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Full text of "Dramatic micellanies: consisting of critical observations on several plays of Shakespeare : with a review of his principal characters, and those of various eminent writers, as represented by Mr. Garrick, and other celebrated comedians. With anecdotes of dramatic poets, actors, &c"

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By Mr. G A R R I C K, an» 





RS of the LIFE of 


OF '"" I I R I C K> E s (u 




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LONDON;. ;;.: 
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By Mr. G A R R I C K, aw» 









t E S, 

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Sn&ted for tic A U T H O R, and fol^.'it hi$^jSj!(toV.>- 

4 A- 


cf Mfcbylus^ U tie advice of Laertesi-^*^ 
Kings of Denmark iovers of Rbetfifh. — 
^heir intoxication.— Mafque of the ^jfeen of 
Sbeba. — A whole court inebriated. — Dram 
idf bafe. — Afajfage rectified Vfiib afmaXl 
alteration. — Reverend Mr. Kohertfm. -^ 
Complete ftecL — Beetles o'er his bafe,-— 
Confined to faft in fires.— Lucian^s Dia-^ 
hgue of MenippuSy &c. — Juice of curfcd 
Hebenon. — Oaien^ DiofcorideSj Celfus^ 
efr.— DiftrajEled globe.— T'befrji aB tf 
Hamlet unequalled.^ Ghojl of Dartus^from 
JEfciylus. — A good lejon for princeir^JDr,. : 
Poiter and Mr. Runtm^^^^-U^hoft ofLtaivs^ 
•^Of Ninus^ in Semirams. -^ La CImrWy 
LeKin^ andtbe property rn^mrr-iyiffMSion 
of the manner of addreffingjbe \Gb)^ hj 
Hatniet.--faylary ^rW.IUayenanty Btf- 
terton. — Macklinand Hendfrfon. — ^^ioUey 
Cihber and ^^^ Addijon. -r^ Baod^' and 
Wilks. — BootV s fuperiority in the Gbo/i. 


LL lovers of£hakipea££.are inelebted 
to Mr. Steevens aod Mc Malone, 



I« ■ 

lo^ tli^ diligent t^fearcbes into ev^ tHtHf 
ivlu^h irejated tf^ tiiis gr^t man ^d his far 
nilfj ^nd morv «fp««^all7 to the impoi^ 
jMitofhim^ his .^ritmg;. Thech<!on<^r 
gical f«rk9 of his plays, with kfge a^d 
inftru^ive not«^, is -a very curious a^d inr 
i^^ing pof^po^tion, in wfajk^h Mr. Mar 

^k^F lift ^ ^ 

lone h^ (9n4cavpa£ed to ^utheri^Cate thf 
order and fix the date» of all th^ pl^yf 
wnttqri by oif r grcait poet, 
. After 9, i»oft ftf i^ ^aiD;i\nation into $Hf 
tWEie wh«g H«iRl|?t in^ its fir ft appte^iv 

9mt Mr. Ik^tone is ol>li8ed, to lieavt tbftt 
«w;mjaftance rather vindetecr«jn%(i, though 
be has, with (^i^ .dqgr«e of jpnubafcilityi 
p]a99d Jit IP #f >)M(»i! 1^6, Im^my ,opi-» 
WPfl» -^ iwas biferaght dA 
^A^S^inosie e^ly. In ft^hb {luetas), (for 
«(hkh hfi fn^tailDod. a ^ndiloiqon,; it< if 
^1^^ :k§ jnikdt Aich additions ;<ad he 
th»p^t would j^jmnqe the c,^M4ij^id£ the 
play, fVF^ Q^»iiVpio^.pi^ii^le to 9&imt 

iiisxmv ^i\4i as popnq ^ hi* tt9g«4ifi«f 
% 9Qf||ent of hiftory and tradition, was 

B 2 iiH»^ 


'relilKed, by the inhabitants of 
"this metropolis, than Hamlet, wc have 
-**6 reafon to doubt, that he, froin 
"tiiiie to time, threw in fnch materials 
ss would irripreve the oripAal ftodc : fo 
that the firft and laft "Hamlet might be, in 
<bme refpe^s, as diflifhilar, as Pope's Rape 
<>f the Lock> with' tljie fylphs, and the fame 
I>ocmwiAoiit them. 

The firft play of Shaklpeare, a£l:ed aftff 
^*he Reftoration at the duke's theatre, if we 
"xniay depend on the •I'farrativie of Downs-, 
"^K^as Hamlet ; the principal charafter was 
-^^ed by Betterton, who often exhibited him- 
fidf iivdusipart; at the opening of the the- 
atre, IBS aa mfattibie draw company. 
^Wilks at Dtrcoy-lane, and Ryan at Lincoln's- 
i»in fields; irbquentiy • chofe this favour^ 
jaiart to x»i>en the.^int^ leafon at thefe rival 
l>layboulc&; Prom the firft teprcfentation 
-<*f Haiiil«r»^ ttf^ the prefent day, we m^ 
rteafimably coacltidc) ^hat~ no dramatic 
jpiectf^^tetevtrhas laid- hcdd tm thei public 

• '*--- • ■■ ■ '■- ■' affcftion 

^ .o.:i 


affeftion fo ftrongly and been a£led fo frc- 

A6t I. Scene I. 


For this relief much thanks : 'tis bitter cold. 
And I am lick at he^irt* 

The right expreflion of a fimple thought 
J8 ibmetimes of confiderable and unexpeft- 
fd confequence to the fpeaker. Mr. Bo- 
heme was, about the year 171 8, acciden- 
tally fecn by Rich, when playing with fomc 
itinerants at Stratford le Bow, who foon 
difHnguiflied him from his companions,* 
dnd hired him, at a fmall income, toaiSl: at 
his theatre in Lincoln's-inn fields. 'I have 
been told, that this aftor was, on his-firft 
trial, caft into the trifling part pf Fr^^cifco. 
His unaflcfted, yet feeliog, n^anner, of 
pronouncing tbi§ (hort fpeech, roufed th? 
auditors to an attention of his merit. ^ jEJis 
Jalary was immediately increafed fey [ the 

B 3 ir^anagefi 



niaftagct, and he proved afterwards a great 
ornament of theftagc. 


Not a moufe ftirring, 

Voltaire, who, in examining the merit of 
our author's plays, difdains the ufe of no un-p 

fair method to depreciate them, has ridiculed 

. • » . • . 

this paffageof Hamlet, as if the mctition of a 
ftioufe Were beneath the dignity of tragedy* 
But could there be a properer mode of defcri*-* 
bing ^e folitarihefs which reigned in thd 
place, than by faying, that ^very thing was 
fo ftillf that the foft tread of a fmali replik 
had not been heard ? The infignifi<:aneeof 
m object does by nomeans lefTen the goicfal 
ide^. Have not the moft celebrated an tient 
dramatic writers admitted thoughts 9^ low^ 
and words more grofs and oifenfive, into 
iheir beft tragedies ? How does the nic^ 
car of a Frenchman reliih the filthy plaftcr^ 
arid nafty rags which Philoftetcs applies to 
his lores ? Yet Sophocles underftbod na» 
tQre, taid the law; qf decorum, I preAime, 


as ^ife&ly as Voltaire. Tircfias^s defcrip* 
tian, in AntigcmC) of the ordure and 
filth of the ill-omened birds who had 
fed on the carcafs of Polynices, would 
raife anaufea in the ftomach of a delicate 


French critic ! Men of folid judgement 
and true tafle defpife fuph refinement. 

B £ a N A R O O, 

If you do meet Horatio and Marcellus, 
The r/iw/i of my watcb———- 

Dr. Warburton will hare rhuih to mean 
pirtntrs. Blunt derives the word from rivus^ 
or rivuJus^ or from men fetching ijoaterfrom a 
neigblnmring rrver^ er rivulet. Hanmer fays,- 
ri^ah are thole )iien who watch upon an ad- 
joining ground : by this interpretation, they, 
^o were ta fucceed Bernardo,, muft have 
indeed gone through very hard fervice, 
as th^ were called from one a6t of duty to 
another. But, without a learned explana^ 
tion, it is plain, by rivals^ that Shak** 
fpeare means, thofe men who were appointed 
n€xt ta relieve foldiers on the watch« They 

B 4 were 


were. Indeed {ohfrivaJsy ias they wefediyQ^ 
colors to othei:s» '• and waiting to dcc;n|i^ 
theirplaces, ': \^ . ' 


S»oipe ftrange eruption to tl|e ftate. 

^ Some political diftemper, which ,wiU 
break out in dangerous confequences/ 

. IDE .M.,' , .. • , ., 

Thathatb a fiim^ch init* . • v .: 

Siomacky fays I)r> Johnfon,- in tjije times 
cf Shakfpesare, was ufed for ccnjancy and 
refolittion. The origij;ial, fiotnuabjii^ has^ .y%j 
riou9 figmfttaticHJs /.befidp^ the -^macb* ^^ 
In Cicero, it mea^ng^j in^o^^f ^pl^e^: ^hfiier.}. 
in anotjier, humour , orjanfy.^ IIU mJ^rri'^. 

tiJJiMh fi<i ffou tut Jlotnachik, |n ^^h^kfp^f^f 
fiSfimh generally ita w^s fqr ' ejfceOi^e pri4%u 
Qi; infojep?? of power. ,.:Qjieen Ifathafipej^; 
ipeaking of Cardmal Wqlfeyi ' ,fle.wa$tqfr 
^ unbounded figmach* H^nry VIIL-i^tft-J^jj 
I think, in this p'lac?i * hath 9iJlQm«€b in .ifej, 

- i ineans. 

;: H A M L E T. 9 

fiKans, ^ thebufinefs is of art alarming na- 


,Some fay, that, ever-'gaioil that feafon cotnes 
In which our Saviour*^ birth is celebratedt 
The bir3 of dawning (ingeth all n!ght long. 
And then, they fay, no fpirit dai^eftir abroad \ 
The nigbnxik ycfaolefbber; their nopjanets ilrikct 
No fairy /tf|/v.nqr,^it^hl^th pc^wer to charori 
So ha11ow*d. and (b gracious, is the time ! 

Thele li9es, .whicl? are pmkted in the re- 
prefentation . pf rtljje^ , play, are remarjkably 
beautiful; they are invigorated by fancy 
and harmonized . by verfification. ' 

The word jj^/r/V, Ji> th,e 4th line, fhould 
be,, J think, contracted to fprite^ oxjfrit % 
both are, I, i>elievc, familiar to our old 


.* " ^ ♦ 

* No fairy takes^ \xi the 6th line, is ex- 
plained by Lear's ciirle on Goneril/ in the' 
fecond act qf.that play : / 

^,.' " * Strilce her'^oungbtmey * 

Y c t(jiing ^irs, with lamenefsl'* ^ '• 

• . Scene II. 
Tbe.King, Queen, Hamlet, ,&€.> ; 

JJ A.M t E T. , -^ 

A little more than kin, and lefs than kind. 



Haamer iuppofe^ that this miight for- 
merly have been a proverbial expreffiop j^ 
but vulgar fayings or proverbs are gathered 
from fuch things as freqtiently happen, 
and not from circumftances and ei^ents 
ii^hi^h areunufual. 

The meaning of this- linoi -however Va- 
rioufly underftood by different commenta- 
tors, feems to be veiy obvious i 

* As I am the rightful heirto the crown, 
I am morie than your relation^ 1 am your 
king* As you have deprived me bf my 
birthright, * and committed the trirac of 
ipceft with my mother, it is impoffiblc I 
can have any affe^lon or kindhefs for you? ' 

It ihould be obferved, that, Wheneyef 
Hamlet ipeaks of the King, it is in terms 
of reproach and of the utmoft contempt i 
nor does he ever fcem to pay him the leaft^ 
refpeft^ in hisj^ehavibur or addrefs^^ when 
he fpeaks to him* 

I J> B M. 

Not fo, my tord ; I am too much i'tb' fun* 

* I am ^o far from being obCcured with 
fliadows, . that I am fcorched with the rays 


» ■ ■■ ' ■ ' ■ All thaHivc muft die. 

Faffing thfotigli nature to eternity, 

-. • 

The thought is cottimxjn j' but the ex- 
preflion is awfully Jftriking and extremely 
beautiful^ ' , ' , 

• • • • • • 

No jocund health, ^ that Denmark drinks to-daf f 
But the loud cannon to the clouds fhall teiL 

<. - • . ^ . 

I caimot thank), with Dr. Johnfon, that 
thefe lines particularly mark the King's 
fondnds for drinking;. Drunkennef^ wa» 
the oatiopal vice, as Hsimlet himielf af<* 
terwards confefies. 

This feems to have been pointed out, by 
the author, as the King's firft appearance 
in public after ^i$ ufurping the crown and 
marrying his lifter ^ and is therefore cele- 
brated as a gala-day. He therefore feizes 
Sn bpportunity to compliment Hamlet^s 
conceflion, as he would f^in term it, in 
his own favour, by firing off the cannon 
to his honour at every toaft, 

I D £ M. 


Z D E l^. 

To poft 

, ,* --*'" — * ~ ^ 

With fuch dexterity to inccftuous fheet$» 

Dexterity fpr ^rapidity ^ j ^ / >j . ^ 

» '• 

4 • » 

• • •» 


Would I had met my deareft foe in heaveh. 
Ere I had feen that d^y^ Horatio ! 

This ftrongly marks the refentful, not 
to fay implacable, difpofition of Hamlet ; 
and is of a piece with* his not putting his 
tincle to death, in the third a6l of the play, 
when he was at his devotion, left, in that 
mftant, he (hould fend his foul to hfeaven* 

f « 

I D £ M« i 

My father !— ^*— Methmks I iee-my tfa^tr - - — 

. » _ ■ 

' ' - » O R A T I 0. ' *■ 

Where, my lord? * c. - 

Horatio, , by that queftion, imagined 
that Hamlet faw the fliade of his father. -. 


h" a ml e'^'t;- iV 

Scene IlJt. . . , 
Laertes sud Ophelia. 

r ^ r^ 


L A E R T £ 5« 

The charieft maid is prodigal enough 
If (be ttnmaflc her beauties to th< 
Virtue itfelf ^fcapcs notcalummousftrokes; 
, The canker galls the infants of the fpring% 

In the advice of Danaiis to hiis daughters, 
in the Suppliants of iEfchylus, to guard 
againft the inticements of youth, there are 
fome lines, which bear a ftrong rcfem- 
blance of Laertes's iriftruftions to Ophelia* 

■ ■» ■ I fee your blooming age 
Ihforcihg foft defire. Tknow h^w hard 
To guard the lovely flowers that gr^ce that feafon* 
The queetiof love proctainns their opening bloom: . 
Ah ! would (he fufier it to remain uncropt { 
For, on the delicate tints that kindling glow 
On beauty's vermeil cheek, each roving youth 
With melting wiflies dartV the am'rous glance. . ? 

Potter's iEfchyltMU 


Cofily thy hftbit as thy parfe can buy^ 
But not exprefsM in fancy, 

• -r 

That is, not fantaftic; tawdiy, or fop* 

"V 'i' i">" To thy «iita fdf he Irnc^ 
Thou ^anit: not ih^ hfl fsirc to aay mAo. 

This is a agreeable to one of the golden 
rules of Pythagoras ; ^ ^ 

-~ Umre^v Se ff,ot%,i<r'r MfX^}^ cnqmrdW . 
Sod fsaxime ooonituTi vo'ere teipfum* 

As he drains bis dr?ughti «f ^j^«i^ loveib 

The kings of Dencoarfc have been con* 
ftant drinkers of Rhenift) wine. It was the 
cuftom at Copenhagen, when Lord MoIe(^ 
worth was oiir ambafiador to that ^ourt, 
in 1692, for the king to have his beaker of 
RbeniJhJ^ Drinking to excefs wa? the vice 
of the court and nation ; and our author 
muft have known, that, in his time, the 



* Th« kettle* drums and trumpets, which are ranged 
in a large place before the palace, proclaim aloud the very 
minute when the king fits down to tabhr. Molesworth. 

H A M L E T« li 

King of Denmark, brother-in-law to 
James I. had no^ayertion to large draughts 
of wine. Sir John Harrington, in a letter 
to a friend, defcribes a mafque, called the 
Queen of Sheba, at which the two kings 
ttid the Wh61c court were prcfent, and all 
of liiem'nicift fliaindFally iittoxicdted. The 
^een df Shdba and hh DanilK m^fkf 
paid and^ rix^cS the iame compliment bs 
Don Quixote and Sancho did to each other, 
from the bperatibn of a precious balfam 
in ' '' iSaiitho's ' Homach, when the ia!t-' 
tcfj after a blobdy battle wi<3i the flicep 
afid their befrrffmefi, was examining the 
don's mtrath, and countingthe grinders he 
had loft in the conffi6^. The two drunken 
majdfties, of <iteat-Britaiii and Denmark, 
faj^iHarrinjgtofi,; were fo far inebriated,. 
that ihe^entleffiert of the bedchamber were 
obliged to c'arrj; them on their fliouldcrs to 
their beds. Perhaps our author's know-- 
Icdgeof thisjSacchanalian bout was oncrea- 
fon why he infifts fo much on the drunken- 
adTa of the royal Dane« 

M A M JU E T*^ 


to the reverend and learned .Mr*. !]l^ob@rfet 
fon, he not only concurred with me, but 
affured me he had hlmfelf made the, fame 


That thou, dead qo^fe, again ii\c''onaDkte fteel — ^ 

Mr. Steev^n^ feorpi, Olaps, Woripw^fi 
proves it to he Acij/jtom oC thi5 Damfjoi k^g^ 
tp. be burie^ ifl- thieir. arniour, 5^yi»frd, 
Earlof North^umberl^4>, wJk>> lived, iath^ 
days of Edwardrtl^.C^gaif^or^^^^^^ 
defire, buried armed at all poiijfes^ But,- 
what is more ftrange, Fuller, in his Wor- 
thies, relates, that onie of our old favage 
warriors would' go to bed^ dreffecj in his 
armour, to his new-married bride* 

H O R A.T I Q^^ .., , 

That b^^tles o'er .hi^ hafe into the fea. , . • • 

If I onc^riSjalid: the mfeanig^ofi the % woni | 
ieetkj in this place, it looks frowmngfyyOt^ 
dreadfully^ on the ocean. — The. fajne 
^ thought. 

-H A M L E T. ' 19 

tkm^t Qccui's, wit!h great foh:d, irt $<ki^ 
lhcrn*s Oroonoko, aft V. ' . 

' ' - Oh ! for a- whirlwind's wihg. 

To hurry us to yonder clifF, that frowns 
Upon the flood* 

H O R A T I a 

Heaven will dire^ it. 

Dr. Farmer thinks the author might 
have- written deteSf it. But the prefenf^ 
reading includes that fcnfe> and fomefehing 
more : * Heaven will difcover what is a- 
mifs,, and point out tho mea«i^ of" cor- 

reflion/ r . . . 

■» • < . 

G H O S T, 

Co^h^iio faji in Jtnsi 

^aj^n^ tHfyfSy ^tztt to undefftand: 
^e ptiiiiflirtietttof pai'gatory, or th^ piiri-" 
ftation'oPtHerfbuKbyflre. I hive forrie- 
trticre read, rfiat it was' fortaerly' art ufual^ 
Areata of the. kbman Catholic ptieffe to- 
tfeeir* piertitcnts, that, if thieydid not felt 
here, they muft faft in a worfc plate. — ^" 

C 2 The 


The word faji ftands here, by metonymyv 
ioT punijhed. 

X D £ Af • 

-— I am forbid 

To tell the fecrets of my prifon-houfey &c. 
But this eternal blazon muft not be 
To ears of flefh and blood. 

In Lucian's Dialog^ue of Menippus and 
Philonides, there is a fentiinent which fb 
ftrongly refembles . this caution . of the 
Ghofl:, that I am induced to believe our 
Shakfpeai-e had read the tranflation, which 
was pubUfhed, in Englifh verfe and Latin 
profe, about the beginning of Queen Eli- 
zabeth's reign. 

Philonides aik^ Menippus to difcover to 
him • the laws and decrees of the infernal 
judges. . Menippus informs him, that it is 
not lawful forhinxto lay open^ in. the up* 
per world, what he had heard in the re- 
gions below, nor to divulge the infernal^ 
fecrets, left -Rhada^man thus fhould punifh 
him for it. 




With juice of'curftd bibenon in a vial. \ 

Dr. Gray is of opinion, that the author, I 

or his tranfcriber, by a metathefis, put 
bebenon for benebon^ which is henbane. I 
believe it would puzzle the moft cu- 
rious fearcher to find the word benebon in 
.any 6f our botanical books ; and I could 
wilh the word benbane were fubflituted for 
bebenon^ at leaft \ipon the ftage. The doc- 
tor has qupted Galen, Diofcorides, and 
Wepfer, to prove its narcotic qualities. 
The two laft afcribe to it the power of pro- 
ducing a delirium. But the do6lor did 
not know, perhaps, that Hippocrates and 
Celfus admitted the benbane into their pre- 
fcriptions for certain diforders, and efpe- 
cially for melancholy. Scribonius Largus 
prefcribes it, in fome cafes, under the 
fizxtitoi aftericus. 

• % * 

I J> £ M. * 

So luft, thoDgh to a radiant angel link'd} 
Will fate itfelf in a celeflial bed, ' 
Aiidpreyoo garbage. 

C 3 Thus 

lus Angelo, in Mcafure for Meafure^ 

— Itial, 

W!ho, lyjng by 9 violet jo thie fun, 

Do as.thc carrion does, not as th.e flower, 

worrupc with virtuous feafon. 


In thu dillrafled ^lobe; 

i^fpeare frequently compares the ^>- 
f man to the world, or to a kingdom, 
in King John, aft IV. — - 

ly, in ihebodyof this fitfliIy!EHi<9, 

lis ^ingdonii diii coAfinc of blood bndboeatb-r* 

in Julius Casfar, aft. 11, — 

: ■ . ■ Ttie ilate of fnan, 
ke to a little kingdom, Tuffers then ' 
He nature of an infurrstEMon. 


Swear upon my fword. 

here are fo many valuably notes, ^ 
paffage, in the laft edition of Johnfon 
Steevcns, 1778, that I fliall only ob- 
;, it was a praftice in chivalry for 
hts to fwear on the fword. 

I D £ M. 


I .D £ M* «... ... 

There are 'more things in heaven and earth, Horatip, 
Thaft aVfe dfeaWt of iifi your^lArifotopK^. " . ' 

The poet, ty this obftrvation, intended 
.0 humble ,h. pp&„„ .nd during 
pride of certain philofephers,; who, by ar- 
rogantly attributing known ei^ects- to caufes 
which no human wifdoni can afcertain, 
have difgraced their writings and mifled 
their readers. , . , . 

This.'a6l of Hamlet is fingularly excel- 
lent. For richnefs of -mattery dig-nity of 
action, and variety of chara6ler, it 
may chajlenge a preference to the firft 
a6l of ^ny tragedy, antient or modern. 
^—^ When the Ghod: iS firft announced 
by the centinels, out* txpBftation is mighti- 
ly raifed ; his appearance ftrikes with awe. 
The pathetic ^(idrefs of Horatio fixes atten- 
tion, and raifes the admiration of the fpec- 
tators. But the viiion is judicioufly pre- 

vehled from ahrwerihg Horatio's queuions ; 

- - ' ' . ■ ' ■ ' '_ - 

fot that would have leflehed the cufiofity, 
Jts Well as .the terror, arifihg from tKp inter- 

' Cr 4. "View 


view between the Ghoft and Hamlet'; 
which, for bpldnefs of invention, ftrength 
of imagery, energy of expreflion, and 
glow of pailion, exceeds any thing which 
can be compared with it. ^ 

In the antient Greek drama, the ghoft 
of DariuSi in the Perfae of iEfchylus, is, 
I fuppofe, the only vifion of the Greek 
draina which can be brought in compcii- 
titioh with that of Hamlet. Darius comes 
not a volunteer from the dead, 'hut is 
raifed to the upper world by an incantar 

tion, four lines of which contain aii ex* 

" ■ • 

cellent leflbn to monarchs, and fhould be 
held in everlaliing remembrance by princes 
'who rafhiy engage in war and bloodflied ; 

He in realms-unpeopling war 

Wafted not his fubjeAs blood i 
Godlike in his will to fparc. 
In his councils wife and good. 
.J Potter. . 

Inftead of giving information to the in- 

■ . . * . - -- • 

Vokers of his Ihade, Darius queftioos them 

. •» . . j« . • « ♦ 

concerning the reafons why they defired 
his prefence. After being acquainted with < 


tiic imbappy circnrnftances which attended 
the invafion of. Greece by his fbn, Xerxes, 
and after fome difcourfe' with his queen, 
Atoffa, and pitying the fate of Per- 
fia, he then advifes them to abftain 
from wars, as ruinous, and, in their end, 
deftru6]tivie i and though, at firft, he could 
not tell the reafon why they evoked him 
from his peaceful manfion, he now, on a 
fudderi, defcribes circumftantially the un- 
happy fatj^ of the Perfian hoft in Greece.* 
/ As the. hucniliation of the Perfian king, 
and the exaltation and triumph of Greece, 
is the fub^efSt of Darius's appearance, we 
cannot wonder, that a fcene, which, in 
reading appears tedious to us, (hould be 
much admired and applauded in Athens* 
We are told, by Dr. Potter, that ^fchy- 
lus is the favourite poet of Mr. Rumney, 


J ■ » ■ 

• In the Euincnidct of^fchylus, the Ghoft of Cly- 
temneftra urges, the Goddeffes of Vengeance to punilh 

Oredes: butth'efe terrible ladies are faft afleep, and an« 

- • • •* 

fwer the Ghoft hy fntnlng. Can any thing, in noodcr^ 
pbys, 'be more ridiculous ? Dryden's God of Dreams, 
in his Indian Qiieen, is not fo extravagant 1 



fdiofe sdobirable peddinvasfanph^jncxi .tent 
the ghofl oTDaritrs^ JNtr bah I. thinfc tfieit 
the i7¥tervie«r, of Hsmlet and lib isthmf9 
fh%de» is ft rubjeft lefs mtiereiftii^, lo t^ 
fortli the jittentid^ mA tn^rdft th^ geiu^ft 
of the mbft «rai«ent pttittteiv . ' ' ' - 

In the Oedipus of Dryden and ti^e, tli* 
ghoft of Laiiis is raifcd from hdl by aii ttt* 
taaitation, part of wMch is boirrtiwdA 
isam Macbeth. The^dcafion lscft&]>0)f^ 
tant } find ^ cotnpofi^dti bif A# i)(^l^^ 
lioWever inferior it i^ toi Shdki|)elu^> is 
poetical and ^nimatdd. 

I am at a lots to knotv wh^K^ thd 
fVench lEage would Hive been de^dmied 
with a ghoft, had not Voltaire feeed fkmek 
with that o^ Hirakt. Thetlte h« yfi^mdi 
Ixis Semiramis with that fire which ht &d<e 
from the man> whom he admires, ^vks> 
Vilifies, and groffly mifreprefents. 

As the ghoft of Dariusmaete tils apjKar- 
ante before the whole Perfiari c6urt> <b 
does that of Ninus in the full presence of 
Semir»mis and tbe court of Bskyloni 

• f 


vrUdi h/^ ftrikes with terror and amaa»- 
jnent He is ufhcned in with loud cl^ 
of thunder and flalhes of iightnkig* fiul^ 
^though the author prepared the audi^ice 
for fom^thing Angularly awful and terrify- 
i^> y^i after aU> Ninus makes but « 
ftiuU figuf e. That little which he ipeaks is 
wrapped -up in oracolar obfcurity; and 
the play* though certainly marked witk 
genius, is fo. fabulous in its plot, fo per- 
plexed iti iti condu^^ and fo improbabk in 
its cataftro^Qt that it will require no 
ghoft from the dead to prophecy it will not 
i^ery long be a favourite drama of the 
French ftag«. The author was highly iii- 
debted to thea^ion of La Clairon and |Le 
Kin : the diftra6tion which the latter ex- 
prefled, when riling from the tomb ^ 
Nmus* after killing his mother, was 
attended with pei^etual (houts of ap- 

At the. kft rehearfal of SemiraoH*, 
which, in France, is equal to a firft repre- 
ibitation, a whimfical converfation paffcd 



between the property-man, who prefided 
over the thunder and lightning, and Ma- 
dame la Clairon. As the fellow was pre- 
paring his bolts and flafties, he called out 
to the lady, * Pray, madam, will you 
have your thunder long or fhort?* She 
replied. As long as Madame HumeJniVs. 
This excited a laughter which difturbed 
the theatrical procefs j but the French 
are quickly moved to rifibility. 

Hamlet's addrefs to the ghoft, in this 
a6l, is juftly efleemed one of thofe iitua- 
tions in which the a£lor of merit may dis- 
play, to the full, his greateft abilities. ^ — • 
Taylor was the original performer of 
Hamlet ; and his excellences, in that cha- 

^ • • • 

rafter, were fo remarkable, that, • from 
the remembrance of them. Sir William 

Davehant taught Betterton a leffon which 


gained him univerfal and lafting reputa- 
tion. His manner of addrefs to the vifioni 
is recorded, by Gibber, in language {o 

lively and terms fo appofite, that the rea- 


dcf will not be diiplea(ed to fee them quo* 
ted here : 

* He opened the fccne with a paufe of 
mute amazement 1 then, rifing (lowly to a 
{(Atmny trembling, voices he made the 
Ghoft equally terrible to the fpe^ator and 
himfelf J and, in the defcriptive part of the 
natural emotions which the ghaftly vifion 
gave him, the boldnefsof hisexpoftulation 
was ftill governed by decency ; manly, but 
not braving; his voice never rifing to that 
feeming outrage or wild defiance of what 
he naturally revered/ And in this manCier 
our late admirable Rofciqs addreffed tlie 

Mr. Macklin, whofe judgement merits 
the utmbft deference, differs in his opinion, 
rcfpefting the behaviour of Hamlet to the 
Ghoft, from Betterton and Garrick, With 
pleafure I have heard him recite the 
fpeech of Hamlet to the Ghoft, whick 
he did with much force and energy. Af- 
ter the fliort ejaculation of * Angels and 
Jninifters of grace, defend us ! ' he endea- 

- 1 


which he was naturally thrown by the* fuft 
%ht o£ the vijfion, and uttered' the i^maan- 
^ of the. addreft qaltnly, but re^e£lfully^ 
and with a fij?m tone of voice', as from- one 
_;f^ho badfuhdued hfs^ timidityr and appre^ 
keafian. Mr, Rendcrfon^.araoftjudicioad 
a^or and accurate fpeaker, feems ta havQ 
embraced a method not Unlike thatd£ Mr^ 

How far tradition may be perrhitted to 
^vern^. ia this queftion, 1 will nob fey : 
but Down&, the ftagei-hiftoriain, in his 
pecuiiar phrafe^ informs usr, * That Mr* 
Betterton took every particle of Harcniet 
&Dm Sir William; Davehantv whtf had feen 
jyir.. TayJor> who was taughtby Ma. Shafc- 
%eare himfelf / 

; If we ^v^ credit to- Downs^ we mail) 
grant that the. author, was' the heft int^f^ 
preter o£ hi^ own meaning; Nar> can I>i 
indfeed^ conceive,, that any fudden refolo-' 
tion, on the appearance, of fo queftionablc: 
^ih;aLpe as thayifioaof a d^d fa^tb^f >, carii 



f«iiir:6ippoa:t ai^ as to fto fice& from ter- 
mwd sSogfadL , It: ib. not ia.nalraretf 
aSifne £bch cbudsige as wiJI witbftand a 
%h# ikawfial and treftsedK^nts^. 

1Pmr%idli9 t^ediole^of Hamfet-s fpccch, 
tbiivMrds t^emfelves are J9;rQiigly espreffiv^ 
e^tkeisncomqidn itsppsffibn fttlt retnainm^ 
cii hii^imncl : 

And we, fools of nature. 

So horridly to fhake our difpofltton 

Witl^ though t€' beyondi thcrcaches oftwir foufc. 

' • ' -' 

. Co^y Cifeljeij, wh?a ia eompany with 
Mr. A4diibn at the tragpdy of Hamliet; 
t^ U8/ that they w€»e, b^h- 

%ftfee tt>; the Ghpft • . This waa greatly «ert*- 
fujieiby thembi^h^ aad with jufticc; £<a[ 
mi9 and tfiTXQT will n«vef. e write a loud.an4 
iia^nfipemte e^fiertion of tjie voice. 
. :Wilk& wa3; fQ. f» miftaken> ia tibia 
lawitmeot. of Hamlet^Ghoft;. that Booth, 
©ncdayat rebearfal, reprpachcd him for m 
'lihceaght/ fcidiie, 'Bob^Jthatlaft night 
: ; . you 



you wanted to play at fifty-ciiffk with ale i 
you bullied that which you ought to have 
revered* When I atled th« Ghoft with 
Betterton, inftead of my awing h&i,' he 
terrified me. But divinity hubg roUnd 
^that man I ' To this rebuke, Wilks, 
with his ufiial modefty, replied, ^ ' ■> ' ■ > » 
* Mr. Betterton and Mr. Booth could al- 
ways aft as they pleafed : he, for his part» 
muft do as well as he could/ 

The Ghoft, though not meanly i repre- 
fented fince the time of Booth, has never 
been equal to the action of that comedian* 
His flow, folemn, and under, tone of 
voice, his noifelefs tread, as if he had been 
compofed of air, and his whole depdrt- 
ment, infpired the audience with that feel- 
ing which is excited by awful aftoniftiment! 
The impreflion of his appearance in this 
part was fo powerful, upon a conftant fre- 
quenter of the theatres for near fixty years, 
that he aflured me, when, long after? 
Booth's death, he was prefent at the 
tragedy of Hamlet, as foon as thd 



H A M L E T, 33 

name of the Ghoft was announced 
on the ihge, he felt a kind of awe 
and terror, * of which/ faid he, • I was 
fbon cured by his appearance/ Quin, 
who loved and admired Booth, fbme years 
before he left the ftage, to oblige his old 
friend, Ryan, a£led the Ghoft with the 
applrobation of the public, and as near to 
the manner of his oW mafter as he poffibly 

could. ^ ' . 

• . . . 

Let ihe add here, that the fituation of 
-ffineas, when he is furprifed by. the vifiqn 
of his wife, Creiifa, is fimilar to that of 
Hamlet, and is ftrongly pictured by the 
exclamation of ■ 

Obftupui, fteteruntque corns, etvox faucibushsfit! 

Thefe words are fo expreffive of extreme 
terror of mind, that no fortitude could 
enable any man to recover from it by calm 
effort of deliberation. The fenfes are too 
much diftof bed to be brought into th^ir 
proper tone by any thing but time. 





muss. chdrdMer ^'■•^, large. — j^-Or^s 

Jpnitfs alivflys. qSted by l(m comedufns. -r 

GarricKs vnJiake.r-^Woodward'sfatli^ 

Hamlefs reception of his J^boolfeUpy^s^^rr?, 

A King^s party in a play^ not always dejir. \ 

rable to the aStor. — Reproach of jyernqfibe- 

nes to Mfchims^. -rr Garrlck and Barry. ■— » \ 

Lungs tickled with a kxt.rr-P layers inpi^ 

bition.—Cryingout on the ^efiion.rrr^PCuUi: 

and his load.— Hawk from ah^jjdjfew.-r? 

Boys aSling of female parts. • — Altitude of 

a chioppine.-— ^/'^r a chioppine is. — Cler^ 

gy and players, at variance^ — Renmrkdle 

Jlary to the honour (fa comedian. — Vifage 

warm'd. -— Barou^ and Betterfonji ^— i&f*- 

; nuirkabk ftory. of guik acknowledged hy a 

fcene. if a, pJay.-^ Dr^ Barrm&by and a 

London, apptentice.-^ Tent him to the 

quick*-^JWi^r^(fr of Mr. Derby ^ by Fijkf-^ i 

tt A M t t ry 35 

i^ Beha^'ottt o/Pf/Bef of the play ofttanh 
Uf.'^en Jinjbit'i piatret with tbepla^erL 
-*• Wilksr-^^iSefe&. ht utttrttttce^-^ Bar' 
ry>'—Gam'ck's Jupen'ority, ' 

AGklt* Scene I. 

^ * 

Polonius and ReyfioicK 

pENCING « lier^i f think, put, itt 
our author*s phrafCj for irawling of 
quarrelling* A fencer^ in the day^ of 
Shakfpeare, was generatty underftood fo be 
one apt to be contentious and qpaml- 

That is, fo artfully^ {o dtfcreit^l 

And I believe it is zfitcb $/iffarrant% 

^ I think it a very juftifiafale mode of 
enquiring into my fon's conduft/ 

D a This 


Thk. fcene, between Folonius ' and his 

fervant, Reynol^t ba^ pf^t been 9^cd for 

more than a^xx^tury,: as»4 is J>y no /means 
eflentialto theplay^ s 


And to tb# lift bended their lights on me* 

' • • 

The firft indkatidn of 'his alTumed mad- 
nefs Hamlet gives to Ophelia, from a fup- 
pofition that (he would impart immediate 
information of it to her father. 

P O L O K X tr 8< 

' ^ I am forry that widi better judgement 
I had not ;i^i him. 

"To quofe is to write notes and obferva- 
tions from fermons or books, or to make 
remarks in a table-^book or memorandum. 
In doing thb, a miftake or blunder may 
eafily be made» ^ 

Scene II. 

P O L O N I U 8* 

My liege aad omdam. '' 

■ ■ -■■• ■■ • ■ ,;.• 



d A M L E: T. 


In the delineation of Poloniua's charac- 
ter, two great writers^ Dr. Warburton and 
Dr. Johnlbn, differ widely. The firft makes 
him a weak man and a pedantic ftatefman« 
The other places him in a much fupe- 

rior rank : with him> Polonius is a man 

• . « . • 

who has been bred in courts, exercifed in 
bufinefs, flored with obfejvations, confi* 
dent of his knowledge, proud of his elo-r 
quence, but declining into dotage; in 
ihort, it is by the advance of age alone 
that Dr. Johnfon folves the ieemiog incoun 
fiftency in the conduft of Polonius. The 
whole argument is elaborately written > 
but I cannot fubmit to that deciiion, which 
pronounces that this flatefman was ^ver 
ftrong in intelledl or eloquent in difcourie*^ 
There is but one paffage in the play which 
favours the fuppofed derelidtion of this man's 
faculties ; and that is, in the inilruflions 
^^ gives his fervant, in the ift fcene of the 
2d att, relating to his obfervations of his 
^n'$ conduit J but, in the recapitulation of 

03 precepts. 



precepts, or maxims, independent of each 
other) and where there is no concatenation 
6f rcafoning, a very young, as well- as an 
oW, man may eafily fofFer a lapfe of me* 
mory. In all other fituations of the cha- 
rafter, he is ever ready and fqrnifhed with 
fkch matemls as ^re fuited to his ingapa* 
city and prefumption. His logic and rhe^ 
toric, to proves that Hamlet is in love with 
his daughter,'^ are fufilcicntly flowing, 
and^ though w^ak and abfurd, betray no 
declenfion of his faculties. Such powers 
of mind as Polonius ever liad he feems iQ 
enjoy with vigour} and can boaft, with 
Charon, the crudif viridifque JeneSius^ -• 
While die body remains unhurt, by difeafe 
or outward accident, the mind,, by being 
kept in continual exerqift, ftretches its fa* 
culfies, and improves more and more. I 
could produce inftances in TuUy and Ba** 
coni and, wJth flill more propriety, in 
Sophpcles and Bifhop Hoadley^ But why 
lieed I go farther than Dr. Johnfon him* J 
felf ? He is advanced ^^me y?ars above thQ 



^ of fevetityi without the leaft iympbm 
of intelle£lual decay. Is not his laft work, 
of the Critical and Biographical Prefaces, 
equal to any book he ha^h written ? 

Sut indeed there are abundant inftances 
of the radical weaknefs of this charafter 
difieminated throughout the play. Ham- 
let, notwithft^nding he loves his daughter, 
Ophelia, wherever he m&tts him, turns 
him intd ridkule, and never fpeaks of him, 
when abfent, fe»t with fcorn and con- 
tempt. Hafnlet is thirty years old ; he 
could not but know if Polonius ever had 
hetn wife s ^nd would not meanly take 
the advantage of doting age to hold him 
up t^ laughter. When the Prince dif- 
n^s the Players, he fakes the manager 
afide; he bids him follow Potonius, and 
t&e care h? does nfot nioek him. To ri- 
dicule the, infirmities of age was not the 
Pteyer's buftnefs ; but the evident abfurdl- 
ty tod folly of the man juftified the caUtion. 
To conclude : when Hamlet drags the 
dfeid body of this wretched politician from 

D 4 hia 


his hiding-place, he fuiiis up bb chiarafter 
in veiy farcaftical terms ^ - 

Jndeed thls^CQunfellor ^ 

Is now moft ftilU. moft fecret, and moft grave. 
Who was, in life, a foolifh prating knave. ' 

» t 

This he fays, in the prefence of the 
Queen, after he had confefTed that his 
madnefs was aiTumed. Polonius is in no' 
refpcft, that I know of, to b^ efteefn«d.i 
He is more obfequious and officious thab 
he ought to be 5 a conduft which borders ' 
on knavery. 

Mirabel's charafter of Witwou'd, la- 
the Way of the World, may help iiS td* 
folve the difficulties which arife' from' 
fome pertinent obferVatioris in the: olH • 
ftatefman : * He is a fool with a goodira&i': 
mory -, but, that failing, his folly is^ betrayed i 
by not havingrecourfe to His coinhmbn..^ 
place book/ Every man mu]ft rtcolleftV^ 
amongft his acquaintance, fome very- filly - 
people, who furprife their heak:rs : by ' 
throwing out remarks above their ufual' 



cporfe of converfe. To this tribe of men 
we may apply a line of Mr. Pope : 

The fool lies hid in inconfiftencies. 

The conftant praftice of the ftage, from 
the revival of Hamlet, fooh after the 
Reftoration, to this day, may perhaps 
contribute to juftify my opinion of this 
chara£ter. Polonius was always afted by 
what is termed a low comedian : ByLovell, 
Nokes, and Crofs, informer times- who 
were fucceeded by GrifEn, Hippifley, Taf- 
well,and Shuterj andfthefe again by Wilfon, 
Baddeley^ and Edwin, xn.the prefent. times. 

About five and twenty years fince, Mr, 
Garriclc had formed a notion, that the 
t\ias^€ttc ojF Polonius had been miftaken 
and miifreprefented by thp players, and 
that he was not defigned by the author 
to excite laughter and be an obje6l of 
ridicule* He imagined, I fuppofe, with 
his friend. Dr. Johnfon, that his falfe rea- 
foning and falfe wit were mere accidents in 
charafter ; and that his leading feature was 
dotage encroaching upon wifdom, which, 



fey the bye, IS tio ol3Je6t €^ theaificM k^iSf 
and far frotfl being, vThfit is &V*gf«a b^ tfiC 
great commentator, a noble defigh in the 
author. Full of this opinion, Mr, Garrick 
perfuaded Woodward, On his t>eneHt- 
night, to put hunfelf in the part of t^olo- 
nius. And what was the confequcnce ? — 
The chara6ler, divefted of nis ridicutous 
vivacity, appeared to the audience fiat ai^d 
infipid. His drefs was very ^ii^erent from 
what the part generally wore ;* fh6. habif 
was grave aiid rich, cloth of fcarlet anci 
gold* Whether this was m\imitation of 
fome ftatefman of the times t wjfl not be" 
pofitive, though I have hear^ it fqa^r^edt 
So little was the audience . pleafe^ witl[ 

Woodward, or Woodward wim himfelfj 


that he never after attempted Potoriius, 

p 6 L d N I tr 8. 
-=-= — « — A ihori tale to make. 

Fell into afadnefs;, Ut* -' ' ' 

The ftatefman^s defcriplion, of the feva- * 
ral ftages of Haifllet's roadnefs, gives' no 




proof that his faculties are declining ; but 
rather of afi inventive and du6tile mind, 
which is ready to propagate any tale, or 
advance any propoiition» which might ferv^ 
to prove his great wifdom and fagacity. 

If he love her not- 

Wc fee, by . this, the drift of the cun- 
ning ftatefman ; who, by this difcovery of 
Hamlet's paflion for his daughter, hopes to 
gdn him for a fon-in-Iaw, This is, in 
ouraothor^ a ftroke of nature, 


Ym arc a jifhnuMgfr^. 

The word fijhmonger is made ufe of by 
Hamlet to difguife his real meaning, which 
is, * You are a Jijherman^ and angle for 
me 5 you want to know my real defigns, 


or to plBck out the heart of my myftery.* 



For, if the fun breed maggots in a dead dog- 

Dr. Warburton's noble interpretation o£ 
this paflage cai\not be too much com-- 
mended. Though the thought is not very 
fimilar, it brings to ray mind what Dioge- 
nes faid to one, who reproached him for 
living in filthy places : Hbe fun vijits ken^ 
nehy yet is not defiled. ' 

; ' « - 

ID E M. 


. I am poor in thanks* 

Hamlet receives his old fchoolfellows^ 
with a mixture of real diftruft and affe£led 
ceremony > they come upon him unawares, 
unannounced^ and uninvited. 


Nay, then, I have an eye of yoa. 

* I lee plainly I muft be on my guard* 
Xhele men, I find, arc mere, agents of 
mighty employers ^ and are no other than 

court -fpies.* 


HAMLET.- 45 


How noble inTeafoit ! How infinite in faculties ! la 
foraand moving^ how like a god \ &c. 

In uttering this beautiful defcription of 
man and his powers, the energy of Garrick 
was very ftriking; and the noble figure 
and movement of Barry added a double 
force to the fentiment. Notwithftkndin^ 
this, I am of opinion, that, in this argu- 
ment, in which Hamlet pretends to ac- 
count for his melancholy, the a£lor is ge- 
nerally too tame and temperate in fpeech 
and aftion, and too forgetful of the part 
he has aflfuined. 


He that plays the King ihall be welcome. 

The parts of Kings are not always the 
moft coveted by a6lors. King Duncan in 
Macbeth, Claudius in Hamlet, &c. are 
rather of the fecond or third clafs than the 
firft. Nor was the diadem or thepurple robe ' 
a certainproof of charaileriftical fuperiority 
amongft the Greek players. Demofthe- 



nesy in his oration De £alfa Legationc^ up^ 
braids i^fehines with his being an a^r of 
third parts; but, fays tho^ orator^ th^ great 
emoluments, fought after,, by thefe low 
aftors, in the exhibition of King3^ were, 
to enter the ftage drefled in the royal ha- 
biliments, bearing in their hands the regal 
fceptre. * Theodofius and Ariftodemus^ 
,the prime a6lors, often peribnated Antl^ 
gone, while you, ^ichineSy ftrutted in 
King Creon in the fame play/ 



We coted them oa the rf%f^ 

To cofe is a Shropfliire term for to over^ 

H A M L B T*. 

Whofclung$ are tickled with the fm. 

That is : * The mirth of the fool; or' 
clpwn^ is fo powerful, that it wiU nutb 
laughter in thofe wbofe zgt and gravity Urm 
tmufed to it/ What Falftaff fays to liier 
Chief Juftice is fomething fimilar ;: * Your 





lordfliip has fomcwhat of the faltnefs of age 
abdut you/ The fere and the yellow kaf 
are words exprcflive of decay. 


IPiieiBhibition comes by means oF tbe hte inffovaiiq», 

Eut wjwt inftovat^ioft ? The author did 
not mean, that the theatre was (hut, by 
an order from above, on account of parti- 
cular fcandal being given by the eftablilhed 
players. Mr. Malone has proved, that 
thj?, iatgn^iosti, of'^ a,j£l; referred to^^ waf 
i^j^ oggpfite t& t^^ i^jtcrpr^^ioii given ii^ 
by^ t^fyQ coq^^nl^tj^s. The infio^^itioM. 

n)snti:^wi3i to tb« jfioging-bQjis o| tfeift 
queeou^ chapel amd.S«i:Paulfs^ by whkh tifa« 
regular comedians^ wese r»dm^. ta the. ae-^ 
ceflity of vifiting the. provinces. They 
were therefore; obliged to inhibit themfelvej 
in the metropolis, from the want of cuf- 




^ • . i 

Cry out upon the top of the que^ion. 

Thefe children, ipftead of reprefenting 
the feveral charafters allotted them with 
propriety, affumed a turgid ftyle in fpeak- 
ing 5 for true feeling, and real paffion, they 
fubftituted ftrut and noife. In plain terms^^^ 

■ • 

they tore a paffion to rags. 

H A M I. S T. 

What! are they children ? 

'^ Hey wood, in his apology for aftors, 
complains, that the poets of his time cm- 
ployed children to vent their malicious 
fcandal and litter abufe againft private cha-- 
racers. He infifted, at the fame time, 
that the eftablilhed theatres never encou« 
raged fuch infamous pra£lices» 


Hercules and bis load too. 

I underftand, by this, that the children-- 
a£tors did not only get the better of all the 
other eftablifhed companies, but alfo of 



r ■ 

HAMLET* - 49 

the comedians of the Globe, oh the Bank- 
fide, which was efteemed the moft perfedt 
of any. The figure of Hercules fupporting 
a globe* was fixed on the outfide of" the 


I am but mad north-»we(i: ; but, when the wind is 
. foutherly, I know a hawk from zbandfaw. 

Hanmer has, I think, very properly, 
altered the word^<2«^'ie;tOifer;7/^^'re7,notwith^ 
ftanding Dn Warburtori's obfervation, that 
the poet' found the proverb thus corrupted 
in the mbufhs of the people. But will k 
prince, or a well-bred man, adopt the 
vulgarifms of the mob ? Will a Wcftmih- 
ftcr fcholar fay; for -The little Ceemetery^ 
The little Sentry ^ becaufe he hears it f6 
pronounced every day? Will a gentleman 
fay, the Pee-acbes in Common Garden ^ in- 
ftead of the Piazza in Covent Garden^ be- 
caufe the market-people ufe that cor rup- 
tion ? " 

Vol. III. £ p o L o NM u s. 



P O L O N I U S. 

Scene undtvidftble and poem untiinttedU 

A drama which is confined to place, and 
another unlimited by rules. 

H A ll t S T. 

What ? mj j^oung lady and miftrers ! I with your 
voice, like a piece of uocurrent gold^ btf not crictaed 
within the ring. 

Hamlet addrefles him&lf to the young 
lad who aded the female cbarafler. Be- 
fore the Reftoration, women's parts» fays 
Cibber, were a6^ed by boys, and men 5¥ith 
effeminate countenances* Hart and Mo* 
hun were apprentices to Rotnnibn iuad 
another eminent comecfian, and a6ied fe- 
inate charaSers. TheyiHce$ of girls. d6 
not alter like thoie of boys, winch geiie^ 
rally, at a certain age, become rough and 
manly. However, the iiieral language of 
Shakfpeare, to ufe a phrafe of his own, is 
. well explained, by authorities adduced ffotti 
Ben Jonfon, by Mr. Stecvens. 



9 ' 

2 D S M. 

The latitude of a cthpphe. 

High^heded (hoes were formerly worn 
by women of rank. Tom Coriat, in his 
Crudities, mentions fbme that were of fuch 
a h^Jghtj that it was fbarcely poflible t6 
%dlk with fiiem^ He tells a ftory of a 
Venetian lady, who expofed herielf to tumbling down, on account of 
licr cbio^ines being made fo very exalted. 

The old £ngU(h wordi for high-h^led 
ihoes, w^ moils, which I^r. Skinner thus 
defines : Calcei aJti^iius filtisjuppa^i^ ^m 
r^ibus et mafpuUibus ufitati^ 

The word cbiof^he means alio a Scotch 
lAcafure, for liquor, which anfwers to our 

I D £ M* 

See the plijwt «^ beOoHrcd. The; pure ibe Abflr*ft 
and brief cbraniclct of the times. 

The tmconragemtnt which the players 
,mct with htfii the people, whp forlbok the 
chittdies to eroui the theatres, hnvught 

£ 2 on 

u^ r^ffeiitment and cenfureof the 
on them therein J 

ofovv own church as well as or tnr 

puritans. Tbcir^ K ws? "v^ttk «xtimi ned withl 

an mqmfitp^i^ acrimony, and thf^^aabns 

groflly miftepv^nftd.:'Qw[^,w^^ ^li| 

comHiorj.witb bis trethrenj, felt andixfeafy 

jcd trbciipjuft attack ^j-hc: hag d^erefor^f^Qr 

voted this part of his^playrto:!^ Yifidicatifip. 

.oftheftage. ..J :_ cri.; ,.: x;:/;.:.V 

'After your ' death you *nad better have* a bad cpitapp i 
than thelir ill repbrt whffe yoU iivei '^ ' ' * - :^ '^ ' ' 

- A farcaftic epitaph is .'hot fell ^y the j 
dead; but a bad^of f idicolous chai'adter dr ; 
thfe living,, by mfertib Uriivirfdfy ^khbWn; i 
and fo generally \vctebme,^a'!5'thfrcfofAediahsi 

mdy-be followed' with fome incOttVenience. 

•« ♦ • » • , 

'^- Of- all- the corn men taforsupota bur au- 
thor, Dr. Johnfon feems to keep moft cl^t 
of illiberal reproaches on the player-editors. 
-He does n<5t. charge thefn^ MeF^ethersi' with 
grofs Ignorance and iniJapacity,^' Theobald, 
Warbnrton, 5 and /afiDther^criiic^/fcayc,: on 
this:-. futjetV, 'fonjetitne^ indulged aa a^e^ 
rity af:ph];afe. not very becoming th^flyld 

o£ gentlemen* V. .. 



i 1 {hall het-e,' 'ife > honour of ;the proi 
b£.r. playerSjli fubjoin ia! paf&ge,r I 
fciely reacf, inranopatibn'of Demofthencs; 
againft ^ichineS) ^DLfdJfa Legaticfte, and 
i?hii?b refleSs/grb'at'tredit'upon Satyruy, a 
Vfery emme^t comic aftofof Athens. This 
iian was the'fmendiSafidiinftruiStor of De^ 
&dflfaenes ; arid^ :at the fame time, reoiarr 
fcabie for naimidking his. defe6ls, which 
icbded, as muGhi^p^hapPrf ais any things 
io Bender him axil aeconipliftied; oratpr. I 
iPOi perfiiakled the reader will excufe my 

ftfetroiucfhg it in this place, efpecially 'aS 
the learned Dr. Lcland has not traqfla* 
^ that bratioia:Tvhicii Afcham terms a 
Mqclio^ inftrutaibnrinitfelf. 
^'^'^vWhen Phihp of ^accdoo had f aken thp 
-fifty of Olyntlxus; he celebrated theOlympijC 
^gataes. He. invited to the feftival allthe 
frafbfibrs: of the jpblite arts. He enter- 
taned th^ ; with the choiceft banquets, 
^i: beftowed ccowns upon the victors. 
Pmng the heightx)f the feftival, he afked 
fetyrus,- tho qomifdian,; vfrhy, of all bis 
|flS^, he alone had afked for no gift, nor 

El had 


had defired any mark of hi? f«Totir ? ^d 
he fuppofe him to be of a mean and (sxsM 
difpofition ? or did he conceive that he had 
entertained any Hi will towards him 2" 
I ^ Satyjrus modeftly Tcplied, tl»t he Ib^ 
in no' need of thofe a6bt of flauhiikence 
which others demanded. . What he ihooU 
requeft of the king coiild with the greateft 
facility he granted } but he had fbme fcafi 
left his petition Should be rge£ted. Philip 
encouraged him to urge his demand ; and, 
i/vith a facetious gaiety, alTured him, tlMt 
he would refttfe him nothing he OaovSA 

^ Satyrus then informed ii» ktQg» tiMt 
his old acquaintance and hoft» ApoUofhi^r 
nes of Pydna, having been flain thmogh 
treachery, his relations, tecnfied at the in- 
cident, had, for fafety^ conveyed his *iW 
7oung daughters to Olynthus; hut, as 
that city had now become fubjugated to his 
majeily's arms, they were in the coaditioa 
of prifoners and captives. Now the ictfe 

boon I fhall beg of you^ continued du 



H A M L E It* 55 

pJayer^ is, th»t you would give orders for 
their deliverance into my hands *, not for 
the lake of gaining any advantage to my- 
felf, but that I may bellow on them por^- 
tions equal to their birth and education^ 
and prevent their falling into any hardlhips 
or difgrace unworthy of me or their fa* 

' The whole alTembly, upon hearing 
this generous requeft of Satyrus, broke out 
into loud and tumultuous applaufe ; and 
Philip, with a good grate, immediately 
(omj^ed with his wilhes/ 


All his vifage warm* J, 

Inftead of warm' J^Dr. Warburton would 
fubftitute wannd. The cJontext may pof- 
fibly afford fome ground for that alteration j 
but I cannot agree, with Mr. Steevens, 
that the a6tor never turns pale in reprefenting 
extreme agony and diftrels of mind. In 
fome very affeding fcenes, Garrick and 
Mrs. Gibber have worked themfclves up to 

E 4 the 


the fhedding of tears, efpecially in the parts 
of Lear and Cordelia. Mrs. Siddons, very 
Jately, in the third a£l of the Fair Penitent, 
was fo far affected/ with afluming the min- 
gled paflions of pride, fear, anger, and con- 
fcious guilt, that I might appeal to the 
fpeftators, whether, in fpite of the rouge 
which the aftrefs is obliged to put on, 
fome palenefs did not fticw itfelF in her 
countenance. . I think, too, that Mrs. 

» • 

Gibber, Mrs. Yates, Mrs. Crawford, and 
Mifs'Youhge, have given the fame proof of 
confummatq feeling in fcenes of a fimilar 

The hiftory of the French theatre records 
fomething ftill.more difficult in the art; of 
a£lin^ : of an actor's turning pale and red io 
the uttering of a (ingle line. When Baron^ 
after afeceffionofalmoft thirty years, return-* 
ed to the ftage, he chofe, on his firft re-ap- 
pearance, the part of Ginna, m the tragedy 
of that name. His manner was fo different 
from what they, had been long ufed to, 
from the vicious habits of the reigning 
a^ors, that he was at firft coldly received, 

till . 


till he repeated tlie folldwing lines, in whiehT 
he drew a lively portrait of the Confpira-^ 
tors, in that tragedy : 

Vous eufEez vu leursyeux s'enflammer dc fureur) 
£t dans le meme in(Iant,'par un'effet contraire, 
Leurs fronts palir dTiorreu^ et roupr de colere* 

r • » 

My. author *' fays, that, when Ke pro- 
nounced the laft line, Baron's palenefs of 
Countenance was vifible, and which was 

■ « 

rapidly fucceeded by a flufli of r^d. This 
convinced the fpe6lators, that this great 
a6lor entered, by a kind of magic force, 
into the fpirit of the charafter. 

The following account of Betterton's 
amazing feelihg will* furnifli a proof, that, 
when the player' is trtily impreffbd with his - 
chirafler, he will, in^the reprefentatipn of 
fear and terror, affutne a pallid hue,- as 
well as the contrary cbnfplexion from dif- 
ferent emotions : ' ^ 

* I have lately been ^old, by ^ gentic- 
irt^n- who- has frequently f^en' Bdtterton 
. . perform 

' i> I i . > 

-P AiiecdQtqs Dxdoiptf^ues* 


perform Hamlet, that he obferved 
cpiinten^nce^ vrhich was naturally ruddf 
and fanguine^ in the fcene of the third a^ 
where his father's ghoft appears, through 
the violent and fudden emotion of amaze- 
ment and horror, turn, inflantly, on the 
fight of his father^s ipirit^ as pale as Us 
neckcloth ; when his whole body feemed 
to be affe6led with a tremor inexpreffibk ; 
fy that, had his father's ghoft adiiially ri- 
tm befo^re him, he could not have been 
fsiztA with more real agonies. And this 
was fek fo ilroiigly by the audience, thA 
the blood feemed to ihqdder in their veins 
fil^ewife ; and they, in iome meafure, par-; 
took of the aftonifhrnent and horror witfi 
which they (aw this exce^ent a£tor ain 

Tears in bis eyes, diftradion in bi« afpeAf 

' ' Tears m his eyes, diftradlion in his aP- 
peft,' imply. grief and diflrefs in theot-- 
mc^ d^ree ; confequently the face is not 

^ LiAureat, p. 31 • 




H A M L E T« .^ 

nxarffni^ orreddened» vdthrage orrefeat^ 
toent, fuch as I have jfeenln honeft Ryan*$ 
countenance^ when ^tated vdth a fup* 
pofcd view of Duncan's body, ia Mac* 



What^s Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuha? 

Mr. Uptonand Six Jq^ Hawkins have, 
111 reference to this line, quoted the flory 
^f thp Pherean tyrant, who quitted the 
theatre with tears, on feeing the diil:refs of 
Hecuba in the tragedy of the Troades. Ta 
this ftory Mr* Pope alludes in his prologue 

Tyrants no more thnr favage naturet lce{it. 
And, foes to virtuey wondered liow they wcfit. 

Upon a Ime in this Ipeech of Hamlet, M n 
Steevens obferves,that there muft have been, 
in the time of Shaklpeare, feveral very excel- 
lent' tragediaQs, or he would not have 
ibrmed chva^ers (iich as Hamlet, Lear, 
&c; which lie had no profpe£): of feeing 
]^epfefente4 with force ^nd propriety. Mr. 



Steeveiis may W6w; tHat the prirfcipa! t'^-' 
gi<i:p&ts of-'ShakTpeare Wefe aAfeiti- diiefly 
B^^'Burb'ige arid' ta^^dr."^ Allen; "the othe? 

ipeare's, Ben Jonfon's, and Beaumont' 
Fletcher's, playa» ■■ 


» »« 

r • 

I b £ M» 

• r T •• 

. Befides 

Mid, ia coTOplrariqe w;tH mocierh jnanneri?^ 
fiiould be omitted, or exchanged for a^ ww4 
lefs offeftlive. 

I D £ M. 

That guilty creatures, fitting at a play, 
,Hirf,. tX the yerx^ 95f ^i^wfc 9f^bt^li^i«i;.{U 

the firft Jpeai^loif^ ctfntl^fj^e^y;!! j^djrj? 

.: r. foy 

r::: H A ML 1^ , Tv j, §t 

for Actors, publiflie^ in 1 6 1 2 ; ^ ,/ , r The 

comedians, belonging to the Earl of S.uG- 

f§3f j ;9#e4 ar play, cayed Frier Fra^^^is^^ at 

l^yna jRcgis, in Norfolk^ 4n whidi thf5 

^iry of sij wora^n; v\{a? reprefented^ ^wh*^ 
t(>;epjgyy. ijnmolefted, ^ the. coi^ipany; of ^ 

jQpijg;,fellpWy.ba4 murdered, |ier huftiaod : 
file is brought on the ft^ge as haunted 

|)y :his glM)^:-T^ I^"5i"S c^^.t^^Wi- 

ring Jhfi;re?$)n;fif , t^ts'^xgl^mft^. .l(|j» 
pQiafefiid, .that, . fey^ral jjlP^M ^c»b ? that 
time, ta fecure th^ litfyfc .k>£.|l-c€V Jain ^«,otlc-; 
man, (he had poifoned herhufband, whole 
fearful image feemed to appear before her 
in the fliape' of the ghoft in the play. The 
wttaian ^was afterwlards tried and- con- 
detnneii for the fa6l/ For the truth of 
this'ftory, Hcywood refers his readers to" 
- the 

*j i > • 


the records of Lynn and many livkifg wlt^ 

A more recent efftSt of flages^reprefenta- 
ik>n> to roufe a fcnfe of giiilt in the mind o£ 
a fjpeftator, has been told me with fuch proo^ 
tof authenticity that I cannot difbelie^e it. 

Dn Barrowby was, many years fincd^, 
ibit for to attend a young lad who was an 
apprentice to a if adefmati in the city : he 
feund him extremely indi^fed and low**- 
tinted. After fotne quefllons, aiked him 
by the doctor, tj^e boy faid, his d^etiip^f* 

< > « 

was owing to his h&ving lately fseti the 
tragedy of George BamwelL tik cafe, fae 
£ud, refembled Barnwell's £> fsa as the 
fobbing of his mafter ; and this, tie fiad^ 
ky very heavy upon his mind:* 

I D B M« 

PlI tint him to the quick* 

Dr. Johnfon interprets ^enf to be the 
£archinghis confcience> as tents are applied 
to probe wounds. Thi^ meaning I ihall not 
contradict. But to tent is a north-country 




phrafe, which fignifie^^ to look to^ to attend to. 
Ray,' from Chcftih-e Dialogues, gives this 
p^ovcri>: * ni/iWfthre, ^troth Wood:' 
dtatisT, tliwittcb thee narrowly. And per- 
haps this meaning may be farther coti^- 
firmed by what Hamlet afterwards fays ttf 
Harattp, iri the next ad r 

For I my eye$ will rif et fafi Co his. 

^0 take tent is a' Scotcn phrafe, at this 
day, for advifing a perfon to be attentive to 
a particular bufinefs^ 

The play's the tbhig 
l^i^reki Til canrh tiw con&knteof tht tCiiig% 

That the reprefentation of murder, be- 
fore the munierer, will not always prodttce 
the defirod effedt, we have a remarkable 
tnibnce in the ftory of Derby and Fifher : 

They 'Were two gentlemen very inti- 
tnat% acquainted. The latter was a de- 
pendent on the former, who generoufly 
Applied him with the means of living as 
became a man of birth and education* But 


no benefits are • fufficient to bind ,the baie 
and the ungrateful: after parting, one 
evening, with Mr. Derby, .afe his ^cham- 
bers in the Temple, .with, ajl. the ufual 
marks oiF friendfhip, Fifher contrived to 
get into his apartments, with an intent 
to rob and murder his friend. This he 

unhappily accomplifhed. For fometime, 


no fufpicion fell on the murderer 5 he ap- 
peared, as ufual, in all public places. ^ He 
was in a fide-box at the pi^ of Hamlet ; 
and, when Wilks uttered that part d£ thfe 
foliloquy, which fpoke- of * guilty crea- 
tures fitting at a play,' a lady turned about, 
and, looking at himj faid, ^ L wi(h the 
villain, who murdered. Mr. Elerby,^ were 
hereT The lady and Fifher ^vyfreftran- 
gers to each other. It was afterwards 
known, that this was the man who had 
killed his friend. The.perfonSr prefent 
in the boxj declared, that neither the fpeech 
from the a£lor, nor the exclamation from 
the lady, made the leaft external imprefilon 
on the murderer. Fiftier fopn after elca- 
ped to Rome, where he profefF«d himfelf a 




Roman Catholic, and gained an afylum. 
About five and twenty years fince, ray 
friend, Mr. Richard Wilfon, the Iand-> 
fcape-painter, faw Fifher at, Rome, and 
fpoketohim. He was then, I think, one 
oftheconofcenti, and a pi6lure-dealer.* 

Since the firft afting of this tragedy, . the 
commentators are agreed that the author 
made many additions to it ; more efpecial-, 
ly, it is thought, refpe£ting. the players, 
whofe caofe was his own, and which he 
cfpoufed upon the general topic of defence, 
that it was not only not malum in fe^ but 
really beneficial to fociety, and particularly > 
m the detection of enormous crimes. — — 
Hamlet, we fee, puts his falvatipn upon 
the trial of his uncle's guilt in the repre- 
fentation of a play ; he places more confix 
dence in the fuccefs of this plot than jn.a. 
vifion that had affumed the form of bis, 
mble father. But this, was not all? a 
quarrel had arifen between Ben Jonfon and 
the players ; the real caufe is almoft un- 
known s but it is certain, that the three or 

Vol, ni. F four 

• Mr. Derby was Ion of the kcoiuiajry in the prottio- 
JiolOfy*8 office. 



four of his pieces, which Ben wrote after 
his Every Man out of his Humour, were 
a£led by children. One of them, called 
tiie -^ Poet after, was an outrageous fatire 
upon Decker and fever al of the aftors. I 
have faid fo much upon this fubje^l, in a 
review of Jonfon's pieces, that I ftiall not 
here take up much of the reader's time. — 
Shakfpeare, we fee, has difcuffed the argu- 
ment, relative to the encouragement of the 
children preferably to the eftablifhed come- 

• * • 

dians, with great judgement and temper. 
And I think I can perceive feme leflbn of | 
caution, given to Jonfon and others, on i 
account of their affeded contempt oi the | 
players : ' You had better have a bad epi- 
taph, after your death, than their ill re- \ 
port while you live,' feems to be of this 
kind. This rupture, between Jonfon and 
the players, lafted, I believe, from 1599,^ 
till the death of Queen Elizabeth, in 1603. 
It is not impoflible but that King James, 
who loved and patronifed theatrical diver- 
fion^, by the perfonal encouragement he 

• gave- 



gave to Shakfpcarcj might be the means of 
feconciling the contending parties. We 
Juiow that Shakfpeare affifted Jonfon in 
writing his Sganus ; and Dr. Johnfon and 
Dr. Farmer are of opinion that Ben wrote 
part of the prologue and epilogue to Henry 
VIII. The ill fate of Sejanus, at the 
Globe, did not deter Jonfon from giving 
the fame players his Fox and Alchemift. 
But fo capricious was his temper, that, 
notwithftanding the deferved fuccefs of 
thefe comedies, he einployed children to 
aft his Silent Woman, a piece utterly un* 
fit, I fhould think, to be reptefented by 
any but aftors of the mpft eftablifhed me- 

In the fpeaking of this impaffioned foli- 
loquy, Wilks had an ample field to difplay 
the warmth of his difpofition. . The actor's 
genuine temper fometimes combines itfelf 
io ftrongly with the feelings appropriated 
to the character, that the fcene receivei 
additional advantage from it. The va^ 
rious paflions of the fpeech be felt with 

F 2 energy 


energy and expreffed with vehemence j tQ 
give force to fentiment, this player would 
- fometimes ftrikc the fyllables with too 
much ardour, and, in the judicious earj 
create fomething like diffonance rather 
than harmony ; but this was not frequent 
with him. 

In this fituation of Hamlet, Barry was 
ple^fingly. animated. But here it muft be 
owned, that Garrick rofe fuperior to all com- 
petition: his felf-expoftulations, and up- 
braidings of cowardice and pufillanimityj 
were ftrongly pointed, and blended with 
marks of contemptuous indignation; the 
defcription of his uncle held up, at once, a 
portrait of horror and derifion. When he 
clofed his ftrong paintings with the epithet, 
iinJIefs yillBin I a tear of anguifh gave a 
moft pathetic foftnefs to the whole paffion- 
ate ebullition. One flrong feature of 
Hamlet's charafter is filial piety : this 
Garrick preferved through the part. By 
rfiftoring a few lines, which preceding 
Hamlets had omitted, he gave a vigour, as 



H A M L E T^ 69 

well as connexion, to the various members 
of the Ibliloquy. It is impoffible to forget 
the more than common attention of the au- 
dience, which his aftion and change of 
voice commanded, when he pronounced— 


■ I have heard. 

That guilty creatures, fitting at a play ' ■ 

and the following lines, to the end of the 



F 3 CHAP- 




treachery cf GuUdenfletn and Refewraus. •— 
Soliloquy ^/^ To be or not to be. — Refem- 
blance of part of it to the fintimtnts of Socra- 
tesy in bis apology to the Areopagus. — 
Greek quotation. — Latin verfion. — Tounj[s 
Revenge. — Whips and fcorns of time.— 
Mr. Steevens. — Quietus. — Bodkin ex- 
. plained. — Wilks. — His utterance of To be 
or not to be. — His greateji error in de-^ 
portment. — Garrick's exprejjion — and aC" 
tion. — AJJumed madnefs^ to Ophelia^ hj 
Garricky Barry ^ Sheridan^ Henderfon. — 
Advice to the players. — Perriwig-pated 
fellows. — Madame Couvreur. — La Clai- 
ron^ Le Kin.'-^ Full-bottom wigs ; — i^orn 
till 1720. — Addifony Congreve^ Wtlh 
Boothy and Gibber. — Macbeth new-drejei 
by Macklin. — Antient and modern pant(h 
mimes. — AuguftuSy and Pylades the mime.-^ 
Age and body of the time. — T'arleton ana 


ketbman and ff^ilis. — Odd agreement. -— 
jlnecd(^e -afPihkitbfnan. — Henderfins epc^ 
ielknce. — Horatio and Pyladfs^^^Chofu^.^^ 
Dr. Hurd.'^Mrs.. Montagt(e and Mr. CqU 
man. — Ridiculous praSlice of jlage^murdeT'' 
ers. — Garrick's unvaried aStiofi. — Foreft 
of feathers ^W a cry of players. — Pad- 
dock tf;?^ peacock. — Duty too bold ex- 
plained. — Ftar ferfonified^r^Ube King^sfo^ 
lihquy. — •^Keen^ ^inJ''^ Hukt^rr-HoW his 
audit ^mds. — Hamlet's vindiifiw t)emper. 
'-Voltaire's rat trapped.--^ As kill a king, 
— None wed the fecond but who kill'd 
the firfl. 7— ^een charged with murder. rr^ 
Takes\ off the rofe, &c. explained dif- 
ferently from Mr. Steevens. — Ttbenatare of 
unotioti. . — Several pajjages aftempttd fo be 
explained. — Two piSiures /V little} — ' 
Stage^trick of the a5tor at the entrance of 
He GBpJi. •— My father, in his habit, as 
he-liv*d; — tTripeg the bafket on the 
houfe-top* explained. — Jidflfufpiciomy in * 
Hamlet y of bis two fc boo If e Hows . — Merit of 

F 4 the 


the fcene between Hamlet andlns mother. -^ 
- ^ay/oTy BettertoHj Wilksy Milward. — 
Garrick.^Barry. — Sheridan. — Henderjbn. 
-^ Smith. -^ Lady Slingshy.^-^ Mrs. Porter^ 
Mrj. Hallam^ Mrs. Pritchard. 

k€t III. Scene I. 
: T Jie King, Queen, &c* , 

G U I L O S N 8 T B R K. 

But4«itlra cUftjrmftdnefs keeps aloof, * 
W(iea we would b^ing him to fome confeffioQ 
^ Ofhist^uci^atc. 

t » f • - 

' I ■♦•//■■;''''<''. * • * '' 

n HIS fpeech of Guildenftem contains 
a full confirmation of the baienefs 
and treachery of thefe fchoplfellows of 
Hamlqt, who betray him, as far as lies in 
their power,, to the King. In their com- 

merce with the Prince, they feem to have 

-> • 

nothing in view, but, at his expence, with 
the lofs of, their own honour, to gain. /^^ 
th^r^ks as jits a kings rememhrtmce. 

« «■ 



R A M L £ T« 7] 

-R A M L X T^ 

To be or not to be. 

' This celebrated foliloquy will be admi-' 
red, got by rote, and cortftantly repeated, 
by all peHbns of tafte,< ^as long is the tXm 
iftence of oiir language. 
\Some Yifits of this fpcech bear fuch' a 
ftrong refemblance to an argument, rela- 
tmg to the future exiftcilce 6f the foul,* la 
Hato's Apology of ''SoGr&tfe& htfott the 
Ai^dpagus, that*, if that part of the great 
phSqfopHfer^s Works hddbeen tranflated in-n 
t(y'Enj|li(h in' 6ur aufhor*s life-time, I 
fltould • have imagined he had thence bor- 
rowed :feveral fentimcnts in the foliloquy. 
BtttJ in Mr. Maldne's accurate lift, of an- 
tient authors tranflated into Englifli in the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James, the Dia- 
l(^e of Axiochus is the only part of Plata i 
then publiftied in Englifh. 

The paffage, in this author, I refer to, 
is in the 3 2d fe^ion of the Apologia, as 
follows in the Greek. Fofter*s edit. Qjc. . 
1765- — 




9tQV [jLniSev BiVocfyrfiijS* :ttxcrdi^^tr fjiTj^BfJtiotv [ii^S^EPO^ 
i^iv 'rev ndvecATcc, % rutra Ta ^iyofAtvu. . ^mrec^ 

~* *. ' , ^ 

V ' • - ... . • , 

Mors eriim mceje efi fit alteram ck. duo-; 
Ims : ut aut ^ fiUiiluia redeat, et oqanei 
omnino feorus amtttait mortuus^^ ^^t^. 
quemadmodum diciturj in aUum <|.tienda^^ 
locum ex his Ipcis morte migrftun ;E£; 
five fenius qxtioguitur^ fnorique ei* fpou^. 
fimilis eft qui nonnnnquam fifte vifis fom<^ 
nioruin placatiflimam quietem a&rt, i^*^,. 
mcnfum fane lucrum eft emori. * \ 

The ^xx^MLfTiov KB^ioc of thc oidginal fedsb 
to anfwer fully to our author's air^imim^^^i^n . 
devoutly to be wijhed for. The feft of tj^e . 
feftion, though admirablQ, is different in 
argument from the remaining gatt of the i 
foliloquy. But Dr. Youtig hjs, in his 
Revenge, taken advantage of a noble fenti- . 


H A M L E T. 


lOtnt of Socrates, Who - pfcafe* himfelf 
with the idea of meetings in the' other 
world, the (hades of Minos, Rhadaman* 
thus, ^acus, Triptolemus, '&c. ^ ^ ■ So 
Alonzo, in the fourth aft of the Revenge, ' 

Death joins us to the great majority ! 
'Tis to be bbrn to Platos imd to Caefart i 
'Tis to be great for ever ! 


For who woujd (ear the whips and fcorns of time ? 

Notwithftanding all the learned com- 
fflentatbrs have faid on thefc words, it 
fcems to me very obvious, that, without 
any particular allufion to his own age, the 
wthor meant a general fentiment con- 
cerning fuch common wrongs and afflic- 
tions to which life, and efpecially long life, 
is ever expofed* 

Mr. Steevens, in addition to his large 
note on this quotation, affures us, that, 
there was more illiberal private abufe, and 
peevifli fatire, pubUfhcd in the reigns of 




Queen Elizabeth and King James I. than 
in any other age, except the prefent. 

This is not very clear to me: but 
happy is the man, who can, with a good, 
confcience^ affirm, he never was guilty of 
the bale praftice of wounding the fair re- 
putation of others, or of difturbing the 
peace of families by malicious and ranco- 
rous flander. The propagation of obloquy, 
to gain wealth and preferment, may ad- 
mit of fome exculpation ; but, of all a- 
hufe, that, which is fpontaneous and un- 
provoked, is the moft unaccountable. — - 
What does Mr. Steevens think of a gentle- 
man, who, when at his country-feat,, 
found no amufement fb plealing as writing 
libels upon his neighbours, and throwing 
them over their garden-walls, with the ma- 
levolent defign to torment thofe who had 
never offended him ? 


Himfelf might his juutus m2ike 

With a bare bodkin. 



The word quietus is well explained^ 
from good authority, by Mi\ Steevens. — 
But to inftance a Roman dagger for a bodkin^ 
when the author mbft certainly means the 
fmalleft inftrument of deftrudlion that can 
be ufed, is furely a very great mifapplica- 
tion of criticifm. Skinner explains bodkin 
toht crinium incerniculum^Jeu difcerniculum^ 
ecus crinalisy a hair pin or needle ^ which, if 
properly applied, would dilpatch a man as 
foon as a dagger or a fword. All the au* 
thorities, produced in this place to authen- 
ticate the application of the word bodkin as 
fynonimous to dagger^ or Jiilletto^ fervc 
, only to miflead the reader. 

Wilks fpoke this foliloquy with a pleafing 
melancholy of countenance and gravedefpon- 
dencyof aftion. He was lefs Ikilful in the 
utterance of fentiment than paffion. His 
greateft fault, in deportment, p-oceeded 
from his aptnefs to move or ihrft his 
ground. It was faid of him, hy a four 
critic, that he could never ftand ftill. — 



This fault he never could entirely free him- 
fclf from, though often put in mind of it. 

• • • 

Barry, not having middle tones in his 
voice, co\ild not give the requifite grave 
energy to fentimcnt ; he was therefore o- 
bliged, in fome fituations of char after, to 
raife his powers of fpeech above their ordi- 
nary tone. Garrick, by an exprejQivc 
countenance and flexible voice, gave full 
force to the profound reflexions of this me- 
ditation on futurity, which he purfiied, 
through all their progrefs, with exquifitc 
judgement and add refs. 


Nymph, in tby orifbjis 

Beall my fins remember'd. 

This, fays Dr. Johnfon, is a touch of 
nature j for Hamlet, on the fight of 0- 
phelia, does not recolle6l himfrif 5 he for- 
gets that he was to perfonate the madman. 
— It is very true ; for it was not poflibJc;^ 
that he could, after fuch folemn fentiments, 
aflume immediately a perfonated cha- 
rafter. He does not afFcft infanity, it 



I HAM L.E T. 79 

a^iild be obfervod, till Ophelia offers to 
return his love-prefents* This awakens 
him into a ienfe of his fituation ; as^ from 
that circumflanoe, he muft conclude^ tha( 
her behaviour to him was regulated by her 
father, and perhaps with the King's coa* 


Virtue cannot fo inoculate our old ftock, but we 
ihall reliih of it. 

* Notwithftanding all our endeavours^ to 
Ae contrary, the fin of our firft gjarents 
will be predominant/ 


To a nunnery go. 

The affunied madnefs with Ophelia was, 
by Garrick, in my opinion, mude too 
boifterous. He fhould have remembered, 
that he was reafoning with a young lady^ 
io whom he "had profeffed the tendernefs of 
.paflion. Wilks retained enough of dif- 
guifcd madnefs ; but, at the fame time, 
preferved the feelings of a lover and the 
delicacy of the gentleman. Barry was not 



fo violerit as Garrick, and was confequcnt- 
Iv nearer to the intention of the atithor. 
Sheridan, Smith, and Hendcrfoh, have 
all» in this fcene, avoided a manner too 


'. > , . . , • 

Scene II. 
Hamlet and the Players. 


Speak the fpeech, &c. 

I have always considered the advice ^oi 
Hamkt to the Players as Shakfpeare's le-^ 
gacy of love to his fellows, the comedians. 
Such he called them in his life- time, and 
fuch he termed Ibme of them in his will. 
Wilks, I believe, never fpoke it; and I con- 
jectare it was omitted, from the deathof Bet- 
ter ton , till the good tafte of Garrick revived it. 
The rules were fuch as became the mouth 
of a ccxnfummate mafter in his profeffioii. ' 

, Oh ? it oflfends me to, the foul, to hear a ^obufiioiis 
ferriwif'paUd fellow tear a paffioo to tattef s. 

^ Long 




Long Is the .period before tafte and 
Rudgement can prevail over eftablifhed cuf- 
!tom, bejt ever fo. erroneous. 

The firft French aflrefs, who intro- 
luced a remarkable change in the female 
ftheatrical habit, was Madame Couvreur.* 
the body of the robe (he added a long 
[and niajefldc train, more conformable to 
the antique. But the heroes of antiquity, 
[on the French ftage, were as abfurdly ha- 
bited as the heroines. Scipio, Cacfar, and 
trutus, wore indeed the antient cuirafs 
indbufkins; but their heads were covered 
dth French hats, and adorned with large 
)lumes of feathers. La Clairon and Le 
in, from a love to . the art, . which they 
:ultivated with a fuperior tafte,have entire- 
ly ahered the old mode of dreffing, and 
[^rendered it' more conformable to the cof'- 

The * heads of the Englifh aflors were, 
^for a long time, covered with large fulU 
Cbottomed perriwigs, a falhion introduced 
f VoL.IIL G in 

♦ This celebrated aflrcfs dieJ in 1730. 


in the reign x>f Charles II. which was 
not entirely difufed in pablic till ahout the 
year 1720. Addifon, 'Congrjeve, and 
Steele, met, at Button's coffee-lioufe, in 
large, flowing, flaxen, wigs j Booth, 
Wilks, and Gibber, when fuU-dreffe^, 
wore the fame. Till within thefe twen.- 
ty-five years, our Tamerlanes and Ca- 
tos had as much hair on theit heads 
as our judges on the bench. « 
Booth was a claillcal jfcholar ^nd well 
acquainted with the polite arts ; he was 
converfant with the remains of antiqui- 
ty, with bufts, coins, &c. nor could he | 
approve fuch a violation of propriety; i 
but his indolence got the better of his goocl 
tafte, and he became a conformift to a 
cuftom which he defpifed. I have been 
told, that he and Wilks beftowcd foity 
guineas each on the exorbitant thatching^ 
of their heads. We have, at length, enian- 
cipated ourfelves from the ufual mode of 
ornamenting our heroes, and are coming 

nearer to truth and nature* The tragedy of 


H A M L E T. «3 


' Macbeth would have been ftiil. dreded ih 
modem babit&, sf the good tdfte of Mr. 
Macidiin had notkitroduced the old highkiiid 
miflitaiy had^it. is it not an al^otiate con* 
tradi6lk>n to common feta(e, that theplay 
of Haiaaldt fiaould m tlrefs be modernized, 
laiad ihc King of Denmark wear an order 
which WHS inftbtuted feireral hundred yeatv 
^lier the id:£lion of the tragedy i It is but 
unthin tfaefe twenty y^eiars, that the plays, 
cf Richard in«amd Henry VIII. were dilG- 
^n^oiihed by ih^ two .principal charaSeni 
bmng ^fefled with propriety, though ciif^ 
fere^iy ^roOBi »11 t\K i^. FaUlaff was, 
till very lately, an unique in drefs as well 


Ineducable dumb (ho»fs and Mik. 

Tho& 4BHib rq>refeatations^ as they arc 
well ^ejcplamed, from authority^ by Mn 
^teeveas^ did oot refonbk eit]»er aotieo^ 
or iQodorn pantomiaies* The antient 
Slimes were {6 expert »t the rej^iref^^aupii 

G 2 oi 



;0f thought by aftion, that, inprocefsof 
,time, they .became greater favourites, with 
I the people of Rome, than the comedians 
.themfclves. . Sonie of them had the art to 
- reprefent the aftion of an entire play, fuch 
as the Hercules furens, to the delight and 
aftoniihraent'of the fpetlators. So great a 
darling bf the Romans was Pylades, in re- 
prefenting charafters by dancing with emo- 
tion, that; it is. faid, Auguftus reconciled 
the people to many difagreeable impofts by 
recalling him from baniftiment, a penalty 
he had incurred by pointing to a fpe^ator,^ 
with his finger, who had difpleafed him. 


The very age and body of the time his. form 

and preiTure. 

From acting, Hamlet is infenfibly drawn 
into a partial defcription of dramatic fable, i 
I think, with fubmiflion to Dr. Johnfoti 
and Mr. Steevens, that ^ the age and body 
of the time* means the particular vices and 
follies of the age we live in ; to correft 




thefe IS the bufinefs of the dramatic poet. 
In Ariftophanes, and other antient drama- 
tilts, the moral and political hiftory of 
their times might have been partly traced. 
In Shakfpeare, Ben Jonfon, Fletcher, and 
Maflinger, well underftood^ we might find 

fome aftions portrayed of the age in which 


tbey lived. 



And let thofe, that play your Clowns, (peak no more 
than is fet down for them. 

Tarleton and Kempe, who were excel- 
lent comic aftors in our author's days, and 
generally perfonated the Fool, or Clown, 
were men of ready wit and flov^ihg humours 
' They flood in need of a curb to tlie wild- 
fellies of their exuberant fancy, whicfi 
Shakfpeare hereprefents tbem. ' Joi 

It miift be confeffed, that the a(3:orsj 
termed; low coniedians, are too guilty ^ 
adding to their author's text. Somotimestj 
indeed, it happens, that thfc wit, or 
happy imagination, of the a6tor^ will be 

G 3 of 


of fervice to the fituatloa in which he is 
placed, and unexpeftedly give a relief or 
embelli(hiiient to that which would othej- 
w.xfe be neglefted, or perhaps difapproved. 

The contraiy praftice is» however,, much 
fliore common. Hippifley not feldonx ia 
this point offended, Shuter oftener. King 
rarely, Jonfon and Wcfton fcarcely ever; 
but Will. Pinkethman, of merry memory, 
was in fuch full poffeffion of the galleries, 
that he would hold diicourfe with them for 
feveral minutes. To fine him for this 
fault wasL in vaio j h^ could, not forfek'e it, 
gfld; the ofun^agers were too generous to 
curtail hisn of his income. At kngth^jj I 
vtm, told:^ he and WUks came iq. t^ 
Irhimiical agreement: Pinkey co]!kfea4(€4 
That, whenever he was guilty q{ coc-* 
refponding mth the gods, hQ ftiiouW. r^-* 
ceive, on his. back, thj;e€ |ma^ i^r^k^s 
06 Bob WUks's; cane. -~ This fine,, baw-^ 
pvjEXy wa4^ I believe^ never exa(5iied* r^ I 
fhall give the reader ow fpctcinfl^en of hh 
udibafenAbk dr^Qlkiry* 



III the play of the Kecrtiking Officer, 
Witfcs was the Captain Pliame, and Pink- 
ethman one of the Recruits. The Cap- 
tain, when he enlifted him, aflced his 
aaaae: inftead of anfwering as he ought, 
Pinfcey replied, ^ Why! don't you know 
my name, Bbb^? I thought every fool had 
fcnown Ifhat V Wilks, in rage, whifpered 
to him the name of the Recruit, Thomas 
Applctree. The other retorted aloud, 
^ Thomas^ Apptetree ! Thomas I>evil ! my 
name is Will; Pinfcethtnan r* and, imme- 
diately addireffing an inhabitant of the up- 
per regions, he laid; ^ Hark you, friend : 
doii' t you know my name ?' — • Yes, 
* Matter Pinkey/ faid a re(^ondent, * we 
know i* very w^lL' The playhoufe was 
Hour in an upiiaai! ; the audience, at firft, 
ei^yed the petulant fbily of Pinketbman 
dndfdie diftrefs of Wilks ; but, in the pro- 
gsafs of tbe joke, iit grew tirefome, and 
Pinkey met with his dcferts, a very feve^-e 
reprimand in ^ Mfs ; and this mark of dif^ 
pkafuro he changed into applaufe, by cry- 

G 4 ing 



ing out, with a countenance as raelat^choly 
as he could make it, in a loud nafal 
twang, Odfo ! I fear I am wrong ! 

To the honour of the prcfent race of co- 
mic aftors, it muft be faid, that they fel- 
dom indulge themfelves irr adding their own 
to the author's fenfe. Men of abilities they 
generally are ; and, as fuch, often fuggeft 
fallies of pleafantry and. fituations of hu- 
mour to the authors behind the curtain, 
and not feldom contribute to the mirth and 
gaiety of the fcene by their ingenuity. 

In giving his own fociety, 
there is fome delicacy- required in the beha-^ 
viour of the a6lpr, ^yho, in the perfon of a 
Prince, takes upon, him tbcenfure.and re-' 
form their errors/, M/. jGarrick delivered, 
thefe theatrical precepts with much force and 
propriety 5 but he did not 'accompany them 
with the condefcending quality expetled 
from the high-bred man pf- rank. H$ 
rather fuftained the office of .a ftage- mana- 
ger, and confummate mafter of the art, 
than that of the generous friend and 




princely monitor. Mr. Henderfbn has, in 
this fcene, lefs of the pedagogue and more 
of the gentleman. 


— • 

Horatio, thou art e'en as jufta man 
As ere my converfation met withal, &c. 

The warm and pathetic addrefs of Ham- 
let to his friend is, I think, not unlike 
that of Oreftes to Pylades in the Eleilra of 
Euripides : 

HuAos Jn, <rc yi i% ttputov oiySr^coTroav tyta 
JlKrroif vo[ji.i!^ci3 KCii fiXov ^bvoj/ ifAOi^ x. r. A« 

"Thee, O my Pylades, I deem the firfl: 
Of men for thy fidelity and friendihip. 
And my unfever'd comrade i 

Wodhull*s Txanflatioiu 

I P £ M* . 

I muft be idle* 

* If I am obferved to converfe with you 
ferioufly, my plot will be difconcerted j I 
mull therefore re-affarae madnefs/ 



& Q S ft N. C K A: U S« 

They [the players] ftay upon your p^tieacCv 

* Submiffively, or on fufFcrance, they 
attend your commands/ 

H A M & S 9, 

Sc toty^a afii^med taihew> and th^y. will Ulhyott 
wb:it it means. 

Mr. Steevens reprover the au'thor^fbr 
putting into the mouth of Hamlet ttni>9* 
coming cxprefliojis during his perfonated 
madnefs. But it has been noticed^ by 
tbofe who have vifited the.cells q£ lunatics, 
that females,, the mo0: remarkable fyx mo- 
de%> have> in their inianity, thrown out 
Ycjsy indecent and unbecoming expreffions. 
In her madnefs, the innocent Ophelia 
chants fcraps of fuch fongs as would not 
have entered into her mind when in her 
pierfeft fenfes. 

You are as good as a chorus, my lord*' 





Shakfpeare knew little of the antlent ciih 
rus. What he fo terjns^, of his own, is 
always in the (hape of a prologue. The 
learned B. Jonfon has> in his Catiline, in- 
troduced the Ghoft of Sylla in a rhiming 
kind of exordium or prologue ; to which 
he has added four odes, to be fung between 
the a£ls, as chorus^ in various unequal 

Milton, in his chorus to Samibn Ago- 
niftes, is the genuine imitator of iEichylus 
and Sophocles. Mr. Mafon has, by his 
enchanting poetry, in his mufical odes to 
Elfrida and Caraftacus, almoft furprifed 
the public into a tafte for tliat part of the 
antient tragedy. 

Though it does not become me to 
determine, which of the twa cham- 
piions, for and againit the chorus^ the 
karned Dr. Hard and Mrs. Monta^ 
gue, is. in the right ; yet I cannot help 
Uaning ta the opinion of Mr. Colxnan ; 
who, ia hi» notes to h^S) happy tranflatioa 




of Horace's Art of Poetry, obferves, ^ ' ■ - 
* ;That, if a ciorus be really neceffary, our 
drapias, like thofe of the antients, fhould 
be rendered wholly mufical. The dances 
alfo will then claim their place, and the 
pretenfions of Veftris and Noverre muft be 
admitted as Claffical. Such a fpeflacle, if 
not more natural than the modern, would 
at leaft be cohfiftent ; but, to introduce 
agroupe of fpeftatorial aftors, fome fpeak- 
ing in one part of the drama and finging 
in another, . is as ftrange and incoherent a 
medley, .and full as unclaffical, as the dia- 
logue and airs in the Beggar's Opera/ 


Begin, murderer 3 leave thy damnable fa^es, and 

This contains a cenfure upon the cuf- 
torn of certain^ aftofs', who were caft into 
the parts of confpirators, traitors, and 
murderers, wAotifed todifguife themfelves 
in large black v^iigsj and diftort their fea- 
tares, in order to appear teiTibki^ iri 
' ftiort. 


Ihort, to difcover that which their art 
Jiould, teach themta coriceaL . I have Iccn 
Hippifley :a6fc the firft Murderer in Mac- 
beth : his face was made pale with chalk, 
diflinguiihed with large whifkers, and a 
long black wig. This cyftonj, ofdrefBrig 
fo prepofteroufly the hateful, iriipleroente 
of the tragic fcene, is npw alntoft . wpm 

X)Ut. '! 

• ' ' IDEM.' 

Icould interpret between you knd your Mover, ii I 
could fee the puppets dallying* • ^ . .* . 

That is, ^ I could aft the part of mafter 
of the puppet- fliow, and interpret both 
for you and your lover, if I faw the ieaft 
prelude of amorous inclination/ 

IDEM. ^ 

For fome muft laugh, while (bme muft weep i 
Thus runs the woVld away; " 

In the uttering of thia line and a h^l^' it 
was Carrick's conftant praftic? to ptiU-Qtit 
a white handkerchief, and, walking about 
the; ftage, to tvyirl it . round with vehe- 



svence. This a6):k>n can incur nojuft 
cenfure, except from its conftassit neped- 
•don* He, of all the pkycfs I ever faw, 
l^ave the greateft variety to aflion tend 
deportment ; nor could I help wondering, 
that fo great an artift ihouid, in tihis in-^* 
^ance> tie Himfelf down to one particular 
anode, when hi^ fituafion would admit <^ 
ib many. The conforming to an uni- 
form method of a£lion makes the whole 
appear a lefibn got by rote rather than 
the effort of genuine feeling. 

1 i> E M. 

WouMnotttirs, ftr, vxi^^ftn^ tffMhnt^ g«t4ne# 
&Ilowfliip inarry offices? 

HO It A T t <)• 


H A M L £ T. 

-— — *— A whok oiie* 

The fonfi nf fiu^ert alludes *o large 
plumes of feathers which the old a6^dr$ 
*i^ore on their lieads in chara6kats of hi^ 
roifm and dignity. This praftioe was 


r " 


^^kipted at the keftoradoia^ vtud Cdnfimiod 
In foi«e iHl Mr. C^rmck^s an-n ef <mn«ge« 
»ie»t. His fuperior P»&t ^t rid of dtt 

Cry ofplayerf is, as Mr. Steevens obfervcs, 
z company of comedians. The old aftors divi- 
ded their profits into equal or unequal fbareSj 
Bccordittg to ithch- feveral degrees of tnerit* 
Sottietimes, itrdeed, a very indifferent pcr- 
fcrtntr,'by Jris taierrts as a writer, gained aii 
tqttal, ifitot a fuperior, portibft of the fur- 
^as. It likewife not onfreqpentty hapf- 
fttntd^ tfrat a man, who had no other 
^fert than fumifhing a large part of the 
%arditybe, the fccnes, and other decora*- 
*iotts, tlahned ti cotifiderahle part t)f the 
treaftrt-c. Twrca, in Be^ Jonfon's ^etaf- 
^cr, x^\% ooe of the lower a£lors Tbne^ 

T%is tmftcrm, c(f potticming out the in- 
come "rf the theatre into patt^, fu1:)lifte4 
long amongft the Freach c6tnedians, and 
is^ I believe, praftifed to this day. — r— 
Downs, in his Stage-Hiftory, informs us, 



that the principal aftors of the king's thda-^ 
tre, in Drury-Iane, Hart, Mohun, Sec. 
on an annual divifion of their profits, gained 
fbmetimes loool. each. 



A very, very, peacock. 

Notwithftanding the very plaufible read- 
ing of paddock y inftead oi peacock y propofed 
by Mr* Theobald, I cannot help thinking, 
with Mr* Pope, that Shakfpeare alluded to 
the well-known fable pf the birds, who [ 
preferred that vain, gaudy, foolifli,^ bird, i 
yihtpeacocky to the eagle, in their choice of 
a king. The word paddocky^ afterwards " 
introduced by Hamlet in the fcene with his \ 
mother, I think proves nothing. To inr 
force his argument of her guilt, and. to 
difplay the deformity as well as abfurdity 
of her conduft, he ri^^r^ compares his un- 
,<le to the moft difagreeable;iind difpleafing 
objeft in nature. ,. . .^ [ 

GU I-LD EK S T£ R ti. 

H A M L E T. 1 97 


If my duty be too bold, my love is too unmannerly. 

• • • • • » 

This anfwer to Hamlet's queftion,of' Why 
do you go about to recover the wind of me V 
which is .not, .in my opinion, ludicrous, 
but objurgative, (for he keeps no meafures 
with his old fchoolfellows, ) feems to in- 
clude a fort of reproach. * If, in deliver- 
ing the meflages of the King and Queen, I 
have fhewn too great boldnefs, my refpeft 
to you, in {landing out of the way, that 
you might with more eafe receive the flute, 
ViU certainly be interpreted ill manners.* 
And here I am glad to find my opinion 
partly confirmed by Mr. Tyrrwhit. But 
the movement of Guildenftern appeared, 
to Hamlet, as infidious as the conduit of 
I thefe courtiers in the fecond aft, when one 
of them, inftead of anfwering a queftion 
.direftly, fays to the other, fFbat fay you ? 
which is as much as to fay, * Shall I fpeak 
the truth, or tell a lie?' 




For we will fetters put about this fear^ 

^ Fear is here perfonified, as in Homer, 
wlien it is made the concomitant of other 
terrible companions of war. 

There is, iii the Plaid's Tf ragedy, a paf- 
iage, where the unhappy Afpafia gives di-» 
re£lions to AnWphila to weave, in needle- 
work, a fform and fliipwreck 5 in which 
ttie word fear is beautifully perfonified and 
to be underftood much in the fame fenie 
as in Hamlet .: 

■ In this place work a quickfatid ^ 
And, over it, a ibaljow fmiling water, 
JVnd his fliip ploughing it. And then zfearz 
Do thatyimr to the life, wencbk 

Maid's Traobdy, Aa II; 

Oh f my i^nce is rank ! 

The King is juft come From the repreleft- 
la*ion of the play j where he has been ftrucK , 
Vith compunAionfrOto viewing the fame a6t - 
reprefented on the fcene which he had him- 
felf xommitted. His coming on with the 


U A M L S T» 9^ 

two. ciMirtsersi and the inteniiption of Po* 
bniuS9 are aukward incumbrances to his 
fitaajtioi^ and I think unneceiTary, as the 
&n£ng Hamlet to England had been de- 
termined by the King iii a preceding (bene, 
and Polonius had alreaify told his n)a(^ 
ter l|e . WO0I4 be ^tte^tive to what pafTed 
between Hamlet and his mothen 

Notv^ithftaading this admirable feliloquy 
p( die I^ng de&ribes thtf ftr^iggles of con- 
i(|mceivithpu|t fontf itkmi and adread of fu-* 
tare iiuftiflifBpnt ^ithput rejnprfe or pcni^ 
tenoc, apd which^ \n my opinioji, requires 
a very judicious fpeaker, yet the part of the 
Kingappears fo odious, that the principal ac- 
tors generally ft^up it, as the reprefentation 
of a low and infidious villain* who wants 
fpirit to fupport his afTumed rank with 

dignity and maintain his ufurpation by 

' » . . ■• 

tourage. . Yet there are fome (ituations of 
(%Madti39 worthy the attention of an aftor. 
His bdiimdur during the afting of the 
ifiliy bIrjfoM him, and the evident ligns of 
guilt which he ought to (hew in his counte-. 

H 2 pance. 


nance, require a (kilful exhibitibti of con^ 
fcious terror. Whoever is able to4ojut 
tice to the fentiments of this Ibiiloqiiy, and 
paint the horror of guilt refulting from the 
dread of a future reckoning, will be amply ; 

rewarded by his ^jiiditors. " 


Some eminent * a£l6rs> luch ' ds Keen, 


Quin, and Hulet, have not difdained tor' 
reprefent this charafter. When Ryan, at; 
Lincoln's- inii-fields theatre, appeared ak 
Hamlet, to give ftrength to the play, X^bhi' 
and Walker afted the inferior parts of the 
King and Horatio,- and retained them from- 

H A M L fi T. 

And how his audit ftands, who knows fave heaven ? 

Hamlet was now confirmed, (by th^ 
proof on which he moft relied, thefigns of , 
guilt in the King's behayiour fit theplayj) 
that th^ .vifion he had feen wa? fio devil.. -* 
Of tjus he is well fatisfied j for h? feys ^ 
will ■ ' 



HAMLET. lof 

'* Take the Cihoft's. word for a thoufand pounds. 

That the author fhould now make him 
forget wl^at the Ghdft had related to him, 
of his cbrifiriement in purgatory, is a little 
fufprifing. The whole foliloquy is more 
reprehenfible, perhaps, than any part of 
Shakfpeare's works. The deferring the 

* ' ^ ^ 

puniftimcQt of the King at his devotions, 
fefthis foul (hould go to heaven, is not only 
fliocking, but highly improbable ; and is, 
befideis, a poor contrivance to delay the 
cataftrophe till the laft aft. The firft 
after, who /rejected this horrid foliloquy, 

was Mr. Carrick, * 

» " \ • 

* * ' IDEM. 

How now ? iratt dead for a ducket, dead ! 

This line has given occaiion to an abfurd 
charge of Voltaire againft this tragedy. — 
* Hamlet,' fays this writer, ' kills the fa- 
' ther of his miftre^^ on fuppofition that it 
was a rat which he dpftroyed.* Had he read 
lhcplay,orundcrftood the text if he had read 
^ H 3 it. 


it, he would have ktiown, that Hamlet 
imagined the perlbn he had killed was the 
King himfelf. But this, is not the only 

error into which this great man has fafleji 

' . . ■' ■ • ^ . ' ' ." ^ 

refpei^ing this play, T^^ aiTumed mad* 
nefs of Hamlet he calls real : . Hamlet y 
devient fou dans la feccnde aBe\ "The JCi^g^ 
^eeriy and Hamlet^ drink togetb^. m 
the fiage. T'be aSlors Jtng together^ J^^r-, 
rip/, and Jight. It is fomewhat lurpriV 
fing, that a man, who had been ic- 
Veral years in England, and had written 
letters in our language,, could be fo groltly 
miftaken. to fuppofe himtheyinyeiitor 
of thefe falfe criminations wbiild be to de- 
grade genius too much. , Mrs. Montague 
has, by an incomparable defence of our 
author, defeated the weak attempts, of 
this envious but brilliant Frenchman, to 
blail the laurels of our great poet, 

4 ■ 

As -kill si king?* 

I canftotj 

HAMLET. 103 

I cannot, with Mr. Steevens, fuppaie this 
interrogation of the Queen as a hint to the au-r 

ditorsthat (he had no concern in the murder 

/~ ' ■ • ■ ' 

of her huf{)and. The words are abfolutely 
cquivoc^Jy 9nd i^^y bp 9 proof of her guilt 
as well as her innocence. . The Ghoft had 
d)?rge4 licr with b^ing wpn to the lu^ of 
his brother ^tnd murdefer ^ there he flop-^ 
ped, and, with the jnoft pathetic tendqr- 
nefs, cautions Hamlet not to think of pu- 
niihing his mother, but to leave her .to 
heaven ^fi^ hsr cotifqence. But there )s 
Qffe paflage, ,ii> the play a^ed before the 
^ing^nd Qgeen, whichbrings the guilt of 
ijApder hpffip to ^mlet's niother. The 

^l^y^^^QH^^ ^y^*.^^^S 9^^^ profeilions 
of invjolabl^c^njiaocy, — 

In fecond huiband let me be accurft ! 

None wed the fecond but who kill'd the firft ! 

Thcfe lines we may fuppofe to be put 
into the old fable, by Hamlet, on purpofc 
to pfobe the xnind of the Queen ; and 
hii immediate refledion on her behaviour 

H 4 plainly 


plainly proves that they ftung her to the 
quick : * That's wormwood '/ 


— ^ ■ Takes off the ro(c 

From the fair forehead of an innocent love 

And fets a blifter there. 

- - . 

I cannot think this paflage requires the 
long and learned note of Mr. Steevens, 
without which it may very eafily be ex- 

* This infamous a£t/ fays Hamlet, 
\ deprives the countenance of that modeft 
hue, or rofy blufh, which becomes the 
chafte and virtuous matron ; and it places 
ot* fixes there a brand of infamy/ The 
fbfehead^ in this place, ftands, as frons 
does in Latin, for the countenance. Fronti 


Senfe fureyou have. 

Elfe could you not have motion. 

' Motion depends on the will of the per- 
fon who moves. This is fufficient to jufti- 


fy the old reading 5 the loweft degree of 
animal fenfe is raotion, and therefore pro- 
perly applied to one who is accuied of ha-* 
ving neither fight nor judgement. 


■ Such a deed 

As from the body of contradion plucks 
The very foul ! 

^ A deed which is like feparating the 
Ibul from the body, and diffolves that con- 
traft which religion and law intended to 
render indiifoluble/ 


- Heaven's face'doth glow : 

Yea^ this folidity and compound mafs. 
With triftful vifage, as againft the doom. 
Is thought-fick at the a£t ! 

* A deed fo horrid, that it ieemed to 
forerun the day of judgement, and earth 
itfelf to fympathife and feel a fenfibility on 
the occafion.* Milton, who was a great 
admirer of our poet, from thpfe lines might, 
poffibly be indebted to Shakfpeare for that 




fid)fiii|e paflage of tbe etMislhlli /yiapati^n|£ 
wMi Adam and Eve when ih^y f^ >the 4&^ 
l^ddoD fltuit 1 

Earth felt'thewoufiJ ; f ndt Nature, ftom\kPrf^t9 
Sighing through all her works, gave figns of woe 
That all was loft ! 

Paradise lost. Book IX, 

I D £ M. 

Look upon this pidure and on this. 

It has been the xronftant j^aSt\e€ of the 
ftage, ever iincc the ReftoratioB, for Ham- 
let, in this fcene, to produce ^om 4ii6 
pocket two pictures in little, of 4iis ^ther 
and uncle, not iQiiich bigger than two 
large coins or iwd^HiQnSf How the 
graceful attitude of a man could b& given 
in a miniature I cannot conceive. — la the 
infancy of the ftage, we know that our the* 
»tres had ho moving fcenes ; nor wflre they 
0e^ainted with thj^m till Bettertao 
brought foma from Paris, i66a.T^ la Qjir 
^ithor's time th^ made ufe oi tapsftry ; 
und the^tiFes in tapeftry a^i^t be erf fer?* 
vke to the^ a^ipn of the fdayer in the fcmo 



B A Wt L £ T. to; 

between Hamlet and the Queen. * But/ 
%5 Downs, ^ Sir William Davenant 
taught the players the reprefentation of 
Hamlet as he had ften it before the civit 
*{trs/ But^ if the fcantinefs of decora- 
tions compelled the old aftors to have re- 
courfe . to miniature-pictures, why fhould 
the playhoufe continue the pradice when 
it is no longer neceflaryj and when the 
fcene might be fhewn to more advantage^ 
by two portraits, at length, in different 
pannels of the Queen's clofet ? Dr. Arm- 
ftrong, in his Iketches, long ago pointed 
out the fuppofed abfurdity of thele hand- 
piftures. The other mode, of large por- 
traits, would add to the graceful aftion of 
the player, in pointing at the figures in 
the wainfcot. He might refume the chai'F 
immediately after he had done with the 
fubjcft, and go on with the expoftulation. 
However, this is only a cOnjedlure which I 
throw out for theconfideration of the aftors» 

r D £ M. 

Save me and hover o'er me with your wings^ 
Yott heavenly guards I 



• - t 

At the appearance of the Ghoft^ - in this 
fcene, Hamlet immediately rifes from his 
Ibat affrighted ; at the fame . time he con-- 
trives to kick down his chair, which, by 
making a fudden noife, it was imagined^ 
iprould contribute to the perturbation and 
imor of the incident. But this, in my 
Opinion, is a poor ftage-trick, and ihould 
be avoided s it tends to make the aflor fo- 
licitous about a trifle, when more impor-v 
tant matter demands his attention. 


Oh r flep'bctween her and her fighting foul. 

IJere, as an the firft a6l, our author makes^ 
the vifion overflow with tendernefs and fen-, 
fibility for his unhappy Qiieen. Shakfpeare 
every where fliews a genuine refpedi: for the 
fair fex throughout all his works. In thirty- 
five plays, which are all that can honeftly 
be attributed to him, there are not above 
fix or feven vicious charaders of women. 
I have, in the life of Mafiinger, obferved, that 

• he 

>; » r ' -^ '* 

HAMLET. 1^9 

liefikewife dwells with uncommon pleafure 
on the perfe£Uons of the beautiful part of 
the creation, and that his numbers flow 
with furprifing harmony whenever they are 
the fubjedt. 

It . - ^ 

: * HAMLET. 

My fatl|er» in his habit as be liv/d ! 

A warlike king, fuch as we are told old 
Hamlet was, 'would be drefled as often in 
^armour as in ajny other habit. The Queen 
muft have often* feen him in a military 
igarb 5 therefore there is no need of Mr. 
Steevens'^ new pointing of the line. 



. Jind; , wheo you are defirous to be bleft^dp 
I'll bleffing beg of you. 

: That is : * When I perceive in you the 
trije figns of paiitence, I (hall then, 
and n[ot .till then, defire your prayers for 




I D E M. t 

Un^ the Uftetort the houft'i top ; 
IM the birds iy. and, libdtlie (aftiMisd{ie» 
To try condufion^, in the balkitcteepi 
And break your neck down. 


Mr. Warner's note, referring to the 
ftory of the jackanapes and the partridges, 
in a letter of Sir John Stickling, is by no 
i^eans fatisfadtory. Th« author feemi ra- 
ther to allude to fome well-Jcnown ftory, 
or fable, of an ape, who^ loeii^ noar a 
baiket, in fomc tower, orhi^ place, was 
curious to &e what was in it} he contdw^ 
to open it ; and, on feeing the birdb whidi 
were in it fly away, to make experiment, 
whether he could mot do the like, he crept 
into the baiket j and, by his weight, tum- 
bled it down, s^nd broke his neck. 

But, let the ftory be as it wifi, Ac 
meaning of the pzifage ie«ms pkiftly to be 
this : * fie not, mother, induciad, fay any 
means, to betray my fimulation of madfl^s 
to my uncle j if you do, he will not only 
put an end to my life, but he will, from 


kis gmlty fofpiciotiSy tnit ydu atf aft 

I D B us. 

They muft fwccp rny way. 

Ant! tfhtrfh^l me to knavery-. 

* TheFe men muft be the ufhers to forfltt 
vile knavery of my uncle, which will bring 
t>h my tiiin/ What is farther faid, in 
this place, of Hamlet's juft fufpiciotts of 
his fehcidlfdlows, is preparative to his 
eondua As related in the fifth aft. 

This Icehe is one of the glories of thie 
fenglifh ftage ; it may challenge a compe- 
tilioh with any thing of the kind pro- 
duced by haughty Greece or infoleril Rome. 

France, in fifty years after the firft afting 
of this play, could hot boaftof acotftpofi- 
tlon fo highly finilhed. In the firft inter- 
view between Hamlet a.nd the Ghoft, the 
terrible graces are fuperior to the lender ^ 
m this, the latter bear away the palm, 
though It is hot abfolutely deficient in the 
former. The argument, in favour of the 



nuptial bond and againfl: adultery, is con- 
du£led with equal force and addnefs. The 
contraft, between old Hamlet and his bro- 
ther Claudius, is inimitably touched. — 
But I (hall not dwell upon excellences 
which could not have efcaped any obfer- 

How Taylor, the original Hamlet, per- 
formed it, we can have no trace or idea, 
except from what Downs has given, in his 
Rofcius Anglicanus^ which amounts to 
no more than that Betterton afted it won- 
derfuUy from the leflbns of Sir William 
Davenant, who had feen and remembered 
Taylor. Hamlet was efteemed, it is faid 
by the fame y^fiiter, the mafterpiece of Bet- 
terton. Downs is juftified, in this infor- 
mation, by the concurrent teftimony of 
his contemporaries, and efpecially Sir 
Richard Steele and CoUey Gibber. I have 
feen a pamphlet, written, above forty years 
fince, by an intelligent man, who greatly 
extols the performance of Bettertbn in this 


HAMLET. tij 

laft icene, commonly called the clofet- 

If Actdifoit and Cibber juftly blamed 
Wilks, for his behaviour to the Ghoft in 
the firft a£l:» they could not poilibly 
cenfure his condu^ with his mother in 
the third. His a£tion was indeed a hap^ 
py mixture of warm indignation^ tern* 
pered with the moft afFcfting tenderneft. 
His whole deportment was princely and 
graceful : when he prefented the pi£l:ures» 
the reproaches his animation produced were 
guarded with filial reluctance ; and,^ when 
he came to that pathetic expoftulation^ of 

Mother^ fof love of grace I 

there was fomething in his manner inex« 
preffibly gentle and powerfully perfuafive. 

To Wilks Milward fucceeded. All the 
furviving fpe£lators of Mil ward's Prince of 
Denmark will be pleafed to have him re^ 
called ,to their memory; for, in bis firft 
interview with the Ghoft^and in this clofet* 
fcene^ he was not only an agreeable, but a 

V0L.IIL I Ikilful, 


flcilful, ai£lor : his vbice was full smd mu^ 
fical ; and, in this charafter, he Teemed to 
forget that love of rantitig, which i?ras. his 
iingular faulty or, as Shakfpeare would 
exprefs it, his dram of hafe in aSHng. -— 
Hamlet was the laft part poor Milward 
was announced for in. the bills; oft his 
fudden illnefs. The. Cibber undertook t^ 
read it. 

Whatever deficiencies might bd ob&rvcd 
in Wilks and M ilward> they were amplf 
fupplied by the genius of Carrick. Here 
he had in ample field to diiplay that fineex* 
preflion of countenance, energy of Ipeech^and 
warmth of pafiion, for which he was fo juft- 
ly admired. To argumentative reproof he 
gave full vigour; nor was he deficient itt - 
thofe filial regards which a fon ftiould fed 
for a mother unhappily mifled. Hi« ad- 
drefs to the Ghoft was reverentially awfiili 
as well as tranfcendently moving. His eye, 
marked with grief and filial love, pursued 
the melancholy (hade to his exit. His «• 
covery from that fituation was charaftmf- 
tically ilriking, and* his final exhomtiofl 


HAMLET. 115 

to his mother ardent and pathetic. Except 
in the delicacy of addrefs to a lady, ii^ 
which Wilks and Barry excelled all mor* 
tal$, Gatrick was, in thi$ fcene, a cboH: 
perfeft HanaJet* 

Mn Sheridan, in feveral . fituations of 
H^mkt's chara£ter, was original^ and dif-- 
ferent from all, of his own timc> who ha4 
preceded him. The applaufe, conferred 
on him by many brilliant audiences, will 
bean authentic teftimony of his merit. 

Hamlet was not Barry's moft happy ef^ 
fort in acting 5 but, in this fcene, he cer-» 
tain!y was very pleafmg and afFe6ling. 

Mr. Smith's endeavours to pleafe, in 
Hamlet, were crowned with fuccefs. Hi 
njodeftly contented himf^lf with following 
the inftruftions of his great mafter, Mr. 
Garrick; and was always heard with 
refped and attention. 

I have already mentioned Mr. Henderfon^ 
with that juft praife which his great meritde- 
ferves. He is accounted, by the critics, one 
pf the moft correal and judicious fpeakers 

I 2 on 



on the ftage. His third-a£fc foene, iit 
Hamlet, is not only judicious, but pa« 

The part of Hamlet's Mother is a cha^ 
rafter of dignity, not without a mixture 
of pailion. Though, of late, our princi- 
pal aftreflies have rejefted Queen Gertrudci 
yet theikill of a good performer is requi* 
fite to iill up many of her theatric fitua- 
tions with propriety. Without a proper 
fupport from the Queen, Hamlet's a6)ion, 
in the laft fcene of the third a£V, would 
lofe half its force. Lady Slingiby, an ac« 
trefs of merit, was the firft Hamlet's Mo« 
ther, I think, fince the Reftoration, when 
Mrs. Betterton afted Ophelia. Mrs. Por- 
ter was the Queen* nether of Wilks> and 
Mrs. Hallam of Ryan. 

The excellent performance of this part 
by Mrs. Pritchard will be the longer re- 
membered, fince, as I have obferved, th? 
prefent eminent tragic a6lrefles rejeft the 
part^ as if it were beneath them. The uni- 
verfal applaufe (he commanded, in this 



HAMLET. 117 

great interview with her fori, was thought 
by her a fufficient compenfation for going 
through various attitudes of lefs confc*- 

Mrs. Pritchard*s attention to all the leis, 
and feemingly unimportant, bufinefs of 
the Queen, was fo exaft/ that Hamlet's 
Mother was efteemed one of her prime cha- 
rafters, Mrs. Porter though a greater 
affarefs in tragedy, did not excel I*er in Ger- 

I 3 CHAP- 



The King is with the body. Sec. explained. 
— Fontinbras and Hamlet. -^ Market rf 
nsan's time. — SIfghf affronts refented. —^ 
Falkland ijland. — Lucian's Speculanttijr^ 
Hugger-mugger. — Keeris majefty. — Cafe of 
Ophelia. — Mrs. Cibber. — Mrs. Bettertott^ 
Mrs. Booth and Mrs. Clive. — Chara$er$f 
taaertes ; — clofeted by the King. — ^he 
Orave' diggers defended^ and Voltaire cen^ 
fured. — RefleSiions on ToricKs JkulL — 
Foote* — Clod^ the famous court-fool. — ^ 
Elizabeth y Archbifhop Whitgifty and Dean 
Berne. — Cabe Underhill. — His charaBer, 
"^Lajl part\-^ Jonfony the aSlor ) — cr/jfi- 
nally a painter. — Tates. — jfemmy Robert* 
fony of Tork. — Hamlet's behaviour to Ro- 
fencraus and Guildenjlern. — Pajfive obe^- 
dience. — OJlrick charaSferized. — Hamlet a 
liar. — Laertes bafe. — Fat and fcant of 
breath, — Hamlet defended againjl the at* 




HAMLET. ti9 

tachofMr. Stemens. -^ Garrici's altera* 
tiott of ISamlet. — The Grave-diggers re* 
Jlored. — Short charaSler of the play. — Mr. 
Kemble. -^Inferior parts in Hamlet. 

Aa IV. 

Hamlet, Rofencraus, Guildenftcrn. 


The body is with the King, but the King is not wi(b 

HAMLET, itftiould be obferved, 
feizes every opportunity to fpeak 
contemptuoufly of his uncle ; and here he 
readily embraces it, with a witty and far- 
caftic turn of expreffion. I cannot think 
Mr. Steevens's explanation of this paffage 
happy. Hamlet turns quickly, from the 
body of Polonius, to ^ fevere and pointed 
reproach on the King : * My uncle,^ fays 
he, ' I grant yoxi, has the body^ the out- 
fide ftiow and pageantry, of a monarch j 
but he wants the dignity and virtues which 
conftitute true royalty.* What he fays, a 

I 4 litUc 


little after, by calting the King * a thing of | 
nothing* confirms me in my opinion. 



A thing of nothing. 

' A thing of nothing/ or a matter of no! 
value, is an exprefHon fb common to allj 
times, and, I believe, to all languagesj 
that Mr. Steevens might have fpared him-j 
felf the trouble of quoting half a dozen] 
authorities, from, plays^ to authenticate! 


I fee a cherub that fees them. 

^ I fee a fpirit that looks into the bottom 
of your purpofe in fending me to Eng-» 

Scene IV. 


Good fir, whofe powers are thefe f 

Irius icene, which contains much ex- 
cellent matter, after having been for a 


H A M L £ T. lU 

long time difiifed, was reftortd to the ftage 
by Mn Thomas Sheridan« 


Claims the conveyance of apromisM march 
Over his kingdom* 

That is : * Tell the King, that we noir 
claim the performance of his promife; 
which is^ leave to march, unmolefted, an 
army through his dominions/ 


Two tboufand fouls and twenty tboufand ducats 
Will not debate the quefiion of this flraw« 

That is: ' The contention, about thb 
, 0nall ipot of ground, will not be iettled 
without a large expence of blood and trea<- 


I D B M. 

I ■■ ' What is maAt 

If his chief good and maritt of bis tinu 
Be but to fleep and feed ? 

* Market of his time' means the chief end 

of bis being. 



. Mr. Addi^n, m his Cato^ has linprbvtd 
the thought: 

■ I But what is life ? 
Tis not to ftalk about, and draw frefli air , 
From time to tiine^ and gaate upon the fuiu 

Such large difuurfe. 

Difcourfe is, perhaps, frocQ the Italianj 

I O B M. 

■ I Rightly to be great. 

la not to ftir without great argument ; 
But greatly to find quarrel ill a ftraw, 
: Wlien )tf>nottr's at tike ftpke. 

The flightcft affront, given with a formed 
intention to infult and provoke, has heen 
ever held a fufiicient caufe of refentnxent.--* 
A cafe in point is the behaviour of the 
Spaniards to the Englifh on Falkland- 

J P E II* 





Fight for t fpoe 

Whereon the numbers caanoc try thecaufci 

Something like this we read in that ad- 
mirable Dialogue of Luclan, betweea 
Mercury and Charon, called Speculantes« 
, * See/ fays Mercury to Charon, • thofe 
Argives and Lacedemonians fighting toge* 
ther, and their half-dead general infcribing 
a trophy with his blood/ — * What do they 
fight for ?' replies Charon. — * Why, for 
the little fpot of ground on whkh they 

Scene V. 

H O U A T r o» 

Her mood will needs be pitted* 

* Her infanity demands compaffion and 

^|n bugget'tnugifr io inter birn 

K I N Ok 

We have done hut greeolyt 



Dr. Johnfbn deferves commendation for 
rcftoring the old text of bugger-smugger^ in- 
ftead of in private ; but furcly Mr; Stee- 
vens need not have enlarged the margin of 
the volome, by producing four or five au- 
thorities, from old authors, for a word 
that is (till in uie amongft the common 


The ratifiers and props of vttry vuarJ. 

The explanation of this line, by Dr^ 
Warburton, who connects it with the two 
preceding iines^ &bms preferable to any 
other. The word vard is taken from the 
divifion of a city into wards or diftriBs oi 


Do not fear our perfon : 

There's fuch divinity doth hedge a king. 
That treafon dares not peep at what it would. 

To the a£l:ion of Keen was given the 
epithet majejlic. In perfon he was tall 
and athletic: Lu. Du Guernier, in his 



pl£lure to Addifbn's Cato, has (b repre-- 

Icnted him. . When • he fpoke thcfe 

lines, fb commanding were his look and 
in^hole deportment, the audience accompa^ 
nied them always with the loudefl: applaufe. 


Nature is fine in love ; and, where *tis (<i^ 
It fends fome precious inftanceof itfelf 
After the thing it loves. 

Ophelia's cafe was very diftrefsful. 

Her love to Hamlet bad the fan£lion of 
PoloniuSy with the approbation of the 
King and Queen. The lover, by miftake; 
kills the father. This bar, to union with 
the man flie loved, could not be removed. 
Madnefs was the natural confequence. ~ 
Dr. Johnfon's explanation of the pafTa^ 
above cited is very elegant ; but the doc- 
trine it inculcates is, that love refines our 
natures. So lago to Roderigo, in Othel- 
lo, * If thou be'ft valiant, as they^ fay^ 
bafe men, being in love, have tl>en a nobi-i 
lity in their natures more than is native to 






There's rue for you. 

In prefenting rue to the Queen, Mrs, 
Cibber pronounced the word rue with a 
particular emphafisi and at the fame lime 
lool^ed at her with great expreflion. 

O P H B L X A. 

You may wear your rue with a difFerence. 

The meaning I take to be this : ^ Your 
majefty had caufe, indeed, to mourn for 
one huiband*9 death ; but, fince you have 
married another, you may mix fbrrow and 
gladnefs together emblematically/ 

Till the fweet aiara6ler of Ophelia was 
perfbnated by Mrs. Cibber, it was not 
well underftood, at leaft for thefe lafl iixty 
years* -^ — Mrs. Betterton, fays CoUey 
Cibber, was much celebrated for her 
a6^ion in Sfeakipeare*s plays, and Sir Wil- 
liam Davenant gave her fuch an idea of it as 
he could catch from the boy- Ophelias he had 
ieeni^fore the civil wars. — Mrs. Booth's 
ilgure, voice, and deportment, in this 
part, jaifed, in the minds of the fpcfta- 
tors, an amiably pii^lure of an innocent, 


H A ML E T^ 1^ 

unhappy » tnaid : but (he went no farther. 
Of Mrs. Clive's Ophelia I ihall only fay^ 
I'diat I regret that thefirft comic aArefs iii 
the world (hould fo far miftake her talentt 
as to undertake it. 

I cannot agree^ with an excellent oblet^ 
ver, that the di{l:i:a£i:ed Ophelia is a 
perfonage of infenfibility. She rather re- 
fembles that to which (he compares Ham-^ 
fct's madnefs, * fweet befls out of tune:* 
the founa is ftill pteferved in tnem, though 
irregularly played upon. It is rather, I 
think, Tenfibility deranged, and deferted 
bf reafbn. She feems, at times, to recol-* 
left her fcattertd Tenfes j and throws out, 
though disorderly ^ truths, folemn and aC-^ 
fefting, m tht moi?k. pathetic eKpreflion. 


#. r H fi L i A, 

^lord ! we icriow nhat !we are, but we cannot tcU 
what MW fli9(l be* 

N0 ^l6quenco can paint the diftrelSfed 
and dtftra^ed look of Mrs. Gibber, while 
&e uttered this fentence* 


No a^lrefs has hitherto revived the idea oi 
Mrs* Gibber's Ophelia^ except Mrs. Badde^i 
ley ; whofe pleaiing ienfibility^ metodioasj 
Toice, and correfpondent a£):ion» made usi 
lefs regret the great adtrefs in this part. 

h A W K T t %• 

And for the polpofc 111 anoint my fwor J. 

This unexpe6^ed change of difpofiticMt 
in Laertes muft have ftruck every reader of | 
the play. A young man of high breedings 
with a noble fenfe of honour^ who^ fronji 
the warmth of filial piety^ was ready to 
take arms againft his foveretgn, on a fud-» 
den becomes a confederate with a vile plot* 
ter to deftrpy a prince. Shakipeare ii 
generally fuch a complete mailer of >iia^ 
ture, and fo faithful a delineator of cha* 
rafter, that we muft not haftily condemn 
him. I am afraid he has trufted mdre 
than he ought to the readers or fpeftators 
fagacity. Laertes had been clofeted by the 
iifurper, who had dotibtlefs thrown as 
much odium as he could upon his nephew ; 


'hamlet. 129 


I » • • • • _ 

•he would' not inform him that Hamlet had 
by chance or miftake put an end to his 
father's life, but rather that he had dif- 
patched him by an a6t of violence or trea- 
chery. How far this fuppofition may 
jtiftify our author I know'^not ; but furely, 
if he had produced, on the ftage, fuch a 
converfation between the King and Laertes 
as! have fuggefted, it would perhaps have 
alleviated the guilt of the latter. 

The fourth a6l of- Hamlet has' been ccn- 
fured, by fome critics, as much inferior to 
the three preceding adts. If we fliould. 
grant that, yet it is certainly not without 
its merit. Laertes, whom Polonius.and 
the King had given leave to travel to France 
inthefirft a<3:, returns in the fourth; and, 
finding his father dead, and no authentic 
relation to be obtained . in what manner 
he died, from a fpirit of refentment, he 

raifes a tumult in the palace. ■ 

The madnefs of Ophelia is a beautiful 
dramatic incident, and will alone make 

that part of the play very interefting. ^- 

Laertes is at firft falh and violent s and foon 

Vol. in. K after 



after becomes an aiTociate in viUainouj 
pradticeSy for which I have endeavoured] 
in (bme fort, to account. The a6): ciofc 
with an afFefting relation of Ophclia'i! 
death, which contributes to the fixm{ 
^ Laertes in hi^ refblution to deftroy Hard< 
by any means. 

A6t. V. 
The Grave-diggers. 

The making a grave upon the fta^e, ai 
the dialogue of the Grave-diggers, Vol- 
taire cenfures as the moft abfurd violatioi 
of ail dramatic rules. And indeed, wej 
the fcene to be weighed in Ariftotle'i 
fcales^ or finally difcuffed by the FreiK 
writers, who are always chewing thj 
hufks pf the Greek and Roman critics 
much could -not be faid in behalf of our au- 
thor. But Shakfpeare was a man to whoi 
Ariftotle would have fallen down and worl 
0iipped, as the author of the Eflay onFalj 
ftafF has pleafantlyfaid. 



Candid foreigners will be pleafed to rcr 
fleft, that, when this man wrote, tlip 
Engliih ftage was in its infancy -, that 
plays, written according to time, place, 
snd aftion, were then almoft unknown ; 
apd writers, who had the fkill to com* 
Hue the unities, had little elfe to recoiii* 
mend them to their audiences. 

The medium^ through which human wit 
and moral truth are to be conveyed, is furely 
not to be fo much conlidered as thefe qua- 
lities themfelves. To fee a grave opened, 
and the fcalps, of thofe who had been bu- 
ried in th^ church-yard, thrown wantonly 
about, muft excite reflexions to abate our 
pride and ftrengthen our humanity. This 
doflriije Hamlet himfelf holds forth to us : 
* Pid thdfe bones coft no more than to play 
*^tlQggats with them I Mine ache to think 
of them.* 

T^ moral and pathetic refleflions, on 
AejDkuU of Yorick, are, in my opinion, a 
compenfation for all the oddities, or, if the 
critics pleafe, the abfurdities, of this ex- 

K 2 traordinary 



traordinary fcene. Should it be poflible, 
fome twenty years hence, for an acquain- 
tance V to difcovcr the IkuU of an eminent 
wit, who had, like Yorick, ' fet the table 
in a roar;' — a Footer perhaps ; — would not 
fome fuch fentiments, as thofe uttered by 
•Hamlet on the king's jefter, find their way 
from the mind of the obferver? How' 
would he moralife, and compare prefent 
deformity with paft gaiety ! 

It is very probable, that the Yorick here 
defcribed was one of the court-fools hired 
to divert the leifure-hours of Queen Eliza- 
beth. And it is moft likely that our author 
celebrates the famous Clod, who died 
fome time before the acceffion of K. James» ■ 

Clod was a clown of uncommon wit and 
ready obfervation. Fuller records a jeftof 
his, which, it was faid, proved fatal to 
Dean Perne, who, in the fpace of twelve.: 
years, had changed his religion four times. 
Queen Elizabeth, in company with Arch- 
bifliop Whitgift, Dean Perne, and hci- 
jefter. Clod, was defirous to go abroad on! ' 


HAMLET. 133 

a wet day. Clod ufed the following argu- 
ment to prevent her majefty from going 
oat: ' Heaven/ fays he, ' madam, dif- 
fuades you, for it is cold and wet i and 
earth difluades you, for it is moift and dir- 
ty. Heaven difluades you, too, by this 
heavenly man, Archbifliop Whitgift ; and 
earth difluades you, — ^your fool. Clod, fuch 
a lump of clay as myfelf. And, if neither 
will prevail with you, bere is one that is nei^ 
thr heaven nor earthy but hangs between both^ 
— Dn Perne ; and he alfo difluades you.' 

Augufl:ine Sly, Tarleton, Kempe, or fome 
old after of the comic cafl-, was the original 
Grave-digger. Cabe Underbill, a come- 
dian, whom Sir William Davenant pro- 
nounced to be one of the truefl: players fof 
humour he ever faw, a6led this part forty 
years fucccfllvely. Underbill was a jolly 
and droll companion, who divided his gay 
hours between Bacchus and Venus with no 
little ardour 5 if we may believe fuch \\\C- 
torians as Tom Brown. Tom, I thinkj 
pakes Underbill one of the gill-drinkers 

K3 ■ of 


of his time ; men who reforted to taverns, 
in the middle of the day, under pretence of 
, drinking Briftol milk (for fo good flierry 
Was then called) to whet their appetites, 
where th6y indulged themfelves too often iti 
febriety. Underhill afted till he was paft 
feighty* He was fo excellent in the part of 
Trinculo, in the Tempeft, that he wasl 
caikd Prince Trinculo. He had an adttti-^ t 
rable vein of pleafantry, and told his llvtly I 
ftories, fays Brown, with a bewitching 
fmile. The fame author fays, he was fo 
afflifled with the gout, that he prayed one 
minute and curfed the other. His (Ram- 
bling gait, in his old age. Was ho hin- 
drance to his afting particular parts. He 
retired from the theatre in 1763. Some 
years before he died, he folicit'ed a benefit, 
which was recommended to the public by 
the kind-hearted Steele. The part ho 
chofe was the Grave-digger in ttamletj 
but Cabe was to unlike his former felf, , 
that he appeared the ghbfl of what he had 
been;^ knd Was difmifled with cbmpaffioh^ ] 



HAMLET, 135 

CoUey Cibber^ who, in his admirabk ac^ 
count of the old a^ors, has ipoken at 
large of Underhill's merits, f *vs he died, 
about four or five years afterwards, a pen- 
fioner of Sir Richard Steele and the players 
[jwbo obtained a patent from George J. 

That chafte copier of natdre^ B* Jonfon^ 
die comedian, for above forty years, gave 
a true }ȣture of an arch clown in the 
Grave-digger. His jokes and repartees had 
a ftrong effe£l froth his leeming infeniibi- 
lity of tbcir force. His large ipeakin^ 
blue eyes he fixed fteadily on the peribn to 
whom he ijpoke, and was never known to 
have wandered from the ftage to any part 
df the theatre. Jonfon was theHemikiri; 
or D. Teniers of the theatre ; the hortcft 
Dutch painter, who contents hijnfelf with 
giving a portrait of mere nature. I (hould 
have obierved^ that Jonfon was originally 
a pakiter by profeifion. 

Next to this excellent man^ ' Mr* Yates 
Axilk be placed. In manner they ftrcingly 
refembled eaoh other. They were difciples 

K 4 * of 


of the fame fchbol. — Nature was their 
guide, arid to her aiohe they paid their de- 

- Parfons and Quick are aflors bom to re- 
lax the mufcles and fet mankind a titter- 
ing. They are equally happy in the 
Qrave-digger, but with more heightening 
than the two former. Edwin is chafler in 
his outline than both, for he. does not 
colour' fo warmly. 

To rank a country aftor with thefe gen- 
tlemen of the eftablifhed London, theatres 
may feem bold and unprecedented > but I. 
am not afraid to name, among men of co- 
mic genius, Mr. James Robertfon, of 
York 3 a man, like Yorick, cf infinite wify 
and of^ mofl excellent fancy. What gentle^ 
man, of -the cdtirUty of Yorkyi.does not; 
know Jemmy Robertfon ? What ^ critic foj 
four as not to be pleafed with his jallies of 
humour, whether his own or /f^iliifully^ 
giveh' from his original author, on the fla;^? 
PJi%-being a very, plealing , after, .anxi;a 
lively coiHpanipn, forms but.a ftoaU.patf: 


HAMLET. 131 

of his charafter. — He is refpeded for 
merit of a more durable kind : for his ho- 
nefty, worth, and friendly difpofition. 

Scene IL 
Hamlet and Horatio. 


' As out Jiatifls do. 

Mr. Steevehs rightly obferves, that j^^sr- 
tijls m^^xis Jtatefmen . Here alfb it compre* 
hends all men of birth, rank, and faihion ; 
all fine gentlemen, who, from afFe6latibn, 
thought it an indignity to their quality to 
write a plain and legible hand. 

I D £ M. 

Doth by their infi/iuation grow. 

Hamlet is here accounting for his beha* 
viour to Rofencraus and Guildenftern, 
whofe fate, he fays, was owing to their 
Qwn condu<5t^ If we fhould not agree, 
with Dr. Warburton, that thefe men cor-' 
ruptly infinuated themfelves into the fervice 
of Hamlet, yet we mull own that they 



were very ready and officious inftmifients ot 
the King. And, althottgti it d6e$ not ap- 
pear, from the context, that they knevr 
the contents of their commifiion^ * to 
deflroy the prince/ yet I believe the author 
ponifiies them, as well as Polonius, for' 
being over bafy, and f briifting tbemfelves 
into any employment, x?^ithout enquiring 
whether it was right or Wrongs juH or nn- 
jofl* No time was rocnre infamous^ for 
ffxjfsHakttrj to die prince, than tl^ rdgns 
of £}i:^beth and of James I. This our 
author! knew ;: and this was one mark d 
ibt ege andho(fy of the ttme^ which his man- 
lynatnredefpifed and wifhed to remove 

I D EM. 

« Is't not to be damn'd. 

To let this ckhker of buf Mature 'cdhie 

That is : • Would Jt fi6ti*e att ^ufltoSt" 
donabie crinie, to . fu'lfer this VillSfti, ibe 
deftrojrer of the humaii f^ele^; tojxrbteed 
in hb wickednefsy . and go on^ 1^^lk)ikh)^» 
fixKn crime to crime'?* ' <."'''■<•■ " 




The advocates for paffive and Unlimited 
dbfedience will on ho account permit re- 
finance to authority. — ^ What ?* you will 
fay, ^ on no account whatever f ' — * O yes ! 
in the cafe of lawful fucceffion^ where that 
is interrupted by violence or treachery, as 
in the cafe of Hamlet: there, indeed, the 
ufurper may be dcftroyed, by foperior 
power or wily ftratagem/ — — So then, it 
feems, from this mode of arguing, that 
the interett of one man and his family is of 
more importance to fociety than that of 
millions ! 

I D B M. 

The more fond and Winnowed opinions* 

I think rtothin^ can be more clear than 
that Shakipeare means, by this expreffion, 
that fuch fellows as Oftriek, by acquiring 
a little fafhionable jargon, with a e6nfi- 
derable ftock of impudence, contrive to 
pafs, upon rtlen of the moft approved 
judgement, for complete courtiers. — Ta 
impofe their trafh upon Jhnd, or fooUjh^ 



peaple, could be no matter of furprife. It 
is very probable, that, inftead of fondy the 

a. . 

author vfiott found. 

! IDEM. 

Gire me your pardon, fir. 

No part of this fpeech of Hamlet Ihould 
fee fpoken'but that which- Mr; Steeveris 
has reftored, beginning with -^i — — 

Sir, in this audience,—^— 

and fo to the end. To the reft Hamkt 
gives the lie moft ihamefully. 


I am fatisfied in nature* 

Laertes determined to a^ treacheroufly, 
Jtnd therefore feems puzzled to return a 
proper anfwer to Hamlet's fair addrefs and 
noble apology. To that, I think, we muft 
place his referring the matter in difpute to 
qtbje judges of affronts. His offering to 
jieceiye his antagonift's proffered love as 
Ipve, and protefting not to wrong it, is as 
infamous as Hamlet's attributing his vio- 



lent behaviour at Ophelia's grave to his 

Q^U E £ K. 

He IS fat and fcant of breath* 

In a note to this paffage, Mr. Steevens 
fays, that John Lowin, who was the origi- 
nal FalftafF, was no lefs celebrated for his 
Henry VIII. and Hamlet. Mr. Steevens 
had forgotten, in a note of his on Henry 
IV. that Lowin had ever adlcd Falftaff; 
for the letters OA/, placed to a fpeech of 
that charadter, he, rather than fuppofe it 
to ftand for Oldcajitey which, I believe, 
was originally intended, would infinu- 
ate, they might be the firft letters of the 
aftor's name who played FalftafF: this it 
is to fupport an hypothefis at all events. — 
I believe that Betterton, who was an unli- 
mited ftage-genius, was the only aftor that 
ever reprefented the three parts of Hamlet, 
FalftafF, and Harry VIII. How Lowin could 
be faid to have a£led Hamlet is fbmewhat 
furprifing, as he was celebrated chiefly for 



It is evident that Hamlet confidered Ro- 
fcncraus and Guildenftern: as the King's 
accomplices and inftruments ; nor indeed 
can we abfolve them of that guilt. They 
were the cabinet-counfellors of a villaiii 
and a murderer ; and, though they were 
ftrangers to ^/Z his guilt, it is not improba- 
ble that they were acquainted with the fe- 
cretof their commiffion. They were wit- 
neffes of the King's anxiety at and after the 
play which was a6led before him ; and, 
when he told thetn, be liked him noty they 
iaw no apparent reafon for his faying (o^ 
except Hamlet's behaviour at the play, 
which, however frolicfome it might be, 
was not forely wicked. Upon a mature 
infpeftion of their condudt through the 
play, they muft be ftigmatifed with the 
brand of willing fpies upon a prince, their 
quondam fchoolfellow, whofe undoubted 
title to the crown they well knew, and of 
whofe wrongs they had not any feeling. 
In (hort, to fum up their charafter in a few 
words, they were ready to comply with any 


HAMLET. f4i 

commatid, provided they acquired, by their 
compliance^ honour and advantage. 

Mr. Garrick, about eight or nine years 
fince, offered the public an amendment of 
Shakfpeare's Hamlet. The refpeft, which 
the public owed to fo eminent a genius, 
difpofed them to receive his alterations favou- 
rably. The firft adl, which, in my opinion, 
the author*s genius carries on with wonderful 
rapidity, he had obferved was immoderately 
long; for this reafon he divided it into 
two, the firft ending with Hamlet*s deter- 
mined refolution to watch, with Horatio 
and Marcellus, in expectation of feeing 
the ghoft of his father* In confe- 
quence of this arrangement, the old 
third aft was extended to the fourth. 
Little or no change, in language of 
fccnery, was attempted till the fifth aft, 
in which Laertes arrives and Ophelia is 
^raiSled, as in the old play. The plot- 
ting-fcenes, between the King and Laer-» 
tes, to deftroy Hamlet, were entirely 
changed, and the charafter of Laertes ren- 
dered more eftimable. Hamlet, having 
Vol. HL L efcape4 


efcaped from Rofencraus and Guildenftern; 
returns with a firm refolutipn to avenge the 
death of his father. The Grave-diggers 
were afcfolutely thrown out of the play. 
The "^audience were not informed of the 
fate of Ophelia 5 and the Queen, inftcad 
of being poifoned on the ftage, was led 
from her feat, and faid to be in a ftate of 
infanity, owing to her fenfe of guilt. 
When Hamlet attacks the King, he draws 
his fwoiKl and defends himfelf, and is 
killed in the rencounter. Laertes and 
Hamlet die of their niutual wounds. 

To fuch material changes, in this fa- 
vourite tragedy, the audience fubmitted 
during the life of the altererj but they 
did not approve what they barely endured. 
The fcenes and chara6lers of Shakfpeare, 
with all their blemifhes, will not bear radi- 
cal or violent alteration. The author had 
drawn Claudius a coward, as well as a vik- 
lain and iifurper ^ and this flrong check 
upon guilt and ftigma upon wickednefs ought 
by no means to be removed. Garrick, if 
I remember right, ufed toTay, that, before. 



Ills alteration of Hamlet^ the King ufed to 
be ftuck like a pig on the ftage : but, by gi- 
>ing the murderer courage, this great adlor 
did nt>t fee that hfe leffened the meannefs of 
his charaftei*, which the author takes care 
to inculcate throughout the play. The 
brave villain, like Rich. III. wejuftlyhate, 
but we cannot defpife him. Why the fate 
of Ophelia fliould be left uncertain, as 
well as that of the Queen, I cannot con- 
ceive. But the fpeftators of Hamlet would 
not part with their old friends, the Grave* 
diggers. The people foon called for Ham- 
let as it had been a6led from time imme-* 

. The dialogue of this tragedy approaches 
Very near to the converfation of the prefent 
times. Many, of the fcenes difplay wit as 
briUiantas thatbf Congreve, with theeafe 
and familiarity of Vanbriigh. The argument 
is often profound, and the fatire juft and 
poignant. The Cid was not more a fa- 
vourite with the French nation than Ham- 
let with ours. The great number of pro- 
verbial expreflions, taken from Hamlet, 

L 2 which 


which arc brought into the (enate, ultere ' 
at the bar^ and retailed and applied^ in aT^^ 
moft every company, is a certain prool 
that this play has not only been afled moi 
frequently than others, but that the fenti- 
ments and maxims it contains have made a ^ 
lafting impreflion on its fpeflators. Dr. 
Johnfon's general review, at the clofe of 
his remarks on Hamlet, is^iccurate^ ele- 
gant, and inftruftive. 

It is obvious to me, that Shakfpeare, in 
the celebrated foliloquy on a future (iite, 
pioufly intended a difTuafive from felf^nur^ 
der. * 

Since my remarks on this tragedy went 
to the preft, I have feen a new Hamlet, in 
the pqrfon of Mr. Kemble, brother to Mrs. 
Siddons. I congratulate the public on 
the profpeft of much rational entertain-* 
ment, from the joint efforts of two perfons 
of uncommon genius in the art which th^ 

Though, in drawing the outline of 
Hamlet, it was fcarcely poffible Mr. Kem- 

- blc 

HAMLET. 149 

(hould differ from preceding aiflors, yet 
particular emphafes, paufes, and other 
rlties in afting, have furprifed the pub- 
ind divided the critics ; fonje of whom 
g^w tly cenfure, while others as warmly ex- 
tol, his peculiarities. 

The audience will, in general, confider 
every thing that is unufual with a jealous 
eye, and perhaps with fome reafon j at 
the fame time, men of candour will refleft, 
that the judicious a£lor muft have confi- 
dered every material line of his part, every 
aftion and attitude, with more attention 
than the fpedtator can, who balances in 
his mind one player i^ith another, and de- 
termines the merit of the performer more 
from comparifon than mature delibera- 

. If Booth and Garrick deferved much 
praife for difcovering beauties which had 
looglain hid, in fome capital p^rts, — why 
fliould not we encourage the induftry of 
cveiy, young ftage-adventiirer, who, by a 
deep fearch into, charai6ler, finds. ' out new 

L 3 methods 


methods of pleafing, provided they are not 
inconfiftent with the author's intention ? 

What the aftor is chiefly to guard a- 
gainft, in this cafe, is too much refine- 
ment ; to beware left a paflion for novelty 
mifleadhim into overftrained niceties. 

Mr. Kemble's paufes are, I believe, very 
judicious, though to many they appeared 
long. The aftor muft take into the ac- 
count the tone of the audience ; for the 
rule of" afting, in conformity to the rule of 
fpeaking, muft not contradidl the general 
fenfe. A player cannot, with fafety to 
himfelf, afFeft to appear wifer than hts 

As I do not propofe to go tn rough an 
examen of Mr. Kemble's Hamlet, I fhall 
add but little more on the fubjefl. 

In the impaflioned fcene, between Ham- 
let and his Mother, in the third a6l, 
Kemble's emphafis and a6tion, however 
different from thofe of all former Hamlets 
wc have feen, bore the genuine marks o( 

folid judgement and exquifite tafte. I ne- 



HAMLET. 151 

ver faw an audience more deeply affe6ted, 
or more generoufly grateful to the adtor 
who had fo highly raifed their paffioiis. 

Mr. Kemble is tall and well made ; his 


countenance expreffive, his voice ftrong 
and flexible, his adion and deportment a- 
nimated and graceful. His falutations afe 
faid by fbme to be too much ftudied, and, 
in the fcene of fencing, too formal and ce- 
remonious. I will not pretend to deter- 
mine, whether trials of Ikill and thecxercifb 
with foils, between princes and men of 
high rank, and thofe of inferior conditiori,^ 
are attended with the fame forms ; ^h'vtt 
fhall obferve, that, though we are taught 
our outward behaviour by the' dancing- 
mafter, the felute and addrefs of the well- 
bred man will always diftinguifh him from 
his teacher. 

As the managers of both theatres have 
feemed to try their ftrength lately in the play 
of Hamlet, I fhall take fome notice of a few 
under parts in the jplay. — Horatio is an 
excellent char^der of friendfhip, and fits 

h 4 very 



very becomingly on my old acquaitltancc> 
Mr. Thomas Hull, the friend of Shea- 
ftone and the approved fpeaker of Mafon, 
Mr. Whitfield has lately fuccecded Mr, 
Hull, at Covent-garden, in Horatio^ and, 
in a<5Uon and fpeech, is decently becoming. 
At Drury-lane, Mr. Farren, a young ac- 
tor ^ of merit, does juftice to this arnia* 
ble part. He does not endeavour to 
make ipore of his fituations in the fcene 
. than he ought i he obferves a proper fub* 
ordination, and keeps in mind the advice 
of the poet, not to o'erftep the modefiy ofna^ 
' tw€. The kingly behaviour of Clarke 
jcems more important than the majefty of 
.Packer, who always fpeak$ fenie« but not 
/vvith fufficieht force. The Grave-diggerSi 
Parfons and Quick, are admirably matched. 
Though I do not diflike Mrs. Hopkins in 
the Queen, yet I would rather fee her iu 
Mrs. Heidqlherg; her excellence is in co» 
medy, Mrs. Inchbald's figure is pleafing^^ 
and her judgement ftronger than her pow- 
er of utterance. 

Dry den. 

J> 1^ y D E. N. iji 




^Rejioration opens the theatres. — Kittys atul( 
Duke of York s companies. ^-^ ^akjpeare lefs 
valued than Fletcher and Jonfon. — Herdc 
tragedy. — Dryden^ defence rfit.^^ Maxi^ 
mins defiance of the gods. «— Aurenzebe^ 
Morat. — Kynafitn andBootb.*^ CeJeirated 
lines on the vicijfituiks of life, wtb an an^ 
fwer. — Dryden forfakes rimng tragedy. — 
His All for Love. — 73k true language if 
tragedy .--^^roilus andCr^fida ^ — when re-- 
vived. — Old authors cenfured.^^ Charles IL 
and Us courtiers. — Buckingham^ Roehefler^ 
and Dorfet. — Mermaidt the Devil^ Roe-m 
huck^ &c.'''BeefJleak club. -^ John Beard.^m 
Low company. — Mr. Wolfiey and Rocbefier^s 
Valentinian. — Poets compared.-^^beir cha^ 
rasters of gentlemen. — Lazinefs or inability 
in dramatifiu — Sir George Eitheridge. — * 



Dormant. — Duke of Dorfet. — Jeremy CoU 
Iter and Dry den. — Licencious language of 
tragedy. — Dry dens defence of bimfelf. — 
His death. 

SOON after the Reftoration of Charles 
IL the doors of the theatre, which 
kadbeenfhut for twenty years, were thrown ^ 
open. The king and the Puke of York 
formed two feparate companies of come- 
dians, who were honoured with the title of 
Lis majeily*s fervants. The court direfted 
the general tafte, and took the lead in all 
public diverfions, more efpecially in the 
Hmufements ofnhe ftage. 

In looking ovpr the fragment of Downes, 
I fee little rcfpeft paid to Shakfpeare, much 
to Beautnont and Fletcher, and ftill more 
to Ben Jonfbh, in proportion to i^q nam- , 
berof his plays. Hart and Mohun, the ma- 
Magersof theking's theatre, revived only three 
of Shakfpeare's plays; and Davenant, at the 
duke's houfe, about five. But, indeed, a re- 
gard for the plays of the laft age, as they were 
. ' . ' ''^ ^thca 



D R Y D E N. IS5 

then called, was fwallowed up in a paflioa 
for new-fangled compofitions. Heroic trage- 
dies in rime, fraught with bombaftic didion 
and extravagant fentiment, and witty come- 
dies, abounding with fmiart repartee and 
loofe aftion, were the immediate fucccflbrs 
of the old drama, which was founded on 
nature ; where the dialogue was formed 
from genuine manners, the paffions arole 
from character and incident, and the cata- 
ftrophe wasclofed with an inftruftive morale 
With much wit, and plaufible argument, 
Dryden has endeavoured to vindicate the 
unnatural flights of his Almanzor and Al- 
mahide, of Tyrannic Love, and others of 
his riming tragedies ; but, whatever beau- 
ties of imagination^ fentiment, with Harmo- 
ny of numbers, they may contain, no m^ 
will fit down to read them, at this day^ with- 
out blendinglaughter and contempt with^ 
teem and admiration. Long quotations, 
to prove what is fo generally^ known, 
would be impertinent. I Ihall content 
myfelf to produce a fingular inftance of 



ranting blalphcmy, for fuch it was in tht 
mouth of Maximin^ from the laft aA of 
the Tyrannic Love : 

What had the gods to do with me or mine f 
Did I moleft your beavef> ! ■■ ■ ■ 
Wl|y fliould you, tken> make Maxim^QJoar foe. 
Who paid you tribute ]0?bich he. need not do I 
Your altars I withimgke of gum did crown^ 
for which you lean'd yoqir hungry noflrils dovirn $ 
AU daily gaping for my incenfe there^ 
More than your fun could draw you in a year. 
A»d you for this thefe plagues on me have fent 2 
Butf hy the gods>-<^y Maximin I ixkeant,-^ 
IJencefortb I and np^ world 
Hoflitity with yo^ and yours declare 2 
Look to it, gods ! for you th*aggrir^r$ are;. 
. j&ee|r yoi| your pain aid funfliiae in yo^r {kh&% 
And rU keep b^jCk 9iy fiame and fs^rrifice. 
Yo^r trade of heaven (hall foon be at a ftandjk 
And all your goods lie he^vy on your hand. 

- • 

An audience, who eould bear fuch rants 
us this:^ a^d relifli the foUowing £:ene with 
Placidius, vrho ft^hs th^ Emperpr, and is, in 
his turn, ftabbed by him, ranft have had 
« very particular taflc for bombaft in 
words and ahfurdity in a^ion, Suchau-. 


D R Y D E N. 

tors muft have been very unqualified judge< 
of Shakfpeare, Jonfon, and Fletcher^ 

Dryden's laft and moft pcrfeft tragedy 
in rime was Aurengzebc. In this play^ the 
paffions are ftrongly depicted, the charac^ 
ters well difcriminated, and the di^Sion 
more familiar and dramatic, than in any of 
his preceding pieces. Hart and Mohun 
greatly diftinguiflied them felves in the cha- 
rafters of Aurengzebe and the old Emperor, 
Mrs. Marfliall was admired in Nourmahul j 
and Kynafton has been much extolled, by 
Cibber, for his happy exprellion of the ar- 
recant and favage fiercenefs in Morat. -^ 
* Booth, in fome part of this charafter/ 
%s the fame critical hiftorian, * was top 
tame, from an apprehenfion of raifing the 
mirth of the audience improperly/ 

Though I pay great deference to Cih- 
J^CJ^'6 judgement, yet I am not lure whether^ 
Booth was not in tlie right. And I cannot, 
help appro ving the anfwer, which this ac- 
tor gave to one who told him he was fur-, 



prifed that he neglefted to give a fjnritedj 
turn to the paflage in queftion : 


'Twill not be fafe to let him live an hour. 

M O R A T. 


J *ll do*l tojhew my arbitrary power* 

* Sir/faid Booth, ^ it was not through 
negligence, but by delign, that I gave no 

,.i^irit to that ludicrous bounce of Morat. 
I know very well, that a laugh of approba- 
tion may be obtained from the under- 
ftanding few ; but there is nothing more 
dangerous than exciting the laugh of fim- 
pletons, who know not where to flop. 
The majority is not the wifeft part of the 
audience ; and, for that reafon, I will run 

The court greatly enccniraged the play of 
Aurengzebe. The author tells lis, in his de- 
dication, that Charles II. altered an incident 
in the plot, and pronounced it to be thebeft 

. of all Dryden's tragedies. It was revived at 
Drury-lane, about the year 1726, with the 



• Life of Booth, by Th. Cibbcu 


15 R Y D E M. fs9 

public approbation : the old Emperor, 
Mills ; Wilks, Aurengzcbe j Booths Mo- 
rat; Indiana, Mrs, Oldfieldj Nourmahul, 
Mrs. Porter ; Melefinda, the firft wife of 
Thcophilus Gibber, a very pleafing adirels, 
in perlbn agreeable, and in private life 
unblemiflied. She died in 1733. 

In this tragedy, Aui^ngzebe's complaint, 
of the viciflitudes and difappointments of life, 
is forcibly defcribed and beautifully varied. 
It is ftill repeated by all lovers of poetry : 

When I confider life, 'tis all a cheat ; 

Yet, foolM with hope, men farour the deceit ; 

Truft on, in hopes tomorrow will repay : 

Tomorrow's falfer than the former day ; 

Lies mor^ ; and, when it fays we fliall be, bleisM 

With new joys, cuts off what we poflefs'd. 

Strange cozenage ! None would live paft years agaia. 

Yet all hope pleafure from what yet regiain ; 

And from the dregs of life hope to receive ,- 

What the firft fprightly runnings cannot give^ 

Pm tir'd with waiting for this chemic gold. 

Which fools us young and beggars us when old ! 

In the judgement of Addifon,* thefe are 
the beft lines in the play. But the re- 

^ ¥j 

* Spectator. 


ply of NourmahuU which contains a very 
full and pertinent anfwer to Aur^ngzebe, 
I never heard any body mention except Du 
Johnfbn : 


^h not for nothing that we life purfue : 
It pays our hopes with fotnething that is new* 
Each day^s a mifh'efs anenjoy'd before ; 
Like travellers^ we are pkas*d with feeing more* 
Did you but know what joys your way attend^ 
You would not hurry to your journey *s end. 

But, notwithftanding Drydcn had ex^ 
erted all his ftrength to excel in this fpecies 
of riming tragedy, and had defended it 
very ably in his excellent Eflay on dramatic 
Poetry, he at laft grew tired of his bells, and 
wKhed to be a riming packhorfe no longer* 
This he confefies in the prologue to this 
irery play : 

But he has now another tafte of wif^ 

And, toconfefs a truth, though out of tune. 

Grows weary of his long-lov*d miftrefs, rime. 

Having fecn, in all probability, thofe 

eminent a6lors. Hart and Mohun, in the 


D R -Y D E N. i6i 

much- admired fcene qf coptention in the 
fourth aft of Julius Capfar,.. he breaks out, 
in the fame prologue, into a generous 
confeffion of SHakipeare*s fupcriority : 

But, fpite of all his pride, afecret Ihame 
Invades his bread at Shakipeare's facred name ! 
And, whferi he hears'his godlike Romaiis' rage,' ' 
He^ inajuft defpaii^, would quit- the ftage. 

Two years after Aurengzebe had been 
aaed, Dryden brought to the ftage his 

All for Love s which is, I think, the firft 
play, after the Reftoratidn, in which was 
revived the true dramatic ftyle. , , . . . 
The fcene between Antony and Vend- 
dius, in the firft a£l of tTiis play, is written 
in fuch colloquial language as might be 
fpoken by the humbleft and the moft ex- 
alted tharaftcts : 

A N T O N y«— . -. 

I would be private : leave me. 


Sfr, 1 love you. 

And therefore will not leave you, 



♦ r 

.- r 

V t 

. V E N T 1 D I 1/ S.. 

. . ... ^ • . . 

It fits tob near yoti. 

• *■ 


* « 

t ^ J ' > A 

Here^bere, it lies I a lump of lead by <iaKi. 
And, in my (hort, diftra^d^ nightly flumbers. 
The hag that rides me in my dreams ! 

»-^ « • • 


Uut vmh It i give it vent. ' 

■. » • / 

* . / ^ ^w t. 1 

AWT a N,y, V 

i , . . . / > 

Urg^ not my (bame; 

V ^^^ 

I loft a battle I ^ 

. . . f 


r » 

■ ' ■ ■ So has Julius done. 

. 'x 

. j \.i A N t'o If y, , -■ > 

Thoufavour'ft me, and fpeak'ft nc^faal^thOttthJjdE^ft: 
For Julius fought it out, and loft it fairly s 
But Antony ^^- 

V £ N T I t t; 9f 

- Nayi tto|> flot. 



D R Y D E N. 163 

This is the true language of nature, and 
of fuch paflion as is congenial to the breaft 
of every man. In this interview, of An* 
tony and his General, the poet feems 19 
have exhaufted his ftrength : the reft of 
the play, though not carcleflly written, is 
much inferior to this noble outfct. 

In a year or two after, Dryden. gave a 
freftx proof of his veneration for Shak« 
fpcare, by reviving his Troilus and Crellida 
with confiderable alterations and improve^ 
ment3. The noble fcene, between Troilui 
ftiHi Heflor, in the third aft, is the inven*- 
tiou of the jreviver, and written in emula-r 
tion of the quarrel between Brutus and 
Caffius in Julius Caefar. This play was 
revived by Rich, at Coven t-garden, in 
I 1734; Walker a6led Heftor with his u- 
fual fpirit and animated aftion j Troilus 
fell to Ryan'g ihare ; Quin was efteemed 
an admirable Therfites ; and Hippiflcy ex- 
Wed much mirth in Pandarus. Mrs. Bu- 
cnanan, a very fine woman and a pleafing 

M 2 afttrcft. 


adrefs, who died foon after in childbed, 


was the Creffida. Mr. Lacy, late manager 
of Drury-Iane, afted Agamemnon; and 
Tom Chapman pleafed himfelf with the ob- 
ftreperous and difcordant utterance of 
Diomed*s paflion for Creffida. 
' Dryden, at the fame time that he juf- 
tified the new fpecies of heroic plays in 
rime, boldly attacked the comedies of the 
former age. The poets, in the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James, were, it feems, very 
low in their humour, and dull and unre- 
fined in their dialogue. They were not fo 
witty and fmart in their repartees as the 
dramatifts of their own times. Nay, he 
he boafls that the ladies and gentlemen in his 
days fpoke more wit in converfation than the 
old dramatifts in their plays. This faperio- 
rity, in elegance of ftyle, Dryden attributes 
to the influence of the court, and more par- 
ticularly to the authority of Charles himfelf- 
The king had, indeed, by his exile, gain- 
ed an education which few other princes 
could obtain. His misfortunes were, in 

this refpeft, of fervice to him. By them 



D R Y D E N. i6s 

be was obliged to. converic with diffe- 
rent ranks of men ; and this contributed 
to ftore his mind with knowledge, and 
foften his manners. He was univerfally 
faid to be the beft-bred man in his do- 
minions. With fcarcely any virtues, he 
had many amiable qualities j bis affability 
and condefcenfion were the charms, 
which, like a veil, covered the worfl part 
of his charader. But Charles contribu- 
ted, more than any of his courtiers, to 
plunge the nation into vice and profligacy. 
During his whole reign, of twenty-four 
years, the kingdom was in a flate of diffi- 
pation and ebrietyj from which neither 
the plague in 1665, nor the dreadful fire 
of London the year after, ;ior two difr- 
aftrous Dutch wars, with an unfortunate 
confpiracy againft the public tranquillity, 
called the popifh plot, could roufe thenu 
The two choice favourites of Charles vyere 

thewitty but infamovis Duke of Buckingham, 
and the lively but abandoned Rochefter. 
It is trvfe, he courted the frien4fl:|ip of all 
th^ w^ts of his time, and particularly the si- 

M 3 miable 



miable Lord Dorfet; but he^ obferviflg 
the king to have no real integrity of Worth, 
boheftly rejefted the friendftiip of a man, 
whom, in his heart, he defpifed. 

It is pteafant to hear Drydert and ofHefS 
very gravely affufe u$, that it was titterly 
impofiible that the charafters of our okl 
poets Could talk like gentlemen, becaufe 
the authors themfelves kept low company. 
The Mermaid, the Devil> and the Bb^j 
it feems, did not receive ludi plealafll 
and witty fellow Sj in the reigft of Qtieed 
Befs or of James L as Ihdfe wlio frequented 
the Royal Oak, the Mitre^ and the Roe- 
buck, in the days of ChArles IL Beau- 
mont, who, I believe, was no ill jwljgedf 

♦ * 

mirth and good company, in an epiftk td 
Ben Jonfon, talks with raptui^ of the rich 
banquet of wit and admirable converfatioti | 
which they had enjoyed at thef Mermay. 
Nor can I think fo meanly t)f Ben JonFoh's 
<:lub, at the Devil, as Dryden afFeds to rfo: 
thatfociety could never be contemptible 
which had Btn at the head of it, with 
Shakfbeattfi Fletcher, and - Beatfthbftt, Ixis 


t I 

D R Y D E N. t6f 

^flbcittest; .who were occafionally joined 
by. . :S?idch, ~ Martin, ; . M6deyj afterwaisds 
Bo&op of Wincb^flier,' Edraund Waller, 
and others of equal ernmchc€* The beef* 
jfteak cluhy with their JoUy prefident, John 
fieard,: is . ^ely one : o£ : th^ mcifl refpedlable 
^ifenhlies 1 of : jovial .and . agreeabie compa* 
moas in. ibis jmietiidpolisi^ \. but I believe 
tkeir: good : &nle will hinder then\ from 
claiming a monopply of cheeif nlnefs ^ they 
«r8l «dt ^isy'^ftf 'their' pi**S€efl[brs^ were 
m ' tlSfetttieads, feeciiife- they - d^^^ead; 
atid tlieyJthVmiclvts' are dlire'fend- meiry : 

Ttxffe fortes ante yigamemnona. ■ ' ■ 

I haV^-f5W<H -that the tWiO desrreft 
coiftjidtiidirw' - 4i ^^haMeis • Mr€'^ VifficrS 
b«k^<)f BiieWngham and Wilfhoi Earl of 
<>f R6th€(te#,V the Ifttei'^dnfefled, to Dr. 
^raet,- fliat,t' for. five yeats fucceflively, 
he had beeh in a ftate of fcbriety -; * and the ^ 
fopmer, notwithftanding his high rank in 
life and qncommqn vein of wit, became at 
1^ fo odious for his vices, that his com- 
pany was at length as much (hunned as it 
ihad-beea before fought after and courted, 

M 4 . f ' - - ' In 


In the preface to an edition of .Valentihian, 
altered from Fletcher bj^Rochefter, 'Mr. 
Wolfley , the ed&or,^ reproaches the ori|^* 
nal writer for keeping low company. — 
Could he poffibly affociate with men jof 
wprfe principles, I; more debauched, and 
more mi^hly i difllpated, I than :^ his fricraJf 
the. earl? iThefe bldied exemplars of 
courtly gallantry and fafhionafcle;witi:io 
yv|iom , no in^n in his proper fenfes' could 

,©l"a*gi44y agf'ii artd fuch as> Piy<i§a,_w$«# 
oppofe to ,^he iflferior fo(aety whflch J^iifes 
andShakfpeare were reduced to the neceifity 
of jaieetipg^. It isjtrue, thefejantiquat^ qien 
wanted that which: the jothters ^njcfyed ii\,a 
high degree, a relifli for ,bl%fi)hej5iy;;a«^ 
profanenefs,*, with a ; fovere^gn' cdiit^nipt 
for ail order and decency, pf all their viccS» 
ebricty.feemstohave t>Qei)»the iJioftimfteeieQt, 
- ! - 'Tht 

if the reader has an inclination to be acqM»iated 

with the wit and frolics of this fort of gentlemeji, let 

him turn to honeft Antony Wood's Diary of his Lift, 

and n^adthe hiilory.of ^rlqDT^ryibtfJut-adilfeCoct ^n 

Bow-ftreet : p. 187. . 

D R Y D B R 169 

. The beft methbdv of Ifyiag the intrinfic 
merit of conteric&ng genius, is to compare 
Whether the geatkmen, in the comedies .of 
our. old bards, Shakipeare, Jonfon, and Flet« 
i?]beFi:ai^;n0t as, replete with wit, and as free 
froaiilpw yulg^rity,iiaj5 thojfe of Dryden, 
^yfiheriy, rand Otsvay ? Can they honcft- 
ly place their Wildbloods, Rodophils, 
Woodalls, Horners, Courtines, and Beau-- 
gai^ds, in cocdpetitibn with the Mercutio 
and Benedic of Shaklpeare, the Valentine 
and Lov?lefs of Fletcher, 6r the Truewits 
and Clerimonts of B. Jonfon ? Dryden's 
contempt of Mercytio isa fevere cenfure on 
his want of attention to that admirable 

The tmly dramatic writer, in all Charles's 
icigh, who . wrote witH fome decency -of 
Baanners. ajid niodefty of language^ ; was 
Sir Georgfe Etheridge, Hi^ Man of Mode 
b tlw,ori^iial,.o£ that ipecies of draimatic 
writing called genteel comedy. The fp- 
«ond Dirke of Dorfet aflbred a gentleman, 




Doamstit Was £6kmed '. icom tmoonffoaki 

tec'U piroporiy the &li':fine^gtitockt«ftu) (if 
tbt'En^iAp ^%i% Kvagtjkguy And ^iMI 
Biaa <o£ piotfaie ) has not. btsen^ir^iivm'&tee', 
iBtIiB& we £XCjept the St/Harrj|/VV^Idii^^ 

c Sat llie: iiDets of CiiaclB^'Gs.oda}i3^ oUfUf 
fircira .idkne& (^ mmtlcf aGiiity^ ode^krel 
theiSi^e of: that ^oblrca-QatiliatEt'tBf tfiecoi 
nk raufe, (|)i$ poe|icf llyle, . VYiuch lat^ Uie 
p.'owfth of our «rirahtry» ^and: ^uajU^ itifo 
klaaiwD u> tht OniksfOJod Romanftios id 
€mr neighbours, the French. Itis'tm^ 
Mis. Mr. S^teurd very jucficiottfty : . oWirVes. 
*. than, . altfaoagJl die. Greeks 4ki>not wt)^ 
ly dcpjivcrGciiatcly.of ^et«i/( tbcy^l^bhrint 
tine Iha^w. of pQ^c .d^itmljor ^ntltiaM^ 


Bwt the.'J9^taQk)Q9)t itaily ietaEnt(l>iiifet»e>in 

> ; : ;. . ! ■.;^•,•) r their 

- ' \ t " • ^ »■ 

<« t 

u ) 

* Mr. Tbomaa Sheridan* 

D R Y D E N* 171 

tfacir comedy, but alfo the ftrength *aad 
nerves of pbfetrys which/ fays the fejyif; 
writer, * was a good deal owing to ovtt* 
|)Iank verfe ; which, at the fame time that 
it is capable of the higheft fublimity,, the 
moft exteniive and hobleft harmoii]^ of tra« 
gic and epic, yet, when ufcd familiarly, is 
fo ftear the fermo pedeftrhy fo eafy.and na* 
turali as to be well adapted to the droll^ 
tOiftic dialogtie/* 

Our dramatic poets, thodgli unwilling to 
rdbrm thertifelves, at laft found, in Coi*- 
lier, a fevere, but juft, correftor of thdr 
indecencies and blafphemy. The phyfic 
he adminiftered was fo powerful, . : that a 
fuddfen and atmoft effeftdal reformation 
took place, Drydcn himfelf, who feldom 
gave up an argument to his advcrfary^ 
iterunk from the charge and pleaded guilty. 
The city of London was tmdet particular 
obligations to this (attricai critic j for a ci- 
tizen, and efpecially an alderman, was furc 


* Scward*s preface to Beaumont and Fletcher* 


to be the poets game ; he was at once 
tubbed a wittol and a cuckold. I believe, 
fince Collier^s book was publiflied, our 
magiftrates of London have pretty much 
dcaped the ridicule of theatrical horns. — 
But Diyden, though he owned his guilt 
in very plain terms, would not quit the 
field without th? throwing a few ftones at 
kis monitor^ He iays, I think, withjuC- 
tice, that Collier was too much given tp 
Icoirf&Tplay in his railleiy 5 for .his wit was 
Wunt, though fcvci^e ; and his ftyle, though 
forcible was coarfe. * I will not,' j&ys 
Dryden, * fay, .that the zeal of God's 
Loufehath eaten him up, but I am fure it 
has devoured fome part of his good mi- 
ners/ Jn farther defence of himfelf ami 
his poetic brothers, he confidently aflerts, 
•^ there is more bawdy in of Beau* 
mont and- Fletcher, the Cuftom of thfe 
Country,: than in all ours together/ That 
play has indeed much bad language in U> 
ind fome indecent characters ; but ilo can-^ 
did reader will fay, that it is without fcencs 


» R Y D E M. m 

which are quite irreprehenfible, and fome 
perfonse which no audience can <lHIike. ^-^ 
But Dryden fltould have called to mind hit 
own Limberham, or Kind Keeper. This 
comedy, from the beginning to the end, is 
one fcene of lewdn6fs and debauchery; 
without one fober dialogue and one fufferabfe 
charafter. Father A!do, whom, in the 
dramatis perfonse, he terms an lioneft, 
good-natured, free-hearted, old gentleman, 
of the town, is the moft abandoned de- 
bauchee that ever fpent his time in a bro* 
thel. This wretch, who is, through age, 
incapable of all fenfual enjoyment himfelf, 
becomes the fervile and willing agent to 
fapply the fuel of vice to others. 

We cannot wonder, at the time fuck 
plays as Limberham were reprefented, wo- 
men of character were deprived of theatri- 
cal entertainment. In thofe days, it was a 
conftant pradice for the ladies to fend their 
friends, of the male fex, as fpies, or fcouts, 
to obferve the firft night of reprefentation. 
The playhoufe was then fo offenfive, that 



Afc citizens kept aloof from xt> till the poet5 
cf their own £a6lion brought whig poU*- 
tics to combat with tofy prindples. 

Icould have wifhed, that indecency had not 
ilepped from the fock to the bnlkin : Drydea 
and Lee threw much obfcenity, as well as pro- 
fanenefs^into tlieir moft admired heroic plays. 
Should we allow, that Lee's Sophoniiba has 
many tender and paffionate thoughts, it 
muft be owned that it abounds in pafTages 
fit only for a houfe of entertainment, — — 
The old EmperoTy and Nourmahul, his 
wife, in Aurengzebe, reproach one ana* 
therin terms unfuitable to common decen- 
cy as well a^ dignity of charafter. 

But here let me ftopj to make put a pro- 
cefs againft Dryden would be as cruel as 
ungrateful. The Englifti verfification is 
more indebted to him than to half the poets 
from Chaucer's time to the prefent. Much 
has been faid of this great, author's perfonal 
conduft, of his religion, and morals. -- 
Let me here quote a paffage in his vindica- 
tion, written by himfelf in a letter to John 

Dennis ; 


B R Y t) E K/ tfi 

Dennis: For my principles of r^igion^ I^mS 
not jufiify them to you : I know yours are far 
different. For th^fatrfe re/ifon^ IJhallfay m^ 
tinng of my principles of Jiate : I believe you^ 
in yours y follow the, diBMes of your ^ reafon^ as 
/, in mine y Jo thofe of my confcience^ if I 
thgught myfelf in an error,^ I wtmld .retraB it 
Fiar my^ morals ^ Between man and man ^ lam 
mt to be my ^own Judge. I appeals to ./& 
nmld^^ if I have deceived or defrauded am 
mn% andyfbr my private com)erfation^ they^ 
sxhofee^me, every day^ €an be the beft witn^e% 
wbether^ or no it^ be hlamelefs and inoffenjiix^ — 
This letter was written about the year 
1^4, fome> time before he undertook his 
Tr^tnflation of Virgil- Dryden died cjf a 
mortification which began in bisjbot ; and, 
ibihe hours before his death, he charged 
his fon, Charles, not; to permit a furgieon 
ta. tpaakfis any operation on pretence ^ of 
woridng a. cure: _^ . 
. Dr. J^bnfori^^ Lifeof Drydeais.amoll: 
valuable acquifition to learning ^ the cri- 
ticifmJs; profound aod the biography exad. 






* ■ 

Otway. ^ 


4 * 

Dry den forid of high-founding diBion. — i«- 

fiances of it from Don Sebajiian. --^ Otway ; 

^-the firfi writer of genuine tragedy. — 

Wrote his firfi tragedies in ritfie.^^ jilcibid" 

' 4e$i— Mrs. Elizabeth Barry. — Don Car^ 

. > '. ■» ■ » 

Jos. — Dry den. — Boheme and Mrs. Seymour. 
Otway s defeSis. — His Caius Marius. — His 
fraife of Sbakfpeare. — Under hill and 
Nokes. — Epilogue to Caius Marius. ^-^ The 
Orphan. — Blot. — Language.-^ Venice pre- 
ferhed. — Shakfpeare. — Acafio.^-^Charlesn'. 
— Duke of Ormond. — ^ Duke of Buckings 
bam. — Anecdote of Carey Dillon and the 
Duke of(>rmond: — Otway s difrefpeSi fit 
the clergy ; — unjujl.— Eminent divines.'^ 
tlEfirange. — Euripides. — T^wo laji4ines of 
the Orphan.-^ Oedipus. — Firfi aBons of the 
Orphan.-^ Betterton.^'^ Mouritfort;— Wil- 



O T W A Y. 177 

liams.^-^ Contention between PowelandWiU 
Hams. — Smith* s epitaph written by Booth. 
'^Some anecdotes of the life of Mrs. Barry. 
^^Earl of Rochejier . — Tragedy of the Earl 
ofEJfepc. — ^een Elizabeth.— Mrs. Por^' 
ter. '^ Mrs. Barrfs excellence acknowledged 
byBetterton. — Laji part Jhe played. — Her 
death and epitaph. — Caufe of her death. — 
Chamont. — The elder Mills. — f^in.^-^ Bo:tb 
and Walker in Polydore. — - Wilks^s Caftalioi 
^^Barry. — Mr. Garrick. — Mrs. Porter 
and Mrs. Gibber. 

ved, to the honour of Dry den, that he 
was the firft of our dramatic poets, in the 
reign of Charles II. who, from his imitation 
of Shakfpeare's manner, revived natural and 
colloquial dialogue in tragedy, yet it muftbe 
laid, that he retained, to the laft, apredi- 
Icftionfor the marvellous and high founding 
ftyk. Though he had it in his power to 
be the lawful monarch of true poetical 
language,, he could not abandon the fwell 
Vol. III. N and 


■ - 1 


and turbulent di£):k>tt of the arbitrary ty- 
rant. What can we lay in deffcnce of ftja^ 
ny rhapCodical effafions in one of his bed 
tjragcdies, Don Sebafti^n, K. of Portugal? 
DoraX) after defcribing, in very nobk 
terms> the charafter of Scbaftian^ wiflw., 
to have fought lum and to have died with 
him : 

»■ . I, too, would bare been fljun, 
. That, catching hold upon hi3 flitting gboft, 
I might haverobb'd him of his,ojp*ning heav'riy 
And draggM him down with mc, fpitc of predefti- 
nation ! 

And Sebaftian himfelf : ^ 

. Let Fortune entpty her whole qatrec oi| aierf 
I have a fouU that, like aa ample ihicld^ 
Can take in all, and verge enough for more I 

. To Thomas Otway was referved the ko^ 

Bour of giving tragedy its true and gttiuii* 

tone of language^ divefted of urniatufd 

flight and unneceffary pomp. This wfit^ 

began, like the reft of our draoMtic poets 

in that age, with tragedy in rime, fo ^ 

Alcibiades, the firft and weakeft of his tra- 

O T W A Y. tyq 

gcdies, the public found enough ^o be 
pleafed; and, in this play, the great ac- 
tfcfs, Mrs. Barry, gave the firft intiicatlon 
of her rifing merit. In his j^cond dra:ma- 
^c piece, he formed his plot from St. 
Real's Hiftory of Don Carlos, Prince of 
Spgin. It was afled with very great ap« 
plau^, ^md contributed at once to raife the 
leputatipn and mend the fortune of the au- 
thor. In his preface, Otway gives a ftiort 
anecdpte of an envious poet, who declared,^ 
^^) fg^^i be knew not a line in Dm Carhs 
kwQuI4 be the author of. In the Rehearfa], 
tgad is a favourite and frequent exprefiion 
of Poet B^yes : Dryden, who had no fmall 
fhar^of envy, was, in all probability, the 
perfon ainoed at. Don Carlos continued 
long a favourite drama 3 it was revived, a^ 
bove fifty y^ars fince, at the theatre in 
Lincoln*s-ino fields ; when Boheme's ac* 
tion in Philip, and Mrs. Seymour, by her 
excellence in the Queen, rendered their 
names celebrated, and contributed to efta- 

N 2 bUfti 


bl^fh }a .coippany^ ftriiggling with difficut* 
ties. ! 

But Otway wanted the variety aiul har- 
mony of Drydeh's numbera ; nor had he 
his various learning, or reafoning faculty, 
to embellifh and diveriify his tragedies ii^i 
rime. He foori followed that poet-s ex- 
ample, and relinquifticd his chiming fettcri 
for blank verfe, which approaches neareil 
to the iambic of the antients. Otway; 
like Dryden, warmed his genius with th 
fire of Shakfpeare 5 but, not content wit 
borrowing from his original, he ftole who! 
fcenes from Romeo and Juliet, and in- 
corporated them in his Caius Marius : this, 
indeed, he acknowledges in his prologue. 
The encomium, which he beftows on the 
old bard, deferves a place amongftthofe 
which are accumulated to his honour ia 
the laft edition of Johnfon and Steevens : 

Our Shakfpeare wrote, too, in an age as blefs'di 

The happieft poet of his time, and bed. 

A gracious prince's favour cheer'd his mufe, 

A cenfiant favour he ne'er fear'd to \oi^. 


O T W A Y. i8i 

Therefore he wrote with fancy unconfia'J, 
And thoughts that w;^re immortal as his mind i 
And, from the crop of his luxurious, pen. 
E'er fince, fucceeding poets humbly glean. ., 
Though much the mod unworthy of the throng. 
Our this-day's poet fears he has done him wrong : 
Like greedy beggars, that fteal (heaves away, - 
You'll find he hasViiledhim of halfa pjay. 
Amidft bis bafer drofs you'll fee it (hine^ . 
Moft beautiful, amazing, and divine! 

Notwhhftanding the merit of fuch a co- 
[alitioh as Shakfpeare and Otway, and the 
[excellent afting of Better ton. Smith, and 
frs. Barry, in the tragic fcenes of the play, 
[I believe it chiefly owed its fupport to Un- 
[derhill in Sulpitius, and Nokes in the 
JNurfe, who, in this part, excited fuch re- 
peated merriment, that he carriedthe name 
of Nurfe Nokes to his grave. Edmund 
Smith, in his Elegy on the Death of Phi- 
lips, has given a diverting pi6lure of this 
inimitable droll, who Ihone equally in 
burlefquing tragedy as in aflting qomic cha- 
: rafters : 

N 3 Sq> 




So, wherrNurfe Nokes to aft young Aramon tries, 
With (hambliHg legs, long chin, and fooliiheyeti 
With dangHtig hands he {hokes th'imperiat robe, 
And with a cuckold's air commands the globe. 
The pomp and found the Whole buffoon difplay'd, 
And Amnion's fon more mirth than Gomez made. 

Th? fuperior power of pleafing an au* 
dience, in Underbill and Nokes, is ac-r 
knowledged, by the author, in the epilogue^ 
fpoken by Mrs. Barry : 

And now for you, who here come tyl'appM in clokes . 
Only for love of Upderhill and Nurfe Nokes. 

Otway's quitting the military lifp is alft 
pointed out in the fame epilogue : 

But which amongft you is there to be found 
Will take his third day's pawn for fifty poundf 
Or, ndw'he iscafhi^r'd, will fairly venture 
To givfe him ready money for's debenture ? 
Therefore, when he receiv'd that fatal doom^ 
This play came forth, in hopes his friends would 

To help a poor di(handed foidier home; 

From thefe lines, we may candidly and 
fairly conclude^^ that Otway's leaving the 
army was attended with no difgrace. 


O T W A y. ,8j 

But the reputation of Otway for pathe- 
^tic powers was, by the foccefs of his Or«> 
>han^ juftly exalted above all the drama- 
tiftt of his own and fucceeding times* The 
\amStcrs, by being brought nearer to the 
J€(Hidition of the audience^ more deeply in- 
their paffions than the fate and for- 
tune of peribns who are eminently placed 
above them. 

A young lady, deftitute of fortune, and 
who had loft her parents, left, when a 
child> to the care and proteflion of a no-. 
bleman, the friend of her dead father^ is 
paiSonately folicited by his two fons, Caf- 
talio and Polydore. The pretenfions of the • 
elder, unknown to his brother, are found- 
ed on honourable love. The younger, 
confiding in the fincerity of his brother's 
declaration, that be would never marry 
Monimia, but ftrivc to gain her for a mif- 
trds, is impelled to affront her with his 
brqtal pafiion, as (he rightly terms it ; for 
his addreis, however juftified in the rank 
days of Charles IL would fcarcely now be 

N 4 tolerated 


_ i 


tolerated in a brothel. During the pro. 
grefs of their courtftiip, Chamont, the 
young lady's brother arrives ; and, on the 
information of an old woman, whom the 
author's poetical fancy transforms into a 
witch, he queftions his fifter on her prc- 
fent fituation. The fcene is varied with 
beautiful imagery and afFefling pafjion.— 
Polydore, the younger brother, by the 
help of a page, difcovers Caftalio^s trea- 
chery ; and, not knowing of th^ir mar- 
riage, liftens, and overhears the appoint- 
ment of the new-married pair. By a ftra- 
tagem, he contrives to impofe himfelf, in 
the dark, on Monimia, for his brother; 
and enjoys her. The diftrefs, raifed in 
confequence of this, ends in the death of 
the lady and the two rival brothers. 

From a plot fo fimple, the author has 
raifed pathetic fcenes, which, from their 
firft reprefentation to the prefent day, have 
melted into tendernefs the heart of every 
fpeftafor. The language is eafy, flowing, 
and familiar; fufRciently forcible, without 


O T W A Y. 185 

degenerating into vulgarifm ; it is occa*- 
fionally ftrengthened by pleafing defcriptioa 
and warpi imagery. Had it been raifed to 
greater force, by higher exertion of the 
poet, it would neither have fuited the plot 
nor the charafters. That his flyle was 
more energetic, in his tragedy of Venice 
Prefcrved, muft be attributed to the dif- 
ference of fable and the perfons employed 
in it. He, that delineates in his mind the 
deftru6lion of a flate, or kingdom, will 
immediately find a more animated flyle rife 
to his imagination than that which dc- 
fcribes the diftrefles of a private family. — 
In Shakfpeare, the very idea of a confpira- 
cy fires his thoughts and elevates his laii- 


In the character of Acafto, Otway has 
drawn a portrait of a worthy nobleman, 
who, retired from court, retains his vene- 
ration and loyalty for his royal maften 
That th? author has given a good piiElurc 


♦ flcnrjrlV. Macbeth, Julius Cserar. 




ef courts^ ami more. particularly that of 
Charles IL I thliik an attentive render tpaf 
ht tn the dcknptian of it ^ven hf Acafto 
k% the fecond zBl. After whicb» the good 
old man breaks oat into a warm encomium 
6f Charles II, 


Tott (han hftTc bttfiaefe whMt y ottr »uft«r vnttfts ]fM ! . 

Yon cannot ferye a nobler. I have ftrv'tf tMOir 

III this old bodjr yet the marLs ren^ti . 

Of nrzny womkte, i'ti^f , with this tmgue^ frudahii 

tin riikt^ n/n in the face of rant rehtSon f 

Aady wlien a foaUmcmthM traitor once pro^M 

Hi» (acred i»«me» m^hmffpoA fabrc drawiiy 

Ev'n at the bead of aJI hU gtddy rout, 

I nrfbMy and clove the rebel to the chine ! 

Of all the noblemen, who, in the reign 
of Charles II. diftinguifhed themfdves for 
worth, and attachment to their royal maP 
ter, James Duke of Ormond ftands the 
foremoft ; and I cannot avoid conje^uringy 
/that his charader is here fli^towed^ at leaft 
part of it, nnder Acafto. What llrength- 
VCis my opiniOTi is the diicourfe of the two 
jfervants, Paulino and Eraefto, in the firft 



I O T W A Y. ttl 

fccnc. Paulino, after cxpreffing his won- 
der, that Acafto fhould ftill perfift in ha- 
ting the court, where he was born and 
bred,. IS informed, by Ernefto, that he 
had reafon for his diiguft ; 

■ ■ ■ ^ ., ., > When, for what he had borne^ 
Long and faithful toil, he might have daitn'd 
flacks in hoitour and emplojrment higbi 
A huffing, ihintng, flattering, cringing, coward^ 
A canker-worm of peace, was r aU'd above him.^ 


That Ormond was difplaced from his 
government of Ireland, where he was be-» 
loved hy all ranks of people, by the 
ungrateful Charles, to gratify the worft 
man in the kingdom, Villiers Duke of 
Buckingham, is a fa£t, to which, I thinkj, 
Otway alludes. It is true, Ormond did 
not, like Acafto, retire from courts but 
kept his place of fteward of the houfehold j 


^ In thefe attributes of a bafe mind, we fee the ge^ 
Ruine charaAer of Buckingham ; who, it is believedj^ 
formed a treacherous defign, by his inftrumentj, Blood, 
to aflaffinate thia worthy nobleman. 



which office, Charles, who rcfpefted vir- 
tues, though he wanted the honefty to 
imitate them, had not the courage to take 
from him. The king, who was extremely 

affable, and made it his conftant bufinefs 


to pleafe every man with his converfation, 
when he went to the levee, faw Ormond 
always ready to pay his court; but, by 
Buckingham's influence, he could neither 
Ipeak to nor look at him. This behavioiir 
was copied by all who frequented the court 
with a view to • gain employment or to fe- 
cure the mrnifler's favour. But thofe, 
who had nothing to afk, and went there 
only to make their bows, formed a circle 
about Ormond, and liftened with great at* 
tcntion to his difcourfe. It happened, one 
day, that the king, flrruck with the refpefl 
paid to his old loyal fervant, was willing 
to break through his forced filence, and 
fyeak to him ; but the favourite's prefence 
cmbarraffed him fo much, that Bucking- 
bam, in a whifper, faid to the king, * I 
wifli your xxiajefty would refolve me one 

queftion ; 

O T W A Y. 


queftion : Js the Duke of Ormond out of 
favour with your majefty, or is your ina- 
jefty out of favour with the Duke of Or- 
mond ? for, of the two, you feem to be in 
moft confufion/* This good man's opi- 
nion of the court may be gathered from 
what' he faid to Gary Dillon, afte wards 
Lord Rofcommon. Dillon preffed the 
duke to ufe his intereft for a fuit he had to 
the king ; afluring him, at the fame time, 
that he had no friend at court but God and 
his lordftiip : * Alas ! poor Gary,* faid the 
duke, * thou couldfl: not have two friends 
that have lefs intereft at court, or lels 
refpeft fhewn them there/ 

I (hall conclude what I have to fay, on 
this matter, with an account of Gharlcs's 
fubfequent behaviour to Ormond j ' which 
is fo remarkable, that, though it confers 
fome little honour on the king, it throws a 
luftre on the duke's charafter vvhich no- 
thing can tarnifli. 


■»■■■' I '■ ■ " " — I ■' ■■ I ' I ," ' !. '' < »> 

• Carte's Life of Ormond, VoK II. 



After the king had, for feveral yearSi 
treated the Duke of Ormond with coid*f 
nefs and neglefl, on a fudden he invited 
him to fupper : he treated him with fuch 
familiarity and kindnefs as if nothing ha4 


happened, and appointed him once more 
to the government of Ireland. The next 
day, at the levee, Charles feid to his cour* 
tiers: ' Yonder comes Ormond j I have 
done all I can to difoblige that man, and 
to make him as difcontented as others; 
But be will not be difoUiged wftb tne j he wiH 


be loyal, in fpite of my teeth . — I muft e*en 
take him in again ; and he is the fitteft 
perfon to go to Ireland/ 

If I am deceived in my conjefture, 
refpefting the application of Acafto's cha^ 
rafter to the Duke of Ormond, I Ihall 
only have amufed my readers with fome 

anecdotes which are not to be found in the 


general hiftory of this country. 


O T W A Y, i9« 

Aa II. 

Chamont and the Chaplain^ 

CHAMONT. .... 

^ NtfV ^t Ihos art a liy{iocrite* Ir there not "ORQ 

Of 9H th J tribe ihat*« honeft in your fcbo^a^ . 
Ye all Kve lothefome^ fervile^ fneaking, lives S 
Not free enough to pra6life generous U'utlii 
Thmigh you pretend to toich it to the world. 

• ■ » • 

« • 

ftJcB, implied ia luxury and dcbauplit?^ 
xj, as Otwayand his brother^|K>ats. were ia 
the reign of ^ Charles, could not be very 
impartial judges of a clergyman's facred 
fun<3ion or charafter* They had no op- 
portunity to be acquainted with the worthj 
men of that order ; their time was difCpa- 
ted in places which were unknown even to 
fober laymen^ Otway wis the fon of s^ 
clergyman, who left him, for inheritance, 
asbehimielfhas told us,^ nothing but hl« 
loyalty ; and this alqne might furely havQ 
prevented l)is iltiberal abufe on the order. 



' ♦ In his deifcatioiit 



But, if ever the clergy of this country dc- ' 
ferved efteem and refpeft, it was during 
the reign of this abandoned mbnarch* 
■ Before the reftoration of Charles, 

the church of England had endured a 
twenty years perfecution ; and, from that 
fiery trial, came out more pure and bright. 
Such ornaments of piety and learning can 
hardly be produced in any period of our 
hiftory, as at that time ftione out with 
fiiperior luftre. — The names of Wil- 
kins, Cudworth, Barrow, Tillotfon, Stil- 
lingfleet, Whichcot, Scot, Patrick, Bur- 
net, and Sharp, to whom many more 
might be added, will juftify what I have 

That boutefeuy Sir Roger L'Eftrange, 
tbwai'ds the latter end of Charles's reign, 
by his inflammatory paper, called the Ob- 
fervator, endeavoured to miflead the clergy 
in general. But fuch men as I have men- 
tioned were not to be ftiaken or biafled by 
a hacknied incendiary. The interefted and 
fanatic part of the clergy, and fuch all 
churches have, were, indeed, dupes to 



O T W A y. i 191 

L'£ftrange ,and their owtu pailions y biit 
tfaegreater part, to thdlr honour, remakied 
untainted. • 

AarV. Scene I. 

Acailo, Chamont, MpniQiia, > 


A Cr A 3 T O. 

You talk t^jT^etn puni^^i Chamont, 

You may tiavic known that Tm no wordy man. 

Fine fpeeches are the inftrudielitsof knaves, 

Or fopU i^t .up:. liiem when they wftftTgoasL .(eDfc. 

Butboncfty. , : 

Need« DO dilkuife or ornament 


Few of* our dramatic poets, jej^cept Dry- 
den and Congrevel feem to havciiad s^ny^acj- 
quairitahce witli the Greek tragedians :. I 
fliould otherwife have fufpefted, that" Ot- 
way: had,, in the above litres* of ^cafto, 
imitatfed the following fpe^ch, of Polyiiices 
to Ms Wcrther, Eie(5cresrin the.PhcenijQk 
of Euripides: ; • , ,. ,,. - 

• t^OL.III. O iX" 

• - ' I ' 

« ■ ' ♦ ' • ■ r I 

i »j I . I ^ » '. 1 : i X 




E;^« yap c^vrct H»i(f9f* ^'i^ocitzo$ Xoyop,. 

The words of truth are fimple i juftice need$ licit 
The circling train of wily argument^ 
Clear in its pcoofs, Injufiice, in itfelf 
Unfound, requires the medicinal trick 
Of gloitng fophiftry; 

Potter's £uriptdes» 

Aa;V. Two laft lines, 

C H A M O N T. 

'Tis thus thkt lttav*n its empire does nmintain : 
It may afflid, but man muft not comptain. 

This is but a bad moral deduced 
flrom the cataftrophe of the fable, and bor- 
ders oh fataliftn. Oedipus, in the condu* 
jEonof .the Phoeniffe, utters tiie ^e doc- 
trme : 


: ' : ; 

■— . But why ia^v^ia 

x • '•• 

*. * "^ ' '*■ f * I s. ^^^ 

• ilnce mortal man 


Lament I thus and wail, fince mortal man 
Muft bear the hard RCceffity of fate ? 

■ Potter. 



o T vr A y, 195 

t r 

The principal original a^brs, in the • 
Orphan, were— Bettertdn/'Caftalio ; Wil- 
liams, Polydore ; Smith^; Chamont'; and 
Mts. Barry, Monimia. Gibber ; has ' told 
us, that the Caftafio of Bettertoh was tu- 
perior to all the performances he had ever 
feen of the chai after; though he confefled, 
at the fame titrte, that he was not fo ^emi- 
tient in reprefenting ' lovers, from peffoii 
and elocution, as parts which required left 
foftnefs. ^ Mountfort; a younger man,' 
who fucceeded him, being endowed 1by na- 
tufe v^ith ii handfome perfon, a mdft mfelo- 

^tfs'-vdlcei* and pieafing addrefs, \yas, at 
leaft to the female part of the audienc(^,* 

which I' think beft qualified to diftihgmfh, 
rather nearef toH;he idea of an accompliflied 
andfircceftful lo^r. Williams was an aflor 
of merit,* but courted the bottle with more 
Wgoui^'tfaati the profeffion of afting. Poly- 
dofii wais foiTnerly fo great a favourite with 
the aiidienee, that, when Povtrel and he were 
^JMft into the two Tsrothcrs, they contended 
' ... _ 2 whQ- 



iq6 dramatic MISCgL^^NlES. 

who fhould a£k this approved libertine } 
and hp, w^o pbtgin^ the favour, paid for 
it, as I have4)eejr) told, with a fine for a 
facrifice at the ihrine of Bacchus* . Smith 
was an a^or of fuch eminence as to excite 
the indolent Booth to write his epitaph. 
He wa§ lopg the sflociate of Betterton in 
the management of the theatre. Mr^ 
Barry's Monimia feems to have raife4 
that reputation to the heig;ht whiqh bad 
been gradually ' increafing. As Cibhej: 
confiders this aftrefs to have been far &pe. 
rior to a0 he had ever known m tr^dyi 
it vyiil jQQt be an idle buiizKis to givif 
ibme account of the methods emplpy^t iq 
^rm fo much excellence* c. . ^ . 

It it iaid j that Mrs. Ba^ry waf i^hje dau^ghn 
ter of Edward Barry, EjCq, a barriftef ,* 
who was aftei-wards called Colonel 35»rry# 
from his having raifed a regiment, for the; 
fervice qf Chairles I. in the civil wars, t^ 

. t . . »-> 

"l^he jpisfortuwes, arifing from tiim.c^gaggf) 
ment, involved hiiuielf and f^mUy in fudsk 
(|ifti:efs, ^ that his children w?re ohl^d tft 



♦ Hiftory of ihe Stage, printed for E. Curl, 1741. 


O T W A Y. 197 

faiftke tiieir own fortunesr. Lacfy £)ave- 
B^t, 'an kcq&aintancc of Sir William Dal 
tenant, from her \^ricndfhip to Colonel 
Barry*, gave his daughter a genteel educa*- 
tion; She made her hereonftant companion', 
and always vifited h€t aeqtiaintatice with her 
pMng friend, ^his fearly knowledge of po- 
tifelife was of feivice to Mrs. fiirry , as It gavt 
% eafe and grace to h&r perioA and beha- 
i^our. Above forty years fiflcej 1 fkw, at 
Mrs. Bifacegirdle's houft, in Howard-iffereet, 
\ jfftflte pi Mrs. Barry, fey Kliellcr, in 
fhe fame' apartment with the portraits of 
Bcfterton, Mh Congrevr, and Mrs. Braces 
^rdle. Mrs. Barry, it appeared from the 
pffiiting, had not been a great beauty, but 
her countenance commanded' attention and 
was extremely expreffive. When her friend. 
Lady Davenant, recommended her to the 
ftagc, Ker pretenfions to notice were a good 
sir and manner, and a very ftrong and plea- 
fing voice. Her ear was fo bad, and the play- 
crsfoimd it fo extremely difficult to teach her, 
Aat they pronounced her incapable of making 

O 3 any 



any progrefs in a6ting. Three times, fayi 
the hiftorian of the Engliih ftagc, fhc 
was rejected, and, by, the intereft.of h^ 
patrppffs, re inflated, Cibber., fpeaki 
pnly of one difcbarge. • 

Ther? was fo litjtle €Xueft?ition of hsT 
arriving to, apy degree of exQ^llence,, tlwj 
feveral pcrfons of quality, on/eeing her^^ 
tcaerpt: a . /charafter : of fpujc iniportan(^ 

- • * # 

gave their option, that -.(he never could 
be an r aftrcfs. . The Earl, of Rophej^ei;> 
who, at that time, paid/his;a4dri^0^tp 
Mrs.. Barry, offered a confidprable war 
gcr, that, in the fpace of iix mpnjjis, he 
would engage fhe ; would be one pf t^e 
moft approved perfoxihers of the. theatre. 
The carl's offer was acqepted. From 
the moment he made this engagement, 
he renewed his addreffes to Mrs. 

■ ' * » 

Barry; and, by often converfxng with 
her, found fhe was miftrefs of exquifite 
charms. It has been faid, -that, he fixed 
his afFcdions on her more ftrongly than 
on any other female. Letters, addrefled to 

> Madam 




j T W A Y- 199 

I Madam B — ^, by the Earl of Rochcfter, 

I were printed in tteit edition of bis poems 

it for thepublic eye^ which wasptiblilhed by 

J. Ton£m in ] 7 1 6 ; and are generally faid to 

be the earFs epiftolary correfpondence with 

this celebrsfted a^refs. In fbme of them, 

be fpeaks with great fondnefs of a child he 

had by her, to whom he afterwards left, by 

will, an annuity of 40I.* One of the firft 

jpart?, the earl taught his fair pupils 

M^ Ifkbella, the .Queen of Hungary, in 

the Earl of Orrery's tragedy of -Muftapha. 

Mrs J Barry had an excellent underftanding, 

but not a mufical ear ; fo that fhe could 

not catch the founds or emphafes taught 

her ; but fell into a difagreeable tone, the 

fault of moft young ftage-adventurers. — 

To cure her of this defeft. Lord Rochefter 

caufed her to enter into the meaning of 

every fentiment; he taught her not only the 

proper cadence or founding of the voice, 

hut to feize alfo the paffions, and adapt her 

O 4 . whole 

*^*<i<— — <— i— i^ I I II « < » II > t I «i I I ■ '■■' ■ I I - ■■! . I "! ■■ ■ ■■■■I I ■! ■ I m ■■■ ■ ^ 

* Hifiory of the Englilh Scdge, 1 741. 



whole behaviour ta fhe lituattons <^ tfie 
charader. It it fmA^ that^ in order toac^ 
complifh his intention^ befides^ the many 
private inlbiixftions be gave her, he catt&d 
her to rehearfe the part no left than tUhijf 
times upon the ftage, and, of the&^ aboot 
twelve times in the drefs in Which (he wis 
to play. 

The firfl night flie a6led this part^ Ro« 
pheil^r brought the king, the duke of 
York, and his dutchefs, to the play. Iht 
lo6k of diftf efs, and her whole deportment 
before flie fpoke, greatly prejudked the 
audience in her favour : but, when (he ut* I 
tered the following words to the Catcfi 
nal, « ■■> " • 

My lord, my forrow fecks not your relief: 
YoH arc not fit to judge a mother's grief} 
You have no child for an untimely graVc^ 
Nor can you lofe what I defire to favcv 

1 I '■ 

Here they faw majefty diftrefled j and t 
widowed queen, infulted by her fubjeftj, 
feeling all that an afflided mother could 
fuffer, from a ftern counfellor's forcing her 


O T W A Y. ibt 

to yidd her only fon^ to be A^riiced t6 1^ 
Cftemy, to §wt theoifelve$ aiki dtp The 
feveral confli6tingfMifiiong were to feetingly 
touched by her^ that the theatre refounded 
with loud applaufe. .The Dutchefs of York 
was fo pleafed With Mrs. Barry, that fhc 
made her a ^rttknt of her wedding fuit • 
from fter^ihe learned, foon afterwards, to 
improve in the Englifh language; and, 
wheii Queen of England, it is faid Ihe 
gave her Her coronation-robes, to adt 
Queen Elizabeth, in the Earl of Effete. — 
In this wretche<f tragedy, her ailion was 
fo truly excellent, that, in fpite of the 
worft language that an author can pofQbly 

write; flie revived Elizabeth, the great idol 

• '' * ' 

6f her people. 

* To fay, in the common language, that 
Elizabeth loved her people, is talking idly,* 
lays Voltaire j * for what prince ever^ovcd 

• • • 

the people ?* However, fhe certainly had 
fhe art to 'make thitm believe fo ; for (he 
governed them above forty years, to their 
own happinefs and fatisfaiflion, and the 



aiftpcpbllk^ of allEi^ro^;'. Mrs. Barrf 
f&fbOXyi^nder^ood' the dhacaiSter of thb 
^ioc^is; fli^pronoaiiced > 

What means my giving people f 

with fuch cxquifite ikill^ ihjit It never failed 

>. . . # » ,. . , . ... • 

to draw the approvingjflptipe of therftu- 
^ence. Above jifty years finqe,; . I i>w her 
great imitator and. :?id mired pupiU, Mrs^ 
Fprtcf> in thip charader, and Elizabeth i^ 
the Albion ' Qi^eens., In both fl^e acquit- 
ted . herfelf to ^he admiration of the ap- 
dicnqe ; though all^ who had remenabered 
Mrsir Barry, pronounced her very infe- 
Fior to her., teacher. She was io bme^ 
that^ during the whole play, fjie wajj 
obliged to make ufe of a crutched cane;^ 
which file contrfved to ufe with a4y4fl- 
tage, efpecially. in that fcene,. of the 
Albion Queens, where Elizabeth, with 
wopderful diffimulatjon ai)d roy^l hypo- 
crify,,' feems unwilling to . fign th^ un* 
fortunate Mary's death-warjant : in the 
a0umed agitation of her • mi^d during 

.^ ;• 

O T W A ..Y. «0« 

the. feigned, conflifl, and when /he pro» 
nounced the following, words ■ . ■ 

Qpick ! give my roving thoughts no time for reafon ^ 
But thou, fuccefsful devil, put the pen 
Into my han<l, and heH into my bofom ! 

» • • r . 

And after figning the warrant- 

. There, there, it is 

.M?s. Porter, with her cane, . ftruck thr 
ftage with fuch vehemence, that the ai^ 
.dience rdterated loud applaufe. 

But^Mrs* Barry, was miftrcfsbf all tte 

pafiions of the iiiind: .love,/ joy, grief, 

rage, Jgadernefs, ^and jealoufy, were all rfi- 

prefented by ^ler with eqaal ikiU anfl. equal 

cffeft:- In the;pi[ay 9^ the Orphan, when, 

.on leaving: Caftaliq, in the laft aft, flic 

b^rft put info-thgt aff^ftii^ exclamation, 

* O poor CaftalioJ'.. fhe never failed to 

feed te»s \ herfelf; nor was it pofllble for 

the audierice* to reftrain from corxefpon^ 

dent lamentations. Betterton bore this 

teltimony to the perfeftion of this eminent 

aftrefs : that fbe often fo greatly exerted 

her. art in an indifferent character, that 


licr^ afting had givcb fuccefi to plays 
that wcmid diiguft the moft patient reader! 
When fhe accepted a part, fhe contxAttA 
the author concerning his intention in 
CTery fcene^ The laft new chara6ler 
Ibea6ied was, I tliiriky Ph2Bdra> in £3- 
mimd SmitET triagedy bf Fhsedra and 
^ip^blyltis. .Though jMrs. 0\d&<M' mA 
liht aothdr 'f^ili out cone^n^ittg fo&xt faa^ 
cu^ lines in i^ patt 'elf Ifmena» -Mm. 
fitrfy^aiid ^ were in perfect htiiilofl«f; 
, Obbsr i relate*, 3n bis A{Kdte)gf, l^ 
Mi^^ Bdfvy 4)«dt d* a fever, in Chi letter 

H^ (his(»Ji|>t$^oft, hV Kef tlk(( detiriotn, -^ 
* Ha^kaf andib they.fiieike u^ litinis hj 3c^ 

■m^ r -^tti^ii^ was a(bo6t' the ^ttte iv^ 
•srttW p^^i were crtated atont*. The 

•dits^dlher ej^itaph, ^ A^n, i» fi^edtwo 

-jFitmu aftir Ihis exf^orcHnary {vrdmo^iii f 

' • ' <, '. . A ^ 

J ■•'•'**'■ I* ^ I ■ ■ - ., . >t ,f > .1 . - . 


' ^ The foWowitig epitaph is in the chufch.pr4 of 


O T W A Y.- M^ 

A)a |i6bi^,( ytho W4$ In honAon when Mnt 
Barry idiecb afiuf^ me, pi^i^y yi?i«¥ jiiM^ 
ll^ jfab^r des^bw^s owing to th^ bi^ pf c 
£itiKiiuite lap-dog, who, ui^nown to h^ 
faa4 be^ feized withmadnefs.-; 

I hay&dwelt the longer oa Mn« BiirrjF, 
9[k ftfcpynj 9f her fuperior ex?elJfiBc»,,--j.^ 
(^bber* writing: ip the year 1738, 4eflare4 
^h44Ceenw>thi»g equal. to|i«:, ) - » 

The <;hs(ra£l;er of Cha(pont,h^90tfn" 
gi^ed the attention of vearjf efnin^t a^-orw 
!fhP ^WcT; Millsi . twiny 3»fflrs l^foye his 

Aftthi waf:«nqiiiajiifi«d for .a p^t whlote 

^Wfvdayo^^ngcF man, witii ^udivaiiety ^ 
pf#on, ftn4 qwktrfwf^tiw ft<>». a]?iger ttt 
<S»toai»i^» *a%d jfrpfti $alD>fffl^ r^ remraing 

ti»i.: Qfit> ;vai. bitterly: un^ for thfit, pc 
asf otl>erp»rt;ijSthef>Jiay, except 4caftp> 



■ ■'I ' D f! }. ■ ' ' .'t ' l (j.i t. ' J I ' m tn nri '' .. '■■•' r ' : ', : ••'■. 

. . }. jWes thp l><^y fl(.^i^Jlbet^ |arry, . /. ^ ' 

. p[ the.pjtfUli of jgt. Marjr Le Savqy ;' '. 
"Wko departed Ais life tiie 7th of November/ 1713, ' 

I* * 


Ills judgement direCted him fo^ quit Cha- 
mont many years before he left the ilage. 
' The gay libertine air, which Booth |jave 
to Poiydore, has not been equalled fince, 
though Walker, his pupil, was more than 
a tolerable copy of his mafter. The man- 
ners of the times are {o utterly chahg&I; 
, ... , . ^ 

that the grofs addrefs and brutal courtfliip 
of the character muft now be ibf tened intd 
a more delicate fenfe of what- h due to a 
young lady of honour. - r ;: \ 

The Caftalio! of Wilks was^ long^^ 
juftly admircdv His graceful addrefs ill ti^ 
firft aft, his wami enjoyment of Monimia's 
reconciliaftfion to him in th4' ftcdnd, iai 
rage and' refent^nt 'in tfe6- third- and 
fourth aft, biity ' above all, hii^ ^ 't&iidttfitSi 
and dlftrefs in the fine int&view: witH-MOf- 
nimia in tHe fifth aft, a love-fcene as 
truly aflfefting as ttny to be found in tra- 
gedy, juftly entitled him to the Ipeftators 
moft gener6\i^ approbation. And yet 
thofc> who can remiember'Wiiksaha Bar- 
ry, will own, tkat the latter raiich ex- 


• O T W A Y. sof 

cdled the former. In exprefllng the 
blended pa^ions pf.Iove, tendemels, and 
grief, Barry was unrivalled/ In the Me- 
ifioirs of Mr-^Garrick's Life> il hAvip 
Uid fo much, .of his juftlyr^adimrcd 
Cham6nt, that .1 can add nothing to, it 
here. X To pafi by, with . neglcft, the 
JMonimia . of Mrs. Porter would be nn« 
foSt to the merits of an excellent a6kre&«. *-— 
To thofe, who bad not feen Mr$« Barry, 
notwithftanding her unharmonious .voice, 
Ok appqsired inhnitabk. This adtefs 
concealed the art -of her profefiioR^ (o 
ikUfuUy, that (he feemed to realife the 
paflions, and to . be infpired with the va- 
lious /ituations of her chara^^s^ 

Mrs.. Gibber's Monlmia.m^ny.will call to 
•mind with pleafiire, and do juftice to the 
£ne ex^eilibn and feeling of that ^ impair 
$oned pierformer. The public < iaw, I 
Relieve, only during ^ two winters, with 
juncomnion pleafare,. in the. tragedy of die 
Orphan, a.Gariick, a Barij, ,and a -Gib- 




X . 

«, ..• •• • -• •■ 

'BM of Vmict Prefiroed.--^ Narrative of St. 
Real^ndtbe tragedy compared. — - Bedamar ^ 
and the Duke d^Offunk. Vr Ehak/peari^ 
Ricbard III. --» Euripides, r^ Sierra and 
: - '^affier.'^Hiftory of a Grecian hdy.^^ 'Par* 
ticular time when Venice Preferred mif^ 
oBid. — Duh of TorL -r- Oates, Bedhe^ 
&€. ^.Popijb Plot. — Ot^ay a Joyalifi. ^ 
Scenes ^ if Venice. Preferved. hurt by ribalikf. 

. mrJLord Sbaftfflmry.^r^AUonio, and Renatdi. 
— Otwafs enemies defcribed. -^ Wbigs and 

s iories. — ^befenate of Venice and tie bot^ 
afcommoM. -.^ Otnaay^s cbaraBer in ye^fer^ 
^-^Firft a& of the play.^ BeJmderds ixceU 
Jence^'^-^-Qafs parody .'^^ Pietre^s.artijtce.^f^ 
ConJpirators.^RenauJtMnd EJliot.-r^ BeiW" 
dera and the Coh^rafors. ^^ Su^aons em^ 
tertained againji^ Jaffier. -rt- Hi^ ano^ety and 

• diftrefs.^r^Art of the l^oet.-^F^te af Pierrni 

- -*^ and.JaJ^er.rr-Acqyiisna andjlftfomo.^ 
Wonderful pathos of the Iqft aSi. — Jtb&^t 

;i i/ /.;: . the 

O T W A Y. ac9 

the loft play of Otway.^ — 'His unhappy cir^ 
cumfiances. — Gaufe ajjtgned. — Common ac^ 
count of Otways death 5,— contradtSied by 
Dr. Warton.-^ I'rue canfe ofDfydens envy 
to Otway. -^ Deaf by the great defiroyer of 
envy. — *- Original aBcrs in Venice Pfe^ 
firved.^^Betterton and Smith.— Mrs ^ Bar- 
7.— Mr. Wilis and Mrs. Rogers. — Mills 
in ?ierre. — Booth and Wilh:^-^Colley Cib^' 
' her. — Harty Cdfey. — Bdotb's want of caii^ 
kur. — Mrs.' Pirterj Ryanj ^uin^ and 
ySrs. BeymotiT.--^ Garrici refgns Pierre for 

J^ffier. — MoJ/op^s-Pierre. — An anecdote •' 

Mrs. Cibher. — Mts. Siddons. — Mrs. Tatrs^ 
Mrs. Crawfoi^dy '^d Mifs Toung.^^ Mr J 
Bnreton.^-^Mr. Pknfiey. 

THE fabte of - Venice Preferved afibrded 
a 'Jafg^^ field for the- exertion of 
'^tway's'abifiHes than the cataftfdphc'bf 
an unhappy Carriage in iai -pritate 'feinilf . 
A pldt, 'loTV^aeA im the dedro^ion ofc a 
^e is a ■i«bje£(,-')"hiave already obferved; 
that wottld roofethe genius «f suiy writer* ' 
Vol. in. P The 



The ftory U taken from St. Realms Con- 
fpiracy of the Marquis de Bedamar and the 
Duke d'Offiina againft the Republic of Ve- 
nice. The narrative pf St. Real is fldlfnUy 
writtejif but is by no means fupeiiar to 
the Englifli tragedy, as Voltwe prefuqip- 
tqoufly ?ifferts. In the Hiftory, you have 
fome ch^raders ftrongly parked and wdLj 
delineated j, more efpecially of that extra- 
ordinary m?in, the Marquis of Bedaour, 
the moft accompliliied pqlitiq^n th^ li- 
ving ; yau have likewifQ a^gpod QUtline of 
the mfl& rpiQarkaUe coAfpirators, psrti- 
cularly Pierre and Renault. But ca(i wc 
compare a bare nar^'atiyq with th(f ap^a- 
ting dialogues of Pierre smd Ja$^r^ 9pd 
the heart-felt fcenes of anguifh between 
ti]^^Qy^Blydiftr9fle4 i^elvideya andher ^Ima 
di^radtedhyffeaad. In 5t^ R^eali Jajgier be- 
Gopifflc^^oef^ater 9g4ijift &fi flite of Ve^ 

W^iii9i whe<e p^iltf ^ry ferywebp wfw employ- 
od;f ¥om.theh<Jl>sj erf pluoder^ and bisattaphn^ 
ment to Pietfre^ 1»5 frienfl. Is^ tbie tragwtjf^ 
hp is/4jriveft|ft Ihfestoeft diftrefs, with a 

' •. wife 

O t tir A y. ftti 

urife Wbom he - tetiAtrIf Wm, i>]f a crad 
fittlseri^bi^lflw^ afSdl, ifete^gb' nothing ath 
- jaftify freai^ri^ y«t fttf ely th« be^g ibr- 
^nftd into i eofij^racif By extreme watii!, 
and tbi} i»fi<fiocM arts of a mail he ^fteetns 
fffti « fribnd, exkibtts motives k& fordid 
UltoJt&d o<hef. St. RealV account of the 
t^MK^iracy refemMes a gfootmy reprefentd- 
tiOA-ofaflofm, interfperfccf with flafhes of 
fi|^(tiiiitg wHiijh ferve tor make the pi^ure 
more terrible and deformed. 

The feeifibs- of cbnffiftii%' ^flions , ani - 
fieilt^by i^erbftiog riti*»tioti^'«(f cfaara^&r; 
seatjipr 'Venice PlKfei'ved ;ii grand' hiitiodcal 
punting;. wtHflb^'thi fieneil dftiie? moft 

af ceot^iftted M^l ' -» ' '' 

.. I^hit 4&tt^f^ o£tiiepiD(/bacs.bee{i hi^kt^ 
^nftwffil by the'critios^- nd€ aito^^btdvir, . t 
am afraid> "w^^lKMit daufe:. '. Somethi^ may 
T^\»^df^^c^ in,«iiinftuti»i>r'.s. de£dike« idii 
|*a<>I9!!f5fbergieee..thcyftjr, .ife »:Tilla9)d r fral 
i^tisr:|lt6l»alkl iJifi uTJuBid, ^iin; tlte tvap- 
g^ «£' that fiamr> blit ibis. ixk- Shak- 

Widxed this piece for ever on the Englilh 

P 2 ftagc. 

.o' '; :\\-/.^ .1 :. .ti 9 


ftag€. The ani^er ; yvhidi £hn|»^ gave 
to one who cenfui;ei:!l him > for .bjinging! oil 
the ftage Ixion^ ^^ho Was a wicked Mafphe'^ 
iner, may ferye for Otway : * It is tru^' 
faid the Greek poet, /I have exhibited, ft 
man talking profanely? ; >)y\it^ . r^Qti^is^n 
for that crime I havc^ nailed Wpi toaprpiii/ 
Th^ Englifli. poet m^y aUege,. in his bcdi^ 
* I have adorned Pierre wfth fentj^fl^tl 
which would becpme a better fpan j , :I. li|w^ 
made him 

* A£ne, gay, hoW-f^c^^, vjjjfiffti; - ;:^ 

« But atlaft I have brought hiih 'ifeP fflft 
whJcei-j from ^vhich hc^tGiap&i'oiiifif'^ 
jniWecdeath, :tl*r ftab >6{^Mtad:r ■ i^: • ^'^^^q 
Neither Pierre nor JdSStv; 'ao^itilftg t<> 
$t;R.^li .v#a%(V5c6ctiaas".o :* /lt«e firft 'wias, 
by birth, a Norraaii i. l^'Jprbfeffioh,- 4 
tor&ir ; ' one who had givert' proofs ^ M 
Idnwledge of: fek^affadrs, and liad hiiade i 
large forhme by his courage ^'i^attWkii^i 
and altfirwards .|>Iundering^ 'ihips^ in^^tlil 
Mediterraneaii; : Jaffier was of Provctic^ 
and: principally known as theipartitulstf 



, O T W A Y. iij 

fjnend of. Pierre. From this: connefticm, 
md hf marrying him! to :a daughter of ar 
Venctiaa fenator, the. poet has worked up 
the plot of his pjay. Veaiice is feved, in 
Otw^, l?y tho refifliefsi i9ha:rm§^and preffing. 
remoiiftrances ^ of 4 vietusms woman. : In 
St. Reals a female, from th6 fpirit of re- 
venge, joins in a plot to maflacre a whole 
people. A Grecian lady of a noble fa-- 
arily, horn in one of theliflaiids of the: Ar- 
cbipdagOi .was feduced 4sp ^«e up her ho-^ 
QftUt; by the governor of ths ifle; under a 
fmmiB pf imiQ^jofe liches. The father of 
ite: lady, on his folicitingithe. feducer to 
pc3rfQn»; 1^ 0(gnp%&, was .kafely> murdered 
by him/or Jtt8|nlp©rt«nityi The daughter 
immediately, with all ;h«r effie^s, fetjail 
for Venice. She laid her cafe before the 
fcnate, and petitioned for juftice. They 
tamed < a deaf ear to her remonftriances ; 
and ihe, having ifperit her little all in vain 
^(.teQdance -ilpOQ /the fenate, wAs reduced 
tp the n^eceflity of repairing her lofs by her : 
bfgjjty, No. refentin§nt can be pij^re vip- 

P 3 lent 



J^nt than that of fH^rfons nobly born/ 

when driven by^tht hand of power to gkin 

ftibfiftcnce by means unworthy of thdr 

rank. This is the lady whom Otway calls, 

in the piay^- AcquUina. Otw^y IMlghtf 

have made a di^rent afe of thit itham<J- 

terj he njight, pwhaps, have ^(jvrodight 

•feme interefting fituations from tbecon*' 

traft of the two females. i '[ 

The fecond title of the play, thb ,Pfol 

Difiroverqd, - w^ given to ttin altv^to; tb 

that which i isi called the^.Pbpi^ plot^^ 

which had then raged when this play ti^as 

yeprefcntait 'The particular time, whi»^ 

Venice Pre(^iv^:iv«s firft «aed, is fiiflJ* 

by the aiKhfcr iq hii epttogtt»| ^ipeaBfl^ 

of J^mes Ptike of York -j-'^^^ rl' " •■' '^^ 

With indignationj^rten, let each brave heftft 
JRoufc and, unite tQ.^ke kis injured pfrt>.\ . . 
JiHiTCfyal low 9nd.g9ddi^(s c^U hi^toii^ : . 
/Vpd /pngs qf ^iirtaph w4t hiw asi b? 90»c. 

The duke was then in ScotJun^, wbafice 
h? murn^d to England in Mareh^ >4^a. 
f rp(^ ihQ ^Qt^cd <?haraftcr» of Oates, 

' • BedtaSi 

O T W A Y. ais 

Btdloty and othe^rty the wltfief&B employed 

td autlientkflte' tiidt tile cdftfteiflation a* 
gainft the public fulet, c^lKx! the Popifli 
Plot, it has been queftioned whether fueh a 
conjuration ever exifted ; though few will 
deny, that, during the gfeateft part of 
Charles's reign, dnd the whole of that of his 
brother James, there was a formed conipi- 
racyto fabvert the religion andconftitation 
of the kingdom. Hume himfelf brings UU 
timony to this. Otway, though not rewar- 
ded fer his attadiment to the court, was a 
' very (launch loyalift. Many paflages, from 
this tragedy and Caius Marius, may be al- 
leged in proof; and, indeed, fuch was his 
zeal againft the whigs, that he contamina- 
ted his Venice Preferved with the moft in- 
decent ribaldry, froni no other view than 
to ridicule the charafter of Antony Afhley 
Cooper, firft Earl of Shaftcibury^ Anto- 
nio, the' fbolifli fpeecb-maker, the lover, 
in the play, of Acquilina, is made to re- 
prefent this great ftatefman ; and, when 
Lei^ and Mrs. Currer performed the parts 

P 4 <>f 



of doting cully and rampant courtezan> the 
applaufe wais as loud as^thie triumptiant to- 
nes, for fo they were at that time^ could 
beftow. But the author knew too well, 
that the audience could not be {o far im- 
pofed on as to imagine there was any re« 
femblance, except, perhaps, that which he 
imputes to him of lafcivioufnefs, between 
his foolifli Antonio and Shaftefbury ; and 
therefore, in his prologue, he feems to 
hint, that he intended the part of Renault, 
as well as Antonio, for our j;reat poli^ 
tician : 

Here is a traitor that Is very ol J, 

Turbulent, fubtle, mifchievous, and bold ; 

Bloody, revengeful ; and, to crown his part. 

Loves futpbling with a wench with all his heart; 

Till, after having many changes pafs'd. 

In fpite of age, thank heaven ! is bang'dat lad. 

Next is a fenator tha^t keeps a whorej| 

In Venice none a higher office bore ; 

To lewdnefs «very night the lei^her^'an : 

Shew me, all London, fuch another man s 

Match him at Mother QrcfweU's, if you can. 


O T W A y. M7 

Some allu&on, to the learch made in tibe 
Earl of Shaftelbury's apartments for trea- 
fonable papers^ feeras here intended. The 
report given out was, that a female frigid 
of his lordfliip was difcovered under his bed^ 
or in a cloiet. 

The poet, in his epilogue, takes notice of 
certain malicious enemies his loyalty had 
provoked i but the lines are rendered fo 
obfcure, by length of time, that nothing 
certain can be difcovered from them : 

And, though againft him caulclefs hatred rife. 

And daily, where he goes of late, hefpies 

The (cowls of Allien and revengeful eyes, 

'Tis what he knows with much contempt to bear } 

He TerveaTa caufe too good to let him fear. 

He fears no poifon from an incensed drab i 

No ruffian's five* foot fword nor rafcal's ftab ; 

Nor any other fnares of mifchief laid : •— * 

Not a Rofe-alley ctidgel-ambufcadea 

In the laft line, Otway, perhaps, alludcf 
to a found beating, which Dryden under- 
went, from two unknown perfons, miK:h 
«bout this time. During the Popifti Plot, 



and while the exclulion- bill was depending, 
the whigs and tories feemcd to have bcea 
in a flate of political Infanity ; the latter 
dpoiifing openly the caufe of ^bitrary 
power, while the former were little Ids 
than ftaunch advocates for democracy^ -« 
On the fide of loyalty were liiled the poets 
of gemus :. Dryden, Lee, and Otway, 
were an overmatch for Shadwell, Settle, 
and others* The audiences, divided in po- 
Etical priociples, fell often into riot and 
tnimult. One iide of the theatre loudly 
apqplauded what the other with violence eX'- 
ploded. The fenate of Venice was an ex- 
cellent flalking-horfe, whence Otway took 
his aim at the houfe c^ cooKinons. The 
following part of Piefre'i^ ^>eech^ in the 
firft a£t, was levelled at theabufe of power, 
in that afiembly, by the frequent and un* 
jaft imprifonment of perfbns who were 

lbpix>ied to be co^Kerned m, tiie Popiih 

To fc^ aar (irttitcn 

C^sitthc deluded people wkh a (bow 


O T W A Y. U9 

Of liberty. .1 . 

They fay by them our hands are free from fetters : 
Yet whom they pleafe they put in balefl- bonds | 
firing whom they pl^fe to infamy and mm. — «-i 
All that bear this are TiUains I and I one. 
Not to roufe up at the great call of nature. 
And check the growth of thefe domefttc (pollers. 
Who make us flaves, and tell us 'tis our charter ! 

Thefe lines were heard, by the m^ority 
of the audience, with rapture and applaufc, 
and applied as the author intended. But^ 
amidft'ali his efforts to fupport the royal 
catife, poor Otway was ever in diC- 
trefs. Some paflages, in the firft and (e- 
cond nft, we can juftly apply to the poet 
hfeftfelf r — < In the opening of the play, he 
thus complains to his father-in law, Pri- 


For I havi known 

The lufcious fweets of plenty 5 every n'ght 
Haye fiept with foft content about my head,^ 
And hev^rwakM but to a joyful morning : 
Yeioow muft ftll, Uke a full ear of corn, 
Wbofe Uoffpm (c9p'd, yet's wtther'd in the rip'ning. 

». • J 



And farther, in the fame a£f, ftill' more 
pathetically.:';' , ■",,',.,..,; r 

TcJl me vrfiy, food heairen F 


THou mad'ft itife whati atD ? withM the fpirit/ 
Afpiring thoughts^ and elegsVit de6re9. 
That iiU the happieft oiao^ 2^\ Ah ! J^bier why ' 
pid'ft thoii pQt . fojrm me ford Id as my:fzxk > ' 
Bafe-minded) dull, and fit to carry burdens ? 
Wbj bavs Lfeufi tplku£6w t&ectlrfe ibatVon m^ f 

fr f 

r » r> • »■ 

The fable is conducted with art. Ihe^ 
«pofitW. or. a, <^k^X»n,i^^ 
jprotafi?, o/thepb^ i^ .wu^gedingly happj.; 
In . the firfl iceoe, .hetweon Jaffier and Fri- 
uG^ Jaffier patheticfijl^; d^^^I^^^ His p^vk 
and Belvidera's diArefsful :(i|palioiy»j ; ttj?i 
nob^e ma«iper by which, he gained i^^ 
ledlion, by plunging into the deep to f^VR; 
Iicrlife at the hazard of his own, witbo^ 
fhw correfponding incidents, are 4e^rib?d 
in terms moft lively and affefting. , Pieriys 
arrival brings frpfti afflidipn c^nd rtiftfcfs/ to 
the unhappy Jafiier > the pillage? of his 
tsoufe, by the' implements of legil power, 
19 painted in the moft aggravating terms* 


O T W A Y. ttt 

and defcribed as an aflion of wanton bra- 
talit}\ The fpeak^r clofes his. invcaivc 
with a beautiful portrait of the wretched 
Belvidera; and this tlie authpr artfully 
Mglitens with all the force of animatdl 
exprefiion, bj/endedawithipabhetic touches, 
to inc^-^aie iJie ajaguiik of .thie titdiai^'pj 
huiband and prepare his niind to enteitdn 
the moft delperate councils. The afl h 
cfofed with 3 moft affefting fcepe b^^twec^ 
tke unfortunate p^ui:. The panegyck^o»tIle 
beautjfttl ^art of the cr^atibt^, ts highly 
fini(faed by an author whofe whole foul 
feems to have been made up. of love and 
friendfhip. Thp conjugal affeftion of fid- 
videra^ in cit^cumftandes of the moft-tryinjg 

nature^ is the boaft of the Engliih ftage:; 

' ' ' ' • 

nof can we find any thing equal to it, ex- 
cept in theAlceftis of Euripides* . - 

GaVjt la his fSarcc of the What d!ye pall 
it,. ha5i)aro4ied onc,pr two fpcechesiOf tliif 
aflfeftiqjdialogu?,:,, ) . ^^ ,:■ ,^ ■ -■ 

• • < • f r'*" 


J A F F I E R« 

Can'ft ttiou bear cold and hunger \ &c. 

F I L B B & *(. 
Can*ft thou bear hunger, can'il thou march and toil ? 

B B L V I D & It A. 


Tbou^ the: bate earth be aU^our reftkig-^^acei • ' 

Its roota our foed»'feme ctifc ouf Muti^ioo, 

rU make this arm a- pillow for thy head \^ 

And, as thou fighin^ Heft,, and fweird with forrow,; 

Creep to thy bofoa»i pour the baliii of love , 

Into thy fiml, ahdtkifetliee to tfty reft> 

Then praife out God^ a^id vii^tcli theo tiU tftfllitttitt^. 

It 4 T T Y C A R ft e T* 

Yes, ires, my Thomas, we irHf go together; 

Beyond the fefts together siTT w51 go i 

In €amp.s together, asin harveA,, ^ow. r • 

Thi^ arm fliall be a bolfter for thy, head ; ^ . . ^ 

• * - ^ * • *-" * 

IT^l fetch clean ftraw to make my JoldieVs oea; 
Thece, wbile (hou fleep'ft, mty apron o'er thee hold^, 
Or with it patch the tent agaiinft theLooU;. 

The difference, between 'pjfrocfy '^d 
burie%ae, is here eiccniplilied.'-^ ThercliJ 
nothing, in Kitty Carroff i^ieech, th« 
can move laughter. The fituations arc fi* 




O T W A Y. M| 

milar ; biit, in rank and educatioHt tbe 
perfons are difiorent, and coo^ueatlf 
their language. 

The Arrange mixture of abfurd and ob- 
fccne interviews, between the old doting 
fenator and his miftreTs, with the maia 
plot, has now deprived the play of its pro- 
per CQUne^lon of bufii^fs. The fable 
is too much buiried on, tl»e fcenes aK 
broken, and the time (hortened, in manj 
iQterefting Jlhiations^ fro{ri't%He htceBitf of 
expunging ^aft w^as WHtteH bx^plssfe « 
court- faction, but was become, biproeeA 
of time, odious and di^ufting^ To dwell 
i^OQ fuch beautlesy as caanot Inat ocoK 
to every readi^ of Veaaice Pre&nrcd> wouM 
be impertinent. 1 ffliati JjuA take iKAict Qi( 
feme reiivirkabfes. ii% iSyle, and of ionie 
^kt^aiions of the poet 6x^m St> ReaTa hi(L9^ 
ry of the coit^racy. . fo the &rft feonjc ofi 
thelkond. a£l, betNxcQ^ Ja^r and Pieri^ 
we eanndt av^ caHiog to .mind di^ toUori 
qut2^ language fi>faimlkif toShakfpeaie ao^ 



other old dramatifts : Kerrev putting a: 
purfc into his friend's hand, fays,— 

Here's money to buy pins ;. 

Marriage is chargeable. 

The other replies* 


Ibuthalf wifh'd tofee 

- * • # 

The devil> and he's here already. Well ! 

What muft this buy ? — rebellion ! murder ( treafon F 

Tell me which way I mutt be damn'd for this ! 

; • • • • . ' 

Without ^oing into the ufual method 
of ceniixriiiq; the flyie of our modern trage- 
dies, I bdievc every man will agree, with 
me, that the language of Otway and Sou- 
thern cannot be mended or improved ; -^ 
through them nature fpeaks, ai^ Ipeaks 
with equal freedom and fQrc0« 
< Renault's ch^rafler, as a confpii^ator of 
eminence, and in great truft with the Spa* 
nifh amba^dor, is: drawn faithfully from 
St. Real;- Why Otway flipuld involve El- 
Hot, his countryman^ in this con(piracy^ 
lean fee no cauie, except his wantonly 
branding the Englifh with the charge of 



O T W A Y. 23J 

treafbn. But the poet found no warrant 
for this in his original. St. Real fays, in- 
•deed, that Elliot was an experienced iea^ 
officer in the fervice of Spain ; and no 
otherwilc concerned in the blot than as 
he was employed by the Duke of Offuna to 
'comfniand afleet, which was fo fecond the 
enterprife of Bedamar againft the republic 
of Venice, One of the braveft and wor- 
thieft of men' has made the name of Elliot 
dear to every lover of his country, dear 
to all mankind; and it is a pleafure to 
wipe awiy a di(grace fixed on that honoured 
name by the inadvertence or folly of the poet. 

The' introducing an amiable and delicate 
female, aiiion^ft a gang of defperate parri- 
cides, muft ihock the fpeftator; and, 
from that circumftance, he may divine 
the difcovery of the plot. The attempt of 
.Renault, to violate the chaftity of Belvi- 
dera, rouJes Jaffier from that ftate of mind 
in which his miftaken friendftiip for Pierre 
had plunged him. The fanguinary and 
brutal charge of Renault, which is partly 

Vol. III. Q^ coi:ied 



copied from the Hiftory^ i^ heard by Pienc 
with approbation api- pl^aftire,: but by 
Jaffier with horror and dcteftation. In 
the liiftory, as well as the tragedy, Renault 
obferYes the countenance and diftrefsof Jaf- 
fier,during hlspofitlveoc^s to fpare neither 
fex nor age.. He communicates his fufpi- 
cions to Pierre, who^ with feme difficulty, 
prevails. upon him not to kill his friend on 
fufpicion; and^ays before hioi, with great 

* « * • « 

earneftnefs, the. apprehended confequences 
of fuch an aft. The, fenate, pn hearing 
that d'Offuna's fleet was at fea, ordered 


Pierre to fail immediately, with Xon^ (hips 
of war, to watch their motions. To this 
fingle cirumftance, perh'apsj^ Venice owed 
her fafety ; for Jafnfei;, being feparated from 
his friend, who ha^ kept a. watchful eye 
.pvtY his con3u6l, had now full leifure to 
indulge his melancholy refle(5tioris, and to 
give way, pndifturbed, to the .motions of 
humanity arifirig in his breaft. The con- 
fli£l of his mind was great. His imagina- 
tion painted . to him all the horrors of a 
* . city 


O : T w A V. *:r ?a7 

to th^ mpft JlhQcking of difafterff he heard, 
he thojgght,, ^the ciries of ■fJj^Wrpn^ffQd^Ji^B 
.un4$r feet, tbf groao^pf old mcq wj^pfe 
throats w^re devoted to the (word^ 4P^ thip 
!&^i»5;pf vjrgijns and matroris rjiv^fliedi* 
So ftiwgly )Vias his imagif^atiop jmpiej(Jed 
\w^ terror, that be faw nathifig but pa- 
Japes tvanbUng down, churches in flames, 
and the m'ofl holy places violated wkh 
blood and flaught^. 

Venice, th^ fad and deplorable Vieoiee, 
was (qoatinually before his eyes. p» th^ 
other hand, he refle<9:od hpw ijifamous it 
Mras to br<sak thrpugh his moGn f^Iemn w^ 
gageme^ts .ai}4 be^ay his fripnds. A^d 
foch frieiKi^ ! mea of intrepidity, ^qjual to 
the difchargc of eyery office in th^ cabinet 
or t-he field. And what, alas! will be 
tb«r '^waifljjwefrt ? thie mofl: excrqciating 
«vKicb the ;wit of the moft arbitrary ty- 
rsals jcouW paflibly iavemll The very 

Q^'2 ' prifon^ 

, ■ I I n ji I ■ ■ I > II-. II I j ii > I J ■ m ill M ■ I ■ I ii ^i I 1 JL* n J i iii» ■»«»■■■ I ' 

< * St. Real, 




prifohs of Venice were more calculated to 
fhake the courage of the flouted man than 
the capital punifliments of other nations. 
Thefe laft reflexions kept him in fufpenfe 
for a time, and balanced the afflifting fen- 
fations which the idea of Venice deftroyed 
had excited. His curiofity to fee the cere- 
mony of the doge's wedding the AdriatiCi 
which preceded the day intended for the 
execution of the conlpiracy, at length de- 
termined his wavering mind. The fight, 

• • • 

of all Venice aflembled in tranquillity to 
enjoy this great day of feflivity, filled Jaf- 
fier with the tenderefl and mofl infup- 
portable emotions ; he could not endure 
the thought of fuch a number of happy 
people being on a fudden plunged into the 
deepefl gulf of mifeiy and deflruAion. 

The reader, by comparing thefe circum- 
ftances, borrowed from the narrative^ will 
perceive with how much art the poet has 
woven them into his plot to produce dra- 
matic effeflr. All the affeding motives, 
which prevail on the mofl determined man 

O T WAY. 229 

to quit his purpof?, are put into the moutb 
of Belvidcra. Thp exa^ing an oath from 
the fenate, to (jiare the lives of twenty-two 
confpirators, is like wife taken from St. 
Real. The paflionate and pathetic fcenes 
which follow, and the reft of the plot, 
except the fenate's violating their oaths of 
pardon, owe their exiftencc to the poet's 
invention. The fate of Pierre is thus rela- 
ted by the hiftorian. — • Two perfbns of 
truft were fent on-board the veffel which 
Pierre commanded } who, under pretence 
of communicating frefh orders from the 
fcnate, drew him into 9 private conference, 
in the ipidft q( which they plunged their 
poniard$ into his bofom, and afterwards 
caijfe4 his bo4y tp be thrown into the 

JaflBier, incoriiblable for , the lofs of his 
friend, with, great bitt?rnffs reproached 
the fenate with their perfidy. They obliged 
hm to take fn^m. them 30Q0 ctuc^tSi and 
bwiihed him their territories* Breathing 
nothing but^ wveoge, he fopn ^ter joined 

0^3 fome 




4bnw ©f the- tonfpiratOTs, who wert ratfitig 
di^ii)^nctf6 in Brefcia^ and wbs Hkta 
fighfiftg^irifully/ endeavouring t» fell his 
Mc as dlear a& he idbuid. He was faroiight 
«)i Venice, and drowned bv ordfea? of tht 
iirate. • , ' oi 

The laft aft, in pathetic difttefe> is e*:| 
dq[Ual to any of the former. . After Belvidera 
has wrought her father to cbtopaffion, mid 
to a {>rttiftife of faring the lives of the cda* 
^i{-^¥ob, an interview between Ajcqinlinii 
^1^ Aht6ftio tak^s pkccj Which fills np 
'thte tiftid till Jaffi^r has feeeft infofiMftd thtt 
'Pi^Joli haa - feeen flrtfu(?cefsful j but the 
\i»bt6ei^e,h'art\of tfee ^ift5«giie hb« lOflg^'reSV. 
'^erc'di'^'eirifitfof-' teprefehtatiOfr, and it is 
'*r<i\^ -entif-Hy 'ifeft' feu«; Mfthifk tmhtii, 

the fcene is greatly precipitated. I f^ 
^ntembsl<'Uhaf, " abdui <ifty:.yeai% -fibce, 

^Mrtfrt r;ftvr''Veftice-P#efetrte^ at Covetrtj. 

^jgarii^jt'Jfi;^ mu^hrifljf; Attitbftio'6 (jtiMaQiar 
^^&s ^^4^ftJh6di ras; igater • ^ci^^i-to) • ^arty, 
. btt tfk;- -^lot wi«li . ^fefme |>r6fcai)iiity i>' and 

^ ■••''• ? ;.' difplays 

O T W A Y. 131, 


tfiiplays the ridiculous elotjjuence of thecha- 
radber, cntertainfec} th^ audience long enough 
for pseferving the continuity of the fcenes. 
At prefeht, the immediate- meeting of Bel- 
videra and Jaffier, after her interview with 


Priuli, is too fudden and abrupt. . ' 

. . • 

It is impoffible to read^^ much lefs to fee 

' - .... , 

reprefented on the ftage, the parting-fcene 
between the hufbind and wife, without 
the deepeft affliftion. This man had more 
power over the heart than ahy writer o( 

~ , , _ . . . , - 

our- nation, except,* perhaps, Richardforf. 

* 'f , . > 

The affright, po6r BekHera is thrown in- 
to by Jaffier*s drawing his dagger, is fuc- 
ceeded by the bell which announces the exef- 
ctition of Pierfe ; and makes a fine picture 
of pity, diftrefs, and terror! ' 

' Quin talked once of reftoring the long- 
omitted fceneof Pierre with thePrieft, which 
followed that of Jaffier and Belvidera ; but 
Tiis better reflexions taught him to pay 
refpedt to decency and the facred order. -^ 
The genius of the poet fliines out to the 
iaft. Th6 laugh of Pierre, interrupted by 

0^4 the 



the agonifing groan^ with the madnefs of 
Belvidera, conclude this mafter- piece of 
Otway. / ^ . 

To Barry's good tafte we owe the ab- 
fence of the ghofts of Jaffier and Pierre. — 
Belvidera fees her hufband and his friend 
only in her diftrafled mind. 

Otway 's laft play was the Atheift, a co- 
medy of loofe intrigue and diflblute man- 
ners. Beaugard's father feems to be co- 
pied from Dryden's Father Aldo, in his 
Limberham. This play was afted, by the 
principal comedians of the united compa- 
nies, about a few months before the death 
of the author, and is totally unworthy of 
him I the fame, I am afraid, muft be faid 
of all his comedies. Garrick, above thirt;^ 

jears fince^ revived his Soldier's Fortune j 
but, fo changed were the manners of the. 
times, that. the adtors, with Woodward at 
their head, were feverely treated by the au^ 


The great reputation, which Otway 
gsined by his Venice Preferved, did not, it 



. O. T W A Y. 133 

feems, mend his fortune. By his dedica- 
tions to Lord Dorfet, we are aflbred of 
that nobleman's great generofity to him. — 
Otway was^ it feems, in Edmund Currs 
cafe, who could not get daily bread with- 
out daily books; for he told his patron, 
that his daily bread depended on his daily 
bufinefs.* He had many patrons ; and, 
amongft ^he reft, James Duke of Yorik, 
who was remarkable for his firmnefs to 
thofewho were attached to his intereft. I 
am afraid we muft attribute great part of 
his misfortunes to the diflblute manners 
of the times j by the ftrong current of 
which, amanofaneafy thoughtlefs difpo- 
fition, and ftrorigly addifled to focial plea- 
fure3, is borne along infenfibly. In a life 
of our author,. publi(hed,.with his works, 
about forty years lince, the biographer 
tells us a melancholy flory of hisL extreme 
poverty 5 of his being reduced to the necef • 
fity of borrowing a fliilling, to fatisfy the 

" * I iiii ■ ii<fi . -ill I . ■■■ ■ t 

♦ Pcdication of Frlendfliip in Falhion, 



cravings of his appetite, from a getttfeinan 
unknown to him; who,i b^ng fliocfced 
and furprifed at the tmexi>e6ted diftrefs cl 
fhc author of Venice Preferved, put into 
his band a guinea; that Otwaywas choked 
with a piece of bread which he immediately 
puichafed. The day df his death, and 
place where he died, arcjfixcd to the 14th 
of April, 1685, at a public-bau^ on 

Bnt all lovers of genius will thii^ tli«n- 
fd-rcs indebted to Dr. Warton j who, 
from the papers of Dr. Spence, has pvoved 
the affiifting tale to be a fidion or tnifiia- 
foimation. Dtway owed his death to an 
aft of getterous ffiendfhip. A friend' of 
Ins had received a very grof« affi-ont.j.the 
ixnurlous perfon'foon after withdrew to 
finne part of the coiitiaent. Otway pur* 
fued him to demand fiatisfadHon j in his 
ittom home, he was fcizedi with a c^ 
•which ended in a diftemper that put a per 

.i»*itohis life^* 


• Walton's Obfervations on Pope^ Vol. II. 


• - • » • 
Our author, xvhilc Evihg, xftet with inanf 

cnettfics f ' of wHom, in his dedications, 
prefaces^' and prologues, he frfequeiitly 
complains. The lingular merit of his two 
beft pieces was, m niy opinion, the capital 
fanit of which he was guilty, and not to 
be pardoned by his rivals. It is faid, that 
Dryden difliked him on account of his 
friendftiip for Tom Shadwell : that, in- 
, deed, touM not b^ a recomittendation to the 
latfrefttj but the involuntary tears, which 
were flied at his Orphan and Venice Pre- 
ferved, were the criminals, that made ^itn 
hatefoL to Dryden, whofe fcenes were 
never ^hphoured with fo heart*fclt an ap- 
^mbk'tioii. This he never forgave till the 
grt^Bt fubduer of envy had erafed bis name 
from the number of . the livings ' fF6e^ the 
nadfisfuMp fays Ben Jonfon, i>ebpfwh.^ — 
The exprcffion is coarfc ;. but, I fear^ the 
aj^Ucstion is toO j iifU . . WhfiL . Ot v/ay was 
in his grave, Dryden fpoke of him with 



Sejanus, A<a II. - 


taidernefs. and lamented that he had not 
known him in an earlier period of bis life. 
He then, and I believe not till then, ac- 
knowledged his fuperior power in touching 
the heart.* It is to the credit of Otway 
and Shadwell, that the bdng of diiferent 
parties caufed no interruption to their 

A wretched tragedy, called Heroic 
Friendibip, was printed in 1715^. The e- 
ditor had the alTurance t(> affert th^t it was 
written by Otway ; the public fafw at .once 
tliat it was an impudent forgery* The 
MS. was not in his hand writings nor w« 
there iil the compoiition a ray of genios^ 

The two principal charaftera of V^nioe 
Preferved, Jafl&er and Pierre, by Bettcdxm 
snd Smith, were much admired andap 
l^audied. Tendemefs, friendihip, and IwCi 
conflifting with rage, terror, and remorie, 
were painted with the livelieft colours^ and 

. ihewQ 

/ V 


♦ Jirydcn*s preface to his Tranflation of Frcfnoj^ 
Artof Paintings 

O T W A Y. «|| 

ihewn In the moft ftriking attitudes, bf 
I the accomplilHed Bettcrton, S^nith^s per- 
fell was commanding 9 and the fpeiSatois 
juftified, by applauTe, the propriety of 
tfeat line where he calls himfelf — — 

A fine, gay, boId-£M:^<If villain, as thou (eettmcm ' 

And Bedamar's compliment : 

The poets, who firft fetgn'd a godofwu^ 
Sure prophecy'd of theel 

Tibe figuir of the a6lor (hould ever, if 
pbffible, juftify the poet's defcription of lit 
chara6ter. Garrick, who had ventureid ** 
aft Pierre againft Delane's Jaffier, refuieii 
the fame part with Barry : * I will not/ 
faysRofcius, * bully the monument/ -••^'-i^ 
The great Mrs. Barry's J&elvldera was oat 
of thole parts, which obtained for her, ai 
Downs fays, the name q£ fatMia Madatk 
Barry. The charafters, which, this wri- 
ter fays, no man could fee her a6it without 
being moft tenderly afFetSled, were Moni- 
mia, Belvidera, and IfabeUa in the Fatal 
Marriage, To her fupreme excellence, ta 



thefe and other parts, Ih^.owcd a dUSof^ 
tiofl . wiknown before to any comedUils, ? 
benefit-night,' which (he aloftc enjoyed for 
jfeveral years ; nor do I find, that even 
Better ton had that mark of public favour, 
till a year or tv\^o before'his death. 

About the year 1706, Wilks was caftin- 
to the part of Jaffier ; Mills, Pierre; and 
Mrs. Rogers, Belvidera. Thisaftrefs, af- 
ter (landing out a long fiege of amorous 
courtihip' from Wilks, to faye his ^fh^ as 

<^bcrhas it, ibe at length yielded U^Khe 
ibrtrefs. The iffue of their loves was 9 
daughter, afterwards married to Ch. Bui* 
Iqck, by approbation (rf Wilks. ..Agen- 
tkman, who publifhed the life of W,iik8 
foon after his; dfeQeafe^. J|;ive5 us;jR>me-qd4 
anecdotes of the confeqiieace^ arifingfropa 
the lover's infidelity. . The Jady^s i?efeot* 
ment was wrought up to fttch.a degree, 
that, when they adted tc^cther ^tljce parts 
of Jaffier and Belviderh, from Dhcirclbft 
embraces (he left vifible and bloody Imacks 
of her jealous refentmcnt* Thi?i, however 


O T W A Y, 4IS9 

p^ful to WiUtSi WIS fport to the au^ 
dknce.i tht play wa^, for this reafon^ 
li^€<{tt€nted imich. To behold this ftrange 
^erverfioti of courtftiip, where iove was 
tohied hao ipite, and jealous rage took 
.'{dice of ^^oftjiogal embraces, broi;3(ght crowis 
lef caitioiis i|)ie^bAiors. 

Miib afted Pierre fo moch to tlie tdte 
«f the pulitic, that the appiaisfe, ^fti>wed 
on him in this^att, excee^d all that was 
giveaiolife feeft effbrts in «vefy thing dfe. 
TheaftOfsJoitifcd ihek vokes to tiiat crf^tlie 
"pol^c^ I <:ofifefs, I never faw "Mills in 
fkm mt^m a ^reat degree of approbation. 
Why he aad Qoin wore a white hat^ih'^HS 
•p»:t i:«a«jild *iiot Beam. 

1^ ipoliacs '^{' thi theatrt iand apotv 
tiie ikne bafis as thof^ x^' a rii|>erior com- 
fffunky. Iiiterefl: and ambition eqaally 
^liS&pTf tl)e 4fti<fta%e€ of a theatre and a e&mt. 
-1^ 'following arteed«i>te ' is a pidare of 

iftaii'W lafgfe.' 

Sonus time after Booth, by the intcwift 
«€ Loud ^oUngbroke, ^ad obtained 4 ih«>e 
. , ..: in 


in the patent of Drury-Iane ; by putting 
himfelf into the part of Pierre, this emi- 
nent tragedian imagined he fhould acquire 
reputation and applaufe, eclipfe the per- 
formance of Mills, and ftrengthen the play; 
and perhaps revenge the affront Wilks b^l 
given him, by putting Mills: conftantly over 
his head, when in his power* One day, after 
rehearfal, he took an opportunity, in the 
prefence of Gibber, to propofe this plan of 
giving a new vigour to Venice Prefcrved. 
-Wilks was fo far from relifliing the propo- 
falj^ that he threw down his part of Jaffier 
in a rage, and foiemnly protefted he would 
never a£t it again. Perhaps he ijxlagined 
Booth would bear away the genei^l ap- 
plaufe 5 perhaps, in the warmth of his 
temper, he thought that a blow was aimed 
at him and his friend. Mills, at the fame 
time^ But why fhould we not rather attri- 
bute his condu£t to a more generous. mo- 
tive ? Mills was an honeft ijian, and. his 
valued friend s the depriving him of a cha- 
racter^ in which he conftantly gained the 



[ O T W A Y. t4t 

f favour of the peopIe> he iqight reafonably 
conje£lure, : would lower his merit and kf- 
fen him in his own efteem. Booth, how- 
ever vexed and difappointed, like an able 
politician^ fi^pprefled his anger, and fub- 
mitted to aft the part of Jaffier. He knew 
that Gibber would efpoufe the caufc.of 
Wilks oh all occafions ; for, however Col- 
ley may complain, in his^ Apology, of 
Wilk&'s, fire and, impetuofity,' he, in gene- 
ral, war Gibber's great ' admirer ; he fap- 
pofted hU» oil all pccafipns, where his own ^ 
paflion or inter eft did rtot intcrpofe ; nay, 
he deprived the inofFenfive Harry Carey x>f 
the liberty . of dnifcenes, -becaufe he had, 
in common witteStheis, made mdrfy^wiUi- 
Gibber, in: af icfctigp oh hla bfcing appointed « 
jioet laureat ; faying, at the*, fame time, He 
was furprifedathis impertinence, in behaving 
fo improperly to a man of fuch great merit. ^ 
During Booth's» inability to atl, which laf- 
ted from 1729 till his death, in 1733, Wilks^ 
was called upon to play two of his parts, — 
Jaffier, and Lord Haftihgs in Jane Shore. 
Booth was, at times, in all other : refpe6ts 
Vol, III. R ^xcept 




except his |)owcr to go on ! the ft age, irt 
good health, and went amongft the players 
for his amufement. His curiofity drew 
him to the playhoufe on the nights when 
Wilks atled thefe chara6^ers, in which 
himfelf had appeared vyith uncommon 
luftre. All the world admired Wilks, 
except his brbther-manageif : amidft the 
repeatec^ burfts of appiauf?, which he 
extorted) Qooth alone continued iilent. 

If thefe two anecdote^ ^rc worth perofalt 
the reader owes them to Benjamin V i^or> 
whO) many years fince, related them to 

Mr&. Porter> I have faid^ was the ex^ 
cellent fcholar o£ Mr&J Barry. From the 
time this great a£trefa quijted. , the fta^> 
till the year 1732, Mrs. Poster, as. f«ff 
as I can learn» reprefented the p^rt q^ 
Belvidera, and never failed deeply to affc6l 
every audience. . Booth was. na admirer of 
Oldfield's tragedy^ hat was io raptuces 
with Porter in the fcenea of jfelyidera. E-f 
very fituation of this amiable charafljej 
ihh aflrefs filled with all the ^e pafiioa 


¥ W A Y. "i^ 

which tiie iii!i4ereftwdter could Intj^irLShi 
9t^fidt4 pit^niarly \n h«r agony, vrhth 
htai kttm Jaffier, m the iecotid aB, ahi 
m tl»maAne& of the !af{. 

Itt b<^fig another embtdce from Jaf- 
tftf when he is adxrat to kave her for ever^ 
Iwf (^refs fthjcl angaifh of mind weit not 

J A F V I £ R, 

This— *and no m^re. [Kiffing her.] 


AaMhfti fare another f 


For that poor. lut}e.ofi«7oa'Ve ta'en fucb care of« 
ru gtvc't him, truly ! 

Nof ihould I forget her delicate mamtw of 
t>uttif>g hkn in mind of hoa appo^tmerif m 
the thtfd aSt : ' ' • ' • ' 

R«meoi6ef tunlve! 


At the theatre of Lincoki's^imi fields* and 
afterwards at Covent garden, VcnieePrefcr- 
ved was fupported by Ryan in Jaffier, Qfiiii 
in Pierre, and Mrs. Seymour in Beividera, 

R 2 /who 

J . 



who wa^ifucceed^d by M;rs* Hallaqi^ ,'^^ 

Xhefe aflx)rs f^pported thi& f^vQ^rijt^rpliy,} 

|br . many} year?,, ^^gainft thfiir; pQwirftdb»4 

vals of Drury-lane. Ryan was,: j^ladneye/iit 

Jaffier,.a;Coj4er of P^jvel^ whofe manherthe 

caught ^w^en very young j , an a^oitwhooi 

lis mailer^ ,llich,, preferred tp all fee* had 

ever feen. Quin a6led Pierreas; he fup* 

pofed Booth would have done. In difplay- 

ing the ardour of the brave and gallant 

foldier, in the firft fceries, he was not fo 

happy as in uttering hfe refentment of 

Jaffier's treachery, in the fourth a€l, ^ 

Mrs. Seymour felt all the paffions, and 

expreffed them agreeably to their various 

|>QWfiR5irand: inj confonnity to the aftion 

P.f the.drwtoa. : In perlbn ihe was tall and 

well made, but grew 4arge as ihe advanced 

in life j her coyfltenance was expreffive,* 

and her voice pleafing and flexible. Her 

Biilvfde?* %as ' imongft thofe chara6ters 

thait fedhtf ibtrtcd to raife her reputatioti. -^ 

Mi^Ryafi was To ftrongly prcjildrced ill 
,f.-i...iV..'-» .... _ • the 

p ' v • 

*^''*'6oine idea of her features may be fcen in Venue's 
frontifpice to the tragedy pf Mariamne. 

O T WAV. ' i 245 

the opinion of Mrs. Seymour's merit, that, 
in a converfation I once had with him at 
the Bedford cofFee-houfe, he affured-mc^he 
thought her fuperior to all th^ a£ttefles h^ 
had ever feen. Though we .ih«uld think 
him too parti;^!, in preferring Mr^. Sey- 
mour to Mrs, Oldfiel^ and , Mrs. ^Porter/ 
yet furely fhe muft have had a larg? fliare. 
of merit to engage his judgement fo ftrongly. 
inher favour. . • . ^ ^ 

Mr. Garrick;, \yhen fixed in the manage-' 
. raent of I^rmyrl^ne, for reafons I h^pve 
already adduced, refigpf d Pierre^, in which; 
partbjis fire-^nd^^ir^tvyereiiot equally fiipr 
ported \)ygr3yr\deuranddigrtit)f of:perfoiij&n 
laf|ief», wjaiah.he.a^fid with glreat and defers 
vedapp¥ob|itioQ:iliahy years. TJic temporary- 
fren(fy,.witfeiWhich Jaffier ii feized, in th?; 
fourtji.ajft, on . fancying that; he faw his- 
friend on the rgick, has .not -fince, heeh e< 
quelled,, nor perhaps. ever will :',:./: ,^ 

'* > ' H& groans ; r' '* 

Hark how he groans ! his fcreams are in my eats 
A}ieady ! See, they've fix'd him on the wheel \ 

R 3 And 




Atui licf^ they tear Um !«-^Murd«r t — ^Perj^ir'^ fefutel 
Murdcf ! ■ ■■ 

The enthufiaftk power of Garrick prc- 
fiiated this drea^^l image to the audience 
with fuch aftoniihing force, that they 
trembled at the ima^ary piflure. In aU 
the fofter feeaes of domeftic woe, conju- 
gal tendernefs, and agonizing diftrefs, Bar-^ 
ry, it muft be owned, was Ganick's mafter. 

Moffop's Pierre (hould not be forgotten 5 
hm fine full-toned voice, and ftrong ex- 
predion of fentime6t, gave uncommon ipirit 
to the warmth and paffion of the chara£ter. 
Though (hort-fighted) his eye feeaied 
piercing, and big with what his n^ind 
conceived* In the interview with tk. 
Con^irators, in the third aift, be threw a 
^Uantry into his a^on as (Inking as it 
was uitexpefltd. Iii this fcene^ I fkouM 
recoiled, thafc^ fcurmerly, Pierre, after 
challenging the other Con^iratojTs, ad^t 
dreffed himfelf to otc of them ia the fol- 
lowing terms : 


O T W A Yw ^+7 

Cfr thou f with that lean, withered, wretched, face t 

And that an aftor of a moft unfortunate 
figure, with a pale countenance, Hood up^ 
with a half-drawn fword, and raifed a ge- 
neral laitgh in the audience. The famous 
Tony Afton, the itinerant comedian, was 
the laft performer of this ridiculous part. 

But Moffbp excelled greatly in the ve- 
hement reproaches, which, in the fourth 
aft, he poured, with acrimony and force, 
on the treachery and cowardice of Jaflier, 
The cadences of his voice were equally 
adapted to the loudeft rage and the moft 
deep, and folemn refieftion, which he 
judicioufly varied. 

Mrs. Gibber was l<?ng the Belvidera 
ef Barry aftd Garridcj her excellences 
arc ftill frefli in th« memory of a public 
who loved and admired them. Every fitu- 
ation of Belvideta feemed to he formed on 
purpofe to call forth hor great fkill in awa- 
kening the paffions, Mrs. Yates and Mrs. 
Crawford were no A^m competitors of 

R 4 Mrs. ■ 


Mrs. Gibber in this, as well as many other 
parts which require equal abilities. 

Mrs. SIddons has, in Belvidera, as well 
as many other parts, not only attraftcd 
the attention, but abfolutely fixed the fa- 
vour, of the town in her behalf. This 
ailrefs, like a refiftlefs torrent, has borne 
down all before her. Her merit, which is 
certainly very cxtenfive, in tragic charafters, 
feems to havefwallowed up all remembrance 
of prefent and paft performers ; but, as I 
would not facrifice the living to the dead, 
neither would I break down the ftatues of 
the honourable deceafed to place their fuc- 
ceflbrs on their pedeftals-. The fervour of \ 
the public is laudable; I wifh it may be laft-- 


ing, but I hope without that* ingratitude to 
their old fervants which- will make their 
pafllon for Mrs. Siddons lefs valuable, 
as it will convey a warning to her, that 
anew face may poffibly erafe theimpreffion' 
which fhe has fo anxioufly ftudied to form 
and fo happily made^ The perfon of Mrs. 
Siddons is greatly in .her favour : juft-rifing 



. L : • O' T W A Y.' 249 

above the middle ftatiire, ftie looks, walks, 
and moves, like a woman of a fuperidr 
rank. Her countenance is expreflive \ "her 
eye fo fall of information, that the paffioa 
is told* from her look before (lie Ipeaks. 
Her voice; though not fo ' harmonlouif 
as Mrs . Gibber's, - is ft rohg -- and pled-^ 
fing; nor is a word loft for want of 
due articulatiort, which thef qottiiedian 
fliouldalways confider as hi^ firft > dttty, 
and efteem the fiheft fcdnceptiori^bf- paffion 
of itivalue'wittibutit.'-'^She excels all per- 
fons in paying attention to the bufinefs of 

the fcene, her eye never wanders from the 
{JeHSii fhe fpeaks^to, or ihould look at when 
ftie is'lifettt^- ' Stfcr modulation of grief, 'in 
her plaintive pronunciation of the inter* 
jeftion^ oh! is fwcetly moving and reaches 
to the heart. ^ H(er madnefs^ in Belvidera, is 
terribly a^ei^ing. ' The inahy 'accidents, 
of fpe6latoi*s falling into fainting-fitis in 
the time of her afting, bear teftimony to' 
> theefFedlsofher^xertions, 





- She cettaiAijr^does.'^et fpsBV herfelf. -»- 
N^tbef i(he. great no^ tlie vulgar can %, 
thA Mrs. Siddons is 4iot la dowttrigbt ear- 

.: T^K, a5h)ri h»ve affvired ;me, thgt tfe 
UxctHs whkhnfed to rai& imrthiit an a^* 
dieiiceaftec a tragedy ^ now fail of th^ ef- 
le^^ from Mrs* Siddons's having; fo abfo- 
toitely deprefibd the fpkits of the audience^ 
tb^ this beft coBuc a£lors cannot recsd 
iSifcemwro mirth or vivacity. 

I have faid, in ^he Memoirs of Garrick> 
^lat Mrs. Cravrfoid^ in tragedy^ knew the 
readieft 'Way tx> the hearty and I will not re* 
t^aft; I will add) farther». that her comic 
Ijiumoar is^ not much inferior to her tra^e 
i|>int» Mifs Young's accompliihmeots, in 
the&me book, I honcftly and heartily ac- 
kaowkdged; This winter will perhaps 
exeite' i^eh a laudable emulati^a amoagft 
the a£iors» tli^t the town will, in all 
pFobahility,. be as weU entertained as 
they ever have been fince the retirement c^ 
our great Rofcius. 


O T W A Y. ajf 

Mrs. ¥ates, I am informed^ intends 

f(Km to quit the f^age. The Englifii the« 

atre will long lament the k)is of an a£lrefs» 

whofejuft elocution, iiobfe manner, warm 

palfion, and majeClic deponment, have 

QKited the admiration of foreigners and 

fixed the affe£Hon and appAaufe of Britons. 

Before I finifh my remarks on the aftors 

of Venice Preserved, I think myfclf called 

ttpon to do jiiiHce to the merits of Mr. 

Brereton. All the tender and pafflonate 

fituattons of Jaffier it apptars he had well 

ftudied J for, ia every attitude, he ex- 

prefix them juftiy. He was particularly 

kappy in that mafterly (bene of varied paC- 

fton and drong agony, in the fourth a6V^ 

with Belvidera. It will not be faying too 

mueh of Breretcm's Jafficr, that even thofe, 

who had been Ipeftators of Garrick and 

Barry in the ferae charafter, could yet fee 

. hkn with pleafure. I could wi(h an a6tor of 

Mr. Brereton's merit would avoid tones in 

(peaking which approach to fomething like 

finging. Of Mr. Bcnfley's Pierre I (hall only 



obfervef, that hl^rperibii is more agMhfl 
him than bis ^ icome^i$m of the pait, 
which is verjr j^ft. ,1} Ui '• 

, The foUowing^a^c^ate^ of Quia 90i 

4se to fo eminent a man as Quit), for Mr. 

4-f-t.*9.i.nmt^ViiitOj^jjcr«r; ^Iter^he 
cloth was rempved^.the AWim 'entered into 
coaverfalion widi, tl^c jJayer on thq ibpe- 
nor excellences of^jSho^fpe^re, Quia ;ac* 
ceded. to all that Ije faid-npon th^t itflfk^- 
}fat begged to be heafnd Ja, word or :two |in 
favour of Otway.. H^r^nlarp^ <>n his^meri 
lits in the pathetic ftyle-; nay.i : hni tJlQiftr/ 
tiric vein. ', Mr. Quin ?* rjf^id 
the do6tor. -7- H?, looking archly; qn the 
company, and frailing at the. great eag^^r. 
I^efs with whicl^ Mr. A . ■ . fwallgr»(^ , e-' 
very word of; W*- " . .; a pranpujiced lern-r 
phatically tl^e following pafljage; in ^Y^ftise. 
Pjrelerved : . ,, .1 \ ' 

. > Honcft 

Hofieft men 

Are the fofc eafy cmfliioaa f n wliich knives 

Repofe and fatten.^ -^ 

Quia knew weir enough, that, in aft- 
ing^ Garrick was the doflor's id9l. a par** 
tiality he coiild not eafily forgive ; nnd, it 
is fuppofed, he bluntly embraced this op- 
portunity to let him know hi^ opinion <sf 
him. I muft not forget to tell my readers, 
that old Jacob Tonfon purehafed the copy- 
right of Venice Preferved for J^teenfounikl 
What would another fuch play be worth 


" ■ I II , I ■■ 

* Ad I. (cehc between Jaffier aad PUrre. 

. 1- * 


\ .\ i i ^ ■ 

...... . \ \ .. .• 


•» i 

Rival Qi^eensj 

o R 

Alexander the Greats 


General opinion of the writer and bis hero. -S 
Addijon. — Dryden and Lee. — I>rydtii% 
verjes. — Leesfiyle. — Alexander's cbarat^ 
ter y^unf airly reprefented by Pope and Boi^ 
leau. — Alexander a builder of cities and a\ 
promoter af commerce. — Jfe&*. Holwell and\ 
the bramins. — Le Brun and Lee. — Complin 
ment to thCfaSlion of Hart. — Rymers opinion 
cfHart.'^RocbeJier^ — King Charles's pre^ 
ference of Mobun.-^Plain Dealer. — Pincb- 
*uoffe.-^ CbaraSlers aSled by Hart and Mo^ 
bun.— The latter not mentioned in an agree^ 
ment.-^ Joe Haines and a clergyman. -^ 
Haines difmijfed by Hart. — Count Haines. 
•— ^om Brown. — ^ Dryden. — Anecdote of 



Bi^/^Si iy^n* «*• Bart and Ne^ Gw^- 
•^-BifilMp tau»y<mattdSl^een M^y.'—ltt^s, 
fAtbetk rfadi)^,^thk!y vdim Bart 4mdt 
^fokim difdt $minowut, -^ Better t en* t «i9-, 
^,.-^ Mnm(fi>^'^ B99tb,^ Dtlane,-^ 
fitt^^^^Bis encQHMiir vfitk^ chair. — Sh^ 
merits.-^ Cujlom of hemming.— ^ HU fudden^ 
death. — ^ins Clyfus. — Mrs. Marjhall and 
Mrs. Corbet ^-^arry, f£^c. 


TH E genieral opinian* of the writtr 
of this play and of bis hero, h 
not very favourable to either. Lee was a 
mad poet, it is faid, who defcribed, iij 
frantic vedk^ the a6Uons.of a mad hero. — • 
But it is the opinion of the ibber and j udi« 
cious Addifbn, that, among our Englifll 
[ poets, there was none who was better 
turned for tragedy than Lee, if, inftead oF 
iQdi»lgtQg the tmpetuQfity of his gj^ius, he 
lai Kftwlncidt it withia {Mropoi b Wiad»; -^r 
Of. all the.potiis; off hi^^Gwi Dr^Rdeir (eeisa > 
tQlravQ, had tjiie! fmceiefl: regard iaod finned^ 
lin^fl)^ fov this writer. Witk him. he 




jdined in cbmpofing the" twiggy" ' of the 
Duke of Guife, and thetnore ceieftated 
Oedipus. His copy of veffesi-'dh flk Rival 
Queens, contains; at once, a proof of 
warm afFedion and a fine apk>k)gy for the 
exuberant ftyle and extravagant flights of 
his friend: " , ^ " • 

» V » 


Such praife is your's, while you the pafEons move^ 
That *tis no longer jfefgn'd^ Uls real love. 
Where nature triumphs over wretched art j 
We only warm the head, biit you the heart. 
Always you warm ; and, if the rifingyear, . 
As in hot regions, bring the fun too near,' 
*Tis but to make your fragrant fpices blow. 
Which in our colder climates will not grow. 

Your beauteous images niuft be allowed 

By all but (bme vile poets, of the croud : ' * , 

But how ihould any fign-poft dauber know 

The worth of Titian or of Angelo i 

Notwithftanding the fine poetic glow of 
friendihip in thefe lines; and the fcdate' 
decifion of Addifon, I am ^fraid we^ 
cannot read thirty lines to^theiry eveo. 
in Lee's beft pieces, withoiit encountering, 
abfurdity in fentiment and folecifm in ex- 



. ALEXA ND E R. 257 

preiSon t ■ ■ .' ■'■ blunder and beauty. are la 
blended together, you know, not how to 
feparate theih* His many turgid lines and 
ineohCTent thoughts make .us admire. his 
more happy and fuccefsfpl efforts. Lee, 
by the warmth of his temper, carries every 
paffion to extrerile:, his love is dotage, and 
his anger madnefsi. However, it muft be 
confeffed, that, in feveral of his plays, 
fuch asMithfidates, Theodofius, L.Junius 
Brutus, and Alexander, there is ftili enough 
to pleafei as well as %q affe6l, the moft criti- 
cal audience. As long as the ftage will be 
able tofurniih good aftors for his Alexan- 
der, ir will draw together all ranks of peo- 
jiej frpm^ the heroic lover, and the lady 
of high rank, to the lowed of the people. 
; As to the hero himfelf, by the confent 
?>f all eminent hiftorians, he was the great- 
eft and. the moft generous of conquerors ; 
nor muft we regard the fatire of Bpileau 
and Pope as a genuine reprefentation of 
faft or charafter. The latter has ill cou- 
pled the conqueror of Afid with the boorifli 
'Charles: From Macedonia s madman to the 
Vol. in. S Swede. 


Swede. You might as wdl put in compa- 
rifon the fwift racer and the laborious cart- 
horfe. So have I heard Garrick, in an ill 
humour, put the merits of. Barry and 
Sparks together, which were very diffimi- 

Boileau goes farther than Pope; not 
fatisfied with putting the conqueror of the 
world into a mad-houfe, he calls on the 
lieutenant de police to feize him and exe- 
cute him as a felon : 

Qu'on livre fon pareil en France a la Reinie ; 
Dans trois Jours nous verrons le phenix de guenrieff 
LaifTer fur I'echaSaut fa teCc et {t% lauriers. - 

In my opinion, Voltaire too feriodfly 
refutes the poet's rhapfody. Boileau m^ 
reafonably have been afked, whether his liiaf- 
ter, Louis XIV. could not be juftly termed 
^t pareil of his Alexander, whofe ambition 
was lefs laudable than that of the Greek,] 
becaufe founded on more fordid motives. 
Let it not be forgotten, that Alexander, 
at a time of life fubje<5l to the turbulence of I 
paflion, and during the intoxication of] 



- ■ • ' 


tonqueft, founded and built more cities 
than all the other conquerors of Afia had 
deftroyed ; and that the man, whom the 
poets treat as a fool and a madman, 
abfolutely changed and improved the com- 
merce of the world. It is true, indeed, 
that our own Holwell, who lived thirty 
year$ among the bramins, and made him- 
felf mafter of their antient as well as mo- 
dem language^ aflures us, that their an- ' 
nals bear witnefs to the invafion of their 
country by Alexander ; and that, in their 
dialeft, they call him robber zxiA murderer. 
But thefe pacific people, Voltaire obferves, 

^ had no other idea of a warrior ; and it is 
believed they beftowed the , fame titles on 
Ihe kings of Perfia themfelves. 

Lee has, artfully enough, contrived to 
infert, in his tragedy, the moft material 
events of Alexander's life: the death of Phi- 
lotas, the paffageof theGraiiicus, his con- 
quells in India, his paffion for Roxana, the < 

[ death of Cly tus, and many other tranfa6lions. 
Thqfe, who have feen Le Brun's pidurc of 

S 2 Alexander's 





Alexander's paffing the Granicus, will 
juftify the animated defcription of it which 
Gibber fo improperly cenfures : 

Can none remember ! yes, I know all muft. 
When glory, like the dazzlrng eagle, ftood 
Perch'd on my beaver in the Granic flood ! 
When fortune\relFmyflandard trembling bore. 
And the pale fates ftood frighted on the (hore i 
When the immortals on the billows rode. 
And I myfelf appeared the leading god ! 

Lee has, in the true fpirit of poetry, 
clothed the beautiful and glowing figures 
of the pencil. 

This tragedy was long the favourite of 
the court and city, efpecially when afted, 
as originally, by Hart, Mohun, Mrs. 
Marftiall, Mrs. Boutell, and others.— 
Hart was fo univerfally applauded in Alex- 
ander, that Downes has recorded a fine 
compliment paid him by a nobleman : — 
* That his aflion, in that charafter, was 
fo excellent, that no prince in Europe 
need be afhamed to learn deportment from 
him/ He adds, top, that, whenever 




I Hart afted this part, the houfe was croud- 
ed as to a new play. The great critic, 
Rymer, declared, that fuch was the in- 
chanting force of Mr. Hart's action, fuch 
his eafe, grace, majefty, and dignity, that 
he impofed upon the fpeftator the worft 
produ6lions of the poet 5 who, from the 
accompliflied behaviour of the a6lor, was 
deceived into an opinion of merit in the 
writer. Of Mohun I have already given 
Lord Rochefter's opinion j which, coming* 
from one of a capricious temper, -who 
often praifed one man from pique or envy 
to another, I fhould not fo much rely on, 
if not confirmed by the general teftimpny. 
They were both great favourites of the 
king and courtiers. Sometimes, we muft 
fuppofe, an emulation would be excited 
from a comparifon made of their feveral 
excellences. Charles, on feeing ttie per- 
formance of both in a new play, obferved, 
to his courtiers, that Mohun^ or Moon, 
as he pronounced it, (hone, that day, like 
the fun, and Hart like the Moon. The 

S 3 latter 

» W f 


latter was, in perfon, taller, and more 
genteel in (hape, than the former; he 
feems to have claimed, the lead in choice of 
charadlers. From Mohiin's generally aft^ 
ing grave, folemn, and anilere, parts, 
I fhould have cafl him into that of 
Manly in the Plain Dealer i but it feems 
Hart claimed it, and, to prove his right to 
it, addrefTed the audience in a plain-dealing 
prologue, full of fevei^e qcnfure on the pit 
• — In the fame . author's Country Wife, 
Pinchwife, a part not unallied in humour 
to Manly, wa? aded by Mohun, and Hor- 
ner by Hart. But thefe accomplifhed 
players were not confined to one walk, ei- 
ther in tragedy or comedy. Though Hart 
generally fhone in the g^y gentleman, fuch 
. as Dbrimapt a^d Lovelefs in Sir Fopling 
Flutter and the Scornful Lady, Mohun afted, 
to great advantage, the lively and volatile Va- 
lentine iv\ Wit without Money. I fufpeft^ 
that thefe aftors, who had been, from their 
youth, brought up almoft together under 

two diperent mafters in th^ profeffion of the 




I Aige, who had been fellow-foldiers in the 
I caufe of their royal mailer, and partners in 
I the direction of the theatre, at laft, by fome 
I unhappy difference, were alienated fronx 
each other; for, in the agreement, be- 
tween Pr. Davenant and Betterton on the 
one part, and Hart and Kynafton on the 
other, in the year 1681, the name of 
Mohun is not mentioned ; that he was a* 
live at that time we know from his having 
sifted a part in Southern's Perfian Prince, 
in 1682, before the two royal companies 
were united. 
Hart was always efteemed a conftant ob- 
' fbrver of decency in manners and a refpe6ler 
of the clergy. That witty but debauched 
droll, Joe Haines, had perfuaded a clergy-^ 
man^ into whoiie company he had intro- 
duced himfelf, that the players were a fet 
of people who wiihed to be reformed ; and 
that he could recommend him to be chap- 
lain to the theatre, with a handfome yearly 
income ; that he had nothing to do but to 

S 4 fummon 


fiimmon the company, by ringing a bell, to 
prayers every nnorning.T^his impudent triek 
was carried fo fair, that the clergyman was 
introduced by Haines, with a bell in 

• « 

his hand, behind th^ fcenes,- which he 
frequently rang, iahti cried oat, audi- 
bly, * Players!, players! come^ to prayers!' 
'While Joe and fome of the a^ors were en- 
joying this happy contrivance. Hart came 
into the theatre ; and, feeing the parfoa 
and his bell, foon found out -the; impofi- 
^ion ; he was extremely angry with Haines, 
whom he fmartly reprehended,- and invited 
the clergyman to dine with him -, he foon 
convinced him that Haiiieis was an impro- 
t)er companion for a n^an of his fuh^ioii. 
Haines and Mr. .Hart could not by aiiy 

means agree 3 the fober managerhcnt of the 

» • ♦ • » 

latter did not fuit with the irregular and 
vicious conduct of ^ the foi^nier. Haines, 
not fubmitting to be gbverhed by the efta- 
bliflied rules of the king's theatre,' was dif- 
miffed, and loon after received itito Bet- 

:, * terton^s 


.? A L£ X AND E R. 265 

terton'.s company.* He was a wit and a great 
joker, and writer of prologues and epilogues, 
many of which he fpoke himfetf. The 
famous one, pronounced on the back of 
an afs, has often raifed abundance of mirth, 
and was lately reyived by fome of our co* 
medians ; though I think the jeft is now Co 
worn out, that a new one might be formed 
at no. great expence of brains. Haines tra- 
velled, over feveral parts of Europe, with a 
gentleman, who, to enjoy his drollery, 
bore his expences : this got him the name 
of Count Haines. Tom Brown celebrates 
Haines as a jolly toper ; and employs him 
as a quack, in the infernal regions, to 
cure the difoitJers of Erebus. Tom, 
likewife, from his envy or diflike of Dry- 
den, makes out a whimfical dialogue be- 
tween him and Haines, where their feveral 
converfions to popery are difcuiled with fome 
pleafs^ntry. From Haines's calUng Dry- 

>-• < ¥ 

* Downs faya, that, Haines having affronted Mr« 
r Hart, be difmiiTed hinu 




don, fetera} times in. this tBakigcie, Poet 
Sfuohy a name originally ^iroi him by Ro* 
cfa^fter, we may gue(s at his make and fbcm/ 
ByPryden's ranking Haines with Oates, in^ 
the laft line of his epilogue to the Pilgrim^ 
xevived forhis fon's benefit^it is evident he was 
diipleafed at being joined with this iebauch-^ 
cd player, and refents the a£Eront ki terms 
by no means to the honour of Haines .?-« 
Speaking of ftag&-reformatibn> he fays t 

la fbort, we*li grow as moral as we can. 

Save here and there a .woman or a niaji : 

But neither yott nor we» with alj oitr pains. 

Can make clean work \ there will be fonqe remains, ^^ 

While you have ftUl your Oatesand we our Haines. 

Thefe, I believe, were the kflr fines 
which were written by this great poet;^ who 
died foon after ; nor did Haines long Sox^^ 
vive him. As I ihaJl not have many op* 
portunitie^ tO' mcnticHi this odd chara^er^ I 
will her&)|uotean^ anecdote relating tohuti^ 
%vhich I heard from the nwuth of Mr. Quin, 
in the green-room of Covcnt-gatden, the 
winter when he and Garrick were engaged 
at that theatre. 




Mr. Garrick was informing the compa- 
ny, then prefcnt, of his a6ling the part of 
Oreftes, ^n the Diftreffed Mother, at 
Dublin. * In order,' faid he, * to gain a 
more accurate knowledge of the charafler, 
I waited on the author, Ambrofe Philips^ 
who lived not far from the metropolis. 
I begged him to inform me particularly 
concerning his intention in the mad-fcene 
of OrefteSi ^Philips told mc^ that, du- 
ring his writing that part of the play, he 
was like a perfon out of his mind ; that he 
was fo carried away by his enthufiaftic rap- 
ture, that, when his friend, Mn Addi- 
fon, came into the room, he did not know 
him; and that, as foon as he recovered 
from his fit, he faid to him,; — What, Joe, 
is it you ?• ''•*— * That,' faid Quin, ^ was 
to let you know how familiar he was with 
Mr. Addifon* And this puts me in mind, 
Mr. Garrick, of a ftory I have heard rela- 
ted of a predeceffor of our's, that witty 
and wicked rogue, Joe Haines. In the 
rj^ign of James II* the court was bufy in 



making converts to. the Roman Catholic 
faith, in which they had fome fuccefs. ■— ^ 
Some of the new papifts pretended to 
Lave feen vifions and dreamt dreams s and, 
ampngft the reft, Joe Haines, who profef- 
fed himfelf a convert, declared that the 
Virgin Mary had appeared to him. Lord 
Sunderland fent for Joe, and afked him a- 
tout the truth of his converfion, and whe- 
ther he had really feen the Virgin ? — Yes, 
my lord, I affure you it is a feft. — How 
was it, pray ? — Why, as I was lying in 
my bed, the Virgin appeared to me, and 
laid, Arije^ Joe ! — You lie, you rogue, 
laid the earl ; ^or^ if it had really been the 
Virgin herfelf, (he would have laid' Jofeph^ 
if it had been only out of i-e<pe6l to her 

Hart was the firft fuccefsful lover of the 
famous Nell Gwyn J and, from a feller of 
oranges, brought her to the ftage, where 
(he afted many years with the public ap- 
plaufe. Her royal mafter,* the indolent 
Charles, was fo pleafed with the charms of 


-•r « 


her converfation, that he more than Hiared 
his time between her and his miftreffes of 
higher rank; nor was he ever better pkafed 
ihan with the agreeable dalliances and 
fprightly witticifms of the charming Nelly, 
5ome years fince, I faw, at Mr. Bereiiger's 
, ^onfe, in the Mews, a pidlure of this lady, 
faid to be drawn by Sir Peter Lely ^ anti 
fhe appeared to have been extremely at* 
traftive. Charles, with bis laJi br eath, 
recommended poor Nelly to his fucceflbr*^ 
She was good-natured, friendly, and cha-.- 
ritable. Dr. Tennifon, her parifh priefti 
preached her funeral-fermon ; and, when 
fome ftarch people objected to his promo • 
tion to the fee of Canterbury on that ac- 
count, the genero;us Queen Mary defended 
him ; faying, at the faime time, that Ten- 
nifon was fo honeft a man, that (he be- 
lieved all he faid of Mrs. Gwyn was true. 

Hart, when he gave up his intereft, }n 
the king's theatre, to Dr. Davenaut aq4 
Mr. Betterton, ftipulated for a weekly fa- 
lary of forty killings, which he did not 





long enjoy. The ftone put an end to his^ 
life ; but I cannot fay, with any certainty, 
at what time. 

. Of this accomplilhed aftor, the Tatler 
has preferved a very juft remark on a6ting: 

* It was impoffible/ he faid,*that the player 
could ever act with grace, except he had 
forgotten that he was before an audience ; 
till he was arrived at that, his motion, his 
air, his every ftep and gefture, have fome- 
thing in them which difcovers he is tinder 
reftraint, for fear of being ill received j or, 
if he confiders hirafelf as being in the pre- 
fence of thcrfc who approve his behaviour, 
you fee an affeftation of that pleafure run 
through his whole carriage.* 

• The great advantage, of playing an ori- 
ginal charafter, is derived from the in- 
ftru6lions of the author. From him the 
learning of the part muft be communicated 
to his inftrument, the player : if he is a 
mafter in his profeflion, he will, in his 
turn, impart ufeful hints to the poet, 
which will contribute to the imjprovement 




of the fcenc. Mohun^ who z&td Clytus 
jn Ateijancier, Cibber tells us, had (o high 
an opinion of Lee's power in' recitation, 
that he threw down a part in defpair of 
aSiftg it up %o the pathos of Lee's reading 

Mohun was an able fecond to his friend. 
Hart, and equally admired for his gifeat 
and profound knowledge in his profef- 
fion. Heis celebrated, by Lord Rochefter, 
as the great -/Efopus of the ftage. The 
dignity of his ftep, faid his lordfhip, mimics 
could imitate, though they could not reach 
the fublimity of his elocution. Cibber, 
who lived fo near the times of Hart and 
Mohun, could poffibly have collected fomc- 
thing relating to thefe eminent players 
Worthy our notice s at prefent, we cannot 
even fay when they were bom and when 
they died. The time of Mohun's death is 
not more known than that of Hart. 

Bettertoft, after the re-union of the 
companies, afted Alexander with as much 
eclat as any of his other charaflers. This 



accomplifhed and yet modeft.player^ when 
fehearfing this chara^cr> was at a lofs tp 
recover a particular emphafis of Hart, 
which gave a force to foine intereftingfita- 
ation of the part ;• he applied, for informa* 
tion, to the players who flood near him. 
At laft^ one of the lowefl: of the company 
repeated the line exaftly in Hart's key. 
Betterton thanked him heartily, and put 
a piece of money in his hand as a reward 
for fo acceptable a fervice. 

But Betterton/ growing in years, fooa 
rcfigned this laborious part toMountfort, 
of whofe merits, in ading lovers and he- 
roes, Cibber fpeaks at large. On the^uiir 
happy- murder of • Mountfort, Betterton^ 
fays Cibber, refumed .Alexander,, and 
threw unexpefted luftre on the. part. •— 9- 
George Powell fometimes a6ted this fa- 
vourite hero of the ladies with applaufc.: 
Keen was his Clytus. Booth was too ac- 

• ■ * 

curate a fcholar, it fcems, to ^ the mad 


Alexander, and, in my opinion, loft an 
opportunity of difplaying, to advantage, 




the harmony of his voice, the vigour of his 
a^fon, and the gracefulnefs of his deport- 

' The play had lain dormant many years, 
at all the theatres, when Mr. Delane, an 
aftor from Dublin, in 1733, revived it, by 
his afting Alexander, with uncommon fuc- 
cefs, at the theatre in Goodman's fields ; 
where it was reprefented, for many nights 
fucceflively, with much emolument to Mr. 
GifFard, the manager. Of Mr. Delane I 
haye faid as much as I thought neceffary to 
point out his abilities in the Life of Gar- 
rick, who certainly did this aflor no fervice 
byminiickihghim in the famous fimile of 
the boar and fow in the Rehearfal. His voice 
and manner werefoexa6Hy imitated, that the 
audience enjoyed the reprefentat ion by repea- 
ted applaufe. Ch. Hulet afled Clytus with 
Delane at Goodman's fields, as did Qmn at 
Cbveht- garden. Hulet was apprentice to the 
famous Edmund Curl, the bookfeller, where 
te learned very .early the art of ftage-mur- 
ders ; for Charles, a6ling the part of 
Alexander in the kitchen, with an elbow- 
VoL. III. - T ch lir 



chair for his Clytus, in his fury, m\h $ 
poker in his hand inflead of a j^velii)« 
broke it to pieces with fuch noife an4 vior 
lence,* that Curl, in the parlour, called 
out to know what was the matter : * Nor 
thing, fir,' faid the apprentice, * b»t A: 
lexander has killed CJytus/ Hulet, by hi? 
maft^r's permiffion, after he had fervej 
two years of his apprenticeship, tried hi? 
fortune on the ftage at Lincoln*$*innrfiQld; 
theatre. Here he remained feyeral years; 
and met with encouragement from th> 
public, with the patronage of Qyipj 
but, his income hot eqijialliog his 
cxpences, he embraced Mr. Giffaf4) 
offer of a larger falary; and a£ke4t ^ 
Qoodman's fields, many principal chaf^^ 
ters : fuch as Henry VIII. Falftaif, O^lwlf 
lo. King in the Mourning Bride, Cljbm 
and Caflius in Julius Caefar. 

Hulet was an excellent Macheath ; thf 
ibngs in that part he fang more agreeably 

than Walker. He was happy in a fine, Htuqt^ 


* Chfetwood. 


dear, end tneiodiotos^ pipe ; his being too 
i€f>fibk of this was the immediate caufe of 
his de^fth: h& took an idle pieaTune lii 
ftealuKg un^rceived ob a perfon^ iaud 
deafening him with a loud hem^ to 


^ew the ftrength and firmnefs of his 

iwigs. As he was praftifing this trick ohfc 

morning at rehearfal, by an extraordihary 

[effort he broke a blxxjd-veflel, whith killed 

Mm in twenty- four hours* Honeft Lyon, 

41 good comic at^br, and Co remarkable f(»: 

iaretentiye memory, that he eould r^pda! k 

«ew8 paper, with all the advertiftnieflts, 

afttt: reading it thrice over,* was prefeiit 

when this uncommon accident hap|)ened, 

and related it - to me, many yeara fince, 

with this addition: that Huleti being 

mtch sdarmed at the quantity of blood 

which ifiued from his mouths was perfua- 

de(J to go home j two eminent phyficians 

*€fe fent for immediate:/, who pronoun- 

^<icd th^ cafe defperate, and would not prc^- 


T 2 Hulct 

* Mr, H. GifFard gained a wager on a trial of Lyoa'a 
-mory, by a repetition of a newfpaper and all itsconteats. 



Hulet was extremely corpulent, (up- 
• pofed to be. owing to his drinking lar| 
quantities of porter and ale. He was 
great feeder, extremely indolent, cardel 
. of his drefs, not to fay fordidly negligenj 
of his perfon. In converfation he wj 
lively and facetious, extremely good-naj 
tured, and a moft excellent mimic ; h\ 
this talent of imitation he never exercife 


to the difadvantage of his fellow-come| 
dians. . The public loft this valuable a£l( 
^in the thirty-fifth year of his age. Qm\ 
adtfid Glyttts with approbation ; but 
in a manner more truly charafteriftic thi 
Hulet. There was, in the latter's voic( 
mpre variety of tone, with ftrength cqui 
to that of his competitor. 

The Vanquiflier of Afia never appeal 
to more advantage in reprefentation, I b( 
.lieve, than in the perfon of Sprang^ 
Barry., He Iqolied, moved, and aft< 
the hero and the lover, in a manner fo ft 
perior and elevated, that he charmed evei 
audience that faw him j he gave new lii 

A L E X A N ai; R. a^7 

and vigour to a play which had not been 
fcen fince the death of Delanc. His ad-- 
drefs to his favourite queen was foft and- 
elegant, and his love ardently pafllonate ; 
in the fcene with Clytus, in his rage, he 
was terrible ; and, in his penitence and re- 
morfe, exceffive. In his laft diftrading 
agony, his delirious laugh was wild and 

antic, and his dying groan afFeiVing. 

William Powell had, from nature, ma-\ 
yrequifites to exhibit, with propriety and-. 

ill, lovers and , heroes : . %!$ perfpn and . 

ke were well adapted to them 5 his ear ^ 

as good^ nor did he want any thing but r 

ime to bring his judgement to maturity. : 

Alexander be was certainly inferior to . 

arry j but his diftance from that great ^• 

or was not difgraceful. If we take into . 
)ur account the very ftiort time he was on 
hcftage, we fliall be furprifed at the great - 
Vogrefs he.made in the art he profefled. 

The -original Rival Qiieens, Mrs. Mar- 
hall and Mrs. Boutell, were much celebra- 
«d, efpecTally the firff, who afled Rox- 
I .i , T .3 . * ann, 



ana. She excelled in chara6lcrs of dig^ 
nity, and in expreffing the ftrong emo- 
tions of the heart. The high fentiments 
of honour, in many of her charafters, 
were correlpondent to the dictates of her i 
mind, and juftified by her own private 
conduft. She was particularly admired 
in Roxolana, a charafter of heroic vir- 
tue, in one of Lord Orrery*s plays. — 
Aubrey de Vere, Earl of Oxford,* was fo 
charmed with Mrs. Marihall, that he pur- 
fued her in all die ibapes a paflronate aivf 
artful lover could alTume^ Diftrafted wirii 
the repulfes his love received, he deter^ 
mined to feize her, by for<:e, a& fhe came 
from the playhoufe; but fhe, being iil' 
formed of hi& defign^ obtained a party of 
the king's guards* to protect- her. His 
lordfhip attacked her chair, but was re- 
pulfcd. The adventure was fpread over thr 
town. The gentlemen, who daimei i 



• Hiftory of the Englift Stage, 1741^ 

A LE X A N D E R. ij^ 

(on of ri^t t^ bchavfe with freedom to the 
femrfoi of the theatre, were angry and dif- 
appolnted -, vthile the kdies were pleafed^ 
asd much ektoHed the conduct of the 
ftage- heroine. The king, himfclf interr 
pafed .in fier favour -, and told the earl^ 
thor, although, by his own condu<5):, his 
hid too- much countenanced the vice» he 
dKMrghf it bad ettough ivub theconfent of 
tlrf-faii-* Imttkit violence was unpardona- 
hh inN a fo^ereign; and ftill mor^ fo in a 
fiftqdft. The earl pron>ifed to think no 
mtoreof hw; b«f, in a few days, ha re- 
newed his add^ref^V ^liurihg hef he could 
not livtr wkhout herj he was fo charmed, 
hi fJw*, ^ith hei^ e*aflfed virtue, that he had 
refolve^, vs^ith her confent> ro marry her. 
This bait Rbxolana fwallOWed > and the 
eadv^ Dimmed- fo her by bis coacHman in 
tlxldiiffstofa: clers;ytnan> Soon after this 
ppctcadcfd: roarwage, h« took off thpraailki 
tddher the dec^t, and bade her r^um to 
the ftage, She threw herfelf at th^ king's 
fteti who command e d the-eaf4 to-aHow hep- 

.l* 4 ... a yearly 


ayearly income of 500I. tior wbuld he per- 
mit his lordfliip to marry during the life of 
her fon by him. The time of Mrs. Mar- 
fhairs leaving the ftage, and her death, is 

equally uncertain. 

* Mrs. Boutell, the original Statira^ 
was low in ftature, had very agreeable fea^ 
tures, a good complexion, with a childilh 
look. Her voice was not ftrobg,^ bfu* plea- 
fing and mellow; (he generally. a^ed teiv- 
<l9r rand innocent young ladies.*! By the 
generofity of her lovers, (he was enabled to 
quit the ft age before the .approach of old 
age. A I qudrrelj bejfewee'n her and Mrs. 
Barry, after .the .union of the dompjinies, 
concerning a veil^ which the latter claimfed 
for Roxana, ajid the^ other as'ftrenuoufly 
demanded fdr Statira, had like to have 
provedoffatakortfequence to the latter. She, , 
by the. contrivance or intereft of the ward- : 
rqbe. keeper, carried off the veil triumphant- . 
ly. The Rival Queens afted with much ipirit 



■«ltrt — y oii ' j ^ > j 

> > r , 


r ' 

♦ Hiflory of th« Engliih Stage, 1741^ 

- tA L E'X and E R. . «8i 

and animoiity: In the laft.aft, Roxana 
ftnick Statira with fuch force, when fhe 

wounded lier with the dagger, that it en- 

■• » 

tered a quarter of an inch into the flefh. 
Asijt was well known thefe ladies were not 
veftajs, it was rqpor^ed jealoufy gave force 
to the blow,* 

Alexander's death is attributed, in the 
ipkyj to ppifon ; but, with more probabi- 
lity, we may. place it to drunkennefs, — ^ 
The hero drank, at once, a cup which, 
held fourteen pints : as he was atterppting 
to mend hi? draught, -by anotlier equal 
quantity, he was feized with , giddinefs, 
, and, foon after, died.-f- 

la Lee's dedication of his Alexander, to 
the Earl of Mulgrave, we have a glaring, 
but genuine, pidture of the manners of the 
^gc, from one who was a fharer in all its 
follies and irregularities : 
i ^An 

* Mrs. Crawford was fo much in earneft, when (he 
fiabbed Dionyfius, in the Grecian Daughter, that Pal- 
mer felt the effeSs of the blow fome months after. 
I \ Atbenaeus. 



'■- * An- age, wiioft bufifttfe is fer^- 

lei's riot, Nfefdnrait gambol^, am! rid&icti- 
lous dfebaucfhery J air age^ whidir can prof- 
diice few perfonSx Tiktyaat hrtSMp, *fi<y 
dare be afonc. Alt dorhdt ho^itS' arcftutttt 
lit nl^r-revdis, txticcmntithy^ymdit^ 

Sieep^* This was written in 1^77, 

Lee ttied his fortune car the ft age, in tftc 
charader of Duncan ' in Mkcbtth; bat 
failed. Otway, mudi about the- kiiit 
time, played a King in cttie of Mri. Behh's 
fhysy * but the fight of the atttiicttcefbf 
terrified him,* fays*Db«ns, * that W«as 
iff a tretn-endoili agony, and'fptiilt'f^ ?W. 
jiftor. •. i. ',•■.• . 

* * / ■ 

* ■ « 

. . • :. ,r. . , ■ - 

»''.*.- I 1 

J * k 



It £ H £ A R S A L. aSj 

The Rehearfel* 


Middle comedy. — Buckingham's acquaintance 
ivith Ben ytmftm. •— An admirer nfthe eld 
^Slors.^—His appofiticn to the nenv tajle in 
writing plays. — Play of the Vnited King^ 
dbtns. — ^be Rebearjal^ ^henfifjk aBedr--^ 
' Sir Rbbert Howard.-^Simile of the turtles 5 
^boar and fow. — T!be family (fHbward. — 
Original aSor of Bayes. — J^ryderis drefs^ 

— Buckingham andDorfet. — yoe Haines's 
Bayes ^ nvith the recantation -prologue. ^^'^ 
Bficourty companion of Addifon^ &c. — His 
Bayes. — Old bill of the Rebearfal. — Heigh 
bo ! — Eficourfs qualities. -*- Colley Cibber 
and the puldic at variance. — Wefton. — 
Steele's charaBer of Eftcourt.--^ Remarks rni 
Steele. — Mimics more dreaded than beloveds 

— Garrick and Boote. — Pqffage in tie 
Sp$£htorreftored.-^Bn. RatcUJtc^ S^cre-^ 



% *••♦• 4-* 


fary Craggs and Sir Godfrey Kneller. — Ti&r 
Bayes ofCoUey Gibber. — Pope and Gay.-^ 
Baye^ ofTbeopbiJus Gibber ^ — of Garrick ; 
— of Foot e. — How Buckingham lojitbefa- 
^our of Gbarles II. — yoe AJhe^^ the box^ 
leeptr.-^ Anecdotes of Backingham: 

, ... • *. 

THIS comedy, oriarceof five a£ls, is 
of the fame fpccies with the middle 
comedy of the Greeks, in which characters 
of living perfons are introduced with fuch 
attributes as make them known to theaij^ 
dience. Of thi$ kind was the Poetafter of 
Ben Jonfon, and the Satiro-maftix of 
Decker; moft, if not all, of Mr. Fpote's 
pieces arc of the fame. fort. . 

George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, 
the writer of this witty fatii^e^ was, ., when 
a boy, acquainted with Ben, Jonibn- \ He 
imbibed an early tafte and regard for our 
beft old drajnatic poets, efpecially^ fof Ben 
bimfelf, and Beaumont and Fletcher ; the 
name of Shakfpeare I do not fee in any 
part o( ^&A writing?. ..He lijcewife ,was 



K E H E A R S A L. 98$ 

much prgudic6d in favour of the corpecGans 
who a6ted at the Globe and Black Friers, 
whom he faw before the commencement of 
the civil wars ; thefe he greatly admired 
and praifed j they had llruck his young 
fancy, and he pfefeiTed them to fucceeding 
aflors. * 

Soon after the Reftoration, a great 
number of plays were written upon a new^ 
model; in which all refemblance of huma- 
nity was forgotten, probability was thrbwii 
out of fight, and monftrous births took 
the place of fuch produftions as were foun- 
ded on truth and nature. Buckingham, 
by his own perfonal oppofition, and his intc- 
reft withfcveral gentlemen who wereof high 
rank, tried to ftem the torrent of high-flowii 
nonfenfe and low ribaldry, which was thfc 
reigning tafte. He once ventured fo far, 
in exploding a play, written by the' ho- 
nourable Henry Howard^ eldeft ibii' to the 
Earlof Berkfhire, called the Unitfed Kmg- 
^ms, i that he ran the hazard of his lift*. 
This play having in it a funeral, Mr, 



^syes ridicules it in that part of the He* 
liearial where he informs his friend, John- 
foh, that, as he would have no -Tceaes alike 
m his play, the laft aft be^^uming with a 
witty fcene, the next fhoujd begin with a 
funeraL Mr. Howard's play was abfo- 
lutely condemned, and the author was 
prudent enough not to print it, by which 
he efcaped all farther animadrerfion. 

The Rehearial was begun about the year 
1663, and finiflied ready for afting .ai>ottt 
two years after. The plague, in 1665, pre- 
vented its rep'refentation, fo that it did not 
make its appearance till 1671 ; then it cante 
out with confiderabJe alterations «nd iiBr 
provements. Theauthor, in his original plan, 
intended to have made Sir Robert HoWaid 
the principal charaaer, by the name of 
Bilboa. But the great reputation of Dry- 
den, who fucceeded Sir William I>avenaitt 
in his office of poet-laureat, gave hi$ graa 
a fair opportunity to expofe the t*igid 
rants and unmeaning bombaft £0 frequott 


R £ H £ A R S A L. 387 

in the early dramatic works of that emi« 
nent writer. ^ 

The fuccefs of tfils fatife more ttian an- 
fweredthie cicpteQ:ation of th? author i and 
indeed the Rtfaear&l is a inecy fmgtilar 
compofition ; in one re^eft it is like Don 
Quixote, for it is read {jnd a£):ed with 
pleafure, though theabfurdities ridiculed 
in it are no longgr in being. For eafy wit, 

gay ri4icule^ ftrong byrkfqvie, and liappy 
parody, otir language can boaft ndthin^ 
like it. Such is the power of ridicule, it 
can make that appear a fubjefl for laughter 
which js really in itfelf not fo* 

The parody of Dryden's fixnile of the 
tijrties, ii^ ^he fecond part of l)is CoJcvjueJOfc 
of Qranada, is a .%png inftance of the 
powers of ludicrous wit*. A$ I ih$d| no^ 
txouhh my reader with many quQt$Lty>n$ 
from, a play which is in every body*? 

handa, 1 ihali ot>Ly giv^ the, fimHe.and 
the parody upon it:. 




♦ > - - 4. . 

- ¥ ^ 

So two kind tardes, when aftormis nigb% , •- 
Look up^and fce itgaAermg^Hithe (ky 3^ .. 
Each calls his mate to (helter in the groves. 
Leaving in miirnlursr their unfinifli'dioves ; 
Percb'd oh £6mt dropping branch, they fit alone, 
And coo^ amf hearken to-each other's moan. 

. 1 t. 

The parody : ' 

So boar and fow, whea any ftorm is nigh. 
Snuff iip and fee it gathering Vn the fky ; 
JSoar beckons fgw to trot 10 ohefnut-greves. 
And .there conTumniat^ their imiihifl| 'd Joves. 
Penfive, in mud, they wallow all^one. 

And faort and grointle to each other's. moan* 

-* • ..... . . . 

Dryden put the beft face ob the matter, 
and endeavoured to laugh at the grotefque 
pifture 'drawn for- him j but,* thoughhe 
was wile enough io conceal his'woundj he 
felt the fmart of it^ The revenge he took; 
jri the chara6lcr of Zirflri, in IxiS'Abialom 
and Actiitophel, which :he drew for the 
kuthftr of :tbeRehearfalvvis a pjfoaf that he 
was thoroughly angry. . : . ' : ; \ 

Though Dryden*s extravagant flights, 
in dramatic poetry, were chiefly aimed at 



in the Rehearfal, yet many authors. of the 
[times had a juft claim to their ftiare of fa- 
' Vical reprehenfion. . The noble family of 
ward was diftinguiftied for dramatic 

odu^onSy in which were to be found 
ts romantic and abfurd, and charad:efsj; 
Ipit drawn from nature, biit wild and ua- 

iverned fancy. To revive, in this place, 

e names of.thefe exploded pieces, would 
be invidious ; thofe, whofe curiofity may 
be excited to knovv them, will turn to the 
Key of the Rehearfal. 

The original adtor of Bayes wias the cele- 
brated John Lacy, a man of infinite comic 
humour, if we can truft to honcft Downs 
and all traditional remembrance of him. 
How this character was dreffed by Lacy it 
is not now to be known. Dryden, it was 
faid, was fond of wearing black velvet ; 
and we may fuppofe the player endeavoured 
to refcmble him, as near as pofSble, in 
drefs and deportment. I have heard, in- 
deed, that the Duke of Buckingham and 
the Earl of Do^'fet prevailed on Dryden to 

Vol. hi. U accompany 


accotopany them, in the boxes, on thcfirft 
night of aSing the Rchcarikl ; ahd pheed 
\he poet between them to enjoy the fedmgJ 
of. his tbind during the exhibition of hii 
bwn picture*. The pecHliarities of Drydeti> 
yiffaeki he inftniflekl the players, &em to be 
ftrongtynkarked through the whol^ piece. 
. The immediate ftycceffo** of L^cy, 1ft 
Baye«> is unknown. Joe Haines, on hli 
return from his travelsc, a^ed Bayes -, add 
fpoke a recaittation-prologu*, in a whitd 
fheet> with a burning taper in his hand, 
upouhis admittance into the playhoufe afi 
itr tiis return froim the church of Rom*. 
^is prologtfe Was written by /Tom Brown, 
for his friend, Joe Haines. A few lintS 
of this addrefs to the public, by that piooi 
jpe'nitent, will, I believe, fatisfy the reader t 

As you diflike tfe converts of the nation, 
^'^ 't'hat wtnt to Rome aftd left you¥ con'gregatiofh 
K. Byt^e^lame ruUe, ^ray, kindiy eilter^am ! 

, Your penitent H)ft Iheep retnrn'ti^galn. 

For re-converted Haines, tau^ght by the age, 

I* ■ 

Is now cooie back to his prim-kivechttrGb^ theftagc* 
. I own -my crime, of leaving in the lurch I 

My mottlifr' playhoufe :— file's nay mo'tih^t-fchurcb ! 



Ik £ tt E A R ^ A 1. 191 

Tht fcelebf ated Dick Eftcouirt, the C6m- 
pantott t)f AddifoYi, 8ted6, l?^arhtl, (who 
honoured hitn, in a Bafcchahalian pofem, 
bythenameof Jocus,) aiid ail the learned 
aiid choice fpirits of the age hfc li^^^ed in, 
afted Bayes dttring the gdy«-Amettt of tht 
theatre by Wilks, Dogget, and Gibber. 
!tliere cannot be a ftrohger proofs of the 
old cufhom of diftributing the parts, in a 
play according to the ftrength of the com- 
pany, before the introduSlion qf thofe exo- 
tics, thfc pantomimes, than the following 
till oF theatrical faVc, which 1 produce 
from the firft edition of the Spe^Slator, 
publifiied in hXimbers r * 

the part of Bayfes by Mr. Eftcourt ; 

jbhnfon by Mr. Wilks ; Smith, Mr. Mills ; 
Prettyman, Mr. Powell; Votfdas, Mr. 
Cibbers -the Kiiigs of Brentford, BiUlock 
khd Bbwen; tJfentleman-ufher, Pinketh- 
Inan ; Phyticiah, . Crofs ; Tom Thimble, 
bogget ; ! Fiiherman, Johnfon^ Pallas,' 
&iilloc'k ; tteigh hoi Norris. 

U 2 Here 



Here we have all the beft comedians of 
the age grouped in this comedy ; and Nor- 
ris, an excellent comic genius, the i^eakpr 
of two lines only : 

Heigh ba ! heigh ho ! what a change is here ! Hey 
d^y ! hey day ! I know not what to do nor what to &y! 


This odd foliloquy he uttered in fuch ? 
manner, as to occafion his being termed 
by the audience, and announced in the 
bills, by the name of Heigh ho ! 

The original a£lor of this drowfy politi- 
cian was one Shirley, and quoted by that 
name in the play. This man caufed the 
whole audience to gape and yawn. He feems 
to have made himfelf, like William Peer, 
mentioned in the Speftator, famous for 
(peaking a line or two. 

Eftcourt was fo remarkable a genius, fo 
celebrated for ready wit, gay pleafantry, 
and a wonderful talent in mimicry, that 
fomething more than barely mentioning 
him is due to his memory -, more efpccially 
as he was a man as much beloved for the 



goodne/s of his heart as admired for his 
various talents. 

With refpefl to his flage-abilitics, Colley 
Gibber fpeaks of them, in his Apology, but 
flightingly . He confeffes indeed that Eftcourt 
underftood a character w«lU though he had 
not, he faid, acquired the art to do juftice td 
it in reprefentation ; he inftances particu- 
larly FalftafF. But Gibber and the public 
feemed widely to have differed j for Eft- 
court's name is often placed in the bills fot 
charafters of confequence, at a. time, too, 
when Gibber was a manager of the theatre. 
Nay, we fee, that fuch was^he confidence 
of the direftors of the ftage in his powers 
to pleafe the. public, that Gibber, who af- 
terwards played Bayes, contented himfelf, 
during the, life of Eftcourt, with the infe- 
rior part of Prince Volfcius. He was the 
original Serjeant Kite in the Recruiting 
Officer, Pounce in the Tender Hufband, 
mi of other parts of in?portance. Gibber, 
J doubt not, mixed a degree of envy in his 
criticifm. Of a player's merits the public 

U 3 as 



13 a fairer iv4ge^ th^n the moft ^Hl%l>teii^ed 
of his own profeffion. Hovsf ofteip haw I 
heard the merits of poor Wefton queftigwed 
by aftors of no mean capacityj^, wheii tjw 
people Qould never fee J^o^,, pn ^he^fl;4gei» 
without paying ^m, tli« tribwtje of ^bat 
Cibber jtiftly caHs unbought ^pplasft* lowi 
an4 involuntary iaughcer ! 

Hoijeft Downs calU ISftQouvt bi^(t natys, 

* He ha^ the honour,' fayg tW$, hiftwian, 

* (nature enduing him nith aa eafy, free, 
«nafFe£led, mode of elocution,) in corner 
dy, always to Isetificate hfe audience, c^e- 
cially tlk quality/ 

Sir Richard Steele, ,ivho tkougkt it not 
l)eneath bim to be tl\c intimate 0ric»4 of 
^ftcourt, has, in the Spectator,* drawn t 
-mofl amiable pid:ure of him. | fhaU 
quote fame {biking traits, of his abilities : 

* He had fo exquifite 2L difccrhtng of what 
was defedtive in any cxbjedl befoi^e him, 
that, in an inflant, he could fhew you the 


♦ Vol. VI. Number 468. 


riidiculQias fide of what would pafs for 
b?afttifvil 9»d juil, even to ; men of no ill 
judgement,, before he had pointed at the 
failure. He was no Jcfe fkilful in the 
knowledge of beauty ; arvd I dare fey, that 
there is no one, who knew him well, hut 
^m repeat n»ore weli-turaed compliments, 
as well as fmart repartees, of Mr, Eftcourt, 
than of any other man ia .Enigland. This 
was eafily to. be obfcrved in his inimitable 
faculty of telling a flforyj in which he 
would throw in natural and unexpc6le<l in- 
cidentSy to majcehis court to one part, and 
rally the other part, of the company; 
I tKen he would vary the ufage he gave them, 
according as he few them bear kind or 
fearp language. He had the knack to raife 
«p a penfive temper, and mortify art inp- 
pertinently gay one, with tlie moll agreea- 
ble Ikill imaginable,' 

Steele farther obferves, that \x is natural 
for the wealthy to affix the chara^fter of the 
wan to his circumftances ; and to this 
alone he thought it was to be afcribed, 

U 4 • that 


that a quick wit in converfation, a nice 
judgement on any emergency, a moft 
blamelefs and inofFenfive behaviour, could 
not raife this man above being received 
upon the foot only of contributing to mirth 
and diverfion. 

Steele did not confider, that the man, 
who excels his company in wit and in the 
art of converfing,. raifes up fo many rivals 
and enviers, who have nothing to confole 
them but the low fortune of him who tri- 
umphs over their inferiority, Eftcourt, 
Very, imprudently, I think, about a year 
before his death, opened a tavern.* — 
This enlarged his acquaintance, and, I 
believe, fliortened his days : he, that fells 
wine and prepares dinners, i^ at the call of 
ejvery company that vifits his houfe. To 
fome of thefe, the wit and gaiety of Eft- 
court might be agreeable 5 others would 
feel the degradation of themfelves in the 
fuperior qualities of the tavern man Let 


• The Bumper tavern, in Covcni-gardcn, 



US quote what Steele fays of his fuperlative 
excellence in mimicry. * What was peculiarly 
excellent in this memorable companion was, 
that, in the accounts he gave of perfons 
and fentiments, he did not only hit the fi- 
gure of their faces and manner of their 
geftures, but he would, in hisTiarrations, 
fall into their way of thinking; and this, 
when he recounted paffages wherein men 
of the heft, as well as fuch wherein were 
reprefented men of the loweft, rank in un- 
derftanding. It is certainly as great an 
inftance of felf-love, to a weaknefs, to be 
impatient of being mimicked, as any can 
be imagined. There were none but the 
vsiin, the formal, the proud, or thofe who 
were incapable of amending their faults^ 
that dreaded him ; to others he was in the 
higheft degree pleafing/ 

The people, who dreaded Eftcourt and 
all mimics, were the greateft part of man- 
kind ; and by fuch this man muft have 
hved or ftarved. The fele6l few, that 
were pleafed with him, and had conquered 



tb w fear- q£ his iaut4*ioo3, had. fij^^env 
OKcUences to cherifli thf?U- fclf^love,. ai94 
could look down with CQmpbcQOcy on tbj& 
inferior talejitSi of their merry c.Qaip9ni<»j!. 
Steele congratulates hinafelf on tfey? c<?eK 
^uefl he had. gained ov^ h^ imp^tic^ce q£ 
bcipg mimicjced by Eftcowrt;,; The v^^ory 
was not very eafy, I dare b^ ligve ^ |or ) 
never in my life faw any man bear the trifi^ 
with Chriftian patienqe. l^ay, the gfeift 
takersn^offthemfelves could not. ^nduye tki 
retort courteous pf mimi<fry in anoth^.. t-m 
Garrick and Foote,- the greal m^^-ioi 
the art, could not endure to im th.Qmfelvfs 
in the very njif ror they held up to others. 
Eftcourt wag a favourite of th? p«l 

Duke of Marlborough; tbofe> who kiMaw 

bis grace's charafter^ will UQt be furpri^ 
that he did not improve his fortune by that 
^iftin^iion. When providoye of the beef- 
0eak cluh» coippoftd of the. chief wits and 
greateft men of the nation » he wore thcif 
Iwfcdge^ which was a fmall gridiron of gol4 

. ^ that 


diat hniig about his meek with a green 

filk ribbon. 


In the later editioxis of the Spedator, 
Steele concludes lus account of Eilcourt 
with St Sow of tendemefd very natural to a 
good heart, ^nd a l>urft of tears : -^^^-^ * | 
wi(h it were any hpnour to the pfeafant 
ereatune'9 memory, that my eyes are too 
much fiifftijfed to let me go on/ In tht 
origihal edition, the eoneluilon ftands 
thus : *- It is^ a felicity his frienck may re- 
jmce in, that he had. liis fenres,*and ufed 
them as he ought to do, in his lafl mo- 
ments. It is remarkable, that his }udge- 

» a 

ment was in its calm perfeflion to the ut- 
moft article ; for, when his wife, out of 
her fondnefe, defired (he might fend for a 
certain illiterate humorift, (whom he had 
accompanied in a tKoufand mirthful mo- 
mcntSj and whofe infotence makes fools 
think he affumes from confcious merit,) 
he anfwered, — ^ You may do what you 
plcafe, but he won't come. — — Let poor 
Eflcourt'a negligence about this meifage 



convince the unwary d£ a triumph^t em- 
piric's ignorance and inhumanity/ 
/ The triumphant empiric, I belie?c, was 
Dr. RatcIifFe; In this manner did the 
ftaunch . whig, Sir Richard^ difcharge his 
party- fplcen on the bigh-tory do€lor -, nar 
indeed could any thing befaid too fevei-dy 
againft the phyfician, who refufed to. at- 
tend, the* man in his ficknefs who had fo 
often coDtributed to raife his mirth while 
in full health* That RatclifFe was the per- 
Hbn meant is only conjeflurtf ; but the cha- 
racter of bumoriji confirms me in my qpi- 
jiion ; for RatclifFe would go to thofe only 
his prefent fancy approved s nor would he 
ftir to a lord, or even a crowned head, tiU 
his.pipe was out.* Before I quit Eflcourt, 
I muft relate* an anecdote which will per- 
Jbaps ftrengthen what I have faid relating 

to mimicry, -j Secretary Craggs, when 

very young, in company with fbme of his 
friends, went, with Dick Eftcourt, to Sir 
Godfrey Kneller; and told him, that a 


* Wc may jultly Itylc that man a humorilt, wno told 
K. William be would not have his two legs for his three 
kingdoms, nor would attend (^ Anne in her laft illnefs. 


^ittkmaii in c0m{>any would give fuch a 
rpprjbfbntation o£' ibme great men, his 
f|!iends, as would furprife him. Eftcourt 
mimicked Ld Somers, Ld Halifax^ Q<?dpJ^ 
phfiq, and others, fo very exa6lly, that Sijr 
Godfrey was highly delighted and laqghed 
heartily at the joke. Craggs gave the 
wink, and Eftcourt , mimicked Kneller 
himfelf ; who cried out immediately, A^, 
there you are outy man ! by G — , that is mt 
me ! 

Gibber fucceeded Eftcourt in Bayes; 
and, by a ftroke of fa tire which I^ threw 
into the part, provoked the vengeance of 
Pope, who never forgave it. It feems, 
the farce of Three Hours after Marriage, 
faid to be written by Pope, Gay, and Ar- 
buthnot, had been aftcd, foon after the 
acceffion oLGeorgel. with fo little fucceft, 
that .Gibber and Oldfield had been feverdy 
handled by the audience. Our late kingi 
George 11. then Prince of Wales, com- 
manded the Rehearfal ^ and Colley could 
not forbear ridiculing one of the moft un- 
fortunate incidents in Three Hours after 



Marriage, which i/vt^ Iftfe iMKddd^^g It^ 
a phylicJan** ho6fe tWd lovers bf hlS wlftih 
Ae Ihapes of a aiurtitfay aftd a trbeo^le. 
thougliPope, frbtn aftiftrt^bltteApfer, ikN 
ncd his refentiflent too for, yet ftirely Gibbet- 
ihouM have remfesttb^id, both as a pkytt 
and manago*, he ought not to have in* 
fultfed the work of anV amhor i it was M- 
ficient mortification to hiiti that tht au- 
dience had condertined it. Mr. J^Ope Wis, 
we will grant Cibber, too intemperate itt 
his language on the bccafioti '; but Oibbfer's 
upbraiding him with his form, ill the fbi- 

lowing words, ^* Mr. Pope, you ^af^e fd 

J)articular a man, that I fhouid be afhamed 
to return your language as I ought to do,* 
■ was Very grofs and utterly unjiiftifia- 
ble. I have heard, that Mr. Gay refented 
the affront fo ftrongly, that he replied to 
Cibber in fomething more feeling than 

In adling Bayes, Cblley 'Cibber was 
dreffed like a fmart coxcomb. In the de- 
Uneation of the chataiSler, he made him 



R E il fe A R S A L. ^6j 

H'^r -e^Wfeke^ the litughtef at BayesS 
t:^tf^v«^ances thaA the tnan t)iat <vas eM^- 

His foft^ Tlieo^fl'usi iKf^yed thott 
^vacJty in Bayfe^ thiah his fedielr-'; l)';f ^fc 
iftvefitioft of nfe's^-ralfed ti'doj)^; or h^ifefcy^ 
htirfes, atid oth6r aoveI>ties» Virith ^Mb 
^ih jokes U^^ the ^£^dFs, he di-ew thb 
5pWblk to it for three weeks fuccefli^^ly. "*- 
B4(l: Thcc^ilas rftixed too much griraac^fc 
and falfe fpirit in his beft-aAed parts. 

Mr. Garrick, when he firft exhibited 
!Bay^ could not be diftmguiflied frorfi any 
Wher gay ^^H-drdfed man -, but he feoA 
altered it to a drefs he thought tnore fiiited 
io the -conceit and folemhity of thetllramatic 
toxcomb. He wore a fliabby oldifelhicAied 
coat, that Ited fbrmerly been very fiire \ 1 
little hat, a large flowiag brown wig, hig?i- 
topt jfhoes with rtd heels, a mourning fvv6rd, 
fraritt ftockings, and ciit-finge^^ glox'ies. 
Tfeie difierence, between Gamck and his 
iftHntdiate predece(Jbr«, was very cortfpicn- 



ous. They, by their z&ion^ toM the 
ipeiElators that they felt all the ridiGule of 
the part s he appeared quite ignorant of 
the joke that made againft him. They 
feemed to fneer, at the folly of Bayes^ with 
the aadience i the audience laughed loudly 
at him. By feeming to underftahd the fa- 
tire, they caught at the approbation of the 
pit; he gained their loudefl plaudits, 
without letting them know he deferved 
it. They were in jeft ; he was in ear- 

I have already faid fo much of Mr. Gar- 
rick's imitations of the a6lors, in voi|e and 
gefture, that I cannot add any thing more 
on that head. 

The Bayes of Foote was an odd mixture 
of himfelf apd the Duke of Buckingham ; 
the old building was new^aced with a mo- 
dern front. He contrived to adapts as well 
as he could, his new fuperftrufture to the 
old ground- work. His fancy was fo exube- 
rant> his conceptions fo ready, and his 
t];ioughts fa brilliant, that he kept the au- 



dience in contitiual laughter. Public 
tranfaftions, the flying foUiea of the day, 
debates of grave affemblies, abfurdities of 
play-writers^ politicians, and players, all 
came undei- his cognizance, and all felt the 
force of his wit 5 in fhort, he laid hold of 
every thing and every body that would fur- 
nifh merriment for the evening. Foote 
could have written a new Reheaiial equal 
to the old, , 

Of Buckingham's moral and political cha« 
f after I have fpoken fully, and, I am con- 
vinced,juftly,in my obfervations on the Or- 
phan. I thdre gave the reader fome account 
of the great ifFeftion which Charles II. ma- 
nifeftcd for this eccentric wit. It now re- 
mains that I unfold the caufe which dif- 
folvcd the feemingly inviolable attachment 
of the king to his favourite. The parlia- 
ment, which had been firm to Chailes 
whilft they had the leaft profpeft of his ad- 
hering to the conftitution, in church and 
ftate, as then eftabliflied^ on difcovering 
that his war with Holland was carried on 

YoL.lIL X with 


with no other view thaa to eftabHQi defpo-* 

tifiii, and to ruikii in coAjun^lion with 

France^ the Proteftant intereftand reli** 

gion, boldly broke though all forms, add 

attacked bis miniftry , compofed of the h-^ 

roous Cabal. Buckingham deiired ht 

might have leave to vindicate himfelf be^ 

fore the hdnfe of commons. In lus de^ 

fence, he laid the blame of his co]idu6t oo 

the king and the duke of York, by a .\ititty 

allufion to then! both. Amosigitl other 

things^ he faid^ ^ hnnting was a good dii 

veriion ; but, if a man would hunt wiib 

a brace of lobfters, he would have butil{ 

fport.' People underftood^ that, by tfce 

lobfters, the royaj brothers' .w«re aowtajit 

* And this fpeech,.' fays Burnet^ * loft him 

the king's favour fo effectually, that he 

never recovered it afterwWds/ Thus w^ 

fee, that a man of wit, and tqjafter of tbf 

joke, could fafely offend agaififl: ^l laws 

human and divine, and yet retain his fovc*- 

reign's favour; but, the nK)ment be plaeed 

}iis condu<5t in a light that rendered it aa 



ob]^ df ridicule, the royal countfcnancfc 
f « withdrawn from him, and irBecon>- 
ciltable hatred facceeds to the a^jpeoranob 
€i t\\e nS&Ht unalterable friendihip 1 It is 
wtll known, that Buckingham fpoke often 
of the king moft contemptuouHy ; nor did 
Cbarks vdue the diike for any thing but the 


happy talefit of giving a ludicrous turn- to 
^eiy tblAg that was ferious. q 

In a kitdr td Lord Berkley/ Buckingham 
Mfed him to tell a certain lady, that he 
aadreiblved to fwear hj no other than jo6 
Afhj* and/iftliat/ faidhis grace, * be a 
nfl, it is as odd ati one as ever Aie heard 
ef^ Jot Afh was, it feems, a box-keeper 
dt '£)rury-ian€ playhdufe. How this moA 
tbvild merit this diftinftion I know not, 
unldshe lent the d^ke nioney to fupply his 
mccdStieSy Which were often very urgent. 
Box-keepers, whatever they may be now^ 
ly tlie managers keeping an eye orer their 
condiaftj, were formerly richfcr ' than their 
mafters* A jramarkable inllance of it J 
heard ra&ny years fince. Coliey Gibbejr 

X 2 had. 


had, in a prologue, or fomc part of a play, 
given fudi offence to a certain great msm 
.in power, that the playhoufe, by order of 
the loikl-chamberlain, was (hut up for 
fome time. Gibber was arretted, and the 
iiiin^es laid at ten thoufand pounds. . Of 
this misfortune Booth and Wilks were 
talking very ferioufly, at the playhoufe, in 
the prefence of a Mr, King, . the box* 
keeper i who afked if he could be[ Qf any 
fervice, by oflfering to bail Gibber* -^-r^ 

* Why, you blockhead,' fays Wilks, I it 
is for ten thoufand pounds/ — * I ftiould 
be very forij,' faid the box-keeper, ' if I 
could hot be anfwerable for twice that 
fum-' The managers ftared at each otherj 
^nd Booth /aid, with fome emotion, to 
Wilks, ' What have you and I beeu do- 
ing, Bob, .all this time ? A box-keepcf 
can buy us both !* 

• An anecdote or two of the witty writerof 
theRehearfalj.and I have done. Father Pe- 
tre promifed K. James to make a convert of 
Buckingham to popery. He began-by attack- 


ing the imagination in its weakeft part, fear : 
* Wei my lord,' faid the Jefuit, f deny 
that any can pofiibly be faved out of our 
cburcb ; your grace allows that our people 
may be faved/ — > * No^ curfe you ! * faid 
the duke, ' I make no doiibt but you will 
be all damned to a man/ At this. Father 
Petre ftarted, and faid very gravely; * I 
canndt argue with a perfbh fo void of afl 
charity/ •— * I did not ezpeft, my reve- 
rend fether/ faid the duke calmly, * fuch 
a reproach from you, whoie whole reafbn«- 
ing was founded on the very fame inftance 
of want of ch vity in yourfelf/ 
^ The Duke of Queenfbury, in his jour- 
ney to Scotland, heard that Buckingham 
lay at a certain inn, not many miles from 
the road, in an illnefs from which he could 
not recover. His grace charitably paid the 
fick man a vifit, and aiked him if he would 
have a clergyman, * I look upon^ them,* 
%9 Buckingham, ^ to be a parcel of (illy 
fellows, who do not trouUe themfelvea 
«lbout what they teach/ Qiieenfbury th^ 

X 3 aiked 




afkedi if he would haw bis chsplain^ 
who was a prefbytcrian, * No/ 6id 
Bucks^ * theib fHlows always ma^e m^ 
fick with their whine and cant/ Qgeenf* 
bury, taking it for granted th^t he muft 
be of fome religion, and, tif coniet|iteiK:t» 
a Roman Catholic, told him tkkp^e was apof 
pi(h lord in the neighbourhood^ ^d ^d 
him if he (hould fend for a prieft. * Jfe^' 
fays the dying man, * thele raicals e^t <9od ^ 
but, if you kncfi/f of any fet of fellows (^ 
eat the devil, I (hould be obttged to you if 
you would fend for one of them/* 

I mufl not forget, that the c^bi^atod 
Mrs, Mountford, the Jfemale Proteus in 
a6Ving, who afiumed all cb^r^^^ps and be- 
came them all, aded Bayes with vivacity 
and humour ; and that Mr?. Clive, (om 
forty years fince, attempted the fapie part 
for the benefit of her brother, Mr. Rafter; 
but the public thought Bayes in Petticoati, 
in a lively farce of her own writiiig, be- 
; came her much better. 

^ Rtchardfon. 



C O N G R E V E. 31J 




Cwgreve firmed ttf>on Wycberly. — CmduSi of 
hnf^hUs. -^ Papijis and dijfenters. — Wy-^ 
iberfy tranfcrib^d the manners of the times. 
'^JSngy courty and pQets^ pimps combined. 
— • Drydens tfpinion of court and poets. — 
Wycberlf s private ch^raBer.—Old Batcbe^ 
kri"^ its cbaraSers.— QucJudd a favourite 
difb.-^ Lord Kaims. — Double Dealer j -^ 
Dry den* s Verfes upon it. — Dedication of the 
Double Dealer. — A leajh of cuckolds. — 
Majkwett. --r- Lady Tiimcbwood. -— Lord 
Frotb.'^ Lord Plaufible. '— Froth's opinion 
of laughter ^•^ Lord.C. — Various fpecies of 
las^bter. — Dimplers and fmilers. — Houfe 
if CQmmotu mid the theatre. — • Lady Froth 
und Brifiti— Woodward and Mrs. Clive. — 

X 4 Mfs 



Mi/s Pope. — Mrs. Green. — Cltve" s fuperi&r 
excellence. — Love for Love ; — its great me^ 
rit. — Sir Sampfon Legend. — Forefigbt^ a 
cbara&er of humour. — Ben a wit.^^ Pope. 
— Tattle.^^Mrs. Frail. — Doris. — jingeli* 
ca not amiable. 

CONOR EVE formed himfelf upon 
Wychcrly; but hi^ wit is mort 
flowing, his fancy more exuberant, his 
knowledge more extenfive, and his juc%c- 
ment more profound ; though he is by no 
means a ftri6i obferver of the unities^ the 
condu£l of his fables is well ftudied, and 
fometimes exa£t ^ his cataftrophes are ge- 
nerally perplexed and fometimes impro- 
bable* . - ^ * 

When Congreve began to ' write, the li- 
centious manners, introduced by Charles 
II. were in full vigour ; the paflion to 
eftablifh popery, in the rei^l? oi hjs fiic- 
ceflbr, had not diminifhed the inimorality 
of the people. The great view of James 
was the converting his fubjefts to his own 

fupcrftition j 

C O N G R E V E. 3i| 

fuperftition 5 to' which, I believe, h^ was 
the more devoted,- as he fancied thar imbi^ 
Hng his religious creed would render 
them more rubmifllve to his government; 
Papifts, like other diffehters, when in a 
ftate of perfecution, or deprived of benefits^ 
which they ought to enjoy, will endeavour 
to gain a mitigation of their hardfhips by 
contributing to fupport every fcheme of 
government with their utmoll weight and 
intereft: remove the clogs that feparatc 
them froin the reft of the people, and pa- 
pifts will be as ftaunch friends to liberty as 
any other fiibjefts . 

Wychcrly, it is plain, was the origin^ 
which our young poet admired and copied. 
Wycherly faithfully tfanfcribed the mahnei* 
of the times when the king and his courtier^ 
inconjunftion with the poets, were thepimps 
to debauch the morals of the people. Dr. 
Johnfon ftyles Wycherly a fcribhler, from 
an honeft indignation at the impurity of 
his writings ^ but furely the comedies of 
Dryden, Otway, and others, arc not lefe 



exceptionable than his. He^ like others, 
was bdme down by the common cQffent, 
which wiks ren^red irnllAible iby iHD^a} pa- 
tronage and prote6lion. To this> Dryden 
himfelf afcribes the vicious writings of ^ 

Tbepoctj, who muft Ji?c by courtf, or fUrve^ 
Were proud fo good a government to ferve ; 
And, mixing with buflFoons and pimps profane, 
TaUted the ftage for fooie fraall fnip ofgam^ 
For cbey, Ufce harlots irader bawds pr9fe(9'4f 
Took . all, th'ungodly pains and g<» tbeleaft. 
Thw did the thriving nulady prevail j, 
The court its head^ the poets but the tail* 
mtiTea there were, but modeftly conceaPd : 
Whitehall the njked Venus firft reyeai'd ; 
Wbejre, (landing, as at Cyprus, in her iWisie^ 
The ftrumpet was ador'd with iltes divine,^ &;c. 


Few men were fo admired, and belovd 
by his contempwaries, as Wychej ly : h» 
was efteemcd the .moft accomplifbed gii^ 

* Dryden'sepiloguetothcPifgrim, 


G O N G R E V E. 3,5 

tleman of the age he lived in» and, as fudi. 
courtod and careiTed by his royal maften 

Congrcvie was endowed with all the 
ftrong faculties of perception which enable 
the comic writer to defcribe the vaiious 
characters of mankind. He feems to have 
known the foibles, paflions, humour^ 
and vices, of the world by intuition. His 
Old Batchelor was afted when he was 
twenty-one s in his dedication, he tells 
Lord Clifford that it had lain by him al^ 
moft four years. Dryden and Southern 
were aftonifhed when they perufed this 
play, and pronounced it a prodigy of early 
genius. In the Old Batchelor, we per- 
ceive, that, from Ben Jonfon's Boba* 
dil and Mafter Stephen, the author has 
formed his Captain Bluff and Sir Jofeph 
Wittol. His gentlemen are partly his own 
and partly taken from Wycherly. Bell- 
mour and Sharper are allied to Hornw 
and Freeman, in the Country Wife and 
Plain Dealer. Vainlove, who loves no plea- 
fure that is not to be obtained without 



dSfficuItyJs a chara^er of humour; and fb, 
I think, is Heartwell, who refembles. In 
fcmc of his features, Pinchwife in the 
Country Wife. 

I cannot think, with Dr. Johnfbn, that 
Heartwell is a fictitious character. Many 
filch may be feen, who, having, from 
i^een or pofitivenefs of diipofition, cfenied 
themfelves, in early life, the piea(ures of 
the conjugal union, growl out the remaiii- 
ier of their days in (atirical reflections on 
the happinefs they have rejcfted. The 
Irene, between the Old Batchelor and Syl- 
via, ia the third zSt^ is a mafterpiece. — 
The audience,, in Congreve^s time, were 
jparticularly fond of having a city-cuckotd 
^refled out for their enteitainment ; and 
Fondlewife is (enred up with very poignant 
feujce, for the leveral incidents in the fccne 
are extremely diverting. Lord Kaims 
finds fault with the dialogue, in the iftaft, 
between Bellmour^ Sharper^^ and Heart- 
n^Uj as If it wa$ mere converTation, aqd 




that the bufmeTs of the play ftoJDcL fini % 
but what bufinefs is mon neceflary than 
the knowledge of character ? the manners 
of the perfonae dramatis are by fuch dia«- 
logues unfolded to the audience^ The 
(ame otgedion may foe raiied againft fomc 
interviews of the Princt of Wales and Fal- 
ftaff, in Henry IV. 


The Double Dealer was a6led a year af- 
ter the Old Batchelor. This comedy was 
ufhered into the world by a copy of vtrfcs. 
to his dear friend^ Mn Congreve, by Dry- 
den. In this addrefs, he freely acknow- 
ledges the fupcrior genius of the old dra- 
matic writers, with a fine comprtmerrt to 
the author of the Double Dealer, who a- 
lone fupplies all thofe excellences which 
were deficient in the writers of Charles II/s 
reign. The pathetic conclufion, every 
man of tafte, though he has often f ead itp 
win be pleafed to iee inferted here : 

" - « 

Maintain Toarpoftj that's til thefame'you need^ 
. Eof ^trs lonpoffibhe you ihoujd proceed. 


Already I am woi^n whli cart atni agr» ' * 

Andjuftabandorviag tU^u;tgrttefai ftage*^ 
Unprofitably kept ai Heav'n's expence» - 
1 live a rent-charge on his providence. — • 
But you, whom evVy mufe and grace adorn. 
Whom I forefiM to better fortune born^ 
Be kkid to ray remaint^r—and, oh ! defend^ 
Againftyour judgement^ your departed friend ! 
Let not th'infulting foe my fame purfue. 
But (bade thofe laurels which defcend to you ; 
And uke for tribute what thefe lrne9 exprefs ; 
You merit more, nor couM my love do iefs ! 

In his dedication of the Double Dealer, to 
Montague, afterwards E • of Halifax,, the au- 
thor, though he owns he failed in his attempt^ 
fays, he defigned to have written a regular 
comedy. ^ at he fooa takes courage to aiiert^ 

that he has not mifcarried in the whole : 


he hadrefolved, he fays, to preferv^the three 
amities* Then, in a lufcious ftyie;,he heapsa- 
bundance of naufeous flattery onhis patroni 
and indeed I think Congreve as awkward a 


* Hislaft play, of Love trmmphant, or Nature iieill 
prevail, was aaodthc fame year with the Double Dealer. 


I CON6RE.VE. 319 

dedicator bs any in our language^ WheH 
he has fim&ed his panegyric^ he tells ui^ 
thajt he . hearkened after ofojedions ; but» 
like his friedd^ Dryden^ he can find none 
worth anfwering 5 yet he goes oh ^lWer«- 
mg fevehd of them. At ^laft be becomes 
humble, and begs the crif ie to r e^confidet 
his cemadcs« But what (hocks our author 
ta^i is tb: offence he has^ given to the 
ladies ; £os he Woold rather offend. j|U ^He 
critLts in the world than one of the fair 
fer. And yet I think bis defence is a very 
poor one, and amcrants to little \t& than 
owning his faults for furelyi out of the 
^ole iex, he might have chofen much 
(setter repfcelbitatives of it than the ladies 
in the Double DealerJ 

The manners of this play are mons llcen- 
tiociB than thipfe of the 014 Batchelor* - 


His codbs>td, Fondlewife,. in that comedy, 
pleafed the town fo greatly, that he deterr 
mined to give the audience a leafh of them 
in his Double Dealer; for he hasprefented 
them with lib lefs than three. A father, 



/talkiiig Qbfceneiy to bis daughter, is {oxm* 
tbing monflxou5, . and almoft^ incredible ; 
and yet Sir Paul Pliant's.inftruftions^ to 
the only vktuous woman: in tbc playi, are 

MafkwciTs chara£lcr is partly taken 
from Syn*s,.in the Heautontimorumeiios of 
Terence, who, by uttering trutb^ carries 
his point more, covertly to deceive j and 
.partly, I think, from the Timautiis of 
Fletcher's Cupid's . Revenge ; as Lady 
Touchwood greatly re&mblesBachain the 
fame play. Briik's pertnef^ is not unlike 
the petulance, of \Noyel in th^ Plain 
fDealer, and Lord Froth's folemnity is an 
improvement of Lord Plaulible's ftarck 
civility in the fame play. 

The plot is extremely intricate, and ex- 
.aSs from the fpeftator. very deep .attcn- 
tionj without it, he will not be able to fee 
Jhow it is unravelled in the cataftrophe^. 


C O N G R E V E. 311 

Double Dealer. Aft I. Scene IV. 


There is nothing more unbecoming a man of quality 
than to laiigh; — it is fuch a vulgar expreffion of the 
paiEons !-*-£very body, can laugh. 

Of the fame fentiment, with refpeft 
to laughter, was a late very accom- 
plifhed nobleman, who, by his own 
example, juiiified the doftrine of Lord 
Froth. A genuine laugh is as difficult, I 
believe, to be had, as a generous tear. 
Nature, by our frame, intended both for 
the purpofes of humanity • There is cer^- 
tainly much hypocrify in pretending to 
sffume either ; but the feigned laugh is lefs 
cenfurable than the vilp imitation of the 
crocodile's tears. An aflenting half-laugh, or 
fmile, 15 as much expefled from an ac- 
quaintance. as a bow or a fhake of the 
hand. From a Lord C. who wore a mafk 
all his life-time, and taught his only fon to 
do the fame, nothing finc^re, either in 
jgrief or mirth, was to be expeflcd. The 

Vol. IIL Y man. 


iit DRAMATIC Miscellanies, 

man, who ftrives to reprefs the natural 
impalfe which F!di€iile excite*^ ftevef ^new 
the happinefs which the tear of pity for the 
unfortunate beftows. 

The Guardian has written an excellent 
paper, with much pleafantry and humour, on 
the feveral forts of laughers, which he ranges 
under the following heads : the dimplers, 
the fmilers, the laughers, the griniiers, 
and the horfe-l^ughers. Lord Froth and 
Lord C. are of the fecond fpetie^. The 
dimple, fays this writer, was, by the an- 
tients, termed the Chian laugh'}— ahd this 
he gives to the prudes. I^or my part, 
though 1 arh not fond of the. grin, whkh is 
generally praf^ifed by fnarTners,. or 'tlidft 
who wifh to .Yhew their teethi nof 
the Sardonic, whicfi Steele tays is ffiC 
Greek and Roman horfe -laugh, yet I 
am no erieijiy to what 'he calls the rifOfi 
of the antients, which" is^' the famedisdtrf 
Hea;r[y"laugh. If the fe^ 'of ^ciimpjers afid 
fmilers prevail, wt fliall haVb no mirfti feitt 
what the houfe of commons 6r the inHM 

M.' ' ' ■ ' • 



can give. There we are certain to have a 
full chorus of laughers. 

A£t..III. Scene the Tenth. 
Lady Froth. Briik. 

£ It I a K. ' 

Btrfides, your ltdy(bip's coacbttiAn bavtng a red 

llp^ W I M I li ft 

When this play was a6l:ed at Drury-lane, 
about five and twenty years fince, ah acci- 
dental or wilful blunder of Woodward, 
who afted firifk in a lively and di- 
verting manner, caufed fuch 'repeated 
laughter in the theatre as I fcar<iely ever 
heard. — ■- — Mrs. Clive, who a£led Lady 
Pfoth, had, by miftake, or in a 
hurry, laid pii uiore rouge than ufualj 
and Briik, in his criticifm on the lady's 
heroic poem, inftead of faying^ * Your 
coachniafi having a red face,' faid, Totir 
hdyjhip having a red face. This was no 
fooner uttered, than peals of laughter were 
redoubled all over the theatre. Woodward 
affefted to look abafhed and confounded ; 

. ' ♦ Y 2 ' Clive 



Clive bore the incident heroically. When 
they retired to the green-room, from th? 
ftage, they were followed by the players, 
who expcfted a fcene of violent altercation; 
but this inimitable aftrefs difappointed 
them: * Come, Mr. Woodward/ fhe 
gravely faid, * let us rehearfe the next 
ifcene, left more blunders ftiould fall out/ 
Clive was, in Lady Froth, as in the reft of 
her comic, charafters, fuperior to all ac- 
trefles. Happy was that author who could 

• « • » * 

write a part equal to her abilities. ! (he not 
only, in general, ^exceeded the writer'§ ex; 
pedation, but all that the pioft enlightened 

« • ^ ^ • * 

fpe6tator could conceive. By her encou* 
ragement and inftruftions, and her own in- 
duftry. Mils Pope is become a valuable ac- 
trefs J but genius.cannot be communicated. 
Mrs. Green, of all the female players, ia 
comic humour came the neareft to this ad- 
mirable comedian. It was Mrs. Green'^ 
misfortune to live at the fame time with 
Clive. I fhall as fbon expe6l to fee another 
Butler, Rabelais, or Swift, as a Clive. 

By confent of all the critics. Love for 
Love is efteemed riot only the * moft excel- 

" " lent 

iiWbf Gattgrivc's; plays;.' b»*^ enei dSliity 

(kBMru .wft& fbch.ftjsettgtlii and cotapfj^lWARt 
fiMi, tk^ Hi9 coaificiies sp^i p«*pMiiai coif^ 
tMtmxifi on tiie poflioais and biimc^tmsiqC 
mankind. The punifiiment Q£aaufiiiflf«f¥ 
K^'and: hard^hcatiicdi paitnt is; :tltt lH^ai 
^'(^ftte^pDeri aiidiycitthk lie1ias(:l^3^ SI 
Stt<fiek^us ton^dt^'o^'hiS' plot, fu%r.:&c^ 

of - fiii- llUfidt^ed >^«.' > EcJrefight isi .J 
tfimit; a ^llttrai^^r'af hiiiiiouii ; thcK w clbTi 
It 19 trtii^> in- iiii^ dine^ oiainy {ieii&OA t ijin 
kfkd wiih jttdidiat afbolo^ $ mtqh (Jm 
)U(m« e^ Diydeii^ &»^ shobled thci iiliiglkiAt 
ca^t iei£t ; biit FiDseGgiit i» nadi^:it{tQQl 
iff^a^y h^vitiesvaod ^perfl^tims ^ pmtttf 
k\vd. A ridicalous dreaii of fiuturiSyrg^ 

Old S^ohdor, 1&^ "^fightiag ia iiifial;^ drinks 
^iKl'ddCh) to hiiyi;^ fairaiiesDhhoAjt]^^^ 
FefftfigKt ^t ttid iTumUr of ! t&nfup^ 
ftitious^ do^ ni>t abaM; the hmnour'^iM 




cfaal-aBsr : •— — Cervtot^i «rrote,tns ; Don* 
Q^ttjcote, not with a.vievir of ciuing cAiel 
flian' ibfe£ted with the fpiritof jhtigfatfjerr); 
rantry, but . a large numbor> of ' QulKqteSt'] 
A iingle chara^r is a mpnftarfBit iirorth 9i i 

vvtiter's aim. 


«.! I 1 > A I 

i i. 

'A I 

is Tdrely:£|nhabfurdky iii ihaki4gt| 
the ton of a knight a coiinmon i.i\»t0T ^oit 
foremaftoin^i perhaps: th^.-eiuthpr tboughtrj 
he could not rufe ib much mirth froii), t|i^ 
fiUdihipman as a^dtalier- i'mfor^fft^^ 
veriaticm. '^ The chara£ttu; }s.w«l);(;a|cula-i 
ted to excite mudi l{(ughU9lf,' m^ .to^ <9arr}( 
oh' the fable ^th comic ipiiiti l^iMl B^ii '^ 
tiet 'a. buiQoorift ; he! is,.. What Ang^lca 
tc^fi^' htm, ah abfolute^r-itdt j {14& ^tmg 
ipf^lor !s a: matter^ of Occident. ^ iXtie a^T 
thw, in his pnologue^ owns Iw tpojc fin? 
ffdti the manfy fcends of the PlaiA Dcsder. 
SckD^t is intrpduc^d; as a &e^d. JV|an-» 
J^5 '■ to . iatirize the \ites- Of, the age ; hp 
^r|iM4ti« his office iwijh. the true: ^irit 
<^ a; rreformer j for' hd afoiedutel; ^rgetp 
<giod' rpanncrs, and, asttQ good-natures 
th^ is not tQ be fx^£ted from 2^ cenfor. 



. CQNQRSVE. 327 

T?ttl? is an ffri^pal cDxcpnjb^ whp, in the 
i ^^c^f his prgttlings, lirai^s of fecrecy., 
Mr. i^ope l^as queftioned whetljer Con- 
gfeye'^ fools are rcf Uy fuch : 

.Tell 9ie if Coogreve's fools are fools iad^ed I 

The mere fool is no objed of comic fa- . 
tg"?* Though Cpngreve has given fonie- 
thjn|f like wit to his fops, on examination 
3I9JII \yiH fij)cj that it is only the colour of 
\ iti it is the JBriAol ftone, but not the dia- 
i ipojid. Brilk, in the Double Dealer, is fo 
j Uyidy a coxeoHjb^ that you are furprifed 
into an jppinion of his being fomething 
better than he is : Tattle is merely whipt 
fyllabub and an empty phantom of liveli^ 

The ladies in this play are Congreve'p 
la4i«$, moft of them vicious and aban-- 
doned, Mrs. Frail, a woman of the town, 
as he calls her in his dramatis perfonae, is 
a main inftrumerit to carry on the plot, 
Mr^, Forefight, ber Jifier every way^^ who 
is fo generous as to forget^ in the morning, 
.«-... Y 4 the 

* Love for Love, A£l IL 



the favours fhc grants her lovers over- 
night, is the rauch-boafted Doris of this 
writer. If the charafler were really origi- 
nal, I fhould not join the cry of its cele- 
brators, for the thought is obvious ; but, if 
the reader will turn to Otway^s Friendfliip 
in Fafliion, he will find Mrs. Forefight is 
only an improvement of Lady Squeamifti.* 
The author's favourite is Angelica, who at 
laft rewards Valentine with hef perfon and 
fortune : but that miftrefs is not an amia- 
ble chara6ler, who drives her lover to the 
brink of defpair, and is fatisfied with no- 
thing lefs than his figning to his own ruin 
as a proof of his paffion* 

• Tom Brown makes Mrs. Barry, the celpbrated ac- 
trcfs, a pcrfca Doris. He fays, that fhc did not know 
the lover who gave her five guineas over* night, unkb 
he brought the fame fum in the morning. BMt Tom 
had an infuperablc itch for fcandal. Tom Brown's 
Workj, vol. III. p. 36, 9th cd. 


C O N G R E V E, 229 


Religion and politics. •— Minijlers fore about 
politics. ^^ A great lawyer. — ^be Revolution 
and Union. — Houje of Brunfivic. — What 
minijlers and magijlrates are knaves or fools. 

— Mount Vefuvius.'-^ Lady Mary Wortley 
Montague, -r- Smith. — His return to the 

fiage \-^death and epitaph. — Verhruggen. — • 
Bowen and^in.^^Hyan.^-Walker.^^Kynaf- 
ton.^'T<melVsfarcafm onhis aSting.—Kynaf- 
ton^sfon andgrandfoh. — Mrs. Bracegirdle. 

— Congreve^s ajjtduities.-r^ Mrs: Bracegir^ 
die sourted by the dramatic lovers of Rowe 
and Congreve. — Her excellent cbaraSier. — 
^om Brown » -— Curl. — Dr. Arbuthnot. — 
Why Mrs.Bracejgirdleleft thejlagei-^ Wanton 
Wife. — Mourning Bride. — Critics. — Dry- 
den. — Cbara&ers of the Mourning Bride. — 
Scene in ihefecond aS.-^ Almeria's fpeech i 
♦^ compared with the foliloquy of Juliet. — 





l^afweJJy afpeaker of tragedy. — Congrevi 
and /be Greek dramatijls. — Ofmynsjblihip^, 
— Congrew^s tragic oBfiehity.^ Way of the 
World: — Ploty charadlers^ adlorSy &c. 

Love for Love. A^ iVv^Scene ^. 


VfhiLt tre yea for, reltgioA.cMr polmcsi . Tbfttt is a 

co«plei>f|opu:s f^ jPQ^t |i9i|¥>l<? )^ <M<( anatbcir tjian 
«4I 9aki vineggr; -^Dd j^^ fb^fe two> j^eaten toge^er, 
n^ke fauce for tl\0 whole nation* 

^IR, Harry fiavil, ^wiu^a a JPresch n^- 
ftcl# jnaa boafted of the |^at fr^odom^f 
corwerfatiOH they ei^oycd iA Kranci^ fljb- 
ferved to yoi) that his eeustryisteo wfire 
deprived of the two only topics which de- 
Ibrved the peeiple's vdifcafi]ipn» teli^icHi 9(id 

Our mjnifters oi Igte, I .do Jiot msxx 
&e pr^fent,* have been ex^rewety ^teBde^ 

»^ •^ 

■^ ■ ^ 

• November, 1783. 

C O N Q R E V £« 3SI« ful^ei^ of. poU^ ; . 4s ior r^^on^ 
they Jet th^t ttiift for itjfelf. ' l|Iot ^?iw, 

pinion, on a public occa^on, .5 T^^riiQ 
honeft soan rtalJc<;d politics.' This» ii>^ 

Uinf 1 >• ; ^ith^t .^pipiMtics, we Xkoi^d i)ia»(f 
t«nf Wf|vjS#, 6^ rtlu/:^reat Weflia^. tie. 
RevohHk>n-ij without 'pc^tics, the . jcu\g- 
doiQs of , pc^t-JBfitain woujl^ not .have 

been HPi*«!'> JWYtfRpri .?wAov^ ^iic^inc 
medi^^^ the i]|>iftripj|&'{i9ure c^ BranfwK 
woi4d ; xiot have afc^^^ded the throx(& of 
England . The great rlawyer ^,dcw. this f 
and y^;durft,:;^.fhpface of da/^.hroadK 

I9^i^rat^ who wonld dcb^ .BQgUfhfnen 
^^xp- Uhccty. of fpe^ch, .can neither,be wife 
jjqrhoncIL . Thcpeojjle, ;i^ho haye a free 
Ucenc^ tp debate .on all topics, are l^fs dan- 
Ifcrous" to their, governors thpntholl^. who 
afe:4«5>fiYe4' of that bleiSng, , . Mount Vc.- 
Xfmus is, p)^^j^ fp,^Ufrming when, its ^vii^- 
ptians!ar^ikee|s,,wh?n the internal fc^ 
•mM'^i^^. »f»r^^<f crater, and reftrained 




3^ : DRARtyJ-riC MISCBtt A?teS. 

'f. 1 ' t •• • • 

IhHirtfisir figt&ar Tciit ii^ tehargc. 
T*fie^t ikwyertrdoarincfi fitter for tfter 

llridam pfcfumc to akr^ptikte eondo£)f elF 

^; ana'tfte'hbn^banit ^t^ t^'gnkthd -^ 

ittitt!s,-biit y&\aft pd5ti« W titRv«ffi% 
ccRi^emnet)*; %16I# 'Have r^dlieafed; 'Sui 
to' jkilit^ W ow^Ms ieatin jkcfiimiettf; 
ittil^tiiight .{K^til^l ftarebeeii 6b%ed to aii 
feD;gli& ccfbier/or hisvbtc; 
'■^Iii the&^ '%«»' «totriidiey, the- ^ parts 

itW eyeF belonged to a iheatre.- CtSkf 
Clbbdr has draWh mdft of their cbaradScii 
in a ilyle fo cxpreffivc o§ their feveral: abflt 
lips, Jtliat the memory of thcra wffi be 
tr^iifmltterf to future times* Offomehe 
cas made but; night mention. The caufii or 
Sinit^i ' reaving the' ft^ge* he'has-rdlatedi 
.t)Ot oC ms return to it, ^ukt death, he hsa 
t^ten no noticfc, " Wheii Bettciton kceStA 


C O N G R E V E. 

from ehriftopher Rich, and operted, by 
fabicription, a theatre in the Temiis-canrt, 
Lincoln Vinn fields. Smithy who had not 
aded for fevcral years, was >perfuaded, bjr 
his friends of diftinguiftied rank, to rctura 
to the fbige. It is (aid, that the ihtneatieb 
of his old acquaintance and fellciw-laliour- 

ers, JBett^on and Mrs. Birry,- had greater 

weight with him than the influence of his 

nobk friends. Scandal was his firft part 9 

CDntinued (honts of applaufe witneffed the 

(atisfa^on which the audience fdt on feeing 

their old friend return to them. But their 

pleafure was not of long continuance ; for 

^n after, on the fourth <iay of Gyrus -the 

Great, a new tragedy by Banks, Downs 

informs us, that Mr. Smith was taken ifl 

and died. Chetwood relates, that, being 

feized with the cramp in the nigTit^ 'he 

jumped. out of his bed, and W*s fo long 

walking about his chamber in the dark; 

that he caught a cold which ended in.a diP- 

temper that brought him to his gfave. * ' 

Bootbf in his elegant Latin epitapli on 

Smith, fpeaks of his profeffional abilities, 




his juft adminiftration of the ftage» hts afr 
lability and condefeenfiori^ as if he had 
been perfe£Uy acquainted with him* But^ 
when Smith died. Booth ^as a Weflimn.- 
fter icholar, and iti his fourteenth year ; 
the character of this eminent comedian I 
jnuft have been drawn up from fuch infer* 
mation as the writer, in his' riper yearsij 

Verbruggen, who was employed in no' 
lefsr than four of Congreve's ptays^ was an 
a£lor of more merit than Gibber Was wil- 
ling to 'allow I for^ in his Apology^ Im 
(lightly mentions him as a perlbn much iti*- 
ferior to the a^ors whofe praiies he had re^ 
corded^ I (hall hereafter have opcafionto 
ijpeak of him more fully. Boweri, who played 
Setter in the Old Batehelor, Jeremy in Love 
for Love> and Witwou'd in the Way of the 
World, a comedian of fome merit> remar- 
kable foi^ the loudnefs of his voice, was Un** 
happy in a choleric difpofition. This man 
feli into company with Qjain, at a publio- 
houfe^ much frequeated,at that time^by playr 


C O N G R £ y E« ^$ 

Ibr }ea!riiig i>nirj^l«|ie^ptoyh9u& i and f(^ 
his £^ng. tfat ^art df Tamerlaiitr^ 9t the 
ihntre in Lincoln's -inn fieidsj once only4 
Q^ih^ in return^ tQld hinii that Mr. Joa-? 

I foil) tolia bad a^ed Jac(>mo^ in thc>LiN' 
Ijsmtle Ihitrojtdy a jSn^lci Tiightj .lia4 
gftatty ftif{)a(Idd hith^ who ir^ ^ften play^ 

' tbe^^c. After fome farther ak^rcatioa, 
%(»»m tetitwi tad a neighbouring taveiHy 
and fent for Mr. Quin. Upon his entering 
thi #(30fai» Bow&ti flilit the door^ and drcvr 
^ f\vocd> bidding hittidrawr hk. Quia 
i^emsorallmted agalAfl: this fudilen tioUac^ 
but iti vain ^ . and,! In defending his own 
M^ -UTortiaUy wounded Bovf^n; «rh0« 
Wl^ 4)i» ri^ Was 'Cooled hf. .^ Iq€^ 
^f Mtdddi' c»»}ie4' that he had been: ^ 
aggt«(^. l^'^cmA th« trial tefocf 
me, and therefore canngt .be 9bCaiai<Af 
fsn- TiaA i imt minrxbel^. delcrilied . this 
Ul^^ bufittefe >; -loat the mam ^tis, | 
lan ddtafidtiit, «cdt)l-di)»g to matter of h^^ 
<)i^<i»m ^M. M 4}» Oid Sidiejr, and ho* 
ti&i!Mrt(b(f ' aei^lticed, Tiu$ accident Ml 



out in 171 8. It is remarkable that Ryan, 
about a month after^ underwent a like trial 
at the fame place, for killing a man, in 
his own defence, at a public houie ; and 
was alfb acquitted with honour. Walker, 
the original Macheath, was brought to the 
fame bar, I believe at a period not very 
diftant, for the murder of a bailiff j he 
was acquitted by the jury, but whether 
with the fame honourable circumflances I 
know not. 

Kynafton, who is charafterifed, by Gib- 
ber, as a very original performer, was 
taken ill during the firft reprefentation of 
the Double Dealer. When he retired from 
the ftage is not known -, I find him among 
thfc dramatis perfonac of Dryden's Love 
Triumphant, adled foon after Congreve's 
Double Dealer, and in Banks^s tragedy o( 
Cyrus the Great. 

Notwithftanding the high encotoiiini, 
bellowed on this aftor in Gibber's A^poIogy< 
I have been informed, by forne of ^the old 
comedians, that, from his learly reprefen- 
tation Qf womem chiaraftcr^i., KynaJSoR 


we tcifjoi - ha'sitiri^ nWK&n George} PojEcIit 
wild cmico r djfcha jgidg: the! ioDtt^npei^n^e of 

it p6iIiUlr;to;:bd(K)!tbervftie;; fanll Fi6w^(f 
* iwlidnri jitor yoJH fyeaVf* ' Kytraftqn die*' 
wealthy 5 he bred his oo^^H ao 'teeixieE,! 
f hfcBHvedeiii Xo^t-giu^ 3 f Sther ifltid 

t«(ta4'. Mr». tK.5f©*f^prl, r ',tjb^:grandfop, I. 
J^ftSW ife?o>s /bstHlhis^gpiTtkman; thpqght it 
l»»i<«l«it!<S^^|h«:idef<^Fndent^9^ a,piayerv 

^rf>i. %iaocefto|r);^He .-purch^esL.tbj^ 

.;Mr]jS^'BiafeginUe w^jiihe f^ypurite- ac- 
trels,pf.,CQmEreBm', and Rowe. ,4 In the fe- 
^?^lf>^vcr^^^Jiey ^aye; her^. in their pl^yrs, 
*^^:!i^^P^^^4 -their . own paflion fpr 
her. In Tamerlane, , Rowe courted her 
Sctitna in dje perfon of Axalla;; in tl^e 
FaifrJ^cpitent, he was the Horatio to her 
Vox,. III. Z Laviniaj 


dbated!: his addrefiHs In ^hi^Ysieiitiiit to 
Ber Angeiipav- ^ h<hei6t'lia\rii yinhaa Ctf>> 

amTy .hD^, m^^ls l^ab^'torHtr ^Siiv^^ 
maiit9l&i *the- Wa^ oi'«he)WbrldjxcIMkie 
1)tfv '^^ fine getiiWmitiLX>lihetpikf\hlai I 
bellbve^ .1iot;^ry 'dUhunI Bemi^ieeitdur 

Mrs. B>actf|^^^-^%» Xib&eif^o /HailHt 

and ey&rfyAn6fi'ifi:hfr«6l^eil^ike^ ibMr 

ki with' 3€itt«; $^ah:»'lii ^s(mm(»^ 
her%Rat. Werfe ^t Mlf ^tfleA fefef^tev^r 

wtthoiit'-i-' ru!j»iaed"fewi!tritfef m<m^ 

them ; and this ''poii^^vht m'^mtM 
attributes to iierbdhg gfc/dttfea ftl hef ^- 
vate ciiafiiaen But tltfe affiairoife c6i^i%' 
which Cofi^rfeVe'JJdid m tittfdTsi flJ^ nolf 
pafs liniiotited. 'He'Wai'coiiftitAljr in firf 
lodgmgs, dtid irfftfen nJdei dlit v^ith her. *-> 
He dincii with her e^, feiysTott 

.ill ..: . 

.■ . .'/ 

COKOfefiV». ^^ 

iAttJ* Tiu>agh this btttHor indul|;jgd the 
fpint of icandai to tjstt&y y^t the tsndHdk 
of CcSigf ev6 for fii^cbgii'dlc was a commoh 
4l^e^ of clc»iyef£ition. In sL book, c&ll«4 
tkj^ CtM)|»riibn tietwdesi the iWo:Sta|ttSi 
{mbli&tfd in 170:!, her cfaartiSbr is tixated 
wilh ilUtteral freedom* The atithoTy to toini 
tbldrdbie.Qbienmtioiks 6a plkys and pkiyersy 
kl^Jcofted a nid^ootitigeoifis ipirit ofiiived^ 
Hvd. It wtUi)ea faffiderit vihdk^don of Mcs.' 
Br^g^tdlt, thftig file irJifited. .pcdbns of dift 
mefft ,i»nhk<6iidied cbafafletas vreil ias( too0^ 
QKdle^ rank tii the fonaiewdrlc^ Thecharmft 
©f Iier<^y«tfattonl w«re riQtibferi6r,!wp:Qf^ 
ifSs^Koiblyfii^^^i ti0 tho^ of her ftecfw *, 
for ^iB vfas ; vifit^, as . CUve is notVi iby 
fftfibiu :^ rank dnd tdfle, . to 4 i^ei^j: ad^ 
Tan<2f4 oJ4 age. That Congr&tk wa& ofbti: 
it Iftsr hotlfe^ tb' the laft yeax)of hb. l^s^ 
oioft teattiiisuted to a ffiendih^cOantrafiT^ 
ed for aii kStreft Who had giveti lif^^abd fpii^ 
tkto f^iheof his fa\t)urite cbaraflers-j wid 

Z a iikfewift 



• Tom Brownie Vol. III. 


I'lkewife to that, and that only, we mpftplaci 
hi^ bequeathing h« the fum'of 200I. When 
Curf, whjoTB -Dr. Arbuthnot termed ohe of 
the ncwterrors of death, from his conftantly 
^riiiting'evef-jr^eminent.perfonJs life andlaft 
yvriU,-pbblifhed*an advertifemeht of Memoirs 
4>E the. JLif e df G;0iigrcvfe,<fhe interefted hbr-; 
£blf So fax ih this i^e^utatibn as to demand 2L 
ijght of the Jbook in: MS; This was .refufcdJ 
She/tJidD lafkpd by. whit authority his life 
was wjdtteb, ahd what, jploces contained iti 
itiWere: geiiuinel?.^ Upon beihgtbldi,- there 
tfcocrld.i)b feveral of his cffays, leitbfs, &c. 
file < afafweiedl, 1 t Not one ' firigle 0ieet of 
p^afwr, I dare fajf/ 1 oAnd in this fhe way 
a t*iir-{<rophet ; for,^ iii that ibotife;'' 'there Is 
n^ a'lilife ftif Con^refte .Which had not been? 
pointed before. /^ 'Atbbtbnofe-'endeaMxJufed; 
fifottP&iwidilhip^to the d6ceafedi' fe& prevent 
9iiyIiin|loAtiQD3 on fhe publidiQ^''the:hamb(}f 
CSk)gmi»o,c^dmQt:\vuth impd-tinentlaitnfe 
£rolrithe4^itfon.^horcaUed Jiimfelfitheail* 

' llior f£iMfim<^tT$ypi the JLife, Writings,^ 
eud^AloJours, of WHliain Congreve, Efq. 

. ... Jlhe 

r 1 ... * 

CON G'R E V e: ' 34t 

- The caufe of Mrs. Bracegirdle;&:4eaWtig 
the ftage, in the prime of lifty'lCibbti 
knew ; . but, for obvious reafons, >he did 
iiot, in his Apology, relate it. When hU 
hook was publiflied, (he was thfert living"/ 
and would not have bieen pleafed to Sawi4 
fold, that the preCedeitce giverf'fb^Mi^V 
Oldfield obliged her to retire from (he th«^ 
atre. I ha^e formerly feen a pamfHifti, -iW 
which the hiftory of this difpute,* betWeeri 
thefe theatrical ladies, v^asJlfftutefy^^ela^ 
ted. Oldfield rifmg greatly in the opinions 
of the public, as an a6trefs of merits both 
f in tragedy and comedy^^ her friends daimed' 
I a right to appoint a^ day for h^t be- 
ucfit before Mrs- Bracegirdle*s. The> 
fiiiaids>of the latter maintained that -flie. 
had a pricA' right,, not only from long.pre- 
fcription, but fuperior- merit, i It w^ at^ 
laft fettled,: by the. contending parties, 
that^ the rival queens jfhould .fix on a fa*- 
vourite charaftcrj to bb afted ^by them 'al- 
ternately: the part chofen wa« Mrs. Brittle^ 
in the Wanton Wife. The preference of the 

Z 3 publif 


fif^, th^t Sra(]$girdle never aftersracds en* 

tfir«4 the playhou^^ 9» an a^rsfs. Tin 

^oie of her feeeilion i« ^ot jyflly markod 

^>y Cihher, vfha fi?os it to the y««r lyi*. 

Mrs. ftrgceglrdie ^4 Mr9« Barry had n« 

ttwd fonfiQ years, when they both rotupui 

to thf (kage« tq a^ for the tteneftt of duiv 

^Id friend, Mr. Bettertw, in Congrew's 

l^ove for t.ove, April f» 1709. Ilw 

Roy«l Convert, el Howe, waa aScd feon 

softer the UnioQy (i7<^.) W wqnwy learn 

from ]$theUnda's prophecy in the (oiida> 

$on of th^ pUy. The P^rt of EthelhKk 

v^ 9^p4 by Old^ld I from 'vrhich eir^ 

^mltance ialone wo may conchide, that 

Mt^. Bracegirdle was nat then on ^» 

ftsse, «s Rowe> otherwise, would ceftais]^ 

IbftYO given it to her* Some few years Uf^ 

fpre her death, Mrs. Bracegirdle retired to 

thehoufe of W. Chute, Efq. and died, in 

1748, in th« eighty-fifth ye^cof her age. »* 

She bequeath^ her e$b5^s to her niece, 

V4SM ^:Smt r^S^r: , ^ ui:.;: r ' ': r>y v j 

before the end of the fecond,')^|d^)^fe4 ^ 

%JteJ ttSe^t J9«h|? ; fv»?ceffiv5jy;i , I^>, 
iijil ,# ye^ jf?ye^!#? jPJay* eipp^ially with, 
the ladies,, .,!SC4^;f^y? li? ^.iUfihp^ei?^ 
nor can I think the principal charafters 
are weaJkly dra^vn.^ In the part of the 
King, the ^uihbr hd$ indeed inixdr ^m- 
pous phrafeologx with ^0 Quf rageous vehe^ 
mence of temmi y?f /tiU> ^ i^. * ^a^a^pr. 
Almeria is a fine picture of conjugal af- 
fcftion . ^d perfilting fidelity, ZaraV 

K j;:v jj 

t ' • \ 

J44 DRAMAfid fill^CELtA^lES. 

noBleand ieji^Tteamind, HAtnediafivfylijf ai&^' 
governable pafllons, renders' Her lirf 
Ichtf perfonage to fexdte^futy'&ind* terror. 
Ofinyn is brave and generous, Xindlfiniay^' 
by adverfitj", and refighed-tb Prdtiddncfe..'.' 

• ^^6' pfet iV4riirkate,i fliiid.riiuA-lfc d^ 
feWed with- the? moft'ft1ril]ftJH>a^^ attfentik'- 
or it wifl ^fcape the fpe^atG'r; ^ ^hit-ilii! 
contrivers of deftrtn6li6fh ought to fell by thdf 
own-artsj is -the appareht*"n:^6i^l'^i6£''the 
Mbtirriirig Bfiide^'^ '■'- -•' - * -^"^ --•- ^ • -1 

<^t)i^/' Jbfinfo^^^ttiirfch^ls W'^i^ag' 
piit of atcetie, iti- tfie-'^Bebrid'-aa: bf^lHls- 
tragedy, as the^monrpbeticdl'pai'agi'ia^'ih 
tfte whole teafi of Engfini^tidetry J'^"'^^ sii: 

< "■'■'J i/> Jtj* ,t.i V. iT *. : .J .1 no lOil 

.. r I^JivaWr fancy'd notfb,; for: aH U 4i^(^*f. .j .it - ^ " » ; . 

L. E O K O/R A>; 

It bore tbt adbfehts of a human V'6!civ^"'J *- • 

- ' ^- . ^ .. i-- - i . i..l y: hill: :v^\\tii 
It was thy fear,— or elfc fome tranlient wind, 

' Whlftling through hollows of the vaulted iflc. 

We'll liftcn 




t-EON-O^ftA. - 

' ■-— Hark.r- 

I • • ^> . • - ^ ... ■ ' ; 

A L M E R ^ .A, 

•. No,, all ishufli'd and ftill as dcath.—*Tis dreadful 1 
, Howrcv'rcnJj is the face of thistall pflc,' " ' 
Whbiean^ienf^'illarsrear'theirWarUe hetrila ' 
^o bear aloft its arch'd and pond'rous roof,' . 
By its own weight viade^fteadfaQ and immoveable^ 
Looking tranquillity !-^It ftrikes ao awe . 
And terror, to n>y aching fi^t.-<-The tombs 
And monufpeiital ca,vj^S)o£death look cold. 
And flioot a cbiinefs t9 my trembling hearth 
Give mc thy ban4---sujd l^t n^^ voictjl— 

Nay, quioUyfpeak tp me, am! let n^ehear 
Thy yoicfiC-'Hiiy own affrights me with its echoesl 

The. p^agc certainly ^^efferves muck 
praife;^j2Ut I woujdcbegleaye to remark, 
that Almeria'a takijog. npjticq^Q^^^the arCj^i- 
tefture of the buildings m i * "ih j • ; 

By its own' weight made ftead^aft and immoveable^ 
Looking trariquillity, ■ ' 

IS a cakn fcntirpent, ap4 iif?|:. of a pkcc 
with the reft. The . &ar« .^K>f , Atepe^ ia arc 
raifed by ol^efts in her fight, which aiM 
the fancy : ' but the fucceflive images c£ 
. J terror. 



texrot^ which jSh^kipcare^ gives his Juliet 
when ihe is about to drink |(;h9^flee£ing- 
potion given her by the frier, proceeding 
from a tender mind alarmed and appre* 
haiUve^ are, in my opinion, equai, ; if 

not fuperipr^ tP thw p9Mi^ P?#^/^ 


J u I. I B -r, 

(when AtONl, AVID AFirEK %MCUMfmC i»01i tHS 

' ^ Come, pMal J -^ 


mm» rn^-mm 

What tfit bea JKSifoit, whtditbe*rtel^ ' J » r " 

« •> 

Subtly bath fttimfterM to have m d€#4r ^" ^ 
Left in this imrriapgeheiikotitdbe\i)tfiiQmHi«^d,. ^' 

J[ fear it is I — And y^t u^cjhjofca icl|ou1<! iiot/ /* 

I wake befor e t he t ime (i|iit ftdflfsd : .' k. 
Cpfiur$ ^p Jff^f^m mf; ?— Kh^re^s a /earful poim ? . 
$ball I not then be ftiSed in the y^^ultj^ 
To wboif foul mouth no bealth^oaie atr t>readies mr 
AnI thei^ie ifhii^eiT'ere my RiHiie<i ciffi«»^ ^ 

i TfH*?*^ jirUb rtvf t^rrpr of tjie pla^e; / . 
\Vbc)ie, for thefc many hundred years, the bones' 

Of all my bmry^d anci^ore areptek^d, ^i-^i 
WImQ ttfoiy T)!i>4ltt jff t but gneii m fsardi. 

At fome hoyrs in tbc (ligfej, fojrit^ r^pr; i-n 

^M*«^Mi«-« Wl III II ■■ «iiBiM««ni» 

' .Or, if I waiee, Ihall I not he diftraughtt 
(bvironed w Itk all th^ hideaas feaitg,} 

Atid, in this rage, wi^h foipe grpt kinfman's bom^ 

, . • • - ■» « 

As with a dub, da(h out my defpVate brains j i. 
Olaokl nietkitiksKeemjrcouiin'sjIhoft 

The interview between Ofroyn and AV 
m^ria, in the tombs, has generally an 
aukward ^ffcd:, from their both falling ^ 
the fame time } andl, while poor Leonora 
is eadeavouripg to fupport them, a new 
personage, Hcli, arrives 5 and, his fur- 
prife not being generally well reprefented, 
a coptemptuovs lai^h iucceeds* j r^m^i^- 
hfir that T?tiSvcll^ a comic aftpr <>f ^ partis 
ciilar cafl, fancied he could ipeak tra- 
gedy ^s well as any m^ni and begged Mn 



Fleetwood, ,the manager, tQ truft him 
with jkhe ptfrt of Heli ;. biit the player and 
the patentee both' repented the frolic, for 
Tafwell was born only to excite mirth ; 
and furdy a mcrner audieHce> at his Bfp- 
ing out the lines of Heli>' was: never feeft. 

Asthismeetihgof thehufhand and wife 
is lehgthened out to tedioufnefs/great part 
cf it is curtailed by the prompter. Our 
aathor, who certainly .felt the pafllon of 
love^ with energy,: though he was not al- 
ways very happy in exprefling it, has 
thrown into this dialogue fbme very tender 
arid affefting thoughts. Few of our 
play- writers were acquainted with the 
Gr6ek dramatifts.: Congreve was a polite 

^holari he was well read in them. — . 

t. ... 

Several paflages, in the admirable fcene 
Between Oreftes and EIe6lra, in the trage- 
dy of that name, where he difcovershim-' 
lelf to his fiffer, riiay be traced in the ihter*^ 
view of Ofmy ri and Ahneria, 1 mean that 
part of Elcftra, where the Greek player, 
Forus, in adtlng that character, bore in 


C O N G R £■ V E. '^ 


hisanpsah* um^ the altiw 

of his own Ipn, and hiiltedL by the excels 
, of his pathetic giief,^ all Athens into te^^ 
The prifon-fcene, in the thitd aft^ is 

^ made of corifequehce W iht incident bif 

; Ofmyn^ nndmg . a paber,' written , by , his 

^ • .'- 4 '.i. ^i^-; •fnl;> /^:i p^ j .• i - al im- 
pious Father, with a prayer for his fon; 

and' the rcfleftions, on :tife' word ' heiavcn^ 

being torn from the petitiop^ refulting from 

ituation. are very natural. Ofmyn's be- 

mg roufed to, a lenle of nis people i^ 

wrongs, .by. his frjend^ ,He|i, . is . the effbft 

of. generous .^allion and nobly affeft- 

ing^ Garrick, tlifough , the whole part of 

Ofmyn, was a fkilfiil a£ior, byt Jiis inexr 

hauftihie fire had here rpom to operate t9 

".In jthe prifbn dijalogue, between Ofmya 
arid Almeria, .many expreffipns of thehuf-^ 
band to the >yife are cxtremely^grofs, |ind 
very dilgracef ul to the writer. The talking 
obfcehely, in tragedy, is peculiar to the 
Ehglifti dramatifts ; I do not remember to 
have read, in any of the I^rench tragedies, 

a nngle 


a fingle line that intrenches ttpon goodf 
tttoe«^:; Oryieri. «)fwa^. and W, 
weire cohtiriually ofifending againft cle<ienCyi 
and Congrcvc, . whofe fatlty was warm 
and wanton, lias imitatec) his licentious 
jprecieceflorsy nay^ in <>ne or two pafiaget j 
o^ this lall &ene/ attndfi: fut pa^ theOi' : 

Tb5a Girdft iball lie panting m IK)r \MoiQ^, d^ci 


■ • • . 1 

2^d's lurpriSfig Aitrierla and tJfmyii i^ j 
cbftferettcc 'produces ait incident, wMclii 
frbrrt feoatibn, and circupmrtanc^,, is rather 
of the coiiiid than the tragic fttaiii. Oije 
pAhttk jciloiis of ahother*s fo^rior 
charms may indeed bfe madeaferious fubjd^ 
aSlftjhe iDirtfelRd Mother; tut tliq exprcl^ 
libns oif^hger arid refehtmeht, in ttie cap- 
tive queen, feldom fail to excite Uughten 
Mrs. Sorter, who was delervedly admired in 
2/afa, ^nd Mrs .l^ritchard, her fucceflbr in that 
part, could not, with all their ikiil^ pre^ 

Verit the filibility of. tlie audience in this 

• "•■ , ' ' ' '."*. 

lAterview. Mts. Siddons alone" prefcryw 
ihe dignijty and truth of charate, im^ 


^ • € © .N G R E V E^ ; .- isi 

tf^ecAm^ wy:«wHtc9vmt.^:^rp?,tth^: Us^ 

' if tto Q«(fepbfitlbH ofiidslrag94^).j^<^ 
le^cft tiGr^renUi)Ei6i)<,.paffiQniMVi4r:ii^ti|Hli 

fli6 fldde^ll might ctt^lon^ji r^j iWi^ 
eor gisft' £Dap3eMf!d'jli:^edfl8Si,/.:Bi}1:i> i^rr 
withftluiding .^^ havev i% ic^tift . . piat^)^ ^ 
$iA& blaze^ of words s(ftd an exubemttt Ai^f^ 
•f phfllGn^ MendiBtl fHth ilmasM %f fetched 
and unpleafing, .thcit at^ fcenes,- in .-tho 
Mdomlt^'Bridej whitlt nHei'.'fbil twatmfk 
the ^tudtbh and engage jthe4i^r( qf tka; 
%(i^tdr>s the hopj^y condufibn wtU for e^' 
vcrdLiidi jo3|r and^exultationii^ t^ aiudbtKiEU 
^d wMl e^n^nUsUy' difmiis the .^7«nt 
i^H ttii l&64«ftc '^^obattQia. -. •: 

ifht fii^ thdit^rs of this JJIa/'ai^ ffei 
nerltiy diiiiked by the piiftdpa! aAofS ; 
^eii-Vajfre Ist6bi*6^tted,it feafts,t<5 felilh the 
Tanguagd of it j and ^e felddiii fed Omiyll,^ 
Almcria, iJara, and*tfeeKirtg,Tupp6ft6d iiC- 
cording to the ttrengtli of i corhpahy • ^ ut 


our cuftbihcTs, "Who iki*6, at th^Si'me'tioie,^ 
«iii* Judges: iBcbih', Oldfiadi i Poirtef ; fdid 
Mills the "ddsTy ' ^ere .iongi ihe. . ^vouritest 

of ttie public iviCdngrc^ehs'^aM^m^m^:'^ 
Churciilt t^n» Ifttf^ -.'Man fianSfelc dift 
ii6t^- on account of (tui^idjcxpiief&Baait ne^ 
jedl the ncflile palfioji vof! Oimjn....:Aftrfl&ff 
feme time, Mifs Bellamy war^ a: ^pldafii^ 
Almeria ; Mrs. Pritcbard anil ^eroyiifii^-. 
ported Zara:ahd the King. .> .: jlo . ; h:,i. 
When* DIdfield, a few yeam^t^forftjher 
death, refigned the MourningiBride;:MrsV 
Thurmond, by the inftruftions c^ffiOfttfe 
in that part, -became a favourite adbt^is) in 
tragedy.' :JSh'e was a-rifin^ tpsrfjr^eg.W 
LincolnVina fields; wbep,:iabQ^f $l|f 319^ 
1724, Booth, • Wilks, and Cibber,; pl^^d 
with her manner of a6ling, engaged her At an 
advanccdincome. In 1 7 1 'j , flie retired., in 

'. ' ■ * ."' .-.. ../•^r tfjiijj .Dili 

difcontentj to t Goodman's Fields^^ where; 
kpnqft GiifFard ^gave hen a kind^reVeptfen^^^^ 
— Her,firft part, at his theatre^ was tlic 
Mourning Bride, which ihe afled with ap- 


.: -CONG R E V.E. ^ 353 

«pla^ fevera] nights. In ajear of two fhe 
irettiuiwl ;.-to Drury-lanc ; ; and refined . alto- 
^[fetterr f rorrt thfe th«atre -aboUt fofcty years 

M For^ijisripw^q ^.heftefit, the coaxic Clive 
mf . -oil the ; rpyal, rq^tes-of Zara; fhe 

never wore thenvafterwardsMp. ; ^• - 
..,^The Way, of tl^ World. w^.jyfr. Con- 
,greye'^ ngjfl ptey^ ;The moral intention 
.of t|ie aut^f^, eW Lo^yc for; Love^ was the 
j^\var4:.<^($9^%tiCy in theiOver-and the 
imtju^tnent of cruelty ; in^he; parent : in 
Jis laft comedy, he. prpppfes' to guard 
nutnjkind. aeainft matrimonial falfehood. --« 

./ Mifa]lpel,.-th? fine-gentlem^m of the play, 
is ^a . ■fuccgfsful t lover of the Wido\y Lan- 

g^iiflji daughter, of Lady Wilhfor't,. to 

\. . ^ • *♦>».* •• •» 

whom he.pays mock-addrefles to cover his 
honourable cowtflnp of Millamant,:^ejr 
'^.i>?f;e;^.^ l^dy of large fortune. To prevent 
*he 4jfcpyery of the expefted confeq^uences 
of his intrigue with the Widow Languifti, 
he pf*ey.ails on her to marry his acquain- 
Vol, III. A a tance. 


tance, Mr. Fadttall ; bat, td guard ib& la* 
dy againfl: the apprehended tyranny of her 
htifbapd, Mirabel perfuadei her touitifip . 
over to him her whole eftate real in truft. -^ 
Mrs. Mar^obd^ the friend and mifttefs of 
Fainall, fecpeily in love with Mirabel, difr 
covers to the oM lady his pretended totiHv 
Ihip, which begets feef'i rrcconcilea'ble'fci?- 
tred. 'to prevent Lady WiflifAr't's enter- 
ing into an improper match ff&m refent* 
ment, Miral^l marries his fervfent, Wdt- 
well> to Foible Ker wftitlhg-w^mini and, 
by her affiftantei h<^es to impofe'hiift cA 
the old lady fof his uncle. By Marwood's 
t>verhearing the difcourfe, which paflTtixl be- 
tween Wifhfor^t andvPoible, and tHe lat- 
ter's with Mrs, Fainall, the fchente of the 
ftiam marriage i^difcdvered j the lady. Is fh 
a rage with her attendant • and Wdtwell, 
her hufband, is arretted, ahd releafedon 
Wii. Fainall, on his dlfcovery that he was 
made i cutljold by ami€ipatioB,iS enr^^ 
and tries to obligeLady Wifhfor^t totnal* 
verher eftate t^rhim, with feVeral other hafd 


I CONOREVfe. ' 555 

i tibnditioTis, iVdm *«rhkh ihe Is unifxpe^lifcd;- 
1 Jy dcfivired by the agtncy of Mimbd, 
I ^ht>i by providg thtt itifld«tity df' FdMll 
I md Marwood »idprcktodn$ the' dsedisf 
I ^^in imfti ifr rewarded Mth' M iikmsjiv, 
I w^bk {futs AH end ix> the play. 

Thdfttgh tliis^comedy dcres hoit prefeM us 
n^ (b ^tvlng a»d To pl^fing a piSfUpe of 
M atid fiiaiMbr^ as Love foV L^ve, yfct tto 
I mdei Will l)(t furpt-lM ^t th6 great pow^ 
«idkkitk>f the writer. Todelmea^ethema^t. 

UtTi (if a IMt-e costemnb is iacfl (b dificuftf ; 
^ «d giVd' tM p\&\k^e o( a ni^n ^ho iilcUts 
I iidiittte fr^fttt dflfeaitioh 6f wit, orife *4w> 
f-llys fo diany t-hifligs lik^ wit that tlie cofli- 
! ffitUk' 4)b^r^r ifiiftakil& thtrn fdr it/ is n<»t 
I axiiSfi^ l«fifi«^ J WitWo*i*dc6ft tfee writer 
«»rt;^jrts than ten Tattles. Whether 
P^tefitbe a tJliaraflerof himiour I atii art 
Bftii l6fft tb dfetermine- B, Jonfon defines 
l!tifa©tit tb ht a quality of the ifniiKl which 
^aws khe palKons and affeftlotis all one 
#*f . Cortgrcve fay*, I believe truly, that 
htttttttUt^ is as hard to be dcfified as wit; 
anfl therefore declares he dares venture no 

A a 2 farther 


iiarthcr ttiaji to fellils what it is not. Ar 
,fi)ongft his negatives he pliaces habit and 
$ffe6tdtipnr But. how are they to be4ifcri- 
TOinateddFf otn rthwf humour ? There isy in 
my :e|Amon, m Jthat , which is called hu- 
mour, fomething ,of both ; thefe quaUtjes. 
oMorofe, in Ben Jonfonls vSilfent Wdffian, 
is quoted, by all critics on the (ubje^, 
:as ^ / ^rije chara6ter of humour : h^ 
bpw [did he acquire that hatred to ^ 
i^ech and npife but' his own* if not ftojoi 


.aftaffeftationpf fihgula^ity ?, nq? can I fee 
^howrhe CQuld poffibly anjive at that de^^ 
i>f piprofencis but by long cuftom md ha- 
bit« Dryden defines humour to h^ a ridlr 
:Culous : extravagance in converfatlon, 
wherein one man differs from; another. ~ 
After , having quoted Morofe as a perfed 
:chara£ler of humour» and more than inli- 
nuated that humour in itfelf is fomething 
uncommon^ he foon after tells us*.thaft 
there are no lefs than nine or ten parts of 
humour in the fame comedy of the SUeat 
Woman. If we fubfcribe to Locke's 43pinion, 


6 O N G R E V E. 357 

that we have no innate principlefSjr we muft 
Kkcwife allow, that we have no jnnate%hu* 
niburs. Much more depefidis'on th'fe con^ 
ftruftion of the body than we are^. at all 
times, aware of. The organs of men, by 
which they receive outward imprfffltons^ 
are differently formed : from this alone the 
greiat variety of perceptions proceeds y an<J 
thcfe; by degrees,: produce diftiri6lion of 
hifmout^nd character. To make. the rear 
der amends for my prefumption, in giving 
my opiiiioil on fHis difficult fubjeft, I 

> will fubjoin Mr. Gotigreve's opinion of hu- 

f» » » 

^ nioiir, in his letter to Dennis, which he 
, modcftly fajrs-fcrves him for one : * A firt- 
' -gular and unavoidable manner of doing or 
1 faying any thing peculiar and natural to 
one man only, by which his Ipeech and 
aftions are diftinguifhed from thofe of a- 
ther men.* And this is certainly agreeable 
to Ben Jonfon's definition of humour^ 
though not exprefled in the fame words > 
and not very different from Dryden's. — 
Corbin Morris, in his Eflay on Wit and 

A a J Humom*, 





Humour, though he aflumes » Ai^riority 
over Congreve, <J(Oes not, in ray opinion, 
vary from him or B j^nfon ? *Ahu- 
inourift ia a p«rfon, irt real life, ohftinately 
atta,chBd tafcnfible pflculiaf o4ditie8, of Iii$ 
owa g^uirie growth, which apjp^ar ki his 
temper and condaft.' Morris's i»4tt. of 
liumour is really the man cif wit »od fis^ 
fantry who can play with th? foibks q( an- 
other } and Foote fays, in hb B£&y oa Ujc 
EngUlh Comedy, that the. haiSKHMii): 1$ 
the food of the man of humour, 

Sir Wilful Witwou'd is difcriminated 
from any other fo»--h\jn|er % sto pecu- 
liarity except his Mfilf ute^fe: : > w^^Jlher tbi^ 
will entitle Mm to :d tfaafa;^f. €»f hu^esv^ur 
I kaveto the critics-. 

Millamant is a moft agreeable coquet, 
with a grca* fhare of fenfe and good->nature. 
She is, indeed, the moft unexc«j«ionabIe 
■ chara£lcr in the play. The teft of tfa« 
• women are what I call Congreve's ladies. 
Strange!, that a man, who convcrfid ib 
much in the polite world, could fcarcely 


CONGRE.y:Ei 3S9 

finda female, amongft Ms acqtmmtance, 
of genuine worth" ind nnblemilhcd ho- 
nour, fit to engraft in his comedies ! In 
Lady WiftiforYs flyle, Mrs. Mar wood and 
Mrs: Fai]iall had tileeii^/ii^/Vitff<i)s ,a tfiis^ 
£xrtu)M£.Yriiichthe,(dd:iady. ^6i^d milUngly 
incajir^iiiian honofifarhle way. ' Edible is 
a^^^bttweenv orbarai'i and ]^incing is 
mady to. fwear to' aiiy^ things, fc^ birlady^ 

• Conjgrevc was i?rwcll afTured of the fuc- 
ccfs of the W^y of the World, that, in 
his prologue, he feems to defy the critics i 
for he calls upon them to damn his pfay, if 
iSey ^ci not approve it. With an affefted 
iiodefty, he is entirely rcfigned to their 
pleaforc: , 

He owns with toil he wrought the following fcenes \ 
But, if they're naught, ne'er fpare him Tor his pain$» 
Paain bim tht more \ have no commiferation 
FQr dulnefe on mat^nre (hliheration. 
He fwears he^ll not refent one hifs^d-off fcene ; 
Nor likjp thofe peevifli wits his play maintaii 
Whoji toaiTert their fenf^, your tafte arraign, 

db«Mi**iw« . I— »■■■» ■■■■■■■ II I 

A a 4 II 

• ^ 


In •{k<)vt).^<*^ne play iliaU, with your klive to IbcW U,^ 
Give you one inftance of a pai&ve po<;t, ,^,,\ 
Who to your judgement yields all refignationt 
To fave or damn after your own difcretioiu 

• iff 

- Yet, iafttr .all thbvielMiiiiaf/' we; a* 
told, : 'in : pofitivd teifiio,^ .by^ Denim,: that 
this play ^ was barbarousifoois hi 
the afitng"; and thb'treatm€jit>^iiftly4:ai^eii 
fo.much indig^aation. ia the writer, th^ he 
quitted the ftagc in difdain/. HaWls it 
poffible to reconcile this account with 
Gongreve's own words, in? his dedicati9n 
of the play to the Earl of Montague ? — ^ 
* That it fucceeded on the ftage was almoft 
beyond my expeftation.', Several ye^irs^af 
ter this he accepted a iliare in one- o£. the 
theatres : upon what account, except his 
writing of plays, the fhare could be offered 
liim, I am not competent to guefs. That 
this play was, very foon after its firil exhi- 
bition, in favour with the public, is cer- 
tain. I long fmce heard, indeed, that a 
particular fcene, in the fifth ad, between 

Lady Wilhfor't and Foible,, was at firft 


nw^trteted 'hf the attdicbce^; ::and[ perhaps 
for thatveiyrcalbh:: which ihdauthocw^ 
oioft value himfelf upon', a ck>K imitations 
of bis great" idol, Ben Jonfori* iLtetany? 
bodyn jcompare thik cEalogue; bctWefiri .. i5aa 
tody aiad her; waiting- woman, with the 
firft iccne of i the/ Alchemilli ..b^tweea the 
Wo . fharpers, Face, and .Subtle, and he 
wiU find the reproaches ?iof the fotinfer td 
theJkti^r^ . on the pifcr'ablie ftate in which 
heibund him fariSt. Paul'^j. m-e .ftrpngly 
4Q)itated ; they are: the clofeffrrefiimblanMs 
that can be found in ariy dramatic wri- 
tingj. ; This* borrowing from old Ben, 
,tbecritici,:it fcem^,:i«fjthdfe daysv >dtd not 
approvfejr they Ithotsgbt Cpngreve ^ich c^ 
iiiough in his Q'Wi treafuf^sj: without being 
obliged, to, \m^ xecpur/e Xq others. , : 

It rauft not be tp the condemnation of 

'- • — 

the whole„^ w any part, pf thel Way ;of 
the Woi^Jd, .that lA^e muft <attribute ihifi 
•Writer's q^iUting the drama. - A marii, 
who, about ninety years fince, t/vhen^moj- 
\j)ey w^s at leaft twice] th$: w|lije it is iiow^ 



^num, doaid : httnt f Htde taripfollkiil to 
csmtinae im authiHihipw. Befi^^^ die 
wum Gin of the Marlboroogb :fomiif r ^ 
tfib eider bi»ich :(^>!irMdr'he wxspErti^^ 
larlj dijdingaifhed^ in i kl); pirobabtiity te^ 
fexed bis poe^kal neavi^^ ' Hh 
Yain comf^ned cf lus indoioicey aftef 
thejbad.gtiren hkn thor means to bs^idfe. 

Tbe great ikiE of tiie poet, m c;mdla£lkig 
his piott, 18 Qo wKero mare corifpioioait 
thaxt ill' tHe i&cond' ^:cf th^^plarf* Itwo 
Artfut peof4e> who» Irom f&tiefy^ ^le hear* 
tity tked of eacil other> zeA^ ^nly fjTMi 
Cfxivemence ai:id^ikiiitual intertifi.keep i]^ a 
correfpoodetaie^ aori^e^^ Bnd> 

frem ai coDifioa of tbek paffioiis, tb^ fi0t 
oaly unfold theirownaflio^samlchai^ers^ 
but opeii tbe- pf^^tdiRg f{*anib£lioii9 netef- 
ferjr to be knowh by the audience. The 
jfeene betweeft Matwcxxi and Fainafll I h«ve 
always confidefed as a maftei^jHece of wri- 
ling^ wbich cannot be read <^ ^mked too 

]sttd]i..* It is ificked a happy lautdtioi} (i( 


CON G R EVE, 382 

Ben Janibn's manner of drawinjj; the ind- 
dents of the fable, and explanation of cha** 
rafter? by fudden altercation. 


[After hearing the converration of Lady W iftfort aiifl 
FoiUe, zui Mrs. Fainat) and Foiblc.j 

O maa* man 1 woman, woman ! — the 4evil is 411 
skkl If I were 2l painter, I would draw him ' lilce aa 
idiot, a driveler, with a bib and bells. 

p ' . 


This is a good commentary upon a ]>af- 
fage, in Shaklpeare's Timoo, which puz** 
£led bis greateft commentators ; 

jSERvakt to ilHr m o n> alons, 
[After being denied mcmey by Semproiiiug»] 

The deril knew not wliat he did when he made xatm 
politic. He croflcd himfelf by it i and 1 ^Hnet but iffi^ 
in the nut, tbt villanies 9fman will fit himfrum 

In the fourth a£t of the Way of the 
World, the matrimonial articles, iettkd 
between Mirabel and Millamaht, are fo 
judicioufly framed, that they will lervc, 


L. . 



wittfc a little fartiion able atteratioiiy for a lafti 

* ' ■ "^ j' . • ^ • « ^ ■ * ■-. ' 

rag mocfeltdall happy-matriagec'Ofltlradorsf. 

AaiV. Scene V. 

< » 
KT I R A B K £• 

?^ Arcoy*<fttclc to whecdFe-' ywi a fop-ftritnbliag to 

When the mode'^of females going mafkcd 
to 4 play> originated, is not, I believe, 
tery cafy to determine. We may heal- 
mc^ certain that it was not a praflicc 
Idfoie the civil: wars> " nor in; Is^ion 

*liff|c>roe'timcafte#'the Reftoratioa. I find 
thefe mafked ladies menticxned often in 
the^. epilogues to Drydoi^s, 
Lec^s,. land Otway's, piays. : The cuHom 
wast dcdUibtleA^ imported froa> France ^ and 

• I believe we may, with fome probability, 
fix its irttroduftion to the year 1666 or 

zM^itj. The many dif^lirbanceSi which 

thefe difguifed females * continually caufed 

• - • - . « • . •• 

in .tibc pit and boxe$> prevented women of 
chacraiter froni going to the playhpufe; 
2nd> fuch was the continual fcahdal ariiiDg 


T C O N G R E V E. ;: Jls 

' from it, tiiat the fober a^id:graiYf#Mtij|f 
the town were.oft^il,^ Jjyf'lh^f? .Mi#j^ 

deprived of t^eatmgl €Rtffl't^nn»cfli^v>iTf 
.Conftant i^proars.imd ri9it:$,<:allediJoi|dl^ f^ 
public redreis: at length* aftcfrtj^i^l^at^ce 
jbadjj^E?^, endured, % near fortjFfFafS^iy^ 
^ajCcWent^ di/pjute, , xoiv:??ping ; RRflilM^*' 
Paw^es,. whic^ ended- in '^-dm^U, pf^doc^ 
aojaftof parliament, in the, j^ of.Qpfen 
Anne^' which prphi^ited, t]\c ^wlns^fd 
maflcs in the theatre/ — 

» ^ * A 

'ft.'- ' . ' . • ' ''){ \ 'i' f 

AaV. ; ■; :. 
Lady Wiflifor't ; Mrs. Marwood. * • 

MRS. M A R W^ O O A." ^'^ 

• And from thence be traiHferrcd^ thebaiiil^, 
Aajr, to ti^e .throats aindifung?, of hawk^csiri^tH^^ 
more licentious than the loud ilounder'-man's* . ,;; ,,, 

From King William*s days to aloioft the 
iend of 'George 1/ there was a^ fellow, J \*lii> 
diftinguiihed himftlf, above all others,' m 
crying fk)UQdersr in the ftreets of Lottdbn.-*^ 
His voice was loud, but not unmuficaL: the 
tones, ; in lengthening out the word flouij- 
- . ders. 



4cvs; were fa happily varied, that p66|>ttl 
Irttti* Wnk with ftirprife atid fottie degree m 
ptea(ur^» Wdkfcf, about the year 1725,1 
revived, in the lummer^fealbn, a play C4t 
fed Mai&anelb; or a Fifherman a Prince, 
takc^, TbcKeve, from Durfey^s HHIory ofj 
Mafliandlat he^nt*red the ftage cryirtg 
ftjundeirs, in iiAitJatibn of the loud ftottti- 
der*man, fo very like the original, that 
the applanfes, oii this trifling occafion, 


were very loud and redoubled. 

Of thofe comedians, who, within thefc 
fifty or fixty years, have diftinguiflicd 
themfeives ih Congrere's oomedks, moft 
of whom I have often feen a6l, fomething 
.fliould be faid. The Old Batchelor.of 
Drury lane was Harper, a good low co* 
inedian, but whofe underftanding was not 
of that {izc to give force to the faixaftic 
fxMgnancy of expreffion,; the whimfical 
ftruggles of amorous paffi<in^ or the vi- 
olent rage on difcov&red folfy> m Heart- 
well 5 all which Quih per€s£i;ly conctir 
Ved, and juftly represented mahy yean at 



rrjbc Bdihottar of Willi^owak tlie finiflieil 
«id po^c lib^cdne ( tiiit QfJVt^fir '^Wi^ 
the' hold Ibid ismnly^;^^ ThtfO^t&iti 
^Kufibiof fi.:joii&n.was as <}«ffiplet& a ^koe 

!I IgirgiJ&w hl^ :\MMch(«ib 
:two years ifmce^ at%^\iinttil6»Aitt I thou^ 
iiim. ill cho&n fpt a liittliy ; biit lild «)cqut«- 
file ppii(fi(Mrtftiaace fiddnmantdi f»«e; add- tite 
-whdle.tjacfiditfnGcv j<>f \^3rvxfiffideiMe of his 
much, and jufliy, admired and applau- 
ded, though fiMhe ^r&iAy- Referred Dog-- 
getfSiportrak'oF oH i doting inipotcDi&e' 'to 
rhia. ;>Ft6nL ai Tcddleflion o£ Qibber's 
:iiiahncri ' FooSte afte^: a licfenc or -two of 
.Fottdleiriithettei! than, any chara^rs, etf-- 
ce^t fuch: as he wrote parpofely for bim- 
.£etf.« IrHg»piiIfiy> piayed Pondiemft in h 
inanin^'OfigYnal; ahdnot much infttior to 
€ibh^« ^ Miff, Iforton, who was famous 
for <oqu^ti, was: the Belinda of Drury- 



Janei .afuJnMcs^ i¥«)urigcr, rtttefiftCT -ctf 
;M|:3irBi$&lidi vcd*fcialea,> m-the'TatI«r 
aad ':§je^5ftof6^ fcfr yariisty of Iminorous 
parts^ ; wi^; an:.j(0ire^ ?much':fblldwed in 
this /^d roaoy Qthtt comic charafters, 
je%eeialjy;itb« iQ4)iinti3y*. Wife.. \ But Mrs. 
Yo\*ng$iJ jWafi a: |;«n»al a&tc&y: and fliDBflM;* 
tifl^:,ftpjiear€d: ,i«fi':itfagQiy, tfedu||K 3 
think ji.iipt to advant&ge.;. Much about the 
time wh^niihis left the fta^, flieiwfcs mar- 
ried to ^es boaourabl^ Mr/.fiincki ; who 
had, .afaove. ; iwtnty ^ (yeacs (before,: ^been 
ilabi«di iti a (|uaiirel,'f&y the fttmouRSidly 

I|i^ L4««J^i J[ ;iaiiw: Wilks, ia hW 
Qldagei, play the: partxif Y<alentifte>pfith all 
thejfpirit.and fite 'faf youths iTiro ycate, 
after^: Colley Cibber,^ who hadi been' long 
the itoiihcd' Tattle of. DriiryJOTf^ ^ ' aftcJi 
Bewi whepj herwasi paft fixry l;; it! was. (aid 
that fee.c0pied Dbgget, thei6figliial;.l)iut 
neither his Y<?ice nor look . vyere jiuitable 
to- the rftugh animation ,of'd faiiof; -^ 
His a6ting Ben was a- piece of managers 


*• .^» • * 

C ON R E V E. 36 j" 

craft. Joe Miller, who was a lively co- 
mic kd:ovi and a Favourite 'of the town 
irifietf, and many other diverting cha- 
i^fters^^had, by *fonie mean ' teconrbmy of 
the managers; feeert' dHven* from- Dm-' 
rV-laire- to'' Gdodthran's'- Fields : Vifhen' 
they wer^^obligcd to rfecal him to histoid ' 
flktidn^'they • imagined that Bed, kfted 
fJrft by Gibber, wovfld bring Teveral full 
hbafesj ahd that the jpublic's being af-; 
terwilrd^ eJ^citeS^ td' fee 'tti'eiP frifertd; toe 
^Mer, in ttief^'m'^ tharatler, woiito double 
I their' pPofits. /r believe they wei'e iiifap- 
poirited'ih their expeftations J for Gibber, 
tiibtfeh he afcled Beii biit twdoftfrree times, 
tbok oflrthe edge of appetite to fee IViiller/ 
jShcpherclW'^'moff'Tf^^ of the' 

' farcaftic Sir Siaaipfon iLegehd', My old 
; acquairitaTtcfe, Jack' iJiinftalf, for rii&iiV 
years playfccP ttiis part, as'iivell'^as 'feve?4i 
I ethers in'" comedy, -with* triitti arid^i^atore? 
JacK^4iad,' indeed, the^ Faiilt of cot^ifefpdii- 
dirtg'by looks,- fometimes, with his ac- 
quaintahcfr.: in the pit. ' His Hodge, John 
M'ood/; ^Leckit,-' Sir'Jealoiii •'Praffici -Job; 
; "VbL. ill. ? b foB, 


(on,, and many Qthei^ charaftexs- of the 
fani^ cJaft, will be remembered with plea- 
fure by his old friends, whom he often de^ 
lighted with many a jovial fong, andefpe- 
cially that famous one on the fea-viftorjr. 
obtained by Admiral Rqffel over the Frencli. 
at La Hogue j this he fang harmoniouilyi 
and with a true Englifh fpirit» Dunftall 
was a member of feveral very relpeftabb. 


focieties, and was valued^ by all who knew, 
him, for his honefty and good-nature. 

Theophilus Cibbef *s firft wife a^^d Mife 
Prue in an agreeable and lively manner* 
Clive gave fuch a romping fpirit and hu- 
morous vivacity to the wild girl, that evea. 
Abington's childifli fimplicity and playful 
aukwardnefs cannot make us forget her« 

The theatre of Co vent-garden, in De- 
cember, 173 a, opened with the Way of 
the World.. The fccfic^ were new, and 
excellently w^U painted -, all the decorations 
w^ere iuited to th^ grandeur aqd magaifi*' 
cence of the building* The boxes were, on 
this occafion, railed to half a guinea, the 

. pit to five (hillings, the galjeries in propor- 


fion. The parts were thus diilributed, 9$. 
I remember : — ^ Mirabel by Mr* Hy^n j. 
Quin» Fainall; Witwou'd, Chapmaai. 
I Petulant, Neali Sir Wilful Witwou'd,- 
i Hippi fley J Wait well , Pinkethman, (on, 
j of the famoa$ Pinkey ; Lady Wiftifor't^ 
I Mm, E^letQH j MiUamaut, Mrs. Yoi^n^ , 
igcr } Marwood, Mrs. Hall^m } , Mrs. , 
^ Fainall, Mrs^ Buchanan j Foible^ Mrs. 
^Stephens, afterwards Mrs. Rich* Qpin . 
^was a judicious fpeaker of Fainall's fen-. 
Itiments, but heavy in aftion and deport- 
^ment; Walker, who fucceeded him, undcr^ 
^ftood ande)cpre0edtheairumedfpirit and real 
j iniblence of this artful chara6ler much bet-* 
p^r^ Ryan was grpady u>ferior to the ac- 

plifhed Mirabel of Wilks n and Chap* * 
man^s Witwou'di though not fo finished as ^ 
that of Cclley Gibber, was pf his own draw- : 
ing^and refy convic* Hisquieknefs of fpeech > 
rambled the articulate vdubility of Mr.. 
King$ who is likewife a very pleafing repre-i t 
fenter of Witwou'd; and, as I(ha^ not, per-*r 
haps, have an opportunity, in arty other 

B b a place 


placc'of this book, to Ipeak of-tliis worthy 
man arid excellent a£lor, I fhall here pay him 
the jUffl tribute due to his charaCter* As an 
honeft' lervartt to the proprietors, engaged 
in a variety of parts, no man ever exerted his* 
abilities to'greatet fatisfaflion of the public 
orSohmlteti theintereft of his'empldyers With 
ra6re cordiality and afliduity. As a manager, 
ifttrufted to fuperintend, bring forward, 
arid I'evivei dramatic pieces,' hisjudgement 
wasfolidandhis attention Unwearied. When 

r t 

he ^thought proper to quithispoft of thea- 
trical direflor, thofe of his own profeffion 
regretted the lofs of a friend and companion, 
wliofe humanity and' candour they had ex- ' 
perieiiced;' Shd ori whofc impartiality ancb 
juftice they kftew 'they ^couIafi:rmly depend. 
Booth'i = characljer' of the ^reat a<3:6r. Smith, 
miy" ht 'kppHed.'With juftice, to Mr. King: 
* ^y his impartial management of the ftage, 
and the affability of his temper, he merited 
tberfeiiped: and efteem of - ail within the 
tkeafre; the applaufe of thofe without, and 
the good will and love of all mankind/ 
.:.. '^ ;. . <: Hippifley, 


CONGRE.V/K. ' ^;e 

kippifley, who aa.ed;Sij;!.WjHfoti:\Kitr 
wou'd, was not an apriicCilar imiitAtoi^iiif 
another's manner; he wst$ folely; directed 
by the force of his owa genius* Though hfe 
did not, in Sir Wilful, ; prefect |o thefpec- 
tator fuch a laughable figure of a*, fup^i^)- 
nuated lubber as Harper, his rival at Dru* 
rylane,yet he pleafed by, dint of cotnig fpirit 
and natural humour. Neal!svPetulantwas 
diverting) whimfical, and odd, though, Ibe- 
lieve, not fo cxiticaliy juft as l^r. B^ddcloyis; 

Mrs. Younger's Millamani was fpoitelyrj 
but 01dfield*s fine figure, afetraftive feannerj 
harmonious voice, and elegancein^drfefsj jii 
which (he excelled all hei* piledecefibrs and 
fucceffors except Mrs.::Abirtg.ton, left het 
without a rival* Mrs, ]EggletoQi.was.a:co4 
micaftrefsmuch admired by thebeft jlidges: 
JohnD-of Argyle, who'ivl* slip^enHier of 
the theatre and a conftant friead tp th<6 aftor^i 
tooka particular pleafpreih* feeing Mrs .{Egk 
gleton on the ftage. With a great ftate <rf 
merit, fhe was extremely diffident, and nci 
ver attempted a new chara^er but. with the 

B b 3 utmofl: 


iitmod ^|iprehcttvfioii of her failing to p4eafe 
theaud^nce. Mrs. Eggleton, like another 
Ariadne^ died tnaraoured of Bacchus, a- 
iK>atthe jtariy^^. 

Though, after the Way of the Woild, 
Congireve wrote no plays, he broiighl on 
the ftage a mafque called the Judgement of 
Paris, and Semele, an opera- The nnific 
to the firft was compofed by Parcel^ £c« 
cles. Singer, and Weldon. It was revived 
at Drury-lane, about fifty years iince, with 
fine fcenes and decorations. ^ This piece/ 
the author of Biographia Dramatica faysi 
^ is bften performed to mulic by way of an 
bratorio.' The fame author, fpeakingof 
Semele^ fays, ' that this fhort piece was 
pcrfontied,' and printed in quartOj in 

The fviccefi of this opera is not roen- 
tioned by this or any other writer. The 
f^yisitbld by Ovid, in his MetamoqAo- 
fis, k 3 . but the author has made an alte« 
ration in the fable, more conformable 

to the characters of the opera. -■ " ^ 


C O N G R E V E. 37i 

Ccmgrevc has fhewn himfelf a fcholir and 
a poet in this dramatic piece } aixl I (hould 
imagine^ ifrevived) with proper mufic and 
good fingers, it would pleafe in reprefenta- 
tton. The fable of tliis. opera, which is 
not, as the Biographia Dramatica fays, 
a fhort poem, is well cpnduftcd. The 
mei^ure of the airs is various, and fuited 
to the fituations of the perfonas dramatis. 
^hk author accounts for having no regard 
to rime, or equality of meafure, in that 
paft of the dialogue defigned for recitative, 
[, which, he fays, is only a more tunable 
fpeaking and a kind of profe in mufic. — ^ 
Mr. John Beard and Mr. Jofeph Vernon 
excelled greatly in recitative, by giving 
uncommon ^ force of expreffion to the 
paffi<ms of love, grief, and refentment. 

Of almoft all Congreve's poems, except 
his Ode on Mrs. Hunt, Dr. Johnfon fpeaks 
tvith a marked contempt. The Birth of 
the Mufe he calls a wretched fid ion. But 
Addifon, in the dedication of his Pax Gu- 
Htlmi (utfpiciis Europa redditOt to Monta- 

B b 4 gue, 


- gue, 'bid3fc>'tvs as/raiach irotnoderatc ipraifc 
oh tHfclnlMife of Congrcve as abufe DnnU 
the writers loi^rhis time Who employed their 
pens on the fubjeil o£. peace : .-^oJ ^ICon-^ 
grevhis tile tuus^ dxvino.quo.yfobt^fiHofexar.^ 
reptusy nktteriam ham^^w^^^fxortiaffity M^ 
tanti effet ipfa puxX ^ut i liar ciiefar^/^turiii tot 
pef^dBiJJimh poet ii tarn mifkneufetaAtntai^^ni^ 
This, encomium as unworthy :af. Addifon; 
knd indeed is nothing Ms. Jthao" ahfoliitB 
fuftian ; . fuch ib will appear, Jta every /rea^* 
der, in Englifti as .wellas. Latinri; *:.Ha4 
not yoor Congreve, feized with: his ufiiai 
fit of > divine raadnefsv condefcended ibft ce^ 
lebrate< the fubjeft, the . peace itfeff wouB 
not have ; bejen . lof Jucb\\ importance, toyusi 
non could \we^ indeed^ have rejoiced in ili 
confidering how vilely it has bfeQu deb^fed 
by the pens of defpicable fcribblers^' . ^ 

* ♦ 

Amongfl: the.ppeois of Prior, on King 
William's military atchievements, Addifon 
might, with eafe, have felefted a better 
fubjed for his panegyric thap Congreve's 
Birth of the Mufe; but Prior was, I believe, 
in no part of hislife^ a favourite of Addifon. 


: G ON G R E V E. STf 

^g^eforfiHC^ili^ve wrote ^W lail -comedy, 

he^publi^ed a^QfOi^tl defence of the four 

plays he had then written; in which there is 

fome wit, a good deal of learning, many un- 

1 willing cpnceffionsj^nd no fma^l fhare of dif- 

lui^enuity. .Cohereves, pride was hurt. by 

Colher's attack on plays which' all the world 

nad a4niired ^^nd cpmmenae^ ; ^ and no ny- 

I»arito ihewe4 more ran(xmr and refentment; 

when ;runmafked^,, than ,. this ''^u"t'hpr; ' fo 

i grp5tj:ly ^celeb:C?^ted for fweetnefs ,qf ,'temp?r 

I an(l.ele^ manners. It rpuft be con* 

I fcffed,,that Collier, in his view of the ftage, 

; h^d gpnetoo f^c;; Jiije had. forgqtten the 'old 

\ tia; fee would liften to npth ingj^fs 4than t Jic 
; entire aholitiori of ft^ger-am^jjCefjifnts and:e- 
vea of m»fic itfelfjrhe r^fkf^Ud top much 
the r<>ot7ah4-hwiQchc nj^i iaithe days of 
Charles I. 'who, not JatJ^fi^ yyjth reforfij- 
ing^bufes, determined to l^y the^axe-tq 
the root', of monarchy, iand deftroy- ou? 
conftitution in church arid ftate. 



' I Ihafl quore a paukge, f rorii -Cqngrcrc** 
Defence^ which I thiftik worthV of the rca- 
der's periifal : 

* To what end has he made futh'aliug^ 
bear of the tTieatre ? Whv flioiild he pof- 
f^s the minds of Weak ar^ melanchtoSf]^ 
people with fuch frightful ideas of d poor 
play, unlefs to four the ^hum6urs of the 
|>eople of moftleifure, tiiatthey might'Tbe 
mote apt to mifemptoy their vacant hours r 
It may be there is hot any where "a ^6qple 

\_<L . ^- - 

who flibuld lefs be debarred of inrtoceflt di- 
veriions than the people of lEngldnd; I 
will iK>t argue this point, bat I will 
ftferigtheii my obfervations with one paraU 
lei to k from PolybliiS. This excellent 
author, who always <moralifes in his: hifto* 
ry, ^hd ihftni^s as faithfully as he relateSi 
attribtrtes the rtiri of Cyncthia, by the 
^tolians, in plain terms, to thedegene* 
racy frbni their Arcadian anceftors, in 
their negle£l of theatrical and mnfical per- 
formances : " The Cynethians (fays he) 
had. their (ituation the fartheft north of all 

Arcadia ; 

CbNGREVE. 379 

Arc^a } they were fubjefted to an inclc- 
ment and uncertain air, and, for the taoft 
part, cold and melancholic ; and, for this 
reaibn, they, of all people, ftiould laft 
have parted with the innocent and whole- 
fbme remedies which the diverfions of ma- 
fic adminiftered to that foumefs of temper 
and fuUennefs of difpofition, which of ne- 
cejQity they muft partake from the difpofi- 
tion and influence of their climate 5 for, 
they no fooner fell to negleft thefe whole- 
fome inftitutions, than they fell into dif- 
ientions and civil difcords, and grew at 
length into fuch depravity of manners, 
that their crimes, in number and meafurc, 
furpaffed all nations of the Greeks be- 

Congreve quotes this from Sir Henry 
Shecrs's Polybius, which is, I believe, rather 
an abridgement than a tranflation. The 
tvhole paffage, refpe6ting the Cynethians, 
is well worth confideration ; and the reader 
will find it faithfully given by Mr. Hamp- 

3^0 DRAli^Al'IG MISgE^L:^NIES. | 


ton, . vol. i. in bis quartp. edition,- pages ' 
.358, 59» 60, 61. . • •. . ■ . I ., , . 

Congreve, of all the poets in his time, 
enjoyed the peculiar ; Jj^appinefs /of being 
refpefled and diftjnjs;qiflie4 hy-perXons the 
ijioft eminent in the fiwo- contending par- 
ties^ the whigs and tpries, in every change | 
pf, government, from his firJft appearance 
as a writer to the time of bis death, . More 
than that, he was addreljed, courted, 
and honoured, by all the authors of 
his time, a tribe of .men who are not 
very remarkable for their love of fuperior 
merit in their rivals. ■ » The differences 
of Pamaflus .were fubmitted to his deci- 
fion ; and the decrees of Congpeve, the po- 
etical chancellor, were fubjeft to no reverfe. 
Even Dennis, -xthe - four and intra6table 
Dennis, paid his homage to this writer, 
who honoured him wqth his correfpon- 
dence, and wrpte to him feveral letterSj^ 
which Dennis, afterwards publiflied, and, 
amongft the reft, an excellent one upon 
hunaour. Congreve doubtlefs gave this 


COKGREVfe. 3«i 

' ' ' ' " - . 

Cerberus a iop, as the beft means to foften 
his nigged temper. When alked why he 
Hftened to the pralfe^ of Dennis, he faid, 
he had much rather be flattered than abu- 
1 fed: Swift had a particular fnendftiip for auf 
■ author, and gerier6ufly todk him under' his 

; proteftion'inhis high slathontative manner; 
he claimed the patronage bf Lord Oxford' 

* for a« man preferred by *whig-minrfl:erv 
and who ftill retained whig-principles.*— — 

i Dr. Johnfon fays, that CongreVedifcovcred' 
more literature than 1!he poets hare.cafti-' 
jnonly. attained. I have already mentioned^ 
his acquaintance with the Greek dramatic 
writers, a ftudy which feems to have beea 
neglefted by moft of our former play-au^' 
thors. Mr. Colman, Mr. Murphy, and 
Mr. Cumberland, are converfant with the 
antient writers of Greece and Rome ; and it 
is to be hoped, that the tranflations of JEC^ 
chylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, by Dr. 
Potter, Dr. Franklin, and Mr. Woodhull, 
and the remarks of Mr. JoJderell upon the 
Pfi^cchse and Ion of Euripides, in which hi; 



has difplayed exquifite tajde a^d moft exteiw 
five learning, will excite the curiofity and in- 
duftry of our prefent and future dramatifts, 
more eipecially our tragedians, to becomcac-» 
quaintedwith the great originals of Athens, 
To have done with Cpngreve : — the 
charms of his converfation muft have been 
¥cry powerful, fince nothing could confole 
Henrietta Dutchefs of Marlborough, for 
the lofs of his company, fo much as an 
automaton, orfmallftatue of ivory, ma^ 
cxaftly to refemble him, which every day 
was brought to table, A glafs was put in 
the hand of the ftatue, which was fup- 
pofed to bow to her grace and to nod in 
approbation of what (he fpoke to it. 


B E T.T E R T. O N.. 383 


■ ' 



' ' . ". . '. 

j Some miftakes rdatit^ to Btttertan ia the Bi- 


^grjtpbia Britannica. -^^ His age^-^^OIJ 
Downs' s Rcfciusj1^gUc4mus. — Better tons 
marriage, r — NoJiagextniJfesMll After the 
Revolution. — Superior merit of. the king's 
aSors. — SpeSlacIe and mujic. — Winter fel^ 
Qc.^^Hryden and Lee. — Hart's f alary. *^ 
Caufes of the decletyion of the kingscome^ 
diansi^^ Agreement between Hart^ fife, ani 
Betterton^ &c^ — Hart's death. — JIAAwt, 
and NeU'Gwn. — Union of the compames. 
— Bettertm*s hfs by a venturf. ^-^ Mts^ 
Barry J Mrs. Bracegirdle^ Mrs. Montford^ 
and Mrs. Boman* — • Betterton's f alary. ~ 
CbrifippberRicb. — Cibber and John RieL 
•— ^ie family of John Rich offended^. — 
King Williain^ Better ton ^ and Mrs. Barr^^ 
, ry.-— Powell.-^ Mrs. Mmtford. — Better^ > 


r "-r - • •^ " f T 

384' DRAMATlfc. MISC£LLAKltS. 

tons laji benefit and death. *— CbaraSier of 
Mrs. Betterton.-^ Her^ ipfy^^^y* — 57/w^ of 
her death uncirtaiH.^-^ titters portrait of 
Betterton. — Commended for his humanity.--^ 
Friendjhip of Pope' and Betterton. — fbe 
latter s piSiure by Pope. — Chaucer s cha- 
racers J-^ Epitaph recommmded by ^^ope.r^^\ 
Congreve fellom-Tnunager with Betterton:^- 
Booth.^^Wilks.-^Dramiatic pieces of Bet- 
terton.^^ Mrs. Booth's piety. — Betterton and 
Garrick. ^ - 

\ • 

AS, in theVrourfe of thefe Miicellanics, 
1 havdneglefted no opportunity to 
do jufticfe Xo the mei?its 6f that accompliftied 
a6tor and refpeflable man, Mr»^ Thomas 
Betterton, I fhall have 4efs occafion to en- 
large here upon thefubjeft\ The compilers 
of the Biographia Britannica, a work which 
confers honour upon themfelves and the na- 
tion, have w€ty affiduoufly laboured to clear 
iiptHe'obfcuritics in wljich the life of this e- 
minent man' is involved. In a matter *of 

^eat difficulty, and where fo little 'autheh- 



B E T T E R T O N. i^s 

tic information can be obtained^ it h not 
furprifing that a few miftakes fliouldefcape 
the moft in quifitivc diligence. I fhall en- 
deavour to reftify fomc errors in that 
work, and to throw light on certain fafts, 
which have, thropgh lengt|i of time, been 

Xomewhat darkened. 

• ■ > » • 

I do not find, that, in the article of 
Betterton, the writers of this valuer 
bl? work have made any ufe, of Dowc^s's 
Rofcius Anglicanus ; andi thougk it mi^ 
be confe(ie4 that Downs, is very coafufed 
and inaccurate, yet, as he is almoft the oni- 
ly writer on the ftage for a long period, 
fpme valuable matter may, w^tfi .c*iri(9«^ 
fearching, be picked out of his patjiphletr 
His authority, reletting to the age ofrJBet* 
terton, muft give place to the more au- 
thentig teftimony of Southern, adduced in 
the Biographia, who, itfecms, Jiad hi^ 
inteUigence from the^ moutlv pf the great 
SCtor himfelf. By this account, he was 
bora in 1635, though Downs phpes hi? 
ibirth three years later ; .and this feemsa 
little furprifing, as the Rofcius Anglicanus 

V6L. III. Cm ' wa^ 

^6 dr'amatic MISC^LLAKIES. 

was publilhed in ihc life time of Bettertoa, 
who mufl have converfed with the author 
almoil continually from 1662 to 1706, the 
date of his Narrative. 

The marriage of JBetterton with Mrs, 
Saundcrfon is 'fixed, in the Biographia 
Britannica and Biographia Dramatica, t9 
the year 1670. But the exa£l time is very 
uncertain : it appears, from Downs, that 
the Viilam, a tragedy, and Shakfpeare*? 
Henry the Eighth, were revived, at the 
dake*s theatre, before the plagu6 of Lon- 
ddn, m 1665 ; and the name of Mrs. Bet- 
terton is placed to Belmont in the Villain, 
and to (^Katharine ia Henry the Eighth; 
cbnfequehtly the marriage muft have taken 
place five years fooner than the time fettled 
by thefe writers.' It muft be obferverf, 
that, tiiough Mrs. Saunderfon was very 
young when married to Betterton, fhe it- 
taineci the appellation 6f miftrefs; made- 
moifeUe, or mifs,* though introduced a* 


* Milti vv^i^ lormerty undetiiaiju (o-inean a woman « 
floafare.t fo.DiyJcji, t|i Us epilogue to the Klgriih 

Mifles there werc» \fut tnodc&lj cooceal'd* 


mangO: people of fkihion^ in England^ a- 
bout the latter end of Charles il/s reign^ 
was not familiar to the middle clafs of peo^ 
pie till a much later time, nor in uie »- 
mongfi the players till toward the latter 
end of King William's reign. MifsCrofs 
\iii!»s the.firft of the ftage^miircs : ihe is par** 
ticularly ntiticed in Joe Haines?s epik^^ 
W Farq^har's Love and a Bottle. 

Xl is ^iwrrfly allowed, that the fupcrior 
fuccefs of th0 Icing's theatre obliged the 
d*^ pf Yorl^'s company to have rccourfe 
tQ fpe^cle and mufic i and this, faysCib- 
l«r, ^nu^med th^t fpecies of reprefenta* 
1^1^: called di^fiP^^itip operas . I liave heard, 
Ippmthe befl: infer njation of forae very old 
prions; who liyed in the reign of Charles 
Ih thatBetterton, as a general aflor, was 
j^p^ripr to any one comedian of his time. 
Bitt Hart : and Mohwn, the great ac- 
tors of; the king's houfe, had Kynaftott, 
Winttrfely and fcveral other original play- 
ers in tragedy,^ to fecond them ; nor were 
At coniiC' a&ors of the king's houfe much 
ioilerior to tfaofe of the duke*s. 

C c 2 Drydwi 




- Dryden and Lee, the two court-pocte; 
wrote for the king's theatre, while that 
watf in a fiouriihing ftate. Hart's falarjr, 
we are told in the Biogr* Brit, was 3L per 
week. This muil be underftood to be inde- 
pendent of the profits arifing from his (hare 
in the houfe, clothes^ and icenes ; for Uit 
principal performers of that theatre weit 
fharers j and Downs fays, that, at the end 
of a playing-feafon, they fbmetinoes divi- 
4ed amongft them i oooL each.- - 

The declenfion of the king's theatte 
muft not folely be afcribed to the growing 
tafte for operas, mufic, and dancing. A^ 
hout the year 1680, they had loft, by death 
or retirement from the ftag^ ieveral afters 
of great merit ; Burt, Winterfel, Cart* 
wright. Lacy, and others; befides, the 
4e(:lining age of the great maft^^ in^ their 
profeflion, Hart and Mohun,- renderal 
them lefs capable of a£lion than in tb^ 
prime and vigour of life ; the young aiders, 
too, fuch as Goodman and Clarke, wene 
.become impatient to get pof&flion of tht 
principal characters. More than all this, 



B E T T E R T O N.^ 389 

i fuipe£t a rupture to have taken place be- 
tween Hart andMohun ; for, ia the agree*- 
nent, figned, 0&. 14, i68i, bet worn Dn 
Davenant, Tho. Betterton, Gent, and Wm 
Smith, Gent, on the one part, — and 
Charles Hart and Edward Kynafton on 
the other> — the intent of which was to tf^ 
fe£l an union of the two companies, — no 
notice whatever is taken of Mohun, who 
^ afiied after Hart's death, in 1682, at tlie 
•king's theatre, in the firft play written by 
; Southern, called the Peiiiin Prince. NeU 
r iGwin in thefame play reprefen ted aprincipal 

The time, when the companies were u- 
nitcd, th4 author of Betterton's article, in 

; the Biogf .^Brit. rightly fays was uncertain. 
He fofpe^Vs that the union was not e£fe£t- 
cd till 1686) but, ^by looking on the date 

I of Drydefi and Lee's Duke of Guife, the 
firft edition, which was printed in 1683, 

'by the title-page and the dramatis perfonae, 
I find, ^hat Betterton and company were 
then in poifeilion of the king's theatre. 

C c 3 Bettertorf 




Bettertorf was efteeMed a vieiy able h^o; 
tiator» and was cert^nly v^ inftratneotai 
in bringing' about the iimon of thecompft* 
nies. His condu^li on this occafioOt did 
not efcape cepfnre ; I fuppofc chiefly frott 
Mohun and tbofe w&o:<ippo&d the juno 
tion, and perfifted to aA in oppofitlon to 
Betterton at the king') theatre^ tliough thcjr 
had loft Hart and Kynafton i but all uo<- 
prejudiced perfons will clear him from aajr 
rcprchcnfion, for endeavouring to bnng a- 
bout what was become ab(blotely neodTary. 
K. Charles himfelf^ itds faid/apjirovedaaii 
recommended the treaty for an union. 

The misfort^ine i^l^ich Betterton fuf- 
tained> by lofic^ the grjcateft part of his 
fortune in a ventuir^^to the £c|ft^.In(iies, is 
very exa^ly related in the Biographia Bri-j 
tannica. His behaviour, on this piemora' 
ble occafion, reflets honour on the. mag-l 
nanimity of his mind : his taking iqtq bis] 
houfe, and educating at his own exp^Q/;fi 
the daughter of his ruined friend whx> h>dj 
engaged him in the unhappy adventure, 


B E t T E R T O N. 391 

t • 

^ees hini» \h ^ rstnk with SatyruK, thi 
Gr^k tbfn^dian, Whofe gtntrbfity to the 
captive daughters of his dead hof^ liave 
fclated in my obfervatioils on the fecond 
aft of Hamlet. The daughter of fefettef • 
ton's unhappy friend was married to Mr. 

Bowman, whom I have often had occafioii 

.' J. 

to mention ; (he was admired is a very fine 
Woman and a pleafing afVrefs. The ftage, 
perhaps, never produced four fufch hand- 
fotiit women, at once, as * Mrs. Barry, 
Mfs. Bracegirdle, Mrs. ^Moutttfordr aiid 
Mrs. Bowman : when they appeared toge- 
ther, in the laft fcene of the Old Batchelor, 

the audience was ftfuck i*ith'fo fine a 
groupe of beauty, and broke dilt intd loud 
applatifes. ' ''' 

It is to be lamented that Betterton, When 
aft ing- manager, and conftahtly labouring 
to pleafe the public In a variety of chai-ac- 

C c 4 tcrs. 

* The illiberal hiftorian of the two flag^s fays, — ^ 
Mrs. Baffy was the fineft woman on the ftage, and the 
reverreWhen off. 


ters, fliould have (o little real, taflueiwe 
and fo fmall a portion of the profijts ; this 
great aflor's falary never fifing to more 
than 4I. per week. * Chriftopher Rich, fia- 
ther to the late John Rich, Efq. of Coveiit- 
garden, polTefled the grcateft . ihare , of the 
patent; and, if we may believe. Colley 
Gibber, he employed all his arts todifirdii 
the adors, though not really to benefit him* 
f^lf. In ihort, Cibber makes him out a 
man who-had neither con&ietice nor abili* 

< « -* • I 

^y ^ h^ draw^ fo hatful a diara£ter of ob- 
ftins^cy, low cunning vtyranny^ and pcrvcrfe- 
nefs, that humanity would induce iis tofap- 
pofe.the, writer had drawn a caricatura ra- 
ther than. a real portrait. Yet Gibber and 
the ion of this man, I well remember^ al- 
w?w,^ appeared tO: live cm very friendly 
,)te^ms, even after the publication of the 
Apology. It wjas my ill fortune, it feems, to 
difpleafethe family of Jphn Rich, by attribu- 
ting to him, in my Memoirs of Mr. Gar- 
rick, fbme %himfical peculiarities, which, 
iat the fame time, J faid were owing to the 


??i.l Ijili* 


negleft of his education. My afcribing to 
Ifiim /evqral amiable qualities, befides com- 
mending his profeflional abilities at Iarge» 
did not, it feems, appeaie their anger ; 
but they (hould confider, I was not wri*- 
ting the lives of the faints. 

To return to Betterton. Rich and his 
partners carried their oppreilion of the 
players to fuch a height, that an applica* 
tion to the throne, for redrrfs, became ah* 
ibliitely nectary. The nobility, and all 
perfons of eminence, favoured the caufe of 
the comedians ; the generous Dorfet intro- 
4i|C)cd Betterton, Mrs. Barry, Mrs. Brace- 
^rdle, and others, to the king, wha 
granted them an audience. William, 
though deficient in the charm of afFabilitjr 
and cohdefcenfion, with which Charles, 
his uncle, captivated all who approached 
him, was yet ready to extend his favour to 
the players. He was- not difpleafed to ie^ 
in b^ prefence two fuch wonders in the 

theatrical world as Betterton and Mrs. 

« • - ... 

Barry, whole keen exprefiive looks com* 



manded attention ^nd refped. Williant, 
who had freed all the fubje^s olF England 
from flavery, except the inhahitants of the 
mimical world, refcued them alio from the 
infolence and tyranny of their oppreilbr^. 

In a note, in the Bic^. Brit, relating to 
Powell, who was vain enough to think 
himfdf a rival to Betterton, thJs play- 
er is treated with too much COrtiempt* 
Cibber, though an enemy, does not rate 
him fo low as this writer, but attributeiJ 
his not riling to a greater, degree oi perfect 
tion, in his profeffion, to too much confi- 
dence, to idlenefs, and to intempferance. 
Though Addifon, in the Speftator, arti- 
madvcrts upon Powrffs tragic exti*avagances 
in fome lit nations of charafter, Upo»i tht 
whole he highly commends him; nof 
would the difficult part of^ Oreftes, in the 
DiftrcfTed Mother, have been ^ut into his 
hands, by *\Vaks, Dbgget, and Cibber, 
if Addifon and the author had not chofcA 
him for the part. . 


E E T T E R T O N. 39 j 

' Another i^p|:€»in the lan«Biagrapbia,nicn* 
tionsMrs* Montfoord ar}d Mrs* Verhruggeii 
4IS bek>i>ging to : Rich's conipaay of come- 
dians. The writer did not know, or at 
lesA had forgottoi^ that Mrs. Montfbrd 
was, by b*f Second marfUge, become Mrs* 
Yerbruggen. Thiis admirable comic ac- 
trefs died in childbed, 1 703 . 

After Bettcrton had^ for feveral years^ 
,a6bed as chief manager, under King Wil- 
liam's patents at the theatre in the Tennis- 
court, Lincoln's-inn fields, with tvarious 
Aiccefsi he .found that age and difeafes, 
accompanied with frequent fits of the gout, 
^advanced fo feft upon him, that he was o- 
rbKged to re$^|i the management of the thc- 
.^trc, and tov aSt only particular parts as 
often as his brt&alth.^nould permit. By his 
two laft benefits he is thought to have 
gairied near loool. and yet his circum- 
.ft^nc*s, at his death, were reproachful to 
an age, of which he w^s fo great an orna- 
ment. He died April 28, 1710, ;|nd was 
buried in .Weftminftei:-*abbey . Steele's re- 



fle£lions<, in his Tatler of MSy the 2d/ on 


fotterton^s ftmcral, are written with the 
lender fee!mg$ of a friend, and in a ((yfe 
A'gnified with fenftimcnt and pathos. 

Mrs. Betterton was the faithful compa- 
iiion and fcMow-laboorer of this grfeat co^ 
toedtan formorc than five-and-forty years. 
She excelled in comedy and tragedy j and 

T ' 

-was, according to Cibber, fo iiiperior in 
fC|M-efenting fome of Shakfpeare's charac* 
ters, elpej^ally Lady Macbeth, that cvdi 
Mrs. Barry CouM not ap{)foach her inlbrae 
paticular touches bf the madnefs inciden- 
tal to that part. Her utiderilanding was 
fi£d, add her addrefs gentle and polite; 
white her hufbahd inftrd^ed the liohlc 
male-performers in Crown% Gdliftoi a6led 
at cobrt- in i^75i' Mr%. Bettert^ gave lef* 
fcns to the Princeflcs Mary and Anne, 
daughters of James Duke of York, and 
Mrs. Sarah Jennings, afterwards the fa- 
moos Dutchefs of Marlborough. She 
fikewife taught the Prihcefs Anne the 
part of Seaiandra, in the tragedy of 




Mit&rictotes; whkh was ' alio aded at 
couit. Bettertoh' was naturally of a cheer^ 
ful difpofitiony and bul a very high conS* 
dence in providence. The wife was of a 
jthobghtfol * and ^ meltadidiy temper ; (fae 
4toar!&:vftrottgiy aSb^d .with ht$ death, 
jdiatT^ei Isaa diftraded, ^hoogh (he appear^^ 
ed' rather- a prudbntand cSoriftant than a 
fond and ^flionate wifet. They had no 
children: William Betterton, faid tp be 
his Ion by fbme miftaken writer s^ who was 
Hrown^b 'ia bathing; at WaUmg|c>rd, kk 
1662, was a man very near as old as faim<» 
feif^ las *wUi appear on confulting Dowips ; 
nor i^ittjkOQv^ that ^ was at all related to 
pur Betterton. 

A lady, iiitimately acquainted with Mz%, 
Betterton, amongft other particulars which 
(he communicated to the compilers of tha 
fiic^ra^fii^ Bf itanhica; informed them, that^ 
fome time before her death, (lie recovered 
her fetifes. Pity k is, that- the SkiviQ lady 
did 'not inform fhem of th# e%a6^ tima 
when ifht died. The Biographia- Dramatka 
, ' '^ alfcits. 




aflef ts; pofitJyely, that (te teft the i*wW fit 
months a&er the. death of hiear htf&and; in 
the Biographia Britannica^ It is morecau*- 
tioQflyfaidy that» according to dinr be^ infir^ 
mationy fhe died vhfain that time. But, 
that (he was alive about thirteen xriontiis af- 
ter, vi:z. June 4^ 171 1^ I ftmil: {irbve^ 
from the fotiowing playboufe-advertifi^ 
menf^ taken from the original edidoa of 
the Speftator : ' . . " • : .' 

. - ' * . . .1 

At the particutair defi^re of ^^ver^ ;to4i9S cH 


For the benefit of the wi^^ of the late 
famous tragedian^ - Mr. Bettertcm^ 

At the theatre-royal in Drury-fane, thh 
prefent Monday, ithe ijth df June, 

Will be prefented a comedy, called the .. 

* ' ' . - •' . . '•••1 

M A N, a F ; M o p s , pr Sir Fopliw .Flottcfe 

i I 

Betterton*s chara^ter^, ai an a^or, it 
drawn by Cibber in fo maftcrly a -ftyl^ 
that nothing equal to it^ on the ilibje^t of 



9&mgy is to be ibund» I belk>re» in wif 
language. Though to attempt any addi^ 
tion, to Gibber's complete enumeration of 
&rttarton's talents^ would be im pertinent, 
afvi> at this diftance of time, ridiculous,^^ 
to fifk up a few particulars, relating to 
this extraordinary man, from books and 
Qraltra^ion, may not be altogether wir 


Betterton was not only celebrated £ar 
bis polite beharbxtr to the^ dramatic wri- 
ters of his time, but al£b his great modefty, 
in not prefumiog to uoderftand any charac- 
Hrs^ wluch they offered to him till he had 
their repeated inftr u^iohs.. Befidcs this, 
I find him commended, in fomc verfes 
pubiLiibed m the St^te-poems^ fosi: bis hu- 
afUtfiity, in opening bis purfe, to fuch wri-. 
ters wbofe wants ftood in need of his afltifc- 
wce» and till the fuccei^. of their pieoe 
OA a third night enabled them to repay 
tbeir k^nd lender. I remember that he 
is,, in one poeio^ caJ^ksd) the poets banker. 
UnUkc CoW«y Cibbeft. he treated authors 




with good nature and good manhers; never 
«fiuining haughty and infolent behaviour. 
By his and Mrs. Barry's fupericK- exertions^ 
many an indifferent play pafTed on the 
public^ in afting, for a work of merit, 
the wondeif ul ikill of the a^or fupplying 
all deficiencies/ The dramatic writers of 
lho{c times appear to have been folly con« 
vinced of his inclination and abilities t» 
£>rward their works on the ftage. Some of 
them have left teftiraonies of their defe- 
cenc^ to his judgement and regard- for his 
friendfhip; particularly Drydenin the be- 
ginning of his preface to Don SebaftiaDi 
and Rowe in the latter part of ^hakfpeare'« 
life; " ^ 

Nothing can giv]e us a higher idea of the 
Iweetnefs of his tj^mpejr, and of his gretf 
^ffability^ than the effect his behaviotf 
produced x>n Pope, who, when firft brought 
into hfe compahy, muft'have beie^ vftfy 
youngjr and, in all probability', ^merch^f. 
£o charmed was. Pope with- th^ good tM 
.man, and he with. Pope,- that, at 3iis r«- 
«qtteft, Betterton iat to him for his pifture, 



B E T T E R T ON. 40I 

which he drew in oil. This curiofity is 
ftill to be feen at Caen-wood, in the poA 
&iIion of Lord Mansfield. So eager was 
Pope to enlarge Betterton's fame^ that 
he publilhed, in his Mifcellany, the Pro* 
logues of Chaucer modernized, in his 
name 5 but the true modemiizer, w6 
have reafon to believe, was Pope himfelf : 
Fenton, we are told by Dr. Johnfon, of- 
fered him five pounds if he would produce 
thofe poems in Betterton's hand -writing. 

From Pope's literary correfpondence, with 
Mr. Cromwell, it appears, he had informed 
him that he intended to take care of Better- 
ton's remains, meaning, I fuppofe, this 
good-natured pofthumous forgery. Pope, 
in a P. S. to one of his letters, writes 

thus : This letter of deaths puts me ia 

•■ - . . . 

mind of poor Betterton's ! over whom I 
would have this fentence of Tally for an 
epitaph, which will ferve for his moral as 
well as his theatrical capacity : ^ r . 

^'Vitse bene adse jucundiffima eft recordatio. 

Vol. III. D d - TbaC 

* Sweet i» the remembrance of a life weU a^ed. 




e(k^f9^y by perfoas of . tl^ JJ^igl^efl: napk 
gnd greateft emineiape, caxmpt bf q^Ajkuosi 
^y |iis intereft wit^ ^iprd por,^ Jwl otl^ef 
upH^wBia^ ji patent vyj^ ff^J^fei for tbc 
^vpldu^g ,4 new theatre.. Congreye 9ondfi* 
£(ff Tided to ^cept a /h^e ii^.this pIa]^houi*^ 
ftfi^to be a joint inanager Ayjltl^ Bettertou; 
J>u,t CongreYe afterwards ijpwrmd the low 
^6g^^e$ bj whioh h^ mfe tp/^iftm^oo, 
and, in his anfw«r to Collier, pretty pkin* 
}y ;condeini>s thpfe who occafioaed his j^y- 
bonCe comned^ion. 

It.ts fald^ that tUis author w;x>te a;n oc^- 
iCafional prologue, whi(?h W4f fp9J^«i by 
lidrp. Bracegir<itie^ a$ Mr, Rpw^ Si au£- 
pilogue, fpoken by IVfJjs, Barry, on thebeiW'- 
fit-pjght of Betteytqrn, April, lypp : but, 
.although tb^ epiifOgue remains ^ l«J^i(ig 
iteftimo^y of tb? author's fity^oi^e regvd 
for hispH.fripftdi the pi;9lpgue w^s witb- 
drawn^ and rueyer a|)p(^re4 %^ f^f^t.* 


• Islfc of Con^rcv^^ part ?j p* iir 

B E T T E R T ON: 403 

Sfnith, an a£lor whom Booth terms 
almoft* equal to Betterton, lived in 
the utmoft harmony with him till the 
d^th of the former in 1695. They had long 
been aflbciates in the management of the 
theatre, nor was it known that they ever 
fell into the leaft variance. Booth fpoke 
of Betterton always with refpeft and vene* 
ration. While living he paid him filial 
dtity, and the other proved a fecond father 
tohim» by his kind admonitiotts and friend^ 
ly inftrudions* It was his conftant pra^k6 
to encotuageyonng players that manifel^ed 
^y d^gf'^c. ^ merit with becoming mo^ 
dcfty. Wilks played Lyfippus, in the 
Maid's Tragedy, for his $rft part in Lon«- 
4<>n.: wlien he Q>oke to Betterton, wfad 
9^eA Melantlus, he was fo ftruck with awe 
«nd furprife, that he could icarcely utt^ a 
jine. Betterton, inftead of di&ouraging 
htm, revived his fpirit?, by telling him, 
that dpprehenfive fear of aigt audience, in a 
yoimg a^or, was jxo ill iign g( intrinfic 
merit. Whtn the mean parfintony of 

D d a Chriflopher 



Chriftepher Rich, and his partners, obli- 
ged Wilks to think ferioufly of returning 
to Dublin, Betterton laboured to convince 
them, though in vain, of their imprudence 
in parting with a young man of fuch abi- 

Of Betterton as an author, who wrote 
fome plays and altered others, more can*^ 
not with truth be faid, than that, by his 
perfeft knowledge of the ftage, he, con- 
ducted the plot and difpofed the fcenes in 
fuch a manner as to produce dramatic ef« 
fe6l:. Powns aiTures us, that moft, if not 
all| of his pieces were much applauded and 
followed} but, notwithftanding/they were 
well approved by the public^ he feems to 
have thought veiy niodeftly of them, for 
he never would confent to publiih one of 
them* His Amorous Widow, or Wanton 
Wife, was long the favourite of the town. 
Part of this play, I mean the plot of the 
Wanton Wife, which is taken from Mo- 
liere's George Dandin, is now often adcd 
as a farce^ in which Mr. Quick and Mn. 


B E'T T E R T O N. 4^5 

Mattocks play the principal parts to great 

. The piety of Mrs. Booth railed ax mpnu- 

ment to, the memory of her hufband in 

Weftminfter-abbey ; biit, though it is 

faid that Wilks, Dogget, and Gibber, and 

i Booth, Wilks, and Gibber, fucceflively. 

patentees of Drury-lane theatre, talked of 

I Paying due refpewl in marble to their old 

I xpafter in the fame cathedral, they did 

I not put their intention into pra£^ice. Mr. 

j Garrick, who, on all occalions^ was ready 

. to promote any public or generous defign, 

; could not have erefled a more lafling mo-* 

i nument to his own fame than by perpetua* 

, ^ng the memory of a man who was fo e- 

I minent an ornament of the Engliih ftage; a 

\ man, who, for univeriality of genius, was 

the only a6lor who could be compared to 

himfelf. For, if Garrick played Learand Abel 

Drugger, the other, a^ted Othello and Sir 

Toby Belch 5 the former's Hamlet and Scrub 

are not parts more difljin£t or diflant from 

each other than - Betterton's Hotfpur and 

Falftaff i the latter's Alexander the Great 

P d 3 and 



said Sir Solomon Single may be fairly con^ 
traded with ^ Garrick's Richard the Third 
and the School-boy« They >^re both ac- 
xromplifhed mailers of. their profeffion; 
and fcareely any part, in the whole perfonse 
dramatis, could be too difficult for their 
confummate abilities. 

In Garrick's mufeum, you might have 
feen multiplied paintings and engravings' 
of himfelf, in various characters ; but no 
pi6hire or print, that I can call to mind, 
of any other aftor.^ 

* Though I have proved, fn>in the title and dramatis 
perfonae of the Duke of Guife^ that Betterton, Kynaf- 
toiiy &c. were in pofleffioo of Drury-lane theatre in 
i6&3)I find, by the title and charaAersef Banks's Unhappy 
Favourite, that thia play was aAed at the £amc theatre, 
in 1685, by fome of the old eompanyi by Clavk^^. 
Griffin, Major Mohun, Mrs. Gwin, and others. 

Neither the author's prologue, nor Dryden's prologit^ 
and epilogue, give any Tight into this obfcure matter. 


C ] B'B S lU 4^j 

» \ 1 

• • ^ - / . . • • •, . . 

Itiform^tion of the Jh^e filing, to a player. ^r* 

^Ci^ifers'Low*:s lafi SMf. -r- fif chard Nor- 

. Aw> Rfyy^-^Demh.^CareleJ^Hu^ 

. Provoked H^ftfund.-Y^ ^^' aSt of Lovey hjl 

Shift. :-^, Gibber a, reproach , to other ^omic 

writer s^r^^hje^peoplf, not Jo lue^^ mthe 

dramatic poetsvr^ Gibber's mean, incomei. — ^ 

Sir Nov€ky<FdJlmn Osgood pi5ture of fops. 

— - His remarkable drefsyr^ ABrefs of Nar-* 

cijfa. — Hillaria and Amanda. — Amanda. 

^^Sir fFilUamWifewood.^^ Bwjmfon^ the 

aStor. — Mr. HordeUy an^ accomplifhed pla^^ 

. ^ er^ kiUed^—Rofe^tavern.— George PcnoeJk — 

Nantz^brandy; -^ CibSer and Verbruggen. 

"^•^ Richard Crofs s Account of Mafier^C^U 

ley.'-^Mri Aleyandtr. — Cibber a fervent in 

Sir Antony .Love* — Verbruggen mj^ihe 

puke (f St. A. ^ An odd apohg)\ ^C^f- 

D.d 4 ' t erf eld 



terfield and Gibber. -^ ^e latter' s charaBer 
by a certain writer. — Verbruggerii Orotmo^ 
io. — Tom Elrington. — Barry and Garrick. 
— More relating to Ferbruggen. — Fan^ 
brugFs Relapfe. — His comic mufe. -r- Lord 
Foppington^ Gibbers chief excellence.^ Gib'' 

ber's Mfop. •— Mr. Henderfon Prolijic 

mufe of Vanbrugh.--^ Swift and Pope. — 
Gibber's Sir John Brute. ^-^ ^in andGar- 
rick. — Comparifon between Gibber and Gar-- 
rick.^^ A cap for the ladies^ by Mr. Gar^ 
tick. — Gibber s Xerxes. — Betterton and 
Mrs. Barry. — Garelefs bujband i — cbarac^ 

*ter of the play. -^ Gibber and Mrs. Porter. 

'" «— A&'i. Oldfieldi — defer ibed at length. — 
Her great abilities :nr Mr. Manwaring and 
General Ghurchi II. —Prince and Princefs of 
Wales. — Mr. Pope. -^Narcijfa. — Mrs. 
Saunders. — l^ragedy and Mrs. Oldjield. — 

* Sophonijba. — Mrs. OldfieWs confounding a 
hifftngfpeSlator.^-Her Lady T^ownly.-^Mrs. 
Heron and Mrs.Woffington. — Wilks in Lord 

' ^ownly. — Mr. Garrick. — Barry. ^--Gibber's 
two^iinlucky paJjSons.^'-Bjs oBing tragedy.-- 

^ " lap. 

C I B B E R. 4P9. 

J^go.'-'MrMacklmsIagc andBarrf sOtbelb. 
— Cibber exploded in Scipic-^-Cibber a mana^ 
ger. -^Choking Jinging'-birds \ — Gibber's me^ 
tbod of it. — An anecdote. — Colonel Bret. — 
Cibber accufedof pilfering from plays left in 

. bis bands. — His method of treating authors^ 
— Wilks and Booth. -^Dogget j — his cbarac^ 

. ter.^DickyNorris and Bullock. — Mrs.Por^ 

ter. — Gibber's love of gaming. — Sir Courtfy 


Nice. — fTilks a reformer. — Powell.--^ Ori- 
ginal fpeSlator. — Addifon and Steele. — 
Powell and a bailiff. ^— Cibber mijiaken. — 
Booth beloved. — Harper and Shepherd. -*- 
^be. Settle. — Power of envy. — Garrick and 
Cibber. — Cibber s repartee to Garrick. — 
Elrington. — Gibber's charaBer concluded. 

TO a player we arc indebted for the 
reformation of the ftage. The firft 
comedy, a£ted fince the Reftoration, in 
which were preferred piirity of man-) 
ners and decency of language, with a iliue- 
refpe£l to. the honour of the marriage-bed, ; 
was Colley Gibber's Love's laft Shift, ov 
the ;Fool in Fafhion* The principal plot 



of this pUy was not anktievm to the Efi^< 
lifli titeatre : Amanda's fcbeme to afhire 
her proffigafe hufband to her artns, by 
perfbnatmg another woman^ fefemble§ the 
coirtpivanccbf Helen in AlFs well that ends 
wen> and ftill more, I believe, the wilt's 

fehetne in Shirley ^$ Gamefter. The foe- 
cefii of this piece exceeded greatly the aft- 
tlior'^ expe^ation ; but fo little was hoped 
from the genins of Cibber, that the critics 
reproached him with ftealinjj his j^y. To 
his cenfurers he makes a ferions defence of 
himfelf, in his dedication to Richard N6r- 
ton, Eiq. cfSoUthwick, a gentleman who 
was fo fond of ftage plays and players, that 
he has been accnfed of turning his chs^l 
into a theatre. 

The furious John Dennb, who hated Cib^ 
ber, for bbftrt(6ting, as he im^ned, tbe 
prbgrsf^^ of his tragedy, called The Invader 
of hi^Country^in very paffibn^te terras desiies^ 
Itt^ tl^TA to this coQxody i ^ Wheit tbe Fool^ 
in Fa&ion was firft ailed,' faysthe eritic» 
«^. Cibber w^ hardly twenty years of age ^ 

.11 /. • '* mo* 

C I B B E ft* 411 

now ccmkl he, at the age of twenty, writr 
a coiriedy xwth a jttft defign, diftinguiflwd 
characters, and a proper dialogue, who 
now, at forty, treats us with IHberniaii 
fcnfc and Hibernian Engfifh ? ' 

Poor Cibber f it was his hard fate to 
have his beft comedies attributed to any bo- 
dy but himfelf. His Carelefs Httiband 
was, for a long time, given to the Duke of 
Argyle and other nobfertien. Nothing could' 
put ah endtofuch ung^fieicpus and weak fug-! 
geftions but his fcenes of in the' 
Provoked Hufbahd, . which he proved to be 
his own hv printing the unfinifhed MS., of 
Sir John Vanbrugh^s play, called a Jour-^ 
ney tb London. Soni6 comic charafters. 
cff this writer were feyerely treated by the 
audience, tecaufe fuppofed to be written' 
by Cibber. . ' ,^ 

In;l40ve*s laft Shiff/..the\atKliehceyerc 
particularly charmed with the great Icenc,,* 
in the^ laft adl?, where tRe ill- treated and a- ' 
bandoned wife reveals herfclf to her fur-^ 
jfrifed arid admidiig huibstttd. ' The joy of 




imexpeAe^ reconcilement, from Lovelefs^s 
jemor/e and penitence/ fpread fiKh an un- 
coounon rapture of pleafure in the au- 
di^ence, that never were fbe6lators more 
happy in eafing their minds by UDCommon 
and. r^>e^cd plaudits. The honefl tears^ 
Ihed by the audience at this interview, con- 
veyed a ftrong reproach to our licentious 
poets, and to Gibber the higheft mark of 
lionour. The uncommon run of this co* 
medy, which I have been told formerly, 
by feveral who lived at that time, was 
greatly admired and followed, is a convin- 
cing proof that the people at large ^^re never 
ID viciousas to abandon the caufe of decen* 
cy and vir^upj and that it w?is entirely ow- 
ing to pur dramatic .writers, themfelves, 

that .|>lays. were not leflbns of morality as 

«'<•<• *- • ..•»■*, 

well *as amuiements of pleafure. While 
Congreve's plays ^were afted with applaufe 
at Lincoln's-inn- fields theatre. Gibber's 
tpvf^sj^ Shift, Vanbrugh's Relapf«» ^^ 
Souther^'? Or^eonokp, were fucxefsfully 
oppofed to them at Dniry-Iane.. But, 



t . ;ll 

^ C I B B E R. 4r^ 

* . t- f , • ' 

while Cibber, by his new comedy, and his 
peculiai' merit in aftihg foppifh and other 
parts, drew crouds after him, the parfi^ 
moiiious and ungrateful patentees allotted 
him no larger income than thirty or for^ 
(hillings per week. ' , 

Sir Novelty Fafhion was a true. pi(Su« 

of manners in the fop or the tVmesi. B<i- 
fore this author vi^rote, our'afFe^ed gentle^ 

men of the ftage were, *I believe^ x^ot (jiii^ 
{o entertaining with their extravagances, 
nor fo learned in their profeffion of fop- 
pery. Etheridge's Sir Fopling Flutter it 
rather a copy of Moliere's Marquis than 
a thing of Englifli growth. Crown's Sir 

Courtly Nice is, in a few ftiadows, diftinft 

■•■• • ' 

from the other, by being more inlignifi- 
cantly foft and more pompoufly important. 
Sir Courtly's fong, of* ftop thief! ' is a 
tranflation from a fonnet of the Frenchi 
poet. The prefenting the reader with Sip 
Novelty's drefs will revive the idea of 
the long-forgotten beau of King William's 
lime. In the genuine language of a fop, 



who experts his miftrefs .ilipuid ^drnkt 
liun jfor bis outfide ciecoration rather 
tiiaii the accotopiiftiments of his mind. Sir 
Novelty tells Narcifla,that his fine faftiion- 
td fuit raifes a great number of ribbon- 
weaVers : ^ In fhort,' madam, the cravat- 
ftring, the garter, the fword-knot, the 
cln^urine^ the bardalh, the fteinkirk, the 
ia^e button^ the plume, aind full peruke, 
were all created, cried down, and revived, 
l)y toe/ Such a drefs of antient foppery, 
'exhibited at a mafquerade, would draw as 

many admirers as any habit of modem iix- 

• ♦ ■ . - • " 


In his Narcijia, ^fied by Mrs* Mont- 
ford, Cibber drew v\ outline of a coquet 
m high life ^ of which character he aftei> 
vards made a finiflied pi^ur-e, in his Lady 
Betty Modiflu Befides the honour of re- 
forming the moral of comedy, Cibber was 
the firft who introduced men ani women 
of high quality on the ftage, and gave them 
language and manners fuitabk to their 
rank and birth» . 



C I 3 B E.a. . 41S 

. MrSt Cibber, , tljc wife of CoHey, whpfi^ 
n^me is feldom tpbefbund in aiiyof tlwper^ 
^nsi» dr,amatiS) was hi$ HiUaiif • So muc!l^ 
depended on Afpan^a. ^d clpecially ih the 
jtwolafl: a6ls, that the/ijccefs 9f theplay muit^ 
in fonie meafujre, beowin^ to.thc aftrcfs^ 
Mrs* l^ogers, who contimied a fawu^ite 
^the puhlk till hfif rperit was ecUpfed by 
the fuperior fpleiidox ©f an Q14fi?!dvVSir 
"WilUam WifewQJuld, the old gentleman, 
who pretends to . great command over his 
^ailiops, and is conftantly fiibdued by 
thisni, is^ I think, a new qharafter 5 an4t 
•I believe, the firA, of confequence, which 
^ve old Ben Jonfon an opportunity to dis- 
cover, his great comic powers : he had beeji 
juit hrpi^ht to London from an itinerant 
foropany^ The audience fa w his merl^ 
«od cheriihed it through life; from 1695 

Mr. Horden^ the fon of a clergyman, a 
very promifing young aftor, and remarka- 
ble for his fine perfon, was. the Ypun^ 
Wprthy. This, gentlemad was bred a 

Icholar : 



^liolar : he complimented George Powell, 
in a Latin encomium, on his Treacherous 
Brothers^ He was foon after killed, in an 
accidental fjray, at the bar of the Rofc- 
tavern, which was at that time remarkable 
for entertaining all forts of company, and 
fubjeft, of cohfcquence, to riot anddifor- 
der. . In this houfe George Powell Ipent 
great part of his time > and often toafted, 
to intoxication, his miftrefs, with bum- 
pers of Nantz-brandy ; he came fometimes ^ 
fo warm, with that noble Ipirif, to the 
theatre, that he courted the ladies, fo fu- 
rioufly on the ftage, that, in the opinion of 
Sir John Vanbrugh, they were almoft in 
danger of teing conquered on the f^qt -* 
Powell was a principal player of Drury- 
lane when Love's laft Shift was fi'rft afted : 
fome quarrel or difference between him and 
Cibber, we may reafonably fuppofe, pr^* 
vented his having a part in the play, confi- 
dering there were two, at leaft, well fuitcd* 
to his abilities, Lbvelefs and Young Wor- 
thy. Verbruggen he chofe to rcprefcnt 


-CI B B E K* — " 417 

tbe ibrmen As the Mifcellanies are draw* 
ing to a coaclofion^ I fliall not nave ib fit 
an opportunity to. do juftice t6%e merits 
of an adfcor of whom Cibber Ypeaks fb 
fparmglyand coldly. - 

Clbberand Verbruggen were two diflipa* 

ted young fellows, whodetcrmmol, in op« 

pofition to the advice of fricinds/'to become 

great 2^o&. Much about the fame time; 

they were conftant attendants a]|^n Downs^ 

^thc proibpter of Drury-lahe, 4x1 expefta- 

' tion of employment. What ^c fiift part 

was, in which VttbtUgg^ ^fBfiguilhed 

hhnielf, cannot noW^bc^ktfown. But Mr. 

. Jlschard Crofsi BiW^'pfiwh^ter of ' Drury- 

lane tbea^e, give Da^tbf^ following hiftor}( 

of CoUey CibbcrV firi! «ftabUfIiment as i 

hiied ador. He was- known onlyv for 

fome years, ^by the name of Mailer CoUcy. 

After waiting impatiently along tifhefor 

the prompter's notice^ by-^oiklfortune he 

obtained the honour of carryiYig ^ a meflag^ 

on the ftage, in fome play, to Betterton. 

Whatever was the caujfe> Mttfter Ck>lley 

Vol. IIL E e wa& 


4i^ DRAMATjjq^ l^^qe^LANIESV 

repUed, * Mafter Coljfy;.', j (iin . ^: ]V^S#$r 

^I:Ci^i^-i>^i&i >tilL-tI»: fecdfioa of 
^itY* V .'. ..Betterton 

• I c 

C 1 B B E R • - 410 

^ettejton and others, from Druiyilane, in 
.1695. The fiutbor of the Laurcat fays, 
that .the name^ of Colley w^ inferted in 
the charafters of fcveral playsi Fqr 
this I 4iave fearc^ed in vain^ the ^adieft 
|u:o,of of Gibber's appeanyng 'in -a^jripart «s 
amongft the dramatis peribnesof Soothenf's 
Sir Antony Love, aftcd for the firft time 
in- i6^j^ in which his name, is gUced to 
a Spryatjt*. ,That .yerbruggea .aij4.^l>- 
ber diijiot; accorij is ipl^nly, infimiated, by 
the author «f the X»a«ireat* *.. It was 
knawfi that the farmer would refent an 
injury, and that the latt^r's valour was en- 
tirel^paflive.: The temper of Vo-bri^^gen 
may: be known from a j^ory, ; which I |iavc 
been often told by the old comedians as a 
certain faft^ and wl[^djj&>i^ into 

feme temporary publication, : . • 

- Ymhhiggi&y m'jL <iii|ial|c viikh Xftiiof 
l^ir^ Ch&rles's iUeptinlate fons^ wad fo 

E € z far 

■ *^* I -*^ * L^ 



far tranfportedy by fudden ^ anger, as to 
'ftrikchim and call him afonof a whore.- 
tThe affront' was given; it feems, behind 
the (cenes of Drury lane. Complaint was 
'made of this^daring infult on a nobleman; 
and VerbVuggen was told, he muft' either 
not aft jfe London, or fubmit publicly to iafk 
the noblenian*s pardon. During the time 
of his being interdifled acting, he had en- 
"gaged himfelf to Betterton's theatre. He 
confented to aflc pardon^ onlibcrty granted 
to exprefsc his fubmiilion in his own terms. 
He came oh the ftage drefled for the part 
of Oroonoko; and, after the ufual pre- 
face, owned that he had called the Duke of 
St. A. a fon of a whore : ' It is true, and I 
am forryfor it/ Oh faying this, he invi- 
|ed the company prefent to fee him ad the 
part of Oroonoko at the theatre in Lin- 
coln's inn fields. 

To Gibber's paffivc valour Lord Chdlcr- 
iield ironically, alludes in a wieekly paper 
(ailed Common- Senfe : ^ Of all the come- 
^ipif^jt V^<> b^v^ appeared on the flage in 


GIBBER. 421 

my memory^ no one has taken a kicking 
with (bch humour as our exceljent laureat/ 
He is thus charaflerized, in the Hiftoiy of 
the two Stages : * He is always repining 
at the fuccefs of others; and, upon the 
ftage, is always making his fellow-a^ors 
iineaiy/ Whatever glofs Cibber might pui 
on his condu6V, and however, in hist Apo- 
logy* he may extol the equanimity oif his 
own temper, there is too much reafon to her 
lievc part of this charge to be true. Cib- 
l)cr, nowcvery chofe Verbruijgen for ,bis 
Loveleis, iand certainly froni a confidence 
in his. fupcrior abilities^ in pr,eferencc to 
any other actor. ^ . 

In 1606, Yerbruggcri was called upon to 
an exertion of his tafents in tragedy.' ' The 
part . of \ Oroonoko was affigtidl hilfn by 
Southern, by the Ipecial advice of Wil- 
liam . Cavehdifli, . the fifft Duke of Del 
vonihire. 'This we arc told in the dedica- 
tion to nis grace : he adds, * that it was 
Verbruggen's endeavour, in the perform- 
ancc of that part, to merit the duke's re- 

£03 commendation.' 


cotryneadatiqn/ J^ more cxaJted charac* 
ter,^ dimifiVd with the nobleiQt fa(;uities 
pf the mindi is not. to. be found ih. the 
En|;liQi theatre. Thp.paflion of love is hp 
wliere fo tenderly pr ardently axpr^fled. 
Cihl?er m^axily. drogs ^ny mention . of th^ 
mBxivfliO firfl; ^fted this great prigi^ai part. 

Firogi Verbrdggen'^s Oroonqko, Tom 

' •> , *,.-^^ 

Elfipgton, ah excellent general player^ 

"•* ••», y, ... 

cayght a,moft noble flaijie of imitation. — ^ 
Ii>.t|ie_furpnfe of Oroonokp^ bti his unex- 
pefledJy meeting w^h Jmpmda, a''ifett|atio4 
whick calls for aij aftbr bf^ tl^e gregjte/l^gcr 
nius, Ellington. charme4 alL who, faw, his 
a^on and hearci his exprefCpn. I have 

Barry :iitB(eJf, was not always e<jqal|y hap- 
py ip .thi^.fjapcrior lover. . Garnck fe|doni 
fajkd^, bjit l>€f w^s^not equajly, fuccefsful ii; 
di^oonofeo ; thQ kiire of his'eye ^Jf as ioft i^ the 
fhad§;0^ tip Wac^j;, colour ; nor was ,his voice 
fo finely adapted to the mel|:ing and paflibnate 
addreflfesand feelings of the lover ^ fo the 

^ more 

moft difficult characters. He was the" dh- 

Pa?ffll^zttj arttt%^^ttt!toa^tftai^Mat 
Aitt^^hrft^e'piArt^his'rtot !|feeiieiqtikff^ajfty 

fined. It'is fed,l«Jd<iee6cttfted tiiaVh'e'filgflp 

fefB^ef, a$ twil rfs' in dllV^f ^r4t^"cl?^ 
imti^i d^fihe copy 6f ^eiirugf^^A.^ Wft^ii 
tiW rHabiigtfi^ WDrury-I^hfe^g^vfe ^ajfe'^Vj 

fl^-lifttetficdttipfelrfta^t^ j^tttlf bf tW^diT- 
gt-Sefe*: Bbbtb'tbia ItitB', ffifingtofl'^tttiM 
ktk& likie facft af6fei^as5il^srW)i^rt V^l 
Ifruggdtt'dicd'we'Wav^ trt) cc*trfin ac^bvAAP; 'li^^ 
can»I«rtdHSS i«frie't8-kn'^ Jjart 4tJ'^ 34VJ»SJ 
fef thrfrt' that of StiUbh iiT^ffiiS$tl-^t&|Sitf, 

*aed Srt^m^firtWjpf. ' ;f X fiiiH-ti)>^'s 
cH^rri^r iwtheWdrd^Sdf aiktte MM^ '^ 

^as^ 'in many parts^ an .excelLent afl^oc .In 

BV 4' ' Caffius, 


Caflias, Oroonoifo^ Ventidius^ Chamont, 
Pierre, Cetbegus, (in tragedy,) as well as 
feveial in comedy, as the Rover, &c. he 
was aa, original ; ai^d had a roughnefs, and 
a Qeglii^t agreeable-wildnefs, in his man- 
ner, a£^ion, tand mein, which became him 
well.* . 

Gibber's next ftep to fame was his bfeing 
honoured, by JSir John Vanbrugh, with a 
^antibuation of his Love's laft Shift, in 
the Relapfe^ or Virtae in Danger. Of all 
language in comedy, that of this author is 
the moft natural, and the moft eafyto 
leamby rpte. The Thalia of Vanbrvgh 
reienjbles a female who charms by thena^ 
tive beapty of her perfon, the fprightlineu 
o^i hejr air, and> ii^mplicity of her dre^ ; 
though^ jat th^ fame time, flie exerts 
her influence to fteal into your heart and 
corrupt it. Thte ftyle of this writer is 
Af^e thi^ lapguage of conyerfation than his 
liciendLCoQgr^vc's. Din^, when you will with 
thie latte.nv yeu are fure to feail : to have 
she chaiceft A^, pheaiant,^ partridge, ve* 

, " * nifon, 


* Lsuircat, p. 58. 

€ I B B E 1U 42$ 

liifen, tortib» &c. With the other yom 
have delicious fare, it is true, hut hlended^ 
with the{Jainefl:difiies^ the furloitiisnot 
baniflied to the fide^board, nor mU you he 

at a lofs to find ^ joint of mutton. 


; Thctroxcombrknight, Sir Novelty> j« 

the Fool in Faihion, is, in the Relapl^' 

digniSed with a title. Lord Foppingtoa 

i^-exaltod into a higher degree of folly thA 

lllejcpight; the author has placed Jiim m 

iri^ore Wbimiical iitoations to excite nurtk 

GiJ?bec> Foppington 1 h^ve often fe^: m 

the iaHiioiis of the times altered, he ad-^ 

jilAed bis aSioh and behsvioartothem, anil 

introdocedeveryipeciesof growing fpppery. 

•^ Cibbcr excelled in a variety of comk 

^ara^ers ; but his perfeflion of action 

was the coicomb of quality, and especially 

his Lord Fdppington, in the Carelefs Hof^ 

band, which is a very fine draft of a maia 

of good parts fbpping beyond the bounds 

of &nk by peculiarity of exce&: in dre& 

suid behaviour.. 

. In Vanbrugh's comedy of ^fop, Cibbcar 
a^c^ the principal character with that eafy 




gram ty- If bids >bccaHHes tbec iBMt «4io< uiu 
i In>:prai!rQUnffmg: idfici &Efii» :c^ JE^f^^ 

tatne than, Prtor^s^i "wduidi aM: ^prbfbflfcil^r 

B^tt^iln^; exods all ftcen^ ^tioib^ wtfis^ 

ceivia^tund^titterifl^ llhs: fpnit^ p^sLiyauiiltoi^ 

iof >&e: ikio(l^ f«mlktsr.«Kb agreeablGDmMnefv 

Ait.beri &vflr.oi3&6^ feheimi&xii^Vatibragbi 

Y€i»i)n<ot)tha;rA)ie.braiigbt £dftli> tbnte^eoole-^ 

2gc! 9^ Afangy dd(ireitortbrow;abis^ 

perfi^i^:ofibiaii|neces^. fasrh^intniiiube^iSry^ 

Enan^ bis Parfon Bull, in the-'Udaflfej watr 
atftdtlielr vt^ifi^iefetitativo ofjiilotmtd'Or- 



. CI B B.E.R. .4*7 

(}er. Pope was at a lofsto SwiftV 
Unalterable ^iflike to V^brugh : I think 
the daubt is'ieafily refalved, from the poet's 
yidiculje of cnurqiimen^ . * ' 

Cibper's Sir Jp^^ Brute was copied frpm 
Beitertqni ^s fer as a w.ealfe pipe andean in- 
cxpreflive mpagce coantcnance could' be^ 
^ny feleinblance to tne vigc^rous original^ 

I have, feeii him aB: jthia part with great 
aijd cSeiervcd abptaiife ; his Ikttt was fo 

njaftqrly, thati inr Ipite of 'rtatural impedi- 

mei>ts, he^exmbitea a faifhftit' piftdfe df 

this wor{]^p/ul./ cle^auchee. ' Vinfcruglt 

w^Sjy I fu£pofe, prevailed; upon by Cib- 
be.r to transfer the abuie on the clergy ta 
a fatirical pi^ lire 6n women of fafbion, in 
a fcene Wfakh 'Ci^er aftcd^ wfthr mticH 
pleaAtttry; Hte tbrtAc * ftelihg f w&fcfi 
drunk, and' after receiving the challenge 
bfConftant, wlten 'he fourid*^ hlnr and 
Heartfree in his wJft'i dofet; was initni^ 

fighted wjth h^i^ ; tltat dhey ' renewed 
tl;eirr(>udeft''approijaitibjfi'ieveral'' times. 

. - ' - i :. . .- , Qy|^. 

> 4. • I 


Qpin, for fcvcral years, was the Brute of 
Lincoln's-inn fields and other theatres. I^ 
was xn general a moft valuable pefformef 
in comedy* In Sir John Brute,, he kerned 
to have forgotten that he had ever beoi a 
gentleman, ofwhichpart of the charafter 
Clbber and Garrick retained the remem- 
birance through every fcene of Br utc'^ riot and 
&bauckery, Quin>. befides, in this part, 
wanted variety^ and that glow and warmth^. 
Id colouring, the extravagances . of this 
incrry rake, without whi^h the pi£lure 
Tcmaiiis imperfefl and unfinifhed. 

When Garrick was firft announced for 

Bnitc^ various were t^e opinions of the 

pfcgr.gqing people. ,. Quia fwprc that he 

might poflTibly a6l Ma^er Jafky Qrute, but 

that it was impoffible he (hould ever be 

_^ ' - ' ' 

Sir John Brute. The public alihoft unam- 

mouily fet the ftamp of approbation on his 

manner of reprefentipg this character upoi^ 

hisfirft^ttempt. After be had; fully (atis- 

fied his fancy, and ripened his judgement 

by the experience of two or three years, he 


.C I B fi £ R; . , . 4x9 

t . .^ ■. ... .-... |fc 

jwras pronounced to4jc 4^ . jpprffa in du^ 
as in any of his moft^pprpvcdparts, . 

Though Gibber's performance in Brule 

was jullly admired, thofe, who can call ^ 

remembrance the different portraits q( thb 

riotous debauchee» as exhibited by thdc 

two ^eat mafters, will, I believe, jufti^ 

mc in giving the preference, on the whole;, 

to Mr. Garrick. . The latter had, amon^ 

other advantages, a more expreflive couio- 

tenance, and a much happier tone of 

voice ; his, aO^on, too, was more diver- 

iified, and his humour leis confined. — 

In the Bacchanalian fcene,with Lord Rake 

and his gang^ /r^ni deficiency of power 

and look, Cibber fell greatly (hort of Gar- 

ricks here the latteTcWas n^oft triumphaitt- 

. iy riotous, and kept the i^£latbrs in cart-, 

tinual glee. . Cibber's pale face, tame fea-» 

tyres, and weak pipe,* did riot preferit ila 

full a contraft ^o fem^Ic^elijc^y, , wh^^ ^ 

woman's apparel,' af Gf^arrick'^s ftrongpr- 

mark^d features, maply voice, and more 

ftyrdy aftion. The cap, which he ordered 




Yo^ wade ftr ifiis^Tcehe, Wa^ a faiiritai 

ftroke upon the ' ^aft cjuaritilj' of gauze^ 
>ibb6n, blond lace; flowers, Iruil,. her- 
page, &c, with' which' the ladies, about 
agtit'ye^rs firicii, ufed to aaorn theirbeads. 
^Fter. ehlargips fo mucTi on the jjreat per- 
feflioh of aCtinjg Which' CibVer dirplayed m 
the clotet-fQefie, ' wherfe* Conftant and 
fteartfree are difcovered, I cannot there 
iive the preference to G^rrick, though of 
all the a6tdrs of drunken- fcenes he was al- 
lowed to be the moft natural and diverting} 
but impartiality requires me here to give 
the patoi to t^ibber. 

In 1699, Cibber was unhappily feizecl 
with a paffiori for writing tragedy, *— 
This bfoiight forth* his Xerxes ; but the 
patentees and a£ttors of Drury-lafte rejefled 
tis tragic T^f at fo, abfblutely, that he was 
reduced to the riecefSty of applying to the 
company of J^incolii's ma fields. 

Betterton confehted to aft this tragedyi, 
en condition the atithor would pledge hi$ 
credit to pay all ilicidental expence^, in 


6o0|i *fMf« tbeauAorcmplD^ttiluBtlh- 
|(mt¥ n»9ife im^^fy in wndng the C9t6k& 

4«d4urif, y^y ^efaev^lj^ to a^^ bigk nwl: 
WDOfag^ ^<Hir 4r»i»<A«:. vrriters. Xfae pkc 

UTs^ Uk9rtin'^^ VflU^ the jdiid and gcacma 
buibanel* ^ #pettm|^, . i/Oi theur fall ludi-t^ 
t|iff^Mmab^ci.oncli)^of apflident and neglcd;* 
(xl wiffi |: ^:the m$m ^9t vvas adcbd,ia«aL 

^n4edlove„ l;o(re(^c0, )>y jqaiottfy^ a Ibve^ 

a r^ pafi|(^ :^a ivprthy andcostftant lb- 
ser^ The dialog^a of -the f4a^ . is -eafy ' and 
Sla^f^^9 .pc9geriy» el^Mated tio'thc xankof 
the perfons^ drftmati^t . The aSis feem tdl^ 
hc^made up of nothing but chit-chat, 


Acmgh tfre'chiura^iers are weU difi:riin&[« 
ited and the plot regularly proceeds. CibbeT 
was fond of fcenes of recoocili^on : ik 
t&ree or four of his comedks,* he has 
wrought them up with incidenb (6 n^und 
and interefting^ and iti a ftyle fa truly af* 
&6^ing» that they afford perpetual fbufce 
of pleafureto an audience. So wdldld 
Cibber^ though a profeSed lil^rtine throu^ 
fife, underftand the dignity of virtue, djat 
fio comic author has drawn moredelightM 
and ftriking jwftures of it. Mrs. Portcri 
wpon reading a part, in which Cibber had 
painted virtue > in the ftrongeft and mo& 
fively colours, af&ed him how it ctoie td 
pa&,, that a man, who could draw fbch 
admirable portraits of goodneis, fhould 
yetliye as if he were a ftranger to it ? -^— 
^ Madam," faid CoUey, * the one is abfo- 
Bately neceflary, the other is liot.' 

::.^ ^ The 

* Love% laft Shift, Carclcfs Huftand, Wi^'s R«- 
ftQtpnept^ Provoked Huibtn^t 

1 1 B B E I^. ' 433 

. ... r • • . 

' Tlie firft (hining proof of Mrs. Olclfield's 
fflerit Was pitxlticed in the Carel^fs J^vlT- 
l)and ;; kittle known before, fhe was Biarely 
fuffered. Her Lady Betty Moc(i{h at once 
diicovcred arccomplifhmehts to Yrhic&^tljtc 
public were Grangers. 

Mrs. Oidfidd was, in perfon, ' talt, gtn^ 
fee!, and wtU ffiapcd j her cotrntdnltAC(^ 
pfeafing and -cxprcffive, enlivened with 
hrgfe faking eyes; which, in £>me parti- 
ctilaf comic fituatiohs, fte kept l^tf^ihutj 
elj)6ciaHy when (he ' intended ' to gite cff^ft 
to Tome brilliant "or gay thought. -fA 
Ij^fightlinefs of air, ' arid elegance 'of knan« 
lier, 4he eicefled all adreffesy zn& Was 
^i^tly fispefior^ in the" cicsfr, 'ferioroiisi 

add harmdnious, toitfetf tit h& Voide." ' : -^ 

* " • ♦ • • • • » 

' By being a welconie arid coriftant vilitolr 
to families- df diftin€tion, Mrs. Otdneld 
acquired- ah (f levant 'iaid graceful dbpdlt- 
ment in reprefehtirtgwomeh 'of higfi^ tUxk I 
She' ex^i-efibd the foitiAients of Lady" £fitt^ 
Modifli and Lady fownly in a i^aniier io 
ToLm. F f eafy. 


.tyas intfQ^UC(;4'ta. Qhriftppher Rich i)y ,5ir 


^j^/h^ia. fQn by t^cKof tbeiegcntleincQ.--f 

c}?yj^e4, ,f|D)^^ .T% rpX'^ lap^y ^4 no* 
Prince . ^^. l?5ip<ipf& qf W^J^^, oft<;ji cpn.- 

^i$!^\ mi^Y?^^^ W^^l^.y^tli;^ 

c<?flM>affioii, beftow€|4 a yearly jj^fnliQi^ of 


50!. on tneuQtortun^te Sgv^!^,:;^J^^ 
enjoyed tQ h&i^ death. Dri J(^iba feeiiii 
to approve Skimps nw ttteBi^fcig ^M^. 
mory. of his benefaftrefs in a pc^^ivu ,, &it, 
/urely, nt might have written, wrles onjbis^ 
pitrbiitts withoiit oftehce to "d^ccncy^, or 
fiiorality. Mrs . dldEeidl was.gqierp^s an4 
Kuma^e, wat<y, well brcg/. aad uniwrwlly 

or her Urac. , Tnefe arc topics Mr. Savage, 
might have infifted upon withQut .yfQm^ 
inghis biety. , . , / 

Pope, who leems to haye prpfec\)tcd the- 
name of,t)layef with a njaliraancy, u^ 
thy of ^epius, ' ih his Art of'j'^ipBni^ 
in ; t^^^ ; A^gmatized' her^ x6nvcrfir. 
tion by the word OldfieldifmQs^ vhicjh nc. 
printed jft ^ Greek character?. There c^- . 
not be a doubt, that he meant Mrs'. 01d-» 

^^^4J>y, tHe dying coquet,, ia.his Epiftk 
on the Characters of IVlcn ? . .,,;.,. , k ^ ,., 

Wtre xht U& worHs which poorNarciflk fppke.^-* 

Ff2 No! 

No Met & charaiiog chintz and Boificls la^ 

Qm*j*ciflct* Mt^ ?ur'd, W frigbi^l vi^hen dhe's deW}^ 
Aoc^ Be^tjSi give thil cheek a littk red. . 


' The Betty here mentioned is fuppofed to 
Bave been ,1VIrs. Saunders, Mrs. Oldfield's 
friend and "confidante, a yery good aftrefs 
in parts of 'decayed .widows, nuries, and 
old maids. . Sne 'retired from the ftage in 

die World,' for' the benefit of Mrs. 
Totfligfcr, fboh after, by' marri^ge^ the 
honourable Mrs, Finch. .Mrs. Oldfield 
fiici, foir a lorig time, conceived a' diflike 
fo a£ting parts iii frajgedy ; but thei cohr' 
ftant applatife, ^ which foIlo^Ved her tragic 
feprefentatioh, * reconciled her tp Mclpo^ 
mene. ' ' Htt laft new pfrt,^ in tragedy^ was' 
Thptnpfqn's Sophonilba. The author, bc- 
fiows, in his/(hort advertiiemejit tp the 
phuf^ ' i vtty nigti ericoqiium^ on hc^: a6li6n 
anddq)ortment in that hbbl6 character. — 
In reply- to ^fpflafe- degradiiig eicprefficmof 


■ClBBER; ^ ' 437 

•Maffinifla, relating to Cartlfagif.^^^trtte?- 
•cd the ifbllowing lime, ' ''In.i.. .'hq j 

Net one bafe word of Carthage, for thy fo'ulT— 

with fuch grandeur in hef at^ion; a look fb 
tremendous, and in a voice fo powerfiil, 

that it is faid (he even afVonifhed Wilks. 

' * '1* ' **■ 

her MaflinifTa ; it is certain the aiidieiide 
were ftruck, and expreficd* their /eelih|s by 
the moft uncommon applaufe.^ To gain a 
more, complete knowledge of this ^£lrefs*s 
diftingUifhed faculties of ple^fing, the rea- 
4er muft perufe tlie latter.erid of Gibber's 
preface to his Provoked Hufband. 1ft all 
the tumults and dkfOirbances of the thea^ 
^tre, on the firft night of a new ^ray,'^hich 
was form&rly a time of thqf% daiigerb'ccs 
Tervice, to theaftors, than it his bceti of 
late, Mrs. Oldfield was entirely friiftrefs ct 
herfelfs (he thought it Ikr duty' amidfk 
the moft violent opposition and tiproar, tb 

exert the utmofl of her abiJitie^ to (erve the 

' . ' ' ' . ' . * • ' ' . 

author. In the comedy of the Provoked 
'Hufl>and, Cibber*s enemies tried all their 
power to get the play condemned. The 

F f 3 reconciliation- 

^1$ drama:|19 miscellanies. 

uppn the fenfibleand gqicirort^^^^^lf tlwjftv 
dienpe,. tt^at ^he conclufion was greatly and 
.gci?cr9ufly approved. . Amidft athpi^and 
applaufes, Mrs.. Oldfield came forward to 

W^: fo-*^P'?^^-*. ^'^''» when die >d 
'pronouncai the firft line, — r- 

J. ('..'> ;. i ... ; . 

a^.m^ji, of 90 diflinguiOie^, .ap.p«u:anrt, 
^opi t|;ie fea^ next to th? qr<^ftra^ falvM 

her with a. hiis.' SJie £xed her we upon 
iW'^f^nif^^^^^? P^a^^a y€r3^,fli^qrt j^.dc, 
^4 fp^t:e, th^. WQr4?p^flr (re^ure / Jqmi 

.M;5iM «>^ W^ .^9ff?-. pity, .^W 

^oij|(?j^pt^^^hat, til? iriof^ uncp?iimpjft^^ 
•£l^«^jr5r^.^i^%d., her coiiidi*a.i^ thji^rp?!;^ 

.^ed fo; grjjc^ully ijatp. the; fpi|>l<Bs>' anii dtf- 


-I"; *• 'i' ' ' ' . ' i 

C I fi B E fe. 439 

w«irari, to(^ leftfibfe 6f hep charms; 'fefo 
iebftfidtfet of il«r'p<M^,'ih<i fed aWay tj^jier 
pi(R6n -foi* p!ea/bffev ■ tfcat ftb fhccSe^ing 

guifhed excellences in rfife chaf a^ia*'. ' Mf«. 
Hetoti, W iuccefieif, ' and tfift "b^tftlfull 
Mrs. WdtftlgtoH, aiite''!^ekffett fp.fef. \" 

- Cibbe* h^s; irt his Jirifice t5' tiis filif, 
vftry-jtrftl/cJottttnewdfedWllk^ /or ftiis itt^hly 
aifumed Ipirit in Lord Townt^. ;' ' • 
Wilki was fo mucfi ih6 itsi jfifft^'^en- 
<l«i!n«rt, that,' in th« fciirte ; V^itt^ lii^- wis 
Heduced ta ihe heceffiif of rt^tdii 
*laAy TofWrnty isfrkh frer ht^s, m his 
ivarflrtft artgcr he tiii^^d itiiCh teft^rj- 
nefir as *jras ' fofteked' in t© tears. ¥Ke "^acf t 
•liai not bcctt e»qtrsrf!y ft/pjjwted-^y sttiy' a<J- 
tei* fiftce. 

Mr. Garriik, in Loftf T o<*hfy, fetmdd 
cv€# to be iJrtder i^ftralrrtf . Ha' fte^f ^di 
•hi« natural' iihpetuofity 6i • htudh, lh"atS He 
foft th^ i^iiit'of the Provoker HollSarti 

- Daring the eititrate Of reebrfclliation, 
in fpedcitig tiiefe tfrords; -^ * fiat, from a 

• ' F f 4 Ihipwreck 


ihipwreck favedjr we mingle tears with out 
cmbraccs^'-^ Barry, Jn happily nuxing the 
various |iaf{ion$ >yhic^ arife in, the breaft 
of a good man and reconciled huibaiid^ ex- 
ceeded all conceptioo. • r 
. Sir Francis Wronahcad has been wctt 
acred by feveral cQiDedians» and eipecially 
by-Macklin and Yates ; that, they did not 
reach the finifh of the author may be 

r ( 


-•- . • ^. . • 

. Cibber had two pafHons^ which con- 
ftantly expofed him to fevere ^enfure^ and 
fometimes the highefi: ridicule i his writing 
tragedy and acting tragic chara6:^rs« In 
both he perfifted to the laft ; for, after he 
had left the ftage many years, he aftcd 
Richard HL and very kite in life produced 
his Papal Tyranny. Of his Cardinal Woi- 
fcy I have fpoken largely in my remarks on 
Henry the Eighth. lago he afted in a 
ftyle fo drawling and hypociitical, and 
wore the maikof honefty fo;.looi€lyi th^t 
Gthello, who is not drawn a fool, muft 
have fcen the villain through his thin dif- 



. . OI B B-EJl, ~ 4M. 

guifcs. The; truthr is, .Gibber w»f eHk^red^ 
in th}S aii4 o^er tragic parts, oi¥ accoiimi;- 
pifhis geneifal merit in comedy. Dpnnj; 
this century, the public had nptieen a pro-* 
per oqtljine of lagp, till Chafi^sMaclflim 
exhifcjited a faithful pi^ure of; this arc)i-r 
yillfun,- i744t iii; ti|e HaymarV:etf*theatit^ 
\yhcn Foote/waa his Qthdlp.'^ It* isr toi 
Macklin we chiefly ov^e t)ie many admira- 
•hie ftrokes of paflion with which B^rcf: 
flirprifed usi la pthello. / l^t no^ thts^ 

underflood to -mean the leaft degradatiom 
of that great aftor'^, abilities; for^ if JSarqr 
had not pofief&d a foul capable of receit^iiig; 
the inftruftions of fo^reat a mafter, hfi / 
could not have fo jpat^etically s^fib^^d an 
audience. Macklin himfelf will Jlioneftlj 
tell us, that he owed nofmall part of bit 
knowledge in a6ling to the leflbns he .gainedi 
from Mr. Chetwood, prompter of Prurj- 
lane theatre. - 

Cibb^rrperiifted fo obftinately in a£iiiig 
parts in tragedy, that at laft the pubi.c 
grew out of patiencei and fairly hifled him 




%ta6mmj jemk ^hct iiiihenttckt^ to mt. 
;. IVben Thomfijh^' S<Mjhomf6ia Was ttet4 
M» the tt&ony Cibber laicf tns band tipott 
Sti^, a' dtart»fteri' v*Wch,* though it ap» 

Qf-'an^ -ihiporfancr. For twr nights fttt- 
t^flWely', CitA)er 'was a^ much dtpkxledd^ 
any bad aflferttMlM-be. Willkms, bjT 
mv^ ^ Wilks*, 'ntade Inmrelf ma(l%rof 
tbe'p^f; W h6y tttstfcliittg fIowty» b 
|>niaft-tiii&4ary'diftfft£libh; frotn'the tffrpei: 
fztt 'of the ildgie^ and wearing &e fame 
ilrefe » Cibber,' was niiffaken for him, 
aaAiael mth rroeated hUSs joined to the 
ttufie of 'eatealis ; bctt^ ks foooiasthe ao- 
4ien€ie''W«re ondeceivied, they converted 
tt&eir groans and hii&s to loud and long- 
«cmtk!ued applauie. 

To «ftti at general cxceflcnte is highly 
comniendable ; but to periift, in oppoli- 
tioh to the\rcpeated rcfproofs of the public, 
is bidding dejBiince to ^egeneral fenfe. 

' As 

w I 


_ J 

G I B B £, R^' ' ' 44J 

. As 9 Qumager, tQ wlwm. yri» eptiDM 
tlw iqfpeftion qf wbs^ pJ«VS PpeTW> an4 
iarces» and pf recf ivi^ig ^b^.^pplications «f 
r^ dr^fnati^ writfsn, Ci|3be('» duu^dsr 
dqes p«il 4pf)«l^ vwy ii>(H.fiab|e. In the 

Mpnwiw of' Mr» GaaisJk* . I . reiafis^r liip 
.ilory of bit ii9£iil«^ MMYic^lto Mr« F«»- 

(tf>B, tiie,aQtJbAr4£ M^l»int)tit I'vKo^Jj^pc 

iknoiiet> to i)e th? iiitthxtate ff tend- <}f Mir. 

;9pi4 i«per.lae(fj9€ei tOca,i*tl^» /efptcw% t9 
:tfef X9«W«f^ <?l: fjifiin, whom >e jtecawd 
'/fml^iTik4fy. wbi^H b« wa^ fppd of; dip- 
- Wngi: JH^ ^oiw -teinp'LncjMewl aU afe- 

•r^l of:bi8r.«Stffftfia*a«d; ii3^1e»k€» i*worA m- 
Jftt&gj. :twaj»>fi ijt. f«fl9>s^-fqr <mc«,, be 
iwat: . , bioijtififld. wiii^. the , ckafl^fcmqac 

: .'^ 9^tls^ ;^iing gen|l|9aiaiD appM to 
:Cifchier:t»; Iftcifc oMf ri % n«w dramatifi; piece. 
.iiftknocked at his door, and gave into his 



nm6$ a^ rdD of paper/ as He flood on the 
thrcfliold^ the dodr bteiftg but half opened; 
hfc 'defired he would read it^ and give him 
hfe opinion of it. Gibber turned over the 
^tt leaf 5 khd, reading only two Rnes, re- 
tornid* it *vilh t^efe vfdrdi^ ' * Sir, it will 
not^doi/ The tnortified 'autliof l^t him; 
iUld^CU^r; fullofthcadvfenture, i«*ntto 
Button*^ cofl&e-houie, i and, ready" to fplit 
.wiib'^laughtei-^'relatediheftoi^ td Colond 
-Brett } bat- he,' far from applauding fuch 
c6fidii^> put on a fevere brow, and treated 
Inni with very (harp language. He t<^ 
fiJth, if the gentleman had refented ^ thB 
ipile ufage in- any manner, he wouWL haw 
IBeeiijuftified,-* — * Do you pret6nd, lir, fey 
nreacBhg^ two lines, and that in a ridictilaus 
eurfery manner, to judge of the merit of a 
whole play ? * — » Much more, to the fame 
-purpofe, the colonel addied, and, when he 
hadd(Mie, left the room. Gibber made no 
reply : he Iquinted, as ufaal j^ took a pinch 
of fixuflf; and fat down to ruminate on thlb 

' • ■ ^ ' ai£ui| 

• m 


t: I B R E R. 415 

^^lir; unde£ &e pretence o£ reading, ft Bpoik 
tator.*.> • - . '[ 

.Biit Cibber.iwas Aot only ^acbo&d dl 
timtiog autiiorswith-fopercilioufiids; But 
with ^rloiniog from Zki which wM 
l^t in kishaiidS) and vrhtch ht dtbamtA m 
«Qcler to fxiake advantage x>f; them; > ^Jbuo: 
ai^rt^ itjfeie Laurtat paiticqlvljjti l^eii^t 
tioas his discouraging a lady wt(o b(roqgil#- 
him.iaipliiy^ in whkh^; g3^I«Wjt :gei«)ema||. 
OQurtf . t!if o tjiromea at pnoe ; this be; calM: 
^ incideiM; €ntlrely r improibaWew • T^i^i 
{fiin^ aaijbof accufes' hjim of Mterw^<l^ i i^n?/ 
grafting tl^s yery cha^^a^er ifi! <hi€ of:|)kc 
own,con?edie?, under tiwtn»mP<>fo4taU.1-. 

Cibbqr'? thqfts, if;:?|iy,ftrch^1«{?je.jC9»aw%il 
te^by hiqa, being r^mov^; mthmg pofi^r 
tivecap lie pipnQiinced concerfiing.,|iwi»«i:l 
! The author of the i:,aui)3ati's,jte|criptjj>ftq 
^n what tpanner this . i|ianagcr 4ind|l«^..|iif(>ni 

4 «. % 

* Lattieat. p. 67* 
t Ibidem. 

> II. a^^^- ^RM 


tiba^ ttjudkA ziiAon, mil i^«e a ftrai^ 
picture of overbearing inlblence oliiotid 
idel 'Aada£ time Sabmi&an «nt&dothti:v 
; *i T^ coui^ fitting/ £x^ this writer; 
*C3ianoelkFpGibb«r (for tke other two, fik«r 
Miafters in ch&flecffjri fat otity fdr fer(a« 
6|:*» did not peefiime to judge) n«dd8dlt», 
the dfitW to-diyctt lli& il»anu^ri{». 1%# 
itetboi'tiegltHr to t4sA i in which if fi^ M^' 
Mdm-ffkSi& tJifti €Orre6lon hd WcNUdf^ili^- 
tkti«S' eon^i^elid fo ft^ it foi* Mini. IP 
the '^ plaf If rd^ hitn ve^y WaAH^j & HP 
vottld i^ bei i<mnd nnf tbiiig M\^ iKi If, tftid' 

dv^ i»: ^Ofitid^^ ift- ihiai 1 A&.rif}^ 

knd# fcOtf ' i« tn^if d^ J I^WiH t)^ Hi^Bl *- 

piiti^! iH^eii tfiti !t*lkii^ Ms^ 'firtHkd, 

h6 itiaa^s^r&pet edirreaioh^/ d«ta 'fbtffe^ 

tiftiies^ without any propriety/* 

-"■•'■■■— That 

♦ Laureate p, 67. 

f r 


C I B BE R.I : 49t 

.^,-X^ l^ife ^ho w?8^ without a lP«1tol 

fV9t ^priftog, J. • b»« ! |fba* jBoothy iaJcbplari 

l;^H§[fi<^ibl»8r^! ^u|c^ r^gnJiMi |ii|<3biftaai» 
u)|[ taai^infefipr, mi^ be. (efokoaLlimb 

Ap<4ogy» J^t t^. , autJlor: JAi /CMtnoDfilf 
|Uen^bQfa« with /re!^<a ..tQ'il^ojigfcSis 

well gf; ^ij«<Mi an,<y>g4nal jtt4(iirihiktMrt 
a^Wgjr;ar <flp^ «of>ier aC aatuitr ia':aSlidf 
a;tt^t{i}4^ 9f .4ifgui&^ x « Dian» ib ieii^Us 

OO: my -part that he was not fure he cavAA 

• Ca w IX.. JQl •.& 

prQpgrly rffpr^fpnt. 0£ this- integrity !» 

lliotfeif CirbUr , prod aces a . l-ramrlfaMc 


•^ DRAMATfc"BllSci^ANIES. 

inftance* — ^ Oti hi^ ftturn to Dfory- 
lane, in 1697/ Vahbrugh caft^Tntri ititd 
tbe pait of ^ lioty,' iii the Relapfe ^ after 
a trial, mv^hich" he fouod his deficiency^ 
lie gawe'^it: up t6 l^nkethm^n; iCibber 
^ysy ite di^flSlTti^' a ^diai^er to-the gpeateft 
caca^nds^ Dogg^S was retharkablj ikilfuti 

« . r . 

the leaft anicla, ol whatever habit he wore^ 
feemed, in feme degree, to fdcak andinark 
the differc&t humoiar' he reprefented. ^flfisi 
!%s the -Wfiter of a Cerieral View of the 
Sta^e,* I : ha^is' |card 'confirmed frote !teie 
wlio performed'With Doggit ; and that lie 
couldy \Vitb great exafhiefi^ paint his' fec^ 
£>as to r^efeot theagewfevcnty,'eightyj 
and. nitie^i- diftiriaiy' ^^^ Wliicit occafio^ 
Sir <5odfrey K*«UeF,ti^iMJ him'dhc dayi' ^ 
Sutton's, that h^ ^xceUed 6im iii {«intingr 
for that he conid only ce^ nature from'thc 
erig^hiiis befeife hiftis^tthat Bdg^et co6!d 
vary ^hesniot. pteafurej ^n^ ye^K^tic^ 

■I' 'liij". I ■ ■■>■■ .. ^ < 'i^' ' t i -f i^..! r^ >. l .i < . ( i ^ i.» 
; *.WfWti?« by iMr».T. Wll^s, and publiflrfi^for j; 

C I fi B E ft. 449 

likendsl In the part of Moneytrdp» iit 
the Confederacy^,- he Mfofc -an old tHitkd^ 
bare black coat, to which jie had ptit 'tle^ 
cufFs, pocket-lids, 'and l>utt6ns, - on |Hir«^ 
pofe to m^ke its niftirieis more conrpieu-i- 
ous; the <ieck was ftufFed fb. as to m^^ 
him Appear raund-fliouldered and giv^ his , 
head the greater prominency ; liis {quare- 

toed flioes were large enough to buckle dvdt 

» • • • » 

thofe he wore in coifnmon, which liiade his 
legs appear faiiich fmaller than udikl. ^-iii-L 
This grcfit aQoi' was perhaps the only'ohe 
who ccMifincd himfelf fo fuch charafters^ as 
tiatiire feemed to have made him for. "No 
temptation trould allure him to ftep biit or 
his 6Wn circle ; fromthis circumftancej hefie^ 
•ver appeared to the audience witH any^dimi^ 
nution of his general excellence. In his tem- 
per, he was as truea liumourift fasMorbfe ifi 
the Silent Woman. Liberty- he liked^ fbf he 
was a ftaunch whig,- but notion the gcftfe* 
tous principles- feftabliifeted at the ReVdlli^ 
tidn 5 his love of ^rtedom extended little 
farther than the, gratification of his own 
Vol. III. G g^ inclinations, 

i ;*.§ 


jKTttBe^, hu i^ffigning 9 lafge income, be>- 

I^ ipli«g^«^ iptcrfer«l in Uyo^t <rf 
9P€^« 'Doggf^ Ji^fA: iiiterpofed^ «i tb( 
SMJiageinefit of tbe th^atre^ except to idn 
juil.lus own parts in play«» and to tal[« faU 
/^re 9^ the- profits 9^, the treafuiy. ; Nt 
ibck-hrofcfi; was bwiier at dij^ £»;bgDfct 
itota)(e advantage of thj^ pJk and iaU* ^ 
ftp^ksytkan Dcigget. -dbber. was aspk}- 
tQit upon gaminf^ and allvOiBmier of pko* 
fj»rfoc^ Pegget cottW; be Ia trfcffidiifli 
yuth'the; fonAs^ Cibber iiasr lo^ 1^ 
Qv^li^l^ at ha2^u;4 of <:ar4$>; aad has hw 

hfis^ p9 «ry ottt> * Now I «tiu|l: go h^m 

f^ndeatia child T Tius attcnt^a t4 4jie 
jcanuns-table would not, we may bo ^ 
fured>' rend^i/btn) ^ter for Ids bufine^ of 
t}>f^^ge» A/i(qr many m walnckj nin, at 
Tiom's cofiee-houie^^ lie lias «rriveii at'tbt 
p^hpi^e in great ti^uaquiUity, and Uwik 

. fcunaMog 

* In Ruffcll-ftreet, 

C I B B E R, 4jt 

liunwnmg over an opei'a-ttmc, he lias 
walked on the ftage very Imperffeft iti tbte 
pTt he was to aft. Cibbdr fiiould not 
have i*pre!i«H(ted Powell fi> feverdy fbt 
aiegle^ an<i imperfeCt reprefoitatitjn : t 
have feen him at fault ivhere it was feaft 
*9cpe^d, m parts whidi he hadai^edii 
hundred times, and partiteulaiiy in Sit 
Courtly Nice y but Collcy dcxteroufly ftit)* 
pTitd the deficiency of hh memory by pro- 
longing his ceremonious bow to tht 
lady, and drawling out V Your humble fer- 
Vant, madam,* to an extraordinary length ; 
^dten, taking a pinch of fiiufF, and ftrut- 
ting deliberately acro6 the ftage, he has 
gravely alked the prompter. What is next f 
Wilks was, by nature and education, 
differently formed i with the warm and ge- 
neroias fpirit which becomes a man, he 
bad, from praflice and experience, under 
the twition of Mr. Afhbury, (a very good 
aftor of the Bettertonian School, and many 
years the manager of Dublin theatre,) ac- 
quired a ion for order, decency, and ftri^ 

G g 2 regularity, 


.re|;ularity^. in the bufi^efs of the fcene. — 
It is, afkvttd, by the writer of the Lauj^eat, 
th^t, when tnifted with the managemfent 
of the ftage by Chriftopher Rich, he found 
fuch confulion, and contempt of all difci- 
.j)line, in the company, that he was redu- 
ced to; the neccffity of challen^ng and 
.fighting fcveral' amongft the ring-leaders of 
thefe diforders. Powell, fays Gibber, de- 
clined a duel with Wilks, when he found 
his antagonift would fight. Pity ! that a 
man, pofTdTed of fuch great talents for ac* 
ting as Powell, (hould have rendered them 
all inefie6lual by his perfifting in irregula- 
rity and intemperance. In looking over 
the advertifements of plays, in the firft c- 
dition of the Spectator, publifked in 171 1 
and 171a, the name of Powell I fee placed 
to many very important chara6lers, under 
the management of Gibber, Dogget, and 
Wilks: to Falftaff, to Lear, Leon, Cor- 
tez m the Indian Emperor, and many 0- 
thers. Even Wilks would not be fo par- 
tial, during Powell's ability to aft, as to 
t .' - : give 

GIBBER. 453 

give thdfe important parts to hiifriCfldMHIsl 
Addifon'and Steele ccfntiiitteJ ttieir regaW 
and countenance, as long as they could life 
of fervice, to this unhappy mih. i That 
he a6lied' Poftiug^' iftCdto, i7i3> nfuft 
have been with the author*^ appi*6batiQn[ 5 
and thisr, I believe, was Po will's l^ft part, 
i in a new- play, of any confequerice./ Hfc 

was {a hunted, by the (herifFs officers,' for 

.<■-.■» , 

debt, that lie ufualiy walked thc^ftreets 


with his fword in his hand, (fheathed,) iti 

\ terrorem to his purfbers. If he faw any df 

' » ♦ . _ 

( them at a diftahce^ he would roar out, * Get 
K on the other fide of the way> you dog V and 
the bailiff^ who knew his old cuftorher, 
would inoft obligingly answer, * We do 
not want- you now^ Matter Powell/ He 

'was alive in the year 1717 j I faw, ©any 

» • 

years fince, a play-bill, for his benefit, dtt- 
tfed that year i The unhappy Gebrgfe row- 
>ell, whofefault waS-tbo gp^t 4'p^ffi<MK:for 
«foci^ pieafure, was certainly mi 43L6tw of 
genius; but, in his nioral *condu6jt, he w^, 
smongft the players, wh^t £d!munE:JShadi&> 
* ' G S 3 *h® 


titewitlwr of Phaedra and Hif^likua^ vivf 
i^BOiiigft tbo poets: not aU the cai? and 
£^ii|tioa of Smith's Pxford-£i:ieiuis» aad 
^ • polite 9cq/isij3f^tac€ at Londoo, 
•Qikl^d kf9p him either decent in dreCsor 
^:^^air in taeh^iour. - 

To wtura to Wilks» Whatj could this 
^ftigin,M fobiriety and habitual regulaxity, 
j^ v^h lujch partners as a ^ao^eiier and a 
llJhi^Kr after Uie ftocka? Ci^ber and 
^ogget wanted xhot abilities to^ go tbravgb 
-th« yafiflus bufinefs of the tjieatre^ but 
i^ik .m(dm^i(mB carried titeoi 1k> their twp. 
f^r I>ijjBio«»s, pif i#ffc and pr<^t. 

off J^i&ggety a^9 9iaii o^iCH^ «nd 09^ t^ 

-viBS Vi^ nfar. Sool. or ioqoI. per afwum, 
^H ^^%\»V nHinVb^ing adfvanced ta aii e- 
^q^l 4%Jf^ ^f happine.&. with himiblf, ^r 
. &oaJt i p»ltry;i?':ttdfe^ or fi^M^^to « >«)rtliy 
maoii vim itoiettm^s. thwarted his jpridSj 
< §>«e$ ftp good, pr<H)f of tM iouadnels of Jus 

r - 

ifi^rsft t R. I 


Was l^ Imp&taom and< «v«rb^iiiig tem^ 

ptt. Oh l*>at aceount, iihd -tlrtft'dri!^; 

Dogget *old Cibber, ftys th6 liftir, * he gave 

i ap Ms income; and, fbr'thaf citrfe, thfe fttnii 

j Infiainier' irflUria ti«, - feversft ' •st^ts of 

i 0rui«f^kn6 |heMi«e f^/dok ' <tlKinr l$id ^na?^ 

t»il^ ^^ Med )vi^ > ^dfth ' Hi^'^ -^f t.iHl 

txrfnVinn <fiel(l&. I(kairM<>t^ tske^iheevl^ 

dcnce of tiKfo lUeb papti^ amfA kit^reftad^eA 

j^gabffll .fp'hoilbft iat»d' AMMdy^ aCeliiaradi^j - lA 

I the maintenan(%«f vvtiy lirtiiiif tkat was'dtf^ 

cent, yi^y ^nd gdi^fiMMt^as tllsifr of-®.oo. 

Iseit Witks. , Bog^et faor^fi^cd t^^kis own 

I iumiQur when ;hc refigMed lils^Arei^^ 

licence or psi^etrt^ ^hen Q^ln, "Walker, 

and Ryan, left - Draiy-laRtt theatre, 

k Jv^fts not irom a ^iflike' to Wilks; 

t)uc from an od^r of advarrce^ ftiariT) tviA 

the^diftflion of «be ea^¥tal parts. Kjah 

i^ofs 5I. per w«ek, ^t tincoln-Vinn fidd?, 

with the part of Hamlet, in preference to 

I^iertes, 19 the f^me pld.y> 9n4 50s. at 
lknsy>-lsaxc ', and Quin preferred the ac- 
c^ance of. the fikme, or a bi^er, falary, 

O g 4 offered 



oficrp^ fromiRich,>vithTlmerlane andCira^ 
tw in JuUufjC^iaf , inftead of mfeiibr pstrt^ in 
tli[9.iame. play St with whjat he thought a frp^l 
pUtaniqe. Theisean Aibterfuge of Cibber^to 
cloke his ipleen to Wilks by the fyffc^ of 
o^herSj IS vifilpl?* Bujt.^his good man gftve 
PoggetapdCjbber) ftill f ar^erproyocatioQS. 
Jn ■ t^e decorati^nis ,pf p|ay tf, fh&y^ ff^^g^i 


from Hiean cecpnpniy^ «v.ery necefiary fcx* 

pei>c)S| ' while his fpirit > took pleafure in 

^ref^n^ everyr chara^t&r! : a$; ifi odglit to be» 

^d^^uraiihui^ £ach. other theatriborna* 

in9{it$ Rs the dramatic piece tequiredi 

r Of the ;maftagete. Booth, Wilks, and 

Cipher, the . l^fty i^r many rdafons, was 

the kji|t ^eftpented'by th« players. He 

&aredrfio pains, it \\ tru$, to inftrud; the ac* 

tQFs in fi^ch chara£keri6 as he drew in his owii 

jpieces. J but ht cpuld not forbear, at times; 

wantonly throwing out iarcafins oft the iil* 

ferior performers.* Cibber was certainly 

\. Icaft 
I . > , ,. , , . 

* When the younger Mills was once rebearfinK 
Scandal, in Love for Love, a part which Booth had fU- 
ULcrly.afled, Mills, ia that.g^rt of (be play where Sca9* 

C I B B E J{. • 435^ 

leafl cfteemcd of the three great mafters^ 

■ * * . • 

the Laureat goes farther, and' avers that 
he was abfblutely odious to the comedians,* 
I will not go fo far s biit I have been told, 
that the players had no hold bit any ofhls 
pafliohs, to accomplifli their views,- ex- 
cept his timidity. Vidor informed me, that 
Bickerftaffe, a cotnedian whofe benefit- 
play Steele good-naturedly recommends 
to the public, in-thc Tatler, on account of- 
his being, as hei^ys, Im relation^ had ac- 
quired ^n income of 4I. per week. Cibber, 
in an gcconomircal fit,' retrenched him q£ 
hftlf. Th? mfao, who had^ a- family, was 
ftruckatthefudWen dirriihatioh of. his ^a3- 
k>wanc6 ; at»l, knowing whence his misfor- 
tune was derived, waited on Cibber, and 
flatly told him, that,asJie could iitot fuMift 
on the fmall iiim to which he had r-edoced 

dal breab out into the cxelamatioo of ' Death and tell! 
wheire is Vialcntine I Vobferved, that p6oY Mr. Boock 
forgot the * Death and hell, &c.' Cibber, withaccm-. 
temptuous fn^ile, (old him, there was more beauty in lus 
fQgtffMoefs than in all he remembered. 




his felary^ he muft call th^ ts^iorof \m 
diiirefs to an account, for that it would \» 
cafier to bim to Ide ^$ life i^o lo ibwe; 
The afi)%hted Cibber totd him^ he ftould 
iccetve ait ^nfwer fnmi him xm Satuciay 

laai iiKome wa9 ^btttinued. 

Howfcver Cibbv might he jdiOifaoci by the 
j^ayersi, it is certttn that Wii^ was efteemed 
9n4 fdpc&cd hy thenu -«•-<- Bootjti wii9 
valued aod heloiroi a^ ^eior eoaa^paaio^y 
wh<> mixed in the^ fi^lety and tooh fait 
vi thdr mtenAd. When Harper r effion^ 
jRrajted to hici) that Sbe^r4*s income 
was larger thaa hi9 hf ins^s. per waek^ 
thiWgh he preTumed^ he£Ud» «kat Ksdwn 
Imdiiiftry dkhd .variety of ^buiiii«rs were nel 
in^rbr to ShephejAt*^, Hooth 4^^ » 
tepfy^ aflentitiS to* the trut^ of what be 
had affirmed, * Suppofe, now. Harper^ 
we ihould 4»ake you both ^e^[tta} h]r i^edu- 
cing his (alary to yours ? * — * By no 
means/ faid the other i • I would not in- 
jure Mr. Shepherd for the world j ,1 wouW 

C I B B E R. 419 

only, by your favour, fir, laoncftJy fenre 
myfelf.'-- The maaag;er faid no more ; on 
pay-4ay. Harper found his weekly allow- 
aaoc increafed by an addition of twenty 
Ihillings.. However trifling thefe little fto- 
ries a>ay leero, they throw more light on ai 
diftinguifhed character than matters of 
feemingly more importance. The truth 
.is, the love and efteem of the a^ors went 
along with Booth aijd WilkjS j to Cibbcr 
they paid no farther regard than wbat his 
.povwr and their fear infpired. 

There is a little open room,, in Drury- 
lane theatre, called the fettle 5 it ijs fepara- 
,ti>d from the ftage and the fceac-room by 

a wainfcot indofurOv It was formerly, 

' . • 

before the great green room wgs built, a 
pla<je -foil ipany of the a6lors to retire to, 
between the a£ls, during the time of ac- 
tipn a»d rehearfaU From time out of 
snind^ till about the year 1740, to this 

• • • 

place a pretty large number of the come- 
dians -ufed to refort conftamly after dinner, 
which) at that time, was generally over at 



two o'clock. Here they talked over the news 
and politics of the day, though, indeed, they 
were nogreat politicians ; for players are ge- 
nerally king's men. Here they cracked their 
jokes, indulged in little fallies of pleafantry, 
and laughed, in Igood humoUr, at thfeir mu- 
tual follies and adventures. Kings, footmen, 
aldermen, cardinals, coblers, princes, jud- 
ges, link-boys, and fine gentlemen, in ihort 
all charafbers, were mingled together; 
and, from this chaos of confufion, ar<^ a 
harmonyof mirth, which contributed not 
a little to reconcile them to their various 
situations in the theatre. Wilks camea- 
mongft' them fometimes ; Booth, * who 
loved the bagatelle, oftener : he liked tocon^ 
verfe with them freely, and hear their jokes 
and remarks on each other ; and if, from 
any accidental ftory or information, thefe 
good men, I mean Wilks and Booth, could 
make' any individual happy, they laid hold 
ofthe offered opportunity. ' Cibber ieldom 
' came amongft the y?///ifrj; tyrants fear, as 
they know they are feared. - ^ 


' C I B BER. ^ 

. Cibtjer, [V^ith .propriety enough,- pw* 
baps, : confines his .narrative to : thofc ao 
tors who were deadi But howx^me he- tx$ 
forget Dicky Norris and Bullock^ men of 
acknowledged merit, who 'had, been nunjir 
bered with the dead fcveral years befi^re he 
publifhed his Apology? Norris was fo 

» ' • ^ « * ^ 

much a favourite of the public, ever fincc 
he had a6led the part of Jubilee Dickf, ia 
the Trip to the Jubilee, that the namedf 
Dicker was often annexed,. . in the . plf^j- 
Jioirie bills, . to any charafter. he a<5led. — 
In the,fij:ft edition of the Spe<9:ator, in t!tt 
advertifeincnt of the!Beaux Stratagem, h? 
is called Dicky Scrub, Ij[e was, in, fizc^ 
low and little, but not ill niadfe, ^wilth am 
e^prefliye, . truly - comic, \ poqntenan^t^ 
and a (Jip^U clear, and jaadible, voice...— 
Mrs. Oldfield thought him ah excellent fi- 
gure for a cuckold, When;^ upon the in- 
diipofition of Norris, Gibber iihdcrtoolc to 
play Baniaby Brittle, in the Wanton Wif^^ 
his action was generally applauded ; but, 
when Cibber faid to Oldfield, * Nanny, 



haw do you like yottr new imibahd? ' Ittie 
KpHcd, * Why, veryvwli, Initnahalffo 
well as Kcky Norris ? " -^-— * How fo ?* 
•— - * Why, yoti are too Important in 
your figure for one of the tiomed race j 
Ibut Norris has f\ich a diminutive form, 
itid To fncaking a look, that he fcemi 
formed on purpofe for horns, and I make 
him' a cuckold always with ahearfygood 

win/* ■ ' ' [ 

g * 9 • •• . 

Id his laft illnefs, he was attended by a^ 
eminent phyfician, who ^ave him hop^s ol* 
recovery. * Doctor,* faid the fick main, 

* when the wheels of a watch are cj)[uite dc4 
tayed^ do you think they can be repaired?* 
" * N6^ hy no art in the world** — ^ 

• TKeji> fir/ Jfays J^orris, f it is tjhe fame 
cafe with me ; all the wheeU of my nvb 
chine are ahfolutejy, through time^ yiiti 
worn out,, and nothing can reftoire them W 
tibieir accuftomed forc6/ — — Norris. dipi 
kbout the year 1725. _ \* ' * 



• Cbetwood, &c. 

. ._, 


Bq^l; wai !m m&^af jcdat g^ and 
uittdi «Qfmc. vhrbcttf. He iris,, iii liiB 

perfon, lai^^e; trkk aliVtly coiuit!enAtiG«, 
fan c^ hvlnlorous mfi>nti9ttion* Ste^e,- m 
the Tatler^ fpeaks, wkh his uAiftl^ktnd 
JenfibillAy, rcf Nciiris, Bdllock, atuJl Pink' 

frfa« hjOftoitan oi Ihe two ftages ikys, tluft 
Aoitock * U not only the hdlr of adors, 
4Hit & modeft, th&t ho is mfenfiUe of his 
wrn iiAtit.' Tbe eoxak iibiiityof lhtl« 
l«qktva$«oiiirinedtotA« by Mr.Afaddm, 
who a(fi\firdd file) ^^y iMely, <lh«t Istew^, 
in hli 4^iiirtl^ht, a true genius of ihe 
lla^. I have&eii him «<% feventl pasts 
if^ith great appla^fe; e4>eciallythe SJp^idi 
FJ-jfefi at a isme ^cn he Vas ahotne eijfhty. 
Cibber, agreeably to his adoptedl j>hi& 
'dF confining hii narrative to deceafisi 
tifte^f i <|>o^ only in genef al terms df 
•Mi«. Pottet-s ttrerit in tfagedf j W, 

^Ifhott^ thiii volcmM IS eniatged to a 
ttfiic^ jgtfcWcrbiiitk than! in tended, 1 can- 
not otmtfotnewdt-atilhemicattd anecdotes 




xtktiiig to this inaft valuable and r^E^^d 
,^rfi{s ; who was not 6nl}ran ornament of 
theflage^ but of humaiL nature* 

$hc was firft taken notice of by Better- 
ton ; who faw her aft; wlieii a child, 
^the Geqius of Britain, in . * I^rd- 
Mayor's Pageant, in the reign of Charles 
or James 11. Mrs* Porter always (poke of 
Bettcrton with great refpe6t and venferatiofa". 
She was fo littte, when firft under Ms tu& 
toon, that he threatened her, if fhe did not 
l^eak and adt as he woqld haVe her,^ topA 
Iicr inta a fruit-woman's bafket and cofrer 
.fcerwith a vine-leaf- It was thecuftotaof 
the fruit* women, formerly, toftapd fro»t> 
,mg^ the pit, with their backs to the ftagc;; 
and their oranges, and other fruit, cover^ 
;cd with, vine-leaves. . ^. 

Mrs* Porter was ever welcome to th^ 

beft jpd mofl refpe£)table families in Lonr 

don. .Oldfield and this aftrefs rc^gradir- 

sdly taexcellence and fame much abou;t'tbe 

jSune time* They cpnverfcd together on 

the befit terms j Porter's gravity was a conr 

/ •• . traft 

i.. ' 


She tived at ^eywood-hill, nevJnfeh- 
don. "^ After the play/ ,flie went {lome in ^ 
one-horfe'chaife; her conftant companions 
were a book and a' brace of horip-piftois. 
t The difloc^tion of her thigh-bone ^as at- 
lendedwith a circumftance that dcifefyes.ta 
. be recorded. In the fummer of iyVi, as 
^ fhe was taking .the air in her bne-hori^ 
I c&aiie, Ihe was flopped by a highwaymari^ 
j Who demanded her money. , She had 'the 
cdur^^e to prefent one of her piftols to 
imtii the man, who perhaps had 'only 
with him the appearance of fircrarms, af- 
fured her that he was no common thief: 
that robbing oil the highvv^ay . was not to 
him a matter of choice, biit neceflity, and in 
order to relieve the wants of his podr dif- 
treiTed family. He informed her, at the 
fame time, where he lived ; arid told her 
futh a melancholy ftoi-y, that fhe gavjc hiiii 
afl the money in her purfe, which wa& i- 
biut ten guineas. ^ * The man left her : up- 
' Vol. ill. H h on 


on thi^ ihc; g^ye a la(h t;Q the horfe ; ht Gudr 
dcnly iftarte^ out of the track, asd the 
cha^Xe. was oyerthrowajj this oorafioned 
the. diflbcation of her thigh-bow* Let it 
i)e remembered, to her honour, that> not- 
Wit^ftaiujing this unlucky and paiafal ac^ 
qcfenti file made ftrid enquiry after the 
robber j^' and, finding that he had not dc^ 
ceived hei:, (he raifed^ . anjongft hex ac-^ 
l^uamtance^ about fixty pounds^ vjrhi^di 
Jhe took xai;e to fcjid him. Such ana^r 
tion,f in a ^^rfon of high cank, would hwe 
been celebrated.a§ fometjiing great smd he- 
roic : the feeluig mmd will mal^e no M^ 
tinaion between the gencrofity, Qf anafc 
trels'andthat of a princefsi . • 

"^ I have already obferwet},. . that (h^ was 
eUcemed. th6 ^?nuine fuc«e,flbjj o£ Mcs* 
Barry, Whofe theatrical gage (he ,had.1)cea 
wheij very young. „ , , 

^ \Vneh/the f(;ene wai not agitated with 
^affion, to the general, 4pe^a)bar ihe /di^ 
hot give equal plpafure it J^er recitation «f 
fa6t or fentiment wa^ fb modijiJatftd, as to 

GIBBER. 467 

f^fetnife niiiiicatl cadetiee rather tfian fiiie^- 
iftg, ^d this tehdited h6r aftirtg itt . feo^ 
itiedy fotndwhat cofd arid iiie^e^ud. — - 
Whtre the pafSons predbmiriat^, 'th6 6±- 
ttt€A fiir powers to a fupreme cfegfi6; 
ffe^ t^rtitd then: t'd bt; ahothei' pe^lb'ni 
iM <d bi thfdf med v^h th'at noUh aiid 
efi^iHiri^c ardbar iirhich Wats ci^te 6i 

ad^lClb^v Hei^ d6p>6rtmefif ^as^ £^^ 
i«e(f \9ieh graieefof eg((ey atid Her aSEi^i^tbe 
wfalt 6f the paffioft fte fdt. • 

A#t^ the ^^tohb <sf her dHld'cated 
Iffliby. and in a* Very j^dvanccid^ a^e, ■ I fat^ 
h* s0- B&tany of h6r priiidpafl chaifatfte^ 
witb mvfth vigour antf ^f eat apjj^lavtie, ah^, 
iti parti^kr, Cfyfeihneftra ki> Thoi!nfon'i 
AggkA^Anon.* Ih drawing thi9 chara£f er, 

H h' 2 the 

* ThomfoD^ in reading his pUy of A^iMdin6tito 
the zSkoTiy in the green-room, pronounced every line 
witK fuch a broad- Scotch accent, that they could not 
reftrain themfelves from a loud laugh. Upon this, the 
author gpod-naturcdiy (aid to the manager^ ^ Po you. 

. J 



the authoF has varied from the idea of ^f- 
chyliis ; , and, I think with great propriety, 

• • • ■ 

he has followed the - original drawing of 
Homer^ who. giye^ fome ftrokes of tender- 
nefs to this princefs, and makes her yield 
with reluftance to the perfuafions of iE- 
gifthus } who could not entirely fubdue faei; 
affection to her hufband, till he had remo: 
yed the faithful bard, placed about her by 
Agameinnon as her councilor and adviibr. : 
^ In this tragedy, Mrs. Porter gave a ftri^ 
king proof of her grc^t power in expreffing 
jthe paflions. -«— — Hera^lion and dq)ort- 

ment, through the part of Clytfem- 
neftra, - marked the confummate ac- 
trefs. In the fecond att, when, in the 
diftrefs of her mind from confcious guik, 
Ihe is torn with confli£ling paflions at the 
approach of her injured hufband, her ac- 
tion and expreffion, when fhe faid to her 
attendant — 


fir, take my play^ and go on with it ; for, though I caa 
Wfl4e a tragedy, I find I cannot read one* 



GIBBER- 469 

Bring me my children hither ; they may perhaps • 
relieve me r- / 

flie ftruck the audience with .aftoniflii- 
ment, who exprefled the higheft approbai- 
tion by loud and reiterated applaulfes. 'I 

In her perfon ihe was tall and well* 
(haped; of a fair coraple£lioh, but not 
handipme : her voice was harfli and un- 
pleafing. She elevated hferfelf a&ve all 
perfbnal defefls by her, ^exquifite judge* 
xnent. Though flie greatly admired Bet- 

• ' ■ * ' * 

terton, and had feen all the old d^tots of 
merit, (he was . much charmed with Mr. 
Garrick, and lamented her want of youth 
.and vigour to exert her^flcill with fo great ^ 

Mrs. ]Porter outlived. her annuity; and, ih 
a very advanced age, was principally fupport* 
ed by a very worthy nobleman,* who niade 
her a prefent of a new comedy, and per- 
mitted her to publifli it, for her benefit, 

H h 3 by 

* Lor4 Corabury. 


by ^l^ription. She (UM about the year 
1762. When Dr. Johnfon, Cmat ycaft 
)}^fore her itsiXh^ paui her g- vifit, ^e j^ 
pefuied to him A> wqnHeid^ that^ hf f^id, ^ 
pifture of i)14 age in t|ii? abftr?ft might 1)^ 
taken from her countenance. Mrs.. Porter 
lived fojpiie tinjc with Mrs, Cotjerell, rcli^ 
of Colonel Cottcrell, and Mrs. Lewi^i 
yrho, I beUeve, npw reOdes in the Circpy 
at Bath.* 

!|*9 rctupi to Cibber- l^nvjr js* I fear,, 
. annexed (q clofely^ to mankind in general, 
an4 F^ort efpeci^lly to the condi|i6n of a 
playcri from his circunifcpbed fituation, 
that we- afe npt to y^onder that he had 
his (hare of it. — He never heartily Joined 
thq public voice in . tjie approbation of Mn 
Garrick: he ftirunk from it as if lie was 
hurt by it. 


' * The anecdotes, relating ta Mrs. PcMter^ were 
communicated to me hf an elderly gentlewoman, lately 
dead, an acquaintance of Dr. Jobnfon, who often vifited 
her ; by one, who was a frequenter of the theatres for 
near fixty years i and odieci. 

• ' • tit fiiSElt. • . 47f 

l^i'.X^rrfdt d&ea him if^te M^4ifit/iii 

^i6tig. *-ii-'* What then ? ' Gad C^hkl 
— ^-^ * 'I fhobld be ghtd to hai^ the Honour 
iaf btinging it into the woriA* '-'■'^-* * Whij 
fciiVe yete t6 aft k ?'— «^Why, tliei^e arti i(i&itt 
Oa£ri<Jk) 'CAWe ' and -Piftdi^nf;' rt^feff? '^A 
Ibtoe others/ whom he niilicil. -^ • "Wo f 
find ^e<^ nutn, taking a piticH of fnufiv 
%»5th great noAchalandr, * it won't ddZ-^-^ 
Footfe often dcJeliifedi ' that Clbber Wotild 
ieAlm^nd higher literit t6 Gknidc than 
hia aaittg I*riW>Ie. ' At a tlieetihgof ti^ 
fccr, Oarriek, Foote, and others, aut Sir 
F. Blake DelavalV, O^irridil itn^hnknt. 
%f drew 6n^ himielf ft rebuke ^i^ Cihbir^. 
TThe converfation happened tor toth ttpdh 
old aSiors, and thdr pecuK^ tdahner df 
playing. Mr. Garrick obferved, that the 
old ftylein adHngwas banilfh^ the ftdge, 
^atid would hot how'ga^Wn. ' *■ tl6W do 
'yon know?* faid eibbetj ♦ y6u never 
tried it.' ' ' 

\ ' H h 4 \ He 



..: Hic fiiUi^ jdjd. :not ice, or would ;iot ac« 

91) adlpr '^ppcovecL hy.rthe^beft Ju<kps ia 
E|igl4Q4. and Ireland. Elnu^gtoii^ » i^hffl 
^.y&an g ma n^ . a£l the pact ^ 
j^fH-rUmondi . in the-Sp«n^(Frij$;S'tlw 
i:c<|ud[t. Cibber pppofod with ^i )iifs igwgl^ 
A iK)blemaa of great eminence (ent for 
him, and defired he wpuld give, bis r^fc^s 
for n ot -permitting the. young playex; tatty 
bis .abilities in a fayourite part; jf A^ 
lord/ &id. Cibber,^ -[ it is pot v)d|h u&a^ 
with -you ; your lordihip is fenfible, that 
there is no difficulty in filling places at 
court; yon canpotbe at a lofs for perfons 
tip a^dtthei/r parts ;there.^ ,B^t• I;^(r\M^.y^ 
4t is QWite^^ otherwifc. ; in our -theatiiqd 
vroxldj if ,we Ihouldinvefl people with 
cbaraftersr who are incapable to fupport 
them J, we fbould be.undonc^*. . , 

But Cibber W8^ fxiffiaently.moytified.aJ5: 
terwards for his .bej^ayiour to E^ington,; 
who> during the indifpofition of Booths 
in the year 1729, was, the great fupport 

: ^ of 

w4l ^gavMicfifl of: big ipip^n?«'*o tJu»M 

hf^^yirpyi^. Qi^^e AiiUh: thstiiSdr a.tsnn t^ 
ye^s. ; Elnngti^« ; wkh great; mod^&fj. 

%i ypjcir :o$§r } . but ai\. Ireland Jb>aaiiai 
WclLxeaiv^^Fded fonlitoy fervlocs^-^ tiiaJ^I can-. 
DOb ttiVnJk of l^v^iig it on any con£deEa«' 

4kd jait-Di^lip^ greatly lameiltod^ July 22," 

1732/ ' , T / '. ' V .; :./ 

. : Tp.cpnclude. : ' As a writer of [comcdjes.;- 
Cib^r mijft 'J>e placed; in a_Mery rupcrior 

r^njc 3: before Jpremy Qrflifcr attacked the 


Pfo^nenefs of dramati^^ writers, be firft 
taught the ftagc to talk decehtjly a»d nH>* 
rally; He. was properly, the inventpr ofc 
thiB Ittgber comedy, a fpecies of th^ ^riOi%' 
in:w}iich perion$ of high birth ar^ ^j^iioent 
rank are introduced ; for the fainl e£}rt$»r 
in that ilyle, ot Etheridge and. Stede, in; 
vTr Sir 


Sir F^ii^7fe(ftl» m^ tIieF«iier^ are 

of « lli«att«,<M«> beiiaviour to tlutfiors t 
iMvepmvaUotliswrtbetm^illK^al aciditilc^ 
|pDt-$ hb treatment ^ Idle a^ors haslki^ 
geoenilf oondetnned iks ttnfi^endfy; •!? not^ 
^trantudiL i! As- ar-'mtftiibet'ef &dety atf 
fargt, <IittI«? can be fs^ditt kt$ {nrfule.-'^ 
Soon after lie had fiild.hts fiiare « the pa>' 
te»^ lot A very iarge i^m, to Mr. Higb» 
wkate^^ kd app&d to the DuW eiP GralKm 
ipr:^ potent^ m fevouf of bis^ foh Thel^lvi^ 
]|13» be<9iife Highmore wOutdf^ not ^comply 
withtheyoungman'sdefnands. Thcdak^faw 
thfoiigit the injuftke of the all» and pe- 
nmptpiihf rei^iibd to gratify ^e iHirea* 
fenabfe iwqQeft of his cid ftcqui^«Hi€e, 
Cc^yJ Vi£^dr, from whonk I rccdvcd 
my k^brmation^ very, honeilly oppolhi 
iSbks nn}tifk hehaYioor of his dld^ friend, 


d^iktr) whd> a^fter having patted With hb 
lli»r'iA the did patent for more than its 
Titfiie> would have ' rendered it wbithlcfs 

l^aQewone. < 


- C I 8 B E *. 47| 

. His, jQYiB iff jg;,«rolflg «md«i^ ftiija 41 
B^fe ^ful father, ajjd unkind t0 hi? fea% 

and relations. The moral boncfty of f 
gjHneftpr, depwding fo piueh upon the re- 
vQlptipn? of i?hanfe, «aom» fafdy bf itUc4 

It tnuft b? granted, that, althoi;^ Cib^ 
berw^a^gsweftcr, h? was n^it pr^ dwv 

j}«4 with b«i»g^ pheat, org^mblert A 
4upe tP bi? own paHions be crertsHOIy w<»* 

.;^n4 pwb^y tp the frwdnlewt pn&kcs ^ 
ipcb^^ }. ^m b;? flavor fp^rited U|^ odww 

nick-name of a black-leg. 

m^ contempt of rel ifiioai w j^ j oftly <jen- 
(ia|<j4 bym^ny. P^nn'i;, in-4 letter to S^r 

.Jphn Sdg^r. »lia* Sir Riqbprd t§tei4^ 
fibjufiW bim with fpitting ^t %piauw qf 
<Wir ^ftvipwr »r Bath, At Tunbridgc, I 

fhsm b«wi infprmpd by Pr» Johnfon, Cib- 
bf r wit^eed iptQ f G<?nverr?iti w ^^ritb thfi jp»- 
fjipttfi Mr.WIIUaip Wbifton. witb* vJor 

.to.iniult him ; but Whifton cut him fhort, 
by tdllng him, at once, that he could po£^ 
^\>ly bpl4 m difccmrfe with bim $ for that 



Ife was himfelf a clergyman ; and Cifaber 
Was a 'player, and was befides, as he had 
lieaid, a pimp. 

^ "Cibber muft have raifed confidcrabic 
coriti-rbutions on the public by his works. 
To fay nothing of the fums accumulatecl 

hy dedlcatiotis,* benefits, and the fale of 

* *■ , • 

his )plzys fingly, his dramatic wbrks, ih 
'quarto, by fdbfcription, publifhed 1721, 
produced hini a coniiderablerum of money. 
- Vt is Computed that he gained; by the excel- 
^tot Apbldgy for his Life, no Jefs than the 
fum of i^ool. , ^ ' ^ 

Pope's mercilefs treatment of Cibber 
was originalfy owing to the latter's attack^ 

upon' the' farce of Three Hours afler Mat- 

• -. ••-« « ., 

Hage, mthc cKarafter of Bayes m the Re- 
-hcarfal ; and, though it is evident Pope 
•Merely felt the ridicule of the narrative in 
-Cibber's Firft Epiftle, the reader of * his 

Second Letter will be convinced, that the 

• laureat. 

* King George I. gare him a* hundred pounds for 
'his dedtcatioD of the Nonjuror. 

C I B B £ R» T KTf 

laureat, notwithftanding his ai^6)^atioa fif 
indifference, did not i-elifh the being tranft 
mitted to . poflerity : with Pope's indeiibiff 
marks of infamy upon him. i 

Though the fuperior fpirit of Swift cpn- 
trouled the adions and regulated the poli-* 
tics of Pope, the- latter had nq influence of 
that kind upon the dean. He was not in- 
duced> by his friend's diflike to Cibber, ta 
attack him in any part of his writings, pre- 
cept, I believe, in a (hort ridiqule on hii| 
birth-day odes. As foon as Gibber's Apo- 
logy; reached Dublin, Falkcner, the printer, 
fent it to the Dean of St. Patrick's, ,w]»o, 
told him, next day, that Gibber's 1>$Qk. 
had captivated him i he fat up all nigjbt 
to read it rthrpugh. ; When Palkengr gavi? 

information of this to Gibber, hc.ihed 

' ' • ' *. 

tears for joy. , , 

Cibber died in the eigh^y-feventh yca|» 
ofhisa^y 1758. The money he had faved^ 
ia the latter part of his life, . he left^ with 
great propriety, to his grand -children- ^— 
In perfonj he was of the middle fize ; and. 



lien A fl»cr2otint<y of hint, ftbm Sj^aifrthig 
•f Sigfrtor Artiicdni, iri the cfeaYiaef (rf 
l^ord Foppington, very fike hifrt. 

I muft not forget to relate, that the co- 
tii^ 6f the NonjQi'or, written hy Cihfieti 

tAd aftdd lit 1717, cxpofed the author ttt 
ihnutnerable and virulent attacks froth the 
higja tory ^rtd Jatobite parties. TKe geriCi 
rdtis prineiples- of free goverttment, d?i- 
Mi<h6l at tlie eoi^ation df Kmg WiifiaiH 
a»$d' Qiiecift Mary, had notj Ht tMt <iihe, 
tilkisil fdchi de^ foot as iht^ li^ve ifeSctt 
4one. Many pedpfe thctt £veiVi¥€d,' wfid 
luei b^ft attached frbcn^ edacattbny and 
§9016 perhaps froni^ prkieiplei ta tftel en^ 
fsmiilf. Prejudices,' imbibed ih itkfiiiff 
|«riof lift, ai>6 n6€ eafily IbbdiMJd^j BM,^ 
befides thofe who aaed on thtfi A^tStB^ 
ftere were many who- were infiiiehced- fr6m 
meaner indueemeilts. Cibt)ejr*s pity n^iS 
written >ith a view to jtiliif/ thfe dbftrineli 
inculcated by the Revdlutionv ai^toi opiili 
Ae eyes of the prejudiced in' favbor of th6 
- ' houfe 

-h^vife'of Harder. ThtT^tdAvn^vp- 
plaofe and mfAi nmsk fuccefiL Cid9b«« ui~ 
iiilly traasfereed the bdii»a'«f ia^p^titfi 
icom 1^ iionjurmg clergfiaaa W die ^ 

aognv. and [iarty--f)«)na{:4ea[,- ^(^> itt Ift 
Idtcrs to |srvas iodr Mt^ D^gbf > cll&ovexi 
«& aaor little veffi»k><t £it fite fiicc«^ of if^ 
"Ncnltitia; ; for that w^iSf virj«ft> Mfi». .« ti^-. 
liftte l^ a uptow of thedftay bf p^dtry. ' ' 

jft wftm £ear the faide 4#y of «he fise p<#L 
trait of an amiable young lad^ ThiOft -k 
noti in sJk«liiaiEiati<r iMieef!]^, a more fpivgld:'* 

lltate Maria $. which- k itimax%\Ay ■ s^wSrhf 
Mf9k MHag^oa, vaier the name o# GSaai- 
io1|i^» bornDamod .fo^itt- the Nodja^i^ hjf 
^keriibiSsin his HypecriM. < I 

. ember yvras t lelently attacked /roi^ 1^ 

^mts» clde% on iKCpinit of his'^olbkab 
hfttprdisiiitedly for ids maoageoietit^of tiii 

486 DRAMA'rtC^ ftlSOELt ANFES* 

-ihaiiTCi irisrbcfiqvidur to'authdfi/'and'fti: 
ln9i a^H^g; If we .eiccpt the remarks on 
j>I^$ anid playeri^ by the .authors: ^of- the 
Tdtleraod jSpec^atofi the theatrical obfdv 
vations, in thofe days, were coarfe' apdil; 
]|baral,^ whai p^mpa^d to what i/fefread in 
Oiir pi^efeat 4aily and other periodical pa- 
gers. The prints of gur days are genendly 
conduced by men of pdiication and well ao 
quwited •with the polite ^ts,^ . Njgc fhouH 
the a6lor thinjc himiiel£.alK)ve coondefoEfi^ 
ing tahe^'^^n Jo jtheii^adirice and :tp:.atttnd 
to thdir reprcjienfion^ or luppqle faifiiM 
«V hk art injured by thek free examrnatioa 
jof his tqeritsi/ , t ; i 

^ Sir Jofliua:Jleynpids, in his exdeOent 
nptes on Frefnay^ has geberotiily lidopntt^ 
j^at, if thepaintef waito be infotdied 6f 
the remarks every ' fpeftator, wduld necefla* 
.;|fily make on. his pifture, when, expofed to 
public view, he .would gain a^nfiderabk 
^advantage ftomthem.-^Tliis way *l>e ap- 
plied to afting, a fortiori^ as every itkft 
muft be a more adequate jiidge of f|afge* 
^ ,!'.... i reprefentation 

r^ ^ ex^minatipn. • In afrpe^/cpun* 

^ -ue public eye, jqid,' fnwn 

^.obation or cenfure, niiuft ftand 
.. rail. Thea6tor, while he continues to 
be ef value, will be an obje6l of criticifm. 
It is, indeed, a teft of his confequence; 
and, when that is withdrawn, he will fink 
to nothing. Parties there will be, and 
prejudices muft exift ; but the public is 
fair in its determination, and will not per- 
mit an B^\^ §f:/incj^ft Vk^^9» fc «njuft 
remarks or illiberal cenfures. 

Dr. Warburton affeded to defpife the 
learning of magazines and reviews. He 
^^ght, perhaps, receive no addition to his 
acquirements by perufing them j but the 
good people of England, I will prefume to 
aver, have been much improved, within 

Vol. hi. I i thefc 


dF Utk4to6 aiid tcklAct t«rhibh las beeh 
eVeiff\9htte dHTemWed in thefe vehttles $ 

ttibttinhikthiltf 6t mort prtl6ta^y hoiif 
l^yexi, than in acquitiiig knowledge :fe 
Tissmy sthd With txich Uttfe tiiptiti± of tiin^ 

1 > .■' 

• » 

' ' ." 

z^ Tl» ¥0£l lk>i. 




^*. « 

, r 

i ■ A. 

iL A Bine TOM, (Mrs.) 570i» ifu 4t*' 

"^ /Y Abfalom aifd Ackhoplie], 299. 

jl Abfordity of the ufe of tniniatiire piftuies at die defet^ieiit la 

Hamlet, 107. 
(j Acafto in the Orphaii, i8{. 

. .4.-.i««» fuppofed to be meant for the dakc of Orttond, t86. 
H ...-i*- bis eDcomittm on Charles II. 186. 

•— — ^» Chamonr, andMonimia, 193. 

A^ors of low comedy are apt to add to their author'e .t^xt, t^, 

Acquilinaaal Atitosio, 2^^, 230. 

Addifon, 31^ 82, 122, ,159, 255, 375. 
■ ■ ■ ■ ^ a»d <?iW>er, 113. 
; ip n . and Steele. 

Advantage of being the or{gittal\adorsipr a dkarad«r» 270* 
' A^iee etf Ham4et to the ^ytn, 80, &c. , ' 

iSneas and Creufa, 33. 

iEfcbines, 46. 

^fchy las and Shakfpeare» 13. 

■ ■ ■ the favourite poetof Mr. Rqmney , 2 g • 

and Thompfon, 467, 

AlUoii Qp«c>^<9 * tragedy^ 202. 
Akeftit of Enripides, 221. 

Alchemiftf 67. 

Aktbiades, bjr Otway, 17?. 

Aldo, ia the plav of limbcilijim, 273. 

Alexaader the Oreatf %$t^2%t. 

i,,i ■ ■ m* general opinion of the writer and bis herp« 255 

! ■ I I II I - ■> 

ryden'ti verfes to the author, 25^. 
• revived by Pdi^ne, 275, 
oii£i|id a^ors In it, 260, 

iBexaiider, (Mr.) 416, 
Allen, 6o* 

Attecd^te»to the brntonr of a cosie^ant $}• 

of guilt iKrknoiMed^ by a fcene in a play, 6o» 

■ ■ 1 1 ■of'iGredaalady, 2t> 

' ^ lie Anecdotes 

484 I N 2> E X. 

Anecdotes of QpiB tnd Dr. W-^, t$Zm 

■ of Or. Bcnowbf and ^ LJbikIoq apprefiUce, 6z. 
— — — ^^ of Gibbet and a yoaiig aathor; 443. 

Angelica* iu Love for Lore, not an amiable charader, 328. 

Antigone^ y, 46. 

Antooioand Renaaltj ziSr 216. ~ *> 

Antony and Venttdiai, in All for Love» 16 1. 

A^Uopl^A&M of ^y^>^ 54- 
Arbutbnot, 301, 340. 

Argyle, (Dokc of,) 373- ' 

Ariftodemos, 46. 

Ariilopbanet, 85* 

Ariftoile and Sbakfpeare, 138. . . . . 

Amflrong, 107. 

Afcbam^ S?* 

AfpaHa and Antipbila, in the Maid*$ Tragedy, 98. 

Atbcift, Otway's laft play, 232. 

Anlmy de Vere, (E. of Oxford^) and Mjrs«MarihalU 178-280. 

Attguftns, 84. 

Anrengzebe, a tr^edy by Dryden^ 157. 

,. iu remal in 1726, wisb aniucosnt of the lAorb 

15^ "59- 

Bacon, 38* - •. . < 
Baddeley, 41* 

■ (Mrs.) 128. 
Baron and Betterton, 57. 

Barrow, 192* 

Barrowby, (I>r.) 62. . 

Barry, 45, 68, 78, 115, «3>» ^i^f 439- 
'- faperior to Wilks in Cailalio, 206. 

bis Alexander, 276, &c. . « 

and Garrsck, 422. 

Barry, (Mrs^Elizabctb,) 179- ., ^ •, 

— account of ber family, io6. 

— fome anecdotes of lier lira, 196, 205* 

— ber piftore by Kneller, 197% 

— tbe dificflty of qoalifyiftg ber for tbe 
fia|e, 198. 

— ber feeling, 203. 

— ber excellence ^acknowledged by Bet^ 
terton, 203. 

lafi pan Ihe played, 204^ 

• Barry, 



I N 1> Et X; 4% 

Barry, (Mrs.Eliaabcth,) her death sai firmfK »4* 

.. caofe of her deBt»» eo5« i 

..__• • her Belvidera, Mqiimia* and liabelU* 

in the Faial M«riiage» a}?* < ^ 
, diftingoiihed beyond any other omt'* 

diao» ajS* -.- ^- . 

,..«._^,^.— , , Mrs. B?acegirdle, Mrs. MoiiAtford» 

and Mrs« Bowman* 391 • 

Bayes, how drcflfed by Cibher, joa, 

Garrick, 303. \ 
«. originally drefled like Dryden, 289* . 
as aded by Carrick and F^ote, 303* 304. 


Bayes in petticoats, a farce, 3 lo. 

Beard, (Mr.) 167, 375. 

Beattgard and Father Aldo, a|2. 

Bc^omont and'Beii fonibnt i66* 

and Fletcher, ZS4* - { - 
Bedanar and 4he dake d'Ofiana^- 2io» - ^ 

Bedloe, 215* 

Beef fteak-clab, 167. 

Bcffgar'sCperar, 9a. : - - . 

Behaviour of the king in Hamlet after the reprefentation of the 

play, 98. 

I [ ^ of Hamlet to theJting, 10, 149. 

tothepUyers, 4811 ^c» - r--- 

to his fchoolfeU9WS„ 44^ ?^2* , . 

^«„.._ ^, to Ophelia, 36,''78. ^ ,!■•. 

Belinda in the Old Batchelor, aded by Mrs. Honoa and Mrs^ 

Yoaager, 367, 368. - / .'u^ ' • - '*^ 

Belmoor in the Old Batchelor, aaedbyWilks^uiiWal^crr^fty*; 

Beividera's excellence, aa . . ,. .r . . *: .1 

-— and the confpitators, 225. :, : : - < - 

Ben in Lore forU^e aftcd byCibberaad JoaMUler, 368, 36^. 

Benfley, 151. . ri ..;. ' — 

Berkeley, (Lord,) 307. . '. . = ^^ ^ .v <w j-^-- 

BettertoD, 4, 28, 30, 32, 106, i.ii, ijfSr 3«M0S> W^— 

■ ■ account of his Hamlet, s7,iii2- s . ) .lU-.oi 

• an univedal ador, 141. . -t. . — - — 

., Smith, and Mrs. Barry, i8t„ 235, 236. 
his modefty, 272, 

time of his birth, 38$. , . ^ , T/ . 
andChri/lopherRich, ;3JJ* ; j -. 

his marriage, , 3^*. -- .". '' » > v • ^ ■'"' '- — " " * " 

< > \ 


4U^ IN jy E Xi 

Bettertoii,Mi4Uify« jKbK ^ 

■■ » . . bit laS ^Hm tdi d«ttfr, J9^.* 

■ lifc ■ ■ M il. 1 1 M» i^^Wiit iy Clbfcef ^ ^ 8, - — 

dtrntiitAitd foif hk hMarn^ty, 399. 
T iii i tid ' i i itady»pg> 406/ - ., ^ — 

— — — his piAsre by Pd^, '4^6^ 

V^i)il&|^$ r^e6Af HH^tided hy tope, 401 ; * 

bis dramatic piedltf^ 404. . ' « 

and Garrick, 4*5/ ... - 

andCibbe^i 4ifi ' 

apdMfe.^BiUfy,- 45 ^« 

(Wm.) 397. • ; ' \ - 

(Mrs.) 116, 126, 386. 

■ ■' ■ bcr cbarader,- i§6* 

■■ her excellence in Lrfdy MatfbelKi Set. 396# 
* her ififanity, 397* ; 

■ time of liter dcifH mrctt-tediii 5^7* 
BickerftaiFe md Gibber, 457. 

Biographia Britanaica, 374, 384, &c. 

' ■ ■ ■ ■ Ibme miftakes 10 it rdtdvetO B«tleit0lr» 

Bk>EraphtaDraroatica, 386, 398^ 

Binli of the Mofe^ hf €oii)fre^e/ i^Mturi by Dr. joimflMr/ 

praifed by Addifoini 3f*. • — 

Blofie, by B<i ^oiidfixi, jBji 

BonetitCf ^* 

■ -a^dMrs. Scyqiour, 170. 

B«A(i». (Mm;) 391; ' . .^ ^^ 

Booth, «7*»}*»» 403, 458, &c. - 

and Wiltes, 31, 81^ ijo> itibi . -^>- .- 

hfs T«J*iWi<y ift thl^^Ml^ i* tfaiilf^, j*. ^ - 
-hisadioii in the part of Morac, in Aareagzeb^ ijy* 
»- his want of candonr, i^a, 5 

— *Mi.kiid9tiithr, 333, 314. 
Booth, <Mrs.) aid MHidHte« i^.^ 

^ her piety, 405* 

Bowcaf^d-Qfin,. 3^4$, 

Boys aaing women's parte, 50, 
BracegirdlCt (Mrs.) 337-343. 

— — ~— — Cibbetli aceotnt tirf Btn ^Jjt. 

'^ I' .\j 

■ ■ . ' ■■an4Congr^ve,-3f8. ' •*^» 

>■ • - 

f » A 


^, ft. H. i^ Jfc 4% 

, her 4csdw Sft* 

Brtietoof Ms Jaffier tbmttokiii, 25 1 • 
Bitt, (coJooel,) 443. 
BritoUaiilk, 134. 
Bfpwn, {T<^mO i|j. 1$^ afi*. «4» S»i 

ftr-* V"*^ Harry, j^ 

Braofwick (hoofe of) 331. 

BttcklnEbam, Rpchcfter, and Dorfet, 105. 

„ liowhcloftthftftVW9*ir**fH?*4-M5* 

Bttllock, 46a. ^ ' 

■ and Bomao, 291. 

Burbage and Taylor, 6o. 
Baniet> 19a. ^ 

Caiiia Mariw^ by Ohvay. |^9t ?U? 

Caraaacos, 91. ' " 

S5!^«:5!^ciffifterof it. IfcV. . - . '"" 

Carey, 24«* ^ r 

O^tiBe, atiwedy,.9K 

CaJo, byAddflon, laa. , — 

C«Taiidi&« fifft4«keof Deypfi^i^ftt 4}ir 

CeUat.. ai« 
Cervantes^ $i6* 
Cha»<mt, toe* . . , 

Cbapnan, 164. 
CbaraaerofHaaOee, la, ipi. , 

^« . 

• • « 

f ^««h**f'H 


tne King in namict, )^y| wni» _#!.«*^ k- 

Mexandar ihcpJ^t, f57^'S9 ^ ■iifeti«r»««*^ 
Pope and BoUea^i 257? ^ ■- . 

^ his maimers and edQcaU99i 164. 

.^^-.andhisamrtierf, t(^ M35 ^ ' 

.^hitfavMrim. 165, iOf»A^^ • 
» and the d«ke of Om9^h 1*^ ^ 
»~ aad lames u. atjt . .. ^ . . 

• and NeU Gwynj ^^f6P*/- ^ — 

ChaH», 3«> «»3- J :^ Chetwoad, 

*' \i 


Childreq-aaors. Sec fiogin^-bajr^ 

Clioriis, pi. ••":-« *' '*'* '** , . . 

Churchill, 352. 

Church of Englandy 192. ^ , ' 

Cibbcr, 29, 50, 82;ai2,^ii6,- tjy/ls^, 1^5, ^04, 20^, 241, 
ayif &c. 407 to thc^iuL 

and Addifon, 31. ^ •' . 

and the public fit varjaap^^ 2^3.' 
his Bay^s, 301.'^ «* ' " 

jhI^ John Rich, 362! -^ '' ^ 

hiiLov*«s iaa-SWrtv 409-4 17, 

his Carelefs IMbknd^ «nd Provbkrd H'uffend^ 41!; "7 
a reproach to other comic writers,^ 4 1 a* * ' \ 
his mean iBCome, 413. .' /s ' VT ; 

and Verbrugeco, 416, 417. - * * " .. ' 

RichardCrofs'saccoun^pf him, 417. -v .•- 
a fervant in Sir Antony Love, 419*. , ^ • . ^ 

. and Lord Cheaerfieldi 420; > :•" ' ^* ;' ^ 
■ his charader by a certadp writer, 42 1 . ^ '^^ ' 

— i— — - his Lord Foppineton in theRelapfe,' anf ia dieCaref^fi 

Huiband, 425. - - .^* - • '' -» r 

hiSiEfop, 42^. 

his Sir John Brute, 427. ^^' . / * ' 

and Garrick compared, 429. ^ ' ^ 

hb tragedy ofXinief, 4311'^' ' • - * ^' ; " '-\^; \ 

fond of icenes of reconciliation in kis pl^<|*4l^« 
and Mrs. Porter, 432. . "^t « - * ^^ 

his two unlucky paffions, 433, , . ,•• '* ,r. n: i... 
hwaaine tragedy, 440:^ ^ : ^ ^ -^^ ' ■; —^^Z 

exploded m bcipio, 441. . - . ' . ^ ^r 

amanager, 442. .1,1 .1 . ...,.* »^ 

jcei&^^^Vtfferiiig from plays left ufhls^VinSi^fTf," 

hit method of treating an^nors^ 445«' ' - 

his lorcof ga«A»g^;45d. - ' ' ^ • "^ 

^^u.^^'^k^tti^plirtM tdOnrri^k, 47f. 
his ch ara£ier condudedi 47 3. 

a*. ^ 

s^fci^'ifcaar, i^*; " • ' ''- ' . . «» -1 

»• » « 

Cibber,(Theophilas,) 114 

■ •> * hii Biiycs,' -303. - 

Cibber, (Mrs,) 5^ S^* -^»r> '4»5- * * ' 

■ n • *or Ophetiiii f 26; 'itTt, ftc. 

her Monimia, 2075** •** -- 
her Belnderv^J?*'" •'' * 

« ■. 

Cid and Hamlet, 1^9* . ^ 

* *^ 

♦ ' ^ Cinna^ 




i t- 


1 N If E x; 4f^ 

Clarke, 388. . .* ) ,-0 .l'> 

■ I ' and Packerin the King in Hanilet:^ l|i. ..^ >., ! . . ..^ 
Claadtas, in Hamlet, 4^. *- ' ^' ^ 

I not unworthy thcrnoticc of a £Qodaftor« oo* . 

■ a coward, 146. ^ 1 . 
Cleij;y and the players At variance, 34.. , 
Clifford, (Lordosis." ' ' * ^ , * 
Clive, (Mrs.) 127, 310, 353. ' . J 
——-—- her fupcrior excellence, 3*4. * 
Clod, the court- fool, 132. ., >, ,.. ; ; ;. / 
Clowns, 85, &c. *^\ ' ^' * c ,- ' 
Collier and Drydcn; 171. ' '' ' .. 1 V 

■ and Congreve, 377. '-' ^ 

Cplman, 91, 311. ,.{,* ;.'* 

Congreve, 82, 147, 3ii'-3S2, 402^ 413, &c. 

formed upon Wycherly. jio, ^\ik,ifi^. \i ' \ v. I 

■ ■ ■ fupenor to Wycherly, 312. " , ^ r^ . 

■ I ■ ■> condaA of his fables. Hid* . 1 .» . : 

■ ^fi *^ — hi$ ulentfi.315.. r ; ,..,,. . , ? 

.Lii^^ — , iis Old BatcBcidr,-/i/V. ., ; .;. ;^ . ' 

■ and Ben Johpfon, 315, 361; ^^ 

his Dquble Pealer^ ^jy^. . . ". .^ 

his fea)afecharaacrs/3i9, 3j*4,. 3^8. ,., 

hts Love for Lov|i:a %^y^ y. ^ „ , 

andOtway. 328. ^,^, . ,.. , ..; 
andMri. Brace^aie. us, -,,.,., ,, , , . ,.., 
his Mourning Bride, 343'. > • , ', ,^, 1 , : r... • 

— and thcGrce^ dramati^, '• : 
his tragic obfcenity, 350. 


I i JiisWray of thcWorW, ,3S3r3^6-a , . 

■ I ' ■■■ ' ■ fellow- manager witK Betteftcrn^ 3^0, 401* o 

■■ ■ true caufeof his leaving off .«(rit|n|[,^ jdf* \ • •> . t^ 

■ his defence againft Collier,^ 37.7-379^ j/ - , \ ,p* ; 
Conqueft of Granada, a tragedy, 287. ..j. \. ^.^i, ... ..,- 
Conspirators in Venice Prefervedt^- f24.j-.'J.J ./' — — • 
CouteAj|on4bputttifle;i,^ii|, *. ' rr/i -c r • x c r a 

Cordelia; *^d. *:• M • '^ ^:' • ^ v\: ,^. ' . ^ ;^./ , 

Conats crudities, J I* . ,\ , . - ^ » 

Couvreor, (MadameJ 81.' ./„ . . ,! - * > * * 

Crawford, (Mrs.) 56. i/o. . \ . . . , . , 

Crcon, 46. ^* - , . : ,^. . .^ * ,» 

Criucifm, (theatrical,) its ufei*4V9^48u , i ^ , , 
Crofs, 41, 291. , , . .. ,. ,\. • ; ...'•_ 
Cuckold, a favourite* theatrical difh foroie'rljy^ jjij. « . .,.^^ 
H I . . 1 three cuckoldi in^'thc 0OttMc tfealer, %iQ. 


CvrnkmSmi^ (Mr.) 381^ 
Carl, ts)» »73, 340. 

Corrcr, (Mrs.) 215. 

Caftofllofciiecotttuy, 17 a, 

Daweaant, tt^ 30, 107, iiii ta6, 15^, ^t6. 
DtvMiiitt (Lady,) 197. 
Bearli^ the great deftrofer of envy^ 235. 
Decttt of Hamlet, 140. 
Decker, 66, 284. 
Delaotf, 273. 

Demofthenet aad^rcbiaet, 46, $3* 
Desnia, 174, 357, 360, j8o, 410. 
Derby morder^ 07 FUher, 63. 
DeviUtaYero, i66« 
Diilxm (afterwardt (ordRofeommon^ a^d tlK;;ilake ^f Oroioad, 

DinpleraaQiAiilefa, 52aw 

VUfifMn, 44, ^ ^ 

Dtotcoridesi 2t« 

Diicaftoa of the manner of ad4rffifift|[ the Olioft \gf Hf^tniu^ ^t^' 
Divines of epuneace, 192^' 
Dofgei, 291. 446. • 

■■ his iki)| in dreifing or otiierwi^ l^repariog Mmfbtfllr 

any pant, 448* 
»■ ■ ■ and Sir Godftef KneHov #Ji^ 
■■ ' ' his temper and peptics, 449* 
Don Carlos, byOtwaf, 17^ 

Don Sebaiian, 178. ; . ' ^ - 
Domsr, laDooSebaftikn; ty8. ' 
Borimaat, 170. u 
«i«i^ m^,.^ che irft ine fentkapm on the En^fift &^gf, iUf, 
Doris, 32^. ^ ■ ^ . .. 
Dorfet, (doleejof,) 170; 
Dor^ (Lordy) 465, 23ii«- 
Donble Dealer, 317. " *\ 
dedicatiottof it, 3i8> 

Dw^f 4» fo» 96* »o7» «««» »$4» «J7» «<9» silt l*If ^^ 
Drnnhtnneft the na^aai vice of Denmarie, 1 1«. 


> »5S-»75» »7?» «^6, 266, 288; 343, 
hia defence ot heroic traeedy, 15^. 
his Almannor and Almamde, rce. 

hta T]rrannic Love, i Acif« 
his Aarengnebo, f$7< 

t . 

hia lines on. the vi(ci$i9i4es of li£^ ^ ^ r^^ ' 
foriiAm nmlng triigftdT^ i$o. * ' "^ ; 


t>rYdm, Us All fottme^^ pmlmV9l^.^*iMf^ i^^i^ ■ 

liis Troilus iui4 Qrtfidt^ wlii» i«¥«rf4. l«|» 

hti attack onihe old play-writcn^. 164^ , ' : 

and Jeremy Collier, iyi» . -. . t 

his reply to Collier, 171. 
his Limbcrham, or Kind Keeper, 173. 
. and Lcc, 174^ z$$p 2|6» J^2* ^' . 
bis ereat improvement of Bngliili verfifiaatMb iff* 1 
his defence of Us own life, &c. 174, 

his death, 17c. I 

fondofhighfoundingdidioB, 177. 

and Congrevc, 193. 

^ Lee, and Oiway, poets oii the Cde of tbf «9«r|a wfM^. 
his drefs imitated in the Rehearfid, 289, 

— his teaching the players, 290. 

^ his opinion of Charles theSecond's pmrtmti ff09Vh%%44 
-• his Verfes tQ Qoi|frevc, oa th^ Pouble DeaUc, |««<. 

— his laa play. Love Trinmphanu S^^* 
infeded with jttdictal aftrology, 325. 

I^cair, in Ma(beih» 4S 
Danftall, 369. 

EarlofBflex, a tragedy, 201. 

Ecclet, 374. 

Edwafd the Gofifefli^f, f^ 

Edv/in, 41. ' 

Eggleton, (Mrs.) 371, 373. "» I 

M ■■ her d^th, ^74*. . 
Eifrida, 91. ' 1 . ' \ : 
Elizabeth, (QS«€n) 201. - .... 
■ ttMJlameaX 7^ ^S^t ^04, i4o. 

, ,archbilhopWhitgifeaB44i<M>Pafn<^ iJAi^^ 

Elliot, a confpirator in V^aicf Pc^icfv^ 244. 

V— — ^-that name dear to EngYancl, ^af* 

Elrington, 4729 471. , 

Emperor and Nourmahnl, in DrydenVAurengeabp^ 17^ 

Envy, 470. . ' 

EuJogtte to Cains Martat, 4.fts« . . . _ . 

Eflay on Falliair, 130. 

Eftconrt, 291. 

w ^ his Bayes, 291, 29 3» 

- his qnalitteSy 292; 

- the original SerjeiM Kke, In ^ R^K^#(J««Qlkil6; 
?0»m:^ in the Tender HiM^a^Aii &€« ^g|i. . 

op«t a tavern, 296. «ii^«,* 


4yr I K 0' E x-- 

Eftcbin»^)ailttodlte€ fldliiterf; ^97^ 300. ' - • 

■ I ■- an<<tfc»ddB<r of MMftborDogli> 298. 

Bomcatdet of i£(chylas» 25* 
Bttiipides, 89, 193, 212. 

If • 

Funall» as a^d by Walker and Qmoi 371* ' 

rai^PHiiftait, 's6» 

Falkner* 476^ 

Falkland-ifland, 122. 

Falftaff» 83. 

■■ ■ ■ and diechief-xttlU.ce, 46* • 

Fanner^ fprJ^ 19. 

Farqahar, 170. . 

Farreoy 152* 

Ftaur pcriOBiRcdf 98* 

Feadiers worn formerly by fiageheroei^ 94; 

Filbert and Jaffier^ «2a» 

Fiilier» 63. 

■ his behavionr at the play afte> murdering Vlt.l>^Af', 

Fletcher, Sc. i68. 
— — — and Congrcve, 320. 
Floundemiany 365. 
. Fbttdlewlfe, as aded byDogget, Cibber» Hipp!fley» andFoe^. 
Fortinbrafi and Hamlet, 120* 
Fools no objeds for dramatic iatire> 327* • < 
Foote, 1329 298. 

■ ■ -htsBaycs, 304. 

Foreiight^ in Love for Love, a chs&ader of hnmonr^ 325* 
Foac^ by Ben Joaiba, 67* ' 
Frail, (Mrs.) in Lore for Love, *327, 
Frandfco and Mr* Bohcfne^ ^0 . > j . 

Francklin, 38U .: - 

Frier Francis, 61* ' . « : . 

Froth, in the Double Dealer, 320. :- - 

»-> his opinion of laughter^ 321, 

and Lord C*-, 321 

Froth, (Lady,) and BriuL, 323. 
Fuller, i8» 132. 

Oralen, Dio(c«rides, CeUhs, fte^ ar. • : 11 - : • • . 
Garrick, ay, <^4| iJi> ao?,' 258* 267, 405., 4«*iM*8, 429^ 
439,470. X '.:;<: i4.;:iC-—'-— 

'' ^ Garrick, 


I N D B Jt ^y 

aild Woodward, 4i/a32* 
and Barry, 45, 137. 
aadMri.'CH>bdr9 58* 
bis Aiperioiicy in Haml^ 6B, 1 14* 
bis expreffion and a^ion^ 78. 

■ las aflaraed madnefs to Ophelia, 79* 

■ ■■ bis unvaried a^on, 93. 

■ rejeds tbe feliloqvy m Hamlet in tbe third 9&g lof • 
. ■ hts alierauon of Hamlet, 14$. 

■ . I reiigns Pierre for Ji^er, 245 . . 

•-— «— hisjBktafticry of ]>dane^^273« - ^ 

•— — — and Foote, 298. 

JusJ^jfe^ compared widi that of his predeceflbrs, 3aa« > 

■ ■ in OAnvtty 349. 

Gay's pai4dyo/jbtD($ i^oches ia Venice P^]eierTe49 sax. i 
Gboft in Hamlet, 23, too, &c. 

■ ■ ■■ ofDaritts, from JEfchylos, a4, . . '1 

Clyteoiaeflra, 25, - 

■ ■ ■ ■ Laios, inOBdipuSi 26. - 

■■ " ■ , !'■ Nimis, \n Semiramii, /^«i/« ^ .... 

ofSylla, in Ben Jonfbn's Catilin^ gu ^ ^ . 

Giffard, 273, J52. .. : - — - 

Gravediggersm Hamlet, 130. 

■ ■ ■ ■ I thrown oot by Garrick, t^m- . . .. ^. - -. 
-■ I I " ■■ refiored, 1 47« 

Gray, (Dr.) 21. 

Green, (Mr8«) 32 4« . . 

Griffin, 41. .'';',. .11 

Guardian, 322. .;.;,. 

Goemier, 124. : I 

Guildenftem, 72, .144, &c« 

Gwyn, (Nell,) 268, 389. , , . . 

Haines and a clergyman, .263. . 
«-"- — difmifTed by Hart, 264. 

a writer of prologues and epilogues^ z6^* 
(count,) 265. . : 

and Dry den, 265 • ^ ^ i. . 

anecdote of.him, by Qoin, 267. * ^ 
«— — bis Bayes, 290. 
Hallam» (Mrs.yii6, 244. -^ - 

Hamlet, 1, 152. 
— -» — when lirfta^ed, not certainly known*' J. 

the £rft of SfaakCpcare's plays a^cd at thedukeof YorkV 
theatre, 4. 


4H I M V B XL 

Hmlct, iti pepolaiity fam a&ertht wfl twu i oB, «Mr> 
I the irft a£i uneqiiaUed, *2|. / • 

■ merit of tbe fcene between mmAet «ii4 Irib «i9dRr, ^ -r« 
renew of thg fia<<i4ift, %z^ ijo^ 

■ altered by G'arrick* 94$* 

■■■ Grave. diggfKs reftoRfly »47« 

ii«-*- — ftort charaoer of it» 147* 

^ftoftat 0tMuML dfUfceiBttle^ffifti ta iCy ^51 ^ 
►^ paffit^es explained. -T^it, f ^-tj, 3^, 5«, 40, 4^--s^ 
55» 58-60, 62,.69» 7«, 7$, 75, fS, 7«««o> »3-«5. 
89* 9o» 9>'94» 9^*» «ao*«4 1, u<9->iat, 137-142, 
Haomer, 7* 9> 49* • 

Ha^er Ji^ (^m Ae^nttM^Ae CHi tatcbdMv e66« 
■ and Shepherd, 4c^. . . . 

Harriagioay X^ J'>^)^^^>^'^*)^M^^c^^ iMhrfated, 


Bart, 260, 20I9 209* 

and Mohan, 5<», 96, 154, tij<pn€0, 46e. 
■ ■ rtar; 


aAersadodwdieai, «6%, 4r$j* 
timeof t]tdr4eMM€«taui, 269, -zjt. 

his Alexaodef^ 

and NellGwyo, 268. 

hif Odarv, 388. 

>bii deata, 38^. ' 
Heartwell and Sylm, 3 16. 
Hecoba, 59* 
Beigbliol 292. 
ifaMerfim, ^o» 80, 89, 426. 

» hiteiceUence, 89, ii^. 



■■ ■ ■ ^ prologne and epslogaey '67. 

Hcrcniet and his load, 48. * t 

Berciiles fnrens, 84. 

Heroic friendfliip, 2ft6. 

Heroo (Mrs.) and Mrs. Woffington, 43^. 

Hejfwood, a8* 

' his apology«ibr Ihe aftors, iSo^ 
Hill, I Aaron,) 143. 
Hippiuey, 41, 86, 93, 163, 230. 
Hippocrates, 21. * ^ 

Hoodley, 38. 

H<dweU and the bramtns, 25 9« 
Hoaier, 98. 

ifcpkins, (Mrs,)- avdMrs«bdBb2tl, lateen Qettrode, 152. 
Horatio, ia» 1514 


Horden, sn aceooipIHtMT^Iiyer^ fcffl«iA» ^if. 
MDolc 10T coiiiBi^&m.'iiia roc^^ftfentycy 3^it» 
Howard, (Henry,) 085* . 
Howard, (Sir Rob«'t,) a86. 

Howard, (fiimilyof,) 289* • . - -- 

Httlety loo* 

>«- bis eacooneer witb a ckitf, • i75> 
^-9 lii6fii^ts«^ 274, 

ckaraiften lie a Aed, •74. 
his fndden death, 275. 
Hull, IVhitfield, and Fama> ^ Hotatib^ 1^. 
Home, ai$« V 

Homoiirt aSj, jeo. 

— w i " I ** Ben fonlon^s definition of it, ijS* 
■ ■ ■'- Dryden's definitionof it* J5l* 

— — Con^ve's opinion of it examined, 356, 357^ 
-•^ Corbin Morru's man W hamdur, 358. 

Hurd and Mrs. Montague, 91 

J^Ser, the fafpiciona entertained Vgdinft Bim, 2s6« 

■ his anxiety and difireA> ^26, 227. 
lago, 4^0. 

■ ■ and Roderigo, inOtheUo, 125* 
Jamos 1. 66, 67. 

James the apoftle, and SUkipeitfei i6< 
Inchbald, (Mrs.) 152. - ^ .... 

Indian Queen, 2;» 

InftrofHons of Hamlet to the. players^ ^ Ac* 
Interview between th^ Ghoft and Haifeilf^, 24* 
* ■ » Hamlet and Ophelia, 7^ 

' nf ■ i iiii i ii I OUoffx and Al^rla ^mong die-tMbry*^ 

the Moaroiag Bride, 347^ 

johnfon, (Dr.) fonuoi^d to ^ in an error^ 1 1, 124, 1 2$. 
"•^and Mr. Steerens, 22, 84^ iBo* 
•» Shakfpeare's moil liberal ccknineilYatorj5«« 
and m. yanoner. £rj^ 



■ ■■■., his rmew of Hapalet, 148; 

^hisHfedfDiryaen, 175. 


■ ii 1 1 II i g njoft to Wycherly^ 313, 

i^ n iiiiti i i*— liistwinion l:>f the ebara&er of Heartwelt io the 
Old Batchelori fi6. 



Jofcttfin, (Dr.) hU favourite paffage, from Qmgrcf Cr <COHtra(t 

cd with one froBi .«Mkf<)C$rc, 344rS47- . j 

„.•— hii opipi<|0 of Coogreye^s poems, 375 ; »d of 

Congrcvc himfelf, 381. '. 

1oafoa» (Ben) 235. 

and Mr. Stecvcns, 50. . , 

his quarrel with the players, 65. 

and Sbakrp«ai!e,^09. , -- . 

bis Catiline, 91. , 

his clob at the Devil, with thofe who coDspofei 
it, 166, 167. - 

Jonfon, tbeaaor,:i3S, «9:»» 4'S- , ' * 

— — .-^-p- originally a painter, 135. . 

Jndgcment of Paris, a mafqUe, 374 
Jnliet, 346. .•; . . 

JnliusCaefar, a tragedy, 22, 161 


• • • 


^ • 

K. . . . 

Kaims, 316. : ^ 4* 

Katharine, (Queen,) 8. 

Keen, 272. .' 

, Qain,.attd Holer, 100.* 

—— his naajcftic deportment, .124. ,. 
Kcmble, of Drury lane, 148. 

— his Hamlet, 149* . . ^ 

— ■— — ■ bis paufes, 150. 

, his clofet-fcene \u ]flamlct, 1 50. 

•» his perfon and addrefs, 151. 

£enipe, S^« ... 

KeyoftheReheariaJ, ^^9, *./.'• 

Kings of Denmark, l9vcrs of Rheniih wine,, 14. : ^ . . 

— , „., ,. ■■■ thair intoxication, ilU, ^ 

.,.;- I :., - •- -- a fed to be buried i^ their armoiu:, .. 19«, . , 

King John, 22 ^ ; 

King's part, not always dcfirable to an aaor, 45, . &c. / . f 

King^.(Mr.)86;,3J»T ^„, ^ • 1. '* mLi ; ^u^ - - « 

Booth's cbaraacr of W. Smith appl^ to huB* 47J3U- ... . 

King** fqUloquy in Hamlet, 98. . - :,..-- • ' , --,- 
King Charles the Second's company of comedians and the dokft 

of York's, 54, 387. • . - , 7 .. 

King Charles's company fapcrior to the others, 387*.^ . 
,^— .— — ■ — 7 caufes ofits de^lenfioi), 3S£L« - 
King» the box*keeper, anecdote of hiai» Cibber, &.C.. 308. 
Kitty Carrot and Bclvidcra; *32. . . . > 

Kttcller, 300. ^ ^ 



INDEX* 497 

[ Kyntftotidiid Booth,* 157. 

I ■■ ■ fc '^mk aflor of woia<n*< pairts» 336* 

-— ~~— — tune of bis retiring from the lUge ttfictltaiiii' iMi 
. , ■ Povyeirt iarcafm on his a^ng, 337> 

i*' * > * • ■ his ibo afl4 grandlbii, /fei/« 

IjSl Clairon andLeKin, 27, 8i* 
— ^— . and the properqr-maii, 2f , aft. 
Lscy/^t^ ongmal aftor of Bayes, 289. 
I^acy, late manager of Driuy-lane^ 164* 
Laert^Sy in Hamler> 128. 
■■— and Ophelia^ ,13* 

■ clofeted by the king, 12 8* 

•—-ft— conjedores concerning thechaiigeiahiidifpofitiOD^ iSjd. 
• bafe, 140. ' " 

I inconfiftenty 142* -: . 

■ I not a favourite with the audience or the a^rs, 141^ 
Lauitatr 4! 9, 424, 444, «rc. - 
Lazinefsy or inability in dramatifts, 170* 

Lear and Cordelia, 56; ^ < 

Le Bron and Lee, 259. 

Lee, 26, 174, 218, 35^, &c. 
1' mmm^ his Akxand^ tbe^Qieai^ >i|{5, &c* 

— his ftyle, 256. 

«-— his bell tragedies, 257. ,- . ^ ' 

—has brought the moft material ^TenttfofAleacaadief's life into 
his play, 159*. 

<-»« his pathetic manner of reading, 271, 
. J.^ aftdOtway attempted to aO ^i th^ ftage, 282* ^ . ; 

Le^ad, (Sirbamfon,) in Love for Love, 325* 

XiCSgh, 2ie. 

Leland and Afcham, 53* ' 

Le!flR>n for princes, from .£fchy las, 24. - - 

Life, refledicnson, 7^ 

Limberham, or Kind Keeper, a comedy, byDrydeA, ijy 

Locke, 356. 

Love for Love, 324, ^t^o. 
I I ■ I ■ its exgelieate, ' 3g;* 

'■I I ' ■ ' « ! > moral of it, iiid» 
^ Lovelr Mokes, and C10& s . Griffin, Hippifley, TAfwell, an^ 
\ Shater; Wilfon, Baddeley, and Edwin; aAoraof Polonios, 
^. 4.1 . .J 

Lowin, the original Falilaff, 141. 
^-'^- chiefly eeHbriied for paru ofhnmMfp iM. - - 
Vol. IIL K k LowIn 

•/498 . 1 3f D a K. 

Xowin fofnetim«s af^ed in tragedy, «i)|C». '4 

Lacian's Dialogae pf MenippMs; «o, . < ^ . . 

Lunaticsg 90..- , ,.; . ._. - 

Lyoo^ an mor reinafk^bte for'^coptoastAaiiioay^ 2f^ ■ - 

Macbeth, 26, 45. . • ' 

„ • ■»,»■■— new dreted by Mr.^MMkiifl, 8|* 

Macheatht fang better by Haktitten liy ^XUher, «74% 

Macklin and HeoderroQ* ^9 ... 

— — — and Yatet, 439. 

....^.•..'s lago and Barry's OthellQy 440. 

Maid'f Tragedy, 518. 

Majbab, «» 147. 

Manwaring an$l General CbardiiU, 434^ . 

Mariboroagh, (Dntcbefs of,) 382. . 

JMbirihalU |m^s.) 197* 

— -«M» the original Rozana, ia thcvRival Qumas, ^Mf^m 

Mafks, 164, ^65. .' . , 

Malkweil, in the Double Dealer, 320^ . 

MauM, 91* 

Maffinger» 8$, io8. 

Maxiimn*4 defiance of^diefp^lt'iADtytta^ Tyianaic Idove, 

Meafare for Mea&re, 22. ... 

HfeirciiiV and Chaitm, t2|« • . . 

Mermaid, Devil, Roebock, kc. biTenili %66* 

Middle comedy of the-Gfeeki, 2V4* — 

Millamani^itt aded b/Mca* Oid£eld, Mrt.yM«ger» McUMrs^ 

Abington, 373. , | 

Miner, (Joe,) 369. 
Mills, 159, 205.^ 
——— in the part of Pierre, '238. 

and Quin, 239. 

Mikoii'a5ani£>nAgMifte$, ^i^ > . . .. 

■ -* ■ ■ " and Shakfpeare, 105. 

Miiward, 113, 114, 

Mimics more dreaded thaft beloved,^ igyf - r - 

Minifters fore about politics,. ^|o« 

MIraM, In the WaylofdM World, Hb Atmfia of Witwopld^ 

^40* - . 
Mirabel, in the Way of the World, the charafler of Qoogreftf 

himfelf, 33^. 

^ I III I I I f ♦^■■i - # « >i aAidiby Wilktiiad T^^r47 >« 

1 Mitres 


'* «k •« 


^J<.%«-^ ^ 

Mitie-taTeni, in d« time of Charles U. t^. 

Mobon, CO, 96, a;!. , 

preferred to Hart bjr phKlf* jU> .((P<f 

Motley, afterwards biihop of \^inc)^^tcr, ^67* 
Morris's Effay on ITOt ai^ H>fi^qur, ^7* 
Moflbp*s Pierre, 240. 
Mottntfort, 105, 272, See. 

Movntfort, ^Mrt.) S«o» 39>» 395* 

Moaimng Bride, 343. 353. ^ . . - 

......ii.1.......^ — charaaers in tt, 34^, ^44» 35:<* , 

—- ~ — ■■■ plot and moral, '^f^i. . ; . 

. ^m .1. ■ copclofion, 35*i«' 

Mylgrave, (Earl of,) 281. * 

Mttiphy, (Mr.) 3S1. /^^ 

Narciffii, Hillaria, and Amandk, In J-ovcX;^^Wft,,4A4* 4'jf • 
_ and Lady Betty Modiih, .414, . , 

I Neat, 371. 

[ NS?a;o?,';'<5)W^n««^ 

t pocrite is taken, ^77» M^* 
Norris, aji, 25^2, 460, 4d^« 
i Norton, 410. ^ t 

' ObfrcnitJ ic/aliar to jb^ Englifc 5jr*m4tW?,. I^^f . ,3H5» ii?* 
Obfervator, by Sir Roger X^EftF^iigc, ,^2. 

Oedipns, 26. -,,..• 

_-..L- in the PhoBi^ Qf,e«'«Pf4^8» ^94» 

Old Batchelor, 315. , * ^ , ^ 
praifed by Dryden md §pu|lifm,. ^ 1 5 . 

. — — its chvift^ew, ,515. 

; . ■„ M..'-^^-^ .»ft4J4rs. Braccginfje, 541, ,3^2. 

., . ^— . dcTcribed at Icngtb, ^43,3. 

' mm her gr«;at jabilitjes, 433. 

[ ,.,-— -— bar cpnfojiniing »^ng fp^^|9r*.4i7* . 

f „ ■-^— her Lady Towmy, &c. 438. 

, Olympic games, S3- i^^^^ ^1^^^^^^ 

I • • ^ • • . 

\ii, f' N' b^ If' » 

Opheliii, 13, 90^.125. 

her fliid-TceiieV 1 g6» &c. 

—M il -hcrmadncft not to be, Charged abiblately to. rh^f^Tcdt 

•^ ^ ofHaMet, 143; 
Opinion of Hamlet concerning B^oiencraas and Goildenft^, 

Oriiiood> (Ddkis bf;) 186, &c. 

■■ ^sBd'Acafto/ 187, S:c. 

OroDooko, I9» 42 1 » 422. • ^ 

Orphan, 183. ...'..'.;' ^; ./ 

ploCy ihid* 

• : * I,: 

' T 

■ ■ ■■ " languagCi^ 1 84, ^ , 
_» — twolaft lines, 194''. 
!■ ■ ■ firft aflors in it; 19^. 
Oftric, 139. ' ^ 
Othello, 12), 440, 

Otway, i76-?53-. ;, v ^ .., ^— i 

---—- the firft writer of genuine tragcdf, i^Si ' •'* 

■ wrote his fird tragedies in rkne, ibid* , ^ 
•»^.^ bis Alcibiades, i%d, 

.—- — >hisDon CarloV, i79« ' * 
— — — his defeds, 180. . . ' 

.—- — » htf Caiii^ Mariut, «^)jy. . ;J - ' * * ' 

.^.».— 1 bis'praife of Shakfpeare, / j/X ' / * 

-..i— his epilogue to Cains Marias, 1 8z; '' 
his quitting the army, 182. 

•^...^ his Orphan, 183- 194* &c 
»ii .— > the foa of a clergyman, 191. 
...^-^bis difrefpe^t for the clergy unjiift,''i9t. • 
* .^^.^ his Venice Preferved, 209-232. ' < 

•«».-. and ShakTpeare» 21 J, 2^3. 
-.— — aloyalift, 215. 
«—.— — hiseDem'iesdefciibed, 217, 235*' 
.— ..— his own Htuation defcribedin the ^art of Jaffier^ 2 19. 
..^.^ and St. Real, 223, &c. 
..«..-ii« and Southern, 224* ^ ' 

•« his laft play, called the Atheift, 232. 

-i— « — hit nuhiippy'circumftanCes, and thecaufe, iiid. 

«- the Gotnmon account of his death contradicted by Drr 

Wirton, 234; 
^— true caufe of his death, 234* 

envied byDryden, andthecaaft, 235. 

Palmer and Mrs. Crawford,, 271. ' 


i<4 > < i 

I N :p r« -X. I t9it . 

Parody and borlefque, the difference Utwc^ea them, 222. _ 

Parfons and Quick, 136*. IS?-, ^: . ^.. 

Pafiive obedience, 139. . . .^ _ „ 

Paulino and Rrneft^* Jn; t^c Qrpkan, 186. : j . : , 

Peer, (William,) 29 «• ^j-;- ,1:.; ,^i ,.5 

Peme, 132. .7,5 .• jtn ii '" r-is -^- 

PerfeofiEfchylus, 24. ' i.^4 •rf.Ct\^ - w '^ -^^ 

Pctre (a popiih prieft) and.Aa dakcof^uctingfiamj jpB.. 

Petulant, as ^9tH by Neali^ Badd«lex^ . 37i-_ ^ 

Philip of Macedbn andSatxri^^, the coiDf4ifn, 53. 

Philips and Addifon,.. 167. V. .^ 

Philodetes, 6. . > : . ^..... ^ - r^ ^ - _ -. — ^ -^ 

Jicrrc, allufion of a fpccch of his in the ftril s^ of Vewcjj ??€- , 

and Jafficr, 212, . > ^^ X * " *, %' i^ - ^i" ^ 
differently affe6^bj{(fen^> chf r^$.4i,^i 

. confpirators, 22c, 226. k, ^ ,;3:>iLii; 

.1^-— .-•.— their fate as taken trom fit..Rcal;i i*p. ,•. . - <t 

aded by WiUiam Smith and B^^rtqo, aj^: .r 

■• • 


his artifice, 224* . ? 

— — — thcfon, 371. .UI j.rf'/ri>.'i53SfP 

Plain Dealer, 2$^r;3?ife.::3nf;:>aa io^^.jb Laii vii-tfiii-^r^ 

i Plato, 73. " .c^tr ,-.J^::jO 

Plaufible, in the PWn Dealer, 3^8,, .,,. .j ^i]j 

Players vindicated, 51* &c, .- ,p .. [ — - 

Poetafter, 66. .; : ,: - . . : ..-.^ 

I Poets compared, 69, ,.i ,.j : *: ... — - 

; Politics, 331. "^ :* ,-.;!vi'w>2 i — — 

' Polonitts and Reynold, jj. ..osj. tijavi^ haa -»— 

^^— „ - — ^— fcene be^een thesf QQlittea In itprefeoik 

^ J . i his chorafter difcuflai at la^e, vf. ,00 1 ^^ftibiB^I 

miftaken l»^G?o4l;5K: AV.iJiarf J ?/ vjj t 

—.— always aaed by low <jon&diins,''4i. * \^^^ [.;,;i 

Polydore a£led by Booth and Walker, lofi, ^^^^ ^^^^ 

Pope, 44 4i>.^^ f&7€:\ViSti9^^A^H^i^ai^Aimt1tJ^^'^* 
n and Gay, 301, 302. .oif-?8s ,q-i ,(fiTwda)i 

P«Wbt(M«iOe?Aftl'>;/iiiI L .3bTJ aifAa /*;lq ^di bnij 
?opUhPlot, 214, i-ty. ^z^ ,b;»ii»ii ih.l n^dw 


Porter, (Mn,) ii6, Mip,'^9^^4f^ ^fit-iffi^ ^'* "^"i*^a. 

*—.-*. in BeWtfcW, t^4i». t^ 

■ ■ and M«,Oidfield, 464.^ * 
■ ■ ■ ■ htrdcath, 460. ^ 

Poros, the Greek aaoi', id tM ^M^BIWM^ ^ 
Potter, I94» 5S0 Ac. 
, ■■■ andRumney, 25. 

Powell, (Gcorge,y4'V««/ . . ^ ' 
■ ■ uricf GhrffttytolracA*, ^44/ ffi#« 

:ibber, 4I6« 


""I*"?!. * 




, -/i 

: 'i 

» 'O' 


and Colley Cibber, 4164 
and a baiUff; 455. 

« - ^ . »>. 

Prior and Addilba^ 376. 

PrLtchard, (Mri,\ 116. ., .••.;■ f 

A^ttii by AiHW^l^'^iflf^. -^ ; f 

Parcel, 374. . ■^*-' '?■ • "^ ■ -^ 

Pylades, *% rtiinfci «<t '' • ' ' ^' : 

• • ■ 

« « i < .> » -—-«.--%.»...«. .^ 

Qoeen» in. Hamlet, charged wiuininrder, \oxy 

^, HmflllW. Putthntl, rr*,—— — 

Queen of Sheba, 15, * ? «♦' ^ 

Queenfboryandthedakeof Bockxnghaifif^^o^^ tivk'^Cnl « 
Qoiek, 136. -t^ ^".i\^\ I 

Quin, 163,231. '--c '■ ^'•'Ar^.^''To/t,-jr ,^LI:..r.i<l ' 

«-^-«- and Ryan, 33. .. ^i ,; .^b. :. ..1,/. f" 

•->— unfit for Chamont, 205. 

' i 

and Booth, 244. 

his Cly tut, 276. V ./. t' » 

«-'^- and Ganick, 428., *^S «'.::( >' '..- 1 . 

lUftor, brother to Mrs. CIH^ '^6\ ^ 

Raiclife, 300. 'Vc »"n^^' ^^^ l. j. ):u i3fvmr.::) :«: 

Ray'. Chefliife'diaJilWI;^' - ^^ ^ ; 

Keal, 179« •*•'■ *^*"' "" ■ ' ^' *' :•,..-. --^- , .«« 

.»-..— h» narrative compared ^\$^ tMi^|>kH*'6#'ytAifa»P iefcivrJ, 

IUr<t^JhS£bf^a^««^boirffitttftffla^^ 4l2^.< > ^t* < r^ 
Rehearfal, 179, 283*310. - ^ .^^£ .y«^> --t^ 


I.. ■ . ... wacB Tn mw. aw»» .. ■ tr - « -t- • 

»»3»iT f. i Rdiearlal 

Rchearfal compared wick Don Quixote^ iS^^ - *' 

piayMffofiti tiAi^lmAtUf fHtm i %n— -- 

Btcligion and Po!iyc$v j^fov * . ^. : 

Renault and Elliot^. 124. i. .• ^ 

Rcvcfl^e; ati^gjed)^, 75. . 

Revolution and Uoioa» ^j-ii • — ' * t 

Reynolds, (Sir Jofhiia,) 479. ( .. - . . 

Rich, 5, 392^ ' . .- I... . - . 

— — family dfJ&htivlBfelrtafert dfcfce«^^^* ' • 

Richard III* 211. •• «.- ^ -*' « , - ^^ • 

— -r ;— and Ifcnrx Vlir, 81* - - tji^ r:i^.^:f 

Rittarafttfirf#fit#if.':f}%;^' ^^ ■*^-'-^''- " --^^^^ r -"^ • '^^1' • 

Robertfon, of York, 136. r- tC s -^^ . •^~ 

Robcnfon, (Rev. Mr.) i8i / ' . : . ' :' .- . 

Robinfon, to. . / ...::?..• d:r- ^r . 

Rirt^ftfJi^, (Eari'cO i6j, 1^;^ iflij. ' '■ ^ ^ 

his diligettfcfe-in-ifeicktegl|^rv E .ia i y » 

aa, 199, •*& .,>.:^t:u->Dai..; — -^ 

Rogers, (Mrs.) 415, 

r' «>• . ^ 

Koie-uvern, 416. * 

Royal oak. Mitre, and^&odSMk; itf& . 

Rumney, 25. * ,' ^' ' " ' 

Ryan, 4/33-L?i*.'25rt ^^f>J3^<' T. ^ ^ ' '* 

^'::^* ^fc*-ftWl», -*44.^ <^*- ^- - ^ X- - i- ! •: ^ ^rf 

•— ~ his hi^h opinion of Mrs^ SeyBfcifr,«^4|^ ^ 

Rymer*^ opinion of Hart, ?6i. . ,, . . '— * :^^'/^* r^J 




Samfon Agoniftes, 91. .. , ' ■ * t- • * 

Satyrusj a comic aaorof.Adi«lfl(9 j^j^ -^ ^ - ^ : .' . 

Savage, 434. • . .» • - .• t. .j — ^«.,^.^ 

SaviC 330. • '. <f-^ ." /"\ Ml O ii2 

SaanderS| (MfC)4>l*{'''' ^' ^ •• 1 •.. ** •• -^-^^-H ^ 'r/u/I ini 

Scene between Hamlet and l|ii -M^tMl^cirti^-Ma* 

SciMX>lfellows of Hamlet ja(UyAi%eded, 111..^- ^j - »-:7 ;?j 

•So)^ 192* .'^ i, .:..\ ,v r/-i' ' 

Scribonias Largns, 2t« . m , • ; 

Sebaftian, in Dryden'sDonSebaftian, 178 

Sejanus, 67. 

Sdden» 167. -i^^ »" 

* ■ • » 

Sci^de^ •iioperay:3f4V^^3i^ oi ii.jj .^ 


SH I r N D vE X I 

Senate of Venice and tlie houfe of commons, 21SL," ;. „ : 
Settle, m Drury.iane theatre, 459. . , ^ f, ..^ , .j ' 

Seward, (Mr.) Ills preface to Beaumont and PleicW|^ 1 70^^ 
Seward, earl of Northumberland, 19^ * ' * : 

Seymour, (Mrs.) 179. 

inBclvidcra, 244>*' ' ./ ,* , - ; 

Shadweil and Settle,. i^ts^.of-A? w^g^pai^, ;^1 1. \ /" ' ^J^ 

— — and Otway, 235, 236. ^^\^^ ,,^ ..; j . ^ 

Sbafte(bory, 215, &c« .,§ IIJ / v. 11 n ' - 

Slbakfpemre't frcMent additiona 0) tfc9(ej>Iay^J^»^vala^* 3, S^Tj^ 

phifofophr, 23- ,,; : \ , V :,; \ ;: ;. j 

■ tnnmftions toa«ors, go>' , n ^^ 

Siakfpeare wrote in the infancy of the ftage, 1 5 it . ^ V . . 1* 

— -~— — his charaaers wi)|^not'|i^ar yioieat aljtf ri^tio^^i^ \. 
formerly lefa ,Tfduci ; tjhan Fl^t^ji^^d JfiaJpa,!! £4._ 

andCo2gr€vc, j^j.^, ., ^,3. 

Sbersdan, 8o» Ti$, i2i» ,. .♦ 7 iriV ^ 

SUrley, the original ador of Hel^ bol jp tl^jCetearla^ agall 
filter, 41, 86. . - . * t- - . 

SiddMs,. (Mrs,) in the Fat fei|f$|^^.]gf6i... 
——————— in Befvidera, 248*250. 

, , , „ — -^ her perfon an4,>depoityent, , 2 4Q> ., » 

com«iredjW|th^^fs79Ab^^^^^^ ' • ^ 

—————her lupenoTnty tnZar^, in t^^A^9fr')i|i]^Si^^ 

• - Jk 

li 'I .; 

Silent Woman, 67. , i' i « 

^mile of the turtles, in the Rehearfal, 'i%i\ " V ^ ' '*'''^^ 

--^-<— of the boar and fow, ihid^^ 

Singer, the compofer, 172. .m ? .' ' ^,.- 

Singing-boys preferred tal^e^taylei^,.' 47. 

■n. '■■■■ ■^— > their manner of a^Inc:, 48I 

Sir Courtly Nice, 413, 451. .ov ? ,I.v/^, 

Sir Novelty Fafhion, a good pianre of fop«j^ 4!**' !} «■ ^-* ' c;::^ 

- — — — -^**-fdasti«lfi,' ^144 f>.. 1^;.': m n A/?^v-; D.^n^r'. 

Skinner, 51, 77.-11 ^••'•-''■"i; 'i vifj.^^.'.'Ir.r .l^.o^wJ.-.'* -od ^t*, 

Slinglby, (Lady,) ii6» ,i,,;;> 

Smith, 80, 115. .' V * ,:•.. ;.. :. ?z'\\ ■ .. '. . X! iv. ,, \ ...- 
Smith, (Edmund,) 1^, 204, 454. , > ,i^i,Al»i 

Smith, (William,) 1 81, 196, 332, 405. .^i, .loU > 

his retum to iheJ|if|e,|,|j3«ci>'j^g'ii^ «;>Iafi:»i 

• ''' - ^iX Sauk* 

Sifiitli» (TK^liamO kit death and epitatpk, 35<(;t e- 
Socrates, ju . '"^ • 

Soliloqoy of To be, or not to te; 73; 

Sophock9» 6» 38. •• {»•...«* . • i 

Soatlieni, 385, 412, 419. . -''■''' • > 

his'Orooiibkor, 19, iSec* 

1 X 

Spafict and Barry^ 25S. 

Spedaton « A p^go refloredy 299. ~ - — - 

Spence, 254.- 

Scage-murdM^8» 92. . *. . . ,- .1'.' 

Sugetrick of the ador of HamMt^ aC'tfie ^traiK^ of AeGltat, 

in the dofet-fcene, io8« . - ^ .'. 

Steele, 1129 134, 135. ^^ •";;• t^^ - .- 

.^...^ his charaAer 0/ £ftcf)iitt, 203, 299* 
— — ■ I. ,0—^. ■ ,.■■ ? .., , ij... ^ >, reiAarks upoa ityt^bp^. - -' 
Steevena, obiigations of the public to him and MtrMwhae; 3« 
' — an explaoatioil6f hti amended, 17. — 
.«»«»«».. his obferyidons on'^e ftene between NaiMa^ and thi» 

' « playeray 59; &«.*' ' - -- •- 

. , .1 . «^4smicifed, i4<> ' . 

— — -»" hit i>bfcrvattoD4 on th^^fttne ketwcen^ Ilamia aw chto 

»\ - ,'- J fehoolfenew^ ^49.' ' 

Stephens^ (Mrs.) after \»ardt Mlfi'Ridii 37^7^-*** 
Suckling, lip. ■ 

SnndeiVand(Losd)-and JoeHaineei t(t# - — 
Swift and Congreve, 3 8 f • 
— — and Pope> 426;^ 476. 

• • • • . ■ J » . J 

Tarleton and4S4infKi8j> ijli' 

Tafwell, 41. .ij;. r M _ 

■ a ipeaker of K^dy, 347. 

Tatler, 270. 

Tattle, in Lore ifefr Love, - 317. 

Taylor, 28",! iiik 

-——> the original Hamlet, 30, 112, 142. ' ' 

Tempeft, 134. .,1,1; 

Terence and Congreve, jto* 

Theatres opened at the Reftoracion, jo^. > 

Theatrical taftein the rei^l^ lof Charles lU !$;« > 

Theobald, Warburton, &c, 52. 

■ ■ — ■■ and Pope, 96. 

Theodoiius ^d: Ariftbdemui, Greek aAorr, 46^ 

Three H^ors after Marriage, ^t «. ^ 

Thnrnond, (Mrs.) 352. • ' « ^ ^ • 

• *y 


«|oS .:# IJ ^ >P i3f^ 

Tiiiotibi!, I j!%- . \ ^ .:. .:;..:•"> ';■< 

Tifefia8» 7. ' .-■..,. 

Toftfi>B» the bookfcllctf -^SJi .: ^ . , "'\ : 1... 1 « 
Toochwood (Lady) ta the Double D«|l^ l^^v r. r ;;:.r . 
Tnged/ aad Mrs. Oldfidd* 4.35. 436. . . : , "^ « y,-^. ajv -^ 
TnuiflatioaofLociaiiy 20. . r- ,: ,.-,/..:!. 

Ticachcryof GaildenfternjiniiRafellMllb'T^^. . 

Tr^ns and Creffida* 163. 

count of the adors^ /&V.. 
Tfoaosand HeAor^ aod Bratos aad C^i^^ -i^l^ 

TttUy and Bacons 38. 

Tyrwbit. 97. . • * . 

Vaabn^» -147^ 4« l» ^4»6» ^fH» 4*^ 

■ -! toltotepfet 4»it* 

'■■■■ ' tiid.Cpngfevi9» i4iflK4».4^S* 

: • the cottdua of.^ p^t ^fM^, at i» 

pankalar time wW it «fa#^r4^ Jil4». ^ 


p-i-*— art of the poet in weaTing .lhi^p}<lt» ::fta9v 



Venice Prefinrred, adion originally ,111. i(» r^^ 
Verbraggen, 234, 416, 493^ &c 

•. ..~. and the JOuke qf Sf. A*.4'lfr ^4^* 

^ ■ ■■ hit Oroonoko, 421* 

: ■ ■ ■ the original AwpCi* .4^3* 
■ ■ ■ »■ I — and a bailiff, ilid. 

.^..i^*- tine of his deatbrWlc^llill|»>tf^ 

Verbmggen, (Mrs.) once Mrs. Mountfort^ 394. 

VefttvioSy 331. - 

Viaor« (Benjamin,) »4a, » 474. 

Uaderhill, 133. 

hit charnAer, i^Mf. > ,. ) . 

■ ■ laft^fjirt jie^p|<yfti» .1 84* .3 i 

■I I his deathy 135, . ;,. .. ; * ' ' * 

■ and Noketf i8u 

Union of the tw^^OMpMits ioffOOMdiaiiV . S^» 

Unittd Kingdoois, by Henqr (ia^Miffd* its* 

Voltaire't difin^nity, 6. . _ _ . .^^^^^^ 

■% ■■> 

rf !« <^ * «• f*9 

VoiteircandSliakfpcaw, 26. i^:. p,s" -^ 

m ^ his ratttappeiy nou' ^. .u; U . ;. T. . ?r 

■ - and Mrs^'McMtntfort, I02« ' ,"■>{ ^ . v .V 

^. , ■-cettforcci, 130. .. , ,f > ^.-^^ r.r.; ^ — ,.,.^ 

«———*- aad Qaeen £licab^h, 2Q|^' ; * ^ 

p ., ■ - his opinion of St. Real , ii«.' ^ > !* , .^ t ; 

■ M 'f and Boileau, 258, . . r j . . '/ 
■I ■ and thc^ bramins, 259* ^ . 

qpton -and Sir John Hawkins, i9*,.^ ,_ . I / 

Vulgarifmsy 49. -• • / : V 

Walesy (prince and princefi of) 434« 

Waller, 167. • . . ' y 

Walker, 100, 16^, 33^- . ^ 

N I ■ his imitauon of a man who cried flounderiy 46& 
Wanton Wife, acomedy^ 341. 

Warbutton, 7, 44, 49».4Sf .«?4t/«;J7» 4?^* 

■I ■— ■■ and Dr. JohrnQn, jy, , . ,_ 

>* and Mn Steevens, .5 ;^ 
Warner, no, 

• - 

Warton, 234. 

Way of the World, 40, 3;3'/&c. 

«— plot, charaaers, aftors, te* 3SI-|iiL -' 
■ compared with I^ove iat)L#«p^ :f55« * 

■ < II n i II i fn i f T III , ' ixs feotpdoh, '3'$9» v^o» . . 

thefecondad, 362. . 

Way of the Worl^, the Toncdi aa^ 1363, $^ 

Weldoo, 374^ 

Wepfcr, 21. 

Wehon, 86, 294. »' 

What d*ye call it ? 221. • ^ ^ 

Whicbcot, 192. 

Whigs and tories, 218. 


Whitfield, 152. . - 

Whitgift, 132. 

Wigs, 81, 92, &c* 

WiUdnt, 192, T' T 

Wilks, 4, 31, 64, 67, 79, 82, 113, 159, 368, 403, 

<^— -- his (peaking of To be, or not to be, &c« 77* 

—*-«» his error in deportraenti 77. 

and Barry, iic* 

his Caftalio^ '2o6. . . . : J 

in Lord Tbwnley, 438. 

.Md ftoot]i9-44^* * . i . ' 5 , 

J- i 

lit t K i> i !e. 

Wslkt^tfelbiiiier^ 4$i. 

Uriltiam III. Beimtoo^ and Mrs/Barry, 395. ~ 

Wiltiamty I9e» 

imlMBen fer Cibbcr» . 44,1 . ' - 
WiUbtt, (Mr. RkliArd.) «$• 

Witwcmlcl, 40. ' 

«3 aaedl hy Cibberi Cbtpnan, tiid Kin^, 57 '• 

Wttwottld» (SkWiUiil,) as aacd by HippiSey a«^Harpcr,^7^ 

WbUey* 8. 

Wolfley. lit. 

Woodhall, 381; •* - 

Woodward, in Poloniiis, 42* 

ami Mri> Ciivc» 323« 

Wychcrly, 169* ^ * 

- ■ ^■■^ trenfcribed the mamiert of his own limes^ jij* 

■ Drydeoy Otwiy, &c. f'te^. 

■ ■ ■ hi» private charaftcr, 3 14* ~ ^ " " 

•"•X. ' ' ■ ; .r '■" * 

Xencc«» a tragedy, 431. 

Yates, iij. ^ >- . 

Yates, (lifrs.) ^6. 

Yates, (Mrs.) Mrt^rawfbrdt aQdMifsYoeii^ 949, 250^ 251. 

Joric's fcoli, 131. - 

ork, (duke ol'^) afterwards JamealL 114, 43.3. 
York, (datcbefs of,) 201 • . ~ « 

Young, (Mifs,) 56, 250* . : . r 

Young's ReireDge, 75. 
Yoanger, (Mrs.) 367, 368* 

• I . •• 

• . . - ,- ... 
Zimn, a charaAer draw0> by Dryden» for tJie- aiubor of the 
Rtheatfalj zW* 

< *• 

T H B 5 N D- 

Pagt 409* h i|« F<» r. S4ftUf readt .?& ^dtA. 




N V 





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This book is under no oiroumstenoes to be 
teken from the 



fuCtti 41* 

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AFT? e - 1927 

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