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Full text of "Doublets, a word-puzzle, by Lewis Carroll"

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5>0l :S 


A WOR^-'TUZZI^K 


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DOU BLETS 



A WORD-PUZZLE 



BY 



LEWIS CARROLL 



"Double, double, 
Toll and trouble." 




Sontron: 



MACMILLAN AND CO 



1879 



PniOE TWO 8EILLIKGB 




Jnsitrfljfli 



to 



3ulia anil etftel 



8 



PEEFACE. 



On the 29tli of Marcli, 1879, the following^ article appeared in 
" Vanity Fair : "— 

A NEW PUZZLE. 

The readers of Vanity Fair have duringr the laat ten years shown so 
much interest in the Acrostics and Hard Cases which were first made 
the object of sustained competition for prizes in this jonrnal, that it has 
been song^ht to invent for them an entirely new kind of Pozzle, such as 
wonld interest them eqnally with those that have already been so suc- 
cessful. The subjoined letter from Mr. Lewis Carroll will explain itself, 
and will introduce a Puzzle so entirely novel and withal so interesting, 
that the transmutation of the original into the final word of the Dou- 
blets may be expected to become an occupation to the full as amusing 
as the guessing of the Double Acrostics has already proved. 

Li order to enable readers to become acquainted with the xfbw Puzzle, 
preliminary Doublets will be given during the next three weeks — that 
is to say, in the present number of Vam,ity Fa/ir and in those of the 5th 
and 12th April. A competition will then be opened — beginning with the 
Doublets published on the 19th April, and including all those published 
subsequently up to and including the number of the 26th July— for three 
prizes, consisting respectively of a Proof Album for the first and of Or- 
dinary Albums for the second and third prizes. 

The rule of scoring will be as follows : — ^A number of marks will be 

apportioned to each Doublet equal to the number of letters in the two 

A2 



4 PEEPAOB. 

words given. For example, in the instance griven below of " Head " and 
" Tail," the number of possible marks to be gained would be eight ; and 
this maximum will be gained by each one of those who make the chain 
with the least possible number of changes. If it be assumed that in this 
instance the chain cannot be completed with less than the four links 
given, then those who complete it with four links only will receive eight 
marks, while a mark will be deducted for every extra link used beyond 
four. Any competitor, therefore, using five links would score seven 
marks, any competitor using eight links would score four, and any using 
twelve links or more would score nothing. The marks gained by each 
competitor will be published each week. 



,DEAB VANITY, — ^Just a year ago last Christmas, two young ladies 
— smarting under that sorest scourge of feminine hupianity, the having 
'' nothing to do "^besought me to send them "some riddles." But 
riddles I had none at hand, and therefore set myself to devise some 
other form of verbal torture which should serve the same purpose. The 
result of my meditations was a new kind of Puzzle — ^new at least to me 
— ^which, now that it has been fairly tested by a year's experience and 
commended by many friends, I ofPer to you, as a newly-gathered nut, 
to be cracked by the omnivorous teeth which have already masticated 
so many of your Double Acrostics. 

The rules of the Puzzle are simple enough. Two words are proposed, 
of the same length ; and the Puzzle consists in Hnking these together 
by interposing other words, each of which shall differ from the next 
word in one letter only. That is to say, one letter may be changed in 
one of the given words, then one letter in the word so obtained, and 
so on, till we arrive at the other given word. The letters must not be 
interchanged among themselves, but each must keep to its own place. 
As an example, the word "head" may be changed into "tail" by 
Wterposing the words " heal, teal, tell, tall." I call the two given words 



PEEPACE. 






a Doublet," the interposed words *' Links," and the entire series 
a Chain," of which I here append an example : — 

HEAD 
heal 
teal 
tell 
tall 
TAIL 

It is, perhaps, needless to state that it is de rigueur that the links 
should be English words, such as might be nsed in good society. 

The easiest " Doublets " are those in which the consonants in one 
word answer to consonants in the other, and the vowels to vowels ; 
"head" and "tail" constitute a Doublet of this kind. Where this is 
not the case, as in "head" and "hare," the first thing to be done is 
to transform one member of the Doublet into a word whose consonants 
and vowels shall answer to those in the other member {e.g,, "head, 
herd, here "), after which there is seldom much difficulty in completing 
the " Chain." 

I am told that there is an American game involving a similar prin- 
ciple. I have never seen it, and can only say of its inventors, "^perecmt 
qui cmte nos nostra Mxerv/at ! " 

Lewis Cabboll. 



EULES. 



1, The words given to be linked together constitute a " Doublet ; " 
the interposed words are the " Links ; " and the entire series a " Chain." 
The object is to complete the Chain with the least possible number of 
Links. 

2. Each word in the Chain must be formed from the preceding word 
by changing one letter in it, and one only. The substituted letter must 
occupy the same place, in the word so formed, which the discarded 
letter occupied in the preceding word, and all the other letters must 
retain their places. 

8. When three or more words are given to be made into a Chain, 
the first and last constitute the "Doublet." The others are called 
" Set Links," and must be introduced into the Chain in the order in 
which they are given. A Chain of this kind must not contain any word 
twice over. 

4. No word is admissible as a Link unless it (or, if it be an inflection, 
a word from which it comes) is to be found in the following Glossary. 
Comparatives and superlatives of adjectives and adverbs, when regu- 
larly formed, are regarded as * inflections ' of the positive form, and are 
not given separately : e.g. the word * new ' being given, it is to be un- 
derstood that 'newer' and 'newest' are also admissible. But nouns 
formed from verbs (as ' reader ' from ' read ') are not so regarded, and 
may not be used as Links unless they are to be found in the Glossary. 



METHOD OP SCOEING, &c. 

ADOPTED IN "VANITY FAIR." 



1. The marks assigned to each Doublet are as follows:— If it be 
giveii without any Set links, so many marks are assigned to it as there 
are letters in the two words together (e.^., a fonr-letter Doublet would 
have eight marks assigned to it). If it be given with Set Links, so that 
the Chain is made up of two or more portions, so many marks are 
assigned to it as would have been assigned if each portion had been 
a separate Chain (e.gr., a four-letter Doublet which has two Set Links, 
so that the Chain is made up of three portions, would have twenty-four 
marks assigned to it). 

2. Each competitor, who completes the Chain with the least possible 
number of Links, will receive the full numbeit of marks assigned ; and 
each who uses more than the least possible number of Links will lose 
a mark for every additional Link. 

3. Each competitor is required to send his three Chains, with his 
signature attached, written on one piece of paper. 

4. The Editor of * Vanity Fair ' will be glad to receive any suggestions, 
both as to words which it seems desirable to omit, and as to omitted 
words which it seems desirable to insert : but any word proposed for 
insertion or for omission should be exhibited as a Link between two 
other words, 

6. Alterations will not be made in this Glossary during any competition, 
but will be duly announced before the commencement of a new com- 
petition, so that those who already possess copies will be able to correct 

them, and will not be obliged to buy a new edition. 



cc 



Vanity Fair" Office, 
18, Tavistock Shreet, 

Covent Garden, 
London. 



8 



DOUBLETS ALEEADY SET 

IN "VANITY FAIR." 



March 29.— Drive PIG into STY. 

Raise FOUR to FIVE. 

Make WHEAT into BREAD, 
i April 5.— Dip PEN into INK. 

Touch CHIN with NOSE. 

Change TEARS into SMILE. 
April 12.— Change WET to DRY. 

Make HARE into SOUP. 

PITCH TENTS. 

ApHl 19.— Cover EYE with LID. 

Prove PITY to be GOOD. 
STEAL COINS. 

April 26.— Make EEL into PIE. 

Turn POOR into RICH. 

Prove RAVEN to be MISER 
May 3.-<aiange OAT to RYE. 

Get WOOD from TREE. 

Prove GRASS to be GREEN, 
May 10.— Evolve MAN from APE. 

Change CAIN into ABEL. 

Make FLOUR into BREAD. 



DOUBLETS ALBEADY SET. 9 

May 17.— Make TEA HOT. 

Run COMB into HAIR. 

Prove a ROGUE to be a BEAST. 

May 24,— Change ELM into OAK. 

Combine ARMY and NAVY. 
Place BEANS on SHELF. 

May 31.— HOOK FISH. 

QUELL a BRAVO. 

Stow FURIES in BARREL. 

June 7.— BUY an ASS. 

Get COAL from MINE. * 
Pay COSTS in PENCE. 

June 14.— Raise ONE to TWO. 

Change BLUE to PINK. 
Change BLACK to WHITE. 

June 21.— Change FISH to BIRD. 
Sell SHOES for CRUST. 
Make KETTLE HOLDER. 

N.6. Solutions of these Doublets will be found at p, 38. 



10 



PEEFACE TO GLOSSARY. 



The following Glossary is intended to contain all well-known Engrlish 
words (or, if they are inflections, words from which they come) of 3, 4, 5, 
or 6 letters each, which may be used in good Society, and which can 
serve as links. It is not intended to be nsed as a source from which 
words may be obtained, but only as a test of their being admissible. 

That snch a Glossary is needed may best be proved by quoting the 
following passage from ' Vanity Fair ' of May 17, 1879, premising that 
all the strange words, here used, had actually occurred in Chains sent in 
by competitors : — 

" Chokeb humbly presents his compliments to the four thousand 
three hundred and seventeen (or thereabouts) indignant Doubleteers 
who have so strongly shent him, and pre to being stoaked in the spate 
of their wrath, asks for a fiver of minutes for reflection. Choker is in 
a state of complete pye. He feels that there must be a stent to the 
admission of spick words. He is quite unable to sweal the chaffy spelt, 
to sile the pory cole, or to swill a spate from a piny ait to the song of 
the spink. Frils and the mystic Gole are strangers in his sheal : the 
chanceful Qord hath never brought him gold, nor ever did a cate 
become his ain. The Doubleteers will no doubt spank him sore, with 
slick quotations and wild words of yore, will pour upon his head whole 
stores of steens and poods of spiles points downwards. But he trusts 
hat those alone who habitually use such words as these in Good Society, 



PREFACE TO GLOSSABY. U 

and whose discourse is xmiyersally there miderstood, will be the first 
to cast a stean at him." 

As the chief object aimed at has been to fnmish a pnzzle which shall 
be an amusing mental occupation at all times, whether a dictionary 
is at hand or not, it has been sought to include in this Glossary only 
such words as most educated people carry in their memories. If any 
doubt should arise as to whether any word that suggests itself is an 
admissible one, it may be settled by referring to the Glossary. 

When there are two words spelt alike, one a noun and one a verb, 
or any other such combination, it has not been thought necessary to 
include hothj so long as all the inflections can be obtained frqm one : 
e.g. 'aim' is given only as a verb, since 'aims,' the plural of the 
noun, is also the third person of the verb; but 'hale, v. a.,* and 
' hale, a.,' are both given, the one being needed to supply ' hales * and 
' haled,' and the other to supply ' haler.' 

Two abbreviations, ' e'en ' and ' e'ei*,' have been included. 

As to the many words which, though used and understood in good 
Society, are yet not available as Links, owing to there being no other 
words into which they can be changed, it has been regarded as a matter 
of indifference whether they are included or not. 



12 



ABBEEVIATIONS 

USED IN glossary/ 



a. adjective. 
ad, adverb. 

c. conjunction. 
int, interjection. 

n,8. nonn (only used in singrnlar). 
7i.pl. nonn (only used in plural). 

71. nonn (nsed in both). 
pre, preposition. 
X>ro. prononn. 
v,a, verb (active only). 
v,n, verb (neuter only). 

V, verb (both active and neuter). 



GLOSSARY. 



"Words, words, words." 



13 



aback, ad, 
abaft, pr^. 
abase, vm. 
abash, v.a. 
abate, vm. 
abbess, n. 
abbey, n. 
abbo^ n. 
abed, ad. 
abet, v.a. 
abhor, v.a. 
abide, v. 
abject, a. 
abjure, v.a. 
ablaze, ad. 
able, a. 
ably, ad. 
aboard, ad. 
abode, n. 
abound, v.n. 
about, prep. 
above, prq[>. 
abrade, v.a. 
abroad, ad, 
abrupt, a. 
absent, a. 
absorb, v.a. 
absurd, a. 
abuse, vxi. 
abut, v.n. 
abyss, n. 
acacia, n. 
accede, v.n. 
accent, n. 
accept, v.a. 
access, n. 
accord, v. 
accost, V. 
accrue, v.n. 
accuse, v.a. 
ace, n. 
acetic a. 



ache, v.n, 
acid, n. 
acme, n. 
acorn, n. 
acre, n. 
acrid, a. 
across, prep. 
act, V. 
action, n. 
active, a. 
actor, n. 
actual, a. 
acumen, n. 
acute, a. 
adage, n. 
adapt, vxu 
add, V. 
adder, n. 
addict, VM, 
addle, v.a. 
adept, n, 
adhere, v.n. 
ad eu, n. 
adjoin, V. 
adjure, v.a. 
adjust, v.a, 
admire, v.a. 
admit, vxt. 
admix, v.a. 
ado, n.s. 
adopt, v.a, 
adore, v.a. 
adorer, n. 
adorn, v.a. 
adown, ad^ 
adroit, a. 
adult, n. 
adverb, n. 
advert, v.n, 
advice, n. 
advise, v. 
adze, n, 
aerate, vm, 
aerial, a. 



afar, a<?. 
aflair, n. 
affect, v/i. 
aflSrm, v, 
affix, v.a. 
afford, v.a. 
af&ay, n. 
afield, ad. 
afloat, ad. 
afoot, <u2. 
afraid, a. 
afresh, ad, 
aft, (ui. 
after, prep. 
again, aa. 
agape, ad. 
agate, n. 
age, n. 
aged, a, 
agency, n. 
agent, n. 
agbast, a. 
agile, a. > 
ago, ad. 
agog, od. 
agony, n. 
agree, v.n. 
ague, n. 
ahead, ad, 
ahoy, tn<. 
aid, v.a. 
aider, n. 
ail, V. 
aim, V. 
air, V. 
airily, ad. 
airy, a. 
ajar, ad. 
akimbo, a. 
akin, a. 
alack, int. 
alarm, v.a, 
alarum, n. 
alas, int. 



alb, n. 
albeit, ad. 
albino, n. 
album, n. 
alcove, n, 
alder, n. 
ale, n. 
alert, a. 
alias, n. 
alibi, n. 
alien, n. 
alight, v.n. 
alike, a. 
alive, a. 
alkali, n. 
all, a. 
allay, v. 
allege, 0.0. 
alley, n. 
allow, v.cu 
alloy, v.a. 
allude, v.a, 
allure, v.a. 
ally, v.a. 
almond, n. 
almost, od. 
alms, n. pi, 
aloe, n. 
aloft, ad, 
alone, a. 
along, od. 
aloof cuL 
aloud, ad. 
also, c. 
altar, n. 
alter, v. 
alum, n. 
alwairs, od. 
amain, ad. 
amass, v.a. 
amaze, v.a, 
amber, n. 
amble, v.n, 
ambush, n. 
amen, ad. 



u 



amend, v. 
amerce, v.a. 
amice, n. 
amld,pr<!p. 
amidst, imep. 
amiss, ad. 
amity, n. 
among, pr. 
amount, v.n. 
amour, n. 
ample, a. 
amply, acU 
amuck, ad. 
amulet n. 
amuse, ^.o. 
ana, n.pi. 
anchor, v. 
and, c. 
anear, pr. 
anew, ad. 
angel, n. 
anger, r.a. 
angle, v. 
angler, n. 
angry, o. 
animal, n. 
anise, n. 
ankle, n. 
annals, n. jtI. 
anneal, v.a. 
annex, v.a. 
annoy, v.a. 
annual, n., 
annul, v.a. 
anoint, v.a. 
anon, ad. 
answer, v. 
ant, n. 
anthem, n. 
anther, n. 
antic, n. 
antique, n. 
antler, n. 
anvil, n. 
any, a. 
aorto, n. 
apace, ad. 
apart', ad. 
apathy, n. 
ape, v.a. 
apex, n. 
apiece, ad. 
apish, a. 
apogee, n. 
appalL v.a. 
appeal, v.n. 
appear, v.n. 
append, v.a. 



apple, n. 
apply, ». 
apron, «». 
apt, a, 
aptly, od. 
aqueous, ad. 
arbor, n. 
arhour, n. 
arc, n. 
arcade, n. 
arch, V. 
ardent, a, 
ardor, n. 
ardour, n. 
argue, v. 
arid, a. 
arise, v.n. 
ark, n. 
arm, v. 
armour, n. 
army, n. 
around, (ui. 
arouse, v.a. 
arrack, n. 
arras, n. 
array, vm, 
arrest, v.a. 
arrive, v.n. 
arrow, n. 
arrowy, a. 
arson, n. 
art, n. 
arterv, n. 
artful, a. 
artist, n. 
ascend, v.n. 
ascent, n 
ash, n. 
ashen, a. 
ashore, ad. 
ashv, a. 
aside, ckI. 
ask, V. 
askow, ad. 
aslant, ad. 
asleep, a. 
aslope, ad. 
asp, n. 
aspect, n. 
aspen, n. 
aspire, v.n. 
ass, n. 
assail, v.a. 
assay, v. 
assent, v.n, 
assert, v.a. 
assess, v.a. 
assets, n. i>2. 



assign, v.a. 
assist, V. 
assize, n. 
assort, V. 
assume, v. 
assure, v.a. 
asthma, n. 
astir, a. 
astray, ad. 
asylum, n. 
atlsA, n. 
atom, n. 
atomy, n. 
atone, v. 
attach, v.a. 
attack, V. 
attain, v.a. 
attend, v. 
attest, vxu 
attic, n. 
attire, v.a. 
auburn, a. 
audit, V. 
auger, n. 
aught, n. 
augur, n. 
augury, n. 
august, a. 
auk, n. 
aunt, n. 
author, n. 
autumn, n. 
avail, V. 
avasl^ int. 
avatar, n. 
avaunt, int. 
ave, n. 
avenge, v.a. 
avenue, n. 
aver, v.a. 
averse, a. 
avert, v.a. 
avoid, v.a. 
avouch, v.a. 
avow, v.a. 
await, v.a. 
awake, v. 
awaken, v. 
award, v. 
aware, a. 
away. ad. 
awe, v.a. 
awful, a. 
awhile, ad. 
awk, n. 
awl, n. 
awn, n. 
awning, n. 



awry, a. 
axe, n. 
axiom, n. 
axis, n. 
axle, n. 
aye, ad. 
azure, a. 



B 



babble, v.n. 
babe, n. 
baboon, n. 
'baby, n. 
back, v.a. 
backer, n. 
bacon, n.8. 
bad, a. 
badge, n. 
badger, n. 
badly, ad. 
baffle, v,a. 
ba«^ v.a. 
ball, v.a. 
bailey, n. 
bait, VM. 
baize, n.«. 
bake, v.a. 
baker, n. 
bakery, n. 
bald, a, 
bale, v.a. 
balk, v.a. 
ball, n. 
ballad, n. 
ballet, n. 
ballot, n. 
balm, v.a. 
balmy, a. 
balsam, n. 
bamboo, n. 
ban, v.a. 
banana, n. 
band, v. 
bandit, n. 
bandy, a. 
bane, n. 
bang, v.a. 
bangle, n. 
banian, n. 
banish, v.a. 
banjo, n. 
bank, v.a. 
banker, n. 
banner, n. 
banns, n.jit. 



15 



bantam, w. 
iMmter, n. 
iMUiyan, n. 
bar, vxk» 
barb, v.a. 
barbel, n. 
barber, n» 
bard, n, 
bare, a. 
bare, v.a, 
barely, ad. 
barge, n. 
bark, v. 
barley, n. 
barm, n. 
bam, n. 
baron, n. 
barony, n. 
barrel, n. 
barren, a. 
barrow, n, 
barter, v. 
basalt, n, 
base, v.a. 
base. a. 
basely, ad, 
bashaw, n. 
basil, n. 
basin, n. 
basis, n. 
bask, V. 
basket, n. 
bason, n. 
bass, n, 
baste, VM, 
bat, v.n. 
batch, n. 
bate, v.a, 
bath, ft. 
bathe, v. 
bather, n. 
bathos, n. 
baton, n. 
batten, v. 
batter, n. 
battle, n. 
bauble, n. 
baulk, VM, 
bawble, n. 
bawl, V. 
bay, V. 
bazaar, n. 
be, v.n. 
beach, n. 
beacon, n. 
bead, n. 
beaded, a. 



beadle, n. 
beagle, n. 
beak, n. 
beaked, a. 
beaker, n. 
beam, v.n. 
beamy, a. 
bean, n. 
bear, v. 
beard, «». 
bearer, n. 
beast, n. 
beat, V. 
beater, n. 
beau, beaux, n. 
beauty, n. 
beaver, n. 
beck, n. 
beckon, v. 
become, v. 

bed, v.a. 
bedew, v.a. 
bedlam, n. 
bedrid, a. 

bee, n. 
beech, n. 
beef, n.s. 
beer, n. 
beet n. 
beetle, n, 
befall, V. 
befit, t;.a. 
before, p, 
beg, t?. 
beg^, n. 
begin, V. 
begone, tn<. 
begum, n. 
behave, v. 
behest, n. 
behind, p. 
behold, v.a. 
behoof, n. 
beldam, n. 
belie, t;.a. 
belief, n. 
bell, n. 
belle, n. 
bellow, v.n. 
belong, v.n. 
below, p. 
belt, v.a. 
bemoan, v.a. 
bench, n. 

bend (bended or 
bent), V. 
benign, a. 
bent,n. 



benumb, v.a. 

bequest, n. 

bereft, part. 

beny, n. 

berth, n. 

beryl, n, 

beseem, v.a. 

beset, v.a. 

beside, p. 

besom, n. 

best, a. 

bestir, v.a. 

bestow, v.a. 

bet, V. 

betake, v.a. 

betide, v.n. 

betray, v.a. < 

better, a, 

bettor, n. 

bevel, n. 

bevy, n. 

bey, n. 

beyond, p. 

bias, n. 

bib. n. 

bible, n. 

bicker, v.n. 

bid (bador bade),v.a. 

bide, V. 

bier, n. 

biffin, n. 

big, a. 

bigamy, n. 

biggin, n. 

bigot, n. 

bile, n. 

bilge, M. 

bilt n. 

billed, a. 

billet, n. 

billow, n. 

bin, n. 

binary, a. 

bind, V. 

binder, n. 

biped, n. 

birch, n. 

bird,*!. 

birth, n. 

bis, ad. 

bisect, v.(u 

bishop, n. 

bison, n. 

bit,n. 

bite, V. 

biter, n. 

bitted, a. 



bitter, a. 
blab. v.<u 
black, v.a. 
blade, n. 
bladed, a. 
blain, n. 
blame, v.a. 
blanch, vm, 
bland, a. 
blank, n. 
blare, v.n. 
blast, n. 
blaze, v.n. 
blazon, v.a. 
bleach, v.a, 
bleak, nA 
blear, v.a. 
bleat, v.n. 
bleed, v. 
blench, v.n. 
blend (blended or 
blent), v.a. 
bless (blessed or 
blest), v.a. 
blight, n. 
blind, n. 
blink, v.n. 
bliss, n. 
blithe, a. 
bloat, V. 
block, w. 
blonde, n. 
blood, njB, 
bloody, a. 
bloom, v.n. 
blot, v.a. 
blotch, n. 
blouse, n. 
blow, v.a. 
blower, n. 
blue, n. 
bluft, n. 
bluish, a. 
blunt, v.a. 
blur, v.a. 
blurt, v.a, 
blush, v.n. 
boa, n. 
boar, n. 
board, v, 
boast, V. 
boat, V. 
bob. V. 
bobbin, n. 
bode, V. 
bodice, n. 
bodied^ a. 



16 

bodilv, a, 
iMidkin, ra. 
body, n. 
boer, n. 
bog, v.a. ■ 
boggle, v.n 
bogle, n. 
bonea, n. 
boil, t7. 
boikr, n. 
bold, a. 
bole, n. 
boll, v.n. 
bolt, v. 
bolter, n. 
bolus, n. 
bomb, n. 
bonbon, n. 
bond, v.a. 
bonded, a. 
borfe,- V.O. 
bonnet, n. 
bon'ny, a. 
bonus, n. 
bony, a. 
booby, n, 
book, v.a, 
boom, v.n. 
boon, n. 
boor, n. 
boot, v. 
booth, n. 
booty, n.«. 
borage, im. 
borax, tiA 
border, n. 
bore, V, 
boreal, a. 
borer, n. 
borrow, v. 
bosom, n. 
boss, n. 
bossed, a. 
botch, v.o. 
botchy, a, 
both, a. 
bother, v.a. 
bothy, n. 
bottle, n. 
bough, n. 
bounce, v.n. 
bound, v.a. 
bounty, n. 
bourn, n. 
bourse, n. 
bout, n. 
bovine, a. 
bow, V. 



bower, n. 
boweiy, a. 
bowl, v.a. 
bowler, n. 
bowman, n. 
box, V. 
boxen, a. 
boxer, n. 
boy. n. 
boyish, a, 
brace, v.a. 
brad, n. 
brag, r.n, 
braid, n. 
brain, v.<u 
brake, n. 
bran, n.«. 
branch, n. 
brand, v.a. 
brandy, n. 
brasen, a. 
brass, n. 
brassy, a. 
brat, n. 
brave, v.a. 
brave, a. 
bravo, n. 
brawl, V. 
brawn, n^ 
brawny, a. 
bray, », 
brayer, n. 
braze, v.a. 
brazen, a. 
breach, n. 
bread, n.s. 
break, v. 
bream, nA 
breast, n. 
breath, n. 
breed, v. 
breeze, n. 
breezy, a. 
breve, n. 
brevet, n. 
brew, ». 
brewer, ti. 
briar, n. 
bribe, v.o. 
briber, n. 
brick, ra. 
bridal, n. 
bride, n.p 
bridge, n. 
bridle, n. 
brief, n. 
brier, n. 
briery, a. 



brig, n. 
bright, a. 
briU, n.». 
brim, v, 
brine, 7i.«. 
bring, v.a. 
brink, n. 
briny, a. 
briony, n, 
brisk, a. 
broacn, v.a. 
broad, a. 
brock, n. 
brogue, n. 
broili n. 
broker, n. 
bronze, n. 
brooch, n. 
brood, n. 
brook, n. 
broom, n. 
broth, n. 
brow, n. 
brown, n. 
browse, v, 
bruise, n. 
bruit, v.a, 
brunt, n.«. 
brush . n. 
brutal, a. 
brute, a. 
bryony, n, 
bubble, n. 
buck, n. 
bucket, n. 
buckle, n. 
bud, V. 
budge, v.n. 
bu^et, n. 
buCa. 
buffer, n. 
buffet, n. 
buele, n. 
buhl, n.8. 
build, V. 
bulb, v.n. 
bulge, v.n. 
bulk, n. 
bulky, a. 
bull, n. 
bullet, n. 
bully, n. 
bump, V. 
bumper, n. 
bunon, n. 
bunchy, a. 
bundle, n. 
bung, v.a. 



bungle, v.n. 
buoy, v.a. 
bur, n. 
burden, n. 
byureau, n. 
burgh, n. 
burial, n. 
burke, v.a. 
burly, a. 
bum, v.a. 
burner, n. 
bumet, n. 
burr, n. 
burrow, n. 
bursar, n. 
burst, V. 
bury, v.a. 
bush, n. 
bushel, n. 
bushy, a. 
busily, ad. 
busk. v.a. 
buskin, n. 
bust, n. 
bustle, n. 
busy, a. 
but. c. 
butler, n. 
butt, V. 
butter, n, 
button, n. 
buxom, a. 
buy, V. 
buzz, V. 
bye, n.». 
byword, n. 



c 

cab, n. 
cabal, n. 
cabin, n. 
cable, n. 
cabled, a. 
cabob, n. 
cackle, v.n. 
cactus, n. 
caddis, n. 
eaddv, n. 
cadet, n. 
cage, v.a. 
cairn, n. 
caiole, v.a. 
cake, V. 
calf, n. 



17 



calico, n. 
calipb, n. 
calix, n. 
call, V. 
caller, n. 
calm, VM, 
calm, a. 
calmly, ad. 
calj'x. n. 
camel, n. 
cameo, n. 
camera, n. 
camp, V. 
can, v.tt. 
can, n. 
canal, n. 
canard, n. 
canary, n. 
cancel, r.a. 
cancer, n. 
candid, a. 
caudle, n. 
candor, n. 
candy, n. 
cane, v.a, 
canker, n. 
cannon, n. 
cannot, v.n, 
canoe, n. 
canon, n. 
canopy, n. 
cant, V. 
canter, v.n, 
canto, n. 
canton, n. 
canvas, n, 
cap, v.a. 
cape, n. 
caper, v.n. 
captor, n. 
car, n. 
carat, ft. 
carbon, n.8. 
card, v.a. 
care, v.n. 
careen, v. 
career, n. 
caress, n. 
caret, n. 
cargo, n. 
carnal, a. 
carol, n. 
carp, v.n. 
carpet, n. 
carrot, n. 
carry, v. 
cart, v.a. 



carte, n. 
carter, n. 
carve, v.a. 
carver, n, 
case, n. 
cased, a, 
cash, v.a. 
cask, v.a. 
casket, ti. 
cassia, n. 
cast, v.a. 
caste, n.8. 
castle, n. 
castor, n. 
casual, a. 
cat, n. 
catch, v.a. 
cater, v.n. 
cates, n.j?!. 
catkin, n. 
catsup, n. 
cattle, n. 
caucus, n. 
caudle, n. 
caul, n. 
causal, a. 
came, v.a. 
cave, iu 
caved, a. 
caveat, n. 
cavern, n. 
cavil, n. 
cavity, n. 
caw, v.n. 
cease, v.n. 
cedar, n. 
cede, v.a. , 
celery, n. 
cell, n. 
cellar, n. 
cement, n. 
censer, n. 
censor, n, 
cent, n. 
centre, n. 
chace, n, 
chafe, V. 
chafer, n. 
chaff, n.8. 
chain, n. 
chair, n. 
chaise, n. 
chalk, v.a. 
chalky, a. 
champ, V. 
chance, n. 
change, n. 



cbant, n. 

chaos, n.8. 

chap (chapped or 

chapt), V.O. 
chapel, tu 
char, v.a. 
charge, n. 
charm, n. 
chart, n. 
chary, a. 
chase, v.a, 
chaser, n. 
chasm, n. 
chaste, a. 
chat, V. 
chatty, a. 
chaunt, n. 
cheap, a. 
cheat, n. 
check, n. 
cheek, tt. 
cheep, v.n. 
cbeer, n. 
cheery, o. 
cheese, n. 
cheque, n. 
chequer, n. 
cherry, n. 
cherub, n. 
chess, n.s. 
chest, n. 
chetaii, n, 
chew, V. 
chick, n. 
chide (chid or 

chode), V. 
chief, n. 
child, n. 
chill, n. 
chilly, a. 
chime, v, 
chin, n. 
china, n.8. 
chine; n. 
chink, n. 
chip, V. 
chirp, V. 
chisel, n. 
chit« n. 
choice, n. 
choir, n. 
choke, V. 
choler, n, 
choose, V. 
chop, n. 
chord, n. 
chorus, n. 



B 



chrome, n. 

chub. n.«. 

chuck, V. 

clium, n. 

church, n. 

churl, n. 

churn, n. 

cider, n.s. 

cigar, u. 

cinder, w. 

cipher, n. 

circle, n. 

circus, n. 

cit, n. 

cite, v.a. 

citron, n. 

city, w. 

civet, n. 

civic, a, 

civil, o. 

clack, V. 

clad, a. 

claim, n. 

clam, n. 

clammy, a. 

clamor, n. 

clamp, n. 

clan, n. 

clang, V. 

clank, V. 

clap, V. 

claret, n. 

clash, 17. 

clasp, n. 

class, n. 

clause, n. 

claw, v.a. 

clay, n.«. ♦ 

clean, v.a. 

clear, v.a. 

cleave (clove <yr 

clave ; cleft or 

cloven), V. 
clench, v. 
clerk, n. 
clew, n. 
click. V. 
client, n. 
cliff, t>. 
climb, V. 
clime, n. 
clinch, V. 
cling, v.n. 
clink, V. 
clip, v.a. 
clique, n. 
cloak, n. 
clock, n. 



18 



clod, ft. 
clog, n. 
cloke, n. 
close, V. 
clot. n. 
cloth, n. 
clothe, V. 
cloud, n. 
clove, n. 
clover, n. 
elovm, n. 
cloy, v.a. 
club, n. 
cluck, v.n. 
clump, n. 
clumsy, a. 
clutob, n. 
coach, n. 
coal, v. 
coarse, a. 
coast, n. 
coat, v.a. 
coatee, n. 
coax, v.a. 
cob, n. 
cobble, V. 
cock, t;.a. 
cocker, v.a. 
cockle, n. 
cocoa, n. 
cocooD, n. 
cod, n. 
coddle, V. 
code, n. 
coerce, v.a. 
coeval, a. 
coffee, n. 
coffer, n. 
cog, ». 
cogent, a. 
coi^ged, n. 
cohere, «;. 
cohort, n. 
coil, v.a. 
coin, v.a. 
coiner, n. 
coke, n.8. 
cold, n. 
cold, a. 
coldly, ad, 
colic, n.8. 
collar, n. 
colon, n. 
colony, n. 
color, n. 
colour, n. 
colt, n. 
column, n. 



coma, n. 
comb, v.a. 
combat, m. 
come, v.n. 
comedy, n. 
comely, o. 
comet, n. 
comflt, «. 
comic, a. 
comma, n. 
commit, t?. 
common, n. 
comply, v.n. 
con, V. 
concur, v.n. 
cone, n. 
coney, n. 
confer, ». 
conger, n. 
conic, a, 
conquer, v. 
consul, n. 
convex, a. 
convey, r. 
convoy, n. 
coo. v.n. 
cook, v.a. 
cool, v.a. 
cool. a. 
coolly, ad. 
coop, v.a. 
cooper, n. 
coot, n. 
copal, n.«. 
cope, V. 
copier, n. 
copper, n. 
copse, n. 
copy, V. 
coquet, V. 
coral, n. 
cord, v.a. 
core, n. 
cork, v.a. 
corky, a. 
com, v.a. 
cornel, n. 
comer, n. 
comet, n. 
corps, n.8. 
corpse, n. 
corset, n. 
cosset, n. 
cost. v.n. 
costly, a. 
cosy, a. 
cot, n. 
cote, n. 



cotton, n. 
couch, n. 
cough, n. 
count, V. 
county, n. 
couple, n. 
course, n. 
court, n. 
cousin, n. 
cove, n. 
cover, n. 
covert, n. 
covet, V. 
covey, n. 
cow, v.a. 
coward, n. 
cower, V. 
cowl, n. 
cowled, a. 
coy. a. 
coyly, ad 
cozen, V. 
crab. n. 
crack, n. 
cradle, n. 
craft, n. 
crafty, a, 
crag, n. 
craggy, a. 
crake, n. 
cram, v. 
cramp, n. 
cranch, v. . 
crane, n. 
crank, n. 
cranky, a. 
cranny, n. 
crape, n.8. 
crash, n. 
crass, a. 
crate, n. 
crater, n. 
cravat, n. 
crave, v.a. 
craven, a. 
crawl, V. 
craze, n. 
crazej, a. 
crazv, a. 
creak, v.n« 
cream, n.8. 
creamy, a. 
crease, n. 
create, v.a. 
credit, n. 
creed, n. 
creek, n. 
creel, n. 



creep, v.n. 
cress, n. 
crest, n. 
crew, n. 
crib, n. 
crier, n. 
crime, n. 
crimp, v.a, 
cringe, v.n. 
crisis, n. 
crisp, a. 
critic, n. 
croak, v.n. 
crock, n. 
crone, n. 
crony, n. 
crook, n. 
crop, n. 
cross, n. 
crouch, v.n. 
croup, n.8. 
crow, v.n. 
crowd, «. 
crown, n. 
crude, a. 
cruel, a. 
cruet, n. 
cruise, n. 
crumb, n, 
crunch, vxt 
cruse, n. 
crush, v.a. 
crust, n. 
crusty, a. 
crutch, n. 
cry, v.n. 
cub, n. 
cube, n. 
cubic, a^ 
cubit, n. 
cud, n.s. 
cuddle, V. 
cue, n. 
cuff, v.a. 
cull, v.a. 
cult, n. 
cumber, v.a. 
cup, v.a. 
cur, n. 
curate, n. 
curb, v.a. 
curd, v.a. 
curdle, v.a. 
cure, v.a. 
curfew, n.8. 
curl, v.a. 
curlew, n. 
curly, a. 



19 



curry, n 
curse, V. 
curst, a. 
curt, a. 
curtly, ad. 
curtsy, n. 
curve, v.a. 
custom, n. 
cut. V. 
cutler, n. 
cutlet, n. 
cutter, n. 
cynic, a. 
cypher, n. 



D 



dab, v.a. 
dabble, t;.a. 
dace, n^. 
dactyl, n. 
daft, a. 
dasger, n. 
dauy, a. 
dainty, a. 
dairy, n. 
dais, n.«. 
dale, n. 
dally, v. 
dam, v.a. 
damage, n. 
damask, n. 
dame, n. 
damp, t;.a. 
damp, a, 
damsel, n. 
damson, n. 
dance, v.n. 
dancer, n. 
dandle, v.a. 
dandy, n. 
danger, n. 
dangle, v. 
dank, a. 
dapper, a. 
dapple, n. 
di^, V. 
dark, a. 
darken, v. 
darkly, ad, 
darn, v.a. 
dart, V. 
dash, v.n, 
dasher, n. 
date, V. 
dative, «. 



daub, v.a. 
dauber, n. 
daunt, v.a. 
davit, n. 
daw, n. 
dawdle, v. 
dawn, v.n. 
day, n. 
daze. Vta, 
dazzle, v. 
deacon, n. 
dead, a. 
deaden, v.a. 
deadly, a. 
deaf, a. 
deafen, v.a. 
deafly, ad. 
deal, v.a. 
dealer, n. 
dean, n. 
dear. a. 
dearly, ad. 
dearth, n. 
deatb, n. 
debar, v.a. 
debase, v.a. 
debate, n. 
debit, v.a. 
debt, n. 
debtor, n. 
debut, n. 
decade, n. 
decamp, v.n. 
decant, v.a. 
decay, v. 
deceit, n. 
decent, a. 
decide, v. 
deck, v.a. 
decoy, n. 
decree, n. 
decry. v.a. 
deduce, v.a> 
deduct, v.a. 
deed, n. 
deem, v. 
deep, n. 
deep, a. 
deepen, v. 
deer, n.8. 
deface, v.a. 
defame, v.a. 
defeat, n. 
defect, n. 
defend, v.a. 
defer, v. 
defile, V. 
define, v. 



deform, v.a. 
defray, v.a. 
deft, a. 
deftly, ad. 
defy, v.a. 
degree, n. 
deify, v.a. 
deign, V. 
deject, v.a. 
delay, v. 
delf, n.8. 
delude, v.a, 
deluge, n. 
delve, V.O. 
delver, n. 
demand, v. 
demean, v.a. 
demise, n. 
demon, n. 
demur, v.n. 
demure, a. 
den, n. 
denial, n. 
denote, v.a. 
dense, a. 
dent, v.a. 
dental, a. 
denude, v.a. 
deny, v.a. 
depart, v.n. 
depend, v.n. 
depict, v.a. 
deploy, V. 
depose, v.a. 
depot, n. 
depth, n. 
depute, v.a. 
deputy, n. 
deride, v.a. 
derive, v.a. 
desert, n. 
design, n. 
desire, n. 
desist, v.n, 
desk, n. 
despot, n. 
detach, v.a. 
detail, n. 
detain, v.a. 
detect, v.a. 
deter, v.a. 
detest, v.a. 
device, n. 
devise, v.a. 
devoid, a. 
devote, v.a, 
devour, v.a. 
devout, a. 



B2 



dew, n. 
dewy, a. 
dey, n. 
diadem, n. 
dial, n. 
diaper, n. 
diary, n. 
dice. v.n. 
dicer, n. 
die, v.n. 
diet, v.a. 
difier, v.n. 
dig, V. 
digest, V. 
diKit, n. 
dike, v.a. 
dilate, v.a. 
dilute, v.a. 
dim, v.a. 
dim, a. 
dimly, ad. 
dimple, n. 
dimply, a. 
din, v.a. 
dine. v.n. 
dingle, n. 
dingy, a. 
dinner, n. 
dint, v.a. 
dip, V. 
dipper, n, 
dire, o. 
direct, a. 
dirge, n. 
dirk, n. 
dirt, n.8. 
dirty, a. 
disarm, v.a. 
dish, n. 
disk, n. 
dismal, a. 
dismay, n. 
disown, v.a. 
dispel, v.a. 
distil, V. 
ditch, n. 
ditty, n. 
divan, n. 
dive, v.n. 
diver, n. 
divert, v.a. 
divest, v.a. 
divide, v.a. 
divine, a. 
dizzy, a. 
do, V. 
docile, a. 
dock, v.a. 



2D 



docket, n. 
doctor, n. 
dodge, V. 
dodo, n. 
doe, n. 
doer, «. 
doff, v.a, 
dog. n. 
doge, n. 
do^ed, a. 
dole, t;.a. 
doll, n. 
dollar, n. 
dolot, n. 
dolt, n. 
domain, n. 
dome, n. 
domed, a. 
domiuo, n. 
don, v.a. 
donkey, n. 
donor, n, 
doom, v.a, 
door, n. 
dormer, n. 
dory, n. 
dose, v.a. 
dot, V. 
dotage, n. 
dotard, n. 
dote, t7.n. 
double, a. 
doubt, n. 
dough, n^, 
dove, ». 
dower, n. 
down, n. 
downy, a* 
dowry, n. 
doze, V. 
dozen, n. 
dozT, a. 
drab, a. 
draft, n. 
drag, n. 
dragon, n. 
drain, n. 
drake, n. 
dram, n. 
drama, n. 
drape, v. 
draper, n. 
draw, V. 
drawer, n. 
drawl, V. 
dray, n. 
dread, v. 



dream, n. 
dreamy, a. 
drear, a. 
dreary, o. 
dredge, n. 
dregs, n. pZ. 
drench, v.a. 
dress (dressed or 

drest), V. 
drift, n. 
drill, n. 
drily, ad, 
drink, v. 
drip, V. 
drive, v. 
drivel, v.n. 
driver, n. 
droll, a. , 
drone, v. 
droop, v.w. 
drop, n. 
dropsy, w. 
dross, n. 
drossy, a. 
drove, n. 
drover, n. 
drown, v. 
drowsy, a. 
drub, V. 
drudge, n. 
drug, n. 
drum, n. 
dry, V. 
dry (drier or dryer ; 

driest or dryest), a. 
dryly, ad. 
dual, a. 
dub, v.a. 
ducal, a. 
ducat, n. 
duchy, n. 
duck, VM, 
duct, n. 
due. n. 
duel, n. 
duet, n. 
duke, n. 
dull, v.a. 
dull, a. 
duly, ad. 
dumb, a. 
dummy, n. • 
dumps, n.p{. 
dun, v.a. 
dunce, n. 
dupe, v.a, 
during, p. 



dusk, a. 
duslqr, o. 
dust, v.a. 
duster, n. 
dusty, a. 
duty, n. 
dwarf, n. 
dwell, v.w. 
dye, v.a. 
dyer, n. 
dyke, v.a. 

E 

each, a. 
eager, a. 
eagle, n. 
eaglet, n. 
ear, n. 
eared, a. 
earl, n. 
early, a. 
earn, v.a. 
earth, n. 
ease, v.a. 
easel, n. 
easily, ad. 
east, n.8. 
easy, a. 
eat, V. 
eater, n. 
eaves, n.pL 
ebb, v.n. 
ebony, n.«. 
echo, V. 
eddy, v. 
edge, V. 
edict, n. 
edify, v.a. 
edit, v.a. 
editor, n. 
eel, n. 
e'en, ad. 
e'er, ad. 
efface, v.a. 
effect, n. 
effigy, n. 
effort, n. 
eft, n. 
egg. v.o. 
egress, n. 
eider, n.a. 
eight, n. 
eighth, a. 
eighty, a. 
either, a. 
eject, v.a. 



eke, v.o. 
elate, v.a. 
elbow, n. 
eld, n.8. 
elder, n. 
eldest, a. 
elect, v.a. 
elegy, n. 
eleven, a, 
elf. n. 
elfin, a. 
elfish, a. 
elicit, v.a. 
elide, v.a. 
elite, a. 
elk, n. 
ell, n. 
elm, n. 
elope, v.vt. 
else, c. 
elude, v.a, 
elvish, a. 
embark, v. 
embed, v.a. 
embers, u. pi, 
emblem, n. 
emboss, n. 
emerge, v.n. 
emery, n.s. 
emit, v.o. 
empale, v.a. 
empire, n. 
employ, v.a. 
empty, a. 
enact, v.a. 
enamel, n. 
encamp, v. 
encore, ad. 
end, V. 
endow, v.a. 
endue, v.a. 
endure, v. 
enemy, n. 
energy, n. 
enfold, r.a. 
engage, v. 
engine, n. 
engulf, v.a, 
enjoin, v.a. 
enloy, v.a. 
enlist, v.a. 
enmity, n. 
enough, a. 
enrage, v.o. 
enrich, v.a. 
enroll, v.a. 
ensign, n. 
ensue, v.n. 



2fl 



ensure, v.a. 
entail, v.a, 
enter, v. 
entice, v.a. 
entire, a. 
entity, n. 
entry, n. 
envoy, n. 
envy, v. 
epact, n. 
epic, n. 
epoch, n. 
epode, n. 
equal, n. 
equate, v.a. 
equerry, ». 
equity, n.8. 
era, n. 
erase, v.a. 
ere, p. 
erect, r.a. 
ermine, «. 
erode, v.a. 
err, i?.n. 
errand, n, 
errant, a. 
error, n. 
escape, v.n. 
eschew, v.a. 
escort, n. 
espy, V. 
esquire, n. 
essay, n. 
estate, ». 
esteem, v.a. 
etch, t>. 
etcher, n. 
ether, n.8. 
ethic, a. 
ethics, n. pi. 
eulogy, n. 
evade, v.a. 
eve, n. 
even, n. 
evenly, ad, 
event, n. 
ever, <id. 
every, a. 
evict, v.o, 
evil, n. 
evince, t;.o. 
evoke, v.a. 
evolve, v.a. 
evre, n. 
ewer, n. 
exact, v.o. 
exalt, v.a. 
exceed, v. 



excel, V. 
excel!, v. 
except, p. 
excess, n. 
excise, n.8. 
excite, v.a. 
excuse, n. 
exempt, a. 
exert, v.a. 
exhale, v.a, 
exhort, vm. 
exile, v.a. 
exist, v.n. 
exit, n. . 
expect, t;.a. 
expel, v.a. 
expell, V. 
expend, v.a. 
expert, a. 
expire, v.n. 
export, v.a. 
expose, v.a. 
extant, a. 
extend, v. 
extent, n.«. 
extol, v.a. 
extoll, v. 
extort, v.a. 
exude, v.n. 
exult, v.n. 
eye, v.a. 

F 

fable, n. 
fabled, a. 
fabric, n. 
face, t7. 
facet, n. 
facile, a. 
fact, n. 
fade, V. 
fag, ». 
fagot, n. 
faggot, n. 
fan, V. 
faJn, a. 
faint, v.n. 
fair, n. 
fairy, n. 
faitn, n. 
fall, v.n. 
fallow, n. 
false, a. 
falter, v.n. 
fame, n.8. 
famed, a. 



family, n. 
famine, n. 
famish, v.o. 
famous, a, 
fan, v.a. 
fancy, n. 
fane, n. 
fang, n. 
fanged, a, 
far, aa. 
farce, n, 
fare, v.n. 
farm, v.a. 
farmer, n. 
fast, v.n. 
fast, a. 
fasten, v.n. 
fat, n. 
fat, a. 
fatal, a. 
fate, n. 
fated, a. 
father, n. 
fatted, a. 
fatten, v.a. 
fault, n. 
favor, n. 
favour, n. 
fawn, v.n. 
fay, n. 
fear, v. 
feast, n. 
feat, n. 
featly, ad, 
fee, n. 
feeble, ct. 
feebly, ad. 
feed, V. 
feeder, n. 
feel, V. 
feeler, n. 
feign, v.a. 
feint, n.8. 
feline, a. 
fell, v.a. 
fell, a. 
fellow, n. 
felon, n. 
felony, n. 
felt, v.a. 
female, n. 
fen, n. 
fence, v.a. 
fencer, n. 
fender, n. 
fennel, n. 
fern, n. 
ferret, n. 



ferry, n. 
ferule, n. 
fervid, a. 
fervor, n. 
fester, v. 
fetch, V. 
/ete, n.8. 
fetter, n. 
feud, n. 
feudal, a. 
fever, n. 
few, a. 
fiat, n. 
fib, v.n. 
fibre, n. 
fickle, a. 
flckly, act 
fiddle, n. 
fie, int. 
field, n. 
fierce, a, 
fiery, a, 
fife, n. 
flg.n. 
fight, V. 
figure, n. 
file, V. 
fill, V. 
fillet, n. 
filly, n. 
film, n. 
filmed, a, 
filter, n. 
fin, n. 
final, a. 
finch, n. 
find, v.a. 
fine, v.a. 
fine, a. 
finely, ad. 
finery, n.8. 
finger, n. 
finish, V. 
finite, a. 
fir, n. 
fire, V. 
firm, n. 
firm, a. 
firmly, a<2. 
first, a, 
fish, V. 
fisher, n. 
fist, n. 
fit, v.a. 
fit, a. 
fitly, ad. 
five, a. 
fives, n. pL 



22 

fix, V. 
fl2, v.n. 
flafr, n. 
flail, n. 
flake, n. 
flaked, a. 
flame, v.n. 
flauk, 71. 
flap, n. 
flare, v.n. 
flash, w. 
flask, n. 
flat. n. 
flatly, aft. 
flavor, n. 
flaw, n. 
flawed, a. 
flax, n.8. 
flaxen, a. 
flay, v.a. 
flea, n. 
fleck, n. 
fledge, VM. 
flee, V. 
fleece, n. 
fleet, n. 
flesh, n.8. 
flight, n. 
flinch, v.n. 
flins:, v.a. 
flint, n. 
flirt, «. 
flit, V. 
flitch, ft. 
float, v.n. 
flock, n. 
floe, n. 
flog, v.a. 
flood, n. 
floor, n. 
floss, n.«. 
flour, n.«. 
flout, V. 
flow, v.n. 
flower, n. 
flue, n. 
fluent, a. 
fluid, n. 
fluke, n. 
flush, V. 
flute, n. 
fly.v. 
foal, ». 
foam, v.n. 
fob, n. 
focal, a. 
focus, n. 
fodder, n. 



foe, n. 
fog, n. 
fogged, a. 
foil, v.a. 
fold, v.a, 
folk, n. 
follow, V. 
folly, n, 
fond. a. 
fondly, ad. 
font, n. 
food, n. 
fool, V. 
foot, n. 
footed, a. 
fop, n. 
for, c. 
forbid, v.a. 
force, v.a. 
ford, v.a. 
fore, a. 
forest, n. 
forge, v.a. 
forger, n. 
forget, V. 
fork, n. 
forked, a. 
form, v.a. 
formal, a. 
former, o. 
fort, ». 
forth, ad. 
forty, o. 
foi-ter, v.a, 
foul, a. 
found, v.a. 
fount, n. 
four, a. 
fowl, n. 
fowler, n. 
fox, n. 
foxed, a. 
frail, a. 
frame, v.a. 
framer, n. 
frank, v.a. 
fraud, n. 
fray, v.a. 
freak, n. 
free, v.a. 
free, a. 
freely, ad. 
freeze, v. 
fresh, a. 
fret, V. 
friar, n. 
friend, n. 
fright, n. 



frill, n. 
fringe, n. 
frisk, v.n. 
frith, n. 
fro, od. 
frock, n. 
frog, n. 
frouc, n. 
ft-om, p. 
front, n. 
fl'ost, n. 
froth, n. 
frown, n. 
frugal, a. 
fruit, n. 
fry, V. 
fuel, n.s. 
full, a. 
fully, ad. 
fumble, V. 
fume, V. 
fun, n.«. 
fund, v.a. 
funnel, n. 
funny, o, 
fur, n. 
furred, o. 
furl, v.a. 
fmrow, n. 
furry, o. 
fury, n. 
fuse, v.a. 
fusee, n. 
fuss, v.n. 
fussy, a. 
fusty, a. 
future, a. 



G 

gabble, v.n. 
gable, n. 
gad, v.n. 
gaflr, n. 
gag, v.a. 
gage, n. 
gaiety, n. 
gaily, n. 
gain, V. 
gait, n.«. 
gaiter, n. 
gala, n.8. 
gale, n. 
gall, v.a. 
galley, n. 
gallon, n. 



gallop, n. 
gamble, v.n. 
gambol, v.n. 
game, n. 
gaming, n. 
gammon, n. 
gander, n. 
gang, n. 
gap, n. 
gape, v.n. 
garb, n.8. 
garble, v.a. 
garden, n. 
gargle, v.a. 
garish, a. 
garlic, n. 
gamer, n. 
garnet, n. 
garret, n. 
garter, n. 
gas, n. 
gash, v.a. 
gasp, v.n. 
gate, n. 
gather, v.a. 
gaudy, a. 
gauge, v.a. 
gaunt, a. 
gauze, n. 
gauzy, a. 
gay, a. 
gaze, v.n. 
gear, n.8. 
gem, n. 
gemmed, a. 
gender, n. 
genial, a. 
genius, n. 
gentle, a. 
gently, ad. 
gentry, n. 
genus, n. 
germ, n. 
get, v.a. 
giant, n. 
gibber, v.n. 
gibbet, n. 
gibe, V. 
glblet, n. 
giddy, o. 
gift, ». 
gifted, a. 

gift «. 
giggle, v.n. 
gild, v.a. 
gill, n. 
gilt, a. 
gimlet, n. 



23 



gimp, nA 
gin. n. 
ginger, n^. 
gipsy, n. 
gird, v.a. 
girdle, n. 
girl, n. 
girtb, n. 
gistf n^. 
give, ». 
givar, ft. 
glad, a. 
glade, n. 
glance, n. 
gland, n. 
glare, v.n. 
glass, n. 
glaze, v.a. 
gleam, n. 
glean, v. 
glebe, n. 
glee, n. 
glen, n. 
glib, a. 
glide, v.H. 
gloat, v.n. 
globe, n. 
gloom, n. 
gloomy, a. 
glory, n. 
gloss, n. 
glove, n. 
gloved, a. 
glover, ». 
glow, v.n. 
glue, i;.a. 
glum, a. 
glut, v.a. 
gnash, VM. 
gnat, n. 
gna^, v.a. 
go, v.n. 
goad, v.a. 
goal, n. 
goas n. 
gobble, V. 
goblet, n. 
goblin, n. 
goer, n. 
gold, n.8. 
golden, a, 
gons, n. 
good, a. 
goods, 71.J>{, 
goose, n. 
gore, t;.a. 



gorge, V.O. 
gorse, nut. 
gory, a. 
gouge, VM. 
gout, n.<. 
gown, n. 
grab, VM. 
grace, n. 
graced, a. 
grade, n. 
graft, v.a. 
grain, n. 
grand, a. 
grange, ». 
grant, v.a. 
grape, n. 
grasp, v.a. 
grass, n. 
grate, v. 
grater, n. 
grave, n. 
grave, a. 
gravel, n. 
graven, a. 
gravy, n. 
gray, n. 
gray, o. 
graze, v. 
grease, n. 
greasy, a. 
great, a. 
grebe, n. 
greed, n.s. 
greedy, a, 
green, n. 
greet, v.a. 
grey, n. 
grey, a. 
grief, n. 
grill, v.a. 
grim, a. 
grime, vm. 
grimy, a. 
grin,n. 
grind, v. 
grip, v.o. 
gripe. v.a. 
grist, n.«. 
grit, nA 
groan, n. 
groat, n. 
grocer, n. 
grog, n.«. 
groin, n. 
groom, n. 
grope, v.n. 
gross, a. 
ground, n. 



group, n. 
grouse, n.<. 
grove, n. 
grovel, v.n. 
grow, V. 
grower, n. 
growl, v.n. 
grown, a. 
growth, «. 
grub, n. 
grudge, V. 
gruff, a. 
grunt, v.n. 
guard, n. 
guess, n. 
guest, n. 
guide, n. 
guild, n. 
guile, n^. 
guilt, n.s. 
guilty, a. 
guise, nj». 
gulf, n. 
gull, v.a. 
gullet, n. 
gully, n. 
gulp, v.a. 
gum, V.O. 
gummy, a. 
gun, n. 
gurgle, v.n. 
gurnet, n. 
gush, v.n. 
gusset, n. 
gust, n. 
gusty, a. 
gutter, tt. 
guy, n. 



H 

habit, n. 
hack, v.a. 
hackle, n. 
haft, n. 
bag, n. 
haggle, v.n. 
hail, v.n. 
hair, n. 
hairy, a. 
hake, n. 
hale, VM. • 
hale, a. 
half, a. 
hall, n. 



hallow, v.a. 
halo, ft. 
halt, V. 
halter, n. 
halve, v.a. 
ham. n. 
hamlet, n. 
hammer, n. 
hamper, n. 
hand, v.a. 
handle, n. 
handy, a. 
hang, V. 
hanger, n. 
hank, n. 
hanker, v.n. 
haply, ad. 
happy, a. 
harass, v.a. 
bard, a. 
harden, v.a. 
hardly, ad. 
hardy, a. 
hare, n. 
hark, int. 
harm, v.a. 
harp, v.n. 
harper, n. 
harpy, n. 
harrow, n. 
harry, v.a. 
harsh, a. 
hart, n. 
hash, v.a. 
hasp, v.a. 
haste, v.n. 
hasten, v.n. 
hasty, a. 
hat, H. 
hatch, n. 
hate, v.a. 
hatred, n. 
hatter, n. 
haul, v.a. 
haunch, n. 
haunt, i». 
have, v.a. 
haven, n. 
haw, ft. 
hawk, v.n. 
hawker, n. 
hay, n.«. 
haze, n.«. 
hazy, a. 
he, »r. 
head, v.a. 
header, n. 
heady, a. 



24 



heal, V. 
healer, n. 
health, n. 
heap, VM. 
hear, v. 
heart, n. 
hearth, n. 
hearty, a. 
head, v.a. 
heater, n. 
heath, n. 
heave, t'.a. 
heaven, n. 
heavy, a. 
hedge, n. 
heed, t'. 
heel, v.n. 
height, n. 
heir, n. 
helm, n. 
helmed, a. 
helmet, n. 
help, V. 
helve, n. 
helved, a. 
hem, t7.a. 
hemp, n. 
heD, n. 
hence, arf. 
herald, n. 
herb, n. 
herbal, n. 
herd, v.n. 
here, af2. 
hermit, n, 
hero, n. 
heron, n. 
hest, n. 
hew, t;.a. 
hewer, n. 
hide, v.a. 
hie, v.n. 
high, a. 
highly, ad. 
hill, n. 
hilly, a. 
hilt, n. 
hilted, a. 
hind» n. 
hinder, v.a. 
hinge, n. 
hinged, a. 
hint, V. 
hip, n. 
hipped, a. 
hire, v.a. 
his, pr. 



hiss, v. 
hist, in<. 
hit,n. 
hitch, n. 
hither, ad. 
hive, v.a. 
hoar, a. 
hoard, n. 
hoarse, a. 
hoary, a. 
hoax, v.a. 
hob, ro. 
hobble, v.n. 
hobby, n. 
hock, n. 
hockey, n. 
hod, n. 
hoe, V.O. 
hog, n. 
hoist, v.a. 
hold (holden), v.a. 
holder, n. 
hole, n. 
hollow, a. 
holly, n. 
holy, a. 
home, n. 
homily, n. 
hominy, n. 
hone, n. 
honest, a. 
honey, n. 
honor, n. 
honour, n. 
hood, n. 
hooded, a. 
hoof, n. 
hoofed, a. 
hook, v.a. 
hoop, n. 
hooped, a. 
hoot, V. 
hop, v.n. 
hope, V. 
hopper, n. 
horn, n. 
homed, a. 
hornet, n. 
homy, a. 
horrid, a. 
horse, n. 
horsed, a. 
hose, n. p{. 
hosier, n. 
host, n. 
hot, a. 
hotel, «. 
holly, ad. 



hound, n. 
hour, n. 
hourly, o. 
house, n. 
housed, a. 
hovel, n. 
hover, v.n. 
how, nd. 
howl, v.n. 
hoyden, n. 
huddle, v.n. 
hue, n. 
hued, a. 
huff, v.a. 
hug, v.a. 
huge, a. 
hulk, n. 
hull, v.a. 
hum, v.n. 
human, a. 
humble, a. 
humor, n. 
humour, n. 
hump, n. 
humped, a. 
hunch, n. 
hunger, n.8. 
hungry, a. 
hunt, V. 
hunter, n. 
hurdle, n. 
hurl, VM. 
hurry, n.». 
hurt, v.a. 
hurtle, v.n. 
hush, v.a. 
husk, v.a. 
husky, a. 
hussv, n. 
hustle, v.a. 
hut, n. 
hutch, n. 



ibis, n. 
ice, n. 
iced, a. 
icy, o. 
idea, n. 
ideal, a. 
ides, n. pi. 
idiom, n. 
idiot, n. 
idle, v.n. 
idle, a. 
idler, n. 



dly, a<2. 
dol, n. 
Ik, a. 
11, n. 
mage, n. 
mp, n. 
mport, v.o. 
mpose, v.a. 
mpost, n. 
nch, n. 
ncise, v.a. 
ncite, v.a. 
ndent, v.a. 
nfant, n. 
nfect, v.a. 
nfer, v.a. 
nfest, v.a. 
nform, v.a. 
nfuse, v.a. 
nject, v.a. 
nlure, v.a. 
nk, n. 
nked, a, 
nky, a. 
nland, ad. 
nlay, w.a. 
nlet, n. 
nly, ad. 
nn, n. 
nnate, a. 
nsane, a. 
nsect, ft. 
nsert, v.a. 
nlide, a^. 
nsist, v.n. 
nsult, v.a. 
ntacti a. 
ntena, v. 
ntent, n. 
nvade, v.a. 
nvent, v.a. 
nvert, v.a. 
nvest, v.a. 
nvite, v.a. 
nvoke, v.a. 
re, n.8. 
ris, n. 

rks, V. t'mpers. 
ron, v.a. 
rony, n 
sland, n. 
sle, n. 
slet, n. 
vy, n. 



jabber, v. 



25 



jack, n. 
jacket, n. 
jade, n. 
jaded, a. 
jag. n. 
jagged, a. 
jail, n. 
jailer, n. 
jam, v.a. 
jamb, n. 
jangle, v.n. 
jar, ©.». 
jasper, n. 
jaxint, n. 
jaunty, a. 
jaw, n. 
jay, n. 
jeer, v. 
jelly, ». 
jenny, n. 
jerk, v.a. 
jest, v.n. 
jester, n. 
jet, ».n. 
jetty, n. 
jewel, n. 
jil), ».a, 
jig, v.n. 
jilt, v.a. 
jingle, v.a. 
lob, v.n. 
jobber, n. 
jockey, n. 
jog, r. 
join, V. 
joiner, n. 
joint, n. 
joist, n. 
joke, v.n. 
jolly, a. 
jolt, v.a. 
jot, v.a. 
joy, n. 
judge, V. 
jUK n. 
jugged, a. 
jumble, v.a. 
jump, v.n. 
jungle, 9 
junk, n. 
jurist, n. 
jury, n. 
just, a. 
jut, v.n. 

K 

kale, n.8. 



n. 



keel, n. 
keen, a. 
keep, v.a. 
keg, n. 
kelp, n.8. 
ken, v.a. 
kennel, n. 
kettle, n. 
key, n. 
kick, V. 
kid, n. 
kill, v.a. 
kilt, n. 
kilted, a. 
kin, n.8. 
kind, n. 
kind, a. 
kindle, v.n. 
kindly, ad. 
kine, n. pL 
king, n. 
kink, n« 
kinked, a. 
kirk, n. 
kiss, V. 
kit, n. 
kite, n. 
kitb, n.8. 
kitten, n. 
knack, n. 
knave, n. 
knead, v.a. 
knee, n. 
kneel, v.n. 
knell, n.8. 
knife/, n. 
knight, n. 
knit, V. 
knob. n. 
knock, n. 
knoll, n. 
knot, n. 
know, V. 



label, n. 
labor, n. 
labour, n. 
lac, n. 
lace, v.a. 
lack, v.a. 
lackey, n. 
lad, n. 
ladder, n. 
lade, V. 



ladle, v.a. 
lady, n. 
lag, v.n. 
lair, n. 
laity, n.8. 
lake, n. 
lama, n. 
lamb, n. 
lame, v.a. 
lame, a. 
lament, v. 
lamp, n. 
lance, v.a. 
lancer, n. 
lancet, n. 
land, v.n. 
lane, n. 
lank, a. 
lap, V. 
lapse, v.n. 
larch, n. 
lard, v.a. 
large, a. 
lark, n. 
lash, v.a. 
lass, n. 
last, v.n. 
lastly, a<f. 
latch, n. 
late, a. 
latent, a. 
lath, n. 
lathe, n. 
lather, n.8. 
latter, a. 
land, v.a. 
laugh, v.n. 
launch, v.a. 
lava, n.8. 
lave, V. 
laver, n. 
lavish, a. 
law, n. 
lawn, n. 
lawyer, n. 
lax, a. 
lay, v.a. 
layer, n. 
lazy, a. 
lea, n. 
lead, n. 
lead, V. 
leaded, a. 
leaden, a, 
leader, n. 
leaf, n. 
leafy, a. 



leak, v.n. 
leaky, a. 
lean, v. 
lean, a. 
leap, v.n. 
learn, v.n. 
lease, n. 
leash, n. 
leave, v.a. 
leaven, n.s. 
ledge, n. 
ledger, n. 
lee, n.8. 
leech, n. 
leek, n. 
leer, v.n. 
lees, n. pL 
leg, n. 
legal, a. 
legate, n. 
legend, n. 
legion, n. 
lend, v.a. 
lenity, n. 
lens, n. 
lent, n. 
leper, n. 
lessen, v.a. 
lesser, a. 
lesson, n. 
lest, 0. 
let, v.a. 
letter, n. 
level, v.a. 
lever, n. 
levity, n. 
levy, v.a. 
liar, n. 
libel, n. 
lick, v.a. 
lid, n. 
lie, v.n, 
liege, n. 
lien, n. 
life, n. 
lift, v.a. 
light, v.a. 
like, v.a. 
lily, n. 
limb, n. 
lime, n. 
limed, a. 
limp, v.n. 
limp, a. 
limpet, n. 
line, v.a. 
linen, n. 
liner, n. 



26 

ling, n.8. 

linger, v.n. 

link, v.a. 

linnet, n. 

lint, nj. 

lion, n. 

Up, n. 

lipped, a. 

liquid, n. 

liquor, n. 

lisp, v.n. 

list, w.n. 

listen, v.n. 

lithe, a. 

litter, n. 

little (less, least), a. 

live, v.n. 

lively, ad. 

liver, n. 

livery, n. 

livid, a. 

loach, n. 

load, t;.a. 

loaf, n. 

loam, n.«. 

loan, n. 

loath, a. 

loathe, v.a. 

lobby, n. 

lobe, n. 

lobed, a. 

local, a. 

lock, v^. 

locker, n. 

locked, n. 

locus, n. 

lodge, vM. 

loft, n. 

lofty, a. 

log, n. 

loin, n. 

loll, v.n. 

lone, a. 

lonely, a. 

long, v.n. 

long, a. 

loo, n.8. 

look, v.n. 

looker, n. 

loom, v.n. 

loon, n. 

loop, n. 

looped, a. 

loose, v.a. 

loose, a. 

loosen, v.a. 

loot, n.s. 

lop, v.a. 



ord, v.n. 
ore, n.«. 
ory, n. 
ose, v.a. 
OSS, n. 
ot, n. 
oud, a. 
out, n. 
ove, v.a. 
over, n. 
ow, v.n, 
ow, a. 
ower, v.n. 
owly, a. 
oval, a. 
ubber, n. 
ucid, a. 
uck, n.«. 
ucky, a. 
uff, V.fl. 
ug, v.a. 
ugger, n. 
ull, V. 
umber, n.8, 
ump, n. 
umped, a. 
unar, a. 
uiich, n. 
une, n. ■ 
ung, n. 
upine, n. 
urch, v.n. 
ure, v.a. 
urid, a. 
urk, v.n. 
uaty, a, 
ute, n. 



M 



mace, n. 
mad, a. 
madden, v.a. 
madly, ad. 
maggot, n. 
magic, n. 
magnet, n. 
maid, n. 
maiden, n. 
mail, n. 
mailed, a. 
maim, v.a. 
main, n. 
mainly, ad. 
maize, n.«. 
major, n. 



make, v.a. 
maker, n. 
male, n. 
malice, n.«. 
malign, a. 
malt, n. 
malted, a. 
mammon, n^. 
man, n. 
manage, v.a. 
mane, n. 
maned, a. 
manger, n. 
mangle, n. 
mania, n.8. 
maniac, n. 
manly, a. 
manna, n.8. 
manned, a. 
manner, n. 
manor, n. 
manse, n. 
mantle, n. 
many, a. 
map, v.a. 
mar, v.a. 
marble, n. 
march, v.n. 
mare, n. 
margin, n. 
marine, a. 
mark, v.a. 
marker, n. 
market, n. 
marl, n.8. 
marrow, n. 
marry, v. 
marsh, n. 
majrt,n. 
mash, v.a. 
mask, n. 
masked, a. 
mason, n. 
mass, n. 
massed, a. 
massy, a. 
mast, n. 
masted, a. 
master, n. 
mat, n. 
match, n. 
mate, v.a. 
matins, n. jtI. 
matted, a. 
matter, n. 
mature, a. 
maul, v.a. 
may, v.n. 



mayor, n. 
maze, n. 
mazed, a. 
mazy, a. 
mead, n. 
meal, n. 
mean, v.n. 
mean, a. 
meat, n. 
medal, n. 
meddle, v.n. 
medlar, n. 
medley, n. 
meed, n. 
meek, a. 
meet, v. 
meet, a. 
meetly, ad. 
mellow, a. 
melon, n. 
melt (melted or 
molten), v. 
member, n. 
menace, v.a. 
mend, v. 
menial, n. 
mental, a. 
mercy, n. 
mere, n. 
mere, a. 
merely, ad. 
merge, v. 
merit, n. 
merry, a. 
mesh, n. 
meshed, a. 
mess, v.n. 
metal, n. 
mete, vm. 
mettle, n.8. 
mew, V. 
midday, n. 
middle, a. - 
midge, n. 
midst, n. 
midway, ad. 
mien, n. 
might, n. 
mighty, a. 
mild, a. 
mildew, n. 
mildly, ad. 
mile, n. 
milk, v.a. 
milky, a. 
mill, n. 
milled, a. 
miller, n. 



27 



millet, n.n. 
mince, v.a. 
mind, V. 
mine, v. 
miner, n. 
mingle, v. 
minion, n. 
minnow, n. 
minor, a. 
mint, v.a. 
minute, n. 
mire, n.s. 
mirk, a. 
mirky, a. 
mirth, n, 
miry. a. 
miser, n. 
mislead, r.a. 
miss, V. 
mist, H. 
mite, ». 
mitre, n. 
mitred, a. 
mitten, n. 
mity, a. 
mix, p. 
moan, r.n. 
moat, n. 
moated, a. 
mob, v.a. 
mob. n. 
mock, v. 
mode, n. 
model, n. 
modem, a. 
modest, a. 
moist, a. 
molar, n. 
mole, n. 
molest, v.a. 
money, n. 
monk, n. 
monkey, n. 
month, n. 
mood, n. 
moody, a. 
moon, n. 
moor, VM. 
moose, n. 
moot, v.a. 
mop, 9.a. 
mopis, o.n. 
moral, a. 
morals, n. pZ. 
mom, n. 
morose, a. 
morrow, n. 
morsel, n. 



mortal, a. 
mortar, n. 
moss, n. 
mossed, a. 
mossy, a. 
mostly, od. 
mote, n. 
moth, n. 
mother, n. 
motion, n. - 
motive, n. 
motley, o. 
mould, n. 
mouldy, a. 
moult, V. 
mound, n. 
mount, V. 
mourn, v. 
mouse, ft. 
mouth, n. 
move, V. 
mover, n. 
mow, V. 
mower, n. 
much (more, 
most), a. 
mud, u. 
muddle, n.s. 
muddy, a. 
muff, n. 
muffle, v.a. 
mug, n. 
mule, n. 
mull, v.a. 
mullet, n. 
mum, a. 
mumble, v. 
mummer, n. 
mummy, n. 
mumps, n. p2. 
mtmoD, V. 
murder, n. 
murk, n. 
murky, a. 
muse, v.n. 
musk, n. 
musket, n. 
must, V. 
muster, v. 
musty, a. 
mute, n. 
mute, a. 
mutter, v.n. 
mutton, n. 



N 



nag, n. 



nail, VM. 
naked, a. 
name, v.a. 
nap, v.n. 
nape, n.«. 
narrow, a. 
nasal, a. 
nasty, a. 
natal, a. 
nation, n. 
native, a. 
nature, n. 
naught, n. 
naval, a. 
nave, ti. 
navy, n. 
nay, ad. 
neap, a. 
near, t;.a. 
near, a. 
nearly, ad. 
neat a. 
neatly, ad. 
neck, n. 
need. v.a. 
needle, n. 
needy, a. 
neigh, v.n. 
nerve, n. 
nest, n. 
nestle, v.n. 
net, v.a. 
nether, a. 
nettle, n. 
neuter, a. 
never, ad, 
new, a. 
newly, ad. 
news, n. j>l. 
newt, n. 
next, a. 
nib, n. 
nibbed, a. 
nibble, v. 
nice, a. 
nicely, ad. 
nicety, n. 
niche, n. 
nick, v.a. 
nickel, n^. 
niece, n. 
nigh, a. 
night, n. 
nil, n.«. 
nimble, a. 
nimbly, ad. 
nine, a. 
ninety, a. 



nip, v.a. 
nitre, n.«. 
noble, a. 
nobly, ad. 
nod, V. 
noddy, n. 
node, n. 
noise, n. 
noised, a. 
noisy, a. 
none, a. 
nones, n. |>{. 
nook, n. 
noon, n. 
noose, v.a. 
nor, c. 
normal, a, 
north, n.«. 
nose, n. 
not, ad, 
notary, n. 
notch, n. 
note, v.a. 
notice, n. 
notion, n. 
nought, n. 
novel, n. 
novice, n. 
now, ad. 
nude, a. 
null, a. 
numb, a. 
number, n. 
nun, n. 
nurse, v.a. 
nut, n. 
nutty, a. 







oak, n. 
oaken, a. 
oar, n. 
oat, n. 
oath, n. 
obey, V. 
object, n. 
oblige, v.a. 
oblioue, a. 
obtain, v.a. 
occur, v.n. 
ocean, n. 
odd, a. 
oddly, ad. 
odds, n. pf. 
ode, n. 
off, a. 



28 

offer, v.a. 
often, ad. 
ogle, v.a, 
ogre, n. 
oil. v.a. 
old, a. 
olden, a. 
olive, n. 
omen, n. 
omit, v.a, 
once, od . 
one, n. 
onion, n. 
only, ad. 
onset, n. 
onward, oti. 
ooze, v.n. 
opal, n. 
opaque, a. 
open, V. 
opera, n. 
oral, a. 
orange, n. 
orb, n. 
orbed, a. 
orbit, n. 
order, n. 
ore, n. 
organ, n. 
onel, n. 
other, pro. 
otter, n. 
ought, n. 
ounce, n. 
our, ours, pro. 
out, a<I. 
outer, a. 
oval, n. 
oven, n. 
over, pre, 
owe, t;. 
owl, n. 
own, v.a. 
owner, «. 
ox, n. 
oyster, n. 



pace, v.n, 
pack, V. 
packet, n. 
pari, n. 
padded, a. 
paddle, v. 



page, n. 
pa^ed, a. 
pail, n. 
pain, v.a. 
paint, n. 
pair, n. 
paired, a. 
palace, n. 
palate, n. 
pale, a. 
pall, v.n. 
pallet, n. 
palm, v.a. 
palm, n. 
pal'.i.er, n. 
palmy, a. 
palsy, n. 
palter, v.n. 
paltry, a. 
pamper, vm. 
pan, n. 
pane, n. 
panel, n. 
pang, n. 
panic, n. 
pansy, ». 
pant, v.n. 
pantry, n. 
paper, n. 
par, n. 
parade, n. 
parcel, n. 
parch, v.a. 
pard, n. 
pardon, n. 
pare, v.a. 
parent, n. 
parl.sh, n. 
parity, ». 
park, n. 
parley, n. 
parrot, n. 
paiBon, n. 
part. v.a. 
partly, ad. 
party, n. 
pass, V. 
past, a. 
paste, v.a. 
pastor, n. 
pastry, n. 
pasty, n. 
pat, r.a. 
patch, n. 
pate, n. 
patent, a. 
I)atb, n. 
patrol, n. 



patron, n. 
patten, n. 
patter, v.n. 
pauper, n. 
pause, v.n. 
pave, v.a. 
paw, v.a. 
pawn, v.a. 
pay, V. 

pea (peas or pease),n. 
peace, n. 
peach, n. 
peak, n. 
peaked, a. 
peal, V. 
pear, n. 
pearl, n. 
peat, n. 
peck, v.n. 
pedal, n. 
pedant, n. 
pedlar, n. 
pedler, n. 
peel, v.a. 
peep, v.n. 
peer, v.n. 
peg, V.O. 
pellet, n. 
pelt, v.a. 

pen (pent or pen- 
ned), v.a. 
penal a. 
pencil, n. 
penny, n. 
peony, n. 
pepper, n. 
per, pre. 
perch, n. 
peril, n. 
perish, v.n. 
permit, v.a. 
person, n. 
peruke, n. 
peruse, vm. 
pest, n. 
pester, v.a. 
pestle, n. 
pet, v.a. 
petal, n. 
petty, a. 
pew, n. 
pewed, a. 
pewter, n. 
phase, n. 
pick, v.a. 
picket, n. 
pickle, n. 
pie, n. 



piece, v.rt. 
pied, a. 
pier, n. 
pierce, v.a. 
pig, n. 
pike, n. 
pile, v.a. 
pill, n. 
pillow, n. 
pilot, n. 
pimple, n. 
pin, v.a. 
pinch, n. 
pine, v.n. 
pinion, n. 
pink, a. 
pint, n. 
pip, n. 
pipe, v.n. 
piper, n. 
pique, VM. 
piquet, n.«. 
pirate, n. 
pistil. H. 
pistol, n. 
piston, n. 
pit, n. 
pitch, n. 
pith, n.8. 
pithy, a. 
pitted, a. 
pity, v.a. 
pixy, n. 
place, v.a. 
plaid, n. 
plain, n. 
plait, n. 
plan, n. 
plane, v.a. 
planet, n. 
plank, n. 
plant, n. 
plate, n. 
plated, a. 
play, v.n. 
player, n. 
plea, n. 
plead, V. 
please, v. 
pleat, v.a. 
pledge, n. 
plenty, n. 
pliers, n. pi. 
plight, n. 
plod, v.n. 
plot, n. 
plough, n. 
plover, u. 



29 



pluck, v.a. 
plug, n. 
plum, n. 
plume, v.a 
plump, a. 
ply, VM. 
poach, V. 
pocket, Ti. 
pod, n. 
poem, n. 
poet, n. 
point, n. 
poise, v.a, 
poke, V. 
poker, n. 
polar, a. 
pole, n. 
police, n. 
policy, n. 
polish, v.a. 
polite, a. 
polity, n. 
poll, v.a. 
pollen, n. 
pomp, n. 
pond, n. 
ponder, v. 
pony, n. 
pool, n. 
poop, u. 
poor, a. 
pop, v.a. 
pope, fi. 
popery, n. 
popish, a, 
poppy, n. 
porch, «. 
pore, •».»». 
pork, U.S. 
port, ». 
port, v.a. 
portal, n. 
porter, n. 
pose, r.a. 
post, V. 
postal, a. 
posy, n. 
pot, n. 
potent, a. 
potion, n. 
potted, a. 
potter, n. 
pottle, n. 
pouch, ». 
pounce, v.n. 
pound, n. 
pour, w. 
pout, v.n. 



powder, n. 
power, n. 
prance, v.n. 
prank, n. 
prate, v.n. 
prater, n. 
prawn, n. 
pray, v. 
prayer, n. 
preach, v. 
press, n. 
pretty, a. 
prey, v.n. 
price, n. 
priced, a. 
prick, n. 
pride, o.a. 
priest, n. 
prig, n. 
prim. a. 
prime, v. a. 
primer, n. 
prince, m. 
print, n. 
prise, v.a. 
prism, n. 
prize, v.a. 
probe, v.a. 
prone, a. 
prong, n. 
proof, n. 
prop, ». 
propel, VM. 
proper, a. 
prose, U.S. 
proser, u. 
prosy, a. 
proud, a. 
prove ^proved or 
proven) v. 
prow. n. 
prowl, v.n. 
projnr, n. 
prude, n. 
prune, n. 
pry, r.n. 
pucker, n. 
puddle, n. 
puff, o. 
pug, n. 
piill, V. 
pullet, n. 
pulley, n. 
pulp, n. 
pulse, n. 
pump, V. 
pim, v.n. 
punch, n. 



punish, V. 
punt, VM. 
pimy, a. 
pup, t». 
pupil, u. 
puppet, tt. 
puppy, n. 
purr, v.n. 
pure. a. 
purely, ad. 
pur^e, ecu 
purist, n. 
purity, n. 
piurl, v.n. 
purse, n. 
purser, n. 
purvey, v.a. 
push, V. 
puss, n. 
put, v.a. 
puzzle, n. 



Q 



quack, r.n. 
quaff, v.a. 
quail, v.n. 
quaint, a. 
quake, v.n. 
quaker, n. 
qualm, m. 
quarrel, n. 
quarry, n. 
quart, u. 
quarter, n. 
quash, v.a. 
quaver, v.n. 
quay, n. 
queen, n. 
queer, a. 
quell, v.a. 
quench, v.a. 
query, n. 
quest, n. 
quick, a. 
quicken, v.a. 
quiet, v.a, 
quiet, a. 
quill, n. 
quilt, ». 
quilted, a. 
quince, n. 
quip, n. 
quire, n. 
quit, V a. 
quite, ad. 



quiver, ti. 
quiz, v.a. 
quote, VM. 
quoth, V. 



E 



rabble, n. 
rabid, a. 
race, v.n. 
rack, v.a. 
racket, n. 
racy, a. 
radish, n. 
raffle, n. 
raft, n. 
rag, n. 
rage, v.n. 
ragged, o. 
rail, V. 
raiu, v.n. 
raise, v.a. 
rake, v.a. 
rally, v. 
ram, v,a. 
ramble, v.n. 
range, v. 
ranger, n. 
rank, v.a. 
rant, v.n. 
ranter, n. 
rap, V. 
rapid, n. 
rapine, n. 
rapper, n. 
rapt, a. 
rare, a. 
rarely, ad. 
rarify, v.o. 
rarity, n. 
rase, v.a. 
rash, a. 
rasp, v.a. 
rat, v.n. 
rate, v.a. 
rather, ad. 
ratify, v.a. 
ration, n. 
rattle, n. 
ravage, v.a. 
rave. v.n. 
ravel, v.a. 
raven, n. 
ravine, n. 
raw, a. 
ray, n. 



30 



rayed, a. 
raze, vm. 
reach, v. 
react, v.n. 
read, v. 
reader, n. 
ready, a. 
real, a. 
ream, n. 
reap, v. 
rear, v. 
reason, n. 
rebel, n. 
rebus, n. 
rebut, VM. 
recall, vm. 
recant, v.a. 
recede, v.n. 
recent, a. 
recess, n. 
recite, v.a. 
reck, r.n. 
reckon, v. 
recoil, v.n. 
record, v.a. 
recur, v.n.> 
red, n. 
red, a. 
redeem, v.a. 
reduce, v. a. 
reed, n. 
reef, ».a, 
reek, v.n. 
reel, r.n. 
refer, v. 
refine, v.a. 
refit, v.a. 
reflx, VM. 
reform, n. 
reft, a. 
refuge, n. 
refund, v.a. 
refuse, v. 
refute, vm. 
regal, a. 
regale, v. 
regard, v.a. 
regent, n. 
region, n. 
regret, n. 
reign, ».»». 
rein, t?.o. 
reject, v.a. 
rejoin, v.a. 
relate, v.a. 
relax, v.a. 
relay, n. 



relent, v.n. 
relic, n. 
relict, n. 
relief, n. 
relish, v.a. 
rely, v.n. 
remain, v.n. 
remand, vxl. 
remark, n. 
remedy, n. 
remind, v.a. 
remiss, a. 
remit, v.a. 
remote, a. 
remove, ».a. 
rend, v.a. 
render, v.a. 
renew, v.a. 
rennet, n.8. 
renown, n. 
rent, v.a. 
rental, n. 
repair, v.a. 
repast, n. 
repay, r.a. 
repeal, v.a. 
repeat, v.a. 
repel, v.a. 
repent, v.n. 
repine, v.n. 
reply, v.n. 
report, n. 
repose, n. 
repute, n. 
►request, n. 
require, vm. 
requite, v.a. 
reside, v.n. 
resign, v. 
resin, n. 
resist, v. 
resort, n. 
rest, V. 
result, n. 
resume, v.a. 
retail, n. 
retain, v.a. 
retard, vm. 
retire, r.n, 
retort, n. 
return, v. 
reveal, v.a. 
revel, n. 
revere, r.a. 
revert, v.n. 
review, n. 
revile, «.a. 
revise, vxu 



revive, v.n. 
revoke, v,a. 
revolt, n. 
reward, n. 
reward, vm. 
rhyme, v. 
rib, n. 
ribald, a. 
riband, n. 
ribbed, o. 
ribbon, n. 
rice, n.a. 
rich, a. 
rick, n. 
rid, v.a. 
riddle, n. 
ride, v.n. 
rider, n. 
ridge, n. 
ridged, a. 
rife, a. 
rifle, v.a. 
rift, n. 
rifted, a. 
rig, v.a. 
right, n. 
rigid, a. 
rigor, n. 
rigour, n. 
rill, n. 
rim, n. 
rime, n. 
rimmed, a. 
rind, n. 
ring, V. 
ringed, o. 
ringer, n. 
rinse, v.a. 
riot, v.n. 
rip, v.a. 
ripe, a. 
ripen, v. 
ripple, n. 
rise, v.n. 
riser, n. 
risk, v.a. 
rite, n. 
rival, n. 
rive, v.a. 
river, n. 
rivet, n. 
roach, n. 
road, n. 
roam, v.n. 
roan, a. 
roar, v.n. 
roarer, n. 
roast, v.a. 



rob. v.a. 
robber, n. 
robe, v.a. 
robin, n. 
robust, a. 
roc, n. 
rock, v.a. 
rocker, n. 
rocket, n. 
rod, n, 
roe, n. 
roKue, n. 
role, n. 
roll, V. 
roller, n. 
romp, v.n. 
rood, n. 
roof, v.a. 
rook, n. 
room, n. 
roost, v.n. 
root, n. 
rooted, a. 
rope, n. 
roped, a. 
ropery, n. 
rosary, n. 
rose, n. 
rosin, n. 
rosy, a. 
rot, V. 
rotary, a. 
rotate, v. 
rote, n.«. 
rotten, a. 
rotund, a. 
rouble, n. 
roui, n. 
rouge, v.a. 
rough, a. 
round, n. 
rouse, VM. 
rout, v.a. 
route, n. 
rove, v.n. 
rover, n. 
row, V. 
rowel, n. 
royal, a. 
rub. V. 
rubber, n. 
rubble, n. 
ruble, n. 
ruby, n. 
ruck, n. 
rudder, n. 
ruddy, a. 
rude, a. 



31 



me, v.n. 
meful, a. 
ruff, n. 
ruffed, a. 
ruffle, v.a. 
rug, «. 
rugged, a. 
ruin, v.a. 
rule, V. 
ruler, n. 
rijin, n. 
rumble, v.n. 
rummer, n. 
rumor, n. 
rumour, n. 
rumple, vm. 
run, v.n. 
rung, n. 
runner, n. 
rural, a. 
ruse, n. 
rush, v.n. 
rusk, n. 
russet, a. 
rust, V. 
rustic, a. 
rustle, v.n. 
rusty, a. 
rut, n. 
rye, n.«. 



s 



sable, n. 
sabre, vm. 
sac, n. 
sack, v.a. 
sacred, a. 
sad, a. 
sadden, v.a. 
saddle, n. • 
sadly, od. 
safe, a. 
safe, n. 
safely, ad. 
safety, n.s. 
sage, n. 
sage, a. 
sagely, ad, 
sago, n.8. 
sail, v.n. 
sailer, n. 
sailor, n. 
saint, n. 
sake, n. 
salad, n. 



salary, n. 
sale, n. 
saline, a. 
sallow, a. 
sally, v.n. 
salmon, n. 
saloon, n. 
salt, v.a. 
salt, a. 
salute, v.a. 
salve, n. 
salved, a. 
salver, n. 
salvo, n. 
same, a. 
sample, n. 
sand, n. 
sandal, n. 
sanded, a. 
sandy, a. 
sane, a. 
sanity, n.8. 
sans, jpre. 
sap, v.a. 
sapid, a. 
sapper, n. 
sash, n. 
sate, v.a. 
satin, n. 
satire, n. 
sauce, n. 
saucer, n. 
saucy, a. 
savage, a. 
save, v.a. 
savor, n. 
savory, a. 
savour, n. 
saw, v.a. 
sawyer, n. 
say, V. 
scald, v.a. 
scale, v.a. 
scalp, n. 
scaiy, a. 
scamp, n. 
scan, v.a. 
scant, a. 
scar, n. 
scarce, a. 
scare, v.a. 
scarf, n. 
scene, n. 
scent, n. 
schism, n. 
schist, n.8. 
school, n. 
scoff, v.n. 



scold, V. 
sconce, n. 
scoop, n. 
scope, n. 
scorch, v.a. 
score, V. 
scorn, v.a. 
scour, v.a. 
scout, n. 
scowl, v.n. 
scrag, n. 
scrap, n. 
scrape, v.a. 
scrawl, V. 
scream, v.n. 
screen, n. 
screw, n. 
scribe, n. 
scrip, n. 
scroll, n. 
scrub, v.a. 
scud, v.n. 
sculk, v.n. 
scull, n. 
scum, n.8. 
sea, n. 
seal, V. 
seam, v.a. 
sear, v.a. 
sear, a. 
search, v. 
season, n. 
seat, n. 
seated, a. 
secede, v.n. 
second, a. 
secret, a. 
sect, n. 
secure, a. 
sedan, n. 
sedate, a. 
sedge, n. 
seduce, v.a. 
see, V. 
seed, n. 
seek, v.a. 
seeker, n. 
seem, v.n. 
seemly, a. 
seer, n. 
segar, n. 
seize, v.a. 
select, a. 
self, pro. 
sell, V. 
senate, n. 
send, v.a. 
senile, a. 



senior, a. 
sense, n. 
sentry, n. 
sequel, n. 
sere, a. 
serene, a. 
serf, n. 
serge, n.s. 
series, n. 
serve, v. 
set, v.a. 
settee, n. 
setter, n. 
settle, V. 
seven, a. 
sever, v.a. 
severe, a. 
sew, V. 
sewer, n. 
sex, n. 
shabby, a. 
shad, n. 
stiade, n. 
shaded, a. 
shadow, n. 
shady, a. 
shaft, n. 
shag, n.8. 
shaggy, a. 
shah, n. 
shake, v. 
shaker, n. 
shaky, a. 
shale, ns. 
shall, V. 
sham, V. 
shame, v.a. 
shank, n. 
shape, v.a. 
share, v. 
s*^.ark, n. 
sharp, a. 
shave, v.a, 
shawl, n. 
shawm, n. 
she, »ro. 
sheai, n. 
shear, v.a. 
sheath, n. 
shed, n. 
sheen, v.8. 
sheep, n. 
sheer, v.n. 
sheet, n. 
shelf, n. 
shell, n. 
sherry, n. 
shew, v.a. 



32 



shield, n. 
shift, «. 
shily, ad, 
shin, n. 
shine, v.n. 
ship, n. 
shire, n. 
shirk, VM. 
shirt, n. 
shiver, v.n. 
shoal, n. 
shock, n. 
shoe, v.a. 
shoot, f . 
shop, n. 
shore, t;.a. 
short, a. 
shot, n. 
shout, n. 
shore, v. 
shove. r.o. 
shovel, n. 
show, V. 
shower, n. 
showy, a. 
shred, n. 
shrew, n. 
shrewd, a. 
shriek, n. 
shrift, n. 
shrill, a. 
shrimp, n. 
shrine, n. 
shrink, v.n. 
shrive, vm. 
shroud, n. 
shrub, n. 
shrug, v.a. 
shun, t;.a. 
shunt, v.a. 
shut, v.a. 
shy, v.n. 

shy (shier or shyer; 
shiest or shyest), a. 
shyly, ad. 
sic, ad. 
sick, a. 
sicken, v. 
sickle, n. 
sickly, a. 
side, v.n. 
sidle, v.n 
siege, n. 
sieve, n. 
sift, v.a. 
sigh, v.n. 
sight, n. 
sign, t'.n. 



signal, n. 
signet, n. 
sileut, a. 
silk, n. 
silken, a. 
silky, a. 
sill, n. 
silly, a. 
silt, t;.a. 
silver, n. 
simile, n. 
simmer, v.n. 
simper, v.n. 
simple, a. 
simply, ad. 
sin, v.n. 
since, c. 
sine, n. 
sinew, n. 
sing, V. 
singe, v.a, 
singer, n. 
single, a. 
singly, ad. 
sink, V. 
sinner, n. 
sip, V. 
sippet, n. 
sir, n. 
sire, n. 
siren, n. 
sirop, n. 
sirup, n. 
sister, n. 
sit, v.n. 
site, n. 
sitter, n. 
six, n. 
sixth, n. 
sixty, n. 
size, n. 
sized, a. 
skate, v.n. 
skein, n. 
sketch, n. 
skew, a. 
skewer, n. 
skid, n. 
skiff, n. 
skill, n. 
skim, V. 
skin, n. 
skip, v.n. 
skirt, n. 
skit, n. 
skulk, v.n. 
skull, n. 
sky, n. 



slab. n. 
slack, a. 
slag, n. 
slf^e, v.a. 
slam, v.a. 
slang, n.8. 
slant, V. 
slap, n. 
slash, V. 
slate, n. 
slated, a. 
slave, v.n. 
slaver, n. 
slay, v.a. 
slayer, n. 
sled, n. 
sledge, n. 
sleek, a. 
sleep, v.n. 
sleepy, o. 
^eet, v.n. 
sleeve, n. 
sleigh, n. 
slice, v.a. 
slide, v.n. 
slight, a. 
slily, ad. 
slim, a. 
slime, n.8. 
slimy, a. 
sling, n. 
slink, v.n. 
slip, n. 
slit, n. 
sloe, n. 
sloop, n. 
slop, n. 
slope, V. 
sloth, n. 
slouch, v.n. 
slough, n. 
sloven, n. 
slow, a. 
slowly, od. 
slug, n. 
slur, v.a. 
slush, n. 
slut, n. 
sly. a. 
slyly, ad, 
smack, n. 
small, a. 
smalt, n. 
smart, v.n. 
smash, v.a. 
smear, v.a. 
smell, v.a. 
smelt, n. 



smile, v.n. 
smiler, n. 
smirk, v.n. 
smite, v.a. 
smiter, n. 
smith, n. 
smithy, n. 
smock, n. 
smoke, v. 
smoker, n. 
smoky, n. 
smoou, a. 
snack, n. 
snail, n. 
snake, n. 
snap, V. 
snare, n. 
snared, a. 
snarl, v.n. 
snatch, v.a. 
sneak, v.n. 
sneer, v.n. 
sneeze, v.n. 
snip, v.a. 
snipe, n. 
snob, n. 
snore, v.n. 
snort, v.n. 
snout, n. 
snow, v.n. 
snub, v.a. 
snuff, n. 
snug, a. 
soak, V. 
soap, n. 
soaped, a. 
soapy, a. 
soar, v.n. 
sob, v.n. 
sober, a. 
sock, n. 
socket, n. 
sod, n. 
soda, n.s. 
sofa, n. 
soft, a. 
soften, V. 
softly, ad. 
soil, v.a. 
solar, a. 
solder, n. 
sole, n. 
soled, a. 
solely, ad. 
solid, n. 
solo (solos), n. 
solve, v.a. 
some, a. 



33 



son, n. 
sauft, N. 
sonnet, w. 
soon, ad. 
soot, n. 
sooth, n^. 
soothe, r.a. 
sooty, a. 
sop, v.a. 
sordid, a. 
aore, n. 
sore. a. 
sorely, ad. 
sorrel, n. 
sorrow, n. 
sorry, a. 
sort, v.a. 
sot, n. 
soul, w. 
sound, n. 
soup, n. 
sour, VM. 
sour, a. 
source, n. 
sourly, ad. 
souse, VM. 
south, v.n. 
sow, V. 
sower, n. 
soy, n^. 
spa,n. 
space, n. 
spaced, a. 
spade, n. 
span, n. 
spar, n. 
spare, v.a. 
spare, a. 
spark, n. 
speiJc, V. n. 
spear, n. 
speck, n. 
Bpeecb, ». 
speed, n. 
speed, v.n. 
Bpeedv, a. , 
spell (spelled or 
spelt), V. 
spend, VM. 
sphere, n. 
spice, VM. 
spii^, a. 
spider, n. 
spike, v.a. 
spin (spilled or 
spilt), v.a. 
spin, V. 



spinal, a. 
spine, ti. 
spiral, a. 
spire. It. 
spirit, n. 
Spirt, VM. 
spit, n. 
spite, tJ.o. 
Splash, n. 
splay, a. 
splice, n. 
splint, n. 

SpllL VM. 

spoil, v.a. 
spoke, n. 
spoked, a. 
sponge, n. 
spongy, o. 
spool, n. 
spoon, n. 
sport, n. 
spot, n. 
spouse, n. 
spout, n. 
sprain, v.a. 
sprat, n. 
sprawl, v.n. 
spray, n. 
spread, v. 
sprig, »». 
spring, v.n. 
sprite, n. 
sprout, n. 
spruce, a. 
spud, n. 
spur, n. 
spurn, v/>. 
spurt, v.n. 
spy, v.a. 
squad, n. 
squall, v.n. 
square, v.a. 
squash, v.a. 
squat, v.n. 
squeak, v.n. 
squeal, v.n. 
squeeze, v.a. 
squih, n. 
squill, n. 
squint, v.n. 
squire, n. 
squirt, n. 
star, n. 
stab, v.a. 
stable, n. 
stack, n. 
staff, n. 
stag, n. 



stage, n. 
stager, n. 
stain, n. 
stair, n. 
stake, v.a. 
stale, a. 
stalk, n. 
stall, n. 
stamp, n. 
stand, v.n. 
staple, n. 
star, n. 
starch, n.«. 
stare, v.n. 
stark, a. 
start, v.n. 
starve, v. 
state, v.a. 
stave, n. 
staved, a. 
stay (stayed or 
staid), v.n. 
stay, n. 
stead, n. 
steady, a. 
steak, n. 
steal, v.n. 
steam, v. 
steed, n. 
steel, v.a. 
steep, n. 
steer, v. 
stem, n. 
step, n. 
stern, n. 
stew, v.a. 
stick, V. 
stiff, a. 
stifle, v.a. 
stile, n. 
still, v.a. 
stilly, a. 
stilt, n. 
sting, VM. 
stingy, a. 
stint, v.a. 
stir, v.a. 
stitch, n. 
stoat, n. 
stock, n. 
stoker, n. 
stole, n. 
stoled, a. 
stolid, a. 
stone, v.a. 
stony, a. 
stool, n. 
stoop, v.n. 



stop, V. 
store, v.a. 
stork, n. 
storm, n. 
stormy, a. 
story, n. 
stout, a. 
stove, n. 
stow, v.a. 
strain, n. 
strait, n. 
strand, n. 
strap, u. 
straw, n. 
stray, v.n. 
streak, u. 
stream, n. 
street, n. 
stress, n. 
strew (strewed or 

strewn), v.a. 
strict, a. 
stride, n. 
strife, n. 
strike, v.a. 
string, n. 
strip, v.a. 
stripe, n. 
strive, v.n. 
stroke, n. 
stroll, n. 
strong, a. 
strop, n. 
strow (strowed or 

strowii), VM. 
strut, v.n. 
stub, n. 
stud, n. 
study, n. 
stuff, n. 
stump, n. 
stun, v.a. 
stunt, v.a. 
stupid, a. 
sty, n. 
style, v.a. 
suave, o. 
subdue, V.O. 
submit, v.n. 
suborn, v.a, 
subtle, a. 
subtly, od. 
suburb, n. 
such, a. 
suck, V. 
sucker, n. 
sudden, a. 
suds, n. pi. 



C 



34 

sue, V. 
suet, njB. 
suffer, V. 
sugar, n. 

suit, VM, 

suite, n. 
suitor, n. 
sulk, v.n. 
sulky, a. 
sullen, a. 
sully, v.a. 
sultan, n. 
siun, v.a. 
summer, n. 
summit, n. 
summon, v.a. 
sun, n. 
sunder, vm. 
sundew, n. 
sundry, a. 
sunny, a. 
sunset, n. 
sup, V. 
superb, a. 
supine, a. 
supper, n. 
sun;>le, a. 
supply, v. 
surd, «. 
sure. a. 
surely, ad. 
surety, n. 
surf, n.«. 
surge, v.n. 
surly, a. 
survey, v.a. 
suture, n. 
swain, n. 
swamp, n. 
swan, n. 
sward, n. 
swarm, n. 
sway, v.a. 
swear (sware 
swore), v.n. 
sweep, n. 
sweet, a. 
swell, v.n. 
swerve, v.n. 
swift, a. 
swill, V. 
swim, v.n. 
swine, n. 
swing, v. 
switch, n. 
swoon, v.n. 
swoop, V. 
sword, n. 



or 



syrop, «. 
syrup, n. 
syzygy, n. 



T 

tabljy, n. 
table, n. 
tablet, n. 
taboo, v.a. 
tabor, n. 
tack, V. 
tackle, n. 
tact, n.8. 
tag, VM. 
tail, n. 
tailed, a. 
tailor, n. 
taint, v.a. 
take, v.a, 
talc, n.8. 
tale, n. 
talent, n. 
talk, v.n. 
talker, n. 
tall, a. 
tallow, n. 
tally, v.w. 
talon, n. 
tame, vm. 
tame, a. 
tamper, v.n. 
tan, v.a. 
tangle, n. 
tank, n. 
tanner, n. 
tansy, n. 
tap, v.a. 
tape, n. 
taper, n. 
tapir, n. 
tapis, n.«. 
tar, v.a. 
tardy, a. 
tare, n. 
target, n. 
tarn, n. 
tarry, v.n. 
tart, n. 
tart, a. 
tartan, n. 
tartar, n. 
tartly, od 
task, n. 
tasked, a. 
tassel, n. 



taste, V. 
tasty, a. 
tatter, n. 
tattle, «. 
taunt, n. 
taut, a. 
tavern, n. 
taw, n. 
•tax, v.a. 
tea, n. 
teach, V. 
teak, n^. 
teal,n. 
team, n. 
tear, v.a. 
tease. v.a. 
teasel, n. 
teem, v.n. 
tell, V. 
teller, n. 
temper, n. 
temple, n. 
tempt, v.a. 
ten, n. 
tenace, n. 
tenant, n. 
tench, n. 
tend, V. 
tender, a. 
tendon, n. 
tenet, n. 
tennis, n. 
tenon, n. 
tenor, n. 
tense, n. 
tent, n. 
tenth, n. 
tenure, n. 
tepid, a. 
term, v.a. 
terror, n. 
terse, a. 
test, v.a. 
tester, n. 
testy, a. 
tether, n. 
text, n. 
than, c. 
thane, n. 
thank, v/i. 
that (those), pro. 
thaw, V. 
the, art. 
theft, n. 
their, pro. 
theirs, pro. 
theme, n. 
then, ad. 



thence, ad. 
there, ad. 
thesis, n. 
thews, n.j>{. 
they, jjro. 
thick, a. 
thief, n. 
thigh, n. 
thin, a. 
thine, pro. 
thing, n. 
think, v.n. 
third, n. 
thirst, n. 
thirtv, n. 
this (these), pro. 
thong, n. 
thorn, n. 
thou, i>ro. 
thoukn, c. 
thraU, n. 
thrash, v.a, 
thread, n. 
threat, n. 
three, n. 
thresh, vm. 
thrice, ad. 
thrift, n. 
thrill, V. 
thrive, v.n. 
throat, n. 
throb, v.n. 
throe, n. 
throne, n. 
throng, n. 
throw, v.a. 
thrush, n. 
thrust, V. 
thumb, n. 
thump, n. 
thus, ad. 
thy, pro. 
thyme, n.s. 
tic. n.s. 
tick, v.n. . 
ticket, n. 
tickle, v.a. 
tidal, a. 
tide, n. 
tided, a. 
tidy, a. 
tie, v.a. 
tiger, n. 
tight, a. 
tile, n. 
tiled, a. 
tiler, n. 
till, v.a. 



3i 



tiller, n. 
tilt, v.n. 
timber, n. 
time, n. 
timed, a. 
timely, a. 
timid, a. 
tin, v.ch 
tinder, njB. 
tinge, VM. 
tingle, v.n. 
tinker, n. 
tinkle, «. 
tinner, n. 
tinsel, n^. 
tint, v.a. 
tiny, a. 
tip, n. 
tipped, a. 
tippet, n. 
tipple, v.n. 
tipsy, a. 
tire, V. 
tisfue, n. 
tithe, n. 
title, n. 
titled, a. 
titter, v.n. 
tiUle. n. > 
toad, n. 
toast, n. 
today, CM?, 
toddle, VM. 
toddy, n. 

tocvn< 
toil, v.n. 
toilet, n. 
tokay, njt. 
token, n. 
toll, v. 
tolu. n.s. 
tomb, n. 
tome, n. 
ton, n. 
tone, n. 
tongs, n. fit. 
tongue, n. 
tonio, n. 
too, ad. 
tool, n. 
tooled, a. 
tooth, n. 
top, n. 
tope, v.n. 
toper, n. 
topic, n. 
topped, a. 
topple, V. 
torch, n. 



torpid, a. 
torrid, a. 
toss (tossed), v.a. 
total, n. 
totter, v.n. 
touch, vxh 
tough, a, 
tour, n. 
tout, v.n. 
touter, n. 
tow, v.a. 
towel, n. 
tower, n. 
town, n. 
toy, n. 
trace, v.a. 
track, n. 
tract, n. 
trade, v.n. 
trader, n. 
trail, v.a. 
train, n. 
trait, n. 
tram, n. 
tramp, n. 
trance, n. 
trap, n. 
trash. n.«. 
traveX v.n. 
trawl, n. 
tray, n. 
tread, v. 
treat, n. 
treaty, n. 
treble, a. 
tree, n. 
trench, n. 
tress, n. 
tret, nA 
triad, n. 
trial, n. 
tribe, n. 
trice, n. 
trick, n. 
trifle, n. 
trill, n. 
trim, v.a. 
trio,n. 
trip, n. 
tripe, nA. 
triple, a. 
tripod, n. 
tripos, n. 
troll, v.a. 
troop, n. 
trope, n. 
trophy, n, 
tropLo, n. 



trot. v.n. 
troth, n.s. 
trough, n. 
trover, n. 
trowel, n. 
truce, n. 
triicl^n. 
true, a. 
truly, cmZ. 
trump, n. 
trunk, n. 
truss, n. 
trust, V. 
trusty, a. 
truth, n. 
try, V. 
tryst, n. 
tub, n. 
tube, n. 
tuber, n. 
tuck, v.a. 
tuft, n. 
tufted, a. 

tUK, V. 

tulip, n. 
tumole, v.n. 
tumid, a. 
tumor, n. 
tumour, n. 
tumult, n. 
tun, n. 
tune, v.a. 
tuner, n. 
tunic, n. 
tunnel, n. 
tunny, n. 
turbid, a. 
turbot,n. 
turf, n. 
turfed, a. 
turgid, a. 
turkey, n. 
turn, V. 
turner, n. 
turnip, n. 
turret, n. 
turtle, n. 
tusk, n. 
tusked, a. 
tussle, v.n. 
tutor, n. 
twain, n. 
twang, tfM. 
tweak, v.a. 
twice, ad. 
twig, n. 
twill, n. 
twin, n. 



twine, VM. 
twinge, n. 
twirl, vxu 
twist, V. 
twit, v.a. 
twitch, VM» 
two^ n. 
tjrpe, n. 
tyro,n. 



u 

ugly, a. 
umhel, n. 
umber, n.«. 
umpire, n. 
unbend, v. 
unbind, v.a. 
uncle, n. 
uncurl, v.ai 
under, pre. 
undo, v.a. 
unduly, od. 
uneasy, a. 
uneven, a. 
unfair, a. 
unfelt, a. 
unfit, v/s. 
unfix, v.a. 
unfold, v.a. 
unfurl, v.a. 
unholy, a. 
unhook, v.a. 
union, n. 
unique, a. 
unison, n. 
unit, n. 
unite, V. 
unity, n. 
unjust, a. 
unkind, a. 
unlace, vm. 
un ade, v.a. 
imless, e. 
unlike, a. 
unman, v.a. 
unmoor, v.a. 
unpack, v.a. 
unread, a. 
unrest, n. 
unroll, V.CU 
unruly, a. 
unsay, v.a. 
unseen, a. 
unsold, a. 
untie, v.a. 



C2 



36 



until, pre. 
unto, pre. 
uutola, a. 
untru^ a. 
unused, a. 
unwary, a. 
unwell, a. 
unwise, a. 
unwont, a. 
uphold, v.a. 
upon, pre. 
upper, o. 
uproar, n. 
upset, VM. 
upward, a. 
urge, v.a. 
urn, n. 
usage, n. 
use, t>.a. 
ustier, n. 
usurp, v.a. 
usury, n.». 
utter, v.a. 



V 

vacant, a. 
vacate, vm, 
vagary, n. 
vaprue, a. 
vail, n, 
vailed, a. 
vain, a. 
vainly, ad. 
vale, n. 
valet, n. 
valid, a. 
valise, n. 
valley, n. 
valor, ns. 
valour, n^. 
valse, f.n. 
value, VM. 
valuer, n. 
valve, n. 
valved, a. 
vamp, v.a. 
van, n. 
vane, n. 
vanish, v.n. 
vanity, n. 
vapid, a. 
vapor, n. 
vapour, n. 
varlet, n. 
vary, i>. 



vase, «. 
va&sal, n. 
vast, a. 
vat, n. 
vault, n. 
vaunt, ». 
veal, n.8. 
veer, ». 
veil, n. 
veiled, a. 
vein, n. 
veined, a. 
venal, a. 
vend, v.a. 
venial, a. 
vent, ».a. 
venue, n. 
verb, «. 
verbal, a. 
verge, f .n. 
verify, t;.a. 
verity, n. 
vernal, o. 
vprse, n. 
versed, a. 
vertex, n. 
very, a. 
vessel, n. 
vest, n. 
vested, a. 
vetch, w. 
veto (vetoes), n. 
vex, ».a. 
vial, n. 
viand, n. 
vicar, n. 
vice, n. 
victor, n. 
vie, v.n. 
view, t?.o. 
vigil, n. 
vigor, n. 
vigour, n. 
vile, a. 
vilify, ».o. 
villa, n. 
vine, n. 
vinery, n. 
viol, n, 
viola, n. 
violel, n. 
violin, n. 
viper, n. 
vision, n. 
visit, n. 
visor, n. 
vista, n. 
vital, a. 



vitals, n. j^Z. 
vivid, a. 
vivify, v.a. 
vocal, a. 
vogue, n. 
voice, w. 
void, a. 
volley, n. 
volume, n. 
vortex, n. 
votary, n. 
vote, n. 
votive, a. 
vouch, «. 
vow, V. 
vowel, w. 
voyage, n. 



W 



wad, n. 
wadded, a. 
waddle, v.n. 
wade, t;.n. 
wader, n. 
wafer, n. 
waft, v.a. 
wag, v.a. 
wager, n. 
wages, n. pi. 
w^agon, n. 
waggon, n. 
waif, ». 
wail, r.n. 
wain, n. 
waist, n. 
wait, v.n. 
waiter, n. 
waive, t;.a. 
wake, V. 
waken, v. 
wale, n. 
waled, a. 
walk, v.n. 
walker, n. 
wall, n. 
walled, a. 
wallet, n. 
wallow, fj.n. 
waltz, v.n. 
wan, a. 
wand, n. 
wander, t?.». 
wane, v.n. 
want, V. 



wanton, a. 
war, v.n. 
warble, v.n. 
ward, v.a. 
warden, n. 
warder, n. 
ware, n. 
warily, arf. 
warm, v.a. 
warm, o. 
warmly, ad. 
warmth, n. 
warn, v.a. 
warp, V. 
warren, n. 
wart, n. 
wary, a. 
was, V. 
wash, V. 
washer, n. 
washy, a. 
wasp, n. 
waste, V. 
watch, n. 
water, n. 
wattle, n. 
wave, V. 
waver, v.n. 
wavy, a. 
wax, v.n. 
waxy, a. 
way, n. 
weak, a. 
weaken, v. 
weakly, ad. 
weal, n. 
wealth, n.«. 
wean, v.a. 
wear, v. 
weary, o. 
weasel, n. 
weave, v. 
weaver, n. 
weazen, a. 
web, n. 
webbed, a. 
wed, v.a. 
wedge, v.a. 
weed, v.a. 
week, n. 
ween, v.n. 
weep, v.n. 
weeper, n. 
weft, n. 
weigh, V. 
weijiht, n. 
weld, v.a. 
well, v.n. 



welter, v.n. 
wen, V. 
wench, n. 
wend (wended or 
went), v.n. 
west, n^. 
wet, v.a. 
wet, a. 
whale, n. 
whaff, n. 
what, pro, 
wheat, n. 
wheel, n. 
whelk, n. 
whelm, v.a, 
whelp, n. 
when, ad. 
whence, ad. 
where, ad. 
whet, v.a. 
whey, n.8. 
which, pro, 
whiff, v.a. 
while, ad. 
whiles, ad. 
whim, n. 
whin, n. 
whine, v.n. 
whip, n. 
whirl, V. 
whisk, v.a. 
whist, n.8. 
whit, n.8. 
white, n. 
whiten, v.a. 
whiz, v.n. 
who. pro. 
whole, a. 
wholly, ad. 
whoop, n. 
whose, pro. 
whoso, pro. 
why, ad. 
wick, tt. 
wicked, a. 
wicker, ». 
wicket, n. 



wide. a. 
widely, od. 
widen, v.a. 
widow, n. 
wield, vxL, 
wife, n. 
wig, n. 
wigged, a. 
wieht, n. 
wild, n. 
wild, o. 
wildly, ad. 
wile, n. 
wilful, o.- 
wlll, r.«. 
willow, n. 
wily, o. 
win, V. 
wince, v.n. 
winch, n. 
wind, V. 
window, n. 
windy, a. 
wine, n. 
wing, n. 
winged, a. 
wink, v.n. 
winner, n. 
winnow, v.a, 
winter, n. 
wintry, a. 
wipe, t?.a. 
wiper, n. 
wire, n. 
wired, o. 
wiry, a. 
wise, a. 
wish, V. 
wisp, n. 
wist, V. 
wit, n. 
witch, n. 
with, pre. 
wither, v. 
wittiln, ad. 
witty, o. 



wizard, n. 
woad, n. 
woe. n. 
wold, n. 
wolf, n. 
woman, n. 
wonder, n. 
wont, a. 
wonted, a, 
woo, V. 
wood, n. 
wooden, a. 
woody, a. 
wooer, n, 
woof, n. 
wool, n. 
woolly, a. 
word, n. 
worded, a. 
wordy, a. 
work, t>. 
worker, n. 
world, n. 
worm, tJ.a. 
worry, v.a. 
worse, a. 
worst, a. 
wort, n.«. 
worth, n.«. 
worthy, o, 
wot, v.n. 
would. V. 
wound, n. 
wrap, v.a. 
wrath, n.«. 
wreak, v.a. 
wreath, n. 
wreck, n. 
wren, n. 
wrench, v.a. 
wrest, v.a. 
wretch, n. 
wring, v.a. 
wrist, n. 
writ, n. 



37 

write, V. 
writer, n. 
wrong, M. 

wry (wrier or wryer; 
wriest or wryest), a. 



yard, n. 
yam, n. 
yawn, v.n. 
yea, ad. 
year, n. 
yearly, a. 
yearn, t».«. 
yeast, nA 
yelk, n. 
yell, v.n. 
yellow, n. 
yelp, v.n. 
yes, a. 
yet, ad. 
yew, n. 
yield, v.n. 
yoke, v.a. 
yolk, n. 
yon, a. 
yonder, o. 
yore, ad. 
you, ^o. 
young, o. 
your, jM-o. 
youth, n. 



z 



zany, n. 
zeal, n. 
zero, n. 
zest, n.8. 
zone, n. 
zoned, a. 



38 



SOLUTIONS OF DOUBLETS. (See p. 8.) 



PIG 


p i t 


8 i t 


sat 


say 


STY 


PEN 


e'e n 


eel 


e 1 1 


i 1 1 


i 1 k 


I NK 


WET 


b e t 


bey 


d e y 


DRY 


EYE 


dye 


d i e 


d 1 d 


LID 


EEL 


e' e n 


pen 


pin 


PIE 


APE 


« r e 


ere 


err 


ear 


mar 


M AN 



OAT 


rat 


r t 


roe 


RYE 


TEA 


sea 


set 


sot 


HOT 



ELM 



e 




a 




a 




a 




f 




f 


a r 





a r 



OAK 



BUY 


b 


a 


d 


b 


i 


d 


a 


i 


d 


a 


i 


m 


a 


r 


m 


a 


x 


k 


a 


8 


k 



ASS 



ONE 





r 


e 


e 


r 


e 


e 


r 


r 


e 


a 


r 


t 


a 


r 


t 


a 


P 


t 





P 


t 









TWO 



FOUR 


f 


u 1 


f 


1 


f 


t 


f 


r t 


f 


r e 


f i 


r e 


FIVE 


NOSE 


n o 


t e 





t e 


C 


r e 


C 


r n 


C 


i n 


CHIN 


HARE 


h a 


r k 


h a 


c k 


8 a 


k 


S 


k 


8 


a k 


8 


a p 


SOUP 


PITY 


P i 


t 8 


P I 


n 8 


f I 


n 8 


f I 


n d 


X 


n d 


f o 


d 


GOOD 


CAIN 


h 


i n 


8 h 


i n 


8 p 


i n 


8 P 


u n 


8 P 


ud 


8 P 


ed 


a p 


e d 


a b 


e d 


ABEL 



POOR 


b 








r 


b 








k 


r 








k 


r 








k 


r 


i 





k 


RICH 


TREE 


f 


r 


e 


e 


f 


1 


e 


e 


f 


1 


e 


d 


f 


e 


e 


d 


w 


e 


e 


d 


w 


e 


1 


d 


w 





1 


d 


WOOD 


COMB 


c 





m 


e 


h 





m 


e 


h 





1 


e 


h 


a 


1 


e 


h 


a 


1 


1 


h 


a 


i 


1 


HAIR 


ARMY 


a 


r 


m 


8 


a 


i 


m 


8 


d 


i 


m 


8 


d 


a 


m 


8 


d 


a 


m 


e 


n 


a 


m 


e 


n 


a 


V 


e 


N A V 


Y 


HOOK 


h 








k 


r 





c 


k 


r 


i 


c 


k 


r 


i 


8 


k 


d 


1 


8 


k 


d 


I 


B 


h 


F 


I SH 



MINE 


mi 


n 




m i 


8 




mo 


8 




m 


a 







a 




GOAL 


BLUE 


f 1 


a 


e 


f 1 





e 


f 1 





S 


f 1 


a 


K 


f 1 


a 




f e 


a 




P e 


a 




P e 


n 




P i 


n 




P I 


N 


K 


FISH 


w I 




h 


w i 




a 


w i 




a 


w a 




e 


w a 




d 


b a 




d 


BIRD 



39 



WHEAT 


cheat 


cheap 


cheep 


creep 


creed 


breed 


B B £ AD 


TE ABS 


sears 


stars 


stare 


stale 


stile 


SMILE 


PITCH 


pinch 


winch 


wench 


tench 


tenth 


T ENT S 


STEAL 


steel 


steer 


sheer 


shier 


Shi e^B 


shins 


chins 


COINS 


B A VEN 


r 1 y e n 


river 


riser 


H I S £B 



G B ABS 
crass 
ess 
ess 
e e s 
e e s 
e e d 
e e d 





t 
t 
f 
f 
g 



GB EEN 



F LO UB 



f 
f 
h 
b 
b 



1 
1 

1 

r 
r 



o o r 
o o d 
cod 
o d 
o a d 



BBE AD 



BOGUE 


V 





g 


u 


e 


V 


a 


g 


u 


e 


V 


a 


1 


u 


e 


V 


a 


1 


V 


e 


h 


a 


1 


V 


e 


h 


e 


1 


V 


e 


h 


e 


a 


V 


e 


1 


e 


a 


V 


e 


1 


e 


a 


8 


e 


1 


e 


a 


8 


t 


B E A S 


T 


BEANS 



beams 
seams 
shams 
shame 
ale 
a 1 1 
e 1 1 



h 
h 
h 



SHELF 



QUELL 


q 


u 




I 


1 


4 


u 




1 


t 


g 


a 




1 


t 


g 


u 




1 


e 


g 


u 




d 


e 


g 






d 


e 


g 




a 


d 


e 


g 




a 


d 


e 


g 




a 


V 


e 


b 




a 


V 


e 


B B A VO 



COSTS 
posts 

e s 

e s 

e n 

e n 

e n 

e a 

e a 

e a 



P 
t 
t 
t 
t 
t 
P 
P 



t 
t 
t 
t 



c 
c 
c 



8 
8 

8 

h 
h 
h 
h 
e 



PENCE 



BLACK 



c 


1 


a 


c 


k 





r 


a 


c 


k 


t 


r 


a 


c 


k 


t 


r 


i 





k 


t 


r 


i 


c 


e 


t 


r 


i 


t 


e 


w 


r 


i 


t 


e 



WH 



SHOES 


8 







e 


8 


f 







e 


8 


f 







s 


8 


g 







s 


8 


g 




a 


8 


8 


C 




a 


8 


8 


C 




a 


8 


8 


C 




e 


8 


8 


c 




e 


8 


t 


C B U S T 



F UB IE S 
buries 
buried 
b u r k e d 
barked 
barred 
B A BBEL 



KET 
set 
set 
set 
bet 

e 

e 

o 

o 

o 



b 
b 
b 
b 
b 



I T E 



t 
1 
1 
1 
1 
I HO LDEB 



TLE 
t 1 e 

e e 

e 

e 

e 

e 

e 

e 

e 



r 
r 
d 
d 
d 
r 
r