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Full text of "Draft environmental impact statement for the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine reclamation project, Laguna Indian Reservation, Cibola County, New Mexico"

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT 

February 1985 



US DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 



BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 
ALBUQUERQUE DISTRICT OFFICE 



BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 
ALBUQUERQUE AREA OFFICE 




BLM-NM-ES-85-001-4134 



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DRAFT 

Environmental Impact Statement 

FOR THE 

Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine Reclamation Project 

LAGUNA INDIAN RESERVATION 
CIBOLA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Indian Affairs 

Albuquerque District Office Albuquerque Area Office 

Rio Puerco Resource Area 




Charles W. Luscher ' Vincent Little 

State Director, New Mexico Area Director 




ABSTRACT : The Department of the Interior (DOI) proposes to approve a reclamation plan for the 
Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine. The mine is located on three leases of Laguna Indian Tribal land 
in Cibola County, west-central New Mexico. The mine was operated by Anaconda Minerals Company, a 
division of Atlantic Richfield Company, from 1953 through early 1982. The No Action Alternative 
and three reclamation proposals developed by Anaconda, DOI (with two options) and the Pueblo of 
Laguna are analyzed in this document. The affected environment consists of 2,656 acres of open 
pits, waste dumps and associated facilities. Under the No Action Alternative, the minesite would 
remain environmentally unsuitable for any productive land use except for mining. The reclamation 
proposals would, to varying degrees, restore the minesite to productive land use (primarily 
livestock grazing), reduce radiological and physical hazards, blend the visual characteristics of 
the minesite with the surrounding lands, and provide employment. Reclamation cost estimates 
range from $54.2 to $57.4 million. Measures to mitigate environmental impacts have been 
incorporated into each reclamation proposal. 

For Further Information Contact: Mike Pool, EIS Team Leader, U.S. Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Land Management, Rio Puerco Resource Area, 3550 Pan American Freeway, NE, P.O. Box 
6770, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87197-6770. Telephone: Commercial (505) 766-3114, FTS 474-3114. 

Type Of Action: (X) Administrative ( ) Legislative 

Comments have been requested from: See Chapter 4 

Date Filed with EPA: WAR 5 1985 

Comments on this EIS are due by: OCT ^ '°^ $A ^O^/f 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
SUMMARY vi 

CHAPTER 1 - DESCRIPTION OF THE ALTERNATIVES 

INTRODUCTION 1-1 

ISSUES AND CONCERNS 1-7 

ALTERNATIVES ELIMINATED FROM DETAILED STUDY 1-9 

ALTERNATIVES SELECTED FOR DETAILED STUDY 1-10 

SUMMARY OF IMPACTS 1-12 

RECLAMATION SCHEDULE 1-32 

COST ANALYSIS SUMMARY 1-32 

MITIGATING MEASURES 1-34 

CHAPTER 2 - AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT 

INTRODUCTION 2-1 

MINING OPERATIONS 2-1 

GEOLOGY 2-14 

MINERAL RESOURCES 2-18 

NON-RADIOLOGICAL MINESITE HAZARDS 2-19 

RADIATION 2-27 

HYDROLOGY 2-47 

AIR 2-63 

SOILS 2-67 

FLORA 2-70 

FAUNA 2-77 

CULTURAL RESOURCES 2-77 

VISUAL RESOURCES 2-78 

SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS 2-79 

CHAPTER 3 - ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES 

INTRODUCTION 3-1 

BLASTING DURING RECLAMATION 3-1 

MINERAL RESOURCES 3-2 

NON-RADIOLOGICAL MINESITE HAZARDS 3-4 

RADIATION 3-12 

HYDROLOGY 3-27 

AIR QUALITY 3-38 

SOILS 3-39 

FLORA 3-40 

FAUNA 3-43 

CULTURAL RESOURCES 3-44 

VISUAL RESOURCES 3-44 

SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS 3-45 

IRREVERSIBLE AND IRRETRIEVABLE COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES 3-46 

NON-RADIOLOGICAL ACCIDENTS 3-46 



Page 

CHAPTER 4 - CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 

INTRODUCTION 4-1 

SCOPING 4-1 

PUBLIC REVIEW OF THE DRAFT EIS 4-5 

TEAM ORGANIZATION AND CONTRIBUTORS 4-6 

APPENDICES 

Appendix A - Pit Backfill Levels A-l 

Appendix B - Waste Slope Modifications B-l 

Appendix C - Radiation C-l 

GLOSSARY G-l 

REFERENCES R-l 

INDEX 1-1 

LIST OF TABLES 

Table Title Page 

1-1 Jackpile - Paguate Uranium Mine Leases 1-1 

1-2 Surface Disturbance 1-4 

1-3 Summary of Reclamation Alternatives 1-13 

1-4 Waste Dumps at the Jackpile - Paguate Uranium Mine . . . 1-21 

1-5 Summary of Impacts 1-26 

1-6 Reclamation Cost Estimates 1-35 

2-1 Principal Features of Interest in Area of Jackpile - 

Paguate Uranium Mine 2-2 

2-2 Terms Used in this EIS 2-3 

2-3 Jackpile - Paguate Uranium Mine Disturbed Area 2-4 

2-4 Protore Stockpiles at the Jackpile - Paguate 

Uranium Mine 2-8 

2-5 Structures and Facilities Located on Leases 

Nos. 1 and 4 2-10 

2-6 Status of Underground Mining Operations 2-13 

2-7 Anaconda's Environmental Monitoring Program 2-15 

2-8 Safety Factors for Highwalls 2-20 

2-9 Safety Factors for Waste Dumps 2-22 

2-10 Subsidence Data on Underground Mines - Jackpile - 

Paguate Minesite 2-25 

2-11 Predicted Magnitude and Rate of Subsidence Over 

Possible Problem Stopes at Underground Mines 2-26 

2-12 Federal Radiation Standards 2-28 

2-13 Uranium and Radium in Surface Materials 2-30 

2-14 Explanation of High Gamma Exposure Areas 2-32 

2-15 Gamma Exposure Rates at Paguate Reservoir 2-35 

2-16 Radon - 222 Concentrations at Monitoring Locations . . . 2-37 
2-17 Ambient Outdoor Radon - 222 Concentrations 

During June 1976 (at or near minesite) 2-39 



LIST Of TABLES (Continued) 
Table Title Page 

2-18 Ambient Outdoor Radon - 222 Concentrations 

During June 1976 (away from minesite) 2-40 

2-19 Radon Exhalation at the Jackpile - Paguate 

Uranium Mine 2-41 

2-20 Radon Exhalation on the Laguna Reservation 2-42 

2-21 Area Airborne Concentration of Radioactive 

Particulates 2-43 

2-22 Minesite Average Airborne Concentration of 

Radioactive Particulates 2-44 

2-23 Radioactive Elements in Ground Water From Four Wells 

on the Laguna Indian Reservation 2-45 

2-24 Radium and Uranium in Surface Waters in and 

Near the Minesite 2-46 

2-25 Radioactivity in Vegetables From the Laguna Reservation. 2-48 
2-26 Chemical Quality of Surface Water: Dissolved 

Constituents that Exceed National Drinking Water 

Standards 2-53 

2-27 Ground Water Characteristics of the Stratigraphic 

Section at the Jackpile - Paguate Mine 2-54 

2-28 Chemical Quality of Ground Water: Dissolved 

Constituents that Exceed National Drinking Water 

Standards 2-57 

2-29 Waste Dump Dimensions 2-62 

2-30 Sheetwash and Total Erosion for Selected Waste 

Dump Slopes 2-64 

2-31 TSP Data for the Jackpile - Paguate Mine 2-66 

2-32 Chemical and Physical Properties of the Tres 

Hermanos Sandstone 2-68 

2-33 Chemical and Physical Properties of Soil Borrow Site . . 2-69 
2-34 Seed Mixtures Used for Reclamation From 1976 

Through 1979 2-73 

2-35 Reclaimed Site to Reference Site Comparisons for 

Basal Cover and Density 2-74 

2-36 Reclaimed Site Vegetation Analysis 2-76 

2-37 Number of People Employed in the Mining Industry, 

Valencia and Cibola Counties 2-80 

2-38 Labor Force and Employment Figures, Valencia and 

Cibola Counties 2-81 

2-39 Major Sources of Income - Laguna and Acoma 

Reservations (1978) 2-81 

3-1 Highwall Safety Factors 3-5 

3-2 Individual Dose Commitments (70th Year) From External 

Radiation Exposure Under the No Action Alternative . . 3-17 
3-3 Inhalation Dose Commitment at Selected Locations Due to 

Particulates Released Under the No Action Alternative. 3-18 
3-4 Dose Commitments (70th Year) Due to Inhalation of Radon 

at Selected Locations Under the No Action Alternative. 3-19 
3-5 Average Dose Commitment (70th Year) to Selected 

Organs Due to Ingestion of Meat Under the No Action 

Alternative 3-20 



in 



LIST Of TABLES (Continued) 

Table Title Page 

3-6 Average Dose Commitment (70th Year) to an Individual 
From Ingestion of Meat Locally Raised Within a 
50-Mile Radius of Jackpile - Paguate Minesite Under 

the No Action Alternative 3-21 

3-7 Total Annual Dose Commitments (70th Year) to an 

Individual Under the No Action Alternative 3-22 

3-8 Population Dose Commitments (70th Year) Under the No 

Action Alternative For the Area Within a 50-Mile 

Radius of the Minesite 3-23 

3-9 Comparison of Estimated Population Dose Commitments 
(70th Year) Under the No Action Alternative to the 

Background Population Dose Commitment 3-23 

3-10 Estimated Average Loss of Life Expectancy From 

Health Risks 3-26 

3-11 Estimated Waste Dump Erosion by Alternative 3-37 

3-12 Proposed Seed Mixtures (Seed Drill Mix 1) 3-41 

3-13 Proposed Seed Mixtures (Seed Drill Mix 2) 3-41 

3-14 Energy and Manpower Requirements 3-46 

4-1 List of Preparers 4-7 

4-2 Consultants and Contributors 4-10 

C-l Units of Radioacitivity C-5 

C-2 Estimated Average Annual Background Whole-Body Dose 

Rates (1970) C-8 

VISUAL 
Visual (Map Pocket in Back of EIS) 

A Jackpile - Paguate Minesite 

LIST OF MAPS 

Map Title Page 

1-1 Jackpile - Paguate Mine Regional Location Map 1-2 

1-2 Jackpile - Paguate Mine 1-3 

2-1 Aerial Gamma Survey of the Minesite and Surrounding 

Area 2-33 

2-2 Aerial Gamma Survey of the Minesite 2-34 

2-3 Radiological Sampling Locations in the Vicinity of the 

Jackpile Mine 2-38 

LIST OF FIGURES 
Figure Page 

1-1 Jackpile - Paguate Mine Reclamation Schedule 1-33 

2-1 View South Through Jackpile Pit 2-5 

2-2 South Paguate Pit Highwall 2-5 

2-3 Ponding in North Paguate Pit 2-6 

2-4 Waste Dumps on North Side of Mine 2-7 

2-5 Protore Stockpile SP-1 2-7 



IV 



LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) 
Figure Page 

2-6 P-10 Mine Buildings 2-9 

2-7 P-10 Decline - Temporarily Abandoned 2-12 

2-8 Generalized Stratigraphic Column of the Jackpile 

Mine Area 2-17 

2-9 Jackpile (Gavilan Mesa) Pit Highwall with Buttress 

Material at Base 2-21 

2-10 FD-2 Dump On East Side of Gavilan Mesa 2-24 

2-11 V Dump Showing Active Erosion 2-24 

2-12 Confluence of Rios Paguate and Moquino 2-49 

2-13 Cross-sectional Schematic Diagram of Arroyo 

Headcut Migration 2-58 

2-14 Arroyo Headcutting North of FD-3 Dump 2-59 

2-15 Topsoil Stockpile TS-3 2-69 

2-16 Successful Revegetation of S Dump 2-75 

3-1 Locations of Trial Failure Surfaces 3-6 

3-2 Gavilan Mesa Highwall Cross-Section (Alternate 

Methods of Stabilization) 3-8 

3-3 Waste Dump Slope Failure Due to Piping 3-11 

3-4 Potential Routes of Release of Radioactive Materials 

and Subsequent Exposure Pathways 3-14 

3-5 Design of Armoring to Reduce Headcutting - Anaconda's 

Proposal 3-33 

3-6 Construction Plan for a Gully Headcut Control - DOI 

and Laguna Proposals 3-35 

A-l Cross-sectional Schematic Diagram of Pit Backfill 

Level - Anaconda and DOI Proposals A-l 

A-2 Cross-sectional Schematic Diagram of Pit Backfill 

Level - Laguna Proposal A-2 

B-l Cross-sectional Schematic Diagram of Waste Slope 

Modification - Anaconda's Proposal B-l 

B-2 Cross-sectional Schematic Diagram of Waste Slope 

Modification - DOI and Laguna Proposals B-2 

C-l Uranium - 238 Decay Series C-4 



SUMMARY 

Introduction 

This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) analyzes the environmental 
consequences of four alternatives for reclaiming the Jackpile-Paguate 
uranium mine. The mine is located on three tribal leases within the 
Laguna Indian Reservation, about 40 miles west of Albuquerque, New 
Mexico. The leaseholder, Anaconda Minerals Company, mined from 1953 to 
1982. Out of a total of 7,868 leased acres, 2,656 acres were disturbed 
by mining. This disturbance includes three open pits, 32 waste dumps, 
23 protore (sub-grade ore) stockpiles, four topsoil stockpiles and 66 
acres of buildings and roads. 

The lease terms and Federal regulations give the Department of the 
Interior (DOI) the authority to require reclamation of the minesite. 
The two main DOI agencies involved in this project are the Bureau of 
Land Management (BLM) and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) . The BLM 
acts as the overall technical adviser while the BIA is responsible for 
the surface aspects of reclamation. 

The public scoping process was used to focus on the major issues to 
be considered in this EIS. The two major issues identified were 
ensuring human health and safety and reducing radioactive releases. 

There are no Federal or State regulations or standards for reclaiming 
uranium mines so a range of alternatives are evaluated in this 
document. These alternatives are: 1) No Action; 2) Anaconda's 
Proposal; 3) the DOI Proposal (with Monitor and Drainage Options); and 
4) the Laguna Proposal. No Preferred Alternative has been identified 
in this Draft EIS. 

Description of the Alternatives 

No Action Alternative 

For this EIS, the No Action Alternative would mean that no 
reclamation work would be performed. Anaconda would continue their 
security program to prevent unauthorized entry and they would continue 
to operate an environmental monitoring program in perpetuity. This 
alternative is not considered reasonable for this project due to the 
need to protect public health and safety. 

Anaconda Proposal 

Under Anaconda's Proposal, the open pits would be backfilled to at 
least three feet above Anaconda's projected ground water recovery 
levels. All highwalls would be scaled to remove loose material. The 
rim of Gavilan Mesa (Jackpile pit highwall) would be cut back by 
blasting or mechanical means and the base of the highwall would be 
buttressed with waste and overburden. Waste dump slopes would be 
reduced to between 2:1 and 3:1; most slopes would be terraced. (The 
disposition of excess material from waste dump resloping has not been 
described by Anaconda, but presumably some would be added to the pits 
to raise the level of backfill.) Jackpile Sandstone exposed by 

vi 



resloping would be covered with four feet of overburden and one foot of 
topsoil. Facilities would either be removed or cleaned up and left 
intact. All disturbed areas (pit bottoms, waste dumps, old roads, 
etc.) would be topsoiled and seeded. Reclamation would be considered 
complete when the weighted average for basal cover and production on 
revegetated sites equalled or exceeded 70 percent of that found on 
comparable reference sites. The post-reclamation monitoring period 
would be three years. 

DPI Proposal 

Because of concerns over the environmental impacts of either ponded 
water or salt build-up in the open pits, DOI has identified two options 
for treatment of the pit bottoms: 1) a Monitor Option which would 
backfill the pits with protore, excess material from waste dump 
resloping and soil cover. Due to the excess material (approximately 19 
million cubic yards), the estimated backfill elevations of the pit 
floors could be 40 to 70 feet higher than Anaconda's proposed minimum. 
The pits would remain as closed basins, in which case the potential 
build-up of salt and saline water in the soils of the pit bottoms would 
be monitored. If soil problems are observed, additional backfill and 
revegetation would be required from Anaconda. The duration of the 
monitoring period would be sufficient to determine the stable future 
water table conditions; and 2) a Drainage Option which would restore 
the natural mode of overland runoff from the pit areas. Backfill 
volumes and elevations would be approximately the same as for the 
Monitor Option, but none of the pits would be left as closed basins. 
Open channels would be constructed with a slope equal to or flatter 
than local natural watercourses to convey runoff from the pit areas to 
the Rio Paguate. This would avoid ponded water or undrained saline 
soils on the reclaimed minesite. 

For both options, other aspects of reclamation would be the same. 
Highwall stability techniques would essentially be the same as 
Anaconda's Proposal. With few exceptions, waste dump slopes would be 
reduced to 3:1, with no terracing. Treatment of Jackpile Sandstone and 
minesite facilities would be the same as Anaconda's Proposal. All 
disturbed areas would be topsoiled and seeded. Reclamation would be 
considered complete when revegetated sites reach 90 percent of the 
density, frequency, foliar cover, basal cover and production of 
undisturbed reference areas. The post-reclamation monitoring period 
would be a minimum of 5 years. 

Laguna Proposal 

Under this proposal, South Paguate pit would be backfilled to its 
original contour. Due to the uncertainty of future ground water 
recovery levels, Jackpile and North Paguate pits would be backfilled 7 
feet above the DOI Proposal. The North Paguate highwall would be 
buttressed to the crest and the buttress material would be sloped 3:1. 
Treatment of Gavilan Mesa, waste dump slopes, Jackpile Sandstone and 
minesite facilities would essentially be the same as the DOI Proposal. 
All disturbed areas would be topsoiled and seeded. Reclamation would 
be considered complete when revegetated sites reach 90 percent of the 
density, frequency, foliar cover, basal cover and production of 

vii 



undisturbed reference areas. The post-reclamation monitoring period 
would be 10 years. 

Environmental Consequences of the Alternatives 

No Action Alternative 

No blasting would be required . 

Mineral resources in the P15/17, NJ-45 and P-13 underground areas 

would remain accessible. Normal erosion would cause significant losses 

of all pro tore outside the pits. Gavilan Mesa would eventually 
collapse and bury the protore buttress at its base. 

The North and South Paguate pit highwalls would be stable. Gavilan 
Mesa is only marginally stable and would eventually fail. 

All 32 waste dumps would eventually experience mass failure 
resulting in blocked drainages, alteration of stream courses, increased 
stream sediment loads and decreased surface water quality. 

Ground above the P-10 decline could experience sudden and 
significant subsidence. Unsealed underground openings would present 
physical and radiological hazards. 

For the population within a 50-mile radius of the minesite, modeling 
predicts from 95 to 243 additional radiation-induced cancer deaths over 
a 90-year period. 

There would be a perpetual surface water loss of 200 acre-feet per 
year. Water quality in the rivers would decrease over time due to 
erosion of protore piles and waste dumps. Water ponded in the open 
pits would have elevated levels of virtually all constituents. 

Ground water would double in conductivity as it flowed through mine 
materials. Up to 50 acres of saline ponds would exist in the pit 
bottoms. 

Arroyo headcutting would eventually erode into the bases of I, Y, Y2 
and FD-3 dumps resulting in increased sediment loads to the rivers. 

Paguate Reservoir would continue to receive sediment at a rate of 22 
acre-feet per year. 

The Rios Paguate and Moquino could migrate laterally and erode the 
adjoining waste dumps causing increased sediment load and possibly 
increased levels of total dissolved solids (TDS), heavy metals and 
radioactive elements in the rivers. 

Mean waste dump erosion would be 79.4 tons per acre per year 
resulting in increased sediment load to the rivers and a deterioration 
of surface water quality. 



VIII 



Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) levels could exceed Federal and 
State standards for short periods. This would present an aesthetic 
problem and possibly a health risk since radioactive particulates could 
be eroded from the exposed protore piles. 

Soil erosion rates would be high. Meager and scattered vegetative 
re-establishment would continue by secondary succession on habitable 
sites. Many disturbed areas would remain permanently barren. Wildlife 
populations would be low. 

There would be no impacts to cultural resources. Access would 
remain limited. 

Visual resource quality would remain poor. 

Socioeconomic conditions would remain as they are . 

Anaconda Proposal 

Approximately 0.5 million cubic yards of material would be removed 
by blasting; no specifications to mitigate the effects of blasting are 
proposed. 

All mine entries would be sealed and their resources would become 
inaccessible. All protore would be placed in the open pits and would 
not be lost to erosion. Gavilan Mesa would eventually collapse and 
bury the protore buttress at its base. 

All highwalls would be scaled to remove loose rock. The North and 
South Paguate pit highwalls would be stable. Modifications to Gavilan 
Mesa would make it only slightly more stable than under the No Action 
Alternative and it would fail. 

Thirteen waste dumps would fail and 12 could fail. Environmental 
consequences would be the same as the No Action Alternative. 

All underground openings would be sealed thus eliminating the 
subsidence and radiological hazards. 

After reclamation, lung cancer deaths would be 10 percent of the No 
Action Alternative. All other cancer deaths would be reduced to less 
than 0.1 percent of the No Action Alternative. 

There would be a one-time loss of 3,000 to 4,000 acre-feet of water 
which would percolate into the pit backfill. Evapotranspiration from 
the pit bottoms would remove about 200 acre-feet per year. Waste dump 
reclamation would reduce erosion which, in turn, would decrease TDS and 
heavy metal concentrations in the rivers. Up to 200 acres of 
Intermittent ponds in the pit bottoms would be saline and unproductive 
for livestock use. Ground water would show a temporary increase in TDS 
and heavy metals. As the ground water reverts to a reducing state this 
leaching effect would decrease. Pit bottoms would retain a lens of 
shallow salt water. 



IX 



Headcuts would be armored to slow erosion, but the armoring would 
become ineffective due to siltation and bypassing and erosion would 
continue. 

Sedimentation of Paguate Reservoir would be reduced by reclamation. 

All waste dumps would be moved back 200 feet from the rivers to 
provide a buffer against lateral migration and thus prevent 
contamination of surface waters by waste material. 

Mean total waste dump erosion would be 26 tons per acre per year (a 
61 percent reduction from the No Action Alternative). 

TSP levels would be within Federal and State standards. Since all 
radiological material would be covered there would be no radiological 
health impacts. 

Soil erosion rates would be reduced. Vegetative cover would lead to 
increases in wildlife populations. However, revegetated sites with 
only 70 percent of the basal cover and production of native reference 
areas would be less productive than natural sites and less capable of 
supporting populations of native and domestic herbivores. 

Improved access to cultural sites could lead to increased vandalism 
as well as providing easier access for religious purposes. 

Visual resource quality would be enhanced compared to the No Action 
Alternative. 

Reclamation would temporarily increase employment and income. 

Energy usage would be 292,000 kilowatt hours and 5.4 million gallons 
of fuel. Reclamation costs are estimated to be $54.2 million, 
requiring 201 man years of labor. There could be 30.2 equipment use 
accidents. 

DPI Proposal (Monitor and Drainage Options) 

For the Monitor Option, approximately 0.5 million cubic yards of 
material would be blasted; for the Drainage Option approximately 0.6 
million cubic yards would be removed by blasting. Specifications are 
proposed to mitigate the effects of blasting. 

Impacts on mineral resources would be the same as Anaconda's 
Proposal except that extra highwall stabilization techniques would 
lessen the chance of Gavilan Mesa collapsing on the protore buttress. 

All highwalls would be scaled. The top 10 feet of any soil on the 
North and South Paguate highwall crests would be cut back to a 3:1 
slope to prevent piping. The South Paguate pit highwall would be 
fenced to limit access to the crest. Recontouring Gavilan Mesa would 
increase its safety factor and lessen the chance of mass failure. 



FD-2, I and Y2 dumps would probably be stable. All other dumps 
would be stable. 

All underground openings, including the P-10 decline, would be 
treated the same as Anaconda's Proposal and would result in the same 
impacts. 

Radiological health impacts would be the same as Anaconda's Proposal. 

There would be a one-time loss of 3,000 to 4,000 acre-feet of water 
which would percolate into the pit backfill. Gentler waste dump slopes 
would reduce erosion 50 percent compared to Anaconda's Proposal 
resulting in a corresponding decrease in TDS and heavy metal 
concentrations in the rivers. For the Monitor Option, any ponded water 
would be eliminated by remedial action; ponds would not exist under the 
Drainage Option. For the Monitor Option, ground water quality would be 
better than under Anaconda's Proposal due to reduced evapo trans pi rat ion 
from the pit bottoms. The Drainage Option would further reduce the 
likelihood of evapotranspiration from waterlogged soils. 

An improved, no-maintenance armoring system would be used to 
stabilize all headcuts. 

Sedimentation of Paguate Reservoir would be reduced by reclamation. 

The impacts of stream erosion on waste dumps would be the same as 
Anaconda's Proposal. 

For both options, mean total waste dump erosion would be 13 tons per 
acre per year (an 82 percent reduction from the No Action Alternative 
and a 50 percent reduction from Anaconda's Proposal). For the Drainage 
Option, sediment would be generated from approximately two square miles 
of externally draining pits. 

TSP levels would be in the same range as for Anaconda's Proposal. 

Vegetative cover would be at least 90 percent of that on surrounding 
natural land. Reclaimed plant communities would therefore be more 
comparable with natural communities in terms of vegetative diversity 
and production, soil retention and carrying capacity for native and 
domestic herbivores. 

Impacts to cultural resources would be the same as Anaconda's 
Proposal. 

Visual resource quality would be enhanced over Anaconda's Proposal. 

Impacts on employment and income would be the same as Anaconda's 
Proposal. 

Energy usage would be 290,000 kilowatt hours and 5.3 to 5.5 million 
gallons of fuel. Reclamation costs are estimated to be $5 5.6 million, 
requiring 198 (Monitor Option) and 203 (Drainage Option) man years of 
labor. Equipment use accidents are estimated to be 29.8 for the 
Monitor Option and 30.5 for the Drainage Option. 



Laguna Proposal 

Most impacts would be the same as DOI's Proposal. The primary 
differences are noted below. 

All protore would be placed in the pits above the ground water 
recovery levels for future recovery. 

The South Paguate pit would be completely backfilled, eliminating 
the highwall and all associated impacts. The North Paguate pit 
highwall would be buttressed to its crest, eliminating the highwall and 
all associated impacts. 

Visual resource quality would be the best of all proposals because 
of the backfilling of the South Paguate pit. 

Reclamation costs are estimated to be $57.4 million, requiring 204 
man years of labor. There could be 30.7 equipment use accidents. 



XII 



v^hapter 1 
description ot the alternatives 



INTRODUCTION 

History and Background 

The Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine is located on the Laguna Indian 
Reservation, 40 miles west of Albuquerque, New Mexico (Map 1-1). The 
mine was operated by Anaconda Minerals Company, a division of the 
Atlantic Richfield Company. Mining operations were conducted 
continuously from 1953 through early 1982. The mine was closed because 
of depressed uranium market conditions, and studies are underway to 
determine how best to permanently reclaim it. 

Mining operations were conducted under three uranium mining leases 
between Anaconda and the Pueblo of Laguna (Map 1-2). The leases cover 
approximately 7,868 acres, as shown in Table 1-1 below: 

TABLE 1-1 

JACKPILE-PAGUATE URANIUM MINE LEASES 



Lease Number 


Date Signed 


Si 


ze (Acres) 


Jackpile 

4 

8 
Total 


May 7, 1952 
July 24, 1963 
July 6, 1976 




4,988 

2,560 

320 

7,868 



Mining operations were conducted from three open pits and nine 
underground mines. Open pit mining was conducted predominantly with 
large front-end loaders and haul trucks. The overburden, consisting of 
topsoil, alluvium, shale and sandstone was blasted or ripped, removed 
from the open pits, and placed in waste dumps. The uranium ore was 
segregated according to grade and stockpiled for shipment to the mill. 
In the later years of mining, material conducive to plant growth was 
stockpiled for future reclamation, and some overburden and 
ore-associated waste was placed in the mined-out areas of the pits as 
backfill. 

Underground mining was conducted by driving adits, or declines, to 
the ore zone. Drifts were driven through the ore zone, and the ore 
removed by modified room and pillar methods. Ventilation holes were 
drilled to maintain a fresh supply of air. Mine water was collected in 
sumps and pumped to ponds in the open pits. Waste rock was placed in 
waste dumps, and the ore was stockpiled for shipment to the mill. 

During the 29 years of mining, approximately 400 million tons of 
earth were moved within the mine area, and about 25 million tons of ore 
were transported from the site via the Santa Fe Railroad to Anaconda's 
Bluewater Mill, 40 miles west of the mine (Map 1-1). 



1-1 





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The mining operations resulted in 2,656 acres of surface disturbance 
as shown in Table 1-2. 

TABLE 1-2 
SURFACE DISTURBANCE 

Features Acres Disturbed 



Open Pits 1,015 

Waste Dumps 1,266 

Protore Stockpiles 103 

Topsoil Stockpiles 32 

Support Facilities & Depleted Ore Stockpiles 240 

TOTAL: 2,656 



Additional acreage (unquantif ied) was disturbed by the drilling of 

exploration holes. Visual A, pocketed in the back of this 

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), displays the mine complex as it 
presently exists. 

Anaconda ceased all mining operations on March 31, 1982, but 
continues to provide security at the site to prevent unauthorized 
entry, and continues to operate an environmental monitoring program. 

Anaconda advised the Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Pueblo 
of Laguna in April 1980 that open pit operations would terminate in 
February 1981 and subsequently submitted a reclamation plan to the DOI 
on September 11, 1980. Anaconda submitted a revised plan on March 16, 
1982. 

Anaconda's submission consists of a reclamation plan, reports by 
technical consultants and responses to questions raised by the DOI. 
More detailed information on Anaconda's plan, as well as other 
reclamation proposals, are presented under the Alternatives section of 
this chapter. 

Anaconda's leases are administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs 
(BIA), and the mining and reclamation operations are supervised by the 
Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Both of these agencies are within DOI. 

Purpose and Need for Reclamation 

Reclamation of the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine is necessary because: 

1. The site is presently a public health and safety hazard; 



1-4 



2. Additional and more serious hazards would develop if the site is 
not reclaimed; and 

3. The mining lease terms and Federal regulations (25 CFR Parts 211 
and 216, and 43 CFR Part 3570) require that reclamation be performed by 
the leaseholder. 

This EIS assesses and compares the environmental impacts of three 
reclamation alternatives, including proposals developed by Anaconda, 
the Pueblo of Laguna and the DOI. The proposed action for this EIS is 
the review and approval of a reclamation plan for the Jackpile-Paguate 
uranium mine. 

The lease terms and regulations give the DOI the authority to select 
the most appropriate reclamation procedures, but they do not contain 
specific goals or standards to guide the DOI's decision. Therefore, 
the DOI must consider various reclamation alternatives, and choose the 
one that is considered to be the most appropriate. 

Scope of the EIS 

The scope of this EIS is the reclamation (restoration to productive 
use) of the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine and the affected adjacent 
areas. It is not within the scope of this EIS to discuss past impacts 
to the environment during raining activity. 

Federal Trust Responsibility 

Indian tribes and pueblos enjoy a unique status under Federal law 
based upon what has been characterized as a "guardian-ward" status. 
Morton v. Mancari , 417 U.S. 535,551 (1974); Cherokee Nation v. Georgia , 
30 U.S. (5 Pet.), (1831). This is a judicially created fiduciary 
status that is loosely characterized by saying that the Secretary of 
the Interior has a "trust responsibility" to the Indians. Chambers, 
Judicial Enforcement of the Federal Trust Responsibility , 27 Stanford 
Law Review 1213, 1214 (1975). The trust responsibility arises out of 
statutes, treaties, executive orders and those situations where the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) holds title to Indian land and 
administers it "in trust" for particular tribes. United States v. 
Mitchell , 445 U.S. 535 (1980); Cape Fox Corporation v. United States , 
No. 664-801 (Ct. CI. filed December 27, 1983), Chambers, supra . The 
trust responsibility is a limited one that arises from and is limited 
by, the authorizing statute, treaty, or executive order, and it varies 
according to the particular relationship being examined. See North 
Slope Borough v. Andrus , 642 Fed. 589, 611 (D.C. Cir. 1980). 

Due to the governing regulations and the Secretary of the Interior's 
trust responsibility to Indians (and in this action specifically to the 
Pueblo of Laguna), the DOI is responsible for determining the proper 
level of reclamation for the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine. 



1-5 



Authorizing Actions 

The BLM and BIA share joint responsibility for a decision on approval 
of a reclamation plan for the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine. However, 
each agency has specific responsibilities with regard to reclamation as 
outlined below. 

The BLM is responsible for authorizing the commencement and approving 
the completion of the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine reclamation. The 
authorities for this action are the terms of the mining leases that 
require compliance with applicable Federal regulations. Specifically, 
they include the following: 

1. 25 CFR Part 211, Leasing of Tribal Lands for Mining (formerly 25 
CFR Part 171); 

2. 25 CFR Part 216, Surface Exploration, Mining and Reclamation of 
Lands (formerly 25 CFR Part 177); and 

3. 43 CFR Part 3570, Operating Regulations for Exploration, 
Development and Production (formerly 30 CFR Part 231). 

The BLM is also responsible for authorizing any necessary changes in 
the ongoing reclamation operations and for preparing any corresponding 
environmental documentation that would be required. 

The BIA is responsible for determining that the surface aspects of 
mine reclamation, including revegetation, have been completed in 
accordance with the Secretary's trust responsibility as well as 
established requirements. In conjunction with this determination, the 
BIA is responsible for authorizing partial or total release of any 
bonding requirements, and partial or total surrender of the involved 
mining leases. The authorities for these actions are various terms of 
the mining leases and the provisions of 25 CFR Parts 211 and 216. 

Due to the effective dates of the three mining leases and applicable 
Federal regulations, disagreement exists between the involved parties 
about the applicability of some of these regulations to certain 
leases. Debate has also occurred about the interpretation of various 
lease terms. It is not intended that this EIS resolve any such 
disagreement or debate. This section of the EIS merely identifies the 
Federal regulations that relate to one or more of the raining leases, 
and indicates that the lease terms and those regulations assign certain 
responsibilities to the BLM and the BIA. 

Interrelationships With Other Projects 

The only related project planned is the realignment of State Highway 
279 through the mine area. This project is dependent on State 
legislative appropriation. The realignment is scheduled to take place 
prior to or during reclamation. This project is not precluded by any 
of the alternatives addressed in this EIS nor would the realignment 



1-6 



preclude implementation of any of the reclamation proposals. The 
impacts of the realignment will be evaluated in a separate 
environmental assessment. 

ISSUES AND CONCERNS 

During the initial stages of the EIS process, public meetings were held 
to determine the issues of greatest concern related to the mine 
reclamation project and possible reclamation measures. This process is 
called "scoping". The DOI reviewed all the comments raised during 
these meetings and selected those major issues to be addressed in this 
EIS. The criteria DOI used for selecting major issues were whether the 
concerns expressed were substantive, and whether the issues fell within 
the scope of this EIS as stated on p. 1-5. Issues that failed to meet 
both criteria were dropped from further evaluation. Issues which met 
the criteria were used to develop reclamation objectives which in turn 
would be used to evaluate alternatives. (A more detailed discussion of 
scoping activities is contained in Chapter 4 - Consultation and 
Coordination. ) 

Issues Dropped From Further Evaluation 

1. Investigate the possible psychological effects that the mining 
operations and mine closure had on the Laguna people. Rejected as not 
within the scope of this EIS. 

The present socioeconomic conditions of the Laguna people and the 
socioeconomic impacts of the reclamation operations are discussed in 
this document. However, investigating the possible psychological 
effects resulting from mining is not within the scope of this EIS. 

2. Investigate the possible health impacts that mining operations 
had on former miners and residents of Paguate Village. Rejected as not 
within the scope of this EIS. 

The predicted health impacts to the workers performing reclamation 
and post-reclamation impacts to the Laguna people are discussed in this 
document. However, investigating the possible health impacts of past 
mining operations is not within the scope of this EIS. 

3. Determine if blasting during mining operations caused structural 
damage to the homes in Paguate Village. Rejected as not within the 
scope of this EIS. 

This EIS assesses only those blasting impacts that could occur during 
reclamation. Determining if damages occurred during mining operations 
and assessing responsibility for mitigation lies outside the scope of 
this EIS and constitutes an unresolved liability issue. 

4. Determine if past mining operations substantially contributed to 
the siltation of Paguate Reservoir. Rejected as not within the scope 
of this EIS. 



1-7 



The present condition of Paguate Reservoir and the impacts of 
reclamation on the reservoir are discussed in this EIS. However, 
determining if past mining operations significantly shortened the 
useful life span of Paguate Reservoir by causing increased sediment 
load, and assessing responsibility for mitigation lies outside the 
scope of this EIS. As with blast damage, the DOI considers this to be 
an unresolved liability issue. 

5. Protection of the remaining on-site uranium resources (protore 
and unmined deposits) and existing mine workings for future 
production. Rejected as not within the scope of this EIS. 

Projection of economic conditions suitable for recovery of the 

remaining reserves is speculative. A new mining project is not 

precluded in any of the reclamation proposals, but protecting the 

protore, unmined deposits and existing mine workings is outside the 
scope of this EIS. 

6. Allow future residential and farming use of the minesite. 
Rejected as being contrary to the reclamation objective of ensuring 
human health and safety. 

Either of these activities would require disturbing reclaimed areas 
to a significant degree and therefore have the potential for releasing 
previously covered radioactive materials into the biosphere. 

7. Develop national standards for the reclamation of uranium mines. 
Rejected as not within the scope of this EIS. 

Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the 
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, directed the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency to promulgate regulations for the 
management of hazardous wastes. These regulations were issued, but 
they exclude mining wastes. Evaluation of this site-specific project 
does not preclude Congress from acting to designate mining wastes as 
hazardous materials. 

Issues Evaluated 

1. Radiological doses and health impacts to workers involved in 
reclamation, persons visiting the minesite, residents of Paguate 
Village and to the general public. 

2. Non-radiological minesite hazards such as possible collapse of 
the underground entries and workings, collapse of abandoned mine 
buildings and hazards due to unstable highwalls and waste dumps. 

3. Engineering the reclaimed land forms to ensure their long-term 
integrity and blend the visual characteristics of the minesite with the 
surrounding landscape. 

4. Contamination of surface waters with heavy metals and suspended 
solids. 



1-8 



5. Revegetation of the minesite to prevent erosion and facilitate 
post-reclamation land use (i.e., livestock grazing). 

6. Backfilling or draining the open pits to prevent ponding of 
contaminated water. 

7. Minimizing the concentration of airborne particulates during and 
after reclamation. 

8. Protection of cultural, religious and archaeological sites within 
the minesite. 

9. Socioeconomic impacts of reclamation on the Pueblo of Laguna. 

10. Long-term environmental monitoring needs and procedures. 

ALTERNATIVES ELIMINATED FROM DETAILED STUDY 

The following is a list of the alternatives eliminated from detailed 
study, and a brief explanation as to why they were rejected: 

1. Return the tailings from Anaconda's Bluewater uranium mill to the 
minesite. Rejected as not within the scope of this EIS. 

The New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division and the U.S. Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission have jurisdiction over uranium mill sites in the 
State of New Mexico. The DOI does not have the authority to require 
Anaconda Minerals Company to return the mill tailings to the minesite. 

2. Construct a wind or solar energy project at the mine or develop the 
site as an industrial park. Rejected as not within the scope of this 
EIS. 

Such projects are not precluded in any of the alternatives addressed, 
but developing new industries for the Pueblo of Laguna is outside the 
scope of this EIS. 

3. Completely backfill all open pits. Rejected as being not feasible 
and unnecessary. 

The cost of backfilling all pits would exceed $200 million which is 
considered to be unreasonable. Also, studies thus far do not support 
that completely backfilling the pits is necessary. 

4. Use the site as a source of gravel. Rejected as not within the 
scope of this EIS. 

The alternatives addressed in this document neither make provisions 
for, nor preclude this use. Reserves of gravel are present throughout 
the area, and far exceed the expected demand. Reserves of gravel and 
fill also exist on the site, but extreme care should be taken in 
removing such material to assure that radiological material is not 
removed or uncovered. 



1-9 



5. Contain all solid wastes and liquids within the lease property. 
Rejected as technically impractical and inconsistent with the 
objective of restoring post- reclamation land use. 

Managing the reclaimed mine for zero discharge of waste material using 
conventional control techniques (i.e., lining, capping and 
hydrodynamic control) would be extremely expensive, provide little 
environmental benefit over simpler methods and would require permanent 
maintenance. Such techniques would result in large areas of the mine 
being unsuitable for any other use. 

ALTERNATIVES SELECTED FOR DETAILED STUDY 

The scoping process indicated that reclamation of the Jackpile-Paguate 
uranium mine could be accomplished in several ways due to the 
interrelationships of various reclamation components (e.g., 
backfilling and resloping of waste dumps). However, since no specific 
standards exist for uranium mine reclamation, either in regulations or 
lease terms, reclamation objectives were developed to assist in 
determining the most appropriate reclamation measures for the 
Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine. The primary goal of these objectives 
is to reclaim and stabilize the minesite to restore productive use of 
the land and to ensure that adverse environmental impacts are reduced 
to the extent possible. 

The reclamation proposals will be evaluated with the intent of 
achieving as many of the objectives as possible while realizing that 
no single reclamation proposal could meet all the objectives 
completely and that compromises would be required. Using post 
reclamation land use for livestock grazing as the common denominator 
and taking into account the major issues identified during the scoping 
process, the following reclamation objectives, in order of importance, 
were developed: 

1. Ensure human health and safety. 

2 . Reduce the releases of radioactive elements and radionuclei to as 
low as reasonably achievable. 

3. Ensure the integrity of all existing cultural, religious and ar- 
chaeological sites. 

4. Return the vegetative cover to a productive condition comparable 
to the surrounding area. 

5. Provide for additional land uses that are compatible with other 
reclamation objectives and that are desired by the Pueblo of Laguna. 

6. Eliminate the need for post-reclamation maintenance. 

7. Blend the visual characteristics of the minesite with the sur- 
rounding terrain. 

8. Employ the Laguna people in efforts that afford them opportunities 
to utilize their skills or train as appropriate. 

1-10 



Anaconda's Proposal and the Alternatives (except for the No Action 
Alternative) approach the reclamation objectives differently. The 
following is a brief summary of the reclamation alternatives analyzed 
in this EIS. A more complete description of these proposals is given 
In Tables 1-3 and 1-4. 

No Action Alternative 

For this EIS, the No Action Alternative would mean that no 
reclamation work would be performed. The area would be secured to 
prevent unauthorized entry and an environmental monitoring program 
would be operated. Additional requests by the Pueblo of Laguna to 
utilize certain facilities for storage could be accommodated, provided 
such use would be temporary and deemed safe. 

This alternative is not feasible because the Secretary of the 
Interior cannot approve a plan which does not provide a reasonable 
measure of protection to public health and safety, and does not reduce 
environmental impacts to the extent possible. This alternative is 
included and analyzed only to provide a benchmark that would allow 
decisionmakers to compare the magnitude of environmental effects for a 
given range of alternatives . 

Anaconda Proposal 

Anaconda's reclamation plan was developed from company data, reports 
by Anaconda's technical consultants and in response to questions raised 
by the DOI. 

The open pits would be backfilled to at least three feet above 
Anaconda's projected ground water recovery levels. All highwalls would 
be scaled to remove loose material. The rim of Gavilan Mesa would be 
cut back by blasting or mechanical means and the base of the highwall 
would be buttressed with waste and overburden. Waste dump slopes would 
be reduced to between 2:1 and 3:1; most slopes would be terraced. 
Jackpile Sandstone exposed by resloping would be covered with four feet 
of overburden and one foot of topsoil. Facilities would either be 
removed or cleaned up and left intact. All disturbed areas (pit 
bottoms, waste dumps, old roads, etc.) would be topsoiled and seeded. 
Reclamation would be considered complete when the weighted average for 
basal cover and production on revegetated sites equals or exceeds 70 
percent of that found on comparable reference sites. The post- 
reclamation monitoring period would be a minimum of three years. 

DOI Proposal (Monitor Option and Drainage Option) 

This alternative was developed by the DOI. It is based on a series 
of technical reports, contracted studies and file data. Although 
similiar to Anaconda's Proposal in overall concept, it varies in 
important details. 

Because of concerns over the environmental impacts of either ponded 
water or salt build-up in the open pits, DOI has identified two options 
for treatment of the pit bottoms: 1) a Monitor Option which would 

1-11 



backfill the pits with protore, excess material from waste dump 
resloping and soil cover. Due to the excess material (approximately 19 
million cubic yards), the estimated backfill elevations of the pit 
floors could be 40 to 70 feet higher than Anaconda's proposed minimum. 
The pits would remain as closed basins, in which case the potential 
build-up of salt and saline water in the soils of the pit bottoms would 
be monitored. If soil problems are observed, additional backfill and 
revegetation would be required from Anaconda. The monitoring period 
would be of sufficient duration to determine the stable future water 
table conditions; and 2) a Drainage Option which would restore the 
natural mode of overland runoff from the pit areas . Backfill volumes 
and elevations would be approximately the same as for the Monitor 
Option, but none of the pits would be left as closed basins. Open 
channels would be constructed with a gradient equal to or flatter than 
local natural watercourses to convey runoff from the pit areas to the 
Rio Paguate. This would avoid ponded water or undrained saline soils 
on the reclaimed minesite. 

For both options, other aspects of reclamation would be the same. 
Highwall stability techniques would essentially be the same as 
Anaconda's Proposal. With few exceptions, waste dump slopes would be 
reduced to 3:1, with no terracing. Treatment of Jack pile Sandstone and 
minesite facilities would be the same as Anaconda's Proposal. All 
disturbed areas would be topsoiled and seeded. Reclamation would be 
considered complete when revegetated sites reach 90 percent of the 
density, frequency, foliar cover, basal cover and production of 
undisturbed reference areas. The post-reclamation monitoring period 
would be a minimum of 5 years. 

Laguna Proposal 

This alternative was developed by the Pueblo of Laguna based on their 
desires and in consultation with their own technical consultants. 

Under this proposal, South Paguate pit would be backfilled to its 
original contour; North Paguate and Jackpile pits would be backfilled 7 
feet above the DOI's Proposal. The North Paguate highwall would be 
buttressed to the crest and the buttress material would be sloped 3:1. 
Treatment of Gavilan Mesa, waste dump slopes, Jackpile Sandstone and 
minesite facilities would essentially be the same as DOI's Proposal. 
All disturbed areas would be topsoiled and seeded. Reclamation would 
be considered complete when revegetated sites reach 90 percent of the 
density, frequency, foliar cover, basal cover and production of 
undisturbed reference areas. The post-reclamation monitoring period 
would be a minimum of 10 years. 

SUMMARY OF IMPACTS 

Table 1-5 presents a summary and comparison of environmental impacts 
for the reclamation proposals outlined in Tables 1-3 and 1-4. For more 
detailed impact analysis, refer to Chapter 3 - Environmental 
Consequences. 



1-12 



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1-31 



RECLAMATION SCHEDULE 

The reclamation schedule used for all alternatives is the schedule 
proposed by Anaconda Minerals Company (Figure 1-1). Based on this 
schedule, backfilling of the open pits would take about 34 months, 
placement of overburden about 27 months, placement of topsoil about 24 
months, and revegetation about 24 months. The monitoring period would 
range from a minimum of 78 months (Anaconda Proposal) to a maximum of 
162 months (Laguna Proposal). For the most part, reclamation 
operations would be conducted concurrently with each other. 

Resloping of the waste dumps, modification of the highwalls, 
reclamation of the drill holes, P-10 decline, and vent holes, and if 
required, construction of the pit drainage channels would be done 
during the first 34 months (concurrent with backfilling of pits and 
placement of overburden). All other work (i.e., construction of the 
rock-lined drainages, disposal of buildings, etc.) would be done during 
the last 10 months. Total work time, excluding monitoring, is 
estimated to be 42 months. 

COST ANALYSIS SUMMARY 

Before the cost analysis could be done, a detailed study of the 
quantities of material moved by and changes in topography caused by 
mining had to be made. The BLM's Denver Service Center conducted this 
study. 

Aerial photographs were taken of the minesite and topographic maps were 
Fade. This gave the current (1984) topography. To compare this to the 
pre-mining topography, topographic maps were made from aerial 
photographs taken in 1952. The disturbed areas on the 1984 maps and 
the corresponding areas on the 1952 maps were digitized and placed into 
a computer program. 

As part of the calculation of the backfill for the open pits, the 
proposed initial backfill elevations were digitized and compared to the 
1984 topography. The volumes of the protore stockpiles, topsoil 
stockpiles and certain waste dumps were determined by comparing the 
pre-mining elevations from the digitized 1952 maps with the current 
elevations from the digitized 1984 maps. In cases where the piles were 
in the pits or where the pre-mining topography had been altered by 
mining prior to placement of the piles, the piles were assumed to have 
a flat bottom. The volume of material to be moved by the resloping of 
waste dumps under each alternative was calculated by constructing 
topographic maps for each dump showing how the slopes would look after 
resloping. These maps were then digitized and compared to the 1984 
topography. 

The next step was to take the volumetric data and determine the amount 
of reclamation work to be performed under each alternative. To begin 
with, all necessary initial backfill material was placed into the open 
pits. This material included all protore stockpiles, waste dumps H & 
J, shale for a water retention dike in North Paguate pit, the buttress 
for Gavilan Mesa highwall, and the 4-foot- thick layer of overburden. 



1-32 



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1-33 



Next, any excess material was placed in the pits. This included excess 
material that resulted from waste dump resloping and reshaping of 
Gavilan Mesa highwall. 

Highwall stabilization costs took into account scaling, fencing, slope 
modifications for North and South Paguate pit highwalls, and treatment 
of Gavilan Mesa, as applicable to each reclamation alternative. 

The material generated from the resloping of the waste dumps were 
placed as close to the source dumps as possible. Where this was not 
possible, this material was placed into the closest pit. 

The amount of material needed to reclaim the P-10 decline, vent holes 
and any open drill holes was calculated. This consisted of waste dump 
material (excluding Jackpile Sandstone) and concrete for the P-10 
bulkhead and surface plugs. The quantity of material needed for the 
rock-lined drainage structures and armoring of arroyo headcuts was also 
calculated. 

Revegetation costs were calculated by determining the amount of 
topsoil, seed, mulch and fertilizer needed, as well as the associated 
equipment costs. 

In summary, the major costs for the three reclamation proposals result 

from the material to be moved, ranging from about 50 to 60 million 

cubic yards. Table 1-6 shows the cost estimates for each of the 
reclamation alternatives. 

MITIGATING MEASURES 

Mitigating measures have been incorporated into each of the reclamation 
proposals addressed in this EIS. However, additional measures may be 
identified through the EIS process. These measures would then become 
stipulations to the final reclamation plan approved by the DOI. Any 
approved reclamation plan will require stipulations and monitoring to 
ensure compliance with reclamation measures and to minimize 
environmental impacts during reclamation. DOI personnel will be 
responsible for assuring that all reclamation criteria are met. This 
includes everything from verifying that the proper amount of backfill 
has been placed in the pits to collecting and reviewing radiological 
data. Details of the proposed DOI monitoring plan will be included in 
the final EIS. 

It is important to note that monitoring would not eliminate all adverse 
environmental impacts which could occur during reclamation. For 
example, it is not possible to predict when total suspended particulate 
(TSP) levels would exceed limits. Monitoring would only indicate that 
limits had been exceeded sometime in the past. Therefore, mitigative 
measures for TSP would be based on observation not monitoring (e.g., 
during periods of high winds, water would be used to control dust as 
necessary). 

Except for the monitoring of ground water recovery levels and the 
monitoring of site discharge water quality, all monitoring and 

1-34 



TABLE 1-6 

RECLAMATION COST ESTIMATES 
(all figures rounded) 



Item 


No Action 
Alternative 


Anaconda 
Proposal 


DO I Proposal 
(Monitor Option) 


DO I Proposal 
(Drainage Option) 


Laguna 
Proposal 


Backfill of Pits 







$15,200,000 


$16,200,000^ 


$16,300,000^/ 


$44,000,000^ 


Pit Highwall 
Stabilization 







$ 3,100,000 


$ 3,300,000 


$ 3,300,000 


$ 3,300,000 


Waste Dump Resloping 







$30, 300, 000 d/ 


$30,300,000^/ 


$30,300,000^/ 


$ 4,300,000 


Erosion Control 







$ 133,000 


$ 363,000 


$ 363,000 


$ 363,000 


Backfilling Drill 
Holes^/ 







$ 5,000 


$ 9 , 000 


$ 9,000 


$ 9,000 


Sealing Decline 







$ 12,000 


$ 12,000 


$ 12,000 


$ 12,000 


Backfilling Vent Holes 







$ 22,000 


$ 27,000 


$ 27,000 


$ 27,000 


Revegetation 







$ 5,380,000 


$ 5,380,000 


$ 5,380,000 


$ 5,380,000 


totals!/ 







$54,152,000 


$55,591,000 


$55,691,000 


$57,391,000 



Source: BLM 1985. 



Notes: 



^Includes costs of ground water monitoring. 

—Includes costs of drainage channels. 

—Includes costs of backfilling South Paguate pit to its original contour, and for 

backfilling Jackpile and North Paguate pits 7 feet above the DOI's Proposal. 
—'The majority of excess material from resloping will be placed into the pits. 
^For an estimated 2,300 drill holes to reclaim. 
—Excludes costs for disposition of surface facilities (including railroad spur), monitoring, 

security and remedial action. The costs for these items could result in an increase of 5 to 

10 percent above the total reclamation costs for each alternative. 



1-35 



compliance measures would be short-term. Although all reclamation and 
environmental components would meet the required goals and criteria 
immediately following reclamation, it is not possible to guarantee they 
would do so indefinitely. For example, over centuries waste dumps 
would erode, highwalls would topple and stream channels would migrate. 
One of the goals of any approved reclamation plan would be to minimize 
the need for institutional control. However, it is obvious that some 
form of long-term monitoring or custodial control and remedial action 
will be necessary to ensure that reclamation is not undone by natural 
forces. Repair of waste dump slopes, sealing of highwalls, adding 
extra backfill, etc., would be done as necessary with estimated costs 
not to exceed 10 percent of the total costs for each reclamation 
alternative. 

For the present, DOI and the Pueblo of Laguna will be responsible for 
assuring that land use restrictions are followed, and for doing on-site 
surveillance and remedial action. Uranium mine wastes are not 
presently listed as hazardous wastes and are not controlled by any 
Federal or State agency. If uranium mine wastes do come under 
regulatory control in the future, custodial and remedial action 
responsibilities could transfer to another agency. 



1-36 



affected 



v^hapter 2 



environmen 



t 



INTRODUCTION 

This chapter describes the existing physical, biological and 
socioeconomic conditions in and adjacent to the Jackpile-Paguate 
uranium mine. The information in this chapter provides the basis for 
the assessment of impacts made in Chapter 3. 

Map 1-2 in Chapter 1 shows the principal features of interest in and 
around the minesite. These features are also listed in Table 2-1. 
Table 2-2 defines terms that are used throughout this document. These 
definitions apply specifically to this EIS and should not be confused 
with other definitions for these terms. 

MINING OPERATIONS 

Operations at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine were conducted from 
three open pits and nine underground mines. Open-pit mining was 
conducted predominantly with large front-end loaders and haul trucks. 
The overburden, consisting of topsoil, alluvium, shale and sandstone 
was blasted or ripped, removed from the open pits, and placed in waste 
dumps. The uranium ore was segregated according to grade and 
stockpiled for shipment to the mill. In the later years of mining, 
material conducive to plant growth was stockpiled for future 
reclamation. Ore-associated waste and some overburden was also placed 
in the mined-out areas of the pits as backfill. 

Underground mining was conducted by driving adits, or declines, to the 
ore zones. Drifts were driven through the ore zone, and the ore 
removed by modified room-and-pillar methods. Ventilation holes were 
drilled to maintain a fresh air supply. Mine water was collected in 
sumps and pumped to ponds in the open pits. Waste rock was placed in 
waste dumps, and the ore was stockpiled for shipment to the mill. 

Surface Disturbance 

During the 29 years of mining activity, approximately 2,656 acres of 
natural ground were disturbed by mine operations, as indicated in Table 
2-3 and on Visual A. 

Open Pits 

The Jackpile, North Paguate and South Paguate open pits make up 
about 40 percent of the total disturbed acreage at the minesite (Figure 
2-1). Approximately 101 million tons (63.6 million cubic yards) of 
backfill, composed principally of ore-associated waste with some 
overburden, have been returned to the pits. Due to irregular 
topography, the pits vary in maximum depth as follows: Jackpile 
625-feet deep; North Paguate-200 feet deep; and South Paguate-325 feet 
deep. 

The most prominent features within the excavated pits are the pit 
walls (also called highwalls), which are composed principally of shale 
with some intermixed sandstone beds. The overall slope angle of the 
pit walls ranges between 49 and 55 degrees (Figure 2-2). 



2-1 



TABLE 2-1 

PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF INTEREST IN AREA OF 
JACKPILE-PAGUATE URANIUM MINE 



Feature 



Description 



Anaconda Mining Leases 



NM Highway 279 



Paguate Reservoir£' 



a/ 



Three leases totaling approximately 
7,868 acres. 

Realignment is being proposed to 
eliminate a hazardous section of 
this State highway that presently 
passes around the mine. This 
realignment is not part of the 
overall reclamation project. 

Constructed south of the mine area 
in 1940, now almost completely 
silted in. 



Rail Spur 



Rio Paguate and Rio Moquino 



Constructed by Anaconda on a 
right-of-way across Pueblo of 
Laguna land. 

Small perennial rivers that join 
within the minesite for an average 
combined discharge of 1.2 cubic 
feet per second. 



Village of Laguna 



Laguna Indian village with 1,565 
residents located 7 miles from the 
mine. 



Village of Paguate 



Laguna Indian village with 1,435 
residents located approximately 
1,000 feet from the mine. 



Note: —' Paguate Reservoir is sometimes referred to as Quirk or Mesita 
Reservoir. 



2-2 



TABLE 2-2 
TERMS USED IN THIS EIS 



General Term 



Definition 



Components 



Jackpile 
Sandstone 



Overburden 



Soil 



The ore-bearing unit 
at the Jackpile-Paguate 
uranium mine 



Any material that overlies 
the ore-bearing unit 



Material used as plant-growth 
medium during revegetation 



Barren waste [less 
than .002 percent 
uranium (U3O3)] 

Ore-associated waste 
(.002 to .019 
percent U3O8) 

Protore (.02 to .059 
percent U3O3 — 
refer to Glossary )£' 

Ore (greater than 
.06 precent l^Og) 

Topsoil, Alluvium, 
Mancos Shale, Tres 
Hermanos Sandstone, 
Dakota Sandstone 

Topsoil, Alluvium, 
Pulverized Tres 
Hermanos Sandstone 



Note: iL'This percentage range applies to this EIS only — refer to the 
Mineral Resources section of this chapter for an explanation. 



2-3 



TABLE 2-3 
JACKPILE-PAGUATE URANIUM MINE DISTURBED AREA 



Feature 



Acres 



Open Pits 

Jackpile 
North Paguate 
South Paguate 



Waste Dumps 

Jackpile area 
North Paguate area 
South Paguate area 



Protore Stockpiles 

Total mine area, excluding open pits 

Topsoil Stockpiles 

TS-1 

TS-2(A and B) 

TS-3a/ 

Other Disturbed Areas 

Depleted ore stockpiles^/ 

General area disturbance (includes buildings, parking lots) 

Roads 

Rail spur and miscellaneous areas 

TOTAL ACRES DISTURBED 



475 
140 
400 



1,015 



718 

192 

356 

1,266 



103 



21 

11 
(19) 



32 



50 
66 
88 
36 
240 

2,656 



Source: Anaconda Minerals Company 1982. 

Notes: £' Topsoil stockpile TS-3 is located on South Dump and 
therefore does not constitute additional acreage of 
disturbed natural ground. 
—'Refers to former stockpile areas in which the ore was 
either relocated to the open pits or shipped to the mill. 



2-4 




FIGURE 2-1 VIEW SOUTH THROUGH JACKPILE PIT 




FIGURE 2-2 SOUTH PAGUATE PIT HIGHWALL 



2-5 



Water has collected in the lowest portions of the pits as a result 
of surface runoff, ground water recovery and water discharged from the 
underground operations (Figure 2-3). As of April 1984, water levels in 
the pits ranged between elevations of 5830' and 5959'. 




' . 



FIGURE 2-3 PONDING IN NORTH PAGUATE PIT 



Waste Dumps 

The minesite contains 32 waste dumps that make up about 48 percent 
of the disturbed area (Figure 2-4). The dumps are composed of Tres 
Hermanos Sandstone, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, and both barren and 
ore-associated Jackpile Sandstone. Characteristics of the dumps are 
presented in Table 1-4 (Chapter 1). 

Protore Stockpiles 

Located outside and inside of the pits are 23 protore stockpiles 
(Figure 2-5 and Table 2-4). The protore that lies outside the pits 
covers approximately 100 acres and contains approximately 9.7 million 
cubic yards of material. Those stockpiles that lie inside the pits 
contain about 3.1 million cubic yards of material but do not constitute 
additional acreage of disturbed ground. The stockpiles are generally 
segregated according to grade, but some grade variation exists within 
each stockpile. 



2-6 










.. ■ 







& 



At** •«. .'-*• 



* 







FIGURE 2-4 WASTE DUMPS ON NORTH SIDE OF MINE 






«f# 




% 



X 









* ^- 



FIGURE 2-5 PROTORE STOCKPILE SP-1 



2-7 



TABLE 2-4 
PROTORE STOCKPILES AT THE JACKPILE-PAGUATE URANIUM MINE 



Area 



Stockpile 
Designation 



Volume 
(cubic yards) 



Jackpile Pit 



North Paguate Pit 



South Paguate Pit 



J-l 

J-lAi/ 
J-l -A 
JLG 
SP-1 

J-2 

SP-6-A 

SP-6-B 

SP-17BC 

17-Ei' 

1-B 

1-Ea/ 

2-E 

10-Dike 

SP-1 

SP-l-C 

SP-2-C 

SP-2-D 

l-Di/ 

PLG 
PLG-1 

4-1 
SP-1 -A 



TOTALS 



23 stockpiles 



618,500 
1,673,500 



137,300 
462,100 
742,800 
18,100 
660,000 

1,866,100 
154,500 
423,400 
100,500 
620,400 
483,300 

2,044,600 
395,900 



648,700 



168,700 
1,664,000 



12,882,400 



Source: Stockpile designations and locations Anaconda Minerals Company 
1982; volumetric calculations BLM 1984. 



Note: £' Stockpiles located within pits themselves. 



2-8 



Topsoil Stockpiles 

During the later years of mining, all Tres Hermanos Sandstone and 
alluvium encountered during surface mining was stockpiled for future 
reclamation operations. These stockpiles contain approximately 3.1 
million cubic yards of material (BLM 1984). 

Surface Facilities 

The minesite contains various buildings, structures and surface 
facilities which cover approximately 66 acres (Figure 2-6). Most of 
the major buildings are constructed on cement slabs with steel frames 
and sheet metal siding. Many have heating, sewage, electric and 
drinking water systems. The condition of the buildings varies 
considerably, but many are in good condition. A list of these 
facilities located on leases No. 1 (Jackpile) and No. 4 is shown in 
Table 2-5. 




FIGURE 2-6 P-10 MINE BUILDINGS 



The minesite also contains a rail spur that connects the site to the 
main east-west line of the Santa Fe Railroad, 5 miles south. The spur 
was used to transport ore from the mine to Anaconda's Bluewater Mill 
near Grants, New Mexico. 



2-9 



TABLE 2-5 
STRUCTURES AND FACILITIES LOCATED ON LEASES NOS. 1 AND 4 



Lease/Feature 



Coverage 



Lease No. 1 (Jackpile) 
Buildings-Structures 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 



15. 



16. 

17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 



Housing 



Geology building 
School building 
Miners' training center 
Guardhouse ( 2) 
Explosives magazines (3) 



Maintenance and repair shop 

Repair and electrician's shop 

Welding shop 

Warehouse 

Change house 

Restroom 

Safety room and change room 

Mine engineering and housing repair shop 

Fuel service area (mine office) 

a. 2 ea. gasoline pumps 

b. Gasoline storage tanks 
Fuel service area (Hamilton) 

a. 2 ea. fuel pumps 

b. 2 ea. underground fuel storage tanks 
Surface mining main office 

Truck parking lot (includes 20 service stands 

and 2 small buildings) 

Boundary fencing 

Road culverts over Rios Moquino and Paguate (6 ea.) 

Concrete crossing (ford) over Rio Paguate near main gate 



7 houses 

11 houses 

Recreational facilities (includes tennis/basketball 

courts, misc. playground equipment) 



4,000 sq. ft. 

1,500 sq. ft. 

2,730 sq. ft. 

144 sq. ft. each 

100 sq. ft; 

1,200 sq. ft. ; 

180 sq. ft. 

7,000 sq. ft. 

1,260 sq. ft. 

1,600 sq. ft. 

3,600 sq. ft. 

480 sq. ft. 

320 sq. ft. 

1,116 sq. ft. 

5,000 sq. ft. 



1,116 sq. ft 



approx. 14,850 linear ft. 



approx. 1,650 sq. ft. each 
approx. 1,250 sq. ft. each 



Utilities 



5 wells, cased with pumps 

a. Jackpile No. 1 - Peerless vertical turbine pumps, electrical service (not 
activated), building 

b. Jackpile No. 2 - Reda submersible pump, electrical service (not activated), 
building 

c. Jackpile No. 3 - submersible pump, electrical service (not activated), 
building 

d. Jackpile No. 4 - submersible pump, electrical service (not activated), 
building 

e. Jackpile No. 5 - Jensen straight pumpjack, electrical service (not 
activated), building 

Water Distribution Systems and Water Storage Tanks 

a. 600 gallon (1 ea.) 

b. 800 gallon (1 ea.) 

c. 1,000 gallon (1 ea. ) 

d. 2,000 gallon (1 ea.) 

Housing Sewage Disposal System and Lagoons — 2-cell 

sewage lagoon (fenced) 

Powerlines 

a. Poles 

b. Wire line 

c. Transformers 
3-Phase Substation at Engineering Office 



approx. 16,000 linear ft. 



2-10 



TABLE 2-5 (concluded) 



Lease/Feature 



Coverage 



Lease No. 1 (Jackpile) (cont'd) 

Rail Spur 

Railroad spur from rail line (AT & SF) to mine- 
Materials: 90# rail, ties, hardware, ballast, turnouts and 
switches, bridge structure and culverts 



approx. 5.4 miles long 



Lease No. 4 



Buildings-Structures 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 



20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 



P-10 underground mine office 

P-10 change house 

P-10 equipment repair shop 

P-10 electric shop 

P-10 storage shed 

P-10 fenced storage yard 

Carpenter shop 

Paint shop 

Electric shop 

Welding shop 

Warehouse 

Rebuild shop 

Maintenance and repair shop 

Small storage shed 

Wash rack, and associated buildings 

Garage 

Change house 

Conference hall and office 

Fuel service area, including: 

a. 2 gasoline pumps 

b. 1 diesel pump 

c. 3 fuel storage tanks 

Chain-link fenced shop storage yards (2) 

Chain-link fenced warehouse storage yard (asphalt base) 

Guardhouse (2) 

Explosives magazine (2 ea.) 

Stock water tank (south of new shop well) 



4,000 sq. ft. 
2,800 sq. ft. 
1,850 sq. ft. 
1,900 sq. ft. 

150 sq. ft. 
approx. 1.5 acres 
2,520 sq. ft. 

225 sq. ft. 



2,520 sq. 

3,000 sq. 

10,800 sq. 

1,350 sq. 

12,240 sq. 

150 sq. 

306 sq. 

864 sq. 

936 sq. 

1,200 sq. 



ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 
ft. 



approx. 1 to 1.5 acres ea. 

approx. 1/4 acre 

144 sq. ft each 

600 sq. ft. 



Utilities 



4. 



2 wells, cased with pumps 

a. P-10 well, submersible pump, electrical service, cover structure 

b. New shop well, submersible pump, electrical service, cover structure 
Water distribution systems and water storage tanks 

a. P-10 tank, approximately 1,000 gallon with support structure 

b. New shop tank, approximately 1,200 gallon with support structure 
Sewage disposal system and lagoons. 

a. P-10 with 3-cell lagoon (fenced) 

b. New shop system with 3-cell lagoon (fenced) 
Powerlines 

a. Poles 



b. Wire line 

c. Transformers 



approx. 7,600 linear ft. 



Source: Anaconda Minerals Co. 1984. 
Note: All building areas are approximate 



2-11 



Underground Disturbance 

Mining was conducted in nine underground mines (Visual A) . Five of 
these mines were permanently plugged and abandoned as part of normal 
mining operations. The remaining four were operating when overall 
mining operations were suspended, and each has been temporarily closed 
for safety (Figure 2-7). -Table 2-6 briefly describes each mine. 




FIGURE 2-7 P-10 DECLINE -TEMPORARILY ABANDONED 



Only the P-10 mine produced a substantial amount of water, and the 
water level has risen to render its workings inaccessible. The 
deposits at each of the mines, with the exception of NJ-45 and P-13, 
were mined as completely as the economics of the times would allow. 

Previous Reclamation 

Anaconda Minerals Co. began a limited reclamation program in 1976. 
The program consisted of returning most of the overburden removed 
during the stripping process to mined-out areas of the pits, clearing 
of stream channels, slope stabilization tests and revegetation of 
dumps. Each of these processes is described as follows. 



2-12 



TABLE 2-6 
STATUS OF UNDERGROUND MINING OPERATIONS 



Mine 



Description 



Status 



Alpine 



Small operation - access via 
2 adits 



Adits permanently plugged 
with waste 



H-l 



Small operation - access via 
2 adits -3 vent holes - used as 
an undergroundminer's training 
school 



Adits and vent holes permanently 
plugged with waste 



NJ-45 



Small operation begun in 1981 
- access via 3 adits from Jackpile 
pit - 2 vent holes - approximately 
1/3 of ore removed 



Adits and vent holes temporarily 
covered - mine workings 
relatively stable and assumed to 
be inaccessible 



P-7 



Large operation - access via P-10 
underground drifts - 6 vent holes - 
vertical emergency escapeway into 
South Paguate pit 



Vent holes temporarily covered - 
mine workings filled with water 
and inaccessible 



P-9-2 



P-10 



Large operation 
- 8 vent holes 



access via 5 adits 



Large operation - access via 2,000- 
foot decline - 11 vent holes 



Adits, majority of workings, 
and all but 1 vent hole mined 
through by advances of South 
Paguate pit - 1 vent hole open 
but covered 

Decline and vent holes tempor- 
arily covered - mine workings 
filled with water and inaccess- 
ible 



P-13 



Small operation begun in 1981 - 
access via 2 adits from South 
Paguate pit - ore body not fully 
opened - very small percentage of 
ore removed 



Adits and mine workings flooded 
with water and inaccessible 



P 15/17 Large operation approved for 
development but never begun 



No operations conducted 



PW 2/3 Small operation - access via 2 

adits from North Paguate pit - 2 
vent adits into pit 



All adits permanently covered 
with backfill (highwall buttress) 



Woodrow Small operation - vertical shaft 
with 2 working areas to mine 
vertical breccia pipe deposit - 
mining completed in 1956 



Shaft backfilled from 
bottom to top 



Source: Anaconda Minerals Company 1982. 



2-13 



Backfilling 

During the later years of mining, some overburden was placed into 
the mined-out portions of the pits. The southei.i portion of the 
Jackpile pit and the South Paguate pit received most of this material. 
Backfilling was also performed for two possible routes for the 
realignment of State Highway 279. There were no requirements to keep 
records on the radiological content of this material. 

Stream Channel Modification 

In an effort to begin clearing waste from the Rio Moquino's 
floodplain, approximately 500,000 tons of material from waste dump U on 
the east side of the river were removed during the last year of mining 
operations. 

Slope Stabilization Tests 

Limited tests were performed on the slope of waste dump I to 
evaluate the ability of biodegradable matting to inhibit erosion. 
Special reseeding techniques were performed on the slope of waste dump 
J. The matting and special reseeding techniques were unsuccessful. 

Waste Dump Revegetation 

The tops of 17 waste dumps were reclaimed between 1976 and 1979. 
The dumps were contoured to a slight slope, water spreading berms were 
constructed, large boulders were pushed into piles, 18 to 24 inches of 
soil were spread, and the dumps were seeded. This work was performed 
on 18 percent of the disturbed area with varying degrees of success. 
Further details are provided in the Flora section of this chapter. 

Monitoring 

Anaconda has performed a comprehensive environmental monitoring 
program since 1977. The program is summarized in Table 2-7. 

GEOLOGY 

Physiography 

The Jackpile-Paguate minesite is located in mesa and canyon country 
typical of much of the southeastern Colorado Plateau physiographic 
province. It is situated in a broad valley of northwest-dipping, 
sandstone-capped benches pierced by numerous basaltic volcanic necks 
that rise up to 1,000 feet above the surrounding terrain. Principal 
landscape components in the area are: 

1. Sparsely vegetated, sandstone-capped, flat mesa tops; 

2. Steep mesa slopes characterized by approximately 30-degree shale 
slopes and nearly vertical sandstone slopes, with basal talus from 
numerous rock falls; 



2-14 



TABLE 2-7 
ANACONDA'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM 



Item 



Monitoring 
Frequency 



Monitoring 
Parameters 



Number of Stations 
Monitored 



Subsidence 
Surface water 

Ground water 



Particulates 
(radiological) 

Particulates 
(non-radiological) 

Gamma 



Radon concentration 
Radon exhalation 



Vegetation 



Vegetation 



Soils 



Meteorology 



Quarterly^' 
Monthly 

Monthly 

Monthly 
Monthly 



Once after 

topsoil 

application 

Monthly 

Twice after 

topsoil 

application 

Once 



Variable 



Once 



Continuous 



Ground movement 

29 chemical and 

■ iJ ° h/ 

parameters^.' 

29 chemical and 

radiological 

parameters^' 

U-natural, Ra-226, 
Po-210 and Th-230 

Total particulates 



Gamma radiation 



Rn-222 

Radon release 
per unit area 



Th-230, Ra-226, 
Po-210, uranium 
and rad on 

Density, diversity 
and basal cover 

11 chemical and radi- 
ological parameters 



Wind speed and dir- 
ection, temperature 
and precipitation 



89 
6 



3£/ 



100-meter grid 
on each waste 
dump 



100-meter grid 
on each waste 
dump 

Each reclaimed 
waste dump 



Each re vegetated 
area 

One composite 
sample on each 
reclaimed waste 
dump 



Notes: £'0n June 9, 1983, subsidence monitoring of P-13 and P-15/17 was discontinued 
because these mine workings were never developed. At the same time, the 
monitoring frequency for the P-10 and PW-2/3 mines was reduced to semi-annual. 
b/ p H, conductivity, TDS, HC0 3 , CI, SO4 , Na , K, Ca , Mg, NO3 , F, Si0 2 , 

Mn, As, Ba, Cd , Cr , Pb , Hg , Se, Cu , Fe , Zn , Mo, Ni , V, U, Ra-226. 
—' Sampling of the Old Shop Well was discontinued in May 1983. Sampling of 
the New Shop and #4 wells was discontinued in August 1983. A new ground 
water monitoring program using nine wells was started in September 1983. 



2-15 



3. Vegetated valley floors cut by numerous arroyos entrenched In 
fine-grained alluvium; and 

4. Densely vegetated, major stream beds. 

Prominent landforms of the mine area are: Gavilan Mesa to the east, 
North and South Oak Canyon Mesas and Oak Canyon to the south, and Black 
Mesa and numerous deep canyons to the west. Within the lease boundary, 
elevations range from 5,820 to 6,910 feet. 

Stratigraphy 

Sedimentary rocks exposed in the area of the minesite range in age 
from Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous. In addition, Tertiary age 
diabase dikes and sills and volcanic flow rocks are exposed near the 
minesite. A generalized stratigraphic column is given in Figure 2-8. 

At the minesite, all of the rock units above the lower Mancos Shale 
have been eroded. The stratigraphy of the mine includes the Morrison 
Formation, Dakota Sandstone, Mancos Shale, Tertiary igneous dikes and 
Quaternary alluvium. 

The Morrison Formation, locally 600 feet thick, consists of (in 
ascending order) the Recapture Member, the Westwater Canyon Member and 
the Brushy Basin Member. The Brushy Basin Member, which is exposed at 
the minesite, is composed of mudstones up to 350 feet thick with 
numerous interbedded, thin sandstone lenses of restricted extent. The 
Jackpile Sandstone, a unit in the upper portion of the Brushy Basin 
Member and the uranium host rock, is a grayish-white, fine- to 
medium-grained friable sandstone, and is locally more than 200 feet 
thick (Kittle 1963). 

The Dakota Sandstone unconformably overlies the Jackpile Sandstone 
and consists of black carbonaceous shales and grey siltstones separated 
by up to four prominent, fine- to medium-grained, well-sorted and 
cemented sandstones averaging about 45 feet in thickness (Kittle 1963). 

The lower part of the Mancos Shale is exposed near the minesite and 
consists of a massive shale with intervening sandstone beds that 
together total up to 350 feet in thickness. The sandstone units, 
called the Tres Hermanos sandstones, are typically fine- to 
medium-grained, thinly to (mostly) massively bedded horizons from 20 to 
60 feet thick. The intervening shales are dark in color. 

Quaternary alluvium ranges from to 60 feet thick along the Rios 

Paguate and Moquino, and is over 100 feet thick along the Rio San Jose 

(Lyford 1977). The alluvium is composed mostly of silt and 
fine-to medium-grained sand. 

Structure 

The geologic structure at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine is 
relatively simple. Sedimentary rocks dip uniformly about 2 degrees to 
the northwest into the San Juan Basin. One fault (a minor northwest- 



2-16 



2 
w 

CO 

>- 
CO 

CO 

o 

UJ 

o 

< 

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FORMATION 

Mancos 
Dakota 

Mancos 
Dakota 

Mancos 
Dakota 
Mancos 
Dakota 



Morrison 



Bluff 



Summerville 

Todilto 
Entrada 



Vertical scale: 
1 inch = 500 feet E 



UNIT 



Tres Hermanos 



Tres Hermanos 



Tres Hermanos 



Jackpile Sandstone 



Brushy Basin 



Westwater Canyon 
Recapture 



LEGEND 



Sandstone 



7777m Anhydrite 



THICKNESS 
(feet) 

60-100 

40-60 

60-100 

40-60 

40 
50 

0-220 



250-350 



0-50 
50-100 



275 



120 

75 
10 



i-^---i Shale and Mudstone l^=-=r| Carbonaceous material 
Limestone 



FIGURE 2-8 
Generalized Stratigraphic Column of the Jackpile Mine Area 



2-17 



trending, normal fault) and two low-amplitude folds are present at the 
southwestern end of the Jackpile pit (Schlee and Moench 1963). Joints 
are present in all rocks in the area. Vertical joint sets in the 
Gavilan Mesa highwall are oriented N. 25 degrees E. and N. 35 degrees 
W. (Seegmiller 1979a). Vertical joint sets in the North and South 
Paguate pit areas are oriented N. 25 degrees E. and N. 72 degrees W. 
(Seegmiller 1979b). Joint spacing ranges from 5 to 15 feet in 
sandstones and less in shales. 

Nature of the Ore Deposit 

The Jackpile deposit mined in the Jackpile pit was an elongate, 
tabular ore body in the Jackpile Sandstone, approximately 1.5 miles 
long and 0.5 miles wide. Individual ore layers rarely exceeded 15 feet 
in thickness, but stacked layers totaled up to 50 feet (Moench 1963). 
The dominant ore minerals were cof finite, uraninite and numerous 
oxidized uranium minerals (Moench 1963). 

The deposit mined in the North and South Paguate pits had a known 
length of over two miles and an average width of several hundred feet. 
The northern part of the deposit was in the upper one-third of the 
Jackpile Sandstone, while in the southern area, the lower two-thirds of 
the Jackpile Sandstone hosted the deposit. Both the Jackpile and 
Paguate deposits were formed as uranium minerals precipitated from 
ground water in the presence of carbonaceous material (Moench and 
Schlee 1967). 

MINERAL RESOURCES 

Under Federal regulations, details regarding Indian mineral leases 
(i.e., production data and royalty information) is confidential. The 
information contained in this section is presented in general terms to 
protect its confidentiality. Only the information necessary to provide 
the reader with an understanding of the importance of this issue is 
presented. 

Remaining Uranium Deposits and Protore Stockpiles 

Approximately 23 million tons of uranium resources remain at the 
minesite as stockpiled protore and unmined deposits. Protore is 
material that was stockpiled throughout the mining operation because it 
contains elevated but sub-economic uranium concentrations. (For 
discussion purposes in this EIS, the term "protore" also refers to the 
remaining Anaconda "ore" stockpiles. These ore stockpiles have been 
grouped with the protore stockpiles for discussion because they would 
be treated in the same manner during reclamation) . 

Approximately 21 million tons of protore, containing .02 to .059 
percent uranium (U30g), exist at the minesite. This material is 
located on the surface in 23 stockpiles dispersed throughout the mine, 
as shown in Visual A. The protore was generally segregated according 
to grade, but some variability in grade exists within each stockpile. 



2-18 



Approximately two million tons of unmined deposits containing .094 to 
.30 percent U3O3 remain at the site. These resources are located in 
11 deposits, 3 of which contain 90 percent of the resources. These three 
deposits are the P15/17, the NJ-45 and the P-13 (Visual A). 

The P15/17 deposit is located immediately south of the P-10 mine and 
was scheduled to be mined by underground methods until depressed uranium 
market conditions made mining uneconomical. Approximately 60 percent of 
the minesite's unmined resources are contained in this deposit. The 
deposit remains undeveloped. 

The NJ-45 deposit is located under Gavilan Mesa, adjacent to the 
Jackpile pit. Anaconda constructed three adits and drove drifts to this 
deposit in 1981, but mined only a small portion of the resource. 

The P-13 deposit is located east of the P-10 mine, adjacent to the 
South Paguate pit. Anaconda constructed two adits and drove two drifts 
to this deposit in 1981, but did not mine the resource. Operations at 
both the NJ-45 and P-13 mines were suspended when Anaconda closed the 
overall project. 

NON-RADIOLOGICAL MINESITE HAZARDS 

Non-radiological hazards at the Jackpile-Paguate minesite include: 1) 
unstable highwalls, 2) unstable waste dumps, 3) possible subsidence, and 
4) underground openings. All of these present a potential physical 
hazard to humans and livestock as well as a long-term environmental 
hazard. 

Slope Stability 

Mine highwalls and waste dumps frequently present safety problems that 
require carefully designed mitigation procedures. These hazards include: 

1. Rockfalls - Toppling and falling of loose sandstone blocks that 
occurs on all highwalls at the minesite. 

2. Rotational failures - These landslides occur in loose rock or soil, 
and break along concave-upward curved surfaces. 

3. Translational failures - These occur in hard rocks, and break along 
pre-existing zones of weakness i.e., faults or joints. (Note: slope 
failures may exhibit characteristics of several of these above types.) 

Conclusions about slope stability are based on the slope safety factor, 
which is the ratio between the forces available to resist slope failure 
and the forces tending to cause this failure. This safety factor is 
calculated from the friction angle, cohesion and specific (unit) weight 
of the rock or waste material being analyzed. These properties are 
determined from field measurements and laboratory tests. The safety 
factor itself can be calculated using several different methods. 
Anaconda used the Hoek method while the DOI used the Morgenstern - Price 
method. The concensus is that these two methods give comparable results. 



2-19 



Generally, a safety factor less than 1.0 indicates instability, while 
a safety factor greater than 1.0 indicates relative stabilty under the 
conditions assumed. However, because of the many assumptions used in 
this EIS and because a margin of safety is needed, the following scale 
for safety factor and stability is used: 

Safety Factor < 1.0 Unstable 

Safety Factor > 1.0 but<1.2 Marginally stable 

Safety Factor > 1.2 but<1.5 Probably stable 

Safety Factor > 1.5 Stable 

In calculating the safety factor, the effect of cohesion of earth 
materials is taken into account, because cohesion inhibits slope 
failure. Cohesion of materials decreases over time, and may approach 
zero, but past experience indicates that assuming zero cohesion 
underestimates slope stabilities. However, assuming maximum 
(laboratory-determined) cohesion leads to over-estimation of 
stability. Therefore, the following analyses assume cohesion of 50 
percent of laboratory values. 

Highwall Stability 

The three major areas with highwalls at the mine are Jackpile pit 
(Gavilan Mesa), North Paguate pit and South Paguate pit (Visual A). 
Safety factors for them are given in Table 2-8. All three highwall 
areas are composed of Dakota Sandstone and Mancos Shale. Highwall 
slopes in the shale units are about 40 degrees, while the sandstone 
slopes are nearly vertical. 

TABLE 2-8 

SAFETY FACTORS FOR HIGHWALLS 



Safety Factors 

Pit Highwall Anaconda^ DOL^ 



Jackpile (Gavilan Mesa) 1.40 1.15-1.26 

North Paguate 1.63 1.58-1.63 

South Paguate 1.87 1.29-3.05 

Source: ^/Seegmiller 1981. 
b/smith 1983. 

The Gavilan Mesa highwall is the tallest at the mine; its crest 
measures just over 500 feet (Figure 2-9). Its slope angle ranges up to 
74 degrees, with an overall angle of 49 degrees (Seegmiller 1981a.) 
This highwall has up to six benches 25 to 50 feet wide. Several 
tension cracks occur on the first bench below the crest of the 
highwall. Numerous overhanging and loose sandstone blocks are also 



2-20 



present and are most common where several joints intersect with bedding 
planes and the cliff face. Under present conditions, sections of the 
Gavilan Mesa highwall are only marginally stable for the long-term. 
The most likely slope failure would be a rotational one. This type 
failure would involve most benches and result in a large volume of 
material falling to the toe of the highwall. 




FIGURE 2-9 JACKPILE (GAVILAN MESA) PIT HIGHWALL WITH BUTTRESS MATERIAL AT BASE 



Toward the end of mining operations, Anaconda placed waste material 
against the base of Gavilan Mesa to help stabilize the highwall. 
Additional buttress material is scheduled for placement when 
reclamation commences. The rim of the highwall is not fenced. 

The North Paguate pit highwall has a maximum height of 200 feet and 
a slope angle that ranges up to 70 degrees; the maximum overall slope 
angle is 55 degrees (Seegmiller 1981a). This highwall has up to three 
benches 15 to 20 feet wide. It is considered stable for the long 
term. That portion of North Paguate pit highwall close to the Village 
of Paguate is fenced with six-foot chain link. 

The South Paguate pit highwall reaches a maximum height of about 300 
feet. The slope angle ranges up to 80 degrees, with the maximum 
overall slope angle being 50 degrees (Seegmiller 1981a). This highwall 
has up to five benches 5 to 25 feet wide. In places, the South Paguate 



2-21 



pit highwall is capped by up to 150 feet of alluvium. Under present 
conditions, the highwall is probably stable over the the long-term. If 
a slope failure were to occur, it would most likely be a steep-angled 
rotational one involving the entire highwall. The rim of the highwall 
is not fenced. 

Waste Dump Stability 

Potential hazards resulting from waste dump instability at the mine 
include: rotational failures, base translational failures, foundation 
spreading and piping. These waste dump failures could expose 
radiological material and thus present a health and environmental 
hazard. The material properties of eight waste dumps have been 
analyzed to assess existing stabilities (safety factors) , including 
rotational failures through the dump toes, and translational failures 
along the dump bases (Seegrailler 1980b). The eight waste dumps 
analyzed are those where the most severe stability problems could be 
expected. Safety factors for the eight dumps under rotational and base 
translational failure are given in Table 2-9. These safety factors are 
applicable only under short-term conditions (with cohesion present) and 
are not applicable to long-term stability (with diminishing cohesion). 
Saturation of a dump in the climate at the minesite is not considered 
likely, so conclusions about rotational failure assume dry conditions. 

TABLE 2-9 

SAFETY FACTORS FOR WASTE DUMPS 



Dump 



Rotational 
Failure 
(dry conditions)^' 



Base Translational Failure 
~Stat±cEf~ Dynamic.^ 



FD-2 

I 

South Dump 

T 

U 

V 

Y 

Y 2 



1.5 
2.1 
1.6 
2.2 
3.0 
1.4 
4.0 
3.5 



.84 
29.00 
29.00 
29.00 
29.00 
29.00 
29.00 
29.00 



<1.1 
>1.1 
<1.1 
<1.1 
<1.1 
<1.1 
>1.1 
<1.1 



Source: Seegmiller 1980b. 

Notes: —' Minimum safety factor of 1.5 or greater. 
—'Minimum safety factor of 1.1 or greater 

The Seegmiller analysis (1980b) indicates that, under conditions 
assumed, all dumps are at least "probably stable" with regard to 
rotational failure, and that all dumps except FD-2 are stable in regard 
to base translational failure under static conditions. The analysis 



2-22 



also indicates that the two most critical dumps, in terms of stability, 
are FD-2 and V dumps. 

FD-2 is a 270-foot-high dump composed of shale and Tres Hermanos 
Sandstone (Figure 2-10). It lies on a steep slope on the south side of 
Gavilan Mesa. Tension cracks are present near the crest, and a 
buttress has been placed at the toe to correct stability problems. 
Although Seegmiller calculated a safety factor of 1.5 (rotational 
failure under dry conditions), this dump appears to be just marginally 
stable. If one assumes no cohesion, FD-2 is unstable with regard to 
rotational failure. If the dump were to fail, a slump would probably 
displace the upper one-third to one-half of the dump, with the 
displaced material sliding to the base of the mesa. 

V dump, approximately 215 feet high and composed mostly of Jackpile 
Sandstone, is located near the Rio Moquino (Figure 2-11). The 
southwest side of this dump shows slide scars near the dump toe. 
Seegmiller 's analysis shows this dump to be stable under short-term 
conditions (cohesion present), but under zero cohesion conditions, this 
dump has a safety factor against rotational failure of 1.0, i.e., it is 
unstable. 

Slopes sometimes fail when the materials underlying them cannot hold 
up the weight of overlying materials. This is called failure by 
foundation spreading. This has not been a problem at the 
Jackpile-Paguate mine in the past, and is not expected to be a problem 
except at FD-2 dump, where fissures in materials underlying the base of 
the dump suggest foundation spreading. 

Piping is a process in which surface water flows downward through 
unconsolidated material, eroding the material to form a hollow tube or 
pipe. Piping on waste dump tops is common, especially where water 
ponds against erosion control berms. Piping causes geologic hazards at 
the minesite in two ways: 

1. Areas around large, deep pipes are unstable, leading to a 
greater likelihood of human or livestock accidents. 

2. Piping at dump crests has initiated large gullies at D,I,T,V and 
South dumps. These gullies are sources of rockfalls, small earth 
slides and high-velocity concentrated runoff. 

Subsidence 

Information on existing ground subsidence above the underground mine 
workings is presented in Table 2-10. As of December 31, 1983, a 
maximum of 3.37 inches of subsidence has occurred at one station over 
the 1500 area of the P-10/7 mine (Anaconda 1984). 

Seegmiller (1981b, c, d) studied several possible problem areas at 
the mine. These are the A and B stopes of the Alpine mine, the 1400B 
stope of the P-10/7 mine and the A and B stopes of the PW 2/3 mine. 
Seegmiller 's estimates of subsidence at these sites are shown in Table 
2-11. The data indicate that all areas, except for the area above the 



2-23 












. - -» ~&* ■ 







FIGURE 2-10 FD-2 DUMP ON EAST SIDE OF GAVILAN MESA 



J 







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FIGURE 2-11 V DUMP SHOWING ACTIVE EROSION 



2-24 



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2-25 



P-10 mine decline, are in a "low risk" category with regard to 
subsidence. The P-10 decline could be subject to subsidence of 
significant magnitude and rate. This is because, from the surface to 
680 feet down the decline, the ratio of overburden to mining height is 
less than 10:1. (As a general rule, mine voids with values of this 
ratio of less than 10:1 may be unstable without support.) 

TABLE 2-11 

PREDICTED MAGNITUDE AND RATE OF SUBSIDENCE OVER POSSIBLE 
PROBLEM STOPES AT UNDERGROUND MINES 



Mine Area 



Probable Subsidence 



Probable Rate 



Alpine Mine, A stope 
Alpine Mine, B stope 
PW 2/3, A stope 
PW 2/3, B stope 
P-10/7, 1400B stope 



6' 
4" 
6' 
12" 
1' 



Very Slow 
Very Slow 
Very Slow 
Very Slow 
Zero to Very Slow 



Source: Seegmiller 1981b, c,d. 

Underground Openings 

The Alpine mine was accessed by two adits that have been sealed by 
backfilling with 5 to 10 feet of waste material. No bulkhtMs were 
placed in either adit. The area surrounding the adits has been 
backfilled to above the portals. 

The H-l mine was accessed by two adits, one of which has been 
backfilled 20 feet inward from the portal. The other adit is sealed by 
waste material only at the portal. The three ventilation shafts have 
been backfilled from bottom to surface and are covered by a 5-foot-high 
surface mound. 

The NJ-45 mine was accessed by four adits, three of which accessed 
the workings, while only the portal of the fourth adit was 
constructed. Ventilation was supplied by two 42-inch ventilation 
shafts. All mine workings are still open. 

The P-9-2 mine was accessed by five adits and ventilated by eight 
42-inch ventilation shafts. Open-pit operations progressed through the 
mine workings and seven of the ventilation shafts. The remaining 
ventilation shaft is still open. The mined areas have been backfilled 
above the level of the remaining underground workings. 

The P-10/7 mine was accessed by one decline and an emergency 
escapeway that leads into the South Paguate pit. It was ventilated by 
seventeen 42-inch ventilation shafts. All mine entries are still open. 



2-26 



The P-13 mine was accessed by two adits that are still open. 
However, this mine has flooded naturally. 

The PW 2/3 mine was accessed by four adits, the portals of which have 
been backfilled. Subsequent backfilling has covered three of the 
portals. 

The Woodrow mine was accessed by a 225-foot deep shaft. The shaft 
has since been backfilled to the surface. 

RADIATION 

Introduction 

This section describes the existing radiological environment in and 
around the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine. A primer on radiology, 
including the terminology used in this EIS, is given in Appendix C. 
Readers unfamiliar with this subject matter should read Appendix C 
before proceeding with this section and the corresponding impacts 
section in Chapter 3 of this EIS. 

Standards 

No standards exist for the release of radiation and radioactive 
materials from uranium mining operations, nor do standards exist for 
post-reclamation radiation levels. Standards have been developed by 
the Federal government for active uranium mills, inactive uranium 
mills, public drinking water systems and point-source discharges of 
water (Table 2-12). These standards were developed to fit very 
specific circumstances and are not legally applicable to surface 
uranium mining operations. However, the standards to provide a useful 
comparison by showing the levels of radiation and radioactive materials 
that are considered acceptable for other types of operations. In the 
case of uranium mills, for example, the conditions are often somewhat 
similar to those around a surface mine, and many of the standards for 
mills may become practical guidelines for mine reclamation. 

Sources of Radiation at the Minesite 

Uranium and all members of its decay chain are present everywhere in 
low concentrations in air, soil and water. However, special geologic 
and hydrologic conditions at the minesite have allowed uranium from the 
ground water to be deposited in much higher concentrations than 
background levels in the ore deposits. 

The decay of some of the uranium in the ore at the minesite has led 
to the presence of all members of uranium decay series in the 
deposits. Because this decay has been occurring over a very long 
period of time, it has reached a state of "secular equilibrium," i.e., 
the radioactivity of each member of the decay chain is the same as that 
of the uranium-238, the parent. 

During mining operations, the ore with the highest concentration of 
uranium was removed, thereby decreasing somewhat the total amount of 



2-27 



TABLE 2-12 
FEDERAL RADIATION STANDARDS 



Source of Standard 



Subject 



Standard S/ 



Item 



Limit 



Nuclear Regulatory Commission 
(10 CFR 20.105 and 20.106) 



Environmental Protection Agency 
(40 CFR 141.15) 



(40 CFR 192) 



Permissible levels of radiation 
in unrestricted areaa£' 



Maximum levels for radium-226, 
radium-228 and gross alpha 
particle activity in community 
water systems 



Health and environmental pro- 
tection standards for uranium 
mill tailings 



(40 CFR 440.52) 



Concentration of pollutants 
discharged in drainage from 
uranium mines, either open-pit 
or underground (in situ leach 
mines excluded) 



Annual whole body dose 
to an individual 



Radon-222 



Combined radium-226 and 
radium-228 

Gross alpha (including 
radium-226 but exclud- 
ing radon and uranium) 

Radon-222 release from 
uranium by-product 
materials 

Radon-222 concentra- 
tions at the boundary 
of a disposal site 

Radium-226 in land 
averaged over 100 
square meters 



Radon daughter and 
gamma levels inside 
buildings at abandoned 
mill sites 

Radium-226 (dissolved) 



Radium-226 (total) 



0.5 rem (equivalent to 
57 microroentgens per 
hour) 

3 pCi/1 ( individual )£/ 
or 1 pCi/1 (population) 

5 pCi/1 



15 pCi/1 



Uranium 



20 pCi/m 2 'sk/ 



0.5 pCi/1 



5 pCl/g (over the first 15 
centimeters of soil below 
the surface )£' 

15 pCi/g (averaged over 
15-c en timeter- thick 
layers of soil more than 
15 centimeters below 
the surface ) 

.03 WL and 20 ^R/h£/ 



10 pCi/1 (daily maximum) 
3 pCi/1 (30-day average) 



30 pCi/1 (daily maximum) 
10 pCi/1 (30-day average) 

4 mg/1 (daily maximum )£' 
2 rag/1 (30-day average) 



Notes: ^Air standards are above background; water standards include background. 

VlO CFR 40.13 specifically excludes "... unrefined and unprocessed ore..." (i.e., mines and mining). 

£/ Units of measurement: pCi/1 ■ picocuries per liter; pCi/m 2, s » picocuries per square meter per second; 

pCi/g = picocuries per gram; WL = working level; /xR/h = microroentgens per hour; mg/1 = milligrams per liter. 



2-28 



radiation produced at the site. However, the mining operation increased 
the rate at which the radiation was released into the immediate vicinity 
of the site by bringing the radioactive ore to the surface (i.e., by 
removing the shielding of the overburden) and by altering the ore's 
chemical and physical properties. The sources of radiation at the site 
(other than normal background) are protore, ore-associated waste and the 
unrained portions of the uranium ore deposit. The uranium (U-238) and 
radium (Ra-226) levels in these materials are listed in Table 2-13. 

The protore at the minesite consists of approximately 13 million cubic 
yards of rock containing 0.02 to 0.059 percent uranium oxide 
(U3O0). The protore is located in 23 stockpiles inside and outside 
of the open pits. [In mining, the concentration of all uranium isotopes 
(U-234, U-235, U-238) present in a certain amount of rock is expressed 
as if the isotopes existed as an equivalent amount of uranium oxide 
(U0O0). This U3O3 equivalent is expressed as a percentage by 
weight.] 

The ore-associated waste consists of an unknown quantity of rock 
containing 0.002 to 0.02 percent U^Og. Records were not required on 
the exact uranium content, nor on the deposition sites of the 
ore-associated waste. This waste was mixed indiscriminately with the 
overburden and placed in the 32 waste dumps on the site, or was used as 
backfill material. It is estimated that 50 million tons of 
ore-associated waste remain at the site, but this number might be in 
error by a substantial amount. 

The site also contains about 2 million tons of unmined uranium 
resources containing 0.094 to 0.3 percent L^Og and an unknown amount 
of resources below 0.094 percent. These resources have not been 
disturbed by mining operations and contribute little to the amount of 
radiation released from the site because they are shielded by the 
overburden. 

The radium and uranium contents of various surface materials in and 
around the minesite are summarized in Table 2-13. The minesite has an 
average of 70 picocuries per gram of radium-226 and uranium-238. These 
values are about 47 times higher than the average background levels and 
about 14 times higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 
mill tailings standard (40 CFR 192). 

The protore piles contain concentrations up to 165 picocuries per gram 
for both radium-226 and uranium-238. Small localized pockets may exceed 
600 picocuries per gram for these elements. 

Radiation Exposure Pathways and Existing Levels of Radiation 

The principal potential pathways for human exposure to radiation from 
the minesite are as follows: 

1. Direct Gamma Radiation — Direct exposure to radiation emitted by 
the radioactive material on the surface of the ground at the site. 
Exposure is to the whole body, but applies only to people at the 
minesite itself. (Direct exposure to beta radiation is also a 



2-29 



TABLE 2-13 

URANIUM AND RADIUM IN SURFACE MATERIALS 
(picocuries per gram) 



Material/Standard 



U-238 



Ra-226 



0.6 


— 


1.18 


0.75 


70 


701/ 


70 


270^ 


1.5 




1.5 





U.S. soil average 

San Juan Basin soil average 

Minesite average (Jackpile Sandstone) 

Minesite maximum (south part of Jackpile pit) 270 

Topsoil stockpile average 

Topsoil borrow area 

Overburden (Mancos Shale, Tres Hermanos 
Sandstone, Dakota Sandstone) 

Jackpile Sandstone 
Barren waste 
Ore-associated waste 
Protore 

EPA Mill Tailings Standard^/ 
(40 CFR 192) 



1.5 



less than 5—' 
5 to 55^/ 

greater than greater than 

55 55 s -/ 



less than 5 
5 to 55 



Source: Momeni , et al. 1983. 

Notes: —' Estimated values based on the assumption that both 
elements are in secular equilibrium in the Jackpile 
Sandstone . 
b/Refer to Table 2-12. 



2-30 



potential exposure pathway, but the health impacts from direct gamma 
exposure far exceed those of beta radiation. All measures taken to 
reduce direct external gamma radiation would also reduce external beta 
radiation. Therefore, direct external beta radiation is not analyzed any 
further in this document.) 

2. Ambient Radon — Inhalation of radon-222 and its radioactive decay 
products (progeny) from the continuous decay of radium-226 in the protore 
and ore-associated waste; exposure is primarily to a portion of the lungs 
from radon-222 progeny. 

3. Particulates — Inhalation of windblown particles containing 
radioactive elements; exposure is to the lungs from the progeny of the 
uranium-238 decay chain. 

4 . Water — Consumption of surface or ground waters containing 
radioactive elements; exposure is primarily to the bone and stomach from 
all progeny of the uranium-238 decay chain. 

5. Ingestion — Consumption of meat and vegetables contaminated with 
radioactive elements. 

Any of the exposure pathways mentioned above would be created by 

radioactive material that has been removed from the site by water 

erosion, spillage along ore haul routes or purposely taken from the 
site. 

Direct Gamma Radiation 

Gamma rays are continuously emitted from the radioactive decay of many 
elements contained at the minesite in protore and ore-associated waste. 
The principal gamma emitters are decay products of uranium-238, mainly 
bismuth- 214 and lead-214. 

Gamma rays cannot penetrate long distances through dense material. 
For example, one foot of compacted earth shields about 90 percent of the 
gamma radiation (Ford, Bacon & Davis Utah, Inc. 1977). Therefore, only 
the gamma rays that are produced at or very near the ground surface enter 
the atmosphere. In the atmosphere, gamma rays may travel up to 500 yards 
before they are absorbed by the air; therefore, people must be within 500 
yards of the gamma-emitting source to be exposed. The closer a person is 
to the source, the greater the dose received. 

Exposure to gamma rays can be very hazardous because gamma can 
penetrate the human body and expose all organs. The potential damage to 
these organs from ionizing radiation is discussed in Appendix C. The 
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR 20.105) limits gamma exposure in 
unrestricted areas to no more than 0.5 rem per year [0.5 rem/year = 57 
microroentgens per hour (jLtR/h)] over background. As previously 
mentioned, this standard does not apply to uranium mines. However, it 
does put the following discussion of gamma levels in perspective. 

An aerial survey was conducted at the minesite and the surrounding 
areas to determine the levels of gamma radiation being emitted from the 
site and vicinity, to discover if winds had spread radioactive material 

2-31 



off site, and to locate any spills. This aerial survey was used to 
determine background gamma radiation levels to be used as a basis for 
reclamation evaluation. The survey was performed in July and August, 
1981, by the Energy Measurements Group of EG&G (Jobst 1982). 
Corrections were made in the data for the altitude of the helicopter, 
terrestrial radiation, and cosmic radiation, to obtain an exposure rate 
at 3 feet above the ground due to gamma sources in the soil. The 
results of the survey are shown on Maps 2-1 and 2-2. 

The background gamma exposure rate is 13 flR/h; most of the area 
outside of the minesite, including the Village of Paguate, is at 
background levels. This indicates no measurable spread of radioactive 
materials (particulates) by winds has occurred. 

Those areas that have exposure rates above background values are 
shown on Maps 2-1 and 2-2. Slightly elevated (14 to 18 fiR/h) levels 
were measured in all major drainages above and below the minesite. A 
followup ground survey showed the high exposure rates in these areas are 
primarily due to spillage of ore and to natural outcrops of uranium- 
bearing rock. Conditions at areas 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 on Map 2-1 resulted 
from the mining operations. More detail for each of these high exposure 
areas is provided in Table 2-14. 

TABLE 2-14 

EXPLANATION OF HIGH GAMMA EXPOSURE AREAS 



Area Exposure Rate 

Number^.' (/iR/h)Jy Source of Elevated Exposure Rates 



1 18-29 Sediments in Paguate (Quirk) Reservoir. Partially 

the result of erosion from the minesite and par- 
tially the result of erosion from undisturbed areas 

2 18-23 Natural outcrop of uranium-bearing rock 

3 18-29 Ore spillage along rail spur 

4 18-29 Ore spillage along rail spur 

5 18-23 Natural outcrop of uranium-bearing rock 

6 18-23 Natural exposure of uranium-bearing sediments 

7 18-23 Location of Anaconda's hydraulic mining test 

8 18-480 Jackpile-Paguate minesite 



Source: 
Notes: 



Jobst 1982. 



J?/ Area numbers are the locations shown on Map 2-1, 
— ^LtR/h = microroentgens per hour. 



2-32 




2-33 



-A 

< in 7 

S ill _IC. 
xc -a: 

*2 * 

•lz 

X < 

111 


ID 


CM 


•* 
l 

CM 


CD 

1 

t 


CM 

CO 


0> 
CM 

1 

*> 

CM 


o 

<r 
i 

CM 


O 
10 
1 

o 

* 


o 

o 
10 


o 
o 

CM 

o 


o 

CO 
1 

o 
o 

CM 


«: _i 

111 uj 

-3 


< 


to 


O 


O 


UJ 


u. 


O 


X 


- 


-i 


K 




a» 

+■» 

'35 

a> 

c 

i 



a) 

> 

3 

CO 

(0 

E 
E 

CO 

CD 

'lZ 

CD 
< 

CM 

I 

CM 

Q. 

< 

2 



CM 
CO 
0) 



(0 

a 

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0) 

o 

l- 
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CO 



2-34 



The exposure rates within the minesite are shown on Map 2-2. The 
maximum exposure rate of 480 jLlR/h is approximately 37 times the 
background level of 13 fxR/h, while the average exposure rate of 50 flR/h 
is approximately 4 times background. The protore piles have the 
highest exposure rates. Areas that have been covered with soil, such 
as dumps C through G, have exposure rates at or below 18 jLtR/h. 

Paguate (Quirk) Reservoir was studied to determine the concentration 
of radioactive elements in the sediment. A surface gamma survey 
consisting of 1,500 data points was conducted in and around the 
reservoir (Eberline Instrument Corp. 1981). Also conducted was a 
subsurface gamma survey consisting of 47 drillholes (a maximum of 30 
feet deep) and 7 trenches (a maximum of 5 feet deep) in the reservoir. 
The gamma exposure rates and the percentage of the reservoir area 
exhibiting these exposure rates are given in Table 2-15. 

TABLE 2-15 

GAMMA EXPOSURE RATES AT PAGUATE RESERVOIR 
(microroentgens per hour) 



Percentage 
Exposure Rate of Reservoir 



Less than 10 22 

11-20 4 7 

21-30 27 

Greater than 30£/ 4 



Source: Eberline Instrument Corporation 1981. 
Note: iy The maximum rate measured was 47 
microroentgens per hour. 

Slightly more than 31 percent of the reservoir exhibits exposure 
rates above background values, with the maximum rate measured being 
about 2.5 times background. The airborne gamma survey (previously 
discussed) showed the background exposure rate for the stream channels 
in the area to be 14 to 18 jLtR/h. 

Six villages on the Laguna Reservation (including Paguate and 
Laguna) and three villages near the reservation were surveyed for gamma 
radiation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on 
September 6, 1980 (EPA letter of January 25, 1983). A truck-mounted 
gamma scanner was driven through each village to locate radiological 
anomalies. 

Twenty-five such anomalies were found. A follow-up survey of them 
was performed the week of February 9, 1981, using pressurized ion 
chambers or scintillometers. Often, the source of the anomaly was 
found to be a single rock, which was removed. Only three locations 
were found to have gamma exposure rates above 16 flR/h. These three had 



2-35 



rates of 32, 37 and 600 (xK/h. The source of each was found to be rock 
or soil located outside of buildings, and all sources were removed. 
Therefore, no anomalies above 16 /XR/h (slightly above background 
values) remain, and no health hazards exist. 

Data are not available on the radiological levels in the buildings 
on the minesite, but levels of gamma radiation are expected to be high 
due to spillage of ore in and around the buildings. 

Ambient Radon 

The exposure of the public to radon (Rn-222) and its decay products 
represents one of the greatest potential health risks from the mine. 
Rn-222 is produced continuously by the radioactive decay of the radium 
(Ra-226) present in the protore and ore-associated waste. Rn-222 is an 
inert gas that diffuses through the protore and waste into the 
atmosphere, where it can be dispersed by winds. Rn-222 has a half-life 
of 3.82 days, so a given amount may travel some distance in the 
atmosphere before it completely decays. 

The mining operations decreased the total amount of Rn-222 that 
would be released from the minesite by removing the high-grade ores; 
however, these same operations have also increased the rate at which 
Rn-222 is released into the atmosphere by uncovering the ore zone and 
placing the protore and waste on the surface. Before mining, most of 
this material was deeply buried, and much of the Rn-222 changed to its 
solid decay products before it could diffuse through the rock and enter 
the atmosphere. Because the protore and waste have been placed 
uncovered on the surface, a higher percentage of the Rn-222 enters the 
atmosphere before it decays. 

The total radon release rate from the minesite is calculated to be 
5,588 curies (Ci) per year (Momeni, et al. 1983). Of this amount, 
3,915 Ci (70 percent) come from the protore, 1,396 Ci (25 percent) from 
the ore-associated waste, and 280 Ci (5 percent) from material 
containing less than 5 picocuries uranium-238 per gram. 

Data on ambient radon concentrations measured at four locations at 
the minesite since February 1979 are summarized in Table 2-16. The 
average of all concentrations was 2 1/2 times background levels, and 
the maximum concentration measured was 7 times background. Radon 
concentrations typically show considerable variability because they are 
affected by local atmospheric stability conditions and ground moisture. 

During June, 1976, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
performed ambient radon surveys in the vicinity of the Laguna 
Reservation (Eadie, et al. 1979). The average radon concentration of 
locations near or at the minesite and those away from the minesite 
were 1.13 picocuries per liter (pCi/l) and 0.53 pCi/1 respectively (Map 
2-3, Tables 2-17 and 2-18). 



2-36 



TABLE 2-16 

RADON-222 CONCENTRATIONS AT MONITORING LOCATIONS 
(picocuries per liter) 



Monitoring 
Location 



Range 



Average 



Dump F 

Mine Vent 

West Gate 

Well #4 

Average 

Typical 

background^' 



EPA Mill Tailings Standard!*/ 
(40 CFR 192) 

NRC Standard^/ (10 CFR 20) 



0.01 - 3.68 
0.1 - 3.68 
0.06 - 2.17 
0.01 - 2.78 
0.01 - 3.68 



1.35 
1.47 
0.96 
1.31 
1.27 

0.50 

0.50 (above 
background) 

3. (above 
background) 



Source: Anaconda Minerals Company 1982. 

Notes: i/ As listed in Eadie, et al. 1979. 
^Refer to Table 2-12. 



2-37 



Moquino 



.".'• Anaconda Minesite 



N 



pmpany Housing Area 
Railroad Trestle No. 



Laguna-Acoma Health Center 



o 



LEGEND 

• Village 

Sampling Locations 
O Air 
A Water 
D Soil 



I 




ilroad Trestle No. 2 



Pag u ate Reservoir 



MesitaNo.2 
sita 



SCALE 



Source: Eadie, et al. 1979. 



2 MILES 

-1 



MAP 2-3 Radiological Sampling Locations in the vicinity of the Jackpile Mine 

2-38 



TABLE 2-17 

AMBIENT OUTDOOR RADON-222 CONCENTRATIONS DURING JUNE 197 6 

(locations at or near the minesite).^/ 

(picocuries per liter) 



Location 



MaximumE 



b/ 



Concentrations 



Mininunii' 



b/ 



Ave rag 



,c/ 



Company Housing Area 



1.8 + 0.23 



0.25 + 0.10 



1.1 + 0.34 



Railroad Trestle No. 1 
(below Co. Housing Area) 



2.1 + 0.26 



Less than 0.12 0.99 f 0.54 



Railroad Trestle No. 2— 
1 mile south of Railroad 
Trestle No. 1 



2.7 + 0.24 



0.44 + 0.05 



1.3 + 0.50 



Source: 
Notes: 



Eadie, et al. 1979. 



i/ 



£' These locations are shown on Map 2-3. 

—'Result + two-sigma counting error terras. 

—' Average result + two-standard error terras (i.e., standard 

deviation of the sample population divided by the square root 

of the number of samples). 



2-39 



TABLE 2-18 

AMBIENT OUTDOOR RADON-222 CONCENTRATIONS DURING JUNE 197 6 

(locations away from the minesite)^;' 

(picocuries per liter) 



Location 



Concentrations 



Maximum".' Minimum^/ 



Ave rag eSJ 



Laguna No. 1 - (Old Laguna) 1.3+0.18 0.20+0.10 



Laguna No. 2 - 
(Training Building) 

Laguna-Acoma 
Health Center 

Bibo (Wellhouse) 

Mesita No. 1 
(Industrial Plant) 

Mesita No. 2 
(Community Building) 

Moquino (Private 
Residence) 

Paguate (Community 
Building) 



1.5 + 0.39 

1.6 + 0.19 
1.4 + 0.29 



0.14 + 0.07 

0.22 + 0.11 
Less than 0.12 



0.89 + 0.33 0.18 + 0.05 



1.7 + 0.22 



1.4 + 0.23 



Less than 0.12 



Less than 0.12 



0.75 + 0.06 Less than 0.12 



0.51 + 0.28 

0.51 + 0.29 

0.63 + 0.36 
0.50 + 0.23 

0.47 + 0.31 

0.55 + 0.49 

0.54 + 0.31 

0.42 + 0.14 



Source: Eadie, et al. 1979. 

Notes: £' These locations are shown on Map 2-3. 

^.'Result + two-sigma counting error terms. 
SJ Average result + two-standard error terms (i.e., standard 
deviation of the sample population divided by the square root 
of the number of samples). 



2-40 



Radon levels in most of the mine buildings are not expected to be 
higher than in the ambient atmosphere (1.27 picocuries per liter) 
because most buildings are not tightly constructed. Radon levels in 
the tightly constructed buildings such as the employee housing, geology 
building, and offices are expected to be higher because these buildings 
have reduced radon leakage. 

Radon exhalation (the rate at which radon is released from a given 
area of ground) was measured at four waste dumps that have been covered 
with soil. This data is summarized in Table 2-19. The average 
exhalation rate measured was 2.6 times higher than background. Radon 
exhalations at six locations on the Laguna Reservation as measured by 
the EPA (Eadie, et al. 1979) averaged 0.5 picocuries per square meter 
per second (refer to Table 2-20). 

TABLE 2-19 

RADON EXHALATION!/ AT THE JACKPILE- 

PAGUATE URANIUM MINES ITE 

(picocuries per square meter per second) 



Site Exhalation Rate 

Dump F 1.10 

Dump G 4.15 

Dump L 2.57 

Dump K 2.70 

Average 2.63 

Typical background 1 

EPA Mill Tailings Standard^/ (40 CFR 192) 2 

Source: Anaconda Minerals Company 1982. 

Notes: 5/ Data taken between October 1, 1980, and December 31, 
1981, by Anaconda Minerals Company. 
b/Refer to Table 2-12. 

Particulates 

Radioactive elements such as uranium-238, radium-226 and thorium-230 
can attach to dust particles in the air and thereby pose an inhalation 
hazard to humans. After being inhaled, these particles may deposit in 
the respiratory tract and decay, releasing alpha, beta, or gamma 
radiation (or a combination of these). 



2-41 



TABLE 2-20 

RADON EXHALATION ON THE LAGUNA RESERVATION 
(picocuries per square meter per second) 



Site Exhalation Rate 



Railroad Trestle 

Old Laguna Ball Field 

Jackpile Dump 
Old 

New 

Laguna Training Center 

Paguate 

Average 

EPA Mill Tailings Standard 3 / (40 CFR 192) 



0. 


09 


0. 


07 


0. 


4 


0. 


6 


0. 


2 


0. 


,3 


0. 


,5 


20 





Source: Eadie, et al. 1979. 
Note: £/ Refer to Table 2-12. 



2-42 



Table 2-21 shows the results of an EPA study of airborne radioactive 
particulate concentrations outside the minesite (Eadie, et al. 1979). 
Table 2-22 shows the results of Anaconda's own particulate survey for 
four locations within the minesite (Anaconda Minerals Co. 1982). The 
concentrations within the minesite are about ten times higher than 
those outside the minesite. In all cases, however, the concentrations 
are far below the recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission standards 
(10 CFR 20.106). 

TABLE 2-21 

AREA AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION OF RADIOACTIVE PARTICULATES 
(picocuries per cubic meter) 



Location 



Uranium 
(U-238) 



Thorium 
(Th-230) 



Radium 
(Ra-226) 



Near Minesite^ 



/ 



Bibo 
Mesita 
Old Laguna 
Average 

Offsite-b/ 



0.00040 
0.00032 
0.00029 
0.00034 



0.000320 
0.000180 
0.000085 
0.000200 



0.00019 
0.00037 
0.00017 
0.00024 



Grants, NM 
Chicago, 111. 
New York State 
New York City 

NCRP-45 

Background ^/ 



Standard 



,a/ 



Soluble 
Insoluble 



0.00120 


0.001700 


0.00075 


0.00012 


0.000045 


— 


0.00040 


— 


— 


0.00008 


— 


— 


0.00012 


0.000045 


0.00010 


3.0 


0.08 


3.0 


5.0 


0.30 


2.0 



Sources: ^/ Eadie, et al. 1979. 
^Momeni, et al. 1983, 



Water 

The concentrations of uranium (U-234, U-235 and U-238) and of radium 
(Ra-226), gross alpha, and beta activity in samples of water from four 
wells on the Laguna Indian Reservation are listed in Table 2-23. The 
average concentrations for these wells are 0.3 picocuries per liter 
(pCi/1) Ra-226, 0.4 pCi/1 U-234 , 0.1 pCi/1 U-235, and 0.6 pCi/l 
U-238. These concentrations are within drinking water standards and 
are typical of values reported for public water supplies in the United 
States. In a recent work, Kriege and Hahne (1982) surveyed Ra-226 



2-43 



TABLE 2-22 

MINESITE AVERAGE AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION OF RADIOACTIVE PARTICULATES 

October 1980-December 1981 
(picocuries per cubic meter) 





Uranium-Nat ural£' 


Thorium 


Radium 


Location 


(U-Nat) 


(Th-230) 


(Ra-226) 


Dump F 


0.0016 


0.0024 


0.0014 


Mine Vent 


0.0092 


0.0023 


0.001 


West Gate 


0.0044 


0.0023 


0.0012 


Well No. 4 


0.0110 


0.0024 


0.0012 



Source: Anaconda Minerals Company 1982. 

Note: £' Uranium-natural is not the same as uranium-238 in Table 

2-21. Standards for uranium-natural are 5 picocuries per 
cubic meter (soluble and insoluble). 



2-44 



TABLE 2-23 

RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS IN GROUND WATER FROM FOUR WELLS 
ON THE LAGUNA INDIAN RESERVATION^/ 



Concentration 
Well Element (pCi/1 + SE) ]>/ 



Mesita No. 1 (BIA) Gross alpha 

Gross beta 
Ra-226 
U-234 
U-235 
U-238 

N.Y. No. 1 Gross alpha 

Gross beta 
Ra-226 
U-234 
U-235 
U-238 

Well No. 1 Paguate Gross alpha 

Gross beta 
Ra-226 
U-234 
U-235 
U-238 

Well No. 2 Paguate Gross alpha 

Gross beta 
Ra-226 
U-234 
U-235 
U-238 



Source: Momeni, et al. 1983. 

Notes: iL'The EPA's national standards for community water 

systems are 15 picocuries per liter for gross alpha and 
5 picocuries per liter for radium (40 CFR Parts 100 to 
399). The NRC's maximum permissible concentrations 
(above background) in unrestricted areas are 4 x 10^ 
picocuries per liter for U-238, and 3 x 10^ picocuries 
per liter for U-234 and U-235 (10 CFR Parts to 199). 
—Picocuries per liter + SE (standard error of 
measurement). 





5 


+ 


6 






5 


+ 


5 







.2 


+ 


0. 


,1 


1 


.3 


+ 


0. 


,8 





.4 


+ 


0. 


,4 


1 


.3 


+ 


1. 







3 

7 


+ 
+ 


5 
5 







.3 


+ 


0. 


,1 


0, 


.5 


+ 


0. 


3 





.0 


+ 


0. 


,2 


0- 


.9 


+ 


0. 


4 




3 


+ 


5 






3 


+ 


5 




0, 


.4 


+ 


0. 


1 


0. 


,1 


+ 


0. 


2 


0, 


.1 


+ 


0. 


1 


0. 


,1 


+ 


0. 


2 







+ 


7 






2 


+ 


4 




0, 


.2 


+ 


0. 


2 


0. 


,3 


+ 


0. 


5 


0, 


,0 


+ 


0. 


2 


0. 


,0 


+ 


0. 


2 



2-45 



concentrations in community water supplies in 625 towns in Iowa. The 
range of average Ra-226 concentrations was 0.1 to 48 pCi/l. In an 
earlier study (Hursh 1953) , the range of Ra-226 concentrations across 
the nation was found to be from 0.09 pCi/l in raw water and 0.08 pCi/l 
in tap water in Los Angeles, California, to 65.4 pCi/l in raw water and 
57.9 pCi/l in tap water in Joliet, Illinois. 

Surface waters are not regularly used for human consumption in the 
Paguate-Laguna area; however, part of surface water passing through the 
minesite collects downstream in Paguate Reservoir. Water from this 
reservoir is drunk by livestock, so a potential pathway exists for 
indirect exposure. 

Table 2-24 shows the concentrations of radioactive elements in the 
Rios Moquino and Paguate. Radium concentrations increase about 10 
times as the rivers fLow through the minesite, while uranium 
concentrations increase almost 30 times. In both cases, these 
increased concentrations are still far below the drinking water 
standards. The increased river concentrations show up in Paguate 
Reservoir, although the radium concentration in the reservoir is only 
about a third the level of the radium in the river at the south 
boundary of the minesite. 

TABLE 2-24 

RADIUM AND URANIUM IN SURFACE WATERS IN AND NEAR THE MINESITE 



Location 



Ra-226£ 



a/ 



Natural UraniumE 



b/ 



Rio Paguate (upstream) 0.35 

Rio Moquino (upstream) 0.28 

Ford Crossing (downstream) 3.73 

Paguate Reservoir 1.03 



0.006 
0.008 
0.239 
0.236 



Source: Momeni , et al. 1983. 

Notes: iL' Measured in picocuries per liter. 
—'Measured in nilligraras per liter. 

As described in the Hydrology section of this chapter, four major 
ponds have formed at the minesite as the result of ground water seepage 
into the pits. All ponds have elevated levels of radium-226, from 1.6 
to 9 times the drinking water limit of 5 pCi/l. However, uranium 
concentrations are below the New Mexico ground water limit of 5 
milligrams per liter. (No federal drinking water standard exists for 
uranium. ) The concentration of radium-226 in the ponds increased 170 
percent in a recent 15 month period. The increasing levels of 
radioactive constituents are probably due to concentration by 
evaporation. 



2-46 



Ingestion 

Radiation doses by ingestion normally result from consumption of 
food and/or water contaminated with radionuclides. The water pathway 
has already been discussed; this discussion is limited to food pathways. 

Pueblo of Laguna families or groups of families have small farming 
operations or gardens to supply produce for personal use. Sheep and 
cattle are also raised for food. 

No radiological analysis of meat from locally raised animals has 
been done. However, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Eadie, 
et al. 1979) has collected and analyzed samples of cucumbers and onions 
(Table 2-25). 

Previously reported analyses of vegetables from elsewhere in the 
United States indicate a radium-226 content of less than 0.002 
picocuries per gram (pCi/g — Hallden, et al. 1963). Welford and Baird 
(1967) report a total uranium content for vegetables of roughly 0.00053 
pCi/g. The radioactive content of the cucumbers from the EPA's study 
is essentially comparable to these reported "typical background" 
values, with the exception of radium-226. The uranium content of 
onions was high compared to the values reported by Welford and Baird 
(1967). 

Studies of radioactivity in rangeland vegetation in the Thoreau- 
Crownpoint area, New Mexico, have found radium-226 levels as high as 
0.74 pCi/g and thorium-230 levels up to 0.50 pCi/g (Mobil Oil Corp. 
1980). As with radioactive particulates (refer to the previous section 
of this chapter), this increased radioactivity level may be a natural 
phenomenon caused by the presence of ore-bearing formations or by the 
many years of mining activities in the San Juan Basin. 

Vegetative sampling of reclaimed dumps within the minesite have 
shown radium-226 levels ranging from 0.16 to 1.59 pCi/g, uranium 
(natural) levels from 0.76 to 7.13 jUg/gm and thorium-230 levels from 
0.43 to 2.56 pCi/g. Refer to the Flora section of this chapter for a 
complete analysis of radiological constituents in vegetative material 
on reclaimed waste dumps. 

HYDROLOGY 

Surface and ground water quality data have been summarized in this 
EIS. Complete data is available for review at the BLM Albuquerque 
District Office, Rio Puerco Resource Area. 

Surface Water 

Rios Paguate and Moquino 

The minesite and surrounding areas are drained by the Rios Paguate 
and Moquino, which begin on the slopes of Mount Taylor northwest of the 
minesite (Map 1-1, Chapter 1). The Rio Paguate is joined by the Rio 
Moquino near the center of the minesite (Figure 2-12). Below this 



2-47 



TABLE 2-25 
RADIOACTIVITY IN VEGETABLES FROM THE LAGUNA RESERVATION^/ 



Element 



Cucumber 



Onion 



Radium- 2 26 

Uranium- 2 34 

Uranium-235 

Uranium-238 

Thorium-230 

Thorium-232 



0.11 + 0.011 
0.00018 + 0.000032 
Less than 0.000011 
0.00013 + 0.000027 
0.0032 + 0.00049 
0.00042 + 0.000091 



0.047 + 0.0083 
0.026 + 0.002 
0.0011 + 0.00034 
0.027 + 0.0021 
0.035 + 0.0052 
0.039 + 0.0057 



Source: Eadie, et al. 1979. 

Notes: £' Concentration + two-sigma counting error, in picocuries per 



gram. 



2-48 



confluence, the Rio Paguate flows southeasterly into Paguate Reservoir 
before joining the Rio San Jose 5 miles below the minesite. The Rio San 
Jose flows into the Rio Puerco, a major tributary to the Rio Grande, 
about 25 miles southeast of Laguna. The Rio Paguate watershed above the 
mine includes 107 square miles of drainage area, 68 percent of which is 
drained by the Rio Moquino. In and above the minesite, both rivers flow 
on alluvium that is at least 20 feet to more than 60 feet thick. 

S> *> * *" 




FIGURE 2-12 CONFLUENCE OF RIOS PAGUATE AND MOQUINO 

The Rio Paguate has been rechanneled for more than 2,000 feet 
downstream from its entrance to the minesite. Channel characteristics 
(sinuosity and gradient — refer to the Glossary) of the relocated stretch 
are the same as those of the premining Rio Paguate. 

The Rio Moquino has been extensively modified over a 4,000-foot 

segment immediately above its confluence with the Rio Paguate. Waste 

material has been dumped into the original channel on both sides, 
straightening the course of the meandering stream. Premining channel 

characteristics of sinuosity and gradient were 1.9 and .007, 

respectively, while those of the present Rio Moquino are 1.1 and .01, 
respectively. 

The mean daily discharge of the Rio Paguate at the south end of the 
mine is 1.2 cubic feet per second (cfs), about half of which is supplied 
by surface discharge of ground water (base flow) . Both the Rios Paguate 
and Moquino lose water from the points where they enter the mine to near 
their confluence. This loss is probably a response to dewatering of the 
mine. In the area of the confluence, both streams gain water from ground 



2-49 



water discharge. Measurements at various times have shown that the 
streams gain between 43 and 135 gallons per minute (gpm) as they run 
through the minesite, while at other times they show a net loss of 83 gpm 
(Hydro-Search 1981). At the minesite, both streams usually flow all year 
(perennially); however, below the minesite, the Rio Paguate becomes 
intermittently dry (it is ephemeral). 

Flow in the Rios Paguate and Moquino is generally moderate from 
January to March, elevated in March and April, low during the summer 
months, and moderate from October through December. Short-term peak 
flows occur in the summer in response to thunderstorms. The highest flow 
recorded on the Rio Paguate was estimated to be 2,300 cfs (USDI, 
Geological Survey 1976). Flood estimates of peak discharges at the 
southern mine boundary are 1,520 cfs for a 5-year flood; 6,290 cfs for a 
100-year flood; and 10,500 cfs for a 500-year flood. 

The chemical quality of the Rios Paguate and Moquino generally 
degrades as the rivers flow from their sources toward the Rio San Jose. 
This degradation is due to the geologic materials traversed by the 
streams, and to the influences of man. Data on premining water quality 
is nonexistent. 

Water in the Rio Moquino is a sodium-calcium-magnesium-sulfate type 
(i.e., it is dominated by these constituents), and has a total dissolved 
solids (TDS) content of about 2,500 milligrams per liter (mg/1). Water 
in the Rio Paguate above the Rio Moquino is a magnesium-bicarbonate type, 
with TDS content of about 600 mg/1. Below the confluence of the streams, 
the water in the Rio Paguate is of the same type as in the Rio Moquino, 
with TDS of about 1,600 mg/1. Measured pH values of Rios Paguate and 
Moquino waters within the minesite range from 7.4 to 8.5 (Hydro-Search 
1981). 

Ponding in Open Pits 

Because the Jackpile Sandstone is a major bedrock aquifer in the area, 
its excavation in the open pits during mining has resulted in significant 
ground water seepage into the pits. A large spring on the Rio Paguate 
side of the North Paguate Pit is flowing at about 100 gallons per minute 
into the pit. During mining operations, this water was used for dust 
suppression on roads, so the ponds were small. However, since mining has 
ceased, the water level in the pits has been increasing, and water depths 
averaging 18 feet deep have been recorded within the major ponds that 
have formed in each of the three pits. The surface water drainage area 
for water collecting in the pits is about 2 square miles. About 
two-thirds of the pond water is derived from ground water seepage, and 
one-third from runoff. The pits presently contain 36 acres of water 
surface and store about 455 acre-feet of water volume. The salt load 
collected in the pits is about 130 tons annually. 

The quality of water in open ponds in the pits is poor. Water quality 
analyses were taken over a 3-year period (end of 1974 to end of 1977) 
from the P-10 and Rabbit Ear holding ponds (Hydro-Search 1979). These 
two ponds have since been drained; however, their analysis gave an 
indication of pit water conditions. 



2-50 



The P-10 pond contained water pumped from underground mine workings in 
the Jackpile Sandstone. As could be expected, the water was of the same 
type as Jackpile aquifer water and was chemically indistinguishable from 
the ground water. 

The Rabbit Ear pond contained water pumped from pit seepages. This 
water was of much poorer quality than the ground water, due in part to 
concentration by evaporation. It was a sodiura-sulfate-type water that 
increased in concentration over the 3-year period. 

Total dissolved solids ranged from 1,500 to 4,900 milligrams per liter 
(mg/1), with sulfate values from 1,000 to 3,200 mg/1. (New Mexico 
standards are 1,000 mg/1 and 600 mg/1, respectively.) The pH ranged from 
8.1 to 8.6. 

Other analyses of water ponded in the three mine pits were conducted 
in December of 1982 (Dames & Moore 1983). These tests found TDS values 
from 900 to 3,300 mg/1, sulfate values from 540 to 2,270 mg/1, and a pH 
range of 6.9 to 8.4 The high and low pH values came from the Jackpile 
pit; the low values were found in the southern part of this pit, and the 
high values occurred in the northern part. 

More recent analysis (BIA 1984) have been completed on pond waters 
taken from the same locations as the December 1982 samples. This series 
of tests has shown the evaporative concentration of pond waters is 
causing an annual increase in water conductivity ranging between 300 and 
2,000 micromhos per centimeter per year fyimho/cm/yr) , an average of 975 
umho/cm/yr. Sulfate is increasing at an average rate of 565 mg/1 per 
year. The TDS has increased over 900 mg/1 since the earlier samples at 
the Jackpile pit. 

Water Use 

Surface waters from the Rios Paguate and Moquino are used for 
irrigation upstream from the villages of Paguate and Seboyeta, 
respectively. Surface water is also consumed by livestock at Paguate 
Reservoir, and on the Rio Paguate between the reservoir and the minesite 
at points of access. The incidence of human consumption of surface 
waters from the Rio Paguate Basin is not known. 

Sulfate concentration is the limiting factor for use of water in most 
of the mine area. The water in the Rio Moquino is high in sulfate before 
it reaches the minesite; this high-sulfate water also dominates the water 
quality in the Rio Paguate below its confluence with the Rio Moquino. It 
is within the range acceptable for livestock use and may even be used for 
irrigation of crops semi- tolerant to salinity, but is not recommended 
for human consumption. 

Above the confluence and within the minesite, water of the Rio Paguate 
is of good quality. The stream is designated by the New Mexico Water 
Quality Control Commission for the following uses: domestic water 
supply, fish culture, high quality coldwater fishery, irrigation, 
livestock and wildlife watering, and secondary contact recreation. This 
water is within the range acceptable for livestock use and irrigation, 



2-51 



but due to occasional increases in sulfate it is considered unpalatable 
for human consumption. 

Although the ponds in the pit bottoms are a consequence of mining 
activities and were not planned for livestock use, irrigation, or human 
consumption, incidental unauthorized use of the pond water could occur. 

Concentrations of some elements fail to meet standards established by 
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA — 40 CFR, Part 141.11; 40 CFR, 
Part 143.3) for public supply, agricultural, and industrial use. Table 
2-26 lists surface water quality data from sample sites (Visual A) where 
element levels exceed EPA drinking water standards. 

Ground Water 

Water-Bearing Units (Aquifers) 

The ground water characteristics of the sedimentary strata exposed in 
the Laguna area are given in Table 2-27. Stratigraphic descriptions are 
found in the Geology section of this chapter. 

Data from 17 wells within the lease area has been used to characterize 
the quality of the ground water. Typical Jackpile Sandstone water is a 
sodium-sulfate-bicarbonate type of pH 6.5 to 8.3. TDS concentrations 
range from 600 to 2,600 mg/1. Minor chemical constituents are generally 
at low concentrations. 

Alluvial water at the minesite has higher calcium, magnesium and TDS 
levels (average 1,332 mg/l) compared to typical Jackpile Sandstone water 
(Hydro-Search 1981). 

Recharge and Flow in the Pit Areas 

Ground water flow in the minesite area converges on the Rio Paguate 
and Rio Moquino. Data indicates that most of the flow into the area is 
from locations high on the flanks of Mount Taylor to the west, and 
probably from Mesa Chivato to the north (Hydro-Search 1981). Much of the 
flow from the west is intercepted by the North and South Paguate pits. 
Local flow from the east probably comes from Gavilan Mesa. Flow in the 
southeast part of the mine is not defined, but is probably toward the Rio 
San Jose to the southeast. 

Seepage is obvious on the walls of the North Paguate, South Paguate 
and Jackpile pits at elevations much higher than ponds at the pit 
bottoms. One large seep in the North Paguate pit flows approximately 100 
gallons per minute. The ponds are also below water levels in adjacent 
wells. Potentiometric surface contours indicate ground water seepage 
into the pits. About two-thirds of the water in the pits is thought to 
be from ground water seepage, the remainder is from surface runoff. 
Water loss is by evaporation, and when the mine was operative, by use of 
this ponded water to wet roads. Salt balance and water balance 
calculations suggest that 150 acre-feet, or one-third of the water 
contained in the ponds, is gained by, and then evaporated from, the ponds 
each year. Premining ground water, however, would have flowed across and 



2-52 



TABLE 2-26 

CHEMICAL QUALITY OF SURFACE WATER: DISSOLVED CONSTITUENTS THAT EXCEED 

NATIONAL DRINKING WATER STANDARDS 















Constituents^./, b' 






SO 4 


Na 


Mn 


F B Se 


Ra-226£/ 


EPA Standard 




600 


250 


0.050 


1.4-2.4 0.75 0.01 


15.0 


Sample 
Identifii 


^ationl^ 












RM 104 






1,000 




0.1 






RM 105 






1,550 


330 


0.08 






RP 108 






665 




0.17 






RP 109 






925 




0.1 






Pond V 






1,879 


1,094 




2.5 0.76 0.03 


18.0 


Pond W 






2,117 


444 




0.05 


46.0 


Pond Y 






1,052 


377 






22.0 


Pond Z 






3,592 


908 









Sources: Hydro-Search 1981; Dames and Moore 1983; USDI, BIA 1984. 

Notes: iL'All constituents in milligrams per liter except where noted. 
_ ' S04=sulfates, Na=sodium, Mn=manganese , F=fluoride, 

B=boron, Se=selenium, Ra-226=radium-226. 
^Measured in picocuries per liter. 
—'Refer to Visual A for location; RM refers to the Rio Moquino 

and RP to the Rio Paguate; Pond V - South Paguate pit; Pond W ■ 

North Paguate pit; Pond Y - Jackpile pit (south end); and Pond 

Z - Jackpile pit (north end). 



2-53 



TABLE 2-27 

GROUND WATER CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STRATIGRAPHIC 
SECTION AT THE JACKPILE-PAGUATE MINE 



Formation 



Yield and Water-Bearing 
Properties iV 



Alluvium 

Colluvium 

Mancos Shale 
Dakota Sandstone 

Morrison Formation 
Jackpile Sandstone 



Brushy Basin Member 

Westwater Canyon Member 

Recapture Member 
Bluff Sandstone 
Summerville Formation 
Todilto Formation 
Entrada Sandstone 



Yields of 15 to 90 gpm; quality good 

Mostly above water table 

Yields from Tres Hermanos Sandstones range 
from 5 to 20 gpm; quality fair to good 

Principal bedrock aquifer; yields of 8 to 34 
gpm; quality fair to poor; under confined 
conditions 

Yields of 25 to 100 gpm from sandstone 
lenses; quality fair 
to poo r 

Yields up to 5 gpm; quality poor 

Not known to yield water to wells 

Yields to 20 gpm reported; quality poor 

Not known to yield water to wells 

Not known to yield water to wells 

Yields of 4 to 10 gpm; quality poor 



Source: Modified from Dames and Moore 1976. 

Notes: —' Abbreviations: gpm = gallons per minute; TDS = total 

dissolved solids; ppm = parts per million; 30^= sulfate. 
Water Quality: Good = TDS below 500 ppm, SO 4 below 250 ppm; 
Fair = TDS 1,000 to 500 ppm, S0 4 300 to 250 ppm; Poor = TDS 
above 1,000 ppm, SO 4 above 300 ppm. 



2-54 



through the present pit areas, in a northeasterly and easterly direction 
at the North and South Paguate pits, and in a generally southwesterly 
direction at the Jackpile pit (Hydro-Search 1981). 

Interpreting potentiometric surface contours in the Gavilan Mesa area 
is highly speculative. The most plausible direction of flow is from 
Gavilan Mesa, the highest local area, toward the northwest, west, and 
southwest. 

Hydro-Search (1979) describes water gains to the Rios Paguate and 
Moquino of about 20 gallons per minute near their confluence, and water 
losses from the Rio Paguate in the segment from the Village of Paguate to 
1,000 feet above the confluence. The potentiometric surface contours 
indicate that water gains come from the Jackpile Sandstone, which 
discharges into the Rios Moquino and Paguate near the confluence. The 
contours do not show ground water mounding under the Rio Paguate 
(upstream from the confluence) . It is likely that the waste rock 
underneath the modified Rio Paguate in this area is permeable enough to 
drain water losses from the river without ground water mounding (refer to 
the Glossary). 

Little data is available to accurately describe water flow through pit 
backfill and waste dumps. A well drilled into the Jackpile pit backfill 
at the southwest end of the pit determined that the water table elevation 
was 5,968 feet in August 1981. The direction of flow could not be 
determined. A well drilled into backfill at the north end of the South 
Paguate pit determined a water table altitude of 5,981 feet in June 
1981. This water likely flows south to the low point of the South 
Paguate pit, north towards the Rio Paguate, or both. Pit backfill above 
the water table may become partly saturated after major storms. 

The recharge rate in the Rio Paguate drainage basin is about 0.1 
inches per year, based on the calculated sum of base flow and underflow 
through alluvium. Rates may vary locally with elevation, ground slopes, 
rock type, and distribution of alluvial and aeolian deposits. For 
instance, recharge is probably greater in alluvium at valley bottoms than 
it is on exposed bedrock. Regional recharge to rocks at the mine is from 
high areas on the flanks of Mount Taylor to the west, and probably from 
Mesa Chivato to the north. Some recharge may occur locally at the mine, 
especally on Gavilan Mesa, where it is likely that a perched water table 
exists in fractured Mancos Shale and Dakota Formation. This water likely 
recharges the underlying Jackpile Sandstone aquifer in this area. 

The hydraulic conductivity is about 22 feet per day for the 
undisturbed alluvium, and 0.3 feet per day for the Jackpile Sandstone and 
sandstone lenses of the Brushy Basin Member. Most of the local water 
flow in alluvium and the Jackpile Sandstone discharges to mine pits, 
underground mines, and the Rios Paguate and Moquino. Permeability and 
hydraulic conductivity of the disturbed material and existing backfill is 
highly variable. Among ten recent well tests in backfill, one yielded a 
permeability value of 2,700 feet per day, one a value of 13 feet per day, 
and the remainder between 1.2 and 6.2 feet per day (Dames & Moore 1983). 



2-55 



Flow in Waste Dumps 

Most precipitation falling on waste dump tops at the minesite either 
evaporates, infiltrates uniformly into the dump materials, or collects in 
depressions, dissipating by flowing vertically downward into cavities 
(pipes). No seepage faces have been observed at the bases of dumps 
during dry weather, indicating that saturation is of limited duration, or 
that flow may be vertical through the dump bases to the underlying 
alluvium. Hydraulic conductivity and local soil piping may promote 
rapid infiltration and discharge of water from high rainfall events, 
preventing long-term saturation. Cross-sectional flow analyses of 
precipitation infiltration into waste piles confirm that the formation of 
a saturated zone in waste dumps is unlikely because of evaporation of 
surface and near-surface water, and, to a lesser degree, the effects of 
high hydraulic conductivity in draining off water from large storms. 

Water Use 

Ground water on the Laguna Pueblo is used for livestock, public supply 
and industry. As of 1975, the pueblo maintained 52 stock wells on tribal 
lands; these wells averaged less than 5 gallons per minute (gpm). The 
majority of the population is served by a central water supply system, 
extending from Seama to Mesita. The system, which has a combined pumping 
capacity of 385 gpra, receives its water from wells drilled into alluvium 
of the Rio San Jose at the western end of the pueblo, at New Laguna, and 
at Mesita (Lyford 1977). The Village of Paguate obtains water from two 
wells (averaging 90 gpm) located in the alluvium of the Rio Paguate 
upstream from the minesite. 

Industrial water usage at the minesite during mining averaged 17 gpm, 
mostly from Well 4 in the Jackpile Sandstone. Approximately 200 gpm were 
removed by dewatering of the underground workings. One water well, the 
IR-Test 9 in Township 10 North, Range 5 West, Section 26, exists in the 
alluvial aquifer down-gradient from the mine; this well is plugged and 
abandoned (Lyford 1977). 

Table 2-28 lists ground water quality data from sample sites (Visual 
A) where element levels were found to exceed EPA drinking water 
standards. 

Erosion 

Arroyo Headcutting 

Many arroyos in central New Mexico are actively eroding by headward 
cutting, a process by which the arroyo bed forms a near-vertical face 
(headcut) that migrates upstream as erosion of the bed continues (Figure 
2-13). In response to lowering of the bed of the main arroyo, headcuts 
often migrate up tributary streams, and significant amounts of soil loss 
result. 

Arroyo headcuts near the minesite have moved as far as 650 feet during 
the 43 years between 1935 and 1978. Aerial photography indicates that 
headward cutting of arroyos was an active premining process. The main 



2-56 



TABLE 2-28 

CHEMICAL QUALITY OF GROUND WATER: DISSOLVED CONSTITUENTS THAT EXCEED 
NATIONAL DRINKING WATER STANDARDS 



Constituents £' , h/ 



d 



SO^ Na Cd Pb Se Fe Mn B Co Ra-226^' 

EPA Standard 600 250 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.30 0.05 0.75 0.01 15.0 

Sample 
Identification!^ 



M-1P 305 0.085 22.0 

M-2P 0.09 0.02 

M-4 1,230 294 0.44 0.09 

M-5 340 0.16 0.13 0.085 

M-6 295 

M-8 305 0.11 

M-10P 

M-14P 

M-16P 

M-22 

M-23 

M-24P 

B 

C 

D 

Sources: Hydro-Search 1981; Dames and Moore 1983; USDI, BIA 1984. 

Notes: 2J k±l constituents in milligrams per liter except where noted. 

— ' S04=sulfates, Na=sodium, Cd=cadmium, Pb=lead, Se=selenium, Fe=iron, 

Mn-manganese , B=boron, Co=cobalt, Ra-226=radium-226. 
^Measured in picocuries per liter. 
1' Refer to Visual A for location. 



1,230 


294 




340 




295 




305 




390 


920 


418 


672 


390 




305 




380 


2,010 


915 


5,560 


1,400 


3,540 




2,010 


1,160 







0.06 


0.64 


0.39 


0.07 


0.41 


0.19 
0.21 


0.06 





0.74 


0.96 


;9.oo 


1.7 
0.5 


1.2 


0.34 


0.17 





2-57 



DOWNSTREAM 



DIRECTION OF 
HEADCUT MOVEMENT 




**ff 



\y*v 







. _ i 1 a -ii *— ^» *^^ 



E 






Original streambed 

Arroyo bed after initiation of headcut 

Arroyo bed after a further period of headcutting 

Material eroded 



FIGURE 2-13 
Cross-sectional, schematic diagram of arroyo headcut migration. 



2-58 



mechanisms responsible for headcutting at the minesite are rapid surface 
flow from floodwaters and, more importantly, piping. Caving of arroyo 
banks results when piping occurs near arroyos. At the minesite, piping 
is extensive at the most unstable headcuts. 

Several areas of arroyo instability exist at the minesite, the most 
important of which are: (1) south of I, Y, and Y2 dumps; (2) west of 
dump FD-3; and (3) west of the airstrip (Visual A). The westernmost 
arroyo headcut system south of dumps I, Y and Y2 moved 100 feet upstream 
between 1935 and 1978. The amount of headward cutting on the arroyo just 
west of J dump could not be determined due to burial of the arroyo by the 
dump. This general area is highly unstable, and has 10 to 15 active 
headcuts that move by piping-induced bank caving. Because these headcuts 
have threatened the haul road at the base of I, Y and Y2 dumps, Anaconda 
has placed artificial fill at headcuts and constructed drainage 
diversions. The fill has slowed headward erosion, while the diversions 
have accelerated such erosion. Surface erosion and piping have continued 
to act in and around these modifications, making them only temporary 
measures. 

The southwest-flowing arroyo west of dump FD-3 is discontinuously 
entrenched, and has several headcuts (Figure 2-14). The segment of this 
arroyo downstream from the road is very unstable due to piping and bank 
caving. The headcut at the road has been treated with artificial fill, 
but a bypass headcut that will threaten the road is forming. Headcuts 
upstream from this area are held up by resistant sandstone, which renders 
them relatively immobile. 



,... 




FIGURE 2-14 ARROYO HEADCUTTING NORTH OF FD-3 DUMP 



2-59 



The arroyo headcut west of the airstrip moved upstream 650 feet 
between 1935 and 1978. This rapid movement occurred in easily erodible, 
thick alluvium; however, the headcut is now located in apparently less 
erodible alluvium, with only minor piping present. Anaconda has dumped 
artificial fill at the headcut located at the road, and the fill seems to 
be successfully inhibiting further movement. 

As a consequence of mining activities, three arroyos at the minesite 
have been blocked by waste dumps or protore stockpiles (Visual A). The 
drainage blocked by waste dump J and protore stockpiles SP-17BC and 
SP-6-B will be unblocked during reclamation as all of these materials 
will be used as pit backfill. The drainages north of waste dumps F and 
FD-1 will remain blocked. The drainage areas upstream from these 
blockages measure 0.9 square miles and 1.7 square miles, respectively. 
These arroyos are normally dry, except during and immediately after 
thunderstorms when water ponds at the blockages. In general, the ponded 
water is quickly lost to infiltration and evapotranspiration. Up to 16 
feet of water could be ponded north of F dump after a 24-hour rainfall 
(100-year flood). A maximum of about 25 feet of water could be ponded 
north of FD-1 dump after such a rainfall. Both blockages are 
sufficiently high to hold such a quantity of water. 

Sedimentation in Paguate Reservoir 

Sediment has nearly filled Paguate Reservoir since construction of the 
dam in 1940. Dames and Moore (1980) calculated that the rates of 
deposition in the reservoir during 1940-49 and 1949-80 were 71 acre-feet 
per year and 22 acre-feet per year, respectively. The higher rate of 
deposition from 1940 to 1949 was due to: 

1. Greater sediment transport due to above-normal precipitation; and , 
more importantly, 

2. Much greater efficiency of sediment entrapment in the early 
years. Efficiency would have been 100 percent just after construction 
and would have decreased as sediment filled the reservoir. 

Based on the lower rate, the volume of sediment deposited since mining 
began (1952) is 620 acre-feet, or 47 percent of the total 1,333 acre-feet 
per year accumulated. 

Stream Stability 

Above the Rio Moquino/Rio Paguate confluence, the Rio Paguate is a 
non-meandering stream incised into alluvium between 33 and 69 feet. 
Aerial photographs show that essentially no lateral migration of the 
channel occurred from 1935 to 1951. Vertical change (incision or 
deposition) in the river bed has also been minimal (less than 2 feet), as 
no headcuts or mid-stream bars have been noted on the pre- and 
post-mining stream. Vegetation inside the main channel in 1935 and 1980 
was dense and stable in appearance. These observations, taken together, 
suggest that this reach of the Rio Paguate had attained a stable state 
before mining. Because the channel characteristics of the relocated 



2-60 



channel are similar to those of the pre-mining channel, the stream 
should remain in a stable condition. 

The Rio Paguate below the confluence is incised up to 65 feet into 
alluvium. This segment also showed essentially no lateral migration 
between 1935 and 1951, and vertical instability (headcuts or 
deposition) was not seen on pre-mining photographs and during field 
checks. This section of the Rio Paguate, like that above the 
confluence, apparently was stable in regard to lateral and vertical 
changes before mining. Because present channel characteristics are 
similar to those existing before mining, the stream is expected to 
remain in a stable condition. 

Dumping of mine waste material onto meanders has considerably 
straightened the Rio Moquino. The stream, which is incised from 40 to 
68 feet into alluvium, meandered with no evidence of vertical 
instability (incision or aggradation) before mining. The meander belt 
of the pre-mining stream was 400 feet wide. Lateral channel migration 
by this stream of up to 150 feet between 1935 and 1951, as well as 
historical lateral movement of up to 250 feet, has occurred at the 
minesite. These significant rates of lateral channel migration suggest 
that the pre-mining Rio Moquino meandered across its alluvial plain at 
the minesite with little resistance. Analysis of data from drill holes 
adjacent to the Rio Moquino confirms that, in most places, no geologic 
constraints exist to lateral channel movement. For the past several 
years, the river has not migrated laterally or incised vertically as 
shown by field checks. However, historical evidence indicates that 
this stretch of the Rio Moquino still retains a significant potential 
for lateral migration. 

Waste Dump Slopes 

The 32 waste dumps at the mine cover approximately 1,266 acres, or 
about 48 percent of the total disturbed area. The dump materials 
consist of Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, and both barren and 
ore-associated Jackpile Sandstone. The waste dumps approximate the 
form of nearby mesas; that is, the majority of their areal extent is 
composed of relatively flat dump tops that abruptly change to steep 
slopes. The height of the waste dumps ranges from 20 to 230 feet, and 
the slope percentage from 15 to 51 percent. Table 2-29 gives slope 
percentage, length and height of the larger dumps. 

Reclamation attempts have been made on approximately 485 acres of 17 
waste dumps (Anaconda Minerals Co. 1982). Waste dumps tops have been 
revegetated with varying success. Revegetation of dump slopes has 
failed because of steepness, length of slopes and resultant erosional 
soil loss. Most dump slopes have been cut by gullies greater than 8 
feet wide and up to 13 feet deep. Dumps E, I, S, T and V have been 
severely gullied. Most of the larger gullies have been initiated by 
piping at dump crests and the resultant flow of water diverted from 
dump tops into pipes and down steep slopes. However, numerous smaller 
gullies have formed in the middle of dump slopes. This indicates the 
water velocities resulting from rainfall and runoff on steep slopes are 
sufficient to initiate gully erosion. 



2-61 



TABLE 2-29 
WASTE DUMP DIMENSIONS 



Waste 
Dump 



Slope 
Percent 



Height 
(feet) 



Slope Length^/ 
(feet) 



FD-2 
FD-3 

I (Slope Segment 1) 
I (Slope Segment 2) 
I (Slope Segment 3) 

£f 

N 

N 

N2 

R 

South^ 

South 

South 

SP-1 

SP-2 

T 

u 
v^ 7 

V 
Y 
Y2 



37 
47 
15 
41 
43 
38 
47 
41 
30 
34 
51 
50 
50 
35 
42 
40 
42 
41 
34 
43 
40 
40 
41 



230 

130 

50 

120 

40 

20 

80 

46 

40 

30 

25 

90 

140 

60 

31 

40 

100 

60 

60 

215 

150 

115 

150 



423 
195 
206 
120^ 7 



40 



c/ 



20^ 



120 

76 

89 

58 

35 

127 

198 

112 

51 

68 

164 

100 

100 

345 

258 

196 

249 



Source: Anaconda Minerals Co. 1980. 



Notes: 



—' Slope length = surface extent of slope measured from toe to 
crest. 

^/Measurements were made at more than one location on these 
waste dumps, as follows: I - two locations (three segments 
at one location), N - three locations, South - three 
locations, U - two locations, and V - two locations. 

■2/Total slope length of waste dump I at this location = 180 
feet. 



2-62 



The existing rates of sheetwash and small rill erosion, calculated 
with the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), range from 27 tons per 
acre per year to 105 tons per acre per year (Table 2-30). The USLE is 
an empirically developed equation which relates soil loss to amount, 
frequency, and intensity of rainfall, soil characteristics, length of 
slope, slope angle, vegetation or ground cover and erosion control 
practices. Cumulative gully erosion (calculated by measurement of 
gully dimensions) ranges from 4 tons per acre to 561 tons per acre, and 
the mean annual rate is 15.6 tons per acre per year. Total computed 
and measured erosion (sheetwash plus gully erosion) ranges up to 121 
tons per acre per year by adding 15.6 tons per acre annual mean to the 
calculated sheetwash erosion (Table 2-30). 

A positive correlation has been found between accelerated erosion 
and long, steep slopes. The least amount of calculated and measured 
erosion occurs on the most gentle slopes and also on those slopes that 
are covered by boulder-size rock debris. Therefore, the main factors 
controlling erosion on dump slopes are slope length, steepness, and 
surface roughness; of these, slope steepness and roughness seem to be 
the most critical. 

AIR 

Meteorology 

Temperatures 

Monthly mean temperatures at the meteorological station at the 
Village of Laguna range from the mid-30' s (degrees Fahrenheit) in 
winter to the mid-70 's in summer. Large annual and daily temperature 
ranges are characteristic, but extended periods of below-freezing 
temperatures are rare. Summer temperatures average in the upper 80 's 
with occasional maximums over 100 °F, but long spells of temperatures 
over 100 °F are unusual. 

Precipitation 

The mean annual precipitation at Laguna is 9.07 inches, about 61 
percent of which occurs from June to September as rain, mostly from 
short, intense thunderstorms. Precipitation frequencies range, on the 
average, from 1.2 inches per 24-hour period every 2 years, to as much 
as 2.8 inches per 24-hour period every 100 years (U. S. Department of 
Commerce 1967). Annually, an average of 7.3 inches of snow is 
received, 60 percent of which occurs in December and January. Because 
of generally warm afternoon temperatures, snow rarely accumulates. 

Evaporation 

The mean annual pan evaporation (refer to the Glossary) at Laguna is 
about 70 inches, more than 60 percent of which occurs from May to 
September. Mean annual pan evaporation is about 61 inches more than 
mean annual precipitation, resulting in a net moisture deficit. 



2-63 



TABLE 2-30 

SHEETWASH AND TOTAL EROSION FOR SELECTED WASTE DUMP SLOPES 
(tons per acre per year) 



Waste Sheetwash Total 

Dump(s) Erosion Erosioni' 



A & B 61.2 76.8 

C,D,E,F,G 52.7 68.3 

FD-3 100.3 115.9 

I 51.6 67.2 

K 59.5 75.1 

L (South) 39.1 54.7 

N 49.9 65.5 

N2 28.9 44.5 

PI 34.0 49.6 

P2 64.6 80.2 

R 27.2 42.8 

S (North) 59.5 75.1 

South 90.9 106.5 

T 76.5 92.1 

U 56.1 71.7 

V 105.4 121.0 

Y 76.5 92.1 
Y2 93.5 109.1 



Source: BLM 1983. 

Note: 5/ Total erosion = sheetwash erosion + gully erosion. 



2-64 



Moreover, months of greatest evaporation correspond to months of greatest 
rainfall, compounding aridity problems. 

Winds 

Winds in the mine area are generally of light to moderate intensities, 
with wind speeds greater than 15 miles per hour (mph) accounting for less 
than 11 percent of all occurrences. However, strong winds may accompany 
frontal storms during winter and spring months, and occur during intense 
summer thunderstorms. Average wind speeds are greatest during the spring 
months. Average wind speeds range from 5.3 mph from the east, to 11.6 
mph from the west-northwest. 

Surface winds at the mine occur primarily from the southeast and 
northwest. Nocturnal winds flow from higher areas to the west and 
northwest, at an average of 7 mph. The most frequent daytime winds are 
from the southeast. However, the strongest winds are northwesterly, with 
speeds averaging 13.5 mph. 

Air Quality 

Anaconda has four air quality sampling stations at the minesite. The 
samplers monitor suspended particulate levels and several radionuclides 
(discussed in the Radiation section of this chapter). The State of New 
Mexico operates an air quality monitoring station at Paguate Village. No 
pre-mining data are available. 

Particulates 

Total suspended particulates (TSP) have been measured at the mine 
since 1973. Sampling techniques have varied throughout the monitoring 
program. Prior to 1979, an average of one 24-hour TSP sample per month 
was taken from the West Gate and Well 4 stations. Since 1979, one 
168-hour sample has been taken each month at the four sampling stations. 
The annual geometric mean and seven-day average of TSP values from 1979 
to 1981 are presented in Table 2-31. These data show that TSP levels 
have mostly been within State of New Mexico standards. The general trend 
of decreasing TSP values from 1979 to 1981 may be due to decreased mining 
activity. 

TSP data have also been obtained at the State air quality station at 
Paguate. The data has been collected from weekly 24-hour samples. For 
1979 through 1982, the annual geometric means of TSP at this station were 
79, 56, 59, and 35 micrograms per cubic meter (mg/nH) , respectively 
(Table 2-31); these compare to State and Federal standards of 60 and 75 
respectively. Again, decreasing values may reflect decreased mining 
activity. Generally, TSP standards have been met both at Paguate Village 
and the mine, although the seven-day average and annual geometric mean 
standards have sometimes been exceeded. 

Other Pollutants 

Neither Anaconda nor the State has measured sulfur dioxide (SO2), 
carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), or lead (Pb) levels at the minesite 

2-65 



TABLE 2-31 

TSP DATA FOR THE JACKPILE-PAGUATE MINE, 1979-1981 
(values in micrograms per cubic meter) 













Dump F 


Mine Vent 


West 


: Gate 


Well 4 


Paguate 


Range 










2-172 


2- 


-62 


2- 


-101 


2-96 


-a/ 


Annual Geometric 


Mean^ 
















1979 










50 




9 




35 


21 


79 


1980 










29 




9 




28 


32 


59 


1981 










15 




15 




22 


14 


56 


High Seven 


Day 


Average^/ 
















1979 










172 




27 




95 


96 


— 


1980 










98 




62 




101 


72 


— 


1981 










48 




46 




82 


38 


— 



Source: BLM 1984. 

Notes: f*/The symbol — reflects data not available. 
^'State standard = 60 

Federal standard =75 
c/state standard = 110 



2-66 



or Paguate Village. Because these constituents are associated with 
major point-source polluters and metropolitan areas with many 
automobiles, they are probably present in only trace amounts at the 
mine. 

Anaconda conducted a brief monitoring program for nitrogen dioxide 
(NO?) in February 1973, and found that 24-hour average concentrations 
ranged up to a maximum of 0.0079 parts per million. This is well below 
the New Mexico 24-hour average standard of 1.10 parts per million. 

SOILS 

Undisturbed Soils 

Natural soils in the vicinity of the Jackpile-Paguate mine are 
shallow in most upland areas (generally less than 3 feet deep) and are 
significantly deeper in the valleys (up to 6 feet deep) because of 
alluvial depositions. The upland soils belong to the Penistaja- 
Travesilla-Rockland Association. The Penistaja soils occur on gently 
to strongly undulating valley slopes, and consist of shallow surface 
layers of brown, fine, sandy loam over subsoils of brown, sandy, clay 
loam. Below this horizon is a loam with lime concretions and a 
prominent lime zone below a depth of 40 inches. Travesilla soils, 
which are underlain by sandstone at shallow depths, occur on valley 
slopes and mesa tops. They are composed of a shallow surface layer of 
brown, fine, sandy loam underlain by a coarse-grained, sandy subsoil 
over sandstone bedrock. Rockland soils consist of a shallow, 
coarse-grained, sandy mantle of soil between outcrops on steep slopes. 

Valley soils belong to the Lohmiller-San Mateo Association. 
Lohmiller soils, which are deep, fine-textured, and locally saline, 
occur on floodplains and swales. These soils have a brown, calcareous, 
clay loam topsoil underlain by brown, heavy clay, silty clay, or clay 
loams. San Mateo soils occur on floodplains and consist of a surface 
layer of brown, calcareous loam underlain by 5 feet or more of sandy 
and light clay loams. 

Stockpiled Soils 

Approximately 3.1 million cubic yards of topsoil material were 
stockpiled at the mine. These soils consist of some Lohmiller and 
Penistaja, but mostly Rockland types. The Rockland soils consist 
primarily of crushed Tres Hermanos Sandstone. The important chemical 
and physical properties to the Tres Hermanos Sandstone are indicated in 
Table 2-32. The stockpiled soils are situated at three different 
locations within the minesite (Figure 2-15). 

Soil Borrow Site Characteristics 

Soils at the borrow site (Visual A) are Lohmiller types, which 

include clay loams and sandy clay loams. These are deep, fine-textured 

soils that the U.S. Soil Conservation Service classifies as having fair 

permeability, fair to good salinity, good moisture-holding capacity, 

and fair to good organic matter content. Arsenic and selenium 

concentrations are low. Chemical and physical properties are given in 

Table 2-33. 

2-67 



TABLE 2-32 

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TRES HERMANOS SANDSTONE 
[concentrations in parts per million (ppm)] 



Calcium (Ca) 7,850 

Magnesium (Mg) 1,465 

Sodium (Na) 40 

Potassium (K) 238 

Phosphorus (P) 4.1 

Nitrate (N0 3 ) 24.6 

Iron (Fe) .02 

Zinc (Zn) .25 

Cadmium (Cd) .28 

Copper (Cu) .5 

Manganese (Mn) 18.0 

Lead (Pb) 1.0 

Mercury (Hg) .005 

Cobalt (Co) .12 

Chromium (Cr) .05 

Nickel (Ni) .45 

Arsenic (As) .3 

Selenium (Se) .03 

Chlorine (CI) 15.7 

pH 7.2 

Organic matter 0.5 percent 

Cation exchange capacity 8.8 

Electrical conductivity 0.8 mmhos/cm 

Moisture content at field capacity 35.9 percent 



Source: Los Alamos National Laboratories 1979. 

2-68 



^ : ^# 





•- , -*-„ 






•- '*v.- ^r^ .•*-.'- ri»* 



" <w£.! 




FIGURE 2-15 TOPSOIL STOCKPILE TS-3 

TABLE 2-33 
CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL BORROW SITE 



Selenium (Se) 
Nitrate (NO 3) 
Phosporus (P) 
Potassium (K) 
Boron (B) 
Arsenic (As) 
pH 

Organic matter 
Electrical conductivity 
Moisture - 1/3 Bar 
- 15 Bar 



< . 1 ppm 

14.38 ppm 
.20 ppm 
133 ppm 

1.37 ppm 
< . 2 ppm 

7.85 

1.2 percent 

4.02 jtthos/cm 
24.1 percent 
12.0 percent 



Source: Ludeke 1983. 



2-69 



FLORA 

Within the 7,868-acre lease area there are presently three types of 
physical terrain successional situations: 

Undisturbed Natural Vegetational Areas (4,727 acres) 

These undisturbed portions of the lease area are characterized by 
broad mesas and plateaus separated by deep canyons, wide alluvial 
valleys and dry washes. Elevations range from 5,800 feet in the valley 
bottoms to 6,700 feet on the mesa tops. Three types of natural 
settings occur on the undisturbed terrain. Dominant topographic 
features and associated plant species are described as follows: 

Valley Bottoms 

Valley bottoms can be level, undulating or incised. They have 
moderately deep to deep soils that support shrub species such as 
fourwing saltbush, rabbitbrush, cholla and broom snakeweed. Prevalent 
grasses include alkali sacaton, galleta, feathergrass and red 
threeawn. Forbs that are plentiful include fleabane fireweed, 
sandverbena, stickleaf, paperf lower, daisy and cutleaf primrose. 

Only a small portion of the riparian habitat along the Rio Moquino 
was left undisturbed by mining activity. Plant species commonly found 
in this area include saltcedar, desert willow, Emory baccharis and 
rabbitbrush. Understory grasses include alkali sacaton, galleta, cane 
bluestem and western wheatgrass. 

Mesa Slopes 

Mesa breaks and sideslopes are steep and have shallow to moderately 
deep soils interspersed with rock outcrop. These sites are occupied by 
scattered woody plants which include one-seed juniper, feather 
indigobush, soaptree yucca and winterfat. Understory grasses include 
galleta, feathergrass, red muhly, red threeawn, blue and sideoats 
gramas, bottlebrush squirreltail and wolf tail. Understory forbs 
include wild buckwheat, pinque, plains blackfoot and stickleaf. 

Mesa Tops 

Mesa tops are nearly level to undulating and have shallow rocky 
soils. These areas are generally dominated by a woody overs tory 
consisting of one-seed juniper, soaptree yucca and rabbitbrush. 
Prinicipal grasses include galleta, feathergrass, Indian ricegrass, 
sideoats and blue gramas, red threeawn and bottlebrush squirreltail. 
Forbs include fleabane daisy, four o'clock and cutleaf primrose. 

Surface Disturbed Areas Not Reclaimed (2,171 acres) 

These areas primarily consist of open pits, waste dumps, protore 
stockpiles, depleted ore stockpiles, topsoil stockpiles and 
miscellaneous support facilities. Vegetation is either absent in these 



2-70 



areas or in a low successional state with a sparse scattering of 
pioneer plants. 

Dumps created by overburden removal contain a mixture of waste 
materials. The most common geologic materials that form the dumps are 
Jackpile Sandstone, Tres Hermanos Sandstone and Mancos Shale. The 
basal unit of the Dakota Sandstone is very thin within the lease area 
and therefore does not constitute a major portion of the overburden 
materials. Table 1-4 in Chapter 1 lists the surface composition of 
each waste dump. With few exceptions, the internal composition is 
unknown. It should be noted that the surface area of disturbance had 
reached sizeable proportions before reclamation became an important 
consideration. Therefore, the need for surfacing areas with a viable 
growth medium brought about an examination of the overburden strata. 

The ability of plants to grow on overburden materials varies with 

several chemical properties. The low pH of the Dakota Sandstone 

eliminates it as a suitable growth medium. The Jackpile Sandstone and 

Mancos Shale are low in several major nutrients and restrictively high 

in sodium content. Observations of dump sites with various geologic 

substrates left undisturbed for 20 years show the following 

vegetational establishment: Dakota Sandstone - no vegetation; Mancos 

Shale - plants rare, some forbs and grasses; Jackpile Sandstone - 

plants rare, annual and perennial grasses, few shrubs; Tres Hermanos 
Sandstone - plants common, perennial and annual grasses and forbs, 
several shrub species. 

As indicated, the Tres Hermanos Sandstone offers the best 
possibilities for plant establishment. However, in order to meet 
topdressing requirements, material may be required in addition to the 
Tres Hermanos Sandstone presently stockpiled at the mine. A topsoil 
borrow location, comprising approximately 44 acres, has been identified 
in the north - central portion of the lease area as the additional 
source. Chemical and physical properties of the Tres Hermanos 
Sandstone and soils from the borrow site are discussed in the previous 
section. 

Surface Disturbed Areas Reclaimed (485 acres) 

Between 1976 and 1979, Anaconda Minerals Company conducted 
reclamation activities on 17 waste dumps, comprising approximately 485 
acres. Refer to Table 1-4, Chapter 1 and for waste dumps reclaimed to 
date. 

Surface Preparation 

In general, many dump tops were contoured, numerous small 
depressions constructed for water harvesting, and a series of erosion 
control berms were developed. The dump surfaces were initially 
conditioned with overburden and alluvial material that tested suitable 
from chemical and physical laboratory evaluations. 

Following topsoil placement, the dump surfaces were ripped to a 
depth of approximately 8-12 inches followed by a fine surface soil 



2-71 



scarification. Organic mulching was performed with the addition of two 
tons per acre of barley straw and incorporated into the soil profile 
utilizing a Finn notched disc crimper. The areas were fertilized at an 
average rate of 30-50 pounds per acre of nitrogen (N), 30 pounds per 
acre of phosphorous (P2O5), and 30 pounds per acre of potassium 
(K2O) relative to deficiencies in the disturbed soils. 

Plant Selection 

Plant species used in previous reclamation efforts were selected 
primarily on the following characteristics: drought tolerance, season 
of growth, temperature tolerance, salinity tolerance, soil texture 
adaptation, vigor, rate of establishment, longevity, seed mix 
compatibility and grazing potential. Legumes were also considered for 
their nitrogen fixing characteristics. Plant selections were also made 
from this group to conform with edaphic conditions particular to the 
Tres Hermanos Sandstone growth medium. 

Mixtures of plant species used in previous reclamation efforts at 
the mine are given on Table 2-34. The seeding rates were developed 
with the aid and recommendations of the Grants Office of the Soil 
Conservation Service (SCS), utilizing base information from 
non-irrigated land and critical area seeding technical guides. All 
seed drilling rates represented in Table 2-34 are higher than those of 
conventional guidelines and equal or exceed the seeding rates 
recommended for planting critical areas by the New Mexico Interagency 
Range Committee and the SCS . 

In most situations, a seed mixture was planted with a rangeland 

drill. This type of machinery is adapted to rough and rocky terrain 

and is especially designed to operate efficiently in disturbed soil 
seeding environments. 

Following seeding, barley straw was broadcast over the top of the 
seed and incorporated into the surface soil. 

Revegetation Success 

Sampling procedures and plant growth monitoring were conducted on an 
annual basis beginning in 1979 to include plant density (determined by 
the number of plants per species in one meter quadrant) , and vegetative 
cover (measured by line intercept of a 30.5 meter transect line). 

Reference areas were established on undisturbed areas around the 
mine area with vegetative types differing at the various locations. 
The areas were sampled for vegetative density, basal cover and 
botanical composition and were used for comparative purposes. 

Success of vegetative establishment on the reclaimed areas relative 
to the reference areas is shown in Table 2-35. It should be noted that 
the reclaimed site cover and density figures were compared to an 
average reference site figure for cover and density. 



2-72 



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2-74 



Waste dumps S and J, reclaimed in 1976 and 197 7, respectively, 
developed basal plant cover values that exceeded those of the native 
reference areas; therefore, monitoring studies were dropped in 1981 
(Figure 2-16). 




jfc§# d^ 



FIGURE 2-16 SUCCESSFUL REVEGETATION OF S DUMP 

Waste dumps F, G, J, 0, P, PI and P2 were seeded in 1977 and reflect 
basal cover values of approximately 90 percent of the average cover 
estimates collected from reference areas. Dump sites I, T, X and Y2 
were seeded in 1979, and after completion of three growing seasons, are 
exhibiting basal cover percentages near 70 percent of the reference 
areas sampled. Numerous dump sites sampled in 1982 have exceeded 100 
percent of the plant density represented by the reference areas. These 
include dumps C, D, E, I, K, 0, P, PI, P2, X and Y2. 

No quantitative data exists to assess the establishment of 
vegetation for reclamation attempts on steep dump slopes. However, 
qualitative assessment indicates that almost no vegetation has been 
established on such slopes due to severe erosional problems and surface 
soil movement. 

Table 2-36 lists levels of uptake of chemical and radiological 
constituents by plants on reclaimed sites. The heavy metal 
concentrations are below those generally considered to be toxic to 
livestock (5.0 parts per million). 



2-75 



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2-76 



FAUNA 

Many wildlife species prefer specific habitat types. The four wildlife 
habitat types and the animals typically associated with them in the 
area of the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine are: 

1. Grassland-desert shrub: Coyotes, prairie dogs, rabbits, 
rattlesnakes, gophers and several bird species. 

2. Juniper "savanna": Foxes, squirrels, chipmunks, porcupines and a 
large number of bird species. 

3. Riparian: Toads, lizards, invertebrates, ducks and other birds. 

4. Bare ground: Coyotes, prairie dogs, other rodents and lizards. 

A complete list of species to be found within the vicinity of the 
minesite is on file in the BLM Albuquerque District Office, Rio Puerco 
Resource Area. 

The mine environment itself does not support an abundant wildlife 
population. Big game species are generally absent, with no individuals 
sighted in recent years. The natural flow of the Rios Paguate and 
Moquino does not support fish populations in the vicinity of the mine, 
although the Rio Paguate is classified by the State of New Mexico as a 
high quality coldwater fishery and is regularly stocked and fished 
above the minesite. The existence of the mine places a restriction on 
wildlife presence. The larger, more mobile species tend to avoid 
areas of human activity, and the significant acreage of barren ground 
offers little for wildlife other than burrowing habitat for rodents and 
lizards. 

Threatened and Endangered Species 

Within the mine leases occur no species of plants or animals included 
on (or proposed for inclusion on) the list of endangered and threatened 
wildlife and plants. The bald eagle, peregrine falcon and 
black-footed ferret are species on the endangered list that could 
range in the minesite area; however, they would be transients. No 
known sightings have occurred, and the mine environment would not be a 
favorable one for these species. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
has determined that no listed or proposed species would be affected by 
the proposed reclamation of the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine (letter 
dated May 12, 1981). 

CULTURAL RESOURCES 

The entire Jackpile-Paguate mine lease area has been archeologically 
inventoried, with a total of 217 archeological sites recorded 
(Anschuetz, et al. 1979; Beal 1976; Carroll and Hooten 1977; Carroll, 
et al. 1977; and Grigg, et al. 1977). Of this total, 205 remain. 
Seven of the sites were excavated, and five were formally determined to 
be insignificant prior to their destruction by mining. These sites 



2-77 



demonstrate that the mine area has been intermittently utilized since 
the Archaic period (approximately 5,000 B.C.). 

The archeological sites range in date and size from Archaic scatters of 
chipped stone to Basketmaker (A.D. 400-700) pit house villages and 
Pueblo (A.D. 700-1600) stone masonry rooms. Many sites of modern trash 
and structures associated with recent sheepherding activity have also 
been recorded. Four of the archeological sites are also of religious 
concern to the Pueblo of Laguna. 

Access to archeological sites on the mine leases is presently 
controlled by Anaconda Minerals Company to protect them from vandalism. 

VISUAL RESOURCES 

The Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine site consists of 2,656 acres of 
disturbance surrounded by natural relief features including plateaus, 
mesas and valleys typical of much of the southeastern Colorado Plateau 
physiographic province. 

Mining operations caused substantial changes to the natural landform, 
line, color and texture, resulting in a dominant, unnatural 
appearance. Along with the reshaping of the landform within the 
minesite, the stream channels of the Rios Paguate and Moquino were 
modified from their natural meandering conditions. The contrast 
between the minesite and its surrounding has degraded the visual 
resources in the general area. 

Ninety percent of the disturbed acreage from the minesite consists of 
waste dumps and open pits. The majority of the dumps are relatively 
flat-topped with steep-sided slopes, a basic form that is 
characteristic of the surrounding mesas. However, these new man-made 
landforms exhibit a lighter surface coloration and smoother texture 
than the surrounding landscape. Thus, the concentration of these 
dumps, along with their distinct difference in color and texture, 
create a setting that contrasts with and dominates the surrounding 
landscape. It should be noted that previous reclamation efforts by 
Anaconda have enhanced the visual resource qualities of several waste 
dumps. 

The three open pits at the minesite consist of large depressions with 
steep highwall slopes. The depressions vary in depth, with the deepest 
being the Jackpile pit (625 feet). The open pits are partially filled 
with water as a result of ground water seepage and surface runoff. 
These deep depressions and surface water bodies contrast sharply with 
the surrounding landscape. 

The site also contains approximately 50 buildings in five main areas. 
These buildings were used for office space, equipment repair, shops, 
employee housing and storage. Many of these buildings are larger than 
other structures common to this rural area. Their size and the use of 
sheet metal siding have resulted in a prominent landscape feature. 



2-78 



SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS 

The Pueblo's economic base shifted from agriculture to mining in the 
early 1950' s, and with the Jackpile mine's closing, little economic 
base remains. 

Employment 

Employment at the Jackpile-Paguate mine reached 700 to 800 persons in 
the early 1970' s. The vast majority of mine workers were Laguna 
Indians with some non-Indians from the Spanish land grant immediately 
north of the mine and adjacent to the reservation. Permanent closure 
of the Jackpile mine affected 726 workers in the Cibola County labor 
market area, including 513 Pueblo workers. A survey taken in November 
1980 by the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) estimated that 
101 of the 513 workers were no longer in the local workforce. However, 
412 workers were left without jobs and probably have not found new 
employment (CERT 1983a). 

Employment data for Valencia County, and for Cibola County since its 
creation from Valencia County in 1981, show employment trends generally 
representative of the area. In Valencia County, employment in metals 
mining was 2,076 in the first quarter of 1977. It rose to 3,141 in the 
third quarter of 1980, and then declined to 415 in the first quarter of 
1983 (Table 2-37). No metals mining employment has been reported for 
the present Valencia County area since the second quarter of 1981, 
indicating that metals mining prior to that time was taking place in 
the area formed by the new Cibola County. 

Table 2-38 shows a decreased labor force in the area, indicating that 
some people have moved away. However, it also shows a very high 
unemployment rate (25.6 percent for Cibola County), indicating that 
many of those who have been laid off in mining or mining-related jobs 
remain in the area. The Lagunas' cultural traditions and desire to 
live and work on the reservation have prevented many of them from 
taking jobs available elsewhere. 

The total number of people in the Pueblo of Laguna 's labor force is 
estimated to be 1,200, with the unemployment rate reported to be over 
50 percent (CERT 1983a). Laguna efforts to attract industry to replace 
the jobs lost when the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine closed have not 
been successful. 

Income 

Current reliable income figures for the Pueblo are not readily 
available. However, figures presented by the CERT (1983a) show the 
median income of Lagunas who reported it to be less than half of the 
median New Mexicans in 1950 and 1960. By 1970, the median income 
reported by the Lagunas was $2,661, just under 75 percent of the median 
income reported by other New Mexicans. 

The major sources of income for the Laguna and Acoma reservations in 
1978 are shown in Table 2-39. 



2-79 



TABLE 2-37 

NUMBER OF PEOPLE EMPLOYED IN THE MINING INDUSTRY 
VALENCIA AND CIBOLA COUNTIES 
(By Quarter, 1983 to 1977) 





Quarter 


County 






Employment 




Year 


Total 


Metal 


Oil and Gas 


Non-Metal 


1983 


1 


Cibola & Valencia 


503 


415 


__ 


_ 


1982 


4 


Cibola & Valencia 


708 


624 


— 


— 




3 


Cibola & Valencia 


769 


682 


— 


— 




2 


Cibola & Valencia 


1,381 


1,296 


— 


— 




1 


Cibola & Valencia 


1,706 


1,616 


— 


— 


1981 


4 


Cibola & Valencia 


2,063 


1,970 


— 


— 



3 Cibola & Valencia 2,527 2,430 

2 Valencia 2,937 2,832 

1 Valencia 3,101 3,011 
1980 4 Valencia 3,155 3,064 

3 Valencia 3,235 3,141 

2 Valencia 

1 Valencia 
1979 4 Valencia 

3 Valencia 

2 Valencia 

1 Valencia 
1978 4 Valencia 

3 Valencia 

2 Valencia 

1 Valencia 
1977 4 Valencia 

3 Valencia 

2 Valencia 
1 Valencia 

Source: New Mexico Employment Security Department 1983. 



3,222 


3,138 


— 


3,193 


3,107 


— 


3,122 


3,048 


— 


2,925 


2,849 


— 


2,788 


2,709 


— 


2,692 


2,578 


— 


2,719 


2,555 


147 


2,711 


2,552 


153 


2,304 


2,158 


134 


2,528 


2,357 


— 


2,469 


2,316 


147 


2,455 


2,311 


137 


2,296 


2,194 


95 


2,155 


2,076 


73 



2-80 



TABLE 2-38 

LABOR FORCE AND EMPLOYMENT FIGURES, VALENCIA AND CIBOLA COUNTIES 

(Selected Dates) 









Labor 






Unemployed 


Month 


Year 


County 


Force 


Employed 


Unemployed 


Rate 


July 


1983 


Cibola 


12,102 


8,999 


3,103 


25.6 


July 


1983 


Valencia 


10,373 


9,092 


1,281 


12.3 


July 


1983 


Cibola 


12,765 


9,821 


2,944 


23.1 


July 


1982 


Valencia 


11,477 


10,073 


1,404 


12.2 


Jan. 


1982 


Cibola 


11,714 


10,217 


1,497 


12.8 


Jan. 


1982 


Cibola 


11,449 


10,321 


1,128 


9.9 


July 


1981 


Valencia 


25,174 


22,536 


2,638 


10.5 


July 


1980 


Valencia 


25,682 


23,348 


2,334 


9.1 


July 


19791/ 


Valencia 


25,696 


24,059 


1,637 


6.4 


July 


1978 


Valencia 


24,095 


22,729 


1,366 


5.7 


July 


1977 


Valencia 


20,430 


18,702 


1,728 


8.5 



Source: New Mexico Employment Security Department 1983. 

Note: §/ Preliminary figure used because no revised figure was 
available. 

TABLE 2-39 

MAJOR SOURCES OF INCOME - LAGUNA AND ACOMA RESERVATIONS (1978) 











Average 




Number 


of 


Total 


Annual 


Employer 


Employees 


Payroll 


Income 


Anaconda Corporation 


680 




ill, 492, 000 


$16,900 


Sohio 


270 




4,744,000 


17,570 


Indian Health Service 


100 




1,941,229 


19,412 


Bureau of Indian Affairs 


100 




1,478,393 


14,784 


Laguna Tribal Programs 


350 




2,461,017 


7,031 


Others (estimated) 


120 




1,100,000 


9,167 


TOTAL 


1,620 




$23,216,639 


$14,331 



Source: Council of Energy Resource Tribes 1983a. 

In addition to employment income, foodstamps were reported by CERT to 
have supplemented cash income for 69 households, and pensions and 
welfare were other sources of income. The non-wage sources of support 
are probably much higher since the mine's closing, although current 
figures are not available. 

2-81 



The Anaconda shutdown reduced the Laguna-Acoma total annual income by 
an estimated $8 million. The Sohio uranium mine is also closed (at 
least temporarily), and the loss of these two sources of income have 
reduced the total income shown in Table 2-39 by approximately 70 
percent. 

Social Problems 

For nearly 30 years the Pueblo of Laguna depended almost exclusively 
on the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine for employment. As typical of any 
area dominated by one employer, the mine closure had a major impact on 
the Pueblo of Laguna. The sudden loss of income caused the Laguna 
people to readjust their standard of living. Along with this 
readjustment came a variety of social problems including increased 
alcohol and drug abuse, and increased social work and family counseling 
caseloads (CERT 1983b). These problems can be expected to persist 
until the Pueblo of Laguna can diversify its economic base and 
subsequently reduce unemployment. 



2-82 



ital 



v^ hapten 3 



environment! consequences 



INTRODUCTION 

Chapter 3 presents discussions of the environmental consequences which 
would result from implementation of the reclamation proposals. This 
chapter also presents the scientific and analytic basis for comparison 
of the reclamation proposals described in Tables 1-3 and 1-4, Chapter 1. 

BLASTING DURING RECLAMATION 

The No Action Alternative would require no blasting. All of the other 

reclamation proposals may use blasting to reduce the Jackpile pit 

highwall (Gavilan Mesa) or to construct the Jackpile pit drainage 
channel. 

The blasting of Gavilan Mesa and the Jackpile pit drainage channel 
could be of sufficient magnitude to warrant concern about the effects 
on Paguate Village. The major adverse effects of blasting would be 
ground vibration and airblast. Both of these effects could cause 
annoyance to village residents and structural damage. 

Ground vibration is usually described as the velocity of a particular 
point or particle in the ground (particle velocity), and it is 
expressed in inches per second (in/s). Airblast is an air overpressure 
generated by an explosive blast and resulting rock breakage and 
movement. It is commonly expressed as a relative sound level in 
decibels (dB) in a particular frequency range or frequency weighting 
that is measured in hertz (Hz). 

While ground vibration and airblast are dependent on numerous factors 
(e.g., geology, distance from blast, weight of explosive, blast 
confinement and weather), blasts can be designed to minimize their 
magnitudes and any resulting effects. It is generally accepted that 
ground vibration less than 0.5 in/s and airblast in the range of 100 to 
120 dB reduce annoyance and do not cause structural damage, depending 
on specific site characteristics (Siskind, Stachura, et al. 1980; 
Siskind, Stagg, et al. 1980). 

The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has reviewed and evaluated blasting 
data for the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine, previous reports on the 
effects of the blasting, and the blasting uses and locations proposed 
in the reclamation alternatives. Based on this review and evaluation, 
as well as previous studies on ground vibration and airblast, the USBM 
has made recommendations for controlling the effects of blasting during 
reclamation (USDI, Bureau of Mines 1983a and b) . It should be noted 
that Anaconda did not propose such measures and that the following 
recommendations apply only to the DOI and Laguna reclamation 
alternatives. 

1. The Village of Paguate should be inspected prior to blasts. 
Frequent and detailed inspections of one or a limited number of 
structures would be useful as a control measure. 

2. Ground vibration airblasts and cosmetic damage to structures should 
be monitored. Initial blasts should be designed for the following 
limiting values: 

3-1 



a. Maximum ground vibration of 0.2 in/s, and 

b. Maximum airblast of 125 dB (5 Hz high pass) or 128 dB (2Hz high 
pass) . 

If initial tests show that damage to structures does not occur at 
these values, levels could probably be increased to 0.5 in/s and by 
3dB. However, this would likely produce increased numbers of 
complaints alleging damage. Actual damage is unlikely but this 
cannot be guaranteed. 

The resulting monitoring data could be used to define certain site 
characteristics that would provide more flexibility in the design of 
the blasts. Ground vibration should be monitored with 
velocity-measuring seismographs having a frequency response of 5 to 
200 Hz. 

3. A test should be conducted to determine if the minimum charge delay 
of 9 milliseconds is sufficient, particularly for the blasts farthest 
from Paguate. 

4. When the wind is blowing from the east, blasting should not be 
conducted unless the blasts are designed for sufficient confinement to 
avoid the likely increased airblast. 

MINERAL RESOURCES 

Introduction 

The Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine was closed because extraction of 
the uranium deposits was no longer profitable for Anaconda Minerals 
Co. The entire deposit was not mined, and improved market conditions, 
better technology, or different economic circumstances could make 
future mining profitable. Protore was stockpiled in case it might 
become economical to process at some future time. 

The following general conclusions have been reached regarding the 
remaining uranium resources at the minesite: 

1. The protore has significant potential value to the Pueblo of 
Laguna as long as it remains readily accessible. 

2. The resources in the P15/17, NJ-45 and P-13 underground deposits 
have significant potential value to the Pueblo. 

3. The value of the NJ-45 and P-13 deposits would decrease if their 
adits and drifts are rendered inaccessible. 

4. Additional mining and/or heap leaching are not considered viable 
at this time or in the foreseeable future. 

No Action Alternative 

A portion of Gavilan Mesa highwall would probably collapse on top of 
protore piles JLG, J-1A, J-l-A and SP-1 which presently serve as 



3-2 



a buttress at the base of the highwall. These piles contain 
approximately 1.7 million cubic yards of pro tore. Future recovery of 
this buried material would be uneconomical except under the most 
favorable conditions. 

Protore would remain accessible for a period of time. However, 
normal erosive processes would operate on all of the protore piles 
located outside the pits, and cause significant losses of these 
resources over many decades. It is not possible to quantify these 
losses. 

The NJ-45 and P-13 underground deposits would be accessible through 
existing workings. However, this alternative does not provide for 
maintenance of these areas. Therefore, the workings would deteriorate 
over time making them unsafe and inaccessible. This would make it more 
costly to reopen these areas as time progresses. 

Anaconda Proposal 

Under this alternative, all protore would be placed in the open 
pits. This would totally eliminate the erosion impacts as described 
under the No Action Alternative. 

Additional buttress material would be placed at the base of Gavilan 
Mesa. However, the upper portion of the highwall above the buttress 
could eventually fail and cover the material below. Future recovery of 
this buried material would be uneconomical except under the most 
favorable conditions. 

Future production of underground deposits would require either the 
reopening of old adits or construction of new openings. However, these 
costs would be small in comparison to overall production costs. 

DOI Proposal (Both Options) 

This alternative would cause the same impacts as Anaconda's Proposal 
except that there would be less of a chance of Gavilan Mesa collapsing 
on the buttress material because the highwall would be contoured to a 
more natural profile following the existing joints in the rocks. 

Laguna Proposal 

This alternative would place the protore above the projected ground 
water recovery level on the assumption that dry material is easier and 
less costly to handle than wet material. However, given the 
uncertainity of predicting ground water recovery levels, the protore 
may still become saturated, thus negating the efforts to keep it dry. 

The impacts to the buttress material (beneath Gavilan Mdsa) and the 
underground deposits would be the same as DOI's Proposal. However, 
since the Pueblo of Laguna has recently decided not to reopen portions 
of the mine under their own management, the effects of this impact are 
less important. 



3-3 



NON-RADIOLOGICAL MINESITE HAZARDS 
Highwall Stability 

Highwall stability safety factors for each alternative are indicated 
in Table 3-1. The locations of trial failure surfaces are shown in 
Figure 3-1. Trial failure surfaces are zones along which mass failures 
could occur. 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, the stability of highwalls would be the same 
as analyzed in Chapter 2. The North Paguate pit highwall would be 
stable and the South Paguate pit highwall would probably be stable over 
the long-term (hundreds of years) except for the usual loose or 
overhanging blocks. The alluvial cover on the highwall crests could 
slump or erode by piping. Any small rockfalls or alluvial slumps could 
be hazardous to humans and livestock. However, the probability of 
someone being underneath a highwall at the exact moment of failure is 
extremely low. 

Under present conditions, the Gavilan Mesa highwall is probably very 
close to a state of limiting equilibrium; that is, it may be just on 
the verge of failure and is almost certainly unstable for the long- 
term. The highwall would probably undergo a large rotational failure 
which could be hazardous to humans and livestock. Again, the chance of 
such failure occurring while humans or livestock are present is 
extremely low. 

Over the long-term, all highwalls at the minesite would approximate 
the geometry and stability of surrounding natural cliffs, i.e., 
sandstone slopes would be vertical, and shale slopes would approach 30 
degrees. 

The highwalls would remain an attractive nuisance, especially for 
young people. Anyone approaching the edge of the highwalls could 
accidentally fall off. Although there have been few reports of people 
going near the highwalls, this safety hazard would still exist. 
Continuation of existing security measures (i.e., limited fencing, 
locked gates and patrols) would not be sufficient to prevent persons 
from entering the minesite and going near the highwall crests. This 
potential hazard would be greater at South Paguate pit highwall due to 
the lack of fencing along the rim and its proximity to State Highway 
279 (present location). North Paguate pit highwall would be less 
hazardous due to the presence of fencing. Even though Gavilan Mesa is 
not fenced, it would also be less hazardous due to its relatively 
isolated location within the minesite. 

Anaconda Proposal 

Scaling of the highwalls would reduce the amount and frequency of 
rockfalls for the short-term and thereby reduce the hazards to humans 
and livestock. Over hundreds of years, rockfalls would approach the 
amount, size and frequency of rockfalls on nearby natural cliffs. The 



3-4 



TABLE 3-1 
HIGHWALL SAFETY FACTORS 



Pit Trial Failure No Action Anaconda DOI Proposal Laguna 

Highwall Surface^/ Alternative Proposal (Both Options) Proposal 



Jackpile 
(Gavilan Mesa) 



1.15 
NCk/ 

1.26 
1.24 



1.25 
1.35 
1.26 
1.24 



1.31 
1.46 



1.31 
1.46 



North Paguate 



1.63 
1.58 



1.91 

1.63 
1.58 



1.91 

1.63 
1.58 



No highwall 
(buttressed 
to crest) 



South Paguate 



1.34 



1.34 



2 
3 

4 
5 
6 



1.29 
1.78 
1.55 
1.55 
3.05 



1.29 
1.78 
1.55 
1.55 
3.05 



1.29 
1.78 
1.55 
1.55 
3.05 



No highwall 
(pit back- 
filled to 
original 
contour) 



Source: Smith 1983. 

Notes: £/Refer to Figure 3-1 for locations of trial failure surfaces. 
_'NC Indicates failure of solution to converge to a meaningful 
result. 



3-5 





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3-6 



alluvial cover on the North and South Paguate pit highwalls could slump 
or erode by piping. These alluvial slumps could be hazardous to humans 
and livestock. 

Anaconda's proposed stabilization measures for Gavilan Mesa would 
not significantly increase the overall stability of the highwall or 
blend the highwall into the natural surrounding. The planned buttress 
would stabilize the lower portion of the highwall but would do nothing 
for any potential failure surface which daylights above the top of the 
buttress. The alternate method of removing the upper portion of the 
highwall, by either blasting or hauling, would not significantly 
increase the stability of the highwall (Figure 3-2). It would result 
in higher unbenched slopes with the upper part of the highwall not much 
flatter than the existing slope. In all, a significant safety hazard 
would still exist. 

The potential hazard for people falling off the highwalls would be 
the same as described under the No Action Alternative. 

DOI Proposal (Both Options) 

The impacts of scaling the highwalls would be the same as Anaconda's 
Proposal. Under this alternative, the upper 10 feet of alluvial 
material at the North and South Paguate pit highwall crests would be 
sloped 3:1 to prevent slumping and piping. This measure would reduce 
the risk, of injury to humans and livestock below the highwalls. 

Based on observations of natural buttes and mesas in the vicinity of 
the Jackpile - Paguate mine, it was concluded that it is not feasible 
to reclaim the Gavilan Mesa highwall to a state of absolute stability. 
The measures proposed under this alternative would reshape the Gavilan 
Mesa highwall to conform to the surrounding natural slopes as closely 
as possible; that is, approximately 30 degree slopes in the shale 
intervals and nearly vertical slopes, following natural joints, in the 
sandstone beds, with some benches (Figure 3-2). Two vertical joint 
sets, striking N. 25° E. and N. 35° W. , have been identified in the 
Gavilan Mesa highwall (Seegmiller 1979a). In plan view, the highwall 
would follow these joint directions as closely as possible. This 
modification, including the planned buttress, would increase the safety 
factor of the highwall to 1.4. Besides blending the mesa into the 
natural surrounding, these measures would increase the stability of the 
highwall and thereby reduce the safety hazard compared to Anaconda's 
Proposal. 

The proposed fencing for the South Paguate pit highwall would not 
totally preclude access to the rim of the highwall, but would serve as 
a deterrent, especially for young children and the curious. 

Laguna Proposal 

Under this alternative, the North Paguate pit highwall would be 
buttressed to its crest and the buttress material sloped 3:1. South 
Paguate pit would be backfilled to its original contour. These 
measures would totally eliminate the highwalls and associated safety 
hazards. 

3-7 




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3-8 



Stabilization measures for Gavilan Mesa would be essentially the 
same as DOI's Proposal. The only exception is that a monitoring 
program would be implemented to detect future areas of instability. 
Unstable portions of the highwall would be repaired as needed by 
scaling or other appropriate methods. 

Waste Dump Stability 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, it is probable that rotational slope 
failures would occur on FD-2 and V dumps. FD-2 could also exhibit base 
translational failure. 

If FD-2 dump were to fail, a slump would probably displace the upper 
one-third to one-half of the dump, with the displaced material falling 
to the blocked drainage at the base. 

V dump is located approximately 500 feet northeast of the confluence 
of the Rio Moquino and Rio Paguate, and at one point is within 300 feet 
of the Rio Moquino. A massive failure of V dump could result in 
damming of the Rio Moquino, while a small failure would probably cause 
a greatly increased sediment load in the streams. 

For the short-term (that is, the dump materials exhibit some 
cohesion), the rest of the waste dumps at the minesite would be 
stable. However, experience has shown that cohesion is not an 
effective agent for holding up a slope over the long-term. 

To assess the long-term stability of all waste dumps at the 
minesite, the DOI (Smith 1982) estimated safety factors for dry, 
cohesionless slopes. These calculations indicated that a 2:1 slope 
would have a safety factor of 1.06; a 2.8:1 slope would have a safety 
factor of 1.5; and a 3:1 slope would have a safety factor of 1.6. A 
2:1 slope would only be marginally stable over the long-term, while a 
3:1 slope should give an adequate margin of safety against mass 
failure. Since virtually all of the waste dumps at the minesite 
exhibit slope angles greater than 2:1, they would eventually fail. 
These failures could result in blockage of natural drainage channels, 
alteration of stream courses and increased sediment load (including 
radioactive materials) in the streams. 

Piping is an active feature at the minesite and can be expected to 
eventually occur on most waste dumps. Piping can initiate large 
gullies which are sources of rockfalls, earth slides and high velocity 
concentrated runoff. These gullies could also expose radioactive 
materials within the interior of dumps and thus increase the 
radiological hazards at the minesite. 

Anaconda Proposal 

Under this alternative, most waste dumps would be sloped steeper 
than 3:1 with intermediate slopes ranging up to 2:1. A system of 
terraces, berms and rock-lined drainage structures is also planned as 
part of the slope modification (Table 1-4, Chapter 1). 

3-9 



The steep intermediate slopes do not meet the safety factor criteria 
of 1.5 or greater. These intermediate slopes could therefore fail over 
the long-term. The dumps proposed for overall slopes of 2:1 or steeper 
include: C, D, E, F, G, K, 0, P, PI, P2, part of S, parts of T and W. 
These dump slopes would have a safety factor of less than one and 
therefore would be unstable over the long-term. Dumps proposed for 
overall slopes less than 2:1 but steeper than 3:1 include: FD-1, FD-2, 
FD-3, I, N, N2, South Dump, part of T, U, V, Y and Y2. These dump 
slopes would be marginally to probably stable. Dumps proposed for 
overall slopes of 3:1 or more gentle include: A, B, L, Q, R and the 
southern part of S dump. These dump slopes would be stable for the 
long-term. 

The proposed terrace and drainage systems would require continuous 
and extensive maintenance in order to be effective. Without continued 
maintenance, the drainage channels at the back of the terraces would 
fill in with sediment and brush and become ineffective for drainage. 
The 5-foot high berms on the outer edges of the terraces would result 
in ponding of water on the terraces following rainstorms, causing local 
saturation of the soil and piping underneath the berms (Figure 3-3). 
Once a pipe is initiated, it would enlarge, rapidly causing the impacts 
noted under the No Action Alternative. 

DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these alternatives, most dumps would be sloped 3:1 or flatter 
with no terracing. The exceptions would be dumps FD-2, the southern 
portion of I, and Y2. The modification to FD-2 would be the same as 
Anaconda's Proposal because of the dump's location on the side of 
Gavilan Mesa which limits a 3:1 slope profile. The southern portions 
of I and Y2 would be sloped 2.5:1 with no terracing. These three dumps 
would be marginally to probably stable over the long-term. All dumps 
sloped 3:1 would have a safety factor of 1.6 and would therefore be 
stable over the long-term. The 3:1 slopes and contour furrowing would 
virtually eliminate the hazards resulting from mass failure and piping 
as described in the No Action Alternative and Anaconda's Proposal. 

Subsidence 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, the possibility exists that the ground above 
the P-10 mine decline could experience subsidence of significant 
magnitude and rate. A sudden change in ground elevation could result 
in injury to humans and livestock standing immediately above the 
decline area. All other areas above underground workings are in a low 
risk category with regard to subsidence and therefore do not pose a 
hazard. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

The P-10 mine decline would have a cement bulkhead placed 
approximately 680 feet below the surface opening. The decline would 
then be backfilled from the bulkhead to the surface with overburden 



3-10 




Explanation: 

(a) Water collects on terrace 

(b) Drainage channel silts-up and becomes Ineffective 

(c) Water ponds after rainfall 

(d) As water seeps into terrace, pipe forms 

(e) Pipe Is complete 

(f) Berm and terrace wash out, forming a large gully 

Noto: Arrows show direction of waterflow. 



FIGURE 3-3 
Waste Dump Slope Failure due to Piping 



3-11 



material. This measure would eliminate the subsidence hazard above 
this area. All other underground workings would pose no hazard as 
described under the No Action Alternative. 

Underground Openings 

No Action Alternative 

Six adits, one decline and 20 vent holes are presently open at the 
minesite. These openings present a physical hazard in that people or 
livestock could use them to access unstable underground workings. 
These areas could also contain elevated levels of radon and radon 
daughter products and thus pose a localized radiological hazard. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these alternatives, all underground openings would be 
backfilled so no entrance to the underground workings would exist. 
This measure would totally eliminate the hazards described under the No 
Action Alternative. 

RADIATION 

NOTE ; Initially, the Laguna Proposal regarding treatment of protore 
was the same as the Anaconda and DOI Proposals, i.e. the protore would 
be placed into the open pits within the ground water recovery zone. 
This is how the Laguna Proposal is presently analyzed in the 
radiological impact section. Because of the additional time and 
expense involved to assess the radiological impacts of the revised 
Laguna Proposal, it was not possible to include this assessment in this 
EIS. The merits of evaluating the revised proposal have not been 
determined at this point in time. 

Post-Reclamation Radiological Impacts 

Introduction 

The steps in an evaluation of potential radiological impacts for a 
site are as follows: 1) identify the sources of radiation; 2) define 
and delineate the pathways by which various components of the 
environment, especially humans, could be exposed to that radiation; 3) 
estimate the rates at which radioactivity is released along those 
pathways; and 4) use these estimates to calculate the total radiation 
exposure to the population of concern. 

The primary sources of radiation at the Jackpile-Paguate minesite 
are the radioactive isotopes formed by the decay of uranium-238 in the 
remaining ore and waste materials at the site. Specifically, these 
are: uranium-238, uranium-234, thorium-230, radium-226, radon-222, 
lead-210 and polonium-210. Although other sources of radiation exist, 
the amount of radiation emitted at the minesite from these other 
sources is so small in comparison with radiation from the uranium-238 
series that the other sources need not be considered here. (A more 
detailed description of the sources of radiation at the minesite is 
provided in Chapter 2.) 

3-12 



The principal pathways by which people may be exposed to radiation 
from the minesite are: 1) direct external exposure to radiation 
emitted from radioactive material in the air and on the ground; 2) 
internal exposure to radiation from radioactive material inhaled into 
the lungs; and 3) internal exposure to radiation from radioactive 
material ingested with drinking water and foodstuffs. These exposure 
pathways are shown diagrammatically in Figure 3-4. 

The reclamation alternatives being considered for the minesite could 
variously affect the potential for, and amount of, human exposure to 
radiation along these pathways. Therefore, the possible radiological 
impacts of the reclamation alternatives have been evaluated with regard 
to: 1) calculation, for each alternative, of potential radiation doses 
that might be received by the general population after reclamation, and 
2) conversion of these doses into possible numbers of radiation-induced 
health effects. The population groups considered in these evaluations 
are those people living near the boundaries of the minesite, and the 
entire population living within a 50-mile (80-kilometer) radius of the 
minesite following reclamation. 

The potential radiological impacts summarized in this section are 
based on detailed evaluations presented in a report prepared by Momeni, 
et al. (1983). The evaluations in that report are based on data 
obtained from Anaconda Minerals Company, the U.S. Department of the 
Interior, published reports and other sources. A computer code — the 
Uranium Dosimetry and Dispersion (UDAD) Code — developed at Argonne 
National Laboratory (Momeni, et al. 1979) was used to calculate the 
radiation release rates, exposure rates and doses that form the basis 
of this radiological impact evaluation. 

Assumptions 

The mathematical models used to analyze radiological impacts require 
that a number of assumptions be made concerning basic physical, 
chemical and physiological processes that occur along radiation 
exposure pathways. These assumptions are used with data on 
radiological and environmental conditions at the site to make the 
calculations required for impact analysis. Some of the assumptions 
made in the evaluation of potential radiological impacts of the 
Jackpile-Paguate mine reclamation alternatives are outlined below. 

Two basic sources of release of radioactivity to the air from the 
Jackpile-Paguate minesite have been identified: 1) distribution of 
radioactive particulates (contaminated dust particles) as a result of 
wind erosion of contaminated surfaces, and 2) diffusion of radon-222 
gas from contaminated material into the air. The estimated rates of 
distribution of radioactive dust from the minesite to the air have been 
calculated with the wind erosion formulas incorporated into the UDAD 
Code (Momeni, et al. 1979). It was assumed that radioactive dust 
particles would be distributed in the air only under the No Action 
Alternative. Under the other alternatives, the minesite would be 
covered with a layer of uncontaminated soil, and although wind erosion 
would not be eliminated, the radioactive material at the site would not 
be exposed to wind erosion so long as the soil cover remained intact. 

3-13 



Sources of Release 
of Radioactivity 



Alternative Methods of Reclamation 



Rate of Release of Radioactivity 



Hydrospheric 



Atmospheric 



Exposure Pathways 



External Exposure w 



Direct from 
Site 



Contaminated Air 



Internal Exposure 



Contaminated 
Soil 



Air 



Water 



Food 




> 


l 




i 


f 


Somatic 
Effects 




Genetic 
Effects 



FIGURE 3-4 

Potential Routes of Release of Radioactive Materials and 

Subsequent Exposure Pathways. 



Source: Momenl, et al. 1983. 



3-14 



Evaluation of the diffusion of radon-222 gas (formed by the 
radioactive decay of radium-226, which is a solid) involves 
consideration of a factor known as "specific flux". This is the amount 
of radon-222 released from a given area of the ground over a given time 
for each unit concentration of radium-226 in the soil. 

The calculations of radon-222 release from the minesite under the No 
Action Alternative have been based on an average specific flux of 0.5 
picocuries of radon-222 from each square meter of ground each second 
for each picocurie of radium-226 per gram of soil. Under the other 
reclamation alternatives, the specific flux of radon-222 from the 
minesite would be reduced. However, it would not entirely be 
eliminated because even with a cover of uncontaminated soil over the 
site, some radon-222 would diffuse through the covering material and 
escape into the air. For the other alternatives, the release rate 
would be reduced to 8 percent of that for the No Action Alternative. 
The derivation of these values and the underlying assumptions used are 
given in Appendix D of Momeni, et al. (1983). 

Ground and surface water also have been identified as potential 
pathways of radiation exposure at the minesite. Ground water can be 
contaminated by precipitation (rainfall and, less frequently, melted 
snow) soaking through waste dumps and carrying radioactive material 
into water supplies. Contamination of surface water can result from 
seepage of contaminated ground water into surface water, and by surface 
runoff of precipitation that has fallen on waste dumps and/or other 
contaminated surfaces. 

For the other alternatives, surface soil and vegetation covers 
placed over the waste dumps within the minesite would tend to increase 
the ground water level in the area because of the reduction in ground 
water loss through evaporation. This elevation of the ground water 
level could increase the contact of ground water with the waste dumps, 
resulting in greater radioactive concentrations in this water that 
would subsequently be discharged into streams within the minesite. 
However, because evaporation in the entire region far exceeds 
precipitation, the effects of the reclaimed areas on regional ground 
water would be minimal. The overall movement of radionuclides to the 
ground water, and subsequently to nearby streams, would be negligible. 
Calculations supporting this conclusion are documented in Appendix C of 
Momeni, et al. (1983). 

Part of the surface water passing through the minesite collects 
downstream in Paguate Reservoir. Water from the reservoir is used for 
irrigation downstream at the Village of Mesita and also consumed by 
livestock. The degree to which water from the reservoir is used for 
human consumption is not known. Thus, a potential pathway exists for 
indirect exposure of humans to radioactive materials through 
consumption of meat from cattle that have drunk from the reservoir. 
This pathway is discussed in the next section. 

Assumptions about the amount of radioactive material retained by man 
following intake of radioactive material through air, water and food 
are contained in the internal dosimetry models of the International 



3-15 



Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1959). These models, as 
well as other ICRP information, have been incorporated into the UDAD 
Code (Momeni, et al. 1979). 

Post-Reclamation Radiation Doses 

The principal pathways of radiation exposure have been identified as 
inhalation of airborne radionuclides, ingestion of contaminated food 
and/or water, and external exposure. Using the UDAD code, the 
individual dose commitments in the 70th year (average human life 
expectancy in the region) and the population dose commitments were 
calculated for all the alternatives at a number of locations within 50 
miles of the minesite. The population dose commitment gives the 
average dose commitment for the people within a 50-mile radius of the 
minesite. 

Dose commitment may be understood with the aid of the following 
example. Suppose that during the first year, an individual intakes a 
radionuclide having a long residence time in the body. Assuming that 
the nuclide delivers a dose of 100 millirems in the first year, then, 
without further intake, the presence of the nuclide in the body will 
result in a dose of 50 millirems in year 2, 25 millirems in year 3, and 
12.5 millirems in year 4. If intake of the nuclide continues at the 
same rate, then, in the second year, the dose will be 100 millirems 
from intake in the second year plus 50 millirems already committed from 
the first year. After four years of intake, the annual dose will build 
up to 187.5 millirems (100 + 50 + 25 + 12.5), which is also the total 
4-year dose from the intake that occurred in the first year only. This 
method allows calculation of the annual dose commitment for any period 
of time. In this EIS, the dose commitments are calculated for the 70th 
year following reclamation because it is assumed that the average life 
expectancy in the region is about 70 years. 

The individual dose commitments (70th year) for selected locations 
(highest dose, lowest dose and Paguate Village) are presented in this 
EIS. Detailed data for additional locations can be found in Momeni, et 
al. (1983). 

Some organs show higher sensitivity than others to radiation. The 
doses to these organs were calculated with the UDAD code for the 
various reclamation alternatives. In this EIS, only the dose 
commitments to organs at greatest risk in a given pathway are 
presented. When the total dose for a given period of time is shown, it 
is a summation of the individual doses received during each successive 
year for that period. 

External Doses 

External exposure results from radiation emitted from airborne and 
ground-deposited radionuclides on the minesite and in the surrounding 
region. It also results from gamma radiation emitted from the waste 
dumps and residual ores on the minesite, but only people on the 
minesite would be exposed to this radiation due to the limited range of 
natural gamma radiation. 



3-16 



No Action Alternative 

Public access to the minesite would be restricted under the No 
Action Alternative; thus, no direct exposure of the population to gamma 
radiation at the site would occur. However, off site transport of the 
radioactive material from the minesite would continue as a result of 
natural erosion. Residents of the region around the minesite would 
receive external exposure from such material deposited on the ground or 
suspended in air away from the site. Under this alternative, the 
highest external dose within 50 miles would be at the Range North 
location (3 miles north of the confluence of the Rios Moquino and 
Paguate), and the lowest external dose would be at Albuquerque. This 
information is summarized in Table 3-2. 

TABLE 3-2 

INDIVIDUAL DOSE COMMITMENTS (70th YEAR) FROM 

EXTERNAL RADIATION EXPOSURE UNDER THE 

NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE 

(millirems per year) 



Location 



Whole 
Body 



Lung 



Red 
Marrow 



Airborne Radionuclides 



Albuquerque 
Range North 3 .' 
Paguate 

Ground-Deposited Radionuclides 



0.000869 


0.00082 


0.000907 


0.287 


0.270 


0.302 


0.119 


0.112 


0.127 



Albuquerque 
Jackpile Housing 
Paguate 



0.000833 


0.000774 


0.000902 


28.1 


26.3 


29.9 


7.12 


6.68 


7.6 



Source: Momeni, et al. 1983. 

Note: £'This location is 3 miles north of the confluence of the 
Rios Moquino and Paguate. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals. 

External radiation exposure would be close to natural background 
levels under these reclamation alternatives, because gamma radiation 
release would be reduced by the soil cover placed over the waste dumps 
and residual ores at the minesite. The radionuclides previously 
deposited beyond the disturbed areas of the minesite would continue to 
be a decreasing source of external exposure. However, according to 
data collected by the EPA (Eadie, et al. 1979) and EGG (Jobst 1982), 
minimal off -site deposition of radioactive materials has occurred. 
Therefore, exposure along this pathway would be negligible. 



3-17 



Inhalation Doses 

Potential doses from inhalation result from exposure to: 1) 
airborne particulates (all the radionuclides in the uranium series 
except those from short-lived radon decay products); and 2) airborne 
radon decay products that enter the respiratory system. A fraction of 
the total radioactive material inhaled is directly exhaled, and a 
portion of the material deposited in the respiratory system is 
subsequently ingested. 

The dose in a given organ at any time from the inhalation of any 
airborne radionuclide depends upon the concentration of that 
radionuclide in that organ. The concentration is a net result of 
intake, excretion and radioactive decay. With continuous intake of 
radionuclides, the concentration in a given organ of the body increases 
to an equilibrium value and thereafter remains relatively constant. 

Particulates 

No Action Alternative 

Of the four alternatives analyzed, the No Action Alternative 
would result in the maximum dose commitment to an individual from 
inhalation. Again, individual dose commitments would be highest at 
Jackpile Housing and lowest at Albuquerque. A summary of the 
inhalation dose commitments to the more important body organs is given 
in Table 3-3. 



TABLE 3-3 

INHALATION DOSE COMMITMENT AT SELECTED LOCATIONS DUE TO 

PARTICULATES RELEASED UNDER THE NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE 

(millirems per year) 





Dose to Lung 


Tissue 


Dose to 
Bone 


Other Organs 


Location 


Tracheobronchial 


Pulmonary 


Whole Body 


Albuquerque 
Jackpile Housing 
Paguate 


0.0000121 

0.033 

0.0122 


0.00535 
13.7 
5.24 


0.0071 
17.8 
6.66 


0.00029 

0.586 

0.218 



Source: Momeni, et al. 1983. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these three alternatives, radioactive particulate 
emissions would be greatly reduced by covering the minesite with a 
layer of uncontaminated soil. This, in turn, would reduce the dose 
commitment from particulates to values corresponding to background 
levels. 



3-18 



Radon 

No Action Alternative 

For inhalation of radon decay products, the dose commitment 
has been calculated on the basis of 14 hours daily residence inside a 
structure and 10 hours outside. Only the dose to the most sensitive 
part of the human body, the bronchial epithelium tissue of the lung, 
has been calculated. As expected, the lowest dose commitment would be 
at Albuquerque, and the highest dose commitment at Jackpile Housing. 
The dose commitments due to radon inhalation are summarized in Table 
3-4. 

TABLE 3-4 

DOSE COMMITMENTS (70th YEAR) DUE TO INHALATION OF RADON 

AT SELECTED LOCATIONS UNDER THE 

NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE 

(millirems per year) 



Location Bronchial Epithelium 



Albuquerque 0.0578 

Jackpile Housing 68.7 

Paguate 28.0 



Source: Momeni, et al. 1983. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals. 

The rate of release would be reduced under these 
alternatives. Dose commitments would be 8 percent of the values under 
the No Action Alternative. For example, under these alternatives, the 
dose commitment at Jackpile Housing would be 5.50 millirems per year. 

Ingestion Doses 

Radiation doses from ingestion normally result from consumption of 
food and/or water contaminated with radionuclides. However, surface 
water in and adjacent to the minesite is not used for human 
consumption, and it is unlikely that the ground water In the immediate 
vicinity of the mine would become a source of contamination for at 
least 100 years. Large-scale farming is not presently practiced near 
the mine. Therefore, the major ingestion pathway for radionuclides 
would be the consumption of locally raised meat. 

Two approaches have been used in this analysis: 1) evaluation of 
the doses that would result at the Village of Paguate and San Fidel if 
meat from livestock grown near these locations was consumed only in the 
area where grown; and 2) evaluation of the doses that would result if 
equal portions of meat raised within 50 miles (80 kilometers) of the 



3-19 



minesite were consumed by all members of the population within the 
region. In the first approach, it was assumed that the amount of meat 
produced in an area would not be sufficient to provide for the entire 
yearly intake of the local residents and, thus, locally grown meat 
would constitute less than 100 percent of the diet near the location 
where it was grown. The second approach provides an estimate of 
population dose based on agricultural marketing and distribution 
patterns. 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, no grazing of livestock would be 
permitted on the minesite. However, the radioactive materials now 
exposed at the site would not be covered, and off site transport of 
radionuclides by natural processes (e.g., wind erosion, surface runoff) 
would continue. Therefore, livestock would continue to be exposed to 
and consume radionuclides originating from the unreclaimed minesite. 

The dose commitments to the whole body, bone, kidney and liver 
calculated under the first approach (meat consumed only in the area 
where it was grown) for the Paguate and San Fidel regions are 
summarized in Table 3-5. These two locations would experience the 
highest and lowest dose commitments, respectively, within the 50-mile 
radius. 



TABLE 3-5 

AVERAGE DOSE COMMITMENT (70th YEAR) TO SELECTED ORGANS 
DUE TO INGESTION OF MEAT UNDER THE NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE 

(millirems per year) 



Location 



Whole Body 



Bone 



Kidney 



Liver 



Paguate 
San Fidel 



1.1 
0.00798 



10.4 6.68 1.99 

0.00723 0.00756 0.00225 



Source: Momeni, et al. 1983. 



The average total dose from ingestion of meat to an individual 
belonging to the population within a 50 mile radius of the minesite is 
given in Table 3-6. These values were calculated under the most 
realistic assumption that the meat raised in this region is distributed 
equally to all members of the population within the region. 



3-20 



TABLE 3-6 

AVERAGE DOSE COMMITMENT (70th YEAR) TO AN INDIVIDUAL FROM 
INGESTION OF MEAT LOCALLY RAISED WITHIN A 50-MILE RADIUS 
OF JACKPILE-PAGUATE MINESITE UNDER THE NO ACTION 

ALTERNATIVE 
(millirems per year) 



Organ Dose 



Whole body 0.00148 

Bone 0. 014 

Kidney 0.00624 

Liver 0.00184 



Source: Momeni, et al. 1983. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these reclamation alternatives, no additional 
contamination of meat would take place, because the sources of airborne 
particulates would have been covered with a layer of uncontaminated 
soil. This would prevent contamination of pasture grass, because there 
would be no further offsite transport of soil and particulates from the 
minesite. 

Total Individual and Population Dose Commitments 

No Action Alternative 

The representative total annual dose commitments estimated under 
the No Action Alternative are presented in Table 3-7 for Paguate (the 
nearest village to the minesite) and Jackpile Housing (the location of 
the highest individual dose commitment). The total individual dose 
commitment for a given organ is obtained by summing the contributions 
from each pathway. Similarily, the total population dose commitment 
for a given organ is obtained by summing the individual contributions 
from each pathway (Table 3-8). 

The U.S. average background exposure to the bronchial epithelium 
is 450 millirems per year (National Council on Radiation Protection and 
Measurements 1975). Under the No Action Alternative, the dose 
commitment would be an additional 6 percent of the annual average at 
Paguate and an additional 15 percent of the annual average at Jackpile 
Housing. 

For purposes of perspective, the estimated population dose 
commitments under the No Action Alternative are compared with the 
background population dose commitments in Table 3-9. The population 
dose commitments under the No Action Alternative are negligible in 
comparison with the background dose commitments. 



3-21 



TABLE 3-7 

TOTAL ANNUAL DOSE COMMITMENTS (70th YEAR) TO AN 

INDIVIDUAL UNDER THE NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE 

(millirems per year) 



Dose for Various Pathways 

Organ External Ground Inhalation Radon Ingestion Total!' 



Paguate 






Whole body 0.119 


7.12 




Bone 






Kidney 






Liver 






Bronchial 






epithelium 






Tracheobronchial 




0.012 


Pulmonary 




5.24 


Lungs . 112 


6.68 




Red marrow 0.127 


7.00 




Jackpile Housing 







Whole body 0.18 28.1 
Bronchial 

epithelium 
Tracheobronchial 
Pulmonary 

Lungs 0.109 26.3 

Red marrow 0.194 29.9 



28.0 



1.12 


8.4 


10.4 


10.4 


6.68 


6.68 


1.99 


1.99 




28.0 




0.012 




5.24 




6.80 




7.72 



68.7 



0.033 
13.7 



28.3 

68.7 

0.033 
13.7 
26.5 
30.1 



Source: Momeni, et al. 1983. 



Note: 



a/ Background: whole body - 100 mrem/yr. ; bone - 135 mrem/yr.; 
lung - 200 mrem/yr.; bronchial epithelium - 200 to 600 mrem/yr. 
(ANL/EIS-16). 



3-22 



TABLE 3-8 

POPULATION DOSE COMMITMENTS (70th YEAR) UNDER THE NO ACTION 
ALTERNATIVE FOR THE AREA WITHIN A 50-MILE RADIUS OF THE MINESITE 

(person-rems per year) 



Organ or Inhalation External 

Tissue Particulates Radon Ingestion Ground Cloud Total 



Bronchial 122.0 122.0 

epithelium 
Pulmonary 16 . 5 

Whole body 68.6 

Bone 21.0 

Kidney 62.3 

Liver 14.8 

Red marrow 



Source: Momeni, et al. 1983. 





13.5 


0.845 


30.8 


10.5 


14.3 


0.896 


94.3 


97.7 


16.7 


1.01 


136.0 


64.1 






126.4 


19.1 






33.9 




15.3 


0.941 


16.2 



TABLE 3-9 

COMPARISON OF ESTIMATED POPULATION DOSE COMMITMENTS 

(70th YEAR) UNDER THE NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE TO THE 

BACKGROUND POPULATION DOSE COMMITMENT 

(person-rems) 



From Releases From 

Under the No Action Natural Background 

Organ Alternative Radiation!' 



Whole body 94.3 47,620 

Lungs 30.8 95,240 

Bone 136.0 66,668 
Bronchial 

epithelium 122.0 214,290 



Source: Momeni, et al., 1983. 

Note: £.' Estimated from data in Report No. 45 of the National 

Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (1975). 
The estimated total population is 476,200 in the 70th year 
(Momeni, et al. 1983). 



3-23 



Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these alternatives, the dose commitments from external 
exposure, ingestion and inhalation would be reduced to background 
levels except for the dose commitment from radon. As mentioned 
previously, the radon dose commitment at Jackpile housing would be 5.5 
millirems per year and for Paguate, the dose commitment would be 2.2 
millirems per year. 

Post-Reclamation Health Effects 

Introduction 

The post-reclamation health effects of primary concern are those 
resulting from radiation doses received by individuals as a consequence 
of exposure to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in or near the 
minesite. These health effects include somatic effects (diseases 
affecting an individual during his lifetime; primarily cancer) and 
genetic effects (disorders affecting offspring of the irradiated 
individual) . About half of all cancers are nonfatal (American Cancer 
Society 1978). 

A computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory, 
"Potential Radiation-Induced Biological Effects in Man (PRIM)" was used 
in estimating the somatic and genetic effects in the population within 
a 50-mile radius of the Jackpile-Paguate minesite (Momeni, et al. 
1983). Two mathematical models of the National Academy of Sciences 
(1980) were employed in estimating the number of cancer deaths: the 
absolute risk model and the relative risk model. 

The absolute risk model expresses the number of additional cases 
of cancer that arise per unit time per unit dose in a population of 
exposed individuals, or the total number of expected cancers in the 
group. This model ignores any possible correlation between the 
incidence of the radiation-induced effects* and those due to the other 
cancer-causing materials to which the population is exposed. The 
relative risk model, on the other hand, defines the ratio of the risk 
of cancer in the irradiated population to the risk in a comparable 
nonirradiated population. Thus, the risk of radiation may be expressed 
as a percentage of the natural cancer incidence per unit dose per unit 
time. 

Two main criticisms of the relative risk model exist. First, it 
predicts a very nonlinear response as a function of age at irradiation, 
and no biological evidence supports this effect for radiation damage. 
Second, the relative risk model predicts a higher total incidence than 
the absolute model for the same incidence rate, and little 
epidemiological evidence supports this difference. In spite of this, 
the BEIR III Report (National Academy of Sciences 1980) presents 
results In terms of both models, although the International Commission 
on Radiological Protection has continued to use the absolute risk 
model. In this EIS, estimates from both the models are summarized. 



3-24 



Somatic and Genetic Effects 

No Action Alternative 

The predicted radiation- induced cancer deaths for the period 
1982 through 2072 are 95 under the absolute risk model and 243 under 
the relative risk model. Under the absolute risk model for the same 
period, about 135,000 natural cancer deaths are predicted (Momeni, et 
al., 1983). This represents an increase of less than 0.1 percent in 
predicted cancer deaths over the 90-year period. Under the relative 
risk model for the same period, the predicted increase would be about 
0.2 percent. 

The total number of radioactive-induced genetic disorders has 
been calculated using parameters given in two different sources: U.S. 
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1975) and National Academy of Sciences 
(1980). For the region of the Jackpile-Paguate minesite, the value of 
the estimated ratio of radioactive-induced to naturally occurring 
genetic disorders is about 0.0003. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these reclamation alternatives, the somatic risks — except 
cancer of the lung — would be reduced to less than 0.1 percent of those 
levels calculated for the No Action Alternative. The lung cancer risk 
would be 10 percent of the No Action Alternative. 

Under these alternatives, the estimated genetic effects would be 
reduced to less than 0.1 percent of those calculated for the No Action 
Alternative. 

Comparison to Other Health Risks 

Another way of considering the risk from radiation is to assume 
that cancer results in a shortening of life that would not otherwise 
take place. When considered in this way, the average background 
radiation of 100 millirems per year would result in an estimated life 
shortening of 8 days. For comparison, estimates of life shortening 
expected from various activities are listed in Table 3-10. 

Radiological Impacts to Workers Involved in Reclamation 

There are no Federal or State regulations governing radiation 
exposure to workers involved in surface mining or reclamation 
activities at open pit uranium mine. The reason is that the radiation 
doses received during such operations are within the generally accepted 
guidelines for unrestricted areas (Table 2-12, Chapter 2). From 
information gathered in preparing this EIS, there is no data to 
indicate that workers involved in reclamation would be exposed to 
levels exceeding those that occurred during mining operations; 
therefore, exposures are expected to be within generally accepted 
guidelines. However, to ensure that there are no site-specific 
conditions that would alter this conclusion, Argonne National 
Laboratory will study the radiological impacts to workers involved 



3-25 



TABLE 3-10 

ESTIMATED AVERAGE LOSS OF LIFE EXPECTANCY FROM HEALTH RISKS 

(days) 



Health Risk 



Average Decrease 

in 
Life Expectancy 



Smoking 20 cigarettes a day 

Overweight (by 20 percent) 

All accidents combined 

Auto acidents 

Alcohol consumption (U.S. average) 

Home accidents 

Drowning 

Natural background radiation 

Medical diagnostic X-rays 
(U.S. average) 

All catastrophes (e.g., earthquake) 

1 rem occupational radiation dose 

(industry average about 0.65 rem/yr) 

0.5 rem/yr for 30 years 



2,370 (6.5 years) 
985 (2.7 years) 
435 (1.2 years) 
200 
130 
95 
41 
8 
6 

3.5 

1 

15 



Source: Adapted from Cohen and Lee (1979) 



3-26 



in reclamation. The information will be submitted to the DOI in a 
report separate from the E1S. If the report reveals that there would 
be radiological conditions which could cause workers to receive doses 
in excess of the accepted limits, Anaconda Minerals Company would be 
required to provide mitigation. 

HYDROLOGY 

Introduction 

Mining at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine disturbed the Jackpile 
Sandstone aquifer and reshaped the local topography. Now that mining 
has ceased, water is ponding at the surface in the pit bottoms. 
Eventually, the ponds will reach an equilibrium with water inflow, 
outflow and evaporation losses. When the pits are backfilled they will 
saturate to a stable water table elevation that will be higher than the 
present pond elevations. This is called the "ground water recharge 
level" or "recovery level". Considerable technical debate has taken 
place concerning ground water recovery levels in the pits at the 
Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine. Continuing technical analysis has shown 
that it is difficult to forecast specific ground water recovery levels. 

The main reasons for concern over the ultimate ground water recovery 
levels is the adverse environmental impacts that would result if the 
initial backfill levels were insufficient. Salt water ponds could form 
on the surface. Alternatively, as a result of evaporation at the 
surface, about 3 to 4 tons per acre per year of salt could be deposited 
and stored in the soils of the pit bottoms if they re-saturate to near 
the level of the reclaimed land surface. After a few years of such 
conditions, the productivity of salt-tolerant plants such as saltgrass 
or alkali sacaton, for example, would be reduced by 50 percent, and 
within a decade the bottom areas would become entirely unproductive, 
playa-like saline wastelands. The soils and any intermittent water in 
the pit bottoms could become toxic due to concentrated radiochemicals, 
metals and salts stored at the surface. 

A secondary concern arising from the reclamation approach for the pit 
areas is one of containment of water and sediment in closed pits or, 
alternatively, restoration of the natural process of overland runoff of 
water and sediment. DOI has addressed both approaches as reclamation 
options. 

Ground water recharge levels have been estimated by Dames and Moore, 
a consultant to Anaconda Minerals Company, for use in formulating 
Anaconda's reclamation plan. These estimates were made by using 
mathematical models of predicted future conditions in the backfilled 
pits, and then specifying the variables affecting ground water in this 
model. Such variables take into account the permeability of backfill 
materials and the contribution that surface waters (rainfall and stream 
inflow) may lend to ground water volumes. Selection of values for 
these variables is based on field data and scientific judgment, but 
remains uncertain. The time for ground water recovery levels to reach 
essentially steady-state conditions was estimated to be 30, 150 and 300 
years for the North Paguate, South Paguate and Jackpile pits, 



3-27 



respectively. The Dames and Moore report and modeling analysis, 
including assumptions used, is available at the BLM Albuquerque 
District Office, Rio Puerco Resource Area. Anaconda has indicated that 
their proposed minimum backfill levels based on the ground water model 
may be raised if excess material from other reclamation operations 
eventually is disposed of in the pits. 

At the Bureau of Land Management's request, the Water Resources 
Division, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), carried out a number of 
numerical simulations of the ground water flow system in the vicinity 
of the Jackpile-Paguate mine. The simulations were performed using a 
standard USGS generic model for two-dimensional ground water flow; the 
simulations employed hydrologic parameters which, in some cases, were 
identical to those used in an analysis by Dames and Moore, and in some 
cases were systematically varied from those values. The USGS model was 
mathematically adjusted to give the same or approximately the same 
results as the Dames and Moore model when running the same parameters 
as the Dames and Moore model. 

The USGS work established that the model used by Dames and Moore 
contained no inconsistencies of a mathematical or programming nature 
which significantly affected its results. The analysis further 
demonstrated that the changes in the method of simulating the outcrop 
and the streams produced significant water level differences only in 
the immediate vicinity of those features. However, variation in 
recharge and hydraulic conductivity caused water levels to change many 
10's of feet within the simulated reclaimed mine pits. 

After reviewing the USGS results and discussing the findings with 
Departmental personnel, it was decided that additional modeling would 
not provide conclusive answers regarding ground water recovery levels. 
Therefore, DOI decided that alternatives should be presented for 
controlling water and salt in the pit areas. Two engineering 
approaches for the management of the risks associated with the 
uncertain future water table position and the containment or 
restoration of natural hydrologic and geomorphologic processes at the 
pit areas have been outlined in Table 1-3, Chapter 1. The DOI Monitor 
Option provides the possible advantage of minimizing backfill 
requirements, while the DOI Drainage Option overcomes the uncertainty 
of the final water table position by restoring the pit bottoms to allow 
surface drainage of surplus water or dissolved salt through the 
original overland watercourses. The level of backfill under the DOI 
Proposal is determined largely by the volume of excess material derived 
from other reclamation operations and disposed of as backfill in the 
pit areas . 

The Laguna Proposal would provide for higher backfill levels on the 
basis that it would eliminate the potential for ponded water in the 
open pits. 

The backfill levels indicated under Anaconda's Proposal in Table 1-3, 
Chapter 1 are based upon the Dames and Moore estimates. It should be 
noted that the risks associated with salt storage and ponded water 
would be reduced to the extent that Anaconda eventually may raise these 
backfill levels by disposing of other waste material in the pit 
bottoms. Because of differences between ground water recovery levels 

3-28 



in the east and west portions of the North Paguate pit, Dames and Moore 
recommended the placement of low permeability materials (hydraulic 
conductivity of 1 ft. /year) to form an internal cut-off and reduce 
backfill requirements in that area. Prior to placement of the cut-off, 
ponded water would be removed and the ground surface would be cleared 
of loose materials. 

For the reasons cited in the Radiation section of this chapter, the 
following analysis does not address the impacts of placing the protore 
above the projected ground water recovery level. 

Surface Water Quantity 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, the mine pits would not be backfilled. 
Ground water would continue to seep into the pit bottoms, augmented by 
precipitation and runoff. During mining operations pit waters were 
used for dust suppression; however, now that such operations have 
ceased, the water has ponded in the pits. These ponds are permanent 
water bodies whose surface elevations will reflect an equilibrium 
condition between runoff, ground water seepage into the pits and 
evaporation from the ponds. 

Below the confluence of the Rio Moquino and the Rio Paguate, the 
surface discharge of ground water adds to the base flow of the stream. 
Ground water lost to the pits, and to subsequent evaporation, would not 
be available for that surface discharge into the Rio Paguate. The 
ponds in the pits are expected to cover a total of about 50 acres; 
therefore, the estimated evaporation loss would be about 200 acre-feet 
per year in perpetuity. 

Anaconda, DOI (Monitor Option) and Laguna Proposals 

These alternatives provide for backfill in the mine pits. Ground 
water and any infiltration from the surface would saturate the pit 
backfill material to the level of ground water recovery. The risks of 
surface ponding and salt storage in the soils by evapotranspiration 
from shallow ground water would vary among the three alternatives. 
Anaconda's proposal would rely upon evapotranspiration from the 
reclaimed pit areas (100 acres or more at the Jackpile pit) to remove 
water from the pit backfill. The quantity of water lost would approach 
that of the No Action Alternative, about 200 acre feet per year. The 
DOI Monitor Option would be based on a performance standard, such that 
surface ponding and salt build-up would be prevented by successive 
additional layers of backfill. The Laguna Proposal calls for 7 feet of 
unsaturated backfill above the DOI's Monitor Option, a thickness that 
would prevent evapotranspiration losses and salt build-up. Under these 
proposals, some of the ground water would be discharged to the 
streams. However, about 3,000 to 4,000 acre-feet of this ground water 
would percolate into the backfill material in the pits over a 20-year 
period; during this period, this quantity of ground water would not be 
discharged to the streams. This one-time loss would be less than the 
perpetual losses due to evaporation from pond surfaces as described 
under the No Action Alternative. 

3-29 



DOI Proposal (Drainage Option) 

Under this option, surface water from the pits would flow through 
man-made channels, which would restore the watercourses that originally 
drained the site, to reach the Rio Paguate. Surface runoff would 
consist of precipitation runoff, and possibly, ground water that would 
seep into the pits. The total discharge to the streams would 
approximate that of pre-mining conditions. Under this option, there 
would also be a loss of water to storage beneath the drained surface. 
This amount might approach the 3,000 to 4,000 acre-feet estimated for 
the other alternatives. 

Surface Water Quality 

No Action Alternative 

Surface water quality under this alternative would, for some time, 
remain essentially the same as described in Chapter 2. However, as 
earthen berms on protore dumps along the Rio Paguate are eventually 
breached, surface water quality would deteriorate. Water ponded in the 
open pits (presently 36 acres) would have elevated levels of virtually 
all constituents now present; the water would be unfit for use and some 
constituents could be concentrated in toxic levels. 

Anaconda, DOI (Monitor Option) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these alternatives, backfilling of open pits to above the 
future ground water recovery levels would cause intermittent ponding of 
surface water runoff in the pits. These intermittent ponds, up to 200 
acres in area, would be saline and unfit for use in the case of 
Anaconda's Proposal. The DOI Monitor Option would overcome any salt 
storage by means of supplementary backfill. The Laguna Proposal would 
cause relatively temporary and fresh ponding in the pits. For all 
proposals, mulching and revegetation of disturbed areas combined with 
flattening of slopes would act to increase water infiltration and 
decrease erosion on waste dumps. Because pre-mining water quality data 
does not exist, it is impossible to quantify the effect of 
re-establishment of vegetation and therefore, decreased erosion on 
surface water quality. However, it is expected that decreased erosion 
would lead to decreased amounts of TDS and heavy metals in stream 
waters. It is important to note that current amounts of these 
constituents in surface waters are not abnormally high, and that the 
decreases noted above would be minor. Anaconda's Proposal would store 
salts in the pit areas and thereby reduce somewhat the leachate loading 
of the Rio Paguate. 

Theoretically, Increased water retention could lead to increased 
infiltration of buried mine wastes, which are porous, oxidized and 
susceptible to leaching of toxic elements. However, the geochemical 
environment within the backfill could limit this process (Dames and 
Moore 1983). These infiltrating waters would ultimately be discharged 
to the streams, and have a minor impact on surface water quality. 
Development of saturated waste dumps and subsequent leaching of toxic 
elements is unlikely. 



3-30 



DOI Proposal (Drainage Option) 

Under this option, ponding of surface water would not occur. The 
pits would be reclaimed to the same standards as the other disturbed 
areas. Surface waters emanating from the reclaimed pits would enter 
stream courses. This water would consist of precipitation, suspended 
sediment and, possibly, ground water that seeps into the open pits. 
Other surface water quality effects would be the same as the other 
reclamation alternatives. 

Ground Water Quality 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, ground water quality would be essentially 
the same as described in Chapter 2. Increases in the concentration of 
leached material from the minesite would vary according to the original 
concentration of source waters. Laboratory (batch) tests indicate 
that, neglecting evaporative concentration, source waters of about 
1,500 micromhos per centimeter would be expected to undergo at least a 
doubling of conductivity as the result of flow through mine materials. 

Anaconda Proposal 

Salt and other dissolved constituents of ground water would be 
stored in the soils of the pit bottoms. Salt concentrations in ground 
water would build-up a salt water lens below the pit areas but a 
smaller salt load would be routed to the Rio Paguate. 

DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these alternatives, backfilling the pits above the ground 
water recovery level would increase ground water contact with waste 
materials. This increased contact with oxidized and broken waste would 
initially increase TDS and heavy metal concentrations. The specific 
level of this increase cannot be accurately predicted, but is expected 
to be temporary. Eventually, ground water in the reclaimed pits would 
revert to a chemically reducing condition and thus significantly 
decrease the leaching of elements from the backfill. Leachate in the 
ground water would approximately double the background conductivity 
values. 

Recharge and Flow in Pit Areas 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, water from direct precipitation, surface 
runoff, and ground water discharge would continue to cause ponding in 
the open pits. Equilibrium between water inflow and evaporation would 
occur after about 50 acres in the low areas of the pits are ponded. 
Depths of ponded water would generally be greater than 20 feet. Such 
ponded water would have elevated concentrations of salts, radionuclides 
and other minor elements. These constituents would continue to 
concentrate over time and could have deleterious health effects if 
ingested by wildlife, livestock or humans. 

3-31 



Anaconda Proposal 

Under this alternative, the open pits would be backfilled to at 
least 3 feet above the projected ground water recovery levels as 
determined by Dames and Moore. Ground water would locally converge in 
the pit bottoms where water would be evaporated and salts retained in 
the soil. Except for the amount evaporated, the ground water would 
move through the pits in the general direction of the Rio Paguate. 
Generally, the ground water is predicted to flow west to east in the 
South Paguate pit (with a small amount moving northeasterly to 
discharge into alluvium of the Rio Paguate drainage) , northwest to 
southeast in the North Paguate pit, and northeast to southwest in the 
Jackpile pit. 

DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Recharge and ground water flow patterns would be similar to natural 
conditions. The Monitor Option and Laguna Proposal would have higher 
recharge rates at the closed pit areas. 

Erosion 

Arroyo Headcutting 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, headcuts south of dumps I, Y and Y2 would 
continue to erode and migrate upstream. Arroyos would eventually 
breach the haul road at the base of these dumps, and would subsequently 
erode the bottoms of the waste dumps. Accelerated gullying of dump 
slopes would ensue and could lead to possible exposure of radioactive 
materials. Off site impacts due to this gullying may include increased 
stream sediment loads and deterioration of water quality. The headcut 
at the road southwest of dump FD-3 would move upstream by 
piping-induced erosion. The road and, possibly, the low dam upstream 
from the road would be breached. However, arroyo encroachment onto 
waste dump FD-3 would be prevented by resistant sandstone outcrops in 
the arroyo upstream from the dam. The arroyo headcut west of the 
airstrip is predicted to remain relatively stationary. 

Anaconda Proposal 

This proposal consists of armoring the headcuts south of dumps I, 
Y and Y2 with gravel and cobble material (Figure 3-5). This basic 
armoring design would slow the progress of headcutting arroyos. 
However, previous armoring of arroyo headcuts in areas of piping at the 
mine has led to only temporary success (less than 5 years) followed by 
headward cutting (by-pass) around the armor plug and subsequent headcut 
migration upstream. This process is expected to occur under Anaconda's 
Proposal, with the resultant probability of arroyo encroachment onto 
waste dump slopes. Accelerated gullying of dump slopes would lead to 
the impacts discussed under the No Action Alternative. Headward 
cutting at the road southwest of dump FD-3 would eventually breach the 
road and possibly the upstream stock dam. 



3-32 



IOO-i 

95- 

t- 
lu 
uj90- 

85- 
80- 



L00SELY DUMPED 

DURABLE GRAVEL 

AND COBBLE MATERIAL 



I 



A V 



''O, 




>GUL 



LY 



EXISTING CONTOURS 
(SCHEMATIC) 



////=//// 




LOOSELY DUMPED 

DURABLE GRAVEL 
AND COBBLE MATERIAL 



VARIES 
DEPENDING, ON GULLY DEPTH 
, (20 MINIMUM) 




c 



LOOSELY DUMPED 

DURABLE GRAVEL 
AND COBBLE MATERIAL 



CROSS-SECTION 




-100 

- 95 

»- 
Ul 

- 90«u 

u. 

- 85 

- 80 



FIGURE 3-5 
Design of Armoring to Reduce Headcutting — Anaconda's P 



roposal 



3-33 



DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Stabilization of arroyo headcuts has two important requirements: 
1) porosity in order to avoid excessive pressures and thus eliminate 
the need for large, heavy structural foundations, and 2) some type of 
Inverted filter that leads the seepage gradually from smaller to larger 
openings in the structure. Otherwise, the soils would be carried 
through the control, resulting in erosion. 

Arroyos that would be stabilized under these alternatives are the 
areas south of dumps I, Y and Y2, and west of dump FD-3. The walls of 
the headcuts would be sloped back and the fill material would be placed 
in layers of increasing particle size from sand to large rock 
aggregate. The toe of the rock fill would be stabilized by utilizing a 
rock check dam. This dam would be designed to dissipate energy from 
the chuting flows and to catch sediment. Deposition of sediment would 
further stabilize the toe of the rock fill by encouraging vegetation 
during periods with no or low channel flow (Figure 3-6). 

Sedimentation in Paguate Reservoir 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, mine-related sedimentation would continue 
at an estimated rate of 22 acre-feet per year. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these alternatives, the sedimentation caused by the mine 
would be reduced. However, Paguate Reservoir would continue to be 
affected by natural sedimentation. 

Stream Stabilization 

No Action Alternative 

If no action is taken, waste dumps and protore piles lining the 
two streams would remain in place and intermittently slough into the 
Rios Moquino and Paguate as normal bank caving processes operate during 
periods of moderate and high streamflow. During occurrences of major 
flood runoff , the Rio Moquino might cut deeply into the waste dumps and 
remove significant amounts of dump material from meander bends. The 
increased stream gradient due to straightening of the river might lead 
to incision of the stream, resulting in headcut erosion up tributary 
arroyos and increased bank caving. However, no tendency for incision 
has been noted to date. The limited capacity of the culverts at the 
road crossing of the Rio Moquino would cause the road fill to act as a 
dam that would breach when it is overtopped, resulting in a greater 
flood peak downstream. The processes described above would cause 
increased sediment loads in the Rios Moquino and Paguate and 
deterioration of water quality. Specific water quality impacts may be 
increased TDS and salinity and, if dumps T and U are eroded, increased 
radionuclide concentrations. 



3-34 




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3-35 



Anaconda Proposal 

Under this proposal, the possibility of channel incision and the 
probability of breaching the road crossing would be the same as the No 
Action Alternative. However, due to movement of waste dumps 200 feet 
away from the Rio Moquino, any normal bank caving into the river would 
involve alluvium, not dump materials. The 200-foot waste-free zone 
should provide a sufficient buffer so that it would be unlikely that 
even several major flood events would cause lateral migration of the 
stream to waste dumps. 

DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these proposals, construction of a permanent cement base or 
flood-proof bridge for the Rio Moquino would eliminate the potential 
for breaching of the road crossing and would greatly reduce the 
potential for incision of the river channel. The impacts of bank 
caving would be the same as Anaconda's Proposal. 

Waste Dump Slopes 

In this section, estimates of waste dump erosion under the four 
alternatives are based on Universal Soil Loss Equation calculations and 
on site-specific gully measurements on dump slopes. Table 3-11 
summarizes the estimates. 

No Action Alternative 

Total erosion (sheetwash plus gully erosion) predicted to occur 
under this alternative would be the same as that occurring at the 
minesite under the existing conditions described in Chapter 2. The 
mean total erosion is estimated to be 79.4 tons per acre per year; this 
compares to total erosion rates of 1.5 to 9.0 tons per acre per year on 
natural terrain near the minesite (USDA, Soil Conservation Service 
1973.) An average of approximately 265 tons of U30g is estimated 
to reach the Rios Paguate and Moquino annually under this alternative. 
Impacts of these high erosion rates would include continued incremental 
additions of waste material to sediment in the rivers, and more 
deterioration of surface water quality (relative to other alternatives) 
due to higher TDS and radionuclide concentrations. 

Anaconda Proposal 

The mean soil loss due to sheetwash under this alternative is 
estimated to be 11 inches per 100 years. The total erosion from dump 
slopes would range from 12.8 to 51.9 tons per acre per year, with a 
mean total erosion of 26 tons per acre per year. This would be a 61 
percent reduction from existing conditions. Approximately 27 tons of 
U3O3 are estimated to reach the Rios Paguate and Moquino annually 
under this alternative; this would represent a 90 percent decrease from 
the existing rate. 



3-36 



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3-37 



The potential for extensive erosional soil losses due to sheetwash 
is relatively minor. However, the potential for slope gullying, 
resultant loss of grazing land, and exposure of radiologically active 
materials is significant, expecially on slopes planned to remain at 1.5 
to 1. The rock-lined chutes designed to drain water off slopes would 
be maintenance dependent, and their stability is questionable. Failure 
of these structures due to high-velocity flow and breaching is 
considered probable. Extensive gullying would result. 

DOI (Monitor Option) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these alternatives, the mean soil loss as a result of 
sheetwash erosion is estimated to be 3 inches per 100 years. Total 
erosion from dump slopes would range from 8.5 to 19.8 tons per acre per 
year. Mean total erosion is estimated to be approximately 13 tons per 
acre per year, a reduction of 82 percent from existing conditions. A 
total of approximately 15 tons of U^Og is estimated to reach the 
Rios Paguate and Moquino annually under this alternative, a figure that 
represents a 95 percent reduction from the existing rate. Up to two 
square miles of internal draining catchment would contain sediment 
on-site. It is predicted that relatively gentle 3:1 slopes and contour 
furrowing (on slopes and dump tops) would combine to retain water and 
reduce potential for gullying, so that maintenance-dependent drainage 
structures would be unnecessary. 

DOI Proposal (Drainage Option) 

Total erosion and impacts on dump slopes under this option would 
be the same as the DOI Monitor Option. However, pit areas would be 
contoured and channeled to allow external drainage. Sediment would be 
generated from up to two square miles of restored externally draining 
catchment. Sheetwash erosion is expected to remove a lesser amount of 
topsoil from the pits than from the dump slopes, because the pit 
bottoms would be contoured to more gentle slopes and the drainage 
gradients would be much less. Drainage courses would be designed on 
gradients flatter than existed at local natural watercourses to 
minimize the possibility of arroyo formation. 

AIR QUALITY 

No Action Alternative 

As described in Chapter 2, the main non-radiological air quality 
parameter of concern is total suspended particulates (TSP) . Under this 
alternative, TSP concentrations would remain at current levels. That 
is, most of the time, TSP levels would be below State and Federal 
standards. However, during periods of higher winds, the seven-day 
average standard could be exceeded. These short-term, higher levels 
would not pose any significant health impacts. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

As compared to the No Action Alternative, these proposals would 
signficantly reduce TSP levels because reclamation measures, especially 

3-38 



revegetation, would reduce the amount of barren areas which are the 
main sources of TSP. 

SOILS 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, the ability of disturbed acreage to support 
vegetation would depend upon the geologic materials present at the 
surface. Areas covered with Dakota Sandstone, Mancos Shale or Jackpile 
Sandstone materials would not support plant communities. Some annual 
forbs, grasses and a few shrubs would become established, but plant 
densities would be extremely low. Consequently, water and wind erosion 
would continue to be high. Areas covered with Tres Hermanos Sandstone 
would continue to develop successional plant communities, except on 
steep slopes. These plant communities would eventually consist of 
shrubs, perennial and annual grasses, and forbs but would require many 
years to become established by natural processes. Additionally, up to 
50 acres of land surface in the open pits would remain unproductive due 
to ponded water. 

A topsoil borrow site would not be established therefore no 
environmental consequences would occur due to soil removal from such an 
area. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Under these alternatives, topsoil would be taken from stockpiles and, 
if needed, a proposed 44-acre borrow area and distributed on all 
disturbed acreage. Stockpiled soils consist of Lohmiller, Penis taja 
and Rockland types. The latter is in greatest abundance and is an 
artificial soil created by pulverizing Tres Hermanos Sandstone. All 
three soil types have been successfully used to establish and sustain 
diverse and productive plant communities. Nutrient and physical 
properties of soils from the proposed borrow area would also provide a 
favorable growth medium. 

Fertilizer would be applied during the initial season to ameliorate 
nutrient deficiencies in stockpiled or borrowed soils. Surface 
redistribution of reconstituted soils and subsequent reclamation would 
increase vegetative cover and decrease erosion rates. 

At least 5 feet of topsoil would be left above arroyo bottoms in the 
borrow area. This area would be re-contoured so that previously deep, 
steep-walled arroyos would become shallow, gentle swales. 

About 200 acres of soils could be abandoned from productive use by 
Anaconda Proposal for evaportranspirative discharge from the pits, and 
the subsequent salt storage in those soils. The DOI and Laguna 
Proposals would retain these areas as productive soils. 



3-39 



FLORA 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, meager and scattered vegetative 
re-establishment would continue by secondary succession on habitable 
sites. Low stages of this succession would persist upon these sites 
for many years, and low values for plant cover, density and production 
would ultimately result. 

Additionally, many disturbed areas are surfaced by overburden 
materials that have no present or future potential as plant growth 
media. Exposure to the elements and to biological interactions would 
not make this material less sterile or more hospitable to a plant 
community. Such sites would remain permanently devoid of vegetation 
and unprotected from erosional processes. Several waste dumps that 
have already been reclaimed would support vegetative communities having 
parameters that, in many cases, would approach or approximate those of 
surrounding undisturbed sites. Continued non-use by livestock of the 
reclaimed sites would lead to regression in plants successional stages 
because of poor soil conditions (i.e., capped soils) and lack of 
stimulus for plant growth. 

As stated in the previous section under Soils, 50 to 200 acres of 
land surface in the open pits would remain unproductive due to ponded 
water. 

Anaconda Proposal 

Reclamation trials at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine have 
demonstrated that techniques such as mulching, fertilizing and 
reseeding with diverse seed mixtures can successfully revegetate 
disturbed areas. Successful reclamation of these sites, however, 
depends upon erratic precipitation events that may not materialize each 
year. Reseeding efforts may need to be repeated when adequate seedling 
establishment fails to occur during the initial growing season. Such 
areas would be replanted in the following year. 

Proposed seed mixtures are presented in Tables 3-12 and 3-13. These 
mixtures may be modified where desirable to include species more 
adapted to any alkaline or droughty soils encountered. Such mixtures 
would be drilled into seedbeds constructed on all disturbed areas, 
including reconfigured waste dump tops and slopes. Artificial soil 
profiles would be reconstructed over all disturbed areas by overlying 1 
foot of crushed Tres Hermanos Sandstone, amended by initial fertilizer 
applications. Anaconda has also agreed to plant between 500 and 1000 
tree seedlings in the reclaimed areas, and will assure that a minimum 
of 400 trees survive three years after planting. The tree seedlings 
will consist of 95 percent one-seed juniper and 5 percent pinyon pine. 

All disturbed areas would be revegetated to approximate the species 
density and diversity of the surrounding terrain. This objective would 
most likely be achieved on flat to moderately sloping areas. However, 
on waste dumps planned for 2:1 or steeper slopes, revegetation that 



3-40 



TABLE 3-12 

PROPOSED SEED MIXTURES 
(Seed Drill Mix 1) 



Species 



Single Species 




PLSi/ 


Critical Area 


% of 


Mixture 


Rate (lbs/acre) 


Mixture 


lbs/acre 


3.5 


11 


0.39 


18.0 


15 


2.70 


an) 13.0 


34 


4.42 


11.0 


8 


0.88 


16.0 


6 


0.96 


36.0 


11 


3.96 



Purity % 



Germin- 


PLSV 


Total 


ation % 


Factor 


lbs/acre 


80 


61.5 


0.63 


61 


55.0 


4.91 


81 


74.8 


5.91 


88 


87.5 


1.01 


41 


21.3 


4.51 



Blue Grama 
(Bouteloua gracilis ) 

Sideoats Graraa (Vaughn) 
( Bouteloua curtipendula ) 



( Agropyon cristatum ) 

Indian Ricegrass 

( Oryzopsis hymenoides ) 

Galleta Grass 

( Hilarla jamesii ) 

Fourwlng Saltbush 
( Atrlplex canescens ) 

Small Seed 

Alkali Sacaton 

( Sporobolus airoides ) 

Weeping Lovegrass 
( Eragrostis curvula) 

Yellow Sweetclover 
( Melilotus officinalis ) 

Total 



1.5 



1.5 



10.0 



7 


0.11 


4 


0.06 


4 


0.40 



76.90 



90.00 



92.37 



99.39 



51.97 



98.96 



99.04 



98.00 



99.80 



44 



66 



95 



70 



43.5 



65.4 



93.1 



69.9 



100% 



13.88 



9.10 



0.17 



0.06 



0.57 



26.87 



Source: Anaconda Minerals Company 1982. 

Notes: _ Pure Live seed. 

—Pure live seed factor: % germination x % purity. 



TABLE 3-13 

PROPOSED SEED MIXTURES 
(Seed Drill Mix 2) 



Species 



Single Species 

Critical Area 

Rate (lbs/acre) 





PLS 










% of 


Mixture 




Germin- 


PLS 


Total 


Mixture 


lbs/acre 


Purity % 


ation % 


Factor 


lbs/acre 



Sideoats Grama 18.0 

( Bouteloua curtipendula ) 

Western Wheatgrass 24.0 

( Agropyon smithii ) 

Fourwing Saltbush 36.0 

( Atriplex canescens ) 

Small Seed 



16 



21 



1A 



5.04 



1.80 



70.70 



89.67 



98.96 



54 



90 



44 



38.2 

80.7 
43.5 



7.5 



6.3 



4.1 



Sand Dropseed .5 

( sporobolus cryptandrus ) 

Weeping Lovegrass 1.5 

( Eragrostis curvula ) 

Alkali Sacaton 1.5 

( Sporobolus airoides ) 

Yellow Sweetclover 10.0 

( Melilotus officinalis) 

Total 



20 

11 
17 
10 



100% 



.10 



.17 



.26 



1.00 



11.25 



99.04 



98.00 



99.04 



99.80 



93 



95 



66 



70 



92.1 



93.1 



65.4 



69.9 



0.1 



0.2 



0.4 



1.4 



20.0 



Source: Anaconda Minerals Company 1982. 



3-41 



approximates the density and diversity of natural terrain is unlikely 
because of soil surface instability and recurrent erosion. 

This alternative would ensure an ultimate vegetative cover that 
attained only 70 percent of the basal cover and production of adjacent 
native reference areas. At that level, restored sites would be less 
productive than natural sites, less capable of supporting populations 
of native and domestic herbivores, and more open to surface soil loss 
from erosional processes. 

DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Proposed seed mixtures and revegetation techniques utilized on 
disturbed areas would be the same as those described under Anaconda's 
Proposal. However, revegetation efforts on waste dump slopes would 
meet with more success because gentler (3:1) slopes with contour 
furrows would significantly enhance the opportunities for plant 
community establishment. A 3:1 slope would also permit the use of 
conventional equipment (i.e., rangeland drill) for seeding operations. 
On-site trials to determine optimum slopes for vegetation establishment 
have not been conducted. However, reclamation projects on 33 percent 
contour furrowed slopes at similar sites have resulted in persistent 
plant communities that resemble stands on surrounding natural terrain 
in density and other measurable parameters. 

These alternatives would also extend the vegetative parameters 
included in the data collection and comparison process to include 
density, frequency and foliar cover (canopy). Anaconda's proposal 
addresses basal cover and production but these criteria are not 
adequate to fully represent the vegetative response. Expansion of the 
data base to include the additional parameters would allow the 
descriptions of reclaimed sites and reference areas to extend to 
numbers and kinds of plants, distribution of plants, bare soil 
protected by foliage, and other important considerations. Collection 
of the additional data would require minimal increments of time or 
effort and would yield whole new dimensions and perspectives for plant 
community comparison. 

These alternatives would also ensure that the vegetative parameters 
of density, basal and foliar cover, diversity and production on 
reclaimed sites would be at least 90 percent of that found on reference 
areas. Reclaimed plant communities would therefore be more comparable 
with natural communities in terms of vegetative diversity and 
production, soil retention and carrying capacity for native and 
domestic herbivores. 

The DOI's preferred technique for data collection on both reclaimed 
sites and reference areas would be the Community Structure Analysis 
(CSA) method. This method was developed in northern New Mexico by 
scientists from the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 
and reported by Pase (1980). The CSA method combines density, 
frequency and cover values to derive an "importance value" (IV). The 
IV is commonly used to assess the relative importance of plants in a 
stand, thus permitting an array of species from "most important" to 



3-42 



"least important" in the community (Pase 1980). The IV is 
theoretically little affected by year-to-year fluctuations in 
precipitation and any change in the IV indicates a change in condition. 

In six years of research application on the BLM Rio Puerco Resource 
Area, the CSA method has proven to be an extremely objective and 
statistically sensitive measure of vegetative responses. The data base 
for the development of the method was the original Rio Puerco Grazing 
EIS area which geographically and floristically resembles the 
Jackpile-Paguate minesite. The CSA method provides the following 
advantages as cited by Pase (1980): 1) measurements can be repeated 
with measurable consistency, 2) sampling error can be computed and 
reliability can be evaluated, and 3) the quantitative data can be 
readily tested by conventional statistical methods. 

FAUNA 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative, the present barren condition of most 
disturbed minesite acreage would remain for many years and be of no use 
to wildlife. Disturbed areas with Tres Hermanos Sandstone on the 
surface would revegetate to a limited extent. The existing undisturbed 
juniper and grassland/desert shrub habitats would remain essentially 
the same. Unchecked erosion of waste dumps could deteriorate the 
riparian habitat. The wildlife population may increase due to 
declining human presence and increased vegetation on Tres Hermanos 
materials, but wildlife habitat would be of such poor quality that any 
increase would be small. 

Anaconda Proposal 

Under this alternative, revegetation of disturbed areas of the 
minesite would increase the grassland/desert shrub habitat and decrease 
bare ground habitat. Deterioration of the riparian habitat would be 
alleviated because waste materials would be moved back from the Rios 
Paguate and Moquino. These habitat improvements would lead to 
increases in wildlife populations. 

DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Construction of 3:1 slopes would result in less erosion, and 
consequently, a greater improvement in grassland/desert shrub habitat 
than would occur under Anaconda's Proposal. A corresponding increase 
in wildlife population would result. Under the Drainage Option, the 
pits would be channeled to drain away accumulated surface water. The 
possible availability of additional surface water would tend to attract 
wildlife to the vicinity of the pits and surface drainages. A small 
increase in wildlife population over that of the Monitor Option would 
result from this attraction. 



3-43 



CULTURAL RESOURCES 

Cultural resources within the lease areas have been inventoried. 
Consultation with the New Mexico State Historic Preservation Officer 
has resulted in a determination that no significant cultural resources 
(i.e., eligible for or listed on the National Register of Historic 
Places) would be affected by reclamation. Avoidance of significant 
cultural resources is a requirement of all reclamation activities. 

No Action Alternative 

Under this alternative no major impacts upon cultural resources would 
result. Access would continue to be controlled by Anaconda Minerals 
Company to protect the archeological and religious sites from vandalism. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

With the exception of the topsoil borrow area and Gavilan Mesa, 
reclamation activities would be confined to areas previously disturbed 
by mining. No archaeolgoical sites have been recorded within these two 
areas, therefore, the disturbance of additional archeological sites is 
not anticipated. Areas of religious concern would be avoided by 
reclamation efforts. Upon successful completion of reclamation, access 
to archeological sites and religious areas would be less controlled, 
allowing more vandalism as well as easier access for religious purposes. 

VISUAL RESOURCES 

No Action Alternative 

Visual resource quality under this alternative would, for some time, 
remain essentially the same as described in Chapter 2. The modified 
landscape would remain visually unacceptable because of its unfinished 
appearance, and because of minesite features that are distracting and 
inharmonious with the surrounding natural landscape. 

Anaconda Proposal 

Through implementation of this alternative, the visual resources of 
the minesite would be enhanced. Implementation of the proposed 
reclamation measures would result in beneficial impacts through the 
reduction in form, color, line and textural contrasts. 

Backfilling, reduction of slope angles, scaling of highwalls and 
revegetation measures would provide a more harmonious blending of the 
landscape features within the minesite with those of the surrounding 
area. The buttressing of Gavilan Mesa would do little to blend its 
shape into the surrounding landscape. Due to its large size and sharp 
contrast in color and texture, Gavilan Mesa would remain a highly 
visible feature for many years. 

The removal of certain facilities, as specified in Table 1-3 (Chapter 
1-3), would enhance the visual resource qualities of the mine area. 
However, those buildings and facilities to remain on lease No. 4 would 



3-44 



contrast sharply with the surrounding natural landscape and reclaimed 
areas within the minesite. The majority of these buildings are 
metallic in texture and larger in scale than those in the nearby 
communities. They would draw more attention than other structures 
because of their sharp vertical lines and size. However, sight of 
these buildings may be acceptable to some viewers. 

DOI Proposal (Both Options) 

Implementation of this alternative would result in the alleviation of 
the adverse visual impacts in a similar way to Anaconda's Proposal. 
The beneficial impacts of this alternative would include a reduction of 
form, line, color and textural contrasts between the minesite and the 
surrounding undisturbed area. 

This alternative includes a plan for greater slope modification than 
Anaconda's Proposal. The reduced angle of most slopes on the site to 
3:1 or less would result in more stable slopes, a greater potential for 
revegetation, and therefore reduced color and textural differences 
once vegetation similar in density and diversity to the surrounding 
natural area is established. 

In addition to buttressing, the west face of Gavilan Mesa would be 
recontoured to approximate its original profile for increased 
stability. This modification would be a slight visual improvement over 
that discussed under Anaconda's Proposal. 

The visual impacts of either removing or leaving certain minesite 
facilities would be the same as Anaconda's Proposal. 

Laguna Proposal 

The implementation of this proposal would result in reduction of the 
minesite 's adverse visual impacts through reclamation measures similar 
to those proposed under the DOI Proposal. Higher backfill levels 
proposed for this alternative would result in improved blending of the 
open pits with the adjacent natural topography. 

SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS 

No Action Alternative 

This alternative would not change the existing employment situation 
and associated social problems described in Chapter 2. 

Anaconda, DOI (Both Options) and Laguna Proposals 

Reclamation would temporarily increase employment and income. These 
increases would be proportionate to the reclamation measures approved 
by the DOI. (The final EIS will provide an estimate of the number of 
jobs generated for each reclamation proposal.) As reclamation is 
completed, workers will be released and unemployment will increase. 



3-45 



Increased job opportunities due to reclamation would temporarily 
decrease the existing social problems. However, as reclamation 
progresses and the work force is reduced, unemployment would resume and 
associated social problems would reappear. 

IRREVERSIBLE AND IRRETRIEVABLE COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES 

All reclamation alternatives, except for the No Action Alternative, 
would result in the irretrievable use of electricity, engine fuel and 
manpower. The use of these resources would have a negligible impact on 
the regional supply. The estimated uses are shown in Table 3-14. For 
the No Action Alternative and Anaconda's Proposal, a perpetual 
evaporative loss of 200 acre-feet per year of surface water would 
result. For the Anaconda, DOI and Laguna proposals, there would be a 
one-time loss of 3,000 to 4,000 acre-feet of water resaturating the pit 
backfill. Depending on future economic conditions, the buried protore 
could be reexcavated and the underground ore-bodies could be accessed 
by new entries. Therefore, there would be no permanent loss of these 
resources. 

TABLE 3-14 
ENERGY AND MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS 



DOI Proposal DOI Proposal 
No Action Anaconda (Monitor (Drainage Laguna 
Item Proposal Proposal Option) Option) Proposal 



Fuel (millions 5.4 5.3 5.5 5.5 

of gallons) 



Electricity 












(kilowatt hours) 





292,000 


290,000 


290,000 


290,000 


Man Years Worked 





201 


198 


203 


204 



Source: BLM 1985. 

NON-RADIOLOGICAL ACCIDENTS 

All proposals, except the No Action Alternative, would involve the 
extensive use of heavy costruction machinery such as dozers, scrapers, 
front-end loaders and heavy trucks. Use of this equipment would pose 
the risk of accidents and injuries. The U.S. Department of 
Transportation (1977) estimates that operation of all types of heavy 
machinery would result in about 0.15 non-fatal lost-time accidents per 
man year. Based on the man years worked (Table 3-14), the No Action 
Alternative would result in no accidents; Anaconda's Proposal 30.2; 
DOI's Monitor Option 29.8; DOI's Drainage Option 30.5; and the Laguna 
Proposal 30.7 accidents. 



3-46 



vvhaoter 4 



pier 
consultation and coordination 



INTRODUCTION 

This Chapter describes the public involvement activities leading up to 
the preparation of this document. Also included is a listing of those 
agencies and affected parties requested to review and comment on this 
Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), a listing of those 
individuals involved in the preparation of this document and a listing 
of consultants and contributors. 

SCOPING 

The Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations implementing 
the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act 
(NEPA) require an early and open process for determining significant 
issues to be analyzed in depth in an EIS. This process is called 
"scoping". To ensure implementation of these regulations, the 
Department of the Interior (DOI) consulted and coordinated with various 
Federal, State and local agencies, the Pueblo of Laguna, Anaconda 
Minerals Company and interested persons. 

The following listing is representative, but not all-inclusive, of 
the major events and consultation and coordination activities that took 
place prior to and during the development of this EIS. Public 
announcements, meeting attendance lists, summaries of meetings and 
written comments are on file at the BLM Albuquerque District Office, 
Rio Puerco Resource Area. 

February 25, 1977 - Anaconda Minerals Company submitted a mining and 
reclamation plan for the entire life of all remaining mining 
operations. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Conservation Division (CD), 
prepared a draft environmental assessment; however, because of changes 
in the mining plan and additional environmental concerns cited by the 
USGS, no action was taken on the plan. 

March 29, 1979 - Anaconda submitted a revised mining and reclamation 
plan which projected mining until 1985. 

September 11, 1980 - Anaconda filed with USGS a three volume 

reclamation plan for the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine. In the plan, 

Anaconda stated that it would discontinue production from two existing 
underground mines. 

December 2, 1980 - The Chief of the USGS-CD, with concurrence by the 
Assistant Director for Resource Programs, determined that approval of 
the proposed reclamation plan would constitute a major Federal action; 
and therefore, that an EIS would be required. 

February 19, 1981 - A "Notice of Intent" to prepare an EIS and to hold 
public scoping meetings on the reclamation of the Jackpile-Paguate 
uranium mine was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 44, No. 33, p. 
13045). This Notice announced the availability of a proposed scoping 
document for the EIS. This scoping document summarized Anaconda's 
reclamation plan, anticipated issues and concerns, proposed 
alternatives and identified responsible personnel. The dates and 
locations of public meetings were also cited. 

4-1 



March 16, 1981 - A public meeting was held in the Laguna Tribal Council 
Building, Laguna, New Mexico. Seventy people attended including Laguna 
Councilmen, Anaconda representatives and local residents. Nineteen 
people made oral presentations. A scoping document containing 
preliminary issues, as identified by the DOI, was distributed to those 
in attendance. DOI representatives briefly discussed these possible 
issues which consisted of the following: 

1. Release of radon gas into the atmosphere. 

2. Radiological decontamination of existing buildings. 

3. Radiological contamination of Paguate Reservoir and the Rios 
Paguate and Moquino. 

4. Radiological contamination of ground water. 

5. Radiological contamination of the human food chain. 

6. Loss of uranium resources. 

7. Abandonment of underground openings. 

8. Highwall stabilization. 

9. Waste dump stabilization. 

10. Recontouring the minesite to prevent erosion. 

11. Siltation of Paguate Reservoir. 

12. Construction of a productive soil profile. 

13. Selection of productive revegetation species. 

14. Contamination of surface waters. 

15. Future land use. 

16. Aesthetic impacts of land form modification. 

17. Reclamation costs. 

18. Pueblo of Laguna employment during reclamation. 

19. Reclamation standards. 

20. Long-term monitoring. 

The Governor of the Pueblo of Laguna outlined 5 main concerns of the 
Pueblo: 1) air and water quality and socioeconomic impacts; 2) 
preservation of and access to religious and cultural sites; 3) safety; 
4) monitoring, and 5) unrecovered uranium reserves. Other comments 
were made with regard to the following: the EIS process and 



4-2 



DTI Universal Search Module - Record List 

eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeef 
a Your Search Was: jackpile n 

Q Your Sort Was: Not sorted Number Records Retrieved: 3 n 

aeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee¥ 
Call Number: S621.5.S8 U57 

Author: U. S. Bureau of Land Management. Rio Puerco Resource Area. 

United States . Bureau of Land Management . Albuquerque 

District . 
Title: Draft environmental impact statement for the Jackpile-Paguate 

uranium mine reclamation project, Laguna Indian reservation, 

Cibola County, New Mexico 

[Albuquerque, N.M.] : U.S. Dept . of the, 1985 

221 p. in various pagings : il 
'February 1985 ' --Cover . One folded map in pocket. 

'BLM-NM-ES-85-001-4134' --Cover. Includes bibliography and 

index. 

PUBLIC LANDS- -NEW MEXICO. 

RECLAMATION OF LAND- -ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS- -NEW MEXICO- -CIBOLA 

CO 

URANIUM MINES AND MINING- -ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS- -NEW 

MEXICO- -CIBO 



Published 

Description 

Notes 

Notes 

Subject (s) 



ISBN 
Volumes 



Copies : 1 



ID Number 
aaaaaaaaa 
88007297 



Location 
aaaaaaaa 



Type 
aaaa 



Call Number 

Author 

Title 



Published 

Description 

Notes 



Subject (si 



ISBN 
Volumes 



TD195.U7 L365 1986 

U. S. Bureau of Land Management. Rio Puerco Resource Area. 

Final environmental impact statement for the Jackpile-Paguate 

uranium mine reclamation project, Laguna Indian Reservation, 

Cibola County, New Mexico. 

Albuquerque, N.M. : U.S. Dept. of the In, 1986 

2 v. : ill., maps (some col.) 

'October 1986 '- -Cover . One folded map in pocket of vol. 1. 
Bibliography: vol. 1, p. R-l - R-8. Vol. 1 includes index. 
'BLM-NM-ES-86-018-4134' --Cover. 
PUBLIC LANDS- -NEW MEXICO. 

RECLAMATION OF LAND- -NEW MEXICO- -CIBOLA COUNTY 
URANIUM MINES AND MINING- -ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS --NEW 
MEXICO--CIBO 

2 Copies : 1 



ID Number 
aaaaaaaaa 
88009818 
88043864 



Location 
aaaaaaaa 



Type 
aaaa 



Call Number 
Author 



Title 

Published 
Description 



TD195.U7 J32 1985 

United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

Office. 

United States. Bureau of Land Management 

District . 

Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine reclamation project 

environmental impact statement : draft . 

Albuquerque, N.M. : US Dept. of the Inte, 1985 

1 v. (various pagings) : ill., 



Albuquerque Area 
Albuquerque 



Notes 
Notes 

Subject (s) 



ISBN 
Volumes 



Cover title. 'February 1985.' 1 folded map in pocket. 
Bibliography: p. R-l - R-7. Includes index. 
'BLM-NM-ES-85-001-4134 . ' 
PUBLIC LANDS- -NEW MEXICO. 
RECLAMATION OF LAND- -NEW MEXICO 

STRIP MINING- -ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS- -NEW MEXICO 
URANIUM MINES AND MINING- -ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS- -NEW MEXICO 

1 Copies : 1 



ID Number 
aaaaaaaaa 
88013723 



Location 
aaaaaaaa 



Type 
aaaa 



End of Listing 



procedures, health effects (mining and post-reclamation), timetable to 
complete reclamation, level of backfill in each of the pits, 
radionuclide uptake into plant species, ore spillage at Quirk loading 
dock and along the rail spur, renovation of homes in the Village of 
Paguate and realignment of State Highway 279. 

March 18, 1981 - A public meeting was held at the Classic Hotel, 
Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sixty-seven people attended including 
representatives from the Pueblo of Laguna and Anaconda Minerals 
Company. Seven people made oral presentations and six written comments 
were submitted. DOI representatives briefly summarized the same 20 
issues presented at the meeting held March 16, 1981. Most of the 
comments received pertained to these issues. Other comments included a 
recommendation that the EIS adopt the Nuclear Regulatory 
Commission/Environmental Protection Agency regulations and standards 
for radiological clean up at uranium mill sites. Two commentors 
questioned the DOI's authority and need to prepare an EIS. 

March 23, 1981 - DOI representatives met with the Laguna Tribal Council 
to explain the EIS process and solicit comments on major issues and 
concerns. Council members suggested that the EIS address the 
following: wildlife, farming, tourism, employment, waterflow and 
supply at the housing area, re vegetation of native species suitable for 
livestock grazing, birth defects, cancer rates, drug abuse, alcoholism, 
sedimentation of Paguate Reservoir, placement of rock piles on 
reclaimed dumps, contamination of adjacent lands, renovation of homes 
in the Village of Paguate, timetable for reclamation, preservation of 
religious sites, realignment of the Rio Paguate, water quality, use of 
contaminated materials for home construction, compensation for the 
people psychologically damaged by the mining operations , plugging 
abandoned drill holes, reclamation of exploration roads on Black Mesa, 
and radiological contamination of crops grown and livestock raised on 
reclaimed areas. 

August 20, 1981 - Anaconda withdrew the proposed reclamation plan 
submitted to USGS on September 11, 1980 because of plans to reroute 
State Highway 279 through the mine. 

September 17, 1981 - DOI, POL and Anaconda met to discuss the rerouting 
of State Highway 279 through the mines ite, and the recent withdrawal of 
Anaconda's proposed reclamation plan. 

March 16, 1982 - Anaconda filed with USGS a revised three-volume 
reclamation plan for the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine. This is the 
plan currently being evaluated in this EIS. 

June 22, 1982 - DOI, POL and Anaconda agreed to form a technical 
committee to help define and resolve the differences between the Pueblo 
and Anaconda over reclamation of the Jackpile-Paguate minesite. The 
committee was comprised of representatives from DOI, POL and Anaconda. 
The committee met on several occasions and was able to resolve several 
issues. Those issues resolved included: removal of all rockpiles from 
the waste dumps, planting up to 1000 tree seedlings and agreement on 
the types of revegetation species to be used in the reclamation 



4-3 



program. Issues not resolved included: the length of post-reclamation 
monitoring, configuration of waste dump slopes, stabilization of the 
North and South Paguate highwalls, disposition of the railroad spur, 
disposition of the buildings and equipment, damage to Paguate housing, 
sedimentation of Paguate Reservoir, the depth of topsoil cover, 
stabilization of arroyo headcuts, post-reclamation grazing management, 
disposition of protore stockpiles and the level of pit backfill. The 
last technical committee meeting was held November 10, 1982. 

August 2, 1983 - In a letter to the Governor, Pueblo of Laguna, 
Anaconda proposed to resolve the reclamation issues concerning the 
Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine by providing payments and a donation of 
property to the Pueblo of Laguna. In return, the Pueblo of Laguna 
would have to agree to assume sole responsibility and obligation to 
perform any necessary reclamation of the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine. 

April 16, 1984 - BLM began to resurvey the minesite to accurately 
determine existing topography. Aerial photography and computerized 
techniques (digitizing) would then be used to calculate material volume 
requirements for reclamation. 

May 18, 1984 - DOI officials met with the New Mexico State 
Environmental Improvement Division (EID) to present them with the 
status of the Jackpile-Paguate mine reclamation project and to solicit 
comments. EID asked questions regarding reclamation impacts on air and 
water quality. 

August 21, 1984 - DOI representatives met with the Pueblo of Laguna 
Tribal Council to provide an update on the EIS and various studies 
including the USGS, Water Resource Division (WRD) hydrologic 
evaluation, radiological assessments and the photogrammetric/digitizing 
effort. 

August 27, 1984 - USGS, WRD completed a short-term evaluation of the 
Dames and Moore ground water model. WRD established that this model 
contained no inconsistencies of a mathematical or programming nature 
which significantly affected its results. However, WRD's analysis 
revealed that the water levels computed by the Dames and Moore model 
were sensitive to the assumed input parameters. 

October 1, 1984 - DOI, POL and Anaconda representatives met with the 
Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management to discuss 1) 
Anaconda's cash settlement offer to the POL, and 2) the recent USGS, 
WRD evaluation of the Dames and Moore ground water model. In regard to 
the cash settlement offer, the Assistant Secretary informed all parties 
that the DOI would not be in a position to advise the POL on the 
suitability of the offer until the EIS is completed. In regard to the 
ground water recovery issue, the Assistant Secretary stated that the 
evaluation conducted by USGS, WRD placed the BLM in a position to adopt 
the Dames and Moore findings subject to a long-term monitoring program. 

October 15, 1984 - BLM, through its photogrammetric and digitizing 
efforts, completed volumetric calculations for pit backfill levels, 
waste dumps and slope configurations. This information would be used 



4-4 



for engineering design and reclamation cost estimates for the 
reclamation proposals being evaluated in the EIS. 

PUBLIC REVIEW OF THE DRAFT EIS 

Comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement will be 
requested from the following: 

Tribal Government 

Pueblo of Laguna 

Lessee 

Anaconda Minerals Company 

Federal Government 

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation 
Environmental Protection Agency 
Nuclear Regulatory Commission 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Agriculture Stabilization and Conservation Service 

Forest Service 

Soil Conservation Service 
U.S. Department of the Army 

Corps of Engineers 
U.S. Department of Energy 
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 

Indian Health Service 
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 

Office of Indian Programs 
U.S. Department of the Interior 

Bureau of Mines 

Bureau of Reclamation 

Fish and Wildlife Service 

Geological Survey 

Minerals Management Service 

Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement 
U.S. Department of Labor 

Mine Safety and Health Administration 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
U.S. Department of Transportation 

National Laboratories 

Argonne National Laboratory 

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory 

New Mexico State Government 
Governor of New Mexico 
Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources 
Department of Agriculture 
Department of Energy and Minerals 
Department of Finance and Administration 
Department of Game and Fish 
Department of Health and Environment 
Division of State Forestry 



4-5 



Natural Resources Department 

Office of Indian Affairs 

State Engineer's Office 

State Heritage Program 

State Highway Department 

State Historic Preservation Officer 

State Land Office 

State Park and Recreation Commission 

Local Governments 

Cibola County Commissioners 
Mayor of Grants 
Village of Milan 

Copies of this Draft EIS will also be sent to various professional 
societies and organizations, interest groups and individuals. 

TEAM ORGANIZATION AND CONTRIBUTORS 

This Draft EIS was prepared by a team of professionals within the 
Department of Interior. These specialists were responsible for the 
preparation and/or review of various sections within the document. 
Departmental personnel involved in the preparation of this EIS are 
listed in Table 4-1. Consultants and other contributors are indicated 
in Table 4-2. 



4-6 



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4-9 



TABLE 4-2 
CONSULTANTS AND CONTRIBUTORS 



Organization 



Area of Assistance 



Tribal Government 



Pueblo of Laguna 



Council of Energy Resource Tribes 



Lessee 



Anaconda Minerals Company 



Federal Government 



Environmental Protection Agency 



U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Forest Service - Rocky Mountain 
Forest and Range Experiment Station 

Soil Conservation Service 



U.S. Department of the Interior 
Bureau of Indian Affairs 



Bureau of Land Management - 
New Mexico State Office and 
Denver Service Center (Cadastral 
Survey, Divisions of Mapping Systems 
and Data Technology) 

Bureau of Mines 



Geological Survey 



National Laboratories 



Argonne National Laboratory 



Information on the past and 
present land use of the 
mineslte and surr'jundiag 
areas . 

Socioeconomic reports and 
consultant to the Pueblo of 
Laguna on various issues. 



Information and technical 
reports on photogrammetry , 
hydrology, radiology, blast 
damage, plant stability 
evaluations, subsidence, 
highwall and waste dump 
stability . 



Consultant to DOI on 
radiological assessments 
and analysis. 



Consultant to DOI on plant 
stability and revegetation 

Guidance on seeding rates, 
seed mixtures and analysis 
of erosional impacts 



Water quality analysis and 
hydrologic modeling 
evaluations 

Cadastral survey, aerial 
photography, photogrammetric 
analysis and volumetric 
computations 



Assessment of potential 
blasting impacts from mine 
reclamation activities 

Analysis of minesite ground 
and surface water systems, 
water quality analysis, 
hydrologic modeling evalua- 
tions and analysis of 
erosional impacts 



Principal consultant to DOI 
on radiological impacts of 
mine reclamation 



4-10 



/Appendices 



Appendix A 

Pit Backfill Levels 




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A-2 



Appendix D 

Waste Slope Modifications 











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B-2 



Appendix v_y 

Radiation 



RADIATION 

The following information is excerpted from Appendix C of the report, 
Radiological Guidelines for Application to DOE's Formerly Utilized 
Sites Remedial Action Program (U.S. Department of Energy 1983). A copy 
of this document is on file at the BLM Albuquerque District Office, Rio 
Puerco Resource Area. 

Radiation is the transmission of energy through space. Many kinds of 
radiation exist — including visible light, microwaves, radio and radar 
waves, and X-rays. All of these are electromagnetic radiations because 
they consist of a combined electrical and magnetic impulse traveling 
through space. Although much of this radiation (e.g., light) is vital 
to us, it can also be harmful; prolonged exposure to ultraviolet 
radiation from the sun can cause sunburn or even skin cancer. 

Energy can also be transmitted through space by the motion of 

particulate radiations. These are either one of the fundamental 

particles of atoms (protons, neutrons, and electrons) or are a simple 
combination of the three fundamental particles. 

The class of radiation of concern in evaluating the health risks of the 
material at the Jackpile-Paguate minesite is "ionizing" radiation. 
Ionizing radiation consists of either waves or particles with 
sufficient energy to knock electrons out of the atoms or molecules in 
matter. This disruption is termed "ionization." 

The simplest example is the ionization of a single atom. The 
"nucleus," or center of the atom, is composed of particles called 
"protons" and "neutrons," the proton having a positive charge and the 
neutron having no charge. Negatively charged particles called 
"electrons" orbit the nucleus and are held in place by the attraction 
between the positive and negative charges. A neutral atom contains 
exactly the same number of electrons as protons, balancing the positive 
and negative charges. 

When ionizing radiation knocks out an electron from an atom, the atom 
is left with a positive charge while the free electron is negatively 
charged. These parts of the atom are chemically active and react with 
neighboring atoms or molecules. The resulting chemical reactions are 
responsible for causing changes or damage to matter, including living 
tissue. 

Types of Ionizing Radiation 

The most common ionizing radiations of interest in this EIS are gamma 
rays, alpha particles and beta particles. The relative ionizing power 
of alpha to beta to gamma radiation is 100,000:100:1. 

Gamma Rays 

Gamma rays, like X-rays, are pure energy having no mass. They are 
part of the electromagnetic spectrum, as are light and microwaves, but 
have much shorter wavelengths and, therefore, have the ability to 



C-l 



transmit larger amounts of energy than light and microwaves. Gamma 
rays are identical to X-rays, except that gamma rays originate in the 
nucleus of an atom whereas X-rays are produced by disruption and 
relocation of electrons. An X-ray or gamma ray, having no electrical 
charge to attract or repel it from protons or electrons, can pass 
through the free space in many atoms and, hence, through relatively 
thick materials before interacting. High-energy gamma rays can travel 
for about 500 yards in air. 

Alpha Particles 

Alpha particles are made up of two neutrons and two protons, a 
combination the same as the nucleus of a helium atom. Because of the 
presence of two protons with no counter-balancing negative electrons, 
the alpha particle is positively charged. Alpha particles transmit 
energy as kinetic energy, or the energy of motion, and travel 1 1/2 to 
3 inches in air. 

Because of the comparatively large size and the positive charge of 
an alpha particle, it interacts readily with electrons and does not 
easily pass through the spaces between atoms. It causes many 
ionizations in a short distance of travel. Because each of these 
ionizations dissipates energy, the alpha particle travels a very short 
distance. For example, most alpha particles will not pass through a 
piece of paper or the outer protective layer of a person's skin. 
However, if an alpha particle is produced by radioactive material 
inhaled or ingested into the body, it may cause many ionizations in 
more sensitive tissue. 

Beta Particles 

Beta particles are electrons moving at high speeds, some approaching 
the speed of light. They transmit energy as kinetic energy, and can 
travel up to 15 feet in air. Having comparatively small mass and a 
negative charge, their penetration through matter is intermediate 
between the alpha particle and the gamma ray. 

Beta particles produce fewer ionizations along their path than do 
alpha particles. They can be absorbed by a sheet of rigid plastic or a 
piece of plywood. However, they can pass through the protective outer 
layer of the skin and reach the more sensitive skin cells in inner 
layers. If produced by radioactive materials inside the body, beta 
particles can damage internal tissue. 

Radioactive Elements and Their Half-Lives 

An atom is the smallest unit of an element; elements are the basic 
building blocks of all materials in nature. Over 100 known elements 
exist. In addition, elements may have several isotopes (atoms with the 
same number of protons but a different number of neutrons). Isotopes 
of an element react the same chemically. 

Most atoms of the element carbon in a tree or in our bodies will 
remain atoms of carbon. In time, a carbon atom may change its 



C-2 



association with other atoms in chemical reactions and become part of 
other compounds, but it will still be a carbon atom. 

However, some isotopes are unstable. Unstable atoms spontaneously 
emit radiation and change to atoms of another element. These atoms are 
said to be "radioactive" ; they exhibit the property of "radioactivity" 
(the spontaneous emission of radiation). Unstable isotopes of an 
element are referred to as "radioactive isotopes" or "radionuclides". 

Radioactive atoms emit radiation (decay) at a characteristic rate 
dependent upon the degree of stability of the individual atom. The 
decay rate is characterized by a period of time called the 
"half-life." In one half-life, half the initial number of atoms decay, 
and the amount of radiation emitted also decreases by one-half. In the 
next half-life, the number of atoms and the amount of radiation will 
again decrease by one-half, thereby decreasing to one-quarter of the 
original amount. Half-lives are unique for each particular type of 
radioactive atom — that is, each isotope has its own half -life that 
cannot be changed. Half-lives for different radioactive materials 
range from a fraction of a second to billions of years. (In fact, some 
half-lives are so long that certain radioactive materials made at the 
time of the formation of the universe still exist. Examples include 
some isotopes of thorium and uranium.) 

When an atom decays, radiation may be emitted from the nucleus as 
alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons or gamma rays. This changes 
the character of the nucleus, and the atom changes to an atom of a new 
element. Each type of radioactive atom decays with emission of 
characteristic types of radiation, each carrying away energy. 

Atoms resulting from radioactive decay are called "decay products" or 
"progeny," whereas the original atom is called the "parent" atom. In 
some cases, the progeny resulting from the decay of a radioactive atom 
are also radioactive. For naturally occurring uranium and thorium, a 
sequence of as many as 12 to 14 radioactive decay products occur before 
the original uranium or thorium atom finally reaches stability as an 
atom of lead. 

The half-lives of some of the radioactive materials in the 
uranium-238 chain that are important in this EIS, and the principal 
types of radiation emitted during decay, are shown in Figure C-l. 

Units of Measure for Radioactivity and Radiation 

The basic unit for measuring the amount of radioactivity or quantity 
of radioactive material is the "curie," named in honor of Madame 
Curie. The curie (Ci) is the amount of radioactive material in which 
37 billion atoms are decaying each second; this is the approximate 
number of atoms decaying each second in one gram of radium-226, the 
element discovered by Madame Curie. The amount of material that 
releases one curie of radiation varies from one isotope to another, 
because of the differences in half-lives and atomic weights among the 
various radioactive isotopes. For materials with short half-lives, 



C-3 







































jranium-238* 




P 
— l ? 


Uranium-234* 














minutes 
a 






a 


4.5 billion 
years 


Protactinium 


I 

-234* 


240.000 years 








24 












Thorium -234* 






Thorium-230* 












a 


77.000 


years 






Reaium-226* 






a 


1600 years 




Raaon-222* 






Q 

: 


3.8 days 












Polonium-218 




Polonium-214 




Polonium-210* 












P 

__ — - — on 








P 


"b~ 


lavs 






a 


3.1 
minutes 


Bismuth-214* 


a 


160 micro- 
seconds 


Bismuth-210 


a 


140 days 






I 


21 


miniilp<; 






P 


22 


VPXf. 












Lead-214* 




lead-210* 




Lead-206 

(stable) 





































FIGURE C-1 
Uranium-238 Decay Series 

Source: Argonne National Laboratory (1982). 

Note: Only the dominant decay mode Is shown, and the times shown are half-lives. 
The symbols <x and 6 Indicate alpha and beta decay; an asterisk (*) Indicates 
that the isotope Is a gamma emitter. 



C-4 



more of the atoms present are decaying in any given second, and the 
weight of the material releasing one curie is smaller than a gram of 
radium-226. For radioactive material with a long half-life, the weight 
of the material releasing one curie will be larger. For example, the 
amount of naturally occurring potassium-40 releasing one curie of 
radiation weighs about 310 pounds, or about 140,000 times as much as 
the amount of radium releasing one curie. 

The curie is a relatively large quantity of radioactivity for 
purposes of this EIS. The units used most often in this EIS are listed 
in Table C-l. 

TABLE C-l 
UNITS OF RADIOACTIVITY 



Unit 



Abbreviation 



Disintegrations 
per Second 



Equivalent Value in 
Other Time Units 



Curie 


Ci 


37,000,000,000 





Millicure 


mCi 


37,000,000 





Microcurie 


jLtCi 


37,000 





Picocurie 


pCi 


0.037 


2.22 disintegrations 
per minute 



In this EIS, radioactivity in environmental media such as air or soil 
is often discussed. In these cases, radioactivity is reported as a 
concentration, or the amount of radioactivity in or associated with a 
certain amount of air or soil. Much of the data on radioactivity in 
soils is reported in picocuries of some particular radioactive isotope 
per gram of soil (pCi/g). For example, a value of 2 pCi/g means each 
gram of soil has an associated radioactivity of about 4.4 
disintegrations each minute. Concentrations of radioactivity in air 
are often reported as picocuries per cubic meter (pCi/m^). This 
means that a certain number of picocuries of a radioactive isotope is 
dispersed throughout the volume of air equivalent to a cube that is 1 
meter on each side (1 meter = 1.09 yards). 

The basic unit for measuring radiation dose is the "rad" (acronym for 
_radiation absorbed dose). It is the amount of radiation that deposits 
a specified amount of energy by ionization in each gram of material. 
The amount of energy released in the material is small — it increases 
the temperature of the gram of material by only a few billionths of a 
degree. However, it is not the amount of heat liberated or the 
temperature rise that is important; rather, it is the ionization that 
induces chemical changes. The rad is used to measure the dose from all 
types of radiation in all types of material that absorbs the 
radiation. 



C-5 



As discussed previously, different types of radiation produce 
ionizations at different rates as they pass through tissue. The alpha 
particle travels only a short distance, causing intense, closely spaced 
ionization along its path. The beta particle travels much farther, 
causing much less ionization in each portion of its path. Therefore, 
the alpha particle is more damaging to internal tissue than the beta 
particle for the same number of ionizations because the damage to cells 
in the tissue is more localized. 

Besides the rad, the other commonly used radiation dose unit is the 
"rem" (acronym for roentgen equivalent in man). The rem quantifies the 
relative biological response to radiation rather than the amount of 
energy delivered to the tissue. 

The biological damage done by an alpha particle is greater than that 
by a beta particle for the same total amount (rads) of energy 
deposited, and this difference is accounted for by the use of "quality 
factors" (1 for X- or gamma radiations and most beta particles, and 10 
to 20 for alpha particles). Thus, 1 rad of energy from gamma rays 
would result in 1 rem of dose, while 1 rad from alpha particles would 
result in 10 to 20 rems of dose. 

Because the relative degree of damage from each type of radiation is 
known, the rem can be used to estimate the approximate biological 
effect. The rem permits evaluation of potential effects without regard 
to the type of radiation or its source. One rem of exposure from 
natural cosmic radiation results in the same biological consequences as 
1 rem of medical X-rays or 1 rem delivered by radiation produced by 
either natural or man-made radioactive decay. 

A frequent error in the use of radiation units is their application 
to a standard weight of tissue rather than all of the tissue 
irradiated. A person can receive one rad or one rem of radiation from 
any of the following: (1) an X-ray of the teeth, where little tissue is 
irradiated; (2) a chest X-ray, where a moderate amount of tissue is 
irradiated; or (3) whole-body radiation, where all tissue in the body 
is irradiated. Although all these sources give 1 rem of radiation, the 
effects are different depending upon the organs involved. Thus, one 
must always keep in mind the portion of the body or organs involved and 
make comparisons only for corresponding exposures. For example, 
whole-body doses must be compared only to other whole-body doses or to 
whole-body dose standards. 

In some cases, radiation measurements are expressed as a "dose rate," 
or the amount of radiation received in a unit of time. For example, 
some instrument measurements of background are reported in "microrem(s) 
per hour" (/^rem/h) . To calculate total dose, the rate is multiplied by 
the time of exposure. This is conceptually similar to multiplying 
speed (rate of travel — e.g., in miles per hour) by time to get total 
distance travelled. Dose may be expressed using rads or rems, 
depending on whether the emphasis is on the energy deposited or the 
biological effect. 



C-6 



Because many of the radiation doses discussed in this EIS are small, 
the metric prefixes "milli" for one-thousandth (1/1000 or 0.001, 
symbolized as "m") or "micro" for one-millionth (1/1,000,000, or 
0.000001, symbolized as ("/x") are often used; 1,000,000 microrem (/xrem) 
= 1,000 millirem (mrem) = 1 rem. 

What Is Known About the Health Effects of Radiation 

If molecules vital to the function of a cell are ionized by 
radiation, the cell may be destroyed; if enough cells are destroyed, an 
organ may be damaged. However, organ damage is usually associated with 
large doses and is generally referred to as a "short-term" effect of 
radiation. 

People who receive high radiation doses also increase their risk of 
developing cancer and producing genetic damage to their progeny; these 
are "long-term" effects. The risk is proportional to the dose. How 
low-level exposure to radiation results in cancer is not fully 
understood, and the relationship between the amount of exposure and the 
probability that cancer will develop cannot be accurately predicted. 

Radiation levels around uranium minesites are not generally 
considered to be high enough to cause short-term effects. They may, 
however, be sufficient to raise the risks of long-term effects, 
depending on conditions and length of exposure. 

In spite of the uncertainties in the risk estimates, more is known 
about radiation and its health effects than is known about certain 
chemical hazards. Radiation has been studied extensively since the 
1920' s. Also, it is possible to detect the various types of radiation 
easily, making it possible to avoid areas of potential risk. 

An important distinction exists between external and internal 
radiation sources and their impacts. When external radiation interacts 
with a person's body, it is quickly dissipated as ionization and 
eventually heat. However, radioactive materials can enter a person's 
body and remain there for some period of time, emitting radiation. 
Thus it is incorrect to say that "radiation is in a person's body." It 
is correct to say that the person has radioactive materials in his/her 
body and that radiation is emitted from these radioactive materials. 

Background Radiation 

"Background" is the term used to represent the natural levels of 
radiation (radioactivity) that are typical for an area. Naturally 
occurring radioactive elements are present in air, water and soil. 

Background radiation results from cosmic and terrestrial sources. 
Cosmic radiation originates in the cosmos and enters the earth's 
atmosphere, while terrestrial radiation originates from the naturally 
occurring radionuclides in the soil. The level of background radiation 
in any particular area depends on such factors as altitude, local 
geology and meteorological conditions. 



C-7 



Radioactivity in the human body originates from the intake of 
naturally occurring radioactive elements in the food and water 
consumed, and in the air inhaled by each person. Human exposure to 
background radiation depends on personal lifestyle, diet and type of 
residence. 

The annual background radiation dose rate in the area around the 
rainesite as compared to U.S. averages is indicated in Table C-2. The 
local rates are higher than U.S. averages because the minesite is at a 
fairly high elevation (6,000 feet above mean sea level) and because of 
the elevated concentration of uranium throughout the Grants mineral 
belt. 

TABLE C-2 

ESTIMATED AVERAGE ANNUAL BACKGROUND WHOLE-BODY DOSE RATES (1970) 

(millirems per year) 



U.S. Average Jackpile-Paguate 

Source Dose Rate Colorado Minesite 



Environmental 

1. Natural 

Cosmic Radiation 
Terrestrial Sources */ 40 
Internal Sources 21 
Subtotals 

2. Global Fallout 

3. Nuclear Power 
Medical 
Occupational 
Miscellaneous 

TOTALS (rounded) 182 234 258 



Sources: Iowa Energy Policy Council 1975 (for U.S. average and 
Colorado figures); Moraeni, et al. 1983 (for minesite). 

Notes: ^'Crustal and building materials. 
—'Principally potassium-40. 



44 


90 


70 


40 


46 


90 


18 


18 


18 


102 


154 


178 


4 


4 


4 


0.003 


0.003 


0.003 


73 


73 


73 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


2 


2 


2 



C-8 



Gl 



ossarij 



GLOSSARY 

ACRE-FOOT . The quantity of water required to cover 1 acre to a depth 
of 1 foot. It is equal to 43,560 cubic feet or 325,851 gallons. 

ADIT. A horizontal or near-horizontal passage from the ground surface 
into a mine or underground installation. 

ADVERSE VISUAL IMPACT . Any impact on the land form, water form, or 
vegetation, or any introduction of a structure that negatively changes 
or interrupts the visual character of the landscape and disrupts the 
harmony of the natural elements. 

AIRBLAST . A motion-producing sound generated by an explosive blast and 
resulting rock, breakage and movement; it is commonly expressed as a 
relative sound level in decibels (dB) at a particular frequency that is 
measured in hertz (Hz). Like ground vibration, it is an undesirable 
side effect of the use of explosives to break rock for mining, 
quarrying, excavation and construction. 

ALLUVIUM . Clay, silt, sand and gravel deposited by running water. 

AMBIENT . Conditions in the vicinity of a reference point, usually 
related to physical environment (e.g., the ambient temperature is the 
outdoor temperature). 

ANGLE OF REPOSE . The maximum slope at which a heap of any loose or 
fragmented solid material will stand without sliding when poured or 
dumped in a pile or on a slope; also called the angle of rest. 

AQUIFER . A geologic formation, group of formations, or part of a 
formation that contains sufficient saturated permeable material to 
yield a significant quantity of water to wells or springs. 

ATOM . A particle of matter indivisible by chemical means. It is the 
fundamental building block of the chemical elements. An inner core 
(the nucleus) is composed of protons and neutrons, while one or more 
much smaller electrons orbit the nucleus. 

ATOMIC MASS UNIT (amu) . One-twelfth the mass of an atom of carbon-12. 
1 amu = 1.66057 x 10" Z/ kg. 

ATOMIC NUMBER . The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. It is 
shown as a subscript in atomic nomenclature. For uranium-238 
(g2U23°) the atomic number is 92. 

ATOMIC WEIGHT . The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the 
nucleus of an atom. It is shown as a superscript in atomic 
nomenclature. For uranium-238 (g£U 2 ^^) the atomic weight is 238. 

BACK . The rock above any opening, such as a tunnel, stope or drift; 
the roof. 



G-l 



BACKGROUND LEVEL . The concentration of a pollutant that would exist in 
the absence of the particular source under study. A "standard" against 
which the contribution of the particular source can be compared. 

BACKGROUND RADIATION . The radiation in man's natural environment, 
including cosmic rays and radiation from the naturally radioactive 
elements. 

BALLAST . Rough, unscreened gravel used to form the bed of a railway or 
as substratum for new roads. 

BASE FLOW . The sustained or normal flow of a stream. 

BED . The smallest division of a stratified series of rock layers , 
marked by a more or less well-defined divisional plane from its 
neighbors above and below. 

BENCH . In open-pit mines, a ledge that forms a single level of 
operation above which mineral or waste materials are excavated from a 
contiguous bank or bench face. The mineral or waste is removed in 
successive layers, each of which is a bench, several of which may be in 
operation simultaneously in different parts of and at different 
elevations in an open-pit mine. 

BORROW PIT . Location from which soil materials are taken to be used as 
topsoil on reclaimed sites. 

BULKHEAD . A tight partition of wood, rock or concrete in mines to 
contain some material. 

CAVING . The action of caving in, collapsing; the failure and sloughing 
in of boreholes, mine workings or excavations. 

CHARGE DELAY . The time separation, usually in milliseconds, between 
detonation of individual charges of explosives in a blast. 

COEFFICIENT . In physics, a number commonly used in computation as a 
factor, expressing the amount of some change or effect under certain 
conditions such as temperature, length, time or volume. 

COHESION . That property of like mineral grains that enables them to 
cling together in opposition to forces tending to separate them; 
measured in pounds per square foot. 

COLLUVIUM . Loose and incoherent deposits, usually at the foot of a 
slope or cliff and brought there chiefly by gravity. 

COLOR . The property of an object that reflects light of a particular 
wavelength, enabling the eye to differentiate otherwise unidentifiable 
objects. 

CONSOLIDATED . In geology, having been pressed into a hard rock. In 
soil mechanics, having simply been brought into equilibrium with the 
applied forces causing a decrease in volume. 



G-2 



CONTOUR FURROWING . Plowing along the contour lines of uneven terrain 
to limit erosion. 

CONTRAST. The effect of a striking difference in the form, line, color 
or texture of the landscape features within an area being viewed. 

CONTROL . A standard of comparison in scientific experimentations; 
check. 

COUNTRY ROCK . Rock adjacent to or surrounding a mineral deposit or 
dike in which no minerals of economic interest occur. 

CREST . The top of an excavated slope; the highest natural projection 
that crowns a hill or mountain. 

CROSSCUT . In underground mining, an opening driven across a deposit, 
or, in general, across the direction of the main workings. 

CUBIC FOOT PER SECOND (ft 3 /s or cfs) . The rate of discharge 
representing a volume of 1 cubic foot of water passing a given point 
during 1 second. It is equivalent to 7.48 gallons per second, or 448.8 
gallons per minute. 

CURIE . The measurement of radioactivity of a substance. One curie 
equals the disintegration of 37 billion (3.7 x 10-^) nuclei per 
second, which is approximately the rate of decay of 1 gram of radium. 

DAUGHTERS, PROGENY . Nuclides formed by the radioactive decay of other 
nuclides (the parents). 

DECAY, RADIOACTIVE . The spontaneous emission of radiation from the 
nucleus a radioactive atom. This will either transform one nuclide 
into a different nuclide, or change the energy state of the same 
nuclide. 

DECIBEL (dB) . A unit used to express the relative intensity of sounds 
on a scale from (for the average least perceptible sound) to about 
130 (for the average pain level). 

DECLINE . A shaft sunk at an angle from the vertical . 

DENDRITIC . Formed or marked in a branched or tree-like pattern. 

DIABASE (DIABASIC) . A fine-grained intrusive rock composed mainly of 
plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene . 

DIKE . An igneous intrusion that cuts across the planar structures of 
the surrounding rock (See Sill). 

DIP . The angle of a slope, vein, rock stratum or borehole as measured 
from the horizontal plane downward. 

DISCHARGE . The rate of flow at a given instant in terms of volume per 
unit of time (e.g., cubic feet per second or gallons per minute). 



G-3 



DOSE, ABSORBED . The amount of radiation absorbed; the energy imparted 
to matter by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material at 
the place of interest. The special unit of absorbed dose is the rad. 

DOSE COMMITMENT . The total dose that an organism is expected to 
receive in its lifetime from a given quantity of radioactive material 
deposited in the body. 

DOSE EQUIVALENT . A common scale measurement of the effects of the 
different types of radiation. The unit of dose equivalent is the rem. 
The following are considered equivalent to 1 rem of dose: 1) a dose of 
1 Roentgen (R) due to X- or gamma rays; 2) a dose of 1 rad due to X-, 
gamma or beta radiation; 3) a dose of 0.1 rad due to neutrons or 
high-energy protons; and 4) a dose of 0.5 rad due to particles heavier 
than protons (i.e., alpha radiation). 

DRAWDOWN . Vertical distance the free water elevation is lowered, or 
the reduction of the pressure head due to the removal of free water. 

DRIFT . A horizontal passage underground, with neither end reaching the 
surface . 

ELECTRON . An elementary particle having a charge of -1 esu 
(electrostatic unit) and a mass of 1/1837 amu (atomic mass unit). 

ENTRY . An underground passage for hauling, ventilation or as a way of 
transit for miners. 

EPHEMERAL STREAM . A stream or portion of a stream that flows only in 
direct response to precipitation in the immediate locality, and whose 
channel is at all times above the water table. 

EXPOSURE . The quotient dq/dm, where "dq" is the absolute value of the 
charge of the ions of one sign produced in air, when all the electrons 
(negatrons and positrons) liberated by photons in a volume element 
having mass "dm" are completely stopped by air. The special unit of 
exposure is the roentgen (R). 

EXPOSURE RATE . The exposure per unit of time (e.g., roentgens/minute, 
milliroentgens/hour) . 

FACE . In any adit, tunnel or stope, the end at which work is 
progressing or was last done. 

FAULT . A fracture or fracture zone along which there has been 
displacement of the two sides relative to one another and parallel to 
the fracture. 

FLUVIAL . Of or pertaining to a river or rivers. Produced by the 
action of a stream or river. 

FORM . The mass or shape of an object or objects which appear unified, 
such as in the shape of the land surface or patterns placed on the 
landscape. 



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FORMATION. A more or less related group of rocks grouped together into 
a unit that is convenient for description and mapping. 

FRACTURE . Failure by the parting of a material. 

FRICTION ANGLE . The angle between the perpendicular to a surface and 
the resultant force acting on a body resting on the surface, at which 
the body begins to slide. 

FRICTION ANGLE (ANGLE OF INTERNAL FRICTION) . The angle which 
characterizes the increase in sheer strength with increasing normal 
stress on a given plane in a material. The tangent of the angle of 
internal friction is the increase in shear strength for a unit increase 
in normal stress. It is approximately equal to the angle of repose for 
dry, cohesionless materials. 

FUGITIVE DUST . Particulates made airborne by forces of wind, man's 
activities, or both. 

GRADIENT . The ratio of vertical fall of a river's channel to its 
length. 

GRANTS MINERAL BELT . Includes the area of uranium deposits from Gallup 
on the west to the western edge of the Rio Grande trough on the east. 

GROSS ALPHA . The total rate of alpha particle emission from a sample 
without regard to energy distribution or source nuclide. 

GROSS BETA . The total rate of beta particle emission from a sample 
without regard to energy distribution or source nuclide. 

GROUND VIBRATION . An undesirable side effect of the use of explosives 
to break rock for mining, quarrying, excavation and construction; 
expressed as the velocity of a particular point or particle in the 
ground (particle velocity), and measured in inches per second (in/s). 

GROUND WATER MOUNDING . The mound-shaped build-up of the potent iometric 
surface resulting from the downward percolation of water into an 
aquifer. 

GROWTH MEDIUM . A soils material, natural or reconstituted, that will 
support a plant community. 

HALF-LIFE . The time required for a radioactive element to lose half of 
its atoms through radioactive decay. Each radionuclide has a unique 
half-life. 

HEAD, STATIC . The height above a standard reference point of the 
surface of a column of water that can be supported by the static 
pressure at a given point. 



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HEAD, TOTAL . The total head of a liquid at a given point is the sum of 
three components: 1) elevation head, which is equal to the elevation 
of the given point above a reference point; 2) pressure head, which is 
the height of a column of static water that can be supported by the 
static pressure at the given point; and 3) velocity head, which is the 
height the kinetic energy of the liquid is capable of lifting it. 

HERTZ (Hz) . A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second. 

HIGH PASS . A method of measuring airblast in decibels (dB) at a 
certain frequency in hertz (Hz). 

HIGH -RADIATION AREA . Any area accessible to individuals in which a 
major portion of the body could receive, in any one hour, a dose in 
excess of 100 millirems. 

HIGHWALL. The excavated face of exposed overburden and/or ore in an 
open-pit mine. 

HORIZON . Layers (in a soil profile) resulting from soil-forming 
processes are grouped into three categories (A, B and C). The 
subdivisions of these categories are called horizons. 

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY . The rate of flow of water in gallons per day 
through cross-section of 1 square foot of a subject medium. (Synonym, 
permeability coefficient .) 

IN SITU . In its natural position or place . 

INTERNAL RADIATION . Radiation from a source within the body as a 
result of deposition of radionuclides in body tissues by ingestion, 
inhalation or implantation. 

INTRUSION . A feature (land and water form, vegetation or structure) 
that is generally considered out of context because of excessive 
contrast and disharmony with the characteristic landscape. 

ION . An atom that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a 
result of having lost or gained one or more electrons. 

IONIZATION . The process by which a neutral atom acquires a positive or 
negative charge . 

ISOTOPES. Atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic 
weights. The difference in atomic weight is due to the number of 
neutrons in the atom's nucleus. 

LEVEL . A horizontal passage or drift into or within a mine. It is 
customary to work mines by levels at regular intervals in depth. 

LINE. The path, real or imagined that the eye follows when perceiving 
abrupt differences in form, color or texture. Within landscapes, lines 
may be found as ridges, skylines, structures, changes in vegetative 
types, or individual trees or branches. 



G-6 



MAJOR (STRUCTURAL) BLAST DAMAGE . The most severe type of damage to 
structures caused by blasting. This type of damage affects the 
load-supporting ability of a structure (e.g., rupture of arches, 
falling of masonry, structural weakening). 

MINING HEIGHT . The height of an underground mine opening. 

MINOR BLAST DAMAGE . An intermediate level of damage to structures 
caused by blasting (e.g., loosening and falling of plaster, hairline to 
l/8-inch-wide cracks, falling of loose mortar). 

MUCK . Broken ground from an underground mining operation. 

NEUTRON . An elementary particle having no charge and a mass of 1 
atomic mass unit. 

ORE . A mineral of sufficient value (quality and quantity) that it may 
be mined with profit. 

ORE ZONE . A horizon in which ore minerals are known to occur. 

OVERBURDEN . Soil and rock horizons as measured from the surface down 
to a specific mineral layer. 

OVERPRESSURE . The pressure in an airblast wave in excess of the 
atomopheric pressure. 

PAN EVAPORATION . The amount of water that evaporates from a standard 
U.S. Weather Bureau 4-foot-diameter evaporation pan. Measured in 
inches per year. 

P ERCHED WATER TABLE . A water table, usually of limited area, 
maintained above the normal free water elevation by the presence of an 
intervening, relatively impervious, confining earth layer. 

PERCOLATION . The movement of gravitational water through soil. 

PIEZOMETER . An instrument for measuring pressure head, usually 
consisting of a small pipe tapped into the side of a closed or open 
conduit and flush with the inside. It is connected to a pressure gage, 
water column, or other device for indicating pressure head. May also 
be a small-diameter well placed in an aquifer. 

PILLAR . In situ rock between two or more underground openings. 

PIPING . Erosion by percolating water in a layer of subsoil, resulting 
in caving and the formation of narrow conduits, tunnels or pipes. 

PLANT ASSOCIATION . Plant community of definite composition, presenting 
a uniform physiognomy and growing in uniform habitat conditions. 

PLUTONIC . Of igneous origin. 

PORE . Interstice or void; a space in rock or soil not occupied by 
solid mineral matter. 

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POROSITY . The ratio (usually expressed as a percentage) of the volume 
of voids in a given mass to the total volume of the mass. 

PORTAL . The surface entrance to a decline or an adit. 

POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE . An imaginary surface representing the total 
head of ground water above a reference level for a particular area, and 
defined by the level to which water will rise in a well drilled in that 
area. (Synonym, piezometric level .) 

PRESSURE . Force per unit area applied to the outside surface of a body. 

PRESSURE HEAD . Equivalent to the height of a column of water that can 
be supported by the pressure. 

PROTORE . As used in this EIS, a component of the Jackpile Sandstone. 
This component material was stockpiled during mining because it 
contains elevated but sub-economic uranium concentrations that might 
become economical to process at some future time because of rising 
prices or improved technology. At the Jackpile-Paguate mine, the 
protore contains .02 to .059 percent uranium (U3O3). 

RAD . The special measurement unit of absorbed dose; the quantity of 
any type of ionizing radiation that imparts a dose of 100 ergs to 1 
gram of tissue (from Radiation Absorbed Dose). 

RADIATION . Particles or energy emitted from the nucleus of a 
radioactive atom. 

RADIATION AREA . Any area accessible to individuals in which a major 
portion the body could receive, in any one hour, a dose in excess of 5 
millirems (mrems) or, in any 5 consecutive days, a dose in excess of 
100 mrems. 

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL . Any material (solid, liquid or gas) that emits 
radiation spontaneously. 

RADIOACTIVITY . The disintegration of unstable atomic nuclei by the 
emission of radiation. 

RADIUM-226 . A radioactive metallic element in group II of the periodic 
system; one of the alkaline-earth metals. Radium resembles barium in 
its chemical properties. 

RADIUS OF INFLUENCE (OF A WELL) . The distance from the center of a 
pumping well to the closest point at which the ground water is not 
lowered. 

RADON-222 . A heavy, radioactive gaseous element. It emanates from 
(i.e., is a daughter product of) radium-226. Radon has a half-life of 
3.823 days and is an alpha particle emitter. 

RAISE . An opening, like a shaft, made in the back (roof) of an 
underground level to reach a level above. 



G-8 



REM. A measure of the dose of any radiation to body tissue, in terms 
of its estimated biological effect relative to a dose of 1 roentgen (R) 
of X-rays (from Roentgen Equivalent Man). One millirem (mrem) = 0.001 
rem. 

RESTRICTED AREA (CONTROLLED AREA) . Any area to which access is 
controlled to protect individuals from exposure to radiation and 
radioactive materials. 

ROCK. Geologically, any naturally formed aggregate of mineral matter 
constituting an essential and appreciable part of the earth's crust. 

ROC KF ALL . The relatively free falling of a newly detached segment of 
rock of any size from a cliff, steep slope, or underground opening. 

ROENTGEN . The unit of exposure. The quantity of X- or gamma radiation 
that produces ions carrying 1 electrostatic unit (esu) charge of either 
sign (+ or -), in 1 cubic centimeter of dry air at standard temperature 
and pressure. 

ROOM . A wide working place in a flat mine (corresponds to a stope in 
steep vein). 

ROOM AND PILLAR MINING . Method of underground mining where drifts are 
driven on a regular pattern leaving pillars to support the overburden. 
The pillars are usually removed at the end of mining in that area. 

SAFETY FACTOR . The ratio of forces available to resist slope failure 
and the forces tending to cause this failure. 

SCALE . The proportionate size relationship between an object and the 
surroundings in which the object is placed. Also, to remove surface 
loose rock from excavation faces. 

SCALED DISTANCE . A factor in blast design, equal to the actual 
distance from the blast in feet divided by the square root of the 
explosive weight in pounds. 

SEEPAGE . See Percolation. 

SEISMIC . Pertaining to, characteristic of, or produced by earthquakes 
or earth vibration (as from blasting). 

SET . A frame for supporting the ground around a shaft, tunnel or other 
excavation. 

SHAFT . A vertical or steeply inclined excavation or opening from the 
surface down through the strata to the mineral to be mined. 

SILL . An igneous intrusion that parallels the planar structure of the 
surrounding rock ( See Dike). 

SINUOSITY . The ratio of a river's channel length to the length of its 
valley. 



G-9 



SLIDE . A relatively deep-seated failure of a slope, also called a 
landslide or slope failure. Slides are considered to have large 
lateral displacement in contrast to slumps, which are local or 
restricted displacements. 

SLUMP . Material that has slid down from high rock slopes; to slip down 
en masse . 

SOIL PROFILE . The characteristic features of the soil, as seen by a 
vertical cut through the weathered soil mass into the relatively 
unweathered material, and finally to bedrock. 

SPECIFIC (UNIT) WEIGHT . The dry weight per unit volume, measured in 
pounds per cubic foot. 

STOPE . An underground excavation from which ore has been extracted. 
In New Mexico uranium mines, the terms "room" and "stope" are used 
interchangeably . 

STRATA . Sedimentary rock layers. 

SUBSIDENCE . A sinking down of a part of the earth's crust. The 
lowering of the strata, including the surface, due to underground 
excavations. 

SUBSTRATE . The subsoil. 

TEXTURE . The interplay of light and shadow created by the variation in 
the surface of an object; the visual result of the tactile surface 
characteristics . 

THRESHOLD (COSMETIC) BLAST DAMAGE . The most superficial type of damage 
to structures caused by blasting, being of the type that develops in 
all homes in the absence of blasting (e.g., loosening of paint, small 
cracks in plaster, lengthening of old cracks). 

TOE . The bottom of a slope. 

UNCONFORMITY . A surface of erosion or nondeposition that separate 
younger strata from older strata. 

UNDERFLOW . The ground water flowing beneath the bed of a surface 
stream generally in the same direction but at a much slower rate than 
the surface drainage. 

UNDERGROUND OPENINGS . Natural or manmade excavations under the surface 
of the earth. 

UNRESTRICTED AREA (UNCONTROLLED AREA) . Any area to which access is not 
controlled to protect individuals from exposure to radiation and 
radioactive materials. 

URANIUM . A naturally radioactive, silvery-white, metallic element of 
the actinide series of the periodic system. 



G-10 



URANIUM ORE GRADE . The percentage of uranium in an ore. 

URANIUM OXIDE (U-^Ofl). A chemical compound made up of three atoms 
of uranium and eight atoms of oxygen, used as the measure of refined 
uranium. For uniformity and comparison, weights of other forms and 
compounds of uranium and uranium ore are usually converted to the 
equivalent weight of uranium oxide. 

VISUAL RESOURCE . The land, water, flora, fauna and other features that 
are visible on all lands (scenic values). 

WALL . The side of an underground level or drift. 

WASTE . The barren (non-ore-bearing) rock in a mine. 

WORKING(S) . A working may be a mine shaft, level or stope. Usually 
used in the plural. 

WORKING LEVEL (WL) . A unit of measurement peculiar to the underground 
mining of uranium; a measure of the concentration of radon 222 daughter 
products in air. One Working Level is that concentration of radon 
daughters that will deliver 1.3 x 10-* mev (million electron volts) 
of alpha energy per liter of air. 

WORKING LEVEL MONTH (WLM) . Exposure to 1 working level for 173 hours. 
The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration's limit for uranium 
miners is 4 WLM per year. 

Y ELLOWCAKE . The final precipitate formed in the milling of uranium. 
Usually considered to be ammonium diuranate [(NH^)2U207] or 
sodium diuranate (Na2U20y), but the composition is variable. 
Measured in the equivalent weight of U30g. 



G-l l 



Ret 



erences 



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R-2 



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Minerals Co. by Seegmiller International. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

. 1983. Highwall Slope Stability-North Paguate Area: Anaconda 



New Mexico Operations; Cibola County, New Mexico. Prepared for Anaconda 
Minerals Co. by Seegmiller International. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Shortley, George and Williams, Dudley. 1963. Principles of College 
Physics, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 

Siskind, David E. , Stachura, Virgil J., Stagg, Mark S. and Kopp, John W. 
1980. Structure Response and Damage Produced by Airblast from Surface 
Mining. U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines Report of 
Investigations RI 8485. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, 
D.C. 

Siskind, D.E., Stagg, M.S., Kopp, J.W. and Dowding, C.H. 1980. 

Structure Response and Damage Produced by Ground Vibration from Surface 

Mine Blasting. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines Report 

of Investigations RI 8507. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, 
D.C. 

Smith, William K. 1982. Report on Waste Dump and Highwall Stability 
Affecting the Reclamation Plan for the Jackpile Uranium Mine, Cibola 
County, New Mexico. Denver, Colorado. 

. 1983. Stability Analysis of Highwalls — Jackpile - Paguate 

Mine, Laguna Indian Reservation, New Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey, 
Denver, Colorado. 

Tennessee Valley Authority. 1979. Final Environmental Statement- 
Crownpoint Uranium Mining Project. Mobil Oil Corporation/TVA. Norris, 
Tennessee. 

Thrush, Paul W. , editor. 1968. A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral and 
Related Terms. U.S. Bureau of Mines. Washington, D.C 



R-6 



U.S. D epartment of Commerce. 1953. Climatic Summary of the U.S.- 
Supplement for 1931 through 1952. Washington, D.C. 

U.S. Department of the Interior . Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of 

Trust Responsibilities. 1980. Uranium Development in the San Juan Basin 

Region-Final Report, San Juan Basin Regional Uranium Study. Albuquerque, 
New Mexico. 

Bureau of Land Management. 1978. Manual 8400, Visual 



Resource Management. Washington, D.C. 

Bureau of Mines. 1983a. Assessment of Blasting Impact from 



Jackpile-Paguate Mine Reclamation, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Prepared for 
the Bureau of Land Management by David E. Siskind. Washington, D.C. 

Bureau of Mines. 1983b. Assessment of Blast Vibration from 



Jackpile-Paguate Mining Operations, New Mexico. Prepared for the Bureau 
of Land Management by David E. Siskind. Washington, D.C. 

Fish and Wildlife Service. May 12, 1981. Letter in response 



to request regarding information on threatened and endangered wildlife in 
the vicinity of the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine reclamation area. 
Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

Geological Survey. 1976. Water Resources Data for New 



Mexico, Water Year 1976. Water-Data Report NM-76-1. Albuquerque, New 
Mexi co . 

Geological Survey. 1984. Results of Simulations Using a 



U.S. Geological Survey Generic Two-Dimensional Ground Water or Flow Model 
to Process Input Data from the Dames and Moore Ground Water Flow Model of 
the Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine, New Mexico. Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

U.S. Department of Labor . Mine Safety and Health Administration, 
Radiation Group, Denver Technical Support Center. 1974. Radiation 
Monitoring. Denver, Colorado. 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. January 25, 1983. Letter from 
W.A. Bliss to M.E. Nelson. Office of Radiation Programs-Las Vegas 
Facility. Las Vegas, Nevada. 

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1975. Reactor Safety Study, An 
Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants. 
WASH-1400 (NUREG-74/014). Washington, D.C. 

Welford, G.A. and Baird, R. December 1967. Uranium Levels in Human Diet 
and Biological Materials. Health Physics, Vol. 13, pp. 1321-1324. 

Woodward-Clyde Consultants. 197 7. Wasson Field, Denver Unit CO2 
Project — Environmental Impact Report. San Francisco, California. 



R-7 



u 



ex 



INDEX 

Access Routes 1-17 

Adits 1-18, 2-1, 2-13, 3-12 

Air Quality 1-30, 2-63, 2-65, 3-38 

Alpha Particles C-2 

Alternatives Eliminated From Detailed Study 1-9 

Alternatives Selected For Detailed Study 1-10 

Arroyo Headcutting 1-15, 1-29, 2-56, 2-58, 3-32 

Authorizing Actions 1-6 

Backfill Levels 1-13, 3-27, A-l , A-2 

Backfill Materials 1-13 

Background Radiation C-7 

Beta Particles C-2 

Blasting During Reclamation 1-26, 3-1 

Blocked Drainages 1-16, 2-60 

Comparison to Other Health Risks (Radiation) 3-25 

Compliance 1-20 

Cost Analysis Summary 1-32 

Cultural Resources 1-31, 2-77, 3-44 

Decline 1-18, 2-1, 2-13, 3-10, 3-12 

Direct Gamma Radiation 2-31 

Drill Holes 1-17 

Erosion 2-56, 3-32 

External Doses (Radiation) 3-16 

Facilities 1-4, 1-16, 2-9 

Fauna 1-30, 2-7 7, 3-43 

Federal Trust Responsibility 1-5 

Flora 1-30, 2-70, 3-40 

Flow in Waste Dumps 2-56 

Gamma Radiation 2-31 

Gamma Rays C-l 

Geology 2-14 

Ground Water 2-52 

Ground Water Quality 2-57, 3-31 

Highwalls 1-14 

Highwall Stability 1-26, 2-20, 3-4 

History and Background 1-1 

Hydrology 2-47, 3-27 

Ingestion (Radiation) 2-47 

Ingestion Doses (Radiation) 3-19 

Inhalation Doses (Radiation) 3-18 

Interrelationships With Other Projects 1-6 

Irreversible and Irretrievable Commitment of Resources 1-31,3-46 



1-1 



Issues and Concerns 1-7 

Issues Dropped From Further Evaluation 1-7 

Issues Evaluated 1-8 

Jackpile Sandstone 2-3 

Meteorology 2-63 

Mine Leases 1"1> 2-2 

Mineral Resources 1-26, 2-18, 3-2 

Mining Operations 2-1 

Mitigating Measures 1-34 

Monitoring 1-19, 2-14 

Non-Radiological Accidents 1-31, 3-46 

Non-Radiological Minesite Hazards 2-19, 3-4 

Open Pits 1-4, 1-13, 2-1, 2-4 

Overburden 2-3 

Particulates (Radioactive) 2-41, 3-18 

Ponding in Open Pits 2-50 

Post-Reclamation Access 1-14 

Post-Reclamation Health Effects (Radiation) 3-24 

Post-Reclamation Land Uses 1-20 

Post-Reclamation Radiation Doses 3-16 

Post-Reclamation Radiological Impacts 1-27, 3-12 

Previous Reclamation 2-12 

Protore Stockpiles 1-4, 1-15, 2-4, 2-6, 2-8 

Public Review of the Draft EIS 4-5 

Purpose and Need for Reclamation 1-4 

Radiation 2-27, 3-12, C-l 

Radiation Exposure Pathways and Existing Levels of Radiation. . . . 2-29 

Radiation Standards 2-27 

Radioactive Elements and Their Half-Lives C-2 

Radiological Impacts to Workers Involved in Reclamation 3-25 

Radon - 222 2-36, 3-19 

Radon Exhalation 2-41 

Rail Spur 1-17, 2-2 

Recharge and Flow in the Pits 1-28, 2-52, 3-31 

Reclamation Completion 1-20 

Reclamation Cost Estimates 1-31 

Reclamation Schedule 1-32 

Revegetation Methods 1-18 

Revegetation Success 2-72 

Rios Paguate and Moquino 2-2, 2-47 

Scope of the EIS 1-5 

Scoping 4-1 

Security 1-20 

Sedimentation in Paguate Reservoir 1-29, 2-2, 2-60, 3-34 

Slope Stability 2-19 

Socioeconomic Conditions 1-31, 2-79, 3-45 



1-2 



Soils 1-30, 2-3, 2-67, 3-39 

Soil Borrow Site Characteristics 2-67, 2-69 

Somatic and Genetic Effects (Radiation) 3-25 

Sources of Radiation at the Minesite 2-27 

State Highway 279 1-6, 2-2 

Stockpiled Soils 2-67 

Stream Stability 1-15, 1-29, 2-60, 3-34 

Subsidence 1-2 7, 2-23, 3-10 

Summary of Impacts 1-12 

Surface Disturbance 1-4, 2-1, 2-4 

Surface Disturbed Areas Not Reclaimed 2-70 

Surface Disturbed Areas Reclaimed 2-71 

Surface Water 2-47 

Surface Water Quality 1-28, 2-53, 3-30 

Surface Water Quantity 1-27, 2-49, 3-29 

Team Organization and Contributors 4-6 

Threatened and Endangered Species 2-77 

Topsoil Stockpiles 1-4, 2-4, 2-9 

Total Individual and Population Dose Commitments (Radiation). . . . 3-21 

Total Suspended Particulates 2-65, 3-38 

Types of Ionizing Radiation C-l 

Underground Disturbance 2-12 

Underground Openings 1-27, 2-13, 2-26, 3-12 

Undisturbed Natural Vegetational Areas 2-70 

Undisturbed Soils 2-67 

Units of Measure for Radioactivity and Radiation C-3 

Units of Radioactivity C-5 

Uranium - 238 Decay Series C-4 

Uranium and Radium in Surface Materials 2-30 

Ventilation Holes 1-18 

Village of Laguna 2-2 

Village of Paguate 2-2 

Visual Resources 1-31 , 2-78, 3-44 

Waste Dumps 1-4, 1-15, 1-21, 2-4, 2-6, 2-62 

Waste Dump Slope Erosion 1-29, 2-61, 3-36 

Waste Dump Slopes 2-61, 3-36 

Waste Dump Stability 1-27, 2-22, 3-9 

Waste Slope Modifications B-l B-2 

Water (Radiation) 2-43 

Water - Bearing Units (Aquifers) 2-52 

Water Use (Ground Water) 2-56 

Water Use (Surface Water) 2-51 

Water Wells 1-17 

What Is Known About the Health Effects of Radiation C-7 



1-3 



■9U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:1985— 576-070 / 10033 



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-PAGUATE MINE SITE 
VISUAL A 



JACKPILE-PAGUATE MINE SI" 
VISUAL A 

(Use in conjunction with Tables 1-3 and 1-4 
in Chapter 1) 

i I OPEN PITS 

I WASTE DUMPS 

I PROTORE STOCKPILES 

■ TOPSOIL STOCKPILES AND 
BORROW SITE 

GENERALIZED UNDERGROUND 
WORKING AREA 

§Jgg PIT HIGHWALLS 

|g^ AREAS OF ARROYO HEADCUT EROSION 

SURFACE WATER QUALITY 
SAMPLE SITES 

GROUND WATER QUALITY 
SAMPLE SITES 

Source: Modified from Anaconda Minerals Co. 1982.