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During the last year of his life Holbein apparently painted his own likeness three 
times, once in miniature and twice at about half-life size. Of the two larger por- 
traits, the one in the Uffizi Gallery has been so altered by repainting that it can now 
hardly be considered as a likeness. Both the miniature and the second painting are 
lost; but from one or the other of them two engravings were made during the sev- 
enteenth century, one by Vorsterman and the other by Hollar. It is upon Vorster- 
man's rendering that our reproduction is based. A comparison with the only ade- 
quate likeness of the artist that exists (reproduced in a former issue of this Series), 
which was drawn by Holbein when he was twenty-five, will show that twenty 
years later his face had assumed a graver expression, and that, following the fashion 
of the English court, he had let his beard grow in imitation of the king. 


BORN 1497: DIED 1543 

THE present issue treats only of Holbein's portrait drawings at Windsor 
Castle, England. His paintings were considered in Masters in Art, 
Volume L, Part 4. In that number will be found another account of his life, 
further criticisms of his art, and a fuller bibliography of the literature con- 
cerning him. 

HANS HOLBEIN the Younger was born in 1497, at Augsburg, in 
Swabia. He was the son of Hans Holbein, an artist of decided merit, 
whose work is marked by a purer taste and a more agreeable realism than 
that of his contemporaries, and who was the first to temper German art with 
Italian elements. In some cases the work of the elder Holbein has with 
difficulty been distinguished from that of his more celebrated son, who was 
no doubt educated as a painter in Augsburg by his father, and perhaps, too, 
by his uncle Sigmund, also a painter there. Among the pictures now pre- 
served in his native city, only one by the younger Holbein, a Madonna, can 
be recorded as authentic; but it is believed that he had a share in the fine 
altar-piece, 'The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian,' painted by his father, which 
is now in the Munich Gallery. 

About the year 1514, the young Hans, accompanied by his brother 
Ambrosius, left Augsburg, and sought employment as an illustrator of books 
at Basle, then the centre of the humanist revival in literature, and celebrated 
as the home of many of the most eminent scholars of the day. Prominent 
among them was Erasmus, who is said to have been one of Holbein's first 
patrons, and for whom, soon after his arrival, he illustrated an edition of the 
'Praise of Folly,' now in the Museum of Basle, with pen-and-ink sketches. 
It was in Basle that the great Amerbach printing-press had been established, 
and after the death of its founder, John Amerbach, the business was carried 
on by his partner, John Froben, who employed Holbein to draw title-page 
blocks and initials for the new editions of the Bible and the classics which 
issued from his press. The artist's leisure moments seem to have been de- 
voted to the production of a schoolmaster's sign, still preserved in the Basle 
Museum, and a table painted with allegories, now in the library of the Uni- 

22 J^a^teriBfin^rt 

versity of Zurich. He also painted several remarkable portraits, among 
them those of the Burgomaster Jacob Meyer and his wife, and that of his 
friend Bonifacius Amerbach. 

Notwithstanding these and other commissions, Holbein did not, however, 
find sufficient occupation in Basle; and we hear of him at about this time 
in Lucerne, where he was employed to decorate the inside and outside of a 
new house belonging to one Jacob von Hertenstein. This house remained 
standing until 1824, when it was destroyed to make room for local im- 
provements, though copies of the paintings with which it was decorated are 
in the town library at Lucerne. It has been frequently suggested that at 
about this period Holbein may have crossed the Alps and journeyed into 
Northern Italy, so marked is the Italian influence in many of his works; 
but there is no proof that he did so, and the Italian manner may be traced 
to his probable study of engravings of the works of Mantegna and other 
transalpine masters. 

At any rate, he returned to Basle in 151 9, and was admitted into the 
gild of painters of that town. In the same year he married Elsbeth Schmidt, 
a widow with one son, and by her had several children. He at first found 
employment in making designs for stained glass windows and in painting 
the outsides of many houses with simulated architectural features; but before 
long he received the more important commission to paint the walls of the 
town hall of Basle with scenes chosen from classical history. He also exe- 
cuted several religious works, such as a 'Last Supper,' the eight Passion 
pictures, a 'Dead Christ,' a 'Nativity,' an 'Adoration of the Magi,' a 'St. 
Ursula and St. George,' the great 'Madonna and Saints' at Solothurn, and 
the still greater 'Madonna with the Meyer Family' now in the Ducal Palace 
at Darmstadt. This subject, painted for the ex-burgomaster of Basle, Jacob 
Meyer, is perhaps best known through the famous picture in the Dresden 
Gallery, now considered to be an excellent and possibly contemporaneous 

In 1522 Luther's translation of the New Testament was published at 
Wittenberg, and the printers of Basle issued numerous reprints of it. The 
title-pages and illustrations for many of these editions were designed by Hol- 
bein. He also designed the famous series of woodcuts illustrating 'The Dance 
of Death,' which reveals him as one of the leading agents in the spread of 
the new doctrines of the Reformation, now making great strides in Germany. 
The dissensions which these doctrines caused, however, brought about a 
general paralysis of art. It put an end to all orders for altar-pieces, for pic- 
tures of the Madonna or of saints. Even classic subjects were tabooed by' 
the Reformers; and Holbein soon realized that if he was to gain a living as 
a painter he must go where art held a different position from that to which 
it was relegated in Basle. Accordingly, taking a bold resolution, he deter- 
mined to carry out a previously conceived plan of visiting England; and in 
1526, provided with a letter of introduction from Erasmus to Sir Thomas 
More, he crossed the English Channel to try his fortune in another land. 

i^an^j^olbein 23 

Henry VIII. , whose court is said to have been the home of all the arts, 
of science, of painting, of architecture, and of literature, was at this time on 
the English throne. He had set the example of collecting works of art, and 
"the choicest present that you could make him was a picture, a statue, a 
piece of tapestry, or a beautifully chased suit of armor." Sir Thomas More 
was Chancellor of the Exchequer, and William Warham, another corre- 
spondent of Erasmus, was Archbishop of Canterbury. More was then a 
close personal friend of the king, who was in the habit of taking the royal 
barge at Whitehall stairs and rowing down the Thames to Chelsea, where 
More lived, to lunch or dine with the chancellor unannounced; and after- 
wards would walk up and down with him in his garden, the royal arm thrown 
around More's neck, while they talked of theology, geometry, and music, 
and in the evening they would discuss the mysteries of astronomy; or it might 
be that the king would listen to a freshly written page of his host's 'Utopia,' 
with its arguments in favor of freedom of conscience. Through Sir Thomas 
More, who had welcomed the painter at first as a friend of Erasmus, but who 
was not slow to appreciate his genius, Holbein obtained access to the lead- 
ing men of the court; and in portraiture, the only form of art then in demand 
in England, found ample occupation. Most of the principal men and women 
of the day sat to him, and in the priceless collection of drawings now at 
Windsor, made partly at this time and partly during his subsequent stay in 
England, are to be found many of the studies for their portraits. 

After a sojourn of two years in England, Holbein returned to Basle. Here, 
as the records show, he purchased a house for his wife and children, whose 
portraits, now in the Basle Museum, he painted at this time. The City 
Council asked him to complete the frescos of the town hall, which, owing 
to the depressions of the times, had been left unfinished; and the sketches 
which he made for these pictures show that he had not, through his devotion 
to portraiture, lost the spirit of his earlier days, but was still great as a com- 
poser. He soon found, however, that the Basle to which he had returned 
afforded no free field for art. The reformed religion now held full sway 
there, and the citizens were forced into compliance with it. An iconoclastic 
outbreak took place which, in one day, destroyed almost all the religious 
pictures in the city, including some of Holbein's own; and notwithstanding 
the appeal of his fellow-citizens to remain among them, Holbein, after an 
absence of four years, returned to England in 1532. 

In England too, however, he found many changes. Sir Thomas More 
had fallen from royal favor; Archbishop Warham was dead; and it was 
among his own countrymen, the German merchants of the Steelyard, — mem- 
bers of the Hanseatic League settled in London, — that Holbein found em- 
ployment. For them he painted many of his finest portraits, and at their 
instigation designed an allegorical pageant representing Parnassus on the 
occasion of Anne Boleyn's coronation procession. He was also employed to 
execute two large paintings for the walls of their gildhall, depicting 'The 
Triumph of Riches' and 'The Triumph of Poverty.' Only the original 

24 0ia0ttm in %tt 

sketch for 'The Triumph of Riches' exists. It was at about this time, too, 
that he painted the important picture known as 'The Ambassadors,' which 
now hangs in the National Gallery, London. 

It is not until 1536 that there is any record of Holbein's official con- 
nection with the court. In that year, however, we find him spoken of as 
"the king's painter," and in that year he painted the new queen, Jane Sey- 
mour, and in the year following frescoed a group of Henry VIII. with his 
father and mother and Jane Seymour on the wall of the privy chamber at 
Whitehall. This fresco perished in the fire of 1698, but the original cartoon 
for the figures of Henry VII. and Henry VIII. is at Hardwick Hall in the 
possession of the Duke of Devonshire. 

As court painter, Holbein was called upon to "do everything that could 
be done with a brush; to paint everything that required painting — a wall, a 
coat of arms, a shield, a portrait, or a battle-piece ; and like most of the dis- 
tinguished painters of his time, he was a man of infinite variety and read- 
iness. He could turn his hand to everything; could paint a portrait or dec- 
orate a wall; design a gateway or take a sketch of the Duchess of Milan or 
Anne of Cleves for Henry to fall in love with; emboss in wax for the beau- 
ties of the court, or color a shield of arms for the knights of the tournament; 
design a drinking-cup for Jane Seymour, or a sword-hilt for the king; or take 
up his graving-knife and cut his own designs for Sir Thomas More's ' Utopia,' 
or a new edition of the Bible." 

Henry VIII. seems to have held his court painter in higher estimation 
than most of the men of the craft were held at that time. As an illustration 
of this Horace Walpole tells the following story, for which Carel van Mander 
is responsible: "One day, as Holbein was privately drawing some lady's 
picture for the king, a great lord forced himself into the chamber. Holbein 
threw him down stairs; the peer cried out; Holbein bolted himself in, 
escaped over the top of the house, and running directly to the king, fell on 
his knees, and besought his majesty to pardon him, without declaring the 
offence. The king promised to forgive him if he would tell the truth; but 
soon began to repent, saying that he should not easily overlook such insults; 
and bade him wait in the apartment till he had learned more of the matter. 
Immediately arrived the lord with his complaint, but sinking the provoca- 
tion. At first the monarch heard the story with temper, but broke out, 
reproaching the nobleman with his want of truth, and adding, 'You have 
not to do with Holbein, but with me. I tell you, of seven peasants I can 
make as many lords, but not one Holbein. Begone; and remerriber that if 
ever you pretend to revenge yourself, I shall look on any injury offered to 
the painter as done to myself."' 

A few months after the death of Jane Seymour, Holbein was sent to Brus- 
sels to paint a portrait of Christina of Denmark, the widowed Duchess of 
Milan, for whose hand the English king now entered into negotiations. Al- 
though he had but three hours in which to accomplish his work, the painter 
was thoroughly successful. The portrait that he then painted is probably 

f^an^ ^nlhtin 25 

the one now at Windsor, not the exquisitely finished full-length from Arundel 
Castle. ^ 

Before returning to England Holbein paid a visit to his family at Basle, 
where he made his appearance clad in silk and satin, and was entertained 
at a banquet by the citizens, who voted him an annuity, as well as conferring 
one upon his wife for two years, at the end of which time he promised to 
return and take up his final abode among them. 

By New Year's day, 1539, he was again in England, and we are told of 
an homage he paid the king on that occasion by presenting him with "a table 
of the pictour of the prince's grace," — possibly the portrait of the young 
Edward VI. which is now at Hanover. 

During the following summer Henry sent his court painter on another 
mission to the continent, this time to paint a portrait of the Princess Anne of 
Cleves at Diiren, near Cologne, with a result sufficiently attractive to decide 
the king matrimonially in her favor. As Walpole tells the story, "Holbein 
drew so favorable a likeness of the princess that Henry was content to wed 
her; but when he found her so inferior to her portrait the storm, which really 
should have been directed at his painter, burst on his minister; and Cromwell 
lost his head because Anne was 'a Flanders mare,' not a Venus, as Holbein 
had represented her." 

Holbein was at work upon a large picture of Henry VHI. granting a 
charter to the newly incorporated Company of the Barber-surgeons when 
a pestilence broke out in London, to which he fell a victim; and on some 
day between the seventh of October and the twenty-ninth of November in 
the year 1543, after making a hasty will, he died. About his death, as about 
his life, little definite is known. The place of his burial cannot be certainly 
determined, although he is supposed to have been buried in the Church of St. 
Katherine Cree, London. In the parish of St. Andrew Undershaft, where he 
lived, he was rated as a stranger, showing that he was not a permanent resi- 
dent in England. 

Cije art of floltietn 


HOLBEIN'S genius is nowhere more clearly shown than in his draw- 
ings. Indeed, we may question whether even his finest paintings add 
anything to the admiration which we feel before the drawings at Windsor 
and at Basle. Painting seems, somehow, to have limited and confined the 
freer sweep of his talent. A habitual and characteristic patience seems to be 
the dominant note in his pictures. No Gothic works are more minutely studied. 
If, however, their finish is equal to that of the primitives there is none of 
the primitive timidity, and they bear witness to wonderful power and to per- 
severance, foresight, knowledge, and will. But his drawings are freer, and 

26 ;f^a^ttt^ in '^tt 

show that his talent was infinitely more supple than we should conclude from 
his paintings alone. Nothing is wanting to them either in conception, color, 
or technique. Limited as they are to mere sketches — sober, workmanlike, 
rapid — they seem as complete as his most finished pictures. His pencil has 
seized the suppleness of stuffs, the quality and gleam of steel, the texture and 
tone of flesh, movement, momentary expression — all with the concision and 
mastery of one who can recognize and portray with one brief stroke the 
fundamental elements which comprise type, expression, and effect. 

No one has excelled Holbein in grasp of this essential trinity in which the 
characteristic lies. We shall see it strikingly if we will compare these 
sketches with any photograph, and observe how much more lifelike, more 
fundamental, more true they are; for they are freed of the numberless details 
which, signifying nothing, merely serve to disguise the true physiognomy in 
a photograph, that, with all its minute and infallible exactness, is often so 
little true as a likeness. 

In Holbein's drawings we find every element needed to constitute true 
art — charm, conception, and effect. Few, if indeed any, of the great 
draughtsmen — even Masaccio with his simpler line, or Leonardo with his 
stronger modeling of masses — have succeeded in giving us more pow- 
erful impressions. And if his drawings are among his greatest works, the 
greatest of his drawings are the historic portraits preserved at Windsor 
Castle. How they call up the time! As you look at them you are made 
contemporary with these people of the court of Henry VHL; you know 
them, even to intimacy, one and all. Here is the venerable William Warham, 
Archbishop — a portrait finer, more delicate, more supple, than even the fin- 
ished painting of him in the Louvre. How subtly, as if by a woman's gentle 
hand, are the ravages of age portrayed, the soft and wearied eyes, and the 
firm mouth, with its sad, peaceful line. Nor is the sketch of John Fisher, 
Bishop of Rochester, less fine. See how wonderfully Holbein's pencil has 
traced the contour of that emaciated cheek; look at those eyes, as unquiet 
as if the future martyr, who was to lose his head for his fidelity to his relig- 
ious faith, already foresaw and braved that tragic end. Here is Sir Thomas 
Eliot, the friend of Thomas More, like him made immortal in a superb draw- 
ing, with its wonderful modeling, discreet mouth, firm features, and serious, 
almost severe look. 

It is in such moral revelations as these that we see Holbein at his great- 
est. No master has looked through the human face into the human soul 
with a more unerring penetration ; none has more completely realized Fro- 
mentin's superb definition : "Painting is the art of expressing the invisible by 
means of the visible." Holbein amongst all portraitists has most inevitably 
guessed the secret behind the mask; has most invariably made the silent 
glance and the mute mouth to speak; has most pitilessly branded the char- 
acter, life, and soul upon the countenance. — from the French 

f$ an0 ^ tilhtin 27 


RUBENS, who was privileged to speak with authority, said of Holbein : 
L. "He is the painter of the living, breathing truth"; and Rubens was 
right, for it is not only the aspect but the very soul of nature that Holbein 
shows us on his canvases. Standing before a portrait by his hand we see, 
beneath the often rude externals of the men and women of his time, trans- 
figuring these externals as the unseen sun transmutes the morning mists, the 
very pulse and temper of the sixteenth century. With him art is not a poetic 
misrepresentation of truth, but truth itself, for better or for worse. Rem- 
brandt saw reality, even in its most brutal aspects, through a mirage of 
poetry, and, intoxicated with the glamour of light, surpassed the achieve- 
ments of nature, and attained his ideal through the glorification of truth, as 
others seek to attain it through the blinking of truth. Holbein, on the con- 
trary, with less genius than Rembrandt, was too cold a nature to allow truth 
to weave any such magic spells before his clear-seeing eyes. I do not mean 
to say that he lacked poetry or fancy — did he not illustrate the 'Praise of 
Folly' for that bantering philosopher his friend Erasmus with a wonderfully 
sympathetic pencil? and his 'Dance of Death' bears witness that he was 
imbued to the full with that same sombre inspiration which animated the 
medieval poets of France and has continued to inspire the poets of Ger- 
many. He was in these instances, however, rather the poet turned artist than 
the artist turned poet. The poetry lay in the story which his hand cunningly 
and feelingly delineated; it was not his art which poetized the tales he wished 
to tell. . . . 

In the same way, he had no great talent for the necessary falsification 
involved in historical painting, and he seems to have felt a certain self-respect- 
ing pride in never departing from his native Teutonic style. When antiq- 
uity was urged upon him he answered that he had no need to go so far afield 
for models, and turned to the men and women about him. Rembrandt held 
the same opinion ; and both were right, for both have proved their case by 
creating from among their own contemporaries a world of men and women 
who, after the lapse of three centuries, are as living to-day as they were 
when their creators first begot them. Stand in any of the great galleries 
before the portraits by Rembrandt or Holbein, and look first upon the 
painted images and then upon the sightseers who pause before them, and 
tell me which are the more living in your mind, as distinguished from your 
eye. Thus do great painters continue the Lord's work of creation. — from 



AMONG the treasures at Windsor Castle — indeed, to my thinking, the 
L chief treasure — is a set of eighty-odd drawings by Hans Holbein. 
These drawings — studies for portraits many of which were later executed 
in oils — represent the ladies and gentlemen of the English court of Henry 

28 0ia^ttt^ in ^tt 

VIII. They are, for the most part, executed in black Italian crayon upon 
rough-surface paper of a dull, pinkish-red tone. Some are lightly washed 
here and there with India ink, some slightly enhanced with colored chalks, 
and a few are almost completely colored and elaborated. Here and there 
one is roughly scribbled upon with memoranda for the colors, "the eyes a 
little brownish," "this bodice red," or the like; and the outlines of several 
have been pricked through in the process of transferring them to canvas. 
Mere preliminary studies as they are, however, they seem to me to rank 
artistically as high as Holbein's most finished works; and considered purely 
as drawings, I would exchange the best of them (were I so fortunate as to 
be their possessor) for none of Raphael's that I can call to mind, and for 
but one or two of Leonardo da Vinci's. 

Quite apart from the educative value of such drawings from the hand of 
a master, which afford, as it were, a peep behind the scenes and show us 
methods and processes concealed in the completed work, these Windsor 
sketches exhibit, in my judgment, all the preeminent qualities of Holbein's 
genius. If I have a fault to find with his paintings, it is that they are too 
smooth, too perfectly finished; and I believe that in more than one instance he 
has carried a canvas a step beyond its best estate and thereby lost something 
of his natural strength and directness. Moreover, I cannot rank Holbein 
among the great colorists. Harmonious his tones certainly are, but he seems 
to make use of colors not as hues and for their own sakes, but rather, if I 
may so express it, as so many steps in the scale from white to black, or 
monochromatically. In other words, if he uses blue of a certain shade, he 
seems to use it not because it is blue, but because blue in that shade will 
count as one degree darker in his predetermined scheme than a red of the 
same brilliancy would have done: and here I find my judgment confirmed 
by the fact that no paintings lose less of their quality or values in engravings 
or photographs than do those of Holbein. 

In the Windsor drawings, then, we miss but those two elements which 
Holbein's genius could best affxjrd to lose, — finish and color. On the other 
hand, their very simplicity and sketchiness seem to bring into greater promi- 
nence his three supreme qualities, — power of depicting character, technical 
mastery, and decorative sense. 

To explain why and how one artist succeeds in grasping the innate char- 
acter of the face that looks out at you from his canvas, and why and 
how another fails, is, like the definition of beauty, a task too subtle for 
words. No artifice will accomplish it, no skill can attain it; it lies deeper 
than any realism, deeper than any perfection of drawing or modeling, and 
beneath all the subtleties of chiaroscuro; yet it is as evident as if we could 
demonstrate the process by geometry. Perhaps the best attempt at a defini- 
tion that I can make is that the artist who can convey this sense of under- 
lying character sees not alone the superficial lineaments of his model, but at 
the same time recognizes the sitter's innate nature ; and because he recognizes 
it, though that recognition may be conscious or unconscious on his part, 
he is instinctively led to choose just that one among the multitude of flitting 

f^an^ ^ixlhein 29 

expressions that play at endless hide-and-seek between his sitter's actual self 
and the world which truly shows us the man as he is; and that having seized 
the true aspect of his model in this one flash of revelation, the artist is led, 
by the same instinct of genius, to disregard all the other untruthful, or but 
partly truthful, and confusing aspects. But because the aspect which he has 
thus chosen (and, I repeat, perhaps chosen unconsciously) does show us the 
man at the moment when his outward and inward life fall into a focus, we 
recognize it instantly for truth. 

In the Windsor drawings Holbein has shown us the personages of Henry 
Vni.'s court with their true inner selves looking out through their faces. In 
no other way can we account for the vivid impression of reality — reality 
mental and moral as well as physical — which they make upon us. The 
drawings are not all of equal value, it is true. Some of them are quite lack- 
ing in the vital spark; some have evidently been elaborated to their detri- 
ment by another hand than Holbein's; but among the eighty are there not 
represented thirty persons, at least, whom we feel instantly that we know, 
not only physically, but in their characteristics and dispositions, and of whom 
we could predict, with some likelihood of accuracy, certain actions, and pred- 
icate the general and broader elements of their characters? I think we should 
not need history to tell us that the aged Bishop of Rochester would have 
refused to renounce his religion even at the cost of his head, that Anne Boleyn 
was selfish and feline, or that Sir Richard Southwell was audacious, tena- 
cious, and self-interested; — and so I might go on through the whole list. 

Reflect, then, for a moment upon the fact that with the simplest of means 
— a scrap of tinted paper, a few scrawls of black chalk — Holbein has created 
images of some thirty complex human creatures, from which we, of three 
centuries later, are perhaps better able to fathom the true inward individual 
characters of their originals than if we were actually brought face to face 
with them, under their momentarily shifting and confusing aspects; and 
you will perhaps be willing to conclude with me that there is no greater ele- 
ment of genius in art than this power to depict character; and that in this 
power Holbein ranks as an equal with Velasquez and Rembrandt. 

Of Holbein's technical mastery it is easier to speak, and yet it seems a 
waste of words to do so. If the reader has with his own hand attempted any 
of the processes of art which here look so easy as Holbein executes them he 
will not need my words to draw attention to the marvelous, nay, matchless, 
technical command over form and line that these drawings evidence. If, 
on the contrary, he has never attempted such processes for himself, he can 
never fully appreciate the mastery exhibited. Yet none can, I think, quite fail 
to realize Holbein's supreme technical ability if he will but consider what 
has been here accomplished with a few quickly drawn lines, — and I say 
quickly drawn, because the structural lines in these drawings are manifestly 
swept in with one motion of the hand, — unniggled and uncorrected, pure 
and continuous from end to end. With one quickly drawn sweep of a bit 
of black chalk, then, Holbein has not only traced the outline, with all its 
subtle indentations and curves, that shows us the age-fallen cheek of Bishop 

30 iWa^tcr^in^rt 

Fisher, but has indicated its texture also, so that it looks soft and furrowed 
like the skin of an old man. With another such sweep he has outlined the 
full, plump cheek of the Lady Vaux, or the folded garment of Sir John Gage, 
never varying one iota all the time from the exquisite truth of outline as out- 
line, and yet has somehow contrived to make these black scratches suggest 
to us successively the smoothness or flaccidity of flesh or the suppleness of 

Again, and as another evidence of Holbein's technical mastery, look at the 
modeling of these faces, and see how subtly and how perfectly it is suggested, 
and with what slight means. It has been accomplished, too, without the help 
of any such strong and clearly defined shadows as Rembrandt or Leonardo 
would have used. Each face in the drawings is illuminated with an even 
and diffused light coming from no determinable point. Yet so keen was 
Holbein's eye and so cunning his hand, that, depending partly upon the 
exquisite exactness of his contour lines, partly upon almost imperceptible 
rubbings and washings of the paper here and there, he has suggested rather 
than shown the modeling with such unerring surety that we imagine that we 
might follow delicately with a finger-tip each soft salience and each rounded 
hollow in these living faces. 

A third quality of Holbein's genius which these drawings preeminently 
exhibit is his great decorative sense — a quality which, it seems to me, has 
been far less dwelt upon and commonly recognized than it deserves to be. 
I have spoken above (and perhaps it may be thought over-slightingly) of 
Holbein as a colorist, meaning then by colorist simply a disposer and har- 
monizer of hues; but as a distributer of values I cannot overpraise him. 
Did ever another make spaces of pure creaming white so to sparkle in con- 
trast with the glow — I can find no other word — of velvet black, and give 
each of these fundamental notes an infinitely varied and added worth by a 
cunningly distributed balance of surrounding grays? Such a comprehension 
of the delight that lies in a skilful distribution of values, quite apart from the 
question of color, is a primal quality of the great decorator. In Holbein's 
drawings we cannot, of course, observe this quality so fully as in his paint- 
ings where he has completely elaborated the monochromatic scheme, nor 
in them has he taken pains to elaborate those intricate and fascinating patterns 
with which he loved to enrich the garments of his sitters, adding thereby so 
much of what the artist would call "texture value"; but now and again he 
has given us a hint of his pleasure in the solid mass of black, relieved against 
gray, or the contrasting brilliancy of a touch of white. 

On the other hand, Holbein's power of arranging lines to decorate a given 
space is more clear in these drawings than in his finished works, for in the 
completed paintings we lose sight of these lines themselves, and scarcely 
recognize how largely their contours and patterns add to our pleasure. Let 
me ask the reader, however, to set these drawings up before him, and dis- 
charging from his mind, if possible, any recognition of the fact that they rep- 
resent human beings, let him look at the image of lines and tones presented 
merely as a shaded pattern disposed in a given rectangle. With the excep- 

ipanjf i^olliein 31 

tion of those few cases in which the drawings have been trimmed down from 
their original proportions, let him observe how exactly each of these patterns 
has been set in just the proper place within the bounded area; how cunningly 
calculated is the enclosed space in relation to the spaces left blank, and how 
the contour lines balance and echo and relieve one another; — in short, how 
beautiful as a mere piece of decorative drawing, quite apart from all ques- 
tion of what it represents, is each of these sketches. If the reader can agree 
with me in recognizing these achievements, he will not, I think, contradict 
my assertion that an artist who, even in sketches, thrown off merely as pre- 
hminary steps and aids, could compose with such unerring effect had a genius 
for decoration. 


THE place assigned to Holbein in the history of art is side by side with 
Diirer; yet these two greatest of German masters are in many respects 
very dissimilar. Both lived at a time when art, inspired with the fresh breath 
of the Renaissance, felt a new impetus and was turned into new channels; 
but in Diirer's works, apart from a few isolated and unimportant figures, the 
influence of the Renaissance is still imperceptible. The whole appearance of 
his pictures is old German, and, if not actually medieval, they are at least 
allied to the art of the fifteenth century. Not so with Holbein. He stands 
midway in the current of the Renaissance, and if we except a few of his ear- 
liest religious pictures, in which the influence of early German traditions is 
felt, he seems wholly and strikingly modern. 

There is no doubt that Holbein profited by the study of engravings of 
the works of Mantegna, but as he must have seen more than merely a few 
copperplate proofs, it has been suggested that he made a journey from Basle 
or Lucerne into Northern Italy. If such be not the case, he at any rate cer- 
tainly had opportunities, both in his native town of Augsburg and in Basle, of 
knowing what was being done by the Itahan artists of the time. But Holbein 
was never an imitator of the Italians. His pictures are truly German in 
character — not only in the figures, but in the decorative accessories; and 
these last, executed in the most beautiful and delicate lines and in a peculiarly 
characteristic way, furnish some of the most precious contributions to what 
is known as the German Renaissance. . . . 

Diirer was a profound thinker — a man whose nature was devout, earnest, 
and religious. The main interest of his pictures lies in their meaning, in 
their thoughtful and fervid conception, in the deep and weighty significance 
of their subjects. The figures, however, are often cumbersome and devoid of 
grace or charm. Holbein's figures, on the contrary, have the greatest free- 
dom, lightness, and elegance; his taste is purer, his conception freer than 
Diirer's, his composition simpler; but his works lack the depth of feeling, 
richness of thought, and earnestness of the older master. 

These and other differences between the two great artists are partly to be 
explained by the period in which each began his career. Diirer, some 

32 iWia^tcnefin^lrt 

twenty-five years Holbein's senior, belongs in his art to the fifteenth cen- 
tury; Holbein was, so to speak, initiated into the art of the Renaissance 
with his very earliest instruction from his father, who had himself just passed 
through the transition of German art from the fifteenth to the sixteenth 
century. But perhaps, after all, the truest and most comprehensive explana- 
tion of the difference between Diirer and Holbein lies in the difference of 
the spiritual natures of the two men. . . . 

The wonderful, artistic composition, the weird and fascinating invention, 
of Diirer's creations are justly celebrated, but these are qualities quite apart 
from the technique of painting. Diirer, indeed, is more of a draughtsman 
than a painter. He draws with his brush instead of painting in free and 
flowing strokes. In composition Holbein is less artistic, but in the technique 
of painting he is a master of the first rank. The key of his color is usually 
bright and clear and somewhat cool, as would be caused by the light of an 
interior. Firm decided outlines, tender, delicate, and often almost imper- 
ceptible transitions from the light to the shaded parts, strong plastic model- 
ing, but apparently the utmost simplicity in the handling, are characteristic 
features of Holbein's pictures. His coloring became constantly more and 
more delicate and vaporous, especially as in his later pictures he made a freer 
use of ultramarine. He was particularly successful in his flesh tones, which 
in his early works he shaded with browns and grays, and later with blues. 
Like the painters of the Netherlands, Holbein took the greatest pains with 
the preparation of his colors that he might give to each picture its special 
light and freshness. Faults in anatomy and proportion are not uncommon 
in his works, but they do not offend one, so striking is the artist's keen 
observation of nature and so true his feeling for form. — from the German 

Imile montegut <les PAYS-BAS' 

THE principal characteristics of Holbein — those which have made him a 
true representative of the Germanic race, and, with the exception of 
Albrecht Diirer, their most serious artist — are two: first, passionate desire 
for truth; and second, indifference to beauty for its own sake. 

The painter who has a genius for beauty will find it most difficult not to 
be untruthful now and again. The oval of the face lacks so slight a change 
to make it perfect; if the line of the nose were but altered a hair's breadth it 
would be irreproachable; — why not aid nature, then, when she needs so 
little correction? Who that has looked on Italian pictures cannot divine 
that their painters, seduced by their innate love of beauty, have so falsified 
nature time and time again ? Leonardo's ' Mona Lisa' is irresistible, but was 
that fleeting smile habitual to her face? was it not, rather, the transitory 
expression of one ephemeral moment ? Of such falsifications Holbein was 
never guilty. When beauty sat to him — and he did sometimes find her before 
his easel — he painted her as she was, with no corrections. 

Yet, thanks to this passion for truth, from which no allurement of beauty, 
howsoever great, seems able to have seduced him, Holbein is of all portraitists 

the one who has best expressed the fundamental likeness of his model. Other 
painters have better caught momentary and fleeting aspects — Rembrandt is 
incomparable in this respect — others have better depicted those graces of 
expression which lie upon the surface and bear the same relation to the face 
that the wildflower bears to the soil on which it blossoms. What Holbein 
inimitably rendered was his model in repose, his model, as it were, over his 
own centre of gravity. He shows the essential structure of the face — not, if 
I may so express it, the light, shifting upper soil or the mantle of vegeta- 
tion, but the very structure and stratification of the human physiognomy. 

It is for this reason that in studying his portraits we are perfectly convinced 
of their absolute resemblance to the models. If we are not shown fugitive 
and intermittent expressions, we are, at least, assured of those durable and 
permanent qualities of which his sitters could no more rid themselves than 
they could of their skins. Nay, more; — he has shown them as they were, 
from the cradle to the tomb, in spite of all superficial changes. He has given 
us what was innate in them, what was present in the flower of their youth, 
in middle age, and in wrinkled senility. He has seized their innermost "me," 
and has depicted it with an incomparable mastery. 

Had he painted none but now forgotten mediocrities we should not have 
doubted the superior quality of his talent, but he was called upon to paint many 
personages whose deeds and actions have been recorded, and, history in hand, 
we may guarantee the resemblance of his portraits. The essential character 
which shows forth in their faces corresponds exactly with the character which 
history assigns to them. 

It is, then, in his ability to seize and to express the fundamental charac- 
teristics of his model that Holbein's peculiar genius as a painter of portraits 
consists. He is distinguished from all his rivals in that he saw and painted 
what was essential and permanent in the men and women of his time. — 



THE drawings of Holbein are wholly admirable — graceful, frank, and 
profound. Beneath his pencil the most unpromising features are never 
ugly: life animates them and soul lights them up. One is almost inclined 
to believe that Holbein was the intimate friend of every one of his sitters, 
and had come to know each of them so well that he was able to divine his 
or her most secret thoughts and dispositions. With his faithful, delicate pen- 
cil he has outlined the most subtle and elusive lineaments of the face — 
those impalpable lines which life traces around mouth and eyes, and upon the 
temples. He seems, indeed, even to have numbered the lashes which shade 
the eyes, and to make us conscious of the very down upon the skin. Yet 
every one of these subtle touches joins in the creation of the fundamental 
expression — indeed, these delicate lines seem but a fairy net in which the 
master has entrapped the sitter's very soul. And yet how simply is the won- 
derful effect achieved; not a single careless or unavailing line, not a touch 
which could be spared. — from the French 

34 ;^a0ttt0 in ^vt 

Ci)e Bratotnss of floliem 


THE collection of drawings by Hans Holbein forms one of the chief 
treasures of the Royal Library at Windsor Castle. The whole collec- 
tion amounts in number to eighty-seven, but of these some are certainly 
only copies, while one or two bear no trace of either the style or hand of 
the master. It covers the whole period of Holbein's sojourn in England, 
and represents, in a fuller and more perfect manner than any other, the 
extent and variety of his work in portraiture, from his introduction to Sir 
Thomas More in 1526 until his death in 1543. 

The history of this matchless and invaluable collection is not known with 
absolute accuracy. After the death of Holbein, but at what time cannot be 
ascertained, the drawings were removed to France; it is possible that they 
remained in England during the reign of Edward VL, whose tutor. Sir John 
Cheke, made a list of them, from which some of the present names were 
given to the portraits. This list, however, has not come down to us, and in 
many cases the names must have been added long after the time of the exe- 
cution of the drawings, as they are indubitably incorrect. Nothing more is 
known of the collection till it was obtained by Charles I. from the French 
ambassador, M. de Liencourt. The king gave it to his lord chamberlain, 
the Earl of Pembroke, in exchange for the small picture of 'St. George' by 
Raphael, which is now in the Louvre. Lord Pembroke gave it to the great 
art collector the Earl of Arundel, in whose possession it remained till the 
dispersion of that nobleman's art treasures. The manner in which it came 
again into the possession of the EngUsh Crown is uncertain, — whether it was 
bought for Charles II., or later by his brother James from the Duke of 
Norfolk, as hinted by Wornum, no record exists. 

It was not till the time of George II. that Queen Caroline found the 
volume, in company with another of no less importance containing the 
drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, in a bureau in the Palace of Kensington. 
Her Majesty had them taken out and framed, and for many years they formed 
one of the chief decorations of her own closet. Early in the succeeding 
reign they were removed to the Queen's House, now Buckingham Palace, 
in London, where they were bound up in two volumes, and became a por- 
tion of the large collection of original drawings, bound in a similar manner, 
which was formed by George III. During Victoria's reign these drawings by 
Holbein, as well as those of other great masters, were mounted and arranged 
in a manner more calculated to insure their preservation, and to render their 
surfaces less exposed to risk of injury, and they are now kept in four large 
portfolios, where their safety is fully insured. 

The drawings themselves are executed almost entirely in chalk of various 
colors. During the earlier part of his stay in England Holbein drew the 

heads on white paper, and the colors of the flesh and the modeling of the 
features were represented by red chalk. Afterwards he made use of a paper 
the whole of which was covered with a ground of flesh-color, and the model- 
ing was rendered upon this in black chalk; the outlines of the features, 
the hair, and the details of dress and ornament were put in with the pen or 
brush in India ink. These outlines of the features in some of the drawings 
appear almost coarse in consequence of the more delicate modeling in chalk 
having disappeared from the rough treatment to which in past times the paper 
was subjected; but a closer study will show that it is to the combined won- 
derful strength and delicacy of these touches that the portraits owe the vivid 
and lifelike quality which they so preeminently possess. In some of the heads 
these touches occur only on the eyes, nostrils, and lips, where the marvelous 
accuracy of modeling, particularly in the corners of the mouth, is not ex- 
celled in the work of any other master. 



WILLIAM FITZWILLIAM, Earl of Southampton, held many impor- 
tant offices under Henry VIII. Knighted for his services at the Siege 
of Tournay, in 1513, he was soon afterwards created Vice-Admiral of Eng- 
land. He was sent as ambassador to the French court, where his sagacity 
and presence of mind rendered his services valuable to his country; and 
when war was declared against France, Fitzwilliam was appointed Vice- 
Admiral of the navy, under command of the Earl of Surrey. 

In 1537, having in the meantime been made a Knight of the Garter and 
later Treasurer of the King's Household, he was raised to the peerage as 
Earl of Southampton. Two years later he was sent to Calais to meet Anne 
of Cleves and conduct her to her future country. In a letter to the king, 
written while detained at Calais by bad weather, Fitzwilliam, probably think- 
ing it advisable to make the best of a matter then past remedy, repeated the 
praises of the lady's appearance, and was afterwards accused by Cromwell of 
having thereby encouraged false hopes in the king's breast. Fitzwilliam's 
part in this affair, however, led to no disastrous result so far as he himself 
was concerned, and we hear of him in 1542 leading the van of the English 
army on its march into Scotland. While so engaged he died at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, leaving by will to the king, with whom he had been associated 
since childhood, "his great ship with all her tackle, and his collar of the 
Garter, with his best 'George' beset with diamonds." 

In the drawing of him by Holbein, made in black chalk on flesh-tinted 
paper, the face and head are in fine condition. The body is merely outhned, 
though around the shoulders his knightly collar can be traced. 

36 :f^a^ttt0 in ^tt 


riLLIAM WARHAM, Archbishop of Canterbury, was prominent in 


the reigns of both Henry VII. and Henry VIII. His services in con- 
nection with the impostor, Perkin Warbeck, whose pretensions to the crown 
he was largely instrumental in frustrating, obtained him rapid preferment in 
Church and State. Henry VII. appointed him successively Master of the 
Rolls, Bishop of London, Lord High Chancellor, and finally Archbishop 
of Canterbury. He fell into disfavor with Henry VIII., however, and in 
15 IS, having resigned the Great Seal to Wolsey, retired from all public busi- 
ness, except that connected with his church. He discharged his duties as 
head of the English clergy faithfully and conscientiously, and such was his 
disregard of worldly affairs and so great his public munificence that he died 
poor, leaving not more than enough to pay his debts and defray his funeral 

"Among all the drawings in the Windsor collection," writes Woltmann, 
"perhaps none equals the life-size head of William Warham, Archbishop of 
Canterbury. The outline and many of the lines of the face are traced with 
the utmost exactness and decision, and the severity of conception, plastic 
feeling, and noble simplicity cannot be too highly praised." 

The drawing, now unfortunately somewhat rubbed and damaged, is on 
unprimed paper of light stone-color, in black and red chalks. The fur of the 
coat is yellow and the collar red. The finished picture for which this study 
was a preliminary sketch is at Lambeth Palace, London, and another similar 
painting is in the Louvre. 


THE Lady Eliot was Margaret, daughter of Sir Maurice Abarrow of 
Hampshire. After the death of her husband, Sir Thomas Eliot, by whom 
she had three sons, she married Sir James Dyer, chief justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas, and in 1569 her death is recorded at Stoughton, where she 
was buried "with much solemnity" in the parish church. 

Holbein's drawing, made in black chalk, shows her in a yellow diamond- 
shaped hood with the customary black "fall," and with an embroidered collar 
around her neck. The body is but slightly sketched, and the whole work 
has been somewhat rubbed. 


SIR THOMAS ELIOT, whose great and varied learning recommended 
him to the favor of Henry VIII., was among the first of literary English- 
men of his time. Educated for the law, a writer on medical, ethical, and 
historical subjects, he is recorded as having been "a very good grammarian, 
Grecian, poet, philosopher, physician, and what-not to complete a gentle- 
man." He was knighted by the king, and in 1532 went as ambassador to 
Rome to expostulate with the pope on the proposals made by the latter in 
regard to the divorce of Queen Catharine. Owing to his intimacy with Sir 


i^anjefi^olfiein 37 

Thomas More and his attachment to the Roman Catholic religion he how- 
ever fell into disfavor at court and disappeared from the public eye. He died 
in 1546. 

Holbein's fine drawing of him is in black chalk on flesh-colored paper. 
The hair is brown; he wears a black cap, and fur around his neck. 


IT is probable that Mistress Zouch (or Souch, as the name was frequently 
spelled) was Joan, sister of Sir Edward Rogers, Comptroller of the Royal 
Household to Queen Elizabeth, and wife of Richard Zouch. All particulars 
of her life are, however, unknown, and she cannot be certainly identified. 
The hair in the drawing is lightly colored with yellow chalk, and the small 
round jeweled bonnet, or veil, of red and yellow has somewhat the effect of 
a coronet. 


THIS drawing represents Sir John Godsalve, probably the same person 
whom Holbein painted at a younger age in the picture called 'Sir 
Thomas and John Godsalve' of the Dresden Gallery. Sir John was a 
wealthy young commoner who early became attached to the court and made 
part of the splendid retinue which attended Henry VHI. on his voyage to 
Boulogne. Edward VI. made him a Knight of the Carpet at the magnificent 
tourney which followed that prince's coronation, and later appointed him 
Comptroller of the Mint. While holding that office Godsalve is said to have 
been concerned with the vice-treasurer of the Bristol mint in those pecu- 
lations which were a scandal of the time; though this rumor is hard to recon- 
cile with his somewhat puritanical aspect — an appearance confirmed by the 
royal account-book, which itemizes that on New Year's day, 1539, when 
every one at court brought some gift to the king, the artists their own works 
and the nobles costly pieces of plate and the like, Godsalve presented his 
sovereign with a copy of the New Testament. . 

The drawing of him is not a sketch, but an almost completed work in 
body-color, and probably shows how Holbein prepared those portraits on 
parchment or paper which he afterwards glued to wood panels and finished 
as pictures. The background is blue: Sir John is dressed in a purple coat 
and black overdress edged with yellow sable. 


ELIZABETH, Lady Vaux, was the wife of Thomas, second Lord Vaux 
of Harrowden, the poet of Henry VIII. 's reign. In Holbein's Windsor 
drawing of her, made in black chalk on flesh-colored paper, she wears a yel- 
low diamond-shaped hood, or cap, with black bars and with a large "fall" 
behind. There is a finished painting of Lady Vaux at Hampton Court which 
is attributed to Holbein, and another portrait of her in Prague. Both drawing 
and portraits represent her at about the age of thirty. 

3S fSia^ttt^ in ^vt 


JOHN FISHER, Bishop of Rochester, was born about 1459. Such were 
his virtues and learning that in 1502 he was appointed private chaplain 
and confessor to Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VH., 
and was later made Bishop of Rochester and president of Queen's College, 
Cambridge. A zealous promoter of the New Learning, it is said that at 
forty-six he began the study of Greek and at fifty that of Hebrew. Having 
pronounced against the divorce of Henry VHI. and Catharine of Aragon, 
and having become involved in the imposition of the "Holy Maid of Kent," 
to whose "revelations" he lent too ready an ear, Fisher was accused of mis- 
prision of treason, and refusing to take the oath of succession, was sent to 
the Tower. While he was confined there the pope made him a cardinal, 
but when the news of this reached Henry's ears the king is said to have 
exclaimed: "Yea, is he so lusty? Well, let the pope send him a hat; I will 
so provide that he shall wear it on his shoulders, for head he shall have none 
to set it on!" Bishop Fisher was brought to trial for denial of the king's 
authority as head of the Church, adjudged guilty, and beheaded on Tower 
Hill on the twenty-second of June, 1535. 

The best portrait of him is said to be this drawing by Holbein at Windsor. 
It is on stone-colored paper, in red and black chalk. The thin, worn face 
of the old bishop is that of a man whose learning, purity of life, and piety 
might well have called forth Sir Thomas More's encomium: "In this realm 
there is no one man in wisdom, learning and long approved vertue together, 
mete to be matched and compared with him." 


THE lady here represented in a diamond-shaped yellow hood with a 
large black "fall" is probably Lady Mary Heveningham, although the 
face bears a remarkable resemblance to Holbein's portrait of Margaret Roper, 
the daughter of Sir Thomas More. 

Lady Heveningham was a daughter of Sir John Shelton and a cousin of 
Anne Boleyn, and by her marriage with Sir Anthony Heveningham, or Hen- 
ningham, whose mother was also a Shelton, became doubly related to Henry 
VIII.'s unfortunate queen. We may well imagine that during the king's 
short-lived favor for her fair cousin. Lady Heveningham was an important 
figure at court, but all we really know of her is that she bore her husband 
two sons and three daughters, and that the Heveningham family flourished, 
wealthy and respected, in the county of Norfolk, until this lady's grandson 
committed treason by signing the regicide warrant of 1648, and the family 
estates were forfeited to the Crown. In 1558, however, the Lady Hevening- 
ham became a widow, and soon after married one Philip Appleyard. She died 
about 1563. 


SIR JOHN GAGE, who is here represented in a slouch-brimmed hat, 
was one of the most notable and gallant figures of his time. From his 
father, a private gentleman who died while Sir John was still an infant, he 
inherited so large an estate that the Duke of Buckingham, then in great 
power and favor, condescended to ask for his guardianship; and under his 
care the young Gage received an education which fitted him for both army 
and court. He fought with much gallantry at the sieges of Tournay and 
Therouenne, and King Henry appointed him captain of the Castle of Calais, 
but subsequently recalled him to make him his Vice-Chamberlain, Captain 
of the Guard, and Privy Councillor. Sir John returned to active service in 
the field, however, and commanded bravely and sagaciously against the 
Scots; was subsequently appointed to many offices; and, as a crowning 
honor, was made Constable of the Tower of London. He took command 
of the army, jointly with the Duke of Suffolk, at the siege of Boulogne, and 
the king by will appointed him one of his executors. 

He continued in favor during the ensuing reign until, after the rise of the 
Duke of Northumberland to power, he in some way contrived to offend 
that haughty nobleman, and was dismissed from all his offices, although the 
late king had granted him the Constableship of the Tower for life. Queen 
Mary, however, restored him to this post, and made him also Lord Chamber- 
lain of her household. He died in 1557. 


WILLIAM WARHAM, Archbishop of Canterbury (Plate ii); John Fisher, Bishop 
of Rochester (Plate viii); John Colet, Dean of St. Paul's; John Russell, Earl of 
Bedford; Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford; William Par, Marquis of Northampton; Edward 
Stanley, Earl of Derby; Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey; The Countess of Surrey; Thomas 
Howard, Earl of Surrey (bis); William Fitzwilliam, Earl of Southampton (Plate l); Thomas 
Boleyn, Earl of Ormond; George Brook, Lord Cobham; Lord Wentworth; Lord Vaux 
(bis); Lady Vaux (Plate vii); Richard Rich, Lord Chancellor; Lady Rich; Lord Clinton; 
Sir John More; Sir Thomas More (bis); John More; Cicely Heron; Anne Crisacre; Sir 
John Godsalve (Plate vi); Sir Richard Southwell; Sir George Carew; Sir Gawen Carew; 
Sir Thomas Eliot (Plate iv); Lady Eliot (Plate III); Sir Thomas Strange; Sir Thomas 
Wyat; Sir Philip Hobby; Lady Hobby; Sir Henry Guldeford; Sir John Gage (Plate x); 
Sir William Sherington; Sir Charles Wingfield; Sir Thomas Parry; Sir Nicholas Poins (bis); 
John Poins; Philip Melancthon; John Reskemeer; Simon George of Cornwall; Nicholas 
Borbonius; Anne Boleyn, Queen; Jane Seymour, Queen; Edward, Prince of Wales, after- 
wards King; Edward VI.; Princess Mary, afterwards Queen; The Duchess of Suffolk; 
The Marchioness of Dorset; Lady Monteagle; Lady Meutas; Lady Heveningham (Plate ix); 
Lady Lister; Lady Ratcliffe; Lady Parker; Lady Butts; Lady Audley; Mistress Zouch 
(Plate v); Mother Jak, nurse to Prince Edward; Several Studies of Unknown Gentlemen 
and Ladies of the Court of Henry VIII. 

;§^a^ttt0 in ^rt 

FOR a fuller bibliography of Holbein than is here given, the reader is 
referred to Volume I., Part 4, of this Series, which treats of the paint- 
ings of Holbein. The following list includes only additional references. 

ALEXANDRE, A. Histoire populaire de la peinture: ecole allemande. (Paris, 1895) — 
xTL Blanc, C. De Paris a Venise: notes en crayon. (Paris, 1857) — Cust, L. 'Hans 
Holbein' in Dictionary of National Biography. (London, 1891) — Gautier, T. Les 
Dieux et les demi-dieux de la peinture. (Paris, 18 — ) — Hazutt,W. Criticisms on Art. 
(London, 1843-4) — Hervey, M. F. S. Holbein's 'Ambassadors.' (London, 1900) — 
Imitations of Original Drawings by Holbein in the Collection of His Majesty, with Bio- 
graphical Tracts by Edmund Lodge. (London, 1792) — Kuhn, P. A. Allgemeine Kunst- 
Geschichte. (Einsiedeln, 1891 et seq.) — Mander, C. van. Le Livre des peintres: Tra- 
duction, notes et commentaires par Henri Hymans. (Paris, 1884-5) — Montegut, E. 
Les Pays-Bas. (Paris, 1869) — Portraits of Illustrious Personages of the Court of Henry 
VIII. from Drawings by Hans Holbein at Windsor Castle. (F. Hanfstaengl, London) — 
Rousseau, J. Hans Holbein. (Paris, 1885) — Schneeli, G., and Heitz, P. Initialen 
von Hans Holbein. (Strasburg, 1900) — Windsor Collection of Holbein Portraits of the 
Court of Henry VIII. (Arundel Society, London, 1877). 

MAGAZINE articles. 

JAHRBUCHER fur Kunstwissenschaft, 1870: Hans Holbein der Jiingere und seine 
Familie (E. His). 1872: Die Ergebnisse der Holbein-Ausstellung in Dresden (A. von 
Zahn) — Magazine of Art, 1901: Holbein's 'Ambassadors' (W. F. Dickes) — 
Westermann's illustrierte DEUTSCHE MoNATSHEFTE, 1 896-7: Hans Holbein der 
Jiingere (F. H. Meissner). 



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MASTERS IN ART was established in January, 1900. As will be 
seen from the following list of painters and sculptors covered by 
the first eight years, the bound volumes form a fairly complete reference 
library of Art. The subjects, in order of publication, are as follows : 

VOLUME I (1900) treats of Van Dyck, Titian, Velasquez, 
Holbein, Botticelli, Rembrandt, Reynolds, Millet, Giov. Bellini, 
Murillo, Frans Hals, and Raphael. 

VOLUME II (1901) treats of Rubens, Da Vinci, Durer, 
Michelangelo (Sculpture), Michelangelo (Painting), Corot, 
Burne-Jones, Ter Borch, Delia Robbia, . Del Sarto, Gains- 
borough, and Correggio. 

VOLUME III (1902) treats of Phidias, Perugino, Holbein's 
Drawings, Tintoretto, Pieter de Hooch, Nattier, Paul Potter, 
Giotto, Praxiteles, Hogarth, Turner, and Luini. 
VOLUME ly (1903) treats of Romney, Fra AngeUco, Wat- 
teau, Raphael's Frescos, Donatel- 
lo, Gerard Dou, Carpaccio, Rosa 
Bonheur, Guido Reni, Puvis de 
Chavannes, Giorgione, Rossetti. 
VOLUME V (1904) treats of 
Fra Bartolommeo, Greuze, Dii- 
rer's Engravings, Lotto, Land- 
seer, Vermeer of Delft, Pintoric- 
chio. The Van Eycks, Meissonier, 
Barye, Veronese, and Copley. 
VOLUME VI (1905) treats of 
Watts, Palma Vecchio, Madame 
Vigee le Brun, Mantegna, Char- 
din, Benozzo Gozzoli, Jan Steen, 
Memlinc, Claude Lorrain, Ver- 
rocchio, Raeburn, and Fra Filip- 
po Lippi. 

VOLUME VII (1906) treats of Stuart, David, BockUn, Sodoma, 

Constable, Metsu, Ingres, Wilkie, Ghirlandajo, Bouguereau, Goya, and 


VOLUME VIII (1907) treats of Sir Thomas Lawrence, Ruisdael, 

Filippino Lippi, La Tour, Signorelli, Masaccio, Teniers the Younger, 

Tiepolo, Delacroix, Jules Breton, Rousseau, and Whistler. 

VOLUME IX (1908) treats of Edouard Manet, Carlo Crivelli, Nicolaas 

Maes, Lord Leighton, Duccio, George Inness, Wm. M. Hunt, El Greco, 

Albert Moore, Moretto, Sir John Everett Millais, and Bastien-Lepage. 

THE CLOTH BINDING is a brown art buckram with heavy beveled boards. 

side and back stamped in frosted and burnished eold, from designs by Mr. 

B. G. Goodhue, and gilt top. 

THE HALF-MOROCCO BINDING is in green, with green and gold marbled paper sides and end papers, gold 

tooled back, designed by Mr. B. G. Goodhue, gilt top. 

pt> TQ J^§ All single numbers are 20 cents each, post-paid in the United States; Canadian 

. postage, 2 cents extra ; foreign postage, 5 cents extra. No reduction for complete sets. 

Bound volumes are $3.75 each for cloth; $4.25 each for half -morocco, express prepaid. 

Bates & Guild Co. 42 chauncy st. Boston, Mass. 

In answering advertisements, please mention Masters in Art 




This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

OD the date to which renewed. 

Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 
















General Library 

University of California