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Full text of "The dramatic writings of Richard Edwards, Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville, comprising Damon and Pythias, Palamon and Arcyte (Note), Gorboduc, or Ferrex and Porrex, Note-book and wordlist. Edited by John S. Farmer"

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EarIg ffingltdi) Bramatisti! 



THE DRAMATIC 
WRITINGS OF 
RICHARD EDWARDS 
THOMAS NORTON 

AND 

THOMAS SACKVILLE 



ATHE 

TRAGEDIE OF GORBODVQ, 
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redttced facsimile of the title-page of the first edition 
{unauthorised) of " Gorboduc " : j /a^vj 177-8.] 




iSatlg ISnglisf) JBramattsts 

/ o / I ol 
The 

'Dramatic Writings 

of 
RICHARD EDWARDS 

THOMAS NORTON 

AND 

THOMAS SACKVILLE 

COMPRISING 

Damon ana Plthias Palamon and Arcyte (Note) 

Gorboduc (or Ferrex and Porrex] Note-Book and 

Word-List 



EDITED BY 

JOHN S. FARMER 



ILontJoti 

Privately Printed for Subscribers by the 

EARLY ENGLISH DRAMA SOCIETY, 18 BURY STREET 

BLOOMSBURY, W.C, 

MCMVI 




CONTENTS 

DAMON AND PITHIAS, BY RICHARD EDWARDS . , 
ARCYTE (NOTE), BY RICHARD 



PALAMON AND 
EDWARDS 



PACK 

I 



I8 4 



GORBODUC (OR FERREX AND PORREX), BY THOMAS 
NORTON AND THOMAS SACKVILLE .... 85 

NOTE-BOOK AND WORD-LIST 155 





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fctwo the cnofte faithfulkll : M: 



ji.tliijauc occafloH to plaujit ^ titter in 






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[Reduced Facsimile of Title-page of " Damon and 
Pithias," by Richard Edwards from a copy now in the 
British Museum.] 



ED. 




Cije 

ARISTIPPUS, A PLEASANT GENTLEMAN 
CARISOPHUS, A PARASITE 

DAMON "| 

> Two GENTLEMEN OF GREECE 
PITHIAS J 

STEPHANO, SERVANT TO DAMON AND PITHIAS 
WILL, ARISTIPPUS' LACKEY 
JACK, CARISOPHUS' LACKEY 
SNAP, THE PORTER 

DlONYSIUS, THE KlNG 

EUBULUS, THE KlNG's COUNCILLOR 

GRONNO, THE HANGMAN 
GRIM, THE COLLIER 




DAMON AND PITHIAS 

THE PROLOGUE. 

ON every side, whereas I glance my roving eye, 
Silence in all ears bent I plainly do espy : [see, 
But if your eager looks do long such toys to 
As heretofore in comical wise were wont abroad 

to be, [you sought 

Your lust is lost, and all the pleasures that 
Is frustrate quite of toying plays. A sudden 

change is wrought : [delight, 

For lo, our author's muse, that masked in 
Hath forc'd his pen against his kind no more 

such sports to write. 
Muse he that lust (right worshipful), for chance 

hath made this change, 
For that to some he seemed too much in young 

desires to range : [did offend, 

In which, right glad to please, seeing that he 
Of all he humbly pardon craves : his pen that 

shall amend. [dare avouch, 

And yet (worshipful audience) thus much I 
In comedies the greatest skill is this, rightly to 

touch [person so, 

All things to the quick ; and eke to frame each 
That by his common talk you may his nature 

rightly know. 
A roister ought not preach, thai were too 

strange to hear; 

B 2 



4 Damon and Pithias 

But as from virtue he doth swerve, so ought 

his words appear : 
The old man is sober, the young man rash, the 

lover triumphing in toys ; 
The matron grave, the harlot wild, and full 

of wanton toys. 

Which all in one course they no wise do agree ; 
So correspondent to their kind their speeches 

ought to be. [lively framed, 

Which speeches well-pronounc'd, with action 
If this offend the lookers on, let Horace then 

be blamed, 
Which hath our author taught at school, from 

whom he doth not swerve, 
In all such kind of exercise decorum to observe. 
Thus much for his defence (he saith), as poets 

erst have done, 
Which heretofore in comedies the self-same 

race did run. 

But now for to be brief, the matter to express, 
Which here we shall present, is this : Damon 

and Pithias. [legend-lie, 

A rare ensample of friendship true it is no 
But a thing once done indeed, as histories do 

descry 
Which done of yore in long time past, yet 

present shall be here, 
Even as it were in doing now, so lively it shall 

appear. 
Lo, here in Syracuse th' ancient town, which 

once the Romans won, 
Here Dionysius' palace, within whose court this 

thing most strange was done. 
Which matter mix'd with mirth and care, a 

just name to apply, [comedy. 

As seems most fit, we have it termed a tragical 



Damon and Pithias 5 

Wherein talking of courtly toys we do protest 

this flat ! [but that. 

We talk of Dionysius* court, we mean no court 
And that we do so mean, who wisely calleth to 

mind 
The time, the place, the authors, here most 

plainly shall it find. 
Lo, this I speak for our defence, lest of others 

we should be shent : 
But, worthy audience, we you pray, take things 

as they be meant ; 
Whose upright judgment we do crave with 

heedful ear and eye 
To hear the cause and see th' effect of this new 

tragical comedy. [Exit. 

[Here entereth Aristippus. 
Arist. Tho' strange (perhaps) it seems to 

some 

That I, Aristippus, a courtier am become : 
A philosopher of late, not of the meanest name, 
But now to the courtly behaviour my life I 

frame. 

Muse he that list ; to you of good skill 
I say that I am a philosopher still. 
Lovers of wisdom are termed philosophy 
Then who is a philosopher so rightly as I ? 
For in loving of wisdom proof doth this try, 
That frustra sapit, qui non sapit sibi. 
I am wise for myself : then tell me of troth, 
Is not that great wisdom, as the world go'th? 
Some philosophers in the street go ragged and 

torn, [scorn : 

And feed on vile roots, whom boys laugh to 
But I in fine silks haunt Dionysius' palace, 
Wherein with dainty fare myself I do solace. 



6 Damon and Pithias 

I can talk of philosophy as well as the best, 
But the strait kind of life I leave to the rest. 
And I profess now the courtly philosophy, 
To crouch, to speak fair, myself I apply 
To feed the king's humour with pleasant de- 
For which I am called Regius cam's. [vices, 
But wot ye who named me first the king's dog? 
It was the rogue Diogenes, that vile grunting 

hog. 

Let him roll in his tub, to win a vain praise : 
In the court pleasantly I will spend all my 
Wherein what to do I am not to learn, [days ; 
What will serve mine own turn I can quickly 

discern. 

All my time at school I have not spent vainly, 
I can help one : is not that a good point of 

philosophy ? 

Here entereth Carisophus. 
Cans. I beshrew your fine ears, since you 

came from school, [fool : 

In the court you have made many a wise man a 
And though you paint out your feigned philo 
sophy, 

So God help me, it is but a plain kind of flattery, 
Which you use so finely in so pleasant a sort, 
That none but Aristippus now makes the king 

sport. 

Ere you came hither, poor I was somebody ; 
The king delighted in me, now I am but a 

noddy. [self best, 

Arist. In faith, Carisophus, you know your- 

But I will not call you noddy, but only in jest. 

And thus I assure you, though I came from 

school [king's fool; 

To serve in this court, I came not yet to be the 
Or to fill his ears with servile squirrility. 



Damon and Pithias 7 

That office is yours, you know it right per 
fectly. 
Of parasites and sycophants you are a grave 

bencher, 
The king feeds you often from his own 

trencher. [favour 

I envy not your state, nor yet your great 
Then grudge not at all, if in my behaviour 
I make the king merry with pleasant urbanity, 
Whom I never abused to any man's injury. 
Caris. By Cock, sir, yet in the court you 

do best thrive, 

For you get more in one day than I do in five. 
Arist. Why, man, in the court do you not 

see 

Rewards given for virtue to every degree? 
To reward the unworthy that world is done : 
The court is changed, a good thread hath been 

spun [was liked, 

Of dog's wool heretofore; and why? because it 
And not for that it was best trimmed and 

picked : 
But now men's ears are finer, such gross toys 

are not set by ; [ a ppty : 

Therefore to a trimmer kind of mirth myself I 
Wherein though I please, it cometh not of my 
But of the king's favour. [desert, 

Caris. It may so be ; yet in your prosperity 
Despise not an old courtier : Carisophus is he, 
Which hath long time fed Dionysius' humour : 
Diligently to please still at hand : there was 

never rumour 

Spread in this town of any small thing, but I 
Brought it to the king in post by and by. 
Yet now I crave your friendship, which if I 

may attain, 



8 Damon and Pithias 

Most sure and unfeigned friendship I promise 

you again : 
So we two link'd in friendship, brother and 

brother, 

Full well in the court may help one another. 
Arist. By'r Lady, Carisophus, though you 

know not philosophy, 

Yet surely you are a better courtier than I : 
And yet I not so evil a courtier, that will seem 
to despise [wise. 

Such an old courtier as you, so expert and so 
But where as you crave mine, and offer your 
friendship so willingly, [courtesy : 

With heart I give you thanks for this your great 
Assuring of friendship both with tooth and nail, 
Whiles life lasteth, never to fail. 

Caris. A thousand thanks I give you, O 

friend Aristippus. 
Arist. O friend Carisophus. 
Caris. How joyful am I, sith I have to 

friend Aristippus now ! 

Arist. None so glad of Carisophus' friend 
ship as I, I make God a vow. 
I speak as I think, believe me. 

Caris. Sith we are now so friendly joined, 

it seemeth to me 

That one of us help each other in every degree : 
Prefer you my cause, when you are in presence, 
To further your matters to the king let me 

alone in your absence. 
Arist. Friend Carisophus, this shall be done 

as you would wish : 

But I pray you tell me thus much by the way, 
Whither now from this place will you take 
your journey? [against friendship. 

Caris. I will not dissemble ; that were 




Damon and Pithias 9 

I go into the city some knaves to nip 

For talk, with their goods to increase the 

king's treasure 

In such kind of service I set my chief pleasure : 
Farewell, friend Aristippus, now for a time. 

Exit. 
Arist. Adieu, friend Carisophus In good 

faith now, 

Of force I must laugh at this solemn vow. 
Is Aristippus link'd in friendship with Cari 
sophus? 

Quid cum tanto asino talis philosophus? 
They say, Morum similitudo consult amicitias ; 
Then how can this friendship between us two 

come to pass ? 
We are as like in condition as Jack Fletcher 

and his bolt ; 

I brought up in learning, but he is a very dolt 
As touching good letters ; but otherwise such a 

crafty knave, [have : 

If you seek a whole region, his like you cannot 
A villain for his life, a varlet dyed in grain, 
You lose money by him if you sell him for one 

knave, for he serves for twain : 
A flattering parasite, a sycophant also, [foe. 
A common accuser of men, to the good an open 
Of half a word he can make a legend of lies, 
Which he will avouch with such tragical cries, 
As though all were true that comes out of his 

mouth. 

Where[as], indeed, to be hanged by and by, 
He cannot tell one tale but twice he must lie. 
He spareth no man's life to get the king's 

favour, [savour 

In which kind of service he hath got such a 
That he will never leave. Methink then that I 



io Damon and Pithias 

Have done very wisely to join in friendship with 

him, lest perhaps I 
Coming in his way might be nipp'd ; for such 

knaves in presence 

We see ofttimes put honest men to silence : 
Yet I have played with his beard in knitting 

this knot : [words 

I promis'd friendship; but you love few 
I spake it, but I meant it not. 
Who marks this friendship between us two 
Shall judge of the worldly friendship without 

any more ado. 
It may be a right pattern thereof; but true 

friendship indeed 

Of nought but of virtue doth truly proceed. 
But why do I now enter into philosophy 
Which do profess the fine kind of courtesy ? 
I will hence to the court with all haste I may ; 
I thinlc the king be stirring, it is now bright 
To wait at a pinch still in sight I mean, [day. 
For wot ye what? a new broom sweeps clean. 
As to high honour I mind not to climb, 
So I mean in the court to lose no time : 
Wherein, happy man be his dole, I trust that I 
Shall not speed worst, and that very quickly. 

Exit. 
Here entereth Damon and Pithias like 

manners. 
Damon. O Neptune, immortal be thy 

praise, [seas 

For that so safe from Greece we have pass 'd the 
To this noble city Syracuse, where we 
The ancient reign of the Romans may see. 
Whose force Greece also heretofore hath known, 
Whose virtue the shrill trump of fame so far 

hath blown. 



Damon and Pithias n 

Pithias. My Damon, of right high praise we 

ought to give [arrive : 

To Neptune and all the gods, that we safely did 

The seas, I think, with contrary winds never 

raged so ; 

I am even yet so seasick that I faint as I go ; 
Therefore let us get some lodging quickly. 
But where is Stephano? 

Here entereth Stephano. 
Stephano. Not far hence : a pox take these 

mariner-knaves ; 
Not one would help me to carry this stuff ; such 

drunken slaves 

I think be accursed of the gods' own mouths. 
Damon. Stephano, leave thy raging, and let 

us enter Syracuse, 
We will provide lodging, and thou shalt be 

eased of thy burden by and by. 
Stephano. Good master, make haste, for I 
tell you plain [pain. 

This heavy burden puts poor Stephano to much 
Pithias. Come on thy ways, thou shalt be 
eased, and that anon. Exeunt. 

Here entereth Carisophus. 
Carts. It is a true saying, that oft hath been 

spoken, 

The pitcher goeth so long to the water that he 

cometh home broken. [sith I 

My own proof this hath taught me, for truth, 

In the city have used to walk very slyly, 

Not with one can I meet, that will in talk join 

with me, [to snatch, 

And to creep into men's bosoms, some talk for 

But which, into one trip or other, I might 

trimly them catch, [meet 

And so accuse them now, not with one can I 



12 Damon and Pithias 

That will join in talk with me, I am shunn'd 

like a devil in the street. 
My credit is crack 'd where I am known; but, 

yet I hear say, [P re y? 

Certain strangers are arrived : they were a good 
If happily I might meet with them, I fear not, 

I, [finely. 

But in talk I should trip them, and that very 
Which thing, I assure you, I do for mine own 

gain, 
Or else I would not plod thus up and down, I 

tell you plain. 

Well, I will for a while to the court, to see 
What Aristippus doth ; I would be loth in 

favour he should overrun me ; 
He is a subtle child, he flattereth so finely, that 

I fear me 
He will lick all the fat from my lips, and so 

outweary me. 
Therefore I will not be long absent, but at 

hand, 
That all his fine drifts I may understand. 

Exit. 

Here entereth Will and Jack. 
Will. I wonder what my master Aristippus 

means now-a-days, 

That he leaveth philosophy, and seeks to please 
King Dionysius with such merry toys : 
In Dionysius' court now he only joys, 
As trim a courtier as the best, [jest ; 

Ready to answer, quick in taunts, pleasant to 
A lusty companion to devise with fine dames, 
Whose humour to feed his wily wit he frames. 
Jack. By Cock, as you say, your master is 

a minion : [alone 

A foul coil he keeps in this court; Aristippus 



Damon and Pithias 13 

Now rules the roasts with his pleasant devices, 
That I fear he will put out of conceit my master 

Carisophus. [and brother, 

Will. Fear not that, Jack ; for, like brother 

They are knit in true friendship the one with 

the other ; [both, 

They are fellows, you know, and honest men 
Therefore the one to hinder the other they will 

be loth. 
Jack. Yea, but I have heard say there is 

falsehood in fellowship, [the slip : 

In the court sometimes one gives another finely 
Which when it is spied, it is laugh 'd out with 

a scoff, [off : 

And with sporting and playing quietly shaken 
In which kind of toying thy master hath such 

a grace, [face. 

That he will never blush, he hath a wooden 
But, Will, my master hath bees in his head ; 
If he find me here prating I am but dead. 
He is still trotting in the city, there is some 
what in the wind ; 

His looks bewray his inward troubled jnind. 
Therefore I will be packing to the court by and 

by ; [pie ! 

If he be once angry, Jack shall cry, woe the 

Will. By'r Lady, if I tarry long here, of 

the same sauce shall I taste, 
For my master sent me on an errand, and bade 

me make haste; 

Therefore we will depart together. [Exeunt. 
Here entereth Stephano. 
Steph. Ofttimes I have heard, before I 

came hither, 

That no man can serve two masters together; 
A sentence so true, as most men do take it, 



14 Damon and Pithias 

At any time false that no man can make it : 
And yet by their leave, that first have it 

spoken, [open : 

How that may prove false, even here I will 
For I, Stephano, lo, so named by my father, 
At this time serve two masters together, 
And love them alike : the one and the other 
I duly obey, I can do no other. 
A bondman I am, so nature hath wrought me, 
One Damon of Greece, a gentleman, bought 

me. 

To him I stand bound, yet serve I another, 
Whom Damon my master loves as his own 

brother : 

A gentleman too, and Pithias he is named, 
Fraught with virtue, whom vice never defamed. 
These two, since at school they fell acquainted, 
In mutual friendship at no time have fainted. 
But loved so kindly and friendly each other, 
As though they were brothers by father and 

mother. 

Pythagoras' learning these two have embraced, 
Which both are in virtue so narrowly laced, 
That all their whole doings do fall to this issue, 
To have no respect but only to virtue : 
All one in effect, all one in their going, 
All one in their study, all one in their doing. 
These gentlemen both, being of one condition, 
Both alike of my service have all the fruition : 
Pithias is joyful, if Damon be pleased : 
If Pithias be served, then Damon is eased. 
Serve one, serve both (so near), who would 

win them : 

I think they have but one heart between them. 
In travelling countries we three have contrived 
Full many a year, and this day arrived 



Damon and Pithias 15 

At Syracuse in Sicilia, that ancient town, 
Where my masters are lodged; and I up and 

down [ m g 

Go seeking to learn what news here are walk- 
To hark of what things the people are talking. 
I like not this soil, for as I go plodding, 
I mark there two, there three, their heads 

always nodding, 

In close secret wise, still whispering together. 
If I ask any question, no man doth answer : 
But shaking their heads, they go their ways 

speaking ; [ing : 

I mark how with tears their wet eyes are leak- 
Some strangeness there is, that breedeth this 

musing. [using, 

Well, I will to my masters, and tell of their 
That they may learn, and walk wisely together : 
I fear we shall curse the time we came hither. 

Exit. 

Here enter eth Aristippus and Will. 
Aristippus. Will, didst thou hear the ladies 

so talk of me? 
What aileth them? from their nips shall I 

never be free? 
Will. Good faith, sir, all the ladies in the 

court do plainly report [no sport : 

That without mention of them you can make 
They are your plain-song to sing descant upon ; 
If they were not, your mirth were gone. 
Therefore, master, jest no more with women in 

any wise; [price. 

If you do, by Cock, you are like to know the 

Aristippus. By'r Lady, Will, this is good 

counsel : plainly to jest 
Of women proof hath taught me is not the 

best: 



i6 



Damon and Pithias 



I will change my copy, howbeit I care not a 

quinch ; 

I know the gall'd horse will soonest winch : 
But learn thou secretly what privily they talk 
Of me in the court : among them slyly walk, 
And bring me true news thereof. 

Will. I will sir, master thereof have no 

doubt, for I [fectly. 

Where they talk of you will inform you per- 

Aristippus. Do so, my boy : if thou bring 

it finely to pass, 
For thy good service thou shalt go in thine old 

coat at Christmas. Exeunt. 

Enter Damon, Pithias, Stephano. 
Damon. Stephano, is all this true that thou 

hast told me? 
Steph. Sir, for lies hitherto ye never con- 

troll'd me. 

O, that we had never set foot on this land, 
Where Dionysius reigns with so bloody a hand ! 
Every day he showeth some token of cruelty, 
With blood he hath filled all the streets in the 

city : 

I tremble to hear the people's murmuring, 
I lament to see his most cruel dealing : 
I think there is no such tyrant under the sun. 
O, my dear masters, this morning what hath 

he done ! 

Damon. What is that? tell us quickly. 
Steph. As I this morning pass'd in the 

street, 
With a woful man (going to his death) did I 

meet. 

Many people followed, and I of one secretly 
Asked the cause, why he was condemned to 

die. 



Damon and Pithias 17 

[Who] whispered in mine ear, nought hath he 

done but thus, [nysius : 

In his sleep he dreamed he had killed Dio- 
Which dream told abroad, was brought to the 

king in post, [hath lost. 

By whom, condemned for suspicion, his life he 
Marcia was his name, as the people said. 
Pithias. My dear friend Damon, I blame 

not Stephano [is so, 

For wishing we had not come hither, seeing it 
That for so small cause such cruel death doth 

ensue. 
Damon. My Pithias, where tyrants reign, 

such cases are not new, 

Which fearing their own state for great cruelty, 
To sit fast as they think, do execute speedily 
All such as any light suspicion have tainted. 
Steph. (aside). With such quick carvers I 

list not be acquainted. 
Damon. So are they never in quiet, but in 

suspicion still, 
When one is made away, they take occasion 

another to kill : 
Ever in fear, having no trusty friend, void of 

all peoples' love, [they prove. 

And in their own conscience a continual hell 

Pithias. As things by their contraries are 

always best proved, 
How happy are then merciful princes, of their 

people beloved ! 
Having sure friends everywhere, no fear doth 

touch them : 
They may safely spend the day pleasantly, at 

night secur^ dormiunt in utramque aurem. 
O my Damon, if choice were offered me, I 

would choose to be Pithias, 
ED. c 



i8 



Damon and Pithias 



As I am (Damon's friend) rather than to be 

King Dionysius. 
Steph. And good cause why; for you are 

entirely beloved of one, [none. 

And as far as I hear, Dionysius is beloved of 

Damon. That state is most miserable; 

thrice happy are we, 

Whom true love hath joined in perfect amity : 
Which amity first sprung without vaunting 

be it spoken, that is true 
Of likeness of manners, took root by company, 

and now is conserved by virtue; 
Which virtue always through worldly things do 

not frame, 
Yet doth she achieve to her followers immortal 

fame : [only, 

Whereof if men were careful for virtue's sake 
They would honour friendship, and not for 

commodity. 

But such as for profit in friendship do link, 
When storms come, they slide away sooner 

than a man will think. [issue, 

My Pithias, the sum of my talk falls to this 
To prove no friendship is sure, but that which 

is grounded on virtue. 
Pithias. My Damon, of this thing there 

needs no proof to me, 
The gods forbid, but that Pithias with Damon 

in all things should agree. 
For why is it said, Amicus alter ipse, 
But that true friends should be two in body, 

but one in mind? [against kind 

As it were transformed into another, which 
Though it seem, yet in good faith, when I am 

alone, 
I forget I am Pithias, methinks I am Damon. 



Damon and Pithias 19 

Steph. That could I never do, to forget 
myself; full well I know, 

Wheresoever I go, that I am pauper Stephano : 

But I pray you, sir, for all your philosophy, 

See that in this court you walk very wisely. 

You are but newly come hither; being 
strangers, ye know [go : 

Many eyes are bent on you in the streets as ye 

Many spies are abroad, you can not be too cir 
cumspect. 

Damon. Stephano, because thou art careful 
of me, thy master, I do thee praise: 

Yet think this for a surety : no state to dis 
please 

By talk or otherwise my friend and I intend : 
we will here, 

As men that come to see the soil and manners 
of all men of every degree. [stage, 

Pythagoras said, that this world was like a 

Whereon many play their parts : the lookers- 
on, the sage. 

Philosophers are, saith he, whose part is to 
learn 

The manners of all nations, and the good from 

the bad to discern. 

Steph. Good faith, sir, concerning the 
people they are not gay, 

And as far as I see, they be mummers ; for 
nought they say, 

For the most part, whatsoever you ask them. 

The soil is such, that to live here I cannot like. 

Damon. Thou speakest according to thy 

learning, but I say, [everywhere; 

Omne solum forti patria, a wise man may live 

Therefore, my dear friend Pithias, 

Let us view this town in every place, 

C 2 



20 



Damon and Pithias 



And then consider the people's manners also. 

Pithias. As you will, my Damon; but how 

say you, Stephano? [repast? 

Is it not best, ere we go further, to take some 

Steph. In faith, I like well this question, 

sir : for all your haste, 

To eat somewhat I pray you think it no folly ; 
It is high dinner time, I know by my belly. 
Damon. Then let us to our lodging depart : 

when dinner is done, 
We will view this city as we have begun. 

Exeunt. 

Here entereth Carisophus. 
Can's. Once again in hope of good wind, 

I hoise up my sail, 

I go into the city to find some prey for mine 

avail : [lately 

I hunger while I may see these strangers that 

Arrived : I were safe, if once I might meet them 

happily. 

Let them bark that lust at this kind of gain, 
He is a fool that for his profit will not pain : 
Though it be joined with other men's hurt, I 

care not at all : 
For profit I will accuse any man, hap what 

shall. 
But soft, sirs, I pray you hush : what are they 

that comes here? 

By their apparel and countenance some 

strangers they appear. [while, 

I will shroud myself secretly, even here for a 

To hear all their talk, that I may them beguile. 

Here entereth Damon and Stephano. 
Steph. A short horse soon curried ; my belly 

waxeth thinner, 
I am as hungry now, as when I went to dinner : 



Damon and Pithias 2I 

Your philosophical diet is so fine and small 
That you may eat your dinner and supper at 

once, and not surfeit at all. 
Damon. Stephano, much meat breeds heavi 
ness : thin diet makes thee light. 
Steph. I may be lighter thereby, but I shall 

never run the faster. 
Damon. I have had sufficiently discourse of 

amity, 
Which I had at dinner with Pithias; and his 

pleasant company 
Hath fully satisfied me : it doth me good to 

feed mine eyes on him. 
Steph. Course or discourse, your course is 

very coarse; for all your talk 
You had but one bare course, and that was 

pike, rise, and walk. 

And surely, for all your talk of philosophy, 
I never heard that a man with words could fill 

his belly. 
Feed your eyes, quoth you ? the reason from my 

wisdom swerveth, 
I stared on you both, and yet my belly 

starveth. [fine memory. 

Damon. Ah, Stephano, small diet maketh a 

Steph. I care not for your crafty sophistry. 

You two are fine, let me be fed like a gross 

knave still; [will, 

I pray you licence me for a while to have my 
At home to tarry, whiles you take view of this 

city ! [very witty. 

To find some odd victuals in a corner I am 

Damon. At your pleasure, sir : I will wait 

on myself this day; 
Yet attend upon Pithias, which for a purpose 

tarrieth at home : 



22 



Damon and Pithias 



So doing, you wait upon me also. 
Steph. With wings on my feet I go. 

Exit. 
Damon. Not in vain the poet saith, Naturam 

jurcd expellas, tamen usque recurret; 
For train up a bondman to never so good a 

behaviour, 

Yet in some point of servility he will savour : 
As this Stephano, trusty to me his master, 

loving and kind, [find. 

Yet touching his belly a very bondman I him 
He is to be borne withal, being so just and 

true, [new. 

I assure you, I would not change him for no 
But methinks this is a pleasant city; 
The seat is good, and yet not strong ; and that 

is great pity. 

Can's, (aside). I am safe, he is mine own. 
Damon. The air subtle and fine, the people 

should be witty [region : 

That dwell under this climate in so pure a 
A trimmer plot I have not seen in my pere 
grination. 

Nothing misliketh me in this country, 
But that I heard such muttering of cruelty : 
Fame reporteth strange things of Dionysius, 
But kings' matters passing our reach, pertain 

not to us. [world began, 

Carts. Dionysius, quoth you? since the 
In Sicilia never reigned so cruel a man : 
A despiteful tyrant to all men; I marvel, I, 
That none makes him away, and that suddenly. 
Damon. My friend, the gods forbid so cruel 

a thing [the king ! 

That any man should lift up his sword against 
Or seek other means by death him to prevent, 



Damon and Pithias 23 

Whom to rule on earth the mighty gods have 
sent. [Dionysius. 

But, my friend, leave off this talk of King 
Cam. Why, sir? he cannot hear us. 
Damon. What then? An nescis longas 
regibus esse manus? 

It is no safe talking of them that strikes afar 
off. 

But leaving kings' matters, I pray you show 
me this courtesy, 

To describe in few words the state of this city. 

A traveller I am, desirous to know 

The state of each country, wherever I go : 

Not to the hurt of any state, but to get experi 
ence thereby. 

It is not for nought, that the poet doth cry, 

Die mihi musa virum, captce post tempora 
Trojce, 

Qui mores hominum multorum vidit et urbes. 

In which verses, as some writers do scan, 

The poet describeth a perfect wise man : 

Even so I, being a stranger, addicted to philo 
sophy, 

To see the state of countries myself I apply. 
Cam. Sir, I like this intent, but may I ask 

your name without scorn? 
Damon. My name is Damon, well known in 

my country, a gentleman born. 
Caris. You do wisely to search the state 
of each country 

To bear intelligence thereof, whither you lust. 
He is a spy. [Aside. 

Sir, I pray you, have patience awhile, for I 
have to do hereby : 

View this weak part of this city as you stand, 
and I very quickly 



2 4 



Damon and Pithias 



Will return to you again, and then will I show 
The state of all this country, and of the court 

also. Exit Cans. 

Damon. I thank you for your courtesy. 

This chanceth well that I 
Met with this gentleman so happily, 
Which, as it seemeth, misliketh something, 
Else he would not talk so boldly of the king, 
And that to a stranger : but lo, where he comes 
in haste. 

Here entereth Carisophus and Snap. 
Cam. This is he, fellow Snap, snap him 

up : away with him. 
Snap. Good fellow, thou must go with me 

to the court. 

Damon. To the court, sir? and why? 
Cam. Well, we will dispute that before the 

king. Away with him quickly. 
Damon. Is this the courtesy you promised 

me, and that very lately? 
Cam. Away with him, I say. 
Damon. Use no violence, I will go with 
you quietly. Exeunt omnes. 

Here entereth Aristippus. 
Aris. Ah, sirrah, by'r Lady, Aristippus 

likes Dionysius* court very well, 
Which in passing joys and pleasures doth 

excel. 
Where he hath dapsiles ccenas, geniales lectos, 

et auro 

Fulgentem tyranni zonam. 
I have plied the harvest, and stroke when the 

iron was hot ; 

When I spied my time, I was not squeamish 

to crave, God wot ! [king's bosom, 

But with some pleasant toy I crept into the 



Damon and Pithias 25 

For which Dionysius gave me Auri talentum 

magnum 

A large reward for so simple services. 
What then? the king's praise standeth chiefly 

in bountifulness : [santly, 

Which thing though I told the king very plea- 
Yet can I prove it by good writers of great 

antiquity : 
But that shall not need at this time, since that 

I have abundantly : 
When I lack hereafter, I will use this point of 

philosophy : 
But now, whereas I have felt the king's 

liberality, [regally : 

As princely as it came, I will spend it as 
Money is current, men say, and current comes 

of Currendo : 
Then will I make money run, as his nature 

requireth, I trow. 

For what becomes a philosopher best, 
But to despise money above the rest? 
And yet not so despise it, but to have in store 
Enough to serve his own turn, and somewhat 

more. 
With sundry sports and taunts yesternight I 

delighted the king, [did ring, 

That with his loud laughter the whole court 
And I thought he laugh 'd not merrier than I, 

when I got this money. 
But, mumbudget, for Carisophus I espy 
In haste to come hither : I must handle the 

knave finely. 

[Here entereth Carisophus. 
O Carisophus, my dearest friend, my trusty 

companion! . P on 8"? 

What news with you? where have you been so 



26 



Damon and Pithias 



Cam. My best beloved friend Aristippus, 

I am come at last; 
I have not spent all my time in waste. 
I have got a prey, and that a good one, I trow. 
Arist. What prey is that? fain would I 

know. [dare say, 

Cam. Such a crafty spy I have caught, I 
As never was in Sicilia before this day ; 
Such a one as viewed every weak place in the 

city, [very witty : 

Surviewed the haven and each bulwark in talk 

And yet by some words himself he did bewray. 

Arist. I think so in good faith, as you did 

handle him. 
Cam. I handled him clerkly, I joined in 

talk with him courteously : 
But when we were entered, I let him speak his 

will, and I 
Suck'd out thus much of his words, that I made 

him say plainly, [city ; 

He was come hither to know the state of the 
And not only this, but that he would under 
stand [land. 
The state of Dionysius' court and of the whole 
Which words when I heard, I desired him to 

stay, 

Till I had done a little business of the way, 
Promising him to return again quickly; and 

so did convey 
Myself to the court for Snap the tipstaff, which 

came and upsnatched him, 
Brought him to the court, and in the porter's 

lodge dispatched him. 

After I ran to Dionysius, as fast as I could, 
And bewrayed this matter to him, which I have 

you told ; 



Damon and Pithias 27 

Which thing when he heard, being very merry 

before, 
He suddenly fell in dump, and foaming like a 

boar, [die 

At last he swore in great rage that he should 
By the sword or the wheel, and that very 

shortly. 

I am too shamefast : for my travail and toil 
I crave nothing of Dionysius, but only his 

spoil : 
Little hath he about him, but a few motheaten 

crowns of gold, [hold : 

Cha pouch 'd them up already, they are sure in 
And now I go into the city, to say sooth, 
To see what he hath at his lodging to make up 

my mouth. 
Arist. My Carisophus, you have done good 

service. But what is the spy's name? 
Can's. He is called Damon, born in Greece, 

from whence lately he came. 
Arist. By my troth, I will go see him, and 

speak with him too, if I may. 
Cam. Do so, I pray you; but yet by the 

way, [king. 

As occasion serveth, commend my service to the 
Arist. Dictum sapienti sat est: friend Cari 
sophus, shall I forget that thing? 
No, I warrant you : though I say little to your 

face, 
I will lay on mouth for you to Dionysius, when 

I am in place. 
If I speak one word for such a knave, hang 

me. [Aside.] Exit. 

Cam. Our fine philosopher, our trim 

learned elf, 
Is gone to see as false a spy as himself. 



28 Damon and Pithias 

Damon smatters as well as he of crafty philo 
sophy, 

And can turn cat in the pan very prettily : 

But Carisophus hath given him such a mighty 
check, 

As I think in the end will break his neck. 

What care I for that? why would he then pry, 

And learn the secret estate of our country and 
city? [wise: 

He is but a stranger, by his fall let others be 

I care not who fall, so that I may rise. 

As for fine Aristippus, I will keep in with him 

He is a shrewd fool to deal withal, he can 
swim [plainly, 

And yet by my troth, to speak my conscience 

I will use his friendship to mine own com 
modity. 

While Dionysius favoureth him, Aristippus 
shall be mine ; 

But if the king once frown on him, then good 
night, Tomalin : 

He shall be as strange as though I never saw 
him before. 

But I tarry too long, I will prate no more. 

Jack, come away. 

Jack. At hand, sir. [see 

Cam. At Damon's lodging, if that you 

Any stir to arise, be still at hand by me : 

Rather than I will lose the spoil I will blade 
it out. [Exeunt. 

Here entereth Pithias and Stephana. 
Pithias. What strange news are these ! ah, 
my Stephano, 

Is my Damon in prison, as the voice doth go? 
Stephana. It is true, O cruel hap ! he is 
taken for a spy, 



Damon and Pithias 29 

And as they say, by Dionysius' own mouth 

condemned to die. 

Pithias. To die ! Alas ! For what cause ? 
Steph. A sycophant falsely accused him : 

other cause there is none. 
That, O Jupiter, of all wrongs the revenger, 
Seest thou this unjustice, and wilt thou stay 
any longer [fire, 

From heaven to send down thy hot consuming 
To destroy the workers of wrong, which pro 
voke thy just ire? 

Alas ! Master Pithias, what shall we do, 
Being in a strange country, void of friends and 
acquaintance too? [day* 

Ah, poor Stephano, hast thou lived to see this 
To see thy true master unjustly made away? 
Pithias. Stephano, seeing the matter is 

come to this extremity, 

Let us make virtue our friend of mere necessity. 
Run thou to the court, and understand secretly 
As much as thou canst of Damon's cause, 

and I 

Will make some means to entreat Aristippus : 
He can do much, as I hear, with King Dio 
nysius. 
Steph. I am gone, sir. Ah, I would to God 

my travail and pain 

Might restore my master to his liberty again ! 

Pithias. Ah woful Pithias ! sith now I am 

alone, [moan ? 

What way shall I first begin to make my 

What words shall I find apt for my complaint? 

Damon, my friend, my joy, my life, is in peril. 

Of force I must now faint. 

But, O music, as in joyful times thy merry 
notes did borrow, 



30 Damon and Pithias 

So now lend me thy yearnful tunes to utter my 
sorrow. 

Here Pithias sings and the regals play. 

Awake, ye woful wights, 

That long have wept in woe : 
Resign to me your plaints and tears, 

My hapless hap to show. 

My woe no tongue can tell, 

No pen can well descry: 

O, what a death is this to hear, 
Damon my friend must die ! 

The loss of worldly wealth 

Man's wisdom may restore, 
And physic hath provided too 

A salve for every sore: 
But my true friend once lost, 
No art can well supply: 

Then, what a death is this to hear, 
Damon my friend must die ! 

My mouth, refuse the food, 

That should my limbs sustain: 
Let sorrow sink into my breast, 

And ransack every vein: 
Ye Furies, all at once 
On me your torments try : 

Why should I live, since that I hear 
Damon my friend should die I 

Gripe me, you greedy grief 

And present pangs of death, 
You sisters three, with cruel hands 

With speed now stop my breath : 
Shrine me in clay alive, 

Some good man stop mine eye: 



Damon and Pithias 31 

O death, come now, seeing I hear 

Damon my friend must die ! 

He speaketh this after the song. 
In vain I call for death, which heareth not my 

complaint : [faint ? 

But what wisdom is this, in such extremity to 
Multum juvat in re maid animus bonus. 
I will to the court myself, to make friends, and 

that presently. [misery 

I will never forsake my friend in time of 
But do I see Stephano amazed hither to run? 

Here entereth Stephano. 
Stephano. O Pithias, Pithias, we are all 

undone ! [sorrow ; 

Mine own ears have sucked in mine own 
I heard Dionysius swear that Damon should 

die to-morrow. 

Pithias. How earnest thou so near the pre 
sence of the king, [thing? 
That thou mightest hear Dionysius speak this 
Steph. By friendship I gat into the court, 

where in great audience 
I heard Dionysius with his own mouth give 

this cruel sentence 
By these express words : that Damon the 

Greek, that crafty spy, 
Without further judgment to-morrow should 

die: 
Believe me, Pithias, with these ears I heard it 

myself. 
Pithias. Then how near is my death also ! 

Ah, woe is me ! 
Ah my Damon, another myself, shall I forego 

thee? 

Stephano. Sir, there is no time of lament 
ing now : it behoveth us 



3 2 Damon and Pithias 

To make means to them which can do much 

with Dionysius, 
That he be not made away, ere his cause be 

fully heard ; for we see 
By evil report things be made to princes far 

worse than they be. 
But lo, yonder cometh Aristippus, in great 

favour with King Dionysius, [for us, 

Entreat him to speak a good word to the king 
And in the mean season I will to your lodging 

to see all things safe there. Exit. 

Pithias. To that I agree : but let us slip 

aside his talk to hear. [Pithias retires. 
Here enter eth Aristippus. 
Arist. Here is a sudden change indeed, a 

strange metamorphosis, [thought this ? 
This court is clean altered : who would have 
Dionysius, of late so pleasant and merry, 
Is quite changed now into such melancholy, 
That nothing can please him : he walketh up 

and down, [frown ; 

Fretting and chaffing, on every man he doth 
Insomuch that, when I in pleasant words began 

to play, [so short 

So sternly he frowned on me, and knit me up 
I perceive it is no safe playing with lions but 

when it please them ; [them, 

If you claw where it itch not you shall disease 
And so perhaps get a clap ; mine own proof 

taught me this, 

That it is very good to be merry and wise. 
The only cause of this hurly-burly is Cari- 

sophus, that wicked man, [gentleman, 
Which lately took Damon for a spy, a poor 
And hath incensed the king against him so 

despitefully, 



Damon and Pithias 



33 



That Dionysius hath judged him to-morrow to 

die. 
I have talk'd with Damon, whom though in 

words I found very witty, 

Yet was he more curious than wise in viewing 
this city : [cause why 

But truly, for aught I can learn, there is no 
So suddenly and cruelly he should be con 
demned to die : 

Howsoever it be, this is the short and long, 
I dare not gainsay the king, be it right or 
wrong : [this case : 

I am sorry, and that is all I may or can do in 
Nought availeth persuasion where froward 
opinion taketh place. 

[Pithias comes forward. 
Pithias. Sir, if humble suits you would not 

despise, 

Then bow on me your pitiful eyes. 
My name is Pithias, in Greece well known, 
A perfect friend to that woful Damon, 
Which now a poor captive in this court doth lie, 
By the king's own mouth, as I hear, con 
demned to die; 

For whom I crave your mastership's goodness, 
To stand his friend in this his great distress. 
Nought hath he done worthy of death; but 

very fondly, 

Being a stranger, he viewed this city : 
For no evil practices, but to feed his eyes. 
But seeing Dionysius is informed otherwise, 
My suit is to you, when you see time and place, 
To assuage the king's anger, and to purchase 
his grace : [only, 

In which doing you shall not do good to one 
But you shall further two, and that fully. 
ED. D 



34 



Damon and Pithias 



Arist. My friend, in this case I can do you 

no pleasure. 
Pithias. Sir, you serve in the court, as fame 

doth tell. 
Arist. I am of the court indeed, but none 

of the council. 
Pithias. As I hear, none is in greater 

favour with the king than you at this day. 
Arist. The more in favour, the less I dare 

say. 
Pithias. It is a courtier's praise to help 

strangers in misery. 
Arist. To help another, and hurt myself, it 

is an evil point of courtesy. 
Pithias. You shall not hurt yourself to 

speak for the innocent. 
Arist. He is not innocent whom the king 

judgeth nocent. 
Pithias. Why, sir, do you think this matter 

past all remedy? 
Arist. So far past that Dionysius hath 

sworn Damon to-morrow shall die. 
Pithias. This word my trembling heart 

cutteth in two. 
Ah, sir, in this woful case what wist I best to 

do? 
Arist. Best to content yourself when there 

is no remedy, [misery : 

He is well relieved that foreknoweth his 
Yet, if any comfort be, it resteth in Eubulus, 
The chiefest councillor about King Dionysius : 
Which pitieth Damon's case in this great ex 
tremity, 

Persuading the king from all kind of cruelty. 
Pithias. The mighty gods preserve you for 

this word of comfort. 



Damon and Pithias 35 

Taking my leave of your goodness, I will now 

resort 

To Eubulus, that good councillor : 
But hark ! methink I hear a trumpet blow. 
Arist. The king is at hand, stand close in 

the prease. Beware, if he know 
You are friend to Damon he will take you for 

a spy also. 
Farewell, I dare not be seen with you. 

Here entereth King Dionysius, Eubulus 
the Councillor, and Gronno the Hang" 
man. 
Diony. Gronno, do my commandment : 

strike off Damon's irons by and by. 
Then bring him forth, I myself will see him 

executed presently. 

Gronno. O mighty king, your command 
ment will I do speedily. 
Diony. Eubulus, thou hast talked in vain, 

for sure he shall die. 
Shall I suffer my life to stand in peril of every 

spy? 
Eubul. That he conspired against your 

person his accuser cannot say : 
He only viewed your city, and will you for that 

make him away? 
Diony. What he would have done the 

guess is great : he minded me to hurt 
That came so slyly to search out the secret 

estate of my court. 
Shall I still live in fear? no, no : I will cut off 

such imps betime, 
Lest that to my farther danger too high they 

climb. 

Eubul. Yet have the mighty gods immortal 
fame assigned 

D 2 



36 Damon and Pithias 

To all worldly princes, which in mercy be in 
clined. 
Diony. Let fame talk what she list, so I 

may live in safety. [mercy. 

Eubul. The only mean to that is to use 
Diony. A mild prince the people despiseth. 
Eubul. A cruel king the people hateth. 
Diony. Let them hate me, so they fear me. 
Eubul. That is not the way to live in safety. 
Diony. My sword and power shall purchase 

my quietness. 
Eubul. That is sooner procured by mercy 

and gentleness. 

Diony. Dionysius ought to be feared. 
Eubul. Better for him to be well beloved. 
Diony. Fortune maketh all things subject 

to my power. 
Eubul. Believe her not, she is a light 

goddess; she can laugh and low'r. 
Diony. A king's praise standeth in the re 
venging of his enemy. [clemency. 
Eubul. A greater praise to win him by 
Diony. To suffer the wicked live it is no 

mercy. 
Eubul. To kill the innocent it is great 

cruelty. 
Diony. Is Damon innocent, which so 

craftily undermined Carisophus, [nysius? 
To understand what he could of King Dio- 
Which surviewed the haven and each bulwark 

in the city, 
Where battery might be laid, what way best to 

approach? shall I [despite? 

Suffer such a one to live, that worketh me such 
No, he shall die, then I am safe : a dead dog 

cannot bite. 



Damon and Pithias 37 

Eubul. But yet, O mighty king, my duty 

bindeth me 
To give such counsel, as with your honour may 

best agree : 

The strongest pillars of princely dignity, 
I find this justice with mercy and prudent liber 
ality : 

The one judgeth all things by upright equity, 
The other rewardeth the worthy, flying each 

extremity. 

As to spare those which offend maliciously, 
It may be called no justice, but extreme injury : 
So upon suspicion of such things not well- 
proved, [accused, 
To put to death presently whom envious flattery 
It seemeth of tyranny ; and upon what fickle 

ground all tyrants do stand, 
Athens and Lacedemon can teach you, if it be 

rightly scann'd. [seeks 

And not only these citizens, but who curiously 
The whole histories of all the world, not only 

of Romans and Greeks, 
Shall well perceive of all tyrants the ruinous 

fall, 
Their state uncertain, beloved of none, but 

hated of all. 
Of merciful princes to set out the passing 

felicity 
I need not : enough of that even these days do 

testify. 
They live devoid of fear, their sleeps are sound, 

they dread no enemy, 
They are feared and loved, and why? they rule 

with justice and mercy, 
Extending justice to such as wickedly from 

justice have swerved : 



38 Damon and Pithias 

Mercy unto those who in opinion of simpleness 

have mercy deserved. 

Of liberty nought I say, but only this thing, 
Liberty upholdeth the state of a king [issue, 
Whose large bountifulness ought to fall to this 
To reward none but such as deserve it for 

virtue. [provident liberality ; 

Which merciful justice if you would follow, and 
Neither the caterpillars of all courts, et fruges 

consumere nati, 
Parasites with wealth puffd up, should not 

look so high ; [die. 

Nor yet for this simple fact poor Damon should 

Diony. With pain mine ears have heard 

this vain talk of mercy. [only : 

I tell thee, fear and terror defendeth kings 
Till he be gone whom I suspect, how shall I 

live quietly, 
Whose memory with chilling horror fills my 

breast day and night violently? 
My dreadful dreams of him bereaves my rest; 

on bed I lie 
Shaking and trembling, as one ready to yield 

his throat to Damon's sword. 
This quaking dread nothing but Damon's blood 

can stay : [alway. 

Better he die than I to be tormented with fear 
He shall die, though Eubulus consent not 

thereto : [to do. 

It is lawful, for kings, as they list, all things 

Here Gronno [and Snap] bring in 

Damon, and Pithias meeteth him by 

the way. 

Pithias. O my Damon ! 
Damon. O my Pithias ! seeing death must 

part us, farewell for ever. 



Damon and Pithias 39 

Pithias. O Damon, O my sweet friend ! 
Snap. Away from the prisoner : what a 

prease have we here ? 
Gronno. As you commanded, O mighty 

king, we have brought Damon. 
Diony. Then go to : make ready. I will 

not stir out of this place 

Till I see his head stroken off before my face. 
Gronno. It shall be done, sir. To Damon. 

Because your eyes have made such a-do 
I will knock down this your lantern, and shut 

up your shop-window too. 
Damon. O mighty king, whereas no truth 

my innocent life can save, 
But that so greedily you thrust my guiltless 

blood to have, 
Albeit (even for thought) for ought against 

your person : 
Yet now I plead not for life, ne will I crave 

your pardon. 
But seeing in Greece my country, where well I 

am known, 
I have worldly things fit for mine alliance, 

when I am gone, [leisure, 

To dispose them, ere I die, if I might obtain 
I would account it (O king) for a passing great 

pleasure : 
Not to prolong my life thereby, for which I 

reckon not this, 
But to set my things in a stay : and surely I 

will not miss, [embrace, 

Upon the faith which all gentlemen ought to 
To return again, at your time to appoint, to 

yield my body here in this place. 
Grant me (O king) such time to despatch this 

inquiry, 



40 Damon and Pithias 

And I will not fail when you appoint, even here 

my life to pay. 
Diony. A pleasant request ! as though I 

could trust him absent, 

Whom in no wise I cannot trust being- present. 
And yet though I sware the contrary 2 do that 

I require, 
Give me a pledge for thy return, and have 

thine own desire. 

He is as near now as he was before. [Aside. 
Damon. There is no surer nor greater 

pledge than the faith of a gentleman. 
Diony. It was wont to be, but otherwise 

now the world doth stand; 
Therefore do as I say, else presently yield thy 

neck to the sword. [word. 

If I might with my honour, I would recall my 

Pithias. Stand to your word, O king, for 

kings ought nothing say, [alway. 

But that they would perform in perfect deeds 
A pledge you did require, when Damon his suit 

did meve, 
For which with heart and stretched hands most 

humble thanks I give : [friend 

And that you may not say but Damon hath a 
That loves him better than his own life, and 

will do to his end, [his : 

Take me, O mighty king : my life I pawn for 
Strike off my head if Damon hap at his day to 

miss. 
Diony. What art thou, that chargest me 

with my word so boldly here? 
Pithias. I am Pithias, a Greek born, which 

hold Damon my friend full dear. 
Diony. Too dear perhaps, to hazard thy 

life for him : what fondness moveth thee ? 



Damon and Pithias 41 

Pithias. No fondness at all, but perfect 

amity. 

Diony. A mad kind of amity ! advise thy 
self well : if Damon fail at his day, 
Which shall be justly appointed, wilt thou die 

for him, to me his life to pay? 
Pithias. Most willingly, O mighty king : if 

Damon fail, let Pithias die. 
Diony. Thou seemest to trust his words 

that pawnest thy life so frankly. 
Pithias. What Damon saith, Pithias be- 

lieveth assuredly. 
Diony. Take heed, for life, worldly men 

break promise in many things. 
Pithias. Though worldly men do so, it never 

haps amongst friends. 
Dionysius. What callest thou friends? are 

they not men, is not this true? 
Pithias. Men they be, but such men as love 

one another only for virtue. 
Diony. For what virtue dost thou love this 

spy, this Damon? [unknown. 

Pithias. For that virtue which yet to you is 
Diony. Eubulus, what shall I do? I would 

despatch this Damon fain, 
But this foolish fellow so chargeth me that I 

may not call back my word again. 
Eubul. The reverent majesty of a king 

stands chiefly in keeping his promise. 
What you have said this whole court beareth 

witness, 
Save your honour, whatsoever you do. 

Diony. For saving mine honour, I must for 
bear my will : go to. 
Pithias, seeing thou tookest me at my word, 

take Damon to thee : 



42 Damon and Pithias 

For two months he is thine : unbind him, I set 

him free; 
Which time once expired, if he appear not the 

next day by noon, 
Without further delay thou shalt lose thy life, 

and that full soon. [bed, 

Whether he die by the way, or lie sick in his 
If he return not then, thou shalt either hang 

or lose thy head. 
Pithias. For this, O mighty king, I yield 

immortal thanks. O joyful day ! 
Diony. Gronno, take him to thee : bind him, 

see him kept in safety : [die. 

If he escape, assure thyself for him thou shalt 
Eubulus, let us depart, to talk of this strange 

thing within. 

Eubul. 1 follow. Exeunt. 

Gronno. Damon, thou servest the gods well 

to-day ; be thou of comfort. [sport. 

As for you, sir, I think you will be hanged in 
You heard what the king said ; I must keep 

you safely : [than I. 

By Cock, so I will; you shall rather hang 
Come on your way. 

Pithias. My Damon, farewell ; the gods have 

thee in keeping. 
Damon. O my Pithias, my pledge, farewell ; 

I part from thee weeping. [again, 

But joyful at my day appointed I will return 
When I will deliver thee from all trouble and 

pain. 
Stephano will I leave behind me to wait upon 

thee in prison alone, 
And I, whom fortune hath reserved to this 

misery, will walk home. [farewell. 

Ah my Pithias, my pledge, my life, my friend, 



Damon and Pithias 43 

Pithias. Farewell, my Damon. 
Damon. Loth am I to depart. Sith sobs 
my trembling tongue doth stay, 

music, sound my doleful plaints, when I am 

gone my way. [Exit Damon. 

Gronno. 1 am glad he is gone, I had almost 

wept too. Come, Pithias, 
So God help me, I am sorry for thy foolish 

case. 

Wilt thou venter thy life for a man so fondly? 
Pithias. It is no venter : my friend is just, 

for whom I desire to die. 
Gronno. Here is a madman ! I tell thee, I 

have a wife whom I love well, 
And if ich would die for her, chould ich were 
in hell. [a woman? 

Wilt thou do more for a man than I would for 
Pithias. Yea, that I will. 
Gronno. Then come on your ways, you must 
to prison haste. 

1 fear you will repent this folly at last. 
Pithias. Tl^at shalt thou never see. But O 

music, as my Damon requested thee, 
Sound out thy doleful tunes in this time of 
calamity. 

Exeunt. Here the regals play a mourn 
ing song, and Damon cometh in, in 
mariner apparel, and Stephano with 
him. 

Damon. Weep no more, Stephano, this is 
but destiny : [die : 

Had not this happ'd, yet I know I am born to 
Where or in what place, the gods know alone, 
To whose judgment myself I commit. There 
fore leave off thy moan, [again, 
And wait upon Pithias in prison till I return 



44 



Damon and Pithias 






In whom my joy, my care and life doth only 

remain. 
Stephana. O my dear master, let me go 

with you ; for my poor company [misery. 

Shall be some small comfort in this time of 

Damon. O Stephano, hast thou been so 

long with me, 

And yet dost not know the force of true amity ? 
I tell thee once again, my friend and I are but 

one : [Damon. 

Wait upon Pithias, and think thou art with 
Whereof I may not now discourse, the time 

passeth away ; [journey : 

The sooner I am gone, the shorter shall be my 
Therefore farewell, Stephano, commend me to 

my friend Pithias, [woful case. 

Whom I trust to deliver in time out of this 

Stephano. Farewell, my dear master, since 

your pleasure is so. 
O cruel hap ! O poor Stephano ! 

cursed Carisophus, that first moved this 

tragedy ! [trow ye? 

But what a noise is this? is all well within, 

1 fear all be not well within, I will go see. 
Come out, you weasel : are you seeking eggs in 

Damon's chest? 
Come out, I say: wilt thou be packing? by 

Cock, you were best. 
Cans. How durst thou, villain, to lay hands 

on me? 

Stephano. Out, sir knave, or I will send ye. 
Art thou not content to accuse Damon wrong- 

fully, 

But wilt thou rob him also, and that openly? 
Cans. The king gave me the spoil : to take 
mine own wilt thou let me? 



Damon and Pithias 45 

Steph. Thine own, villain ! where is thine 

authority ? 
Can's. I am authority of myself; dost thou 

not know? 
Stephana. By'r Lady, that is somewhat; 

but have you no more to show? 
Can's. What if I have not? [blow. 

Steph. Then for an earnest penny take this 
I shall bumbast you, you mocking knave; chill 

put pro in my purse for this time. 
Cam. Jack, give me my sword and target. 
Jack. I cannot come to you, master, this 

knave doth me let. Hold, master. 
Steph Away, Jackanapes, else I will col- 

pheg you by and by : 
Ye slave, I will have my pennyworths of thee 

therefore, if I die. 
About, villain ! 

Cans. O citizens, help to defend me. 
Steph. Nay, they will rather help to hang 

thee. 
Can's. Good fellow, let us reason this matter 

quietly : beat me no more. 
Steph. Of this condition I will stay, if thou 

swear, as thou art an honest man, 
Thou wilt say nothing to the king of this when 

I am gone. 
Cans. I will say nothing : here is my hand, 

as I am an honest man. 
Steph. Then say on thy mind : I have taken 

a wise oath on him, have I not, trow ye? 
To trust such a false knave upon his honesty? 
As he is an honest man (quoth you?) he may 

bewray all to the king, 
And break his oath for this never a whit but, 

my franion, I tell you this one thing : 



4 6 



Damon and Pithias 



If you disclose this I will devise such a way, 
That whilst thou livest, thou shalt remember 

this day. 
Can's. You need not devise for that, for 

this day is printed in my memory ; 
I warrant you, I shall remember this beating 

till I die : 
But seeing of courtesy you have granted that 

we should talk quietly, [injury. 

Methinks in calling me knave you do me much 
Steph. Why so, I pray thee heartily? 
Caris. Because I am the king's man : keeps 

the king any knaves ? 
Steph. He should not ; but what he doth, it 

is evident by thee, 

And as far as I can learn or understand, 
There is none better able to keep knaves in all 

the land. 
Caris. O sir, I am a courtier : when 

courtiers shall hear tell [well. 

How you have used me, they will not take it 

Steph. Nay, all right courtiers will ken me 

thank ; and wot you why ? 
Because I handled a counterfeit courtier in his 

kind so finely. 
What, sir? all are not courtiers that have a 

counterfeit show : 
In a troop of honest men some knaves may 

stand, ye know, [honesty, 

Such as by stealth creep in under the colour of 
Which sort under that cloak do all kinds of 

villainy. [urbanity, 

A right courtier is virtuous, gentle, and full of 
Hurting no man, good to all, devoid of villainy : 
But such as thou art, fountains of squirrility 

and vain delights ; 



Damon and Pithias 47 

Though you hang by the coyrt, you are but 

flatt'ring parasites; 

As well deserving the right name of courtesy, 
As the coward knight the true praise of 

chivalry. [your well-wilier. 

I could say more, but I will not, for that I am 
In faith, Carisophus, you are no courtier but 

a caterpillar, 
A sycophant, a parasite, a flatterer, and a 

knave. [have : 

Whether I will or no, these names you must 
How well you deserve this by your deeds it is 

known, [Damon, 

For that so unjustly thou hast accused poor 
Whose woful case the gods help alone. 

Caris. Sir, are you his servant, that you 

pity his case so? 
Steph. No, bum troth, goodman Grumb, 

his name is Stephano : 

I am called Onaphets, if needs you will know. 
The knave beginneth to sift me, but I turn my 

name in and out, 
Cretizo cum Cretense, to make him a lout. 

[Aside. 
Caris. What mumble you with yourself, 

Master Onaphets? 
Steph. I am reckoning with myself how I 

may pay my debts. 
Caris. You have paid me more than you 

did owe me. 
Steph. Nay, upon a farther reckoning, I 

will pay you more, if I know 
Either you talk of that is done, or by your 

sycophantical envy 
You prick forth Dionysius the sooner, that 

Damon may die : 



4 8 



Damon and Pithias 



I will so pay thee, that thy bones shall rattle in 

thy skin. 
Remember what I have said; Onaphets is my 

name. [Exit. 

Caris. The sturdy knave is gone, the devil 

him take; 
He hath made my head, shoulders, arms, sides, 

and all to ache. 
Thou whoreson villain boy, why didst thou wait 

no better? 
As he paid me, so will I not die thy debtor. 

[Strikes him. 
Jack. Master, why do you fight with me? 

I am not your match, you see : 
You durst not fight with him that is gone, and 

will you wreak your anger on me? 
Caris. Thou villain, by thee I have lost 

mine honour. 
Beaten with a cudgel like a slave, a vacabone, 

or a lazy lubber, 
And not given one blow again. Hast thou 

handled me well? 

Jack. Master, I handled you not, but who 
did handle you very handsomely, you can 
tell. 

Caris. Handsomely ! thou crack-rope. 
Jack. Yea, sir, very handsomely : I hold 

you a groat 
He handled you so handsomely that he left 

not one mote in your coat. 
Caris. O, I had firk'd him trimly, thou 
villain, if thou hadst given me my sword. 
Jack. It is better as it is, master, believe 
me, at a word. 



If he had seen your 
been fiercer, 



weapon, he would have 



Damon and Pithias 49 

And so perhaps beat you worse, I speak it 

with my heart. 
You were never at the dealing of fence-blows, 

but you had four away for your part. 
It is but your luck, you are man good enough ; 
But the Welsh Onaphets was a vengeance- 
knave, and rough. [your bed, 
Master, you were best go home and rest in 
Methinks your cap waxeth too little for your 

head. 

Cam. What ! doth my head swell? 
Jack. Yea, as big as a codshead, and bleeds 
too. [this hue. 

Cam. I am ashamed to show my face with 
Jack. No shame at all; men have been 

beaten far better than you. 
Cam. I must go to the chirurgeon's; what 

shall I say, when I am a-dressing? 
Jack. You may say truly you met with a 
knave's blessing. Exeunt. 

Here enter eth Aristippus. 
Arist. By mine own experience I prove true 

that many men tell, 

To live in court not beloved, better be in hell : 
What crying out, what cursing is there within 

of Carisophus, 

Because he accused Damon to King Dionysius ! 
Even now he came whining and crying into the 
court for the nonce, [knave's sconce. 

Showing that one Onaphets had broke his 
Which strange name when they heard every 

man laugh 'd heartily, 

And I by myself scann'd his name secretly; 
For well I knew it was some mad-headed child 
That invented this name, that the log-headed 

knave might be beguil'd. 
ED. E 



50 Damon and Pithias 

In tossing it often with myself to and fro, 

I found out that Onaphets backward spelled 

Stephano. 
I smiled in my sleeve how to see by turning 

his name he dress 'd him, 
And how for Damon his master's sake with a 

wooden cudgel he bless 'd him. 
None pitied the knave, no man nor woman ; 

but all laugh 'd him to scorn. 
To be thus hated of all, better unborn : 
Far better Aristippus hath provided, I trow; 
For in all the court I am beloved both of high 

and low. 
I offend none, insomuch that women sing this 

to my great praise, 

Omnis Aristippum decuit color, et locus et res. 
But in all this jollity one thing mazeth me; 
The strangest thing that ever was heard or 

known 

Is now happened in this court by that Damon, 
Whom Carisophus accused : Damon is now at 

liberty, 
For whose return Pithias his friend lieth in 

prison, alas, in great jeopardy. 
To-morrow is the day, which day by noon if 

Damon return not, earnestly 
The king hath sworn that Pithias should die; 
Whereof Pithias hath intelligence very secretly, 
Wishing that Damon may not return till he 

hath paid 
His life for his friend. Hath it been heretofore 

ever said, 
That any man for his friend would die so 

willingly? 

O noble friendship ! O perfect amity ! 
Thy force is here seen, and that very perfectly. 



Damon and Pithias 51 

The king himself museth hereat, yet he is far 

out of square 
That he trusteth none to come near him : not 

his own daughters will he have 
Unsearch'd to enter his chamber, which he hath 

made barbers his beard to shave, 
Not with knife or razor, for all edge-tools he 

fears, [his hairs. 

But with hot burning nutshells they singe off 
Was there ever man that lived in such misery? 
Well, I will go in with a heavy and pensive 

heart, too, 
To think how Pithias, this poor gentleman, 

to-morrow shall die. Exit. 

Here enter eth Jack and Will. 
Jack. Will, by mine honesty, I will mar 

your monkey's face, if you so fondly prate. 
Will. Jack, by my troth, seeing you are 

without the court-gate, 
If you play Jack-napes, in mocking my master 

and despising my face, 

Even here with a pantacle I will you disgrace; 
And though you have a far better face than I, 
Yet who is better man of us two these fists 

shall try, 
Unless you leave your taunting. 

Jack. Thou began 'st first; didst thou now 

not say even now, 
That Carisophus my master was no man but a 

cow, [blow again? 

In taking so many blows, and gave never a 

Will. I said so indeed, he is but a tame 

ruffian, 
That can swear by his flask and twich-box, and 

God's precious lady, 

And yet will be beaten with a faggot-stick. 

E 2 



52 Damon and Pithias 

These barking whelps were never good biters, 
Ne yet great crakers were ever great fighters : 
But seeing you egg me so much, I will some 
what more recite : [site ; 
I say, Carisophus thy master is a flatt'ring para- 
Gleaning away the sweet from the worthy in all 

the court. 
What tragedy hath he moved of late? the devil 

take him ! he doth much hurt. 
Jack. I pray you, what is Aristippus thy 

master, is not he a parasite too, 
That with scoffing and jesting in the court 

makes so much a-do? 
Will. He is no parasite, but a pleasant 

gentleman full of courtesy. 
Thy master is a churlish lout, the heir of a 

dungfork ; as void of honesty 
As thou art of honour. 

Jack. Nay, if you will needs be prating of 

my master still, [Will : 

In faith I must cool you, my friend, dapper 

Take this at the beginning. Strikes him. 

Will. Praise well your winning, my pantacle 

is as ready as yours. 
Jack. By the mass, I will box you. 
Will. By Cock, I will fox you. 
Jack. Will, was I with you? 
Will. Jack, did I fly? [weak. 

Jack. Alas, pretty cockerel, you are too 
Will. In faith, doating dottrel, you will cry 
creak. 

Here entereth Snap. 

Snap. Away, you crack-ropes, are you fight 
ing at the court-gate? [both : what! 
And I take you here again I will swinge you 

Exit. 



Damon and Pithias 53 

Jack. I beshrew Snap the tipstaff, that 

great knave's heart, that hither did come. 

Had he not been, you had cried ere this, Victus, 

victa, victum: 
But seeing we have breathed ourselves, if ye 

list, 
Let us agree like friends, and shake each other 

by the fist. 
Will. Content am I, for I am not malicious; 

but on this condition, 

That you talk no more so broad of my master 

as here you have done. [yonder. 

But who have we here? Cobex epi coming 

Jack. Will, let us slip aside and view him 

well. 

Here entereth Grim the Collier, 

whistling. 

Grim. What devil ! ich ween the porters are 

drunk, will they not dup the gate to-day? 

[To] take in coals for the king's own mouth; 

will nobody stir, I say? [bed, 

Ich might have lain tway hours longer in my 

Cha tarried so long here, that my teeth chatter 

in my head. 
Jack. Will, after our falling out wilt thou 

laugh merrily? 

Will. Ay, marry, Jack, I pray thee heartily. 

Jack. Then follow me, and hem in a word 

now and then [so early? 

What brawling knave is there at the court-gate 

Will. It is some brainsick villain, I durst 

lay a penny. [trow, 

Jack. It was you, sir, that cried so loud, I 

And bid us take in coals for the king's mouth 

even now? 
Grim. 'Twas I, indeed. 



54 



Damon and Pithias 



Jack. Why, sir, how dare you speak such 

petty treason? 
Doth the king eat coals at any season? 

Grim. Here is a gay world ! boys now sets 
old men to school. [cham a fool? 

I said well enough : what, Jack-sauce, think 'st 
At bakehouse, butt'ry-hatch, kitchen, and cellar, 
Do they not say for the king's mouth? 
Will. What, then, goodman collier? 
Grim. What, then ! seeing without coals 

thee cannot finely dress the king's meat, 
May I not say, take in coals for the king's 

mouth, though coals he do not eat? 
Jack. James Christe ! came ever from a 

collier an answer so trim? 
You are learned, are you not, father Grim? 
Grim. Grim is my name indeed, cham not 

learned, and yet the king's collier : 
This vorty winter cha been to the king a 

servitor, 
Though I be not learned, yet cha mother-wit 

enough, whole and some. 
Will. So it seems, you have so much mother- 
wit, that you lack your father's wisdom. 
Grim. Mass, cham well-beset, here's a trim 

cast of murlons. 
What be you, my pretty cockerels, that ask me 

these questions? 
Jack. Good faith, Master Grim, if such 

merlins on your pouch may light, 
They are so quick of wing that quickly they 

can carry it out of your sight; 
And though we are cockerels now, we shall 

have spurs one day, 

And shall be able perhaps to make you a capon 
[to your pay.] 



Damon and Pithias 55 

But to tell you the truth, we are the porter's 

men, which early and late 
Wait on such gentlemen as you to open the 

court-gate. 

Grim. Are ye servants then? 
Will. Yea, sir; are we not pretty men? 
Grim. Pretty men, quoth you? nay, you are 
strong men, else you could not bear these 
breeches. 
Will. Are these such great hose? in faith, 

goodman collier, you see with your nose : 
By mine honesty, I have but one lining in one 

hose, but seven ells of rug. 
Grim. This is but a little, yet it makes thee 

seem a great bug. 
Jack. How say you, goodman collier, can 

you find any fault here? 
Grim. Nay, you should find fau't; marry, 

here's trim gear ! 

Alas, little knave, dost not sweat? thou goest 
with great pain, [thee plain ; 

These are no hose, but water-bougets, I tell 
Good for none but such as have no buttocks. 
Did you ever see two such little Robin ruddocks 
So laden with breeches ? chill say no more, lest 
I offend. [ghostly end, 

Who invented these monsters first, did it to a 
To have a mail ready to put in other folks' 
We see this evident by daily proof. [stuff, 

One preached of late not far hence in no pulpit, 

but in a wain-cart, 

That spake enough of this ; but for my part 
Chill say no more : your own necessity 
In the end will force you to find some remedy. 
Jack. Will, hold this railing knave with a 
talk, when I am gone : 



Damon and Pithias 

I will fetch him his filling ale for his good 

sermon. Exit. 

Will. Go thy way, father Grim, gaily well 

you do say, 

It is but young men's folly, that list to play, 
And mask awhile in the net of their own 

device ; 

When they come to your age, they will be wise. 
Grim. Bum troth, but few such roisters 

come to my years at this day ; 
They be cut off betimes, ere they have gone 

half their journey : 

I will not tell why : let them guess that can, I 
mean somewhat thereby. 

[Enter Jack with a pot of wine, and a 

cup to drink on. 

Jack. Father Grim, because you are stir 
ring so early, [you merry. 
I have brought you a bowl of wine to make 
Grim. Wine, marry ! this is welcome to 

colliers, chill swap't off by and by : 
Chwas stirring so early, that my very soul is 

dry. 
Jack. This is stoutly done : will you have 

it warmed, father Grim? 
Grim. No; it is warm enough; it is very 

lousious and trim. 

'Tis musselden, ich ween ; of fellowship let me 

have another spurt, [shirt. 

Ich can drink as easily now, as if I sat in my 

Jack. By Cock, and you shall have it; but 

I will begin, and that anon, 
Jebit avow mon compagnon. 

Grim. Jhar vow pleadge pety Zawne. 
Jack. Can you speak French? here is a 
trim collier, by this day ! 



Damon and Pithias 57 

Grim. What man ! ich learned this when 

ich was a soldier; [whip trimly, 

When ich was a lusty fellow, and could yerk a 

Better than these boy-colliers that come to 

the court daily : [as now, 

When there were not so many captious fellows 

That would torup men for every trifle, I wot 

not how : 

As there was one Damon, not long since taken 

for a spy ; [to die. 

How justly I know not, but he was condemned 

Will (aside). This wine hath warmed him, 

this comes well to pass, 
We shall know all now, for in vino veritas. 
Father Grim, who accused this Damon to King 

Dionysius? 
Grim. A vengeance take him ! 'twas a 

gentleman, one Master Crowsphus. 
Will. Crowsphus ! you clip the king's lan 
guage, you would have said Carisophus. 
But I perceive now either the wind is at the 
south, [your mouth. 

Or else your tongue cleaveth to the roof of 
Grim. A murrain take thik wine, it so in 
toxicate my brain, [plain. 
That to be hanged by and by I cannot speak 
Jack. You speak knavishly plain, seeing my 

master you do mock : 
In faith, ere you go, I will make you a lobcock. 

Aside. 

Father Grim, what say they of this Damon 

abroad? [God. 

Grim. All men are sorry for him, so help me 

They say a false knave 'cused him to the king 

wrongfully ; [to die, 

And he is gone, and should be here to-morrow 



Damon and Pithias 

Or else his fellow, which is in prison, his room 

shall supply. [y u plain, 

Chill not be his half for vorty shillings, I tell 
I think Damon be too wise to return again. 
Will. Will no man speak for them in this 

woful case? 
Grim. No, chill warrant you, one Master 

Stippus is in place, [so, 

Where he may do good, but he frames himself 
Whatsoever Dionysius willeth to that he will 

not say no : 
Tis a subtle vox, he will not tread on thorns 

for none, 

A merry harecop 'tis, and a pleasant com 
panion ; 

A right courtier, and can provide for one. 
Jack. Will, how like you this gear? your 

master Aristippus also 
At this collier's hand hath had a blow ! 
But in faith, father Grim, cannot ye colliers 
Provide for yourselves far better than 

courtiers? "[threadbare coats, 

Grim. Yes, I trow : black colliers go in 

Yet so provide they, that they have the fair 

white groats. [in dirt, 

Ich may say in counsel, though all day I moil 
Chill not change lives with any in Dionysius' 

court : 

For though their apparel be never so fine, 
Yet sure their credit is far worse than mine. 
And, by Cock, I may say, for all their high 

looks, [books : 

I know some sticks full deep in merchants' 
And deeper will fall in, as fame me tells, 
As long as instead of money they take up 

hawks' hoods and bells : 



Damon and Pithias 59 

Whereby they fall into a swelling disease, 

which colliers do not know; 
'T'ath a mad name : it is called, ich ween, 

Centum pro cento. 
Some other in courts make others laugh 

merrily, [secretly. 

When they wail and lament their own estate 
Friendship is dead in court, hypocrisy doth 

reign ; 

Who is in favour now, to-morrow is out again : 
The state is so uncertain that I, by my will, 
Will never be courtier, but a collier still. 
Will. It seemeth that colliers have a very 

trim life. [troth, 

Grim. Colliers get money still : tell me of 

Is not that a trim life now, as the world go'th? 

All day, though I toil with my main and might, 

With money in my pouch I come home merry 

at night, [Alison, 

And sit down in my chair by my wife fair 
And turn a crab in the fire, as merry as Pope 

John. 
Jack. That pope was a merry fellow, of 

whom folk talk so much. 
Grim. H'ad to be merry withal, h'ad gold 

enough in his hutch. 
Jack. Can gold make men merry? they say, 

who can sing so merry a note 
As he that is not able to change a groat? 
Grim. Who sings in that case, sings never 

in tune. I know for my part 
That a heavy pouch with gold makes a light 

heart ; 
Of which I have provided for a dear year good 

store, [more. 

And these benters, I trow, shall anon get me 



6o 



Damon and Pithias 



Will. By serving the court with coals you 

gain'd all this money? 
Grim. By the court only, I assure ye. 
Jack. After what sort, I pray thee tell me? 
Grim. Nay, there bate me an ace (quod 
Bolton); I can wear a horn and blow it 
not. 

Jack. By'r Lady, the wiser man. 
Grim. Shall I tell you by what sleight I got 
all this money? [warrant ye. 

Then ich were a noddy indeed ; no, no, I 
Yet in few words I tell you this one thing, 
He is a very fool that cannot gain by the king. 
Witt. Well said, father Grim : you are a 

wily collier and a brave, 

I see now there is no knave to the old knave. 
Grim. Such knaves have money when 

courtiers have none. 

But tell me, is it true that abroad is blown? 
Jack. What is that? 
Grim. Hath the king made those fair 

damsels his daughters 
To become now fine and trim barbers ? 
Jack. Yea, truly, to his own person. 
Grim. Good fellows, believe me, as the case 

now stands/ 
I would give one sack of coals to be wash'd 

at their hands, 
If ich came so near them, for my wit chould 

not give three chips 

If ich could not steal one swap at their lips. 
Jack. Will, this knave is drunk, let us dress 

him. 
Let us rifle him so that he have not one penny 

to bless him, 
And steal away his debenters too. [Aside. 



Damon and Pithias 61 

Witt. Content : invent the way, and I am 

ready. 
Jack. Faith, and I will make him a noddy. 

Aside. 

Father Grim, if you pray me well, I will wash 

you and shave you too, [daughters do : 

Even after the same fashion as the king's 

In all points as they handle Dionysius, I will 

dress you trim and fine. 
Grim. Chuld vain learn that : come on 
then, chill give thee a whole pint of wine 
At tavern for thy labour, when cha money for 
my benters here. 

Here Will fetcheth a barber's basin, a 

pot with water, a razor, and cloths, 

and a pair of spectacles. 

Jack. Come, mine own father Grim, sit 

down. [chair. 

Grim. Mass, to begin withal, here is a trim 

Jack. What, man, I will use you like a 

prince. Sir boy, fetch me my gear. 
Will. Here, sir. 
Jack. Hold up, father Grim. 
Grim. Me-seem my head doth swim. 
Jack. My costly perfumes made that. Away 

with this, sir boy : be quick. 
Aloyse, aloyse, how, how pretty it is ! is not 

here a good face? 

A fine owl's eyes, a mouth like an oven. 
Father, you have good butter-teeth full seen. 
[Aside] You were weaned, else you would have 
been a great calf. [chin 

Ah trim lips to sweep a manger! here is a 
As soft as the hoof of an horse. 

Grim. Doth the king's daughters rub so 
hard? 



62 



Damon and Pithias 



Jack. Hold your head straight, man, else 

all will be marr'd. 

By'r Lady, you are of good complexion, 
A right Croyden sanguine, beshrew me. [ye? 
Hold up, father Grim. Will, can you bestir 
Grim. Methinks, after a marvellous fashion 

you do besmear me. 
Jack. It is with unguentum of Daucus 

Maucus, that is very costly : 
I give not this washing-ball to everybody. 
After you have been dress 'd so finely at my 

hand, 

You may kiss any lady's lips within this land. 
Ah, you are trimly wash'd ! how say you, is 

not this trim water? 

Grim. It may be wholesome, but it is 

vengeance sour. [my razor. 

Jack. It scours the better. Sir boy, give me 

Will. Here at hand, sir. 

Grim. God's aymes ! 'tis a chopping knife, 

'tis no razor. [one ; 

Jack. It is a razor, and that a very good 

It came lately from Pallarrime, it cost me 

twenty crowns alone. 

Your eyes dazzle after your washing, these 

spectacles put on : [one ? 

Now view this razor, tell me, is it not a good 

Grim. They be gay barnacles, yet I see 

never the better. 
Jack. Indeed they be a young sight, and 

that is the matter ; 

But I warrant you this razor is very easy. 
Grim. Go to, then ; since you begun, do as 

please ye. 

Jack. Hold up, father Grim. 
Grim. O, your razor doth hurt my lip. 



Damon and Pithias 63 

Jack. No, it scrapeth off a pimple to ease 

you of the pip. [well? 

I have done now, how say you? are you not 

Grim. Cham lighter than ich was, the truth 

to tell. 

Jack. Will you sing after your shaving? 
Grim. Mass, content; but chill be poll'd 

first, ere I sing. 
Jack. Nay, that shall not need; you are 

poll'd near enough for this time. 
Grim. Go to then lustily, I will sing in my 

man's voice : 
Chave a troubling base buss. 

Jack. You are like to bear the bob, for we 

will give it : 
Set out your bussing base, and we will quiddle 

upon it. Grim singeth Buss. 

Jack sings. Too nidden and too nidden. 
Will sings. Too nidden and toodle toodle 

doo nidden ; 

Is not Grim the collier most finely shaven? 
Grim. Why, my fellows, think ich am a 

cow, that you make such toying? 
Jack. Nay, by'r Lady, you are no cow, by 

your singing ; 
Yet your wife told me you were an ox. 

Grim. Did she so? 'tis a pestens quean, she 

is full of such mocks. 
But go to, let us sing out our song merrily. 

[The song at the shaving of the Collier. 
Jack. Such barbers God send you at all 

times of need. 
Will. That can dress you finely, and make 

such quick speed; 
Jack. Your face like an inkhorn now 

shineth so gay 



Damon and Pithias 

Will. That I with your nostrils of force 

must needs play, 

With too nidden and too nidden. [nidden. 

Jack. With too nidden and todle todle doo 
Is not Grim the collier most finely shaven? 
Will. With shaving you shine like a pestle 

of pork. 

Jack. Here is the trimmest hog's flesh from 

London to York. [awhile. 

Will. It would be trim bacon to hang up 

Jack. To play with this hoglin of force I 

must smile, 
With too nidden and too nidden. 

Will. With too nidden and todle, &c. 
Grim. Your shaving doth please me, I am 

now your debtor. 
Will. Your wife now will buss you, because 

you are sweeter. 

Grim. Near would I be polled, as near as 
cham shaven. [you be shaken. 

Will. Then out of your jerkin needs must 
With too nidden and too nidden, &*c. 

Grim. It is a trim thing to be wash'd in 

the court. 

Will. Their hands are so fine, that they 

never do hurt. [was. 

Grim. Me-think ich am lighter than ever ich 

Will. Our shaving in the court hath 

brought this to pass. 

With too nidden and too nidden. [nidden. 

Jack. With too nidden and todle todle doo 

Is not Grim the collier most finely shaven? 

Grim. This is trimly done : now chill pitch 

my coals not far hence, [tway pence. 

And then at the tavern shall bestow whole 

Exit Grim. 



Damon and Pithias 65 

Jack. Farewell cock, before the collier again 

do us seek, 
Let us into the court to part the spoil, share 

and share like. 
Witt. Away then, 

Exeunt. 

Here entereth Grim. 
Grim. Out alas, where shall I make my 

moan? 

My pouch, my benters, and all is gone; 
Where is that villain that did me shave? 
H'ath robbed me, alas, of all that I have. 

Here entereth Snap. 

Snap. Who crieth so at the court-gate? 
Grim. I, the poor collier, that was robbed 

of late. 

Snap. Who robbed thee? 
Grim. Two of the porter's men that did 

shave me. 
Snap. Why, the porter's men are no 

barbers. 
Grim. A vengeance take them, they are 

quick carvers. 

Snap. What stature were they of? 
Grim. As little dapper knaves as they 

trimly could scoff. 
Snap. They are lackeys, as near as I can 

guess them. 
Grim. Such lackeys make me lack; an 

halter beswinge them ! 
Cham undone, they have my benters too. 
Snap. Dost thou know them, if thou seest 

them? 

Grim. Yea, that I do. 

Snap. Then come with me, we will find 
them out, and that quickly. 

ED. F 



66 



Damon and Pithias 



Grim. I follow, mast tipstaff; they be in 

the court, it is likely. 
Snap. Then cry no more, come away. 

Exeunt. 
Here enter eih Carisophus and Aris- 

tippus. 

Caris. If ever you will show your friend 
ship, now is the time, 
Seeing the king is displeased with me of my 

part without any crime. 
Arist. It should appear it comes of some 

evil behaviour 

That you so suddenly are cast out of favour. 
Caris. Nothing have I done but this ; in 
talk I overthwarted Eubulus [nysius, 

When he lamented Pithias' case to King Dio- 
Which to-morrow shall die, but for that false 
knave Damon [is gone. 

He hath left his friend in the briars, and now 
We grew so hot in talk, that Eubulus pro 
tested plainly, 

Which held his ears open to parasitical flattery. 
And now in the king's ear like a bell he rings, 
Crying that flatterers have been the destroyers 

of kings. 
Which talk in Dionysius' heart hath made so 

deep impression, 

That he trusteth me not, as heretofore, in no 
condition : [that he 

And some words brake from him, as though 
Began to suspect my truth and honesty, 
Which you of friendship I know will defend, 
howsoever the world goeth : [an oath ? 
My friend for my honesty will you not take 
Arist. To swear for your honesty I should 
lose mine own. 



Damon and Pithias 67 

Cans. Should you so, indeed? I would 

that were known. 

Is your void friendship come thus to pass? 
Arist. I follow the proverb : Amicus usque 

ad aras. 
Caris. Where can you say I ever lost mine 

honesty ? 
Arist. You never lost it, for you never had 

it, as far as I know. 
Caris. Say you so, friend Aristippus, whom 

I trust so well? 
Arist. Because you trust me, to you the 

truth I tell. 
Caris. Will you not stretch one point to 

bring me in favour again? 
Arist. I love no stretching; so I may breed 

mine own pain. 
Caris. A friend ought to shun no pain, to 

stand his friend in stead. 
Arist. Where true friendship is, it is so in 

very deed. 
Caris. Why, sir, hath not the chain of true 

friendship linked us two together? 
Arist. The chiefest link lacked thereof, it 

must needs dissever. 
Caris. What link is that? fain would I 

know. 

Arist. Honesty. 
Caris. Doth honesty knit the perfect knot 

in true friendship? 
Arist. Yea, truly, and that knot so knit 

will never slip. 
Caris. Belike, then, there is no friendship 

but between honest men. 
Arist. Between the honest only; for, 

Amicitia inter bonos, saith a learned man. 

F 2 



68 



Damon and Pithias 



Cans. Yet evil men use friendship in things 

unhonest, where fancy doth serve. 
Arist. That is no friendship, but a lewd 

liking; it lasts but a while. 
Cam. What is the perfectest friendship 

among men that ever grew? 
Arist. Where men loved one another, not for 

profit, but for virtue. 
Cam. Are such friends both alike in joy 

and also in smart? 
Arist. They must needs; for in two bodies 

they have but one heart. 
Cam. Friend Aristippus, deceive me not 

with sophistry : 
Is there no perfect friendship, but where is 

virtue and honesty? 

Arist. What a devil then meant Carisophus 
To join in friendship with fine Aristippus? 
In whom is as much virtue, truth and honesty, 
As there are true feathers in the three Cranes 

of the Vintry : 

Yet these feathers have the shadow of lively 
feathers, the truth to scan, [honest man. 
But Carisophus hath not the shadow of an 
To be plain, because I know thy villainy, 
In abusing Dionysius to many men's injury, 
Under the cloak of friendship I play'd with 

his head, 
And sought means how thou with thine own 

fancy might be led. 
My friendship thou soughtest for thine own 

commodity, 

As worldly men do, by profit measuring amity : 

Which I perceiving, to the like myself I 

framed, [blamed. 

Wherein I know of the wise I shall not be 



Damon and Pithias 69 

If you ask me, Quare ? I answer, Quia prudentis 

est multum dissimulare. 

To speak more plainer, as the proverb doth go, 
In faith, Carisophus, cum Cretense cretizo. 
Yet a perfect friend I show myself to thee in 

one thing, 
I do not dissemble now I say I will not speak 

for thee to the king : [thee, 

Therefore sink in thy sorrow, I do not deceive 
A false knave I found thee, a false knave I 

leave thee. Exit. 

Cans. He is gone ! is this friendship, to 

leave his friend in the plain field? 
Well, I see now I myself have beguiled, 
In matching with that false fox in amity, 
Which hath me used to his own commodity : 
Which seeing me in distress, unfeignedly goes 

his ways. [now-a-days ; 

Lo, this is the perfect friendship among men 
Which kind of friendship toward him I used 

secretly ; [craftily, 

And he with me the like hath requited me 
It is the gods' judgment, I see it plainly, 
For all the world may know, Incidi in foveam 

quam fed. [know, 

Well, I must content myself, none other help I 
Until a merrier gale of wind may hap to blow. 

Exit. 

[Enter Eubulus. 
Eubul. Who deals with kings in matters 

of great weight, 

When f roward will doth bear the chiefest sway, 
Must yield of force; there need no subtle 

sleight, 

Ne painted speech the matter to convey. 
No prayer can move when kindled is the ire. 



Damon and Pithias 

The more ye quench, the more increased is the 

fire. 

This thing I prove in Pithias' woful case, 
Whose heavy hap with tears I do lament : 
The day is come, when he, in Damon's place, 
Must lose his life : the time is fully spent, [vail, 
Nought can my words now with the king pre- 
Against the wind and striving stream I sail : 
For die thou must, alas ! thou seely Greek. 
Ah, Pithias, now come is thy doleful hour : 
A perfect friend, none such a world to seek. 
Though bitter death shall give thee sauce full 

sour, 

Yet for thy faith enroll 'd shall be thy name 
Among the gods within the book of fame. 
Who knoweth his case, and will not melt in 

tears ? 

His guiltless blood shall trickle down anon. 
Then the Muses sing. 
Alas, what hap hast thou, poor Pithias, now to 

die! 
Woe worth the man which for his death hath 

given us cause to cry. 
Eubul. Methink I hear, with yellow 

rented hairs, 
The Muses frame their notes, my state to 

moan : 
Among which sort, as one that mourneth with 

heart, 
In doleful tunes myself will bear a part. 

Muses. Woe worth the man which for his 

death, &*c. 
Eubul. With yellow rented hairs, come on, 

you Muses nine; 
Fill now my breast with heavy tunes, to me 

your plaints resign: 



Damon and Pithias 71 

For Pithias I bewail, which presently must die, 
Woe worth the man which for his death hath 

given us cause, &c. 
Muses. Woe worth the man which for his, 



Eubul. Was ever such a man, that would 

die for his friend? 
I think even from the heavens above the gods 

did him down send 
To show true friendship's power, which forc'd 

thee now to die. 

Woe worth the man which for thy death, &>c. 
Muses. Woe worth the man, &c. 
Eubul. What tiger's whelp was he, that 

Damon did accuse? 
What faith hast thou, which for thy friend thy 

death doth not refuse? 

O heavy hap hadst thou to play this tragedy I 
Woe worth the man which for thy death, &c. 
Muses. Woe worth the man, &c. 
Eubul. Thou young and worthy Greek, 

that showeth such perfect love, 

The gods receive thy simple ghost into the 

heavens above: [ing eye. 

Thy death we shall lament with many a weep- 

Woe worth the man, which for his death, &C. 

Muses. Woe worth the man, which for thy 

death hath given us cause to cry. Finis. 
Eubul. Eternal be your fame, ye Muses, for 

that in misery 

Ye did vouchsafe to strain your notes to walk. 
My heart is rent in two with this miserable 

case, 
Yet am I charged by Dionysius' mouth to see 

this place 
At all points ready for the execution of Pithias. 



Damon and Pithias 

Need hath no law : will I or nill I, it must be 

done, [hand. 

But lo, the bloody minister is even here at 

Enter Gronno. 

Gronno, I came hither now to understand 
If all things are well appointed for the execu 
tion of Pithias. 
The king himself will see it done here in this 

place. 
Gronno. Sir, all things are ready; here is 

the place, here is the hand, here is the 

sword : 
Here lacketh none but Pithias, whose head at 

a word, 

If he were present, I could finely strike off 
You may report that all things are ready. 
Eubul. I go with an heavy heart to report 

it. Ah woful Pithias ! 

Full near now is thy misery. [Exit. 

Gronno. I marvel very much, under what 

constellation 
All hangmen are born, for they are hated of 

all, beloved of none ; 
Which hatred is showed by this point 

evidently : 
The hangman always dwells in the vilest place 

of the city. [why, 

That such spite should be, I know no cause 
Unless it be for their office's sake, which is 

cruel and bloody. 

Yet some men must do it to execute laws. 
Me-think they hate me without any just cause. 
But I must look to my toil ; Pithias must lose 

his head at one blow, 
Else the boys will stone me to death in the 

street, as I go. 



Damon and Pithias 73 

But hark, the prisoner cometh, and the king 

also : [forego. 

I see there is no help, Pithias his life must 

Here entereih Dionysius and Eubulus. 
Diony. Bring forth Pithias, that pleasant 

companion, 
Which took me at my word, and became pledge 

for Damon. 

It pricketh fast upon noon, I do him no in 
jury [me, 
If now he lose his head, for so he requested 
If Damon return not, which now in Greece is 

full merry : 
Therefore shall Pithias pay his death, and that 

by and by. [city, 

He thought belike, if Damon were out of the 
I would not put him to death for some foolish 

pity : 
But seeing it was his request, I will not be 

mock'd, he shall die; 
Bring him forth. 

Here entereth Snap. 
Snap. Give place; let the prisoner come 

by 5 g"* ve place. 
Diony. How say you, sir; where is Damon, 

your trusty friend ? [vow : 

You have play'd a wise part, I make God a 
You know what time a day it is; make you 

ready. 
Pithias. Most ready I am, mighty king, 

and most ready also 

For my true friend Damon this life to forego, 
Even at your pleasure. 

Diony. A true friend ! a false traitor, that 

so breaketh his oath ! [so loth. 

Thou shalt lose thy life though thou be never 



74 



Damon and Pithias 



Pithias. 1 am not loth to do whatsoever I 

said, [may'd : 

Ne at this present pinch of death am I dis- 
The gods now I know have heard my fervent 

prayer, [great honour, 

That they have reserved me to this passing 
To die for my friend, whose faith even now I 

do not mistrust ; [and just : 

My friend Damon is no false traitor, he is true 
But sith he is no god, but a man, he must do 

as he may, 
The wind may be contrary, sickness may let 

him, or some misadventure by the way, 
Which the eternal gods turn all to my glory, 
That fame may resound how Pithias for Damon 

did die : [can, 

He breaketh no oath which doth as much as he 
His mind is here, he hath some let, he is but a 

man. [require, 

That he might not return of all the gods I did 
Which now to my joy doth grant my desire. 
But why do I stay any longer, seeing that one 

man's death 

May suffice, O king, to pacify thy wrath? 
O thou minister of justice, do thine office by 

and by, [die. 

Let not thy hand tremble, for I tremble not to 
Stephano, the right pattern of true fidelity, 
Commend me to thy master, my sweet Damon, 

and of him crave liberty 
When I am dead, in my name; for thy trusty 

services 

Hath well deserved a gift far better than this. 
O my Damon, farewell now for ever, a true 

friend, to me most dear; [of thee, 

Whiles life doth last, my mouth shall still talk 



Damon and Pithias 75 

And when I am dead, my simple ghost, true 

witness of amity, [be. 

Shall hover about the place, wheresoever thou 

Diony. Eubulus, this gear is strange; and 

yet because [the law. 

Damon hath fals'd his faith, Pithias shall have 
Gronno, despoil him, and eke dispatch him 

quickly. 
Gronno. It shall be done; since you came 

into this place [space. 

I might have stroken off seven heads in this 
By'r Lady, here are good garments, these are 

mine, by the rood ! 

It is an evil wind that bloweth no man good. 
Now, Pithias, kneel down, ask me blessing 

like a pretty boy, 
And with a trice thy head from thy shoulders 

I will convey. 

Here entereth Damon running, and 

stays the sword. 
Damon. Stay, stay, stay ! for the king's 

advantage, stay! [fully pass'd; 

O mighty king, mine appointed time is not yet 
Within the compass of mine hour, lo, here I 

come at last. 

A life I owe, and a life I will you pay : 
O my Pithias, my noble pledge, my constant 

friend ! 
Ah ! woe is me ! for Damon's sake, how near 

were thou to thy end ! 
Give place to me, this room is mine, on this 

stage must I play. 
Damon is the man, none ought but he to Dio- 

nysius his blood to pay. 
Gronno. Are you come, sir? you might 

have tarried, if you had been wise : 



76 



Damon and Pithias 



For your hasty coming you are like to know 

the price. 
Pithias. O thou cruel minister, why didst 

not thou thine office? 

Did I not bid thee make haste in any wise? 
Hast thou spared to kill me once, that I may 

die twice? 
Not to die for my friend is present death to 

me ; and alas ! 
Shall I see my sweet Damon slain before my 

face? [Dionysius, 

What double death is this ? but, O . mighty 
Do true justice now : weigh this aright, thou 

noble Eubulus; 
Let me have no wrong, as now stands the 

case : 

Damon ought not to die, but Pithias : 
By misadventure, not by his will, his hour is 

past; therefore I, 
Because he came not at his just time, ought 

justly to die : [king, 

So was my promise, so was thy promise, O 
All this court can bear witness of this thing. 
Damon. Not so, O mighty king : to justice 

it is contrary, 
That for another man's fault the innocent 

should die : 
Ne yet is my time plainly expired, it is not 

fully noon [the town. 

Of this my day appointed, by all the clocks in 

Pithias. Believe no clock, the hour is past 

by the sun. 
Damon. Ah my Pithias, shall we now break 

the bonds of amity? 
Will you now overthwart me, which heretofore 

so well did agree? 



Damon and Pithias 77 

Pithias. My Damon, the gods forbid but 

we should agree; 
Therefore agree to this, let me perform the 

promise I made for thee. 
Let me die for thee : do me not that injury, 
Both to break my promise, and to suffer me to 

see thee die, [grant me, 

Whom so dearly I love : this small request 
I shall never ask thee more, my desire is but 

friendly. [triumphantly, 

Do me this honour, that fame may report 
That Pithias for his friend Damon was con 
tented to die. 
Damon. That you were contented for me to 

die, fame cannot deny; [villainy, 

Yet fame shall never touch me with such a 
To report that Damon did suffer his friend 

Pithias for him guiltless to die ; 
Therefore content thyself, the gods requite thy 

constant faith, [nysius 5 wrath. 

None but Damon's blood can appease Dio- 
And now, O mighty king, to you my talk I 

convey ; [to stay, 

Because you gave me leave my worldly things 
To requite that good turn, ere I die, for your 

behalf this I say : [decketh so, 

Although your regal state dame Fortune 
That like a king in worldly wealth abundantly 

ye flow, [tread, 

Yet fickle is the ground whereon all tyrants 
A thousand sundry cares and fears do haunt 

their restless head. 
No trusty band, no faithful friends do guard 

thy hateful state. 
And why? whom men obey for deadly fear, 

sure them they deadly hate. 



Damon and Pithias 

That you may safely reign, by love get friends, 

whose constant faith 
Will never fail, this counsel gives poor Damon 

at his death. 
Friends are the surest guard for kings, golden 

time do wear away, 
And other precious things do fade, friendship 

will never decay. [safely sleep ; 

Have friends in store therefore, so shall you 
Have friends at home, of foreign foes so need 

you take no keep. [never tell ; 

Abandon flatt'ring tongues, whose clacks truth 
Abase the ill, advance the good, in whom dame 

virtue dwells ; [earthly kings, 

Let them your playfellows be : but O, you 
Your sure defence and strongest guard stands 

chiefly in faithful friends. 
Then get you friends by liberal deeds; and 

here I make an end. [Pithias' friend. 

Accept this counsel, mighty king, of Damon, 
O my Pithias ! now farewell for ever, let me 

kiss thee ere I die, 
My soul shall honour thee, thy constant faith 

above the heavens shall fly. 
Come, Gronno, do thine office now ; why is thy 

colour so dead? 
My neck is so short, that thou wilt never have 

honesty in striking off this head. 
Diony. Eubulus, my spirits are suddenly 

appalled, my limbs wax weak : 
This strange friendship amazeth me so, that I 

can scarce speak. 
Pithias. O mighty king, let some pity your 

noble heart meve; 
You require but one man's death ; take Pithias, 

let Damon live. 



Damon and Pithias 79 

Eubul. O unspeakable friendship ! 
Damon. Not so, he hath not offended, there 

is no cause why [should die. 

My constant friend Pithias for Damon's sake 
Alas, he is but young, he may do good to 

many. [me die? 

Thou coward minister, why dost thou not let 

Gronno. My hand with sudden fear 

quivereth. 
Pithias. O noble king, show mercy upon 

Damon, let Pithias die. 
Diony. Stay, Gronno, my flesh trembleth. 

Eubulus, what shall I do? [these two? 
Were there ever such friends on earth as were 
What heart is so cruel that would divide them 

asunder? [wonder. 

O noble friendship, I must yield ! at thy force I 
My heart this rare friendship hath pierc'd to 

the root, 
And quenched all my fury : this sight hath 

brought this about, 
Which thy grave counsel, Eubulus, and learned 

persuasion could never do. 
To Damon and Pithias. O noble gentlemen, 

the immortal gods above [my behoof : 
Hath made you play this tragedy, I think, for s 
Before this day I never knew what perfect 

friendship meant. [wholly bent. 

My cruel mind to bloody deeds was full and 
My fearful life I thought with terror to defend, 
But now I see there is no guard unto a faithful 

friend, [need : 

Which will not spare his life at time of present 

happy kings, who in your courts have two 

such friends indeed ! [plainly see, 

1 honour friendship now, which that you may 



8o 



Damon and Pithias 



Damon, have thou thy life, from death I pardon 

thee; [me lend. 

For which good turn, I crave, this honour do 
O friendly heart, let me link with you, to you 

make me the third friend. 
My court is yours ; dwell here with me, by my 

commission large, 
Myself, my realm, my wealth, my health, I 

commit to your charge : [that thing, 

Make me a third friend, more shall I joy in 
Than to be called, as I am, Dionysius the 

mighty king. 
Damon. O mighty king, first for my life 

most humble thanks I give, 
And next, I praise the immortal gods that did 

your heart so meve, [heavenly lore, 

That you would have respect to friendship's 
Foreseeing well he need not fear which hath 

true friends in store. 
For my part, most noble king, as a third 

friend, welcome to our friendly society ; 
But you must forget you are a king, for friend 
ship stands in true equality. [sessions, 
Diony. Unequal though I be in great pos- 
Yet full equal shall you find me in my changed 

conditions. [away ; 

Tyranny, flattery, oppression, lo, here I cast 
Justice, truth, love, friendship, shall be my 

joy. [end ; 

True friendship will I honour unto my life's 
My greatest glory shall be to be counted a 

perfect friend. 
Pithias. For this your deed, most noble 

king, the gods advance your name, 
And since to friendship's lore you list your 

princely heart to frame, 



Damon and Pithias 81 

With joyful heart, O king, most welcome now 

to me, 

With you will I knit the perfect knot of amity. 
Wherein I shall instruct you so, and Damon 

here your friend, 

That you may know of amity the mighty force, 

and eke the joyful end : [ground, 

And how that kings do stand upon a fickle 

Within whose realm at time of need no faithful 

friends are found. 
Diony. Your instruction will I follow; to 

you myself I do commit. 
Eubulus, make haste to fet new apparel, fit 
For my new friends. 

Eubul. I go with joyful heart. O happy 

day ! [Aside.] Exit. 

Gronno. I am glad to hear this word. 

Though their lives they do not lese, 
No reason the hangman should lose his fees : 
These are mine, I am gone with a trice. 

Exit. 
Here entereth Eubulus with new 

garments. 
Diony. Put on these garments now; go in 

with me, the jewels of my court. 
Damon and Pithias. We go with joyful 

hearts. 
Steph. O Damon, my dear master, in all 

this joy remember me. 

Diony. My friend Damon, he asketh reason. 
Damon. Stephano, for thy good service be 
thou free. 

Exeunt Dion [and all but Stephano]. 
Steph. O most happy, pleasant, joyful, and 

triumphant day ! 

Poor Stephano now shall live in continual joy : 
ED. G 



82 



Damon and Pithias 



Vive le roy, with Damon and Pithias, in 

perfect amity, 

Vive tu, Stephano, in thy pleasant liberality : 
Wherein I joy as much as he that hath a con 
quest won, 
I am a free man, none so merry as I now 

under the sun. 
Farewell, my lords, now the gods grant you all 

the sum of perfect amity, 
And me long to enjoy my long-desired liberty. 

Exit. 
Here entereth Eubulus beating Can- 

sophus. 

Away, villain ! away, you flatt'ring parasite ! 
Away, the plague of this court ! thy filed 

tongue, that forged lies, 

No more here shall do hurt : away, false syco 
phant ! wilt thou not ? 
Cam. I am gone, sir, seeing it is the king's 

pleasure. 
Why whip ye me alone? a plague take Damon 

and Pithias ! since they came hither 
I am driven to seek relief abroad, alas ! I know 

not whither. 
Yet, Eubulus, though I be gone, hereafter 

time shall try, 
There shall be found even in this court as great 

flatterers as I. 
Well, for a while I will forego the court, 

though to my great pain : 
I doubt not but to spy a time, when I may 

creep in again. Exit. 

Eubulus. The serpent that eats men alive, 

flattery, with all her brood, 
Is whipp'd away in princes' courts, which yet 

did never good. 



Damon and Pithias 83 

What force, what mighty power true friend 
ship may possess, [doth express : 

To all the world Dionysius' court now plainly 

Who since to faithful friends he gave his 
willing ear, 

Most safely sitteth on his seat, and sleeps 
devoid of fear. [ent'red in, 

Purged is the court of vice, since friendship 

Tyranny quails, he studieth now with love each 
heart to win. 

Virtue is had in price, and hath his just 
reward ; 

And painted speech, that gloseth for gain, from 
gifts is quite debarr'd. 

One loveth another now for virtue, not for 
gain ; 

Where virtue doth not knit the knot, there 
friendship cannot reign ; 

Without the which no house, no land, no 
kingdom can endure, [fire, 

As necessary for man's life as water, air, and 

Which frameth the mind of man all honest 
things to do. [consents thereto. 

Unhonest things friendship ne craveth, ne yet 

In wealth a double joy, in woe a present stay, 

A sweet companion in each state true friend 
ship is alway. 

A sure defence for kings, a perfect trusty band, 

A force to assail, a shield to defend the 
enemies' cruel hand ; 

A rare and yet the greatest gift that God can 
give to man ; 

So rare, that scarce four couple of faithful 
friends have been, since the world began. 

A gift so strange and of such price, I wish all 
kings to have ; 

G 2 



84 Damon and Pithias 

But chiefly yet, as duty bindeth, I humbly 

crave, 
True friendship and true friends, full fraught 

with constant faith, 
The giver of all friends, the Lord, grant her, 

most noble Queen Elizabeth. 

The Last Song. 

The strongest guard that kings can have 
Are constant friends their state to save: 
True friends are constant both in word and 

deed, 

True friends are present, and help at each need : 
True friends talk truly, they glose for no gain, 
When treasure consumeth, true friends will 

remain ; 
True friends for their true prince refuseth not 

their death: 
The Lord grant her such friends, most noble 

Queen Elizabeth. 

Long may she govern in honour and wealth, 

Void of all sickness, in most perfect health; 

Which health to prolong, as true friends re 
quire, 

God grant she may have her own heart's 
desire : 

Which friends will defend with most steadfast 
faith, [Queen Elizabeth. 

The Lord grant her such friends, most noble 

FINIS. 



THE TRAGEDY 

OF 

FERREX and PORREX 



SET FORTH WITHOUT ADDITION OR ALTERA 
TION, BUT ALTOGETHER AS THE SAME WAS 
SHOWED ON STAGE BEFORE THE 

QUEEN'S MAJESTY, ABOUT NINE 

YEARS PAST, VIZ., THE 1 8TH 

DAY OF JANUARY, 1561 

BY THE GENTLEMEN 

OF THE INNER- 
TEMPLE 



THE PUBLISHER] TO THE 
READER 

WHERE this tragedy was for furniture of part of the 
grand Christmas in the Inner-Temple first written 
about nine years ago by the Right Honourable Thomas, 
now Lord Buckhurst, and by T. Norton, and after 
showed before her Majesty, and never intended by the 
authors thereof to be published : yet one W.G. getting a 
copy thereof at some young man's hand that lacked a 
little money and much discretion, in the last great 
plague, A.M. 1563, about five years past, while the said 
Lord was out of England, and T. Norton far out of 
London, and neither of them both made privy, put it 
forth exceedingly corrupted : even as if by means of a 
broker for hire, he should have enticed into his house a 
fair maid and done her villany, and after all to have be- 
scratched her face, torn her apparel, berayed and dis 
figured her, and then thrust her out of doors dis- 
honested. In such plight, after long wandering, she 
came at length home to the sight of her friends, who 
scant knew her but by a few tokens and marks remain 
ing. They, the authors I mean, though they were very 
much displeased that she so ran abroad without leave, 
whereby she caught her shame, as many wantons do, 
yet seeing the case as it is remediless, have for common 
honesty and shamefacedness new apparelled, trimmed 
and attired her in such form as she was before. In 
which better form since she hath come to me, I have 
harboured her for her friends' sake and her own ; and 
I do not doubt, her parents the authors will not now 
be discontent that she go abroad among you, good 
readers, so it be in honest company. For she is by my 
encouragement Mid others soniewhat less ashamed of 
the dishonesty done to her because it was by fraud and 
force. If she be welcome among you, and gently en- 



\ 



The Argument of the Tragedy 87 

tertained, in favour of the house from whence she is 
descended, and of her own nature courteously disposed 
to offend no man, her friends will thank you for it. 
If not, but that she shall be still reproached with her 
former mishap, or quarrelled at by envious persons, 
she, poor gentlewoman, will surely play Lucrece's part, 
and of herself die for shame ; and I shall wish, that 
she had tarried still at home with me, where she was 
welcome : for she did never put me to more charge, 
but this one poor black gown lined with white that I 
have now given her to go abroad among you withal. 



THE ARGUMENT OF THE TRAGEDY 

GORBODUC, King of Britain, divided his realm in_his 
lifetime to his sons, Ferrex and Porrex : the sons fell 
to dissension : the younger killed the elder : the mother 
that more dearly loved the elder, for revenge killed 
the younger : the people, moved with the cruelty of the 
fact, rose in rebellion and slew both father and mother : 
the nobility assembled, and most terribly destroyed the 
rebels : and afterwards, for want of issue of the prince 
whereby the succession of the crown became uncertain, 
they fell to civil war, in which both they and many of 
their issues were slain, and the land for a long time 
almost desolate and miserably wasted. 



giant** of Hje 



GORBODUC, King of Great Britain 

VIDENA, Queen, and Wife to King Gorboduc 

FERREX, Elder Son to King Gorboduc 

PORREX, Younger Son to King Gorboduc 

CLOYTON, Duke of Cornwall 

FERGUS, Duke of Albany 

MANDUD, Duke of Loegris 

GWENARD, Duke of Cumberland 

EUBULUS, Secretary to the King 

AROSTUS, a Councillor to the King 

DORDAN, a Councillor assigned by the King to 
his Eldest Son Ferrex 

PHILANDER, a Councillor assigned by the King 
to his Youngest Son Porrex. Both being of 
the old King's Council before 

HERMON, a Parasite, remaining with Ferrex 
TYNDAR, a Parasite, remaining with Porrex 

NUNTIUS, a Messenger of the Elder Brother's 
Death 

NUNTIUS, a Messenger of Duke Fergus' rising 
in Arms 



MARCELLA, a 
Chamber 



Lady of the Queen's Privy 



CHORUS, Four Ancient and Sage Men of Britain 



THE TRAGEDY OF FERREX 
AND PORREX 

THE ORDER OF THE DUMB SHOW BEFORE THE 
FIRST ACT, AND THE SIGNIFICATION THEREOF 

FIRST the music of violins began to play, during 
which came in upon the stage six wild men clothed in 
leaves ; of whom the first bare in his neck a faggot of 
small sticks, which they all, both severally and to 
gether, assayed with all their strength to break, but it 
could not be broken by them. At the length one of 
them plucked out one of the sticks and break it ; and the 
rest plucking out all the other sticks one after another, 
did easily break them, the same being severed ; which, 
being conjoined, they had before attempted in vain. 
After they had this done, they departed the stage, and 
the music ceased. Hereby was signified, that_a_jstate 
knit in unity, doth continue strong against all force ; 
but, being divided, is easily destroyed. As befell upon u -. V~>-' 

" 



Duke Gorboduc dividing his land to his two sons, which , 

he before held in monarchy, and upon the dissension of ' . 
the brethren to whom it was divided. 

ACT I. SCENE I. 
VIDENA. FERREX. 

Vid. The silent night that brings the quiet 

pause, 

From painful travels of the weary day, 
Prolongs my careful thoughts, and makes me 

blame 

The slow Aurore, that so for love or shame 
Doth long delay to show her blushing face ; 



90 Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. i 

And now the day renews my griefful plaint. 

Ferr. My gracious lady and my mother dear, 
Pardon my grief for your so grieved mind, 
To ask what cause tormenteth so your heart. 

Vid. So great a wrong, and so unjust 

despite, 
&* Without all cause, against all course of kind ! 

Ferr. Such causeless wrong and so unjust 

despite, 
May have redress, or at the least, revenge. 

Vid. Neither, my son; such is the froward 

will, 
The person such, such my mishap and thine. 

Ferr. Mine know I none, but grief for your 
distress. [no : 

Vid. Yes ; mine for thine, my son : a father ? 
In kind a father, not in kindliness. [all, 

Ferr. My father? why? I know nothing at 
Wherein I have misdone unto his grace. [me : 

Vid. Therefore, the more unkind to thee and 
For, knowing well, my son, the tender love 
That I have ever borne and bear to thee, 
He, griev'd thereat, is not content alone 
To spoil thee of my sight, my chiefest joy, 
But thee, of thy birthright, and heritage, 
Causeless, unkindly, and in wrongful wise, 
Against all law and right he will bereave : 
*f Half of his kingdom he will give away, 
x, Ferr. To whom? 

Vid. Ev'n to Porrex his younger son ; 
Whose growing pride I do so sore suspect, 
That being rais'd to equal rule with thee, 
Methinks I see his envious heart to swell, 
Fill'd with disdain and with ambitious hope.. 
The end the gods do know, whose altars I 
Full oft have made in vain, of cattle slain 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. i 91 

To send the sacred smoke to heaven's throne, 
For thee my son ; if things do so succeed, 
As now my jealous mind misdeemeth sore. 

Ferr. Madam, leave care and careful plaint 

for me ! 

Just hath my father been to every wight : 
His first injustice he will not extend 
To me, I trust, that give no cause thereof ; 
My brother's pride shall hurt himself, not me. 

Vid. So grant the gods ! But yet thy father 
Hath firmly fixed his unmoved mind, [so 

That plaints and prayers can no whit avail ; 
For those have I assay 'd, but even this day, 
He will endeavour to procure assent 
Of all his council to his fond device. [born 

Ferr. Their ancestors from race to race have 
True faith to my forefathers and their seed : 
I trust they eke will bear the like to me. [of, 

Vid. There resteth all ; but if they fail there- 
And if the end bring forth an ill success, 
On them and theirs the mischief shall befall, 
And so I pray the gods requite it them ! 
And so they will, for so is wont to be 
When lords and trusted rulers under kings, 
To please the present fancy of the prince, [ance. 
With wrong transpose the course of govern- 
Murders, mischief, or civil sword at length, 
Or mutual treason, or a just revenge, 
When right-succeeding line returns again 
By Jove's just judgment and deserved wrath, 
Brings them to cruel and reproachful death, 
And roots their names and kindreds from the 
earth. 

Ferr. Mother, content you, you shall see the 
end. [first ! 

Vid. The end ? thy end I fean Jove end me 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 



ACT I. SCENE II. 

GORBODUC. AROSTUS. PHILANDER. 
EUBULUS. 

Gorb. My lords, whose grave advice and 

faithful aid 

Have long upheld my honour and my realm, 
And brought me to this age from tender years, 
Guiding so great estate with great renown, 
Now more importeth me, than erst, to use 
Your faith and wisdom, whereby yet I reign ; 
That when by death my life and rule shall cease, 
The kingdom yet may with unbroken course 
Have certain prince, by whose undoubted right, 
Your wealth and peace may stand in quiet stay : 
: And eke that they, whom nature hath prepar'd 
In time to take my place in princely seat, 
While in their father's time their pliant youth 
Yields to the frame of skilful governance, 
May so be taught and train 'd in noble arts, 
As what their fathers which have reign 'd before 
Have with great fame derived down to them, 
With honour they may leave unto their seed ; 
And not be thought for their unworthy life, 
And for their lawless swerving out of kind, 
Worthy to lose what law and kind them gave : 
But that they may preserve the common peace, 
The cause that first began and still maintains 
The lineal course of kings' inheritance. 
For me, for mine, for you, and for the state, 
Whereof both I and you have charge and care, 
Thus do I mean to use your wonted faith 
^To me and mine, and to your native land. 
My lords, be plain, without all wry respect, 
Or poisonous craft to speak in pleasing wise, 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 93 

Lest as the blame of ill succeeding things 
Shall light on you, so light the harms also. 

Aros. Your good acceptance so, most noble 
Of such our faithfulness, as heretofore [king, 
We have employ 'd in duties to your grace, 
And to this realm whose worthy head you are, 
Well proves that neither you mistrust at all, 
Nor we shall need in boasting wise to show 
Our truth to you, nor yet our wakeful care 
For you, for yours, and for our native land. 
Wherefore, O king, I speak as one for all, 
Sith all as one do bear you egal faith : 
Doubt not to use our counsels and our aids 
Whose honours, goods, and lives, are whole 

avow'd 

To serve, to aid, and to defend your grace. 
Gorb. My lords, I thank you all. This is 
the case : [care 

Ye know the gods, who have the sovereign 
For kings, for kingdoms, and for common 
weals, 

Gave me two sons in my more lusty age, 
Who now in my decaying years are grown 
Well towards riper state of mind and strength, 
To take in hand some greater princely charge. 
As yet they live and spend [their] hopeful days 
With me and with their mother here in court : 
Their age now asketh other place and trade, 
And mine also doth ask another change ; 
Theirs to more travail, mine to greater ease. 
When fatal death shall end my mortal life, 
{'My purpose is to leave unto them twain 
The realm divided in two sundry parts : - " 
The one, Ferrex mine elder son shall have, 
The other, shall the younger Porrex rule. 
That both my purpose may more firmly stand, 






Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 

And eke that they may better rule their charge, 

I mean forthwith to place them in the same : 

That in my life they may both learn to rule, 

And I may joy to see their ruling well. 

This is in sum what I would have ye weigh : 

First, whether ye allow my whole device, 

And think it good for me, for them, for you, 

And for our country, mother of us all : 

And if ye like it, and allow it well, 

Then for their guiding and their governance, 

Show forth such means of circumstance, 

As ye think meet to be both known and kept. 

Lo, this is all ; now tell me your advice. 

Aros. And this is much, and asketh great 

advice ; 

But for my part, my sovereign lord and king, 
This do I think : Your majesty doth know, 
How under you in justice and in peace, 
; Great wealth and honour long we have en joy 'd ; 
So as we can not seem with greedy minds 
To wish for change of prince or governance : 
But if we like your purpose and device, 
Our liking must be deemed to proceed 
Of rightful reason, and of heedful care, 
Not for ourselves, but for the common state, 
Sith our own state doth need no better change : 
I think in all as erst your grace hath said. 
First, when you shall unload your aged mind 
Of heavy care and troubles manifold, 
And lay the same upon my lords your sons, 
Whose growing years may bear the burden 
(And long I pray the gods to grant it so) [long, 
And in your life while you shall so behold 
Their rule, their virtues, and their noble deeds, 
Such as their kind behighteth to us all ; 
Great be the profits that shall grow thereof, 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 95 

Your age in quiet shall the longer last, 
Your lasting age shall be their longer stay : 
For cares of kings, that rule as you have rul'd 
For public wealth and not for private joy, 
Do waste man's life, and hasten crooked age 
With furrow 'd face and with enfeebled limbs, 
To draw on creeping death a swifter pace. ~ 
They two, yet young, shall bear the parted reign 
With greater ease, than one, now old,*'alone 
Can wield the whole, for whom much harder is 
With lessen 'd strength the double weight to 

bear. 

Your eye, your counsel, and the grave regard 
Of father, yea, of such a father's name, 
Now at beginning of their sunder'd reign 
When is the hazard of their whole success, 
Shall bridle so their force of youthful heats, 
And so restrain the rage of insolence 
Which most assails the young and noble minds, 
And so shall guide and train in temper'd stay 
Their yet green bending wits with reverent awe, 
As now inur'd with virtues at the first, 
Custom, O king, shall bring delightfulness. 
By use of virtue, vice shall grow in hate ; 
But if you so dispose it, that the day [reign, 
Which ends your life, shall first begin their 
Great is the peril, what will be the end, 
When such beginning of such liberties 
Void of such stays as in your life do lie, 
Shall leave them free to random of their will, 
An open prey to traitorous flattery, 
The greatest pestilence of noble youth : 
Which peril shall be past, if in your life, 
Their temper'd youth with aged father's awe 
Be brought in ure of skilful stayedness ; 
And in your life, their lives disposed so, 



96 Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 

Shall length your noble life in joyfulness. 
Thus think I that your grace hath wisely 

thought, 

And that your tender care of common weal 
Hath bred this thought, so to divide your land, 
And plant your sons to bear the present rule 
While you yet live to see their ruling well, 
That you may longer live by joy therein. 
What further means behooveful are and meet, 
At greater leisure may your grace devise, 
When all have said ; and when we be agreed 
If this be best to part the realm in twain, 
And place your sons in present government : 
Whereof as I have plainly said my mind, 
So would I hear the rest of all my lords. 

Phil. In part I think as hath been said 
In part again my mind is otherwise. [before, 
As for dividing of this realm in twain, 
And lotting out the fame in egal parts, 
To either of my lords your grace's sons, 
That think I best for this your realm's behoof, 
For profit and advancement of your sons, 
And for your comfort and your honour eke : 
But so to place them while your life do last, 
To yield to them your royal governance, 
To be above them only in the name 
Of father, not in kingly state also, 
I think not good for you, for them, nor us. 
This kingdom since the bloody civil field, 
Where Morgan slain did yield his conquer 'd 
Unto his cousin's sword in Camberland, [part 
Containeth all that whilom did suffice 
Three noble sons of your forefather Brute : 
So your two sons, it may suffice also ; 
The mo the stronger, if they gree in one : 
The smaller compass that the realm doth hold 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 97 

The easier is the sway thereof to wield ; 
The nearer justice to the wronged poor 
The smaller charge, and yet enough for one. 
And when the region is divided so 
. That brethren be the lords of either part, [both, 
Such strength doth nature knit between them 
In sundry bodies by conjoined love, 
That not as two, but one of doubled force, 
Each is to other as a sure defence ; 
The nobleness and glory of the one, 
Doth sharp the courage of the other's mind 
With virtuous envy to contend for praise : 
And such an egalness hath nature made, 
Between the brethren of one father's seed, 
As an unkindly wrong it seems to be, 
To throw the brother subject under feet 
Of him, whose peer he is by course of kind : 
And nature that did make this egalness, 
Oft so repineth at so great a wrong, 
That oft she raiseth up a grudging grief 
In younger brethren at the elder's state : 
Whereby both towns and kingdoms have been 

rased, 

And famous stocks of royal blood destroyed : 
The brother, that should be the brother's aid, 
And have a wakeful care for his defence, 
Gapes for his death, and blames the lingering 

years 

That draw not forth his end with faster course ; 
And oft impatient of so long delays, 
With hateful slaughter he prevents the fates, 
And heaps a just reward for brother's blood, 
With endless vengeance on his stock for aye. 
Such mischiefs here are wisely met withal ; 
If egal state may nourish egal love, [good. 
Where none hath cause to grudge at other's 
ED. H 



9 8 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 



But now the head to stoop beneath them both, 
Ne kind, ne reason, ne good order bears. 
And oft it hath been seen, where nature's course 
Hath been perverted in disordered wise, [rule, 
When fathers cease to know that they should 
The children cease to know they should obey : 
And often over-kindly tenderness 
Is mother of unkindly stubbornness. 
I speak not this in envy or reproach, 
As if I grudg'd the glory of your sons, 
Whose honour I beseech the gods increase : 
Nor yet as if I thought there did remain 
So filthy cankers in their noble breasts, 
Whom I esteem (which is their greatest praise) 
Undoubted children of so good a king ; 
Only I mean to show by certain rules, 
Which kind hath graft within the mind of man, 
That nature hath her order and her course, 
Which, being broken, doth corrupt the state 
Of minds and things e'en in the best of all. 
My lord, your sons may learn to rule of you; 
Your own example in your noble court 
Is fittest guider of their youthful years. 
If you desire to see some present joy 
By sight of their well ruling in your life, 
See them obey, so shall you see them rule : 
Whoso obeyeth not with humbleness, 
Will rule with outrage and with insolence. 
Long may they rule, I do beseech the gods ; 
But long may they learn, ere they begin to rule. 
If kind and fates would suffer, I would wish 
Them aged princes and immortal kings. 
Wherefore, most noble king,\ I well assent 
Between your sons that you divide your realm, 
And as in kind, so match them in degree : 
But while the gods prolong your royal life, 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 99 

Prolong your reign ; for thereto live you here, 
And therefore have the gods so long forborn 
To join you to themselves, that still you might 
Be prince and father of our common weal : 
They, when they see your children ripe to rule, 
Will make them room, and will remove you 
That yours in right ensuing of your life [hence, 
May rightly honour your immortal name. 
Eub. Your wonted true regard of faithful 

hearts 

Makes me, O King, the bolder to presume 
To speak what I conceive within my breast; 
Although the same do not agree at all 
With that which other here my lords have said, 
Nor which yourself have seemed best to like. 
Pardon I crave, and that my words be deem'd 
To flow from hearty zeal unto your grace, 
And to the safety of your common weal. 
To part your realm unto my lords your sons, 

r I think not good for you, ne yet for them, 
But worst of all, for this our native land : 
Within one land, one single rule is best i 
Divided reigns do make divided hearts ; 
But peace preserves the country and the prince. 

, Such is in man the greedy mind to reign, _ 

So great is his desire to climb aloft, 
In worldly stage the stateliest parts to bear, 
That faith and justice and all kindly love 
Do yield unto desire of sovereignty, 
Where egal state doth raise an egal hope 
To win the thing that either would attain. 
Your grace remembereth how in passed years, 
The mighty Brute, first prince of all this land, 
Possess 'd the fame and rul'd it well in one : 
He, thinking that the compass did suffice, 
For his three sons three kingdoms eke to make, 

H 2 



100 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 



Cut it in three, as you would now in twain : 
But how much British blood hath since been 
To join again the sunder'd unity? [spilt 

What princes slain before their timely hour? 
What waste of towns and people in the land ? 
\Vhat treasons heap'd on murders and on 

spoils ? 

Whose just revenge e'en yet is scarcely ceased, 
Ruthful remembrance is yet raw in mind. 
The gods forbid the like to chance again : 
And you, O King, give not the cause thereof. 

lord Ferrex your elder son, perhaps 
hom kind and custom gives a rightful hope 
To be your heir and to succeed your reign, 
Shall think that he doth suffer greater wrong 
Than he perchance will bear, if power serve. 
; Porrex the younger, so uprais'd in state, 
Perhaps in courage will be rais'd alsdJ 
If flattery then, which fails not to assail 
The tender minds of yet unskilful youth, 
In one shall kindle and increase disdain, 
And envy in the other's heart inflame : [land, 
This fire shall waste their love, their lives, their 
And ruthful ruin shall destroy them both. 
I wish not this, O King, so to befall, 
But fear the thing that I do most abhor. 
Give no beginning to so dreadful end ; 
Keep them in order and obedience ; 
And let them both by now obeying you, 
Learn such behaviour as beseems their state; 
The elder, mildness in his governance, 
The younger, a yielding contentedness ; 
And keep them near unto your presence still, 
That they, restrained by the awe of you, 
May live in compass of well temper 'd stay, 
And pass the perils of their youthful years. 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 101 

Your aged life draws on to feebler time, 
Wherein you shall less able be to bear 
The travails that in youth you have sustain 'd, 
Both in your person's and your realm's defence. 
If planting now your sons in further parts, 
You send them further from your present 

reach, [demean : 

Less shall you know how they themselves 
Traitorous corrupters of their pliant youth 
Shall have unspied a much more free access ; 
And if ambition and inflam'd disdain 
Shall arm the one, the other, or them both, 
To civil war, or to usurping pride, 
Late shall you rue that you ne reck'd before. 
Good is, I grant, of all to hope the best, 
But not to live still dreadless of the worst. 
So trust the one, that th' other be foreseen. 
Arm not unskilfulness with princely power ; 
But you that long have wisely rul'd the reins 
Of royalty within your noble realm, 
So hold them, while the gods for our avails 
Shall stretch the thread of your prolonged days. 
Too soon he clamb into the flaming car, 
Whose want of skill did set the earth on fire. 
Time and example of your noble grace 
"~~Shall teach your sons both to obey and rule; 
When time hath taught them, time shall make 

them place, 

The place that now is full : and so I pray 
Long it remain, to comfort of us all. [part : 
Gorb. I take your faithful hearts in thankful 
But sith I see no cause to draw my mind, 
To fear the nature of my loving sons, 
Or to misdeem that envy or disdain [love; 
Can there work hate, where nature planteth 
In one self purpose do I still abide : 



102 Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 

: /"'" 

My love extendeth egally to both, 

My land sufficeth for them both also. 

Humber shall part the marches of their realms : 

The southern part the elder shall possess, 

The northern shall Porrex the younger rule. 

In quiet I will pass mine aged days, 

Free from the travail and the painful cares 

That hasten age upon the worthiest kings. 

But lest the fraud, that ye do seem to fear 

Of flattering tongues, corrupt their tender 

youth, 

And writhe them to the ways of youthful lust, 
To climbing pride, or to revenging hate ; 
Or to neglecting of their careful charge, 
Lewdly to live in wanton recklessness; 
Or to oppressing of the rightful cause ; 
Or not to wreak the wrongs done to the poor, 
,To tread down truth, or favour false deceit ; 
/I mean to join to either of my sons 
Some one of those whose long approved faith 
And wisdom tried may well assure my heart : 
That mining fraud shall find no way to creep 
Into their fenced ears with grave advice. j 
This is the end ; and so I pray you all 
To bear my sons the love and loyalty 
That I have found within your faithful breasts. 
Aros. You, nor your sons, our sovereign 

lord, shall want 
Our faith and service while our lives do last. 



CHORUS. 

When settled stay doth hold the royal throne 
In stedfast place by known and doubtless right, 
And chiefly when descent on one alone 
Makes single and imparted reign to light ; 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act I., Sc. 2 103 

Each change of course unjoints the whole estate, 

And yields it thrall to ruin by debate. 

f The strength that knit by fast accord in one, -, 

Against all foreign power of mighty foes, 

Could of itself defend itself alone, 

Disjoined once, the former force doth lose. ) 

The sticks, that sunder 'd brake so soon in 

twain, 
In faggot bound attempted were in vain. 

Oft tender mind that leads the partial eye 
Of erring parents in their children's love, 
Destroys the wrongly loved child thereby : 
This doth the proud son of Apollo prove, 
Who, rashly set in chariot of his fire, 
Inflam'd the parched earth with heaven's fire. 

And this great king, that doth divide his land, 
And change the course of his descending crown, 
And yields the reign into his children's hand ; 
From blissful state of joy and great renown, 
/"A mirror shall become to princes all, \ 
v To learn to shun the cause of such a fall. ' 



THE ORDER AND SIGNIFICATION OF THE 
DUMB SHOW BEFORE THE SECOND ACT 

FIRST the music of cornets began to play, during 
which came in upon the stage a king accompanied with 
a number of his nobility and gentlemen. And after he 
had placed himself in a chair of estate prepared for 
him, there came and kneeled before him a grave and 
aged gentleman and offered up a cup unto him of win 
in a glass, which the king refused. After him comes 
a brave and lusty young gentleman and presents the 
king with a cup of gold filled with poison, which the', 
king accepted, and drinking the same, immediately fell 
down dead upon the stage, and so was carried thence 
away by his lords and gentlemen, and then the music 
ceased. Hereby was signified, that as jjlass by nature 
holdeth no poison, but is clear and may easily be seen 
through, ne boweth by any art : so a faithful coun 
sellor holdeth no treason, but is plain and open, ne 
yieldeth to any indiscreet affection, but giveth whole 
some counsel, which the ill-advised prince refuseth. 
The delightful gold filled with poison betokeneth flat 
tery, which under fair seeming of pleasant words bear- 
eth deadly poison, which destroyeth the prince that re- 
ceiveth it. As befel in the two brethren Ferrex and 
Porrex, who, refusing the wholesome advice of grave 
counsellors, credited these young parasites, and brought 
to themselves death and destruction thereby. 



ACT II. SCENE I. , 



FERREX. HERMON. DORDAN. ^cV^ v 

Ferr. I marvel much what reason led the 
My father, thus without all my desert, [king 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act II., Sc. i 

To reave me half the kingdom, which by course 
Of law and nature should remain to me. 

Ifer. If you with stubborn and untamed 
Had stood against him in rebelling- wise ; [pride 
Or if with grudging mind you had envied 
So slow a sliding of his aged years; 
Or sought before your time to haste the course 
Of fatal death upon his royal head ; 
Or stain 'd your stock with murder of your kin ; 
Some face of reason might perhaps have seem'd 
To yield some likely cause to spoil ye thus. 

Ferr. /The wreakful gods pour on my cursed 
Eternal plagues and never dying woes ; [head 
The hellish prince adjudge my damned ghost 
To Tantal's thirst, or proud Ixion's wheel, 
Or cruel gripe to gnaw my growing heart, 
To during torments and unquenched flames ; 
If ever I conceiv'd so foul a thought, 
To wish his end of life, or yet of reign. ) 

Dor. Ne yet your father, O most noble 
Did ever think so foul a thing of you : [prince, 
For he, with more than father's tender love, 
While yet the fates do lend him life to rule, 
(Who long might live to see your ruling well) 
To you, my lord, and to his other son, 
Lo, he resigns his realm and royalty ; 
Which never would so wise a prince have done, 
If he had once misdeem 'd, that in your heart 
There ever lodged so unkind a thought. 
But tender love, my lord, and settled trust 
Of your good nature, and your noble mind, 
Made him to place you thus in royal throne, 
And now to give you half his realm to guide ^ 
Yea, and that half which in abounding store 
Of things that serve to make a wealthy realm, 
In stately cities, and in fruitful soil, 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act II., Sc. I 107 

In temperate breathing- of the milder heaven, 
In things of needful use, which friendly sea 
Transports by traffick from the foreign parts, 
(In flowing wealth, in honour and in force, 
Doth pass the double value of the part 
That Porrex hath allotted to his reign. 
Such is your case, such is your father's love. 

Ferr. Ah love, my friends ? love wrongs not 
whom he loves. [y u 

Dor. Ne yet he wrongeth you, that giveth 
So large a reign, ere that the course of time 
Bring you to kingdom by descended right, 
Which time perhaps might end your time 
before. [from me 

Ferr. (is this no wrong, say you,' to reave ' 
My native right of half so great a realm? 
And thus to match his younger son with me 
In egal pow'r, and in as great degree? [pride 
Yea, and what son? the son whose swelling 
Would never yield one point of reverence, 
When I the elder and apparent heir 
Stood in the likelihood to possess the whole; 
Yea, and that son which from his childish age 
Envieth mine honour, and doth hate my life. 
What will he now do, when his pride, his rage, 
The mindful malice of his grudging heart, 
Is arm'd with force, with wealth, and kingly 
state ? [wrong 

Her. Was this not wrong ? Yea ill-advised 
To give so mad a man so sharp a sword, 
To so great peril of so great mishap, 
Wide open thus to set so large a way. [this, 

Dor. Alas, my lord, what griefful thing is 
^That of your brother you can think so ill? 
( I never saw him utter likely sign 
v Whereby a man might see or once misdeem 



io8 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act II., Sc. i 



Such hate of you, ne such unyielding pride : 
111 is their counsel, shameful be their end, 
That, raising such mistrustful fear in you, 
Sowing the seed of such unkindly hate, 
Travail by treason to destroy you both, 
Wise is your brother and of noble hope, 
Worthy to wield a large and mighty realm ; 
So much a stronger friend have you thereby, 
Whose strength is your strength, if you gree in 

one, 

Her. If nature and the gods had pinched so 
Their flowing bounty, and their noble gifts 
Of princely qualities from you, my lord, 
And pour'd them all at once in wasteful wise 
Upon your father's younger son alone; 
Perhaps there be, that in your prejudice [ness : 
Would say that birth should yield to worthi- 
But sith in each good gift and princely art 
Ye are his match, and in the chief of all 
In mildness and in sober governance 
Ye far surmount ; and sith there is in you 
Sufficing skill and hopeful towardness [praise, 
To wield the whole, and match your elder's 
V I see no cause why ye should lose the half, 
"Ne would I wish you yield to such a loss : 
Lest your mild sufferance of so great a wrong 
Be deemed cowardishe and simple dread, 
Which shall give courage to the fiery head 
Of your young brother to invade the whole. 
While yet therefore sticks in the people's mind 
The loathed wrong of your disheritance ; 
And ere your brother have by settled power, 
By guileful cloak of an alluring show, 
Got him some force and favour in the realm ; 
And while the noble queen your mother lives, 
To work and practice all for your avail ; 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act II., Sc. i 109 

Attempt redress by arms, and wreak yourself 
Upon his life that gaineth by your loss, 
Who now to shame of you, and grief of us, 
In your own kingdom triumphs over you : 
Show now your courage meet for kingly state, 
That they which have avow'd to spend their 

goods, [cause, 

Their lands, their lives, and honours in your 
May be the bolder to maintain your part 
When they do see that coward fear in you 
Shall not betray ne fail their faithful hearts. 
If once the death of Porrex end the strife, 
And pay the price of his usurped reign, 
Your mother shall persuade the angry king, 
The lords your friends eke shall appease his 

rage; 

For they be wise, and well they can foresee 
That ere long time your aged father's death 
Will bring a time when you shall well requite 
Their friendly favour, or their hateful spite, 
Yea, or their slackness to avaunce your cause. 
" Wise men do not so hang on passing state 
" Of present princes, chiefly in their age, 
" But they will further cast their reaching eye, 
" To view and weigh the times and reigns to 
S come. ' ' 

; Ne is it likely, though the king be wroth, 
v That he yet will, or that the realm w^ill bear 
Extreme revenge upon his only son \s 
Or if he would, what one is he that dare 
Be minister to such an enterprise? 
And here you be now placed in your own, 
Amid your friends, your vassals and your 

strength : 

We shall defend and keep your person safe 
Till either counsel turn his tender mind, 



no 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act II.. Sc. I 



Or age, or sorrow end his weary days. 
But if the fear of gods, and secret grudge 
Of nature's law, repining at the fact, 
Withhold your courage from so great attempt, 
JKnow ye, that lust of kingdoms hath no law, 
The gods "do" bear and well allow in kings A 
The things [that] they abhor in rascal routs. 
' When kings on slender quarrels run to wars, 
' And then in cruel and unkindly wise 
' Command thefts, rapes, murders of innocents, 
1 The spoil of towns, ruins of mighty realms ; 
Think you such princes do suppose them 
selves 

" Subject to laws of kind, and fear of gods? " 
Murders, and violent thefts in private men 
Are heinous crimes and full of foul reproach : 
Yet none offence, but deck'd with glorious name 
Of noble conquests in the hands of kings. 
But if you like not yet so hot device, 
Ne list to take such vantage of the time, 
But, though with peril of your own estate, 
You will not be the first that shall invade ; 
/ Assemble yet your force for your defence, 
( And for your safety stand upon your guard. 

Dor(. O heaven ! was there ever heard or 
So wicked counsel to a noble prince?) [known 
Let me, my lord, disclose unto your grace 
This heinous tale, what mischief it contains ; 
Your father's death, your brother's, and your 
Your present murder, and eternal shame, [own, 
Hear me, O king, and suffer not to sink 
So high a treason in your princely breast. 

Ferr. \^The mighty gods forbid, that ever I v 
Should once conceive such mischief in my heart. / 
Although my brother hath bereft my realm, 
And bear perhaps to me an hateful mind, 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act II., Sc. i in 

Shall I revenge it with his death therefore? 
Or shall I so destroy my father's life 
That gave me life? the gods forbid, I say; 
Cease you to speak so any more to me. 
Ne you, my friend, with answer once repeat 
So foul a tale : in silence let it die. 
What lord or subject shall have hope at all 
That under me they safely shall enjoy 
Their goods, their honours, lands, and liberties, 
With whom neither one only brother dear, 
Ne father dearer, could enjoy their lives ? 
But sith I fear my younger brother's rage, 
And sith perhaps some other man may give 
Some like advice, to move his grudging head 
At mine estate, which counsel may perchance 
Take greater force with him, than this with me ; 

(1 will in secret so prepare myself, 
As, if his malice or his lust to reign 
Break forth in arms or sudden violence, 
I may withstand his rage, and keep mine own. 
Dor. I fear the fatal time now draweth on 
When civil hate shall end the noble line 
Of famous Brute, and of his royal seed : 
Great Jove, defend the mischiefs now at hand ! 
O that the secretary's wise advice [king 

Had erst been heard, when he besought the 
Not to divide his land, nor send his sons 
To further parts from presence of his court, 
Ne yet to yield to them his governance. 
Lo, such are they now in the royal throne 
As was rash Phaeton in Phoebus' car; 
Ne then the fiery steeds did draw the flame 
With wilder randon through the kindled skies, 
Than traitorous counsel now will whirl about 

^The youthful heads of these unskilful kings. 

(But I hereof their father will inform; 



112 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act II., Sc. 2 



The reverence of him perhaps shall stay 

The growing mischiefs^ while they yet are 

green : 

If this help not, then woe unto themselves, 
The prince, the people, the divided land I 



> 

f* ' 



y 



ACT II. SCENE II. 
PORREX. TYNDAR. PHILANDER. 

Porr. And is it thus ? and doth he so prepare 
Against his brother as his mortal foe? 
And now while yet his aged father lives ? 
Neither regards he him? nor fears he me? 
War would he have ? and he shall have it so. 

Tyn. I saw myself the great prepared store 
Of horse, of armour, and of weapon there ; 
Ne bring I to my lord reported tales 
Without the ground of seen and searched truth. 
Lo, secret quarrels run about his court 
To bring the name of you, my lord, in hate. 
Each man almost can now debate the cause 
And ask a reason of so great a wrong, 
Why he so noble and so wise a prince 
Is, as unworthy, reft his heritage? 
And why the king, misled by crafty means, 
Divided thus his land from course of right? 
The wiser sort hold down their grieff ul heads ; 
Each man withdraws from talk and company 
Of those that have been known to favour you : 
To hide the mischief of their meaning there, 
Rumours are spread of your preparing here. 
The rascal numbers of unskilful sort, 
Are fill'd with monstrous tales of you and yours. 
In secret I was counsell'd by my friends 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act II., Sc. 2 113 

To haste me thence, and brought you, as you 

know, 

Letters from those that both can truly tell, 
And wovild not write unless they knew it well. 
Phil, l My lord, yet ere you move unkindly 

war, 

Send to your brother to demand the cause : 
Perhaps some traitorous tales have fill'd his ears 
With false reports against your noble grace ; 
Which once disclos'd, shall end the growing 

strife, 

That else not stay'd with wise foresight in time, 
Shall hazard both your kingdoms and your 

lives : 

Send to your father eke, he shall appease 
Your kindled minds, and rid you of this fear. 

Porr. Rid me of fear ? I fear him not at all ; 
Ne will to him, ne to my father send. 
If danger were for one to tarry there, 
,Think ye it safety to return again? 
(In mischiefs, such as Ferrex now intends, 
The wonted courteous laws to messengers 
Are not observ'd, which in just war they use. 
Shall I so hazard any one of mine? 
Shall I betray my trusty friends to him 
That have disclos'd his treason unto me? 
.Let him entreat that fears, I fear him not : 
x Or shall I to the king my father send ? 
Yea, and send now while such a mother lives 
That loves my brother and that hateth me? 
Shall I give leisure, by my fond delays, 
To Ferrex to oppress me all unware? 
/ I will not ; but I will invade his realm, 
1 And seek the traitor-prince within his court. 
Mischief for mischief is a due reward. 
His wretched head shall pay the worthy price 
ED. i 



ii4 Ferrex and Porrex, Act II., Sc. 2 

Of this his treason and his hate to me. 
Shall I abide, and treat, and send, and pray, 
And hold my yielden throat to traitor's knife, 
While I with valiant mind and conquering force 
Might rid myself of foes, and win a realm? 
Yet rather, when I have the wretch's head, 
Then to the king my father will I send. 
The bootless case may yet appease his wrath : 
If not, I will defend me as I may. 
Phil. Lo, here the end of these two youthful 

kings ! 

The father's death ! the ruin of their realms ! 
" O most unhappy state of counsellors 
"That light on so unhappy lords and times, 
That neither can their good advice be heard, 
' ' Yet must they bear the blames of ill success. ' ' 
But I will to the king their father haste, 
Ere this mischief come to the likely end, 
That if the mindful wrath of wreakful gods 
Since mighty Ilion's fall, not yet appeased 
With these poor remnants of the Trojan name, 
Have not determin'd by unmoved fate 
Out of this realm to raze the British line ; 
By good advice, by awe of father's name, 
By force of wiser lords, this kindled hate 
May yet be quench 'd, ere it consume us all. 

CHORUS. 

When youth not bridled with a guiding stay 
Is left to randon of their own delight, [sway, 
And wields whole realms, by force of sovereign 
Great is the danger of unmaster'd might, 
Lest skilless rage throw down with headlong fall 
Their lands, their states, their lives, themselves 
and all. 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act II., Sc. 2 115 

When growing pride doth fill the swelling 

breast, 

And greedy lust doth raise the climbing mind, 
O, hardly may the peril be repress 'd ; 
Ne fear of angry gods, ne laws of kind, 
Ne country's care can fired hearts restrain, 
When force hath armed envy and disdain. 

When kings of foreset will neglect the rede 
Of best advice, and yield to pleasing tales, 
That do their fancy's noisome humour feed, 
Ne reason, nor regard of right avails : 
Succeeding heaps of plagues shall teach too late, 
To learn the mischiefs of misguided state. 

Foul fall the traitor false, that undermines 
The love of brethren, to destroy them both ! 
( Woe to the prince that pliant ear inclines, 
And yields his mind to poisonous tale that 

floweth 
From flattering mouth ! and woe to wretched 

land 
That wastes itself with civil sword in hand ! 

Lo thus it is, poison in gold to take, 

And wholesome drink in homely cup forsake. 



THE ORDER AND SIGNIFICATION OF THE DUMB 
SHOW BEFORE THE THIRD ACT 

FIRST the music of flutes began to play, during which 
came in upon the stage a company of mourners all 
clad in black, betokening death and sorrow to ensue 
upon the ill-advised misgovernment and dissension of 
brethren, as befel upon the murder of Ferrex by his 
younger brother. After the mourners had passed thrice 
about the stage, they departed, and then the music 
ceased. 



ACT III. SCENE I. 

GORBODUC. EUBULUS. AROSTUS. 

PHILANDER. NUNTIUS. 

Gorb. O cruel fates, O mindful wrath of 

gods, [streams 

Whose vengeance neither Simois' stained 

Flowing with blood of Trojan princes slain, 

Nor Phrygian fields made rank with corpses 

dead 

Of Asian kings and lords, can yet appease; 
Ne slaughter of unhappy Priam's race, 
Nor Ilion's fall made level with the soil, 
Can yet suffice : but still continued rage 
Pursues our lines, and from the farthest seas 
Doth chase the issues of destroyed Troy. 
" O> no man happy till his end be seen." 
If any flowing wealth and seeming joy 



n8 



r errex and For rex, Act III.. Sc. I 



In present years might make a happy wight, 

Happy was Hecuba, the woefullest wretch 

That ever liv'd to make a mirror of; 

And happy Priam with his noble sons ; 

And happy I, till now alas, I see 

And feel my most unhappy wretchedness. 

Behold, my lords, read ye this letter here ; 

Lo, it contains the ruin of our realm 

If timely speed provide not hasty help. 

Yet, O ye gods, if ever woeful king 

Might move you kings of kings, wreak it on me 

And on my sons, not on this guiltless realm : 

Send down your wasting flames from wrathful 

skies, 

To reave me and my sons the hateful breath. 
Read, read, my lords ; this is the matter why 
I call'd ye now to have your good advice. 
The Letter from DORDAN the Counsellor of the 
Elder Prince. 

EUBULUS readeth the letter. 
My sovereign lord, what I am loth to write 
But lothest am to see, that I am forced 
By letters now to make you understand. 
My lord Ferrex, your eldest son, misled 
By traitorous fraud of young untemper'd wits, 
Assembleth force against your younger son ; 
Ne can my counsel yet withdraw the heat 
And furious pangs of his inflamed head. 
Disdain, saith he, of his disheritance, 
Arms him to wreak the great pretended wrong 
With civil sword upon his brother's life. 
If present help do not restrain this rage, [you. 
This flame will waste your sons, your land, and 
Your Majesty's faithful and most 
humble subject, 

DORDAN. 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act III., Sc. I 119 

Aros. O king, appease your grief and stay 

your plaint : 

Great is the matter and a woeful case ; 
But timely knowledge may bring timely help. 
(Send for them both unto your presence here : 
The reverence of your honour, age, and state, 
Your grave advice, the awe of father's name, 
Shall quickly knit again this broken peace. 
And if in either of my lords your sons 
Be such untamed and unyielding pride, 
As will not bend unto your noble hests ; 
If Ferrex the elder son can bear no peer, 
Or Porrex not content, aspires to more 
Than you him gave, above his native right; 
Join with the juster side, so. shall you force 
Them to agree, and hold the land in stay. 

Eub. What meaneth this? Lo, yonder 

comes in haste 
Philander from my lord your younger son. 

Gorb. The gods send joyful news * 

Phil The mighty Jove 
Preserve your majesty, O noble king. 

Gorb. Philander, welcome; but how doth 
my son? 

Phil. Your son, sir, lives ; and healthy I him 

left: 

But yet, O king, the want of lustful health 
Could not be half so griefful to your grace 
As these most wretched tidings that I bring. 

Gorb. O heavens, yet more? not end of woes 
to me? 

Phil. Tyndar, O king, came lately from the 
Of Ferrex, to my lord your younger son, [court 
And made report of great prepared store 
For war, and saith that it is wholly meant 
Against Porrex, for high disdain that he 



I2O 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act III., Sc. i 



Lives now a king, and egal in degree 

With him that claimeth to succeed the whole, 

As by due title of descending right. 

Porrex is now so set on flaming fire, 

Partly with kindled rage of cruel wrath, 

Partly with hope to gain a realm thereby, 

That he in haste prepareth to invade 

His brother's land, and with unkindly war 

Threatens the murder of your elder son ; 

Ne could I him persuade, that first he should 

Send to his brother to demand the cause ; 

Nor yet to you, to stay this hateful strife. 

Wherefore, sith there no more I can be heard, 

I come myself now to inform your grace, 

And to beseech you, as you love the life 

And safety of your children and your realm, 

Now to employ your wisdom and your force, 

To stay this mischief ere it be too late. 

Gorb. Are they in arms ? would he not send 
Is this the honour of a father's name? [to me? 
In vain we travail to assuage their minds : 
As if their hearts, whom neither brother's love, 
Nor father's awe, nor kingdom's cares can 

move, 

Our councils could withdraw from raging heat. 
Jove slay them both, and end the cursed line ! 
For though, perhaps, fear of such mighty force 
As I, my lords, joined with your noble aids, 
May yet raise, shall repress their present heat ; 
The secret grudge and malice will remain, 
The fire not quench 'd, but kept in close restraint, 
Fed still within, breaks forth with double flame : 
Their death and mine must 'pease the angry 

gods. 
Phil. Yield not, O king, so much to weak 

despair : 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act III., Sc. I 121 

Your sons yet live ; and long, I trust, they shall. 
If fates had taken you from earthly life, 
Before beginning of this civil strife, 
Perhaps your sons in their unmaster'd youth, 
Loose from regard of any living wight, 
Would run on headlong, with unbridled race, 
To their own death, and ruin of this realm. 
But sith the gods, that have the care for kings, 
Of things and times dispose the order so, 
That in your life this kindled flame breaks forth, 
While yet your life, your wisdom, and your 

pow'r, 

May stay the growing mischief, and repress 
The fiery blaze of their inkindled heat; 
It seems, and so ye ought to deem thereof, 
That loving Jove hath temper 'd so the time 
Of this debate to happen in your days, 
That you yet living may the same appease, 
And add it to the glory of your latter age, 
And they your sons may learn to live in peace. 
Beware, O king, the greatest harm of all, 
Lest by your wailful plaints your hastened death 
Yield larger room unto their growing rage : 
Preserve your life, the only hope of stay. 
And if your highness herein list to use 
Wisdom or force, council or knightly aid, 
Lo we, our persons, pow'rs, and lives are yours : 
Use us till death ; O tdn^, we are your own. 

Eub. Lo here the peril that was erst foreseen, 
When you, O king, did first divide your land, 
And yield your present reign unto your sons. 
But now, O noble prince, now is no time 
To wail and plain, and waste your woeful life ; 
Now is the time for present good advice 
Sorrow doth dark the judgment of the wit. 
" The heart unbroken, and the courage free 



122 



Ferrex and Porrex. Act III.. Sc. I 



" From feeble faintness of bootless despair, 
* ' Doth either rise to safety or renown 
" By noble valour of unvanquish'd mind; 
" Or yet doth perish in more happy sort." 
Your grace may send to either of your sons 
Some one both wise and noble personage, 
Which with good counsel, and with weighty 
Of father, shall present before their eyes [name 
Your hest, your life, your safety and their own, 
The present mischief of their deadly strife : 
And in the while, assemble you the force 
Which your commandment, and the speedy 
Of all my lords here present can prepare, [haste 
The terror of your mighty pow'r shall stay 
The rage of both, or yet of one at least. 

Nunt. O king, the greatest grief that ever 

prince did hear, 

That ever woeful messenger did tell, 
That ever wretched land hath seen before, 
I bring to you/: Porrex your younger son, 
With sudden force invaded hath the land 
That you to Ferrex did allot to rule ; 
And with his own most bloody hand he hath v 
His brother slain, and doth possess his realm. 

Gorb.7 O heav'ns ! send down the flames of 

your revenge. 

Destroy, I say, with flash of wreakful fire, 
The traitor son, and then the wretched sire ! 
But let us go, that yet perhaps I may 
Die with revenge, and 'pease the hateful gods. 



CHORUS. 

The lust of kingdom knows no sacred faith, 
No rule of reason, no regard of right, 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act III., Sc. I 123 

No kindly love, no fear of heaven's wrath : 
But with contempt of gods, and man's despite, 
Through bloody slaughter doth prepare the 
To fatal sceptre, and accursed reign : [ways 
The son so loathes the father's ling'ring days, 
Ne dreads his hand in brother's blood to stain. 
O wretched prince, ne dost thou yet record 
The yet fresh murders done within the land 
Of thy forefathers, when the cruel sword 
Bereft Morgan his life with cousin's hand? 
Thus fatal plagues pursue the guilty race, 
Whose murderous hand, imbru'd with guiltless 

blood, 

Asks vengeance still before the heavens' face, 
With endless mischiefs on the cursed brood. 
The wicked child thus brings to woeful sire 
The mournful plaints to waste his very life ; 
Thus do the cruel flames of civil fire 
Destroy the parted reign with hateful strife f 
And hence doth spring the well from which doth 

flow 
The dead black streams of mourning, plaints, 

and woe. 



THE ORDER AND SIGNIFICATION OF THE DUMB 

SHOW BEFORE THE FOURTH ACT 

FIRST the music of hautboys began to play, during 
which there came from under the stage, as though out 
of hell, three furies, Alecto, Megera, and Ctesiphone, 
clad in bra~ck~garnrents sprinkled with blood and flames, 
their bodies girt with snakes, their heads spread with 
serpents instead of hair, the one bearing in her hand 
a snake, the other a whip, and the third a burning 
firebrand, each driving before them a king and a queen, 
which, moved by furies, unnaturally had slain their 
own children. The names of the kings and queens were 
these, Tantalus, Medea, Athamas, Ino, Cambyses, 
Althea; after that the furies and these had passed 
about the stage thrice, they departed, and then the 
music ceased. Hereby was signified the unnatural mur 
ders to follow; that is to say, Porrex slanftfy his own 
mother, and of King Gorbuduc and Queen Viden killed 
by their own subjects. 



A 
V 



ACT IV. SCENE I. 

VIDEN sola. 



iden. Why should I live, and linger forth 
In longer life to double my distress ? [my time 
O me most woeful wight, whom no mishap, 
Long ere this day could have bereaved hence. 
Mought not these hands by fortune or by fate 
Have pierc'd this breast, and life with iron reft? 
Or in this palace here, where I so long 
Have spent my days, could not that happy hour 



126 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. x 




Once, once have hap'd, in which these hugy 

frames 

With death by fall might have oppressed me ? 
Or should not this most hard and cruel soil, 
So oft where I have press 'd my wretched steps, 
Sometime had ruth of mine accursed life, 
To rend in twain [and] swallow me therein? 
So had my bones possessed now in peace 
Their happy grave within the closed ground, 
And greedy worms had gnawn this pined heart 
Without my feeling pain : so should not now 
This living breast remain the ruthful tomb 
Wherein my heart yielden to death is graved : 
Nor dreary thoughts with pangs of pining grief, 
My doleful mind had not afflicted thus. 
O my beloved son ! O my sweet child ! 
My dear Ferrex, my joy, my life's delight ! 
Is my beloved son, is my sweet child, 
My dear Ferrex, my joy, my life's delight, 
Murder'd with cruel death ? O hateful wretch ! 
O heinous traitor both to heaven and earth ! 
( Thou, Porrex, thou this damned deed hast 

wrought ; 

Thou, Porrex, thou shalt dearly bye the same : 
Traitor to kin and kind, to sire and me, \ 
To thine own flesh, and traitor to thyself: 
The gods on thee in hell shall wreak thei[r] 

wrath, 

And here in earth this hand shall take revenge 
On thee, Porrex, thou false and caitif wight : 
If after blood so eager were thy thirst, 
And murd'rous mind had so possessed thee; 
If such hard heart of rock and stony flint 
Liv'd in thy breast, that nothing else could like 
Thy cruel tyrant's thought but death and blood : 
Wild savage beasts, might not their slaughter 
To feed thy greedy will, and in the midst [serve 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. I 127 

Of their entrails to stain thy deadly hands 
With blood deserv'd, and drink thereof thy fill? 
Or if nought else but death and blood of man 
Mought please thy lust, could none in Britain 

land 

Whose heart be torn out of his panting breast 
With thine own hand, or work what death thou 
Suffice to make a sacrifice to 'pease [wouldst, 
That deadly mind and murderous thought in 

thee? 

But he who in the selfsame womb was wrapp'd 
Where thou in dismal hour receivedst life? 
Or if needs, needs, thy hand must slaughter 

make, [wound, 

Moughtest thou not have reach 'd a mortal 
And with thy sword have pierc'd this cursed 

womb 

That the accursed Porrex brought to light, 
And given me a just reward therefore? 
So Ferrex, yet sweet life mought have enjoyed, 
And to his aged father comfort brought, [live. 
With some young son in whom they both might 
But whereunto waste I this ruthful speech, 
/To thee that hast thy brother's blood thus shed ? 
s Shall I still think that from this womb thou 

sprung? 

That I thee bare ? or take thee for my son ? 
No, traitor, no : I thee refuse for mine ; 
Murderer, I thee renounce, thou art not mine : 
Never, O wretch, this womb conceived thee, 
Nor never bode I painful throes for thee. 
Changeling to me thou art, and not my child, 
Nor to no wight that spark of pity knew : 
Ruthless, unkind, monster of nature's work, 
Thou never suck'd the milk of woman's breast, 
But from thy birth the cruel tiger's teats 



128 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. 2 



Have nursed thee, nor yet of flesh and blood 
Form'd is thy heart, but of hard iron wrought; 
And wild and desert woods bred thee to life. 
But canst thou hope to 'scape my just revenge ? 
Or that these hands will not be wroke on thee ? 
Dost thou not know that Ferrex' mother lives, 
That loved him more dearly than herself? 
And doth she live, and is not veng'd on thee? 



ACT IV. SCENE II. 

GORBODUC. AROSTUS. EUBULUS. PORREX. 
MARCELLA. 

Gorb. We marvel much whereto this ling 'ring 
Falls out so long : Porrex unto our court, [stay 
By order of our letters is returned ; 
And Eubulus receiv'd from us by hest 
At his arrival here, to give him charge 
Before our presence straight to make repair, 
And yet we have no word whereof he stays. 

Aros. Lo where he comes, and Eubulus with 
him. 

Eub. According to your highness' hest to me, 
Here have I Porrex brought, even in such sort 
As from his wearied horse he did alight, 
For that your grace did will such haste therein. 

Gorb. We like and praise this speedy will in 

you, 

To work the thing that to your charge we gave. 
Porrex, if we so far should swerve from kind, 
And from those bounds which law of nature sets, 
As thou hast done by vile and wretched deed, 
In cruel murder of thy brother's life; 
Our present hand could stay no longer time, 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. 2 129 

But straight should bathe this blade in blood of 
As just revenge of thy detested crime. [thee, 
No; we should not offend the law of kind 
If now this sword of ours did slay thee here : 
For thou hast murder 'd him, whose heinous 

death 

Even nature's force doth move us to revenge 
By blood again ; and justice forceth us 
To measure death for death, thy due desert : 
Yet sithens thou art our child, and sith as yet 
In this hard case what word thou canst allege 
For thy defence, by us hath not been heard, 
We are content to stay our will for that 
Which justice bids us presently to work; 
And give thee leave to use thy speech at full, 
If aught thou have to lay for thine excuse. 

Porr. Neither, O king, I can or will deny, 
But that this hand from Ferrex life hath reft : 
Which fact how much my doleful heart doth 
wail, 

! would it mought as full appear to sight 
As inward grief doth pour it forth to me. 
So yet perhaps, if ever ruthful heart 
Melting in tears within a manly breast, 

Through deep repentance of his bloody fact, ^- 

If ever grief, if ever woeful man 

Might move regret with sorrow of his fault, 

1 think, the torment of my mournful case 
Known to your grace, as I do feel the same, 
Would force even wrath herself to pity me. 
But as the water troubled with the mud, [see, 
Shows not the face which else the eye should 
Even so 5^our ireful mind with stirred thought 
Cannot so perfectly discern my cause. 

But this unhap, amongst so many heaps 
I must content me with ; most wretched man, 
ED. K 



130 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. 2 



That to myself I must reserve my woe, 
In pining thoughts of mine accursed fact : 
Since I may not show here my smallest grief, 
Such as it is, and as my breast endures, 
Which I esteem the greatest misery 
Of all mishaps that fortune now can send. 
Not that I rest in hope with plaint and tears 
To purchase life ; for to the gods I clepe ^ <k J 
For true record of this my faithful speech ; 
Never this heart shall have the thoughtful dread 
To die the death that by your grace's doom, 
-By just desert, shall be pronounc'd to me : 
Nor never shall this tongue once spend the 
Pardon to crave, or seek by suit to live, [speech 
I mean not this, as though I were not touch 'd 
With care of dreadful death, or that I held 
Life in contempt ; but that I know the mind 
Stoops to no dread, although the flesh be frail : 
And for my guilt, I yield the same so great, 
As in myself I find a fear to sue 
For grant of life. 

Gorb. In vain, O wretch, thou show'st 
A woeful heart; Ferrex now lies in grave, 
Slain by thy hand. 

Porr. Yet this, O father, hear; 
And then I end : Your majesty well knows 
That when my brother Ferrex and myself 
By your own hest were join'd in governance 
Of this your grace's realm of Britain land, 
I never sought nor travail 'd for the same; 
Nor by myself, nor by no friend I wrought, 
But from your highness' will alone it sprung, 
Of your most gracious goodness bent to me, 
But how my brother's heart e'en then repin'd 
With swol'n disdain against mine egal rule, 
Seeing that realm which by descent should grow 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. 2 131 

Wholly to him, allotted half to me? 

E'en in your highness' court he now remains, 

And with my brother then in nearest place, 

Who can record what proof thereof was show'd, 

And how my brother's envious heart appear 'd. 

Yet I that judged it my part to seek 

His favour and good-will, and loth to make 

Your highness know the things which should 

have brought 

Grief to your grace, and your offence to him, 
Hoping my earnest suit should soon have won 
A loving heart within a brother's breast, 
Wrought in that sort, that^or a pledge of love 
And faithful heart he gave to me his hand. 
This made me think that he had banish 'd quite 
All rancour from his thought, and bare to me 
Such hearty love, as I did owe to him : 
But after once we left your grace's court, 
And from your highness' presence liv'd apart, 
This egal rule still, still, did grudge him so, 
That now those envious sparks which erst lay 
In living cinders of dissembling breast, [rak'd 
Kindled so far within his heart disdain, 
That longer could, he not refrain from proof 
Of secret practice to deprive me life 
By poison's force; and had bereft me so, 
If mine own servant, hired to this fact, 
And mov'd by troth with hate to work the 
In time had not bewray 'd it unto me. [same, 
When thus I saw the knot of love unknit, 
All honest league and faithful promise broke. 
The law of kind and troth thus rent in twain, 
His heart on mischief set, and in his breast 
Black treason hid ; then, then, did I despair 
That ever time could win him friend to me ; v 
Then saw I how he smil'd with slaying knife 

K 2 



132 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. 2 



Wrapp'd under cloafk; then saw I deep deceit 
Lurk in his face, and death prepar'd for me : 
Even nature mov'd me then to hold my life 
More dear to me than his, and bad this hand, 
Since by his life my death must needs ensue, 
And by his death my life to be preserv'd, 
To shed his blood, and seek my safety so; 
And wisdom willed me, without protract, 
In speedy wise to put the same in ure. 
Thus have I told the cause that moved me 
To work my brother's death, and so I yield 
My life, my death, to judgment of your grace. 

Gorb. O cruel wight, should any cause prevail 
To make thee stain thy hands with brother's 
But what of thee we will resolve to do [blood ? 
Shall yet remain unknown : v thou in the mean 
Shalt from our royal presence banish 'd be, 
Until our princely pleasure further shall 
To thee be show'd ; 'depart therefore our sight, 
Accursed child ! What cruel destiny. 
What froward fate hath sorted us this chance, } 
That even in those where we should comfort 
Where our delight now in our aged days [find ; 
Should rest and be, even there our only grief 
And deepest sorrows to abridge our life, 
Most pining cares and deadly thoughts do grow. 

Aros. Your grace should now, in these grave 

years of yours 

Have found ere this the price of mortal joys; 
How short they be ; how fading here in earth ; 
How full of change ; how brittle our estate ; 
Of nothing sure, save only of the death, 
To whom both man and all the world doth owe 
Their end at last; neither should nature's power 
In other sort against your heart prevail, 
Than as the naked hand whose stroke assays 






( 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. 2 133 

The armed breast where force doth light in vain. 

Gorb. Many can yield right sage and grave 

advice 

Of patient sprite to others wrapp'd in woe; 
And can in speech both rule and conquer kind ; 
Who if by proof they might feel nature's force, 
Would show themselves men as they are indeed, 
Which now will needs be gods. But what doth 

mean 
The sorry cheer of her that here doth come ? 

Mar. O, where is ruth? or where is pity 
Whither is gentle heart and mercy fled ? [now ? 
Are they exil'd out of our stony breasts, 
Never to make return ? Is all the world 
Drowned in blood, and sunk in cruelty? 
If not in women mercy may be found, 
If not, alas, within the mother's breast, 
To her own child, to her own flesh and blood ; 
If ruth be banish 'd thence ; if pity there 
May have no place ; if there no gentle heart 
Do live and dwell, where should we seek it then ? 

Gorb. Madam, alas, what means your woeful 
tale? 

Mar. O silly woman I ; why to this hour 
Have kind and fortune thus deferred my breath 
That I should live to see this doleful day? 
Will ever wight believe that such hard heart 
Could rest within the cruel mother's breast?" 
With her own hand to slay her only son? 
But out alas, these eyes beheld the same : 
They saw the dreary sight, and are becomen 
Most ruthful records of the bloody fact. 
Porrex, alas, is by his mother slain, 
And with her hand, a woeful thing to tell, 
While slumbering on his careful bed he rests, 
His heart stab'd in with knife is reft of life. 



134 



r errex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. 2 



Gorb. O Eubulus, O, draw this sword of 
ours, [light, 

And pierce this heart with speed. O hateiul 
O loathsome life, O sweet and welcome death ! 
Dear Eubulus, work this we thee beseech. 

Eub. Patient your grace, perhaps he liveth 

yet, 
With wound receiv'd, but not of certain death. 

Gorb. O let us then repair unto the place, 
And see if Porrex live, or thus be slain. 

Mar. Alas, he liveth not ! it is too true. 
That with these eyes, of him a peerless prince, 
Son to a king-, and in the flower of youth, 
Even with a twink a senseless stock I saw. 

Aros. O damned deed. 
/ Mar. But hear his ruthful end : 
( The noble prince, pierc'd with the sudden wound, 
Out of his wretched slumber hastily start, 
Whose strength now failing, straight he over 
threw, 

When in the fall his eyes even now unclos'd 
Beheld the queen, and cry'd to her for help. 
We then, alas, the ladies which that time 
Did there attend, seeing that heinous deed, 
And hearing him oft call the wretched name 
Of mother, and to cry to her for aid, 
Whose direful hand gave him the mortal wound, 
Pitying (alas, for nought else could we do) 
His ruthful end, ran to the woeful bed, 
Despoiled straight his breast, and, all we might, 
Wiped in vain with napkins next at hand 
The sudden streams of blood that flushed fast 
Out of the gaping wound. O, what a look ! 
O, what a ruthful, stedfast eye, methought 
He fix'd upon my face, which to my death 
Will never part fro me ! when with a braid, 




Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. 2 135 

A deep set sigh he gave, and therewithal 
Clasping his hands, to heav'n he cast his sight ; 
And straight pale death pressing within his face, 
The flying ghost his mortal corps forsook. 

Aros. Never did age bring forth so vile a 
fact! 

Mar. O hard and cruel hap, that thus assigned 
Unto so worthy a wight so wretched end : 
But most hard cruel heart, that could consent 
To lend the hateful destinies that hand, 
By which, alas, so heinous crime was wrought ! 
O queen of adamant ! O marble breast ! 
If not the favour of his comely face, 
If not his princely cheer and countenance, 
His valiant active arms, his manly breast, 
If not his fair and seemly personage, 
His noble limbs, in such proportion cast 
As would have rap'd a silly woman's thought; 
If this mought not have mov'd thy bloody heart, 
And that most cruel hand, the wretched weapon 
E'en to let fall, and kiss him in the face, 
With tears for ruth to reave such one by death : 
Should nature yet consent to slay her son? 
O mother, thou to murder thus thy child ? 
E'en Jove with justice must with lightning 
flames [on thee. 

From heaven send down some strange revenge 
Ah, noble prince, how oft have I beheld 
Thee mounted on thy fierce and trampling steed, 
Shining in armour bright before the tilt, 
And with thy mistress' sleeve tied on thy helm, 
And charge thy staff to please thy lady's eye, 
That bow'd the head-piece of thy friendly foe? 
How oft in arms on horse to bend the mace? 
How oft in arms on foot to break the sword ? 
Which never now these eyes may see again. 



136 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. 2 



Aros. Madam, alas, in vain these plaints are 
Rather with me depart, and help to suage [shed, 
The thoughtful griefs that in the aged king 
Must needs by nature grow by death of this 
His only son, whom he did hold so dear. 

Mar. What wight is that which saw that I 

did see, 

And could refrain to wail with plaint and tears ? 
Not I, alas ! that heart is not in me : 
But let us go, for I am griev'd anew, 
To call to mind the wretched father's woe. 



CHORUS. 

When greedy lust in royal seat to reign 
Hath reft all care of gods and eke of men, 
And cruel heart, wrath, treason and disdain, 
Within ambitious breast are lodged, then 
Behold how mischief wide herself displays, 
And with the brother's hand the brother slays. 

When blood thus shed doth stain the heaven's 
Crying to Jove for vengeance of the deed, [face 
'the mighty God e'en moveth from his place 
With wrath to wreak ; then sends he forth with 

speed 

The dreadful furies, daughters of the night, 
With serpents girt, carrying the whip of ire, 
With hair of stinging snakes, and shining bright 
With flames and blood, and with a brand of fire : 
These for revenge of wretched murder done, 
EXo make the mother kill her only son. 

Blood asketh blood, and death must death re- 
Jove by his just and everlasting doom [quite : 
Justly hath ever so requited it ; 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act IV., Sc. 2 137 

The times before record, and times to come 
Shall find it true, and so doth present proof 
Present before our eyes for our behoof. 

O happy wight, that suffers not the snare 
Of murderous mind to tangle him in blood ; 
And happy he, that can in time beware 
By others' harms, and turn it to his good : 
But woe to him, that fearing not t' offend, 
Doth serve his lust i and will not see the end. 



THE ORDER AND SIGNIFICATION OF THE DUMB 
SHOW BEFORE THE FlFTH ACT 

FIRST the drums and flutes began to sound, during 
.which there came forth upon the stage a company oi 

harquebusiers and of armed men, all in order of battle. 
These, after their pieces discharged, and that the armed 
men had three times marched about the stage, departed, 
and then the drums and flutes did cease. Hereby was 
signified tumults, rebellions, arms and civil wars to 
follow, as fell in the realm of Great Britain, which by 
the space of fifty years and more, continued in civil 
war between the nobility after the death of King 
Gorboduc and of his issues, for want of certain limita 
tion in succession of the crown, till the time of Dunwallo 
Molmutius, who reduced the land to monarchy. 



ACT V. SCENE I. 

CLOTYN. MANDUD. GWENARD. FERGUS. 
EUBULUS. 

Clo. Did ever age bring forth such tyrants' 

hearts? 

The brother hath bereft the brother's life; 
pM The mother she hath dyed her cruel hands 
In blood of her own son, and now at last 
The people, lo, forgetting troth and love, 
Contemning quite both law and loyal heart, 
E'en they havq slain their sovereign lord, and 
queen. 



140 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. i 



Man. Shall this their traitorous crime un- 

punish'd rest? 

E'en yet they cease not, carried on with rage, 
In their rebellious routs, to threaten still 
A new bloodshed unto the prince's kin, 
To slay them all, and to uproot the race 
Both of the king- and queen, so are they mov'd 
With Porrex' death, wherein they falsely charge 
The guiltless king without desert at all, 
And trait 'rously have murdered him therefore, 
And eke the queen. 

Given. Shall subjects dare with force , 
To work revenge upon their prince's fact? 
Admit the worst that may, as sure in this fc 
The deed was foul, the queen to slay her son, 
Shall yet the subject seek to take the sword, 
Arise against his lord, and slay his king? 

wretched state, where those rebellious hearts 
Are not rent out e'en from their living breasts, 
And with the body thrown unto the fowls 

As carrion food, for terror of the rest. 

Ferg. There can no punishment be thought 

too great 

For this so grievous crime : let speed therefore 
Be us'd therein, for it behoveth so. 

Eub. Ye all, my lords, I see, consent in one, 
And I as one consent with ye in all. 

1 hold it more than need, with sharpest law 
To punish this tumultuous bloody rage : 

For nothing more may shake the common state 
Than sufferance of uproars without redress ; 
Whereby how some kingdoms of mighty power, 
After great conquests made, and flourishing 
In fame and wealth, have been to ruin brought, 
I pray to Jove that we may rather wail 
Such hap in them, than witness in ourselves. 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. x 141 

Eke fully with the duke my mind agrees, 
Though kings forget to govern as they ought, 
Yet subjects must obey as they are bound. 
But now, my lords, before ye farther wade, 
Or spend your speech, what sharp revenge shall 

fall 

By justice' plague on these rebellious wights ; 
Methinks, ye rather should first search the way 
By which in time, the rage of this uproar 
Mought be repress 'd, and these great tumults 

ceased. 

Even yet the life of Britain land doth hang 
In traitors balance of unegal weight; 
Think not, my lords, the death of Gorboduc, 
Nor yet Videna's blood will cease their rage : 
E'en our own lives, our wives and children 

dear, 

Our country, dear'st of all, in danger stands 
Now to be spoil'd; now, now made desolate, 
And by ourselves a conquest to ensue. 
For, give once sway unto the people's lusts, 
To rush forth on, and stay them not in time, 
And as the stream that rolleth down the hill, 
So will they headlong run with raging thoughts 
From blood to blood, from mischief unto moe, 
To ruin of the realm, themselves and all : 
So giddy are the common people's minds, 
So glad of change, more wavering than the sea. 
Ye see, my lords, what strength these rebels 
What hugy number is assembled still : [have ; 
For though the traitorous fact for which they 

rose [field ; 

Be wrought and done, yet lodge they still in 
So that how far their furies yet will stretch 
Great cause we have to dread. That we may 

seek 



. ; 



142 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. I 



. 



" 



By present battle to repress their power, 
Speed must we use to levy force therefore; 
For either they forthwith will mischief work, 
Or their rebellious roars forthwith will cease : 
'These violent things may have no lasting- long. 
Let us therefore use this for present help; 
Persuade by gentle speech, and offer grace, 
With gift of pardon, save unto the chief, 
And that upon condition that forthwith 
They yield the captains of their enterprise 
To bear such guerdon of their traitorous fact,* 
As may be both due vengeance to themselves, 
And wholesome terror to posterity. 
This shall, I think, scatter the greatest part 
That now are holden with desire of home, 
Weaned in field with cold of winter's nights, 
And some, no doubt, stricken with dread of law. 
When this is once proclaimed, it shall make 
The captains to mistrust the multitude, 
Whose safety bids them to betray their heads ; 
And so much more, because the rascal routs, 
In things of great and perilous attempts, 
Are never trusty to the noble race. 
And while we treat and stand on terms of grace, 
We shall both stay their fury's rage the while, 
And eke gain time, whose only help sufficeth 
Withouten war to vanquish rebels' power. 
In the mean while, make you in readiness 
Such band of horsemen as ye may prepare : 
Horsemen, you know, are not the commons 

strength, 

But are the force .and store of noble men, 
Whereby the unchosen and unarmed sort 
Of skilless rebels, whom none other power 
But number makes to be of dreadful force, 
With sudden brunt may quickly be oppress 'd. 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. i 143 

And if this gentle mean of proffer 'd grace, 
With stubborn hearts cannot so far avail 
As to assuage their desp'rate courages, 
Then do I wish such slaughter to be made, 
As present age and eke posterity 
May be adrad with horror of revenge, 
That justly then shall on these rebels fall : 
This is, my lords, the sum of mine advice. 

Clo. Neither this case admits debate at 
large ; [said 

And though it did, this speech that hath been 
Hath well abridged the tale I would have told. 
Fully with Eubulus do I consent 
In all that he hath said : and if the same 
To you, my lords, may seem for best advice, 
I wish that it should straight be put in ure. 

Man. fty lords, then let us presently depart, 
And follow this that liketh us so well. 

rFerg. ( If ever time to gain a kingdom here 
Were offer 'd man, now it is offer 'd me. ' 
The realm is reft both of their king and queen ; 
The offspring of the prince is slain and dead : 
No issue now remains ; the heir unknown ; 
A - The people are in arms and mutinies; 

The nobles they are busied how to cease 
These great rebellious tumults and uproars ; 
And Britain land now desert left alone, 
Amid these broils uncertain where to rest, 
Offers herself unto that noble heart 
That will or dare pursue to bear her crown. 
Shall I, that am the duke of Albany, 
Descended from that line of noble blood, 
Which hath so long flourished in worthy fame 
Of valiant hearts, such as in noble breasts 
Of right should rest above the baser sort, 
Refuse to venture life to win a crown? 



144 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. 2 



Whom shall I find enemies that will withstand 
My fact herein, if I attempt by arms 
To seek the same now in these times of broil? 
These dukes' power can hardly well appease 
The people that already are in arms : 
But if perhaps my force be once in field, 
Is not my strength in pow'r above the best 
Of all these lords now left in Britain land ? 
And though they should match me with power 

of men, 

Yet doubtful is the chance of battles join'd : 
If victors of the field we may depart, 
Ours is the sceptre then of Great Britain ; 
If slain amid the plain this body lie, 
Mine enemies yet shall not deny me this, 
But that I died giving the noble charge, 
To hazard life for conquest of a crown. 
Forthwith therefore will I in post depart 
To Albany, and raise in armour there 
All pow 'r I can : and here my secret friends 
By secret practice shall solicit still, 
To seek to win to me the people's hearts. 



ACT V. SCENE II. 

EUBULUS. CLOTYN. MANDUD. GWENARD. 
AROSTUS. NUNTIUS. 

Eub. O Jove, how are these people's hearts 

abus'd? 

What blind fury thus headlong carries them ? 
That though so many books, so many rolls 
Of ancient time, record what grievous plagues 
Light on these rebels aye, and though so oft 
Their ears have heard their aged fathers tell 



Ferrex and Porrcx, Act V., Sc. 2 145 

What just reward these traitors still receive, 
Yea, though themselves have seen deep death 

and blood, 

By strangling cord and slaughter of the sword, 
To such assign'd, yet can they not beware; 
Yet can not stay their lewd rebellious hands : 
But suffering, lo, foul treason to distain 
Their wretched minds, forget their loyal heart, 
Reject all truth, and rise against their prince. 
A ruthful case, that those whom duty's bond, 
Whom grafted law by nature, truth, and faith, 
Bound to preserve their country and their king, 
Born to defend their commonwealth and prince ; 
E'en they should give consent thus to subvert 
Thee, Britain land, and from thy womb should 

spring, 

O native soil, those that will needs destroy 
And ruin thee, and eke themselves in fine. 
For lo, when once the dukes had offer'd grace 
Of pardon sweet, the multitude, misled 
By traitorous fraud of their ungracious heads, 
One sort that saw the dangerous success 
Of stubborn standing in rebellious war, 
And knew the difference of prince's power 
From headless number of tumultuous routs, 
Whom common country's care, and private 

fear, 

; Taught to repent the error of their rage, 
Laid hands upon the captains of their band, 
And brought them bound unto the mighty 

dukes : 

And other sort, not trusting yet so well 
The truth of pardon, or mistrusting more 
Their own offence, than that they could con 
ceive 

Such hope of pardon for so foul misdeed ; 
ED. L 



146 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. 2 



Or for that they their captains could not yield, 
Who, fearing to be yielded, fled before, 
Stale home by silence of the secret night : 
The third unhappy and enraged sort 
Of desp'rate hearts, who, stain 'd in princes' 

blood, 

From traitorous furor could not be withdrawn 
By love, by law, by grace, ne yet by fear, 
By proffer 'd life, ne yet by threaten 'd death ; 
With minds hopeless of life, dreadless of death, 
Careless of country, and aweless of God, 
Stood bent to fight as furies did them move, 
With violent death to close their traitorous life. 
These all by power of horsemen were oppress 'd, 
And with revenging sword slain in the field, 
Or with the strangling cord hang'd on the tree; 
Where yet their carrion carcases do preach, 
The fruits that rebels reap of their uproars, 
And of the murder of their sacred prince. 
But lo, where do approach the noble dukes, 
By whom those tumults have been thus 
/ appeas'd. 

Clo. I think the world will now at length 

beware, 

And fear to put on arms against their prince. 
Man. If not? those traitorous hearts that 

dare rebel, 

Let them behold the wide and hugy fields 
With blood and bodies spread of rebels slain, 
The lofty trees clothed with the corpses dead, 
That, strangled with the cord, do hang thereon. 
Aros. A just reward, such as all times 

before 

Have ever lotted to those wretched folks. 
Given. But what means he that cometh 

here so fast? 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. 2 147 

Nunt. My lords, as duty and my troth doth 

move, 

And of my country work a care in me, 
That if the spending of my breath avail'd 
To do the service that my heart desires, 
I would not shun t' embrace a present death ; 
So have I now in that wherein I thought 
My travail mought perform some good effect, 
Ventur'd my life to bring these tidings here. 
/ Fergus, the mighty duke of Albany, 
Is now in arms, and lodgeth in the field 
With twenty thousand men ; hither he bends 
His speedy march, and minds to invade the 

crown : \ 
Daily he gathereth strength, and spreads 

abroad, 

That to this realm no certain heir remains, 
That Britain land is left without a guide, 
That he the sceptre seeks for nothing else 
But to preserve the people and the land, 
Which now remain as ship without a stern. 
Lo, this is that which I have here to say. 

Clo. Is this his faith? and shall he falsely 

thus 

Abuse the vantage of unhappy times ? 
O wretched land, if his outrageous pride, 
His cruel and untemper'd wilfulness, 
His deep dissembling shows of false pretence, 
-Should once attain the crown of Britain land ! 
Let us, my lords, with timely force resist 
The new attempt of this our common foe, \ 

As we would quench the flames of common fire. 
Man. Though we remain withfout] a certain 

prince 

To wield the realm, or guide the wand 'ring rule, 
Yet now the common mother of us all, 

L 2 




148 Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. 2 

-, 

Our native land, our country, that contains 
Our wives, children, kindred, ourselves, and all 
That ever is or may be dear to man, 
Cries unto us to help ourselves and her. 
Let us advance our powers to repress 
This growing foe of all our liberties. 

Gwen. Yea, let us so, my lords, with hasty 

speed 

And ye, O gods, send us the welcome death 
To shed our blood in field, and leave us not 
In loathsome life to linger out our days, 
To see the hugy heaps of these unhaps 
That now roll down upon the wretched land, 
Where empty place of princely governance, 
No certain stay now left of doubtless heir, 
Thus leave this guideless realm an open prey 
To endless storms and waste of civil war. 

Aros. That ye, my lords, do so agree in one, 
To save your country from the violent reign 
And wrongfully usurped tyranny 
Of him that threatens conquest of you all, 
To save your realm, and in this realm your 
selves 

From foreign thraldom of so proud a prince, 
Much do I praise ; and I beseech the gods, 
With happy honour to requite it you. 
But O, my lords, sith now the heavens' wrath 
Hath reft this land the issue of their prince, 
Sith of the body of our late sovereign lord 
Remains no moe, since the young kings be slain, 
And of the title of descended crown 
Uncertainly the divers minds do think 
Even of the learned sort, and more uncertainly 
Will partial fancy and affection deem ; 
But most uncertainly will climbing pride, 
And hope of reign, withdraw to sundry parts 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. 2 149 

The doubtful right and hopeful lust to reign. 
When once this noble service is achieved 
For Britain land, the mother of ye all, 
When once ye have with armed force repress 'd 
The proud attempts of this Albanian prince, 
That threatens thraldom to your native land, 
When ye shall vanquishers return from field, 
And find the princely state an open prey 
To greedy lust, and to usurping power; 
Then, then, my lords, if ever kindly care 
Of ancient honour of your ancestors, 
Of present wealth and noblesse of your stocks, 
Yea, of the lives and safety yet to come 
Of your dear wives, your children, and your 
selves, 
Might move your noble hearts with gentle 

ruth, 

Then, then, have pity on the torn estate; 
Then help to salve the wellnear hopeless sore; 
Which ye shall do, if ye yourselves withhold 
The slaying knife from your own mother's 

throat : 

Her shall you save, and you, and yours in her, 
If ye shall all with one assent forbear 
Once to lay hand, or take unto yourselves 
The crown, by colour of pretended right, 
Or by what other means soe'er it be, 
Till first by common counsel of you all 
In parliament, the regal diadem 
Be set in certain place of governance; 
In which your parliament, and in your choice, 
Prefer the right, my lords, with[out] respect 
Of strength or friends, or whatsoever cause 
That may set forward any other's part; 
For right will last, and wrong can not endure : 
Right, mean I his or hers, upon whose name 



150 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. 2 






The people rest by mean of native line, 

Or by the virtue of some former law 

Already made their title to advance. 

Such one, my lords, let be your chosen king ; 

Such one so born within your native land ; 

Such one prefer ; and in no wise admit 

The heavy yoke of foreign governance : 

Let foreign titles yield to public wealth. 

And with that heart wherewith ye now prepare 

Thus to withstand the proud invading foe, 

With that same heart, my lords, keep out also 

Unnatural thraldom of strangers' reign, 

Ne suffer you, against the rules of kind, 

Your mother land to serve a foreign prince. 

Eub. Lo, here the end of Brutus' royal line, 
And, lo, the entry to the woeful wreck 
And utter ruin of this noble realm. 
The royal king, and eke his sons are slain ; 
No ruler rests within the regal seat ; 
The heir, to whom the sceptre longs, unknown ; 
That to each force of foreign prince's power, 
Whom vantage of our wretched state may 

move 

By sudden arms to gain so rich a realm ; 
And to the proud and greedy mind at home, 
Whom blinded lust to reign leads to aspire. 
Lo, Britain realm is left an open prey, 
A present spoil by conquest to ensue. 
Who seeth not now how many rising minds 
Do feed their thoughts with hope to reach a 

realm ? 

And who will not by force attempt to win 
So great a gain that hope persuades to have? 
A simple colour shall for title serve. 
Who wins the royal crown will want no right ; 
Nor such as shall display by long descent 



Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. 2 151 

A lineal race to prove him lawful king. 
In the meanwhile these civil arms shall rage, 
And thus a thousand mischiefs shall unfold, 
And far and near spread thee, O Britain land ; 
All right and law shall cease ; and he that had 
Nothing to-day, to-morrow shall enjoy 
Great heaps of gold; and he that flow'd in 

wealth, 

Lo, he shall be bereft of life and all ; 
And happiest he that then possesseth least : 
The wives shall suffer rape, the maids deflour'd, 
And children fatherless shall weep and wail; 
With fire and sword thy native folk shall 

perish : 

One kinsman shall bereave another's life ; 
The father shall unwitting slay the son ; 
The son shall slay the sire, and know it not. 
Women and maids the cruel soldiers' swords 
Shall pierce to death, and silly children, lo, 
That play in the streets and fields are found, 
By violent hand shall close their latter day. 
Whom shall the fierce and bloody soldier 
Reserve to life? whom shall he spare from 

death? 

E'en thou, O wretched mother, half alive, 
Thou shalt behold thy dear and only child 
Slain with the sword, while he yet sucks thy 

breast. [shed. 

Lo, guiltless blood shall thus eachwhere be 
Thus shall the wasted soil yield forth no fruit, 
But dearth and famine shall possess thejand. 
The towns shall be consum'd and burnt with 
The peopled cities shall wax desolate; [fire; 
And thou, O Britain, whilom in renown, 
Whilom in wealth and fame, shalt thus be torn, 
Dismember'd thus, and thus be rent in twain; 



2 Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. 2 

Thus wasted and defaced, spoiled and de 
stroyed : 

These be the fruits your civil wars will bring. 
Hereto it comes, when kings will not consent 
To grave advice, but follow wilful will. 
This is the end, when in fond princes' hearts 
Flattery prevails, and sage rede hath no place. 
These are the plagues, when murder is the 

mean 

To make new heirs unto the royal crown. 
Thus wreak the gods, when that the mother's 

wrath 
Nought but the blood of her own child may 

'suage. 

These mischiefs spring when rebels will arise 
To work revenge, and judge their prince's fact. 
This, this ensues when noble men do fail 
In loyal troth, and subjects will be kings : 
And this doth grow, when, lo, unto the prince 
Whom death or sudden hap of life bereaves, 
No certain heir remains, such certain heir, 
As not all only is the rightful heir 
But to the realm is so made known to be, 
And troth thereby vested in subjects' hearts, 
To owe faith there, where right is known to rest. 
Alas, in parliament what hope can be, 
When is of parliament no hope at all ? 
Which, though it be assembled by consent, 
Yet is not likely with consent to end ; 
While each one for himself, or for his friend 
Against his foe, shall travail what he may. 
While now the state left open to the man 
That shall with greatest force invade the same 
Shall fill ambitious minds with gaping hope, 
When will they once with yielding hearts agree ? 
Or in the while, how shall the realm be used ? 






Ferrex and Porrex, Act V., Sc. 2 153 

No, no; then parliament should have been 

holden, 

And certain heirs appointed to the crown 
To stay the title of established right, 
And in the people plant obedience, 
While yet the prince did live, whose name and 
By lawful summons and authority [power 

Might make a parliament to be of force, 
And might have set the state in quiet stay : 
But now, O happy man, whom speedy death 
Deprives of life, ne is enforc'd to see 
These hugy mischiefs and these miseries, 
These civil ;wars, these murders, and these 

wrongs/ 

Of justice, yet must God in fine restore 
This noble crown unto the lawful heir : 
For right will always live, and rise at length^ 
But wrong can never take deep root to lastN 

THE END OF THE TRAGEDY OF FERREX AND 
PORREX. 



[Colophon.] 

Imprinted at London by John Daye, dwelling ouer 
Aldersgate. 



A NOTE-BOOK AND 
W O R D-L I S T 

INCLUDING 

CONTEMPORARY REFERENCES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, 
VARIORUM READINGS, NOTES, &c., together 
with a GLOSSARY OF WORDS AND PHRASES 
now Archaic or Obsolete ; the whole 
arranged in ONE ALPHABET IN DICTIONARY 
FORM 



A FOREWORD TO NOTE 
BOOK AND WORD-LIST 

Reference from text to Note-Book is copious, and as 
complete as may be; so also, conversely, from Note-Book 
to text. The following pages may, with almost absolute 
certainty, be consulted on any point that may occur in 
the course of reading; but more especially as regards 

Biographical and other Notes, 

Contemporary References to Author and Plays, 

Bibliography, 

Variorum Readings, 

Words and Phrases, now Obsolete or Archaic. 
The scheme of reference from Note-Book to text as 
sumes the division, in the mind's eye, of each page into 
four horizontal sections; which, beginning at the top, 
are indicated in the Note-Book by the letters a, b, c, d 
following the page figure. In practice this will be found 
easy, and an enormous help to the eye over the usual 
reference to page alone in "fixing" the "catchword." 
Thus i26a = the first quarter of page 126; ^oc = the third 
quarter of page 40 ; and so forth. 

Abbreviations. 

D. Damon and Pithias. 

G. Gorboduc (otherwise Ferrex and Porrex). 






NOTE-BOOK AND WORD-LIST 

TO THE DRAMATIC WRITINGS OF 

RICHARD EDWARDS 

THOMAS NORTON 

AND THOMAS SACKVILLE, viz.: 

Damon and Pit bias Gorboduc (or Ferrex and P or rex} 

ABYE, see Bye. 

ACE, "bate me an ace," &c. (D. 6oa), not in Hey- 
wood's Proverbs (E.E.D.S.) ; but, in The Four 
P.P., he has " I pass you an ace." It appears in 
Ray's collection. He remarks, " Who this Bolton 
was I know not, neither is it worth enquiring. One 
of this name might happen to say, Bate me an ace, 
and, for the coincidence of the first letters of the 
two words Bate and Bolton, it grew to be a proverb. 
We have many of the like original ; as v.g. Sup, 
Simon, &c., Stay, quoth Stringer, &c. There goes a 
story of Queen Elizabeth, that being presented with 
a Collection of English Proverbs, and told by the 
author that it contained all the English Proverbs, nay, 
replied she, Bate me an ace, quoth Bolton : which 
Proverb being instantly looked for, happened to be 
wanting in his Collection." Which story may, or 
may not, be authentic : it would be a matter of 
interest to know who was the " author " referred to, 
for we have no trace. Still, the proverb was current 
long before Ray's time, as there are numerous illus 
trations of its use that in Damon and Pithias is, I 
fancy, the earliest known. In The Mastive, by 
H. P. (? Henry Parrot), published in 1615, occurs, 



158 



Note-Book and Word-List 



[ADRAD 



" A pamphlet was of proverbs, penn'd by Polton 
Wherein he thought all sorts included were ; Until one 
told him, Bate m' an ace, quoth Bolton : Indeed (said 
he) that proverb is not there." 

ADRAD, " posterity may be adrad " (G. 1430), afraid, 
frightened. "The lady wase nevyr so adrad." 
Torrent of Portugal, 13. "And was adrad of Gyle." 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales (1383), 558. 

ALBANIAN, " this Albanian prince " (G. i^ga), from 
Albion = Britain : said to have been so called by Julius 
Caesar on account of its chalky cliffs. 

ALLOW, " whether ye allow my whole device " (G. 940) 
" allow it well " (94^), approve, declare to be true : 
American by survival. " And have hope toward God 
which they themselves also allow, that there shaL' 
be a resurrection of the dead." Bible, Auth. Vers. 
(1611), Acts xxiv. 15. 

ALOYSE, " aloyse, aloyse, how, how pretty it is " 
(D. 6id), the text is probably corrupt : the first how 
may = Ho ! 

AUTHORS, " the time, the place, the authors " (D. 50), 
in second edition author. 

BATE, see Ace. 

BEARD, " I have played with his beard " (D. ioa), i.e. 

deceived him, deluded him : there are several variants 

of the phrase. 
BECOMEN, " becomen most ruthful records " (G. 133^), 

become. 
BEES, " hath bees in his head " (D. i3a), is choleric, 

angry : the modern " bees in one's bonnet " signifies 

a degree of craziness and oddity rather than temper. 

See Udall, Roister Doister (E.E.D.S.), 3oc. 
BEHIGHTETH, " such as their kind behighteth to us 

all" (G. 940"), promiseth. "And for his paines a 

whistle him behight." Spenser, Fairy Queen (1596), 

IV. xi. 6. 

BEHOOVEFUL, " What further means behooveful are and 
meet " (G. g6b), desirable, needful, profitable. " And 
that they the same Gilde or fraternyte myght augu- 
mente and enlarge, as ofte and when it shuld seme to 



BUM] Note-Book and Word-List 159 

theym necessarie and behoufull, . . ." English Gilds 
(1389-1450), E.E.T.S., p. 310. " Jul. No, madam: 
we have cull'd such necessaries As are behoveful for 
our state to-morrow." Shakspeare, Rom. and Jul. 
(iS9S), iv - 3 (Globe). 

BENTERS, " these benters " (D. 59^), Hazlitt glosses this 
word, " sacks to carry coals," and refers to the Fr. 
benne with a similar meaning : which may, or may 
not, be. A little lower down (6od) debenters is used 
with, apparently, the same meaning. Possibly the 
word is from bent a coarse reed or grass used in 
making the sacks for Grim's coals: some varieties 
were suitable for such a purpose. 

BLADE, "I will blade it out" (D. 28^), Hazlitt says = 
blab ; but surely blade is here used in the same sense 
as a modern ruffian would say, " I'll knife it out": 
cf. blade = to trim hedges. 

BOB, " to bear the bob " (D. 636), made a fool of, 
outwitted: cf. "give the dor." " C. I guess the 
business. S. It can be no other But to give me the 
bob, that being a matter of main importance." 
Massinger, Maid of Honour (1632), iv. 5. 

BODE, " never bode I painful throes for thee " (G. 127^), 
from bide = endure, suffer. " Poor naked wretches, 
wheresoe'er you are, That bide the pelting of this 
pitiless storm ! " Shakspeare, Lear (1605), iii. 4. 

BOLTON, see Ace. 

BRAID, " with a braid " (G. 134^), start, rush, sudden 
movement ; such as a toss of the head, a sudden blow, 
a quick retort. " Scho brayd hit a-don at on brayd," 
i.e. she threw it down at one start or movement. 
Seven Sages (Wright), 17. 

BRIARS, " left his friend in the briars " (D. 66c), in 
difficulty, misfortune, or doubt. "... leaue vs your 
friendes in the briers and betray vs, . . ." Stow, 
Edward VI. (1552). 

BROOM, see New broom. 

BRUTE, " the mighty Brute, first prince of all this 
land " (G. ggd) : see Geoffrey of Monmouth, i. 

BUM, " bum troth " (D. 566), by my troth. 



160 Note-Book and Word-List [BUSSING 

BUSSING, " set out your bussing base " (D. 636), i.e. 
an indistinct kind of humming in a base voice. 

BYE, " thou shalt dearly bye the same " (G. i26c), i.e. 
abide by the results : see previous volumes of this 
series, s.v. Aby, Abie, &c. 

CAREFUL, " on his careful bed he rests " (G. 133^), bed 
of care: cf. careful for = anxious for; also hateful 
full of hate. 

CAT IN PAN, see Oxford English Dictionary. 

CENTUM PRO CENTO (D. 590), in allusion to usury : see 
previous lines. 

CHA, CHOULD, CHWAS, &c. (passim), the conventional 
dialect of rustics in our early drama : see previous 
volumes of this series. Edwards was a Somerset 
shire man, and this " dialect " nearly approaches that 
of his district. 

CLEPE, " for to the gods I clepe " (G. 1300), call. 
" They clepe us drunkards, and with swinish phrase 
Tax our addition." Shakspeare, Hamlet (1596), i. 4. 

COBEX EPI (D. 53&), see Variorum Readings, s.v. 
Damon and Pithias, infra : Hazlitt has the note, 
" Colliers used to be nicknamed ' Carry coals, 1 " and 
alters the text to " 'tis Coals I spy." See Nares, 
s.v. Coals. 

COCK, " farewell, Cock " (D. 650), a familiar address. 



COLPHEG, "I'll colpheg you" (D. 456), the sense is 
clear enough cudgel, beat, drub; and, for the rest, 
see Murray in O.E.D. 

COMICAL, " in comical wise " (D. 36), i.e. suited to 
comedy. " Such toys to see as heretofore in comical 
wise were wont abroad to be." Misogonus, E.E.D.S., 
Anon. Plays, Series 2, 1356. 

CONTRIVED, " we three have contrived " (D. 14^), 
passed, spent : Lat. contrivi from contero. " Coyllus 
contrived (contrivit) all his youthe in the service of 
their wars." Trans, of Polydore Vergil (Camden 
Soc.), i. 81. " Please ye we may contrive this after- 



DAMON AND PiTHiAs] Note-Book and Word-List 161 

noon, And quaff carouses to our mistress' health." 
Shakspeare, Tarn, of Shrew (1593), i. 2. 

COWARDISHE, " deemed cowardishe " (G. io8c), 
cowardice, extreme timidity. 

CRAB, " a crab in the fire " (D. 590), see other volumes 
of this series. 

CRETIZO, &c. (D. 47c), in reference to the double-dealing 
of the Cretans. 

CROYDEN, " a right Croyden sanguine " (D. 62 a) : 
Hazlitt says, " From the manner in which this ex 
pression is used by Sir John Harington, in ' The 
Anatomic of the Metamorphosis of Ajax,' 1596, 
sig. L, 7, it seems as though it was intended for a 
sallow hue. ' Both of a complexion inclining to the 
oriental colour of a Croyden sanguine.' ' 

DAMON AND PITHIAS. The text of this play, which will 
be found on pp. 1-84, has been taken from the edition 
of 1571, which, in turn, has been collated with that 
of 1582. Copies of both editions are in the British 
Museum. It has been reprinted in modern times, 
(a) in Dodsley's Select Collection of Old Plays, 1744, 
vol. i. ; (b) ibid., 1780, ed. Reed, vol. i. ; (c) ibid., 
1825-7, e d- Collier, vol. i. ; (d) ibid., 1876, ed. 
Hazlitt, vol. iv. ; (e) in Ancient British Drama, 1810, 
ed. Sir W. Scott, vol. i. In accordance with the 
general scheme of this series, the spelling in the 
present text has been modernised, save in a few 
instances of rhyme-endings, or of words that seemed 
to require, or for some reason were worthy of, a 
special note : the punctuation has also been altered 
where the sense seemed to demand it. The 
author was Richard Edwards (q-v.), and although 
he wrote other plays this is the only one ex 
tant (see Palamon and Arcyte, &c.). A reduced 
facsimile of the title-page of the edition of 1571 is 
given on p. i. The original is a black-letter quarto 
of thirty leaves, and seems to have been licensed to 
the printer in 1568. In all probability, therefore, the 
editio princeps has been lost. This is the more 
likely, inasmuch as the title-page of the 1571 copy 
speaks of its being " newly imprinted "; and also as 
ED. M 



1 62 Note- Book and Word- List [DAMON AND PITHIAS 

" the same . . . except the Prologue that is some 
what altered." It is uncertain when it was first pro 
duced : some authorities regard it as identical with 
the tragedy by Edwards which was performed before 
the Queen at Richmond by the children of the chapel 
in 1564-5. If this assumption is correct, then the 
date of Damon and Pithias may be placed about 
1 5 6 3-5 ' and > f course, it must have been written 
before 1566, when Edwards died. The plot turns 
upon the nature of friendship the selfishness of the 
assumed article and the self-denial of the real. For 
this purpose the story in Valerius Maximus, of 
Damon and Pithias, serves as a medium. Edwards 's 
production was the first English tragedy on a classical 
subject that we know of. This and his other literary 
efforts were highly esteemed by his contemporaries 
and successors : he is spoken of as a man ol ready 
wit and varied parts " the best fiddler, the best 
mimic, and the best sonneteer of the Court." Pos 
terity, too, in the main confirms the verdict. His 
latest exponent, Professor Gayley, in an admirable 
and exhaustive " Historical View of English 
Comedy " prefaced to Representative English Come 
dies (Macmillan Co., 1903), regards Damon and 
Pithias as a step " significant in literary history." 
It is (he continues) " not only entirely free from 
allegorical elements, and almost from didactic, but 
it is rich in qualities of the fusion drama. The sub 
ject of a classical story is handled in a genuinely 
romantic fashion, although no previous drama of 
romantic friendship had existed in England. Comic 
and serious strains flow side by side, occasionally 
mingling. A quick satire, dramatic and personal, 
pervades the play. The names and scenes may be 
Syracusan, and types from Latin comedy may walk 
the streets, but the life is of the higher and lower 
classes of England ; and the creatures of literary tradi 
tion are elbowed and jostled by children of the soil. 
The farcical episodes may be indelicate, but they 
have the virility of fact. The plot as a whole is 
skilfully conducted ; while it proceeds directly to the 
goal, it encompasses a wider variety of ethical inter 
ests, dramatic motives, and attractions, than that of 
any previous play." To other productions from 



DAMON AND FiTHiAs] Note-Book and Word-List 163 

Ed wards 's pen a like meed of praise was given and 
is due (see Edwards, Palamon and Arcite, &c.). 

Variorum Readings, Corrigenda, &>c. [Where 
not otherwise attributed, the var. readings are those 
of the edition of 1582.] "The time, the place, the 
authors" ($a), author; " Lo, this I speak" (50), 
spake; " [Exit. [Here entereth," &c. ($a), delete the 
" [ " in each instance; " Lovers of wisdom are termed 
philosophy " (50), so in both editions : Hazlitt reads 
(as suggested by Collier) " Loving of wisdom is 
termed philosophy ," but possibly the second * in the 
philosophic of the black-letter original is a misprint 
for r, or a battered letter, thus #0tfofiOi)0t (philo- 
sophre), a common enough form for philosopher 
the singular inflection with a plural tense, or vice 
versa, is not uncommon ; " Let him roll in his tub to 
win " (6b), original To ; " you are a grave bencher " 
(7 a )> great; ''do best thrive" (jb), do omitted; 
"Spread in this town" (yd), the ; " Farewell, friend 
Aristippus " (go), friend omitted; " Consuit amici- 
tias " (gb) t the original has consultat ; " Where[as], in 
deed " (9^), as not in original; " I meant it not" 
(lob), meane ; " a right pattern thereof" (lob), original 
has patron (M.E. from Fr. patron, which still = " pa 
tron " and " pattern " : by 1700 the original form 
[0.E.D.] ceased to be used of things, and the two 
words became differentiated in form and sense) ; 
"Exeunt" (nc), original has Exit ; "he cometh 
home broken " (lie), it; "And to creep into men's 
bosoms " (iid), bosome ; " and seeks to please " (i2c), 
seeketh ; "laughed out with a scoff" (136), grace ; 
" and playing quietly " (i3&), quickly ; " [Exeunt " 
; "\~ 



, delete the "["; "\Who~] whispered in mine 
ear" (i7a), not in original; " Steph. (aside). With 
such " (170), (aside) not in original; "in utramque " 
(ijd), utranque in original; "through worldly things " 
(i8b), so in both editions : Dodsley (and Hazlitt 
follows him) reads though, but the sense is good as 
it was originally, and is still preserved in the present 
text; "this world was like a stage" (igc), is lyke 
unto a ; " Omne solum forti patria " (igd), read 
partia : both original editions have " Omnis solum 
fortis patria " ; " Die mihi . . . et urbes " (23 b and c), 
in original editions, " Die mihi musa virum capt& post 

M 2 



1 64 Note-Book and Word-List [DAMON AND PITHIAS 

tempore Trojce, Multorum hominum mores qui vidit 
et urbis " ; "[Aside." (23^), not in original; "This 
is he, fellow Snap, snap him up " (246), so in 
original, but Hazlitt unnecessarily altered this to 
" This is the fellow : Snap, snap him up " ; " Where 
he hath dapsiles . . . zonam " (24^), in the original 
this is nonsense, containing words unknown in Latin : 
it there reads, " Dapsilce ccenas gemalis lectes, et 
auro, Fulgentii turgmani zonam " : both this piece of 
Latin and the preceding one (23 fe) are altered in the 
Museum copy to the text as now given, but there 
is no trace as to who made these corrections in red 
ink in the margins; "some pleasant toy " (24^), in 
original tyoe ; " Auri talentum " (250), Aure ; " [Here 
entereth Carisophus " (25^), not in original; " I will 
lay on mouth" (27^), lay on with my mouth; 
" [Aside] If I speak " (27^), the [Aside] not in 
original; "why would he then pry" (28a), should; 
" [Exeunt." (28^), not in original; " in joyful times " 
(29^), so in original : Mr. Collier proposed to read 
times; "since that I hear" (30^), seeing; "Damon 
my friend should die" (30^), must ; "with speed 
now stop my breath " (30^), come ; " [Pithias retires." 
(32^), not in original; " [Pithias comes forward." 
(33&), not in original ; " Then bow on me " (33^), 
unto ; " But you shall further two " (33^), in original 
too ; " But yet, O mighty King " (37a), omitted in 
first edition, but supplied in the second ; " I find this 
justice " (37a), the comma after " dignity " in the 
previous line should be deleted, and a semi-colon or 
a dash should be inserted after this : the passage 
then reads well enough as in the original ; " upon 
suspicion of such things" (37&), each in original; 
" who in opinion of simpleness have " foSa), in 
original editions, where opinion simplenesse have ; 
" Here Gronno [and Snap] bring in " (38^), [and 
Snap] not in original ; "to despatch this inquiry " 
(39<i), in original injurie ; "my life to pay" (400), 
yeelde speedily; "[Aside." (406), not in original; 
" my life I pawn " (40^), to ; " Take heed, for life, 
worldly men," &c. (41??), this line, I am sorry to 
say, has got badly used : the original editions read, 
"Take heed: for life wordly men," &c. : I should 
have printed, " Take heed for life : wordly men " 



DAMON AND piTHiAs] Note-Book and Word-List 165 

( = great talkers, men full of words), &c. Hazlitt 
reads, " Take heed for [your] life," &c., but I appre 
hend your is not necessary to the sense, and worldly 
in the next line should be wordly ; " [Exit Damon." 
(430), not in original; " Cretizo cum Cre tense " 
(47c), Cretiso in original; " [Aside." (47<0, not in 
original; " Omnis . . . color" (5O&), colore in 
original ; " Unsearched to enter his chamber, which 
he hath made barbers his beard to shave " (51^), so 
in original : Hazlitt reads while for which, making 
sense of a sort, but I think the only alteration of the 
original that is needed is to re-punctuate the text 
delete the comma after chamber and insert a semi 
colon after made ; " mar your monkey's face " 
(516), the original spelling in both cases is monckes ; 
" Gave never a blow again " (5 id), geve ; " Cobex 
epi coming yonder " (53&), Is has inadvertently been 
omitted from the present text : Hazlitt reads, " 'tis 
Coals I spy "; " Jack. Was it you " (53^), It was; 
"Do they not say" (540), Doth ; "Good faith, 
Master Grim" (54<i), Father; "a capon [to your 
pay.] " &c. (54^), to your pay not in original : sup 
plied by Hazlitt; "Are these such great hose?" 
(556), in second but not in first edition ; " Nay, you 
should find fau't " (55c), fau't should have been 
printed fault, the original being faught, an old form : 
Hazlitt inserts not between " should " and " find," 
but the sense is clear as in the original a war of 
words is in progress, and the collier will not admit 
that his " chaff " about the breeches is fault-finding, 
for that is Jack's prerogative : in the previous line 
the second edition reads what fault can you see 
here, instead of " can you find any fault here " ; 
"these monsters first" (550), hose at; " Will, hold 
this railing knave " (55^), Well in original; " [Enter 
Jack," &c. (566), delete the "["; " Jebit . . . 
Zawne " (56^), so in both editions : read Je bois 
a vous mon compagnon. . . . J'ai vous pleige, petit 
Zawne ; "When there were not" (570), was; 
" Colliers have a very trim life " (59^), merie ; " quod 
Bolton " (6oa), misprinted in original, Boulon ; 
"[Aside." (6od), not in original; "most finely 
shaven " (64^), trimly ; " [Exeunt " (6sa), original 
Exit; " H'ath robbed me" (656), original Hath ; 



166 Note-Book and Word-List [DEBENTERS 

''usque ad aras " (673), original auras " Amicitia 
inter bonos " (6yd), both editions bonns ; " It is the 
gods' judgment" (69*:), original Gods ; "He painted 
speech" (69^), vaunted; " and striving stream I 
sail " (700), streams ; " [Ext*." (yac), not in original; 
" golden time do wear away " (jSa), so in both 
editions : Collier and Hazlitt read " gold in time does 
wear away "; " O happy Kings, who in your courts " 
(79<2), in original editions O happie Kinges within 
your courtes; "No reason the hangman" (Sib), It 
is no reason : the [Aside] two lines above is not in 
the original; " Exeunt Dion [and all," &c. (Sid), the 
stage direction within the brackets is not in original ; 
" The last song " (84*1), in original Finis is printed 
just above this line, and below the second Finis at 
foot appear some rude stock blocks. 

DEBENTERS, see Renters. 

DERIVED, "great fame derived down to them" (G. 920), 
transmitted. 

DISHERITANCE (G. io8d), disinheritance. " Having chid 
me almost to the ruin Of a disheritance." Beau 
mont and Fletcher, Fair Maid of the Inn, ii. 2. 

DOLE, " happy man be his dole " (D. ice), see other 
volumes of this series. 

DOTTREL, " doating dottrel " (D. 52^), fool, silly fellow, 
dupe. From the assumed stupidity of the bird : it 
being said to be so foolishly fond of imitation, that 
it suffers itself to be caught while intent upon 
mimicking the gestures of the fowler. It is aptly 
described by Drayton : 

" The dotterel, which we think a very dainty dish, 
Whose taking makes such sport, as no man more 

can wish. 

For as you creep, or cowr, or lie, or stoop, or go, 
So, marking you with care, the apish bird doth do, 
And acting every thing, doth never mark the net, 
Till he be in the snare which men for him have 
set." 

Drayton, Poly-Olbion (1612-22), s. 25. 
" Our dotterel then is caught." 

" He is, and just 
As dotterels use to be : the lady first 



EDWARDS (RICHARD)] Note-Book and Word-List 167 

Advanced toward him, stretched forth her wing, 

and he 
Met her with all expressions." 

May, Old Couple, iii. 

DUP, " dup the gate " (D. 530), open : cf. " dup ye 
gyg er to open the dore " (Harman, Caveat, 1814, 
66). "And dupped the chamber door." Shakspeare, 
Hamlet (1596), iv. 

DURING, " during torments " (G. io6b), lasting : the 
pr. par. of dure, now used only as a preposition. 

EDWARDS (RICHARD), the author of Damon and Pithias, 
and other plays not now extant, was born in Somerset 
shire about the year 1523, and died in 1566. He 
was educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
taking his B.A. degree in 1544. His fellowship came 
by election in the same year, and three years later 
he was a senior student of Christ Church in the same 
University, where he took his M.A. degree. In the 
interval (he speaks of it himself in The Paradise of 
Dainty Devices), " when in youthful years . . . young 
desire pricked him forth to serve in Court, a slender, 
tall, young man." He does not say in what capacity ; 
and, as stated above, he returned to Oxford, prob 
ably to qualify himself for the post he afterwards 
held. On his return to London he entered himself 
at Lincoln's Inn, but he does not appear to have 
practised at the Bar, a not uncommon course then, as 
nowadays. He ultimately became one of the 
Gentlemen of the Chapel Royal, and in 1561 was 
appointed Master of the Children of the Chapel. He 
wrote at least three plays Damon and Pithias, and 
Parts i and 2 of Palamon and Arcyte (q.v.). He 
was also the compiler of a very popular anthology 
The Paradise of Dainty Devices, a collection made, 
so the printer tells us, " for private use " by " one 
both of worship and credit." The why and where 
fore of this " private " collection, which was after 
wards to receive wide publicity, may, most likely, be 
found in Edwards's office, as a special point is made 
in the preface of the earlier edition of the suitability 
of the pieces for musical setting. ' The ditties are 
both pithy and pleasant, and will yield a far greater 



i68 Note-Book and Word-List [EDWARDS (RICHARD) 

delight being as they are so aptly made to be set to 
any song in five parts, or sung to any instrument." 
A reduced facsimile of the title-page of the edition 
of 1596 appears on p. 187 : the work proved to 
popular taste, and ran through no fewer than nine 
editions between the years 1576 and 1606. Not 
withstanding this, as is often the case with the most 
popular books they get thumbed and torn and 
dilapidated through use copies of any impression 
are now of extreme rarity. Misogonus, a notable 
play of Edwards 's time, has also been attributed to 
the author of Damon and Pithias. Whether there are 
sound and solid grounds for this is a moot point. 
The evidence, such as it is, is stated, but without 
definite conclusion, in E.E.D.S., Anon. Plays, 
Series 2, pp. 405-6. Edwards died on the 3ist 
October, 1566. When on his death-bed he is said 
by Wood to have composed a noted poem called 
" Edwards' Soul Knil " (knell), or the " Soul Knil of 
M. Edwards," which was once much admired. 
Gascoigne was Wood's authority, but the author of 
The Steele Glasse seems only to have ridiculed 
the piece being written under such circumstances. 
Another fact, well knowji to Shakspearean scholars, 
seems worthy of more permanent record in this place. 
The Stratford poet's allusion to the poem " In Com 
mendation of Music," commonly attributed to 
Edwards, in Romeo and Juliet (see E.E.D.S., Anon. 
Plays, Series 2, s.v. Heartsease), seems to point 
to Shakspeare's acquaintance with some of Edwards 's 
literary productions. It may also be that the Induc 
tion to Shakspeare's Taming of the Shrew (or its 
predecessor : see Anon. Plays [E.E.D.S.], Series 6) 
also found its original in another of our author's 
books, now unfortunately for the most part if not al 
together lost. Warton in his History of English 
Poetry (iv. 117, 1824) writes: "Among the books 
of my friend, the late Mr. William Collins, of Chi- 
chester, now dispersed, was a collection of short comic 
stories in prose, printed in the black letter, and, in 
the year 1570, ' Set forth by Maister Richard Ed- 
wardes, Mayster of Her Maiesties Revels.' ' Warton 
mistakes (or the printer did so) Edwards's office : he 
was not "Master of the Revels," but "Master of 



EDWARDS (RICHARD)] Note-Book and Word- List 169 

the Children of the Chapel." Still, Warton speaks as 
if from an actual sight of the book ; and Mr. H. G. 
Norton in the Shakspeare Society Papers (ii. i), writ 
ing in 1845, says, " I apprehend that I have now in 
my hands a portion of a reprint [of the edition dated 
1570] containing the very tale on which the Induction 
to Shakspeare 's ' Taming of the Shrew,' and to the 
older ' Taming of a Shrew,' was founded. It is a 
mere fragment of a book, and contains no more than 
this story, so that we can only judge of its date 
by its type and orthography : the type and ortho 
graphy appear to me to be as old as about the year 
1620 or 1630, and it begins upon p. 59, and ends upon 
p. 67. Of the orthography the reader will be able 
to form an opinion from what follows ; and, having 
been a student of old books for the last twenty or 
thirty years, I think I can speak positively to the 
date of the type, which is rather large Roman letter, 
much worn and battered. The words, ' the fifth 
event,' at the commencement, show that four stories 
preceded it, but by how many it was followed it is 
impossible to decide. I should not be surprised if 
the old language of 1570 had been in some degree 
modernised in 1620 or 1630, but upon that point it is 
not necessary for me to offer an opinion. If my con 
jecture be correct, that Ed wards 's story-book of 1570 
was reprinted fifty or sixty years afterwards, and that 
my five leaves are a portion of that reprint, we have 
arrived at the source of the Induction to ' The Taming 
of a Shrew ' ; for I take it for granted that Shak 
speare 's comedy was constructed upon the older play, 
in which the Induction stands, in substance, as it is 
given by our immortal dramatist. I subjoin a verbatim 
et literatim copy of my fragment." So far Mr. 
Norton, who follows on with the copy of the five 
leaves, and which, for the sake of its possible con 
nection with the author of Damon and Pithias, I also 
reproduce here. 

" THE WAKING MANS DREAME. 

" The Fifth Event. 

11 The Greek proverbe saith, that a man is but 
the dreame of a shaddow, or the shaddow of a dreame ; 
is there then anything more vaine then a shadow, 



1 70 Note-Book and Word- List [EDWARDS (RICHARD) 

which is nothing in it selfe, being but a privation of 
light framed by the opposition of a thicke body unto 
a luminous? is there any thing more frivolous then a 
dreame, which hath no subsistence but in the hollow- 
nesse of a sleeping braine, and which, to speake pro 
perly, is nothing but a meere gathering together of 
Chimericall Images? and this is it which makes an 
ancient say, that we are but dust and shadow : our 
life is compared unto those, who sleeping dreame that 
they eate, and waking find themselves empty and 
hungry ; and who Is he that doth not find this experi 
mented in himselfe, as often as he revolves in his 
memory the time which is past? who can in these 
passages of this world distinguish the things which 
have been done from those that have beene dreamed? 
vanities, delights, riches, pleasures, and all are past 
and gone ; are they not dreames ? What hath our 
pride and pompe availed us? say those poore miser 
able soules shut up in the infernall prisons : where is 
our bravery become, and the glorious show of our 
magnificence? all these things are passed like a flying 
shadow, or as a post who hastens to his journeyes 
end. This is it which caused the ancient Comicke 
Poet to say that the world was nothing but an uni- 
versall Comedy because all the passages thereof serve 
but to make the wisest laugh : and, according to the 
opinion of Democritus, all that is acted on this great 
Theater of the whole wo'rld, when it is ended, differs 
in nothing from what hath bin acted on a Players 
stage : the mirrour which I will heere set before 
your eyes will so lively expresse all these verities, and 
so truly shew the vanities of all the greatnesse and 
opulencies of the earth, that although in these Events 
I gather not either examples not farre distant from our 
times, or that have beene published by any other 
writer, yet I beleeve that the serious pleasantnesse 
of this one will supply its want of novelty, and that 
its repetition will neither bee unfruitfull nor unpleas- 
ing. 

" In the time that Phillip Duke of Burgundy (who 
by the gentlenesse and curteousnesse of his carriage 
purchaste the name of good) guided the reines of the 
country of Flanders, this prince, who was of an 
humour pleasing, and full of judicious goodnesse, 






EDWARDS (UICHARD)] Note-Book and Word-List 171 

rather then silly simplicity, used pastimes which for 
their singularity are commonly called the pleasures 
of Princes : after this manner he no lesse shewed the 
quaintnesse of his wit then his prudence. 

" Being in Bruxelles with all his Court, and having 
at his table discoursed amply enough of the vanities 
and greatnesse of this world, he let each one say his 
pleasure on this subject, whereon was alleadged grave 
sentences and rare examples : walking towards the 
evening in the towne, his head full of divers thoughts, 
he found a Tradesman lying in a corner sleeping 
very soundly, the fumes of Bacchus having surcharged 
his braine. I describe this mans drunkenesse in as 
good manner as I can to the credit of the party. This 
vice is so common in both the superior and inferiour 
Germany, that divers, making glory and vaunting 
of their dexterity in this art, encrease their praise 
thereby, and hold it for a brave act. The good Duke, 
to give his followers an example of the vanity of all 
the magnificence with which he was invironed, de 
vised a meanes farre lesse dangerous than that which 
Dionysius the Tyrant used towards Democles, and 
which in pleasantnesse beares a marvellous utility. 
He caused his men to carry away this sleeper, with 
whom, as with a blocke, they might doe what they 
would, without awaking him ; he caused them to 
carry him into one of the sumptuosest parts of his 
Pallace, into a chamber most state-like furnished, and 
makes them lay him on a rich bed. They presently 
strip him of his bad cloathes, and put him on a very 
fine and cleane shirt, in stead of him own, which was 
foule and filthy. They let him sleepe in that place 
at his ease, and whitest hee settles his drinke the 
Duke prepares the pleasantest pastime that can be 
imagined. 

" In the morning, this drunkard being awake drawes 
the curtaines of this brave rich bed, sees himselfe in 
a chamber adorned like a Paradice, he considers the 
rich furniture with an amazement such as you may 
imagine : he beleeves not his eyes, but layes his 
fingers on them, and feeling them open, yet perswades 
himselfe they are shut by sleep, and that all he sees 
is but a pure dreame. 

" Assoone as he was luiowne to be awake, in comes 



172 Note-Book and Word-List [EDWARDS (RICHARD) 

the officers of the Dukes house, who were instructed 
by the Duke what they should do. There were pages 
bravely apparelled, Gentlemen of the chamber, Gen 
tleman waiters, and the High Chamberlaine, who, all 
in faire order and without laughing, bring cloathing 
for this new guest : they honour him with the same 
great reverences as if hee were a Soveraigne Prince ; 
they serve him bare headed, and aske him what suite 
hee will please to weare that day. 

" This fellow, affrighted at the first, beleeving these 
things to be inchantment or dreames, reclaimed by 
these submissions, tooke heart, and grew bold, and 
setting a good face on the matter, chused amongst 
all the apparell that they presented unto him that 
which he liked best, and which hee thought to be 
fittest for him ; he is accommodated like a King, and 
served with such ceremonies, as he had never scene 
before, and yet beheld them without saying any thing, 
and with an assured countenance. This done, the 
greatest Nobleman in the Dukes Court enters the 
chamber with the same reverence and honour to him 
as if he had been their Soveraigne Prince (Phillip with 
Princely delight beholds this play from a private 
place) ; divers of purpose petitioning him for pardons, 
which hee grants with such a countinance and gravity, 
as if he had had a Crowne on his head all his life 
time. 

" Being risen late, and dinner time approaching, 
they asked if he were pleased to have his tables 
covered. He likes that very well. The table is fur 
nished, where he is set alone, and under a rich 
Canopie : he eates with the same ceremony which 
was observed at the Dukes meales ; he made good 
cheere, and chawed with all his teeth, but only drank 
with more moderation then he could have wisht, but 
the Majesty which he represented made him refraine. 
All taken away, he was entertained with new and 
pleasant things : they led him to walke about the great 
Chambers, Galleries, and Gardens of the Pallace (for 
all this merriment was played within the gates, they 
being shut only for recreation to the Duke and the 
principall of his Court) : they shewed him all the 
richest and most pleasantest things therin, and talked 
to him thereof as if they had all beene his, which he 



EDWARDS (RICHARD)] Note-Book and Word-List 173 

heard with an attention and contentment beyond 
measure, not saying one word of his base condition, 
or declaring that they tooke him for another. They 
made him passe the afternoone in all kind of sports ; 
musicke, dancing, and a Comedy, spent some part of 
the time. They talked to him of some State matters, 
whereunto he answered according to his skill, and like 
a right Twelfetide King. 

" Super time approaching, they aske this new 
created Prince if he would please to have the Lords 
and Ladies of his Court to sup and feast with him ; 
whereat he seemed something unwilling, as if hee 
would not abase his dignity unto such familiarity : 
neverlesse, counterfeiting humanity and affability, he 
made signes that he condiscended thereunto : he then, 
towards night, was led with sound of Trumpets and 
Hoboyes into a faire hall, where long Tables were 
set, which were presently covered with divers sorts 
of dainty meates, the Torches shined in every corner, 
and made a day in the midst of a night : the Gentle 
men and Gentlewomen were set in fine order, and the 
Prince at the upper end in a higher seat. The ser 
vice was magnificent ; the musicke of voyces and in 
struments fed the eare, whilest mouthes found their 
food in the dishes. Never was the imaginary Duke 
at such a feast : carousses begin after the manner of 
the Country ; the Prince is assaulted on all sides, 
as the Owle is assaulted by all the Birdes, when he 
begins to soare. Not to seeme uncivill he would doe 
the like to his good and faithfull subjects. They 
serve him with very strong wine, good Hipocras, 
which hee swallowed downe in great draughts, and 
frequently redoubled ; so that, charged with so many 
extraordinaryes, he yeelded to deaths cousin german, 
sleep, which closed his eyes, stopt his eares, and made 
him loose the use of his reason and all his other 
sences. 

" Then the right Duke, who had put himselfe among 
the throng of his Officers to have the pleasure of this 
mummery, commanded that this sleeping man should 
be stript out of his brave cloathes, and cloathed againe 
in his old ragges, and so sleeping carried and layd 
in the same place where he was taken up the night 
before. This was presently done, and there did he 



174 Note-Book and Word- List [EDWARDS (RICHARD) 

snort all the night long, not taking any hurt either 
from the hardnesse of the stones or the night ayre, so 
well was his stomacke filled with good preservatives. 
Being awakened in the morning by some passenger, 
or it may bee by some thaf the good Duke Philip had 
thereto appointed, ha ! said he, my friends, what 
have you done? you have rob'd mee of a Kingdome, 
and have taken mee out of the sweetest and happiest 
dreame that ever man could have fallen into. Then, 
very well remembring all the particulars of what had 
passed the day before, he related unto them, from 
point to point, all that had happened unto him, still 
thinking it assuredly to bee a dreame. Being re 
turned home to his house, hee entertaines his wife, 
neighbours, and friends, with this his dreame, as hee 
thought : the truth whereof being at last published by 
the mouthes of those Courtiers who had been present 
at this pleasant recreation, the good man could not 
beleeve it, thinking that for sport they had framed 
this history upon his dreame ; but when Duke Philip, 
who would have the full contentment of this pleasant 
tricke, had shewed him the bed wherein he lay, the 
cloathes which he had worne, the persons who had 
served him, the Hall wherein he had eaten, the 
gardens and galleries wherein hee had walked, hardly 
could hee be induced to beleeve what hee saw, 
imagining that all this was meere inchantment and 
illusion. 

" The Duke used some liberality towards him for 
to helpe him in the poverty of his family ; and, taking 
an occasion thereon to make an Oration unto his 
Courtiers concerning the vanity of this worlds honours, 
hee told them that all that ambitious persons seeke 
with so much industry is but smoake, and a meere 
dreame, and that they are strucken with that pleasant 
folly of the Athenian, who imagined all the riches 
that arrived by shipping in the haven of Athens to 
be his, and that all the Marchants were but his 
factors : his friends getting him cured by a skilfull 
Physitian of the debility of his brain, in lieu of giving 
them thanks for this good office, he reviled them, 
saying that, whereas he was rich in conceit, they 
had by this cure made him poore and miserable in 
effect. 



EGAL, EGALNESS] Note-Book and Word-List 175 

" Harpaste, a foole that Senecaes wife kept, and 
whose pleasant imagination this grave Phylosopher 
doth largely relate, being growne blind, could not 
perswade herselfe that she was so, but continually com 
plained that the house wherein she dwelt was dark, 
that they would not open the windowes, and that 
they hindred her from setting light, to make her be- 
leeve she could see nothing : hereupon this great 
Stoick makes this fine consideration, that every 
vitious man is like unto this foole, who, although he 
be blind in his passion, yet thinks not himselfe to be 
so, casting all his defect on false surmises, whereby 
he seeks not only to have his sinne worthy of excuse 
and pardon, but even of praise : the same say the 
covetous, ambitious, and voluptuous persons, in de 
fence of their imperfections ; but in fine (as the Psalm 
ist saith), all that must passe away, and the images 
thereof come to nothing, as the dreame of him that 
awaketh from sleepe. 

" If a bucket of water be as truly water, as all the 
sea, the difference only remaining in the quantity, not 
in the quality, why shall we not say, that our poore 
Braba.nder was a Soveraigne Prince for the space 
of fowre and twenty houres, being that he received 
all the honours and commodities thereof : how many 
Kings and Popes have not lasted longer, but have dyed 
on the very day of their Elections or Coronations? 
As for those other pompes, which have lasted longer, 
what are they else but longer dreames? This vanity 
of worldly things is a great sting to a well composed 
soule, to helpe it forward towards the heavenly king- 
dome." 

Contemporary mention of Edwards is invariably in 
terms of high, and sometimes what would now be 
regarded as extravagant, praise. I conclude with a 
selection of references to such eulogies : Turberville 
(1567), Works [Chalmers, ii. 651]; Twine (1567), in 
Turberville 's Works [Chalmers, ii. 620]; Webbe, Dis 
course of English Poetry (1586) ; Puttenham, Art of 
English Poesy (1589) ; Meres, Palladis Tamia (1598). 
EGAL, EGALNESS (G. 936 ; 976, c, d), equal, equality : 
from the Fr. " Whose souls do bear an egal yoke of 
l ove ." Shakspeare, Merchant of Venice (1598), iii. 4. 



176 Note-Book and Word-List [ERST 

ERST, " erst to use " (920), first : the superlative of cer = 
soon. 

FACSIMILES. A reduced facsimile of the title-page of the 
edition of Damon and Pithias, published 1571, appears 
on page i ; and of the title-page of the first edition 
of Gorboduc facing p. 85 ; also of Ed wards 's Paradise 
of Dainty Devices, p. 187. 

FACT, " enemies that will withstand my fact herein " 
(G. 144^), deed, act, performance, anything done ; 
now archaic. 

FAINTED, " In mutual friendship at no time have 
fainted " (D. 140), lost strength, weakened. 

FAME, " louting out the fame " (G. g6c), fame is a mis 
print for same. 

FERREX AND PORREX, see Gorboduc. 

FILED, " thy filed tongue " (D. 82??), properly polished, 
refined: hence unctuous, honeyed, parasitical. "So 
it will seem to all that hear's unless you do it file."- 
Misogonus (c. 1560), Prol. (E.E.D.S., Anon. PL Ser. 
2, i35<i). " The sly deceiver, Cupid, thus beguil'd The 
simple damsel with his filed tongue." Fairfax, Tasso 
(1600), vi. 73. 

FILLING ALE, "fetch him his filling ale" (0.560), 
? thilling ale = carting ale : i.e. ale given as an extra, 
11 a drink." Thills = the shafts of a cart or waggon; 
and fill-horse = draught horse. 

FLAT, " we do protest this flat " (D. 50), plainly, 
straightforwardly : see i Henry IV. i. 3. 

FOND, FONDLY, FONDNESS, " very fondly ... he viewed 
this city " (D. 33^) " No fondness at all but perfect 
amity " (D. qia : see also 40^) " when in fond 
princes' hearts Flattery prevails " (G. iS2a), foolish, 
stupidly, folly. " He that is young thinketh the olde 
man fond; and the olde knoweth the young man to 
be a foole. " Lyly, Euph. and his Eng. (1580), p. 9. 
" Fondness it were for any, being free, To covet 
fetters, tho' they golden be." Spenser, Sonnet 
(1592-3). 37- 



GORBODUC] Note-Book and Word- List 177 

FORESET, " When kings of foreset will neglect " 
(G. lisa), pre-ordainment, a setting out beforehand. 
" In th' heaven's universal alphabet All earthly things 
so surely are foreset." Bp. Hall, Virgidemiarum 
(1599), bk. ii., sat. 7. 

Fox, " I will fox you " (D. 52*:), it is uncertain whether 
fox here = to fight with a sword (colloquially called a 
"fox " : see Henry V. iv. 4), to deceive or cheat, 
or to stupefy with drink. 

FRANION, " my franion " (D. 45^), boon companion : a 
generic term for loose-livers gay idler, paramour, 
mistress, tippler ; thought to be from Fr. faine'ant. 
" Might not be found a francker franion, Of her 
leawd parts to make companion." Spenser, Fairy 
Queen (1590), II. ii. 37. " As for this ladie which he 
sheweth here, Is not, I wager, Florimell at all, But 
some fayre franion, fit for such a fere." Ibid, (1596), 
V. iii. 22. 

GOD'S AYMES (D. 620), God's arms. 

GORBODUC (or FERREX AND PORREX). The text is from 
a copy of the edition of 1570-1, now in the British 
Museum. The spelling is modernised (save in such 
exceptional cases as are provided for in the general 
scheme of this series), and the punctuation is modified 
only so far as to render the sense clear to modern 
readers. A previous edition appeared in 1565 ; but 
this appears to have been unauthorised and surrepti 
tious. The facts are set out by " the p[ublisher] to 
the reader " (see pp. 86-7), the W. G. alluded to being 
William Griffith, the publisher of the " first " edition. 
Another edition appeared in 1590. As that of 1570-1 
was authorised I have not thought it necessary to 
collate it with the stolen text of 1565. Gorboduc (or 
rather Ferrex and Porrex, as the authors named it) 
has been reprinted (a) in Sackville's Works (ed. West) ; 
(b) in Norton's Works, 1570; (c) by Spence in 1736; 
(d) in Hawkins's Orig. Eng. Drama, 1773, vol. ii. ; (e) 
in Dodsley's Collection of Old Plays, 1744, vol. ii. ; 
(/) ibid., 1780 (ed. Reed), vol. i. ; (g) ibid., 1825-7 (ed. 
Collier), vol. i. ; (h) in Ancient British Drama, 1810 
(ed. Sir Walter Scott), vol. i. ; and () by the Shak- 
speare Society, 1847 (ed. W. D. Cooper). A facsimile 
ED. N 



178 Note-Book and Word-List [GORBODUC 

title-page of the edition of 1565 forms a frontispiece to 
this volume. Ferrex and Porrex is the first regular 
English historical tragedy ; and it is also the first of 
our old plays that was written in blank verse. It was 
the joint production of two gentlemen of the Inner 
Temple, Thomas Sackville (afterwards Lord Buckhurst 
and the Earl of Dorset) and Thomas Norton. Nor 
ton's share is now generally considered to have been 
limited to the arrangement of the dumb shows preced 
ing each act " the shadows of coming events." Still 
Cooper, the editor of the Shakspeare Society edition of 
the play, emphatically declares his opinion to be that 
Norton " had undoubtedly a principal hand in the 
execution." Both men, as previously stated, wete 
members of the Inner Temple, and wrote the tragedy 
specially for presentation on the New Year's banquet 
ing night of the Christmas revels of 1561-2 " a grand 
Christmas " with elaborate " festivities and junket 
ings," of which this dramatic representation was the 
climax. It was subsequently performed by the gentle 
men of the Inner Temple before Queen Elizabeth at 
Whitehall, 18 Jan. 1561. The " story," which is 
drawn from Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum 
Britannia, is told by the authors themselves in the 
" arguments " before each act. The pivot of the 
play is the evil effects of national dissension a timely 
and topical theme at the period of writing : the pro 
tracted conflict between the two great religious sec 
tions of the State, Catholics and Reformers, and be 
tween " sectional " Protestants, was again becoming 
acute. The first pronouncement on the play was a 
favourable one, and the estimate then formed has 
been confirmed over and over again since that time : as 
witness its repeated appearance in all the more im 
portant " collections " of our early drama. Professor 
Schelling, one of the latest to deal with it, concurs, 
and says (English Chronicle Plays, pp. 19 and 272), " it 
is impossible to overestimate the importance of the 
position which the tragedy Gorboduc holds at the 
threshold of the English drama. The composition of 
gentlemen of the Inns of Court, performed before the 
Queen, and following in the wake of the Continental 
imitations of Seneca, this play is none the less of 
moment for the effect which it was to have on the 



GORBODUC] Note-Book and Word- List 179 

popular drama to come. The significance of this 
tragedy in its choice of English instead of the learned 
tongue in which such performances continued often to 
be given, in its use of blank verse in place of the usual 
riming and tumbling measures, and in its substitution 
of an artistic purpose for the old didactic one, is 
familiar to every student of English literature. It is 
the selection of a theme from English historical lore 
in place of the customary moral, biblical, or classical 
study which gives to Gorboduc its special significance 
in the history of the national drama ; and this im 
portance is not in the least diminished by the likeli 
hood that Sackville and Norton were attracted to their 
subject because of its superficial resemblance to the 
story of the Thebais of Seneca rather than through 
any set determination to levy contribution on national 
sources hitherto untried. Whatever the direct impetus, 
Gorboduc is the earliest of a long list of English 
dramas which laid under contribution those legendary 
and pseudo-historical materials of the early chronicles 
of Britain which emanated from the fertile brain of 
Geoffrey of Monmouth. The relation of the earliest 
English tragedy to the English Chronicle play is suffi 
ciently defined in the recognition of this fact." Direct 
words these, and emphatic ! Lest, however, I should 
be misrepresenting what Prof. Schelling wished to 
say, or omitting any point germane to, or qualifying, 
his argument, I will add what, if not a modification 
of the foregoing, is at any rate a caution to the 
student. In the summarised conclusion of the whole 
matter, Prof. Schelling (p. 272) writes thus : " That 
the earliest English tragedy, Gorboduc, should have 
drawn on a subject derived from English mythological 
lore is a circumstance to which an undue significance 
may be readily attached. That famous play with its 
direct follower, The Misfortunes of Arthur, and the 
Latin Richardus Tertius, are purely Senecan dramas, 
which, departing from the usual classical subjects of 
their type, have strayed into English fields. But the 
choice of such subjects, however accidental, had great 
effect on what was to come." The imprint of the 
authorised 1570-1 edition is as follows : " Seen and 
allowed. Imprinted at London by John Daye, dwell 
ing over Aldersgate [1570]." 

N 2 



i8o 



Note-Book and Word-List 



[GREE 



GREE, " if they gree in one " (G. g6d), agree. " And 
doe not see how much they must defalke Of their 
accounts, to make them gree with ours." Daniel, 
Philotas (1597), p. 195. 

GRIM THE COLLIER, see Anon. Plays (E.E.D S ) Ser A 
Note-Book. 

GRIPE, " cruel gripe " (G. 1066), vulture, griffin. 
" Where Titius hath his lot To feed the gripe that 
gnaws his growing heart. "Tancred and Gism., 
Dodsley's Old Plays (Reed), ii. 196. 

GROAT, " who can sing . . . change a groat " (0.590), 
see Hey wood, Works (E.E.D.S.), n. tfa. 

GUERDON, " to bear such guerdon " (G. 142^), recom 
pense, reward : here retribution for evil. " And I 
am guerdon' d at the last with shame." Shakspeare, 
3 Henry VI. (1595), iii. 3. 

HARECOP, " a merry harecop " (D. 586), harebrain, 
" giddykins. " 

HATEFUL, " the hateful gods " (G. 122^), full of hatred, 
malevolent. " Hide thee from their hatefull looks." 
Shakspeare, 2 Henry VI. (1594), ii. 4. 

HEAD, " My neck ... in striking off this head " 
(D. 78^), honesty = fame, good reputation, credit. 
" Also the hangman kneled doune to him askyng 
him forgiuenes of his death (as the manner Js), to 
whom he sayd I forgeue thee, but I promise thee that 
thou shall! neuer haue honestie of the strykyng of 
my head, my necke is so short." Speech of Sir T. 
More in Hall, Chronicle, 226. 

HEAPS, see Hugy. 

HESTS, "your noble hests " (G. H9&), commands, in 
junctions, precepts. 

HOG'S FLESH, " the trimmest hog's flesh from London 
to York " (D. 640), there would seem to be here an 
allusion to the quality of Yorkshire produce, still 
world-famous, especially in respect of York hams, 
&c. 

HONESTY, see Head. 



KING'S LANGUAGE] Note-Book and Word- List 181 

HORSE, " a short horse is soon curried " (D. 2od), 
see Heywood, Works (E.E.D.S.), H. 236, 174*;. 

How, see Aloyse. 

HUGY, " hugy frames " (G. 1260) " what hugy num 
ber " (G. 14 id) " hugy heaps of these unhaps " 
(G. 148^), vast, great : note the alliteration in the 
last example. " Your three-fold army and my hugy 
host Shall swallow up these base-born Persians." 
Marlowe, i Tamburlaine (1590), iii. 3. 

ICH (passim), I. 

IMPS, " such imps " (D. 35^), specifically scions of 
noble houses : here such as would form part of a 
courtly retinue ; or, generally, those who were likely 
to come into contact with a king. " The king pre 
ferred there eighty noble imps to the order of knight 
hood." Stow, Annals (1592), p. 385. 

JACK FLETCHER, " as like in condition as Jack Fletcher 
and his bolt" (0.96), fletcher = arrow-maker : speci 
fically the workman whose part was to put on the 
feathers. 

JACK-NAPES, "if you play Jack-napes" (D. 5ic). Dr. 
Murray (O.E.D.) says, " So far as yet found, the 
word appears first as an .opprobrious nickname of 
William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk (murdered 
1450), whose badge was a clog and chain such as 
was attached to a tame ape. . . . But of Jack Nape 
or Napes and its relation to an ape or apes no certain 
explanation can be offered." " As he played at cards 
with me . . . [he] said I played Jack Napes with 
him." -Lett, and Papers Henry VIII. (Rolls), tf. 
222 (1534). 

JEBIT, " Jebit avow . . . Zawne " (56^), properly, Je 
bois a vous mon compagnon . . . J'ai vous pleige, 
petit Zawne : Zawne = zany. 

KING'S LANGUAGE, " clip the King's language " 
(D. 57c), King's English. " Your courteoures, quha 
. . . sum tymes spilt (as they cal it) the King's 
language." A. Hume, Brit. Tongue (c. 1620), 
Ded. 2. 



1 82 



Note-Book and Word-List [KING'S MOUTH 



KING'S MOUTH, " take in coals for the King's mouth " 
(D. 53^), i.e. for the use of the court: mouth = an 
entrance : cf. Bouge of Court. " This is the mouth 
of the cell." Shakspeare, Tempest (1609), iv. i. 

KNOT, " I have played with his beard in knitting this 
knot " (D. ioa), a complication, something intricate, 
a tangle, difficulty, or knotty question. " Unto 
hym that love wole flee, The knotte maye unclosed 
bee." Rom. Rose (c. 1400), 4698. 

LENGTH, " shall length your noble life " (G. 960), pro 
long, lengthen. "When your eyes have done their 
part, Thought must length it in the hart." Daniel, 
Tethys Fest. (1610), F 36. 

LET (passim), hinder, hindrance. 

LIBERALITY, " in thy pleasant liberality " (D. 8aa), 
freedom. 

LICENCE, " I pray you licence me " (D. zid), give leave, 
permit, authorise : see Anon. Plays (E.E.D.S.), Ser. 
2, s.v. License. 

LIKETH, " that liketh us so well " (G. i43c), pleaseth. 
"This is my loved sone that lyketh me." PUg. 
Sowle (1413), v. xii. 103. 

LOBCOCK, " I will make you a lobcock " (D. 57^), lout, 
boor, blundering fool." " Seneca and Lucan were 
lobcockes to choose that death." Nashe, Unf. Trav. 
(iS94), 76. 

LONGS, " to whom the sceptre longs " (G. 1500), is ap 
propriate to, pertains to. " Hym lakked nought that 
longcth to a kyng. "Chaucer, Cant. Tales (1383), 
Sq. Tale, 8. 

LOTTING, " lotting out the same " (G. g6c), assign in 
shares or portions, divide. " At last they fell to the 
custome of lotting of voyces in the Conclaue." 
Fenton, Guicciard (1579), xiv. (1599), 668. 

Lousious, " lousious and trim " (D. 560), luscious. 

LUST, " your lust is lost " (D. 36) " muse he that 
lust " (D. 30), desire, wish, please. 

MAST, " mast tipstaff" (D. 66n), master. 



NORTON (THOMAS)] Note-Book and Word- List 183 

MEVE, " his suit did meve " (D. ^oc), move. 

MINION, " your master is a minion " (D. izd), a 
favourite. " Immortall minions in their Maker's 
sight." Stirling, Domes-day (1614), Twelfth Howe. 

Mo (passim), more. 

MORGAN (G. 96^), Margan who was killed by his brother 
Cunedagius : see Geoffrey of Monmouth, n. 15. 

MOUTH, (a) " to make up my mouth " (D. 276), i.e. 
make up his plunder, booty. 

(b) "I will lay on mouth for you " (D. 27^), i.e. 
talk about you. 

(c) see King's mouth. 

MUMBUDGET (D. 25^), silence ! keep quiet ! "I come to 
her in white, and cry mum ; and she cries budget, 
and by that we know one another." Shakspeare, 
Merry W. W. (1596), v. 2. 

MUSSELDEN (D. 56^), muscadine. 

NE (passim), nor. 

NEW BROOM, " a new broom sweeps clean " (D. loc), 
Hey wood has " the green new broom sweepeth clean " 
(Works, E.E.D.S., n. 5 4 a). 

NIP, " from their nips shall I never be free " (D. i$c), 
taunts, scoffs. 

NOCENT, "whom the king judgeth nocent " (0.340), 
guilty, criminal, mischievous. " Nocent, not innocent 
he is that seeketh to deface, By word the thing, that 
he by deed had taught men to imbrace." Fox, 
Martyrs (1563), p. 231, col. 2. 

NODDY, " I will not call you noddy " (D. 6d), fool, sim 
pleton. " As we find of Irus the begger, and Thersites 
the glorious noddie, whom Homer makes mention of." 
Puttenham, Art of Poesy (1589), B. i. ch. 20. 

NORTON (THOMAS), joint author with Thomas Sack- 
ville (afterwards Lord Buckhurst) of Ferrex and 
Porrex, was a Bedfordshire man, born in 1532, at 
Streatley, about six miles from Luton. Wood de 
scribes him in after life as "a forward and busy 
Calvinist and noted zealot"; and Strype as "a 
minister of good parts and learning." His learning 



1 84 Note-Book and Word-List [ON 

was undoubted, but where he obtained it is not re 
corded, though he was only eighteen when he published 
his first work, a translation of Peter Martyr's letter 
to the Protector Somerset, from whom, while he lived, 
Norton had substantial patronage. After Somerset's 
death, Norton entered himself as a student of the 
Inner Temple (1555), and subsequently rose to con 
siderable eminence and wealth in his profession. He 
found time, nevertheless, for a large amount of polemi 
cal writing. In 1565 he entered himself at Pembroke 
Hall, Oxford, taking his degree of M.A. in 1569. He 
was in residence here when the first and surreptitious 
edition of err ex and Porrex appeared. Somewhat 
earlier (1561 to 1584) he held office as counsel to the 
Stationers' Company, and became also a licenser of 
books, proving himself very zealous in the enforcement 
of penalties against contumacious printers. Norton 
was a man of rigidly extreme views, and in religious 
matters puritanical to a degree. He died in 1584. 
[A full and exhaustive memoir by Mr. W. D. Cooper 
appears in the Shakspeare Society's edition of Gorbo- 
duc, with copious extracts and copies of documentary 
evidence of every description.] 

ON, " a cup to drink on " (D. 566), from. " But 
what art thou That hast this Fortune dn me." 
Shakspeare, Lear (1605), v. 3. 165. 

PALAMON AND ARCYTE. This lost play of Richard Ed 
wards, in two parts, is known chiefly through Stow's 
Chronicle and Anthony Wood's account of a mishap. 
It appears that in 1566 Edwards accompanied Queen 
Elizabeth to Oxford, and while there this play was 
acted before her in Christ Church Hall on the 2nd and 
3rd September. Stow says, " It had such tragical 
success as was very lamentable ; for at that time by 
the fall of a wall and a pair of stairs and great press 
of the multitude three men were slain." Wood is 
more explicit. He says : " At night, September 2nd, 
the Queen heard the first part of an English play, 
named Palamon and Arcyte, made by M. Richard 
Edwards, a gentleman of her Chapel, acted with very 
great applause, in Christ Church Hall, at the begin 
ning of which play, there was, by part of the stage 



PARADISE, &c.] Note- Book and Word-List 185 

which fell, three persons slain, besides five that were 
hurt. Afterwards the actors performed their parts so 
well, that the Queen laughed heartily thereat, and 
gave the author of the play great thanks for his 
pains." Peshall, in his History of the University, im 
plies that the Queen was not actually present when 
the accident occurred, and probably she was kept in 
ignorance of the fatality. Anthony Wood also men 
tions some of the characters " Palamon, Arcite, 
Pirithous, Trecotio, Emilia." The part of Emilia was 
played by a handsome youth of about fourteen years 
old, and he contrived to obtain possession of some 
part of the dress of her Majesty's late sister and pre 
decessor, Queen Mary. The Queen was so pleased 
with the performance of the part that in token of her 
approbation she presented him with gold pieces to the 
value of eight pounds. There are also other minor 
contemporary references to this play, now unfortunately 
no longer available. The story is that of Chaucer's 
Knight's Tale (probably Edwards 's source), and Shak- 
speare and Fletcher selected the same subject in The 
Two Noble Kinsmen. In 1594 Henslowe is recorded 
to have bought a book of Palamon and Arsett : this 
also has been lost. 

PALLARRIME (D. 620), Palermo, once as famous for its 
razors as was Toledo for its blades. " Neighbour, 
sharpen the edge tole of your wits upon the whet 
stone of indiscretion, that your wordes may shine 
like the rasers of Palermo." Lodge, Wounds of Civil 
War (1594). 

PANTACLE (D. 51*:), a corrupt form of pantofle, slipper. 

PARADISE OF DAINTY DEVICES (THE). A collection of 
poems intended, for the most part, for musical setting 
was published in 1576, ten years after the death of 
the compiler, Master Richard Edwards (q.v.), the 
author of Damon and Pithias (q.v.), Palamon and 
Arcyte (q.v.), and other works. He was himself 
a contributor of a not inconsiderable number of items. 
The book ran through many editions, copies of any 
of which are of the utmost rarity. Other particulars 
concerning the work will be found s.v. " Edwards," 
ante. In the British Museum (1087, f. 7) is in 
cluded, in the 3rd volume of The British Biblio- 



1 86 



Note- Book and Word-List 



[PATIENT 



grapher, a reprint of the 1576 edition of The Paradise 
of Dainty Devices, edited by Sir Egerton Brydges, 
and published in 1810. The " advertisement " states 
that it had been printed literatim " from a copy be 
longing to the Editor, made by the hand of the late 
eminent George Steevens." The pages of the original 
are imperfectly numbered, and this peculiarity has 
been retained in this reprint. The ancient orthography 
has also been retained, but the punctuation altered 
where the old punctualion seemed to destroy the sense. 
The 1596 ed. is the earliest one in the B.M. Col 
lier's edition (B.M. 2326, c. 7, published later) exactly 
follows the 1576 edition. 

PATIENT, " patient your grace " (G. 1340), show patience, 
be patient. " Patient yourself, Madam, and pardon 
me." Shakspeare, Tit. Andr. (1588), i. i. 121. 

'PEASE, " and 'pease the hateful gods " (G. 122^), ap 
pease. 

PENNYWORTHS, " I will have my pennyworths of thee " 
(0.456), aright equivalent, what's owing and more, 
one's money's worth. " If you deny me this request 
I will . . . haue my peniworths of them for it." 
Marpr. Epist. (1588), 27 (Arber). 

PESTENS, " 'tis a pestens quean " (D. 63^), pestilent. 

PESTLE OF PORK (D. 640.), gammon of bacon: pestle 
leg. " You shall as commonly see legges of men 
hang up, as here with us you shall find pestels of 
porke, or legges of veale." Healy, Disc, of a New 
World (c. 1610), p. 161. 

PIKE, "pike, rise, and walk" (D. 216), pick. 

PITCHER, " The pitcher goeth so long to the water that 
he cometh home broken " (D. nc), see Heywood, 
Works (E.E.D.S.), n. 8 2 &, 425(1. 

PLOT, " a trimmer plot I have not seen " (D. 22c), the 
" view " as laid out before the speaker : usually of a 
small piece of ground, a plat. 

POUCH'D, " cha pouch'd them up already " (D. 276), 
pocketed. " In January fcmsband that poucheth the 
grotes, Will break up his lay, or be sowing of otes." 
Tusser, Husbandrie (1557). 







[Reduced Facsimile of the Title-page of "The Paradise 

of Dainty Devices" from a Copy of the edition of 1596, 

now in the British Museum.] 



i88 Note-Book and Word-List [PREASE 

PREASE, " stand close in the prease " (D. 35a), crowd : 
see other volumes of this series. 

PRESENTLY, " let us presently depart " (G. 143??), at 
once: cf. by and by immediately. "Presently? Ay, 
with a twink." Shakspeare, Tempest (1609), iv. 

PRETENDED, "the great pretended wrong" (G. n8d), 
intended. " Perill by this salvage man pretended." 
Spenser, Fairy Queen (1596), VI. v. 10. 

PRICKETH, " it pricketh fast upon noon " (D. 736), 
prick = to ride rapidly. 

PROTRACT, " without protract " (G. 1320), delay. " With 
out further protract and dilation of time." Wyatt, 
Works; Henry VIII. to Wyatt (an. 1529). 

QUIDDLE, " we will quiddle upon it " (D. 636), to talk, 
act, or treat triflingly : cf. twiddle, quibble, piddle. 
" I doubt not but manie will quiddle therevpon." 
Fleming, Contn. Holinshed (1587), in. 1275, 2. 

QUINCH, " I care not a quinch " (D. i6a), not even a 
start: from verb = start, flinch, stir, move. 

RANDON, " left to randon " (G. 114^), to fly at random, 
go without restraint. 

REDE, "neglect the rede" (G. u$b), counsel. 

REGALS (D. 3oa), " a small portable organ formerly in 
use, having one, or sometimes two, sets of reed-pipes 
played with keys with the right hand, while a small 
bellows was worked by the left hand . . . (common 
c. 1550-1625)." (O.E.D.) 

ROASTS, see Rules. 

ROBIN RUDDOCKS (D. 550), robin redbreasts. 

ROISTER (D. 3^), swaggerer, bully, rioter. 

RUG, " seven ells of rug " (D. 556), a play on " rogue." 

RULES, " rules the roasts " (D. i3a), takes the lead. 
" Jhon, duke of Burgoyn, which ruled the rost, and 
governed both kyng Charles the Frenche kyng, and his 
whole realme." Hall, Union (1548), Henry IV. f. 30. 



SORT] Note-Book and Word-List 189 

SACKVILLE (THOMAS, afterwards Lord Buckhurst, and 
Earl of Dorset) was born in 1536 at Withyham, in 
Sussex, and died suddenly at a council meeting in 
Whitehall in 1608. Being of kin to Queen Anne 
Bulleyne, he was, in his younger years, brought into 
contact with Elizabeth. Educated at Oxford and Cam 
bridge, he took his M.A. degree at the fen city. He 
proceeded to the Inner Temple as a student, and 
subsequently became a barrister, but in all probability 
never practised at the Bar. It was, however, during 
his legal career that he met Norton one result of 
which was the joint production of the first historical 
English tragedy. Thenceforth his career was chiefly 
political, and so continued to the hour of his some 
what tragic death. Reckless and extravagant in his 
earlier years, the Queen seems to have " pulled him 
up " by declaring that, despite her past favours, she 
would " know him no more till he knew himself." 
He determined to reform ; and, to cut himself adrift 
from old associations, and become " a thrifty im 
prover of his estate," he went on a Continental tour; 
this was the " absence " alluded to in the " Publisher 
to the Reader " (p. 86). He returned in 1566, on the 
death of his father, and was in 1567 completely rein 
stated in the royal favour. [For exhaustive memoir 
see Shakspeare Society's edition of Gorboduc.] 

SEAT, " this is a pleasant city, The seat is good " 
(D. 226), site, position, situation. " This castle hath 
a pleasant seat." Shakspeare, Macbeth (1606), i. 6. 

SHARP, "doth sharp the courage" (G. 97^), quicken, 
make keen, sharpen. " To sharpe my sence." 
Spenser, To the Ladies of the Court. 

SHORT HORSE, " a short horse soon curried " (D. 20^), 
see Heywood, Works (E.E.D.S.), n. 236, 1740. 

SITH (passim), since. 

SORT, " the unchosen and unarmed sort " (G. 1426), 
company, multitude. " Cyaxares kept a sort of 
Scytmans with him, only for thus purpose, to teach 
his son Astyages to shoote." Ascham, Toxoph. (1544). 
p. 14. 



igo Note-Book and Word-List [SQUARE 

SQUARE, " out of square " (D, 5ia), uneasy, troubled : 
see other volumes of this series. 

SQUIRRILITY, "servile squirrility " (D. 6d) "fountains 
of squirrility " (D. 460!), scurrility. 

STERN, " a ship without a stern " (G. itfc), rudder. 
" And how he lost his steresman, Which that the 
sterne, or he tooke keepe Smote ouer the bord as he 
sleepe. " Chaucer, Hous of Fame, ii. 

SWAP, " chill swap't off by and by " (D. 560), i.e. toss 
it off, gulp it down. 

THANK, " ken [or con] me thank " (D. 46*;), see other 
volumes of this series. 

THIK, " a murrain take thik wine " (D. 57^), this : a 
dialectical form. 

THRUST, " you thrust my guiltless blood to have " 
(D. 39&), thirst : Chaucer uses this form (Nares). 

TOOTH AND NAIL, " assuring . . . both with tooth and 
nail " (D. 86), in earnest, to the utmost. " Fight 
with toothe and nayle." Jyl of Brentford's Testa 
ment (1550), 23 (Furnivall). 

TORUP, " torup men for every trifle " (D. 570), probably 
Grim's bemused way of saying interrupt. 

TOYS (passim), trifles, whims, fancies, conceits : see 
Slang and Its Analogues, s.v. Toy. 

TWAY, " tway hours " (D. 530), two. 

TWICH-BOX (D. 5 id), for touch-box : " a receptacle for 
lighted tinder carried by soldiers for matchlocks " 
(Halliwell). " When she his flask and touch-box set 
on fire." Letting of Humours, &c. (1600). 

TWINK, " with a twink " (G. 134^), twinkle. 



UNHAPS, " the hugy heaps of these unhaps " (G. 1486), 
misfortunes. 

URE, " brought in ure of skilful stayedness " (G. 
use, practice : see other volumes of this series. 



ZONAM] Note-Book and Word-List 191 

VAIN, " chuld vain learn that" (D. 6ib), fain. 
VARIORUM READINGS, see Damon and Pithias. 

VARLET, " varlet dyed in grain" (D. gc), a rogue in 
deed: cf. "Knave in grain." A parallel passage 
occurs in Fulwell's Like Will to Like (E.E.D.S.), 
2oa : " There thou mayst be called a knave in grane, 
And where knaves be scant thou mayst go for 
twayne." 

VINTRY, " Three Cranes of the Vintry " (D. 68c), or 
New Queen Street. Dekker (Belman of London, 2) 
mentions it as a rendezvous for beggars. " From 
thence shoot the bridge child, to the Cranes of the 
Vintry, And see there the gimblets how they make 
their entry ! " Tonson, Devil is an Ass (1616), i. i. 

VOR, for : see Cha. 

VORTY (D. 540), forty : see Cha. 

Vox (D. 586), fox : see Cha. 

WASHING-BALL (D. 626), a kind of cosmetic used in 
washing the face (Halliwell). 

WATER, (a) " a pot with -water " (D. 616), wine is 
meant. 
(&) see Pitcher. 

WATER-BOUGETS (550), vessels anciently used by soldiers 
for carrying water in long marches and across deserts ; 
and also by water-carriers to convey water from the 
conduits to the houses of the . .citizens. 

YORK, see Hog's flesh. 

ZONAM, see Variorum Readings to Damon and Pithias. 



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PR Edwards, Richard 

2499 The dramatic writings of 

E^Al Richard Edwards 

1906 



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