relation of the Leader to Individuals: 

The leader will have administrative and conselllng 
relationships with the club president or committee chairman 
as well as with individuals. The leader must accept the respnn- 
sibility for meeting the need for support; he should not, 
however, become involved in the relationship in such a way that 
he affects healthy indepencence • The leader should get expert 
assistance from the case worker, psychiatrist etc. if s;liituation 
neccesltates it. 

Fundamentel questions in relationship of the leader to the club- 
president or committee chairman and to the individuals: 

1, Does the leader have sufficient contact with the 
indigenous leaders of the group to assist them 
where necessary in the management of the group's 

affairs? 

^ 

2* Is the leader sensitive to the personal needs of 
members of the group? Does he handle such situ- 
ations wisely? Does he know how and where to refer 
the situations which he cannot handle? 



The Handling of Social Interactions: 

This includes in practice the handling of ^quarreling 
and factionalism, the management of conflicts between suh-groups, 
the creation of cooperative attitudes, the balancing of the 
dominant and sumissive tendencies in individuals, 

Develoj^ent of mutual good will and cooperation, ability 
pf to make and keep friends on a mutual developing leve^., capacity 
to work with others, interaction within the group with mutual 
respect and understanding to provide experience In the developing 
of socialized attitudes. 

There will be hostilities within each group, sometimes 
against each other, sometimes against the leader or another group. 

1. superficial disagreements; the leader must recognize that these 
harmless feeling are a common factor in all human relationships, 
and he can transform them into constructive work. 

2. long-standing feuds involving highly emotional states/^ these 
deep rooted hostilities might cause elimintation of the trouble- 
makers, or the leader might have to provide expert ser/vice to 
these individuals. 

Individuals are in search of different satisfactions 
from the group: Chance to dominate, looking for a leader to sub- 
mit to. The leader should try to find scope for individuals in 
along the lines of their particular needs and interests, keeping 
in mind the common needs of the group. 



J •: 









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(t'taaa C.nv^ m 

Grace Coyle 

Studies In Group Behaviour 



Chapter I 



_ A _ 



- 3 - 



.. „. _. .. .,, I - a/j -ih I M , . j 



Kaiser 8P 
January 22, 19^0 



Questions concerning the ways In which the Interactions within 
the group are affecting Individuals: 

q 1. H»8 the group sufficient good will and mutual 

understanding to create group cohesion and to 
provide for environment for Individual gr»wth? 

2. Are the hostilities handled In such a way that tensions 
of Individuals are relieved without Injury to the group 

and to useful ends? 

3. To what extent do Individuals find opportunities to 
meed their iHdivlduai particular needs? 



t1l> 



■^''> 



The Problems of Group Control: 

With younger children this takes the familiar form of 
discipline. As the group matures it involves questions of 
participation, administration of the group's affairs, and of 
leadership. In Groups which are selfdirecting little leadership 
is needed; others want the leader to assume responsibility, but 
the leader should always encourage independence* Participation 
of all members will be a basic factor for good functioning of a 
group. Adequate selection of leaders is another. They maybe of 
different types, dictators, demagogues, weak or crooked, but they 
should be "group builders", that means he should not make the 
group a tool of his own personality but rather help the group 
to its own self-expression. Creation of power which will rise 
from the group's interests is another basic factor. 

Basic questions concerning methods of control: 

1. Is the group as self-governing and self -directing as 
its stage of development makes possible? 

2. Is participation in the group's control widespread, 
interested, and intelligent? 

• ■ 

3. Is the group showing itself capable of selecting 
leaders equipped to manage Its affairs? 

4.1s the type of leadership encouraged by the group 
experience constructive and creative? 



5. Does the power to carry tjxrougii an enterprise 
arise inherently out of the common concern for 
accomplishment? 



its 






The Making of Program: 



1. Are these activities rooted in vital interests and 
is provision made for the variety of interests in 
the group? 



v 



^ 



Grace Coyle 

Studies In Group Behaviour 



Chapter I 



- 4 - 

Kaiser 8P 
January. 22, 19^0 



«. 



2* Does the program encourage initiative and 
creativity from Its participants, 

3. Is the program developing so that new learning on 
advancing levels la taking place? 

4. Are the subjects or projects handled so as to give 
a sound and adequate understanding adapted to the 
needs of the members? , 



The Handling of Group Feeling: 



/ 



^. 



1, Does the group show a healthy esprit de corps which 
Is both fairly steady and well distributed? 

2. Has the group developed methods of expressing Its 
group feeling? Do these expressions provide an 
enlarging experience for Individuals? Do they 
support the cohesion of the group? Do they aid 
Its relation to other groups? 

The Relation of the Group to the Community: 

1, ' Has the group had contacts with other similar 

groups? Have these resulted In wider wympathles, 
Increased understanding and an ability to cooperate 
with other groups? 

2. How Is this group affedtlng community relations? 
Is It reinforcing social factors which are con- 
structive In the community? Is It breaking down 
useless or harmful barriers? 

3* Is this group taking an active part In community 

affairs? Is Itspartlclpatlon founded on Intelligent 
understanding? Is It motivated by a vital Interest 
in the social good as the group understands it? 
Will such activities contribute to an active and 
public spirited participation in the local political, 
social, and economic Issues of the community* 



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Grace Coyle: Social Process In organized groups 



Chapter I and II 



Kaiser 8 F 
January 15, 19^0 



The Organized Qroup In Its Social Setting. 



Every group relationship helps to establish that devo- 
tion of the Self to the super-personal ends upon which rests 
the hope of democracy. 

The IndlYlduals remains something more than the sum of 
group Interests. 

Narrowness of outlook and self - satisfaction with 
one's kind Is often encouraged., 



#^ 



p 



i. 



I OivPt 



The Changing Position of the Organized Group. 

The position of groups has changed according to polltlO 
cal, economic, religious Influence. 

The State, In the course of the centuries, has forbidden 
the existence of organized groups, tolerated, and encouraged 
their cre§itlcn# 

f 

Economically, the dying of neighborhoods In cities 
(apartment houses) necessitated growing of organizations which 
provide a ••psychological*' ne Ighborhood • - The Impersonal con- 
tact of our occupation Is also responsible for the development 
of many groups. 

Through develppment of Interest groups new l^es of 
social life have been created. 

In small groups the Individual can regain his claim to 
uniqueness - In large groups he might lose It again. 

Collective action of the groups represents return to 
of Individuals* . 



Group work often means for the Individual an attempt to 
escape from the Impersonal life predominating today. 

Group work encourages much more acltve mental effort 
and Initiative than ;K^)^/pa8 s Ive amusement, offered to a large 
extent In cities today* 



c 






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- 2 • 



Grace Coyle: 



Social Process in Drganlzed groups. 
Chapter I and II 



^ 



) 



Common traits. 

t 

Social patterns (common to individuals) may serve as a 
liasis for organization "age, sex, race, nationality, occupa- 
tion, political and religfcous belief". 

Where ever a common trait exists there is the danger of 
generalization, 1. e. Judging the individual by the reputation 
of the group/ . (All Italians are , all working women are . . . . ) 

Where different traits M exist (negro-white - capital- 
ist -workers) is the danger that prestige is befctowed on one 
and stigma on the other. 

The behavior of one group will be determined by the 
homogeneities and heterogeneities of its social mil*eu. 

Prestige (The Process of Social Evaluation). 

Each group is Evaluated (this is a constant process). 
The evaluation (good-bad, superiorylnferior) is attached to 
individuals to illustrate them* One does not abstract the 
sine from the s inner • 

Groups are carriers of va>llue; their relative power 
will determine the prestige of their vaulue systems* 

The large social distance - in the group //J/ of citizens 
for instance - becomes smaller according to degree of intimacy- 
marriage for instance. 

Communication. 

N 

Communication is Important for operation of group. 
The same language, same ideas, same background, same class, 
same experience, etc. facilitate communication. Expert 
and layman often do not speak the same"languag8" . 



^.(^ 



II The Process of Group Foraimtlon 

When individuals realize, suddenly, the mutual value 
of collective action for fulfillment of private interests, 
ah group Is formed. 

A similar situation of dissatisfaction which requires 
remedial action often leads to establisliAgg of a group. 

Recognition of this desire and establishing of a group 
can be done by: 



I 



J 



-3- 



Grace Coyler Social Process In Organized Groups 

Chapter II . 



:; 



1. leader (often after conversations with Individuals) 

2. by many Individuals out of mutual stimulation (rumor about 

a meeting.) •'No one could be discovered 
who would claim to have called the meeting 

Wolf the buttonhole maker talked 

loudest and lead the meeting. 

3» t>y paid organizer. 



.«^»j 



Individual Interests and group adherence. 

Interests are the expression of the reciprocal relation 
between an Individual and his environment. Their contents Is 
determined by motion of Internal Impulse and external stimuli. 
They are expressed by producing a process of action In the group 

« 

Basis of formation. (Group Objectives)* 

Basis for collective action: 

like lils^® 

1 fiffj^f6fi Interests. Employer-worker, flif^j^j&fiti economic Interests 

(may conflict or run parallel) 

2 discrete Interests. People attending a race 

(require collective action) 
3. common Interests. Legislative commltte urging the adlptlon 

of a particular proposal. 

Formation of Interests upon which groups are bases : 

Church : 
!• Predominating of one Interest* Hierarchy. The religious 

Interest Is predomlnatlngdnsplte of basket 

ball teams, etc.) 

of equal Importance 

2. A side by side of many Interests ./^Constellation. Woment s 

Movement . No Interest to the women as such 

but to acquire certain rights. 

The Interests of groups change constantly cue to Inside 
and outside factors; sometimes fco far that character of group 
Is changed - because of new, even new passive. Individuals; - 
because of ne# leaders, - because of the Influence of other 
organizations, - because of clrcximstances. This change can 
mean a groth or a going down» The development of these Inter- 
ests mean a constant process of choice; by this choice the 
group/ shows Its Individual character. 



vC 



/ 



/ 





Henry M. Busch: Leadership in Group Work 



•»"-* -; 



Chapter I • » 

Some Social Factors Affecting 
Group 7/ork 



Kaiser 3 P 
January-Varch 

January 9, 3 9^9 



4 
v.- 



Group work is an educational process, carried on 
in leisure time, under the auspices of a social af^ency; 
its purpose is to acquire knov/ledge, • skil] s, attitudes, 
to conduct activities that are constructively educational 
in character. Group work, ordinarily, is not considered 
to be education nor is it the work of religious, economic, 
political or professional socities. 

This book deals v/ith groups formed for the purpose 
of recreational use of leisure time; since leisare time 
increases constantly, this is a very important topic. 
Group work stabilizes emotional life, develops individual 
interests, and gives people satisfying social experience, 
thus it becomes a facte r of good citizenship. 

* 

To have a group function most effectively it is nee- 
cessary that the leader has as his main tasks: conserving, 
interpreting, adapting, discovering. Inventing in practicing 
;eadershlp. We have - as group leaders - to learn- certain 
attitudes and significant aspect of the social mllTieu of 
groups of people which leave their imprint. upon personalities. 

One outstanding social fact of modern times has been 
the rise and dominance of the cities. (in one decade from 
51.4^ to 56.2^).- The urban influence- upon the country has 
been growing also through betterment of communitation (auto- 
miobiles, good roads) , change of economics in distribution 
(chain stores), modern information service (radio, papers, 
cheap periodicals) entertainment (movies). The city mind ' ' 
as the source of ideas, influences, and standards is there- 
fore becoming more dominating for the entire nation. In 
1934 were 1,650,000 mor people in rural districts a^-ain, 
compar^ed to 1930. But still the city remains the important 
center of influence, for the returning people brinp- with them 
"city attituted". 

Critic of the city: Impersonality. The city dweller 
explains that with the desire for freedom and privacy. He 
changes his affiliations according to *'the best service*'. 
A more liberal code prevails in cities than in rural areas. 

There is a danger that people seek only physical and 
technical enteribainment at the group work itgency (swim.ming, 
ping-pong - reading room) but doefr not come to its discussions 
and lectures. For this reason, leaders must be secured who 
are rich in cultural resources and skilled in discussion 
methods. Another reason for people not comlnp: to the .crroup 
• work agency is lack of finer equipment as anybody can find 
it in libraries, hotels, terminals etc. Some comfort and 
taste is necessary. Since there can not be many buildings 
of that kind erected there is a discussion of having trf'an 

impressive central building (considerin^T the fact that 
. transpofctatlon is steadily imiprovlng. 



4 



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1 



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Henry Busch: Leadership in Group Work Chapter I 






^ c 



Modern men^ and women are victims of emotional 
thwartnlng that leads them to seek errotional compensation. 
Some reasons: Sense of Inadequacy due to economic system. 
Subdivision of laborjand thereby repetive tasks that deperson- 
alize the individual who performs them. Unemployment, and 
low wages that prevent savinp of money for that time without 
income. - '^he economic condition is probably the main cause 
for the unnormal emotional status many people have at present. 
This condition is lue, to a great extent - to repiacin?. of 
men by machines which is steadily increasing. An unemployment 
for more than 25 million people is forseen. This will redult 
in reduced working hourse, increased leisure time - and therelaj 
a necessity of adult education and group work. The economic 
insecurity has also lead to the belief that hard work is no 
longer the way to maintain a high standard cf living - but 
that gambling (stock market etc.) is more effective. q;ualities 
which in form.er times were highly estimated in employing people 
/^^ji</ (initiative, hard work, loyalty, competence) seems to 
play a sm.aller part today. 

Today we have passed from an ara of individualism 
to an era of corporateness. 

Summary of Busch 

kX large part of recreation to day Is passive . and 
appeals to the starved emotional nature. Experiments have 
shown that creative hobbies appeal more to many adults, an 
active work like pottery etc. 

Group wcrk is a leisure-time; it is an educational 
process that tries, carried on by a social a^-,ency, to help 

individuals under trained leadership to acquire vnowledge, . 
skills, and attitudes to enrich tlieir personalities and 
promote social responsibility and cooperation. 

Group work agency must provide attractive quarter^ 
with adequate equipment for specialized activities, near 
transportation lines. Simplier buildings for people in re- ^ 
sidential districts. 

Agency policy. Atmosphere. Opportunities for de- 
velopment of skills, physical relaxation, satisfaction emot- 
ianal- needs. Co ed and separate groups for men and women. 
Neighbourhood basis important for organizaing groups of children, 
matured replace that by Interest groups. Creatine of friendship 

groups 

Qualifications of group worker: friendly, tolerant, 
enjoyinp- social activity ;understanding society, personalityand 
their interactions; educational methods to utilize present 
interests' to enrich individual ind social life. Not intrusive 
but reserved with respect for independence of the client. 



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-2- 

Henry Busch: Leadership In Group wort Chapter I 

The center Ms the advantage (being In the heart of the 
cltv) to busy paople gymnasium classes and ea-ries at noon, 
and in the ?ate afternoon. The same Is true for civic and 
,eSuca?ional activities. The idea of the central building 
runs counterto the one of Se^e^^Phlcal community. There > 
is, however, the fact that a rapidly shifting ^^ J:^^^| 
aidential population takes place., so that the functions.; 
5/S52 basis for a group (teams, concerts, courses) seems to 
be more effective than the geographical one. 

The success of neighbourhood organizations is depen- 
dBBt upon the following factors: 

1 prcvidinP- of meeting place for groups not 
otherv;ise housed. 

2 forming of e:roups to deal with situations 
largely co-extensive with geographical 
community (parfent-teacher -. child study-, 

neie-hbourhood civic leagues). 

» 

3 furnishing of expert leadership in spec- 
ialized fi^asds (pottery^ dancing, hom.e 
economics, durrent events. 

4 permanence of home-^Aiers* residence 

' 5 concentration of one nationality or one 
cultural group in one acea. 

There is a definite demand for groups exclusively for 
male as well as for fem.ale m.embers, feside from Joint groups. 




Demand for bringing together of strangers among young 
people in the community. 

Creation of group work classes for active work in 

hobbies (tools, chemicals). 

study-test upon . 
Results of/discussion interests of 196 young people ■ 

of 18-21: 



1 
2 
3 



Interest in sex, love, and marriage; 
interest in the choice of xrocation; 
interest in the meaninp- of real education 

and the means of its achievement; 
interest in the meaning of life, i.3. 

-philosophy of life ann the place of 

religion; 
interest in the problem of the relation of 

the younger generation to the 'older, 

including parents. 





AR 7202 

Filene, Dorothy 
Dorothy Filene Collection 



LEO BAECK INSTITUTE 
Center for Jewish History 

15 West 16th Street 
NewYork, NY 10011 

Phone: (212) 744-6400 
Fax:(212)988-1305 
Email: lbaeck@lbi.cjh.org 
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^^ COURSE 15-.? tx.f(i<c.x!^ >^hueJ2J " ^ 



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Selected Reading List 
PROBLEMS OF ALIENS 



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Immi<g: lotion 

Davie, Maurice R« 



^(ATDbott, E* 



Clarki Jane Perry 



Fields^ Harold 



G-ettys, Luella 



National Commission 
on Law Observance and 
Enforcement 

Seckler Hudson, Catheryn 



Social Work Today 



Survey Graphic 



World Immigration with Special 

Reference to the United State s. 1936 

Historical Aspects of Immigration 

Problems , 1926 
Immigration - Selected Documents 

and Case Records, 1924 

De portation of Aliens from the 
United States to Europe . 1931» 

The Refw:ee . 1938 
Where Shall the Alien Work ?, 
Social Forces, Vol, 12, 1933 

The Law of Citizenship in the 
United States . 1934* 

Crime and the Foreign Born. 1931* 



Statelessness - with Special 

Reference to the United State's, 1934 

New Immigration in the U,S ,, December, 1939 
(entire number) 

Calling America , February 1939 
' (entire number) 



k 



Refugees 

The Annals of the 
American Academy of 
Political and Social 
Science 

Simpson, Sir John 



Refugees (entire number), May, 1939 



I, T he Refuf^ee Problem ^ Oxford 

University Press, London, 1939. 
II, Refugees . A Review of the 

Situation since September 1958 . 
Oxford U. Press, London, August 1939, 



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Course 15 P 
Miss Hurlbutt 



January 9, 19^0 



Problems of Aliens 



5 



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General purpose of this course grew out of a conference 
of supervisors of agencies, etc.^ and other social workers. 



Topics : 
1. 
2. 

3. 
4. 

5- 



6. 



0} 



1. 



Analysis of our own attitude 

Analysis of objectives, (they should also analyse 

themselves) 
Knowledge of legal points Involved 

Resources we may call on 

General slogans against refugees: for example, Over- 
population; citizens first; America is no 
longer the country of refuge for the oppressed; 
(Less than 4 million aliens In this country) 

Discussion pro and contra Immigration: for example, 

So many people have already been admitted who 

have not yet been amerlcanlzed; admittance 
should be closed, limited, etc.; congressmen 
have brought bill before Congress against 
aliens because of the European situation. 
Mlgragtlon, today, is a world phenomena. 

Professional ethic of social workers. Are there basic 

values in the social work which can be )5 
guidance for our policies. Example, must the 
social worker ^ report a man of whom she knows 
that he is in the country Allegaly? And if this 
man has an American born child? Worker has the 
confidence of the client and the responsibility 
towards the law. Non citizens are taxed as well 
as citizens. 



3» Knowledge of legal points. There are many laws for 
aliens which are constantly changed by amendments and rulings. 

1. Should the social worker be overburdened with all thework of 
constant Information about the laws. 

2. Can she plan for a client if she does not know the laws? 

3. She has to know en o ugh about the law to call expert help. 



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Course 15 F 
Ulss Hurlbutt 



January 16, 1940 



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Problems of Aliens 



Inubi^ratloa* 

Background of immigrations (at present 3-4 Millioni None citiaen in U.S#A# 

16 Millioni Foreign Born " " 
Among many others, there are two bills submitted to Congreaat 
1. Bills <^uota immigration to be banned for five years, except for children; 

also registration of aliens. 

2» Bills Deportation of convicts, and other unwanted citiiena. 

Some of the committees which are active to defend non citizens: 

1 National emergency committee for deraoctatic rights 
& American Committee for the protection of the foreigr 
3 Federal Council of Churches 



) 



, 



eign born 



ii 



Comment of the cSecond Assistant to the Secretary of Labor, at a meeting in Chicago 
'•America has become of age and is no longer collecting different cultures from 
liurope but rather develops it's own culture; it has now a static cobdition; 
economy has reached end of extension". 

Another comment made in recent times "This is only an episode in .American 
history, liko many others before this"* 

Another comment of recent dates This situation is a refugee problem; it is a 
question of non aryans; JUUixxxjixiLjaxsatiie Should the non aryans go back to 
Judaism or should they assimilate within k gentile coralnuoity. 

liistorys 

V/hen the rei)ublic was established 85,5;;i of the population was ningli^h. 
(Prof*. Kallen ? sjiyss the true American of today is a calvinist) 

The American population always included other groups. In the 17th century 
fourteen languages were spoken. 

Irish immiF:c«tion started middle of the 17th centuryj under Catholic oppression 
in Irefand, in the 18th century, was the largest Irish immigration to the U.S. 
1860t a poor potato crop caused a new immigration wave. The Irish people in the , 
U.S. rose to security within less than a century. (Head Abbotts book). 

s. 

German JmiaiKration the German settlements were one of the first ones, They 
were the first group which pushed to the V/est quite early; main settlement in 
Pennsylvania. The Germans were attracted by cultural opportunities. After the 
Napoleonish 7/ars there was a great german immigration. 30,000 German immigrants 
1813 • 1819. Sconomic (*or Bavarian people especially) and political conditions 
were mainly responsible for German immigration. 1846 -1854s 900,000 German 
immigrants to U.S.A. During industralizatior: in Germany decrease of immigration to 
U.S.A. 



'ii 






Immigration from South- and ILastern Europe (Slaves, Italians, Greeks, Russians, 
Jevir'ish) between 1880 and 1914 was very large. 



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Americaa Attitude toward immiKratioa^ 

America needed imraigranta fort land settlements, skilled labor, 
new business enterprises* Settlers in colonies needed and asked for immigrantsj 
they offered privileges (immigranta did not have to pay taxes). In 1787, 
the British Consul asks England for more immigrants. Steamship Companies made 
great profit through immigration movements, and wore naturally in favor of them. 
The immigrants themselves could not stand the isolation in the new country, so 
they asr.ed jfp// their friends and relatives from Europe to join them in U.S.A. 
In each part of ilmerican history and with reference to each immigration there have 
been people escaping economic, political, religious conditions. Thoy had to 
start very poorly in this country. , 

-* • 

At all times, all through the ilmerican history, there v/ero groups of 
people who opposed immigration* ^ 

1808 - 1818, one million people were admitted to the U.S.A. 

About 1900: oversupply of labor. 

During the world v«ar 1914- 1918, one became conscfous in America of the 
value of Americanization. One wanted the immigranta to forget completely about 
their past. During the last year of the world war, there was a certain fear % 
among Americans that ^emigration to European countries could take place because 
of victory of the homeland; therefore Americanization campaign. 

1917: Literacy Act was passed; and basic immigration law. 

1910 - 1917 Senate Immigration Corrmiiesion made a study of immigration. 

19;dl: First quota law which was aramended in 1924 



19;a9s 



Quota lav/ according to which each country receives a yearly 
immigration quota in proportion to the original of the number 
of itis people in the U.S. This law does not concern Asiatics 
Canada, New ^undland, South America > ^i^^i^i 



19kil 
19ki6 

1930 



30 



58 6,000 immigrants 

;d03,ooo " •' 

a new law which lets the Consul abroad decide whether the 
immigrant can become public chagge in America or whether 
he is likely to take jobs away from Americans. 



When European immigration v/as cut don, there was a lack of labor; then negroa 
came from the South, and Mexicans to replace the European workers. 



3 



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Course 15P« 
Miss Hurlbutt 



Problems of Aliens 



January 23rd, 19^0 



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^ome from 
ffest & North 
Europe. 
Higher grade 
of literacy 



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One discriminates oecween ohe New and Old Immigration, 
during the years 1820 and i930, pertaining to uhe different 
nationalities whicn im-nigrated. Tlie Old Immigration embraces 
England, Germany, Ireland, France, Scanainavxan, o^itzerland, 
Netherlands, Belgium - this is the original ImmlgBRtion. It 
is typical Anglo-Saxon, mainly protestant ; since tney were the>_in 
rirst ones to ccme they became dominant in industry , and^f^ on- 
t rollAftff of^/- matitutjions ; they - in large - have oeen 
responsible for laoor need in this country. The nvimber of 
people who make up the old immigration is 18.331.61 7. The 
N ew Immigration (19,944,:d4) come from Bouth Eastern Europe: 
Albania ;~a: u8tri a, Hungary, Bulgaria, Gnechoslavakla, Estonia, 
Flnniani, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lthuania, Poland, Portugal, 
Rumania, Russia, Spain, Turkey, Yugoslavia. They are Catholic, 
among them are many illiterates. 

America oecame a dumping ground, it became overcrowded. 
This was the reason for new immigration laws, with the funda- 
mental idea or selection , and eliminating criminals and un- 
desirable people. Several points for restriction: economic, 
moral record, educational (literacy act), psychological and 
mental. This way, America;?! tried to get a superior type of 
1 m '.a 1 grants. 

A psychological characteristic or our time Is the 
Ethno-Centrism . meaning a declining attituae of the very own 
group Uanguage, color, religion, economic) toward outsiders. 
This is a constantly growing pheomena, 

Mai thus Theory: Unless catastropnies kill cerain 
numoer of people it will not be enough food for men on earth. 
Now, population in ^J-urope is decreasing since Icth century 
'due to 1. better food supply, 2. medical science, ^. going 
down of infant ■nortality. Crude Index (the margin between 
birth ani death rate) can cause decline of birth rate; this 
nas Deen particularly rapid since the world war. Crude Index 
rate in AmericajA 7 per thousand, natural increase in birth 
rate. 



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Course 15P 
Miss Hurlbutt 



International Migration: 



January 30, 19^0 



One of the causal factors In the present world crisis 
art the move-ents of population (internal migration between 
the nations). There was a constant flow of people in re- 
lation to economic conditions, seasonal work, etc. 

4 

Since 1914, the restrictive polic/y became dominant, 
and the exclusion method was applied in admitting people to 
other countries. Restriction by economic demand, and immi- 
gration control by contract labor played and important part. 
The increasing rigidity involved increasing population pressure* 
Oppression of minorities became obvious. From 1912 to 1922, 
there were 18 migrations in i-urope : Tu rks to Greece; Armenians; 
Bulgarians; 200,000 Russians fled after the revolution in 1917 
and are still without rights in France; Assyrians were driven 
out of Persia; the Chinese fled to the interior of China; (30 Million) 
400,000 Spainish refugees fled to France; 100,000 Polish refugees; 
dislocated group of Sudetenlaender fled to Slovakia. 

The first American quota law became effective very suddenly, 
in 1921. 

German ImmigjcRtion: 

Before 1938 (November) 25,000 German had left Germany annualy, 
since Hitler revolution. 35,000 went to Western European countries, 
Switzerland, Holland, England, France; they took a great part of 
themas intermediate immigrants. 

In France, they needed labor; but since the depression they 
became ruthless in making these immigrant leave the country. There 
is a j^fifi well functioning branch of the International Migration 
Service in France. 

England, with a population of 46 Million poeple took 
50,000 immigratts from Germany. (America with a population of 
130 Million took 75 to 80,000.). England has admitted the largest 
refugee number; by July 1939 they had accepted 40,000 adults and 
10,000 children. They had excellent agencies. 



October 1939: 



400,000 German refugees had left the country 
250,000 have found permanent homes 
70,000 were admitted into Palestine 
70,000 were admitted into the United States 

The League of Nations had to deal with Russians and Armenians. 
In July 1938, Roosevelt invited a conference to deal with the German 
Refugee problem. Mr. Taylor became first chairman of this Ivian 
Conference. Result: One realized the necessity of exploring new 
areas for mass settlement, and individual migration; one made efforts 
to persuade the German government to allow more formal exodus. In 
January 1939, Mr. Emerson also became director. The committee sent 
expert commissions to the Phlllipine, Dominican Island; Brazil and 
Venezueal agreed to take immigrants. 



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Immlsration into the United States: 

During the World War, immigration decrease of 25^. 

Before World War,l Million immigrants per year. 

After World War, 800,000 immigrants per year. /,„«, x 

After quota law, immigration dropped considerably. U92i; 

During depression, voluntary drop of immigration. 

After 1929, when present quota law became effective, drop 

in imL'iigration because of demand of adequate means of 

support (affidavits) 

From 1932 to 1936 more people left the country than were admitted. 



' il 



1932 

1933 
1934 

1935 
1936 

1937 
1938 



II 
If 
II 



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II 



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II 
M 



II 
If 



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II 
II 



II 
11 
II 



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II 
II 



minus 67,000 more left than were admitted 

57,000 

10 , 000 
3,000 
plus 512 more came 

23,000 

56 , 000 



then tef^ 
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Course 15 P 
Ml 8 8 Hurlbutt 



Some more facte about refupiee situation: 







February 6, 19^0 



Admission to the State Is under quota law* No admission 
of aslatlc people. % 

Spanish yearly qyota: 252 

Polish " " 6524 • . 

German •" " 27370 

The practice Is to permit lOjt of the yearly quota per 
month* Only In 1939, the German quota was exhausted. - 
The labor organizations In this country took no stand In the 
whole Immigration question. 

What are the results of the present Immigration: 
(articles about the question In "Social Work of Today" , 

"World Telegram") 

rSoclal Work of Today", December 1939: How do refugees get 

^ . settled) 

The present immigration Is to a great extent a family 
Immigration. The make up, compared to the first years, 1933 etc. 
has become older. This Is balanced through the young people 
who come from England and other transient countries. 

From 50jC of the people who find emplojrment 60^ work In 
domestic service (estimated figure made by N.R.S.) 

This Immigration Is a literate Immigration. From 1901-09 
75^ of the Immigrants were Illiterate. 1914: 5^% of Immigrants 
were farm and domestic workers; 1938: only 12^. 



A 



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Immigration Law : 



The social agencies are concerned with this question. The 
general social worker must know about the legal, emotional and 
social difficulties the Immigrant has to f^ace. She must realize 
how much technical knowledge she needs, and when and where to get 
expert service, what her duties are as Interpreter to community , 
( collect 1/Jng of money etc.). 

I Branches of Government ccncc;rned with Immigration law. 

II Principle division of laws. 

Ill Individual casls and problems arising and position of social 

worker. 

I Branches of Governm.ent concerned with immigration law: 

Department of Labor. '"Ithln this department: bureau of 
Immigration under which all the different immigration officials 
work. Along Mexican an:i Canadian borader are special immigration 
offices.) There are 35 district fbft Immigration offices which 
define th^ status of alien, also make preliminary investigation 
for naturalization. The secretary of labor has final authority 
for appeals; he is helped by board of review; these hold hearings 
before which a lawyer can appear; it is a Judicial performance 
but carried out by administration. There has been complaint against 
this bureau, in the past. The general spirit was one of unfavorable 






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February 6, 19*0 



Information; the handling of the cases depends to a great deal 
upon the person of the ImTnlgratlon Inslpector. Immigration 
officials are also stationed at the consulates abroad for g-dvlce. 

United States Health Service, they has representatives at 

the United States ports and abroad, 

legal 

Depprtment of Justice., for appeals. The Is no regular 
channel of appeal to decision of Consuls abroad. 

II Principle division lOaUOUaiM of Law: 




1. 
a) 

b) 

2. 

a) 



O 



Status of alien in reference to quota law. 

quota immigrants 

first preference: fathers and mothers of American citieens; 

after 1932 also husbands 
second preference: wives and minor children of legal resident 

aliens; farmers, 

not, quota immigrants 

■ wives, husbands, unmarried childrenof 
American citizens. 

Aliens if admitted professionally to this 
country as ministers, professorSj'^jC^^. •^wi-j^ 
with a contract, and if they have practiced 
theii: profession for the past two years; 
wives and children of these professional 

- people. 
People coming from Canada, New Fundi and. 
South America, 



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Course 15 P 
Miss Hurlbutt 



February 13, 19^0 






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A case was read in class, illustrating some complications in admitting 
of immlcrrants. It was the case of Czech parents who had immigrated to the 
U.S.A.,^and had left their minor child with grandparents abroad. When the 
parents sent an affidavit abroad in order to have the child join them in 
the U.S.A., it was stated abroad that the child could not pass the intelli 
gence test because of mental inferiority; the parents claimed that the 
child had not been given the proper care and schooling. After many com- 
plications, and actions taken by American and Czech Social agencies, the Hi 
child was finally admitted. The various laws involved in a case like that 
were mentioned. 

February 20, 19^0 

* • 

Deportation ; (see page 398, 400, of blud book of Foreign Language 

Information Service) 

Book to be read: 

Bowler: *' Crime of Foreign Born . 

Sof^«lRob*sdn: *'Can Delinquency be measured*? 

In the years 1925-33, the largest deportation number has been reached, 
9-19^ of immigrants. The Police Department established a special in- 
vestigation department; ill4gal entry is one reason for deportation. The 
children of foreip-n born are likely to represent a large number of crim- 
inals. In 1935, a report mentions 17,000 cases of ieportation, half of 
whom were allowed to depart voluntarily. Of the deported people a great 
number of dependent relatives were left behin in the U.S.A. 

Position of case worker: ^^oes she have to give information to public 
agency which makes the alien deportable? 



f'age 398 : 



Two types of deportation: 1. dpportation at any time 

2. deportation within 5 years. 



Some 



Reasons for deportation: 



moral turpitude. No definite 
decision has yet been reached what 
m.t. acttally is; it depends on the 
Jurisdiction at different times. 

Public Charge, within 5 years after 
entry. 

Illegal entry. Crossing the board© 
without permission "or legal entry. 
False statement on the part of 
alien. 

Physical and mental reasons. 

February 27. 19^0 
Position of »^ocial worker toward client in case of deportation. 

The is a problem whether the relationship is confidential. According to 
Social Security Board ruling, f.i., infromation in records is confidential 
If that could be obtained for the social agencies work would be easier. 
A professional status must be recognized. 



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Course 15 P 
Miss Hurlbutt 



Right to employment of Refugees. 



March 5, 1940 



Restrictive laws since 1870. Some bases for these restrictive laws 
are: foreigners are more likely to be disqualified and will not be 
likely to observe the law as well as the citizens, aliens are excluiei 
from public employment. Unions exclude aliens from membership. 

Social Security* 

In the old age assistance there is noji difference between aliens and non 
aliens, according to federal law. Assistance of th- Blinds: Everybody 
is eligible accroding to federal law; the sam^- holds true for dependent 
children. 



Naturalization 



March 12, 19^0 

Material of Foreign Language Information Service 

November 1939. 



One has to be interested in the status of both men and women. -^Natural- 
ization advice is easier to give than immigration adtice. One can train 
a social worker within a few weeks for that work. 



Number of alieaa in the country: 1930 Census: 

Foreign Born 
Naturalized 
First papers 
No papers 
Status unknown 

Estimated: 

Number of Aliens 
at present: 

Procedure : 



14,204,149 
7,919,536 

1,266,419 
4,518,341 

499,853 



4,000,000 



hesi ients who have been legally admitted to the U.S.A., and who are older 
than 18 years, of white race or African can apply for citizenship. No 
Asiatics are entitled to do so. 

1. preliminary form A2213, Declaration of Intention has tc be filed in 
district where person lives. Aliens who arrive! before 1906 flo not have 
)^f6 a certificate of a: rival. People who ca-e before 1912 and can not 
get first papers for some reason can get certivicate of registry. The 
fact reference about good conduct is required from all places the alien hd 
lived i^f^i^iiii/iii^iiii in this country prevents many people to apply for tit% 
first papers. 

Since 1928, immigrants have an identification card. Before 1929, an 
alien had to renounce obedience to former rul'-r or government. Today, 
alien has to renounce allegience to all governments. 

2. Petition of naturalization. Form 2214. 

5 years in the country, 2 years aft-cr having made declaration of intention 
but not more than 7 years after that date, Applicaiht must b able to 
speak English, be attached to the principle of the constitution. 



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Course 15 P 
Miss Hurlbutt 



March 12, 19^0 
( continued) 



Both federal ani stae courts grant naturalization. Preliminary examin- 
ation before an ins;lipector, educational, moral, Americanization. 



In 1924 - 1934 



1,868,190 citizenships granted 
111,380 " not granted 

of these 9^ not good moral character 

9^ disloyalty 

&% could not provide right witnesses 
15,1^ insufficient American Constitutin 

training. 



The alien 
Americanizat' 



Since 1820, 38 Million people have come to the U.S.A. 

Training for citizenship. Each voter needs this training, 
needs it to equip him to tkke active p-;Lrt in American life, 
ion, English language ana civics. 

March 19, 1940 

Passport. Legal status, etc. 

Agencies concerned with helpinf^ aliens: 

Foreign Language Information Service (they are not a case work agency) 

222 Fourth Avenue 

Intecnational Migration Service 

220 East 22 Street 

N.R.S. 165 West 46 Street 

^''ational Council of Jewish Women 

Immigrants Protective League, Chicago 

HIAS 

National Catholic Welfare Council 



How to acquire citftnenship: Reference Material: 



Foreign Language Information Service 
November 1, 1939. 



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AN IMMIGRATION SUMMARY 
OUTSTANDING FACTS ABOUT THE ADMISSION, EXCLUSION AND DEPORTATION OF ALIENS 






FOREIGN LANGUAGE INFORMATIOI! SERVICE, Inc 
222 Fourth Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 



Price: Ten cents 



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FOREIGN LANGUAGE INFOBMATICN SERVICE 



222 Fourth Avenue, New York City 



Marian Schi'bs'byt Associate Director. 
September 1, 19S9 



AN IW.IGEATIGN SUWAARY: 
OUTSTANDING FACTS ABOUT THE ADMISSION, 
EXCLUSION AND DEPORTATION OF ALIENS 



Sources: 



Iiiji.igrat ion Laws and Regulations 
Reports of thn Secretary of Labor and 

thfi! Coiunissioner General of Loi^igration 
Other: 



s 



The history of imiLigration to the United States iLay for the sake of 
convenience be divided into four periods: (l) the colonial period, extending 
from the first settleiLent of the North American colonies to 1783; (2) the 
period of "free immigration", 1783-1830, during which no attempt was made by 
ary governmental agency to regulate the entry of people; (3) the period of 
state control, 1830-1882, during which the states, especially those on the 
Atlantic seaboard, legislated concerning immigration matters, each in its own 
way and according to its own interests and views; (4) the period of federal 
control, beginning about 1882 and likely to continue indefinitely. 

No record was kept on arriving iniLigrants till 1820. The popula- 
tion of this country at different periods,however , indicates the growth of 
the immigration movement prior to that date; as is well known, the peopling 
of the continent was from the beginning far more dae to immigration than to 
the natural increase of those already in the country. In 1640 the population 
of the colonies was 25,000 and in 1689 about 200,000. In 1743 the million 
mark was passed. When the first census was taken, in 1790, the population, 
exclusive of Vermont and the territory northwest of the Ohio, was alrnost 
four million. It is estimated that from 1790 to 1820 about 250,000 immigrants 
entered the country. 



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E - 73 2^^ 

Daring the first decade after official records were kept, 143,439 iinrr.i- 
grants caiae. Since that time the number has steadily Increased as the following 
table will show. The peak year was 1907 when 1.285,349 immigrants were admitted; 
the fiscal year 1914 ranks next in that respect with 1,218,480- The number of 
immigrant aliens admitted in 1933, 23,068. was the lowest since 1831 in which year 
the number was 22,633. 

1820 8,385 

1821 - 1830 .143,439 

1831 - 1840 599,125 

1841 - 1850 1,713,251 

1851 - 1860 2,598,214 

1861 -1870 2,314,824 

1871 -1880 2,812,191 

1881 -1890 5,246,613 

1891 - 1900 3,687,564 

1901 -1910 8,795,386 

1911 - 1920 5,735,811 

1921 - 1930 4,107,209 

1931 -1938 374,677 

Total 1820-1938 incl . 38,136,689 



Up to about 1880 the imiidgration cai:.e chiefly from the countries in 
north and west Europe, that is from Belgiun;, British Isles. France, Oermany, 
Ireland, Netherlands, the Scandinavian countries and Switzerland. This iiiinigra- 
tion is generally known as the "old immigration." Between 1880 and 1920 the 
countries of south, central and east Europe furnished the bulk of the immigrants, 
the GO -called "new immigration." Now the pendulum has swung in the other direc- 
tion and the old immigration has become the new. For the period 1926-1930 39.6 
percent of the immigrants came from northern and western Europe and 14.1 percent 
from the other sections of Europe. During that same period 26.2 percent came from 
Canada, 15.2 percent from Ivlexico and 4.9 percent from other countries. 

In 1921 the United States made a dtastic change in its immigration 
policy. Up to that time any person who was in good physical and mental health 
and of sood moral character could enter the country. After the war a reaction 
against immigration set in which led to a widespread den^and for restriction. ^ It 
was largely due to fear that the country would be swamped with immigrants desir- 
ing to escape the distress in Europe and to come to the American "Land of Promise.' 
Congress accordingly in May 1921 enacted a law restricting the number of inmi-'' 
grants who might enter. Because it assigned to each European country a definite 
quota, the act is known as the Q:uota Act. Though meant as an emergency measure, 
the Q,uota Act remained in force about three years, from June 3, 1921 to June 30, 
1924. In 1924 Congress enacted a permanent act, the Immigration Act of 1924, 
which went into effect July 1st and which together with the Act of February 5, 
1917, the basic imnlgration act, controls immigration at the present time. The 
following pages contain further information about these two acts and about the 
imr.igration procedure now in force. 



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- 387 



ADiilSSlOK Of ALIENS TO THE UNITED STATES 



All aliens entering the United States today are classed either as immi- 
grants or non^jnai grants, according to whether or not they coine for permanent 
residence. Since 1921 the United States has allowed only a definite numher 
of innnterants to enter each year from each European country and from certain 
Asiatic and African countries. This number is what is known as the "Quota" 
for that country. Only persons born in such countjc'y may be counted under its 
quota. Birthplace, not citizenship and not residence, decides under what quota 
an alien belongs. Non-iinmi grants, or those who come for teiii)orary stay, are 
not, of course, subje^ct to quota restrictions* Even some of those intending 
to stay permanently are allowed to enter outside the quota; they are called 
non'"xpiota iinmigrants* 

The following table shows the three sets of quotas that have been in force 
since June 3, 1921 when the first quota law went into effect. The first one, 
known as the "national origins" quota, is the one in use i^w. The second, ef- 
fective betweea July 1» 1924 and JUne 30, 1929, admitted 2^ of the number of 
each national grpup present in the country at the time of the 1890 census. The 
third, effective from June 3, 1921 to June 30, 1924, admitted 3^ of each group 
present at the time of the 1910 census. 

Country or Area : ^/wiopq* • , *^ ' fj'^, 

; 7/1/1929 , 6/30/1929 : 6/30/1924 

Afghanistan ,.,.*,. .••••..•• . . -100 .100 (D 

Albania ;................. ' ^100 ' 100 288 

Andorra : •.. •.••• 100 100 2 

Arabian peninsula .•••• . ,100 ,. , 100 ^^^ 

Armenia «•• • •, • • • • \^).. * 124 ^ , ^. ^oo 

Australia '...:..'.■.......•. ...•• ' 100 . ' 121. . , 279 

Austria**..,.........-. 1.4X3, ,.. .785' 7.342 

Belgium... 1,304 .512 1,563 

Bhutan. ..:.. .100 100. ., (1),. 

Bulgaria .....■..'............ -. lOO " ,.100 302 

Gamer oons (British) ' 100 100 (3) 

Cameroun (French) ; ,...' , ^100 100 (3) 

China... •• • 100. 100, " (1) 

CzechoslovaiU 2,874 3,073 14,357 

Danaig, Free City of 100 2S8 301 

Denmark... 1.181 2,789 5,619 

Egypt .., . \ 100 ... 100 ,18_ 

Eistonla ....'..'.... " 116 124 i , 348 

Ethiopia (Abyssinia) .,.'.../. ~ 100. ' ' 100 (3) 

Finland . " 569 " . 471 ^ 3,921,^ 

France ....>....... 3,086 ,. .3,954 5,729. 

■ . • t > ■ « • '- .. ^^ .M •■*--- ' 

, , . ^ " (cont.) 

See Note , p. 5. 

**Austria having becOTie part of the German Reich, its quota was combined with 
that for Germany on April 28, 1938. , , _ : 



• • # ' 



,..<>«• >«k('i. 



E - 75 



- 58B 



\t 



(cont. ) 



Country or Area 



Since 
7/1/1929 



t 



7/1/1924 

to 
6^30/1929 



6/3/1921 

to 
6/30/1934 



Germany 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland ... 

Greece 

Hungexy 

Iceland 

India 

Iran 

Iraq (Mesopotamia) 

Ir ish Free State 

Italy 

Japan 

Latvia 

Liberia • 

Liechtenstein 

Lithuania 

Luxemhur g • 

Monaco 

Morocco (French and Spanish Zones and 

Tangier ) 

Muscat (Oman ) 

Nauru (British mandate) 

Nepal 

Netherlands 

New Guinea (including appertaining 

islands ) (under Australian mandate).. 
New Zealand 

Norway 

Palestine (with Trans -Jordan) (Br it ish 

mandate ) • • 

Philippine Islands 

Poland • 

Portugal 

Ruanda and Urundi (Belgian mandate) . . 
Rumania • 

Samoa, Western (mandate of New Zealand) 

San Mar ino 

Sandi Arabia 

Siam 

South Africa, Union of .... 
South West Africa (mandate of the 

Union of South Africa) 

Soviet Union 

Spain f *» • • 

Sweden % 

Swit zer land • • • 

Syria and Lebanon (French mandate) 
Tanganyika (British mandate) 



•« t.*«»** 



• • 



. « . . . 



25 , 957 


51 , 227 


67,607 


65,731 


34,007 


77,342 (Incl. 
Irish Free State) 


307 


100 


3,063 


869 


473 


5,747 


100 


100 


75 


100 


ICO 


(1) 


100 


100 


(1) 


100 


100 


(1) 


17 , 853 


28,567 


(See Gr .Britain) 


5,802 


3,845 


42,057 


100 


100 


(1) 


236 


142 


1,540 


100 


100 


(3) 


100 


100 


(2) 


336 


344 


2,629 


100 


100 


92 


100 


100 


(2) 


100 


ICO 


(3) 


100 


100 


(1) 


100 


100 


(2) 


100 


100 


(1) 


3,153 


1,643 


3,607 


100 


100 


(2) 


100 


100 


80 


2,377 


6.453 


12,202 


100 


100 


57 


50 


(5) 


(5) 


6,524 


5,982 


30 , 977 


440 


503 


2,465 


100 


100 


(3) 


377 


603 


7,419 


100 


100 


(2) 


100 


100 


(2) 


100 


100 


(1) 


100 


100 


(1) 


IOC 


IOC 


(3) 


100 


100 


(3) 


3,712 


2 ,248 


S4,405 


252 


131 


912 


3,314 


9.561 


20,042 


1,707 


2,081 


3,752 


123 


100 


882 


100 


100 


(3) 



^German and Austrian quotas were combined on April 28, 1938. Total German quota 
is now 27,370. 



K 



B - 76 - 389 

(cont.) 

" : since : •^/\/^924 : 6/3/1921 
Country or Area ; 7/1/1000 : *o ; to 
_ _ _ _ 1 , « _ 6/30£l929 _ _ 6/30/1924 

Togoland (British) ........ i.. 100 100 (3) 

Togol and (French) , 100 100 (3) 

Turkey ? 225 100 2, 654 

Yap and other Pacific Islands 

(under Japanese man (Jjate) 100 100 (2) 

Yugoslavia 845 671 6,426 

III ■! I iw !■ I ■ ii_ _■ - I I II 1 1 -- -- ■ I lu -I '-~r iif-r r— ^ — ^^ ■^-^>— ^— ^■^^^.— — — ^— — ^— ^^M^— ^^^iM*»^ II ■ I ^ 

TOTALS 153,774 164,667 357,803 

* 

The forimila of the National Origins plan: - The annual quota of any nation- 
ality for the fiscal year shall "be a number which bears the same ratio to 150,000 
as the number of inhabitants in Continental United States in 1920 having that 
National Origin bears to the number of inhabitants in Continental United States 
in 1920, but the minimum quota of any nationality shall be 100. 

Example: To find British quota we must know number of inhabitants 

in the United States of British origin in 1920. This is 
48,195,400. The ratio therefore should read: 

X: 150,000 = 43,195.400: 110,000,000 

X will be equal to 65,721, which is the annual 
quota for Great Britain at present. 



(1) Prior to 7/1/1924 there were separate quotas only for Armenia, Palestine, 
Syria and Turkey, other countries in Asia being included under the annual 
quota known as "Other Asia" and totaling 92, 

(2) No separate quota prior to July 1, 1924. 

(3) Prior to 7/1/1924 there was an annual quota of 104 for all Africa -vith the 
exception of Egypt which had a separate quota of 18. 

(4) No separate quota since July 1, 1933. 

(5) Immigration from Philippine Islands was not restricted by quota until 
March 24, 1934 (Philippine Independence Act) 



f 



Note: The quotas shown in this column are those in force at the present time. 
Except for a few minor changes they are the same as those v^hich were 
established on July 1, 1929, under the National Origins provision 
(section 12 of the immigration act of May 26, 1924). 



E - 77 



- 3^.0 



it 



As mentioned above there is a distinction made between immigrants and non- 
imaiigrants, the latter, of course, not bein^ subject to the quota restrictions; 
also even among the immigrants there are some who are exempt from the quota or 
who have preference over others. The following classification gives the various 
categories according to the Act of July 1, 1924 which, together with the Act of 
February 5, 1917, governs the flow of aliens to this country today. 

Classification According to the Act of 
July 1. 1934 as amended. 

I. LamiCTants; 

A. Non-quota imai^rants, not sub.ject to quota; 

1. Wives, unmarried minor children, husbands by marriage before 

July 1, 1932, of American citizens. Sec. 4(a). 
2* Aliens returning from temporary visit abroad. Sec. 4:(b), 

3. Aliens born in other American countries, their wives and unmarried 

children under 13 years of age. Sec. 4(c). 

4. Ministers, professors, their wives and unmarried children under 

18 years of age. Sec 4(d), 

5. Students at least 15 years of age. Sec. 4(e). 

6. American women who, prior to September 22, 1922, lost their citizen- 

ship by marriage to aliens. 

B. Preference cjuota immi^ants : 

1. First preference (up to 50}fe of quota). 

(a) Parents, husbands by marriage after July 1, 1932, of American 
citizens 21 years of age or over. Sec. 5(2) (1) (A). 

(b) In quotas of 300 or over, skilled agriculturalists, their 
wives and dependent children under 18 years of age. 

Sec. 6(a)(1)(B).* 

2. Second Preference (remainder of quota) 

(a) Wives and unmarried minor children of aliens lavyfully admitted 
to the United States for permanent residence. Sec. 6 (a) 2. 

C. Quota imm i/zr ants ; 

The reiiiainder of the quota after the rights of B,l and B,2 have been 
satisfied, is available for regular or non-preference quota immi- 
grants. 
!)• Other classes not sub.ject to quota restriction : 

1. American Indians born in Canada (Act of April 2, 1928). 

2. Certain Spanish subjects residents of Puerto Rico on April 11, 1899 

(Act of iviay 26, 1926). 

3. Certain persons born in the Virgin Islands and Puerto Hico, who are 

not, under our laws, American citizens. 

II. Non-Immigrants . 

A. Government officials. Sec. 3(1). 

B. Temporary visitors. Sec. 3(2). 

C. Aliens in transit. Sec. 3(3). 

D. Aliens entering from transit across foreign contiguous territory,Sec.3(4) . 

E. Alien seamen. Sec. 3(5). 

F. Treaty aliens. Sec. 3(6). 



*For several years, Congress has had under consideration bills proposing to elim- 
inate this preference granted to agricultural labor, and sooner or later such a 
bill will undoubtedly be enacted. It is the general belief that there is no need 
in this country for additional farm workers. 



4 



E - 78 



- 391 



4 



Special Classe s . 



Besides the relatives of American citizens mentioned above there are 
several special clas?ies of alien? who may enter outside the quota. The fol-* 
lowing paragraphs describe these groups* 

1. A minister of any denomination who plans to remain a minister when he 
comes to the United States, can enter outside the quota if he can prove that 
for the last two years before he comes he has actually been a minister and that 
he is going to keep on being one in the United States. He usually has to show 
a letter or contract from a church or congregation in the United States which 
has invited him to come. 

2. A professor of a college, university, academy or seminary who has been 
teaching for the last two years, can come as a non-quota immigrant. He must be 
able to prove that he is a professor ; an ordinary teacher can not come outside 
the quota. He may have to show that he has already been engaged to teach ih 
an American institution of equal standing. 

3. The wife and unmarried child under eighteen years of age of a minister 
or professor, who has proved his right to enter as a non-quota immigrant, can 
also do so. They can accompany the husband or father, or, if they wish they 
can follow him after he is established in the new country. But unless the hus- 
band or father accompanies them to the United States or is already there, they 
can not go as non-quota immigrants. Where the husband or father came to the 
United States before July 1, 1924* the wife and child can not get non-quota 
status, but if he came after July 1, 1924 they can apply at any time for a 
non-quota visa. 

4. Anyone who is past fifteen years of age and can prove to the Consults 
satisfaction that he is a student, can go to the United State? as a non-quota 
immigrant. He must have enough money for his support while studying or else he 
must have friends or relatives in the United States who will guarantee by affi- 
davit to support him. If necessary, he will be allowed to work for a few hours 
when school is over, and he may work during vacations. Work of this sort must, 
however, never interfere with his carrying a full course of studies. 

Before he asks the American Consul for a visa he must be enrolled in one 
of the fourteen hundred or so American educational institutions which have been 
approved by the Commissioner General of Immigration for such students. He can 
not attend public higji schools or other secondary or primary schools maintained 
by public funds. 

Anyone wishing to come to the United States as a student will have to know 
some English, the amount depending upon what he wishes to study. He ^7ill not 
be given non-quota status as a student unless he knows enough English to pursue 
with profit the course of study he has chosen. 



*From July 1, 1923 for a period of a year the wife or child of a minister or 
professor could enter as a non -quota immigrant even though the husband or 
father had arrived before 1924. This privilege lapsed on June 30, 1927. 



E - 79 



- 392 



When he has completed hir^ course of ptudy he will have to leave the United 
States. Ar. he was not admitted for permanent residence, he can not remain in 
the United States and he can not become a citizen. 

All that has been said above applies to female students as well a? to male 
students • 



5. 



An alien who has his home in the United States, but has left it to make 
a visit to his native country or some other country, can return as a non -quota 
immigrant, if he has not been away too loui,,, and if he was in the first place 
admitted legally to the United States. 

If before he left the Unites States he seciared a permit to reenter from 
the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, Waf^hington, D.C., he v/ill 
not have any trouble - so far as the quota is concerned - about returning* 
Such permits must be applied for in person at the immie^ration office nearest 
the alien»8 place of residence; the application must be filed not less than 
thirty days before the proposed date of departure- There must be a separate 
permit for each member of a family and only in case of illness or some other 
prohibitive circumstance may an alien be excused from applying for his or her 
permit in person. There are, however, certain exceptions to this general rule: 
Aliens admitted for permanent residence since July 1, 1924 are permitted to^ 
apply by mail to the Coimuissioner of Immigration and Naturalization at Washing-- 
ton, for reentry permit and so are aliens who have had a reentry permit since 
January 1, 1932 and aliens who have obtained certificate of registry under the 
Act of March 2, 1929. A reentry permit is valid only for one year and if pos- 
sible the alien must return to the United States before it has expired. If he 
is unavoidably delayed, he can write to the Commissioner of Immigration and 
Naturalization, Washington, i}.C., for an extension. A permit costs $3.00 and 
an extension costs $3.00. 

An alien who left the United States without getting such a permit must 
apply at the nearest American Consulate for a non-quota immigration visa. If 
he has been away from the United States for more than six months he may have 
trouble getting such a visa. He will have to convince the Consul that he was 
legally admitted to the United States in the first place, that he has his home 
in the United States, that when he left he fully intended to return, and that 
there are good reasons why he has not returned to the United States sooner. 
He will have to pay the usual $10.00 visa fee. 

Whether he has a "permit to reenter" or a non-quota immigration visa, he 
must, like any alien who comes for the first time, meet the other requirements 
of the immigration law. There are two exceptions. Even if he is illiterate, 
he may enter provided he has not been away from the United States for more than 
six months and provided he has lived five years continuously in the United 
States. If he has lived there for seven years and is found to be for any rea- 
son inadmissible and is consequently excluded, he has the ri^t to appeal to 
the Secretary of Labor who has the power to admit him. 

All that has been said above applies equally to a woman alien who has her 
home in the United States but has left it temporarily. 

* 

6. So-called "treaty aliens" are also exempt from quota restrictions, under 
section 3, subdivision 6, of the Immigration Act of July 1, 1924. Nationals of 
countries with which the United States Government has concluded treaties of 



I I 



E - 80 



- 393 



commerce and navigation raay enter the United States freely "to carry on trade 
under and in pursuance of the provisions of*' such a treaty. They have non- 
immigrant status and their stay may under certain circumstances be practically 
perine.nent. They may remain as long a? they are en^g^d in trade and commerce 
involvin^^ their home country and the United Stcites. 

The following table list?, the countries whose citizens - by birth or natu 
ralization - may, at the present writing, enter as non -iniinigrants under sec- 
tion 3 (6), 



Sur ope 



Asia 



: 






Africa 



Western 
Hemisphere 



Belgium 

Danzig 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

Ge rmany 

Great Britain (a) 

Hungary 

Czechoslovakia 



Irish Free State 

Latvia 
Norway 

Poland 

Spain 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

Yugoslavia 



: Borneo : 


: Egypt (b): 


Argentina 


: China : 


1 Ethiopia ; 


Bolivia 


: Iraq (b) : 


Liberia ; 


Colombia 


: Japan i 


\ ! 


Costa Rica 


: F^iam i 




; Honduras 
Paraguay 






\ Salvador 



An alien who wishes to obtain a non-imiaig;rant visa under section 3(5) 
must convince the American Consul that he is going to the United States in the 
course of business which involves solely or principally trade or commerce be- 
tween the United States and his home country. The American Consuls are in- 
structed to differentiate carefully between such an alien and one who after 
admission to the United States intends to engage in trade or commerce of a 
purely local kind. 

The "lawful wife and minor children, if otherwise admissible" of a treaty 
alien are likewise entitled to non-immigrant visas under section 3 (6) if accom- 
panying him or following to join him. Their admission is on condition that 
the treaty alien, husband or father, shall maintain his status under section 3 
(6) during his stay in the United States and that they and he will depart volun- 
tarily when he relinquishes such status. In doubtful cases the treaty alien may 
be required to furnish a bond of $500.00 for himself and for each member of his 
family "to insure that they shall depart from the country without expense to the 
United States upon the failure of the husband or father to maintain his exempt 
status as such a merchant, and in the case of the wife upon the termination of 



the marital relationship 



It 



(a) The treaty does not cover British overseas possessions. A British subject 
is entitled to non-immigrant status under . section 3 (6) only if he intends 
to carry on a business involving substantial trade between the United 
States and British territory in Europe. 

(b) The treaty of 1830 is held to be technically in effect for all parts of the 
former Ottoman Empire unless a definite treaty superseding the treaty of 
1830 has been made as in the case of the treaty with France with respect 

to Syria and Lebanon, the treaty with Great Britain with respect to Pales- 
tine, and the new treaty with Turkey, sig^ed October 28, 1931, 



E ~ 81 



- 304 



EXCLUSION OF ALIENS FROM THE UNITED STATES 

The United States Governrrjent reserves for itself the ri^t to deny admission 

to this country to any alien whom it may deeLi undesirable , whether for physical, 

mental, moral, political, or economic reasons. The more important grounds for 
exclusion are listed below under their various headings. 

A. Those excluded because of physical defects* 

Persons afflicted with tuberculosis in any form or with a "loathsome or dB^n- 
gerous contagious disease**"^ are excluded. The only exception noted is in the 
case of a wife or minor child of a naturalized alien or of an alien who has taken 
up permanent residence in the United States. The wife or child of such a person, 
if suffering from a contagious disease miast be held until it fs determined whether 
landing can be permitted without danger to other persons- If such is the case he 
or she may be permitted to land, usually under bond and for the purpose of hos- 
pitalization. 

B. Those excluded because of ment al defects . 

Idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, persons who are insane or have 
ever been insane, epileptics, persons of "constitutional psychopathic inferiori- 
ty", persons with chronic alcoholism are excluded. There are no exceptions 
stated in the law. 

C. Those excluded because of a moral defect. 

(1) Persons convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude or persons who 
admit having committed such a crime whether convicted for it or not, are ex- 
cluded. Those convicted of an offense purely political are not excluded if 
otherwise admissible. 

(2) Persons who believe in, practice or advocate polygamy are excluded 
without exception. It may be noted, however, that a person who is a member of 

a religious faith which permits polygamy is not necessarily himself a polygami?t 
nor a believer in it, and in such a case his adoaissibility would be determined 
by his own convictions. 

(3) Prostitutes or procurers or persons who receive the proceeds of prosti- 
tution are excluded without exception. 

D. Those excluded for political reasons. 

This classification includes chiefly anarchists. Anarchists are defined by 
the law as those who disbelieve in organized government and who believe in or 
advocate the overthrow by force or violence of the Government of the United 
States or of all forms of law, the assassination of public officials, or the un^ 
lawful destruction of property. Anyone connected by membership or by any other 
sort of affiliation with an organization or publication which advocates the above 
enumerated principles, or anyone who contributes to the support of such an organic 
zation, or anyone who knowingly distributes, causes to be distributed, or has in 
his possession for the purpose of distribution any written matter of the above 
sort is classed as an anarchist and is denied entry to the United States. 



*Such as ringworm, trachoma, leprosy, any of the venereal diseases, et6. 



B - 32 



- 395 



i 



-^- Those excluded for economic reason s. 
This group includes the following,: 

(1) Paupers, vag;rants and professional heggars. 

(2) Persons who on account of a luental or physical defect which mi^t im- 
pair their ability to earn a living or for some other reason, are likely to 
become public charges. Such persons if otherwise admissible may be admitted 
by the Secretary of Labor upon giving bond to serve a<^ guarantee against their 
becom^ing public charges. 

(3) Contract laborers with the following exceptions: (a) professional ac- 
tors, artists, lecturers, singers and musicians of recognized ability, minis- 
ters, professors, persons of a reco^aized learned profession, trained nurses, 
and domestic servants; (b) skilled labor if otherwise admissible and if labor 
of like kind can not be found unemployed in the United States; (c) exhibitors 
and attendants at expositions. 

(4) Children under sixteen years of age unaccompanied by or not coming to 
a parent, unless it can be shown that they are not likely to become public 
charges. Such children are admitted only at the discretion of the Secretary 
of Labor. 



F. Others excluded. 

(1) Illiterates over sixteen years of age are excluded except in the case 
of certain relatives. A citizen or an admissible or legally admitted alien may 
bring in or send for his illiterate father or grandfather over fifty-five years 
of ag^, his wife, his mother, his grandmother, or his unmarried or widowed 
daxLghter provided these relatives are otherwise admissible. Religious refu- 
gees, aliens in transit, returning resident aliens who have been away from the 
United States less than six months and who prior to departure had lived contin- 
uously for five years in this country, are not excluded because of illiteracy. 

(2) Aliens who have been excluded and who within a year after their exclu- 
sion re -apply for admission without having first secured permission to do so 
from the Secretary of Labor • 

(3) Aliens who have been deported in pursuance of the law unless they have 
obtained special permission from the Secretary of Labor to apply for readmission 

(4) Aliens from foreign contiguous territory unless they have resided with- 
in such territory for more than two years or unless they can prove that they 
were brought to such territory by a transportation company which has complied 
with all requirements of the Act of February 5, 1917. 

(5) Natives of the Asiatic Barred Zone except for those who have been for 
at least two years previous to entry in one of the following occupational class- 
es: government officials, ministers, missionaries, lawyers, chemists, civil en- 
gineers, teachers, physicians, students, authors, artists, merchants, and tour- 
ists, and the leg^l wives or children under sixteen of the above. 

(6) Stowaways. 



3-83 



- 396 



'"! 



(7) Persons who are financially^ arsisted to corne to the United States. If 
such persons can show "affirmatively and satisfactorily** that they are otherwise 
admissible they may be admitted unless their financial assistance comes directly 
or indirectly from a corporation, association, society, manicipality, or foreign 
government, in which case their exclusion is mandatory. 

(8) Aliens accompanying excluded aliens. If an excluded alien is helpless 
from sickness, mental or physical disability, or infancy, and such alien is ac-. 
companied by another alien whose protection or guardianship is required, such 
accompanying alien may also be excluded. 

A general exception to all exclusion provisions is made in the case of 
accredited officials of forei^ governments, their suites, families and guests. 

The Secretary of Labor is authorized by the Act of February 5, 1917 to 
admit at his discretion and under such conditions as he may prescribe, any re- 
turning alien who has for some reason or other been found inadmissible, provided 
such alien is returning to an unrelinquished United States domicile of seven 
consecutive years. 

The following table gives information about the aliens excluded at American 
seaports during the decade 1921-1930. It should be mentioned that far more 
aliens are excluded at the land border ports on the Mexican and the Canadian 
border than at the seaports. The last column of the table shows what percentage 
of applicants at land ports were excluded. 



} 


Niamber 


«v ^m ^^ *w ^* «^ 4^ «w ^ M» mm ^v .MB ^m «w ^m «^ 

• Number 


•^ «^ ^^ ^m ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^iM ^m ^^ ^i* ^m ^«* ^^ ^i* •«* « 

; Percentage : 


; Debarred 


Tear : 


of applicants 


: debarred at 


: debarred at ; 


; at land 


t 


at seaports 


t seaports 


: seaports i 


1 ports 


1931 


844,048 


6,293 


.7 


5.1 


1922 


349,077 


5,717 


1.6 


8.2 


1923 


477,761 


6,280 


1.3 


6.6 


1924 


574,244 


9,915 


1.7 


6.1 


1925 


302,542 


4,377 


1.6 


11.3 


1926 


331,918 


2,987 


.9 


9.5 


1927 


364,153 


3.111 


.9 


8.6 


1928 


357 , 823 


2,434 


.7 


10.2 


1929 


363,896 


2,033 


.6 


12.1 


1930 


348 , 036 


1,853 

■ ^* "^ *^ "^ ^» ^m ^m mm •■• ^m ^^ «• mm ^m mm -^ mm 


.5 


6.0 



Thanks to the present system of intensive examination of all applicants for 
immigration visa in 11 European countries* and in Canada, Cuba and Philippine 
Islands before visas are Issue d, the number of persons rejected at ports of entry 
has been greatly reduced. The applicants are examined by experienced members of 
the United States iimnigration service with a view to determining their admissi- 
bility under the different provisions of the immigration law. They are also 



*The 11 coointries axe: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain 
(including Northern Ireland), Irish Free State, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, 
Poland and Sweden. 



I I 



E - 84 



I 



- 397 



examined by trained American poiblic health officials who are maintained at various 
consulates as part of the regular staff. The following remarks quoted from the 
1930 annual report of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Serv- 
ice, give some indication of the value of this system, 

"There were 156,370 applicants for visas in countries of origin 
examined by medical officers abroad. Of this number 2,645 were reported 
to the consular officers as afflicted with one or more of the diseases 
listed in class A as mandatorily excludable; 17,542 were reported a? 
afflicted with a disease or condition listed as class B and liable to 
affect their ability to earn a living; all of the applicants reported 
in class A and 5,963 of those reported in class B were refused immigra- 
tion visas by the consular officers for medical reasons. 

"Of 147,762 aliens who had been passed in the preliminary medical 
examination abroad and to whom visas had been issued, only 23 were 
finally rejected upon arrival at a United States port as being af- 
flicted with class A diseases, resulting in mandatory deportation." 

Class A includes mental defectives and persons afflicted with tuberculosis 
or a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease (see A. and B. p. 10). Class B. 
includes those suffering from a mental or physical defect which might impair 
their ability to earn a living (see E (2) p. 11), 



4 



1 



S - 85 



- 398 



D33PORTATION OF ALIENS FROM THE UNITED STATES 



\ 



\ 



t 



Aliens TH/ho Are Deportable 

Every iimnigrant admitted to the United States may be said to be adjnitted on 
probation. The United State?, reserves for itself the right to send out of the 
country any alien who within a given period proves to be undesirable or unable 
to adjust himself to conditions here. This procedure is known as deportation. 
The period of probation is not of uniform length; it varies according to the 
offense or defect which leads to the deportation. 

For the following classes of people this period is unlimited. They may be 
deported any time they are caugjit and proved guilty of the charges a^inst them. 

(1) Prostitutes and white slavers, owners and managers of houses of prosti- 
tution or similar pieces, or employees of such places. 

(2) Criminals who have managed to get into the country despite the law de- 
barring all those who have previously been convicted of a felony or other crime 
or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude, or who admit committing such an of- 
fense though they have escaped conviction. Such aliens who were already crim- 
inals before coming to the country may be deported any time their crixuinal 
record comes to the attention of the immigration authorities. 

(3) Aliens who at any time during the first five years in thU country 
commit crimes involving moral turpitude and are in consequence sentenced to 
imprisonment for one year or more. Such criminals will be deported at the end 
of their prison term?. Aliens Tvho have lived in the country for more than five 
years and who have twice been convicted of crimes involving moral turpitude for 
which they have each time been sentenced to a year or more in prison are also 
deportable at the end of the second term. 

(4) Anarchists who are opposed to organized government or who advocate the 
overthrow by violence of the United States Government or of all government, or 
who advocate the assassination of public officials or the unlawful destruction 
of public property. Membership in organizations which uphold these principles 
is sufficient grounds for deportation even thougji the individual may not be an 
active advocate of them. 

(5) Importers, manufacturers, or dealers of narcotics. 

(6) Aliens who have entered the United States illeg^^lly since July 1, 1924 
or have remained here longer than they were given permission to at the time of 
entry, such entry being on or after July 1, 1924. 

(7) Aliens who have become public charges within five years after entry ^ 
from causes which existed prior to entry. For example, a man who becomes blind 
within five years after entering the country and as a result becomes a public 
charge, is deportable any time his case comes to the attention of the immigra- 
tion authorities unless he can prove positively that his blindness is due to 
causes arising after his entry. 

(8) Alien men or women who have married an American citizen in order to ob- 
tain non-quota or preference quota status and so facilitating their entry to the 
United States, but who subsequently refuse to carry out their marriage contract. 
Deportation on this charge can take place only in cases where the marriage has 
been annulled by order of court. 

Those who have a limited probation period are all aliens who have entered or 
are found in the country in violation of an act or law of the United States. This 
does not include those who have entered in violation of the quota law since 



E - 86 



- 3£S 



t 



# 



♦ 



July 1, 1924 as they are deportable at any time. It does include those who at 
time of entry belonged to one or more of the classes excluded by law, such as 
mental defectives, insane persons, persons afflicted with a loathsome or conta- 
gious disease, paupers, persons likely to become public charges, contract labor- 
ers, certain illiterates, etc. Such persons may be deported any time within 
five years after entry. 

Proc<^dure for Deportatio n 

The deportation procedure is carried on almost entirely within the Depart- 
ment of Labor. With the exception of certain Chinese whose expulsion can be only 
by court proceedings, the Secretary of Labor is given the sole authority to take 
aliens unlawfully in this country into custody and deport them. No provision is 
made by the statiites for general judicial review, although there is limited scope 
for such review by way of writ of habeas corpus- In general, deportation proceed- 
ings are handled by the same officials who handle the various administrative fea- 
tures of the admission of aliens i.e. the immigrant inspectors. 

The inspectors in each locality investigate aliens who they have reason to 
think fcre liable to deportation, usually giving them a searching oral examination 
as to the time and manner of their entry into this country and other matters on 
which they wish information. After such a preliminary examination, or in some 
cases without it, a warrant of arrec^t is applied for to the Department of Labor 
in Washington. Under the rules of the Department, applications for warrants must 
show prima facie that the alien is subject to deportation. Applications for war- 
rants are usually sent by mail but there is provision for telegraphic application 
in cases of necessity. 

The warrant of arrest is then served upon the suspect and he is detained 
pending hearing unless he can make satisfactory arrangements for the giving of 
bond or unless, as sometimes happens, he is released on his own recognizance. 
If not released, he is kept either at the detention quarters of the immigration 
department, where such quarters exist, or in a city, state, or county jail or 
penitentiary. 

Thereafter the alien is accorded a non-public hearing at which he is given 
an opportunity to show cause why he should not be deported. He loay inspect the 
warrant and is advised at this time that he may be represented by counsel. 

The record of hearing under the warrant of arrest is then sent to Washington 
generally with the recommendation of the inspector as to whether a warrant of de- 
portation should be issued or the warrant of arrest canceled and ^ith this record 
is sent all the data in the case. The record is reviewed by a non-statutory body 
in the Department of Labor known ae the Board of Review, appointed by the Secre- 
tary of Labor and functioning \mder his jurisdiction, and is then forwarded with 
written recommendations to one of the assistants to the Secretary of Labor or to 
an Assistant Secretary who decides whether or not a warrant of deportation should 
be issued. The recomiaendations of the Board of Review are generally followed. 

Prior to deportation the alien may be tried, sentenced, and i-^prisoned for 
any crime committed in the United States including a violation of the Act of 1929 
which made reentry after deportation a felony and illegal entry after March 4, 
1929 a misdemeanor. Deportation can not be effected until the alien is formally 
released from custody. 

If a warrant of deportation is issued, it may be satisfied in one of two 
ways; either the alien departs with the consent of the Department of Labor, 



E - 87 



- 400 



1i 



» 



generally paying his own expenses, or he is physically deported hy the Department. 
Either of these method? constitutes a formal deportation under the provisions of 
the law and the alien riay never return to the United States.* 

In cases where deportation would involve unusual hardship, the Secretary of 
Labor may, and usually does, allow the alien to leave the country without issuing 
a formal warrant for his deportation, or he niay even cancel a warrant already is- 
sued. This is usually done in cases where deportation of an alien woula involve 
long separation from an iiinerican wife or husband, or American horn children. 

Passports for alien deportees must be secured from the representative of the 
foreign country to which the alien is to be deported except where deportation is 
to a country which requires no passport such as China, Japan, or foreign contig- 
uous territory. Most foreign nations will accept aliens whom we deport if it can 
be shown to the satisfaction of their officials that the aliens are subjects, 
citizens, of the particular country. Since the World War many persons have, how- 
ever, become "men without a country" and in their case formal deportation is im- 
possible. 

The expenses of deportation are with two exceptions borne by the United 
States Government. As noted above the deportee is sometimes permitted to pay his 
own way back if he does not care to travel with a deportation party; and in the 
case of an alien belonging to a class excluded by law who is caught within five 
years after entry, the steamship company may be required to bear the cost. 

Statistics on Deportation. 

Below are some statistics of interest in connection with this subject. The 
first table, showing the fluctuation of immigration and deportation since 1910 
clearly reflects the effect of our economic and political conditions at various 
periods. The World War, the quota laws of 1921 and 1924 and the present depres- 
sion, are all indicated by the rise and fall of the two curves* 

I. TOTAL ALI3KS*'*' AJklTTED Al^'D TOTAL DEPORTED FOR YEARS 1910 - 1937. 



Year : Immigration 



Deportation 



Year 



Iiumigration 



Deportation 



> 



ISIO 


1 , 041 , 570 


2,695 




1924 


706,896 


6,409 


1911 


878,587 


2,788 




1925 


457,086 


9,495 


1912 


838,172 


2,456 




1926 


495,106 


10,904 


1913 


1,197,892 


3,461 




1927 


538,001 


11,382 


1914 


1,218,480 


4,510 




1928 


500 , 531 


11 , 525 


1915 


326,700 


2,564 




1929 


479,327 


12,90B 


1916 


298,826 


2,781 




1930 


446,214 


16,631 


1917 


295 , 403 


1,853 




1931 


280,679 


18,142 


1918 


110.618 


1,569 




1932 


174,871 


19,426 


1919 


141,132 


3,068 




1933 


150,728 


19,865 


1920 


430,001 


2,762 




1934 


163,904 


8,879 


1921 


805 , 228 


4,517 




1935 


179,721 


3,319 


1922 


309 , 556 


4,345 




1936 


190,899 


9,195 


1923 


522 » 919 


3,661 




1937 


231,884 


8,829 



*Ihe law on this point has been somewhat modified, see page 17 
**rhis includes both immigrant and non-immigrant aliens 



II 



■i 



E - 88 



ALIENS DEPORTED AFTER LANDING IK THE UNITED STATES 
DURING THE FISCAL YEARS 1932 - 1937 BY CAUSES 



1932 



1933 



1934 



1935 



1936 



- 401 



1937 



Criminals 

Narcotic law violators 

Anarchists, etc. 

Irauoral classes 

Mental or physical defects 

Remained longer than permitted 

Entered without proper visa 

Likely to "become puhlic char&e 

Unable to read(over 16 yrs. of a 

Under Chinese Exclusion Act 

Other Causes 



1,632 

111 

17 

413 

510 

786 

2,824 

33 

416 

77 

1.500 

19.426 19.365 3,879 8,319 



1,709 

133 
51 

905 
1,107 
3,284 
8,157 

187 
ge) 1,403 

516 
1.958 



1,770 

167 
74 

785 
l,0b6 
3,148 
9,099 

166 
1,393 

249 
1.958 



1,569 
122 
20 
383 
662 
985 

3,611 

93 

539 

101 

783 



1,727 

154 

47 

407 

533 

850 

3,181 

50 

502 

53 

1.691 

9,195 



1.603 

118 

17 

308 

392 

702 

3,294 

40 

550 

47 

1.753 

8.329 



# 



Readmission to the United States of Aliens Who Have Been Deported 

Prior to 1929 an alien who had heen deported mi^t apply for readmission one 
year after date of deportation and if he obtained special permission from the 
Secretary of Labor, he mi^t apply before the year was up. He would, however, be 
denied readmission if he belonged in any of the categories which are always pro- 
hibited from entry (see pagps 10-12); an alien deported because of criminality or 
Insanity or some other very serious cause, could nev^r return legally to ^J® Uni 
ted States. On Iv^ch 4, 1929. however, the United States passed a law prohibit- 
ing the return of all deportees, re^dless of what the cause f?^^.*^«^'^^«P°2 
tion was. The severity of this law has since been somewhat modified; under an 
act approved May 25. 1932 (Public No. 149. 72d Congress) '.'an alien, if Qtherwise 
^.dmissible shall not be excluded from admission to the United states --■ "- 
after the expiration of one year after the date of deportation if, prior to his 
reembarkatiS at a place outside of the United States, or P' f^ *° ^ ^^^1?^^^ ^ 
tion in foreig: contigaous territory for admission to the United States, the 
SecreJ^y of Labor, in his discretion, shall have granted such alien permission 
to reapply for admission." 

At the present time therefore, aliens who have been deported for illegal 
entry or for some other charge that does not necessarily exclude them permanent- 
ly f rim the United States, can apply to the Secretary of Labor for permission to 
return here. Especially if their deportation has brought hardship to an American 
citizenTife or ?o American born children is the application litely to be granted. 
The deported alien my file such application at any time after his deportation 
but he cannot return till after a year from date of deportation. 



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Course 116 
Miss Hurlbutt 



October 4^ 1940 



Gemeral Plan for the Goiirse: 



Select a specific group according to Interest, according 
to material we already have for research; work should be done according to material 
plus studying method of procedure, and should include suggestions for developing new 
methods in relation to particular objectives and problems in social work* 



Some points for this course ; 



Aspects in dealing with cultural conflicts. 

Fundamental philosophical problems • 

Study of one particular group* 

Interplay of indiridual emotional driyes and cultural norms* 

Comparison of like and unlike problems of different cultures* 

Hhat does an ethnic group retain and what does it give up? 

Vhat is an ethnic group? (classification) 



One problem suggested for discussion : 



a* 



mhat makes a certain group change the neighborhood in a city? 
Church? Better exiiployment opportunities? Attitude of the 
comnunity at large? 







<f) 



October 11, 1940 



0> 



How to look up the censuB. 

With reference to paper on ethnic conmunities: Where does a certain group come from? 

Does It represent a certain part of 
the population of the old country, a certain religious group from the old country, a cet 
certain social group of the old country, a certain trade or industrjr? In the new 
country, do they predoadnate in the comminity in certain industries, culturel influences 
religious patterns? Why do certain groups concentrate on certain Industries? Sometlmas 

it is "because of formers training but sometimes it is because one person started It, 
and called for his friends to join him. Some/times it is dbocdkix transfer of skill due 
to scientific training at hoios^ One has to know about the background of the group, 
cultural stability and conservatism in the old country. Does it get lost in the new 
country? Mixed marriages? How much of the interest in the old country is retained? 
How fast do their traits disappear in America? How fast did they assimilate? To which 
cultural and intellectual class do they belong in the new country as comgpared to the 
old country? Decline In status? Attitudes towards children in relation to culture 
changes. 



Suggestion for outline for paper: 



(1) Problem {yAkt am I interested in and why) 
(2^ Resources 

(3) Msthods 

(4) Conclusions 



Does cultural attitude one has been brought up in cause oppositiont, and do people 
behare differently, just as a matter of protest (due to emotions)? 

being an 
rear to talk about own status of lamlg rant conqplicates investigation process. Also 
the fact that many people cannot analyze the group life from which they come. 

Herldlty and environment Influence 1 fe of individual, also customs. 

There is a big difference between getting along or becoming a real part of new country^ 

Culture in the Genoan sense: Refinement of living. 

ft w « j^merican ^ : as pertaining to background. 



01 



aA' 



October 18, 19^0 



7/hat do we mean by culture. Super organic structure, not deten^lned 
rv biologically . ^^Itural patterns are passed frcm one generation to 
^ the next ( ootfeo f^ldeals standards, forms of relationship, interests, etc 

T-'^i^^:^^ The process of inducting begins at birth. In tradition of his group 
V^'^'^'^^S^ a child of 7 is already an^ addition to his culture. He organizes these 

traditions in his original way, and fcrms an(J individual personality. 

Each individual is an addition to his culture because he works out 

the traditions in his original way in accordance with his experience. 

Malinowski studies Trobiand Island people wv^o, in opposition to Freud 
theory do not have the 

father mother 



o 




child 



the following setting: 



mother - 



relationship. They have 



mother's brother 




y 



y 



y 



Child 



mother's 
"boy friend" 

Culture is not stable but it flows. Kow far is an individual a 

reproduction of his culture? ^oes culture C'-^ange as a result of 
contact wit^. uther cultures. Can culture be imposed superficially? 
A feeling ( a subjective aspect) is attached to different groups, 

so they react differently to same culture. 



Summary. Culture of a group has t9 be regarded as interacting between 
many groups, should social worker be of same nationality as client is? 
American reaction towards immigrants has changed because cf development 
of anthropology, psychiatry. Also the special type of German immigrants 
is diffe ent from any before. They themselves can interpret their 
needs to American workers. American have become less receptive toward 
immigrants because tfeey do not need them as Tiuch any more. 



o 



I i 



October 25, 19^0 



'O 



o 



My paper iue : November 15th 



Summarizing: what do we understnad by culture, 
behavior, something that is not biological. It 
behavior patterns, language, feelings, skills. 



Culture is learned 
is tradition, 
(see notes Oct. 18). 



Cne must Rs^xkxsk refer to -the background of feeling that rx is ex- 
pressed by culture, that is one shoul ; not only look at a product 
of culture but trace back to the place where it was created, accorUng 
to climate, etc. Hurlbutt: American restlessness, for instance, is 
due to lack of deeply rooted satisfaction. Culture often changes. 
(conversation about cultural items.) Approval or disapproval of a 
group xxkK cause conservation or abandoning culture. Condemnation 
and ridicule of a group have great influence. The supernatural area 
of life is open to superstition which plays great part in a culture. 

Cultural changes due to: invention; (llhey have occurred more as a 
result of play t an as a result of research", Hurlbutt). Cause and 
effect are closely related. Contact causes changes, though all 
changes are slow processes. 

Ethno Centrism. Consciousness of kind, recognition of differaaces. 
Feeling f belonging. Contrast between in and out groups. Community 
of blood kinship. Community of education. Ethnow Centrism comes 
out especially in tim.es of trouble, patriotism. Hostility of out- 
siders. Respect C6r own way of doing things. Impossibility of. 
fudging others objectively. It is important for us to know resources 
in otder to study ethno centrism. 

Mrs. Stone about my paper; what she would like to know: 
Resolution of conflict: difference and relationship between German 
Jew and German culture. Where does he stand in his culture. Causing 
factors. Econo ic forces. Racial and National theory. V/hat does he 
bring to America. In this state of transition, what kind of personality 
is he that makes him a difficult problem for adjustment. 



o 



II 



November 1, 1940 



o 



a 



Di sous s ion of cultural life of a local group. 

social sciences are very young, and there borrow methods from ^he 
physical sciences. This, however is not entirely good since physical 
sciences can experiment UiUm/ in isolated studies which we can 
not do in social sciences. Social work in itself, in its essence 

does not isolate even if it could do so. We ^^^^ J° °°^^.^^J„,^ted 
measure with great flisgression because we can not get the data isolated 
and can use counting only for certain facts. Statistics can become 
very confusing when using them in understanding human behavior. 

We once thought structural type could predict behavior. Today we 
have to study behavior in other ways too. Anthropologists today say. 
the only way to study behavior is to watch behavior. behavior can 
be observed in situations. Behavior is observed in the interaction 
of people. Behavior can be observed in situation in interaction of 
people in given environment. 

What is Norm. It can be the average. It can be the acceptable, 
we do not have standardized norteal behavior. We are ij^^^jsted in 
norms of behavior. In our society these are changing and are subject 
to influences by pmsint public opinion. 

Difficulty of ma?<ing a study of a group. We have to be in Jlof® 
contact with group. We have to find other techniques of study that 
?ake us beySnd^SoSSiing. In making a social study we have to follow 
what is the purpose and the methods, and have to follow them. 

Totality of a group is relevant. 

How to handle the study of the life of one group. Read E. Anderson's 
book "We Americans", first and last chapters on purpose and methdds. 
I. Informal discussion of workers with most representative leader 
J J community to get general picture. Often the Pe^f^J.^^^^^^^.i®^^* 
contact with the outside community is best representative for his 
particular group, he remained the center of his community and knows 

II.**CeAsus of the households in the city, as to birth date, birth 

nlaoe birth place of parents, tjjne in USA, mother tong in addition 
to ooSitry Of birth, citizenship, for instance. (Russel Sage sejls 
symbols for each factor for statistical workers for work with maps. ) 
III. Ouestionaire. Curch, Occupation, occupation desired/, g enerai 
ocoination. languakf spoken at home, other languages, newspapers, 
?ad??f p^?iticalo?lnion, difficulties in bringing up children in 

regak to retaining of customs, race handicaps in social life, race 
proflems of parents in comparison to children's race problems/, how 
would toey chose neighborhood for living if there were free choice, 
bow do they preserve own culture. 

TV. Some detailed interviews /^ , \ 

V. Foreign newspapers, gazettes, telephone directory (foreign names). 



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Minutes of Course 116 
October 25, 1940 



V 



A brief discassion or summary of concepts discussed in past sessions was held. 

Culture 

Ggnerg-l Concepts of Calture 

1, Super-organic 

2. Group thoughts, attitudes, standards, skills, feelings that pervade 
a group. Many of these become crystalized in institutions and much 
becomes a part of sub- conscious. 

Objects of skill give us little indication of type of life lived; rather 
they are products of and symbols of the kind of calture lived in. Modem anthropolo- 
gy in Jiroerica stresses that it is the psychological element that lies behind each 
product of culture that counts. Particularly important is the background of feeling 
they symbolize. Genetically there may be similarities in symbols but the relevant 
facts are the use and emotional background against which the events take place. 

Disinte,5:ration of Culture Habits 

New environment slowly destroys old habit. Some cultural aspects disintegrate 
when immigrants come to a new country where the coherence of their old culture is 
destroyed. The importance of wine in a religious pursuit is interesting to follow; 
also the importance too in some countries of the social aspects of the meal ceremony. 
These are not so higtay developed in America. The restlessness of Americans may be 
related to the fact that we do not have satisfactions deep-rooted in a stable cul- 
tural tradition. 

Importance of Conservation 

Culture often resists change. The conservation of cultural items is amazing. 
A fuller study of this would enable us to better understand and to sympathize more 
with people who resist cliange. 

Motivation behind Conservation 

The motivations behind cultural conservation are complex. Approval or dis- 
approval of the group is an instrument in conserving certain aspects of cultural 
foms. In religious areas conservation is strong as seen in the fact tnat our own 
religion goes back to the pagans in so many aspects. 

Religion and Superstition 

There are areas of life which we can check and prove by scientific methods. In 
the area of mystery there have developed interpretations of the supernatural. We 
differ amonp ourselves as to which we call religion and which we call superstition, 
depending on our own religious traditions. An understanding of the relationship 
between the two is a great tool in helping us understand other people. 



k 



I te rns Leadin.^ to Conservati on in the U>S, 



If 



There are a nmber of general factors leading to conservatism in the United 
States, such as family. Another exariple of a cultural item which has made for con- 
servati^m is probably the United States Constitution. It is difficult to take an 



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otjectivo view towards it. In this country where everything is changing so rapidly 
we still cling to what is old and respect what is antique. 

Basis fo r Q-e n erali zatio ns 

Ke mast recognize that individual telmvior varies so much around the noim. Oar 
cultural characterizations are hased on the nom: ex. Swedes are tall. All this type 
of gennralization can do is to show a trend. Such generalization can more safely be 
applied to physical trends rather than to variations depending on economics, tomperar- 
ment, etc. Certain cultural factors are universal. Surope and America are really 
part of one cultural area with important suh-di visions. The Mexican film "Time in 
the Sun", shows Catholicism transplanted also how European culture was imposed on 
the Indians, 



Cultural ChaniT^e 

Some of the factors which lead to cultural changes are inventions and contact 
with other cultures. Invention frequently occurs as a result of play rather than 
with mrpose. Cause and effect cannot he traced simply. Often the same thing 
haprens nt the same time in various countries. For invention to take place certain 
factors must he present. You must have a suitable cultural base and contact and 
limitation r^.re usually nresent. Invention is the natural outcome of some particular 
situation. Burgess says, invention is seldom as original as it \70uld seem, often it 
is only a question of time until an invention would arise from the circumstances 
which prepare the ground. Many inventions have very long histories: ex. flying. 
Ail-planes can be traced back to Leonardo de Vinci. It is a slow process, 

SI 0^7 Process Versus Revolution 

^ The question we are asking today is how and can totalitarianism superimpose a 

nev: culture on people? Will it take hold or vTill it just be superficial? 

Ethnocentrism 

Miss Klemens, in speaking of Keller's, "Science of Society", says that members 
of any society draw sharp distinctions between themselves and otners m an outside 
group. Within the group we find approval of the familiar; differences give rise to 
hostility. Tor support of this wo turn to and are upheld by religion, marriage, 
tpboos. blood kinship. This is not characteristic only of primitive tribes, Ethno- 
centrism, a term used by Sumner, designates this self-centered attitude developed _ 
by social ^rou^s, Mr. Ginsberg, in speaking of Sumner's "Folkways", says that patriot 
ism and nationklism are varieties of ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism leads a group to 
attempt to imt)Ose its o^vn way of life on a conquered group. In tracing this back we 
find that under primitive conditions only small groups could get their living out ot 
any particular area in their struggle. Outsiders, therefore, are a threat to their 
existence. So the giX3up becomes exclusive. Within the group, they begin to develop 
institutions for peace and security of their society. These become the right ways 
of life- ar.Y deviations are looked upon as queer and suspicious. Finally ethno- 
centrism is" the relationship between members of a group, hostility to outsiders. Due 
to ethnocentrism the members of any group lack objectivity in regard to its own 
culture. The question to be discussed next week is how to go about collecting 
material for a group study. 

rt References : Ahrensberg, "The Irish Countryman"; Dollard, "Caste and Class in a 

V^ Southern To-jn"; Young, "lilgrims of a Russian Town". 



1 



/7W -^ 



^. 



The New York School of Social Work 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 



SOME OJLTUEAL ASPECTS OF TIE THiC^SITION FEOU COUNTHT LIFE 
TO CITY LIFE OP THE SOUTH AyRICAN NATIVE (KEGRO) 






Pearl Buirski 

Course 116 

Fall Q;aarter 1940-41 



1)1 






I 



In NovemlDer 1937, I arrived in South Africa. For two years I taught in a 
Uissionarj' School, where I had the opportunity of learning something of the diffi- 
cult tank that fo,ces the Native Africans in their contact with the Europeajn races m 
the cities of South Africa. Puzzled by what I saw happening in the cities, I was 
prompted l^y my interest to visit the Native Territories, in order to learn something 
of the kind of life they live wlien governed not by the White man's law Toat by their 
own Tribal castoms and traditions. It is indeed a study in contrasts and only in 
this w,:wy can one appreciate the conflicts and bewilderments that these people are 
faced ,7ith, 

I spt^nt "lost of the two years on the Witwatersrand or White Waters Ridge, 
which is a thous;md miles to the north of Cape To^7n, and which has ^ or fifty years 
been sullying the norld with a steadily increasing stream of gold. Of tne million 
people on tho Witwatersrand over one- half are Native Africans-men, women fmd chil- 
dren. The adults arc employed in the mines, factories, shops, kitchens a^d gardens 
0^ the White man. A proportion of the labor group is of a temporary nature; they 
return pt the end of periods of labor to their homes in the country districts. A 
considerable portion of the urban Native labor force, however, is of a peraanent 
nature. 

This p;^rmanent Native popul?>.tion comes into close contact vrith the White 
man. and ir, being profoundly influenced by tliat contact. The two q-uostions I am 
most interested in arc these; Is the trpjisition from tribalism to a civilized type 
of life boing easily accomplished or arc there maladjustments, and '.That effect has 
this on f'-uaily life. 

Visitor-, to South Africa, vho go to see the Africans in their Reserves in 
the couPtrv are strack by the diversity of aistoms followed by different tribes. 
They Pi] have ono thing in common though .-md that is a deep-seated love of home. 
"Recognition as a rosponsiblo member of the Br^tu race, of whatever tribe, means the 
^osseision of a home, with wife and children and domestic animals. 7it.ain his f.-^jnily, 
the Africr^- is secure against wPJit. The necessities of life arc provided by the ^ 
women from the garden, bush rmd ptrenm. His future is guaranteed by his growing chil- 
dren His -/cai filled cattle kra.al and his herds of goats testify to the world that 
he ?; a rooponsible man. To his hnMs a share of the wealth of the tribe is safely 
entrusted. He is looked ut, to as m indoda, a man, indeed whose voice carries weight 
in the councils of his people." The above is ho-.7 Bay E. Phillips describes the life 
of .an AfriC'Ui as lived oiaong his people. 

Undoubtedly the woman's position has been much improved by urbjuiization. 
Her lif - i"^ the tribnl home is the T)erfoCTance of heavy, back-brcjiki;ig drudgery. Her 
tjj^k is\ho cari^fing of water and wood, for which she has to walk mw -r-iles each 
d^y. She doer, the hoeing in the garden and the grinding of the mealies or com, 

AXl this is woman's woik in the kraals. Women in tribalism are alwaj'S 
under restraint. They are alv;a.'B subject to a man's control. First there is the 
control of the father, then that of the husband and by inheritance on his death that 
of the husband's brother. There are no -Tidcrs in the Bantu tribal, state. The insti- 
tution of narriP^e rxA much of the future well-being of man and wife centered in the 
workin.^ of the srstem of "lobola". This system furnishes on objective proof of 
marriaPe. cattlo. Wlien an Africrm man wishes to marry an African girl, nis f.amily 
arranres mth the girl's f<'«nily how many he.ads of cattle are to be given to her _ 
father. It provides /^arantees for the '.7elfare and protection of tno wonon. " f^^^s 
status to the woman mid her cliildren. Most Native women, even many Europerais, still 
defend the lobola system. In case of trouble with her husband, a wife c-m leave him 
and go to her father's kr.aal, where there is food for her, guaranteed Try .he presence 
of the lobola cattle. This system worked well in tribal life. 



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i4 



■^' 



Under modem industrial conditions of town life, it is rapidljr disintegrat- 
ing and with disastrous consequences to marriage relationships. While it is impossibl 
to oUain exact fibres, authoritifjs agree tlmt a large nuuber of marital unions on 
the Witwatersrand today are neither according to the old tribal custom, nor ty 
Christian Civil Eites. A high proportion of births in the location are illegitimate. 
This is leading to a dangerous state of affairs for the Bantu people. There is no 
protection for the children or women. 

I would now like to turn your attention to the causes for rapid disintegra^ 
tion of mra'ria-ce in the cities. In the urban areas the Natives are faced with, for 
the fir;a time,' opportunities for sex adventures. There are in the towns large 
n--ajnbfira of youn<- girls. These girls leave the kraal because of the desertion of the 
homo kraal!-' by the young men. The boys and young men come to the city to look for 
^vork. Thir, U made necessar/ because of the taxes imposed on the AfriceJi people by 
the Government. Since in kraal lifo each fanily is self-sufficient, money is not a 
medium of exchan4;c, the men must come to the cities to raise money to meet the high 
taxes imposed on them. A visit to one of the Native territories reveals a population 
mnde ud almost entirely of women, children and old men. Other women come to tlie 
TTitwntersrfjiid in Boarch of husbands who have left them, and have not returned. They 
stay on as wives of a succession of husbands. 

Another factor leading to the disintegration of marriage can be summed up 
as financial embarrassment. Many a man finds it impossible today to provide a lobola 
for his marriage. Another cause can be found in the clash between Suropeaja and 
Native ]aw. The SuroporiJi conception of "coming of age" or the attaining of cne»s 
majority is causing havoc in th^ tribal rrmks. This idea of a young person being 
emaiicipated from vnrontrl control at a certain time of life, is causing great distress 
In the tribrl state this is not so. No matter how old the son, the father is the 
determining voice in arranging for marriage. After ma.rriage the son is expected to 
consult the father in all matters of any importance and to support him m his old 
8.Fe. miat happens in town is this. An Afric-m boy and girl meet in Johannesburg, 
fil in love, agree to live together without their parents' consent. The parents of 
the girl hear of the arrangement and come to Johrjinesburg, They go to the Native Com- 
missioner for his assistance. However if they are found to be over twenty, tlie 
parents arc; told distinctly that the children are "of age" and they can do exactly 
what pleases then. They are no longer under their control. This is a new thing to 
the Africtui parent. They cannot understand such aprovision. They see their power 
over tbiJir children weakened by the law of the White rafji. 

Another significant contributing factor to broken homes is the overcrowding 
in the Native Locations. I would like to toll you something of the act^aal pl^^sical 
living conditions of the African in the cities, ^len a Native comes to work m a 
town, \e is not freo to live where he chooses. Every town has separate living quar- 
ters'mr-rkea off for the Natives, The-.e are kno'vn as locations. These places are 
from throe to tvrolvc miles from the town and most Natives arc forced to walk these 
distances to '.-rork. I visited many locations and they arc nil patterned the sajne wpy. 
They arc ovoiwcrowded and filthy. The houses that are built for then to live in con- 
sist of tvro rooms mv. a rule. They are built without floors and unfinished \7.3lls. It 
is common to find from twelve to fifteen people living in a house. This is done to 
enabli- the fanil''" to meet the rent. The rent is usually so high that ,-j of their 
wares 'oes to necting this expense. The evils of such a system are mnny but how does 
it"'rffcct far-il'- life? First of all the Afric.-m suffers from lack of security. His 
lease on lois house can be no longer thon thirty dn;/s. Any sickness means eviction. 
When this occurs tlie fnnily moves in with friends. For an African to feel secare, he 
must have a hone for his descendants. How can he then be expected to view his home 



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with pride, to care for his home, if he feels it is not his own. 

In some locations the Natives nast pay a "Lodger Tax". This tax applies 
to his OTO sons and daughters over eighteen. This is contraiy to the African custom 
in rvluch children are expected to stay in their father's home, \intil they have a home 
of their ovn. In some locations it is necessary for African visitors to ohtam a 
wi'itten peimit to enter the location. Once in, tliey can remain for only tnree hours. 
All those restrictions, while they are imposed to enforce law and order, only serve to 
bewilder oxid. ombittor the African wlao is used to the free and social life of the 
kraal. 

There are many other causes which are leading to the breakdown of family 
life in the cities, such as: excess drinking of alcoholic liquor, the influence of 
the mo^-ins -oictures, the difficulty of obtaining a legal divorce from desertin^j or 
deserted married partner. How can marriage and family life stand up rnider the loss 
of parental control, the loss of social control, the liberty from all tribal laws 
and customs, ac-ded to the tremendous strain of economic difficulties? 

It is interesting to contrast the status of children in the tribal life 
with tlir.t in the urban family. The ideal citizen in African tribal life is a man 
with m-^^jr -...ives and numerous claildren. The desira for children is probably connected 
with tribpa belief in the immortality of the ancestors. Many views on tins subject 
have been exoressed bat the commonly expressed one is that these ancestors imve need 
and cr3vings%7hich can be supplied only by those :7ho still live on earth. Young men 
who do not marry early and raise children are thought to be treating their parents 
shabbily. When a family pays lobola to another family in exchange for one of its 
d--aghtors, it is exoected that there will bo children. If the new wife is childless 
a sister o^^ the "dfe must be given to the husband in marriage. In Bantu custom the 
biologic?! father a-annot always claim the right to his children. The children belong 
to the mm on whoso behalf lobola was handed over to the wife's people. Tue following 
is an illustration of this custom. If a husband dies and his brother takes his place, 
any children bom of the new union arc children of the deceased, not of the biological 
father. Or if a child is bom to a woman for whom lobola has not been paid, or 
contrfctod for, the cliild belongs to her family nnd not to the parents. This fact 
has importojicc for the urban situation. As a result of tho irregular marriages m 
the cities, the children do not have any legal fathers. Even if the parents are 
married by Civil Law, the tribal relatives do not recognize the parents, ^ Smco most 
of the I'rtives living in the cities today were not born and bred there, they are 
still to "a great extent controlled by tribal mores. Therefore these attitudes are 
inpox-trnt in the consideration of the problem of the child. 

Conditions in the JIative locations so far as the cMldren are concerned 
are vei^' bad. The old kraal discipline has broken down completely, the children are 
allowed' to run wild, and it is inevitable tli.at tlie children should get out of liand. 
Since parents can neither compel their children to go to school or church there is 
increasin.-; immorality nnd crime. They simply ro.-m afoout the location. Tne AfncaJi 
youth todci" are in a hopeless condition of restlessness. Since the fathers and 
mothers are at work all doy, the children do whatever they like. There is no school 
for man"- cid no care after school. The parents are so confused by laws that one 
writer quoted a parent as sailing, in all good faith, "According to the Fioite people 
it is the i.:atSistrato that must punish one's child and not ones self. 

In thinking of conclusions to bo formulated from all this, one thought 
stands out above oil others. Before any attempt can be made to rectify those condi- 
tions, it is necessary for the law mnking European races of South Africa to try to 



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NA 



understand not only the African as he is seen living in the midst of the Wliite man's 
civilization, "bat as he and Ms people liave lived throughout the centuries. Before 
anj-- constructive programs can he carried out, the fear and hatred tliat exists hetween 
the Waite ai^d Black races must he wiped out. For the evils that exist today in South 
Africa are taiigiole evidences of that distrust and dislike. In its place one must 
hope for mutual understanding and respect. 



I 



sa^RCES or ii^-oaaTioir 



I, S chape ra ed. 
Sav E, Phillips 
J, A. Van Eens"brarg 



M, L. Tick 

2. G-. IvIalherlDe 
Sepo r t 



Cen^as 



The Bantu Speaking TrilDes of South Africa 
The Bantu in the City 

The Learning Ability of the African Native Compared 
with that of the European. 

The Educability of the S.A* Native 

Education and Social Research in S.A. 

Report of the Native Affairs Commission for the 
Years 1937-1938 

Ages and Marital Conditions of the Bantu Population- 
Sixth Census of the Population of the Union, May 5, 
1936. » 



%i 



THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



PUERTO RICAN FAIHLISS IN ITE? YORK CITY 



Jean South 
Cotirse 116 
Fall Quarter 1940-41 



r 



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The purpose in studying the Puerto Rican families in New York City 
was to try to understand the reason this group seens to have so many critics 
and seen so little understood. 

On every hand one hears generalizations and derogatory remarks about 
the Puerto Means. As a Pu-falic Health Nurse who has worked with Puerto Ricans 
and having always liked then, I have never felt that I quite understood ex- 
actly v/hy this group was so maligned, nor could I offer very valid reasons for 
upholding the group other than that I enjoyed working with then. As a natter 
of fact I have found few Putlic Health Nurses or Visiting Nurses who did not 
like the Puerto Ricans. 

?,e know that they are often in dirty, crowded apartnents and that 
their food habits are veiy hard to change. But we also know that they are 
often receptive to suggestions re health, nutrition, hygiene, etc., if they 
are given guidance and help over a long period. 

Me tho ds used. 

1 .1 I.I I II I " " 

Reading Public Health Nurses' health records of Puerto Rican families 
in order to get a sanpling of other nurses' experiences with this group. I 
did not want to have my own experience with Puerto Ricans color any conclusions 
I ni^it reach regarding this group. 

Personal interviews -^ With Public Health Nurses - A native born 
Puerto Rican Public Health Nurse. A psychiatric medical social worker in one 
of our large city hospitals an American worker in a Puerto Rican settlement 
house. A Puerto Rican worker in a Puerto Rican church. Case workers in a 
family agency, with a nutritionist and her work with Puerto Rican frjiilies. 
A Puerto Rican in the Puerto Rican Employment Bureau in New York City, an in- 
terview some years ago with a judge in the Children's Court re the delinquency 
of Puerto Rican children. Also several American citizens' personal reaction 
to the Puerto Rican. 

A study was nade of the case load in the Bronx C.S.S. Nursing Service 
i.e* how many native born heads of families, mixed marriages; the number of 
children; the religion; broken homes; the incident of disease in these families 
in relation to the prevalence of outstanding diseases in Puerto Rico. 

The st udy of Puerto Rican Diet prepared by the New York nutritionists. 
Books on the historical background of Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Rican gifi^^nt 
in New York City . A study made of the historical background of Puerto Rico by 
a Public Health Nurse in the C.S.S. Nursing Department. 

I^ own personal o^tperience as a visiting nurse and later as a Public 
Health nurse. 

Evaluation of material. Eirst C.S.S. case load of the Nursing De- 
partment in the Bronx Office. The active case load of families in the Bronx 
Nursing Service is 252. The number of Puerto Rican families is only 26. There- 
fore to evaluate this group was by no means conclusive. But interesting facts 
were found. Out of the 26 families there were only 3 nixed marriages of ns>tive 
born Puerto Ricans. One nan was bom in Russia, one man of German extraction 
was born in the United States, one woman was from an early American family. The 
heads of the remaining f, -lilies were born in Puerto Rico. There were three 
broken hones, i.e., the husband had deserted. There was an average of 2.8 
children in each family^ The smallest number was one child, and t-.e largest 
v/as six children. 



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( 



The nmnber of families on relief was 10. The color was lifted in 
all instances as white. With but two exceptions the families ^^^^^^ ^J" 
pressed the desire that their children must have the f^^^^^^^g^ °J ^^^^^tv 
Lhool education which they, or their friends and families, had difficulty 

obtaining in Puerto Hico. 

The educational background of the heads of the families differed 
widely. There were two men that had had one to two years of college in 
piJrto Ricorone woman was a graduate of a hospital nurses training scnool 
in San J-oan, others had from two to six years schooling. 

Most of the records and the reports of the staff ^f ?^« «^*^^i^"J^ 
the fact that above all else the Paerto Rican parents ''^^J *^,^",f ^^f !^ '° 
become Americanized. When this expressed desire was ^^^J^^ J.°^» ^^J^^ l?^^ 
thAt they wanted their children to learn to speak English. Two mothers that 
Ire sending their children to nursery school and public school for the first 
?ILtMs fail! expressed themselves thusr One had her f ^f ^ -^^^J-^J.^^, 
a nursing school until she found a Faerto Rican in cnarge of the ^^J^f ^^ Jf 
spoke SpJnish to thorn. She remarked that she would not send her child there 
e?en th?uS it ?ms near her home. She was sending him to ^^^^^^/^^^^^^ *° ^ 
IlSnmorf English so that he ^vould be better able to enter public school the 
foUo'vinryear. The other woman explained th^t the teachers m the first 
J^adet^f cm^d her to the school to toll her that her <^'^\- l^^^Zt^^lo 
Cause of his inability to understand English, nnd to request tne mother to 
help him at home. The mother complained to the nurse that she ^^^^^^J^^^ 
unaUe to speak English well and therefore she would J°\*^;^^,^f . jf ^^ ^°^ 
fear of hindering his progress in speaking English and she wanted him to 
loarn to speak "American." • 

Another attitude that was noted in the records ^\^^^^f J*^^*^J. 
in interviews with the nurses. wr,s the devotion of the PJ^f *^^^J ^^^.^^^J" 
dren. There were several families that load serious marital trouble but th. 
SvoUon of the children to both parents was notewortloy and seemed outstand- 

^""^^ The living conditions differed widely from dark, overcrowded apart- 
ments to well kept homes with meticulous housekeeping ^f^t^ff'^'^}'?^^^'' 
crowded apLtments were in the minority. One nurse said tnat two o^ ^er 
Sorto Rl?an mothers were the best housekeepers of any mothers she had ever 
had in her case load at any time. 

The incident of diseases of those most prevalent in Puerto Kicans 
was hard to evaluate. There was only one case of *^J°^«^°J^J J\^'"!^j; °^ 
tuberculosis in any of these families but this -^^^^.^^^^^^^^i^ SeS^Jfe 
that the organization has a 13 Family Division to which the l.ursing Service 
refer families for extensive health and relief work. 

Other diseases were not noted as being outstanding in Puerto Rican 
^.n,n^.<, It ^as noted that health excuninations in all but rare instances 
Swed i;w hemSobirorlocondary anemia, underweight and malnutrition were 

prevalent • 

This lead us to the nutrition of the Puerto ^^/^'^^^^^l llvT'"' 
ntfitudes reerxding food. As noted in all of the records, the nurses have 
tpent^ Jreaf dtaf of t ime and effort in helping the families to improve their 
diets. £e nurse told of an interesting experience w th one J^ ^^^^/^f ^^1 
which she has carried for two or three years, ^^iio said that this. is not un 
usual and from reading the limited number of records in the Bronx Ox fice^^i 
seems rathor t:-picr.l.) E^o fr^nil^- r/r.s very interested in t... .....Ith scrM 



% 

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-3- 

and toth p.-u-ents folloued all suggestions made by the nurse fJ^^^'^^J^J^^^^^ 
general health of the fa:nily. The children ^^^^i^^^^^^^^^'^'^'^^f ^- ,f iii^.if 
took each child to the Child Health Station. When there "as acute ill^<^^^^ 
Bho was most adept in learning to give tedaide care. /i'^.^^^Jf^^.o children 
vdth one cold after another all winter long. Proper clothing ^^^"^^^J^^^^^^ 
for outdoors and indoors «as followed ^)y the Pf ^^^^^^^ ^f J^^^^'^^^Jf ^^'fil!^ 
were excellent. Routine he..lth examinations alwc ^^'^^^^^/^J^f ^^^f ° ^ 
The food ha-bits were very poor and the nurse had ^JJJ ""^f t.^fLnv^o that 
could interest the p^xrents in changing the food V^^i*\°^ *''*^/,^5i^/Jii^^33<,g 
the children h.-.d a protective diet high in vitamin °°^*'^^*'. ^^^^ "i^J^.^^^^^tho 
and secondary anemia would proDahly continue. A year ago she ?f^J;'^i"^^ ^° *^° 
father and mother her telief and suggested that they ^1^"^^ ^''lJ^^lZ\}Zt'^ll^ 
vitamin content of the children's diet. There was no fruit or green J-g^^J^J°^ 
used in the diet, very little meat or milk. (The '^°J5°j;;;^J„^ Jf f,°Ji^f,''ear 
glass and was interested in the class Dut always said her ^^:^J^( "^^ '^^f 
the food she was taught to prepare). The father at ^f ? P"ff ,^°°'^3tf ^j^ ' 
ested .and he helped his wife to prepare the ^oo^.^YTflt "^The f a^er fould 
was not easy at first, the older children f '^f ^!^°%P"j;- /^^ J'^^'/p^eSng 
that they would drink vogetahle water. Gradually xie tnickenod this toy P^^eing 

tS vegeta^lS^^d adding this to the water. '^'^^^<^^^ '^d'Se'nother 

food id now according to the ^^^^^-^^^.^^^f =^^^ *f .^^'.^^J See" exclus! 
have an e^^cellent diet, tut the father "still eats his hems .Jid rice 

ivoly. 

TO ovnlmte those records as Kis stated lefore ""l^^,,";"' ^^ /°"°^"°" 
ivc. The f.-milles studied have all recuestod the ='="^f '' °^ J'j^f "^i":!*^- 

reno^rr?nt7.:rfonr%rfo::^iiLft".:?StTtS^^:i|?'rf^^ao 

rtSt"thrktr£ Means W thol^^ 

to thoir native food and eating hatnts. x couxa noT; aci^ u. u. 

=-=ra -a ^ i='?SE°£SS £ 
ij^d^rt-rve:^^^^^^^^^ 

Puerto Rican group as a whole. This is no^ aononb bitten 

we know from statistical studios of the city that this is true. U 
for the latest report tut have not yet received it. J 

T think another generalization cim he made. That is that all the 
Puhlio HealthlSsrinLrfiewed like and respoet the ^erto Hie- f ^ P ^ 

? ~S= S-S": 1£i : sr£r£€r:y.sp. 

""f'^r^laUod to car?y"ut a "promise". In evaluating the records with the 
expe?ionce would s.:^. "That was my fault. I didn t ^^^^^^j/^-^^^^J J^^^ ^^ ^^ 

SrocoaJttcal? t'irne\etter off than f^ ,^^l^^^/^lll^fZ:.:il 'Z Ss 
f.^rrifan'^:pS=rthr=^ferl:t!r^^I,SS£^^ 



V' 



-4- 

York City . Lawrence R. Chonault. (Ifrs. Nicholas will correlate this in hor 
paper and discussion of tho Puerto Rican people in Puerto Rico.) 

The Puerto Rican workers - first the native Puerto Rican Public 
Health Nurse. She states that generally people do not understand the Puerto 
Ricans. Their sense of hwior is different from ours. Cien we "kid" then 
which wo as Anericjms are apt to do at any tine with .anyone, the Puerto Ricans 
t;^o this "kidding personally" as she expressed it. To follow this fl^^^l-^Ef ^ 
worker in one of the Sottlencnt Houses in the Harlen district saxd, "The Puerto 
Ric>-n children do not understand us when we joke with then. liThen wa first 
opened tho settlement we did not realize this." The snail quips and friendly 
rather kidJ.ing greetings given to the Puerto Rican children were net with little 
or no response. This worker wont on to sjiy that this was trou^it hone to the 
non Puerto Rican group of workers very graphically \>y one operience. A toy 
of ahout 11 or 12 yeto-s cane to tho Settlenont for tho ^i^^t tine and was 
.-reetod ty her with a friendly snilo (she hoped) and sone little "foolin, ro- 
nark which she did not even renenter. A year later tho child crme up to her 
and said, "^ou were fooling ne or kidding ne when I first cane ..ore weren t 
you? I didn't understrjid and didn't know what you ne^xnt." Sho^asked hin what 
sho had said and he said, "Oh I don't know, it wasn't much tut it took ne a 
long tine to fi(^;:ure it out." 

Sho explained thixt the group in the Settlenont were nearly all 
Puerto Ricans and they were with few exceptions on the defensive ^^^J^/^ 
knew and trusted you. Their dr.nces at the Settlenont are extrenely 1^^°^°^*^^^. 
The young people take their dancing vety seriously. There is not a snile on 
their faces while they dance. Neither is there conversation. T.xcy are an 
intense group according to this v/orkcr. 

The worker at the Puerto Ricjin Church feels that all efforts should 
be expended on the island itself to keep the people in Puerto Rico. He feels 
it is^rank injustice to let them cone to the U.S. ^ith Puerto R^^^o used as an 
Arny rmd Navy base and with federal planning nuch can and will he ^onc in 
Puerto Rico. The lack of vocational education on the island is a terrific 
handicap. 

The Puerto Rican Enployn^nt Bureau in New York City say there has 
been no increase in errploynont of the Puerto Ricin group during the last year. 
?S; Nov; York State Enploy^nt Bureau reports that nearly f 00 nore Placenents 
have been mde in Septenbor 1S40 than wore nade in Septenber 193S of all the 
registrants. They do not keep statistics regarding placements of nationality 
or racial groups. 

The Psychiatric Social T7orker in one of the large city hospitals ex- 
plains that tho greatest nvu^bor of Puerto Ricans that are connitted to nental 
hospitals Ivave a dia^-nosis of Manic Depressive Psychosis as well as Paresis 
and there is a great incident of Psychoneurotics anong the Puerto Ricans. It 
rould be difficult to evaluate these stateaents unless an intensive study was 
made of other groups and also of the Puerto Ricans on their own island. 

To evrluate any of the above infornation would be difficult. It does 
seen sii^xificant that the Puerto Rican worker and the Ar.ierican worker often 
have sinilar ideas and feelings about the Puerto Ricans. 

Pron the nutritionist's viev/point I think it is possible to evaluate 
the naterial obtained* There is a consensus of opinion th.at the .uor to Rican 
diet is nest inadequate on the island and in the U.S. To nodify and inprovc 
the diet t.-nkes patience, ingenuity and a knowledge of the people and their 



11 I I 



-5- 

habits plus oconomic and political insight. 

Tho fainily case worker's point of view is enlightening. It was 
pointed out that there is a greater matriarchal ^^^^^^^fj^^ *^^^^^'\ 
Ric-ms than is generally understood. Tho f ^ S^-^<^°*5°J,^%l>J°f ^'r word 
groat deal to say regarding the "behavior of the rest o^ *f /^^J^; ^;;^^r 
is given consideration and respect in tho old Puerto ^J^^^f^i^^^^, !ar?icu- 
the family comes to the U.S. the new indopendenco of J^^/^^iJ^^^^^^^f^hir 
l.-^rly thoVrandchildxen causes her to hocomo very hostile. The workers tnau 
SCO these f^ildren and grandchildren in their off^oosf.^l\-/llflll ^^^^^ 
iiaportanco of visiting tho home and making the ^^^^^^^J^^^^ °^ J^J °ii.^^: 
mother even if she is unaWo to speak the language. Shoc.-^ and should dio 
pl.y a friendliness r.md a willingness to use one of the f^jf ^^^^P^f^^^^^^^'" 
Lrs of the foMly to act as an interpretor to reassure ^^^^J^^l^^t^^^ ^^ 

to t^nko hor into consideration when plans are ^^^^^ l!-^;^^^,^;-^^^!,^^^ a?l 
the familv eroup. It was said hy another case worker, "Puerto Ric..ais oJ^e ax^ 
^eg^;S iTant only relief". Reading from the C.S.S. ^apartment of Nursing 
hifforical study of Puerto Rico "tlvxt Saturd..y is J°f ^" J^t/'^J^J^^^t is 
offices and individual la^' in stores of pennies. 1^%^°^?^*^ J^^^^^gjJtu! 
cheaper to issue those small doles than to pay taxes for ch^vritatlc institu 

tions»" 

* 

Another case worker pointed out that suporsitions ^^J^^^^Z^ 'nay 
+h, P„-rto Means and resistance to medical treatment or healthful living may 
well^; d^e iHld^uperritions ahout situ..tiens which he does not understand - 
a supernatural interpretation due to lack of knowledge. 

This cm be evaluated partially because we have also asked the 
Puerto Rican workers if the ahove statement was valid and we were told that 
it v/as# 



'a former iudge of the Children's Court in New York City in a con- 
versation thorthe'^fJrto Ricans said that "they were the g-tef law hrecOc- 
ors in the city" and some law should he passed to stop the migration ofj^^ 
Puerto Scans to the U.S. We cannot evaluate this because we do -t^^- ^^ 
our disposal nor tho time to measure crime or delinquency. All we c*^^ Jc^ 
is tJat'^ageneralized statement such as the ahove is not --^^^J^^Jf ^g^^J^f 
a^e facts, figures and more scientific rmd controlled evaluation of Soci.l 
Science thtui lias as yet been evolved. 

My own experience with tho Puerto Riccms has been very gratifying. 
I -^ve worSd in the area around 116th and 113th Street between Lexington 
5nd 8th Ivenues! I cannot add more than a little description ^ !'r°*° °!^^^° 
first Puerto Rican family I ever visited in 1934 when I was getting my Public 
Health training first in a bedside nursing service. 



A Third Floor Roar 



« 



tiT-.n Nurse trudged wearily up the narrow, dark flight of stairs, seeking the 
IZ ^Par?nent where a child was reported to be suffering from pneumonia. 
sL steSodlingSy over banana peels, newspapers and a week's accWatxon 
of generc^-l rubbish. 

In response to her knock, the door was opened a crack and then flung wide open 
In rosponso ^° "*- ,'^^ relieved face of the mother, greeted her. She 
i^s^'iso^eeted b^the utter confusion and poverty of the kitchen. No wonder 
ISr: ras'Ilinets Lre. The only heat on t^s cold blustery dc^. was c^^^^^ 
from a little gas stove, where a sm^ill sputtering yellow flame, was ..eating 



-6- 

coffeo, in a tattered coffee pot. The floor was devoid of P^^^^*' ^^*/°* f 
,0-rcasc spots, crusts of broad, burnt mtchos and bits of newspaper. A palo 

iigl.t was trying to find its way into tho ii^^'^l/<^f ,?"^?^^,,^"° ^^^^f ,f tho 
grubby windows overlooking a narrow court. On the table in the middle of tho 
J^om, the uneaten breakfast was still in evidence; also perhaps ^^-pvov* Jt 
was hard to say where one m.al might Imve left off. and ^^°^^^^.°^^^^°f^ 
Tho tliree chairs ;7ore in different stages of repair. A tiny battered sink 
was piled high with dark greasy pots and pans. 

An old box hung on the wall, with a wire ^-'^^^^^^^f .^^^^'"^td^rnt^ih'^Jeir 
Gcrawny. u^^ly white rats sat nibbling at a crust of bread. Underneath their 
c.ge w;re tS remains of meals, hot consuraod; but pushed out of their way. as 
if they'd made up thoir minds to clean their house, if no one else would. 

But where w,.s the little patientT He, poor child, was ^^^^^3° °Snof 'onT 
if room it could bo called. Ho sat huddled, wide eyed and f"&>^°^"J' °^.^,, . 

cold dirty mattress, with .on equally dirty ^l-^-\*^-'^-!;;,°7^.tho'^roon ^lo 
body. A snail light from a tiny bulb, hanging in the center of t .ic roon.madc 

his pale little face more deathlike". 

The concern of this mother was so pathetic, so gentle ^^%^°^;^^^J^^ °ilish 
child, that a heart of stone would laave molted. She could not ^PJ^ f f^^f 

Z.^y't^fZ^ 'a^S-a r^uHf f::rg:."^X re^pTorg^Uen 
t:^^::r ;;.1?f nlth. the^ lack Of -cilitios for caring for we persons.^^^ 

jftytrs iL^rroS- JSd ^^^r ^^^^^jr:^^^^' 

t'mt this situation is atyj.ical in 1940 as indicated by t..e ot..or cases men 
tion in v/hiclh she v/as soon. • 



» 
> 



COITCLUSIOKS 

The conclusions reached are that one cannot "ake generalizations about the 
^^ort: Hicans until ^n exhaustive study is ..d^ '^XlTJ'in^siTZl 
I^^ro'thr-r^^ltSer^N:; Son^ riirtSf suffice, one has to study other 
{•roups in relation to the Puerto Eicans. ■ 

Ihut thoy are mlignod In tho U.S.A., I fool, ha= ^^°;,=J^',J'^J,^;->J°tt/Bi,^s. 
projudico^inst then w I- ono^^; >--^^ -» =^^^^^^^^^ 

^hasis night be laid on tho education of Arioricans. Puerto Ric<-ns are 
^S^ferent", therefore do not belong seens to be shown by eioployer. groups, 
la^rrien and sodo professions. 

Anothor oonclualon r.a.hod i= t.^t ruMlc Hoalth to-sos - - P'^f -l^^^, 

-rou-D like Puerto Ricojis. Other professional groups are trying ^^ r" t,^__, .^ 
SraiHe mi^.t add th.at ^^li^Hoalth Nurses feel ^a t,e -y to 1--^;^^ 
respect and understrjid any group is to visit them i^/^^jJ^/°^^';^ ^.^^^o 
is the reason tluit the Public Health Nurse is so well liked by t..e Puerto 

Hicans • 



-7- 

To work effectively ^.ith any group of pooplo is to try to ^^^f ^^^ ^^f ' 
tnko tl;on as thoy are without feeing judgraental and not to oxpoct taen to 
change thoir way of life to noet your standards. 

The purpose and conclusion of this study do not ^^^f ^^J^^/^^^.^^^^'^^.tudT^ 
hoped. It soeas necessary to acknowlodae as a prenise *^^° ^^^* *^\'*^'^^ , 
of people in thoir native land is essential to the understanding of then in . 
?oroiTlarl No f iPTires or facts that I have obtained are conclusive. It 
^ould'^'ie tnths ofTlanned and detailed study to f -^-.^^.^TivW^the 
.,euornli.ations that were valid. I have tried to shmv *ff^^ . f .f J^^^^^; J. 
cevoral exarples of experiences of people working with Puerto Ric^ people, 
as well as the Puerto Rican native born. If I have been successful, thi. 
snail project was worthwhile to no. 



f 



8 



TO7:.rT.Y iroOD OHDERS - PUERTO RICAN FAIHLY OF yiVB 



Prices as of October 1934 - N#Y C« . 

GOOD II UTRITION TYPICAL N>Y>FUERIO RICAK SUGGBSTED. 
AiAount Cost Anount Cost Amount Cost 



MILK ^ 21 quarts 

Grado A 
Grade B 
Evaporated 



_ 


~ 


8 


10 


1.20 . 


8 


11 


.66 


5 



1.28 


— 


"• 


.96 


10. 


1.20 


.30 


11 


.66 



vo>-:e table s ■- 3 3 Ibst 



Frenla - 



2 
4 



grcon 
cabbage 
others - 

carrots etc 8 
P.R. tubetrs 
plantains 
yautia ~ 
Potatoes 16 
Fresh tonato -^ 
CiiJinocL -Tonato OS 2 
Tonato pas to •• 
« sauce •• 
Dried -Peas, "beans 1 



.10 
.20 

.27 



.24 
.18 



2 

1 



.08 



4 

10 
5 

2 

5 
5 



.10 
.05 

.04 



2 
4 



.10 
.20 

.14 



.16 


4 


.16 


.15 


16 


.24 


.25 






« 


2 


.18 


.12 


1 


.06 


.25 


- 


— 


.40 


3 


.24 



FRUITS - 6 Its. 



Fresh - oranges, "bananas 4 

(apples) 
Dried - Prunes, raisins 2 



.20 



.22 



Occasionally 



.30 



,20 
.22 



{ 



BREAD & CEREALS - 21 lbs 

Bread - white 

wholewheat 

Cerov-Lls •* 

Flour 

liarcaroni & spa^r^hetti 



Rico 



EGGS - srade B or brown 

CHEESE - American 

KEAT & FISH 6 I'bs 
Meat 
Fish 
Salt cod fish 



6 
6 
6 
2 
1 



.48 
.54 
.48 
•16 
.08 



1 doz. .29 , . 
.11 ' 



a 



4 
2 



.52 
•;^26 



10 


• . 


.80 


6 


.48 


4 


Occasionally 
Occasionally 


.32 


6 

4 


.54 
.32 



1^ do«. 



♦30 



,45 



6 .78 

Occasionally 
2 .26 



.20 



1 doz.. 29 



Occasionally (Ednn) a «11 



4 

2 



.52 

• 26 



(continued) 



«•« 



• -9- 



■Ki*'* 



-^i"^ 



FATS Sc OILS - 3 Its 



B utter 
Other fats 
Oil 

SUG AH Alg) STOETS 

Molasses 
MISCELLAUECUS 



Cocoa 

Coffeo 

Toa 



GOOD NUTRITION 
j..3l'jxint cost 



1 

2 pt 



3 

h can 



t : 

1/8' 



.30 
,26 
.10 



.18 
.08 



.04 
.10 
t06 



TYPICAL K.Y. PUERTO RICAI SUGGESTED 
amount cost anount cost 



L 



li 
1 pt 



3 

f can 



•^ It chocolate 



1 It 



■ > I « > 



»•— i**™—*" 



.30 
.19 
.19 



.18 
.08 



.10 
.20 



,t w 



. 1 

15 



ipt 



,30 

.19 

.10 



3 .18 
•^ can .08 



.04 
.15 



$ 7.39 



$8.51 



$7.36 



% •< 



Su.vested Scui-nA. of Inforna t inn on Puerto Rjcnn Life and Culture 

1. Porto Rico - A Caribbean Isle - Richard J and Elizabeth K Van Duscn 

p Jl <;iirvGv of the Public Educational Systein of Porto Rico 

2. . Survey^of^thc^x-ub^ institute of Teachers College - Columbia University 

3. The Effect of Tropical Sunli^.t on the I>f f ^P'^^^* °^,f^^?^^ 'JJ^ fS?^'"" 

of Puerto Rico. U.S. Doijartnent of Uxbor, Children's Bureau f.i/ 

4. The Enploynent of Wonen in Puerto Rico - Carolyn Manning 

U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau 

5. A Glimpse of the Social Life of Porto Rico - B.C. Sherman 

Journal of Hone Economics, July 1930 

6. Porto Rico and Ite Problens, Victor S. Clark 

The Brookinf^s Institution, Washington, D.C, iy.3U 

7. Picturesque Porto Rico, Elizabeth K Van Duson, 

Tales of Borinquon (Porto Rico) Stories and poens - 



f 



ri 



-lO* 



BIBLIOGBAPHY 



Reports -• 






Puerto Rico: 



Puerto Rico; 



26 



Third Report Legislative Committee 
to investigate unemployment 
San Juan, Puerto Rico, Petruary 9, 1932 

An inquiry as to The Health of the Children 
Committee of American Child Health 
Association Staff* 

Puerto Ricoi Edith Stiles Kivett, R.Nt. 

^ Putlic Health Nurse^ C*S.S. Department of 
Educational Nursing. 1937. 

The Puerto Rican Migrant in Ne w York Cit; 

Lawrence R. Ghenault 
Columbia University Press, 1938 

Circling the Gariblpoan : Tom Marvel ^r ^ ^ ^arlry 

Harcourt, Brace and Company, New York, ly^/' 

Industrial Geogra.'phy - ^ Charles E. Landon 

Assistant professor of 
Economics Duke University 
Prentice -Hall, Inc., New York, 1939 

Puerto Rico and Its People; Trumbull TOiite 

Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York, 1938 

Puerto Rican foiailies ^ C.S.S. Nursing Service, Bronx District Office 



24 men were born in Puerto Rico 
1 no^tivc born Russian 

1 native born American of aerman parents 

25 women native born Puerto Ricans 

1 woman native born American (name Smith) 

All stated they were white. 

25 families Roman Catholics 
1 family Seventh Dn^' Advcntists 

3 broken frailics - fathers deserted 



All families had from one child to 6, Average number of children was 2.8. 
One family had a relative living with thom^ 
10 families were receiving Home Relief 



I I 



^T 



11 

Wages of the families not receiving relief were $80.00 to $120.00 per 
month* 

All lived in steam heated apartments. Rent ranged from $23.00 to $38.00 per 
month. 

ITo more than two people slept in any "bod. All infants had their own crihs. 



*t« 



THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



GERiaN REFUGEE P;jffiNTS« ATTITUDES TOWiilffi PIACEiffiNT OF CHILDREN 



Ethel Stone 
Course 116 
Jail Ciuartei' 194041 



> . 



I 



/• 

»•,.« 



Prior to discussion of this main topic It is important to briefly 
discuss the problem of race and minority particularly from well recognized 
sources in modern anthropology. According to Otto Klelnterg in Race Differencas 
he exposes the su-bjective approach to the pro-blon of race, (Nordic among others; 
as lacking in scientific validity and related to "national egocentricity". Race 
is a zoological concept; it refers to physical type; nation is a political con- 
cept implying "boundaries and an Independent government" He regards it as 
"absurd" to identify the two and gives a historical analysis which indicates 
oven in as concrete a factor as physical types there is decided mixture of 
groups in all geographic areas. Race actually as related to language the 
Aryan Ijxnguage is also a serious misnoner. , The Aryan language refers to an 
original source of languages ♦ The protlom of race has "been approached from 
many angles. Language, physique, emotional characteristics, mental character- 
istics, otc. The ultimate scientific conclusion is that there are no foutida-^ 
tions for a helief in an Aryan race. That all the factors mentioned in relation 
to race indicate that there is a fundamental plasticity and variance in physical 
structure etc, varying under different conditions. 

Prana Boaz in "Race and Race Prejudice" (iiowish Social Service 
Q,uarterly Deconoer 1937 further affirms the previous source in the following 
•no proof has ever heen given that a race as such has a certain kind of mental- 
ity that is not determined hy environment, that is hy its own traditional 
culture. Biological factors may he discovered in the personality represented 
hy members of the snne family although even in this case other conditions will 
determine the manner in which they express themselves'. The race theory on 
wMch the Nazis hase their political theory is unfounded as it is ridiculous. 
« It is an expression of a pseudo-science defended hy fanatics who are carried 
away hy nationalistic feelings and confuse Race and Nation.' "We in this country 
are not free of this tendency". 

In discussing the problem of minorities I on citing Brown and Roucek, 
particularly the chapter on Jews from Gerraany in /uaerica. 'The prohlem of minor- 
ities are as old as civilization.* "It exists within every group to the extent 
that individuals sense a feeling of difference between themselves and the majority 
or the dominant element of the group.... Each group tends to definite attitudes 
of superiority as to its own cultural pattern and a corresponding feeling of 
antagonism toward the others.... In modern Germany there is an effort to exter- 
minate minority by strict censorship and presecution... .Thus through ethocentri- 
cism - this superiority of the we group and the rating of all other groups with 
reference to it... Both intergrating and disinter gating forces are continually 
■playing upon the cultural patterns of these minority groups.... Significant 
changes in social attitudes may aggravate or eliminate a minority problem... 
For example, in times of economic distress there is a definite tendency to 
rccontuate differences between groups and resentment against certain minorities... 
"such expression of aggros sion Is often sublimated into "virtuous construction - 
Nordic superiority - America for the Americans". 

According to Dollard and others in "Frustration and Aggression" the authors ex- 
pound the theory in which mechanisms of aggression are psychologicaLprojections 
induced by serious frustration, existing tti human behaviour, in the individual, 
the group, the nation. In the discussion of Democracy, Fascism and Communism 
the authors conclude "there are characteristic frustrations in all of these 
ideologies and reactions to them take particular twists related to a specific 
(if possible) culture complex, According to this hypothesis the existence of 
social prejudice against a group of people is evidence first that those who have 
the prejudice have been frustrated and secondly that they are expressing their 
ag-ression or part of it in fairly uniform fashion". The authors do not draw 
conclusions on the psysological base that is in a vacuum, they bring to bear 
economic and social forces that contribute to frustration which must find some 



- -2~ 



* 4 



expression hostile and aggressive which is often displaced or projected. We can 
see the forces of aggression projected on the Jer in Germany and on nations 
which threaten the German nation in its security and sense of worth. It is well 
to tear in mind that these very meclianisms of aggression that are so evident in 
the Gornuxny of today is not a particular group phenomenon. These expressions 
of frustration can he clearly seen in groups and individuals seriously deprived 
and threatened as are the Gorman Jews, the*refugee in this countryt I think 
it is important to recognize the positive strength that sometimes lies hehind 
the force of aggression which may he an alternative to self destruction, and I 
am particularly relating this to the Jewish refugee In his terrific conflicts 
in attempting to make an adjustment in a strange land. I think it too, import- 
ant to boar in mind a philosophie concept and a very dynamic one that stems from 
Rank npjnoly that the individual in his growth is continually seeking to identity 
with others in finding a likeness and a similarity, at the spjne time ho must 
also find his own uniques and his own difference, and always there is a dynamic 
balancing of physcologicpl forces to stabilize the individual in this shifting 
transition. If we can accept this theory we can see that the Germoji Jewish refu- 
gee has historically tried and succeeded to a considerable degree to identify 
with the German nation at the same time finding it necessary to preserve what 
was uniquely his own cluture. There were forces historically at \7ork that 
forced his uniqueness to a dan^:erous degree and we soo it today in the refugee 
who has been forced to become not so much unique as alien. We see in his ad- 
justment in this country his desire to preserve his own uniqueness in his con- 
flict in taking on a new culture. This conflict often expresses itself m an 
excessive will, a will that has creative potentialities, a will too, if not 
constructiveli' channelized ce« become devastating. 

Emma S. Schreiber (Service for the Foreign Born, National Council of Jewish 
Women in her article on Naturalization and Americanization Social .7ork Today, 
December 1939) discusses the problem of creating an integrated American culture. 
She describes approaches to the problem that of the melting pot ideology in 
which varied cultures are lovolled off to a uniform culture and the second ap- 
proach that of diversity of culture in a united whole. She feels that the view 
of cultural relations in America most widely hold is that of cultural Democracy. 
(I don't know but this is not to some degree, wishful thinking). This view holds 
that tlie conscious acceptance of the best in each culture as a part of a common 
American culture has the best potentialities for richness and creativity. 

In a recent radio address under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Interior, 
Office of Education, the above view is upheld in the f ollov/ing: "The purpose of 
cultural democracy is to develop an emotional receptivity tov/rxd contributions 
of each nationality through identification \7ith its cultural pattern. This will 
n.Tke it possible for America to enjoy a cultural renaissance." 

In the President's address of Octobor 17. 1939. under tlie auspices of Intergovern- 
nontal Comittoe en Political Refugees he makes the following pronouncement. 
This problem (of immigration) involves no one race group - no one religious faitn. 
It is the problem of all groups and all faiths. It is not enough to indulge in 
horriaed humanitrrianisn, empty resolution, golden rhetoric and pious "or^s. 
^e must face it actively if the democratic principle based on respect of human 
dignity is to survive - if world order which rests on security of the individual 
is to be restored". 

There have been many studies made on innigration from the point of view of number, 
source, age. class, education, profession, etc. I on particularly citing articles 
by Edward C^rsi former Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization and Marion 
Shipsby. Associate Director of the Foreigh Language Infornation Service, also 
articles on the subject in recent surveys and a pamphlet by Maxwell Stewart of 



-3- 



«* 



the Public Affairs Connittee, The articles of Corsi and Shipeby appear in 
'•Social Work Today" Decenber 1939. All of the statistics point to a rapid and 
seriously decllnging innlgration rate and this in the face of a declining 
Anorican birth rate. In 1938 the total nunber of imigrants was less than 
68,000. Of this nunher 36.000 enigrated leaving 42,000 imigrants. Tnis 
represents less than 4/lOO's of 1 percent of our population 0^.130,000, 000. 
According to Corsi the factors which work in opposition to imigration are dis- 
trust of foreigners, fear of conpetition by labor, rural fears of cities as 
centers of imigration, war hysteria, etc. The last World War contributed to- 
ward the restrictive quota law of 1921 and 1924 which nade for _ serious discrim- 
ination. At present with serious restrictionists in Congre««" innigratxon and 
alien laws will become increasingly nore strigent. The Reynolds group in the 
Senate and the Dies group in the House are v/aging vigorous battles to snut the 
doors altogether. This enrphasis is unprecedented in American history. Tiie 
author continues to state that the total number of aliens in this country is 
3.5 million a snail proportion of a hundred thirty million and too ^nall a 
ratio to threaten American security if there is any threat at all. Moreover, 
there is a great demand for naturalization which will reduce the alien number. 
In alien communities immigrants constitute a dwindling number. "Children form 
the bulk of immigrant iDopulation and these children are largely native born 
English speaking and as truly American as the children of our ol^^J «*°^^ ; 
The author goes on to say that there is a process f ^"^^f °"^!^f. ^!f/;jtil 
and rapid extinction of differences," "Citizens of foreign ^J^J^. J^J *^^J^J^^, 
children today are concerned with problems that face all America ^^ their daily 
struP-j-los oflife. and whatever may be their interest in European affairs there 
can t; no doubt a^ to their loyalty to America. In fact there is much to be 
regretted in the rapidity with which the innigr^^t and his family give up the 
old for the new. His language customs and cultural ^f «^^*^^°«%^\ I^*f ,J° '^" 
enrichment of American life, so important to his own ^^^Pf '^^^%^^,'^^^f ^f.^^"" „ 
carded with amazing indifference p.articularly among children who have little ap 

preciation of their rich heritage." 

Bund and similar associations devoted to alien i^«f °Si«%^^P^?^^?J,^„i"'Jg!ies 
ficant factor in the life of the foreign born - only great publicity contributes 

to their survival - (I would question this.) 

"If there is any immigration problem in America todn,- it is ^f P^f^^f ^°^j^P^°; 
vidinp security for those Americans who toiled, the problem of finding work for 
Ihe nniion jobless and on relief, for better housing and slum clearanc , f>r 
^tu^factor/ .orking conditions, .P-P- f acilitioo f or cducat on a^^^^^^^^^^ 







th 



ouc pro"bleT.iG 



r\c* 



uo^ cscapo T' 



■A 



:strictionisto in Congross but it is of vital concern 

to iunerica and her millions" „„^4.^^^•n +Viot -nT-if ticallv 

According; to Marion Shipsby there is a general misconception that practically 
all rfcent immtLation is from the German Reich including Austria. It is import, 
ant to note^af from July 1932 to June 1959 years of Nationalist Socialist 
regime in Sern^ there has been a total irxiigration to this country of less than 
75"oSo, whe^eaHhe total number admissible under the quota is more than 175.000 
Ind thit not all of these are Jewish. Before 1938, 31^/ere Christian. The 
ftinlLation for the greater percenta.-e of Jews is explained by the fact tnat 
Ziragencies ^ere^first in the field to create facilities and support for 
imraigration programs. 

statistics indicate th^t imrdgration is more highly f ^«^*^^^.^|;^, ^^,^^'1^°^^ 
tines. Previous to the World War there was a preponderance of unskilled labor 

with high illiteracy rates. 



-4- 



^ 



1914 



19S8 



. 1.2# "belonged to professional group 

14.2 skilled workers 

54, farm laborers, laborers, servants 

8f0 professional group 
21#8 skilled workers 
12#8 farm laborers, laborers and servants 



»( 



Generally the trend shows decidedly a highly literate group. ^^^^^^ ^^'^^^^^ 
highly educated group, and more highly skilled group than f «^^^J^°^^- J^^^^^^ 
is insufficient time to discuss the great contrihutions made ty ^-^f S^J^* g^^^" 
and individuals, nor is there space to deal with the vast numher of national 
and local committees in dealing with the problems of immigrants ^^^^^^^^J ^J 
justment to a new social scene, a scene in which the depression st^llj^^^^J; 
ill of these groups are effectively at work not alone in working o^\f o^^'"^^, 

tnd social adW-nts hut also in the preservation ^^ '^%^'^\^'ZT X^ 
traditions of the immigrant and refugee (despised word). I have J^^^^ ^ J'^ PJ^ 
sentod some backgx'ound for the topic that I am soon *° f ^^^^^;. ^ J^^J Z^,^,^ 
such an orientation would he helpful in seeing the P^f l<^",^f ^^^/^^'^^^Jron 
refugee in its proper prospective. But before actually getting to my topic on 

placement of clIldLn I think it important to briefly f^^r^.'ri^^ Jewish 
Lti-semiti«aand some of the general problems that ^°nf'^°^\*^%^^^'^f^/;^^"^ 
^fLee. I cit^. Harry Lurie. Council of Jewish Welfare and Federation Funds. 

New fork in Ms article on De;elopment in J-i^\°^f %-t^^:J^°, ^,^t HT'' 
in the United States (Jewish Social Service Qj^arterly S^Pj^^^JJ^^^^^^f'^^^ 
Melvin M. Fagen in the same quarterly in an article Social Pathology of the 
Refugee ^oblem. According to Lurie anti-Semitism is not a Jewish P^o^lem no 
mittfr how adversely it affects the well being of the Jews. It is ^^^^^ntially 
'. T^roblem of social economic and political disorgajiization. It is an i^^^^i^^J;'^ 
comp ne" of reactionary and Fascist programs. _ "We --^^^/Xe Us^nubliSy 
Democracy against these progrnms merely by urpng jf ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^'''^h social 
the Democratic attitude or spirit... The Jewish P^°f «». ^^%J°^J^^5 I^au^ed 
ind political issues of the day... The major campaign is the T^^o^'^J ^augett 
Sfort to solve our social and^conomic Problems. . .Fascism is a political and 

economic program, it is modiaoval in its ^-^f J^/jJ/^^^^^'^^^^reconomlc 
«-,-.•» rit -Rut it is a TJrojected contemporary solution for the unsoivea economic 

Sil UtlLrpr^ui ii tod... Ablution ">f /"P'*ff ^^ ^^f^^r^^, 
nations mav adopt under pressure." Mr. Fagon shares this point ot view dut> 
states s^S^what more concretely that many of the most ri^toous members of 
Democrrtic communities who speak out nobly In defense of American ideals never 
Sless in their employment practices, economic thinking -^^^^^^/^J^^^^.^f^, 

iL aSd o'resSd that Hitler- s conquest of Austria did not 1-^ ^^^J^^.-^f °^ 
psyc^lcs^al frustration but in the failure of bankers and industrialists to 
accept responsibility for social reform. 

fort and fear of the now in every aspect of a l^^^'JS experience 
total as that exporiended by the refugee the accentuation of ^''y^^^'^f ^^^^ 
ments may become excessive. To be forced to change ^f ^^^^/^.^^ *°'f "^^ jjs 
lose every vestige of status and security in every phase of life, to have ones 



,s 



,1 



-5- 

values cbnpletely shaken - the burden is overwhelming. ,^f ^7^J,^r3^gj:j:\::;^es 
personal history it must he remenhered in spite of all the common negative 
are dynmnically related to adjustment and neither are separable. 

Miss Wilensky (aerman refugee clients of a family ^g«^<^y. ^mith ^^^^f ^^*;f ^^^ 
Vo. 9. March 1939) states "Most Jews in Germany ^^^^"f ^*° *f "^JJ^" jw were 
lived in relative economic comfort and security largely in *^^^^^*Jf ' .^Jf J^'' 
lar-elv orofessional and white collar workers, owners or managers of retc.il or 
ih S ale hu: noa^ When the prpcess of industrialization Played^^-c ^^f^l 
«erman paascmt and the growth of monopoly capitalism ^°S^-^ *^.f ^?^* '\Sch In- 
lir,hmcnt of large chain and department stores tho German ^^^^^^J f ^^^^ ^f^^^^;^ 
eluded the Gorman Jew, remained firmly entrenched in iJ^f^f^^^'J^^f^r Jon- 
touched by tho groat change. Deeply rooted in German Culture G^^^^j/^^^^; ^°^^^,^ 
siderod themselves an integral part of Germany and contributed J^^^^^^^!^;^f,°;r 
of science, philosophy and the arts. They were P^oud of their ^^^Yf^^toZ^ey 
istics and identified themselves sincerely with Gorman °^^*^^°::- ^^/^f!°^^iy ^ 
aboorbod the political ideas of the middle l^^^-'J^^y.'^^l^ S Srn^n Jcvdsh 
nationalistic but patriotic and during the '^^^l^^^;'^^,^f%''^JX was 

youth (100.000 served in the ar^. f,'J?Sefore1 ^ d f u f t^leotls belief 
that of iDourgcois rospectabilitjTf It is ^noreioro nuu u.x y,^i^^ of fork of 

that his country's rejection of him was f i-S/^^^.^^^^^^^f ,? ^th' reality of 
insanity. The appalling bewildermcn and ^^^^J^/XsiriV-d e„,rtioSly 
being declassed of being disposscsucd and of being P^^,^^^^^^ '^""^i^^" i^^ce to 
tortured if not destroyed was a reality that became ^^^^^^f,J^;,,fi^f;f°he in- 
all of the past and conflict over adjustment to a now ^^°f ^^^^^^^^.^^.^/^dividual: 
security and uncertainty involved, was ^°^\*\^?^^^^r^! ^selves up by atti- 
in it into ration.ali^ations and 11^-^°^,^^^*° ^f/4:f3jf,'f3 a '^ sed i'nto sub- 
tudec of superiority aggression etc. Often the aggression ^^ ai gu 

.insion and yielding, to the extreme of total 1°^ ^f ^^f ^- ^,'^4 life of these 
rco^i.e the many areas of -f 1^«* *^^^,^J ^^^*: !^3U t f de^finite objectives, 
refugees accustomed to f*^°'^^*y^Pt*?J^i,.f''i'^'^'ilS these traditional pat- 
subnission of children to parentca authority, ^*°!» ^^^ ^t^'^^.y^ ,,here these con- 
terms of culture are ^^T- - f"^^' -.^^L'^r^bfer f d^^^^^^^^^ 
^Slhfse'^rir foriLi; ^t^e S^i^g c^d! or accu^tomea^to jar-s^ 
social insurance we c.anreadUy see how^^^^^^^^^ 

:riiSTis-rc:t revi^^X^ai oU^ed or/ccep-^covered up nave become 
accentuated. It is interesting to note txiat Miss Ruth Mc^ liJtJ^.^^ department 
Service Association who had for some time ^^^^V^f SL the National ^efugeo Ser- 

in spite of all tho P-^^-s conflicts and dis^^^^^^^^ with^^^ 

added problem of language handicap, with *f P[°°^^° ^'^^f^t?., ^f nany who are 
present depression with the lack of ^^J^jf ^^^-^^^^f ' ^^^f f^ ^^.Zlrl indeed to find 
In position to help the refugee *°^^f.^*^^^.?^f^^^'?^Vi'tL?S readiness to ac- 
thc remarkable degree of adjustment tney achieve. T^;^^' sen.rax 
ccpt even menial labor, for the nothor to displace tne father ^^^^Pf"'^;^/.^ ^^^^^^ 

hoLehold because she cr. more readily -^^^^ °J^^^",^," ,%?;:r ff deponSency 
^4^irqe f^-Pir P-v^noral readiness to learn the lang:aage ana Tio x...xuw u -^ 

in nind individual differences. 



I I 



\ 



in the fmilies that appl^ for the placement of *^f J^^^^^f tJ/^^Jt^tslrthat 
invarlahly that this plan is tttillzed as a means of freeing the parents so j.aa 
tSIfw asTickiy as possible find work and achieve economic independence So 
convening is their drive that there is almost no ^^ %*^1% J^\^f ^ men re^ 
moSt. All their nerve and phj-sical fibre is directed to this end. J^*«" ^« 
gardless of what employment is available to them regardless of f^t their former 
ftatus and economic position was in the past. Very often f ^^°*/^^^f Jj^*^ 
feeling of having escaped from total destruction gives them a ^e^/°^^. ®Jf fj, 
which makes It possible to make a^ immediate adjustment as -J^i"^^.^^,^^^J/j3^"' 
soon the desire to achieve their earlier status comes into P^^^t!\' override 
great feeling of discouragement and frustration. In their efforts to override 
fvery obstacle in seeking a solution to their problems of economic ^«-J/^^ f " 
dlpendence. the children create serious obstacles. J«-«^-l^.^f ^J^ ^^^^tJ 
supervisiort^%re. but also because the emotional disturbance that ^he parents 
suffer reflect themselves in the children and the parents wishing ^o*^ *^ "^® 
^economic recovery and safeguard their children's lives ^^^f ^^//i^^J'^J;^ 
rOar^m^nt There axe other realities that become increasingly more stark and 
SreXt^rbl^r rh:y°2raware cf the childrens^ almost f^^^X^f^lTZl] 
to their new environment. That adjustment brings with it a ^*^^/°^J^f H to 
^ e^cpression of rebellion, taking on ^^haviorisms language, etc. that is to 
sav the least, disouieting to the parents. It is also difficult for the Parents 
In^ ins^nAces tfaccejt the concept of self determination 'Y.^Hrfreat 
chiSS^n in a democracy aSd while the parents profound^ f5P^!f,t'L.i^ns with a 
American traditions yet there is still a clinging to old identifications with a 
culture, with a professionalism, with a class that was "superior . 

TOxile in many situations the problem is just simply the need °J^*?7°^f ^^Jf J^""" 
tion until tke parents may work out an economic eJ^^^^'^f ,^„^^°f J "^ ^^J^^'' 
nolt of the situations the problems are as variable as that found in the n^ 
refugee client who seeks for placement as a solution to his problem. In many 
s 'rtions wherfplacemont is%equested the general f f ^^ ^,J/,f,^3"%^°,i?t^Ls 
such a plan unacceptable to ^he agency which ^^ ^^^\ly ^'f^^l'l^, s^^f ficili- 
and certain definite policies of eligibility. Tnere is no aouu --n-refu^ee 
ties should lie made available to this group as they should be to the ^^^J^^lugee 

in a self determined way. 

T c:oiv<.t. a German rofwee and educator, and for the past two years social 
Henry I. Selver, a German roiugee ^^"- .» Jewish Social Service Quarterly 

it'Zi-^ Sr'^nhf ::reVf the difficultly. In -»-l -^;^;:-f,»f,i ^^J ^^ 

rr^SLi: :ftS 7:^^'^^i^'f^^ -A"- ^:^^z^> 

solutions of the refugees problem." 

Though Mr. Selver recognized the need for careful study '^^^f ^^T^'"^''^*^°fi\i„ 
WdUnrthis problem of placement of children I fundamentally disagree with him 

Sise^f Ms'ffil^e to'recognUo that many of th. ^^^<'^°''^f^^\^%Z't. 
implications of preservation of family life do "°\ ^ "J^^^J^f ^^3^^ '^Lement as 
tween the refugee applicant or the non-refUgee applicant that ^^^^^^J^^^^^^ 
a solution to his problem. There is not sufficient time here to ex..nine xne 



I I 



'.< 



-7- 

familjr as a social institution in Germany and in America but ^ ^^^^^/^^^^^f 
whether separation of children from families of either does ^°\^^J^f,f^J^J;^ 
all the emotional and social concomitant, that are related *°/° ^^^f ^^^^^1^1,^ 
fundamental a change as separation of children from P'^f ^^«- ^^^^^°^^J of ?he 
to add here that lajr in.presBion is that there is not a large P^^J^^^'^Siel ^d 
German refugee families who seek placement as a solution *° J^f ^ P"^^^^^^*" 
it is also mjr impression therefore that there are many families li^^^S ^^^^ 
the snme str^ss^et aWe to moMlize themselves around working ou P^^^^^^* 
do not call for the placement of their children. By this I do not mean *o ^W 
th^xt family integration is less important in one group than in another, hut only 
that as individuals we all seek different solutions for our problems . 

While Dr. Selver also points out that many of the families coming as they do from 
the upi^er middle classes are accustomed to sending their children to Private 
boarding schools and consequently are not confronted w th -"^j;^^ P^f/^/^^,,, 
seeking placement for their children in this country in 7^^^«^^^^f ,^^ ^^°^" 
of othfrs dealing with placement problems I have not f°^<i^J^" *° ^^^'^^^/Jeen 
in a small percentage of cases. What is true however, is J^'-^^^f ^f *J^^^^^^,^!'' 
separated from their children by sonding them off to f hools and to other coun 
tries as a means of escape from forces that were too destructive f^jj^^^^^^ 
continue to encounter. This I am sure may be a ^^Jf ^^^^^^^^t^t^fS! 
in this country less threatening to the parent. I think It is ^^JP^!^^?;* f ^^^;oi3 
Selver hiniself points out that where parents have sent children to private schools 
K SLarsoL'^of them have done this under the guise of education whereas In 
rer-ntyThere may have been psychological factors th,t were highly ^^J^^^f^^H^' 
I thii^ it is also important to point out that in our own country in the upper 
mlldif Classes pl^ents send thei? children to private schools for ^-^-^ -^_ 
unsimilar to those of the refugee parent, irh.n they have met with ^conomic dis 
turbance which also involves their prestige and feeling of "°^J^' '^,^. ^^^^^3^^ 
nent in an institution and spend much of their energy rationalizing that it is a 
private school. Onlj^ yesterday a family came to us for the Plj-nent of a prob- 
lem child. The parents were wealthy farmers in Germany, have been in this 
country f;r fourV-s, They have cone with many of '^\llf^^^Z\^l'^Zr 
flicts that are normal to a group that has been ^J«P°f.^!J^^;, ^^\,'^ ^ZrlT 
v-ars they have been able to work out some economic adjustment. The mother is 
Inployed L a n^^ee. the older children are working, the father is employed. The 
Jother is Ible to tkl us very frankly that there was a marital problem of long 
stLndlng. The child presented serious problems long before he came to^his 
country! but because of the family's economic and social status the father parti 
cu^S was able to channelize many of his difficulties in wr^s that ^^l^l^^^^ 
?rs self worth. The child too had equal opportunities. Social -^-^^J^J^ ^' 
clear covered up all of the difficulties and made it possible for the family to 
fi^ction? ?he problems however of adjustment in this country accentuated many 
orthe^fficulties and the childs problems have now become Jf f^-f^^^.^^ ^^ 
careful discussion and thinking thorough of how placement might really solve the 
childs interest and need it became increasingly clear to the mother herself that 
she wis too conflicted in her relations with the child to be able to accept a 

Jlacement plan. Paxtlcularly was she disturbed by «^^^f '^J^^^^^^.^.^ve UlAZle 
a boarding school to offer and the institutional fax:ility that might be ay^lJJ^« 
Ls too much of a threat to her in terms of community mores. We ^^^ ^^^^^'^^^^ 
brief summary that separation in a German refugee family has all the V^y^<'^^g°f- 
iLlicatlons of separation in a non-refugee family. We can see also that place 
nent in an instituUon has similar threats to either f anally and it is not on the 
basis of this case alone that I would fundamentally disagree with Dr. Selver 
regarding differences in concepts of family integration, or readiness of fpxiilles 
to seek placement because this is not a new solution for them. 



II 



(<' 



-8- 

We are baffled nevertheless by the ease with which some of the refugee clients 
ask for placement and I think we must more fundamentally examine from what 
source this ease springs. We imist examine whether this ease is a cover-up or 
whether it is a positive element in which parents can be so fiindamentally secure 
in their relationship with children that they are not threatened by separation. 
Vo are baffled by the urgency that the German refugee clients express in relation 
to working out their placement or what kind of placement would best meet tne 
childs need. Invariably they seek an.institutional environment. This might 
natvirally be related to the cultural pattern of discipline and group training 
but then how do we account for some, a very small percentage o^/e^^^eos, who 
seek foster homo care for their children recognizing the need for individualiza- 
tion of the child. When the placement agency function is geared ^o^^onsidering 
the childs needs she may often come to an impasse with the pMont who feels that 
she is best able to determine what those needs are and bow they should bo met. 
This problem particularly looms large when the child is so emotionally disturbed 
and withdrawn as to make it almost dangerous to impose a group setting on him. 

Mrs. X. applies for the placement of her child of 5. The father is studying to 
pass his medical examination. The mother is employed as a domestic to support 
the household. She wishes to place the child who remains ^^^upervised while she 
is caring for someone elsos children. Her ovvn child is beginning to show symp- 
toms of disturbance and deprivation. All efforts are bent toward the fathers 
achieving his goal. The child is an obstacle and placement seems Jo be the only 
solution! I think we have to pose for ourself how we would meet this problem if 
it wore a non-refugee client in spite of all our sympathetic ^J^J^J^^^J^f °^^^ 
the need of this family to work out a solution in their own self determined way. 
Would we wonder whether the small pittance the mothor earns is sufficient to 
warrant her staying away from the homo and taking care of someone elses child 
Instead of her own wo would understand that her need for economic independence 
is a compelling factor and she would prefer this to accepting help from an 
aeency. and yet we would wonder if helping the parents toward a solution on their 
oSte^mfis really helping the child for whom they seek institutional placement. 

Mr. and Mr"s. Y. have asked for the placement of their new born ij^^^";^^;, f \ff ^^^ 
a well established lawyer is finding the employment adjustment difficult. His 
earnings are small and irregular. The mothor is physically depleted. She is a 
skilled designer by trade. Placement is asked for a temporary period until tne 
parents can fchieve economic independence which is paramount *° ^"^^^J^^ else 
in their lives. They spenk with positive feelings about the baby. The renewal 
0? St ength ?h;y feS through the^irth of the child and its ^^-^ol of creative 
value in%his period of relentless destruction. ^^^^ ^^^ :\°;J;;f '.^f i°^,f,k 
care. The child is placed now for two months. The mother is earning $25 a week 
Sd promises to inc?ease her salary very soon. The father is now without employ- 
men tfJ'ere is a perceptible disturbance in their relationship, ^f-.f^-^^f * 
of the baby is no longer temporary. They have become highly unrealistic about 
future plans for absorbing the baby into the family and they continue to seek 
tSHhild's placement even at a sacrifice of paying for his care ^^^^^^ JJ^^^.^^' 
duce their bSdget excessively. Would we say here ^hat the problem is situational, 
would we say that they have shifted their responsibility o^ J^^;=f ^^ J° ^l^^^^ 
a.-ency. would we s.-xy that facing realities of reorganizing their life to include 
Srchlld is fron^^t with too much threat, would we say ^f^-J ^^-^^^f.^^.^ar 
through the placement of their child? In my experience while this Particular 
probSm certainly has all the added disturbances of adjustment to --^^ew scene 
under conditions thpt have been excessively frustating, it is not unlike non- 
refugee problems that cone to our attention for placement. 



I I 



.. ^ -9- 

I think it of importance to recognize, otherwise I think J '°^^^^!;^^f ^Jf ^ 
along with other of ny colleagues in a placement agency, that P^^^J^f ^^^^ .j^ 
auently is a positive solution to some problems and represent positive strength 
in those applicants who seek that solution, but I think whether in refugee 
forailies or non-refugee faLiilies that in my experience and mm^ °*^^" ^^^*^^ 
field of placement in highly qualified placement agencies, *^J.^^^f *!^*^f ^[3 
those problems coming for placement vary in relation to the ^^f ^^^^^J^^he 
needs and tivat cultural problems and social upheaval is a <^o);^^^7^f °^ J^,,„ 
total problem us it relates to the individual P^^f^ality. There is not suffi 
ciont tine to discuss adaptation of the children to placement. ^^^ ^/JJ^^ 
generally from the materials published and from the people '^^f jf " ^ f J^ 
discusced the problem, is that their readiness to adapt t° J^^ ^J'' rotated to 
phe«jn«nfa, and yet again it must be emphasized that adaptation is related to 
IndividTial needs and personalities. 

The need is compelling for a greater urderstanding J^j!'f \*f ,^^^Jj;°^^^^ti- 
the applicant, and all the case work concepts ^-^/^J^ij! ^^^i/^" J^^^'^^" 
ties, a feeling into the other persons problem and ij^^ji^yi^g with J^em as 
people in trouble, people seeking help, and people who have a right to their 
?wn self determination! all of these must be brought to bear in ^^^J^f^^f ^3^,^. 
people to utilize their strengths in working out a positive and purposeful solu 
tion to their problem. 



*( 



« •• -♦' 



THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 

NEW YORK. N. Y. 



PSYCHOLOOICAL ^^^^ ^nCJl^ QHARACTSRISTICS 
nrj rmjgmiA]^' JETISH B t^II^iy^T AFTER 1933 
JLS A GBOUP "^^ ^^- TTl^ITSD S TATES OF Alffl RIGA 






Dorothy Filene 

Course 116 

Fall Qoarter, 1940-41 



/(• 



S ources ? 

Elin L, Anderson: We AmericaJis 

Franz Boas: General Anthropology 

John Dollard; Criteria for the Life History 

. , r> u i-s^r c;„«„^eri The Influence of Sudden Oppression 
"-"^ of^Soolal Psychology. Sa^n^r, The^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

totempcraiy Je,l.h Eecort. Saengeri Ihe Psycholoar of the Befagoe 

(May-June 1940) 



Method: 



The following praotlc^a experience ,ae checked ,1th the literature 

alDOve mentioned^ 

nacement interviews with 1-lgrants In an employment and guidance 

agency, during 193a-1939. at an average of 50 Interviews t.r day. 

interviews .,1th Merlcan employers for placement of l.mlgr«>ts. aurlng 

the same years. 

Informol discussions with immigrants in their homes, 
Infonnal discussions with Americans a^out imnigrant prohlems. 



.< 



- 2 - 



.( 



In trying to understand the complexity of proMems of this ^^^^'flf^ 
to visu,^i;e L, its individual members lived before ^^^^ ^«^,^^%P^^; '{^f^l 
TiartioL-'ar froup. The Sermon Jewish immigrants as you see tnem todr^r, became 
lltZTnlY^tor 1933. due to HiUer's reviving of Gobinem' s theory of the 
Lft^Se ortin of men .^nd the existence of superior ^\'^'ll'l\l^^l;^ ^^ople 
few men proclaimed by law. that almost overnight, one and ^^1^^^^^!^^°^ l^f' 
constituted a minority group. The Law left it to ^^J P^°Pji^/° P"°!° '"iJJ" 
Govei-nment that they were not a member of this minority. The Law Jetemining 
the Aiyo^ descent of individuals was originally proclaimed to establish cUga- 
bilitv of govennent officials. It was published on April 7, ^^^S. ^-^^^J:,: *J^^^ 
basic lar, Shich underl,^ further eliminations of Non-Ary..is ^^\f^^ P^f J^^^^^ 
and occupations. Translated it reads; "A l^on-Aryan is one ^^^^J^J^I^J^/^f 
Uoi>-Aiyan. specifically Jewish parents or grandparents. It is sufficient if 
i\on-Aiyan, bpuoxx tix^ ^ assumption stands especially if one 

one parent or grrmaparent is i^on-Aryim. xnis asbwip -h^tt^r nnd desper- 

parcnt or grpiidpxi^nt -.tas of Jewish religion". Inncdiately a bitter ^^^-^V^^ 
«tr fi-ht to prove one's arvan descents, started among sixty million poopl.-, 
hlntinl for certificates of baptism, birth and death of ancestors fo wore bom 
S v^rs ago. nobody was sure where he stood, and those most certain of th.ir 
«purc«fyii 7 origin suddenly discovered perhaps a Jewish grand-notner. .^^obody 
aft^.t Sn^ coull foresee the nunber caught, nor did one know -^ich friends and 
neighbors would be included in this racial minority. You must know that int. r- 
!°rS^go in Gem..iny had created a constar.t analganating process between the 
arrSnf a" tW^ws. Only a snnjLl proportion of the Jews in Jf-'^ belonged 
to the orthodox, you nay call it nov- "race conscious" group ^JJ^^^^'!^°^^J^^f "" 
r^->rt^.r o- ■"tirelv assimilated, the first still conscious of their religious 
Sf li^tio^^. the lat er alread^ belonging to t'ne Christian Church or ^eing ^o- 
Snfo^ist; The process of Jewish emancipation had started after 1813 ander 
t^c Wlucrco of L. "Stein-Hardonbcrgsche Rcfom". and was completed in 1871. 
To uidorsin'd the degree of assimilation the Jew had undergone in Gcnw, you 
hnvrt;i'Jorst.nnd tie Geman tendency of craving for power ^d -cognition 
throu-h iv-c^Jc-, and decoration; this had created a whole nilitary caste of xii^- 
r^^i;^ '^5 officers, with respected social standing ^^^^^^^^ Son" t£ 
It^Wr disposal -ith which they had to meet great social obligations. The 
Jo^d'h people through the niddloa^es until their emancipation ^-^^-^ -^^°f ^ 
to" "orkonlY as tradesmen, money lenders "jid Talmud teachers, ilaturally when 
they ontrrei t horrid ouUide of the ghetto, having been deprived for centuries 
of tr'?'?rg in crits or been allowed to working in other professions, they star tec 
tl !o;i"'' "tradesmen ^d bankers. Geman nilitary officers of rrnic. named 
r'nfchri'rl whose LSers could supoly the money they needed for naintaining 
their sfci'i position. ?Ms. on the other hand, seemed for the Jewish People 
fSnUnont 0? hoir desire kter centuries of craving l^\'?'°f^l\:i*^^l'^]^l 
.^ r^nk Those carriages took place during the "Gruenderj.-Hhre" after 1871, and 
tncr^'ntod ui to 1933. It was only in 1933 that one actually discovered tne f re- 

,u:ncrof tSose narriages. In most cases, the P-^-^^l^-^r^'^firfwas 

1.4- T-r ^vn-^-rnro of the fact thnt their ancostr/ v/as not 'pure', inure, w^s .. 
Snn^n j'ke'Xut the dSd Jewish grandnothcr who felt so much ashamed of living 
p3S so much trouble for her now Aryan gr.indchildren. that she could not find 
caused ^ono.'^'' "^^ ^ intermarriages also took place m 

Til 0^4 ci;'s s and pr:^fe;sions. But'evcn when the Jewish people married in 
tt^ir o-n ?ro;'.^4 eqanl degree of mental integration, into the German wny of 
li;ing^d^thi^ing o^oirredf They -nted to learn the ^JPi-^^f^-- Jf ',, 
A' ^^^inr,o nr^'^riizin,^- efficiency, physical education. The (^eman, on ouu 
S^nl iooJ'd fo^^tt thoy Lied "S typical Jewish l„tolligon«", th.lr way 
S^i.lr.Sni4 faSly tli. their ability in arts and science,. «ch group .as 



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desirous of acquiring qualities they believed missing in their own. It seems 
to me tlrnt the mixture, especially represented Ijy the offspring of the inten- 
marriages, is a proof of a successful Uending process of two different groups. 
So well integrated were the Jewish people, so unconsciously was this process 
accomplished in most cases, that it was only when, through economic straggle, 
demands on the individual became greater and competition a desperate battle, 
that the Jev/s were considered as a separate group within Germany. Economic 
desperation had created a minority whose exclusion from the labor market, created 
openings for the rest. In this connection, I want to raise the question whether 
it is possible that a group can be fomed, not only because of homogeneity but 
also because of only one criteria in common, namely common hatred of an artiliciai^ 
ly created minority. I should liko to explain that in detail, some other time, 
starting from the psychological phenomena -ve vritncss for inst.-mcc m schools and 
kindergartens v/here a whole class has sometimes only one thing that binds them, 
the common hatred of an outsider, 

I have given a veiy general trend of integration of the Jewish people into 
the Gorroan life. There had always been anti-semitism in Germany (Nietzsche,^ 
Stoodcer), but it was a different kind than in America. 

The Gcrmnn Jewish imraigrrmt as yoa see him todny in the United States, re- 
flects both the assets f>,nd liabilities of German as well as Jewish culture. 

The Gemnn Jewish immigrants after 1933 today constitutes a group nithin 
the United States. They bring -Tith them some of the same liabilities and assets 
ever'- group luid brought; but the way they present these assets and liabilities, 
and the v;ay they use them in their adjustment process is different.because acting 
and behavior reflect not only the influence of one culture but the conflict be- 
tween tvro. This conflict becane conscious only recently and makes the adjustment 
to a ney culture a \inique process, as compared '.7ith former innigrants. The 
AncricoJi connunity becomes more aware of their difficulties because of the fact 
tliat this is a group with a nuch higher average age level than others who cane 
before then, and necessarily their adjustment is not easy. As a group they are 
not honogeneous but are composed of many different sul>-groups. Not all of then 
are innigrants nany are refugees who have to "De fomed into innign^ts before they 
c?m start the adjustncnt process. To make a very general classification: uie 
ones who ca:ie bet'.7een 1933 and 1937 were innigrants, they carie because of pressure 
on the continent, but they cane of their own will; they were not as much nentally 
broken down, nost of then were younger; sone could bring noney and furniture. 
They had had an e(iacation in Gcmany and even if they could not use their specific 
training they wore nostly v/ell enough equipjxjd to start fron the bottom and work 
themselves up. Those who cane later were often refugees in the true sense. Many 
of then cane because of nere desperation, because they had no choice. They cane 
aftor the T^ogron, driven out of the country, nent.-aiy and physically broken. 
There were^wc other groups coning at this later tine, the political innigrants 
who had tried to settle in countries near to GemaJiy, in order to re-establish 
Gema>T7*s democracy, and all those, for when Anerica. was already the countiy ot 
second innigration, who cane because they could not stay or adjust to the coun- 
trv e^ first nigration. The latter two groups were better equipped and already 
trained in adjusting orocedures. - If you conpare all these groups as to age you 
will find that those under 15 becone completely Americanized, tnose between io 
nnd about 35 are trying to adjust themselves ly using the assets '^^.^^^^^^ group; 
they are conscious of the fact, however, thr.t they will always renain' European- 
Americans" in the eyes of Americans, as much as they tiy to becone integrated. 
They caai be recognized innediatcly by their accent; even if they are able to 



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..dapt c^stons ond nanners of the no. country their thinking ^^^^^^J^ ^J^^/^^^f" 

vThich sho'j the great variety this group includes. 

Tho hasic handicap for these innigrants as well as for any ;'^^^^;^»^%^^ , 
InnPnin^e It is true tliat nost of then hring jm elencntaiy knowledge of English. 

SuS fhoy 11 not "am langu^^os as easily as did ^-\'-^'--^';\ZXllT^^ ani 

Polish Jews. The Gem.an Jewish innigrant is selfconscious ^^^f ^J^J^^f^^J^;/'^"^ 

although intelligence nay help in learning, it often is a cause °f ^f^f^f ^'^J; 

Tis wHtton English (and this n,-^cs hin different) is ^^"^f'. ^^^^^^l^^^^^^ 

is afraid of oppressing his thoughts in words f ,°^^ f ^i'^^^^'f^f .^^JJ^^ops fron 

learn good English and -idofrou working hard fo^ 

when he can loam it in an irxfomal wny. ^uxonpics. fliuu.w« y » 

"^0 ri cr>j:v«G-e r-inxi" ) , 

Jbiotlior hasic handicap which rvny innigrnnt group has, is the feeling of 
loneliness- this is nore deep and lasts longer if the as^inilation process is 
slow ThU is p^manent state with nwiy of this group who feel uprooted. Coiv. 

t.:; rfSliJg ofSSr soci.nl nnd econonic ^\«f- --^-..^^h ^SriTs c?e-* 
Their enotionrd security is built on the past which they ^^^f^!^;- .^^^!_^f ^,^^"„_ 

ated a well known group cloaracterized as "les '=^^^^^'^^f'• . f ^fjf^^^.f .^e^^ 
nlitv ^7ere closely inton70ven in Gerriani', thus giving up the profession f^^ 
loss in social statu.. Tl.cy Imve also experienced the quick and uncontrollable 
cnange of values, and so ove rcnpbasi ze personality. 

The chroi^ fron brain-work to nanual work is a process that requires so nuch 
ener^ U nfxibSity Sat it is often beyond their power. For the Gorr-.an Jew 
sonltSi^ else interferes, which is best illustrated by the following exanple: 
I yo^ilaScr If 30. ada;table, had succeeded in ^"^'^'^"^^6 -."^^J°^'^^f^^JJ/^,3 
t nSr o?the unio^ he nakes ^0. per week; hehas ^-J^^^^j^^^V^^dr 
year: he likes it all right, bat he cannot keep it up. "You know . i^^_ ^aid, 
"it iocs not give ne any cultural satisfaction. ^^^-^^"^^11,^" '°' ^^' "^ 
^eok job 'Thich will give ne inner satisfaction, I shall take it . 

T ov^n not <?-Dc?.lc Pbout the difficulties resulting fron the shift in family 
responsibiUtre: Sdlhf cl^ged r.le of father, -f ^ -J,f/^f:y,%f ^^tlon 

gr^u' i c-onsidlrably handicapped in his efforts to do so. by -^P-^f^^/f^J^! 
h^rtorards his fanily. They still live in Europe under nest unfortuiiato cxrcun- 
s't^cel" toda.y it^s ^ .raestlon of life or death for then that the rel^-t-^e 
^iSadJ'in Anerica can send for then. The innigrant who was luc^ ^^^^p ^ost 
cure a $15. a week job has to produce trenendous anounts of noney, ^ive up nost 
of liis leisure tine to nako these innigrations possible. 

The innigrojit's relationship toward social agencies, his way of accepting 
help S^ aristm.ce, is characte?istic. He had been brought up under a well 
dovoCed ocioa legislation progr^. which had included ^^^^'J^^f^f .°^,f ^e^ause 
imirrnnt group in one way or another. In Gemany. he accepted assistanc^ because 
h^h^naid unenploynent insurance, health insurance, etc. He needs a reason 
Jor^XDlSining why he 1ms to accept help fron a social agency over here, so he 
for oxpiainiiit, .uijr li «j.o i- „„v, ■Pr.,.n-ii 'Riit dee-D down he feels liuniliated 

srys "his dilenma is not due to his own fault . aaz aecp aowu -ic 



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adapt castons nad manors of the no^7 country their thinking ^^f^^*^ *^^^/, ^^f - 
Ground. The third group, as a -.Thole, will not adjust and has to ncJce the best 
STt^- Other clasf if! cations, as to the niliou fm. which ^^^^/^-^-^/^^^torr 
ni^^rant derives (Kleinbuergortun. acadenic caste, etc.) or as ,^%*^^' ^^ J^° f " ^^ 
he lived (countiy, sn.ll city, largo city) hring out certain cnaracteri sties 
which sh0'.7 the great variety this group includes. 

The hasic handicap for these innigrants as well as for any f^^^;^» J:%*^ , 
lan-ao,o-e. It is tmc that nost of then bring an elencntaiy knowledge of English. 
SuS th y do not loam langu^^es as easily as did for instance the ^^fl^-^ 
Polish Jew.. The Geman Jewish imigrant is selfconscious ^^^^^^J^J^^^fi^^^^^/'^^ 
although intelligence nay help in learning, it often is a cnuse of frustration. 
Sis w^tten English (an^this n,^cs hin different) is better than l^xs oral. He 

is afraid of expressing his thoughts in words f °^^ f ^^'-^^i"' ,f .^^^^ *° f^on 
icam good English, and aside fron working hard for ij, looks for Aneri cans fron 
whon he can loam It in fKa infomnl way. (exaiplcs: "window pole", "so wl^f . 
"Ane ri cari-Ge non." ) , 

Aiiotlii)r basic handicap which ni^r innigrnnt group has, is the feeling of 
loneliness; this is nore deep and lasts longer if the as-iinilation process is 
slow. Tliis is a pemanent slate with nany of this group who feel uprooted. Con. 
stit recalling 0? their sociol n^d econonic decline nakes then the nore unhappy. 
tSat onrtional security is built on the past which they cherish. This bo,s cre- 
ated a well known grc:up characterized as "les che. ^ous". Profession and person- 
ality were closely interwoven in Gemani', thus giving up the profession leans 
loss in social status. Tl.cy Imve also experienced the quick and uncontrollable 
change of values, and so ovc renphasi ze personality. 

The chan?-c fron brain-work to nanual work is a process that requires so nuch 
enerssr'a^d flexibility tl^at it is often beyond their power. For the GoiT:an Jew 
soneSi^^g else interferes, which is best illustrated by, the f;;f -"J^.^J^^^^^;^ 
A young la-^er of 30. adaptable, had succeeded in ^econmg a wmdow-clcp.ier. as 
t ne^r o?the unio^ he nnkes $50. per week; he has ^-^^/^^"^ *5'\r^d 
year; he likes it all right, bat he cannot keep it up. "You know", he said, 
"it ioor, not give no any cultural satisfaction. ^f ;\%<^^^J^„^°'" ^°^ ^^' ^ 

woek job -hicii will give no inner satisfaction, I shall take it . 

I shall not BVo»k about the difficulties resulting fron the shift in fanily 
respoLr ilities Sd the clvnnged r.le of father, no the r and children in he new 
world si"ce this will be covered in a separate paper. However, I want to nention 
the foot t° at even the best pir^epect for assinilation of the present innigrant 
^roi ie considlJably ^landicappad in his efforts to do so, by responsibilities he 
^Sloi^rds fiJ ?Suy. They^'still live in Europe under -^,^ -^.-^^^tive" '""•" 
st-uices- tod,-v/ it is a question of life or death for then tnat the relative 
alSadv in Agaric, can Snd for then. The innigrant who was lucky enough to se- 
SJi f $15. a wec£ job has to produce trenendous anounts of noney, ^ive up nost 
of Ms leisure tine to nako these innigrations possible. 

The innigrpjit's relationship toward social agencies, his w.-^ of accepting 
help ^^ aristaTice, is characteristic. He had been brought up under a well 
doveCod soci.a legislation progran. which had included the aajority of this 
imiirSt 5r^p in one way or'^anothor. In Gemany, he accepted assistance because 
hrSaid unc^ploynent insurance, health insurance, etc. He needs a reason 
for exDlaining why he 1ms to accept help fron a social agency over here, so he 
s'ys^^ls Sl^nna^'is not due to his own fault". Bat deep down he feels huniliated 



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that ho loan to discuss his prohlens with stn^gers; it hurts his self respect, 
his fooling of indopondonce, 

Svorv -rouD of imigrants was exploited when they first Irinded. The Gcman 

ality v/erc so closely interwoven, e,g, xiauy ux^xau^^^ 
personal dislike. 

A. n. ^7hole tlie Goman Jc^7ish innigra^it after 1933 adjuste noro quickly to 

to criticisn of the Anoricans but even tc a greater ^^roc to thjt of hxs o^ 
r^^ll^/^o^cJ^irrrerr^oTifsir^^^^ 

^causc he ims jSst acconplished what tl^ ^^^f [„?^?, j!,f ''^ '^.^ ovcfcono 
again l)roadnindedness, one's own experience and intelli^enc. nay holp o^.rcono 

this clanger. 

If ', cor-mritv Indies a re-orcsentativc of a particular group, it docs so 
enotiLir^StieSiSaly not through scientific x. search; it .udges hy one 
reprcnontative and concludes to the rest. (Exanplo F. party). 

In conclusion, ^.e ^^r.Y.^^rJlZrTfo:^^^^^^^^ 

:rt=-l;d :^^'z:s:^^ -^ n^^indu. or cxciu- - -i, 

s:-^j:oufr/ort^?^^^^ 

fifteen nillion Jewish V^f;;^^^^ sy^tof s n thi^ "idL: Ther" x. 
urgent problen. As usm-J it i%°^^ *f ^^f^^^'^^^^^e suhject to a new world 
t.o billion ixonon ^^^"^^ °?^-^^f J^J^,* ^^S^ Tt^ 0^375 years to orgr^nize 
order requiring a redistribution ol popui<.^ion. ~ ......itv. But the contendr- 

and resettle populations after the introduction of ^i^^^^^^^^J- ."^^^^^^^ the 

intomationc.1 connani cation. 



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THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



QERiaN EEFUGEE P.JffiNTS« ATTITUDES TOWJCD PIACElffiNT OF CHILDREN. 



v^ 



Ethel Stone 
Course 116 
Pall Quarter* 194041 



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Prior to discussion of this main topic it is important to lariefly 
discuss the protlem of race and minority particularly from well recognized 
sources in modern anthropology According to Otto Kleinterg in Race Differences 
he exposes the subjective approach to the problem of race, (Nordic among others; 
as lacking in scientific validity and related to "national egocentricity". Race 
is a zoological concept; it refers to physical type; nation is a political con- 
cept inplying boundaries and an independent government" He regards it as 
"absurd" to identify the two and gives a historical analysis which indicates 
even in as concrete a factor as physical types there is decided mixture of 
groups in all geographic areas. Race actually as related to languafee the 
Aryan language is also a serious misaon©r.. The Aryan language refers to an 
original source of languages. The problem of race has been approached from 
many angles. Language, physique, emotional characteristics, mental character- 
istics, etc. The ultimate scientific conclusion is that there are no founda- 
tions for a belief in an Aryan race. That all the factors mentioned in relation 
to race indicate that there is a fundamental plasticity and variance in physical 
structure etc., varying under different conditions. 

Prana Boaz in "Race and Race Prejudice" (Jewish Social Service 
Quarterly Decomoor 1937 further affirms the previous source in the following 
'no proof has ever been given that a race as such has a Certain kind of mental- 
ity that is not determined by environment, that is by its own traditional 
culture. Biological factors may be discovered in the personality represented 
by neribers of the sane family although even in this case other conditions will 
determine the manner in which they express themselves'. The race theory on 
which the Nazis base their political theory is unfounded as it is ridiculous. 
•It is an expression of a pseudo-science defended by fanatics who are carried 
away by nationalistic feelings and confuse Race and Nation.' "We in this country 
are not free of this tendency". 

In discussing the problem of minorities I am citing Brown and Roucek, 
particularly the chapter on Jaws from Oernany in America. 'The problem of minor- 
ities are as old as civilization,' "It exists within every group to the extent 
that individuals sense a feeling of difference between themselves and the majority 
or the dominant element of the group.... Each group tends to definite attitudes 
of superiority as to its own cultural pattern and a corresponding feeling of 
antagonism toward the others.... In modern Germany there is an effort to exter- 
minate minority by strict censorship and presecution....Thus through ethocentri- 
cism - this superiority of the we group and the rating of all other groups with 
reference to it... Both intergrating and disinter gating forces are continually 
playing upon the cultural patterns of these minority groups.... Significant 
changes in social attitudes may aggravate or eliminate a minority problem... 
For example, in times of economic distress there is a definite tendency to 
rccontuate differences between groups and resentment against certain minorities... 
'such expression of aggression is often sublimated into "virtuous construction - 
Nordic superiority - America for the Americans". 

According to Dollard and others in "Frustration and Aggression" the authors ex- 
pound the theory in which mechanisms of aggression are psycholpgicsilprojections 
induced by serious frustration, existing ife hunan behaviour, in the individual, 
the group, the nation. In the discussion of Democracy, Fascism and Communism 
the authors conclude "there are characteristic frustrations in all of these 
ideologies and reactions to them take particular twists related to a specific 
(if possible) culture complex. According to this hypothesis the existence of 
social prejudice against a group of people is evidence first that those who have 
the prejudice have been frustrated and secondly that they are expressing their 
ag-ression or part of it in fairly uniform fashion". The authors do not draw 
conclusions on the psyeological base that is in a vacuum, they bring to bear 
economic and social forces that contribute to frustration which must find some 



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expression hostile and agtpressive which is often displaced or projected. We can 
see the forces of aggression projected on the Jer in Germany and on nations 
which threaten the German nation In its security and sense of worth. It is well 
to "bear in mind that these very meclianisms of aggression that are so evident in 
the Gorraixny of today is not a particular group phenomenon. These expressions 
of frustration can te clearly seen in groups and individuals seriously deprived 
and threatened as are the Gorman Jews, the*refugee in this country. I think 
it is important to recognize the positive strength that sometimes lies hehind 
the force of aggression which may he an alternative to self destruction, and I 
am particularly relating this to the Jewish refugee in his terrific conflicts 
in attenrpting to make an adjustment in a strange land. I think it too, import- 
ant to boar in mind a pbilosophic concept and a very dynamic one that stems from 
Rank n,^anoly that the individual in his growth is continually seeking to identify 
with others in finding a likeness and a similarity, at the same time he must 
also find his own uniques and his own difference, and always there is a dynamic 
talancing of physcologicpl forces to stnhilize the individxxal in this shifting 
transition. If wo can accept this theory we can see that the German Jewish refu- 
gee has historically tried and succeeded to a considerahle degree to identify 
with the German nation at the same time finding it necessary to preserve what 
was uniquely his own cluture. There were forces historically at work that 
forced his uniqueness to a dangerous degree and we soo it today in the refugee 
who has "been forced to become not so much unique as alien. We see in his ad- 
justment in this country his desire to preserve his own uniqueness in his con- 
flict in taking on a new culture. This conflict often expresses itself in an 
excessive will, a will that has creative potentialities, a will too, if not ■. 
constructively channelized c»tt become devastating. 

Emma S. Schreiber (Service for the Foreign Born, National Council of Jewish 
Women in her article on Naturalization and Americanization Social Work Today, 
December 1939) discusses the problem of creating an integrated American culture. 
She describes approaches to the problem that of the melting pot ideology in 
which varied cultures txra levelled off to a uniform culture and the second ap-^ 
proach that of diversity of cultvire in a united whole. She feels that the view 
of cultural relations in America most widely hold is that of cultural Democracy. 
(I don't know but this is not to some degree, wishful thinking). This view holds 
that the conscious accoptanco of the best in each culture as a part of a common 
American culture has the best potentialities for richness and creativity. 

In a recent radio address under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Interior, 
Office of Education, the above view is upheld in the following: "The purpose of 
cultural democracy is to develop an emotional receptivity towrjrd contributions 
of each nationality through identification \7ith its cultural pattern. This wxll 
make it possible for America to enjoy a cultural renaissance," 

In the President's address of October 17, 1939, under the auspices of Intergovern- 
ncntal Committee en Political Refugees he makes the following pronouncemont. 
This problem (of immigration) involves no one race group - no one religious faitn. 
It is the i3roblon of all groups and all faiths. It is not enough to indulge in 
horrified huiaanitrj-ianisn, empty resolution, golden rhetoric and pious words. 
We must face it actively if the democratic principle based on respect f /^"^f" 
dic-nity is to survive - if world order which rests on security of the individual 



IS 



to "be restored"* 



There have been many studies made on immigration from the point of view of number, 
source, age, class, education, profession, etc. I am particularly citing articles 
by Edward Corsi former Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization and Marion 
Shipsby, Associate Director of the Foreigh Language Information Service, also 
articles on the subject in recent surveys and a pamphlet by ifoxwell Stewart of 



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the Public Affairs Connittee. The articles of Corsi and Shipeby appear in 
"Social Work Today" December 1939. All of the statistics point to a rapid and 
seriously declinging innigration rate and this in the face of a declining 
Anerican birth rate. In 1938 the total nunber of innierants was less Wan 
68,000. Of this nunber 26,000 enigrated leaving 42,000 irmigrants. T^^J-S 
represents less than 4/l00«s of 1 percent of our population of 130,000,000. 
According to Corsi the factors which work in opposition to innigration are dis- 
trust of foreigners, fear of competition by labor, rural fears of cities as 
centers of imigration, war hysteria, etc. The last World War contributed to- 
ward the restrictive quota law of 1921 and 1924 which nade for serious discrin- 
ination. At present with serious restrictionists in Congre««> innigration and 
alien laws will becone increasingly nore strigent. The Reynolds group in the 
Senate and the Dies group in the House are v/aging vigorous battles to shut the 
doors altogether. This enphasis is unprecedented in American history, Tne 
author continues to state that the total nunber of aliens in this country is 
3.5 nillion a snail proportion of a hundred thirty nillion and too snail a 
ratio to threaten American security if there is any threat at all. Moreover, 
there is a great demand for naturalization which will reduce the alien nunber. 
In alien connunities innigrants constitute a dwindling number. "Children form 
the bu]Jc of immigrant copulation and these children are largely native born 
English speaking and as truly American as the children of our older stock . 
The author goes on to say that there is a process of mrelenting assimilation 
and rapid extinction of differences. " "Citizens of foreign birth and t..eir 
children today are concerned with problems that face all America in their daily 
struge;les of life, and whatever nay be their interest in European affairs there 
can bo no doubt as to their loyalty to America. In fact there is much to be 
regretted in the rapidity with which the immigrant and his family give up the 
old for the new. His language customs and cultural inheritances so vital to the 
enrichment of Anerican life, so important to his own happiness are being dis- 
carded with amazing indifference particularly among children who have little ap- 
preciation of their rich heritage." 

Bund and similar associations devoted to alien i^^f ^S^^^^^^Pf^f^^^^^^^l^'JfJtes 
ficant factor in the life of the foreign born - only great publicity contributes 

to their survival - (I would question this.) 

"If there is any innigration problem in America toda^' it is the problen of pro- 
viding^ security for those Americans who toiled, the problem of finding work for 
the nillion jobless and on relief, for better housing and slum clearanc. , f»r , 
'atiofactory working conditions, proper facilities ^^^f -f °^f'vitnl on^orn 
thoco problcras ix«y cscapo restrictionists in Congress but it is of vital concern 

to Anerica and her millions" ^ ^x*^„ 4.v,o+ ■nT'n.(-tlrillv 

According to Marion Shipsby there is a general misconception tnat P^^f J^'^^^ 
all recent immigration is from the German Reich inducing Austria. It is inport- 
ant to note that from July 1932 to June 1939 years of Nationalist Socialist 
regime in Oermany there has been a total immigration to this country of less than 
75!ooS. whereas the tot.J nunber admissible under the quota is more than 175.000 
a^d thc^t not all of these are Jewish. Before 1938, ^1^ -ere Christian. The 
explanation for the greater percentage of Jews is explained by the fact that 
jS agencies were first iS the field to create facilities and support for 
imr.iigration prot^oms* 

statistics indicate that immigration is more highly f 1^°*^^%*^'^, ^^ ^7^^°^' 
tines. Previous to the World War there was a preponderance of unskilled labor 

with high illiteracy rates. 



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1914 



V 



- 1»2. "belonged to professional group 
14.2 skilled workers 
54, farm laborers, laborers, servants 



1938 



8*0 
21.3 
12.8 



professional group 
skilled workers 



sKiiiea worKers 

farm laborers, laborers and servants 



Generally the trend shows decidedly a highly literate group, in many cases a 
hi,-hly educated group, and more highly skilled group than ever before. There 
is insiafficient time to discuss the great contributions made by immigrant groups 
and individuals, nor is there space to deal with the vast number of national 
and local committees in dealing with the problems of immigrants and their ad- 
justment to a new social scene, a scene in which the depression still exists. 
All of these groups are effectively at work not alone in working out economic 
and social adju*tments but also in the preservation of the unique cultures and 
traditions of the immigrant and refugee (despised word), I have thus lar pre- 
sented some background for the topic that I am soon to discuss. I found that 
such an orientation would be helpful in seeing the problem of the German Jewish 
refu,-ee in its proper prospective. But before actually getting to my topic on 
placement of children I think it important to briefly discuss the problem of 
anti-semltimand some of the general problems that confront the German Je^7i8h 
refugee. I cit«, Harry Lurie, Council of Jewish Welfare and Federation Funds, 
Now York in his article on Development in Jewish Civic and Protective Activity 
in the United States (Jev/ish Social Service Qjaarterly September 1939) also 
Helvin M. Fagen in the same quarterly in an article Social Pathology of the 
Refugee Problem. According to Lurie anti-Semitism is not a Jewish problem no 
matter how adversely it affects the well being of the Jews. It is essentially 
a problem of social economic and political disorganization. It is an ii^variable 
component of reactionary and Fascist programs. "We cannot hope ^J^^^^^f^ °^ 
Democracy against these progrnons merely by urging softly or advertising P^^li^^y 
the Democratic attitude or spirit... The Jewish problem is bound up with social 
and political issues of the day... The major campaign is the ^^°^^- gauged 
effort to solve our social and economic problems, . .Fascism is a political and 
economic program, it is mediaeval in its barbarism and its brutal reactionary 
spirit. But it is a projected contemporary solution for the unsolved economic 
?nd political probleL of today. A solution that Capitalist and Bemocratic 
nations may adopt under pressure," Mr. Fagon shares this point of view but 
states somewhat more concretely that many of the most righteous "members of 
Democratic communities who speak out nobly in defense of ^^^^^''^^i'^^^^^.J^^f 
theless in their employment practices, economic thinking. ^J^^^f^^^^f J^J^"^^ 
philosoiDhy, accept everything that Hitler represents, and this is not confined 
to non-Jews. The author elte« a German Jewish Banker who Recognized this prob- 
iL "nd e'ressed that Hitler's conquest of Austria did not lay in the realm of 
psych^lcglcal frustration but in the failure of bankers and industrialists to 
accept responsibility for social reform. 

In discussing the gonoral problems that confront the refugee and his adjustment 
in this country as observed particularly by case workers and others in social 
agencies, there are some problems that are common to all of them as they are ex- 
pressed In their general attitudes but fundainentally the problems and their ways 
of meeting them aSd the use of help in findir^g a solution differs invariably in 
relation to the individual. It must be remembered that change ^f f ^^^/ ^°f ^^ 

fort and fear of the new in every aspect of a living tfP^"^ff!,i^\!?foVele! 
total as that experiended by the refugee the accentuation of r«y<«Klo£loal ale 

ments may become excessive. To be forced to change ^f ^^^V'^'i^ft^^'Jf J^, ' ^^ 
lose every vestige of status and security in every phase of life, to have ones 



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values cbinpletely shaken - the burden is overwhelming. Cultural background and 
personal history it must be remembered in spite of all the common negative forces 
are dynamically related to adjustment and neither are separable. 

Misr, Wilensky (German refugee clients of a family agency, Smith College s^^-iies 
Vo. 9. Mrirch 1939) states "Most Jews in Germany belonged to the middle class ana 
lived in relative economic comfort and security largely in the cities. They were 
largely professional and white collar workers, owners or managers of retail or 
•holGcalo business. When the process of industrialization played hovac with the 
«erman peasant and the growth of monopoly capitalism began to result in the estab- 
lishment of large chain and department stores the German middle class, which in- 
cluded the Gorman Jew, remained firmly entrenched in its position, not greatly 
touched by the groat change. Deeply rooted in Germmi Culture, German Jews con- 
sidered themselves an integral part of Germany and contributed much m the fields 
of science, philosophy and the arts. They were proud of their German character- 
istics and identified themselves sincerely with Gorman culture... As a group they 
absorbed the political ideas of the middle class. They wore typically not only 
nationalistic but patriotic and during the World War l/6 of the German Jewish 
youth (100,000 served in the army, 12,00Dv/ere killed). Their typical behavior was 
that of bo^geois respectability. It is therefore not difficult to see his belief 
that his country's rejection of him was going to be more thc-Ji a brief a«..ck oi 
insanity. The appalling bewilderment and gradual acceptance of the reality oi 
being declassed of being dispossessed and of being physically and emotionally 
tortured if not destroyed was a reality that became i^f^^^^^^^^V.f ^?f TfV,! ^. 
all of the mast and conflict over adjustment to a now loyalty "ith all ^f J^f J^; 
security and uncertainty involved, was bound to force the group and the individuals 
in it into ration,alizations and illusions into bolstering themselves up ^y^tti- 
f.udes of superiority aggression etc. Often the aggression ^\^\l^l^f.''J'^'' ^^^^ 
.iseion and yielding, to the extreme of total loss of will. With *^"^\"® 
retognize the many areas of conflict that enter into the day to ^^^'^^^^ °v.*^uves 
refuses accustomed to authority, paternal dominance pursuit of definite objectives, 
submission of children to parental authority, etc.. all of these traditional pat- 
terns of culture are given an incisive blow in a democratic worXd where these con- 
ca'ts do not obtain. If we add to this, the problems of dependency particuLarly 

for those who were formerly on the giving end, or ^^^^^';^^fZZ"V--^^\oZ^fo 
social insurance, we cim readily see how in every impact of their da/ to day life 
the refugee is forced into conflict in which his persomd worth is at stcike. Per 
sonality disturbances previously channelized or acceptably covered up nave become 
accc'tSaed. It is interesting to note that Miss Ruth Mmm of tl.o Jo'^ish Social 
Sorvic" As.;ciation who had for some time been working tdth the refugee department 
of the national Coordinating Committee in New York (now the National Refugee Ser- 
vice) found that the most perfectly adjusted person she had contact -.vith ./as tue 
one who had suffered the least discomfort in seeking help - witn absence of 
hostility, and without need to declare her past self worth and story of bei ung. 

In spite of all the problems, conflicts and distui-bances that are natural f^-^^J^^^ 
added .roblen of language handicap, with the problem of seeking employment in our 
T^resent degression with the lack of understanding, cultural etc., of many who are 
in position to help the refugee to meet kis problems, it is amazing indeed to find 
ihe remarkable de^ee of adjustment they achieve. Th^ir general readiness to ac- 
oept ov^fneiial Sbor, for the mother to displace the father n --PP^'^^^f *^° . ^ 
household because she can more readily secure onploynent as a domestic and in other 
fieUsftloeir general readiness to learn the language and to throw of i dependency 
at the earliest moment, I thirJc spe.aks for an astounding f'^?!^^ °f_;;°^"; ."^J .^^^ 
energy and ability to adjust. I say this generally thougli it is i.-iportant to bear 
in mind individual differences. 



»^tmmum*mm 



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In the families that apply for the placement of their children we find almost 
invariahly that this plan is utilized as a means of freeing the parents so that 
they may as quickly as possitle find work and achieve economic Independence. So 
compelling is their drive that there is almost no obstacle that they cannot sur- 
mount. All their nerve and physical fihre is directed to this end. Cften re- 
gardless of what employment is available to them regardless of what their former 
status and economic position was in the past. Very often if not generally the 
feeliiig of having escaped from total destruction gives them a new found energy 
which makes it possible to make an immediate adjustment as minimal as it is "but 
soon the desire to achieve their earlier status comes into play and there is 
great feeling of discouragement and frustration. In their efforts to override 
every obstacle in seeking a solution to their problems of economic need and in- 
dependence, the children create serious obstacles. Generally because of need of 
supervisior%re, but also because the emotional disttirbance that the parents 
suffer reflect themselves in the children and the parents wishing both to make 
an economic recovery and safeguard their children's lives,, seek a solution in 
placement. There are other realities that become increasingly more stark and 
more disturbing. They are aware cf the childrens' almost miraculous adjustment 
to their new environment. That adjustment brings with it a a«ir 'ound freedom, 
an expression of rebellion, taking on behaviorisms, language, etc., that is to 
say the least, disquieting to the parents. It is also difficult for the parents 
in many instrjices to accept the concept of self determination and expression of 
children in a democracy and while the parents profoundly appreciate the great 
American traditions yet there is still a clinging to old identifications with a 
culture, with a professionalism, with a class that was "superior . 

rniile in many situations the problem is just simply the need of temporary separa- 
tion until the parents may work out an economic adjustment I should say that in 
most of the situations the problems are as variable as that found in the non- 
refugee client who seeks for placement as a solution to his problem. In many- 
situations where placement is requested tho general problem is such as to make 
such a plan unacceptable to the agency which is bound by limitations, facilities 
and certain definite policies of eligibility. There is no doubt that some facili- 
ties should lie made available to this group as they should be to the non-refugee 
client and yet the refugee client finds it impossible to accept the agencies 
limits and continues to knock at every door so that he may work out his problem 
in a self determined way. 

Henry I. Selver, a German refugee and educator, and for the past two years social 
worker in a child care agency, in an article (The Jewish Social Service Quarterly 
December 1939, Problems in Placement of Refugee Children) states the following.- 
"Many German refugees have asked American agencies to find a place for their 
children for some length of time. It is remarkable how frequent these requests 
have been and how willingly the parents teve faced the proposed separation from 
their children. As a matter of fact they usually ihsist upon it and if one 
agency does not comply with their request they are likely to try other organi- 
zations". There is a great gap in the understanding between the applicants and 
the social worker "the core of the difficulties in mutual understanding lies in 
the fact that the social worker and his refugee client often differ basically as 
to tho importance of the preservation of family integrity in evaluating alternate 
solutions of the refugees problem."- 

Though Mr. Selver recognized the need for careful study and discrimination in 
handling this problem of placement of children I fundcjnentally disagree with him 
because of his failure to recognize that many of th^ payoUological and social 
implications of preservation of family life do not indaiaentaily differ as be- 
tween tho refugee a-oplicant or the non-refugee applicant that seeks placement as 
a solution to his problem. There is not sufficient time here to exrmne the 



■«le 



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family as a social institution in Germany and in America tnt I doutt very much 
whether Beparation of children from families of either does not tring with it 
all the emotional and social concomitant* that are related to so radical and 
fundmaental a change as separation of children from parents. I should also like 
to add here that my impression is that there is not a large percentage of the 
German refugee families who seek placement as a solution to their problem and 
it is also my impression therefore that there are many families living under 
the same stress yet able to mobilize themselves around working out plans that 
do not C£ill for the placement of their children. By this I do not mean to imply 
that family integration is less important in one group than in another, but only 
that as individuals we all seek different solutions for our problems. 

While Dr, Selver also points out that many of the families coming as they do from 
the upper middle classes are accustomed to sending their children to private 
boarding schools and consequently are not confronted with any new problem in 
seeking' placement for their children in this country, in my experience and those 
of others dealing with placement problems I have not found this to be true except 
in a small percentage of cases, miat is true however, is that parents have been 
separated from their children by sending them off to schools and to other coun- 
tries as a means of escape from forces that were too destructive for them to 
continue to encounter. This I an sure may be a factor that may make placement 
in this country less threatening to the parent. I think it is important as Dr. 
Selver himself points out that where parents have sent children to private schools 
in Germany some of them have done this under the guise of education whereas in 
reality there nay have boen psychological factors th^t were higlily compelling. 
I think it is also important to point out that in our own country in the upper 
middle classes parents send their children to private schools for reasons not 
unsimilar to those of the refugee parent, when they have met with economic dis- 
turbance which also involves their prestige and feeling of worth, na^' seek place- 
ment in an institution and spend much of their energy rationalizing that it xs a 
private school. Onlj' yesterday a family came to us for the placement of a prob- 
lon child, Ihe parents were wealthy farmers in Gernany, have been in this 
country for four years. They have cone with many of the disturbances and con- 
flicts that are normal to a group that has been dispossessed. But in these four 
years they have been able to work out some economic adjustment. The mother is 
employed as a nurse, the older children are working, the father is employed. The 
mother is able to tell us very frankly that there was a marital problem of long 
standing. The child presented serious problems long before he came to this 
country, but because of the family's economic and social status the father parti- 
cularly was able to cliannelize many of his difficulties in ways that accredited 
his self worth. The child too Irnd equal opportunities. Social security she made 
clear covered up all of the difficulties and made it possible for the family to 
function. The problems however of adjustment in this country accentuated many 
of the difficulties and the childs problems have now become intolerable. After 
careful discussion and thinking throu^ of how placement night really solve the 
childs interest and need it became increasingly clear to the mother herself that 
she was too conflicted in her relations with the child to be able to accept a 
placement plan. Particularly was she disturbed by the fact that we did not have 
a boarding school to offer and the institutional facility that might be available 
was too much of a threat to her in terns of connunity mores. We can see in this 
brief summary that separation in a German refugee faraily has all the peyohologioal 
implications of separation in a non-refugee family. We can see also that place- 
ment in an institution has similar tlireats to either family and it is not on the 
basis of this case alone that I would fundamentally disagree with Dr. Selver^ 
regarding differences in concepts of fanily integration, or readiness of fpxiilies 
to seek placement because this is not a new solution for then. 



^' 



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We are taffled nevertheless ty the ease with which some of the refugee clients 
ask for placement and I think we must more fundamentally examine from what 
source this ease springs. We must examine whether this ease is a cover-up or 
whether it is a positive element in which parents can he so fundamentally secure 
in their relationship with children that they are not threatened hy separation. 
',le are "baffled hy the urgency that the German refugee clients express in relation 
to working out their placement or what kind of placement would "best meet the 
childs need. Invtiriahly they seek an, institutional environment. This might 
naturcdly he related to the cultural pattern of discipline and group training 
"but then how do we account for some, a very small percentage of refugees, who 
seek foster homo care for their children recognizing the need for individualiza- 
tion of the child. When the placement agency function is geared to considering 
the childs needs she may often come to an impasse with tho parent who feels that 
she is host ahle to determine what those needs are and how they should ho met. 
This prohlem pjirticularly looms large when the child is so emotionally disturbed 
and withdrawn as to make it almost dangerous to impose a group setting on him. 

Mrs. X. applies for the placement of hor child of 5. The father is studying to 
pass his medical examination. The mother is employed as a domestic to support 
the household. She wishes to place the child who remains unsupervised while she 
is caring for someone elsos children. Her own child is beginning to show symp- 
toms of disturbance and deprivation. All efforts are bent toward the fathers 
achieving his goal. The child is an obstacle and placement seems to be the only 
solution. I think we have to pose for ourself how we would meet this problem 11 
it wore a non-refugee client in spite of all our sympathetic understanding of 
the need of this family to work out a solution in their own self determined way. 
Would wG wonder whether the small pittance the mother earns is sufficient to 
warrant hor staying away from the homo and taking care of someone elses child 
instead of her own wo would understand that her need for economic independence 
is a compelling factor and she would prefer this to accepting help from an 
agency, and yet we would wonder if helping the parents toward a solution on their 
own terms is really helping the child for whom they seek institutional placement. 

Mr, and Mrs. Y. have asked for the placement of their new born infant. The father 
a well established lav/yer is finding the employment adjustment difficult. His 
earnings are small and irregular. The mother is physically depleted. She is a 
skilled designer by trade. Placement is asked for a temporary period until tne 
parents can achieve economic independence which is paramount to anything else 
in their lives. They speak with positive feelings about the baby. The renewal 
of strength they feel through the birth of the child and its symbol of creative 
value in this period of relentless destruction. They insist on institutional 
cave. The child is placed now for two months. The mother is earning $25 a week 
and promises to increase her salary very soon. The father is now without employ- 
ment. There is a perceptible disturbance in their relationship. The placement 
of the baby is no longer temporary. They have become highly unrealistic about 
future plans for absorbing the baby into the ftaaily and they continue to seek 
tho child's placement even at a sacrifice of paying for his care which would re- 
duce their budget excessively. Would we sjiy here that the problem is situational, 
would we say that they have shifted their responsibility of the child to the 
a,cency, v/ould wo say that facin- realities of reorganizing their life to include 
the child is frou^'ht with too much threat, would we say that we have helped then 
throu.5h the placement of their child? In my experience while this particular 
problem certainly has all the added disturbances of adjustnent to a new scene 
under conditions thpt have been excessively frustating, it is not unlike non- 
refugee problems that come to our attention for placement. 



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I think it of importance to recognize, otherwise I think I would Jj^^^ ^° P^^^ 
along with other of ny colleagues in a placenent agency, that P^^J^^f ^^^ .j^ 
quently is a positive solution to some protlens and represent positive strength 
in those appUcants who seek that solution, but I think whether ij refugee 
f. rallies or non-refugee fruiilies that in lay experience and many ^^J^^^^J *^^ 
field of placement in highly qualified placement agencies, *^^* ^^^^^f *^f ^ s 
those problems coining for placement vary in relation to the ^^f ^^^^^f ^. f ^ 
needs and that cultural problems and social upheaval is a counterpart of t^ 
total problem as it relates to the individual personality. Jnere is not suffi 
ciont tine to discuss adaptation of the children to placement. ^J^ j^ °'J^^^ 
generally fron the materials published and from the people H^^^^^J^^fH 
discussed the problem, is that their readiness to adapt to the new ^^^^« ^« 
pheri.nAnra, and yot again it must be emphasized that adaptation is related to 
individual needs and personalities. 

The need is compelling for a greater uni orstanding between *f °f ^j;°^^^^^^^ 

the applicant, and all the case work concepts ^^^^^^^^ ^J^^'^^.^Xm^^ 
ties, a feeling into the other persons problem and iJ^'^Ji^yi^S with ^^em ao 

people in troufle, people seeking help, and people who "ZV ZtLiVttele 
?wn self determination, all of these must be brought to bear in ^^Pj^f *f ^^^^^. 
people to utilize thoir strengths in working out a positive and purpooeful soiu 
tion to their problem. 



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THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK. N. Y. 



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BSADIHG LIST 

couasE 7Q 



W 



r.of eronca: nnrkod (♦) are valuable for this course 

GEIEHAL 



Crin o as a Social ProUen 

♦ Satherlandt Edwin H# 

♦ Tannenbaun, PraJik 

Cantor, Nath-^nlel F. 

* Cnixtor, Nathaniel F. 
&illin, John L. 

* liichael, Jorone & Adlor, 
Uortiner J« 



Principles of CrinlnolOriy > 1934 odition 
Crime and the Coa-iunity 

Crino, Cr ininpls » - nrininal Justice 
Crine & So cjjgt^ 
Crininolo -; /' ^ Penolof-y 
princ. La wr^ ^ocial Science 



1%, 



Undarstandiiig the Crini npl as an Individual 

1^ rr _ m'-., Ti-^-.-^ •!•'■-■-- nrininnl, and thcPublic 

Hcaly, Win. & Alexander, Franz Roots of Crinq ^ ^ 

^^^ ^ Tj^r^o The W orld OutsJde 
F&llada, Hans ± '-^ — 



Burnos, RolDt. E« 



V.'^rc me to Prison 



n.,,^r.r^ ,^ n,.lvsis Of A.--;.i inistratipn of Crininal jUstico 



Glueck, Sheldon 



\/ I 



y^*--L-'X^''vC 



:L<r^ 



Moley, Raynond 



* Harrison &&raiit 



^> 



♦ Ulnan, Joseph N* 

Brockenrid^^e, Soiohoiiista 



Crine an;!. Justice 

Our Crininrl Courts 

Youth in the ToUs c^-r:.oiA.^ 

> 

A Jud':e T^-^-i^fi^ the Stand 
Social Wor^ ^^ the Co-orts 



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PROBATION 






Tho Tl-^cory & AcJ-ui^i strati ve Systems 



I 



Sc3,lin, TLorsten 



:.:illcr, Justin 



* C'mte, ChoTlcs L* 
Mo ore, Joel E» 



* Halporn, Irvine; 
@ * Gluock, Sheldon (editor) 



MacBrci^no, L.I. & Rajnsay, J. P. 
* Williarason, Mar.rxtretta 



* Eivigion of Probation, NfYm 
State Dcpt, of Correction 



Lane, T7int:irop I). 



wprobation & Parole", Sncyclopcdia of 
social Sciences. 

"The Place of Probation in the Crininal 
Court" - N.P.A. Yearbook, 1939 

"Probation", Social TTork Year Book, 1937 

"The U.S. Probation Systen", Journal of 
Criminal Lar/ and Crininolory, Vol. 23, 
pp. 638 - 648, Novonber 1932. 

A Decade of Probation 

Probation a nd Crininal Justice 

Probation i n Europe 

One More Chonce 

The Social Worker in t he Prevention 
aiid Treatment of Delinquency, Part I 

"General Rules Res^latinj?^ Methods & 
Procedure in the Administration of 
probation in N.Y. State." 

"State Assistance to Probation", N.P.A. 
Yearbook, 1932-33, p. 229 



* Attorney Gener^vl's Survey of 
Release Procedures t 



Vol. II. Probation 



n 



Basis in Law 

* Hillcr, Francis 



* Glueck, Sheldon (editor) 

* Chappell, Richard A. 



Attorney General's Survey of 
Release Procedures 



"Adult Probation Lav/s of the U.S." 
K.P.A. parphlet 

Probation & Crininal Justice, pp 23-46 

"The Basis in Lciw for the Social Treat- 
ment of the Adult Offender", Social 
Service Di^^ost of the Federal Bureau 
of Prisons, June 1938^ 

Vol. I Di^jost of Federal and State 
Laws 



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gvriluatin-; the Re_su lt B of Probation 
Hrirt, H.K. 8c Others 



"Hepcrt on Penal Inptitutionr., Probf'.tion 
r^nd PnrolL!»», Ifetion.'^ CoMr.us?,ion on Law 
ObsorvMnce & Snfroconent, Report #9, 
1931, pp 146-169 



Mo.'ul, Bonnet 



»»Evaluatin^! the Ret^ults of Probation*' 
Journal of Crinincil Law & Cri:.iinolor:3.% 
Vol. 23, pp 631-638, Kov, 1932. 






Vi 



:.fer:0, Boanet 



Hu::hor.> Chcxles E. Jr. 



M;^.y':. c}iusottG Courniscdon on 
Probr.tion 



♦ Michael, Jcrone & AeUor, 

I>Iorti:Aer J. 



Uon.';.chepi, E.D» 



»«Ic There n Measure of Prob/.tion S^.iccesG?" 
K.P.At Yearbook, 1957, pp 130-138 

"Probation PrOr.TesG", Journal of Grininrl 
Lav; rnd Crininolo^T. Vol. 23, pp 915-925, 
Mc-y 1933. 

t»Rr;port of an Inquiry into the Permanent 
Results of Probation", Mass. Senate 
Docur.icnt #431, 19^4. 

Cri-^Qy Lraw & Social Science , (see ref- 
erences to Probation) pp 199 ff. 271 ff 

Prediction irnc tors in Probation 



( See also Annucd Reports of any State, County or 
City Probation Deprxtnent) 



PRISOIT pnOGR^-J^IS 



/^ 



* Bates, Sc^nford 

Wi.-3S, Frederick Howard 
Gluock, Sheldon 



(1 



tt 



Ti'^e Osbor ne Assn. Inc> 



MacCornick, Austin 



Lr.ves, Lewis • E 
McKolvy, Blaice 



Prisons and Beyond 
Punis^g ient and Refornation 
500 Crininal Crxre ers 
Later Crirj,inrl Careers 
500 Delinquent Wonen 

H-ndbook ^-^ Anerican Prisons & 
Refcruatories 

y.rh.rnfAc^n cf Mult Prisoners 



20y000 Years in Sinr. Sinj: 



j ^.erican Prisin g 



-4- 



1 



^ 



^ 



PAEOLE 



Basic Principles 
Scllin, Thorsten 



"Pro'bation & Parole", Encyclopedia of 
Social Sciences 



Procoodin6:;s of the Pirst National Parole Conference, 1939 



^ Huff, R.'V L. 

♦ .Lcj'io, Winthrop D. 



"Parolees Social Work Year Book, 1937 
"Parole", Social Work Year Book, 1939 



* Ai-ua-'ican Parole Assn# 



"Declaration of Principles", Journal 
of Criminal Law & Cri.ninoloa^, Vol. 24| 
pp 788 - 793, Nov. -Doc. 1933 



i trier, Helen S« 



"History, Theory & Results of Parole" 
Journal of Criminal Law & Crininology, 
Vol. 18, pp. 24-64, ViiV 1927 



a 



\ , ■ ' 



•<• Ivlorr'ji, Frederick X. 



La Hae, WillDur, Jr. 



"Parole As It Should Be", N.P.A. Ye^irl)Ook, 
1937, pp 100--121. 

Parole with Honor 
Princeton University Press 1939 



Parole "by States 

luY. State Division of Parole 



*1T.Y. State Division of Parole 



Wilcox, Claire 



Bruce, Burgess & Harno 



Lane, Winthrop D* 



"Handbook of Policies and Procedures" 
(II.Y.S.S.W. Library) 

"Annual Reports", 1930 - date (espec- 
ially 1933 Fin^ 1936) 

"The Parole of Adults from State Penal 
Institutions in Pennsylvania and Other 
Coniaonwenlths" . 

Parole & The I nde terminate Sentence in 
Illinois 

"Parole Procedure in New Jersey", Journal 
of Criminal Law & Crininolosy, Vol. 22, 
pp 375-405, Sept. 1931 



m 



♦ Att(;rney General's Survey of 
Release Procedures 



Vo, IV» Parole 



-b- 



A, 



«1 



'PjjVcA Fr o ui c t i o n 

*l,licha0l & Adler 



Laune, P»P# 



Vca.l, QrOOTze B. 



Huff, S'iy Lt 



Lnune, ?•?• 



Burgess, Ernest ?• 



ITiU'or-^ch, Hr'jrry 



V'ln Vechton, C.C» 



Crino. Law & Social Science pp 191-215 

Prodi ctinr- Crinlnnlityt Forecasting 
Behavio r on Parole 

Prediction Methods and Parole 

"Parole Prediction as a Science" 
Journal of Crininal Law & Crininolor^r, 
Vol. 26, pp 377-400, Sept. 1935 

"Is Parole Prediction a Science" 
Journal of Crininal Law & Crininclo-y, 
vol. 27, irp 207-213, July-Au.-. 1936 

"T'^e Scientific Status of Porolc Prediction" 
Journal of Crirainal La.;7 & Crininolo.^, 
Vol. 27, PI) 214-218, July-Au.^. 1936 

"protectin,;:: the Public Vj Parole and 
"by Prxole Prediction", Journal of 
Crininal Lav/ & Crininolory, Vol. 27 
pp 491-514, Nov.-Dec. 1936 

"Mcasurin.- P;r.irole Violation", Journal of 
Crininal' La^ & Crininolocy , Vol* 27, 
pp 357-373, Sept-Oct. 1935 

"The P^;jrole Violation Eate" , Journal of 
Crininal Law & Criuinolo.y, Vol. 27, pp 
638-640, Jan-Fet. 1937. 



e) 



440 



I I 



I i It 



^ 



The new York School of social work 

122 CAST TWENTY-SECOND aTREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 



COURSE 76 



fTTMBtER GOABTER 1940 



Q 



Written - Assignment Da e: A ugast I3th 

In a paper of 1,000 - 1,500 words, discuss one of the following topics: 
(Indicate the references on the reading list or elsewhere which you have 
found useful in preparing this assignment.) 

Prohation as a departure from punitive methods of dealing with 
offenders. 

The "basis in law for the use of probation and parole. 

Similarities and differences in the use of probation for 
juvenile and adult offenders. (Presupposes that student 
has taken Course 20. ) 

Case work in probation and parole. (The extent to which you 
see it possible to utilize case work methods and techniques 
in probation and parole agencies. Compare the use of case 
work in probation and parole to its use in other agencies 
with whicli you are familiar in terms of such factors as: 
intake, social study, diagnosis, treatment.) 

The functional relationships of law enforcing agencies, 
judicial agencies, correctional institutions, and probation 
and parole services. (This might be done by comparing and 
contrasting the responsibilities and functions of the police 
officer, the judge, the prison guard, with those of a probor- 
tion officer and parole officer.) 

The Relationship of Parole and the Indetairoinate Sentence. 

Your Pet Reform for Socializing the Administration of the 

Criminal Lavx: 

Disposition Tribunal 

Specialized Courts for Youthful Offenders 

A Youth Justice Authority. 



& 



i) 



•It CAST TWRiNfYfRCONO 1iTP»» ' 



WORK 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 



9 



D3t£E 76 






Ml 



Q 



BeadJ 



C«.0t record of Jaai^g l>»qi> WL. USaee Procedures, '^^^ . II» 

rs ii "i- HI- 
lUlp^rQ, Irving - A Decadt of Prob^tloP t Sup^rriclon ■itiiociOlogy, 

Mi -i^ of the ioii PP* 137-x:L4» 

. SEfinthroi JD. - ''State Asslttuno* to 7 

Glii^ck, Shtldon (editor) • Pr.v.<.tlv?n x Crlailn. 1 Justice 

..,». T>.,^y^r Ci^^p. VII - ^tusf C«s» History in Prob^tio.i Service* 

hf Salph Rfill Ferria 



Muti 



fliNtpt VIIX - ^Tm Social ^orjL^r*? Tedtaii^ue mA 

"■n, .ncoerx C* -^ ^.atewlProtietioii* by Hfttii l#l«i 

Taroi'fe**» At.x't > 
?roo«.tion iWocicxtioG Y«*.r Book, 1936, pi.# ^22 - 252* 



Matiomd Probe tton A ••deletion Yearbook, 19?7, pp. I6l - 187* 






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The New York school of social work 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK. N. Y. 



3 



COURSE 76 
Assignment - Si^cth Session 



Bead: 

Attorney General's Sarvey of Release Procedures, Vol. 

Chapters II and III. 

and one of the following: 

Lane. Winthrop D. - "State Assistance to Prohation", 

N.P.A. Yearhook, 1932-33, p. 229. 



n, 



Ferris, Ralph Hall - 



"Integrating Probation Service on 
a Statewide Basis", N.P.A. Yeartook, 
1939, p. 218. 



Edson. Robert C. - "Statewide Coverage in Probation and 

Parole", N.P.A. Yearbook, 1938, p. 160 



f 




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The New York school of social work 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 
NEW YORK. N. Y. 



'•' 



/ 



COURSE #76 
Assignment for Seventh Session 



Case Eecord of Peter Mikenas 



P 



Bead one of the following: 
Huff, Bay L, 



^Parole", Social Work Yearbook, 1937. 



Lane, Winthrop D.- "Parole", Social Work Yearbook, 1939, 

Moran, Frederick A.- "Parole As It Should Be", National 

. Probation Assn. Yearbook, 1937. 

and one of the following; 

Attorney General's Survey of Belease Procedures, Vol. II, 

Parole, Chap. I, II, IV, V. 

Bates, Sanford - Prisons and Beyond . Chap# X, XI, XIII - XVI. 

Canton, Nathaniel- Crime and Society . Chap. VIII - X, XVI. 

Sutherland, Edwin H. - Principles of Criminology . Chap. XIX, 

XX, XXIII. XXIV. 



c 



Course 76 

Mr. McKerrow 

fpobatlon and Parole 



June l e, 1940 

This course is less a course in crime as a course dealing with the 
machinery that may brin/7 one in conflict 'vith the law. Course will 
not be a study of criminology, but it will brinr seme study cf it 
as useful background for later treatment. 

Offender is a person who breaks the law and is cau?"ht by the state 

(apprehention) . 



Offense 
(police) Arrest 



Detention 



Escape 
Balled 



Arraigned before Magistrate 



Summary Frodeedings Court of Special Sessions 



Grand Jury 



a 



Guilty 



Not guilty 



^fisdominors can be mssei to another court (in Mew York: 
Court of special sessions], then this court determines the 
question;^ of guilt or innocense . 



I 

II 

III 



Ordinancee 



Mlsdominor 



Felony 



(social laws) 

(smoking in subway, unlawful entry, prostitution) 

(rape, assault, -urder, f^rant lauceny, burglery) 



m 



JUiie 25, 1940 







Whether an offense is classified as misdemeanor or felony depends on the amount of 
punishment that has been set for the offense by the law» 



What happens to individual who breaks law and gets caugtit: 



Arraignment before Magistrate 



Misdemeanor 



Felony 



District Attorney 



Special Sessions Jail - Bail 



\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



Indictment 
"True Bill" 



Grand Jury 
(23 citizens) 



Refuse Indictment 
No Bill 



•' 



\ Trial Court 



\ 



^Arraignment 



GSuilty 



not guilty 



Conviction of crime 



<9 



c 



July 2. 1940 



Jail - Bail 



Prosecuting Attomoy 
Crrand Jury 



Indictment 
Trial Court 



Oailty - Hot Guilty 



Conviction 



Ho Bail 



*> 



MGAZINES: 

1. Pro"bation, National Prolsation Association 



2. 
3. 
4. 



Federal Probation, U.S. Probation Association 

Correction Prison World, American Prison Association and Nation. Jail Assn. 

Report on prisoners, their crimes and sentences, by Comision to investigate 
^ ^ prison administration 

and construction, Pebr# 

1933* 



# 



Movement spensored by the American Law Institute to P^°>°;*« ^"f«J ^ ^^ ^ 
youthfal offenders are concerned (l6 to 21 years old). This spring an act was 

endorsed by this institute. 

There is also a model act irtiich tries to create a model court for youthful 
offenders. 

* 

S ystem under shich we are op erating at present; 

If indevidual is convicted of a crime he is subject afcjratAaaack to pe^ty* 
The degree and nature of punishment is determined by the law maker- Both are 
different in the different states • 



Pine 
Iii5)risoxmient 

Death 

Whipping 

Exile 



State Prison 
Reformatory 
Penetentiary 
Woife House 

Suspending sentence 



/ 



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July 9, 1940 



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James West Case 

Complete study has to be made on the case before probation and 
parole are imposed • In New York law demands that a preliminary 
investigation has to be madehy. (Pre sentence investigation)* 

Suspend sentence • There is a danger that judges use this as a 
matter of policy to stengthen their position within the community* 

Pre sentence investigation is a sort of study, it is a method of 
further individualizing procedure ♦ 

Investigation* Legal history is obtained by arresting officer 
and -police headquarters; client *s history to be obtained later* 
Further investigation with complainant (whether he is interested 
in compensation), school, family, working place* 

Jul^ 16, 1940 

We seem to lack in the United States theproper institutions for 
people on probation. There is one sohoo in the State of New York: 
New York State Vocational training School (for boys between the 
ages of 16 and 19, who have been convicted of crime)* 

Part II James West Case* There is a proposal by the American 
Lawyer Society to give the judge only the poser to t\irn over the 
youthful tfixxHaiHtiaKgxttiai offender to something like "Youth 
Justice Authority"* It should be that Authority's duty to find 
out about proper treatment* At present, there is no treatment 
possibility during the time before the trial while offender is in 
jail* 

It depends very much upon the judge v;hether probation officer can 
suggest whether or not sentence should be applied and v;hat kind of 

sentence should be pronounced* The role the probation officer 
plays, thus depends largely upon the judge for whom he is working* 
Under the present law, the judge has final decision to apply sentence. 

Report on Ma gazine "Probation"* (magazine is 18 years old). 

An excellent cha rt was shovm indicating the daily duties and 
activities of a)f( probation officer: Home visits, Community 
resources, Of Ice visits, Staff Education, Investigation, School 
Visits, Courts, Correspondence and vTitten reports, Mental Hygiene 
Clinic. 

Report on Magazine "Federal Probation". Contributors are not paid 

for articles. Articles 

are very technical. 




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o 



Juljr 23, 1940 

I Supervision of persons placed on probation 

II Organization of probation departments. 

I Supervision. Pur-ooses: 

a) T)rotection of the commvmity. 
It is a raethod of controlling activities of individual who has 
indicated by an action he has done in the past that his behavior 
mya constitute some danger to other people. There has always been 
fear of the t)erson vho has broken 'he law, and the desire of the 

community that the individual does not do it again. Individual 
is subject to authority. In Case he does not follov; instructions 

of probatirn officer, sentencmt can be exercised. Community tries 
to discover individual needs which have caused a delinquency. 
Restrictions for the probationer: 



Report where he lives 
"»» " " work§ 
ReDort when leaves city 

Follow probation officer's instructions and advice 
sometimes: pay back damage done. 

If probationer breaks rule ju' ge may apiily sentence. One should 
not overemphasize power of control of probation officer. 

b) assistance to individual. 
How can officer help individual to become a useful member of society 
again. By example. Individual has to knov/ that he is on probation, 
and subject to authority. Case work raethod has to be within limits/ 
of probation law. 

election of "orobation officers has not been a very selective pro- 
ess until now. Also the judge has not been very selective m con- 
■'dering which cases they put un probation and v/hich not. Many 
delinquents have been T)ut on probation when sentence should have 
been suspended/ entirely, others where pris/on sentence should have 
been applied have been put on t)robation. Also the facilities for 
youths put on probation are limited. There is a lack of resources 
to take care of individuals on probation. Some commtmities 
suggest a plan for each probationer , which includes encouraging 

for employment, betterment of health condition, use of leistire 
time, saving of money, training for an occupation. 



« 



© 



Baal: 



o 



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July 30, I9I+O 

Lecture by Mr. Steip (Conmittee on Youth and Justice, Community lervlce Society) 

Youth and Justice Committee — Chairman: John D. Eodcfeller III 
pamphlet; American Law Institute, 3I+OO Chest Nut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Official Draft of "ProTlslon of Youth Justice Authority Act". 

The American Law Institute is a National IncorpoiNited Body, composed of 70O 
- ,,^. . lawyer*, Judges, founded in 1923. Their goal Is 

simplification and better interpretation of the law. The imerlcaa L^w Institute 
and Community Servid* Society woik together. 

The Youth Correction Authority program is only for the time after conviction. 
_ > I* concerns itself with treatment, training, rehahllltation. 

The program t»ies to change attitude from punishment to rehabilitation. (Punish- 
ment and rehabilitation have each their own philosophy.). After arrest, the Judge 
either dismisses the case, or connits person to Youth Quthorlty. Under this law 
come offenders who have vlelated law which requires penalty of imprisonment of 
less than life, or Inrprisonment more than 3O days. If judge commits person to 
penetentlary, this institution must be approved by Youth authority. 

^at is the "Authority"! It Is a group of three men; the legislation will decide 
what qualifications they have to meet. In New York, these three men should not 
be practitioners. They are appointed for nine years, by the governor. Their 
duty is organization, administration, determining of policies. 

August 6, I9U0 
Lecture by Mr. Dressier, Executive Dlrectore of Parole, New York State. 

Parole is a conditional release from an institution for a prisoner lAio is 
allowed to serve part of his senttaee outside of the prison, under supervision. 

At present, there is a considerable lack of woiking facilities in the prisons. 
There should he a definite work program which should prepare prisoner constructively 
and give him an opportunity to develop from supervised work to more free work. 

h^ of the Ug States in this country have a parole system. 12 itates have no inde 
terminate sentence provision. 

Types of releasing bodies: a) governor or his representative, b) national parole 
board, c; central parole board. 

ad weakness: politics. assets: responsibility can be placed with one person. 

b) each institution has its parole board. 

weakness: too much decentralization. Different ways of handling things. 

Too many responsibilites for warden, who then has aside from ad- 
ministration work, i>aroling duty. 

Staff of an institution should know prisoner best as to his devel- 
opment, and as to prognosis for later. 



assets: 



c) a central parole board can be more objective, but It can not handle cases 

individually. 

Parole Boards. Eligibility of people who can serve differs in the different 

states. $«»lJbrf««x«»iddl*t^« 



V 



V 



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O 



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three to 10 people serve on the parole hoards. Most states have to operate on 
a yery small hudget, and the hoard memhers are not pald^ 12 states in the 
country have a civil service system; in addition to these, some states ase the 
mertit system for selection of staff. Thus, the members of the parole board 
are appointed according to the system under which khe particular state operates. 

Method: There is not much case woric orientation in the parole field; case 
loads are too hight budget too small. 

Who is recommended for PaaroleT Some states consider fitness for parole in 

relation with the crime comnjtted, others, 
think of it in terms of prognosis of later life and adjustment, others 
rely upon pre-parole investigation and parole board hearing. The last one 
is the one most used* 

Parole Set Tfo in New York State : 

New York State has a model parole set up, not only in this country but for the 
whole world. 

The New York State ^arole system is based on the Chapters 1, 2, 3, U of the 
1930 Lewisohn Committee act. 

There are no more definite sentences set in the State of New York, which means 
that a larger group of prisoners is eligible for parole. Three members serve 
on the board; they are appointed by the governor for 6 years* 

The Board has the following powers: Setting of policies. Interriewing of 

each man eligil^le for parole* Resp- 
onsibility of releasing. 

all but the three board members are on civil service. Womens reformatories 

have their own parole systems. 

Budget for New Yoik State ^arole System: ^5CX),000. 

There is not application for parole. The hearings are private. Decision 
must be unanimous. If prisoner is not released, he must be given date of next 
hearing. If man is released, there must be a parole program for him; he mast 
have residence and employment. 

^arole process. The parole process should start in the prison, with a program 
which prepares prisoner for later free life. The pre-parole investigation 
includes history of offense, previous criminal record, personal history, 
family relationships, community attitude, social service exchange clearance, 
future home and employment. 





/ 



-*0^ fejlA.*^ 





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y- 




The new York School of Social work 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

122 EAST TWENTY-SECOND STREET 

NEW YORK. N. Y. 



Ft t^^-z 










S ^VJ2e''(^* ^-<?-. 



January 22, 1942 



SUGGESTIONS FOB. SMIMAB A IID CLASS MIFJTE5 
THAT ARE TO BE MIlSOaRAPlIED 



i 






3. 



4* 



All seminar and class minutes should "be typed, if you have 
acc<>ss to a typewriter. Only persons rho can write very 
l eff^ihly should \7rite l3y hand. 

The Kiraoo^raphlng Department is always pressed for time and 
therefore cannot assume the responsihility of editing papers 

Handwritten papers should not he written on closely lined 
paper* Tliis feature makes them difficult to read even if 
the writing is very legible^ 

The paper should include, in the upper ri^t hand corner, 
the name of the student, numher of the Seminar or Class and 
date of the mimitos. 



5. T^aesday^s minutes should ho ready for stencilling hy Friday 
morning. 

Wednesday's minutes l)y Saturday morning, 

Thursday's minutes "by ^n3y morning, and 



Friday's minutes "by Tuesday' morning- 



% 



*vm 



maL 



f%\ 



!• How theee objeetivag are accepted by moA affect principles of 
functioning of the foUoivlng tjpee of agisncieat 

k. Hsalth •* aedical, pe/chiatsrlo 

!• Family Ageiiciee and Public IMLfare iiMiclee 

C# Child Welfare 

B« Recreational 

Wm Vocati<»ial QuidancG and Flacanant 

F. Correctional 

0# CoBvmjnlty Organisation 

VU Social Action 

!• Social Inaurance 

f% MLeoellaneoua 



ZI* How theee obJectiTea are aoeepted by and affect i 
▲• Board Maabera 
|» Client 
C. Staff 

D« Conaunity (non«-client) 
JU other groupe. 



III« Sumation of the objectiyee of eoclal «m1u 







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QPu^j^ ^-va*-z>j^ hj:^X2^ijyC> 



z) C<>^ v^,,^,J^£ML.wv^^ 



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II 



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>.^iri«**ai^k.'«Hilai 



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,..^-«».iA* ---lUfc- .-.-"I 



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MIMUTES ■> SEMINAR :391.>P 
March 19, 1942 



ELE7EKTH SESSION 



In line with the plan agreed upon in the previous session, the discussion 
for the first hour was to center around the papers presented in the tenth session.^ 
This was also continued into the second hour. It was suggested that amplification 
concernin/T the points of view of the '^haves*^ and "have-nots'^ might prove fruitful, 
this having heen the subject last under consideration. Mr. Klein pointed out that 
the social stratification theory is prohahly held "by the vast majority of people 
regardless of their own position in society — at least that this was roughly true. 
By the social stratification theory, he meant the acceptance of the view that in- 
come need not have relation to actual need. Thus, the skilled worker earning $40 
weekly vv^ould question the ditch digger's getting as much as he did. 

Mr. Shapiro noted that while this was true, the identification of the 
have-nots with the haves might he ascribed to the kind of education that was avail- 
ahlG« He added th^t the instruments for informing the public of the facts, such as 
the newspapers, radio, etc. all were forces in this identification process. Turning 
for an illustration, Mr. Shapiro pointed to the Detroit Negro housing iacident as 
indicating how some of the "have-nots** opposed other "have-nots.'^ 



since i 



It was pointed out th.?t the race question wps not precisely pnalogous, 
cut across economic lin^s — at least in mnny respects. 



f 



Mr. Shapiro thought that we ought to remember that we were considering 
the socirl work objectives which are associated with this tentative outline of the 
good life. Thpt , while it was true th^t in rapny instances the "have-nots" have 
identified Kth the "haves", the soci?>l agencies themselves were not riming at some 
of the objectives thrt would lead towards the good life. He pointed out that, as 
far as he could see, it was the governmental agencies rather than the private family 
agr^ncies th^t hnd done the most in working for the good life. Low-rent housing, the 
protective work of the children's bureau^ social reforms related to child labor, 
were given as illustrntions . 

In response to r. question by Miss Masket^ Mr. Klein noted that, by and 
largei the facts do indicate that the boards of the private s^gencies were against 
these co'^^^^'^^^^ital reforms. This opposition, he thought, was reflected in two ways: 
(l) by active opposition (he cited active resistance against health insurance plans), 
^nd by frilintS to come to the support of such reforms. While the second of these 
is not so clear, in the last analysis it is reflective of a point of vier/. Citation 
was made of one agency bo^Td which disciplined its own workers for coming out in 
favor of unemployment insurance. In ftiother case, a report of a housing committee 
of R, private pgency left a very unfavorable impression on the reader since it high- 
lighted 'by implication the opposition of the rqal estate, bf^nking, and broker members 
who dropped off the committee, offering one excuse or another, so that only the 
chairman remained, when the place of visitation was reached. It was pointed out 
that it rrs qu.ito likely thpt in this case, as in ^ many others, the generous 
impulses of r general nature had to be compromised when they crme up a^plnst par- 
ticular self-interests of a business nature* The slum holdings by the Trinity 
Church ^"ere noted as another well-known example of the same kind of things 

i/Irr.. Einhorn suggested that there was a kind of parallel thinking behind 
the criticism, durifig the early part of the New Deal, against Roosevelt's going on 
yachting trips with Astor, who owned so much in slum areas. 



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- 2 - 



Y 



Mr. Nenc r.sked if the havo-nots see things the sfune yjb:^^ as the haves, 
then MYiy Iv^ye these reforms taken place. 

Mr. Klein thought that this was to be ansv/ered only "by examination of 
the conplicated nnd intricate factors present in the securing of these reforms. 
Th^;s "l.avrs'^ do really have decent impulses, whenever they are not personally 
intore^^ti:d or effected. Then too, there are often pov;erful forces that do have a 
genuine self-i-torcst in these measures. The resolution of pU these forces and 
the end product of the manipulations may he a kind of reform. It was suggested by 
Misri K'v- tro;- thpt p11 this pointed up the fact that it is really hou' people feel 
about Ver.e thir.,^:n th^t counts. Mr. Klein added that pjiother illustration of the 
spme ki -d of thing ras the fact that there \7as a great deal of opposition by 
ordinary vrorlanon ag??inst the relief -receiving groups. Mr. Bermwi noted that while 
this ml;':ht be tnie, this kind of idea had been carefully fostered by the "hpves"; 
actually, the big reforms have come when the have-nots and their leaders became 
aware of their real interests. This has been the most potent dynrjnic. It was 
pointed out by !fr. Klein that oven the leaders of the laboring group had for a long 
time opposed minim^im wages, unemplo^'ment insurance, individuals, etc. Perhaps this 
might be ascribed to the fact that these leaders are "haves'^ of a kind themselves. 
Mr. Nes^ cited the story of the reactionary edJicator who claimed that it could be 
Droved that all reforms had been forced down the throats of the beneficiaries. It 
WPS finally rather generally agreed that the task of educating those in the lower 
economic levels is a difficult matter due to ignorance and false facts. In this 
connection allusion was made to the Forgotten Villr^e. 

l:r. Shnpiro cited pn exomple of the board members who, while they had 
first been in^tn'.montal in securing a public recreation program, later appeared at 
a meeting of taxpayers to cut out this appropriation. This moved the discussion 
back to p consideration of the vwy the social workers in the agencies really felt 
about these things. Miss Masket noted that from her observations social workers 
themsel^.^ps allied with either or both groups depending upon their own sympr-thies. 
She STDOkc of the opposition of some workers in Virginia to grnjits for mothei^ of 
illegitimate children. It wns poirxted out thrt this might be dae to the recruitment 
proced^aros for obtaining the social workers in the first place. Mr. Klein thought 
thrt this was not quite so p^pplicable to New York City. Here, while the Boaxds 
controllin:: the agencies, consisted of the very rich, there is the strange nnomaly 
of the very rich being closer to and more sympathetic with the lower income groups 
than was trae of the middle rich. In this connection. Miss Filene told of the fact 
that, in (xeriiany those social workers trained by the labor unions from their own 
ranks often oroved more strict and less considerate thrji other social workers 
trained in the regular manner. This was ascribed, by Miss Eo.ton to the psychology 
of -'hich we all are rware, in the hardness of those who struggled hard to get nhead. 
Finally it was suggested by Mr, Ness thrt even the "have-nots", whether social 
workers or other individurls, have a stake- in terms of emotional security in the 
status quo; for nil of us cling to the known. 

Mr. Klein felt thnt a consideration of the initial role of social worker 
would give a clue as to why the worker is in so many cases allied to the "have" 
point of view. This was an inevitable allipjice so long as the worker is a "hander 
out of phil^-nthropy". Once recognition of the right to the benefit is clear, then 
one is already ppssing into the replm of socialistic thinking. This recognition is 
a difficult juncture for the worker in the private agency; thi^t is one reason why 
private frmily e^z^ncy workers often will not recognize a right to the service. Miss 
Masket asked if that were the case, was one to draw the conclusion that the private 
agencies be disbanded, and arrangements be made to give these elements essential 
for the r;ood life, through public sources? In short, if the social workers could 
not accent this kind of ppxtnership with the "haves" Pjid along with their philosophy 
thrt iii^ivin:!: is optional ( with the agency hr^ving the right to withhold), then 



- 3 - 



^ 



shonl-^n' t rll thr v/orkors z-efiise to work? Mr» Klein replied thnt he couldnH soe 
rny point to th^^t kind of str^itegy; nil it would mern is thrt soncone else would 
stop ir.., to ^ijibstitute for the workers. It \YOuld "be more to the point to try to 
educrte the r^ocir'Hy-nindcd "bopxd mprabers. Miss Mnsket opined thnt r.he felt that 
thof.c \7^ th r. strke in the present regime would not ^ive up, in the ln.st rjialysis, 
without f>. fi^ht. Mr. Klein wondered how nt\ny workers really have a point of view 
thn.t r^ti'^iulr'.te'^. thein to try to convince "board menliers, to educate them, if you ^'illc 
Tl^oro wrs sone evidence thnt, in the private fnjnily agencies the workers either 
thou^4:ht only of their techniques or were likeminded with their hoards. On this 
?corc, it was pointed out there was some difference in the ^oup v/ork a;i;encies. 

Mrs. Sinhorn mentioned thr>t the unions were a force in the right direct ioxi 
It T/P3 rntcd, that they also mi£;ht he a divisive influence if they concentrated on 
workir,:; corditions for themselves rather thnn on professional policy rnd its impli- 
cations. Ivlention wp-s made of New Zealand, in ansv/er to the statement that socif^x 
reform cpxi cone only throu^rh revolution. Miss Filcne thoti^ht that perhaps hi^^^h 
taxes nij^ht he hringing about the desired changes. 

This elicited the comment from Miss Roosevelt thrt she vrondered if the 
workers in puolic agencies were endeavoring^ any harder than those in the private 
ones to 'orin-^; nhout the s^od life. Low "budgets, and lack of rehabilitative work 
were cited as siTiptomatic in the public field of a lack of drivinj force towards 
the objoctivos related to the ^pOod life. Miss Kantrow suggested that this was 
different since the public r^^^^ency had to mirror the community. Miss Roosevelt 
thou^rht t'-.rt they seemed to mirror th^t part of the {governing forces in the communi- 
ty v/hich are concerned about appropri^.tions. Mr. Meyers stated th.at the community 
could ::et thin:2:s once it v;as aroused, witness the riots, Workers Alliance, etc. — 
to vhich Mr. Shrpiro commented that this was the exception, and not typical of the 
r.ajorlty of clients. Mr. Klein thou^^ht we ought to remember two thinr^s: (l) that 
the rprl rstrte pnd income tax groups are organized, pxticulate nxid effective in 
resr^ect. t'-- appropriations, while the others are not; (2) that one of the strong 
countorhalrrces pg^inst these orgpnized groups comes from the administrative 
bureaucracy who have a professional or craftsmanship interest in improving that 
which they are pdministerin.':. 



'f 



Miss K.^r.trov^ noted thr»t all this would indic^^te both a backwards and 
forwards movement within our own culttire; thus there is both home relief and unem- 
plO'/rrii^nt insurance. To her the latter has the implicr.tion of a right. Mr. Klein 
woniered if "relief*' were chrnged to "economic assistance,*^ then v/ould its connota- 
tion become (different? It was pointed out thrt the recent relief recipient was not 
looked down up-^n in a way he would have been fifteen years ngo. Considerable dis- 
cussion contered around the stigma attached to relief taking in contra-distinction 
to insurance. It was noted thrt the categories r»re still thought of as relief, 
with the possible exception of OAA. which is often thought of p.s a pension. The 
differ once between "entitlement" njid "eligibility" was brought up. It was generally 
agreed that if the client has o feeling of "right", rmd the worker recognized this 
as a right, then there would no longer be any .stigma. Mr. Klein suggested that the 
social insurances ster.med from two main points of view:- a lifting of the stigma 
attached to petitioning for help; a scheme thnt was meaningful to industry in plac- 
ing the responsibility upon thorn in terms of "cost accounting", a concept^vhich they 
understood. Similar kinds of thinking was behind the use of the categories, ©."entu- 
ally, one might expect to see the need constituting the right. Thus, in England one 
finds unemploi/ment innurrjice plus r.n allowance based upon the size of the family. 
Miss Piler.e noted that, in so many instances not enough is appropriated to meet full 
budget reauire:^:ents. In reply it was strted that this shows either the bnjikraptcy 
of the state or that the pressure of the "haves" has prevented adequate appropria- 
tions. Citation was made of the early law allowing the overseer of the poor to mpke 
grrnt^ regardless of the appropriation. 



March 12. 1942 



TEKTIi SSS3I0I 



fa:,! I LI AG®! CI 13: 



'< 






Tlio Board llempers' point of view - Miss Masket 

?lie literature in the area of effective methods of hoard operation is 
extremely limited. In addition, most of the material which is available is "sugar 
coated". The reasons for this situation are obscu.re unless it is due to the con- 
trolline; -oosition of the board members and fear on the part of social workers to 
raif5e questions, - although many social workers, too, must be in agreement with 
board memoers on objectives, even as regards maintenance of the status quo. 

The available material indicates that board members play as powerful a 
role in the operation of social agencies as is generally believed. The boards ^ 

actually function today to: 

1) Inter3)ret social work to the public. 

2) Crive it sponsorship and prestige. 

3) Raise money. 

4) Interpret the community to the staff. 

5) Choose, s^dpervise and dismiss the executive. 

6) Formulate P-gency policies - various decisions on agency practice. 

Tlie last is, of course, the most important. Furthermore, although the board makes 
the decisions PJid the executive simply carries tham out, it is the latter who is 
held responsible and if the public disapproves it is the executive and not the board 
members who resigns. 

Is this picture true of all Bofixds? Mr. Robert Kelso (Survey Oct. «3l) 
has divided boards into three categories: l) the sce nic board ; ornamental, yes - new 
for the executive, 2) the ubiquitous board : seeks to "run the whole works", even to 
decisions in individual cases, 3) the respon sible board : considers the plexus of the 
exec^^tivo, weighs them in the light of sound welfare policy and of the available 
budget, f^Tid trkes final responsibility after the decision. The first and second type 
of board need complete rebirth; the last i:- hopeful and should be subjected to an 
educationrl process by the executive and workers of the agency through lectures, 
joint committees, case committees, literature, etc. 

The solution is not in choosing an executive who can "handle" the bo^ird. 
At present a good many boards appear uncertain in the concept of their purpose and 
function and are fujnbling in their execution. Wliat is needed is some good hard 
criticrl rnalysis of the how, why and wh^at of ....board function and perf ormpnce. 

Miss Masket quoted from a report of May, 1937 of the Frmily 7elfpxe Associ- 
ation of America in presenting p realistic picture of the actual composition of 
boards and ho\-^ they an<5 the stnffs saw board functions. Tl'ic 1935 yearly reports from 
179 frxiily r^^encics showed a total of 4208 individuals serving as board members. Of 
these 1072 were r)rof ossional people (doctors, lawyers, judges, etc), 1029 were busi- 
ness men ^'.nd women, 457 housewives, 137 bankers, 80 public officials and the remain- 
der (rporox. one -third of the membership) banl: cashiers, clerks, farmers, booldccepors 
accountruts, carpenters, tailors, etc. Social and finrncial prestige are thought 
desirable but usually prestige alone is not s-ufficient without some other qualifying 
factor. There was tao general feeling that the board mem.ber should believe in social 



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V 



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wor!r a^ r, prof esnion, have a ,?:enuine interest in community prol^lems, have varied 
interestc aiid contacts in the community, have time to give active and adequate atten- 
tion to his responsibilities, have such personal qualifications thpt his contact 
Tvill rn:..-in constructive and positive. As regards its function, the "board should 
stu^;:/- anc? extend the wrk of the agency, see comnunity needs in relation to agency 
function, inton)ret its work to the coramanity and vice-versa, determine the kind of 
^7ork to be under t^^-cen, the kind of staff to be employed and the financial policy of 
the a-'eric;/« 

Severed issues were raised in the discussion: 

Does the diffic^alty lie so much in the Board itself as in the relationship 
of exGCv.tiv- to Board? Miss Masket felt that here the literature gave to the Board 
complete "orestige and -)Ower. 

Have the executives perverted some of the social work objectives or have 
they failed to be aware of the real objectives as we see them? It is hard for the 
exec-.tive to be an administrator and keep in mind the objectives of social work. Is 
he f>;encr?^.lly classif ir.ble as a professional social worker or as a representative of 
tho grou-o from which the board members come? 

If the board is to have control of the policy of the agency it should be 
reprc^-^cntr-tive of the community. Actually this is not so, althowfh there is no 
reap.on v'hy those who rxe opposed to the policy of tho agency should not use their 
influonco and donations to^ got on tho board. Hov/ever, the base of major contribu- 
tors is frequently not a very broad one, although this is probably not the rule any 
lon.9;er. Several instf^nccs were given in which boards had bro^ight in other represen- 
tative f.rou,;s. Difficulties had generally ensued when clients were admitted to 
board participation. 

Mr. Klein pointed out that the difficulties over the board and its exer- 
cise of control were perhaps true only ?^t the moment of transition. In the etiology 
of agencies their orgr»nization is community wide and the middle cla-ss plp^^'s an 
importrjit role. However, important social and financial groups are brought in to 
help in the fund raising, i.e. tho "scenery" board members needed to attain the good^ 
will of the s<3neral public. There has been a large cultural change in the backgrounc 
and organization of agencies since the public field has expanded. The large private 
agency must, therefore, now transpose the board into fulfilling a .helpful function 
rnd not being merely windov/ dressing. T7e must assume that bopxd members rxe as 
crpabln of education and are as pliable as we ourselves. As rcg'\rds the question of 
how workers can reach the board: this can be done through the executive, although a 
certain boldness on tho part of the staff is necessary. The staff is either honest, 
bold and has direction or slithers pxound, resorts to subterfuges and mnkes little 
Ijro^-^^ross. The board member, too, must remain stecadfast or lose his position in the 
social ^Toup. He nas r. risk in the social industrial and financial life of the com- 
munity r/n does the executive in his job. All three, worker, board member rnd execu- 
tive must t^Iie risks. 



Finally, tho boprd is part of the broader cultural pattern of the community 
which cannot be disc/issed merely in terms of relation of board to executive, composi- 
tion of board but in terms of larger philanthropy, community problems, etc. There 
is the need for the workers, too, to examine the function of the agency itself in 
the total community sitiation. 

The Client's P oint of View - Miss Filenc 

Tho client as a mcm^ber of the community pl.^ys a dual role - that of citi 
zen rjid beneficiary. We generally consider two criteria as significant for making 



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/-> 



n cliont out of p. citizen: - economic need r.nd health need as crused "bj it, and 
emotion- 1 nood insofar as it affects tho lov:er income group. We shall have to 
accustom ourselves to the idea that political and economic changes may mnlve entire- 
ly different parts of the population clients of social agencies. If the socializa- 
tion of the state continues, there might he no more client groups at all, hut only 
people v.'ho are insured against cases of emergency and r^ho will have the right and 
moans to decide vfhether they T7pjit to consult a clinic or agency. This refers to 
the question of whether social work possibly presents only an intermediate strngo 
until such new form is achieved. 



in 



There is in reality no such thing as a unif led '* client group." Memhership 
it i3 involuntary and still carries a social stigma. This is why it is so diffi- 
cult to write of ono^s needs while still a client. Those who have written have done 
so after they vrcre no longer clients. Although there is an urgent need for it there 
is very little opportunity for expression to the community hy the client. Clients 
can also not "be classified as a group "because of the fact that even in a sin{-i;le 
agency thoy constitute a variety of people whose needs are fundajn en tally different. 

Tiiere have hoen many attempts to have clients participate in agency poli- 
cies and progrr,ns. Joint stai'f ptA client meetings have heen called togetrier, 
mostly "because of intense pressure on the part of tho clients who showed extreme 
dissatisfaction with the service of tho agency. Miss Filene cited tv:o such ex- 
rjTiplos. One failed to produce any tf^ngihle results. The clients shovred a definite 
fear of losin^^ the right to relief hecause of participation at the meeting-;. The 
other, at N.H.S., led to the formation of a clicnt-stri'f committee. Here, however, 
tho clier.ts constituted a group "because of common hackground rjid immigrant status 
and their spokesmen were professional people accustomed to techniques of expression. 
As ror^ardr? client participation Margaret Mead suggests board memhership, grievance 
committee hearings, representative client group committees to meet with boards, 
Joint client-stpJf-hor'Td committees and even a special project jointly done hy a 
client group to further group fooling. All this to bring a temporary sublimrtion of 
needs f^rA a better interpretation to the community. 

As regards the client's relationship with the agency. The number of appli. 
c^tionr. has f-enerally been out of proportion to the small number of cases accepted 
for treatment or incidental care. In public relief it is comppxatively easy for a 
client to underst^^jid agency policy njid progrnm. In private fnjnily case work it is 
difficult for him to do so even v/hcn attempts are made to explain the agency func- 
tion to him. On the other hp.nd clients exchange their experiences with social r^en- 
cios and a client on coming often has some idea of its services. Some times he can 
learn to handle his won:er successfully so as to appear eligible for the agency's 
sen'ices though in fact he does not come under its progrpjn. 

Discussion centered about the difference in opinion between client and 
agency in the matter of budgeting, especially on the item of recreation, the use by 
clients of non-professional services such as the radio-good-will hour. 



Ci-^o 



c;b 



Miss Kn-ntrow asked to what extent a client body should determine the poli- 

of the a^'oncy which supplies the service it needs. There was some discussion 

about this with Mr. Klein summing up that the question depended on community stand- 
ards, resources and point of view ♦ 



■4 



The Comnunity -point of view - Mr. Shapiro 

Tlio failure of family agencies to define their objectives means simply 
that socical work has not defined its objectives. 



It I I 



^' 



- 4 - 
The criteria of "the good life*' can "be summed up as: 

1) Adequate living and physical standards. 

2) The ri^t to work. 

3) The right to rest and recreation. 

4) The ri^t of the Individual to expect protection hy his government. 

5) The ri^t to personal liberty. 

The family agencies are not positively directing themselves towards achieving the 
a'oove "but are rather trying to mitigate the ills which exist in the community. 

Who constitutes the community? What of the background of the people? 70^ 
live on incomes of less than $1000 per year - sufficient to meet hare necessities* 
43;i live in rural settlements of $5000 or less, 24'^ in cities of 500,000 to one 
million and 12fo in cities of over one million. 

These people are not organized so as to he able to affect the prograjns of 
social acencies. Attempts at organization, such as the Workers* Alliance, have been 
''clubbed down". The Councils of Social Agencies generally do not include such citi- 
zen organizations. Most arc coordinating units of agencies. There is no organiza- 
tion of the community which can affect the agency. There appears to be a constant 
strugj'le between the "haves*^ and "have-nots". It is to the advantage of the "haves" 
that the "have-nots" exist in the community. If anything there has been opposition 
to agencies for taking out the glut of labor. Such agencies which do have power to 
control ^nd. affect the progrrm of r^encies such as service clubs, fiotarians, Kiwanis, 
newspapers, etc. are either not interested in the "have-nots" or are actually 
opposed to them. 

There was but a brief period of discussion possible. Mr. Klein pointed 
out thr.t many of the 'have-nots" also believe in the theory of the "haves"f We are 
therefore faced with the question of how to bring \inder standing to the have-nots as 
well. 



i 



II 



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MIMUTES - SEMINAR 291-P 

" * ' ■ ■■ ■ ■ I ■ I — n^iii— — 

March g, 1942 

' • I ■ ■ I II a I I I ^ ^B 



NINTH SESSION 



-txi^.J!L3r -i.GrLj..CIIjS 



»^ 



%y 



¥ 



f 



Miss Piosevelt: On the history of public pjid private, family welfare r^'encies. 

Present day family welfare agencies had their genesis in the COS moreraent 
which stc\rted in the 1840' a. This development arose out of the then clir.otic condi-- 
tion in the charity field - too nan^^ agencies, duplic'^tion of certain services, a 
complete ahsence of others, and existent poor standards of social \7ork. The COS 
progrc'jn cimed at dealing with these prohlems hy setting up standards concomitant 
with the more progressive social work concept which saw the need for encovjraging 
capacities inliarent in families to meet their own needs. In aduition, tha COS move- 
ment was a directed effort to coordinate the work of existing social work agencies, 

Th3 success of this movement to do awny with widespread pegging, which 
war. d.-'oatinc;]; a pauper class, was the general trend toward discontinuance of out-door 
public i^elief. Toward the end of the 19th century, this form of relief was already 
absent in nost large cities* As a result of this fact, the early years of the 20th 
ccntur: , saw a rapid growth in the number of privato family agencies to :neot needs 
fornorl^' the functioning of the climina-tod public fpjnily welfare agencies. A for- 
ward Gtop in this transition was the ascendancy of case work, creation and increase 
of scliools of social work, and other signs of social progress. 

^ho trend back to public welfare agencies became noticeable shortly after 
tho First 7hite Eouse Child Conference in 1909 which, among other things recommend- 
ed Liotliurs^ pensions. This development in the public field was opposed greatly by 
the priv. te frjnily agencies. The First World TTar established the growth of public 
welfare agencies. Denver and Chi#ago, among other large cities, extended public 
welfare services to the' veterans, the blind, aged, and the crippled. That'^war also 
brouglit changes in the private frmly welfare agency field. Psycliiatric social work 
received groat impetus. The Hod Cross introduced social welfare services into many 
rund ca^eas r;iioro none existed before. 

Between 1920-1930 there was such an extensive development of social work 
services imdor public a.uspices that an important consideration began to be given to 
the linjs of demarcation between the private and public welfare services. The do- 
press::ion period (1932-1933), ^Tith the great number of Emergency Relief Laws set up 
to deternino and meet as quickly as possible the pressing financial proble:ns facing 
so m:.n;' fcjnilies, only tended to increase the public agency parti dilation in the 
family :;elfare field. The years following still further extended public services. 
In 1935 the Social Security Law provided 0.-....A., Child Care, Mothers^ pensions, etc. 
The _.ict\ire in IocpI communities \vas the same. State legislations provided permor- 
nent puolic welfare programs v/ithin the states. As the public agencies assumed a 
greater raid greater share of responsibility for relief needs, the private agencies 
concentrated in cji increasing degree on special services. I.Ian^' agencies, both in 
the fr.mil;/ and children's agencies saw the necessity for merging with each other. 
This lat:er process is still going on. 



of 



a 



i;Ir. I'llein inquired whether public agencies developed as they did as part 
,eneral trend, or as a result of certain conditions, 



- 2 - 

LlisG Llaskct seonod to voico the opinion of the majority prosont, thn.t the 
question v/r,s r. moot one; for rogardloss of r/hat tho general trend might have been^ 
the conditions broTJ^t on "by the depression, v/orc directly rosponsihlo for the en- 

surin^^' dovolopmont. 



Miss Port 






On intorpret.'^.tion of the services of social agencies • 



5 



V 



In the late years, "interpretation" of social agencies has beon emphasized, 
raf.ior t.".:r.n attempts to "publicize" it. Part of the rea.son for this change in 
polic;,' o:_' social agencies has beon due to their need to Justify their e::istence in 
the ;;/riv::,to frjaily agency field. The large sums, in tax monies, v/hich people are 
paur.-i:?.;-^ inuo the public a/;encies has made them deeply conscious of social v;ork pro- 
2:rar.is, private and public alike. Feeling that the public agencies are sufficient to 
care for tlio neod^-, they see no further use for the private agencies — therefore, 
the c^u?.n5:^o in interpretation ojid approach. 

In.heront in the problems of interpretation are the combiiaation of factors 
ropronented by the thinking of board members, workers, clients and the gei^eral public 
regarding the proper functions of social welfare agencies. Bad publicity 3nay result 
in poor board interest, insufficient funds or contributions, v;rong kind of clients, 
and increase to hardships of the workers' job. A study of a large nuiaber of private 
and public fcunily :^gencies by the Russell Sage ?oundn.tion revealed that the great 
majority of those ansv/ering had publicity progTams. The primary reasons for publici- 
ty v;ero i;^iven as fund-raising rzid interpretation of the v/ork of social v/ork agencies. 

A lot of disagreement exists as to hor^ far interpretation to Ic:^: people 
should ^^-ot Lian^- professional social \7orkers say that social r;ork, lUce medicine or 
la^.;, is, in its technical aspects, beyond the comprehension of c-n untrained mind. 
To atte:.v:)t to tell a lay person everything a social rzorker does v/cold onl;^' tend to 
confuse 'din or to alienate his support. A case to support this point v/as made in 
declaring that social workers often do not realize that not all the contributors to 
their agencies are happy people. In being shown how the agencies rre dealing with 
people v;Iio Iiave similar problems to their o^vn they get a reaction of resentment - 
attitude that the agencies do not consider them as living a normr.d life. 



I?. 



^ii'.other block in proper community interpretation are the dual factors 
blc^ned j:' Grace Marcus: (a) that social workers themselves arc not alv/rys fully 
conscious of the aims of social work, and (b ) disagreement between publicity people 
and social workers regarding proper publicity matter. One way of meeting this 
latter problem was to permit only social v/orkers do publicity work. They not only 
have direct access to the case records, but they also know v/hat material nay not or 
or should not be included in publicity. . 

Social work agencies resort to publicity for all sorts of pujrposest Some 
excu-iplos given wore: a frjnily welfare agency in Providence, R#I», vmich, for a 
period of time distributed to 500 fnmilies pamphlets at regular intervals on fond 
managjiiont* A Cleveland agency made a general study of the agency^ s "life members", 
so c. lied. liost responded that they were chosen because "thej* v;ere rich". A few 
indicated real agency loyalties, although v/liat these loyalties might be were not 
defined. As a result of this stud^-, the agency decided to furnish each new menber 
\7ith an informational booklet on tl^e agency work and function. . The majority of 
agencies follow this practice of hand-books being provided for board members. 

Exactly what constitutes good or bad publicity in the social work field 
is still in controversy, although the Community Chests and Councils, Inc» has been 



»t 



- 3 - 

trying to find out the "best methods of publicity. A recent aid in this direction has 
been t]\e idea of thinlcin^^ in concentric circles of •'publics ••^ The social workers in 
iA a paxticular agency are placed in the innermost circle; the board members in the next 
circle; t^ien, other agencies, the clients, and the general public, which is not at 
all ar/are of the a^;ency*s function, or even its existence, in successive circles. The 
problem ir> to locate each in their proper circle and figure how to best reach them. 

Mr. Kl.'=^in inquired as to Miss Porter's conclusions regarding the objectives 
of feniiy social work agencies as demonstrated through their own efforts* Did social 
worl-.crs finr' the objectives of these agencies abstruse or hazy? 

MiBs Porter admitted thpt these objectives were difficult to define, but 
insisted they could and must be defined. An agency must see its own function before 
it c?n interpret its own program to others. She saw the objectives of children's 
a<p:encieG as being more easily definable. 



f 



Miss Crould: On the staff point of view 

Tho fj^mily offers the best medium of human living. TThen a situation arises 
within ^ frmily which the family cannot adequately cope with, they come to the family 
ngenciep. 

In the last few years agencies have been examining their objectives and 
mrJcinr^* rppropriate changes. Starting with nn initial interest in mpking family ad- 
justments, they have proceeded to a study of the causes for family disorgnnization,. 
p.nd finrliy community interpretation in relation to the two first fr.ctors. 

There have been two important trends in the development of f-^mily welfare 
ngencies: (a) Those a,r;encies which have accepted all rctivities which no other agen- 
cies pre engaged in, and (b) those giving services other than relief - personalitj'' 
difficulties and their adjustment. 



examples: 



To illustr/^'tc various ngency prp.ctices. Miss Gould cited the following 



.V''* 

^r^ 



„^ A Mrsspchusotts Selective Service Boprd requested the locrl DPU to invosti- 

■ ^' g'^te rll its former cases; and the private family regency to hrndle all the remaining 
cases. Some employers questioned the position of the private agency workers who 
sought information from them on Drnft cpses. The staff and board of the agency de- 
cided to refer r-ll their work to the DP^, as otherwise, it would crevato confusion 
pud disorder in its own progrnms. 

On tho other hand, another similar situation, also in Massachusetts, was 
somewhat solved by the private agency workers being considered as employees of the 
Draft Board. This eliminated my confusion which otherwise arose. 

In the housing field, fpmily agencies have nji obligation to improve their 

clients' homes. This they mry accomplish through fostering good housing legislation; 

or, as in the case of the CSS, by making a study of existing conditions and submit tinf 

a report to n responsible authority. 

« 

In research - staff, of an agency, active in the field, should work closely 
f) ^dth scholars in the social work field to achieve maximum results from their studies 
as was done in Cincinn.ati. 



4 



■n 



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t 

Objectives in ^, private fnmily r.gency ng seen by r. new \7ork0r, 
grndurto of n. school of 30ci.'>.l T7ork; 



n 



recent 



!• KnoTz \7hAt you rrc doings Do not write long cnsc histories mGrcly for 
th.-^ir otth sr^icc. 

2. In interDret.*^tion vdth r. client, tell him v'hrt the n^ency cp.n do. In 
rorking v/ith other rrorkers in the snme pgency, mrike sure thrt you see 
things the snme uny. With workers In other agencies, ri.ttempt to 
coordinrte your efforts. With community groups, interpret your ?>gcncy 
program adequately. 

3# In rosenrch - r.ccumulate data, analyze it and put it to practical use. 

Mr. Klein - That conclusions have you dra\7n from the matter nhich you presented? 

;*iiss CrouldU Case workers axe too general rrhcn it comes to describing the objectives 

of their pgencies-» It is not satisfactory to one ri^ho does not know v/hat 
ticy do. 

Miss M'-skct-. Objc^.ctives arc hard to define, particularly vrhen thc2'' deal ^rith such 

intnr;i^ible material. It is different in group :7ork ?»^'encies '.There their 
programs are easily clnssified. 

Mr. Klein - Present objectives are difficult to define because our knorlcdge of vrhnt 



nc .'^ri 



doing pnd should do is still in ^ dovelopment-^l stage, understand- 
able only through research. You can toll vrhrt a case v/orker docs. The 
trotible is to decide T7hat it is that the agency is doin^;. This latter 
question is complicated by the actions of .agencies - actions based on 
roluctrnce to undertake certrin kind of rrork, fear of comntunity pressures, 
etc. It is easier to decide from a client's standpoint as they can be 
Civcn r functional pjisv/er to their question of what the agency does. 

Ho^'over, interpreting objectives to the public is difficult because the 
rgercies themselves cannot alwrays differentiate their o\;n functions 
sufficiently, as botT/een themselves, to justify their existence. An 
exainple m"»y be found in the private frmily agencies v/hich grant relief 
to c^.scs involving personality difficulties although public agencies 
exist to meet the problem of relief. 

A ;>;erer.'^l discussion .^rose as to whether the above example represents a 
proper objective. 

Mr* Klein concluded by spying that there is r definite and legitima.te need 
for the "lunch-room" variety of f.^mily agenc;/. The client comes in and picks out the 
kind of service ho thinks he needs and asks for it^ These agencies serve as a clorr- 
inf !iOuse for persons who do not know where to go with their problems. Not '^11 cli- 
ents fit into specific crtegories of assistance. There should be some agency to 
wliich these can apply. Too often, these ngencies are reluctant to admit such an 
over-all progr'^n in view of the existing speci.^lized agencies, some of whose service 
they "ppoar to duplicrte. 



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MimJTlSS ~ 5B>aNiil 291~P 
February 26. 1942 -' 



EIGHTH SESSION 



.f\ 



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Mr. IQein stated at the outset of class meeting that an attempt should be made to 
better focus prerentation from the point of view of subject matter originally decided 
on for the seminar and also in view of class interests. Although this was seen as a 
difficult thing to do, it was pointed out that presentations also gave the student an 
opportunity to improve his skills in briefing material to be presented* 

Miss Briton started the discussion by a presentation of the problems and objectives 
involved in the present set up of Day Nurseries. In a recent study of the siturtion 
it wrs Icnrned thnt there are approximately 60 parental care nurseries in the country 
and thrt rn increasing amount of case work services are being added. 

The gronth of the dny n'arseries received its impetus with the new trend in the field 
of keeping the frmily unit intact as against dissolution. Nevertheless, it was seen 
that there are a number of existing reasons which caused the brer^kdown of family 
units: ovorcro^vding, illness, emotion-l stress, child problems, etc. It \Yr>G also 
pointv?d out that dry nurseries are being run today in conjunction vdth child guidance 
clinicr., md arc becoming an integral part of some Family pnd Children's agencies, 
occr.sionr»lly the last two types of agencies doing the intake for the nursery. 

Therr arc t'70 .groupr. of children excluded from day nursery care; infant groups below 
the r.je of tro rnd the school age children. In New York City, there have been 1000 
rejections of children falling in the first group, tha.t is belov: the age of t^70. The 
school a^;e group rre knovn as the "door key" children* They are so labeled, because 
they are children of working parents who find the doors to their homes locked when 
they ro;t^uTi. from school. At the present time the trend is toward getting some set 
up for these children through the Federal Government. 

Dpy Nurseries hpvo mrde it easier for the mother to go to work so that the frmily 
\init cm stry together. Fees are dependent upon the fpjnily^s capacity to pay ajid 
usually the rates rre very low. Although the tendency is toward the maintenajice of 
the family, it is necess?^ry to work through very cprefully the family's request for 



dry placement of their children. 



The cortrr^cting type of dry care for children is the Foster Day Care plan. It seems 
that theso tvo types of help do not seem to ha.ve any common ground and are somewhat 
opposed to o^ch other. The difficulties seen in Foster Dry Care, is th^t it is hard 
to find plf^cements and is confusing for the child becnuse of two sets of parents 
involved. Another objection is seen in that it is difficult to supervise the chil- 
dren in foster dry homos. Conflict is also more apt to occur since the contact be- 
tween the two mothers is mp.de drily in bringing the child to and from the foster 
home. Ho^Tover, it is important to note that in mpny communities throu^i:hout the cotin- 
try, the foster d^y plan is the only kind available, and rlthough there are objections 
to the foster dry plan, it is felt thrt this t^'pe of care is more preferable than 
institutional care. 

The third form of Dry Care for children is the Visiting Housekeeper Service. This 
type of service was originrlly started by the Frmily and Children's agencies in an 
attempt to kc^ep the frmily unit together, and was also used as pji exploratory tool 
in diagnosing home situations. The housekeeping service supplied by the C.A.S. is ♦ 
the leading one in the country* Housekeeping service is pIso supplied ^:^^j the W.P.A. 



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f' 



This type of cpre is not considered adequate, particularly as run by Vl.T.k. 

There vra^-, some discussion about the differentiation between the housekeeping service 
supplied by the W.P.A. and the private agencies. It was seen thpt private agencies 
are supplying parentr.l substitutes, while the WPA is supplying housekeeping aides. 

Mr. Klein stated thpt the private agency ha.s been slow in picking up the need for 
the (•development of this service. Miss Ea.ton further stated that she felt that this 
service should be made availp.ble to higher Income groups since these housekeepers are 
well trrined and well supervised. 

There v;as pIso some discussion around the community feeling about this type of serv- 
ice, particularly when this service is given to families where the mother is working 
to rplr.e stPXxdards in the family. It was thought that in this respect, the community 
is not accepting of the agency objective - that of raising stpndnTds. Because of the 
present war situation, it is seen that this service will be used more frequently. 

Mergers 

Mr. Cohon presented the next topic, thrt of the trend toward merging of agencies • It 
was seen that this was also a trend back to the generic nnd awny from the categoricrl 
or functional approach f 

A merger is described as the uniting of two agencies for the purpose of ^:;iving better 
care to children. This is called the intretr-children mergers. Since the trend has 
been torprc?. the foster home care plan rather than institutionpl Cf^re, wc have been 
forced to reevaluate the need for institutions, 

Statisticnlly it was shown that of the Catholic children placed out of the home, more 
thpji hflf are in institutions; among the Protestaiit children there seems to be a 
balpjLGc bet^.vcen foster pjid institutional care; and among the Jewish children more 
than one half are in foster homes. In explaining the difference, Mr. Cohen pointed 
out thrt the f ormr.tion of the Jewish Federation increased the number of workers who 
were able to find more foster homes. 

The merging of agencies is seen as an extremely importajit trend in the field of social 
work. Although it was seen that merging brought a great deal of prestige to the 
agency becruse of the larger ngency populp.tion, it did not necessarily bring with it 
a better quality •f work. 

Factors for Meriting : 

1. Saving of Money. Actuplly it was found thrt it was more expensive because of 
hirin^i^: of better trained personnel. However, it was also seen that a better 
service could be given for the saine amount. Administrative cost is higher. 



« 



2. Simplification of Services. 

3. Attrr.cts better personnel. 

4. Progrpm more easily understood by the client becpuse there arc not too many 
agencies to choose from. 



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(i 



Hpzards for Merv^rlng 

1. Profecr^ionrl slrills pre not equally matched, altho^ogh this would give incentive 
for profossionr.l training p,nd hit^her st^nd^Tds. 

2. Kends of the tv:o p^r^ncleQ both vrant the top position of the %erced" n^^oncy. 

It 'vr.cj pointed out thnt this kind of prohlen has "boon solved hy co-chairmrnship, 
or tho ('ivislon of directorship* It was seen that some "board merroors sec their 
function as a social one and are exceedingly important to the development of the 
ac:Qr.cy fror. the point of view of community oooperation. 



> 



Mr* i/loyors stated that he though mergers occurred primarily "because of economic fac- 
tor-. 'a0'.7evpr, Kr. Cohen argued a^rlnst this point by saying that they merged pri- 
marily because they saw it as a better rray of giving service* 

Mr. Xloin thought that both points were correct - the Federation seeing the merger 
as a norey sa^.^inc device, the workers seeing it as a better service being made pos- 
sible# More often the merger is not wanted by the board members because they lost 
presti^;e and status. 

Another t\;^e of process, substituted for the merger, is the creation of a completely 
ne^ af:oricy pushing out the two other agencies in community* In this wpy the Federa- 
tion forced several agencies to merger. Miss Kantrow pointed out this created an 
additional problem in that it completely eliminated the institutions for children be- 
tween the ages from three to seven, although parents were continually asking for this 
kind of service for their children. There was then some discussion about whether the 
client or worker was in a better position to decide upon the service needed in a pp.r- 
ticulcOT situation. Mr. Klein thought thrt as workers became more secure they v;ould 
be better able to meet the client* s request, rather thrn setting services that the 
client must accept. However, the point was raised that workers are in a better posi- 
tion to set standards than the If^y public. Then ngain, it was pointed out that if 
the client has to tnke only one service, they mry be so dissatisfied that the problems 
created will negate the services given by the prof essionr.l ardencies. 

This led into a discussion about the setting up of exclusive functional a:;;encie8 in 
contrpst to the agency which had a broad progrnra of servicer.. Gnneral,ly, the group 
thinlving seemed to be in favor of the broader progrnm rather than the functional set 
up of a-;encies« It was thought that the setting up of f^onction limited the amount 
and type of service the agency could ^'^ivc the client, depending upon their needs and 
requests. 

Mr. Klein thought that a'^encies hiding behind "Agency function*^ are escoping respon- 
sibility. It was thourjit that some kind of compromise should be worked tov/ards, with 
flexibility as the roal. 



I I 



K 



%x 



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February 19. 1943 



SEVIINTH SESSION 



Mr* Ostomel discussed recreation in the United States today as it related to the 
objectiTes of child welfare. He introduced the subject by defining the terms. In 
one of the preliminary statements of the 1940 White House Conference in the section 
of •^Leisure Time Services for Children'' play is described as •'a natural impulse 
of the child. It is the center of ^11 his interests and activities, to which other 
interests are subordinated**.*.... *As the child grows older, play comes to be 
designr-ted oy the term recreation**. A second de*^* lit ion states that "recreation 
may be cplled the physical, mental or spiritual sf^tisfaction which comes to an 
individual or group from participating in certain forms of activity. Such activi- 
ties are freely chosen and are usually enjoyed during leisure time"« 

There have been four trends in recreption: 

1 - Puritanicpl Er^: Pl*^y was not recognized as important. 

2 - Uplift Appropch: The development of settlement houses and centres 

for the underprivileged. 

3 - Middle CIpss Movement: It started about 50 years ago. The need for 

orgpnized recreation found expression in the establishment of 
'^Y's'* f»nd Scout movements. 

4 - Recreption as a recognized need: This is expressed in the White House 

Conference as follows: ''Play and recreation, in and of themselves, 
hpve values for the individual • To emphasize recreation as a means 
of reducing or preventing juvenile delinquency, of developing 
character pnd citizenship, or of some other worthy end is to slur 
over its essential charpcter, its development and creative role as 
piny, relaxation, release, joy**. 

It is difficult to learn what facilities are available for the various age groups 
in the country. In many forms of recreational activity, the child joins the fnmily 
group. 

IXirin^' the past two decades there has been an increase in the recreational facili- 
ties as shown by the following figures: 



Paid Workers 

Playgrounds 

Centres 



1920 
10^000 
4,000 
1^200 



1930 
25,000 
7,500 
2,000 



1939 
42,000 
10,000 

4,000 



f 



58,000 individuals participated in activities of parks and playgrounds. There has 
been an increased amount of acreage available for csonping. However, it should be 
recognized that these facilities can be used only by those who can afford the means 
of transportation to these sites. 

A large percentage of recreation is commercial recreation. This is true for chil- 
dren as well as adults. In relation to this, it is interesting to note that in a 
breakdown of income expenditures for a group of wage-earners and clerical workers 
5,4 per cent of their income was spent on recreation and 6 percent on the use of 
cpr ;vhich may be associated with recreational activities. Only 4 per cent was 
spent on medical care. In the group whose annual income was $500, 1.3 per cent was 
spent on recreation. This indicates the need of non-conmerclal forms of entertain- 
ment to m^ke leisure time activities available to the low income groups. 

It rps pointed out that at times there does seem to be conflict between the 



I I 



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recrop.tionpl pmcrpms ps set by the e.dminlstrp.tlon of an agency and what the par- 
tlciprnts desire. Recreation is used as n tool to expose Individupls to the par- 
ticul.'<.r pro.^rsjn or philosophy of a group. Mr. Klein pointed out tlmt about 90 
per cent of the recreptlonal activities are commercial. Generally speaking, rec- 
reation is a purchasablo commodity and there Is a wide variation in the per cent 
of Incorae that is used for this. The highest Income groups spent 160 times as 
much for recreation as the lowest. Recreation is a commodity that Is badly 
wanted by the community. Commercial recreation Is not Inferior just because it 
Is comnercial. This is a hypothesis which is frequently expounded by group workers. 

Tliere hn.s been a growing conviction that government does have a responsibility to 
proTide recrentional facilities for the people but this has not been fully recog- 
nizee'.. Existing facilities are not sufficient. It should be noted that municipal- 
ities, stsites, and the federal government have been active in this field during the 
past decrde. TOA and NYA services have been used. Recreational facilities must 
be plnnned in relation to the needs of the various age groups, If they are to be 
well used, 

t 

The point was made that perhaps recreational progrnns should be planned ir terms 
of the f rally unit as a means of solidifying family ties. Mr. Klein countered by 
asking if recreational pursuits would keep the family together and further - was 
this sonothing that was good in itself. With the changing character of the family. 
with t ic rride disparity of age, there is less capacity for the group to enjoy 
connon activitlos and perhaps recreation should be planned in terms of separating 
the fraily unit for at least part of its leisure time activities. 

Mr. Ness discussed juvenile delinquency. Juvenile delinquency has been defined as 
juvenile misconduct of a type that Is dealt with under law. The type of behavior 
characterized as juvenile delinquency varies because it is dependent on the various 
st«t« nnc. federal laws. It also includes such categories of behavior as Incorrlgl- 
Diiity, truancy, and association with bad companions. The factor of a.ge also 
varies in determining juvenile delinquency. Some courts serve children up to six- 
teen years and some courts serve children up to eighteen years. In some states 
courts hare concurrent jurisdiction, as in the case of capltpl crimes. 

The incidence of juvenile delinquency reported Is affected by the number and type 
of social p-joncies which serve a particular community. From 1929 to 1936 there 
was a gradua-l drop In cases reported. 1937 showed an 11 per cent rise. The 
statistics indicate that more boys than girls are juvenile delinquents Pjid that 
there pre sex differences in the type of offenses committed. I greater percentage 
of Negroes ptb delinquent than the proportion found In the population but caution 
shoul:. be exercised In interpreting these figures because of the differences in 
facilities for the Negroes and whites in the community. 

A atuc\y of juvenile delinquency in New York State Indicated that there is a negative 
correlation between achievement teat results and delinquency and bet^7een intelli- 
gence and delinquency. There is a positive correlation between the death rate and 
delinquency'. The point was made that if there is a positive correlation between 
poor community conditions ajid delinquency then any attributes of low community 
8tand,^rds rill b« associated with delinquency. Studies have demonstrated that 
juvenile delinquency is associated with low family Incomes and the conditions which 
result from this. Therefore, an objective of social work In relation to juvenile 
delinquency is to work towards eradicating the causes of low Income. 

It A7^.s questioned whether or not the existing social agencies axe set up for the 
preveiition and treatment of juvenile delinquency. It was recognized that there 



Vi 



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h?».s toer p. henvy emphasis on treatment. The estahllshment of the Juvenile courts 
T7as a vitrl step in the area of treatment* It recognized that it was harmful to 
the child to be treated as an adult offender. The juvenile court is good as far 
as it c^'oes but it is not set up to work in the area of prevention. Studies have 
indicated that juvenile delinquency results from both environnental and personal- 
ity maladjustments. The next step for social work is to aim towards the elimina- 
tion of these conditions^ to r/ork for the Improvement of the economic level of 
fajnilies and the availability of early guidance service for the maladjusted child. 
This would involve the extension of services outside the field of juvenile delin- 
quency itself such as child guidance clinics and visiting teachers. 

Mr. Kess revie\Ted a recent study of the Bristol Child Cruidp^nce Clinic. This was 
timely in relation to the organization of services for the war situation. In 
Bristol there was aji increase in juvenile delinquency during the first ye^^r of 
the Tjrr. The increase was caused by the greater incidence of offenses committed 
by the dull nomrl group. This group is in need of careful supervision in the 
commmity r\nd. the demands of the war caused this group to receive less than needed. 
Chllc^jren of normal intelligence committed fewer offenses. The war seemed to make 
them act with more individual responsibility. 



I I 



•-■ 



M IMUTES - SMINAR 291~P 
PAbruftrv 12. 1943 



SIXTH SESSION 



Mr. Berman presented a brief summary of the main points of the two ses- 
sions devoted to "Health and Medicine". 

Hr. Klein mentioned the possibility of considering the maintenance of 
hoalth and the provision of medical services as two "fPf %*«/if ^V^^^J^.^^^f ' ^. 
The social v^orker's objectives impinge on the field of health when he realizes that 
these services may not be available to certain individuals ^f^^^^f^^'^^^^^J^ ^^- 
aaility to pay. Hence her objectives become distinct from those of the medical 
profession in respect to health. Health standards have become part of o-^ culture. 
Thov involve setting of conmanity stpjidards, such as a plan for glasses io^ aiJ. 

children in the community. A sense of co^^^^i^^/^^P^^^^^^^Ji^y ^■'^^,^°^^,^^J^^^^ 
The socinl worker is interested in health not only becpuso of the economic inability 
of persons to pry for it, but nlso because it is part of the community .pattern. Pub- 
lic herlth is not only a concern of the modicr.1 profession but should l.e concern 

« 

of thr community. 

Mr. I{. mined the question as to which groups oppose public ^-cnlth? First, 
there ,-re the privntc t^hi'sicir^ns ns individuals who strongly oppose it. Then there 
are thJ trxpryors who oppose ,nny commnity pirns, because they imply ^''^J^^^S °^,^J^^ 
tnx,.s. Miss x^ilene insisted that such r. commnity program would raise the standards 
of the coitiBiunity, and wondered why the taxpayers could not realize that. 

Mr. K. continaed with the assertion that progress in the field of public 
health over the la.st 20 years has been tremendous despite the opposition of the 
medical profession, with their economic needs, ^his progress is undoubtedly Axe to 
the entrr>nco of other groups (social workers, e.g.) into the field, or ^^^^^h 
the connivance or public welfare of public health minded members of the medical pro- 
fession. 

Mr, 3om."n felt that the recent indoctrination of people in an effort to 
make them aware of their health needs showed signs of success in ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ Ifll^ 
the Snnate Committee on the Wngner Bill. There was a large variety of groups testi- 
fying. Everyone but the doctors realized the need for such £^ PfQgf^^- "^^ °«^J^ 
tksk of social workers is to consider most seriously this health bill or a similar 
progrOTi for the general health of the population. 



/■■ 



Mr. Meyers began the panel on Child Welfare with a paper on institutions. 
A brief picture of the development of ohlldren's institutions was given. The U.S. 
followed Englar.d rather closely in the type of institutions founded. /°f ^^^^^J^f.^-^ 
of the first institution for children in this country. Other cities followed suit. 
Although these institutions were at first considered humane, they soon degenerated 
and became breeding places for disease etc. As a result of an ]:"'«^*^Sation, N.Y. 
passed a law in 1875, removing children of three years or less from i^s^i*^*^^'^*- 
Religious groups established institutions. The first ^^^anage was founded in New 
Orleajis in 1727. The public institution first appeared in South Carolina in 1794. 
Darinir the 19th century ->">^">*'« fl^r.nt.a wfire P-lven to -orivate asylums. The advantage 



of this over previous 



public gxyxnts were given to private asylums. 
Ls svstem?''¥ii the per capita allowances Taade. 



Honever this 



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discoiira^ed placing out. and encouraged congregate care. The White House Conference 
of 1909 emphasized foster home placement. Today the institution is considered large. 
Iv as a therapeutic tool for a particular type of child. Mr. M. said that the 
avorrre inf.-mt should be in his ovm home, and next hest to that is a foster hone. 



Mr. Klein considered the institution as a place where special ohservation 
of children could he made, and plans for treatment formulated. The group life may 
hpve vrluo for the child. The combination of group and case work skills suggests a 
lar^c pmount of potential value for the child. 

Mr. Meyers went on to say that the case worker introduces the child to 
inr.titution life, observes him, and interprets to him the institutional plan for 
him. The prevailing trend in institutions is that of short-time residence. An 
rttctnpt to rehabilitate the home should be made, so that it might be possible for 
the child to ret\irn home. 



Mr. Bempn quoted Mrs. Elliott of the Children's Bureau who has recent ex- 
pp.rinnce in child placement in Engl.-Jid. She reported that wherever possible chil- 
dren of the snme family were kept together as it was thought tha.t this would help 
to maintain their emotional stability. 

At this point Mr. Klein ventured the comment that many glib assertions 
had been made, nnd wondered if it was not importnnt to question the practices of 
institutions. If group work as an educational process is good, then we must ques- 
tion tho statement that all children should be brought up in a private home. 

Mr. ^ess knew on good authority that damage had been done to children in 
some foster homes. This in itself might make it impossible for ph institution to 
treat a child. 

As a means of classifying the problems in foster care, Mr. Klein suggested 
the economic problem, the problem child, the sick child, and the problem Pf^reut. He 
did rot think that we should speak of the hone in such a way as to inply that there 
all of the ideals of child training had been attained. These are the same ideals 
that institutions are striving for. Should we "throw them out" becmse they do not 
achi ovo these ideals. The question is "TThat are you trying to bring the children 
to 7" 

Mrs, Kantrow felt that we worry a lot raore about children in institutions 
than \7c do about those in private hones. 



Mis 



Pilenc mentioned the fact that theories of foster care change with 



the years. Sometimes there is the emphasis on institutions pnd other times on foster 
hones. 

Mr. Klein described several of the undercurrents of foster cpxo. There is 
the vicious undercurrent of religious interests, the different theories of education, 
aiid t>.c vested interests of agencies. At the TOiite Ho^^se Conference of 1940, Miss 
Breckir-id,"-e nrenentcd suggestions for the entrance of tho private agency into the 
public f irld.' These suggestions were instantly killed because of the vested inter- 
ests of private institutions. 

Miss Filcnc wondered whether the parent's point of view in the foster care 
situation was to be considered- 



K^i 



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llr<^. Knntronv'B talk concorned *^Foster Home Care'^. Family living is the 
"best Gxporier.co for growing children. The pr».rent is often the forgotten person in 
plr.cor^cn^: plrnn. It is easier for institutions to take children rathrT than foster 
hones. Today there is no eternal quality to placement. The discharge plans are 
part of placenent. Foster home care is not a cure-all. In contrast to the past it 
is a nore crrofully considered progrpin and involves more careful supervision than 
in tho pact* T3.\o pxiount njid kind of supervision hy the state varies vdth each state. 
Bnt there is a certain amount of state control through licensing. Daring the last 
ten yerrs there has been a noticeahle increase in state supervision. However there 
are still pitifully inadequate facilities for children in minority groups* Even 
tor'uay foster homo care for infants is not recognized by many connunities. Mrs. K. 
tho-aght there were a number of questions that could be asked in this fiolcl. Exactly 
wliat responsibilities do parents have when their children are separated from them? 
Soractimos tl^e consent of the parents to the separation is required. Usually they 
r:'o not consulted about educational pl^ns for the children. Special age PJid types 
of children are not provided for. There is today less emphasis on categorical divi-- 
-.inn of children (i.e. dependent, delinquent, etc.) and more emphasis on the indi- 
vidual child's problems. 

Adoption raises many legal and social problems. From the legal point of 
view, a.'loption is concerned If^rgely with illegitimate children. From the social 
point of view, the question can be asked as to whether or not parents should sur- 
render their children. The selection of homes r>Jid adequate supervision are both 
very important. There should pIso be pn attempt to see that the fcnjnily ties are not 
unnecessrjily broken. In 1938, 24 states had made it mandatory for clients to go to 
reco'/nized agencies for adoption purposes. 

Mr. Klein considered the economic factor dominant in most of the fpjnilies 
from which children were placed. This is what necessitates tho professional ppproach 
The child welfare program would change its focus if the economic problem were not 
the basic one. 

Mr. Ness quoted a psychiatrist as sa;>ririg that the type of child referred to 
a psychiatrist by an Institiation differed mnxkedly from that mot in private practice. 
This' made him fool that tho problem of economic need explained the difference* 

Mr. Kl^^in concluded the session by saying that wo as social workers are 
most conscious of tho treatment aspects of the individuals we are dealing with. 
E^/en though there is the economic problem, case work and psychiatry emphasize the 
emetional or psychological problem. If you look at the circumstances, the larger 
basis of causation is of pji economic nature, ^e have to map treatment in relation 
to economics, nnd then to the emotional and psychological problems. 



/ 



/■ 



I 



Seminar Minutes 291-P 



Feb. 5th. 1942, 



5 th Session 



f\ 



Topic: "Health and Medicine" was continued during this session. 
Mr. Berrnan gave a hrief survey of health facilities in an urhan area, Yonkers 
pnd thirty other cities, to complement the survey of health facilities in 
rixral rxe<?s given the previous week. liHiat various cities spent for health 
services was often related to geographic areas. (Material from project under- 
tnken "by students at NYSSIIT) For instance, the South expends less for medical 
services than docs the Midwest; the Northeast more than other areas, etc. 
When those figures are correlated with per-capita income, it Cfui te seen that 
wealthier communities spend more for health services; conversely, whore health 
needs are most pressing, i.e. among unemployed groups, less is spent on health 
services. 

In continuing, Mr. Bermaji indicated that from statistics gathered "by the 
U. S« Lahor Dept. it cm "be seen that for cities of over a 100,000 population 
rhout $.12 is spent, per cppita, for medical social service. Six of these 
cities spent nothing for such service. The median was .02 per capita. A 
graph offered the class for illustration, showed the extent of medical social 
service, both public r-jid private, for some 29 cities. The extent of such 
service va^ried greatly, with some large cities, such as Atlanta, Wichita, 
Dayton, and others, having no medical social service. 

Some of the conclusions of this study revealed: 

1) The more money spent, the more actual service was given. 

2) The more money expended for these services, the lower the death and 
illness rates. 

Miss Kantrow discussed a possible solution, such as socialized medicine, 
to the many health needs of the Nation. People in need of medical c^re either 
cannot afford it or else have no access to it. Organized medicine, as it 
exists today, tends to be monopolistic; it sets its own standards and arbit- 
rarily keeps many physicians out of its group - i.e., the American Medical 
Association. The major question is: "Do not people have a right to he^^lth?" 
With socialized medicine we would have centralized control of service rnd equips 
ment. This could be done throiogh a tax fund or through voluntary or compulsory 
insurance. Miss Kantrow contended that government control over health services 
could not be considered a final solution, since many factors, other than avail- 
able medical facilities, entered into the picture of a healthy people. For 
instftnce, adequate diet, sufficient income, good housing, etc., also contrib- 
uted to the health needs of a people. Miss Kantrow gave as an exajnple the 
medical examinations given to school children under Public Health auspices. 
These examinations, although a distinct service, are often inadequate. Moreover, 
they tend to make parents feel that no other medical check-up is necessary, 
once a school exajnination ha,s been given* 

Miss Kantrow said further that since so many factors entered into the 
health needs of people, it was not enough merely to treat specific illnesses. 
Often people far.e sent back to the very conditions in their environment that 
made for illness. Socialized medicine, therefore, must be allied with decent 
housing and an adequate standard of living. If socialized medicine is workable 
in the Soiriet Union, then it is because that country is generally socialized* 



II 



r' 



'♦ 



% 



f 



- 2 - 

There was considera'ble discussion "begtin around Miss Kantrow* s contention 
that government undertaking medical facilities does not necessarily indicate 
an ideal result. By and large, the feeling prevalent was that, with socialised 
medicine, we would certainly have a "beginning toward medical service where it 
was most needed. Since unquestionably extended medical service is needed, then 
government regulation would ho one way of substituting existent for non- 
existent medical service. Mr* Klein pointed out that there was some danger In 
placing onus on govornment-run servicer; in light of poor administration* 
There are always those people who are against any government administration, 
in whatever field. This discussion finally ended en the following: 
1) let us have nn educational program to make people aware of their health 
noeds; 2) let us he aware that socialized medicine, by itself, is not the final 
c\;rc for unmofe^yaaalth needs in the Nation; 3) let us set up a decent and far- 
reaching system of medical service and then set about improving it. 

In a diatsussion around the Warner Health Bill, Miss Kantrow felt that 
providing medical service outside the home only, was not socialized medicine. 
Mr. Klein thought that the Bill did provide for both institutionalized and 
individiial medical service. Some one else indicated that England does have 
health insurance for certain groups 6f workers, both institutionalized and 
individual medical service. Mr. Klein questioned whether workers should take 
out health insurance, since premixims are necessarily heavy. He questioned 
this, as against making health service a public service. 

Miss Gould then discussed some aspects of medical social work. She first 
presented the case of a man, suffering with secondary syphilis, who was seen, 
in successive interviews, by a medical social worker in an out-patient depart- 
ment of a hospital. Although reticent nnd defensive at first, the man was 
eventually helped not only to accept treatment for himself, but also to reveal 
the possible source of his disease. Miss Gould emphasized the importance of 
medical social woric for both the patient and the community. The approach to the 
patient is more offoctivo when the psychic implications of illness are taken 
into consideration. Moreover, the patient is thus helped to see the need fdr 
treatment, as well as to feel more hopeful about his condition. From the point 
of view of the commfunity, medical social work does help to place sufferers of 
communicable diseases under treatment. Since illness makes for economic lia1>- 
ilities, such a result is important. Miss G-ould gave as the factors in the 
community a/fecting medical sociail work; social, educational and income levels. 
In communities where deprivation is wide-spread, as in some negro communities, 
the medical social worker diverts most of her energies toward helping the 
patient secure adequate food vjid. shelter. 

Miss G-ould also discussed the contributions a medical social worker can 
make in a public health program. In outline these are: 1) Problems associated 
with commainicable disease; 2) around the element of authority in a public 
health program, in helping the patient to face the reality of legal limitations 
on his conduct, as it affects society around him. In concluding. Miss Gould 
said that for the community, the medical social worker's contributions have 
broad value. Lr^ying emphasis on the social needs of sick persons helps to 
lessen disability and dependency because of illness* 

Miss Masket discussed psychiatric social work. ¥e were told that today 
over 500,000 persons occupy beds in mental hospitals, as many as are hospital- 
ized for all other diseases. There are annually about 120,000 cases admitted 
to mental hospitals. Were many of these patients given prompt attention and 
adequate care, then about 50^ might be able to leave the hospital, some within 
a period of 18 months. Our legislators have been so indifferent to the mentally 
ill and unaware of the existing means of treating insanity, that far too many 



% 



- 3 - 

of onr hospitals are ill equipped to treat such patients. Trequently, to make 
use of modern methods of treatment, l.e# shock therapy through the use of insulin 
or rnotrazol, would mean abolishing political jobs* 

Between 1929 and 1936 the annual per capita expenditure for mental patients 
dropped from $312 to $269. Added to this picture we have the hig "burden of over- 
croTvdcd conditions in existing mental hospitals. Under such conditions even 
elementary medical is difficult to manage. For effective treatment of the 
mcntnlly ill decent hospital surroundings and facilities are essential. 
Generplly the public knows little about mental illness. Miss Masket indicated 
tlmt private psychiatry was available to few people, since coatly. She 
sioggested the following as solutions: l) a program of education; 2) additional 
hospitals and improvement of treatment facilities; 3) increasing the use of 
psychiatric social workers. (Only 27 States make use of psychiatric social 
workers.) In the discussion around this health need, vrritnis members of the 
class agreed that organized social work had a real contribution to make in 
this field, by wny of educating legislators to face the problem of the ment^ 
ally ill. . 

Miss Eaton discussed the health condition of draftees, comparing those 
inducted during the World War I, with those recently inducted. During the 
World WnT I there were 31J& rejected, as against 38;i rejected during the first 
yer>T of recent conscription. Miss Eaton indicated, however, that present 
examinations are more thorough^ Moreover, today requirements in regard to 
physical fitness are more rigid. Up to recently, all draftees wore required 
to have chest X-r?=\ys, as well as blood tests. Miss Eaton's figures for recent 
draftees were based on a peace-time conscription, prior to this country* s 
entrance into the war. Although there were fewer cases of rickets in the recent 
draft, over one third of those rejected were found to have poor nutrition. Of 
the first million examined, 45.2 per 1,000 were found to have syphilis. Of 
those, only 10^ hrA already had treatment. Many of the remainder were unaware 
that they had a venereal disease. 

In her discussion around rehabilitation programs, Miss Eaton pointed out 
that publicity of these findings encouraged some States to set up special pro- 
grams to bring up physical fitness of its meni Kansas, for instance, in Dec- 
ember 1941, gathered statistics on T.B. pnd venereal disease, instituting mail- 
in^'^s and home visits for check-up. The Commission of Physical Rehabilitation, 
in Jiily 1941, sug{':ested thr»t the army lower standards, or rehabilitate after 
induction. A government-supported voluntary rehabilitation program was also 
suggested. Actually a. compromise will be effected, since physical standards 
for drrjtocs will be lowered, with rehabilitation at government expense 
optional. Miss Eaton questioned whether voluntary reha.bilitation was really 
voluntary, since induction ma;^' take place nrjyvjr^jj. 

Before class ended, Mr. Klein suggested tliat 15 minutes be set aside, at the 
beginning of our next session, for recapitulation on our two sessions on Health. 
Mr. Klein s\;ggosted this time for some discussion around l) the objectives of 
social v;ork in regard to Health; 2) the organized methods for securing the '^good.- 
life*^; 3) the kinds of programs possible^ 



y 



li- 



^•1' 



SEtlllL'iR MIMJTES Sgi-'F 

■r.-iminr y 29. 1942 

4th Sossion 

In diacu3sing the topics for the seven following sessions, ^«^^°f J°^ 
v/as raisod vScther child v/elfaro and family welfare should he io^^'l* "J*^ 
as a total set or separately. The discussion brought out -J'^^/^^^^^f 
on how to clarify objectives of child-and fnnily '^^^^^ ".J^/^ii^!^^ 
the clients' or agencies* point of view. The group agreed *^^^^ f *J°^ 
these are esoontial3y the sane, there is at least at the present time a 
sep.-xration in the s3b-^p of the agencies. It was felt J^*/^^^^^*^^^ 
clAld - and fanily welfare work front he sane therapeutical aspect toward 
a connon goal; to prove this, or any differences, wo nust attack the 
i^rohlcn \>y going out fron one assunption, either that they are one, or 
scjSSe flSdst by stating out fron the assur^ption that they ore separate 
fields, we nay well discover their likeness, and ^J^'^fjf ' „^* ^^. 
suggested that case work and ocononic assistance should be considered 
under the topics of child - and fanily welfare. 

It was then decided by vote th^t fonily-and child welfare should be dis- 
cussed as separate fields* 

Tor the fourth topic, there was a choice cunong throo areas: 

Social Insurance 

Social Action and ConEninity Organization 

Recreation 
The group voted for Social Ins\irance« 

The sroup set up the following schedule; the nanes of the discussoiits are 
£lven under each topic t 

Fe'bruary 5 
continuation of " Health and Social Ob^loctivosV the topic started on Jan.29 



Poliruary 12 and 19 
"Child Welfare" 



> 



Eaton 

Cohen 

Kant row 

Meyers 

Ness 

Ostonel 



-3- 



•^ 



Febnxary 26 and March 5 

Pilene 
Grould 
Porter 
Rooovolt 

Sliapiro 

March 12 and 19 

"Social Insurance" 



■4 



') 



Bornan 

Einhorn 

Filone 

Uoyors 

Ness 

Ootoncl 

Porter 

Rosevclt. 

Mr. Bernan, chairman of the connittee reporting on " Health and Social 
O^),ioctives" . outlined the topics to te discussed during this and t..e 
follov/ing session: 



1. 

2i 
3. 
4« 
5i 
6* 



noods of the nation .4.4^«> 

status of the nation^ s health (rural and urban connunities; 

solutions 

nodical social work 

psycliiatric social work 

governnont^s responsibility in Irojecting draftees 



1. Heeds of the Nation 

msg Einliorn's report me based mainly on the survey of tho "Interdepart- 
zSntal Comittoe to coordinate Health and TTelfare Activities", V^J^^^^f 
1939, in Washington. According to this report, five nillion hurian lives 
are iastod each year because of inadequate health care; poor housing and 
poor diets are tvro of nany ir.Tportant causes ^-iven for disenaDlonent and 
death. 

Several trends seen to "bo obvious in studying the health needs of the 
nation: !Ehero is a close connection between the low incone SJf^P^^/^f 
infcmt and general death rate. - The nedical care decreases the lov;er the 
ifcZl. - i^ount of illness and death rates axe hi^er in sections vrith 
poor housing conditions. 

T7ith re^d to specific sicknesses. Miss Einhorn 'l^^^^'^.ft^J. f °^" ^J^^^,, 
still 1,500.000 tuberculosis cases in this country, ^f ^J^ *^J/,"?!,^;;^f 
the rc^wrt covered. The cure of pneunonia is seriously hanpered because 
effective soruns cannot be used due to linited budgets. Only « even of 
fortyw^igi^t states have a cancer prevention progrrB. ^^^^^^^^.^J^^ ^^^^^ 
little decline in infant ^iortality, and proper pre-natal and deliver/ care 

is urgently needed in nany connunities. I^^^«*^J:'^\S^°^^^l?^°f !? t^f 
to be built up on a nuch wider scale. The poor ^^f *^,J°"^*i°^^..S^,f 
urban population both in snail and large cities, sho.7 the great danger of 



-3- 



k1 



'^# 



City life on hunan health, vdthout an adequate health progron. Venereal 
diseases aro the cause of a lar^^o percentage of the nation^s death rate* 
iUrm Klein stated that figures on venereal diseases are usually exaggerated.) 

With regard to preventative work, the report stated that proper food "budgets, 
ooth in quality and in quantity, aro a major factor; $140 are needed yearly 
to feed a healthy person adequately • 

Miss Einhorn spoke of the poor nodical service New York City clinics supply 
for their patients. The tine linitatlon (two ninutes for the average exanin- 
ation), is one of the nost serious handicaps and often nake proper diagnosis 
and troatnent alnost inpossiblo. In this connection it r/as sug^:^ested that 
after the reports on health are given, a group discussion of tliis seninar 
should follow to clarify the relative merits of clinic method and individual- 
ized nodical troatnent^ so as to further constructive thinking for future 
health prograns. 

2« Status of the Nation ^s Health 

a) I^al Comnunitios 

Mr. Bernan's report on rural health service was based on Mary B# Wille- 
ford«s took »*Incone and Hoiath in Remote Rural Areas" . a study on four 
hundred families in Kentucky* 

The outstanding problem in this field is the groat shortage of phj^sicians; 
this is even more conplicated "by the groat distances the doctor lias to 
travel to reach the patient's home (ho charges $1# per mile), and the far 
DXfoy location of hospitals. Seven doctors and six midwives served the four 
hundred families in this area; there is a dire need to increase the number 
of workers in both fields. 

Hi-i^h cost of medical troatnent as compared with the extremely low income, 
prevent ttie average family from calling the doctor except for great emergen- 
cies} tills is another reason for poor health condition and high death rates 
in rural areas. Nurse service is used because it is cheaper. In many in- 
stojices the population consults oinlicensed doctors, and witch craft is 
practiced to a groat extent. 

TTxiile the rural family cannot afford paying the high fees asked by the 
plij'sician, the actual cost involved in each visit is so great for him tliat 
he can liardly make a living. 

Tlie average total incone of these four-hundred fanilios was $416. annually 
per fanily, the noney incone $183; the cash incone per individual was ^6.70, 
for the year. 

The seven physicians in this area received in one year $1073 for 154 visits. 
Thus $6.50 wore paid for one visit, on the avera^o. The cost for SDne visits, 
however, wore as hi^ as fron $40 to $50. 

The total nodical cost distributed over the foui^hundred fonilies, was $8.70 
per fonily per year, and $1.70 for the individual. 

It is obvious tliat a pulilic health progran is needed. Mr. Beman onphasized 
tliat thJLs is not a one-connunity proTslen but a nationwide need for both a 
nodicol treatnont proeran as well as preventative planning to insure a 
bettor health status axiong the rural population. Proper diet in tine nay 



'^> 



cllriinato nodical troatnont in naiiy caseo# Matornlty caro \7as nentionod as 
aiiotlior field in a provontativo proi^pron* 

It no.s suggested that the questions of "centralized or decentralized 
nodical caro", "onploycd state personnel or private practitioners", wore 
problons whdch should "bo discussed by the soninar groupl 



H 



H 



V 



1 



SEtlllLVR MIMUTES 291-^P 

January 29. 1942 
4th Sossion 

In discussing tho topics for the seven following sosslons^ the quostlon 
v/as raisod ishother child welfare and family wolfaro should be dealt with 
as a total set or separately* The discussion hrou^t out some confusion 
on how to clarify ohjectives of child-and fonily welfare - by following 
the clients' or agencies • point of view* The group agreed that althou^ 
these are essentially the sane, there is at least at the present time a 
soioaration in the set-up of the agencies* It was felt that fundamentally 
cliild -• and family welfare work from the sane therapeutical aspect toward 
a connon goal; to prove this^ or any differences, wo must attack the 
problon by going out fron one assunption, either that they are one, or 
separate fields; by starting out fron tho assunption that they are separate 
fields, we nay well discover their likeness, and vice versa* It was 
suggested that case work and eoononic assistance should be considered 
under tho topics of child - and fanily welfare^ 

It was then decided by vote that fanily-and child welfare should be dis- 
cussed OS separate fields* 

For the fourth topic, there was a choice among three areas i 

Social Insurance 

Social Action and Connimity Organization 

Recreation 

The grotgp voted for Social Insurance* 

The group set up the following schedule; the nones of the discussants are 
given under each topics 

Jebruary 5 

continuation of '' Health and SoclcCL Objectives"^ the topic started on Jan*29 

February 12 and 19 

" Child Welfare '' 

Saton 

Cohen 

Kontrow 

Meyers 

Ness 

Ostonel 



li 



-3- 



t- 



^"1, 



(h 



jFoTDruary 26 and March 5 

»FADily Welfare" 

Pllono 
Gould 
Portor 
Eoor'^olt 

Shapiro^ 

March 12 and 19 

"Social Insurance" 

Bornan 

Einhorn 

Pi lone 

Moyers 

Woss 

Ostonel 

Portor 

P.ooeTeL'*'. 

Mr. Bornan, chalrmn of tho conr.iittoo reporting on " Health cud Social 
Q-b-ioctivoa" . outlined the topics to be dlscassed during tliis and tr.e 
follovdng eesslon: 

1» needs of the nation . ., \ 

2, status of tho nation's health (rural and urban connunities; 

S« solutions 

4* nedical social work 

5» psychiatric social work 

6. governnoat's resfponsibllitj' in rojocting draftees 

1. Koeda of the Nation 

MBS Einhorn' 8 report was based nainly on tho survey of the "Interdepart- 
aontal Comittoe to coordinate Health and Welfare Activitxes", published 
1939. in Washington. According to this report, five nillion huiian lives 
arc J«i8ted each year because of inadequate health care; poor housing and 
poor diets are two of nany inportant causes given for disenablonont and 
death. 

Several trends seen to be obvious in studying the health needs of the 
nation; There is a close connection between the low Incone group and the 
infant and general death rate. - The nedical care decreases the lower tiic 
incone. - Anount of illness and death rates are hi^er in sections with 
poor housing conditions. 

With regard to specific sicknesses. Miss Einhorn quoted tlaat there were 
still 1.500,000 tuberculosis cases in this country, during the year w.ac.. 
the ropJrt covered. The cure of pnemionia is seriously hanpered because 
effective soruns cannot be used due to United budgets. Only seven ot 
forty-eight states have a cancer prevention progrnn. There has been only 
little decline in infant nortality, and proper prenatal and delivery care 
is urgently needed in nany connunities. Industrial Hygiene prograns have 
to be built up on a nuch wider scale. The poor health condition of the 
urban copulation both in snail and large cities, show the great danger ot 



«b3M 



»N 



^ 



1^ 



city life on Ixom^ health, without an adeqttato health progron. Venereal 
diseases are the cause of a Icurgo percentage of the nation* s death rate« 
(Mr# Klein stated that figures on venereal diseases are usually exaggerated^ ) 

With regard to preventative Troric^ the report stated that proper food b-odgetSt 
both in quality and in quantity, are a najor factor? $140 are needed yearly 
to food a healthy person adequately • 

Uiss ELnhorn spoke of the poor medical service New Yort City clinics supply 
for their patients • The tine llnitation (two ninutes for the avorcige exanin- 
ation), is one of the nost sorious handicaps and often nake proper diaenosis 
and troatnent alnost inpossihle^ In this connection it was suggested that 
after the reports on health are given, a group discussion of this seninar 
should follow to clarify the relative nerits of clinic nethod and individual- 
ized nedical troatnent, so as to further constructive thJLnklng for future 
health progrnns« 

^^m Status of the Natl on ^s Health 

a) Rural Coonunitieg 

Mr» Bernan's report on rural health service was "based on Mary B# Wills- 
ford's "book "Incone and Health in Reno to Rural Areas", a study on four 
hundred f anilies in Kentucky* 

The outstanding prohlen in this field is the groat shortage of phj^sicians; 
this is even noro conpllcated "by the great distances the doctor has to 
travel to reach the patient U hone (ho charges $1-. per nile)^ and the far 
away location of hospitals* Seven doctors and six nidwives served the fo\ir 
hundred fanilios in this area} there is a dire need to increase the nuriber 
of workers in "both fields* 

High cost of nedical troatnent as conpared with the extronely low incone, 
prevent the average fanily fron calling the doctor except for great onergen- 
cios| this is another reason for poor health condition and higji death rates 
in rural areas* Nurse service is used "because it is cheaper* In nany Inr- 
stances the population consults unlicensed doctors, and witch craft la 
practiced to a groat extent* 

TThile the rural fanily cannot afford paying the high fees asked "by the 
phj'sician, the actual cost involved in each visit is so great for hin that 
he can hardly nake a living* 

The average total incone of these four-hundred fanilios was $416* annually 
per fanily, the noney Incone $183; the cash incone per individual was $36^70, 
for the year* 

The seven physicians in this area received in one year $1073 for 154 visits* 
Thus $6*50 were paid for one visit, on the averago. The cost for so no visits, 
however, were as hi^ as fron $40 to $50* 

The total nedical cost distributed over the four-hundred fanilios, was $8,70 
per fanily per year, and $1*70 for the individual. 

It is olDvlous that a puhlic health progran is needed* Mr* Beman enphaslzed 
that this is not a one-connunity prohlen but a nationwide noed for both a 
nedical treatnent progran as well as preventative planning to insure a 
"better health status anong the rural population* Proper diet in tine nay 



^ 



olirdnato nodical troatnont in naiijr caeeD* Matornlty caro vtcs nontionod as 
iothor field in a prevontativo progran* 



G 



It T7as suggOBtod that tho quostions of "contralizod or decentralizod 
U'.dical caro^i "eoployod state poreonnol or private practitioners", wore 
pro'blons which should to discus sed by tho soninar grotcpl 



}' 



(ir 



1/^ 



/ 



o 



« I N u r fc s 



Dorothy t; . Filene 

Course 291 

J 

JaiinaBjry29th, 19^2 

Fourth Sees Ion 



) 



In discuss lUts the topics for the seven following 
sessions, the question v/as raised 'Whether child welfare and 
family welfare should be dealt with as a total set or sep- 
arately. The discussion broU: ht out some confusion on how 
to claclkif objectives of child-and family welfare - by follow- 
in^::, tne clients' or a^-^encies* point of view. The ^^roupsa^rreed 
that although these are essentially the sa^e, there is at least 
at tne present tine a separation in the set-up of the a-^encies. 
It was felt tnat funda entally child - and farrily welfare work 
from the sa-re therapeutical aspect toward a comnon foal; to 
provesthls, or any differences, we rr.ust attack the problem by 
tjoine, out frcin one assurptlon, either that t ley are one, or 
separate fields; by starting; out from the assur.ption that they 
are aeparate fields, we may well discover their likeness, and 
vice versa. It was su/Tcrested that case wor' ani econorric 



'OC 



assistance should be considered under the topics of child - and 
fanily welfare. 

It was then decided by vote that farrily-and child 
welfare should be discussed as separate fields. 

For the fourth topic, there i^aa a choice arrong three 



areas : 



Social Insurance 

Social Action ani Corr.rp.unity Organization 

hecreation 

The croup voted for 

Soc ial Insurance . 



I i - r < Tr n 



'^' 



-2- Wlnutea Courae 291 Fourth Seaaion 



• 



The i^roup set up the followlni^ schedule; the nares 
of the discussants are e£lven under each topic: 



February 5. 

continuation of *^Health and Social Objectives^ the topic started 

------------------ —.--—----^^ ^^ January 29 • 

on 

February 12 > and 19 > 



^'Child welfare^ 

Eaton 

Cohen 

ivantrow 

Ueyers 

Ness 

OstOTel 




February 26. and :/arch 5> 
"FaTily Vielfare*' 



mimt^mmm 



Filene 

Gould 

Porter 

noosevelt 

Shapiro 



f/.arch 12 > 



and 



11 



"Social Insurance** 

Barman 

tinhorn 

Filene 

Meyers 

Me SB 

Os tonne 1 

Porter 

hoosevelt 



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-3- F Inu te ^ Course 2^1 P'ourth Seas Ion 



t^r. Bennan, chair ran of the ccminittee reporting on 
"health and Social Qb^lectlv^es '^ , outlined the topics to be dis- 
cussed iurlng this ani the following session: 



1# needs of the nation 

2m Status of the nation's health 

(rural and urban communities) 
3. solutions 
4« medical social wokk 
3* psychlattlc social work 
6. ^cvernment' s respo.islbility in 

rejecting draftees 



1. Needs of the Nation 



(0 



^ 



Miss tinhorn's report was based mainly on the survey 
of the ^^Interdepartriental Committee to coordinate Health and 
Welfare Activities*^ published 1939^ in Washin.-ton. According 
to tnis report, five inilllon Bitoaa lives are wasted each year 
because of inadequate health care; poor housing and poor diets 
are two of nany Important causes >j;iven for dlsenableient and 



death. 



Several trends seen to be obvious In studying the health 



needs of the nation: There is a close connection between the low 

income d?*oup and the infant and ,:j*eneral death rate* - The '^edical 

care decreases the lower the income • • A^.ount of illness and death 

rates are hl^^her in sections with poor housing/ ccndltlons. 

With regard to sijecific sicknesses, Miss Elnhorn quoted 
were 
that triere $j^e still 1,500,000 tuberculosis cases In th4s country, 

during the year which the report covered. The cure of pneu-^onla 

is seriously hampered because effectl -e serti^s cannot be used due 

s 

to limited budgets: . Only seven of forty-ei;;ht states have a 
cancer prevention pro.^^rsuDf ' There has been only little decline in 



«i«fe*rf*J^krtMrfHiMifc^::_ 



Insertion pa^e 4 



Minutes Course 291 Fourth Session 



» 



In this ccnnectionslt was suggested that after the 
reports on health are glven^ a group discussion of this seminar 
should follow to clarify the relative ir^erits of clinic method 
and individualized medical treat: lent, so as to further con- 
structive thinking for future health prograns. 



CO 



k 



\ 



-4- itinutea Courae 291 Fourth Seseion 



(^ 



t 



Infant liiOrtality, and propei pre-natal and delivery care Is 
urgently needed In many com nunl ties. Industrial Hy lene proprrams 
have to be built up on a ^uch wider scale. The poor health 
condition of the urban population both In s r.'all anl lar^e cities, 
show the £;reat danger of city life on human health , without an 
adequate nealth piogram. Venereal diseases are the ciuce of a 
large percentage of the natlon^s death rate • {Ur. ?lein statild 
that figures on venereal diseases are usually exa^^gerated* ) • 

With regard to preventative work, the report stated 
that proper food bud.^ets, both in quality and In quantity, are 
a Hiajor factor; $140 • are needed yearly to feed a healthy person 

adequately* 

Miss tinhorn spoke of the poor medical service l^iew York 
City clinics supply for their patients. The time li'ritatlon 

(two minutes for the avera-e exarination) , 4»eone of the -^ost 

often/ 
serious handicaps, and/make proper diagnosis and treat-^ent almost 

Irtpcsslble. 

2. Status of the nation^ s health 
a) ..ural Communities 

Mr. Berman's report on rural health service was based 
on :w.ary b. A'illeford^s book ** Income and Health in Remote Rural 
Areas", a study on four hundred families In Kentucky. 

The outetandlnt problem in this field is the great 
shorta^je of physicians; tnis is even rriore complicated by the 
great distances the doctor has to travel to reach the patient's 



6^) 



/ 



-5* Minutes Course 291 Fourth Session 



(^ 



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.<r^i 



home (he charges |1. per mile), and the far a;vay location of 
hospitals* Seven doctors and six mldwlves Berved the four 
hundred families In this area; there Is a dire need to increase 
the number of workers In both fields. 

Hl^h cost of medical treatriient as corrpared with the 
extremely low Income, prevent the average far.lly frorr; calling 
the doctor except for great errergencles ; this is another reason 
for poor liealth condition and high death rates In rural areas* 
i^iurse service Is used because it is cheaper. In many Instances 
the population consults unlicensed doctoDS, and witch craft Is 
practiced to a ^^reat extent* 

Sihile the wotailfaDlly cannot afford paying the high 
fees asiied by the physician, the actual cost Involved in each 
visit Is so great for hln: thqt he can hardly make a living. 

The average total Income of these four-hundred fanillles 
was ^416* annually, perffamily, the money Income i?l83; the cash 
Income per Individual was i?36.70, for the year* 

The seven physicians In this area received In one year 
41073. for 154 visits. Thus 46*50 were paid for one visit, on the 
averaj?;e. The cost for so^ne visits, however, were as hi^h as from 



440. 



to 450* 
The 



total medical cost distributed over the fourkhundred 



fa:r.llie3, was ^8*70 per farr.lly per year, and $1*70 for the indiv- 



idual * 



It is obvious that a public health progra-: Is needed. 



Mr* Berman e-^phaslzed that this is not a one-community problem but 
a nationwide need for both a medical treat ent pro£;ran as well as 
preventative plannln^: to insure a better health status among the 



!/ 



•6- Minutes CoUrBe 291 Fourth Session 



4 



rural population. Proper diet in Liuie rr:ay eliminate medical 
treatient in lany cases* 'iaternlty care was '^^entloned as another 



fib^d^dtin a pi'eventative program 



i 



It was suggested that the questions of "l^ntrallzed or 



decentralized inedlcal care , employed state personnel or private 
practitioners**, were problems which should be discussed by the 
seiiiinar group. 



v<; 



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Mlnutog ^ ScnlnPT S91^P 

Jp.nur.ry 15, 1942 



SSCOITD SESSION 



There was p. gonernl discussion on the ninutcs of the first session, vdth 
nn P.ttcnpt to determine a suitalilo topic for tern disdassion. Many ideas T7cro ex- 
pressed/ Sono suggested that ue ought to continue along the "Schools of Thought »» 
idoa# It was pointed out that we can only discuss the above in r elation to the 
spjno topics, such as applied to training people for social r;ork. It ^7as also sug- 
gested thr-t the political rmd econonic structure "be used as the center for these 
discussions. That is, the mode of thought in the Philadelphia School as related to 
econonic r.nd political philosophy, etc. 

The role of the Social Worker cphc up for discussion. This was "briefly 
discussed in regard to ohjcctivcs as expounded "by those supporting the * Chicago 
School', etc. 3ach school has different objectives rjid it is important that these 
objoctivos "bo studied. According to Dr. Klein, the study nust bo pursued along the 
follovring basis: 

1. On the .abstract or conceptual level, or 

2. On the practical level, as ph agency study of procedixrc to see nhich 
point of viov; underlies it. 

Tliore ^Tas then a slight departure in the discussion as it progressed up 
to this point, all with the ain to dcteminc a uay in nhich the "Schools of Thought" 
idea could bo cnrricd out. The Department of Health and its licensing policies, 
statononts, as the non-enforcing of the police po^Tors in regard to the Spjiitary Code, 
Individual freedom and rzhat thrt really means, if there is such a thing in our 
society, etc. i/cre made and briefly elaborated upon. Dr* Klein entered the discus- 
sion at this point to point out that every specific form of social control vio might 
choose to discuss had a certain school of thought r XIo find this to be true in the 
history of labor orgr>nizations and business lavrs, the courts rzid, pov/er of states, 
forcing the rights of individuals to exercise his rights to private property and 
onjoyncnt (therefore vir^king it possible for business to incorporate - thus leading 
to monopolies - to force competitors out of business - to hrnper labor unions, etc.) 
Thus the school of i^hou,^it that the State should protect the right to livelihood* 
It T7as stated th^t the school of thouglit really turns out to be an cmotion'-l concep- 
tion of a TTray of life. 

According to one member of the group the study of the School of Thought 
TTon^t be prpctical for discussion as it rrould turn out to be a philosophical dis- 
cus si on • 

Local relief or State or St-te control, or whether the Federal Government 
should establish grants in aid to the States rnd States in turn to aid local, the 
Tvholo question of the relief progrpm as a Federal Progmm, etc. - these are all 
schools of thougl-it, Thoy constitute sots of procedures - administrative responsi- 
bilities, etc* and ne must determine r/hat is importp.rt. 

At this point there \7as the suggestion made th-^t vrc might use "The objec- 
tives of Social T7nrk" as our theme. This rms discussed on different tangents pjid 
the statement that Socirl Work has been institutionalized in cftir culture nxid, there- 
fore should bo exrpiincd as an institution led to very interesting channels. It uas 
sue,-i:ostod thrt a study should be made to dctcrraine v/hcrein our function lay. It has 
also been said th-t if \70 lot things alone then there TOuld be a forced change for 
the better. An opinion uas expressed that Social Work represents a means of retainin. 



,• 



i 



(f 



- 2 - 



the stntns quo - is this rji olDjectivo of social Trork - the retaining of the "privi- 
leccd cl^^.sscs*'* Dr. Klein vms forced to the board at this point to shovr hy chart 
that the TJho people, as some of our social minded lx)rTd ncn"bers, etc. had certain 
objectiTcs in nind rnd thoy used the instrunents of the Social Work Agencies to 
help the clients, those clients represented by a certain fctr of the total body 
politic. These people can have the objective of retaining the status quo as their 
objective perhaps, rrhether consciously or unconsciously, njid gain those objectives 
under the Aiiiso of social nelfaro. Thus social n^encies nay be obstacles to the 
cnrrying through of real professional social nork objectives. There was nuch resent- 
nent"^ to'^this thou^it pjid quite a feu nenbcrs of the group were cnotionally aroused. 
The question as to the place of the clients in all this was raised - as do they 
work tnrard those objectives and who arc these clients, etc. Dr. Kloin pointed 
out the fact that all the people were clients or potential clients. The clients 
enable tho agency to exist by accepting services. This, by the way, was really 
the reason for all the statistics - to show which agency is used njid whether there 
is the need for the agency. In this way tho clients arc really policy nnkcrs. 

T7e nust therefore cxrnine the objectives of the regencies to get at the 
differ ont schools of thought* T7e nay find that tho TTho pooplo work through mnjiy 
agencies, that there was overlapping between needs of social work and what society 
needs* 

There was then sonc discussion as to procedure, how to pursue the topics 
It was pointed out that we nust get a philosophical orientation first before wo 
could work out the nechnnics for procec'jure. There was a suggestion that we trke 
large agencies njid dctemine their objectives - thus getting social work objectives 
on a large scale. Tliis was to be worked throu/^i by assigning various students to 
different agencies to study objectives, find out who supports then, etc. Another 
suggestion to select serviocs, as health, etc, rather than agencies per se. 

To'jard the end of the session, Dr« Klein asked the group to consider the 
following question, '^TTl-iat are you skeptical about in regard to Social T7ork»*. A 
disc^is^ion (rat>,oi- heatod) was brought about when one of the group stated that he 
was skeptical abr'-t- the sincerity of sone of oiir social workers. Sincerity in 
this field was discussed in relation to other professions. However, there was a 
series of questions that followed, one had to do with the connunity under stnjiding 
of social work and its nonning to the connunity, does social work p^^encies do its 
job to the fullest or do they desire power, etc. LaO;:,^ Bountiful was brought into 
the discussion at this p^int with the question, "Was La/y Bountiful right ?»^. She 
did cater to the need but at the price of a perpetual snilo of gratitude, etc. This 
brought np the question of the riglit to relief - the right in the fom of ph effec- 
tive social orgpnizatiou to it. Tlie Social TTorker nust deliver the goods if the 
indiviroial has that rigkt. It was brought out that the philosophy of this right 
md the belief in this right nnkcs one a reforner, etc 

Tlio session dnded with the formation of a volixnteer connittoe to formulate 
plcans of procedure. Our problen was to be the exanining of the objectives of social 
work and hou to relate these objectives to our problen as individual workers* Tho 
connittee was to ncot tho following evening at 7 nnd rll who could nnko it were 
welcono. Dr« Klein* s office was to be the neeting roonr 



.> 



'^ 



<< 



MINUTES - SmiMR 29UT 
Jamiary 8. 1942 



Firat Ser^ston 



Dr. Klein digcus^^ed the methods and purpose of the seminnT, giving a 
little of the histor^r of the seminar in the curriculum of the New York School. The 
subject for this semester's seminar had to "be selected, and a numher of topics were 
su^{;:o?tod. Those included the following: 

1) A discussion of lay hoards and the relation of this to tho profession- 
al ftpff; 

2) A study of social work in a channiin^^ world, or a world at war; 

3) A siirvey of the changes in trainin^'^ for social v^ork,. especially in 
view of the v:ar situation necessitrtin^^ use of volunteers; 

4) An unspocified disc^\ssion each v/eok of proolcms hrou^^t in hy the 

st^:.donts; 

5) A rconorri suhject for rdiich tho expnriencc of all will have some 

moaning - such as housing'f 

6) Thp new dovolopmonte in the field of social work - trends in the tech- 
nical ph^ so of social v;ork; 

7) The vrluc the School had in trrininf social workers, including courses 

nnd fi^ld '-rork; 

8) A consideration of tho extent to which social work is achieving its 
strtnd rimsf' Ho-' do social workers pprticipate in social plannin^^? 

9) A considorr^tion of thr purposes of social ':'ork and thr forces against 

these; 

10) Ij) vinw of the curtpiln^nts cn^nndcred "by the war, a discussion of 

those thin^;s -rhich mijf^t oo given up; 

11) An evrlu^tion of tho rosponsihility of tho stato to spocific fiolds, 

such f^s tho child; 

12) An ov^luotion of thn stato's rosponsihility to tho individual; 

13) A study of tho philosophicrl aspects of sociol ^ork, n.gm a considorn^- 
tion of rpr>ror.chns of different schools; 

14) An attempt to ans'-'or the question as to tho sociol worker* s rosponsi- 
hility to tho client rnd the community rnd stating tho objectives of case work* 



All those suggestions brought forth discussion -'^nd comm-"^nts. It '^as 
interesting to note thot the student* s interest in tho question of his relation to 
the war has been so modified thrt there is agoin a considcr'^tion of social -worker's 
philosophy ^^nd technique s# 

It ^as felt thrt further discussion would be needed before a subject for 
the seminar could be selected. 



» 



^i 



MIKUTES » 291--P 



January 22, 1942 



THIflD SE5SI0IT 






The committee which met to discuss seminar plans reported as follows; a 
tentative plan to study the objectives of various fields of social work to he viewed 
from the point of view of hoard, staff, clients, community, other groups; the last 
ses<;5ion of the seminar to he devoted to a summing up of the discussions of topics 
presented. 

The group questioned whether there should he still more of a breakdown in 
areas of social work, as public and private and whether we arc equipped to discuss 
these topics from the vie\^oint of board or client for instance, when our experience 
has been only as staff members. In regard to the latter objection it was felt that 
there is sufficient written material to give information for discussion from those 
vio'vTpoints and supplementary information mry be had through interviews with repre- 
sentatives of these groups as board members, etc. In general it was felt that there 
need be no set rules for the discussion of topics; that is, some topics nny lend them^ 
solves to a greater brenkdovm as, public and private, and some mpy easily be discuss-* 
ed from anyone or all viewpoints, 

Mrt Borman questioned whether we should not discuss the broad objectives 
of social uork first and fit our topical discussions into this broad general outline 
ns a manns of evaluating the vaxious areas to bo presented. We should first mswcr 
the question, what is social work? At this point Mr. Klein warned of the dangers of 
w.-^jidering around in a disciassion of social philosophy; our definitions of terminology 
would vary pjid each night not be able to express what each feels in a way that would 
have the spjno meaning for everyone. Another objection to the 'frame of reference' 
was on the grounds that it might become too rigid and since it will bo set up by 
people working in the field, it might bo influenced in that direction. In this 
regard our relation to the field was questioned — do we really represent the staff 
vie^.T^)0int, thp.t is persons committed to an agency policy, or are we a group apart, 
as students or individuals? Mr. Klein reminded the group that most representatives 
of agencies strive to maintain a degree of individuality by allying themselves, as 
individuals with other groups in the community. It was also brought out in the dis- 
cussion that in many agencies, opinion of individual staff members is often a means 
of chajiging staff p^iid agency policies. Because such material is not discussed in 
other courses offered at the School, it was suggested that some seminar discussion 
might bo devoted to the problem found in some agencies where the staff has no voice 
ir: agency policies. It was finally decided that the topical discussions bo preceded 
by a general discussion of the objectives of social work and that this discussion he 
used as a means of testing the services to be discussed later. The results of the 
summing up in the last session can then be compared to our original statements of 
these objectives. It was felt thnt the last hour of the present session could be 
used for this preliminary outlining of the objectives of social work. 

The following vote was taken on the topics presented to the group. Each 
person voted four times because it was felt that there would be time for the present^.- 
tion of four topics. 



- 2 - 



.^ 



^ 



Health 9 Votes 

family Welfare; Public Assistance. 9 " 

Child Welfare 10 " 

Recreation 3 *^ 

Vocational Crutdance and Plac^nent 1 ^ 

Correctional Work 2 ** 

Community Organization # 6 " 

Social Action 8 " 

Social Insurance • 9 " 

The group felt that there is a good deal of overlapping in the topics as 
for instance, community orgajiization and social action, but that ways of handling 
this might he left to the discretion of the group planning each presentation* Again, 
child welfare might he largely included in a public assistance category; and case 
work service, for children and families might be placed in the family grouping. 

The procedure for the sessions was decided on as follows: there are to be 
4 subjects for discussion rnd 6 people assigned to each discussion. Each discussion 
will cover 2 sessions and 3 of the 6 people will be responsible for material in each 
session. Four people will be necessary to do the summing up in the last session. 
This gives a total of 28 presentations rnd there being 14 in the class, each member 
will be responsible for 2 presentations or one presentrtion and a portion of the 
sijjnmarization^ It was felt that each group could decide on its own method of presen- 
trtion re allotment of time for general discussion etc. The first topic for discus-- 
sion is health; the following persons are responsible for presenting this topic: 
Mr. Berm^ji, chairman, Mrs. Knjitrow, Mrs. Binhorn, Miss Maskett, Miss Gould and Miss 
Epton. 

DiscTission re Objectives of So c ial Work ; 

Mr# Shnpiro opened the discussion with the statement that he thinlcs 
social work is concerned with providing the 'good life* for all. Mr. Berraan, how- 
ever, considering man^s need for a communal life, felt that certain problems of ad- 
justment arise as a result of this communal life and that no matter how ndvanced a 
state may be oconomicnlly and socially, there still will be a place for social vrork- 
ers because of the very nature of man and his needs. No matter what equalization of 
opportunity takes place, man because of his unequal abilities and make-up, will ad- 
just unequally and help must be available to those who need it. In relation to the 
'good life', it was felt that social work is trying to provide economic njid emotion-- 
al security to those needing it. A good deal of discussion centered around the 
quc«^tion as to whether the early priest was, or the free lance social worker today 
is, engaging in social work. Both are ministering to the needs of individuals. But 
it was felt that like general neighborliness, this is unorganized assistance, where- 
as social work presupposes organization and came into being when our culture bec^^me 
so complex and the forces against the 'good life' so strong aa to preclude the help-- 
ful activities of individuals as individuals. The technique of the free lance or 
unorganized ministrant may be the snme as those of the social worker, but his func- 
tion is different. Briefly the differences between the orgajiized and unorganized 
social uork p-re as follows: 

Organized social work is carried on by one group who are strangers to the group they 
serve, therefore some methods of meeting must be devised for these two groups, there- 
fore organization is necessary. 

Organized social work is a deliberately plpjined activity, expressive of the social 
responsibility of the community; it is governed by a policy which is also the ex- 
pression of this social responsibility. Unorganized social work has no such govern- 
ing factors. 
Orgmiizod social work is an actuality; unorgnnized social work today is so unusual 

as not to be a reality. 




AR 7202 

Filene, Dorothy 
Dorothy Filene Collection 



V;| 



LEO BAECK INSTITUTE 
Center for Jewish History 

15 West 16th Street 
NewYork, NY 10011 

Phone: (212) 744-6400 

Fax: (212)988-1305 

Email: lbaeck@lbi.cjh.org 

URL: http://www.lbi.org 



Date: 7/29/2009 



Sys#: 000198663 



Box: 2 



Folder: 4 



.CtViHlMK' ' 



POLL OF I-!EIG1DCP:-I0CD OPB'IOr 



I 

hi 



Civil Liberties: 



1. Do you believe in freedom of speech for non-citizens? 

£• Do you believe in freedom of speech for father Couchlin? 

3. Do you believe in freedom of speech for Communists? 

4. Do you believe in freedom of speech for Kazis? 

5. Should non-citizens be barred from W.P.A.? 

6. Should aliens be rec;isterod andfin^er-printed? 

7. Should refugees bo permitted to enter the U.S.? 

8. Should Communists be permitted to vote - to hold public office? 

9. Should the Dies Committee have been continued? 



\ 



United States and \/ar ; 

10. Should the U.S. increase her arm^'- and nav^v'? 

11. Should we have conpulsary military trainins? 

12. Should the U.S. help Finland with loans? 

13. Should we help France and England vath men? 

14. Should we help Gremany i:ith men? 

15. Should v/e help Russia vrlth men? 

Politics: 

16. Do you approve of a third Presidential term? 

17. Did you listen to IT.Y.C. Covmcil broadcasts of 1938-39? 
IS. Should broadcasts havo been continued? 



I I 



;/ 7V x-vf'Jrtr. 



J. . 4.WJ . >A ^ i .' *> 






CI.LV3 Ui-LJillS :£^.?0:-.T 



CLUB 



DATE 



ROOM 



IMLER 



I!HIvD2R Ell^OLLSD 



ITOOER PR3SEIMT 



MEETING BSQAIT 



MEETIMG 'IimJS) 



PROGRMl 



BUSniESS 



( TILE DEVOTED ) 



ii 



SDUCATIOHAL ( talks, discussions ) 



( TIME DEVOTED ) 



SOCIAL { sam^s, parties, stories )_ 



CLUB PROBLa.B 



ABSE1<ITEES 



REASON 



KSl ira^BERS 



NAl^.13 



ADDRESS 



DATE OF 
BIRTK 



SCHOOL OR 

OCCUPATION 



RELIGION 



LaSERS DROPPED OR RESIGNED 



REASON 




ANNUAL REPORT 

of the 

Federation Settlement 



For the Year 1929-1930 



ANNUAL REPORT 



of the 



Federation Settlement 



For the Year 1929-1930 



Presented by Mrs* Joseph B. Thorman 



Acting President of the Board of Directors 



of the 



I 



i 



I 



Federation Settlement 



At the meeting held April 27th, 1930 



r 



OFFICERS 

Dr. Maurice H. Harris Honorary President 

Mrs. Sidney S. Prince President 

Mrs. Joseph B. Thorman First Vice-President 

Arthur Goldsmith...... Second Vice-President 

Tobias Wolfson Treasurer 

Joseph Rosenwald Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

Mrs. Mark Ash Sidney Newborg 

Lawrence B. Cohen Amos S. Neuburger 

Belmont Corn Mrs. Sidney S. Prince 

Arthur J. Goldsmith Mrs. Richard Rafalsky 

Mrs. Vivian Green Milton Rauh 

Dr. Maurice H. Harris Joseph Rosenwald 

Louis H. Harris Isaac Siegel 

Mrs. Lestre Moss Mrs. Joseph B. Thorman 

Allen L. Mordecai Morris Weil 

Mrs. Mengo Morgenthau Mrs. Daniel K. Weiskopf 

Eli M. Nathan Tobms Wolfson 

THE STAFF 

Miss Matilda Dreifus, Head Wor\er 

Doris Brookner Staccy Maney 

Mrs. Myrtle Bridge Betty Polack 

Mrs. Marjorie Boesa Minna Reiner 

r/v n ^''y^'' Maud Simons 

Michelle Chargin R^ibin Shapiro 

Dr. J. L. Damond Benjamin Shapiro 

Louis Eisman Myron E. Sattler 

Esther Kopial Max Shor 

Sum T L^n^" Herman D. Scheff 

Phihp Lube 1 Mary Steiner 

Edna Lubell Jennie Vizinthal 

Irene Mills Abraham Eckstein 

THE VOLUNTEERS 

Miss Miriam J. Band 
Miss Ann Cooperman 
Miss Mary Fiedler 
Miss Deborah Goldsmith 
Miss Peggy Engle 
Miss Edna Goldstein 
Mrs. Sonia Gerhardt 
Joseph Rosenwald 
Aaron Sanders 
Everett Seixes 
William Steinam 
S. Magalaner 
Robert Long 
Maxwell Davidson 



TO THE officers, DIRECTORS AND FELLOW 
MEMBERS OF FEDERATION SETTLEMENT: 

Another year has passed in the history of Federation Settle- 
ment, and It becomes my privilege to give you an accounting of the 
activities and the growth of this organisation during the year 1929- 
1 930. It IS not my intention to describe in detail all the work done 
during the past year, but rather to touch the high spots of our 
accomplishments and to call to your attention the important new 
departures, which developed during the past twelve months. 

MEMBERSHIP: This year's record shows a membership of 
1812— a slight increase over that of last year. The nationalities 
represented m our membership are as follows: of the Jewish faith 
^e American, Turkish, Greek, Russian, Austrian, Hungarian, 
Polish, Bulgarian and Roumanian. Among the non-Jewish there 
are represented American, Italian, Irish, Swedish, Polish, Hungarian 
and Russian. " 

In my report of last year I explained rather fuUy the result of 
the survey of our neighborhood. The conditions remain about the 
same today, there being among the Jewish families a rather steady 
migration to the Bronx and Brooklyn. The membership of the 
nouse therefore is continuaUy undergoing a change. The senior 
and intermediate members, who have recently moved from the neigh- 
borhood, may continue attending the Settlement this year, but in 
all probabihty, next year will find them registered as members of 
some kindred organization in the neighborhood of their new homes. 

Approximately 60% of the Juniors came regularly throughout 
the year; the others, due to the variety of institutions in the neigh- 
borhood, wander from one house to another, trying to see where 
they can get the best bargain for their registration fee. 

The afternoon and evening activities are well attended and 
number respectively 46 and 33 sessions weekly. There are 37 diverse 
activities in the House. The total attendance throughout the year 
was 105,941; an increase of 1850 over that of 1928. 

On alternate Thursday evenings, lectures and discussions are 
provided for the Seniors. These are popularly known as Teas and 
1 alks, and are very enthusiastically received and provide the girls 
and boys with stimulating food for thought, and an hour of socia- 
bihty. Mr. Joseph Rosenwald has continued to interest the Senior 



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boys and girls both in music and literature throughout the year, and 
I take this opportunity to express sincere appreciation to Mr. Rosen- 
wald for his personal interest and service. 

The Fed Club, the Alumni of the Settlement, is composed of 
a group of young men, anxious to give service to the house and to 
shoulder their share of its responsibility. This winter they spon- 
sored a theatre party and dance in order to make a contribution to 
the Oakhurst Summer Home. In March, the Fed Club celebrated 
its 4th Anniversary, with a banquet at the Hamilton Hotel. 

DRAMATICS: The Federation Players, a serious group of 
Senior boys and girls under the capable leadership of Mr. Myron 
Sattler, gave three very successful plays during the past season — 
"Outward Bound"; "The First Year", and "Captain Applejack". 

Lower Juniors celebrated Chanukah and Purim with songs and 
pantomime. They participated in the Wanamaker Spring Festival 
by presenting a series of Chinese Nursery Rhymes. The Spring 
Frolic, sponsored by the House Council, is an annual dramatic pro- 
duction, in which every group in the house, from parents down to 
the kindergarten, is articulate. 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION is an important activity of our 
house. Gymnastics, basketball and creative dancing, all give oppor- 
tunities to release energy that is pent up and needs free expression, 
as well as a development of the body. Here is genuine recreation 
and a game of competition as well. In basketball, our 1354b. team 
has won the Championship of the Metropolitan League Tournament 
two successive years. The entire House feels very proud of this 
achievement. 

NEIGHBORHOOD NITE, as it is popularly called, is held 
every Friday evening. The programs are diversified and are pro- 
vided to a great extent by friends of the Settlement, of our Board 
of Directors, and by kindred organizations. 

These evenings of music, talks on timely topics, dramatic per- 
formances and moving pictures, are the red letter nights of the 
week, and give pleasant food for thought and conversation to men 
and women whose minds are otherwise filled with only the drab 
pictures of life. 

In back of all this work with the parent group, is our en- 
deavor to give the parents the proper perspective of life, and to 
stress in their minds, the great need for a better understanding of the 



mental and physical health of their children, as well as the grave 
importance of their responsibility as parents. In this work, we were 
fortunate to have had the cooperation of doctors from the Board of 
Health, nurses from the Red Cross, and speakers from the Child 
Study Association, as well as the helpful assistance of our own 
doctors and leaders. 

THE MOTHERS' CLUBS this year are composed of 2 after- 
noon and 3 evening clubs, with an enrollment of 455 members. 
This shows an increase over last year of 2 clubs and 69 members. 
The mothers are conscientious in their attendance, and show as ever 
a tremendous interest in the educational opportunities provided by 
the Settlement. The ''Loyal Mothers Club'\ consisting of 108 
members, gave a banquet on February 4th, in celebration of their 
20th anniversary. As an expression of their appreciation, they 
presented the Settlement with two very attractive pictures. 

The three younger mothers clubs, not to be outdone by their 
seniors, held a joint birthday party on February 17th, and presented 
two candelabras to the Settlement. On both these occasions, the 
members of the Clubs spoke with deep feeling and sincerity, on 
what the Settlement has meant to them. 

THE FATHERS' CLUB, which is one of our outstanding 
activities, has increased its membership from 14 to 64. These men of 
all ages, have found club life an interesting experience. It is grati- 
fying to see these men, who seemed to have long ago forgotten how 
to play, again enter into the spirit of recreation. They take keen 
interest in the various discussions on pohtics, sex hygiene, and child 
behaviour. Recreation and holiday celebrations have been the source 
of genuine pleasure to them, and a sort of release after a day behind 
the pushcart, or at the machine. This club had its formal opening 
last November. The President recounted with gratitude and enthu- 
siasm, how through Federation Settlement, the fathers have gained 
higher ideals, a brighter outlook on Hfe and a better understanding of 
their children and their home environment. One could not listen 
to the words so sincerely spoken by these mothers and fathers, with- 
out realizing the tremendous value of the adult movement in this 
neighborhood. 

PERSONAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, under the con- 
scientious guidance of Miss Wald, stands ready at all times to give 
its valuable assistance to the neighborhood. The following statistical 
report will show in a small measure the personal assistance given by 



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this active department: Office visits and interviews, 2789; Home 
visits, 959; Visits to agencies and Institutions, 110; Convalescent 
care, 26; Referred to Doctors, Hospitals and Dispensaries, 212; 
Assisted with Citizenship, 187; Referred for employment, 246- 
Services given in court, 27; Child caring, 138; Maternity care, 28! 
In addition to these cases, 462 children and 25 mothers were pre 
vided with two weeks vacation in summer homes and camps. 

HEALTH CLINIC: The Health Qinic is doing an intensive 
piece of work in giving physical examinations to the child, which 
includes home visiting and foUowup work. During the past year, 
there were 3561 Home Visits; 629 examinations; 502 partial exam' 
mations during the summer; 53 examinations of unaffiliated chil- 
dren; 143 cases cleared and 321 moved from the neighborhood. It 
is rather interesting to note here that a number of children after 
having moved some distance away, have voluntarily returned to 
the Settlement for health examinations, thus proving that we are 
progressing toward our goal of instilling into the child health- 
mindedness. 

The Health Clinic together with the Dairymen's League, is 
makmg a very interesting experiment this year: that of teaching 
undernourished children the proper food values and the benefits of 
a well balanced diet. The children in turn, carry back into their 
homes this newly acquired knowledge, and thus awaken in the 
parents the desire to help the child regain its normal health condition. 
For this work, the Dairymen's League provides the teacher and the 
Settlement the food. At this point I wish to thank Mrs. Richard 
Rafalsky for her sincere interest, her conscientious work and the 
efficient way in which she has handled her chairmanship of The 
Health Chnic. ^ 

SABBATH SCHOOL: The Sabbath School under the 
auspices of Temple Israel, is carrying on a valuable and constructive 
piece of work. There is a membership of 230 children; an increase 
of 68 over last year. 

SECULAR AND JEWISH HOLIDAYS are celebrated accord- 
ing to the custom, and always prove happy events. This year's 
Purim Ball, Thanksgiving and Chanukah Parties, and the visit to 
the Succah at Temple Israel, were all festivities of great joy. 

ANNUAL AND OTHER AFFAIRS, which are of keen 
interest to our house members, are Field Day, Play Contests, Award 
Night, Sunday Night Basketball Games and Dances, and Senior and 
Intermediate Debates, 



THE SUMMER PLAY SCHOOL closed its fourth season in 
September, 1929 with an enrollment of 335 children and a daily 
attendance of 203. Lunch and afternoon milk were served to an 
average of 86 children every day. The purpose in serving these 
luncheons is to give all day care to children whose mothers are 
employed; to provide wholesome food for the children; to surround 
them with pleasant environment during meal time, and to teach 
proper health habits. The new feature of our 1929 Play School 
program was the homemaking in the apartment, which gave both 
boys and girls an opportunity for learning proper care of the home. 
They also learned elementary cooking and providing for a family of 
«x, which included marketing, table service and cost comparisons. 
They had actual experience in home furnishing, and in repairing 
and repainting old furniture. By inviting guests to meals and later 
entertaining them, this homemaking experience was well rounded 
out. All of the summer activities worked toward, and contributed 
something to, the final dramatic production given in the open air 
theatre at Van Cortland Park. The photographs of some of the 
scenes were featured in the New York Times and in the Playground 
magazine. The health of the children received due consideration. 
All children were examined in our health clinic, and each leader 
kept the children ever mindful of good health practices. We feel 
very strongly that the Play School program resulted, last year, as 
every other year, in a very constructive piece of work, not alone 
for the child, but also for the home and for the community. 

ADULT SUMMER ACTIVITIES: Besides the Play School 
for children, the Settlement offers summer activities for the adult 
and parent group. These include musical programs every Tuesday 
evening on the roof, dances on the roof for the Senior Boys and 
Girls, boat rides and weekly outings to nearby beaches, and the dis- 
tribution of free tickets for the Stadium Concerts. 

NEW ACTIVITES: Among the new activities this year 
there are two that are outstanding. The work done by the neigh- 
borhood teacher and by the League of American Citizenship. 

THE NEIGHBORHOOD OR ITINERANT TEACHER 
goes into the home of the non-English speaking women, who do not 
know sufficient Enghsh to enter the regular English to Foreigner 
Classes, held at Federation Settlement, or who are unable to leave 
their homes to attend these classes. The women have responded 
far beyond our expectations; 66 different individuals have been 
assisted in study groups and itinerant teaching since November, 
and 36 have entered the regular study groups. 



rf 



Because of the unusual response and appreciation of these 
foreign women, and because there is at present a waiting list for 
this service, we have made arrangements to increase this activity 
for next season. In this work, the Neighborhood Teachers Asso^ 
ciation pays half of the salary of the itinerant teacher. 

THE LEAGUE OF AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP sends to 
us every Thursday evening, one or two men, who help individuals 
who wish to become naturali2;ed. Judging by the splendid response, 
we feel that we are answering a need of the neighborhood. 

OAKHURST SUMMER HOME ended its second year of 
excellent work last September, and has now become an important 
adjunct of Federation Settlement. 

During the summer of 1929, 157 boys and girls enjoyed a two 
weeks' vacation at the Home. Of this number, 107 were children 
from our Settlement and 50 were sent to us, by outside organi2;a- 
tions. It may interest you to learn that of the 107 children of this 
Settlement, 5 paid $6.00 a week and $2.00 carfare; 15 paid $3.00 
a week and carfare, and 81 paid nothing, except their carfare. 
Outside organi2;ations paid $6.00 a week for each child they sent 
to us. The extra expense of $6.50 a week per child was taken care 
of by the Oakhurst Budget. 

Among the improvements made at Oakhurst this year, were 
the clearing up, leveling and enlarging of the Playground, the build^ 
ing of extra showers in the house, and the reconditioning of the 
garage into an extra dormitory. Through these improvements, we 
hope to accommodate more children and give more comfortable 
sleeping, playing and dining facilities to the number we have had in 
the past two seasons. Federation will again assist in financing the 
work at Oakhurst, with an allowance of $3,000.00, on the basis of 
40% of our actual experience. We are indebted to Mr. and Mrs. 
Belmont Corn for their sincere interest and conscientious super" 
vision at Oakhurst last summer, in the absence of the Chairman, 
Mrs. Lestre Moss. 

OUR BUDGET granted this year by Federation amounts to 
$42,230 gross— $39,730 net, showing an increase of $445.00 over 
last year. 

During the past year we are happy to welcome to our Board 
as a new member, Mrs. Mark Ash. 



IN SUMMING UP, I would say that Federation Settlement, 
thru its recreation, and comprehensive educational program, is con- 
tributing to the wholesome development of its members and neigh- 
borhood. But to my mind, the outstanding achievement of the past 
year has been the splendid work done in this neighborhood, with 
our mothers and fathers. There has been a tremendous increase in 
the whole adult movement around us. The type of neighborhood 
has changed materially. In place of the Russian and the Pole (who 
were rather difficult to move because they clung closely to their 
old traditions), we have an influx of Turkish, Armenians and 
Greeks. These men and women are of the younger generation, and 
are tremendously active, greatly interested in every educational op- 
portunity, and eager to improve the welfare of their children. They 
come to us absolutely ignorant of the existence of various institu" 
tions in this city, where they can receive advice on the problem of 
their health, child care, citizenship and legal aid. Our Staff and 
Social Service Department have ever before them the thought and 
the desire to adjust this foreign element to its American environ- 
ment, and I feel that thru the efforts of Federation Settlement alone, 
these alert young parents have obtained a proper perspective of 
life, a better understanding of each other, and a helpful insight into 
the lives of their children, and the betterment of their homes. Next 
year we are planning to conduct here in the settlement, an intensive 
piece of work in "Homemaking'\ and toward this end we are at 
present negotiating for the cooperation of the Board of Education. 

To Miss Dreifus, our headworker, we owe much of our prog- 
ress. With her keen insight into the needs of the neighborhood, and 
her unusual efficiency as an executive, the Settlement has grown in 
leaps and bounds. It is therefore with sincere appreciation that I 
thank Miss Dreifus, in the name of the Board of Directors for her 
untiring efforts and her conscientious devotion. 

To the members of the Staff and the Board of Directors I wish 
to extend my warm and wholehearted appreciation of their faithful 
cooperation; and particularly to the Stafl^, I want to express our deep 
gratitude for their loyalty, their earnest endeavors and their splendid 
achievements during the year 1929-1930. 

It is with deep regret, shared by all, that our President, Mrs. 
S. S. Prince, is not with us today. Behind all the splendid work 
done in Federation Settlement are her fine spirit, her splendid ex- 
ample and her sincere ambitions. 



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) 



Before closing, I wish to bring to your attention the interesting 
tact that Federation Settlement is entering into the 2yth year of 
Its existence. When one looks back upon its birth— a handful of 
unfortunates gathered together by Dr. Harris, in one room of a tene^ 
ment house, it should be a source of gratification to us to know that 
from so modest a beginning has grown this splendid institution. 

I trust that next year we may all be gathered here again to 
celebrate with fitting dignity the 25th birthday of Federation Settle^ 
ment, and to pay homage to its founder and first President Dr 
Maurice H. Harris. ' 

Respectfully submitted, 

Blanche S. Thorman, 

Acting President. 



FINANCIAL S TATEMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDING DEC. 31. 1929 

INCOME: 

Federation of Jewish Philanthropic Societies $38,169.63 

House Income from Activities ....„ _ 1,693.45 

Miscellaneous Income ^ ^ 53 j 9^ 



Total Income 



$40,445.04 



EXPENSES : 



Physical Operation — 

Janitorial Services and Equips 
ment $ 

Engine Room Wages 

Fuel _ 

Light and Power 

Household Supolies 
Repairs and Replacements, 
Buildings and Equipment- 
Laundry 



3,406.02 
1,500.00 
1,088.88 
1,103.97 
727.89 

1,940.47 
229.38 



i 



$ 9,996.61 



Administrative Expenses — 

Salaries, Officers and Clerks $ 5,839.76 

Office SuppHes 815.53 

Auditing 2 50.00 

Telephone _... 320.17 

Affiliation Dues 175.00 



7,400.46 



Institutional Operation — 

Health Clinic Salaries. $ 2,975.75 

Teachers' Salaries 11,590.29 

Professional Salaries 7,492.76 

Educational and Recreational..^ 725.71 

General Expenses 606.69 



23,391.20 

Total Expenses $40,788 .27 

Excess of Expenses Over Income Received Tear 1929 

$ 343.23 



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Green Star 

Meeting; March 6. 1940 



Instead of 3:30 the girls did not show up 
before 4 T.M. Then they came one by one^ About 
five or seven belonged together; they had met 
before at Federation Settlement, and wanted to 
form a group "the Green Star". They had not suc- 
ceeded, however, to even find out who belonged to 
the group and who did not. So, when more girls 
came into the room, expressing the desire to Join 
the group the ones already present voted - until 
finally 15 girls were accepted. 

I asked them what they wanted to have the 
club giving them, and what they had done until now. 
They did not know themselves very clearly. "Just 
meeting and talking, and Caving fun". I asked them 
what kind of things they would like to do, something 
they could not do in school or at home. Finally, the 
following suggestions were given: swimming, gym, game 
room, sewing, singing, dancing (Jitterbog, Step Dancing, 
Social Dancing), Hiking, going to the movies, circus, 
visiting of a broadcasting station, roller skating, 
dramatics. The buying of Jackets (club Jackets) was 
discussed in detail, and one of the girls will find 
out about prices until next Wednesday. 

A president and a treasurer were elected. 
A due of 5j^ per week was set. I suggested that those 



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l.-\4Si«f^ 




who are not able to pay 5^ should still be accepted; 
after a long discussion It was agreed that three girls 
were allowed to Join although they can not pay. Al- 
though I tried not to mention the names of these girls 
(I had noted before the others did who could not pay) 
the names of these girls were mentioned, and the fact 
that one could not have too many of such members. Then 
some of the girls stated it was mean to point at the 
ones who can not pay, and it was suggested that the 
ones who had difficulties should bring one cent or 
two whenever they could. 

For the next J^X0 meeting swimming was suggested, 
and I promised to find out whether we can get the pool 
at the "eck'scher or at the ^.W.H.A. ^ shall let the 
Dresident know whether it will be possible. Otherwise 



w 



e shall plan something else. 



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Mje^ 



CHILD 31TIDY ASSOCIATION OF AtiEaiCA 
^ 281 West 57 Street - Hf'W York City 



SIMER PLA y SCIIOOI^ COIv lIJI TIEE 



1937 



BIBLIOGMPHY 

Prepared by Clara Lambert 
Associate in Teacher Education 



This bibliogrcfphy is not to be top*ed in whole or in part 
without special permission of the Child Study Association 
of America, 221 West 57 Street, Now Yoric City. 

The titles have been arraBced with particular programs in 
mind. A number of the books on this list were discussed 
during the meetings held in ihe spring, and wore projected 
in hypothetical progress to erfcend content, heighten drama- 
tic interest, or for diecr fun and relaxation, Tliey repre- 
sent a sarrpling only from the field of jiivenilc literature, 
and demonstrate the existence of mi extensive library of 
books that toucii the interest of cliildren at aljnost every 
point • 



y 



CHILD STUDY ASSOCI.ynON OF JUGiU'iA 
221 West 57 Street - Nov,- Yorl-: Cl';y 



'SJT.lHIl PLAY SaiOOLS, 19 J? 
Bi.bii&ernphy 



I N D 3 K 



BOOKS ABOUT JjIANH^CTTAN 

Hrrbor 

rood 

HounGG 

Trains 

Storioo 



Po.go 
. 1 



scizajcE 



• 4 



EXPLOHATION MID .IIVSNTURE 



• 5 



PHOTOGRiffHT . 



UNITED STiiTSS 



STORIES 0? 'HE SSA 



• 8 



HUIiaOR 



8 



ANIMAL STORES 



. 9 



roREiw aiiLmsN 



, 10 



MAGAZIllES 



. 10 



POPULAR SONGS 



• 11 



CHILD STUDY AS30CIATI01T OF Al^tEHICA 
221 West 57th Street, New YorlCtll.Y. 



SUlv'EIER PLAY SCHOOLS, 1937 
Bibliocraphy - P« 1 



BOOKS ABOUT I.IMHATTAN 

For younger children: 



STIltCi^TS 

BOATS AMD BRIDGES 

TRAINS 

Edited by Lucy Sprague Mitcliell John Day Conipany 

(Package of photographs - 20(,' ~ ponrphlats - 20^1 ) 

These painphlets^ are directed toward the young child and have much 

material that coincides with the first hand experience that we hope 

the schools are giving the children. 

BOATS 

TRAINS 

AIRPLANES 

TU&BOAT ALONG THE BUSY RIVJK 

Ov/NEY THE POSTAL DOG 

THE STORY OF MILIC 

FIREl FIREI 

THE FIREBOAT 

BINiaE AIvID TliE FIRE1\ISN 

Prepared by staff of Lincoln School 

(Picture Script Books) 
These are short booklets that are meant to be read by the young 

child. 



Grosset & Dunlap 



TO THE CITY ., .^4 -.^ 

By Joh:i Y, Beat-*iy Saalf ield 

Beautiful ph.-^-'^ojre.jhG with narrative comment about the everyday 
things of city l3fee 



I LIVE IN A CITY 

By James S. Tippctt 
Short verses about life in tbe city. 



DIGGERS AND BUILDERS: 



By Henry 3. Lent 



Steam Shovel Ilan 
Sam, the Cer:.ent Ilixer • 
Dan, tna Derrick Ilan 
Joe, the Steel V/orker 
Billf the Truck Driver 



Harper 



Macmillan 



CLEAR TRACi: AHEAD 

By Henry B. Lent 
A story about trains in all their detail. 



Macmillan 
Fine book. 



FULL STEAvl AHEAD 

By Henry B. Lent 
Six days on an Ocean Liner. 
other parts of boat. 



Engine rooms and bridge as well a-^ 



CHILD STUDY ASSOCIATION OF AicEIOA 
221 Vfest 57th Street, Nev Yorlc.ir.Y. 



SUiC-ilR PLAY S?HCO:,L. 1937 
Bibliography - P. 2. 



I 



potj i^S ABQTIT AlftJfflATTAtT (continued) 
yor youq p ;er cshildren ? 

TWBOAT Maoinillan ' 

The'Lwr^d';hyrof a tugboat's wor^ for the fact loving child, 



TJIDE ROAD AHEAD: The Building of an Automobile 

By Henry B. Lent 
All the details frm bolts to finished product. 

POLICE 

By John J. Ploherty 
Picture book of all the duties of a policeman. 



IJIaoraillan 



Doubleday Doran 



r py older f?hildren: 

''ZlZ7tZ^T..Cll . Olara Libert Ma-llan 

ft SontaiS stories atout the toldce.. the >^l-^ts. the ""^"- ^J',^, 

L^rthe h^sa .oat ^-"-=- *f i-::U.!%h 'r •.^t:rrai'r" 
telephone, water, gas, electricity and st©ara. ^"»\ -iveters 

the "or^ngaspeots 0, the^lty as we -^ "^ J^' :,;,'„rrth; 

'a^Ld 1830. .he ^Jf ^ ==f/- ^= S^^S'SaflSe^'a^e"™^.^ 
Indian period; the finale is the geologic era. ^^^^ throush 

iDhotogranohs aAd a number of fine maps. Recomended for f ^^^^^^ 
pnoi/ogruijuD ail „■u^^J> ,„^n have to have stories read to him and 

all ages. The younG child will nave to uavc 

the older can read them for himself. 

OLD mi YOBi: FOR YOOTG H3\< YORIffiRS r^tttm 

By Caroline D. Emerson ^J +4«v, o-p +hft evo- 

This history bool: is an excellent dramatic presentation of *he evo- 
lution Of TlLhaUan from a farm district to a port and metropolis. 
■' ihe w^f ^fdtff'ulties are well interpreted and the material may 
well be the basis for dramatisation. 



THE lEYS TO TIIE CIW scribners 

A nSraSvf :bo;tTai^attan with lots of fun in it and sor^ in- 

formation. 



It 



CHILD 3TTOY AS30GUTI01T OF iJlEHJCA 
221 West 57th Street, ITew York,II,Y. 



SUI/E/HiJI play SCK00I3, 1957 
Bil)liosraphy - Pn3, 



B OOSB ABOUT I.IAITIIATTAN (oontinued) 
For younger children : 

SKYSCRAPER Soribners 

By Lucy Sprague Mitchell, Elsa Nauraburg & Clara Lambert 
The building of the Eiiipire State in pictures, verse and exposition. 
Extraordinary photographs by Lewis Hine. 



METROPOLIS 

By Frederick Lewis Allen & Agries Rogers Harpers 

A picture history of the city including housing, transportation, 
anuseraents, and woi^^i. The triunph of modern steel, the tragedy of 
waste, squalor and luxury - depicted here in dramatic and poignant 
photographs • 



GUARDS2.IEN OF TEI COAST 

By John J* Floherty Doubleday 

A thrilling aud dranatic account of the experiences of 'the United 
States Coast Guai'd in their police and rescue worli. 

MOVIEMAKERS 

By Joto J. Floherty Doubleday 

A timej.y description of a movie lot and the units that go into the 
raalcing of a picture. 

BEHIIID TK5 SHO\' "./INDO'; 

By Jeejinetoe Eaton Hare our t 

The busincfss jf pupplylng the essentials of living described in an 
interestin^:, a:m val^iable 'bocli which eLiphaaiitot^ tha economic forces 
in mod't^rn r^oci'.ety from the censamev's pc.int of vie-vy. Good for a 
follow-up on visits to mai'hets and stores. 

MEN AT WORK 

By Lewis Hine Macmillan 

A graphic and dramatic account in striking photographs of men at work 
on machines in the modem v/orld of steel. 

HEROES AID KA-AP^DS 

By Margaret IT orris Macmillan 

Stories of man v/ho make our modern v/orld safe; riveters, chief of 
the fire department, pilots, sand hogs, divei^. Good for program on 
the Harbor. 

ICATRINA VAN OST AJD THE SILVER ROSE 

By Elizabeth Gale Putnam 

A story of a Dutch girl in Nov/ Amsterdam v/ith authentic historic back- 
ground and realistic descriptions of life among Manhattan's early 
settlers. 



CHILD STUDY AS 300 1 AT 1 01! OF AIOiiiUCA 
221 West 57th St. New Yorlc, i^. Y# 



SUl.II.iim PLAY SCHuOLbi 1937 
Bil^liography - P.4: 



SCIEFOa 



For Younger Ohildren : 

OKE HUiraRliiD TH0U3MD \mS 

By I. Ilin Lippincott 

A general soience book explaining things used in the home. A good 
book to use for groups working out a program around the home. 



For Older Ohildren : 

FHESII AND BRim 

By Pranoes Rogers £c Alioe Beard Stokes 

A ooniprehensive and vivid tale of water as friend and foe of mankind. 
The benefits it oonfere; the problems it oreates tnd the history it 
has made. Excellent for study in connection v/ith the waterfront. 

THE STORY OF EiRTH AND SI{Y 

By Oarleton & Heluiz Washbume in collaboration with Frederick Beed 

Century 

Astronomy, geology and" oceanography. 



THE EARTH FOR SM 

By y. IJaxwell Reed 
Geology and evolution. 



Hare curt 



TIffiOUGH THL T.i.ESCaPE 

By Edward Arthur Path \71iittlesey House 

An admirably clear and readable introduotion to the science of 
astronomy in a highly inviting fomiat. 



TUEI^TING rTIGHT Il^TTO DAY 

By M. Ilin Lippincott 

The story of lifting from man's first atteuipts to his modem achieve- 
ments vdth ele?-l;rioity. 



MEN Airo MOWTT.'JT^TS 

By li. Ilin Lippincott 

How man the scientist reclaims deserts, transf oiitis plant life, alters 
sea levels, influences weather - all told with dramatic vividness by 
the author of New itussia's primer. 



CHILD S'3JDY ASL^OCIATIOK OF AllilBICA 
221 West 57th Street, New Yoric.N.Y. 



SUIEffiR PLAY SCHOOL", 
Bi"blioferai3hy - ?.5 



1937 



For Younger children ; 



DICK MD THE SPICE CUPBOARD • n „„n 

Bv Luoile Saunders McDonald urowix 

Through the fanciful adventures of a young boy we loam the sources 
of spfoes and their far flung influence on the history of explor- 
ation. Good for those doing the present and the far-away places. 

THIS CONQUIi'.ST OP Tiff ATLAWTIC 

Rv Inari and Edrar Parin d'Aulaire VlKing 

A i pre e'ing vith vivid truth and fine }'^^'^^ ^^^^ 'Xl^^ZT 
of the Atlantic from Vilcings to aviators. Excellent text for thoso 

leaving the present. 



For Older Childron t 

mmOLLIlTG THE MAP 

By Leonard Outhwaite ^^^ t, r +« 

• All the Great Adventurers by Land and Sea from Hannu, 2750 B.C. to 
Piccard 1935. For the children who are reedy to leave the immediate 
«he?S;o go exploring in the past. 56 maps and ship drci^ings by 
Gordon Grant. 



^"^f wnifi^Stephon Grooch Lon^ans Green 

Twentieth Century pioneering told by a trailblazer. An unusual 
story about the building of air bases for the China Clipper. 



SCOUT TO EXPIjQRER 

ByPaulSiple .^*'''^... .. 

An enthusiastic personal account of Byrd's second erpedition to 
Little America by -he man who was the young "Sea Scout" of the 
first oxpodition. 



•JRiittlcsey 



ma WAYS :n pkoto^rapht 

By Jacob DaSviiin ,. 

Many delightful tuid detailed suggestions for developing a rewarding 

hobby. 



A well-organized reference book on all phases of photography from 
which more then a casual hobby cen be developed. These two books 
would be useful for groups who intend to use photography as part 
of their programs 



' CHILD STUDY y,i3S0CIAT10N OF A:.LSI0A 
221 West 57th Stroot, Ne\.- Yorlc City 



SUIElin PI AY SOHOOLb, 193V 
Bibliography, P» 6 



miTSD STATES 



For Yoimgor Chilciron ; 

THESE XmiTET) STATES /JID HOVi IT CAME TO BE 

By Gertrudo Hartraan Macnillon 

An excellent riotailod acoount of life, and politics v;ith profuse 
illustrations. For the teacher aliout to tolcc her nine -year -olds or 
older away from the icmodiatc environment to the far-away places. 

LITTLE HOUSE IN TUxi BIG •.iOODS 

By Laura Ingalls •..'illor Harper . 

The author tells a refreshingly olive story of her o\Tn childhood on 
the edge of the Viisconsin -jildarnoss. The stiirdy choor of pioneer 
days, and the homely clotail'J of family life will delight the child 

of today. 

FiJaCER BOY 

By Laura Ingnlls "Wilder Harper 

Intimate end homely incidents of a family's life on a Now York farm 
siKty years ago, told with a vividness nmd personal touch that will 
appeal to the nine-year-old of today. 

THE TBE^'^URE III THE LITTLE TRUKK 

By Helen Pallor Orton Gtoltes 

Pioneer life in 1823 when Uostem Nev/ York vfas the frontier, 

0L» PAUL, TIL. IIIGHTY LOGGER 

By Glen Hounds Holiday House 

Tall tales about the legendary Paul Bunyan v/hich will delight even 
the most serious minded child. 

For Older Chil'iren; 

YiE THE PEOPLE 

By Leo Hubernan Kcixpers 

Social ecanor.ic history of the United States. Illustrated by fen 
Benton with graphic pictures and v-iaps. The history is like a story 
and has much that leads into pris^nt-day living. 

MISSISSIPPI RITj'H boy 

By Edwin L. Sab in Lippincott 

Pioneer days on the Ohio and Mississippi live again in the thrilling 
advunturos of Tony Leo, river -./aif. 

BOY on HORSEBACK 

By Lincoln Steffens Harcourt Brace 

Taken from the first quarter of his "Autobiography" this story of the 
author's boyhood dopiots life as it was lived in the early days in 
California. 



».»- 



CHILD STUDY ASSOCIATION OF /iffiKICA 
221 v;G3t 57th Street, New York City 



SUICIEE PLAY SCHOOLS, 1937 
Bitlicgraphy, P. 7 



JHITED STaT2S (continued) 

For Older Children ! 

RANCHING ON EAGLE EYE 

By Sarah Lindsay Sohnidt ITcBrido 

An oxoiting story of the new Vifost in which cooperative cattle norket** 
ing is organized Respite the scheming opposition of selfish interests. 

ON THE GOLDM TPJJL 

By Hildogarde Ha'^rbhorno Loncnans Green 

A thrilling story of tho gold rush, authentically told. Fine color. 

HOOP BE. ITS OF FREEDOII 

By Helen Fuller Orton Stokos 

The life of 1776 in and atout Hanhattan woll pictured in a slightly 
roso-huod story of the Revolution, with a patriotic boy hero# 

MCALLISTER PATROL 

By Noma Bicloiell Mansfield Farrar & Rinehart 

Lee, tho daughter of a p.-irk ranger, helps to solve a nystery, dis- 
playing intelligence and courage^ An absorbing story with good 
western wilderness atmosphere. 

For All Age Children! 

THE BUILDING OF iiJl/ERICA 

By Harold Rugg & Louisa Krueger Ginn & Co. 

Illustrated Studies of Modern Problens - housing, food, man and ma- 
chines, transportation, health, communication, po-./er, recreation. 
This material is in pictorial, statistical form and is good source 
material. It should be followed by story material which dovetails 
with it. 






THEIR NORTH /JdlICA 

By Lucy Sprague Mitchell 
Stories and facts well interlaced 

TiiLKING WIRES 

By Clara Lambert 



Macmillon 
full of drornrLtic possibilities. 



laomillan 



Stories ^t America through the medium of communication. Flood, dust, 
foresters, fisherman, formers, earthquake, etc. 

CADDIE JOODLA-YN 

By Carol Ryrie Brink Macnillen 

In Civil Uar days VJisconsin was on the frontier end this lively 
story of homesteadmg is built out of tho reminiscences of the 
author's gr^uidmother. 



CHILD STUPY^A33QCIATI0IT OF AliliRlCA 
<i2r wGSt 61 th Stroott ITow York City 



Smftffin PLAY SCHOOLS, 19;:;7 
Bibliography, P# 8 



STQIdSS Qy THIj: sej, 

For Young Chi 1 iron : 

THE SAUCY BiCTSY 

By EthGl Calvort Phillips Hou'^hton 'lifflin 

The spirit of the nr.ino Coast in a story of a How York ohilcl who visits 
hor Nov; England rolative^ on '. licht-hcuso island. 

For Older Children : 

HUHiiiCijrii] ■..i:ath--^-H 

By Hov;ard Poaso Doublciday Doron 

A vigorous tolo of high adventure. Portrays tv;o v/hito "boys anong 
desperate non on a snioll trading?; sohoon':.r in the South Seas# 

r.iEMY Y3AR3 UITDEIl THti: SE^ 

By J. E. \;illianson Halo,Ctiahtinn A^:Plint 

Adventures in deep soa diving cjid gliriipsos of the nystorious life on 
the ocean floor. Illustrated with fifty-four under sea photographs* 

HiJlD ALEE I 

By Nora Denjanin Random House 

A lively tale of a oruiso -jith a group of jolly young navigators 
f€a:iiliar >;ith sail boats and Y.lth the Nov; Engl an 1 v^aters. Pine 
illustrations* 

SHIP'S PARHOT 

By Honore rlorrow and \;i:i. J. Swartnan Morrow 

A well-yritten advcnturu story in vMch David, a cabin boy, and Robert 
his renarkablo parrot, rescue a little /jnoricon girl fron a palace on 
the Bosporus. Illustrat-»d by Gordon Grant. 



HtMJBL 



FQr the Younrer Children : 

POGO, THE CIRCUS HORSE 

By Josef Bergor McCann 

A circus horse, the :iind with hunon legs, is cast av/ay and ro-aninatod 
"by two traiTips who lead him into endless scrapes. An original end 
hiloTious story. 

THE STORY OF FjiuIBIN.UTD 

By Hunro Leaf Viking 

The humorous story of a Spanish bull who didn't want to fight. 
IllustratfiKi by Robert Lav/son. 



CHILD STUDY ASSOCIATION OP .•JIKlICA 
221 west 57th Street, lTc\; York City 

HDMOn (oontinued) 



SaiZ.l'ER PL/iY SCHOOLS, 1937 
Dibli ots'raphy, P. 9 



For All Age Chillren : 

J;IAHY POPPIITS 

By P» L. Tr avers Reyiial 

A really funny story for all aces. It is rare that hunor, whimsy and 
nonsense ooinhine into such a delichtful "real story. '• 

For Older Children! 

FATHER'S BIG II.IPBOVEI.IEITOS 

By Caroline D. Emerson Stokos 

A father of the 1890* s with on incurable zest for trying no\T things 
introduoas his family to all the modern oonvenienoes. at times with 
ai:ausing results. 



For Younger Childr en t 

SPUNKY ^^ .._ 

By Berta and Elmer Hadcr llacmilian 

Spunky. A Shetland Pony, works in a coal mine, travels hy rail and 
ship, is trained for a circus, plays vaeabond with a peddler, gives 
rides to Cxhildren in the park cjid finally comes back to his beloved 
master in this happy story. 

KI^OO TIffi K;iTGAROO 

By Kurt \/iese Coward 

A delightful tale about a baby kengaroo and its life. Gentle and 
appealing and v/ell illustrated. 

ROM, THE LI003E 

By Phil Stong ^^^^ 

A big moose in Minnesota wonders into town to the amusement and 

embarrassment of two boys. 
For Older Children ; 

SMOKY, THE CO\rJOIlSE 

By ^:iill Jamus Soribnors 

A story of a young colt whose life brings him into contact with a 
lovable cCT/hand, Clint, and whose further adventures bring him sorrow 
and unhappinoss at the hands of a half breed. The final episodes in 
Smoky* s life are with his first and only master. Excellent for color 
and fool of the west, 

Bii^ffil: THE STORY OF A DEEl^ 

By Felix Salten Simon 

One of the loveliest as well as saddest animal stories bitten. The 
beauty and drama of the narrative make a wide appeal to children 
over eight - when read aloud particul-rly* 



• • 



CHILD STUDY ASSOCIATION OF MlJIIOA 
821 West 57 Street, New Yoric , N. 1\ 



BiMirgrnpIi^r - T. 10 



j;57 



FOIEIGN CHILDRa^ 



For Older Children 

TWO CHILDREN OF TYHE 

By Louise Andrews Kent Houg-iton 

A well suatainod story of how thirteen-yoar-old David, son 
of the Captain of the Fleet of King Hiram of Tyre, outwitted 
the crafty Sidoniano ^o took possession of the Ellssa on a 
voyage to Tarshish. 



YOUNG FU OF THE UPPER YAl^GTZE 

By Elizabeth Foreman Low is Winston 

An extrr. ordinarily fine hook. Youne Fu, a country boy, 
apprenticed to the master coopersmith, meets xdth many 
realistic adventures. A vivid picture of modem China. 



ON THE RSINDEEH TRAIL 

By Thames Williamson Mifflin 

A winter of extraordinary adventure experienced by two boys In 
chcrgc of a loindoer herd in Alaska. 



THE COUSIN FROM CLARE 

By Rose McLoughlin Sackett MacMillan 

A readable and romantic talfe of two girls and on innocent political 
prisoner tald against a colorful background of the Irish country- 
side as it was not so long. ago. 



THE GOOD l^IASTER 

By Kate Serody Viking 

Kr\te goes to li"wc with her boy cousin on a Hungarian ranch where 
she is grcidually "gcaatled.^ An entertaining story steeped in 
tho atmosphere of the land. 



MAGAZINES 



In circulation through the Child Study Association are a few copies of: 

FORTUNE 

LIFE 

NATURAL HISTORY 



f :• 



CHILD STUDY i^SOClATION OF AKffilCA 
.221 West 57 Street, New Yoik , N,Y. 



SUMtlSR PLAY SaiOOLS, 1937 
Bibliocp?aphy - ?• 11 



Booklets and peonphlets ai^ obtaimblB from: 

CONSOLIDATED EDISON COMPAITY - 4 Irving Place, New York City 
PORT OF NSW YORK AUTHORITY - Eighth Avcnuo and 15 Street , Now York Oily 
DEPARIMENT OF DOCKS - Municipal Building, Nev; York City 
BOARD OF TRAITSPORTATION - 250 Hudton Street , New York City 
JDVZNILE AID BUREAU, POLICE DEPARTMENT - Old Slip and Front Street, 

New York City 

A^ERICAN I.iTJS"::UvI OF SAFHTY - 116 East 19 Street , New Yoik City 
INTOURIST - 545 Fifth Avenue, Now York City 

ITiaiAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY^- Palazzo d«Italia, 626 Fifth Avenue, N.Y.C. 
CHAMBER OF COl^lMSRCE - 65 Liberty Street , Ner; York City 



SOHGS 



■ ■ ^ -r* ' 



For All Age Groip s 

STEPHSN FOSTER SONGS 

Ci^L SANDBURG ^S A1'.1ERICAN SONG BAG 

POPULAR SONGS:- Little 01^ Lady / / / 

- Or^da Gr^d/^r^a Swing / 

- Sii^ B^by/ Sing / / / / - 

- ;^o^g 9*1: Pl/e Vi^Gabondt3 ' / / ; 
Wit Oil Th^ Tlyins Tr^.pe^Q 

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Federation Settlement 

Purpose* Changed since It's foundation In 1906. 
Originally it was recreation center because of lack of 
facilities for safe and supervised play for children after 
schools* Later, sport activities were initiated; boys ' 
and girls * clubs encouraged; the spirit of cooperative play 
encouraged by teams* Group and community consciousness 
as well as Americans im;i was more and more focused by bringing 
together different racial groups. The needs of the community 
outgrew the original one for mere protection for children from 
dangerous. The Importance of pre-school guidance was realized, 
the educational and recreational needs of the children of two 
and three years of age; so, kindergartens were Instituted. 
Then, mothers ' and fathers * clubs were organized where educational 
problems were discussed. Summer Play school is attended 
five days a week from nine to four-thirty; 1 ibrary . ^ymnas ium , 
rood /z;arden are used. The settlement emphasis the development 
of child's creative abilities. A weekly assembly serves to 
intereaction aioong the dozens of clus; the pepresentatives 
tell of their activities and discuss their problems. Summer Camp 
at Oakhurst, N.J* is maihtained by Federation Settlement; brou#s 
of forty children spend two weeks vacation there. Marionette 
group has won the Civitan Club Prize. Social Service Department ' s 
was stimulated during the depression (hospitalization, convalescent 
care, maternity aid, relief} home visits, heilth welfare, family 
welfare, intermediaries between families and doctors, hospitals, 
courts, child caring institutions)* Art and Craft classes are 



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taught maliily by W.P.A, teachers. Health clinic, specializes 
in malnutrition cases, dental needs, mental hygiene. 

Physical and social activities are arranged to meed the 
requirements of the different age groups: Juniors, inter- 
mediate, senior. The council represents the various clubs, and 
the problesm discussed here are brought before the Hous e Council 

Dancing and social dancing is taught.* Seniors hold 
weekly discussions, and have lectures by outsiders. Theatrical 
grouphas been quite successful. 



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' GIZilGiC TII03E IV WIO:: YOU ?;i^.TICI?ATIi:D: 



Activity fjroups - a leader i n clia rQe 

Crafts 

Shop 

Clay 

Art 

Photography 

Journalism 



Arijiraal Events: 



ClMb Suppers ( boys and girls ) 
Int. Play Contest 
Honor ITight 
Pi old Day 

Gim Tourn.xnonts ( Basketball, 
I^ncball, etc. ) 



Music 



Dramatics 



Tap Dancing 
Social Dancing 



Social Problems 



Social Rooms - Int. 



or 



Roc&r Activities ( summer ) 



Camec Rooms 



Socials 



Parties 



Club Dancffis 



Sunday llight Social Dances 
Inforiaal Vocational G-ui dance 
Social Service Department 
Yearly Health Examinations 



Gym - boys .^ 

Gym - feirls 

Swiirming - girls 

House Council - Int.Sr. Upper Jr. 

Clubs ( club leader in charge ) 






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AR 7202 

Filene, Dorothy 
Dorothy Filene Collection 



LEO BAECK INSTITUTE 
Center for Jewish History 

15 West 16th Street 
NewYork. NY 10011 

Phone:(212)744-6400 

Fax:(212)988-1305 

Email: lbaeck@lbl.cjh.org 

URL: http://www.lbi.org 



Date: 7/29/2009 



Sys#: 000198663 



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Filene, Dorothy 

Dorothy Filene Collection 



LEO BAECK INSTITUTE 
Center for Jewish History 

15 West 16th Street 
New York, NY 10011 

Phone: (212) 744-6400 

Fax: (212)988-1305 

Email: lbaeck@lbi.cjh.org 

URL: http://www.lbi.org 



Date: 7/29/2009 



Sys#: 000198663 



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